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with care. 

The University of Connecticut 
Libraries, Storrs 

Hundred years o, "' """""' 

V ^ 









fflasiGAL ErroRT in America 

During the past century, including Popular Music and Singing Schools, 
Church Music, Musical Conventions and Festivals, Orchestral, 
Operatic and Oratorio Music ; Improvements in Musical Instru- 
ments ; Popular and the Higher Musical Education ; 
Creative Activity, and the Beginning of a National 
School of Musical Composition. 

A FUI.L And Reliable ummary of American Musicai, Effort as Displayed 
IN THE Personal, History of Artists, Composers and Educators, 
Musical Inventors and Journalists, with Upwards of Two 
Hundred Full Page Portraits of the Most Dis- 
tinguished Workers, together with His- 
torical and Biographical Sketches 
OF Important ersonalities. 

W. S. B. Mathews, Associate Editor 



Cop3-righte(l by 
G. L. HOWE. 






sHE present work undertakes three things. First, To give an 
intelligible and fairly complete account of the persons, organiza- 
tions and influences which have developed this country to its 
present point in musical knowledge and taste. Second, To give 
25 a good general idea of its present condition, as shown in its leading 
I Musical Societies, its Leaders, Composers, Teachers, Educational 
Institutions, the enormous extension of the Music Trade, and the manu- 
facture and sale of musical instruments of all kinds. Third, To gather 
from the results of these two lines of investigation a fair forecast of the 
future of American music, especiall}' as it regards the likelihood of the 
creation here of an original school of American Music. 

No such exhaustive collection of material for the musical history of 
this country has ever been attempted before. We have availed ourselves 
of tlie labors of previous workers in the same field wherever possible, 
especially of those of Mr. F. O. Jones' American Musicians, Dr. F. I,. 
R. tier's ATusic in America, and certain articles in Mr. John W. Moore's 
r.ncyclopedia. All of these together, however, were wholly insufficient 
for our purpose. At immense expense of trouble and patience we have 
collected from the persons themselves, or their immediate representatives, 
biographical particulars and professional careers of more than five hun- 
dred prominent musicians, composers, teachers and educators. The 
material thus furnished, some of it with singular reluctance, considering 
the quality and value of the work proposed to be serv^ed by it, we have 
carefully digested, and added to it whatever seemed necessary from the 
personal knowledge of the editor. 

The material so gathered has been digested and put together into 
the book now in the reader's hands, in a typographical form which every 
person can estimate for himself Our portrait gallery is very large. We 
give no less than two hundred and forty portraits of musicians more or 
less prominent. Among them it is easy to find almost any one hundred 

and fifty names likely to be proposed by a reader acquainted with the 
persoimel of the musical profession of the country. A few names which 
ought to have been here are omitted. Most of them have been written 
to according to the most promising post-office addresses accessible in the 
office, many of them several times. In some cases no response has been 
received; in others the information came too late for insertion. In many 
cases, after waiting as long as possible, we have written biographical 
sketches of persons required upon historical grounds, from the best 
authorities accessible, rather than do entirely without them. If inaccu- 
racies occur in these accounts, we ought not to be held blamable. 

We are confident that no reader will rise from a careful examination 
of this book unimpressed by the richness of the material here presented. 
It sheds a new light upon the present status of the musical profession in 
this country, and shows that America possesses a wealth in this direction 
which few, even among musicians, imagined. In the line of original 
composition, also the record, although not complete, is reassuring. The 
good works already produced give promise of many and many more to 
follow. The appearance of composers entirely educated in America is 
also a hopeful feature, especially as some of these are among the most 
promising young artists we have. The organization of the American 
College of Musicians affiards suitable ideals of musical graduation, and 
an examining body capable of administering its own standards impartially' 
and locally. It is not necessary to go abroad for musical education, or 
for contact with musical minds of first-class stimulative power. 

The particulars given concerning the music trade, manufacture of 
instruments, and musical invention belong to the category' of musical 
activity, and are an index to the general interest taken in the art of 
music by the purchasing community. 



Chapter I.— Psaimody from 1620 to 1789. page. 

ii People's Debt to Psalmodists — Psalmody Had Its Origin with the Puri- 
tans — Various Divines on the Duty ofSinging Sacred Songs — Bay 
Psalm Book — First Music Printed in Boston — Curious Method of 
Varying Meters from Same Printing — Reform in Psalmody in 
172(1— Objections to New Way— First Organ Built in America- 
Urania — American Harmony — Paul Revere — Lining the Hymns 
Abolished 7-24 

Chapter II.— William Billings, to 1800. 

Billings the First Original Composer and Pioneer — New England 
Psalm Singer — Fugue Tunes — Singing Master's Assistant — An- 
drew Law 25-29 

Chapter III. — Opening of the Nineteenth Century. 

Reaction against Florid Church Music— Abijah Forbush — Goel Har- 
mon — Bridgewater Collection — Columbian Harmonist — Western 
Minstrel 50-33 

Chapter IV. — Lowell Mason, Founder of National Music. 

Need of a Master Spirit to Give Direction — Thomas Hastings — Boston 
Handel and Haydn Collection — Geo. James Webb — Pestalozzian 
Principles — Woodbridge — Boston Academy of Music — Music 
Introduced in the Boston Schools — Manual of the Boston Academy 
— Rise of Musical Conventions — Religious Sentiment of His Work 
— Mason's Counterpoint as Characterized by Hauptmann — Boston 
Academy Collection of Choruses — Normal Classes — Mason's 
Musical Letters .'.4-44 

Chapter V.— Career of Opera to 1840. 

Beggar's Opera — English Opera in New York — Messiah in 1823 — ^John 
Howard Payne's Clari — Garcia and Malibran — Italian Opera in 
New York — Mrs. Austin — Horn's Reminiscences of Sin — Satan — 
Lorenzo Da Ponte 4.5-54 

Chapter VI. — Progress of Oratorio to 1840. 

Gottlieb Graupner in Boston in 1708 — His Philharmonic Society — 
Oratorio at Kings Chapel in Honor of General Washington — Peace 
Jubilee of 1815— Handel and Haydn Society — Presidents of the 
Handel and Haydn — New York in Oratorio — Oratorio Music Cul- 
tivated in Various Parts of the Country — Hastings' Academy of 
Sacred Music 55-59 

Chapter VII. — Two Decades preceding the War. 

Mr. and Mrs. John Ward— Seguin Family in English Opera— Havana 
Company in Italian Opera — Sontag — New York ..Academy of 
Music— Ole Bull's Prize for a New Opera on an American Subject, 
in 1855 — Pyne and Harrison English Opera — Fry's Leonora — 
Opera in New Orleans — Baltimore 60-65 

Chapter VIII. — Period of the War Songs. 

True American Folk-Song— Dr. Geo. F. Root, Charles Carroll Saw- 
yer— H. C. Work— F. Scott Key— H. L. Schreiner— A. E. Blackmer 66-78 

Chapter IX.— New Era of Art Life succeeding the War. 

Causes Operating to Impart Extraordinary Vitality to This Period- 
Jenny Lind— Thalberg— Rise of the Thomas Orchestra— War as 
an Awakener of Mind— Conservatories— New Art Centres 79-83 

Chapter X. — Psalmody and Popular Music after the War. I'AGE- 

Increase of General Interest in Music— Wm. B. Bradbury— I. B. 
Woodbury— L. O. Emerson—H. R. Palmer— P. P. Bliss— H. P. 
Main— Popular Secular Music— Stephen C. Foster— H. P. Danks— 
Will S. Hayes— Constance F. Runcie— Chas. D. Blake— E. S. Mat- 
toon— J. E. Trowbridge— A. E. Warren— T. P. Ryder— Maro L. 
Bartlett 84-111 

Chapter XI. — Piano Playing and Pianists. ^ 

Great Pianists as Popular Educators— Mason's Recitals— Rubinstein— 
Von Bulow—Essipoff— Teresa Carreiio— Julie Rive-King- Rafael 
Joseffy— Louis Maas— Emil Liebling— .-Vugust Hyllested— Carlyle 
Petersilea— Miss Amy Fay— Carl Wolfsohn — Fannie Bloomfield- 
Zeisler— Charles Wels— Coustantin Sternberg — Miss Neally 
Stevens— A. W. Doerner — Ernst Peiabo— Carl Faelten — Otto 
Bendix— J. D. Buckingham— Epstein Brothers Uli-IOT 

Chapter XII. — Concert and Operatic Singers. 

Success of American Singers Abroad— Talent for Higher Forms of Art 
— Necessity of a National School of Singing— Clara Louise Kel- 
logg — Mme. Albani— Ronconi — L. G. Gottschalk— Helene Has- 
treiter — Adelaide Phillips— Anna Louise Cary — Minnie Hauck — 
Adelina Patti— L. W. Wheeler— Marie Litta— Ella Russell— Alice 
Ryan— Julie Rosewald — Augusto Rotoli— Emil Agramoute— Pau- 
line L'AUemand — Karl Formes — Lillian Norton Gower — Lill- 
ian Russell— Myron W. Whitney — L. A. Phelps — Mrs. Estelle 
Ford — Chas. R. Adams — Grace Hiltz — Caroline Ritchings Bernard 
— Marie Van Zandt — Emma Thursby — Antoinette Sterling — 
Zelie De Lussan — Hope Glenn — Sybil Sanderson — Emma Hayden 
Eames — Emma Juch — Emma Abbott — ^Jessie Bartlett-Lavis — H. 
C. Barnabee— Tom Karl— The Bostonians 168-235 

Chapter XIII. — Organists, Liturgical Music and Virtuosi upon Different 
Scientific Organ Playing Comparatively New in America — Sketch of Its 
Rise — Geo. Washbourue Morgan — ^J. H. Wilcox — S. P. Warren — 
Clarence Eddy— Geo. E. Whiting— Harrison M. Wild— Henry 
Dunham — Nathan H. Allen — Louis Falk — I. V. Flagler — Rise of 
Vested Choirs — Personal Reminiscences of Rev. Canon J. H. 
Knowles-H. S. Cutler— S. B. Whitney— Present State of the Vested 
Choir — H. B. Roney — The St. Ccecilia Society of America — Chev- 
alier Singenberger — Popular Interest in Violin Plaving — Ole Bull 
— S. E. Jacobsohn — Wm. Lewis — Ovide Musin — Timothie Adam- 
owski— Thomas Ryan — Anton Sbrignadello — J. M. Deems — Heman 
Allen— Frederick Hess— Josephine Chatterton 23G-305 

Chapter XIV. —The Great Musical Festivals. 

Four Classes of Festivals — Handel and Haydn Festivals — Gilmore Peace 
Jubilees — Cincinnati May Festivals— Cincinnati Opera Festivals — 
Chicago May Festivals — Chicago Opera Festival — Chicago Audito- 
rium 300-324 

Chapter XV. — Musical Instruments and the Music Trade. 

Early Manufacture of Musical Instruments in America — Jonas Chick- 
ering — Steinway & Sons — New Method of Stringing Pianos — Or- 
gan Building — Wm. A. Johnson — Hilbourne L. Roosevelt — Reed 
Organs — Emmons Hamlin — Poole's Enharmonic Organ — Henry 
Ward Poole— Violin Making— Geo. Gemunder — J. C. Hendershot 
— C. G. Conn— Oliver Ditson— John C. Haynes— P. J. Healy ^25-358 

Chapter XVI. — Literary Factors in Musical Progress. 

The Uses of the Literary Element in Musical Progress — Functions of 
Criticism— Daily Newspapers— H. E. Krehbiel— H. T. Finck— W. 

A. Apthrop — Geo. P. Uptou- -Musical Journalism— J. S. Dwight 
— H. C. Watsou— W. M. Thorns— J. Travis Quigg — F. D. Abbott 
—J. O. Von Prochaszka— H. B. Smith— A. G. Emerich — Theodore 
Presser — Wm. F. Sherwin — John S. Van Cleve — L,. C. Elson — Karl 
Merz— W. vS. B. Mathews— Dexter Smith— Jas. R. Murray— A. J. 
Showalter 359^09 

Chapter XVII. — Improvement in the Popular Standard of Performance, 
Especially in the Department of Operatic and Orchestral Works. 

luflunces Entering into This Movement — New York Philharmonic So- 
ciety — Harvard Musicial Association — The Boston Symphony Or- 
chestra — Theodore Thomas — B. J. Lang — Carl Zerrahn — Oratorio 
Society of New York — Dr. Leopold Damrosch — New York Sym- 
phony Societ)' — V/alter Damrosch — F. H. Torrington — Wni. L. 
Tomlins — Adolphe Rosenbecker — Olio Singer — Metropolitan 
Opera House 410-448 

Chapter XVIII. — Institutions for the Higher Musical Education. 

Remarkable Progress in Musical Education — New England Conserva- 
tory — Eben Tourjee — Boston Universitv — Boston Conservatory — 
Julius Eichberg — The New York Grand Conservatory — Ernst 
Eberhard — New York College of Music — Alexander Lambert — 
Metropolitan Conservatory — H. W. Green — Chicago Musical Col- 
lege — Florence Ziegfeld — Mrs. O. L. Fox — Chicago Conservatory 
of Music— Samuel Kayzer — Wm. H. Sherwood — American Con- 
servatory of Music— J. J. Hattstaedt — Chicago College of Vocal 
and Instrumental Art — A. E. RulF — Balatka's Academy of Musical 
Art— Hans Balatka — College of Music of Cincinnati — Geo. Ward 
Nichols — Reuben Springer — Cincinnati Conservatory — Miss Bauer 
— H. G. Andres — Cincinnati Wesleyan College — W. Waugh Lau- 
der — Oberlin Conservatory of Music — Fenelon B. Rice — Cleveland 
School of Music — Alfred Arthur — Philadelphia Academy of Music 
— Richard Zeckwer — Dana's Musical Institute — W. H. Dana — 
Northwestern Conservatory of Music — Chas. H. Morse — Detroit 
Conservatory of Music — J. H. Hahu — Cleveland Conservatory- - 
Bassett and Heydler— Charles S. Brainard .'.... 449-535 

ChacTER XIX. — Music Teaching as a Profession. 

Astonishing Advance in the Status of Professional Musicians — Incomes 
of Teachers — Standard of Professional Qualification — American 
College of Musicians — E. M. Bowman — Robert Bonner — Wm. 
Horatio Clarke — Music Teachers' National Association — Albert 
R. Parsons— J. C. Fillmore— W. F. Heath— H. S. Perkins— Distin- 
guished Teachers — Mrs. Clarence Eddy — Clara E. Munger — Elena 
Varesi— Mrs. C. M. BrinkerhofF— F. Jeannette Hall— A. D. Turner 
— F. N. Adams — F. A. Porter — Santiago Antillaga — Geo. H. Rowe 
John Underner— F. W. Root— W. L. Blumenschein— D. C. McAl- 
lister— S. N. Penfield— C. E. Tinney— Theo. F. Seward— Z. M. 
Parvin— F. Mueller— H. O. Farnum— M. J. Seiferl— H. Kelso— M 

A. Gilsinn— Thos. Martin— N. Coe Stewart— F. J. Campbell— Al- 
bino Gorno — Michael Brand — Louis Erghott — B. W. Foley — Chas. 
H. Brittan — H. A. Clarke — V. Garwood— Carl Lachmund — Max 
Leckner — W. H. Donley— R. A. Heritage— Chas. W. Landon- C. 

B. Cady— C. F. Dennee— J. H. Howe— J. H. Deems— F. C. Mayer 

— Emil'Mahr— J. M. Tracy— Jno. Jeffers— Geo. Schneider 536-635 

Ch.\pTER XX. — Composers of Salon and Chamber Music. 

Louis Moreau Gottschalk — William Mason — Chas. C. Perkins — ^J. A. 
BuUerfield —Arthur Foote— Walter Petzet— Fred'k Brandeis— Ed- 
gar S. Kelley— Stephen A. Emery— Wm. F. Sudds— Adolph M. 
Foester — S. B. Mills — ^Johaun Beck — Adolph Koelling — Reginald 
de Koven— W. C. Seeboeck 63(i-671 

CH.P.BK XXI.-Dramatic, Orchestral a^dO.JorioO^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ 

Wm. Henry Fry-Jno. Knowles P^i°^J 

W cLdwick-EiAlex. MacDoweU-Prof. J. C. ^_^__^2 

Maretzek— Geo, 
D. Parker 


XXIL-Supplementary Directory of American Musicians, ana _^^^__^^ 



Abbott, Emma §, 

Abbott, Frank D ^^^ 

Adams, Chas. R 5^ 

Adams. F. Norman^... ^^ 

Adamowski, Timothie ■''i-> 

Albani, iMdlle........ ^ 

Agramonte, Emilio -i 

Allen. Nathan H ^55 

Allen, Heman •> 

Allen, Chester « 

Andres, Henry G ^ 

Apthorp, Wm. Foster 3°^ 

A rtt.,,r Alfred Y 

. 5SI 


Arrillaga, Santiago ^-i 

Auditorium ^5 

Austin, Mrs Jit 

Barnabee. H. C ^^^ 

Bassett, F -^'J 

Bartlett, Maro L '"-J 

Baur, Miss Clara 5"/ 

Bendix, Otto Si 

Beck, Johann H i 

Blake, Chas. D 1°^ 

Blumenschein, W. L 

Bloom, Jacob 

Bliss, P. P 

Bonner, Robt 

Bowman, E. M 

Bradbury, Wm. B 

Brand, Michael •- •- 

Brainard, Chas. S 353 

Brandels, Fred'k ^53 

Brittan, Chas. H ™5 

Brinkerhoff. Clara g. 

Buck, Dudley °g' 

Buckingham, J. D J> 

Bull, Ole l°\ 

Burritt, Nelson A 3';> 

Butterfield, Jas. A °« 

Cady, C. B 1^' 

Campbell, Francis J ";' 

Cappiani, Luisa 5 5 

Cary, Annie Louise '''5 

Carreno, Teresa "^ 

Chatterton, Josephine 3"a 

Chickering, Jonas 3 v 

Clarke, Wm. Horatio 545 

Conn, C. G 349 

Converse, Chas. C "5 

Cutler, Henry Stephen -J?' 

Damrosch, Dr. Leopold 4jJ 

Damrosch, Walter 435 

Banks, Hart Pease 99 

Dana, W. H 5-9 

DaPonte, Lorenzo 53 

DaPonte, Lorenzo, .\utograph Poem 54 

Davis, Jesse Bartlett ^35 

Deems, James M ^ 

DeLussan /ehe 
Denude Chas F 
Ditson, Oliver 
Doerner, \mlin \\ 
Donley, W H 
Dunham, Henr\ M 
Dwight, Jno Sulhvan 
Eames, Emma Haydsn 
Eberhard trust 
Eddy, Clarence 
Eddy, Mrs Sar'i Hershey 
Edwards Girtrudc 
Eichberg Juhus 
Elson, Louis (. 
Emeriok Albert O 
Emerson Luther O 
Emery, Stephen A 
Epstein, Marcus I 
Epstein, A I 
Erghott, Louis 
Evans, Fred k b 

Faelten, Carl 
Falk, Louis 

Fay, Am\ 

Farnum H O 

Finck, Henry T 

Fillmore J C 

Flagler, I V 

Foley, B W 

Foester, Adolph M 

Ford, Mrs Fstelle 

Formes Kirl 

Foster, Sttjiheii C 

Fox, Or 

, Mr 

O L 

Fry, Wm Heur\ 
Garwood "V ictor 
Gemunder CtCO 
Gilmore P S 
Gilsinn M A 
Gleason FrtdkCrant 
Glenn. Hope 
Goldbeck Kobt 
Gorno. Albino 
Gottschalk I (,istou 
Gottsch ilk I ouis M 
Greene H W 
Hahn, I H 
Hastreiter Hekne 
Hauck Minnie 
Haynes J C 
Hattstaedt J J 
Havs, W ill 

Heath, W F 

Healy, P J 

Hendershot, J C 

Heritage R A 

Hess, Frtdenck 

Hevdlcr Chas 

Hiltz, Grace 









Hook, Elias 343 

Howe. Jas. H 625 

Huntington, Agnes 235 

HvUesled, August 133 

Ja'cobsohn, &. E 287 

Jeffers. Jno 573 

Johnsou. Win. A 343 

Joseffy, Rafael 125 

Juch, Emma 229 

Jung, Rev. J. B 281 

Karl, Thomas 235 

Kayzer, Samuel 4S5 

Kelley. Edgar S j* 653 

Kellogg. Clara Louise 173 

Kelso, Hugh A 573 

Key, F. Scott 75 

King, Julie Riv^ 123 

Kinsey, J. S 407 

Knowles. J. H 267 

Koelling. Adolph 665 

Krehbiel, H. E 365 

Lachmund, Carl V 611 

L'Allemand, Pauline 207 

Lambert, Alex 473 

Landon, Chas. W 619 

Lang, B. J 427 

Lauder. W. Waugh 513 

Leckner, Max 613 

Lewis, Wm 289 

Liebling, Emil 131 

Liszt, Franz, Lachmund and wife 609 

Litta, Marie 195 

Lombard, Louis 573 

Lowry, Robt 93 

Maas. Dr. Louis 127 

MacDonald, Mrs. Marie Stone 235 

Magrath, George 509 

Mahr, Emil 447 

Maretzek. Max 695 

Martin, Thomas 595 

Mason, Wm 641 

Mason Autograph X 

Mason, Dr. Lowell 37 

Main, Hubert P 93 

Mathews, W. S. B 405 

MattioU, Lino 505 

Mattoon. Edmund S los 

McAllister, D. C 583 

Merz, Karl 401 

Mills, Sebastian B 659 

Morgan, Geo. \^. 239 

Morgan, !Mand 307 

Morse. Chas. H 531 

Mueller, Franz 591 

Munger, Clara 565 

Murray, J. R 4*^7 

Musin, Ovide 289 

Neff, Peter Rudolph 503 

Nevada 221 

New^ England Conser%*atory 455 

Nichols, George Ward 499 

Oberlin Conservatory 515 

Paine, John Knowles 677 

Payne, John Howard 47 

Palmer, Horatio R 91 

Parker, Prof. Jas. C. D 701 

Parsons, Albert Ross 555 

Paton, Miss 51 

Parvin, Zimri M 589 

Patti, Adelina 1S9 

Peck, Ferd.W 321 

Perabo, Ernst 157 

Perkins, Chas. C 645 

Perkins, H. S 553 

Petersilea, Carlyle 135 

Petzet, Walter 653 

Phelps. L. A 217 

Poole, Henry Ward 343 

Porter, Frank A 571 

Powell, Maud 2S9 

Pratt, Silas G 6S9 


Presser, Theo 407 

Prochdszka, J. O. Von 3S7 

Quigg. J- Travis 3S3 

Remenyi, Eduard 289 

Rice, Fenelon B S19 

RiLter, Dr. F. L 687 

Ronconi, Giovanni B 177 

Roney, H. B m 275 

Roseubecker. Adolph 443 

Rosewald, Julie 201 

Rotoli, Augusto 203 

Roosevelt, Hilbourne L 337 

Root, Dr. Geo. F 69 

Root, Fred'k W 579 

Rowe, Geo. H 575 

Rudersdorff, Mme 565 

Ruff, Albert E 493 

Runcie, Constance F 103 

Russell, Ella 197 

Russell, Lillian 213 

Ryder, Thos. P 109 

Ryan, Alice 199 

Ryan, Thomas 295 

Sanderson, Sibyl 225 

Sawyer, Chas. Carroll 71 

Sbrignadello, Anton 297 

Seeboeck. W. C. E 671 

Schneider, Geo 505 

Schreiner, H. L.. 77 

Seward, Theo. F 585 

Sherwin. Wm. F 393 

Sherwood, Wm. H 4S9 

Showalter, A. J 409 

Singer, Otto 445 

Smith, Dexter 407 

Smith, Harry B 389 

Smith. Wilson G 661 

Singenberger, Jno. B 279 

Springer, Reuben 501 

Steinway, Henry, Sr 333 

Steinway, Cf. Th 333 

Steinway, Wm 333 

Sterling, Antoinette 225 

Sternberg, Constantin 151 

Stevens, Neally 153 

Stewart, N. Coe SQ7 

Sudds, W. F 407 

Thomas, Theo 419 

Thoms, Wm. ISI 381 

Thursby. Emma 223 

Tinney, Chas. E 587 

Tomlins, Wm. L 439 

Tourjee, Eben 461 

Tracy. J. M 633 

Trowbridge, J. E 105 

Turner, Alfred D 567 

Upton, George P 373 

Underner, John 577 

VanCleve, John S 395 

Vauder Stucken, Frank 693 

Van Zandt, Marie 229 

Varesi, Elena 565 

Warren, A. E 105 

Warren, Samuel P 243 

Watson, Henry C 379 

Webb, Geo. J 93 

Wels, Charles 149 

Wheeler, Lyman W 191 

Whiting, Geo. E 249 

Whitney, Myron W 215 

Whitney, Samuel B 273 

Wilcox, John Henry 741 

Wilhelraj, Aug 2S9 

Wild, Harrison M 251 

Wilkins, Hervi D 257 

Wolfsohn, Carl 143 

Work, Henry C 73 

Zeckwer, Richard 525 

Zeisler, Fannie Bloomfield 147 

Zerrahn, Carl 431 

Ziegfeld, Dr. Florence 4S1 




Note. — ^This autograph was written by Dr. Mason, on his eightieth birthday^ 
upon the fly-leaf of the " Pestalozzian Music Teacher," in possession of W. S. B, 
Mathews, of Chicago. 



Psalmody from 1620 to 1789. 

'N entering upon a retrospect of the musical life and effort of Am- 
erica during the past century, we desire briefly to advert to some 
special reasons which entitle a work of this kind to an honorable 
place upon the bookshelves of American libraries. As is sufficiently 
indicated in the preceding introductory, it is not, on general principles, 
just to the labors and the genius of the present, and the brief past 
which attaches to it, that posterity should enjoy the bountiful fruit of 
their skill and industry, without opportunity of knowing and duly honor- 
ing those who have laid well the broad foundation of a national temple of 
the musical art. We desire more especially to call the attention of the 
general or secular reader — • who, though alien thereto, recognizes and en- 
joys the beauties and blessings of the divine realm of harmonj^ — to the 
nature and extent of the people's debt to those who are the ministers, the 
teachers and exemplars of music and song. In none of the sciences, arts 
and industries do we find one which can at all compare with music in the 
extent, universality, directness or beauty of the beneficence with which it 
dowers the human family. In none other is there the same wide and un- 
restricted enjoyment, free and priceless to all, of such treasures as those 
with which melodj^ so abundantly enriches. No other comes so near to 
the hearts, the homes and the happiness of the millions as this. Nor are 
there, among those who direct those other instrumentalities of civilization, 
an}^ who present to the service of the culture and the refinement of their 
age the same enthusiastic devotion to their art for art's sake, and unselfish 
zeal that all shall be embraced in the light and radiance of its beauty, as 
we find among the priests of the gospel of music. The nobility of their 
work, its all-pervading power for elevation and refinement, which pene- 
trates and illumines the humblest cottage, and lends majestj' to the 

grandeur of the noblest cathedral; its mar\-elous grasp and direction ot 
the highest and most exalted emotions and of the tenderest and holiest 
sentiments, take men nearer to the peace and happiness of heaven than 
any other agency at the direction of the human will. Yet what other 
has been so neglected in that kind of honor which places its representa- 
tive men in enduring eminence upon fame's immortal scroll ? The law, 
the pulpit and the press, invention and discoven,-, philanthropy and hero- 
ism have each and all their multiplied biographers and historians. The 
priests of music, who come nearer to our lives, and to whom our grati- 
tude should be more direct and devout, are alone left to the transient and 
evanescent reward of passing praise. To what more eloquent task can 
type — which is our modern universal tongue, speaking the voice of the 
heart and intellect of the age — be placed, than to that of rescuing 
these from ingratitude and forgetfulness, and giving them, both for the pres- 
ent and for posterity, enduring place and honor? And what more fitting 
time could be chosen for a work of long-delayed justice, for the formu- 
lation and promulgation of such a roll of honor as this book sets forth, 
than this fertile year of our centennial remembrances ? 

In order to an adequate understanding and appreciation of the 
work of musical progress for the past centur}- it is necessary to go back to 
the elements of its historj', and to trace the first feeble efforts of its hum- 
blest and earliest pioneers. The thoughtful student will be thus enabled 
to comprehend and realize the truth, that the musical culture of America 
to-day is a tree of native growth; that it first struggled through the 
uncongenial soil of the earliest settlements of New England, amid the most 
adverse and unsympathetic conditions; that it had its root in the rude and 
unskillful efforts of the psalmodists of the Pilgrims; that it grew slowly 
through the painful and laborious essays of the Puritan pioneers in sacred 
song, gathering strength, accelerated progress and new resources with each 
onward step, until it gradually entered upon the new conditions which led 
up to its present high plane of art endeavor and achievement, and univer- 
sal cultivation and diffusion. It has been too much the custom of writers 
upon American music to sneer and cavil at the crudities which, as visible 
to our more enlightened and educated perception, characterize the work 
of the pioneers of American music and song, and even in our later days, 
to refuse with blind and unjust persistence to accord to the genius of 
American effort that praise and credit which it has justly earned, while 
they are too ready with even fulsome laudation to assign to sporadic 
adventurers from abroad — transient seekers after the advantages of lucre 
rather than the advancement of art — that credit which should be mainly 
if not altogether awarded to native effort and to those from abroad who 

have become Americanized — imbued fully with American pride, ambition 
and ideas — who, while giving us the benefit of their European education, 
have still been inspired in their art work and aims by the invigorating 
genius of American institutions. These we include in all our allusions to 
artists as "American," in our estimate of what is due to national achieve- 
ment as compared with that which is essentially and unquestionably for- 
eign. The principle of justice, as well as an imperative requirement of a 
proper and intelligent understanding of the musical career of our country, 
demands that we should regard all those earlier efforts, no matter how 
rude and unrefined they may now appear, in the light only of the condi- 
tions in which they were in their day evolved, and which at each step of 
advancement surrounded, limited and governed the exertions of those who 
labored in the field of musical cultivation. Thus we may effect the con- 
trast between present and past, and find abundant reason to rejoice over 
the marvelous advancement which such comparison illustrates, without 
disparagement of or injustice to those who directed the feeble and uncertain 
steps of the infancy of the art in our country. The importance, both his- 
torically and from these reasons, of this earlier histor)', is admirably sug- 
gested by the following extract from the preface of George Hood to his 
"History of Music in New England," in 1846. He says: "All things 
must have their beginning, and this, though small, is important. We 
know that our music was mean; but as we hope not to have a low seat 
among the nations, and as we hope in the future to have a history of the 
art worth preser\-ing, we would not lose the past, but carefully gather it 
up and set it with the future, that the contrast may appear the more 
bright and beautiful." 

It is a curious fact that the cultivation of the most refined and poetic 
of the arts in America should have its origin with the stern and prosaic 
Pilgrims and Puritans of the early days. And yet it is in that forbidding 
soil that we have to recognize the root of American musical effort, which 
has to-day grown to such fair and noble proportions. True, their musical 
activity, and it is but a formula of words to call it such, was confined to 
psalmodj' alone, and it was directed by religious rather than by art 
impulses ; but it was none the less the origin from which we have to trace 
the musical history of our countrj'. Indeed, the history of music in 
America, for nearly two centuries after the landing of the Pilgrims, is 
simply the story of psalmody in its various periods. 

In order to understand the low condition of psalmody, as practiced 
in the germinating period to which we refer, we must go back to the events 
which in Europe preceded the exodus of the Pilgrims and the later emi- 
gration of the Puritans. Metrical psalmody originated with the Reforma- 

tion, but had made no considerable advance in England up to the time of 
the great revolution which cost Charles I his head, and placed the govern- 
ment of church and state in the hands of the Puritans. These latter, in 
their zeal to abolish ' ' popish practices, ' ' demolished the organs and 
destroyed the music in the churches; drove the musicians out of the gal- 
leries at bayonet's point, and peremptorily dissolved all organized choirs. 
This vandalism in the name of pure religion was most thoroughly carried 
out in the rural districts of England, from which the Puritan settlers of 
New England were mainly recruited, and thus it came about that in the first 
days of our colonization their church music consisted of the crude version 
of the psalter made by Henry Ainsworth, of Amsterdam, or that of Stem- 
hold and Hopkins. All effort or aspiration toward improvement was 
paralyzed by a creed that regarded music as a frivolous trap of the Evil 
One, prepared to ensnare the souls of men; and even such sacred music as 
was authorized for the purpose of worship was onlj' accepted after labored 
argument by the ministers that the singing of psalms was a divine insti- 
tution. Secular music of all kinds was stenily interdicted as a menace to 
the salvation of souls. Such were the conditions that obtained in New 
England up to the year 1640. Just previous to this time, a growing 
realization of the barbarous offenses against the sense of harmonj^ which 
the prevailing system of psalmody contained, or rather, of which it was 
wholly composed, led to the appointment of a committee of ministers, 
namel}^: Rev. Thos. Weld, Rev. John Eliot and Rev. Richard Mather, to 
make a new veicion of the psalms for use in the worship of praise. The 
result of the work thus set on foot led to the formulation of the ' ' Bay 
Psalm Book," printed and published in 1640, being the second book ever 
printed in British America. This version had a second edition in 1647, 
and a third, in which it was revised and greatly refined, by Rev. Henrj' 
Dunster and Richard Lyon, in 1650. The Bay Psalm Book came slowly 
into use, the prejudice against it as an unchristian, or at least unwarranted, 
innovation being difficult of eradication, while, as the old version had come 
to be regarded as hoh-, and as a divine and unchangeable ordinance, the 
effort to supplant it was regarded by many as sacrilegious. In 1 647 Rev. 
John Cotton, a divine who had been a Fellow and Tutor in Emanuel Col- 
lege, Cambridge Universitj-, where he was noted for his ability and learning, 
— of whom Palfrey says : "In Boston his professional labors had been 
of an astonishing amount, and the sanctity and mingled force and 
amiableness of his character had won for him a vast influence," — in order 
to prepare the way for the more general use of the improved version of 
the Bay Psalm Book, published a treatise entitled : "Singing of Psalms 
as a Gospel Ordinance." In this he said: 

"Wee lay downe this conclusion for a Doctrine of Truth. That singing of 
Psalms with a lively voyce is an holy Duty of God's worship now in the dayes of the 
New Testament. When we say, singing with lively voyce, we suppose none will so farre 
misconstrue us as to thiuke wee exclude singing with the heart ; for God is a Spirit : 
and to worship him with the voj^ce without the spirit were but lip-labour, which (being 
rested in) is but lost labour (Isa. xxix. lo), or at most profiteth but little (Tim. iv. S). 
But this wee say. As wee are to make melody in our hearts, so in our voyces also. 
In opposition to this there be some Anti-psalmists who doe not acknowledge anj' sing- 
ing at all with the voyce in the New Testament, but onely spirituall songs of joy and 
comfort of the heart in the word of Christ." 

At this time, and for many j^ears after, the prejudice of the Puritans 
against secular music, and particularly against all instruments of music, 
as unchristian, was so deeply rooted as to precltide any attempt whatever 
in this direction, but in this treatise we find in John Cotton a spirit in 
advance of the bigotry of his time, and the first seed sown from which 
sprung, later on, the first real musical effort of America. On this point he 

' ' We also grant that any private Christian who hath a gifte to frame a spirituall 
song may both frame it and sing it privately for his own private comfort and remem- 
brance of some speciall benefit or deliverance. Nor doe we forbid the use of any in- 
strument therewithall : so that attention to the instrument does not divert the heart 
from attention to the matter of song." 

Although there was no immediate result from this (for the age) 
broad-minded, enlightened and liberal pronouncement, we may fairly 
assume that many who possessed a natural appreciation of harmony, and 
whose instincts urged them toward refinement, freely accepted these 
views as lifting the ban from musical cultivation in private life, and 
doubtless, though we have no record to establish it, manj' took advantage 
of and acted upon this suggestion of Mr. Cotton's treatise. 

It is a fact worthy of note that while these prejudices, which operated 
so banefully upon the interest of musical progress, were not at first shared 
by the Pilgrims who preceded the Ptiritans, and whose continental resi- 
dence had given them greater liberalit}-, as well as a culture in psalmody 
far stiperior to that of the English Puritans, the adverse conditions which 
they had to confront in the daj-s of their early settlement drove them into 
retrogression as surely and fatallj^ as did the bigotry of Puritan prejudice 
in their case. It is inferred that on their first arrival they had a fair 
degree of the musical culture of their day. Winslow, one of the " May- 
flower" company, writes: 

"We refreshed ourselves with singing of Psalms, making joyful melody in our 
hearts, as well as with the voice, there being many of our congregation very expert in 
music, and, indeed, it was the sweetest music that mine ears ever heard." 

The hard conditions which ensued, the loss of one-half the company 

in the dreadful winter of 1621, the constant struggle for the bare 

maintenance of life for some years, the absence of printed music, and the 

loss of the skill in singing which the fathers brotxght over, soon relegated 

to oblivion all traces of the better knowledge of psalmody. Hence they 
were in a short time, by dire necessities, driven to the same plane with re- 
gard to music as that occupied by the Puritans from choice and prejudice. 
In 1 66 1 Rev. John Eliot translated the psalms into Indian verse, en- 
titled : 

Wame Ketoohomae Uketoohomaongash. 

The following specimen, which we extract from Hood's " History of 
Music in New England," is given as a musical fact of more curious than 
ipiportant interest : 


(Psalm cxviii. ) 

Waeenomok Maniz wame 

Waeenomokkenaau wame 

miffiuninnuog wonk 

Ummonaneteaonk mifE 

en kuhhogkanonut 
Wunnomwaonk God michemohten 

watenomook Maniz. 

The progress of the Bay Psalm Book in the favor of the churches was 
slow. It was only in 1667 that it was used in the churches of Salem and 
Ipswich, and it was 1682 before it was adopted by Plymouth. From 1640 
for fifty j-ears little was done to advance the cause of music. Tlie Bay 
Psalm Book was the only work used in the churches of New England, 
and it passed through some thirty editions, the last of which was printed 
in Boston in 1 744. 

The first music was printed in Boston in 1690, when the great scar- 
city of tunes for use in the churches led to the printing of appended music. 
The earliest specimen ex/ant was printed in 1698 at Boston. This was 
very crude and full of errors, which in our day seem ridiculous even to 
the tyro. The music was without bars, except to divide the lines. Under 
each note was placed the initial of a S}'llable denoting the tone to be ap- 
plied in singing by note, with other directions for singing. The tunes 
for singing embraced in it are exceedingly limited, and comprised the fol- 
lowing, which is the full list : " Litchfield," " Low Dutch " or " Canter- 
burj-," "York," "Windsor," "Cambridge," " St. David's," "Martyrs," 
"Hackney" or "St. Marj-'s," and the looth, 115th, 119th and 148th 
psalm tunes. The tunes are printed in two parts only, and are ac- 
companied by 

Some Few Directions 

for ordering the voice in setting these following tunes of the Psalms : 

" First, Observe how many notes compass the tune is. Next, the place of your 
first note ; and how many notes above and below that ; so as you may begin the tune 
of your first note, as the rest may be sung in the compass of your and the people's 

voices without Sfjueaking above or grumblin.t; below. For the better understanding 

of which take notice of these following directions. 

"Of the eight short tunes used to four lines only, whose measure is to eight 

syllables on the first line, and six on the next, and may be sung to any Psalm of that 


Oxford Tune 1 f r. i.., . 
T ■» 1.C u T To Psalms 

Litchfield Tune } ,, , . 

Low Dutch Tune )^°"^°^^^<'^>- 

York Tune "I To Psalms of Prayer 

Windsor Tune ; Confession and Funerals. 

"Cambridge Short Tunes to peculiar Psas.— as 21, 24, 33, 70, SO first metre, 
114, l;!2. 

"These six short tunes in the tuning the first note, will bear a cheerful high 
pitch in regard to their whole compass from the lowest note ; the highest is not above 
five or six notes. 

St. David's Tune 1 To Psalms of Praise 
Martyr's Tune ) and Thanksgiving. 

"These two tunes are eight notes compass above the first note, and therefore 
begin the first note low. 

" Of the five long tunes following : 

"Hackney Tune — 119 Psa. Tune, second Meti-e. — These two tunes begin your 
first note low, for the compass is nine notes, and eight above the first note of the tune. 

" 100 Psa. Tune. — This one tune begin your note indifferent high, in regard you 
are to fall four notes lower than your first pitch note. 

"115 Psa. Tune and 148 Psa. Tune. — 'These two tunes begin your first note low, 
in regard the tune ascends eight notes above it." 

This will fairly indicate the extent and nature of musical knowledge 
at this period. They had no instruments to serv^e as a guide to time or 
modulation. There is nothing in the letters which constituted the musical 
notation to indicate any knowledge of the degree of pitch. Yet they 
were undoubtedly the best instructions that could be given by the most 
proficient in such musical knowledge as was at that time available. In 
1693 the Sternhold and Hopkins version was still in use, and, indeed, 
though never a general favorite, continued to be used in some churches 
till the time of the Revolution. This version, though it lacked adequate 
conformity to the original to make it a faithful rendering, was still, as 
correctly estimated by Hood, superior to either the New England version 
(Bay Psalm Book) or Ainsworth, in smoothness and rhythm. 

After entering upon the eighteenth century, there is visible, a per- 
ceptible restlessness and dissatisfaction on the part of the more educated 
classes with the existing order of musical affairs; and yet its fruition was 
a slow and laborious work. In 17 12 Rev. Mr. Tufts, pastor of Newbury, 
published the first practical musical instruction book printed in America. 
It was entitled: "A very plain and easy Introduction to the Art of 
Singing Psalm Tunes : With the Cantus or Trebles of Twenty-eight 
Psalm Tunes, contrived in such a manner, as that the learner may attain 
the .skill of singing them with the greatest ease and speed imaginable. 
By Rev. John Tufts. Price 6d, or 5s the duz." 

In 1 7 14 fwe accept the date assigned b}- Hood) Mr. Tufts published 

a Second book, wliich n;achc'd its i ith edition in 1744, which was entitled : 
"An Introduction to the Singing of Psahn Tunes in a Plain and Easj- 
Method, with a Collection of Tunes in three Parts." This was designed 
to be bound with the Bay Psalm Book. The music was written in three 
parts only, and was purely choral — the only style at that daj- used. Out 
of thirty-seven tunes all but one were in the common metre. In 17 18 
Dr. Cotton Mather published his " Psalterium Americanum," described in 
the title page as " The Book of Psalms in a translation e.xactly conformed 
unto the original ; but all in blank verse. Fitted unto the tunes commonlv 
used in the Church." Each p.salm is accompanied by illustrations, cs 
stated, "To the reader in coming at the vast Profit and Pleasure 
which is to be found in this rare part of the Christian Aseetieks everj- 
PsAi.M is here satellited with Illustrations, which are not fetched from 
the ]'uls;ar Annotations (whereof, still, Reader, continue th\- esteem and 
thy inijirovement). But are the more Fine, Deep and Uncommon 
T/iOKi^/ils, which, in the course of long Reading and Thinking, have been 
brought in the way of the Collection. They are the Golden Keys to Im- 
mense Treasures of Truth.'" 

In the introduction to this 1)ook the author says: "For the A'ifw 
Translation of the Psal:ms, which is here endeavored, an Appeal may be 
with much assurance made, unto all that are masters of the Hickrew 
To.NC.fE, whether it be not much more a^reeal)le to the Original than the 
Old one, or to any that has yet been offered unto the World. It keeps 
close to the Original, and, even when a woi'd 0/ supply is introduced, it is 
usually a needless compliment unto the care of correctness to distinguish 
it, as we have done with an Italic-Character, for it is really the intention 
and emphasis of the Original. Yea, the just Laius of Translation had 
not been at all violated, if a much greater Liberty had been taken, for the 
beating out of the Golden and Massy Hebrew into a more extended Eng- 
lish r 

In connuon with nearly all the metrical compositions of that day this 
work was arranged in common metre, alternate lines of eight and six 
syllables. In some few instances long metre was used, and this was 
provided for bj^ the interjection of two additional syllables in the second 
and fourth lines, in black letters, so that they could be sung without alter- 
ing the sense, and thus giving the option of long or common metre tunes 
as luight be preferred. An example of this is given in the following 
po. tion of the i i6th psalm. 


1. I'm full of love: It is because II [of tbt6] that the ETERNAL God || hath 
hearkened now unto my voice ; || [atlO batb] mj- supplications heard. 

2. Because that he hath unto me || [hltlMg] inclined his gracious ear ; |1 
therefore upon him I will call || while I have any days [Ot" llfc]. 

8. The cords of Death surrounded me || and me the [^rcaOful] paius of Hell || 
fouuii out; a sad anxiety || I found and sighing [bcavgl grief 

4. Kut I did call upon the Name || of the ETERNAL Cod [for tbls] ; !] I pray 
thee, O ETERNAL God, |] Deliver now mv [sinhlUfl] soul. 

5. Most full of tender clemency 1| [foi'c'vcr] is th' ETERNAL Ood ; [1 Righteous 
is he too ; and our God || is most compassionate [Witbal.] 

0. The simple ones th' ETERNAL God 1, cakes into [b(6 FlillCi] custody ; || I 
■was brought miserably low, j[ and then [it \Va6] God helped me. 

7. O now mv Soul, do thou return || where 'tis [abOVC] thou findest rest; || 
Because that the ETERNAL God || hath well [eilOUflb] rewarded thee. 

8. Because thou has from threatening death jj [BatClg] delivered my soul ; || 
my eye from tear ; my foot from fall !' by a thrust given [lllltO] me. 

This work was divided into five parts, the first extending to the 
fort3'-second psahn ; the second to the sevent3--third ; the third to the 
ninetieth ; the fourth to the one hundred and seventh; and the fifth to the 
end. It was in noble contrast to the absurdities that characterized other 
versions, and j-et it does not appear ever to ha^•e been used, owing no 
doubt in part to the fact of its being written in blank verse, and partly 
because the work had no music appended to it. 

Shortly previous to the year 1720, it seems to be evidetit that the 
majority of the ministers had become convinced of the desirability, both 
arising from an appreciation of propriety in musical worship, and regard 
for its highest value, of a reform in the method, or want of method, in the 
singing of psalms in the church. Militating against this spirit was an obsti- 
nate and bigoted resistance on the part of the congregations to all inno- 
vation upon the old traditional way. To combat these objections the more 
learned and liberally enlightened divines, actuated by a desire for orderly 
and seemly song- worship, and urged by a nattiral and innate artistic seusi- 
bilitj-, published many ingenious treatises to prove that the better way was 
authorized bj^ divine injunction and .sanctioned by the most ancient prac- 
tice. For a long period it seemed that the more reasonable and convincing 
the "arguments" offered by the clergy, the more bitter, bigoted and 
tinreasoning became the "objections" of those who opposed the reform. 
Among the writers of essaj-s in behalf of the ' ' new method ' ' {i. c. , that 
introduced by Messrs. Tufts and Walter) maj^ be mentioned the Revs. 
S^-mmes, Eliot, Edwards, Mather, Wise and Walter, whose devotion to 
the cause of improved music endured till it ultimately was rewarded with 
success. The manner in which objections were formulated ma}' be 
gathered from the following propositions in ' ' Cases of Conscience, ' ' a 
pamphlet published by a number of clergj-men in 1723, and which was 
designed to satisfy and remove the scruples of who were conscien- 
tiously opposed to the musical reform. The following are selected from 
the propositions : 

" Whether do you believe that singiug Psalms, Hymns aud Sacred Songs is an 
external part of Divine Worship, to be observed in and by the assembly of God's 
people on the Lord's Day as well as on other occasional meetings of the Saints, for 
the worshipping of God? 

" Whether do you believe that singing in the worship of God ought to be done 

"Whether do you believe that skillfulness in singing may ordinarily be gained 
by the use of outward means by the blessing of God? 

"Is it possible for fathers of fort\- 3-ears old aud upwards to learn to sing by rule. 
Aud ought they at this age to attempt to learn ? 

" Do you believe that it is lawful and laudable for us to change the customary 
way of singing the Psalms? 

"Whether those who purposely sing a tune different from that which is 
appointed by the pastor, or elder, to be sung, are not guilty of acting disorderly, and 
of taking God's name in vain also, by disturbing the order of the sanctuary ? " 

Douljtless the real grievance of the objectors arose from the fact that 

tliose of ' ' forty years and upward ' ' were to a large extent debarred by the 

new waj- from participating in the worship of praise, and thus considered 

the reform as a proposal to shut them out from one of the ordinances of 

worship. Then, excuses were formulated of more serious nature, on the 

surface, and these are given' lucidly by Rev. Thomas Symmes, as follows : 

" 1. That it is a >it"u loay, an unknown tongue, 

"2. That it is not so melodious as the usual tvay. 

'"i. That there are too many tunes. We shall never have done learning. 

"4. That the practice of \i gives disturbance; rails and exasperates men's 
spirits ; grieves sundry people, and causes them to behave themselves indecently and 

"5. That it is (Juakeiis/i and I'opish, and introductive oi insli uinental music. 

"H. That the names g-ven to the notes are baivdy, yea blasphemous. 

"7. That it is a needless way, since the good 1-athers that were strangers to it 
are got to heaven without it." 

Again, objections were made against the per.sons who were the pro- 
moters, admirers and practitioners of this "new way," and these are 
summed up by Mr. Symmes, under these headings : 

1. It is said to be a eontrivancc to get money. 

2. They spend too mueli time about learning. They tarry out a nights disor- 
derly, and family religion is neglected by the means. 

3. They are a compatiy of young upstarts that fall in this way and set it for- 
ward, and some of them are lewd and loose persons. 

This gives us a clear insight into the nature of the opposition to the 

reform, and also a comprehension of the seriousness of these objections to 

the older members of the congregations. Mr. Symmes combats these 

objections in an able and convincing way, shrewdly taking the ground 

best calculated to appeal to those advocates of the "old method," that 

what is now called the usual tvay, in opposition to singing by note, is 

but a defective imitation of the regular way.'" He says : "Your usual 

way of singing is but of yesterda\-, an upstart novelty, a deviation from 

the regular, which is the onlj- scriptural good old way of singing ; much 

older than our fathers, or our fathers' grandfathers. The beauty and 

harmony of singing consists very much in a just timing and tuning the 

notes ; every singer keeping the exact pitch the tune is set in, according 
to the part he sings. Now you may remember that in our congregation 
we used frequentlj' to have some people singing a note or two after the 
rest had done, and you commonly strike the notes, not together, but one 
after another, one being half way through the second note before his 
neighbor has done with the first. ' ' One of the most effective and impor- 
tant of these publications was that by Rev. John Eliot, which is described 
on the title page as "A Brief Discourse Concerning Regular Singing, 
Shewing from the Scriptures the Necessity and Incumbency Thereof in 
the Worship of God. Boston, N. England. Printed by B. Green, Jun., 
for John Eliot, at his shop at the South End of the Town, 1725." From 
this admirable discourse, written in the most persuasive, pacificator)-, con- 
ciliator>' and convincing manner, we feel constrained to extract the fol- 

"That musick, which in itself is concord, harmony, melody, sweetness, charm- 
ing even to irrational creatures ; cheers the spirits of men, and tends to raise them in 
devotion, and in the praises of God, and was instituted by God as a means of divine wor- 
ship, which is a terror to evil spirits, the delight of hoh- Angels, and will be everlast- 
. ing employment of these Seraphim and the glorified Saints should be an occasion 
of strife, debate, discord, contention, quarreling and all manner of disorder ; that 
men, the only creatures m the lower creation that are accomplished with reason and 
apt organs to praise God should improve them so to dishonour him ; and that in- 
stead of an angelick temper in man, which they are capable of, and is recjuired of 
them, and especially in this matter ; there should be a cynick disposition and an im- 
provement of such noble organ to bark, snarl at, and bite one another ; that instead 
of one heart and one voice in the praises of our Glorious Creator and most bountiful 
Benefactor ; there should be only wrangle, discord and sluring and reviling one 
another, etc. This is and shall be a lamentation." 

From the essay of Rev. Mr. Symmes, in 1723, in which the objectors 
to improvement in the method of singing, complain that the music re- 
formers ' ' spend too much time in learning, they tarry out a nights dis- 
orderly," it may be inferred that singing classes had at that time been 
established, and the probable date of their first formation may be taken to 
be 1720. Rev. Thomas Symmes proved himself an earnest advocate of 
singing schools. From a paper of his on this subject, we take the follow- 
ing : 

"Would it not greatly tend to promote singing of psalms if singing schools 
were promoted? Would not this be conforming to the scripture pattern/ Have we 
not as much need of them as God's people of old ? Have we any reason to expect to 
be inspired with the gift of singing, any more than of reading? Or to attain it with- 
out suitable means, any more than they of old, when miracies, inspirations, etc., 
■were common ? Where would be the difficulty or what the disadvantage, if people who 
want skill in singing would procure a skillful person to instruct them, and meet two 
or three evenings in the week, from Jive or six to eight, and spend the time in learn- 
ing to sing? * * * \^; owXAit not \^e ■pro'piiT for school tnasters in co2intry parishes 
to teach their scholars'? * * * Would it not be very servisible in ministers to 
encourage their people to learn to sing ? Are they not under some obligation by 
virtue of their office to do so? " 

The means at the command of the singing master of that day were 

not only limited, but of very meagre and unsatisfactory character. In 

addition to the books of Rev. Mr. Tufts, to which reference has been 

made, thej' had a new singing book in 1721, by Rev. Thomas Walter, of 

Roxbury, Mass., entitled : "The Grounds of Music Explained. Or an 

Introduction to the Art of Singing by Note, Fitted to the Meanest Capac- 

it}\" This was the first music printed with bars in America, and was 

probably adapted from Play ford's " Breefe Introduction to the Skill of 

Musick " (1654), and " Whole Booke of Psalms " (1677), published some 

fifty years previously in England. Walter, in his introduction to his 

"Brief and very plain Instructions for Singing by Note," says : 

" Musick is the art of Modulating Sounds, either with the Voice, or willi au 
Instrument, and as there are Rules for the Management of au instrument, so there 
are no less for the ordering of the V'oice. And the nature itself suggests unto us a 
Notion of Harmony, and many Men, without any other Tutor, may be able to strike 
upon a few Notes — tolerably tuueful ; yet this bears no more Proportion to a Tune 
than the vulgar Hedge Notes of every Rustic docs to the Harp of David. * * * 
Singing is reducible to the Rules of yUl ; and he who has made himself Master of a 
few of these Rules is able at first Sight to sing Hundreds of New Tunes, which he 
never saw or heard before ; and this by the bare inspection of the Notes without 
hearing them from the mouth of the Singer." 

The following, the first rule of these instructions, will give an idea 

of the quality of the degree of acqtiaintance with the science of music 

with which this apostle of harmony was endowed : 

"There are ill Nalure hwt seven distinct sounds, every Eighth Note being the 
same. Thus when a tune is sung hy another upon a key too low for the Compass of 
my Voice, if I will sing with the person, it must be all the Way, eig/it/t notes above 
him. I naturally sound an Eighth higher. So a Woman naturaHy sounds eighth 
Notes above the grum and low sounding Voice of a Man, and it makes no more 
difference the singing of two Persons upon an Union or a Pitch. So, on the con- 
trary, when we sing with a Voice too high and shrill for us, we strike very naturally 
into an Octave or Eighth below. And here let it be observed, that the Height of a 
Note or the Strength of singing it, are two different Things. Two Notes of etjual 
Height may be sounded with different degrees of Strength, so that one shall be 
heard much further than the other." 

In the light of our later and larger knowledge, we may i)e disposed 
to smile at this definition of elementary music, but we have to regard it 
from the point of comparison with that which it succeeded and supplanted, 
and of the limited opportunities available to those who devoted them- 
selves to the elucidation of a practical system for the diffusion of skill in 
singing. With a more appreciative sense of what is justly due to these 
pioneers in the cause of harmony, we ttirn to the results which directly 
followed their efforts. They not onlj- gave an impulse and direction to 
musical cultivation, but enabled the recently established "singing socie- 
ties " to acquire an intelligent knowledge and beneficial practice of part 
singing. It opened up to the musical amatetirs of the day the higher 
beauties of harmony, and led them into a new world of exquisite enjoy- 
ment, the participation of which lent form and direction to the inherent 

but hitherto dormant artistic sensibility of all the niort; refined and 
cultured of the daj-. It supplied to America the first breath of art life 
and aspiration, feeble but true, and ushered in the dawn of a brighter 
and better day, whose hopeful and inspiring radiance soon overspread 
the whole eastern sky. 

It has been remarked that while in this rugged soil, after long delay 
and much fruitless effort, against adverse conditions, it was only at 
this time that true musical culture succeeded in taking a firm root, in 
Europe this was the period of the most sublime achievement. Monteverde 
was originating opera in Ital}^; Purcell was restoring the grandeur of a 
lost art in church music in England, and Haydn and Mozart were 
illuminating the page of musical history in Germany; while Handel and 
Bach had already accomplished their work for art and for the ages. 
While this is true, the fair student of history, and specially of musical 
history on this continent, is bound to consider in its connection, that the 
pioneers of music in America had none of those vast and important 
accumulations of musical wealth and tradition upon which to found their 
labors, as had the great masters of contemporary period in the old world. 
In fact, the}' had no past. All musical effort proceeded ab initio. The 
work accomplished from 1620 to 1750 was, in effect and in fact, the same 
as had occupied centuries of development in Europe. There were no 
wealthy classes to foster and encourage art. They had access to no 
granary of musical knowledge in which was stored the accumulation of 
human endeavor since the beginning of civilization. They had no 
Mozart, starving in a garret while creating celestial melod}- to delight all 
posterit}'. Such progress as they made they had to originate, almost as if 
the old world had never been. 

Yet progress once safely launched in the right direction was there- 
after without retrogression. The singing classes performed not only the 
useful work of training voices for the proper interpretation of such music 
as was at their command, but they formed and cultivated viusical taste — 
the desire for higher things in the art, which had fruition later on in a 
further development of the art of harmony. 

In 1742 the first organ ever built in America was constructed in 
Boston by Edward Bromfield. An intuitive perception of the fact that 
poetry in the matter was a necessary accompaniment to melodj' in the 
Psalms and sacred .songs grew up, and in 1752 Rev. Mr. Barnard intro- 
duced rhyme into a translation of the psalms, adding a few hymns. He 
entitled his work, " A new version of the Psalms of David ; fitted to the 
tunes used in the churches ; with several hymns out of the Old and New 
Testaments. By John Barnard, pastor of a church in Marblehead." 

This work was supplemented by sixteen pages of creditably engraved 
music with bars, comprising fifty different tunes, of choral style ; also 
forty-eight tunes in three parts, well engraved, with bars ; the musical 
appendix being preceded by one page of elementary instruction. In his 
preface he says : 

"TbouKh the New England version of the Psalms of David, in metre, is gen- 
erally very goO'V and few of the same age may be compared with it, yet the flux of 
languages has rendered several phrases in it obsolete, and the mode of expression in 
various places less acceptable ; for which reason an amendment or new version has 
been long and greatly desired by the most judicious amongst us." 

"Alter waiting long for the performance of some more ma.sterly pen, and upon 
repeated desires, I have ventured to employ all the spare time of my advanced age 
(this day, through the forbearance of God, completing my seventieth year) in com- 
posing a new version suited to the tunes used in our churches, which by Divine 
assistance is now finished." 

The use of this work does not, however, appear to have extended 
beyond Mr. Barnard's own congregation. Rev. Thomas Prince, in 1758, 
revised the Bay Psalm Book, and published his work with the following 
title: "The Psalms, Hymns, and Spiritual Songs of the Old and New 
Testaments faithfullj' translated into English metre. Being the New 
England Psalm Book revised and improved by an endeavor after a j^et 
nearer approach to the Inspired Original, as well as to the rules of Poetrj'. 
With an addition of fifty other Hymns on the most important subject of 
Christianity. With their titles placed in order, from the fall of Angels 
and Man, to Heaven after the general Judgment." These continued to 
be those most generally' used till gradually supplanted by those of Dr. 
Watts, a second edition of the book being published in 1773. In 1761 
was published a book bearing the title : " Urania, or a choice collection 
of Psalm Tunes, Anthems and Hymns, from the most approved authors, 
with some entirely new. In tu'o, three and /our parts. The whole 
peculiarly adapted to the use of churches and private families, to 
which are prefaced the plainest and most necessary Rules of Psalmody. 
By James Lyons, A. B., Philadelphia." It was handsomely printed, 
contained twelve pages of elementary instructions, and about two hun- 
dred pages of music, ninety of which were devoted to anthems. It con- 
tained poor attempts at fuguing and imitation, and evinced in many 
points the ignorance of the writer of some of the fundamental rules of 
harmony. It was dedicated "To the clergy of ever}' denomination in 
America." With all its imperfections, however, it is to be taken as a con- 
vincing evidence of the upward tendency of musical effort. 

When the Puritans came to this countr\- it was their custom to 
sing without "reading the line," but on the introduction of the Bay 
Psalm Book this latter practice came in and gradually became general. 
Plymouth Church adopted it in 16S1, and in 1664 the Westminster 

Assembly recommended to the churches that were not supplied with 
books the reading of the psalms line by line, so that all might follow the 
verbiage of the text in singing. This, however, though intended only 
to meet an emergency for the poor, became adopted and recognized as a gen- 
eral rule, rendering the worship of praise by singing grotesque and absurd. 
By 1750 it had come to be the almost universal practice, though the 
diffusion of printed psalm books rendered it without the slightest intelli- 
gent excuse. Rev. Dr. Watts, in the preface to an early edition of his 
psalms and hymns, was the first to protest against the derangement 
created by this practice, and in the endeavor which followed, bj- the 
more intelligent and progressive element, to remedy the evil, there arose 
a virulent and bitter controversj', which continued till after the war of 
the revolution, the practice being onh- finally extinguished when the 
choir system prevailed, when the " lining out " method became no longer 
practicable. Here again the cause of music owed to the enlightened 
efforts of the Puritan ministers the removal of a stumbling block that 
stood in the way of advancement in sacred music as performed in the 
churches ; for no matter how skillful the singers might become in their 
classes, and at private gatherings, it was manifestly impossible that 
effective rendering could be had while a break or pause in the music was 
interjected to give time for the " reading out of the line." Controversj' 
on this point, in which the ground taken bj' the objectors was the same 
as that of the former difficulty over the " new method," that of old usage, 
was only ended when choirs in the churches became the universal rule. 

Meantime, in 1741, Dr. Franklin had published at Philadelphia an 
edition of Dr. Watt's h3'mns, the first which went into general use in 
America, and about the same time an edition of Tate and Brady's " Book 
of Psalms in Metre " was published in the colonies, and it was from this 
work that the psalms used in the ' ' Protestant Episcopal Church in the 
United States of America" were taken. In 1753 William Tuckey, a 
.schoolmaster of New York, taught singing to the children of his district. 
He had been vicar, or superintendent of singing, of the Cathedral Church 
of Bristol, England, and had some musical acquirement. He composed 
the anthem "Liverpool" used in Lj-ons' collection, and in 1766 was 
paid by the trustees of Trinity Church /'15 for performing the music for 
the opening of St. Paul's Church in New York. From such facts we 
gather that the popular appreciation of music was on the increase. 

In 1764 appeared a new book of church mu.sic, entitled "A collection 
of the best Psalm Tunes, in two, three and four parts ; from the most 
approved authors, fitted to all measures, and approved by the best masters 
in Boston, New England ; the greater part of them never before printed 

in America. Engraved by Paul Revere and sold by him and Jos. Flagg." 
This was a book of some eighty pages, engraved with very good skill, and 
printed on paper manufactured in the colonies, of which fact Josiah Flagg 
says that he hopes that " it will not the value of the work in the 
estimation of any, but may in some degree, recommend it." This collection 
embraced one hundred and sixteen tunes and two anthems. In the same 
year Daniel Bailey, of Xewburyport, Mass., published "A new and com- 
plete Introduction to the Grounds and Rules of Music, in two books." 
This book met with much success, and in 1769 Bailey published a new 
collection called "The American Harmony." This collection was pub- 
lished in two volumes, the second appearing in 1771. The full title of 
this publication was : 

The American Harmony : or Royal Melody Complete. In two volumes ; Vol. 

I. Bv William Tansur, Printed and sold by Daniel Bayley, Xewbury Port, 1774. Vol. 

II. The .American Harmony, or Universal Psalmodist. By A. Williams, Teacher of 
Psalmodv in London. Printed and sold by Daniel Bayley, Newbury Port, Jan. 13, 
1774. Each volume contained 90 pages. 

The tunes were arranged in three parts, and the first volume is intro- 
duced by "A new and correct Introduction to the Grounds of Musick, 
Rtidimental, Practical and Technical." In the preface to the second 
volume Bailey said : "I take this opportunity to return my thanks to my 
Friends and Customers for their kind acceptance of my Publications of 
Musick, which has far exceeded my expectations. * * * j have also 
added sundry Hynnis and Anthem Tunes, from the latest and most cele- 
brated authors." This work contains some music which, though uniden- 
tified, is believed by competent critics, to be of American production, 
probably contributed by Flagg and Billings. These earlier musical works 
were generally plentifully marred by errors, due to inexperience in the 
art of musical printing and to the lack of qualified assistance in the proof 
reading. On the whole, howe\-er, they were very creditable to the time 
to which they belonged, and the publishers chose the part of wisdom 
when they preferred to risk an occasional error to the chances of worse 
confotniding confusion by attempting a work of correction for which they 
realized their incompetence. The extensive demand for these works 
proves the rapid growth of general musical cultivation in the only field 
open at that time, while the diversity of characteristics embraced in the 
books of Lyon, Flagg and Bailey's collections, indicates an advance beyond 
the old limitations of the New England Psalmody. Bailey's last book, above 
mentioned, shows that contrapuntal music was beginning to be cultivated, 
as it contains " fuguing choruses " and canons from "two in one to seven 
parts in one." The English anthem, with its embellishments of fioriture, 
came into favor, and these, with the .solos and duets introduced in the 

anthems, indicate a great advance in skill on the jtart of those who prac- 
ticed them. 

In 1773 Josiah Flagg, who with the functions of composer and pub- 
lisher combined those of performer and concert manager, established a 
band in Boston of which he was the leader, and with which he gave 
public concerts in Faneuil Hall, on one of which occasions, according to 
Moore, there were over fifty performers. This affords another evidence, 
not only of increasing musical skill, hut of an awakened popular appre- 
ciation of musical culture. 

In 1774 appeared " The Gentleman and L,adies' Musical Companion ; 
Containing a variety of excellent Anthems, Psalm tunes, &c. , collected 
from the best Authors ; with a short explanation of the rules of music. 
The whole corrected and rendered plain. By John Stickney. 1774- 
Printed and sold by Daniel Bayley, Newbury Port, and by most book- 
sellers in New England." 

The two following books made their appearance in 1778 : 

"The Singing Master's Assistant ; or Key to Practical Music. Being 
an abridgment from the New England Psalm Singer, together with several 
other tunes never before published. Boston : Draper and Folsom. En- 
graved bj- Benjamin Pierpont. June, 1778." One hundred and fourpages. 

" The Northampton Collection. By Elias Mann. Nov. 3, 1778." 

During this period another struggle was going on between the pre- 
judices of the sticklers for old traditions and the progress of those who 
were endeavoring to gain for church music the benefit of the improved 
methods now very generally practiced outside the churches, resembling in 
all its features those which had preceded it with regard to the "usual 
way " of singing and the " lining out " of the psalms. The adoption of 
the choir system did not become universal till 1790, and the course of its 
gradual progress is best illustrated bv a few extracts from historical rec- 

Felt's History of Ipsivich has the following: " 1753. The seats of 
the choir were designated by the First Parish in Ipswich, being ' two back 
on each side of the front alley." 

"Similar provision was made at the Hamlet, now Hamilton, in 1764, 
and at Chebaco in 1788. The choir of the First Parish began to sit in 
the gallery in 1 78 1 . This alteration was soon imitated in other parishes. ' ' 

"Ipswich," says Hood, in his History of Music in New England, 
" is one of the oldest churches away from the seaboard, and, though 
famed for its singers, the above notes render it almost certain that they 
had no choir at that time ; but within five years after this they had an 
efficient choir, sitting in the front gallerj-, the place assigned." 

In the History of Rowley are to Ije found tlit: following data : 

" 1 765. The parish voted that those who had learned the art of sing- 
ing may have liberty to sit in the front gallery. They did not take the 
liberty (objecting to singing after the clerk's reading)." 

" 1780. The requested Jonathan Chaplin, Jr., and Lieutenant 
Sprfford to assist Deacon Spafford in Raising the tunc in the Meeting 

1 785. The parish desire the singers, both male and female, to sit in 
the galler)-, and will allow them to sing once upon each Lord's day with- 
out reading by the Deacons. ' ' 

The History of Worcester gives an interesting account of the final 
scene which ensued on the abolition of the " lining out " sj-stem, and the 
introduction of the choir. On Aug. 5, 1779, it was voted, "That the 
singers sit in the front seats of the gallery-, and that those gentlemen who 
have hitherto sat in the front seats in said gallery, have a right to sit in 
the front and second seat below, and that said singers have said seats ap- 
propriated to said use. Voted, that said singer.s be requested to take said 
scats and carrj' on the .singing in public worship. Voted, that the mode of 
singing in the congregation here be without reading the psalms line bj' 
line to be sung. 

"The Sabbath after the adoption of these votes, after the hymn had 
' Ijeen read by the minister, the aged and venerable Deacon Chamberlain, 
unwilling to desert the custom of his fathers, rose and read the first line, 
according to the usual practice. The singers, prepared to carry the alter- 
ation into effect, proceeded without pausing at the conclusion. The 
white-haired officer of the church, with the full power of his voice, read 
on till the louder notes of the collected body o\-erpowered the attempt to 
resist the progress of improvement, and the deacon, deeply mortified at 
the triumph of musical reformation, seized his hat, and retired from the 
meeting house in tears. His conduct was censured by the church, and he 
was for a time deprived of its communion for absenting himself from the 
public ser\-ices of the Sabbath. ' ' 

WiLLiAni Billings, to iSoo. 

^jjflvTHOUGH he had commenced his career as a composer of church 

music a few years prior to the war of the revolution, it was not 

till about 1779 that William Billings had fairly and effectively 

embarked upon a work that left a decided and beneficial impress 

upon the course of musical cultivation, and that made his name a 

I landmark in the progress of the art in America. Although the. 
reforms and improvements introduced by Billings were to the critical 
analyst, who judges of the work accomplished by him in the light of the 
highest standard of the art of music, crude, unrefined and even vulgar, it 
in no wise detracts from the credit which is undoubtedly due him as a 
powerful factor in the formation of a more general musical taste than had 
heretofore existed, and in the creation of an upward and onward impulse 
in the course of musical advancement. Prior to his time the career of 
music had been a level and monotonous plain, unbroken by any impor- 
tant incident, and uninspired by any ambition to rise above the field to 
which all effort had been confined. vSuch advances as had been made 
were rather in the nature of a reduction of chaotic elements to the condi- 
tions of order and the possibilities of development. In William Billings 
we find the first original composer, and the pioneer in a new era of mu- 
sical progress, whose efforts, such as they were, led up and paved the 
way to higher achievements later on, and who thus, rightly judged by the 
results that flowed out of his labors, rather than by the comparison of his 
work with that of a higher musical world, has conferred upon American 
musical culture benefits which it is diflRcult to-day to estimate. Billings, 
by the nature of his talent, and the bent and limit of his ambition, was 
naturally fitted to the work of evolution which it was his mission to 
perform. We are not of those who believe that, in the direction of pro- 
gress of any of those arts and sciences which tend to the elevation and 

refir.ement of mankind, there is anything left to chance ; and the work per- 
formed by Billings was not of the fortuitous character that might grow 
out of accidental circumstances, but was in pursuance of the grander de- 
signs of an overruling power that chooses the instruments of its high pur- 
poses with a wisdom unerringly justified in ultimate results, however 
incomprehensible to human judgment. Had Mozart or Bach, with all 
their sublime and inefiFable genius, appeared in the place of Billings, the 
tanner-musician, the seeds of their art inspirations from which the world 
has reaped so glorious a harvest of harmonic beaut}-, would ha\-e perished 
on a soil too barren for even the faintest development of that higher mu- 
sical life for which Billings was as one sent to prepare the way. The chief 
influence which made him an effective factor in musical development, laj' 
in the adaptation of his particular talent to the conditions of the day, and 
in the nature of his musical advances, which were not so violent as to 
repel confidence : were not beyond the imperfect musical comprehension of 
the time ; were practicable, and led by easy and natural steps in the 
direction of the light. 

William Billings was born in Boston Oct. 7, 1764, and died in that 
city Sept. 29, 1800. He learned the trade of tanner, and certainly found 
no musical inspiration in any of the .surroundings of his occupation. Hav- 
ing a natural liking for music, he became a member of the singing .schools 
of the day, and acquired such knowledge as was then available and was 
essential to a successful singer in the church choirs. Being gifted with a 
natural instinct of harmony, he began to realize that there was something 
lacking in the music then in use in the churches — something in the stiff 
and formal tunes that antagonized his instinct of free and spontaneous 
melody. Accordingly, he began to experiment by imitation of the form 
of such psalm tunes as best pleased his musical sense, introducing new 
combinations, and harmonizing them according to his abilitj-, at first, it is 
.said, using the sides of leather, or the walls of the tannery, on which his 
inspirations were inscribed in chalk. Having been associated with Gov- 
ernor Samuel Adams and Dr. Pierce, of Brookline, both as a choral singer, 
and on the platform on concert occasions, he derived much encouragement 
in the de\-elopment of his musical ideas from their friendly promptings, 
and also benefited personall}' and in his mental habits from contact with 
those in the higher walks of life. The\- forwarded his interests as a sing- 
ing teacher, to which profession he was naturally led, and on ascertaining 
his faculty for composition, encouraged him in its exercise. Doubtless, 
too, they were instrumental in inspiring him with confidence in his own 
powers, which first took shape in the publication, in 1770, of a collection of 
his musical work, which was entitled : 

Tile New England Psalm Singer ; or American Chorister. Containing a num- 
ber of I'salm tunes, Anthems and Canons. In four and five parts. (Never belore 
published.) Composed by William Billings, a native of Boston, iu New England. 
Matt. xii. Ifi : " Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings has thou perfected praise." 
James v. \',i : " Is any merry ? Let him sing psalms." 

<>, ]>r.-\is<- the I.ukI with one consent, 

An<l 111 this i;i:iiid design, 
Let Britain and Ihe colonies 
Unanimously join. 

Boston, New England. Printed by Etles & Gill. 
It cannot be said that this work was founded upon a high ideal. 
Such as had some knowledge of the true elements of luusical science criti- 
cised the workmanship of the new composer. Yet the //ew Ens;land 
Psalm Singer became popular and was successful with the public, 
mainl)' because, no doubt, it opened to the singers noveltj- and varietj- in 
musical forms, and a way out of the drj' and monotonous routine to which 
thej' had heretofore been confined. When we reflect that Billings was en- 
tirely self-educated ; that he had no higher guide in the rules of composi- 
tion than such imperfect works as had been published with previous 
English hymn tune collections, and consider his daring flight in his first 
publication into the realm of contrapuntal music, we must certainly give 
him credit for even the approximation of true art form and idea. In the 
preface to this work, he says he has " read several authors' rules on com- 
pcsition," and finding there that " the strictest of them make some excep- 
tions," he justifies himself b)- induction from the law of "poetic license" 
for a like from the strict rules of music which he had found. He 
admits that " in .some sort of composition there is dry Study required, and 
Art very requisite. For instance, in a fuge. But even there Art is sub- 
servient to genius, for Fanc}' goes, and strikes out the Work roughly, 
and Art comes after and polishes it over." And ultimatelj' he concludes : 
" So, in fact, I think it is best for ever}- composer to be his own learner." 
Governed by this idea, it was hardh* possible that Billings' first work 
should escape an ample crop of fair reasons for criticism, and it only 
remains a wonder that it should have embodied so much of melodic charm 
as it unquestionably did. Shortly after, a new direction was given to 
Billings' mu.sical talent. The war of independence broke out in 1775,, and 
continued till 1782, and during a large portion of this period Billings gave 
himself and his musical talents to patriotic effusion. The revuLsion 
against everything British was complete, and extended to the psalm tunes 
from the detested source as well as to other matters. As aptly described 
in '^\\.\.<tr'?> Music in America, " Billings now became the patriotic psalm 
singer. He paraphrased the psalms and transformed them into political 
(patriotic) hj-mns, or took such words as he found fit for the expression 
of the patriotic spirit, and composed or adapted one of his lively psalm 

tunes to them." These soon resounded in the choir, the family and the 

military camp, and in their unbounded and universal popularity expressed 

and stimulated the patriotic ardor. His tune of Chester, adapted to the 

words opening — 

Let tyrants shake their iron rod. 

And slavery clank her galling chains, 
We'll fear them not, we'll trust in God ; 
New England's God forever reigns, 

was, it is recorded, frequently heard from everj' fife in the New England 
ranks, and led the waj- to indomitable victorj^ on many a hard-fought field. 
As with the .songs later on of the great anti-slavery war, they embodied 
and expressed the pent-up heart emotions of the people, and are to be rec- 
ognized essentially as the first American folk-song. It may be said of 
them, too, that they broke up the springs of true harmonic instinct in the 
people, hitherto frozen tip by the constricting and congealing influence of 
the old and lifeless conventionalities of the p.salmody period, and led not 
j-et to any wide luiderstanding of the functions and htmian ideal of mu- 
sical art, but to a growing appreciation of its beatities. They gave also an 
upward art impulse to the composer himself, and in his second musical 
collection, The Siiigimr Master' s Assistant, we find not only higher 
approach to true musical theory than had characterized the New England 
Psalm Singer, but e\-idence of a realization on the part of Billings that 
his old idea that Nature and not Art must be the teacher was a fallacious 
one, ajid a recognition of the truth that better art results were to be ob- 
tained bj' the obser\-ance of those " rules of composition," which he had 
previoush- undervalued. In his preface (1778) he says : 

Kind reader, no doubt you remember that about ten years ago I published a 
book entitled "The New England Psalm Singer," and truly a most masterly per- 
formance I then thought it to be. ' * * Said I : " Thou art my Reuben, my first 
born, the beginning of my Strength, the Excellency of my Dignity and the Excellency 
of my Power." But to my great mortification I soon discovered that it was Reuben in 
the secjuel and Reuben all over ; I have discovered that many pieces were never worth 
my printing or your inspection. 

The essential features which distinguished the best of his work — and 
his most ambitious compositions, anthems, etc., were his least in musical 
importance, being scarred with glaring imperfections — were a buoyancy 
of rhj-thm, originality, life and melodic fluency, and these characteri.stics, 
so radically differing from those of preceding musical effort, must have 
presented a charm and improvement that appealed strongly to the natural 
mtisical instinct of the daj-. Perhaps his highest merit was his strict 
originality. He neither borrowed, adapted nor stole the melodies of 
others. Such as he produced he evolved out of his own musical conscious- 
ness and the resources with which nattire and self-education had gifted 
him. In other directions, too, he performed important sen-ice in giving 

a first distinct and definite progressive movement to musical development. 
He introduced the pitch-pipe in church choirs, and took the extremely 
audacious measure, for that time, of enlisting the viol as an accompaui- 
ment in church music, and was the first to institute public musical concert 
exhibitions in New England. 

Conspicuous among the contemporaries of William Billings was 
Andrew L,aw, who was born in 1 748, at Cheshire, Conn. Law was a man of 
liberal education, and he became a music teacher while yet in his teens. 
The violin was his principal instrument, but he also taught the flute. 
While a less diligent worker than Billings, Andrew Law was a more cul- 
tivated musician, and no small degree of critical taste is manifested in the 
several collections of church music which he published. As a composer he 
enjoyed less popularity than Billings, and but few of his psalm tunes are 
found in modern collections, though his Arclidale had a place in manj- 
volumes of comparatively recent date. He was an excellent type of the 
musical pedagogue of that epoch, and he worked zealously for many j-ears 
as a singing master in the New England states. He devised a new method 
of musical notation, doing away entirely with the lines of the staff; but 
the novelty was not received with any high degree of favor. He lived 
and labored in his native town, and there he died in 1821. Jacob Kimball 
was another composer of church music whose career extended over about 
the same period. He was born in 1761 and died in 1826. In 1793 
Kimball published a book of psalm tunes called Rural Harmony. He was 
accredited a talented man and a poet in his way; but he died in the alms 
house at Topsfield, Mass. Among other contributors to the church 
music of the epoch were Oliver Holden, Samuel Holyoke, Daniel Read, 
Timothy Swan, Jacob French, Oliver Shaw (" the blind singer"), Bab- 
cock, Button, Lee, King and several others, all in some degree disciples 
and followers of William Billings. To the labors of Billings and his 
contemporaries American music owes a debt similar in character to that 
which American civilization owes to the pioneers and discoverers. They 
were stanch and sturdy New Englanders, and their work reflected their 


Opknixg oi' Tin-; Xinkteentii Centikv. 

^ HL, conditions wliich oljtaiiied at tlie opening of lliu nineteenth 
century were not hopeful for the cause of musical advancement. 
A reaction arose against the florid style of church music, and in 
™., the zeal of some for more chaste simplicity in sacred song, much 
gS that was elevating and improving in the music of Hillings was lost 
' sight of for a time, and without anj- compensating advantage. The 
publications of the period opened with an original collection of Sacred 
Dirges, Hymns and Anthems, in 1800, a book of twenty-eight pages, 
printed by Isaiah Thomas and E. T. Andrews. In iSoi, Timothy Swan 
published The New England Harmony, a book of one hundred and four 
pages, containing the well known tunes China, Poicnal and Poland. These 
tunes are still in vogue, and that they have so long sur\ived their author 
is some proof of inherent merit. Swan was a native of Suffield, bom in 
1760, and this appears to have been the only work that he offered to the 
public. He had the satisfaction of seeing his book attain a wide popu- 
larity, due to the fact, in jiart, of its excellence, and in part to its fitting 
so happily the revulsion of feeling the Billings method. He died 
at Northfield, Mass., in 1842. Following this, William Cooper, of Boston, 
assisted hy Jonathan Huntington, a well known music teacher of Isorth- 
ampton, published, in 1804, The Peanties of Chureh Music a7id Sure Guide 
to the Art of Singing. In 1S05, Gushing and Appleton, of Salem, pub- 
lished The Salem Collection, of 124 pages, with a selection of some .seventy 
tunes bj- a committee of the congregation of Dr. Prince. In this work 
reference is made to The Massachusetts Compiler (of Gram, Holyoke and 
Holden, 1795) as one of the most valuable existing musical publications. 
In 1805, Jeremiah Ingalls, at Exeter, N. H., published The Christian 
Harmony; or, Songster's Companion, containing some two hundred pages. 
Ingalls was a violoncellist of some merit, and a tenor singer, but did not 
make n luxurious living out of his art, as he had to combine the teaching 
of singing schools in the evenings with work at his trade of cooper by day. 

In the same year appeared, by Stephen Jeuks, of New Canaan, Conn., 
The Delights of Harmo7iy; or, Norfolk Compiler, which is described on the 
title page as "A new collection of psalm tunes, hymns and anthems, with 
a variety of set pieces from the most approved American and European 
authors, likewise the necessar)^ rules of Psalmody made easy. The whole 
particularly designed for the use of singing schools and musical societies 
in the United States." To this book Mr. Jenks himself contributed 
twentj'-six pieces, the balance of selections being all American. In 1806 
Abijah Forbush produced The Psalmodisf s Assistant, including, with a 
choice collection, 108 original melodies. In 1807, Prof. John Hubbard, 
of Dartmouth College, founder of the Handel Society of that college, 
delivered an essay on music before the Middlesex Musical Society. 
Already, it will be observed, musical societies appear to be of recognized 
importance, as shown by this address, as well as by the title of Stephen 
Jenks' Delights of Harmony. This lecture evinces a high degree of 
acquaintance with the aesthetics of music, and in it he bewails the fruit- 
fulness of ambitious dullness. He says : ' 'Almost every pedant, after 
learning the eight notes, has commenced author. With a genius sterile 
as the deserts of Arabia, he has attempted to rival the great masters of 
music. On the leaden wing of dullness he has attempted to soar into 
those regions of science never penetrated but by real genius. From such 
distempered imaginations no regular productions can be expected. 
The unhappy writers, after torturiTig every note in the octave, have fallen 
in oblivion and have generallj' outlived their insignificant works." This 
harsh and wholesale condemnation of native effort was doubtless not with- 
out some measure of justification, yet it evidently sought the opposite 
extreme to the fault which it aimed to correct. Again, in August, of the 
same 3ear, Francis Brown, in an address before the Handel Society of 
Dartmouth College, assails the prevailing style of church music and 
explains its shortcomings by saying that "The greater part of those in our 
country who have undertaken to write music have been ignorant of its 
nature. Their pieces have little variety and little meaning. * * ■>'- As 
they are written without any meaning they are performed without 
expression. * * * Another very serious fault in the greater part of 
American music denominated sacred, is that its movements and air are 
calculated rather to provoke levity than to enkindle devotion." Brown 
claims for American musical talent as much merit as attaches to that of 
the Europeans, but he says: "Our befet musicians, instead of being 
awakened to exertion by call for .splendid talents, have been discouraged 
by the increasing prevalence of a corrupt taste. ' ' He traces this evil to 
these causes : ist, the passion for novelty ; 2d, the antipathy of the 

higher classes, more particularly ladies, to taking part in the music of the 
sanctuary' ; 3d, the lack of attention to the character and qualifications 
of the instructors. 

In 1809 Joel Harmon, Jr., at Northampton, Mass., published the 
Columbia Sacred Minstrel, a book of some eighty pages, containing original 
melodies in three, four, five and six-part airs. Harmon, a resident of 
Pawlet, Vt., had undertaken to reform those features of church music 
which supplanted dignity with levity, and in his preface he states ; 
" It is with pleasure that the author discovers that fuguing music is gen- 
erally disapproved of by almost every person of correct taste." In 18 12 
appeared at Boston, published by Brown, Mitchell and Holt, the Templi 
Carmina; or, Soj/^s of the Temple, afterward called The Bridgcwatcr ■ 
Collection, a book of 350 pages, which had an extensive popularity, aud 
was the most important publication between Billings and Mason. From 
this work all tunes of American origin were eliminated, all the tunes and 
anthems being taken from English sources. In 18 13 David Pool and 
Josiah Holbrook, music teachers of Abington, R. I., published The 
American and European Harmony; or, Abins;ton Collection of Sacred 
Music, and in the same year appeared The Village Harmony; or. Youth's 
Assistant to Sacred Music. This work went through no less than seven- 
teen editions. It contained 350 pages, and in his " general observations," 
the author gives these directions : "When a tune is well learnt by note 
it may be sung by words. Pronounce every word as distinctly as possible. 
Never sing through the Nose, for that will spoil the voice, make the 
music disagreeable, and have a disgusting effect upon the hearer." In 
18 1 5 the Boston Handel and Haydn Society was organized, being incor- 
porated in 1816, and in this year gave its official recommendation to The 
Bridffczvatcr Collection. In the same year Timothj- Flint, at Cincinnati, 
O., published a book of two hundred pages, which he called The 
Columbian Harmonist. Rev. Sanniel Willard, of Greenfield, , in 
1 8 18, published the Deer field Collection of Sacred Music, in which he 
introduces some quaint and remarkable ideas — such as that three varieties 
of time can be made to answer all the purposes of nine; that the vowels 
must not be prolonged, and that the singers should "suspend the time 
of a movement and shorten the notes wherever a pause would be required 
in good reading." E. Goodale, at Hallowell, Me., in 1819, published The 
Hallowell Collection of Sacred Music, and Jonathan M. Wainwright, A. M., 
of Hartford, Conn., issued his work, entitled Chants, "adapted to the 
hymns in the morning and evening service of the Protestant Epis- 
copal church." He introduces this work, in the preface, by sa3-ing : 
"Metrical music is but a modern invention, and adds nothing to true 

devotion and the worship of God; the conceit of versifying the psalms, 
though it seems in some degree to unite the pecuhar advantages of the 
anthem and chant, in no less degree excludes the excellences and effects of 
both; and owes its success not so much to its propriety and fitness for the 
holy sanctuary as to its gratifying the natural propensity of mankind to 
be pleased with rhymes and meter. ' ' And now the piano-forte began to 
assert its importance and to demand attention of musical authors. In 
1820 E. Riley, New York, published Vocal Melodies, a collection of foreign 
airs adapted to American words and arranged for the pianoforte, the 
music being engraved, and published in numbers of eight quarto pages, 
the whole work embracing twelve numbers. In 1820, also we note the 
publishing of The Western Minstrel, by A. C. Heinrich, of Kentuck\-, 
author of the Dawnino; of Music. This was a selection of songs and airs 
for voice and pianoforte, and Heinrich sa^^s of it : " If I should be able 
bj- this effort to create one single star in the west, no one would be ever 
more proud than myself to be called an American musician." 

We have here traced the uneventful course of psalmody up to the 
time of the appearance of lyowell Mason upqji the scene. The same 
activity had been developed in New York, Boston and Philadelphia in the 
larger forms of music, but these aspects of progress will be more appro- 
priately dealt with in another department. It will be recalled that Francis 
Brown in 1809 struck directly at the root of the difficulty at that time 
in the waj' of successful effort and true direction in musical life, when he 
deplored the absence of incentive through the "prevalence of a corrupt 
taste. ' ' The truth was really that there was no generally cultivated musical 
taste at all to inspire genius to its greatest results. The formation of a 
popular musical sentiment, in the proper sense of the term, as the broad 
foundation of the musical culture of the future was to be the work of a 
master spirit who now appeared upon the stage in the person of Lowel 


LiOWKi.i. Masox, Founder of National Mrsic. 

;N the advancement of everj- art and every interest it is the unvarv'- 
ing experience that from time to time men are raised up by an 
overruling destiny for the performance of a work wider than any 
personal ambition of their own and of more far-reaching influence 
than their brightest dreams might suggest. As William Billings, in 
his time, was the apostle of a musical progress which in its day 
marked a great advance upon anything that had preceded it, so when the 
time was ripe for a second era of nuisical development, we find a new 
instrument of progress in the person of Lowell Mason, to whose labors and 
efforts are due a debt of gratitude, on account of the grand results to 
which they paved the waj^ — results that it is yet, perhaps, too early to 
estimate, but that are clearly and undeniably perceptible, and are readily 
acknowledged b>^ the broadest minds to-day in American musical culture. 
In the general progress of art there are so many figures of interest and 
importance — so manj' factors converging toward the common center of a 
higher stage of evolution, that it is ofttimes difficult to credit to its due 
and proper source, the origin or formulation of a higher creed. The pro- 
gress of one art student merges insensibl}' into the labors of another, 
neither constituting in itself a complete factor, but united forming a chain 
of influences which ultimately, through the special effort of some master 
mind, have their fruition in the removal of the whole stage of musical 
activity to a distinctly higher plane. The work of Billings was elaborated 
and elevated by many contemporary and subsequent workers in the same 
field of musical cultivation — Law, Hastings, Hooker, Gram, Little, etc., 
— but until the time of Lowell Mason there was no master spirit to give 
new direction, new ambition and new object and aims to the career of 
musical progress. True, he had been closely preceded in influence by 
Thomas Hastings, the results of whose ser\'ices to music as a purely 
devotional art are not to be underestimated. Hastings was born in Litch- 

field, Conn., Oct. 15, 17S7. lie dedicaltd liim.self earl\- to music, and at 
the age of twenty-six became a member of the Handel and Haydn Societ)-, 
of Utica, N. Y., the existence of which may be mentioned, en passant , as an 
evidence of progre.ssing musical taste developing into culture. In con- 
junction with Warriner, of that place, in 1822, he published J/?«/fa Sacra, 
which after became merged with the Springfield Collection. In the same 
>-ear he published a Dissertation on Musical Taste, which he afterward in 
1853 republished in an enlarged form, but with many modifications of his 
first \-iews upon the aesthetic grounds of music. The scope of Hastings' 
usefulness was limited by his extreme views regarding the subordination 
of the objects of music to the purposes of religious devotion. He made 
the error of supposing the highest and the broadest function of music to 
be that of exemplifying gospel teachings, rather than its real mission of 
beautifying and elevating religion, in common with every other civilizing 
influence. As he himself stated, he was " not willing to acknowledge excel- 
lence in any music of this kind [oratorio] aii)' further than it can be made 
to subserve the great ends of religious edification." The earnestness and 
sincerit}^ of a pious nature cut short his true appreciation of the beaut>- of 
the art. In short, he failed to realize that music, the highest language of 
the emotions, caimot be cut down to the pattern of anj^ creed or dogma, 
but lives to brighten and beautify every aspect, every instinct, every am- 
bition and every aspiration and sentiment of the nobler elements of human 
life. Yet the impress of his usefulness was neither narrow nor unim- 
portant. He did much to promote correct singing of established church 
music, and supplied new and original work characterized by general cor- 
rectness of harmony. He published many collections of psalm tunes and 
books of elementary instruction, and was the author of versification that 
indicates more than ordinary talent in that branch of musico-literary activ- 
ity. In 1832 he settled in New York, and the balance of his lifetime, 
which lasted till May 2, 1S72, was devoted to the improvement of church 
choir music according to his light. 

Dr. Lowell Mason, who entered the sphere of musical activity almost 
contemporaneously with Hastings, was a man of broader mind and higher 
literarv- qualifications. His ideas of art were not restricted bj^ the limita- 
tions which characterized the activity of Hastings. His musical ambition 
was unfettered by the conventional restrictions which bounded and defined 
the labor of the latter. He introduced himself into musical life with a 
distinct and well defined goal, and he labored with zeal and intelligence 
until he had seen effected a complete revolution in the character and ob- 
jects of all musical activity in America. He was born in Medfield, Mass., 
Jan. 8, 1792. From childhood he had manifested an intense love for 

music, and had devoted all his spare time and effort to improving himself 
according to such opportunities as were available to him. At the age of 
twentj- he found himself filling a clerkship in a banking house in Savan- 
nah, Ga. Here he lost no opportunity' of gratifying his passion for mu- 
sical advancement, and was fortunate also to meet for the first time a 
thoroughly qualified instructor, in the person of F. L. Abel, probably a 
member of the noted English nuisical family of that name. Applying his 
spare hours assiduously to the cultivation of the pursuit to which his pas- 
sion inclined him, he soon acquired a proficiency that enabled him to enter 
the field of original composition, and his first work of this kind was em- 
bodied in the compilation of a collection of church music. The founda- 
tion of this work he had in the Sacred Melodies of William Gardner, an 
English composer, who had created many psalm tunes of exquisite melody 
by incorporating in their construction musical ideas gathered from Haydn 
and Mozart. With selections from these were included many of young 
Mason's own productions, and the book, as a whole, in manuscript, was 
offered first to a Philadelphia publisher, and afterward to of Boston, 
without success. Just at this critical moment, when he was to about i^etum 
with his unappreciated MSS. to his desk at Savannah, it was fortunately 
brought to the attention of the Boston Handel and Haydn Society, and 
after securing the approval of Dr. G. K. Jackson, who added to it .some 
work of his own, it was finally published in 1822 as the Boston Handel 
and Haydn Society Collection of Music. It sprang soon into universal 
popularity, being at once adopted by the singing schools of New England, 
and through this means entering into the church choirs, to whom it opened 
up a higher field of haniionic Ijeauty. Its career of success ran through 
some seventeen editions. Mason had now found the true sphere of his 
life labor. He soon removed from Savannah to Boston, and in 1826 we 
find him prominent and admired, lecturing upon church music and ad- 
vocating reforms calculated to elevate the musical tone of this important 
feature of public worship, in which he rendered eminent and lasting 
service. One of his lectures on this subject was published, and attract- 
ing the favorable attention of the press, was given a wide field of cir- 
culation, and his ideas of musical reform were thus disseminated in the 
most direct and effective manner, reaching out beyond the limit open to 
any individual activity. Mr. Mason's central idea, however, was the 
promulgation and diffusion of impro\'ed musical knowledge by means of 
the introduction of the study of music in the public schools. His saga- 
cious mind recognized that the most effective means and the most direct 
route to the building up of a general musical cultivation based upon sound 
musical knowledge and appreciation were to be attained by infusing, upon 

lyw-xLJj^ v--o£-.t:i,x/^>^<_ 

true principles, a taste for musical cultivation into the education of the 
youth of the land. He foresaw that thus would be founded an influence 
that would in a few brief years afford a broad foundation for higher mu- 
sical effort, upon which the natural and symmetrical growth of the art in 
America might be left safely to depend. Whatever of purely art ambition 
he himself may have entertained, he set aside for the accomplishment of a 
purpose of broader utility, and he thereafter devoted the labor of his life 
to the preparation of a musical .soil in which for all the future there might 
be the germinating influence of true and healthy growth and progress. 
By 1830 he had formulated his plan in which he had the ready and earnest 
co-operation of George J. Webb, Hon. Sauuiel Eliot and other gentlemen, 
of Boston, who had for some time been interested by him in the importance 
of cultivating musical talent and awakening musical taste. Just at this 
jiuicture an incident occurred which introduced to Mr. Mason a new and 
powerful element of progress, and gav^e a somewhat different bent from 
that which he had contemplated, to the course of his effort. William C. 
Woodbridge, an American teacher of high repute as an earnest and success- 
ful educator, had been compelled to visit Europe for the restoration of 
health, shattered by too close application to his labors. He made use of 
the ojjportunities opened up by this tour to make a study of European 
educational institutions, with the view of incorporating into the American 
common school system such elements of improvement as he found useful 
and practicable. While thus engaged in examining into the Pestalozzian 
sj'stem of education as practiced in Germany and Switzerland, he became 
especially impressed with the importance of music as an educational factor. 
In .short, he became convinced by his observation there of the practicabil- 
ity and advantage, upon other than purely musical grt)unds, of a sj-stem, 
which Dr. Mason had at home alreadj' shaped out as the highest means to 
the end of musical progress. 

On returning home, Mr. Woodbridge brought over the ideas of 
Pfeiffer, Kobler and Nageli on this system of singing instruction, and Mr. 
Mason was soon convinced, on testing the capabilities of the system, that it 
offered an admirable means to insure success for his cherished object of 
incorporating musical instruction in public school education. It cannot 
be said that he accepted this innovation upon the methods to which he 
had been accustomed spontaneously. His nature was not of that kind. 
While he was progressi\-e he was also intelligently conservative. He had 
already attained phenomenal success as a teacher. But having thoroughl)- 
tested the Pestalozzian system, he became convinced of its great advan- 
tages, and was thereafter its earnest and enthusiastic promoter. In Jaini- 
ary, 1832, a resolution previously submitted to the primary school board 

b}^ G. H. Snelling was adopted : " That one .school from each district be 
selected for the introduction of systematic instruction in vocal music," 
etc. This experiment received only a partial trial, and Dr. Mason became 
convinced that it was necessary for the success of this movement that 
more potent influences be brought to bear in shaping public opinion as an 
influence with the educational authorities. He himself organized gratu- 
itous classes for children, and gave concerts illustrating their proficiency 
and the practicability of his scheme for primary musical education, the 
proceeds of which were devoted to public charities. Thus popular interest 
and .sympathy became aroused. He had been since 1827 president of the 
Boston Handel and Haydn Society, but as the work, useful and important 
in its results, of this organization was concentrated upon the development 
of taste for classical music, he decided to organize a separate society for 
the promotion of his object. In 183 1 he declined re-election in the old 
society, and in 1832 absolutely refused to ser\-e longer, that he might 
devote unrestricted effort to the new work. He enlisted the co-operation 
of George J. Webb and Hon. S. A. Eliot, as above mentioned, and in 
companj- with other gentlemen organized the Boston Academy of Music, 
in whose name was thereafter carried on the work in which Dr. Mason 
was in reality the central and pivotal figure. In fact, he was the vital 
force of the society during the course of its existence for progress and use- 
fulness. Dr. Mason relinquished a lucrative situation to devote his whole 
time to the instruction of the classes, and Mr. Webb, at that time organist 
of St. Paul's church, was secured as assistant professor. The first report 
of the society says : 

la order to excite the interest and confidence of the public two juvenile con- 
certs were given in the spring of 1833 at which the performances were exclusively by 
the pupils of Mr. Mason. The repetition of both was called for, and the crowded and 
attentive audiences gave ample evidence of the satisfaction which was felt. 

In this yesLT the whole number of pupils in charge of the academy 
exceeded i , 500, Dr. Ma.son teaching 400 and Mr. Webb 1 50, in regular 
classes, and each having supplementary classes. It took time, however, 
even with the demonstration of results given by frequent public concerts, 
to remove prejudices, and it was not till September, 1836, that the school 
board, on petitions from the citizens, authorized the introduction of music 
in the public schools, and even then the city council failed to make the 
necessar)' appropriation. Dr. Mason, however, had practically attained his 
end. Financial object was nothing to him, and his proposition to teach in 
one of the schools for one year, free of charge, was accepted, and he not only 
did this, btit furnished his pupils with the necessary books and materials 
at his own expense. The result was a report of the committee on music, in 
August, 1838, which testified to the entire success of the experiment, and 

said ; "The committet; will add, on the authority of the masters of the 
Havves school, that the scholars are further advanced in their other studies 
at the end of this than of an}- other school j-ear." As a result, now seven 
years after the enterprise was first taken in hand by Dr. Mason, of his 
unselfish and generous labors, a work was accomplished whose influence 
has ever since been felt, and continues to expand in the sphere of its 
beneficent operation, throughout the whole United States. In the last year 
mentioned music was formally adopted in Boston as a public study, Dr. 
Mason was placed in charge of the direction of the work, and the school 
committee in their report of 1839 justly say : "It may be regarded as 
the Magna Charta of muscal education in America." Thus was founded 
a factor in musical development which not only endures, but takes added, 
vigor with age, and borrows fresh strength from each new demand 
upon its resources ; the circle of its influence is ever widening, and it 
gathers power for the advancement of the art of music with every 
added responsibility. From Boston, as an example, and at first by the 
direct activity of Dr. Mason personally, the use of musical education 
in the schools was copied, and to-day is the universal rule in eveni' enlight- 
ened connnunity. Thus in Dr. Mason's labors were founded the germi- 
nating principles of a national musical intelligence and knowledge, and 
afforded a soil upon which all higher musical culture has been founded. 
The desire for musical advancement thus established, and the capacity 
created for appreciation of the higher mission of the art, has been the 
fallow field in which all subsequent endeavor has been rooted, and 
to which whate\-er success that may have attended the labors of those 
musicians who have turned the advantages of foreign education into a 
source of income are due; and yet we find many to-day, who are substan- 
tially reapmg the pecuniary benefits of the broad and general elementarj- 
culture upon true musical principles for which Dr. Mason prepared and 
made easy the way, endeavoring to undermine and belittle the true 
greatness whose labors have led to results so important. 

Dr. Mason, however, was not a man of a single idea. His mental 
activity sought other fields of musical usefulness. Having prepared a 
book of instruction for teachers of \-ocal music, published as the Manual 
of the Boston A'cadcniy of Music, itself a novel idea at that time, he was 
led to formulate a plan for the convening of classes of teachers, in which 
they might' be trained to better methods, and profit by interchange of 
experience. The finst of these classes, which developed into the " Teach- 
ers' Conventions," was formed of twelve members. By 1838, the class 
had included representation from ten states, and numbered 134 teachers. 
So evident was the usefulness of this institution that demand .soon arose 

for professors from the academy to hold classes in other cities, and thus 
arose the " Musical Conventions," which shortly began to be an important 
factor in shaping the course of musical development. It gradually assim- 
ilated modern musical ideas ; its assembly of the best talent in a state or 
district enabled the production of a higher class of music, and thus, 
through its means, the past generation became first acquainted with the 
beauties of the standard choruses of the great oratorios ; and it was the fore- 
runner of the later musical festival, and made possible such events as the 
Peace Jubilees of subsequent date. The career of musical conventions will 
be elsewhere dealt with; meanwhile, let us revert to the work which 
he performed for church music. Up to the time when he formulated the 
Handel and Haydn Collection, sacred music was in an anomalous and 
unsatisfactorj' condition. The old tunes were Lung without musical 
training or system, each singer following the bent of his own musical 
fancy. With the introduction of the ' ' fugue, tunes ' ' came confusion 
worse confounded, since composers who possessed natural talent without 
cultivation or knowledge of the rules of harmony, made each a law unto 
himself and flooded the time with compositions of chaotic imperfection, 
and destructive of true musical taste. Dr. Mason, in his book above 
mentioned, reformed these abuses bj- presenting harmonies so attractive 
as to recall the wandering musical talent of the day from the paths in 
which it had been astray. His Carmina Sacra, the most popular tune 
book ever put in print, appealed so powerfully to musical instinct, and 
opened up such a field of pure musical delight, that it permanently con- 
firmed American musical taste in the higher and better style of sacred 
music. So strongly did it appeal to the innate sense of musical pro- 
priety, that its sale reached half a million copies, and in every quarter of 
the Union singing schools sprang up to practice and share in the new field 
of harmonic beautj-, to which it opened the way. 

A reference to this branch of his work would not be complete without 
drawing attention to the trulj' religious sentiment which characterized 
this branch of his work. The solemnity and devotional meaning of his 
sacred music was the predominating thought, both in his composition and 
in his teaching. His church music was not only a musical service, but in 
this respect was subordinate to its higher devotional meaning. He 
believed that such music could be only truly interpreted by those partici- 
pating in it entering truly and sincerely into its religious meaning. This 
idea is scoffed at by Dr. Ritter, who speaks about Dr. Mason's "semi- 
amateurish ideas about church music." Yet it is the true principle and 
fundamental element of legitimate art that the interpreter must enter into 
and surrender himself to the emotional meaning of the music. Dr. 

Mason's wisdom was higher than that of his critic, even from the stricth' 
art standpoint. The soul of music is its essence, and, other things being 
equal, the singer who realizes and feels the diviyie afflatus that is a part of 
the music of the worship of God, must be incomparably superior in the 
truth and fidelity of his interpretation to him who is but the cold and 
unimpassioncd exemplificator of its mechanical art features. Had Dr. 
Mason sought a higher field of musical activity, that is, from the exacting 
view of modern art, he would undoubtedly have satisfied whatever of 
personal ambition he might have entertained in this direction; but his 
useful life would have been shorn of much of its utilit}', and of many 
of those important results which followed his faithful and competent labor 
upon a less exalted level. 

Of the real intrinsic merit of his work an incident will give a fair 
idea from a point of judgment of much higher authority than of his 
pseudo American critic : Dr. William Mason relates that while he was 
in Leipzig, liis father sent a cop}- of a new book of his to him, a present 
to Moritz Hauptmann, the great theorist, and William Mason's teacher of 
harmoii}-, with Lowell Mason's compliments. William Mason was morti- 
fied to death at the very idea. "What," he asked himself, "will the 
great Hauptmann think of my father when I give him this simple book 
as a musical production ? " It had to be done. So he took the book and 
at the end of the lesson, at the very minute of leaving the room, he 
delivered his father's message and the book. At the next lesson he hoped 
Hauptmann had forgotten all aI)out it. But no. Hauptmann spoke in 
praise of the work, saying that he had had great pleasure in looking it 
over. Be.sides the extremely well made elementary department, as he 
said, he found the harmonies of the tunes dignified and churchlike, and 
he especially complimented the author's success in writing good, plain 
counterpoint, which was at the same time singable and melodious, as well 
as dignified. He added that this was one of the most difficult tasks in 
musical composition, and that many musicians failed in it whose scholastic 
attainments were of a high order. 

The ground we have here traversea will show the three great respects 
in which Lowell Mason stands in important relation to American music. 
First: His books of psalmody were the first works of their kind published 
in this countr}' which were respectable from a musical standpoint. That 
they met and satisfied the public desire for a better element, is plain from 
their immediate success, and from the large number of tunes in all the 
hymn and tune books derived from his works still sung in all Protestant 
churches. Second : The personality of Dr. Mason was of great use to the 
art of music in this countrj-, or rather to the American appreciation of it. 

He was of a strong mind, dignified manners, yet sweet and engaging; 
religious, and of so commanding a mind that he would have carried weight 
in any line he might have chosen. Hence he was able to combine llie 
elements of public and influential support for music teaching in the 
schools, the Boston Academy, and his great choir, as well as for his works. 
It was under the auspices of the Boston Academy that a Beethoven 
symphony was first played in this countrj^ by an orchestra. The conductor 
was Mr. George James Webb, author of the well known hj-mn tune. 
The Morning Light is Breaking. It is also in point that all the subse- 
quent leaders in American psalmody, excepting the immediate disciples of 
Mr. Hastings, modeled their methods and their manners after him. 
Third : As a musical educator, and as an advocate of musical instruction 
in the public schools, Lowell Mason did a great work. His personality 
was so commanding that he held high rank as lecturer in the state teachers' 
institutes, lecturing not only upon musical instruction, but upon the 
Pestalozzian ideas in gejieral. The whole apparatus of elementar}' musical 
tenninology was very much improved \>y Mason, and the singing school 
method has been bettered little or none since his time. Mason had 
aspirations higher than psalmod}'. He compiled, doubtless in part through 
Mr. Webb's co-operation and inspiration, the Boston Acadc7ny Collection of 
Choruses, containing such Handelian favorites as Hallelujah, Hailsto7ie, The 
Horse and His Rider, the favorite chorus from Joshua, Mozart's Gloria, from 
Twelfth Mass, Haydn's The Heavens are Telling — in short, the best 
things in the chorus repertory — and later editors have restricted the field 
instead of enlarging it. These works Mason conducted himself and 
sought not only proper attack and the externals of chorus performance, 
but also good musical expression. This point he carried to high degree. 
In his later years, in 1851 or thereabouts, he held, with George F. Root, 
normal classes at North Reading, Mass., lasting three months. A daily 
exercise was a chorus practice upon classical choruses and Mendelssohn's 
part songs. The voices were of fine quality, and of course a fine degree 
of sympathy was reached by this daih- practice. In the end thej- sang 
the choruses of the Messiah and other things about as well as they have 
been heard. Musical connoisseurs came from great distances to hear 
them, among others the celebrated English music publisher, Mr. James 
Alfred Novello, who said without reserv^e that he had never heard any- 
thing so well done. Mr. Root tells of one occasion when the chorus 
. Behold the Lamb of (iod was in study, Mason was verj- much annoyed at 
the stiifness and inexpressive manner of its delivery. He talked to the 
class, in his own deeply feeling and impressive way, of the passion. After 
talking, they would try to sing it again. At length he affected the class 

almost entirely to tears. He called for one more trial, phrase by phrase, 
the voices singly. One of the altos, more affected than any of the others, 
and the possessor a noble voice, gave the key. She sang the opening 
phrase. Behold the Lamb of God with such fervor, Mr. Root said, that 
never to his dying day would he forgent it. It went through the class 
like an electric shock. The whole chorus was then sung as an act of 
worship, and the hour closed with silent prayer. It was his depth of 
religious feeling, and his earnestness, as well as his capability as a leader 
that made his instruction so inspiring. A scene like that mentioned 
contrived beforehand would have fallen flat; " Mason knew how to control 
the currents of feeling, and direct them. Of his work in the musical 
conventions W. S. V>. Mathews, who in his j'ounger daj-s caught and 
benefited by the Mason enthusiasm, tells the writer : Mason was a natural 
teacher, full of tact, logical, handy with crayon at the blackboard, and 
delightfully simple in his phraseology. In this capacity he exerted a 
great influence. He used to go as far west as Rochester, N. Y., and meet 
choruses of 500 voices, many of them teachers of singing who had come 
100 miles for the occasion. I used to meet a singing teacher in 
western New York who told me what those Rochester meetings were 
to him. He was a plain man, a carpenter by trade, playing the violin and 
melodeon, and singing with a good tenor voice and teaching classes in 
winter. His enthusiasm for Handel and Haydn and Beethoven (for 
Hallelujah to the Father, of Beetho\-en, was in the Boston Academy book) 
was equal to that of an Englishman. 

Dr. Mason in 181 7 married Miss Abigail Gregory, of Leesborough, 
Mass. The family consisted of four sons, Daniel Gregory, Lowell, Will- 
iam and Henrj'. The two former founded the publishing house of Mason 
Brothers, dissolved by the death of the former in 1869. Lowell and Henry 
are at the head of the great organ manufactory of Mason & Hamlin. Dr. 
William Mason is one of the most eminent musicians America has pro- 
duced. Dr. Mason visited Europe in 1837, and embodied his observations 
in the well known ilfiisical Letters, and again in 1850 spent nearly two 
years across the water. In 1852 he purchased the celebrated musical 
library of Dr. H. C. Rinck, of Darmstadt, which was bequeathed to Yale 
College, with his other valuable collections of musical works. On return- 
ing from Europe on this second trip, he made his home in New York; and 
in 1854 established the home of his later days at " Silverspring," a beau- 
tiful residence, on the side of Orange mountain, New Jersey, where he 
died in 1872, at the age of eighty years. His autograph, written on his 
eightieth birthday, will be found on the sixth page of this book. 


Cakkkr ok Oi'Kka to 1840. 

^iT'/^/Sii » H I Llv music was struggling- out ot the restricting iimuences of 
tiLW'ip '■''^ ^^"-^ psalmody system, and emerging into a true art life, whose 
*ti):,5:V>>a? boundaries were being defined by Dr. Lowell Mason, there had 
WS^P arisen a faint appreciation of the operatic form. Before the war 
J^^ of the revolution there had been operatic pieces given in New York 
I I by straggling companies from the old world. John Gay's Bn^'i^ars' 
^ Opera (lyondon, 1727), which attained such wide popularity in 
England, was performed in New York in 1750. In 1751 the pastoral 
Colin and IVia-be\7a.s sung in costume by Mrs. Taylor and Mr. Woodhani, 
and was accompanied on the bill with the farce, Dci'll to Pay. In 1768 
Bickerstaff's comic opera, Loi'c in a Village, and in 1773 his opera, Maid 
of the M^ill, were produced, with Miss Storer as the star. The orchestras 
at that time were supplied from the British military bands, and doubtless 
many of these remained to give direction to later effort in this branch of 
music. After the revolution English opera continued a fitful and unim- 
portant existence in New York and Philadelphia principally, and was in 
favor in Charleston and Baltimore. Dibdin's Deserter, in 1792 ; Shield's 
llie Farmer, 1793; Storace's A^o Song, No Supper, and Dibdin's The 
Waterman, in the same 5-ear indicated a sufficient appreciation of operatic 
performances to attract professionals. In the .season of 1793-94 ^ "S'^'^' 
theatre was opened at Philadelphia, with Miss Broadhurst, from Coveiit 
Garden, London, as the chief attraction. The same season witnessed the 
production of a number of popular English operas in New York. There 
was a marked improvement in the orchestras. That at Philadelphia was 
led by Reinagle, who presided at the harpsichord, and in New York 
James Hewitt, Hodgkiiison, actor and theatrical manager, and George 
Geilfert, an organist and music teacher of local popularity, infused better 
methods and recruited the performers from French and English immi- 
grants. In 1794-95 several new operas of Dibdin, Arnold, Storace and 

Carter wx-rc produced, a;id at this time ]!eiijamin Carr, an Englisli l)allad 
singer of repute, settled in this countrj-, and appeared in New York in 
Love in a ] lllaffc. An overture of his composition was successfullj- per- 
formed by a band, now improved to respectable proficieiic\'. Carr later on 
settled in Philadelphia as a music teacher, where about 1.S15 he published 
a collection of the popular ballads of the English stage. In 1796, among 
other operas alread}^ in favor, Reeve's The Purse, Shield's Robin Hood, 
Arnold's TItc Afounlainccr and Attwood's TItc Prisoner were presented. 
Miss Broadhurst, already mentioned, and Miss Brett were the popular 
singers in these presentations. In December, I79<S, Mrs. Oldmixon, who 
had been, as Miss George, s. London fa\-orite in operetta, made her appear- 
ance in New York in Arnold's Z;//'/^ a;/flf Varieo, and became a poinilar 
favorite. She afterward, on leaving the stage, settled in Philadelphia, 
where she established an academy for young ladies. In 1799 an opera, 
by A'ictor Pelissier, a cornetist and composer, who had been leader of the 
band for tliree years previous, with libretto b\- Dunlap, entitled 'P/ic I'inl- 
</•,'(, was i)erformed with Mrs. Oldmixon in the title role, and met with 
success — though popularity at that time was no test of excellence. Eng- 
lish operas and operettas contintied to be produced, both in New York and 
Philadelphia. About iSio Charles Geilfert, leader of the Park Theatre 
orchestra, came into prominence as composer of music for .several plays, and 
also for his skill in arrangement and adaptation, and for a number of 
>ears did good sen-ice to music. In 1813 the works of Henry Rowley 
Bishop, the famous English composer, came into vogue, and in 1S16-17 
Charles Incledon, a noted English vocalist, and T. Philips, a Dublin singer, 
called by Kelly in his reminiscences, the "very best acting singer on the 
English stage," came to New York, and gave higher tone to operatic per- 
formances for a time, as well as left a lasting impression for good. The 
former returned to England in 1818. Philips made a.second visit in 1S23, 
and sang the tenor part in the Messiah on its first complete production by 
the Boston Handel and Haydn Society. He also gave a course of lectures 
on singing in Boston, and as he had becoine a sound musician under the 
instruction of the celebrated Dr. Arnold, no doubt left a favorable influ- 
ence upon the course of musical culture, at that time taking definite shape 
in the Bay City. I']) to 1.S23 many English operas continued to be pro- 
duced, in which the names of Philips, Richings and Paemian, Mrs. 
Holman and Miss Catherine L,eesugg were prominent. This year .saw the 
last appearance of Philips on the American stage in the Duenna. 
in 1S23 for the first time was given John Howard Payne's dramatic ojJera, 
Clari, tlie Maid of Milan, which contained the now world-famous and 
pereimial favorite " Home, Sweet Home." Payne was born in New York 

<f-cr/€yL^Jc^'^^'^'^^<C j!^^r^^^ 

in 1 792. While \ ct a boy tmployed as clerk in a store he engaged in lite"- 
ary work, publishing a paper called The Thespian Mirror. In 1S07 
he for a time edited the periodical, Pastime. In 1807 he made his 
appearance on the stage, and, meeting with encouragement, sailed for 
England and appeared at Drury Lane Theatre in 18 13. There he was 
successful, and besides Clari produced several operas of considerable merit. 
He returned to his native country in 1S32, and after years of poverty and 
neglect was given an appointment as United States consul at Tunis in 1851, 
and died there the following year. Musical ambition began to grow, and 
in 1S25 an effort was made to produce Dcr Freyschut-, with Miss Kelh-, 
sister of the Irish composer, as "Agatha," and Mrs. Luse, wife of the 
then leader of tlie orchestra, as "Linda." It was imperfectly presented 
in ])arts, and was very far from Weber's conception, or from the perform- 
ances of this work which we have seen in American cities in recent years ; 
but it had an extensive ran for those days, and doubtless opened up a 
vision, seen from afar, of the better and brighter world of music. In the 
same year Manuel Garcia, the versatile and. accomplished Spanish com- 
poser, singer and operatic manager, carried into effect his long-cherished 
design of founding Italian opera in New York, and in the fall of this year 
arrived for this purj^ose from Liverpool, bringing with him a company 
comprising Crivclli, tenor, his own son Manuel, Angrisani, ba.sso, De 
Rosich, Mmes. Barbieri and Garcia, and Mdlle. Marie Garcia afterward 
famous as Mmc. Malibran. 

Up to this time the course of musical progress in the operatic field 
had been largely superficial. Such operas as had been produced had been 
brought over from London and mainly presented by English artists, and 
while they were fairly supported, and no. doubt enjoyed by the Amer- 
ican audiences, it can hardly be .said that an intelligent musical apprecia- 
tion of that field of art activity had yet been awakened. The general 
knowledge of nnisical principles which was afterward to result from the 
labors of Mason and his co-workers was not yet at hand, upon which 
to found a genuine musical taste. The only real and important advance 
effected had been in orchestra, and this was yet so imperfect as to be 
the derision of European visitors. Garcia opened up Italian opera to this ill- 
prepared and inadequately cultivated field by the presentation of Rossini's 
// Barbiere. The occasion assembled the most fashionable audience, 
according to the reports of the event, that had ever been brought together 
in an American theatre. Signer Angrisani, with his "powerful low and 
mellow tones " impressed them with " wonder and delight," while Mdlle. 
Garcia ' ' was the magnet who attracted all eyes and won all hearts. ' ' She 
is described liy Ireland as in person ' ' about the middle height, slighth^ 

iinbonpoi)il ; her eyes dark, arch ami expressive; and a phnful smile is 
almost coiistanth- the companion of lier lips." The enthusiasm, however, 
had no real basis of life. It was not founded upon intelligent musical 
comprehension or appreciation of the beauties of the opera. The music 
appealed to no realizing sense of its emotional meaning. The situations 
seemed to the New Yorker absurd, the passions unintelligible, the love 
making ridiculous; and while the exquisite beauty of its divine strains, 
rendered with all the fervor and brilliancy of true arti.sts, made an impres- 
sion ujMjn the senses, the apparent success of the opera was in reality 
attributable to its novelty. It was a nine days' wonder, that soon lost its 
glamor by the leveling process of familiarity, and although Garcia gave 
many performances of the operas of Rossini, and some of his own excellent 
works, the receipts gradually dwindled, and he recognized the failure of 
his mission by giving his last performance before leaving for Mexico, on 
Sept. 30, 1826. Marie Garcia had in March of this year been given to a 
reluctant marriage with one Malibran, a French wine merchant of reputed 
wealth, but who afterward failed, and was abandoned by his wife. She 
remained in New York till the fall of 1S27, taking part in musical events, 
her last appearance being a farewell benefit in Boieldieu's/(Vf« dc Paris. 
Angrisani also remained in New York. English operas resumed their 
swa\-, and Malibran scored in these much greater popular success than she 
had attained in her highest field. Mrs. Austin, who came to America 
in 1829, succeeded her as the favorite prima donm. She popularized Arne's 
Artaxcrxcs, Boieldieu's Caliph of Bagdad, Rossini's Cinderella, etc., 
translated and adapted, and Der Freyseltulz, which all seem a little later on 
to have acquired a permanent popularity. About this date Charles Edward 
Horn, an English singer and composer of eminence, came to America. 
Grove states the date at 1833, but it appears that it must have been 
at least a >'ear earlier. He performed an important service for the progress 
of music by introducing many English operas, as well as by competent 
adaptations and translations of such works as Dido, Die Zauberflotc, 
Fra Diavolo and other standard operas of high class. No doubt the 
insight into the emotional meaning of these important and representative 
works thus afforded, and the more intelligent idea presented of both the 
harmonic and dramatic movement and their association and inter-relation 
and dependence, did much to form musical taste and to lead to a truer 
appreciation of similar operas, when presented in a foreign tongue. 
After a period of association with the Park Theatre, Horn, through the 
failure of his voice, resulting from se\-ere illness, reiired from the stage, 
and in compan}' with a Mr. Davis went into business as an importer and 
publisher of music. During this period he produced the oratorio Rcmis- 

Miss Paton 

s/'oii of Sill. In 1843 lie rcUinied to Englaiul, where his oratorio Salan 
was performed by the London Melophonic Society in 1845, and he was 
appointed musical director to the Princess Theatre. He returned to 
America in 1847, ^""^ in July of that year was appointed conductor of the 
Boston Handel and Haydn Society, as again in June, 1848. He died in 
Boston, Oct. 21, 1849. Referring to Horn's arrangement of Mozart's opera, 
/)/<■ Zaubcrfotc, produced March 17, 1832, Ritter, with his accustomed 
sneer, says: "Mr. Horn, who .seems to have been a prolific adapter, 
'did the job,' " evidentlj' without regard to the merit of the work, or, appar- 
ently, knowledge of its architect. Horn was a compo.ser and musician of 
merit, the author of Lalla Rookli, and other important compositions, 
including Honest Frauds, containing the e.\:quisite ballad, rendered 
famous by Mme. Malibran, "The Deep, Deep Sea." In 1832 there 
were at least five theatres in New York, the Park, Bowery, Lafayette, 
Chatham and Richmond Hill. In this year at the latter, an Italian opera 
season was opened bj" Montressor, with a fair company of Italian artists 
and the finest orchestra that had yet appeared in New York, introducing 
for the first time two oboes. The sea.soii la.sted thirty-five nights, and 
at the end of that time collapsed, and tlie company was dispersed. In 1 833 
Kn,a;lish ojiera predominated, with headquarters at the Park Theatre, and 
with Mr. and Mrs. Wood as the leading singers. They introduced La 
Soiuiambula, repeated Cinderella seventy nights, and had a distin- 
guished success with Robert tlie Devil, arranged and adapted. In Novem- 
ber of this year, the eftbrts of Lorenzo Da Ponte, through an association 
of New York gentlemen, for that purpose, resulted in the opening of a 
new opera house with adequate facilities for the proper and effective 
representation of opera. It was decorated and uphoLstered with great 
elegance, and was in all its appointments upon the European model. Da 
Ponte had had a somewhat remarkable career. He was born in Cenada, 
\'enice, 1749; became professor of rhetoric at Treviso; was exiled for political 
utterances; through the influence of vSalieri was made poet-laureate at 
\'ienna, and thus became the librettist of Mozart's Don Giovanni, Cost Fan 
Tntti and Figaro. Subsequently he drifted to Paris, London and ulti- 
mately to New York, where, after a de.sultory career in various business 
enterprises, he settled down as teacher of Italian. In 1829 he wrote the 
opera /.'Ape Mnsieale, nuisic adapted from Rossini, for the appearance 
of his niece. Under the management of Da Ponte, associated with 
Signor Rivanfoli, the new opera house was opened, with a standard 
company of foreign artists and an orchestra of unquestionable e.xcellence. 
The setting of the operas was also adequate in scenery, dresses, decoration, 
etc. They produced a number of first-class works, and when their season 

Lorenzo Da Ponte. 

was brought to a sudden close by the flight of Signora Fauti, the prima 
donna, the results of their operations were summed up in a statement 
furnished to the New York papers by Rivanfoli, as follows : The total 
expenses for the season of eight months were $8 1 ,054.9.8, while the receipts 
fell short of this sura by the very substantial deficit of $29,275,09. This 
furnishes an idea of the value as a speculation of operatic enterprises in 
New York in the early decades of the present century. For many years 
thereafter the experiences of impresarios were scarcely less discouraging. 
As late as 1850 Max Maretzek published a volume entitled ' ' Crotchets and 
Quavers," in which he feelinglj' alludes to the lack of success attendant 
upon the profession of purveyor of opera. Indeed, the management of 
opera has in few cases been permanently profitable ; yet few were so en- 
gulfed financially as poor Lorenzo da Ponte. 

OT^tx' juot acrrahi ujcian J^f\nf< nufivc 
yvt-tto f-urt-8 -^' ca.n-4£-o* ne'' JO icy cotrie. 

yUa coma affor ch.C let aem^efia ^xjuc 
<&cc^ SitfiikniR e «io/a <l me y^rixcC ■* 

Progrkss of Oratorio to 1840. 

1|T was natural that, with the improvement effected in the mu- 
sical excellence of the psalmody, with a growing general literary 
and intellectual cultivation, and with the occasional settlement 
'(i[(^ of individuals who had had the advantage of the better training of 
the European schools, there should be at the center of musical 
cultivation, an early effort at acquaintance with the higher walks of 
church music, and even a timorous wooing of the forbidden pleasures of 
the art as applied to secular ideas. 

In 179S Gottlieb Graupner, a respectable representative of the 
average German school of the day, settled in Boston, and a year later, 
Filippo Trajetta, a more important pupil of the Italian school, taught in 
the same city, later removing to New York. Graupner had been in 
London as oboist in Haydn's orchestra, in connection with Salomon's 
concerts (1791-92) when the twelve symphonies of that great master 
were brought out by Salomon. After brief residence in Prince Edward's 
Island and Charleston, S. C, he made his permanent home in Boston. 
In the beginning of the present century there were a few musicians, from 
scattered sources, with professional experience of ordinary character, 
who had from time to time made Boston their residence. These 
Graupner, about 18 10, organized into a Philharmonic Society. They 
practiced Haydn's symphonies for their own edification, and had an 
organized existence of a dozen years, since the last record of a concert 
by the society is dated Nov. 24, 1824, the event taking place at the 
Pantheon, Boylston square. Undoubtedly this little organization did 
much to implant in a few ardent hearts the love and appreciation of 
higher music. It was the beginning of orchestral music in America, and 
was instrumental in paving the way to the field of oratorio. True, 
there is record of an alleged " Oratorio given at King's Chapel, Boston, Oct. 
27, 1789, in honor of President Washington's visit to Boston. " Its 

character maj' be conjectured from the meagre cultivation of the day. 
Graupner's efforts were encouraged by the English consul Dixon, and by 
the Russian consul Alexis Eustaphieve, whose daughter, Madame 
Peruzzi, was in that day a great pianist, and by Messrs. Ward, Pollock, 
Gushing and other Bostonians, who thus became the pioneers in the 
cultivation of a more elevated musical sentiment in the American Athens. 
Just before 1812, Dr. G. K. Jackson, an English Mus. Doc, settled in 
Boston, and gave a beneficial impulse to the direction of the newly 
created taste for better things. In 1S15, these elements of aspiration 
received an impulse through a " Peace Jubilee," to celebrate the cessa- 
tion of the three 3'ears' war. This was under the direction of Dr. 
Jackson, and seems to have acted as a powerful stimulus to the desire for 
musical advancement. This occurred Feb. 22, 18 15, and growing out of 
it, in March 30 following, a meeting called by Gottlieb Graupner, 
Thomas Smith Webb and Asa Peabody took place, which organized the 
Boston Handel and Haydn Society, an association which subsequently, 
by identifying itself with the reforms of Dr. Lowell Mason in church 
music, and in other waj's, laid the future of American music under last- 
ing obligation. This societj' entered at once and earnesth- upon its work, 
and on the following Christmas gave its first "grand oratorio" to an 
audience of 945 persons, with the Russian consul Eustaphieve assisting 
as one of the performers in the orchestra. The chorus numbered about 
one hundred voices, the orchestra less than a dozen pieces, and an organ 
furnished the accompaniments, the programme including selections from 
from Handel's Creation and Messiah. By 1823 its seventh concert was 
given, and at that time the first complete oratorio, the Messiah, was 
performed, previous efforts having been devoted to portions of these 
great works. In the year following the Crea/ioji was performed, and 
these two oratorios seem to have bounded the acquaintance of the Boston 
culture of that day with higher music. The important productions 
under the Handel and Haydn Society's auspices, up to 1840, were 
Handel's Dettingen Te Dciein, 1819 ; Haydn's Sixth Mass in B flat, 
sung eleven times up to 1837 ; Mozart's Afass in C, 1829 ; Haydn's 
Storm, presented seven times from 1830 to 1837 ; Haj-dn's Te Detim in 
C, 1831 ; Beethoven's Mount of Olives, six times from 1833 to 1837. 
From 1836 to 1840 Neukomm's David was presented many times. The 
total number of performances down to 1841 was about 220, the high- 
est number in a single year being nineteen. The membership of the 
societ)- originally was forty-six. To this number 162 were added before 
the performance of the first oratorio in iSiS, and down to 1841, 218 more, 
but the average attendance at public performances was not large, being 

stated by Mr. Dwight in 1837 at about fifty. There was no true chorus 
discipline. The parts were inadequately balanced, and the orchestra was 
little more than a fiction. Yet the society during this period was a 
powerful instrument for improvement. Imperfect as were the achieve- 
ments, they yet had a distinct upward tendency and influence, and were 
gradually forming musical taste upon higher lines of cultivation. Up to 
1847 the president of the society officiated as conductor, the first being 
Thomas Smith Webb, for two years ; Benjamin Holt, two years ; Amasee 
Winchester, seven years ; Robert Rogerson ; Lowell Mason, elected in 
1827, for five years ; Bartholomew Brown ; George J. Webb, three years, 
to 1 84 1. Mr. Dwight gives the names of the leading spirits in vocal 
effort : Oliver Shaw, of Providence, R. I., in 1S16, the blind singer and 
song writer; Col. Webb, the first president, and John Dodd, Chas. W. 
Lovett, the tenor in David, Marcus Cobum, tenor robusto, and 
Samuel Richardson, basso, from 1825 ; George Hews, counter-tenor after 
1830; Mmes. Knight, Gillingham, Adams and Franklin, soprano and 
alto soloists, from 1830 to 1835 ; B. F. Baker and Thomas Ball (the cele- 
brated sculptor), 1837-38. The organists up to 1820 were S. P. Taylor, 
of New York, and S. C. Cooper; Miss S. Hewitt, elected 1820, and 
following for nine successive years ; Charles Zeuner, from 1830 to 1837, and 
A. U. Hayter, who first officiated in 1838, and thereafter to 1849. In 1837, 
out of a schism in the old society, grew the Musical Institute of Boston, 
Bartholomew Brown, and Hon. Nahum Mitchell, for the first two presi- 
dents, and Ostinelli (who had married Miss Hewitt) for the first director. 
It gave concerts for several j-ears, produced Mehul's Joseph and ffis 
Dret'iren and The Skeptic, a short-lived oratorio whose principal claim to 
distinction was its origin with a composer, Russell, a popular ballad 
singer of the day, who had located in Boston. This offshoot of the old 
musical organization expired after three years of doubtful usefulness, 
since however laudable its object, musical growth was then too feeble a 
plant to support a branch of any vigor, without injury to the parent 
stem. Up to this time Boston had a few glee clubs, originated mainly 
through the efforts of Hon. Wm. H. Eliot, and the nucleus of better 
effort by and by. Pianofortes were few, and the parlor music of the day, 
aside from sacred song, consisted of popular melodies, and, as Dwight 
says, of such show pieces as the Battle of the Prague, etc. Of ballads, 
etc., Moore's songs were popular, and such other fashionable novelties 
as floated over the ocean. 

New York has always been behindhand, as compared with Boston 
and Philadelphia, in the cultivation of the higher branch of music, though 
it was in advance in the encouragement given to the operatic form. In 

short, up to recent years, since which it has nobly redeemed its record, it 
was always more liberallj' disposed toward the more showy and frivolous 
uses of the musical art. True, as early as 1770, Handel's Messiah was 
l)erformed in Trinity church, but this degree of culture probably repre- 
sented a class, both civil and militarj-, who were banished, with their influ- 
ences for refinement and cultivation, by the events of the revolutionary 
war. The real beginning of cultivation of classical sacred music may be 
said to have been with the Choral Society established in 1823. Its first 
great event was given in St. George's church in April, 1824, when 
Mozart's Motetto, O, Ciod, when Thou Appeanst, was gi\-en for the first 
time in America. The progranuue included .selections from Handel, Bee- 
thoven and Mozart, Messrs. Swindalls and Dyers being the conductors, 
Mr. Moran the organist, and E. C. Riley leader of an orchestra of twenty 
musicians, with a chorus of fifty singers. A concert of glees, duets and 
sacred songs is mentioned in the same year, which dated the beginning of 
a considerable musical activity, which was aided by the Choral and other 
organizations, and helped by the possession of .several excellent organs. 
Musical societies also began to spring up, and to exert an active influence, 
which was no doubt primarily due to the labors of the Boston Handel and 
Ha\dn Societ)-. Of the extent and nature of this work, we may gather 
an idea from an announcement in John R. Parker's Eutcrpiad, in 1821, 
which mentions the following musical events as occurring in May of that 
j'ear: Concert of sacred nuisic, by the Beethoven Society, of Portland, 
Me.; concert, at Augusta, Ga.; oratorio, at Providence, R. I., by the 
P.soUnnion Society; concert, by the Philadelphia Musical Fund; The Crea- 
tion, h\ the Harmonic Society, of Baltimore; sacred concert, by the New 
Hampshire Musical Societ\-, at Hanover; instrumental and vocal concert, 
in Boston, for benefit of Ostinelli, and an oratorio, in the same city, by 
the Handel and Haydn Society. The New York Sacred Music Society 
was started about 1823, having its origin in a dispute .between the choir 
and vestry of Zion church, with respect to increase of salarj-. The choir 
was known hy the name of the Zion Church Musical A.ssociation, and 
comprised a body of educated singers. Under its new name this organi- 
zation gave concerts, at first confined to the standard anthems and 
choruses; but in 1827, on the occasion of a benefit in behalf of the Greeks, 
then struggling for freedom, gave selections from Handel, Mozart and 
Beethoven. On this occasion the celebrated Mme. Malibran was a solo 
singer, and there was an orchestra of twenty-seven instruments, with a 
chorus of about sixty. This event gave an impetus to the work of the 
society, which now swallowed up the Choral Society, and benefited l)y an 
acce.ssion of nuisical strength. Shortlv afterward I'. C. Hill became 

director of the society, and in i8_^a the entire oratorio Messiah was given, 
with Mrs. Austin and Mrs. Singleton among the soloists. Subsequently 
to 1834 they gave Haydn's Te Dciiiii and Creation. In 1832 Hastings 
came to New York and organized the Academy of Sacred Music, to 
whose efforts was due a general reform and improvement in the manage- 
ment and work of the various church choirs of the city. Speaking of the 
performance of the oratorios of the Sacred Music Society in 1834, a 
musical journal of the day remarked that "The time is perhaps not so 
far distant as some may imagine when musical festivals will be common, 
equaling in numbers and even in talent those that England is .so justly 
proud of" 

In the month of February, 1831, a concert was given at St. Paul's 
church, New York, at which a rather remarkable programme was given, 
including several selections from the oratorios of Handel and Haydn. 
Up to 1840 or thereabouts, the principal vocal societies of New York con- 
tiinied to be the Musical Fund, the Euterpean and the Sacred Music 
Society. The first named was composed of professional musicians, the 
second being made up of amateurs. The Musical Fund gave a yearly 
concert, in which the programmes were often quite pretentious. The 
Euterpean Society may be regarded as the precursor of the famous New 
York Philharmonic Society. Other organizations soon entered the field 
in friendly rivalry. In October, 1838, the Sacred Music Society brought 
out Mendelssohn's St. Paul for the first time in America. The German 
musicians of New York also had their societies, the principal one being 
the Concordia, of which Daniel Schle.ssinger was director. Oratorio 
seems to have been in vogue at this period to an extent almost equal 
with the favor accorded this form of composition at the present da\-. 


Two Decades Preceding the War. 

^ ^K^ FTER 1840 the course of progress of music in America gathered 
^"^®"^ added impetus. Thanks to the work of Dr. Mason and his coadju- 
tors, the generous enthusiasm with which those everywhere 
who were at all interested in the art threw themselves into the 
'■jjeT work of promoting musical knowledge, and the growth of general 
I culture and refinement, there came to be soon a real musical spirit 
with the masses, at least in the centres of population — a spirit 
instinct with life and vigor, alert to seize and utilize for the advancement 
of art every force that made for a higher ideal. In 1840 Mr. and Mrs. 
Ward visited America again bringing out La Sonnambula, as also The 
Beggars' Opera. John Braham, the famous English tenor, also gave 
concerts at Niblo's, while from New Orleans came once in a while a 
company from the French Grand Opera there. In 1843 Signor Palmo 
built a new Italian opera house in New York, and it was opened in 1844 
wiXh/l Piirifaui, with Signora Borghese as "Elvira." Four years later 
Palmo' s opera was abandoned as too small and too far away from 
the fashionable quarters. It subsequently, under the name of Burton's 
theatre, was used for dramatic purposes. While Italian opera was thus pre- 
sented, the Seguin family gave English opera at the Park theatre, openiug 
with Balfe's/?*?//*;;//^;/ Girl, the first presentation of that opera in America, 
it having a remarkably successful run. At the Park theatre was also given 
by the Seguins a " Handel-Ro.ssini oratorio," a somewhat oiilre perform- 
ance, in which scenery was emploj-ed. In the previous j-ear a French 
company from New Orleans had given Norma, La Fille du Regiment, 
and Lucia di Lammcrmoor. On the close of Palmo' s opera house its 
place was taken by a new down-town structure erected b)- Foster, Morgan 
and Colles in Astor place, being based on 150 subscriptions to an Italian 
opera for sevent>--fi\-e nights a year for five years. This was opened in 
1847 with Verdi's Eniani, the singers including Tmffi, Avignone, Rossi 

aud Strucci. Under this arrangement Bellini's Beatrice di Tcnda and 
Lucrezia Borgia, Mercadante's // Giuramcnto and Verdi's Nabucco were 
given, the scheme proving eminently successful during the five j'ears 
in which it was maintained. In the same year the opera company from 
Havana gave operas of Verdi, Bellini, Pacini and Rossini, with an 
excellent staff of singers. They reappeared the following year with 
Bottesini and Arditi. Mme. Anna Bishop, and W. H. Reeves, a brother 
of the famous tenor, Sims Reeves, sang in English opera during this 
season. In 1848 Max Maretzek, recently from London, was musical 
director at the Astor Place opera house, Edward Fry being the manager. 
Shortly afterward Maretzek entered upon his work as an impresario, and 
put on the boards many important operas in 1849 and 1850. At the same 
time at the Castle Garden, Manager Marty was playing a company, 
including three prime donne and a company of very distinguished artists. 
This company was the first to produce Mej-erbeer's Huguenots in America. 
Maretzek opened his season of October, 1850, with Der Frcyschi'dz, and 
subsequently introduced for the first time Donizetti's Parisina. The lyric 
stars of the time were Theresa Parodi and Miss Virginia Whiting, who 
made her debut on the stage, and was afterward famous as Mme. 
Lorini. Anna Thillon also appeared at Niblo's in Auber's O'oivn 
Diamonds. In 1852 Bochsa, the eminent harpist, directed the production 
of Flotow's inimitable Martiia, with Mme. Anna Bishop as "Lady 
Harriet." In March, 1853, Mme. Sontag, under direction of Carl 
Eckert, appeared at Niblo's in La Fille du Regiment. The next event 
of peculiar interest was the production of Shakespeare's Midsummer 
NigltV s Dream, with Mendelssohn's music, which met with much popu- 
ularit}'. Maretzek soon after gave Meyerbeer's Propliete at Niblo's and 
also at Castle Garden, where he gave a first production as well of Verdi's 
Luisa Miller. Up to this time Italian opera had been a somewhat high- 
priced luxury, and there was a growing conviction of the desirability of 
popularizing prices of admission and opening up to the art a wider 
acquaintance with the people. This of course necessitated an opera 
building on a larger scale than had hitherto obtained. A charter of 
incorporation was secured, and the new building, commenced May, 1853, 
was completed the following year at a total cost of $335,000, and was 
opened with great eclat Oct. 2, 1854, Grisi and Mario participating. Much 
expectation had been excited in the minds of many who had confidently 
hoped that the objects related in the charter of incorporation would be to 
some extent carried out in the conduct of the institution. The charter stated 
the object held in view to be as follows: " For the purpose of cultivating 
a taste for music bj' concerts, operas and other entertainments, which 

shall be accessible to the public at a moderate charge; by furnishing 
facilities for instruction in music, and by rewards of prizes for the best 
musical compositions." At that time there were taawy ambitious singers 
of talent who realized that cultivation was necessars' to any realization of 
their artistic hopes. The expense of European education almost univer- 
sally shut them off from a career. But nothing but disappointment was 
in store for all these hopes. There have never been any " facilities for 
instruction in music" furnished; nor has Italian opera been brought 
down to the people, or the latter lifted up to its standard. In fact, the 
Academy of Music was never self-sustaining, nor is there anj^ very 
strong probability that it can ever be surrounded by any other conditions 
than those of failure, so far as financial results, united with a permanent 
career, are concerned. This, taken in conjunction with the real excellence 
of the efforts which had been made to gi\"e adequate representation to 
the best features of that branch of art, with a generally cultured musical 
instinct which had now been created and with a characteristic liberality 
on behalf of the public, must be taken to prove that the Italian opera is 
not adapted to flourish in this country. It is, we apprehend, a mistake 
to suppose, as some assume, that our people are musically incompetent to 
appreciate the higher forms of art. The sterling and substantial progress 
of oratorio, for instance, and of English opera, prove the contrary. The 
difficulty is to be looked for in the fact that the instinct and genius of our 
people is whollj- at variance with that on which Italian opera is based, nor 
is it at all possible to assimilate our art education to an appreciation of such 
features of Italian opera as are little short of repugnant to our tastes and sen- 
ibilities. The success of Italian opera must, therefore, always remain of a 
transitorj- nature. It is based rather upon sensual or intellectual apprecia- 
tion than upon spiritual grounds. And yet Italian opera has done much to 
promote the cultivation of musical taste. We do not doubt that the day will 
come in the not too distant future, when the national instincts and character- 
istics shall be represented in a school of American opera, which shall be 
to us all that Italian opera is in its own home, and which shall be equally 
and universally cultivated and supported. Something of this idea was 
evident to Ole Bull, who in the beginning of 1855 became lessee and 
manager of the New York Academy of Music. He offered a prize of 
$1,000 for "the best original grand opera by an American composer, 
upon a strictly A i/icn'can subject." He says (perhaps W. H. Frj' had 
something to do with the wording of this document) : ' ' The national 
history of America is rich in themes both for the poet and the musician; 
and it is to be hoped that this offer will bring to light the musical talent 
now latent in the country-, which only needs a favorable opportunity for 

its development. ' ' Unfortunately an ambition in every way so entitled 
to respect was cut short by the close of the Academy in March following. 
Maretzek thereafter continued to present Italian opera in a desultory 
manner, sometimes with distinguished artistic assistance; and a successful 
season of German opera was given under direction of Unger, at Niblo's. 

Up to 185S English opera continued to flourish with more or less 
success, in 1854 by the lyouisa Pyne and Harrison Company, and in 1855 
under PaN^ne, with a company of eminent artists, playing a season of forty 
nights. The former subsequently gave operas and concerts throughout the 
country. In 1856, under direction of Carl Bergmann, Mile. Johansen 
played with a good company in German opera, and produced Beethoven's 
Fidelia, for the first time in its entirety, in December. In this year Max 
Strakosch appeared on the scene as an operatic impresario, and thus, with 
Maretzek, at Niblo's, also in the same field, there was much enthusiasm 
and excitement. In the season of 1857-58 Strakosch was associated with 
Ullman atthe Academj^, and introduced Meyerbeer's Huguenots, with other 
important operas, and such artists as Mme. Frezzolini, Carl Formes, Mme. 
D'Angri and Ronconi. Carl Anschutz came to New York from Germany 
in 1857, and appeared as conductor in this season. In March, 1858, he 
conducted the opera Leonora, by William Henry Fry, the distinguished 
American composer. This opera had been previously given in Philadelphia 
in 1845, by the Seguin Company, Fry having been a native of Philadel- 
phia, where his musical education was finished under L. Meignen, who 
had been a pupil of the Paris Conservatory. In this work Fry, particu- 
lars of whose career are elsewhere given, endeavored to combine features 
of the French and Italian schools in the general form of French grand 
opera. This opera was well received, as well as that produced by him 
later on, entitled Notre Dame de Paris, given in 1864 at the Academy of 
Music, Philadelphia, a few months before the author's death. He was an 
ardent laborer in the field of music, having, in 1852, given a series of ten 
lectures on music, at Metropolitan hall. New York, and produced a set 
of symphonies of much musical merit, which were performed by JuUien's 
orchestra, in New York. Anschutz was also an important factor in the 
progress of music by his subsequent labors. Meanwhile, the rivalry 
between Ullman and Maretzek continued, with Strakosch, who was suc- 
cessfully touring the country, making an occasional incursion into Gotham, 
and in one season, in 1859, all three companies were on the wing and 
New York was left for an interval without an opera. The leading artists 
of the period were Ronconi, Lagrange, Coletti and Tiberini, with Maret- 
zek; Colson, Amodio, Brignoli, Cortesi and Patti-Strakosch (Amalia Patti, 
married to Maurice Strakosch), with Strakosch; while Adelina Patti made 

her debut under Ullman, in 1859. In 1861 the outbreak of the war pro- 
duced a general upheaval of all the conditions which afifected the course ot 
music, and the events from that time to the close of the struggle were 
chiefly desultorj'. In 1861 a benefit performance was given to Ullman, in 
recognition of his efforts to ' ' maintain Italian opera, ' ' in which Miles. Kel- 
logg and Hinkley, and Brignoli, Mancuri and Susini took part. In 1862 
Anschutz opened a German opera season at Wallack's, at which standard 
operas were produced in a highly artistic and satisfying manner, but in 
the whirl of popular excitement and the craving for light sensational 
plays and scenic effects, the venture had to be abandoned. 

We will now revert to progress in other centres of population, Boston, 
Philadelphia, Baltimore, etc., during this period, where there were more 
solid results in advancement and upon higher musical lines than in New 
York, even if there was not .so much of spasmodic brilliancy to mark the 
tenor of its history. 

While music was being so rapidly developed in all departments in the 
city of New York, the activity in other American cities was commensurate 
with that of Gotham. In Boston the Handel and Haydn Society con- 
tinued its noble work and grew rapidly in membership and influence. 
The Boston Musical Institute, another oratorio society, was also organized, 
and existed for three seasons. Tliis society brought out Mehul's Joseph 
and His lirellnen and several other important works. Thomas Ball, 
the American sculptor, came into prominence as a bass soloist, and when 
Elijah was brought out by the Handel and Haydn Society in 1848, Mr. 
Ball took the part of " Elijah" verj' satisfactorily. An occasional orches- 
tra concert was promulgated by tlie members of the different theatre 
orchestras, but, on the whole, orchestral music made but little progress. 
The first regular orchestral concerts in Boston were supplied by the Acad- 
emy of Music, and these continued for several seasons. Following these 
appeared an orchestral force called the Musical Fund, which gave concerts 
for several successive seasons. The Musical Fund had in 1852 a member- 
ship of sixty performers, and it was accounted an excellent orchestra. Of 
several other organizations of instrumentalists, the only one that enjo)'ed 
a career of considerable length was the Orchestral Society, which gave 
concerts under the auspices of the Harvard Musical Association. In 1833 
a society was organized in Boston for the purpose of taking steps toward 
the introduction of musical instruction in the public schools. A Mr. 
Woodbridge, a gentleman who took great interest in educational matters, 
visited Germany and took note of the importance there given t.o musical 
education. On his return he co-operated with Dr. Lowell Mason, and 
their efforts resulted in the important step which has since been adopted 


ill every large city in the union, viz. : The introduction of music in the 
public schools. 

Other cities of the United States were during this period dependent 
to a great extent upon traveling orchestras for their orchestral music, 
having no local forces of any consequence. One of the most important of 
these traveling orchestras was the Germania band, which arrived in New 
York in 1848. From New York they went to Philadelphia on the invita- 
tion of a gentleman in that city who had heard them play in New York. 
In the Quaker City the Germania players made a great artistic success, 
but they met with slim pecuniary reward. The returns for one concert 
amounted to the sum of $9.50. The orchestra also played in concerts in 
Baltimore and in Washington. It was an excellent body of players, but 
the public failed to award its patronage. They disbanded and were scat- 
tered to all parts of the country. Among them were Carl Zerrahn, Carl 
Bergman, William Schultze, Carl Sentz and others who subsequently 
attained reputations as musicians in this country. During this period 
New Orleans was the sotithern city most devoted to music, and opera in 
the French language was the form of the art most prevailing there. The 
advent of Jullien's orchestra in 1853 was an important event, for several 
reasons, but chiefly because there came with Jullien a number of musi- 
cians who subsequently became conspicuous in American musical life. 
Jullien was one of the first directors to give American composers a chance. 
During his New York season he brought out several works by the few 
Americans who at that time aspired to write for orchestra, among them 
H. W. Fry and T. Bristow. 

We have now considered the development of music in America up 
to the breaking out of the civil war, which may be said to mark the next 
epoch in American musical history. 


Period ok the War Songs. 

; r^fl - when during the war of independence in 1775, there was an 
';:_v/H| ntire cessation of musical progress in the then onlj- field of cul- 
ii fcY'f"^* tivation, that of church music, and the musical talent of the day, 
5^ W such as it was, was devoted to the expression of that outburst of 
It popular sentiment in the cause of libertj- and freedom which, till 
\ its object had been accomplished, dominated the heart and intellect 
of the patriots, so in 1861, when the national existence was menaced 
by internecine strife, all progress in the classical departments of music 
was abandoned ; higher musical effort came to a standstill, and what we 
we may regard as the true American Folk-Song, assumed universal sway. 
National sentiment, north and south, was stirred to its profoundest depths, 
and from the heart springs of the people welled forth in musical utter- 
ance, the passions, the aspirations, the hopes and fears, the sorrows, trials 
and rejoicings, and every of human emotion strained by g^eat events 
to its utmost tension. The poet for.sook his higher strains to devote him- 
self to the patriotic work of arousing the spirit of war and carnage, to 
lamentation over disaster, or the exultant paeans of victorious achieve- 
ment. The composer banished from his thought the sweeter spirits to 
whom music delights to minister, and his martial notes reechoed the sound 
and furj' of battle. The great body of the people caught up the inspirit- 
ing melod}-, and the whole land resounded with the indomitable spirit of 
patriotic impulse and national pride. Yet not always were these war 
songs devoted to the stimulation of the fires of patriotic ardor. Many were 
consecrated to the holiest and tenderest sentiments — of the mother whose 
first-born had been surrendered to danger and death, a sacrifice to God 
and countr)- ; or that, in some young and weeping wife, were awakened from 
the anguish of irredeemable bereavement sweeping across the heartstrings 
of sorrow and of woe. A^ery manj- of these songs possessed no more 
claim to merit than was inseparable from the spirit which dictated 

them or the sentiment which they expressed. Others combined this 
quality with much skill in poetic expression and in musical construc- 
tion and utterance, and it is a fact that shows the natural assimila- 
tion of lofty patriotic sentiment to its highest musical form of enuncia- 
tion, that those war songs which really, from the critically musical 
point of view, possessed the greatest merit were those which attained 
the widest popularity and the greatest permanence. Some of these 
have become inseparably incorporated into the country's literature, and 
will endure for all time ; others have become memories : but all serve 
to illustrate the character and quality of American popular song, and 
constituted a new and distinct creation in national musical life. With 
the causes and course of the cruel strife which lasted from 1861 to 
1865, we have here no concern. The songs of north and south were 
equally inspired by the same spirit, as sincere and earnest in its misdirec- 
tion as it was in the truthful and immortal impulses of freedom and human 
liberty which ultimately prevailed, and which have given to us a new 
and united national life. They each represented the heart emotions of 
the people at a time when they were, north and south alike, thrilled 
through every fiber to the very core of emotional existence. It would be 
impossible, and it is not necessary to the object of this book, to attempt 
to review the work of the writers of the war songs in any detail : the 
most importani and representive productions will appear in the individual 
biographies of the principal among them. Such popular and patriotic songs 
as "Marching through Georgia," and "The Battle Cr>- of Freedom," 
require no historian ; they will endure so long as the spirit of American 
patriotism sur\dves. One remarkable feature of the period of the war 
songs was the extraordinary manner in which every note that caught 
popular favor was disseminated throughout the length and breadth of the 
country. Within one month after such a composition had received the 
seal of approval in any quarter where the military spirit was representative, 
it might be heard from Maine to California, and garnishing the idle 
moments alike of the smoke-begrimed veteran ' ' at the front, ' ' and of 
the prattling school boy in his northern home. The electric rapidity with 
which tunes and words came into universal knowledge, was no doubt due 
to the labors of the printing press and the unremitting and feverish inter- 
est which everywhere prevailed in the fortunes of the war, and in every 
condition and sentiment that was connected with or grew out of it. 
Among the most important of the contributors to the ' ' Songs of the War ' ' 
we will first mention the name of a veteran, who is also noted as one of 
the trio, Lowell Mason, William B. Bradley and Dr. George F. Root, 
prominent in promoting sacred music. 

Dr. George F. Root. 

It may sound strangely in the ears of those who are oul}- familiar 
with the gentleman's physical vigor, and his more than ordinary musical 
energy and activity, to recall the fact that he was born as long ago as 
1820, and is therefore on the verge of the "three score and ten," allotted 
by the psalmist. 

To those who have only known him by his works, in which there is 
the perennial youth of art, Dr. Root is never thought of in connection 
with the suggestion, " How long has he lived?" or " How long is he 
likely to be with us ? " He is simply one of those personages who have 
so grown into American life, and particularly musically cultured life, that 
it seems natural to regard him, through his work, as a personage to whose 
association we have become insensibly familiar, and whose worth and 
importance we shall probably never pause to think over, until sooner or 
later, and all too .soon, we may one day be reminded that a life has gone 
out from amongst us over into the better and brighter existence of the 
great majority, in which each will feel that he has in some way, near or 
remote, as it may appear, sustained a personal loss. 

Dr. Root was bom in 1820 at Sheffield, Mass., in that Housatonic 
valley upon which nature has lavished so many of her attractions. He 
had, in his youth, the plain and practical advantages, not to be lightly 
esteemed, of the New England district school, but he possessed an imag- 
inative, impressionable and poetic mind that caught the fire of art from 
every surrounding circumstance — the mysterious majesty of the massive 
mountains, the placid and tranquil beauty of the fertile valleys, the 
music of the murmuring brooks meandering, daisy-kissed, through the 
verdant and laughing meadows, and the .serene and effulgent glory 
with which the monarch of the firmanent sinks nightly to rest in his 
ethereal couch of purple and golden haze — a sunset not surpassed in Italy 
in its combined attributes of majestic grandeur and soft and entrancing 
beautj'. With his natural predilections and gifts of mind he was bound 
to become either a poet or a musician, and he chose the brighter and more 
beautiful of those two arts which gild the somber hues of life with the 
brightness from a higher sphere 

Without any adventitious advantages in the way of art culture, he 
learned all that was to be learned of the homely music and song of the 
day, and mastered such instruments as he had access to ; and, finalh-, at 
the age of eighteen, his thirst for musical knowledge and natural ambition 
for distinct'ion in that walk of usefulness to which he had determined 
to consecrate his life, led him to Boston, the then center of musical culture. 
He was fortunate in making the acquaintance of Mr. A. N. Johnson, a 



prominent music teacher of the time, who, having satisfied himself that 
young Root's capacitj- was equal to his ambition, not only gave him 
emploj'ment, but a place in his household, and took pleasure in feeding 
the eager mind with such musical knowledge as he himself possessed. 

The progress of the student was rapid, as his zeal and industry 
assured, and soon he became a partner in the school of his preceptor. 
Combining business activity with musical ambition, he became also a 
leader of several choirs, and was an active instrument in promoting musical 
knowledge. He became identified with the teachers' classes organized by 
Dr. Lowell Mason, in 1835, in connection with the Boston Academy of 
Music. On the disruption of these classes some years later, Mr. Root 
went to New York, by invitation of Jacob Abbott, principal of the Abbott 
Institute, where he soon established a wide reputation for his skill and 
success as a teacher. He was also in request as instructor in other insti- 
tutions of the kind, and, in addition to his other work, conducted the music 
in the Mercer street Presbyterian church. He himself had not ceased to be 
a constant and earnest student, and to enlarge the horizon of his musical 
knowledge in 1 850 he visited Europe, where his industrj- during his stay 
of one year materially broadened his musical qualifications. He now felt 
competent to enter into a higher field of activity than teaching, and devoted 
himself to the production of popular songs, which were /"c/j^/ar in the best 
sense of the term. 

His talent asserted itself in public recognition, and he was soon 
invited by Mason & Bradbury to join them in the production of church 
music books, and henceforth he de\-oted himself to composition and the 
conduct of musical conventions. 

In i860 Dr. Root settled in Chicago and entered the music publish- 
ing business with his brother, E. T. Root, and Mr. C. M. Cady, as "Root 
& Cady," Mr. Root's reputation being the most important capital of the 
firm. This was sufficient, however, and with his industr}- now devoted 
to larger works, to the improvement of church music and popular song, 
soon made the new firm prosperous. When the war of the rebellion broke 
out Dr. Root's whole heart sympathies were enlisted in the cause of union 
as that of the maintenance of liberty and freedom on this continent, and of 
the preser\-ation of the glorious heritage of the fathers of the revolution. 
His Battle Cry of Freedom in 1862 came straight from the pulsation of 
a patriotic heart, and it vibrated like an electric current throughout the 
union. Sung by the celebrated Hutchinson family at the great New York 
mass meeting in 1861, it soon resounded throughout northern homes as a 
confident hope, and became the battle cr>' and inspiration on many a hard- 
fought field. It lives to-day, and will forever endure, as a factor in national 

^K/2^^/W^ ^^/^ W^^^V; 

unity and a rallying cry against every danger that may assail it. During 
the war he composed many other noble and patriotic songs, but with this 
his name will in histon,' be indissolublj' connected. 

In the great Chicago fire of 1871 the interests of the firm of Root & 
Cad}' became engulfed in the general ruin. A loss af upward of a quarter 
of a million, an enonuous fortune for those days, was too much for the 
firm to endure, and its interests were sold to S. Brainard's Sons and the 
John Church Company, who have worthily upheld the high business and 
musical reputation thus handed over to them. 

Dr. Root has since, even up to the present time, remained active in 
the work of musical creation and activity, as composer, writer and con- 
ductor of conventions. His high Christian character and spotless integ- 
rity have endeared him to a very large circle of friends, in and out of 
musical circles, and his musical repute is as wide as the realm of our sov- 
ereign people, and as enduring as the eternal principles which he promul- 
gated in song. 

Charles Carrol Sawv'ER. 
One cf the most important and successful writers of war songs was 
Charles Carrol Sawyer, born at Mystic, Conn., in 1833. At the age of 
twelve his father, Capt. Joshua Sawyer, a well known ship builder, 
removed to New York, and about that time he began to compose 
sonnets, which attracted attention by their poetic merit. It was not, 
however, till the outbreak of the war that he came into any great prom- 
inence. His great success lay not alone in the melodic excellence of his 
songs and the peculiar pathos with which he invested the .sentiments with 
which he dealt ; he possessed the happy faculty of seizing upon particu- 
larly dramatic incidents for the themes of his muse, and of investing both 
the poetic and musical idea with which he dealt, with something of the 
spirit of the event which supplied his inspiration. For instance, his song 
Mother -would Comfort Afc, was founded upon the fate of a wounded 
Union soldier, taken prisoner at Gettysburg. When told in the southern 
prison that nothing could be done for him, his last sad words were: 
"Mother would comfort me if she were here!" On this event was 
founded the song, whose concluding words are : 

Sweetly a mother's love shities like a star, 

Brightest in darkness, when light is afar ; 

In clouds or in sunshine, in sorrow or pain. 

Mother's affection is ever the same. 

' ' He was not afraid to die, ' ' were the words of a telegram which broke 
the news of a young husband's death on a southern battlefield, in 1864, to 
his sorrowing wife. In the song of that name a whole nation was moved 
to sympathy, and a people's heartfelt admiration of the nobility of such 



a death was both honor to the dead and consolation to the living. One 

peculiar feature of Mr. Savvj^er's war songs, which strikingly illustrated 

the artist nature which inspired his work, was the fact that in not a single 

one of these productions was there a taint of rancor or malice. They 

were northern songs; but they were songs of sentiment, and could and did 

express the emotions of the .soldiers of the south, under similar conditions, 

as well as of those for whom they were immediately written. This fact 

has, since the close of the war, been recognized and appreciated by the 

people of the south, and is well expressed by an utterance of a Georgia 

journal, the Milledgeville Federal Union, which says : 

We do not see how the sections rent in twain are ever to be reunited in good 
faith if the noblest men who live in the north and south, where thej' put forth great 
exertions to blot out the painful memories of the past, are not encouraged. Charles 
Carrol Sawyer is oue of the north's most gifted sons. * * * His sentiments are 
fraught with the greatest tenderness, and never one word has he written about the 
south or the war that could wound the sore cords of the southern heart. He is a 
gentleman, moreover, of wonderful versatility of genius. He can not only write 
songs in the language of rapture, but he can compose as sweet strains of music as 
ever mingled melody with harmony. 

Henrv Cl.\y Work. 

A name that is familiar to all lovers of American song is that of 
Henry Clay Work, who was born at Middletown, Conn., Oct. i, 1832. 
He belonged to a good old New England family, and when he was quite 
young his parents brought him to a new home in the state of Illinois. 
Here, owing to his strong anti-slavery views, the elder Work fell into 
poverty, in which the subject of this sketch passed his boyhood. In 1845 
the father was relea.sed from the prison into which he had been cast 
by his opponents in politics, and the family then returned to Middletown. 
Henry was apprenticed as a printer, but he thought of little beside music, 
and his first song, written when he was still a boy, was sold to Christy's 
minstrels. It was called, We're Coming;, Sister Mary," and it became 
quite popular. In 1855 he moved to Chicago, continuing at his trade as 
a printer. In i860 he wrote Lost on the Lady Elgin, and, in 1861, King- 
dom Coming. This latter song struck the favor of the public at once. 
The outbreak of the war caused a great detnand for patriotic songs, and 
to the supplying of this demand Mr. Work devoted himself He wrote 
Babylon is /■alien,- The Song of a Thousand Vears, Marching through 
Georgia, and Wake, Nieodemus. All of these had great success and an 
immense sale. Among his songs of a later period may be mentioned the 
temperance songs, Come Home, Father and King Bibbler's Army; also 
The Lost Letter; The Ship thaf Never Returned, Phantom Footsteps; 
Gratid/ather' s Clock, and others equally popular. Mr. Work's life was 
saddened by the insanity of his wife, who died in an asylum in 1883. 

t^yt^ty^'^^^^^^ y^^^^ 


Mr. Work survived her but one year, dj-ing suddenly of heart disease, 
June 8, 1884. He is buried at Hartford, at Spring Grove cemeten,-, but 
his songs live in the hearts of the people. 

Francis Scott Key. 

To another period belongs the career of Francis Scott Key, but his 
song The Star Spangled Banner belongs not to a period, but to all time. 
Francis Scott Key was born in Annapolis county, Md., in 1779. He 
was educated at St. John's College, and turned his attention to law, 
practicing at Frederick City. The American flag was first unfurled in 
the harbor of Baltimore, and it was in the same place amid remarkable 
surroundings that the stirring national anthem was produced. In the 
year 1814, after the burning of Washington by the British, Mr. Key was 
sent to the British fleet to negotiate for the release of several prisoners. 
The British had planned the bombardment of Fort McHenrj', and, as they 
feared that Key would make known their plans, he was detained on a 
British vessel all night. He witnessed the bombardment, and by the 
light of the rockets and the bursting shells he saw at intervals the Amer- 
ican banner. By the light of the early morning he saw that "the flag 
was still there," and he knew that the fort had held out. It was under 
the inspiration of this stirring scene that Key wrote the verses that made 
his name famous. The music has been ascribed to Charles Durang, an 
actor, but the air has also been said to be of Irish origin, which is quite 
probable. On this one song rests the reputation of Francis Scott Kej^ 
and it is only to be regretted that the composer of the melodj- is not 
equally famous. In 1874, Mr. James Lick, the philanthropist, donated 
$150,000 to the citj' of San Francisco for the purpose of erecting a monu- 
ment to Francis Scott Key, and the honor was richly merited. Mr. Key 
died in 1S43. 


Another composer of the war songs of the south was Mr. H. L. 
Schreiner, who is a native of Germany, but who came to America very 
young. 1832 was the year of birth, and he landed in the land of his 
adoption in 1849, settling in Macon, Ga., where he engaged in business 
with his father and brother. In 1862 Mr. Schreirer bought out the firm 
of W. D. Zogbaum & Co., of Savannah, Ga., and also opened a branch 
store at Augusta, Ga. He also taught music, but at the time of the 
breaking out of the vi^ar he purchased a font of music tN'pe and began the 
publication of music, with headquarters at Macon. After the capture of 
New Orleans the firm of Schreiner & Co. was the only music publishing 
concern in the southern states, and this gave the firm's publications an 


increased sale. Up to the time of the taking of Savannah, in 1864, Mr. 
Schreiner gave many concerts for the relief of the wounded and for other 
patriotic purposes. Since the war Mr. Schreiner has continued in busi- 
ness at Savannah, publishing music and dealing in musical instruments. 
Among his songs may be mentioned The Mother of the Soldier Boy: When 
Upon the Field of Glory; The Soldier s Grave; The Wearing of the Grey, 
and others. His songs were very well liked throughout the war time, 
and became great favorites with the southern people. 

A. E. Blackmar. 

W'hile other composers were singing the patriotic songs of the north, 
the southern song writers were equally devoted in their composition of 
stirring and spirited lyrics. Prominent among these was Mr. A. E. 
Blackmar, who was the composer of some of the most popular songs of 
the south. Mr. Blackmar was b}- birth a northern man; he was born in 
the state of Ohio, in 1826, and graduated from the Western Reserve 
College in 1845. Shortly afterward he went south, where he ever after- 
ward resided. He devoted himself to teaching music, leading bands and 
other branches of the art. After following these departments of the pro- 
fession, Mr. Blackmar went to New Orleans and engaged in music pub- 
lishing. He wrote and published many war songs, which found favor in 
the minds of the southern people. 

Mr. Blackmar wrote under his own name and also under the nayie of 
"Armand," his songs being great favorites under both signatures. When 
the city of New Orleans was taken by the federal forces, Mr. Blackmar's 
business was seriously interfered with, and this is the reason why some of 
the songs most widely sung at the time of the war are now verj' difficult 
to obtain. Among his most popular songs were The Southron' s Chaunt of 
Defajtee, the words of which were written by a Kentucky lady; That 
Bugler; For Bales; Carolina, and a great number of others. 

Stephen C. Foster. 
It would be unjust to write the biographical sketches of the com- 
posers of patriotic songs without referring to Stephen C. Foster, who, 
though better known b}- reason of ballads of a different nature, also wrote 
some lyrics of fhe war that were among the most famous of their era. 
Among the best of these were, We've a Million in the Field; Stand by the 
Flag; For the Dear Old Flag I Die, and Was Afy Brother in the Battle? A 
more extensive reference to Mr. Foster and his relation to American music 
will be found in another department of this historj'. His war songs 
formed only a verj' small portion of his work as a writer of music for the 
American people. 



The New Era of Art Life succeeding the War. 

HERE are few periods in the history of any country, ancient or 
modem, in which progress in art has been so rapid as the progress 
■ of music in this countrj' since the war. Nor is it difficult to 
'4^) account for such a state of things. In the first place, as we have 
seen, there had been a vast amount of seed sowing, and diligent cul- 
tivating, preparatory to the gratifying harvest, now in course of gath- 
ering. For example, in the educational plane, the efforts of Lowell 
Mason to introduce music into the public schools, and the success that 
had attended his work, together with the wide discussion and advertising 
they received through teachers' institutes and educational periodicals, did 
much to form in the wide general field a public opinion favorable to music 
as an art worth looking into, and in a more contracted sphere to ground a 
real musical culture. This work was furthered by the musical conven- 
tions held in all parts of the country before the war, and to a limited 
extent during the war. While they did not attain to a culture of music 
upon a high art plane, or reach downward with any great depth of root, 
they nevertheless served to advertise the art of music, to call attention to 
it, and to awaken here and there, in susceptible souls, an echo and a proph- 
ecy of its fitness for supplying a want hitherto, and but for this means, 
unfelt. This general interest in educational circles was emphasized pop- 
ularly through the operation of various speculative enterprises of a musical 
nature, in which for one reason or another the press had .co-operated to 
such good purpose as to make music and certain artists common matters 
of conversation, where but a few years previously no such subject was 
recognized as possessing a public interest. The irrepressible Barnum had 
set the ball rolling in 1854, with his famous tour of Jenny Lind. All the 
country talked of her; of her simple personality, no doubt fitted with a 
halo somewhat too large for sober fact, but none too large for the work 
now in question. Her name remained a tradition in active service as sub- 
ject of common interest for ten 3'ears or more. To give an idea of the 

value of this thread for moving popular interest, mention may be made of 
a vocalist, a singer of comedy songs, one Ossian E. Dodge, who made his 
stock in trade for advertising purposes to consist in the fact that he had 
paid the highest price ever paid for a concert ticket, the same being $625 
for choice of seats at Jenny lyind's first concert in Boston. After the Lind, 
many other artists were brought over, and the same tactics were tried 
with the press and the public through this agency, for the most part with 
considerable success. There was Thalberg, the suave pianist; Gottschalk, 
the most sensational of American pianists; Wm. Mason, then just back 
from his studies with Liszt, and a number of singers. In remote parts of 
the country there were serious and ideal souls reading the elegantlj' writ- 
ten pages of Mr. DwighV s/oiimal of Micsic, in which the every-day atmos- 
phere of " news " gave place to discussions of " art for art's own sake." 
The value of this journal, as a factor in the interchange of ideas between 
the few minds in the whole country then having interest in the art of 
music in this high sense, cannot be overestimated. While the number 
of copies circulated never reached any high figure, the change of pub- 
lication from the hands of the editor himself, with his honest little sub- 
scription list of 500 or 600, to those of the great publishing house of Ditson 
& Co. with their numberless exchanges and complimentary subscriptions, 
operated to give Mr. Dwight an audience which under other circumstances 
he could not have attained, as the country then was. 

Meanwhile, opera in various forms was coming to the front, as has 
been related, generally to fail disastrously from a financial standpoint, but 
never until the season had done something to strengthen popular interest 
in this form of art. It was the same with orchestral music. Besides the 
concerts of the little but efficacious Gennania Musical Society, whose art- 
enthusiastic efforts are recounted in the previous chapter, there was the 
orchestra of the sensational Jullien, the first full orchestra ever playing in 
America. He had sixty musicians. He was a popular leader, with quite 
a leaven of charlatanism in him, but he was also a good conductor, and 
his orchestra is well entitled to the credit of having urged progress in 
this field with more vigor than before. Moreover, he deserves honor for 
producing with real sympathy and an adequate setting the symphonies 
of an early American artist. 

It would be unjust not to recognize the influence of the foreign musi- 
cians located in this country. While many came who were mere amateurs, 
and for years held places that might have been more worthilj' filled, so 
unscrupulously did they cater to the ad captandiim taste of the uneducated, 
there were many others who represented the best culture of European 
musical circles, and who adapted themselves to America and American 

ideas without impairing their loyalty to artistic ideals, and who found in 
new environs invigorating inspirations. Otto Dresel, Carl Bergmann, 
Carl Zerrahn, Theodore Ritter, Asger Hamerik, Otto Singer, Theo. 
Eisfeld are among the best known representatives of this class. More- 
over, the European education of several prominent American musi- 
cians began to bear fruit. Mason, with his traditions of Liszt and his 
intimacy with all the leading virtuosi of the last half century; Gottschalk, 
as a performing artist of cosmopolitan fame and popularity, were examples 
of the unifying influence which operated at second hand, at least, over wide 
circles, and to great effect. More than all, the Man had made himself 
ready. That modest violinist, Theodore Thomas, had been engaged for 
ten years in giving a series of chamber concerts in New York, in conjunc- 
tion with \Vm. Ma3on, Carl Bergmann, Theodore Matzka and Bernard 
Mollenhauer, which were entirely independent of financial considerations, 
and regulated solely for securing the most perfect performances possible 
of the very best music. It is said by those who heard this organization 
in its best estate that the sympathy of their playing, the refinement and 
taste of it, were something to dream over. Nothing so fine had ever been 
done here before. Although given to comparatively small audiences in 
New York, the fame of the concerts was widely extended through the 
universal commendation of the press, especially of the New York Tribune, 
which at that time had for critic one of the best of American musicians, 
an artist prematureh- thrown into an unprepared environment, Wm. Henry 
Fry. Mr. Thomas began to direct an orchestra at Central Park garden in 
1855. He made his first organization of a symphony orchestra in 1864, 
and his concerts, while not adeqtiately supported, immediately commanded 
attention for the delicacy, intelligence and general good taste of his read- 
ings, and for the consideration given to new works and new schools in his 
repertoire, all such things having been ruled out of that of the Phil- 
harmonic until forced in by his example some years later. 

The war itself w'as a great awakener of mind. Wars always are. No 
nation goes into a life-and-death struggle for a series of years without 
being stirred to its lowest depths of consciousness. Sentiment is the ruling 
motive in carrying on war. Intellect provides waj's and means, but only 
in obedience to a sentiment too strong to resist. Considerations of pru- 
dence go for nothing. The national life is threatened, and sentiment takes 
control. Fortunately this country was strong enough materially to stand 
the financial strain without absorbing its full resources. Although the 
struggle was long and terribly expensive in life, suffering and monej', the 
nation came out of it full of vigor, and with resources unimpaired. The 
million men, mustered out in 1865, were as energetic a set of men as ever 

carried a weapon. They were just ready to begin to enjoy life. One 
million of men turned into the various ways of productive employment, 
meant untold millions added to the communal resources. 

Moreover, the people were awakened, unified, drawn out of local and 
provincial littlenesses, and in ever}^ way ready to welcome such a new 
factor of emotional expression and enjoyment as the art of music. Abound- 
ing national life showed itself in every department of work. Books and 
newspapers were multiplied, magazines increased in number, and literary 
workers multiplied. Schools added to their resources and deepened 
their sj'stems of instruction. An epoch of luxury and free expendi- 
ture was reached, unparalleled in the previous history of the world. 
The opening of the Pacific railways added whole empires to the available 
domain of the country. Emigrants thronged in to settle the new regions. 
With these came also manj' well educated musicians, the political disturb- 
ances in Europe in 1870 having been particularly fruitful of results in this 

Thus, from every point of view, it was a case where the ground had 
been well prepared, where much seed had been sown, where the weather 
had been favorable, and sunshine had matured the grain. From every 
quarter thronged the reapers. 

Up to this time musical effort had had its chief seat of activity in 
New York and Boston. Now new centres had arisen, and in the west 
sprang up a mo\-ement which soon put the cities of Cincinnati and Chicago 
upon an almost equal footing of importance, in the musical sense; for 
the western effort, by the excellence of its direction, the high standard 
of its labors, gave an impulse of virility to its activitj- that compensated 
to a large extent, in a short time, for the tardiness of its approach. True, 
these western centres of population had long had the benefit of the labors 
of many earnest musicians, but they had been slow to respond to the art 
entliusiasm of these laborers. When they did, however, awaken to the 
dignity and importance of musical culture, they met the zeal of those who 
pointed out the way, with an equal enthusiasm and with ardent, liberal 
and generous appreciation. 

Now, also, the musical life of the country received the benefit of the 
introduction of the conservatory system, and colleges of music sprang up 
where musical ambition and talent found opportunity' for improvement 
and the acquisition of knowledge of the higher walks of the art, hereto- 
fore only available in European schools, and practically, by reason of its 
expense, beyond the reach of the great majority. These institutions 
formed an influence which powerfulh- contributed to place the whole 
theatre of musical life upon a new and higher ground, and to give a 

more ambitious tone to the general average of musical culture. Another 
factor of vast importance to the development of the new art life was the 
organization of countless musical societies. In ante-bellum days, musical 
organizations were confined to large cities and, although New York, 
Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore and the other great cities of the east 
had grown accustomed to the working of several associations of enthu- 
siastic music lovers, the western cities, excepting in a few instances, sup- 
ported no such societies thA were worthy of mention. Now, howe\'er, 
musical clubs sprang into being in every city and town. The American 
people gave loose rein to the idea that they had earned the right to 
enjoyment, and pleasure to a large portion of the dwellers in any commu- 
nitj- means the cultivation of art, not for art's sake so much as for amuse- 
ment. The older societies in the great cities, whose operations were sus- 
pended when war songs were the only music, now resumed their careers, 
and unnumbered associations of musical amateurs and professional musi- 
cians were, called into life. The missionary art work carried on by these 
societies could not fail to be of vast benefit to American music in general. 
The widespread adoption of music as a part of the curriculum of the pub- 
lic schools in all the larger cities and many of the lesser ones was also a 
most potent element in the converting of Americans to love for and famil- 
iarity with music. The elements of music thus acquired in young minds 
were generall)' the awakeners of musical inclinations and an admiration of 
the art, while in many cases this rudimentary education was the goad 
which spurred the j-oung student on to ambition to excel in music. Many 
an American musician of the present owes to musical instruction in the 
public school. that ambition which led him to grand achievements for art. 
But the art that rose like a phcenix from the ashes of war owed its 
rejuvenation to no one cause. It was the result of a combination of varied 
forces, often seemingly divergent, yet all in reality aiming toward the same 
goal. The divinity of opera coming from the old world to astonish audi- 
ences in the new was in reality only a more brilliant and eloquent mis- 
sionary of the same gospel that was preached in his modest way by the 
rural pedagogue. The school boy yearning for the music hour to inter- 
rupt the current of more sombre studies, and the majestic musician eager 
for the distinction of wielding a baton for the direction of a symphony 
were each types of the love for music and the ambition to excel in it that 
at this period took possession of American people. 


Psalmody and Popular Music after the War. 

Slp^^f'T the middle of the present centun', there was little or no earnest 
Ir musical effort, outside of two or three of the largest cities, which 
^ was not included in the range of culture represented by Lowell 
Mason and his associates; for, in addition to their own compositions 
and arrangements of tunes for church and singing school use, they 
also effected a great deal in the way of introducing the leading 
choruses from the great oratorios. After the war this ceased to be the 
case. As already indicated, musical societies were organized here and 
there, for the study of single works entire, or selections from the higher 
class of choral works, and the administration of these societies was carried 
on largely by local conductors. In this way there was a widespread dif- 
fusion of ideas about music, and in almost every community there were a 
few music lovers, whose e}-es were fixed upon the great stars of the musical 
heavens, such as Handel, Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven — the last name, 
in days, generally concluding the popular musical chronology. 
These idealistic ones formed a sort of inner brotherhood by themselves, 
and held aloof from the popular culture of music, as represented by the 
convention and choir books of the successors of Lowell Mason. They 
looked for something better in the way of church music, and fornled the 
original public supporting the well written choir music of Dudley Buck 
and other writers of .similar rank, as will appear later, when progress in Amer- 
ican musical creation comes up for consideration. Hence, with the growth 
of taste for the higher class of music as represented upon the pianoforte, 
this separation between the advanced and elementary grades of musical 
enthusiasm and knowledge became wider and wider, and had the effect of 
leaving the popular convention men without an adequate constituency for 
classical music. Moreover, the progress of public interest in music later- 
ally and downward through the social order, brought into connection 
with this art a large class of people whose interest in it was mainly 

W. B. Bradbury. 

emotional and instinctive, their range of intellectual s\-mpathy scarcely 
extending bej'ond that of the district school. Art, as an abstraction, they 
knew nothing about; singing, as an agreeable exercise, was the form of 
musical delight attracting them to a master. Hence these new workers 
turned more and more to the people, in this democratic sense, and the 
psalmody books, as well as those for singing schools, have been generally 
easier in late years, and less related to the higher art of music than was 
formerly the case. Still, it would be a great mistake to ignore or speak 
contemptuously of the workers in this field, many of them men of no small 
originality, earnestness of purpose and organizing ability. Whatever 
may be regarded as the defects of their systems, when tried with reference 
to the demands of the higher musical knowledge, their ministrations have 
been and still are the beginning, the middle, and too often the end of pop- 
ular interest in the art of music over large regions of the country. Hence, 
it is necessarj' to resimie here the narrative of effort in this department, 
begitming where we left it (page 44) at the death of Lowell Mason. 

After Mason, the name next in importance in this direction is that of' 
William Batchelder Bradbury, a considerable number of whose melodies are 
constantly in use in evangelical congregations. 

Wm. B. l')K.M)m"KV. 

William Batchelder Brad])ury was born at York, Me., in 1816. He 
came of a good family, his grandfather having been one of the signers of 
the declaration of independence. His father and mother were both mu- 
sical, and his father was leader of the choir. Young Bradbury worked on 
his father's farm until he was fourteen years old, when the family removed 
to Boston, where he saw a piano and organ for the first time. Before this 
he had taught himself to play upon such instruments as were within 
reach. As soon as he arrived in Boston and heard music of a better kind, 
he decided that he would be a musician. Accordingly he took lessons and 
within three years began to be recognized as a competent organist. He 
removed to New York in 1840 and began his career as teacher of music. 
Seven j^ears later, when he was thirty years old, he took his family for a 
trip abroad, visiting the usual countries of a first tour. He spent some 
time at Leipzig in study. In 1S49 he returned to New York, when his 
career as conductor of musical conventions and editor of singing books 
began. He was a natural money maker, and in 1854, in connection with 
his brother, E. G. Bradbury, he commenced the manufacture of the Brad- 
bury pianos, which at one time were very successful. He died at Mont- 
clair, N. J., Jan. 8, 1868. Of his twenty collections of music, the. Jubilee, 
published in 1858, reached a sale of more than two hundred thousand 

copies. The success of these books was due to the pleasing quality of the 
music in them, especially the compositions of Mr. Bradbury himself. 
He was one of the best melodists of all the American psalmodists. His 
tunes have an easy, natural flow, quite similar to the melodies of Mozart, 
although, it need not be said, upon a much lower aesthetic plane. The 
harmonies are simple and natural, and many of his hymn tunes still in 
use are among the best that American writers have produced. His sacred 
cantata of Esther had an enormous success, having been sung thousands 
of limes as a cantata, and represented as an opera with costumes and 
scenery many hundreds of times, and singularly enough almost always 
with great financial success. A genuine musical life shows itself in the 
melodies of this writer quite as plainly as in the secular songs of that 
prince of American melodists, Stephen C. Foster. 

Contemporary with the later years of Dr. Mason was a worker in the 
same field, who had a large following in his life time, and whose melodies 
still form part of evangelical song. Isaac B. Woodbury, was born at 
Beverly, Mass., Oct. i8, 1819. In early life he was apprenticeJ to the 
trade of a blacksmith, but he devoted his spare moments to music. Having 
a good voice, he joined the Bay State Glee Club in 1839, giving perform- 
ances in various towns near Boston. In 1851 he went abroad for study, 
and upon his return located at New York and entered immediatelj^ upon 
a career of composing psalmody, conducting conventions, editing books, 
etc. , after manner of Lowell Mason. Among the best of his tunes still in 
use are Siloam, Eucharist, etc. Mr. Woodbury died comparatively young, 
Oct. 26, 1858, at the age of thirty-nine. His melodies are not so strong 
as those of Bradbury, but his music is pleasing. 

Contemporary with Mr. Bradbury was Dr. Geo. F. Root, whose per- 
sonal history has already been recounted in connection with his great his- 
toric function as composer of war songs. (See page 68.) It would be unjust, 
however, to pass unnoticed his activity as a composer of church and Sun- 
day school tunes, many of which have had little less popularity than his 
most famous war songs. Such melodies as Come to the Saviour and Shining 
Shore, and such choir tunes as J'arina, arranged by Mr. Root from a 
melody by Rink, in the long run are scarcely less precious additions to 
popular musical delight than the great war songs which made his name so 
famous. Mr. Root also has a representative value in this connection, 
even greater than that of Bradbury, as the head of a large following of 
teachers, educated in his normal musical institutes, which he has held for 
many years in all parts of the countrj-. With popular musical education, 
farther, Mr. Root has come in connection through his elementary instruc- 
tion books for different instruments, especially the pianoforte book. The 

Musical Curriculum, published in 1870, and aftenvard revised and in par 
re-written. As a primer this book is of no small interest. 

Another well known writer of music of all the classes under consider- 
ation in this chapter, is Mr. L,. O. Emerson, author of the well known 
tune, Sessions, and maiiy pleasing quartettes, Sunday school songs, and 
various instruction books. 

Luther Orl.vndo Emerson 

Was born Aug. 3, 1820, at Parsonfield, Me., the j-oungest sou of Luther 
Emerson, a farmer. It was a mnsical family, but there was little oppor- 
tunity in that place for the cultivation of music. His father, however, 
bought him a violoncello and gave him instructions, so that in a short 
time he was able to play in the village choir. When he was of age he 
went to Boston and was able to attend the Dracut Academy, Mass., where 
he continued his practice of music. At the age of twenty-four he began 
a course of musical instruction under the late I. B. Woodbury, and con- 
tinued it with some of the best teachers in Boston. He studied the voice, 
piano, organ and harmony for several years, and then started as a teacher 
at Salem, Mass., where he remained for six j-ears. During this time he 
composed a collection of choir hymns and anthems, and, after a hard 
struggle, succeeded in securing its publication, but it proved a failure. 
From Salem he returned to Boston to accept the position of organist and 
director of music at the Bullfinch street church, which he held for four 

The following eight years were spent as organist of the Second Con- 
gregational church, at Greenfield, Mass., and in charge of the musical 
department of Powers' Institute, at Bernardston, Mass. Lately Mr. Em- 
erson has given up all his time to raising the standard of church music, 
and to this end he has taken an active part in musical conventions and 
festivals all over the countrj'. He is also well . known as a lecturer on 
music and as a baritone singer. 

His principal work has been as a composer of church and school 
music. Among his publications are the Golden JlWat/i, a song book for 
schools; the Golden Harp, a Sunday school book; Sabbath Harmony, for 
churches; Harp of Judali, one of the most popular of church music books; 
Jubilate, Choral Tribute, Standard and Leader, all for churches; Voice of 
Worship ; Emerson's Vocal Method, in all about thirty-five books for 
churches, schools, societies and the household. Besides these, Mr. Em- 
erson is also the author of a number of songs, notabl}-, We are Coning, 
Father Abraham, a war song often sung by the soldiers during that time; 
Whittier's \effro Boatman's Song, Out in the Cold and manj' others. 




S " 

■ ^^ 





Luther O. Emerson. 

Mr. E;uerson is the best melodist of all the psalmody writers, and 
if he had received proper technical training when young would undoubt- 
edly have distinguished himself as a composer of anthems and services, 
his sense of the dramatic significance of music being unusuall}^ acute. 

Mr. H. R. Palmer is another name prominent throughout the whole 
of this epoch. His story is as follows: 

Horatio Richmond Palmer, Mus. Doc. 

This well known composer of vocal music was born April 26, 1834, 
at Sherburne, N. Y. When nine j-ears old he began to sing alto in his 
father's choir, and when seventeen became organist and choir master. In 
1 86 1 he removed to Chicago, where, in 1866, he commenced editing and 
publishing The Concordia, a musical monthly. The following year he 
published his first collection of music, The Song Queen, which reached 
the enormous sale of 200,000 copies. Of the Song King, published in 
1871, a still larger number of copies was sold. His Theory 0/ Music (1876) 
clearly and conciselj' presents the elements of thoroughbass, harmony, 
composition and form. During six of the fifteen j-ears of Dr. Palmer's 
residence in Chicago, he was chorister of the second Baptist church. His 
reputation was already well established and rapidly growing. Nearly 
every moment of his time was consumed by various duties, and even the 
Sabbath could hardly be called a day of rest. Sometimes his engagements 
for successive weeks would be nearly fifteen hundred miles apart. His 
duties still keep him busy, and he has little time for pleasure, except such 
as is found in labor. During the last fifteen years he has visited nearly 
every state in the Union as conductor and lecturer. In 1874 he removed 
to New York, where he still resides. He had charge of the Church Choral 
Union, organized in that city. The first season was begun in March, 
1 88 1, with 250 singers. At the commencement of the second season 
(1882) the number had increased to 1,600, and at the commencement of 
the third season (,1883) to 4,200. Its object was to elevate the standard 
of music in the churches. He spent part of the years 1877, 1878, 1881 
and 1882 in visiting interesting portions of the old world. The degree of 
doctor of music was conferred on him by the University of Chicago in 
June, 1880, and also by the Alfred University, N. Y., in June, 1881. Dr. 
Palmer now has charge of the music departments of the Chautauqua 
assemblies in Georgia, Kansas, Nebraska, Wisconsin, and at the great 
Chautauqua assembly in New York, and has inaugurated a new order of 
musical progress in such assemblies. He is the author of numerous com- 
positions, distinguished for grace, purity and melodiousness, which are de- 
servedly popular. His published works consist of seventeen collections 




of music for choir and singing classes, including several collections of 
anthems, eight text books of musical theory and four collections of Sunday 
school songs. 

Few writers have been more persistent, and few teachers have covered 
a wider range of territory' than Mr. H. S. Perkins, author of many books 
for popular consumption, but his personal hi.storj' will be given later, in 
connection with the history of the Music Teachers' National Association. 

The process of musical diflerentation presently asserted itself in the 
sudden appearance of popular song writers for Sunday schools, seizing at 
their ver}^ first appearance the ear of the public, and retaining it for j-ears, 
their works being circulated by millions. In the beginning of the Sunday 
school movement, the children sang the ordinary chorals of the church. 
The same reasons which led to the production of story books and text 
books expressly within the limitations and habits of child thought, led to 
the production of these songs, equally simple, spontaneous and well 
adapted to the subject matter of the lessons. One of the first writers to 
attain wide popularity in this department was Rev. B. Lowry. 

As a spontaneous and ever ready melodist, with the true cadence of 
the popular idea, is to be mentioned the name of that magnificent speci- 
men of physical and moral manhood, Mr. P. P. Bliss, who was removed 
from earth just when his fame began to spread. 

Phillip P. Bliss. 

Phillip Paul Bliss was born in Clearfield county. Pa., July g, 1838. 
In early life he showed a fondness for music, and became a steady attend- 
ant at .singing .schools and a singer in choirs. Later he taught singing 
schools upon his own account. He presently fell under the influence of Dr. 
Geo. F. Root, who conceived a great liking for him. Bliss was with 
Dr. Root in several summers of his normal schools. Under the training 
of Mr. Fred Root, Bliss' splendid bass voice began to be cultivated, and 
later he sang the bass solos ol Elijah, and The Messiah with great effect. He 
was engaged to conduct musical conventions for the house of Root & Cady, 
in which relation he made many friends in all parts of the countr\^ He 
had already begun to compose church tunes, and his compositions, like 
those of many others of Dr. Root's disciples, found place in new singing 
books in process of production. In the same way he made his debut as a 
writer of Sunday school songs. Of these he wrote the words and music 
both. Indeed, he began as a writer of words, his first songs being com- 
posed by Mr. Root. Later, he developed his faculty for simple and natural 
melody, and produced those stirring songs, Hold the Fort, Only an Armor 
Bearer, Pull for the Shore, Resaie the Perishing, etc. In his last years 

J H. P. MANN. 


Mr. Bliss was connected with the gospel meetings of Major D. \V. Whittle. 
He perished in the railway horror of Ashtabula, Dec. 29, 1876. In person, 
Mr. Bliss was fully six feet high, with an attractive countenance and a 
manly carriage. His spirit was singularly sweet, and everj-body liked 
him who knew him. The editor of the present work will never forget a 
letter he had from Mr. Bliss soon after an article of his had appeared in 
the hidcpcndcnt, speaking rather slightingly- of several singers and writers of 
Mr. Bliss' class. Unfortunately the letter is lost, but its .spirit was such 
as to make a lasting impression. 

Among the successful melodists whose work will long be remembered 
is the name of Mr. J. P. Webster, author of The S~cvcct By and By, who 
was born at Manchester, N. H., about 1830, and died in Wisconsin about 
1877. Mr. Webster's career was not different from that of many other 
self-taught composers. He was first a singer, then a composer and a 
teacher of classes. Lacking business facultj-, he failed to organize a 
following or to make money from his works, but his natural gift of melody 
was uncommonly good. Many songs of his were published, and one 
collection of Sunday school music, which sold largely upon the single 
recommendation of containing The Sweet By and By. 

Several efforts have been made by different writers to elevate the 
musical character of Sunday school music, but with unimportant results, 
for the same reason that an effort to materially elevate the character of 
children's books would probably ref.ult in failure. Among the most praise- 
worthy of these was that of Messrs. S. Lasar and Hubert P. Main, who 
published the work called The Sabbath School Hymnal. 

Hubert Platt Main. 

Mr. Main was born in Ridgefield, Conn., Aug. 17, 1839, and 
when ten years old was able to read the music of Bradbur\' and Woodbury 
by note or syllable. He removed to New York in 1854, and commenced 
writing hymn tunes and songs, which were published in the New York 
Musical Pioneer, and in some of the church tune collections of that time. 

He was for some time employed in a mercantile house, and in the 
evening assisted his father, who was then engaged in compiling books for 
publishers. He became connected with the house of Biglow & Main, at 
its foundation in Februar)-, 1868, and has superintended the compilation 
and issue of everj- book put out by this firm up to date. He has written 
much Sunday school music, many hymn tunes, and a few anthems, songs, 
etc. He was one of the editors qf the Victory, Coronation, Imperial, 
Harmony, Winnowed Hymns, Sterling Authors, Church Praise Book, Book 
of Praise, New Organ Folio, Hymtis of Praise, ser\'ices, etc. 

Mr. Lasar is an organist in Brooklyn, an accomplished musician and 
a good composer of songs for female voices, of which he has made one 
or two collections. More definite information concerning him has not 
come to hand. The book here referred to did not succeed, being several 
degrees too high for the popular taste. But as an illustration of what 
ought to have succeeded, it cannot pass without notice. 

Two other names are particularly well known in this department, yet 
neither is strictl)' appropriate to the present work. Ira D. Sankey is a 
popular singer, who has a large following, drawn to him by his originally 
beautiful voice, and the sincerity and depth of expression with which he 
interprets his " Gospel Songs," to use the appropriate term, originated, it 
is believed, by Mr. Dwight L,. Moody. Mr. Phillipp Phillipps occupies 
an analogous position in the Methodist denomination, but he has devoted 
his talents to commercial uses, and is neither a musician nor an evan- 

From a musical standpoint, all of these men suffered from insuf- 
ficient professional preparation. While their productions are not illiter- 
ate, as were those of the Billings period of American psalmody, they also 
fall short of the dignity of the best of Lowell Mason's work. These 
authors were essentially the people's singers, like the self-taught minstrels 
of the olden times, who, in everything that they did, were "of the people, 
for the people, and by the people." They represent the average musical 
consciousness of this country, self- developed by the influences of rural 
environment, and undisturbed by imperfectly assimilated musical training. 

Popular Secular Music. 

The thorough stirring up of the national consciousness effected by 
the war had brought out a multitude of writers of patriotic songs, as 
already noticed in a preceding chapter. When the war ended, what we 
might call the national common denominator of patriotic feeling was dis- 
solved. The stream of national feeling was divided into innumerable 
smaller ones, but the desire to sing and to be pleased with music was not by 
any means wanting. Hence the current of musical productivity continued 
after the war with increase rather than with abatement; but the subjects of 
the poets ceased to be national and patriotic, not to say partisan, and took 
the wider range of domestic and rural life in general. Withal, there 
was a general interest in musical instruments, and reed organs and pianos 
were found everywhere. Musical education had become more general, 
and the j-oung composers had better trained ears than their predecessors, 
as well as better schooled musicianship. Therefore there was room for 
song writers of a higher type, several of whom now appeared. But before 

speaking of them it is necessary to revert for a moment to the greatest 
genius of all, the lamented author of Old Folks at Home. 

Stephen C. Foster. 

Stephen Collins Foster was born July 4, 1826, at Lawrenceburgh. Pa., 
now part of the city of Pittsburgh. His father, a prosperous and honored 
merchant, came originally from Virginia. The boy was educated at the 
academy, and in 1841 entered Jefferson college at Cannonsburgh, where 
he finished his education. After this he acted as bookkeeper for his 
brother, studying German, French, drawing and painting in his leisure 
moments. In his school days he had made a beginning as composer of 
several popular pianoforte pieces and songs. These he submitted to the 
criticism of his friend, Mr. Henry Kleber, a musician of Pittsburgh, from 
whose advice he derived no small advantage. At length it happened that 
a minstrel troupe being in town, he submitted to them his song. Oh, Sus- 
annah! Upon singing the song it was found to be very successful. The 
audience received it with acclaim. The future career of the composer was 
decided, and henceforth he was a writer of people's songs. The advice 
of friends that he educate his musical talents, he rejected, from a fear that 
it might injure his originality. Later he discovered that the effect of edu- 
cation is to increase originality rather than diminish it, because it gives a 
man full use of his natural talents in the easiest and most effective way. 
The peculiar negro flavor of many of his songs he acquired by attending 
neg^o camp meetings. In 1854 he was married to Miss Jennie McDowell. 
But it was only a few years before dissipated habits had ruined prospects 
once so bright. He went to New York, sinking lower and lower, haunt- 
ing groceries and cheap hotels, where he produced some of his sweetest 
melodies amid .surroundings as uncongenial and unpoetic as can be imagined. 
He died in 1864. He was unfortunate as a business man. Although his 
compositions sold enormouslj', his Old. Folks at Home having reached a 
sale of half a million copies, he received little or nothing for it. It was 
the same with his other songs, the composer being compelled by his neces- 
sities to accept the meagre sums the publishers were willing to offer. In 
figure he was slight, a little below middle height, with a timid expression 
of countenance, soft brown eyes, and a lofty forehead. His life and story 
remind one of the unfortunate litterateur, Edgar Allan Poe; both were 
geniuses of whom America is proud, but to whom while living the world 
made a sorry return. 

A popular song is the most difficult thing to account for in the whole 
domain of music. Why one song should thrive and another precisely- 
similar should fall unnoticed from the press, is something which many a 


young, and old composer, too, would give much to learn. Every popular 
melody will be found on examination to be ver>' much like something 
else, generally like a melody by an older and more capable writer. A 
folks song, nine times out often, is a degradation of type, a feebler remin- 
iscence of something better. Verj^ many of the melodies of Mr. Geo. F. 
Root -are very like parts of melodies in opera. Dr. William Mason tells 
that once, many years ago, be was .sitting upon a hotel piazza watching 
some negro roustabouts unload the cargo of a steamer. As they worked 
they whistled or sang one melody, which seemed to him exactly like 
Verdi's anvil chorus, until a certain point was reached. At this point 
they uniformly turned aside and ended Verdi's melody improperly. 
Hearing this for an hour or more finally awakened a missionary spirit in 
the conscientious musician, and he strolled down to the wharf to give the 
dusky singers a lesson, and .secure artistic justice to Verdi's music. But 
when he began to teach them the correct interpretation, he seemed to 
them to be spoiling their melody, which upon farther investigation proved 
to be Geo. F. Root's Tramp, Tramp, the Boys Came Marching. A simi- 
lar case is known in the pianoforte piece by the talented woman, Thekla 
Badarzewski, whose A/a/dcu's Prayer was played all over the world. The 
piece owed its popularity to its melody, which was a very thin adap- 
tation of an aria from an opera of Bellini's. A popular song represents 
the average musical con.sciousness. The late Chauncey Marvin Cadj' 
used to say that the firm of Root & Cady had on their shelves hundreds 
of songs which ought to have succeeded, and would have succeeded, but 
for some one or two unfortunate notes in them. If the composers would 
only have listened to him, he could have shown them how to remove the 
stumbling blocks from their road up the sunny side of Parnassus. 

The new writers represent a higher strain of musical originality, and 
a more nnisicianly sentiment commensurate with the widening and deep- 
ening of the popular musical consciousness. One of the most popular of 
recent writers is Mr. H. P. Danks, as shown in all directions covered by 
the present lines of inquiry. 

H.VRT Pease Daxk.s. 

This noted writer of American ballads was born at New Haven, 
Conn., April 6, 1834. His parents removed to Saratoga Springs, N. Y., 
in 1842, and there j-oung Danks acquired his first rudimentary education 
at the chief district school. It was in that city that he first studied 
music, although he had previously sung soprano in the Saratoga Metho- 
dist church. His teacher was Dr. Whiting, who at that time was the 
principal physician of Saratoga, as well as the most cultured musician 


in the place. About the year 1851 the family moved to Chicago, where 
the elder Danks followed his trade as a master builder, and was aided 
much of the time by his son, Hart. In 1853 Hart engaged with a 
firm in the photographic line, and shortly afterward he went into the 
same business for himself As a photographer he was not a monetary 
success, owing to the fact that his mind was all on music, which also 
occupied his leisure time. He engaged in various musical pursuits in 
Chicago, appearing as bass singer, choir leader, conductor of musical 
societies, etc. His composition was a simple psalm tune called Lake 
Street, which was introduced by William Bradbury in his y«^i7f<? collection. 
Mr. Bradbury thought highly of the composition. 

As a composer, Mr. Danks is in great mea.sure self-taught, and he 
read and studied manj' works on composition, which gave him an insight 
into theory and harmony, counterpoint, etc. His first songs were pub- 
lished in 1856. They were two in number, Anna Lee, published by 
Ditson &Co., and The Old Lane, published by Higgins Bros., of Chicago. 
During the following year he published six songs. During 1858 he 
published only one song; in 1859, four; in i860, thirteen; in 1 861, six; in 
1862, five. He was married in 1857 to Miss Hattie R. Colahan, of 
Cleveland, O. He removed to New York in 1864, and has resided there 
ever since. In 1870 appeared one of Mr. Danks' most popular ballads, 
Don't be Angry 7cith Me, Darling, which made a hit and was sung 
everywhere. In 1872 Mr. Danks published no fewer than forty songs 
and also an operetta called Pauline. Among his productions this year 
was Silver Threads among the Gold, which, it is said, has had the largest 
sale of anj- copyrighted song ever published in America. This caused 
his name to be known to English publishers, w'ho ha^•e readily accepted 
his works for publication ever since. In 1873 he published thirty-eight 
songs, among them Not Ashamed of Christ, which is one of the most pop- 
ular sacred songs ever written and has had an immense sale. Since this 
period Mr. Danks has been most prolific in his compositions, in one year 
he has published as many as eightj'-eight songs in sheet music form, 
while the total number of his works runs far up in the hundreds, and his 
compiled song books for churches and scoools have been exceedingl)' 
numerous. He takes greatest pride in his sacred music, and it is that 
in which he is at his best. His choir works are used more extensivelj^ than 
those of anj- other author in America. His writings for church sen-ices are 
strong and effective, and have the good qualit\' of being easy for ordinarj' 
voices to sing. He has filled the following choir positions as solo basso 
and musical director in New York: Zion Protestant Episcopal church. 
Church of the Incarnation, St. Stephen's in Brooklyn, at the Holy 

Trinity, First Baptist, Lafayette Avenue Presbyterian, and others equally 
prominent. He has been well known also as a concert basso, singing 
with such artists as Anna Bishop, Maria Brainerd and others of equal 
note. He has published the extraordinary number of thirteen hundred 

There were several writers of popular melodies nearly as popular as 
Foster, yet on the whole there was no one worthy of being placed beside 

The most popular writer of the entire list is Mr. Will S. Hayes, of 
Louisville, Ky. 

Will S. H.wes. 

William Shakespere Hayes was born July 19, 1837, at Louisville, 'Ky. 
He began his career as a song writer when he was about twenty years 
old, with Evangeline, which, had a large sale. During the war he wrote 
upon semi-patriotic themes. After the war he made an engagement with 
the publishing house of J. L. Peters, in pursuance of which he wrote 
something like three hundred songs. Some of these had an enormous 
sale. Write Me a Letter from Home is said to have reached 350,000; We 
Parted by the River, 300,000; and many others nearly as many. Music 
is merely an amusement for Mr. Hayes. He is a journalist, connected 
with the staff of the Louisville Courier-Journal. His success with the 
masses was well desen-ed. 

Nor were instrumental composers slow to claim their share ot the new 
interest in music. There are half a dozen whose compositions have sold 
by the hundred thousand. It is quite true that musically considered, these 
pieces are very poor. Like the popular songs, they represent the average 
musical consciousness, but upon a lower plane in consequence of having 
no poetry to keep them in check. This music usually consists of a verj^ 
simple and natural melody, set to the most elementary harmony, and 
brightened up with a few stock passages, arpeggios and the like, simple 
and easily to be executed by plaj'ers of small attainment, but modeled 
upon passages in pieces by first-class writers. Of this kind may be men- 
tioned the variation pieces of A. P. Wyman, Chas. Grobe, the operatic 
arrangements of James Bellak, and the variations of Thos. P. Ryder, 
Chas. D. Blake and others. All of these men made mone3% and several 
of them received large sums which a poetic justice would rather 
have seen bestowed upon worthier efforts. Even these parasites upon 
poetic music have their uses. While they occasionally take up space 
which might be better occupied, they do, nevertheless, afford delight to 
many whose interest in music is so slight that nothing less easily assimi- 

>~7^ l/tLccUjU 

lated would stand a chance of being received. Of these works it might 
be said, as of the sacred music of this later dispensation, it represents the 
effort of composers to adapt themselves to the newer and more democratic 
and untrained public, opened to them by the enormous popularization of 
musical instruments and fondness for the art, consequent upon the accu- 
mulation of wealth following the war. The older music of little difficulty 
was mainly of French origin, in the style of Francois Hunten. In this 
music the left hand had very little to do, but the melodies were delicate 
and refined, and although simple as to mechanical demands upon the 
player, it had a certain air and grace, not uncomely. This later popular 
music of America of the writers now under consideration has no grace, 
but what it lacks in this respect it makes up in pretension. Its sole aim 
is to sell, and to delude the purchaser into the idea that in playing it he 
is performing something worth while. Quite different in moral purpose, 
at least, are the productions of some of the ladj' composers, one of the 
most popular of whom is mentioned next on the list. 

Constance Faunt le Roy Runcie. 

Although Constance Faunt le Roy Runcie is talented and distinguished 
as a pianist, it is as a composer that she has greatest claim to a position 
among the notables who have done service to musical art in America. 
The maiden name of Mrs. Runcie was Constance Faunt le Roy. She 
was boni in Indianapolis in 1836. Her maternal grandfather was the 
well known advocate of co-operative associations, Robert Owen. Her 
maternal great-grandfather was David Dale, lord-provost of Glasgow 
Scotland. Her father, Robert Henrj- Faunt le Roy, was of the 
old and extensive family stock of Faunt le Roys, of eastern Virginia, 
Her mother was bom in Scotland and educated in London, where 
she received, in addition to all her scientific and literary attainments, 
a thorough training on piano and harp, and acquired facility in 
drawing and painting. Her father died while attending to his coast 
survey duties, in the Gulf of Mexico, during the winter of 1849. 
In 1852, Mrs. Faunt le Roy, in order to develop still further the 
training of her family, by giving them the advantages of modem 
languages, German literature and art, took them to Germany and remained 
there almost six j-ears. Both before leaving for Germanj- and after her 
return to New Harmony, Ind., Miss Faunt le Roy's environment was 
highly favorable: that town being winter quarters of the officers connected 
with the several geological surveys; having also an extensive public 
library and occasional lectures, besides being the residence of her four 
uncles, all devoted to science or literature. 



While in Germany, Mrs. Ruiicie had the best musical advantages 
obtainable, and she developed decided talent as a composer. She has 
written for orchestra, and has composed over fiftj' songs, as well as a 
concerto for violin, a symphony, a piano sonata, and chamber music. It 
was at the suggestion of Annie Louise Cary that Mrs. Runcie published 
her first songs. Many of the most celebrated American artists have 
highly praised Mrs. Runcie's gifts as a song writer, and have used her 
music for concert purposes. Among her songs that have been most 
successful are: Hear Us, O, Hear Us; Round the Throne; Silence of the 
Sea; Merry Life; Tone Poems; Take My Soul, O, Lord; I Never Told Him; 
Dove of Peaee; I Hold My Heart so Still; My Spirit Rests, and many 
others. Mrs. Runcie is equally talented as a writer, and much of her 
poetry is of a very high order. She writes the lyrics for her own songs, 
which are exceptionally good in sentiment and rhythmic art. March 9, 
1861, she was united in marriage to Rev. James Runcie, D. D., a most 
devout Christian minister, useful labors in the Protestant Episcopal 
church at Madison, Ind., continued from 1861 to 1871, when he accepted 
a call to St. Jo.seph, Mo., where they have resided ever since. They have 
a family of two daughters and two .sons. 

Ch.\s. D. Blake. 
This popular composer was born at Wal pole, Mass., Sept. 13, 1847. 
His early musical instruction \i-as obtained under the care of Professor 
Paine, of Harvard, and Mr. J. C. D. Parker. At an early age he com- 
posed certain piano pieces, which being published, iinmediateh' attracted 
attention. They were followed by others in the same popular vein, with 
such success that it was not long before Mr. Blake made a contract with 
the music publishing house of White, Smith & Co. to write for them 
exclusively. This contract remained in force for eighteen years, termi- 
nating in 1888, since which Mr. Blake has published and sold his own 
pieces. His success in retaining his popularit}' for so long a time unim- 
paired, indicates the possession on his part of no small fertility of invention, 
as well as tact in guiding the soarings of his muse according to the 
momentary direction of the popular winds. Many of Mr. Blake's pieces 
have sold enormously. To the eye of a musician the}- are all more or less 
open to criticism upon the ground of their obvious aim at pleasing mainly 
the uncultivated taste. But whatever the reader may think upon this 
point, if he will write some twelve hundred pieces successively-, and 
please the public in all of them, he will be in a better position to judge 
the variety of qualities entering into the successful performance of such a 
task, than any one can possiblj- be merely by cold-blooded inspection. 

Another promising and talented composer is included here on account 
of the pleasing character of his compositions, and their evident hold 
upon the public, although they are perhaps somewhat more pretentious 
from a technical standpoint than those of the composers just mentioned. 

Edmund S. Mattoon. 

Occupying a prominent position among the musicians of the state of 
Ohio and in the Ohio Music Teachers' Association, is Mr. Edmund S. 
Mattoon. He was born at Columbus, where he, at present resides, in 
1841. His mother was musically inclined, and his early instruction in 
the art was derived from her. When he was twelve or fourteen years old 
he was much paraded as a musical prodigy, and while upon a concert 
tour in the towns of his native state he met a fine vocalist, Mrs. Isabella 
Chapman, who became greatly interested in him and took him as a pro- 
tege. He lived with the Chapman family in New York for four years 
and studied piano, harmony and theory with Wollenhaupt, then a distin- 
guished pianist and composer 

Returning home from New York, Mr. Mattoon at once devoted him- 
self to teaching, being occupied in that capacity in the Xenia Female 
College, next in the Wesleyan University at Delaware. At the conclusion 
of these engagements he became connected with the Caroline Richings 
English Opera Company as pianist and conductor, and traveled with them 
for one j'ear. After several years' connection with traveling concert com- 
panies as pianist and musical director, Mr. Mattoon, located for a time at 
Detroit, Mich., where he lived for ten or twelve years. He then removed 
to Columbus, O. , where he still resides. In Detroit and at Columbus 
he has been active and efficient in directing choral societies. He is also 
a diligent worker and an active spirit in the Ohio State Music Teachers' 
Association. He has been director of the Detroit Choral Union, the 
Detroit Philharmonic Societj', the Columbus Choral Union and other 
societies, doing efficient work as a wielder of the baton. 

As a composer, Mr. Mattoon has decided talent. His Tarantella for 
four hands, published by S. Brainard's Sons, has been played frequently 
in concerts in New York, Boston and elsewhere by Mr. William Sherwood 
and others. It is a brilliant and effective composition. Another produc- 
tion is a scherzo, entitled Joyousness. Other numbers from the pen of 
Mr. Mattoon, issued by the press of S. Brainard's Sons, in 1889, are 
The Sigh; Jlforceau Poelique, a saltarello and a valse sentimental. 
The compositions which Mr. Mattoon regards as among his best are 
Fri'ihluigslicd, Op. 29, played by Miss Neally Stevens; Dcuxicnie 
Saltarello, dedicated to Mme. Rive-King; Impromptu Capriccioso, dedi- 

cated to Arthur Foote-, Wood- Nymph, published by Arthur P. Schmidt; 
Drea^n of Hope, pubhshed by OUver Ditson, Boston; Tlie Caress, valse 
Sentimental, published by S. Brainard's Sons, Chicago, 111.; Rippling 
Waters, morceau etude. 

JoHX Eliot Trowbridge 

Was born at Newton, Mass., Oct. 20, 1845. He seems to have had 
his bent in life determined by the musical tastes of both father and mother, 
the former being for years the leader of the choir in the old E iot church 
at Newton. There were three sons, all of whom were musically inclined, 
but it was reserved for John to make that his profession. His first master 
was Prof. B. C. Blodgett, of " Smith " college, Northampton, Mass., 
under whom he studied the organ for some years. Later, he was under 
the tutelage of Prof. Junius W. Hill, of Wellesley college, Wellesley, 
Mass., who taught him the piano, theory, harmony and composition. It 
was not until he was twenty-seven of age that his first published composition 
appeared. For twenty years past he has been church organist and direc- 
tor of choirs in Newton and Boston, and since 1881 has held the position 
of organist in the Congregational church at West Newton. Mr. Trow- 
bridge has conducted the Choral Union, of Newton, for the last five years, 
and under his guidance they have done some very creditable work. The 
best known of Mr. Trowbridge's pieces is the oratorio Emmanuel, which 
was produced in 1887 in Tremont temple, Boston, and attracted ver>' fav- 
orable notice. Other compositions by him are settings of the 3d, 23d and 
95th Psalms; a Te Deitm, "We praise thee, O God"; several anthems, 
responses and mottettes; selections and exercises for the Sunday school; 
Lydia, a cantata, for Sunday schools; The Santoral, a church choir book 
(in connection with the late S. H. Palmer); mass in E major; The Heroes 
of '7(5, a secular operatic cantata; instructor for the reed organ, and no 
select pieces for church or cabinet organ; three sacred male quartettes 
and one secular; besides a number of hymn tunes. This list alone indicates 
a busy life, one in which few opportunities have been lost, few spare mo- 
ments left unfilled. 

Alfred E. Warren. 

This popular composer was born in 1834, at Edmonton, now a suburb 
of London, Eng., where his father was a prominent piano manufacturer. 
When young Warren was about eighteen years old he decided to adopt 
music for his profession in life, and went through a course of musical 
education in London. Accepting an offer to go out to Calcutta, India, 
he remained there for several years, but his health gave waj' and he was 

Thomas P. Ryder. 

compelled to seek another climate. He came to America in 1861, made 
Boston liis home, and has remained there ever since. His reputation as 
composer, pianist and teacher stands very high. It was in 1861 also that 
his first published composition, I'alse dc Favorita, appeared. The Itiman 
Line March, dedicated to William Inman, was composed for the world's, 
peace jubilee of 1872, and was performed at every concert given through- 
out the jubilee. The Strauss Anioffrapk Wallzcs also gained much 
popularity, and were believed for some time to be by Strauss himself; in 
fact, they were republished in England under Johann Strauss' name. 

In addition to the above Mr. Warren is the composer of the following 
marches: Army and A^avy, which was written for the dedication of the 
monument on Boston Common, ]\/aick de Syrians Spirit of the Age ; No 
Surrender; In the Ranks, and Major McLean' s Grand March; Strauss 
Engagement Waltzes; Thoughts of Love, mazurka; Rays of Hope, mazurka; 
Heart's Delight, gavotte; Peep o' Day, polka; and these songs: Silent 
Evermore ; Life of a Sailor Free : The Fisherman' s Wife; Under the Leaves 
that Fall ; Good-by My Dearest, Good-by ; Sleep On; Sad Tears are Falling ; 
Farewell ; Skylark Greeting ; Song of the Angel; The .ff/v^^ (transcript), 
and Rocked in the Cradle of the Deep (transcript). 

Thom.vs Philaxder Ryder, 

Composer and organist, was born at Cohasset, Mass., June 29, 1836. He 
seems to have evinced a liking for music at a very early age, but it was 
non until he was fourteen j-ears old that he learned to plaj' the piano. A 
friend then gave him some instructions and he proved to be an apt pupil. 
The death of his father rendered him dependent upon his own exertions 
for support, but he never gave up his study of music. When he was 
nineteen lie took some lessons of Gustav Satter, and also began to study 
the organ and harmony. His first engagement as an organist was at 
Nyannis, Mass. , after which he held several positions at different places. 
He is now organist at the Tremont Temple, Boston, a post which he has 
held for ten j'ears. He is still living in Boston, and can count many leading 
musicians among his pupils. As an accompanist he has wonderful skill; 
as a choral director he has also been very successful, and has filled several 
prominent positions. The majority of his compositions are for the piano. 
Among them may be mentioned the Chanson dcs Alpcs, published in 1880 
by White, Smith & Co. ; Old Oaken Bucket; Nearer, My God, to Thee, with 
variations; A Dainty Morsel; Lida; Rustic Maiden; Sounds from the Glen, 
etc. These works have sold to the extent of hundreds of thousands of 
copies, and as the lucky composer is shown in this fact to have pleased 
many people, they in return have united in pleasing him. 

Maro L,. Bartlett, Mus. Doc, 

Was bom at Brownhelm, O., Oct. 25, 1847. He was brought up on a 
farm and received his first musical instruction at the country singing 
school. He displayed some aptitude and was sent to the Oberlin Con- 
servatory of Music, where he studied for some years. He removed from 
there to Meadville, Pa. , where he became conductor of the Philharmonic 
Society, which brought out nearly all the standard oratorios. Mr. Bartlett 
was next called to take charge of the music in the schools of Orange, 
N. J., and was appointed director of the Newark, N. J., Harmonic 
Society. He then went to New York, where he taught in the schools, 
and also became prominent as a bass soloist, appearing in oratorios and 
other concerts in different cities. In 1880 he came to Chicago as con- 
ductor of the Mozart Club, director of music in the First Congregational 
church, and director of the vocal department of the Chicago Musical 
College. From that city he went to Des Moines, and is at present director 
of the Des Moines Musical College. In 1889 Drake University, of Des 
Moines, conferred upon him the degree of Doctor of Music. He was 
the senior editor of Sacred Gems, an American anthem book, and of 
Crowning Victor, song circle, and author of Class and Chorus, for schools 
and colleges; also of services for the Episcopal church. 

Piano Playing and Pianists. 

IIJpgwLL things considered, the great pianists must be accorded the 
credit of having been tlie most useful and successful educators of 
American musical taste. They alone of great artists have been 
able to appeal to audiences largely leavened with hearers practically 
"1^ versed in the lower and intermediate grades of their own art. The 
) ])opularization of the pianoforte, and the general attention bestowed 
upon musical education by means of this instrument, has had the effect of 
filling the country with pianists, many of them of considerable ability. 
Within the memory of the generation now living, the standard of average 
execution upon this instrument has been elevated from the childish tasks 
of teachers in New England fifty years ago to a practical familiarity with 
the best selections of the classical and concert schools of pianoforte litera- 
ture. Concert pieces of the virtuosi of a former generation are now played, 
easily and effectively, by girls still in boarding schools. Moreover, the 
pianist possesses an advantage not shared by other instrumentalists. 
Although his own instrument, indeed, is weighty and difficult to trans- 
port, the railroads and piano makers take care of this circumstance for him. 
When upon a tour he gives himself no care upon the subject, but confi- 
dentlj' expects his instrument to appear upon the platform night after 
night, in towns hundreds of miles apart. When once there, he has a full 
orchestra, or at least he has an instrument capable of fully representing 
both the melody and the harmon)- of music, in tone color to which all the 
hearers are accustomed, while his accomplishments of digital dexterity 
are immediately appreciated by hearers who have tried more or less to do 
the same things themselves. Moreover, the literature of his instrument 
possesses some of the most important chapters in the whole range of tone 
poetr>% varying in spirit and style from the simplest and tenderest of folks 
melodies to the most elevated seriousness of a Beethoven. To the credit 
of the pianists, it is to be said, that the representative ones in recent times 

have successful!}' resisted the tendency of the merely popular taste. 
Singers go on repeating a few familiar roles 3-ear after j'ear, and sometimes 
complete long careers without once essaying the highest tasks in their art; 
but the pianist boldly brings forward the greatest and most celebrated 
numbers, those which have cost him the most arduous preparation, and 
whose performance signifies to him much expenditure of nerve force and 
musical concentration. Thus it happens that more has been done toward 
cultivating a first-class taste in this department than in any other. 

The earlier pianists who visited America were somewhat eccentric, 
and none of them was notable upon purely technical grounds, according 
to present standards, until Thalberg came in 1855. It seems odd now to 
think of Maurice Strakosch as a pianist, yet such he was stj-led until his 
success as a manager led him to give up plajnng in public. Leopold De 
Meyer, also, was an artist of considerable finger dexterity, but of little or 
no seriousness of artistic purpose. It was not until Thalberg came here 
in 1855 that we had an example of the highest art in finished pianism at 
that time reached in the world. Thalberg's playing was of the most 
remarkable description. As finished finger work, nothing smoother or 
more delicatel}- graduated in tone color and power could have been desired. 
He was also an artist of exquisite taste, and he had made long studies in 
singing with a master no less eminent than the great Garcia. The art of 
carrj'ing a melody in the middle range of the instrument by the use of the 
thumbs of the hands alternately, was the great Thalbergian specialty, which 
in turn depended upon certain improvements in the damper and hammer 
mechanism, brought to success between 18 17 and 1830. In the middle 
range of pitch, that of the baritone, tenor and mezzo soprano voice, the 
instrument has its most successful sonority and singing power. Thalberg 
accomplished the mastery of touch, and formed his conception of melodic 
delivery so artistically that his melodies thus delivered by the thumbs 
alternately or co-operatively, were shaded and expressed as carefully as a 
superior singer would have delivered them. Across the melody, thus 
peacefully singing, rapid and delicate runs, of every sort, were carried 
from one end of the kej'board to the other, passing from one hand to the 
other by imperceptible substitutions. The artist made no display of effort 
in doing this. His demeanor was placid, reposeful and well bred. The 
Thalbergian trick has been imitated since in ever>' possible gradation of 
diflSculty, until it has been rendered hackneyed. But when still novel, 
his art threw new light upon the possibilities of an instrument whose real 
powers were then unknown in America. It was perhaps an additional 
element of his usefulness that the melodies of his pieces belonged almost 
exclusively to the lighter and more pleasing .school of Italian opera. A 

few Irish and Scotch songs and the national Home, Sweet Home, he ar- 
ranged expressly for his American concerts. All the remainder of his 
repertoire was the same as he had been accustomed to use in the artistic 
centers of the old world. 

Immediately after Thalberg, the great American genius, Gottschalk, 
made his concert tours, and while he played few or no selections so difficult 
from a technical point of view as those of Thalberg, his own original 
pieces had in them such vigor of rhythm, such bright melodies, and 
the touch of the pianist was so clear, ringing, delicate and sharply 
defined, as to enable him to seize the attention of the hearer and hold it 
without difficulty to the end. Much might be written concerning the 
concert history of this great master if space ser\'ed, and if the main 
circumstances of his career had not already been so well covered in another 
chapter. But as yet there was nothing like an education in piano litera- 
ture. Gottschalk played his own compositions almost exclusively, as 
Thalberg and all the others had done in their concerts. This afforded 
each artist an apparent individuality, since the ' ' build ' ' of the passages and 
the general treatment of the pieces was always such as happened to 
fit the individualities of the player's hand — nearl}^ or quite all pieces of 
this school being worked out at the keyboard. 

William Mason was the first pianist to give recitals composed exclu- 
sively of piano playing, with programmes definitely arranged for covering 
some particular part of musical literature. His actual work in the concert 
room lasted but for a brief time; but the example had been set, and 
the tradition of his tour lasted for a long time. Rubinstein was the pianist 
who next advanced the standard of piano playing in America. This great 
artist visited everj- important city in the coiuitry in the season of 1872-73, 
and played piano recitals composed of the most exacting .selections from 
all schools, not excepting those great representative masters who stand 
nearer the heart of music than any others — Bach, Beethoven and Schu- 
mann. Rubinstein's personality was so vigorous, his masterj- of the 
keyboard in every way so commanding, and his absorption of the text of 
these recondite works so thorough, as seen in his uniform habit of playing 
from memory, that no one felt any difficulty in becoming interested in his 
playing and the works which he brought forward. He advanced the 
popular conception of piano technique from that of an ability to do a few 
strange or startling things upon the keyboard, to that of a complete 
finger training, affording every needed quality of shading for the best 
works of the very greatest tone poets of the instrument. This catholicity 
of taste of Rubinstein set up a niw standard, as also did his powerful 
volume of tone. 

Immediately afterward Hans von Biilow came over and repeated 
throughout the country similar programmes to those which Rubinstein 
had given. It was not in Bulow's art to awaken so great enthusiasm as 
Rubinstein, but his work was of great value, especially in the emphasis 
it put upon absolute correctness and personal self-abnegation in the work 
of the composer represented. The American standard henceforth formed 
itself a sort of resultant of the work of these two great masters. A 
distinct advance in the popular apprehension of the art of piano playing 
was assisted by Mr. Theodore Thomas, who in his concert tours of 1870-74 
carried with him pianists, introducing three ladies, each of a high 
order of accomplishment. The works they principally played were 
concertos with orchestral accompaniment, and these tours had no small 
influence in illustrating the powers of the instrument in connection with 
orchestra. The ladies, whose names are not to be forgotten in this con- 
nection, were Anna Mehlig, a graduate of the Stuttgard Conser\'atory, 
Alide Topp and Marie Krebs. 

But the most elegant and pleasing of all the lady jjlayers of that 
period was the fascinating artist Mme. Essipofif, who played in all the 
principal cities of the country in the season of 1876-77. In arrang- 
ing her programmes, Mme. Essipoff kept up the tradition of many-sided 
musical literature, as .set by her great male predecessors, and added to the 
elements of manly power and ma.sterj^ represented in their interpretations, 
a womanh' grace and refinement peculiarly her own. 

Since 1876 there have been five artists mainly instrumental in carry- 
ing forward this work of piano plajing in the country at large. They are 
Mme. Rive-King, Mme. Carreno, and Messrs. Wm. H. Sherwood, Dr. 
Louis Maas and Rafael Joseffy. Manj' others have done admirable work 
locall}-, such as Perabo, Petersilea and Baermann in Boston; Mills, Hoff- 
man and others in New York; Doerner and Miss Gaul in Cincinnati, and 
Carl Wolfsohn and Liebling in Chicago. But only the names first men- 
tioned have been operative throughout the country at large in the direct- 
tion of programmes composed upon the principle of illustrating musical 
literature, and carried out with real mastery of technique and by impress- 
ive personalit}-. Nothing shows the essential harmony of the work of 
these artists like a comparison of programmes. None of Rubinstein's is 
at hand. It is remembered of him that he played at a single sitting in 
New York the last five sonatas of Beethoven. Von Bulow played at 
McCormick hall in Chicago, Feb. 2, 1876, the following programme- 
Moonlight sonata. Op. 27, No. 2 Beethoz'en. 

Spinning Song from "Flying D.utchiMan" and March from 

" Tannhauser " ^ Arranged by Liszt) Wagner. 

Vocal Mozart and Cordigiani. 

Chaconne Handel. 

Sarabande and Passepied Bach. 

Gavotte from "Donjuan'' Cluck. 

Minuet and Gigue Mozart. 

Impromptu, Op. 90, No. 2 Schubert. 

Ave Maria and Valse Caprice Schubert-Liszt. 

Two Songs Beethoven. 

The Lake. At the Brook, Hungarian Rhapsody Liszt. 

The programme of a recital by Julia Rive, played at Indianapolis, 
Nov. 25, 1875, was the following: 

Sonata, Op. Ill Beethoven. 

Etudes Symphoniques Schumann. 

Rondo Capriccioso 3Lendetssohn. 

Sonata, Op. 120 Schubert. 

Rondeau in E flat major Chopin. 

Allegretto from Beethoven's 8th Symphony Liszt. 

Grand Wal t z de Concert ^"ff- 

The following programme was played by Miss Rive before the 
Hershey School of Music, in Chicago, on March 27, 1875. It shows 
better contrasts and relief than the Indianapolis programme, owing to 
the light pieces intervening between the heavier ones. 

Sonata Appassionata Beethoven. 

Rondo Capriccioso Mendelssohn. 

Rondo in E flat. Op. 18 I ^, ^• 

, . „ . t Choptn. 

Ballade m A flat ) ' 

Perpetual Motion Weber. 

-Eolian Murmurs Gottschalk. 

Tarantelle in G flat minor Custave Schumann. 

Faust Waltz Gounod-Liszt. 

Waltz, from Romeo and Juliette Gounod-Raff. 

Polonaise in E ) , . , 

Rhapsodic Hongroise, No. 12 ' 

At Weber hall, Chicago, Mme. Carreno played the following pro- 

Sonata Appassionata Beethoven. 

Prelude in D flat •. 

Polonaise in C sharp minor [■ Chopin. 

Tarantelle J 

Songs (Mr. Knorr) .Jensen and Rojff. 

Suite Moderne (First time in America) MacDowell. 

Impromptu Schubert. 

Zur Guitarre Hitler. 

Soiree de Vienne Schubert-Liszt. 

Two Songs (Mr. Knorr) Rubinstein. 

Trelu'le and Fugue Mcndchsohn. 

Des Abends Schumann. 

Minuet Boccherini-Didcken. 

Etude iu C Rubinstein. 

The following programme Mr. Sherwood played at Evanstoii, 111., in 
August, 1880. 

Concerto in E flat (Acconipt. of second piano 1 Hectlwvcn. 

Fantasia in C minor Bach. 

Gigue in C major Mozart. 

Sonata, Prestissimo Scarlatti. 

Mazurka, F" sharp \ 

Nocturne in G !- Chopin. 

Scherzo in C sharp minor ' 

Barcarole Rullak. 

Wedding Procession Urieg. 

Saint-Saeis, Chorus of Dervishes Beethoven. 

Lohengrin's Verweis an Elsa j Wagner-Liszt. 

Isolde's Liebestod ' 

Waltz, from Gounod's " Faust " Liszt. 

Programmes like these would attract attention in any part of the 
world, and it must be counted a strong point of compliment to American 
audiences that their appetite for music shotild be found sufficient to take 
them through successions of pieces so exacting to hear properly. As to 
the quality of the playing, all that needs be said is that these players uni- 
formly dispensed with notes, and were able to render their enormous pro- 
grammes in a manner to .sieze the attention of the hearers and retain it to 
the end. No greater compliment could be paid the pla)-er. Mention has 
also been made of unusual pianistical attainments of j-oung American girls, 
a striking example of which is furnished in a recital of L,iszt works played 
at Chickering hall, in Chicago, Jan. 28, 1883. The selections were ar- 
ranged in three numbers, with the design apparenth', of illustrating the 
remarkable endurance of the young player, and her powers of memory 
and musical feeling. The first number contained fotir concert pieces: 

Polonaise Heroigue in E, La Campanella, Spinncrlicd from Flyirig 
Djitchriian, and march from Tannhixjtscr. The second number also had 
four pieces: Schubert's Wanderer, Erl King, Waldesrauchcn dx^di \hs.vsx&s 
from Faust. The third number consisted of the concerto in E flat with 
accompaniment of second piano. The pianist of the evening, Miss Lydia 
S. Harris, was abotit twenty-two years of age. As an illustration of 
physical endurance and boldness, this programme is a curiosity. It de- 
serves to be added, in order to complete the record, that among those who 
praised the playing was that excellent master, Mr. Emil Liebling, who 

wrote handsomely concerning it in the New York Musical Critic, of which 
he was a! that time correspondent. The same pianist repeated upon 
several occasions a programme consisting of four works only: Bach, 
Chromatic Fantasia and Fus;ue ; Beethoven, Sonata in C minor. Op. iii; 
Schumann, Etudes Symphoniqucs, Op. 13; Chopin, Polonaise in A flat. 
Op. 53 — a still further illustration of the American penchant for magni- 
tude and merit. This is but one of many similar cases of the astonishing 
facility of American girls in the art of playing the piano. 

Taking up in order the list of pianists of national fame, given above, 
we begin with the name of Mme. Carrefio. 

Teresa Carreno. 

There are few names better or more favorably known among the dis- 
tinguished virtuosi of America than that of Teresa Carreno, who has the 
distinction not only of being an ornament to the musical profession of 
America, but the bright particular star which in our musical sky repre- 
sents the southern continent. She was born at Caracas, Venezuela, in 
December, 1853, l^^r father, who was an accomplished amateur musician 
Aid at one time a minister of state, being her earliest instructor. Her 
musical education began at the age of six years, when, as she relates: " I 
practiced two hours in the morning and two in the afternoon, and the rest 
of the day I played with mj- doll." Her daily practice was continued 
from the age of six to eight, under the instruction of her father, from whom 
she received her earliest lessons. She made such progress that at the age 
of seven she had mastered Thalberg's Norma fantasia. She was then 
placed under charge of Julius Hoheni, a German professor, and in 1862, 
being then but nine years of age, she appeared in New York, where she 
had an interview with Crottschalk, with whom she played on the piano a 
four-hand piece. Under the instruction of this master she soon learned to 
play his Bananicr and Jerusalem without notes, and is, perhaps, the only 
person who plays Jerusalem, one of that author's most difficult composi- 
tions, full of tremendous chords and chromatic octave pa.ssages. This 
intricate morceau dc concert the young Teresa mastered in two da5'S. She 
played in public in her native city, and the people were in rapture over her 
accomplishments. In 1862 she came north, and many of our readers may 
possibly recall the little girl with the white frock and the red sash, who, 
after climbing upon the piano stool, with difficultymastered the intricacies 
of Thalberg and Gottschalk, and roused them to enthusiasm. In 1863 
she played in her concerts some of her own compositions, and that austere 
critic, Dwight, remarked: " What we liked best in little Miss Teresa's 
concert was her own two fresh little compositions." She continued study 

under her father, and had occasional lessons from Gottschalk, and in the 
season of 1S65-66 went to Europe. Of the impression she left there we 
can give no better idea than to quote an incident. The celebrated 
Caraille Stamaty, who had bec;u the tutor of Gottschalk, was much inter- 
ested in the Tercsita, as she was known. On a morning succeeding one 
of her concerts, which he had been unable to attend, he asked an 
American pupil what ' 'la petite ' ' had played. He was told Liszt's fantasie 
upon Lu da. Stamaty shook his head decidedly. "You need not tell 
me," said he, " that there is any woman living, much less a girl of thii- 
teen. who can play that diabic of a fantasie." Being convinced by hear- 
ing her play it in private, he remarked: " Well, no one but an American 
girl could have done it! " 

The career of this splendid woman is fuller of interesting incidents 
than perhaps that of anj^ other artist of recent times. Upon her return 
to America after the European successes already mentioned she had several 
years of concert experiences, not altogether satisfactory, financially or 
artistically. As yet she was following the traditions of the Golt.shalk 
regime, not realizing how far public taste had advanced since his time. 
Presently, however, she made an arrangement with the house of Albert 
Weber to play so many concerts per year, wherever desired, for a lump 
sum and expenses. She was thus relieved from pecuniary anxiety, and 
although her tours were often inconveniently planned for traveling, she had 
considerable time in a year for study, while the incidents of business 
afforded her the constant education of meeting prominent musical people 
in all parts of the country. Soon her ambition was excited, and she 
set herself to carry out the high ideals of popular piano playing already 
defined in the work of her predecessors. In doing this she brought to the 
task an amplitude of ability not inferior to that of any of them, and in 
many of her concerts her playing arose to a great height of virtuosity and 
rare artistic quality combined. 

One or two of the episodes in the life of this artist are worth remem- 
bering. At her first appearance she was a singularly beautiful and 
fascinating woman. When still a mere girl of fifteen, her figure had the 
maturity of twenty, and her intellect and wonianly intuitions were fully 
de^^eloped. In England she had a great success before she reached London, 
but the idea of facing the public of that great city rather dismayed her. 
She made the acquaintance of Mapleson and the great singer Mme. 
Tietjens in several places where the opera happened to coincide with her 
concerts. After the completion of ht-r concerts in Edinburgh, London 
being her next objective point, she was much with Mme. Tietjens, the 
opera being there. Mapleson found himself in a dilemma for a queen in 

The HiigHoiofs. The house had been sold out for the queen's birthday, 
but the lady who was to sing the role of " Marguerite of Valois," fell 
sick, and could not possibl)- appear. Mapleson telegraphed all over 
Europe, but no soprano able to take the role could be found near enough 
to reach Edinburgh in time for the performance. On Thursday Mapleson 
said: "Teresa, I have an idea. You shall sing the 'Queen.' ' "But 
I have never been on the stage, ' ' said Carrefio. "It makes no difference, ' ' 
said Mapleson. "You have voice, presence and beauty. You would 
make a lovely ' Queen.' " " But I do not know the music," objected the 
young artist. " You have four days," said Mapleson, " it is time enough 
for you." After a minute's reflection, Carrefio replied, " I will do it upon 
certain conditions." "Name them," said Mapleson. " You shall give 
me the singers I want for my London concerts." "Done!" said the 
impresario. Accordingly a contract was duly drawn giving Carreiio for 
her Eon don concerts all the best singers then in England, thus assuring 
her success there. But for fear of failure as a singer she appeared under 
a stage name. She made a great success, and was sorry enough she had 
not added this feather to her own proper cap. Her voice had large com- 
pass, and had been carefullj' cultivated. 

In 1885 and 1886, Mme. Carrefio made tours of her native country, 
Venezuela, under circumstances of peculiar romance. She is a grand 
niece of the liberator of South America, Bolivar, and about ten years ago 
the government sent the national hymn to her to set to music, which she 
did, her composition now being the national hymn of Venezuela. The 
year of her tour was about that of the Bolivar centennial, and she was 
the recipient of one long ovation from first landing in the country until 
she left it. For nine months she and her husband were guests of the 
state. They were met at railwaj' stations with brass bands, the military, 
civic and municipal officers, the freedom of the city in a gold-lined box, 
and their time was filled up with serenades at hotels, grand civic banquets 
and all that sort of thing, until they were nearly killed with kindness. 
Tickets to their concerts were sold out at high prices far in advance, and 
taking it all around it v.'asan experience which rarely befalls an artist. The 
following year they went back in order to carry on a season of Italian 
opera. This time they were less fortunate. An impending revolution 
brought the opera season to financial disaster, swallowing up not only the 
governmental subvention, but also their savings from the previous season. 
Once, indeed, they narrowly escaped being blown up by a mine placed 
under the opera house for the benefit of the president and cabinet 

During this season the successive discharge of the conductor and 
assistant conductor left the company upon the point of going to pieces. 

As uo conductor could be obtaiued iu the countn-, Mme. Carreno herself 
took the conductor's baton and carried the season through for more than 
two weeks. This is perhaps the only case upon record where a woman 
has filled the conductor's chair in Italian opera. 

In 1889 Mme. Carreno again visited Europe, playing in many of the 
principal cities, but it is still too soon to give particulars of her career 
there. It deserves to be said of her that she is one of the best lady 
pianists now upon the stage, and more richly gifted in her general musical 
nature than perhaps any other woman now in music. In person she is 
attractive, quiet and genial, full of good humor and of a happy disposition; 
instead of being unduly exalted by her numerous triumphs and great social 
popularity, she becomes every year more and more modest in her manner. 
She has composed much piano music, and several more ambitious works. 

Julie Rive-King. 
Julie Rive, better known to the world as Mme. Rive-King, was 
born Oct. 31, 1857, at Cincinnati, O., and is the daughter of Mme. 
Caroline Rive, a pupil of Garcia, and noted in Cincinnati and New York 
as a successful and accomplished teacher. To her mother's education she 
owed an excellent foundation for the development of her rare natural 
musical gifts. As early as at eight years of age she had attained such 
proficiencj' that at one of her mother's concerts she was able to play Thal- 
berg's transcription of themes from Don Juan, with much skill and 
emprcsscmcnt. Shortly after this appearance Mme. Rive removed to 
New York, and here young Julie had the advantage of instruction from 
such eminent musicians as Dr. William Mason, S. B. Mills and Pruckner. 
By advice of Dr. Mason, who recognized her genius, she was sent in 1872 
to Europe, where she was the pupil of Reinecke at Leipzig, Blassman and 
Rischpieter of Dresden and of Liszt at Weimar. In 1874 she made her 
dtbul at Leipzig in one of the Euterpe concerts, Reinecke conducting, 
playing Beethoven's third concerto and Liszt's second rhapsodic with such 
exquisite skill and artistic finish and expression that she evoked the greatest 
enthusiasm of applause in the critical audience. A concert tour of Europe 
was soon after arranged for her, when she was recalled home b\^ the sad news 
of the sudden death of her father, killed in a railway disaster. In the winter 
of 1873-74 she made her drdu/ heiore an American audience at Cincinnati, 
where she created a profound impression in musical circles. Her reputa- 
tion was greatly enchanced by her brilliant performance of Liszt's E flat 
concerto, and Schumann's Fasckittgsschwank at the concert of the New 
York Philhannonic in 1S75. She established her fame in Philadelphia by 
rendering Beethoven's fifth concerto at the Philharmonic concerts, and later 

Julie Rive-King 

took Chicago by storm at one of the concerts of the Apollo Club. Her 
placing upon this occasion was of the brilliant school, her number creat- 
ing the sensation being Liszt's second Hungarian Rhapsody, at that time 
was not so familiar as it has since been made through orchestral transcrip- 
tions. She played it with most dazzling brilliancy, and there was nothing 
to do but admire the consummate ease of her technique and the sweep of 
her brilliant octaves in the last part. The applause was immense, and 
she was recalled again and again. 

Here opened a new chapter in the career of this artist. Henceforth 
for some time she appeared in recitals in all parts of the country, with 
programmes of enormous range and difficulty, specimens of which appear 
earlier in this chapter. Nothing daunted this quiet woman. Bach, 
Beethoven, Schumann, Chopin, Liszt, Tausig, everything went. Her 
programmes were well arranged for presenting the music in agreeable 
sequence, and her work formed the distinct continuation of that of Rubin- 
stein and Bulow in the variety, length and difficult}- of the programmes, 
no less than in the attractive manner in which she plajed them. The 
strain was too great. After a few years of this kind of work she began to 
take things more easily, and as her concert engagements called for a great 
deal of traveling, she played the same pieces more frequentU-, and for a 
time left off some of those which made demands upon her ner\^e force 
too great for ordinarj- occasions. Many amusing incidents could be 
related if .space permitted, of the curious ideas that people fell into con- 
cerning the ease with which programmes could be arranged out of this 
apparently interminable variety of material. Her reputation became so 
great for reliable and masterly work that people seemed to think it reason- 
able to ask for any piece in her vast repertoire, by memory and without a 
moment's notice, however difficult or however unusual it might be for 
her to be called upon to play it. 

Julia Rive was married in 1887 to Mr. Frank H. King, who had been 
her friend and manager for several years. She has since resided mostly in 
New York. Mme. King's record as a player with orchestra has been 
singularly large for an American pianist. She has played with all the 
orchestral conductors in this country, of any distinction, from Carl Berg- 
mann to Gerricke. With Mr. Thomas she played in upwards of two 
hundred concerts. In this connection she has produced a large number 
of concertos, invariably with the finished technique which has always 
distinguished her work. She has introduced many new works of high rank 
to the American public. For several years she has devoted considerable 
time to composition, and has written a large number of piano pieces and a 
few for orchestra. Her waltz. On Blooming Meadows, written for piano, has 

been scored for orchestra and played with great success. She has also 
distinguished herself by her careful editions of pieces from her repertoire. 
In person Mme. King is of medium height, blonde complexion, pleasant 
cast of countenance, and simple and entirely unaffected manners. Her 
circle of friends is extremely large, and her position in the front rank of 
pianists unassailable. 


This wonderful pianist was bom, of Jewish parents, at Miskolcz, 
Hungary, July 3, 1853. His musical genius showed itself when he was 
quite a child, and it was so evident that he was placed under the guidance 
of the great teacher, Moscheles, in Leipzig. From him Joseffy passed to 
another successful master and great virtuoso, Tausig. He made his first 
appearance in Vienna and met with instant and unqualified success. The 
Vienna musical critics went into raptures over his playing. One of them 
said: "Joseffy- held his audience spell-bound; with each fresh number they 
were electrified by the grand achievements of the artist; the and 
elasticity, the whispering, the elegance and sparkle of JoseSy's fioratures 
and runs cannot be described; such brilliant delicacy, such elegant fluency, 
such tender shading has not been heard since the time of Tausig and Liszt." 

Joseffy then made a concert tour through Holland and Germany, and 
was received everywhere with applause, and especially in Berlin recog- 
nized as a true successor to the great Tausig. Later on he made art- 
istic tours through Italy, all of Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Norway and 
Russia. He came to America about 1879 or 1880, and has appeared reg- 
ularly in all the principal cities of the United States, everj-where received 
as a master, but most of all in New York city, where his position is one 
which no other artist can dispute. The general characteristics of his style 
are sufiicienth- indicated above. His technique, while equal to every possi- 
ble demand of modern pianoforte composers, is nevertheless remarkable 
chiefly for its delicacy and finish. For this reason it has been frequently 
denied of him, by critics, that he possessed anything of the fire of artistic 
genius; this, however, is entirely unjust. Many of his interpretations are 
masterly, and notwithstanding the delicacy of his playing, at times he 
calls out the entire force of the Steinway pianos, upon which he invariably 
plays. His repertoire includes nearly all the great concertos, his especial 
favorites being Chopin's in E minor and Liszt's in E flat. His own com- 
positions and arrangements are among the best studies in delicate and 
refined pianism that the teaching repertory embraces. In person Mr. 
Joseffy is short, inclining to stoutness. His manners are singularly quiet, 
but he is witty and, upon occasion, very sarcastic. 

Dr. Lcuis Maas. 

Dk. Louis Maas. 
Among distinguished musicians who have, after achieving recognition 
and reputation in Europe, made America their home and identified them- 
selves with the cause and progress of the art in their adopted country-, the 
name of Dr. Louis Maas is prominent, and his reputation is as wide and 
favorable as that of anj' other pianist and musical director before the public 
during the last decade. Dr. Maas was born at Wiesbaden, Germany, 
June 21, 1852, his father being the principal music teacher of that town. 
He inherited the musical proclivity, and at the age of six could play pro- 
ficiently such selections as his father thought judicious to penuit him 
to learn. While still a child his father removed to London, and the 
latter being reluctant to have him adopt an art career, the lad was 
sent to school with a lay profession in view. Of his aptitude for the 
acquisition of knowledge, we may judge from the fact that at fifteen he 
graduated at King's College, with high class honors. He had still, how- 
ever, cultivated music, in which he gave such undoubted evidence of 
superior talent that the elder Maas, chiefly through the advice of Joachim 
RafT, the great composer, finally withdrew his objections, and j-oung Maas, 
to his great joy, was sent back to Germany in 1867, entering the Royal 
Conservatorj- of Leipzig, where he remained, till he graduated, the pupil 
of Carl Reinecke and Dr. Papperitz. Up to the time of his death, in 1870, 
the renowned composer Moscheles took a keen interest in the career of 
young Maas, in which his experienced and unerring judgment discerned a 
high and hopeful promise. In 1867 he felt himself strong enough to set his 
musical aspirations in a work for submission to the exacting judgment of 
the critical musical world of Leipzig, and his first overture was performed 
in the spring of 186S, at the annual conser\-atory concert in Gewandhaus 
Hall, with gratifying success. The following year his second overture was 
brought out with equally gratifying results, and in 1872 his first symphony 
was produced, eliciting such marked approval that it received the compli- 
ment of a performance at the Gewandhaus, the composer conducting. In 
1873 and 1874, he spent the winters in teaching in Dr. Theodor Kullak's 
conser\-atory (having previously enjoyed the privilege of his instruction), 
and the summer seasons at Weimar, where he had the inestimable advan- 
tage of intimate association with the immortal Liszt, who took a deep 
interest in the art career of Mr. Maas, and gave him the priceless advan- 
tage of his counsel, advice and encouragement. Of the impression there 
made, we may judge from the fact that he played by invitation at court 
concerts, and received warm critical praise for his rendering of Chopin's E 
minor concerto. During 1874 he plaj-ed in the principal cities of Germany, 
and in 1875, in answer to a unanimous call of the directors-, accepted a 

vacant professorship in his abna mater, the Leipzig Conservatory, which, 
but eight years previousl)-, he had entered as a pupil. Here he remained 
for five years, during which time he had under his instruction over three 
hundred pupils, of whom two hundred were Americans. Association 
with the latter, and the knowledge thus acquired of the social conditions 
and musical possibilities of this country, led him, in 1880, to resign his 
position at the conservatory to accept a lucrative concert engagement in 
America, which, however, he was prevented from fulfilling by a serious 
illness. On his recovery^ some months afterwards, liberal inducements 
were offered him to return to Leipzig, while Joachim Raff offered him the 
first professorship at his Frankfort conser\'atory, but he had determined 
to cast his lot in America, and his ser\nces were secured by Dr. Eben 
Tourjee, director of the New England Conser\^atory of Music, ever on 
the alert to secure the highest available talent for that admirable institu- 
tion of musical learning. Here he has since remained, performing a work 
of the highest importance, not only to that school, but to the cause of 
music throughout his adopted country, and high rank has been univer- 
sally accorded to him, as pianist, composer and director of philharmonic 
concerts. He has frequentlj^ appeared in concert performances in the lead- 
ing cities of the Union, and has thus attained a wide and appreciative 
popularit3^ He has also been an industrious composer of music of a high 
order, producing overtures, symphonies, suites, a triumphal march, fan- 
tasie-stuck, etc., for orchestra, a string quartette, songs, violin pieces, three 
important sonatas, and manj- miscellaneous works, including a concerto 
for the pianoforte. 

[Since the preceding sketch was written we have the sad news to 
chronicle that on his return from a visit to Europe, Dr. ]\Iaas died 
suddenly at Boston, Sept. 18, 1889.] 

Emil Likbling. 

In the front rank of the musical profession, not of Chicago only, but 
of the United States, Mr. Emil Liebling is readily accorded a foremost 
place, as well through the scope and breadth and many-sided character- 
istics of his musical skill and knowledge, as by the brilliancj- of his per- 
formance as a virtuoso. He was born in Pless, Germany, in 1857, and is 
one of four brothers, all distinguished in musical life. Emil Liebling 
came young to America, and engaged for several ^-ears in teaching in 
schools and colleges. His intellectual mold was such that, as stated in 
Freund's Music and Drama, he soon " acquired the thorough American 
adaptability characteristic of the best order of German minds only." 
When he had attained a position that enabled him to devote time to 

higher traiiiinij he went to Berlin, where for several years he engaged, in 
part, in study under Kuliak, Ehrlich, and Liszt, and, in part, teaching 
the piano in Kuliak 's Conservatory of Music. Here he acquired the 
friendship of such distinguished artists as W. H. Sherwood, Scharwenka, 
Moszkowski, Sternberg and others, and moved in an atmosphere admi- 
rablj^ adapted to elevate and enlarge a musical mind naturally gifted with 
those refined qualities which urge heart and intellect irresistibly toward 
the highest plane of art. Nor was his culture confined to the art of music 
alone ; he acquired literarj' attainments of a high order, and is not only 
an accomplished linguist, but a graceful, fluent and forcible writer, who, 
in contributions to American musical journals, has proved himself a com- 
petent critic, of well balanced and judicial judgment and an infallible 
instinct of recognition for true art, as distinguished from superficial shal- 
lowness or mere pretense : he is known as a musical reviewer, as implac- 
ably merciless toward the latter, as considerate and encouraging toward 
the former. On returning to Chicago in 1876, he astonished ar»d delighted 
musical circles by the refinement of a technique alwa3-s brilliant and 
resourceful, the intelligence and poetry of his interpretations and the rare 
power, which he possesses to a simply mar\-elous degree, of adapting him- 
self with equal facility and perfection to either the classical or modem 
schools of piano music. Of Bach he is one of the most perfect exponents 
to-da)-, interpreting that master's compositions, not only with conscientious 
fidelity and unequaled skill, but elucidating the spirit and motive of the 
music with an intelligence and power not often witnessed. And jet he 
can tuni to Liszt, and with equal master}- portray the spirit and brilliancy 
of that master with a \'ividness and superb effect not excelled by the high- 
est representatives of this school. In every epoch of piano music he is 
equall}^ at home, and whether it be Beethoven, Chopin, Schumann or 
MendeLssohn, he enters into and identifies himself with the emotional 
content of the subject, and infuses into the instrument the verj^ spirit of 
the composer. He adds to the highest fluency of finger technique, an 
unerring musical instinct and a refined, artistic sensibility. His recitals 
have become musical e\-ents of the best order, and cover a remarkablj^ 
wide range of works, including nearly everything from Moszkowski, 
Scharwenka, Tschaikowski, Sgambatti and Saint-Saens, as well as Bach, 
Beethoven, Mendelssohn, Schumann and Chopin, which he plaj's without 
notes, and as that discriminating critic, Mr. Mathews, says, "with the 
genuine ease that belongs only to a master." He has also a brilliant 
record in chamber music. His public work has been extensive, embrac- 
ing concerts in Berlin, where he was eulogized b}- the most conservative 
critics, in Steinway Hall, New York, and other cities since 1877, with 



d^^'^^'^-i^'c^ oC^ '.^ 


Theodore Thomas in orchestra, with Wilhehiij, the violinist, and a vast 
amount of work in Chicago, where he enjoys unhmited popularity in 
cultured circles, and especially in the best walks of musical life. Mr. 
Liebling has exercised a very active and important influence in develoning 
musical taste upon higher lines, and extending the knowledge and appre- 
ciation of the best forms of music bj' his masterly exemplification of its 
power and beauty. As a composer he has won distinction, and has the 
capacity to perform, as we may fairly anticipate, distinguished service in 
the future for the elevation of American creative art. His compositions 
include : Florence, ^-alse de concert ; Meteore, galop ; Fcic Follet ; Album- 
blait, a gavotte moderne for the piano, a collection of scales, and a song 
entitled, Adieu. 

All of Mr. Liebling' s brothers are distinguished as pianists. Mr. Max 
Liebling has been for manj^ years a prominent accompanist and conductor 
in New York, whence he has gone out from time to time with concert 
companies. His brother Saul is a brilliant concert pianist with a high 
European reputation. He was much esteemed by Liszt. A still j-ounger 
brother, George, has an enormous repertoire and a phenomenal technique. 
He has made several highly successful concert tours in Europe. He is 
likely to be heard of more extensively as years go by. Mr. Emil 
Liebhng is happily married, and lives in a charming home in one of 
the pleasantest parts of Chicago. 

August Hvli.ested. 
August Hyllested, the Scandinavian pianist, was boni in 1858 at 
Stockholm, Sweden, where his father occupied the position ofstadtmusicus. 
The son early exhibited remarkable musical talent, entering upon the study 
of the art at the early age of five, and playing in public in Stockholm 
with great success when but eight j'ears of age. Three years later he 
made a concert tour through Scandinavia. In 1871 he was sent to Copen- 
hagen, where he had for an instructor Edmund Neupert, at that time 
director of the piano department at the Royal Conservatoire, and where 
he had tuition in composition, by the great composer. Neils W. 
Gade, president of the conser\^atoire. After five j-ears devoted to study 
under such distinguished auspices, he made a second tour of Scandinavia 
as conductor of orchestra and solo pianist with Ferdinand Strakosch and 
his company, including Signora Domia Dio, Signora ^lontoya and Signor 
Holman. Returning to Copenhagen, he became organist of the Kykjobing 
cathedral and conductor of the musical .society. Removing to Berlin two 
years later, he became a pupil of Xaver Scharwenka and the celebrated 
Theodor KuUak. In 1880 he went to Weimar to play for the great master, 

Franz Liszt. Liszt was greatly interested in Hyllested, spoke warm words 
of encouragement, and in a letter to the Danish royal assessor at Copenha- 
gen, said: "Among the many pianists I have had the opportunity to 
hear I find only a few that are really talented artists, but among these 
few is particularly the Scandinavian pianist, August Hyllested." This 
high commendation did not prevent the artist from returning to Berlin 
and studying counterpoint under Kiel. In 1883 he made a verj- success- 
ful concert tour through Great Britain, playing at the Crystal Palace, and 
also in the principal cities throughout the country. Soon after, upon the 
invitation of her royal highness the Princess Louise, he spent the sum- 
mer at her residence in Itzehoe. In the fall he left for England with 
letters from the royal family of Denmark to the Princess of Wales. He 
gave his first concert at the house of the Earl of Dudley, and afterward 
played before the royal family at Marlborough House. In 18S5 Hyl- 
lested came to this country under the well known impresario, L. M. Ruben. 
After giving four concerts in Steinway Hall, N. Y. , with Ovide Musin, 
the Belgian violinist, he made a tour of the principal eastern cities of the 
United States and Canada. At the National Music Teachers' Convention 
in Boston that jear, he became acquainted with Dr. Ziegfeld, and was 
induced to come to Chicago, where he became and remains assistant 
director of the piano department of the college. That the young instructor 
has won popular favor in Chicago, goes without saying. His concert 
work has been very successful and his compositions have been well 
received, while his influence through the classes of his pupils is trans- 
mitted throughout the countrj-, to the great advantage of general musical 
culture. The Society of Merit, of Palermo, Italy, has recentlj- sent him 
a gold medal in recognition of his abilitj^ as an artist. We know of no 
one who is more conscientiously devoted to his art, or who more thor- 
oughly recognizes his obligations to the great work of musical cultivation. 

Carlvle Petersilea. 

No musician of American birth has attained a higher eminence in that 
broader world of art, which knows no geographical distinctions, than the 
subject of this sketch. As pianoforte virtuoso, as teacher and as the 
author of standard didactic works, whose excellences are approved by the 
highest and most critical musical authority, Mr. Petersilea has acquired 
an enviable reputation for himself, and brought honor upon American art 
life. He was born in the city of Boston, Jan. 18, 1844, and inherited 
his musical predilection from his father, Franz Petersilea, a musician of 
superior attainments, the author oi ih^ Petersilea Piano System, published 
1872, and who had himself been the pupil of the great and gifted Hum- 

mel. To direct and develop the musical talent which young Petersilea 
early evinced was a labor of love for his father, and so thoroughly was 
this work performed and so readily did the genius of the pupil respond to 
the promptings of the preceptor that after being admitted to the Con- 
ser\'atory of Leipzig, whither he was sent to perfect his musical education, 
in October, 1862, he was enabled to graduate with honor in August, 1865. 
His talent was recognized by that keen and discriminating observer and 
grand old musician, Moscheles, and this great master was pleased to bring 
him forward on all important occasions. On his graduation a testimonial 
was awarded to him, signed by the names of eleven distinguished masters, 
including Moscheles, Dr. Papperitz, Carl Reinecke, Franz Brendel, E. F. 
Richter and Ernest Hauptmann, which relates that — 

Mr. Petersilea attained superior accomplishment in his general musical educa- 
tion, and particularly in piano playinj;; (solo and ensemble), by musical conception 
and technical virtuosity, the highest eminence. 

In the Grand Pruefengen of the Conservatory at Leipzig, held in the Gewand- 
haus Hall. Mr. Petersilea rendered Concert Fantastique of Moscheles, April 18, 1863 ; 
F Minor Concerto of Chopin, April 8. 1864 ; Concerto for Pianoforte of Henselt, April 
27, Ise"). achieving great and deserving distinction ; and at Easter, 18lj.j, the pri:e out 
of the Helbig Fund was azcardcd to Mr. Carlyle Petersilea, at the unanimous request 
of the directorial board and individual teachers of the Conservatory of Music at 

On leaving Leipzig, Mr. Petersilea played with distinguished success 
in the leading cities of Germany, and subsequently returned to his native 
city, where he astonished and delighted mtisical circles with the brilliancy 
of his musical accomplishments. Entering upon the career of teacher 
and executant, he was induced by friends to establish a school of music, 
which, as the "Petersilea Academy of Music," was in successful opera- 
tion from 1 87 1 to 1886, when he was induced to give it up and accept the 
position which he has since held, at the New England Conser\-atory of 
Music. In 1884 he visited Etirope, where he passed the spring at 
Weimar, with the great master Liszt. He gave, on April 10, a concert at 
the Singakademie, Berlin, in which he commanded the most eulogistic 
notice from the critics. H. Ehrlich, in the Berliner Tagcblatt, said : "In 
all these pieces, Mr. Petersilea proved himself a ver>' solid and scholarlj'- 
pianist." The Berliner Frcmdenblatt said : " His technique is extraordi- 
nary and reliable." The Krciiz Zcitiing: " His playing is characterized 
by great purity, beautiful and expressive touch, and almost infallible 
technical accuracy, combined with an animated and profound conception." 
The I 'ossic/ie Zeitung: ' ' He possesses a magnetic, facile and accurate 
technique, especially with a tendencj' tothe majestic, and, all in all, an 
animated stj-le of playing. ' ' The Deutsche Musik Zeitung: ' ' The con- 
cert giver proved himself not only a cultivated mttsician, but also a 
superb pianist, whose renderings glow with warmth and fire." Leonard 

Emil Bach, court pianist at Berlin, in a letter to the German press, 
enthusiastically praises the American virtuoso, saying of a meeting at the 
house of an American citizen at Berlin : "I had the pleasure of making 
the acquaintance of the eminent pianist, Mr. Carlyle Petersilea, from 
Boston, who excited our amazement by his grand and masterly perform- 
ance, which had all the passionate fire of Rubinstein," etc. Mr. Peter- 
silea has received from the Italian Academy of Art and Science a diploma, 
with a grand gold medal and other decorations. His technical studies, 
and also his complete scales and Arpeggios have become standard works, 
in use both in Europe and America. He possesses a phenomenal musical 
memory, having at different times performed from memory the entire 
Beethoven sonatas, and other important and difficult works. 

Miss Amy Fay. 

Miss Amy Fay was born at Bayou Goula, May 2 1 , 1844, on a plantation 
on the Mississippi river, eight}' miles from New Orleans, L,a. Her 
parents were the Rev. Dr. Charles Fay, a son of the late Hon. Samuel P. 
Fay, of Cambridge, Mass., and Charlotte Emily, a daughter of the late 
Bishop John Henry Hopkins, of the Protestant Episcopal church of 
Vermont. The families were musical on both sides, but Mrs. Fay was 
a veritable musical genius, and although she had no instruction after her 
tenth year, she kept up her practice herself, and after her marriage she 
learned the great concert pieces of Thalberg and De Meyer, the pianists 
of the da}', and always extemporized on any given air in a remarkable 
manner. Her ear was so perfect that when her husband put his finger on 
any key of the piano within range of the voice, as he sometimes did, 
without pressing it down, and asked her to sing that tone, she would do 
so immediately, and then when the key was struck, the pitch was identical 
with the tone sung. Amy was the third of a family of seven children 
(six girls and one boy), all of whom were gifted musically, and all of 
whom played and sang. She early manifested her talent, and began to 
play by ear and compose little pieces when only four years old. Mrs. Fay 
taught all her children music when they were five years old, her theory 
being, that the younger children begin to study, the easier it is to train 
their minds. While they were not forced at all, they thus imbibed music 
as easily as they learned their letters, and the oldest girl, Zina (as she 
was called, from " Melusina") even played the melodeon and started the 
tunes in her father's church in New Orleans, when she was only seven 
years old! While music was a part of the general education of the children, 
it was not the exclusive object of it. Dr. Fay was a man of unusual 
scholastic attainments, having graduated at Harvard university second 

in the class of 1829, a class which was unusuall}- brilliant, and which 
enrolled the names of Oliver Wendell Holmes and other noted men. Dr. 
Fay took great interest in the education of his children, and after they 
went to St. Albans, Vt., to live, in ICS48, in order to be near Bishop 
Hopkins, superintended it largely himself. Amy was made to learn Latin 
and Greek, German and French, as a child, reciting to her father daily. 
From her mother she learned music, drawing and to write compositions. 
Other branches were also not neglected. Her education was a very com- 
plete one, and thoroughly rounded. When she was twelve years old her 
mother died, and after the marriage of her older sister, Zina, to Charles 
Peirce, a son of Professor Peirce, of Han-ard College, at nineteen years of 
age, she went to live with her, in Cambridge, Mass. It was here that she 
began to study Bach, with Prof J. K. Paine, and also to attend the piano 
class of Otto Dresel, in the New England Conservatorj- of Muaic. From 
these two masters Amy received very different views of music. She made 
her first great start, however, in piano technique, under Mr. Pychowski, 
a Pole, an artist who lived in New York, but who taught in a normal 
school one summer at Geneseo, N. Y. She attended this school when she 
was seventeen, when Mr. Pychowski was there, and in six weeks he entirely 
revolutionized her ideas of how to study the piano, with most important 
results to her after career. It was from him that she first learned the 
value of five-finger and the necessity of practicing each hand 
separately, and the left hand as much as the right one. Her family was 
quite startled at the immense progress she made in six weeks' study with 
Mr. Pjchowski, and when she was twenty-one she went to New York and 
took one more quarter's lessons of him. Miss Fay did not go to Europe to 
study music as a profession, however, till she was twenty-five years old, 
and in this respect her experience has been directly opposite to that of 
most artists who make their first successes in public long before that age. 
She was attracted to Berlin by the fame of Carl Tausig, who had estab- 
lished a school for the higher piano playing. Tausig's name was first 
spoken to her by Professor Paine, who remarked to her one day, "There is 
a young man in Berlin who plays the piano like forty thousand devils! His 
name is Carl Tausig." This remark was intended in a complimentary 
sense, and so excited Amy's imagination that to Tausig she was bound 
to go! 

She remained one year in Tausig's conser\-atorj-, when, at the end of 
that time he gave it up. Here she got a conception of what piano virtu- 
ositj- in its highest development is, through the frequent opportunities she 
had of hearing Tausig play to his pupils. She then continued her studies 
with Dr. Kullak, with whom she remained for three years, going to Weimar 

in the summer of 1873, to put herself under Liszt's instruction. Liszt's 
plaj'ing was as great a revolution to her in musical conception as Tausig's 
had been in technique. In the fall of 1873 she returned to Berlin and 
resumed lessons with Dr. Kullak, with whom she studied for several 
months. By his advice she was preparing to make her debut in concert in 
Berlin, when she met Herr Concertmeister Deppe. Herr Deppe had already 
been described to her as a remarkable teacher, and she became so inter- 
ested in his ideas on a first interview that she decided to take some lessons 
of him. For a year and a half she was a diligent student under him,' and 
then returned to Weimar for a few weeks more of Liszt before returning to 
America in October, 1875, after six years' absence. The first few months 
after her arrival here were spent in New York city, where she made her 
dibut in a concert of the Mendelssohn Glee Club, and afterward she played 
in some other concerts. Later she went back to her old home in Cam- 
bridge, Mass., where she gave her first recital, following it up with another 
one in Boston. She was at once pronounced an artist by the press, and 
played with Theodore Thomas' orchestra at the Sanders theatre in 
Cambridge, and at the Worcester, Mass., musical festival. She was the first 
pianist to introduce the playing of piano concertos at these festivals, 
which has been done ever since. After spending three years in Cam- 
bridge and Boston, Miss Fay came to Chicago to live, in 1878, where she 
has remained ever since, dividing her time about equally between teaching 
and playing throughout western towns and cities. Her concerts have 
taken the form of v^'hat she calls ' ' Piano Conversations, ' ' and her plan is 
to talk to her audiences before each piece long enough to impart to them 
her own feeling, thought and information in regard to it. This method 
of giving piano recitals meets with much approval, and they have been 
happih' described as "An exhibition of exquisite musical pictures, illumi- 
nated by eloquent words." 

During her sojourn in Chicago Miss Fay has turned out some fine 
pupils who have distinguished themselves in various educational institu- 
tions. Her book. Music Study in Germany, is widel}- read, both in this 
country and in Europe, and has made her an authority on the subject of 
which it treats. It was published through the influence of the poet 
Longfellow, who revised it in manuscript with the greatest care and interest, 
and gave it its name, and it has since received the double honor of being 
translated into German at the request of Liszt. In Germany it enjoys 
the same popularity as in this country. In 1886 it was republished in 
London by Macmillan, at the request of Sir George Grove, who also wrote 
a preface to it. It received extended and enthusiastic notices from all 
the papers there, and has passed through several editions in England. 

For the last five years Miss Fay has devoted much of her time during the 
winter to the Artists' Concert CUib, an association of musicians, formed 
for the purpose of giving fortnightly concerts throughout the season, 
at which the performers are resident Chicago artists, and the music 
of the highest order. She founded this club in the conviction that it 
would exercise a happy influence in establishing a friendly intercourse 
between local artists, and that it would give them frequent opportunity 
to enjoy the stimulus of plaj'ing in public and before each other in their 
own city. In this she has not been disappointed, and the club has 
exerted an important influence on the music of Chicago since its inception. 
It would be well if such a one existed in all cities. L,iszt has included 
Miss Fay's name in the roll of his best pupils, in a list made out by himself. 
(See Nohl's biography of Liszt, translated by George P. Upton.) She 
was held in high estimation by him as a woman and a musician. 

Carl Wolfsohn. 
This celebrated musical scholar and artist was born at Alzej-, Rein- 
hessen, Germany, Dec. 14, 1834. His musical talent showing itself at an 
early age, he was put to the study of the pianoforte under that excellent 
master, Aloys Schmitt, of Frankfort, with whom he remained two years, 
at the end of which time his studies were interrupted by the revolution 
of 1848. In December of that year he made his debut as pianist at 
Frankfort, in Beethoven's pianoforte quintette. After two years' further 
studies under Vincent Lachnerand Mme. Heinfeiter, he made asuuccessful 
concert tour through Rhenish Bavaria. • He then went to lyOndon, where 
he remained two years. He came to America in 1854 and settled 
in Philadelphia, where he lived and worked for many years. He was 
first a pianist, playing in public frequently, introducing there many of the 
leading pianoforte concertos with orchestra, and giving every year for 
nearly t.venty years, series of concerts of chamber music, at which he 
introduced nearly everything belonging to this class of art. To these 
multifarious and many-sided activities, he added the work of an orches- 
tral conductor, and for two years gave symphony concerts in that city, 
where again he distinguished himself by the breadth and range of the 
programme. He first attracted national attention as a pianist, or more prop- 
erly as a singularly broad musical scholar upon the piano in 1863, by his 
series of recitals of all the sonatas of Beethoven. These he gave in two 
successiv^e seasons in Philadelphia, and then gave two repetitions of them 
in Steinway hall, New York, It was the latter repetition which attracted 
the attention of the country, owing to the metropolitan character of the 
New York press and the attention paid to this great undertaking by all the 

leading musical critics there. Still later Mr. Wolfsohn played all the piano- 
forte compositions of Schumann, in succession, at a series of recitals, and 
still later all the works of Chopin. When the enormous difficulties of 
some of these works are taken into account, and the many-sided develop- 
ment of pianoforte technique represented by them, together with the 
recondite nature of many of the ideas of this tone poetry (corresponding to 
the Brownings, Shakespeares Dantes and Coleridges of literature), some 
idea may be formed of the artistic faith called into exercise in presenting 
anything so essentially heroic and self-forgetful in a country- so little given 
to music of this kind as America is reputed to be. He completed the 
series, with no small success. Naturally he succeded better in the works 
of Beethoven, because his early studies had been made in more just 
preparation for this school. But as a Schumann player Mr. Wolfsohn is 
one of the best, his musical intelligence and wide artistic experience mak- 
ing many things clear under his fingers which the mere virtuoso passes 
over unconsciously and meaninglessly. 

Mr. Wolfsohn removed to Chicago in 1873 and renewed his activity 
here as conductor of the Beethoven society, a mixed chorus formed 
expressly for him, containing within its ranks many of the most devoted 
music lovers of the city. This society produced an extremely creditable 
succession of works, many of them for the first time in the city. Among 
them were Bruch's Odysscits, Beethoven's mass in C, Gade's Crusaders, 
Hofman's Legend of the Fair Mclusina, and many other important works. 

As a vocal conductor Mr. Wolfsohn was strong upon the musical 
side, but upon the purely technical he was not so good. The society 
finally subsided, in consequence of insufficient support, and, it may be 
added, the elevation of the standard of vocal work by a rival society. 
Mr. Wolfsohn's activity did not rest with his efforts in the field of vocal 
music alone. He repeated here the Beethoven sonatas, the same as 
already in New York and Philadelphia, affording many even among our 
advanced teachers their first opportunities of hearing some of the greatest 
of these noble and beautiful compositions. He followed up his distin- 
guished success in the Beethoven season, with the Schumann works, in 
which his relation was that of pioneer, for outside an extremely limited 
number of his pieces, the works of Robert Schumann were at that time 
a sealed book to the majority of even our best pianists. In the follow- 
ing season he gave the Chopin works. In this he was less successful. 
The standard of taste for virtuosity in piano playing had been set in a 
high key by the then recent seasons of the great pianists, Rubinstein and 
Bulow, nor had this standard been allowed to fall by their successors 
upon our concert stage, Mmes. Essipoff. Rive-King and Carreiio. Mr. 

Wolfeohn, playing from the standpoint of the artist and musical scholar, 
and not from that of a virtuoso, found it impossible to stand against the 
current with the same success as formerly. He was heard with great 
pleasure and edification by a considerable body of faithful lovers of 
art for art's own sake; but he did not close the season with the same pres- 
tige as formerly. I^ater he projected a series of historical recitals cover- 
ing the whole range of musical literature, extending to about one hun- 
dred in number. The programmes of the entire series were formulated, 
and about ten or fifteen of the course were completed. But circum- 
stances induced him to abandon the project at a time when he had just 
got down to the interesting parts. 

Mr. Wolfsohn has given trio concerts in Chicago for more than ten 
seasons, and has played in them an extremely wide selection of all the 
greatest and best works for piano, of classical and modern schools. They 
have been attended by the best music lo\ers of the city, and form a 
delightful social reunion, which the musical life of the city would miss 
very much if they were to be discontinued. As a teacher, also, he has 
done a great deal of honorable work. \'ery many artists have been 
turned out by him, or rather have been indebted to him for making them 
musicians so thoroughly as to put it out of the power of subsequent 
teachers to reduce tliem to mere virtuosi. Among these the name most 
distinguished is probably that of Mme. Bloomfield-Zeisler. Mr. Wolf- 
sohn is still active, full of spirit and plans for the future. One of his 
pet desiies lias been that of seeing an orchestra established in Chicago 
upon a solid basis. Another is a national conservatory, or a thoroughly 
endowed college of music, officered with exclusive reference to the art of 
music in its higher departments. He visits his relatives near Frankfort, 
on-the-Main every summer, and is a regular attendant at the Bayreuth 
festivals. He was. one of the earliest practical workers in the Wagner 
societies in this country, and so long ago as his symphony concerts in 
Philadelphia gave Wagnerian selections. As will be seen from the fore- 
going record, Mr. Carl Wolfsohn is a musician worthy of the highest 
possible honor, and his name deserves to go down among those of the 
musical apostles and saints of America. 

Mention has already been made of several pupils of Mr. Wolfsohn, 
who have subsequently become distinguished, one of whom follows here- 
upon. But there are other musicians, not pianists, who have been helped 
and inspired b;,- this master. Michael Banner, the violinist, was one whom 
Wolfsohn practically took control of and sent to Jacobsohn at Cincinnati, 
who educated in him the beginnings of a promising art life. Banner took 
the first prize at the Paris Conservatory, and now lives in New York. 

Fannie Bloomfield Zeisler. 

This accomplished woman and facinating pianist was born at Beilitz 
Austria, in 1865, and became Americanized by the removal of her 
parents to Chicago when she was but two years of age. From infancy 
she gave evidence of the remarkable talent with which she was endowed, 
and after a few years of instruction, she was accustomed to play in 
public, mostly at concerts given under the auspices of the then existing 
Beethoven Society, at Chicago, where her performances created genuine 
admiration, and she came to be regarded as a musical prodigy. When at 
the age of thirteen Fannie Bloomfield played before the famous Mme. 
EssipofF, then in Chicago on a concert tour, who, recognizing the little 
girl's genius, urged her to go to Vienna and undertake a course of study 
and training with Leschetizky, Essipoff's husband and teacher. Little 
did either of them think that ten years later they would play together 
in London and be mentioned b}^ critics of that city as artists of equal rank. 

Pursuing Essipoff's advice, Fannie Bloomfield went to Vienna and 
studied under the great master for five j-ears, and on making her debut at 
Vienna won the most enthusiastic opinions from the critics of that great 
centre of musical life. Eduard Hanslick, in the Vienna Ncue Freic Pi-esse, 
wrote: " Miss Bloomfield proved herself a thorough artiste and brilliant 
performer," and the Vienna Tribune said: "Her playing impresses one 
by the masculine spirit of its conception and faultless accuracy of its 
technique." She made her first American appearance at the Beethov^en 
Society's concert, Chicago, Jan. 11, 1884, under the direction of Carl 
Wolfsohn, giving oa this occasion Henselt's concerto, with orchestra. 
She then played Weber's Concertstueck with orchestra, at a concert of the 
Milwaukee Symphony Society, also gave recitals in Chicago, St. Louis 
and Baltimore, and on Oct. 14 played again at the Kimball Hall opening 
in Chicago, and on each of these occasions was the centre of attraction 
and the recipient of high praise. She made her debid in Boston at 
the Symphony Concerts in the fall of 18S4, under the direction of Gericke, 
winning distinguished applause. Calixa Lavallee wrote of her playing 
on this occasion: " Some misgiving had been manifested as to the advis- 
ability of the choice of this concerto (Henselt's) for her Boston debut, 
since the massive chords and octave passages seem to call for a man's 
power, but those who heard her last night must say that if there is a lady 
who can make us forget this it is Miss Bloomfield. * * * Miss 
Bloomfield displayed the qualities of a conscientious and finished 
artiste — clear and brilliant technique, fine phrasing, delicacy and fine 
coloring, dash and fire which could not be expected from such a delicate 
hand; still not surprising since the artist speaks from the soul." In 

February, 1SS5 she played in one of Van der vStucken's Novelty Concerts 
at Steinvvay Hall, in New York, of which performance the New York 
World spoke thus: " In brilliancy and precision of execution, delicacy 
of expression and individuality of style, Miss Bloomfield's performance 
has not been excelled by any lady pianist who has appeared in this 
city since the days of EssipofF." And Floersheim, an eminent critic, said 
in the Musical Courier: "Since Essipoif's departure we have not heard in 
New York a pianiste with so much musisal intelligence and feeling, such a 
finished and evenly developed technique, and such healthy and agreeable 
tone, combined with a firm j'et elastic touch which allows the use of everj' 
shade of tone production. Her finger technique and octave playing are 
truly astonishing for power and beauty." Of her appearance at the New 
York Symphony Society concert, under direction of Damrosch, April 4, 
1885, Frederick Archer wrote: " It is worthy of note that when she came 
on the platform she was received in almost total silence. At the conclu- 
sion of the concert the house fairly ' rose ' at her, and after reappearing 
three times she was compelled to play an encore. A success so genuine 
has some value." These various criticisms, a few of a mass of eulogies, 
were selected as giving a fair idea of her style and powers as an executant. 
Jan. 21, 1866, she played with orchestra at a St. Louis Musical Union 
concert, in October at Messrs. Page Turner's concert with the Dannreuther 
Quartette at Montreal, Can. In 1887 she played Chopin's F minor concerto 
at the Boston Symphony Concerts, Gerricke directing; Rubinstein's D 
minor concerto at the Chickering Hall Symphonic Concerts, New York, 
under \'an der Stucken, and the Peabody Symphonj- Concerts at Baltimore, 
under Hamerik ; she assisted at a chamber music concert of the Detroit 
Philharmonic Club, and. at a great many others in various cities too 
numerous to mention. Maj' 30 and 31, i888, she played to illustrate 
Krehbiel's lectures on music in New York. In August, 1888, she went 
to Europe, attending the Wagner Festivals at Bayreuth, and spending 
several months at \'ienna with her old teacher Leschetizky and Mme. 
Essipoff. She was induced to accompany the latter to London, and in 
that city the two pianists appeared together at the Monday Popular con- 
certs and at Steinway Hall, creating immense enthusiasm, on the former 
occasion giving variations on a theme by Beethoven and a duo from 
Schuman's Manfred, Mme Bloomfield-Zeisler playing first piano with 
Mme. Essipoff as the second piano. The subject of this sketch has had 
bestowed upon her the compliment of dedications of some verj- fine 
compositions of Eduard Schuett, Leschetizky and a great number of 
American composers. She has played for the Music Teachers' National 
Association in Cleveland in 1884, New York 1S85, and Indianapolis 1887, 



on the latter occasion presenting an Essay on Expression in Piano Play- 
ing, which was heard with great interest. She is a member of a family 
including a number of eminent musicians, among whom may be men- 
tioned Moritz Rosenthal, Adolf Robinson and Mme. Bertha Pierson. 
On Oct. iSth, 1885, she was married to Mr. Sigmund Zeisler, a success- 
ful Chicago lawj'er. 

Ch.irles Wels. 

Mr. Charles Wels, whose name is well and favorably known among 
American musicians, was born at Prague, Austria, in 1825. Prague is a 
musical cit}-, and young Wels was brought up in an art atmosphere 
which influenced him to adopt the career of a musician. While pursuing 
his general education his musical talents were not neglected, and at the 
age of eleven he wrote waltzes and other trifling compositions, which 
would have been published but for the timely interference of his parents. 
When he was nineteen years old he began to study with Tomascheck, 
who was conducting a conservatory at Prague. There was a notable 
array of students at the conservatory at that time, among them Drey- 
schock, Schulhoff, Kuhe, Dr. Hanslick, Goldschmidt and many others who 
afterward became famous. 

He progressed rapidly, and was soon known as one of Tomascheck's 
best pupils. He studied the piano, harmony and composition, and often 
wa.s called upon to play before such distinguished visitors as Liszt, 
Berlioz and Thalberg. He composed many piano pieces and an overture 
for orchestra, which was heard at a public concert in Prague and won 
favor. After a sojourn at Leipzig, where he enjoyed the friendship of 
Moscheles, Mr. Wels went to Poland, where he became court pianist, 
and, after several years' service in this capacity', he was induced to take 
up his residence in Dresden. Here he speedily won recognition as one of 
the most accomplished teachers in that musical community. 

At a musical gathering in one of the hotels, where Liszt stayed for a 
few days, the whole distinguished company expressed the desire of hear- 
ing the great Liszt. There being only the common hotel piano available, 
the company, Liszt included, went, at Mr. Wels' suggestion, over to his 
bachelor apartments, where he placed his splendid grand piano at Liszt's 
disposal. Liszt picked up one of Wels' manuscripts, a march triumphal 
for four hands, and played it with the author at sight, Liszt reading his 
part so rapidly that Wels had to <\ill Liszt's attention to the presc-ibed 
movement, "Andante Marziale " and not " Presto." Liszt took the sug- 
gestion good-naturedly. He afterward regaled the company with such 
playing as Liszt only was equal to. Wels also made the acquaintance of 

3fa^A^ :^./C/a 


Richard Wagner there, he being leader of the Royal Opera, where his 
Rieiizi SLwdi Tan?i/id//ser were just fighting their way into public recogni- 

In 1849 Mr. Wels decided to come to America. Arriving in New 
York, he found himself in competition with Maurice Strakosch, who was 
at that time giving concerts and appearing as a pianist. His contempor- 
aries were: Timm, Scharfenberg, Wollenhaupt, Bristow, Eisfeld, Richard 
Hoffman and a few others. He settled down to teach in New York, 
appearing occasionally at concerts, and making short trips through the 
country as concert pianist. He was very successful as a teacher; his 
pupils were legion, some of whom are known now as men of high stand- 
ing, as for instance S. B. Whitney of Boston; Louis Bonn, of New York, 
and others. He was intimate with the lamented H. A. Wollenhaupt, 
whose si.ster became his beloved wife, and shares still with him his joys 
and .sorrows. 

L. M. Gottschalk was an intimate friend of Mr. Wels, and the two 
were frequently heard together in concert, playing four hand pieces. 
Mr. Wels also appeared as concert organist, and for the past thirty-five 
years he has been engaged as organist by some of the most prominent 
churches in New York. He has written compositions of every kind, 
piano solos, songs, church music and orchestral suites. He is still young 
in mind and hale and hearty in physique. His career has been a most 
useful and honorable one. 


Among the admirable pianists of America Constantin Sternberg holds 
an honorable and prominent position. A well known critic recently 
referred to him as "A musician by God's grace, and a gentleman, in the 
word's noblest meaning." This is enthusiastic praise, certainly; but the 
musical world has had abundant evidence of Mr. Sternberg's talents as a 
musician, while of his qualities as a man, his friends and those who know 
him best speak in terms of eulogy scarcely inferior to the above-quoted 
phrase. He was born in St. Petersburg, Russia, of noble parentage, in 
the j'ear 1852. Though a Russian by birth, he is a cosmopolitan in 
culture and a German in musical education. At the age of eleven he was 
taken to Weimar, where Liszt was residing, and the great master, taking 
notice of the boy, advised that he be sent to the conservatory at Leipzig. 
At that grand school he studied with such famous instructors as Reinecke, 
Richter, Moschelles and Hauptmann. In 1867, when not quite fifteen 
years of age, he obtained his first engagement as a conductor of light 
opera at the Vaudeville Theatre at Leipzig, and for six years he followed 

this branch of the profession in various cities of France and Germany. 
He afterward graduated to grand opera, of which he became the con- 
ductor at the opera house at StreHtz. When he was about twenty-one 
years old, Mr. Sternberg attracted the attention of KuUak, who said to 
him: "You must learn to play the piano." Any excuses on the score of 
poverty were of no avail, and for several years the young man remained 
with Kullak at the of that great master, who has now gone from 
the scene of his labors for art. To repay this generosity and interest Stern- 
berg studied and practiced for thirteen hours a day, and the result was 
an attack of ner\-ous prostration, from which he was rescued by a strong 
constitution. It was at Kullak' s suggestion that Sternberg went to visit 
Liszt, who, just about starting for Rome, took the brilliant young pianist 
with him. Ho soon returned to Germany, concertized a while and was 
then appointed court pianist to the grand duke of Mecklenburg, with 
whom he lived on terms of friendliest intercouse, and from whom he 
received the order of the Crown of Wendland. Sternberg remained two 
years under the duke's patronage. He then went upon a prolonged 
concert tour, which included all the principal cities of Europe, and even 
extended into Asia and Africa. In iSSo he returned to Germany, and 
among other recognitions of his merit was a summons to appear before 
King William I, by whom he was treated with marked consideration and 
kindness. Shortly afterward he received an offer to visit America and, 
accepting the invitation, he filled engagements for 152 concerts and met 
with great success wherever he appeared. After his first American tour 
he returned to Germany to be married, and then Mr. and Mrs. Sternberg 
departed for America, having concluded to make their home here. After a 
concert tour with Mme. Minnie Hauk, Mr. Sternberg received a flattering 
offer to locate at Atlanta, Ga., and take charge of the music of the Female 
College at that city. His admirable work in this important position has 
been varied by occasional concert tours, and Mr. Sternberg's career in 
America has been both gratifying to the musical public and satisfactory^ 
to himself Mr. Sternberg has composed a variety of works, and he has 
written agreeably on many subjects relative to musical art. As a pianist 
he is not a mere technician, although his execution is brilliant; but he 
ever makes the executant secondary to the scholar and thinker. 

Miss Neally Stevens. 

One of the youngest and one of the most popular of the American 
pianists of the present is Miss Neally Stevens, whose brilliant work in 
various important concerts during the past few 3'ears has endeared her 
to audiences in all parts of the country. Recently at several meetings of 

Neally Stevens. 

the Music Teachers' National Association, as well as at the reunions of 
several state associations Miss Stevens' work has been praised in glowing 
terms by audiences of the most exacting nature — those made up of pro- 
fessional musicians. Miss Stevens is an American girl who has accom- 
plished much for the art of music in her native country. She enjoyed 
the advantages of stud}' with the best masters of Europe. The Abbe 
Liszt, Dr. Von Bulow, Moszkowski, Scharwenka and many other celebri- 
ties maj' be accounted among those who have given her their guidance. 
While stud3-ing in Germany she made frequent appearances in concert, and 
her work was warmly praised by the late Abbe Liszt and by other famous 
connoisseurs. Her repertoire is a most extensive one, and she has a par- 
ticular penchant for the works of American composers, frequentlj^ devot- 
ing entire programmes to their interpretation. Miss Stevens has pla5'ed 
in most of the leading cities of the Union. She succeeded in capturing 
the favor of critical Boston. In that city the critic of \.hs. Home Journal^ 
said: " Her technique was shown to have all the mastery and charm of the 
bravura pianist, while in contrasting attendance upon this tac perfect 
refinement, clearness, pliancy and finish were the unmistakable traits of 
the real artist. Her phrasing was that of a thoroughly sincere, able and 
discriminating musician, while the tone she produced from the in .trument 
was unusually musical and refined." On the occasion of her appearance 
in New York, the Musical Courier's well known critic wrote of her: 
" Miss Stevens has a refined musical nature and a very brilliant 
technique. She gave several difficult bravura passages in a manner that 
deserves the highest praise. Her scale work was excellent, and scarcely 
a blur was noticed throughout. Her octave passages and chords were 
given in a very broad manner, and showed plenty of reserve power. She 
aroused her audience to great enthusiasm, and was often recalled." 

Miss Stevens is but a trifle over twenty years of age, and she has 
made most rapid progress in her art. Her gifts include a charming man- 
ner and appearance, and her plaj-ing is characterized by warmth of e.xpres- 
sion, facility of technique and intelligence that readily grasps the intent 
and purpose of a composer's thoughts. She is devoting herself whoU)- to 
concert playing, and thus far has been so successful that a brilliant future 
for her may be anticipated. 

Armin W. Doerner. 

This well known pianist and teacher, who has been connected with 
the Cincinnati College of Music, since its foundation, was born in Mari- 
etta, O., June 22, 1852. Hecame to Cincinnati in 1859 with his parents, 
and at the age of ten years he received his first instruction on the piano. 



from his father, who could only teach him the elements, and had not the 
slightest intention of making him a musician. An inborn love of music 
prompted him, however, to pursue his studies with indefatigable zeal, and 
at the age of seventeen he had already decided to follow music as a pro- 
fession. In April, 1871, he went to Berlin and entered the New Academy 
of Music, under Theodore KuUak, taking at the same time private 
lessons from the celebrated Franz Bendel, and studying theorj' and 
composition with Carl Weitzmann. In the following year he entered the 
conservatory of Stuttgart, where he remained two years and a half, under 
the instruction of such eminent professors as Pruckner, Techert and 
Faisst. Subsequently he studied for several months in Paris, under 
Edward WolflF, a pupil of Chopin. After undergoing this complete and 
thorough course of training from the most famous foreign masters, he 
returned to Cincinnati, and in 1879, when the College of Music was 
established, he was appointed professor of piano, in which capacity he has 
labored conscientiously and with extraordinary success. He is a piano 
instructor in whom all the requisites of a complete intellectual and 
mechanical masterj' of the piano are blended. His book of Technical 
Exercises is clear, concise and methodical in treatment, and is well 
adapted to the daily use of the advanced artist and the mere tyro. Aside 
from his well-merited success as a teacher, Mr. Doerner has achieved a 
national reputation as a superior executant, and in connection with Prof. 
Andres, of Cinciimati, gained much applause for superior finish of duet 
playing upon two pianos. This was before the meeting of the National 
Association of Music Teachers, at Philadelphia, in Jul)% i88g. In this 
connection it may be of interest to state that some of the highest musical 
authorities, and among them the talented musical critic of the New York 
Tribune^ say that their ensemble playing, in the higher qualitj' of unity 
of thought and harmony of purpose, in the nice adjustment of individual 
characteristics and the unselfish subordination of everything to the expo- 
sition of the contents of the composition, has no superior. Having already 
accomplished so much and being yet in the prime of life and usefulness, 
we can safely predict that Mr. Doerner will yet add many interesting 
and brilliant pages to the history of music in America. 

John Ek.xst Perabo 
Was born at the pretty, straggling little town of Wiesbaden, in Ger- 
many, on Nov. 14, 1845, the son of Michael Perabo, whose entire family 
of nine children entered the musical ranks. His father began to teach 
him music when he was only five 3-ears old. In 1852 they came to Amer- 
ica, and the family settled in New York, where they remained for two 


years. During the second year the lad appeared before the public for the 
first time in a concert given by Professor Heinrich, and a great future was 
predicted for him. His parents then removed to Dover, N. H., and after- 
ward to Boston, where they made their home for a year, and during this 
time the boy received instruction on the violin from William Schultze, of 
the Mendelssohn Quintette Club, and played at a concert, under Carl 
Zerrahn's direction, at the Music hall. From there the family went to 
Chicago and to Washington, where they saw President Buchanan, and 
sought assistance from the government in order to help the lad to prose- 
cute his musical studies in the old world. They were unsuccessful, not 
unnaturally, but finall}- induced William Scharfenberg and a committee 
in New York to send John Ernst to Germany to receive a more extended 
musical culture. He left for Hamburg in 1858 and spent four years in 
"the town of the three turrets," but, owing to the delicate state of his 
health, did not stud 3^ music to any extent. He entered the conservatory 
at Leipzig in 1862. His teachers were Professors Moscheles and E. F. 
Wenzel, on the piano; Dr. Robert Papperitz, Dr. Moritz Hauptmann 
and Dr. E. F. Ricliter, in harmonj', and at a later period he had instruc- 
tion in composition from Carl Reinecke. He won some distinction, taking 
the Helbig prize, and at the public examination of the conservatory in 
1865, playing the second and third movements of Norbert Burgmiiller's 
concerto in F sharp minor, then just published. When he returned to the 
country in 1865 the committee told him that they expected no pecuniary 
reward for their services, and that he was absolutely free. 

Mr. Perabo went to Sandusky, O., where his parents lived, and gave 
several successful concerts in that city and at Lafayette, Chicago and 
Cleveland. In 1866 he returned to New York and played at a number of 
concerts, meeting with such favor that he started a series of Schubert mat- 
inees, at which he rendered all the sonatas of that composer. He has 
has plaj-ed every winter at the Har\'ard concerts bringing out many 
works previously unknown. He has published four collections of piano 
pieces for pupils, and transcriptions of Lowe's ballads. The Dance of the 
Dead, ilfclck at the Spring, and The Secluded. Besides these, he has made 
concert arrangements of the first mo\'ement of Rubinstein's Ocean Sym- 
phony for two hands, the same author's overture Dimitri Donskoi, the first 
movement of Schubert's unfinished symphony, and transcriptions from 
Beethoven's Fidclio and Sullivan's lolanthc. He has also composed several 
short pieces for the piano, among them Moment Miisicale, Waltz, Intro- 
duction and Andante, Souvenir, Studies, Scherzo, Prelude, Pensec Fugitive 
and After School. He is now living in Boston, engaged in the work of a 

Carl Faelten. 
Carl Faelten, one of the principal teachers in the New England Con- 
servatorj-, and an artist distinguished in the world of music, was bom in 
Ilnienau, Thuringia, Dec. 21, 1846. While a school boj^ he evinced a 
strong passion for music, and was fortunate enough to secure competent 
preliminary instruction in piano and in theory. Possessed of an ambition 
to become a good pianist, and as his parents were unable to provide the 
means to enable him to gratify this ambition, he had recourse to his own 
industry and exertions. He entered one of those orchestra schools in Ger- 
many, known as the Stadtpfcifcrcicn, at Arnstadt, where he remained from 
his fifteenth to his nineteenth year, and where, while pursuing everj- advan- 
tage open to him for study and improvement, he was compelled to do the 
most laborious and unsatisfactory work of the musical profession, playing 
dance music, etc. ; but this in itself was an ad\-antage to him in after years, 
as it gave him practical acquaintance with manj- orchestral instruments, and 
he became especiallj' proficient in the violin and clarionet. After playing 
the violin in orchestras in Germany and Switzerland, he became comiected 
with a small orchestra in Frankfort-on-the-Main. Here he was able to 
resume his piano study, which he had been compelled to neglect for nearly 
se^•en years, and was fortunate enough to attract the attention and secure 
the friendly advice of several prominent musicians, among them Herr 
Julius Schoch, a pupil of Aloys Schmidt. Thus encouraged, he studied 
and practiced with great energy, and was making rapid progress, when 
another untoward event interfered with his ambition. The inexorable 
German militan,^ law took him away to sers'ice as a soldier of the line dur- 
ing the Franco-Prussian war, and when he returned to Frankfort, he found 
his fingers so stiff from handling the musket, that he had to begin over again 
his training for the piano. However, difficulties ser\-ed but to increase 
his ardor, and so diligently and successfully did he now pursue his mu- 
sical education that after 1874 he appeared successfully in sj-mphony con- 
certs with other eminent artists, and ga\-e recitals of his own, which soon 
gave him a reputation in critical circles. He appeared at Berlin, Bremen, 
Cassel, Haag, Schwerin, Wiesbaden, Vienna, London and other European 
cities, with increasing fame, and also devoted much time to teaching, with 
such skill and success and evidence of a natural aptitude for the work 
that he attracted the attention of Joachim Raff, whose friendship he had 
formed at Wiesbaden. In 1877 Raff organized the conservatory at Frank- 
fort-on-the-Main, and selected Faelten to be associated with Mme. Clara 
Schumann, as the best available talent combining eminence as a pianist 
with skill as a teacher. Here he had special charge of the training of 
teachers, and delivered annually numerous lectures on theoretical and 

practical requirements of teachers in piano playing. His piano classes 
were very successful, and he graduated a great many finely trained stu- 
dents. On RafFs sudden death, a little over three years later, Faelten 
determined to come to America, and in 1S82 settled in Baltimore under 
engagement with the Peabody Institute. Here he labored successfully 
for a few years, when his services were secured by Dr. Tourjee for the New 
England Conservatory of Music, where he has found the work so con- 
genial, and all the surroundings so entirely to his satisfaction, that he has 
determined to devote the balance of his life to musical work there. His 
success has been remarkable, and its results justifj' the wisdom and dis- 
cernment of both Raff and Dr. Tourjee in their appreciation of the quali- 
ties which make him so valuable an acquisition to a musical consen^atory. 
He has become widelj^ known outside the consen-atory — at New York, 
Boston, Baltimore and elsewhere, in connection with the symphony con- 
certs — and wherever he has appeared his talents as a pianist and musician 
of the first rank have been universally recognized and applauded in the 
most critical circles. 

Otto Bendix. 

The name of this eminent pianist and teacher has been widely famil- 
iarized through the United States, not only through his prominent 
connection as an instructor during the last nine j-ears at the New England 
Conservator}- of Music, Boston, but also in connection with many 
important musical events in the leading cities of the Union. 

Mr. Bendix is a native of Copenhagen, Denmark, where his boj'hood 
was passed. His musical talent is inherited, his father, Emanuel 
Bendix, a prosperous merchant of the Danish capital, having been an 
amateur musician, noted for his skill as a flutist. At the house of the 
elder Bendix, the Royal Orchestra was accustomed to frequently meet for 
practice, and thus the subject of this sketch grew up in a musical atmos- 
phere. As early as at nine years of age, young Bendix had attained such 
proficiencj- at the piano that he was allowed to play with the orchestra, 
and the bent of his genius being evident, he was allowed by his father to 
enter upon a course of study with a view to a musical career. 

He studied first under Antoine Ree, at Copenhagen, and afterward 
under the eminent Danish composer, N. W. Gade, director of the Copen- 
hagen Conser\-atory, where his progress was so rapid and his proficiencj'- 
•SO remarkable that it was decided to open up to him the broader advan- 
tages of the Berlin schools. At Berlin he remained for two years a pupil 
of the distinguished KuUak, and had the additional benefit of a warm 
personal intimacy with this famous composer and instructor. On com- 
pleting his studies with Kullak, he gave successfully a series of concerts 

in Berlin, under the patronage of that master. Thence he went to Weimar, 
and for three consecutive summers had the inestimable advantage of the 
advice and instruction of the great Liszt. At Weimar he gave numerous 
matinees of the same class as those given by Von Bulow and Rubinstein, 
and these entertainments were patronized by the grand duke of Weimar, 
who in this and other ways manifested a keen interest in the art career of 
the young performer. Having thus completed the preparation for his 
musical career under such distinguished auspices, he returned to Copen- 
hagen and was at once installed as a foremost teacher in the conservator}^, 
where he soon acquired a prominent reputation, both as executant and 
teacher. In addition to his work as instructor of the piano at the con- 
ser\-ator3% he played the first oboe in the Royal Theatre orchestra during 
the thirteen j-ears of his connection with the Copenhagen institution. 
Having determined to remove to America, he made his first appearance in 
Boston, in 1880, and gave an introductory recital at Chickering's piano 
rooms, which was attended by the leading musicians and critics of the 
city, whose verdict upon his playing was extremely favorable. He 
shortly after accepted a position as piano teacher in the New England 
Conservator}^ where he still remains among the most efficient as well as 
the most popular of the teachers of this institution. During this time he 
has frequently appeared as a virtuoso in our principal capitals, and has 
been everywhere recognized as undoubtedly one of the most brilliant 
instrumentalists of the modern school. He combines remarkable 
technique with a truthfulness and sympathy of interpretation which 
enable him to render the compositions of the great masters in a manner 
that invariably elicits the approval of every artistic listener. Combined 
with this faculty he possesses a rare adaptability to the work of imparting 
musical knowledge to others, and this has rendered his services in con- 
nection with the conservatory of the greatest value, both to that institu- 
tion and to the students committed to his care. Mr. Bendix is one of the 
most thoroughly Americanized of our naturalized musical citizens, and 
desires to be considered nothing if not American. The nature and extent 
of his other labors preclude any great effort at composition, although he 
has w'ritten an octette for piano and wind instruments that has been 
highly admired, and other works which indicate ability as a composer. 

J. D. Buckingham. 

One of our most successful pianoforte teachers, judging the quality 
of the instructor bj' the fruits of his instruction, is Mr. J. D. Buckingham, 
for ten years past connected with the faculty of the New England 
Conservatory of Music. Mr. Buckingham was born in Huntingdon, Pa., 


May 17, 1S55, his father being the Rev. J. D. Buckingham, a minister 
prominent in the Methodist denomination. Very early in life he evinced 
not only a strong predilection for music, but marked talent in that direc- 
tion, and could play with tolerable proficiency' when, at the age of twelve, 
he was placed under a teacher at York, Pa. Subsequently he studied 
under various masters until the fall of 1873, when he entered the New 
England Conservatory as a student. He there continued his musical 
studies until 1879, taking instructions in pianoforte from J. C. D. Parker; 
organ, George E. Whiting; harmony and theorj', S. A. Emor>'; counter- 
point, fugue and general composition, history of music and aesthetics, J. 
K. Paine, of Han-ard College. In 1879 he graduated, and received a full 
diploma from Boston University, C. M. Since that time Mr. Bucking- 
ham's work has been wholly devoted to the New England Conservatory 
as pianoforte instructor, though at times making public appearances at 
His lessons — vocal and piano — are sought by artists. His productions 
are performed everywhere, and by such pianists as Wm. H. Sherwood, 
Calixa Lavallee, Mme. Rive-King, Mme. Fannie Bloomfield, Mrs. Clara 
E. Thonis, Miss Neally Stevens, Mme. Dory Burmeister Petersen, Con- 
stantin Sternberg, Emil Liebling, etc., and by such vocalists as Miss Zelie 
de Lussan, Miss EfEe Stewart, Miss Dora Henninges, Miss Grace Hiltz, 
Dr. Carl Martin, Mr. Chas. Knorr, etc. 

As a composer he is one of the few who possess a genuine gift for the 
invention of melody, and who are also invariably musicianly in whatso- 
ever they may indite. His compositions combine the artistic and the 
popular without ever descending to triviality. In 18S8-89 Mr. Smith 
was president of the Ohio Music Teachers' Association, and the meeting 
held under his regime was one of the most successful in the histor}- of the 
association. During the present year (1889) Mr. Smith, with Calixa 
Lavallee and Dr. Ziegfeld, comprise the programme committee of the 
Music Teachers' National Association. Mr. Smith has also appeared 
before the State and the National Associations as an essayist, in which 
field he has been notably successful. His article upon the subject of 
" American Composers ' ' has been copied far and near. Mr. Smith has pub- 
lished over a hundred compositions, vocal and instrumental, and it is a 
striking fact that not only are his works played and sung by leading 
artists everywhere, but his name as a composer is also to be found upon 
the programmes of the various state music associations, as well as the 
Music Teachers' National Association. Mr. Smith has had a brilliant 
career which is as yet in its early stages, and still greater fame yet awaits 
him in the vocation he has chosen. 

Marcus I. Epstein and A. I. Epstein. 

Two of the representative musicians of St. Louis are the Messrs. A. 
I. and Marcus I. Epstein, who have a national reputation as players of 
piano duets. The Epsteins are an exceptionall}- talented musical family-, . 
another brother being equally distinguished as a pianist. Mr. Abe 
Epstein was born at Mobile, Ala., in January, 1857. He has studied with 
Lovitzsky, Prevost and other masters, both here and in Europe. Since 
he has resided in St. Louis, Mr. Epstein has devoted himself mainly to 
teaching the piano, organ and composition, but he has f )und time 
for frequent concert tours, which have placed him prominently before the 
public as a virtuoso of pronounced talents. He has written a co icerto 
for piano and orchestra, which has been highly praised, and he has also 
composed a great deal of church music. He has been pronounced by 
Mariana Brandt and other famous vocalists one of the very best of accom- 
panists. Marquis L Epstein, who has alwaj'S been closely associated 
with his brother in musical studies and pursuits, is also a native of 
Mobile, Ala., where he was born in 1855. He pursued his studies with 
Reinecke, Richter and Jaddasohn from 1871 to 1874, and with each of 
these famous instructors he was accounted a most talented student. He 
has been as.sociated with his brother, Abe I. Epstein, for a number of 
j^ears, and the Epstein brothers are conceded to have done a great deal 
of excellent work for music in St. Louis. He has been engaged in teach- 
ing the piano and playing in concert. He has also composed many works 
of considerable importance, including a polonaise in C sharp minor, a 
sonata for violin and piano, a polka caprice, and many minor piano pieces, 
transcriptions. Together with his brother, he has acted as impresario for 
the bringing out of several popular operas in St. Louis, enterprises which 
have been brought to a successful consummation. During the meeting of 
the Music Teachers' National Association at Philadelphia, in 1888, the 
Messrs. Epstein attended, and their duet playing made a decidedly favor- 
able impression. At that time a well known critic paid them the follow- 
ing tribute in an eastern musical paper: 

"The famous Epstein brothers, of St. Louis, Mo., who have the 
reputation of being the finest duet players in this country, were at Phila- 
delphia during the convention, and one morning, accompanied by a chosen 
few, they repaired to one of the largest and finest warerooms, and held 
their impromptu audience entranced for a brief hour by their remarkable 
talents. They gave the Liszt concerto, Mr. A. Epstein playing the solo 
part with a.stonishing power and brilliancy, and showing a command of 
technique that aroused enthusiastic praise from his hearers. His no less 
talented brother gave the orchestral part brilliantly. 


Concert and Operatic Singers. 

fN no form of musical art have the American people distinguished 
themselves more than in that of song. The emotional tempera- 
ment of the American woman, her mental acuteness and her 
'(^I^ capacity for hard work combine to make her the most ductile musical 
jk material furnished by any nation. While the climate of our countrj' 
I might not at first sight be thought favorable to the voice as an organ, 
the record shows a vast number of successful public singers of American 
birth. These people, especiallj' in recent years, make successful careers 
abroad, and even take the stage and hold it against the rich voices and 
attractive personalities of Italian women. In fact, there have been a 
large number of Americans who have had brilliant in Italj^ 
within recent years, most notable among them being, perhaps, that richly 
endowed nature, Mme. Lena Hastreiter, who in the season of 1888-89 
produced an enormous effect in Rome itself, with her impersonation of 
"Orpheus" in Gluck's opera. Another example of similar importance 
is that of Mme. Nordica, who while not singing in Italy itself for any con- 
siderable time, holds high rank among the present lights of Italian opera, 
having filled long and profitable engagements in London, St. Petersburg 
and in several German cities. That American artists should find a con- 
genial home in London, that commercial capital of the world, is not 
surprising, for there their native tongue is still the medium of intercom- 
munication, and they are to all intents at home with distant relatives. 
The success of American singers abroad is not a new thing. As long ago 
as i860 or thereabouts that accomplished singer Adelaide Phillipps made 
a great success all over Europe in the principal contralto roles of Italian 
opera. In England her success was almost equally great in oratorio, 
although in this province she came in competition with many thoroughly 
equipped artists of English schooling. 

It must be conceded that as yet American singers suffer from belong- 

ing to no school in particular. They are not the best Italian singers, 
since almost invariably they miss the characteristic grace of Italian 
recitative, although their intelligence and general aptitude enable them 
to deliver this important part of opera with effect, if not with all the soft- 
ness of outline and responsive rise and fall of intensity natural to those 
Italian-born. In later times nearly all American singers have made a 
considerable part of their studies in Paris with one or the other of those 
great teachers, Mme. Anna LaGrange or Mme. Marchesi. In this way the 
characteristic sentimentality of Italian training in singing is not 
acquired, while the French fondness for mczza voce effects is equally far 
removed from the American appetite for heartiness and passion. Among 
the best results attained as yet by studies in Paris, perhaps those reached 
by Miss Clara Munger, of Boston, are as worthy of mention as any. 
Miss Munger studied mostly with Delle Sadie, who performs nearly a 
11 the work of voice training in the medium register. This gives a rich 
and evenly developed organ in the medium register, where nearly 
all expressive singing has to be done. The higher notes, of course, are 
not neglected, but the main work of vocal training is not confined to them, 
nor are they regarded as the main object of a singer's ambition. 

The most important defect of ordinary- American singers is their inabil- 
ity to sing artistically in their native tongue. This is due in part to 
their making their studies abroad, under teachers unacquainted with the 
niceties of English speech, and in part to their own mistaken ideals of 
the essential constituents of singing of the highest class. It deserves to be 
remembered that imperfect enunciation of the text in singing is always a 
sign of bad method or imperfect training, and generally of both. We have 
had in America many conspicuous examples of great singers able to sing 
in the English tongue with delightful clearness and ease, and without in 
the slightest degree impairing the legato quality of the musical phrasing. 
Among the artists of this kind may be mentioned the peerless Parepa 
Rosa, Christine Nilsson and the great Patti. Nilsson, indeed, had always 
a slight foreign accent. But Parepa and Patti were English-speaking 
artists, and their singing of ballads was something delightful to hear. 
Nothing was neglected. Words, tones, sentiment — all alike were expressed 
in a complete manner. 

There is great need of a national standard of instruction in singing. 
The best qualities of all schools should enter into it. The purity of Ital- 
ian tone, musical phrasing and the comprehensiveness of Wagnerian 
phrasing, and the simplicit}' of the English ballad school, with its earnest- 
ness, are the leading qualities which should enter into it. In order to 
secure this, it will be necessary to begin the study of English singing 

earlier than is usually done, and to supplement the purely musical studies 
by other of a complementarj^ character, calculated to bring out the dram- 
atic intelligence and the niceties of elocution. Mrs. Thurber had an idea 
of this kind, \,-hen she sacrificed so much in her well meant attempt to 
establish English opera and an American conser\-ator>', but her method of 
procedure was not well devised. singing must be the accomplish- 
ment aimed at from the start, just as German singing, and especially 
Wagnerian singing, is aimed at in Germany or French singing in Paris. 
These nations have found it impossible to secure an artistic treatment of 
their native songs in their native tongue without their own national .schools 
especially designed and administered for securing such results. It is 
similar in England. While Italian opera holds a sort of prestige with the 
fashionable classes, most of the singing in drawing: rooms is in the English 
tongue, and the styles most in demand are English ballads and oratorio 
selections. These signify a peculiar range of training, which as yet we 
have not realized in America, but which must be brought together before 
we reach the art of producing the best possible American results from 
American voices, and for American audiences. When this art shall have 
been mastered by our American institutions of higher musical learning, 
it will enable us to secure better results from all kinds of voices, more 
valuable commercial results from average voices, and at much less expense 
than is involved in any complete education in singing as at present admin- 

There is now a good market for singing in this countr}\ whenever it 
is up to the popular demand as to vocal quality and other elements of 
attractiveness. Light opera seems to be established upon a footing from 
which it is not likely to be displaced. It is true that the taste as j-et is 
rather crude, allowing spectacle to take the place of art; but there will 
come a time, and that not far hence, when singing will be the main 
element of the popularity of a prima donna in light opera. In spite of 
the market for light sopranos and altos upon the operatic stage in 
America, nearly every j^oung singer experiences no small difficult}^ in 
making an advantageous engagement, and frequently has to ser\-e a sort 
of apprenticeship upon the concert stage before she can secure a proper 
footing, even in operas much lighter, musically considered, than she 
would wish. This results from her imperfect and ill-digested training. 
She is neither one thing nor another. She is not a ballad singer, nor a 
grand opera singer, nor yet a good church singer, but a sort of com- 
promise of all three, without having brought any one of them to perfec- 
tion. This will never be different until w^e have American singers fully 
educated in this countrj'. 

When we speak of teachers, the list of celebrated ones is a long one 
in America. It would ill become a work covering the range of the 
present one to neglect the great name of Mme. Rudersdorf, who was 
perhaps the very first exponent of the highest qualities of song who ever 
established herself in America as teacher. She was a singularly accom- 
plished woman, with a mind of wide range and great acuteness. Her 
opinions concerning art in general were highly prized b}' connoisseurs. 
She had a method of voice training which may or may not have been all 
that she thought it; but as in regard to the genius and value of her ideas 
upon effective vocal interpretation, there cannot possibly be two opinions. 
She was equally at home in all the great schools of singing, treating each 
perfectl)' after its kind. She was mistress of all the leading modern 
tongues, and conversed and wrote in seveial of them with the mastery of 
a native. Upon this point, indeed, artists are a law unto themselves. 
The pianist, Mme. Carreiio, speaks and writes with perfect ease five 
languages : Her native tongue Spanish, English, French, Italian and 
German. Mme. Rudersdorf added to this repertory Russian, and perhaps 
a dialect or two bej^ond. She gave finishing lessons to all the concert 
singers of her time, and great artists did not disdain to avail themselves 
of her labors in rehabilitating roles fallen into careless habits through the 
exigencies of too much use and too little study. Among the pupils 
almost wholly formed by her were Emma Thursby, Fannie Kellogg and 
others. Rudersdorf 's first appearance in this country was at the world's 
peace jubilee of 1869, when her grand organ rang out splendidlj^ through 
the vast space. The present writer heard her at the Handel and Haydn 
trieimial festival of 187 1, and her singing in Elijah was something to 
remember. No other singer had such depth and vividness of dramatic 
characterization with the voice. Single phrases linger in memor>' yet. 
One in particular which most impressed itself -vvas the short bit, after the 
angel sings, " And one cherub cried to another, saj-ing, " then Rudersdorf 
took up the phrase, " Holj-, holj' is God the Lord." Nother larger or 
more worthy the occasion could be imagined. That great voice rang 
out with such intensity' as if the soul were filled with a conception of 
the greatness, holiness and immensity of Deity. This was like what 
Wagner sa3-s, that it is the province of music to awaken in the hearer a 
conception of the Infinite 

The selection of American singers and teachers here following is far 
from complete. One has been taken and another left, not generally 
because it has been so decreed, but because there was not room for all, or 
particulars of certain ones, or pictures of them, were impossible to get in 
time. Singers are a transient class, here to-day and gone to-morrow. 

and one cannot realize the difficulty of learning exact things concerning 
them until one has tried to do it. Under the circumstances the best 
possible has been done, and the publisher and editor take pleasure in the 
accompanying records and portraits of American singers, who in after 
generations, we doubt not, will be accounted the early representatives of 
a distinguished school at the head, very naturalh', comes the name of that 
talented American singer, Miss Kellogg, who was perhaps the first Amer- 
ican soprano to make a distinguished success in Italian opera abroad, but 
whose fame also has been peculiarly associated with this country, where 
she worked so many years in establishing opera in English. In this 
respect she may be accounted as continuing the work of the great Parepa 
Rosa, who in the seasons of 1869-70 gave grand opera in English 
throughout the country with admirable success. In this relation her 
work was very important, especially in view of the direction which oper- 
atic music has taken during these later years. For while Patti and 
many other prominent American singers are principally famous for their 
assumptions of the leading roles in the old Italian operas, Miss Kellogg 
distinguished herself as early as 1S74 bj' her " Senta " in Wagner's 
Flying Dutchman. 

Clar.\ Louise Kellogg. 

This gifted lady, though of northern extraction, was oom at Sumter- 
ville, S. C, in July, 1842. She was an only child, and her mother, pos- 
sessing superior qualifications as an amateur musician, devoted herself to 
improving and developing the remarkable vocal talent which Miss Kellogg 
at an early age gave evidence of. In 1856 she removed to New York, 
and there received the whole of her musical education. Her first appear- 
ance in opera was in the part of " Gilda " in Rigoletto, in 186 1, at the 
Academy of Music, New York, meeting with an instantaneous success. 
During that season she sang some ten or twelve times. In November, 
1867, she made her debut at Her Majesty's Opera, Drur>- Lane, London, 
in the part of " Margherita," and at once established her reputation as a 
prima donna. During this season she sang constantly, and with such 
favor that she was re-engaged for the next j-ear. During the term from 
1868 to 1872 she made tours of the principal cities of the United .States, 
and established a popularity for herself that has never abated. In the 
latter j-ear she returned to London and reappeared at Her Majestj^'s Opera 
in the part of " Linda." She also made a great success during that sea- 
son as "Gilda." Returning to the United States, she continued to inter- 
pret Italian opera with ever increasing fame, but had also in view the 
putting into execution of an ambition she had long entertained — of organ- 

Clara Louise Kellogg. 

izing an English opera troupe. This she finally succeeded in doing to 
her satisfaction in 1874, and of her enthusiastic devotion to this pro- 
ject we may judge from the fact that she personally super\'ised the 
translation of the librettos, the putting in preparation for the stage, the 
training of the soloists and the instruction and rehearsals of the chorus. 
She had the satisfaction, however, of proving the success of her scheme 
in the most striking and gratifying manner. Her efforts were appreciated 
by the music-loving public with liberality and even enthusiasm, and 
■ American music culture owes much to her labors as a pioneer in this field 
of musical effort. Her success was not only immediate, but complete and 
cumulative, and has grown from j-ear to year. Her personal industry 
has been indefatigable. In the winter of 1874-75 she sang no fewer than 
125 nights. She has ever since maintained a remarkable activity'. Her 
musical illustrations form a repertoire of upwards of forty operas of the 
first-class. She is endowed with a voice of great compass, flexibility and 
purity, perfected by the most conscientious training. Her interpretation of 
music is truthful and .sympathetic, and to this she adds an enthusiasm 
which infects her audiences. In addition, she possesses an executive 
ability in business affairs that has had much to do with giving per- 
manence to the popularity which has attended all her musical under- 

Mdlle. Albaxi. 

This gifted lady, whom we have in this work presented in her stage 
name, as that under which she achieved a renown that is regarded with 
pride by all Americans, was born at Chambly, near Montreal, Can., 
in 1 85 1, her father having been a professor of the harp, and the family 
name Lajeunesse. At the age of five, the family having removed to 
Montreal, Mdlle. Lajeunesse entered the convent of Notre Dame de Sacre 
Cceur there, where she received her preliminarj' training in singing. In 
1864 the family removed to Albany, N. Y., and here the young lady sang 
in the choir of the Catholic cathedral, the rare qualities of her voice 
attracting the attention of the Catholic bishop, who advised M. Lajeunesse 
to give his daughter the advantage of musical training in Europe. This 
interest and appreciation were shared by the citizens of Albany, who gave 
a public concert to raise funds to enable Mdlle. Lajeunesse to take the 
course which had been recommended for her advantage. Accompanied 
by her father, she went to Paris and studied for eight months under 
Duprez, afterward going to Milan, where she was perfected by the gifted 
maestro Lamperti. The latter was inspired by her genius and the 
glorious capabilities of her voice to an extraordinary interest in his gifted 




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pupil, which was amply rewarded by the results. The admiration which 
he entertained for the j'oung singer may be inferred from the fact that 
he dedicated to her his treatise on the shake. In 1870, at Messina, she 
made her debut in La Sonnambula, taking the professional name of 
Albaiii, in grateful recognition of the city which had enabled her to equip 
herself for fame. She afterward sang at the Pergola, Florence, and, 
April 2, 1S72, made her first appearance at the Royal Italian Opera 
Covent Garden, London. The exceeding beauty of her light soprano 
voice and the charm of her personal appearance carried both the public 
and the critics by storm, and she at once leaped into a popularity, since 
world-wide, and which she has always retained and justified. She later 
made a great success at the Italian Opera, Paris, and at St. Petersburg, 
and later on visited America, where she once more, to the delight of the 
art-loving people of Albany, who went into transports over their protegee, 
sang in the cathedral of that city. Returning to London, she appeared 
regularly thereafter at the Covent Garden Theatre, at which she has 
ever since been the chief and a permanent attraction. On August 6, 
1878, .she married Mr. Ernest Gye, who by the death of his father 
became lessee of that theatre. She has also been prominently identified, 
since taking up her permanent residence in London, with the great 
Autumn Festivals of England at Birmingham and elsewhere. In an 
extensive repertoire, covering a wide range of vocal capacity, her leading 
portrayals are "Amina" in La Sonnambitla, "Marguerite" in Faust, 
" Elsa " in Lohengrin, " Elisabetta " in Taiinhauscr, " Gilda " in 
.^i^o/^//i>, and the parts of "Ophelia," " Mignon," "Lucia," etc. She 
is prominent among the number of those who have brought recognition 
and honor upon American musical talent. 

Giovanni B. Ronconi. 

This accomplished flute soloist, operatic singer and teacher of vocal 
music, was born in Rotterdam, Holland, in 1841. His father, Hubert 
Sauvlet (the family name), being a violoncellist of repute, and his mother 
a celebrated violinist. 

His early instruction was on the flute, on which instrument he went 
to his uncle, Antoine Sauvlet, at the Hague, to perfect himself He gave 
his first concert in Delft, Flanders, at the age of nine years. Subsequently 
he made concert tours with his parents and brothers and sister, the 
family constituting an orchestra of wide reputation. On the death of his 
mother, in 1861, he went to Copenhagen, and thence to Stockholm, 
Sweden, where he remained for a period of seven years; for three years 
being connected with the Court theatre, and for one year professor in the 


consen'atory. While there, he discovered the fact that he had a voice, 
which he thereafter made studious effort to cultivate and develop. After 
visiting England, remaining for a year and a half he made an engage- 
ment with Bilse, taking a flute part in the Berlin orchestra. During two 
years of his stay here, he studied assiduously under Krause and Gustav 
Engel, and afterward under Evarardi in the Conservatory of St. Peters- 
burg. Thence he went to Itah' to perfect his studies, taking lessons from 
Sebastian Ronconi, Periiii and Lamperti at Milan, Selva at Padua, and 
finally under Nanni, at Rome. 

He made his first appearance in La Sonnambula, 1879, and his first 
great success at the "Teatro Manzoni," at Pistoia, Florence, as " Mephis- 
tophele," in /^(TM/, with Signorade Cardenas as "Marguerite"; also at the 
"Teatro Pagliano," Florence, with Elena Varesi, in Rigolctto. He thus 
attracted the attention of Mapleson, the impresario, with whom he 
engaged for the opera season of 1883, visiting America. Returning to 
Italy in the fall of that year, he joined Hawley's Italian Opera Company, 
on a tour to the East Indies, and sang in Verdi's // Trovatore at Colombo, 
Cej-lon, Singapore, Batavia, Java and elsewhere in the Polynesian islands. 
At Batavia he had the unexpected happiness of meeting his brother Emil, 
a pianoforte and violin virtuoso, whom he had not seen for a period of 
twenty j-ears. 

Leaving the Hawley company, he and his brother then gave concert 
exhibitions throughout the East Indian islands; after which, in 1884, he 
returned to Italy, and thence went to New York, whence, after a short 
time, occupied in teaching, he removed to Charleston, S. C, as vocal 
instructor in the conser\'ator>- there, and taught with much success for 
some time; after which he founded there a college of vocal teaching on 
his own account. In 1885, he engaged to sing in opera with the Emma 
Abbott Company, but shortlj' left them on account of his objection to 
nightly appearances in Mikado and similar frivolous comic operas. He 
went then to St. John, New Brunswick, and while there made the 
acquaintance of Mr. Listemann, of Boston, who insisted upon his 
removal to that city. 

In Boston Signor Ronconi has been extremeh- successful in \-oice 
culture, and has also occupied himself with a project which he has still in 
hand, which designs to establish an English operatic school, having in 
contemplation the creation in and around Boston of a permanent opera 
company of native talent. He has made frequent appearances on concert 
tours, in which he has latterly been associated with Carlyle Petersilea, the 
distinguished pianist. 

Signor Ronconi is an earnest student of his art, and not long since. 










in the columns of the American Musician, has placed before the musical 
public a theory of no little interest. This theory- is based upon a belief in 
the entire fallacy of the universal theory upon which all our music has 
been written — that bass or male voices necessarily sound an octave lower 
than they are written. He demonstrates that all music written in bass 
clef (so far as the notation is concerned) must be wrong, as it is written 
an octave lower than the pitch of the bass voice sound, and his illustra- 
tions certainly go ver>' strongly to recommend his theory, which, if cor- 
rect, will prove a discovery of no little importance. This matter has 
engaged the attention of those skilled in the subject of the compass and 
vibrations of the human voice, and may possibly revolutionize the method 
of writing music in this respect. 

L. Gaston Gottschalk. 

This talented vocalist and teacher, a brother of the eminent pianist, 
Louis Moreau Gottschalk, was born in New Orleans in 1847. Like his 
brother, he received his musical education in Paris, and numbered among 
his earlier teachers Ronconi and Rizzo. His aptitude was remarkable, 
and he soon entered upon a successful series of concerts through America 
to California. He then went to Italy and placed himself for ten months 
under Francesco Lamperti, making his debut in Cremona at the Theatre 
Delia Concordia, meeting such immediate and unqualified success that he 
made twenty-two appearances in Lucrezia, singing afterward in Trovatore 
and / Due Foscari. He subsequently engaged at Alexandria and Genoa, 
and from the latter place entered upon a five years' engagement with 
Max Strakosch, during which time he sang with Gerster, Cary, 
Kellogg, Roze, Tietjens, Belocca, Singer and Campanini. Later he was 
with Minnie Hank traveling through the United States, and with Kellogg 
and Brignoli during their American tour. Going to London, he was 
engaged by Ernest Gye for Covent Garden, and both there and afterward 
in St. Petersburg, where he appeared with Pauline Lucca, was successful 
in the operas Trovatore, Carmen and Traviata. In Paris he earned 
great distinction, being accompanied at soirees-musicales by Saint Saens 
and Gounod, and singing at the Trocadero with Guilmant, the eminent 
organist, and Colonne's orchestra. Afterward during a provincial tour 
he was made an honorary member of the famous Societe Philharmonique 
of Angers. Returning to Paris, he divided his time for a period between 
singing and teaching, numbering among his pupils nieces of the king 
of Ser\-ia. In 1886 he accepted the position of director of the vocal 
department at the Chicago Musical College, where he remained up to 
1889. During the summer he opened a school of vocal art on his own 

account. Mr. Gottschalk count.s among the memorable moments of an 
eventful life a meeting one afternoon with Liszt, who played for him and 
to whom he sang. Liszt had known his brother, the pianist, intimately. 
John C. Freund, in a recent paper in the American Musician, says of him: 
' ' Gottschalk is a master of the art of ' bel canto. ' He is ' a singer and 
an artist' — titles that can be conferred upon very few of the so-called 
singers of the world. Gottschalk never forced his voice and never used 
any clap-trap or illegitimate methods to obtain public favor. He always 
remained strictly within the limitations of the true and conscientious 

Helene Hastreiter. 

This distinguished singer, who of late has been winning laurels for 
native musical art in her toiirnee in the principal cities of Europe, was 
particularly conspicuous in this country during the existence of the Amer- 
ican Opera Companj-, with which organization she did some of her best 
and most artistic work. Mme. Hastreiter was born in Louisville, Ky., 
Nov. 14, 1858. At an early age she displayed the possession of a remark- 
able voice and rare talent for music. This gift was encouraged by her 
parents, and as soon as she was old enough to make such a course advis- 
able, she was given the best available teachers. After distinguishing her- 
self by her rapid progress and evincing zeal and artistic enthusiasm equal 
to her natural endowments, she was advised to continue her studies abroad. 
This advice was accepted, and .she sailed for Europe, where she remained 
for several years, studying under various masters, but for the most part 
with Lamperti, the celebrated teacher of Milan, who is and has been for 
years one of the most renowned instructors of Italy. In addition to her 
studies in vocal art, Mme. Hastreiter devoted attention to other branches 
of musical education, and the result is that she is far superior to most 
singers in the way of general musical culture. Her debut was a triumph, 
and she was at once in demand for the principal opera houses of southern 
Europe. She sang, with immense success at Milan, Florence, Trieste, 
Rome and other art centres, and she was everywhere recognized as a 
dramatic soprano of exceptional power, her acting, as well as her singing, 
gaining enthusiastic praise. 

On her return to her native land, Mme. Hastreiter gave her attention 
mainly to concert singing and oratorio, as the family to which she joined 
fortunes matrimonially objected to her following her career as an opera 
singer. In oratorio she was greatly successful, and this style of composi- 
tion is well suited to her dramatic style, and expressive and emotional 
singing. When- the American Opera Company was organized Mme. Has- 
treiter was engaged as one of the dramatic sopranos. Her voice is really 

mezzo in quality, but her compass is unusually great. She made a sen- 
sation by her work with this company, especially in the part of Orpheus, 
which she made entirely her own. The impression of this superb charac- 
terization will not soon be effaced from the minds of those who heard her 
in the role. Mme. Hastreiter was recently married to Dr. Burgunzio, an 
Italian physician. At the present writing (1889) she is singing in south- 
ern Europe, where she is meeting with continued success. In the winter 
of 1888 she made an extraordinary success in a revival of Gluck's 
"Orpheus," in the title role of which she played for several weeks at 
Rome and other principal cities of Italy. The production was made 
under her own supervision, with the intention of rivaling the splendor of 
the mounting seen in the American opera, under the lavish management 
of its first season. Mme. Hastreiter is a singularly accomplished linguist, 
her English, French, German and Italian being alike faultless, both in 
singing and in speaking. In person she is tall, erect, with a noble carri- 
age and commanding manners. Intellectually she is bright, but decided, 
with a tinge of hauteur. Her recitative is singularly good dramatically, 
and her legato phrasing is beautiful. Unlike almost all sopranos of the 
French school, she is entirel}' free from offensive vibrato. Her tone is 
firm, true and sweet. Upon the whole, she must be accounted one of the 
most commanding singers that America has produced. 

Adel.\ide Phillips. 

This great contralto singer was born at Bristol, England, in 1833, and 
came, with her parents, to the United States, when she was onl}' seven 
years old. Her first instructor was Thomas Comer, of Boston, and under 
his tuition her vocal powers developed so rapidlj- that in 1842 .she made her 
first public appearance at the Tremont theatre, and in the following j-ear 
appeared at the Boston Museum. In 1850 she sang before Jenny Lind, 
who strongly advised her to go to Europe to complete her education. 
Raising the funds by a subscription and a benefit concert she went, in 
1852, to London, where she studied the voice with Signor E. Garcia, and 
piano and harmony with \V. Chalmers. She completed her musical edu- 
cation in Italy. In December, 1854, she made her professional dcbiit at 
Milan as " Rosina " in II Barbiere di Scviglia, and met with a cordial 
reception. She returned, with her father, to America in 1855, and sang 
in several companies, traveling all over the United States, for about six 
years. She then made a prolonged European tour and was warmly wel- 
comed wherever she went. In 1879 she joined the Boston Ideal Opera 
Company and frequently sang in oratorios at the concerts of the Boston 
Handel and Haydn Society. Her last appearance at Boston was in 












November, 1880, at Mary Beebe's benefit, and she appeared for the last 
time on any stage at Cincinnati in December, 1881. She was then com- 
pelled by failing health to take a rest, but the strain of overwork had 
been too great and she died in September, 1882, in southern France, where 
she had gone, hoping for relief. Her favorite role was "Azucena" in 
Verdi's // Trovafore, though her efforts were by no means confined to 
opera. Her voice was a pure, rich contralto of great compass, and some 
of her best triumphs were gained at concerts and in oratorios. Not 
alone a fine artist, but a true-hearted, gentle woman, she gathered around 
her, in the course of an active life, a large circle of friends, to whom her 
death was a sad loss. | 

Anna Louise Gary. \ 

This eminent American contralto singer is the daughter of a, practic- 
ing physician of Wayne, Kennebec county, Me., where she was. born in 
1846, being the youngest of six children. Her musical qualities were 
apparent almost from infancy, and at the age of fifteen her promise was so 
remarkable that it was decided to send her to Boston, where her elder 
brother lived, for vocal cultivation. She took lessons from various Boston 
teachers, but principally from Lyman \V. Wheeler, and sang during her 
residence in the city, which extended over six years, in the leading churches, 
gaining much reputation for the power and beauty of her voice. Provided 
with means to secure European instruction, by a benefit concert given in 
Boston, she proceeded to Milan and placed herself under the care of Corsi. 
Making rapid progress, she was persuaded to join an Italian opera com- 
pany, with which she made her di'biil at Copenhagen. Finding, however, 
that she was not yet competent to do justice to her natural talent in opera, 
she went to Baden-Baden, and resumed the work of study under the cele- 
brated Mme. Viardot-Garcia. With a better equipment she now success- 
fully essayed the stage at Hamburg, and attracting the attention of Max 
Strakosch, engaged with him for the season of 1868 at Stockholm. Her 
vocal resources developed with practice, and after a short residence in 
Paris she sang a brilliant engagement at Brussels. She then engaged for 
a term of three years with Strakosch, appearing at Drury Lane, London, 
in the spring of 1870, and in the fall singing with Christine Nilsson in 
New York. She afterward sang throughout the principal cities of the 
United States, meeting everj'where with brilliant success and enthusiastic 
applause. She visited St. Petersburg in 1875 and created a remarkable 
sensation, returning to her native land in 1876. In 1880 she paid a long and 
successful professional visit to Sweden, returning in the fall of 188 1. In the 
Cincinnati May Festival of 1882 she was a central figure, and in that year 

Annie JUouise Gary. 

was married to Mr. C. M. Raymond. She still continues to merit and 
maintain the high favor which has always been commanded by her with 
American as with foreign audiences. She is one of the numerous company 
of witnesses who prove, by their musical achievements, that there is no 
truth in the contention of those purblind critics who view our musical pro- 
gress and capabilities with a foreign eye, that there is no musical instinct 
in American national life. 

Minnie Hauk. 

The subject of this sketch is an American singer who has achieved a 
world-wide reputation. Minnie Hank's operatic career, as well as her 
private life, is full of interesting events. She was born in New York city, 
Nov. i6, 1853. When she was quite young her parents moved west- 
ward, and her childhood was passed mainly in Kansas, near the city of 
Leavenworth. The same cause which had suggested the family's removal 
to the west now suggested a further pilgrimage, this time to the south, 
and the Hauks located in the city of New Orleans. Minnie Hauk lived 
in the south during the civil war, and passed through many exciting and 
romantic scenes. She took naturally to music, and her chief pleasure, 
even when she was little more than a child, was singing around the old 
plantation which was the home of the family. One day a rich musical 
amateur, who was passing the house, heard little Minnie singing, and he 
at once offered to have her instructed at his own expense. Shortly after- 
ward she was afforded her first opportunity to sing in public, at a benefit 
concert given for the widows and orphans. On this occasion she sang a 
selection from Croivn Diamonds, and Bellini's aria. Casta Diva, from 
Norma. Though but twelve years old at the time, she gave signs of 
wonderful talent, and her singing created a furore. The family soon 
afterward returned to New York, and Miss Hauk was placed with Signor 
Errani, with whom her studies may be said to have begun. She ad- 
vanced rapidly, and after making several quasi-public appearances at the 
theatre of Mr. Leonard Jerome, one of her patrons and friends, she 
appeared at the Academy of Music under the management of Max 
Maretzek. The opera was La Sonnambuta, and the young singer made 
a decided and unequivocal success. From that time she has been one of 
the most popular of American singers. In 1869 she went to Europe and 
sang at Her Majestj-'s Opera, choosing the role of " Amina" in Sonnam- 
bula for her debut in England. Here she was equall}' successful, and 
after the season she spent a j-ear or more in study and travel in Italy and 
France. Under the management of Max Strakosch she made a tour in 
Russia and Holland, where she appeared both in concert and in opera. 

Minnie Hauk. 

In 1870 she appeared in Vienna, and became a favorite. A few years 
later she attracted the attention of Richard Wagner, and with that great 
genius she studied the roles of ' ' Elsa ' ' and ' ' Senta, ' ' two of his most 
poetic characters. She has also made distinct hits in the creation of 
several other characters, notably her "Carmen," her " Manon Lascaut " 
and her ' ' Mignon ; as " Carmen ' ' especially she is unequaled. Her 
Elsa ' ' in Lohengrin was one of the best upon the stage, and those who 
haiipened to hear the duet in the fourth act of this opera, as sung by her 
and Signor Campanini, in his best days, will not soon forget the deep and 
soul-stirring impression produced by their joint efforts. 

Miss Hauk married, in 1876, the Chevalier Hesse-Wartegg, and she 
has been ver>' happy in her domestic life. 

Adelina Patti. 

The record of this most popular of our .singers stands out pre-emi- 
nent above that of an)- other operatic artist. It was nearly thirty years ago 
when she made her first great success, and during all that time she has 
been filling the world with song, until her name has become a household 
word in every civilized countrj' of the earth. She was born Feb. 19, 
1843, ^t Madrid, the youngest daughter of Salvatore Patti, an Italian 
singer, who subsequently became a well known orchestral leader in 
America. Her mother was a Spaniard who, as Signora Barili, before her 
marriage with Patti, acquired .some reputation in vSpain and Italy. When 
Adelina was quite a child her parents came to America and lived for some 
time at Xew Orleans, where the father was leader of the orchestra in the 
French Opera house, then in its palmy days, where Adelina received 
her early education. She showed a talent for music at a tender age, and 
was first instructed in singing by Maurice Strakosch, who afterward 
married the elder sister, Amelia. She was verj' young when she first 
appeared in public, and though she did not then possess any of the per- 
sonal beauty which made her so attractive in later life, she met with a 
good reception. Her musical abilit)' and her sweetness of voice were 
abundantly evident, but it was deemed wisest to withdraw her from the 
public stage until her education was completed. 

When she was sixteen years old she was brought out in New York 
as "Lucia," and gained much success in that and other parts. But it was 
not until May 14, 1861, when she made her di-but at the Royal Italian 
opera in London, as" Amina, ' ' that she became famous. It was a mar\'elous 
triumph for a practically unknown singer, and from that time to this she 
has never lost her hold on the public affection. She repeated the part of 
"Amina" eight times, then sang as "Lucia," "Violetta," "Zerlina" (in 


Don Giovantii), "Martha" and "Rosina," and won fresh laurels every 
time she appeared. In the autumn of that year she sang at the Birming- 
ham musical festival, and also in opera at Liverpool, Manchester and 
other cities. She afterward entered into engagements to sing at Brussels, 
Paris and Berlin. Everj' year since 1861 Patti has sung at Covent Gar- 
den, and receives, if possible, a heartier welcome to-day than she ^id in 
the first flush of her triumph. She made an operatic tour of the English 
provinces in 1862; sang at the Birmingham festival of 1864, notably as 
"Adah" in Naaman; appeared at the Handel festivals of 1865, 1877 and 
1880, and at the Liverpool festival of 1874, besides making a number of 
brilliant provincial concert tours. Patti came to America on an operatic 
concert tour under Abbey's management in 1882, and she was also here 
with Mapleson in the season of 1884-85, singing in the operatic festival 
at Chicago May 6 to 20, 1885. But there is hardly a place of any 
importance in the civilised world where Patti has not been heard at some 
time or other — all over Europe, North and South America, Australia, 
the West Indies, etc. She married July 29, 1868, Henri, Marquis de 
Caux, equerry to Napoleon III. 

Her repertoire is very extensive, several characters, chiefly of the 
Italian school, having been revived for her; among them "Maria," 
"Norina," "Adina," "Linda," "Luisa Miller," "Desdemona," "Ninetta" 
"Semiramide, " etc. She has also created many new parts, such as 
"Annetta" in Crispino e la Comarc; "Esmeralda;" "Gelmina;" "Juliet;" 
"La Catarina" in Diamants dc la Coitronne; "Aida" and "Estella" in 
Les Bluets. 

As a singer Mme. Patti is one of the most pleasing that the records 
of song can show. Her voice is a pure mezzo soprano, which originally 
had a high range in upper notes, but in later years has lost somewhat in 
this respect, gaining in the medium register more than enough to offset it. 
She is careful not to force her notes and not to sing high notes too often. 
Hence after nearly thirty years of public life her organ shows compara- 
tively few signs of wear. When she was heard in Chicago in 1884, after 
twenty jears absence, almost the only place in her range showing the 
influence of long use was the high G, a note susceptible of being sung by 
medium or head register. Upon this note she often used the mechanism 
of medium register, the result being a tone very powerful but not so 
sweet as formerly. Her vocalism is as nearly perfect as the records of 
song show. Whether in English ballad or in the most florid of Italian 
fioratuir, her legato and even tone quality are irreproachable. For ora- 
torio she lacks seriousness and depth of mentality. Her true sphere is in 
light opera of the Italian school. • 

Lyman Warren Wheeler. 
One of the most popular and successful teachers of singing in 
Boston is Mr. Lyman Warren Wheeler, who has been connected with the 
New England Conserv'atory of Music since its foundation. Mr. Wheeler 
was born at Swampscott, Mass., a fashionable watering place and summer 
resort, in the spring of 1837. When about ten years of age he began his 
musical studies under the direction of Mr. C. A. Adams, of Lynn, Mass., 
with whom he remained four years, at the same time taking a few lessons 
on the piano and organ, and attending the common school. At this time 
young Wheeler possessed an alto voice of remarkable sweetness and 
unusual compass, singing three octaves without any difficulty. He 
received many offers to join concert companies, but his father, with great 
good sense, realizing the delicacy of a young voice and the readiness with 
which it may be entirely ruined, preferred to keep the boy at home at his 
studies. At the age of seventeen he went to Boston, ambitious to acquire 
the best musical education obtainable, and in the spring of 1853 he entered 
the Philharmonic Institute, where he remained two years. On leaving the 
institute he continued his studies in vocal music under the best English 
and Italian masters, and in September, 1857, he started for the west, and 
began teaching in different cities. During the winter of 1857 Mr. Wheeler 
had no fewer than 900 pupils whom he met even,- week. He officiated as 
conductor of several musical societies, and has held musical conventions 
in many of the principal western cities. In September, i860, Mr. Wheeler 
sailed for Europe with the intention of placing himself under Garcia, the 
preceptor of Jenny Lind, Malibran and many other famous vocalists. 
He entered the Royal Academy of London, Garcia being at that time the 
head of the vocal department of that institution, and after devoting a 
year to the most arduous study of the art of singing, he repaired to Milan, 
Italy, where he began with Prati and San Giovanni, with whom he 
remained eighteen months, during a part of that time taking two or three 
lessons each day. At the suggestion of Garcia, he then sought the 
guidance of Skafati, a famous teacher at Naples, with whom Mr. Wheeler 
studied for five months. During his stay in Italy he studied and com- 
mitted to memory the principal tenor roles of a large number of grand 
operas. Returning to London in 1863, he reviewed all his past instruction 
with his old master, Garcia, besides studying the oratorios with Smith and 
Perrin. At the queen's concert rooms, and also at the concerts of the 
Royal Academy Mr. Wheeler sang with distinguished success. He 
returned to .his native country in August, 1863, and accepted the position 
of tenor in Emanuel church, Boston. His first public appearance was 
with the Handel and Haydn Society, when they first sang in Boston 

music hall with the great organ of that auditorium. Mr. Wheeler sang 
the tenor roles in manj' productions of oratorio in Boston and other cities 
in New England, meeting with the highest praise from the critics and the 
public. As a teacher he soon found all his time taken up, and he was 
obliged to give up singing in public, to devote himself to his class. At the 
foundation of the New England Conservatory Mr. Wheeler was asked to 
become one of the faculty, and to that splendid institution he has devoted 
himself and his best efforts ever since. He has graduated some of the 
best singers that America has produced, many of the famous artists of the 
day having obtained the foundation of their success under his guidance. 
Mr. Wheeler usually spends his summers in normal work, in different 
parts of the country. For some years he was associated with Mr. Wm. 
H. Sherwood, in summer schools of this kind, whereby his influence is 
more widely extended. 

Marie Litta 
An American singer who died prematurely, yet lived to accomplish 
much, was Marie Litta, who departed this life in 1S83, when but twenty- 
seven j-ears of age. Her real name was Marie von Ellsner, and she was 
bom in June, 1856, the daughter of a poor and obscure musician. In her 
earl}' childhood little Marie gave evidence of the possession of a remarka- 
ble voice, and when only four years old she sang in a concert and delighted 
the audience with her precocious talent. When she was a trifle over nine 
years old she sang at Steinway hall. New York, and was acclaimed as a 
prodigy. In the summer of 1869, accompanied bj' her father, she went 
to Cleveland, and through the influence of Mr. Thieme, editor of the 
Wachter am Erie, obtained the consent of the manager of a German 
theatre to permit her to sing between the acts. The audience was 
enthusiastic in its applause and appreciation, and among the many who 
recognized the wonderful gift of the young girl was Mr. Hugo Hench, a 
German druggist, a gentleman of culture and a well known connoisseur in 
musical art. His interest was at once aroused, and the following day, 
through his invitation and acquaintance, the child, accompanied by her 
father, visited Mr. John Underner, a teacher of vocal music of long 
experience, and an esteemed resident of Cleveland. After hearing her 
sing, Mr. Underner pronounced her voice phenomenal, and at once pro- 
posed to the father that his child should be placed under immediate 
instruction. His ofier to take her was accepted, and from that time Marie 
received constant daily teaching. She was an apt scholar, faithful in her 
practice, and made the most rapid advancement. At the end of three mouths 
Mr. Underner discovered that her voice was undergoing a most marked 
change, and immediately wrote her father that perfect quiet and rest were 

absolutely necessary for its preservation, but that as soon as the proper 
time came he would resume his instruction. Considerable interest at this 
time existed in musical circles to hear the child-wonder, and before leaving 
for her home Mr. Underner gave a musical soiree at Chapin's hall on the 
evening of Oct. 22, 1869. It was a remarkable exhibition of talent for 
one so young, and the artistic and correct manner in which she rendered 
Casta Diva, certainlj' a most difficult essay for any singer, was a complete 
surprise and pleasure to the large and critical audience. After the most 
careful (observations, and being thoroughl}- convinced of her superioritj', Mr. 
Underner finally decided that a European school of finish was absolutely 
necessary for the perfection of so remarkable a voice. Accordingly it 
was decided that a fund should be raised by subscription among the many 
friends who knew and fully appreciated her extraordinarj' talent. The 
subscription was generous, and had reached the sum of $1,500, when the 
projected plan was given up by reason of the munificent offer of Mr. A. 
B. Hough, of Cleveland, a gentleman of wealth and culture, who, in 
thorough appreciation of the young artist's merits, without solicitation 
or reser\'e, assumed the whole expense of her European study. At Mr. 
Hough's suggestion, her teacher decided to accompany her to Paris and 
see her set aright in the line of study he had projected. 

A farewell benefit was arranged for Monday evening, Sept. 28, 
1874, which proved a magnificent success. And in a few days a party of 
friends accompanied her to New York to await the sailing of the steamer. 
By the advice of Sir Jules Benedict, Miss von Ellsner went to study with 
Mme. Viardot in Paris. In a year's time she mastered the operas, A'ida, 
Mignon, Sonnambuhi, Hatnlct, The Marriage of Figaro and The Barber 
of Seville. Her debut was made with Col. Mapleson's company at Drury 
Lane, London, May 20, 1876. She was cast for the role of " Isabella" in 
Robert le Diable, with Nilsson as "Alice." Her singing was highly 
praised, but criitcism was made of her acting. She returned to Paris and 
studied with La Grange, also devoting attention to the study of acting. 
Of her subsequent appearance in opera, the New York Graphie cor- 
respondent wrote of her: 

"The success of Litta was immediate and complete. The dramatic 
training received from La Grange had done wonders for her. She took 
Paris by storm. The rest of her history is public. In the course of three 
years she has taken the front rank among lyric artists. Her wonderful 
voice is sought ever>'where, and engagements are offered without number. ' ' 

Litta returned from Europe in October, 1878, her first engagement 
in her native country being under the auspices of Max Strakosch, Clara 
Louise Kellogg being the other star of the company. Her first operatic 

appearance of importance in this country was made at McVicker's theatre, 
Chicago, Nov. i6, 1878, and she achieved a triumph as "Lucia" in 
Donizetti's opera. After continuing for some time under the management 
of Strakosch, Litta made an engagement with M. Henry I,. Slayton, of 
Chicago, to act as her manager, and with him she remained until her 
death. During the last five years of her life Litta sang almost constantly. 
She was honorably anxious to pay the debt incurred to those who had 
advanced the means whereby she received her musical education, and at 
the same time a family of brothers and sisters were, in the main, dependent 
upon her for support. She persisted in carrying out her engagements 
until she literally had to be carried upon the stage, but finally she was 
taken to her home in Bloomington, 111., where, after lingering four weeks, 
she died of spinal meningitis. Litta was not only a brilliant artist, but 
she was a noble and unselfish woman, and her untimely taking off was 
lamentable, not only to her many warm friends, but to all lovers of pure 
art and true musical genius. 

Miss Eli..\ Russell. 

The popular singer is a native of Cleveland, O. She studied there 
for five years with Mr. John Underner, and under his careful instruction 
she laid the broad foundation of her musical education. She then went 
to Paris and studied with Mme. Anna de la Grange (Countess Stankie- 
vich), a former pupil of Rossini, while the development of her dramatic 
powers was directed by Prof. Edouard Plaque, of the Gra:ul Opera at 
Paris. Mile. Russell's first appearance on the lyric stage was made in 
Prate, in Tuscany, in the early part of 1882, where she sang the part of 
"Leonora " in // Trova/oir, her extensive register, the delightful freshness 
of her voice and the brilliancy of her execution at once securing her a 
prominent position among operaticartists. She was subsequtntlj- heard 
in Florence, in Turin, at Milan, where she sang at La Scala, and in other 
Italian towns, and the succeeding year she made a professional tour in 
Spain, with the celebrated tenor, Tamberlik, meeting with in 
Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Cadiz and other Spanish cities. Then she 
began a series of triumphs in the north of Europe, -visiting successively 
Vienna, Budapest, Berlin, Moscow and other important places. 

Her first appearance in England was made at the Covent Garden 
opera house in May, 18S6, then under the management of Signor Lago, 
and she selected for her debut the part of " Gilda " in Verdi's RiffoU/h, 
a fdle in which she at once created a very marked impression, her phe- 
nomenally high voice, the truthfulness of her intonation, the excellence of 
her method and her great dramatic intelligence promptl\- securing her 




the favor of the London musical public. Since that period she has 
returned to the Covent Garden opera house regularly each season, and on 
the first night of the current series of operatic performances in that build- 
ing, now under the direction of Mr. Augustus Harris, she undertook the 
part of "l>ila" in the production of the Italian version of Bizet's Les 
Pecheurs de Perles. Mdlle. Russell has a x^ry extensive repertory, the 
artist having, since she commenced her professional career, appeared in 
the leading soprano parts in some thirty operas, in all of which she has 
acquired considerable renown. She has also sung at the state concerts at 
Buckingham palace, at the Philharmonic Society's concerts, and at the 
Saturday classical concerts at the Crystal palace. Her kindly and gen- 
erous nature has secured her a very wide circle of admirers in this coun- 
try, and the gifted singer appears to have before her a prosperous and 
brilliant artistic career. 

Miss Alice Ryan. 

This talented young lady is the daughter of Mr. Thomas Ryan, 
widely known throughout the United States, from his connection with 
the Mendelssohn Quintette Club, of Boston, and of which he is the only 
surviving original member. Miss Ryan's musical temperament was there- 
fore a hereditary gift. vShe commenced the study of music at an early 
age, taking vocal lessons under Mrs. Hall and Mr. Winch, of Boston. 
Her first instruction was upon piano, but later vocal cultivation was 
entered upon, and it was to Mr. Winch that she owed the first apprecia- 
tion of her distidguished vocal capabilities. Her voice having been 
found worthy of the best methods of development and training obtain- 
able, she was sent to Paris for a course of study under the celebrated 
Mme. Marchesi. Returning home, she sang an entire season with the 
Mendelssohn Quintette Club, and at the end returned to Marchesi in Paris, 
where she recei\ed the finishing lessons necessary to complete her equip- 
ment for her vocation. Miss Ryan is extremely well cultivated in the 
best vocal schools, but is more at home in the modern French school than 
any other. Besides a skillfully cultivated voice, she is a thoroughly good 
musician, and in ever\' respect a natural artist. No doubt she will in the 
near future attain a high position among the many vocalists who have 
illustrated America in this field of the musical art. 

Mme. Julie Rosewald. 

Mme. Julie Rosewald was born at Stuttgart in 1S50, of a highly 

musical family named Eichberg, of which Mr. Julius Eichberg, of Boston, 

is also a member, as well as Prof Anton Eichberg, of the Royal Consen'- 

atory of Berlin. Two of her sisters distinguished themselves upon the 

U(^k^ Ai/a^u^ 

piano and harp respectively, but the former left concert life upon her 
marriage, and the latter died just as her career was beginning. Julie was 
educated at the conservatory of Stuttgart and in the Ro^al Theatre school 
there. The latter position was a high distinction, since but two candi- 
dates annually were selected by the king from the most promising voices 
in the conservator3\ When fifteen years old her mother sent her to visit 
some relatives in Baltimore, in order to break her connection with the 
German stage. At her married sister's house she met Mr. I. H. Rose- 
wald, a young Baltimorean, conductor of several musical societies, violin- 
ist and composer, whom she married at the age of sixteen. She then 
began to appear at concerts with great success, and a year later, at her 
earnest request, was sent to Europe to complete her musical education. 
There she placed herself under the direction of the celebrated Marie von 
Marra, then residing at Frankfort, At the end of her studies she was 
invited by the great song writer, Franz Abt, to accompany him to this 
country, in order to interpret his songs in his concerts here. In 1875 
Mr. C. D. Hess heard her sing at Baltimore, and insisted upon her adopt- 
ing the operatic stage, and accordingly, after considerable opposition on 
the part of her relatives, she made her debut at Toronto in 1875, as " Mar- 
guerite " in Faust. She achieved a great success, and was immediately 
engaged to go to California with the company, at the liberal salary of 
$150 a week. Within four weeks she had a repertoire of fifteen operas. 
In the Spring of 1877 she went again to California in the company of Mr. 
Hess, and appeared as ' ' Senta' ' in The Flying Dutehman, the first represent- 
ative of the part seen upon the Pacific coast. In the following years she 
sang in Europe, but returned to America in order to accept an engage- 
ment with the Abbott company in 1880, and remained with it for three 
years. She withdrew from the stage in 1884 and located with her 
husband in San Francisco, Cal., where she lives as teacher of singing 
and concert artist. 


This di.stinguished master of singing and the art of music was born 
at Rome, Jan. 7, 1847. His father dying while the subject of this sketch 
was still a small boy, his earh* days were spent amid limited circum- 
stances, of which little more than the memorj' of his mother's tendeniess 
remains to him. At the age of nine he entered the Hospice of San 
Michele, and was presently selected as one of the choir boys for the 
Lateran and Liberian chapels. At the end of two months he made his 
debut as soloist at the Julian chapel of St. Peter's, his aria being the Ave, 
Regina Ctrloruiii, of Tornelli. To use his own language : " M3' love, my 
passion, for music dates from that moment." He was in demand for all 

J^W/i/^ l/l^^P ^^.■l.-l^C?.^^^^/^^ 

the cathedrals, sir.giug at masses anJ vespers, and in the sacred melo- 
dramas at the Academy of Music. At the age of eleven he was regularly- 
engaged as singer at St. Peter's, at a monthly stipend. " Oh, how happy 
I was," he says, "when I took the first money earned by my beloved art 
to my poor mother ! " In this position he spent five years, learning the 
tradition of the venerable masterpieces of Italian art, the music of Pales- 
trina, Porpora, Pergolese and the other favorite masters of Roman ecclesi- 
astical song. 

When he ^ost his natural soprano voice he devoted himself still more 
assiduously to the principles of the art of music, his main instructor being 
Ludovico Luchesi. Under his direction he worked with indefatigable 
zeal, and at length, by public examination, obtained, in 1868, the title 
and position of Master in the Academy- of St. Csecilia. He was also 
organist, and composed and conducted sacred music with great success. 
There he instituted the Lenten choral concerts, which are still maintained 
with considerable of their former prestige. From this time his work con- 
tinually broadened in its field, and the number of his pupils grew contin- 
ually larger and larger. Meantime his compositions were making him 
known in other cities and countries, and in 1873 the queen of Portugal, 
wishing to express her appreciation of his services to art, bestowed upon 
him the insignia of the Order of the Cross. In 1876 he visited London for 
the first time, but his fame had preceded him, and Mr. Henry Leslie made 
him the conductor of his choir in two concerts where the music of the 
greatest Italian masters was performed. His compositions were published 
by the Ricordi in Milan, and found a wide sale. The best are Bcncdiclus, 
for solo voices, and a Funeral Psalm, for baritone solo, chorus and 
orchestra. In 1885 Signor Rotoli accepted the call of the New England 
Conser\'atory to come to Boston and represent in their course the best 
traditions of Italian art. He gave a farewell concert in Rome, which was 
a remarkable occasion. The beautiful theatre of Costanzi was resplen- 
dent with the aristocracy of the city, headed by the queen. Signor Rotoli 
was recalled time and time again, and was the recipient of innumerable 
testimonials. In Boston the same success has attended him. He has a 
fine tenor voice, rich, expressive and highly cultivated. 

Emilio Agramoxte. 

This distinguished artist, one of New York's most successful vocal 
teachers, was born at Puerto Principe, in the island of Cuba, in 1844, and 
comes of an illustrious family. His father intended that he should join 
the legal profession, and sent him to Madrid to study law, where he re- 
ceived his degree of LL. B- He had, however, an artistic temperament, 

and commenced the stud}' of music, in which he soon became proficient, 
going to Paris, where he studied the piano under Marmontel and composi- 
tion with Maiden. He also studied singing in Paris with Delle Sedie and 
in Madrid with Selva. He came to New York in 1869, and at once oc- 
cupied a prominent position in the art life of the metropolis. He was im- 
mediately elected musical conductor of the Eight o' Clock Musical Club, 
and he originated the Amateur Operatic Club, with which he successfully 
produced seven acts of as many different operas. Mr. Agramonte also 
produced and directed the fourth act of La Favorita, two acts of Trovatore, 
the opera oi L' Ombre, by Flotow, and the fourth act oi Ernani. He has 
successfully trained and conducted several choral societies, and is at pres- 
ent conductor of the Gounod Choral Society, of New Haven, Conn., which 
produced for the first time in this country, and, imder his direction, Mas- 
sanet's live. He has had a remarkable success as a vocal teacher, and 
among his pupils who have achieved distinction are Mr. Geo. Sweet, Miss 
Gertrude Franklin, Miss Gertrude Griswold, Mr. Coletti, Mr. Wilkie and 
Mile. Mendes, now a prima donna in France. 

In 1886 Mr. Agramonte gave six matinees at Chickering hall, devoted 
to the production of new compositions by European and American com- 
posers, he being one of the first to recognize and encourage the movement 
to give American composers a fair hearing. At these matinees he produced 
several compositions of E. A. Macdowell, also a delightful set of songs, 
Floii'ers of an Old Garden, of Chadwick. Arthur Foote and others. His 
name has been brought prominently before the public in connection with 
the proposed erection of a new opera house on Fifth avenue, intended to 
occup)' the same relation to this city as the Opera Comique to Paris, a per- 
manent house for opera sung in the language of the country-. He recog- 
nizes the important fact that it is indispensably requisite that opera 
must be sung in the language of the people upon whom it must depend 
for support. Mr. Agramonte is acknowledged to be one of the best accom- 
panists in America, and also one of the best sight readers, having estab- 
lished three clubs, one in New York, one in Detroit and one in Grand 
Rapids, for the purpose of promoting proficiency in sight reading, in which 
he takes a deep interest. 

Pauline L'Allemaxd. 

Few people, even in the musical world, seem to know that this 
bright young star of the Boston Ideal Opera Conipan}- is an American by 
birth and "raising." Pauline Ellhasser was born in Syracuse, N. Y., 
but went to Germany when she was only fourteen, and entered the 
National Conservatorv at Dresden. At that time she had no further end 

. M^Kf^ • 

c^^^ OO/^.^^t-^p^F^rp^v^^k^ 

in sight than to obtain concert and church engagements on her return to 
America. She pursued with ardor the difficult studies of the conserva- 
tory, music, declamation, acting, fencing, calisthenics, phrasing, scales 
and harmony, with no amusements and but little variation, until one day 
a happy accident discovered the secret of her rare voice. Some of the 
elder pupils were to sing before the impresarios of the smaller opera 
houses in cities around Dresden, and one girl, who was a great friend of 
Pauline, wanted her to be present in order to give her the courage neces- 
sary for the trial. Pauline contrived to get in the big room, where the 
examination took place, and was trj-ing to smuggle herself out in com- 
pany with the other girls when her presence was detected by one of the 
committee, the impresario of a royal German theatre near the city. The 
teacher was angry, but the director wanted her to sing, and finally she 
sang several exercises with such effect that the impresario stopped her, before 
she had gone far, saying: " You are engaged for my theatre, and I will 
pay you one hundred marks more than I intended to pay the singer I 
came here to engage." This was in June. 

In the following November, when she was only seventeen years old, 
she made her first appearance in grand opera ( Don Juan ), at the Royal 
Theatre in Konigsburg. Her flute-like voice brought her success at 
once. But there was one great difficulty. She knew little German. 
There was only one thing to do — to learn her role by heart, and so day 
after day she passed hours with her teachers, till at last she knew the 
longest and most difficult operatic roles word for word while still ignorant 
of German enough to carrj- on a conversation. Just about this time she 
fell in love with a handsome young actor named L'Allemand; they were 
engaged in a month and married in London the following year. The 
young singer was beginning to be known. She had scored distinct suc- 
cesses in Lucia, Sonna)i!bula, The Barber of Seville, and some lighter 
operas of Mozart and Rubinstein. Next year she put herself under the 
tutelage of the celebrated Mme. de la Grange, at Paris, retaining her 
maiden name. The teacher was profoundly interested in her remarkable 
pupil, and had made arrangements for her appearance at the Grand 
Opera, when suddenly Pauline decided to leave for Frankfort and sing in 
opera there, because her husband was to plaj- in the same company. 
Love was stronger than ambition. She left Mme. de la Grange with- 
out a word of explanation, and as she afterward returned to Paris under 
the name of L'Allemand, never again using her maiden name, it is said 
that to this day Mme. de la Grange does not know the identity of the 
pupil who so strangely disappeared from her that day. Pauline was sub- 
sequently a pupil of Mme. Viardot Garcia, the famous teacher and 

once great singer. Bui as Mine. Garcia and Mme. de la Grange then, 
were bitter enemies it was almost impossible that the latter should hear 
anything of her mj^sterious pupil from the former source. 

The first appearance of Pauline L'AUemand in America was made 
with the National Opera Company. She won immediate and striking 
success in Delibes' Laknic, a role which she studied under the personal 
guidance of the composer. She is said to be the only singer the com- 
poser has ever found who can carr^' and sustain certain notes in the 
bell song as he originally intended. Mme. L'AUemand will sing for 
another season with the Boston Ideal Opera Company-, with which she 
won such praise last j'ear, and as she has by no means lost that early 
ambition which led her to success in her arduous career, despite more 
than ordinarj- difficulties, we can only anticipate that her path will lead 
from victory to victorj- with ever widening horizon of fame. 

Carl Formes. 

This well known bass singer belongs to a Spanish f."imily, Formes 
de Varaz, but was born Aug. 7, 18 10, at Miihlheim, a little village on 
the Rhine, opposite Cologne. His father was the sacristan of the church, 
and little Carl's first knowledge of music was taught him by the priests, 
from whom he learned the Gregorian chants. Upon this, as it seems to 
us to-daj', frail foundation, he built up a thorough musical education. 
He first sang in opera at Cologne, when he was twent^'-two years old, 
gaining immediate distinction as " Sarastro, " in Zauberjlotc. Before this, 
however, he had sung in the cathedral at Cologne and at concerts, and 
his talent was recognized. His success at the " city of the three kings " 
led to an engagement for three j-ears. While at Vienna, during this 
period, he studied the Italian method under Professor Basodowa, and has 
ever since pinned his faith to that. Formes came to London in 1849, and 
sang as "Sarastro" in a German company at Drury Lane. 

The following year he appeared at Covent Garden as ' ' Caspar, ' ' in 
the Italian version of Dcr Freischi'tls, and for fifteen j-ears afterward he 
was a frequent and welcome visitor to London. The rest of his time was 
spent mainly in Russia and Spain. He filled numerous parts, among 
them, ''Bertram," "Marcel," "Rocco," " Leporello," "Beltramo," etc. 

He came to America in 1857, ^^^ o'^ Dec. 2 of that year first 
appeared at the New York Academy of Music. He wandered wherever 
fancy led him until, in 1882, he married Pauline Greenwood, who had 
been a pupil of his at Philadelphia. Shortly afterward he settled 
in San Francisco, and he is there now, engaged in teaching music. 
Formes is the author of a Method of Singing, in three volumes, and the 


composer of several pieces for the piano and organ, among which 
The Mill IWiccl, a version of an old German folk song, is about the best 
known. There are several of his pupils who have won laurels. Joseph- 
ine Simon was one of them, who, a debutante, fifteen j^ears old, appeared 
as concert prima donna at the Royal Albert hall, London. Formes, 
although seventy-nine years of age, is a hard worker, giving fifteen or 
sixteen lessons a day, and retaining his wonderful voice perfectly. Our 
portrait of him was taken at the age of seventy-four, and apparently it 
represents a man of not more than fifty. His voice is a magnificent 
bass, and, like all great bass singers. Formes is a man of fine appearance. 
His is from upper F to lower C, and probably few men have 
had such gift of vocal power joined to so marked an ability for the stage. 
He now'has a plan on foot for inducing some European capitalists to 
erect a conservatory in this country, modeled on lines which Formes has 
laid down. 

Lillian Nortox-Gower 

Is better known as Lillian Nordica. She was born at Farmington, 
Me., but her parents removed to Boston when she was only five j'ears of 
age. She was educated in the New England Conservatory of Music, and 
shortly afterward made an extensive concert tour through America, sing- 
ing at various places with the Handel and Haydn Society, and with 
Theodore Thomas' orchestra. During her tour of Europe, which followed, 
she won high favor as a concert singer, leading her to attempt an operatic 
career. She made up her mind to this course at Milan, and in six weeks 
had committed ten operas to memory. She appeared first at Brescia, 
Aquila and Genoa, afterward going on to St. Petersburg, where, in her 
performance of the role of " Filina " in Mig7ion, she made her first marked 
success. In 1881 she again visited Paris and sang before Ambroise 
Thomas and the impresario, Vancorbeil, who engaged her for the Grand 
Opera house. After a short tour in Italy she began her Paris season and 
made her debut aX the Grand Opera as " Marguerite " in Gounod's FausL 
The critical Parisian public receiv^ed her with open arms. A writer in the 
Figaro said: " It was a great moment when Mile. Nordica appeared 
under the tall trees, and after she had spoken, in the midst of an absolute 
silence, the famous phrase, ' Non, monsieur; je ne suis demoiselle ni 
belle, et je n'ai pas besoin qu'on me donne la main," the applause burst 
out; the Marguerite was found, judged and accepted. The rest showed 
that Mile. Nordica had seriously studied the role and fully understood her 
part." The same critic, speaking of that grand trio in the fifth act, 
" Anges purs, anges radieux! " pays tribute to Miss Norton's magnificent 
voice, ■ which carried and sustained the notes ' ' naturally and without 

effort. ' ' Her American accent at that time was traceable, but it rather 
lent a piquancy to her tones, and after a while the accent was unnotice- 
able. She is as good an actress as she is a singer. Her features are bet- 
ter than regular; they are expressive. Both in acting and singing she 
loses sight of her own personality and abandons herself utterly to her 
art. She made an engagement for three years at the Grand Opera, at the 
end of which she was engaged by Col. Mapleson for Her Majesty's theatre, 
London. It was under his management that she first appeared in Amer- 
ica at the Academy of Music, New York. ■ She has an enormous reper- 
toire — about forty different operas, any one of which she can sing at three 
days' notice, but " Marguerite," her initial character, is undoubtedly her 
strongest role. 

Lillian Russell. 

Who does not know pretty Lillian Russell, cleverest of light opera 
singers of our day, and queen of comic opera for six or eight years past ? 
If one could only double the " 1 " in the name of Tennyson's heroine the 
song might have been written for our dainty comedy queen — Airy, 
Fairy Lilian. The old saying: "A prophet (or, rather, a man playing a 
part, as the Hebrew word means) hath honor save in his own country," 
apparently does not always apply to the feminine members of that com- 
munity, for Lillian Russell was born in 1861 in Chicago, and in Chicago 
receives not her coldest welcome. She spent nine years in the convent of 
the Sacred Heart, and was educated from childhood for a musical career 
under the careful direction of Mme. Vaili, a noted vocal teacher in the 
city. Her bent lay wholly toward grand opera, and friends and relatives 
fostered this ambitior 

Her first engagement, however, when she was not more than seven- 
teen, was with Rice's Pinafore company, in New York, but it was brief; 
at the end of two months she married the musical conductor and retired 
from the stage. She was still living in New York, when one day Tony 
Pastor, whose theatre was at that time in Broadway, opposite Niblo's 
Garden, overheard Miss Russell taking a singing lesson. He found out 
who she was, met her and offered her $50 a week — a large salary in those 
days — to sing ballads at his theatre. Her acceptance was her first step 
on the road to fame. She sang The Kerry Dance, Tit'iekenham Ferry, and 
such English ballads. They were new, perhaps not of the highest art, 
but, with Lillian Russell's added charm of manner, irresistible. In spite 
of offers from other managers she remained with Pastor for several months, 
then went with Col. John A. McCaull, and made her debut in light opera in 
The Snake Charmer, then playing in New York. Her success could not 
have been more complete. She had found her rightful domain, and she 

still reigns sovereign. Mme. Cappiani was Miss Russell's teacher iti New- 
York, and she worked hard to perfect herself. Wilkie Collins once said 
that genius was the art of taking infinite pains. Miss Russell recognized 
this; she was conscientious and painstaking, and her efforts, helped by 
accident and seconded by opportunity, have placed her in the front rank 
of her profession. 

Many leading roles in light opera have been in this country created 
by her. For instance, I Irginia, Bilhc Taylor, Polly, Pcpita, Dorothy, The 
Queen's Mate, the " Princess" in Nadjy, and " Fiorella," in The Brigands. 
She is not less favorably known in England than in America. \ 'irginia 
at the Gaiety, and Polly at the Novelty theatre in London, had long and 
successful runs. The Casino, in New York, owns her its queen of comic 
opera. In 1888-89 Nadjy had a run of two hundred nights at the Casino, 
and this was followed by The Brigands, for her singing in which she 
receives $20,000 a year. Miss Russell has formed for us an ideal in her 
particular roles. Who that has ever seen her in Nadjy can think of the 
opera without her? It would belike Hamlet with the name-character 
omitted. Personally she is pretty, vocally she is perfect, and there is an 
indefinable charm about her acting that compels attention. A prominent 
theatrical manager once remarked, and we believe without exaggeration, 
that Lillian Russell "has brought more profit to the theaters with which 
she has been connected than ain- other woman in her generation. ' ' Woman- 
like, she is superstitious, and is partial to turquoises, the stone marking 
her birth month. She is now twenty-eight years old, and is doing some 
of the best work she has ever done in her life; there is every reason to 
think that her success in new roles will equal, if not surpass, that of 
the past. 

Off the stage she is quiet, almost reserved, but pleasant and piquant 
in conversation. ' ' The world, ' ' she declares, ' ' or some of it, has a fancy, 
I imagine, that my existence is a royal life, full of diamonds and cham- 
pagne, of bright people and joyous gatherings after the stage lights are 
out. Yet I live more quietly than the average New York woman who 
goes to the theatre once a week and enjoys her cosey luncheon after the 
curtain is rung down." It is rarely that a variety actress retains so fast 
a hold of the popular favor as Lillian Russell has done during ten years 
past, and as she seems likely to do for another ten years. It is not often 
that a young girl cherishing, and having fostered, the idea that she will 
one day make a name in grand opera, has the good sense to see and follow 
her true path to success by adopting a lighter role, and applying herself 
to it so ardently as not only to win fame for herself but to measurably raise 
the standard of light opera wherever she goes. 

It is due to Miss Russell as a singer to add that her voice is a full, 
rich soprano, admirabl}' cultivated, and her conception of recitative or 
aria is worthy the grand roles in which she originally hoped to be heard, 
and for which there is still time, for she is in the full maturity of her powers. 

MvKox W. Whitney. 

Ashbury, Mass., claims the honor of being the birthplace of Myron 
W. Whitney, the well known bass singer. He was born in 1836 and 
remained with his parents until the age of sixteen. He then removed to 
Boston, and, after six years' tuition by E. H. Frost, came before the public 
for the first time at a Christmas performance of The Messiah at Tremont 
Temple. He sang in various concerts for about ten years, but, achieving 
no marked success, concluded that the fault lay in his want of adequate train- 
ing. In 1868 he went to Florence, where Luigi Vannuccini was his master, 
afterward to London, where Randegger perfected him in oratorio singing. 
Whitney then made a tour of Great Britain and, in the part of " Elijah " 
at one of the Birmingham festivals, made immediate reputation for himself 
There can be no question that in oratorio singing he has a few rivals. 
Long and careful training has made his superb bass voice, of nearly three 
octaves' compass, capable of the rendition of the most difficult roles. At 
Oxford University he sang the part, as originally written, of "Poly- 
phemus " in Handel's Acis and Galatea. He gained laurels enough dur- 
ing this tour, and since 1876 he has absolutely declined to go abroad. Per- 
haps he is best known from his having sung at many of the May festivals 
in Cincinnati, and at New York, Chicago, Boston, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, 
Indianapolis, etc. , and from traveling one or two seasons with the Thomas 
orchestra. Everywhere he has met with a hearty welcome, and has won 
added fame. His name is a household word in connection with many of 
the great oratorios: Creaiioii, Messiah, Elijah, Last Judgment, Bach's 
Passion va\is\c, Joshua, Samson, Israelin Egypt, St. Paul, Jephtha, Son and 
Stranger, Eli, Seasons, Fridolin, Twelfth Night, etc. To have such a 
repertoire as this alone implies the possession of great powers, and to 
have won success in all of them the lot of few singers. 

For many seasons Mr. Whitney sang in light opera not altogether 
worthy of his magnificent powers, but irresistible bj^ reason of the pecun- 
iary inducements offered. His voice is one of the best of the present 
generation, full, resonant and highly cultivated. His_^ delivery of recita- 
tive is manly and intelligent and his legato singing thoroughly- Italian. 
His grand voice, style and presence were hardly ever put to better use 
than in the role of the king in Lohengrin, which he sang in the American 
opera representations under Mr. Thomas' baton, as the part had never 

been sung in this country before. His name will long be an honored one 
in the annals of American music. 

Mr. Whitney has a son who inherits much of his talent and who, 
like his father, has a large resonant bass voice. He studied in Italy for 
many years, and had quite a carreer there in opera. He is now connected 
with the New England Conservatory at Boston. 

During this entire time of Mr. Whitney's activity upon the Ameri- 
can stage he has had but one conspicuous rival, Mr. Franz Remmertz, a 
German, born at Dusseldorf about 1845. He had been intended for the 
profession of an architect, but his love for singing and the fullness and 
power of his voice attracted attention, and he studied at Munich, and 
made his dcbiit there as opera singer. In 1869 he came to New York, 
where he has since been prominent as a concert singer. Mr. Remmertz's 
voice is strong and somewhat rugged in quality, and in person he is tall 
and solid. In German circles, especially, he has been a prominent figure 
at all the Saengerfests, and other large musical gatherings, and in New 
York he has a fine local following. Besides his peculiar fitness as a rep- 
resentative of great heroic roles in such works as Max Bruch's Frilhjof, 
Mr. Remmertz is also a pleasing singer of German lieder, and an 
accomplished musician in general. 

L. A. Phelps. 

This well known vocal teacher is the Director of the Vocal Depart- 
ment of the Chicago Musical College. He was born at Burlington, Vt., 
in 1854. Possessing a rare vocal gift, and an ambition for musical dis- 
tinction, he came to the Chicago Musical College for instruction, and was 
one of its first graduates, in 1870. Not yet .satisfied, and desirous of the 
highest equipment for a musical career, he went to Europe in 1874, and 
there, during two years at Leipzig and four years in Italy, completed his 
musical studies, including among his preceptors the eminent instructors 
Francesco Lamperti and Luigi Vannuccini. He made his debut on the 
operatic stage in Faust, at Savagliano, and achieved a gratifying success 
on his first appearance. Being thus brought into notice, he spent .several 
successful years in opera, and finally became a member of the Carlotta 
Patti company. In 1880 he returned to America, and has been promi- 
nently engaged in vocal teaching in the western metropolis during the past 
nine years, being now a principal professor in the institution from which 
he took his first diploma. Man}' of the brightest ornamerits of the vocal 
theatre of American musical accomplishment, both professional and ama- 
teur, have been pupils under his instruction, and are proud to acknowl- 
edge him the foundation of their musical skill. 

M. EsTELLE Ford 
Is the daughter of Mr. Lucius Bame3% and was born at Cleveland, 
Jan. 28, 1858. Her musical ability as a child was remarkable. At the 
age of twelve, while her family were living at Lousville, Ky., she made 
her first public appearance at a concert given by the Oratorio Society, and 
when she was only fifteen she plaj-ed the organ and led the choir at the 
old Disciple church on Franklin Circle. Her musical education was 
entirely obtained in Cleveland. In 1875 she sang soprano in two churches 
of her native city, and the following year she made her debut in opera in 
The Elixir of Love, with great success. In 1878 she was married to Mr. 
S. C. Ford, a Cleveland man. In March 1879 she scored a great success 
at Pittsburgh, where she sang in a concert by the Symphonic Society, 
and in the winter of that year she joined Haverly's Church Choir Com- 
pany, meeting with enthusiastic receptions in Pittsburgh, Baltimore and 
Chicago. In February, 18S0, she appeared in The Sorcerer, at Detroit, 
and since that time has sung in Faust aX Chicago ; as " Serpolette " in 77^.? 
Chimes of Normandy at Cleveland and Toledo; as "Leonora," in II 
Trovatore, with the Strakosch Opera Company at Cleveland ; and after- 
wards in Pinafore and Pa/ience at Chicago. Her voice is a clear, high 
soprano, musical and sj'mpathetic. She has a fine oratoria and concert 
repertoire, very varied in its character, and sings a ballad remarkably 

Charles R. Adams 

Was born at Charlestown, Mass., about 1848. His talent for music 
was displa5'ed at an early age. His first tuition was under Mme. Arnoult, 
of Boston, and afterwards he studied with Professor Mulder. He then 
went to Europe, and at Vienna became a pupil of Barbiere, under whom 
he made such progress that he was engaged for three years as first tenor 
of the Royal opera house, Berlin. Thence he returned to Vienna and for 
nine years was first tenor at the Imperial opera house. Since then he has 
sung at Covent Garden, London; La Scala, Milan; Royal opera, Madrid, 
and at many theatres in Germany. In this country he sang in German 
opera with Mme. Pappenheim, and in Italian opera with the Strakosch 
conipau}'. He settled in Boston in 1879, and has remained there ever 
since, engaged in teaching and singing. He is an admirable exponent of 
Wagnerian music, and has also gained great reputation as an actor. He 
has been one of the finest tenors of the present generation. 

Emma Nevada. 
Emma Wixon was born in Nevada about i860, and took her stage 
name from that state. Dr. W. W. Wixon, a well known physician, is 

d C' 7/~^i^ 

her father. He apparently reahzed that there was latent talent in the 
child, for he obtained for her the best musical education possible, and 
in 1877 sent her to Europe, where she studied with Mme Marchesi at 
Vienna. Owing to sickness she was unable to carry out her first engage- 
ment, which was at Berlin. She made her debut under Colonel Maple- 
son's management in the Sonnambula at London, in May, 1880. In the 
autumn of that year she also sang at Trieste in Sontiambula and Lucia, 
and met with a hearty reception. Florence, Leghorn, Naples, Rome and 
Genoa were visited on this tour, and at the last-named place Verdi, hear- 
ing her, helped her to secure an engagement at La Scala, Milan, where 
she sang for twenty-one nights. Her appearance at Prague, made after 
she had visited several other Italian cities, was eminently successful, and 
in 1883 she made her Parisian debut. It was the second time that an 
American lady had sung at the Opera Comique. She has an extensive 
repertoire, which includes Lucia, Sonnambula, Puritani, Migiion and 
Faust. Her voice is of the typical American range and timbre, clear and 
telling in quality, and possessed of phenomenally high notes. Withal, 
she is a true American girl, capable of any deed of daring that her fancy 
may dictate, and, without being in any high sense an apostle of art for 
art's own sake, she is a singer likely to be heard much of She was in 
this country at the Chicago opera festival in 1885 and again in 1889. 

Grace Hiltz. 

This talented soprano singer was born about 1854, near Portland, 
Me., and was educated at Providence, R. I. In 1872 she came to Chicago 
and commenced to study singing under the charge of Mrs. Sara Hershej'- 
Eddy. After the lapse of four years she went to Boston, where she had 
for her masters, George L. Osgood, Charles R. Adams, Julius Jordan and 
Georg Henschel. During this time she filled a number of concert engage- 
ments, and also sang in the Union Congregationalist church at Providence, 
R. I., at a salary of $1,000 a year. She studied at Boston for nearly two 
years, and there lay much of the foundation in her subsequent success. 
After a few other important engagements she sang the soprano solo in 
Verdi's Requiem at the Worcester festival, and left for Europe to complete 
her studies. She took lessons from Mme. Viardot- Garcia, Mme. La 
Grange and Signor Sbriglia at Paris, where she sang in public several times 
and met with a favorable reception. She also encountered good success 
in London, where she filled several engagements as a concert singer. She 
was pressed to make a tour of the English provinces, but this was impos- 
sible, as she had engaged to sing at the second Heimendahl Symphony 
Concert at Chicago, Dec. 19, 1882. On her re-appearance she was greeted 

ExMMA Nevada. 

verj- warmly, and has since remained a prime favorite as a concert singer. 
She has a pure, rich soprano voice of great power and compass. 

Caroline Richings-Berxard. 
Caroline Richings was born in England in 1827, and when very 
3''0ung removed with her parents- to America. Her first appearance as a 
pianist was made at Philadelphia Nov. 30, 1847. In 1852 she sang for 
the first time in public in La Fille dit Regiment, and so successfullj' that 
she obtained numerous engagements. She continued to sing in English • 
and Italian opera in America until 1867. She then married Mr. P. Ber- 
nard, a tenor singer, who was evidently not a born financier. They lost 
all their money, and in 1873 an "Old Folks Concert Company," which 
she had organized, also proved a failure. She then taught music at Bal- 
timore and Richmond, and sang in the Mozart Association at the latter 
place. In August, 1881, she sang in an operetta of her own. The Duehess, 
at Baltimore. It was her last appearance, and she died of small-pox at 
Richmond, Jan. 14, 1882. She was a fine singer, a good actress, and her 
death was sincerely lamented. 

Marie Van Zandt. 
who was born in 1861 in Texas, owed her early musical education to her 
mother, an excellent vocalist. Her father was a ranch owner, and her 
childhood was spent in the open air on the plains of Texas, where she 
not only gained a lot of practical common sense, but a fine constitution. 
The war put an end to all this happy life and ruined the family. The 
young singer now used her talents to help in the support of home. She 
was employed for some time in the East and finally went to London, 
meeting Patti, who gave her warm encouragement. She studied first in 
a convent school there, and afterward with Lamperti at Milan. Her first 
engagement was for a concert tour of Northern Europe, in the course of 
which she won quite a reputation. She was then offered and accepted an 
engagement at the Opera Comique, Paris, where she appeared in the role 
of Mignon with much success. Since that time she has appeared in 
several European cities and in America, alwaj's meeting with a cordial 
welcome. She is a fine singer, possessing a voice of much sweetness and 
power and carefully cultivated. She is remarkable for the great simplicity 
of her habits, gained no doubt during her early life in Texas. 

Emma C. Thursbv 
This well known concert singer was born at Brooklj'n, N. Y., Nov. 
17, 1857. Her first master was Julius Mej^er, of Brooklyn, and she after- 
ward studied with Signor Errani, of New York, and Mme. Rudersdorff", 

Emma C. Thursby. 

of Boston. It was evident by this time that she was the possessor of a 
good voice, and had the musical ability and inclination to use it. So she 
was sent to Italy, where she studied for some time under Lamperti and 
San Giovanni. Her first concert on her return to this country was given 
at Plymouth church, and was highly successful. She continued to ap- 
pear in oratorios and concerts, but made no attempt at operatic singing. 
Her career really began in 1875, when she was engaged by P. S. Gilmore 
for his popular summer-night concerts. He was so pleased with her 
efforts that he offered her an engagement as principal vocalist on a tour 
with his militarj'band. She sang in all the principal cities of the Union, 
and meeting with a hearty welcome wherever she went, her fame grew 
rapidly. On the conclusion of this tour she accepted an engagement as 
singer in Dr. Taylor's church. New York, at a yearly salary of $3,000. 
Afterward, under the management of Maurice Strakosch, she made a tour 
of Europe, and sang in concerts at London, Liverpool, Paris, Cologne, 
etc. She was a great favorite in England, and was warmly received every- 
where. She traveled through the United States during the season of 
1879-80, and confirmed the favorable impression that she had made while 
with Gilmore. She has made several tours of America and Europe since 
that time, and has won a wide reputation. 

Antoinette Sterling 

Was born at Sterlingville, N. Y., Jan. 23, 1850, and traces her descent 
through William Bradford, one of the Pilgrim Fathers, who came over 
in the "Mayflower," and was the second governor of Plymouth colony. 
Her voice in childhood was noticeable for its remarkable range, and it 
afterward settled into a contralto of great sweetness and volume. She 
began to study singing in 1867 under Signor Abella, in New York. In 
the following year she visited England for a few months, which she spent 
in the provinces, singing with much success. She passed on to Germany, 
where she was a pupil Mme. Marchesi, at Cologne, later of Pauline 
Viardot, at Baden Baden, and lastly, of Manuel Garcia, in London. In 
187 1 she returned to America and immediately took high rank as a concert 
singer. She only remained two years, and on May 13, 1873, gave a fare- 
well concert at the Irving hall, Boston, prior to her departure for England. 
She first appeared in London on Nov. 5 of that year at the Covent Garden 
promenade concert under the leadership of Sir Julius Benedict. Shortly 
afterward she sang at the Crj'stal palace, and in 1S74 at the Sacred Har- 
monic, Philharmonic, Albert hall and London ballad concerts. She also 
sang at the Festival at Gloucester in September. She was married at the 
Savoy chapel, London, to Mr. John Mackinlay, in 1875, and for a few 



months in that year she visited America, under the management of The- 
odore Thomas, and sang in a series of forty concerts. Since then she has 
lived in London, and with the exception of some provincial engagements, 
has confined her appearances entirely to that city. Her best work has 
been done in ballad singing, and in the rendering of such ballads as Tlie 
Three Fishers ; The Sands of the Dee, or The Three Ravens, she throws a 
force and earnestness into the words of the weird tale, thrilling and 
charming her audience. Still, she has some classical music in her 
repertoire, songs of Mendelssohn and Schumann chiefly. Probably one of 
the main secrets of her success is the wonderful distinctness with which 
she declaims her words. 

Zelie De Lussan. 

This charming young singer was born in the city of New York in 
1863, her mother being an opera singer. Mme. De Lussan taught her 
daughter Zelie to sing from childhood, and it is not strange that the child 
should have grown up with the intention of going upon the stage. When.she 
was sixteen years old, after having already acquired considerable local repu- 
tation by singing at charity and private concerts, she made a trial appear- 
ance in a large charity concert at the Academy of Music. Her success 
here was so lunnistakable that she was decided in her intention of making 
an operatic career. Then ensued three j-ears' hard study under her mother 
and other teachers, and at length she made her debut with the Boston 
Ideal Opera Company in 1865. During this season she sang " Arline " 
in the Bohemian Girl, as " Zerlina " in Fra Diavolo, and made a delight- 
ful effect in the pretty opera of Vietor, the Blue Stoeking. After several 
seasons with this organization she went abroad, and in London made a 
success in Carmen, Daiarhter of the Regiment, Faust, etc. She is now 
singing, 1889, with the Carl Rosa Opera Company. Her voice is a full, 
rich, beautiful soprano, and her method excellent. In personal appear- 
ance she strikingly resembles Patti. 

Hope Glenn. 

This celebrated singer was born in Pennsylvania, but removed to Iowa 
when she was young. Her early studies were made at Iowa City, but she 
soon came to Chicago, where she studied seriously with Mr. Frederic \V. 
Root, and it was under his management that a testimonial concert was 
arranged for raising money to send her abroad. In 1875 she went to 
Paris, and Marie Rose introduced her to Wartel, Nilsson's celebrated 
teacher. She studied with him and with Mme. Viardot-Garcia, and after-. 
ward with Lamperti. She made her operatic debut at Malta in 1879 as 

"Pierotto" in Linda. Between 1882 and 1885 she sang in the principal 
cities of this country, after which she returned to London, where she has 
ever since resided, and where she has great personal popularity. She is a 
friend and protege of the great singer, Nilsson, and has a large and highly 
remunerative business as a drawing room and concert singer. Her voice 
is a rich contralto, her manner statuesque and impressive, but not adapted 
to opera. Her delivery of text is unusually good. 

Sybil Sanderson. 

This charming American girl, who in 1S89 has just made sucn an 
astonishing success at the Opera Comique in Paris, was born in Sacra- 
mento, Cal., in 1865, the eldest daughter of the late Judge Sanderson, 
chief justice of California. Her childhood was passed in her native city, 
but the idea of a stage career took possession of her at a very early age. 
Her musical studies have been made in Paris, where twelve years ago she 
attracted the attention of the eminent composer, M. Jules Massenet, who 
wrote to an American friend that he anticipated great things for the j-oung 
singer, and confidently expected her to turn out another Nilsson. Her 
voice has phenomenal range and purity. 

Emma Hayden Eames. 

At the Paris Grand Opera in Paris, in 1889 there is a charming young 
singer, who although but twenty-two j-ears of age, carries capti^•e the 
hearts of her susceptible hearers. It is Emma Hayden Eames, born in 
Maine, in 1867. Her sweet and powerful voice made her a popular 
.singer locally at an early age, and presently a Boston teacher, Miss Clara 
Munger, happened to hear her. Miss Eames went back to Boston with Miss 
Munger and completed the training of her voice. Her Boston success was .so 
marked that by Munger' s advice she went to Paris for stage work and 
is universall}' recognized as one of the best singers in Europe. Miss 
Eames' voice is singularly expressive, and her whole organization is 
spiritudle, rich in capacities for feeling and making others feel. Her 
countenance without being positivel}' beautiful, has a lovely expressive- 
ness, which is better than beauty. Withal she is still the simple-hearted 
American girl whom Miss Munger found in the choir in Maine. 

Emma Juch. 

Emma Juch was born in Vienna, in 1863. She is, however, more an 
American than an Austrian, and is rightly classified among the American 
singers. Her parents were both natives of this country, and it was while 
they were visiting in the Austrian capital that Emma was born. When 

but two j-ears of age she was brought to America where the years of her 
girlhood were passed. Miss Juch's v'oice and her artistic capabilities were 
a natural inheritance. Her father, Justin Juch, was an inventor, an artist 
and a musician, while her mother was a gifted singer. Emma's natural 
inclinations led her to the studj' of music and in the face of the opposi- 
tion of her parents, she practiced industriously, keeping her efforts secret. 
It was only when the indefatigable young songstress appeared on the stage 
at a pupils' concert that her father discovered her disobedience. He was 
seated in the audience, and was taken completely by surprise when his 
daughter came upon the platform and began to sing. Her first appear- 
ance was a complete success, and her father was only too glad to with- 
draw his opposition and devote his energies to training the young voice 
with rigid severity. It is said that to his efforts and the severe schooling 
which he forced upon her is due her mar\-elous flexibility' of voice, and 
the wonderful evenness and sih-ery clearness of her tones. At the age of 
eighteen, Juch scored a s':ccess in the leading soprano roles in Her 
Majesty's Grand Italian Opera in London, under the direction of Colonel 
Mapleson. In June, 1881, her debut was made in the role of " Filina," in 
Ambroise Thomas' Mignon. She followed up her success in a number of 
operas, singing "Violetta" in X^rdV sTravia/a , "Queen of Night" in Mozart's 
Magic Flute, the title role in Martha, "Marguerite " in Gounod's Faust, the 
" Qbeen " in Lcs Huguenots, and " Isabella " in Robert, le Diable. During 
the three seasons through which she acted as Colonel Mapleson's drawing 
card, she met with almost invariable success. At the close of her engage- 
ment she received an offer from Theodore Thomas to take leading roles in 
a series of Wagner operas, in which Frau Materna and'Mme. Xilsson were 
to sing. It was a high honor for so young a singer to be asked to stand 
beside these great vocal artists, and such singers as Scaria and Winkel- 
mann, but she passed the ordeal bravely and met with almost unanimous 
commendation of the critics. Mr. Thomas found that he had not mis- 
placed his confidence in her ability, and intrusted her with the most 
trying of those tn,-ing roles in Wagner's operas, which prove to be Wat- 
erloos for the inefficient, the flashj- and the uneducated singer. Alter- 
nately with Mme. Nilsson she sang "Elsa," an impersonation which has 
since become famous for originality of interpretation, intelligent phrasing 
and impassioned declamation. During her three seasons' engagement 
with Mr. Thomas, Miss Juch sang in six roles, repeating them 164 times. 
Her success was phenomenal. That her reputation was the result of 
actual achievement and truly meritorious work rather than the moment- 
ary notoriety which a capricious public sometimes accords a flash}- singer, 
is attested by the fact that she received flattering offers from such reputa- 



ble musicians as Dr. Leopold Damrosch, of the Metropolitan opera house. 
Miss Juch has filled prominent parts in festivals, concerts and operas in 
all the great cities of the country. She has appeared to advantage in 
concerts where the best artists in the world have been engaged, and with 
such organizations as the Philharmonic, the Boston Symphony, the 
Brooklyn Philharmonic, the Philadelphia Symphony, Theodore Thomas', 
Herr Gericke's, the St. Louis vSaengerfest, and the very best choral 
societies. Her voice is constantly improving in fullness and strength, and 
the wonderfullj- facile execution which she possesses gains yearly in 
brilliancy' and grace. 

Emma Abbott. 
Born in Chicago in 1850, the early life of this celebrated singer is 
a record of constant upward struggle over obstacles that would have 
defeated any one of less indomitable pluck. Her secret of success was 
that of Holmes, and embodied in practical shape before the autocrat had 
put his on paper — 

" Only one art is that of the master, 
Ouly that courage can save from disaster." 
So, after the family had gone to Peoria, 111., and her father had met with 
financial misfortune, she helped her mother with all her might to pull 
through the sea of troubles. Both Emma and her brother, George, early 
showed a remarkable talent for music, and when the former was only 
nine years old Mr. Abbott took the children out to assist him in his con- 
certs. At ten years of age Emma took lessons on the guitar and George 
on the violin. Mrs. Abbott partially paid for those lessons by boarding 
their teacher, and Emma finished paying the bill years after, when she 
had become a successful concert singer in New York. When ICmma was 
thirteen she taught the guitar, had several pupils and became quite pro- 
ficient on that instrument. She attended .school in Peoria until she was 
sixteen, when she taught a summer school eight miles from the town. 
About this time she sang in the synagogue of Rabbi Max Moses, who 
called her "The only singer in Peoria," and shortly afterward she joined 
the Ivumbard Concert Company, traveling with them through Illinois, 
Wisconsin and Iowa, but at the beginning of the warm weather they 
disbanded and Emma started out alone, with her guitar for her only 
accompaniment, through Michigan and the neighboring states. She 
gave "parlor concerts," that is concerts given in the parlor of the hotel 
where she was staying. She struggled on for j-ears in this way, meeting 
with many reverses, until one day the luck changed. Clara Louise 
Kellogg heard her in Toledo and gave her money enough to go to New 

Emma Abbott. 

York, with a letter to Erani. She went, studied with Erani, sang in Dr. 
Chapin's church at a salary of $1,500 a year, and, helped by the congre- 
gation, went to Europe, where she studied (1872) with San Giovanni at 
Milan, afterward meeting in Paris the Baroness Rothschild, who became 
her fast friend and through whom she was the pupil of Delle Sadie, and 
of Wartel. The latter predicted that "When she is finished she will be 
without a rival in the world," while La Grange said: "My child, j-ou are 
the very Jenny Lind; j-our voice is pure, sweet, powerful." Her 
first appearance in Paris was a perfect triumph for her. She remained in 
Europe for several years, and was offered several good engagements. In 
i8-<S she returned to America, received a warm welcome, and has since 
sung in all the principal cities here. She is a typical American, full of 
energy and dash, yet retaining all her old habits of hard, persevering 
work, to which she owes no small measure of her great success. 

Directly upon her return from her first studies abroad, she married a 
young business man of New York, Mr. Eugene Wetherell, who presently 
made a partnership with Mr. Chas. Pratt, and the firm of Pratt & Weth- 
erell managed all the Abbott .seasons until the sudden death of Mr. Weth- 
erell in Denver, in 1888. Contrary to the usual experiences of young 
opera singers, Abbott made money from the start. Her husband 
proved to be a good business man, and although they kept their property 
separate to a certain extent, many of their investments were made in com- 
mon. In this way they became possessed of valuable real estate in various 
parts of the country', which, having been judiciously selected, appreciated 
rapidly in value. In consequence of this, Miss Abbott is now probably 
the richest woman upon the stage, her wealth being estimated as high as 
several millions. Her husband's property came to her at his death, by 
the provi.sions of his will. They have never had an)' children. It is said 
to be her ambition to found some day a great American school of music, 
in which other girls, talented as she was, can receive a sound education 
without the struggles that she had to encounter. 

Although Miss Abbott has made so much money in America, the 
city press has almost uniformly dealt rather hardl)' with her. Her voice 
is naturally of a singularly pure and agreeable quality, and constant study 
has imparted to it a flexibility which it did not originally possess. Her 
currency in fashionable circles is hampered b)* certain vocal manneri.sms, 
for which her magnificent dressing does not fully atone. In the latter 
respect, however, she has beat the record, her dresses for her personal use 
in the .season of 1889 having cost upwards of $45,000. They were from 
the ateliers of Worth and Felix. Miss Abbott is undoubtedly the hard- 
est-working woman upon the stage. 

Jessie Bartlett Davis. 

This well kuowii contralto was born near Morris, 111., in August, 
i860. The sweetness of her voice and her musical talent were evident at 
an early age, and she became known as a singer when she v\ is only eight 
years old. Her musical education was chiefly gained in Chicago, where 
she studied under Frederic W. Root; but she was also under the tutelage 
of De Rialp and Albites, of New York, and Sara Robinson Duff, of Chi- 
cago. She first appeared in public at concerts, but in 1879 adopted the 
stage, taking the part of "Buttercup" in Pinafore, and singing chiefly 
in the west. In 1883 she made a highly successful (/<;'(5«/ in Italian opera, 
singing with Patti in Faust and Dinorah. But she preferred light opera, 
and entered upon an engagement with the Carleton Opera Company for 
its first season, during which she scored a success as " Griolet " in The 
Drum Major. She was then engaged as principal contralto in the Amer- 
ican Opera Company, with which she played two seasons, and in 1888, 
joined the Bostonians as chief contralto. Mr:5. Davis is possessed of rare 
personal attractions, and is a general favorite in her chosen roles in light 

H. C. Barnabee. 

This genial old comedian was born in New England, somewhere 
about 1820 — dates are wanting. He had a fine bass voice and originally 
intended to appear as an oratorio singer. But as he had already acquired 
considerable reputation as a singer of comic songs, his oratorio appear- 
ances were marred by the inopportune laughs of people who supposed 
that whatever Barnabee sang must necessarily be funny. He did a large 
concert business, as a singing comedian, building up in this branch a 
clientele of his own. When he went into light opera, as he did in Pina- 
fore, he found his proper sphere. No other singing comedian is so much 
liked by the American people, and no other one deserves to be. Mr. 
Barnabee is genial, hearty and kind. I^ike all the other members of the 
Bostonian company he has been blessed in " his basket and in his store," 
so that his prospects for a comfortable old age are excellent, if time lasts 
until old age reaches this spirit ever young. 

Thomas Karl. 

This charming lyric tenor was born in Ireland in 1847. He was 
educated in England, making his first studies with Henry Phillipps, and 
by his advice he went to Italy to perfect himself under the leading 
masters there. Still later he studied with the great Parisian teacher, 
Delia Sadie, who sent him again to Italy, where he .studied with San 

Giovanni. His beautiful voice and easy and natural method of using it 
attracted the attention of the composer, Petrella, who immediately 
engaged him to create the " tenor role in his new opera, La Contessa 
D' Amalji. In this Mr. Karl made a distinguished success, so good a 
success, in fact, that Parepa Rosa heard of it and engaged him for her 
English Opera Company, then playing in America. Before joining the 
Parepa Rosa Company, he sang in all the leading Italian cities. In 1880 
he was one of the original members of the Boston Ideal Opera Company, 
formed by Miss Ober for giving Pinafore in first-class style. Since then 
Mr. Karl has been continually with the companj-, now known as "The 
Bo.stonians," singing all the leading tenor roles. In person he is hand- 
some, with a good stage presence. His voice has a sweet and silvery 
quality, and in spite of much use it still retains its freshness, except when 
under the influence of temporary indisposition. As an actor he is perhaps 
a little conventional, but he is a prominent figure upon the American stage. 

The Bostoni.\ns. 

The portrait group upon the opposite page contains three of the 
original members of the famous Boston Ideal Opera Company, now play- 
ing, in 1889. as the " Bostonians." The figure in the center is that of 
Mrs. Marie Stone-Macdonald, the leading .soprano of the company since 
its formation. Mrs. Macdonald is a charming woman, whose lovely voice 
still shows few signs of wear. Her early successes were made as a concert 
singer. Later she appeared in opera, singing in Pinafore, and then for 
several seasons with the Hess Opera Company. Mr. Macdonald, her 
husband, is the baritone of the company, strong in the romantic roles. It 
is a pity that a portrait of this popular singer, fine actor and hand- 
some man, could not have been given, but fate was unkind, and it had to 
be omitted. Those who have seen Mr. Macdonald in one of his lively 
roles like that in The Musketeers will appreciate the distance he has come 
in stage business since his debul. Directly after his return from Italy, 
where he made a good record, he appeared in opera with some company 
the name of which is not known to the present writer. His older brother 
was present, and after that performance the debutant asked him, with 
some modest}-, how he had done. The brother replied, slowl}-, and in a 
matter-of-fact way, " You did prettj' well, but I thought they would have 
moved you around more easily if j-ou had been on casters." Macdonald 
does not require casters now, and he still remains an artist worth}' of the 
warmest commendation. 




Organists, Liturgical Music and Virtuosi upon Various 

i3_CIENTIFIC organ playing in this country goes back hardly 
=^i. more than a generation. There were several good organists 
■'' of the older English school settled in America as early as 
the first quarter of the present century-, but they were so few 
that their influence hardly extended outside the churches which 
they respectively sen'ed. There are substantially three, or 
perhaps we might say four, ways of playing the organ. In one, 
the so-called legitimate or German method, the player deals largely with 
full organ, and carries an independent obligate melodic part with his feet, 
entirely distinct from that played by the left hand. This independence 
of the left hand from the feet, or the feet from the left hand, is the most 
arduous difficulty of legitimate organ technique. It is doubly difficult to 
the pupil of the present time, because it involves a new habit of music 
thinking, polyphonic, or many-voiced, instead of one-voiced, or melodic. 
The second principal school is the English, less strongly developed upon 
the pedal side, but strong in registration, or the clever imitation of 
orchestral effects by means of the organ. Then there is the French 
school, in which the right hand has a melodic part, the left hand an 
accompaniment, and the feet a pedal part consisting mainly of detached 
fundamentals. Great attention is paid in this school to orchestral color- 
ing, or rather to contrasts of tone color. Fourth, there is the American 
school, which in the olden time consisted in playing a few pleasing melo- 
dies upon fancy stops of impossible orchestral coloring, with pedal parts 
put in according to the French school. The modern school of organ play- 
hig, as illustrated by the best virtuosi, consists of a combination of all 
these, having at command the fluent technique of the German, the 
cleverness of the English, the piquancy of the French, and upon exhibi- 
tion nights the old-time ad captandum methods of the American 
unschooled organist of fifty years ago. 

With the organ in vogue in the churches of America a generation 
ago, it would have been impossible to do much with legitimate playing. 
The swell organ was what is called short, the most of the stops in it 
stopping at tenor C; the pedal keyboard was only an octave and a half in 
compass, and the stops allotted to it no more than one or two in number. 
The effect of the full organ was rather shrill and screamy, due to the scar- 
city of eight-foot stops (on which the solidity of tone in the ensemble 
depends) and the preponderance of improperly voiced mixtures. It was 
not until after the erection of the noble organ in Boston Music 
Hall that a model of a perfectly appointed organ existed in this country, 
although there had been several of large size before, notably that in Trin- 
it}' church in New York, erected about 1845. Naturally the standard 
of playing followed that of the instruments. Mr. Geo. James Webb told 
the present writer that in his time there was not a single organist in Bos- 
ton capable of playing a first-class fugue bj' Bach. He might have 
added that there was not in his time an organ in Boston capable of mak- 
ing such a fugue sound well. But directly after the introduction of the 
great Boston organ, there began to be recitals every week upon it, and 
the young organists, such as Paine, Thayer and Buck, vied with each 
other in rendering upon it the works of Bach, and that prematurely 
departed giant of music, Thiele, of .Berlin. Commensurate with these 
recitals and the existence in the community of competent masters of the 
instrument, there began to be a demand for organs with a better appoint- 
ment of pedal stops, and a more rational preponderance of eight-foot tone 
in the full organ. Improved methods of voicing pipes Vv-ere introduced 
or discovered by the best builders, at the head of the list of which must 
be placed the names of Hook and Hastings and Wm. A. Johnson. With 
demand for better instruments, and the frequent presence of well 
appointed organs in remote towns and small cities, there came to be oppor- 
tunities for practice, and organ concerts began to cut a figure among local 
happenings of a musical nature. This epoch of organ building and playing 
did not come in until after the war, but since 1865 there have been a great 
number of large instruments erected in different parts of the country. 

It was not until Mr. George Washboume Morgan came to New York, 
in 1853, that we had here a concert organist of attractive .style and inviting 

George Washbourne Morgan, 
The eminent English organist, was born at Gloucester, Eng., April 9, 
1S22. His precocity in music was so marked that he played an entire 
ser\-ice in the cathedral to the satisfaction of the choir and congregation, 

when he was only eight years old. From the age of twelve to twenty he 
plaj^ed the organ twice a day, at service, with very few exceptions, and at 
the age of twenty-one had held* two positions as organist in other churches. 
He had also made successful public appearances at Exeter hall as a solo 
player, creating a furore which is said by the Rev. Mr. Stanforth, vice- 
president of the Sacred Harmonic Society, to have been greater than he 
remembered since Mendelssohn's appearance. After settling in London, 
Mr. Morgan was organist for a number of years successively at St. Paul's 
and at Westminster Abbey. He arrived in America in 1853, and was 
immediately made organist at St. Thomas church, New York, where, 
however, he remained only one year, going then to Grace church, where 
he was organist for thirteen years. After this he became organist at St. 
Ann's Roman Catholic and later at Dr. Talmadge's Brooklyn tabernacle, 
where he served for twelve years. 

He was the first organist to introduce in this country the works of 
Bach in concert performances, and Mr. Dwight in his Journal of Music 
characterized his plaj-ing at Treraont temple in 1859 as the finest organ 
plaj'ing ever heard in the country. At the opening of the great organ in 
Boston Music hall Mr. Morgan was among the players, and although the 
programme bore the information that owing to the length of the programme 
no encores could be allowed, he was recalled six times, and at the request 
of the committee had to play an extra piece. In 1876 he was engaged by 
the Messrs. Hook and bj' Roosevelt to play their organs at the Philadel- 
phia centennial exhibition. It would scarcely be possible to speak too 
highly of the performance of Mr. Morgan's American work and its 
influence in developing a taste for organ playing throughout the country. 
This would not have been the case had not he possessed a rare gift of 
pleasing his audiences, in which qualit)^ no player is to be mentioned 
superior to him. He has also a genuine fondness for public appearance, 
and is never so much at home as when showing off a large organ with 
a critical audience behind him. 

Mr. Morgan has a daughter, Miss Maude Morgan, who is a beautiful 
harpist, and in later years father and daughter have played much in con- 
cert together. Mr. Morgan is still hale and hearty, and apparently has 
many 5-ears of usefulness and honor before him 

Morgan is a fluent pedal player, and has all the English cleverness 
in registration. No man can obtain more pleasing results from a strange 
organ. He depends much upon the attractive character of his selections, 
but he can upon occasion play a Bach fugue in good stj-le, leaning more 
especially to those of less technical difficulty, such as the St. Ann's fugue, 
aud a few others. He plays operatic overtures, which he adapts himself 


Geo. W. Morgan. 

from pianoforte arrangements, relying upon his own quick ear and remem- 
brance of the orchestral effects, and he is extremely clever in imitating 
effects from the resources of small organs in which ordinary players could 
find no possibilities of attractive combinations. 

His great competitor, and the representative of the Hook system of 
building at the time, was the late Dr. J. H. Wilcox, of Boston, for many 
years organist of the Church of the Immaculate Conception. Dr. Wilcox 
was one of the most pleasing players who ever went out to show off a new 
organ. He played delicate solos, soft and pleasing effects, and by way 
of grand finale a transcription of a Handel or Haydn chorus, such as the 
Hallelujah or The Heavens are Telling. The storj- of Dr. Wilcox is as 

John Henry Wilcox, Mus. Doc, 

Was born at vSavannah, Ga., Oct. 6, 1827. He graduated at Trinity Col- 
lege, Hartford, in 1849, and the year after became organist at St. Paul's 
Episcopal church, succeeding Dr. S. P. Tuckerman. When a large organ 
was erected by the Hooks in the Church of the Immaculate Conception 
he took charge of it, and remained there until July, 1874. The degree of 
Doctor of Music was conferred upon him by Georgetown College in 1864. 
He died at Boston, June 29, 1875. He was a prominent figure in New 
England for many years, but he never jjossessed a complete organ tech- 
nique of the modern school. 

In the nature of the case the taste of the more remote parts of the coun- 
try has had to wait upon that of the leading builders. Organists do not 
generally go about upon concert tours. In former days a concert organist 
w'as merely a pleasing church organist, with a knack of making an organ 
sound prettil)', who was sent out bj' the builders to exhibit new organs. 
It was not until Dudley Buck came back from Germany and began to be 
sent out by Johnson to show off his organs, that legitimate organ playing 
began to have a run outside ver}' limited circles in large cities. Buck 
was far from being an organ pedant. He played orchestral overtures, 
as well as fanc>' pieces of the German and French school. As Geo. W. 
Morgan had one masterpiece, the overture to William Tell, and Dr. 
Wilcox had his Thunder Storm, Mr. Buck had a masterpiece, upon 
which he had put nvawy months' practice. It was a transcription of 
Wagner's Tannhiiuser overture. This he interpreted with splendid effect. 
Another of his pieces, which also made a hit, was an arrangement of the 
overture to Kreutzer's Aught in Grenada. He also instituted a new 
school of organ composition, a modern school of his own, about halfway 
between the German and the French schools. Reference is made here to 


his poetic pieces, such as Jt Evening, and not to the organ sonatas, which 
are nearly strict German pieces for organ. As much cannot be said 
for the variations pieces which he produced, like many other American 
organists, such as the Annie Laurie variations, etc. These are too much 
like the popular arrangements of Nearer, J/r God, to Thee. Mr. Buck's 
influence upon organ playing in the country did not continue for any 
long time, but after his own appearances had become rare outside the citj- 
of Brooklyn, his work was carried forward by his pupils, of whom he 
turned out many. The most brilliant of these was Clarence Eddy, of 
Greenfield, Mass. ; but before recounting his interesting career it is 
necessary to give the story of another virtuoso of the very first order. 
Mr. Samuel P. Warren. 

Samuel P. Warren. 

This famous organist really belongs to the "Stars and Stripes," 
though he was born under the shadow of the Royal Standard of England 
at Montreal, Can. His father was a Rhode Islander by birth, who moved 
to Canada in 1837 and carried on his trade of organ builder in the Domin- 
ion until his death in 18S2. This son Samuel was born Feb. 18, 1841. 
As a baby he was often carried into his father's workshops, and his first 
remembrances of sights were those of the great pipes, monstrous to his 
eyes, of the organs, as they were pieced together; his first recollections of 
sounds, conversation about music and musicians. As he grew up he 
naturally became familiar with all the details of construction, and his ear- 
liest, strongest desire was to give voice to those rows of dumb pipes, let 
out the waiting, imprisoned soul of them, as he had seen his father do by 
merely touching the polished keys. But before he can play upon the 
organ he must learn the piano, and he gave all his childish ardor to the 
task. Successfully it would seem, for when he was eleven years old his 
father allowed hirh to take organ lessons. His musical talent was evident 
— who can help being musical when music is the breath of life and the 
bread of life to all around ? The young bird sings, because it hears the 
flood of song about it and tries to imitate. The stone deaf are mercifully 
dumb, for their notes would be but a discord, seeing that they cannot hear 
the music of the world. Well would it be for the musician, could he shut 
out the clangor and clamor of the earth and hear only its melody of mom- 
its lullaby of eve. Then we should hear no funeral marches, no Dies Ira, 
no sad intonation oi Faust, like the spirit song of falling worlds, but only 
glad songs of Creation, solemn, yet triumphant, " Hallelujah chorus of the 

The lad's first essay at public playing was in St. Stephen's chapel, 
Montreal. A little while afterward he played at the American church in 

^^C^kA^iM^ey^- ^^ 


the same cit)-, where he remained until 1861. Having by this time passed 
through college, and showing clearly enough in what direction his genius 
lay, it was decided that he should complete his studies in Europe. Accord- 
ingly in 1861 he went to Berlin, attending no institute, but gaining all his 
instruction from private sources. His masters were Haupt for organ and 
theory, etc. ; Gustav Schumann for piano, and Wieprecht for instrument- 
ation. He gave up almost all his time to his favorite instrument, the 
organ, and under Haupt' s good guidance became a notable plaj-er. He 
completed the usual four years' course, and in 1864 returned to Montreal, 
but only for a short time. The following year found him at New York, 
and toward its close he accepted the position of organist at All Souls' 
church, where he remained until 1868. In that year he went to Grace 
church and played the organ there for six years. From 1874 to 1876 he 
was at Holy Trinity, but returned to Grace church at the end of that 
period, and has staj^ed there ever since. In addition to this his time has 
been busily engaged in teaching, and from 1880 to 1S87 he was the con- 
ductor of the New York \'ocal Union. He has also given over three hun- 
dred organ recitals and concerts in New York city alone. Siugularlj' 
enough, such an able exponent of other people's music has written but lit- 
tle of his own. He has composed some music for church service, anthems, 
a few secular songs (secular songs in distinction to church songs only — 
no song with a meaning to it, that is not gabble, is ever secular), some 
organ solo arrangements, and that is all. 

The best work that Mr. Warren has done has been through his organ 
recitals, bj- means of which he has made familiar to thousands the grand- 
est organ music that has ever been written — and perhaps the grandest 
music in the world has been written for the organ. He has given more 
than one hundred and fifty of these at Grace church, and the good influence 
that has been exercised by such work as this can hardh^ be overestimated. 
Mr. Warren's organ technique is ma.sterly in every way, and his repertory- 
one of the largest in the world. Personally, he is extremely modest and 
unassuming, but he is one of the foremost organ virtuosi of the present 

Clarence Eddy. 

Mr. Clarence Eddy, one of the most distinguished organ virtuosi of 
the present time, was born at Greenfield, Mass., June 23, 1851. While 
yet a mere child he showed an unmistakable fondness for music and a 
talent for improvisation. At an early age he was given such lessons as 
the vicinity afforded, until, at the age of sixteen, when his talent had be- 
come so well developed as to require a higher grade of instruction. Ac- 
cordingly he was sent to Hartford, to the distinguished master. Mr. Dudley 

Buck, then just back from his own studies abroad. After a year under 
Buck's care, j-oung Eddy was so far advanced that he became organist of 
Bethany Congregational church, at Montpelier, Vt., where his fine and 
tasteful playing attracted general attention. In 187 1 he went to Germany 
to study with August Haupt, the venerable organist of the Prussian court, 
and with A. Loeschom, the celebrated composer and teacher of the piano- 
forte. His industry during the two and a half years he spent in Berlin 
was enormous. Every day he practiced six to ten, and even twelve, hours 
upon the pianoforte and the organ. It was one of his first exercises in 
the morning to play through the entire six of Bach's trio sonatas for two 
claviers and pedals. He did this upon his pedal piano, his long fingers 
permitting him to carry the two manual voices exactly as written, irre- 
spective of their crossing and interlocking. This daily element of his 
practice had a great deal to do with cultivating the neatness of touch, 
which is so noticeable a feature of his playing at the present time. He 
studied with Haupt not only the whole of Bach's organ works, but also 
many manuscript compositions and arrangements by Haupt, who loved 
him as a .son, and was proud of his invincible skill. But Haupt did not 
content himself with carrying his virtuoso pupil through the classical 
repertory of the organ; he gave him all of those of Thiele — the great 
genius who died too 5'oung for the world to know him as he deserved. 
Beside the gigantic solos of this master, Haupt arranged for two hands a 
concert piece in C minor, which Thiele had written for two performers. 
These, also, Eddy played with the same mastery and ease that he did all 
the rest. In short. It can safely be said, that during his student years he 
plaj-ed through the entire repertory of the organ, so far as known to the 
greatest master of the day, himself a famous concert organist. His 
studies upon the pianoforte were little, if at all, less thorough, and in 
counierpoint and composition he distinguished himself The most bril- 
liant incident of his pupil days was that of playing in Haupt' s place 
before the emperor and principal nobility at a concert in the " Garrison" 
church, in Berlin. His performance was recognized in the most flattering 
manner bj- the distinguished audience present, as well as by the press of 
the city. 

This led to a longer tour through the principal cities of Germany, 
Austria, Switzerland and Holland. Among the credentials which betook 
with him upon this tour was a letter from his teacher, Haupt, in which he 
said: " In organ playing the performances of Mr. Eddy are worthy to be 
designated as eminent, and he is undoubtedh- a peer of the greatest living- 
organists. " Even-where upon this tour his playing was recognized as 
phenomenal in technical master)' and repose. 

Upon his return to America he was immediately offered a position as 
organist of the First Congregational church of Chicago. He took at 
once a leading position in the city, which he never afterward lost. It was 
in the First Congregationalist church that his first series of twentj--five 
recitals was given. The programmes embraced the very cream of organ 
music, by classical and modern writers of all schools. The quality of the 
selections themselves, and the ease and refined master}- of the playing, 
attracted the attention of music lovers generallj', and led to important 
consequences. A year after, Mr. Eddy became the general director of the 
Hershey School of Musical Art, then newly established by Mrs. Sara 
Hershey, who, a little later, became Mrs. Eddy. During the existence of 
this institution it was remarkabh- successful in three departments not 
generally successful in American schools: A large number of organists were 
trained here; composers, who proved the excellence of their teaching by 
producing works large in style and presentable in quality; a considerable 
number of accomplished singers, also, went out from this institution, able 
to give recitals of songs of every national school. 

It was upon his own organ, in Hershey Music hall, that IMr. Eddy 
gave his great and unprecedented series of one hundred recitals of organ 
music, containing no repetitions whatever. This herculean task occupied 
about two 3'ears, the recitals occurring every Saturday. The five hundred 
and more compositions upon these programmes amount to a thesaurus of 
organ music, in which no national .school, old or new, was unrepresented. 
The closing recital, June 23, 1879, was made the occasion of an ovation, 
and the programme consisted almost entirely of original works, expressly 
written for this recital by some of the greatest writers for the organ then 

The stir made in musical circles by this work of Mr. Eddy's naturally 
led to a large number of concert engagements, exhibitions of organs, etc., 
in every part of the countrj-. His success in the east was not less than in 
the west, for there is something about his mastery that commends it to 
every hearer. Hence, it is not too much to say that this performer has 
been one of the main influences in elevating the standard of American 
organ playing and in extending the range of its reportory. This sendee 
to American art was greatly helped bj' the wide republication of the 
programmes, which were everj'where recognized as of great interest. 
Then came the two books of The CInurh and Concert Organist, the first 
published in 1882, the second in 1885. His translation of Haupt's coun- 
terpoint was published in 1876. 

In the small number of original compositions which alone Mr. Eddy 
has as yet given to the public, he has shown that he possesses a true musi- 


Clarench Eddy, 

cianship and a readiness of thought which might easily have led to the 
production of more important results, had he not regarded his talent for 
playing as of more public utility than that for composition. 

Mr. Eddy has distinguished himself as an accompanist scarcely less 
than as a solo artist. His constant practice in overcoming the imperfec- 
tions of all sorts of organs, has given him 3 masterj- of registration and 
a judicious ear for combinations, which combine to render his accompani- 
ments to the voice flexible, neat and judicious to the ver>- last degree. 
These excellencies led to his appointment as organist to the first Chicago 
May Festival, in 1882, where he had the use of an organ erected for the 
occasion. For several years he has been organist of the Apollo Club con- 
certs. During the past ten years he has been organist of the First Pres- 
byterian church, Chicago. A third volume of organ music, entitled The 
Organ in Clturch, was published in 1S87 (Scheberth & Co.); also a con- 
cert fantasie on themes from Faust, and .several arrangements for the organ 
(Newhall, Evans & Co). 

Mr. Eddy's concert tours (exhibitions of new organs, etc.), have 
extended all over the United States. During the summer of 1889, he 
played in various parts of England and the continent. He was invited to 
represent America at an organ recital at the Paris exposition in 1889. 
The concert, which was attended by an audience of over two thousand 
persons, won the warmest applause from the critics. Alex. Guilmant, the 
eminent organist and composer, said of him in Le Progri's Artistique: 
"We were astonished at the ease with which he was able to control the 
magnificent instrument of Cavaille-CoU, knowing that he had had barely 
a few hours to familiarize himself with all its resources. Mr. Eddy is a 
great artist and has won the esteem of French organists. ' ' 

Speaking of a recital which Mr. Eddy gave in Leipsig, Martin 
Krauser, critic of the Lcipsigcr Tageblaff, and president of the Liszt Verein 
of Germany, said: " Mr. Eddy is a phenomenal virtuoso, who handles 
his instrument with astonishing facility. His pedal technique has hardly 
an equal ; with the greatest ease and without the slightest movement of 
body Mr. Eddy played pedal passages so smoothly and with so fine a 
legato that the effect of his performance must be characterized as truly 
ovenvhelming. In Berlin he gave two recitals, both of which were 
attended by his old master, Haupt. 

Mr. Eddy has been engaged as organist of the Chicago Auditorium, 
and has brought back with him from Europe several manuscripts written 
especially for that instrument. The personal appearance of Mr. Eddy 
might be characterized as "distinguished." His height is rather above 
the average, his complexion ruddy, and features strong but regular. 

George E. Whiting. 

George Elbridge Whiting, the head of the organ department of the 
New England Conservatory, and an organist and composer of wide repu- 
tation throughout the musical world on this continent, is a native of Mas- 
sachusetts, having been born at Holliston, in that state, Sept. 14, 1842. 
His brother Amos was organist at the church at Springfield, and a musi- 
cian of more than ordinary cultivation. At the age of five the subject of 
this sketch began the study of music with his brother, by whose advice 
he soon relinquished the piano for the organ, in which he made such rapid 
advance and attained such a degree of proficiency that at the age of thir- 
teen he made his first public appearance. Two j'ears later he removed to 
Hartford, Conn,, where he succeeded the distinguished Dudley Buck as 
organist in one of the churches there, and founded the Beethoven Society 
of that citj'. In 1862 he removed to Boston, and shortly after determined 
to profit by advantages in instruction not available in this country*, and 
after a course of study with J. P. Morgan, of New York, he went to Liver- 
pool and placed himself under the instruction of the famous organist, 
William Thomas Best, at Liverpool. Returning to America, he was 
engaged as organist of St. Joseph's church, Albanj', N. Y., for a time, 
after which, still unsatisfied with his acquirements, he went to Berlin, 
where he completed his musical education with Radecke. On completing 
a three ^-ears' engagement at Albany, he removed to Boston, where for 
five years he was organist at King's chapel, and became prominently 
active in the musical life of that city. lu 1874 he became organist at the 
Music Hall, and was for a time in charge of the organ department of the 
New England Consen-atory. In 1878 he accepted a three years' engage- 
ment at the college of music, then just established, in Cincinnati, where 
he was principal organ instructor. Here he had charge of the great organ 
of the Music Hall, at which he presided at several of the most important 
of the May festivals in that city. In 18S1 he returned to Boston, where 
he has since been at the head of the organ department of the New Eng- 
land Conservator3\ In addition to a distinguished position as organ exec- 
utant, Mr. Whiting holds high rank as composer for that instrument. 
His principal works are : The Organist, containing twelve pieces for the 
organ ; three preludes for organ in C and D minor ; The First Six Months 
on the Organ, embracing twenty-five studies ; twenty preludes for organ 
in two volumes ; mass in C minor for four solo parts, chorus orchestra and 
organ, produced 1872 ; mass in F minor for chorus orchestra and organ, for 
opening of cathedral in Boston, 1874 ; prologue to Longfellow's Golden 
Legend, for chorus and orchestra, performed in 1873 ; cantata, Dream Pict- 
lurs, performed 1877 ; cantata, The Tale of the Viking, for solos, chorus 

^_X//&4-«-*-<'/<>* /^. 

and orchestra ; set of figured vespers ; cantata for four solo voices, chorus 
and orchestra, libretto by Burger ; concert overture, The Princess: PF. 
concerto in D minor ; allegro brilliant for orchestra ; fantasia and fugue in 
E minor ; sonata in A minor ; fantasia in F ; three concert etudes in A 
minor, F and B flat ; suite for violoncello and piano, and numerous songs, 
church services and miscellaneous organ pieces. 
Harrison M. Wild. 

It was as organist at the Ascension church, Chicago, that Harrison 
M. Wild made his first impression by his musical gifts. Ascension church 
is a " high church " Episcopal sanctuarj^ and the music has ever been a 
most important feature of the services since the days when the renowned 
Father Ritchie was its rector. The music is equal to that of the Roman 
Catholic cathedrals of Europe in the quality of the works presented, and the 
writer rembers Mr. Wild when as a mere boy of fifteen, or thereabouts, he 
presided at the organ of this church and pla3'ed the masses of Mozart and 
Gounod in the style of a veritable artist. After an experience of several 
years here, young Wild went abroad, and when he returned his develop- 
ment was most con.spicuous; he had become one of the best organists in 
the west, and as such he is entitled to rating at the present time. Mr. 
Wild's place in a hi.storj- of music in America has been won in the main 
by reason of the organ concerts he has given in Chicago, these having 
been of decided influence in developing a taste for organ music of the 
highest class. In the eight years that he has been prominently before 
the public as an organist, Mr. Wild has given no fewer than loo organ 
concerts, and he has appeared in as many more. In all of these concerts 
the repertoire has been confined to the works of the masters of the 
' ' king of instruments, ' ' the classic and the romantic periods of composition 
have been adequately represented, while manj' of the important works of 
the modem masters have been brought out hy Mr. Wild for the first time 
in the west. In this way he has certainly contributed valuably to the 
understanding and the appreciation of the public for organ music. This 
has, thus far, been Mr. Wild's mission in the musical world, and he has 
fulfilled it ably. Mr. Wild was bom at Hoboken, N. J., in 1861. For 
ten j'ears he enjoyed the advantages of the best instruction afforded 
by the teachers of America, studying the organ, the piano and musical 
theory and composition. While he was abroad he studied with the late 
Dr. Louis Maas (before his .sojourn in this countr>')> with Bruno Zwint- 
scher, Alfred Richter, Dr. Rust and others. Although his time is employed 
with a large class of piano and organ pupils, he nevertheless keeps up his 
own study and practice and his public organ recitals, for he is one of the 
most earnest and diligent of workers. There is an impression that few 



men can do two things equallj^ well; but Mr. Wild appears to be one of 
the few, for he has attained almost equal success as a pianist. It is rarely 
that an succeeds as a pianist, but Mr. Wild is an admirable per- 
former upon the pianoforte, though his reputation has been made as an 
organist. At the last meeting of the Illinois Music Teachers' Association, 
at Peoria, Mr. Wild appeared as organist, pianist and essayist, and his work 
in all three departments created a most favorable impression upon the 
many veteran teachers present. Mr. Wild is a young man, his career has 
begun brilliantly, and he has a future that it is safe to prophesy will be 
more brilliant still. 

Hexry M. DrxH.VM. 

Henrj- Morton Dunham, son of Isaac A. and Augusta L. Dunham, 
was born in the town of North Bridgewater (since called Brockton), July 
27. 1853. He graduated from the high school of that place in 1870, 
and from that time devoted his attention exclusively to the study of 
music, making a specialty of the organ and composition. Although 
having made several trips abroad, he is purely an American-taught 
musician, having graduated first from the New England Conser\'atory of 
Music and afterward from the Boston University College of Music. He 
became one of the corps of teachers in the New England Conservatory in 
1878, and has been connected with that institution ever since. He also 
holds a professorship in the Boston University College of Music. As a 
concert organist his appearances have been chieflj^ confined to Boston and 
immediate vicinitj', because of demands made upon his time by conserva- 
tory and church. He gave a series of recitals for several j-ears on the 
"Great Organ," in Boston music hall, playing among other works all 
the greater compositions of Bach and Thiele. These concerts were finally 
discontinued, because of change in the music hall management. As a 
church organist he has officiated in Boston at the cathedral of the Holy 
Cross, the church of the Immaculate Conception and the Ruggles street 
Baptist church, of which he is still the organist, having held the position 
for the last ten years. His published works are as follows: 

Exercises in Pedal P/aying; Blelodious Studies for the Organ; A System of 
Technique for Piano; andantes in A flat and R flat, for the organ. Capriccio Brill- 
ante, for piano. Sonata in G minor, for organ; .SV.i- Original Compositions for the 
Ornan: i. Preludio, .?. Invocation, j. Rhapsodic, 4. Fuga, 5. Elevation, 6. Marche 
Hi.roiquc : ■<^r€i\x^ft to a gloria (organ); Offertoirc in B flat (organ); Festival March 
(organ); Select arrangements for the organ: Agnus Dei, Govinoii; Poinanca, Pabst; 
Adagio, from symphony in A, Paine: A'e-eerie, Mcyer-Helmund; Introduction and 
fugue from 10th mass, Mozart; Bohemian Melody lierceuse, Rubinstein; Romance, 
Tons; Christmas Pastorale, from The ji/essiah, Handel; Hallelujah Chorus, from 
The Messiah, Handel; Slumber Song, Hauser; Sarahande, Greig; Prelude from 
Rcbekah, Barnbj-; Allegretto, Hummel; Wedding March, Hoffmann; Qui Tollis, 
Haydn; hymn music (three books); hymn anthem, O Tell l\fe. Thou Life; three 
etudes in Etude Album for the Organ, edited by E. E. Truette. 

tyf^=^^/^z.^ — 

Nathan H. Allex. 
As an organist and a composer of church and organ music Mr. Nathan 
H. Allen has won an excellent reputation, and during the period of his 
residence at Hartford he has made his influence a potent factor in the 
musical world that lies within the boundaries of the commonwealth of 
Connecticut. Mr. Allen was boni at Marion, Mass., in 1848. After pur- 
suing his studies for some years he decided to complete them abroad, and 
accordingly he departed for Germany in 1867. Locating in Berlin, he 
placed himself under the guidance of the famous organist and preceptor, 
Haupt; and for three years he devoted his time to the study of the organ 
under this eminent professor. He graduated in 1870 and returned to his 
nativ^e land. He took up his residence in Hartford, where he has ever 
since been conspicuous in musical circles. His organ recitals every season 
at the Center church, Hartford, are vary largely attended and have done 
much for the creating of a taste for the best of organ mu;:ic. He has been 
active as a teacher, and many of the younger organists in that region 
have been his pupils, not a few of them being distinguished as soloists 
and holding positions of responsibility. Mr. Allen's compositions have 
been numerous and varied, comprising works for piano and organ, church 
anthems and arias, as well as many secular songs. He is a thorough and 
accomplished musician. Among his works are a collection of twenty- 
six German four-part songs; seventeen .songs for different voices; several 
short sacred pieces, quartettes and anthems; fifteen selections from the 
works of M. G. Fi.scher, for the organ; themes and varied basses; exer- 
cises in pedal playing, arrangements for the organ; two arrangements for 
quintette with organ accompaniment; the hymns of Martin Luther, .set to 
their original melodies, with an English version; Te Deum in D flat, for 
quartette and organ; Fantasie Impromptu in D minor for pianoforte; 
Nocturne in G minor for the pianoforte; three winter sketches for the 
pianoforte. There are also in the press, Dar-Thula, dramatic song from 
O.ssian; two songs for soprano, the lover's song from Kilrostan and Love's 
Mcssengos; anthem. Lift Up Thine Eyes Round About; three hymns of 
praise; and The Flamingo, part song for male chorus. It should also be 
mentioned that Mr. Allen has a considerable number of compositions, 
mostly instrumental, in manuscript; among them, concert pieces for organ, 
piano and organ, violin and piano, etc. 

HervE D. Wilkins. 

Mr. Wilkins is well known in professional musical circles as a 
talented concert organist, pianist and teacher. He was born in Italy, 


1^^^ ^' 







W ' "'" 





i - 


N. Y., in 1848, and began his musical career as a choir singer at the age 
of seven, singing successively soprano, contralto and tenor until the age 
of eighteen, when he became oi^anist at Auburn, N. Y. Later he re- 
moved to Rochester, N. Y., where he graduated with honors at the 
university of that city. With this general preparation, he now gave 
himself to special preparation for his life work, studying composition and 
organ playing under Haupt, piano under Theo. KuUak and singing with 
Kotzolt,- of Berlin. He has given organ recitals in the principal cities ol 
the country, and is well known as a concert organist of great merit. He 
has also given several series — nearly one hundred in all — of piano recitals 
at Rochester, and is also widely known as a teacher of piano and singing. 
As a writer and lecturer he has distinguished himself at the university ot 
Rochester and elsewhere. His recent composition. Scene Mililaire, has 
met with great success in a very short time. Mr. Wilkins is in demand 
as a concert, having appeared many times in different parts of 
the country. He is the inventor and patentee of the various mechanical 
devices for improving the effect of the organ. He is at present (1889) the 
organist of the Brick church at Rochester, where he controls one of the 
largest and most effective organs in America. 

Louis Falk. 

The subject of this sketch was born in Dec. 11, 184S, in Germany, 
but came with his parents to America at the age of two years, and may 
be said, therefore, to be wholly American. His parents settled in Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., removing afterward to Rochester, N. Y., where at the 
age of seven he became the pupil of Prof A. Bauer on the violin. 
A 3'ear later he began the study of the pianoforte, and at the age of eleven 
we find him officiating as organist of the Pine Street Lutheran church, 
Rochester. In 1861 he removed with his parents to Chicago, where he 
was organist of the church of the Holy Name until 1865. His organ 
practice developed such promising qualities that it was wisely determined 
to give him the advantage of the best European training, and accordingly 
in 1865 he went to Europe and studied for two years under the eminent 
composer and virtuoso. Dr. William \'olckmar, in Homberg, Hesse Cassel, 
after which he took a two years' course of music at the Leipzig conserva- 
tor3' under Moscheles, Papperitz, Richter, Moritz Hauptmann, Reinecke, 
and David. Here he graduated at the head of his class in organ playing, 
and after traveling through Europe returned to Chicago, where he has 
ever since resided. He became organist at Dr. Collyer's Unit)' church, 
and in Sept. 1869, became one of the original members of the faculty of Chi- 
cago Musical College, with which he is still connected, and where his work 

C?<_^5HZ>«>6Jc/ (l3^^t-<^V^^ 

is most important in the transmission and diffusion of the best methods in 
organ plaj-ing. He has also been known as a successful organizer and 
conductor in many important musical events. He was among the first to 
make organ concerts popular in the western metropolis, and has done 
much to cultivate taste for and appreciation of this elevated sphere of 
musical life and beauty. His playing is marked by brilliancy of its lights 
and shades, the melodic fluency of his interpretations, and ease and dex- 
terity in manual, and pedal movements. He has a distinguished faculty 
in the production of novel effects in the combination of stops, and as a 
sight reader and in the art of transposition, he has few equals. He com- 
bines the best qualities of a thorough musician by nature united with and 
subordinated to a thorough equipment in the best schools of harmony and 

I. V. Flagler. 

This celebrated concert organist was born in Albany, N. Y., in 1842. 
His musical bent showed itself in boyhood, and at a very early age he 
was noted for the dash and brilliancy with which he played the piano. 
He was a diligent student of the instrument under the best private in- 
structors at home, and under famous masters abroad, going to Europe 
many times for tuition and travel. After completing his musical educa- 
tion in the old world, he came back to America and for two years was 
organist and choir master of the First Presbyterian church in Albany. 
He then went to Chicago, where for seven years he was the presiding 
musical gen us at Plymouth church. He passed the summer months at 
Chautauqua, where his recitals were extremely popular. 

For .several years Mr. Flagler gave organ recitals, embodying the 
best music, at Cornell and Syracuse Universities, and he has also given 
public organ recitals in New York, Boston, Chicago and other principal 
cities, warmly welcomed wherever he went. For a number of years he 
has been organist of the First Presbyterian church at Auburn, and is also 
instructor of music in the Theological Seminary in that city. As a con- 
cert organist Mr. Flagler has a national reputation. His playing is 
always brilliant, smooth and facile, and in pedalling and registration he 
has few equals. He has written quite a number of pieces for the organ, 
mainly of the popular school. Among them are variations on Amcricaii 
airs, which has had a great run, and which Eddy played in Paris in 1889; 
some sacred songs and anthems. He has also written a comic opera, 
called Paradise, to be brought out shortly in New York, and many other 
compositions, at present existing onlj' in manuscript, but which will no 
doubt see the light some day. Mr. Flagler is now instructor of the organ 
at the Utica Conser\^ators" of Music. 

J^.K X^ 


'he rise of vested choirs in the Episcopal church in America syn- 
chronizes with the rise of the "Oxford Movement," which began 
in England about fift_v years since. ' That was an effort to rehabil- 
itate the Established Church of that countrj- as the Catholic church 

of the land. The leaders of the movement, Keble, Newman, Pusey 

and others, taught that the doctrines of the Church of England were 
in exact agreement with the catholic past; that its ministry was of apos- 
tolic descent, and that its worship should express these facts. In connec- 
tion with this latter idea their enthusiastic followers began at once the im- 
provement of the services. This led to a marked development in archi- 
tecture, in the liturgic uses of the church, including the adoption of the 
ancient vestments for the clergy, the use of lights and incense, and a rev- 
erent care for the music used, which latter was considered not as a merely 
ornamental adjunct, but rather a part of the great sacrifice which the 
church should ever offer. 

This Oxford movement in due course reached the Episcopal church 
in America. Here, as in England, it has also left its impress, which 
shows itself in the assertion of catholic dogma, the claim for an apostolic 
ministry, and the expression of all this in church buildings, vestments, 
ancient liturgic customs and the use of music as an integral part of divine 

The cathedral choirs in England, held together from pre-reformation 
times by ancient endowments, gave the parochial clergy of England a 
model which the)' could copy in their own parish churches, but in 
America we had no such precedent. The leaders of church progress in 
this country, when they endeavored to improve the musical worship of 
the Episcopal church, had to combat many prejudices, hence the rise of 
vested choirs in our land was, until the movement had taken root in the 
west, of slow growth. 

The first person to take a step in this direction was the Rev. Frances 
L. Hawks, D.D., at St. Paul's college, Flushing, L. I., about the year 
1839. The opposition, however, was so marked that the custom of putting 
the college choir into surplices was dropped. The use of boys' voices in 

the service was continued, however, under the guidance of the Rev. Dr. 
Muhlenberg, then connected with the college. 

In the year 1846, Dr. Muhlenberg took charge of the Church of 
the Hoi)' Communion, Twentieth street and Sixth avenue, New York 
city. Here for years the entire musical sen,-ice was rendered by men and 
boys, but the surplice was not used. The feasibility of boys' voices for 
use in the nuisical worship of the church was nevertheless demonstrated, 
and ere long, in other churches, where more attention was paid to liturgic 
advances, the vested choir was introduced. Among the first of these 
churches was that of the Advent in Boston, Mass. Here in great per- 
fection we find a vested choir in full use about 1856, under the skillful 
charge of Dr. Henry Stephen Cutler, happily yet living, and able to look 
out on the wonderful development of vested choirs which now has place 
in America. Dr. Cutler was a man thoroughly endued with the spirit 
of sixteenth century music. He had made a careful study of his art in 
all the English cathedrals, and understood the true scope and objects of 
the vested choir. Services and anthems of the best English type were 
produced, and Dr. Cutler's own compositions stand out in their simple 
elegance and faultless proportion like beautiful specimens of early 
English Gothic architecture. In due course of time Dr. Cutler was 
called to succeed Dr. Hodges as organist of Trinit}- church. New York, 
with the understanding that the vested choir should shortly be estab- 
lished. This was, nevertheless, delayed for some time, and not until the 
visit of the Prince of Wales to America and his attendance at Trinity 
church did the choir appear in surplices. Ever since that time the use 
has continued there. It was years, however, before the custom had 
much headway. In two places alone in New York city were vested 
choirs to be seen, one at the top of the ecclesiastical sphere, "Old Trinity," 
the other in "Madison Street Mission Chapel," an upper room over a 
stable, supported by Mr. Hecker. From those two fountains flowed out 
the musical influences which have extended over the United States. Mr. 
Hecker' s chapel has ceased to exist, but there first was heard in this 
country a choral English mass with surpliced choir of men and boys. 
As we have said, it was not until the movement took root in the west 
that it found increase and vigor. When it had place among us in the 
primitive conditions of Illinois or Wisconsin then it was seen to be a 
plant of possible American growth, and not a mere English exotic care- 
fully nurtured in the favorable atmosphere of wealth}' churches in New 

The first western vested choir was that of Rachie College, Wisconsin, 
under the wardenship of Dr. De Koven. Though no musician himself, he 

yet felt that music ever formed an integral part of all catholic worship, 
and hence without delay introduced the vested choir in the college chapel. 
The next in point of time was the Cathedral of Sts. Peter and Paul, 
Chicago. The choir in this church was trained and duly vested in 1870, 
or possibly one year before, and was in charge of the Rev. J. H. Knowles, 
who continued his work until 1884. He, while a student at the general 
Theological Seminary, New York, had been a member of Trinity choir 
under Dr. Cutler, and from this experience brought valuable practical 
knowledge to his work in Chicago. As years sped on, surpliced choirs 
were introduced into one after another of the Episcopal churches in 
Chicago and vicinity, until now, within a short distance, and in it, 
there are over twenty vested choirs. 

The increase all over the United States and territories is somewhat 
phenomenal. At Garden City. L. I-, is an endowed vested choir in the 
Cathedral of the Incarnation, where the musical services are equal to those 
heard in any church in England, if not superior to any. At Albany, 
N. Y., is another well established cathedral choir; in Portland, Me., 
we also find another; in Denver, Colo., another; in distant Wj'oming 
and Oregon ; in California and Louisiana ; in all parts of the country, 
then, the vested choir has been de^•eloped. 

This movement corresponds with a similar movement in the Roman 
communion, the result of the Cecilian Societ}-, whose object is to secure for 
the liturgy of the church a grave and reverent rendering and the use of 
strictly appropriate music. The use of the English tongue and the well 
established position of Anglican choirs near the altar insure for the 
vested choir in the Episcopal church effective and rapid progress. In 
all movements with any impetus there arise certain dangers, and the 
vested choir movement has its own evils to be studiously prevented. 

The first evil is that, in a zeal for liturgical propriety, and in a pre- 
dominance of ecclesiastical over musical interests, the artistic excellence 
of choir work may be obscured, overlooked, or, indeed, willfull)^ neglected. 
This spirit will select the archaic simply because it is archaic, and, utterly 
neglecting the hard work and artistic abilitj^ necessar}* for the production 
of such music, will, in an ecstasy of devotion, butcher chant, anthem 
and service, and think that the ser\-ice of God is set forth thereby. 

The second evil is that a zeal for artistic propriety will shut out all 
reverence, devotion and true liturgic coherence. The beautiful, the emo- 
tional, the sensational, is alone sought for, and all sacrificed for that. 
There is more danger of this latter evil than of the first in our American 
society. Already vested choirs are becoming luxuries; the governing 
spirit in some seems to be to captivate the popular ear, and obtain mere 

effect and not primarily to offer the sacrifice of prayer and praise, and to 
lead the devotions of the people. The choir work becomes a public per- 
formance, and the impersonal and spiritual effect of the vested choir 
becomes altogether nullified. There is no necessity, however, for either 
evil, though each must ever be suspected, and duly fought against. All 
will be well if it is remembered that all music must be worship, and that 
while it is worship, it must never cease to be music. 

In connection with this brief sketch of the rise and progress ot 
vested choirs in America it may be well to add a word about the method 
of their instruction. Our public schools are apt to injure our boys' voices 
by allowing them to shout with loud tones, or to grind out low sounds, 
supposed to be alto, while the girls are trained upon the soprano part. 
The purest soprano voices may be found among boys, and the most 
exquisite quality of tone may be produced by always training them to 
sing with the head voice, coming down the scale to the lowest practical 
note, without change. Such voice may seem to lack force at first, but 
after a little practice, and a due use of the interior portions of the mouth 
and palate, a heroic singing quality will be obtained, which boys' voices 
alone can give. For the harmonic parts of music in boy choirs, men's 
voices are best. Boy altos, with rare exceptions, have a gross quality of 
tone, which does not blend well with the soprano, tenor or bass. The 
English alto, or counter tenor, as sung by men, if given with purity 
and taste, has a more dignified effect, and is especially suitable for eccle- 
siastical music. That, as yet, is a rare voice in America. Without it, how- 
ever, the best effects of the sixteenth centurj^ writers cannot be produced 
in true form or spirit. With due care the boy alto may be minimized in 
its evils, and developed to a rich and helpful harmonic condition, but the 
men's is best. 

In the effort at artistic development in church music the vested choir 
is sometimes supplemented by women's voices. Wherever this is done it 
is an admission of inefficiency in the work of the vested choir, which is, 
not to furnish a sensuous musical entertainment to those who pay them 
for their services, but to lead the solemn worship of the church, 
which is outside of and above the range of amusement, and beyond the 
circle of mere musical criticism. 

It is with great pleasure, for many reasons, that we present the fol- 
lowing autobiographical reminiscences of the Rev. Canon J. H. Knovvles, 
who has been so prominent in connection with church music for many 
years, and in whose active life so many musical influences meet and find 
expression : 

Rev. J. H. Knowles. 

My first musical memory, when, I imagine, the love of music woke 
within me, was now nearly fift^- years since. It was in a glen in Ireland. . 
We were driving on, full of anticipations as to the city, with all its won- 
ders, but a burst of song birds and the cuckoo's note, coming from the 
depths of trees all in bloom, gave me a new sensation, and my heart was 
touched as never before. 

Henceforth the Irish songs, the street musicians, the notes of birds 
were real pleasures. As a child I sang with others, but have no distinct 
memory of church music uutil a new range of emotion was touched, when 
I first attefaded the service at the old cathedral of St. Finn Barr in my 
native place, Cork. The white-robed boys, their clear voices, their ruddy 
cheeks, the ponderous basses, the strong tenors, the resounding organs, 
the mysterious-looking monuments, the black-robed verger, the dignified 
clergy, the ancient bishop, all impressed me. Often would I stand as a 
child out in the sunshine of the graveyard and watch the white-robed 
procession as it filed out from its vestry room near the front door and 
vanished into the blackness of the interior, as if they had gone into another 
world. My constant attendance, even as a child, won me recognition, 
and my happiness was complete when the verger would put me in the 
stalls, and one of the choir men give me a book of the anthems to follow 
the words of the singing. Another great source of pleasure to me was to 
wander from church to church in Holy Week — I mean those of the Roman 
communion. I knew verj^ little of what it all meant. I did it by stealth. 
Were I caught going to such " idolatrous " places woe betide me. How- 
ever, I went, all the same. How delicious it was, the rapt crowds, the de- 
votees, the strange want of reverence, as I thought, in some of the old 
women who would use no measured language if I pushed against them 
while telling their beads. I braved it all, however, for the sake of the 
monotonous chants from the seated priests, with the altar boys holding 
tapers among the mysterious ranks. vSacred or secular music was all alike 
to me in those days. I did not know then why the Sixth Tone, sung with 
stately dignity to words which I knew not, drew me to my childish 
knees, and when afterward I learned that the old musicians called that 
tone dcvotiis I felt they must have known what they were talking about. 
I have heard high mass at Cologne and the same at St. Peter's, but the 
echoes of the Sixth Tone, as heard by my childish ears in the Dominican 
church at Cork in Holy Week years ago has not been effaced. 

Happy days, though I knew nothing of music but its divine power. 
How I looked forward to Christmas, with its anthems from Handel, and 


my especial favorites, the Pastoral Symphony and There Were Shepherds. 
Of the first I knew only that it reminded me of incense floating upward, 
and the solo boy was, in my eyes, an actual angel. So time passed on. 
Gradually my musical senses were awakened. At a local exhibition in 
Cork I heard Julien's orchestra, and heard my first great singer, Mme. 
Persiani, then in the decline, but a marvel to me. Julien, who could for- 
get him and his self-enraptured conducting ? I was, in due time, as part 
of my poor fate and family reverses, apprenticed to a bookbinder and sta- 
tioner, but music lightened all my load. My employer, good man, was 
an amateur, and through his kindness I heard many an ' ' Antient Con- 
cert " in the rooms of the Imperial hotel, Pembroke street. Acts and 
Galatea, The Messiah, The Creation, and other works now forgotten. I 
reveled in them with a real rapture. It was always a fashionable com- 
pany, but I fancy the little unknown boy in the corner had as much real 
pleasure as any of them. 

My first knowledge of notes was derived from Joseph Mainzer, who 
made a tour of the Britisli Isles, teaching the masses, but somehow, pos- 
sibly from the want of opportunity, and also through change of voice, I 
never got very far. How to apply what I had learned to read other 
music never occurred to me. I gave all my attention in over-hours to 
.drawing and reading works on art. Time fled. Kinsfolk came across the 
water; I followed, and 1854 found me in Chicago. Mj- spare time from 
the workshop was ever devoted to art in .some form, and pleasant are the 
memories of concerts given under Cady, Hans Balatka, Carl Zerrahn and 
others, but yet I had not learned to play or sing intelligently. It was not 
until thrown into the society of others, in the intimacy caused by resi- 
dence together during the long winters, and the enforced seclusion of an 
Illinois midland town, that I gradually found I cound sing a part and 
learn to play. From that time onward I sought lessons. My first teacher 
was a Frenchman in Alton, named Treuchery. He was blind, but a most 
apt musician. He taught me a little harmony from the very first, and so 
opened up before me some of the inner delights and mysteries of music. 
There I played the orgsn in church, much to my own surprise, but to 
the satisfaction of those who could get no better performer. So the years 
fled. As a solace from the cares and worries of business music was ever 
with me, and at last when, in 1861, I determined to study for the ministn,-, 
music went with me to college and to seminary, and has continued with 
me ever since. My college years were spent with Dr. Chase, at Jubilee, 
Peoria county, 111., and my services there were in the chapel. At the 
General Theological Seminary, New York, I had the happiness of introduc- 

ing the first choral ser\'ice in the chapel there, and had the advantage of 
being a member of Trinity choir, under Dr. Cutler. 

After graduation I came back to Chicago and was detailed for duty 
at Aurora and Napen'ille. In the former place I presume the first choral 
service in the west was held on one wet Sundaj' morning, when not a 
soul came to church but m}'self, the quartette choir, the sexton and Mr. 
W. S. B. Mathews, the organist. He, ever eager for new knowledge, 
had got from me all the points of the choral service, so then and there we 
had a solemn function all by ourselves, the choir in the gallery, the 
parson in the chancel, the church empty (of all but angels) and the 
sexton looking wonderingly on. At Naper\dlle an evening service was 
established with a double choir of men and women, where full choral 
service was duly rendered. This was a delight and comfort to all con- 
cerned, and for more than a year after I left it was kept up with vigor. 
In 1867 I was called to the cathedral, where the choir was under my 
direction until I left, in 1884, for ray present charge, the church of St. 

At the cathedral was the first surpliced choir in Chicago; more than 
five hundred men and boys passed through its ranks during my headship. 
Here were heard for the first time in the west the works of Handel, 
Haydn, Purcell, Croft and others of the English school, besides the 
modern works of Gounod, Smart, Elvey, Macfarren, Stainer and Bamby, 
performed by men and boys. 

After leaving the cathedral, where the three fold duty of priest, 
preacher and precentor was carried on for so many years, I determined 
not to undertake again the detail work of church music, so in my 
present charge I am abl)- helped by my organist, Mr. P. C. Lutkin, who, 
one of ni)' old choristers at the cathedral, grew up from boyhood to man- 
hood under my eye. But my interest in music and faith in its power is 
as great as ever. I know verj' little about it, but the culmination of all 
art as presented by Wagner in his Parsifal revives in my heart the 
memor>' of my first conscious thrill of musical perception. The Good 
Friday music of the Parsifal and the scene in Siegfried, where he listens 
to the voices of the birds and the sounds in nature with intelligence, bring 
back to my mind the spring morning in Ireland when I first awoke to a 
conscious love of music. May our awakening in eternity be to continued 
delights. J. H. Knowles. 

Hf:NRY Stephen Cutler, Mus. Doc, 
Was born in Boston, Oct. 13, 1825. He early developed a great talent 
for music. His teachers were George Hughes, George F. Root, A. U. 
Hayter, who was then organist of Trinity, Boston, an Englishman by 
birth (he was not a Mus. Doc.) and one of the leading musicians of Bos- 
ton at that time (1844); he died in Dorchester, near Boston, of paralysis- 
in the year 1858. Dr. Cutler was sent by his father to Frankfort-on-the- 
Main in Germany, in 1844, to pursue the studj' of music, his teachers 
being one for the piano and one for violin. The time spent in study was 
two years. While in Europe Dr. Cutler became very much interested in 
the great cathedrals of Great Britain and visited as many as possible, 
London being the great center from which he first received his impres- 
sions of the church service rendered b}- their exceptionally well trained 
choirs, inspiring in him the determination, when he returned to his native 
city, to organize a choir made up as the choirs are in the English cathe- 
drals of men and boys. After returning to America Dr. Cutler was 
appointed organist of Grace church, Boston. In 1854 he was called to the 
Church of the Advent (Boston ), where there was a mixed choir in the gal- 
lery. Subsequently, at the suggestion of Dr. Cutler, the organ was removed 
to the chancel, and two choirs of men and boys were stationed on 
opposite sides of the chancel, being designated as decani and cantoris. 
This choir has the distinction of being the first surpliced choir in America. 
At the present day some of the men singing in the Advent choir were boys 
under Dr. Cutler. The introduction of surpliced men and boys as chor- 
isters was then regarded b\- many as a popish innovation. This prejudice 
was carried so far that Bishop Eastburn, of Massachusetts, declined to go 
to the Church of the Advent officially for any purpose whatever, so long 
as the ritualistic features were in vogue, and for eleven years the bishop 
of Massachusetts utterly refused to visit the church for the purpose of 
administering the rite of confirmation. At the expiration of that time a 
vote taken by the House of Bishops compelled him to waive his personal 
feeling in the matter and perform the functions of his office. 

In 1858 Dr. Cutler was called to temporarily take the place of Dr. 
Hodges, of Trinity church, New York city, (who was striken with paral- 
ysis). Dr. Cutler assumed direction of the music, remaining in charge 
of the Advent choir in Boston as well, for a considerable time, until obliged 
to abandon the Advent choir, that he might give his entire time and atten- 
tion to the work at Trinitj-, New York. Dr. Hodges had a leave of 
absence for six months, and thereupon visited Bristol, Eng. (his native 
city). At the expiration of this leave of absence it v.'as extended by the 
vestr>' six months longer. Dr. Cutler meanwhile remaining in charge of 

the music at Trinity. Meanwhile, by the consent of the rector and vestr>% 
the women of the choir were dismissed leaving men and boys to sustain 
the four vocal parts. Dr. Hodges was never able to resume his position, 
and an his return to America resigned from Trinity, returned to Bristol, 
and a j-ear after passed to the life eternal. Dr. Cutler then determined to 
organize and train the choir preparatory- to vesting and placing in the 
chancel, which had to be done gradually-, as many people in the parish 
were very much opposed to this innovation. After two years at Trinity 
the first occasion of the choir being vested in the chancel was the Sundaj- 
preceeding the visit of the Prince of Wales, Oct. 15, i860, this event giv- 
ing Dr. Cutler the opportunity of carrying his purpose into effect, as it 
was thought not proper to present the .service before so august a personage 
without surplicing the choir. The surplices on for a public ser\-ice, they 
had come to stay, the vestments having been given to the church six months 

The next difficulty was to accompany the choir with the galler}' 
organ. After much urging, the vestry consented to put in a chancel organ, 
in 1865. Dr. Cutler had received from Columbia College his degree of 
Mus. Doc. in the previous year, the third time the degree had been con- 
ferred in this country. He left Trinity church in 1865 and took charge 
at Christ church. New York city, where there was a surpliced choir in the 
chancel and mixed choir in the gallery, at that time the only choir so 
organized in any Protestant church in America. Other positions held by 
Dr. Cutler were at St. Ann's, Brooklyn; St. Stephen's, Providence; St. 
Mark's, Philadelphia. Zion church. New York city; St. Paul's, Troy. 
This latter position Dr. Cutler resigned in 1885, since which time he has 
resided in his native city, Boston, not in any active work, as his health 
has been such that his physicians recommended a rest from certain study 
in his profession. Dr. Cutler married in 1S83 ^I'ss Ella F. McNoah, of 

Dr. Cutler has written twenty compositions for the organ, among 
them three andantes, three variations, sarabande, toccata, six fugues and 
three canons. He is also the composer of nine services, thirty-four 
anthems, 107th Psalm in cantata form, and a number of excellent hymn 
tunes, among which we may mention The Son of God Goes Forth to War, 
and Brightest ayid Best of the Sons of the Morning. 

Samuei, Benton Whitney. 

This celebrated organist and director of church music was born at 
Woodstock, Yt., June4, 1842. After pursuing musical studies for some 
time with various teachers, Charles Wels, of New York, being the last, 

S. B. Whitney. 

he returned to Montpelier and was organist in Christ church for four 
years. In 1870 he resumed his studies under the direction of Prof. John 
K. Paine, assisting him also as organist in Appleton chapel. In 1871 he 
was appointed organist of the Church of the Advent, Boston, where he 
has ever since remained. In this position he has been identified with 
liturgical music, vested choirs, and a reverent performance of church 
music. As an organist he belongs to the strict school, and but for his 
modesty would be much oftener heard outside the walls of his own 
church. He is professor of the organ and lecturer in the New England 
Conservatory, and in Boston University, and is a member of many musical 
associations. Mr. Whitney is also a prominent member of the American 
College of Musicians, and one of the examiners in the department of the 
organ. Mr. Whitney has written much music, mostly for church or the 
organ, but unfortunately it has not been possible to obtain a complete list 
for insertion here. 

The following resume of the present state of the vested choir move- 
ment has been prepared for this work by one of the most competent organ- 
ists and choir masters. 

Present State of the Vested Choir Movement. 

The present state of the vested choir movement is gratifying to its 
advocates. Its growth in the last ten years has been so rapid that there 
are no available data as to its present actual strength. Each recur- 
ruig Advent finds in nearly ever)' diocese several additional churches 
which have displaced quartette and introduced a vested choir of boys and 
men. In the middle west the increase is greater than in other sections. 
The arguments urged for the vested choir over the time-honored quartette 
are practically as follows: " It is more in keeping with the spirit of praise 
and worship to the Deity; it lends itself to the grand liturgy, impressing 
the eye as well as the heart; it is the best incentive to congregational 
singing; it influences for good, and often wholly shapes the lives of hun- 
dreds of youth, in purity and morality, and thereby' carries this influence 
to many homes; it gives an education in vocal music to boys whose 
parents often could not otherwise afford it, creating a taste for the highest 
type of liturgical music, and the cotta and cassock clothe rich and poor 
alike before men, in the white and black garb of purity and humility. 

At present the movement is retarded by the scarcity of competent 
choir masters, which term comprehends a man of moral character 
with a proper appreciation of a dignified and reverent choral service, and 
ability as a vocal trainer and director, with tact and a decided faculty of 
getting along with boys. Once introduced, if at all %vell managed, a 

vested choir permanently supplants every other form cf rendering the 
canticles and anthems of the ser\'ice, and a return to a quartette or mixed 
choir is almost never known. Twenty-four is about the smallest number 
of singers desirable in a vested choir, unless composed of picked solo voices, 
and the average number in the American choirs is about thirty-five. There 
are a few having fifty or sixty singers, the largest in this country and 
probably in the world, being in Grace Episcopal church, Chicago, which 
numbers seventy-five active members, fifty boys and twenty-five men. 
In two respects are the choirs in the American churches deviating 
from the cathedral and parish traditions of England, viz.; in the strict 
gradation of the singers as to size and the " keeping step " to the cadence 
of the hymn in the processionals and recessionals, in slow and stately 
marching time, rather than the disorderly and ragged way of walking in, 
regardless of size — an improvement in churchly effect which first originated 
in the west; and in the use of oratorio choruses and masses as anthems, 
and the most advanced services and (canticle sittings, ) modern com- 
posers. Such as Barnby, Tours, Calkin, Garrett, Horseley, Elvey, 
Martin, Hopkins, Gladstone, Trimnell, Haynes, King Hall, Stainer, 
\Vesle3', Loyd, Goss, Macfarren, Dykes, Prout, Ouseley, Sullivan, 
Gadsby, Smart, Hiles, Field, Monk, Williams, Mann, Lloyd, Parrj^ 
Selby, Stanford, Steggall, Tuckerman, etc. 

Henry Bueli. Roxey. 

This well known organist and choir master was born at Bellefontaine, 
O., and was at first an entirely self-taught musician. He received his 
introduction into a higher of music from Mr. W. S. B. Mathews, 
at a normal institute in the summer of 1879. After this he studied with 
Mr. Mathews, Arthur J. Creswold, Eugene Thayer, B. J. Lang and 
others, and settled in East Saginaw, Mich., in 1873, where for about fifteen 
years he held a leading position as concert organist, pianist and teacher. 
About 1880 he took charge of a vested choir at East Saginaw, in which 
his success was so conspicuous that it led to his being called to Grace 
church in Chicago in 1888, where he gained the good will of all con- 
cerned to such effect that at the beginning of the second year of his 
incumbency his saJary was increased about $500 annually by the voluntary 
and unsolicited action of the music committee. Mr. Roney has written 
several processional hymns for his choir and is also engaged in the active 
work of teaching, but his most successful efforts have been made as choir 
master. He is wonderfully patient and skillful in the conduct of his 
choir, and not onh' trains the members in music, but keeps an eye on 
their morals, so that to-day the choir of Grace church is a model choir. 

The St. Cecilia Society of America. 

|f HE elaborate ritual of the Romish church, and her possession 
of many musical artists of the highest class within her com- 
munion, have exposed her in all ages to peculiar dangers. In 
the effort to render the services imposing, priests have tolerated 
these artists in carrying their art to an extreme, rendering the sac- 
rifice of the mass a mere concert or opportunity for display. 
The lightest arias of Rossini and other Italian opera composers have 
been set to most sacred words, and introduced with all their the- 
atrical associations still fresh about them. Composers have written 
masses in which they have given loose rein to their lightest and most 
pleasing fancies, or, like the Netherlandish masters of the fifteenth 
and sixteenth centuries, have piled Pelion upon Ossa with contrapuntal 
devices. In the period just named the abuse reached such a point that 
Pope Pius IV appointed a cardinal to inspect the music of the papal 
choir and report with regard to its suitability. He reported that the 
singing of the choir resembled a ' ' mass of cats wrangling together and 
snarling more than it did the reverent worship of God." The force of 
the cardinal's homely and unvarnished description will be better under- 
stood when it is remembered that composers of the period were in the 
habit of intermingling the voices through the musical device called 
canonic imitation to such an extent that not one single word of the text 
could be made out by the closest obser\-er ; and this not through any 
carelessness of the singers, but simply through the Conflicting utterances 
of the different parts, where not infrequently there were eight different 
parts, singing as many entirely different words at the same moment. It 
was to reform abuses of this kind that Palestrina was commissioned to 
make his reform, which had in it two elements: The composition of 
music more suited to the sentiment of the sacred words of the offices of the 
church, and a modification of the style of rendering that music, in the 
direction of making it reverent, religious and devotional. The music 
composed by Palestrina has remained a monument of his genius no less 
than of his devotion, but the development of the art of music since has 
educated the ears of the worshipers in quite other directions than this one 

of reverence and simplicity. It is, however, a mistake to suppose that 
the music of Palestrina was simple in the sense we now attach to the 
term. It was simple, as compared with the music of most of the com- 
posers of his time, but differs from them yet farther in this one point, 
namely, in a true intuition of the relation of music to feeling. Pales- 
trina's music when properly interpreted is religious in character. It leads 
the soul to devotion, instead of carrying it away in secular association. 
With the majority of church choirs the music of Palestrina is so much a 
mere tradition that not one of them could sing it without special prepara- 
tion therefor, and it has therefore been allowed to fall into disuse, along 
with the original Ambrosian song of the church, the plain song, upon 
which all of Palestrina' s works are founded. Hence in the progress of 
modern secular music, and especially in the taste for the spectacular and 
the sensational, Roman Catholic music has been nearly as far perverted 
from the true plane of church music as that of any other sect or denomi- 
nation. It was to make a stand for reform in this respect, that a great 
organizer was raised up in the person of the late Dr. Francis Witt, who in 
1868 founded the Society of St. Caecilia, designed to promote the revival of 
the music of Palestrina and other ancient composers of similar purity and 
nobility, to promote congregational singing in the vernacular, so far as 
allowed by ecclesiastical prescription, and to indicate to modem music the 
direction it should be reformed in order to bring its ample wealth of musical 
means to the acceptable ministration of the worship of the Most High. Dr. 
Witt traveled, lectured and organized branch societies. He published a 
journal devoted to the promulgation of his ideas, and added to it musical 
supplements of ancient pieces available for modem use. Great festivals 
were organized in different parts of Europe, in which many choirs of 
churches in the vicinitj' took part. 

The movement spread to America in 1876, when through the instru- 
mentality of the late Dr. Salzmann and the Rt. Rev. Bishop Heiss, of 
Milwaukee, Sir John Singenberger, a pupil and trusted assistant of Dr. 
Witt, was induced to come to America and take charge of the music in the 
Catholic normal school at St. Francis, Wis. Here he organized the society 
May 7, 1873. The objects of the society, broadly stated, are to restore 
simplicity to the musical services of the church, to prefer the Gregorian 
chant, wherever possible, to cultivate congregational singing in the ver- 
nacular as far as allowed by ecclesiastical authority and, by systematic 
instruction in the schools to train children to sing properly in the service 
of God and the church. Six weeks after the organization of the society 
the first sacred concert was given in the chapel of the seminary, and since 

that time il has grown rapidlj- until now it has more than 5,000 members, 
all of whom take an active interest in church music. 

The want of a medium for communication and instruction was soon 
felt, and in 1874 Sir John Singenberger, president of the society, began to 
published the Cecilia, with which were issued supplements of good church 
music by ancient and modern masters. The first general meeting of the 
society was held in the hall of St. Gall congregation, Milwaukee, June 
14, 1874, when two hundred members were present, and an excellent 
sacred concert was given. At the second general meeting, held at Day- 
ton, O., in August, 1875, several choirs assisted, and under the able lead- 
ership of Singenberger, that same A/issa Papa- Afarcclli was sung, by 
which Palestrina won his victory. That year the most Rev. Henni 
appealed to Rome for a special cardinal protector and papal approbation. 
In 1876, both petitions were granted, placing the society in a proper 
light before the communit)', and encouraging new efforts to promote 
reform in the music of the church. Annual conventions have been held 
at different places, and special meetings for the purpose of instruction. 
In 1882, the president of the society. Sir John Singenberger, was 
knighted by Pope Leo XIII, who conferred upon him the order of St. 
Gregory- the Great. The ofiicers are Sir John B. Singenberger, president; 
E. Andries, vice-president; F. Katzer, treasurer; F. \V. Pope, assistant 
treasurer; H. Karis, recording secretary; J. Enzelberger, corresponding 
secretary; all students of the theological seminary. The movement thus 
inaugurated is full of promise of a better condition of musical taste and 
practice in the vast communion of the church in America. 

Chevalier John B. Singenberger, 

Knight of the order of St. Gregory the Great, president and founder 
of the American St. Cecilian Society, professor of music at the 
Catholic Normal School, St. Francis, Wis., editor of the Cecilia, a 
monthly journal, was bom May 25, 1848, at Kirchberg, Switzer- 
land. He studied at the Jesuit college of Feldkirch, Austria, where 
he received piano, organ, violin and composition instructions from \V. 
Brien, of the Munich Consen-atory ; from Carl Greith he received vocal 
training. After graduating at the Insbruck university in 1870, he spent 
much time in Munich, where he enjoyed the friendship of the greatest 
masters of the day, among them, Liszt, Rheinberger, Koenan and Kaim. 
In 1871 he was appointed director of the seminary choir of Chur. In 1872 
he studied organ and counterpoint under Hanisch, Haberland, Holler 
and became a favorite pupil of Dr. F. Witt. Sir Lingenberger devoted 
his energies to the Gregorian music, and, at present, is not only one of the 

most prominent, but also one of the most capable representatives of that 
method. In 1873 he came to this country and organized the American 
Cecilian Societj-. His compositions include: Fourteen masses, six com- 
plete vespers, twenty hymns for benediction, sixteen motetts, five instruc- 
tion books, a short lustrudions iti the Art of Singing Plain Chant, a long 
book for parochial schools, a theoretical and practical organ method, 
one pedal school, an organ book, one Adoro Te organ book. Sir 
Singenberger has filled numerous engagements and taught classes in 
various institutions in the stale of Wisconsin. By extraordinan,- applica- 
tion he has entirely mastered the old school, and in that spirit writes all 
his compositions. By a rare combination of talents he has, in a compar- 
atively short time, achieved an immense success. His energy, activity 
and executive ability have brought the American St. Cecilian Society to 
its present influential position, and it is but just to say that he has been 
ably assisted by the Rev. J. B. Jung, the first vice-president of the society. 

Rev. J. B. Jung. 

Rev. J. B. Jung, first vice-president American St. Cecilian Society, 
was bom Nov. 16, '1884, at Zu Kenried, Ct. St. Gall, Switzerland. 
He received his training in piano, theory and singing from Carl Greith 
and P. Stehle. He directed .seminary choir in Chur, Ct. Granbuendten, 
Switzerland, '68 to '70; first came to America Aug. 12, 1870, and was 
appointed rector of St. Michael'-s, Findlay, O., and taught his choir per- 
sonally. Since 1S78 he has been pastor of St. John's, at Defiance, O., 
where he also instructs the choir. Both these choirs met with success at 
several conventions of the American St. Cecilian Society. As musical 
journalist (German) he has won distinction by such articles as The 
Ecclesiastical Year, Directing Choirs, Singi7ig in Schools, Liturgical Sing- 
ing Prayers. His compositions for church music appeared in the supple- 
ments of the Cu-cilia. His greatest opus. The Roman I 'csperalc, for 
Catholic choirs (Pustet, Ed.), will ser\-e as a lasting reminder of a faithful 
career in the cause of ' ' reformation of Catholic church music. ' ' 


^HE influence of environment is nowhere in the present history 
shown more clearly than in that part relating to the queen of 

^ musical instruments, the violin, which Berlioz calls the "woman's 
^^ voice of the orchestra. ' ' Although many musically inclined Amer- 
ffi ican youths have devoted more or less attention to it for two genera- 
1 tions at least, very little of the higher violin playing has come of it. 
Nor are the reasons of this seeming lack of capacity far to seek. In the 
first place, proper elementary instruction has nearly always been wanting, 
especially in the period when the growing boy must form his life-long 
habits of bowing and exactness of intonation. Nor is there anything very 
inviting in the career of an orchestral violinist to tempt a smart boy to 
adopt it as a profession, still less to invest in it the capital of time, appli- 
cation and money necessary for yielding considerable returns. In the 
absence of orchestras there was none of that unconscious education of ear, 
and incitement of ambition, always open to a German or other European 
boy. In certain respects the condition of things is changing here for the 
better, and in some of the largest conservatories there are many students 
of the violin, but, for the commercial reasons already suggested, few of 
them have higher views than the career of amateurs, and those whose 
ideas go beyond this are often diverted from their purpose when they 
have inviting openings for commercial activity. Still, many things indi- 
cate that a better time is approaching in this country for the lovers of this 
beautiful instrument. Americans have rivaled the best work of the prin- 
cipal foreign violin makers, and the manufacture of violins selling at $25 
and over has now reached considerable proportions, measured commer- 
cially in volume of product. This indicates that somebody takes an inter- 
est in the violin. Moreover, the ideals of the young players are in pro- 
cess of education. Orchestras now play almost everj'where, at least occa- 
sionally, and the finer kinds of music are represented in fair proportion 
in the programmes of traveling companies. Hence the young violinist 
has opportunity to hear music and to have his taste stimulated, if not 
formed, by at least occasional hearing of attractive virtuosi. Moreover, 

the greater frequency of combinations for pla3'ing chataber music is very 
noticeable, both as it regards professional and amateur organizations. In 
almost every town or small city now there is a combination of local musi- 
cians for carrying on concerts of this class of music. 

After all, however, the playing of the traveling violinists must be 
regarded as the main stimulus of aspiring young fiddlers, for which rea- 
son a brief sketch of a few of the most notable is here appended. Perhaps 
the most popular violinist who ever played in America was the celebrated 
Norwegian, Ole Bull, who is almost as well known here as if he had been 
native to the .soil. 

Ole Bull. 

On the 5th of Februarj-, 1810, there was born in the little Norwegian 
town of Bergen one of the world's greatest violinists — Ole Bull. Like 
many another famous musician, this Scandinavian heir to Paganini's skill 
displayed singular precocity in childhood. His love for music became 
strongly pronounced when he was but four years old. He lost no oppor- 
tunity of hearing musical performances, and whenever his uncle, " Jeus," 
assisted bj- three other amateurs, played over their favorite quartettes, he 
would conceal himself under the parlor sofa listening with keen delight. 
His friends and relatives were inclined to encourage the j'outhful genius, 
and he was soon supplied with a violin and such tutoring as Bergen could 
afford. So well did the little Ole apply himself that at the age of nine he 
was able to take a seat in the theatre orchestra where his father was also 
engaged. Fortunately, the boy's musical skill was not gained at the 
expense of health. He grew up tall, healthy and vigorous, with a mag- 
nificent phj-sique and great strength of muscle. It was in the years of 
his j-outh that he acquired that love of nature which afterward inspired 
some of his ablest productions. With his violin for companion, he would 
haunt the gloomy forests around Bergen, conjuring up melodies with which 
to express in tone the weird beauties which he saw about him. He used 
to say of his music, ' ' The wind, the waterfalls and all nature furnish my 
themes." On reaching his majority he was enabled to realize his long- 
cherished desire to visit Paris. For some months he resided in the great 
metropolis, living in poverty and the miseries of disappointment and 
despair. At last, when on the point of giving up the fight against such 
unequal odds, he met with a piece of fortune which put him on his feet 
again and inspired him with renewed hope. One morning he happened 
to strike up a chance acquaintance with a stranger whom he met in in a 
cafe, and by whom he was advised to trj- his luck at ' ' Rouget Noir. ' ' 
Acting upon the stranger's advice, the two men found a table where 

Ole Bull. 

gaming was going on. Coached by his new-found friend, the despondent 
violinist played on the red. Luck favored him, and he won. Again he 
played, and with success, and before he left the house he owned eight 
hundred francs in gold. Afterward he learned that his chance friend was 
the famous detective Vidocq. With a heavy purse and a light heart, Bull 
again entered upon the struggle for fame and fortune. He journeyed to 
Milan, where, after six months' hard study he found himself a finished 
artist, and felt that he could conscientiously put himself before the public 
as such. He commenced a series of concerts, making a tour through 
Italy, Spain, Hungary, Russia and Germany. He scored a phenomenal 
success everj'where. His mastery of technical difficulties, as well as his 
delicate and exquisite expression, made the public his friends from the start. 
Only ten years previous, Paganini had given a similar series of concert 
tours, and naturally enough the critics were inclined to make comparisons 
— comparisons which, however, were complimentary to both the great 
artists. Shortly afterward Bull decided to visit the new world. In 1843 
he sailed for Boston. In New York he gave a number of highly success- 
ful concerts, and then started on a concert tour through the chief cities. His 
reception was everj'where warm and appreciative. He was at once recog- 
nized as the greatest violinist that had been heard in this countrj'. Leav- 
ing America enthusiastic over his performances. Bull went to Spain, to 
Cuba, and finally back to Norway, where he spent some years. In 1876 
he again came to America. His return was the occasion of a genuine 
ovation. His first concert was given in the Music hall in Boston. When 
he stepped out upon the stage, violin in hand, the large audience rose to 
its feet amid storms of " Bravo's," and cheers. In 1880 Bull returned to 
his well loved native town, and there, surrounded by friends and relatives 
he passed awaj'. It is generally conceded that Ole Bull has rarely been 
equaled as a popular violinist. As a player of Norse melodies, and the 
melancholy folk-songs of his native country he was unsurpassable. 
After the composition of the great masters he exhibited a preference for 
the works of Paganini and Spohr, whose music was frequently found on 
his programmes. Among his own difficult but beautiful works, the best 
known are Polaua Guerrero, concerto in A major, concerto in E minor, 
Griiss ans des Feme, and La Verbenade San Juan. 

Another plaj-er, almost equally popular with the masses, was Edouard 
Remenyi, the Hungarian, who gave his sensational recitals in all 
the leading cities, and in many of the smaller ones. Remenyi is an 
excellent advertiser of his instrument. He gets out his violin and plays 
a few tunes to the porter of the sleeping car; he is always ready to talk 
with the reporter, and his reminiscences yield visible results in the form 

J7^^- J^e^^=-#^^^^^^ 

of interviews by the column, while his personality is eminently a taking 
one. Then he carries an Amati violin of singularly sweet tone, yet does 
not disdain to play at times upon a violin made in America, if, as St Paul 
says, ' ' thereby he can gain some. ' ' The value of the tours of an artist 
of this class is mainly in his advertising the instrument, and in persuad- 
ing the hearers that it is the most wonderful apparatus of music which 
one could wish to play. 

Of a very different character was the great German player, Wilhemj, 
who made a tour of the country in 1875, playing everywhere with the 
greatest appreciation. Wilhemj had a technique larger than that of any 
other violinist who ever played in America, except Weniawski, and he 
had also the advantage of a wonderful instrument, a genuine Stradivarius, 
the tone of which was singularly broad, musical and noble. Especially 
was this the case with the G string, which Wilhelmj was in the habit of 
illustrating by means of Bach's mystical air for this string. With this he 
never failed to bring down the, just as reliably as Thomas did for 
many years with the Handel Largo, for his orchestra. The vi.sit of 
Wilhelmj was short, and is not likely to be repeated, for he is a wealthy 
man, and a large wine merchant, upon whom the concert stage has small 
hold. Another celebrated master who made several tours of the countrj', 
was the French artist Vieuxtemps, a very neat player, dealing mostly 
with his own pleasing pieces. He was here several times. 

It is now quite a number of years since we have begun to possess 
masters of the violin resident in America not inferior to most of those of 
the old world. One of the most important of these is Julius Eichberg, of 
the Boston Conservatory, whose story is told elsewhere in connection with 
this school, which has been fortunate in forming many good players. 
Another master of ven,- high rank is Professor Jacobsohn, of the Chicago 
Musical College, whose record as artist is scarcely less important than 
that as teacher. 


This gentleman, who has in America a national reputation, is one of 
the chiefs of Dr. Ziegfeld's excellent staif. He was born in Milan, Italy, 
in 1839. Music came to him as a spontaneous gift, and in his earliest 
youth, to elicit melody from the violin seemed as natural as to draw breath 
by the exercise of the respiratory organs. His instinct led him to the 
practice of whatever was artistically the highest and best in such music as 
he had access to. His expert and original rendering of dance music, 
while he was still a lad, attracted the attention of Pastel, the famous 



director, who, with his experience and acute discriiniiiation, at once 
detected the real fire of true genius in the boy's uncultivated music. 
Through the aid of Pastel, Jacobsohn was sent to Riga, where he studied 
under Concertmeister Weller. The new life here opened up to him ex- 
cited everj- fiber of his artistic being to a new and invigorated impulse, 
and he thus mastered the difficulties of a higher art-life, and qualified 
himself by his zeal and accomplishments for a place in the Leipzig Con- 
servaton,-. So well did he improve his opportunities, that in i860 he was 
selected, out of numerous applicants, as concertmeister at Bremen, and here 
he remained for a period of twelve years, in which he acquired a wide public 
reputation. In 1872 he came *o America as concertmaster of Theodore 
Thomas' orchestra, and for six years filled this position, all the while 
gaining in the esteem of the higher musical circles. In 1876 he organized 
a quartette, which soon became famous ; but in the capacity of purveyor to 
the public he was not long allowed to remain. The Cincinnati College of 
Music first secured his services as an instructor, but his worth and import- 
ance had attracted the attention of the keen and discriminating Director of 
the Chicago Musical College, and Mr. Jacobsohn soon found a permanent 
place of usefulness as director of the violin department of this institu- 
tion, w^here he has fully justified all the expectations that Dr. Ziegfeld 
entertained of his advantage to that institution. Of his work in Chicago, 
it is only necessary to say that it was owing to his direction and effort 
that we have such accomplished pupils of the violin as Michael Banner, 
Max Bendix, Theodore Binder, Henry Burke, Charles Henzen, Nicholas 
Long^vorth and others. In the wide world of art Prof. Jacobsohn occu- 
pies a high place. In ensemble and chamber music, he has, perhaps, few 
rivals in America, and he is active and conscientious in his endeavor to 
transmit to his pupils all that is highest and best in the exemplification of 
the possibilities of the instrument to which he is devoted. 

WiLLi.-^M Lewis. 

Mr. William Lewis of Chicago was a concert player in the days when 
the standard was lower than now, and his storj- is the interesting one of 
the self-made American boy, who by his own exertions makes himself 
master of one of the most difficult arts in practical music, that of the 
of the higher play of the violin — since for its proper performance it needs 
mature and refined perceptions of harmonic relations, to the farthest 
extent that modern composers go, and a taste for and understanding of 
the art of singing in its highest application, namely to melodies of the 
most refined and poetic kind. Mr. Lewis was born in Devonshire, Eng- 
land, in 1837, but his parents removed to Ohio, near Cleveland, when he 


was still a boy, but he had become a very good violinist before leaving Eng- 
land. They being farmers, William had to plow corn, and pursue other rural 
occupations not to his liking, for he would be a violinist. It happened 
one summer that the ' ' Black Swan ' ' was to sing in Cleveland upon a 
certain evening; this concert was the goal of the aspiring boy's hope. He 
thought of it by day, and dreamed of it by night. At length the day 
came near, and one forenoon the desperate lad hitched the team in a fence 
corner, and went across lots to a depot where he got upon a freight train to 
go to Cleveland. He succeeded in working his way, and arrived in Cleve- 
land without friends or money. Dressed in his farm clothes he went to 
the hotel where Colonel Wood, the manager of the colored singer, was 
stopping, and introduced himself and stated his wish. Wood sent out for 
a violin and made him play for him then and there. The boy's talent 
was so evident that he bought him a suit of clothes, and had him play a 
solo that night and the next. He then sent him home with $20 in 
money. The sight of money pacified the irate father, and from that time 
the bo}' was free to follow his inclination. It would take too long to 
recount his after-career, as orchestral player in Chicago, solo violinist in 
various concert companies, dealer in musical instruments, and the like, 
but it would indeed be shabby to lose sight of two points in his record, 
which deser\-e to distinguish him honorably on the rolls of fame. The 
first is his activity as director of chamber concerts in Chicago, where, in 
connection with various musicians, but especially with Carl Wolfsohn, 
Mr. Liebling and Miss Agnes IngersoU, he has maintained some of the 
most important series of chamber concerts given in the city. His other 
great point is his record as teacher. Among the many talented pupils he 
has had who are now occupying important positions, no one reflects 
higher honor upon him than that most pleasing and accomplished player, 
;\Iiss Maud Powell, of whom more will presently be said. 

But before speaking of her there is another lady player, older than 
she, who must first be mentioned, especialh- as she had much to do with 
awakening a taste for violin playing throughout the country, namelj', 
Mme. Camilla Urso, now living at Nashville, Tenn. She made her first 
appearance in this countrj' in Boston, as a little, dark, short-dressed girl 
of twelve, at the concerts of the Germania Society and the Musical Fund 
in the season of 1853-54. Since then she has toured the country 
repeatedly as solo artist, and has shown by her reposeful and absorbed 
style of playing the comfort a woman may take in this most expressive 

Probably the best American violinist at present is Miss Maud Powell, 
an Illinois girl, born at Aurora, in 1867, daughter of the principal of 

public schools, and niece of the celebrated explorer of the Yellowstone 
region. She began lessons with Mr. William Lewis when still quite 
young, for the violin has always been her passion. For six or seven 
years she studied with him, then he took her abroad in 1881, where she 
remained for study, one year with Schradick in Leipzig, afterward with 
Danckler at Paris, and finally with Joachim at Berlin. She returned to 
America and made her debut with the Thomas orchestra, in the Mendels- 
sohn E Minor Concerto, in Chicago, June, 1886. Her success was 
immediate, and her concert business has been large ever since. Her 
playing is characterized by repose, a full tone, magnificent technique, 
refined legato bowing, and, in fact, all the good qualities of a real artist. 
Withal, she is a sincere disciple and votary of her art, and there is every 
reason to anticipate for her a most distinguished career. 

OviDE MusiN. 

Another very popular violinist in America at present, 1889, is the 
Belgian, Ovide Musin. He was born at the ancient city of Liege, in 
1857, and was educated at the con.servatory of Brussels, under Leonard. 
He made his debut as artist about ten years ago, and since 1 884 has been 
much in America. His playing is masterly, especially in repose and 
assurance, his technique being so great as to pennit him to perform all 
sorts of difficulties without anxiety. He also excels in sensational and 
pleasing playing, for which reason he is perhaps the best popular violin- 
ist we have had since the death of Ole Bull. He is also a composer of 
many attractive pieces. 

TniOTHIE Ad.v.mowski. 

This artistic violinist of the Boston orchestra is widely known from 
his beautiful solo playing in various concert organizations, in which he 
has been a star. His technique is fluent and masterly, and his tone 
highly musical. His repertoire is very large. Biographical particulars 
conceminsr him have not been received. 

T. Adamowski. 


Scarcely less important than the leading players alreadj- men- 
tioned are those who have distinguished themselves upon the 
IP''^ other principal instruments of the orchestra. It has been their 
mission to make known to audiences largeh' unfamiliar with them, 
the powers and resources of the less common instruments, or those 
not usuallj' played in an artistic manner. One of the oldest and 
best known of this class is Mr. Thomas Ryan, so long leader of the cele- 
brated Mendellsohn Quintette Club, of Boston. 

Mr. Thomas Rvan. 
To write the life of this eminent veteran among American musicians is 
to write the historj- of the ]\Iendelssohn Quintette Club of Boston, an 
organization which is one of the most prominent as well as one of the 
oldest musical societies in this country. Mr. Ryan was one of its found- 
ers, and he has always remained at his post as one of its conspicuous 
members. Mr. Thomas Ryan was born in Ireland, his parents being 
musical people of some attainments. At the age of seventeen he came to 
this country and pursued the musical studies which had already begun to 
enlist his earnest interest. In the autumn of 1849 the Mendelssohn Quin- 
tette Club was organized by Messrs. August Fries, Francis Riha, Edward 
Lehmann, Thomas Ryan and Wulf Fries, Mr. Ryan being at that time 
twenty-two years of age. The first concert of the club was given at the 
piano warerooms of Jonas Chickering, Mr. Rj-an playing a clarinet con- 
certo by F. Berr, and also the viola parts in quintettes by Mendelssohn 
and Beethoven. At the age of twentj--five he married, two daughters 
blessing the union, one of whom is married to Mr. G. W. Sumner, the 
Boston organist, the j-ounger daughter being a promising young vocalist, 
a pupil of Mme. Marchesi. To Mr. Rj-an is due the excellence and the 
prominence of the Mendelssohn Quintette Club, for he is one of the few 
admirable musicians who have demonstrated the possession of business 
acumen. Naturallj' th^ persontiel has been frequently changed, but the 
artistic standard has always been kept up to the highest. For fort}' years 
Mr. Ryan has been the leading spirit of the organization, and now he is 
tlie only one of the members who was at the foundation of the society. 

It is not too much to say that this club has done as much for the popular- 
izing of high-class music as any one factor in the development of 
America's musical life. 

From its small and complete organization, it has been able to visit 
the smallest of towns, as well as the largest cities, and there is scarcely a 
town of four thousand people from Maine to California which it has not 
repeatedly visited. The club has been three times on the Pacific coast, 
has concertized as far north as British Columbia, and south as San Diego 
on the edge of Mexico, and made a lengthj' visit to the Australian 
colonies and islands in the south Pacific ocean; also stopped at the Sand- 
wich islands twice. 

Mr. Rj-an is a virtuoso clarinet player, but he is almost equally pro- 
ficient on the viola and several other instruments. He has composed 
string quartettes, quintettes, songs and numerous other works which a high degree of merit. 

Antox Sbrigx.\dei.lo. , . 

Anton Sbrignadello, the violinist and professor of music, was bom 
in Venice in 1855, and is a member of a family noted for the musical 
talent its scions have displayed. The subject of this sketch developed at 
an early age signs of more than ordinar\' abilitj' and love for the art of 
music, and his earliest instruction was received at the hands of his grand- 
father, Anton Sbrignadello (born 1802), the latter being famous as a 
musician, particularly as a violinist. 

When he was but fourteen j-ears of age young Sbrignadello's 
accomplishments as a violinist were such that the papers of his native city 
referred to him as "the 3-oung Paganini," and the brilliancy of his 
technique was marveled at by all who heard him. Shortly afterward he 
was sent by his parents to Milan, where he pursued his study of the violin 
under the tuition of Signor Corbellini, at that time solo violinist of La 
Scala theatre. Young Sbrignadello also devoted much of his time to 
the study of harmony, the piano and vocal art, under such eminent 
masters as Lamperti and Mazzacato. His general education was by no 
means neglected, and, while giving most of his time to music, he also 
found time to study languages, and he became proficient in several. He 
finished his period of study at Milan when he was nineteen years of age, 
and then a concert tour was arranged for him, to include the principal 
Italian art centres, where his talent might find thorough appreciation. 
After his tour, in which he met with decided success, he visited Russia. 
He was made the recipient of a flattering offer to remain in that country 
and divide his time between concert playing and teaching. He accepted 



this offer upon most favorable terms, and lemained in Russia for several 
years. From Russia he came to America, locating first at New York, 
where he was engaged by the conservatory as a professor of violin. 
Thence he went to Brooklyn and founded the Brooklyn College of Music, 
which began its career under favorable auspices in November, i588, and 
has been highly .successful under Signor Sbrignadello's capable direction. 
He has written a number of meritorious compositions for the piano and 
the violin. 

J.\..MHs Monroe Deems. 

Brigadier General James Monroe Deems whose name is associated 
with music, particularly in the state of Maryland, was born in the city 
of Baltimore Jan. 9, 18 18. He was the son of Captain Jacob Deems, 
a popular and public-spirited citizen of Baltimore, who commanded a 
company in the Fifty-third regiment of Mar\-land infantry in the war 
of 1812. At an early age the subject of this sketch showed a great love 
for mtisic, and as early as his fifth year he could play on the bugle, which 
then took in military bands the place now occupied by the cornet. He 
had an opportunity to play in connection with the band attached to 
his father's company, as it met frequently in his father's house for practice. 
He received his first musical instruction from Captain William Rountree, 
who led the band of the company referred to. He learned the clarinet 
and the French horn, and at the age of thirteen he played in an orchestra. 
He subsequently studied the piano, organ and musical composition. In 
1839 General Deems went to Germany to continue his musical studies. 
He located at Dresden and studied composition with J. J. F. Dotzauer, 
then the first 'cellist in Europe. At that time Dresden had the finest 
opera company and orchestra in Europe, and while pursuing his studies 
in that city Mr. Deems had opportunities of hearing the very best of 
music. While in Dresden he was implicated in an affair of honor in 
which he distinguished himself by accepting a challenge and naming as 
weapons and conditions, " rifles at ten paces." His terms were declined, 
and the German officer who had been rash enough to challenge him was 
subsequently degraded for cowardice. On his return to his native country 
he followed the profession of music till 1849 in Baltimore. He then 
received the offer of the professorship of music at the University of 
Virginia. He occupied this post till 1858, when he took his family to 
Europe. When he returned to this country he found the war brewing, 
and in 1861 he entered a regiment of cavalry, the Twenty-first Marj-land, 
and was appointed major. He did good service in the war, and fought at 
Charlestown, Orange Court House, Madison Court House, Culpepper 
Court House, all the battles incident upon Sheridan's raid. Cedar Mountain, 

cT- 0^ ■ (cK^^^-^^je^ 

Second Bull Run, Second Fredericksburg, Gettysburg and many other 
battles. For his gallantry in the field he was made a brigadier general. 
Since the war he has followed his profession with renewed enthusiasm. 
General Deems has written a class book of vocal music, a piano method, 
a cornet method and an organ method. He has composed a grand opera, 
a comic opera and an oratorio, Ncbuchadneszar, the finale to which is a triple 
fugue, with three subjects. He has written much for piano and for 
voice, besides pieces for various instruments. At the present time he is 
cometist in Franklin Square Baptist church at Baltimore. He has had a 
useful and in some respects a remarkable career. 

Heman Allen, A. M. 

Heman Allen, A. M., was born Aug. ii, 1S36. in St. Albans, Vt. 
His grandfather, Hon. Heman Allen, of Burlington, Vt., was a promi- 
nent lawyer of that place and member of congress about the year 1840. 
Prof George Allen, LL. D., Mr. Allen's father, moved to Newark, Del., 
in 1837, to take the chair of Greek and Latin in the college there. In 
1840, at the age of four years, Mr. Heman Allen gave his first lessons in 
a curious way, by correcting the incorrect intonations of his uncle, who 
was learning the violoncello as an amusement. He began to take lessons, 
in his seventh year, on the violin and piano, of his father and mother, 
both exquisite performers on their respective instruments. His mother, 
a Boston lady, was a grand-niece of Gov. John Hancock, and was a 
prominent singer in the Boston Handel and Haydn Society. 

In 1845, Prof George Allen was elected Professor of Latin and Greek 
in the University of Pennsylvania, which position he filled until his death 
in 1876. In Philadelphia Mr. Heman Allen had the best teachers, Mr. 
Carl Hupfeld and Mr. Carl Hohnstock. In i860, having previously 
graduated with the highest honors at the University of Pennsylvania, 
he went to Leipzig to complete his musical education. He" entered the 
conservator)', and, at the same time, took private lessons of Ferdinand 
David, on the violin, Louis Plaidy, on the piano, and E. F. Richter, in 
harmony. He returned to America in 1862, and immediately began his 
long career as violinist, pianist and teacher of those instruments. At this 
time he also received valuable instruction on the organ from Mr. A. G. 
Emerick, the eminent Philadelphia musician. 

In 1865 Mr. Allen married Miss Clara Niles, of Dansville, N. Y. 
Dr. Allen, with his whole family, had entered the Catholic church in 
1847, and Mrs. Clara Niles Allen followed in 1868. In 1867, Mr. Allen 
removed to Chicago, where he has resided ever since. He was organist 
of the cathedral of the Holy Name, with a short intermission, from 1867 




to 1881. In 1871, before the great fire, Mr. Allen organized a volunteer 
choir, and introduced the Gregprian and Csecilian music. In this he was 
a pioneer in the west, the next church to follow being the cathedral of 
Leavenworth, Mo., in 1876. Mr. Allen has been identified ever since he 
first came to Chicago with all the great musical performances which have 
taken place in Chicago. In 1883 he was one of the orchestra which, 
under the direction of Mr. Theodore Thomas, made the great transconti- 
nental concert tour from ocean to ocean. At the same time he has 
entered, heart and soul, into the subject of good, ecclesiastical church 
music, and was invited to read the paper on Church Music at the Catholic 
Congress, in November, 1889. Personally he has a pleasant address, 
quiet maimers and the instincts of a scholar. 

Frederick Hess. 

A musician who since his residence in Chicago has exercised no 
little influence for the advancement of musical taste and musical interests 
in the west is Mr. Frederick Hess, the distinguished 'cellist, who has 
been so frequently heard in concerts in the western cities of late years. 
Mr. Hess was bom at Mannheim, Germany, in 1863, and he came to 
America with his parents in 1866. At the early age of eight years he 
began the study of the violoncello under the guidance of his father, who 
was a pupil of the great composer, Spohr. For two years he remained in 
America, and then he visited England and Holland, appearing in public 
in the latter country in connection with his father, sister and brother, all 
of whom were musicians of talent. After a sojourn of several months in 
Amsterdam he went to Heidelberg, where he resided for five years, pro- 
ceeding thence to Frankfort, where he graduated from Dr. Hoch's con- 
servatory. Mr. Hess studied the 'cello under the celebrated virtuoso 
Bernhard Cossmann, and he enjoyed the advantage of the instruction of 
the eminent composer Joachim Raff. As a soloist and an exponent of 
chamber music, he traveled a great deal in Germany, and in 1885 became 
again to the United States, locating at once in Chicago, where he at once 
took first rank as a performer upon the beautiful instrument to which he 
has given the greater part of his study. He has played with Theodore 
Thomas' orchestra several seasons, and is at present connected with the 
American Consen-atory- of Music and the Apollo School of Music. Mr. 
Hess is a scholarh- and thoughtful performer, with many brilliant quali- 
ties, as well as deeper and more intellectual traits. His services in 
chamber music in Chicago have been of great value. He is regularly a 
member of the Wolfsohn Trio Combination, and belongs to several other 
organizations devoted to music of this class. 

Josephine Chatterton. 

Mnie. Josephine Chatterton, directress of the harp department of 
Chicago Musical College, who has been identified with American music 
since 1880, was born in London, England, her father being Frederick 
Chatterton, a noted London harpist and composer for his instrument, 
himself a pupil of the renowned Bochsa. Her musical talent was evinced 
at the early age of five, and she had thereafter the advantage of the 
devoted attention and training of her father, to whom she owes her 
musical education on the instrument in which she has become distinguished. 
Mr. Chatterton wisely determining to prevent his child from becoming an 
" infant prodigy harpist," and having sagacious regard for her permanent 
musical interests, sent her abroad at the age of seven, to a convent near 
Cherbourg, France, where she had the affectionate care of the lady abbess, 
who had been a school fellow of her mother. Returning home at the age 
of eleven, she wa'? placed at one of the best English schools, her father 
contiiuiing his personal instruction on the harp. Subsequently she studied 
at Queen's College, and became a pupil in harmony of Sir William Sterndale 
Bennett, and in harmony and English classics under Rev. Dr. Nicolay, 
taking a diploma of high rank. She also received vocal culture from 
Baron Calli, professor of singing at the Roj-al Academy of Music, and 
from Signor Poggi, from whom she received testimonials. She made a 
successful debut in London at the age of fifteen, and was soon in popular 
demand at the leading concerts during the London .season. So highlj- 
appreciated was her musical skill that she had the honor of being accorded 
the use of Mr. Gladstone's Carlton House Terrace mansion for a benefit 
matinee, and was otherwise honored. In 1880 she came to America under 
the auspices of Redpath's bureau, playing at leading events, under the 
direction of Listemann and Zerrahn, and receiving high encomiums from 
the press. Visiting Xew York, she gave a harp recital at Steinway 
hall with Emily Winant, the \-ocalist, and her playing was so appreciated 
by the impresario, Maurice Strakosch, that he at once engaged her 
for two concerts with Emma Thursby, at Steinway hall and Brooklyn 
Academj' of Music. Her prominence in harp music has since been 
everj'where recognized, and she has been associated with Clarence Eddy 
in harp and organ recitals, and won applause at raanj'' important concert 
and festival events, on one occasion, while at Montreal, eliciting personal 
congratulations from that keen art critic, the Princess Louise. Since 
1888 she has been in charge of the harp department at Chicago College 
of Music. 

Josephine Chatterton. 


The Great Musical Festivals. 

^MONG the forces operative in stimulating and developing the 
musical taste of this countrj-, we must by no means lose sight of 
^p3j the great musical festivals. These, bj' reason of the large num- 
" ' ■ ber of persons concerned in them as performers and supporters, and 
the great publicity naturally resulting, have interested a great number 
of individuals in music, and led them to realize its beauty and 
sublimity, at least in part, who might have passed through life unaffected 
by the incidents of ordinary concert and operatic seasons. These festivals 
have helped, also, to form a better ideal of complete performance, espe- 
cially upon the side of fullness, richness and strength, than is possible to 
be realized in ordinarj' concerts. Still farther, in several cities they have 
led to the erection of large music halls for performances upon a grand 
scale, thereby facilitating and inviting such events in the future. 

These festivals naturally divide themselves into four or five classes. 
In the first class in point of date, must pe included those of the Handel 
and Haydn Society, of Boston, which began in 1867, and have been 
repeated triennially ever since. Their object has been to realize a more 
perfect performance of great works than is possible under the ordinarj' 
conditions of the society concerts. In the second class, also in point of 
time, must be put the biennial gatherings of the North American Sacnger- 
bund, composed of German societies collected for singing, and peculiarly 
German object of Gcmuthlichkcit. In the third class we reckon the 
great peace jubilees, which, while ab.surdly big, were also musical. 
Fourth, we reckon the festivals held under the direction of Mr. Theodore 
Thomas, in Cincinnati and elsewhere, since 1880, the value of which 
consisted in their bringing high-class interpretations of ver},- important 
works before audiences in remote parts of the country. Yet a fifth 
category might also be counted, for the operatic festivals held in various 
cities under local management co-operating with Mr. H. G. Abbey and 
Colonel Mapleson. 

Maud Morgan. 


^|^Sfe;ISTORICALLY considered, the most important series of musical 
<aMg6^ festivals maintained in this country have been those of the Han- 
)vl^ del and Haj-dn society, in Boston. In addition to their regular 
(Jd work, thej^ undertook a festival in 1857, and made a tentative suc- 
f cess. Among the solo artists of that occasion was Mr. Geo. Simp- 
' son, the English tenor, who also sang at the festival of 1865. In 
1865 a second festival was undertaken commemorative of the fiftieth anni- 
versary of the society. Upon this occasion they had the benefit of the 
great organ erected the previous year; the chorus numbered about seven 
hundred, and the orchestra about 115. The festival lasted an entire week, 
and the financial part of it was so well managed that "although the 
expenditure reached $17,000, there was a balance of $4,000 which was 
divided between two leading war charities." Thenceforward the festivals 
were carried on at intervals of three years, after the manner of the great 
English festivals at Birmingham and elsewhere. 

The festival of 1868 was more successful, and the choral works per- 
formed were Hymn of Praise, preceded by the choral Ein Feste Burg, 
Messiah, Seasons, Creation, St. /V/w/and the choral symphony of Beethoven, 
with the great Parepa Rosa in the soprano solo. This must have been a 
memorable occasion. The chorus numbered 747, and the orchestra 115. 
The soloists were Parepa Rosa, Adelaide Phillipps, Geo. Simpson, Mr. 
Rudolfsen and M. W. Whitnej'. The principal addition to the repertoire 
of the society made by this festival was Mendelssohn's St. Paul. The 
principal orchestral novelty was Mendelssohn's Reformation symphony, 
the parts of which had just been received from Germany in time. Of 
the performances of the Creation and the Messiah, Mr. Dwight says: 
" The hall was overcrowded upon Saturday and Sunday evenings," and 
many of the choruses ' ' we know not that we ever heard so grandly given, 
not forgetting Birmingham." 

The festival of 1871 marked an advance. The works given were 
Elijah, Israel in Egypt, selections from Bach's Passion Musie and Woman 
of Samaria, by Sterndale Bennett. The forces were much the same as 
at the previous festivals. The principal solo artists were Mme. Ruders- 


dorf, Miss Cary, Mr. Whitney and Mr. Wm. H. Cummings, tenor, from 
London. The Bach music was then given for the first time, in this 
country, and although the style of it was new to all concerned, the sing- 
ers no less than the audience, it made a powerful effect. The festival 
closed on Sunday evening with a splendid performance of Handel's 
Messiah. Mr. Dwight said: "In the magnitude and richness of the 
programme it even surpassed most of the festivals abroad. ' ' The chorus 
■was the best of the whole. 

The third festival opened May 5, 1874. The forces employed were 
a little smaller, the chorus numbering a little over five hundred and the 
orchestra over one hundred. The training had been more thorough than 
formerly, and Mr. Dwight said: " It was the best chorus singing through 
the entire work that we have yet realized." This was in Judas Macca- 
bcnis. The other works given were Haydn's Seasons and Beethoven's 
ninth symphony', John K. Paine' s Si. Peter for the first time, Mendels- 
sohn's unfinished oratorio of Christus, and Buck's Forty-sixth Psalm, also 
for the first time. 

The fourth festival opened May 16, 1877. The works performed 
were Elijah, the first two parts of Bach's Christmas Oratorio, Mr. J. C. D. 
Parker's Redemption Hymn, Ferdinand Hiller's Sojig of Victory, Samson, 
and Israel in Egypt and Saint-Saens' Noel. The principal solo artists 
were Mr. Chas. R. Adams, Clara Louise Kellogg, Miss Cary, Mr. Winch 
and Mr. Whitney. The festival was supplemented by an extra perform- 
ance of Elijah, in which Mme. Pappenheim and Mr. Adams were the 
central figures. This festival was a great success in all respects. Mr. 
Parker's Redemption Hymn was pronounced by Mr. Dwight to have been 
"the success of the festival. The singers and audience were wrought 
up to the highest pitch. At the end he was called out manj' times." 

The fifth festival opened May 4, 1880. The works performed were, 
St. Paul, Spohr's Last Judgment, Rossini's Stabat Mater, Verdi's jl/ansiiio 
Requiem. Dudley Buck's symphonic overture on Sir Walter Scott's 
Marmion, two parts from Haydn's Seasons, and Handel's Solomon. The 
principal soloists were Miss Cary, Miss Thursby, Cappanini, Mr. 
Courtney, Mr. Whitney and Fannie Kellogg. The chorus numbered 
about five hundred, orchestra about one hundred. In commenting upon 
the programmes of the festival as a whole Mr. Dwight honestly recognizes 
the fact that in undertaking the Beethoven Missa Solc?i7iis and the Bach 
cantata Ein Feste Burg, the Cincinnati fe.stival had surpassed the Handel 
and Haydn record. 

An attentive examination of the foregoing programmes indicates that 
nothing farther was to have been expected from them. From the begin- 

ning they have been under the same conductor, the veteran Zerrahn, and 
the type of programme and the range of selections have varied but little. 
It was different when Mr. Thomas took up the festival business, as he did 
with the opening of the May festivals in Cincinnati, of which he insisted 
from the first that he should make the programmes. 

Similar festivals to these have been given for the past thirty-two 
years at Worcester, Mass. , under the direction of Carl Zerrahn. They have 
necessarily been on a rather smaller scale, the chorus generally being about 
five hundred voices. The works produced have, however, always been of 
the highest standard. For example, in 1887, they brought out Bruch's 
oratorio, A n/i I /n'us ; BerUoz's Daiinia /ion of Faust ; Mendelssohn's J//a?- 
summcr NighV s Dream, and Elijah. The principal soloisis were Mmes. 
Valde, Pappenheim and Trebelli and Messrs. Max Alvarj', Stoddard,- 
Heinrich, etc. The history of Worcester musical festivals is a pleasant 
record of successful growth. 

The Gilmore Peace Jubilees. 

In a wholly different plane from festivals of this kind were the great 
Peace Jubilees given in Boston under the inspiration of that consummate 
master, Patrick vSarsfield Gilmore, in 1869 and 1872. These were not 
the first undertakings of similar character carried through in Boston. On 
the contrarj\ at the close of the war of 18 12 there was a peace jubilee 
upon a large scale for those days. But this of Gilmore's was intended to 
be, and actually succeeded in being, the largest affair of the sort up to 
that time, and in several of its features it was distinctly novel. The 
chorus of ten thousand voices was collected from different parts of the 
country, especially from New England and eastern New York. They 
were trained at home by local conductors, acting under Gilmore's direc- 
tion. The orchestra was collected from New York and all the New 
England cities, and numbered about eight hundred. There were many 
celebrated solo singers, not forgetting a pianist. As no ordinary hall 
would hold people enough to render such monstrous concerts remunerat- 
ive, a large one was built expresslj' for the purpose. It was located upon 
the new land in Back Bay, and was capable of accommodating thirty 
thousand hearers. The hearers were forthcoming when wanted, and the 
first jubilee closed with a balance in the treasury-. 

The second was planned with the express intention of surpassing the 
first, or in sporting parlance, "beating the record," which it certainly 
did. The large hall was capable of holding fifty thousand hearers, and 
the chorus was enlarged to twenty thousand people. The orchestra was 
raised to the colossal proportions of two thousand instruments. A chorus 

p. S. GiLMORE. 

organ expressly voiced for the purpose, upon a six, eight and ten inch 
wind, was built by Messrs. Hook & Hastings. Several conductors of 
European fame were imported to lend sanction to the occasion. Among 
these were Franz Abt, the great song writer, Edward Strauss of Vienna, 
etc. There were several foreign bands, one from Germany, one from 
France, etc. The hall was too large to hear in, and the chorus and 
orchestra too large to sing satisfactorily together without more training, 
and that of a different kind than had been forthcoming in this case. 
Hence the tempo lagged, and the large numbers were given very slowly. 
Even if the time had been exact, the difference of distance of one part of 
the chorus or another from any one hearer was so great that tones uttered 
simultaneously reached the ears at a slight inten-al of delay. Solo voices 
in that colossal hall sounded like miniatures, or much as the singers 
looked through the small end of opera glasses, or even with the naked 
eye from the rear of the hall. Everything could be heard, but only the 
large things with satisfactory fullness. The great feature of the occasion 
was the audience. It was estimated, no doubt excessively, that upon the 
afternoon when General Grant attended there were at least se\-enty 
thousand people within the walls of the building. This very likely is 
allowing too liberally for the consumption of material in festooning the 
rafters and cross beams of the hall with human beings, hung up to cure, 
filling the standing room, and crowding the vicinitj^ out of doors — all of 
which things were done to the fullest extent possible, each individual 
deciding for himself as to his chance of getting within hearing or seeing 
distance. jubilees also exerted considerable influence in another way, 
especially the last one. The vast chorus was collected from all parts of 
the countn-, as far west as Omaha. The music had been distributed 
months before the time, and the choruses had been organized by Dr. 
Tourjee under local conductors, who had the metronome tempi intended 
to be used at the performances. This had the effect of bringing together 
new chorus material all over the countr^^ and quite a number of flourish- 
ing choral societies grew out of it. The railwa^-s also made special rates, 
and the attendance from all parts of the countrj^ was very large. The 
aggregate, however, was still insufficient, and there was a deficit of 
$100,000, which came out of the guarantors. This ended the jubilee 
business upon so vast a scale until such a time as a new generation of 
guarantors had time to grow up. While moneyed men rather enjoy 
going security when there is no need of their services, they heartily dis- 
like it in the event of their having to pay. Among the solo singers of the 
of the first jubilee the name of Parepa-Rosa is preemiment; of the second, 

Mme. Rudersdorf. There was also a pianist, Franz Bendel, who played 
upon a piano of Hallett & Davis' make, expressly constructed for the 
enormous space in which it had to be heard. It would perhaps be unkind 
to say that no good results were attained by this colossal musical picnic, 
but it would be equalh- impossible to define exactlj- what they were. 
Probably the record of numbers was the main gain to art, and the dis- 
covery that beyond certain proportions increase of numbers adds nothing 
to the effectiveness of master works. 

The Cincinnati May Festivals. 

These festivals are said to owe their origin to the German Sanger- 
festen, the earliest of which was held in Cincinnati in 1849, and from the 
festival held in that city in 1870, when nearly two thousand singers took 
part, the May Festival movement gained its first impetus. It was sug- 
gested to Mr. Thomas in 1872 that there should be held in Cincinnati a 
national festival of the singers and instrumentalists of the United States. 
He thought it possible, and undertook the work of carrj-ing out the 
project. A guarantee fund was raised and under the direction of Mr. 
Thomas, by far the most able man for such a post, the first May festival 
was held in 1873. The chorus numbered about 850 and consisted of 
various societies, mostly from Cincinnati. The orchestra numbered about 
105, including the members of Mr. Thomas' orchestra, Cincinnati mu- 
sicians and members of the New York Philharmonic Society. The organ 
was a single manual of fourteen stops, built by a Cincinnati firm, Koenke 
& Co. The main works were Dettingcn Te Deuni (Handel), Beethoven's 
ninth symphon}', march and chorus from Wagner's Tannhauser; Orpheus 
(Gliick); Magic Flute (Mozart); Gipsy Life (Schumann); symphony in C 
(Schubert), and Walpurgis Night (JA&i\dA\s'iQ\m). Mr. Theodore Thomas 
was the conductor and Dr. Otto Singer the chorus master. Dr. C. C. 
Miller was the official agent. 

The principal soloists were Miss A. L. Cary (contralto), Mrs. H. M. 
Smith (soprano), Mr. Nelson Varley (tenor) and Mr. Whitney (bass). 
The work done by chorus and orchestra was above reproach. There was 
a large attendance at all the concerts, and so great was the enthusiasm 
aroused that a request for another festival was presented on the last evening 
from the leading citizens of Cincinnati. 

The second musical festival began on May 17, 1875. It was held in 
the Exhibition hall, and showed in every respect a marked advance upon 
the first festival. The business arrangements were in the hands of the 
Cincinnati Bieiniial Musical Festival Association, which had been incor- 
porated in 1874. In the autumn of that year the chorus was organized 

under Prof. Otto Singer, who had then just made his home in the city. 
The programme was verj^ strong, including Brahm's Triumphal Hymn 
(Op. 55), Beethoven's seventh symphony, Wagner's Lohengrin, Mendels- 
sohn's Elijah, Bach's Magnifical, Beethoven's ninth symphony, Schu- 
bert's symphony in C, and Liszt's Prometheus. The chorus, consisting 
of 294 sopranos, 134 altos, 145 tenors and 223 basses, in all 796 voices, was 
finely trained and did its work excellently. The principal soloists were 
Mrs. H. M. Smith and Miss Whinnerj', sopranos; Miss Annie Louise 
Gary and Miss Emma Crauch, contraltos; Messrs. Winch and Alex. 
Bischoff, tenors, and Messrs. F. Remmertz and M. W. Whitney, basses. 
The chorus was perfectly trained and rendered that portion of the music 
with wonderful grace and technical skill. As to the orchestra, composed 
of the same elements as that of the first festival, it was in the hands of 
a leader like Thomas necessarily almost above praise. Mr. Thomas led 
throughout, with Prof Singer as chorus master, and Mr. Dudley Buck 
as organist. It is only due to Mr. John Church, Jr., of Cincinnati, to 
say that the main credit for carrying the festival through to a successful 
.financial conclusion was owing to his unremitting efforts. The success 
of the festival was so marked that it started the movement, generously 
headed by Mr. Springer, which gave to Cincinnati the finest (at that 
time) music hall and organ in America. Owing to the time required to 
complete this hall the next festival did not take place till 1878. 

The third festival celebrated the opening of the new music hall, 
which had a seating capacity for 4,400 persons, and was equipped with a 
remarkably fine organ, built by Messrs. Hook & Hastings, and contain- 
ing 6,237 pipes. The chorus on this occasion was unusually good. It 
numbered some seven hundred people, five hundred of whom had been in 
constant practice together for many months. The singershad been carefully 
chosen and the parts were admirably balanced. Theodore Thomas was 
again the musical director and Otto Singer his assistant. The principal 
soloists were Mme. Eugenie Pappenheim and Mrs. E. Aline Osgood, sop- 
rano; Miss Annie Louise Cary, Miss Emma Crauch and Miss Louise RoU- 
wagen, contralto; Mr. Charles Adams and Mr. Christian Fritsch, tenor; 
Mr. M. W. Whitney and Mr. F. Remmertz, bass; Signor G. Tagliapietra. 
Mr. George E. Whiting presided at the organ. The programme was a 
varied one, the chief pieces being Gluck's Alccstc, Beethoven's third sj-m- 
phony, Handel's Rlasiah, selections from Lohengrin and G'dttcidiimme- 
rung, Beethoven's ninth sj-mphony, scenes from Wagner's Mcistersinger 
and Schumann's Manfred, Liszt's Missa Solennis, and Berlioz's Romeo and 
Juliet. A Festival Ode, composed by Prof Otto Singer for the dedication 
of the hall, was also performed. The masterpiece of the festival was The 

A/cssia/i, the rendering of which called forth high critical praise. This was 
undoubtedly the most successful of all the festivals up to that time, and 
marked the period when they began to be looked forward to as one of the 
important events in the musical world. 

On May iS, 1880, the fourth festival was held and brought together 
a more representative musical and critical assemblage than any of the pre- 
vious occasions. The chorus and orchestra were made up of the same 
materials as composed those of the third festival. The principal soloists 
included Miss Amy Sherwin and Miss Annie Burt Norton, soprano; Miss 
Annie Louise Gary, and Miss Emma Cranch, contralto; Signor Italo 
Campanini and Mr. Fred Harvey, tenor; Mr. M. W. Whitney, bass; and 
Mr. J. F. Rudolphsen, baritone. The programme did not present any 
great piece, but was a good selection from a variety of works. Among 
them were Bach's cantata, --/ Sfroiigho/d Sure, Mozart's symphonj' in 
C major, Yi.a.nd.^i's Jubilate, Mendelssohn's Midsummer NighV s Dream, 
Saint-Saens' symphonic poem, Beethoven's Missa Soletinis, Schumann's 
fourth SN-mphon}-, Wagner's Die Walkiire, Dudley Buck's Scenes from the 
Golden Legend, fragments from Wagner's Meistersinger and Gotterddtn- 
mcrung, Beethoven's fifth sj^mphony and Handel's Coronation Anthem. 
The most markedly successful of all the pieces was Mr. Buck's cantata, 
the performance of which aroused the greatest enthusiasm. At its con- 
clusion the composer was called forward and received quite an ovation. 
Mr. Thomas on the last night was also the recipient of a pleasing testi- 
monial in the shape of a handsome carved music stand. After paying all 
the expenses the treasurer had a balance in hand of about $14,000, a suf- 
ficient proof of success. 

The record of the Cincinnati Musical Festivals is one of ever growing 
success. From all points of views the event of 1882 was a remarkable 
advance upon all previous attempts, and drew the- warmest criticism from 
all quarters. Several of the great musical critics of Europe were present, 
and praised the performance loudly and earnestly. The chorus conductor 
on this occasion was Prof. Arthur Mees, and he brought the members up 
to the highest pitch of perfection, so that on the last night of the festival 
Mr. Thomas publicly acknowledged his indebtedness to Mr. Mees for the 
good work done. The chorus numbered over 600. The chief soloists 
were Matema, the great dramatic singer, of whom Wagner once said, " I 
have found my Brunhilde"; Candidus, the tenor; Miss Gary, Gincinnati's 
favorite contralto, and Whitney, the bass. The principal works performed 
were Mozart's Requiem and Beethoven's seventh and eighth symphonies, 
B^icW s Passion ^/usic, representative selections from the chief of Wagner's 
opera?, Schumann's Faust, Schubert's symphony in G and Gipsy Sym- 

phony, Weber's Eiiryanthe and Berlioz' Fall of Troy. A marked sensation 
was made b)' the rendering of Gilchrist's prize composition, the Forty-sixth 
Psalm, the composer being called forward to receive the enthusiastic plau- 
dits of the audience. The great feature of the festival was the grand 
exposition of Wagner's music by Materna, who was heard to perfection 
as " Brunhilde " in selections from the Gotterdiimmerung . Mr. George E. 
Whiting was again the organist. 

The sixth May festival was held in 1884. The programme on this 
occasion was remarkable, not alone for its representative character, but 
the exceeding great difficulty of many of the works presented. The per- 
formance was a trying test of that "noble six hundred," the chorus, and 
of the orchestra, but they came out of the ordeal triumphantly. The 
scloists were stronger than they had ever been before. Among them 
w. re Materna, Christine Nilsson, Miss Emma Juch, Mrs. Annie Norton- 
Hartdegen, Miss Emily Winant, Winkelmann, the Wagnerian tenor, 
Eniil Scaria, and Messrs. Remmertz, Toedt, Heinrich, Lindan and Gerold. 
The festival opened with Gounod's Rcdonplion, which was followed by 
Beethoven's fifth symphonj^ Wagner's Tannkajiser, scenes from Wag- 
ner's chief operas, selections from Beethoven's works, HandeV s Israel in 
^SyP^< Brahm's Requiem, etc. The finest work was done in this last- 
named piece, which has been spoken of as " the most fiendishly difficult 
effort ever laid before a chorus. ' ' It was a genuine triumph for singers 
and orchestra, even Mr. Thomas, usually so impassive, laying down his 
baton and joining in the applause. Artistically the most perfect and 
effective work was in the Wagnerian music. Materna, Winkelmann and 
Scaria were a trio that could not well be beaten as exponents of that 
school, and their efforts were ably seconded by the superb execution of the 
orchestra and chorus. Mr. Arthur Mees was the chorus master, and dur- 
ing the week he was presented with a handsome testimonial, consisting 
of a draft on Berlin for 1,200 marks. Mr. Krehbiel, the musical critic of 
the New York Tribune, said of this festival: "The fact is significant for 
the musical culture of the countr}-, for it was demonstrated again to-night 
that the Cincinnati interpretations are model performances from whatever 
point of view tliey are considered. But the charm of the festival, 
that which made it unique among the performances of the work which 
Mr. Thomas has conducted, lay in the work of the chorus and orchestra. 
To this too much praise could scarcely be given, even if rhapsody should 
be indulged in." 

In the year preceding the seventh festival, which was held in 1886, 
Mr. Thomas had reorganized his famous orchestra and had raised it to even 
a higher level of perfection. The Cincinnati Festival Chorus had also 

been placed upon a more solid foundation, and its continuance was no 
longer contingent upon the receipts at the biennial meetings. This was 
not the least valuable of the results which have flowed from the festivals. 
The chorus was the same in numbers, about six hundred, while the orches- 
tra consisted of 1 18 members. Among the soloists were Miss Lillie Leh- 
mann, Miss Emma Juch and Mme. Helene Hastreiter, soprano; Miss 
Emma Cranch, contralto; Mr. William Candidus and Mr. Whitne}' Mock- 
ridge, tenor; Mr. M. W. Whitney, Mr. Wm. Eudwig and Mr. A. E. Stod- 
dard, baritone and bass. The works performed were Haydn's Creation^ 
Beethoven's third and seventh symphonies, Bach's mass in B minor, 
Beethoven's music to Goethe's Egmont, Berlioz's Damnation of Faust and 
Syinphonie Fantastiquc, Rubinstein's Tower of Babel, and Wagner's yl/m- 
tersingcr. This was the first time that Bach's mass in B minor, a work of 
wonderful difficulty, had been given in America, and it was remarkably 
well rendered. Mr. Mathews, writing in the Chicago Tribune, said : 
' ' The chorus has a right to be proud of its success. It means long train- 
ing, hard study, great esprit de corps, and rare patience and tact upon the 
part of the chorus master, Mr. Arthur Mees. In the matter of quality of 
tone I do not think this chorus so good as that of the last Chicago festival, 
but in technique, the ability to sing the correct notes, this one is great." 
In the Tower of Babel a chorus of children selected from the public schools, 
under the direction of Prof Junkerman, did some effective work. Of the 
work of Mr. Mees, in training the chorus, and of Mr. George Schneider, 
as pianist, too much cannot be said in praise. The programme was one 
of exceptional difficulty, and the manner in which the music was rendered 
was a wonderful credit to all who took part. 

The festival of 1888, the eighth of the series, was noteworthj^ for its 
great soloists, and also as making a better financial showing than most of 
the former meetings. The chorus, which was rather smaller than before, 
had practiced under some difficulties. It had three different conductors 
since the last festival, and of course each change did a certain amount of 
harm. On this occasion Mr. Ehrgott was the chorus master, and Mr. 
Arthur Mees presided at the organ, with Theodore Thomas in his old 
place as musical director. The soloists were Lillie Eehmann, Miss Cranch, 
Mme. Volda, Mrs. Corinne Moore-Lawson, Miss Hetlich, Edward Lloyd, 
the English tenor, Herr Kalisch (Mme. Lehmann's husband), Messrs. A. 
F. Maish, Toedt, Whitney, Stoddard, etc. The programme was of a more 
popular standard than usual. The chief works were Beethoven's fifth 
symphony, Goldmark's Rural Wedding, Weber's Hymn of Praise, Men- 
delssohn's St. Paul, Dvorak's Spectre' s Bride. Rubinstein's Paradise Lost, 
and selections from Wagner, Haydn, Liszt, etc. Prof J. K. Paine wrote 

the So?ig of Promise especially for this festival, and it was worthily per- 
formed, the composer being called to the platform to acknowledge the gen- 
erous applause of the audience. The feature of the festival was the 
splendid singing of Mr. Lloyd in the oratorio oi St. Paul and in Dvorak's 
work. This was the latest of the Cincinnati May festivals, which have 
grown to be such notable events in the musical world. 

The Ci.ncinx.vti Opera Festivals. 

This series of festivals, which commenced in 1881, grew, not 
altogether happih', out of the Cincinnati May Festivals. These latter 
had for one of their heartiest supporters Col. Geo. Ward Nichols, who 
was the organizer of the College of Music, he being chief manager and 
Theodore Thomas musical director. Between the two there arose differ- 
ences of opinion, which ended in Thomas leaving Cincinnati, but 
continuing the management of the May festivals. The festival chorus, 
howe\-er, would have nothing to do with Colonel Nichols, and suc- 
ceeded in excluding him from the board, whereupon he devised the 
scheme of the opera festivals, and the first one was given in 1881 in the 
Music hall, converted for the time being into an opera house. Maple- 
son's Opera Company had been engaged; there was an orchestra of 
about one hundred and a chorus of three hundred. No operas new 
to this country were brought out, but those that were given were pro- 
duced worthily. They included Lohengrin, Magie Flute, Aida, 3/oscs in 
Egypt, etc. The chorus, which had been trained by Prof. Otto Singer, 
was composed largely of amateurs, and in consequence of its size was 
difficult to handle on the stage in opera. But the company was numerous 
and elfective, and the festival went off successfuUj', while the receipts 
gave the Cincinnati Musical College about $10,000 as net gain. 

At the festival of 1882 Patti was the central figure. The operas 
given were Huguenots, Faust, Carmen, Fidelia, William Tell, Magic 
Flute and Lohengrin. Colonel Mapleson had brought a good company, 
the college chorus had been well trained, and Signor Arditi had under 
his command a competent orchestra of about a hundred players. Cam- 
panini and Minnie Hauck divided the honors, though mention should 
also be made of Mile. Lauri, a Chicago lady, and Mile. Dorani (Dora 
Henninges), a Cleveland girl and a pupil of the College of Music, who 
made her debut on the operatic stage as "Leonore" in Fidelio, and scored a 
marked success. Patti sang at two concerts in mixed programmes and 
excited the same enthusiasm that she arouses everj^where. This festival 
was a decided success. The sale of tickets reached the sum of $90,000. 

Colonel Mapleson' s companj- at the third festival was very strong — 

Patti, Albani, Scalchi, Fursch-Madi — while at the same time Christine 
Nilsson was singing at concerts in another part of the city, so that Cin- 
cinnati had a surfeit of singing that week. The festival began Jan. 29, 
1 883. The operas given were Lohengrin, Faust, Semiraniidc, Don 
(riovanni, William Tell and Traviata. Chorus and orchestra were again 
good, the latter under the direction of Signor Arditi. Patti made her 
great success as " Semiramide " and " Zerlina " in Don Giovanni, 
Albani as " Elsa " in Lohengri?i and " Marguerite" in FaicsL The fes- 
tival of 1S84, beginning February 11, was spread over two weeks. The 
operas were Faust, Le Propliite, Lucia, Gioconda, II Trovatore, Le Nozze 
di Figaro, La Sonnambula, Mignon, Hamlet, Robert le Diable, Martha 
and iMefistoJcle. The company this time was the well known Abbey Opera 
Troupe, in which were Mmes. Nilsson, Sembrich, Scalchi, Valleria, Tre- 
belli, Fursch-]\Iadi and Signors Campanini, Del Puenti, Capoul, etc. The 
festival was financially unfortunate, coming as it did directly after the 
disaster of the great flood at Cincinnati, but it was a musical and a dra- 
matic success. The mountings of the various operas were especially fine. 
Upon the whole this series of festivals is interesting musically in 
much the same manner as the others upon the list. By reason of good 
management, the number of performers taking part, and unusual effort at 
advertising it, many people were newly interested in music, and thus the 
public available as hearers of future performances was materially 

Chicago May Festival. 

The May festivals, held at Chicago in 1S82 and 1884, were the 
work of Theodore Thomas. The conception and the carrying out 
of the musical part were entirely due to him. At the festival of 
1882 the orchestra numbered about 160 players and the chorus about 
900 (280 sopranos, 235 altos, 195 tenors and 180 basses), rather 
smaller than at New York but larger than at Cincinnati. The chorus 
master was Mr. Wm. L. Tomlins, who, by dint of untiring energy, had 
drilled the members into a state of high efficiency. Of the orchestra the 
New York Tribune said: " Not the least part of the glory of the evening 
was the orchestra. How wonderfully it supported the singers! How it 
sustained, filled out and mellowed the tone of the chorus! Here we have 
a colossal orchestra in high efficiency and in fine temper, commanded by 
the best of leaders, and it plays with a splendor, force, passion, supple- 
ness and grace, of which we can scarcely say too much." The principal 
works performed during the week were the fifth symphon}' of Beethoven, 
scenes from Lohengrin, symphonj- in C Jupiter by Mozart, selections 

from Lc Nozzc di Figaro (Mozart) and from Euryanthe (Weber), The 
Messiah, Bach's cantata Festo Asccncionis Christi, Beethoven's ninth sym- 
phonj', selections from the Nibelungcn Trilogy, Sacra Jl/issa in C minor 
(Schumann) and the Fa/i of Troy (Berlioz). The soloists were Miss Gary, 
who was unhappily suffering from a severe cold during most of the time, 
Miss Winant, Mme. Matema, Mrs. Osgood, Signer Campanini and Messrs. 
Toedt, Remmertz, Henschel, Whitney and Candidus. At the last concert 
Mr. Tomlins received immense applause for the admirable way in which 
he had trained and led the chorus. He was personally thanked bj^ Mr. 
Thomas, and was presented with a complete copy of the works of Handel 
as a mark of appreciation by the chorus. 

The festival of 1S84 was as great as its predecessor. The orchestra 
and chorus were about the same as in 1882, though the former (notablj^ 
in the Berlioz Requiem) was rather strengthened. There were playing in 
this orchestra J. Eller, oboe, H. Brandt, principal of first violins, and 
Adolph Hartdegen, first 'cellist — three very fine performers. The chorus 
was again under the leadership of Mr. Tomlins, who had trained it so 
successfully before. The chief works were Mozart' s s)-mphon j- in G minor; 
Beethoven's symphony No. 3, Froica; Schubert's symphony in C, No. 9; 
Haydn's Creation; Wagner's Tannhijuser; selections {roxo. Lohengrin, Par- 
sifal and the Walkurc, Messe des Moris (Berlioz), Handel's Detlingen Te 
Deum and Gounod's Redeinplion. The soloists were Matema, Emma 
Juch, Christine Xilsson, Winant, Scaria, Winkelmann, Remmertz, Toedt, 
Heinrich, etc. 

The Festival Association, under whose auspices the festivals were 
given, was composed of the following; President, N. K. Fairbank; vice- 
presidents, Geo. L. Dunlap and A. A. Sprague; committee on music, 
Chas. D. Hamill, Philo A. Otis and J. P. Kelly; committee on finance, A. 
C. McClurg, Chas. L. Hutchinson, J. Hardy Bradlej'; committee on 
press, etc., Geo. C. Clarke, Edward G. Mason and Franklin MacVeagh; 
committee on hall, John M. Clark, W. S. Crosby, Jas. Van Inwagen. 
Mr. Mihvard Adams was the business manager on both occasions. 

First Chicago Grand Opera Festival. 

The musical movement in Chicago, which has given the city 
her grand auditorium, had its birth in 1884, when the details were 
planned for the first Chicago Grand Opera Festival. The men at 
the head of this project were A. A. Sprague, R. T. Crane, Geo. 
Schneider, Ferd. W. Peck, Henry Field, Geo. F. Harding, Eugene 
Carj', John R. Walsh, Louis Wahl, Geo. M. Bogue and Wm. Penn 
Nixon, who formed the board of directors. The gradual withdrawal, iu 

# 3™ 



America, of grand opera out of the reach of the masses and its limitation 
as a luxury to those who possessed more ample means, prompted the incep- 
tion of this plan for providing grand opera for the people at popular prices 
within the reach of all, and at the same time it was desired to raise the 
perfonnances to a higher standard of excellence. The ultimate hope of the 
projectors was to foster the production of original works in our own lan- 
guage. The city at that time had no hall or theatre with adequate seat- 
ing capacity for such an undertaking, and the Chicago Opera Festival As- 
sociation (incorporated April i6, 1884) determined to erect a suitable 
auditorium in the north end of the exposition building. A fine structure, 
with a seating capacity of six thousand, was built at a cost of $70,000, 
Messrs. Adler & Sullivan being the architects. The enterprise, starting 
out with such an enormous expenditure, seemed hazardous, but the suc- 
cessful end fully justified the daring of the promoters. 

The association engaged Col. J. H. Mapleson to furnish his entire 
troupe. The chorus of sixty was augmented by a local organization of 
three hundred fresh voices, and the orchestra was increased to one hun- 
dred musicians. Luigi Arditi, the veteran conductor of Her Majestj-'s 
Opera Company, was the musical director and Colonel Mapleson managing 
director. The company was remarkably strong, including Patti, Fursch- 
Madi, Dotti, Scalchi, with Emma Steinbach, Saruggia and Emma Nevada, 
the last three of whom made their first appearance on this occasion. The 
tenors were Giannini, Rinaidini, Cardinali, Vicini, Bialetto and Nicolini; 
baritones, De Anna and De Pasqualis, both appearing for the first time; 
basses, Cherubini, Caracciolo, Manni, De Vaschetti and Serbolini. Mme. 
Malvina Cavalazzi was premitre danscusc. The following were the operas 
in their order of production: Scmiramide (Rossini), L' Africainc (Meyer- 
beer), Miir/la (Gounod), A'ida (\'erdi), Lucia di Lammermoor (Donizetti), 
Martha (Flotow), Dcr Frcischi'its (Weber), La Sonnambula (Bellini) // 
Trovaforc (Verdi), Puritani (Bellini), Faust (Gounod) and L(>//r;io-r/u 

Artistically the festival could not fail of success. The only doubt was 
as to the popular prices proving sufficiently remunerative to cover the cost 
of the building and of the engagment of such an expensive compan3\ In 
order to guard against disaster many of the citizens came forward and 
guaranteed a sum large enough to cover anj' possible deficit, but fortu- 
natelj' the actual receipts, about $1 19,000, were sufficient to mark the fes- 
tival as a signal success in everj- particular, and further than this, the 
taste for grand opera was so awakened in the cit}' that a scheme was set 
on foot for building the present auditorium, containing one of the finest 
halls for this purpose in the world. 

Chicago Auditorium. 

The Chicago Auditorium. 
This remarkable building which followed the great Chicago opera fes- 
tival of 1855 in a similar waj' to that in which the Cincinnati Music Hall grew 
out of the Maj- festivals in that city, is due to the courage, enthusiasm and 
business sagacity of one man, Mr. Ferd W. Peck. Mr. Peck was born in 
Chicago ill 1841, and educated in Chicago. It has been his pride 
to lend his remarkable administrative abilitj^ and his still more unusual 
gift of influencing others, to every good purpose likely to reflect 
honor or benefit upon his native cit3\ In this way he has been connected 
with a great variety of public enterprises, president of the cit}' board of 
education, etc., until now, when his name is one of the best known and 
honored in the city. Previous to the Auditorium one of his great achieve- 
ments was that of building a complete opera house in the Exposition 
structure, within five weeks, at an expense of $60,000. The Auditorium 
building, of which a perspective view fronts this page, occupies 
half a block, running 160 feet on Wabash avenue, 362 on Congress, 
and 187 feet on Michigan avenue. It is ten stories high, with a 
great tower containing twenty stories of rooms. The Michigan and Con- 
gress street fronts are devoted to hotel purposes, containing 400 rooms. 
The Wabash avenue front is an office building, with a large number of 
desirable rooms. The great feature of the building, however, is the 
opera house, the largest in the world, and probably the most complete in 
all stage appointments. The audience room is iSo feet from rear to the 
proscenium line, 119 feet wide, and 81 feet high in the highest place. 
The proscenium opening is 75 feet wide and 43 feet high. It can be 
reduced, however, by a curtain of iron and plaster, to an opening 34x46. 
This opening, again, is closed by a fire proof curtain of iron. The room 
is very handsome, and the successive tiers of seats rise so rapidly as to 
afford every one an uninterrupted view of the stage. There are many 
private boxes. The full seating capacity is 4,100. For convention 
purposes, however, this can be increased by the entire stage space of 62x 108 
feet. The height of the stage is 89 feet. It embodies all the latest 
improvements in the way of hj-draulic apparatus, electric lights, a horizon 
effect, which contains more than 1,600 square j'ards of canvas, traps and 
movable pieces of stage, capable of being raised or lowered entire 
through a variation of twenty feet. The perfection of this part of the 
house may be judged when it is known that the cost of the stage alone, 
and its appointments, has been nearly $200,000. There is a concert 
organ with electric action, and many wonderful improvements. The total 
cost of building and ground is about $4,000,000. 


'N the earlj' daj's instrumental music and musical instruments were 
banned by the Puritans as Quakerish and Popish devices, snares 
of the evil one. The first organ of which we have record was 
introduced in Boston, in August, 171 3, being presented to the 
Queen's chapel by Thomas Brattle, but the prejudice against its use 
was such that it remained unpacked in the porch of the church for 
seven months. In 17 14 it was erected and used there until 1756, 
when it was sold to St. Paul's church, of Newburyport. It was there in 
use till 1836, when it was again transferred by sale to St. John's church, 
Portsmouth, N. H. The first organ was built in America, by Edward 
Bromfield, Jr., of Boston, in 1745; Rev. Thomas Prince in the Panoplisf, 
thus describes this pioneer effort at musical instrument construction: 

As he was well skilled iu Music, he, for exercise and recreation, has made a 
most accurate organ, with two rows of keys and many hundred pipes, his intention 
being twelve hundred, but died before he completed it. The workmanship of the 
keys and pipes, surprisingly nice and curious, exceeding anything of the kmd that 
ever came here from England ; which he designed not merely to refresh his spirits, 
bul with harmony to mix, enliven and reg^ilate his delightful songs to his great 
Creator, Preserver, Benefactor and Redeemer. * * * And what is surprising was 
that he had but a few times looked into the inside work of two or three organs that 
came from England. 

"At Christ church, Cambridge, Mass., in 1764," says John M. 
Bachelder, of Cambridge, who, in 1884, presented to the New England 
Conser\'atory of Music the relics described, " a sermon was preached by 
Rev. East Apthorp, on 'Sacred Poetry and Musick,' the occasion being 
the opening and use of an organ which was made by Snetzler, of London, 
a German artist, the best organ maker of the day. It had been procured 
through the liberality and exertions of Barlow Trecothic, a relative of 
Mr. Apthorp, and afterward Lord Mayor of London. Eleven years later, 
in 1775, after the battle of Lexington, Cambridge was occupied by the 
provincial troops, and before the barracks were built their quarters were 
in the church, the colleges and other buildings. At this time the window 
weights and the organ pipes were taken by the soldiers and molded into 
btillets, which, on June 17, were a part of the ammunition used at Bunker's 
Hill. On the last Sunday of the year 1775, ser\-ices were held in this 
church by Col. William Palfrey, and were attended by General Washi-],- 

ton and wife, Mrs. Custis and others. Whether there were enough pipes 
left in the organ to allow of its use on that day, we are not informed. It 
was repaired in 1790, and did good ser\ace until 1844, when it was 
removed and a new organ put in its place." 

In 1752 an organ was built by Thomas Johnston for Christ church, 
Boston. He also built an organ for the Episcopal church of Salem, Mass., 
a portion of which, now in possession of Hook & Hastings, shows that 
it had but one manual and six stops. On the name boara is an inscrip- 
tion in German text, in ivon,', as follows: "Thomas Johnston, fecit, 
Boston, Nov. Anglorura, 1754." Johnston died about 1768, and was suc- 
ceeded in organ building by Dr. Josiah Leavitt, previously a practicing 
physician, who was for a number of j'ears engaged in the busmess. The 
next organ builder was Henry Pratt, of Winchester, N. H., who d.ed in 
1849, and who in the earl}' part of the present centurj' constructed upwards 
of fifty instruments, including small church organs and chamber organs. 
The first important organ builder of America was William M. Goodrich, 
born at Templeton, Mass., 1777. He was a self-taught and exceedingly 
ingenious mechanic, a student of general knowledge, a diligent investi- 
gator, with a correct musical ear and considerable proficiency in music. He 
united these faculties in his devotion to organ building with such success 
that during the time he continued in business, from 1805 to 1833, but 
three foreign organs were introduced into Boston, while his instruments 
became known throughout the whole of the United States. His 
brother, Ebenezer Goodrich, also entered the manufacture of organs 
shortly afterward. About 1807, Thomas Appleton, an employe of 
William Goodrich, entered into partnership with Alpheus Babcock, a 
pianoforte maker, the firm being Hayts, Babcock & Appleton, manu- 
facturing both classes of instruments. This firm was dissolved in 
1840, Appleton carrj-ing on organ building with Ebenezer Goodrich, 
and afterward Corri, as voicer and tuner. Later he manufactured 
organs in company with Mr. Warren (father of Samuel P. Warren, the 
organist and composer), the latter subsequently removing to Montreal, 
Can., where he carried on the business. In 1827 Elias and George G. 
Hook commenced the business of organ building in Salem, the former 
having been an apprentice of W. M. Goodrich. Tiiey removed to Boston 
in 1832, and became for many years the most famous and successful organ 
builders in America. They built 155 organs up to 1855, at which time 
F. H. Hastings was engaged with them, becoming a partner in 1865, and 
now carrj'ing on the business under the name of Hook & Hastings. 
George G. Hook died in 1880, at the age of seventy-three, and his brother 
Elias in 188 1, at the age of seventj'-six. 


The first piano ever manufactured in America was constructed by 
Benjamin Crehorne, of Milton, Mass., iu 1803. Gen. H. K. Oliver, a 
Boston musical veteran, born in 1780, and a singing boy in the Park 
street church in 18 10-14, says, in his reminiscences: "There was no 
organ at Park street, the accompaniment of the singing being given by 
a flute, a bassoon and a violoncello. At that remote date verj^ few musical 
in.struments of any sort were to be found in private houses. In the entire 
population of Boston, then some six thousand, not fifty pianofortes could 
be found." 

In 1820 Jonas Chickering was associated with James Stewart in 
piano making in Boston. In 1823 the house of Chickering, now world- 
famed, was founded. Conrad Meyer had established a piano factory at 
Philadelphia prior to 1830, and the business of manufacture soon became 
general. Piano construction is the one department of musical achieve- 
ment in which American invention, enterprise and genius has out-dis- 
tanced all old-world effort, and the details of its advancement may be best 
gathered from the history of the leading piano manufacturing establish- 
ments, which is given hereafter. Of these important institutions, we 
commence with a sketch of the career and work of the pioneer house of 
Chickering, founded, as above mentioned, bj' Jonas Chickering, of Boston, 
who was among the earliest to apply to the art of construction of the piano- 
forte that genius of invention which has long since become recognized as 
a distinguishing characteristic of our people, and whose improvements 
have been of so important and radical a nature as to distinctlj^ mark 
periods in the history of the evolution of the capabilities of this instrument. 

JoxAs Chickering. 

Jonas Chickering was born in New Ipswich, a New Hampshire 
village, in April, 1798, his father being a farmer and also the village 
blacksmith. Here he received the plain but thorough common school 
education of the da}^ and at seventeen became apprenticed to the 
cabinet maker of the town. There was but one piano in the communit}-, 
and one maiden only who could make it eloquent with the simple 
music of the day, but the young Chickering had a .soul attuned by nature 
to the beauties of harmony, and he became a constant worshiper at this 
humble altar of Euterpe. Hence, when the instrument got out of order, 
it was young Jonas Chickering, noted for his ingenuity, who was called 
upon to see if he could set it right, which, after much experimenting, he 
succeeded in doing. From this arose his first interest in piano construc- 
tion, which afterward found fruition in the most important results. 
About 1820 Mr. Chickering was associated with James Stewart, a Scotch- 

man, in conjunction with whom the first important impetus was given to 
piano making in America, where hitherto this industry had been carried 
on on the smallest scale and in the most desultory manne. Two years 
later, however, Stewart returr^ed to England, where he subsequently 
became well known through connection with the house of Collard & 
Collard. In the year 1823 the house of the Chickerings was founded, 
and under the management of Mr. Jonas Chickering grew rapidly in the 
extent of its business, as well as in the excellence and popularity' of 
its instruments. In the same year (1823) Mr. Chickering constructed the 
first upright piano made in America, (this instrument, which to-day 
possesses an archaeological interest, being in the factory of the house 
at Boston), though it was not till 1830 that it can be said the manufacture 
of uprights was begun by him. About 1831, William Allen, a young 
Scotch tuner in employ of Stoddart, of London, patented a cast-iron frame 
combining string plate, tensioii bars and wrest plank all in one casting. 
Previously to this, in 1825, this invention had been anticipated by 
Alpheus Babcock, of Boston, U. S., who patented in that year a partial 
cast-iron frame for a square piano. Neither of these inventions proved 
acceptable, through inherent defects, and the compound wood and iron 
construction continued to be preferred, both in England and America, 
mainly on account of a prevailing belief that it was beneficial to tone. In 
1837 Jonas Chickering was the first to give practical value to the new 
invention by perfecting its construction in the first grand piano with 
a full iron frame all in one casting, ever manufactured in the world, and 
which formed the foundation of the reputation which the American grand 
piano has since achieved throughout the world. In 1843 he patented a 
most important improvement, by incorporating in the casting the pin socket 
rail, bridge and damper, the strings passing through orifices drilled in 
an iron flange, which gave them a finer upward bearing, and also added 
strength to the frame. These instruments were exhibited at the great 
World's Fair in London in 185 1, and attracted profound attention. In 
1856 this feature was supplemented by a further improvement, the casting 
of a solid iron flange on the under side of the cast-iron frame, running 
parallel with the wrest plank, into which the ' ' agrafes ' ' are screwed. 
Other improvements were also embodied, giving greater stiShess to the 
head block and strength to the instrument, as well as additional power of 
standing in tune. The immense expansion of the capabilities of the 
grand piano effected by these and minor inventions was recognized at the 
Paris Exposition of 1867 by the award of the highest honor, the Imperial 
Cross of the Legion of Honor, as well as one of the first gold medals. In 1845 
Jonas Chickering, in connection with the entire iron frame, which he had 


brought to practical perfection, introduced in the square piano the circular 
scale, by means of which the overstringing of square pianos was rendered 
practicable. This was left unpatented, and its general adoption has con- 
tributed powerfully to those distinguishing qualities which give Ameri- 
can square pianos their superiority over all others — their power, depth 
and beauty of tone. In 1849 Mr. Chickering adopted the upright piano 
as one of his popular styles, and in order to overcome the difficulties aris- 
ing from climatic influences, which so seriouslj^ impaired the durability 
and power of staying in tune of European makes, he invented and applied 
the overstrung bass in connection with the full iron frame, thus revolu- 
tionizing the system of manufacture of this instrument, and furnishing a 
model for all subsequent constructive efforts. In 1S52 the factorj' was 
burned, and in the same year Mr. Chickering laid the foundation stone of 
the present vast establishment, Tremont street, Boston, but did not live 
to see it completed. Mr. Chickering died in December, 1853. Aside 
from his inestimable serv-ices to the cause of music in the development of 
the piano, he was a citizen of high moral worth, of unusual intelligence 
and much public spirit. His personal qualities secured him a deserved 
popularity, which was well exemplified in a toast once offered in his 
honor — "Jonas Chickering — the grand, square and upright." The 
house of Chickering & Sons was thereafter conducted by the three sons. 
Gen. Thos. E. Chickering, Charles F. Chickering and George H. Chick- 
ering, and so continued till the death of Gen. Chickering on Dec. 14, 
187 1, since which time the other members of the family named have been, 
as they still are, at the head of the business. In addition to minor improve- 
ments of detail, the most important change efiected since the death of 
Jonas Chickering was the invention in 1877 by Charles F. Chickering 
of the metallic bar, by means of which a great gain was effected in the 
quality of tone, both in respect to richness and volume. American mu- 
sical effort certainly owes much to the enterprise and the inventive genius 
of the house of Chickering. 

It might be added here, that musical life in America owes a 
debt of gratitude to Jonas Chickering and to his .sons and successors 
on other and perhaps higher grounds, so far as the development of 
the art has been concerned. Earlj' in life the founder of this house 
became a liberal and earnest patron of every movement to foster and 
encourage the progress of the art in America. For manj' 5'ears the piano 
rooms of the house were the headquarters of ever}- progressive movement. 
Foreign artists and native talent alike made their introduction to the 
musical public through his friendly offices, and his sympathy, liberality 
and enthusiasm in the cause of music never failed. He was a genuine 

lover of the art, and the interest and pride which he took in its develop- 
ment in his native land were spontaneous and unselfish. 

The brilliant development of American piano making, with its artis- 
tic result in the way of singing musical tone, and the princely liberality 
of dealing with artists and the public which the noble Jonas Chickering 
made a characteristic of the American trade, have been taken up in the 
same spirit, and, if possible, carried still further by their more recent 
competitors, the world-famous house of Steinwav & Sons. 

Steinway & Sons. 

The story of the house of Steinway & Sons reads like a romance. 
It is now only about forty years since a German mechanic and three 
sons landed in New York, with a small capital of hardly earned German 
money. In order to acquire the American ways, they took work for two 
years with three different American houses of piano makers. At the end 
of the time they set up for themselves in an inexpensive house in a back 
street. They worked along in the honest German way, making about 
one piano a month, then one a week, as business brightened. At length 
there came an important fair of the American Institute, at the Cr}'Stal 
Palace, in 1S55, where there was a large exhibition of musical instru- 
ments, with prizes to the best, and judges well known for eminence and 
fitness. When the fair was in operation and the judges of pianos were 
ready to do their work, the chairman, Mr. William Mason, suggested 
that as they were all good musicians, each having his own favorite 
among the leading builders, they should make this test a perfectly fair 
one, for their own satisfaction. So they all agreed, and having the name 
Ijoards removed (the instruments being all square pianos) and the room 
partly darkened, in order that styles of cases might not affect the judg- 
ment of the investigators, each man went through the list, marking for 
first, second and third premiums. The poorest were thrown out without 
difficulty, and there were finally about a dozen selected among which the 
prizes must be distributed. The judges tested carefully, and at length all 
agreed in awarding the three prizes to certain instruments. When the 
name boards were brought, it was found that all three of these pianos 
were made by a firm of which no one of the judges had ever heard, 
Steinway & Sons. The best of the three was awarded the first premium, 
and two other pianos were taken for the second and third premiums, and 
the award was closed. The next day Mason started out to discover who 
Steinway & Sons were. He found them in their humble place of work, 
and asked whether they made grand pianos. It turned out that they had 
their first one nearl}' done. The next week they asked him to examine it. 

He did so, and said that from that time on he should play a Steinway 
piano, until some one made a better, which it would seem has not yet 
happened, for his lessons are still given at Steinway hall. Thus this 
remarkable firm stepped at once to a leading rank, and they have held it 
ever since. One improvement after another has been made by them, all 
good to advertise, but no one of them or all of them taking the place of 
the true secret of the uniform e.Kcellence of their work, which is, extreme 
care in construction, and the use of the very best material. 

The firm of Steinway & Sons is entitled to the honor of being the 
leading firm of artistic piano makers in the whole world, their best instru- 
ments surpassing those of any European maker, as artists universally admit. 
Under their administration the upright piano has been developed to its 
present solidity and breadth of tone, so that it has almost the power and 
tone quality of a grand, and has entirely superseded the square piano, 
which only twenty j-ears ago was practically the sole piano sold. While 
the Steinways did not make the first upright piano made in America, thej' 
certainly did make the first upright piano of satisfactory tone quality. It 
is true that their first inventions in this line were long ago given up as 
worthless. But something better has always been forthcoming, and their 
pianos still stand in the front rank, in spite of the earnest efforts of all the 
leading builders to surpass them. With them in point of artistic tone- 
quality must be reckoned the pianos of three houses, Chickering, Decker, 
and Mason & Hamlin. Each of these is made as well as the workmen 
are able, and of none but the best materials. Quality is the key note in 
all of their manufactories. 

Nor is it proper to ignore those who are manufacturing popular 
pianos, b}' which is meant pianos of good wearing qualities, but less 
expensive. There are a dozen makers of pianos of this class who have 
made themselves rich, and furnished instruments of music to millions — 
instruments which if something short of those of the great makers already 
mentioned, are nevertheless much better than those of the Chickerings 
and Steinways themselves, so recently as i860, so rapidly has the world 
moved along this line. At the present time the extent of the piano trade 
of the United States is believed to reach substantially an aggregate of 
eighty-five thousand instruments annually. 

The occasion for national pride in this part of the record is found in 
the fact that America has not onl}- equaled Europe in the artistic part of 
this business, but so far surpassed her that American pianos are univer- 
sallj' admitted to be the best in the world, and onh' their expense keeps 
them out of European markets. 

A very important improvement in piano making has been discovered 

and patented by two different inventors within the past ten 3ears. It is 
the method of stringing and tuning. All the pianofortes before the public, 
except the work of one or two firms, are strung in the same way, the wire 
being wound around a tuning pin which simply sticks in the wood of 
the wrest plank, being held from slipping by friction alone, the same as a 
tuning pin of a violin. The B. F. Baker piano and the Mason & Hamlin 
piano are strung upon a different principle, the tuning pin being what is 
called a "set screw," passing through a nut or collar, on the steel plate 
above where the ' ' wrest plank ' ' would be. In this method of tuning the 
strings cannot slacken except by stretching, it Ijeing absolutel)- impossible 
for the pin to slip. The Mason & Hamlin method has certain advantages 
over the other, and the pianofortes turned out bj' the house are of a highlj^ 
musical tone quality, while the tenadty of tune under hard usage is simply 
incredible. It appears quite certain that this improvement or something 
similar must eventually, and that very soon, be adopted by all piano 


In the line of organ building it is not to be expected that this coun- 
try' would especially distinguish itself The organ is one of the oldest 
instnnnents and the critical part of its manufacture, that upon which its 
tone depends (voicing the pipes), is still done empiricallj', one pipe at a 
time, the ear of the voicer being the sole guide. The early organs built in 
this countrj' were rude affairs, the actions crude and the voicing, appren- 
tice work. Moreover, most of them were ordered by churches lacking 
means sufficient to paj' for as much organ as they would have liked to 
have. Hence a number of half stops and general insufficiency of appoint- 
ment. The gradual improvement in this respect, after the erection of the 
great organ in Boston Music Hall, has been touched upon in an earlier 
chapter, and need not here be repeated. The first builders to feel the new 
impulse were the Hooks, both from their chagrin at having been passed 
over when the order was placed abroad, and because thej^ lived in Boston, 
where, through the stratagem of emploj-ing the workman sent over by 
Walcker & Son to keep the Music Hall organ in order, they obtained early 
access to the interior of the instrument, and were able to duplicate its 
scales or proportions of pipes. The German action was what is known as 
the poppet valve action, which no American would care to duplicate. In 
tone quality the Hooks soon surpassed their German masters, except in 
the string color, where the high price of metal in America rendered the 
German method of making these pipes of solid tin too expensive. In the 
point of dispensing with half stops and a fuller appointment of eight-foot 
tone, another firm was perhaps as early as they in the field. Johnson & 

Son, of Westfield, Mass., have made a great record as organ builders, 
their works erected prior to the beginning of this year numbering 727. 
The head of this house is 

William A. Johxson. 

Mr. Johnson is a self made man. He was originally a bricklayer, 
who made a small organ for his own satisfaction, in his unemployed time 
in the winter. It was what was called a parlor organ, of four stops, blown 
by the feet. This he sold remuneratively, and the following winter he 
made another. This found ready market, and another was wanted before 
the next season's idleness came around. Thus it took but a short time 
before the enterprising young bricklaj-er found himself a full}' employed 
organ builder. The first organ inside which he ever saw, was one of 
Hook's. Mr. Johnson's record is an extremely honorable one. He is 
known in ever}- part of the country. Often he is abrupt with a commit- 
tee, breaks off a negotiation when he thinks he has conceded enough, but 
what he agrees to, that he dues, whether he makes or loses by it. At the 
present time he has one of the largest organ factories in the world, and his 
engagements are made for about a year ahead. Mr. Johnson's name has 
not been associated with any one particular improvement in organ build- 
ing, although he has made man)\ His principal praise is for a high aver- 
age of work, and a constant advance in methods and quality of results. 
His .son, \Vm. H. Johnson, who was born in 1S37, has been associated 
with him for manj' years. He is one of the best voicers in the country. 

HiLBouRNE ly. Roosevelt. 

There is another American firm which has distinguished itself in this 
department to a degree more readih' acknowledged abroad than here. We 
refer to the house of Hilbourne L. Roosevelt. Mr. Roosevelt was a 
wealth}' 3'oung New Yorker, who after graduating from college looked 
about for a business. He followed his own taste, and entered the career 
of organ builder. Having means, it was eas}- to surround himself with 
good workmen and proper appliances, and he gave rein to his imagina- 
tion. The result was a number of extraordinary improvements, or at 
least novelties, in organ building, both mechanical and tonal. No other 
builder in the world has gone so far as he has in making the whole organ 
capable of crescendo and diminuendo of volume of tone. This he accom- 
plishes by means of several swells. Not alone the swell organ proper is 
inclosed in a box with swell blinds adapted for opening to let out more tone, 
or shutting to .suppress the volume, but the choir and the solo organ, and part 
of the great organ, are also inclosed in swell boxes. In his ordinary two- 

manual organ, for church use, he incloses all the pipes of both manuals 
in a swell box, except the diapasons of the great. This great innovation 
is bitterly inveighed against by many builders, but the advantages of it 
are so great upon the side of expression that it is more likely to become 
general than to be given up. Mr. Roosevelt made great improvements in 
voicing, in certain stops surpassing previous efforts of American and 
foreign builders alike. 

In the mechanical means of controlling the organ, however, the Roose- 
velt inventions are more remarkable still. There is the Roosevelt wind chest, 
which costs more than twice as much as the ordinary one, but the result 
is a quickness of speech far in advance of ordinary instruments, and the 
touch of the largest instrument is as light as that, of an ordinary church 
organ. Without the Roosevelt wind chest, this can only be accomplished 
by electricity, or the pneumatic lever, which latter has the di.sadvantage 
of retarding the speech. In his large organs, such as that in the Garden 
City Cathedral and the new one in the Chicago Auditorium (which is the 
most complete concert organ in the world) all the pallets are moved by 
the intervention of electricity. By this system, distance is annihilated, 
and tliere is no relative position ofthe actual pipes and the player which can 
materially affect the organ builder's convenience or the expense of the 
instrument. In this way the echo organ and the very loud solo stops can 
be placed above the ceiling, without retarding the speech, or adding to the 
weight of touch. Another improvement, and a very great one, is the Roose- 
velt system of composition knobs, by which any combination of stops desired 
by the organist can be adjusted and attached to the piston in a few seconds, 
so that the entire combination can be thrown on or off when wanted by 
a single pressure of the finger upon a knob above the kej-s. With a 
dozen of these adjustable knobs, the largest organ is vastly more manage- 
able than a small one in the olden time. 

Reed Orgaxs. 

In no department of invention has the American genius taken the 
lead more completely than in what are now known as reed organs. In 
fact their extreme popularitj- has given rise to that barbarism, so offensive to 
a musician, the term " pipe organ " where simply "organ " would leave 
unaccustomed hearers to suppose that a reed instrument might be 
intended. The American reed organ is so small, so capacious, and so 
inexpensive in many of its varieties, that it is found in thousands of cot- 
tages and simple homes, where a larger and more costly instrument could 
not be afforded. Their popularity may be estimated b}^ the fact that 
more than eighty thousand j-early are manufactured and sold, and it may 

HiLBORNE L- Roosevelt. 

be added, that at present about fortj- thousand of them are made in Chi- 

The American reed organ rests essentially upon two radical discov- 
eries. The first is that of the exhaust bellows, as distinguished from the 
European bellows, which force air outward through the reeds. The 
exhaust bellows were invented, it is believed, b^^ Mr. Jeremiah Carhart, 
who afterward became the head of the manufacturing house of Carhart 
& Co., manufacturers of melodeons. The reed instruments constructed 
upon this system were called "melodeons." The}' had small power, and 
were not capable of much variety of intensity. The larger ones had two 
sets of reeds, but most of those sold had only one. The next great 
advance was due to the accidental discovery of the late Emmons Hamlin, 
in 1848, that if the tongue of a reed were slightly bent, or twisted, its 
tone quality was changed. The proper method of effecting changes of 
this kind, and the kind of tone modification effected by each particular 
kind of twist, were the subject of long-continued investigation, leading at 
length to the art of voicing reeds as we now have it in such master works 
of this kind as the Liszt and orchestral organs of Mason & Hamlin — instru- 
ments which are not surpassed in the world. The early instruments manu- 
factured under Mr. Hamlin's system were called "organ-harmoniums," 
l)Ut, in 1 86 1, Mason & Hamlin discovered certain principles of increasing 
the volume of tone by means of re.sonance cavities in the case, thus impart- 
ing greater roundness of tone quality as well as volume, and the instru- 
ments were re-christened under the generic name of cabinet organs. The 
art of voicing reeds was also made the subject of experiment by Mr. Riley 
Burdett, about the same time as by Mr. Hamlin, and claims have been 
made in his behalf as the real inventor. It is not at all improbable that 
it may have been discovered by both gentlemen, working simultaneously 
and without knowledge of each other's work. Accidents of this kind are 
common in the history of invention. 

The two radical discoveries above mentioned are the foundation of 
American organs, but a variety of small improvements have been made 
by many inventors, so that the instrument in its present form is capable 
of great musical expression. The tone qualitj' of the best specimens is 
singularly noble and musical. Another great advance made by Ameri- 
can manufacturers of these instruments, is that of systematizing the pro- 
cess of manufacture, and producing greater uniformity of results, and at 
a lessened expense. Through the operation of labor-saving devices, the 
instruments of this class are turned out at an expense scarcely half what 
they would have cost fifty 5-ears ago. Another peculiarity of the present 
situation corresponds to that of pianos. While there has been one firm 

which made the leading improvements, and set the key for the trade as a 
whole, all the firms are crowding close up to them in quality of workman- 
ship and artistic capacity of instruments. The principal makers of instru- 
ments of this class at the present time are Messrs. Mason & Hamlin, 
Estey, Chicago Cottage Organ Co., etc. 

P. J. Healy. 

One of the most curious novelties in the musical instrument trade is 
the manufacture in Chicago of some of the best harps made in the world. 
The American genius for sytematizing has been put in operation, the 
result being that all like parts of different instruments are made inter- 
changeable, and with uniform excellence, whereas the European harps are 
all made by the piece, by hand. The head of the house w-hich has done 
this, Mr. P. J. Healy, is one of the most interesting self-made men in the 
country. He was born in Ireland in 1840. He came to Boston at the 
age of ten and got a situation as errand boy in Reed's music store. He 
went to night school, learned reading, writing and bookkeeping, and 
presently became bookkeeper and confidential clerk. In 1864 he came to 
Chicago with Mr. Geo. \V. Lyon, and started the house of Lyon & 
Healy. Prosperity attended their efforts, although they were burned out 
hree times. Mr. Healy was the financial head of the concern. He was. 
clever in surrounding himself with an able staff, and the consequence is 
that to-day the house of Lyon & Healy is the largest establishment of 
general musical merchandise in the world. Mr. Healy is still not an old 
man, and his sons are trained to carry on the business when his useful- 
ness is done. He is enterprising, energetic, careful and clear-headed. 
His word is as good as his bond. 

One of the most curious episodes in American organ building is that 
of Mr. Henry Ward Poole, who about 1S50 undertook to solve that 
venerable problem of musical theory and practice, temperament, by doing 
away with it altogether. Besides the credit of having succeeded measur- 
al)ly in this, he is entitled to the further distinction of having added the 
true harmonic sevenths to musical theory. The work of Mr. Poole 
received scanty attention in American musical circles, but it has excited 
great interest in the highest scientific circles abroad. 

He contributed to SilUman' s A ?nerica)t foxcnial of Science, about the 
year 1850, articles upon perfect intonation; and, some years later, articles 
upon his enharmonic keyboard. Helmholtz in his Sensations of Tone, 
quotes several times from articles, and characterizes an English 
enharmonic keyboard as having been "after a plan invented by the 
American, H. W. Poole." The translator, Mr. Alexander J. Ellis, of the 
Royal Society, devotes nearly six pages (474-479, ed. of 1885) to this 
keyboard. It appears that Poole's keyboard was imitated in the "inven- 
tion " of Mr. Collin Brown, of Glasgow, Scotland, excepting that Brown's 
keyboard made no provision for harmonic sevenths — yet without them 
there is no perfect intonation. Mr. Poole is a brother of Mr. William F. 
Poole, LL. D., of the Kewberry library, Chicago. His story is as fol- 
lows : 

Henry Ward Poole. 

Mr. Poole was born Sept. 13, 1825, at Salem, Mass., since (by the 
changing town lines and. names), Danvers, South Danvers and Peabody. 
As a boy he was a constant reader, had a taste for mechanical invention, 
and great facility for acquiring languages and the mathematics. The 
family having removed to Worcester, Mass. , he fitted for college at Lei- 
cester Academy, and entered Yale College at the age of fifteen. It was 
found at the end of the sophomore year that the curriculum and training 
of a college were not framed for minds having habits and proclivities like 
his. In Greek, Latin and the mathematics he could make a fair recita- 
tion with very little study, and hence he reveled in the opportunity he 
now enjoyed of having all the books he could read. He would take from 
his society library daily two or more volumes, and exchange them on the 
morrow for as many more. The librarian, the late Henry Stevens, since 
of London, and known to all book collectors as one of the most eminent 
of bibliographers, became alarmed at this exuberant use of the library, 
fearing that it would ruin the youth's prospects as a scholar, and cau- 
tioned him to read with some moderation. When this counsel failed he 
advised the division professor to stop it. Tlife process, however, of 

devouring the library went on ; but the reader's taste for books of the 
bilks Icttrcs class changed to a taste for scientific works, and to a love of 
bibliography. His uiemorj' was so tenacious that he could retain and 
repeat verbatim the writings of his favorite authors. After leaving col- 
lege he continued his scientific studies in the librar>- of the American 
Antiquarian Society at Worcester. 

Geology was one of the subjects in which he became interested, and 
he obtained a position in the geological sur\-ey of Pennsylvania, under 
Prof. Henry D. Rogers. He was stationed at Pottsville, Pa., and was 
employed in the survey and cartography of the anthracite coal mines of 
that vicinity. When that survey was completed, he remained for a time 
at Pottsville in the profession of mining engineer. He later held the 
position of assistant astronomer in Dudley obser\-ator>', Albany. 

In the construction of a parlor organ and attempting to tune it, his 
attention was drawn to the more abstruse questions relating to the science 
of music. As he was an adept in the use of tools, he made the machinery 
and case himself, but applied to Mr. Joseph Allej', a metal-pipe maker, 
of Newburj'port, Mass., to furnish the pipes. When the organ was com- 
pleted he undertook to put it in tune, and here encountered the prob- 
lem and mj-stery of temperament, which he soon solved in the popular 
and superficial way from the text books. With this solution he was not 
satisfied. Why have any temperament at all ? Why not turn out " the 
wolf," and have an organ with perfect intonation ? were questions which 
forced themselves upon his mind, and he resolved to answer them affirma- 
tively, or to know the reason why. The investigation required an experi- 
mental knowledge of the whole phenomena of sound and of harmonic rela- 
tions, as well as of all the literature on the subject. To this task he 
applied himself, experimented with the monochord, with horns, and read 
up the literature of the subject. Having a.scertained the sounds and 
their mathematical relations which were needed to produce perfect intona- 
tion in the usual number of keys, he turned his attention to the construc- 
tion of an organ which would produce these sounds, and to the con- 
trivance of mechanism by which the sound required in each key could 
be readily controlled by the performer. He fixed upon the plan of using 
the common manual with twelve kej-s in the octave, and devised mechan- 
ism by which, with one movement of a pedal, all the pipes needed to 
produce perfect intonation in any of the keys fsaj- the key of four flats) 
would be instantly attached to the finger keys through the whole key- 
board, so that the fingering would be the same as on the common manual. 
He assumed that all music, for the time being, was in some key, and per- 
fect intonation was secured by pressing the pedal of that key, which act- 


ing upon an ingenious mechanism called "selectors," did the work 
instantly and effectively. When a modulation was made to another key, 
the pedal of that key was pressed, which raised the former pedal, and 
brought under the player's control all the pipes needed ' in the new key. 
The organ was constructed at the shop of Mr. Alley at Newburyport, 
who was an experienced organ builder, and an enthusiast for perfect 
intonation. It was a joint enterprise, Mr. Poole furnishing the money, 
and both their personal services. The organ was completed in the autumn 
of 1849. Later it was .set up in the church of the Rev. James Freeman 
Clarke, D. D., in Indiana Place, Boston, where it was used in the regular 
service for fifteen years. 

In January and March, 1850, Mr. Poole contributed two articles to 
Silliman's American Journal of Science (26. series, vol. IX, pp. 68-83, 
1 19-2 1 6) on Perfect Intonation in Music, in which there is a descrip- 
tion of the organ and of its principles. About this time he became inter- 
ested in Greek music, and read in the original Greek with intense interest 
the collection by Meibomeus of the seven Greek writers on music, a copy 
of which he found in Harvard College library. He made also the 
acquaintance and friendship of Gen. T. Perronet Thompson, of London; 
and a delightful corresjiondence was maintained between them on musical 
theory until the death of the general, in 1869. General Thompson sent 
to Mr. Poole his numerous writings on just intonation, including his 
Instructions to My Daugtitcr in Playing the F.nliarmonic Guitar, and his 
contributions to the Westminster Review, of which for many years he was 
the editor. 

In the autumn of 1856, as engineer of the Mexican Pacific Coal & Iron 
Mining Ccjmpany, of New York city, he organized an expedition for the 
exploration of Mexico. The party landed at \'era Cruz and taking horses 
and other animals for transport ser\-ice arrived in the City of Mexico Dec. 
23, 1856. The railroad from A'era Cruz had not then been constructed. Hav- 
ing completed the outfit, the expedition started south through the state 
of Guernero, in search of iron and coal mines, and reached Acapulco on 
the Pacific, May 25, 1S57. The route then lay northwesterly along the 
coast to the mouth of the Zacatula river; then easterly along the valley of 
the river to Mescala; then northerly to the City of Mexico. The route 
was through a wild country never visited by travelers, and seldom by 
exploring parties. Mr. Poole took with him a full supply of instruments 
for determining astronomically geographical positions, for topographical 
reconnoi'sance, and for mining exploration. The topographical survey 
and the collection of materials for a new map of the country were under his 
special charge. Latitude and longitude were taken by him astronomically 

at every stopping place when the weather would permit; ami hiri report 
and maps, four in number, were printed in New York in 1S58. 

Mr. Poole on this expedition became so interested in Mexico, its 
antiquities and its people, that he returned the year after printing liis 
report, and has since made the City of Mexico his residence, except during 
several visits he has made to tlie United States. For several years he was 
professor in the National College of the Mines, and is now a member of 
several Mexican scientific societies. He resides in an old convent confis- 
cated by the government, which he bought some years ago, and interests 
himself in collecting early Mexican books, studying the antiquities of the 
countiT, and in general scientific pursuits. On a visit to the United 
States he prepared two articles on his Ivihannonic Keyboard, which 
:\.\i^<i'^XQiS.\\\W\^ American Journal of Science for July, 1S67, and April, 1868, 
(2d series. Vol. XLIV, p. i, and Vol. XLV, p. 289). He is not and 
never was, a profeSj^ional musician; yet for his own amusement and for 
scientific experiment he plays with more or less facility on all sorts of 
instniiiients; but never publicly or for the entertainment of others. 

The theory of this organ was that music is always in some one key, 
and that transitions to foreign keys take place across chords that are 
common to both the old and the new keys. The pedals, instead of being 
arranged according to the scale, as in organs generally, were progressive 
by fifths. At the center of the keyboard was C, next upon the right G, 
D, A, etc. Toward the left from C, followed K, B flat, IC flat, etc. The 
pedal key itself did not affect the adjustment of the .selectors. But there 
was a small brass piece passing through the key, standing a half inch or 
more above it, which being pres.sed operated the selectors, throwing the 
whole organ into the key bf the modulating key pressed. Hence it was 
possible to modulate or not as the organist pleased. Mr. Poole had a 
theory concerning the proper function of the pedals, which, he thought, 
ought always to play fundamentals and never merely melodic pas.sages, as 
they continually do in Bach and the German school generally, and as the 
double basses often do in the symphonies of Beethoven and other good 
masters. Hence this organ was not practicable for the performance of 
organ music usually regarded as strict, meaning by the term organ music 
with a melodic independent voice for the pedal part. Nor was it valid 
according to the possible demands of musical theory in another respect. 
Its modulations always took place by fifths. To go from C to G is prac- 
ticable and easy. But modern music recognizes many modulations to 
the major third below or the third above. These modulations could not 
be perfectl)- made upon this instrument, nor would it be po.ssible to con- 
struct one uiKin which they could be made without extremely numerous 

additions to the number of pipes. Our existing musical theor>- attempts 
to derive all consonances from fifths; but it is impossible to derive thirds 
from fifths. Hence a major third below any given key note is an entirely 
different sound to apparently' the same note enharmonically arrived at in 
a circle of fifths. Therefore the verdict must be that Mr. Poole did not 
fully succeed in solving the problem of perfect intonation, but only that part 
of it which depends upon fifth relations. 

The effect of the organ, however, was extremely delightful. The 
editor of the present work had the opportunity- of playing upon it 
many times, while it stood in the factory at Newburyport and found it 
beautiful. Organists will understand the value of the commendation 
when it is stated that the open diapason and trumpet together made a very 
rich and harmonious effect in the full chord of the ninth. This chord 
with those two stops alone would be utterly unbearable upon an ordinary 
organ, unless concealed by the ample vibrations of the deep pedal notes. 
Mr. A. U. Hayter, organist at King's chapel, objected to it upon the 
ground that it obliged him to be too careful. This, however, counts 
for nothing; for it is easy to see that an organist might be so edu- 
cated and trained from childhood as to be able to know by intuition what 
key he had modulated into; and if alwaj-s accustomed to an instrument of 
this kind, he would be able to follow his plaj-ing with the proper touches 
of the modulating pedals, and accordinglj^ render everything in perfect 
tune. This experiment of Mr. Poole's is one of the most interesting that 
has been tried anywhere in the world, and the present work would have 
been incomplete without an account of it. The organ is now (1S89) packed 
awaj^ somewhere in Boston, but it is greatly be wished, in the interests of 
science and of historj-, that it could bo re-erected in some accessible place, 
it would be available for scientific uses. 


ra? NE of the most remarkable things in the mechanics of music 
j^^JI within the past fifty years is the recover}^ of the art of vioHn 
IglT making, according to the principles of that greatest of masters of 
the art, Anthon}- Stradivarius. Several of his violins were taken 
apart and the wood analyzed, as to its tone-producing proper- 
j ties. It was found that he had a regular system, according to 
which the tonal powers of the different kinds of wood employed in the 
same instrument stood in a certain relation to each other. When these 
points had been settled, and his location and dimensions of the "/ 
holes ' ' had been found to 3'ield better results than any other prac- 
ticable arrangement of them, there was still the varnish, which for 
some time eluded all attempts to reproduce. This was at length re- 
invented, and to-day there are several American violin makers who hold 
a rank scarcely below that of the celebrated Italian masters of the art. 
First upon the list should come the name of 

George; Gemuxder. 
This eminent maker of violins was born at Ingelfingen in Wurtem- 
burg on the 13th of April, 18 16. His father was a maker of bow instru- 
ments, and in his earliest youth the subject of this sketch became familiar 
with the principles of the art of violin making. Nevertheless, it was 
decided to make a schoolma.ster of the lad, and he was educated accord- 
ingly. The plan was not in accordance with his tastes, however, and he 
preferred to devote himself to scientific and mechanical pursuits. His 
father died when young George was in his nineteenth year, and the young 
man then went to other German cities, Pesth, Presburg, Vienna and 
Munich. He cherished the ambition of going to Paris and making the 
acquaintance of the celebrated violin maker, Vuillaume. At the suggestion 
of a friend he went to Strasburg with a letter of introduction to an 
instrument maker there. On arriving, however, he was astonished to find 
that the party was a manufacturer of brass instruments. He at length 
obtained an engagement with Vuillaume, and went to Paris, where he 
found to his perturbation that \'uillaume spoke no German, while he, 
(Gemunder) wa, ignorant of French. In this dilemma Vuillaume offered 

him nominal wages should he be content to work for such until he learned 
the French language. After he had been with the French manufacturer 
for some time, circumstances induced him to form the project of going to 
America. When he informed Vuillaume of this plan, however, that 
gentleman would not hear of it, declaring that he did not wish Gemunder 
to leave liis employ, but particularly not to go to America, where the art 
of violin making would meet, as he said, with no encouragement. At this 
Paris establishment, George Gemunder remained for several years, making 
and repairing violins for the distinguished artists and amateurs of the da3^ 
In 1 .847 he received an invitation from his two brothers residing in America 
to visit this country. Here he engaged with his brothers in giving 
concerts, but the venture was not lucrative, and borrowing twenty-five 
dollars as capital to invest in business, he went to Boston to engage in 
violin making. Here he sent a quartette of bow instruments in imita- 
tion of Stradivarious, also several other violins, to the L,ondon exposition 
in 1851. His business in Boston was not remunerative, and he moved 
to New York, where shortly after his arrival he was surprised to learn that 
his exhibit in London had been awarded the first prizes. In 1852 Gemun- 
der called upon Ole Bull and informed him that he had left the employ of 
\'uillaume, at which Mr. Bull was astonished, as he could not understand 
how one could leave a master of his art such as he knew Vuillaume to be. 
He said as much to Gemunder, and put forward as a conclusive evidence 
of Vuillaume' s talents a violin which he believed \'uilluame had repaired 
for him. Gemunder took the violin and proved to Mr. Bull that he, 
himself, and not the master workman, had done the marvelous repairing. 
Mr. Gemunder has remained in New York ever since, and his violins 
have won the highest opinions from the most eminent virtuosi of the day. 
He has been awarded many medals for his excellent work as a violin 
maker, and he is one of the very few in this line at the present day who 
have mastered the art. Another maker who has won well-earned fame 
in most parts of the world resides in Cleveland, Ohio. 

Mr. J. C. Hexdershot. 

Mr. Hendershot was born at Cambridge, Mich., May 20, 1847, and 
he is, therefore, forty-two years of age. For the past twenty j'ears he has 
devoted all his leisure time to violin making, pursuing the labor with the 
zeal of an enthusiast and purely for the love of the work. He is a natural 
genius in mechanics, and has that intense love that is never baffled at 
difficulties, and having traveled extensively and formed quite a collection 
of his own, his taste is formed on the finest models. His collection of 
about fifty instruments comprises such names as "Amati," " Stradi- 


varius," " Petrus and Joseph Guarnerius," "Steiner," and "Klotz," 
"Matthias Albani " and others of the famous makers, and it is 
a sight to see Mr. Hendershot lovingly take his favorites by the neck and 
expatiate on their merits and point out their cunning workmanship. After 
years of study and experimenting with all sorts of wood, Mr. Hendershot 
came to the conclusion, since practically verified, that balsam wood .solved 
the problem in violin making, as it is the wood that possesses the wear- 
ing and lasting qualities so long sought for by violin experts. The tonal 
quality of the wood we instantly recognized when Mr. Nowell drew his 
bow across the strings; the instrument in que.stion gave out a rich tone, 
both brilliant and velvety, with that indescribable something that told 
one it owned a soul — something most violins are lacking in, and which 
nothing compensates for. Mr. Hendershot builds after the best models, 
and the nicety of his workmanship must be seen to be appreciated; delicate 
F holes, graceful scroll and neck and flowing lines are some of the char- 
acteristics of his art. The best of the profession are using his violins, and 
he showed me many warm letters lauding him and begging him to con- 
tinue in his good work. Remenyi plays on one of his instruments; Mr. 
Jacobsohn, of Chicago, is another name that is sufficient guarantee; George 
Lehman and Miss Maggie Wuertz, of Cleveland, two talented young 
artists, possess fine specimens of Mr. Hendershot' s skill. And now Mr. 
Nowell may be added to the ranks of converts, as he was so delighted 
with the "American fiddle" that he gave its maker an order for one on 
which he will play. For thorough workmanship, finish and even mu- 
sical tone, Mr. Hendershot's are among the best now made, either in 
Europe or America. 

Brass Instrument Making. 

The manufacture of brass instruments has been carried to an 
advanced point in this country, where not onlj^ have the best results of 
foreign makers been rivaled, but American manufacturers have devised 
new methods of their own, and have materially improved the instruments, 
and at the same time put the processes of manufacture upon a com- 
mercial basis. One of the men prominent in this line is Mr. Conn. 

C. G. Conn. 

The life of this celebrated manufacturer of brass band instruments is 
well worth knowing. It is the record of the successful outcome of untiring 
energy and determination. Mr. Conn was born in Manchester, N. Y., in 
1844, and lived there until 1850, when his parents removed to Elkhart, 
Ind. From 1S61 to 1865 he was serving in the army, and ro.=e to the rank 

of captain. In 1S72 he commenced the manufacture of elastic rims on the 
metal mouthpiece of wind instruments. From that he went on to make 
the mouthpiece, and finally the instrument itself He is the inventor of 
many improvements in the cornet, of which the outcome was the ' ' Ulti- 
matum " valve cornet, which is used by masters like Cappa, Bent, Emer- 
son, etc. In 1883 Mr. Conn had the misfortune to lose his largf factory, 
with all his patterns and appliances, by fire. But with characteristic 
energy he rebuilt the place on a larger scale, introducing every conven- 
ience and the newest machinery', and to-day his factory is the largest and 
finest in the country. This factory is the only one where every part of 
the instrument is made, and all band instruments are voiced in sets in 
order to secure perfect hannony of key. In January, 1887, ^I""- Conn 
opened a branch house at Worcester Mass. , for the eastern trade. Liberati, 
the eminent cornet soloist, styles Mr. Conn ' ' the king of all cornet 
makers," and Gilmore, Cappa, Innes, Hutchins, Hoch, Emerson, all join 
in the same warm praise. Mr. Conn has lateh' introduced a brass clari- 
net, which is said to be a great improvement over the old wooden style. 
Outside of his business Mr. Conn is an active man. He has been mayor 
of Elkhart for four years, and has helped greatly to build up the city; is 
a member of the governor's staff, colonel and chief of artillery, organized 
the Elkhart Commandery of Knights Templar, is president of the Vet- 
erans' Association of Elkhart, and a member of other societies. Mr. 
Conn has won his reputation by sheer hard, plucky work, and he deserves 
every atom of praise he has gained. 




^7^^ ' ^ equal significance with the other features of the remarkable 
I' \ kA iitivity in musical directions has been the marvelous growth of 
e/i,^ the music-publishing business. One of the earliest and best 
Q& known music publishers of this countr>-, Mr. Oliver Ditson, has 
■'j^ just passed away. " Within his single life the sheet music and book 
I trade has grown from almost insignificant proportions to such a 
volume that the catalogue of the of Ditson & Co. is probaljly larger, 
in the mere enumeration of titles, than that of any other music-publishing 
house in the world. It is understood, of course, that publishers carry on 
their business upon commercial principles, for the purpose of making 
money, but it would be easy to underestimate the sacrifices they have 
made in the past for the sake of encouraging musicians in the production 
of works of a grade above the merel\- ephemeral and immediately remu- 
nerative. Ditson & Co. for many years were singularh- far-seeing in this 
respect. The present writer, many years ago, had completed a work • 
upon an abstruse part of musical theorj-, then little studied in this 
countr>-. The MSS. was accepted by Ditson with the remark : " We do 
not see any money in your work; but we do see a good fellow working 
for the cause of art, against great disadvantages, and we are disposed to 
help him." In this instance the work had a moderate sale, but it is 
doubtful whether the cost of the plates was made good. Other composi- 
tions of ambitious purpose have been held imsold for years, and at length 
the plates have been melted down for the metal in them, without the 
world having been appreciably benefited by the music publisher's charity, 
for it is of little use to print books which nobody buys. Still the pub- 
lishers have often been rewarded for taking their chances in this way. 
The great publishing house of Breitkopf & Haertel found the composi- 
tions of Robert Schumann utterh- unsalable for years, yet they afterward 
became one of the most profitable properties in the catalogue of the 

Oliver Ditson. 
A name that is as familiar as a household word wherever music is 
known and loved, i> thr.t of the fimous publisher, Oliver Ditson, who but 

(jCtyO^w^ ii^(jtyCii^<n-^ 

a few months ago passed from his field of usefulness and went over to 
the vast majority. Mr. Dit.son was a pioneer in the field of music pub- 
lishing in America, and he was the founder of the great house that bears 
his name, which is known from one end of the Union to the other. Mr. 
Ditson was a Bostonian by birth, having been bom at the North End 
Oct. 30, 181 1. He attended the common schools of Boston and acquired 
a good, sound education, graduating at the head of his class when he was 
but twelve years of age. He entered upon the trade of printer, and after 
being connected with several printing and publishing houses he formed a 
partnership with Col. S. H. Parker, and engaged in publishing books and 
music. At the time of the formation of this partnership Mr. Ditson was just 
twent3''-one years of age. In 1840, Col. Parker retired, and Mr. Ditson 
carried on the business alone. Shortly afterward he married Miss Catherine 
Delano, and to them five children were born, two of whom survive. In 
1845 Mr. John C. Haj-nes entered the employ of Oliver Ditson, and 
shortly afterward Mr. Haynes being taken into partnership, the firm name 
was changed to Oliver Ditson & Co. In 1857 the wareroom on Wash- 
ington street, Boston, was built to accommodate the rapidly increasing 
business, and in 1S77 another store adjoining was added to the space 
needed by the firm. In all his per.sonal and business relations Mr. Ditson 
won esteem and regard. He was a model of the American business man 
and the American citizen. He was a stanch friend, and in his own family 
was accorded even more than the affection that is usually bestowed upon 
a husband and father, for he was of the kindest of dispositions and most 
amiable in temperament. He was a valuable friend to all musical enter- 
prises, to which he contributed freely, and in which he took a deep interest. 
His career was notable for its modesty, integrity and fidelit}-, and he is 
one of the very few Americans who have beeii purely men of business and 
yet who have become known all over the land. To quote from the Boston 
Gazette : "It would not be exaggeration to say that millions of people of 
successive generations during the fifty j-ears have learned to associate 
his name with the musical works they have studied or enjoj-ed; while he 
has been known abroad and to those engaged in similar business as 
perhaps the largest music publisher in the world. ' ' Mr. Ditson died Dec. 
21, 1888, after a long illness. 

John C. Havnes. 

The story of this almost life-long associate of Mr. Ditson is that of 
the typical self-made American. He was born in Brighton, Suffolk 
County, Mass., and comes of .sturdy New England parentage. After 
finishing his studies in the common schools of Boston, he entered, at the 

JUrZ^ "tS, ytjCbyyi'^^ 

age of fifteen, the employ of the above-named firm, at the munificent 
salary of $1.50 per week. 

His remarkable executive ability and sterling abalities enabled him, 
from these small beginnings, to attain an enviable prominence in the 
commercial and musical worlds. 

His entire career has been animated by an enlightened and progressive 
spirit which has been a powerful factor in the advancement of the musical 
art on this continent. It is to his influence that we owe the first publica- 
tion in America of Mendehiohn s Soiigs without Words, and Bcct/ioren' s 
Sonatas, which was then considered as ahead of the times and a risky 
pecuniarj' venture. He has ever been ready to exert the same genial 
influence, the same progressive spirit and the same sympathy in behalf 
of any musician who aspired to have his compositions published, and 
thousands of musical works have been issued without a thought as to 
their being a paying investment. 

The stimulating influence and far-reaching benefits of this magnan- 
imous policN' on the part of Mr. Haynes and his associates have been 
of incalculable value to the cause of music, and have been felt throughout 
the country. 

As a point of encouragement lo the ambitious student, it may not be 
out of place to mention the fact that among the book publications of this 
house Rirkardsoii' s A'cw Method for the Piano has been one of the most 
successful. Mr. Richardson was a young man when the book was 
compiled, and died shortly after its publication His widow has already 
received over $100,000 in royalties on the sale of this book. 

When a young man, Mr. Haynes was instrumental in organizing the 
Federal Library Association. His many years' connection with it was of 
great value in his early training and culture. He is a life member of the 
Mercantile Librar}? Association and of the Young Men's Cliristian Union; 
also of the Woman's Industrial Union, and of the Aged Couples' Home 
Society. He is one of the trustees of the Franklin Savings Bank, director 
in the Massachusetts Title Insurance Company, and in the Prudential 
Fire Insurance Companj-, treasurer of the Free Religious Association, 
member of the Massachusetts Club, and of the Home Market Club; also 
of the Boston Merchants' Association. 

The death of Oliver Ditson, Dec. 21, 1888, dissolved the firm of 
which Mr. Ha3'nes had been a partner for so many years. A corporation 
was formed, of which he became the president and general manager, 
where we now leave him in the enjoj^ment of good health, with the wish 
that he may be spared many years in which to continue his good work 
and the development of his life's ambition. 


Literary Factors in Musical Progress. 

I&HE position of the literary element among the forces which have 
|§|l brought the art of music to its present recognition and apprecia- 
[gp,r%' tion in America is peculiar but singularly helpful and honorable. 
Yet no element of all the complex forces is so little understood by 
the average musician. This is because, primarily, the literary element 
operates in a different plane from that of music proper. Music itself, 
as combinations of tones, is taken into consciousness by way of the ears 
and the single and combined tonal impressions so received are correlated 
and classified in corners of the brain with which we are only imperfectly 
acquainted, the best musicians being but little wiser upon this point than 
the poorest. The farthest that the testimonj' of experts can go in this 
direction is to certify that to him, the expert, such and such tonal com- 
binations are intelligible. Literature does not come into the musical plane 
at all, but only approaches it here and there, and in some of its most 
beautiful marches runs in a parallel waj^ with it. Hence there might be 
a very vivid appreciation of music in an individual or a community, 
without any one person of the entire number so included being able to 
give any intelligible account whatever of the reason why this, that or the 
other combination affected him or failed to affect him. In the same 
manner a community might be full of poeticall}' inclined souls, whose 
ordinary- state might come very near the ecstasjr commonly engendered by 
music in those sensible to its influence, without any one of those individ- 
uals being able to explain the reason why. Poetry also lies outside the plane 
of reason. While the words of which poetry is composed represent concepts, 
the poetr>' as a whole represents something quite distinct from concepts, 
namely, imagination, play of fancy, feeling; and while the Grpdgrind 
critic is occupied in determining some nice point of grammatical construc- 
tion, or the agreement of some mislaid nominative with its hastily acquired 
verb, the poetic reader is already at his goal, the Pisgah height from 
which the poet looks out over the promised land, which only poets see. 
Nevertheless the literary element is extremely important in the cultivation 

of musical taste, and the nature and extent of this importance are the 
questions to which we here address ourselves. 

Literature has three planes of service in respect to music, differing 
from each other in the degree to which the pureh' musical faculties regu- 
late and illuminate its operations. The highest of these planes, because 
the one in which the purely musical faculties exercise supreme control, 
is that of criticism proper. A determination concerning subject matter or 
performance, that it is or is not artistic. In this plane the literary faculty 
is the servant and helper of the musical, translating into the vernacular 
of intellectual inter-communication the verbally vague impressions or 
intuitions of the musical faculties. The maimer in which this control of 
the literary faculties comes to pass need not here detain us. For anything 
that we know it may be analogous to the manner in which induction takes 
place between two electric circuits which happen to be contiguous. 
Sen-ice in the second plane rendered by literature to music is that of 
musical journalism, recording and applauding noteworthy happenings in 
the musical world. Here the purely musical intuition is exercised only 
in the selection of events for record, and, to some extent in characterizing 
them; the greater part of tlie journalism is purelj- literar}'. The third 
plane is that in which the literary faculty is supreme, and the musical is 
the servant, or at least is kept in the background. This is the intellectual 
service of providing formulas for communicating technical musical knowl- 
edge, the making of text books, and the like. This service is as important 
as any, since without it music thinking can never become really clear, for 
clear thinking is so intimatel}- connected with clear saying that it is hardly 
possible to determine which is the cause and which the effect. 

Of criticism proper, the highest of these composite relations of litera- 
ture to music, it may be observed that no branch of work in connection 
with music is less understood or more often abused. The great majoritj' of 
careless readers suppose that a critic's principal function is to find fault 
with performance, and they estimate his thoroughness as common people 
used to estimate a doctor's power, by the bad taste and spirit-searching 
qualities of the drugs he administered. To find fault is exactlj^ what a 
critic .should not do if he can avoid it. His proper mission is that of ex- 
plaining to the public outside of music, or only just inside the doors of its 
sanctuary, the reason why this, that or the other should affect them, or 
should n'ot affect. Properly speaking, the critic is a literary intermediary 
between the artist and the public. There is only one thing worse for a 
critic than habitual fault-finding, which is habitual praise. When every- 
thing is alike beautiful, splendid and artistic, the world of art is reduced 
again to a level prairie, which, however high as a table land, is never- 

theless to the eye and the traveler only a dead level, monotonous and un- 
inspiring. Nor is the so-called "judicious" standpoint more satisfactory 
to tlie reader. To go through a performance, saying that this little bit 
was well done, this one badly, at this point the soprano flatted percepta- 
blj-, and at this the alto failed to come in time, is not to give an artistic 
criticism of a performance. To speak of a new work as composed upon a 
certain theme opening in the key of A and passing presently by a certain 
chord to the kej' of B, is of no more value to a reader than the informa- 
tion that a certain article of bread contains so-and-so-many particles of 
gluten, starch, or what not. The buj-er desires not a chemical analysis, 
but information whether the bread offered for sale is agreeable to the taste 
and digestible. Not even a baker is informed of the particulars concerning 
the chemical constitution of the bread. Nay, even the chemist himself is 
still at sea, for when he has done his best in analyzing many common sub- 
stances, oils or what not, he finds several of them to be composed pre- 
cisely alike, although their tastes and properties are very different. The 
true place of has been well defined by Mr. H. ly.Finckin a dictum 
quoted below in the article devoted to his record. It is to transfer to the 
reader something of the " contagious enthusiasm," which a great master 
work awakens in a sensitive soul. 

Criticism has two distinct functions: To pass upon subject matter, 
and to characterize performance. Here again we come upon a diversity 
of gifts, it rarelj' happening that critics are equally strong in both these 
functions. The earlier critics who attracted attention were musicians with 
a literarj- faculty, and as the standard of performance was not so high 
as it has lateh' become, their work measures very well along the plane 
defined by Mr. Finck. One of the first of these artists to acquire national 
fame was Mr. John S. Dwight, whose fluent and graceful Knglish was de- 
voted to the finer appreciation of music with so much effect that he has 
been an inspiration to at least two generations of susceptible souls. 

The most difficult thing in criticism proper, and the only element in 
it entitling the doer to genuine rank as a critic, is the ability to distin- 
guish a first-class article, whether performance or subject matter, before 
it has generally been so recognized. It is not here intended to affirm 
that this art is one which strains the mind of the critic more than any 
other of his functions; on the contrary-, if he is able to do this, he does it 
through the exercise of a true artistic intuition, which costs him no more 
conscious exertion of brain power than the intuition that water is more 
apt to run down hill than up. Either he sees it or he does not see it. If 
the latter, all helps will be in vain, and reflection will aid him but little. 
He is not a critic, nor ever will be. Technical knowledge is of great value 

here, provided it be in such form within him as not to interfere with the 
exercise of the artistic intuition referred to. But it often happens to a 
critic to be too well informed technically (or too little informed artisticalljO 
in consequence of which he gets lost in some minor particular, losing 
sight of the main question entirely. In fact, a certain degree of largeness 
of mind and freedom from small prejudice is indispensable as part of a 
critic's equipment. 

Another point worth noting is the public to which the critic should 
address himself. Many critics write as if with an eye to the performer's 
reading the article in print. "How will this strike him ?" 'How will 
he take this ?" These are questions one reads between the lines contin- 
uall}'. The mean critic who gives a bad notice because he has been 
refused free seats, or because he dislikes the player or singer, or because 
the composer is of a hostile nation, we pass without a word, beyond his 
eiumieration as one of a nearly extinct class. He has nothing for us. 
The proper aim of the critic should be to awaken interest in the province 
of art in which he exercises his function. This he is to do, not bj' pour- 
ing ill-timed technicalities and statistics into the unwilling ear of readers, 
but in a much better way, bj' conveying to them the impression that there 
is .something in the art worth attending to, and capable of being spoken 
of in an interesting manner. This is the real motive power in criticism, 
especially when directed in the manner above described, by the sure 
intuition which, taking a short cut, arrives at the goal before the average 
reader has been able to get his bearings. Nor is anything surer than that 
something to say, will find a hearer. The world is like the old woman of 
popular fancy, its great all-receptive ear is ready to him who can fill it. 
This is proven in allrthe personal biographies which fill up this chapter. 
One and all, these men began as enthusiasts in music, and spoke to those 
having little or no interest in the art; still as j'ears have passed one 
hearer after another has been acquired, until they now number b}^ thou- 
sands and tens of thousands. 

The enormous change in the currency of writing about music within 
recent years is almost incredible. It is scarcely twenty years since 
one of the oldest American musicians, and best of men, took a j-oung 
writer one side and said substantially: "My dear fellow, you will never 
get a hearing in this countrj' for your pretty talk about classical music; 
Americans do not care for it. Come with us and prais^ the music which 
the average American likes, and j-ou will be happier, better paid and 
have a better time." The young man replied: "Every one must be true 
to his own highest light. It happens to be my mission to talk about the 
music I know to be best worth talking about; and I will go on. Whether 

they hear me or not may be a serious matter financially, but as it happens 
to be my work to do this thing, I shall keep on." The usual result 
followed. In so far as that writer has had something to say he has found 
readers, and the usual rewards of writers who please and instruct their 
readers follow. The dismal prophecy of the senior has not been realized. 

One of the most important functions of criticism nowadays is its 
exercise through the columns of the daily press. In this respect a single 
generation has seen a great change all along the line. If when Mr. 
Dwiglit established his Journal of Music he could have written a half 
column or more several times a week, and have been sure of its reaching 
half a hundred thousand readers, is it likely lie would have considered 
himself to be advancing his cause through the medium of a fortnightly 
publication reaching only half a thousand readers, many of them so full 
of professional prejudices as to be practically insensible to his teaching? 
It is true that many suppose that the daily newspapers impose restrictions 
upon the critic as to the use of technicalities. This is not the case. An intel- 
ligent critic recognizes the fact that he is addressing thousands of readers 
not technically conversant with the subject of which he writes; he there- 
fore seeks to be intelligible, and in order that he maj^ be so, avoids tech- 
nicalities as far as possible. But it needs only to read the daily papers 
after an important musical event to find it treated with an amplitude which 
few special journals are able to afford. To cite a single instance among 
many, the operatic performance of the Metropolitan Compan)' in Chicago 
in May, 1889, received in the Chicago Daily N'cws about three thousand 
words a day, when Wagner's Nicbclungcn Trilogy was being given. Thus 
in five daj'S, the Mcistcrsingcrs coming in at the end of the week, that 
paper devoted to this one subject no less than fifteen thousand words, or 
the equivalent of about sixt}' pages like those of the present work. No 
musical journal could spare so much space in a single week, however 
interesting the subject might be. 

In the earl}' days of journalism, before news gathering had been 
carried out over so wide a space as at present, the New York Tribune not 
uncommonly devoted from three to five columns to the opera of the night 
before; and upon certain occasions the allotment of space is said to have 
reached an entire page. This was in the time of the late William Henrj- 
Fr>', who was the first musical critic upon a dailj' newspaper in America 
to gain the ear of the public, and to employ his position for the purpose 
of bringing his readers as far as possible upon his own high plane. In 
these days we would consider that so unreasonable an allotment of space 
would defeat its own purpose, since amid so many words the particular 
points intended by the writer would surely be missed by the reader, who 


is very certain to have occupation of his own, and will not be able to 
devote his entire time to reading criticism, however able it may be. 

These long articles, moreover, are of a kind peculiarly dangerous to 
the critic. For example, in the Tribune of December 23, 1863, he had 
five columns upon Gounod's Faust, performed the previous night for the 
first time in America. Now when one considers that an article of this 
kind is necessarily written in advance, before hearing the opera at all, 
merely from a study of the pianoforte copy, it is easy to see that it car- 
ries a much lighter authority than if it had been entirely written after 
hearing the work. It is mechanically impossible, as daily journalism 
goes, to write more than about fifteen hundred words after an operatic 
performance, especially of a long opera like Faust. All the remainder of 
the article must have been written the day before, or several days before, 
and have been put in type before the opera was begun. Now every critic 
knows that hearing a work makes a great difference in his opinion con- 
cerning it. Things which look extremely questionable upon paper turn 
out all right in performance, and points which the reader passes over 
without notice prove to be very effective i-n action; hence it happens that 
a hearing generally changes or materially modifies the critic's view of a 
work; and, in the case of long articles written in advance, changes it 
when it is too late to confess the fact. Mr. Fry's article concerning the 
first production of Faust also illustrates another prime difficulty in criti- 
cism, namely the difference which custom makes. What we are used to 
we like; that which is new we are apt to condemn. This is what hap- 
p-^ned to Mr. Fry in the case in question. Gounod's opera, which as we 
now see it began a new school, he pronounced unlikely to succeed. Yet 
these are his words: " Among all these nineteen pieces we look in vain 
for a first-class memorable melod>- — the prime requisite for an opera and 
without which it cannot live. And, again, this opinion reduced to its 
essence, amounts to saying that Gounod's melody did not conform to the 
Donizetti type, which, as we see in " Notre Dame de Paris," was the 
ideal in Mr. Frj-'s mind at the time. But when all deductions of this 
kind have been made, Mr. Fry is entitled to the credit of having first 
gained the attention of American readers to musical criticism, as we now 
understand the term. The tradition thus established in the office of the 
Tribune has been kept up ever since, and b\^ none more capably than by 
the present incumbent of the chair, Mr. H. E. Krehbiel. 

Henry Edward Krehbiel. 

This well known musical journalist is a Michigan man, having been 
born at Ann Arbor, March 10, 1854. His father was an itinerant Method- 

f^, f<ktU^-CcL 

ist clergj'man, so that young Krehbiel may be said to have received his 
education in the same manner as the sailor was born, ' ' all along the coast. 
He commenced writing for the newspapers when he was onlj- eighteen 
years old, but had no regular engagement until the spring of 1874 when 
he began work on the Cincinnati Gazette. He was at that time reading 
law in Cincinnati, but journalism was more to his mind, and he made 
music his specialty. In November, 1880, he came to New York to take 
editorial charge of the Musical Review, a weekly paper, which had been 
established a year before by Archibald MacMartin, Gustav Kobbe and 
Dr. Rodriguez. At the same time Whitelaw Reid invited him to do the 
musical criticism for the New York Tribune, to which paper he is still 
attached in an editorial capacity. Mr. Krehbiel has been an active and 
zealous worker all his life, though, owing to the prevailing anonymity ot 
modern journalism, he has necessarilj' received no credit for much of his 
work. Among his published books may be mentioned. An Account 0/ 
the Fourth Musical festival, //eld at Cincinjiati, May 18, ig, 20 and 2i, 
1880, Aldine Printing Works, Cincinnati, 1880; The Technics of Violin 
Playing, by Carl Cour\-oisier (an abridged translation of two works by 
Courvoisier), Cincinnati, A. E. Wilde, 1880; Notes on the Cultivation oj 
Choral A/usic and the Oratorio Society of Neiv York, New York, Edward 
Schuberth & Co., 1884; Review of the Nexv York Musical Seasori, from 
1885 to 1889, in four volumes, New York and London, Novello, Ewer & 
Co. , and several books of programmes of festivals at New York, Cincin- 
nati and Pittsburgh. Mr. Krehbiel is a pleasing and graceful writer and a 
musical critic of recognized ability. Personally he is one of the most 
attractive figures in the profession, being fully six feet high, well propor- 
tioned and of an agreeable and inviting cast of countenance. Physically 
and mentally he is the kind of man who passes through the arduous grind 
of daily journalism with a minimum of friction and a maximum of results. 
Another verj' distinguished representative of this class of critics is 
Mr. H. T. Finck, widely known as an author, aside from his purely crit- 
ical writings. 

Henry T. Finck. 

Henry T. Finck, musical editor of the New York Nation and Evening 
Post, was born on Sept. 22, 1854, ^^ Bethel, Shelby county, Mo. His 
father, Henry C. Finck, a physician, was a great musical enthusiast, who 
played every orchestral instrument except the harp, composed a num- 
ber of songs, and frequently organized bands and mixed choirs for 
his own amusement, with such material as a small town affords. His 
children therefore had an opportunity from their earliest days of hearing 





i'SaaHRISlBBkA'. ' 


K \y ^i^^^^liii^^ 




■ J 

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good music daily. Henr>' T. began to play on the 'cello at the age of 
seven. In 1862 the family went to Oregon, via Panama, and lived at 
Aurora, twenty-five milves south of Portland, for ten years. In 1872 Mr. 
Finck went to Harvard University, where he graduated in 1876, and imme- 
diately thereafter started for Bayreuth to attend the first Nibelungen fes- 
tival, of which he wrote accounts for the New York llor/d and the Allaiitk 
J\fo7it/ily. He had previously done some reviewing for the Xalioti, and dur- 
ing his residence in Munich, where he spent a year after the Bayreuth 
festival in order to hear the rest of Wagner's operas, he continued to 
write for the jYalion on musical and other topics. In 1878 he was appointed 
to a Harvard traveling fellowship, which enabled him to spend three 
more j-ears at the German capitals, especially Berlin and Vienna, where 
he had excellent opportunity to prepare himself for his future critical 
career. Neither here, however, nor at Har\'ard, where he studied harmony, 
counterpoint and musical history, under Prof. J. K. Paine, did Mr. 
Finck intend to devote himself to music or journalism, his special study 
being modern psychology. He intended to apply for a professorship in 
some American college, but when on the point of returning to New York, 
he received from the editor of the Nation an offer to join his editorial 
staff, of so advantageous a nature that he at once accepted. As the 
Nation was about this time consolidated with the Evening Post, under the 
joint editorship of Messrs. Carl Schurz, E. L. Godkin and Horace White, 
Mr. Finck naturally worked for both these papers, and has done so ever 
since, with the exception of the season of 1888-89, which he spent in 
southern California, to recover from the effects of typhoid fever, the germs 
of which he had picked up during a tour of Spain. Mr. Finck has 
written a number of magazine articles on the Development of the Color 
Sense i^Macmillan' s)\ Gastronomic Value of Odors {Contemporary); 
The Beauty of Spanish JVomen (Seridner's), etc., but his first book 
was the ]Vagtier Handbook, written for the Wagner concerts given by 
Theodore Thomas in 1884, ^^id discussing Wagner's work and his music 
dramas in detail. This book is naturally out of print, but its substance 
will be incorporated in a collection of musical essays to be issued during 
i8go. In 1887 Mr. Finck published a scientific work on Romuntic 
Love and Personal Beauty, (Macmillan & Co.), of which four editions 
were printed during the first year, besides a London edition in two 
volumes. In the autumn of 1889 a German translation of this work 
appeared at Breslau, in two volumes. During the season of 1887-88 he 
delivered a series of lectures at Chickering hall, under the auspices of the 
National Conser\-atory of Music of America, which were published in 
1889 by Chas. Scribner's Sons, together with some other papers, under the 

2^.fet«^ ^' ^::^^^,,i^i^L..^^^ 

title of C/iophi, and other Musical Essays. Besides attending to his 
critical duties on the Post and lYation Mr. Finck lectures weekly on the 
history of music at the National Conservatory, and he also has in press a 
new volume of travel sketches, including the Pacific coast from Mexico 
to Alaska, Spain and Germany. Mr. Finck is an ardent admirer of Bach, 
Gluck, Weber, Schubert and Schumann, but his main sympathies are for 
the modem schools of Wagner, Liszt and Chopin, and for Rubinstein and 
Franz. He believes that although the judicial attitude in a critic is 
proper at all times, there is a still higher function of musical criticism — 
that of promoting the cause of the best art by means of contagious enthu- 
siasm; and this higher function often compels a critic to be an advocate 
rather than a dispassionate judge. 

One of the eminent of the American critics is connected with the 
Boston Eveni7ig Transcript. 

William Foster Apthorp 

Was born, of American parents, in Boston, Mass., Oct. 24, 1848. He was 
taken to Europe in the autumn of 1S56, and visited France, Germany and 
Italy, going to day school to the Marquardt'sche Schule in Dresden, the 
Friedrich Wilhelm'sches Progymnasium in Berlin, and the French Ecole 
des Freres Chretiens in Rome, besides studying drawing (intending to fol- 
low the career of a painter) under Frenzel in Dresden, and Guglielmi and 
Garelli in Rome. He returned to Boston in the autumn of i860, and 
fitted for college at the school of E. S. Dixwell. He was graduated at 
Har\'ard University in 1869. Shortly after his return from Europe his 
interest in. music developed, and giving up the study of painting, he began 
lessons on the pianoforte, and in harmony and counterpoint, under Mr. 
John K. Paine, in 1863, continuing under the same master up to 1867, 
when it ceased in consequence of Mr. Paine going in that year to Germany 
to bring out his mass in D. Mr. Apthorp continued his pianoforte study 
under Mr. B. J. Lang for some six or eight years more; but since his leav- 
ing Mr. Paine, his theoretical studies in music have been entirely self- 
directed. In the winter of 1872-73 he taught harmony at the National 
College of Music (Thomas Ryan, president), and, on the cessation of that 
institution, joined the staff of teachers of the New England Consen-atorj'. 
Here he taught, successively, pianoforte, harmonj-, counterpoint, fugue 
and general theorj^ for upwards of twelve years, besides having classes in 
aesthetics and musical history in the College of Music of Boston Univer- 
sity. In 1886 his connection with both these institutions came to an 

His career as music critic began ^n 1872, when, on the suggestion of 

Mr. Francis Boott, the composer, Mr. William D. Howells, then editor of 
the Atlantic Monthly, engaged him to edit the newly established musical 
department of that magazine. With two exceptions, he wrote all the mu- 
sical critical articles in the Atlantic up to December, 1877, when the 
department was closed. In 1876 he became music critic on the Boston 
Sunday Courier; and in 1878 assumed the charge of musical and dramatic 
criticism on the Daily Evening Traveller. In 1 88 1 he was made music critic 
on the Boston Evening Transcript, adding dramatic criticism to his duties 
the next year. He has continued in this post, in collaboration with Mr. 
F. H. Jenks, ever since. In 1880 he delivered a course of si.x lectures on 
the History of Music z.t the Lowell Institute, repeating the course in New 
York, Brookl3-n and at the Peabody Institute in Baltimore. In 1887 he 
delivered a second course on general mu.sical topics at the Lowell Institute. 
Besides his regular critical work, be has, from time to time, contributed 
musical articles to the Atlantic Monthly, Dwight's Journal of Music, the 
(New York) Musical Review, the International Review and Scribner's 
Magazine, and has been occasional musical correspondent of the New 
York Tribime. For the last seven years or so he has been engaged upon 
Scribner's Cyclopcedia of Music and Musicians, in the work of critical editor. 
During the last seven or eight years of the symphony concerts given in 
Boston by the Harvard Musical Association, he was member of the con- 
cert nnd programme committees of that society. 

Mr. Apthorp is one of the clearest and most satisfactory writers upon 
music that this country has produced. The record above shows, by sugges- 
tion at least, how well his work in this capacity has been appreciated by 
the literary public, for each modification in his way of life has been of the 
essential nature of a promotion. As he is still comparatively a young 
man, much maj- be expected from him in the future. 

George P. Uptox. 
The celebrated musical critic of the Chicago Tribune was born at 
Roxbury., Mass., Oct. 25, 1834. He graduated at Brown University, 
Providence, R. I., when he "^as twenty years old, and in the winter of that 
year C1854J taught school at Plymouth, Mass. The following year he 
came to Chicago, and did his first newspaper work upon the Native Citi- 
zen, which was owned by Gen. S. B. Buckner. From 1856 to 1862 he 
was city editor of the Evening Journal, and during this period he started 
the first distinctive musical column that had appeared in any of the 
Chicago papers. His musical criticisms were an entirely new feature of 
Chicago journalism. In 1862 Mr. Upton took the post of city editor of 
the Chicago Tribune, and also performed the duties of musical critic. 

This latter department he gradually enlarged, and commenced printing 
musical intelligence from abroad. He remained in this capacity- until 
about 18S2. Meanwhile the war had broken out, and in the spring of 
1862 Mr. Upton went south as war correspondent. On his return to 
Chicago he became successively city, night and news editor, and from 
iS66to 187 1 was literary, art and dramatic editor. During this period he 
contributed the Peregrine Pickle papers, a portion of which were subse- 
quently issued in book form. In 1S71 he became a member of the editorial 
staff, and has since remained in that position. Mr. Upton has been a busy 
man. In conjunction \Vith J. F. vSheehan he wrote a history of the 
Chicago fire, and he has also done much translation work — Memories, 
from the German of Max Miiller; Life of Haydn, of Liszt, and of Wag- 
ner, all from the German of Ludwig Nohl; Womari in Music, and four 
volumes upon standard musical works, Operas, Oratories, Cantas z.x\A Sym- 
phonies. Mr. Upton is the author of a number of magazine .sketches, 
mostly of a musical character; and in 1888 he performed what is perhaps 
his most important service to the city, where he has lived so long. At the 
request of Librarian Poole and trustees of Newberry Library-, he prepared 
the original list of musical works desirable for the Newbern,^ collection, 
then in process of formation. He was afterward assisted in this work by 
a number of other gentlemen, the result being that the Newberry Library 
has at the present time the largest and rarest musical collection in Amer- 
ica, in the departments of general musical literature, musical history, 
biography, theory and complete sets of the works of the great composers. 
Mr. LTpton is a fluent and graceful writer of English, one of the best in 
the country. His work as musical critic was carried on during the forma- 
tive years of the city, when he was the only critic here able to speak by 
authority, which he did both from his excellent judgment of the quality 
of a performance, and by his position upon the Tribune, which during all 
this time was peculiarily the organ of the cultured and moneyed classes of 
the city. Mr. Upton's relations with artists of the first class have 
always been friendly. By man}' of the lesser lights his opinions were 
feared, on account of their supposed capability of making or marring the 
public fate of the victim. In point of fact, however, Mr. LTpton was a 
singularly kind critic, careful to understand what he was called to write 
about. Every new work was carefully studied in advance of performance, 
if it could be procured, and in every way he was a faithful steward of the 
trust reposed in him by the proprietors of the paper on the one hand, and 
the public on the other. It was due to his long-continued work in this 
earnest vein, that the Tribune acquired the prestige in amusement circles 
which it still retains to a considerable extent. 

fl^..^r^ 11^2.^^^ 

Musical Journalism. 

fHE first purely musical journal in this country, so far as the 
writer remembers, was Mr. Dwight's Journal of Music, estab- 
lished in 1852 for advocating the claims of the classical and 
modern romantic writers. This periodical was issued fortnightly 
for twent3'-nine j'cars, and reached a considerable circle of readers in all 
parts of the countrJ^ Its circulation, however, was small always. 
In the days when Mr. Dwight published it himself it probably never 
exceeded six hundred bona fide swhscrihtrs,. After Ditson& Co. took the 
publication of it in 1858, they circulated a number of copies complimentar- 
ily, and in this way the circulation reached perhaps fifteen hundred or two 
thousand copies, but scarcely more. The number circulated, however, con- 
veys no just idea of the influence wielded by the journal. The charm of Mr. 
Dwight's enthusiasm and his elegant English combined to attract to him the 
refined and the poetic, with whom his undoubtedlj^ sincere opinions upon 
musical matters had implicit weight. Hence many reputations have been 
made in that journal for the whole country, so great was the influence 
exerted b)' it. In Boston its circulation was almost infinitesimal, neverthe- 
less more than one artist has found that commendation from this high quar- 
ter has made him friends of rare good quality. In point of influence in favor 
of the best music and for the reputation of those whom it praised, Dwight's 
Journal stands alone among American musical papers. It is true that 
there was a large majority denying Mr. Dwight's right to pass judgment 
upon artistic points of which he practicallj' knew very little. But they 
were wrong. They belong with those who have been, until very recently, 
decrying the musicianship of Mr. Theodore Thomas. To these the answer 
is: Supposing Mr. Thomas to have had a fair education in music, as we 
know he did; and to have distinguished himself as a solo violinist, as we 
know he did; and to have added to this a record as leader of a chamber 
quartette of exceptional excellence for ten years, as we know he did; and, 
still farther, to have added to all these a record as director of one of the 
most celebrated orchestras in the world, celebrated alike for finish of 
technique and general balance of interpretation, dealing, moreover, with a 
repertory embracing every important composition for orchestra ever 

{y/t.^L. ^CciUU^ayi^ /Cj^ 


published — if all these could not make him a musician, or prov'e him to 
be one, will the objector please specify the combination of instruction and 
experience in his opinion sufficient to perform the function of him? 
Likewise it was with Mr. D wight. Gifted originally with a fine suscep- 
tibility for poetry and music, hearing all the best artists, not alone in 
public, but in private, for fifty years, listening carefully to everything as 
one who must immediately give an account — for the recording angel is 
close after the musical critic — if a training of this kind will not make him 
musical, may we be permitted to ask what would ? 

The weakness of Mr. Dwight was his non-progressiveness. It was 
this quality which lost him the sympathy of the 3'ounger generation of 
musicians. Music is upon the increase. Mr. Dwight did not sufficiently 
recognize the fact. The most conclusive proof of this charge is to be 
found in his own valedictory, published in the closing number of his 
journal in 1881, when he said, substantially, that the journal had been 
established for the purpose of advocating the claims of certain composers, 
who had now become sufficiently recognized; there being no other compos- 
ers coming upon the stage of like excellence, his mission was ended. 

John Sullivan Dwight. 

This eminent musical litterateur and musical critic was bom at Bos- 
ton, Mass., May 13, 1813. He was educated at Har\'ard College, with a 
view to entering the ministry, and after graduating, prepared himself for 
the sacred calling at Cambridge Theological School. After six years of 
church work, however, he gave waj- to the natural bent of his talent, and 
concluding, finally, to devote his life work to literature and music, he 
joined the "Brook Farm" communitj' in 1842. Here he was editor of 
the musical department of the Harbinger, a periodical published at Brook 
Farm, and also frequently contributed able and analytical critiques to the 
Boston daily papers, thus doing much to stir up an appreciation of the 
higher classes of music, and to form the public taste in an upward direc- 
tion. Ten years later he established D-wighV s Jouryial of Music, a 
publication of a high order of excellence, and of European as well as of 
American reputation. For six years he remained editor, publisher and 
proprietor of this publication, when the proprietary interest was assumed 
by Oliver Ditson. Mr. Dwight continued its editorial management up 
to 1883, when it ceased to exist. In its republication of articles from the 
best European journals, home and foreign correspondence, and in the 
valuable contributions with which its pages were filled, it did a great and 
important ser\-ice to the cause of musical progress, and had much to do 
with the formation of public opinion upon musical affairs. He has ever 


been a zealous and indefatigable promoter of a true appreciation of 
Beethoven in symphony, and Handel in oratorio, and has been an active 
member of the Handel and Haydn Society, of Boston. Mr. Dwight's zeal 
in the cause of foreign classical music, has, in our judgment, led him into 
the error of being unable to regard with the eyes of just appreciation 
those musical efforts which are strictly American, and this to such an 
extent that he has been accused of prejudice against native talent. He 
has, however, been undoubtedly conscientious in all his musical-critical 
work, and this fault has been simply due to an enthusiasm of devotion 
to the European classical masters that has blinded him tq excellences in 
other walks of the art of even greater importance to the work of musical 
development in America. Mr. Dwight's services to the cause of music, 
however, are extensive and indisputable. The files of his Jourjial of 
Music form to-day one of the best and most reliable works of reference 
available to the student of American musical history. For some j-ears 
past Mr. Dwight has been librarian of the Harvard Musical Association, 
and here in the company of the undying works of the old masters, to 
whose fame his life has been largely devoted, he passes the serene autumn 
of his years, continuing at his leisure his literary activity and usefulness. 
Another well known name in this department is that of the late edi- 
tor of the ^r/yi9Kr«a/ bearing his name, Mr. H. C. Watson. 

Henry C. Watson. 
Mr. Watson's life is well worth studying. It is the life of a hard- 
working, ambitious man, who, having many opportunities, rarely failed to 
see and seize them. It shows, too, how a man's strong will, ever striving 
toward a desired end, may overcome fortune, Providence, or whatever 
men choose to call the guiding chance of life. Henry C. Watson was 
born in London in 1S15, the year when the "Europe-darkening wing" of 
Napoleon's mighty eagle was broken forever on the field of Waterloo. 
His father, John Watson, was the chorus master of Covent Garden thea- 
tre, perhaps, if one considers it rightly and its surrounding, most striking 
of all theatres. Within a stone's throw is the oldest and busiest street of 
the busiest and wealthiest city in the world ; within a stone's throw, on the 
other side, is a great market, with its wealth of flowers and plants, smell- 
ing of country lanes, and bringing a strong breath of fresh, pure air into 
the smoky turmoil ; within a stone's throw, in another direction, may be 
found the filthiest, noisiest, most degraded dens of vice and corruption to 
be seen anywhere on the face of the earth ; and, in the theatre itself the 
stor>' of love, the pantomime, where everything ends happily in the great 
transformation scene, has been played — how often? 

Young Watson's earliest associations were natuially with artists and 
musicians, for every Bohemian in London ma^' be found in and around 
Covent Garden theatre. He had an exquisite voice, and at his first 
appearance, as one of the leading fairies in the opera of Oberon, produced 
under Weber's direction at the theatre, he made such an impression that 
the duchess of St. Albans called him to her box and congratulated him 
on his singing. Henry Bishop, the conductor, also complimented him 
in public and fired his young ambition. For some years he sang con- 
stantly, and at the same time devoted himself with ardor to the study of 
music under Keams, Edward J. Loder and his father. But in the course 
of human e\-ents his voice broke, and in his trouble at the event he 
shipped before the mast for a voyage to the Mediterranean. It was a leap 
from the ' ' frying pan into the fire, ' ' and when the voyage was done the 
the lad was well content to stay on land in future. He now settled down 
to the serious study of music, but his tastes also led him in literary paths, 
and he attempted poetic composition, some of his efforts in this direction 
being very successful. 

But Watson was not content to sit down and wait for fame to come 
to him. He wanted to search her out. So in 1840 he came to America, 
armed with letters of introduction to such men as William CuUen Brjant, 
George P. Morris, Parke Benjamin and Horace Greelej'. Under Mr. 
Benjamin, Watson first found occupation in New York as art and musical 
critic of the A'ew World, a paper in which Horace Greeley was also 
interested. He also wrote contributions upon musical topics to the 
New Mirror, a weekly paper devoted to literature and the fine arts, 
edited by George P. Morris and N. P. Willis. His first paper was a 
popular lecture on music, which was delivered at the Vocal Institute, 
under the direction of George Loder, Watson's brother-in-law, who 
was conductor of the New York Philharmonic Society. He became 
musical critic of the New York Albion, the greatest literary- authority of 
the times, and remained in charge of the musical department for several 
3'ears. In 1843 he took editorial charge of the Musical Chronicle, and 
four years later we find him editing a weekly paper called the American 
Musical Times. His criticisms were always brilliant and striking, and 
they attracted no little attention, so that work flowed in upon the young 

Watson was now very busily engaged. He was writing musical and 
art criticisms for a number of papers, was also acting as a news gatherer, 
and in addition to his prose writing he was composing lyrical music and 
writing verses. He embarked upon various literary ventures, but none 
of them lasted very long. The most noteworthy was the Broadway 

Hexry C. Watson. 

Journal, started by Watson in conjunction with Charles Briggs and Edgar 
Allan Poe, but this, like the others, was too far ahead of the time, at least 
did not meet the want of the time, and succumbed to fate. From 1S63 to 
1867 Mr. Watson was musical critic of the New York Tribune. He was 
at this time recognized as the ablest musical critic in the country, and his 
judgment was the final court of appeal in musical matters. He started 
the American Art Journal in 1863, and soon compelled success. The 
paper rapidly became a recognized authority, and to it Mr. Watson 
devoted the larger portion of his time, until 1870, when he began to feel 
the effects of the continuous strain to which he had subjected himself for 
so many years, so that he was obliged to drop all other work and occupy 
himself entirely with the Art Journal. 

During these years Mr. Watson was engaged in many enterprises. 
He was the first editor-in-chief of /v'(T«X; Leslie's Illustrated Neicspaper; 
one of the proprietors and founders of the New York Philharmonic 
Society; originator of the American Musical Fund Societj-; organizer of 
the Mendelssohn Union; spokesman at receptions given to Jenny Lind, 
Henrietta Sontag, Catharine Hayes, and other great singers; author of 
the libretto to Lurlinc, William Vincent Wallace's opera; organizer of 
the Mendelssohn memorial concert, which was held at Castle Garden 
and was attended by ten thousand persons; and one of the most active 
agents in the attempt to produce a worth)' American opera, only, unfor- 
tunately, just as everything was read}' for the production of Rip Va7i 
Winkle at the Academy of Music, the building was burned, and the 
project had to be abandoned. In December, 1875, his busy career was 
ended by death. His literary and musical work, though, as to the latter, 
he never pretended to be more than a writer of songs and pianoforte pieces, 
formed quite a library when he had collected them together. Dr. John 
Savage says of him that, "As a composer his works were distinguished 
by a delicious vein of melodj', not less than by all the cultivated resources 
and demands of harmony. Some of his songs are perfect gems. When 
he wrote on musical art he wrote with consummate knowledge and with 
a deep sympathy for all that is most elevating, charming and correct in 
musical thought. As he was an able critic he was a conscientious one, 
and strove sometimes to achieve by generosity that which could not be 
encouraged by severit)'." 

William M. Thoms. 

The present editor and publisher of the American Art Journal was 
born in New York, June 6, 1850. He received a classical education, and 
studied singing, piano and violin, before entering upon his career in mu- 




sical journalism. He was attached to the American Art Journal in the 
spring of 1867, and three months later when he was still only seventeen 
years old, became its publisher. In 1870 he brought out The Journal oj 
the Day, the first daily musical paper ever issued in the United States, 
and ran it for about eighteen months. It gave criticisms on the last 
night's musical performances, the news of the profession, etc. Henry C. 
Watson, the founder of The American Art Journal, died in 1875, when 
Mr. Thoms took editorial charge of the paper, and signalized his advent 
by advocating a recognition of American composers, a policy which he 
has followed ever since. Mr. Thoms was the first to print the essays of 
musicians delivered before the Music Teachers' National Association. 

In 1877-78 he edited and published a large quarto, in forty-eight 
parts, of twenty-four pages each, entitled The World of Art, its eminent 
men and women, which received warm critical commendation, but caused 
its publisher a loss of $7,000. In his introduction Mr. Thoms says: 
"We can now claim to be creative in musical science; and it will be our 
endeavor in The Jl'orld oJ Art to show the progress we have actually 
made in the role of creators. For a nation of a century's growth Amer- 
ica has done more in that time to encourage and develop the ' fine arts ' 
than has been recorded in the histor\' of any other nation." The first 
number contained sketches and portraits of George F. Bristow, Edwin 
Booth, Hiram Powers, Anton Rubinstein, Emma Albani and Wm. Cullen 
Bryant. But the interest in art was not so general at that time as to 
make such a work successful. Since that time Mr. Thoms has confined 
his literary efforts exclusively to the columns of the American Art Jour- 
nal, in which he does all the criticisms on current musical matters. He 
is a clear and interesting writer, and as he is still a young man, much 
may be expected of him in the future. 

J. Tr.wis yuiGG, 

The well known journalist, was engaged by the Musical Mutual Pro- 
tective Union, of New York, in the summer of 1SS5, as editor and mana- 
ger of its official organ, a bi-monthly, called The American Music Journal, 
the first number of which had been issued Dec. 6, 1884. Under Mr. 
Quigg's management it was made a weekly in Jauuar\% 18S6, and at his sug- 
gestion the title was changed to its present name The American Musician. 
On Jan. i, 1887, Mr. Quigg purchased the property from the Musical 
Union, and in the latter part of Februarj' of the same year he associated 
with himself the well known journalist, Mr. Jno. C. Freund. Since then. 
The American Musician has steadily increased in size, circulation and 
influence, until it has reached its present position (1889J as a representa- 

382 , 



■j^^^."' S- ^^^^ 



i^ ^ 



■ / 

tive musical journal of America. Mr. Quigg received a collegiate educa- 
tion, and was a member of the law class of the university of Pennsyl- 
vania when the civil war broke out. The late Col. Jno. W. Forney 
offered him a position in Washington, as war correspondent of the Phila- 
delphia P/rss, which his predilection for journalism induced him to 
accept. When the Army of the Potomac made its celebrated move to 
Fortress Monroe, Mr. Quigg as correspondent of the New York JVor/d, 
ran the blockade of the Potomac, and arrival at Old Point Comfort in 
advance of McClellan's army, and, later, after the first engagement in 
front of Yorktown, made a journey riding all night on horseback, through 
the woods in the midst of a drenching rain storm, to place his dispatches 
of the first engagement on the Baltimore boat, which left Old Point Com- 
fort in the early morning — an enterprise which landed him as a prisoner 
in Fortress Monroe. After his release Mr. Quigg rejoined the army as 
correspondent of the New York Times, serving also during the Peninsu- 
lar campaign as volunteer aide, as well as correspondent. Mr. Quigg 
studied music as an accomplishment, and has written many vocal and 
instrumental compositions, a number of which have been published and 
obtained considerable popular favor. He has been identified with several 
musical enterprises, notably the inauguration of the Thomas orchestral 
concerts in 1876, at the Forrest Mansion Gardens, in Philadelphia. At 
various times during his journalistic career he has been connected with the 
leading daily papers of Philadelphia, as well as with the Cleveland 
Leader, Kansas City Times, St. Louis Critic, Chicago Daily Herald, New 
York Morning Journal, Friends' Weekly, etc. 

Frank Daxford Abbott 

Was born in Windsor county, Vermont, Jan. 29, 1853. Early in life 
he was inclined toward music and literature. He studied the pianoforte, 
organ, theory, etc., under able masters, and commenced when quite 
young to teach music himself to some extent, but soon relinquished that 
occupation to take a position with Geo. Woods & Co., organ manu- 
facturers, at Boston. In 1872 this firm opened a branch establishment in 
Chicago, where Mr. Abbott has made his home since that time. He did 
considerable work on the I 'ox Humana, a journal of music published by the 
firm, and advanced its interests in the west very raateriallj'. In 1884 Mr. 
Abbott established the Presto in the state of Iowa, but coming to the. 
conclusion that Chicago would be a much more desirable centre of opera- 
tions, he removed his journal to that city in June, 1888. Since that time 
the paper has continued to grow steadily in prosperity and influence, and 
shows every evidence of vigorous vitality. 


^^..^(^^ 6^^f^tU^ 

J. O. VON Prochaszka. 

This accomplished musician, editor and composer was bom in Russia 
in 1854. He pursued his musical studies at the Vienna Conservator^' ot 
Music, and also studied literature and philosophy at the universitj' of the 
same city. His compositions include over forty pieces published in Ger- 
many and about fifty-six published in the United States. He is the pub- 
lisher of the elegant American Elite Editions of vocal and instrumental 

Mr. von Prochaszka is now the sole editor of The Keynote, a monthly 
review, published in New York, devoted to music, art and literature. 
This paper was was founded nine years ago by Mr. Fred. Archer, the cele- 
brated English organist. Its aim is to encourage American composers 
and their works. Under its present management it has at all times 
indorsed worthy American in preference to foreign enterprises. It may 
be of interest to the reader to state that Mr. Arthur Sullivan, the well 
known composer, considers The Keynote the best musical paper published. 
Coming from such a source, this is certainly a testimonial of the highest 

H.\RRV B. Smith. 

The versatile and popular librettist, Harrj' B. Smith was bom in 
Buffalo, N. Y., in i86i. He was nine years old when he took up his 
residence in Cliicago under parental guidance ; and after finishing his 
education at the public schools, he went into a mercantile house. The 
routine of business proved uncongenial to his tastes, and as he had played 
successfully in amateur theatricals, he concluded to adopt the stage as a 
profession. With this view he joined the Lingard Compan}-, and, later 
went to New York, singing for two seasons, in comic opera, in various 
companies on the road, playing the second comedy parts. Subsequently- 
he returned to Chicago, and engaged in newspaper work, contributing to 
several papers and periodicals. He wrote verses and stories, and two 
comic opera librettos, both of which met with fair success — Rosita; or, 
Cupid and Cupidity, produced by Fay Templeton in 1883. Amarillis; 
or, Matnmon and Gammon, presented in Milwaukee, and very favorably 

Toward the close of 1884 Mr. Smith conceived the idea of starting a 
paper in Chicago, and established The Rambler, a comic weekly. He 
still finds leisure to pursue his musical studies, and has written over two 
hundred songs, besides numerous burlesque and stage pieces, which have 
met with great success. He has also translated several operas for stage 
managers, among others, Delibes' Le Roi I'a Dit, for Mr. C. D. Hess ; 
and Strauss' Ei7i Nacht in Venedig, for Mr. J. C. Duff. Recently he 



sold an original opera — a military satire — called Fort Caranicl, to W. T. 
Carleton, the baritone, who intends to produce it shortly. He also wrote 
the librettos for The Begum, Boccaccio, Fatinitza, The May Queen and 
Clover, all produced by the McCauU Company. He has just finished 
Captai7i Fracasse, the next opera to be plaj-ed by the McCauU Company, 
and has written in conjunction with Mr. Reginald DeKoven, Don Quixote, 
which will be played by the Bostonians. The Sea King, by Richard 
Stahl and Mr. Smith, is another new opera to be produced some time 
during the coming season. Possessing the great advantage of stage 
experience, and with his natural gifts and versatile talent, Mr. Smith is 
well fitted for success in his chosen line of work. 

Albert G. Emerick. 

Mr. Albert G. Emerick, who has a national reputation as a musician, 
critic and connoisseur, was born in Philadelphia Nov. 23, 18 17. His 
father was a successful merchant and an amateur musician of unusual 
attainments. His family is believed to be a branch of the Saxe-Weimar 
family of Germany. The Emericks came here from Germany originally, 
but have lived in America for four generations, some of his ancestors 
having held commissions in the armj' in the revolutionary war. His 
grandfather was organist atZion Lutheran church, at Philadelphia, though 
he was not a professional musician. Mr. Albert Emerick' s musical studies 
were pursued with Thomas Carr, an English organist of excellent reputa- 
tion, with Joseph Laws, W. H. \V. Darley and Signer Phil. Trajetta. 
His early education was based upon the supposition that he would become 
a civil engineer, but his musical predilections were strong, and he studied 
music diligently. At the early age of fifteen he was offered a position as 
organist. His stj-le of plaj-ing made him many admirers, but he was 
freely criticised by the public journals for his departure from the conven- 
tionalities of the regular German school. His compositions in the line 
of church music have been Six Sacred Sentences and a number of hynms. 
Yet unpublished are a Service of the Lutheran Church and several other 
works. He has also written a great deal of dance music, some of which 
has become very popular. Mr Emerick has wTitten songs and 
ballads, most of which have been published unacknowledged by their 
author. About 1841 he was induced to edit Songs for the People, which 
had no special musical merit, but proved to be very profitable to him. 
About 1848 he began to write for the press, and has been on the editorial 
staff of several prominent papers; he was correspondent to Dwiglit's 
Boston fourual and J. C. Freund's New York Music and Drama. Several 
of his ambitious MSS. remain unpublished. In 1850 he became manager 


of classical concerts of Carl Wolfsohn, Theo. Thomas, Ole Bull, Anna 
Jackson, Antonio Barilli and others; in 1867 he established weekly 
orchestra concerts in collaboration with Carl Sentz, and was rewarded 
with eminent success. In 1880 he retired from the practical pursuit of 
his profession, and is now devoting his entire time to literary work. He 
visited Europe frequently, but never studied abroad. Mr. Emerick has 
enjoyed a long and useful career, and although he is seventy-two years of 
age, he is as energetic as ever, and as enthusiastic for the cause of the 
art to which he has given so many years of faithful &er\nce. 

Theodore Presser. 

We shall find, even while resting " by the shores of old Romance," 
reading tales of the round table or of Roland and his chivalry, few ex- 
amples of daring perseverance in face of all obstacles better worth study- 
ing than the careers of some of our own self-made men. The glorj^ of 
the knight of old, that which makes him so precious in our eyes, is that 
he was "self made;" that his golden spurs were not buyable, but were 
won by blood and blows, and were to be gained none other waj'. So 
with our men of brain to-day. They must win by force of deeds what- 
ever honor the world accords them. " The world's mine oyster, which I 
with my sword will open," said Theodore Presser, teacher, writer, pub- 
lisher, as he stood on the threshold of his career. He has fulfilled his 
prophecy, and of no man can higher praise be given than to say: "That 
which his brain hath conceived, that hath his hand achieved. ' ' His musical 
education was derived from the best teachers in Boston, and later at 
the Leipzig Conser\^atory. For two years Mr. Presser was piano teacher 
at the Methodist University, Delaware, O. ; the following three years he 
spent at the Hollins Institute, Hollins, Va., and afterward a like period 
at the Xenia College. He has won a rare name as a teacher. He is one 
of those men who form their own high ideals, and by constant striving 
win as near to them as human nature can. 

During his years of teaching Mr. Presser has learnt all the needs of 
teacher and pupil, and this fact alone lends to the pages of his journal, 
The Etude, a power that no other educational musical paper possesses. 
His contributors are among the best known men in the countrj-, and the 
publication, now entered upon the sixth year of existence, has maintained 
a fine independence of tone, rare among class papers. The Music 
Teachers' National Association was founded largely by Mr. Presser at 
Delaware during the Christmas holidays of 1876. The absolute need of 
such an association is shown bj' two facts, one, that it has grown from 
small beginnings, till its recent meetings at Boston. Indianapolis and 

./i^/^ ri-^. ^?K»-/^r^-<^^ 

Chicago have been attended by more than a thousand members, and the 
other, that its grand orchestral concerts have lent a wonderful impetus to 
serious composition. As writer and teacher Mr. Presser has ever been 
an idealist, often taking a book or a work purely upon its intrinsic 
merits, caring little for its money promise. Mr. John S. Van Cleve in 
American Art Journal says: "No musician in the land, who loves 
his art with a true heart, is free from obligation to this self-sacrificing, 
tenacious worker in the domain of music, and all must wish him God- 
speed. His genial, warm-hearted friendliness, smiling and glad to counsel 
and aid all who are struggling upward; his steady, unflinching mainte- 
nance of the good and the earnest against all shallowness and charlatanism; 
his willingness to do the drudgeries of education, whether it be in disci- 
plining the refractor}- fingers of some struggling, timid tyro, or of turning 
out the myriad letters of a public secretar}', or in the details of a journal 
and publishing house, combine to render Mr. Presser one of the notable 
men of the country, and few workers in the vineyard of the Muses could 
be spared so ill as Theodore Presser, teacher, writer, publisher. ' ' 

Willi.\.:m F. Sherwin. 

This eminent conductor and composer was born at Buckland, Mass., 
1826, and died at Boston, April 14, 1888. His musical propensities were 
developed very earlj^ in life, and while a mere lad he began plaj-ing the 
bass viol in a choir. At the age of sixteen he became conductor of the 
same choir. In 1851 he became professor of music in Claverack Sem- 
inar}', in Hudson, N. Y. , and during the same time taught in the Female 
Academy and in the public schools, besides conducting musical societies. 
His activity was unceasing and his energ}' apparently unlimited. In 1855 
he removed to Albany, where, for a period of ten years, he was connected 
with the Female Academy and had charge of the music in the Pearl street 
Baptist church. While here he continued to be active in conducting 
musical societies and conventions, and also engaged in the music business. 
Owing to the unfavorable influence of the climate upon his throat, he 
was compelled to remove to New York, where he engaged as general 
manager of Firth's music store. He made his headquarters in New 
York for a period of fifteen j^ears, being connected for some time with 
Bigelow & Main, who published his first book, Bright Jczccls, which, with 
one exception, had the largest sale of aii}^ work of the kind up to that 
time. He was also engaged with Scribner & Co. for a period as musical 
editor, and in all this work continually by his conscientious labor and the 
high quality of his musical abilitj', augmented his reputation in the 
musical world. During his residence in New York, he became profoundly 

William F. Sherwin 

impressed with the need of a higher class of music in Sunday school 
work, and accepting the work of reform and improvement in this walk of 
musical life as a Christian dutj-, he gave up the higher and more classic 
forms of music, to which his artistic instinct strongly drew him, and devoted, 
it may be said, the best effort of the balance of his life to this purpose. His 
services to the cause of music in the Sunday school and the Sunday 
school convention were pursued with all the zeal of an ardent and sincere 
nature, and were not only rewarded with great immediate success, but 
had a far-reatching influence in fostering a more extended knowledge of 
the correct elementary principles of music, and thus enlarging the sphere 
of musical culture. After leaving New York, he was for some time con- 
nected with the firm of John Church & Co., of Cincinnati, continuing 
here, as elsewhere throughout his career, to write and publish music. 
The last four years of his life were spent in Boston, where he was con- 
nected with the New England Conser\-atorj-, and also with the editorial 
department of the Mnsiail Herald, which said of him, on his death: 
" He was a man of great geniality in his social life, an excellent and sug- 
gestive talker, full of ready wit, and broad in his sympathy. His qualifi- 
cations as chorus leader and drill master were extraordinar}-, not least 
among which were his personal influence and his power to keep his fol- 
lowers interested and eager and industrious. His memory will linger long 
after the vacant place has been filled." 

John S. \'.\x Cleve. 

Whenever nature takes anything away from one of her family she 
always gives something in recompense. It may be thought that nothing 
can compensate for loss of sight, but Nature finds a way of making some 
amends. Perhaps if Milton had not been blind the world had never 
known Paradise Lost. The amount of nen'ous energy that men expend 
tlirough their eyes is, in the blind, turned to other account, notably is 
used to augment the sense of hearing and the power of memory. Thus 
a blind musician has a certain advantage over his brethren, for his ear 
can detect finer shades of harmony, more subtle tones, than theirs. Van 
Cleve is a living example of this. He was born in 1851 at Maysville, 
Ky., the eldest of four children of the Rev. Dr. L. F. Van Cleve. He 
lost his sight, when he was only eight years old, from a long and intricate 
chain of infantile diseases. He went to the Institute for the Blind at 
Columbus, in 1862, and stayed there for five years, after which he com- 
pleted his education at the Woodward high school, Cincinnati, Delaware 
University and Boston University. From 1872 to 1875 he taught music 
in the Institute for the Blind at Columbus, then, for the next four years. 

Geo. Henchel. 

in the instiLUte at Janesville, Wis., and since that time he has been living 
at Cincinnati. 

What roused his love of music was the hearing of Beethoven's sixth 
symphony, and his literary enthusiasm, the first hearing of Milton's 
Paradise Lost. His life has always been that of a student, and he is, 
both by nature and environment, intensely introspective. One of his 
favorite amusements, when a little invalid of eight or nine, was to sit in 
a darkened room, and holding a book in his hand, read fluently from 
memory fairy stories and the like read aloud to him previously. Reading 
is an absolute passion with him, and tlie two loves of music and literature 
still contend for the masterj- of him, the scales hanging in perfect equi- 
poise. He teaches voice, piano and theory, and is eminently successful 
in each. He is also a lecturer and a teacher of literature at the Cincin- 
nati College of Music and at the conservatory- there. His methods of 
study are peculiarly interesting. A trained reader tells him, as he sits in 
a chair, or paces the floor, the shape and position of everj' note, which he 
builds up in his imagination and memory, then takes to the keyboard 
and teaches to the fingers. Pieces of more than ordinary value he has 
written down in a kmd of tangible print, from which he reads and 
reviews on occasion. This alphaljet is made by various groupings of 
dots in two rows. He also has large quantities of literary extracts in the 
same form, and these he memorizes by the thousands of lines. He must 
have many tens of thousands of lines stored awav in his head in this 

Van Cleve describes his music master at the Institute for the Blind at 
Columbus as "a queer, learned, shy, proud, impractical, dreamy, charm- 
ing, suspicious old man named H. J. Nothnagel," who wished him to 
devote his whole energy to music, and in particular to composi- 
tion, in which the master thought his pupil might hope for an ulti- 
mate rank equal to that of Weber. This fired Van Cleve' s already' 
glowing dreams, and he planned many works, but none of them have 
ever yet seen the light of full and rounded realization. In 1878 he 
brought out a commemoration ode and cantata (both words and music) 
for the unveiling of the Woodward statue at Cincinnati. This was 
heartily admired and praised. A selection from his piano and violin 
sonata in E was played by himself and Karl Hauser at Columbus in 1887, 
and was received with enthusiasm. He is also the composer of a string 
quartette in G minor, and of a grand sonata in G sharp minor. Besides 
these, he has five other works planned and partlj- executed,' among the a symphony in A major. He is a constant contributor to newspaper 
and periodical literature, and notably to the Elude. In 1879 he was 

^;^;S^^^C-£>-^ •■:-*-<' ^ , Cl.'^!^^-<?-z-<.>^ 

engaged on the regular staff of the Cincinnati Commercial, a post which 
he held till 1883, when he went over to the News-Journal, of that city. 

Van Cleve has given, a great many recitals in various parts of the 
country, and is well known as a pianist of marked ability. As a teacher 
he has also met with deserved success. Starting in Cincinnati, in 1880, 
with two pupils, he now has forty. But it is his work as a musical critic 
that is most valuable and most deser\'ing of recognition. That very 
acuteness of hearing consequent upon his sad affliction renders him all- 
powerful as a critic, for he is able to perceive shades of tone that cannot 
be detected by the finest normal ear, and when this acuteness is joined, 
as in Van Cleve, to keen perception of the beautiful in art, and eloquent 
power of expression in words, his opinion commands immediate attention. 
A blind critic! Yes; but his blindness is the key to his power. That is 
nature's recompense. 

Louis C. Elson. 

The name of Louis C. Elson has long been familiar in the leading 
musical circles of America, through his admirable lectures upon art 
topics in various cities of the Union, and before the leading American 
institutes. He is known, too, through a long and useful career in musical 
journalism, and also as a prominent and successful teacher of the voice 
and of the theory of music, in connection with the New England 
Conser\'ator>' of Music at Boston. 

Mr. Elson is a native American, of German descent, and was bom in 
Boston, April 17, 1848. His inclination toward music was displayed at a 
very early age, and he began to receive instruction when but six years old. 
He had the advantage of the advice and direction, particularly in the field 
of the German lied, of August Kreissman — acknowledged bj' Liszt to be one 
of the best contemporary interpreters of Robert Franz. He also owed much 
of that equipment which has given him so much importance in the field 
of theoretical knowledge to Carl Gloggner, of the Leipzig Conservatory, 
who aroused his interest in musical literature and superv-ised his earliest 
attempts at original production in this department of musical activity. 

Mr. Elson made his first entrance into musical journalism as 
reviewer in the Musician and Artist, a magazine of repute in critical 
circles. He subsequently became a contributor to, and afterward editor 
of the Vox Htimana. It was in this journal that the first numbers 
appeared of his historical work on Ancient Music — since published 
and widely circulated in musical circles under the title of Curiosities of 
Music. Subsequently he became musical editor of The Score, in 
which paper was first published his history of German Songs and Song 

IVriiers. He has also been connected with the I\fusual and Dramatic 
Times, Wide Awake and other art-literar>' ventures. His connec- 
tion with musical progress has, however, by no means been confined to 
his literary work. As vocalist he has been prominently connected with 
Trinity church, Emanuel church and other leading choirs of Boston. 
Of his work in the New England Conservatory it is unnecessary 
to speak further than to say that his labors there, transmitted through 
his pupils to all parts of the United States, have been an important factor 
in the promotion of vocal musical culture throughout the countn,-. 

Since his connection with the conservator}' Mr. Elson has been one 
of the associate editors of the Musical Herald, of Boston, and his papers 
have formed one of the most valuable features of that important 
publication. He displays not only acumen and thorough master^' of 
analytical criticism as applied to musical subjects, but possesses a ripe 
and finished literary stj-le, rarely found outside the ranks of professional 
authors. This faculty seems to improve from year to year, and his 
articles in the Herald have come to be looked forward to with keen 
interest as a source of pleasure and profit by all lovers of the art and the 
associations connected with it. 

Karl Merz, Mus. Doc. 

Perhaps no musician is to-day more widely known throughout the 
United States than is the subject of this sketch, who has been so long and 
so deservedly prominent in so many important departments of musical 
activitj' — -as editor, author, lecturer, theorist, composer and teacher — 
and it is a striking proof of the versatility of his talent that in each of 
these fields he has taken, by general concession, a first rank. Karl Merz 
was born in Bensheim (a city near Frankfort-on-the-Main), Germany, 
Sept. lo, 1836. His father having been a public school teacher and a 
skillful organist and accomplished musician, young Merz had the advan- 
tage not only of a musical talent by inheritance, but of a thorough literary 
education, as well as efficient musical training. In addition to the 
instruction of his father, he studied under F. J. Kunkel — a musician of 
reputation, but lacking in those gifts which are essential to success as a 
teacher. Graduating in arts in 1852, he was appointed by the govern- 
ment, in 1853, teacher in a little town near Bingen-on-the-Rhine, but 
alreadj' he had cast his ej^e upon the land of wider liberties and more 
unrestricted possibilities of advancement and distinction. His artist 
nature, too, revolted at scholastic drudgery, and urged him to devote him- 
self wholly to music as the mistress of his ambition. In 1854 he sailed 

for America, landing in Philadelphia in September of that j-ear. Being 
unable to speak English at that time, he had to encounter many difficul- 
ties and drawbacks, but was finallj^ engaged as organist in the South 
Presbyterian church of Philadelphia. After a year here he removed to 
Lancaster county. Pa., where he was engaged as teacher in a young 
ladies' seminarj', and played the organ iu the college church. In the 
quietude and serenity of this life of comparative retirement, he devoted his 
leisure hours to diligent study, and entered upon the work of composition. 
Subsequently he was successively engaged in Salem, Roanoke county, 
Va., in Harrisonburg and in Hollin's Institute, Botetourt Springs, Va. 
While on a vacation north, the war broke out, and Mr. Merz not only 
endured serious personal loss, but was forced to still another removal. 
Probably the outcome was fortunate for himself and for the cause of 
musical culture in this country. He now accepted a position as teacher 
of music at the Oxford Female College, Oxford, O., where he remained 
for a period of twenty-one j-ears. When this institution closed in 1882, 
his services were brought into immediate requisition by the University of 
Wooster, at Wooster, O., where he has since remained as director of the 
musical and art departments. As a musical writer, he first began to be 
widely known through hi? Musical Hiiits for the Million, first pub- 
lished in Brainard's Musical ffor/i/, commencing April, 1868, and which 
has had an extraordinarj' circulation and popularity, and moreover con- 
stitutes a work of pennanent and important usefulness. He continued to 
contribute to the Musical World until 1S71, when he was made associate 
editor, and since September, 1873, he has been chief editor. A facile and 
graceful writer, he unites literary polish with profound musical skill to a 
degree that leaves him without a superior in musical journalism. Dr. 
Merz has also been known as a lecturer on musical topics, and in this 
capacity his mastery of musical subjects, combined with a love and enthu- 
siasm that never fails to touch an audience with contagious sympathy, 
has made his platform work a sulsject of admiration in critical circles. Of 
his didactic works, his Modern Method for Reed Organ has attained 
practicall}^ universal circulation in this countr}-, and is generally recog- 
nized as a standard authority with teachers. A'arl 3Icrs' Piano Method, 
is probably the most superior of any work of the kind for popular use. It 
has elicited the highest indorsements by the profession, and has sprung into 
remarkable popularity' in an incredibl}- short space of time. His text 
book on Harmony and Musical Composition is adopted by thousands of 
teachers. In the higher field of musical creation he has published a sonata 
of a high order of merit, embracing three numbers, L' Inquietude, 
Eloge, and La Belle Americaine. These are characterized by a 


depth of sentiment and refinement of st5'le that bespeak the true artist. 
The last, especially, has become a general favorite. We may in addition 
mention, out of the results of a prodigious industry in composition, his two 
nocturnes, entitled Bitter Tears; the andante. Tranquillity ; Andante 
for piano; Caprice, for pianoforte and violin, operettas, the popular 
waltzes, Sounds from the Ohio, and Pearl of the Sea, etc. Aside from 
his purely literary education, in which, while j-oung, he had superior 
advantages, it is to be said to his credit that his powers have been 
developed to results that do him so much honor and give him so high 
a place in the world of music, by an earnest and indefatigable course of 
self-education, and even to-day, accomplished veteran that he is, he does 
not disdain to be still an ever active student. Personallj', he possesses 
those rare qualities of heart and mind which attract and retain friendships. 
He is sympathetic, charitable and generous, and especially broad-minded 
and enthusiastic in his devotion to everything calculated to advance the 
cause of the art to which his life has been chiefly devoted. Still in the 
prime of mental and physical vigor, we may reasonably predict for him 
many years to come of honor and usefulness. 

W. S. B. Mathews. 
Among those prominent in American musical life and activity during 
the past twentj--five years, there are few more important figures than that 
of William Smith Babcock Mathews, who was bom in London, N. H., 
May 8, 1837. His inclination for music was made apparent at an early 
age. He began its sj'stematic study at ten, and played in church from his 
thirteenth j-ear. He studied in Lowell, Mass., and Boston, and with such 
earnestness and success that at the age of fifteen he was appointed teacher 
of music at Mount Vernon, N. H., Appleton Academy. About this time 
he was prepared to enter the sophomore class at college, but abandoned 
the idea of taking a complete universitj- course, from the fact that he 
would have been compelled to carry himself through by means of music, 
and his health at that time did not warrant the strain. We maj- here add 
that afterward, by earnest self-application, he more than covered the course 
in philosophy, language and general science, and is to-day distinguished 
among eminent literary men for the breadth and cultivation of his mind. 
His father died when he was but ten years of age, and his mother, marrj'- 
ing again five 3'ears later, and removing with the family to western New 
York, he accompanied them thither, teaching music and attaining con- 
siderable local distinction. At Nunda, New York, in 1857, he married 
Miss Flora E. Swain, immediately removing to Illinois. Shortly after- 

ward he received the appoiutuieiit of adjunct Professor of Music in the 
Wesleyan Female College at Macon, Ga., but losing this position through 
the derangements arising out of the war, he taught subsequently at 
Greensboro, S. C, and Marion, Ala. On the close of the war he returned 
north, settling at Aurora, 111., and Jan. i, 1867, became organist of the 
Centenary M. E. church, Chicago, where he has, saving a few months of 
absence, officiated ever since. As a practical musician, Mr. Mathews' 
specialty is pianoforte teaching. In this he greatly excels, and has 
turned out many fine pianists who have done credit to the art and to his 
training. But to our mind, his higher vocation is that of an intermediary 
between pureh' musical ideas and purely literary ideas, in which sphere 
he has been the means of conveying to literary life something of the 
impression that music makes upon those who understand it intimately, 
and has been thus largely instrumental in opening up a proper and ade- 
quate appreciation of the meaning and mission of the higher walks of the 
musical art to the general literary culture of the day. In a word, he has 
possessed and exercised that rare faculty which enables the exponent and 
representative of music to act as interpreter, with conscientious fidelity 
unfolding to those who have heretofore merel3' enjoyed and appreciated 
music those higher treasures which lie in the true instinct and ideal of 
harmonic creation. In the broad sphere of his general professional 
activity he may be characterized as a musical educator, in the widest 
sense of the term. As early as 1859 he began to contribute to DwighV s 
Journal of Music. After 1866 his contributions became more numerous, and 
for several years he was the Chicago correspondent, over the name " Der 
Freyschutz," the mention of which will recall old acquaintance to many 
of our readers. In this capacity he rendered a service of importance, not 
only to many of the leading musicians of this country, but to the cause of 
American art culture, by calling attention to the merits of their works at a 
time when competent criticism was rarer than now. In 1869 Lyon & Healy 
began the publication of the Musical Indepeyident, of which Mr. Mathews 
became editor, which attained high rank for its sterling merits, and was 
indeed the forerunner of the better musical journalism of recent years. 
The great fire of Chicago, in 1871, swept this out of existence, though it 
was afterward, for a short time, revived by Robert Goldbeck. Early in 
life Mr. Mathews came under the influence of Dr. Lowell Mason, and for 
many years he in his turn has been a prominent writer on questions of 
musical pedagogy. In 187 1 he was associated with Mr. E. O. Emerson 
in the Emerson Organ Method. In 1876 he co-operated with Dr. Wm. 
Mason in Mason's Piano-forte Technics, Mr. Mathews supplying the letter- 
press, philosophy and general explanations, while Dr. Mason furnished 

the exercises and the method of their practical application. In 1 880 he 
conceived the plan of his work, called How to Under sta^id Music, for 
which, however, he could not find a publisher. Accordingly he com- 
pleted it and published it himself, and sold it so successfully that two 
editions were exhausted within the first six months, and the cost of the 
plates was made good. The work was of no small importance as an indi- 
cation of the method by which pupils could be put en rapport with what 
might be called the ' ' inner ' ' ideas of music, meaning thereby the ideas 
of music as conceived by artists. The form of the work was that of object 
lessons, which, however suggestive to teachers, afterward proved unfa- 
vorable for literary readers. The work has continued to sell liberally, and 
is generally regarded as standard. Perhaps the most remarkable feature 
of it is the wide range of music covered by it. A Dictionary of Music 
was appended, of considerable value as a brief compend of information. 
In 1883 he made the first book of his Studies in Phrasing, which also he 
published himself, being unable to find a publisher. This has had a large 
sale continually. A second and more advanced book has just been pub- 
lished, in 1889. A volume of Musical Essays was published as a second 
volume of How to Understand Music, in 1888. Mr. Mathews is now 
engaged upon a Musical History, to which his highest effort is being 
devoted, and which may be placed at the disposal of the musical world 
at no distant day. In 1874 he composed a work on Musical Form, to take 
the place of the smaller one published by Ditson & Co. in 1885, but the 
work is still in MSS.-, though we trust may find ultimately an appreciative 
publisher. His Twenty Piano Lessons to a Beginner, ' ' upon the Inductive 
Plan," was issued in 1889. In 1885 he became associate editor of the 
Etude, a standard musical periodical published in Philadelphia, and for 
five years or more has been Chicago correspondent for Ereund's Music 
Trade Review, and the Arnerican Musician. Since 1886 he has been 
lecturer on Musical History in connection with the Chicago Musical 
College, and in 1889 lecturer on the Theorj^ of Teaching, in the American 
Conser\'ator\', of Chicago. Mr. Mathews has also been active in journal- 
ism, aside from the professional musical periodicals. He did musical 
criticism on the Chicago Times in 1877 ; was attached to the staff of the 
Chicago Herald in 1880 ; and has been connected with the Chicago Ne7vs 
since 1883, doing upon the two latter papers editorial work as well as 
musical criticism. Mr. Mathews is to-day one of the most widely read 
writers upon musical subjects writing in English, and his work is distin- 
guished for its perspicuity, intelligence and, like his piano-forte concep- 
tions, for polished ' ' phrasing. ' ' Among those factors which are influential 
in the propulsion of musical progress, Mr. Mathews is in the front rank. 



Dexter Smith. 
A name that is well known in connection with musical literature in 
almost every department is that of Dexter Smith, who has written wisely 
and kindly as a musical critic, and whose favorable judgment is highly 
esteemed by those who are so fortunate as to win it. One of his great 
successes has been as a writer of words for music; this, in fact, maj- be 
called Mr. Smith's specialty, and as a writer of song poems of a simple 
and popular character he has scarcely an equal. It is said that the list of 
the titles of his published songs fills no less than twelve pages in the 
catalogue of the British Museum. Mr. Smith's songs are household 
words in many places where his name is scarceh- known. There are few 
Americans, musical or otherwise, who have not heard. Put Me in My Little 
Bed, Ring the Bell Softly, There' s Crape on the Door, and others of like ilk; 
yet Air. Dexter Smith, as the author of the words of these songs, is known 
to a comparatively small constituency. Among other popular .songs for 
which he has written the lyrics are. Baby's Gone to Sleep, Darling Minnie 
Lee, She is IVaiting for Us There, Cross arid Croictt, Singing Baby to 
Sleep, Where the Little Feet are Waiting on the Golden Stair, and hundreds 
of others. His patriotic Ij-rics, Follow the Drum, Hurrah for the Old Flag, 
Stand by the Banner of Columbia, Union and Liberty, etc., were among 
the most popular ballads of war times, while in the "piping times of 
peace " that ensued, his Columbia Is Free, and Our l^ictoriozis Banner wer^ 
a vocal celebration of good times come again. Whatever may be said of 
the literary value of these Ij'rics, there can be no doubt that they have 
found a place in the heart of the American public. Good verse for music 
is rarer even than good music, and Mr. Smith is one of the few who 
combine musical and literary faculties sufficiently to supply the desidera- 
tum. Robert Southey, when poet laurate of England, once heard a partj' 
of villagers singing one of his ballads, and, forgetting the more brilliant 
laurels that had come to him, he exclaimed: "This indeed is fame! " And 
so Mr. Dexter Smith, though far from being one of the great poets of Amer- 
ica, occupies a position that is in its way more enviable. His songs have 
won their way because they possess the qualities of simplicit}' and graceful 
sentiment which appeal strongly to the average American. Mr. Smith 
has edited musical journals continuously since 1865, his editorial connec- 
tions being with such papers as the Folio, the Orpheus, Dexter Smith' s 
Paper, and Ditson's Musical Pecord, the last named of which he still con- 
ducts. He has at various times tried his hand at play writing, with consid- 
erable success. During his long career as a mu.sical journalist, Mr. Smith 
has corresponded with many musical celebrities, including such notables 
as Jennj- L,ind, Sims Reeves, Wagner, Liszt, Gounod and many others. 




James R. Murray. 

Mr. Murray, the editor of Church's Musical Visitor, was born in 1842 
at Andover, Mass., and received his early musical education from such 
competent teachers as Dr. George F. Root, Lowell Mason, Wm. B. Brad- 
bury, George J. Webb, and on the organ, Eugene Thayer. He fought in 
the army of the Potomac through the war, and it was while serving as a 
soldier that some of his favorite songs were written. His first experience 
in a literary way was as assistant to Dr. Root in editing the Song Mcs- 
saigcr from 1868 to 1871. After the great fire Mr. Murray returned to 
his native town as teacher of music in the public schools, and he remained 
in this position for some years, but went to Church & Co., in 1881, as 
editor of the J/«5/fa/ I'isitor. While still a teacher of country singing 
schools in Massachusetts he began to compose children's songs, in which 
simple melody was wedded to appropriate words, and these songs after- 
ward became very popular. Later, while associated with Dr. Root, his 
activity in this direction was greater, but his best work has been done 
since he went to Cincinnati in 1881. He is the composer of a large number 
of school song books, church music, anthems and hymns, and he has also 
written an organ method, which has reached a large sale. Perhaps the 
best known of his songs is Daisy Dcafie. Of the song books. Pure Dia- 
monds, Heavenward and Noyal 6>w5have met all with great success. Mr. 
Murray has entire charge of the editorial and publishing department of 
the house of John Church & Co., and has gained no slight reputation as 
a musical journalist. 

A. J. Showalter. 

Mr. Showalter was born May i, 1858, at Cherry Grove, Va., and is 
an accomplished musician and composer as well as a dealer in musical 
merchandise (A. J. Showalter & Co., Dalton, Ga.). He studied first 
with his father, later with Prof. P. J. Merges, of Philadelphia, Prof. B. C. 
Unseldn and Dr. H. R. Palmer, of New York, and also with Dr. Geo. F. 
and F. W. Root, of Chicago, and others. He is the author of about 
twenty musical works, for singing and Sunday school, church music and 
a theory of music, harmony and composition ; also an organ method. 
He is also the editor and publisher of The Music Teacher, a musical jour- 
nal published in Dalton, Ga. 


Improvement in the Popular Standard of Performance, Espe- 
cially IN the Department of Operatic and 
Orchestral Work. 

REMARKABLE improvement in the general standard of com- 
pleteness in all kinds of musical performances is to be noted dur- 
ing the past twenty years, and especially during the past ten. 
It has been singularly uniform and well maintained throughout the 
period, along the whole line of musical organizations, from that of 
local choral societies to the largest traveling operatic and orchestral 
bodies. The movement has been illustrated over so wide a range of 
musical activity as to make it practically impossible to specify the original 
source of its inspiration. Most likely the great American maxim to "get 
the best " has been mainly operative in it, rather than any high ideal of 
a specifically musical kind. The great festivals recounted in a former 
chapter have had much to do with the improvement, since through their 
effect of filling the ears of their hearers with so great a volume of sound, 
they did much to unsettle the feeling of reverence with which all kinds of 
traveling bodies ^jad been heard before. With the sound of a festival 
lingering upon the ears, with its choral forces of hundreds and thousands, 
the meagre sixteen of the chorus of the Ritchings- Bernard English opera, 
or the twenty-four of the Italian companies of Strakosch, might well 
sound rather thin. Much of the improvement realized has been due, no 
doubt, to the natural effort of the managers to surpass previous records, 
or at least to distance their immediate rivals. 

Upon the whole, however, there have been three sources of inspira- 
tion in this direction possessing so much inherent vitality, and appealing 
so successfully to the innate instinct of the American people for finish, as 
to leaven the entire musical activity of the country. 

The first in point of time is the Thomas orchestra, which attained its 
greatest perfection of refinement of details about fifteen years ago, as 

recounted in that part of the present chapter immediately concerned 
with it. 

Many attempts had been made before to establish orchestras in America 
and to secure somewhat of the superior quality which Mr. Thomas actually 
accomplished. But all of them failed, more or less, and always because 
the leaders did not strike high enough. Mr. Thomas set his mark, not 
distinctly at having an orchestra as good as any, or belter than some 
other, or the equal of some particular European orchestra; what he aimed 
at was to have it right, according to his idea of what the musical effect of 
a well played orchestral piece should be. He accomplished this in time, or 
substantially accomplished it, and in a purely commercial way. He secured 
plaj-ers capable of responding to his demands, trained them, monopolized 
their time, and so managed the complicated affairs that taking it one sea- 
son with another it payed well. There are certain difficulties connected 
with orchestral affairs all over the world. In Europe most of the court 
opera houses have a system of pensioning men after a series of jears of 
ser\'ice. This is admirable as a benevolent scheme for the man, but it 
encumbers the ranks of the orchestra with men past usefulness, who are 
mainly concerned in holding on until their period of service shall have 
been reached, their work being wholly devoid of enthusiasm and the 
higher musical qualities. In this countrj- there are very many fine musi- 
cians, but owing to the opportunities of commercial success the smarter 
young men are diverted from orchestral service into some other where 
there is more money to be made. As for the expectation of raining at 
symphony orchestra composed of men picked up for the occasion, it has 
always proven futile, for the reason that precisely the same men can 
hardly be obtained upon two successive occasions, and if they are they 
lose all the effect of the conductor's individuality between one rehearsal 
and another. All this can be changed onh- by employing the men by 
the season, and not allowing them to engage in any other musical 
employment whatever conflicting with their work in the symphony 

There is another difficulty with orchestral establishments in America 
in the fact that all the players are foreigners. If we had here a supply 
of native young players, there would be material to select out of, and the 
material so selected would have the immense advantage of possessing the 
American ner\-ous impressibility; with such material, if properly trained 
technically, it would be possible for a conductor to do wonderful things, 
as wonderful as conductors who know how now obtain from the chorus 
material of this country, which in flexibility and responsiveness surpasses 
any other in the world. As j-et all our orchestras are merely expensive 

exotics which have cost an almost incredible expenditure of money and 
perseverance to bring them to the degree of success they have reached. 

Next in point of time after the Germania orchestra which played in 
Boston in 1852 (which, by the way, gave Beethoven symphonies with 
twenty-four players, the first violins numbering only four), is the New 
York Philharmonic. This noble organization was founded in 1842. Its 
story here follows: 

New York Philharmonic Society. 

A Philharmonic .societ}' existed in New York as early as 1824. Its 
object was "To promote the cultivation of the .science of music; to afford 
facilities for the exhibition of talent, and its advancement to fair compe- 
tition among the profession and amateurs." It was reallj^ a .societj' for 
aiding the widow and orphans of deceased members. The present society 
was founded in 1842 bj- Uriah C. Hill, an enthusiastic musician, remarkable He, A. Reiff, H. B. Dodworth and others met at 
the Apollo rooms April 2, 1842, "for the purpose of considering the possi- 
bility of forming a society of professional musicians residing in thecitj^ hav- 
ing for its object the advancement of instrumental music and the perform- 
ance of a series of concerts each year, to be of an higher order than anything 
that had ever been given in the city." Hill was a strange genius. He 
invented a piano that would never get out of tune, with bells instead of 
strings. That and some other speculations proved failures, and one day in 
September of 1875 Hill fell to thinking that life itself was a failure, and so 
got out of it with all speed, being then seventy-three years old. He was one 
of the first violins in the newly founded Philharmonic Society, and was its 
first president, the other officers being A. Reiff, vice-president; F. W. 
Rosier, secretary'; A. Dodworth, treasurer, and W. Wood, librarian. 
Thirty-seven members signed the constitution. 

The first concert was given Dec. 7, 1842, and was followed by two 
others, three being the limit for the first season. The programme 
of this first concert embraced the fifth symphonj- and a scene from Fiddio 
(Beethoven); scene from and overture to Oberon (Weber); quintette in D 
minor (Hummel); duet from Amrida (Rossini); aria from Belmont 
arid Constanza (Mozart), and overture in D (Kalliwoda), — a great pro- 
gramme for a society in those days, and one that might be reproduced 
without fear before the critical audience of to-day. The members of the 
Philharmonic Society were all professional orchestral players, and the 
receipts have alwaj-s been equally divided among them, formerly even the 
conductor going equal shares with the other members. This is undoubt- 
edly the reason why the societj- has been in harmou}- so long. At one 

time, in 1854, the German and American elements in its composition 
threatened to come in conflict. The latter, headed by G. F. Bristovv, at- 
tacked the sj-stem of making up the programmes entirely from German 
works, contending that the claims of American composers were shamefullj' 
ignored, overlooking the fact that it was then almost impossible to find an 
American composer whose works could be included in the same programme 
with works of Haydn, Beethoven, Mozart or Mendelssohn. 

The war brought troublous times for the Philharmonic Societj'; the 
audiences were small, and the financial results not large. Those years 
over, the concerts became more successful. The orchestra at first numbered 
fifty-two, and in 1867 was increased to one hundred members. The 
conductors during the first seven seasons were U. C. Hill, H. C. Timm, 
W. Alpers, G. lyoder, L. Wiegers, D. G. Etienne and A. Boucher. In 
1849 Theodore Eisfeld was chosen conductor and remained until 1855, 
when Carl Bergmann conducted the society, and did so alternately with 
Eisfeld until 1865-66. From that season till 1876 Bergmann was sole 
conductor, being succeeded by Dr. Leopold Damrosch. Theodore Thomas 
was then appointed. The following season Adolphe Neuendorf conducted, 
and in 1879 Thomas reappeared. When Thomas began his symphony 
soirees in 1864, there was lively rivalry between him and the Philharmonic 
Society until 1879, when Thomas removed to Cincinnati. After an 
absence of two years he returned and became the conductor of the society 
which was formerly his rival. He revived Bach's works and introduced 
the compositions of the modern school, headed by Berlioz, L,iszt, Brahms, 
Rubinstein, Saint-Saens, etc. Up to 1879-80 the society had performed 
about 325 separate works and had repeated many of them several times. 
The Philharmonic Society has done a great work in the cultivation of 
instrumental music, and has been the means of starting several other 
kindred associations, until to-day New York, once so eminently unmusical, 
stands alone in America in the number and excellence of the musical 
organizations which she supports. The Philharmonic stands for the 
highest order of selections (tr\-ing no experiments with works of new 
composers), and a complete and satisfactory style of performance. In the 
latter respect its influence has been enormous, and still is very great. It 
is now, and has been for forty years, the most commanding orchestral 
organization in America. 

Next after this was the Hansard Symphony Orchestra, of Boston, 
an association of music lovers formed in 1866 for the purpose of main- 
taining high-class symphony concerts. It kept up its concerts until 
Mr. Higginson's munificent provision for the Boston rendered the Har\-ard 
services no longer necessary. 

Harvard Symphony Concerts. 

The Harvard Musical Association, which was a part of the general 
movement of that time toward the elevation of musical art in Boston, was 
founded in December, 1865, for the purpose of giving a series of sj-m- 
phony concerts. The promoters announced that thej- did not purpose to 
make money, but that their only object was to promote the taste for good 
music and to advance the progress of art in Boston. "Every dollar 
received," they said, "will be spent in making the concerts more per- 
fect." They dwelt very stronglj^ in their announcement on the need for 
greater purt'/j' in music. They had no intention of rendering hackneyed 
themes, which would set the feet and hands of the crowd going, and 
would secure the performers applause, but would add nothing to the dig- 
nity of art — rather, take away from it. At each concert would be given a 
symphony from Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert or Schumann, and prefer- 
ence would be given to the less familiar among the chcsen master's com- 
positions, although always the selection must beof unques'.ioned excellence. 
No arrangements were made for the engagement of any great artists. 
The association decided to await the result of the sale of tickets before 
they plunged into rash expenditures. They organized a small but good 
chorus and a competent orchestra, with the object of giving the Antigone 
chorus of Mendelssohn, the less known productions of Weber and Cheru- 
bini, the Midsummer xYigkt's Dream, G'.uck's Orpheus, etc. It was 
arranged to give the concerts on Thursday afternoons, from four to six, 
when it was late enough to light up and have the effect of an evening 
concert, but not too late to allow people living at a distance to get home 
to a late dinner. The hour was also made necessary by the fact that it 
was almost impossible to collect an orchestra at any other time. The 
plan was to give six concerts representative of the great symphonic 

The first concert was given on Jan. 28, 1S66, and was a pro- 
nounced success. Carl Zerrahn was the conductor on this occasion, as he 
was ever afterward. Carl Rosa played Mendel.ssohn's violin concerto in 
E minor and Bach's Chaconnc, both of which were enthusiastically 
received. The rest of the programme contained the overture to Euiyanthe 
(Weber); sj'mphonj' in G minor (Mozart); three violin solos, Schumann's 
Abendlied, arranged by Joachim; Hungarian air and Am Sfiringqucll, by 
Ferd. David, and the overture to Leonorc (Beethoven). The orchestra 
numbered about fifty, with a greater proportion of strings than was usual 
in Boston at that time. At the second concert the fourth symphony, in 
B flat, of Beethoven, was given with great effect. A chorus of about 
sixty voices had been organized, and sang the Antigone chorus. The m ;m- 

bers were mostly amateurs, wlio had never sung on a stage before, mem- 
bers of the Harvard University, Cambridge students, and some of the 
Handel and Haydn Society. They were excellently trained by B. J. 
Lang, and gained a marked success. At the last concert of this season 
Ernst Perabo, who is described as "A youth of twenty summers, with a 
blooming, clear complexion," played the piano part of a septette bj' Hum- 
mel. This same Perabo afterward played for them quite frequently. 

The concerts were eminently successful in every way. The first 
year only six were given, the second year eight, and after that ten con- 
certs each year, with an occasional benefit. In the first five years, forty- 
eight concerts were given, the programmes for which had contained thirty- 
four symphonies, twenty concertos and thirty-three overtures, from Bee- 
thoven, Haydn, Mozart, Bach, Cherubini, Gluck, Mendelssohn, Spohr, 
Sterndale-Bennett, Weber, Schumann, Handel, Schubert, etc. The 
one-hundredth concert was held in May, 1875, and on looking over a list 
of the works which had been given up to that time it is \'ery noticeable 
how closely the association had adhered to their resolution to give the 
preference to less known pieces, for quite a third of the list consists of 
pieces that were played for the first time in Boston. Since that tim_e the 
association has kept an even tenor of success, and has done not a little 
toward establishing a pure and high musical standard in the city. It 
was discontinued in 1S86. 

Both these societies worked along the old lines, differing mainly in 
this: The New York society was a co-operative society of the musicians 
themselves, coming together out of their own innate desire for the highest 
and best of their art. So well did they manage their affairs that they 
prospered pecuniarih', having always something to divide for many years. 
In New York the men were elected into membership, and the same result 
was reached in time as in the permanently composed orchestras of Europe, 
already adverted to, namely, there became so many elderly players in the 
ranks, and so little vigor in the directorj-, that the programmes became 
somewhat stale, and the playing traditional and routine-like. The latter 
qualities were changed immediately when Mr. Thomas was elected director, 
as he was in 1889, and one of the first conditions he made was that certain 
players should be retired, and certain new men of his own nomination 
should be elected in their places. Such a movement could not have 
succeeded but for two circumstances: The first was that the prestige of 
the .society had been seriously undermined by Mr. Thomas' new orches- 
tra and fresh programmes; the second, that there was no other leader avail- 
able appearing capable of bringing the society out of the rut into which 
it had gotten. 

The Harvard orchestra had no such resource. It was composed of 
men who were hired for the occasion; but unusual pains had been taken 
to have them always the same, which difficult thing was measurablj' 
accomplished by putting the concerts late in the afternoon, when no 
matinees or other engagements claimed the services of the men. This 
society, however, fell into the rut that almost any society will fall into 
when its membership continues for a long time with very little change, 
and when the leader himself is also one of the old men. Mr. Zerrahn, 
who is certainly one of the best musicians who ever exercised his calling 
in America, was not able to fully resist this tendency. Hence in 1886 the 
Harvard symphony concerts were allowed to lapse. For several years, 
indeed, the conser\'atisra already spoken of had aroused an opposition 
societ}-, led by that eminent musician, Mr. Bernard Listermann. When 
he let the baton fall it was taken up by the late Dr. Louis Maas, and then, 
singularly enough, Ijv Mr. Zerrahn himself. But all to no purpose. It 
was time for .something new, and this presently came. 

Now came the new order of things, the problem having changed 
from that of merelj' giving a certain number of symphony concerts 
respectably season after season, and coming out at the end with a balance 
upon the right side of the ledger, to that of rivaling, and if possible, 
surpassing the style and technique of the Thomas orchestra. The Boston 
orchestra was formed in 18S1 u:ider the guarantee of a wealthy gentleman, 
Mr. Higginson, that expenses should be net. The men were to be hired 
for ihe season, just as Mr. Thomas hired his, being allowed to engage in 
no other occupations conflicting with their regular rehearsal hours or 
concerts. The lull story here follow in brief. 

TiiH BasTox Orciiestr.\. 

The Boston Symphony Orchestra was formed October 11, 1881, 
through the liberality of a wealthy gentleman. Dr. Henry L. Higginson, 
who declared that he would establish an orchestra in Boston worthj- of the 
name, and maintain it luitil such time as it could be made self-sustaining. 
A more meritorious enterprise in music has never been undertaken by an 
American. The number of plaj-ers at first consisted of sixt5--seven, manj^ 
of them old residents of Boston and members of the previous organizations 
alread\' described. The conductor for the first three years was Mr. 
George Henschel. This accomplished singer, pianist and musician was 
comparatively new to the orchestral field, and, as the result showed, not 
competent for the work then in hand. He endeavored in many ways to 
lift the players out of the ruts into which they had fallen. He adopted 
new plans of disposing the players upon the platform, etc., but nothing 

succeeded. Still the concerts were immediately an improvement upon 
those which Boston had had before, a fact due mainly to the large number 
of rehearsals. Mr. Henschel is entitled to the credit of having recog- 
nized the claims of American composers to at least an occasional place 
upon his programmes. In 1884 Mr. Higginson imported Mr. Wilhelm 
Gerrickefrom \'ienna, where he was held in the very highest repute as a 
competent conductor and superb drillmaster. For the first season he 
made few changes in the personnel of the players, but the second season 
saw many changes. New men were brought over for the instruments in 
his judgment most needing attention, and at the head of them the com- 
petent young Roumanian violinist, Mr. Fritz Kneisel, as concertmeister. 
There can be no question as to the value of Mr. Gerricke's work. He 
made the Boston Symphony Orchestra one of the first of the world. 
Nevertheless he was not altogether satisfactor}'. His rigid adherence a to 
few composers, especially the three B's (Bach, Beethoven and Brahms), 
and his rigid exclusion of almost all popular music from his programmes, 
meaning b}^ the term popular the poetic and interesting .symphonic poems of 
Saint-Saens, etc. , lost him the good will of the public. Moreover, there was 
no American capable of writing music sufficiently good to be played by his 
orchestra, a fact to be regretted, upon his own account, as it proved, no 
less than upon grounds of politeness to a nation which had taken him in 
and done so well by him. In 1889 a change was made, Mr. Arthur 
Nikisch being brought over from Leipzig as conductor. He was received 
with acclaim as a poetic and spontaneous director, beyond anything that 
Boston had seen, but it is still too soon to determine whether he will be 
able to maintain the high degree of finish reached by Mr. Gerricke. The 
orchestra, at present writing, 1889, numbers eighty, disposed as follows: 
first violins, sixteen, among them several superior solo artist, as Messrs. 
Kneisel, Adamowski, Loeffler, Svecenski, MuUaly, etc.; second vio- 
lins, fourteen; violas, ten; 'cellos and basses, eight each; two flutes, one 
piccolo, two oboes, one English horn, two bassoons, four honis, at the 
head of them the gypsy-looking Mr. Reiter, whom Elson pronounces the 
best horn player in America; two trumpets, playing real trumpets and 
not cornets, as is almost uniformly done in other orchestras; three trom- 
bones, one tuba, one pair kettle drums, one harp. 

It is understood that the financial historj- of this great orchestra has 
been one of large losses, which have been borne luicomplainingly, having 
been foreseen when the enterprise was undertaken; but the receipts have 
more nearly balanced the expenditures with every advancing .season, 
until at the present time the account is nearly even. The regular number 
of concerts per season is twenty-four, with the same number of public 

Theodork Thomas 

;N manj- respects Mr. Theodore Thomas is a typical American. 
He was born in Esens, Hanover, Oct. ii, 1835. His father 
was a violinist and a good musician. He gave Theodore in- 
struction when scarceh- more than an infant, and at the age of 
/*, six the young violinist made a creditable public appearance. The 

family came to America in 1845, when Theodore was teJi years 
old, nor has he since that time ever returned to Germany to study. 
He is therefore to all intents and purposes a self-made American 
musician. Soon after coming to America he obtained employment as 
violinist in an orchestra. In 1S51 he made a concert tour through the 
south as solo violinist, aiid he was first violinist in the concert companies 
of Jenny Lind, Sontag, Grisi and Mario, and several others. During a 
part of this time, and in se\-eral operatic engagements subsequently, he 
played under the baton of Arditi. In several of his operatic engagements 
he acted as assistant conductor, his first appearance in this relation having 
been due to the temporary illness of the conductor. In 1861 he withdrew 
from the theatre, having other plans in view than that of serving as first 
violin, or leader in a merely accompanying orchestra 

In the year 1S55 Theodore Thomas wai concerned with Wm. Mason, 
J. Mosenthal, F. Bergner and G. Matzka in a series of chamber con- 
certs, given mo.stly at Dodworth's hall. These concerts were con- 
tinued for fourteen years, closing in 1869, in consequence of Mr. Thomas' 
engagements in orchestral work. During these fourteen years the whole 
round of modem chamber music was traversed. The musicians associated 
in this enterprise were thoroughly congenial, and all alike ambitious of 
presenting classical music with the charm properly belonging to it. The 
rehearsals were extremely careful, and all technical points of ensemble 
playing received the closest attention, everj' man being alike interested in 
conforming his own work to the demands of the general effect. In time 
the interpretations of this organization became famous for the unity which 
characterized them, no less than the artistic finish and the nicety of 
technique, which had never previousl}^ been equaled in America; and the 
Thomas organization did not rest assured until it had given concerts' in 


Bodton for several seasons, sufficient to demonstrate the superiority and 
engaging quality of their work. The influence of these concerts upon the 
taste for chamber music in America, was no doubt considerable ; but the 
most lasting influence of these fourteen years is to be seen in the qualities 
which afterward came to expression in the Thomas orchestra. If space 
permitted, it would be interesting to give some of the programmes. 
Many new works of the highest order were given simultaneously with 
their first performance in Europe, and some for the first time in the world. 
The Brahms trio and septette were given as long ago as 1855, and several 
other advanced works nearly as early. 

Five j-ears before closing the chamber concerts finalh', Mr. Thomas 
had organized an orchestra for what he called " Sj-mphony Soirees " in 
Irving hall. Two points were noticeable in these concerts from the start: 
their catholicity, cspecialh- the prominence given to modern works of 
advanced qualities, like those of Berlioz, Liszt and Wagner ; and the 
.spirit and finish of the pla\ing. It is due Mr. Thomas to say that he 
established a new ideal of orchestral work. He sought to unite the 
ample technique of virtuoso players with the refinement and unity of the 
best chamber-music playing. This effort was not immediately realized, 
the material at his command not being capable of this quality of work. 
In the matter of selections he succeeded better, although tolerable per- 
formances were not obtained without considerable trouble. Orchestral 
playing was largely a matter of routine. It was traditional that a com- 
paii}' of players collected from various sources for a single concert, or 
three or four at most, should be capable of giving a Beethoven symphony 
with one or two rehearsals. Play them with this preparation thej' did, 
and as a rule all the players got through the work at the same time. 
Be3-ond this, there was little unitj- in the perfoniiance, and when every 
player was intent upon playing the mere notes of his own part, it is 
evident that there could not be anything approaching an interpretation, 
whether the conductor's or a sort of composite of the players en masse. 
Orchestral musicians were largely without ambition, and hopelessly fast 
in ruts. There was a small repertoire which was gone o\-er season after 
season. The expense of new music and the impossibilit}- of getting it 
properl}' interpreted without a number of rehearsals beyond the resources 
of the conductor, kept affairs stationar}', and, but for some such enterprise 
as this of Mr. Thomas, so it might have remained until this time. 
Thomas, from ihe first, had a great disregard of expense. He had 
certain ideals to realize, and he believed that these ideals were of more 
consequence than any ordinary number of dollars. So he ordered new 
works, rehearsed them diligently, and produced them — at a pecuniary- 

loss, to be sure, but to the great benefit of his own reputation, and to the 
material shaking up of the dry bones in orchestral circles of New York. 
After two seasons of these symphony concerts, he saw that it would be 
impossible to realize his ideal of what an orchestral interpretation should 
be, under existing conditions. He desired to bring together a body of 
players capable of performing perfectly any orchestral music then 

Accordingl}', in 1866, he organized his orchestra for summer conceits 
at the Terrace garden, near Central Park, and two 3-ears later removed it to 
Central Park garden, where there was larger space and a better oppor- 
tunity. The person in/ oi the orchestra was largely recruited from young 
German musicians who were flocking to this country. These young men, 
very^ many of them, were fresh from Leipzig and Berlin conservatories, and 
from the famous orchestras of Bilse and other European conductors. Most 
of them had studied for solo playing, and it used to be the boast of the 
young conductor that every man in his orchestra was a virtuaso upon his 
instrument. The skill of the players, their youth and consequent ductility, 
enabled the conductor to make his interpretations more and more what 
he desired. Discipline was rigid, after the manner of the Prussian 
drill masters. No insubordination was tolerated. The range of the 
selections and the wholly unprecedented finish and spirit of the interpre- 
tations attracted large audiences. The summer practice was justified b^' 
the improved symphony concerts of the winters. These were given at 
Ir\'ing hall for five years, then discontinued two seasons on account of 
insufficient support. In 1872 they were resumed at Steinway hall, where 
they were maintained some years after Mr. Thomas had been elected 
conductor of the Philharmonic Societ}'. They were finally given up on 
account of the interference occasioned by the demands of traveling. 

From an artistic point of view these concerts must be ranked among 
the most important orchestral enterprises undertaken anywhere in the 
world. Mr. Thomas was the first conductor, so far as record indicates, 
to arrange his programmes with reference to covering a distinct part of 
musical literature; and a series of programmes, in which each programme 
was a distinct unit, complete and well balanced in itself, j-et forming part 
of a larger whole — to wit, the entire series. Hence he was emphatically 
an educator of the most potent kind. The Central Park concerts afforded 
a college where one could hear works, representing every part of orchestral 
literature, given frequently, and in proper co-ordination with other works 
congenial, or artistically contrasting with them. These programmes 
excited the greatest possible interest in Europe, being published liy all 
the leading musical journals. Rubinstein, at St. Petersburg, was the 

next conductor to follow this plan of Mr. Thomas, since which it has 
become universal with conductors of the highest class. 

The first concert tour of the Thomas orchestra was made in 1869. 
There were fifty-four players taken upon the tour. The programmes were 
largely composed of light music, Strauss not being disdained. Mr. Thomas 
rightly recognized that the taste for orchestral music in America had to be 
built up from the bottom, and he addressed himself to the task of famil- 
iarizing the auditors with the sound and capabilities of the different 
instruments. Concertos for violin, 'cello, flute, horn and almost every 
other instrument were given. The pianissimo was a great attraction. 
All the strings plaj-ed as delicately together, as precisely and as softly, as 
a company of first-rate quartette players. It was by exercises of this sort, 
movements from quartettes, and the like, that Thomas unified his orchestra, 
and at the same time took the public upon its most susceptible side, that, 
namely, of the well sounding and the pleasing. Withal, he was a singularly 
graceful conductor. His splendid physique, graceful presence and quiet 
but masterful beat disposed the audience to appreciate his work upon the 
merely external grounds of the well pleasing and the becoming. The 
business of the western tour, during this season, was extremely bad. A cer- 
tain editor of a Chicago musical paper expressed his regret to Mr. Thomas 
that the public had shown itself so little attentive. Thomas answered 
philosophically, "The public will pay for this some time." Chicago 
did pay for it many times since, for there is tio musical name so potent 
there at present as that of Mr. Thomas. 

When Wagner was little more than a name in America, Thomas 
began to give copious extracts from his works. It was as long ago as 
1870 that he introduced the Ride of the Valkyries from Wagner's opera 
of The I 'alkyries. This strange piece made a great impression. Not long 
after he was able to add the Magic Fire Seeiie from the same opera, and 
Siegfried' s Funeral March. These he obtained surreptitiously, Wagner 
having been fearful of losing his European copyright if he permitted 
copies of his pieces to be sent to America. It is generall)' believed that 
Thomas received his copies of these pieces from Liszt, who had them 
copied without Wagner's knowledge, believing that in no other way 
could he more rapidl}' advance the great composer's recognition. The 
Bacchanale from Wagner's Tannhliuser Mr. Thomas obtained from 
Paris, and played it several j-ears before it was heard in Europe outside 
the French opera house for which Wagner originally wrote it. Berlioz 
was another composer whose works Thomas played frequenth-. At that 
time the great French orchestral tone-poet was an unknown name in 
America, outside of the musical centres of the east. 

Matters went from bad to worse. Salaries were continually advanc- 
ing, through his unwillingness to lose a good player at the moment when his 
services began to be most advantageous to the artistic work 6f the orches- 
tra. The scheme of giving a long series of concerts in Philadelphia dur- 
ing the centennial, in 1876, was not supported as had been expected. 
Accordingly the orchestra was disbanded, and for a few months it looked 
as if the Thomas orchestra would henceforth be included in the list of 
vanished things, too bright and beautiful for the working nineteenth 

In 1S78 Mr. Thomas was offered the presidency of a new college of 
music, established at Cincinnati, of the founding and individual history of 
which particulars will be found in the proper place. Mr. Thomas was 
selected for this position, because the founders of the institution recognized 
his name as the most prominent in American musical art, and the}- desired 
by the aid of it to emphasize the high intentions of the school. A hand- 
some salary was offered, $10,000 per year, and it was farther agreed that 
he should have sufficient leaves of absence to enable him to carry on his 
work as conductor of the New York and Brooklyn philharmonic concerts. 
The opening was well timed and inviting. Mr. Thomas accepted it 
and removed to Cincinnati, where he lived about two years. He was 
not able to accomplish there all that he desired. His ideal was that 
of a thoroughly equipped musical university, not only equal to the best 
in the world, but materially superior to any then existing. The field at 
Cincinnati was not equal to supporting such a school, nor did the schol- 
astic material exist for filling its classes. The Cincinnati school, like all 
American colleges, had to content itself throughout its early j^ears, with 
keeping a preparatory school. The most important gain from the Cincin-. 
nati experience was the leisure it afforded him for study and reflection. 

The success of the Cincinnati triennial festivals, established in 1874, 
led to others of the kind, but with modification. Full particulars of 
these, as well as of similar festivals held in other cities, are given else- 
where. One feature, however, cannot be omitted here, since it belongs so 
personally to Mr. Thomas. In 1884 he organized a series of festivals in 
the leading cities of the countrj', extending through three months, in all 
of which the same solo singers participated, and the Thomas orchestra, 
increased to eighty men for the trip. At the close of the festivals, of 
which the Wagner works had been a prominent feature, the entire 
orchestra and solo artists were taken across the continent to the Pacific 
coast, where similar programmes were repeated to great crowds. 

One of Mr. Thomas's ambitions was that of presenting all of the 
Wagner operas in complete form, with full appointment of principals, 

etc., according to the highest European standards, together with his own 
superior ideas of finish and orchestral efficiency — ideas which are scarcely 
ever realizecJ in Europe, on account of the number of old musicians in 
almost every important orchestra — musicians belonging to a past school 
of music, and no longer possessing the flexibility of technique adequate to 
the demands of these new works. By a curious mischance, for him, his 
operatic idea was anticipated in its execution by the late Dr. Damrosch, 
who suddenly found himself able, in 1884, to bring together ample re- 
sources at the Metropolitan opera house for this very work. In 1885, 
however, Mr. Thomas engaged in an operatic enterprise affording him op- 
portunity for illustrating his idea of orchestral accompaniment in dramatic 
music, in the so-called "American Opera " of Mrs. Thurber. The ideals of 
this enterprise were admirable, and largely coincided with those of Mr. 
Thomas himself, who desired above all things to present Wagner's works 
in the language of the hearers, and to give opera in general with a well 
balanced ensemble. Mr.. Thomas' coiniection with this ill-fated estab- 
lishment was wholly creditable to him. The promoters of the American 
opera desired his name for commercial purposes, as well as his sen-ices for 
their artistic importance. Such being the case, Mr. Thomas was not 
wrong in insisting upon a salary not much smaller than he would have 
been able to earn in his usual engagements. As a conductor of opera 
he was unjustly censured for subjecting the singers too much to the 

The charge was unjust. It was Mr. Thomas' ill fortune in this affair 
t "> Lave at his disposal, especially upon the female side, voices mostly of 
small calibre and personalities of little force. The colorless interpetations 
of these singers were naturally o\-erpowered by the orchestra in e\-ery 
moment of real warmth, because there is a point bej-ond which it is impos- 
sible to suppress the orchestra without destroying its resonance and mu- 
sical effect. Mr. Thomas was also censured for not allowing his singers 
sufficient lee-way in the matter of tempi rubati. Here the truth properly 
la}- between the extremes. On the one hand, the singers were disposed 
to exceed the limits of good taste, as they continually do in opera, distort- 
ing rhythms out of proportion, and doubling and trebling the duration of 
notes, and even full measures, for the sake of producing an effect, which 
when produced is often totally foreign to the intention of the composer, 
and not infrequently inconsistent with it. On the other hand, Mr. 
Thomas' ideal of musical effect is typically that of instruments. His 
notion of rhythm is instrumental, where the main bond of unity in long 
movements is the rhythmic pulsation and the rhythmic motivization. 

He had always been a great stickler for the well sounding and the 

well balanced, and in a case of the present kind it is not remarkable that 
differences of opinion across. Still the record remains that in the Amer- 
ican opera, the ensemble was better balanced, and the orchestral part inter- 
preted with more completeness, in better taste, and with more fullness and 
sweetness of tone-color, than had ever been heard in opera in this country 
previously. And this vi'as done, moreover, not in New York alone, but 
in all the chief cities of the countr}-, and in works of such magnitude as 
IVa^ner's Lohengrin, Flying Dutchman, and in the splendid revival of 
Gliick's Orpheus, of which Mme. Lena Hastreiter was the central figure. 
Notable successes were made also in Goetz's Taming of the Shr^-.o a\\\ 
Rubinstein's Nero, both of them presented by the American opera for the 
first time in this countrj-. 

It is Theodore Thomas' good fortune to have lived until his early 
dreams have nearlj- all been realized. He has shown the American people 
a higher type of orchestral interpretation than can be realized outside one 
or two European musical centres, and in the opinion of many good judges 
he has surpassed the standard of those. He has made orchestral music 
known in small cities, as well as in the largest. He has given programmes 
ranging from the preludes, fugues and antique fancies of Bach to the latest 
cogitations of the French ballet writers, and including everything between. 
The large number of .selections from Wagner led some years ago to the 
charge that he was a Wagner enthusiast. On the contrary, Mr. Thomas 
is an enthusiast for every good master of orchestral writing, of any time 
or school. He recognizes Beethoven as the head of all times and all 
schools. But he believes that the true way of making this fact known to 
the people is by permitting them to hear everything until the best works 
assume their proper rank through the operation of that beneficent principle 
of the sur\nval of the fittest. His readings of Beethoven symphonies are 
poetic in character and intensely refined and finished. In his later years 
he has seemed to incline toward broader conceptions, with less attention 
to the mereh' pretty, and more feeling for strength. It is proper to say 
of his work that while he has succeeded in securing attention of American 
audiences to the highest class of orchestral music, he has also given these 
works with readings worth remembering, and in the only fla\-or which 
would have secured for them attention at the time, namely, in that of 
careful regard for smoothness and refinement of tone-color. Nor would 
this notice be complete without mention of his abilities as an arranger. 
Of this many examples could be given. All the old tid-bits with which 
he pleased his audiences were of his own selection and arrangement, such 
as Schomann's Traumcrci, Schubert's Ave Maria, the Handel's Largo, 
the Chopin Funeral March, and hundreds of others, all scored with that 

delightful richness and smoothness which only those are able to encompass 
who live in an orchestral atmosphere. 

Many times in the course of his useful and active life Mr. Thomas 
has been the object of honorary degrees. That of Doctor of Music was 
conferred by Yale, in the same \'ear as President Hayes' LL. D. Other 
universities have conferred the same degree upon him, misled bj^ his 
customary disregard of learned titles. While appreciating the honor 
intended, Mr. Thomas is disinclined to parade such marks of distinction. 

The personal qualities of this great leader are remarkable. He is a 
Ijiorn leader, a general, a planner of campaigns, with a head for details. 
He systematizes his time, and accomplishes double and triple work by this 
means. He is quick in action, concise in speech, gentle in disposition, 
and refined in his tastes. As a commander he is capable of being arbitrary 
and of strict discipline. His manner, however, is ahvaj-s gentlem.anlyi 
and the power is felt rather than asserted. He is sensitive to a degree. 
Having suffered much from premature criticism, he has come to disregard 
newspaper opinions almost entirely. While capable of strong attachments 
and willing to do much for those he loves, he has his own work to do, 
and is not easily diverted from it. Upon the whole, it must be said that 
America owes him a great debt. And it is not too much to say that he 
deserves the success that has crowned his efiForts in recent years. 

Benj.\min John L.-^ng. 

Among the names most honorable in American musical history, that 
of B. J. Lang, of Boston, is entitled to a verj- prominent place. He was 
born in Boston, Dec. 25, 1S37, the son of a piano maker who was also 
an organist. Thus his childhood was surrounded by musical influences. 
He passed his boyhood in Boston in the days of Lowell Mason, the Boston 
Academy and the earl}- years of DwighV s /ouriia/, and the fresh suggest- 
iveness of the Brook farm project, then very recently closed. Mr. Lang 
was educated at the Boston schools and studied music regularlj^ at. first 
under his father's guidance, later under the best teachers in Boston. 
When his literary education was completed, he went abroad to study 
(in 1855) and received the best teaching then to be had at Berlin and else- 
where. He had earh* distinguished himself as pianist and organist, the 
standard of technical attainment upon the latter instrument not then hav- 
ing reached the pitch wdiich it afterward did. Mr. Lang took charge of 
the organ in the first church (Unitarian) when he was fifteen. Afterward 
he served successively Somerset street church (Dr. Neale's), Old South 
(twenty years), South Congregationalist, and now for eight years at 
King's chapel. In 1857 ^^ became organist of the Handel and Haydn 

Society, in this capacity assisting at all their concerts, and many of their 
rehearsals down to the present time. In 1868 the Apollo Musical Club 
was formed, a choir of male voices numbering about forty, and Mr. Lang 
was duly elected leader. In this capacity he has continued ever since, 
producing a number of musical works, many of them of great impor- 
tance from an educational point of view. The Apollo Club still occupies 
an honorable position in Boston, the concerts being sold out at the begin- 
ning of the season, the audiences being distinguished for elegance and 
musical appreciation — a combination rare outside the limits of Boston. 
The standard of vocal work in this society has always been high, and it 
was one of the first to introduce many of the better class of compositions 
of this school. 

In 1874 the Cecilia choir was formed of female voices. This, besides 
giving concerts upon its own account, co-operates with the Apollo Club 
in large choral works for mixed voices, both societies having been from 
their foundation under the same direction. Among the large works 
brought to a first hearing in Boston under Mr. Lang's baton are Mendels- 
sohn's first Walpurgis Night, Berlioz's Damnation of Faust and Requiem, 
Brahms' Requiem, Bruch's Odysseus, Dvorak's Stabat Mate?- a.nA Spectre 
Bride. Among many other interesting experiments made by Mr. Lang 
as conductor was that of repeating the same work twice in an evening, in 
order to afford a better familiarity with it. This he did with the Men- 
delssohn Walpurgis Algiit and others. 

As pianist Mr. Lang has a singularly honorable record. For more 
than thirty years he has been a prominent figure at the Harvard symphony 
concerts and the like, where, as .solo pianist, he has introduced all the great 
concertos, many of them for the first time in Boston. He has also brought 
forward many half-forgotten ones, which in their days were epoch-marking 
works. In short, his activity in this line has been that of a thoughtful 
educator and an enterprising artist, mindful of the best interests of the 
city. Mr. Lang was one of the original Wagner supporters in America, 
and perhaps the very first to raise money, for the aid of struggling genius. 
He enjoyed the friendship of Wagner, and believes the time will come 
when his name will be spoken of as reverently as that of Beethoven now 
is. He also thinks that the ear for music is in process of development, 
and that the power of co-ordinating tonal impressions will become so much 
more acute and far-reaching than at present, that the most astonishing 
combinations of Wagner and Berlioz will become simple to the musicians 
of the future, as most of those of Haydn and Mozart have become simple 
to the advanced musicians of the day. 

Mr. Lang's activity as promoter of the Har\'ard symphony concerts, 

the Boston orchestra, and all enterprises for the higher musical privileges 
of Boston, has been most honorable and advantageous. For ten years, 
from 1868 to 1878, he gave illustrated lectures upon the programmes of 
forthcoming concerts. He is happily married, and lives in elegance. His 
class of private pupils upon the pianoforte belongs to the very elite of 
Boston, and is as distinguished for talent as for style — a combination 
peculiarl}^ Bostonian. 

Mr. Lang's compositions are mostly in manuscript. His chief work 
is an oratorio of David. It is of decided interest. The form is essentially 
original. The story of David is told mainly in recitative, with accom- 
panying orchestral description, and the psalms or parts of them supposed 
to have been written at the time are then treated as choruses, quartettes, 
or in other appropriate lyric forms. The events thus go on in chronological 
order, the first part ending with the chant of the old time church, and the 
second or last part, with a great chorus set to one of the Messianic psalms. 
It is not altogether to the credit of Boston that a work of this magnitude, 
by a local composer, should have been left so long unheard, but this very 
likely maj' be due to the composer's modesty. 

In singular contrast to the clearness of his thought, and the clever- 
with which he adapts means to ends in all the complicated relations of his 
busy life, Mr. Lang is entitled to the distinction of writing perhaps the 
very worst "hand " on record. It might be mistaken by a stranger for 
spider tracks upon the paper. If this peculiarity of an otherwise emi- 
nently practical New Englander can be supposed to possess psychological 
meaning, it must be an indication of a mind too elevated for groveling 
with pen and paper. Mr. Lang is hale and hearty, a young man, albeit 
somewhat thinly thatched with white and gray upon the top of his well 
rounded skull, and there is reason to hope for his continued service in the 
art he loves so well, and so modestly honors, for many years to come. 

Carl Zerrahn. 
This accomplished musician, widely known as the conductor of the 
Har\-ard symphony concerts and also of the Boston Handel and Haydn 
Society concerts, as well as prominently before the public in the manage- 
ment of the great " Peace Jubilee " in 1869 and 1872, and in New York 
and San Francisco, was bom at Malchon, in the Grand Duchy of Mech- 
linburg-Schwerin on July 28, 1826. He began the study of music in his 
twelfth year at Rostock, under Freidrich Weber, subsequently studying at 
Hanover and Berlin. Among the democratic enthusiasts expatriated from 
Germany by the revolutionary events of 1848, was a number of young 
musicians, including Zerrahn. Out of these was formed the ' ' Germania 

Musical Societ}'," an orchestral organization which gave concerts of class- 
ical music with considerable success in the principal cities throughout the 
United States, and in which Zerrahn gained much reputation by his 
performances as first flute. In 1854 h^ ^^'^s appointed conductor of the 
Handel and Haydn Society, an important musical association of Boston, 
and this position he has filled with great credit to himself and advantage 
to the association and to the cause of music up to the present time. For 
several years after the date above mentioned the only concerts of classical 
music given in Boston were given b\- Zerrahn at his own risk. In 1865 
the Harvard'symphony concerts were instituted, and Mr. Zerrahn was 
appointed conductor of these, filling the position ably and acceptably till 
the concerts were abandoned in 1883. He conducts also the aimual 
Autumn Festivals at Worcester, Mass, and since the date of its organiza- 
tion in 1868 has had the care of the Oratorio Society of Salem, Mass. In 
addition to this there is hardly a musical enterprise or activity' in Boston 
and the surrounding cities that does not get or has not yet had the benefit 
of his unceasing and enthusiastic nuisical industry. Under his direction 
New England has had the benefit of the production of some of the grandest 
masterpieces of oratorio from the great masters, Handel and Haj^dn, 
always in a creditable and efficient manner, and sometimes with the 
powerful interpretation of the highest musical talent. By this means a 
great and important stimulus has been given to musical interest in New 
England, and that interest has been focused upon the higher walks of the 
art, thus educating an elevated taste that has already proved of the greatest 
advantage to the progress of musical culture in the right direction, and that 
must be fruitful of the best results hereafter. The name of Carl Zerrahn 
is inseparably connected with the leading musical events in the history of 
the higher walks of the art in Boston. In 1866 he was appointed conductor 
of the annual symphony concerts of the Harvard Musical Association, 
a position he has ever since held. At the first of the triennial festivals of 
the Oratorio Society he was the conductor, with an orchestra of over 100 
instruments, a chorus of 700 voices, and Mr. B. J. Lang presiding at the 
organ. Mr. Zerrahn is still actively engaged in the field of musical 
cultivation which he has so highly h6nored that it is a duty and a pleasure 
to in some small measure aid in honoring his ser\^ices. 


'HIS society was organized in 1873 and incorporated in 1875. Dr. 
Leopold Damrosch was the promoter of the scheme, and the ob- 
^ ject was the promotion and cultivation of choral music, both 
sacred and secular, by the study and public performance of high- 
class works. The first concert was given at Knabe hall, Dec. 3, 
1873, with a chorus of twenty-eight, and in the course of ten years 
the society gave ninety-three public performances and rendered forty-four 
works or parts of works. In 1881 this, in connection with the Symphony 
Society, carried out the first New York May festival, with a chorus of 
1,200 and an orchestra of 287. The average audience for the seven con- 
certs was 9,100 persons. The programme included Berlioz's Grande 
A f esse des Marts; Rubinstein's Torcer of Babel {ihs. performances of these 
two being the first in America); Handel's Messiah and Dcttiiigen Te 
Dcum; Beethoven's ninth symi)hony and parts of Wagner' Si1/if«/£'r5z«^i?r. 
The society has been eminently successful in every respect, and no small 
portion of this success is due to Dr. Damrosch's untiring energj- and abilitj'. 
Among other important works performed at various concerts are the ora- 
torios, Samson, Judas Maccabaus (Handel); St. Paul, Elijah (Mendels- 
sohn); Christ us (Liszt); Creation (Haydn); cantatas, Ruth and A^aomi 
(Damrosch); Walfiuiffis Night (Mendelssohn); Seasons (Haydn); God's 
Time is Our Time (Bach); Alexander's Feast (Handel); Beethoven's 
ninth symphony and Ruins of Athens; Berlioz's Fall of Troy and Damna- 
tion of Faust; Bach's Passion Musie, etc. The society is now one of the 
recognized musical institutions of the countn,-, has been a financial success, 
and can point to a record of which any musical society in the world would 
be proud. . 

Leopold Damrosch 

Was born at Posen, Prussia, Oct. 22, 1832. His father, a man of culture 
with a strong taste for music, did not like the idea of his sou becoming a 
professional musician, and discouraged the notion, though pleased with 
the lad's progress. Young Damrosch took up the violin and studied it 
unknown to his parents. He graduated with high honors as doctor of 
medicine at the Universitj^ of Berlin, but did not relinquish his musical 

Dr. L. Damrosch. 

studies. His master in violin playing was Concertmeister Ries, and Dehn 
and Bohmer taught him theorj' and composition. He became a solo violin- 
ist, and his playing in various German cities gained him a wide reputa- 
tion. In 1855 he went to Weimar, the home of Liszt, who was so pleased 
with his playing that he gave him the position of solo violinist in the 
Grand Duke's orchestra, a position that he filled for about eighteen months. 
Liszt became a verj- warm friend of his, and dedicated Tasso, the second 
of his symphonic poems, to him. Wagner also was a firm friend. Just 
before the death of the great composer he sent to Dr. Damrosch the 
famous finale to the first act of Parsifal, in manuscript, in token of 
his esteem. From Weimar he went to Breslau, where he made his debut 
as conductor of the Philharmonic concerts, and remained in that capacity 
for about a year. He then made a concert tour with Von Bulow and 
Tausig. In i86i Dr. Damrosch returned and organized a symphony 
society, with an orchestra of eighty players. They gave twelve concerts 
each season, and met with remarkable success. At these concerts some of 
the most famous artists of the day made their appearance — Rubinstein, 
Von Bulow, Tausig, Joachim, Mme. Viardot-Garcia, and on more than 
one occasion Liszt and Wagner personally assumed the baton. 

The Arion Society of New York invited Dr. Damrosch in 1871 to 
become its conductor, and his first public appearance in America was 
made at the Steinway hall, on May 6 of that year, as composer, con- 
ductor and violinist. He was welcomed with enthusiasm. He organ- 
ized the Oratorio Society of New York, in 1873, and five years later the 
Symphony Society of New York, the orchestra of which is now so noted. 
Through Dr. Damrosch' skill and energy, both societies have achieved 
success, and through his efforts many important works have been brought 
before the public for the first time. In 1S80 the Columbia college of New 
York, conferred upon him the degree of Doctor of Music. In the following 
year he had charge of the music at the New York May festival, when his 
faculty for organizing and controlling musical forces was displayed in an 
eminent degree. He then made with his orchestra, a tour of the west, 
and gave a fine series of programmes. In 1884 he accepted the position 
of conductor and impresario, at the Metropolitan Opera House, and left 
at once for Europe to engage a company. He saw the realization of his 
hopes — the success of German opera in New York — • but not for long. 
He died, after a short illness, Feb. 15, 1885. 

His chief talent was, of course, as a conductor, and in this he has 
had few rivals, but he is also not unknown as a composer and violinist. 
Among his compositions, which are not numerous, may be mentioned, 
Ruth atid Naovii, cantata; a festival overture, and other orchestral pieces; 

^JlWw, IvJ CVyv^A^AT^JA^.^^ 

some pieces for the violin; a collection of church music, SL Cecilia; sev- 
eral male choruses, and some songs. Dr. Damrosch was of a kindly, 
genial nature, and his death was a heavy loss, not alone to the musical 
world, where he had done his life work, but to a wide circle of pe sonal 

New York Symphony' Society. 

This orchestral organization was the result of the late Dr. Damrosch' s 
personal inspiration. It was organized in 1S78, and chartered April 8, 
1879, for the study and public performance of different forms of classical 
music, especially symphony. Among those most prominent in its forma- 
tion were Messrs. Morris Reno, F. Beringer, \Vm. H. Draper, August 
Lewis, Benj. J. Phelps, etc. It gives regularly twelve public performances 
each season, and its programmes have been remarkable for the number of 
new works presented. The society was prosperous from the start, and 
after the death of Dr. Damrosch, the direction was transferred to the hand 
of his son, Mr. Walter Damrosch, who inherits much of his father's ability 
as musician and director. This society represents American progress in 
orchestral music, or perhaps more properly, New York progress in 
resources of this kind, in the fact of its being organized and maintained 
out of material already existing in the community, without interfering 
perceptibly with the work of older organizations in the same field. The 
concerts of the society are given with an orchestra numbering from eighty- 
five to one hundred and twenty. The audiences are of the best, and very 
large in number. It is one of the most creditable organizations in the 

Frederic Herbert Torrixgton, 
One of the most prominent figures in the Canadian musical world, was 
born in Dudlej-, England, in 1837, and was taught piano, organ and har- 
mony by James Fitzgerald, of Kidderminster. In 1853 he became organ- 
ist and choir master of St. Ann's church, Bewdley. Four j'ears later he 
left England for Montreal, where he was appointed organist of Great St. 
James Street church, a position he held for twelve years. During his resi- 
dence in that city he founded several vocal societies and the Montreal 
Amateur Musical Union Orchestra. He also gained a high reputation as 
a violin soloist. In September, 1868, he gave a performance on the great 
organ at Boston and was very favorablj^ criticised. Shortly after, at the 
invitation of Mr. Gilmore, he formed the Canadian orchestral contingent 
for the first great Boston jubilee. At the close of that festival he was 
offered and accepted the position of organist at King's chapel, Boston, and 
held it for four years During this time he was one of the regular solo 


organists at the Music Hall, one of the first violins in the Harvard Sym- 
phony Orchestra, a teacher of the piano at the New England Conserva- 
tory- of Music, conductor of six vocal societies, and was often solo organ- 
ist at the concerts in Henry Ward Beecher's church at Brooklyn. In 
1872 Mr. Torrington conducted the mass rehearsals of the great chorus of 
20,000 voices for the second Boston Peace Jubilee. The following year 
he removed to Toronto, and was at once appointed organist and choir- 
master of the Metropolitan church and conductor of the Toronto Philhar- 
monic Society. 

The successful development of this society was entirely due to Mr. 
Torrington 's ability and energ}'. The society was founded in 1872, and 
at the time he took hold of it, was a small choir largely dependent upon 
the piano for its accompaniments. Now it is a large and flourishing 
society, with a chorus of three hundred picked voices, an efficient orches- 
tra of sixt)' musicians, and means to engage the best solo talent on the 
continent. It has produced from thirty to forty chief works of the great 
masters, some of them more than once, and many of them for the first time 
in America. The society has done a good work for music, and has been 
the pioneer of numerous other societies in the province. For some years 
Mr. Torrington was also conductor of the Hamilton Philharmonic 
Society, which has given many standard and modern works. In 1886 
Mr. Torrington originated and carried to a successful issue the first 
Toronto Musical Festival. This consisted of four concerts, given by a 
chorus of one thousand, a school children's chorus of 1,200, an orchestra 
of about one hundred, and the following principal soloists: Lilli L,ehmann, 
Mrs. E. Osgood, Mrs. Gertrude Luther, Miss Agnes Huntington, Albert 
L. King, Max Heinrich and D. M. Babcock. The public of Toronto 
subscribed $35,000 as a guarantee fund, but this proved to be unnecessary, 
the festival being an eminent financial success. Gounod's Mors et Vita 
and Handel's Israel in Egypt were the works given, and two miscella- 
neous concerts. A permanent result of the festival was the organization 
a few months later of the Torrington Orchestra, which has been developed 
into an excellent concert organization, and has given nine highly success- 
ful concerts. But Mr. Torrington' s best work up to this date was in the 
foundation of the Toronto College of Music. 

This promising institution was founded in September, 1888, in a build- 
ing specially arranged for the purpose, with a fine music hall within its 
walls, and a grand organ. The college is established upon an essentially 
practical basis, has a large staff of competent and thoroughly qualified 
instructors, holds numerous concerts^ piano and organ recitals., etc, and 
possesses a long list of scholarships, prizes and medals, while the fees are 

comparatively low. So successful has the college been in just a little 
over a year that plans are being made for the enlargement of the building. 
Mr. Torrington is also the organizer of the Toronto Quintette Club, 
the semi-centennial festival in 1884, the Apollo Club, the Sym- 
phony Orchestra and the University College Glee Club. For five years 
he was director of music at the Whitby Ladies' College, and for nine 
years teacher of vocal music at L,oretto Abbey. He has been remarkably 
successful as a teacher, and many of his pupils have gained a wide reputa- 
tion. It would be interesting to trace, were there opportunity, the 
history of music in Toronto from the time when it was a muddy little 
place called York (about 18 18), the only resident musician being Mr. 
Maxwell, who was distinguished "for his defective eyesight and for his 
homely skill on the violin," to Mr. Torrington's day when every member 
of a great work is criticized with merciless judgment by "the men who 
have failed in literature and art. ' ' Few men can point to so busy a life 
and full a record as Mr. Torrington, and fewer men to the eminent success 
which has crowned his tireless efforts. 

WiLtiAM Lawrence Tomlins. 

This distinguished musical educator, conductor and artist, was bom 
Feb. 4, 1844, '^ London, England. His childhood was musical, and his 
earliest education in music was obtained as choir boy. He also attended the 
classes of the Tonic Sol-Fa and the Royal Academy of Music, having been 
a favorite pupil in harmony of Dr. Macfarren, himself His proficiency 
upou the harmonium and organ were such that he acted as organist at an 
early age, and his general maturity in music may be judged from the fact 
of his conducting a performance of Handel's Messiah with good solo 
artists, orchestra and chorus, when he was but seventeen years old. 
While still very young for such a position, he was examiner and inspector 
of certificates for music teachers in the board schools, his department 
being the harmonium, with power to traverse the certificates of the lower 
examiners. At the age of about twenty-two he was one of the board of 
managers of the Tonic Sol-Fa college. He came to New York in 1870, 
and for five years served various churches as organist, and traveled for 
nearly two years with the Ritchings- Bernard Old Folks Company, with 
the Mason & Hamlin orchestral organ, a powerful instrument of large 
artistic capacities, which no one else could properly illustrate. While in 
this business he came to Chicago, and made his first acquaintance with 
the musicians here at private concerts given at Mason & Hamlin's rooms. 
The Apollo Musical Club was then just out of a leader, the incumbent 
being manifestlj' incapable. Mr. Tomlins' abilities as conductor of vocal 

Wm. L Tomlins 

music were brought to the notice of the club, and he was immediately 
engaged. This was in 1875. He took the club when its prestige was 
lost. It could neither sing nor draw. Under his administration it has 
been enlarged to a mixed chorus, and this again has been increased to 
upwards of four hundred voices. The fourteen years training of Mr. 
Tomlins has made this body of singers one of the most competent in the 
world, and a long and brilliant list of modem and classical works has 
been produced by the club in splendid shape. The technique of the singers 
may be judged from their having sung the difficult chromatic, unaccom- 
panied, quartette from Rossini's Slabat Matc>\ Quando Corpus Morictiir, 
and repeated it, without falling from the key. Their work in Handel's 
Afessia/t, which they give ever>' Christmas, is something delightful. 

Mr. Tomlins trained the choruses of the May festivals, and in every 
way has been identified with the best musical interests of the city. In 
1881 he began his work with children's voices, his idea being to train 
children to sing easily, naturally and with feeling, from the start. 
Accordingly, he began with a chorus of two hundred voices, and after 
training them for two years, twenty lessons a year, Mr. Theodore Thomas 
heard them and said that he had never heard anything like it. The great 
singer, Mme. Christine Nilsson, heard them in 1884, and her commenda- 
tion was equally ample, generous and conclusive. The children's classes 
have increased to three, and there is now connected with them a teachers* 
class, for the study of the principles and method of teaching ; the work 
has told so decidedly in Chicago that Mr. Tomlins is employed to teach 
singing in the high schools. He is also a teacher of solo singing, and an 
organist — ha\ ing served in this latter capacitj' for several years in difier- 
ent churches in town. For ten years he conducted the Arion Musical 
Club, of Milwaukee, but was obliged to give up this department of his ' 
work in 1888. As a chorus master, Mr. Tomlins has genius. He is able 
to take new material, and, in a comparatively brief period, transform it 
into a capable chorus, provided only that the two indispensables are not 
wanting — good voices and musical disposition. He is equally strong in 
three respects : In his mastery of the principles of chorus technique ; in 
his ability to inspire a chorus and awaken in the singers an intuitive grasp 
of the author's meaning ; and in the elementary teaching, to which art 
ne brings not alone the indispensable qualifications of artistic sympathy 
and feeling, but also a wealth of immagination and fancy, and a fascinat- 
ing art of putting things. He is a master in every sense of the term, and 
his adopted city has derived much advantage from his living therein. In 
person Mr. Tomlins is of medium height, dark eyes, and a pronounced 
brunette complextion, becoming luminous under excitement. 

The most successful effort to establish orchestral concerts in Chicago 
and maintain them at a high degree of efficienc}' has been made under 
the auspices of the Chicago Turner Society, which has given orchestral 
concerts more or less continuouslj- for many years, but not until Mr. 
Rosenbecker took charge of their business and musical management 
were they pecuniarily successful, or distinguished fo' artistic qualit}'. 

Adolphe Rosenbecker 

Was born in 185 1 at Heinfurth, a small village near Frankfort-on-the- 
Main. The child early showed that passion for music which has charac- 
terized his life, and which was no doubt due to the subtle influence of 
musical parents. His father, recognizing the fact, presented Adolphe 
with a little violin, on which he plaj'ed all day long, sometimes not to the 
delight of his mother. But mothers are patient and time soon slips by. 
Adolphe was eight years old when he began to take lessons from the vil- 
lage schoolmaster, who soon reported to the father that he had taught his 
pupil all he himself knew, so the boy was sent to a neighboring town 
(where where an orchestra played through the summer months) to take 
lessons from tho leader, B. Triebel, a good violinist and now a composer 
of some fame. After two 3'ears he went to Frankfort-on-the-Main, where 
Ruppert Becker, a member of the theatre orchestra, was his master. 
There he also began taking lessons in harmony from C. Hauff, author of 
Hauff's HarmoJiilc/ire, a well known work on that subject. When he 
was only fourteen j-ears of age he began to play in the orchestra at the 
Saalbau concerts, and continued to do so, studying all the while, for two 
years and a half. He then went to the conservator}' at Leipzig, where at 
that time Ferd David, one of the best violin teachers who ever lived, was 
the instructor on that instrument. 

David soon took a liking to. the lad, who advanced rapidh- to the 
higher classes, and was one of the performers in the public entertainments 
of the conser\-atory. One day Adolphe was made the happiest boy in the 
world when he was told that he should play first violin in the famous 
Gewandhaus concerts, a rare honor. Here he had the privilege of hear- 
ing the great artists, Joachim, Wilhelmj, lyaub, Tausig, Rubinstein, 
Saint-Saens, Moscheles, Reinecke, Drej-schock and others. On Sunday 
mornings David regularly arranged a string quartette in which Adolphe 
and Felix Meyer, another favorite pupil, took part, aided by a violoncel- 
list from the theatre. He taught quartette playing on scientific principles. 
One day David himself would take first violin, Meyer second, and Adolphe 
viola; they had to listen how the master played it, 3'et play their own 
parts. The second Sunday the same quartette would be played, with 

Meyer first violin, Adolphe second, and David viola. The third Sunday 
the order would be, Adolphe first, David second, and Meyer viola. By 
this means each one played three different parts, the 'cello, of course, re- 
maining always the same, and a quartette thus learned could hardly be 

Adolphe remained under this master for a year and a half David 
wanted him to stop for another year, promising him free tuition and to 
make a great violinist of him. But he either had to leave his countrj- or 
serve in the German army, and in the latter case the violin playing might 
have come to an end forever, unless, in consideration of his talents, the 
kind Master of the Future had allowed Adolphe to play upon a wooden 
violin instead of a golden harp. Mayhap, being a musician, he would 
have been permitted by the leader of the Danse Macabre to rattle his bones 
more often and more harmoniously than the rest of the skeleton crowd, 
but Adolphe loved life and the fleshly tuning of a violin. 

So in November, 1869, became to America, and, having some friends 
in New York, made up his mind to stay in that city. After a few weeks' 
struggle he found engagement at the German Opera, where Neuendorf was 
conductor. One night Mr. Thomas came to sit by him, and asked him if 
he would play in his orchestra, at that time perhaps one of the best in the 
world. In relating this incident Adolph said: " As pie was a new thing 
to me, of course, I took it without asking what kind." For eight years 
he was a member of the Thomes orchestra, learned orchestral plaj-ing, 
and gained experience in every way. There is an anecdote worth relating 
about Rosenbecker's first experience with the orchestra. Boston was the 
first place at which they played, and the j-oung German, unused to travel- 
ing all day, was tired and lay down to rest, not intending to sleep. After 
a time some one called him, and he asked dreamily if it was time for the 
concert. "Time!" was the answer, "concerts don't begin at eleven 
o'clock at night." It was his companion in the orchestra who had found 
him, after the performance was over, fast asleep, and had awakened him. 
Adolph wished himself in Germany again, or somewhere else, but the 
only result was a gentle reprimand from Mr. Thomas, and the artist was 
never late again. In course of time he became one of the favored mem- 
bers of the orchestra, and he, Michael Brand, of Cincinnati, and Charles 
Hemman, the first 'cello, formed a trio whom Mr. Thomas generally 
called ' ' my young dogs. ' ' 

In 1877, Rosenbecker left Mr. Thomas, and made Chicago his home. 
He became associated presently with Florence Ziegfeld as violin teacher, 
at the Chicago Musical College, but the following winter he left there, and 
was elected conductor of the Turner Hall concerts, a position which he 


still holds. At first the concerts did not pay, but after a while, owing to 
Rosenbecker's good management and abilit)' as a leader, the houses grew 
larger and larger, Wilhelmj, Joseffy, Neupert, and other artists, were 
engaged from time to time, and now the orchestra numbers forty-five 
men, and when the World's Fair comes to the city in 1892 Adolph 
Rosenbecker hopes to be able to show Chicago people and the world that 
' ' the windy city ' ' has an orchestra fully able to compete with any. Mr. 
Rosenbecker does not make his boast altogether in vain, and all lovers of 
the city of his adoption may hope that he may yet realize his dream. 

Mr. Rosenbecker is teacher of the violin at the Chicago Conserva- 
tor>', and leader of a string quartette, of which no doubt more will some- 
time be heard. As a conductor he is master of orchestral technique, and 
with a hand gentle but firm secures a high degree of refinement and 
spirit in the interpretation. In regard to his quick ear, there is also an 
anecdote. Upon one occasion soon after he had joined the Thomas 
orchestra, there was a very long rehearsal, and manj- things went wrong. 
Finally, nearly two o'clock, there was one place where a false note was 
heard at each repetition, but for a moment Mr. Thomas was not able to 
designate the man making it. Rosenbecker had a quick ear and possibly 
may have sat nearer the offender than the leader. After waiting some 
time, he arose in his place and said ' ' Herr Conductor, it is the second 
bassoon that plays F instead of F sharp." Thomas was taken all aback, 
and glared upon the well informed young man. He answered briefly that 
he did not care to "have any little whippersnappers giving him inform- 
tion," but the false note disappeared, and all went home to dinner in bet- 
ter humor. Rosenbecker said that he never offered Thomas information 
again, unless asked. 

In person Mr. Rosenbecker is of middle height, rather "stocky," as 
it is called, with an intelligent countenance. 

Otto Singer. 

This scholarly musician is a native of Saxonj', having been born on 
July 26, 1833, in Sora, near Meissen. He was educated at the Kreutz- 
schule in Dresden, from which he passed to the Leipzig Conservatory, 
remaining there for three years, until 1855, and studying under Richter, 
Moscheles and Hauptmann. After leaving the conservatory he remained 
in Leipzig four years more, studying and teaching, and during this period 
several of his compositions, a trio for piano, violin and 'cello, a sonata for 
piano, and an orchestral symphony, were performed at the Gewandhaus 
concerts. Later, he was for years in close connection with the Wagner- 
Liszt school at Weimar, where a symphony composed by Singer, and 

Otto Singer. 

much praised by Liszt, was played at the festival of the German National 
Association of Musicians. He went from Weimar to Dresden, where he 
stayed until 1867, and then came to New York. This step was taken 
upon the recommendation of Liszt. Mr. Singer was promptly engaged 
as piano teacher in the newly established conservatory of William Mason 
and Theodore Thomas in New York, where he remained until 1873. At 
one of Thomas' symphonj' concerts in 1869 he played one of his own 
pianoforte concertos with great success. 

The school having proved a failure, Thomas sent Mr. Singer to 
Cincinnati as assistant musical director of the first May festival of 1873. 
Not a little of the success of that festival was due to his ability and untiring 
energy, and as a chorus master he covered himself with glory ^ He found 
abundant field in Cincinnati for his talent as teacher and conductor, settled 
there, and is at present a teacher in the College of Music of that city. In 
1875 and 1878 he had the training of the chorus at the May festivals, but in 
1880 was succeeded by Mr. Brand. He was one of the committee of three 
appointed in 1880 to pass judgment upon the compositions offered in 
competition for the prize of $1,000 offered by the festival association. 
During this time he not only conducted the festival chorus, the training 
of which for each festival extended over nearly twelve months, but he 
was also occupied in training and conducting the large Harmonic Society 
and some German societies. For the festival of 1876 he wrote the cantata. 
The Landing of the Pilgrim Fathers, the performance of which was 
enthusiastically received, and for 1878 he composed the Festival Ode, a 
cantata, for the opening of the great music hall at Cincinnati. This also 
was very favorably criticized. Mr. Singer has directed several of the festi- 
vals of the North American Saengerbund. Since iSSolie has divided his 
time between teaching in the Cincinnati College of Music, and composing 
works for orchestra, chorus, piano, etc. He has also written for maga- 
zines a good deal about sesthetical and historical subjects in relation to 
music. As a teacher of the piano and theory, and as a lecturer on music, 
Mr. Singer has done some excellent work, and has aided materially in 
building up the reputation of the college with which he is connected. 
In his compositions he follows in the footsteps of his old master, Liszt. 
Few of his works have been published. Among those that have seen 
the light are andante and variations for two pianos (Op. i); fantasie in 
E minor (Op. 2); duo for piano and violin in C minor (Op. 3); rhapsody 
for piano and orchestra; Shiller's Toiver of Song, for chorus and orches- 
tra; several symphonies and piano pieces, besides the two cantatas and 
other compositions mentioned above. Mr. Singer has won a commanding 
place among American musicians. 


The Metropolitan Opera House, New York. 
This magnificent temple of the lyric drama was erected by a wealthy 
New York syndicate, in 1884. It is built of fire proof material, and 
occupies a ground space of 200x260 feet. The seating capacity is stated 
at 3,500, which is probably an exaggeration, although the house is con- 
siderably more capacious than the new grand opera at Paris. The house 
is handsomely decorated, and the stage is large and well appointed. The 
first season opened Oct. 22, 1S83, the famous Abbey Company giving 
Gounod's " Faust," with a cast embracing Nilsson, Campanini, Schalchi, 
Del Puente, Novara, etc. The audience in attendance filled every part of 
the house, and represented more wealth probably than any other collected 
in New York within the present generation. The orchestra numbered 
eighty, under the direction of Signer Varesi. After the Abbey company 
came to grief, in 1S85, the late Dr. Damrosch collected a Germany com- 
pany, and opened a season of "Grand Opera in German," beginning 
Nov. 17, 1884, with Wagner's Tannhaiiscr. Later " Die Walkuere " was 
produced in good shape. The second season of German opera, opening 
Nov. 23, 18S5, witnessed various novelties, under the direction of Mr. 
Anton Seidl, who still remains the accomplished musical chief of the pro- 
ductions of this house. Among them were Wagner's Mcistcrsingcr, etc. 
The third season of German opera opened Nov. 8, 1886, the principal 
novelty of the year being Wagner's Siegfried, the hero having an almost 
ideal presentation at the hands of that accomplished tenor, Mr. Max 
Alvary. In the season of 1SS7, the Gottcrdiimmcrung was added, and in 
1 833 the prelude, Das Rheingold. These works were splendidly mounted, 
and the company, especially of the season 1887-8S, was admirably com- 
plete. The orchestra under Mr. Seidl' s baton attained a degree of finish 
and sympathetic support of the voices rarelj^ heard anywhere, especialh- in 
works so exacting instrumentally as these of Wagner. Wagner's 
enormously difiBcult Trisian and /so/de was ■produced with MissLehmann 
and Niemann in the title roles. The entire business management 
of the Metropolitan opera house, since the first season, has been 
under the charge of Mr. Edwin C. Stanton, who has shown himself an 
unusually bold and successful manager. He has been supported by a body 
of wealthy stockholders, by whom the large deficits have been cheerfully 
borne, in consideration of his undoubted success in collecting strong com- 
panies, and presenting varied programmes. In addition to its use for 
operatic purposes, the Metropolitan is now the main hall for symphony 
concerts, large balls and the like. 


Institutions for the Higher Musical Education. 

■'N no department of musical eftort has progress been more grati- 
fying than in that of systematic, inteUigently co-ordinated 
musical education. The present state of things in this respect 
is far from ideal, but it is immeasurably superior to that of a cen- 
tury ago. The steps of the progress are easily to be traced. A century 
ago there was no musical education in this country, saving such as a 
student could acquire by putting himself under the instruction of some 
European emigrant, who might or might not be able to communicate to 
him the ingredients of a sound musical education according to the stand- 
ards of the day. In the selection of a teacher the student was entirely 
at sea, for then, as now, it too often happened that those standing fairest 
in the estimation of the community were the ones least disposed to sacri- 
fice time or trouble for art's sake alone. Not all German musicians were 
artists. In fact, it was not until the latter half of the present centurj- 
that real artists began to come to America with the intention of making 
a home here. Many of the teachers in leading institutions a hundred 
years ago were mere amateurs. It would be nearer the truth to say that 
a hundred years ago there were ?!o teachers of music in any educational 
institutions, outside one or two of the larger cities. Music had scarcely 
begun to be recognized as a part of polite education. Those who cared 
for the art pursued it outside their regular curriculum, and made their 
attainments in it, in a majority of cases, at the expense of time needed 
for their other studies. In the early part of the present century some 
attention began to be paid to the study of music as an art of performance. 
But most of the teachers in seminaries were merely amateurs from Europe, 
who had the good fortune to find their side accomplishments more avail- 
able as means of livelihood than their regular profession. This was 
especially the case in the south, where musical taste was vigorous and 
musical intelligence uncultivated. In one of the oldest female colleges 
of the world the professor for many years was a German who had been 

educated as a painter, but upon losing his eyesight he had turned him- 
self to music, for which he had always had a pcnchatit but in which he 
had never had a S5^stematic education. No doubt such a teacher, having 
a love for his art, might be able to transfuse into his pupils something of 
his own enthusiasm for the art, but upon the technical side his instruction 
must have left much to be desired. 

The Boston Academy of Music was a step in the right direction, but 
it was not by any means such an institution as we would understand by 
its name at the present time. The students of it were mostly amateurs 
who attended but a few months, and there was not then nor until very 
recently a standard of attainment according to which one could graduate 
in music. As the taste for music became disseminated and the desire of 
accomplishment in the art of playing became more general, European 
teachers found it more and more profitable to exercise their profession 
in America. Accordingly there were good teachers, real musicians, here 
and there in all the large cities, but the standard of playing was still low, 
as seen in the popular pieces then in vogue ; and there was nothing like 
a systematic effort to educate pupils in theory. However, the appetite 
for knowledge had been awakened and now and then teachers of the bet- 
ter class were surprised by the desire of pupils to acquaint themselves with 
those recondite branches, counterpoint and fugue. This was more fre- 
quently the case with those who intended to pursue the career of organist, 
for it has always been understood that organists ought to be acquainted 
with these branches. The next step in advance was the elevation of the 
standard of attainment upon the popular instruments of music, of which 
the pianoforte has been the chief representative during the entire time 
covered by the present sketch. \'ery little sufficed to make a good player 
in those days. The popular pieces, as recounted in the introduction to the 
chapter on pianists in this work, were extremely simple, such as at the 
present time would hardly suffice to occupy the powers of a second or 
third-grade pupil, or, if these, certainly not those of a fourth-grade pupil. 
Nor need we wonder at this state of things. We are speaking of a new 
country, which had only lately closed a long and arduous struggle for its 
existence. It was a new countr}-, cut off from European stimulation. 
Even in Europe the standard was distinctly low, except in a few of the 
larger cities, and only in the higher mu.sical circles of those. When the 
pieces of Fran9ois Hunten were the main subjects of exercise for parlor 
purposes, as they were in the earlier part of this centur}-, there could not 
have been much musical cultivation, as we now understand the term. 
The last works of Beethoven were not written until 1S26. The romantic 
composers were yet to come. Liszt and Thalberg began their careers 

about 1830. We must not wonder at finding the condition of things in 
America somewhat crude. It was crude or shallow all over the world, 
excepting, perhaps, in that capital of the musical world, Vienna. 

The standard of taste throughout the country at large did not begin 
to elevate itself to a noticeable degree until after the arrival of those 
great piani,sts, mentioned in a preceding chapter. Nor was their influence 
immediately operative. It needed the stimulation of many ambitious 
j'oung American musicians fresh from musical training abroad before a 
sufficient demand was created for similar educational facilities at home. 
This, however, was a question of a short time only. In fact, we may 
say that while there began to be good teachers of the piano and almost 
every instrument in the large cities, as early as the first quarter of the 
present century, it was not until past the middle of it that the leading 
cities had representatives of the more advanced stages of musical art in 
its different provinces. 

The leading teacher of pianoforte in Boston during the period 
between 1840 and i860 was the late Geo. James Webb. Mr. Webb was 
also the leading teacher of singing and the best organist of the city. 
This composite relation sufficient!}' indicates the undifferentiated stage of 
the art. It was not until our American students had begun to come 
back from studies abroad that we commenced to have thoroughly equipped 
educators in the specialties of music. Then began an epoch of accom- 
plishment in performance, unregulated by theoretical standards and 
training. Players, singers, and organists there began to be, but no 
musicians properly so called. Perhaps the appointment of John K. Paine 
professor of music at Harvard was one of the first points made in the 
erection of a new standard of education. It gave a stimulus to theoreti- 
cal studies. Musical history, harmony, counterpoint, orchestration and 
form now began to be taught by those who had mastered them under the 
best foreign teachers, and who in turn did not propose to keep merely 
preparatory' schools for their former masters. 

Here we come upon a most instructive point marking a standpoint 
gained in the history of musical education in America. In many of the 
circulars of conservatories received as information for the present work, 
it is stated as proof of the standing and capacity of the school, that 
several of their pupils had gone abroad to study, after finishing the 
course here, and their preparation had been found excellent by their 
foreign masters. No information could be more conclusive as to the half- 
hearted stand of the school or teacher announcing it. The American way 
is to propose a complete and well balanced musical education, entirely 
independent of study abroad. Not, indeed, objecting to foreign finishing, 

but merely acquiescing in it, as a testimony to the efficiency of the 
school and its conformity to the best European standards. Yet, until 
very recently, information of this kind was uniformly contained in school 
and conservatory catalogues. 

An attentive examination of the ensuing statements of the different 
colleges, conser\-atories and schools will show the following points to 
characterize the present state of musical education, as exhibited in these 
institutions: First. All the branches of musical practice and theory are 
taught, and generally by masters well versed in them practically. Second. 
The pressure in favor of every student acquainting himself with at least 
two practical branches beside study in theory, is very general. Third. 
There is constant advance in the standard of graduation. Fourth. In a 
few cases there is a clearly expressed resolve to be sure that every grad- 
uate is fully up to the. requirements and implications of the prescribed 
course. The latter point is the newest of all. 

Ten years ago there was not a college of music or a conservatory- of 
music in the countrj^ with a well defined standard of graduation. There 
were certain indefinite requirements upon different instruments, and 
vague outgivings as to the need of theor}', especially- harmonj' and 
musical historj-. But it was not until the American College of Musicians 
formulated its standacrls of admission that there was any college or con- 
servatory having a real standard of graduation such as one could reason 
upon in cold blood. Everything was vague, indeterminate, and the 
attainments specified were purely technical, so that there was no assur- 
ance that the persons meeting there would possess musical qualities 
qualifying them as missionaries and ministers of art. At the i)resent time 
this is all changed. While there is still more or less superficial instruc- 
tion given in different parts of the country (by no means forgetting the 
principal cities, where there are more people desiring, as Colonel Sellers 
calls it, "the appearance of warmth" rather than the real thing), the 
general desire is to have in musical instruction full, complete, many- 
sided, thorough and artistic in quality. Graduation without corre- 
sponding attainments is no longer desired outside that fraction of the 
human race which Carlyle characterized as "mosth- fools." The schools 
noted in the following pages differ greatly in quality, for even one star 
differs from another star in glorj-. But all alike hold up a certain ideal. 
One and all, they desire specialty work in some one or two instruments 
or branches, and well grounded attainments in all the others, especially 
in musical history and theory. And all the signs point to the gradual 
improvement and elevation of these standards rather than to their being 
allowed to fall into desuetude. 


, E introduce our sketches of American musical educational insti- 
tutions naturally with the above conservator}', for many reasons 


'^I'^^'f^ — ^y ■virtue of its place as the pioneer in that work of musical 
jDS5> development in which it has been' so powerful a factor ; because 
JJ^p it is, in an especial sense, the representative and embodiment of 
\i those results which, in the natural evolution of musical progress, 
have sprung from the labors of Eowell Mason and his coadjutors ; 
from the fact that it is in the best sense American, both in its 
origin, its purposes and its achievements; and from the fact that it 
has equipped so many artists of high rank, who are to-day the best 
representatives of American musical culture. The New England Con- 
scn-atory is not alone in this work of creating musical taste, and of 
expanding, from j-ear to 5'ear, the sphere of musical refinement and useful- 
ness. There are other important and valued musical institutions engaged 
in the same field of labor, with the same zeal, activity and earnestness, 
without a record of whose work no liistorj- of American musical progress 
would be complete; but none will dispute the place of honor with this as 
the pioneer in a great work which distinctly marks an era in our career of 
musical progress. That we have in flourishing activity to-day so many 
of these institutions, conducted on a scale of such importance and embrac- 
ing in their operations all the best elements of higher musical education 
that can even be found in the oldest seats of musical learning in the old 
world, is but an evidence of the rapid strides which our sixty millions of 
people are making in the cultivation of art and refinement, of a constantl)' 
broadening current of musical taste, requiring the highest aids to an 
advanced culture. Each of these institutions has its sphere of musical 
and educational usefulness, whose growing needs will constanth- tax their 
efforts and their enterprise, so that none has either the time or the occasion 
to divert from its legitimate activities to the narrow purpose of depreciat- 
ing or envying the achievements of others. Indeed, it is the truth that 
each of these directh^ supplements the labor and adds to the resources of 
all others in the same field, for every current that flows into the broad tide 
of general musical cultivation contributes to those progressive influences 

upon which the ever expanding desire for higher musical education is 
founded, and multiphes constantly the aggregate numbers of those who 
are impelled to seek for the highest advantages of musical education, in 
the most individually convenient and desirable quarter. The New 
England Conser\-atory, however, possesses many features entirely unique, 
and is in many of its methods dissimilar from any of the other important 
schools of music pursuing the conservatorj' plan. One of the most striking 
of these peculiar features of interest is the fact that with all its immense 
educational machinery and corresponding means for making money, "it 
yields no profit, dividend or emolument of any kind in any way to any 
person or association of persons," and this, notwithstanding that its 
average attendance for the past six years has been 2,065 students. The 
absence of the motive of profit is, however, nobly compensated by a 
higher olyect of incomparably greater force as a stimulating influence to 
the best results. We cannot better illustrate the springs upou which the 
activity of this institution tums than to .state briefly the central idea upon 
which the life work of its founder has been based. This is, that perfect 
education requires the symmetrical development of all the faculties ; that 
education that begins and ends with the intellect is faulty and imperfect ; 
that the heart is the "center of being and the point of departure for per- 
fection," and hence the true center of a perfect culture" that will afibrd 
equipoise and stability in every direction ; that music, which is the 
universal language, appealing to the heart as the center of emotional 
existence, is and ought to be recognized as the fundamental requisite of 
true and harmonious education. In a report dated May i, 1883, Dr. 
Tourjee thus describes the circumstances and the ambition in which the 
New England Conservatory had its origin : 

For thirty years it has been the aim and effort of my life to found and equip 
au institution which should bring within the reach of the many the priceless benefits 
of a first-class musical education, that these in turn might become missionaries for 
its universal diffusioa The struggle through which I had to pass, and the difficulties 
which I had to overcome in obtaining even the fragmentary education in music 
which this covmtr5' could then afford, led me to this determination ; and, keeping this 
object before me, I have, by every means in my power, labored both in season and 
out of season for the accomplishment of that purpose. Uuder God, my success has 
been beyond my expectation. When I began the study of music, there were no 
nmsic schools and few teachers of eminence, and these latter commanded such prices 
for their services as put them beyond the reach of the poor. The conservatory 
system of Europe was without illustration in this country; and its later discovery 
was to me a revelation, the possibilities of which I undertook to realize to my 

The first effort made to establish the class system for musical educa- 
tion was made at Fall River, Mass., in 1853. In 1859 he obtained a 
charter for and organized a musical institute in connedlion with the 
academy at East Greenwich, R. I. Afterward he sought a larger field 

at Providence, R. I., and iu 1867 went to Boston, where the New 
England Conser\-ator3- was incorporated in 1870, and obtained quarters in 
the Central Music Hall building, which were occupied till 1882, when 
the magnificent building which we here illustrate was secured. Gradu- 
ally, in working out his plan of establishing and equipping an 
institution which should realize his ambition of " a generous and liberal 
culture, with music as the fundamental element," the institution has 
been made to embrace in one sj'stem of co-operative effort, schools of 
music, art, elocution, literature, languages, tuning and phj-sical culture, 
with the accessories of an extensive musical librarj^ and cabinet, and a 
Christian home for young women, and the higher appendage, in 
connection with Boston University, of a College of Music. In 1S82 the 
corporation of the conser\'atory was authorized to hold real and personal . 
estate to the amount of $500,000, the original charter providing for only 
$100,000. In 1883 the stockholders surrendered the stock of the institu- 
tion, and the corporation was reorganized on the same footing as Harvard, 
under a deed of trust, which expre.ssly provides that there shall be no 
profits or dividends to accrue to any individual out of the earnings of the 
institution, everything thus going into cheapening the cost of musical 
education and increasing the resources of the consen-atory. The annual 
report of the director for 1886 shows an important accession to the 
teaching strength — the acquisition of such artists as Faelten, Rotoli. 
Tinne}-, Petersilea and Alden; the addition of the elegant Sleeper Hall, 
through the munificence of the late Hon. Jacob Sleeper, etc. Previously, 
in 1884, the great organ of the Boston Music Hall, purchased for the 
institution by W. O. Grover, one of the trustees, had been stored on the 
premises of the institution, where it still awaits the construction of a 
suitable special building, but we trust will not have to thus remain. The 
director is, however, indefatigable in his labor for still further additions 
to the forces which combine to embody in this school the ideal which he 
has kept in view. So far as school equipment goes, it is probably as 
nearly perfect as it is possible to attain, Ijut it is Dr. Tourjee's earnest 
desire to secure for the conser\'atory such state aid as will practically 
throw its great advantages open to all who have ambition and talent to 
benefit by musical and general culture. Of the importance of the school 
as a radiating centre for the diffusion of musical light, we may men- 
tion the fact that graduates of the conservator j-, among other institutions, 
are employed at De Pauw University, Indiana, Universit)' of Kansas, 
the North Western Conser\'atorj' of Music, the Ohio Wesleyan Univer- 
sity, Denver University, the Illinois Wesleyan University, Hamilton 
College, Ky., Allegheny College, Pa., New York Institute for the Blind, 

Ontario Iiistituie for the Blind, Ripon College, Wis., Cornell College, la., 
Science Hill College, Ky., Beaver College, Pa., Baker Universitj% Kan., 
Napa College, Cal., Jacksonville (111.) Female Seminary, Lansdowne 
College, Ont., Washburn College, Wis., Vermont Ladies' Seminary, 
Montpelier, Pennsylvania State Normal School, Dartmouth College, 
Wilbraham Academy, East Greenwich Academy, Searcy College, Ark., 
Oxford (Ohio) Female Seminary. In addition to this eloquent statement 
it may be stated that the directors of music and organists at many 
important cathedrals and churches owe their musical education to this 
conservatory, of which Nordica (Lilian Norton), at present reigning star 
as a vocalist in Europe, is a graduate; and to this showing add the fact 
that there are now upwards of 40,000 ladies and gentlemen who have 
been musicallj- equipped in this school, and are to-day transmitting its 
influence throughout every quarter of the land, and we have some idea 
of the important relation in which the New England Conservatory of 
Music stands to the influences which make for higher musical progress 
in America. 

The branches of instruction m tne conservatory embrace, in addition 
to the post-graduate course, eleven individual schools, as follows: 

A school for the piano. 

For the organ. 

For the formation ami cultivation of the voice, lyric art and opera. 

For the violin, orchestra, quartette and ensemble playing. Orchestral and 
band instruments and art of conductiug. 

For harmony, composition, theory and orchestration. 

For sight singing and vocal music in public schools. 

For tuning pianos and organs. 

A school of general literature and languages. 

A college of oratory and forensic art. 

A school of fine arts. 

A school of physical culture. 

The college of music. 

The following is the faculty: 

Piano-forte — Boaid 0/ Insiruiiion. — John Alden, Otto Bendix, John D. Buck- 
ingham, Charles F. Dennee, Carl Faelten, James W. Hill, Frederic H. Lewis, Fred- 
erick F. Lincoln, Louis Maas, Sarah Eliot Newman, James C. D. Parker, Carlyle 
Petersilea, Frank Addison Porter, Madame Dietrich-Strong, Allen W. Swan, Mrs. J. 
B. Willis. 

Organ. — Henry M. Dunham, George E. Whiting, Allen W. Swan. 

[It is worthy of mention that in order to furnish every facility for 
acquiring a mastery of all kinds of organ music, a large, three-manual 
pipe organ, with two and a half octaves of pedals, and an ample 

variety of registers in each manual, is placed in the hall of the conser\'a- 
tory for the use of its classes. Three additional — • one three-manual and 
two two-manual — pipe organs have been set up in the conser\-atory, mak- 
ing fourteen in all in constant use in the institution, with the great organ 
formerly in Boston Music Hall in reser\'e for the future use of the institu- 
tion. The London Choir speaks as follows of the organ department of the 
institution : "In the New England Conser\'ator)' of Music, recitals are 
so arranged as to provide illustrations of all classes of music for that instru- 
ment. In this respect the American music .school is far in advance of our 
own acadcni}-, and, indeed, of everj- English educational institution."] 

I'oice Cultivation, Lyric Art ana O/ifj-a. — William H. Dunham, Abdou W. 
Keene, Frank E. Morse, John O'Niell, Mrs. John O'Niell, Sig. Augusto Rotoli, 
Charks E. Tiimey, Lymau W. Wheeler, William L. Whitney. 

Violin Sc/iools. — Joseph B. Claus, flute, clarinet, cornet, etc.; Benj. Cutter, 
violin and viola ; Wulf Tries, violoncello ; A. Goldstein, contra basso ; Herman Hart- 
maun, violin ; Kniil Mahr, violin and ensemble playing; Dr. R. Shubruk, cornel. 

Harmony, Composition, Orchestra and Theory. — George W. Chadwick, Ben- 
jamin Cutter, Louis C. Elson, Stephen .\. Emery, Frank W. Hale, Sarah Eliot New- 
man, James C. D. Parker, George E. Whiting. 

Sight Singing and I 'ocal I\fusic in Public Schools. — Samuel W. Cole, Abdon 
W. Keene, George A. Veazie. 

Piano and Organ Tuning Schools. — Frank W. Hale, principal; Edward D. 
Hale, instructor ; Edward W. Uavis, superintendent of factory work ; Geo. H. Ash, 

General Literature and Languages. — Rev. C. Cotton Kimball, D.D., principal 
and instructor in Wordsworth, English literature and rhetoric ; John B. Willis, A.M., 
associate principal; Dr. William J. Rolfe, lecturer and instructor in Shakespeare; 
Rev. Charles A. Dickinson, lecturer on mental and moral science ; Hamlin Garland, 
lecturer and instructor in American literature, etc.; Miss Elizabeth I. Samuels, in- 
structor in Latin, mathematics and sciences; Jean De Peiffer, head of department of 
languages, and instructor in I'rench language and literature; Albert Rosenstein, 
A.M., instructor in German language and literature ; M. E. Imovilli, instructor in 
Italian language and literature ; W. M. Swallow, instructor in penmanship. 

Elocution, Oratory and Forensic Art. — Samuel R. Kelley, A.M., principal, and 
instructor in expression and forensic oratory; Miss Annie B. Lincoln, instructor in 
elocution and voice building ; Miss Bessie M. Houghton, instructor in pose and gestic- 

Fine Art. — Tommaso Juglaris, principal, and teacher of drawing and painting, 
historical decoration and composition, and artistic anatomy; Miss Harriet Thaver 
Durgin, water-color painting ; W. A. Claus, drawing from flat, the antique, still life, 
flowers, and landscape painting, and charcoal drawing , Miss Edith Pope, china 

Physical Culture. — Miss Annie O'Connor. 

A most important feature of the institution is the " Conserv'atorj' 
Home," which offers in connection with the advantages of the various 
schools of culture, the higher benefits of a great Christian household, 

attended by all the comforts and refinements of elegant life, and free from 
the perils and disadvantages which usually surround the footsteps of 
j-oung ladies who are compelled to leave the parental home for educational 
improvement. This department has accommodation for 500 young ladies, 
with few formal restrictive regulations ; depends largely upon liberal 
self-government, and 3-et maintains the most watchful and effective care of 
the minds, morals, physical health, safety and sanitary environments of 
the pupils. 

The College of Music, in connection with the Conservatory, is affili- 
ated with Boston Universitj', on whose authority degrees are granted. 
The faculty is as follows : 

William F. Warren, LLD., president Boston University; Eben Tcurjee, Mus. 
Doc, dean; James C. D. Parker, professor of the piano-forte ; Carl Faeltcn. professor of 
tlie piano-forte ; Carlyle Petersilea, professor of the piano-forte ; Otto Bendix, professor 
of the piano-forte; Louis Maas, Mus. Doc, professor of the piano-forte; Henr\- M. 
Dunham, professor of the organ ; George E. Whiting, professor of the organ and com- 
position ; Emil Mahr, professor of the violin ; Widf Fries, professor of the violoncello ; 
Sig. Augusto Rotoli, professor of Italian singing ; John O'Niell, professor of English 
and Italian singing ; Charles E. Tinnej-, professor of English singing, oratorio and 
church music ; Stephen A. Emery, professor of counterpoint and composition ; 
Louis C. Elson, professor of theory, liistory, literature, biography, testhetics and 
criticism ; George W. Chadwick, professor of composition and orchestration ; Fac- 
ult}' of College of Liberal Arts, Boston University. 

The requirements for admission are identical with those for graduation 
from the conservator}'. Candidates for a degree, in addition to the 
completion of the required work in the college of music course, ratist 
be qualified to pass a satisfactory examination in two of the following 
languages : Latin, German, French and Italian, and also in logic. 
Graduates of the college of music who satisfactorily meet these require- 
ments or their equivalent, receive the degree of Bachelor of Music. The 
degree of Doctor of Music is never conferred as an honorarj^ degree, but it 
maj' be attained by Bachelors of Music who shall have completed the 
Boston University Course or its equivalent, upon passing satisfactory 
examination in fugue, form and orchestration, musical literature, 
history of music, the piano-forte, violin or organ. Full and regular 
members of the college of music have the opportunity of pursuing, 
li'ithout cxh-a cost, in Boston University, any of the following branches : 
Languages — French, German, Italian, Spanish, Anglo-Saxon, Latin and 
Greek; Mathematics and Natural Sciences — Solid geometry, trigonom- 
etry, analytical geometry, physics, chemi.stry, biology, etc. ; History, 
Literature and Law — English literature, rhetoric, historj^ Roman law, 
constitution of the United States, political economy, etc. ; Philosophy — 
psycholog)', logic and the theory of knowledge, principles of metaphysics, 
theistic and ethical philosophj% etc. 

Eben Tourjee, Mus. Doc. 

The subject of this sketch is called in Grove's Didio^iary of Music 
and Musicians, ' ' The father of the conservator}' or class system of musical 
instruction in America." When the final statement is made, not only this 
but much more is likely to be found in t'.ie crj-stallized biographical history 
of cyclopedias and dictionaries. He was born of Huguenot ancestrj', June 
ist, 1834, in Warwick, R. I. His parents were not wealthy, and, at 
the early age of eight, lie was put at work in a calico printing factory 
in East Greenwich, R. I., and later in a woolen mill of the same town. 
With some of his earnings he entered the East Greenwich Academy, 
where he made good use of the little opportunity afforded him to secure 
the education which was to help him in his work. At the age of eleven 
his definite and conscious spiritual life began, and he became a church 
member. At thirteen he was engaged in t!ie cotton mills of Hon. Elisha 
Harris, of Harrisville, R. I. Gov. Harris, benevolent, pious, sagacious, 
noticed quickly the energy and talent of the boy, his faithfulness to 
church and Sabbath .school, and his unusual musical ability. It was 
through this gentleman that the boy of thirteen was appointed organist of 
the village church, before his fingers had even touched a key board; hut 
between Wednesday e\-ening and Sunday morning, he prepared himself 
to accompany the choir satisfactorily. From this time he bent his 
energies in the direction of a musical education, and to forward this he 
became clerk in the store of a music dealer in Providence. Pushing for- 
ward in the direction of his taste, he set up for himself, at the age of 
seventeen, in the business of music dealer, in Fall River, Mass., where he 
also taught in the public schools and otherwise, and published a musical 
paper, The Key-note, which he afterward enlarged into the Massachu- 
setts Musical Journal. 

His residence in Fall River enabled him to get instruction from the 
best masters in Boston, then, as now, the musical metropolis of the 
country. About this time the thought that opportunity for musical educa- 
tion was not offered as it should be to people of limited means, by reason 
of its costly methods, was deeply impressed upon his mind, and led him 
to offer instruction once a week for $1 per quarter, to classes in piano, 
violin, voice, etc. Five hundred and sixty pupils were thus instructed. 

This was the birth and beginning of the conservatory system in 
America. In 1859 he founded a musical institute in East Greenwich, R. 
I., and became director of music in the same academy in which he began 
his education. And here began to appear that remarkable ability, grasp 
of details, well directed force and clear perception of best methods and of 
the needs and possibilities of musical education, which some have called 

"enthusiasm," but which might, perhaps, better be named Christian good 
sense. His success was naturally verj' large, but such a man could never 
rest without attaining the highest results, and, therefore, with the purpose 
to give music to the world, we find him, in 1863, in Europe, conferring 
and studying with eminent masters of the old world — Sterne, Grell and 
Haupt, Dr. Marx, Clapison and others — and making examination of the 
methods and text books used in conservatories of German}-, France and 
Italy, with the purpose fixed so to improve musical education in America, 
that no student need cross the ocean to obtain any musical advantages 
whatever ; and also, that these great opportunities should be open to 
pupils of limited means. This purpose has long been fulfilled in the great 
institution of which he is now the director — the New England Consen-a- 
tory of Music, in Boston. Returning to America, he established the 
Providence Conservator}-, which was not confined to music alone, but 
to metrical culture, and like its greater successor in Boston, contained a 
home for lady pupils, a .school of fine arts, etc. This school triumphed so 
signally over prejudice and opposition that in 1867 he enlarged his 
operations by establishing a similar school in Boston, which, under his 
vigilant care, has steadily improved, advanced and enlarged, until its 
success has come to stand alone, as the greatest of its kind in the world. 
The personal history- of this man has numerous points of special 
interest. In 1869 he received, unexpectedly, from the Wesley an Univer- 
sity, the degree of Doctor of Music. He was also honored, in 1887, with 
a fellowship in the Society of Science, Letters and Art, of London. 
In 1869 at the request of those in charge, he organized the chonis of the 
Peace Jubilee, a project so colossal that it excited both opposition and 
ridicule, and its supporters became so disheartened that in all probahility 
it would have been given up but for the energy and perseverance of Dr. 
Tourjee. Complete success crowned his labors, and musical culture 
received an impulse unfelt before in America. He rendered a similar 
service in the organization of the chorus of the World's Peace Jubilee 
in 1874, where nearly 20,000 singers were brought together, and of which 
he was one of the conductors. In 1870, by the special request of the 
Teachers' Association, he delivered in Cleveland, O., his strong and 
conclusive Pica for Vocal Music iyi Public Schools. This was published at 
the request of the association, and has become a national document upon the 
subject. To Dr. Tourjee the country owes the Praise Service. This 
form of worship he labored personally to establish, lecturing upon and 
illustrating the subject in nearly a thousand churches, with him every- 
thing being subordinate to the interests of the Kingdom of God. These 
remarkable labors were reported to the musical veteran, Lowell Mason, 

and so cheered and gratified him that he wrote in his seventy-ninth year, 
from Orange, N. J., to Dr. Tourjee, a long and interesting letter expressing 
his joy that a champion of choral praise in worship had arisen at last, 
making him, like Paul at Puteoli, "thank God and take courage." 
"Work on," wrote the patriarch, "with all diligence. Defend the 
cause of universal song in the house of the Lord. Defend the right of 
the poor, the weak and feeble voices, the untutored ear, .the poor in the 
knowledge of notes, to their part in the service. Let no one be excluded, 
but let all participate in this heart-stirring exercise ; go on, I say, and 
prosper. He who in an upper chamber introduced song into the worship 
of the Christian church, by joining in one, with His disciples, will smile 
upon your efforts. ' ' 

The Boston North End Mission, "widely known," says an able 
writer, "as one of the noblest charities in this country, owes its existence 
to his active exertions and fostering care." Through the personal 
influence of Dr. Tourjee, and under his advice, the system of musical 
instruction in Japan has been entirely changed, and made in all its 
30,000 schools, to conform to the methods in use in the New England 
Conservatory. A gentleman who had been a teacher in the conservatory, 
Mr. Luther Whiting Mason, was appointed by the Japanese government 
to carry out this great and useful reform. 

The subject of this sketch has filled man)- offices and done much 
service to the general public. He has been president of the Boston 
Young Men's Christian Association, the City Missionarj' Society and 
National Music Teachers' Association. He is now dean of the College 
of Music of Boston University and director of the New England Con- 
servatory of Music. He has also done large service as an editor of 
musical works, among which are Piano Method, Tribute of Praise, 
Chorus Choir, Hymnal of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and 
the Musical Herald is also under his managing editorship. As an 
educator he takes high rank. Mr. H. E. Sheldon, in the magazine 
Education, says Dr. Tourjee's life "embodies the three fundamental 
elements of the teacher's success." " He is an inspirer of enthusiasm in 
others," is possessed of "sympathy," and "he lives in and for and 
through others, " "he goes down to the platform of his pupils, and leads 
them step by step up to the higher plane. No one can meet him, even 
casuall}', without being impressed with the inborn grace and suavity of 
his manners, ' ' qualities which spring ' ' spontaneously from a nature 
overflowing with sympathj-." " It was this quality of sympathy," says 
Mr. Sheldon, "which led him to provide the highest advantages in 
musical education for those of limited wealth, by the class system. 

This sympathy for others has led Dr. Tourjee and his wife to sacrifice the 
quiet of a delightful home to organize a great Christian household for 
the hundreds of young women who come to the conservatory. He is 
America's Great Commoner in music." "The third quality of the 
teacher is ' Vision of the possibilities which are before himself and his 
pupils, and a power to inspire them with his faith.' We have been 
especially struck with his plan for enlarged general culture for students 
of music. If carried out it will revolutionize musical culture, and make 
the conservatory one of the potent factors in shaping the civilization of 
the twentieth centurj-." 

Since Mr. Sheldon wrote the above, six years ago, the plan has been 
pushed on toward its full development, and the graduates of the conser- 
vatory have taken higher and higher rank among educators of the age ; 
so that to-daj' they are sought for by institutions of learning throughout the 
country. Thus has been justified the opinion of the directors, that 
"Music opens the way to a broad general culture, and that the im- 
pression that the concentration of effort, necessary to secure the success of 
students pursuing a musical course, precludes all possibilitj- of culture, 
is false. ' ' 

" Education," says Dr. Tourjee, " is a whole, simply because man is 
a unit, and one part of man cannot be developed to the highest point 
without the cultivation of the other parts of the nature. A free education 
is the harmonious development of all the faculties to their highest power, 
and their application to the highest use.' 

Dr. Tourjee, "in person," says Mr. Richard W. Husted, "is rather 
below the medium height, of slight, graceful figure, with unusually warm, 
courteous address, and rare fascination of manner ; yet winning not more 
surely by the grace and sweetness of his demeanor, than by the impressive 
tenderness and fervor of liis nature. He unites to a broad musical culture, 
administrative abilities of the highest order, an indomitable energy and an 
aptitude for severe and long-continued exertion which is seldom equaled, 
' and all are crowned by a deep, pervasive piety, vitalizing and refining his 
whole life. Of his special call to be an apostle of music, he entertains not 
the slightest doubt. I^uther was not more profoundly impressed of his 
mission to preach the Reformation than he is that he is set apart to 
disseminate musical intelligence among the masses. 

Says Sir George Grove, in his dictionary : " Many are the charitable 
enterprises in which he has been active, and the persons who have been 
aided by his bounty." 

He has twice married, and has four children — two sons and two 



3[LTHOUGH not the oldest conservatory of music in Boston, nor 
_^^Jr the most extensive in its operations, the above school, under the 
/j Hji' '^ direction of that distinguished artist, Mr. Julius Eichberg, has 
achieved a reputation as a seat of musical learning which is not 
confined to America alone, and judging by its strictly musical 
importance, from the results, as exhibited in the artistic distinction 
attained by its graduates, is certainly second to no other in America. 
In one branch of musical cultivation, this conservatory is without a 
peer, and has performed a work of great importance that cannot be 
too highl}^ estimated. As the violin, that only perfect musical instru- 
ment, is the specialty of this school, so the violin department is its 
highest feature of excellence. No one has done more than Mr. Eichberg 
to remove the prejudice which formerly existed against violin playing, as 
an unsuitable recreation, not to say profession, for the gentler sex. He 
has, in fact, proven that so far from the violin not being a woman's 
natural instrument of musical expression, she is, by her refined sensibili- 
ties, peculiarly adapted to the elucidation of the divine spirit of harmony 
that makes the violin its home. Such graduates as Albert von Raalte, 
Lilian Chandler and Lilian Shattuck attest the excellence of the methods 
of Mr. Eichberg as a teacher skilled in the peculiar art of imparting to 
others the musical skill and learning, in which he himself excels, as well 
as the capacity of the American youth of both sexes for fellowship in the 
highest walks of musical art. Other .special features of the institution are 
the large pipe organ, specially constructed for the conserv^atory, containing 
all the stops, etc., and competent instructors from the best English and 
German schools, enabling those who so desire to perfect themselves for that 
special branch of musical labor. Another distinguishing feature is the 
limit of numbers in class instruction. Not more than four are taught in 
class at one time, and while this is a hobby of Mr. Eichberg, and is not 
demanded by the experience of the conservatory system, yet it cannot fail to 
be recognized as one of the influences that have combined to give this insti- 
tution so high a reputation for thoroughness in the musical education of 
its pupils. No diplomas are given to students who have been less than 
four consecutive terms at the conservatory, except in special cases and for 


unusual proficiencj'. Diplomas are granted to students who have com- 
pleted a full course of instruction, theory and harmony included, to the 
satisfaction of the directors, such course usually occupying from two to 
three 3-ears. The following is the list of instructors for 1889-90 : Julius 
Eichberg, Mrs. Chas. Lewis, Carl Pflueger, Thomas A. Leverett, W. R. 
Gibbs, Miss Lilian Shattuck, Miss Emma Le B. Kettelle, Herman P. 
Chelius, Albert Van Raalte, Miss Laura Webster, Wulf Fries, M. DeFor- 
rest Siple, Geo. Behr, Miss Villa Whitney White. 

Julius Eichberg. 

Among those Americans by adoption who occupy a place of eminence 

in American musical histor\-, a most important figure is that of Julius 

Eichberg, the founder and head of the Boston Conservatory of Music, and 

a gentleman of both American and European repute as musician, teacher 

and composer. Mr. Eichberg was born in Diisseldorf, Germany, in 1824. 

He came of a musical familj-, his father being a violinist and composer. 

He handled the " pony " violin almost as soon as he was large enough to 

hold it, and at the age of seven had attained considerable proficiency. At 

eight he was sent to Mayejice, and took lessons of F. W. Eichler, the 

celebrated virtuoso. Thence he returned to the excellent tuition of his 

father at Diisseldorf, where he had also the advantage of training by 

Julius Rietz, afterward a famous director of Gewandhaus concerts and 

kapellmeister to the king of Saxon}' at Dresden. Through this connection 

he was introduced to the great Mendelssohn, who, after hearing the boy 

plav, wrote a commendation in these words : 

At so early an age youug E. joins to a remarkable firmness and certainty in 
bowing, and use of his left hand, a great deal of true expression, which will lead him, 
I doubt not, to become a great artist — to be an honor to his art, and to render it 
important service, and to fulfill all the expectations which his remarkablj- precocious 
talents have awakened concerning him. 

During this period he appeared as second violin in the orchestra, and 
was also brought iuto coraiuiniication with Robert Schumann and Herbert 
Bergmuller. He next studied under the celebrated theorist and musical 
historian Fetis at the Royal Conservatory at Brussels, and also under the 
renowned De Beriot, and on graduating gained the first prize for violin 
playing and composition. Entering upon the practice of his profession, 
he went to Geneva as director of an opera company, and his talents soon 
advanced him to the position of professor in the conser\^atorj' and director 
of sacred music in a prominent chtirch. There he remained for eleven 
years, when he came to America with a view of benefiting his health, land- 
ing in New York in 1857. He played and taught in that citj' for two 
years, removing to Boston in 1859. His first engagement was that of 


aJ y c^^L^lX/v) 

director of music at the Museum, where he s.ion enlisted the admiration 
of the lovers of the art in Boston. While here he wrote the operetta The 
Doctor of Alcantara, a charming work, successfully produced April 7, 
1862, and which maintained its popularity for twenty j-ears. He also 
composed The Rose of Tyrol, Two Cadia and A Night in Rome. He 
remained at the Museum for seven j-ears, and then, after a year of rest, 
was enabled to carrj^ into effect a long cherished ambition in the founding 
of the Boston Conservatory of Music, an institution which is to-day the 
first violin school of the countr}-, and which has performed and continues 
to carrjr on a work of national importance in the cultivation and diffusion 
of music, and in elevating the standard of art excellence throughout the 
country. He was, shortly after the establishment of this institution, 
appointed general super\-isor and director of music in all the high schools 
of Boston, in which capacity he has performed a noble work for the people 
of the modern Athens, a work, too, of far-reaching influence outside the 
boundaries of the city and state. For one of the annual concerts of the 
combined choirs of these schools, he wrote the famous chorus. To Thcc, 
O, Country, Great and Free ! a work preferred in the east as a national 
hymn. His other works of composition include a set of piano pieces, 
Lebensfriihling, published at Leipzig ; sets of string quartets, and 
books of violin studies, adopted in the European consen.'atories, besides 
minor work. Mr. Eichberg, despite his foreign birth and education, 
the latter an important factor in contributing to the advancement of the 
cause of music in this countn-, is in everj- instinct and fiber an American, 
and as such the American musical world is proud of his reputation and 

It is a striking peculiarit}' of Prof. Eichberg's musical activity that 
the theatre of his labor embraces what we may term the extremes of use- 
fulness. On the one hand, he is devoted with admirable skill and 
method to the cultivation of the grand work of a general musical taste, 
by his work in the directionof music in the public schools of a great citj'- ; 
on the other, in the most exalted walk of the art, he is an active and 
important instrument in the illustration of the loftiest capabilities of 
music, and a potent agent for the promulgation of the best forms of higher 
musical culture. 

The principal points of Prof. Eichberg's usefulness to American music, 
and his important place therein, outside of the work of the excellent insti- 
tution which he has conducted with such fidelity to the highest traditions 
of musical art, may be summed up as follows : First, his thorough iden- 
tification with the representative ideas of Americanism ; second, his impor- 
tance in the field of composition ; third, the conscientious effort which he 

has devoted to the grounding of musical sentiment upon a faithful art 
basis, so far as its direction has fallen into his hands ; fourth, in the rank 
which he takes as a composer in the list of those whom we are privileged 
to regard as American. 


This institution was founded in 1874 by Ernst Eberhard, and 
incorporated by act of legislature, passed May 23, 1884, empowering 
it to confer the degrees of bachelor, master and doctor of music. 
Testimonials are granted to students who have mastered the course 
of studies to the satisfaction of their instructors, and whose record 
in regard to regularity of attendance and application is faultless. 
Diplomas are given to graduates who have passed through the full 
course. They are expected and required to appear at a public recital, at 
which they must demonstrate their ability and proficiency in the several 
departments of obligatory- study comprising the grand conservatory course, 
vocal, instrumental, theoretical or otherwise. It is the intention and 
determination of the directors and faculty that every diploma or other 
testimonial from this institution shall be fairly and honestly earned. 
Applicants for diplomas are expected to have a thorough knowledge of 
harmony, and must be able to harmonize properly a given bass or melody, 
and to write in two, three or four parts in all the orders of single counter- 
point. A good knowledge of musical form and musical history is required, 
as well. Students who pass the required examination, and who produce 
a composition for voices with accompaniment for the organ or pianoforte, 
containing polyphonic writing (fugue in four parts), will be granted the 
degree of bachelor of music (B. M.). The degree of master of music 
(M. M.) is granted to those who are able to pass a satisfactory' examina- 
tion in canon, fugue, etc., in addition to the requirements for the degree 
of bachelor of music, and who can produce a work for chorus and 
orchestra. A comprehensive knowledge of musical history and acoustics, 
and ability to work out a thesis on some musical subject, is also expected 
of applicants for this degree. The degree of doctor of music (Mus. Doc.) 
is conferred upon artists whose long and devoted services in their art may 
seem to justify or demand a recognition as exalted as the board of directors 
have in their power to grant. The Grand Conservator}- occupies a spa- 
cious building of its own, at No. 98 Fifth avenue, and is largely patron- 
ized by the best classes. 

Ernst Eberhard. 

Ernst Eberhard was born in Hanover, Germany, Maj' 30, 1839. 
He studied under Heinrich Enckhausen, H. Marshner and H. Lahmeyer. 
When he first came to this countr}^ he held a number of positions, but 
finally determined to go south, where he taught in different colleges and 
seminaries and played in concerts. In 1864 he returned to New York 
city and accepted an engagement as baritone singer in a church. After 
this his rise was rapid. His great musical knowledge and his commanding 
powers as an organist gained him a position at St. Ann's church in 
Brooklyn. From St. Ann's he went to the church of the Paulists, on 
Fifty-ninth street, where he remained as conductor and organist for ten 
years and acquired a reputation for his conscientious, excellent work. At 
this church he had under his direction many of the best soloists, a large 
chorus, a choir of some eighty singers and an orchestra composed of 
members of the Philharmonic, among whom were such distinguished 
performers as Grill, Noll, Besig and Bohm. To give an idea of the 
character of the work done it may be mentioned that Mr. Eberhard 
brought out Beethoven's Mass in C, Haydn's Imperial and Sixlcoith 
Masses, Gounod's Great Mass, two masses by Cherubini, one by Righiui, 
and Cherubini's Requiem. He also arranged all the mottettes and hymns 
sung in the church, for chorus and orchestra. While at the Paulist 
church, he was also conductor of several German singing societies, con- 
ductor of the St. Cecilia mixed chorus, of the Flora mixed chorus, of the 
Harmonic and Philharmonic societies in Newark. He also gave a 
number of symphony concerts at the Academy of Music in Brooklyn, and 
at Steinway hall. With these various societies he produced such works 
as the second, third, fifth and eighth symphonies of Beethoven ; Mendel- 
ssohn's Scotch symphony and a number of others by Haydn and Mozart. 
Among the oratorios produced under his direction, were Ha3-dn's 
Creation and Seasons, Handel's Messiah and Judas Maccabceus, and 
Mendelssohn's Elijah. The soloists at these concerts were such artists 
as Clara Louise Kellogg, lima di Murska, Parepa Rosa and Pauline 
Lucca. In 1873 he left the church of the Paulists to accept the position 
of organist at the First Baptist church. Finally, in 1876, Mr. Eberhard 
gave up all his various positions to start the Grand Conservatory of 
Music, with which institution he has remained ever since, conducting it 
with remarkable energy, and bringing it up to the prominent position 
which it holds to-da3^ 

Mr. Eberhard is author of twelve books of studies for piano, a 
new piano method (two books), and a number of other educational 


^HE New York College of Music was established in 1878, and 
duly incorporated under the laws of the state of New York. 
^ The college building is on East Seventieth street, near Lexing- 
ton avenue. The officers of the company are Rev. Richard D. 

Harlan, president; Morris Reno, vice-president; Alexander Lambert, 

director; Latham G. Reed, secretan,'; Otto Rother, treasurer. The 
faculty of the New York College of Music is an excellent one, including 
Alexander Lambert, the director, who is assisted in the piano department 
by Louis Oesterle, D. M. Levett, Florian Oborskt and H. Woehaf; in 
the vocal department, Mme. Anna Lankow, Luigi Meola, Geo. F. Allen 
and Pietro Bignardi; violin department, Mr. Henrj' Lambert and Mr. 
Gustav Dannreuther; violoncello department, Mr. Adolph Hartdegen; 
harmony, C. C. Mueller and S. Austin Pearce; and in addition compe- 
tent and well known instructors in the departments of elocution, organ, 
vocal hygiene, historj- of music, chamber music, wind instruments and 

The college (opened in 1878), has for its object the foundation and 
the diffusion of a high musical education, which, based on the study of 
the classic masters, embraces whatever is good in modern art. The 
institution endeavors to attain this end by well grounded instruction 
imparted not onh' to those who wish to devote themselves to music as 
artists and teachers, but also to amateurs, whose only object it is to 
acquire a correct knowledge of music. 

The college building is advantageously located a few blocks from 
Central Park, and it is an edifice admirably adapted to the purpose to 
which it is devoted. The concert hall in connection with the school is in 
constant use for musical entertainments, lectures, etc., to which students 
and their families have free admission. 

In order to accustom advanced pupils to perform in public, and to 
give all pupils the greatest possible opportunity to hear good music and 
to increase their knowledge of musical literature, performances and concerts 
are given during the winter terms, and as a general rule every two 
weeks. The remarkable public interest manifested in the concerts of the 
college, as shown in the attendance, having repeatedly outgrown the halls 

in which they are held, and the addition to the faculty of the eminent 
performers, liave led to an important extension of the college plans in this 
department. A special concert is also given each season at Chickering 
hall, in which an orchestra participates, under the direction of Mr. Walter 
Damro.sch. A limited number of free scholarships are given every 3-ear 
to talented and deser\-ing pupils, as well as several partial scholarships 
which carry with them the advantage of studying at the college at reduced 
rates. The concerts given under the auspices of the college are of notable 
excellence, and some of the best musical talent in New York participates 
in them for the benefit of the pupils of the institution. During year 
Mr. Wm. J. Henderson, the talented critic of the New York Times, lectured 
on musical history before the pupils on a number of occasions. 

During the past eleven j-ears the college has developed steadily, and 
the roster of pupils each year shows a large increase. Under the able 
direction of Mr. Lambert and with the fine corps of teachers connected 
with it, the school has been doing excellent work in the field of educa- 
tion in art. 

Alexander L-^-jibert. 

The subject of this sketch is a native of Poland, having been born in 
Warsaw in 1S62. He inherited the musical talent, his father having been 
a musician of reputation, and after a course of study at home, was by the 
advice of Rubinstein sent to \'ienna, where he entered the conservatory, 
and after completing his studies under Julius Epstein, the noted pianist, 
graduated at sixteen, with the highest honors. Subsequently he studied 
at Weimar under Liszt, after which he appeared in concerts with great 
success in many German cities. On coming to the United States, his 
success was immediate and flattering to his capacity. He was first Heard 
in Schumann G minor sonata, and his interpretation of this secured the 
admiration of the New York critics, who classed him with pianists of 
rank, and particularly with Joseffy. At Steinwaj' hall he appeared with 
Remenyi and freely shared the honors with the great Hungarian violinist. 
His playing at that time was noted for its boldness and confidence, his 
certain method of attack, and the correctness of his conceptions. His 
dexterity was prodigious and was always the subject of remark. With 
his many good qualities, however, he united some defects, and this was 
freelj^ criticised in the musical newspapers. Determining to render his 
faculty beyond the reach of criticism if necessarj-, Mr. Lambert determined 
to spend a j^ear in Germany, and here his style of playing was greatly 
matured, and acquired those qualities which had previously been lacking. 

He improved in the shading and color of his interpretations, and 
infused into his work qualities of the art. While in Europe he was asso- 

dated with Moszkowski and later with Joachim, the latter having engaged 
him for a tour through Germany. On this occasion at Kiel he played 
before the prince and princess of Schleswig-Holstein. vSubsequently he 
was invited by the Philharmonic Society- of Berlin to play on the occasion 
of the anniversary of the death of Beethoven. On suggestion of Hans von 
Bulow, he gave the great concerts C major and C minor concertos with the 
original cadenzas. This was an exceedingly happy choice, and won from 
the press and public of Berlin many encomiums. Leaving Berlin, Mr. Lam- 
bert then paid a visit to his native city of Warsaw, where he made the 
acquaintance of Sarasate, with whom he gave concerts. Next he went to 
the Mecca of all artists of the time, Weimar, and paid a visit of four 
months' duration to Franz Liszt. Among other artists at Weimar during 
this time were Jaell, Silote and Saint Saens. Of this sojourn Mr. Lam- 
bert saj-s: " He who has enjoyed the distinction of being the object of 
the Master's solicitude knows how precious is every word of Liszt's while 
one is playing for him. It is especiallj^ interesting to hear him play 
Chopin and embrace each object of relation, the history of the sentiments 
describe in tone." Having thus completed his art equipments, Mr. Lam- 
bert resumed his work in New York with an enlarged repertoire and a 
degree of proficiencj' that brought constant and brilliant success. His 
£rst performance after his return was at one of the Van der Stucken con- 
certs, with the G minor pianoforte concerto by Saint Saens. The brill- 
iancy of his technique combined with brillianc}' and extreme beauty in tone, 
attracted universal applause. Franz Van der Stucken thus expresses his 
opinion of Mr. Lambert's playing of the Chopin F minor concerto. " It 
was a complete surprise to most all of his friends, who were not slow to 
realize they were being favored by an ideal performance of this musical 
gem, in which technical perfection was enforced by brilliancj-, fire, inspi- 
ration and intellectual depth." He was recalled four times amid a per- 
fect furor of applause. He played equally with Littolf Scherzo. During 
several seasons previous to his connection with the New York College of 
Music, he was a leading attraction on the principal occasions of the Sym- 
phonj- Society, of New York, the Damrosch Symphony Society, of Brook- 
lyn, the Boston S3'mphony Orchestra, under Gericke, the Anton Seidl con- 
certs. New York, and the Novelty concerts, S}-mphony concerts, Sunday 
Orchestral concerts and Classical Afternoon concerts bj"- Vanderstucken. 
At the head of the New York College of Music, he is in a position to 
benefit rising artists b}' the qualities which have surrounded his musical 
career w-ith so much distinction personally. Mr. Lambert is an earnest 
and conscientious artist, and is admirably fitted for the position he 


fHE Metropolitan Conservatory of Music, located at 21 East 
Fourteenth street, New York citj-, was organized in 1885, by 
Messrs. C. B. Hawley and H. W. Green, for the purpose of 
affording well balanced musical education, according to the stand- 
ards of the American College of Musicians, of which body nearly 
all the faculty are prominent members. 

Herbert \V. Greene, 

One of the founders, and now secretary and business manager of the 
Metropolitan Conser\-atorj' of Music, New York, was born in 1852 at 
Holyoke, Mass. He had no early advantages of instruction in music, 
and it was not until he grew to manhood that he had the opportunity to 
study. H° devoted some years to his art in America, and then visited 
the art centres of Europe, where he studied under the best masters of 
voice, and acquainted himself with all the best methods of musical instruc- 
tion as a voice specialist. Returning to the United States, he developed a 
plan for a school of advanced musical culture. Mr. Dudley Buck con- 
sented to head the faculty, and Mr. Samuel P. Warren, Mr. H. R. Shelley, 
Mr. L. R. Russell, Mr. Clifford Schmidt and other eminent specialists 
co-operated in the movement, and the work was begun, Mr. Charles B. 
Hawley, a former pupil, being a partner. Since then the conservator)' 
has combined with the Stern School of Languages and the Dowd School 
of Phy.sical Culture, and has been remarkably successful, exerting a wide- 
spread influence for good in the country. The phenomenal success of this 
school is largely due to the energy and business tact of Mr. Greene, whose 
genius for education is sufficiently evident in the selection of so eminent a 
faculty. Most of the teaching is done individually, only a small part of it 
in classes, and these are kept small, the design being to retain the stimu- 
lative advantages of the class system, without sacrificing thoroughness and 
individuality. Great stress is laid upon the necessity of well balanced 
education in theory. The faculty is one of the most distinguished yet 
brought together in America, Mr. A. R. Parsons heading the pianoforte 


3fHIS important institution of musical learning, which ranks with 

the best in America, was originally established by Dr. Florence 

Ziegfeld, in 1867, being at first known as the Chicago Musical 

Academy. Its success was immediate and cumulative from year to 

year, and expanded in its operations so rapidly that it was driven from 

one location to another larger, and so on, till in the fall of 187 1 it 

occupied the whole of the then splendid building at 253 Wabash avenue, 

and Dr. Ziegfeld, the president, was looking forward to the fall and winter 

terms to give new evidence of success, with his improved and enlarged 

surroundings and facilities, when the great fire of Chicago came, and in a 

few hours all was swept away. But nothing could daunt the indomitable 

courage and determination of its president, nor impair the confidence of the 

public, and before snow fell that year he had his school re-established. It 

has ever since maintained an onward and upward career, and to-day its 

.standing is recognized in Europe as superior to that of many continental 

institutions. In 1882 the college occupied its present extensive, attractive 

and admirably arranged quarters in the Central Music Hall building, State 

and Randolph; but even with this accommodation it has been found neces- 

sar>- to establish a branch at 501 Adams street, and it is hoped that at an 

early day the directors will be able to gratif)' their ambition to place at the 

disposal of the faculty a building which shall be a temple of the musical art 

worthy of its high pui-poses and importance, and of the wide reputation of 

this institution. In everj' department of this school. Dr. Ziegfeld has 

alwaj^s been particular — indeed, it has been an ambition with him — to 

secure the highest attainable talent ; and hence the college offers to its 

pupils the advantage of instruction by artists of established reputation 

in the musical world. The system pursued is not only strictly academic, 

but it is as strictly and thoroughly applied as in any of our higher 

universities. We Use the words of the New York Musical Courier in 

describing the plan pursued: 

Through the arrangement of examinations held at the end of each term of ten 
weeks, in every department, most satisfactory results have been reached. In this 
way pupils in the college are stimulated to their best efforts to become as proficient 
as possible in their respective studies, and there is a strict accounting kept at these 
examinations of the pupils' progress. A report is issued to every pupil, giving the 
average standing for the term, for attendance, practice and improvement. Through 

these reports the pareuts aad friends of scholars become acqua'nted with their gen- 
eral progress. At the end of the school year, the final examinations take place. 

The gold medals are of beautiful design, set with a diamond, and are donated 
by public-spirited citizens who feel the importance of encouraging aspiring students 
who have musical talent and ability, and are awarded at the commencement exercises 
to pupils who have especially distinguished themselves by rapid advancement in their 
respective studies. Through concerts, soirees, recitals and the weekly ensemble 
class, a musical atmosphere is created, and affords the student the opportunity to 
become acquainted with the best works of composers of symphonies, oratorios and 


chamber music. In the soirees the pupils take part, thereby gaming a self-possession 
which only comes through experience. A remarkable public interest is manifested 
in the grand concerts, when the faculty of eminent performers take part in programs 
of the choicest music, assisted by a full orchestra under the direction of Dr. Ziegfeld. 
Other collateral attractions are the orchestra school, sight-reading class, and lectures 
upon musical topics every week. 

Dr. Ziegfeld has shown his art sympathy in determining that lack 

of means shall not debar desen'ing talent from the advantages of his 

admirable iustitution. One of its features is the throwing open to the 
public of fifteen free scholarships, and one hundred partial scholarships, 
to talented and deserving students, who have not otherwise the means to 
provide for thorough musical equipment. 

The regular school j-ear has four terms of ten weeks each. 

The first term commences second Monday in September, and closes 
third Saturday in November. The second term commences third Mon- 
day in November, and closes second Saturday in February. Two weeks 
vacation — from December 23 to January 4. The third term commences 
second Monday in February and .closes third Saturday in April. The 
fourth term commences third Monday in April and closes last Saturday 
in June. The annual concert and commencement exercises take place 
last week in June. There is also a summer normal session of one month, 
commencing second week in July. 

Among the graduates of this institution, who exemplify its advan- 
tages, are such brilliant pianists as Mrs. Frank Nightingale, Miss L. 
Clare Osborne, Miss Mollie A. Nuveen, Miss Emma Wilkins, Miss Sadie 
Hayman, etc. 

The officers of the college are Dr. F. ^iegfeld, president ; F. Ziegfeld, 
Jr., treasurer and secretary; John B. Harris, Belle Sawj-er and Agnes 
Matthews, assistant secretaries. 

Bo.\RD OF Directors. — Rev. Dr. H. W. Thomas, William M. Hovt, N. K. 
Fairbank, W. W. Kimball, Dr. Ph. H. Matthei, J. Harley Bradley, Gen. Chas. Fitz 
Simons, Julius Rosenthal, Dr. F. Ziegfeld aud F. Ziegfeld, Jr. 

The following constitute the faculty, and have charge of the different 
branches of instruction. 

Piano. — Dr. F. Ziegfeld, director; August Hyllested, assistant director; Victor 
Garwood; Louis Falk; Adolph Kctlling; Maurice Rosenfeld ; L. Clare Osborne; 
Emma Wilkins ; .■\ddie .\iUims Hull ; Kffie Murdock ; Maud Quivey; Stella Sissou ; 
Eva 15. Loehr; Ida Strawbridge ; Margaret Rankin. I'ocat Music — I.,. .\. Phelps, 
director; Mrs. O. L. Fox ; J. .\llen Preisch ; Eva Emmet Wycoff. Sight Reading. — 
Dr. H. S. Perkins. Chorus Class. — ^J. A. Phelps. Organ. — Louis Falk; I'iolin. — 
S. E. Jacobsohn, director; Joseph Ohlheiser ; Theodore Binder. I'ioloncello. — 
Meinhard Eichheim. Uarfy. — Mme. Josephine Chatterton. directress; Miss- Julia 
Phelps. Flute and Clarionet. — Fred Fowler. Cornet. — Herbert Hutchins. .Mando- 
lin. — S. Tomas. Banjo and Guitar. — W.S.Baxter; F. J. Kugler. Harmony, Count- 
erpoint, Canon and Fugue. — Louis Falk ; Adolph Koelling. Composition. — .Adolph 
Kfelling. History of Music. — W. S. B. Mathews. Elocution. — Mrs. Laura J. 
Tisdale, directress ; Mrs. Lillian Woodward Gunckel. Foreign Languages. — • 
Henry Cohn, German ; Leontine Arnot-Cohn, French ; Candido Rosi, Spanish; G. 
Mantellini, Italian. Physiology of I 'ocal Organs. — Dr. Boeme Bettman. 

Dr. Florence Ziegfeld. 
' 'Among the foremost of those who have devoted their lives to musical 
art in Chicago, and have contributed to the development of taste and cult- 
ure in music, stands Dr. F. Ziegfeld, the founder of one of the largest mu- 
sical conservatories in the United States — one that rivals, in all its depart- 


merits, the best in Europe." We may adopt tuese words and extend 
them in their application to the whole field of musical cultivation in this 
countf)-. Dr. Ziegfeld was born in the town of Jener, in the grand 
duchy of Oldenburg, Germany, in 1843. His father, a court official of 
the grand duke, was passionately devoted to music, and when the taste 
and talent for the art became evident in young Florence, in his earliest 
years of intelligence, the father was delighted to afford them every 
opportunity for development. He took his first lesson on the piano 
at the early age of six j-ears, and under the guidance of the best 
available teachers soon attained remarkable proficiency, playing, when 
but ten years old, in public and private concerts with a skill and confi- 
dence that elicited admiration and secured manj' flattering prophecies of 
a distinguished career. Continuing his studies with excessive zeal and 
application, to the detriment of his health, he made, at fifteen, his first 
voj'age to America, to visit a brother in New York, and to regain the 
physical vigor which had been impaired. This visit at that time decided 
him to make America his future home, but in order to thoroughly equip 
himself for the career which his ambition had in view, he returned to 
Europe and entered the Leipzig Conservatory, where for several years he 
remained the pupil of such eminent musicians as Moscheles, Richter, Pap- 
peritz, Plaidy, Wenzel, David and others. In 1863, having refused a 
most tempting offer to go to Russia to take charge of a large conser\^atory 
there, he came to America, and November of that year found him settled 
in Chicago, and soon successfully engaged as a teacher of music. By 1867 
his patronage had become so extensive as to suggest the necessity for 
organization on the conservator}' system, and in that year he established 
the Chicago Academy of Music, which was the precursor of the larger 
and more complete and important institution, the Chicago Musical 
College. In 1868, with his pupils, he gave his first public concert, 
which, despite unfavorable conditions, was a gratif3-ing success, and from 
that day to the present the people of Chicago have never failed in avail- 
ing themselves of everj' public opportunity of testifying their appreciation 
of the services which Dr. Ziegfeld has so zealously and unremittingly 
rendered to the cause of musical culture. Of his success in building up 
the Chicago Musical College, we treat elsewhere. Since settling in 
Chicago, Dr. Ziegfeld has visited Europe no less than eleven times ; on 
one occasion taking a number of his pupils with him, to improve their 
opportunities, and on another to select attractions for the great Boston 
Peace Jubilee, in 1872, having been chosen for this latter task out of all 
the prominent figures in music in America at that time. Dr. Ziegfeld has 
always maintained acquaintance and correspondence with the princi- 

Cyji^cjcZl^ ^^ c^^ 

pal masters of Europe, Liszt, Wagner, Joachim, Strauss, Rubinstein, 
Franz Bendel and others, and of the esteem in which he is held in the 
higher musical circles, we may judge from the following extract from a 
letter addressed in 1872 by Dr. Conrad Schleinitz, director of the Leipzig 
Consen'atorj' of Music, to Miiller von Werra, the distinguished poet : 

Of Dr. Ziegfeld himself it gives us great pleasure to say that his own profound 
and comprehensive musical attainments are the result of his early studies in our 
institution. While here he was so distinguished for conscientious industry in his 
studies, as well as for great natural talent and exemplary conduct, that we looked 
forward with high expectation toward his future career. These expectations have 
been more than realized. * * * From Dr. Ziegfeld's exceptional artistic accom- 
plishments, and his conscientiousness as a teacher, we feel safe in concluding that 
the instruction of the academy is of the most thorough description. The scholars 
who come from this institution have shown such careful and symmetrical develop- 
ment, that we are convinced that the Chicago Academy of Music is a most reliable 
school, and its graduates are for the same reason peculiarly welcome to our con- 

Dr. Ziegfeld is not only an artist of high talent, but he possesses a 
genius for teaching — that rare faculty of being able to succe.ssfully impart 
musical knowledge and artistic taste and perceptions to others ; and he is, 
moreover, as a business- man and an organizer in every work that comes 
under his hands, without a rival in skill and thoroughness. 

Mrs. O. L. Fox. 

Prominent among western teachers of the vocal art is Mrs. O. L. 
Fox, who for years has done vigorous and persevering work for the devel- 
opment of musical culture in the west. Mrs. Fox is a native of Boston, 
where at the age of seven years she began the study o*" mus.c, with such 
notable progress that at the age of seventeen she was a successful choir 
singer, and very soon became prominent as solo artist at musical c:)nven- 
tious in all parts of New England. In June, 1S69, Mrs. Fox was engaged 
as soprano at the Second Presbyterian church, of Chicago, having been 
selected for the position by Mrs. J. H. Long, her celebrated Boston 
teacher. She made her debut the following winter with the Chicago 
Orpheus Society, under the direction of Hans Balatka, in Haydn's Crea- 
tion. Mrs. Fox remained soprano of the Second Presbyterian church 
until the great Chicago fire of 187 1, when she returned to Boston for a 
j-ear and renewed her study, returning to the western metropolis to accept 
a position at the Fourth Presbyterian church, then Professor Swing's. 
For five years past she has been connected with the Chicago Musical Col- 
lege, in this capacity having instructed some of the best singers graduated 
from that institution. Mrs. Fox is also known in a literarj- waj-, having 
for several years been musical critic for The Indicato>\ and contributed 
liberally to other periodicals. As concert soprano she has an honorable 
record east and in this citv. 


N this consen-atorj' we find a school whose career lies largely before 
it, but which is founded upon a plan aiming at so high an ideal, 
of whose attainment we have already had so convincing an 
'evidence, that it is entitled to a prominent place among the musical 
j^S institutions of the countrj'. Mr. Samuel Kayzer, founder and director 
of the conser\'atorj% is a native of Warsaw, in Russian Poland, bom 
1853. After several years of study in Europe, he came to Chicago in 1878, 
and was connected with the Hershej- School of Musical Art, where he 
became widely known as a successful teacher of elocution and dramatic art, 
and in the course of a few years had a large and enthusiastic following of 
students. In 1885 he conceived the idea of founding the Chicago Con- 
servatory of Dramatic and Musical Art. His ambition was to build up 
a conservatory upon the best European models, in point of the standard 
of excellence in every department, and of the advantages offered for the 
development of musical and dramatic culture upon the highest artistic 
plane — a school, in short, that would ultimately rank with the best in 
the world in these respects, and whose guiding instinct should be art, not 
profit. He wiselj- determined, measuring the boldness of his ambition 
with the difficulties that stood in the waj- of its achievement, to apply the 
high standard with which he had set out, even to the modest beginning 
to which circumstances restricted his undertaking. At the beginning the 
conservatory was strictly dramatic in its color, as might be expected from 
the field to which Mr. Kayzer was personally more strongly inclined, and 
in which his experience gave him greater reliance. His efforts, however, 
attracted appreciative attention. Discerning patrons of art had watched 
his earnestness, his energy, industry and determination, and the encour- 
agement of the press and of prominent citizens enabled him to enlarge the 
sphere of his operations, and to make a nearer and earlier approach to the 
realization of his ambition than he had probabh- anticipated. He was 
soon enabled to widen the scope of the conservatory, until it became as 
pronouncedly musical in its leading characteristics as theretofore it had 
been in the dramatic feature. The professional department, whose 
pleasant monthh- entertainments soon became fashionable, and which is 
really but the representative and illustration of the larger departments of 

private study, brought the excellence of the methods pursued into more 
public recognition, and the advantages of the conservator5' continued to 
be sought after b}- a widening circle of art students. When the great 
Auditorium building was designed the ninth floor of this massive monu- 
ment of the art of architecture was set apart to the purposes of a temple 
of the sister art of music, and here the conservator}' found a permanent 
home, which, for convenience, elegance and the perfectness of all its 
appointments for the object to which it is devoted, is not excelled in 
America. Here the director is enabled to give an expanded scope to the 
objects of the institution, to accompany' which he has secured the highest 
talent available, both as a means to the results which he desires to see 
accompany the operations of the conservatory, and in order to crystallize 
into the permanent educational machinery of this school those high aims 
which he had alwaj'S kept steadilj- in view. With such talent as is now 
at the head of the departments, we may look confidenth- in the near 
future to see the Chicago Conservatory taking a high rank in the world 
of music, and becoming the ahua viatcr of many distinguished exponents 
of lyric drama, and of representatives of the different branches of musical 
activity, who shall do honor to the art culture of America. 

Wm. H. Sherwood. 

At the head of the piano deparment of the Chicago Conservatory stands 
an artist who is not onlj' one of America's most celebrated pianists, but also 
an artist of recognized eminence in Europe as well. Mr. Sherwood is a 
native American, and was bom at L)'ons, N. Y., Jan. 31, 1854, his father, 
Rev. L. H. Sherwood, M. A., being a cultivated musician, and the founder 
of the Laous (N. Y.) Musical Academy. In early boyhood he evinced a 
remarkable talent for music, and received ver}' careful training from his 
father, by which he profited so well that between the ages of nine and 
eleven he made frequent public appearances in New York, Pennsylvania 
and Canada, attracting much attention both by the skillfulness of his 
playing and the precocity of his genius. From 1S66 to 1871 he was partly 
occupied with teaching in his father's school, but mainlj' devoted to the 
acquisition of a literar\' education, though designing music as his perma- 
nent profession. In the latter year he became the pupil of Dr. William 
Mason, at the time holding a normal institute at Binghampton, N. Y., but 
in the fall of the same year, by Mr. Mason's advice, he placed himself 
under the instruction of Kullak, at Berlin, also studying theory- and 
composition under the renowned theorist Carl Friederich Weitzmann. So 
rapid was his advance that within seven months he was one of those 
selected to play at Kullak's annual concert at the Singakademie, where he 

executed Chopin's fantasia in F minor with such skill as to elicit great 
applause. Among others who took part in this event were such pianists 
as Scharwenka, Moszkowski and Nicode, who who have since become 
famous as solo pianists. Leaving Berlin for a short time to recruit his 
health, he studied composition at Stuttgart inider Doppler, for several 
months, returning to Berlin and continuing his studies under Kullak and 
Weitzmann. The following season he played the great E flat concerto of 
Beethoven, accompanied bj- a large orchestra, before an audience of 4,000 
people, Wiierst, royal kapellmeister, conducting, with such success that 
at the close of the performance he was recalled eight times. This, in the 
face of the most critical musical community of the world, and of an 
existing prejudice against American talent as something less than 
mediocre, was a triumph of which in itself American art may feel proud. 
His success did not stop here ; his talent forced recognition in the world 
of composition. He had at this time (1873) composed several PF. 
pieces that were favorably received. His Capriccio (Op. 4) was printed 
later on by Breitkopf & Hiirtel, and Ops. i, 2 and 3, printed by Behr, of 
Berlin, were used for didactic purposes by Theodor Kullak, in his more 
advanced classes. The following jear he devoted to the development of 
his technique and touch, and in the fall was married to Miss Mary F'ay, a 
talented pianist of Williamsburg, N. Y., then studying under Kullak at 
Berlin. In February', 1875, he studied counterpoint and composition 
under Richter, at Leipzig, for some months, when he went to Weimar on 
the arrival of Liszt at that place. This great master was warm in his 
appreciation of the j-oung American, became godfather of his first child, 
and at his last matinee of the season had Sherwood to play two numbers 
before a distinguished audience. He went to Hamburg, where he made 
six successful appearances, and Feb. iS, 1876, at the Singakademie, 
Berlin, gave a concert, in which he was assisted by his wife, which was 
highly praised by the German musical press. " In this concert," said an 
eminent critic, "Mr. Sherwood, a young American, proved himself the 
blood brother cf the Titan Rubinstein." He now returned to America, 
and played in Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Cincinnati, Chicago and 
other cities, with great success, establishing a reputation as a pianist 
which he has ever since maintained and enhanced. During the Philadel- 
phia Centennial Exhibition he appeared before enormous audiences at the 
Academy of Music, and elicited the greatest enthusiasm. In the autumn 
of that year he settled in Boston, and though for a short time in connection 
with the New England Conservatory, has since devoted himself to private 
instruction and public appearances. In 1S77 he gave two recitals at the 
opening of Hershey Music Hall, Chicago, and has since been extensively 

before the public and active in musical life, especially in lectures and recitals 
in connection with the meetings of the Music Teachers' National Associa- 
tion. As a pianist Mr. Sherwood is noted for perfection of technique, power 
and delicacy of expression, and thorough musicianship. In composition 
he is rather finished and conscientious than fertile, and though he has not 
burdened the printing presses, his productions are such as to reflect credit 
upon American art. The principal of these are a Scherzo in E major, an 
Idyll in A minor ; Scherzo Symphonique, in G sharp minor ; Allegro 
Pattetico and Medea, with other productions. Aside from his eminent 
abilities as a .solo artist Mr. Sherwood has rendered exceptional services 
to the art of piano playing through his labors in establishing a thoroughly 
scientific method of developing the muscles which are employed in piano 
plaj'ing, guided by his own wide experience, both as plaj'er and instructor. 
The process he employs for rendering the fingers strong and at the same 
time flexible is greatly superior to those which were generally taught, 
even by the best teachers, at the time when he made his own studies, and 
are the outcome of deep reflection which was forced upon him by his own 
needs during the period he was engaged in developing his own technique. 
Chicago is certainly to be congratulated upon the acquisition of a concert 
artist and instructor of such rare ability. 

The faculty of the Chicago Conservatory in 1889 is the following: 
Piano— Vlx. William H. Sherwood, director; Mr. Calvin B. Cadj-, Mr. H. A. 
Kelso, Jr., Miss Julia Carruthers. \'ocal .Unsir—Mme. Biro de Marion, Signor A. 
Jannotta, Miss Grace Hiltz. Si^/i/ A'eaiiii/.ir—Mr. Calvin B. Cady, Miss Grace Hiltz. 
/■/()//«— Mr. A. Roseubfcker, iSlr. Richard Seidel. I'ioloncc/to—'Slv. M. Eichheim. 
/y„/^_Mr. Otto Helms. Cbrwc/— Mr. John Quinn. il/<7«(/o//H— Signer C. Vali-i. 
6'«;/(?; — Miss Lulu Hiltabidel. //aimonv, Coiiiitci point. Composition and Orches- 
tration— "Sir. Frederic Grant Gleason. J'oreign /.anguages— 'Prof. Henry Cohn, Ger- 
man; Mme. Tanty, French; Sitrnor G. Mantellini. Italian; Mons. Goiiere, French 
conversation and elocution; Mr. Candido Rosi. Spanish. Drauiatic and Poetic 
Peadimr—'Mr. Samuel Kfiyzer. Ptocntion. />etsarte Tlieorv of P.rpression and 
Physical Culture— "Mxss Anna Morgau, Miss Mav Donnallv. Mr. Samuel Knecht. 

This excellent school of music, located at Weber Hall, in Chicago, 
was founded in i8S5 by Mr. John J. Hattstaedt, who became and 
remains its director. Organized from the first with a staff" of qualified 
specialists, mainly Americans, though in many cases having the advan- 
tage of foreign education, it sprang at once into success and popularity, 
and in its first year enrolled a list of over 600 pupils, among whom nearh' 
every Western state and territory was represented. By having special 
regard to American needs it has since maintained and increased both its 
proficiency and its popularity. It adopts the class system, as bringing a 



higher grade of instruction within the reach of people of moderate 
means, as well as affording the incentive of ambition to excel through the 
emulation excited. Its course is divided into preparative, academic, col- 
legiate and normal. The academic course includes one year's studj' of 
harmony and musical historj', in connection with regular piano, organ 
or violin lessons. Graduates who attend and pass satisfactory examina- 
tion in the teachers' training class receive teachers' certificates. In the 
collegiate class diplomas are awarded on examination by a board of 
examiners. No arbitrary time is fixed as a basis of graduation, the test 
of proficiency, being governed by the previous preparation and capacity 
for progress of the pupil. A normal course, at which lectures are given 
by the principal, W. S. B. Mathews and Miss Amy Fay, is free to all 
pupils of the academic and collegiate classes. The teaching staff includes 
the following: 

Piano. — ^John J. H.^ttstae(U, Frederick Haines, Victor Everham, Florence G. 
Castle, Susie Kraft, Ida M. Kaehler, Harrison M. Wild, Gertrude E. Hogan, Annette 
E. Crocker, A. Constance Locke, Emelie Emilson, Rae M. Hill. / 'ocal Music. — 
Noyes B. Miner, Viola Frost-Mixer, Edward Meek. Organ. — Harrison M. Wild. 
Violin. — Josef Vilitn. Theodore Martin, Maggie White. Harviony. Counterpoint, 
Canon and Fugue. — P. C. Lutkin. Composition. — ^John A. West. I'ioloncello. — Fr. 
Hess. Flute. — Aug. Holm. Zither. — A. Maurer. Guitar and Banjo. — Mrs. A. F.Swan- 
der. Readint; at Sight. — H. S. Perkins, Wm. Sniedley. Normal Department. — John 
J. Hattstaedt,' W. S. B. Matthews, Amy Fay. School of Oratory.— \V. W. Cames. 
Delsarte Systetn of Dramatic F.vpression. — Miss Ella .Abeel. German. — H. Von 
Beschwitz. French. — Mme. Fleury Robinson Italian. — Mariano Nocerino. Phys- 
iology of Vocal Organs. — Dr. E. B. Murdock, Dr. J. B. S. King. 

John J. Hattstaedt. 
The founder and director of this institution was born at Monroe, Mich. , 
in 1 85 1, and received a sound musical education, both in Europe and 
America. He entered upon a professional career at Detroit, Mich., subse- 
quently taught in St. Louis, and finally located in Chicago, where he 
connected himself with the Chicago schools of music as teacher of the 
piano and lecturer on history- and aesthetics. In this capacity he labored 
for se\-eral j-ears, during which he built up an enviable reputation as 
an accomplished and successful teacher and educator. In 1881 he made 
an extended trip to Europe, visiting all the principal conservatories in 
order to familiarize himself with the methods of instruction and manage- 
ment. The American Conser\-atory was the result of his observations, 
guided by experience and his acquaintance with American needs. The 
institution has done excellent work, and has, no doubt, a long career 
before it of success and u.sefulness as a factor in the promotion of musical 
education. Mr. Hattstaedt has also been a contributor of articles of 
musical interest to the Etude, of Philadelphia, and other papers, and is 
the compiler of an admirable Manual of Musical History used in this 



N 18S3 this educational institution was founded bj' its present 
director, Mr. Albert E. Ruff; since that time it has steadily pro- 
gressed and grown in favor, and it now has an enviable reputa- 
tion among the music schools of the west. The school is virtually 
the outgrowth of Mr. Ruff's personal classes in vocal culture, but it 
now comprises departments of instruction in all branches of the art 
of music, singing, piano, violin, 'cello, flute, cornet, elocution, harmony, 
composition, etc. The college is located on the second floor of Weber 
Music Hall, at the corner of Wabash avenue and Jackson street. The 
rooms have been especially arranged and designed for the college, and 
they are both attractive and suitable for the purpose of giving musical 
instruction. The location is one of the most central and convenient in 
the city. The promoters of the Chicago College of Vocal and Instru- 
mental Art have .secured an able corps of instructors, and by the adoption 
of purely scientific principles in teaching they have established an insti- 
tution possessing excellent advantages. Concerts and soirees are given 
everj^ two weeks by the college, in which all pupils are expected to take 
part, the concerts being given in Weber Music Hall. Another feature 
peculiar to this school is the "concert rehearsal" which is designed for 
young amateurs making their first appearance, by these and other means 
pupils of the institution are given every opportunity for acquiring the 
self-possession and poise without which musical ability is of little practical 
benefit or pleasure. 

Among the teachers in the faculty-, besides Mr. Ruff, may be named 
Mr. W. C. E. Seeboeck, Baron Leon de Vay, Mr. James Watson, Mrs. A. 
E. Ruff and Mrs. J. T. Clark. Although the school is by no means an 
old one, its career has been in everj' way praiseworthy. 

Albert E. Ruff. 

This gentleman who founded the Chicago College of \'ocal Music, 

now in its fourth year, was bom in Glasgow, Scotland, in 1851. He 

entered upon musical study at Mannheim, Germany, at the age of eleven, 

devoting his earliest effort to the violin. Five years later he joined the 

Theatre Royal orchestra, of Glasgow, retaining his connection for two 
years, at the end of that time leaving to complete his musical education at 
the conservatory at Leipzig. After four )-ears of conscientious study 
in this distinguished school, he graduated with honor. While here he 
had the advantage of study of the physiology and anatomy of the throat, 
under the eminent teacher and author C. L. Merkell, and was thus 
enabled to lay the foundation of his skill in the specialty of voice culture, 
to which he has subsequently been principally devoted. He has been 
engaged with much success in teaching in Chicago during the past 
nine years, the last four of which have been in connection with the 
supervision of the school mentioned above. His vocal class is a large and 
growing one, and the results of Mr. Ruff's personal instruction have 
assured him of increasing popularity. Among the pupils prepared by 
him is to be mentioned Eugene Cowles, the Chicago bank clerk, who 
after three years' study, in six months attained fame as a principal basso 
with the Bostonians. 


This well known Chicago school of music was founded in 1879 by its 
president, Mr. Hans Balatka, one of the earliest pioneers of music in this 
countrj'. By Mr. Balatka' s zeal and energy, and aided by his already 
established national reputation as a musician and teacher, the academy 
has made rapid progress, and it has developed into an excellent school, 
which is doing its full share of the good work for the cause of music in 
America. The school, which has entered upon its tenth year, now occu- 
pies an entire floor in Kimball hall building, at the corner of State and 
Jackson streets, Chicago. Its faculty is an admirable one, and the several 
departments of musical art are presided over by specialists of acknowl- 
edged excellence. Mr. Hans Balatka is in charge of the vocal depart- 
ment. Mr. Balatka strictly follows the methods of the old Italian 
masters, and he has been exceptionally successful in preparing'singers for 
the stage and the concert room. As an assistant in this department Mr. 
Balatka has enlisted the services of Miss Lottie Kaufman, who is favora- 
bly known as a concert singer. 

The piano department is in charge of Mr. Chr. F. Balatka, the 
concert player, who is assisted by Mrs. M. McLane, Mr. G. A. 
Joseph, Misses Silversparre, E. Powell, J. Mead, I. Hochstadter, C. 
Wolcott, A. Smith and Mr. H. J. Jacoby. Mr. W. Moebius, an artistic 
violinist, presides over the violin department of the academy, with the 
co-operation of Mr. Olivier Chalifoux, formerly of the Paris Conservatory. 

Harmony, composition, orchestration, oratory, musical history and 
the usual special instrumental departments have their proper place in the 
academy's equipment. 

Mr. Hans Bal.a.tka. 

Mr. Hans Balatka has been a conspicuous figure in American music 
for many years; but his life's work has been almost wholly devoted to 
music in the west. In Chicago he is a veteran who has for many years 
past been identified with the local musical interests. Mr. Balatka was 
bom at Hoffnungsthal, in Moravia, in March, 1828, and he received his gen- 
eral and musical education in German colleges. In 1849 his famil}^ came 
to America, locating for a brief time in New York. Coming west, young 
Balatka first visited Chicago. The city was then far from inviting to art 
and artists, and the prospects for musical enterprises of any sort were not 
brilliant. Discouraged with the outlook in Chicago, Mr. Balatka went 
to Milwaukee, where there was quite a large settlement of refined German 
families who had brought a strong love for music with them from the 
mother country. Here he accepted the directorship of the Milwaukee 
Musical Society, and he continued in charge of this and other associations 
until i860, when the Mozart Society was organized in Chicago, and he 
was called from Milwaukee to direct a production of Mozart's Requiem. 
The performance was a great success, and a number of prominent Chica- 
goans induced him to remain in this city. Mr. Balatka then organized 
the Philharmonic Society, which existed for one year, and was succeeded 
by the Choral Society. He afterward assisted as mu.sical director of the 
Musical Union, the Oratorio Society and the Germania Mannerchor, con- 
tinuing with the last-named organization for six years. Afterward Mr. 
Balatka conducted oratorios and miscellaneous concerts for several sea- 
sons, bringing out in Chicago such artists as Parepa Rosa and Christine 
Nilsson. He was conductor of no fewer than twelve great German 
sangerfests in different cities of the Union, both eastern and western. 
After the great Chicago fire of 187 1, Mr. Balatka went to Milwaukee and 
a.ssumed the directorship of the Musical Society, which he found still 
flourishing after a period of twenty j-ears. He returned to Chicago in 
1876, and conducted the L,iederkranz. Shortly afterward he was called 
to St. Louis to take charge of the Arion Club. In 1878 he returned 
again to Chicago and directed the Mozart Club and the Germania Society. 
In 1879 he founded the academy that bears his name, which has ever 
since been the principal scene of his labors. He has done a great deal of 
good work for musical art in the west, and is still vigorous and full of 


^HE College of Music of Cincinnati, which is one of the many 
potential agents in the great scheme of musical education for 
S| the American nation, was founded in 1878, and first opened its 
doors to students the 14th of October of that j^ear in the great Mu- 
sic Hall building. It was the child of one man's thought, supple- 
mented bj' the philanthropy of another, and of both it ma}' be said 
that the names of Col. George Ward Nicholas and Reuben R. Springer 
will pass down the wa}' of historical remembrance, side by side, so closely' 
cemented were their individualities while living by the ties of warm 
personal friendship and reciprocal association in a common and most 
imselfish cause. Institutions of any sort destined to achieve a living repu- 
tation have, primarily, some well defined foundation principle upon which 
to rest. So it was with the college. At the moment of its inception the 
founder and first president was the executive head of the May Musical Fes- 
tival Association. The festival problem had engrossed his attention from 
the very beginning in 1873, and he saw then, what others had not been 
convinced of more than a decade later, that a time would arrive when 
public enthusiasm would so far lapse as to render necessary- the pursuance 
of a plan for economical concentration of forces, both choral and instru- 
mental. That other western cities would adopt the idea was as patent to 
his far-seeing mind as the inevitable conclusion that consequent upon that 
adoption would come a corresponding contraction of the circle of patron- 
age. Hence the advisability of making suitable provision for retrench- 
ment and the constant existence of a musical ensemble, fearing no rivalry-, 
because without a peer. Cincinnati, he felt, should be the pivot upon 
which the festival destinies of the country must turn. The college was to 
be the radiating center. How far his plan would have succeeded will 
never be known, except by inferential reasoning upon the success or failure 
of an opposite polic}-, for his divorce from the festival followed, and he 
turned all his energj- to the upbuilding of the school for its own sake. At 
the first meeting of the stockholders, held the i6th of August, 1S78, Mr. 
Theodore Thomas was invited to assume the musical directorship. The 

■^-Ja-A) ib tf~^ A. Z'^C iL^L-^j^-t^ 

tersely worded invitation, calling him to that position, summarized the 
scheme, thus: 

" It is proposed to establish an institution for musical education upon 
the scale of the most important of those of similar character in Europe; to 
employ the highest class of professors; to organize a full orchestra with a 
school for orchestra and chorus, and to give concerts. ' ' 

Mr. Springer, whose unexampled generosity had made the building 
of Music Hall possible, was one of the original .stockholders in the college, 
and the first indication that it had roused more than ordinar\- interest in 
him was made apparent June 23, 1879, when the president received a letter 
containing his first bequest: " I have been strongly impressed with the 
remarkable progress made by the pupils of your college in the short period 
that has elap.sed since its opening on the 14th day of October last, as 
manifested in the examinations now in progress, as well as in the ob.serva- 
tions of those who have interested themselves in what was doing in the 
daily work of the college, and have thought that much good would result 
from inaugurating a permanent system of rewards to be given to pupils 
of the college, who by superior industry and talent attain the greatest 
proficiency in their respective I have, therefore, concluded to give 
$5,000 to the college as a permanent fund, the interest onh- of which to be 
used in providing gold medals or other rewards for superior merit in 
musical studies, to be given under such rules and regulations as may be 
adopted by the board of directors and the musical director of the college." 

Such was the beginning of Mr. Springer's connection with the 
college, but there was much more to follow, for every year made it plain 
that its interests were very close to his heart, and this history 
contains an important suggestion to art lovers, and philanthropists 
through the country. It is not too much to say that by following out 
the system of procedure inaugurated and successfully conducted at his 
suggestion, every city of first or even second class position in this country 
can have a school of musical education; one that, in each instance, shall 
be self-sustaining and productive of incalculable benefit to a cause in 
which Americans, as a nation, are showing such prodigious interest, a 
school accessible to every talented student at a minimum of expense, and 
an art centre radiating musical inspiration to a surrounding population 
for whom a national school would be nothing more than an empty name. 

For nearly three years the college continued in Music Hall, where its 
progress was annually disturbed by the expositions. Then a lot was pur- 
chased on Plum street, south of the exposition pile, while Mr. Springer 
advanced $15,000 toward the erection of a .suitable building. The college 
paid the remaining $3,000, and the lot was acquired with the money 

O^c^ q/Ztyv^^O/ 

realized from the stock that was fuUj'- paid up in order to clear the way 
for an event that we must hasten to describe. 

Having already done so much, more was not expected, and hence it 
was with mingled emotions that the people received announcement of his 
intention to endow the college, making it eleemosj'nary in character. This, 
as was his custom, took the shape of a letter to the board of directors, 
fully outlining his design, which was read at a meeting held the 25th of 
November, 1882: 

' ' peeling strongly interested in the success of the College of Music of 
Cincinnati and encouraged by its progress in comparative infancj', I am 
desirous to do something additional toward making its future more secure 
and permanent, and for this purpose will give to it an endowment of 
four thousand two hundred dollars per annum in the stock of the 
Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railway Company, saj' $60,000 par 
value. This road is under lease to the Pennsylvania Railroad Company 
for nine hundred and ninetj'-nine years, and I know of no investment in 
our country combining so many elements of strength and permanency, 
both at present and in the far future as this property. I will make this 
donation on the following terms and conditions: 

First. The .stockholders must relinquish all claims to any dividends 
or profits on their stock for all time to come, which can be arranged by 
an indorsement on their certificates, or by a new one, as may be judged 
necessarj- to legalize the agreement. 

Scco7id. All income or profits realized from the business of the col- 
lege to be used exclusively in extending its usefulness and perfecting its 
teachings. This action of the stockholders is made necessary bj' our laws, 
which forbid an}' perpetual endowment or endowment for more than a 
limited number of years, except for educational or charitable purposes, 
and this relinquishment by the .stockholders of all gains or profits on their 
part will bring it under the law as an educational or charitable institution, 
and enable it to hold its endowment or similar ones in conformity with 

Third. The certificate or certificates of this $60,000 of stock not to 
be transferred or transferable, and the income from it only to be used. 

Fourth. In the event of the failure or bankruptcy of said college 
(which I do not apprehend, and hope may never occur), then, and in that 
event, this endowment of $60,000 shall pass to and become the property 
of the St. Joseph Orphan Asylum, in Cumminsville, Cincinnati for the 
support of male and female orphans in that institution. 

Fifth. So soon as the stockholders have agreed to and executed the 
above-mentioned relinquishment, and other necessar}' things have been 

^^- /^a^^.^ ^^^^Yi^ 

carried out, I will convey the $60,000 of stock to the college on the con- 
ditions set forth herein. R. R. vSpringer. 
Cincinnati, Nov. 20, 1882. 

This proposition was at once accepted, and by his will an addition of 
four hundred shares of the same stock was made to the original endow- 
ment, making one thousand shares in all, from which the college annually 
realizes $7,000. In the new disposition of the stock it was likewise 
arranged that upon the death of the holder of anj^ share, his certificate 
should revert to and become the property of the college, to be voted to 
any one whom the trustees might elect. No stockholder can own more 
than one share. 

Meanwhile the college was steadily advancing toward perfection in 
its educational departments, and was making histor)' with the annually 
occurring opera festivals, which were in line v>'ith President Nichols' fond 
notion of creating an operatic school that should rival those of Europe in 
the possession of practical facilities for the work. As the volume of 
business increased, still larger accommodations were rendered imperative. 
Discussion of this question led to the building of the Odeon, or College 
Theatre, which work was begun April 18, 1884, and completed in the 
following October, the dedicatory concert being held Tuesday evening, 
the 28th. This structure, which connects directl)- with the offices of the 
college, contains eighteen teaching rooms in addition to a completely 
appointed theatre, seating eleven hundred people. Toward the expense 
here incurred, Mr. Springer gave $55,000, or within $16,000 of the total 
cost, and $2,500 for the organ concealed upon the stage, the manuals 
alone being observable in the orchestra. In all, he gave to the college 
fully $200,000, and, thanks to his generosity, it is perhaps the only school 
of music in this country to-daj' which cannot accumulate profit of any 
sort except that arising from the consciousness of benefits conferred. 
The surplus at the end of each year is devoted to enlarging facilities, to 
assisting deser^'ing pupils, or the establishment of scholarships. A 
smaller lecture and concert hall being found desirable, the Lyceum was 
projected and built during the summer of 1889. It is a most artistic 
addition to the college property, seating four hundred people, and con- 
taining an organ that cost $5,000. 

The system of instruction is comprehensive and complete, and every 
commendable feature of the old world conser\-atories here finds embodi- 
ment. Chorus, sight reading, prima vista and ensemble classes and 
orchestra class, and classes in the history and theory of music, take up a 
proportion of the time of teachers who are chosen according to fitness for 
such special work. These are free to \he student, and attendance is 


■^' ■*^SS'5fe5S<' '••^ \gEO. SCJiNEIDEK. 











obligatory, with no excuse for failure, except sickness. To offer such a 
volume of instruction as is here contemplated without additional expendi- 
ture, is onl}' possible with an institution equally free from financial 
anxiety. Should a moment arrive when any class or department can 
be dispensed with, that moment will witness a reduction in the price 
of tuition. As it is now, the tuition is so graduated as to meet the cost 
of instruction and no more, the income from the endowment being devoted 
to the liquidation of all other obligations. Desen-ing pupils are helped 
in numberless ways. In the matter of instruction in any of the special 
branches, the individual plan has always prevailed in contradistinction to 
the class method that boasts many reputable supporters. Tlie number 
of students might have been trebled, had not this rule been insisted upon, 
but no argument has been found of sufficient weight to throw the scale in 
favor of quantity rather than quality. Better six hundred, thoroughly 
equipped, than a thousand of doubtful attainments, and with a school 
whose aim it is to tuni out competent teachers and musicians, the principle 
cannot be too warmly commended. The spirit of emulation that the class 
association is said to arouse is awakened in the college by the frequent 
private and public recitals, special examination concerts and contests 
before the board of examiners, who, in the case of scholarship applications 
which are decided by competitive examination, admit to, and in all 
in.stances, graduate from the institution. No time limit is placed in the 
student's way to graduation. But the things needful must be thoroughly 
ma.stered in the time required, two years or ten, before a diploma will be 
granted. The college is governed by a board of fifteen trustees, the 
president of which board is president and chief executive authority of the 
college. The trustees are chosen for five years, on the senatorial plan, 
and after each annual election by the stockholders choose their president. 
In the twelve years of its history but two men have held the office — Col. 
George Ward Nichols, who died Sept. 13, 1885, and Mr. Peter Rudolph 
Neff. The board of instruction at present is the following: 

Piano— Armin W. Doemer, Thos. W. Phillips, W. S. Sterline, Otto Singer, 
Benj. Guckenberger, E. W. Glover, Albino Gorno, Chas. A. Graninger, \V. W. Ken- 
nett, Mrs. Chapman Johnson. roice—B. W. Foley, Tecla Vigna, Lino Maitioli, 
Jennie Maier, W. S. Sterling, Mrs. M. G. Guckenberger. Organ — W. S. Sterling, 
Lillian .^rkell. Theory and Xormal Class — ^John A. Broekhoven, Otto Singer, W. 
S. Sterling. \'iolin — John A. Broekhoven, H. C. Froelich, Cha^^. Horst. Moloncello — 
Lino IMattioli. Bass I'iol — Fr. Storch. Flnle — Theodore Hahn. French Horn — 
K. Schrickel. Trombone — Louis Brand. Cornet — H. Bellstedt. Jr. Oboe — 
Wtn. Ross. Clarionet — Carl Schuett. Bassoon — H. Woest. Chorus Classes, 
Choral and Oratorio Department — B. W. Foley. \V. S. Si:erling. Ensemble 
Classes, Prima I'ista Classes and Orchestral Department — H. C. Froehlich, 
Lino Mattioli, Otto Singer, John .\. Broekhoven. Harp — ^Josephine Holbrook. 
School for the Opera — Dramatic Expression — .\lbino Gorno, Terla Vigna. 
Italian Language — C. P. Moulinier. Lectures on the History and Esthetics of 

9 506 

Miss Clara Bauer 

Music— John S. Van Cleve, Otto Singer. Orchestration — Score Reading— OtXo 
Singer. English Literature— John S. Van Cleve. Elocution — Virgil .\. Pinklej-. 

The board of trustees of the college has appointed a board of examiners from 
the faculty of the college. The duties of this board are to prepare a standard for 
admission of students to the academic school and make examinations. They also 
examine and pass upon the qualifications of candidates for certificates, for diplomas 
of graduation, and for free scholarships. 

Hoard of Examiners — B. W. Foley, Armin W. Doerner, SignorinaTecla Vigna, 
John A. Broekhoven, Chas. A. Graninger, C. P. Moulinier, Virgil A. Pinkley, Otto 
Singer, Lino Mattioli, W. S. Sterling, Albino Gorno. 

The Cincinnati Conservatory of Music 

Was fotmded in 1867, among the earliest institutions of the kind, by Miss 
Clara Baur, the present directress. The first school of music, organized 
on the co-operative plan, grew by slow but sure degrees, and gradually 
overcame opposition and those prejudices which always beset a new 
departure, so that, in a great measure, Miss Baur paved the way for the 
various schools since established. Its method in vocal art is that of the 
old Italians, who made the eighteenth century the golden epoch of vocal- 
ization, though no bigoted conser\'atism has been indulged in, bitt all 
needed additions made which the new forms of vocal composition require. 
The vocal numbers on the many programmes of the conser\'ator\' show a 
wide-minded and genuinely artistic catholicity, very praiseworthy in 
these days of bitter partisanship, when the Wagnerians deride every 
other school, whether Italian, English or French, while the advocates of 
the cantalena return the vituperation in full measure. The best products 
of Italian genius are used side by side with the immortal blossoms of Ger- 
man lyric art. The teaching of Miss Baur is characterized by minute 
and indefatigable patience, and the clear stamp of individualism is patent 
the singing of all whom she trains. 

The pianoforte work of the school is founded upon the system of the 
famous Stuttgart conservatory, and is as distinct and consistent as that of 
the voice. The leading professors in the pianoforte department are George 
Magrath and F. Shailer Evans. Mr. Magrath, after winning as a boy 
the warm praise of Rubinstein, was sent by his father, a New York musi- 
cian, to Stuttgart where, under the celebrated Lehbert he attained so high 
a degree of skill that he spent several years of successful concertizing in 
Europe, staying there" six years before his return. He came to Cincinnati 
in January, 1883, and at once was accorded a high rank both by the pub- 
lic and the foremost critics. He has given a long series of recitals and 
chamber concerts, and has also succeeded eminently in the work of a 
teacher. Here he has displayed tact, patience and cleverness of a high order, 
and is admitted to be one of the foremost teachers in the city. His 
coadjutor, Mr. F. S. Evans, though a new-comer, has already won golden 

33 F. S EVANS. 


opinions, both as pianist and teacher. He is also a New Yorker and 
was four years in Europe under Jaddassohn and Reinecke. 

That twin sister of the human voice, the violin, is taught by a con- 
scientious and capable artist, Mr. Jacob Bloom. He holds a good rank 
as a local performer, frequently appearing in s^-mphony and chamber con- 
certs, and the pupils whom he has produced bear the impress of intelli- 
gent training. These professors are assisted by a carefully chosen corps of 
talented teachers. Elocution and modem languages, as close relatives of 
music, are included, the system of elocution being that of the celebrated 
James E. Murdock. A good feature of the school is its boarding depart- 
ment which is excellent. The conservatory has graduated many pupils 
who have since become noted in the musical world, and the value of 
its teaching has became remarked in terms of high praise by Anton 
Rubinstein, Tietjens, Marie Roze and others. The rapid growth of the 
institution is shown by the fact that its new home on Fourth and Lawrence 
streets, only recently completed, will have to be again enlarged. 

Henry George Andres 

Was born of a musical family at Nancy, France, in 1838. His father, a 
fine musician, began giving the child le.ssons on the piano at a very early 
age. Thi.:- home instruction was excellent, and young Andres was trained 
in accordance with the highest and purest standard of artistic taste. At 
fourteen j-ears of age he was sent to Paris to finish his musical education. 
He remained there for .seven j-ears, undergoing a severe course of musical 
training. On returning to his native town he commenced work as a 
teacher and continued in that occupation until i860, when he came to the 
United States. It was at first intended only as a business visit, but, 
making friends in Cincinnati, he decided to try his fortune in that city. 
He began to hold a series of soirees or small concerts for the purpose of 
introducing high-class music. These were in imitation of the German 
Kammer concerts, and they found high favor among the musical people 
of the city. In the meantime Mr. Andres was teaching a few private 
pupils, and before very long, so successful were his methods and so popular 
were the concerts, that he had his hands full. He has been the means of 
elevating in no .slight degree the musical taste in Cincinnati. Since the 
establishment of the conservator)' of music in that city Mr. Andres has been 
director of its piano department. He is also a composer, though few of his 
works have seen the light. In 1889, in company with Armin W. Doerner, of 
the College of Music, Mr. Andres made a concert tour of the country, 
playing programmes in which pianoforte duos were the main feature. 
They have also appeared together before various associations of teachers. 






I HIS historic institution for the higher education of women was 
founded in 1845, its charter being the first in the world for 
T^jjpT"'* granting diplomas to women. The alumnae of the Cincinnati 
'^' Wesleyan College form the oldest association of its kind, not only in 
the United States, but in the world. There are at present 665 mem- 
bers scattered through all the states and territories and acting as an 
elevating power in the community, efficient laborers in every field open to 
woman. The grounds of the college are very spacious and attractive, and 
the building is one of the most perfect and commodious college edifices in 
the west. It is 172 feet in front by sixty deep, and has a rear portion 
40x30 feet. The building stands on an elevation, twenty-five feet from 
the avenue, and is a most imposing structure of the Gothic and Corinthian 
stj'les. There are two entrances from the front, and three stairways. 
There are eight}--seven rooms in the building. The value of the property 
is placed at about $250,000. The purpose of the college is to give a 
collegiate education, combining all the elements of culture desirable in 
woman. The curriculum is divided into the classic course and the scien- 
tific department. Applicants for admission to the college are required to 
be at least fourteen years of age, in good health, and of average moral 
and intellectual development, younger pupils being admitted to a pre- 
paratory- school. 

An important branch of the Wesleyan College is the College of 
Music, which has ever commanded a large and competent faculty, whose 
labors have been attended by the best results, theoreticall}-, practically 
and artistically. The department is at present under the efficient director- 
ship of Mr. Waugh Lauder, whose biography will be found elsewhere in 
this history. Pupils who are given a diploma by this musical department 
are required to take the full prescribed course in theory, harmony, the 
history of music and choral singing, passing the examination with eighty 
per cent value of marks, and a full course in one of the following: Piano, 
singing, organ or violin. The college has had a long but uneventful and 
unostentatious career of usefulness. Under Mr. Lauder's efficient direction 
added value will doubtless be given to the musical department. 

Mr. W. Waugh Lauder. 

A musician of varied gifts and diversified experience is Mr. W. 
Waugh Lauder, who is a piano virtuoso of exceptional attainments, as 
well as a man of broad intellectualitj-. Mr. Lauder is a. university grad- 
uate and an accredited pupil of Liszt. It is to him is due the credit 
of having first introduced in this countr}- the form of musical entertain- 
ment called "the lecture recital," which is a factor in musical education 
that many have found valuable. Mr. Lauder gave these lecture recitals 
privately in i86S, and publicly in 1870. In 18S2 the late Abbe Liszt wrote 
Mr. Lauder a letter of congratulation upon his success in this field. On 
the occasion of the death of Richard Wagner, Mr. Lauder gave at 
Toronto University a memorial recital, afterward receiving a cablegram 
of thanks from Mme. Wagner. Mr. Lauder has done much toward 
making classical music popular in Canada, and in various fields, as an 
instructor, he has raised the standard of musical education in schools and 
colleges. In the province of Ontario alone, Mr. Lauder has given no 
fewer than 350 recitals, with programmes of the highest grade. He has 
ever been an enthusiastic advocate of American music, and he has cham- 
pioned the American composer in every possible way, b}- playing his 
works and b>- the introduction of American compositions whene\-er oppor- 
tunity oflTered. Among the colleges where Mr. Lauder has taught may 
be named institutions at Bloomington, El Paso, Pekin and other towns in 
central Illinois; at Middletown, Germantown and Walnut Hills semi- 
naries, and at present at the Wesleyan College, Cincinnati, where he is to 
remain until 1893. 

Upon all subjects cognate to musical art, Mr. Lauder has written in 
a scholarly manner. Among his principal essays have been those upon 
The Music of the First Chrislian Era, Art Life in Leipzig, Facts abotit 
Ancient Theory, The Development of Sacred Music, A Critical Sketch of 
Americaji Music, A Year of Study cvith Liszt at Weimar, and much 
valuable work in the line of criticism and correspondence. Mr. Lauder 
has read essays before the Music Teachers' National Association, the Cana- 
dian Society of Musicians, and other important musical bodies. In all the 
leading cities of the Union he has appeared as a pianist, and has won 
glowing tributes from critics and audiences. In 1888 he was invited to 
give four recitals before the faculty and the pupils of the New England 
Conservatory at Boston, and in these he brought out some magnificent 
programmes of great works, including Liszt's Don Giovanni fantastie, the 
great B minor sonata and the concerto in A. That Mr. Lauder is a 
really thorough musician is attested by the fact that he gave the first 
genuinely scientific lectures on music heard in Canada, his subjects being, 


The Structure of Musical Instruments, The Sonata Form and Wagner's 
Music Dramas, all with recitals. The energetic president of the Wesleyan 
College at Cincinnati, Dr. J. H. Brown, has secured Mr. Lauder's sen.-ices 
for three years, and he will likewise devote his abilities to the Ohio 
College of Music. In these labors he will be assisted by Mrs. Lauder 
and six other aids. Though he has accomplished so much, Mr. Lauder 
is but thirty-one j-ears of age. He is a native of Oshawa, Ont. , in which 
place his father was superintendent of public schools and a member of 
parliament. When very j'oung he became interested in music, and he 
joined the choir of the Metropolitan church of Toronto, also acting as 
pianist of the Philharmonic Societj' of that city. He has made three 
visits to Europe, and in 1S78 he entered the Leipzig Conservator}-, where 
he remained four years. He played at the celebrated Gewandhaus con- 
certs, and was accounted one of the best executants of the conser\-atory. 
He studied theory with Dr. Oscar Paul, the author of the History of the 
Piatio, Boetius' Five Books on Music, The Musical System of the Greeks, 
Dictionary of Music, and harmony with the celebrated cantor, E. F. 
Richter. From Leipzig he went with letters from his teachers to Liszt, in 
Weimar, where he spent the summers of 1879 and 1881, and was selected 
by Hans von Bulow to accompany him, together with Arthur Friedheim, 
Carl Pohlig and Alfred Reissenhauer, to Rome, where he studied in the 
Villa d'Este with Liszt, during the winter of 1880, on one occasion play- 
ing Liszt's great A major concert with the " Meister's" personal accom- 
paniment in the villa of Mme. Helbig on the Capitoline Hill, Rome. At 
the banquet given b}- the Liszt pupils in Rome, on Oct. 23, to commem- 
orate the peculiar coincidence of the triple birthdaj- of Liszt, Oct. 22, 
Friedheim, Oct. 23, Lauder, Oct. 24, the master presented his pupils with 
beautiful medallions of himself, bj' H. Wittig, sculptor, in gold and 
bronze. During his sojourn in Europe, Mr. Lauder had the dis- 
tinction conferred upon him of performing before the royal families of 
Saxony and Italj-, the Holy Father at the Vatican, the grand duke of 
Weimar, and in the great concerts of Leipzig and Rome, Frankfort and 
other cities. Mr. Lauder, while in Venice, had the honor of playing to 
Richard Wagner arrangements of his operas by Liszt, Rubinstein, Brassin, 
Tausig, Jaell and Bulow. 

Mr. Lauder is one of the most remarkable of American musicians. 
To rare erudition and sound scholarship he unites a technical facility as a 
pianist which is electrifying. That he has not a world-wide reputation 
as a concert performer can onh' be accounted for by the fact that so much 
of his time has been given up to the work of a lecturer and instructor — 
work which Mr. Lauder enjoys and finds congenial. 


aj'HE musical life at Oberlin, as was true, indeed, of the origin of 
modern music, had its beginning in a religious want. The 
^ earnest people who founded a college in the woods must needs 
5^'^ utter their emotions in song. The idea which founded Oberlin was 
the training of Christian workers, and Christian workers must know 
how to sing. Hence free instruction in choral singing was provided 
almost from the start. This of course was music in a very modest way. 
After a time a professor of music was installed in the person of G. N. 
Allen, a young man of fine tastf, who had been a pupil of Lowell Mason. 
His influence made decidedly in favor of a musical progress ; and though 
the college provided no instrumental instructions, the piano began in his 
day to be cultivated in the colony, doubtless in the face of some little 
prejudice. There were, moreover, certain special circumstances in the 
situation, which furthered any effort toward improvemenf in the art, 
especially in sacred music. The worshippers of the place all gathered in 
one large assemblj', and the presence of numerous intelligent young 
people of both sexes in the institution, furnished material for a large choir. 
But it is hardly possible for a large choir in a large church to be long 
content merely with singing a little better and louder, what everybody 
can sing. Both thej' and the audience demand something in keeping 
with the dignity of the occasion and with the means in command. The 
large church and large choir, moreover, soon called for a large organ, and 
one which was something of a wonder in that day and locality, presently 
made its appearance. The further circumstance must be mentioned that 
several leaders of opinion in the community, including President Finney, 
were men of considerable musical feeling. The musical influences of the 
place before long became strong enough to prompt susceptible young men 
to the choice of music as a profession. In 1865 the woods had been 
cleared, the war was over, and the countrj' was becoming sensible of its 
finer wants. It had become necessary for the young ladies at least to 
know the piano, and the churches needed singers, and organists. Oherlin 

was musically disposed ; there mas a large mass of young women as well 
as young men in attendance upon the college ; hence it was an entirely 
natural place to establish a conservatory. Such an enterprise was under- 
taken by two sons of the place, Mr. J. P. Morgan and Mr. G. W. Steele, 
both of whom had supplemented their Oberlin beginnings with German 
advantages. At first the school of music had no organic connection with 
the college, though in relations of reciprocity with it. But the relations 
between the two were found to be necessarily so intimate, that in 1867 
the consen-atory became a department of the institution, though under 
the condition that it should be financially independent. This is perhaps 
the first, at any rate a tj'pical instance, of a conser\'atory becoming an 
organic part of a college. This result was reached just as coeducation 
came into practice at Oberlin and throughout the west, not as the product 
of anyone's theories, but as the outcome of the situation. The theorj^ 
however, is not difficult to construct after the fact. Music was simply 
asserting its right to form an integral part of education. It should be 
obser\-ed, too, that the way was prepared for this movement by coeduca- 
tion. A conservatory attached to an exclusively male college is an 
absurdity, while a purely female school of music is at least essentially 
weak. We must not pause to philosophize ; but the now common 
introduction of the conservatory into coeducational institutions is a highly 
suggestive fact. 

While the founders of the Oberlin Conservatory were men of capacity 
and high ideals, and while the Conservatory never lacked pupils, yet the 
beginning was only the beginning. Everj' good school is more or less the 
product of an evolution, even when the means are large; and here the 
means were in various ways limited. The mind of the college and com- 
munity must be educated up to a full sympathy with the enterprise; nay, 
the Conservatorj' itself must have time to work out its own ideals and 

A reputation and a constituencj- were to be won. On the material 
side, means were scant; the school had to accommodate itself in odd cor- 
ners, there was but one sizable pipe organ in the place. The department, 
however, prospered, and established itself as a permanent factor in the 
college life. Professor Morgan soon removed to New York, Prof F. B. 
Rice became an instructor in 1869, in two or three years Professor Steele 
withdrew, and in 1872 Professor Rice became director of the conservatory. 
Professor Rice's musical significance has been such that he merits a per- 
sonal sketch in this book; yet his public work has been so completely 
identified with the Oberlin Consen'ator>' that here is a natural place to 
speak of him. 

Fenelon B. Rice was born in 1841 at Greensburg, Trumbull Co., O. 
His advantages were only of a local character until about 1S61, when he 
went to Boston for larger opportunities. In 1863 he took charge of the 
musical department of Hillsdale College, Michigan, where he continued 
until 1867. At this time he went abroad with his wife, who was herself 
musical and became an accomplished vocalist, for the extension of their 
musical culture. His time was spent at Leipsic, under the instruction 
chiefly of Dr. Papperitz in piano and Professor Richter in theory. He 
there found the standard of criticism higher than any he had hitherto met, 
and set about mastering the Leipsic point of view, with results that were 
determining for his own taste. His teachers, also, were men of high 
moral conceptions, and their influence fostered Professor Rice's natural 
sentiment in favor of high morals in company with high art. It was soon 
after his return from Genuany that he began his work at Oberlin. His