(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Humanitarian Essays: Being Volume III. of "Cruelties of Civilization.""

Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 



HUMANITARIAN ESSAYS. 



HUMANITAIIIAN LeAGUE's PUBLICATIONS. 






HUMANITARIAN ESSAYS. 

BElSGt VOLUME III. OF 

^* CRUELTIES OF CIVILIZATION." 



BY 

MAURICE ADAMS. - ..c- 



. J ^ -A a 
>» « W ^ 



HYPATIA BRADLAUGH BONNER. 

G. W. FOOTE. 

HARRY ROBERTS. 

JOSEPH COLLINSON. 

HENRY S. SALT. -'^ V--^ ---- 



-» '' ^ */ ^ ^ 

^ •J tj -^ -J ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

•J ^ ^ «4 w ^ ^ 

^ J J ^ ^ J J 



Edited by HEimT S. Salt. 



^ •* 'J •* > "*, , 






^^.^<Jw ^ ^ 'd -^ -^ 



LONDON: 

7ILLIAM REEVES, 185 FLEET STREET, B.C.; 

A. & H. B. BONNER, TOOK'S COURT, 
CHANCERY LANE, E.C. 

1897. 



k w w b k 

* «. I, 



^ >. ■- t I, 
>- •- l_ 



^ *• V *, w 



w V W C 

w 

*- C C V 
^ - V C » 

>- k W V » 






LONDON: 
PBDmSD BT A. BONNEB, 1 & 2 TOOS'S OOTBT^ 
GHANOBBT LANS, B.C. 



>. b V k 



*>»••! 






CONTENTS. 



I.—The Swbatino STfimoc. By ICamioe Adams. 

II. — ^Thb Gallows Asm the Lash. Bj Hypatia Bradlaugh 
Bonner. 

m.— Thb Shadow op thb Swobd. By G. W. Foote. 

lY. — ^PuBUO CoNTBOL OF HOSPITALS. By Harry Boberts. 

v.— What it GoerEB to bb Vaooinatbd. By Joseph Collinson. 

VI. — The HtncAiriTiBS op Diet. By Henry S. Salt. 

VII.— LiTEBA Htthaniobbs: An Appeal to Teachers. 



nw^c 



The following eeBays are reprintfld from the Humani- 
tarian League's pamphlets of tlie past three years, and 
form the third and concluding volume of "Cruelties 
of Civilisation." The first part of this aeries dealt 
vritb certain social questions of immediate human 
interest ; the second with those questions that more 
closely affect the welfare of animals. In the present 
-voliune toth kinds are included, but in such proportion 
leave no ground for the complaint so often 
Immght against humanitariana — that, while pleading 
-the cause of the lower animals, they forget that of 
-their fellow-men. It has from the first been the 
Xicague's purpose to show that the cause of humanity 
srywhere one and the same, and that it ia iniqui- 
to inflict unnecessary suffering on any sentient 



HUMANITARIAN ESSAYS. 



it will be well to o^Berre hovr, in tbe course of tii& 
official and other enquiries into the matter, the word hoa 
graduaUj defined itself. One figure loomed large in the 
popular imagination of the time — the "sweater" — who 
by means ol hie "Bjetem" of 8iib -contracting wrung 
wealth for himself from the toil of haggard wretches 
working in indeecribably filthy " dene," for next to im- 
poasibly long hours, barely keeping soul and body 
together with the starvation wages they earned. 

It was with some such picture in their minds that the 
Board of Trade, in 1887, ordered their labour oorrea- 
pondent, Mr. John Burnett, to enquire into " wliat is 
known as the Sweating System at the East End of London, 
eepecially in the taUoring trade." In his report to ths 
Board he defined the system as "one under which the 
flub -contractors undertake to do work in their own houses 
or small workshops, and employ others to do it, making 
a profit for themselyes by the difference between the 
contract price and the wages they pay their assistants." 
This system he found to prevail throughout the East TTnil, 
" The smaller sweaters," he reported, " use part of their 
dwelling accomodation, and in the vast majority of oases 
work is carried on under conditions in the highest degree 
filthy and unsanitary. In small rooms not more than 
nine or ten feet square, heated by a coke fire for the 
pressers, and at night lighted by fiaming jets of gas, 
sis, eight, ten, and even a dozen workers may be 
crowded." These workers have frequently to be in the 
workshop at 6 a.m. to start working, or to await the 
arrival of work, and in the busy season have to work 
right on to midnight with five or ten minutes for dinner, 
which, said a witness examined by the Lords' Oommittee, 
"we have on the chair by the side where we ue 



working." Tea or coffee supplied by the master is taken 
cold because, as the same witness explained, " we cannot 
allow ourselves time to drink warm coffee, because the 
work does not earn the price, and we must earn so 
much as to get a Hving for our families." For this 
labour the average wage would vary from lOs. or lis. to 
158. per week. Such is the "sweating system" as des- 
cribed by Mr. Burnett, and in the voluminous " Eeport 
and Evidence ol the Select Committee of the House of 
Lords on the Sweating System in 1890." 

That this system still 0ourishes the following well- 
authenticated case will show. A firm of clerical tailors give 
out much of their work to a contractor, paying hi-m from 2s. 
to 33. 6d. a pair for trousers. These he has made by eight 
women and two men, iu a room with a low ceiling and 
very bad sanitary arrangements, over a public house, for 
which he pays 8a. a week. There is a coke fire and 
several gas jets in the room. The workers, other than the 
machinist and presaer, earn about 8b. or 9b. a week, 
working from 8 a.m. to 8 or 9 p.m., with an hour for 
dinner and "tea anyhow." On the labour of these people 
the Bweat-er lives in comfort. The following extract from 
the Daily News of July 24th, 1896, furnishes even more 
conclusive evidence of the continued existence of as 
complete a system of sweating as was revealed by the 
reports of 1887 or 1890-91. 

Judge Emden, sitting at I^ambeth County Court yesterday, 
ofFered some strong remarkB upon the rate of remuneration of 
tadloressea. Hia Honour had before him an action in which 
• clatMng manufacturer sued a tailoresa to recover 19 kharkee 
coata, which she was detaining. Flaintiif stated that he took 
work from wholesale manufacturers, and was now engaged 
-with a large order of special kharkee coats for export to South 
Africa, The defendant was among those of his employees wb( 



i 




;toii-holeg 



did work at home. She wa« entruBted irith 19 of these ooata 
for the purpose of working in them by hand five button-holes 
and sewing on four buttons. The rate of pay for thia ^ 
per coat, or 9d. per dozen. 

Judge Em<ien (surprUed) : Ninepflnca per dozen, or et 

Pin in tiff- Niuepenoe per dozen, and that is the usual mtC 

Judge Bmden : How long does it take to do a coat ? 

Defendant : It cannot be done under an hour. 

Plaintiff, with some emphaaia, informed his honour that be 

only got 4id. per coat for cutting, making, button-holing, 

and preasing. He had to cut things " very fine" himself or he 

lost on his jobs. Defendant, he added, accepted the work at 

9d. per dozen, and in many oaaes he (plaintiff) waa without any 

Judge Emden : I auppoae you will say next that no one 
makes a profit. 

Plaintiff: I don't but the oapitaliat doea. Proceeding, 
plaintiff added that he turned out as many as 500 or GOO ooats 

Judge Emden : I am sorry for the poor people who work foi 
yon at the rate you mention. It is said, and said very truly, 
that one half of the world does not know how the other half 
lives. This case affords a shocking disclosure of how Una 
woman — and she is only one of a cloas^has been paid for her 
labonr. 

Yet although the sub-contractor figures largely in the 
popular imagination, and although there ia no doubt th&t 
he often makes a good living out of the toil of others, 
the enquiries proved — ae Mr, LaJceman, the well-known 
factory inspector, told the Lords' Committee — that there is 
sweating without sub -contracting and sub-contractiiig 
without sweating. In many cases the contractor works as 
hard and as long ae his hands, and gets little more than 
they do — in fact is sweated himaelf — ^and on the other 
hand some contractors pay decent wages to their employees 
and only work them diiring factory Lours. 

The evidence given before the Lords' (jommittee and the 



:«"eaearcliea of Mr. Obas. Booth show that "sweating" 

^^xtendB beyond the " Sweating System " and that many 

Tz^eople working in their own homes on their own materialfl, 

02* on those furnished them direct from the manufacturer 

o:x- dealer, are sweated quite as badly as the occupants of any 

' * s-^reater's den." This comes out quite clearly in the 

^aa.'fcJietic case of Mrs. Isabella Killick, trouser finisher, 

.0 was examined by the Lords' Committee, and which is 

> out of several similar cases examined before the same 

Crovsiunittee, and typical of many thousands of others. She 

married woman whose husband had been a boiler 

:er eamiug good wages, but who was then dying in an 

BK».^3jKnaary. 

* * 3 have three children to support, the eldest ten years of 
t^^r the youngest three. I can't earn more than la. 2d. a day 
l*"-^- 1 have to find my own materials, altogether I do not clear 
1B> ^ day, not after finding my own trimmings, firing and all. 
*^ ^trtj up at six in the morning and never done till eight at 
^'-*Si^^, I have to go for my work and take it back again. 
A-'^*<S'»at three months of the year work is slaok. I am then 
K'-^iS to get anythiDg to do, cleoiung or washing. I oannot ba 
'"*'*aout work as I have three little ones to support." 

~S- take it from what you say," ahe was asked, " that you 
l»ax»age to clear 1 s. a day by your work after providing yonr 
i»B,teriala?"— ''After the things." "Then there is 2b. for 
ittnt ? " — ■■ Tea," " And therefore all you have is 5a. reaUy a 
'"'^k to hve upon? " — " Yea." '■ And out of that you have to 
V^J firing and your living?" — "Tea, firing and light." "I 
^ B. berring and a cup of tea, that ia the chief of my living 
""th the rent to pay and three children eating very hearty. 
Aa For meat, I do not expect I get meat 1 
JUDO the." 

)b this case there is no sweater grinding down his hands. 
Tiie poor woman goes to the dealer herself, mahes her 
Qirn contract (?), brings home her work, and gets all the 




8 

pay herself, and yet Uns is so small that long hours ci 
work barely sustain life in herself and her childrefn. 

The enquiry thus changed its character from an enquiiy 
into the "Sweating System" to an enquiry into those 
industries into which, or into some branches of whieh, 
sweating enters largely ; sweating being delBned as labour 
carried on for exeeBsively hng haurs^ for very law wag$9^ and 
under insanitary eonditiana. Such trad^ were found to be 
very numerous. 

In the lower branches of the Tailoring-trades women 
were found to be working in slop-shops from 8 a.nL to 
10 or 11 p.m., for from a Is. to Is. 6d. a day. ^*The 
yery lowest layer of the coat trade, that work done by 
women and men at their own houses, really does not pay 
the contractor to take it out," said Miss Potter. In 
trouser- finishing women toil, as we have seen, for the 
whole week for 4s. or 5s. 

The Shirt-trade is another of the sweated industries. 
Women are paid 2s. 6d. a dozen for malring shirts. They 
-can with difficulty finish a dozen in a day and a half, 
giving some 7s. 6d. or 8s. for a week of '' ceaseless tofl." 
For "making " shirts with 7 button holesy f.^., for aU the 
work except the machining, women are now reoeiving 
^d. each, earning 3d. a day on an average. 

Work is done in the Cabinet -making trade by maa 
who buy their own materials, and put their own labour 
into them, selling the finished article at the end of flie 
week to the dealers for whatever they can get. These 
men work '' all the hours that Gbd gives them," as one 
of them phrased it, in small and imhealthy worksihopf^ 
and do not often earn more than from 15s. to 168. a week. 

The hard conditions under which the Ohain-makers of 
dradley Heath earn a mere subsistence, were widely 



known in 1890, when vomen from the district came 
give evidence before the Lords' Committee. They 
the Noil-makers of Halesowen and the neighbourhood 
are sweated to a degree which it eeeme impossible to 
exceed. When women do heavier work than the ordinary 
blacksmith for hours, which are liniit«d only by their 
physical endurance, earning thereby Ih, a day or even 
less — men earning but 3s,, when they work huge hammers 
called "Olivera," which often require the combined 
strength of a man and woman to move, and after all 
their toil are defrauded in the weight of their product, 
and the quality of the material suppUed them, it aeems 
OS if the force of Bweating could no further go ! 

And yet in the matter of wages the women employed 
in the Nottingham Hosiery-trades are worse off. They 
can barely earn more than from 3s. to 3s. 6d. a week, bo 
that they are often partly dependent upon parish relief, 
and " even this wretched wage is often paid in goods from 
the middleman's shop, juat as if the Truck Act had never 
leen passed." 

The earnings in the Lace-trade, in the same district, 
&re said to be l^d. an hour or less. 

Sweating also prevails in the Cutlery and File-Cutting 
tradea of Sheffield, which are still in the stage of the 
moll master and the domestic workshop. 

Long hours are habitually worked in the Dressmaking- 
trades, and these are always liable to be suddenly 
lengithened by orders coming in to be executed at short 
notice. " Weddings and funerals," writes Mies E. March 
Phillips, " are made occasions for excessive hours. A 
ooontry dressmaker excused the employment of young- 

girlfl from 7 a.m. one day to B p.m. the next. 'Uiaa 

was going to get married. What could I do ? '" When 



:ame to ^^H 
ley and ^^H 

iurhood I 



L 



one remembers that these long hours are worked by 
young gyria in close and ill-ventilated rooms, the air in 
wMcli is rendered still more noxious by gas, one can 
realise the damage to health which must ensue. " A few 
days of high pressure will permanently injure a child's 
health," we are told. In addition to this the wages paid 
are often very low, beginners and "apprentices" getting 
little or nothing, so that many girls are either partly 
supported by their relatives, or supplement their wages 
by prostitution. 

Work in the Fur-trade is generally carried on in email 
workahopa, sub -contracting of the worst kind prevails, 
and wages are so low, that 48. a week represents a 
common wage for women, and men rarely earn more 
than I3e, 

Even the recently developed Bityde -mannf acture is not 
free from the taint of sweating. Girls employed in 
tyre-making only get 8s. for working the usual factory 
hours, so that it may take the whole year's work of one 
of these women to earn the amount which the fashionable 
lady spends on her bicycle. 

In the Mantle -making, Stick and Umbrella -making. 
Sack and Eope-making, Envelope-making, Ostrich -Feat her 
making, in the Brush-making, Tinware -trade, and in a 
number of other minor industries, sweating is rampant. 
It is in such trades as these, where the work is mostly 
t'arried on in houses or small workshops in which good 
sanitary conditions do not exist, and where, whether under 
middlemen or "sweaters" or without them, men and 
women work for wearisome hours for a wage which is 
insufficient to maintain them in health and strength, that 
what is technically known as " sweating " is found. ^^H 



11 



Sweating in the Wider Sense. 

But there are numbers of workers employed in the 
transport and distributive industries who toil imder con- 
ations which fulfil one or more of the requirements of 
"** sweating." Paid well, they may work in '' dangerous 
trades " or in unhealthy surroundings, or in healthy em- 
ployments they may be overworked, or may receive exces- 
sively low wages, or both abuses may be combined. In this 
wider sense we may safely say that a very large proportion 
of the workers in this and every other civilised coimtry are 
sweated. Taking a 'bus to catch the last train from one 
of the London termini a few nights ago, I asked the 
conductor of Metropolitan Stag^ Carriage No. — whether 
1 might expect the 'bus to keep its time? "Yes," he 
Toplied, ''this is our last journey, and both the driver 
and I are anxious to get home." In answer to further 
onquiries, he went on to say : '' I g^t home about half- 
past twelve, and if the missus has got anything warm to 
oat I have a little supper, that is, if I am not too tired to 
oat it, and then I get to bed, about one o'clock. I am 
on the 'bus again at eight o'clock in the morning. Yes ! 
I feel tired now after standing all day, but I feel more 
tired in the morning ; you see, six hours' sleep of a night 
is not enough for a man. Does standing hurt me ? Well, 
J am a strong man, except my throat is a bit delicate ; 
l)ut some of our men get soft leg (varicose veins) through 
standing, and then they sometimes make them time- 
keepers; many men get paralysis, and that's far worse. 
I get 35s. for a week of seven days, about 4d. an hour. 
Sundays off? No, indeed! I work twenty-three days 
out of every twenty-four." 

Oases of overwork still occur among the great numbers 



13 



of men employeiJ as guards, engine -Jri vera and firemen, 
and signalmen on the railways, and the work done by 
freightmen and ehtmtera ie very trying and dangerous. 
Though several inventions have been patented for 
coupling trucks without danger to the men, aad even 
for automatic coupling, the companies still prefer to maim, 
and slaughter a large number of their employees every 
year to incurring the espeuae of altoi-ing the arrangement 
for coupling their trucks. They do not, apparently, even 
consider the matter when ordering new trucks. 

It is almost unnecessuiy to refer to the hard conditions, 
of life and the overwork to the verge of exhaustion for 
small pay which is the lot of the vast number of men who 
work our mercantile marine. Continuous work during a, 
voyage ie their recognised lot. It is a joke among sailora 
that the fourth commandment is superseded for them by 
one which runs, 

** Six days thou shalt labDur 

And do all that thou art able, 

And the seventh thou ahalt holystone the decks 

And clean the cable." 
A vivid picture of the life of the firemen on board our 
splendid ocean steamers is given in the following letter b 
the Daily Chroniole, May 25th, 1896, entitled, 

"THE MOLOCH OF OCEAN SPEED. 

" Sir, — Having just stepped off a great liner, and haviiig;' 
made some efforts during mj passage to find oat something <^ 
the conditions under which stokers live on hoard these floatiitg' 
palsces. I have been much interested in the paragraph ol yonr 
issue of April ITth on the abnormal nnmber of suiddes amcmg- 
men of that class. 

" My interest in the subject dates front a previouB voyaga, 

when the chief engineer took me down to see the workings of 

■ vessel. We stood as near an we could to the door of th» 



la 



f[iiiisce-room,beatenbaokb; the intolerable heat if weventiired i 
from under the air funnel. Here in front of the row of- hugs 
furnaces stood the firemen stripped, Hlmost naked, perspiration 
streaming down their bbickeQed bodies, never < 
work of opening and re-opening the fomaoe doors to shovel in 
fresh supplies of coal and keep the fire raked up to a white 
heat. Under these conditions the men worked four hours on 
and foor off at stoking, but in addition to that had to remove 
their own ashes which took another hour. This chief eng^eer 
himself thooght their hours too long, and the food provided 
for there very poor, and he did not think it any wonder that 
onoe ashore tlieir instinct was to he still and drink whisky. Aa 
a man of heart he pitied them, and said so, but what could he 
do? 

" Aboard the far larger liner I have just left, I had oonsider- 
able talk with a fireman, who was in a state of weakneaa and 
exhaustion brought about by the heat and strain. Of the 
«ighty men who stoked this vessel, he believed every one 
drank save himself, not only ashore but afloat, for though 
ag^nst the rules, each smuggled whisky bottles in his satchel. 

" No doubt many of these men are of a low type, and no 
doubt many of them drink. Under the circumstances is this 
^rliolly a matter of surprise ? No doubt the company like to 
keep down expenses ; the passengers want extra speed, and in 
the odmfort of the saloon they do not reaUae the suffering of 
the whit*-faced, soot-b'Bckened men far down in the burning 
heart of the ship. But three things at least might be done ; 
the hours of work should be compulsorily shortened, even if 
Hda involves the engagement of more hands ; the food provided 
should be subject to inspection and a standard quality insisted 
on : while lastly the prohibition of whisky on board should bo 
made a reality." 

Mr. Chas. Booth, in the last volume of the "Life and 
Labour of the People in London," estimtites the number 
of persona employed in the preparation of food and drink 
in theMotropoUe as 138,000, of whom 27,000 are women. 
Many of these are sweated to a terrible extent. Cases 



14 

are common of cooks working in underground kitchens of 

restauxants for 14 hours a day for wages of not more than 
Is. 6d. a day, or even less. The public were startled a 
short time ago by the charges made in some of the evening 
newspapers as to the conditions under which waitresses- 
were employed in the shops of Messrs, Lyons and Co., 
and other refreshment contractors, and, strange to say, 
a financial paper lately devoted a column a day for two or 
three days to the sweating of waitresses and barmaida at 
railway station bars and refreshment rooms. Perhaps, 
however, the following case at the Shoreditch County 
Court offers an example of the limits beyond which 
it is physically impossible to impose long hours and 
diiRcult to greatly reduce wages ; 

" A waitress named Dynes sued a coffee-tavern proprietor 
for a month's money for work done, and a mouth instead of 
notice. Plaintiff said she was employed as waitress, at 13s. a 
month. On November 6th last the defendant told her to 
dear out, and did not pay her her wages.— The Judge : Why 
were you dismiMedf — Plaintiff; Because I was not up in time 
in the morning;, I could not be. I never got to bed before a 
quarter to one, and I was expected to be up again at half-past 
four in the morning. — The Judge: What time did you get down- 
stairs? — The Plaintiff : Five o'clock. Mr. Moore (Coimsel for the 
Defendant); Isn't it a fact you came down late ? — Pliintiff; At 
five o'clock. — Judge French ; Do yon call that late P (Laughter), 
—Plaintiff; Defendant then told me half-a-dozen times to 
go, 80 I went. — Mr, Moore ; Did he not go up and tell you to 
finish your sleep ? — The Judge : Was that meant ironically ? 
(Laughter.) Eeally, Mr. Moore, could any girl of eighteen 
get up at that time in the morning if she went to bed at a. 
quarter to one, even with this very generous allowance of two 
hours' rest in the afternoon? (Laughter,) She is a young 
girl , and the hours are worse than sailors' watches on board a 
ship, and they are strong and hearty men. (Applause in 
court). Judge French said he believed the girra version of 




what took place. He gave judgment for her with costs, and 
allowed her 48. for her attendcuice that mormug," 

Although Shop AssifitaiitB are euppoaed to havo " light 
work," yet the long hours they are compelled to stand 
about day after day, the abseuce of time for exercise, aad 
the short intervale for meals (which are often far from 
apjietising), together with the overcrowded and ill-venti- 
lated bedrooms in which many of them sleep, and the 
inaamtary condition of many shops, tend to undermine 
the health even of strong young men, and are especially 
fatal to delicate women and girls. If we add to this that 
the wages are frequently low and made lower by all kinds 
of vexatious and excessive fines, and that in very many 
shops there is constant " drive," we shall agree that the 
Shop Assistant is only too frecLuently the victim of sweat- 
ing. In the "Eeport of the Committee of the Shop 
Hours Bill, 1886," we read; "Tour Committee being 
satisfied that the hours of Shop Assistants range in many 
places as high as from eighty -four to eighty-five per 
week, are convinced that such long hours must be 
generally injurious to health, and that the same amount 
of buBinesB might be compressed into a shorter space of 
time." In consequence of this report the Shop Hours 
Regulation Act of 1886 was passed limiting the hours of 
pereons under 18 employed in shops to 74 hours per week, 
or an average of 12 hours 20 minutes per day ! It is now 
the law that if three-fourths of the shop keepers in any 
district desire to close early one day in the week the 
principal authorities are obliged to enforce the closing of 
all shops in the district. But as the larger towns are 
divided into districts, instead of being treated as a whole, 
the Act has been largely inoperative. 




Whi 



in tiie fiaro^^^l 

itJOQ I 

I 



The Tictims of sweating are those who 
struggle for existence which rages among the poorer claBses 
are weaker or in some way in a less advantageous positjon 
than others. This may arise from vai-ious eauBes, : 
most among which we may reckon bodily weakness 
ill health, ignorance, want of skill in work, abeenc 
organisation among the workers, and, finally, sex. 
short, the sweated will be the physically weak, the 
skilled, and the unorganised workers, and as women ofti 
combine all these qualifications, woman is, par exeeUenee, 
the sweated one, 

The general want of skill and organisati 
female workers renders the competition between them 
employment keener than that between men. The ff 
weavers in the Lancashire cotton mills are almost the 
women whose labor is as well organised as men's labour^ 
with the result that they receive the same wages as 
men. It is, indeed, only recently that any attempt 
been made to organise the unskilled female workers, 
these attempts have met with but slight success. AnoHu 
reason for the low wages paid to women is to be found 
the fact that married women, partially supported by th< 
husbands, and girls living at home, compete with o1 
women who have t« support themaelvea entirely, and 
competition often brings down the wages of the Ia( 
almost to starvation point. Again, women are i 
patient of bad treatment and of long hours of labour, 
are more easily frightened by their employers than : 
and thus they are the greatest sufferers from acts of pi 
tyranny — unreasonable and excessive fines, etc. 



What oait an IxiiiriDifAL do? 
Everyone who hus contemplated the horrors of sweating, 
and thought of the vast numbers of ita victims ; who has 
realised the intensity of the auileringa endured by those 
forming the baae of the industrial pyramid, who are 
unable to pass on a portion of the social pressure to others 
lower than themselves, but are forced to bear the whole of 
ita crushing weight — must feel troubled by his share of 
responsibility for these things, and must often hnve asked 
himself, "What can I do to remedy these evils?" It 
is Ifl be feared, indeed, that but little can be done by the 
direct action of any individual, yet we are each of us 
hound to do that Kttle. Everyone is to so 
purchaser of the products of Isibour, and it has often been 
argued that much might be done towards the abolition of 
sweating if each well-to-do person was wiUing to pay a 
fair price for a good article, and to deal only with such 
tradesmen as treated their assistants with consideration. 
Now with regard to the first of these assertions, whilst it 
ia no doubt true that very "cheap" articles are largely 
produced by sweated labour, this is not invariably the 
case, and if it were, it by no means follows that by paying 
a high price for a good article one can be sui'e of buying 
goods which are not the products of sweating, as the 
following case will show. In a certain West-end shop a 
lady will be charged three guineas for a well-made blouse 
of first-class materials costing the dealer 25s. 6d. (1 8s. for 
tie material and 7s. 6d. for the labour). These blouses are 
made by seventeen girls employed only during the season. 
It is said that they come back regularly to the workroom 
on the first day of the season, having supported themselves 
daring the remainder of the year by prostitution 



of theae girlB — they are all over eighteen years of ( 
earn ISs. a week or Bomewhat leaa, whilst the remaining 
cue is paid lis. 

Some good might, no doubt, be done if the public 
would boycott restaurants and refreshment rooms where 
the waitresses are notoriously overworked or underpaid, 
and would patronise only such shopkeepers as treat their 
assistants with some degree of consideration. But it is 
difhcult to know who these are. Attempts have been 
made to draw up a "white list" i)f the employers who jwy 
their shop people well, and do not overwork them, but 
little has as yet been done. The Christian Social Union 
have, indeed, drawn up a list of bakers whom they can 
recommend as "dealing fairly with their employees and 
satisfying the conditions of the sanitary authorities," and 
of clerical tailors who adhere to the arrangement as to 
hours and wages agreed upon by the Association of Lon- 
don Master Tailors and the Amalgamated Society of 
Tailors. They also recommend Lockhart's, the Aerated 
Bread Company, " Pearce and Plenty," and the British 
Tea Table Company as coffee-houses in which the wait- 
resses are never worked for more than eleven hours per 
day, are not fined, have opportunitiea for sitting down, 
and have other advantages over the waitresses in most 
refreshment rooms, though the conditions under which 
they work " leave room for much improvement." The 
London Society of Compoaitora (7 and 9, 8t. Bride Street, 
E.G.) publishes a list of "Fair Houses," There is room 
for a good deal of useful work in this direction, and we 
may hope to see more accomplished in the near future. 
The Co-operative Institute Society, at the depot for co- 
operative productions, 19, Southampton Eow, Holhom, 
sell boots and shoes, hoaiery, shii-ts, dress goods aad 



19 

duna, and do tailoring on their own premises. By pur- 
cliasing from them one may be sure that one is buying- 
g^oods which have not been made by sweated labour and 
that one is aiding the co-operative movement besides. 

In investing money, again, one should choose such 
oompanies as are said to treat their employees well, and 
one should then use one's influence as a shareholder ta 
secure this being done. Strikes for better pay and shorter 
hours, such as those of the dockers and the great striko 
against sweating in the boot and shoe trade, should be 
aided by every social reformer. Anyone who employs 
labour has, of course, greater possibilities of giving direct 
aid in the abolition of sweating. He should see to it that 
all in his employment work no longer than the legal 
hours, are well paid, and work under sanitary conditions. 
The Bishop of Bedford, when examined before tha 
Sweating Commission, pointed out that if men of business 
"were content with less returns and attended more directly 
to the business themselves " they might effect a consider- 
able change. The answer often given when attention ta 
the sweating of their employees is, he added, " Oh I can- 
not interfere with that department, that is Mr. Such-and- 
Such's. Mr. Such-and-Such knows that though he may 
be told to treat all that are employed fairly, it will go 
hardly with him at the time of stocktaking if he does not 
produce as good a balance as he had last time. And those 
who in my judgment very sadly neglect their duty are, 
many of them, those that we all honour as most philan- 
thropic and charitable people. I would rather that their 
earnings were a little less, and they had less to give away^ 
and 80 this evil was reduced." 

Members of philanthropic and zoophilist societies should 
use. their influence to prevent their society from employing- 



30 



Bwealed labour for their prmtiiig, derieal, and other wort. 
This is frequently done 'by bugIl Bocieties in order to aave 
money for their special work, and thus sweating is pro- 
moted by the very people moat anxious to lessen aufEering 
or remove oppression. 

It does not appear that we can do much more by direet 
action as individuals. We must look to collective and State 
action to do the greater part of the work of mitigatii 
and deetroying sweating. 



;a^^^ 



CoLLEcrrvB Action of the Wobkers. 

If the isolated action of the individual becomes more 
inmgnificant as society grows more complex, the union of 
individuals becomes increasingly possible, and the power of 
such union greater. This being the case, ninn y have seen in 
<MJ-op6ration of the workers the true remedy for sweating. 
Much has undoubtedly been done by a portion of the 
upper section of the working classes to better their 
■condition by co-operation in distribution, and of late 
years in production also, and the movement seems now 
to be pri^essing at an accelerated speed. But the lowest 
section of the workers, whom it is most imperative to 
help, seem at present beyond the reach of its influence. 
Ignorant, overworked, underfed, and often working in 
isolation, it is almost impossible for them to effectively 
■co-operate. 

There is moi-e hope in the endeavours which have lately 
been made to band the unskilled workers together in 
Trade Unions. Tet many of the reasons which have 
rendered Trade Unionism such a potent force among lie 
skilled workmen are absent in this case. The earnings 
of the unskilled are so small that great difficulty is 
«xperieiiced in regularly contributing even the smallest 



21 

sum to the Union fund; their numbers are practicall7 
unlimited, so that their places are easily filled if they 
strike, and this fringe of unskilled labour is added to by 
the very success of the skilled artisans since their Unions- 
are necessarily confined to good workmen, and the less 
competent men are added to the already swollen ranks of 
the unemployed or the sweated. Yet in spite of such 
enormous difficulties something has been gained by union 
of unskilled labourers. The Union gives some additional 
strength to the worker by the coUectiye bargain with 
the master; it strengthens the individual in resisting 
deductions, fibies, and other forms of petty tyranny, and 
it helps to develop a feeling of solidarity among the 
workers, and to keep their grievances before the public 
. eye. It is to this publicity, and to the growth of a healthy 
public opinion, that we must look to bring about the 
adoption of the only means which is strong enough, and 
far reaching enough, to give really effective aid to the 
sweated dass — ^viz.. Legislation for the Protection of 
Xiabour. 

Economic Evolution, 

One of the most potent forces which are making for the 
elimination of sweating is the growing consolidation of 
capital and the consequent tendency for work to be carried 
on in large factories ; for large shops and warehouses to 
supersede smaller ones; and for transportation to be under 
the control of large companies — such as the L. and N. W. 
Railway (employing an army of 60,000 men) and the 
P. and 0. Steamship Company. . The growth of these 
large concerns favours the abolition of sweating, because it 
tends to abolish '^domestic workshops," the giving of 
outwork and sub-contracting, and to eliminate the small 




master, shopkeeper, and dealer who had not the measB to 
carry on hi§ business in such a way as to secure prop^ 
■oonditions for his employees. In regard to "domeetie 
workshops," Mr. Laienian said in 1894 : "I shall hold to 
the opinion that these domestic workshops are great evils, 
for ice cannot ^ply the late to them at w» ean to other 
workih^a; thoy are occupied by persons of such varied 
hahits, who are recipients of a icage from the employer which 
would not he offered to a worker on hit premiua, that wages 
-are kept down, the elevation which one looks for in a 
London factory worker, hoth as to character and position, 
is lost, and the factory laws, which ensure regularity, due 
time for meals, and strict leaving off, so valuable to young 
persons, are never before a domeHie worker." It is, of oonrse, 
quite possible for sweating to go on in a large establish- 
laent, especially in such trades as have not yet been 
brought under the Factory Acts ; but the workers in such 
■places have more opportunities of oi^anising themselves; 
the business is carried on publicly and not in holes and 
comers, it is much easier to bring the influence of public 
opinion to bear on the employers, and, finally, the growth 
of these lai^ concerns renders necessary the extension 
of the Factory, Sanitary, and Truck Acts, and their more 
efficient enforcement. 



Legislaiiob for thb Pkotection of Laboub, 
At the end of the last and the beginning of the present 
century sweating was well nigh universal. The movement 
for the liberation of the worker from Feudal restrictiona 
.and outgrown forms of association had ended in throwing 
hini helplessly into the power of the rapidly growing 
-capitalist class, with the result that he became a slave in 
«vcrything but the name. Long hours were toiled by 



Tnen, women, and even little children, who often worked 

""unleT the moat degrading conditions and in the most 

b-on-ible and insanitary Hurroimdinga. " Freedom ol 

Contract " waa not then interfered with, and laiun-faire 

^as the motto of the Goveminent, excepting when the 

"W'oi-feing classes ventured to meet and discuss their almost 

^'^tolerable wrongs, or to combine to better their condition, 

^'■lien they were mercilessly suppressed. But in 1802 the 

^^*^t timid attempt waa made by the State io protect little 

*^«ilclren from the horrible sufferings of overwork, and 

rrom that time onward a series o£ Acts have been passed 

**"■ the protection of women and children, and the regula- 

**oii of hours of labour in factories and workshopa, 

*^**iQiinating in Mr. Asquith'a Act of last year. By this 

_ *** protection has been extended to young persons, and, 

Seme degree, to women working in laundries where 

°*^^^ting had formerly prevailed. Outwork has at last 

^^O forbidden for children, and for any women and young 

^^***nnB who are employed both before and after the dinner 

_ **"**»•. Registration of wortshops has been made com- 

J-Sory. More stringent regulations have been made as 

^ftjutation, and henceforth 250 cubic feet of space (400 

^"^^ag overtime) must be allowed for each worker, to 

** ^"^ent overcrowding. What is now required is the 

./^*'^iier extension and development of this legislation, and 

^ ^luforcement of the Acts by an adequate staff of com- 

*^»it inapectora with power to levy penalties for the 

T"^^^^,ction of the law. Work taken home by women to be 

^^^*^lied at night, after long hours of toil at the workshop 

factory, has been one of the moat common and most 

"^I>'»T«Baive forms of sweating. The following incident 

'^^- show how a resolute enforcement of the Act would 

"^^■^jeate this form of oppreeaion. 



to , 



24 

"In a London workshop ^me half-dozen girls were 
employed in making certain articles of apparel. They were 
paid on a piece-work scale, and constantly received a con- 
siderable quantity of work to take home at night, which 
they were to bring back finished in the morning. 
The latest Factory Act has, since the beginning of 
this year, declared that practice illegal, and the circum- 
stances coming to the knowledge of the Women's In- 
dustrial Council, the Factory Inspector was communicated 
with. An inspector called on the employer and informed 
him that the practice was illegal. The employer drew up 
a statement for signature by each emp]ioyee, declaring that 
the work was taken home to be done not by herself but by 
her relatives. The Council again informed the inspector. 
The inspector visited again, and arrived just as the girla 
were going home at night with work. What the inspector 
said to the employer on this occasion is of course unknown, 
to the Council, but the practice of carrying home work 
was stopped at once. The girls working now only the 
legal hours found their wages much diminished, and went 
to the employer to complain that they could no longer liv& 
on what they earned. The employer raised their wagea 
in a proportion that seems to be from 40 to 50 per cent. 
He also engaged six new workers in order to get the work 
done which had previously been done at home, and is- 
enlarging his work -place to accommodate them." 

The Eeforms Most Urgently Needed. 

1. The employer should be made responsible for the* 
condition of the places to which he sends his outwork, 
and should be subject to a penalty if it is performed in 
insanitary places or by sweated workpeople; or, better 



^till, as was snggested to the Labour Commisaion by Mr. 
■*-**slcip| the employer should be compelled "to find healthy 
^^'^^ convenient workshops for all working at trades that 
®^® <3.one indoore." 

2- ^he landlord should be held responsible for the 

*-*'^^-i.tion of any house or part of a house in which any 

"*"****^as of manufacture is carried on. Miaa Potter (Mrs. 

*<inejWebb), in her examination before the Committee 

'^"Vveatjng', said that the landlord should be " responsible 

eri-ving notice to the Factory Depaitment that such-and 

manufacture is being carried on, and then he 






^^***toes liable by that notice to certain penalties, sup- 

^ ^iHg certain sanitary conditions are not carried out." 

"*v-ould rather make him liable to the penalty," she 

^ '*^<i, "than have the inspector come down and tell him 

, "^^s ought to be put right and that ought to be put 

^**-t, ' because he n9ver does it ; but if he ie liable to 

l**»iialty hia rent collector takes pretty good care that 

^^ _***-iiig is going on that is wrong." By these means it 

,^^ ^lit be possible to secure that, if out-work continued, it 

j^-^^^^ at least performed under tolerable conditions ; but 

^ would undoubtedly tend to the abolition both of 

^j_^ ^— Work and of the small workshop, and would hasten 

^^ ^ growth of large factories, which could be dealt with in 

"^^Xore satisfactory manner. 
t-_^ ^^ . The passing of an Eight Hours Bill would do much 
^^^^ **nder sweating unpossible, especially sweating in the 
i .__ *~^er sense, in the lighter trades, and in the transport 



*- Entries. 
(^ ^*^ . But not only should eight hours be the legal 
K^ ■J^'~', but overtime, unless in very exceptional 



working 
i, should 
(j^.^_^ abolished, "iii. Lokeman insisted above all things 
^-5>n the abolition of overtime. He told the Lords' Com- 



26 



mittee : "I would allow no overtime to be worked in the 
kingdom by any trade it I had my way. If overtime were 
done away with sudden demanda would need more hands 
and larger factories and machinery; " and in hia lant 
report before his retirement he reiterated the same opinion : 
"As I said to the Lords' Committee, so I repeat here, 
that overtime is an evil, socially, morally and conimer- 
oially." It has been objected that in seasonal trades and 
such trades as millinery and dressmaking, where orders 
come in suddenly, it would be impossible to prevent 
working overtime. The answer to this lies in the fact that 
if overtime were forbidden by law it would apply equally 
to all engaged in the particular trade, and the result 
would be that the customers would merely be compelled 
to give their orders for goods or make their purchases in 
advance. Inspector Oramp, as the result of his expenence, 
declares ; "There is no necessity for this overtime; the 
season trade work and the press of orders would be exe- 
cuted just the same if it were illegal, and only mean the 
employment of more hands," Long hours of regiilar work 
and sudden stretches of overtime are found in the same 
trades, whereas those trades in which only the hours 
allowed to women by the Factory Acts are worked — such as 
the textile industries — are free from these rushes, "In 
1893, before the Boyal Marriage, large orders were re- 
ceived for fabrics in special patterns. The textile trade, 
which had both to design and weave these, succeeded by 
dint of organisation in putting these goods on the market 
within the time required without working an hour extra, 
while the dressmakers who made up the stufi sent in a 
special appeal for extension of hours,"' 




27 

5. Shop assiRtants aa well as operatives would benefit 
"by the amendment and enforcement of the Truck Act,; 
rendering all fines, other than those of a strictly disci- . 
pljnary nature, entirely illegal and siibjecting the master ] 
'who should impose such fines to a penalty. 

6. The Employers Liability Act should be made mor«< I 
stringent, and no contracting out allowed under any pre- - 
tence whatever, 

7. The Factory Acts should be amended so that their 
provisions should apply to men, aa well at 
young persons, and the proteotiou which they afford to 
the operative should be extended to other workers. 

8. The Acta for the protection of labour should bo 
consolidated into one new Act, and all previous Acts 
repealed ; and, shove all, the enforeem^tt of the Acts 
abould be made really effective, " lu England," said 
Victor Hugo, "they venerate so many laws that they 
never repeal any. They save themselves from the con- 
sequences of their veneration by never putting any of 
them into eseeution." The history of the Factory Acts 
goes far to justify the gibe of the great Frenchman. 
Though the first Factory Act waa passed in 1802, no effort 
was made to enforce either it or the three following 
Acts. It was not tiU 1833 that any serious attempt waa 
made to enforce the law. The inspectors were, however, 
BO few in number and so hampered in their action that the 
law remained largely inoperative. When Mr. Arnold 
White waa asked by the Lords' Committee in 1890 for hia 
opinion upon the administration of the Factory Act, he 
replied ; " I think it is a farce." " Your opinion is that 
the staff is too small 1 " he was ashed. " I think it is so 
small as to be a travesty," he answered ; " 
we have an Act of Parhament which pror 




and tlie Act of Parliament is substantiallf a dead letter.4 
At that time forty-eight inspectors, with < 
juniora, had to look after all the factories and workehopa 
in the United Kingdom. The district of Mr. Lakeman, 
that most conscientious and hard-working of inspectors — 
the Central Metropolitan — included the whole of central 
Ijondon east of Farringdon Eoad, and extended to Hert- 
ford ! In the inspection of this vast district, containing 
nearly 6,000 factories and workshops, he had the help of 
Mr. Birtwistle, of the West Metropohtan District, and 
was so overworked that he told the Committee that he 
never got through his work till 12 o'clock at night, and 
liad " no amusement or recreation in his life." In foot, 
sweating' was so much a matter of course that the Govem- 
ment even sweated those whom they chai^d with i 
prevention. 

The three Metropolitan districts, which included thf 
major part of the Home Counties, as well as the Metr 
polls, and in which there were 6,479 factories and 12,6 
workshops, were supposed to be looked after by i 
inspectors ; five inspectors struggled with the difiicultii 
of "inspecting" the 6,518 factories and the 6,166 worlc" 
shops scattered over the whole of Scotland, wMlat 
neglected Ireland was divided into two districts, one 
of which — the Dublin district — including all Ireland, 
excepting Antrim, Londonderry, and part of North 
Donegal, and containing more than 5,000 factories and 
workshops, was intrusted to one inspector ! Later on. 
the workshops in the County of London, numbering 
12,520, were separated from the factories, and were placed 
under Jtr. Lakeman's supervision, aided by a staff of 





29 



*' Report of the Chief Inspector of Factories for 1895"— j 
juBt issued— that the total staff for the whole of the 
United Kingdom consistB of one chief and i 
inteadent inspectors, forty-four inspectors (aided by sis- 
teen juniors and twentj'-five assistants), and the four 
peripatetic ladies appointed by Mr. Asqujth, who have 
worked vei^ hard trying to protect the womea workers all 
over the country. A backward step seems to have been 
taken on the retirement of Mi'. Lakeman, for the ri 
workshops in the Metropolis which had been placed under 
his care are now distributed among the four Metropolitan 
districts. These four districts comprise the whole of the 
county of London, together with the eountiee of Middlesex, 
Kent, Surrey, and Sussex, the larger part of Eases, 
Hertfuid, and Buckingham, and portions of Berks and 
Osfoi-d. In this large area there are 10,664 factories and 
18,320 registered workshops, looked after by six inspectors 
and four juniors, aided by ten assistants! It is evident 
that with the best will in the world it is impossible for 
these men to properly inspect all these registered places of 
work, to say nothing of the time and labour involved in 
seeing that work is not illegally carried on in workshops 
which escape registration, and that in the vast numbers of 
"domestic workshops" young persons are not worked 
"beyond the time allowed by the Act, 

Another great evil is the division of responsibilily 
between the factory inspectors and the sanitary authorities. 
In very many cases the inspector possesses no direct power 
■of enforcing proper sanitation, but has to inform the 
local sanitary officers of the case, who, as Mr. Hart of 
Norwich reports, "dare not, in many eases, be too 
energetic where shops, warehouses or factories belong to, 
or are occupied by, men under whose authority they work 




and by whom ttey are appointed." Very often the! 
offlcers are quite ignorant of the aanitaty prov 
Factoiy Acts. We learn from the inspector at Walsalll 
that "after the usual notices have been sent to tht 
Medical Officer of Health, or to the clei-k of the local'! 
Sanitary Authority, they are in some cases sent back with 
the request to be informed why euoh notices are sent to 
them, and under what Act power is given to them to aot 
in cases of contravention." 

In fact, great confusion results from the over-lapping of' 
the Factory, Public Health, Truck, and Employera* 
Liability Acts, and through each new Act being merely 
Act to " amend and extend " preiious Acts, which have 
be referred to. Mr. Knyvett, an inspector, speaking of th( 
new Act, says it " is full of great possibilitiea, which I feel 
sui'e I am not alone among my colleagues in hoping will ba 
welded into shape by a Codifying Act. And realising the- 
importance of and the widespread good resulting from th» 
tempered Socialism of EngUsh legislation, I am convinced 
that the sooner the welding of the four Acts takes 
the better it will be for the manufacturei-s, artisans, 
lastly, for that most puzzled body. Her Majesty' 
spectoi-s." 

In this Eei)Ort the lady inspectors insist on the ueceseii 
of 80 altering the Truck Act as to make it really what 
professes to be. Women workers are great sufferers 
all kinds of arbitrarj- fines and deductions from thi 
wages. Examples are given of deductions from 
ing women's wages such as the following : " 4d4 
per week for 'room' {i.e., cleaning); 2^. a reel for^; 
thread; Id. per needle; Jd. in the shilliug earned fori 
power; and 3d. per week for the gas used 
irona." Mies Anderson finds that very fi'equent oomplai 



of 




those in which not i 
and to esceBsiFe toil ii 
anil laundry workers a 



SI 



are mnde to her about these matters, and says ; " What is 
further required, if fines are to be admitted at all as any- 
thing^ but a violation of the principles of the Truck Act, 
ia (1) publicity in the system of levying them; (2) strict 
limitation of their amount; (3) that subordinate ofRcials 
shall have no power to levy them or det^irmine their 
amount." She also points out that the exclusion of the 
smallest laundriea from the Act is a great evil, and will 
lead to the multiplication of domestic laundries and of 
ire than two persons are employed, 
1 these. Ctnly such shop assistants 
9 are under eighteen are protected 
by the Act from exeesaively long hours, and a number of 
complaints are made in the Report of girls employed 
in workrooms attached to shops being brought into the 
shop to serve customera after the workr<)oms are closed. 

In spite of these and numberless other defects in our 
factory legislation, one is glad to find a tone of hopefulness 
running through the Reporf, and to learn that notwith- 
standing the inadequate number of the inspectors, and the 
difficulties they have to contend with in enforcing the Act, 
they have secured 3,038 convictions for infractions ot the 
law in 1895. 

Tliough the difficulties attending the efficient inspection 
of the vast numbera of factories and workshops scattered 
about the country are very great, and a largely increased 
BtafE of inspectors would have hard work in coping with 
them, even if their work was lightened by the codification 
of the Acts for the protection of labour ; yet it should 
never be forgotten that the largest employer of labour in 
the country is the Government itself. Here it would be 
easy to effect such changes as would greatly benefit the 
workers and entirely prevent the possibility of sweating 



of an; kind. Sanitary condittone for the workers, eight 
hours for all employees, a. living wage, abolition of over- 
time and of out-work, should he enforced and an example 
afforded, and a standard fixed for the whole country. 
This woiild be especially useful in raising the tone of the 
muni oipali ties, which are also large employers of labour. 
In such wisei as one branch of industry after another 
passed under the control of the municipal bodies or of the 
central government, sweating woiild disappear, and the 
work would be carried on in a manner consonant with 
justice and social well-being. 

Ths Ultimate Causes of SwEATUfQ. 

Sweating is a disease of the body politic, arising 
from arrested developmett, both economical and moral. 
The sub- division of labour and the introduction of 
machinery moved by steam power have given us the great 
factory, with its cleanliness and thorough organisation 
■of labour. In these factories adequate inspection and 
efficient public control are possible. The ever-increasing 
concentration of capital and organisation of labour is fast 
preparing the way for the munieipalisation and nationali- 
sation of industry generally. 

Though sweating — in the wider sensa — may still exist 
to a greater or less extent in the large factory or establish- 
ment, yet the trades in which it is rampant are, as has 
been pointed out, those which have not shared to any 
considerable degree in tbe economic development of the 
century but have remained in the undeveloped condition 
of earlier times. The reaUy efficient economic cure for 
sweating ia to hasten the evolution of these backward 
industries and secure their organisation under public 
control. 



But sweating is also due to the imperfect moral derelop- 
ment of the people. In th.e purely animal condition the 
Btniggle for life liaa full sway, and the weakest does not 
fail to go to the wall and to be efEectually crushed 
out. From this condition we are moving upwards towards 
a human life in which reason shall prevail ; in which we 
shall recognise the Brotherhood of Man, and competition 
and anarchy Ije replaced by rational organisation and 
co-operation. We have now reached a stage where the 
sense of a common good is still but weak, and the control of 
the individual by the Whole, which is necessary for its 
xealisation, prevails only in a few departments of i 
life. By our laws we guarantee to the few a share in the 
material inheritance of the nation, which has been slowly 
gained for us through the ages by social co-operation, 
whilst the mass of the people are obliged to obtain leave 
irom these favoured few to work that they may ea 
■or lees precarious and insufRcient livelihood. If any of 
them have been allowed access to the spii'itual inheritance 
of the race — to the stores of knowledge painfully acquired 
in the course of centuries — they have a great advantage in 
the struggle. Of such are the professional and trading 
classes and Uie stilled workers. Below them lie the com- 
pletely disinherited, condemned to strive for the crumbs 
which fall from the tables of the classes above them, and 
even these they can only get by long hours of monotonous 
and exhausting toil. The misery and suffering endured 
by this class, and especially by the women, is indeed 
eimply appalling. Did not use and wont, and the feehng 
of the powerlessnesa of the individual to alter the working 
of the great economic machine, in which each of us is a 
mere wheel or cog of a wheel, make us despair, it would be 
impoBsible for such of us as have any knowledge of the 



facts and any human fneiling to endure these thin^ longer. 
As it is, tbe thought that many of the necessities snd 
comforts of our life are bought at the expense of the vbt^ 
heart's-blood of our fellow creatures embitters onr erirt- 
ence and poisons all our joy. 

It ia not possible for the most callous wholly to ignor* 
the solidarity of mankind, and the very growth in sensi- 
bility and rfjfinement of feeling which is the highest gift 
of civilisation renders us more suateptible to the suffer- 
ings of others and more capable of sympathy with their 
wrotchednese and woe. This sympathy, indeed, is ever 
extending and deepening in intensity, yet it ia at present 
but slightly developed, and its action ia for the most part 
occasional, spasmodic, and not seldom irrational. We 
erect vast hospitais and spend large sums of money yearly 
for their support. In these the poorest may have good 
nursing and the best treatment which medical science 
can furnish. The most wretched victim of sweating, if" 
knocked down, or stricken by illness, can be taken to one 
of these hospitals and be treated as a human being and skil- 
fully nursed. Should he recover, however, he is again thrust 
forth into the abyss of destitution to continue his desperate- 
struggle, and society troubles itself no further about him 
till he once more becomes ill or commits some crime. 

Sui-ely this is irrational! Let us have, we are tempted 
to exclaim, either the pitiless struggle of the animal world — 
which, just because it is pitiless and thoroughgoing, leads 
to the survival of young, vigorous, and therefore happy 
life — or such an organisation of society that the stragglo- 
of man against man may be rejilaced by co-operation, and 
the pitiless extermination of the weaker by los-ing care, 
aided by the rational use of those means which would, 
prevent disease and destitution. 



35 

For the fall solution of the problem of sweating, as of 
all th^ other problems of social life, we must look forward 
to the growth of sympathy, guided by reason, which 
shall not merely shudder at tales of injustice and suffer- 
ing, but shall vigorously work to discover their causes, 
and, having discovered these, shall intelligently organise- 
the whole of life in accordance with Insight and Love. 



THE GALLOWS AND THE LASH. 



THE GALLOWS AND THE LASH. 



I.— THE GALLOWS. 



Capital PoNisaiiEvr i 



I Eight ok Wr( 



L SHORT time ago I brought a motion before a committeti 
'^Dtteeting of a littie society with which I am connected, 
jtraying Her Majesty's Gevei-nment to abolish Capital 
"P nniahtri BTit. Sonnewhat to my surprise I did not find a 
-single supporter. One member, at least, was actively in 
favor of death as a punishment for murder, and the rest 
-dismiesed the matter by agreeing that it was a question 
which they had not studied anfficientiy to be able to 
ixprees an opinion. 
As there may be many who have not "anfficientiy 
studied" this important subject, the Criminal Law and 
3PriBon Heform Department of the Humanitarian League 
nested me to prepare this pamphlet. In embarking 
my confiding readers upon what the old Qaarterly Meviewer 
Balled " the perils of that vast speculation whether death 
night not be left out of the penal code Eiltogether," I do 
lot intend to make any attempt to convince by appealing 
o the emotions, but what I hope to do ia, to induce 
hem to convince themselves by a caJm and dispassionate 
itudy of the facts I diall bring before them. 

Sixty or seventy years ago— nay, thirty or forty years 
igo — England was much agitated upon this subject. In 
those times there were large and influential societies work- 



tluit reapect had a redeetutng; quality ; but, for all that, it 
was an egsentinlty unjust privilege. It aroee ia this way : 
The clergy, at an early period, made a very couvenient 
otaim to be free from the jurisdiotinu of lay oourts, and 
suhject only to the ecclesiastical. The clerk apprehended 
as a criminal was therefore delivered to his ecclesiastical 
Buperiore and tiied by the bishop, or hie deputj-, and a jury 
of twelve clerks. First, he made oath of innocence ; then 
he called twelve compui-gatora who swore they believed he 
epoke the truth ; and then witnesses were heard on his 
behalf only. The accused was thereupon acquitted ; or if 
convicted, degraded and required to do penance. At 
worst a very mild substitute for death.' Later on Henry 
VI enacted that the accused must be convicted before ha 
daimed his "clergy." 

At the outset this privilege was confined to those who 
wore clerical dress and the tonsure, but under Edward HI 
it became so extended as to include eveiy male person 
who coidd read, except bigamists— not a bigamist as we 



' How meqnitii'ble tbls dutuiotiao between clerk and lafman was 
taaj be reali6«d from the following ease found — witli maii7 eimilBr 
r^ord^ — amongst tlie aorlf archireB of the City ot London : In 131$ 
(Ed. III.) Thouuu Honneie of Snsaez and ThomoB de Blurtone of 
lUiberdHbrigge were tried before the Major for highway robbery. 
"The said Thomas and Thomaa, being asked ae to that felony how 
the; will acqnit thenieelTeB, the aforesaid Thomas Humere aajB that 
he U a olerk, etc. [and therefore daima beneflt of clergy, aa being 
able to read] ; wherefore he ia sent back to the prison of oor Lord 
the King at Neugato, until, etc. [until the fact ia certified by the 
Ordinorj, and he claims his release]. And the said Thmnaa de 
Blurtone saja that he is in no way guilty thereof. The jniy sppears 
by John de Walthem and eleven others, who eay apoD their oatll 
that the said Thomaa is gfoilty thereof. Therefore he is to bs 
hanged." Charged jointly for the same offence, the lajmaa is 
hangped, the clerk released. 



underBtand the vord to-daj, but a, man who had twics 
married, or had married a widow. Save professed nuns, 
all women were excluded from " benefit of olergj." 

In 1487 Henry VII made some effort to roBtrict the 
piiTil^e, by enacting that a man convicted of a clergyable 
felony should be branded on the thumb, and this enact- 
ment shows UB how light the ecclesiastical penalties must 
previously have been. 

Afl the law stood, until 1487, any man who could read 
might steal, or commit a murder, almost with impunity, and 
for long afterwards all he had to fear was a T or an M 
branded on his thumb. Elutabeth in 1576 abolished pur- 
gation and enacted a term of imprisonment, not to exceed 
one year, for the convicted clerk. James in 1622 allowed 
"clergy" to women for larceny of goodsunderlOs. in value, 
and William and Marj- (1692) put women altogether on 
the same footing with men in this respet-t. Anne, in 1705, 
extended the privilege of "clergy" by abohshing the- 
neceesity for reading. George I (1717) made an alterna- 
tive of seven years transportation for branding, and George 
HI, in 1779, abolished branding, thus leaving the penalty 
as seven years' transportation without alternative. This 
was the statute law, but at common law there were many 
capital offences which were not clergyable, e.g., high 
treason, highway robbery and arson ; then later, murder- 
ing his lord, murdering in churches, robbing churches, 
theft from the person above the value of Is., rape, abduc- 
tion without intent to marry, stealing clothes from racks, 
or stealing from the king's (stores. It is curious to uote^ 
in this connection, that according to the doctrine and 
practice of our legislatoif., the greater the facihty for the 
orime the greater must be the punishment. 

George IV, in 1827, abolished "clergy" altogether, and 




thuB left death, without alternative, the punishmeiit for 
nearly every crime, great or amall. 



The Blood Sacsifios. 



The number of Utcb sacrificed to the law in England 

has been tremendous. It is said by Holinshed, an 
Elizabethan writer, that during the reign of Tlenrj- VIII 
— a period of not more than 38 years — upwards of 72,000 
persons were hanged as thieves and vagabonds. This 
statement is not very reliable, as there were no complete 
BtatisticB of that time ; but that there should be even a 
tradition of such a large number of executions, will give us 
some idea of what went on in those ''good old times," 
which some people profess to bo so aniious to bring back 
again. From a history of the Quarter Sessions (Elizabeth 
to Anne), compiled by Hamilton from records preserved 
at Exeter Castde, Sir James Stephen took the figures for 
the single year of 1598, and out of 390 convicted prisoners 
iu the one county in that year, he found that 74 were 
actually hanged. If however, he said, we take only twenty 
as the average number hanged in each county, this would 
mean a total of something like 800 executions yearly in 
the forty English counties. And that, of course, was at a 
period when the whole population of England was less 
than that of greater London to-day. To take an example 
from later times, at the Lent Assizes of 178d, 242 persons 
were sentenced, and of these 103 were hanged. In 1816, 
Townsend, a well-known Bow Street officer, gave evidence 
before the Boyal Commission that he had seen batches of 
twelve, sixteen, and twenty hanged at one execution, and 
onoe Biter an Old Bailey Sessions of 1783 he had seen 
forty huBg in two batches of twenty each. 



and I 



In regard to tlie manner of execution, Laagmg was i 
the only method of legal murder. Henry Vlll eaacted. 
that the punishment for poisoning should be boiling to 
death, but tliis law was repealed umler Elizabeth ; men 
were usually hung; or hung, drawn and quartered ; women 
were burned; and heretics also were burned, irrespeotive 
of sex. As late as 1777, a girl of 14 lay in Newgate under 
sentence to be burnt alive on a fliarge of false coinage ; a 
reprieve came, but only just as the cart was ready to take 
her to the stake. It was thirteen years later before the 
Act was repealed under which that sentence was passed. 

For sis centuries, therefore, from about 1230 to about 
1H30, the chief pimiahment for crime in this country was 
deprivation of life, with or without accompanying torture. 

One hundred years ago there were 160 offences punish- 
able by death, but by 1810 this number had risen to as 
many as 223, and a story is told showing how lightly 
these enactments were made. It is said that on one 
occasion Edmund Burke thrust his head into a Committee 
Boom of tile House of Commons, and asking what the 
members were doing, was answered "Oh! almost nothing; 
we are merely creating a new felony — death without 
it of clergy." 



BecCAEIa'b iNFLUBIfCB. 



But by 1810, when c 
we were approaching a 
the death punishment 
after this, that we s 
Beccaria's influence in 
took many yei 



ir capital offences numbered 222, 
I. important point in the history of 
n this countiy, for it was shortly 
w the fiist practical results of 
England; although even then it 
■k before anything like a 



thorough -going alteration in the laws was made. Before 



ISIO, signs had not been wanting to show that publio 
opinion was setting against capital punishment, but the 
great bar to public opinion becoming public law was then, 
as 80 often happens now, the House of Lords ; and fore- 
most amongst the obstnictioniats in the House of Lords, 
was the Bench of Bishops. 

In 176-1 Beccaria wrote hie treatise condemning the 
death penalty, torture and excessive punishments of all 
kinds. This little book created a profound sensation ; It 
was translated into many diflerent languages and read 
everywhere. Blaekstone in the following year frequently 
referred to Beccaria ; and Blaeksto ne has the honorable 
\ •position of bein f ; the first professional lawyer to hnd jaiilt 
Iwith the frequen cy of th e death punishment in En gland. 
/In 1770 a committee of inquiry, moved for by Sir W. 
— / Meredith, reported in favor of the repeal of two or three 

A Acts which punished certain offences with deaths-one of 
\rhich was the crime of bokmgmg to.-paoplQ_whg.«£aUed 
themselves Egyptians^ — but, although the Commons con- 
sented to these repeals, the Lords refused to agree to them, 
As the opponents of capital punishment, inspired by 
Beccaria's work, grew bolder and stronger, those in favor 
of it became more active and more determined, and in 
1784 and 1785 books were written, advocating the iin- 
flinciiing caiTying out of the laws as they stood. The 
immediate consequence of this was, that in the year follow- 
ing the issue of the first of these books (Madan's " ThougLta 
on Executive Justice") the number of executions was nearly 
doubled, and it is recorded that, about this time, an English 
Chief Justice, in charging the Grand Jury for Hertford, 



'wanted them that it was his intention during the circuit, 
■to leave for execution eveiy person convicted of a capital 
offence. He kept his word and spared no one ; what 
this meant may be guessed from ono case, where he caused 
foBr men and three women to be hanged out-side a hou 
in which they had committed a robbery. 



Sib Samttel Eomilly and Aroitdeacon Palby. 
The man, who above all others, was chiefly reHponsible 
for delaying any alteration in the laws was Archdeacon 
Paley. The year after Madan's book appeared, he wrote his 
*' Moral and Political Philosophy," dedicated to the 
Bishop of Carlisle, father to Lord Chief Juatito Ellen- 
borougb, in which he defended the existing state of things, 
Paley condemned "the overstrained scrupulousness or 
ireak timidity of juries " who hesitated to send a man to a 
disgraceful death, and seemed to think it of httle import- 
ance if even an innocent person should occasionally suffer. 
The issue of Madan's book, however, had aroused a 
powerful advocate on the other side, Sir Samuel Eomilly, 
who commenced his long war against capital^ 
by writing an answer to Madan's arguments. This, ii 
course of time, he f&llowed up by an endeavor to obtain 1 
from ParUamont a reform of the criminal law. Here he 
found himself constantly confronted with the influence of 
Dr. Paley, and the only measure of alleviation he i 
Able for some time to win, was the repeal of the law which i 
made it a capital offence to steal from the person anything I 
of the value of Is. or upwards, and even to this the alter 
native punishment, proposed by the mercy of Lord EDeu- 
borough, was transportation for life. This offence of 
«tealing from the person anything of the value of thirteen 



^ 



12 

pence, was the only one for which Archdeacon Paley 
seemed to think death too severe a penalty, and so it was 
allowed to pass. Other Bills r epealing the death jg itfiish- 
\ (^ \n|pt for stealing 5s. wo rth of goods ^fcorn a Rhtf>p, for 
f 'b \ ^ "^^^^Bng from a bJeaching ground^ j m^ ^n^r .suA^i^va and 
^ • .' ^ s ailors found begging, ^ y^fige. hrmight ffrrfrnril in 1810, 
• "" 1811, 1813 and 1816, but although passed by the Com- 

mons, they were thrown out in the Lords, Lord Ellen- 
borough arguing against them in Paley's own words. 



Thb House of Lords Conquered. 

Sir James Mackintosh, following Eomilly, got six 
measures passed through the Commons, but the Lords* 
only agreed to repeal the law in cases of minor importance 
which affected comparatively few persons — e, g,y gie^ w 
against the^JBg^gtians. It was not until the passing of 
the^ Seform Bill that our hereditary legislators were 
conquered, and then the march of progress became a verit- 
able gallop. Between 1832 and 1837 so many repealing 
measures were passed that in 1837 onlv thirt y-^tf»vftTi 
capitaljiffence8j«rerejeft. 

It is not to be supposed, however, that public opinion 
could await the pleasure of the Lords. The feeling of the 
iniquity of the death punishment, in the vast majority of 
cases, was so strong and so widespread, that, although 
many were sentenced to death for the most trivial offences- 
(as, for example, a child of nine in 1833, for breaking some 
glass and stealing 2d. worth of paint), yet the sentences 
were not carried out. In the year 1831, for instance, 
1,601 persons were sentenced, but of the86""^5fiI y'^tv-tw o 
wec^ executed. The law was, in fact, in most cases a 
deai letter. 



IS 

Until 1861 there ww— Hffl f^ " Hffltadarable number ^ 
capital offencea left on ihe -rtdtata book, but the prac tjcfr 
grew up, as we have it to-da y, of hangipjy for murd er only. 
In fact, fro m 1637 onwards, thare are only five caaea of 
exe cutions lor any other offence than that of murder , onft 
in 1837, one in__l_839, one in 1841, one in 18 51_and one in. 
1861^. Murder, treason, piracy with violenne, sBttiug fire 
to dockyards and arse nals. are__all capital oflences, tut 
practice confines the death penalty to murder only, and 
in a largfl proportion of eases it is not carried out for 
that. 

Executions and Hangm 

At one time the executions were held in public, but they 
occasioned such scandalous scones that a Koyal CommiBsioa 
was issued to inquire into the provisions and operation of 
the laws, under which the punishment of death was 
inflicted, and the manner in which it was inflicted. The 
Commission reported against public executions, and they 
w ere discontinued by A ct of l^arlianieiit in I KgS . 

The Judge orders the place and time of the execution, 
which must be not more than tweaty-one days, and not 
lees than seven from date of his order. The king's, 
aignatui-e waa formerly required to every death warrant ; 
on the accession of the Queen, however, it waa felt that 
there were many cases not pleasant to discuss with a young" 
woman, and an Act of Parliament was accordingly passed 
to render her signature unnecessary. 

Formerly the hangman was specially sworn in to do his. 
duty. The office waa held in such disrepute that a decent 
reapectable man was unwilling to take it, and it was- 
usually filled by some criminal. He was not even allowed. 



I 



"to enter the jjitol tn receive his wage, but wan paid c 
the gate. 

Calcraft — up to 1874 — was paid by the Cor(Kiration of 
London a guinea a week retaining fee and a giiinea for each 
■execution, he was also paid 28. 6d. for each flogging, with 
-aD allowance for implemeuts. The County of Siin-ey 
further paid Calcraft five guineas as retfl.ining fee, with a 
guinea for every execution; he was also paid £10 for 
every execution in the country. 

e hangman's office was held in disrepute when capital 
3ea were many; it is still held in disrepute now that 
they are few. In February, 1895, a paragraph appeared 
1 the papers to ihe effect that Beny, the ex-liangman, 
a unable to obtain employment ; nor could any of his 
I -children get work on account of the office their father had 
held. And, indeed, 1 think that moat people would in- 
etinetively shrink from numbering a hangman amongst 
their pei-sonal friends. Hia 'jffice is generally regai'ded as 
ashameful one. 



Thk Object of Puuishmext. 

So far, I have limited myself strictly to the history of 
ijapital punishment ia this country. I have traced — as 
briefly as possible — the rise and the decline of this particular 
penalty in England, not merely to relate more or less 
interesting details in our history, but to make our past 
experience foi-m a ground on which we can base raaaons 
for our future conduct. 

Before we discuss the merits of death as the penalty 
best suited to the most serioiiB of all offences, it will be 
well to get a clear idea of what we look upon as the 
■object of punishment. I may have one notion, you may 



15 



lisve another, and Jones in the street may have a third ; 
or, on the other band, Jones in the street might be simply 
astonished if lie were asked what he thoug^ht should he 
the object of punishment. " Object ? Why punUhmmt of 
course," he might say, "Wicked people must be 
punished." This vagueness, this want of agreement is, 
after all, extremely natural ; there is ao mudh confusion 
Tjetween theory and practice, that the mind is distracted 
from what should be, by what is. I 

Bentham, in his "Rationale of Punishment," puts iti 
that the main pui-poao of punishment should be the/ 
general prevention of crime, i.e., that the object oB 
punishment should be to prevent future crime in tha 
criminal and to prevent, or deter, others fi-om becomingV 
firiminals. It was Hohhes, I think, who added to that that ' 
there should he no other design in punishment than the 
correction of the nfiendor and the admonition of others. 
Other writers we find putting the same idea in different 
■words, and I think we may take it, that the generally 
received theory is, that the main purpose of punishment is 
"the security of society by the general prevention ot crime. 
I will go a step beyond this, and urge that the prevention 
■of crime should be not merely the main purpose but 
the only purpose of punishment. 



The Lkx Talionis. 
I once heard a gentleman, who spoke with the authority 
<if many years' experience of prisons and prisoners, put the 
objects of punishment as four, (1) judicial punishment, 
(2) deterrence of crime, (3) protection of society (4) the 
xeformation of the criminal. Now, such an enumeration 
ia more confusing than helpful, and, in fact, showed that, in 




spite of his experience, his mind wae Btill in a very vague 
and hazy condition on the subject upon which he was 
speaking. His four objects were not really four, but two ; 
ior the third, the "protection of society" is achieved when 
you have succeeded in the second and the fourth — "the 
deterrence of crime " and " the reformation of the 
criminal." In regard to "judicial punishment," if by 
that, is meant some penalty put upon the criminal other 
than that which is necessary to promote the security of 
society, then it must he in the nature of retaliation or 
revenge. And this is the point I have been leading up to, 
because it is just here that theory and practice clash. 
Enlightened theories of punishment disclaim the idea of 
revenge — punishment which is inere revenge is itself a 
crime. As a matter of practice, however, our penal 
system is not content with seeking only to deter, and to 
reform ; the old law of retaliation {lex ialioni») may be 
seen in its enactments and its administration every day. 
Unhappily, our efforts at reformation and deterrence have 
not so far resulted in any marked success, and there are 
writers like Farrer who argue that, as punjaliaifiat-ifl a 
complete failureTboflTas a refoimativc- and a. deterrent, we 
must Took upon it as an adjustment of iiatiirn.! y^^dintiva- 
neaa ; in other woi'ds, the regulatiou by so ciety of t he 
vengeance of individuals. I must admit that I cannot 
regard this as a veiy elevated idea of punishnient ; yet, at 
the same time, I am also bound to admit that it is in 
harmony with the actual state of things. It is, in fact, 
what u, instead of what thould l». 



Death as Puhishseent for Muedeb. 
We will now proceed to consider the propriety of deatk 



17 



— whether by the gallowa, aa in England ; the guillotine, 
aa in France ; or the axe, as in Scandinavia — an a punish- 
ment for murder. We can look at it from both the 
humane and the barbaric points of view. We can aak 
ouxaelves, is the execution of murderers necessary for 
the protection of aociety ? and we can also ask ouraelves, 
is the execution of murderers necessary to satisfy the 
natural vindictiveness of society? To each of these 
queBtions I ahall ejiiphfltically answer "no." 

In order to promote the security of society, a punish- 
ment should aim at working such a change in the criminal 
as wiU restrain him from committing further crimes, and 
it should also be of such a nature as will deter others from 
crime. Death certainly fulfils the first requisite in the 
most effective way, for at one and the same moment it 
removes from the criminal both tlie will and the power 
for further crime. But life imprisonmiint would be found 
an equally forcible restraint, if forcible restraint is all that 
should be aimed at. 

In regard to the second and more far-reaching quality 
of punishment — the deterrence of others — I think I can 
show that in thiR respect the death penalty has been a 
failure wherever and whenever it has been practised. 



rot) t-Xi 
no,, ikai 



EbSOLTS in ENOLAIfD. 

We will take our own country first. It is a matter o 
-common notoriety that when theft was a capital offence, I 
pockets were picked at the gallows' foot. In his address \ ^^J 
to the Middlesex Grand Jury in December, 1811, Mr. 
Maiuwaring (the chairman) plaintively remarked that "the 
sorerity of punishments ordained for particular crimes act« 
•vary feebly on the minds of hardened thieves," and later -'n . 



18 



he deplored that "tlie peaceful inhabitants of the grsat 
Metropolis cannot lie down to rest without the appre- 
hension that his house may be ransacked." This was at 
the time when to steal anything above the value of 408. 
from a dwelling house was a capital offence. 

Where death was the penalty for non-surrender or 
mcealment by a bankrupt, fraudulent bankruptcy and 
wncealment of property were of daily occurrence. When 

I death was the penalty for forgerc, the bankers of EngTaid 
petitioned PariJaTnent for Ihe repeal of the law,' o n the 
gn>und that a milder punishment exec'ited with neater 
certainty would prove more of a detertent than the death 
penalty with its uncertainty. 

But I will not dwell upon the non-deteiTent effect of 
capital puniehment in the years prior to 1840. You may- 
think, as I was told the other day, that those were lawless 
times — those times when our fathera were young. 

If we turn to the statistics of executions since 1840, we 

shall find that the number of persons executed during the 

t wenty j rara 1840-1859 averaged _ 10- 2 per ann um; 

■.the number executed during the tetj yf-^ isfin-jBRQ 

l-»veraggd_1.3'4 per annum; during the tmi yf^m iH7n- 

" 187_9^J^4^,;_ during the t«n years l880JBSa,-U-9. 

From tliPSQ figures, we see that there has been a steady 
rise in the number of executions in this countiy since 
1840; not an unnatural rise in view of the increase in. 
population, but there should be no rise at all, if the fear 
of the gallows has the deterrent effect claimed for it. 

But it may occur to someone to think he can account for 

this increase, by urging that the proportion of executions 

to sentences is greater now than it was formerly, that the 

law is enforced with greater stringency than heretofore. 

I This argument will not bear investigation, however, tor. 



19 

although it is quite true that the proportion is greater to- 
day of executions to sentences for all offences, in respect of 
murder the difference is not very great, and such differ- 
ence as there is, is in favor of increased lenienoy. Still 
keeping within the past sixty years, we find that the pro- 
portion of executions to sentences for murder in the 
twenty-five years, 1840-1864, was 58*2 per cent., and in 
the tweniy-five years, 1865-1889, it was 52*9 per cent. 

These figures, if they have any value at all, strengthen 
the view that there is no decrease whatever in that class of 
miurder which ultimately receives the legal penalty in 
spite of all possibilities of escape. 

As far then as our own country is concerned, statistics- 
show that the fear of a disgraceful death by the hangman's 
cord did not prove a deterrent when there were a couple 
hundred capital offences on the statute book, and it does- 
not prove a deterrent now that there is only one. 

In other European Countries. 

Let us next inquire into the deterrent effect of capital 
punishment in some of the other countries of Europe. 

Italy, Roumania, Portugal. Holland and certain of the- 

Swiss Cantons have e ntirely a bolished the death penalty. 

In Italy it was aboli^ed by law in 1889, tut there have 

been no executions j^UQce. 18,7jl. Italy is a country where, 

\ /for some reason, homicidal crimes are very frequent, but 

'^^■"a43Cording to official reports, so far from there being an 

>:^.* increase of serious crime since 1874, theifi^.haa been a- 

f§^^ • diminution. 

%y In Portugal the last execution took place in 1846, and in 
1867 capital punishment was abolished by an almost 
unanimoiiirvoie. ItTs'slalEed l£iA fhere has,be$n a di- 



iJjy death. ^^% 
ished in 1870. I 



imnution since 1867 in the nmnbei of crimeB 
b gforetlia f peiTofTwoUdliaTe been piininlied b 

In Holland the dniith penalty was abolis hed in 187 0. 
The number of serious crimes is said to be_in_no way 
augmented since that time, and public security is com- 
pletely assured under the present system. 

In the Swiss Cantons the subject of capital punishment 
lias been made a party f[uestion, and the matter was 
settled in 1879 by the penalty being retained in some 
Cantons and abolished in others ; hut in the eight Can- 
tons which retain it there were between 1879 and 1891 
only thi-ee condemnationa to death, all of which were 
oommuted.' 

In Bfiumania the death punishment was abolished in 
Iggfi^but in tKat~countiy, I am informe d, through t he 
kindness of Mr. Tallack, the ci'ime of tou rder has shown a 
tendency to increase. This however may be, and almost 
irtainly is, due to causes entirely unconnected with the 
nature of the punishment. 

There are countries in which death is still the legal 
penalty, but where it is rarely carried out ; such for 
instance as Finland, where the law has bee 

Loe 1826 ; Belgium, wliere it has T)e en _e 




1 869 : and Norway, where there h as been no ex ecution 

1876. In none of these countries has any increase 

I of inu^dei^ been recorded! Then there are 

r countries, sucli as France, Germany, A ustria 

A'^^Jand Spain, where executions are more or lees frequent; 
J^^tjjhui these countries cannot, on that ac count, TjO aaiTany 
JJIX^MJUil special diminution in homicidal crime. Murder has not 
been a capital offence in Russia for more than a hundred 

' I un lold that dera have lieen eieontions since thai date. 




21 

yeare, yet the crime is not more frequent there than in 
other countries. 

England, by the retention of the death penalty seems to 
claim for herself a lower moral standard than that of those 
oountries who have abolished it. While they find im- 
priaoninent answer every purpose, she uses the threat of 
the hangman's cord in order to restrain the murderous 
propenaitiea of her sons. 



Unobrtaintt, 

Having shown, as I think I have, that the death, 
penalty does not deter either in England or abroad, we 
will now proceed to inquire into the causes of its failure. 

It is commonly laid down that for a punishment to be 
effeotiTe (i) it should promptly follow the offence ; (ii) it 
should be certain ; (iii) it should be proportional to the 
erune ; (iv) it should not be esceHsive. 

(i) We need not discuss this, as capital punishment 
foUowB neither more nor less promptly than any other. 

(ii) That an allotted punishment should follow its crime 
as certainly as the day the night, ia a principle generally 
rec ogniz ed b>" all writers on penology throughout the 
civilized world, and as generally neglected in practice. 
In the first place there is an uncertainty which is unavoid- 
able ; many trimes are committed for which the criminala 
are never apprehended, and there are undoubtedly many 
crimes committed of which we remain in entire iterance, 
perhaps for. ever, or perhaps until some chance reveaU 
them after many years. But, apart from these last, an 
enormously large proportion of recorded crimes goes un- 
ptmished. Gordon Hylauds puts it in this country at 3;1, 
oilier writers pat it still higher; but taking Gordon 



23 



BylandB* aa a fair eatimate, tlie criminal has three chances 
of escape to one of being punished. It this is true tor the 
average criminal, the chances for the murderer to escape 
the death penalty are still greater. It has already been 
pointed out that tlie number of sentencea is always greatly 
in excess of the number of executions. Betveen 1863 and 
1889 there were in this country 1,785 persons charged 
with murder; of these 713, or less than one half, were 
sentenced; and 386, or less than one fourth, were executed. 
If we take the single year of 1892, in that year 156 
murders were reported to the police. Fifty persons were 
tried for murder, twenty-two were sentenced and eighteen 
were executed. If we average one person to one murder, 
ttiis means that more than seven out of eight murderers 
escaped the legal penalty, and six out of seveu escaped 
punishment altogether. We see, then, that not only ia 
there a large number of criminals who escape conviction, 
but there is a still larger number who escape the legal 
punishment. This is especially so if the criminal happens 
to be a woman ; in the case, for instance, of a pregnant 
woman, the execution ia postponed until after the birth, 
hut as a matter of practice the sentence ia never earned 
out. 

What is true of England as to the uncertainty uf the 
death punishment, is true in even a more marked degree 
in the other countries using this penalty. In some 
countries not only is there a large proportion of sentences 
commuted, hut there is also, as in France, a strong disin- 
<;lination in juries to find a verdict of guilty in murder 
cases. This disinclination is also growing in Scotland t« 
such a degret', that the meaning of " culpable homicide " 
—the equivalent to our "manslaughter" — is now so 
fltrained that it ia aometimes difficult to aee in what respeot 



it differs from "murder." In the five years 1891-96 only 
lour persone were sentenced to death in Scotland ; that is 
to say, one in 1891, three in 1692, and none in the thre« 
remaining years. The same disinclination is seen in 
England in the one particular case, at least, of illegitimate 
infanticide. Here the juriea and aU. concerned are so 
■convinced of the frightful injuBtioe of death as a suitable 
penalty for the offence of the miserable girl — for, un- 
happily, the criminal too often is a girl^that they evade 
the law, and ease their conscienceB, by trying her, not for 
murder, but for concealment of birth, an offence which is 
•expiated by a term of imprieonment. From all this we 
observe that, if certainty be a necessary quality of punish- 
ment, it ia absent from the whole of our penalties, and 
irom the death penalty more than any other. 



PCKISHMBST J 



I OFFEIfCB. 



(iii) It is urged that punishments should he propor- 
"tional to the crime. To me, it seems altogether an 
impossibility to nicely proportion punishments so as to 
meet every degree of criminality ; but as we are not 
concerned with the general punishments the question we 
have to consider ia a comparatively simple one. Is 
hanging a punishment proportional to the crime of 
murder? Consider the cases of Fowter and Millsom, 
Iiung for the crime of murdering an old gentleman ; of 
Neill CreEim, hung for enticing and poisoning ignorant 
girlB; of Deeming, hung for murdering an inoffensive wife 
and children in Englaad, having already disposed of 
anotier wife and children elsewhere. In the case of such 
criminals, I cannot regard the three weeks' agony (to put it 
At its longest and its worst) endured in anticipation of the 



24 



bangman'e cord &8 at all proportionate to their ofienoea ; 
norwill the taking of one man's life inanywaycompenaatft 
for the taking of another's. On the other hand, there 3r& 
other cases where the disproportion is just aa extreme in 
the other direction^ — such, for instance, as that of the Man- 
chester Martyrs, where three guod lives paid for one. 

(iv) Lastly, it is justly urged that puniahment should 
not be excessire. How shall we form a judgment ^n thi» 
point? What guide shall we take? Beccaria says "The 
limit which a legislator should affix to the severity of 
penalties appears to lie in the first sigue of compassion 
liecoming uppermost in the minds of the spectators." If 
we take this as a tt'f indicator, then surely capital 
punishment mufit at once stand condemned as excessive. 
In almost every case, after a death eentenoe is passed, a 
feeling of compassion hegina to leaven in the mind of the 
public ; the inii^uity of the crime is lost sight of in pity for 
the criminal, and petitions are got up, signed by thousands 
of persons, praying the Home Secretary to re-try the case 
in his studj', and find the prisoner less guilty than he was 
found in open court. Not only is the public moved to- 
compaasiou, but it is not infrequent to read in reports of 
murder cases that the judge and other officials of the 
oourt were " visibly afiected." H, then, the awakening of 
feelings of compassion for the criminal be regarded as a 
test of tiie undue severity of a punishment, then the 
gallows is undeniably too severe. 



Less Severe thah Life iMFBisoTmEiT, 
Yet I shall argue — somewhat paradoxically it may seem. 
— that, although hanging is thus to be condemned as 
too severe, yet vevy often— looked at relatively — it is 



not severe enough. The whole puniBhineiit ie com- 
pressed into three weeks ; the three weeks of antici- 
pation, and a cooHiderable portion of that time will be 
ahsorbed in the hope of remission, The agony of 
.awaiting a shameful death may be great, but it ie 
short ; and a great pain for a short time is much nini-e 
easily borne than a less pain extending over a longer 
period. Death in respect of severity atands far below life 
imprisonment. To quote Bentham once more, if death 
deprives of all pleasures, it equally deprives of all pains. 
How many a man intentionally risks his own life! 
Often, it is true, he risks it for a great purpose, or driven 
by the need of earning a livelihood ; but often also, for a 
trivial purpose, to satisfy a mere passing fancy. How 
many a man, not merely risks his life, but voluntarily 
seeks death ! How many more, with more or leas sincerity, 
wish for death to put an end to their woea and sufferings ! 
But I never yet heard of the man who wished for life 
imprisonment, nor can I conceive of the possibility of 
fluch a wish. The daily endurance of the unutterable 
monotony, the servitude, the hardships of prison life ; the 
daily anticipation of hardships to come ; the daily regret 
for past pleasures ; must surely outweigh the short agony 
«ndured in the anticipation of death. 

Therefore I should urge that the death penalty is at 
once too severe in appearance, inasmuch as it provokes 
ftompassion, and not sufficiently severe in fact, inasmuch as, 
■while we let the lesser criminal go on and suffer his daily 
round of pain, we step in and cut off all that would 
accompany the life of the greater criminal in confinement. 
Even the pain of disgrace is left to be home by hia kindred. 




;t I will I 



Not Exuibsibli. 
But outside and beyond all this, there are 
nient« against capital puoishmeiit which were good when 
Bentham wi'ute them, are good to-day, and from their 
very nature will be good for all time. Were they all th at 
could be said against it, to me they would be conclusive. 
The arguments are not of equal importance, but I will 
take them together. Fii-st, the_deattL-pfiaaltjLi8 jet 
I mjgsible; and n est, J^jiestvojs one source of ti 
j proof. Ab Fagin says in " Oliver Twist " ; — 

" What a fine thing capital punishment U ! Dead 
repent. Dead men never bring awkward stories to light. Oh ! 
it's a fine thing for the trade ! Vive of 'em strung up in a row 
and none left to play booty, or turn white-livered." 

Tliat human judgment is fallible is a simple truism; 
and there are many well -authenticated cases of the- 
fiinviction of innocent persona. If these persons are 
alive, the injury of a wrongful conviction can be to 
some extent I'epaired ; if they are dead, the wrong done- 
them ia wholly irreparable. The case of the young 
man Habron will be known to most of you ; the juilge 
and jury were perfectly satisfied that the evidence proved 
him guilty of murder. He had friends, however, and 
moat energetic efforts were made to obtain a eonunutation. 
of his sentence. These efiorta were successful, and then, 
after he had passed three years in prison, happily for him. 
Peace confessed to the murder. If private individunU. 
had not interposed and the law had been allowed to talc» 
ita course, Peace's confession would have 
There is also the case of Jonathan Bradford, who 
executed, but was afterwards proved innocent. 

Is 1893, as many as seven persons were granted a 



i 



ar 



pardon on grounds afEecting their original conviction— t.*., 
that fresh evidence waa forthcoming, which either estab- 
lished their innocence, or afforded reasonable doubt of 
their guilt. These were not murder cases, but judges and 
juries are no more infallible when they are trying men 
on a capital charge, than they are when trying them for 
burglary. 

I>r. Faley thought that innocent people who were 
executed in this way ought to be considered as victims to 
the system necessary to secure the safety of the com- 
munity;' but I can hardly imagine that this thought 
would carry much oonsolatiun to the relations of the 

So far, then, I have argued that capital punishment fails 
to justify ita position as the estrerae penalty of the law, on 
the grtumd that it is not deterrent ; that it is not certain j 
th&t it is Beldom proportionate to the offence, being some- 
times too mild and at other times excessive ; that it is 
too severe in appearance and— looked at in relation to 
other punishments — not sufficiently so in reality ; and, 
finally, that it is not remissible. 



Ake MuiiUEREBs THE Worst of Criminals? 
But we must look at this question in still another light. 
In this country wo award death as the penalty for murder; 
but are murderers just the people who, beyond all others, 
should suffer the exlreme penalty of the law? In a very 
laii^ number of cases, murderers are not the worst ot 
criuiinals. Often the fatal blow is struck in some moment 



' "Hs who (&I1b by a miBtaken gentenoe may be oootiiilered aa 
falUogforluB Donntrj-" ("Moral and Politioal PhiloBophy," oh. ii). 



of passion, or is the outcome of pasaion, and is not the 

vork of the recidiriat, of that class of men of clearly 
marked crimitial tendencies, called by Eume writers in- 
stinctive crimiiittls. Often, too, what a hair's-breadth differ- 
ence of force or direction divides the mere assault from 
murder — but what a difference in the penalty. A para- 
graph I saw some time ago in a daily paper gives 
a case in point. A yoimg man, Arthur Branson, 
was chained with brutal cruelty to his child. He 
had flung the baby at its mother and broken its 
thigh ; he had so beaten the little thing that its body 
was badly bruised and its eyes blatkened. The child was 
only eight moatha old. The prisoner was sentenced to 
two month's Lmjirisonment. Had the blow struck the 
child in a vital part the sentence would have been death ; 
as it was, despite the murderous intent, two month's im- 
prisonment was cjmsidered a punishment proportionate to 
the offence. 

Murder is often the result of gi' eat p i-o vocation , but 
the legal penalty is always death. Again, take the 
<;a8e of two persons who agree to commit suicidci 
together; one dies, the other survives — is brought back 
to life, perhaps with great difficulty, and being brought 
back to life is liable to be tried, and put to daath for the 
murder of his companion. If both die they are " tem- 
porarily insane ; " if one survives, he is a criminal. 
I Prince Kropotkin, writing of Eastern Siberia, whither 
Jmurderere are deported after having completed their term 
id imprisonment, says that there is scarcely another 
I country in the world where you oould travel or stay with 
greater security. 

As a matter of fact it is necessary that we should revise 
our opinions, and cease to look upon murderers as the 






"vileet class of criminitla, and a 
severe punishment. 



euch, deserving of the most 



The Aroumbnt of Economt, 

Iiot UB turn for a moment to the arguments in favor of 
Ihe retention of the death penalty. 

First, that it ia a deterrent. I have already shown by 
iacts and figures fhtiE this is a fallacious idea, and will 
therefore not further labor the point. 

Next, that it i s economica l. The roadieat objection of 
"the average Englishman to any reform comes from the 
pocket. He is a curious person, this average Englishman, 
Jie does not mind spending four or five millions on such a 
piece of stupendous folly as the fortification of London, he 
does not mind spending thousands on the preservation of 
homicidal lunatics, but he "must draw the line some- 
■wiere," and he draws it here. Anyone might think that 
this particular reform involved a tremendous outlay ; an 
outlay which might be indulged in by wealthy counbies 
fluch as Italy, Portugal, Holland, Finland and Switzerland, 
but which is altogether beyond the means of poverty- 
atricten England. As a matter of fact it would involve an 
-additional espenditure of £300 or £400 per annum. The 
«ostof an ordinary criminal is about £25 § jear — much less 
than the cost of a criminal lunatic — multiply this by 
£fteen and we get a total of £375 ; a sum which may be 
iarther reduced by deducting the hangman's salary. 

Mr. Jufitioe Stephen was in favor not only of the reten- 
tion of capital puniBhment, but of its extension. What, 
Jie asked, is the use of keeping a wretch alive at the 
public expense ? But to carry this argument to its logical 
conclusion you must conduct the criminal lunatic and the 



liabitual thief to the lethal chamber side by side with th& 
murderer. I will not aay that this would not be a. more 
merciful fate than a sucuesaion of sentences of imprison- 
ment, going right through a man's U£e, from the early 
years of his boyhood until hie old age. I will not say 
that it would not be wiser in the interests of the com- 
munity generally. But such a course would probably 
involve some hundreds of executions yearly, and that I 
take leave to say ia an idea which ia difficult to contem- 
plate with equanimity. 



ThK ALTERNAXrVE PUSISHMBMT. 

I may be asked, If the death penalty is abolished what 
ihould be the alternative punishment in cases of murder? 

Ithuik that a term of imprisonment long er or shorte r 
according to the degree of triminality would be su fficient. 
Henry Eoniilly urges an unalterable life sentence, but 
under our present system 1 would not wish perpetual 
imprisonment to anyone. And, in spite of all our failures 
BO far, I should be very sorry to see the law itself shut 
the door on all chances of reforming the criminal ; and 
without hope of liberty, there can be little real reform. 

At some time, in the not too distant future, I am hoping- 
to see an experiment tried in this country of indeterminate- 
sentences for first offenders; this would probably include — 
at the very lowest estimate — one-half the murderers. 
This, however, is only a hope for the future: for the 
present the penalty I would assign to murderers would be 
imprisonment for a term in the discretion of the judge. 
This alternative is not without objection from the humane- 
point of view, but it is a thousand times better than 
execution or perpetual imprisonment. 



» 



If it ahould be oouBidered impoe«ible to persuade that 
House of Compromise, commonly known as the House of 
Commons, to agree to eo downriglit a measure as th.e total 
abolition of the death penalty— thus giving fo England, in 
common with those otlier countries I have mentioned, a 
bloodless code of laws — still it might perhaps he not so 
difficult to persuade the House to suapeud the operation of 
the penalty for a given period. Such a course would put 
it to the proof, whether wonld-be murderers are so much 
more numerous and so much more desperate in England 
than they are in other lands, that they can only bo 
restrained from laying violent hands upon their fellowmen 
by fear of the gallows. 




A Deobadisb Pvnishmemt. 

From the discussion of capital piiniBhment, one naturally 
turns to the (itioBtidu of flogging, the only other form of 
■cor]ioral punishment now practised in England. Many ol 
the arguments against the use of the gallows are equally 
sound against the use of the lash. Both ara brutal 
punishments, legacies from a barbaric age, which seek to 
intimidate the criminal from further crime rather than to 
work any real reform in his moral nature. In both cases 
the State hires an official to do that within the prison gates 
"which, if done by the individual outside, would be a crime 
punishable by the utmost rigor of the law. 

In England a man convieted of garotling or of robbery 
with violence may be sentenced to so many lashes with the 
cat. Flogging is also a prison punishment; that is, a 
punishraeut which may be ordered by the prison autho- 
rities to be inflicted upon a prisoner for some violation of 
the prison regulations. 

Whac flogging is like in prisons may be learned from 
a description, written by Mr. Owen Pike, a barrister of 
Lincoln's Inn, of a case be witnessed in Newgate thirty or 
more years ago, but which is a perfectly fair description of 
a flogging to be seen in any of our prisons to-day. 

" The prisoner," says Mr. Pike, " is fastened to a triangle 
so that he uan move neither hand nor foot. His back is bare. 
The man who wields the lash shakes out its nine thongH, nusea 
it aloft with both hands and deab the oriminal the first blow 



33 

across the shoulders. A red streak appears on the white skin.^ 
A^^ain the thongs are shaken out, again the hands rise, 
again the whips are brought down with full force, and the- 
streak on the skin grows redder and broader. A turnkey 
gives out the number as each stroke falls; and the silence 
is broken only by his voice, by the descent of each 
successive blow and by the cries and groans of the sufferer. 
.... [But] the man who has been guilty of the most 
atrocious cruelty will do his best to conceal the smart which he 
is made to feel himself ; and if any sound is heard at all it 
proceeds from an involuntary action of his vocal organs which 
he strives his utmost to check. After twenty lashes he will 
retain a look of defiance, though almost fainting and barely^ 
aiUe to walk to his cell. 

" Any one who has witnessed such a scene may be permitted to 
aak to what good end it is enacted; anyone who has not 
witnessed it can hardly be competent to judge its good or ill. 
effects.'' 

To this Mr. Pike adds these significant words : 

"It is far from an agreeable task to watch the face and. 
figure of the flogger as he executes his sentence." 

It is a point that should not be lost sight of, that the use of 
the lash as a punishment is irredeemably debasing to all 
who have to take part in it; to him who receives it, to him 
who administers it, and to those whose unfortunate duty 
compels them to witness it. I am told that it is an 
absurdity to talk of ^' degrading " the criminal, that he is 
past that, he is already so degraded. If that unfortunately 
be true in some cases, it is not true in all. And the worst 
of it is, that you cannot possibly coniGbEie the degradation of 
flogging to the criminal ; besides the one who is flogged, 
there is also the one who flogs, the one who stands by to see it. 
done, the one who orders the flogging, and, beyond all that, 
there is society who approves it. The whole moral tone- 
of the community is lowered by violent punishments.. 



How nauseating the sight in, was testified at the lueetin^ 
of the International Penitentiary CongresB, 1872, by a 
governor' of one of our English prieous, who, obliged to be 
present whenever corpoTal pnniehment was adiiiinist«red. 
in his jail, wnfeaaed that the sight always made him ilL 
But, for all that, he was so accustomed to rely upon it that 
he could not believe that discipline could be maintained in 
the prison without the aid of this sickemng punishment. 

Dobs it Refoem? 

Let ua proceed to put tlie test questions in regard to the 
lash that we have done previously in regard to the gallows. 
Is the punishment of flogging necessary for the protection 
of society? That is to eay, (i) does it reform the criminalP 
(ii) does it deter others from crime ? 

(i) At the International Penitentiary Congress, Sir E. 
Du Cane defended the use of the cat as a prison punish- 
ment, on the ground that it would be impossible to 
preserve discipline without the fear of it. He defended 
it as a general punishment by urging that " when crimi- 
nals abstained from the use of their fists or of deadly 
weapons, flogging might be remittod, but till then it 
could not ba given up. Moreover, he had known prison^v 
acknowledge that hut for flogging they would not have 
become tractable and reformed characters," Sir Sdmund 
Du Cane's argument is more curious than convincing. 
Save in the two instances of capital and corporal punish- 
ment, the nature of the penally is never made to coincide 
with the nature of the oflence ; the judge does not order 
the burglar to be robbed, nor the swindler to be cheat«d. 

Major Pnlford, for 33 ye&n Oovemor of SUflbrd jail. 



85 

Tiar false money to be passed on the ooiner ! Why then 
flhould yiolent men be punished by yiolenoe ? The confi- 
dence shown in the ''tractable and refonned" characters of 
"the prisoners, who could ascribe this change in their dis- 
position to the application of the cat-o' -nine-tails to their 
backs, was worthy of a better cause. Such an acknow- 
ledgment has too strong a savor of hypocrisy to 
altogether commend itself to the unprejudiced mind. 

At this same Congress Mr. Clarke Aspinall, of liver- 
pool, said that wife and woman beaters deserve the lash 
Euid in the majority of cases no other punishment has any 
^ect. This argument addresses itself in the first place to 
the spirit of vengeance. When anyone says that this or 
ibat criminal deserves to be hung, or to be flogged, they do 
not mean that flogging is a punishment calculated to deter 
him and others from crime, but that they would inflict 
pain on him in retaliation for the. pain he has inflicted 
upon others. With the second part of the argument we 
need not concern ourselves, as wife-beating is not punish- 
4ible by the lash.^ 



A Question op Govebnobs. 

Mr. Shepherd, for forty years governor of Wakefield 
-prison, which had an average of 1,000 inmates, stated 
that for thirty years no corporal punishment was inflicted 
in that prison. He advocated total remission, and his 



' ' AUlioiigh a judge may not sentence the wife-beater to corporal 
pnniflhnieitt, he may so sentence a man who has forged the seal or 
propeae ol the County Court, or a man who has solemnised a marriage 
without a licence or in an unregistered building. That ** the law is 
« haas" evetjane knows, but such leg^islation goes beyond even 
quinine stupidity. 



experiance was that nearly every prisoner who had been 
flogged returned to gaol again. Mr. F. Hill's experience 
confirmed Mr. Shepherd's as to the needlessneas of flog- 
ging as a prison punishment, and remarked that thetQ 
could not be a better conducted prison than Wakefield. 
Comparing this conflicting evidencre as to the need of the 
fear of the lash to maintain discipline in prisons, one is 
bound to arrive at the conclusion that it ia all a question 
of governors and government. Some governors preserve 
discipline admirably by means of the luaviUr in moito ; 
others, having only tried the forliter in rt, imagine they 
can not get on without it. The last look only to the 
immediate visible consequences of the punishment they 
administer, and do not consider the hardening offect it 
must neceraarily have upon the prisoner's character. 



LOKD NoTtTON. 

(ii)WhatiB the evidence that the fearof corporal puj 



^ 



ment acts as a deterrent? A vague and rambling article- 
by Lord Norton, published in the Priiotu' Strvic* Esview 
for February, 1697, probably represents the view of tho 
"average Englishman" on this matter, I will pass 
here so much of it as refers to the whipping of 
juveniles, for although I am against that as heartily as I 
am against the flogging of adults, it is nevertheless a 
problem which needs to be looked at from a different 
point of view. In the case of juveniles it is a choice of 
evils that ia offered ua, the stigma of the prison or the 
degradation of the birch ; in the case of adults it is not a 
choice of one or the other, flogging is a punishment 
additional to imprisonment. Lord Norton says : 

" For those of more reaponaible a^, guilty of higher crimei 




trDa motiveB of Tiolent pasdon, tove of doing mischief, or 
ptojient desira for notoriety, we have recent full experience of 
the lash's efficacy in the way of counter-motive, 
the annual ehootingB at the Queen ; it arreated frequent 
OMwgeB to works of art in the National MuBeums, it saved old 
S^ntlemen from being garotted for their watches; and it 
'"'ght have ignomiuioualy extingnished the heroiam of the 
dpamitardB." 

IJord Norton makes several Btatemeats in the short 
paragraph I have quoted, but he does not refer to a single 
™t or a single figure in support of them. Periodic 
"•Wtings at the Queen, and frequent injury to works of 
*rt. oould only be the work of persons who were more or leas 
""Wne, and I do not believe that there is a single lunatio 
saylum to-day in which the responsible physician would 
•"dar the patients to be flogged. Disordered brains 
cannot be whipped into order. 



The Gabottinq Fallaot. 
"1 regard to the garotting fallacy, it always strikes me 
•■ curious tliat those who believe that flogging stopped 
8*wtliiig never pause to wonder why garottera as a claos 
•tionJi have been specially amenable to this particular 
""ni ol punishment. As a matter of fact, garotting was a 
*"*' of robbery practised almost entirely by a pai-tioular 
8*Dg whose operations were carried on chiefly in the 
''^bwpolis in the Autumn of 1862. When the gang of 
'^'Dinals was captured, the crime disappeared. In 
November, 1862, twenty-seven persons were indicted for 
B'^'tling at the Criminal Court, and of these twenty-ona 
**« oon-ricted and punished. In the following January 
"■^Becorder congratulated the jury on the cessation of 
F*Wting, and in July, 1863, that is to say, seyeral months 



^ 



after the suppiesdon of garottiag, a Flogging BUI waa intro- 
duced into the Honee of Parliament. The late Mr. T. B. IiL 
Baker a few years after Btated, as though a matter iritliiD 
his knowledge, that the police were instructed to go rotind 
to the tieket-of-leaTe men known to be in London and 
inform them that if the garotte continued their tjcketa-of- 
leave would be cancelled. This, he said, put a sudden 
Btop to garotttng eave for an oeoadonal attempt by 



FAtrra AND FiomtBB : The Ubttbd Kjfodom. 

Lord Norton gave neither facts, nor figures, in support of 
liis contention that flogging deterred from crime ; it is un- 
fortunately only too easy for me to quote both to prove 
that it is not a deterrent. 

Since 1890 there has been steady increase in the num.ber 
of persons sentenced to corporal punishment ; the use of 
the lash had been preyiously falling out of favor, 
although there had been jndges, such, for instance, as the 
late Mr. Justice Stephen, who not only approved of 
flogging but thought it should be made more severe. 

The number of adults sentenced to be fiogged in 1890, 
was nine; in 1891, seventeen; in 1892, eighteen; in 1898, 
forty-six; and in 1894, sixty-five. 

Between 1677 and 1894, 418 persons were sentenced to 
be flogged, of these two only were punished for gatotting, 
the remaining 416 were sentenced for rotbeiy. Side by 
side with this increase of brutal punishment is a decided 
and undeniable increase in serious crime, a faot whioh 



89 

'anyone can renty for himself by referring to tlie judicial 
statiBtios. 

This, then, is how the case stands for England: the value 
-of corporal punishment as a deterrent is based on mere 
Tague assertion alone ; a careful investigation of the facts 
proves that it is no deterrent whatever. 

In Scotland, corporal punishment is not used. In Ireland, 
it is legal, but rarely employed. 

Eaots and Fioubes : CoNTINENTAIi OoUlTTItlES. 

Let us next turn to the records of other European 
«oimtrieB, and see if we can leam anydiing from them. 

Atjstbia. — The lash was abolished in 1866, '^ experience 
having shown that it was demoralising," as Dr. Frey (the 
■Government Bepresentative) told the Penitentiary Con- 
gress of 1872. 

Bavabia. — Corporal punishment abolished. Dr. Mar- 
-qiiardsen (Qovemment Bepresentative) stated to the 
Oongress that discipline had been fully maintained 
without it, and no prison authority desired the revival of 
ihe practice. 

Bblgium. — ^No kind of corporal punishment; it is ex- 
pressly forbidden in prisons. 

Fraitoe. — ^No corporal punishment. 

Geemabty.— Corporal punishment is used as a prison 
punishment, but does not form part of the penal law. 

HoLLAWD. — No corporal punishment. Flogging also 
prohibited in the schools. 

Italy. — ^No corporal punishment since 1863. 

BxrssiA. — ^Used as a prison punishment, but is not part 
of the penal law. 



40 

SoAFDiNATiA. — ^TTsed as a prison pxmifiliment, but is not 
part of tlie penal law. 

At the International Penitentiary Congress, Mr. M. S» 
Pols, the Gk>yemment Bepresentative from the Hague, 
spoke eloquently and convincingly against flogging as a 
punishment. '' This was not a sentimental question," he- 
said; '4t concerned the true interests of society and the 
state. It was not out of sympathy with ruffians, but it was 
out of sympathy with honest people that he urged the total 
abolition of corporal pimishment. It was his conviction 
that it was whoUy inefficient as a means of social defence ; 
that it engendered cruelty; and that it was far moro 
injurious and degrading to sodeiy, which imposed it, than 

it was to the criminal who suffered it The popular 

feeling which called for the infliction of corporal punish- 
ment, stripped of all well-sounding phrases, was based on 
these grounds — ^horror of crime, fear of its repetition, 
revenge and the wish ^ to strike terror into others-Hsenti- 
ments which no one dares proclaim as the basis of penal 
law." Mr. Pols told how flogging, although not formally 
abolished in the army, yet had not been resorted to for f oriy 
years, and its cessation had been followed by a decrease 
of insubordination. Since the prohibition of flogging in 
the prisons there had been a sensible diminution of disci- 
plinary prosecutions. Finally M. Pok asked were the 
ruffians in Holland ^Uess hardened and less dangerous 
than those of London? Did the latter alone require 
corporal punishment to keep them down ? " 

OONGLXrSIOB'. 

The result of our investigations into the practice of 
other countries shows us conclusively that flogging is an 




41 



absolutely loimecesBary punishment. Garotting is onknOT 
in Ireland; in Scotland priBon discipline is maictaiaedwitli- 
out the lash. The Dutch do not require the fear of phy^oal 
pain to restrain them from annual shootings at their Queen, 
taiA in Borne works of art do not require to be protected by 
the cat-o'-nine tails. It is only in England, in happy 
England, in the land of a Free Press and a Free Platform, 
that the oriminal classes are eo desperate that they must 
needs be driven by the fear of the vhip and the fear of 
the hangman's cord, and the non -criminal classes are bo 
apathetic that they do not feel that the isolated pomtion 
occupied by their native country, in regard to brutal 
punishments is a disgrace to their oommon humanity. 



^^^^^^^B ^^^^^^1 


APPENDIX L ^^^^^^ 






year from 1840 to 1894 iaclndTe: with aveiage of the numb^^^^H 


for each 10 yeara. '^^^^t 


Seatenoed 




for Eie- 


for Ei8-' 1 


Yeu. Murder, ontod. 


Tear. Murder, ontad. 1 


1840 


. ... 18 9 


1860 




16 13 


1641 


20 10' 


ISSl 




86 15- J 


1842 


. .. 16 9 


1862 




28 15 1 


1843 


. „ 22 13 


1S63 




23 ^^M 


1844 


. .. 31 16 


1864 




19 ^^M 


1843 


. .. 19 13 


1865 




7 ^^M 


1846 


13 6 


1866 




12 ^^M 


1847 


. .. 19 8 


18ST 




10 ^^M 


1848 


33 12 


1868 




13 ^^M 


1849 


. .. 19 Ifi 


1869 




10 ^^M 


AVUBAGSFOB 


AVBEAOEPOE ~^^H 


10 Ykasb 19-0 11-0 


10 Tears 24-3 14-4 ^^^ 


1850 .. .. 11 6 


1870 .... 15 « 


1851 


. .. 16 10' 


1871 




13 4 a 


18S2 


16 9 


1872 




Ifi ^^H 


1853 


. .. 17 8 


1873 




11 ^^H 


1854 . 


. .. 11 6 


1874 




26 16 ^^M 


185S . 


. .. 11 7 


1873 




IS ^^M 


1896 . 


31 16 


1876 




32 ^^M 


1857 


. .. 20 13 


1877 




S4 22 ^^M 


1858 . 


16 11 


1878 




Ifi ^^M 


1869 . 


18 9 


1879 - 




34 16 ^^H 


1 AVBRAGE FOB 


AVERAOBPOB 1 


1 lOYKAlta IS-7 9-4 


IOYkabb 25-6 14-6 " 


1 ■ One person eieonted for some other offence than minder. ^^^B 



48 





Sentenoed 






for 


EX6- 


Year. 


Mnzder. 


oated. 


1880 .. . 


28 


13 


1881 .. . 


23 


11 


. 1882 .. , 


22 


12 


» 1883 .. , 


23 


13 


1884 .. . 


38 


15 


1886 .. , 


25 


12 


1886 .. . 


35 


19 


1887 .. , 


35 


21 


1888 .. , 


36 


22 


1889 .. . 


20 


11 


AVKKAGE E 


OB • 




10 YSABfi 


1 28-5 


14-9 





Sentenoed 






for 


Eze- 


Year. 


Murder. 


oated. 


1890 .. 


24 


14 


1891 .. 


19 


12 


1892 .. 


22 


18 


1893 .. 


28 


15 


1894 .. 


29 


16 



>> 



• > 



»» 



The last exeontioii for Coining took place in 1828. 

„ Forgery „ „ „ 1829. 

,, Horse-stealing „ „ 1829. 

Sheep-stealing „ ,, 1831. 



>> 



99 



fi 



>> 



>» 



Bape 



>9 



>> 



1834. 



Attempt to Murder „ 1861. 



44 



APPENDIX n. 

The miinber of Adults sentenoed to be flogged In England 
from 1877 to 1894 : 



1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 



8 


1886 


18 


1887 


14 


1888 


8 


1889 


15 


1890 


18 


1891 


36 


1892 


23 


1893 


17 


1894 



26. 
36 
26 
24 
9 
17 
18 
46 
65 



Total number 418, of whom 2 were sentenced for garotting 
and 416 for robbery. 



THE SHADOW OF THE SWORD. 




THE SHADOW OF THE SWOED. 

The man-eatiiig mooBter of fiction is terrible enough to 
Tomantio jonng minds under the epell of the story-teller, 
but he is almoet genial and harmless in comparison with 
the real ogre of war. Oeseration after generation this 
frightful monster gorges himeelf on human flesh and blood, 
solacing his intervals of satiety with the wine of human 
tears. And every time he prepares for a fresh repast, h» 
demands a larger provision for his ravenous appetite. 
What struggles in previous hiatotr equalled in slaughter 
the contest between Korth and South in America, or tha 
later death-wrestle between France and Oermanj? Or how 
could the fiercest combats between ancient empires, even 
that of Home and Carthage, rival the fight between 
England and Bussia which only a few years ago we 
were encouraged to begin with a light heart? Such a 
struggle would have Mndled the Sames of war from 
^dla to the Baltic, and probably set all Europe in an 
nnparalleled blaze. Surely the Devil's cauldron was 
never before heated and stirred with such levity. A 
crowd of grinning apes playing with fire in a powder 
factory were not more grotesquely terrible. 

Awful as is the ogre's blood tax, his impositions 
between meals are even worse. In the palmy days of the 
Eoman Empire, less than four hundred thousand troops 




preserve the peace of the world ; and, if we 
eicept petty frontier tuaeles with barbariauB, they often 
did BO for thirty or forty yeara together. But Europe 
hoB now its staudiDg armies whose total is reckoned in 
millions, and the peace is broken three or four timea in 
half-a-century. Let it also be remembered that the 
Goman aoldier was a worker ae well as a fighter, helping 
to carry the practical civilisation of Home wherever her 
eagles floated. Our high roads, the arteries of pedes- 
triaa and vehicular circulation through England, were 
first made by the imperial legiona who iiaed the pick and 
the spade more frequently than the aword. But the 
armies of modem Europe are aU idlers. Their sole 
buainesB is destruction. In peace they consume withont 
producing, and in war they devour like the loouat and 
the caterpillar. They are not the lame, the blind, the 
maimed, and the imbecile, but the youug fiower of the 
male population, withdrawn from productive industry and 
the refining influence of domestic discipline, and supported 
by the labour of othera while they " learn the art of Vill'Tig 
men." We ahaU oonaider this economical aspect of the 
subject more fully presently ; meanwhile let us deal with 
the causea of war. 

"A background of wrath," saya Garlyle, "wMoh oan 
he stirred up to the murderous infernal pitch, does lie in 
every man, in every creature." True, and this fierce 
instinct may be held to account directly for the combata 
of animals, for primitive human fighting, for duels among 
" civilised " peoples, and for street fights and all personal 
brawla. But it accounts only indirectly for modem 
warfare. "Civilised wager of battle" is the game, not 
'Of peoplea, but, to use Eail Beaconafield's phrase, of 
" Bovereigna and statesmen ; " though sometimes, it mnat 



be oonf eased, the people are egged on by what ar& 
perhaps the vilest specimens of the human race — truculent 
jaomalists, who gain fame and profit by pandering ta 
the most disgusting hatreds. Oowper long ago remarked 
fhat war is a game which kings would not play at were 
their peoples wise. The fact is, our brute instincts, racial 
prejudices tind national vanities are systematically traded 
on by our rulers. Nothing is so cheap and easy as a 
'' foreign policy," as nothing is sahard as a domestic one ;. 
and nothing so diverts attention from difficult home affairs 
ae the simple expedient of a foreign broil. If declaring war 
lay with Parliament, the juggle would be more arduous. But 
it does not. The Qovemment hurries us into war before we 
can discuss its policy, and when the matter comes up for 
debate, not only have things gone too far for interference, 
but the question resolves into one of confidence in the 
ministry, instead of approval of the particular measure. 
By that time also the beast in us has tasted blood. The 
flavage thirst for morb is upon us. Illustrated papers and 
daily war correspondence familiarise us with slaughter, 
and the sane voice of the keepers of reason is drowned in 
the clamour of the wild beasts of pEussion, scenting carnage 
and carrion. 

Society is now too complex for the simple rules of 
interpretation which apply to primitive quarrels. The 
Grim^an war, for instance, was not fought because 
Englishmen and Bussians were animated by mutual 
hatred. Dynastic and political reasons, as usual, played 
the chief part in the prelude to that bloody drama. Had 
Louis Napoleon, after usurping the French throne, not 
required an alliance with some old European monarchy 
to rehabilitate his name and veil the fact of his being 
a parvenu emperor, the struggle of thirty years ago might 



never have commenced. Aa for Italy's share in the war, 
it is notorious that Cavour urged the King of Sardinia 
into action simply to gain a military reputation for the 
kingdom, as a firet step to the unification of the peninBula 
under a native sovereign ; and the AuBtro-Italian war 
naturally followed the success of theee tactics. Even 
before the Franco-German war, notwithstanding the cry 
of d Berlin raised by hired mouchardt in the strtiotB of 
Paris, it IB not true that every Frenchman waa yearning 
to grasp a German throat. The mass of the peasantry 
were criminally hoodwinked. They voted "Tea" for the 
Empire, thinking it meant Peace, and fancying, as they 
were told, that the Eepublioan opposition wished to drive 
the country into costly and periloos foreign adventures. 

Let xm go back still further, and we shall see evidences 
of the same truth. Eighty years ago Nelson told his 
seamen that they had but one duty — to love old England 
and hate every Frenchman like the devil. Buch a senti- 
ment was of course loudly aochumed, but it was after all 
a cultivated sentiment. When Fitt began operations 
against France he found it necessary to time the pulpit, 
I and bribe and intimidate the press in England. In due 
time his policy was successful. The people were grossly 
abused, and after a few years' fighting, when their blood 
was up, they were ready for anything in the shape of 
war. France merely stood to them as a synonym for 
enemy. They cursed and hated Frenchmen with the 
spirit of a bull rushing at a red cloak, the canning 
matador wbo flourished the scarlet having his own ends 
to serve through the creature's madness. 

We may consider it a fact that war is the game of 
" sovereigns and statesmen." Grimly and strongly, as is 
his wont, Carlyle has expounded the modem meaning of 





9 

in a &moxL8 passage in Sartor Resartus, Let us 
him: 

** What, speaking in quite unofficial language, is the net- 
^^^^ "^nport and upshot of war? To my own knowledge, for 
^^^Kunple, there dwell and toil, in the British village of 
^-^Onmdmdge, usually some five hundred souls. From these, by . 
' Natural Enemies ' of the Frenoh, there are successiyely 
Elected, during the French war, say thirty able-bodied men. 
-^fcOmndrudge, at her own expense, has suckled and nursed 
; she has, not without difficulty and sorrow, fed them up 
manhood, and even trained them to crafts, so that one can 
^^^eave, another build, another hammer, and the wea.kest can 
'^dtand under thirty stone avoirdupois. Nevertheless, amid 
^^nuch weeping and swearing, they are selected ; all dressed in 
'Sred; and shipped "away, at the public charges, some two 
"thousand miles, or say only to the south of Spain; and fed 
"there till wanted. And now to that same spot in the south of 
Spain are thirty similar French artisans, from a French 
Dumdrudge, in like manner wending; till at length, after 
infinite efibrt, the two parties come into actual juxtaposition ; 
and Thirty stands fronting Thirty, each with a gun in his 
hand. Straightway the word * Fire ! ' is given ; and they 
blow the souls out of one another ; and in place of sixty brisk 
usefnl oraltesmen, the world has sixty dead carcasses, which it 
must bury, and anew shed tears for. Had these men any 
•quarrel P Busy as the Devil is, not the smallest ; nay, in so 
wide a Universe, there was even, unconsciously, by commerce, 
some mutual helpfulness between them. How then ? Simple- 
ton I their Gk)vemors had fallen out ; and instead of shooting 
one another, had the cunning to ma.ke these poor blockheads 
«hoot." 

Oarlyle is right. That is the truth about modem war. 
Democracy has appeared on the scene of politics, but it 
has not folly assumed its rdU, The drama is still played 
by the old aotors of the upper classes, and will be so, 
untfl the new oompany is properly formed and cast for 
the TttriiouB parts. Eren in France, although the empire 



la gone, the old ruling clasees are atiU in power. Thay 
defer Bomewhat to the Democracy in home affaire, but in 
forei^ matters they treat it with contemptuoua diisregard. 
They carry France into all sorts of adventures for their 
own benefit. The Empire went to Algeria, and tho 
Bepublio goes to Tunis. Louie Napoleon sent anniea to 
Mexico, Jules Ferry sends them to China, and someone 
ebe to Madagascar. The motive is the same in all cases ; 
the French deputies are cajoled and manceuTred in the 
aame way ; and the French people are fooled and plundered 
with the same easy impudence. It requires a Herculea to 
dean out an Augean stable. When a leader of Qam- 
betta's greatness and force arises again, there may be 
Bome hope, if he turns his back on the selfish exploiters 
of society, sets his face resolutely to the people, and 
stretches out his hands to them for salvation. 

The world's peace will never be secure until the 
Democracy takes the reins of power into its own hands. 
Parliaments will be leas ready to declare war than Govern- 
ments. Men win vote against war when the decision lies 
with them, who would not vote against their party when 
hostilities have begun, and it is too late to undo the mis- 
chief without overturning the Ministry. The formalities 
of public debate would also allow a pause for reason to 
assert itself. The first passionate impulse of revenge 
would have time to subside, and wisdom, justioe, and 
humanity would gain a hearing. 

At present we are " rushed " into war. The SovereigD 
has the power of declaring war, and In many cases it is 
beyond doubt that royalty is largely responsible for the 
inception and development of international quarrels. Was 
it not Lord Falmerston who had to threaten the late 
Evince Consort for intermeddling with the negotiations 



11 

between Englaad and Eussia ? And was it not the Oourt 
party, as well as the bondholders, that incited Mr. Glad- 
stone to begin military operations in Egypt, in order that 
the Duke of Oonnaught, safely sheltered under Lord 
Wolseley's wing, might earn a little cheap glory and win 
a few bastard laurels? This is the kind of backstairs 
influence which our effete monarchy now wields, to our 
perpetual loss and disgrace. The constitutional power of 
the Sorereign to declare war is, of course, never exercised 
without the ad-vice and consent of her responsible ministers ; 
in other words, the Queen no more actually declares war 
than she actually appoints bishops. The Cabinet is really 
supreme, and these officials take advantage of a constitu- 
tional fiction to carry matters with a high hand. In 
domestic business they are obliged to consult Parliament 
1)elore they can move a stop ; in foreign affairs they act 
first and consult it afterwards. Even then it is only be- 
cause they need its endorsement for their acceptances^ 
A veto of censure may be moved and may be passed upon 
them, as we all know ; but what Ministry fears such a 
contingency? Earl Beaconsfield did as he pleased until 
the country flung him from office, and he smiled at Par- 
liamentary votes of censure. Mr. Gladstone was just as 
little terrified by them. He knew that '^ the party " would 
stick to him through thick and thin. They do not like 
the expense of an election ; they trust to the chapter of 
accidents to pull the Government through its troubles 
before the fateful day of reckoning ; and meanwhile they 
pacify their consciences by a few timid, ambiguous 
speeches, and a trimming side-voto of entirely harmless 
protest. 

All that remains to Parliament is the '< power of the 
poxBe-strings," which is a ghastly sham, for what Gk)vem- 



12 

ment that can defy votee of oenBure need fear a stoppag'B 
of supplies ? A few Badicals might challenge a diviaioa, 
and their action might produce a coneiderabla moral effect 
on the country, but there it would end. They could no 
more check the Government than a road-stone checfea the 
cart-wheel. There is a jolt, liut down comes the wheel 
BgEtin, and steadily revolves its course. Ths fact is, the 
" the power of the purae-strings " is one of the worst of 
the many shams of our boasted constitution. It meant 
something when the Sovereigii really did declare war, 
and solicited money from the people's representatives to 
carry it on ; but it is absolutely meaningless now that the 
leaders of those very representatives perform that function 
under a thin disguise. 

Before long this question will emerge into the field of 
practical politics, and become a burning one indeed. It 
may be true, as Burke said, that " Statesmen are placed 
on an eminence that they may have a larger horizon than 
we can possibly command." But .the extraordinary 
growth of the modem press, and the spread of education 
and intelligence, since Burke's time, have greatly 
diminished that advantage. The lime has gone by for 
the "confidence trick" in politics. Secret- service money 
and old-fashioned diplomacy will soon have to go together. 
Democracy will demand that all its business be transacted 
in public. It will not permit a handful of polittoianB at 
discretion 

"To open 
The purple testament of bleeding w»r." 

It will insist on that power being vested in the whole 
nation, through its elected representatives. And sunh a 
wise and just change wilt be one of the best guarantees of 
peace. 




Following Carlyle, Mr, Buakin has impeacliod the 
governing claaaeB in respect to war, ]n the second letter 
of Fori Clacigera, he stjleil tihe upper cliiaaeB the great 
Picnic Party, and inquired what they had done for the 
"lower orders" they lord it over with such 
audacity. ''They have," he said, "spent four hundred 
tniUions of pounds here in England withia the last twenty 
years— how much in France and Germany I will take 
some pains to ascertain— and with this initial outlay of 
capital they have taught the peasants of Europe — to pull 
«ach other's hair." 

No doubt the upper classes furnish good fighting n 
just like the lower classes, for brute courage is common 
«uough, and, as John Bright said, any quantity of it can 
b» got for a shilling a day. Tet Tommy Atkin.s dies aa 
well as his officer, only he has nothing to do with the v 
except risking his life, all the direction aud all the glory 
and profit resting with his superiors. 

Go through the Peerage and see what an enormous 
number of military and naval posts are held by Its s 
They command oiir forces, they get the lion's share of pay, 
they Bhine in the Gazettes, and they receive all the honours 
and rewards worth having. Poor Tommy Atkins dies 
iinannaled and unknown, or, if he survives, has to content 
liimself with the refleotiou that virtue is its own reward. 
His wife and children (if the celibate rule of the anoy/o^ 
privates allows him those luxuries) are left to semi-starva- 
tion or vice or crime, unless they gravitate to the work- 
house. Tommy had much better be at home earning an 
honest living, as he himself generally knows; but he 
^oea abroad to fight the battles of the upper classes 
beoftuse their villainous laws have starved him into the 
able-bodied citizen's 



i 




14 

Those apper classes, bom the highest to the humblest 
member of Society (with a capital S), being divorced from 
honest industry, are natiu'ally predatory and nomadic in 
character, and they are ever seeking to gratify their tastes 
in person or by proxy. They inherit from feudal times 
the prejudice in favour of fighting men. They love 
Militarism and hate Industrialism, which has been sup- 
planting it for centuries, and will finally extinguish it. A 
salient, and in some respects a superior, type of them wa» 
the late Colonel Bumaby. This " dashing " fellow 
slipped o£E to the Soudan without leave, and fought there 
without a Dommiasion. He had no more business with 
OUT troops than the most perfect stranger. He was driven 
there solely by his love of fighting. His motives were 
no more respectable than a tiger's. One of his ambitions 
was to enter Parliament, where the fighting interest is 
already represented by more than a hundred mem- 
bers. Add to this that a still larger number of 
members are connected with the Peerage by birth 
or marriage, and you will easily understand how Eng- 
land is 80 frequently pushed into war. Bemember 
too that Her Majesty, with what is said to be a feminine 
weakness, has a passion for soldiers, and that when sho 
breaks the monotony of her seclusioa, it is usually to- 
review her troops or decorate a few " heroes " who have 
distinguished themselves on the battle-field. 

Mr. Bright once said that without declaring all wars 
unjustifiable, he would like to see a single war justified. 
It was a request very difficult to comply with. Every war 
we enter upon is perfectly righteous, but somehow the 
historian afterwards writes them all down as crimes or 
mistakes. Self-defence is a natural instinct ; it never can 
be eradicated, and it never should. But it implies an. 




aggreasor; and consequently all justificatioi 

tlie one side only serves to heigliteii its guiltinesa c 

other. A great conqueror is only another i 

great criminal. Nature quietly bariee and conceals every 

• trace of his ravages. Would that the world could as soon 
forget him, or remember him onlj to condemn. 

Priests may consecrate our banners, without regard to 
the merita of the side on which they are ranged, or the 
awful scenes over which they float ; every regiment may 
carry its cbaplain for ghostly succour; and the Church may 
solicit God's bleBsing on every bloody enterprise we engage 
in. But the teachers of religion cannot decree right and 
wrong, nor have they any magic to transform crime into 
virtue. " The primal duties shine aloft like stars" beyond 
the reach of chance and change, however momentarily 
obscured by clouds of incense from a thousand altars. 
And if the ministers of the Prince of Peace cannot 
see the monstrous wickedness of war, there happily 
remains enough instinctive justice and mercy in the 
breasts oE heretics to brand it as a capital crime against 
humanity. 

Alaa ! how few realise the horror of war. The Romance 
of War is more easily imagined — the glowing uniforms, 
the shining arms, the prancing steeds, the martial music, 
and heroes contending for glory ! And pulses thrUl on 
reading feata of arms, and blood glows at the record of a 
" splendid charge." But, as Dickens wrote — 

■ ' When the ' spleiidid charge ' has done its work, and paased 
by, there wil! I>e found a sight very much like the scene of a 
fcightful railway accident. There will be the full complement 
of baota hrokpn in two ; of anus twisted wholly off ; of moi 
impaled upon their own bayonets; of legs smashed up like bite 
of firewood ; of bettds sliced open like apples ; of other beads 

orunohed into soft jelly by thi; iron hoofa of horaes ; of faces 



16 

trampled out of aU likeness to anything human. That is what 
skulks behind a ' splendid charge.' " 

Now let us turn from the graphic novelist to the 
experienced journalist. This is what Dr. Bussell, the 
famous Times war correspondent, wrote from the battle- 
field of Sedan : — 

*'Let your readers fancy masses of coloured rags glued 
together with blood and brains, and pinned into strange 
shapes by fragments of bones. Let them conceive men's 
bodies without heads, legs without bodies, heaps of human 
entrails attached to red and blue cloth, and disembowelled 
corpses in uniform, bodies lying about in all attitudes with 
skulls shattered, faces blown off, hips smashed, bones, flesh and 
gay clothing all pounded together as if brayed in mortar, 
extending for miles. . . . and then they cannot, with the most 
vivid imagination, come up to the sickening reality of that 
butchery." 

the glorious Bomance of War! Listen! Thirty 
thousand skeletons of Eussian and Turkish soldiers wer& 
shipped to England in 1881 as manure ! 
Well does Byron sing of war : 

" Lo I where the giant on the mountain stands, 
His blood-red tresses deep'ning in the sun, 
With death-shot glowing in his fiery hands. 
And eye that scorcheth all it glares upon ; 
Restless it rolls, now fixed, and now anon 
Flashing afar — and at his iron feet 
Destruction cowers, to mark what deeds are done." 

The poet's image is daring, yet how true ! Destruction 
might cower indeed at the atrocities of a battle-field. For 
they are more than slaughters — they are unspeakable 
agonies. Happy, thrice happy, are the dead in com- 
parison with the wounded. Imagine the fate of these after 
a ** glorious victory." The fallen, not slain, of both sidea 
are mingled in a common hell. They were enemies a few 



17 

liinirE ago. but now how fearfully akin! A yotmg 
husbaad — as his life-blood ebba away, and cold steals 

upon the citadel of hie heart —sees a vision of eyes and 
lips that he will never kiss again. A son thinka of the 
old motber, whose dwindlicg lite is wrapped in hia, who 
will never more lean upon his strong arm, but falter 
downward to the grave. A father wonders what will 
happen to hia brood at home — how the mother will 
support them — what future is now in store for the bright 
boy who was his pride, and ah ! what future for the baby 
girl, whose delicate soft flesh he seems to feel as when he 
took her from her mother's arms in that last embrace. 
Theee are the real tragedies of a battle-field — sonl- 
tragedies, as Browning would call them. And if we 
multiply them a thousand fold, and add every conceivable 
circumstance of physical su£[ijring, we shall be able to 
estimate the true value 'tf that fatal " glory," 

War is ju^it in self -duf once, or in defence of a neighbour 
unjustly attacked. We are not of those who believe in 
the refusal of aid between nations in all circumstai^ces. 
The sword may be, for some time yet, as necessary as the 
lancet, but it should never be drawn except against the 
enemies of mankind, "The blood of man," said Bnike, 
" should never be shed but to redeem the bloud of man. 
It is well shed for our friends, for our country, for our 
kind. The rest is vanity ; the rest is crime." 

When any of these great duties call us we should be 
ready to defend them ; and if ever Eugland were menaced 
hy a brutal invader, the most peaceful citizen might well 
wieh her to be animated by the same brave spirit that 
whipped the pride of the Armada and drove the hectoring 
I>utch fleets from the English seas. Nay, to defend the 
nation's liberties in the dark hour of extreme peril, 



1 




might hope that her sons would make ramparts of their 
bodies, and if they could not make a pact with Tictory, 
make a pact with death ; that her daughters would gladly 
resign their dearest in the spirit ot the Spartan mothers 
of old ; and that the very children might, like Hamiibat, 
be dedicated to a righteous revenge. 

We are then far from loving peace at any price. But 
there is little need to denounce such an impossible doctrine. 
It is not that way our danger lies. Our fighting instincts, 
inherited from eavage Hncestors, are too strong for us to 
submit tamely to aggression, even if the law of self- 
preservation did not prompt us to defend our own. 

National defence was not the origin of our modem 
standing armies. They are legacies from Feudalism. 
The retainers of feudal nobles became the king's soldiers 
as the power of the Crown strengthened over its vassaJe. 
Disguise it how you will, the institution of standing 
armies etill savours of its origin. The military forces of 
Europe are the instrumenta of tyranny and the support of 
privilege. During the last fifty years they have been as 
often employed in suppressing liberty at home as in 
fighting the foreigner abroad. Ferhapa England and 
Switzerland are the only exceptions to this rule. The 
notion that armies are the servants of the people is 
extremely recent. Fighting for his kin^ was the soldier's 
recognised vocation. That spirit atill half animates our 
British troops, as it wholly animates the troops of £ussia. 
In Germany the idea of the Fatherland may have over- 
shadowed that of the Emperor, though he still talks con- 
sumodly aboat "my army"; but little more than a 
century ago Frederick the Ureat's army fought at his 
absolute command ; and Frussia, like every other German 
State, was ruled on the same patriarchal principle. 





Democracy U Tery teceat, and has not had time to 
mould its own institutione. Those who are not con- 
versant with history do not understand that the inetita- 
tions which esiat are relics of monarchy. And of t 
the worst is a standing army. 

This fact has some bearing on the morality of a soldier's 
profeaaion. A French Badical said the other day, in the 
epigrammatic way of his nation, that the business of an 
army is to defend the frontier. An admirable sentiment ! 
But that is not the soldier's view. He goes with cheerful 
alacrity wherever he is sent, and if he is ordered to the 
other side of the globe he feels that brisk stirring of the 
blood which accompanies novel adventures. French 
soldiers, drafted from the citizen army of a Bepublic 
where the conscription is universal, set sail without 
misgivings for Algeria, Tunis, Madagascar, or China. 
"Theirs not to reason why, theirs but to do or die." 
Does not all this show that Democracy has had but little 
if any effect upon the army ? When men enter it 
they become possessed by its spirit. And that spirit is 
military, authoritative, monarchical. 

The English army is composed of volunteers, and is in 
a sense mercenary. And what are the motives that impel 
men to join it? " Generally," says Bacon, " all warlike 
people are a little idle, and love danger better than 
travail." The description applies admirably to our upper 
classes who supply the army with officers, and no doubt 
it fits some of the lower classes who supply it with 
privates. For the rest, men enter the army as they 
engage in other professions, for a living ; and, after a 
certain allowance for ties of blood, they care as little on 
which side they fight as a lawyer cares on which side he 
pleads. It is hardly fair to define a soldier as a man who 



20 

engages to kill anybody for a shilling a day, for this losea 
sight of the fact that he undertakes to be killed as well 
as to kill for that figure. But the definition, although 
not accurate, contains a dreadful element of truth. It 
would be unfair to visit on the individual soldier the 
whole odium of the institution to which he belongs. 
True, and the hangman is scarcely responsible for capital 
punishment ; yet we should shrink from his company at 
our tables. Perhaps the wisest plan is to hate the insti- 
tution and pity its members. 

Mr. Buskin, many years ago, justified the soldier's 
trade, or at least exalted it : — 

" Philosophically, it does not, at first sight, appear reason- 
able (many writers have endeavoured to prove it unreason- 
able) that a peaceable and rational person, whose trade is 
buying and selling, should be held in less honour than an 
unpeaceable and often irrational person, whose trade is slaying. 
Nevertheless, the consent of mankind has always, in spite of 
the philosophers, given precedence to the soldier. And this is 
right. For the soldier's trade, verily and essentially, is not 
slaying, but being slain. This, without well knowing its own 
meaning, the world honours it for. A bravo' s trade is slaying ; 
but the world has never respected bravos more than merchants ; 
the reason it honours the soldier is, because he holds his life at 
the service of the State. Reckless he may be — fond of pleasure 
or of adventure —all kinds of bye- motives and mean impulses 
may have determined the choice of his profession, and may 
affect (to all appearance exclusively) his daily conduct in it ; 
but our estimate of him is based on this ultimate fact — of 
which we are well assured — that put him in a fortress breach, 
with all the pleasures of the world behind him, and only death 
and his duty in front of him, he will keep his face to the 
front ; and he knows that this choice may be put to him at 
any moment, and has beforehand taken his part — virtually 
takes such part contiaually— does, in reality, die daily." 

The element of truth in Ru skin's eloquent defence of the 




Boldier we have already atkoowledged ; the rest we deenb 
faiioiful and mistakeu. Minere and colliers Tiek their 
lives daily, but who calls them heroes ? Policemen often 
carry their liTea in tlieir hands, hut who worships them ? 
Sailors incur on the average greater danger than soldiers, 
but who chants their praises? The fact is, they have no 
share in the pride, pomp, and circumstance of glorious 
war. It is our fighting instincts that throw a glamoor 
round the soldier. Our intellecte approve industry, but 
OUT inherited feelings consecrate militarism. In the same 
way, long after the Jews had settled down to agriculture, 
.they instinctively adored the nomadic character, and all 
their legendary heroes came from the pastoral state. 

A soldier holds not only his life, but his conscience, at 
the service of the State. Buskin dofs not notice that. 
But, as civilisation advances and morality refines, the fact 
vrill become more obvious. Hosea Biglow is not so 
el(i([uent aa the author of Unto this Lniit, yet he utters 
many a sound truth in quaint language. 

" Ef you take a sword and dror it. 

An' go stick a feller thni. 
Ghiv'ment ain't to answer for it, 

God'll send the bill to you." 

What does Ruskin say to that ? AVe laucy it would grate 
harsh truth through his most melodious cloqueixce. 

Our inherited fighting instincts account also for the- 
applause with which we greet the upper classes when they 
reward successful generals at our expense. Sir Beau- 
champ Seymour was made a lord for bombarding 
Alexandria, and received a present of £2.5,000. Lord 
"Wolseley had a grant of £25,000 for the Ashantee war, 
the only remaining trophy of which is Kiog CoSee's 
mabrella ; and another £30.000 for his Egyptian victories. 



oil for another Swift to satirise this monstrous absurdity! 
In. tlie sixteenth number ol his Examiner, that splendid 
wit conipared the rewards, amotiEtiag to over half-a- 
million, heaped ou Marlborough, with the rewftrd gireu 
to " a victorious general of Home, in the height of that 
Em.pire." Nearly a thousand pounds might have been. 
spent on a triumphal arch, a. aacrificiiil bull, and other 
features of public cplebration in honour of the general ; 
but the only IMng he actually' received was a crown of 
laurel worth twopence, and perhaps an embroidered robe. 
The laurels of a modern general are more costly. He 
fights for solid pudding, not for empty praise. 

Before we leave the morality of war let us print the 
last century's butcher's bill. It is an edifying document : 



TEAJtS. 




LOSS OF MBH 


1793 to 1813 


England and France 


. 1,900,000 


1828 


Russia »ad Turkey . . 


120,000 


1830 to 1849 


. Spain and Portugal 


160,000 


1830 to 1847 


. France and Algeria.. 


110.000 


1848 


. Civil Strife in Europe 


60,000 


1834 to 1856 


. Crimean Wni- 


784,000 


185S 


. Franco- Austrian War 


63,000 


1863 to 1865 


American Civil War 


800,000 


1S6S 


Aiiatro-Prujsiaa War 


51,000 




France and Mexico 


65,000 


1864 to 1870 


Brazil and Paniguay 


330,000 


1870 to 1871 


Franco-German Wat 


290,000 


1876 to 1877 


. EusBo-Turkish War 


130,000 




Total 


. 4,913,000 




This prodigious slaughter- bill does not include those killed 
in the various English and French expeditions. M. 
Beaulieu estimates French losses alone in these at 65,000. 
Overjwe milliotM of huh saerifiued to the Moloch of War in 
'eae than a century ! Imagination shrinks appalled. 



23 



What a hecatomb of Ticdms to "low ambilii 
pride of kings." 

If this sort of thing must go on for ever, one 
feel inclined, with Haxley, to welcome the approach of 
any comet that could sweep this earth, and its millions of 
peatilent cutthroats, iato eternal oblivion. No wonder 
the great, strong, implacable genius of Swift brought in 
■war as one of the worst vicef of the Yahoos. Gulliver's- 
master, among the Houyhnbnma, thought he must be- 
saying the thing that was not, when he counted the 
number of those who had been killed in battle. And 
when he described the weapons and maniBUvreB of war- 
fare, and related such incidents as "plundering, stripping, 
ravishing, burning, and destroying," the Houyhnhnm 
commanded him to be silent, and expressed belief that 
the Yahoos did not really possess any reaitin, but only 
" some quality fitted to increase their natural vices." 

The wickedness of war is only eieeeded by its folly. Of 
the Crimean War, Mr. Einglake says that "it brought to 
the grave a million of workmen and soldiers, and 
consumed a pitiless share of the wealth which man's labour 
had stored up as the means of life." Yet what advantage 
did it bring anyone ? The treaty of peace which closed it 
has been torn to shreds ; every provision in it is a dead 
letter. What a glorious result after sacrificing a million 
Uvea and wasting three hundred and forty millions of 
money ! The myriad graves in the Crimea are tenanted by 
murdered victims of ia haute politique ; and the churchyard 
of Sebastopol is as great a mon^lme□t of criminal folly as- 
the pyramid of skulls erected by a Tamerlane or an Attila. 

What should we think of a man in private life who- 
whipped out a sword every time he quarrelled, and tried 
to cat his opponent's throat ? He would soon be relegated 



and the- ^^^^ 
[e might ^^^ 



24 

to the prison or the asylum. What, also, do we think of 
a man who sticks to his opinion, however rash it may be, 
and refuses to abandon it because he has once taken it up 
—as though his infallibility were the chief thing in the 
universe, to which all else must be subordinated ; and who 
would sooner be ruined than confess to a mistake ? We 
consider him a dolt, a mule, a vain idiot. And if he 
refuses to submit his di£Perences with others to friendly or 
legal adjudication, we regard him as still worse; for we 
naturally think with Grotius that ** the party who refuses 
to accept arbitration may justly be suspected of bad 
faith." 

iS'ow, what pecidiar logic is there that can render the 
folly of an individual wisdom in a nation, or transform 
private wickedness into a national virtue ? We have not 
the slightest doubt that quarrels between nations will 
eventually be settled as quarrels between individuals are 
settled now, by appeal to an acknowledged tribunal. That 
is the certain tendency of our age. Even Prince Bismarck, 
the man of blood and iron, assisted it by playing the part 
of ** the honest broker." 

Tho Geneva Arbitration of 1872 on the "Alabama" 
dispute was the inauguration of a new era. The arbi- 
trators' award mulcted England in £3,000,000, but that 
sum is trivial to what the dispute might have cost us had 
it rankled into a war. Since then a score of international 
disputes have been settled in the same way. 

Napoleon himself, in the solitude of St. Helena, 
dreamed of " the application to the great European 
family of an institution like the American Congress, or 
that of the Amphictyon in Greece ; " and he asserted that 
''this agglomeration of European peoples must arrive, 
«ooner or later, by the mere force of events." How many 



25 



•eminent men have since expressed the same view. 

Victor Hugo uttered the right great word **The United 

States of Europe." A recognised international tribunal, a 

liigli court of nations, would allow of a great reduction in 

ihe armies of Europe. Public opinion would restrain th^ 

fractious ; or, as Tennyson says, *^ then the common sense 

-of most would hold a fretful realm in awe." Even the 

most selfish State, in its moment of intensest excitement, 

-would shrink from violating international law if the 

outrage brought upon it swift punishment by the armed 

oomity of Europe. Gradually, with the cessation of wai 

and the growth of peaceful sentiments, Europe would 

become ashamed of its barbarous past ; and we might 

xeasonably hope that the benign process would continue 

" Till the war-drums throbbed no longer, and the battle- 
flags were furled 
In the Parliament of man, the Federation of the world." 

We promised to say more on the economical aspects of 
-war. Take the following (1885) list of European States,* 
-with the cost of their armies and navies, and the interest 
•on their national debts : 



OOTTNTRY. 

Austria 
Belgium 
Denmark 
Prance . . 
Germany 
Great Britain 



ARMY AND 

NAVY. 

£13,400,000 

1,900,000 

1,000,000 

35,500,000 

18,200,000 

28 900 000 



INTEREST ON 
NATIONAL DEBT. 

£21,400,000 

4,100,000 

500,000 

47,000,000 

13,400 000 

30,000,000 



Carried forward £98,900,000 



£116,400.000 



^ The figfores for 1885 may stand, as they were taken en bhc from a 

t r ustw orthy source — the * * Finanoial B«f orm Almanack. * * I have gone 

tliroQgh ih» current ** Statesman's Year Book,** and I find that there 

2ias been an increase of thirteen miUiont in the European war budget* 



\ 



Holland 
Italy ,. 
Norway 
Portugal 
Roumania 



Switzerland 
Turkey . . 



1.000,000 
2,700,00() 
19,000,000 
460,000 
1.400,000 
1,100,00(1 
33,000,000 
3i0,00() 



)8,001) 



IHTBBBST CWf 

NATIONAl E 

£116.400,000 

8-&.000 

2,700.000 

20,000,000 

270,000 



2,9C 

2,000,000 

2», 500,000 

310.000 

10,730 000 

600.000 

78,000 

12,330,000 






jEl71.»ue,000 £197,713,000 

Here is a grand total of three hundrtd and sevenltf 
spent every year on war preparations and on acoonnt of 

Let it aUo be noted that the annual war-bill of nearly 
every country goes on inoreMtng. England ia no exception. 
Mr. O-ladstoue started well when he took the reins from. 
Earl Beaconsfield, but his military and naval eipenditura 
went up year by year, until his twenty-six milliona grew 
to thirty, to say nothing of the £9,451,000 vote of credit 
he obtained to put him in a position to play the game of 
brag with hie old friend the Czar of Eussia. 



Now take the cost of i 
thirty years : 

Crimean War . . 
ItaUan War (1859) . 
Auierioun Civil Wai' . 



few great wars during the last 



£340.000,000 

(iO.OOO.OOO 

1,400,000,000 

Carried forward £1,800,000,000 



iOBK 1 



■ Thia was the oost to tho NartlieTB States alone. The cost to t 
SonCbem States would pcobablf briug the total bill up 




27 

Bronght forward . , 
Aostro-Pnissiaii War 
Franco -PmHaian War 
RuaHO-TarWRh War , . 
Zuln and Afghan Wars 




£1.ROO,000.000 
tJO.OOO.OOO 
500,000,000 
210,000.000 
30,()00,000 



£2,600,000,000 
This would allow £2 for every man, woman, and child on 
tlie globe. It would make two railwaja round the earth 
at the rate oi £50,000 a mile. It would provide every 
adult male in Europe with a freehold farm of 100 acres 
in the United States of America. 

Daring the present century England alone has spent on 
her army and navy, and the interest of her national debt, 
aearly lix thousand milliom. A third of that sum would 
buy up her whole soil from the landlords, restore it to the 
people, and settle the Land Question for ever. Out of 
every pound of taxes we now pay, I6s. l^d. goee for War, 
War Debt, or preparation for War, and only Ss. lOJd, for 
all other purposes. And as the chief part of our national 
income is raised by indirect taxation, it follows that the 
main burden of war falls upon tiie shoulders of the 
Fkopls. 

Compare with the colossal sum we spend on War the 
paltry amount we spend on Education,' and then ask 
whether we are not afflicted with insanity. Buiikin once 
inquired what was the proper view of a rich householder 
vho expended ten pounds a year on his library and five 
Imndred on policemen to guard [his shutters. 

England's National Debt ia over teven hundred milliom, 
Wwad nearly every penny of it has been contracted by our 






BDditn 



1 Army and Kavj is, roughly. 



•Our 

3,000,000 ; our expeoditore on Natjonal EdocatioD is less than 

tt,ooo,ooo. 



28 

class- government since the "glorious revolution" of 168^^ 
solely for the purpose of maintaining "the balance o^^ 
power " in Europe, which simply meant interfering wit^^ 
other people's business, or sharing in their quarrels. W^^ 
began, at the accession of William HE., with a paltr^^ 
debt of £664,264 ; but small^as the sum was, it acted like^ 
a vital germ, from which was developed a huge system oi 
financial corruption. When the taxes of the country were 
once pledged, it was easy to draw further drafts on 
posterity for the conduct of enterprises that would never 
have been undertaken if their expenses had to be borne 
at the time. Accordingly, we find that, at the accession 
of .Queen Anne, the Debt amounted to £12,767,225. 
Marlborough's campaigns nearly trebled it, for at the 
accession of George I. it had increased to £36,175,460. 
Under that imported monarch it rose to £52,523,023; 
and under his successor to £102,014,018. Then came 
George in., who was for a long while mad and always 
blind ; and under his perverse and foolish rule the Tory 
government involved us in a wanton war with our brethren 
in America, and afterwards in a mad war with the French 
Bepublic. The result was that, when George m. departed 
to whatever place is reserved for his like, the Debt 
amounted to the prodigious sum of £834,900,960. 

At this moment the male population of England — that 
is, every actual or potential head of a family — ^is indebted 
£85 4s. 8d. to the national bondholders, because preceding 
governments, without obtaining or soliciting the people's 
consent, went fighting at large in Europe and America 
wherever an opportunity for a scrinmiage presented itself. 

This National Debt handicaps us with an initial burden 
of over twenty-two millions a year in the shape of interest. 
Our fathers danced to a sorry tune, and we have to pay 



29 

^^ exorbitant piper. And as most of our taxation is 

'^S^ed indiredlyj it follows that this yearly interest is a 

l^^i^ennial burden on our national industry. During the 

Present century, to go back no farther, we have paid in 

^'^^'UreBt alone the terrific sum of nearly two thousand five 

^'^*nired miOions. Surely a visitor from a distant planet 

\8ay Voltaire's Satumian) on learning these facts, would 

Buppose that he had lighted on a race of madmen. 

Who can point to a single particle of good which our 
lavish expenditure on war and warlike preparations has 
conferred on any human being, except generals, eamj 
contractors, and bondholders? When the little boy, in 
Southey's poem, wants to know what the battle of 
Blenheim was all about, and what benefit resulted from 
the rival armies leaving their empty skulls as memorials 
to future ages, old Kaspar is nonplussed. 

*' Why, that I cannot tell," said he, 
** But 'twas a famous victory." 

A famous victory ! Yes, the adjective is thrown over it 
to hide the misery and folly. '' Glory " is the bait on the 
despot's hook ; the gilded fetter on a strutting slave ; the 
plume in the helm of a mailed freebooter. True and 
lasting glory is only won by the victories of peace. 
^' These are matters so arduous," as Milton told Cromwell, 
" that in comparison of them the perils of war are but the * 
sports of children." 

People still talk of '^ glory," but wherein consists the 

true greatness of England? In the noble language of 

Landor: 

** The strength of England lies not in armaments and in- 
vasions ; it lies in the omnipresence of her industry, and in the 
vivifying energies of her high civilisation. There are provinces 
she cannot grasp ; there are islands she camiot hold fast ; but 



30 

there is neither island nor province, there is neither kingdonci 
nor continent, which she conld not draw to her side and fix 
there everlastingly, by saying the magic words Be Free. 
Every land wherein she favours the sentiments of freedom, 
every land wherein she forbids them to be stifled, is her own ; 
a true ally, a willing tributary, an inseparable friend. Princi- 
ples hold those together whom power would only alienate.*' 

There are at present only two coiintries in Europe that 
cherish a constant friendship for England. One is Greece, 
whom we aided in her gallant struggle for emancipation ; 
the other is Italy, who remembers our sympathy when she 
revolted against the Axustrian yoke. 

Meanwhile, let it be noticed that our governing classes 
always keep a bogey to frighten us with. Long ago it 
was France ; now it is Eussia. Earl Beaconsfield traded 
on that bogey, and Mr. Gladstone followed suit ; in fact 
he nearly involved us in. a war with Bxussia through a 
squabble over an Afghan outpost. England is perpetually 
warned against the stealthy advances of '^ Eussian 
aggrandisement." But are not our shocked feelings a 
little amusing? Eussian conquests during the last 
hundred and thirty years amount to 1,642,000 square 
miles, with a meagre population of 17,135,000; while 
England's conquests in the same period amount to 
2,650,000 square miles, with 250,000,000 people. Our 
Jingoes appear to think that England may steal sheep, 
but Exussia must not catch a rabbil;. 

All over Europe the same game is played. Peoples are 
filled by their rulers with a blind and passionate hatred 
of each other. Austria glares at Exussia, and Etuasia at 
Austria. France and Germany vie with each other in mili- 
tary organisation, waiting with feverish blood and panting 
breath for the next death-wrestle. Italy prepares herself 
to strike in the combat as it suits her interest. And the 



81 

smaller States, like Switzerland and Belgium, tremble lest 
their neutrality should be violated in the bloody strife. 
Ohxistendom is armed to the teeth ; and as Sir Henry 
Maine too truthfully observes, '' During the last quarter 
of a century, a great part, perhaps the greatest part, 
of the inventive faculties of mankind has been given to 
the arts of destruction." The workman in the factory and 
the peasant in the field know that they may at any 
moment be summoned from their peaceful vocations by 
the trumpet of battle. They know also that war has 
become more and more scientific, that horrid explosives 
have made it more ghastly, and that they would be 
marshalled for hideous slaughter, where each man sees 
the comrade fall at his side but not the enemy that strikes 
him dead. Some of them who sicken at the prospect, not 
with coward fears but with manly disgust, might almost 
csry with Shakespeare's Northumberland : 

" Let heaven kiss earth ! Now let not Nature's hand 
Keep the wild flood confined ! Let order die I 
And let this world no longer be a stage 
To feed Contention in a lingering act ; 
But let one spirit of the first-bom Cain 
Beign in all bosoms, that, each heart being set 
On bloody courses, the rude scene may end, 
And darkness be the burier of the dead ! " 

Europe is the modem Damocles. The ancient bearer ef 
that name envied the wealth of Dionysius of Sicily, who 
jestingly gave him a taste of royal pleasures. Damocles 
ascended the throne and gazed admiringly on the wealth 
and splendour around him. But looking up, he perceived 
a sword hanging over his head by a single hair. The 
sight so terrified him that he begged to be removed from 
his position. Europe likewise sits at its feast of life, but 



32 

the fatal weapon suspended overhead mars its felicity. 
Serpents twine in the dance, arms clash in the song, 
the meats have a strange savour, there is a demoniac 
sparkle in the wine, and a poisonous bitterness in the 
dregs of the cup. All is darkened bj the Shadow of the 
Sword, 



PTJBLIC CONTROL OF HOSPITALS. 



PUBLIC COKTEOL OF HOSPITALS. 



The Problem Stated. 
" The poorer the gueet, the bettev pleased he ever is with 
being treated," philosophised the Vicar of Wakefield; 
and the aphorism which he applied to his poor relations 
is eqaally true of those who come under medical care. 
Thus is explained, or at any rate partly explained, the 
long silence concerning hospital management on the part 
of those who have been inmates of these refuges for the 
sick. Concerning these, however, like so many other 
previously uncriticised institutions, the public voice is at 
last beginning to demand, and in somewhat c|uerulous 
tones, that more information be given, that more light 
be thrown on their inner working. 

In this paper I propose to state, as briefly as may be, 
the facts which, from the point of view of the layman, 
demonstrate the advisability, or rather the necessity, of 
taking the control of the hospitals out of the hands of 
the present governing bodies and placing it directly in 
the hands of the people's representatives. And here I 
vould lay stress on what may appear a truism to any but 
those interested, namely, that the laif point of view is the 
only one to be considered. There cannot be any rational 
discussion of " the professional point of view " of which 
we have heard so much. Hospitals should exist solely 
tor the good of the people, and aot in the least for th& 



aggrandisement, amuaement, or scientific adrancemeiit ot 
any claes of specialists. 

In offering, then, any criticiBm of existing management, 
or considering any scheme for new management, we must 
«samine into these ixuestiona : 

1. How most economically to provide adequate treat- 

ment for the sick. 

2. How beat to provide for the greatest benefit and 

comfort of such of the public as would derive ad- 
vantage from hospital treatment. 

3. How most advantageously, without in the least 

involving the second question, to provide for the 
technical training of new generations of surgeons 
and physicians. 



The Extent op Thb Hospital System. 



The treatment of the sick in modern England is a very 
much more organised and rational affair than the old 
Babylonian method of laying the sick in the public 
squares, on the chance that someone might pass who had 
formerly suffered from the same ailment and had die- 
covered a cure for it. Nevertheless, so early as 4,000 
years before Christ, the Egyptians seem to have had an 
extensive system of public hospitals in connection with the 
temples, with medical schools attached to the hospitals. 
But, in a later age, Egypt appears to have reckoned science 
above humanity, and Celaua says of them that "They 
procured criminals out of prison by Boyal Commission, 
and dissecting them alive, contemplated, while they were 
yet breathing, what natiiro had before concealed." We 
find a marked contrast in the more humane customs of 
the followers of Buddha, as is seen from this extract from 



4 

ery I 




an edict of the Hindoo emperor Asoka, who was crowned 
almnt 270 B.C. and founded hospitals throughout India 
and Ceylon : — 

" Everywhere within the conquered provinces of Kaja Piya- 

■dati, the beloved of the gods, as well ob in the parts occupied 
hy the faithful, such as Chola, Pida Satiyaputra, aud Ketala- 
patra, and even as far as Tambapanni, and moreover within 
the dominion of Antiochns the Qreei (of whii-h Antioohus's 
generals are the rulers), everywhere the heaven- beloved Baja 
Fiyadasi's double system of medii;al aid is hereby established ; 
both medical aid for men ond medical aid for animals, together 
with medicaments of all sorts which are suitable for men aud 
suitable for animals." 

In England, to-day, the extent of the variooB instru- 
ments for the collective treatment of the sick poor ia even 
more enormous than ia usually supposed. Thus, in the 
Zaneet for November 0th, 1889, Dr. Bentoul calculated 
that 4,000,000 persoEB receive free medical relief in Eng- 
land yearly. He said further ; " I think if one said that 
one person in three waa provided with practically free 
medical relief in this country a very near approach to 
accuracy woxild be made." 

It is said that about 8,000 petsons are emphiyed 
throughout the year in tending the sick "paupers" of 
Iiondon. The infirmaries of London are provided with 
about 14,000 beds, whilst the thirteen Loudon hospitals 
to which medical schools are attached have nearly 5,000 
beds, and the Fever hospitals of the Metropolitan Asy- 
lums Board about 3,500. The number of beds gives but 
a small idea of the number of the patients attended. 
Thus the thirteen large London hospitals above alluded 
to provide treatment annually for over 51,000 in-patienta, 
and over 660,000 out-patients, in addition to attending 
more than 15,000 maternity cases in the patients' homes. 



UoreoTer, tlie demand for hospital treatment is graving 
erery year. Tbua, whereas the number of out' patients 
treated in Birmingham in 1867 waa 67,000 ; twenty years 
later it had grown to 166,000, The annual income of the 
various voluntary hospitala in Qreat Britain amounts to 
some one and a half millions, of which the London 
general hospitala absorb about one third. Of this half a 
mil li nn, something over £200,000 is derived from dividends, 
invested property and grants, about £80,000 from legacies, 
£46,000 from subscriptions, and £54,000 from donations. 

Surely such an esteDsive system is composed of 
mutually helpful and thoroughly inter-related parts ; 
and is not left in the hands of a number of competing 
groups of almost irresponsible persons. Tet, as a matter 
of fact, so unrelated are the various hospitals that even in 
matters of finance we find no common ground. Thus, to 
give but one instance, whereas the annual cost per bed at 
St. George's Hospital is only £88, at St. Bartholomew's it 
is nearly £130; whilst in the Infirmaries it only aniounts 
to some £30 or £40. Surely there must be either absurd 
extravagance or meanness somewhere. Even the Hos- 
pitals Committee was obliged to report its " regret that 
there does not seem to be any genuine wish for co-opera- 
tion between the Tarious kinds of medical Institutions. 
They are of opinion that much more might be done than 
at present by the hearty co-operation between the special 
hospitals and general hospitals, between dispensaries of 
all kinds and general hospitals, and between general 
practitioners and general hospitala." ^H 

Patients on " Clinicai. Material " ? ^H 

Concerning the inhumane treatment of hospital patients 
a great deal of unwise and exaggerated stuff has been 



B 'written. To read some of these rag^ue denunciatorj out- 

Pponrings one would imag^ae that every c[iiaMed medical 

in the country naa a sort of diseaRe-Bpreading devil, 

I vhoae whole mind was ever devoted to diacovering some 

[ new pain to inflict on his fellow men. Anyone with his 

[ «yea open, who is at all acquainted on the one hand with 

I hospital life and on the other with the home of the 

I average hospital patient, must eee that to hundreds of 

I thousanda of poor people the hospitals as at present 

worked have been a veritable godsend. In the very great 

L majority of all serious cases the patients are well fed and 

1 well nursed, and receive the beat skilled treatment obtain- 

f able. But, while we are glad to allow this much, we 

I must not forget the other side of the matter. There is, 

f beyond all doubt, a great deal of abuse consequent on 

I the almost unlimited powers of the medical staS, This 

I power is especially misplaced when we remember the 

motive which makes men anxious to get on the staff of 

any of the great hospitals. The Londiin hospitals do not 

for the most part pay any salaries to their staffs, either 

■visiting or resident. The resident staff of house surgeons, 

house physicians, and obstetric officers, consists as a rule 

of students ol the particular hospital who have recently 

■ obtained qualidcations, and ore anxious to get some real 
I experience before leaving their alma mater ; whilst the 
I visiting staff consists of men with h'gh qualifications who 
I are desirous of obtaining more esperience on the one 
) hand and of becoming known to the profession and 

■ 4>utaide world on the other. Thus, in the BritiaH Medical 
I Jtmmai Dr. Hickman is reported as saying in all cuidoor 
f-that 

" the large and increasing number of hogpitalB and dispensaries 
not an evidence of the intense interest taken t)y the pro- 



fessioii in the poor, nor was the Urge araoimt of time I 
labour gjatuitouaty devoted to their service simply an index ij 
the diBintereated philanthropy of medical men. The object of 
this int«reat and these serrioes was not the benefit of the poor, 
nor of the profession, but the partiiMilor benefit of the indi- 
vidual, who looked forward to be amply repaid in the future 
by increased experience, enhanced reputation, and the legiti- 
mate advertisement of himself, which was ahnosl the only 
opening to high-class practice and high-class fees." 

The profeaaion, moreover, is far too prone to regard the 
hospitals merely as departments of the medical schools. 
Thus we find Mr. Timothy Holmes, one of our most 
eminent Burgeons, saying' 
"that the chief use of hospitals was that they should teacli 

practitioners of medicine and surgery Firstly, a 

hospital should be a place for medical education ; secondly, 
for the relief of suffering; and, thirdly, for the training of 
nurses ; all of which objects should be considered in due 
projiortion by those eiercising the management." 
Again, Dr. Carter, the then President of the Medical 
Society,' speaking at the Mansion House in 1886, said : — 
" The greatest use of hospitals is to promote the advance- 
ment of medical science, and to afiord us improved 
methods of recognising and treating disease." 

It ia obvious that to delegate the control of our hospitals 
to men holding these views is an absurdity beyond defence. 
No wonder the suspicion begins to show itaelf that the 
" human viyiaeetion " of Veaalius and Fallopius, of 
Eraaistratus and Herophilus ia being, or about to be, 
revived. For this suspicion there is of course some 
foimdation. We are getting familiar with proposals for 
vivisecting criminala, idots, and such ; and the distance 



' Sritiih Medical Jbuntai, Aprii, 
> Laaal, June 26, ISBS. (P. 12fi0). 





a crimiaal and a pauper is ub uallj easily traversed 
by the wishful. Of course, anything which could be 
legitimately described aa dangerous or painful experimen- 
tation on hospital patients must be fat from common in 
this country. Probably a majority of surgeoas and 
physicians would discountenance anything approaching 
it. But at the same time there is do excuse for the 
auper- critical air which Mr. Haveloclt Ellis assumes in 
his book on "The Nationalisation of Health," where he 

"I doubt whether many people realise the auapicion with 
whioh a certain section o[ the more ignorant classes regard 
hospitals. Indeed, even among the more inteUcctual classes. 
the criticii of medicine are in England, as a distinguished 
French Burgeon has recently said they are in France, frequently 
conspicuous for their enormous incompetence. Charges of 
gross neglect, charges of treating patients as subjects for 
eiperiment, are freely and fiercely expressed, and occasionally 
they gain a prominent position in the newspapers and novels. On 
investigation these charges usually turn out to be ridiculously 
devoid of foundation; and anyone who is familiar with the 
working of our large hospitals knows that such accusations ara 
BO absurd that it is difficult to consider them seriously." 



The Medical Pbofession amd VivisEcrrioN'. 
But one finds it far less difficult to consider them 
seriously when it is borne in mind what is the practice 
and doctrine of the men against whom these charges are 
made, and their colleagues, in the allied matter of animal 
vivisection. I say allied, because both animal vivisection 
and experiments on human beings are baaed on the same 
scientific fetish of misunderstood utilitarianism, namely, 
that the few and the weaker may wisely be used for the 
greater benefit of the many and the strong. We knoir 



10 

that those whose time is largely occupied with the 
slaughtering of cattle in the primitiye and brutal maxuier 
which is still the almost universal one in this countxy axe 
more prone than their neighbours to commit assaults 
on their fellow men. In the same way, it is fair to 
expect that men accustomed to subject animaTs to 
pain, primarily, it may be, in order that their fellow men 
may ultimately profit, but subsequently and more usually 
in order that some new scientific fact may be discovered, 
and consequent honour and glory be their's — ^it is fair to 
expect that such men will be somewhat apt to use the 
€ick pauper who chances to be suitable for the purpose to 
further the progress of science, even if such use is detri- 
mental to the individual thus treated. Such an inference 
implies no suggestion that doctors are naturally any 
worse or less humane than other people, for such a 
suggestion would be absurd, but is simply based on the 
ordinary well-established laws of training and habitude. 

In order to give an idea of the way in which animal 
vivisection is regarded by men who are reckoned at the 
head of the profession, the following extracts may serve. 
In answer to a question from the Chairman of the Boyal 
Commission of 1876, "What is your own practice with 
regard to the use of anaesthetics in experiments that are 
otherwise painful?" Dr. Klein, F.B.S. (Lecturer on 
Physiology at St. Bartholomew's Hospital), said: — 

** Except for teaching purposes, for demonstration, I never 
use ansBsthetics where it is not necessary for convenience. If 
I demonstrate, I use ansBsthetics. If I do etzperiments for my 
inquiries in pathological research, except for convenience sake, 
as for instance on dogs and cats, I do not use them. 

** Chairman : When you say that you only use them for con- 
venience sake, do you mean that you have no regard at all to 
the sufferings of the animals ? 



11 



regard at all. I think that with regard to an experi- 
B. man who oonducts special Tesearali, and perfor 

baa no time, aa to speak, for tkinking what will 
the animal feel or suffer, His only purpose is to perform the 
experiment, to learn as much from it as possible, and to do it 
as quickly as possible. For my own purposes I disregard 
entirely this question of the auffmng of the animal ia per- 
forming a painful experiment. I regard it for demODstration 
because 1 know that there ia a great deal of feeling against it 
in this country, and when it is not necessary one should not 
perhaps act against the opinion or the belief of certain in- 
dividuals of the auditorium. One must take regard of the 
feelings and opinions of those people before whom one does 
the experiment." 

How the more cautious and time-serriDg experimenters 
must regard such candid statements aa the loUowing by 
Dr. Charles Eichet in the .Revue dea deux Maudes (Feb. 15th, 
1883) may perhaps be imagined. Thus Dr. Eichet : — 

"I do not believe that a single experimenter says to himself 
■when he gives curare to a rabbit, or cuts the spinal marrow of 
a, dog, or poisons a frog ; ' Here is an experiment which will 
leKeve or will cure the disease of some man.' No, in truth, he 
does not think of that I He says to himself, ' I shall clear np 
an obscure point, I will seek out a new fact.' And this 
scientific curiosity, which alone animates him, is explained by 
the high idea he has formed of Science. This is why we pass 
our days in fmtid laboratories, surrounded by groaning 
oreatures, in the midst of blood and suifering. bent over 
palpitating entrails." 

As showing how the ordinary prejudices of mankind 
against ruthlessly causing pain to sentient creatures may 
.be overcome, and how the pain or disgust whijh moat 
people Bsporience in the presence of mangled bodies of 
living animals may be converted into exuberant joy, the 
following extract from the " Methodik " of FrofesBor 



Oyon (Lecturer on Phjmology at the University of St. 
Petersburg) may be of melauQholy interest : — 

"The true Tivisector must approach it difficult vivisectton 
with the same joytul excitement, with the same delight, with 
which a surgeon undertakes a difBcult operation, from trbich 
he expects extraordinary consequences. He who shrinks from 
oQtting into a hving animal, he who approaches a viyisection 
as a disagreeahle necessity, may very hkely be able to repeat 
one or two vivisectiona, but will never become an artiat in 
vivisection. He who cannot follow some fine nerve-thread, 
scarcely visible to the naked eye, into the depths, if possible 
sometimes tracing it to a new branching, with joyful alertness 
for hours at a time, he who feels uo enjoyment when at last, 
parted from its surroundings and isolated, he can subject that 
nerve to electrical stimulation ; or whew, in some deep carity, 
guided only by the sense of touch of his finger-ends, he 
ligatures and divides an invisible vessel— to such a one there 
is wanting that which is moat neceaaary for a succesaful 
vivisector. The pleasure of triumphing over difficulties held 
hitherto insuperable is always one of the highest delights of 
the viviseetor. And the sensation of the physiologist when 
from a gruesome wound, full of blood and mangled tissue, he 
draws forth some delicate nerve-branch, and calls back to life 
a function which waa Eilready extinguished, this sensation 
has much in common with that which inspires a sculptor, 
when he shapes forth fair living forma from a shapeless mass 
of marble." ^^H 



" Corpora Vilia." ^^H 

We need not now be surprised to hear tbat a tendency 
towards experimentation on human beings is not such an 
impossibility ae Mr. Ellis would liave ua believe. The 
recent exposure of the Chelsea Hospital for Women by 
Dr. Louis Parkea should open our eyes a little, and the 
folloning extracta from the semi-official organs of the 
profession and etandaid medical text-books may prerent 




13 



m from closing quite bo tightly again. But firet of 
■ell let ua clear the way liy reading the following letter 
*om Dr. Arroand do Watteville, M.A,, M.D., B.Sc. (until 
leceatly on the staff of St, Mary's Hospital), which ap- 
jieared in the Standard of November 24th, 1883 ;— 

To the Editor of " Tke Standaed" 
Sir, — a few days ago an anonymous letter appeared in your 
-«oluiniiB which, emanating (as the signature, "M.D.," appeared 
~^M show) from a medical practitioner, ought uot to he allowed 
"to pass without an energetic protest. As far a« I cau see, the 
-writer intends to bring a charge against a distinguished 
3nember of his own profession, a physician who by bis labours 
-In the field of therapeutics, has done eminent service to 
medicine, and has been instrumental to the rehef of much 
^huinan suffering — a serious charge, I aay, viz., that of having 
-used patients in a hospital for other purposes than those tend- 
ing to their own direct benefit. 

Now I should hke to ask ' M.D.,' wbether his whole career 
-&E a medical student, from the day he handled his first bone to 
that on which be passed his last clinical eiamination, did not 
involve abuses very similar to those tor which he now joins 
the unfortunately ever growing pscudo -humanitarian outcry 
against the methods of rational medicine? 

" What right had he to trample upon the feeluigs of othera 
in dissecting the bodies of people whose sole crime was to have 
been poor, and, still more, to acquire his clinical experience at 
the expense of, perhaps, much hutnan shame and aufiering ? 

" 1 think we, as medical men, should not attempt to conceal 
from the public the debt of gratitude they owe to the corpora 
vilia — for such there are, and will be, as long as the healing art 
exists and progresses. So far from there being a reason why 
moral and pecuniary support should be refused to hospitals on 
the ground that their inmates are made use of otherwise than 
for treatment, there is every ground why more and more 
should be given to them, in order to compensate by every 
poanble comfort for the dis-comforta necessarily entailed by 
"the edttoation of succeeding generations of medical men, 



aad the improvements in our methods ot coping with 
disease. 

" No amount of hystsrical af^tation and so called humani- 
tarian agitation will alter the laws of nature, one of the 
plainest of which ia that the tew must suffer for the mnnjr. 
SentimentalistB who think they know bettor, who uphold the 
abstract ' Rights ot Man,' and want to push them to their 
logical conaequences, have no other alternative in the queation 
now before us than to condemn the modem course of medical 
studies, and ti'uat themaelvea into the hands of bookmen whose 
tactua eruditus will have to be formed at theit expenae. The 
fundamental question at issue ia not whether in this or that 
instance improper use waa made of a hoapital patient, but 
whether the manipulations and obeervationa indispensable for 
the acquisition and extension of medical knowledge are to be 
made in a connected and enlightened manner in public insti- 
tutions and under the eyes of experienced men, or to be left 
to the isolated haphazard and groping efforts ot necessarily 
ignorant men upon the persona of any who may be found to pay 
them in the hope ot benefiting by their medical skill. 

"Whilst defending the moral grounds upon which experi- 
mental medicine rests, I allow that there are Kmita, narrow 
limits, beyond which it would be imprudent or criminal to go. 
But I most emphatically proteat against the tendency of men 
nowadays — and I am ashamed to observe that a few are to be 
found within the medical profession itself — who act upon the 
supposition that the public at large form a proper tribunal to 
decide upon what constitutes a tranagreasion of those limite. 
Those alone are competent judges who are able to form a 
correct opinion on the one hand of the ultimate utility, on the 
otiier of the proximate consequences of any investigations in 
eorpoTt vili." 

"We will next consider a few extracts from an osceed- 
ingly well-known and highly respected test-book, the 
" Handbook of Therapeutics," by Dr. Sydney Einger, 
Physician to University College Hospital. The editioii of 
this book which I possess is the eleventh, published in 1 886. 




15 



[, I have made ^^^f 
Qiuacariu on the I 



Oa page 490 we read : — 

"In conjunction with Mr, B. A. Horahead, I 
some investigations concerning the s 
'bxaaa.n body. Our observations were undertaken to ascertain 
whether its action on man is the same as on animaJa. We have 
made thirteen experiments on four men, seven, three, two, and 
ODe respectively. These men, it is well to state, were not in 
good health ; three were in a delicate aniGmic state, the other 
had slight fever from some obscure cause, though his pulse was 
not quickened." 

*' It contracts the pupil, excites profuse perspiration, free 
salivation, r unnin g at the eyes and nose ; it purges, sometintaa 

«xcites nausea and vomiting The perspiration stood in 

large drops on the face after the larger doses, the nightdreaa 

became soafeed, and the skin felt sodden In five the 

drug produced a frequent hacking cough." 

Elsewhere we read ; — 



4 



" To test the effect of gelsemium . 
thirty-three series of observations c 
induced the full toxic effects." 

And again : — 

" In order to teat the effects of gelae' 



. the circulation, I made 
whom we 



1 doses sufficient to pro- 



Later 



6 told :- 



" One patient experienced paiu over the occiput, with a sen- 
sation as if the crown of the head were being lifted in two 

pieces Giddiness was another prominent and early 

symptom. . . . When well marked, the patients staggered, 
and were afraid even to stand, much leaa walk. So giddy was 

one patient that he nearly fell off the form In every 

case the sight was effected," 

In another place Dr. Binger reports : — 
" In conjunction with Mr. Bury, I have made some investi' 
gations concerning the action of aalidne on the human body. 



■llA in nffpn von ' 



oaing healthy children tor oar experimeitta. 

does sufficient to produce toxic symptoms. 

And he further tells us that " the headache ia often very 

severe, bo that the patient buries his head in the piUaw." 

" Our flrHt set of experiments were made on a lad aged ten. 
.... He was admitted with belladonna poisoning, but our 
obaervations were not commenced till aomo days after his com- 
plete recovery. . . . Though a very lively boy, he became 
very dull and stupid, lying with his eyes closed, and answering- 
questions slowly. He complained of tingling like pins and 
needles in his right ankle, and flufiVred from very deddad 
muscular weakness, soon accomx>auied by muscular twitcl 
and tremblings of the legs and arms 

Concemiag the therapeutice of lead Baits we read ;- 

"There, too, ia tie fact, in further confirmation of 
GaiTod's discoveries, that it to a gouty person, free at the 
time from an acnte attaclc, a suit of lead is administered, it 
develops acute gout, with its aooompanying symptoms of severe 
pain and high fever. The author baa repeatedly verified this 
fact." 

Before we leave Dr. Ringer, mention may be made of 
the well-known report by himself and Dr. Murrell, of 
Weatminster Hospital, on the action of nitrite of sodium. 
The report appeared in the Lancet for November 3rd, 
1883, and from it the following extracts are taken, 

" In addition to fheae experiments we have uiade some obser- 
vations clinically. To eighteen adults, fourteen men and four 
women, we ordered ten gniins of the parti nitrite of sodium in 
one ounce of water, and of these seventeen declared that they 
were unable to take it. They came back protesting loudly 
and required no questioning as to the symptoms produced. 
They seemed to be pretty unanimous on one point, that it was 
the worst medicine they had ever taken. They said it they 
ever took another dose they would expect to drop down dead, 
and it would aerve them right. One man, a burly atrong 
fellow, auffering a little from rheumatiam only, said that after 



voided 

f D^^^ 




17 



taking the first dose be felt giddy, as if he would go off 
sensible, Hi£ lips, face and hands turned bine, and lie had 
lie down for an hour and a half before he dared 
heart fluttered and he suffered from throbbing pains in the 
head. Ho was urged to take anotlior dose, but declined on the ' 
ground that he had a wife and family. Another patient had ' 
to sit down for an hour after the dose, and said that it took all 
bis strength away. He, too, seemed to think that the medicine 
did not agree with him. The women appear to have suffered 
more than the men ; at all events, they expressed their opinions 
more forcibly. One woman said that ten minutes after toking 
tbe first dose (she did not take a second), she felt a trembling 
sensation all over and suddenly fell to the floor. Whilst lying 
there she perspired profusely, her face and head seemed swollen 
and throbbed violently until she thought they wou'd burst. 
.... Another woman said she thought she would have died 
after taking a dose, it threw her into a violent perspiration, 
and in less than five minutes her lij)s turned quite black and 
throbbed for hours ; it upset her so much that she was afraid 
she would never get over it. The only one of the fourteen 
patients who made no complaint after taking ten grains was 

powerfully affected by fifteen The effect on these 

patients was so unpleasant that it was deemed iinndvisable to 
repeat the dose." 

Dr. W. E. Gowers is the author of what is probably 
the moat valued work on Nerrous Diseases, and was tbe 
Qulstoniao lecturer to the Eoyal College ol Physieians in 
1880. From the report of one of these lectures we 
extract the following : — 

" A very interesting fact has, however, been ascertained by 
Dr. Pamskill, viz., that picrotoxine in large doses of from 
fifteen to eighteen njilli grammes will almost invariably produce 
a fit in twenty or thirty minutes. 

" In one patient, for instance (according to the notes of Mr. 
Broster, wtio carried out the experiments), the dose was daily 
increased, and when more than five milligrammes were iojectod 
a sensation of giddiness followed similar to that with which 



the attacks comtuenued. The same effect followed larger in- 
jectioua, and wlieu the doBB reached eightecii milligramiiies 
a aerere attack ocaurred thirtjr miautes later, and an attack 
always followed the injection of this dose. In another patient 
a similar progresaive inciease of the dose was followed by 
giddineu and headache when eight milligmmmes were in- 
jected. When the dose of fifteen milligraiumes was reached 
a severe epileptic fit followed. Next day a second dose of 
fifteen milligrammes did not cause a fit, hut eighteen milli- 
grammes, two days later, caused a fit in half-au-hour. After 
a week's inteniiission twenty-foiir milligrammes were injected, 
and a severe fit occurred in tweuty-five minutes. In a third 
patient a fit occurred after one injection of eight milligrammea, 
but ten milligrammes next day caused a fit in fifteen minutes. 
Seventeen milhgrammes next day caused a fit in thirty 
minutes. In a fourth patient a single dose of eighteen milli- 
grammes caused in ten minutes giddiness and slight dazzling 
before the eyes, and in thirty minutes there occurred the usual 
aura of an attack — a sensation of something creeping up the 
right ana to the top of the head, and numbness and twitching 
iu the right thigh, but no fit followed, although the j 
was stupid and dull for a time as after a fit." — Lancet, i 
10th, IflSO. 

It IB therefore quite idle to protest that i 
mentation ia performed on patients in hospitals, quitfl 
apart from any possible good which might result to then! 
from such treatment. It is seen that drugs a 
ally givOD without the patient's condition being in thfti 
least considered; in eome cases being gi 
healthy persons. Whilst it may be urged that 1 
oxperimenta are never carried to such an extent i 
England as seriously to endanger life, it ie obvious tl 
much BufEering is caused, and the line of demarcati<n 
bntweon causing suffering and placing a patient in dai 
is not a very clear one, and ie easily overstepped. E 
experiments as those whose records I have quoted e 




IS 



'be clearly marked o£E from another form of experiment, 
namely, tlie trying of a new drug with the sole idea of 
benefiting the patieut on whom the trial is made ; though 
even then the nature of the experiment should be clearly 
explained to the subject. The some distinctiDu must ba 
made between dangerous surgical operations petformed 
to give a man a last chance and similar operations per- 
formed to relieve a condition of less danger than the 
operation itself. This distinction is often overlooked by 
the sentimentalists vho occasionally air their well-meant 
but somewhat ill-founded views in the columns of the 
daily papers. Operations performed etherwise than for 
the good of the patients I believe to be very rare. At 
the same time they are not unknown, and we find Dr. 
C^on, from whose work I have already quoted, saying 
that 

■ ■ many a surgical operation is performed less for the benefit of 
the patient than for the service of science, and the utility of 
the knowledge aimed at thereby ia often much more trifling 
than that attained by vivisection of an animal." 

Again, we may quote from the report of Dr. Farkes on 
the fatal operations performed at the Chelsea Hospital for 
Women; — 

"The aim of the majority of these operations is to mitigate 
pain and discomfort, and not primarily to save Ufe; the diseased 
conditions, for the relief of wMcli such operative treatment is 
applied, being for the most part chronic in their natures and 
by no means tending to an early fatal termination. It is 
evident, therefore, that the question of the justifiability of snch 
operations must arise, unless it is possible to reduce the risk of 
fatal issue from such operations to on extremely low figure." 

Further comment on these extracts is unnecessary. The 
talk of experimentation in English hospitals, though often 
absurdly exaggerated, ia thus seen to be not without 



20 

faimdation. Though, as haa been stated, thia kind of 
tiling is comparatively rars, yet the more fact of its 
oocaaional esiatenoe, without producing any signa of dis- 
approval on the part of other members of the profeaaion, 
la Bufficient to nfloeaaitate the limitation of the power of , 
the medical atafl. J 

Faith and Charity. ^ 

But there are many other grievances almost equally 
serious and much more common than direct experimenta- 
tion. The ordinary method o( conduoting extern obstetric 
prEictice in comiection with the hospitals is one which 
urgently requires reform. 

Most of the London hospitals to which medical schools 
are attached arrange for the medical attendance on a large 
number of maternity cases in the patients' homes. These 
cases are almost entirely attended by students, and very 
rarely is any precaution taken to ensure that a stu den 
has any practical, or even theoretical, acquaintance 
with midwifery. Often a student attends his first case 
entirely alone. It ia true that an overworked resident 
obstetric officer (just qualified) is attached to eaoh 
hospital ; and to him the student may send in case of 
emergency if he recognises it. The wasted pain and 
subsequent injury which such unskilled treatment entails 
must be something enormous. 

Nor is the present system of out-patient relief adopted 
at the hospitals much more satisfactory. Sir William 
Gull, at a meeting of the Charity Organisation Society, 
characterised it as "a disgrace to any civilised com- 
munity," and the British Medical Journal (May 4th, 1878) 
writes that : — 

" It is a notorious fact that a fractional part only of the 





21 



outpatients who crowd the London hospital doora can obtaio 
more thau a. few hurried words of advice from the medical staff, 
let alone careful diagnosiB or treatment ; yet so rooted ij tie- 
conviction among the poorer and uiioducated classea that 
skilled medical treatment ia to be found at the hospitals only, 
that thither they flock, often after a weary and paintuS 
journey, necessitating the loss of a day's work or the neglect 
of household duties, only to receive instructions to return, for 

treatment some other day As a consequence of this 

excess of numbers, the poor are made to wait an inordinate 
time for the advice given ; and snch advice, when obtained, ia 
often hurried and worthless." 

Quite apart from the question of pliyeical good treatment, 
ia another matter which requires remedying. Xbia ts th& 
custom of regarding hospitals aa charitable or pauper- 
ising institutions, although one medical man who gave 
evidence before the Royal Commission on hospitals re- 
gretted that they were not looked upon more in this light. 
He " regarded it as unfortunate that people should accept 
hospital relief without feeling that they were paupers." 
As a result of this way of regarding the patients, they 
are often troated with the greatest insolence by students 
and members of the staff. It is a fairly common way of 
displaying his otherwise inapparent superiority, for an 
out-patient surgeon or physician to subject a nervous old 
woman to a bullying cross-examination such as few 
barristers would apply to a criminal. This kind of thing; 
would not be tolerated but for tbe fact that the patient is- 
receiviog charity, and that so much power rests in the 
hands of the medical oiEcers. In this connection, I raay 
quote from a little book called " What to Ask ", written 
for the guidance of young practitioners by a London 
physician. Dr. Milner FothergiU : 

" Hie student sees a patient in the hospital : he is a number 




in a ward ; bis friendB are people whu come bothering Etskiiig 
qnestaons, or w&ntmg to see him at iaconrenient hours. When 
he gojB to private practice he is apt to carry a good deal <jt thn 
hospital house -surgeon about him— I am cot insiiiuatiiig that 
this is wrong: but certainly it h sometimes injudici' 
hospital patient is the recipient of charity, and must 
his feelings, unless flagrantly outraged." 

call in the other doctor. 



A private patient c: 



tsan^^H 



What is Wanted. 
As to the remedy ior this maltreatment of patients 
waate of money, little more than main lines o( reform can 
be suggested. The most important reform of all will 
pTobatly be the last, namely, the humanising of medical 
education. The superior position which abstract science 
holds over humanity or respect for life, is a great draw- 
back to eueeessful hospital reform. The important part 
■which vivisection plays in present-day medical teaching is 
of itself a very serious foe to humane habits. But still, 
much may be done. In the first place the hospitals 
ahould be taken over by the various County Councils 
within whose jurisdiction they happen to be situated. It 
would probably be found advisable for the Council to 
elect a board, the majority of which should consist of 
members of the Council and the small minority of eminent 
surgeons and physicians elected by the hospital staff. 
This Board would take the place of the present Boards of 
management, and would appoint instructors and salaried 
resident officers instead of the present unskilled resident 
staff who are there to learn, and the unpaid visiting staff 
in search of ambition and a job. It would supervise the 
financial arrangements of the hospitals, and all complaints 
might safely be made to it. The hospitals should be 



tltrown open to all who cared to use them, provided they 
were ill enough, regardless of elasa or character. The old 
"charity" fetish woiild thua die, insolence would become 
impossible and experimentatiou dangerous. A coroner's 
inquiry should be held on all deaths in the hospitals, so 
as to render reckless operators somewhat mora careful. 
The money wasted in advertising', and the other necessities 
of the competitive system would be saved, and beds would 
never have to be closed for waat of funds. The hospital 
rate would become as natural a thing as the school-rate 
or the library-rate, and would in reality bo a sort of 
insurance against illness, The hospital would, moreover, 
come to have a considerable educational influence on its 
inmates, — rich and poor, educated and uneducated, idler 
and worker, mixing together for once on terms of equality. 

To any form of public control of the hospitals the 
strongest opposition will come from the medical pro- 
fession. Thua we find Mr. Burdett, in hia " Hospitals of 
the World," writing such antique stuS as this : 

" Anything more opposed to the beat interests of the people 
than the substitution of State hospitals for the voluntary 

hospitals as they at pre^nt exist cannot be imagined 

There is a loss to the whole comaiunity in the lessened moral 
sense which State institutions create. The voluntary charities 
afford an opening for the expression of the best of all human 
feelings — sympathy between man and man. They a^ive to the 
rich an opening for the display ot consideration towards 
the poor which is fruitful in results. They create a feeling of 
widespread sympathy with those who suffer, and impress upon 
the population the duty of almsgiving to an extent which no 

other charity can do They provide a field of labour 

wherein some of the most devoted and beet members o£ society 
can cultivate the higher feeling'i of humanity and learn to 
bear their own sufferings and afflictions with resignation and 
patience." 



i Hm effect OB InA pBitica: iritOst the 
t &v iBJBMim ts Os poor a atdv Oat tho woD- 

UalaH the defenders 
«# Iho TolMBlaij o j i l BM hK«» aaaa afao^er srgiiineatB 
Am Ihooa ti Mz. Bsrdott, v« vay mardy hope for 
Ae ca^ attuuMSit of tbe reforms adTocxled in this 



WHAT IT COSTS TO BE VACCINATED. 




WHAT IT C0ST9 TO BE VACCINATED. 

What it coete to he raccinated ? Why surely, Bome law- 
abiding Englishmaii will say, it costs no more than an 
ordinary doctor's fee, and it you are poor, the public 
vaccinator will do it for nothing ; but, oi course, ii yon 
defy the law, you may he fined or impriHoned. That is 
true ; but unfortunately it is an error to suppose that 
vaccination, evea public vaccination, is entirely gratuitous, 
Tou may depend on it that whenever anyone, child or 
man, is vaccinated, it eoati gomtho^ somtthing. Pecuniary 
fMst is not the only thing, nor by any means the chief 
thing, to be considered ; there are other costs than. 
those which are pcud in money. There is the cost of 
parents' self-respect and happiness, when they are com- 
pelled, as is often the case, to submit their childrens' 
health and purity of blood to what they believe to be a 
foul and stupid contamination. There is the coat of the 
ill-health that is induced in the child, which frequently 
shows itself in a permanent injury to the system. Thera 
is the moral coat, to the nation, of allowing its statutft- 
book to be disfigured by a law which has always been 
intolerable to the instincts and good sense of the people, 
And, finally, there is the coat of the countleas sufferings 
infiitted on the lower animals by the twin acienoes of 
Vaccination and Virisection; for we may he sure that for 
«veiy human whu ia compuleorily vaccinated, some non 




human has been the subject of murderous esperimentation- 
TeB, certainly, it coats Bomething to be vaccinated ; and it 
is the object of this pamphlet to indicate what are these 
paiuB and penalties of a cruel and tyrannical law. 

A CivnjBED Heathknibm. 

In all agcB the epidemic difieasee, which come and go, 
and which at times are so tei-ribly in excess of their usual 
visitation, have been considered as suitable for the appli- 
cation of superstitious preventives or remedies. Thus 
charms, and potions, and vows, and sacritices of hunma 
and non-human beings — and from the earliest tim.ea down 
to the present day inoculation comes under the head of 
these procedures — have been used as more or less powerful 
means of appeasing the gods who sent the epidemics. But 
as civilisation spread and deepened, the superstitious 
means employed were all outgrown, excepting the practice 
of inoculation, which, curious to relate, has of recent 
years, in its various forms, more than ever been pressed by 
the medical profession. But this unique form of old world 
medication, this dangerous relic of ruder and savage times, 
this, too, is destined soon to follow the rest of its kind 
into oblivion. 

The theory of inoculation for disease is wrong in science 
AB it certainly is in morals. Society can only escape from 
^sease by removing the causes; these are drunkenness, 
impurity, slums, dirt, injustice that makes men work for 
starvation wages, and through which they drag down with 
them their wives and children. The humanitarian re- 
former has vast fields for work in this direction, and if 
he will ouly be in earnest he will, in striking- at these 
evils, remove disease thereby. Meanwhile Sir Benjamin 




rords to his ^^^1 
i Bays ^^^1 



Ward Richardson haa uttered some timely 'words 
medical brethren. Speaking of inoculation, he 

" If it be true thst we of phyaic have really, for well-nigh a 
c«ntiiry past, been worshipping an idol of the market-place or 
, even of the theatre, why the sooner we cease our worship and 
, take down our idol, the better for us altogether. We have set 
'Up the idol and the world has lent itself to the idolatry, 
because we whom the world trusted, have set the example, but 
the world now-a-days discovers idolatries on ita own account, 
and if we continue the idolatry it will simply take its own 
oouTse, and leaving us upon our knees will march on while we 
■petrify "—(^(JepW, December, 1889). 



Jennek, Vaccdiatioh, and 8mau.'Foz. 

The dieeaee I shall speak of is small-pox; none other 
concerns ua here. 

The great lesaou we learn from the history of thia 
subject is that no possible manner of cheating the disease 
by unnatural methods has ever been successful. To use 
filth or other enchantments or ehamia against small-pox is 
to mock Nature, and fly in the face of pure living and 
cleanliness. This truth, which we teach, but for which 
we are treated as fit subjects of penal law, has been thus 
expressed by the late Dr. Farr, than whom there is no 
higher authority. "What is wanted in himaan dwellings 
is sweetness and cleanliness Then follows the de- 
struction of alt the fever dena of the land " (1870 
"Keport," p. 27.) 

Small-pox is a disease of exceeding great age. I 
remember a print shown me by Mr. Alexander Wheeler, 
of Darlington, who haa followed this intricate controverey 
■of vaccination for upwards of thirty years. It represeni«d { 




13 

tbe Indian of QindooBtan worshippitig a special deity, ib» 
goddess of small-pos ; and this superstition still has its- 
tliouBands and thousands of devotees in almost every 
province of India, How far back in the prehistoric period 
must we place the rise of the gmall-pox deity is a question. 
From these supernatural observances it was easy to pass 
to the equally superatitioua idea that the best way to 
combat amall-pox was to perpetuate the disease by inflict 
ing it upon the young. This idea has obtained all ovei 
the world at difEerent times, Mid is still extensively 
followed, even in our own dominions.' The practice in 
itself is quite akin to vaccination, tor, as I have ab'oady 
hinted, the vaccine mode is nothing more than a perpetua- 
tion, in another form, of the emall-pos inoculation. 
Jenner, the inventor of vaccine (who alone gets all the 
credit of the system), was himseU inoculated in his 
childhood with small-pox, and had a very bad time of it. 
It was the remembrance of this that led him to look for 
some substitute lees disagreeable. This he claimed tO' 
have found in cow-pox. Jenner's attention was first 
attracted to the subject by the legend of the Gloucester 
daiiy-maids of the safety of the cow-poxed as against 
attacks of amall-pox, comparatively modem at that time. 
For thirty years, we are assured by Jenner's ardent and 
unscrupulous admirer, Sir John Simon, he incessantly 
thought and watched and experimented, and at last his 



' Snall-poi inoculation was made a penal offence in Eagland in 
1340, 80 that we are pretending' to prevent in one oonntiy Qie disease 
we allow the full dJBBeinination of in the other. The same thing 
oconis nearer home, for while in France the vaocination of the people 
is being pushed to an extraordinary extreme ; in Algeria there ie the 
Bpectacle of the smaU-pox being inoculated and TaooinaUoo being- 
floated liy the old Arab population. 




dnced that ^^^1 
n deBcribes ^^H 

that amall. ' 



''patience and caution and modesty,"' produced 
masterpiece of medical induction, as Sir Jo}in 
Jenner's "Inquiry," the point of whicli was tliat small- 
pos in man and cow-pox in the cow had a common origin i 
in the grease of the horse.' Doctors diflered over this and 
other connected matters, experimentation on both men and 
t\nimB,1a was greatly resorted to, but in the end, by "sly 
and impudent tales," by deceit and lying, and by dexterous 
diplomacy and influential friends, including the King and 
his Prime Minister, he extracted from Parliament first 
£10,000, and subsequently the House of Commons, in 
«d to him an additional grant of £20,OUU. 



The Wabs akd Prbvb; 



i Disease. 



What then was the small-pox ? 

It is one of a set of fevers, and the reason that it was 
selected for special treatment by custom or law no doubt 
was because it affects the face of its victims. There is an 
immense amount of literature declaring that the disease 
was a pestilence as destructive as the plague, but there 
was absolutely no truth in such statements. The plague 
was a disease that decimated the people in times past ; it 
produced a death-rate of fearful proportions. But small' 

1 In his " Natoral History of Cow-pox and Vaociiisl SjpMUs," Dr. 
Charles Creighton sajB of Jetiner'a methods : "He was never preciaa 
when he could be vagoe, and was never etraigfhtforward when he 
-oauld be BecretiTe." 

' la Bsjoq'b "Life of Jenner," lit vol., page 254, we find that 
" Dr. Jenner was in the practice of using equina matter with com- 
plete iaixene. He supplied mjself (Dr. Baron) and many of bis 
medical frieudH from this source. He transmitted it to Edinburgh, 
where it produced the genuine cow-poi." See also Jenner'a 
■" Inquiry," third editton, page 2 — pahlidied in ISOl. 



pox tad never in recoi-ded historj- done thia in Europe^ 
' OB far as I can find in Asia either, and the stoiieB of 
its having done so in America must he taten with a grain 
of salt. Small-pox showed none of the large increases of 
mortality which the plague showed. It was a compara- 
tively steady thing. And more than this it must be 
remembered that the small-pox had begun to decline 
before vaccination was adopted.' The reason for that 
ilecline waa that the country as well as the continent of 
Eui-ope was emerging from a long and disastroua series 
wars in which there had been utter disregard for the 
welfare of the masses of the population, and only the- 
bntto determination to carry on a war of extermination 
against a people across the channel. For nearly a hundred 
trs there had been continuous wars carried on by thia 
mtry, and there was in consequence a condition of 
thinga that might be compared to national exhaustion. 
Tlie whole resources of the land and the energies of the- 
people as well as their treasure and life-blood had been 
spent on these wars, well-nigh to the ruin of 
land. It was this long series of wars that brought about 
famine prices for food, retarded the progress of trade and 
(^jmmerce, and made a population at home that wa 
poor and as stricken in its resources as the poorest of the 
European countries of our day. Then came the grim 
follower of all this madness, disease; following on dear 



I Dr. Tan shows that this tmproTemmt waa untscedent to vaa 
tiOD. Hia own words in "U'CDiloch'B StatisbicB of the Bi 
Empire" itre : " Small -pox uttained itti maiiniiun after inocnli 
was intiodaced. Thia disease began Id grow less fatal before vi 
nation was ilist^overed, indioatiiig, together with the diminntio 
ferer, the general improfementa in health then taking place. Fever , 
has declined in nearly th^ Bame ratio as small-poi-" 




food and bad food and no food, came tf-phus and small- 
pox, and consnmption, and other evile all of wMoh are 
preventable diseases. 

The Usklkssness o? Vaccikatioh. 
Vaccination was first made eompulBory by Act of Parlia- 
ment in the year 1853. The Act was further amt^nded 
and made more stringent in I8C7, and again in 187K 
Jenner bad declared to Parliament, when pleading for 
a reward, that vaccination would leave one " 
after secure against the contagion of the small-pox." And 
to-day, simply through the practice having been rendered 
compulsory on parents, despite years and years of the most 
incesBant and active propaganda, thousands of people in 
this country still believe that " the discovery of Jenner has 
undoubtedly saved tens of thousands of lives, and almost 
banished small-pox from the civilised portions of the 
globe." This claim has no foundation in fact. In the 
midst of the greatest small<pox epidemic of this country 
on record, after thirty-one years of parochial and 
seventeen years of added vaccine compulsion, the Lanett 
of July ISth, 1871, thus delivered itself: 

" The deaths from small-poK have assumed the proportions 
of a plague. Over 10.000 lives have been sacrificed during the 
past year in England and \S ales. In London, 5,641 persons 
have died of small-pox since the beginning of the year. Of 
9,392 patients who have been admitted into the smoll-pox 
hospitals under the management of the Metropolitan Asylums 
Board, no leas than 6,6S4 had been vaccinated ; that is, nearly 
73 per cent. Taking the mortahty from small-pox at 17'j per 
oent of those attacked, and the deaths this year in the whole 
country at 10,000, it will follow that more than 122,000 
vacdnated persone have suffered from amall-pox. Ought we ta 
be satisfied with this alannimg state of things ? Can wa 




16 



greatly wonder that the opponents of vaccination should 
to such statistics as an evidenae of the failure of the sfHt«inF 
It is necessary to apeak plainly on thia important matter." 
The Eegiatrar- Generals returns show that in the first 
fifteen yeai-s after the passing of the eompulaory Vaccina- 
tion Act, 1864-68^ there died of small-pox in England and 
Wales 55,204 people; in the second fifteen years, 1869-63, 
under a store stringent law, under which the Government 
claimed to have secured the vaccination of 95 per cent. 
of all children bom, the deaths rose to 66,979 ; total for 
thirty years 1-22,183. 

Nothing is changed as to vaccination in its relation to 
small-pox. Eeeent returns of the Asylums Board show 
that the eufierers continue to be the vaccinated ; they are 
found to be the majority of sufferers in all places, 
there is this notable exception — the Board has a 
boasted of a reduced average fatality. This, be 
marked, has been due to a moat vicious arrangement for 
tabulating the sufferers in small-pox. The diBoaso is the 
only one so affecting the skin as to cover up the yaecina- 
tion marks ; and yet it is the only time when a person, 
a rule, has to show his marks of vaooination to pn 
whether ho is or is not vaccinated. This has been derid< 
and set aside, but the Report of the Board for 
first time, shows that eveiy word ■ 
source of error in the classifying of the vaccinated 
been correct. The Table B. shows that of twenty-six 
patients, thirteen of whom died, vaccination " could not be 
asserted on account of the abundance of the eruption 
the small-pox. To give the facts, these thirteen de 
must be added to the forty-two vaccinated deaths, 
then the averages as to the vaccinated fatality 
upset, and will be largely increased — for all were 



for II 





17 



-raccinated. This is the secret out at last, and authorita- 
tively stated. The so-called unvaocinated are not un- 
Taccinated — they are vaccinated, for the most part, I 
firmly boliere. And the statistios we liave had all along 
are without any esception open to this vice — they es- 
* aggwate the unvaccinated, and decrease the vaccinated 
fatalities, by making thi? clasaification on a principle 
irhich is faulty and inaccurate. 

So that we see that the vaccination for which Jenner got 
his "thirty pieces of silver'" is a grotesque failure for the 
purpose for which it was designed ; made the : 
monstrous in that the Acts to legahse and enforce it n 
lobbied through Parliament by the most disgusting 
•chicanery. 

Eb- Vaccination also a Failtikr. 
The same confident prophecy is now made of re-vaccina- 
tion which Jenner and the Royal College [of Physicians 
made of vaccination. Medical officers of health have 
from time to time mRmoralised the Local Government 
Board on the subject, and repeated vaccination is urgently 
recommended by various medical ]'oumals, led by the 
Lancet ami Mr. Ernest Abraham Hart, the editor of the 
BritUh Medical Journal.' 

' Jenner wa^ tnken into the Committee'rooin in 1 802, and the 
printed minutea of evidence seem to show tliat he only hunded In bu 
■l/eady printed Petition and then withdrew, not having been asked a 
Bolitarj qaeatioD. 

> Mr. Hart and a ooramittee of medical fossils aotuallj sug'getit in a 
recent pamphlet tliat antd-vaocinista who pnblioly speak • 
against the practice of vaccination shonid be prosecuted as ai 
TSx. Hart also suggests — the refoaal of free edncation te nnvaooinated 
ehOdren, the reqnirements of edncation still operating, bnt at the cost 
<i the parent ; and the proeecntion of employ era of labor who give 
woA to aaj bnt re- vaccinated persona. 



i 




Our re-Taocinated army ib said to be "perfectly pro- 
tected." The facts of the case fumislied by the Army 
Uedical Department Beporta do not exemplify this state- 
ment. From tliB Report for 1893, themoat recent published, 
we leam that there were fifty oases of small-pos, and 
four deaths from the disease, during the year, among'* 
our re-vartinated fwldierB, Our army was compoaed in 
1893, of 202,125 men all told in England, her colonies, 
and dependencies. The small-pox attacks were, therefore, 
at the rate of one case per 4,043 men. On this showing', 
the advantage of re-vaccination is not very apparent, tot 
we gather from the Local Govemmeat Eeport for 1893- 
that there were 11,135 caaes of small-pox in the country 
in that year. And as the population is given as 29,731,100- 
by the Eegistrar-Generol, you have one ease (case mind) 
tor every 2,670 of the population, of all ages, tn/antt Hi- 
liudfi. Our army, therefore, though composed of picked 
men in the prime of life and vigour, surrounded by good 
sanitary conditiona, and in an average way a. healthfxil 
clasB, fare little better, though vaecinated and re-vaccinated 
as to Government mark, than the general population, which 
includes the lame, the halt, the blind, life in overcrowded 
dwellings, and lite in the worst possible sanitary environ- 
ment, which has not been protected by re- vaccination. It 
has been shown that in India the case against re-vaccina- 
tion is even stronger. There, in the same year, our men 
numbered 69,865, and they had thirty-three caaes of small- 
pox, or one case for every 2,116 men. If the ttrmy agt is 
taken, we find the death-rate nearly double that of the 
correaponding nge in the jmpulation at large.' Wherein, 

' Dr. J. H. C. Dalton, b pro-vacoinatian authority, in the Midieat 
Chroniiilt, Odtober, 1E93, gives ttblea showing that the pFotection bj- 
• TMfdnstlon ia equallj ephemeral with priinai7 TaooiiiatiDii. For 



then, lies the value of this re -vaccination, may I ask its- 
medical champions at the Local Gtovemmeiit Board? Thia 
question will, of courae, never be answered, for the best 
possible answer would reflect no credit on its advocates. 



The Immumitv c 

A word as to hospital nurses. The nursing staffs of onr 
fever hospitalH, we are assured, do not take amall-pox, 
because they are protected by re-vaooination. This is a 
sweeping statement that has not been allowed to pass 
unohalleDged. But the secret of the thing is, partly, 
that many people are not susceptible to small-pox, 
and that in those who would, perhaps, escape under 
ordinary circumstances, fear plays an important part in 
making them susceptible to the disease, and there is no 
proof because a nurse is re-vaccinated and does not take 
small-pox, that the re -vaccination is the protecting in- 
fluence. The very nature of a nurse's calling is evidence 
that she ia no ordinary person, and her constitution 
becomes immune to small-pox in very many instances, just 
aa it does any other kind of fever. We read in the Third 
Report of the Lords' Committee on the Metropolitan 
Hospitals, p. 345 : " The nurses are engaged on a three 
years' agreement ; their health is said to be good, and not 
one has died within the last ten years. Their number is 
about twenty." And so also in the course of the evidence 
we have Dr. Hopwood, Resident Medical Officer to the- 



he citea OBaes of smoll-pox occnrrin^ I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, B, 9, 10, 11,. 
12, 13, U, IT, IS, and 32 days after reoent vaocin&tioii, fourof wMolt 
were fatal ; and SI mtses of small-poz at intervals of I, 2, 4, B, 6, 7, 
3, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 16, 20, 25, 30, and 40 years after re-vaooinationf 
(but of whieh were fatal. 



London Fever UospitaJ, stating : ■' Do you know what the 
mortality amongst nurses has been in the last tea yeara^ 
— There has been no one who has died," Then there 
the further imjjoi-tant consideration that the ranks of 
nurses are more or less recruited from among tlie 
pox patients: at the Highgate Hospital thja is ah 



s f ar a 



yg. 



jihh 



lat the 

yeara^^H 
lere i^^^| 
of ti^^H 



The Iftte Mr, P. A. Taylor asked the medical authorities 
again and again to explain how it was that among the Paris 
and Dubhn nurses, no case of unre-vaccinated small-pox 
was discovered. But of eourse the truth is that re- 
vaccinated nurses do sometimes aufier. Br. Colin, speak- 
ing of the attendants in the small-pox hospital in Paris, 
says two hundred were re- vaccinated principally under his 
own eyes and yet fifteen were attacked with small-pos 
and one died. On the other hand, the same authority 
speaks of forty attendants and physicians at Bicetri who 
did not take small-pox, although they neglected to be 
re -vaccinated. Mi'. Wheeler showed in his evidence before 
the Hoyal Commission that in the Sheffield visitation, 
the nurses came ofE worse, proportionately, than the rest 
of the population. 



Usv 



Cbildben. 



One of the well-wiim arguments of the vaccinists ia that 
of unvaccinated children being so much more liable than 
vaccinated ones to die of small-pos. If vaccination 
statistics prove anything they prove this, we are told. 
Well, here is a recent case which disproves the claim. It 
is at Grays, in Essex, and the small-pox was in 1893. 
The outbreak was introduced by an unvaccinated child, 
the source of whose contagion was never discovered. The 




31 



a this child, and also in a brother, "was strikiiigly 
mild, being in fact exactly' like a. case of small-pox modi- 
fied by vaccination. The disease was not recognised, and 
the children were allowed about, when a neighbour, a 
in, aged 40, took the disease, and bad a very seTBre 
attack." This attack at Orays is useful in many ways. 
Here is a summary ot it : — 
" Unvaccinated." 
1st case, unvaccinated ahild, mild . 
40 years old woman, severe . . 

Children 

Vaccinated. 
Children , . . . . , , 

Two ot 9 and 13 years 

Adults (many hod good marks) 



Oaxfs. Dtatht. 



Three were coses of amall-pox a second time, 
ises, 27 vaccinated, and 2 deaths among them, and S 
inated " and no deaths. (Beported by Dr. Sidney H. 
Snell, Medical OfBcer of Health for Grays, Essex, — Briiitk 
Mtdkai Journal, 19th May, 189-1.) 

There is a further consideration. Medical men do not 
and daro not vaccinate all children. It is a risk that 
neither doctor nor statesman will undertake. There are 
always a good many cases declared " unvaccinated " which 
have been rejected by the vaccinator because they were 
sickly, bad subjects to touch, and it is no sort of wonder 
that they do take small-pox, just as they are the first to fall 
victims to any prevailing epidemic. In the Sheffield epidemic 
several of the "unvaccinated " were little mites who were 
bom of mothers who had been vaccinated, and had the small- 
pox at the time the children were bora ; and yet these chil- 
dren were classed in the official Report as " unvaccinated." 
Forty-four of the Sheffield "unvaccinated" are dsscribed. 



"by words beginning "vaccinated," but as it goes on to 
Bay, too early, or too late, or too little, etc., they are 
ditmiaaed from the vaeeinattd. But in no case have the 
authoritiea attempted to check the hospital classification 
by the vaccination officer's book. Vaccinated is one thing 
and the medical "vaccinated" is another. A child may 
have been vaccinated and be declared in the hospital to 
be " un vaccinated." Doctore dassiiy by a method which 
18 totally different to that by which the vaccination of 
children is determined. Small-pox is a ekin disease. The 
worse it ia, the more the skin is affected. And in the 
worst cases the vaccination marks do not show ; and when 
by the small-pox the vaccination marks are eaten out 
the subject is classed as either " unvaceinated " or as 
"imperfectly vaccinated." All such cases as those in- 
stanced at Sheffield are a poorly lot, and aU those certified 
as " unfit " for the operation of vaccination — the very 
children who fall a prey to the epidemics that they meet 
in their lives — make a very considerable number among 
the unvaccinated. All those of this class should be 
"legally exempt" in the books of the hospital doctor. 
But any stick is good enough to beat an anti-vaccinist 
with, and they go on as if such children were merely 
unvaccinated by opposition of the parents and healthy 
subjects. 

A CwHiors IixvsioH. 
The disappearance of pock-marked faces is a favourite 
argument for vaccination. People eay a great change has 
been wrought by vaccination, for when they were young 
such faces were common, whilst now they are rare. To 
deal with this argument, we should know when the 
^jieaker was young. Was it in 1821 ? If bo, what shall 



"be said of this passage from the annual Heport of the 
National Vaccine EHtablishment, for 1822, prmted by 
■Older of the House of Commona : 

" Aa a proof of the protecting influence of vaccination, we 
appeal confidently to all who frequent crowded assemblies, to 
admit that they do not discover in the riiiing geneiatiou aay 
longer that disfignrement of the human face which was obvious 
everywhere some years since." 

That was upwards of seventy years ago. Coming down 
to 1831, we find Dr. Epps, director of the Eoyal Jennerian 

Society, writing : — 

" Seldom are persone now seen blind from small-pox. Seldom 
is the pitted and disfigured face now beheld ; but seldom do 
mankind inquire for the cause. It is vacdnation. It is 
lation which preserves the soft and rounded cheek of 
, and the still more captivating form of female 
loveliness." 

Thus pock -pitted faces were seldom seen in 1 831 , 
more than sixty years ago. Now, at that time vaccination 
bad not been applied to ten per cent, of the English, and 
was wholly inadequate to account for this diaappeai'ance. 
When people at this day talk (as they do) of the fre- 
quency of pock-marked faces when they were young, 
they are indeed labouring under some illusion. To 
those who keep their eyes open there are unhappily too 
many cases still to be seen, so there is not much leas 
illnmon in the extreme rarity ascribed to small-pox dis- 
figurement. Thus, nearly twenty years after vaccination 
was made compulsory, the Lancet, of June 29th, 1862, 
lamented, concurrently with the iUusiou — 

" The growing frequency wHfa which we meet persons in the 
ftreet disfigured for life with the pitting of small-pox. Young 
men, and still worse, young women are to be seen daily whose 
'Oomeliness is quite compromised by this dreadful disease." 




We need not hesitate to allow that when emaU-pox was 
oommon and cultivated (as it was hj smaU-pox inocula- 
tion), pock -marked faces were numerous. "Small-pox 
will never ha subdued," wrote .Tenner, "so long as men 
tan be hired to spread the contagion by inoculation ; " and 
inoculation was for many years the established medical 
practice. "We must not forget, moreover, that whether a 
small-pOK patient ia marked or not marked is much a 
matter of treatment, Dr. Birdwood, auperintfindent of the 
smaU-pos hospital ships, moored off Dartford, aaya ; — 

" No disease better repays a good nurse in rapid recovery 
and in complications avoided. So much depends on tlie nnrae 
that I am confident if all my nurses were as good as the best, 
the returns would show a reduced mortality, the case-book 
fewer eyes lost, and fewer patients detained by boils for 



So that, really, improved treatment is the probable cauae 
of what deorease in face disfigurement is credited to 
vaccination, The treatment of small-pox in former timee 
was atrocious. " I have seen above forty children," says 
Dr. Buchan, "cooped up in one apartment all the while 
they had the disease, irithout any of them being admitted 
to breathe the fresh air." If, under such circumstances, 
the sick were restored to life pock-marked, what wonder ! 
Now that certain precautions are observed, many at this 
day pass through amaU-pos, and even severe small-pox, 
and escape unmarked. The whole thing therefore re- 
solves itself into a mere hallucination. Jloreover, I 
venture to say, that if anyone sufGciently interested in 
the subject will make careful inquiries, aa I have done 
several times myself, he will find almost invariably that 
such disfigured people have been vaccinated, and somo of 
item repeatedly. 





Geite ma Appailino Eiskb. 
The vacciaation anuole in ever; coimtiy in Thiolt th9 
practice of vaccinatioa liaa heen enforced are uniquely rich. 
in poignant episodes of injustice, cruelty, disease, and. 
death — the oft-recurring results of compulaoiy vaccination. 

A great many doctors continue to pour ridicule upon the 
practical danger incurred of transmitting diseasea through 
the medium of vaccine lymph, other than the dii 
the vaccine itself, and learned books have been written to 
prove that this very grave charge is erroneous and un- 
founded. But facta are facta after all, whatever verbiage 
may be expended to spirit them away, Mr Jonathan 
Hutchinson, the great syphilographer, says: "It is im- 
poBsihle for the moat careful and experienced doctor 
always to tell when syphilis is present " in vaccine lymph. 
Sir Thomas Watson, the great surgeon, has described the 
danger as "a ghastly risk." Mr Brudenell Carter, 
F.E.C.S., thinks "that a large proportion of the oasea of 
apparently inherited syphilis are really vaccinal." 

The saddest thing in the yearly Eeports of the Registrar- 
Qeneral, and one which does not show any noticeable signs 
of improvement, is the record of deaths " from cow-pox and 
other effects of vaccination.'" What amount of the "other 



4 



' " From the retuma just pnbliuhed by the Begiatr&r-OeiieHtl, it 
appears tiat in 1894 thirteen persona died from hydrophoMa, and 
fifty from ' cow-poi and other effects of vaccination.' Thus for every 
Hing'le victdm of rabipB there were almost four whose deaths were 
directly due to the oareleBSness of the paid medical men who vaodnated 
them. [PBraonally, I do not think oareleaanega is the sole cause of the 
'deaths from cow-poi and other etteota of vaodnatlon, ' for the opera- 
lion to one without any given precision, and death may resnlt from 
oow-pox itself, which is a matter quite apart from the vaccinaton' 
skill,— J. C] Why is it that we hear so muoh, so very mnoh, of the 
thirteen victims and so Uttle of the fifty ? Is it because some int«FeEt> 



effects of vaccination " is made up of syphilitic contamina- 
tion is not told ; neither are a good many " other effects of 
vaccination " recorded at all. Bat the bare statement of 
what i^e Oovemiuent Is responsible for in the way of 
vaccinal slaughter gives an average of fifty-two deaths 
annually, or one a week. In June, 1882, four children were 
killed at Norwich by vaccination, all in the course of one 
morning's work.' In 1886 three children died from vacci- 
nation at Sudbury. At Misterton, near Gainsborough, 
«ight children died from vaccination in 1876, From 
Parlinmentary returns, we know that whilst vaccination 
was voluntary (1847-53), the deaths from skin diseases 
amongst children in the first year of life averaged annually 
183 per million born ; during the period of obligatory, but 
not strictly enforced vaccination (1853-67), the number 
became 258 ; imder strictly enforced vaccination (1867-78), 
it riaea to 343. The same periods and the same clasei- 
fieation for scrofula will give the figures 351,611, and 
908 respectively; whilst from syphilis the corresponding 
figures are 564, 1,206, and 1,738 respectively; this last 
showing an increase among infants of more than 300 
per cent.* It is generally understood, I heheve, amongst 



and tliat a very powerful and nbiquitoiiB one, is at wort in the foimei 
-oaae to procUim on the housetopa every real or supposed deatli from 
nAies (and so prepare the way for PnBtenrisin), while the same interest 
is equally concerned in Binoliierin^ and keeping ont of eight every 
-oase of death from the ■ effect ot vaooination P ' "— Zoophilist, March, 
189S. 

' "The purity o£ lymph," said Dr. Guy, tie public vacoinator of 
tliese children, in the inquitj whioh followed, " can only be taated by 
reanlts " ! 

" These deaths From syphilis in infants reached their highest point 
In the year 1883, the top point of raooinatioaB, and then fell to a 
nnoh lower level as vaccinations fell from that jeat forward. 




27 



"veterinary surgeons that horses afEected with grease have a 
tendency to conaumption of the InngB. If that ti 
it not account, in a great meaaure, for the rapid increase in 
pnhnonary consumption in London after the introduction 
of vaccination ? In the Midieal Times and Gaxette for 
•January Ist, 1854, we find it stated that the deaths from 
consumption for the ten years ending 1853, for London 
alone, were 68,304 victims. Erysipelas, again, due to 
vaccination, is a frequent cause of death. Says the Britith 
Midieal Journal : 

" In addition to the fact that people are ill after vacoination, 
it is important to remember that people die after the operation. 
if not from the disease itself, at least from its sequelie, notably 
•erysipelas." 

By various authorities the recrudescence of leprosy is 
attributed to contagion, the consumption of putrid iiah, 
and other alleged causes ; but there is an utter absence 
of demonstrable evidence. Only when we come to the 
'q^uestion of inoculability does there appear to be any 
approach to a consensus of opinion. Most important 
evidence on this head is to be found in Mr William Tebb's 
remarkable work on " The Eecrudescence of Leprosy and 
its Causation," wherein are brought together for the first 
time some of the most incriminating facts, comprising some 
100 pages of closely marshaUed testimonies, nearly all 
medically certified, as to the communication of leprosy 
by means of vacc^iue lymph. Several of the authoritiea 
quoted by Mr Tebb, while admitting that vaccination is 
capable of transmitting the ravages of leprosy, did so with 
reluctance, and with apology to the faculty. The points 
which Mr. Tebb establishes beyond the possibility of doubt 
-are the following : — 

(1) That leprosy is transmitted in the vast majority of 




i 



i 




cases by inoculatioD, that la, by tlie introduction of 
m&terial from a leprous person into the 
aQOther person. 

(2) That in a very considerable number of definitely 
aeeertained instancee the inoculation with leprosy has 
been brought about by meana of vaRcination, tbe vaccine- 
matter having been taken, knowingly or unknowingly, 
from a leprous source and containing the virus of both 
diseases. 

(3) That partioular outbreaks of leprosy have followed 
unusual activity in vaccinating in the face of amall-pox 



Thbkk IB jfo "Pure Lymfh," 
Do not he misled by the cry "pure lymph." There is 
no pure lymph ; vaccine is a disease ;' moreover, it i» 
impossible to tell whether it contains other diseaaee ; it 
may contain even two or three different sortB. Dr. ¥am, 
the Government microscopiBt, told the Eoyal Commission 
on Vaccination that he was unable to guarantee the purity 
of lymph ; that he was unable to tell whether it contained 
the virus of syphilis or not. Again, Mr. Bradlangh asks- 
Professor Crookahank, M.B. : — 

" Do I imderBtand that lymph might bo tested by any test 
you are at present able to apply, and that you would he unable 
to diBtrnguish between a, lymph which wsa harmless, and one 
which might be bnrmful to the extent of communicating 
Byphilia ?— We have no known test by which we could possibly 



'Mr. . 



. W. Hutt. 



I, thoug-b not a physician, remtttkB from thn 
oommon-senBe point of view, "Wiiy Bhovild cow-pox, alone BmoDg> 
diseases, never do any haiml' Other diseases of nniTn.i. snob aa 
glanders, or antbrux, or rabiea, are known to be pecnUarlj deadly- 
irhen nccidently inouulated on to roin." — " The Vaocination QuM- 
tion,"p. Sl-a. 




39 



'diBting^uish We do aot know tha nature of fiv^ con- 

tagium of Byphilis at all." 

Meeare. Savory and Foster try to discount these plain 
, whereupon Mr. Bradlaugb characteristically de* 
majided : — 

" Do you know any kind of test of any character whatever 
which you could apply to a lymph-tube which would enable 
you to ascertain that it was haroiful to the extent of c 
iDunicating syphilia ? — No." 

Lord Berkeley's Committee ol 1802, which received 
Jenner'a PetitioOj and took a sort of evidence on it, re- 
ported as foUowa, among other things, of Jenner's cow- 
pox — "that it does not excite other humors or disorders 
in the constitution ; that it has not been known in any 
-one instance to prove fatal ; that the inoculation may be 
safely performed at all times of life (which is known not 
to be the case with regai'd to the inoculation of the small- 
pox) in the eai-Hest infancy," etc. This is a, guarantee on 
the part of the Committee against any possible recoi'd 
such as the Eegistrar-General now annually gives us of 
deaths due to "cow-pox and other effects of vaccination." 
The amount of evidence showing that arm-to-ann virus is 
a not infrequent cause of serious constitutional disease 
brought before the Eoj'al Commission on Vaccination is 
■conclusive and incontrovertible ; hundreds of cases of 
blood-poisoning, eczema, erysipelas, Byphilis, and leprosy 
being jnvaceinated are adduced. In order to avoid the 
■perils of vaccination, the Grocers' Company some yeata 
ago considerately ofEered a prize of £1,000 for a less 
■objectionable virus ; in other words, " the discovery of a 
method by which the vaccine contagion may be cultivated 
Apart from the animal body in some medium or media, not 
otherwise zymotic ; the method to be such that the coo- 



i 



ta^OD may by means of it be multiplied to an indefiuite- 
estect in successive generatioiLs, and that tbe product, 
aftoi" any number of sucb gpupyationa, shall prove itself 
of identical potency with standard vatwine lymph." 
Eepeated efforts have been made botii by direct applica- 
tion to the Local Government Board, to learned vaccine 
specialists, and more recently to the Govemmeut witneseee 
before the Royal Commission, to obtain a definition ol 
"standard vaccine lymphs," but without success. The 
only information we can gather is that standard lymph is 
anything the Government like to provide for public vacci- 
nation. In England it is chieflj- the ann-to-arm variety, 
which, in order to allay public anxiety, the President oi 
the Local Government Board, Mr. Eitchie, dehberately 
declared in Parliament in reply to Mr. Arthur O'Connor on. 
June 22nd, 1887, was never used for public vaccinations. 



The Eeix Facts about Oalf-Lymph. 
Ab to calf lymph, beloved of German but scorned by 
English officialism,' though its use is strongly recom- 
mended by many English dootoi-s, who use it extensively 
in private pi'actice. Professor Crookshank says there is 
a considPrable difference between it and the so-called 



' The OovemmsDt does not enpply Hod does not approve of caU- 
Ijmph, and refers malcontent Board of Qoai^lians to the official 
iiutmotiaita to the effect "tliat the public vaccinator shall not, nnder 
ordinary ciToumEtanoes, adopt any other method of vaccination than- 
with liquid lymph directly from aim-to-ann." I cannot undecatand 
the Local Ooverument Board's words as to this. For in the Iiocal 
Government Board Beport for 1894-5, under he head of "DiBtzihn- 
tdon of Vaooine Lymph," ia — 

Human points ,. 221: Tabes ,. 6,ST4 

Calf do. ,. 14,029; do. ., 78! 

Ii it possibb that the calf-lymph is sent out for priiate praotitionBra? 



31 



humBaiBed lymph. Calf lymph, he thinks, ia not better, 
hnt rather worse, than the human lymph. BaciDi, he says, 
are much more common in calf lympli, hut there is a great 
variety in different human lymphs and in different calf 
lympha- Dr. Creighton, in hi& erudite work on "Cow-pox 
juid Vaccinal Syphilis," tells us that all vaeeiue matter now 
in use is lemoved by several hundi'eds of generations from, 
its parent source ; and citing the Brituh Medical Journal, he 
ehows that a purveyor of calf Ijiupli in London was 
advertising his stock as from Eotterdam, and that the 
Eotterdaui stock had been kept going on the calf's helly 
for 592 generations. Dr. Cory, of the Local Government 
Board, supports those views, by saying that if as many 
complaints were made about human lymph as are made 
about calf lymph there would be many thousands of com- 
plaints in this country in a year. In Dr. Seaton's 
"Handbook of Vaccination," which, one might say is. 
almost the official authority on the subject, we have on 
page 397 : — 

" There is no one in England whose opinion on this subject 
will be received with, so much respect as Mr. Ceely's, becnuBe- 
there is no one who bas nearly the knowledge that he possesses. 
of the disease of the cow, and of its transplantation to the 
htuuan species. He looks upon this proceeding as not only- 
open to the objection of impracticability as applied to the 
gnneral population, and of imauccess ; but he says also that so , 
far from being likely to produce fewer ailments and cutaneous 
eruptions in the predisposed, he knows from experience that it 
would, as being more irritating, produce more." 

Gangrenous ulceration has frequently followed the use- 
cf calf lymph, much more fi'equentlj-, perhaps, than ig. 
kLCiwn or suspected ; but a doctor, who, alas, is our- 
onlj source of information, seldom says iiuything about 



eucb cases.' Mr. Jonathan. Hutcliiiison, in Lie "Ai-chiTM 
of Surgery," has recorded one caaft of (j^angrenous ulcera- 
tion from vaccination with, lymph from the <:alf which 
came under Ids own personal observation in a professional 
respect. There are also the deaths of Emma liable .\llen 
ajid of Beatrice Ida Woodhouse from the invaceination of 
■contaminated calf lymph. A horrible affair also happened 
at Castigliono d'Orcia, in Italy, reported in the Gatette 
iPItalia, May, 1879; and another wretched case is des- 
cribed by Dr. lloliere in the Lyon Midicale, June, 1879; 
both these disasters happened in one and the same year ; 
they are now historic. Undoubtedly the practice of calf 
lym.ph vaccination constitutes a greater dang'er, and is a 
graver error than that of vaccine virus, for it has by 
official admission the effect of de -cultivating bad to 



The Mahupacturb of Calf-Lthph. 
The "glamour" of calf Ij-mph— it is the custom to label 
it "pure"^ — has vastly strengthened the hands of the 
vaccinationists. Not hundreds only, but thonaanda upon 
thousands of fathers and mothers have had their mis- 
givings quelled by the doctor's simple unwritten promise 
that he would do the operation with great care, and use 



' lu fact, a sinister defioe not micommoD, wxaidiDg ia the erideDc.« 
of nnmennia witnesses before the Royal Commisaioii on VHociiiation, 
is the BuppresBion of the primary cause of death in fatal vaocination 
oasea. 3fr. Henry May. Medieal Offictr of Health, oandidly kx- 
plaing in a paper read before the Aaton Medical Society, and 
paUi^ed in the Birmmghant Midiial SecifK; vol. iii., pp. 31 and 36, 
how this, in the intereet of raooiiiation, is maoa^ped. The following 
are the paaaages referred to : "In certificates given by as voluntarily, 
and to which the public have aocess, it ie scarcely to be expected that 
B medical man will give opmioBS which may tell against or reflect 
tiimself in any way As instonoes of cases which may 




'pure" calf lymph. "What, then, is the composition of 
-this wonderful charm which will aonter protection against 
■the dread smaU-pox without endangering the health and 
life of the subject? How is it prociu-ed ? Fii-st, we have 
the revolting preamble with the hapless calf or heifer. In 
the Government Vaccine Inetitute, Lamb's Conduit Street, 
ealves are operated on in the year. The 
follows. A kind of table, with a turning 
top, is arranged in an upright position, and the calf is 
firmly secured to it with straps. The table top is next 
turned flat, ao that the calf hea on it. Portions of the 
belly skin are shaven, and then the poor animal is stabbed 
in from forty to sixty places, the vaccine matter from 
a child's ripe arm is inserted, or matter taken from a 
former caK that has been used in this way ; or human 
small-pox matter, taken from a person ill with the disease, 
is put in. The suffering calf is then loosed and takon to 
the stable, and the disease allowed to run its course for 
five days, after which, when the sores are at their height, 
it is again strapped firmly down upon the table, legs, 
body, and even mouth tied — a cruel sight! The operator 
sits down, opens the vesicles on the animals' belly, and the 
lymph is squeezed out with clamps, the pressure almost 



ten agatnst the medical man lumaelf, t will mmtioii eiysipeloB i 
vacoination, and poerperal Sever. A death from the first c 
occurred not long ago in my practice, and allliongh I had net Ti 
nated the diild, yet, in mj desire to preserve vaccination i 
reproach, I omitted alt mention of it from mj certificate of di 
.... Speaking from my own knowledge, I can say that cas 
pnerperol fever are not always certified ondcr that name.^' Mr. ] 
in thnn speaking, seems to have eipresaed tte genera senNe o( 
medieal profession, and described the general practice : for I an 

-AWare that be has ever been censured or repudiated in any me< 

Joomal. 



invariably causing tlie lymph to contain an admixture of 
blood.' TJuB "pure" lymph, is collected on ivory points, 
and IB sometimes stored long aftat taken, then iteed for the 
vaccination of children and adults. 

It is interesting to note that it is fundamental dogma 
with the vaeoinationists that lymph tinged with the 
amalleat blood corpuscle is unfit for use. Dr. J. Chambers, 
writing in a London paper on September 15th, 1886, 



" I have the personal authority of one of the chiefs of &» 
Qovemment Vaooine Establishment that little is known of the- 
diaeaaea of calves ; that calf lymph cannot be got without the 
admixture of blood, and that in consequence he wished thfr 
calf lymph at the bottom of the saa." 

The late Dr. W. J. Collins, a public vaccinator of twenty 
years standing, strongly denounced the fallacy of attri- 
buting miscbief solely to ensanguined lymph, painting out 
that the merest tyro in physiology knew that lymph comes 
from, and is part of, the blood itself. The lym.ph, he said, 
contained precisely the eame microscopic particles as are 
found in fluids capable of producing the acutest blood- 
poisoning. 

The name, too, of this product is interesting from the 
point of nomenclature, for it is highly misleading. The 
so-called calf lymph is in reality not calf lymph at 



' In about BCren days the oalf la returned to the batoher, 1 aio. 
told. See also an artide in the Mn/ltenth Century, 1878, by 8ij 
ThomaB Watson, who states that tlie creature is " none the worse for 
what has happeued." A transaction of thia kind took place lately in 
Yorksbire. The animal was dniy slaoghtered. On the caioase being 
opened, the calf's longs were fund to oontain tnbeicleB, a butcher who- 
saw it deoloring' that he had nevraseen a worse case. Th<> corporatimi 
meat inspeator was called in, and be eondemned the body as ' ' imiit for 
human food." 



all. The real lymph is the natural fluid that circulates iii> 
the lymphatic veBsels of the call — a healthy thing in a 
healthy calf, aB far remote from scabs and pox as day is 
from night, for, as I hare shown, the false is the pus of a 
particular diseaHe of the calf thrown out upon the skin, 
due to an minatural and cruelly induced pro cess, 

Jenner'a horse-grease-cow-pox is supposed by many 
authoritiea to have lost its power to avert small-poi; many 
other doctors, again, hold that calf lymph is perfectly 
iiseleas in this respect. While the doctors wrangle and 
tight, that crushing, cooBcienoe- destroying machine of 
police compulsion is entering in legal liuthority the homes 
of England's sons and daughters — not, mind you, the 
homes of the careless and ne'er-do- weele, hut of those 
who have highly-developed moral ideas of the sacredness 
of parental duty — the homes of those who know the crime 
of going against conscientious feeling ! The whole scheme 
of racdnation is one of protecting the rich against the 
poor. It ia not rf the democracy, not will it ever be. 

Facts which should Make Pahejtts Pausk. 
The following is a mother's statement of her experience- 
of Tscciuation. I quote from Baylight, a Norwich 
weekly:— 

"Sinoe the inqaest hrid by the Coroner, Dr. Danford 
Thomas, on my cliildren MUed by vaccination, I have been 
asked for particulara of my terrible experience, which Z will 
state briefly. Adela, aged two-and-a-hali years, and Ethel, 
aged fifteen months, were each vaccinated in three or four 
places by the doctor of St. Pancras Workhouse, where, owing 
to painful circumBtancea, I was obliged to take them. They 
were lovely children and in perfect health, but in a few days 
their arms became infiamed, the punctures on Ethel's arm 
; into one large ulcer and presenting a truly shocking 



I 



«pp«aranoe. TfaeiT eyes became ■very aore; fheir faces, par- 
"ticiilarly the youngeat, were much disfigured with an eruption, 
and, after auSerings too painful to describe, they both died. 
Sly earueat request that I m^ht be allowed to atay and uiirae 
my dying child was unfeelingly refused. The children were 
vaccinated without my consent, and I am told that this is the 
law, (uid that there is no tedreas." 

(Signed) Emma Packek. 
"When the Fourth Interim Report of the Eoyal Com- 
miBsion was published a shrill invective appeared in the 
Times in review, in which was given a garbled, almost 
"burleaque, accoimt of the case of the infant Annie Hart, 
which has been much discussed. It is not neceesaiy t 
notice in detail the evidence of numerous witneBseB 
testifying that the child was "perfectly healthy" previous 
to vaccination, and tliat three days after the operation had 
been performed "she began to swell ju every joint that 
she had — her anns, knees, fingers, every joint in the 
child's body ; they made three places upon the child's arm, 
two of which did not take at all, and in the oue that took 
it went into a large black hole .... large enough to 
drop a pea in" ; since Dr. W. J. CoUios' (L.C.C.) rathei' 
persistent questions finally led to the remai'k that Dr. 
Emma, the vaccinator of the child, had "had such a 
sickener over the case that I do not want to have any- 

"thing more to do with vaccination." A suggestive ad- 
mission ! I subjoin a case of only a few weeks old, com- 
municated by the father of the poor little victim to Mrs. 
J. Toung, Secretary of the London Anti-Vaooination 
Society, who published it in the £!chQ. The statement is 

^ven in his own words : — 

" I complied with the law. and my child was duly vaccinated 
ML weeks ago by the Public Vaccinator, at Tottenham. The 

child was not right soon after the vaccination, and £ve weeks 



after the wounds were still discharging and luflwoed : there- 
fore my wife took the ohild to Dr. Mowat. of Stamford Hill, 
who said the child hod etydpelas severely in the arm, and the 
child is now covered from the neck to the lower parts with 
the disease, and is likely to die at any time. I called upon Dr. 
Pliuster, the public vaccinator, and told him the result of the 
vaccination, and received anything but sympathy from him. I 
.asked him to see the child if he liked, but he abruptly refused. 
The child is now five months old, and was strong and healthy 
previous to vaccmation. I have been at great expense and 
"would rather have gone to prison than my child should suSer 

KO." 

Since this etatemeut was made the child has died. The- 

name of the father is Albert Golding. Under the heading 

" Death frgm Vaccination," "St. P. B." writes to Farm and 

^Somt of Septemher 28tli, 1S9.5 :— 
. " An inquest was held lately by Dr. Danford Thomas oa the 

txxiy of a six months' old ohild named Emily Mil man. The 
Lohild was vaccinated with calf lymph by the public vaccinator 
[.■t the Tottenham Court Boad vaccination station, and, the 
j'rBrm being unprotected, the dry scales got rubbed off, and 
I coysipelas supervened.' Before death occurred the child suffered 
I from diarrhcea and vomiting. The medical evidence showed that 

at the time when the racoiuatiou wounds should have healed, 
■ tiiey were still sloughing, and there was an eryaipelatic rash 

above and below the wounds. The public vaccinator stated 
I that the Government discouraged the use ot protectors, which 

were apt to get silted up with dirt, and were thus more likely 
1 to lead to friction than if the arm was left bare. In reply to a 

jnror, this witness stated that he did not think vaccination 

contributed to the child's death in the shghtost degree. An 



' ErysipelaH is one uf the most frpquent cunHequonDes of oow-poz 
I inoculatioii, and, in tact, the iUaatrionB Jenner eipressly declared that 
I )u> vaocinatioii can be proteotive without it. The usual toctio of the 
I dootor U to say that erjrHipalos is dmply an accident, which has nothing 
to do with vacdnation itself. — J. 0. 



le opinion ^Kt 1 



-onnecesBaiy qneatioD tbis surely. Did any jaryman a< 
s public vaccinator udmit that there can be 1 
Tacoination F One of the jurors expressed the opinion t 
compulsory vaocinatiDn should be ' done away with.' ^le 
verdict was that death was due to exhaustion from diarrhcea 
and vomiting when the child was Buffering from inflamma- 
tion of the arm folIowinK vaccination." 

The following case is one of lost year. The article is 
extracted from the Star, one of the few organs of the press 
'which has taken up the anti-vacciaistB' cauee with a spirit 
both persistent and determined : — 

" Very instructive indeed is the cuae of little Minnie Cohen. 
When she was t«n weeks old she was vaccinated. When she 
-w&e four months old she died. An inquest was held on the 
poor baby's body yesterday, and it was proved that aiter 
vaccination she had never been well. ' Her mother took her to 
the vaccinator a week afterwards, but as the body was covered 
with Borea and was in a cruel state, nothing was done to the 
arm. Dr. Blackwell told the mother it was only the humour 
"that had been put into the child, and that she would get 
right again. The child, however, was found dead in bed on 
Tuesday.' Now mark the anxiety of the Coroner and thn 
medical witnesses to suggest that it was not the dangerous and 
cruel practice of vaccination that had caused the child's death. 
The Coroner said that it was a great pity that another doctor 
'was not called in, ' as the question whether vaccination had 
anything to do with the cause of death was very important '' — 
just as it the answer to this question had not been abundantly 
proved. A doctor added that death was ' due to syncope from 
the weak condition of the child.' Perhaps bo; but the weok- 
-ness waa due to the effects of vaccination. A discerning yay 
-returned a verdict of ' natural death.' A death more grosaly 



r, the late Coroner for Middlesex, held an inquest w 
' Jnfy 19th, ISBS, on a child of Hr, Emery, and, an the jnrr bringing 
to a Terdiot " Died from ery^pelaB caused by vBocination," the 
Coroner falnfied it by retumiiig " Death from missdveDtore." — J, C. 



mmatnral, more obviously artificial, could not be conceiTed, 
Now the caae of Minnie Cohen does not stand alone. It. and 
saaes like it, ought to be a terrible warning to the public. In 
-view of cuaea like these we marvel at the pathetic docility ol 
parents who blindly obeying a stupid nnd half-hearted law, 
and accepting the onqaeBtioiied advice of interested aud preju- 
diced doctors, submit healthy children to the appalling risks of 




A Sebious Sociai. Daij^beb. 
Haj'piiig hack, to calf- vaccination ; in addition to the 
pathological danger, this practice is also inseparable from 
a most eerious social danger, and one which, unhappily, is 
deal- and beyond dispute. The case against vacoino- 
ajphiliB is bad enough, as witness the noloriouB Leeds 
Oaee, in which the Local Government Board attempted to 
prove that the parents and not the vaccination were the 
real cause of the disaster; but when calf lymph has been 
used the case becomes doubly serious — 

" But there ie one aspect of it which, to my mind, is the 
gravest of aU. Calf lymph, by its very eiiatenoe, constituted 
a social danger of the worst kind." 

"Whatever do you meaul'" 

" Think a minute. If your youngster is vaccinated and 
developes syphilis, there are only two possible explanations of 
that syphilis, are there ? If the complaint ii 
must he hereditary, mustn't 

lymph ? " 

' ' Think again. Suppose you tackle the vaccinator about it 
and he chooses t« reply that he used calf lymph. Could you 
prove that he did not ? " 



a not vaccinal it 



But I don't see what that has to do with calf 



"Ofo< 



enotP 



" Then don't yon see ? Those two words ' calf lymph,' will 
flufBoe to tie your hands hetplessiy. Am I not right in des- 
orilnng as a social danger a means by which, without any 
poBsibility of rebuttal by you, the blame of such a disaster 



I 
I 



40 

could be truisfonned from the operation to yourself, or even — 

forgive me the suggestion — to " 

*' Good God ! what a horrible idea ! " 
—(From <' What About Vaccination/' by Alfred Milnes, MJL^ 
A deyer little work written and arranged in a popular vein.) 

**Thb Law is Monstrous."* 

The pains and penalties of vaccination — ^by which we- 

mean those simply official — have been growing lesa^ 

numerous and less severe, year by year, as the case^ 

against the practice has been made popular. The general 

humanising of our prisons may be credited for the ending 

of many atrocities meted out to imprisoned vaccination 

recalcitrants. In some towns the vaccination prosecutions- 

and persecutions have ended in freeing the citizens, as in 

Leicester, Keighley, Luton, Coventry, and several other 

places ; but not without much sacrifice and hardship being 

encountered and endured by the emancipated — ^in &ct, 

the deep injustice which has been perpetrated under the^ 

existing Vaccination Law is one which will never be 

forgotten, and which has but one equivalent in history, 

that of the Fugitive Slave Law of America. Li some 

cases its tyrannical nature has been felt so keenly, that 

it has led to the most desperate suicides ; one case of a 

poor heart-broken mother is very clear before my mind. 

Referring to this case, the DaUi/ Chronicle said : — 

** Mary Clarke appears to have lost her senses owing to the 

dread of having her little one vaccinated Her youngest 

child was not in robust health, and therefore when she found 
that the operation, already long delayed, could be deferred my 
longer, she tore up the flooring of one of the rooms of her 
house, and, in the cistern beneath she managed to drown both, 
herself and her infant." 

1 The late John Bright, M.P. 



41 



The compolsoiy Taccination and re-vaccination of 
priBonere is a mercileBs and indiscriminating rule, an 
witneBB the lollowing caBe of Catharine Thomson, whose 
death was reported in the Qlaigow Evening Citiun of 
Jannary 2nd, 1895 r— 

"The woman waa forcibly re-T£wcinat«d in Dute Street 
Prison on or about December 13th. Seven days afterwards, on 
her release from prison, her arm was swollen and inflamed, and 
from the vaccine wound a dark coloured matter was running. 
The woman complained of extreme pain in her arm, and in a 
lump that came in her breast. The inflammetion increaeed 
OBtil it extended from the tips of the fingers to the face, round 
the lower jaw, and embraced the shoulder and part of the 
breast. The woman continually complained of the pain, and 
of a coldness in the arm and down the side. A neighbour was 
kind to her and rubbed her shoulder with muatard oil to relieve 
her, hut with httle effect. The woman, on her release from 
prison, attempted to follow her usual occupation as char- 
woman, but had to desist, her arm was so bad. She got 
weaker daily, and died on Jannary Ist, some 17 days aftei 
vaccination. Before her death her cry was ' The vaccination 
has killed me; what call had they to vaccinate an old body 
like mef" The official finding as to the cause of death 
was effusion into the pericardium due to inflammation; 
heart disease ; both lungs and hver diseased. The certificate of 
death is no doubt perfectly proper, but might it not be advis- 
able that more care should be exercised in the choice of subjeota 
for the lancet ? Vaccination ia surely gone mad when a poor, 
puny, miserable old creature, with heart, lungs, and liver 
diseased is operated npon. 

"W. G. UlfKLES." 

Passing over such features of the vaccine coercion as 
Bummonses, fines, distraint sales, by which parents are 
rewarded for their devotion to their principles — mention- 
ing but incidently the extra compulsion applied to oui' 
soIdierB, Bailors, policemen, postmen, aud other Govern- 
ment employees, which is no trifling subjection, and again, 



the compulaion whicli ie employed in public 'worts, in 
pu1)lic echools, and in masy private families — we have to 
consider the heartleBBneBs of the workhoUBe vaccinations. 
In this ease you frequently see a mother who suffers from 
oompulsion in the first iustattce, in that she is compelled, 
through starvation, to go to the workhouse to give birth to 
her child. Children bom under audi circumstancea have 
no ordinary difficultiea to cont«nd with, for endowed with 
but a feohle physical vitality, they would need the 
tenderest nurture, and much mora favourable surround- 
inga to give them anything like a fair chance in the 
struggle for esintence, without having inoculated into 
their systems a disease which causes such a lionstitutional 
disturbance aa does cow-pox, as usually applied. But 
what will be said of vaccinating such children when bat 
a few days old?' Yet with the sanction and under the 
authority of the local Government Board this is the 
habitual practice in some of the Metropolitan workhouses.' 
A circular addressed to Clerks of Guardians, dated 
January 27th, 1881, and sent to all the Unions, says: — 

" Some Boards o! Ghiardians have passed a resolution re- 
qoiring the medical officer, subject to the exercise of his 
judgment as to making exceptions in particular cases, to secure 
the Vaccination of all children bom in the workhouse as soon 
as possible after birth ; and it has baeu found practicable, as a 
rule to vaccinate children when ax days' old, and to inspect 
the results on the thirteenth day, as the mothers, in such cases, 
rarely leave the workhouse within a fortnight after their 
confinement." 

' All children bom in prisons are vaooinated "aa soon after birth." 
SB the medical officer thinks it safe and deBirable to perfoira the 
operation. 

' The CamberweU Onardians deserve the thante of all hamane 
people for ebecfain^ thia brutal prsctioa of vacdnating new-born 
infanta in vorkbonaes. 




43 

EieroiBing hie judgment, the medical officer of the 
Ijambeth. Inflrmary waa in the habit ol vaccinating 
'Children 24 hours old ! I am not aware that the custom 
In this institution has been altered or huuiatuBed. This 
is indeed a striking example of how a mere official may 
"exercise his judgment." Happily this instance haa no 
parallel, to my knowledge; but my object in citing it is 
to show to what extent the abuse may he carried, and 
that there is nothing to prevent any doctor who chooses, 
to satisfy a caprice, from doing the same. There are, 
however, plenty of milder cases, such as vaccinating 
infants under seven days old, and so on. 

The Evasuel of Sanitation. 
A word as to sanitation. Who but ignorant re- 
actionists would think of enforcing on us by pains and 
penalties a silly and injurious rite in preference to a 
Bound body and a sanitary life. DarHngton, for instance, 
has had national experience on a small scale. Small-pox 
used to be a constant pest in a part of the town which, 
under the Artisans' Dwellings Act, was demolished. This 
deadly place, this plague-spot, disappeared, and with it 
nearly aU the small -pox, Only a very few cases have 
since been in the town; but typhus went at the same time. 
The two diseases travel hand in hand, and the sanitation 
which bEinishes the one as surely stamps out the other. 
The ease of Leicester, now so well-known, is undoubtedly 
the most striking example of the value of sanitary 
measures. This is ably presented in the Fourth In- 
terim Blue Book of the Commission on Vaccination, by 
Mr. J. T. Biggs, of Leicester, who ably held his own 
against the banded critics whose professional reputations 
In Leicester actual legal 



are involved i 




powers do not erist ; vacoination is wholly optionaL All 
the thirty importations of small-pox hetwoen 1874-89 
inclusive, were, say* Mr, Biggs, promptly stamped out, 
and io that period of sisteen yeare the town saved £ 11 , 1 20 
by their system. The saving of life that would result if 
the Leicester ratio could he spread over the whole popula- 
lation of England is given by Mr. John Pickering, F.S.8., 
in his work on " Sanitation and Vaccination," viz. : 

"No fewer ttan 146,992 lives would have been saved 
annually, which were otherwise lost presumably through the 
untoward influence of vaccination. Sven if we allow the 
46,992 lost lives to be deducted from the calculation for 
possible error, the result is sufB.oiently apjjalling to arrest the 
attention of the most thoughtleaa mind in the country," 

What but sanitation and science destroyed the terrible- 
sting of those most mortal of plagues — e.g., sweating sici- 
nesB, black death, Oriental plague, and the lesser scourges? 
Yes, what of the more devastating European plagues, in 
comparison with which small-pox is a trifle? What 
protects us from euch opidemicB now ? Isolation and 
disinfection ; BufBcient and good sanitation ; better homea 
and better food. For a verity, these. Had England 
— say of 1660-79 — been left as she was, with one-fifteenth 
part of it lakes, stagnant water, and moist places, the 
chill damp of marsh fever everywhere, houses of wood 
and mud, small, dirty, ill -ventilated, no sunHght, the 
floors covered with foul-smelling rushes or straw, the 
food scanty (little varied, with few vegetables, a,nd 
little fruit and much salted meat) ; would any form 
of inoculation have accomphahed what sanitation has 
done ? Ton think not, yet it is now proposed to inoculate 
and re-inoculate with animal poisons for all and such 
zymotics! One thing is certain, cleanliness is becoming 




the evangel of oar ixme. True, side by side with, its 
growth glows the craze for inocidatioa. But the procesa 
oi forcing the humaa body into febrile states is vain and 
cidpably erroneous. Prophylaxis depends upon hygienic 
■discipline and on sanitary environment. Shame must go. 
The only perfectly clear and intelligible course is to teach 
that zymotic diseases, if at all, are alone preventable by 
cleanliness. While the laws of health are totally dis- 
regarde'd, one or another of the epidemic forms of disease 
will keep knocking at the gate to remind us of our duty — 
that what we need are good coaditiona of living, and 
wholesome ness of food, clothing, and abode. No good 
ever came of vaccination since it was discovered, and no 
good ever can. The civilisation and cleanliness which 
banished the plagues of the seventh century will do the 
same with small-pox : for vaccination will not, whether 
with human lymph, or calf lymph, or kind ; or with 
one mark, four marks, twenty marks ; and in the form 
and application in which it is compulsory on child life and 
adult life; it is an utter and disgusting failure. The 
people of this country would never submit to com- 
pulsory vaccination and re-vaccination again and again, 
said by the secretary of the Tenner Society to be the only 
efficient protection, which ia tantamount to keeping the 
body for ever in a state of fever and poison, on the 
eupposition that if you have one disease you cannot take 
another, until that has run its course — a general: sati on 
which will not bear the teat of inquiry, like all generali- 
sations of such a nature, and which is, indeed, far from 
being well-founded. Such an assault of the person is, 
iowever, altogether out of reckoning; we have to deal 
in the present case with vaccination in its compulsory 
aspects only. 



Kefbai, the Acts and Disexdo'R' th8 PBAonos. 

It JB no exaggeration to say that there is no moro 
unjust and cruel law on the English statute-book than 
tiiat of the Vaccination Acts. It enforces by fines, dia- 
traiats, and inipriBonmenta — in a word its paina and. 
penalties are ciuniilatiTe — an operation which is at once- 
dangerous and useless — an operation which Professor 
Alfred K. Wallace has declared to be " utterly powerlesa 
for good," " a certain cause of disease and death in 
many cases," and "the probable cause of about 10,000- 
deaths annually of five inoculable diseases of the moat 
disgusting kind." ANTierefore, the law enjoining this 
operation, which affects not the rich and the well-to-do, 
pressing most hardly and cruelly upon the poor, and 
offending against the consciences of honest men and 
women, good parents aU — this law then is a criminal 
despotism, and ought certainly to be repealed, if, indeed, 
it would not be within the pale of reason — as it would 
certainly of humanity — to restrain those deluded people- 
who would submit their infant and utterly helpless off- 
spring to its grave and appalhng risks. 

At least this much — the immediate abrogation of the 
iniquitous penal laws enforced by the Acts of Parliament 
of 1853, 1867, and 1871, together with the disestablish- 
ment and diseadowment ty the Government of the practice 
of vaccination. "Against the body of a healthy man," 
Bays Professor Newman, "Parliament has no right of 
assault whatever under pretence of the Public Health; 
nor any the more against the body of a healthy infant. 
To fortid perfect health is a tyrannical wickedness, just as- 
much aa to forbid chastity or sobriety. No lawgiver can 
have the right, The law is an unendurable usurpation, 
and creates the right of resistance." 



THE HUMANITIES OF DIET. 



THE HUMANITIES OP DIET. 



"Httmasised Mak." 

A FEW years ago, in an article entitled " "Wanted, a New 
Meat," the Spectator complained that dietetic provision ia 
made nowadays " not for man as humaniBed [mc] by 
Bchools of cookery, but for a race of fruit-eating apes." 
We introduce bananas, pines, Italian figs, pomegiunateB, 
and a variety of new friiitB, but what ia really wanted is 
'.' some new and large animal, something which shall 
combine the game flavour with the substantial solidity of 
a leg of mutton." Surmising that there must exist " some 
neglected quadruped, which will furnish what wa seek," 
the Spectator proceeded to take anxious stock of the 
world's resources, subjecting in turn the rodents, the 
pachyderms, and the ruminants to a careful survey, in 
which the claims even of the wart-hog were conBcientiousIy 
debated. In the end the rnnmianta won the day, and the 
choice fell upon the Eland, who was called to the high 
function of supplying a new fleah-food for " humanised " 



I must say at the outset that this is not the sense in 
which I am about to speak of the "humanities" of diet* 
Zoophilist though I am, I have not been fired by the 
Spectator' g enthusiasm for the rescue of some "neglected 
quadruped " {delicious term !), nor have I any wish to see 
eviscerated Elands hanging a-row in our butchers' shops. 




On the coDtrarj, I suggest that in proportion oa man is 
truly "humanised," aot by schools of cookeiy but by 
schools of thought, he wQl abandon the barbarous habit of 
his flesh-eating ancestors, and will make gradual progresB 
towards a purer, simpler, more humane, and thereforo 
more civilised diet-system. 



iha reiorB | 



Principle and Purpose of Vegetaeiasism. 

An article by Dr. T. P. Smith, . 
which appeared in the Fortnightly Review for November, 
1895, ia one of many recant signs that the public ia 
awaking to the fact that there ia such a thing as food- 
reform. The reception of a new idea of thia sort is 
always a strange process, and has to pass through 
several successive phases. First, there ia tacit contempt; 
secondly, open ridicule ; then a more or less respectful 
opposition, and, lastly, a partial acceptance, which may 
or may not becom.e general. During the third period, the 
one at which the vegetarian question has now arrived, 
discussion is often compHcated by the way in which the 
opponents of the new idea fail to grasp the real object of 
the reformers, and pleasantly substitute some exaggerated, 
distorted, or wholly imaginary concept of their own ; after 
which they proceed to argue from a wrong basis, crediting 
their antagonists with mistaken aims and purposes, and 
then triumphantly impugning their consistency or logic. 
It ia therefore of the utmost importance that, in debating 
the problem of food-reform, we should know exactly vhat 
the reformers themselves are aiming at. 

Let me first make plain what I mean by calling 
vegetarianism a mw idea. Historically, of course, it ia 
nc*: new at all, either as a precept or a practice. 



3tice. A. great 




portion of the world's inhabitaiLtB hare alwaya 
praottcally vegetarians, and some whole races and 
have been so upon principle. The Buddhist canon in the 
east, and the Pythagorean in the treat, enjoined abstinence 
from flesh-food on humane, as on other grounds ; and in 
the writings of such "pagan" philosophers as Plutarch 
and Porphyry, we find a humanitarian ethic of the most 
exalted hind, which, after undergoing a long repression 
during medieeval churchdom, reappeared, albeit but 
weaHj and fitfully at first, in the literature of the 
Eenaiasance, to be traced more definitely in that school of 
" aensibihty," the eighteenth century writers. But it was 
not until after the age of Eousseau, from which must be 
dated the great humanitarian movement of the past 
century, that vegetarianism began to assert itself as a 
system, a reasoned plea for the disuse of flesh-food, as 
advanced in the writings of Eitson, Nicholson, Lambe, 
Shelley, Gle'iz^s, and Sylvester Graham. In this sense it 
is a new ethical principle, and its import as such is only 
now beginning to be generally understood. 

I say tthical principle, because it is beyond doubt that 
the chief motive of vegetarianism is the humane one. 
Questions of hygiene and of economy both play their part, 
and a very important part, in a full discussion of food- 
reform ; but the feeling which underlies and animates the 
whole movement is the instinctive horror of butchery, 
especially the butchei-y of the more highly organised 
animals, so human, so near akin to man. Let me quote a 
short passage from the preface to Mr. Howard Williams's- 
" Ethics of Diet," the acknowledged test-book of 



ya been ^^^ 
nd sects ^^| 



" It has been well said," remarks Mr. Williams, " that there 
3 steps on the way to the summit of dietetic reform, and if 



only one step be token, j'et that single st«p will not be without 
importance emd without influence in the world. The step 
which leaves for ever behind it the barbariam of elaughtcring 
our fellow-beings, the mammals and birds, is, it is superfluona 
to add, the moat important and moat infloential of all."' 

Lot it therefore be clearly understood that this step — the 
"firet step," as Tolstoi has called it, in a Bcheme at 
humane living — has been the main object of vegetarian 
propaganda from the establishment of the Vegetarian 
Society in 1847 to its jubilee in the present year. To 
secure the discontinuance oi the shocking and inhumaa 
practices that are inseparable from the slaughterhouse — 
this, and no far-fetched doctrinaaro theory oi abatinenea 
from all "animal" aubstances, no fastidious abhorrence 
of contact with the " evil thing," has been the purpose of 
modem food -reformers. They are, moreover, well aware 
that a change of this sort, which involves a reconsideration 
oi our whole attitude towards the "lower animals," can 
only be gradually realised ; nor do they invite the world, 
at their opponents seem to imagine, to an immediate hard- 
and-fast decision, a revolution in national habits which ia 
to be discussed, voted, and carried into effect the day after 
to-morrow, to the grievous jeopardy and dislocation oi 
certain time-honoured interests. They simply point to 
the need of progression towards humaner diet, beheving, 
with Thoreau, that " it is part of the destiny of the human 
race, in its gradual improvement, to leave off eating 
animals, as surely as the savage tribes have left off eating 
each other, when they come in contact with the more 
oivilised." 



' "]:)tMos of Diet," 1883. A new editiim has been issued ( 
br the Ides] Fnblialiiiig Umon, 112, Fleet Stieat. 



Some MjaxraDKEaTAXDncos Removed. 



I SouE fSia 

I It ia needless for me to reply in detail to Dr. Smith's 

argumenta, because, unfortunately, in writing his paper 
on "Vegetarianism," he had not grasped this ethical 
principle by which vegetarianism ia inspired, and there- 
fore his contentions, whether correct or incorrect when 
judged from hia own standpoint, have small relevance to 
the subject of hia criticisms. 80 little aware ia he of 
the Bupreme importance of the humanitarian aspect of 
food-reform, that, like the Hebridetin mimster who 
referred first to the Great and Little Cumbrfe, and then to 
the "adjacent" islands of Great Britain and Ireland, he 
alludea to it, almost incidentally, as "another assertion, 
often made by vegetarians, to the eSect that the nn- 
neoeasary destruction of sentient existence ia an inunoral 
act," Anolher assertion ! Why, it ia the very heart and 
and stronghold of the vegetarian position. But thia is 
nothing to the astounding argument that follows. "The 
moat enthusiastic vegetarians," says Dr. Smith, " will 
BCarcely venture to deny that the destruction of many 
animala is requisite for bimian existence. What vege- 
tarian would allow his premises to be swamjing with 
mice, rata, and similar peats ? Does he permit caterpillars, 
anaila, and slugs to devour the produce of liis vegetable 
garden ? Perhaps he satiafiea hia conacience with the 
Tefieotion that the destruction of vermin is a necesaai^ 
act." 

I am not a viviaectioaist, but I must own to some 
scientific curioaity as to the brain of a man of science who 
could pen that sentence. The perhaps takes one'a breath 
away. Perkapt the vegetarian draws a diatinction between 
the avowedly necessary destruction of garden and house- 



told pests, and the quite uimeceBsary (from the Tegetarian 
standpoint] butchery of oxen and sheep, who are bred for 
no other purpose than thiit of the slaHghter-hoiiap, where 
they are killed, as Dr. Smith himseLf admits, in a most 
barbarous manner. Ptrhapt the vegetarian "satisfies his 
conscience" with this distinction. I should rather think 
he did. 

No wonder that food-reformers seem a strange and 
unreasonable folk to those who have thus failed to 
apprehend the very raiion J'Slri of food-reform, and who 
persist in arguing as if the choice between the old diet 
and the new were a more matter of personal caprice or 
professional adjustment, into which the moral question 
scarcoly enters at all. To this same misunderstanding is 
due the futile outcry that is raised every now and then 
against the term " vegetarian," when some zealous 
opponent undertakes, as Dr. Smith does, to "expose the 
delusions of those who boast that they live on vegetables, 
and yet take eggs, butter, and milk as regular artiolea of 
diet." Of course the simple fact is that vegetarians ore 
neither boastful of their diet nor enamoured of their 
name ; it is the title that sticks to them, and not they to 
the title. It was invented, wisely or unwisely, a full 
half-century ago, and whether we like it or not,- has 
evidently "come to stay" until we find something better. 
It is worth observing that this technical objection is 
seldom or never made in. actual everyday life, where the 
word "vegetarian" carries with it a quite definite meaning, 
viz., one who abstains from fiesh-food but not necessarily 
from animal products ; the verbal pother is always made 
by somebody who is sitting down to write an article 
against food reform, and has nothing better to say. It all 
comes from the notioTi that vegetarians are bent ( 





kBrren, logical " conBifitency," rather than on praotical 
progreBB towardB a more humane method of living — the 
only sort of "consistency" which in this, or any other 
tranch of refoi-m, ia either posaihle ia itself, or worth a 
momeat'e attention from a eeneible man. 

To show, however, that thiei question of the temporary 
use of animal products has not teen shirked by food- 
reformers, I quote the following from my "Plea for 
Vegetarianism," published ten years ago. 

" The immediate objeot which food-reformers aim at, is not 
BO much the disuse of animal substaacea in general, as the 
abolition of fleah-m.eat in particular ; and if they can drive 
their opponents to make the import^ant admission that actual 
flesh-food is unnecessary, they can afFoid to smile at the trivia] 
retort that animal subatancQ isstiD used ineggs and milk, . . . 
They are well aware that even dairy produce is quite un- 
necessary, and will doubtless be dispensed with altogethei 
under a more natural system of diet. In the meantime, how- 
ever, one step is auf&cient. Let us first recognise the fact that 
the slaughter 'house, with all its attendant horrors, might 
easily be abohshed ; that point gained, the question of the 
total disuse of all animal products is one that will be decided 
hereafter. What I wish to insist on is that it is not ' animal ' 
food which we primarily abjure, but nasty food, expensive 
food, and imwholesome food." 

It may be added that some food-reformera eat fish ; and 
though the name " vegetarian " is rightly denied to such 
persons, and fi^h eating is not tolerated by the rules of the 
Vegetarian Socieiy, it ia evident that, regarded from the 
lumane standpoint, there is an enormous difEerence 
hetween fish-eating and fiesh-eating, and that if medical 
men, instead of quibbhng about the word " vegetarian," 
would recommend to their clients the use of animal 
podoots, or even fish, as a substitute for ' 



meat," there would be a gireat gain to the hnmaaities of 
diet. Incidentally, it must be remarked, the doctors 
quite adcoit the efficiency oi auch substitutes ; for in their 
eagemesB to convict the " vegetariane" of mconsiBtency in 
using animal products, they guilelessly give away their 
own case by arguing that, of oourae, on fhia diet the 
" vegetarians " do well enough ! As for those ultra-con- 
sistent porBons who sometimes write as if it were not worth 
while to discontinue the practice of cow-killing, unless we 
also inuuediately discontinue the practice of using milV — 
that is to say, who think the greater reform is worthless 
without the lesser and subsequent one — I can only 
express my respectful astonish meat at such reasoning. It 
is as though a traveller were too " eonaiatent " to start on 
a long journey of life or death, because he might be 
Required to "change carriages " on the way. 



SLAUQHTBK-HOUaB H0£BO£S. WhO IB EkSPONSIBLE? 

But it is said, why not introduce "humane" methods of 
daughtoring, and so remedy the chief evil in the present 
system of diet? By all means introduce improved m.6thods, 
but remember that though they can mitigalo the evil, 
they cannot remedy it. " Humane alaughtering," if it be 
once admitted that there is no necessity to slaughter at 
all, ia a contradiction in terms ; and though there might be 
a great reduction of suSeriag, if all reformers would com- 
bine for the abolition of private slaughter-houses and the 
substitution of well-ordered municipal abattoirs, conscien- 
tious flesh-eaters would be still faced by the difficulty that 
these changes must take a long time to carry out, opposed 
i^ they are by powerful private interests, and that even 
onder the best possible conditions the butchering of tha 




13 



larger animals muet alwaya be a horrible and inbiuuaii 
bueinesB. Yegetarianism, as a, movement, has nothing 
whatever to fear Irom the introduction of improved 
slaughtering ; indeed, vegetarians may take the credit of 
having worked quite as zealously as flesh-eaters in that 
direction, feeling, as they do, that in our complex society 
no individnals can exempt themselves from a share in the 
general responsibility — the brand of the sweater and the 
slaughterer is on the brow of every one of us. But there 
is no half-way resting-place in humane progress ; and we 
may be quite sure that when the public consoienee is once 
aroused on this dreadful subject of the slaughter-house, it 
will maintain its interest to a mnch more thorough solu- 
tion of the difficulty than a mere improvement of 
methods,' 

One thing is quite certain. It is impossible for £eeh- 
eaters to find any justification for their diet in the plea 
that animals might bo slaughtered humanely; it is an 
obvious duty to carry out the improvements first, and to 
make the excuses afterwards. Dr. Smith's remarks on 
this point are an example of the evasive reasoning to 
which I allude. Admitting that the vegetarian, in Ms 
indictment of the slaughter-house, "hits a grievous blot 
on our much-vaunted civilisation," he tries to escape from 
the inevitable conclusion as follows; "His allegations, 
however, tell not against the use of animal food, but 
against the ignorance, carelessness, and brutality too 
often displayed in the slaughter-houses." Now I wish to 



^ A *' HuMASK DrET Depaktmeptt " of the HnnxBnitarian League 
has been organiBed to lulvooata ( 1 ) the reform, as far SH may be, of 
■langrhter-liouBe methods; {'!) aelf-cetorm in diet, i.e., abstinence 
from nich linda of fond an CB,u»e the greatest suffering in their 
preparation. 




14 



Bay moBt emphatically, thia will not do. It is a libel on 
the working men who have to earn a livelihood by the 
diHguatiug occupation of butchering. The real " ignorance* 
careleaanesB, and brutality," are not in the rough -handed 
slaughtermen, but in the polite ladies find gentlemen 
■whose dietetic habits render the slaughtermen necesaary. 
The reaponaibility rests not on the wage-slave, but on the 
employer, "I'm only doing your dirty work," was the 
recent reply of a Whitechapel butcher to a gentleman who 
expressed the same BCutimentH as Dr. Smith's. "It's 
such as s/eu makes such as us," he added ; and I think it 
must be admitted that the gentleman waa intellectually 
pole-axed. 

At this point in my article it would presumably be th,o 
right thing to give some detailed description of the horrors 
enacted in our shambles, of which I might quote numerona 
instances from perfectly reliable eye-witnesses. If I do 
not do 80, I can assure my readers that it is not from any 
desire to spare their feelings, for I think it might fairly 
be demanded of those who eat beef and mutton that they 
should not shrink from an acquaintance with facts of their 
own making; also we have often been told that it is the 
vegetarians, not the flesh-eaters, who are the "senti- 
mentalists" in this matter. I refrain for the simple 
reason that I fear, if I narrated the facts, thia article 
would go unread, and I have yet some things to say which 
I think may otherwise be tolerated. So, before passing 
on, I will merely add this — that in some ways the evils 
attendant on slaughtering grow worse, and not better, as 
civilisation advances, because of the more complex coa- 
4itJons of town life, and the increasingly long jonmeyB to 
which animals are subjected in their transit from the 
grazier to the slaughterman. The cattle-ships of the 



present day reproduce, in an aggravated form, some of 
the woret horrors of the slave-ship of fifty years back,' 
I take it for granted, then, aa not denied by our opponents 
(it is frankly admitted hy Dr. Smith), that the present 
eystem of kilhng animals for food is a very cruel and 
tarbarous one, and a direct outrage on what I have 
-termed the " humanities of diet." 



Esthetic Considebationb. 
It is also an outrage on every sense of refinement and 
^ood taste, for in this question the sesthetics are not to be 
dissociated from the humanities. Has the artist ever 
■considered the history of the " chop " which is brought ao 
elegantly to his studio ? Not he. He would not be able 
to eat it if he thought about it. He has first employed a 
slaughterman ("it's such as you makes such aa us") to con- 
vert a beautiful living creature into a hideous carcase, to 
be displayed with other carcases in that ugliest product of 
civilisation, a butcher's shop ; and then he has employed a 
cook to conceal, as far as may be, the work of the 
slaughterman. This is what the Spectator calls being 
"humanised" by schools of cookery; I should call it 
being de-humaniaed. In passing a butcher's I have seen 
a concert -program pinned prominently on the corpse of a 
pig, and I have mused on that suggestive though unin- 
tended allegory of the Haais of Art. I deny that it is the 
right basis, and I maintain that there will necessarily be 
something porcine in the art that is so upheld and 
■exhibited. Nine -tenths of our literary and ai-tiatio 
gatherings, our social functions, and most sumptuous 

' Bes " Cftttle-SLipB and oar Meat Supply," " Behind the Scanes 
fa) Slaug-hter-hooBes," "The Evils of Butchery." — Humanitarian 
lieagae Pamphlets. 



Bntertainmenti, are tainted from the same aonrce. You 
take a beautiful girl down to supper, and you offer her — 
a h.am eaadwicli ! It is proverbial folly to cast pearls, 
before svrine, What are we to say of the politeness whiclL.-J 
casta Bwine before pearls ? 



What the Doctors Say. 
It ia no part of my purpose on the present ouoaaion t 
argTie in detail the posiibilily of a vegetarian diet ; nor i 
there any need to do so. The proofs of it are eyerywheri 
— in the history of races, in the rules of monastic ordora 
in the hahita oi large numbers of working po])ulationa, ijii 
the remarkable achievements of vegetaiian athJetea, iit 
biographies of weU-known men, in the facts and inatajioe 
of every-day life. The medical view of vegeta 
which at flrat (as in the 8im.ilar ease of teetotal! 
e.-spreased by a severe negative and ominous head-ahal 
has very largely changed during the past tea or twenqi 
years, and, in so far as it is still hostile, dwells rather on thM 
superiority of the "mixed" diet than on the insufficiency 
of the other, while the solemn waniinga which used to h 
addres-sed to the venturesome individual who had 1 
hardihood to lonve off eating his fellow-beings, have i 
lapsed into more general statements as to the probabUJ 
failure of vegetarianism in the long run, and on 
extended trial. Well, we know what that means. It iM 
what has been said of every vital movement that the woit 
has seen. It means that medical specialists need time ti 
envisage new truths, but they do envisage thera some dai^ 
It is a hopeful sign that already, when they chance to t 
moved by some strong iiapulse, such as the desire to t 
auti-vivisectionists with iccciiisistency, doctors frequenl 



17 



-ask why So-and-So, if he holds zoophilist opiniouB, is 
not a vegetarian. A year or two ago the Timi» seTeiely 
■censured a hishop for the same reason, and stated in a 
leading article that the plea of impossibihty was ahsurd. 
■Sir Henry Thompson has stated that it is " a vulgar error 
to regard meat in any form as necessary to life" ; in short, 
the medical preference for a flesh diet may now he 
■summed up under two heads — that flesh is more 
■digeatihie, more easily aseimilated, than vegetables, and 
that it is unwise to hmit the sources of food which (to 
■quote Sir H. Thompson's words) " nature has abundantly 
provided." 

The first argument, aa to the superior digestibility of 
flesh, is flatly denied by food-reformers on the plain 
grounds of experience ; the notion that vegetarians are in 
■the habit of eating a greater bulk of food, in order to 
■obtain an equal amount of nutriment, being one of those 
amazing superstitions which could not survive a day's 
■comparative study of the parties in question. My own con- 
viction is that the average flesh-eater eats at least twice aa 
much in bulk as the average vegetarian ; and I know that 
ihe experience of vegetarians bears witness to a great 
reduction, instead of a great inci-ease, in the amount of 
their diet. As for the second medical argument, the 
nnwisdom of rejecting any of niiture's bounties, it ignores 
the very esisteuce of the ethical question, which is the 
-vegetarian's chief contention ; nor does this appeal to 
"natxire" strike one as being a vei-y "scientific" one, 
inasmuch as (ethics apart) it might just as well justify 
■<!annihalism as flesh-eating. "We can imagine how the 
medicine-men of some old anthropophagous tribe might 
■deprecate the new-fangled civilised notion of abstinence 
Jrom human flesh, ou the ground that it is foohsh to 



ent liopeleealy | 



refuse the benefits which " nat 
provided. 

Mb. So-AND-So'a Exfbrimeat. 
But what of the failures of those nho have a 
the vegetarian diet ? Is not the movement hopeleealy 
blocked by Mr. So-and-So's six weeks' experiment ? He 
became so very weak, you know, until his friends were 
quite alarmed about him, and he was really obligsd to take 
something more nourishing. All of which eymptODB, I 
would i-emark, could be matched by thousands of similar 
instances from the records of the temperance movement— 
and prove clearly enough, not that abstinence from flea 
or alcohol ia impossible, but that (as any thoughtfi 
person might have foreseen) a great change in the habita 
of a people cannot be effected suddenly, or without ita 
inevitable percentage of failures. Every propagandi 
movement, religious, social, or dietetic, 
to itself a motley crowd of adherents, many of whoi 
after a trial of the new principle — some after a 
trial, others after a very superficial one — ^revert; to thei 
former position. I wish to look at this questio 
reasonable spirit, and I ask my readers to do 
same. Let it be freely granted that a habit ao ingrainei 
as that of flesh-eating ia likely, and indeed 
in some particular cases to bo very hard to eradica 
What then? Is not that esaotly what might 
been expected in a change of this kind ? And oi 
other side, it is equally certain that a large number < 
the reported failures— nine -tenths of them, I should a 
— are caused by the half-hearted or ill-advised manner jt 
which the attempt is made. It is just aa possible '\ 
commit suicide on a vegetarian diet as on any othoi^.'l 



19 



you are bent on that conoluBion ; and really one laiglit 
almoBt imagine, from the extraordinary folly sometimes 
Bhown in tlie selection of a diet, that certain experimenta- 
liats were "riding for a fall" in their dealings with 
' vegetarianism — taking up the thing in order to he able to 
say, " I tried it, and see the result ! " I knew a 
a master at a great public school, who "tried vege- 
tarianism," and he tried it by making cabbage and 
potato the substitute for flesh, and after a month's trial he 
felt "veiy flabby," and then he gave it up; which, 
indeed, was the only wise step taken by him during the 



The poetical confession of a trial of vegetarianism made 
by Lord Tennyson is often quoted by our opponents. To 
ehow the value I set upon such evidence, I will make 
them a present of another notable instance — hitherto un- 
published, as far as I know — that of Emerson. I have 
been told by a friend of Emerson's that, having heard 
much, talk of vegetarianism among his transcendentalist 
friends, he determined to try it, and instructed Mrs. 
Emerson to provide him daily with a dinner of — bread 
and water ! This continued for a week, and he then 
instructed Mrs. Emerson to provide him with something 
else. Here was a heavy blow to the cause of food reform; 
the sage of Concord had tried it, and it had unmistakably 
failed. 

Is it worth while, after that, to talk any more of the 
" hiimEinities of diet " ? I almost think that it is ; and I 
would now venture to confide to my readers a belief which 
I fear may to some of them seem fanciful, that an im- 
portant factor in the success of a change of diet is the 
spirit in which such change is undertaken. As far as the 
isere chemistry of food is concerned, the majority of people 




may doubtless, with ordinary 'wiadom in the conduct t 

the change, substitute a vegetarian for a "mixed 
without inconvenience. But in some cases, owing perhaps 
to the teraperament of the individual, or the natuii? of hie 
surroundings, the change is much more difficult ; and 
here it will make all the difference whether he have 
really at heart a Binccre wish to take the first step towarda 
a humaner diet, or whether he be simply experimenting 
out of curiosity or some other trivial motive. It is one 
more pi-oof that the moral basis of vegetarianism is tiia 
one that sustains the rest.' 



Some Anciekt Fallaoieb. 
But are there not other reasons alleged against '^n 
practice of vegetarianism ? Ah, those dear old Fallacioa 
80 inmiemorial yet ever new, how can I speak diai'espeo 
fully of what has so often refreshed and entertained maS 
Every food reformer is famihar with them — the 
nature " argument, which would appmximate hui 
ethics to the standard of the tiger-cat or rattle-s' 
the " necessity -of -taking -life " argument, which coa^ 
scientiously ignores the qu-Jstiou of Hnnecessary killin| 
the blubber argument, or, to put it more exactly, 
" what-would-become-of-the-Esquimaux?", to which 1 
only adequate answer is, a system of state-aided emigi 
tion; the " for-my-sake " argutaent, which m,ay be c 
the family fallacy ; the " what-should-wo-do-withoid 



' It does Dot oome wttbin the scope of thia atidole to disc 
question, How to begin ; but if anyone BnppoeeB that this p 
point has been negUeted by food refcirmerg, I may be pennitted t 
refer Mm to the literatore of the Vegetariun Society, Peter B 
Manohester, or the London Vegetarian AssociatioD, Memorial 1 
E.C. 





SI 



leather?", that lurid picture of a world left shoeleHs by 
inetaiitBiieoua convereion to vegetaiianiBiii ; and the dis- 
" what -would -become -of -the-animola ? ", wtich 
foreseea the grievous wanderingB of homeleHS horda who 
«aii find no kind protector to eat them. Best of all, I 
think, IB what may be termed the metaphysical argument, 
beloved of learaed men, which urges that it is better for 
the animals to live and he eaten than not to live at all — 
-an imaginary ante-natal choice in an imaginary ante- 
natal condition ! liack of space prevents my now furnish- 
ing the answer to this philosophical fallacy, nor do I think 
that, for ordinary persons, any explanation is required ; 
but if any dietingTiished metaphysician or philosopher is 
tmable to see it, 1 will gladly explain it to him in private.* 



The Diet of the Futube. 
I have now shown what I mean by those "humanitieB 
<}t diet " without which, as it eeems to me, it is idle to 
dispute over the "rights" of animals, and the pro* and 
emu of " zoophily." A lively argument was lately raging 
between Zoophilists and Jeeuits, as to whether animals are 
" pereone " ; but the battle appears to be an unreal one, 
80 long as the " persons " in question are by common 
agreement handed over to the tender mercies of the 
butcher, who will make exceeding short work of their 
"personality". For, as the vegetarian rhymer has it;— 

"Te ' animal -lovers,' in blindness 
Tour heart-felt affection je boart; 
To love them in meadow, what kindnesa — 
If ye love them far better ir 



' Mr. Leelie Stephen falls a victim to this fallaof in hia " Social 
Kghta and DntiBB " (Library of Ethios), 1896, and Profeasor D. Q. 
Ritchie in his "Natural Rig-hts " (Library of Philosophy), 1 





I advance no exaggerated or fanciful claim for vege- 
tariaoism. It is not, aa some have asserted, a "panacea" 
for human ills ; it is something much more rational — an 
essential part of the modeiTi humanitarian movementr 
which can make no true progress without it. Vege- 
tarianism is the diet of the future, as flesh-food is th& 
diet of the past. In that striking and common contrast, 
a fruit-shop side by side with a butcher's, we have a most 
aignificant object -lesson. There, on the one hand, are the- 
barbarities of a savage custom — the headless carcases,. 
stifEened into a ghastly semblance of life, the joints and 
steaks and gobbets with their sickening odour, the harak 
grating of the bone-saw, and the dull thud of the chopper 
— a perpetual crying protest against the horrors of flesh- 
eating. And, as if this were not witness sufficient, here,, 
close alongside, is a wealth of goldeu fruit, a sight to- 
make a poet happy, the only food that is entirely eon- 
genial to the physical structure and the natural instincts. 
of mankind, that can entirely satisfy the highest human 
aspirations. Can we doubt, as we gaze at this contrast, 
that whatever intermediate steps may need to be gradually 
taken, whatever difhoulties to be ovei-oome, the i)ath of 
progression from the barbarities to the humanities of diet^^ 
lies oleai and unmistakable before us ? 



LITERJ: HIIMANIORES: 

an appeal to teachers. 



LITEE^ HTTMATflOEEE 
AN APPEAL TO TEACHEES. 



" Among the Dobleat in the land, 
Tbou^ ho mav count himself the least, 
That man I honour and revere 
Who, withoat faiout, without fear, 
In the great city dares to stand, 
The friend of every friendless beast." 



The Need of HuuAitE Education. 

, Boyez humains f C'est votre premier devoir. Quelle- 
sagease y a-t-il pour tous, hors de I'limtianite P 

(" Humana, be hwnnne ! It is your first duty. What wisdom is 
there for you, apart from humanity?") 

It would be well ii this admirable precept of EouBaeau's 
could be engraved in goldea letters on the walla of every 
Bchool and college in the kingdom. One would think that 
tbe futility of mere book-learning, when divorced from 
the deeper instincts of hnmanenesB, would be apparent to 
all thoee who are entruated with the education of the 
young ; but alas, in how many English schools, public or 
private, can it be truly said that the duty of humBnity to 
animalH, or even of humanity to men, is taught with any 
approach to thoroughness or consistency ? In the large 
majority, we feat, it is simply not taught at all; it has 
no place whatever, directly or indirectly, in the school 
currictdum. Oblivious of the fact that cruelty is every- 
where one and the same vice, and that cruelty to animals 
cannot in the long run he dbsociated from cruelty to men, 





OBT teacherB appear to have accepted, with a Bort of placid 
indiilerenoe or lesigDation, a dispoaitioa in. their pupils 
vhich ought to bo combated and mitigated with all 
possible energy. "Boys are oruel," they aay ; and pro- 
ceed to treat their charges, as iar as this particular fault 
is concerned, ifith that not uncommon form of education 
which George Eliot styled the "undivided neglect" of 
the teacher. But we have no right whatever to assume, 
in thia wholeaalo way, that " boys are cruel." Of course 
they are cruel, as long as the example is everywhere set 
them by their elders, and ob long as those who are respon- 
sible for their religious and moral welfare, are content, or 
compelled, to leave them without instruction on the most 
important of ethical Bubjectfi. It is nothing short of 
Bcondalous that members of school-boards who will 
attempt to force a disputable theology on children should 
take no measures at all for the inculcation of the broadest 
and simplest precepts of humanity. 

In this matter the chief public schools and colleges are 
the more deserving of blame, in proportion as their means 
and opportunities are greater. It is necessary to draw a 
sharp distinction between that surface "humanism," a 
culture of the gentlemanly (qualities of scholarship and 
reSnement, much in vogue iu academic and fashionable 
circles, and the sense of sympathetic "humanity" which 
springs from the profounder culture of the heart. It 
would be difficult to find a more suggestive comment on 
the anomalous state of our civilised society than in the 
fact that it is the former, the superficial kind of culture, 
which is honoured with the title of lit^rm humaniore», 
"humane letters." A "Professor of Humanity" ia a 
teacher of Latin grammar — such is the bathos to which 
our academic pedantry has conducted us ! There is, i 



may ttbII believe, do ultimate antagoniBm between cultiire 
And nature, between humaiiista and humaaity (botb 
Tiglitly underBtood) ; but we must be sure that we are 
cultivating the true natural instincts, the living germs at 
'thought, and not the mere husks and superficialities and 
Tefinements of some cut-and-dried intellectual formula. 
Xet those who think of education and literature as studies 
-to be pursued above and apart from humanitarianism, 
remember what was said oE John Brown, the great hero 
of American abolitionism, " Such wore his humanities, 
«nd not any study of grammar. He would have left a 
"Greek atcent slanting the wrong way, and righted up a 
ialling man." 

We do not wish to suggest to English teachers anything 
■eo alarming as that Greek accents should be loft slanting 
the wrong way. But we do insist that the " righting up " 
of falling men, and of falling animals also, is a duty 
which is worth far more consideration that is now ac- 
■corded to it. It is astonishing that our educational 
authorities shoidd so wholly neglect the wise advice of 
Xocie, as given in his famous treatise on education, 

" This [a tendency in children to cruelty] should be watched 
■in them, and if they incline to any such cruelty, they should be 
taught the contrary usHge. For the custom of tormeoting and 
ruling of beasts will by degrees hanlen their hearts even 
-towania men ; and they who delight in the suffering and 
destruction of interior creatures will not bo apt to be very com- 
passionate or benign to those of their own kind. Children 
flbould from the beginning he bred up in an abhorrence of 
iilhng or tormenting any living creature '" 

In another notable passage of the same work he 
describes the destructive propensity as " a foreign and 



a habit boriowed from custom 




iotroduoed dispositioL 
conTersation." 



" Peojile teach children to strike, and laugh when they hart, 
or BBS harm come to uthere : and they have the eiample of 
most about them to confirm them in it. All the entertainment 
and talk of hiatory ia of nothing but fighting and ktlling, and 
the honour and r*iuown that is bestowed on conquerors (who 
for tlie most part are hut the great bittcbera of mankind} 
farther mislead the youth," 

The present apjieal is addressed to teachers of every 
class and denomination, in the hope of inducing them to 
recognise the humane treatment of animals as a necessary 
part of any moral " education" worthy of the name. Some 
attention, however insufficient it may be, is now paid in 
English schools and lecture-rooms to the great social 
questions where the well-being of our human fellow- 
workers is concerned ; but the rights of animals, and the 
duty of justice and humanity to animals, remain practi- 
caUy untaught, with the result that, as far as the 
authorised teachers are concerned, a horde of young 
savages is yearly turned loose into society, devoid alike ot 
knowledge, of sympathy, and of humaneness, in regard 
to whole races of sensitive and higlily- organised beings 
who are placed in large measure in their power. Were 
it not for three private agencies, the "Bands of Mercy" 
which have been organised in many places to provide the 
instruction that should have been provided elsewhere, 
the essay. competition encouraged among London middle- 
class schools by the Royal Society for the Prevention of 
Cruelty to Animals, and thirdly the "Children's Column " 
which is now being adopted by a good many newspapers, 
it would be no exaggeration to say that English children 
arc left entirely without instruction in this most vital 



etbical question, whicli can hardly fail to have a lifelong 
iiifluence on their habits and character.' 

That there are great and serious obstacles in the way 
ol this humane reform, and that progress can only be 
slow, cautious, and indirect, will be admitted by all who 
know anything of the cooservatism of school methods. 
A school is in many ways a microcosm— a miniature 
reflection of the greater world that is around and before 
it — and it is difficult or impossible for the most liberal- 
minded teacher to counteract successfully the example (in 
so many cases an evil example] which is set by society. 
The tone of society, even of cultured and sesthetic society, 
towards the lower animals is deplorable, as shown in the 
general iadifferonce or hostility to the most elementary 
animal rights ; and this tone spreads inevitably and im- 
perceptibly from parent to child, from home-circle to 
school-circle, beyond the power of repression by any 
individual remonstrance. No wonder, then, that even 
humane teachers, themselves sensible of the mischief, 
have despaired of the possibility of improvement, and 



' The only official refereooe to the snbjeot is contained in one of the 
latest Inetmctions to luapeotora, which deals with the leit of Roading- 
boote in Oovemment Bohools. The wonls are as follows : "PasBu^^t 
impiesBiiis on the children the daly of g^Qtlenesa and conBideratioD 
for others, and that of the huioane troatment of animals, may also be 
wisely introdaaed." This is not very definite. I am informed bj 
one who has eioeptional knowledge of the work of the Bandfl of 
Meroy that the schools have been hardly at all penneated or influenced 
by this homane movement. There is no time in schools to oany ouC 
this teaching ; and although there are cases where a zealous maeMc 
iatrodaces humanity into an object lesson, or chooses (if he is aJJowed 
the choice) a, humane reading-book, leachers usually look a^snoe at 
the Bands of Mercy as caumng theia extra work and trouble. The 
Hecoy classes have tu be held preoarionalj, at odd times, and are 
altoEother at a disadvantage in comparison with any other teaohing. 



ould often I^^^| 
.task. ^^H 

tion whicli giw^^^ 



have ahiunk trom uadertaking what would < 
proved to be a thankless and unprofitable task. 

There is, moreover, another conaideration t 
aa pause at the outset. It is most undesirable, as all 
true humanitarians will be ready to admit, that the 
details of horrible and revolting eubjects should be forced 
on the minds of the young, whose humanity, in a proper 
state of society, would be instinctive and unconscious, the 
result of pure and beautiful eurronudings rather than an 
acquired ethical creed. If any class have a right to be 
exempt from the debasing aspects of the seamy side of 
civilization, it is those of tender years, who, whether their 
birth be high or lowly, should be brought up in affluence 
and gentleness, and protected from all contact with what 
is mean and repellent and foul. As will be made more 
evident in a later section of this pamphlet, we humani- 
tarians do not wish, as is sometimes wrongly supposed, to 
take undue advantage of the natural sentiment of the 
young. 

Yet, while the reality of these difficulties ia fully 
acknowledged, it is equally certain that something 
can and must be done by the responsible authorities tc 
remedy the present state of affairs. It is not a question 
of introducing children's minds to hortors with which 
they are happily unfamiliar, for these barbarities already 
throw a shadow on their daily lives. When cruelty is 
everywhere, and when children are themselves tainted by 
it, it is surely the merest hypocrisy to aSect to be un- 
aware of its esistence ; it is wiser to recognise the 
mischief, and do what can be done to lessen it, than to 1st 
it work its work unreproved. And it is obvious, that 
without obtruding humanitarian doctrines in a formal 
manner, w exercising aaj undue pressure on their pu|nls* 



, teachers may indirectly avail themBelTeB ol 
numberless opportimitiee for eugg eating thoughts whicli 
will be of priceless value to the mind which assimilates 
them. Shall the rising generation of Englishmen and 
Englisbwomea grow up as callous and indifferent to tho 
«normoua sum of unnoeeasary animal suffering, as are 
(with a few exceptions) the Englishmen and English- 
women of to-day ? Or ehuU the spread of education bring 
with it not only a more brotherly regard for the interests 
of human fellow- creatures, but also, and by a precisely 
similar process of enlightenment, a more humane con- 
aideratioa for the "lower animals" who hold their lives 
by the same tenure as mankind. That is the q^uestion 
which is put to all teachers who may happen to read this 
appeal; and the result will depend very largely on the 
spirit in which an answer is given. 

Let me now proceed to a discussion of some of the 
particular instiinces where there appears to be need of a 
humaner and more rational education. 




Petthto. 
The domestic animals are necessarily the first with 
which children are brought in contact ; hence such 
attempts as are made by parents and teachers to inculcate 
the duty of kindness are directed in most instances to 
animals of this class. And here, at the very outset, it 
seemfi to me that a mistake, however natural and pardon- 
able in itself, is often made by zoophilists in trying to 
teach humanity by the system of "petting." In face of 
the shocking ill-usage to which animals are so generally 
subjected, it is of course extremely difficult to know where 
and how to begin the lesson of humaneness; and the 




10 



practice of encoura^ng childrea to keep pete, and i 
keep them properly, has tbe advaatage of being tn 
readieet and most obvious method, and up to a certain 
point a fairly successful one. In the long run, I believe 
it to be wrong and disastrous, and for this reason, that 
petting, tike persecuting, draws away the attention from 
the very fact which it ia most urgently neccBsary to 
emphasise — the fact that animals are not mere "things," 
not mere chattels and automata to be used (however 
kindly) for the amusement and recreation of man, but 
intelligent and highly- developed personalities, whoae in- 
numerable services to human kind, faithfully performed 
through the centuries, have rendered them an integral 
aad important element of civilised society. It is tha 
indiciduality of animals that needs to he impressed oa 
children, and for that matter, on adults also, who for the 
most part treat animals sa if they were utterly devoid of 
individuality or intelligence. What we should aim at ia 
to make animals our friends, not our pets; for a pet, 
however carefully it ia petted, can hardly be respected ; 
and it is precisely this lack of retpecl for animals as 
intelligent beinga that is at the root of so much brutality 



For the same reason great care should be exercised in 
appealing to the humane sentiment of children by means 
of poetry and 6ction, as is frequently done in zoophilist 
pamphlets and journals. There ia no more precious gift 
than the innate sense of humanity, when it is balanced 
and safeguarded by consistency and judgment ; but it 
should be remembered that, without these qualities, it ia 
apt to degenerate into that false sentiment, or "senti- 
mentality," from which it ia most important that genuine 
human itarianism should be kept free. It is so easy to 



produce a temporary influence on young minds by litera- 
ture of an emotional order, that there ia a danger of 
using this power unwisely and indiscriminately by the 
dissemination of writings which, though excellent in 
intention, are intellectually feeble and commonplace. 
Trashy poems and vapid fowery tales do no permaneat 
good. In the long run children see through the pioua 
artificea that are spread for them, and detect tho cant that 
(nnoonaeiously perhaps, but none the less surely) la at tha 
bottom of all such mediocrity. Be certain that false 
sentiment will eventually produce either hypocrisy or 
contempt, and that in either case the cause of real 
humaneneBs will be retarded, not advanced, by it. Let 
US use poetry and anecdote by all means ; but let us he 
moat careful that ^e use good material only, and not the 
first frothy stuff that comes to hand. 

I would further remark, though I do not wish to da 
more than briefly allude to this subject, that the competi- 
tive prize-system appears to be a very hazardous and 
questionable expedient for inculcating humanity. Prizes 
have become so much a part and parcel of our educational 
methods that it is no doubt difEcult to dispense with them 
altogether in any branch of study ; but surely if there is 
any virtue which brings its own reward, humaneness ia 
that virtue ; and to ofEer a prize for what should be the 
simplest of human instincts, is to sbow a lack of faith in 
the sincerity of the student, and in many cases to put a 
premium upon priggishness and self-seeking. 

I suggest, then, that the flrst object of the teacher — 
and in this case the parent and the teacher will often be 
identical— should be to diminish, rather than encourage, 
the practice of keeping "pets," and to lead their pupils 
to regard animals seriously as intelligent friends, and not 



4 



to sentimentalise over them as puppets and playthings. 
There is no more miserable being than a lap-dog ; and the 
Up-dog is the sign and symbol ol that spurious humanity 
which is the final outcome of " petting." 

The false pity must he eliminated before the true pity 
can take root. Neither the domestic animals nor the wild 
animals are unhappy, unless through the mismanagement 
of man. "An impartiality that pets nothing and perse- 
cutes nothing," says the naturalist, Mr. W. H. Hudson, 
*' is doubtless man's proper attitude towards the inferior 
animals ; a god-like benevolent neutrality ; a keen and 
kindly interest in every form of lite, with indifference as 
to its ultimate destiny ; the softness which does no wrong, 
with the hardness that sees no wrong done," These 
are wise woids, and deserve to be carefully pondered 
by teachers. 

COLLECTIKO. 

Still more objectionable than the practice of petting is 
the practice of collecting, for if the " pet " is a doubtful 
incentive to humanity, the " epecimenj" in nine cases out 
of ten is a positive obstacle to it. And here we are 
brought face to face with the vitally important choice 
between two divergent ways of teaching Natural History 
— a science which, according to the spirit in which it is 
handled, will inevitably influence the youthful student's 
mind, in one or the other direction, with regard to the 
treatment of animals. These two divergent methods may 
he called the anatomical and the natural. Under the 
former, the prevalent method, which is in accord with 
the materialistic tendencies of the age, we recklessly 
foster the airwiily of children— a perilous quahty which. 





IS 



perhaps above all others, needs to be wisely guided and 
tempered — by permitting or even encouraging them to 
indulge their fancy to the utmost in the pursuit and 
collection of " specimens." It is accepted by moet 
parents and masters as quite a matter of course that 
boys should hunt down, kill, and " preserve " in a cabinet 
as many of our beautiful English moths and butterQies as 
happen to come within their reach ; that in the process of 
" bitd's-neating," they should commit the most wanton 
havoc in order to gratify the idlest whim of the collector ; 
or that they should sacrifice any amount of gold and 
silver fish, minnows, sticklebacks, and other small fry, for 
the scientific purposes of the "aquarium." 

It is quite inevitable that much callousness and actual 
cruelty of disposition should result from these practices. 
Instead of teaching our children the lessoa of the in- 
finite beauty and sacredness of natural life, we deliber- 
ately send them out into the wild places of Nature, as 
youthful marauders and murderers, and then wonder 
that they grow up brutal, stupid, and unfeeling. If 
anyone thinks that there is exaggeration in the statement 
that the unbridled mania for " coUeccing " breeds a 
positive love of slaughter for slaughter's sake, let me 
refer him to a passage in pamphlet No. 15 of the Society 
for the Protection of Birds. 



" Last spring," says one of the contributors, Colonel W. L. 
Coulson, "I spoke to some boya about the birds' -nesting 
pi'evslent in the neighbourhood where I was staying. I asked 
them what they did with the young birds after they had 
taken the nest. ' Oh,' said one of the boys, ' we slits 'em.' I 
said ' What do you mean by slitting them ? ' He replied, ' We 
polls off their legs and wings, and then chucks them into the 
water.' A. few daya afterwards I met some more boys 



hen I put ^^^^H 
e anatomical II 



Apparently engaged in a similar; amusement, when 
same qneetion to them, and received a 1" 

There you have a fair typical result ol the i 
method of tesuhing Natural History to children. " We 
slite 'em" might appropriately stand as the motto of that 
Bcieuce. 

Is it surprising that a nation which aUowa its rising 
generatioQ to he depraved in this manner, should tolerate 
or even sanction, as the fine flower and ne plug ultra of 
scientific curiosity, the unspeakable rileneas of vivi- 
section? Collecting and dissecting easily become identi- 
cal and interchangeable terms ; and the youthful ruffian- 
ism which "slits" young birds byway of recreation in 
the springtime may develop, in the maturity of years, 
into the more polished fiendishness of the laboratory. 
We have recently seen in this country in one of the 
publications of the " Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge,'" how experiments on animals may even be 
recommended to the young (by a religious and educational 
organisation!) aa a worthy means of self -instruction ; and 
ia America the case appears to be even worse. In a 
recent circular sent out by the American Humane Associa- 
tion attenttou is drawn to " those methods of instruction 
obtaining to some extent in public schools, whereby the 
facts of physiology are set forth by means of actual 
experiments upon living animals, etherized for that pur- 
pose. Animals such as frogs, pigeons, dogs, and 
particularly cat^, are dissected before mixed classes of 
boys and girjs— sometimes the teacher operating, some- 
times the pupils." Could anything be more horrible and 
demorahaing? 

1 '■ Our Secret Friends aiid Foes," by Dr. Peroy Fninkland. 



But it is not only hy its cruelty that the anatomical 

method staads coademned ; viewed from an intellectual 
standpoint also, it is radically Tinaatisfaotory and unsound. 
Our vhole system of studying and collecting animals, as 
80 many " sub]*ect8 " for the muBeum and menagerie, the 
laboratory or dissecting-room, is barbarous and un- 
scientific, and yields a miserable result. Take as an 
example, the Zoological Gardens, perhaps the best in- 
stitution of its kind. The popularity of the Zoo, as a 
place of recreation and instruction for young 
undoubted ; nor is there any reason to deny that this 
popularity is well deserved, so long as we do not look 
beyond the present limited conception of man's moral duty 
to the lower animals, and the equally limited scientific 
notion of the right method of studying them. 

The accepted system, then, is to cram the largest possible 
variety of animal life into a certain given space, where, 
for the payment of a small sum, the spectator may have 
the satisfaction of seeing aa immense number of "speci- 
mens" in the course of a single afternoon. Here for 
instance is a "Prairie Fox," confined in a small kennel 
which does duty for the prairies, It is assumed that it is 
amusing and instructive to see a Prairie Fos under such 
conditions ; and it is quite unrecognised that in the first 
place there is much cruelty in the infi.iction of this sort of 
life-imprisonment, and secondly that an animal thus 
exhibited without a single cbara<:teristic feature of its 
natural environment is, from the true scientific standpoint, 
a very sorry spectacle indeed. Both for humane reasons 
tific, it would be a better shiliingsworth to see 
i single animal under conditions of space where it might 
) its natural faculties, than to see B 
bundred poor creatures reduced to a state not much 



I 






vital tlian that of stuffed specimens in a mueeum. Add to 
this the possibility of laying out the Qardens with a view 
to a proper grouping of the animals, in accordance with 
geographical distribution— artic district, tropical districtr 
etc., — instead of the present indiscriminate juxtapesition of 
the most alien species, and it will be seen how much rooni 
there is for improvement in the scientific no less than the 
humane management of a great national collection. 

This criticism holds good of the whole system of 
"collecting," to which children, on a small scale, are so 
commonly devoted, and which freq^uently results, through 
the ignorance or neglect of the keepers, in the miserable 
death or deterioration of the specimens concerned. How 
different might it bo if teachers could be persuaded and 
empowered to substitute the contrary, the natural, method, 
of studying the open book of ^Nature, and to instruct their 
charges to observe the free and living animals, instead of 
brooding over stu&ed corpsea in a museum or dead-alive 
prisoners in a menagerie. " The most important reijuisite 
in describing an aiviraal," says Thoreau, " is to be sure 
that you give its iharaoter and spirit, for in that you. 
have, without error, the sum and effect of all its parts 
known and unknown. Surely the most important part of 
an animal is its am'ma, its vital spirit, on which is based 
its character and all the particulars by which it moat 
ooocerns us. Yet most scientiJic books which treat of 
animals leave this out altogether, and what they desoribe- 
are, as it were, phenomena of dead matter." 

Let me again refer to an example (and a contrast) which 
is familiar to Londoners. The "aviaries," with one or 
two exceptions, are perhaps the most dismal parts of the 
Zoological Gardens ; for what can be more depressing, 
□r less instructive, than aa exhibition of winged creatures' 



17 



ho cauQot exercise their wings? On the other hand, 
there is a very real interest to be enjoyed in the Londoo 
Parks, where wild free birds, such as the wood-pigeon 
and moor-hen, are seen dwelling fearlessly in the very 
heart of civilisation, simply because they have learnt that 
they will not there be wronged by man. 

Here is a suggestion of the lines on which a new and 
nobler study of Natural History may be pursued. The 
old anatomical method has no doubt dona good service in 
its time ; it represented a certain phase of science which 
had to be realised and worked out. But it is over now, 
for all higher educational purposes, and will soon itself be 
no more than a shelved specimen in the great museum 
ol the Past — to be taken down, perhaps, as occasion 
requires, for reference and re'exami nation, but no longer 
to dominate our school-rooms and leoture-halla. We have 
collected and dissected the fauna and flora of our native 
islands till our books are full to repletioa of the descrip- 
tions and illustrations. Is it not time that we began to 
apply and utilise this knowledge, such as it is, towards 
the acquisition of a better and more natural knowledge, 
in the direction which the great humane naturalists, such 
aa Michelet and Thoreau, have so wisely indicated ? For 
children, at any rate, there can be no doubt which should 
be the prevalent method of instruction. 

They should be taught to cage and imprison no animal 
or bird, but to respect the freedom and self- development 
of all other sentient beings, even as they claim the like 
privilege for themselves. Quite lately there was an ad- 
vertisement in the papers ol a cheap bird trap, with the 
zecommendation that " every boy should possess one." 
This is precisely the sort of implement that no boy should 
possess. Boys and girls should be early initiated into 



thoBe habits of quiet, observant, and loving watchfulness, 
by which the true nature-lover, as distinguiahed from the 
collecting scientist, is always able to win the confidence 
of nature, and to learn the secrets of field and forest witii 
far mora penetrating eye. They should feed the wild 
birds that flock to the gardens in winter-time, and then 
in summer they would have the full enjoyment of their 
soDg. The catapult, the air-gun, bird-lime, and, worst of 
all, the abominable steel-trap, should be unknown and 
unused by children. The wantonly destructive habit of 
stringing birds' eggs in hundreds should be discontinued. 
It has been suggested by Mr. W. H. Hudson, and the 
idea has been elaborated by another humane writer,' that 
by encouraging the manufacture of artificial coloured wax 
eggs for collections (an imitative art which can be carried 
to great perfection with care and skill) much might be 
done to prevent the cruel and mi.sehiovous destruction of 
nests, and at the same time increase rather than diminish 
the interest in Natural History which children properly 
feel. Numerous such expedients, in all branches of study, 
will suggest themselves to wise teachers, and enough has 
now been said to make the principle clear. 



Blood - Sports. 
There is no more demoralising influenoe on the minds 
of the young than so-called "sport," the chasing and 
killing of animals, in many cases harmless animals, for 
mere pastime and amusement — "for fun," as the saying 
^es. Sport is so commoa, so universal, that habit blinds 

' Miss B. CarringtoD, in her pamphlet on ' ' The Kxb^nniiiatioii of 
Birds," Humanitariiui League Series, No. 10. See egpedaHf the 
sections cot "Birds' Nestjn^" and "THe Caging of Birds". 





our eyes to tho esaontial horror of the thing, for it ii 
Dothidg less thaa horrible that children should 
acciutomed to inflict suffering and death, or to watoh 
others inflict them, in the quest of pleasiire and recreation. 
Yet so it is ; and few indeed are the boys, at any rate 
among the well-to-do classes, who have not this example 
of "amateur butchery", as aport has well been called, 
set before their eyes by parent or friend or teacher. To 
hunt aomething, to shoot something, to worry something 
— this is the schoolboy's idea of a meritorious occupation. 
A lat-catcber is almost a demi-god to him, A gamekeeper, 
whose profession consists in about equal proportions of 
skulking and killing, is an object of intense and idolatrous 
rovetenoo. How should it be otherwise, when the influ- 
ence of " Society," that horde of overgrown schoolboys, i» 
all in the same direction '? 

At the root ol the evil lies the false notion of " manli- 
neae," a notion handed down generation by generation, 
and accepted by unthinking people without the least criti- 
cism or inquiry. It was ones manly to hunt dangerous 
beasts under natural conditions of peril, hardihood, and 
wild life. Therefore (so runs by implicatian the strange 
argument) it ia now manly to hunt or shoot harmless 
creatures, under entirely artificial conditions, and without 
the smallest show of necessity or need. Such an obvious 
fallacy could not have survived to the present time, were 
it not for the extraordinary power of habit and associa- 
tion. For unluckily the same false glamour which ia con- 
nected in the popular mind with the name of soldier, is 
connected iu no small degree with the name of sportsman ^ 
and in either case a scarlet coat is responsible for much of 
the mischief. " Dress a man in a particular garment," 
says Bentham, " call him by a particular name, and he 



shall hare authority on divers occasions to commit everji 
apeciea of offence — to pillage, to murder, to destroy." 
These words are applicable to the hunting man as well as 
"to the military. 

Now it ought not to be difficult to eaplain successfully 
to children the Sagrant uitmanliness of sport, for boys, 
whatever their shortcomings may be, have a strong sense 
of " fair play," and modem sport, iu which a multitude of 
armed or mounted heroes go forth to do to death, with the 
least iacoavenience to themselves, some torrified little 
iugitive, is about as unfair and one-sided a conflict as 
could possibly be imagined. Blood-sports, moreover, 
flhould always be carefully distinguished from the 
honourable and really manly sports of the gymnasium 
-or playing-field; and it may be pointed out that the 
Greeks, who brought the culture of physical perfection 
to its highest pitch, were as a nation comparatively free 
from the practice of inEicting pain on sentient beings. 

Again, ridieult, that most formidable weapon, which is 
so commonly employed to throw discredit on humani- 
tarians, may be very easily, and very effectively, turned 
to exactly the contrary use. Ohildren are now often pre- 
Tentcd from showing gentleness and mercy for fear of 
being called " milksops" by their companions; but a wise 
teacher might soon bring the laugh to the other side by 
showing the inherent silliness and folly of sport, as pur- 
sued under its present conlemptible conditions, and the 
glaring faUacies of the eicuees put forth by sportsmen for 
the continuance of their pastime. 

I am aware that many schoolmasters are themselves 
ffportsmen iu their holidays, and that therefore it is use- 
leea to ask them to teach a humanity which they h^re 
themselves yet to learn, But even sportsmen are begin- 



21 

ning to recognise that aome further reform of their blood- 
sports will aooQ be inevitable, inasmuch aa there has been 
no legislative action since the abolition of bull and bear 
baiting over fifty years back, though humane feeling has 
largely intreased among the public during that time. At 
least it must be admitted that th« yimng ought not to be 
thus early initiated into the art of killing, and that aa 
long as children are taught to take pleasure in the death 
of any creature — even of the lowest "vermin" — it will 
be quite futile to preach to them about [ho duty of 
"kindness to animals." At present the morality of 
English schools, and especially the great public schools, 
in this respect, is exceedingly low. At Eton the boys 
are even permitted to keep a pack of Beagles, and the 
school journal, written by boys for boys, contains periodic 
reports, worded in the disgusting jargon that sportsmen 
affect, of the " breaking-up," etc., ot the hunted hares. 
Truly a strange education for the future " gentlemen " of 
England ! But the idea of gentleneti has always been 
dissociated from gentility. 

I have spoken so far of practices in which boys are 
chiefly concerned. But that girls are also demoralised by 
these sordid sights may be judged from the sanction 
-which many women give to blood aports by their presence 
on the hunting-field and at the battue. The effects of the 
same cauae are seen in the utter indifTerence of the 
majority of the female aez to the horrors of the feather 
trade, and the callouaneas with which they wear the 
barbarou a trophies which " murderous millinery " estorts 
from many beautiful but rapidly periahing species of 
birda.' Such faahiona are nothing less than blood-sporta 

'See ■•The Eitemiinntioii ot Birds," HumaDitiiiian League's 
Publications, No. 10. 




i 



''at one remove"; and the wamen who indulge in &» 
fashions are exactly as responsible tm the men who indulge 
in the eportB. It would be impossible that women should 
be 80 cruel, if they received any sort of humane instruc- 
tion in their girlhood. At present they receive none. 
Lady superintendents and principals of so many "superior" 
training schools for girls, might not this matter be worth 
just a trifle of your attention ? Even humanity may have 
its uses as an " accomplishment " in polite education. 



BH-FOOD. 



It is quite possible that some of my readers may a little 
reeent the introduction of the diet question in this- 
appeaL Until recently this question has been usually 
passed over by zoophilists, perhaps because they felt a 
sort of latent despair at the enormous mass of sufEering 
inflicted by the work of the butcher, and because at the 
same time they regarded the use of flesh-food as perma- 
nently necessary and indispensable. Children, in par- 
ticular, have been left almost uninstruoted as to the 
origin of the food which they were taught to consider ae 
the chief support of life ; so that in many cases, perhaps 
in the majority of cases, there has been complete ignor- 
ance or indifEerence as to the connection between the ox 
or sheep in the fields and the "beef" or "mutton" on 
the table. The whole subject is a darh and disagreeable 
one ; and teachers (from their point of view not un- 
naturally) have been content to ehirk it as much as 
possible, and to trust to the powers of custom and usage- 
to gloss over its unpleasantness. 

But of late the question has received increasing 
attention, and it will not be possible for it to be 



^e 1 
his- I 




mudi longer eradod. And aurely, i( we are to think 
at all honeatly and conecientiously about a just treat- 
ment of the lower races, aud if -w& are to teach an 
intelligible humaneness to our children, ve cannot refuse 
to Bubject to the light of critical examinatioa a syetem by 
vhich, for the sake of a necessity, real or supposed, we 
devote countleaa multitudes of harmless animals to a most 
painful death. Anyone who is willing to know the facta — 
and it is a plain duty to know them — can now obtain 
reliable information about Cattle-ships and Slaughter- 
houses,' and the various methods that have been proposed 
for their supervision and reform ; moreover, anyone can 
leam what progress Tegetarianiem has made in this 
ooantry during the past ten or twenty years. So that 
there is positively no excuse for the further omission of 
(biB all-important subject from humanitarian consideration. 
No judicious person would for a moment suggest that 
children's minds should be wantonly invaded and troubled 
by morbid or unwholesome reflections. No child ought 
to see or even hear of the intolerable scenes of the 
shambles. But what I wish to point out is that the 
mischief is already done; for even as things now are 
it is not possible to prevent more sensitive boys and girls 
from speculating on these matters. Nor is it only specu- 
lation ; for it not unfrequently happens, in the poorer 
quarters of large towns, that mere children are actual 
eye-witnesses of the demoralising spectacle of slaughter- 
ing. Among the children of the well-to-do classes, who 
are spared such experiences, there is often much half- 
awakened curiosity and repressed (unwisely repressed) 



i 



a SkiUghterhoiia 



HumanitariBii 



94 



lenaibilit; on this ghastly subject. What have our 
teachers to Bay about it ? If they are to be taochers in 
aDythiog but the name, they must be prepared to give 
some guidance and inatruction to those who look to them 
for advice. It cannot be a right course to parry by 
denials or subterfuges the natural questions which 
children ask of their instructors. 

The responeibility of man can no more be evaded in 
the caae of animab slaughtered for food than in that of 
the so-called "beasts of burden;" in either case there 
is, at the very least, a moral obligation that no unneces- 
sary suffering bo inflicted. If we wish to educate our 
children humanely, we cannot do leaa than inform them 
of this duty ; and if we are honest we shall be compelled 
to add that at present the duty is very insufficiently pet- 



Further, a word as to the actual diet of children. In face 
of the facts above mentioned, it Eeems, to say the very 
least, a terrible error of judgment oa the part cf parents 
and guardians to force children, as is often done, against 
their natural inclination, to eat Oesh. There is abundant 
evidence to show that children in almost all cases thrive 
well on a diet of fruit, vegetables, and milk. Let me 
quote the authority of Sir B. W. Eichardaon in hia 
" Foods for Man " : 

" The food which is moBt enjoyed ia the food we call bread 
and fruit. In all my long medioal career, extending over 
forty years, I have rarely known an instance ia which a. child 
has not preferred fruit to animal food. I have many times 
been called upon to treat children for stomachic disorders 
induced by pressing upon them animal to the exclusion of fruit 
diet, and have seen the best results occur from the practice of 
reverting to the use of fruit in the dietary. I say it without 
the least prejudice, as a lesson learned from simple experience, 



29 



that the most natural diet for the young, after the natural 

milk diet, ia fralt and nhole-meol bread, with milk and water 
for drink. The desire for this same mode of sustenance is 
often continued into after years, as if the resort to flesh were a 
forced and artificial feeding, which required long and persistent 
habit to establish its permanency as a part of the system of 
everyday life." 

The instinctive loathing of flesh-food, which is so often 
to he ohserved in the young', ia a sign which no ^ 
teacher will disregard. It is the petition of Nature that, 
if grown men and women still think it necessary (in spite 
of accumulating proofs to the contrary) to eat the flesh of 
animals, they will at least allow their children to subsist 
awhile on a, more healthful and innocent food. At present 
the common practice of cramming children with "meat" 
is simply the hygienic counterpart of that moral negligence 
which permits them to"experiment" at the coat of bo much 
Buffering, and make a "sport" of the death and torture 
of animals. 

Uuch of the vice and immorality now prevalent in 
large schools may be traced to the same cause — a failure 
to recognise the importance of a simple and natural diet. 
"One of the proofs," says Eousaeau, " that the taste of 
flesh is not natural to man is the indifFereuce which 
children eshibit for that sort of meat, and the preference 
they give to vegetable foods, mi Lit -porridge, pastry, fruits, 
«tc. It is of the last importance not to denaturaUae this 
primitive taste, and not to render them carnivorous, if 
not for health reasons, at least /or thd lahe ofth-ir charaeUr. 
For, however the experience may be explained, it is 
certain that great eaters of Sesh are in general more cruel 

and ferocious than other men Let us preserve to 

the child as long as possible its primitive taste; let its 
nourishment be common and simple; let not its palata 




be familiariBed to any but natural Sarours ; and 
ercluaive taste be formed." 

What Teachers Can Do. 

Tliis appeal is addressed especially to teaohets, b 
until they as a class are brought to feel the need of 
humane education, theie is not the stigbtest hope of such 
education being granted. It is a case of Quit dacehit 
doctores ? We must convert the guardians first, in order 
to gain the desired access to the pupils. 

It may be objected, perhaps, that the humanitarian 
program set forth in this essay is too drastic to be 
practical, and that more might be gained from those 
to whom the appeal is addressed if less were required 
of theip. Well, of comse it would be the easier and 
pleasanter plan to make no severe demands upon anyone's 
conscience, and, instead of tellbg disagreeable truths of 
the causes of juvenile cruelty, to be content with the usual 
pious platitudes about the " thoughtlessness " of children, 
ending with a general recommendation to preach and 
practise " kindness to animals " — under conditions where 
consistent kindness is impassible. But what would be 
the profit of once more repeating what has already been 
80 often preached in vain ? Let it be freely admitted 
that the reforms here advocated can at present be only 
partially carried out ; still it is better and more practical 
to face the problem fairly, even with no immediate result, 
than to potter benevolently over mere formulas and 
trivialities, which, however they are treated, must stiE 
leave the essential issues untouched. 

And as a matter of fact, a good deal can be done, even 
at the present time, by the small minority who feel the 
truth of what has been said. Individual teachers, by 





27 



personal example and precept, can appreciably influence 
for the better tbe general tone and attitude of their pupils 
towards the lower animals ; and by more and more intro- 
ducing euch subjects into the course of instruction, can 
help to give a definiteneBa and reality to the departmental 
notice above quoted. We have already the Government 
permission that such teaching may be given ; what is 
needed is the insistence that no education shall be con* 
sidered sufficient without it. Still easier would it be for 
the principala and assistant- masters of public and private 
schools to do something towards a reform, by making the 
treatment of animals a subject of freq^uent reference in 
the pulpit and elsewhere. Hundreds of addieases and 
exhortations are annually given to schoolboys, by those 
who have charge of their moral and spiritual welfare ; 
yet it is rare indeed to hear a word spoken in protest 
against the worst of all human vices — inhumanity. 

Although, for reasons already stated, the inculcation of 
gentleness by means of prizes is to be regarded with some 
suspicion, there is no doubt that the system of essay- 
writing out of school hours has certain distinct advantages. 
It seta boys and girls thinking on subjects which perhaps 
would otherwise be overlooked ; and not unfrequently 
when the competitors are day-scholars and write the 
essays at homo, the whole family becomes interested in 
the work, and the awakening of one mind to humane 
ideas causes the awakening of many. Thus the " mercy " 
writing, like the quality of mercy itself, 

" is twice blest ; 
It blesgeth him that gives and him that takes." 

That still mote excellent results might be obtained from 
a systematic instruction of children in the duty of 
humanity to animals, may be judged from the success 



< 



98 



irbiclL has attended the efforts of the few pioneera in thia 
cause, as for esamplo K. do Saillf, a Frencli achool- 
maetBr in Algiers. I quote a portion of his own lecord 

of the eiperiment,' 

" I have long been convinced that bindnesa to animals is 
productive of great reanlts, and that it ia not only the moat 
powerful eauge of material prosperity, but also the beginning- 
of moral perfection. I therefore began my wort in IBol, and 
at the same time introduced agriculture into my school ; for I 
Bavf the dose connection between the doctrine of kindnesa to 
animals and the important science of agriculture, since there 
can be no profitable farming unless animals are well tept, well 
fed, and well treated. And, besides, how can children bettor 
learn the pleasures of country life than by understanding the 
importance of agriculture, the methods in use in their own 
country and the profit which may be derived from intelligent 
farming and kind treatment of animals ? Do they not become 
attached to country life ? Do they not fee! kindly towards all 
dumb creatures ? Do they not receive ideas of order and 
domestic economy? Do they not love Mother Earth, who pays 
ns HO freely and so generously for our work ? And does not 
this love tend to check the growing evil of emigration from the 
country to the city. 

" My method of teaching kindness to animals has the advan- 
tage of in ao way inferfering with the regular routine of my 
flchool. Two days in the week all our lessons are conducted 
with reference to this subject. For instance, in the reading 
class, I choose a book upon animals, and always find time for 
naeful instruction and good advice. My " copies " for writing 
are facta in natural history, and impress upon the pupils ideas 
of justice and kindness towards useful animals. 

" In writt«n exercises, in spelling and composition, I teach 
the good care which should be taken of domestic animals, and 
the kindness which should be shown them. I prove that by 
not overworking them, and by keeping them in clean and 
loomy stables, feeding them well, and treating them kindly 
and gently, a greater profit and larger crops may he obtained 

' from Our3umb Animali, the or^anof the Massachusetts B. P. C. A. 



as 



than by abusing them. I also speak, ia tbla connection, of 
certain small uniiuals which, although in a wild state, are very 
useful to fanners. 

" The results of my instmction have been, and e 
iDgly satisfactory, 'yly ideas hare deeply impressed uy pupils, 
and have exercised the best influence upon their lives and 
characters. Ever since I introduced the subject into my echool 
I have found the children less disorderly, but, instead, : 
gentle and affectionate towards each other. They feel n 
and more kindly towards animals, and have entirely given up 
tbe cruel practice of robbing nests and kiUing small birds. 
They are touched by the su£Fering and misery of animals, and the 
pain which they feel when they see them cruelly used b 
the means of exciting other persons to pity and compassion," 

The central principle which should be steadily kept in 
view ID all humane education ie that which the Humani- 
tarian League has made the basis of its Manifesto — that 
"it is iciquitoua to inflict suffering on any sentient b 
except when self-defence or absolute necessity can be 
justly pleaded." It cannot be difficult to teach children 
to distinguish between neceuary suffering and unneceasari/ ; 
yet in this distinction (so often forgotten by our oppo- 
nents), and in its practical application to the details of 
life, Ilea the whole ethic of humanitariauism. The idea 
that humanitarians are " sentimentalists " is the very 
reverse of the truth. We fully recognise that it is often 
a Btern necessity to inflict pain or death. Let us do bo, 
when we are satisfied that the necessity exists, with as 
few words as possible, and not shrink from any action 
that is rightly incumbent on us. But to hurt or kill for 
mere caprice, or fashion, or amusement ; to cage animals 
when they need not be caged ; to hunt them when there 
is no necessity for such hunting ; to torture them in the 
supposed interests of a barren and futile " science " ; to 
treat them, when domesticated, with an jasensate rough- 



4 



QesB vhicli defeats its own eads — these are mhumanities 
which eve^y boy and girl should learn to regard with 
loathing and detestation. 

The question of nomenclature is an important one, to 
which a brief mention must be given. It waa remarked 
by Jeremy Bentham that whereas human beings are 
Btjled parsons, " other animals, on account of their in- 
terests having beea neglected by the insensibility of the 
ftncient jurists, stand degraded to the class of thinffs." 
The German philosopher, Schopenhauer, has also com- 
mented on the in appropriateness of the English neuter 
pronoun " it," when applied to highly intelligent beings. 
The common use of such contemptuous terms as " brute- 
beasts," "live-stock," etc., is undoubtedly an obstacle to 
the humaner treatment of the lower races ; and children 
should be taught that it is absurd for man, himself an 
animal, to ignore his natural kinship with the " other " 
animals, as Bentham correctly eaUa them, 

"Without perfect sympathy with the animals around 
them, no gentleman's education, no Christian education, 
could be of any possible use." 80 said Mr. Buskin in 
1877; and one of the rules of his Society of St. Georgs 
runs as follows : 

" I will not kill nor hurt any living creature needlessly, nor 
destroy any beautiful tiling; but will strive to savs »nd com- 
fort all gentle life, and guard and perfect all natural beauty 
npou the earth." 

I would put it to those who may chance to read this 
pamphlet — how is it possible to make any progress to- 
wards a "perfect sympathy" with the animals, or to 
strive towards the high ideal of the Society of St. George, 
imlesB on the humanitarian lines which I have here 
advocated? It ia useless to think of "comforting all 




81 

gentle life " until we deliberately set ouraelvea to eradi- 
cate the bvUm by which, social life is at present brutalised 
and degraded. I have already admitted that this educa- 
tional process must perforce be a elow and laborious one ; 
it is all the more desirable, therefore, that it should at 
once be taken in hand. 

Moreover, we shall do wisely to remember that no 
great social improvement can come alone, and that Uie 
humanising of our school system oau only be fully effected 
side by side with the general and gradual spread of 
justice and enlightenment. For as there ia undoubtedly 
a natural connection and interdependence between the 
various wrongs by which society is at present afflicted, bo 
is it also evident that no great progress can be made on 
any isolated line of reform ; there may for a time be a 
rapid advance in some particular direction, but such 
advance will then be succeeded by a halt until the other 
lines are brought up. There is nothing diacouraging to 
homanitariauB in this solidarity of progress ; on the con- 
trary, we see in it the only true aseuranoe of ultimato 
and permanent success. 

Much has been done in recent years for the better 
instruction and the better protection of English children. 
We have recognised that it is a national duty to give a 
sound intellectual education to every child in the kingdom, 
and a national duty to safeguard every child from cruelty 
and violence, even if its own parent be the aggressor. 
We have now to realise that there is one thing yet lacking 
— the education not of the intellect only, but of the heart. 
It is useless to teach the young to become clever, if we 
permit them to remain cniel ; it is useless to pass laws to 
repress parental tyranny, if we encourage children ia 
in their turn to indulge the most tyrannous propensities 1 





S2 



towards bfiinga yet more deteaceleaB than themselTss. 
It is a mockery to talk of religioo, aad art, and educa- 
tion, and " humane lettera ; " if ws allow tlie gentloQess 
which can alone give vitality to these accomplishmenta to 
be poisoned at its source by the lesteriag plague of 
cruelty. There can be no Ultra kumaniores while 
brutality still exists. As was nobly said ot the curse of 
negro slavery, " While these things are being done. 
Beauty stands vailed, and Music is a screeching lie." 

For these reasons our appeal is now made to that educa- 
tional class whose power, though sharply limited by facte 
and eircumatanees, is yet greater than that of any c 
class to initiate a reform. It is for teachers tosay wheth 
an earnest eSort shall, or shall not, be made to inform tl 
rising generation that animal* have rights, and that t 
man who violates those rights, however cultured ■ 
learned or influential he may be, is deficient in the highea 
and noblest wisdom ot which the human mind is capabloil 
From such an attempt, though the immediate results be-fl 
but slight, who can say how rich a harvest may not 1 
reaped hereafter, or that the time may not c 
there shall indeed be that "perfect sympathy" betwefl 
mankind and the lower races which is to us but a viuol 
and a dream. In Shelley's words, 

" No longer now the winged habitants, 
That in the woods their sweet lives sing away, 
Flee froia the form of man ; but gather roand, 
And prune their sunny feathers on the hands 
Which little children stretch in friendly aport 
Towards these dreadless partners ol their play. 
All things are void of terror : man has lost 
His terrible prerogative, and stands 
An equal amidst equcda. Happiness 
And science dawn though late upon the earth." 



"WtTMANITARIAN LEAGUE'S' 
PUBL ICATIO NS. 

PAMPHLET SERIES. 
TWOFElfCE EACH. 
No. I.— Humanltarlanism: Its Qeneral Principle! 

Progress. By Henrv S. Salt. 
No. 4 — The Horrors of Sport. By Laov Flohencb Dixie. 

No. 5.— Behind the Scenes In Slaughter- Houses. By H. 

F, Lester, 
No. 6. — 'Vivisection. By Edward Cahpenter and Edward 

No. 7.— "I Was in Prison"; A Ple« for the Amelioration 

of the Criminal Law. By Robert Jo? 
No. S. — Women's Wages, and the Conditions under 

which they are earned. By Isabella O. Ford, 
No. g.— Dangerous Trades. By Louisa T. I 
No. 10.— The Extermination of Birds. By Edith Carhingtom- 
No. II.— The Horse: his Life, his Usage, and his End. 

By Colonel W. L. B. ConLSON. 
No. 12.— A Plea for Mercy to Offenders.— By C. H. Hop- 

WPOD, Q C, 



No. 14. — Liters Humanlores : an Appeal to Teachers. 
No. 15.— Cattle Ships and our Meat Supply. By ls\ 

Greg and S, H. Towers. 
No. 16,— Public Control of Hospitals. By Habry Roberts, 
Ho. 17.— The Evils of Butchery. By Joscah Oldfield 
No. iS.— The Dog : his Rights and Wrongs. By EaitH 

No. 19,— The Shadow of the Sword. By G. W, Foots. 



No- 21.— What It Costs to be Vaccinated: The Pains and 
Penaltlesof an Unjust Law. By Joseph Collinson. 
No. 23— The Sweating System. By Maubic; 
No. 23.— The Humanities of Diet. By Henrv S. Salt. 
No. 24.— The OaI1ow» and the Lash. By Hyfatia Bradlaook 
Bonner. 



lumane Science Lectures.' 

By Edward Carpenter, J. Arthur Thomsos, M.A., 

Rev. W. Douglas Morrison, and Dr. J. Milne Bramwell. 

Clolk, 2S. 



The New Charter; 

A DISCUSSION OF THE RIGHTS OF MEN 
THE RIGHTS OF ANIMALS. 

By J, C. Kenworthv, Josiah Oldfielj>, Rev. A. 

FliEDERic Harrison. G, W. Foote, and C. W. Le 
Paper Covers, 1 1- : Cloth. 2/-. 

"A powerfully writlcn little volame .... wherein the phyalc 
thasclenceofavolmion."— Daily Nmi. 



Cruelties of Civilisation: 

A PROGRAM OF HUMANE REFORM. 

In Two Vols. Paper Covers, i/-; Cloth, 2/-, each VoIhku, 

Volume I. contains :— Hdmanitarianism : Its General Pris- 

c:ple5 ano Progress; "I Was :n Prison": A Plea for the 
Amelioration of the Criminal. Law ; A Plea koh Mbk« 
to Offenders ; Women's Wages, and the Conditions uhdrk 
WHICH thev ake Earned : Dangerous Trades ; The Humam- 
iziNG OP THG Poor Law, 
Volume II. contaln,s :— Vivisection : Sport ; The Extermima-- 
TioN OF Birds; The Horse: his Life, his Usage, and Hit 
End ; Cattle Ships, and our Meat Supply ; Behind th* 
Scenes in Slaughter Houses, 

Animals* Rights, 

CONSIDERED IN RELATION TO SOCIAL PROGRESS. 

By Henry S. Salt. 
In Paper Coven. 1/-; Clotlt, a/-. 
■"Animals' Rights,' b; Mr. Henry Salt, seeks to set the prlncliile of 1 
righlB on » conSalepi and inlelHgihle fooling. Many oETMr. Sb'— - 
humanity wlli win universal asaenl."— rimo. 



HXJBiIANITY : 

'|t Jiramal »f % f mnanilarian Staj 

Valumt I. (1895-1896) bound in cloth, 3s. ad. 



Animal Life Readers. 



STASt 



) I. 



Our Old Friends. 8d. Rover and his Friends, 

*ND OTHER TaLBS. 8d. 

Tame and Wild. lo^. Dick and his Cat, 

AND OTBBH TaLES, lOd. 

Standard III, 

From Many Lands, i^- History of the Robins. 

Standard IV. 

Man's Helpers, is. The Animals on Strike, 

AND OTHER TaLES, IS. 

Standard 

Nature's Wonders, i^. Featherlattd. 

By Manville Fenn. is. 
Standard VI, 

The Friendship of Animals, is. 

Tuppy, the Life of a Donkey, is 

Sta^jdard Vll. 

Ages Ago, the Ancestry of Animals is. 
& Poor Blossom, is 



Lan' 



iTERN Lectures for Children. 

By Mrs. SUCKLING. 
Price Foiirpeiice each, net. 



THE DOQ. With 4(5 Slides. 
THE CAT. 47 Slides. 
THE HORSE. 140 Slides 
SHEEP AND GOATS. 

37 Slides. 
CATTLE. 41 Slides. 
RABBITS AND HARES. 

ag Slides. 
' RATS AND MICE. 31 Slides. 
SPIDERS. 15 Slides. 
ANTS. 18 Slides, 



WARBLERS. 44 Slides. 
USEFUL BIRDS. 39 Slides. 
FARM BIRDS. 47 Slides. 
BEETLES, MOTHS, Etc. 

36 Slides. 
WASPS. BEES, Etc. 

13 Slides. 
TOADS AND FROGS. 

18 Slides. 
THE EARTHWORM. 

II Slides. 



Others Preparing. 

N.B.— The Lectures, with numerous Outline Illustrations, make 

interesting books for reading. 



MANIFESTO OF THE HUHAMITAmN lUI 



TsB HuTnanitarian League has been established on the basiB of wie}^ '\ 
•and consistent prinoiple of humaneness — ^that it is iniqnitooB to iS-v 
ingf directly or indirectly, on any sentient being, except -when mH 
■absolnto necessity can be justly pleaded. 

This principle the Humanitarian League will apply and c 
those cases where it appears to be most flagrantly overlooked, taai 
not «nly against the cmelties inflicted by men on men, in the n 4.| 
authority, and conventional nsage, but also (in accordanoe id ttj- 
sentiment of humanity) against the wanton ill-treatment of the lo Cl|' 

The Humanitarian League will therefore propose a thoror 4l { 
and more equitable administration of the present Criminal Code, tfll^ ' 
a very large amount of injustice and oppression is constantly perpMlifi 1 

It will deprecate the various provocations and incentives * 
warfare, and will point to the evils that result from the ever-inc 
of military and "naval armaments. 

It will inculcate the public duty of aft'ording protection to -V-' 
helpless, and will urge the need of amending the present sooi - • 
under which a large portion of the people is in a stete of chroni ' 

It will contend that the practice of vivisection is incompa* iVC-^ 
fundamental principles both of humanity and sound science, i'g"' 
infliction of suffering for ends purely selfish, such as sport, f fj^ ^ 
or professional advancement, has been largely instrumental ir «m 
general standard of morality. .'y^ 

Furthermore, the Humanitarian League will aim at the pre tF. 
terrible sufferings to which «.Tn'mRla are subjected in the^cattle- .\i 
shambles, and wiU advocate, as an initial measure, th^ abolition w 
slaughter-houses, the presence of which in our large centres is a ei 
wide-spread demoralisation. 

The Humanitarian League will look to its members to do their 
both in private and public, to promote the above-mentioned scheifi& 
work will involve no sort of opposition to that of any existing 
on the contrary, it is designed to supplement and reinforce such 
have already been organised for similar objects. The distinctive 
and guiding policy of the League will be to consolidate and give 
expression to those principles of humaneness, the recognition of 
essential to the understanding and realisation of all that is highest audi 

humanity. 

Ootnmunieations to he addressed to the Son. Secretary, 

53, Chancebt Lane, London, W.G, 



I 






rie 



illilillllllHilil 

a bias oil lib 17b