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ESSi^^^^E 



THE 



HUNBOLDT | 
JBRARI:5CI|NCE| 




I 

nRE FORMS OF WATEJ 

k CLOUDS AND RIVERS, ICE AND GLACIERS, 

^^m JOHN TYNDALL, LL.D., F.R.S., 

^^^^^H paOFussoB OF hatttsal fiiilosciiht in tbs botal maTnunoi*. uuiMK- 

WITH NINETEEN ILLUSTRATION; I DRAWN UNDER THK Otll»«W* 
OP THE AUTHOR. 



PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITIOK. giinga" 

oa C'tictniuij, 

At BmBKllBitot IIiP MHDHgersnr lEie Royal lutv."' 

Insllliilion hi-Td on Beiomhtr 13tb. 1836, the Etatt 

" tlis (7nmmilleeflp[i<ilnle4 (o ponai'ler wliat hti[ rn-a t!*^ i 

ItetniT' *iml.l lif itr-Hvi-ri'i-l In ilio TiutirTi- «t.i ■■t-"- ■»- 

Hun III II- : ■ ■ ■■ II .'. ;i I il. 





THE PURMS OF WATER 

wise Iban Justly and generously towurd JUt 

WiBUmg. moraoTcr, Iq render them of per- iiredecessorB, llie lost of wlioin, lo tile gria 

mRneat value, I wrole out copious Notes □! o( all wlio knew hhn, lias recently paued 

:he course, iinJ liad Ihcm distributed ainouB nivay, Johm TrwDALL. 

llie boya aud ((iris. lo preparing these Notes Amm, isrt. 

I aimed at aolliing less tliar, preseniios to my § i. Clotos, Rains, akd Rmsaa. 

youthful audience, lU a coDcenlratod but jhihim, 

perfectly digeBlible form, every eBEentifil ^- Every occurrence in Nature is precede^ 

point embraced in Hie literature of the gla- by otner oocurrenees which nre its cauiea, 

ciera, and some things in addUioa, which, and succeeded by others which are its affeulg. 

derived aa they were from my own recent The buuian mind is not satisfied with observ- 

researches, no book previously published on ing and studying any natural occurrence 

the siibject contained. aloue, but takes pleasure in connecting every 

Bill my theory of oducalion agrees with natural fact with what lias gone before it 
that of Etiiewou, according to which inslnm- "nd with what is to come after it. 
tion ia only half the battle, what be calls . 2. Thus, when we enter upon the studj of 
pr.JwenUon being the other half. By thii he risers and glaciers, our interest will ha great- 
means that power of the teacher, through ly augmented by taking into account not 
the force of his character and- the vitality of oo\y their actual appearances, but also their 
his thought, to bring out all the latent cauaea and effects. 

Btiength of bia pupil, and to invest with in- 3. Let us trace a river to its source. Ba- 

Icrest even the driest matters of detail. In ginning where it empties itself into the sea, 

the present iastance I was determined to and following it backward, we lind it from 

shirk nothing essential, however dry ; and. lime to time Joined by tribiitarieB whioli 

to keep my mind alive to the requirements swell Its waters. The river of course be- 

of my pupil, I proposed a sories of idoal comea smaller as Iheae tribularies are passed. 

rambleB, in which he should be always at my " shrinks first to a lirook. then to a stream i 

side. Oddly enough, though I waa here Uila aguiu divides iLself into a number o( 

dealiae with what might be called the ali. smaUer streamlets, ending in mere threads of 

stractldeaof ahoy, 1 realized his presence water. These constitute the source of thu 

so fully as to enlert;iin for him, betitre our river and are uaitBlly found among hilU. 

excursions ended, an alfeclion cousciously 4. Thus Ibe Severn has its source in thi; 

warm and reaL Welsh Moiintaina ; the Thames in the Cots. 

The Notea here referred to were at first wold Hllla ; the Danube in the hills of thtfl 

intended for the usu of my audience alone. Block Forest ; the Rhine and the Hhone in 

At the urgent requeat of a friend I sliglitLy the Alps ; the Gangea in the Himalaya 

expanded (hem, and tonverted them into the Mountains ; (he Euphrates near Mount A.ra' 

little book here presented lo the reader. rat : (hi" Garonae in tJie Pyrenees ; (ha Elbe 

The smouot of attention bestowed upon in the Giant ilnuntaina of Bohemia { the 

the volume Induces me to give this brief Misaouri in (he Rocky Mountains, and the 

history of its ori^n. Amazon in the Andes of Peru, 

A German critic, whom I have no reason 5, But it is quite plain itiat we hnve not 

to regard aa speoially favorable to me or il. yet reached the real beginning of the rivers. 

makes the following nfmark on the style of Wlience do the earliest streams derive their 

the book : " Thispassion [fur the mountains] water? A brief residence among the miiuu- 

tempts him to reveal more of his Alpine taina would prove to you that they are fed 

wanderingB than is necessary for hia demon- by rains. In drr weather you would find 

_._,.;„_, T,... .,.„■.- i...„ _.:., __. ,1... „. ',et>le, '■■■-- ^ -■ ■ 



Thu reader, however, will not the streams feetile, sometime* indeed quit„ 

Hud this a disagreeable interruption of the dried up. In wet weather you would see 

course of thought ; for the book tlioreby them fiiaming lorrcnla, la general thewj 

gains wonderfully in vividness." This, I streams lose themselves as lillle threads nf 

would aay, was the express aim of the breaks water upon tliehill-sidea ; hut si-metimes you 

referred to. I desired to keep my companion may trace a river to a definite spring. Th* 

fresh, aa well aa instructed, and these inter- river Albula in Switzerland, for instance, 

ruptiona were so many breathing-places rushes at its origin In consid Tahiti voluma 

Where the intellectual tension waa purposely from a mouutaio-Bide. But you very aoim 

relaxed and the mind of tne pupil braced to assure yourself that such sprinLrs are also fed 

fresh action, by rain, which has percolated through the 

Of other criticisms, flattering and other- rt>ck» or snil. and which, through some orl- 

vise, I furliear to speak. A.i. regards somt Ace (hat ithasfuund or formed, comes 10 th« 

at them, Indeed, it would be a reproach to light of day. 

that manliness which I have sought to en- 6. But we cannot end here. Wheooa 

courage ia my pupil to return blow for blow, comes the rain which forms the mounl^a 

If the reader be aciiuaioted with them, this atreamsr Observation enables you lo an- 

wlll let him know how I regard them ; and swer the question. Rain does not come from 

if he be not acquainted with them, 1 would a clear ak v. It comes from clouds. But 

recommend him lo ignore (hem, and to form what are clouda T Is there nolbiug you ars 

hia own Judgment of this book. No fair- acquainted with which tliey resemble t Vo« 

minded person who reads it will dream that discorer at onee a likeness between them and 

1. in writing it, had Ibotight nf ucLinii other- the condensed steam of a locomotii-e. At 



u 



IN CLOUItS AND KiVEl^. ICE ANTl GLACIERS. 



areiy palf of tlio engine a cloiid is projected 13, Yuu msr nnllce in a 
into till/ iiir. WiiH;li the clouil sliarply : you lotig as the door and wl 
notlcu tliiit II drn tanaa at a lillle dlHlancu closed, and llie room iriiiHms hot, tbe ai 



from til u top of the funuul. Give duse bt- main <t dear : but when ihe doors orwiniiowH 

tention and ynu will sometlmea see a pnr- are opened a dimnefn is visible, cuuncd bj 

fectly dour space between llie fuonel nod tlie the precipilHtion lo fog of llie aiiueous vapor 

cloud. TLrongli Ibal clear Bpiice Ibe rhing oC'tbe baIl-ro>im If tbewiiilberbeioteniiely 

wbieh miikea the cloud inuel pasa. Whiil. cold i.lie enlmiicour fresU air may even rimae 

tlien, 19 this thing which atone moment is ^nrnd lo fall. This busbyin obsi'rved in Kus- 

transpaient and invisible, and at tbe next aian liuU-rooms : mid u1~o in the »ub1urrnni.-iia 

moment viable OS adense opaque doud? atnbles at Brxeroom, vvbca the doors are 

7, II ia the »Uani or vapor w/ iraler from openfd itnd iLe cold miireing airis permitted 
the boiler. Within the boiler this Eteam is to enter. 

Iransparent and invisible ; but lo keep it iu 14. Even on the diieat day this vapor is 

thia invisible stale a litat would be required never abaent from our almospiiere. The 

as great as that within the b"i1er, When the vapor diffused Ibtoiigh Ihe air of Ihia room 

vapor mingles with Ihe cold air above llie iKit may be eongealed lo lioar frOHl in your preg- 

funnel it cesses to be vapor. Rvory bit nt euc'e Thia is done by Blling a vessel with a 

sleam abrinlcs, when chilled, to a much more mixture of pounded Ire and salt, wbieh is 

minute particle of water. The liquid parti- colder than Ihe ice itself, aod which, tbere- 

ciea tliua prndiieed form a kind of iciter-dui't fore, condinses and frt'C/.ea the nijueoiia 

of exceeding fineness, whicli floats in lite air, viipor. The surface of the vessel Ix filially 

and is called a doud. • coated with a frozen fur, so Ibick IJiut il may 

8. Watch tba cloud-banner from the fun- lie siiraped away and foiroed into a snow- 
nel of a running locomotive ; you see it Imll. 
growing graduuliy less dense. It Ilnally 1.1. To produce the cloud, i 



melts away altogether, and if vou co itiuue the locomotive and liie ketlle. /icaf is oeces- 
your observations you will not tail lo nolioe sary. By heating ihe water we first convert 
that the speed of Its disapjK'arauce depends it in'.o sieam, Bniftheu, by chilling the si 



upon the character of the djiy. In humid we t-onven it into douil. Is there any tire ir 
weather Ibe cloud liangs long and lazily in imlure which produces the clouds of our at. 
Iho air; in dry weather it ia rapidly licked inosphere? There la : the fffij of the aun. 
up. What baa become of it? It lias been 16. Thus, by traolng backward, wiilioui 
reconverted into true invisible vapor any break in ihe cliain of occurrences, i^m 

9. The drier the air, and the hitter the air, river fnmi iis end to ils rial beginnings, wt 
the greater is the amount of cloud which come at length to tlic aiin. 
cim be thus dissolved in it. When the cloud „ ^ 
first forma, ita nuantity is far greater than tiie 
sir is able to maintaio in an invisible slate. 

But as the cloud mixes gradually with a t - j„. 

lar^r maaa of air it is more anj morn dis- mentioned. They do ni>t liej^nn by driblets 
solved, and finully passes altogether from the on a hill-side, nor can Ibey be traced to a 
cunditian of a finely -divided liquid Into that spring. 1^, for example, to the mouth of 
of transparent vapor or gas. ibe river Rhone, and trace it backward to 

10. Blake llie lid of a kettle air-tight, and Liyons, where it :urua to Ihe east. Bending 
permit the steam to Issiih from the pipe ; a niunil by Chambery. yon come at length to 
cloud is precipitated in all respects similar to the Lake of Geneva, from which the liver 
that issiiiug from Ibu funnel of the locomo- rushes, ond which you might he disposed lo 
tlve. regard as the source of the Rhmie. Hui go 

11. Permit the slenm as it issues from the to Ibe head i>f ihe lake, and yiiii find that 
pipe to pass through the flame of a spirit- ""^ Rhone there enters it, that the laKe la 
lamp, the cloud ia inatantly dissolved by the 'd fad a kind of cxpanaion of Ihe river, 
heat, and is not again precipitated. With a Follow this upward ; you find il joined by 
apitial boiler and a special nozzle the eiper. smaller rivers from llie mountaina right and 
iinent may he made monj striking, hut not iefl. Pass these, and push your journey 
more Instructive, Ihan with the kellle. higher still. You come at length to a huge 

13 Look lo your bedroom windows when massof ice — the end of a glacier — which filla 
the wealher is very cold outside ; thejFome- tl>e Rhone valley, and from the bolium of lliu 
tunes atruam with water derived from the glacier the river rushes In the glacier of 
condposationof the aqueous vapor from your the Rhone you thus find the aouice of the 
own lungs. The windows of railway car- river Rhone. 

riuges in winter ahow this condensation in a 18. But again we have not reached the real 
striking manner. Pour cold waterintoadry hegianing of the river. You soon convince 
drin king-glass on a summer's day : Ihe out- yourself thai this earliest water of the Rhona 
aide surface of the glass becomes instantly is produced by the melting of the ice. You 
dimmed by the preciplbition of moisture, get upon Ihe glacier and walk upward along 
On a warm day you notice no vapor In front 't- After a lime the ice disappears and you 
of your luouili. but on a cold day you form come upon snow. If you are a competent 
there a little rloud derived from Iho condeo- mountaineer yon may go to llisi -iw^ ^s«« >*- 
aalj'iu of Ihe aqueous vapor from the lungp thUKIeM^.ft^u■«-fe•i\i,a,■Q&"\\■^'^'i«.■^w**■*o*^^J»» 



THE FORMS OF WATER 



ftud descend at tt 



river smaller tban the Rhone. 

19. You soon \eaia that the mountain 
Bnow feeds liie glacier. By some means or 
other Itie snow is conrerteii into ice. But 
Whence cornea the snow ? Lilie the roia, It 
cornea from tlie clonds, wtiicb, us before, can 
bo tniced to vapor raised hf the (run. With- 
out solar fire we could tiave no atmospliBriu 
vapor, without vapor no clouds, without 
> clouds no sniiw, and williout snow no gia. 
ciers. Curious llien as the conclusion maybe, 
the cold ice of the Alps lias ila origin in the 
heat of the sun. 

§ 3. Thb Waves of Light, 

30. Rut what is the buu f We Itnow He 
size and its weiglit. We also know Ihftt it 
1b a globe of tire far holler tliua any lire 
upon earth. But we quw enter upon anollier 
inquiry, We have to learn definitely what ia 
the meaniuK of solar light and eolar heat ; In 
wliat way ihoy make themselves known to 
our senses ; by whiil mi:uua they get from 
the sun to the earth, and bow, when there. 
thev produce the clouds of our atmosphere, 
ana thus originate our rivers and our glaciara. 

31, If in a dark room you close your eyoa 



point pressed, while a Sharp ht' 
eye produces the impression of a llttsh of 
IJEjht. There Is a nerve specially dcvoieJ to 
the purposes of vision which comes from the 
brain to the back of the eye, and there di- 
vides into fine filaments, which are woven 
together to a kind of screen called the retina. 
retina can he excited In various ways so 
produce the consciousness of ti^t ; it 
may, as we have seen, !« excited by the riida 
mechanical action of a blow imparled to llie 



seen the medlun 
millions, nor the 
How. then, do we 
islence 1 

28. Before such 
any i-eal rout in the 



■l-ii 



^ 



eye, 

33, Tliere is nn spontaneous 
light by tlie healthy eie. To excite vision 
the reUiiB must be affected by something 
coming from witliout. What is that some- 
thing I lu some way or other, luminous 
bodies have the power of alTectlog the retina 
— tint hi»B T 

23. It was long supposed that from such 
I}odieB issued, with inconceivable rapidity, an 
Inconceivably line matter, which flew 
through space, passed through the pores sup. 
posed to eicisi in the humors of the eye, 
reached the reiina behind, and by their shock 
against the retina, aroused the sensation of 
light. 

24. This theory, which was supported by 
the greatest men, among others by Sir Isaao 
Kewton, was found competent to explain ■ 
great number of the phenomeaa of light, but 
l\ was nut found competent to explain aS, the 
phenomena. As the skill and knowledge of 
'Vzperimenters increased, large classes of facts 
Vere revealed which could only tie explained 
by assuming that light was produced, not by 
a flue matter flying through space ami hitting 
Uii retina, but hy the shock of minute viavei 



against the retina. 

26. Dip your finger into a hasin of watet 
and cause it to quiver rapidly to and fro. 
From the point of disturbance issue 
ripples which are carried forward by th« 
water, and which Anally strike the oasin. 
Here, in the vlbruting finger, you Iiave 
source of agliation : in the water you have 
vehicle through which the finger's motion! 
transmitted, and you have finttily the side ol 
the basin which receives the shuck of the 
little waves. 

20. In like monner, according lo the 
tlieory of li jlit, you have a source of agi 
in the vibrating atoms, or srauileat particlee, 
of the luminous Iwdy ; you have a veltlcle ot 
transmission in a i»ubiilanoe which is sup- 
posed to fill all spiiec, end to be dilfusei. 
through the humors of the eye ; and fli 
you have the retina, which receives the 
cesslve shocks of the waves. These shocks 
ore supposed to produce the seosat Ion of light. 
27- We are here dealing, for the most part, 
with suppositions and assumptions merely. 

Wo Imve never seen the atoms of a luir' 

:Inn3. We have 
which transmit* their 
raves of that niorlium. 
imo to assume iheiir t!s- 

. idea could have taken 
imanmind, it must have 
been well disciplined and prepared by obser- 
vations and culculalioos of ordinary wave- 
moiion. It was necessary to know how both 
water waves and sound-waves are furmerj 
and propagated. It was above all things 
necessary to know how waves, passiu" 
through the same medium, act upon each 
other. Thus disciplined, the mind was pre- 

ered to detect any resemblance preseutin^ 
elf between the action of light and that of 
waves. Great classes of optical phenomena 
accordingly appeared which could be ac- 
counted lor in the most complete and satis. 
factory manner by assiimiiig them to be pro- 
duced hy waves, and which could not be 
otherwise accounted for. It is liccause of its 
competence to expk-.ii all thj phenomena of 
light that the wave theotj now receives unl- 
versal acceptanor in thu part of sdentiflo 

Let me use an r aatration. We infer from 
the flint implements recenlly found in such 
profusion all over Englaml and in other 
countries, that they were produced by men, 
and also that the Pyramioa of Egypt were 
built by men, because, as far as our expe^ 
riencegoes, nothing but men could form such 
implements or build such Pyramids, In like 
manner, we infer from the phenomena o( 
light the agency of waves, because, mt far as 
our experience goes, no other agency could 
produce the pheunoiena, 

g 4. The Waybs ov Heat which fboducb 
THB Vapor op ouh ATMoapuBaK ash 
KELT oua GLACiaaa, 
21). Thus, in a general way, I have given 

you the conception and the grounds u lh« 



1 



IN CLOUDS AND RIVKR3, ICE AND GLACIERS. 




•onceptloit. whlcli regiirda liplit iTs Uie pro- 
duel of wnve-motion ; but we must go fur- 
ther thnn this, anil follow Hie conception into 
some of lis deluila. Wo ba^e aO seen iho 
waves of water, and wo know they are of 
diflerent si zbb— different in length and differ- 
ent in height. When, tUerefiin;, you are loUl 
that the atoms of the sun, and of almoEt all 
other luminous bodies, viljrate nt differcni 
rates, and produce waves of diftorenc eizea, 
your experience of walPr-waves will eanhle 
you to form a lolersbly clear notion of what 
IS meant. 

80. Aa observed ahove, we have never seen 
the light-waves, hut we jnigoof their pres- 
ence, Iheir position, and Iheir magnitude, by 
their effects. Their Icnglhs have been thus 
dclermined, and found li> vary from about 
Tioosnth to joJtmlh of an inch. 



sends forth incessantly a multitude 
of waves wliich produce no light. Ths 
liTgest waves which the Bun eenrls forth ar« 
of this non-luminous cliurni-Ier, Ihou^^h they 
puHsess the highest lienting power. 

38. A cnnimon sunbeam cnnlains waves o( 
al! kinds, hut it is posaililc tn djl or fllf tha 
twam so as to intercept all its light, and to 
allow its ohscure heat to pass unimpeded. 
For Bubstanees have been discovered which, 
wBile intensely opaque to the llght-wavea, 
nr« almost perfectly transparent to the others. 
On the other hand, It la poaaiblc, by the 
choice of proper aubatauees. to intercept in a 
great degree the pure beat-waves, and to 
illow the pure li{;ht-wuves free transmisaion. 



This last St 
feet as the n. 



, however, i 



pe^ 



m 



THE FORUa OF WATEai 



Sft. We Bhall leom presently bow to detnck trie light has nlso tlK' ndviiuiuge tbat its dork 
the owe class of wavea from the other claaa, radiation embraces a larger proportion of tlu 
ftnd lu prove tbat waves cnmpelcnl to light a totiil radiation Lhaa the aork beat of tbe sun. 
fire, fuae metal, or burn the bund like a hot In fact, Ihe force ni energy, if 1 may use the 
solid, may lixist in a perfectly durk place, term, of lite dark waves or the electric ligbl 

84. Supposing, then, tliat we withdraw, in is fully seven timea that of ila llglil-waves. 
Hie first instance, the largo heat-waves, and The electric light, therefore, shall be cm- 
allow the light- waves alone la pass. These ployed in our experimental demonatrarions. 
may he concentrated by auiiahle lenses and 4U. From this source a powerful beam ii 
seat into water without sensibly warming it. sent through tlie room, revealing its track by 
Let the light-waves now bo withdrawn, and the motes floating in the air of the room ; for 
the larger heat-waves concentrated in the were the motea entli'ely absent the beftSL 
same manner . they may be caused to boil would be unseen. It falls upon a concave 
tbe water almost instantaneously. mirror (a glnss one silvered behind will an- 

85. This is the point to which I wished to ew«r) and is gathered up by the mirror into 
!ead you, and which withoutdue preparatioi a cone of reflected rays ; the luminous apes 
could not be understood. Ton now per- of the cone, which ia tbe/otfiw of the mirror, 
ceive the important part pkyed by these being about fifteen inches distant from lis 
large darkness-waves, if I may use the term, reflecting surface. Let us mark the focus 
In the work Of evaporation. When they accurulely by a pointer, 

E'unge into seas, lakes, and rivers, they are 41. And now let us place in the path o( 
tercepted close to tbe surface, and they the beam a substance perfectly opaiiuo tr 
beat the water at the surface, thus causing liglit. This substance is iodine dissolved in 
it to evaporate ; the light-wavea at tbe same b, liquid called bisulphide of carbon. The 
timeeuteringtogreatdepthswithout sensibly light at Iho focus iastautly vanishes when 
heating the water through which they pass, the dark solution ia introduced. But the so 
Not only, therefore, is it the sun's fire which lulion is intensely transparent to the dark 
produces evaporation, but a particular cod- waves, and a fccus of suiih waves remains id 
alltuent of that Are, the existence of which the air of the room after the ligbl has been 
yon probably were not aware of. abolished. Ton may feel the lieat of these 

30. Further, it is these self-same li^btless waves with your hand ; you may let them 
waves which, failing upon the glaciera of fall upon a 'bermometer, and thus prove 
the Alps, melt the ice and produce all the ^leir presence; or, best of all, you may 
rivers flowing from the glnciots ; fur I shall cause them to produce a current of eJectric- 
prove to you presently tliat the Ught-waves. |ty, which ("eflects a large magnetic needle, 
even when concentrated to the uttermost, aru "flie mogni' jdn of the deflection is a measure 
unable to melt the moat delicate hoar-frost ; of the heai. 

much leas would they be able to produce tha ^. our oyer! i,aw is, by the use of a 
copious liiiuefftCtion observed upon the glii more powerful i^mp. and a helter mhror (one 
ciers. silvered in front and with a sliorter focal dis- 

37. Those large lightlesa waves of tha eun, tance). to intensify the action here rendered 
OS well as the heat-waves issuing from non- so sensible. Aa ilcEore, the focus is rendered 
luminous hot bodies, are frequently called strikingly visible by the intense illumination 
Obscure or invisible heat. of the dust particles. We will first filler the 

We have here an example of the manner beam so as to intercept its dark waves, and 
In which phenomena, apparently remote, are then pennit the purely luminous waves to 
connected together in this wonderful system exert their utmost power on a small bundlo 
of things tbat we call Nature. You cannot of uun-colton placed at the focus. 
Study a snow-flake profoundly wi<lioull>eiag ^. No effect whatever is produced. The 
led back by it step by step to tbeconslRution gun-cotton might remain there for a week 
of the sun. It is thus tbrouchoul Nature, without igniLion. Let us now permit the 
All its parts are interdependent, and the unflllered beam to act upon the cotton. It 
•tudy of any one part crnitpUtely would really is instantly dissipated in an explosive flash. 
Involve the study of jIL This experiment provea that tbe light-wareB 

„ _ „ are incompetent lo explode the cotton, while 

g 5, Experiments to pbovb vhe fokb- ^^ „^^.gg ^f tiie full beam are competent to 
ooiNO Statememtb. Jp gg . ije^pg „e may conclude that the dark 

88 Heat issuing from any source not vlsl- naves are the real agents in ths explosioiL 
bly red cannot he concentrated so as to pro- 44. But this conclusion would be onlf 
duce the intense effects just referred to. To probable ; for it might be urged that the 
produce these it is necessary to employ the fnu'te^e of the dark waves and tbe light w^veg 
obscure heat of a body raised to the highest ianecessarytoproducethe result. Let us then, 
possible state of incandescence. Tlie sun is bj means of our opaque solution, isolate our 
such a body, and its dark heat Is therefore dark waves and converge them on the cotton, 
suitable for experiments of this nature. It explodes aa before. 

39. But in the atmosphere of London, and ^5. Hence it is the dark waves, and they 
for experiments such as ours, tbe heat-waves only, that are concerned in the ignition o( 
emitted by coke raised to intense whitencaa the cotton. 

by a current of eleulricjty are much more 46. At the same dark focus sheets of plati- 
manageable than the sun's leaves. The elai> sum are raised to vivid redness : zmo la 




IN CLODD8 AND RIVEKQ ICE AND GLACIERS. 8S 

Uurned up ; paper instanlly blancB . masue- " Tann It ; the glass reacta upon (he frost anij 

_i ;_„ jg tgiiited ; liliarcoal within u re- melts it. Hence ILe wisdoiu of (tarkening, 

__ .. .Hiuing oxygen is set burning ; a Instead of tlie flask itself, [he mixriire within 

id similarly placed is caused to glow lie flask. 

*lar. being afterward gradually diasi- 55, This experiment proves to demonstra- 

,,_ And all this while the air at tite to~ tion the statement in paragraph 3(t : that it 

1UB remains ns cool as in any other part of Is the dark waves of the sun that melt the 
the room. mounlfiiu anow and ice, and origiaule ail the 

47. To obtain the light-waves we employ rJTem derived from glaciers. 
• clear solution of alum in water ; to nblain There are writers who seem to regard 
"•" dark waves we employ the solution of ^^ience as an aggregate of facts, and hence 
- -i above referred to. But as before doubt ita efficacy as an exercise of the rea- 
(33), tlie alu;,. is not so jierfeet a lllter soniog powers. But all that 1 Imve here 
.^j iodine ; !ar it tiausmita a portion of tnught you is the result of reason, tailing ita 
obscure het 1. stand, however, upon the sure basis of ob- 

9. Though the light-waves here prove servation aud experiment. And tliis is the 
their incompetence W ignite gun-cotton, they spirit in v/hk'b oiir further studies are to be 
are able to burn up black paper ; or, indeed, pursued, 
to explode the cotton when it is blackened. „ „ 

The while cotton does not absorb the light, 3 "■ OcEAStc Dihtillatiob. 

and without abaorption we have no heating. 58. The sun, you know, is never exactly 
The blackened cotton absorbs, is lieated, and overhead in England. But at the equator, 
explodes. »nd within certain limits north and south of 

4B. Instead of a solution of alum, we ■will it, Ihe aun at certain periods of the year is 
employ for our next experiment a cell of pure directly overhead at anon. These liniita are 
water, through which the light pusses with- called the Tropics of Cancer and of Capri- 
out sensible absorption. At the focus is corn. Upon the belt comprised between 

S laced a test-tube also containing water, the these two circles (be sun's raya faU with their 
uU force of Ihe light being oonceniratefi mightiest power ; for here Ihey shoot directly 
upon it. The water is not sensibly warmed downward, and bent hoih earth and sea more 
by the concentrated wavea We now re- Wian when they strike slantingly. 
move the cell of water ; no change is visibls 57. When the vertical sunbeams strike the 
in the beam, but the water contained in the ^"d they heat it, and the air in contact with 
Ust-tube now tx>ilfi. the hot soil becomes heated in turn. But 

BO. The tight-waves being thus proved In- when healed the air expands, and when it 
efleeliinl, anil the full beam effectual, we may cpands it becomes lighter. This lighter air 
infer that It is tbedark wavea that do the work ""ises, like wood plunged into water, through 
of beating. But we clinch our inference by tbe heavier air overhead, 
employing our opaque iodine filter. Placing 58. When the sunbeams fall upon the sea 
it on the path of the beam, the light is en. ^e water is warmed, though not so much as 
tirely stopped, bnt the water boils exactly as 'be land. The warmed water expands, be- 
lt did when the full beam fell upon it. comes thereby lighter, and therefore conthiuea 

51. The truth of the statement made In "» ^oat upon the top. This upper layer of 
paragraph 34 is thus demo nstralcd, walCr warms to some extent Uiemr in contact 

53. And uow with regard to the melting of ^'^b H. but it also sends «p a quantity of 
ice. On the surfaca of a flask containing a aqueous vapor which, being far lighter than 
freezing mixture we obtain a thick fur of hoar- air, helps the laller to rise. Thus both from 
frost (Far. 14). aendic - he beam througK "^e land and from the sea we have ascending 
a waler-cell, its luminoTia wa7M en: concen- o'Jrrents established by the action of the sun. 
Iraled upon the surface of tae Gas^ Not a 50. When Ihey reach a cerrain elevation in 
spicula of the frost is du5oV*i. ^e now '^^ almoophere, Ihese currents divide and 
remove iLe waler-c^ll, and .'n a _;)uii:nt ■ ^ow, part toward the north and part toward 
patch of thefrozen(uraslarHeftsh'''f-a-crown the south ; while from the noith aud ihe south 
IB pielted. Hence, inasmuch as tue full beam * fl°w of heavier and colder air sets in to 
produces this effect, and the luminous part supply tlie place of the ascending warm air. 
of the beam does not produce it, we fix upoa 00. Incessant circulation is thu» lalulilisheil 
the dark portion the melting of Ihe frost. in the atmosphere. The equatorial air and 

03. As before, we clinch this inference by vapor flow aboVe toward the north and 
concentrating the dark waves alone upon the south poles, white the polar air flows below 
flask. The frost ia diaaipated exactly as it toward the equator. The two currenta of 
was by the full beaiiu air thus oatablislied are called the upper and 

54. These effects are rendered strikhigljr the lower trade-winda. 

visible by darkening with ink the freezing 61. But b^ore the air returns from the 
mixt'ire within the flask. When the hoar' poles ^reat changes have occurred, For the 
frost is removed, the blackness of the surface alras it quitted the equatorial regions was 
from which it had been melted comea out in laden with aqueous vapor, which could not 
strong CO* r-et with the adjacent snowy subsist in the cold polar regions. It ia there 
wtJi.enees. If hen llie flask itself, instead of precipitated, failing BomL*timea as rain, or 
the ireeziug mixture, is blackened, the purely more commonlv as snow. The land near the 
lumi^^^av^^^n^^^rbed by Ihe glass, pole la covered witti ihia snow, which give* 



M THE FORMS OF WATER 

birth tnvaal glaciers in a manner hereafter to a Utile smoke. Let tbo air come to rest, nofl 

bo explained. then simply place your hand at tbe open 

68. It ia necessary that you should have a mouth of llic shade. Mimic hurricaoea are 

perfectly clear view of this process, for great produced by the air warmeil by the hand, 

miatakes have been made regarding the man- wUicli arc strikingly visible when the amokt 

ner m which glaciers arc related to the heut ia illuminated by a strong light. 

of the aun. 09. The hcatinK of tha tropical air by ths 

03. It was supposed that it thesun'sheat eaa ii indirect. Thesolar beams have acarce- 

irere dimtnishea. greater glaciers than tbone ly any power to huat the air through which 

now existmg would be produced. But tbe ihey pass : l)ut they heat the land and ocean, 

leaseuing of the eun's heat would infallibly and these communicate their heat to tbe all 

diminish the quantity of aqiieoua vapor, and in cootact with them. Tbe air and vapor 

thus cut off the glaciers at their source, A start upward charged with the heat thu< 

brief Illustration will complete your know!- communicated, 

64 In the process ot ordinary distillation, g T, Tbopicai, Runs. 
tbe liquid to be distilled is heated and cori' 70, But long Ijefore the air and vapor from 
verted into vapor in one vesael, and chlllud the equator reach the pules, precipitatioa 
andreconvertedinloliquidinanolher. What occurs. Wherever a humid warm wind 
bas just been stated renders it plain that tlio mixes with a cold dry one, rain falls. In- 
earth aad its atmosphere constitute a vast deed the heaviest rains occur at those places 
dialilliug apparatus in which the equalorial where the sun is vertically overhead. We 
ocean plays the part of the boiler, and IhlS must inquire a little more closely into their 
chill regions of the poles the part of the con- origin. 

denser. In this process of distillation lieitt 71. Fill a bladder about two thirds full of 

plays quite as necessary a part as cold, and air at the sea-level, and take it to the sumndt 

twfore Bishop Heber could speak of" Qreen- of Mont Blanc. Aa youaaceud, the bladder 

land's icy mountains," the equatorial ocean becomes more and mora distended; at the 

had to be warmed by the sun. We shall top of the mountain it is fully distended, ssd 

have more to say upon this question after- has evidently to bear a pressure from witbin. 

ward. Returning to tbe sea-level you find that the 
tightness disappears, the bladder finally ap- 

n.LUBTR4TrvB EXPEBiHENTS, pearing as flaccid as at first. 

B5. I have said that when heated, air ex- 73. The reason is plain. At the sea-level 
panda. If you wish to verify this for your- the air within the bladder has to bear the 
lelt, proceed thus. Take an empty flask, preseiure ot the whole atmosphere, bB'nx 
atop It by a cork ; pass through tne cork a thereby squeexed into a comparatively am^ 
narrow glass tube. By heating the tube in volume. In ascending the mouniain, yon 
a spirit-lamp you can bend it downward, so leave more and more of the atmosphere be- 
that when the flit-^k is stat) ding upright ttie bind; the pressure becomes less and lesa, 
open end of the narrow tuba may dip into and by its expansive force the air within the 
water. Now cause the flame of your spirit- bladder swells as the outside pressure is di- 
lamp to play against tbe flask, The flams minisbed. At the top of the mouniain the 
beats the glass, the glass beats the air ; tlie expansion is quite sufficient to render the 
mr expands, is driven through the narrow bladder tight, the pressure within being then 
tube, and issues in a atorm of bubbles from actually greater than the pressure without. 
the water. By menus of an nir-piirap we can show the 

6S. WerethohealedairunconflBed,itwou]J expansion of a balloon partly filled with air, 

rise in the heavier cold air. Allow a aun- when the aitterual pressure bas been in part 

beam or any other intense light to fall upon removed. 

a wliite wan or screen in a dark room. Bring 73. But why do I dwell upon this T Sim- 

a heated poker, a candle, or a gas-flame un- ply to make plaw lo you that the uneonAnsi 

demeath the beam. An aacendlog current air. heated at the earth's surface, and as- 

rises from the heated body through the beam, cendingbyits lightness, must expand mare 

and tlio action of the air upon tbe light is and mure the higher it rises in tho atmos- 

Buch as to render the wreathing and waving pbere. 

ot the current strikingl;^ visible upon tbe 74. And now I have to introduce to you a 

screen. When the air is hot enough, and new fact, toward the statement of whicli I 

therefore light enough, it entrapped in a have been working for some lime. It tl 

paper h^ it carries the bag upward, and this: The lueending air u chilled by it» expan- 

you have the fire balloon, tion. Indeed this chilling is one source of 

67. Fold two sheets of paper into two the coldness of the higher atL.iosphertc rs- 
cones, and suspend them with their closed gions. And now fix your eye upon those 

Eoiats upward from the end of a delicate mixed currents ot air and aqueous vapor 

alance. t^ee that the cones balance each which rise from the warm tropical oceaa. 

other. Then place tor a moment the flame They start with plenty of heat to preserve 

of a spirit-lamp beneath the open base ot one the vapor as vapor ; but ai they rise tbey 

of them : tbe hot air ascends from the lamp come into regiousalready chilled, and Ihefara 

"idiastanlly losses upward 1he cone above it, still further cliilled by Iheir own expansion. 

68. Into an iaverted glass thadeiutroduco. The cunsequeo^e mijiiht be foieaeen. Tha 



IN CLOtTDd AND RIVERS, ICE AND GLACIERS. 



load of vapor ia in great part precipitated. 

denw clouds are formed, lUeir particlea coa- § B. Moubtain Condenbeb«. 

iBBce lo rain-dropa, which deacend daily ia 81. To completH our vii?w of the process 

gushoa 80 profuse that the word '"torren- atmospheric precipitation we must take in™ 

tial " ie uged to express the copioiisuess ot accounl tlic antion of mouDUma. Imneioe 

the raiofall. I ouM shoit you this chilliog a soutli-weet wtod hlowing across ilie At, 

by expaasion. and also the consequent pre- laotio toward Ireland. In its passage JI 

j-ifiiiniinT. nf ni™..i= charges ilself wilh iKjueous vapor. In tho 

; from the south of Ireland it oncounters the mountains 

■apor ia in of Kerry : Ihe highest of these is Magilll- 

great part removed from it, having rede cuddy's Reeks, near Klllarney. Now the 

sceoded to the earth oh rain. Still a good lowest Btraluin of lliia Atluntic wind is that 

quantity of the vapor is carried forward, which is most fully charged with vapor. 

Mhich yields bail, rain, and snow in uortiiern When it eucuuiit..rs the base of the Eeny 

and southern lands. mountains it is tilled up and Sows bodily 
over them. Its load of vapor is tlierefora 

iI-I-raTRATIVE KKPGRIMKHT8. carried to a height, it expands on reaching 

76, I have aaid that the air ischillcd during the height, it is clidleu in consequence of die 
its expansion. Prove this, if you like, thus, expansion, nod comes down in copious show. 
With 1 condensing syringe, you can force air «rs of rain. From this, in fact, arises the 
into an iron box furnished with a stopcock, luxuriant vegtlalion of l\iltainey; to this, 
lo which the syringe is screwed. Do so till indeed, the lakes owe llieir water Bupply. 
the density of the air within the >>ox is The cold crests of llie mountains also aid in 
doubled or trebled. Immediately after this the work of condensation, 
condensation, both the box and the air within 83. IJote the consequence. Thei-c is A 
it are toarm, and can he proved to be so bv town called Caliirciveen, lo the, south-west of 
• proper thermomcler. Simply turn the cock Magillicuddy'a Reeks, at which observatioDB 
and allow Iho compressed air to stream Into of the rainfall have been made, aod a good 
the atmosphere. The current, if allowed to distance further to the norlh-eait, right in 
strike a thermometer, visibly chills it; and the course of the soulh-west wind, there Is 
with other instruments the chill may be another town, culled Potitirlin({ton, at which 
made more CTidcot still, Even Ihe hand observa'Ions of rainfall have also tieen made, 
feels the chill of the expanding air. Bnt before Ihe wind leaches the latter station 

77, Throw a strong light, a concentrated it has passed over the mountains of Kerry 
Bunlwam for example, across ihe issuing cur- and left a great portion of its moisture be- 
reat ; if the compressed air be ordinarv Uiud it. What is the result ? At Oahirci- 
humid air, you see the precipitation of a little veen. as shown by Dr. Doyd, the lalnrall 
cloud by the chill accompanying the expnn- amounts to 59 inches in a year, wliile at 
•ton. This cloud- formation may. however, Porlarlington it is only 21 ioclies. 

be better illustrated in the follow'ing way : 83. Again, you may sunietimes descend 

78, Id a darkened rotim send a strong from Ihe Alps, vfhen llie fall of rain and 
beam of light through a glass tube three feet snow is heavy and incessant, into Italy, aud 
lonK and three ioches wide, slopp<<d at its find the sky over the plains of Lombardy 
ends by glass plates. Connect the tulie by blue and cloudless, the wind el ihe samt 
means of a stopcock with a vessel of about dme bloaiag over the jitain Umard the Atpi. 
one fourth its capacity, from which the air Below the wind is hot enough to keep it« 
has l»oen removed by an air-pump. The ex- vapor in a perfectly transparent state ; but it 
haualcd cylinder of the pump ilself will an- meets the mouolains, is tilled up, expanded 
■wer capitally. Fill the glass tube with and chilled. The cold of the higher summiti 
humid air ; then simply turn im the stopcock also helps the chill. Tlie consequence is that 
which connects it with the exhausted vessel tlie vapor is precipitated as rain or snow. 
Having more room the air exjiands, cold ac- thus produciog bad weather upon tha 
cumpauies Ihe expaosiuo, imd, as a conse- heights, while the plains below, flooded with 
uuence, a dense and brilliant cloud imme- the same air, enjoy the aspect of the un- 
diately fills Ihe tube. If Ihe I'xpeiiment be clouded summer sun. Clouds blowing y>'"(i 
made for yourself alone, you may see the the Alps are also sometimes dissolved over 
cloud in ordinary daylight ; indted, the brisk the plains of Lombardy. 

exhaustion of any receiver filled wlih humid 84. In coonection with the formation of 

air ia known to pmduce this condensation. clouds by mountains, one particularly In- 

70. Other vapors than that of water may atructlve effect may be here noticed. You 

be thus precipitoted. some of them yielding frequently see a alreamer of cloud many 

clouds of intense brltlluncy. and displaying huodrcd yards in length drawn out from nn 

Iridescences, such as are sometimes, but not Alpine peak Its sleadloesa appears perfect, 

frequently, seen in the clouds floatiog over though a stiong wind may be blowing at tha 

the Alps. same time over Ih3 mountain-hend. Why k 

eti. Ia science, what is true for Iho small is the cloud nut blown away t It ii blown 

true for Ihu large. Thus by combining the away ; Its permanence is only appaient. At 

conditiona observed on a large suae In sue end it is incessantly dissolved, at the 

nature we obtain on a small scale the ubo- ether cod it is incessantly renewed : supply 

noineim i)f ulmospheric clouds. and cousumpliuo beiag llina cu^-*&iK?i.,'ioi* 






TBE FORMS OF WATER 

Fitoud appeals as chanEelesa as Oie mountain duced In calm air, Ibe icj porlicles liuiU 
to which it aeema lo cling. WhcQ Ibe red tliemsclves inle beauliful stellar shapes, eacli 
sun of Hie evening shines upon these cloud- star possessing sU rays. There is no i)evi&- 
Btreamers Ihey icsemhte vast torches with lion from this type, though in other respects 
their Humes Mown through Ihe air. the appearances of the snowstnrs are in^- 

„ „ . _ nileiy various. In the pokr regions these ex- 

g9. ARcHiTKCTnit; of Snow. quigfie forms were observed by Dr. Scores' 

85. We now resemble vyersona who have by, who gave numeroua drawings of ibem. 
climbed a difficult pealt, and Ihereliy eurned lliaveobBerved them in midninlLr filling thfr 
the enioyment of ii wide prospect. Having wr, and loading the elopes of the Alps. But 
taade ourselves oissters of llie cuuditiona in England they are also to be seen, and no 
necessary to Ihe production of mountain words of mine foutd convey bo vivid an im- 
snow, vie are able lo take a. comprehensive pression of theh' Iwatity as Ibe annexed draw 
and intelligent view of the phenomena of incs of a few of them, executed at Greea 
glaciers, wieh by Mr, Glaisher. 

80, A fvw words are still necessarv as to 90. It is worth pausing to think what woa 
the formHtion of snow. The molecules ond derful worit is gotng on iu the almosphera 
atoms of all eulistNnces, when allowed free during the formation nnd descent of eve^ 
play, build themselves into definite and, for snow-shower : what building power is 
the most pari, l>eauiiful forms called crya- brought into play 1 and how imperfect seem 
tals. Imn. copper, gold, silver, lead, sulphur, the productions of human minds aod hauda 
when melted and permitted to cool Ecrndually, when compared with those formed by the 
all show this crj;8tulUzing power. The melal blind forces of nature I 
bismuth shows it in a particularly strililiig HI, But who ventures to call Ihe forces of 
manner, and wheu piuperly fused and solidT nuture blind ? In reality, when we speak 
fled, self-built coslala of great size and "lus we are describing our own condition. 
beauty are formed of this metal. The bliDdoess is outs ; and what we really 

87. If you dissolve saltpetre in water, and ought to say, and fo confess. Is that our 
allow the solution to evaporate slowly, you powers are absolutely unable to comprehend 
may obtulu large crysiala, for no portion of either the origin or the end of Ihe oper&tioua 
the salt is couvtrted into vapor. The water of nature. 

of our atmosphere is fresh, though it Is tie- 1*3. But while we thus acknowledge our 
rived from the salt sea. Sugar dissolved In limits, there is also reason for wonder at iha 
water, and permitted to evaporate, yields eitent to which science has mastered the 
cnslais of sugar-candy, Alum readily crys- system of nuture. From age lo ago, and 
tallizea in the same way. FlinW dissolved, from generation lo generation, fact has been 
as they somelimcfi are in nature, and pennit- added to fact, and law to law, the true meth- 
ted to crystalll/e, yield the prisma and pyra- od and onler of the Universe being lliereby 
mids of rock crystal. Chalk dissol ved and more and more revealed. In doing this eci- 
crystaliized yields Iceland spar. The dia- (nee hnsencountered and overthrown Tarioiu 
mond is crystallized carbon. AH our pre- forms of superstition and deceit, of credulity 
cious stones, the ruby, sapphire, beryl, topaz and imposture. But the world continually 
emewld, are aU examples of this crystallizing produces weak persons and wicked persons ; 
power snd as long as they continue to eztst side by 

88. You have heard of the toree of gravi- ^'de, aa Uiey do in this our day, very dehas- 
tatiou. and you know that it consiBls of an '"S J>eUefs wdl also contmue lo infest th» 
attraction of every particle of matter for world, 

every other particle. You know that plan- o ,. ■„„,„„ ■o„,„„ 

ets and moons are held in their orbits by this „ § ^*'- /j""'" P*'™'- , 

attraction. But gravitation is a very simple "3. What did I mean when, a lew mo. 
affair compared to Uie force, or rather forces, ments ago (88), I «ioke of attracting and re- 
of crystallization. For hero the ultimate pellent poles?" Let me Iry to answer thia 
particles of matter, meonceivably small us question. You know that astronomers and 
they are, show themselves possessed of ai- geograpliers speak of the earth's poles, and 
tractive and repelleni poles, by the mutual 7°^ 1"^^" also heard of magnetic poles, the 
action of which the shape and slrucluro of po'es of a magnet being llie points at which 
the crystal ate determined. In the solid con- the attraction and repulsion of the magntl 
dition Uie attracting poles are ripdiy locked we as it were concentrated, 
together; but if sufficient heat be apolied the 9*- Every magnet poaaessea two such 
bonii of union is dissolved, and In lie state poles ; and if iron flbnRs be scattered over ■ 
of fusiou the poles are pushed so fur asunder magnet, each particle becomes al«o endowed 
as to be practically out of each other's range, with two poles. Suppose sucli particles de- 
The natural tendency of the molecules to void of weight and tloatlng in our atmoa- 
build themselves together is thus neutralized, phere, what must occur when they come 

89. This is the case with water, which as a "ear each other 1 Manifestly the repellent 
liquid is to all appearance formless. When Pol^s will retreat from each other whde the 
■utBcienily cooled the molecules are brought attractive poles will approach and finally lock 
within Ihe play of the crystallizing force, themselves together. And supposing the 
and they then arrange thtmaelves in forms of particles, instead of a single pair, to poaaesa 
Indescribable beauty. "When snow Is pio- JQVeral pairs of poles arranged at dcfinlto 







FiQ. 8.— Show CarsTAU. 

ir their surfaces ; you can then pic "Jls ^°^ beautiful crj-alalfl of llio i 

, in obedience to their mutual at- Thus our first notions and conooi.iluufl oT 

IS and repulsions, building themselvet P"'^ '"'o obtained from the sight of our eyea 

together to form masses of defluite shape and '" looking at the effects of magnetism ; and 

structure. ""^ ^^^ transfer these notions and coDcep- 

as. Imagine the molecules of water in t'o°s to particles which no eye has ever 

calm cold air to he gifted with poles of this *^°' The power by which we thna pictiir* 

description. wUicli compel the particles to lay ^ ourselves etfucla beyond the ran>;e of the 

tbetQBelTes together in a, definita order, and aenaea U what philosophers call the Imagina- 

you have befor« your mind's eye the unseen "f""- *n° '" "^^ effort of the mmd to seiM 

•rohilecture which finally produces the visi. "PO" *e unseen architecture of ervsUK ■«'• 



THE FORMS OP WATER 



Akve AD eiample or the " sclenilfln use' of 
ihia faculty. Without imagiuntiDn we 
might hiivo mlieal power, but not eivative 



^Wi 



3 ICK. 






gll. ARCBtTBCTDRE 

flC. Woliave thus iniido ourselves acquaint, 
cd with Uie hciiutitu! snow-flowcra Bclf-con- 
stnicted by Ibo moleeulea of water in calm 
cold air. Do llio molecules sliow ih 
tectural power when ordiuury 
frozen? What, for ciample. ia lb. 
of tlio ice over whicli we akate in wmtec ! 
Quite as wonderful as llic flowers of Uie 
snow. The obserratinn Is rare, it not new, 
but I liave seen in water slowly freezing six- 
rajed Ice-aljits formed, and floating free on 
Ihe surface. A Bix-raj'td Btar, moreover, is 
typical of the construction of all our lake ice. 
il is btiill up of such forms wonderfully in- 
terlaced. 

07. Take a slab of lake ice utid place il in 
the path of a concentrated sunb'.im. Watch 
the track of the beam through the ice. Part 
of the beam is stopped, part of it goes 
through ; the former produces laternui 
liquefaction, the laller Las no effect wlial- 
ever upou the Ice. But the liquefaction is 
not uniformly diflused. From separate spots 
of the ice little abioing points are seen to 
Hfiarklo forth. Every one of those points ia 
Burrounded by a beautiful liquid flower with 

B8. Ice and water are so opti(«lly alike that 
imleas the light fall property upon thi--8e 
flowers you cannot nee Ihtm. But what w 
the central spot T A vacuum. Ice swims on 
water because, bulk for bulk, il is ligliler 
than waltr; ho Hint wlien ice ia melted il 
■shrinks in size. Can Ihe liquid flowers llwu 
occupy the wlwile space of the lee infllfd \ 
Plainly uo A little empty space is fuinu I 
with the fliwers, and Ihia space, or rallinr Jia 
surface, Bliini« in tlie aun with llieiitslru of 
burnished silver. 

90. In all cases the flowers are formed 
parallel to thu surface of freezing. TliKy ure 
formed when the aun shiiiea up^'U the ice of 
every lake ; somelimea in myrials. and so 
small as to require a magaifyiiig-glasa to see 
them. They are always attainable, hut Iheii 
beauty is ofien marie.l by Internal defects n[ 
the ice. Even one portion of the same piece 
of ice may show them exquisitely, wlille a 
second portion shows lliem imperfectly. 

100. Anneied ia a very imperfi'ct sketch 
of those bcautiCii! figures. 

101. Here we have a reversal of the pro 
cesaotcryslallization. Ttie searching solar 
beam is delicate enough to take the molecules 
down without deranging the order of thuir 
arcliiW-cture. Try the eiperimeol tor voiar- 
self Willi a pocket-lens on a sunny day. 
You will nut And the flowers confused ; tb«y 
■ill lie parallel to the surface ot freezing. In 
tUs exquisite way every bit of the ice over 
Hfliich our skaters glide in winter ia put to- 

■103. I said. In 07. tliat n ijortlon of the 
"" was slopped by the ice and lique- 



fied It. What is this portion 7 

heat of the sun. The great body of tlia Uf^ 
waves and even a portion of Ihe dark onei 
pass through the ice without losinj' any ot 
their healing power. When properly con. 
centrated on combustible bodies, even after 
[laving passed through Ihe ice, their burning 
power becomes manifest. 

103. And the ice itself may be employed 
lo concentrate them. With an ice-lens In 
Ihe polar regions Dr. Bcoreaby has often coo- 
centrated the sun's rays so ns to make then 
burn wood, lire gunpowder, and melt lead ; 
thus proving that the li>!H,llng power is n- 
lained by the rays, even after they havg 
passed through so cold a substance. 

104. By rendering the rays of the electric 
lamp parallel, and then sending them 
through a lens of ice, we oblain all Uu 
effects wliich Dr. Scoresby obtained witli Iha 
rays of .the sun. 

g 13. The Souucb of thb ARvsntoiT. — Ita 
Pinnacles, Towers, and CnAMfs of thb 

GIjACIER DE3 BoiS. — PaSSAOS to TBI 

MoNTANVEItT. 

105. Our preparatory studies are for tha 
preaent ended, and thus informed, let ua ap- 
proach the Alps. Through Hie villaee of 
Chamouni. iu Savoy, a river ruslies wluch U 
called the Atve. Let us trace thia river 
iiackward from Chamouni. At a little dii. 
lance from the village the river forks ; ona 
of its bianclnis still continue:! to kc called tbe 
Arve, the other is the Arvtiron. Follawin; 
this latter we co:ne to what Is called Uia 
"source of the Aivciron" — a short liour'i 
walk from Chamouni. Ilere, as in the 
of tlie Rhone already referred lo, you ars 
fronted by a huge m.iss ot ice, tlia entl of a 
slacier, and from au arch in the ic« tlia 
Arveiron issues. Do not trust the arch in 
summer, lis ruoE falls at Intervals with a 
startling crai^h. and would infallibly crusb. 
any pel son on whom it might fall. 

lOQ. We must now be observant Look* 
tog about tis here, we And iu front of the ictt 
curlo'ia heaps and ridges of debris, whioh 
ate more or less concentric. These are tbe 
lernUnal vioraine* of the glacier. We sboll 
examine them aubaequenlly. 

107. We now t.iiu to (he left, and BHceni 
the alnpe beside the glacier. As we eiactinil 
weget a belter view, and flnl that thu ice 
here fills a nurrow ralley. We come upoa 
another singular ridga, nut of fresh debna. 
like Ihiise liiwer down, but covered in part 
with trees, aud appearing to be lilurally oa 
"old as the hills. It tells a wondcrfid 
tale. We soon satisfy ourselves that tbs 
ridge is an ancienl moraine, and alont^ eoB- 
clude that the glacier. M some former period 
of its existence, was vastly larger ihAa It Is 
now. This old moraine etretches li^ 
across the main VElley. aud abuts againat Uu. 
moimlains at the opposite side. 

108. Having passed Ihe terminal portioi 

the glacier, which is covered with stones 

rubbish, we find ourselves beside a yerj 
wonderful eihibitioD of ice. The glr--~- ■'- 



m CLOUDS AND RIVER9. ICE AND GLACIERS. W 

_.^ a Bleep frorge. and in dcilne fo Ib riven l>eaulifiil p.Traaiid of Ihe Aiguille du Dn» 
ftnil broken in the moat extraoidinury miio- (sliownin our frnnlisptece) ; and to the right 
Ber. Here are lowers, »nd pinoacles. and at the Aiguille dps Charmoi, with its sharp 
fan IttBlic shapes wrought out liy the iielion pionaelesbent asif they weroductile. Look- 
of the wealter, which put one in mind ot ingalraightupthe glacier tlieTiewisb<iund- 
rude scidpture. From deep chasms in Ihe ed by the great crests called La Qrana& 

S lacier issues a delicate shimmer of blue Jorasse, nearly 14,000 feet high. Our object 
ght. At times we hear a sound like Hum- now is to get into the very heart of the 
der, which arises either from the falling at a mountains, and to pursue to Us orlgic Ine 
irot ice or from the tumble of a huge wonderful frozen river which we have just 
„..,..e into a chasm. The slfcler maintains crossed, 
this wild and chaotic character for some 114. Starting from the Montanvert with. 
time : and the best iceman would Hnd him- the glacier below us In our li'tt, we soon 
Beif licfealed in any attempt to gel along it. reach some rock? reaerabiing the Muuvuis 
100. We reach a place culled the Chapeau, Pas ; thev are called les PonU. We crosa 
Where, if we wish, we can have refresliment them and reach I' Angle, where we ^uit tiie 
In a llitk mounlaia hut. We then pass the land for the ice. We walk up the glaciei , 
Jfanwiw Fa*, ft precipitous rock, on the face hut before teaching the promontory culled 
of which stops are hewn, aod the imprac- Tr61aporte, we take once more to the mouu- 
tiaed traveller is assisted by a rope. We pur- tain-side ; for though the nith here has been 
mte our journey, partly along the mountain- forsaken on account of ita danger, for Ilia 
ride, and partly along a ridge of singularly unke of knowledge wo are prepared to iijciir 
krliticiul aspect— a laUiiU moraine. We at danger to a rensDuable extent. A liCle gin- 
length face a house perched upon an emi- cer repoaea on Ihe slope to our riglil. Wa 
nence at the opposite aide of the glacier. May see n huge boulder or two poiswl on Iho 
This is the aulierge of the Monianvert, well end of the glacier, and, if forlunale, als'i si* 
Known to all visitors to this portion of the U»e boulder liberated and plunging vinicnlly 
A!ps. dowt the slope. Presence of mlnil is nil iliat 

110. Here we cross the glacier. I should ianeccssary to render our safely certain ; hut 
bave told you that Its lower part, including travellers do not always show prracnco of 
the broken portion we have passed, is called mind, and hence the path which formerly 
the Glacier des Bois ; while the place that led over this slope has been fomaken. Tlie 
wo are now about to cross is the iH'giooing whole slope is cumbered by masses of rock 
of the Mer do Glace. Ton feel tliat this which this little glacier has seat down. 
term is not quite appropriate, for the glacier These I wished you to see ; by and by they 
bere Is much' more like a rivtr ot ice than a sliall be fully accounted for. 

sea. The valley which it fills it uboul lialt a US. Above Trfeiaporte to the right you see 
mile wide. a nuM' singular cleft in the rodts, in tha 

111. The Ice may he riven where we en- middle of which stands an isolated pillBr, 
f er upon it, hut with the necessary care Ihc-ro kewn out by the weather. Our next objei^t 
U no Uifflculty in crossing this porlion of Ihe "s to get to the tower of rock to the left of 
Mer de Glace. The clefts and chasms in Ihe t^a' clefl. for from that posilinn we shall 
ice are called ereraseea ; we sliall make Ihtir Kfi" " "1"^" commanding and instructive 
acquaintance on a grander scale by and liy. "«w of Ihe Mer de Glace and its souroes, 

113. Look up and down this side of the 118. The cleft referred to. with its pillar, 
glacier. Itis considerably riven, but as we n^J l* seen to Ihe right of the above oograv- 
advance the crevasses will diminish, and we ing of the Mer de Olace. Below the cleft 
ibail find very few of ihem at the other side, is also seen the little glacier just referred 
Kole this for future use. The ice is at first to. 
dirty : but the dirt soon disappears, and you IIT. We may reach this cleft by a sleep 



'e upon the clean crisp surface of the gla^ sully, visible from our present position, and 
cii:r. Tou have already noticed that the leading directly up to the cleft. Bu" " — 
clean ice is white, and that from a distance {(ullies, or couloirs, sre very dangern 



)( resembles snow rather than ice. This is in^ the pathways of stones falling from Ifiu 

caused by the breaking up of Ihe surfaca by heights. We will therefore take the rocks to- 

Ihe solar heat. When you pound trans- Ihe left of the gully, by close inspection as- 

porent rock-salt into powder it is as white certain their assailable points, and there at-^ 

a» table-salt, and it is the minute fiasurlng tack them. In the Alps as elaewhcro won. 

Cr( the surface of the glacier by the sun's ravs derful tilings may bo done by looking stcad- 

thnt causes it to appear while, WU/tin tau fastty at dimcultics. and testing tiiem wher- 

^lacier the ice is transparent. After an ex- ever the^ appear assailable. We thus reach 

tallaratieg passage we get upon the oppodte our station, where the glory of the prospect^ 

lateral moraine, and aaeeod the steep slope and the insight that we gain as to the forma- 

from it to the Montanvert Inn, lion of the Mer de Glace, tar more than re- 

{ 13. Tfb Mer db Qlack and ,tb Payus far the labor of our ascent 

BotntcBS.— Our First Climb to the 1i\ .'^''^ "? '^° *"« glacier below us, 

Ct.ErT Btatiok stretching Its frozen tongue downward part 

the Montanverl. And we now find this ain- 

113. Here the view before us U very "tie glacier branching out into three. ■^W'Jk^ 

irand. We look across the glacier at llio «|omc ot vUcni-w\4*« V'oms.\\»M-. "^.■jp.tii.fw 



^t^J 




trmiHi til ilie right, the Glacier du n64nt-. 
It slcetchcs aimothly up tor a long distance, 
then becumea diflturbed, nnd ttien chaDges to 
■ great friizan cascade, down frhicli tne he 
appear* to lumble in wild contusion. Above 
Ihe cascade yon ace an expiiDBi! of slilmug 
•now, otcupjing an area of some square 
miles. 

I t 14. ICB-CISCADB AND SnOWB OF TBH 
Col, DC G^ANT. 

119. Instead of climbiaiftolliulieigbtwliera 

— -"w stand, we might have continued our 

a the Mvr Jo Clavn turnud round 




the promontory of Tiilaprirte, and widked 
rigiit up Ihe Glacier du Ufanl. We eliouM! 
hav« found ice under our feet up to the buLtoin 
of the cascade. It is not hii compact as thg 
ico lower down. Lot yoii would not think o£ 
icfviBing to call ic ice. , 

ISU. A we approach the fall, the smoollli 
and unbroken clmrncter of the f^isclec 
changes more and more. We encounlet 
I ransvrT.'in ridges succeeding each otbur wHli 
augment in;; steepness The ica beconux 
mure and more Qssnreil and cunfuaed. Ws 
wind througli tortuous ravines, climb hugs 
ice-mounda, a,Dd otuu^ cautiotulj kloof' 



W •Grumbliag 



IN CLOUDS AND RIVERS. ICE AND GLACIERS. 



•crumbliag crests, wilU rrevnaseB riglit and or May, wesliould haTe found the KlaciBrbe- 
left. TliB confusloQ increafies until fiirllier low the ice fiill also covered wltli saow, 
advance algng Ihe centre of Uie glacier is im- which ia now entirely clenred away by th« 
possible. heal uf Buramer, Nay, more, tlie ieu there 

12L But with the aid of an axe to cut ia obviously mellmji;, forming running brooks 
steps in tlie steeper ice-witlla nad alopeH we which cut chanaels in ttie ice, and~cxpnad 
ml^lit. by swerving to either aide of the here and there into sm^ll blue-gnx'Q lukea. 

I glacier, work our way to the lop o( Ine ens- Hence you conclude with certuioty iliat be- 
cnde. It we ascended to the riojlil. weahoidd low the ice -fall (Ae jimfi/tVy iif frozemnnleriid 
liuve to take care of the ico a,valani-Iies which faUiag upon l/ie glacier i» km Otan t!te quan. 
sometimes Ihunder down the slopes ; if to the li^ TniUed. 
left, wesbouldliave toiakecaroot [be Ftones 126. And tliis forces uponua another con- 
lei loote from the Aiguille Noire, After we duslon ; between the glacier below the ice- 
had clE»ied the cascade, we should hare to fall and the plalenu above it there must exist 
beware for a lime of the crevasses, which foe a. tine where the quantity of euow whicli falU 
some distance sbnve the fall yawu terribly, it exiieUy equal to the quantity annuall7 
ButhycautiODwer.ouldget round them, and melted. This Is the tnow-line. Un somo 
Fometjinea cross them by bridges of snow, claciera it is quite distinct, and it would be 

] Here the skill and knowledge to be acquired distinct liere were the ice less broken and 

' only by Inng practice conio into play ; and confused than it actually is. 

; here also the use of (he Alpine rope auggesi 8 137. Tlie French term nerj is applied to 
itself. For not only are the enow-hridges the glacial region nbtjvo tho snow-line, while 
often frail, but whole crevasses are some- the wi^rd^uciecis reslricted to the ice below 
I'mes covered, the unhappy traveller being it. Tiius llie aniws of the Col du Gfiant 
tioT. made aware of their eKislenco by the constitute the nev£ of the Glacier dti G£ant, 
SDOW breaking onder his feet. Hany lives and in Tiart, the 'aii& of the Mer de Glace. 
have thus been lost, and some quite re- 13S. But if evi^ry year thus leaves a rest- 
cently. due of tinow upon the plateau of the Col di 

f tSS, OncB upon the plateau above the ice- Q^anC, it necessarily fullowa that the plateau 

I fall we find the surface totally changed. Be- must eet annually higher, proeided'tfie mote 
low the fall we walked upon ice ; licre we are remain upon it. Eipially curtain is the con- 

j upon snow. After a, gentle hut long ascent elusion that the whole length of the glacier 

I we reach a depression of the ridge which below thocascaderaustsink gradually lower, 

J bounds the snow-fli-ld at Ilie top. and now if the waste of_ annual ntelitng be nol titarU 
look over Italy. We stand upon the fumotts pwd. Supposing two feet of enow a year lo 

', Col du G^ant. remain tipon the Col, this would raise it to a 

123. They were no idle fiC'impercrs on the height far surpassing that of Mont Blanc in 

I moun(aint< that made these wild recesses first five Ibuusand years. Such accumulatli<i> 
Koown ; It was nut the desire f'lr health must take place if the snow remain upon the 
which now brings some, or the desire for Col ; but the accumulation does nol lake 

', grandeur and l>eaiity which brings otliers, or place, hence Ibe snow docs not remain on 
Ihe wish to be able lo say that they hEive the Col. The question then is, Wliilher does 

I climbed a mountain or crossed a col. which IL go? 

I I (' ar brings n good many more ; it was a 

desire for tnowiei^* that brought the first cY- § 18. Branohes , 

£lorers here, and on this col the celebrated <>•' tuk Mbr pa 
<B Saiiaaiire lived for aeventeen days, mak- Statios. 
ing scientific observations. 139. We shall grapple with lliia question 

fnimeilialety Meanwhile look at that ic&- 
g 15. QcESTJOSiSQ THB Qlacibrs. Valley in Iront of us. strelching up between 

134. I would now ask you lo consider for Mont Tacul and the Aiguille de L^chaud, 
t. moment tbc facts which such an eicui' to the base of the gjvat ridge called (he 
I dk'U places in our possession. The mjuw Grande Joras^. This is called the Glacier 
thruugh which we have in idea inilged is de Lficliaud. It receives at its head the 
; the siiow of last winter and spring. Had we anowa of the Jorasse and of Mont Mallet, 
placed last August a proper mark uu.in llie aud Joins the Glacier du G&int at the prom- 
, surface of the snow, we should find ii this ontory of the Tacul. The glaciers seem 
August at a certain depth beneath the aur. welded together where lliev join, but they 
I fucu. A good deal has beeu melted by the continue distinct. Between them you clearly 
summer sun, but a good deal of it remaina. trace a stripe of debris [a on the annexed 
I and it will cDDtioue until the snows of the eketch-tiion) : you trace a similar though 
j coming winter fall and cover it. This again smaller stnpe (a on the sketch) from the 
-wdl be in part preserved till next August, a Junction nf the Glacier du Otant with the 
good deal of it remaining until it is covered Glacier des Piriades at the foot of the Ai 
by the snow of the subsequent winter. We guillu Koire, Which you also follow along 
lliUB arrive at the certain eoncluaion that on the Mer de Glace. 

the plaleuu of llie Col du Geani (Atf quantity 130. We alsosee another glaclcr.ora portion 

oftnoa thitlJ'oU» annually exaedn (he qimii- of it. to the left, falling apparently iu hrokun 

till/ melted. fragmanis through a narrow gorge (Caacuxltt 

I 135. Hsil we come in the month iiF AprU du TttlMte oti, vNift ^t\ji^ mi.4. s.o'^i™'*. "^^ 




fl.— Sb»tch-Pli 

L^hmid. imd from their point of junction which we have not yet seen. We&imatlbft 

also a Blripe of dtliris (rf) runs downwan) farther aiie of llie glacier, and to reach it ws 

along the Mer do Glice. Beyond this again must cross those durk stripes of diliris which 

wc liolica anolher atripe (e). which seems to we oheerved from the heights. IjOoked at 

begin at the bottom of the ice-fall, rising as from above, these morame* seemtd flat, but 

'' "" u from the budv of the glacier. Beyond nowwe find them to be ridgea of Btonea and 



all of lliese we can notice the litteral 
of I be Mer de Glace. 

181, These Htripes are the medial mor 
of the Mer de Qlace. We shall learn 
about Ibem immediately. 

las. And now, having informed 
UiiadH by these observatioDB, let our 
Wander over the whole glorious 



rubbisli, from twenty to thrny feet high. 

134 We quit llie ice at a place called tlia 
(Jouvercle. and wind round this promontory, 
ascending all ihe lime. We squeeze ourse1r«« 
through the ^raUtu, a hinil of nrtlural Mair- 
casB m the rock, and Boon afterwnrd obtain 
a full viewof the ice-fall. Ihe origin of which 
we wish to find. The ice upoji the full ia 



iplinlerod peaks and the hackml end jagge'l much broken ; we have pinnacles and lowew, 

creHts, the far-stretching nuow-lleldB. Ihe some eri-cl, some leaning, and some, if we 

smaller gluciera which nestle on the heights, are fortun^ile, falling like thoite upon the 

the deep blue heaven and the Hailing clouda. Glacier des Boia ; "ndwe have chasms fioul 

Is it not worth some labor to giiin command which I><suus a delicate blue light. Willi Uu 

of such a scene? But the delight it impartd ice-fiUI tn our right we conlinue In asKwml, 

la heightened by the fiict (hut wo did not until at length wc command a view of % 

come expressly to sue it ; we cnme to Instruct huge glacier basin, almost level, aad on tlia 

ourselves uIhiuI the glacier, and this high ea- middle of which stanila a solitary iaiand, eo- 

Joyraeot ia an incident of our labor. You tirely surrounded by Ice. We stand at th« 

~ 111 And it thus thmugli life ; without hou- edge of the Qlaewr du Tal^re, and connect 

o deep joy, it wilh the ice-fall we have passed, Tbi 

AND THtt JAHDIN.— gl"tier is bounded by rotky ridges, hacked 
■— ' turn al ilie top into leelb amTedges, nad 
leased by snow fluted by the desceiidlng 



IN CLOUDS AUD RIVERS. ICE AND QLACIER8. 

3 where we enter upon It. This is ilic good the coaatnnt waste of the ice below tha 

celebrated Jardin, of which you hnve oflon aoow-line ; there is noway of Bccounting f or 

heard. The upper part of the Jardin Is Imre the medial mnraioes of the glacier, but trr 

-- jcb. Close at hand is one of the nolileat suppoMng that from the highest Bnow-fleldi 

eaks in this portion of the Alps. Uie Ai- of the Col da Qfiant, the L^ehaud. ani tba 

eullle Verte. It is between thirteen and Taiefre, to (he exiremu eudof IheGlocierdet 

Fourteen IhouBBad feet high, and down its Bois, t!ie wliole maaa of frozen matter la 

tides, after freahly-f alien anon, Hvulimchus moving downward. 

Incessantly thunder. Prom one of lis pro- 140. If yon wcro older, it would give ma 

lections a atreab of moPHlne atnrls down the |p*jaaure to take you up Mont Blanc. Start- 

Ta1£fre : from the Jardin also a nimilarstreak .n^ from Ohnmouni, we should first pnw 

of moraine issues. Bolh continue side by side through woods and pastures, then up tha 

to the top of the ice-fall, where (liey are en- steep hill-faco with the Glacier dos Bosaona 

gulfed in the chnsma. But at llie holloni of to our right, to a rock known as the Pietrt 

Hie fail they reappear, as If newly emerging Fdinlae ; thence to a higher rock called the 

■from tlie body of the glacier, and afterward Pler-iv I'Sclidie, bociiuae here a ladder ia 

1hey contioLte along the Mer de Glace. usunllypiaced to assist in crossing the chasma 

138. Walk with me now alongside the mo- of the glacier, .At the Pierre T'Echelle we 

Taine from the Jardin down lowatd the ice- should strike the ice, and passing under the 

*_ii in — .: 1. -g pugy^ gypi, gg. AJguillfl du Midi, which towers to the left. 



cures as appear ofltring no Impediment to and wh<ch somuiimes sweeps a portiui 
Our marcli. But llie crevasses become grad- the track with atone avalanches, we should 
ually wider and wilder, fullowInRr eat^b other cross the Glacier des Bossons ; amid heaped- 
At length so rapidly as lo leave merely walls up mounds and broken towers of ice ; up 
<if ice lietweeu them. Here perfect aleadi- steep slopes ; over chasms so deep that their 
tiess of foot is necessary — a slip would be bottoms arc hid in daricncss, 
;death. We look luward the fall, and oh- 141. We reach the rocks of the Qrasda 
lerve the confusion of walls and blocks and Mulets, which form a kind of barren iilet ia 
chasms below us increasinc. At length pru- the icy sea ; tbenco lo the higher-snow -Heldii, 
ience iind reason cry " Halt I" We may crossing the PeUt Plateau, which we should 
jwerve tu the right or lo Ihe left, and mak- find cumbered by blocks of ice. Looking to 
fng our way along crests of ice, with chasms the rlglit, we sliould see whence they came, 
boih bands, reach either the right lateral for rishiij here with tiKeatening aspect high 
.... 'sine ijr the left lateral moraine of the above us are the broken ice-crags of tha 
I {lucit-r. D6jneduGoQt&. Tiie guides wisb topassthia 

' place in silence, and it is just as well to hu- 

[ § 18. FiHBT QrEBTiOKS nsoARDiNO Qla- mof them, however much you may doubt 
ciEH MiiilOS. — DniFTiNu Ol^ BoDlKfi He competence of the human voice to bring 
BintiKn iH A Crevasse. the ice-crags down. From the Petit Plateau 

137. But what arc these Inleral morflinesl a steep snow-slopo would carry us to tha 
Ab you and I go from day lo day along the Grand Plateau, and at day-dawn I know 
rlaciers, their origin is gradually made plain, nothing in tha whole Alps more grand and 

e see at intervals the elones and rubbish solemn than this place. 
_ wiending from the mountain -sides and ar- 143. One object of our ascent would be 
rested by the ice. All along the trtoge of now altaiued ; for hero at the head of the 
the glacier the stones and rubbish fall, and it Grnnd Plateau, and at the foot of the final 
joon becomes evident that we have here the slope of Mont Blanc, 1 should show you m 
lourcc of the lateral moraines. gi^nt crevasse, into which three guides were 

138, But how are the medial moraines lo ponfed by an avalanche in llieyear 1830. 
be accounlcd for? How does tiie debris ^^'^- la thislangua^e correct* Acrevaaae 
range itself up<m the glacier in stripes some hardly to be distinguished from the present 

' hundreds of yards from its edge, leaving the one undoubtedly existed hero in 1830. But 
'space between them and the edge clear of ■"»« it the identical crevasse now eitisting? 
I rubbish ? Some have supposed the stones to Is llio iee riven here to-day the same as that 
[Lave roiled over the glacier from the sides, "''on flfly-one years agoT By no means, 
'but the supposition will nut bear eiamina- How is this proved 1 By the fact that moro 
lion. Call to mind now our reasoning re- than forty years after their interment, the 
gardin^theeicessof snow which falls above remains of those three guides were found 
■■ now-line, and our subsequent question, "ear '■'"' ^°^ "^ ^^^ Glacier des Bossona, 

ia the snow disposed of ! Can it be that niany miles below the esisting crevasse. 

the entire moss is moving slowly down- IW. Tlie same observation proves to dem 
ward ? If so, the lateral moraines would be onstration that it is the ice near the bottom of 
carried along by the ice on which they rest, the higher n4v4 that becomes the turfaoe-iet 
and when two branch glaciers unite lliey of the glacier near its end. The waste of the 
would lay their adjacent lateral moraines to- surface IkIow the snow-line brings the deeper 
^^thcrlo form a medial moraine upon the portions of the ice more and more to the 
sunk K^ier, light of day. 

139. There is, in tact, no way that wo can 1 J5. There are numerous obvious indica. 

lec of disposing of the " ' ' '' — "' "" ""' "' -'--»— 

lit: snow-line ; there i 



4 

4 



i 



i 



THE FORMS OF WATKB 






The crcTaases cbanoR witliin cerlaio hiil mai called long afterward the _™ 

Jhnits from year to year, nod aometiraes from dea NeuchflteloU. " Two years Bub»equM 

■*- to moDlh ; and this could not be if to its erection M. A(;aasiz found that tb 

did not move. Hocka and stones alao " hotel" had moved 486 feet downward. 

are obBerred, wliich have been plainly torn „ nn n .r 

Irom the mountain-aides. Blocks seen to 8 3"- 1^»bci8b MBAenBEMRNTS of Aoawi 
bU from particular points are afterward ob- *"" Fouhbb— Motion of a Olacih 
•erred lower down. On the moraines rocks phovko to aasKMBLB the Motiom "- ■ 
are found of a totally dificrent miueralogical Hivkr. 

character from those compoalnE the moun- i5U, We uow approach an epoch i , 

lains risht and loft ; and ia all such coaca scieatiflc history of glaciers. Had tbe flu 

■trata of the aame character are found bor- observers been practically acquainted will 

dertog tlio glacier higher up. Hence the the inalruroenla of precision used in sunej. 

conclusion that the lorRicn boulders havo ing, aetmrala measurements of the moliur -* 

been floated down by tbe ice. Further, the glaciers would probably hare been eai 

ends or " snouts" of raanyglaciera act like exetiuwd. We are now on the point of ,. 

ploughshares on the land in front of them, tug such instruments introduoed einuxt — 

overturning with slow but merciless energy multaneously by M. Agasaiz on tbe giadt 

huts and chalets that stand in their way. of the Unteraar, and by Professor FttrbwT^ 

Pacts like these have been long known to the tbe Mer de Olace. Attempts had been m 

Inhabitants of the High Alps, who were tliua by M. Escher de la Linth to determine ._ 

made acquainted in a vague and general way motion of a series of wooden slakes drin 

with Uio motion of the glaciers. inlo the Aletsch glacier, but ihe meltin 

..„„,, „ „ was so rapid that tbe stakes soon fell 1 

$19. TnKMoxiOMO^GLACLBRB.— MKAHUna- remedy tbU. M. Agassis in 1841 undeitoo 

MBNT8 BY Hdgi AND AoABsiz.— Dnii'Tmo Qio great labor of canying boring tools 1 

, OF Huts ON Tira IcB. his " hotel," and piercing the Dnleni 

146. But the growth of knowledge is from glacier at six different places to a deplb t 
TRguenesa toward pTecision, and exact de- ten feet, in a siraigbi line across the glaclK 
terminations of the rate of glacier motion Into the holes six piles were so firmly drirta 
were soon desired. With reference to such that they remained in the glacier for a yeili 
measuremouta, one glacier in the Bernese and in 1B43 tbe disptacemeiala of all aix wen 
Oberlaud will remain forever memorable, determined. They were found to be IN 
From Ihe little town of Meyringen in Swit- feet, 225 feet, SOB feel, 245 feet, 210 feel, 
■erland you proceed up the valley of Hasli, and 125 feet, respectively. 

past the celebrated waterfall of Handeck, IGl. A great step is here gained Tn 

vhere the river Aar plunges into a chasm notice that tbe middle numbers ai-. the Isr^ 

more than 200 feet deep. You approach tbe est. They correspond to the central portiot 

Orimsel Pass, but instead of crossmg it you of the glacier. Hence, these measuremer'' 

turn to the right and follow the course of the conclusively eatabllsb, not only the fact .. 

Aar upward. Like the Rhone and tlie glacier motion, but that Ih^ centrt «' Od 

Arveiron, you find the Aar issuing from b glacier, like thai of a rittTy movei nutre rapi^ 

Ijlacier, than tlie tidf*. 

147. Get upon the ice, or .rather upon the 153. With the aid of trained engineers IL 
deep m.iraioe shingle which covers the ice, Agasaiz followed up these meHsurcments ii 
and walk upward. It is hard walking, but subsequent years. His researches are record- 
after some time you get clear of the rubbish, ed in a work entitled " Systime glaclaire," 
and on to a wide glacier with a great medial which is: accompunied by a very noble atlii 
moraine ruiming along its bock. This mo- of the Qlacier of the Unteraar, published is 
raine ia formed by the junction of two branch 1847. 

glaciers, tbe Lauteraar and the Finsteraar, 153. These determinations were made ^, 

which unite at a promontory called the Ab- means of a tbeodolile, of which I will gin 

K-hwung to form the trunk glacier of the you some notion fcimedialely. The —nm 

Unteraar. instrument was employed the same yearly 

148. On this great medial moraine in 1827 the late Principal Forbes upon the Mer & 
an intrepid and enthusiastic Hwias professor, Glace. He established Independently UM 

Hugi, ot Sololhurm {French Soleure), built greater central motion. He showed, 

a but with a view to observatioas upon the over, that it is not uecexsary to wait _ 

glucier. His hut moved, and he measured or even a week to determine tlie motion (rfL 

its motion. In tiie three years— from 1827 glacier; with a correctly-adjusted theodolJH 

to 1830— it had moved S30 feet downward, he was able to determine ttie motioo of TSil- 

In 1830 it hod moved 2354 feet : and in 1841 oua points of the Mer de Glace from dsyU 

M. Agassiz found it 4713 feet tielow its first day. He affirmed, and with Iruth, that lh( 

posilion. motion of the glacier might bo detennlorf 

14S. In 1840, M. Agasaiz liimselt and some from hour to hour. We shall prove Hik 

bold companions tools shelter under a great farther on (183). Professor Forbes also Iri- 

overbunging stab of rock on the same mo- augulatetl the Mer de Qloce. and laid dovi 

raine, to which they added side-walla and an excellent map of it. His tlisi obaem- 

other means of protection. And because be tions and his survey are recorded in a oel»< 

■nd his comrades came from Neufchat«l. the brated book published in 1843. and eniltled 



ra CLOUDS AND RIVERS. ICB AND QLAOIEHS. 



1« 



up in ialiseqiient years, lh« r«sultH being re- 
corded ia a series of detached letters una es- 
Mtys of great interest. These were eubse- 
quenil; collected in a volume entitled " Oc- 
CHHioosl Papers on the Theor; of Qlaciers," 
publislicd in 1S5S. The labors of Agaesiz 
ftnd Forbes are the two chief sources of ouf 
koowledge of glacier pbenomeDa. 

{ 21. The Theodolite asd its Ubb.— Oob 

OWN Meaburkmbnts. 

135. My object tbua far ia attained, t 
liace given you proofs of glacier motion, and 
a litsloric account of its Taeasurement. And 
now we must try to add a little to the knowl- 
edge of glaciers by our own labors oa the 
ice. Resolution must not be wanting at the 
comraencement of our work, cor steadfast 
piilience during its p^osecutio^. Look then 
at Ibis theodolHe ; it conainls mainly of a 
tiilcacope and a graduated circle, Ibo tele- 
STope capable of motion up and down, and 
the circle, carrying llie telescope along with 
It, cupable of motion right and left. When 
desired to make the motion exceedingly fine 
aii4 minute, suitable screws, called tangent 
•crews, are employed. The instrument is 
supported by three legs, movable, but firm 
when properly planted. 

IjU. Two spirit-levels are Qxed at right 
isngles to each other on the circle Just ''afci- 
rvil lo. Practice enables one to lake hold of 
:iie leK^ of the instrument, and so to fls them 



ticeiiralelg horizontal. Exactly under the 
centre of the instrument is a small hook from 
'nliicii a plummet is suspeuded : tlio point of 
|lhc bob Juat touches a rook on which we 
jlnake a mark ; or if the earth be soft under- 
neath, we drive a stake into it exactly under 
|*!ie plummet. Qy re-siispending the plum- 
imci at any future time we can liud to a liit»r- 
lliivadtli the position occupied by the instru- 

^ l.'iT. Look through the telescope ; you see 
■t crosse<l hy two lllirea of the finest spider's 
.thread. In actual work we first liirect the 
fleleBCope across the glacier, until the inter. 
JBec-tion of the two fibres accuralely covers 
e well-defined point of rock or Ircc at the 
biher side of the valley. This, our fixed 
juaudard. we sketch with its surroundings in 
le-book, so as to be able immedialely to 
Tn\7.e it on our return to this place. Im- 
,■ II .'tralgbt Utie drawn from the centre 
!■ tclescopu to this pomt, and that Ibis 
in permitted to drop straight down upon 
J glacier, every point of it falling as a 
■lone would full ; along such a line we have 
"o fix a series of slakes. 

A Irain^'l assistant is already upon 
iicier. He erects bis staS and stands 
nd it ; the telescope is lowered without 
vinglolheri^btor totheleft ; inmatbe- 
ii'al language it remains in the lame ttrU- 
I plan4. The crowed fibres of the lele- 
jcope probdhly strike the ice a little away 



from the staff of the assisiant ; by a wave of 
the arm he moves right or left ; he mtj' 
move too much, no we wave him back again. 
After a trial or two he knows whether he it 
near (he proper point, and If so makes hb 
motions smalt. He soon exactly strikes th« 

Soint covered by the intersection of the 
brcs. A signal Is made which tells htm 
that he is right ; he pierces the ice with an 
auger and drives in a slake. He then go«a 
forward, and in precisely the same mannar 
takes up another point. After one or two 
stakes liave been ilriven in, the assietant U 
able to take up the other points very rap- 
idly. Any requisite number of stakes ma^ 
thus be fixed In a straight line across tha- 
glacier. 

150. Next morning we measure the raotton 
of all the stakes. The theodolite is mounted 
in its former position and carefully levelled. 
The telescope is directed first upon tha 
standard pomt at the opposite side of tha 
valley, bemg moved by a tangent screw until 
the intersection of the spider^ tbi'eada acou- 
rately covers the point. The telescope li 
then lowered to the first stake, beside wUidt 
our trained assistant is already standing. 
He ia provided with a alaff with feet and 
inches marked on it. A glance shows iw 
Ibat Ihe stake has moved down. By ourElg< 
nals the assistant recovers the point from 
which wo started yesterday, and then deter. 
mines the distance ^om this point to tlM 
stake. It la, aay. inches ; through thisdia- 
tance, therefore, the stake has moved. 

1611. We are careful to note the hour and 
minute at which each stake is driven in. and 
the hour and Ihe minute when its dlsiauDt 
from ita first posiUun is measured : this eo«- 
bles us to calculate the accurate da^u niolicm 
of the point in question. The distuneea 
through which all the other points hava 
moved are determined in precisely the sama 

LSI. Thus we shall proceed to work, flrat 
making clear to our minds what is to ba 
done, and then making sure that it shall ba 
accurately done. To give our work reality, 
1 will here record the actual measurementa 
executed, and Ihe actual thought suggested, 
on the -Mer rte Glace in 1S57. The only un- 
reality that 1 would ask you to allow, k that 
yon and I are supposed to he making the ob< 



§ 23. Motion of the Mkk rs Glaci. 

ICa. On July 14, then, we find ourselvaa 
itt tlie end of the Glacier des Bois, not far 
from Ihe source of the Arvciron. We dirert 
our telescope across the glacier, and Ox tha 
inlersection of its spider's threads accurately 
upon the edge of a pinnacle of ice. W« 
leave the instrument untouched, looklnr 
through it from hour to hour. The edge CK 
ice moves slowly, but plainly, past the flhn 
and nt the end of three hours we ai^aure oi 
Bvlves that the motion has amounted lo ae 
"ml inches. While itandtai aewi \^ '*« 



i 



THS FORMS OF WATER 




Wim. t.— OvTun-PLUi, i 

of tb« Arvciron, Anil tftlkinf "'"lit going Inwnrd oiir theodolite, be Bhifta hi* poohlnD 

hito it, It! voot j^ivm wRy HnrI ffllN with llie until the avcoafi flaS in periieDdicuInr to rbe 

found of tbuDder, It in not. tberef^rp. wilb- flrst. Here \ie ^vea us a sijcnal. Ws dirtrt 

•at reason tbnt I warned you H^lnat eater- our te1cscn[>e upon bim. and then fnwtuallT 

hv ttoBB raults in tummer. raising its end in a verticftl plane we flnil, 

188. We Mcend to the Montanvert Inn. and nolebyRketchinjt, a standard poinlrtlbe 

Ix OD it as a residence, and then descend to other side of the glacier. Tbli point knnm, 

the lateral moraine of the glacier a litlte !>c- and our iiliimmet murk known, we can ok 

low the Inn. Here we erei:t our thcodolile, any future day And our line. (To render tlM 

■^ mark its exact position by a plummet, measiiremenis more inleilieible. I app>>iidii 

We must first make sure tli.it nur line is per- nuiline dia^nim of ilie Mer dc Olara, and <i 

peudicular. or nearly so, l^ (he axis or mid' lu trlbuturiM.) 

die line of the glacier. Our In-structed assist- IS4. Along (he line just dttcrlbed M 

ant lays down a long Maft In the direction slakeswerc srI on July I'.rb, 1807. Thelrdll- 

of the axis, aaauring blmself, by looking^ up jilarements were measured on Ihe foUowiiif 

.wl down, that it is the tnie dlrectlcin. day. Two of Ihem had fallen, bi)t here i» 

WMb another itaS In his baud, pointed the dUtances pasted over tir tbo eight t* 



IN CLOUDi ASD RIVEBS. ICE AMD GLACIERS. 103 

_ ^nmlulng onea in twenty-four lioiirs. (hat the glacier is retarded not only by lit 

^^^UILY MO-nos OF •'HE MEB DE GIACB. ''"l™ but by Ua bed ; lUat the upper porliom 
^^B^ FiMT L.H» : A A' Divm THE 8K.TC1I, ft t^e ice^sli^du^over tb^^ lower oqim.^ Now if 

" s 



; 4 5 T 9 10 nencea here anii there rising aulHcltnlly aau 

m-lie" IS 17 aa M as se K 33 to the surface Id retard the motion of tba 

IBS. You have already HBSured youraelf surface, they might produce the small irregii. 

by actual contact that the body of tlin Klacirr laritiea noliuBtl above. 

ifl real icCj and you may Imve read iIibi 1B9. Wa note purllcularlv, while upon (ho 

glaciers tDOve ; but the actual observallon ot ice, that the 2<ltb slaku, like tlie lOlli otalte 

the motion of a body apparently so rigid is in our laat line, stands much nearer to tha 

■trangely interesting, and not only does the esatera than to the weatern aiile of the 

fee more bodily, but one part of it movea glacier; the measureraenia, therefore, offer 

past another ; the rate of motion augmenliug a further proof llmC the centre of Ibis prirlion 

gradually from 12 inches a day at Uie side to of the glacier is nut the place uf swiftest mo- 

33 inches a day at a distance from the aide. tion. 
TbJB quicker movement of the central ice of 

glaciera liad been already observed by Agas- { 83. UUKquAL Motion OF the TWO SiuKS 
bIz and Forbes ; we verify their reBultB, and of tub Mkh db Ui^cb. 

now urnceed lo aomethinif new. CroBaiue ,„„ n .. i_ -.l .. a . i- ■■ 

.l„01m.rd«0«,.>, -Mob oco^v^ m.4 J'°i^',J°^^;S!\ol,'"J:"^l^}i 

Bakes 18 not yet at nn emi. 1 iwiuiii slake ^tempting i^ do one tliiui,- we ate often 
.land, on the part of tlia lee whieh com«, „ tf „«„„ „j „,„, > ,,, „ „ 

' «"'N.™?™tl.n of the side. Krl'Sntlli" IZ Z^^.Z St 

£=re'.x;iron'.;sJru%sKsS3^^^^^^^^^ 

midway be ween the bonndnrte., where the ""° I?"™' »°™™ "' "" «" J",.™™' ?'• 

tnclion of the aides Is leaat. the nioiioa ouSl f'-S ,•• >" ?* » oommand the glaeiee 

lo be greale.1 This I. eleirly not hi 3 I'rj^'J'^^. J'J T ^'" ,'" Tt 

for thongh the lOtb aiake is nearer iban the f?™'' ',"" ™"'" "' 'be Sjaoier provej to be 

9th to thf a«Hern or B^m- side of .be vai- W," If """ "i f,""' ■'"°' °°'.,'" "'° 

ley. the 10th suke .nrp.aae. the >lh by t I»al"o«s the v,ew ol lb. ic. ne« the oppo- 

Inches a day. ^ «te side of the glacier waa iniercepted by the 

167. Here 'we hare aomeihlng lo think of ; *i'':'!|''"'? f }^'^ ™'""' .'^''* htoumam- 

but before a natural philoaupher can ihink 'i"l"*' \, J^.' ""^ "'*;™ '? summer, am 

?dri,.Mrne-e: rfTsSo'i;/^-; £-' --^^ 

place .ton. it 8l .lake.. On lb. snbKiqoent "^J"' rT" i'Tf ' f ^1^ a? ! 

Say 6ve of the., were found uuBi for u«i ""'!■ °"' ""',,'',?' "," M»".«l!= ,M™Vp- 
but here are the dl.tmee, pasied over bflb; ?'"■ T ""»''- ''".•, '^' " "' ""? a,"^ '"» 

romidnlnE sii-.nd-tweut. In S4 hou". ^ t"""/ "PI"?!"; l'" Mont.n.ert ; in fact. 

B J the mark on whicb we have bxad the flbre- 

Sjoohd Una : B W pros TBI Skitcb. cross of the tlieodrillto is a corner of one ot 

_ v^"i ■ J . . D ^^ windows of the little mo. Along Ukk 

l.rtS«,:il 13 16 IS i" IT J8 la flS il " i? linewefliilwe!veBtake8on.Iulya0ih. Un i(« 

alike.. .lA IS IT la 18 (0 ti u 23 £4 9S M 31st One of them had fallen : but the vetod ^m 

1mIi«.,»S S8 M »i w ai as W M »3 m 9B tieaof the remaining eleven in 24 hours wa^H 

«"' found to he as follows : ^H 

168. Look at these numbers. The flrat Tn.nn i,-.- cf/..^. w^. a., ™. ^H 

broad fact they reveal is the advance in the C, ' skvtou. ^^m 

rate of motion from flrat to last, There are, awki i ■ a 4 s o t a g m\i 

bowever, small Irregularities ; from 3<) inches luchm SO UMSOMMKHtuia » 

?i,h^ i'"' "S,"? f '"'] ',■; ^loi?'""'" i!'„'t« "3. Both the flnit slake and llie elevenlh 

im_h . froLii 23 inches at the IB h we full to jn this series ato<«l near the sides cf tlie gte- 

2 mches at the aoUi ; from 35 inches at tlie cier. On the eafitern side the motion is 30 

21at we full to 33 inches at the 23d and inches, while on the western side it Ls only 8 

2J.1 ; but nolwilhslaniiing these small ups n riaea on the eastern side from 20 to Oi 

and downs, the general advance ot the rate inches at the 5lL 

of motion is manifest Now there may hava upon the glacier, t^ 

heen some alight displacement of tl.e slakes to tbe eastern Ihan to me wesLem sioe. jvm 

l.y melting sufflcenl to accoiiut for Ibeina unim ew<fc«cs of fe« ttr«. Hn^ plar^ thi 

small deviationa from un.formi y in the in- foci beyond dovU, thai opporiUi the Mmtanimrt. 

(.re«,P nr 1.1,. mrkhnn Bi> another solution ar^for mm$ tlidanee n£lw U andbetme ' " 
^all afterward laars.-.iffAi*' M*fe/-« »,V««/W«ff/(-cfffr i> mwint 







I 178. 



THE FORMS OF WATER 

maltmmde. -^^^ ^^ oonvex curTBtuw of toe nUy 

l^SJkCTUHK TsaTBD. ^j ^^^jj^j^ ^^ ^ ^^^^^ ^^ iH.-ti.-rmiu«l. 

178. Here we have cause tor rBflectlQEL. and r.„^ to.: SK- ««,» th< 8««™,,.| 

nets lU'B comparatively worthlesi if lUey do ^^^j -^ 

not pruvok« this e:iercU(] of tlie mind. II U autre...,] 1 S 4 g e 7 8 B 10 il u I1 Hit 

btioallae facU of oulure are out isolated hut Isctiu. . .ll u is IS IB 10 n tS so is flO Id Id It H 

connected. tliEil science, lu follow tliL-m, must 179. Here, t^uia. tlte mere eslinuie of 

alio form a coouectcd wliole. Tbo mind of disluDcns by the eye would show us Out 

UiB nalural pliilosuplier must, as ii were, ba llie lliret ^Iivkea wliich moved faalesl. vit 

■ well uf OioipgiU corre.ponding in bU iu the Ulli, lOtli, auil llili, were all to Uie eiat 

Mbres with ilie web of/ad iu nature. of llic middle line of the glacier. The dem- 

174. Let ud, then asuenil to a pjinl whirli onstratiun [but tile point of Kwifteat motion 

omuiaiids a good view of tbia portion of the wanders to and fro acrosa the axis, as ttw 

■ Mer de Gliice. Tbe ice-river we see is not flexure of llio valley chimgea, ia, theiufore 

■lnL)Klil Itut curved, and its curvature is/ntn> — ahnll I eay tfompluleT 

llie Montanvert ; tliat is to say, its convex 180. Not yet. For if surer meaaa are opeo 

.1.1. :. .,..„^^ ^jji^ jjg concave side la we8l(loolt to us we must not rest content with 



I :^o) 

M 



fc 



i: 



to Llie sketcli). You iiRve already pondeied by the eye. We have with us a surveyiDj 

Iho fact that a glacier, in tama re^eeU, mores chain : let ub shake it out aud inensure Uics_ 

like a river. How would a river move lines, noting the dislaoce of every slske 

Uirovgli a curved ciianntl 1 This ia known, from the side of the glacier. Tbis ia ml esBV 

Were lliu ice of tlio Mer de Glace displaced work umoug the crevasses, hut I confide A 

by Wftter, Ihe point of swiftest motion at the confidently to Mr. Hirst and you. We can 

Hod tan vert would not be llie centre, but a afterward comparea number of alakesonUta 

-"'■■ ant nfUie centre. Can it be then that eastern aide wilh the same numlier of stakei 

waierrock," as ice ia sometimes taken at tlie same diKtancen from tbe weelem 

acta in this respect also like water T side. For example, a pair of slakes, one tea 

. This is It tlmughl Buggesicd oa the yards from tlie eastern side and llie other leo 

tumi : It may or it may not bo true, hut the yards from the western side ; another pair, 

^(Eiiis -if testing it are at band. Looking up oue fifty yards from the eastern side and' ItiA 

Uiu glacier, we see tlial at lea I^ntt it also otlier fitly yards from tlie western aide, and 

bends, hut thai there its convex curvaiuru is fo on, can be compared together. For Cbt 

toward tbe weslem side of the valley (look sake of easy reference, let us call the pobti 

ftgain tu iIk sketch). If our surmise be true, thus compared in pairs. egaivaZeat poiT^ 

tbe point of swiftest motion opposite let igl. There were five pairs of sucti poinCl 

FbnU ought to lie west of tbe axis^of iLo upon our fourlli line, D D', and here art 

Etacier ' ibcir velocities : 

178. Let US test this conjecture. On July E.r.[Bmpolnt.; nn)lIonlBlnchM..IB IB 14 IS V 

35tbwefiiiQ«lineacrossthis pnrtioDoflhe Wcfiom pulnti " ■■ ..js IT n 19 tt 

Hiacier seventeen stakes ; every oue of them In every case here llie stake at tbe western 

has reniaiued firm, and on tlie SUlli we flad side moved more rapidly than tbe equivalent 

the motion for 24 liours lo be fotlown : sluKe at tbe eastern side. 

uuBtaLuo: DD'cpoaTBBSMTCH. 1«3 Applying tbe same analyais to oar 

;„,( ^f,t B!;h line. E E', we have the following aeries 

..1 S3 4 SOT S 9 10 11 19 19 14 13 of Velocities of three pairs of equivalent 

..7 8 la 15 la la BO Ml m 23 S3 m aa n i& points : 

Inspected by the oaked eye alone, the Emtarn poinM; moilonlnlnchet U is i> 

•takes 10 aud 11, where Ihe iflacler reaches WeHtcrnpoints " ■' ii u IT 

its greatest motion, are seen lo be cousidera- 183. Hem the three points on tha eMstan 

bly to the wi-st of the axis of the glacier, aide move more rapidly than the equivalent 

Thus tar we have a perfect verification o( points on the western side. 

Ihe gueta which prompted ub to make these 184. It ia thus proved : 

measurements. You will here observe that 3- That opposite the Montanvert tha easl- 

tbe " guesses" of science are not llie work em halt ot the Mer de Glace moves mon 

of chance, hut of thoughtful pondering over rapidly than the western half. 

Mtecodent facls. Tlie guess is the " indue- 2. Thai opposite Us PonU tha weatera halt 

Idoo" from the facts, to be ratilied or ex- of the glacier moves mure rapidly than Ui« 

pioded by tbe tesl of subsequent experiment, eastern half. 

178. And though even now we have es- 3- ThatopposileTifclaporte tbeeaaternhalf 

eeedmgly strong reason for holding that the of the glacier again moves more rapidly than 

point of maximum velocity obeys tbe law ot the western half. 

liquid motion, the strenglh of our conclusion ' *■ That these changes in the place of great- 

will be doubled if wo can show that the est motiim are determined by the flexure* of 

point bhifla back lo the easlem side of the Hie valley through which the Mer do GliM 

another plrtce ot flexure. Fortunate- moves. 
L a place exisl4 opposite Tr6laiio,rt«, 



J 



^^»5, 



IN CLOUDB AMD RIVBIBB, ICE AITO GLACIBRS. 



There is Ibus a 

_ . _ _ . . descend Ibe glac 

; at the PonCt it would lie west tlie Moatanvert ; the n. 

^ tiGDce in pasaioK from Tr6Ia- Hontoavert Ijeiog fourteen iactte* & da^ 
...1.1 . .!.„ „_„.__ greater tliaa at Trtlaporle. 



% S5. New Law or Ouicieb MoTtOH. 

16S. Let uB express these facta in aautber 
•ay. Supposing Ihepointaofflwifteatmotion 
or a very Rreat Qumbcr of lines croBsing the 
fter Ae Olace to be determined ; the line 
oining all those points loeether is what 
natbematiciaiiB would call tlie heui of the 
joint of swiftest motion. 

186, At Tiilaporte tliis line would lie east 

)f the ■ " 

)f the . ... 

porte to the fiwito it would eroM the centre. 
But at Ibe Uontanvert it would again lie 
east of the centre ; hence between the FbnU 
tad the Monlanvert the centre niuat be 
crOBsed a secood lime. If there were turUier 
siDUoaities upon the Mer de Glace there 
would be further croasinga of the axis of the 
glacier. 

187, The points on the axis which mark 
the transition from easlero to western bead- 
big, and the reverse, may be called painU ^ 
tontrar]/ jiexare. 

188, Now what is true of tho Mct fle 
Glace is true of all other glaciers moving 

Uirough sii " " 

Cltftbllsbed 



MOTION OF USE SB OLACB. 






<r Ihe Hon 



g 37. MonoM OF Tkibutaby OLACiERa. 

1S4. 3o much (or the trunk glacier ; le< 
us now investigate the branches, permitting, 
as we have hitherto dune, refieclion on 
known faelB to precede our attempts to di«. 
cover unknown ooea. 

1S6. As we stood upon our "cleft stft' 

tioD," whence we had so capital a view of tht 

Mer de Glace, we were atruek by the fact that 

some of the tributaries of the glacier were 

,, .„ , .„« ™n.,n_ wider than the glacier itself. Supposing 

„ M T VT ™., h. „ jon ■nppo.eliwouldbtf.TOl Yoa would 
lUo Mb, de Glece rmy be^iX; donblk-S. conclude th.i the motioo down the 



— ; ~: . .L . 11 • _ _i 1 „/ aouuT i-HB conciuue Luai tua uiouou uown [Of 

^ded mw the following general law ^f j^^_^ ^^^ slightly. inclined valleys of the 



glacier motion 

When a glacier moves through 
yallej, the locus of the point of 
motion does not coinuide with the centie of . „n^, 
the glacier, but, on the contrary, always lies _„,i_n 



Oeant and the Lichaud would be compare- 
tivelv slow, but tliat the water would fuico 
itself with increased rapidity through tha 

3" of Trfilaporte, Let ua test Ihli 

applied to the ice, 

me. Planting our theodolite in the shadow 

of Mont Tacul, and choosing a Buitabtt 

point at the opposite side of the Glacier d( 

GSant. we fix on July 39th a series of tti 

thP fiiitl™ Plan •^''^ "^"^ "'^ glacier. The motion of tht 

the OulUne I Ian y^^.j^ twenty-four houra was as follows : 

UOTIOX OF GLACIER UU OBANT. 
eiiTB Lini : H H' uroM Sutob. 



I Bide of the central line. The 
locUB is therefore a curved line more deeply 
■InuoUB than the valley Itself, and crosses 
the axis of the glacier at each point of cvo- 
trmty Hex u re. 

18«. The dotted 
(Fig. 6) represents the locus of the point o( 
maximum motion, the firm Use marking the 
centre of the glacier. 

IBO. SubslitutingthewordWmrforffiieiw, Bttki 
this law is also true. The motion of the ""■" 
water is ruled by precisely the same condi- 187. Our conjecture is fully verifled. The 
tloDS as the motion of the ice. maximum motion here is seven inches a day 

191. Let us now apply our law to the ex- kaa than that of the Mer de Qlace at Tr6la- 
planation of a difficulty. Turning to the porte (193). 

careful measurements exeauted by M. Agas- 19S. And now for the Lichaud branch. 
flis on the glacier of the Unteraar, we notica On August lat we fix ten stakes across this 
in the diacussion of these measurements a glacier above the point where it is joined by 
•ection of the " Bystgme glaciaire" devoted the TalSfre. Measured on August 3d, and 
to the "Migrations of the Centre." It ii reduced to twenty-four hours, the motion was 
here ahown that the middle of the Unteraar found to be : 



10 i« I 



t always the point of swiftest 
motion. This fact has hitherto remained 
without eipiaimtion; but a glance at the 
Unteraar valley, or at the map of the vall^, 
shows the enigma to be an illustration of Iha 
Uw which we have just established on Um 
Jder de Qlace. 



UOTION or QLACIBIt B 
Bbvskth Lih>: EE'dt 



I LaCHAtlD. 



gM. HoTioH op Axis o» Meb 

193. We have now measured the rate of 
moliuD of five diQerunt lines across tbe trunk 
of the Mer de Qtucc. Do they all 
alike T No. Like a fiver, a glacier '* 



K9. Here our conjecture is still further 
Terined, the rate of motion being even less 
than that of the Glacier du Giant. 

:> Bottom or 



g 38. MOTIOM Of Top » 
G14ACIBB. 
300. We have hers the most ampla 
Taried evidence that the aides of a glai 
difler- like those of a river, are Retarded by frictloB 



t diSerent rate*. Com- kyaiast its boundaries Out the likeoeM 



1 



w 



THE FORMS OF WATER 



not end here. The molion ot a river la re^ 
tardeii by the friction aguiiiBt its bed. Two 
oltaersers. viz., Professor Forbes and M. 
Charles lUrtins, concur in sLowiog tlio suuie 
to be tlie wise witli a gliicier. The obaer- 
ntiona of both bare been objucled to ; hence 
It Is all Ibu more iacuiub«at on us to seek [or 
decisive evidence. 

BOl. A-t the Tacul (near the point a upon 
the sketch plan. Fig, S) a wall of ice atvout 
ISO fueC hij;h hua already attracted our atten- 
tion. Bending riiuiid to join Ibe Lechaud the 
tilaciur du Gdant is here druwn awaj from 
ttie ninuiilain-sidc and exposes u Sne liectioa. 
We It; to measure it top. bottom, and mid- 
dle, and are defeated twice ovwr. Wu try it a 
third time and Biicceed. L slake ia dxed at 
the Buminit of tbe ice-precipice. auotUer 
at i feet from the bottom, and a third at S5 
feet above the bottom. These lower stakes 
are fixed at some risk of boulders falling 
upon UB from above ; but by skill and cml- 
tiou we succeed in measuring the motions 
For 21 hours the mntioas are : 



o one tenSi 



MhM. 



will) m 

UkB ^ 

^ 202. Tbe retarding Influence of the bed of 
the glacier is reduced to de mull si ml ion by 
Ihe^e nieHsuremenls. The bottom dues nut 
move with half the velocity of the surfuce. 

g 39. Latbeai. Coufr&ssiok of' a Glac:er. 

1 2(ia. Furuisbud with Ibe knowledge which 
IhuM; labors and measurements have given 
«B. let us once more climb to our station lie- 
lide the L'left, under the Aiguille de Cbar- 
moE, At our first visit we saw the medtsl 
moraines of the glacier, but wo knew ndlh- 
ins about their cause. We now know that 
they mark upon the trunk its tributary gla- 
ciers. Oast your eye, titeu, Urst upon the 
Qlacier du G6unt ; realize its widtu in itn 
own valley, and see how much ll is narrowed 
at Treiaporte. Tbe broad icc-slreum of the 
Lechauct ia still more suiprisiug, being' 
Miueezed upon the Uer de Glace to a narrow 
white band between its bounding moraines. 
The Tal^fre undergoes similar compression. 
Let UH now descend, shake out our chain, 
mea-sure, and express in numbers the width 
of the tributaries, and tbe actual amount of 
compreaaion suffered at Tiilaporle. 

204. We Snd the widtli of the Glacier du 
CMant to be 5155 links, or 1184 yards. 

905. The width of the Glii.cier de Lfchaud 
•)»e find 10 be 3725 links, or 83.^ yards. 

SOt). The wkltb of the Tal^fre we find to 
3800 links, or 038 yards. 

207. The sum of the widths of the three 
branch glaciers is therefore 2597 yards. 

2U8. At Tr£lacorte these three branches 
are forced through a gorge 8aa yards wide, 
or one third of [heir previous width, at the 
rate of twenty inches a day. 

SOU. If we limit our view to tbe Glacier de 
LAcbaud, the facts are still more astonisking. 
Previous to its Junction with the Talftfre, 
this glcHuer has a width of 825 yards ; in 
jmmi^g- through tbe Jaws of the jcraoite viae 



at Tr^laporM. Its width Ib reduoed tod 
eight yards, or in round numbers to one 
ot iis previous width. (Look to the sketch 
on page 8.) 

210. Are we to understand bv this that tba 
ice of the Lfchaud is EqueeEed, to one tenUi 
of its former telumef By no means. It is 
malnty a change otform. not of volume, that 
occurs at Trelaporte. Previous tu ils com- 
prcasiou, the glacier resemble'^ a plate ot ice 
lying Jiat upou its bed. Afli.>r iis compres. 
sion, it reaemti]i« a pbio Jued upon iu edffi. 
The squeezing, doubtless, has deepened the 



^30. lokcitudinal coupiiession of a 
Glacier. 

211. Tbe ic^' is forced through ttic gorge at 
Trttaporte by a pi'essure from behind : in 
fact the Glacier du Geaut, immediately above 
Tr£taporie. represenls a piston or a plug 
which drives the ice through the gorge. 
What effect must this pressure have up<Mi 
the plug itself? Reasoning alone renders it 
pruliable that the pressure will ahorleo the 
plug : that the lower pari of the Glacier du 
G^ant will lo some extent field to the pres- 
sure from behind. 

312. Let us test this noti<>n. About throe 
quarters of a mile above lt>e Tacul, and on 
the mountain-slope tu the le'l as we ascend, 
we observe a patch of verdure. Thither we 
climb ; there we plant our Ibeodolile, and set 
out across the Glacier du Giant, a line, which 
we will call line No. 1 (F F' upon sketch, 
Fig. a.) 

213. About a quarter of a mile lower down 
we find a practicable couloir on the mountalD- 
side ; wc ascend it. reach a suilable platform, 
plant our instrument, and set nut a second 
line. No. 3 (G G' upon skeldi). We must 
hasten our work here, for along this couloir 
stones are discharged from a small glacier 
which resta upon toe slope of Mont Tacul. 

314. Still lower down by another quarlcr 
of a mile, which brings us nenr the Tacul, 
we set out a third line, No 3 (E H' upon 
sketcli), across the glacier. 

215. The daily molion of the centres ot 
these three lines'is as follows : 



DIgti 



No. 3... 



m 

le second 1 
than tbe I 



310. Tbe first line here n 
a day more than the second ; and the s( 
nearly tlirce inches a day more than tbe 
third. Tberoftsoiiing is therefore confirmed. 
The ice-plug, which is in round cumberH one 
thousand yards long, is shortened by the 
pressure exerted on its front at the rate of 
about eight inches a day. 

317. A river descending tbe Valley dD 
Guant would behave in substantially the as ~ 
fashion. It would have its motion on a^ 
proachiug IVflaporte diminished, and il 
would pour through the defile with ■ vdocily 
greater than that of the water behind^ ' 



^H IN CLOUDS AND RIVEB9, ICE AND QLA0IER6. 1«|^^H 

nf%. Bliddio AMD Flowiko.— Haud Ick B"' Wintbb ok th* Hbb m Olaoh. ^^^ 

AND Soft Ice. ggg. The winWr chosen is an inclemeia ' 



B18. We have thus far ponflned ourselves one. There ia anow in London, ; _ 

to the measurement and discussion of glacier Paris, snow in Generu ; aaov near Chamouni 

motion ; hul in our excurBious we have no- so deep that the road fences are entirely 

ticed niHuy things besides. Here and there, efTaced. On Christmas ni^Ul — nearly at midU 

where the iee has retreated fioin the ihoud- night — 1859, your deputy reaches ChamouoL 
lalnaJde, we have seea the rocke fluted, 226. The snow fell heavily on December 

•cored, and polished ; thus proring that the 26th ; hut on Lha 27th, during a lull in th* 

4ce had siidden over (hem and ground them storm, we turn out. There are willi me four 

down. At the source of the Arveiron we good guides and a porter. They tie plaoki 

noticed the water rushing from benealli the to their feet to prevent them from sinkinj; la 

(lacier cb»rgcd with lini; mailer. All ghicitr the snow ; I neglect tliiB precaution and sink 

rlvere are similarly charged. The Rhoue often to the waist. Fourorfive times durtog 

carriea its load of matter into the Lake of our ascent the slope cracks with an explosin 

Qeaeva ; the rush of tiie river is here ar- sound, and Ibe snow threatens to cumc dowK 

rested, the matter subsides, and ibe Rbone in avalauches. 

quits tbe lake clear and blue. The Lake of The freshly -fallen snow was m that partie- 

Geneva. and many oilier Swiss lakes, are in ular condition which causes its granules to 

part filled up with Ibis matter, and will, in adbere, and liencc every Qake falling on tba 

all probability, finally be obliterated by it. trees had been retained there. The laden 

919. One portion of the motion of a glacier pines presented beautiful and often fantastia 

is due to this bodily sliding of the mass over forms, 
its bed. 227. After five hours end a half of arduoni^ 

830. We have seen in our journeys over work the Monlanvert was attained. We un.* 

the glacier streams formed by the melting of locked the forsaken auberge. round which' 

the ice, and escaping through cracks and the snow was reared in buttresses. 1 hav* 

araooMw to the bed of the glacier. The fine already spoken of the complex play of cry»- 

malter ground down is thus washed away ; talUzing forces. The frost-figures on Um 

the bed is kept lubricated, and the sliding of window-panes of the auberge were wonder- 

"~~ "3 rendered mure easy than it would ful: mimic shrubs and ferns wrought by Um 



ha 

M 



otherwise be. building power while hampered by tbe ad- 
231. As a skater also you know how much hesion between the gla.^ and the Him '~ 
ice is weakened by a thaw. Before it actu- wliich it worked. The appearance of 
ally melts it becomes rotten and unsafe- glacier was very impressive : all sounds i 
Test suclt ice with your penknife : you can stilled. The cascades which in summei 
di^ tho blade readily into it, or cut the ice tba air with their music were silent, bangiiuf 
with ease. Try good sound ice iu the same from the ledges of the rocks in flut«d col- 
way : you find it much more resistant. The umtis of ice. The surface of the glacier was 
one, indeed, resembles soft chalk ; the other obviously higher than it had been in sum- 
hard stone. mur ; suggesting the thought that while tba 

223. Now tbe Mer de Glace in summer is winter cold maintained the lower end of Iht 
in this thawine condition. Its i.:e is rendered glacier Jammed iKtweeo its boundaries, thai 
soft and yielding by the sun ; its motion is upper portions still moved downward and] 
thereby facilitated. We have seen that not thickened the ice. The peak of the Aiguilla|| 
only does the glacier slide over its bed, but du Dru shook out a cloud banner, the origin] 
that the upper layers slide over the under and nature of which have been already ex- 
ones, and that the centre slides past tbe sides, plained (84). 

The softer and more yielding tbe ice ia, the 22H. On the morning of the 36th this basi 

more free will be this motion, and the more ner was strikingly large and grand, and red>I 

readily also will it be forced through a defile dened by tbe light of the riaing sun it ' * 

like TrKlaporle. lilte a flame. Robbs of cli 

233. But in winter the thaw cease 
^ quantity of water reaching the bed 

glacier IS diminished or entirely cut off. . ^ . 

ice also, lo a certain depth at lea-tt, is frozen glacier. I had trained one of them in 1SS7, 

hard. These considerations would justify and he was now to fix the stakes. The 

the opinion that in winter the glacier, if it etorm had so distributed tbe snow as to leave 

moves ut all, must mure more slowly than in alternate lengths of tbe glacier bare and 

summer. At all events. Ibe summer' meas- thickly covered. Where much snow lay, 

uremenis give DO clue to ttie winter motion, great caution was required, for bidden cre- 

224. Thispoint meritsexamination. I will vaBses were underneath, The men sounded 
not, however, ask you to visit the Alps in with their staffs at every step. Once while 
miawinter ; but, if you allow me. I will be looking at the party through my telescope 

' your deputy lo the mountains, and report to the lea[Ier suddenly disappeared : the ruof 

you faitbtully the aspect of the region and of a crevasse had given way beneath him : 

the belukvior of Ihs ice. but the lather throe men promptly gathered 

ruLind and lifted him out of the fissure. Tbe 

^^^^^ true line was soon picked uu by the thoodo- ^^^^1 




Ml N. THE FORMS OF WATER 

Ute : one by one the HtAkeawere fixed uotil dnnger of enlerinp the vault, for the ice 

k MTles of eleveo of Ihem stood across ILe seemad as 6rm an initrlile. In tlie cavern we 

flacier. weru linthed by blue light. Ttie stnuigl 

229. To get higlier up tbo valley was im- buauty of the pface BUggesicd magic, and pul 
praclicitblo ; llie snav was loo deep, and the mc in mlodaf stories aboulfaiiy caves tvlndi 
aspect of the weatlier too threatening ; so llie I had read when a boy. At the aourc* of tba 
tbeodoiite nas planted amid the pioi's a litlle Arveiron our winter vi^ to the Mer do Olaca 
war below the Montonvert, whence tbruugli ends : next morning your deput; was ou hh 
a vista I could see across the glacier. The way to London. 

men were wrapped at intervals by whirling 

Baow-wreaths, which quite hid them, and we S" »3- Wintbb Motion oir thb Hm m 

had to takeadvantaga of the lulls in the wind. Glacb. 

Bltfully it came up the valley, darkening the 233 H(*e are the mejiaurements executed 

air, catching the snow upon the glacier, and in the winter of 1S.1U ; 

tossing it thrnughout its entire length inlo Lim Ko. I. 

high and violently agitated clouds, separated Biaks.. 1 2a4fiBTBBiail 

from each other by cloudless spaces corre- l>iclie» i ii ii is u U IS IS 1* H T 

Sonding to the naked portions of the ice. In livs No. II, 

e midst of this turmoil the men continued sisko i 934Ssrasio 

towork. Bravely and steadfastly stake after Indies B lo U 18 la ifl is IT U U 

stake was set, until at length a series of ten 334. Thus the winter motion of the Mer 

of them was fixed across the giacier. jg Qi^ce near the MonLanven is. In round 

230. Many of the stakes were fixed la tha numbers, halt the summer motion 

•now. They were four feet in length, and 235. As in summer, the eastern side of 111* 

wore driven in to a depth of about three jrlHcier at this place moved Quicker than the 

feet. But that night, while listening to the western. 
wUd onset of the storm. I though) it possible 

Hut the stakes and the snow which held g 81, Motion op trb QKniDEXWAU) Aaa 
them might be carried bodily away before ALETSCn Glaciehs. 
tha morning. The wind, however, lulled. 330. ^.a regards the question of moUon. 
We rose with the dawn, but the uir was thick to n„ other glacier have we dtvoiL-d ourselves 
with descending snow. It wiia all composed „[n, Hud, thoroughness as lo the Mer da 
of those exyitisite six-potalled flowers, or six- Qlace ; we are, however, able to add a few 
rayed stars, which have been already figured measurements of other celebrated glaniera. 
nnd described (§ B). The weather brigliten- Near the village of Grindelwald in the Ber- 
ing, the theodolite was planted at the end of oi:se Oberland, there are two great ice- 
the first line. The men descended, and, Htreams called reaijectively the Upper and the 
truned by their previous expenence. rapidly Lower Grindelwald glaciers, the aecoud of 
execuled the measurements. The first linn which is frequently visited by travellers in 
was completed before U a.m. Again the the Alps. Acroiia it oa August 6lh, ItWO, a 
■now began to fall, filling all the air. Span- series of twelve stakes was fixed by Mr. 
gles mnumerable were showered upon the Vaughan Hawkins and myself. Measured 
heights, CoQtrary to eipectalioc, the mea oq tt,e 8Lh and reduced to its daily rule Um 
could be seen and directed through the motion of these slakes was as follows : 

2^"to reach the position occupied by the "» "O'' °^ ^^^^^ grindblwald aLAClKE. 

theotlolitoatlheendofoursecond line, Ihad gtake. 1 a a s it t 8 v lO il'^^ 

to wsde breast-deep through snow which lacbei!.lB 19 !U !1 SI £1 U 30 IS IS 17 It 

seemed us dry and soft as flour. The toil of „„_ m, ,,,.■._ ^ 1 . j 

the men upon the glacier in bi^aking through ,,,f^-, J^" "if ^""te "as here planled n. 

the snow was pro Jigious, But they did not ''"'l ''"'"" "'^ ''"t'^^y leading to the higher 

mnch. and aft^r a time the leader ^ood be- e'"f^'" ^g"""; ^^ at about a mile above the 

Und the farther stake, and cried, JVfcus aeoM ^°^, °^ l^'^.J^^'^l' ^^^ measurement waa 

Jtni. I was aurpriscd lo hear him so dis- ^S^S'^,J^^™"^''" ^^ crevasses, 

linctly, for falling snow had been thought ,J^^- ^^t.'^^-^'.S'^l'f '? Switzerland la 

very deadening to sound. The work waa the Great Alel*cli, to which further refereno. 

flaished. and I struck my theodolite with the »''»" *"'',^:'1""'°''y ^« ""'^^- '^Z'^^ '1 *"* 

feeling of a general who had won a small -^''S"" ^*^^,- '^'A"^^".*.' ot thirty-four 

^ttle stakes was planted by Mr. Hawkins and me. 

2H3." We put the house in order, packed M^sured on the 18th and reduced to thdr 

op, and shot l)y glissade down the steep ^^,'J' ^^^- "'^ "'locities were found to ba m 

slopes of La FUia to the vault of the Arvef i'>"°'^8 '■ 

ron. We found the river feeble, but not MOTION OP GREAT ALBTBCH glacikb. 

dried up. Many weeks must have elapsed Biac 

tin*;e any water had been sent down from the ^^' .! q ? J S ' ^ j ' '* " " 

lurtace of the glacier. Butal the setting in '"^™ * * / ° ° " ! JJ „ „ „ . 

»f winterthefissureawereinagreatmeasure i^J,-;:::" 1* I8 I7 U 1» ]» iS 17 it S 

uliarged with water; and the Arveiron of gi^^, ' ' g* 33 ai st a? m w ji js s* M 

h>-day was probaiily due to the gradual iiuW.!!!,itt :r N it it it it it is u i* 

'^-' of the glacier There wss now ., W«»* 



^SZ>: 



)N CLOUDS AND RIVERS. IDE AND GLACIERB. 

2au. The maximum motion here is nine, notice the velocity of Ihe flrsl 1j greater thu ' 

»en inches a day. Probably the eaalem side iliat of the secoud, and the velocity of tha 

of the glacier is shallow, the retardation of second greater lliati thai of the third 

*b. bed making the moUon of the eailotn a«. ^he lines were permitted to moy. 

nakes taconsiderable The width of the downwarf for 100 houra, nt the end o! 

glMier here is mo linkH or about a mile which time the spaces passed over by tha 

and a furlong The theodolite was planted pomis of swifleat motion of the three lin.. 

high arooog Ihe rocks on the western flank were as follows - 

of the mouutain, al)out half a mile above 1*8 m.v.-,,-' u».». ™ .m n 

Margelin See. nr« C . . . M^i 

S 8S. Motion of Mortkratbch Olacibb. Third line. ..V.'..*.'.''!!."J.".'1^'.'.£ ■' 

MO Far to the earn of Ihe Oberland, and 348. Here then Is a demonstratioD that 

In that inleiestiiiK part of Swilzetland known upper portions of the MorleratBch glacier 

M the Oi>erEngadm, siunds a noble group of advancing on the lower ones. In 1871 _« 

moUQtaiiis, leas in lieiglit than those of Ihe melion of a point m Un middle of* tlui glaeitr 

Oberland, (lutstill of commaoding elevation, nrar itt motil teat found b> be UutiKiivbM 

The group derives its name from its most induiaday! 

dominant peak, lbs Piz Bernina. To reach 217. What, then, is the consequence ot 

the place we travel by railway from Basel to Ihis swifter march of the upper glacier f-^^H 
Zurich, and from Zurich to Chur (French Obviously to squeeze this nicdial mcr^ntl^^^l 
Coire), whence we pass by diligence over lougltudinally. and to cause it to spread ooK^^^I 
either the Albula pass or the Juliar pass to luLerally. We have here diatinclly reveated^^^l 
the village of Pontresina. Here we are In the cause ot the widening ot the medial mo. ^^^ 
the immediate ceighborhood of the Bernina raine. i 
._!__ n.o (, ]jg3 jjgg^ ^ question much dlfl- 



M 



341. From Pontresina we may walk or cnsmid, whether a glacier is competent to 
drive along a good coach mad over the Ber- woop out or deepen Ihe valley through wbicb 
Bioa pass into Italy. At about an hour above it moves, and this very Morteralsch glacier 
the village you would look from the road has been cited to prove that such is not ths 
Into the heart of the mountains, the line of C'lse, Ohpervers went to the snont of the 
vision pasaing through a valley, in which is gla<:ii.'r. and finding it sensibly quiescent, 
couched a glacier of considerable size. 'Iiey concluded tlial no scooping ocurred. 
Alon^ its back you would trace a medial But those who contended for the power ot 
moraine, and you could hardly fail to notice glucicrs to excavate valleys never stated, or 
how the moriuoe, from a mere narrow streak meant to state, that It was the snout of ths 
at Urst, widens gradually as it descends, un- gl»cier which did the work. In the Mort«- 
til finally it quite covers the lower end of the ratsch glacier the work of excavation, which 
glacier. Noris this au effect of perspective ; certainly goeaonloa greater or less extent, 
for were .you to stand upon the mountain must be far more effectual high up the vaU 
■lopes which nourish the glacier, yuu would ley than at the end of the glacier. 
•ee tlience also the widening of the streak of „ „„ „ „ „ 

lubblflh, though the perspective here would § ^0. Bihtr oir a Crbtabbbi : Rbflbo- 
tend to narrow the moraine as it retreats tionb. 

downward. 240. Preserving the notion that we aro 

343. The ice-stream here referred to is the working together, we will now enter upon « 
Morteralsch glacier, the end of which is a new field of inquiry. We have wrapped up 
short hour's walk from the village of Pou- our chain and ure turning homeward aft^ 
treaina. We have now to detrrmino lis role a liurd day's work upon the GUacier du 
of motion and to account for the widuaing of GSant, when under our Seel, as if coming 
Its medial moraine. from the body of the glacier, an cxplosiou S 

SS43. In the aummer of 1864 Mr. Ulrst and heard. Somewhat startled, we look inquir- 
myself set out lliree lines of stalies across the Inglyover the ice. TUe sound is repealed, 
glacier. The first lino crossed the ice high several shots being fired in quick succeaston, 
np ; the second a good distance lower down, Tliey seem somctimea to our right, soms. 
and the third lower still. Even the third times to our left, giving the impreasion that 
line, however, was at a considuroble distnace the glacier Is breaking all round us. Still 
above the actual snout of the glacier. The uolhing la to be seen. 
daily motion of thesis Uiree lines woa as fol 260. We closely scan the ice, and after an 
lows : hour's strict search wu discover ihe cause of 

I FiBiT I.iSB. the reports. They announce the birth of a 

*^ > iJisfl 7B0I9 11 crevasse. Through a pool upon the glacier 

*""« » " » '» '* " « IS 10 r » „e notice air-bubbles ascending, anS find 

I SmconD Lis". the bottom of the pool crossedioy a narrow 

, B^*- 1 iS4t6TB9i[}n cmck, from which the bubbles issue. Kighl 

'™^" ' * B B 10 11 n 11 11 11 u and left from this pool we trace the young 

Thihs Lull, fiasure through long distances It is some- 

Staks 1 19 4507 sginii times almost too feelilo to l>e seen, and at so 

p™*""* ' » < B B e 1 7 5 6 4 place la it wide enough to admit a knif*. 

^Ji^ Cumi>ure thtse lines together. Vuu Uade 



I 



THE FORMS OP WATEP 



It U difficult ta believe Uiat tlie tor- tbermomeler Btaada high lo one w 

nidable flaaurea, among which you aad I sUads I'lw ; Ihe change bdog due. 

bave BO often trodilea with awe, could com. any diSereoca Id the temperature of the air, 

meace in this Bmall way. Suuh. however, U hut Eioiplv to the withdrawal of the Iber- 

the case. The great and eapiog chasms on mumctcr from the direct action of the soJu' 

and above tlio ice-fails of the Qiaot and the niya. Nay, without shifting the tburmome- 

Tol^fre begin as aarrow cracks, which open ler at all, by loterposiog a suitable screen, 

Eadually to crevasses. Wa are thus taught which cuts oft Iho suo'a rays, the coldness of 

aa loslructlve and impresalve way that ap the air may be demonstrated, 

pearances suggestive of very violent acliuo 3.18. Look now lo the snow upon your 

may really be produced by processes so slow house-roof. The sun plays upuD it and 

as to require refined observations to detect melts It : the water trickles to the osve and 

them. In the production of uuturul phe- then drops down. If the eave face Ihe bud 

Qomena two things always come Into play, the water remains water ; but if the eave do 

the iniemUy of the acting force, aad the Hint not face the sun, the drop, before it quits its 



Eeat and the time small, and you have auil- sbailed space, aa we have learned, may be 

n convulsion ; but precisely ttio same ap- below the freezing temperature. If so, Ibe 

eirent effect may be produced by making tlie drop, iustcad of falung, congeals, and llia 

tensity small and the time great. This rudiment o( au icicle is formed. Other 

truth la strikingly illustrated liy t lie Alpine drops aad driblets succeed, which trickla 

ice-falls and crevasses ; and many guiiiogicui over the rudinieut, congeal upon It in part 

phenomena, which at Grst sight suggest via- and thicken it at ttie root. But a portion of 

lent convulsion, may l)e really produced in the water reaches tlic free end of the Icicle, 

the self-same almost itnpcrceptihte way. hangs from it. and la there (Congealed befon 
it escapes. Tbo icicle is (bus lettgOieaed. Id 

3 °'' IcrcLKS. j]jg Alps, where the liouetacllou is copious 

253. The crevasses are grandest on the and the cotd of the shaded crevasse, intense, 
higher neves, where they sometimes appear the Icicles, liiougb produced in the same way, 
as long yawning fissures, and sometimes aa naturally grow lo n greater size. The drain- 
chasms of iiregnlar outline. A di-licule blue age of the snow after the sun's power is wllh- 
light shimmers fiom them, but this is grad- drawn also produces icicles. 

uollylost in the darkness of their profouader 259. It Is interesting and Important that 
portions. Over the edges of the cbaama, you should be able to esplain the formation 
and mostly over the southern edges, bangs a of an icicle ; but it is far mure important 
coping of snow, and from this depend Tike that you should resJize the way in which the 
italactUes rows of transparent icicles, 1<), 20, various threads of what we call Nature are 
80 feet long. These pendent spcats consti- woven together. You cannot fully under- 
tute one of the most beautiful features of the stand an icicle without first knowing thai 
blgher crevasses. solar beams powerful enough to fuse the 
353. How are they produced ? Evidently snows and blister the human skin, nay, it 
by the thawing of the snow. But why, might be added, powerful enough, when con- 
when once thawed, should the water freeze centrated, to burn up the human body itself, 
again to solid spears T You have seen icicles may pass through the air and still leave it al 
pwident from a house-eave, which have been an icy temperature, 
■anifestly produced by the (hawing of the 

MOW upon the roof. It we understand these § ^- ^^ BEHOBonnnKD. 

we shall also understand the vaster slalactites 880. Having cleared away Ibis difficulty, 

of the Alpine iTevasaes. let us turn once more to the crevasses, takiug 

254. Guliiering up such knowledge as we them in the order of their formation. First 
possess, aod reflecting upon it pHtieutly. let then above Ihe d6v£ we have the final Alpine 
us found on it, if we can, a Iheory of icicles peaks and crests, against which the snow Is 

255. First, then, you are lo know that the often reared as a sleep buttress. We have 
air of our atmosphere is hardly heated at all already learned that both nfivSs and glaclerb 
by the rays of the sun. whether visible or In- are moving slowly downward ; but it usual- 
viflilile. The air is highly transparent to all ly happens that the attachment of the high- 
kinds of rays, and it is only the scanty frac- eat portion of the buttress to the rocks is 
Hon to which it is mt transparent that ex- great enough to enable It to hold on while 
peod their force in warming It. the lower portion breaks away. A very 

256. Not so, however, with the snow on characteristic crevasse is thus formed, called 
which the sunbeams fall. It absorbs the In the German-speaking portion of the Alps 
■oUr beat, and on a sunny day you may see a BergichTund. It often surrounds a peak 
the summits of tbe high Alps glistening with like a fosse, as if to defend it against the di- 
the water of liquefaction. The air above saulta of climbers. 

and around the mountains may at the same Sfll. Look more closely into its formation, 

time be many degrees below the freezing Imagine the snow as yet unbroken, lu 

point in temperature. higher portlona chug to iLe rocks and move 

307. You have only to pass from sunshine downward with extreme slowness. But itf 

Into ahade lo prove tliis. A single step lower portions, whether from their grea ttJ 

'"^■"— a lo carry you from a place where the .depih and weight or their less perfect J^^ 




IN CLOUDS AMD RIYRRS, lOE AND Gt.ACIEHS. Ill 

itacuiDT^Qi, are cumpellcd to movp more plnccs lliu incliiiHlbn di:iD<;i'a from a eeDlti>r 

i|ulr)cly. A palt U Ihcrefore exerted, lend- to h slccpur slopu, iiail on crossing Ihe brow 

log lo scpnrnte the lower from iLu upper betweco tioili ilie ghicicr breiiks lia biuik. 

■DOW. For II lime ilils pull Is rpsisted by tlie ?Vo/mmc« eiwwiMM Hre ihua formed. Thert 

cohesion of llie ncvf ; but tliia nt length isBiichucliiiuge of inclinKtion oppoaitetotba 

givea w«j-, an I a cmek is formed exacUv An?Ie, and a sUII greater but similftr ch8D)(a 

; aerow \hK line m wbicb Ibe pull is exciiurf. at the linid of tlie Glacier des Bols. Ttto 

' In utbur wnrda, a e-rsaum U fonn/d at right fion8e<iueiice is llmt Ibe Mer de Glnce nt tha 

anglet to the line of teiudon. forme- poiut i« impn^wililc. ttDil at Ihe latter 
tbe reuuing nnn (Iislo?Mioa are sui-b as wo 

g 39. Transverse Crbv abbes. |,„vu seen and des^cilwil. Below the Angle, 

S82. Both on Ibe nfivtf and on the glacier Rntl at Ihe bottom of llio Glaeler des Boi^ 

Ihe on};lD of llie crevaMseB is the same, ti.c alecpnces relnxcs, Ihe t-reva»sea heal up, 

Through some ciiune or other, the ice ia nnil tlie glacier hceomes ouce more coutinu> 

thrown into a. nlnte of strain, and as it cim- ous and compact. 

noHtntfcAlt fti-tfofoocToaa the lino "1 tension. o ^n .. 

Take, for examule. Iho ice-fiill of lUe Odiat, S «. Maboinal Crbyabbbb. 

or of the Tiil6fre, above which you Know SCi. Supposing, Ibuu, Ibitt we had lo 

the creyaases yiiwn t-.-rrlbly, Im:nrine Ibe changes nf inclination, sbonld we have do 

ntfv6 and the glaoiet entirely pi'elei* iiway, crevasaesT Wu should curiBialy have lees rf 

. bu sa 10 expose tbc siirfiLce ever whith ihuy them but lliey would not wholly disappear. 

i move. From Ihi- Col du Gffiint we should For other circumslnni-ea exist to throw the 

seothls Burfoco falling gently to Ihe place ice into astute of slnlii. nnd to determine ita 

now I'ccupicil by Ibc bmw of the cascade, fracture. The prindpal of these is the mora 

Here the surface would fall styeply down to rapiil movement of Die cenire of the gliicier. 

the beii of Uie prcwnt niacier du G&nt, 218, Helped by Ibo l«bnrs of an eminent 

where tbc slope would become gentle once man. now dead, the Inle Mr. Wm. Hopkini, 

morp. of Cambridge, let us muster the explanation 

363. Think nf the n^ve' moving over suoh of this point togeihcr. But the pleasure of 

. ■ surface. It descends from llie Col till It maateriog it would lie enhanced If we could 

rcnchw Iho brow Just referred lo. It croaaeB see beforehand Ibe piipie.iiog and deluaivo 

Ibe brow, and must licnd down to keep upon appenrances accounk'it for by the explaoa- 

. Ita bed. Realize clearly whitl mu^^t occur, tion. Could my wiHhcs Ik? followed out, I 

The surface of the nSvu is evidently thrown would at ibis point of our riiearchea carrf 

-*io a Biate of strain : it breaks and forms a you uff with me lo Bawl, ilienoe to Thun, 

•.■revnsse. Each fresh poriion of ihenffvjas thence to Interlakcn, ibtnce m Qrlndelwald 

It passes the brow is similarly broken, and where you would tintl yourself In the acluat 

thus a succeEsion of crevasses Is sent down presence of the Welterhorn HUtl Ihe Eiger, 

the fall. Between every two diasms is a wHh all Ibe grealeat peaks of Hie Berneae 

great irunsverse ridge. Tlirough loi'al straloa Oborland, the Finstcraarliorn, Ihe Itehreck. 

Upon the full those ridges are iilso frequently horn, the Mooch, Ihe Jungftnu. at hand. 

broken across, towers of ice— "//■nfs— being Al Grindelwald, as we have iiheady learned, 

thereault. Down tiie fall boili liljjes and there are Iwo well known glaciers— IheOlMt 

■^racs are borne, the dlslucation being aug- Grindelwald uod the tinier Grindelwald gla- 

mented during the descent. ciera — on Uu latter of which our observM- 

2S4. What must occur at tbe foot of the lions Hhnuld commence, 

fall T Here the slope suddenly lessens in 31^. Driippiug (lown from the village to 

Bteepness. It is plain that llie crevasses the bottom of the valley, we should breast 

must not only cease to open here, but that iL« opposite iw)untaiB, and wllh the great 

they must in whole or in part close up. At limestone precipices of the Wi-llerhom to 

the Bummil of the fall, the bending was such our left, we should gel upon a pnlh which 

■alomukeihesurfaceconves; al ihuhotlom cummands a view ot Ihe gliicier. Herew((i 

of the fall, tbe bending renders the surfucc should see beautiful exnmpTcs of the openl ' 

concave. In the one case we have itraln. lu of crevasses tit the summit of a. brow, 

the other p»nur«. In the one case, therefore, their closing at the botiom. Biil the i. 

we have the opening, and in the oilier the point of ioterCbt would be the crcvi 

dodnq of crevasses. This reasoning corre- fonned al Ihe tide of this glnciur — the mar- 

■ponds exactly with the facts of observation. ^iVirt' orevnuaa, as Ibey may he called. 

365. Lay bare your arm and stretch it 270. We ah<iu1d find the side copiously Dfc 

etraight. Mitke two ink dots half an Inch or surud, even at those places where the centre 

■n inch apart, exactly opposite the elbow, ia compact : and we should particularly no. 

Bend your arm, Ihe dots approach each tice Ibal the fissures would neither run in 

Other, and are Uoally brought together. Let the direction of the glacier nor sliaight 

Ihe two dots renreMut the two sides of a across It. but ihat Ihev would he iMique to It, 

creva^e nt the bottom of an ice-ftiil ; the inclosing ao angle of about 4S degrees wilb 

bending of Ihe arm resembles Ibe bending of the sides. SlHrting from the side of the git 



e ice, and tbe closing up of tlic dots re- cicr llie crevasses would be Been to point up- 
mbies the closing of ilio fissures. _ UKcril; that is lo say. Ihe fnds of Ihe Oa- 



remtuks apply to various sures abutting against the bounding 

iortioni ot Ibo Mer de Qlace. At certain tam wouidap;icarto be if'^iffeififowi. Wo(» 



1 



THE FORMB OF WiTBH 




'jw less Innnicted tEiao you now are, I 
might lay a vogor that the aspect of these 

flwurea would cauea you to conclude ItiHt the o *. t n- 

«nlre of the glacier U left behind by the 8 *'■ LosoiTUDlMAI. CasvAiOB. 

^uicki^r motion of the sides. 376. We have thus unravelled the oiigia 

371. This indeed waa the conchision of l>otb tmnsverse and maTglnal cr«TB«aea. 

drawn by M. Agussiz from this very itppoar- But where a glacier iseues fiom a steep ackd 

•nee. before he bad measured the motion of narrow defile upon a comparatively level 

the sldea and centre of the glacier of the plain which allows it room to expand later- 

Unteraar. lotimaiely versed with the treat- ally, its motion is in part arrested, and th« 

neut of mechanical problems, Mr. Hopliins level portiou bus to bear the thrust of ths 

Ibimediately deduced the obliquity of tbo ateepcr portionti behind. Here the line of 

kteral crevasses from the quicker tlow of tLe thrust is in the direction of the glacier, 

centre. Standing beside the glacier wiUi while the direction at right angles to this li 

pencil and note-book in hand, I would at one of tension. Across this ktler the glacier 

once make the matter clear to you thus. breaks, and l<yngiiudinal creraita are formed. 

272. Let A c, in the annexed figure, be one ^tt- Eiamplua of this kind of crevasse ate 

tde of the glacier, and B n the other ; and furnished l>y the lower part of the Glacier of 

t the direction of motion be that indicated H>e Rhone, when looked down upon from 

l^ llie arrow. Let b t be a transverse slice the Orimael Pass, or from any commanding 

of the glacier, taken straight across it. say to- poia' on U'e flanking mounlsins. 

day. i few days or weeks hence this slice o .n r. 

will have been carried down, and beeauae the § «■ Cretabsbs in relation to Cokta- 

centre moves more quickly than the sides It "^^^^ °^ Glaciek. 

will not remain straight, but will bend into 2'^- One polul In addition remains to be 

the form s' t'. discussed, and your pri'sent knowledge will 

373. Hupposing t i to be a small square of enable you to muster it m a momunt. Ton 

the original alicB near the side of the glacier, remember at an early period of our researchei 

In its new position the souare will be distort- that we crossed tlie Mer do Glace from the 

cd to the lozenge-shaped figure t' i''. Fix Chapeau side to tlie Monlanvert side. I then 

your attention upon the diagonal t i of the desired you to notice tliat tl>e Chapeau aids 

•uuare ; in the lower position this diagonal, of the glacier was more fissured than either 

^Vutict amid atreteh.-voiM be lengSiened the centre or the Montaovert side (~S). Why 

to t' i'. But the ice does not stretch; it should this be so 7 Knowing as wc now do 

breaks, and wa have a crevasse formed at ">"' t''^ Chapeau side of the glacier moves 

right angles to T' »'. The mere in-spection of ""ore quickly than the other, that the point 

the diagram will assure you that the crevasse of maximum motion does not lie on the eea- 

will point obliquely uptmrd. Ire but far east of it. we are prepared to an. 

274. Along the wholti side of the glacier ^wer this question in a perfectly sallafactory 
the quicker raovemeut of the cenirt produces manner. 

* similar sute of strain; and the conee- S?!'. I^tAB and C d. In the followmg dto- 

Sience is that the sides are copiously cut by Kf^im. represent the two curved sides of the 

ose oblique crevasses, even at places where ^^' ^'^ Glace at the Montauveit, and let nt n 

the centre is free from Iheni. he a straight lioe acruati the glacier. Let* 

275. It is curious to see at other places the ^^ tl>e Point of maxlniiini tuuiion. The aie> 
tmnsverse fissures of the centre uniting with chauical amte of the two sides of the glacln 
those at the sides, so as lo form greet curved may be thus made plain. Supposing the line 
crevasses which stretch across tlie glacier '" » to be a atraight elastic stiing with ill 
from side to side. The convexity of the ^oils fixed; let it be grasped firmly at tha 
curve is turned upteard, as mechanical prin- point o by ihe linger and thumb, and dniWB 
ciples declare it ought to be. But if ynu too', keeping the distance between o* and ttw 
were ignorant of those principles, you would "ide o d constant. Here the length, n o of 
never infer from the aspect of thcee curves the string would have stretciied to n </, and 
the quicker motion of the centre. In lind- the length m o to m o', and you see plainly 
■lips, and in the motion of purliaily ludurat- that the stretching of the short line, ia com- 
•d mud, you may sometimes notjci: appear- parlson with its length, is greater than that 
■■lies similar to thoM exhibited by the ice. of thelong line in compaiiaoQ with its leogtk 



IN CLOUDS AND RIVERS, lOE AND OLACIERH. 




Ihraiig'h. But If you double or treble 
quintuple the thlckDsss oF Ihu clotb ; i 
what is easiar, if you pui seveiiil piecea c 
upon the ntllur, you cnme iLt leogtb lo t 
piiint wliere no «coHlble amouui of heat could 
tbrougb frum llie iippw Ui llie unJarsur- 



aaa. Wliat must i: 

piece, or Gurl) u sur 

placed upoa h 

falling? TUe> 



n 



:ur if Buch a thick 
i of pieces o( clolh, 
w un which a slrong 

„ . _ _ UK iimnd Ibe doih is 

Kited, but UiQt underm-alb Ihu clutb is pro- 
' lected. If (he BLtioD coaiia>io long enough 

In otiier words, the slraia upon no' Is gftalct the InevlUiblc luault will be Ibal the level of 
tlinn Ibtit upon mo'; bo that if one of lh«m Ibe snow all ronnd the clolb will sink, and 
were to break under tlio simlu, it would be tlie clulb will be Ifft b^liind percbeil upon 
Ihe short one. an eminpuc:c of enow, 

280. These two lines represent llie contli- 2B7. If yuii unilerslaud this, you bate al- 
lionaof strain upon Ibo two Birtes of Ihe fe'la- ready raasltred the cauBC of the moruiEB- 
Tiie aides are held back, and the ceo- ridpcB They are not produced by any 
tre tries to move on, a strain being thus set swelllag of Ihe iee upward. But the ice 
up between Ibf centre and sides. But the undernealh ihe rorks and rubbish being prii- 
dtaplacement of Ibe point of niaxiuum mo- lected from the sua, ihe elitcler right and 
tion (hrouj;b the curvature of Ihe valtcy left melts away and leaves a ridge behind. 
makes the strain upon llie eastern ice greater 3SS. Various other appearances upon tbe 
than Lbal upon the western. The eastern elocier are accuunlcd for In the same way. 
k.-iE. of tbe glacier is therefore more crevassed Here upon the Mer de Glace we have flat 
than Ibe western. slabs of rock sometimes liflid up on plUari 

S81. Here indeed resides the difficulty of of ice. These are the ao-catled Glacier 7b- 
eetting along the eastern side of tbe Mer de bla. Thi-y are produced, not by the growth 
Olace : a diiflculty which was one reason for of a stalk of iue out of the gfncier. but by 
our crossing the glacier oppo<9lte lo the Mon- tbe melting of tbe glacier alF round the icp 
tknvert. There are two convex sweeps on protected bj- tbe stone. Here is a sketch of 
the eaatern side to one on the western side, one of Ihe Tables of Ihe Mer de Oliice. 
hence on the whole the eastern side of the 289. Notice moreover that a glacier table 
is burdlv ever set squats upon its pillar. It 
generally leans to one side, and repeated ob- 
'' a teaches you that it so leans as lo 
"a draw tbe iiorlh and 



Mer de Glac 



g 43. MORAIKEHIDOKS. Glacibr TABLEa, 

-'-i Sand C'uneb. enable you alwayi 

u and I UrsI crossed Ihe Kter snulb line upon the gli 



ir the I 



abo- 



de Glace from Treluporte to the Couvercle. ing south of the zenilb at nuon pours its ra^ 

we I'ound that lliR slrlpeH of rocks and rub- against the southern end of the table, while 

biaU wbii'.b constiluleil tbe medial moraines tbe northern end remains in shadow. Thi 

were ridges raised above the general Ipvel of soulhem end, therefore. Iwlog most wnnne I 

the gliici-ir to a height at sume places of does not protect the ico undeinealh 't mi ef- 

twenty or thirty feet. On examining these feci uull^ as the northern end The table Ix:- 

ride^ we found the rubbish to be superficial, c«imes melined, and ends by sUdiog hudily 

end that it rested upon a great spine of Ice aS its oedestal. 

which ran along Ihe back of the glacier. By 300. In the figure opposiLe we have what 

whatmeansbas this ridge of ice Tieen raised! loay bo called an ideal tablt'. Tbe oblique 

^Si. Most hoj[s have read iho story of Dr. lines represent tbe direction of the sunheami, 

Franklin's placing bila nf ciolh of various ami the cnnscqucul tilling of tbe table here 

GOh>rs upon sDriw un a sunny day. The bits shown resembles that obwrvud upon l^• 

of c'otb sank in the snow, the daik one., glocitrs. 

auMt. Hal. A pebble will not rise tlius : tike 

284. Consider Ibis experiment. The sun's Franklin's single bit iif cloth, a dark-nolored 

tBja liist of all full upon tbe upper surface pebble sinks in Ihe ice. A spot of black 

olthecloih and warm it. The neat is then mould will not rest upon the suifuce, but 

conducted through Ihe cloth to the under will sink ; and various parts of the Uhicier du 

surface, and liiu under surface passes lion to GlEant arc honeycombed by tbe sinking of 

the snow, which is finally liqueded by the such spots of dirt into the ice. 

heat. It is quite mnnifeEt that Ihe quantity 2BS. But when Ihe dirt is of a thickness 

of snow meltsd will altogether depend upon sufficirnl lo prnleet the ice tbe case is differ- 

the amoimt of beat sent friim tiie upper to ent. Ban 1 is often washed away by a slttiam 

Ihe under surface of the etoth. from the mouniains. or ftom the moraines, 

£83. Now cloth IS what is called a bad and strewn over certain spaces uf the glacier. 

conductor. It does not permit beat to Iravel A most curious aciiun Follows iht^ sanded 

Cmely through it U^l where it has merely surface rises, tbe part on which thn sand lies 

to pasi through the thickness of a single bit thickest rising highest. Liltle peaks and 

■< cloth, a Jiood quantity of the heat ([eta eminencee jut Forth, and when the distiibo* 



ilbi^ I 



THE FORMS OF WATBR 




o of the nitd la faTorable, and tTie actCoa 

mtlj proloDged. foit have little mouD- 

talDB formed, sometiines ainglv, and some- 
tlmea grouped so as to tniinic ibe Alpi 
themBeiVea. The Sand (hna of the Mer de 
I Qlace are not atrikiag : but on the OflrD«r, 
~«Aletscb, the Morteratacb, and other g-la- 
_ ers, they lorm singiy and in groupa, reach- 
Kbg BOmetimea a height of ten or tWMity 

g M. Thb Qlacibh Mills oh Modlihs. 

293. You and I have learned by !ong ez 
perieace the cbarncter of the Mer de Glace^ 
We bava marched orer it daily, wiih a defl- 
aile object in view, but we have DOt closed 
our eyes to other objects. Il ia from side 
gUinpsea of Ibiofi;a which are not at the mo 
rneut occupying our attention that fresh suli- 
jectB of inquiry ariae in scieuliflc inveatiga- 

tiOD. 

204. Thus in marching over the ice near 
Trflaporte we were often struck by a sound 
resembling ion rumbling thunder. Ws 
■ubsequently aou^ht out the origin of tliia 
■ound, and lound it. 

39S. A large area of this portion of the 
glacier is unbroken. Driblets of water have 
room to form rills, rilla to unite and form 
■treams. streams to combine to form rush- 
ing brooka, which sometimes cut deep thnn- 
Dels in the ice. Sooner or later these streams 
leach a strained portion of the glacier, where 
a crack ia formed acroaa the stream. A way 
Is tbu3 opened for the water lo the bottom of 
the glacier. By long aetinn Ihe stream 
hollowB out a ahaft, the crack thus becoming 
tiie Btorting-poiot of a funoel of unaeen 
depth, into which the water leaps with the 
•ound of thunder. 

3Ue. This funnel and its cataract funa t 
glacier Hill or Houlia.. 

397, Let me grasp your hand firmly while 
you stand upon the edge of this abaft and 
iDok into it. The hole, with its pure blue 
ihimiuer, is beautiful, but il is terrible, li. 




oiuduus persona have fallen into thCM 
sliaf^, a second or two of bewilderment b» 
ing followed by sudden death. But cautkin 
upon the glaciers and mouotaina ou^t, by 
habit, to be made a aecoiid nature to ezIdo^ 
era like vou and me. 

:i»3. The crack into which th« stmm lU 
descended to form the moulin. moves down 
with the glacier. A succeeding portion ot 
the ice reaches the place where tlie br^UDP 
strain is exerted, A new cracic ia then 
formed above the moulin, which ia thence- 
forth forsaken by the stream, and moves 
downward as an enipCy sliaft. Here upon 
the Mer de Olace, in advance of the Grand 
MouUn, we see no leaa than six of these for- 
saken boica. Some of them we eouDdlot 
depth of 90 feet. 

299, But you and I both wish to detw- 
mine, if possible, the entire depth of the Hk 
de Glace. The Grand Moulin offers « chanoe 
Af doing this which we must not n^lMi 



IN CLOUDS AND RIVERS. ICK AND QLACIERB. 



^^^Rlto^t effort to Bound tbe moulin falls bj he»t. ^ 
^■nigh the breaking of our cord by the im- 807. We now lake ft common flngBr-glaw " 
f Jietuoiia plunge of the water. A lump of and put Into it a little pounded i<:e and salt, 
grease in the hollow of a weight enables a On Uiis we place the flask, and then build 
mariner to Judge of a sea bottom. Wc etn- rotind it Ibo freezing mixture. The liquid 
plov Buch a weight, hut cannot reach the aolumn retreats dowu the tube, proving tba 
fcd of the glacier. A depth of 183 feet ia contractiou of the liquid by cold. We allow 
the utmost reached hy our plummet. the shrinliing to conttaue For some mlnutei. 
SOO. From JulySSlbtoAugust Sihwehave Dolicing that the downward retreat of the 
iratched the progress of the Grand Moulin, liquid becomes gradually slower, and that it 
On the former date the position of the mou. finally ceiisea altogether. 
Jin was fixed. On the Slst it had moved 308. Keep your eye upon the liquid col- 
down 50 inches ; a little more than a day umn ; it remains quiescent for a fraction ot 
afterward it had moved 74 inches. On a minute, and then moves once more. But 
Aagust 8th it had moved 196 Inches, which its motion Is now upward instead of down- 
gires an average ot about 19 iochea in ward. Thefrceting mixluTd noa aett exact^ 
tweaty.four hours. No doabt next summer liM thejlame. 

upon the Mer de Glace a Grand Moulin will 309. It would not be difficult to pass > 
be found thundering near Trolaporte ; but thermometer through the cork into tba 
like the crevasse of (he Grand Plateau, al- Qaak, and it would tell ua the exact tempers- 
ready referred to (g 16). it will not be eur ture at which the liquid ceased to contract 



This, or rather the ice which it and began to expand. At that i 

penetrated, is now probably more than a should find the temperature of tlie liquid ft 

mile lower down tlian it was in 1857. shade over 39° Fahr. 

_ ,, „ „ „ ,„ 810. At this temperature, then, water at- 

§ 4S. The Chabqes op Voldmb of Watbb tains il» mnxtmum deiuiiy. 

btHbat and Cold. gn. SevendegreeBbelow this temperature, 

801. We have noticed upon the glacier orat 33° Fahr.. the liquid begins to turn into 
■bafts and pits filled with water of the most solid crystals of ice, which vou know swims 
delicate blue. In some cases these have been upon water because it is bulkier for a given 
the shafts of extinct moulins closed at the weight. In fact, this halt of the approach- 
bottom. A theory has been advanced to ac- Ing molecules at Ihe temperature of ^9°. is 
count for them, which, though it may be un- but Ihe preparation for the subsequent act of 
tenable, opens out considerations regarding crTstalllzation, In which the expansion 1^ 
the properties of water that ought to be cold culminates. TJp to the point of sniidlfi. 
fkniiliar to inquirers like you and me. cation the increase of volume is slow and 

803. In our dissection of lake ice by a gradual ; while in the act of solidification it 

beam of heat (g 11) wc noticed little vacu' is sudden, and of overwhelming strength. 

ous spots at the centres of Ihe liquid flowers 313. By this force of expansion the Floren- 

formed by the beam. These spots wo re- tine Academicians long ago burst a apliera 

feired to the fact that when Ice is melted tlie of copper nearly three quarters of an inch in 

water produced Is less In voliime than the thickness. By the same force the celebrated 

ice. and that hence the water of the fiower oatronomer Huyghens burst in 1607 ir 

was nut able to occupy the whole space nona a finger breadth thick. Such 

covered by the flower. ments have been frequently made 



808. Let us more fully illustrate this sub- Major Williams during a severe Quebec 



4 



Ject. Stm a small fiaflk water-tight with a ler filled a mortar with water, and closed _ 

cork, and through the cork introdu<ie a bv driving into its muzzle a plug of wood 

narrow glass tube also water-tight. It is Exposed to a temperature 50" Fahr. below 

easy to nil the flask wilh water so that the tlie frepzine point of water, the mrlal rcsist- 

liquid shall Bland ut u curtain height in the ed the strain, but Ihe plug gave wvy, being 

^asatube. ptnjcctcii to a diamnee of 400 feet. At 

804. Let U8 now warm the flask wilh the Warsaw howitzer abells have been thus e«- 
flamo of a spiriUhtmp. On first applying the ptoded ; and you and I have shivered thicfe 
flame you notice a momenUrj' ainking of the bomb-shi^lls to fragiuenls by placing them 
liquid in the glass tube. This Is due to the for half an hour in a freezing mixture, 
momentary expansion ot the flssk ly lieut ; 813. The theory of the shafts and pits re< 
It becomes suddenly larger when the llame is ferred to at the beginning of this section ii 
Drat applied. ibis : The water at the surface of the shaft 

805. But llie expansion of the water soon is wanned by the sun. say to a temperature 
overtakes that of the flask and KUtpusses it. of 30' Fahr. The water at the bottom, in 

I We immediately see the rise of the liquid contact with the ice, must be at 33* or near 

column in the glass tube, exactly as mercury it. The heavier water is therefore at the 

riaea in the tube of a waimed thermometer, top ; it will descend to the botttim, melt the 

SOH. Our glass tube is ten Inches long, and ioe there, and thus deepen the shaft, 
Bt starting the water stood in it at u htight of 314. The circulation here referred to un- 
live inches. We will apply the spirit-lamp doubtedly goes on, and some curious ciSecta 
flame until Ihe water rises quile to the top of are due to it ; but not, I think, Ihe ooe here 
. the tube and trickles over. This experim^it ascribed to it. The deepenirig of a shaft im- 
— "~ 'o show the expansion uf the water plies a aulcker melting of its bottom than ot 



HMlow to Bh. 



Kb: 



TILK yuKMH UC ttATlUi 



the 



m-raeuio^t, all the freah 

how tha fact of the aolar heat being irat waler wilbin the polar circle must inevitably 

«t»orbed by nater. unci iben conTejeflb; ii have been frozen to a very great depth is 

lo Ihe bottum ol llie sliflft, abuuld mnke lh.a winter, aod every plant and tier destroyed." 

melting of the iHittom more rapid than, that 321. Tbrougli many piigea of bis boolc 

of the ice which receives the direct impact Count Rumford continues in tliia sltain to 

of the »ot&r rays. Tbe surface of the glacier expound the ways and inienliODs of the Al- 

muat sink at leait as rttpldly an the bottom of miglily, and be does not hesitate to apply 

tbe pil, fo that the circulation, though actu- very harsii words lo those who cannot shars 

tify existing, cunnot produce tbe effect as- his notions. He cuils lliem hardened and de- 

"Tilred to it. graded. We are liete warned jf Ibe fact, 

, „ which in loo often forgollen. that ttie plea*- 

, 48. CosflKijOENCBa PLOwrao fiiom the u^ ^r comfort of a beliet, or tbe warmth or 

joiiEBoiNo Pbopebties OP Watbr.— exaltation of feeling which It produces, is no 

Correction or Eurors. giiaraniee of its truth. For the whole of 

813. 1 was not much above your age when Count Rnmford's delight and enthusiaaro : 



tbe property of waler ceasing to contract by connection with this subjtct, and the whole 

cold nt a temperature of 39° Fahr. was made of bis ire agaiuBt those wbo did not share his 

known to me, and 1 atill remember the im- opinions, were founded upon an erroneaua 

preasion it mads upon me. For I was asked notion. 

lo consider what would occur ia ciise this 322. Water Is not a solitary esceptlon h> 

aolilary exception to an otherwise universal an otherwise general law. There are otber 

law ceased to exhit. molecules than those of Ibis litiuid which re- 

31G. 1 was asked to reflect upon the cod- uiiirc more room iu the solid crystalline con. 

dilion of a lake stored with fish and offering dition than in the adjiicent molten conditioo. 

Its surface to very cold air. It was mtule Iron ta a case in point. Solid iron Hoalt 

dear to me that Ibe water on beinic SriFt upun moircn iron exacClj^ as ice floats upoa 

chilled would shrink in volume and become water. Bismuth is a still more impressive 

heavier, that il would tbetefore sink ncd case, and we could shiver a bomb as cer- 

have its place supplied liy the warmer and lainly by the sol id i Heat ion of bismuth as by 

tiebter water from the deeper porli(>u<i of tlin that of waler. There is so fish to be lakea 

lake. care of here, still the " contrivauce" Is ths 

817. It wan pointed out In me tbiit wii bout same. 

the law rcferreil to this process of circulalioD 32it. I am reluclant to mentinn litem in 

would go on until Ihc whole wall r of llie the same breath with Count RumJDi il, but I 

take ba!d been lowered lo the freezing lem- am told that in our own day there are peonla 

peraiure, C'ongelalion would Iben ncgin, who profess to find the comforts of a religfoo 

and woulil conllniie as long as any waier re- in a superstition lower Ibun any that iioi 

maini'd to lie s"lidiflt'd. One consi-quence of hitherto degraded tbe civilized human mind. 

this would be to diiftioy every liviug thing Ho ibat Ibe happiaea of a faith and the (m& 

contained in the lake. Other ciitHmilies of a falih are two totally ditCerent tbiDfSL 

■were added, all of which weie said lube 324. Life and Ihe conditions of life are in 

prevented by the peifi'ctly exrei'tionnl ar- necesAarj haitnony. This is a truism, for 

rangcnicnl. lliaC uftei acerUiiii lime \lieaxder witliout the suitable conditions life could not 

water hicomi'S tbe (ij/AIer. Hunts on Ibe sur- exist. Bui bolb life and its conditions sel 

face of Ibe lake. 1» Ibcre cdngciiltd. ibus forth the opi-rationa of inscrutiibb? Power. 

throwing a protecting roof over tbe life We know not its origin ; we know not iti 

below. end: Aad the presumption, if not the deg- 

818. Count Rumford. one of Ihe most solid radatlon, resta wiih those who i)Iace upon 
of scienlitlc men. writes in tbe following strain the throne of Ibe uoiverse a. mogniSed imags 
about this qui'Mliiu ^ ' Il docs not appear lo of themselves, and mnkc iia doiag^j n mert 
me that then: is anything which human colossal imitation of llicic own. 

sagacity can t'Hiboin. wlihin the wide-exlend- „ „ ~ „ „ 

ed bounds t.f the visible creation, which § 47. Tbb Mowscdlar MErirAMiBSf W 

affords n more sinking or more palpable W atsr-cosgei^tiok. 

proof of Ihe wiprlom of the Creator, and of 32.1. But let us return to our science. 

"-? special care He bns taken, in the general flow are we to picture Ibis act of expansion 



arrangement of Ihe universe, to preserve anl- on the par 

mal hfe. Ihnn lUis wonderful conlrivnnce. alion no the molecules demand wilh such 

illU, "Let me beg tbe attention of my irredstible emphasis more room In tbesolii 

readers wbile 1 endeavor to invest igate tins than in the adjacent liquid condil'ou? Inall 

most ioieresting subject : and let me at the cases of this bind wc must derive our con* 

same lime be^peiik his candor and indul- ceptions from the world of the senses, and 

geoce. I feel the danger to which a mortal transfer them afterward to a world Itansuend- 

upOECs himself wbo baa the temerity lo ex- ingthc range of the senses, 

plain tbe designs of Infinite Wisdom. The 32B. You have not forgotten our conver- 

enterpnsc is adventurous, but it surely can- sation regarding '• atomic polea' ' (S 10), ftni 

not lie improper. how the notion of polar force came to be ftp- 

82fl. " Hacl not Providence interfered on plied to crystals. With Ibis fresh in yoni 

which may well memory, you will have no great '—-**- 




great difflotff. 



IK 0LOUD8 AND RIVERS, ICE AND QLACIBRS. 



UT 



ion of Tolmne 

_ . /BlallizBtiOQ. 

I place a number of raagneta before 

They, as matter, are affecMd by grar- 
id, if perfectly free, they would move 
d each other io obedience to the attnu;- 
fgraTity. 

, But they are not only matter, but 
itie matter. They tiot only act upon 
other by the Bimple force of gravity, 
J the polar force of magnetiBin. Im. 

them placed at a dislauce from each 

and perfectljr free to move. Gravity 
nakes lUelf felt and draws them to. 
r. For a time the maeuetic force laeu- 
Oln the poles is insenBible ; hut when a 
a neuness is attained, the polar force 
I into play. The mutually ailractiag 
1 close up, the mutually repellent pointB 
t, and It IB easy to see that this action 
}roduce an arnngemcDt of the magnets 
1 requirea more room. Suppose them 
uided by a box which exactly incloses 

at the moment the polar force first 
I into play. It is easy to see that in ar- 
ig themselvea subeequenlly the repelled 
rs and ends of the maiincts may be 
d to cress affoiust the ^ea of the box, 
sTen to burst it, if the forces be suffi- 
j strong. 

, Here then we have a conception which 
le applied to the moleculea of water. 

like the magnets, are acted iipou by 
llstlnct forces. For a time, while tbii 



fu^irig fiDm tpeeial points of the moleculea, 
come into play. The attracted points cloM 
up, the repelled points retreat. Thus the 
molecules turn and rearrange themaelves, 
demanding, as they do so, more space, and 
overcoming oli ordtuary tcaistauce by tbt 
energy of their demand. This, in general 
tenna, is an explanation of the eipoosiriB of , 
water in solidifying ; it would bo easy lo 
oouatruct an apparatus for its illUBtratiou. 

T TBS MBBDI 

S30. Pass from bright sunsbine into ft 
moderately lighted room ; for a time all ap- 
pears ao ^rk that tlie objects in the room ara 
not to be clearly dlstinguisbed. Hit violent- 
ly by the waves of lijjht (§ 3) the optic nerve 
is numbed, and requires time lo recover iti 




, Is being coole.l they approach eacfc 
in obedience tti their geui:ral attraction 
^ Other. But at a certa!;! point new 
Bplive, some Tepnisivoi e^na- 



for this reason that I choose tha 
present hour for a special observation on the 
Mer de Glace. The sun bos sunk behind the 
ridge of Channoz, and tlie surface of the 
glacier is in sober shade. The main portion 
of our day's work is flniBhed, but we have 
elilt sufficient energy to elimb the slopes ad- 
jacent to tlie Montanvert lo a height of k 
thousand feet or thereabout above the ice. 

333. We now look fairly down upon th« 
glacier, and see it less foreshortened than 
from the Montanvert. We notice the dirt 
overstireading its eastern side, due to the 
crowding together of its medial moraincB, 
We see the comparatively clean BUrfaca of 
the Glacier du G&nt ; bat we notice upo« 
this surface an appearance which we hava 
not hitherto seen. It is crossed by a seriei 
of gray bent bands, which foUovr each other 
in succession, from Trelapcrte downward. 
We count eighteen of these from our presenl 
position. {See sketch. Fig. 12.) 

333. These are the Dirt Baadi of the Ker 
de Glace ; they were first observed by Pro- 
fesiwr Forbes m 1843. 

334. Tliey extend down the glacier further 
Ibau we can see : and if we cross the valley 
i)f Cbamouni, and climb the mountains 
at tho opposite Bide, to a point near the 
Utile auherge, called La Plrfg^re, we shall 
commnnd a view of the end of Ihe gl.icict 
and observe the completion of the seriL-s of 
bund«. We notice that they are confined 
throughout to the portion of the glacier do- 
rived from the Col du Geant. (See sketch. 
Fig. 11.) 

am. We must trace them lo their source. 
You know how noble anil complete a viev 
is obtained of the glacier and Col de Quant 
from tlie Cleft Station alwve Trfilaporle. 
Thither we must once more climb : and 
tlience we can see the succession of Inndt 
stretching downward to the Mooiauvert, 
and upnatd to the base of Ihe ice-cascade 
upon the Glacier du G^snt. The casciule la 
^evidently concerned in their formation, iSoe 
Bketch, Fig. 13.) 

836. And how ? Simply enough. Thegla- 
tder, as we know, is brokeu tiaasvcrsely at the 
■ummit of the icB-fall. uul descendi the d«- 



I 



I 



I 



'■BE p„„„s „p ^^^ 




INCLOUDBAND ttlVERa, ICE AND 0LAC1ER8. 

dlTlt]> la B iwrl^j uF grunt transTerse ridges. berg» oC the Arctic teaa. They 

Al the base of the fall, the chiisma are limes to an elevition of hundreds ot feet • 

(loBed, but the rid>;es in part remain, fonniug above tho water, while the weight of ice sab- 

protuberaaces. which run lilce vast wrinklea merged is atiout seven times that seen above. 

KroM the glacier. Tliese protuberances are 313, The flrsl ohservers of striking natural 

mare and more hent bccauae of the quicker phenomeDa generally allow wonder and im. 

motion of the centra, and the depressions be- agnation more than their due place. But to 

tween them form rece|itacles for the fine ejclude all error arising from this cause, 1 

mod and d^hriswashedby the little rilla from will refer to the journal of a cool and intrepid 

'' tLe adjacent slopes. Arctic navigator, Sir Leopold McCtlDtock. 

337, The protuberances eink grndually He deBcril>ca an iceberg 350 feet high, which 

'' through the wasting action of tho euu. so was aground In GOO feet of water. Th1a 

'' that long before Trelaporte is reached Ihey would make the entire liei^ht of the berg TljS 

hiVB wholly djaappeared. Not so the dirt ot feet, not an unusual altitude for llie grealei 

, which they were tne collectors : it continues icehergfl. 

toocctipy, in transverso bands, the flat sur- 344. FromBaffln'sBnytheaemightymassea 

' fice of the glacier. AtTrfflapoiie, moreover, come saiiingdown through Davia' Straits into 

:' where the valley becomes narrow. Uic bands the broad Atlantic. A vnst amount of heal 

I u« much sharpened, ohiaioing there the is demanded fur the simple liquefaction of ice 

character which tliey afterwaid preserve (^ 4?) ; and the melting of icebergs is on this 

throughout the Mer de Qtace. Other elacierB account so slow, that when large tliey soma. 

with cascades also exhibit similar lianas. times maintain thumselvea till they have been 

' „ „ , drifted 2000 miles from their place of birth. 

§ 48. Sk*. Icb ANb ICEBEKoa. 345. what is their origin ? The Arctie 

S38, We are now cijuipped intellectually glacieis. From the mouolalna in the interior 

fflracampaign into another territory. Water tiie induraleil snows slide Into the valleys antl 

becomes heavier and more difficult to freeze fill thera with ice. The glaciers thus fiinned 

Vlien salt is dissolved in it. Sea water is move like the Swias ones, incessantly down- 

Ibereforo heavier than fresh, and the Qreen- ward. But the Arctic glaciers reach the sea, 

land Ocean requires lo freeze it; temperature enter it, often ploughiug up its bottom into 

I t| degrees lower than fr'.sh water. When submarine moraines. ITndermiDed by tliB 

jl concentrated till its 8iieci3c gravity reaches lapping of the waves, and unable to resist 1 iia 

j 1.I04S, sea water requires for its congelation stnun imposed by their own weiglit. Ihey 

I temperature 16^ degrees lower than the or- break across, and discharge vast masses into 

dinary frocxing-polnt. Uie ocean. Some of these ruu aground oa 

339. But even when the water is saturated the adjacent shores, and often maintalD 
with salt, the crys^Ilizing force studiously themselves tor yew's. Others escape soiith- 
reiecta the salt, and devotes itself lo the con- ward, to be finally dissolved in the warm 
gelation of the water alone. Hence the ice waters of the Atlantic. The first engraving 
M sea water, when melted, produces fresh on this page is copied from a photograph 
Titer. The only saline particles existing in token by Mr. Bradford during a recent ex- 
lucb ice are those entangled mechanically In pedition h> the Northero seas, The second 
its pores. Tliey have no part or lot iu the represents a mass of ice upon the Glacier 
Uructure of the crystal. de3 Bossons. Thetc likeness suggests their 

340. This exdvtixenai. if I may uss the common origin. 

term, of the water molecules ; this entire re- „ _„ _ „ ' „ 

lection of all foreign elements from the edi- 8 »0. 1 HE yboeisCHHORH, thk Mabgeum 

fices which they build, is enforced lo a aur- °^^ ■*^'' 'i^ ICEBKRoa 

priaini; degree. Sulphuric acid has so strong 346. I am, however, unwilling that you 

ID affinity for water that it Is one of the moat should quit Switzerland without seeing such 

powerful agents known to the chemist for icebergs as it can show, end inileed (here are 

the removal ot humidity from air. Bliii, as other still nobler glaciers than the Mer de^ 

^own by Faraday, when a miiture of sui- Glace with which you ought 10 be ao- 

phuric acid and water is frozen, tlie crys. qnainted. In tracing the Rhone to Us 

tal formed is perfectly sweet and free from source, you have already ascended the volley 

iddity. The walcr alone has lent itself to of the Rhone. Let us visit it again together ; 

the crystallizing force. halt at the little town of Viesch. and go from 

341. Every winter in the Arctic regions it straight up to tho excellent hostelry on the 
the sea freezes, roofing itself with ice of slope of the .aiggischhorn. This we shall 
enormous thickness and vast extent. By the make our headquarters while we explore 
lummer heat, and the tossing of the waves, that monarch of European ice -streams— tho 
this is broken up ; the fragments are drittal greol Alctsch glacier. 

by winds and borne by currents. They ^1- Including the longest of its hranchei, 

clash, they crush each other, they pile them- thia noble ice-nver is about twentj^ milea 

selves into heaps, thus constituling the chief lofff. while at the middle of its trunk it meaa- 

danger encountered by mariners iu tlie polar i"*b nearly a mile and a quarter from aide 

seas. to Biile. The grandest mountains of the Ber- 

843. But among the drifting masses of flat nese Oberlanil, the Jungfruii, the Monch, Iba 

K aster masses sail, which spring from Trugherg, the Aletachbom, the Breilhom, a 

different source These are tbc 7m- the Gletscherhorn, and many anothLT nohla ^^^J 



AtaS at * pkn MMd It 

mm*k. Ike - riM * k o 

VM." B ** pkw to m 
mm wm^mtrnw^ 

?...itffr.7r..^ 




orwAm 


n>n>.Uii< 








•■BiMMjM^Maif 




IS CLOUDS AXD RIVERS, ICE A_NI) GLACIERS. Ill 

to Um base of the Ice-cllSa, saps them, aa lUo on the Bumntit of which liUk more Ihan im 
ArtSie waves sup the Ureeukud Klociera. nud hour's exertionnillplavo you and me, Beiow 
receives from them the broken muaxei wliicb us now is thBOtteruleUchf^lacier, eibibitinjic 

ll has undermined. As wu look down upon the mosl perfect of medial moraines. Nesrua 
the lake, small icebvreo sail over Ilia tmuqtiil is the great mass of the AJetschhom, clasped 

MirfBce, each resembling a snowy svraa uc- by its n^v&, and culminating in brown rock. 

eompaiued by its shadow. It is supported by other peaks almost as nobltt 

350. This is the beuuliful little lake <iF as itself. The NeBthora is at hand; while 
JSErgeliD. or, as tbe Swiss here cull it, tlie sweeping round to the west we strike Iba 
HaiKelin See. You see that splash, audimme- elorious triad already referred to, the Weiss- 
dialdyaflerwardheartlieBoundof tlieplung- Eorn. the Matterhorn, and the Dora. Tako 
mg ice. The glacier has broken before our one glance at tbe crevasses of the glacier Im. 
eyes, and dropped an iceberg into iho lake, mediately below ua. It tumbles at its end 
AH over the lake the water is set in commo- down a Bl«ep incline, and is greatly riven. 
lion, thus illustrating on a small xeale the But the crevasses open before the stuep part 
■wampiog waves produced by the deitcent of ia reached, and you notice the coalescence of 
vast islands of ice fnim the Arctic gliu:iur8. marginal and transverse crevasses, prodiic- 
Look to the end of the lake. It is cumbered iag a system of curved fissures with the con- 
with the remnants of icebergs now aground, veiities of the curves pointing upward. 
Khicb have been in purt watted thither by The mechanical reason of this is now knows 
tbe wind, but in part slowly t>ornu bj^ the bayou. The glacier-tables are also numerou* 
vater which moves gently in this ilireclioo. aod fine. I should tike to linger with you 

351. Unaeine us below upon the innrgin of here for a week, explorlnf the existing gta- 
Uie lake, as I happened to be on one occiisioii, ciers, and tracing out the evidences of other* 
There is one large and lonely iceburg alioul (hat liave passed away, 
the middle. Buddenly a sound like Ihst of a „ „ 

wiuract is heard ; we liwk toward thf iw- § 53. The Rippblbkiio and Gornes 

berg and see water teeming' from its sides. '-■I 

Whence comi-s the water T the berg baa he- 854. And though 

eorae top beiiTy tbnmgh the tni-Itiug under- obscrvationa on tbe Mer de _ 

iLsth ; it ia in tUu act >>f performiug a stimur- or less represeulalive of all Ibut can Itu muds 

Bult, and in rolling over (.■uniea with it a or solved elsewhere, X am unwilling to lcaF» 
Tist quantity of water, which rushes like a you unactjuainted with tbe great system of 

waterfall down its sides. And notice that the glaciers which stream from the northern 

iCEberg, which a moment ago was snowy- slopes of Monte Rosa and the adjacent moun- 
whita. now exhibits the dulicata blue color tains. From tbe Bel Alp we can descend Ui 

characteriBlic of compact ice. It will soon, Brieg, and thence drive to Vinp ; but yoa 

however, be rendered while a^in by the ac- an J 1 prefer the breezy heights, so we sweep 

tiuD of the sun. Tbe vaster icebergs of Ibo round the promontory of the Nessel. until wa 

Hortbern seas sometimes roll over in the stand over tbe Rhone vullcy, in front of Visp. 

Mme fashion. A week may be spent with From this village an hour's walking carries 

delight and profit at llio ..EgglBcbhorn. us to Stalden, where the valley divides Into 

„ — -, . two branches : the one leading thnmgh Haas 

§ 51. Thb Bbl Au-. over the Mont* Moro, and the other through 

853. Prom the ^Cggischhom I might lead St. Nicholas to Zermatt. The latter is out 

Kaloug the mountain ridge by the Belten route, 

the fisli of whicli we havn already 3S9, We rearh Zermatt, but do not bait 

tasted, to the Kieiler Alp. and thence across there. On the mountain ridge, 4000 feet 

the Aletsch to the Bel Alp. This is a tine above the valley, we discern tbe Itiffelherg 

ntountain ramble, but you and I prefer mak- hutel. This we reach. Right in front of us 

tm; the glacier our highway downward, is llie pinnacle of the Matterhorn, upon the 

Eitty at some places, it is by no means child's top of which it must appear incredible to yi ' 

play at others to unravel its crevasses. But that a human foot '.;ould ever tread. Co 

Ilu Steady constancy and close observation stancy and skill, however, accomplished f ' 

which we have bitherto found availing in but in the first instauce at a terrible price. 

difflcull phices do not forsake us here. We tbe little churchyard of Zermatt we have _ 

dear the Assures ; and, after four hoursof ttiegravesof twoof thegreal^st muunlaineeit 

exhilarating work, we find ourselves upon the that Savoy and England have produced ; sJi4 

•lope leading up lo the Bel Alp tiolel. who, with two gallant youngcompunious, feB 

353. This is one of the finest halting-places from the Matterhorn in 1865. 
hi the Alps. Stretching before us up to the 35G. At the Riffelberg we are within as 
jBggischhorn and MBrgelin See Is the long hour's walk of the famous 06mer Orat, 
lut reach of the Aletsch, with its great me- which commands so grand a view of the 
dialmorainerunningalongitsback. Athand glaciers of Monte Rosa. But yonder huge 
ii tbe wild gorge of tbe Mussa, in wbicli the knob of perfectly bare rock, which Is called 
noat of theglacierliescuuchedlikelho head tbe RiSelborn. must be our station. What 
of a serpent. The beautiful system of the the Cleft Station is to tbe Mer de Olace, the 
Oberaletsch glacien) is within easy reach. Riffelhom is to the Oomer glacier and ila 
AJbove OS is a peak called the Hnarrenhom, tributaries. F^m its lower side the ruck, 
Jiin' • " 



;fa. 

M 



In 

aeei« -^^^ 



to the most moderate climber, and -M^y as it tn^ seem, is inacceaiUile. Hei% 



er» I 



1^ 



fcMW > ■_ I to *^ T» *» ii|l« ■ *■ «M an «j;rfwoai ig w ti* wfrff i* h 
ahi IIIT1-IIIILI ,m»r^Cmmmd |«.i»»w &-<■»» Stidmjm* 



MW«BHb MiMS risMMT fn«« porf- if Ak A^ fewc ^B Mad^itoiiAnc ; H 
Am. A»IU«^ hmb ^f^MHgdqpn Am ii ■ ■» m^hh^ thi^ te aw Ae nK^ 
tta as Ar Ktr «i GlKe. *« ■Min A* c^ mcb Wi ^ far ■ Ma^* of fiftf. 
p iw u ar the MC w jmM ApRaHK: Ar itstr.a^n-. arevwiwaili^AedfMlalwfa 
iw* rfpfa liMg niBMBJ am Ae iiMfc if ^pRHBtghekr. Oa the Rvks Aw ex. 
*» r i W B—wfcitoA gg^ wMc*>«W >pwri»g« iMc«ideM mAioC Ibe ilid- 

Miwie. ^De> I^ n ac M« tfde to deta^ wMk 

sm. te^tn MM iinniiiii ... ... 

tt«flHto Ae fea«r«' Ae f^^r.^ 






vhcfVTCr tkr ■VP 



9»L Btt Ac 



nUcd wn- bOB ladtr pXMKMnriea ea- Ite mvmm llMwh. «v foa 
ifPBlf caaoHlvidiia^ Tkn &; UUea br tooniBe. DaccndlKtteB 
• Aw BAebBdr at Aedanr.wd appear Ae Bel Afa ^ PhlWB. wc 
KAeMfaec vfaseAe£eakan ActohM aav doOed wiA en^ and 
kceatocttedewnbr Ae - - - _ - .. 

Wm. Tkie H tkenhee 



_^^ ._ rbfHrf 

to wfcirfc Uhj pKtoL 

GoiSr: at lOOO feet rtnfia 

ft. «v (taad a gnat old 






Met OE UMce JKM aad l luTe BaOeEd iwru Aat glMaCT oar sunue-pomt. WaK- 

e p i lri t ra of dar aad hh^ mnd vhkk vg faaaa tl dnwwanl hnrvd tbe OtiiMel, 

kwdf cane fraia ibe bodj of Uie elaekr, «c paw evEijvkeie einr tocka Bogalailj 

P wefaa Aewf ore andnH — d boir a aMtai naadcd. an) llalM. and scbitoL thtm 

■ aoticB trf eabaooa lo people naaft. nffamtccs »tb Buiufcstlr the work of Aa 

1 to doee otiaenaUoa. ba Ae dacier in recent tins But wi.- apfirnnrb dM 

b in fJrianrl. and at tbe tninins of the *aHc* 

site ttaMl btfrae Ike pncipHiMis •nnile flank dr 

^ , . '--^i--,--i_-^y^ Aetoountain. the rraon of tbr^ meient lea ' 

■wB e f fthepeirfeaan flteOlacite ifa Boa- aie hm h ptain ■• tbifr arc amaiiae TIm 
iW<ia]biiar>II>nnla Ae Vttef dqr loeks an « hard i^^ nut an)j tltoAaHV'l 



^^^M^ to etoee otoenaboo. But A 

^^^ «r the gladln- te Ab n^pert b i 

^"wy the pr>«cr of the fBO. which taaeftt 

***t^« CDDceala] M p M i iii ea. and, hkeih 

MAMAfihentiileaaa dteOlacier iks Ba 



KIN CLOin>S AND RlVnita, ICE AND QUlCIEBS. Itt ^^| 

bat even Iho fine scratches stranded a belt of granite twuldeis froift ^^^ 

k untiamabio thousands of Moot BUac. And when we dear the soil 

TB are as evident aa if they had been made sway from the adjacent mountain-Aide, we 

terday. We may trace these evidences to find upon the timeatoue rocks the Bcaninga 

light of two tbonsand feet above tlie pres- of the ancient glacier which brought m* ' 

TsUej' bed. It is indubitable that an buuldere liere. ^^^M 

river of this aaiounding depth once dowed 370. Tlie most famous of these rocks, ^^^H 

ng^ the vale of Hasli. Called the Pierre ft li6i. measures 50 feet ia ^^^| 

K. Yoodcr is Ihe summit of the Siedel- lengtb. 40 in height, and 30 in width. Hul- ^^^| 

B : and if we gain it the Unteraar glacier liplying these three numbers logelbcr, wr ^^B 

I Be like a map below ub. From this obtain 40.000 cubic feet as the volume of tbt 

imsnding point we plainly see marked boulder. 

n the mountain -sides (be height to wlilch UTi. But this is small compared to soma 

■Bcient ice extended. The ice-ground of Ihu rocks which constitute the freight of 

I of the mountains ia clearly distinguished even recent glaciers. Let us visit another of 

a Ihe splintered crests which in those dis- them. We have already been to Stalden, 

■ days rose abovethe surface of the glacier, where the valley divides into two brancbes, 

which mu9t have then appeared as island the right branch running to St. Nicholas and 

ks and crests in the midst of an oceaii of Zermalt. and the left one to Baas and the 
Monle Moro. Three hours above Baas we- 

W, Wu now scamper down the Siedelbom, came upon the end of the Allelein glacier. 

once more iiXo the valley of tiasti, alonj not filling the main valley, but throwa 

chwe follow for more than twenty miles athwart ilso as to sttrp its drainage like a dam. 

tnuMS of the ice. PhUed precipices, pol- Aluve this ice-dam we have the Maltmark 

id al&bs, and beautifully -rounded granite Luke, and at the head of the lake a small ina 

tea. Right and left upon Ihe mounlabi weilkoitwnloiraveileraoverlheMonteMoro, 

ks. at great elevations, the evidences ap- 'J'li, Close lolhis inn is the greatest bould- 

r. We follow the footsteps of the glacier er lliul wo have ever seen. It measure* 

he Lake of Brientz ; and if we prolongL-d 340.000 cubic feet. Looking across the val- 

inquiries. we should learn that all the ley wt notice a glacier with its present end 

I l>eda of this region, at the time now re- lulF a mile from the boulder. The stone, I 

ed to, bore the burden of immense musses believe, is serpentine, and were you and I to 

ce- explore the Schwartzberg glucier to its upper 

17. Instead of the vale of Hasll. we might fiiHi.nc^es, we should find among them Iba 

t the valley of the Rhone. The traces of birthplace of this gigantic stone, Four-and- 

ligbty glacier, which formerly fliled it, forty years ago. wheu the g:lacier reached Iha 

r be followed all the way to Marliguy, place uow occupied by the boulder, it landed 

4^ is 60 mUes distant from the present then: iL< mighty freii^bt, and then retreated. 

At Marligny the Khone glacier wan re- There Is a second ice-bome rock at band, 

irced bv another from Mont Blanc, and which Wduld be considered vast were it not 

welded masses moved onward, planing dwarfed by the aspect of its buger neighbor. 

mountaina ri^ht and left, to the lake of 378. Bvideuce ulthis kind might be mulli. 

Mva, the baam of which they entirely plied to any extent. In f act. at this jnoment, 

d. Olhercvidencesproveibat theglacler distin>;uisbed men, like Professor Favre of 

not end here, but pushed across the low Oeoeva, are determining from the distribu- 

BUT until it encountered Xhf ^meatone lion of the erratic blocks the extent of Ih* 

4er of the Jura Mountaina- ancient glaci&ro of Switzerhiod. It was, 

„ , „ „ however, an eogioeer named Venetz that first 

§ 54. Erratic Blocm. brought these evidences to light, and an- 

SS. What are these other evidences T We oounced to an incredulous world Ihe vast 

seen mighty rocks poised on the mo- extension of the ancient ice. M. Agassis 

leaof theMer deGlsce, and weuowknow afterward developed and wonderfully ex. 

I, mdess they are split and shattered by pandud tbo discovery. Pebaps the most in- 

ttoel. these rocks will, at some diatatit leresting observation regarding ancient gla- 

, be landed bodily by the Glacier des Boia ciers Is that of Dr. Ilooker, who, during a 

be valley of Chamouni. You have al- recent visit to Palesllne, found the celebrated ^^^ 

1^ learned that these boulders often reveal Cedare of Lebanon growing upon ancient ^^^H 

mineral ogical nature of the mountaina moraiucs, J^^^| 

ing which the glacier has passed ; that ^^^H 

stmens are thus brought down of a char- § 55. Anoibnt Qlacikhs OF ENaLAKO, ^^H 

T totally different from the rocks among Ireland. 8cotlamd, akd Wales. 

ch tbey are finally landed ; this is striK- 374. At the time the ice attained this extra- 

y the case with the mratie biockt stranded ordinary development in Ihe Alps, many 

tie the Jura. other portions of Europe, where no jflacien 

19. For the Jura itself, as already stated, now exist, were covered with tbero. In tba 

bnestone ; there ia no trace of native Highlands of Scotland, among the mountaina. 

aite to be found among these hills. Still of Gagland, Ireland, and Widea, the ancient 

Ig the breast of the mountain above the glaciers have written their story as plainly 

la of Neufcbfitel. and at about 600 feet as in the Alpa themselvea. I should like t« ,i 

M^to lake of NeufchAtel, we Snd wander with you throuiih Borrodale in CuBh ^m^ 

1^ :^^^^^^^^H 



THE F0EM8 OF WATER. 



w 

^^^B tertand, or tliioag;h tbe Tslle^H nemr Betb- 880. Dig k bole In the Ice ol the Met d« 

W ^ellen !□ Wales. Uadar &II tlie beautr at the Olsce in sammei, and place & thermomstoi 

I pTeH«Dt Bceneiy we should discover the me- In the bole ; it will etuid at 33* Fahr. Dig 

I morialsofa time when tke whole rtigioQ wM joar iheruiomeler into one o( the gladsi 

I locked in the emhrace of ice. ProfeB«or streams : it will atlU mark 32*. T/ie leattr ' 

I £amBa/ is especialtj distiaguiBlied bj his thtrtfort at eold an iet. 

I wriiiQgt OD the aocicBt gUders ol Wales. 881. Heace the wbolsof the heat poai 

I STS, We have made tiiu acquaintance of bj the sun npon tbe glacier, and which 1 _ 

I the Riieka of Magillicuddj as the great cod- bean abiorbed bf the glacier, is eipecded is 

I deoaers of AtUotic vapor. At tbe lime now timply liqueiying tbe ice, and not ill render- 

referred to, this moUlure did not fall as soft lag elthericeor waterastDKtedegres warmeTr | 

And fructifjing rain, but as eiiow, which 382. Expose water to a Era ; it becomel [ 

formed tbe nutriment or great glaciers, A hotter for a time. It boila, and from that 



«hata of lakes now c«aBtitutFa the chief at- moment it ceasea to g>^t httler. After it bai 

tractiua of Killarne^. tbe Lower, the Middle, begun to boil, all the heal commuuicated br j 

and the Uppnt Lake. L«t us auppuae onr- the fire is carried awajf by the steam. VuniA j 

•elvex rowing- toward the head of the Upper ike sttam ititl/ it nott/m Uatlfraaion ■fadt- \ 

Lake with the Purple Mmntain to our left, gne hotter than the water. 



SiememberiQg our travels in the Alps, yon 883, In fact, simply to liquefv ice a largl 



N 



K 



Id infallibly call my aitention to ttie qnantity of beat le ueceasary, and to vaporix 

planing of tbe rocks, and declare the action water a still larger quantity is necesBary, 

to lie unmistakably that of glnciera With Aod tuaamucb aa tiiis heat does not render 

«Dr attention thus sharpened, we land at the tbe water warmer than tbe ice, nor the steam 

(head of the lake, and walk up the Black warmer tban tbe water, it was at one tima 

bailey to the base of Magi Hi cuddy's Ket^ks. supposed lo be hidden in the water and in tlit 

Tour conclusion would be, that this valley sipam. And it was therefore called latenli 

tells a tale aa wonderful as that of Hash. hiat. 

378. We reach our boat and row home- S8i. Lpt us ask how much heat must th* 

tracd along tbe Upper I^ke. Its lalandd aun expend in order to convert a pomd 

now posaesB a new interest for us. Some of weight of the trot^cal ocean into vapoif 

-tiiem are bare, others are covered wholly or This problem baa been accurately aolTed by 

Id part with laiuriant vegetatiou ; but both eiperlmeat. It would require in ronnd noifr 

the naked and clothed Islands are glaciated, I)era 1000 times tbe amountof heat neceaaary 

Tbe weathering of aeea has not altered their to raise one pound of water one degree ia 

forms; there are tlie L'aonon Bock, the ti-mperaiure, 

Qiant'a Coffin, the Man-ol-War, all sculp- 386. But the quantity of heat which wouM 

tared aa if the cbiael had passed over them in raiae the temprraturo of a pouud of water 

■onr owQ lifetime. These lakes, now triaiied one degree would raiae the temperature of l 

with tender woodland beauty, were all occu- pound of iron ten degrees. This has been 

yled by the ancient lee. It baa disappeared, alau proved by eipeiimeni. Btuice to cou- 

and seeds from other regions have been vert one poaod of the tropical ocean into 

wafted thither to sow thu trees, the shrubs, vapor tbe sun must expend 10,000 time* ai 

tbe ferns, and the gnuaes which now beau- mnch heat as would raise one pound of irtn 

tify Killarney. Miin blmsrlf, they say. Las one degree in temperature, 

made his appearance in tbe world since that 380, Tbis quantity of heat would raiae tba 

tiineof ice; butotihe realperiodand manner temperature of S lbs, of iron 2000 degreei, 

of man's introduction little Is pfofeued to be which ia the faaing point ofcaatiron; al 

known since, to make them square with eel- this temperature ihe metal would not onlyba 

«Dce, new meanings bave been found for the white hot. but would be passing into the mol- 

beautiful myths and stories of the Bible. ten condition, 

377. It ia the nature and tendency of the .'(S7. Conuder the conclusions at which wi 
human mind to look backward and forward ; have now arrived. For every ponnd o[ 
to endeavor to restore the past and predict tropical vspor. or for every pound of Alpina 
tbe future. Thna endowed, from data pa- ice produced by the congelation of tbU vi- 
■tlently and painfully won, we recover in por, an amounl of beat hu been expended 
idea a state of things which existed thou- by the sun sufficient to raise 5 lbs, of casl, 
•ands, it may be millious, of feara before the iron to ita melting, point. 

history of the human race began. 3S8, It would not be difficalt to calcnlat* 

„ _ _, _ approximately the weight of the Mei dt 

g 56. The Qlaciai. Epoch. m.ce and its tribuUrlea-to aay, for eiam- 

378, This period of ice-extension has been pie, that they contained eo many millions of 
named the Olacial Epoch- Id accounting millions of tons of ice and snow. Let ths 
for it great minds have fallen into grave er- place of the tee be taken by ■ masa of white- 
tors, aa we ahall presently Bee, hot Iron of quintuple the weight ; with sudi 

STB. The eubslanoe on which we hare a picture before your mind yon get aom< 

thus far been working exists in three diSer- notion of the enormoua amount of heat paid 

•Dt states; aa a solid in ice ; as a liquid in out by tbe sun to produce tbe present glacier, 

iratvT ; aa a gas In Taper. To cause It to 889, Tou must think over tbia, until it i> 

..__■■ _j -1. ._ jjj^ ugjj j^^_ ^j |,j^|. ^^ jnnshine. For you must nevrr 

heneofortb fall into the error already referred 



IN CLOUDS AND BIVEBS, ICE AND GLACIERS. 1S4 

■and irbicli hu eDUDgl«d eo laao^. So Wluit lie Lu written upon itis iabject miM 

Kfml waB iLe KSH'jcia.tloD uf ice ■.nil cold, Irgs like the elnborBtiua of a ihsor; ibBH Um, 

U even celobrutrd meu arauiiied llint all eiprtHhioD of an opinion. 
lUia tieeded to produce ■ great cxtenBiim 

{oar glacitrHiBa diuiiaution of the eao's I ^^- Plastic Theory. 

^paialare. Had they gone tliri>ue;h llie SflS. B7 none of thnie writers is tha prop, 

■""oing- refleciiiDB Biid ciJcnlatioiiB, >\ivy pmj ot viwoeity or piBBticity BBcribed to g'ta- 

1 probablj' bail- drmaii'lMl tnure bmt tier ice ; the appearaucaB of many Klaclerk 

d of lata for ibe priduriiun o. a " «bi- are. bowevi-f, to augjre»tive of this iifta tbat 

' " What th^T ivttilj iieedt^ wiTe me may ba Bare it would have louod uioro. 

ufficieDllj po't^rtul Ui c<iligaul frequent expression, were il Dot ID Bucli ap- 

■Kpor geaerataJ by the beat or tlie Bun. parent contradiction with our everyday es- 

S 57. Glacier Tseoribs. ^"sllsl'stUl'^e Idea found its Bdvoeatea. In. 
. Too have not forgotien. and liaidiy a litllo Inxik, pubiiabsdln HTS, and eo titled 
Ibt e&n forget, our cliiu lis to the Cleft bto- " Pictun-aquu Journey to the Qlaciare of 
in. TboagbtH were ihrn Hu^^^Bted which Bavuy," Burdiar ot Geneva wrote thoB : 
il have not yet diBcua^rd. We huw ibe " It is now time tu look at all Ibese object*! 
■kDch glaoieN conjing dowo from Ibelr with lbs eyes of reapoii ; to aiuOy, iu thft 
kw, welding themBHlveBtogelhi-r.puBhiDK flrst place, the poHiiiou and the progreaslol. 
friiauh Tr^lapurte, and artrrward moving of elaclere. and to Bfek The solution rt their 
lough the HitiuuiiH valliiy of the Mi-r da principal [.henoroeun. At tha first B8pe« of 
kee. TUese ap;>earaacoB alone, without tba ice-mountniuB an obaervatiun present! It- 
king into accouut Bubsequant observa- self, whicb appears Bufflcient to explain all. 
pia, were BufflcieuC to BLiggi'Bt Ibe Idi-a iliut It in tliat the entire m>iBH of icain connected 
^fder ice, however hard and brittle it may ingetber. and presi'eB fnim aliove downward 
towBj, is reslly a viecoua substance, ri-aeui- atler the manner of fluids. Let us then re- 
bxg treacle, or honey, or tar, or lava. gard the ice, not as a mass entirely rigid ami 
L _ immnbile, but as a hrap of coagulated 
te. DiLATATiOW AWD Sliding Theoiuks. muti^r, or as softened wax, fieilble and due 
it91. Btill this waanot the notlonexpreBBiHj itle t" a certain poini." Hare probably for 
I tlie inajori^ of writera upon izlacie'S. ibe Orst time the quality of plasticity is as.. 
[lieachxer of Zurich, a great naturaiist, vis. crihiKi to tbe ice of fi'^ciers. 
bd the glaciers in 1705, and propounded a S97 To us. fmniliar with the aspect oflba 
teory ot their uioliou. Water, he knew, (tlaHerB. it must seam strange that this idea, 
rptkuds In freexing. and the force of eipau- oti< e eiprewed did not at once receive racoff- 
|t>D U so great that thick bomb-ahL'lU filled nitinn and development. But in those earlr 
litb vrater. and permitted to freeze, are, as days explorers ware few, and ike " Pictur- 
te know (BIS), shattarod to piecea by the ica epque JouroHy " probably bat litlle known, 
fithin. Scbeuclizer supposed Chat the wa- so tliat the notion of plasticity lay dormant 
ir in the flsHureH of the Rlacirrs, freezinir (or tn-ire than half a century. But BoMiar- 
^r« and expanding with resistless force, was at length succeeded by a man of far- 
IkH the power which urged the |[lacier greater scientific prasp and insi|;ht than him- 
lomiward. He added to tbis theory other self. Tbie was Bendn, a Catholic prieai and 
jOUons of a less scientific kind. canon when he wrote, and aftrrward Bishop, 
892. Many years subBequently. Da Char- ot Annecy. In 1841 Rendu laid before Iha 
bntiBt of Bex renewed and developed this Royal Academy of Sciences of Snvny hia 
KeoTj wilh such ability and completeneBs ■'Theory of tlie Glaciers of l5avoy." a con. 
ptX it waa long known as Cliarpeutier's tribiktion forever memorable In relation Uk 
jbeory of Dilalatlon. M. AgasaJz for a tima this subject. 

ppotised this theory, and it nas also mora or 3Q8. Kandu seiied the idea of (glacier plas- 

■M distinctly held by other writers. The ticity with f^eat power and clearntes, and 

^ktier. in tact, waa considered to be a mag- followed it resolutely to its conBequencas, 

BiD« of cold, capable ot freezing all watef It la not known that he had ever seen tha 

Wroolatine thtoogh it. The theory was work or Bordier ; probably not, aa he never 

famdoned when this notion of glacier cold meolions it. Let me quote for you some of 

has provsd by M. *g»»»iT to be untenable, Renda's eiprpssions, which, however, fsll to 

1893- Id 1780. Altmann and OrQner pro- give an adequate Idea of his insight and pre. 

Miuided the view that glaciers moved by cielon ot thought: "Between the Mer do 

PdiufT over their beds. Nearly forty years Qlace and a river there is a resemblance so 

tbsequantly, this notion was revived by Da complete that it is impossible to find in th*. 

itiware, aod it has therefore been called (c'scier a circumstance which does not exist 

•De Sausanro's Theorr." or the ■'finding in the " ' ' ' " ■- "■ 

fbeory," ot glacier motion. lion is 

SM. There was, however, but litlle reason width. „___ . 

b-eonnect the name of Ds Ssussure with this lion ot the bottom and of the sides, with th« 

ir uij other theory ot glaciers. Inceisantly action of local hindrances, causes the motion 

HenfHed in observations of another kind, to vary, and only toward the middle ot tk* 

this celebrated man devoted very little time SDTface do we obtain the lull motion." 

V thought to tha question ot glacier motion. 3SD. This leads like a predlctbn of what 



I 



i 



■IdE FJiMiS OF WATKH 



b 



since been established bj meaiurement. 

IiOokiDg ttt the glacier of Mnot Dolent. whicb 
resemblea a shi-af In firm, wide Ht both eniia 
vad narrow in Che midille, and reHeclin^ It'ut 
■the upper wide piiit liad Ijecnme narrnw, and 
the narrow middle part agaiu wide, Rendu 
olMerves, " There la a multilurle of facta 
'which fieem to nece.><3itate the belief thai gla- 
tMT ice enjoya a kind of ductility wlilcli en- 
AbleB it to mould itself to its l<)C"lity. to thin 
out, to swell, and to contract us if it were a 
•oft paste." 

400. To fully test his coDclusions, Rendu 
lequired the accurate measurement of glacier 
motion. Had he added to his other endow- 
caentB the practit^l skill of a land-surveyor, 
be would now be regarded as ihi' prince of 
Racialists. As it was he was obliged to be 
content with Imperfect muasuremeuls. In 
one of bis ex curs; ims he exainioed the guides 
I^ardlng' the succesiiWe positions of a. vast 
rock which be found upon the ice ciosc it, 
the side of ILe dur-icr. The mean of fivr 
years gave him a miitirio for lUiB block of 40 
Teet a year. 

iOl. Another blr)(.'k. the transport of which 
be subsequently muL-tuied more accurately, 

Evo him a velocity <•( 400 feet a year, Note 
1 explanation of lliis discrepancy; "TLa 
«normous ditTereoee uf Ihese two ol)Berva< 
tloDB arises fitun the fnct that one block 
stood near tin; centre of the glacier, which 
moves most rapiiily, while the other stood 
nrjir the aide, where (he ice is held back by 
frietiou. " So clear and definite were Rendu a 
ideas of the plastic mollrin of glAciirs, tbat 
bad tlie question of curviiture occurred to 
kim, I entertain no dourii iliat he would 
have enunciated litfrirehanil the ^hifti□K of 
the point of maxltiiiim motion' frntii Mide to 
sidfe across the axis of ilie glacier {^ 25j. 

403. It is ri;;lit that you should know tbat 
•cienliSc men do not always afT'te in their 
«Blimates of the comparative value of factit 
and ideas ; and it is especially riiihi that you 
should know that your present ititor attftclies 
B very high value to idiaa wlien they spring 
from the profound ami persistent pondering 
«f superior mmds, and aie not, as ia loo 
often the case, thrown out without Ibe war- 
rant uf cither deep thought or natural capac- 
ity. It is because 1 believe Rendu's labura 
fulfil thin condition tbat I aHtTilie t>i them ao 
high a value. But when you become older 
and U-tier informed, you may differ from 
me ; and I write these words teat you should 
too readily accept my opinion of Rendu. 
Judge me. if you care to do so. when your 
knowledge is matured. I certaiuJy shall not 
tear your verdict. 

4011, But, much aa I prize the prompting 
idea, and thoroughly as I believe that often 
in it the force of genius mainly lies, it would, 
in my opinion, be an error of omissioH of the 
gravest kind, and which, if habitual, would 
insure the ultimate decay of natural knowl- 
edge, to negL'Cl verifviog our ideas, and giv- 
ing them outward reality and substance when 
Ihe means of doing ao are at hand. In aci- 
•nee, thought, bh far aa possible, ought to Im 



Agasslz and Forbes 

^ SO. ViBcoLB Thedbt. 

«4. Here indeed the merits of the dlatl 
guiahed ^laclalist last named rise Ci)iiB[)io 
ously to view. Fiom the able and ei 
advocacy of Professor Forbes, the i 

knowleage of this doctrine of glacial pi 

<ty Is almoal wholly derived. He gave tl 
doctrine a more distinctive form ; he fit 
■pplieil the term tweoui to glac' 
nought to fiiund upon precise measuremenl 
a •■Viscous Theori''" of glacier motion. 

405. I am here obliged to st&le facta I 
their historic sequence. Professor Forbi 
when he began Lis Inrestigatlona was 04 
quainted witn the labors of Rendu. In U 
earliest work upon the Alps be refers t 
those labors in terms of fliKcring recoen 
lion, lint though as a nm te ' of fact Ha 
du's ideas were tnere to pmn.pt him, itwoul 
be too much to say that he needed their it 
spiration. Had ifvndu not pteceded iud 
he might none the less have grasped the ide 
of viscnaity, e^ti'cuiiiip his mcusiiiementa ac 
applying his knowledge in maintain it. I 
that as It may, the uppeari.ni:e of Pnifeaao 
Forbea on the Unteraar glacier in 1841, ai 
on the Mer de Glace in 1642, and hia labu 
then and subsequently, have given bim i 
name not to be forgotten in the acienliflc bii 
tory of fitaciers. 

40fi. The theory advocnled by Professefl 
Forbes was enunciated I>^ himself in Iheia 
words : ■' A glacier ia an imperfect fluid, nm 
viscous body, which is urged down slopes cm 
certain inclination by the natural pressure oC 
ilft {"arts," In UTS' Bordter' wrote- Ihusr'j 
" As the glaciers always advance upon tlid! 
phiin, and never disappear, it ia alwolDt«)yi 
>.^ential that new icn shall perpetually talUl 
i:he place of that which is melted : It rousfe 
therefore lie pressed forward from abovrJ 
One can bardfy ri'fuse then to accept the a^ 
tonisbing truth, that this vast exLuut of baKfl 
aud solid ice moves as a single piece downJ 
ward." In (he pu«age niready quoted M 
>|ii!aks of the ice being pressed aa a fluioj 
tr.)ni above, TImm: oonstitute, I believe J 
Iturdler's contrII)u lions Id this aubJecL Tiioj 
riuotations show his sagacity at an eailn 
date ; but, in point of ciimpleteneBa, Lm 
views are not to be compaied nilh llione On 
Rendu and F('rbes. j 

407. I mu^t not omit to stale hero Ihotj 
though the idea of vi-woaity haa aiA been eiJ 
puus'cd by H. Agastuz, ins meaauremenii,! 
and maps of measurements, on Ibe Unteraar 
glacier nave been recently cited as the mo^ 
clear and conclusive illuatrations of a qualitjl 
which, at all events, closely resembles vis- 
cosity, 

408. But why, with proofa before bim, 
more copious and charucttristiu Ihunltio^^ofi 
any other oLiscrver, dues M. Agassis busitata 
to accept the idea of viscosity ua appliu-d to. 
tee T Doubtless becauae he believes the no- 
tion to be contradicted by our every-d^ ex- 



IN CLOUDS AND HIVEK'^, ICE AND GLACIERS, 



perience of the substance. 'jiomeot a slab of ice agaicBt the roof of . 

409. Take a inasa of ice ten or even flfteon »re to cause It to freeze tbere and stick 
cubic feet in volume ; draw a saw acroaa It the roof, 

a depth ot half an iach or an incb : and 416. Place a number of fragmenta of ic« 

_..ike a pointed pricker, not thicker than a in a basin of wattr. and cause them to touch 

\erj BinaJl round file, Into the groove ; the eacli other : Ihey freeze together where they 

■ntntance will split from top to bottom with touch. Tou cca form a cuain of such frag- 

ft clean crystalline fracture. How is this ments ; and then, by tafcjog liold of one eod 

brittlenesH to bd tecuncited with the notion of Ilie chain, jaa raa draw the whole series 

of viscoaity ! after it. Chains of iccberga are anmetiniM 

410. We have, moreover, been upon the formed in Ibla way in tlie Arctic aeas. 
g^ler add have witnessed the birtli of ere- 417. Consider what follows troni those ob. 
~"9ea. We have seen them beginning as servatioos. Snow consists of smnll partidea 

row cracks suddenly formed, days being ol ice. Now if by pressure we squeeze out 

required to open them a single inch. In the air entangled in thawing snow, uodbriug 

many glaciers Bssures may be traced narrow the little Ice-granulca into cToae contact, Ihejr 

Mid profound for hundreds of yards through may be expected to freeze together ; and si 

the ice. What does this prove T Did the the expulsion of the air be complete, the 

frc possess even a very small modicum of squeezed snow mny be expected to assume 

that power of atretching, wliich is character- the appearance of comijact ice. 

taUc of a viscous substance, such crevasses 418. We arrive at this conclusion by rea- 

could not be formed. soning : let us now test it by experiment, 

411. Si ill it is undoubted that the glacier employing asuituble hydrauUo press, and a 
moves iike a viscous Irady. The centre flows mould to hold the snow. In exact accord- 
past the sides, the top flows over the bottom, ance with our eipeetatlou, we cotivert 
and the motion through a curved valley cor' pressure the snow into ice, 

Teqmnds to fluid motion. Mr. Mathews, 419. Place a compact moss of ice ii 

Hr. Fioudo, and above all Siraor Biauconi, proper mould, and subject it to pressure. __, 

have, moreover, recently miiiie eiperimunts breaks in pieces ; squeeze the pieces forciWy' 

on ice which strikingly lilustiate the Uexibil- together ; they reunite bj regelalion. and a 

ity of the substance These experiments compact piece of ice, totally dilfHreut iu 

merit, uid will doubtless receive, lull atlun- shar« from the first one, is taken from tha 

tioa lit B. future time. rress. To produce this effect the ice must be 

„ „. „ _ in a thawing condition. When lis tempera- 

g ai. Rkoklatios Tbeort. [ure is much below the melting-point it la 

ti!3. I will now describe to you on attempt crushed by pressure, not into a pfllucid 

that has been made of late years to reconcile mass of another shape, but into a whiK 

the brittleness of Ice with its motion in u;la- powder. 

dors. It is founded on ilie olisorratioa, 43U. By means of suitable moulds you 

euuin by Mr. Fanday in l^Q. Uiut wbaa may in ibis way change the shape of ice tw 

two pieces of thawing ice are placed tO' any extent, turning out spheres, and cupa, 

gether they freeze together at the nlace of and rings, and twisted ropes of the sub 

contact. glance ; the change of form in these case* 

41 a. This fact may not surprise ..ja ; still being effected liirough rude frueturu and re- 

ll n xi^e'i Hr. faroday and others, and gelulion. 

tn .. 'i vi'ry great dislincllon in science have 431. By applying the pressure carefully, 

diffi-riil in their interpretation of the tact, rude fracture may bo avoided, anil the ice 

The didlcuUy Is to explain wliere, or how, in compelletl slowly to change il3 forni as if it 

k.11 alreaily thawing Ilie cold is to he found were a plastic body. 

requisite to freeze the Qlm of water between 4^. Now our Brst experiment illustrates 

the two Icucbinc surTsccs. the Ciiusoiidiilion of the snows of the higher 

414. Tbe word Zi^Ia ion was proposid by Alpine ri'gi'ina. The deeper layers of the 
Dr. Uouker to express the freezing 'ogutlier neve have lo bear llie weight of alt above 
of two pieces of tt awing ice oiiscrved by them, and are thereby converted intomoreor 
Faraday : an<l the memoir in which the term less perfect Ice. Aiid our last experiment 
was drat used waa puhltahed by Hr. Huxley illuslivites the changea of foim observed upon 
and Hr. Tyndall in the Philosophical Trans- Ibe glacier, wheie. ny the slow ami constant 
actions for 1857. application of piesaure, the ice gradually 

415. The ftiel of regelation. and its appli- moulds itself to the valley whieh il Alls. 
cation irrespective of ttie eauM uf regulation, i'iS. la glaciers, however, we Imve aisc 
may lie thus illustrated: Saw two slabs ample illustrations of rude fracture and roge 
from a block of ice, and bring their flat sur- lutiou The opening an 'I closing of crevaaaei 
faces into cooiuet ; they immediately freeze illustrate Ihia. The glacier is broken on the 
wgelher. Two plates of ice. laid one iipon cascades aud mended at their hases. When 
Ibe other, with flannel round thera over two branch glaciers lay their sides together, 
nlgbl, are aomelimis ao Qrmly frozen in the the regelation is so Arm that they begin im- 
momlng that they will rather break else- mediately to flow in the trunk gliicii:r ii« a 
where than along their surface of junction, single stream. Tlie medial moraine gives n* 



1 

.10 1 




ot the dripping ice-caves of indication liy its alownusa of motion that 



Iripping 
only to 



'0<i have only to press for a derived from ihe aluggisli ioo of the aidt:* 



• ■j^^J 



I the I 



TBE FORMS OF WATER 



_ liraach glacien. the followiog iraT: Tou remember n^. 

424 Tbs gist of the Revelation Theory is beautiful flowers obt&ined wheD a Hunbeam 

that the ice of glaciers cbaagee its form aad is xent through lake lee (g 11), and you have 

proeerves ita continuity uniierpwiMre which not forgotten thai the linwets always form 

keeps ita pailiules [ngether. But nhea sub- jjurailel to the surface of freezing. Let us 

Jented lo ienMon. sooner than alretcL It break*, cut a prism, or small column of ice with the 

- id behaves no lunger as a viscous body. planes of freezing lunuing across it at right 
angles ; we place Uiat [trlsm between two 

g 83. Caubk or Rkoblatior. slabs of wood, and bring carefully to bear 

43G. Dere the fact of regelation is applied upon it the squeezing force of a small hj- 

■ eiplain the plasticily of glacier ice, no draulic press. 

mtteiupt being made to assign the cause ot ^*J- It is well to converge by means of a 

fBKe!''t'oii Haelf. They are two entirely dla concave mirror a good light upon tlte ice. 

tlnct questions. But a little time will \m and to view it through a magnifying lens. 

well Hpeat in looking more closely into the You alreat^ see lliu result. Hazy surfaces 

cause of regelation. You may feel some ^ro formed in Ihe very body of the ice, 

wrprise that i-rainent men shoulil devote their whinh gradually expand as the pressure is 

atlcnlion to so amali a point, liul we must slowly augmenleo. Here and there you 

not forget that in nature nothing Is small, notice something resembling cry aliUlization ; 

Laws and principles interest the seienltSc fem-shaped figures run with considerable 

Student most, and these may be us well illus- rapidity through the ice, and when you look 

trnted by amall things as by large ones. carefully at their points and edges you find 

438. The (juestion of regelation immediate- them in visible motion. These hazy sur- 
ly connects ilBelt with Ihal of ■' laleut heat. " fucea are spaces of liquefaction, and the 
already referred to (383), but which we must motion you see is that of the ice tailing lo 
now subject lo further examination. To water under the pressure. That water ia 
melt ice, as already ataled, a large amount colder llian llie ice waa before the pressure 
of heat is necesaair, and in the case of the waa applied, and if the pressure be relieved 
Klaclers this heat is furnished by the sun. not only does the li que taclion cease, bul ihe 
Keither the ice ao melted nor the water which water re-freezes. The cold produced by Ita 
results from its liquefaction con full below liquefaction under pressure is sufBcient to 
82° Fahrenheit. The freezing-pi)iut of water re-congeal it when the pressure is removed. 
ftnd the melting-point of ice touch each 431. If iustead of diffusing the pTe.«sure 
Other, as it were, at this tempeniture. A over surfaces of coosidleiable extent, we con 
hair' 8- breadth lower water freezes ; a hair's- cenltale it on a small surface, the liquefac- 
brendth higher ice melts. tlun will of courde lie more rapid, and this is 

427. But if the ice could be caused to melt what Mr, Bolloraley has recently done in an 
Without this supply of solar heat, a tempera- experiment pf singuiar beauty and interest, 
ture lower than that of ordinary tliawing ice Let us support on blocks of wood the two 
would residt. When enow and salt, or ends of a itar of ice 10 inches Inng, 4 iuchea 
pounded ice and salt, ore mixed together, Ibe deep, and 3 wide, and let us loop over lis 
Halt causes the ice to melt, and in this way a miildle a copper wire one twenlielb, or even 
cold of 20 or 30 degrees below the freezing- one tenth, of an inch in thickness. Con- 
~>oinl may be produced. Here, in fact, the uecting the two ends of the wire tOKether. 

CB consumes .itooien uiiirniiA in tlie work of and suspending from it a weight of 13 or 14 

liquefaction. Such a mixture of ice and salt pounds, the wliole pressure of litis weight is 

U called " a freezing mixture," concentrated on the ice which supports the 

428. And if by any other means ice at the wire. What is Ihe consequence ? Tbe ico 
temperature of 33° Fahrenheit could be underneath the wire liquefies ; the water of 
liquefied without access of heat from with- liquefaction escapes round the wire, but tbe 
out, the water produced would be colder Ihnn moment it i^ relieved from the pressure it 
the ice, Kow Professor James Thomson has freezes, and round ahonl tbe wire, even be- 
proved that ice may be liquefied by mere fore it has entered the ice, you have a frozen 
prea»urt, and bia brother, Sir William Thorn- casing. The wire continuea to sink in Iha 
ir\u, has also shown thai water under press- icu ; the water incessantly escapes, freezinj 
ure requires a lower temperature to freeze it as it does so behind the wire. In ha'! an 
than when the prensure is removed. Pro- hour the weight falls; Ihe wire has gim» 
fessor MouBSon suiisiqueully liquefied largo clean through Ihe ice. You c;in plainly pve 
Biasaes of ice by a hjilraulic press; and by where it lias passed, but Ihe two severed 
a beautiful experimtnl Professor Helniholtz pieces of ice are so firmly frozen together that 
has proved that water in a vessel trnm which they will break elsewhere as soon aa alouK 
Ihe air has been removed, and which is tbe surface of regelation. 

tlierefore relieved from the pressure of the 433. Another beautiful experiment bear- 

almosphere, freezes and forms ice-cryntdls ing upon this point has recently been made 

wlien surrounded by melting ice. All these by U. Boussingault. He filled a bollow steel 

facts are summed up in the brief statement cylinder willi water and chilled it. In pass- 

tftot tlie freaing-pomC of tnater u loaeTed bf log to ice. water, as you luiow. expands 

prature. (S 46) i in fact, room for expansion Is ^Tiec- 

420. For our own instruction we may pro- essary condition of solidification. But in tbt 

teoe tbe li<iuefaclioa of ice by presaura in prcaent case the strong steel reiisted the ex- 



E 



f 



IN CLOUDS AND RIVEBS. ICE AND GLACIERS. 



^ 



{iDEdon, IbB water in coaaraiieQCe remainiiiE nu. and the metals in a atate of fuaioti, 
quid at a temperature of mare tlian 30 They are depoBited upon eolid portions of 
Fafar. below the ordiaary rreeziog-puiDt. A their own subxtance at tcmperaturea not tow • 

bullet within the oyliuder ratlted about at enough to cause tliem to solidify agaiDot 
thiB temperature jl owing that the witter wua Other BubalanceB, 
stiL' liquid. On opeaiog the tap the liquid, 438. Water furnishes an eminent example 
relieved of the pressure, was instantly coa- of this special solidifying power. It may bs 
Tsrted into ice. cooled ten degrees arid more bclew its freez. 

433. It is only substances which txpaitd on log-point without freezing. But this is not 
•olidifying that behave in this manner. The possible if the sroallcEt fragment of ice I;* 
metal bismuUi, as we know, is an esamplfl floating in the water. It then freezes accu- 
»imilar to water ; while lead. waT, or sulphur, rslely at 82° Fahr, , di;poailing itself, how- 
kll of which contrast aa solidifying, have 67er, not upon thn sides of the containing 
their point of fusion heightened by pressure. Tessel, but vpon tha iee. Faraday observed 

434. And now you are picpared to under- In a freezing apparaltts thin crystals of lc8 
ataaii Professor James Tliomson's theory of growing in ice-cold water to a length of six, 
regelation. When two pieces of ice are eight, or ten inches, at a temperature Jucom. 
pressed together, liquefaction, he contends, potent to produce their deposition upon ttait 
rasiilts. Tlie water spreads out around the sides of the containing vessel. 

points of pressure, and when released re- 439. And now we are prepared for Farv 
freezes, thus forming a kind of cement be- day's view of reBeklion. When the surfaces 
twben Ihe pieces of ice. of two pieces of ice, covered with a film of 

. _„ „ , „ „ the water of liquefactioa, are brouitht tf> 

% 63. Faraday b VtKW otf RaoBLATioN. jrether. the covering Qlm is transferred from 
ASS. Faraday's view of regelatioa is not tbe surface to the centre of the ice, wher* 
■o easily expressed, still I will try to give tbe point of liquefaction, as before shown, 
you some notion of it, dealing in the first is higher than at the surface. The special 
place with admitted facts. Water, even iu solidifying power of ice upon water is now 
open vessels, may he towered many degrees brought into play im both lidei of Ihi JUm. 
below its freezing temperature, and stiQ re- Under these circnmstancea, Faraday held 
nuun liquid ; it may also t>e raised to « lem- that the film would congeal, and freeze th« 
persture far higher than its boillttg-poinl, two surfaces together. 
and still resist boiling. This is due to tlie 440, The lowering of the freezing-point 
•nataBlciheKloQof the water particles, which by piessuro amounta to no more tlian one 
reaiata the change ot the liquid either into SMvcntielh of a degree Fahrenheit for a whota 
tbe loUd or the vaporous condition. atmosphere. Considering the inHnitcsimal 

488, But if into llie over-chilled water you fraction of tliia pressure which is brought 
throw a particle of ice, the cohesion is rup- Into play in some cases of regelation, Fara> 
tured, and congelation immediately sets in- day thought its e&cct insensible. He sus- 
And if into the superheated water you intro- pended pieces of ice, and brought them inlrt 
<litce a bubble of air or of sto&m, cohesion Is contact without sensibte pressure, still tbey 
Ukwise ruptured, and ebuUinOn immediate- froze together. Professor James Thomson. 
ly commences. however, considered that even the capillary 

437. Faraday concluded that in the interior atlractioo exerted between two such masses 
of any body, whether solid ot liijuid, where would be sufficient to produce regelation. 
every particle is grasped, so to speak, by llie You may make the following experiment*, 
aurrounding particles, and grasps them In in further illustration of this subject : 
turn, Ihe luiud of coiicsion is so strong as to 441- Place a small piece of ice on water, 
require a higher temperature to change the and press it undemealb the surface by a 
•tate of aggii'gation than is Qeceasary at lAe soci-nd piece. The submerged piece may 
wurfae». At the surface of a piece of ice, for '>c so iimnll as to render the pressure infinU 
ezampta, the molecule.t are free on one side lesimal ; alill it will freeze to the under sur- 
from the control of other moleculea ; and fore of the superior piece. 
tltey therefore j'ield to beat moic readily than 443. Place two pieces of ice in a basin of 
in ttta interior, The bubble of nir or sleam warm water, and allow them to come to- 
in overheated water also frees llie molecules gelher [ Ibey freeze together when they 
on one side ; hence the ebullition consequent touch. The parts surrounding tbe place of 
npoD its InlRiductioD. Ptaclically speaking, contact melt away, but the pieces continue 
Vaem, the point <if liquefaction of the inlerior for a lime united by a narrow bridge of ice. 
ice is higher Ihuii that of the superficial ice. The bridge finally melts, and the pieces for a 
Faraday also refers to Ihe special solidifying moment are separated. But capillary atlrac- 
powcr which bodies eiert upon their own tlon immediately draws them logetlier, and 
molecules. Camphor in a glass bottle fills regelation sots in once more. A new bridge 
the bottle with an atmosphere of camphor, la formed, wblch in its turn is dissolved, the 
Id such an atmosphere large crystals of the separated pieces again closing up. A kind 
mbslancc may grow by the incessant depoai- ol pulsation ia tlius eatablishud between the 
tion of camphor molecules upon camphor, at '"fo pieces of ice. They touch, Uioy f reeio, 
s temperature loo high to penult of the a bridge is formed and melted ; and thus tbtt 
•lightest deposit upon tha adjaceni gloM. A rbythiuic action continue* natil \Lm ice dia i 

^^mUar remark applies to sulphur, phospho- auriears. ^ 



m 

} Km' 



THE t'OHMS Ot WATtR 



MS, According to Professor Jamca Thom- 
m's theory, presaure is necessary to litr 
(y the ice. The heat necessary for liquef 



tbe cold water must escape from Ihe pressure 
to be re-trozen. Now in Ibe foregoioff ex- 
perimtiDts tbe cold water, instead of being 
diowed to freeze. Cautt into the warm, water, 
•til) tlie floating fragmeDls regelate in a mo- 
ment, Tbe louoliing Burfoces may, mnre- 
OTer, be convex ; tliey may be reduced prac- 
tically to poind, clasped all round by the 
irarm water, which Indeed rapidly dissolreH 
Ihem as they approath each other : still they 



freeze immcdlaiely when Ihey touch. 
'" "' nay learn from Ibis disi 

itinc matters, as in all others, 



444. You 
that in Bcie 

there is room for differences of opinioiL 
The frame of mind to be cultivated here is a 
mispcDsion of judgment as long as the mean- 
ing remains in doubt. It may be that Fara- 
day's action and Thomson's action come both 
Into play. I cimnot do lietter than finisli 
these remarks by quoting Faraday's own con- 
cluding words, which show how in his mind 
■cientlDc confictioa dwelt apart from dog- 
matism: " Nu doubt," he s^s, "nice es- 
^rKneuta will enable us beroafter to criticise 
■uch rt'SuUs as these, and separating the true 
from the untrue will establish the correct 
theory of regulation," 

g 84. The Blub Tkikb op GLACtEsa 

445. "We now approath the end, one im- 
portant imestioQ only remaining to be dis- 
cussed. Hitherto we have kept it hack, for 
a wide acquaintance with the glaciera was 
necessary to its solution. We had also to 
make ourselves familiar by actual experiment 
With the power of ice, softened by thaw, to 
yield to pressure, and to liquefy under euch 
pressure. 

446. Snow is white. But if yiu examine 
lla individual particles you would cidl them 
tramiparenl, not white. The whiteness 
arises from the misture of the ice purticies 
with smalt spaces of air. In Uie cjtso of edl 
transparent bodies, whiteness results from 
mch a mixture. The clearest glass or ciys- 
tal when crashed becomes a white powtfer. 
The foam of champagne is white through 
the intimate admixture of a transparent 
liquid with trautiparcnt carbonic acid gas. 
The -whitest paper, mtreiver. is composed ot 
t\jrm which are inilividunlly tran»['arent. 

447. It le net, however, tlie air or the gas. 
tut the optieil Kreninee of the pHrliclee, giv- 
ing rise I'o a muttlliide of reliecllons of the 
white solar light at their surfaces, lliat pro- 
duces the whiten esB. 

44S. The whiteneasof thoBurfuceof nclean 

S icier (112). and of the icebiTgs of the 
Irgi'lin &<« (357). hax been already referred 
T > a similar cause. Tbe surface is broken 



the little fissures producing the otnerv^ ap- 
pearance. 

44fl. In like manner if you freeze water in 
* tcsi-tube by pluneing it into a freezing 



mixture, tbe ice produced is white. For the 
most part also the ice formed in froeEing ma- 
chines is white. Examine such Ice, and you 
will find it filled with small air-bubbles. 
When the freezing is extremely slow the 
crystallizing force pushes the air eSectually 
aside, and the resulting ice is transparent : 
when the freezing is rapid, the air in entan- 
gled before it can escape, imd the ice i* 
tTamlueent. But even in the cose of quick 
Creeping Mr. Faraday obtained tnuiBTKirenl 
ice hy ekiltuUy removing tlie atr-bubblea, a? 
fast ns they appeared, with a feather. 

4^0, In tlie case of lake ice the frec!,ing i( 
not uniform, but intermittKnt, It is some- 
times slow, sometimes rapid. When slow 
the air dissolved in the water is effectually 
squeezed out and forms a layer o1 bubbles on 
the under surface of the ice. An act of sud 
den freezing entangles this air, and hence we 
find lake ice usually composed of layers all^r- 
nately clear, and liUed with bubhuo. SucZ> 
layers render it easy to delect the planes ot 
freezing in lake ice, 

451, And now forlhehearidg of these facts. 
Under the fall of the Geant, at the base of 
the Talfifre cascade, and lower tlown the Mer 
de Glace ; in Ihe hi);her regions of the O'in- 
delwald. tbe Aar, the Aletscli and the G6r- 
ner glacien, the ice does not possese the 
Iruuspiirency which it evhlbit^ near the enda 
of the glaciers. It is white, or whitish. 
Why? Examination shows it to be filled 
with small air-bubhles ; and these, as we 
now learn, are the cause of its whiteness. 

402. They are the residue of the air orig. 
nally entangled in the suuw, and connected, 
as before stated, with the wbilenesBof the 
snow. Dunng the descent of tlie glacier, 
the bubbles are gradually expelled by tlio 
enormous pressures brought to bear upon the 
Ice. Not ool^ is the expulsion caused by the 
mechanical yielding of the soft thawing ice, 
but Ihe liquefaction of the substance at 
pliioes of violent pressure, opening, es it 
does, flsiures for tbe escape of the air, mitat 
p!ay an important part in the consolidation 
of the glacier. 

458. The expulsion of the biibbles is, how- 
ever, nut uniform ; fur neither iee nor any 
other su balance offers an absolutely uniform 
resistance to pressure. At the base of every 
cascade that we have visited, and en the 
walls of Ihe crevasses Ihere formed, we hat© 
noticed inuumerahle blue streaks drawn 



bubbles had been almost wholly expelled, 
Ininslucency being tlius converted into traiu 

454, This is Ihe veined or rUboned itrueiur* 
ot glaciers, regarding the origin of which 
diverse opinions are now entertained. 

455. It is now our duty to take up the 
problem, and to solve it if we can. On tbe 
n^.vfis ot the Col du Gfianl, and other gla- 
ciers, we have found greai cracks, njiil 
faults, and Bergtehmndt, exposing dee 



3 



^^H m CLOUDS AND iUTEItd, ICE A2iD QLACIEKH. lj [J 

n&or tlie neve ; and on them BWtlotw wje mating that Here, and nol on tbe Leve, ne ^^ 

Juve found maiked the edges of half-consol- Teined slruclure was manufactured. 

Hialed strata evidently produced by succes- 45a. Tliis, liowevcr, is, at bottom, the Ian- 

lire iaiia of snow. Tiie n«v6 is alratifled g^^ge of alrong opinion merely, not tliirt of 

tecBUse its supply of material from the at- demomHTition ; and in science opinion ouKht 

tDoq>here la intermittent, and whan wa flnt xn content ub only bo long U3 poaitive proof 

Bbeerred the blue veins we were disposed to la unattainable. Tbe love of repose must I 

n^rd them as due to this strati 11 ciiLion. not prevent us from seeliiDg this proof. 

456, But observation and reflection soon Tliere is no sterner conscience than the sci- 

diipelled this notion. Indeed, it could bard- eulillc conscience, and it demands, in every I 

h stand in tbe presence of the single fact poseible case, the substitution tor private 

oat at the liasi^ of the ice-falls the veins are conviction of demonstiutiou which aiiull \ti\ ' 

liwaya nerUoiI. or neatly so. We saw no conclusive to ail, 

way of explaining bow the borizontai strata 459. Let us, for example, be shown a caM ' 

of the neve could be so tilted up at the base in which (be atratilicalioo of the neve is pro- 

cif the fall as to be set on edge. Nor is th^ Innged into the glacier ; let us see the planes 

Upect of tlie veins tliat of str^tiiB cation. of bedding and the planes of lamination ez- 

407. On tbe central portions of tbe cas- istinf; aide by side, and still indubitably dis- 

_ a _ ,^ there aro xm signs of tbe tinct. Such an observation would effectual- 



5 




felna. A.I the bases they first appear, reacb- Iv escludc stratiflcalioa from the problec 
big in each case their maximum develop- the veined structure, and through the re- 
tnent a little below the base. As you and I moval of tbis tempting source of error wa 
•tood npon tbe lieiglits above tlie Zilsenberg should be rendi.-eii more free to pursue tbe 
and scrutinized the cascade of the Strahleck truth. 

460. TVe Bought for this conclusive teal 
Upon the Mer de Glaci-, Imt did nut find it 

M Vve sought it on thi' Grindelwald, aud the 

W Aar glaciers, with an equal want of buq- 

^ oesB. On the AJetsch glacier, for tbe tiat 

I time, we observed the apparent coexistencs 

- of bedding and structure, the one cutting the 

other upon tlie walls of the same crevasse. 
Btill tbij ease was not sufficiently pronounced 
to produce entire conviction, and we visited 
the QOrner glacier with the view of follow- 
ing up our quest. 

461. Here day afterday added to the con- 
viction that the bedding and the etructure 
were two different thines. Btill day after 
day passed without revefling to us the final 
proof. Surely we have nol let our own ease 
stand in the way of its attainment, and if we 
retire baffled wa shall do so with the con- 
sciousness of liaving done our beat. Yon- 
der, however, at the base of the Matterhnro, 
ie the Furgge glacier that we have not yet 
espiored. -Upon it our fituil attempt must be 

463, We get upon the glacier near its end, 
and ascend it. We are soon fronted by a 
barrier composed of three successive walls of 
nfivK. thi one rising above the other, and 
encli jetrealing lieliind the other. The bot- 
tom of each wal! is separated from the top of 
the succeeding one by a ledge, on which 
threatening masses of broken neve now rest. 
We stand amid blocks and rubbish which 
have been evidently discharged from theae 
ledges, on which other masses, ready appar- 
ently to tumble, are now poised. 

463. On the vertical walls of this hartltr 
we see, marked with the utmost plainness, 
tbe horizontal lines of Btratiflcation, while 
something exceedingly like the veined struc- 
ture appears to cross the lines of bedding at 
nearly a riglit angle. The vertical siirfaoe 
ia. however, weathered, and the lines of slruc- 
.,. ^^ .™ .--, .«., '^- •* '^7 ^^ *"ch. are indistinct. The 
We called this por- pfoMem now is to remove the surface, and 
Structure Mill, " bti- eipow the ioo undeiBswJli- '" * "-~ 



i 




THE FORMS OF WATBB 

mtnj casw fhatluiTs coat'btHoH^'ifSKli 
the value ol an otMervation U to be luknoed 
•gainst tbe dftager which it inrolYea. 

464. We do Duthing rashi; : but scanning 
the ledges and eelecting a point of altack, 
we conclude that the danger is not too great 
to be incurred. We advance to Ihe wsU, 
remove the surface, and are rewarded hj the 
dUcovery underneath it of the true blue 
veins. They, moreover, are vertical, while 
the bedding is horiTontal. Bruce, as you 
know, was defeated in many a battle, but he 

K-sisted and won at last. Here, upon Ihe 
^SS^ glacier, you also have fought and 
won your little Bannockbiim. 

405. But let us not use the language of 
»iclory too soon. The straliflcalion theory 
has l>een removed out of the field of expla- 
nation, but nothing bas as yet been offered 

g 65. RBLATtOS OF HTKDCTTmB TO 

Phesshbb, 

4Sfl. This veined structure was first de- 
■cribed by the distinguished Bwiss natursJifrt, 
Guyoi, now a resident in the United dtates. 
Prom the Orimset Pass I have already 
poinred out to you the Ories glacier over- 
spreading the mountains at the opposite side 
of the valley of Ibe Rhone. It was on this 
glacier tbnt M. Guyot made his observation. 

467. "I siiw," he said, "under my feet 
the surface of the entire glacier covered with 
r^ular furrows, from one to two inches 
wide, hollowed out in a half-snowr mass, 
and separated by protruding plates of harder 
and more transparent ice. It was evident 
that the glacier here was eomposed of two 
kinds of ice, one that of Ihe furrows, anowy 
and more easily melted ; the other of the 
plates, more perfect, crystalline, ghissy. and 
resistant; and that the unequal lexi^Iance 
which the two kinds of ice piesenteil to Lbc 
atmosphere was the cause of the ridges. 

408. " After having followed them fur sev- 
eral hundred yards. I reached a crevasse 
twenlr or thirty feet wide, which, as it cut 
the plates and furrows at right angles, ex- 
posed the interior of the glacier to a depth of 
thirty or forty feel, and gave a beautiful 
transverse section of the struciure. As far as 
my eyes could reach. I saw the mass of the 
glacier composed of layers of snowy ice, each 
two of which were separated by one of the 
hard plates of which 1 have spoken, the 
whole fonnio^ a regularly litmlnatod mass, 
wliich resembled certain calcareous slates." 

4tm. I have not failed to point out to you 
upon all the glaciers that we have visited the 
little supwflcial furrows here described ; and 
you have, moreover, noticed Ihut in the fur- 
rows mainly is lodged the finer dirt which is 
scattered over the glacier. They sugeeat the 
passage of a rake over tlie ice. And when- 
ever these furrows were interrupted by a cre- 
vasse, the veined siructure iavmiably re- 
vealed ijself upon the walls of liie flssure. 



DOfJj^^ 



IN CLOUDS AiJDRIVT^ ' ICB AND GLACIER8. 



an. We hmTe tracked the rtructnre throu|ti ' 1S41 to the obtervera od th« Au. TbMi 
k Tuloua partB of the glaciers at which lU nere M, Agasaiz aad Profeasor Forbes. To 
^peaisace waa most distiact ; aod we hare the questioD of slructure Profesgor Forbei 
jud particular attention to the condition of Bubsoqueotly devoted much attention, and ll 
'-' — t these places. The very tact ot its was matnly hia observations and reasoniagi 



1 



mling the crevasses at right angles Is lig- that eave it the important position 
tific»Qt. We know tbe mechanical origin of eigoea to it in the phenomena of glaciers. 
Uie crevasses ; that they are cracks formed 4T5. Thus without quitting tbe glaciers 
trirht angles to lines of tension. But since themselveB. we establish tbe connection be 
Hit crevasses are also perpendicular to tbe tweeD pressure and structure. Is there Mty- 
llmes of structure, these planes must be thing iu our previous scientifli; experieuoe 
famllei to tbe lines of tension. with which these facts may he connected T 

471. On the glaciers, however, tension The new knowledge of nature must always 
niclj occurs alone. At tbe Hides of the gla- strike its mots ititu the old. and spring from 
on, for example, where marginal crevasses it as an organic growth. 
OS formed, the tension is always accom- 
panied by pressure ; the one force acting at ft M- Blatb Clbavagb ahd Gi^caa 
lijht angles to the other. Here, therefore. Lamination. 

(be veined structure, which is parallel to the 476. M. Guyot threw out an exceedingly 
hesof tension, ia perpeTviicKlar to t!ii Una of sagacious hint, when be compared tha 
ftturt. veined structure to the cleavace of slala 

1T2. That this is HO will be evident to you rocks. We roust learn something of thia 
1b a moment. Let tbe adjacent flijiiro ri-p- cleavage, for it really furnishes Ihe key to 
the problem which now occupies us. Lei ua 

?^^^^^^H P" ^'"''' '" '■''^ quarries of Bangor or Cun»- 

f~i X^piPSiBII berland, and observe l!ie quarrymen in their 

^^ '^^ 1 sbcds splitting tbe rocks. With a abarp 

O 1 *' O I P°'°' «""(;'' skilfully into tbe ed|e of tha 

^^ \ a'/zA^/i/ai slate, they cause it to divide into thm platea, 

Cj ^^j«||||m Q^ ^^^ roollng or ciphering, as tbe case may 

■ —i^^^^^^^^ be. The surfucea along which the rock 
Fia. 19, cleaves are called itspionM of deataga. 

477. AH through the quarry you aollce tha 
ntent the channel of tbe glacier moving in direction of these planes to be perfectly eoa. 
iLe direction of tbe arrow. Suppose three giant. How is this luminatcd structure to ha 
drclee to be narked upon tbe ice. one at tbe accounted for T 

centre and the two others at the sides. In a 47B. You might be disposed to considK 
Racier of uniform inclination all these circles that cleavage is a case of stratiQcation or 
would move downward, the central one only bedding ; for it is true that in various parU 

Irsmaining a circle. By the retardation o( of England there are rocks which can be 
Ibe sides tbe marginal circles would be drawn cloven into thin flogs along the planes oT 
wt to ovals. The two circles would be bedding. But when we examine these slata 
AmgaUd in one direction, and eompreurd in locks we verify the observation, first I b^ 
mother. Across the long diameter, which li^ve made by tbe eminent and venerabla 
ji Iha direction of strmn. we have the mar- Professor Sedgwick, that the planes of bed- 
~-il crevasses; across tbe short diameter ding usually run across the piano* of cluav- 

., irhich is the direction of pressure, we age. 
have the marginal veined ttntelun. 479. We have here, as you observe, a cnsa 

478. This association of pressure and atruo- esaclly similar to that of glacier lamination, 
torn ia invariable. At Ibc bases of tbe cas- which we were at first disposed to regard iia 
eaduB, where the Inclination of the lied of tbe due to strati flcali on. We afterward, bow- 
glacier suddenly changes, the pressure in ever, found planes of lamination crossing the 
many cases euiSces not only to cloae tbe ere- layers of tbe n£ve. exactly as the planes of 

Ta hut to violently 8c)uee^ 8 the ice. At cleavage cross the beds of slate roclts. 

places the structure always appears, . 480, But the analogy extends further. 
ping quite across tiie glacier. When Slate cleavage continued to be a puEzls lo 
Iwo branch glaciers unite, their mutual geologists till the late Mr. Daniel Sharp* 
thruel intensifieH the prC'Cxialing marginal made the discovery that abelis and other fos- 
■trucluru of the branches, and develops new sils and bodies found in slata rocks are inva. 
I^MieB of lamination. Under the mtnial mo- riably flattened out in the planes of cleavage. 
lunes, therefore, we have usually a good de- 481- Turn into any well -arranged museum 
nlopment of the structure. It is finely dis- — for example, into the School of Mines In 
played, for eiample, under the great medial Jermyn Street, and observe the evidenoa 
noraine of the glacier of the Aar. there collected. Look particularly to th* 

474. Upon this glacier, indeed, tbe blue fossil trilobites taken from the state rock. 
Tiini were obeerved independently three They are in some cases squeeaed to one third 
yaars after M. Ouyot bad first rlnscrihed o-f their primitive thickness, Numerom 
Ihem. I saf^ independently, because H. other specimens show in the most atrikilf 
Ooyot'a doBcription, thouxh written in 1888, manner the flattening — ■ -' -■— "- 
Mtnained unprinled, — ^ ■— ' '- '"" ""- -*-- — '-' 



4 



H 



|U& 



THE POltMS OF WATER 



h 



Bhwpe, Mr. Stftby added other powerful evi- 
deocB, founded upon the mioroacopio exara- 
Inatlun of filute rock. Taking both into ai;- 
cnunt, the conclusion is irresiBtiWe that auth 
Tocka heve auJTered enormous pressure al 
fight angles to the pknea of cleavage, exactly 
Bs the glBcier has domonstiabty Buffered 
sreal pressure at right augleii to its planei of 

4hH. The association of pressure tind cleav- 
age us thus demonstrated : but Uie queation 
siisi's. Do they stand to each other in the rs- 
liilion of eauae and effect ? The only way of 
leplymg to Uils question is to combine arliO- 
cially the conditions of nature, and see 
wbelhcr we cannot produce her results. 

4B4. The substance of slate rocks was on«s 
aplastic mud, in which foaailswere imbed- 
ded. Let us imitate ttie action of pressure 
upon such mud by employing, instead of it, 
Boflened white wax. Placing a liall of tbe 
wax between two glass plates, wetted to pre- 
vent it from sticking, we apply pressure and 
flalten out tbe wiiv. 

485. The fiutteticd mass ia at flrst loo soft 
li> cleave sharply ; but you tan see, Ijy tear- 
ing. Uiai it ia laminated. Let lis chill it with 
Ice. We Hnd afterward that no slate rock 
■TIT exhibited so fine a cleavage. The lam. 
lii«, it need hardly lie said, are perpendicutai 
to the pressure. 

486. One cause of llils lamination ia that 
tlie wax is an aggregate of granules the aur- 
fMCes of wbicii are places of weak coliesiou ; 
end Ihat by the pressure these graniitea are 
squeezed mtt. thus producing planes of we&k- 
~ .'ss at right angles to the pressure. 

487. But (he main cause of the cleavage I 
itake to be the lateral sliding of the particles 
of wax over each olbcr. Old attachments 
'ue thereby severed, which the new ones fail 
to nuke good. Thus llie tangential slldiuf 
produces lamination, aa the rails near a sta- 
tion are caused to exfoliate by the gliding of 
the wheel. 

488. Instead of wax we may take tbe slate 
hself , grind it to fine powder, add water, and 
thus reproduce tlie pristioe mud. By tbe 

S roper comprcF^on of such mud, in one 
irectton, the cleavage is restored. 
48fl. Call now to mind the evidences wa 
have had of tbe power of thawing ice to yiedd 
to pressure. HecoUect tbe shortening of t^e 
Glacier du Geant, and the squeezing of the 
Glacier de Lechaud, at Tr^laporte. Such a 
fubatance, slowly acted upon by pressure. 



wot yield laterally. Its particles wiii slid* 
over each other, the severed altachments be- 
ing immediately made good by regelation 
It will not yield uniformTy, but along special 
planes. It will also liquefy, not imiformly, 
but along special surfaces. Both tbe sliding 
and the liquefaction wiU take place princi- 
pally at right angles to tbe pressure, and gla- 
cier lamination is the result. 

490. As long as it is sound the laminated 

f lacier ice resists cleavage. Regelation, as I 
Bve said, makea the severed attachments 
good. But when such ice is exposed to the 
weather tbe structure is revealed, and the ice 
can then he cloven into tablets a square fuut, 
or even a square yard in area. 

§ 67. COSCLUBION. 

481. Here, my friend, our labors close. Il 
tus been a true pleasure to me to have you 
at my side so long In tbe sweat of our 
browa we hava often reached the heiglita" 
where our work lay. but you have been, 
steadfast and industrious throughout, using 
In all possible cases ynui own muscles in- 
stead of relying upon mine. Here and there 
I have BtretcJied an arm and helped you to a 
led^e, hut the work of climbing has been al- 
most exclusively your own. ft is thus that 
I ^ould like to teach yuu all things ; show- 
ing you the way to profitable ■-■xertioa, but 
leaving the exertion to you—- more anxious to 
bring out your manliness in the preaence of 
difflcully than to make your way smooth bf 
tonmg diflicullies down. 

4SZ. Steadfast, prudent, without terror, 
though not al all times without awe, I have 
fuimd you on rock and ice. and you have 
shown the still rarer quality of steadfastness 
in intellectual effort. As here set forth, our 
task seems plain enough, but you and I kuovr 
liow oftan we have liad to wrangle reaolutely 
with the facts to bring out their meaning. 
The work, however, is now done, and you 
are master of a fragment of that sure and 
OOrtain knowledge which is founded on lh» 
faitlif ul Btud^ of nature. Is it not worth tlie 
price paid for it? Or rather, was not the 
jiaying of the price— the healthful, if s<ime 
timea hard, exercise of mind and l>ody, upon 
alp and glacier— a portion of our delight T 

498. Here then we part. And should wo 
not meet again, the memory of these daya 
will still uuilA 1U. Give me your hand. 
Good-by. 




Padx. 

b. a. GIondB, Rains, andRiws 64 

rCThe WaTSBOl Light 86 

i. Tha Waves o( HeM whioh produce the 
Vapor ol onr Atmoapbere and melt our 

QUcierB 66 

E. Experiments to prove thu torogaing 

BiatementB 68 

L Ocesnic DistiUsdoD 89 

ly. Tropical Bains 90 

^'8. Monutain Oondensera 91 

I. Architecture of Scour 52 

I. Atomic Poles 92 

L AroMtecture of Lake Ice 91 

I. The Source of the Arveiron, Ice PiU' 

Daoles, ToweFB, and Chasms of the 

I Olacier dee Bois. Fassage to the 

vJfontBDvert 94 

SThe Mer de Qlaoe and its Sources. 
(Onr First Olimb to the Oleft StatioD...96 
~e and Snovs of the Col du 

FO^Bitt 96 

\ Qneationlng the Gloaiers 97 

ii Br&Dches and Medial MorainrH of the 
F Her de Glace from the Cleft Station...97 
\l!heTalMreaiid the Jardin. Work 

lODg the Cceyasses 98 

BVitat QaestJoua regarding Gladec Mo- 
Drifting of Bodies Boried in 

MM 99 

le Motion of OlaoierB. Measuremenls 
' Hiigi and Agassiz. Drifting of 

-•- m the Ice - 100 

la Measurements of Agassiz and 
L Motion of a Glacier proved 
r to rosemble the Motion of a Biver....lO0 
B. The Theodolite and its Use. Our ovu 

i Measurements 101 

L Motion of the Mer da Glace 101 

JL Unequal Motion of the Two Sides of 

[the Mer de Olaoe 103 

ggeation of a new Litenesa of Qla- 
r Motion to Biver Motion. Oon- 

tare tested 104 

\lt,v Law of Gliioier Motion 105 

% Motion of Axis of Mer de Glace 105 

t. Motion of Tributary Glaciers 105 

i. Motion of Top and Bottom of 

[Olacier. 105 

\ lAt«ral oampression of a Glacier 106 



Longitudinal Oompieadon of a 

Glaoier 

Sliding and Flowing. Hard Ice ai 

Soft loe 107 

Winter on the Mer de Olaoe 107 

Winter Motion of the Mer de Olace.lOft 
Motion of the Grindelwald and Aletach 

Glacier 108 

Motion of Morteratsdi Glacier 109 

Birth of a Crevasse; Eleflections . . 109 

Icicles lift 

Tha Bergsohrund lift 

Transverse OrevasssB Ill 

Marginal CrevsBBes Ill 

Longitudinal CreTasBSB. 112 

Crevsasea in relation to Ourvatore of 

Glacier 112 

. Moraine-ridges, Glaoier Tables, and 

Sand Cones Ill 

. Ti>e Olaoier MiUs or Moulins. lU 

The Changes of Volnma of Water by 

Heat and Cold 115. 

Consequences flowing from the fore- 
going Properties of Water. Correction 

of Errors lift 

The Molecular Mechanism of Water. 

Congelation 116. 

The Dirt Bnnds of the Mer da Olace.llT 

Sea-ice and Icebergs 119 

The iBggiBchhorn, the IkU^elinHee 

Bod its Icebergs... 119 

The Bel Alp 121 

. The BiSt'lberg and Oomer Glacier.. 121 

. Ancient Glaciers of Switzerland. 122. 

, Erratic Blocks 133 

. Anaient Glaciers of England, Irdand, 

Scotland, and Wales 12a 

, The Glaoier Epoch 124 

, Glacial Theories ...125 

. Dilation and Sliding Theories 125 

. Plastic Theory 125 

. Viscous Theory 126 

. Eegelation Theory 127 

, Canee of Regeiation 128 

, Faraday's View of Begelation 129 

. The Bme Veins of Glaciers 130 

. Relation of Structure to Eh'essure 13Z 

. Slate Cleavage and Glacier 

Ijamination .ISt 

. Conclusion 



«k 



CATALOGUE 

The Humboldt Library 

P opular Scien ce. 

ainiag Vie tforka of the foremMt srienUJic v>riter» of the age. — The Oreiit 
CloMie»)tf Modem Thmigkt. — Strang meat for them that are of fall age. 



Vo. L UKbt £ 



r Xjctsarg Uoimf- 



Lmitlu'esuj 

Bloliud k. ProcU>i, F.fflt^ 
Kb. 3. Foniu otW«t«r In Cloails ind RItct?, 

Ifb and Olsciera. (19 UlMfraiipnii. £7 

JbluiT;iidaaFJl& 
no. S. PhnlDs BBd Fvlltlca. An appHcatlnn 

of the prlntiiJes of NBtorH Sjienm to 

l\>l!Uc»f BtKietj. By Walter B.(jBLnt, 

sntfaDT oC " Tlie Engluti CuoHtltatiun." 
Una «. DIui'a Plaoa la Nature, (iir<a numnnii 

ilhatntimt). By Tliouiaa H. HmJey, 

F.R.S. 
Bo. B. EdDekUen, IntrUn^tnM, Uond. wd 

f kfiiutl. Bj Uerbocl Spencer. 
Ko. B. Town OeologT-. WlHi Apponflli on 

Can) uid Cunl ReeU. B7 Bsi. CbuleB 



. The ConseTTatlon of Enetic7, (vriA 
ttttm^fnuiUmtfaivifu), By Bal£our8t4W' 

. tlie Stady of lAngrnaKeB, broneht back 
la lU true piinulplai. By C. lluaeL 

'■ TbeDatAOfBthics. By Eebeit Spencer. 

. The TheoTTofBoDDdln Ita Relation 
to Mnsle, (nunurciHI iIIWlralu>ni), By 
ITDf . Pietio BUunuu 



. Mind and Bodj. Tlietbi^n 



John Ouduei 

; The Orlgrlo of Spades. ByThomiBll 

Boile;. F.K.B. 
. Praaren: Its Ta,tr and f3BDi 

otbet disqnliltlaiii. " " ' 
I. Loewnuln Eleotrlcltr, (tfaly iOn^ra- 

tlmt). ByJuliDT:rnd^I'.B.if. 
'. Fwnlllar SaBaya on Sctentiflo Sob- 



in SophlBniB. Arevleiv of sor- 
. By Sunnel Wi^mrlght,' DJ>. 

Prof. Om, 
1- 
■io,X. The ETDlDttODlstM largo. ByGrut 

SQ.a7. TieHbtoryoflandholdlnKlnEng- 

So. aa. FuUon In Deformity, as Jllnatrsled 



WUiiam Haniy Hows 
. Facta and Slctloua of Zoolonv (iw- 
. By Aaarow Wlligii. 



No. 30. The Btnd7 of Wnrda. Fut L By 

ElohoTdObenerti Trench. 
Na.Sl. The Study of Words. Fsrlll. 
N[>. 31. Hereditary Traits andothoTewwya. 



SJ. The Phllosopliy otStrte. ByHerberl 

as. OrientAl KellKlons. By >ohu Calnl. 

Frea. UhIt. GlaBBDW, and Others. 
SC I,n]tnieB on Svolntiou. (AJud-iUd;.} 



if. T. H. Huxley. 
ST. 8I1 JjBCtarta On 1 
By fref. Jolu "Sv 

38. Geological Sketches. Vst\ L Br 

Arefalbshl GoiUe. F.B.8. 

39, Geologlaal Sbetohea. Faitn. 

la. The EMdcnco of Organic EiolntioB. 

By George J, Eomsnes. P.K.8, 
a. Carrent DlaoTuslons In Science. By 

W. M. WmLBma, P.O.S. 
a. Rlatory of the »^lenoe of FollUca. 



4 



«. The Dawn of HiBtorr. P»n t. 

F. Keary, ot tha Brfflal, Maienm. 
16. The Dawn of HIatory. P>r>iT 



M 



. Ilie Dl«es««< of Heuiarr. Bf lb. 

mbat. Trwul«toil trom (he Frcnoli bj 
J. Fltigsnld. U.A. 

. The Chlldbnod at Rellgloii. By 
Life In Nature. (lUuUralcd.) B^Jimes 

L,lte CkiDilttloa, II;Jad'B« NaUxs. T. 
T.Colombiu. Ind. 

ncr luiil tli« HenhKolmii of Ei- 
aage. Part L Bj Prut. W. SUsler 

Der and ttav Heeluuiluti of x:x- 



itrtlk or Hftb. Bf 

1* of MtmOi. kQcl 
UKn Kinflgdom CU(- 

. PiiFt [. By Jsme* Bully. 
. Purl II. 

Lb of Bpeel«. (Daubla uuia- 
4 1. By Olurlea D»vin. 
. Ttifl Origin of SiwolM. Doublfl naxn- 

i Oblldlioad of tlie World. By 



-dOlodd. 



it World. 



rallty. By Thomu 



ClirlaU OolL. Oxford. 



«. 


By ThomiB H. BoHay. F.K.a. 


AT. 


Tha B)uk D»Ui. An Kcmut of tbe 
ByJ.F.O.Heok<.r.M:.D. 


«a. 


Three Bwrnyi. By BarbBrt Speu™. 
BpecUl Number, 


6B. 


lo§y ud tho Hillary of Beu«lon. By 



J. II. AnthTOpologT. By Dsniel Wil«on. 1 
D. Witik j^HOdlt oa ArobBnlpgy. 
E.B,TylDr,F.B.S. ' 



No. TB. 

No. TB. 



ItoUtlaD to Bh>. (iVimerou ilhu^Wlaiu) 
■ By Chmrle« Dunlin. IfM. Tl, 7fl, It arc 

nnflt JVdi.; No. IT. ii a dl>H^ja Vo. 
HIitarlCAl Sketuh of the tMstrlbn- 

tlDii of land In Engluid. By WU- 

liuu Lloyd Blrkbeck. H.A. 
Sclentlflo Aspect of Mme FunlllH- 

Things. By W. M. WiUiaDu. 
Glmrlea Dnrwln. HIa LKa ud Wark' 

By Oiul AUdq. {Doable iroiiibarj. 
The HyBt«Tr of Matter, and the 

Pbilosaplij of I| « « 

uys byJ.illuiSDa 



a Plotot). 



tnce. Two Xa- 



. Proflt-Sbarlajr Beti 



-Sbarlflj; Between Capitol 

ir. Bli Esuys. By Bsdliy I^ 



. 'nu Unseen Univa 



The BlHi of miverRltlM. By fi. B- 
L»ime. IX.D. (Doobls cmaber). 

The Famwtian of Tesetsbla Moold 
through the Astlon of £anit 
Womu. By Chwi™ Dirwln, tiJD. 
F.B.S. (DonMe number). 

Scientific Stethodo of Capidtt Foa. 

iihment. By J. Mount Bleyer. U.D. 

(BpBci.1 nnmbEr). 
The raetors of OrgwuD EntluIlDn. 



ThotoM H. HnilBj. 


and Grant 


By Prof. 
AUea. 


The PlnwDiei of Ufe. 

Labboek. Etui. 


By 


ffir Jot 



. Coamlc Kmotloni Alio the Teach 
loss of Selene^. By Willtain Klngdoa 
CliHOcfl. (SpeoUl bumher). 



. Katare StadlEB. 1 

Ixiire; Dr. Robert . , 

O. Chialiolin, r.B.O.8.. and 



Prof. F. R. EatoB 






^^^1^^^ 






Fo. Mi«. Bfleiwe Md Poetrv. wiH. oilier JI!<H So. in. mmh«rlanl>in. By Jolm Stawt MUI. | 


■B^ Ej 4i.dr«w rfuaon, F-B,8.E. ^^ ^^ 


3. Dpon the Origin uf Alpine KnA 


K«, un. .£>ith([tlv«; DreuiDS and AasoolatlDB 


TtBllan lAlieB nod upun Ului^ Ero- 


or tdHs. Br Ju. Solly uid Om. 




sion. Mips HBd lllualTRaons. ByBam- 


Cioom RoberUon. 




BBy. Bull. Miirchison. Stader. Fivre, 






Wbrmpor ind apmujBT. Pirtl. (DoubJo 


of Co-uppriLtlDD. Bj WilliUQ KsMoD 










13. Upon the OrlKin of Alpine sod 


»S. 103. The CnnilDK Slavery: The Bins iif 




Italian I-fce8.i:i=.. Eta. Pert II. 


I«Ki9l>t«»: Tbfl Great FoUtlcal 




!*. The Qulntemeiwe of SoolaUim. Bjr 


SaperstltlDD. By Beibart Bpancer. 






Vd. 104. TTopli»t AITifa. By Benrj Dnun- 










u- J RitcbiH. M.A. 




No.l 


y Huili-y, F.B.a. 






Jon^ WlUi > Praf.lory Note by Prot 
BuiJ«y. 


Bo.l 




■a. MW. Force anil Energy A Tbeury or 


No.l 


■ Rouble Nmohar.) 


Be. m. intlin»le l>1iu>u». A Tme Tl^ory 






ol Wealth. By Wulism N.Hou 




old Toynbeo. Tutor of B*llol OoUege. 
Ti"^^ F^'u.' SS^We "Zber J"^ 


BItck. 




Ho. 108. EwlW., VMt and Pr8«ot. P«t. I. 






By BinbKd ChMBTii Treacb. iDonWa 








(Double Nuuibar-I 


Jb. 109. KubILU.. PMt and rretient. Put n. 




W. The Orlglii of the Aryans. By Dt, 


By B.cli*rd Cbanam Tteuch. 




I.BM Taylor, mu.tr.tad. Purtl. (Dou- 


Kv, UO. Thti Htarr at CreaUoa. A Plain Ae- 




hta Number.) 


pouDt ot Evolutlen. B; Edwud 




31. The Origin of the A171UU. fs" II. 


OiKUi. (DoubiB DumbBP), 




(Doubls Number.) 


Bo.ULTheFI«a.iire8oriih-.Piinil. Byaip 




32. The B^olntlon of Bei. By Prof. P. 


John Lubb«k, Dirt. 






Bo.US. Pw«h»rtoBr o( AttflnttoB. By TL 




tmtad. P«il. (Double Sumber.) 


RiboL TnuislaWdftomUiorrencbbyJ. 






FiBigemld. M.A. 






,.,„. .i.-"-^sriE.f^.°"a 


Ko.l3i.Tholj.worPH™teKlKh». BjrOaotge | 




H.8mlth. IDoublB Number.) ■ 


tal.lrrotB«orof Psyobiatry. I*»»ond 


No. IS6. Capital. A CtiUml AnBlyil. of 0»plttlW» | 




P^dootion. By Eul Ifirx. rut i. 


a.edlrtiMBdJa«lCooncUlor. AatborkBd 




(Double NumbiT.) 


Edition by B»wn NIlsPDMe, M.Q.. Dlre"- 


No. 


38, CapHal. Pert II. (Double Number.) 


tor of the BosWn Bobool o[ GjmnMtioa. 




it!. Capital. Pirt ni. (Double Numbar.) 


(Double HambBr.) 




». Caoltal. PurtilT. (Double Number.) 










S* 


199. tlghtolBg, Thunder MdLlghtnlcgCon- 
duoton. (hlastrslad.) By Oar^lJ Mol- 


l^Sk.X°^Humphr/ W^ (Tonbl. 




SO. 


1(0. triiat la Music ? Wltb en appsndii 00 
How the Oeoaielrina Lines b»Ta tlreJr 


Moinbec.) 




OouulerpartsiuMUBlt. BylsnseL.Ki^t. 




No. 


111. Are the EHbclj. of Vko »nd DlBose In- 






herited? ByVUliamFlsttBull. ^^_ 




No, 


113. A Vlndleatlon of the Rights «f ^'>-^^^H 


ponblo number.) 




au IntroduatioD by Mn. Heury rawcal.^^^^H 






Parti. (Doable Number.) ^^^H 


The-rj o( N»tnp.l Boleolion. with some 




113. A vindication of the Rights of Wo- ^^^^H 


ofluippUcMlon.. Pan 11. Illu.tntad. 




man. PortlL (Double Simiber.) ^H 


(Doable Somber 1 






"'"'■ "CET""" "''~~'""<™"- 


K= 


By Edword Oarpenlor. 
CltBord. 


So 118 Modern aolenoe and Mod. Thongrht. 
PKtU. By&Lilng. 


No 


1(6. Bocl-1 »lH»f>e* and Worse Reme- 




diea. By Tlios. H. HujJay. F. E. S. 


Mo, 119. The Eleotrlc Light and Tba Bloriug of 




By 0km Wilde. ^_ 


MoUoy. D.D.. D,9c. 










Wo. laO- The Modern Thrwrr o' Heal sod The 




l«d. iniu.) Part L DonblennmboK. ^^^H 




■a 


lU Thssame, Psitn. ^^^^H 


ttited*) 'aor^a Moltoy, »,D.. D.Oe. 1" " 




■— 


^^^^H 



0. lAO. OeovDerullimi A Cllu|>ter 

winirnu. Illuatnted. By 

LiLDkester, M.A., LL.D , F R 



lawerit, FrulU and Leaves. IIJus- 
tntted. By Sir Jobn Lobbook, 
F.K.S. (Doulile numberj 
illiupiea of Kalnnr. Part 1. tUilB' 
trateil. By Dr. Andrew WUlon, 
F.B.S.B, iDoubls Dumlier.') 
leuune. Part II. ' 

im. Probl«a»iirtlieFutim. Parll, Br 
Bamuel Lang. 
Problems nf the Fntnre. Part II. 

(DuulJlH Dumber.) 
TbGsame. Part III, (DouDle number.) 
The Moral Tei»liiniiB ot ScIeiiM. 

By Arabella B. Buckley. 
The WUdom or Life. By Scbopen- 
liauar, (Double Qumbec.) 
[71. The Mystery of Pain, By Jailics 
HlDton. 



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Cloth. I smo ■ " 

■■ Poll.b=d in .tyl= ."d v.ty olren n^uUlie in ,ip«uloo.--A-a»i* Cm. 

.. Tbc bobk 1. lb»rcrfi,8 ,b„ush-..l. .rf •■■' »•" -'■"''i' " " '"'' "" '"'" " '^""'" 
"'^L, p,.iob.d ,..»«b, „igl»^ id-.. ..d .b.l b, .,.=.. »il.d i..,„.,ion. "-i.- 
oly r»«« (Tacoma). 

"The «6on is noble, and the author has n 
' ,, . „,„™.„r, • ^ol.n,« .o» being prln.«l. b« I. I. b».=t tl». 



, escaped saying many pmlc 



ind ftod tni« ' 



" One of a large numbei 

:aay of them."— T'''"'* ■S'". 



ts Intellectual I 



I a new age. 



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Ufa : 
Unib 



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.. Tb.„ .,. n..n, ,,.id„ .=«»». i; j„v.r™;d\Tp' r^^^ 

ahomn In the treatment ot me mariiiKt iju _ 

liveroorebappilyiogeiher."— ZA'i^a""'- ,„ .„j I 

,.™.i..-.«...d.b;.»S„yi^.._;.~™^^^^^^^ 

human perfrcliblUly, and lurnlshcs a new gtounu t 

li IS radical and unique. — The NorlhioeH'm. 

■•Uisln no sense an ordina^ «orlc It f '^^ P-^^i.^'^i^^.rtt'g^v^es. prS^^^^^^ 
the largest purposes. Taking the Bland-poi nt ot «<:'=■>«■ "^ 'i^lU'r'n™..,!, ub Iu re«h 
... . .i_- i.v. on onHpavnr lo show that toe 




the Bland-point of science, it a.iac« ii.= s. — ^- 
dife; wUh'an endeavor tS show thatVhe most advanced science will enable 
sVasi^tory cooclusions."--a»V^ /«fer 0<ean. 

. . 1,. („. ,i,„.. -h,. nri-Btrivlne loriee InloanoDiet 

■One ol the most important 



It work* for those » 



ige who are atnviog v> '»': '"•" 

THE HUMBOLDT PUBLISHING CO.