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Full text of "The hunter's handbook, containing a description of all articles required in camp, with hints on provisions and stores and receipts for camp cooking"

Shelf. 

DOTTED STATES OF AMERICA. 



THE 



JIUN^EI^ P^NDB06K 



CONTAINING A DESCRIPTION OF 



ALL ARTICLES REQUIRED IN CAMP 



WITH 



Hints on Provisions and Stores 



AND 



RECEIPTS FOR CAMP COOKING 



^ 



BY 



-AN OLD HUNTER" ;^^J 

\ 

BOSTON , ' ** H* ^ "if 

LEE AND SHEPARD, PUBLISHERS 

NEW YORK 

CHARLES T. DILLLINGHAM 

1885 



Copyright, 1885, 
By LEE AND SHEPARD. 



All rights reserved. 



huxtek's handbook. 




CONTENTS. 

Section. P a ge« 

Introduction 5 

I. Quantity of Provisions required on a Trip. 

and Comparative List of Provisions. 9 

II. List of Provisions from which to select . 15 

III. The Hunter's Paraphernalia ... 19 

IV. The Camp Fire 23 

V. General Remarks on Camp Routine . 29 

VI. Cooking Utensils ..... 39 

VII. General Remarks on Camp Cookery . 45 
Index to Receipts 57 

VIII. Recipes for Camp Cookery ... 6i 

IX. The Last Resource in 

Index to Section X. .... 116 

X. On the Treatment of Drowning, Wounds, 

Stings, etc., 117 

Index to Section XL . . . . 130 

XL Miscellaneous Receipts .... 131 

XII. Signs of the Weather .... 135 



INTRODUCTION. 



The want of a cheap, portable and reliable Hand 
Book devoted to the interior economy of the Hunter's 
Camp, and more especially to the Art of Camp 
Cookery, has long been felt. We have some excellent 
works on Hunting, some of which devote a few pages 
to these subjects, but these books, in their elaborate 
bindings, with their numerous illustrations, and costing 
a considerable sum of money, are better fitted to grace 
a Drawing Room table, or to occupy places in the 
Library, than to be carried through the vicissitudes of 
a campaign. Their usefulness would scarcely com- 
pensate the Hunter for the care which he would feel 
bound to bestow on them in order to keep their beauty 
unsullied by the unavoidable exposure to dampness, 
dirt, and the thousand little accidents of Camp life. 
More acceptable to the Hunter, be he professional or 
amateur, would be a rough and ready handbook which 
he could use without fear and and trembling, and 



6 JNTR OB UC TJON. 

which could be consigned, without compunction, to any 
corner of the larder, not always, in truth, dispensing 
the odors of Araby the Blest. Such a want I have 
endeavored to fill : such a is here handbook offered to 
the public. 

Many years of experience in the economy of Camp 
life, supplemented by diligent research among the best 
authorities on the subject, have, I trust, qualified me 
to undertake the compilation of these pages. 

The various sections of the work need not be com- 
mented on here, with the exception of Section IX, 
which contains the Receipts for Camp Cookery. The 
Receipts here given cover a large area, comprising not 
only the directions for preparing the frugal fare of 
the hardened Hunter, but also the formulas for con- 
cocting the somewhat more dainty dishes affected by 
the amateur Nimrod. 

As to whether a professional hunter should confine 
himself to the commonest diet and abjure the fare 
of civilization, I need express no opinion. That is 
merely a matter of personal election. I may, however, 
mention the obvious fact, that the better nourished 
the body is, the more hardship it can endure. Good 
food keeps us in good health , exercise, or work, also 
conduces to the same desirable end. The better our 
health the greater pleasure do we take in working, 
and the greater the benefit derived therefrom. Thus 



INTRODUCTION. 7 

we have these two powers, food and exercise, while 
separately benefiting us, most intimately depending on 
each other for their ability to bestow that benefit, 
and hence while undergoing plenty of exercise we 
must not neglect to appropriate a sufficiency of its 
con-comitant adjunct, nourishing food. From these 
facts it will be seen that the idea held by some 
young amateur hunters, that they should deprive them- 
selves of their customary diet in supposed manly 
emulation of their more hardy professional brethren, 
is as hurtful as foolish. While the wiry old scout 
thrives on his bear meat broiled in the coals, sup- 
plemented by some meal and tea, and scorns to prepare 
any compound dishes, the amateur who leaves home 
for a week's holiday in the wilderness is liable to be 
seriously inconvenienced, if not actually made ill, by 
too great a change in his diet. Again, we must re- 
member that to please one's self in the choice of 
food, as well as in other matters, is a part of that 
liberty which the hunter fondly expects to enjoy, and 
should obtain, when, casting off the shackles of civil- 
ization, he seeks pleasure, sport, and health in the 
wilds of the forest, or on the waters of the lagoons. 
Thus I have considered it to be my duty to 
present receipts which shall meet the desires of all 
classes of hunters and excursionists. 



S INTRODUCTION. 

With hunters, to be able to cook their food prop- 
erly, is a prime necessity of life. No more piteous 
object exists than the young hunter who, though 
surrounded by plenty, has yet to content himself with 
the plainest food, and that not cooked but spoiled by 
the injudicious application of fire. And yet there are 
hundreds of such amateur hunters who, when out on 
their initiatory shooting excursion find themselves sud- 
denly confronted by a deficiency of which they never 
thought, a lamentable ignorance of the art of cooking. 
If such young hunters follow the advice presented in 
this handbook, they may expect their efforts in cook- 
ing to meet with success. 

To make the work as a guide to Camp Cooking 
more complete, I have added some general remarks 
on t*he different modes of cooking, such as Boiling, 
Roasting, etc., which I hope will prove instructive. 

The experience of many Trips into the wilderness 
has been drawn upon to present correct views to the 
reader, and that the pages here offered to the public 
will enable all hunters to escape the painful episodes 
which usually attend the amateur's initiation into the 
mysteries of Camp life is the earnest wish of 

"An Old Hunter." 



c 



THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 



SECTION I. 

THE QUANTITY OF PROVISIONS REQUIRED ON A 
HUNTING TRIP, AND COMPARATIVE LIST OF 
PROVISIONS. 

In making up our list of groceries for a 
hunting excursion several circumstances are to 
be considered, the duration of the trip being, 
of course, the first consideration. The sec- 
ond consideration is as to whether we can 
purchase provisions en route. If we can, then 
we need not carry as much food with us as 
we should have to take if we were going to 
pass through an uninhabited country. The 
last consideration under which we can at- 



io THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

tempt to limit the amount of provisions 
which we transport, is the chance of securing 
the game of which we go in search. The 
experienced hunter can best deal with these 
questions himself, but while there are circum- 
stances which may authorize him to limit to 
a certain extent the amount of provisions 
which he carries, I would most earnestly ad- 
vise all amateurs to take with them enough 
food to provide full meals for every day of 
their intended stay. The inexperienced inva- 
riably carry too little food, and even when 
they think they are most munificently provided, 
they are sure to be on short commons ere 
they return to their homes. We may consider 
a few methods of arriving at an approximate 
idea of the quantity of provisions required by 
a party contemplating a hunting excursion. 

If four of us start on a two- week's trip we 
will require, at three meals per day, enough 
food to provide 168 meals. This number 
contains only 56 dinners, and as pur break- 
fasts and suppers are generally composed of 



PROVISIONS REQUIRED. u 

lighter food than that which we consume at 
the mid-day meal, we may so far moderate 
our list of groceries as to provide the most 
substantial articles for the dinners only. I 
speak of confining our expenses to the lowest 
possible rale, as I am aware that money is 
very often quite a consideration even with 
those who can afford, for pleasure, to spend 
a few weeks on a hunting trip. 

Another way in which to arrive at the 
quantity of food which we should carry, is, to 
consider the value thereof in money. Thus, 
if we pay $3, $4 or $5 per week for board 
we are provided with different classes of tables 
according to the rates which we pay. If we are 
willing to live on the board which $3 per 
week provides — very good board for a hunter — 
the grocery list of four men for two weeks 
need not cost more than $24. The only 
trouble in making up such a list is to know 
how to place our money to the best advan- 
tage, or, what quantities of different articles 
to buy. As a criterion of what is required, 



12 



THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 



I give below a list of groceries which were 
taken by three young hunters on an actual 
trip, and which gave perfect satisfaction and 
left no great surplus to be carried home. It 
is to be noted that this was a duck shooting 
excursion, by water, in birch bark canoes : 



COMPARATIVE LIST OF PROVISIONS. 

Three Men for Two Weeks : 



Smoked ham 






20 lbs 


Pork (very fat) 






20 lbs 


Lard (for frying) . 






5 lbs 


Corn Beef 






3 cans 


Lobster 






4 cans 


Salmon . 






4 cans 


Boston Baked Beans 






3 cans 


Smoked Herrings 






1 box 


White Beans 






8 pints 


Flour . . 






10 lbs 


Oatmeal 






10 lbs 


Tea 






2 lbs 


Coffee 






1 lb 


Cocoa 






2 pkgs 


Pilot Bread 






15 lbs 


Brown Sugar 






10 lbs 


Rice 


• 


. 


7 lbs 



PROVISIONS REQUIRED. 13 

Cooking Raisins . . . 2 lbs 

Syrup 1 gal 

Pickles 4 bottles 

Marmalade 2 jars 

Harvey's Sauce ... 2 bottles 

Baking Powder .... 1 tin 

Mixed Herbs . . . . 1 tin 

Onions 10 lbs 

Potatoes, and in same bag, a few 

carrots .... 1-2 bush 

Salt, Pepper, Mustard, Vinegar. 

Bread, Butter, Eggs, Milk and Potatoes were pur- 
chased occasionally en route: 

The above is a very simple list of plain food, 
but when to this is added the game secured, 
ducks, snipe and fish, we have the materials 
wherewith to concoct very elaborate meals. 
While this party were careful to go out fully 
provisioned for the two weeks of their intended 
stay, the game which they bagged enabled 
them to prolong their trip to three weeks, and 
thus they had the full pleasure of hunting 
without any fear of being stinted in their ra- 
tions. 



14 THE HUXTEKS HANDBOOK, 

When going in pursuit of different game, 
through different descriptions of country, the 
kind of provisions which the hunter should 
carry varies somewhat, and it is therefore im- 
possible to give any definite list by which he 
may be guided ; but I think that reference to 
the list presented above, and a consideration 
of the methods advanced for ascertaining 
the quantity required, with a glance at the 
list in Section II, will enable him to arrive 
at a close estimate of what he actually re- 
quires, and to see what articles of luxury are 
at his disposal. To the amateur I can merely 
reiterate my admonition that he trust not to 
fickle chances of the chase, nor yet to the 
procurability of provisions en route. 



SECTION II. 

LIST OF PROVISIONS FROM WHICH TO SELECT. 

That the hunter may see at a glance what 
articles are available, and that he may over- 
look none of the necessaries, I submit a list 
of such provisions as are suitable for his 
larder. When we take into consideration the 
varieties of canned goods which modern trade 
places at the disposal of the housekeeper, we 
have a very long list from which to select 
our provisions for camping out. But I wish 
to warn the young hunter against purchasing 
largely of canned goods. He will find them 
in most cases, to be very expensive food, and 
such as is apt to pall on the appetite. He 
will occasionally long for an honest dish of 
Ham and Eggs, Pork and Beans, Fried 



16 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

Potatoes or Flap-jacks. Such canned goods 
as will be found most useful are as follows : 

Cooked Corn Beef, Ham, Lobsters, Salmon, 
Baked Beans, Pea flour, Liebig's Extract of 
Beef, Lambs' Tongues, Sardines, Marmalade, 
Condensed Milk. We have in these the ma- 
terials for cold lunches. 

The long list of canned luxuries offered 
by most grocers is also open to inspection, 
and comprises 

Canned Soups, in Tomato, Pea, Chicken, 
Oxtail, Maccaroni, Soup Bouilli, etc., Canned 
Oysters, Mackerel, Deviled Ham, Deviled 
Meats, Roast Lamb and Mutton, Smoked 
Beef, Tenderloin, Bonne Bonche, Pigs' Feet, 
Corn, Peas, Succotash, Tomatoes, Strawber- 
ries, Quinces, Pears, Peaches, Pine Apples, 
etc., and in sauces we have Harvey, Nabob, 
Browning, Worcestershire, Chutney, Tobasco, 
French and German Mustard, etc., and a host 
of other articles. 

It may be observed that by taking a few 
cans of the luxuries the amateur may make 



PROVISIONS TO SELECT. 17 

his meals in the wilderness more like 
those at home, and so escape the unpleasant 
craving for food to which he has been used. 
I well remember that in our first trips into 
the wilds, when we carried no canned articles, 
our chief craving was for fresh meat, and 
when we failed to secure any game, and 
were forced to live on ham or salt pork day 
after day, this craving became very marked 
and detracted in no small degree from the 
pleasure of the trip. With our modern supply 
of canned meats, no hunter need experience 
this want. 

The other groceries from which to select 
are, Ham, Pork, Lard, for frying, Codfish, 
Smoked Herrings, Flour, Oatmeal, Cornmeal, 
Potatoes, Onions, Carrots, Compressed Vege- 
tables, White Beans, Cheese, Rice, Raisins, 
Brown Sugar, White Sugar, Syrup, Tea, Coffee, 
Cocoa, Chocolate, Broma, Kaoka, Pickles, 
Curry Powder, Baking Powder, Mixed Herbs, 
Corn Starch, Pilot Bread, and in fact the 
whole range of groceries, as necessity or 



iS THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

fancy dictates. Do not forget those necessary 
articles, Salt, Pepper, Mustard, and Vinegar. 
Butter may be taken and also eggs, packed 
in salt, if these articles cannot be bought en 
route. Bread is too bulky to carry, and if 
we take plenty of flour we may bake our 
own. 




SECTION III. 

THE HUNTER'S PARAPHERNALIA. 

When contemplating a trip, the hunter, es- 
pecially if he be an amateur, should make out 
a list of every article which he will require, 
both in groceries and in personal belongings, 
and as each article is packed away in its 
proper place he should mark it off the list. 
In this way he will be sure to procure every- 
thing which may be needed, and he will es- 
cape the disagreeable experience of finding, 
when well on his journey,that some little but 
much needed article, such as salt, has been 
left behind. 

The following list comprises the articles gen- 
erally required when on a hunting trip via 
water : 




2o THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

If bark canoes are used, we should take a 
spare paddle, a pole, leg-of-mutton sail, canvas 
and tacks for repairs, a sponge, some rosin 
and a rosin pot and iron. This iron, being 
heated, is used to melt the old rosin on the 
canoe, and so cover leaks when they occur at 
seams which have been previously rosined. 
We may next enumerate the tent, with its 
bag, poles, ropes and pegs complete. A good 
long rope should be carried to secure the tent 
in gales, and will be found otherwise useful. 
Cooking utensils, per Section VII. Provisions, 
per Sections I and II. 

Groceries may be best carried in strong cot- 
ton bags, holding each about 10 pounds, 
marked in pencil with the name of contents, 
and packed in water-proof boxes. These boxes 
should be the size of common biscuit boxes, 
for if they are too big and very heavy, when 
packed, they are awkward to handle. 

Canned goods, potatoes, etc., which will not 
be injured by water, may be carried in bags, 
such as salt sacks. A sharp axe and a supply 



THE HUNTER'S PARAPHERNALIA. z\ 

of matches are required. Matches may be 
carried in a large-mouthed bottle, securely 
corked, in a waterproof tin box. 

We may enumerate other articles as fol- 
lows: Gun, powder, shot, (different sizes) wads 
and caps, or cartridges for breech-loaders, 
cleaning utensils, rags and oil. Belt and hunt- 
ing knife. A sewing bag containing needles, 
thread, etc., fishing outfit, wax candles, change 
of shirt, pants and socks for night. Mocas- 
sins for night, a tin of boot-grease, (see Section 
XI) blankets, water-proof bags to hold bed- 
ding and clothes, overcoat, Rubber coat, 
Cups, plates, knife, fork and spoon. Cloth 
for washing dishes. Each member should 
have a haversack containing towels, comb, 
brush, soap, tooth brush, handkerchief, etc. 
Such articles as tobacco may also be carried 
in the haversack. Reading matter may be 
carried if desired. Rubber sheets are excel- 
lent articles for spreading on the ground un- 
der the bedding, and for covering goods in 
rainy weather. Lastly, any medicines which 



22 THE HUXTER'S HAXDBOOK. 

may be thought requisite should be carried. 
(See section X.) 

The experienced hunter will know without 
any remarks on my part, what of the above 
mentioned articles will be most useful to him, 
but to the amateur I would say that, so far 
as is commensurate with his capabilities of 
transportation, he is at liberty to consult his 
comfort, and should take with him on his 
trip, all articles which may actually conduct 
to his enjoyment of his holiday. He should 
be careful that all articles of his parapher- 
nalia are properly packed in appropriate 
receptacles, so that in unloading his boat or 
canoe he will not have a multitude of loose 
articles to handle. 

It is impossible to place before the amateur 
any absolute list of his requirements, but from 
the above table he will be able to select 
whatever he may need for any description of 
Hunting excursion. 



SECTION IV. 



THE CAMP FIRE. 



The quality of our fire depends, of course, 
upon the wood which we find at hand, and 
sornewhat, though not necessarily in any 
great degree, upon the state of the weather. 
In some localities wood is very scarce and 
we have to exercise great economy in its use. 
In such cases the fire should be built in a 
hole or trench so as to prevent drafts of air 
from hastening combustion. In selecting a 
permanent camping place, wood is one of the 
most important considerations. In some places 
quantities of drift wood abound, and when 
near by we have the standing hard wood* 
we are in the cook's paradise. 

Care should be taken that the fire is not 
built too close to the tent, and also that it be 



24 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

placed to leeward thereof to prevent danger 
ffrom sparks. In making our fire we first pro- 
cure a large log, green if possible, and place 
it, length wise to the wind, on the spot chosen 
as our fire-place. This is called the "Back 
log," and against it we build our fire, on 
whichever side is most convenient. Over the 
Back log, from behind, project our cranes, or 
"spumgullions" — poles driven into the ground 
and notched on the upper side to receive, the 
handles of our kettles, as they swing over the 
blaze. In laying the sticks for the fire we 
should place them all one way, parallel to the 
back log, and start the flame at the windward 
end. By laying the wood in this manner, we 
secure a more compact fire than when we 
cross-pile the sticks, and the sticks fall clown 
to their own burning as those below are con- 
sumed; but if we cross-pile the sticks they fall 
apart when burnt through the middle, and ne- 
cessitate a continual raking to keep them 
together. The object of placing the back log 
parallel to the wind is to prevent its being 



CAMP FIRE. 25 

burned through the middle, and to allow us 
to work with greater ease on either side of the 
fire. 

In undertaking the different methods of 
cooking, we require different kinds of fires. 
Thus, for boiling an ordinary fire will suffice, 
but for frying we require a good bed of coals 
and no blaze. This subject is more fully re- 
ferred to in "General Remarks on Cooking," 
Section Vll. 

Before cooking each meal we should brush 
the loose ashes away from the fire with a 
bough. If we camp on the same spot for a 
few days, the accumulation of ashes at our 
fire place will be very inconvenient ; and they 
should be covered with a thin layer of earth 
and the fire continued thereon, or we may 
select a new spot for the fire, covering the 
old ashes as before to prevent their being 
blown about. Should we wish to cook a very 
elaborate dinner, we should start two fires, 
about five yards apart, and so escape the 
great heat which one large fire would throw 



26 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

out. At one of these fires we ma}' perform 
the roasting or frying ; at the other, the 
boiling. 

In rainy weather, when not being used for 
cooking, the fire should be covered with slabs 
of wood to shed the rain, or a frame work 
of poles should be erected over it and a 
rubber sheet, or a roof of bushes, placed 
thereon. If the fire is not kept burning 
all night some dry sticks should be placed 
under cover of the tent and will save much 
trouble in starting the fire in the morning 
when everything will be wet with dew. 

Should the hunter be reduced to the neces- 
sity of using grass or hay with which to cook, 
he should twist the hay into tight ropes or 
blocks about two feet long and of three or 
four inches diameter. The tighter these blocks 
are compressed the longer they will burn, and 
the hotter will be the fire. It is a fact that 
on the Western Prairies, where wood is often 
extremely scarce, some farmers use this des- 



CAMP FIRE. 27 

cription of fuel for both the purposes of 
cooking and heating their habitations. 

In using his axe to cut up fire wood, the 
amateur cannot employ too much care both 
to prevent accidents to himself or companions, 
and to avoid breaking the handle or dulling 
the axe on stones. For the production of 
fire a good supply of matches should be car- 
ried and the utmost care bestowed upon their 
safe keeping. The hunter will do well to pro- 
vide himself with a sun, or burning glass, and 
if by any accident his matches are lost, this 
glass on being held at the proper focal dis- 
tance, in the sunshine, will readily ignite paper, 
leaves, or small splints. But as this glass is 
available only during sunshine, it is well to 
have other methods of procuring fire at our 
command. If some paper or cloth be placed 
in a gun on a charge of powder, it will be 
ignited when the gun is fired, and may be 
coaxed into flame. Another method is to 
scatter some powder on a stone, and having 
placed some dry leaves on the powder in such 



28 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

a manner as to prevent these being blown 
away, explode a cap on the powder by a 
blow of the axe or a stone. The sparks pro- 
duced by striking two stones together will also 
explode powder. In using these methods some 
of the powder should be dampened and formed 
into a ball. This will burn slowly and throw 
off a vast quantity of sparks, and produce 
great heat. Some of the uncivilized tribes of 
Polynesia procure fire by inserting a pointed 
stick into a corresponding hole in another 
piece of wood, and twirling the stick rapidly 
between the palms of the hands. This method 
may be looked upon as being the hunter's 
last resource, and I hope none of my readers 
will ever have to test its efficacy. 



SECTION V. 

GENERAL REMARKS ON CAMP ROUTINE. 

For the guidance of the amateur who is not 
conversant with the General Economy of Camp 
life, I may present a series of short remarks 
on the system of management which he should 
follow when on an excursion. As the circum- 
stances under which hunting trips are under- 
taken vary so widely, some being by land and 
in pursuit of different kinds of game, and 
some by water in various conveyances, it may 
be well if I confine myself to speaking of 
some definite kind of trip, and from the observ- 
ations advanced the amateur may determine 
what method of management to pursue when 
on any kind of excursion. For the present, 
we may consider that the following remarks 



3o THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

apply, in chief, to the conducting of a Duck 
shooting excursion, by water, in bark canoes. 

The daily work in Camp, such as cooking, 
collecting wood, etc., should either be under- 
taken by each member in turn, or each mem- 
ber should be assigned a special duty for 
the whole trip. 

If possible, go into Camp before dark, and 
have all arrangements completed before night- 
fall. 

In selecting a Camping ground, the condi- 
tions to be desired are, plenty of wood, good 
water, with a convenient landing place, and 
a dry, level, sheltered spot for the tent. 

A bed of spruce boughs may be made as 
follows: Cut off all large butts; lay the 
boughs in tiers, commencing at the top of the 
bed, placing the butts toward the bottom, and 
over this spread a rubber sheet or a blanket. 

The blankets used at night should not be 
spread down in the daytime. 

In case of rain, dig a small trench round 
the tent to prevent water from running in. 



CAMP ROUTINE. 31 

At night loosen the tent-ropes, as the dew 
causes the canvass to contract. 

Guns may be strapped round the tent-poles; 
ammunition boxes placed at the head of the 
beds ; grocery boxes, at night, placed inside 
the tent, ranged at the foot of the beds ; 
haversacks suspended from the tent-poles, or 
kept at the head of the beds, or, in daytime, 
hung outside the tent. 

Stretch a rope, high up between the tent, 
poles, on which to hang clothing at night- 
In daytime, the rope may be suspended out- 
side for the same purpose, or a pole will 
answer the same end. 

On rising in the morning spread all the 
bedding on the grass, if dry, to air ; when 
taken in, fold it up neatly, and place each 
man's bundle at the head of his bed. 

If, during a continuance of rainy weather, 
the bedding becomes damp, seize every op- 
portunity of drying it before the fire. 

When on an excursion for any length of 
time, such articles of clothing as shirts, socks, 



32 ' THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

etc., may be washed on a fine day, and hung 
in the sun to dry. 

At night, the canoes should be lifted out 
of the water, and may be placed on their sides 
close to the curtains of the tent as an addi- 
tional shelter from the wind. 

On breaking up Camp, or starting on a 
day's journey, examine and repair the canoes 
before loading up. 

The consistency of which to make rosin de- 
pends on the season of the year and the 
temperature of the water. If too hard, the 
fosin splits or cracks in cold water, and if 
too soft it runs in warm weather. Use more 
or less grease according to circumstances. Wet 
the finger before applying it to press or 
smooth the rosin on the canoe. 

When not in use, keep the canoe in the 
shade. Let it remain on its bottom in the 
grass if no shade is available. 

When at the ponds for the evening shoot- 
ing, the canoe should be hid in the bushes, 
or it may be masked by placing boughs and 



CAMP ROUTIXE. 33 

grass in it so as to hide the entire structure. 
When the canoe is thus disguised the hunter 
may sit in it to shoot, or he may paddle to 
within gun-shot of ducks in the water. 

Cooking utensils, after being cleaned, and 
when not in use, should be ranged on a slab, 
or other piece of wood, near the fire-place. 
A small rack may also be erected here on 
which to hang dish-towels, etc. 

Small saplings, stripped of their branches, 
but having the forks left on, may be driven 
into the ground on either side of the tent door, 
and will form excellent racks on which to hang 
shot-bags, belts, etc., during the day, and 
against which to lean paddles, fishing-poles, 
etc. 

The grocery boxes should be over-hauled 
and cleaned occasionally, and all parcels ex- 
amined and kept neatly tied up. 

Place such groceries as are most used in a 
box by themselves. 

Each member of the party should be ac- 
quainted with the whereabouts of every article. 



34 



THE HUNTER'S HA XD HOOK, 



This will prevent much mauling and tossing 
of goods. The maxim, "Have a place for 
everything, and keep everything in its place,'' 
should never be more strictly obeyed, and its 
observance is never followed by better results, 
than when in Camp. 

Keep all dishes, knives, etc., in a box by 
themselves. 

All articles which will admit of it should 
be carried in bags as these adapt themselves 
to any shape in the canoe, and contract as 
their contents diminish. 

Ham and Pork should be wrapped in a clean, 
strong cloth, and may be carried in a bag. 

Occasionallv, on a fine dav, the contents 
of all bags should be spread out in the sun, 
(that is, vegetables, and such articles as will 
be benefited thereby) and the bags allowed to 
get aired and dried. 

Do not forget that the guns, being much 
used, require to be cleaned occasionally. 
Neat's-foot oil is excellent to use on locks, 
etc. 



CAMP ROUTINE. 35 

A rule which all amateurs should follow is, 
"Do not argue before breakfast." 

Those who do not bathe for pleasure daily, 
when the opportunity presents, should make it 
a duty to do so. 

Never fire at small birds with Duck-shot ; it 
will be a waste of ammunition. Use the pro- 
per sizes of shot for different game. 

If possible, let the Tent be dry before 
folding it up to remove. 

When leaving a camping ground, and after 
the canoes are loaded, take a last look and 
examine the ground carefully, that nothing 
may be left behind. 

When in the Canoe, the guns, if loaded, 
should occupy the following positions : The 
bow-man should rest his, hammers downward, 
on the bar in front of him, with the but 
running back by his knees; the stern-man also 
rests his against the bar in front of him, and 
in the same position as described for the bow, 
keeping the muzzle pointed outwards clear of 
the man in the bow. When in pursuit of 



36 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

game, or when passing through places where 
ducks may lurk, the bow-man should keep his 
gun in hand ready for action. Keep the gun, 
when loaded, except when required for im- 
mediate use, at half-cock, and in raising it in 
the Canoe elevate the muzzle first, and do 
not let the hammer catch on the bars, etc. 

At all times, when carrying or holding a 
loaded gun, keep its muzzle elevated, or de- 
pressed, and pointing out of range of all 
persons. 

Let the weight of each man be known, and 
in loading the Canoe distribute the cargo so 
that when manned she will float on an even 
keel. 

When one person alone is paddling an 
empty Canoe, he will find it to be a great 
assistance to place a few stones in the bow 
as ballast, especially if the wind be blowing. 

For sailing in a Canoe a leg~of-mntto?i sail 
is generally used. The mast is strapped into 
a notch in the back edge of the fore-mid 



CAMP ROUTIXE. 37 

bar, and its heel fits into a small step screwed 
to the ribs beneath. 

Two Canoes may be lashed together and 
blankets or sheets used as sails. The Canoes 
are placed at about four feet apart at the 
center bars, and the tent-poles, are securely 
lashed across to the fore-mid and aft-mid 
bars of each Canoe. The lashings should 
be securely fastened at each gunnel at 
each bar. The sail may be placed in 
either Canoe, or each may carry one. When 
sailing in this manner before the wind, great 
speed may be attained with perfect safety. 

When passing over good bottoms, the pole 
may be used as a pleasant change from pad- 
dling, but none but those who are well 
practiced in the art should venture to pole a 
loaded Canoe. 

In going down stream, keep the current ; 
in going up, hug the shore. 

. If the hunter has to pass through danger- 
ous rapids, he should lash all his valuable 



3 8 THE Hi\\ TEA'S HANDBOOK. 

articles to the canoe and divest himself of 
shoes and all superflous clothing. 

From the foregoing remarks, the amateur 
will gather that all is required to render his 
life in Camp pleasant, and to crown with suc- 
cess his efforts at house-keeping in the wil- 
derness, is some small stock of neatness and 
activity, and in fact that he follow, in some 
degree, the well-recognized customs of civilized 
households. 



SECTION VI. 



COOKINO UTENSILS. 



Regular Trappers can and often do per- 
form their cooking with a surprisingly 
small number of utensils. In fact, a kettle 
for tea is the stock in trade of many. Their 
game is spitted before the glowing coals or 
roasted in a bed of ashes in the midst of 
the fire, and potatoes or bread are baked 
before the open fire. Thus they rival in the 
limited resources of their cuisine, the paucity 
of those Kings of the Chase, the red denizens 
of the primeval prairies. And yet those old 
trappers are perfectly happy, and for the best 
of reasons, that they have never known any 
other mode of living. I do not mean to sav 
that they are ignorant of the customs of civ- 



4 o THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

ilization, I merely state that they are so ac- 
customed to their mode of living that they do 
not desire, and would not be content, under 
any other circumstances. But I do not ex- 
pect the amateur hunter to confine himself 
to such a limited list of cooking utensils. 
The man who devotes but a few clays in a 
year to the exciting chase may be allowed, in 
following out the same line of conduct as that 
pursued by the professional hunter, to retain, 
as far as he wishes, the habits of his daily life. 
He should not feel called upon to stint himself 
of any comforts when selecting his cooking 
utensils for a trip. 

For excursions to different localities, by dif- 
ferent modes of conveyance, and for different 
periods of time, the number and description 
of cooking utensils required varies greatly. 
Nevertheless, I present a full list of these ar- 
ticles, and the hunter can easily decide what 
he will require, both as necessities or as attri- 
butes to his greater comfort. 

The first and most important article of our 



COOKING UTENSILS. 41 

list of cooking utensils, is the tea kettle — 
most important, for only in one way can we 
prepare this cheering beverage. This may be 
of tin, and should be of a capacity suitable 
to the number composing the hunting party. 
One kettle, if kept properly clean, will very 
well answer for the making up both tea and 
coffee. 

Next we have the Frying-pan. This is 
an old stand-by for hunters, and a most 
useful article. All kinds of fish, flesh and 
fowls may be cooked in this ever-ready 
utensil. There is a pan made expressly for 
cooking at the camp fire, having a long iron 
handle, but this instrument I cannot recom- 
mend. The handle is heavy and unwieldy. 
For our greater comfort in cooking we may 
attach a long wooden handle to the short 
iron one of the pan, tying it thereto with 
twine or wire. This handle may be detached, 
if so desired, for greater ease of transporta- 
tion. If necessary, two frying pans may be 
carried, and while one is employed in frying 



4 2 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

fish or ham, the other may be used for 
frying potatoes, warming beans, etc., or for 
stewing articles. The second pan will well 
repay the trouble of transportation. 

We next want the utensils in which to 
cook our potatoes, beans, rice or oatmeal. 
For potatoes, a tin kettle will suffice, but if 
possible, an iron pot should be carried for 
cooking the other articles as they burn very 
earily when cooked in tin. Nevertheless, a 
tin kettle will do very well, requiring but a 
little more attention to keep the contents 
well stirred and the fire in a moderate 
condition. It is a good plan to have kettles 
of different sizes, such as will fit inside one 
another. In this way we greatly increase our 
abilities to cook without sacrificing space in 
transportation. 

A Dutch Oven is an excellent article on 
a hunting excursion, and should be taken 
when space in the boat or canoe will per. 
mit. Its use is referred to in Section VII. 



COOKING UTENSILS. 43 

There are a variety of cooking appliances 
manufactured for the use of the hunter, 
such as the " Tripod and Utensils " and 
" The Camp Cooking Stove " with its com- 
pactly arranged pots, but for cooking at the 
open camp fire the utensils mentioned 
above are all that are necessary. To enume- 
rate, we may say that the cooking utensils 
required on an ordinary hunting trip — for 
example, a Duck shooting excursion, via 
water, in canoes, a party of four, for ten 
days — are as follows : 

1 Tea Kettle, tin. 

1 Potato Kettle, tin. 

1 Rice, etc., Kettle, iron preferred. 

I or 2 Fry Pans. 

Dutch Oven, if possible. 

When we remember that we can roast our 
game before the fire, or burried in the 
ashes, it will be seen that, with the above 
utensils, our methods of cooking are as 
uncurtailed as if we had a domestic cooking 
range on which to manipulate our meals 



44 THE HUNTER'S II A XD BOOK. 

Great care should be taken of the cooking 

utensils, and to much attention cannot be 

paid to keeping them clean. Section VI 

contains some remarks further relating to the 

hunters' Cooking Utensils, and should be 
read in this connection. 



SECTION VII. 

GENERAL REMARKS ON CAMP COOKING. 

When en route, and the chief object is to 
cover distance, the hunter has little time to 
bestow on cooking. He then falls back on 
his canned goods, and probably confines his 
efforts at cooking to the production of the 
ever-acceptable can of Tea. But when in a 
stationary camp, and, indeed, whenever he 
can spare time when en route, the hunter 
should put forth his best efforts and produce 
at least one solid, substantial and comfort- 
able meal per day. To the person who is 
at all conversant with the art of cooking, 
the preparing of such a meal is an absolute 
pleasure. More especially does he feel 
gratified if his companions on the trip are 



46 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

deficient in knowledge of cooking, for, in 
truth, the experienced cook then becomes 
the most important personage in the party, 
and he also has the pleasure of knowing 
that his efforts are appreciated, for the good 
will of hunters, as well as that of the 
proverbial morose husband, is reached through 
their stomachs. Though such a person may 
be quite willing to undertake the cooking 
for his party, during the entire trip, yet a 
more desirable state of affairs exists when 
all the party are able to undertake that im- 
portant duty in rotation. (We refer, of 
course, to parties who have no hired cook 
with them.) No party should ever venture 
to go out on a hunting excursion without 
numbering in their ranks at least one per- 
son who can cook. It appears to be foolish 
to write such an evident, simple remark, but 
when amateur hunters act foolishly, must I 
not suit my conversation to their conpre- 
hension? I have known parties to act just 
thus foolishly. I once met with a party of 



CAMP COOKIXG. 47 

young men on an excursion, and far from 
home. They had a good supply of provisions 
with them, but, from sheer ignorance of how 
to cook their food, they were glad to buy 
meals at the houses of farmers on the way. 
But we will revert to a more pleasant part 
of our subject — we will endeavor, as is one 
of the chief objects of this pamphlet, to 
teach such young amateur hunters how to 
enjoy, to its fullest, their food. 

In cooking, be it in the kitchen of kings, 
or at the humble camp fire of the hungry 
hunter, too much attention cannot be paid 
to that God-like quality — cleanliness. All 
our cooking utensils should undergo close 
inspection before being used, and after use 
they should be cleaned and put away in 
their proper place. All articles to be cooked 
should be thoroughly cleaned, and the cook 
himself would do well to pay a little at- 
tention to personal cleanliness before he 
undertakes to exercise his art. Look you ! 
of what more disgusting object can we con- 



4 8 THE HUXTER'S HAXDBOOK. 

ceive than the person who, rousing from his 
blankets in camp, proceeds to prepare the 
morning meal with utensils which, though 
musty from last night's supper, are yet clean 
when compared with his unsanctifled condition? 
The sight of a slovenly, dirty person cooking our 
food detracts in no small degree from our 
appetite. If several of the party are able 
to assist in preparing a meal, one should 
collect wood and attend to the fire ; another 
may clean such articles as game, potatoes, 
etc., so that he who undertakes to super- 
intend the cooking may give his undivided 
attention to the handling of the small 
groceries. If the cook has no assistance, he 
should so regulate his work that all the 
rougher tasks are completed first, so that he 
may wash his hands before undertaking the 
more delicate office of manipulating the in- 
gredients of his various dishes. The cook 
must not forget that different articles vary in 
the length of time required to cook them, 
and he should place on the fire first those 



CAMP COOKING. 49 

requiring the longest time ; he will thus have 
all his articles ready for table at once, and 
nothing need be allowed to get cold. ■. 

ON BOILING. 

This is the simplest method of preparing 
food, and by it almost every description of 
fish, meat, fowls and vegetables may be 
cooked. When in camp we need not confine 
the operation of boiling to any particular 
description of kettle ; we may even boil 
articles in our frying pan, the essential con- 
dition of the operation being merely that 
the articles are cooked in boiling water. It 
is to be noted that soups, stews, etc., are 
made by boiling, and owe their names to 
their ingredients rather than to the utensils 
in which they are prepared. The hunter 
may often be called upon to use the uten- 
sils at his command for purposes far 
different from those for which, in the 
economy of civilization, they were intended. 



5 o THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

In boiling articles the hunter must pay 
attention to the following points : — the pot 
must be kept boiling, and not allowed to 
cease boiling until the article is cooked ; 
boil slowly ; know the time required to cook 
the article (given in the different recipes) 
and abide by it ; skim the pot when a scum 
is seen to form on the surface. When the 
object is to extract substance from scraps of 
meat, or from bones, as in making soups, 
the pot may be allowed to boil faster, but 
should be kept closely covered. The follow- 
ing remark, taken from an excellent author- 
ity on Cooking, may be of interest, as it 
will apply as well to any articles which the 
hunter may cook, as to the meat spoken of. 
"Two mutton chops were covered with cold 
water, and one boiled fiercely, and the other 
simmered gently, for three-quarters of an 
hour ; the flavor of the chop which was 
simmered was decidedly superior to that of 
the one which was boiled \ the liquor which 
boiled fast was in like proportion more 



CAMP COOKIXG. 51 

savoury^ and, when cold, had much more 
fat on its surface j this explains why quick 
boiling renders meat hard, etc., — because its 
juices are extracted in a greater degree." 
When the water evaporates quickly, more hot 
water should be added. Some remarks on 
the boiling of Vegetables will be found 
under that head in the recipes. 

ON ROASTING AND BAKING. 

A method of roasting fish and game, 
much in vogue with old hunter's, is to cover 
them up in a bed of hot coals, where they 
remain until cooked. This method is not to 
be recommended to amateurs. Nevertheless, 
he will find, in the recipes, directions for 
its use, and he may experiment with some 
fish or game on which he does not depend 
for a meal. Great experience is required to 
ensure its successful accomplishment. A 
simpler method of roasting is by spitting 
his game before a good clear fire. It is 



52 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

thus continually under his surveillance, and 
the operation should be as successful as it 
is simple. A pan should be placed under 
the article being roasted to catch the fat 
which exudes. A little water should be 
placed in the pan, with some salt, and the 
article cooking should be frequently basted 
with this liquor. The fire should not be too 
hot at first, as, by hardening the outside of 
the meat, it prevents the heat from pene- 
trating. When about half cooked, the meat 
may be placed nearer the fire, or the fire 
increased. The time required to roast various 
articles is given in the recipes. The Spit 
is merely a stick inserted in the meat or 
game to be roasted, and serves to hold the 
article before the fire. It may be laid over 
a forked stick, or supported in any manner 
found convenient. The article being roasted 
should be frequently turned, and basted as 
before stated. 

Baking, in our domestic kitchens, consists 
of placing the article to be cooked in the 



CAMP COOKING. 53 

oven, and observing various regulations. 
Such an operation we, of course never per- 
form when on a hunting excursion, but we 
can bake bread, potatoes, etc., before the 
fire in the same manner as we roast meat. 
There is no difference in the operations ; 
the articles operated upon bestow the name 
on the method of operation. Thus our 
bread is baked, our game roasted. 

Bread, and all compound dishes may be 
best baked in a Dutch Oven, and the 
amateur who considers his comfort should, 
when possible, have one of these articles 
among his cooking utensils. The oven his 
placed before a hot bed of coals, and by 
collecting the heat, and by reflection, readily 
cooks any articles consigned to its care. 

ON FRYING. 

Frying may be termed the hunter's rough 
and ready method of preparing food. By 
this method all fishes, flesh, and fowls may 



54 THE HUNTER'S HAXDBOOK. 

be cooked. The following points should be 
observed : — Have a clear fire of coals ; make 
the pan hot and grease it well before 
placing articles in it to cook ; olive oil is 
better than lard or other grease ; if using pork 
fat, cut it up and try out, and place the 
meat in the remaining oil ; all articles 
should be frequently turned to allow the 
steam to evaporate ; shake the pan often, 
and do not allow the articles to stick ; take 
care that the sputtering fat does not take 
fire, and if it does, remove the pan at once 
from the coals and blow out the blaze. The 
observing of these points, and of the direc- 
tions found in the different recipes, should 
enable the hunter to attain complete success 
in frying his pan-cakes, ham and eggs, trout 
or birds. 

ON STEWING. 

The term Stewing is applied to the pro- 
duction of compound dishes, in which the 



CAMP COOKIXG. 



55 



various ingredients are boiled together. By 
this method we can produce many savoury 
and fragrant dishes. Stewing is also an 
economical process, for we may thus cook 
together scraps of meat, small birds and 
other articles which alone would prove to be 
but sorry morsels. It has been stated that 
all cookery is but an aid to digestion, and 
while I hold that some cookery may be 
very detrimental to the digestive organs, I 
will acknowledge that the process of stewing 
resembles the action of the stomach, and is 
therefore, if from no other reason, to be 
highly recommended to the hunter's use. 
The points to be observed when stewing 
articles are as follows : — let the pot boil 
slowly ; stir frequently to prevent burning, 
and keep the pot continually boiling until 
the mass is cooked. Further remarks on 
stewing will be found in all recipes for 
preparing dishes by that useful method. 

The hunter who carries the requisite uten- 
sils has all of the methods of cooking just 



56 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

mentioned at his command, and he must be 
indeed shiftless who, being provided with a 
sufficiency of good food, can not prepare it 
in such a manner that he may not only eat 
it, but also enjoy it to its fullest extent. 
In closing this Section, I may quote the fol- 
lowing from an excellent authority : — "To some 
extent the claims of either process of cook- 
ing depend upon the taste of the individual. 
Some persons may esteem the flavor of 
fried meats, while others will prefer broils or 
stews. It is important, however, to under- 
stand the theory of each method of cooking, 
so that whichever may be adopted, it may 
be done well. Bad cooking, though by a 
good method is far inferior to good cooking 
by a bad method." 



INDEX TO RECEIPTS. 

RECEIPTS FOR CAMP COOKERY, (SEC. VIII.) 

No. Page. 

SOUPS. 

General Remarks ...... 61 

i Plain Pea Soup 63 

2 Bean Soup 64 

3 Liebig's Extract of Beef. 64 

4 Canned Soups 65 

5 Vegetable Soups 65 

FISH. 

6 Smoked Herrings 66 

7 Fish, to bake in the coals 67 

8 Fish, ordinary method of cooking . . 68 

9 Brook Trout 68 

10 Salmon 68 

Codfish. (See No. 89.) 10S 

Fish-cakes. (See Nos. 90-91.) . . 109-110 

CANNED FISH. 

11 Oysters, stewed 69 

12 Oysters, fried 70 

13 Oysters, raw 70 

14 Lobsters, as canned ..... 70 

15 Lobsters, stewed 70 

16 Lobster Salad . 71 

17 Lobster Croquettes 71 

1 3 Salmon, as canned 71 

19 Salmon, stewed 72 



58 



INDEX TO RECEIPTS. 



GAME. 

20 Venison, moose, bear-meat, etc., to roast 

21 Ducks, partridges, quails, etc., roasting in the 

ashes ........ 

22 Ducks, partridges, squirrels, etc., roasting be- 

fore the fire 

23 Ducks, to stew . . . 

24 Ducks, to fry .... 

25 Snipes, to fry .... 

26 Snipes, to stew .... 

27 Snipes, on toast 

28 Turkey, to boil .... 

29 Goose, to roast 

30 Rabbit, to roast .... 

31 Rabbit, curried 

32 Rabbit, with onions 

MISCELLANEOUS MEATS. 

33 Salt Beef and Pork, stewed . 

34 Corned Beef, canned, cold 

35 Corned Beef, canned, stewed 

36 Ham, Bacon or Pork, to fry 

37 Ham, Bacon or Pork, to roast or bake 

33 Ham and Eggs 

3) Ham or Pork, with onions 

40 Ham, barbecued . 

41 Pork fritters 

42 Pork and Beans. No. I 

43 Pork and Beans. No. 2 

44 Eggs, to poach 
AS Eggs, to boil 

46 Eggs, Savory 

47 Eggs, curried 



72 



73 



IXDEX TO RECEIPTS. 



59 



VEGETABLES. 



48 Potatoes, to bake 

49 Potatoes, to boil 

50 Potatoes, (raw) fried . . . 

51 Potatoes, (boiled) fried 

52 Potato fritters .... 

53 Onions, to boil 

54 Onions, to fry .... 

55 Vegetables, miscellaneous 

56 Vegetables, canned 

MISCELLANEOUS DISHES 

57 Rice, plain boiled 
5S Rice, with raisins 

59 Rice, savory 

60 Rice croquettes 

61 Rice pudding 

62 Oatmeal pancakes 

63 Flour pancakes 

64 Indian Meal pancakes 

65 Oatmeal porridge 
65 Corn Meal porridge 

6/ Corn Meal porridge, fried 

63 Hoe Cake 

69 Corn Bread .... 

70 Oat Cake . . . . . 

71 Bread 

PUDDINGS. 

72 Batter pudding, baked or boiled 

73 Rice pudding .... 

74 Cossacks' Plum pudding 



60 INDEX TO RECEIPTS. 

SALAD-DRESSINGS AND SAUCES. 

75 Dressing for Canned Lobster, etc. . . . ioo 

j6 Tomato Salad ....... ioi 

yy Dutch sauce, for Meat or Fish . . . ioi 

78 Sauce for Ducks, Geese, etc. .... 101 

79 Drawn Butter, for Fish, Onions, etc. . . 102 

80 Pudding sauce 102 

81 Sauce Hollandaise, or Drawn Butter . . 103 

82 Plum pudding Sauce 103 

BEVERAGES. 

Tea, General Remarks. 

83 Tea, to steep or draw ..... 105 

84 Coffee, to draw 106 

85 Coffee, to improve flavor of ... . 107 

86 Coffee, substitute for cream in 107 

87 Coffee, Essence or Extract of . . .107 

88 Beverages, miscellaneous .... 10S 

APPENDIX. 

89 Codfish, salt, to boil 108 

90 Fish Cakes, with raw fish .... 109 

91 Fish Cakes, with cooked fish . . . .110 

THE LAST RESOURCE, OR WHAT TO USE WHEN PRO- 
VISIONS RUN SHORT. (Sec. IX.) 

General Remarks. 

92 Potato soup 112 

93 Dandelions, as greens 114 

94 Corn Meal n ^ 

95 Frogs, to roast, fry or stew . . . .115 

96 Miscellaneous articles of diet . . .115 



SECTION VIII. 

RECEIPTS FOR CAMP COOKERY. 

Note. — If the hunter should wish to prepare any 
of the compound dishes mentioned in these Receipts, 
he must remember to include the different ingred- 
ients in his list of groceries. In all the receipts the 
quantities may be varied, but the proportions should 
be observed. 

SOUP. 

GENERAL REMARKS. 

Soups are seldom made at the Camp fire, 
but as times may occur when scraps of meat 
and carcasses of game might be concocted 
into a fragrant dish, I feel that these Re- 
ceipts would not be complete without some 
reference being made to Soups. As a gen- 
eral rule soups may be made out of any 



62 THE HUNTER'S HA XD BOOK. 

flesh or game which will impart its substance 
and flavor to the water. Canned soups are 
excellent articles of diet, and when we have 
a jar of Liebig's Extract of Beef we can 
produce a soup unrivalled in the whole range 
of cookery for its wholesome and sustaining 
qualities. Soups should be allowed to boil 
for a long time in order that the full sub- 
stance of the article operated upon may be 
extracted. The soup should boil slowly and 
be frequently skimmed. In making soups in 
camp we wish to produce a good strong ar- 
ticle, rather than the clear, delicate dish of 
society dinners. To this end it is a good 
plan to place a small quantity of vegetables, 
properly cut up, in the pot when first plac- 
ing it on the fire. In the time required to 
extract the substance from the meat these 
vegetables will have dissolved, and will be 
thoroughly incorporated with the liquor. Other 
vegetables may be added at such times as 
will allow of their being cooked without their 
dissolving. Thus, carrots may be put in 



CAMP COOKERY. 63 

three-quarters of an hour before the soup is 
to be taken off the fire \ potatoes and onions, 
twenty minutes before. All vegetables for 
soups should be thoroughly cleaned, cut into 
small pieces, and placed in cold water ready 
to add to the soup when required. In thick- 
ening soups with flour, the flour should be 
mixed with cold water and all lumps broken 
up, and then stirred into the boiling soup. 
Should the hunter have to place himself on 
short rations, he will find the soup pot to 
be his best friend. 

1. 

PLAIN PEA SOUP. 

Put 3 pounds pork, well soaked, and cut 
into 4 or 5 pieces, into 3 quarts water. Add 
1-2 pound split peas, 1-2 teaspoonful sugar, a 
little pepper, 3 ounces fresh vegetables or 2 
ounces compressed. Boil 2 hours, or until 
peas are tender. Broken biscuit may be 
added. Salt beef may be used instead of 
pork, but should be well soaked. Do not 



64 THE HUNTER'S HA XD BOOK. 

add vegetables until the meat and peas have 
boiled an hour and a half. 

2. 

BEAN SOUP. 

To i gallon water add i 1-2 pints white 
beans, 2 pounds pork, or a ham bone, 4 
onions cut fine, and pepper. Boil until beans 
are dissolved. If the beans have been soaked 
in water for some time, say over night, about 
2 hours will suffice to cook them. 

3- 

liebig's extract of beef. 

That the hunter may see the full value of 
this article, I quote the following from the 
wrapper accompanying the pots : "A quarter 
of a teaspoonful of Extract dissolved in boil- 
ing water will, with the addition of a suf- 
ficient quantity of salt, produce a breakfast 
cupful of strong and clear Beef tea." This 
is an excellent beverage to partake of in 
the early morning before undertaking to pre- 



CAMP COOKERY. 65 

pare the regular breakfast. "An excellent 
soup, equal to that prepared from fresh meat, 
is obtained by boiling soup vegetables, with 
some bones and marrow, till done, and then 
adding the necessary quantity of Extract, with 
plenty of salt. Soups made with peas, len- 
tils, beans, potatoes, bread, barley, carrots, 
turnips, and other vegetables, gain by the ad- 
dition of Extract as much as if fresh meat 
had been boiled with them, equal in quantity 
to what would be required for producing the 
Extract." 

4- 

The canned soups sold by grocers, are to 
be recommended. Directions for use accom- 
pany each can or package. 

5- 

VEGETABLE SOUP. 
(A good dish to use when rations run short.) 

3 onions, 3 small turnips, 1 carrot, and 4 
potatoes, all cut up. Put into the pot with 



66 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

1-4 pound butter, same of lean ham, or any 
bones or scraps of meat, and a pinch of 
mixed herbs. Place over fire for 10 minutes, 
then add a spoonful of flour well mixed in 
2 quarts of water, and a dessertspoonful Ex- 
tract of Beef, (if on hand,) salt and pepper. 
Boil until vegetables are well cooked, skim, 
and serve with toasted bread. 

FISH. 

(Under this head we have the canned fish which 
we may purchase for our larder, as well as those 
which we may catch with the fly, or hook and line). 

6. 

SMOKED HERRINGS. 

The simplest way to cook these fish is to 
toast them, at the end of a pointed stick 
over the coals, first cleaning and removing 
the skin. Another method is to scald in 
boiling water until the skin curls up, then 
remove head, tail and skin. Clean well. Put 
into fry pan with a little butter or lard. 
Fry gently a few minutes, dropping in a lit- 



CAMP COOKERY. fy 

tie vinegar. These are excellent articles on 
a trip, and may, if occasion arises, be eaten 
without any more cooking than what they re- 
ceived in being smoked. 

7- 

BAKING FISH IN THE COALS. 

Clean the fish, and if it is large enough 
to be emptied through a hole in the neck, do 
not slit the belly. Season the inside with salt 
and pepper, and if liked, stuff with Indian 
meal. Have ready a good bed of glowing 
coals, and lay the fish in this and cover it up, 
using first some ashes or dead embers, that 
the fish may not be burnt. Half an hour, more 
or less, according to size, is required for the 
operation. Experience alone can determine 
the time required. On removing the fish from 
the fire and peeling off the skin, the flesh 
will be found to be clean and well soaked. 
The amateur should experiment in this method 
before he undertakes to trust to it for the 
production of a meal. 



63 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 



ORDINARY METHOD OF COOKING FISH. 

All fish, eels included, may be cooked by 
frying, the larger ones being cut up into 
several pieces. After cleaning the fish, wipe 
and dry well in a cloth. Place in the hot 
pan with plenty of fat. Sprinkle with in- 
dian meal. Turn frequently and shake the 
pan often. Season with salt, pepper, and a 
few drops of any sauce desired. 

9- 

BROOK TROUT. 

If small, fry as directed in No. 8. If 
large, boil and serve with drawn butter. 
(No. 79.) 

10. 

SALMON. 

Salmon may be boiled and served with 
drawn butter (No. 79 ) or cut into pieces 
and fried. Time of boiling varies according 



CAMP COOKERY. 69 

to size. Add salt to the water in which it 
is boiled. 

CANNED FISH. 

Directions for use are generally printed on the 
cans. The following will be found useful : 

II. 

OYSTERS, STEWED. 

Pour the liquor off the oysters into the fry 
pan to stew with twice the quantity of milk. 
Add a little butter, the size of a marble, 
some salt and pepper, and a little crumbled 
biscuit, or thicken with a little flour. As soon 
as the liquor boils throw in the oysters and 
let them remain for 30 seconds. Then pour 
into dish for immediate use. When milk can- 
not be had, use water, same quantity as the 
liquor of the oysters, and to the above named 
ingredients add a pinch of mixed herbs. A 
few drops of lemon juice is an improvement, 
when herbs are not used. 



70 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

12. 

OYSTERS, FRIED. 

Dry the oysters in a clean cloth. Dip in 
beaten ez'X and then in biscuit crumbs. Or 
sprinkled with Indian meal. Add salt and 
pepper. Fry for four or five minutes in lard, 
which is better for this purpose than butter. 
Turn them when necessarv. 

OYSTERS, RAW. 

When oysters are used raw, as canned, add 
salt, pepper and vinegar to suit the taste. 

14. 

LOBSTER, AS CANNED. 

When lobsters are eaten cold, as prepared 
in the cans, the salad given in No. 75, will 
be an excellent addition. 

!$• 

LOBSTER STEW. 

Chop the lobster fine, add a little milk or 
water, 2 raw beaten eggs, and a small lump 



CAMP COOKERY. 71 

of butter. Stew in frying pan for five min- 
utes. Salt and pepper to taste. 

16. 

LOBSTER SALAD. 

Mix olive oil, mustard, vinegar, salt and 
a hard boiled egg. Beat up together, add 
lobster, lettuce and seasoning to suit the taste. 
Sliced cucumber or tomato may be substituted 
for lettuce. 

LOBSTER CROQUETTES. 

Chop the lobster fine ; add pepper and 
salt. Mix with one fourth as much bread 
crumbs as there is meat. Form into balls 
with 2 tablespoons of melted butter. Dip in 
beaten egg and roll in biscuit crumbs. Fry 
in lard. 

18. 

SALMON, AS CANNED. 

Add salt, pepper and vinegar to suit taste. 



72 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK, 

19. 
SALMON, STEWED. 

Some people cannot eat canned salmon ; 
they find that it poisons them. These un- 
pleasant effects will not be experienced if the 
fish is prepared as follows : — Pour off all the 
oil and place the salmon in a little water 
in the fry pan. Let simmer for a minute, 
and pour off the water. Add a little fresh 
water, and thicken with flour, or bread or 
biscuit crumbs. Salt, pepper and a pinch of 
mixed herbs to suit the taste. Stew gently 
for five minutes. 

GAME. 

(All game should be kept for a day or two before 
being used, if the weather will permit. 

20. 
Venison, moose, or bear meat may be 
spitted in joints of several pounds before the 
fire, turning occasionally and sprinkling with 
salt and pepper. Baste as required. (See 
"General Remarks, Camp Cookery," — Roast- 
ing.) Use any sauce preferred. 



CAMP COOKERY. 73 

21. 

Ducks, partridges, quail, etc., may be roasted 
in the coals in the manner described for 
fish in No. 7. Draw and clean in the usual 
manner, but do not pluck off the feathers. 
Stuff with bread crumbs or broken biscuit 
well seasoned with salt and pepper. Dip 
the bird in water to wet the feathers, and 
bury in the ashes and coals. The time re- 
quired can only be judged by experience ; 
the size of bird and strength of fire are to 
be considered. A teal will require half an 
hour or more, other birds proportionately. 
When taken from the fire remove the skin, 
and if the operation has been successful the 
flesh will be found to be clean and tender. 
(For sauces for game see No. 78.) 

22. 

Ducks, partridges, pigeons, turkeys, geese, 
black-birds, snipes, squirrels, etc., may be 
spitted before the fire. Clean the birds well, 
and observe the directions given for "Game" 



74 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK'. 

in No. 20. The birds may be split open down 
the back and extended on the spitting stick, 
or they may be roasted whole, with appro- 
priate dressings. (For dressings see No. 78, 
etc.) Time required to roast Woodcock or 
Snipe, 15 or 20 minutes. Pheasant or Par- 
tridge, 20 or 30 minutes. Duck, 45 minutes, 
Turkey, 3 hours for a large one : 2 hours 
for middling size. 

23- 

DUCKS, ALL. KINDS, TO STEW. 

Clean well and divide into convenient 
pieces. Place in the pot in enough cold 
water to cover them, or as much as you 
will require to produce the desired quantity 
of stew. Place on the fire and boil slowly. 
Add salt, pepper, and a pinch of mixed 
herbs, Worcestershire or other sauce to suit 
taste, also some onions, carrots, potatoes, etc., 
cut fine. A few of these vegetables may 
be placed in the pot when first put to the 
fire. They will dissolve in the time re- 



CAMP COOKERY. 75 

quired to stew the game, and add a pleas- 
ant body to the dish. Time required, about 
one hour and a half. The remainder of veg- 
etables may be added as follows: carrots, 
about 45 minutes before stew will be cooked ; 
potatoes, onions, or turnips, about 30 min- 
utes. If vegetables are not used to thicken 
the stew, by being allowed to dissolve, a 
little flour or corn starch may be used for 
that purpose. To stew slowly for a long 
time is the secret of success in making 
these stews, and yet the pot must be removed 
from the fire as soon as the meat is suffic- 
iently cooked. Inspect the meat occasion- 
ally and you will know just when it is 
done. Do not let the contents of the 
pot burn at the bottom. Skim the pot fre- 
quently. 

24. 

DUCKS, TO FRY. 

Having cleaned and plucked the bird, di- 
vide into pieces, such as legs, wings, and 



j6 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK, 

make four pieces of the body. Dry the meat 
\ in a cloth, and place in the hot frying pan 
with some pork fat previously tried out. Sea- 
son with salt, pepper, and any sauce desired. 
Fry slowly until done. Remove the meat 
from the pan and set in a dish by the fire 
to keep warm. Then to the fat in the pan 
add a little water (sufficient to make the de- 
sired quantity of sauce) thicken with flour, 
to which has been added an onion chopped 
line and some mixed herbs. Stir briskly 
until incorporated, and stew for about five 
minutes. Pour over the fried duck, and 
serve. 

25- 

SNIPES, TO FRY. 

Same as for Ducks, (No. 24) but do not 
cut the birds up after cleaning. Omit onion 
from the sauce. 

26. 

SNIPES, TO STEW. 

Same method as for Ducks, (No. 23.) 
Place 6, 10, or 12 birds in the pot, whole, 



CAMP COOKERY. 77 

at once. If the birds are very fat, remove 
the fat before stewing them. Skim pot fre- 
quently. 

27. 

SNIPE ON TOAST. 

After dressing the birds fasten a very thin 
piece of fat ham or bacon round the breast 
of each and fry in boiling hot lard for two 
minutes. Sprinkle with pepper and salt, and 
serve each on a piece of toast. 

28. 

TURKEY, TO BOIL. 

Pluck the bird carefully, draw and singe 
it ; wash it inside with warm water. Wipe 
dry with a cloth. Cut off the head and 
neck close to the backbone, leaving enough 
of the crop skin to turn over the stuffing. 
Draw the sinews from the legs, and cut off 
the feet just below the first joint of the leg. 
Press the legs into the sides and skewer 
them firmly. Fill the breast with sausage 
or forcemeat, or bread crumbs, herbs and 



78 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

onions. Put into sufficient hot water to 
cover it ; boil gently for from one and a 
half to two hours. Remove the scum as it 
rises. (For sauces see Nos. 78, 79, 81.) 

29. 

GOOSE, TO ROAST. 

Having picked, cleaned and singed the bird 
make a stuffing as follows : 2 ounces onion 
(if the flavor of raw onions is not liked, 
slice and partly boil them) chopped fine ; 1 
ounce sage or mixed herbs ; 4 ounces bread 
crumbs, stale ; a lump of butter, size of a 
walnut, and a little pepper and salt. Mix 
the whole well together with the yolks of 
two eggs. Do not quite fill the goose, as 
the stuffing will swell. Tie it to the spit at 
both ends, and roast for an hour and a half, 
or an hour and three quarters. 

3°- 

RABBIT, TO ROAST. 

Skin and clean thoroughly, and spit before 
a good fire. (Observe the directions given in 
"General Remarks on Cooking," — Roasting.) 



CAMP COOKERY. 79 

3*- 

RABBIT, CURRIED. 

Skin and wash the rabbit and cut it into 
joints. Put on to stew with 2 ounces but- 
ter and 3 onions sliced. When the onions 
are brown pour in one pint of stock, made 
with Extract of Beef. (See No. 3.) The 
stock should be boiling when added to the 
stew. Mix 1 tablespoonful of curry powder 
and 1 tablespoonful flour smoothly with a 
little water and add to the stew. Stew slowly 
for half an hour or more. A little lemon 
juice is an improvement. Serve with boiled 
rice. 

32. 

RABBIT WITH ONIONS. 

Clean the Rabbit and put it on to boil 
in enough cold water to cover it. When 
boiled tender take it out, joint it, and fry 
in lard to a light brown. Remove from the 
pan and set by the fire to keep warm. Have 
six onions sliced, and fry them in the lard. 



80 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

When done add a little water and a table- 
spoonful of flour. Let this simmer for a 
minute, and pour over the rabbit. 

MISCELLANEOUS MEATS. 

33- 

SALT BEEF AND PORK STEWED. 

Cut the beef and pork, or either, into 
dice and place in the pot or pan to stew. 
If the meat is very salt the water may be 
poured off after stewing for 2 minutes, and 
fresh water added. After stewing gently for 
half an hour, add vegetables, carrots, potatoes, 
etc., and some pepper and mixed herbs. 
Thicken with flour or rice. When vegetables 
are cooked, remove the stew and add toasted 
bread, or broken biscuit. 

34- 

CANNED CORNED BEEF, COLD. 

After removing the beef from the can, cut 
into slices, and use with pepper, mustard, 
and Worcestershire, or any other sauce to 



CAMP COOKERY. 81 

suit taste. Canned beef should be kept in 
a cool place, and placed in cold water for 
some time before being opened. 

35- 

CANNED CORNED BEEF, STEWED. 

Stew together some carrots, onions and po- 
tatoes, or some compressed vegetables, with 
herbs, pepper and salt to taste, and when 
nearly cooked add as much canned beef as 
desired. Let simmer until the gelatine in 
the beef has become incorporated with the 
stew — between 5 and 10 minutes. 

36. 

HAM, BACON, OR PORK, TO FRY. 

The simple operation of frying these meats 
is properly understood by few. The following 
points should be attended to : — The slices cut 
should not be more than one-eighth of an 
inch thick. If very salt, and these meats 
generally are, the slices should be soaked in 
warm water for at least an hour, and the 



82 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

water changed two or three times. If this 
does not extract the salt sufficiently, the slices 
may be boiled for a short time before fry- 
ing. After soaking, pare off all rind, etc., 
and trim nicely. Wipe and dry the slices 
before placing in the pan. Have the pan 
hot and well greased, and fry the slices 
quickly until brown, turning them when neces- 
sary. Add pepper and sauce to taste. 

37- 

HAM, BACON OR PORK, TO ROAST OR BAKE. 

The slices of ham, etc., as cut and pre- 
pared as dictated in No. 36, may be roasted 
before the fire on a spit, or rolled up and 
secured with a wooden skewer, and baked in 
the Dutch oven. 

38. 

HAM AND EGGS. 

Prepare the ham as directed in No. 36. 
(For this purpose the slices may be cut a 
little thicker if so wished.) When fried re- 



CAMP COOKERY. 83 

move from pan and set by the fire. See 
that the pan is not very hot, and break into 
it the desired number of eggs. In doing 
this hold the egg very near the pan, and 
do not let it spread much. The pan must 
be held very steady until the eggs are set. 
Dip a little of the hot grease over the eggs. 
Add pepper and salt if necessary. When 
the eggs are cooked place each on a slice of 
ham and serve. A nicer method of prepar- 
ing *eggs for this dish is by poaching them 
in water. (See No. 44.) 

39- 

HAM, OR PORK, AND ONIONS. 

Prepare the ham, etc., as directed in No. 
36, and place by the fire to keep warm. 
Have ready some onions, say 2 per man, 
previously sliced and stewed until nearly 
cooked, with pepper, some herbs if liked, 
and salt if necessary. On taking the ham 
from the pan, place the onions, from which 
drain the water, in it and fry for about 5 



84 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

minutes. Add a tablespoonful moist flour. 
Turn over the ham or pork, and serve. (See 
No. 54.) 

40. 

BARBECUED HAM. 

Prepare as in No. 36, then lay the slices 
in the pan, pepper each, and spread on each 
one-fourth teaspoon of made mustard. Pour 
in vinegar in proportion of half a teaspoon^ 
ful to a slice ; fry quickly, turning often. 
Remove and place on a dish. Then add to 
gravy half a glass of wine, if on hand, and 
one teaspoonful sugar, boil up once and pour 
over the slices of ham. 

41. 

PORK FRITTERS. 

Prepare slices of pork as directed in No. 
36. Place in pan and fry until nearly done. 
Have at hand a thick batter made of one 
part corn meal to two parts flour, mixed with 
cold water. Dip the slices of pork in the 



CAMP COOKERY. 85 

batter, and replace in fry pan until cooked 

a nice brown. 

42. 

PORK AND BEANS. NO. I. 

Soak 1 quart beans over night. Next day 
boil with 1 large onion. When nearly done 
take out the onion, and place the beans in 
a dish to bake before the fire, or in Dutch 
oven. In centre of beans put 1-2 pound 
salt pork, not fully buried. Pour in some 
of the water in which the beans were boiled, 
and bake one hour. 

43- 

PORK AND BEANS. NO. 2. 

Boil the beans, (time about 3 hours) and 
when half done add pieces of pork, some 
pepper and an onion cut fine. If water 
evaporates, add more, but regulate so that 
when the beans are boiled there will be no 
water to pour off. Do not bake. A supply 
of these beans may be kept for some days 
in a jar, and warmed in a frying pan, etc., 
as required. 



86 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK, ' 

44. 
EGGS, TO POACH. 

Have some water, well salted, simmering 
in the frying pan, and into this break the 
eggs, one at a time, carefully, so as not to 
break the yolk. Let the egg run slowly 
from the shell, holding the hand as near the 
water as possible. Dip the hot water over 
the eggs. Remove them before they are hard. 
Time about two and a half minutes. Place 
each upon a piece of thin buttered toast. 
This is an excellent way of preparing eggs to 
eat with fried ham or pork. (See No. 38.) 

45- 

EGGS, TO BOIL. 

Time required, to boil soft, three minutes. 
After that time they become hard. The wa- 
ter should not be boiling violently, as it is 
then liable to burst the shell and spoil the 
egg. Place the egg gently in the pot, as 
a very slight blow will crack the shell. 



CAMP COOKERY. 87 

46. 
SAVORY EGGS. 

Break 5 eggs into a dish, add a pinch 
of salt, pepper and thyme, or mixed herbs ; 
beat them well together ; have the frying pan 
ready and place in it about 2 ounces fresh 
butter ; let it boil ; then pour in the eggs 
and stir quickly until cooked, about 4 min- 
utes, and serve immediately. 

47- 

EGGS, CURRIED. 

Slice 2 onions and fry in butter until 
brown, add 1 tablespoonful curry powder ; 
add 1 pint of broth made of Extract of 
Beef, (See No. 3) and stew until onions are 
tender. Thicken with a little flour or corn 
starch. Have 8 eggs boiled hard and slice 
them into the stew. Let them get warm 
but do not boil. 



88 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

VEGETABLES. 

48. 
POTATOES, BAKED. 

Potatoes may be baked before the open 
fire. Have a good bed of coals and place 
the potatoes on a stone before them. Turn 
them when necessary. When done they will 
crack open when squeezed gently in the 
hand. 

49. 

POTATOES, BOILED. 

The simple operation of boiling potatoes is 
best performed as follows : — Wash, and leave 
the skin on, and throw them into boiling wa- 
ter, salted. When soft enough to allow a 
fork to be thrust through them easily, dash 
a little cold water into the pot, let the po- 
tatoes remain two minutes, and then pour 
off the water. Replace them over a slow 
fire until the steam is evaporated. Peel 
them and place them in an open dish. Time, 
about half an hour. 



CAMP COOKERY. 89 

POTATOES (RAW), FRIED. 

Peel large potatoes and cut in slices a 
quarter of an inch thick. Dry in a cloth 
and fry in lard. Have a quick lire, and 
move the slices of potato continually, turning 
as required. When crisp, place on a plate 
to drain, and sprinkle with salt and pepper. 

5 1 - 

POTATOES, BOILED, TO FRY. 

Take any cold potatoes, cut them into 
slices, and place them in the hot frying pan 
with plenty of fat. Add salt and pepper, 
and stir and turn frequently with a knife. 
Time, about 20 minutes. 

5 2 - 

POTATO FRITTERS. 

Beat together 1 cupful mashed potatoes, 2 
eggs (beaten,) 1-2 pint of milk, 1 tablespoon- 
ful of flour, (mixed with some of the milk) 



go THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

and a little melted butter, about one table- 
spoonful. Fry in some lard. Turn when re- 
quired. l 

53- 

ONIONS, BOILED. 

Peel and wash the onions, and boil in 
salted water until soft. Change the water 
once, when the onions are half cooked, if so 
wished. When soft remove from pot, and 
pour some drawn butter over them (See No. 
79.) Time, about half an hour. 

54- 

ONIONS FRIED. 

The following method gives a dish of rather 
strong onions, but is liked by many. It may 
be used also to prepare the onions for ham 
or pork (See 39) : Peel and slice the desired 
number of onions, and place them in the hot 
frying pan with plenty of lard or pork fat. 
Add salt, pepper, and sauce, to suit the taste. 
Stir frequently, and cut as fine as desired 
while frying. When nearly done sprinkle a 



CAMP COOKERY. 91 

little flour over them, and stir them well up 
so as to cook the flour well, and break all 
lumps. 

55- 

VEGETABLES, MISCELLANEOUS. 

To cook other vegetables, such as carrots, 
turnips, etc., to use alone, clean them well, 
slice them, and lay in cold water until pla- 
cing them in the pot. Have the water boiling 
briskly, and salted. Skim the water before 
putting in the vegetables. When the vegeta. 
bles sink, they are generally done. Test 
with a fork, and take them off as soon as 
done. 

56. 

CANNED VEGETABLES. 

Directions for use generally accompany each 
can. Canned Tomatoes are especially to be 
recommended to the hunter, and are excel- 
lent when stewed with bread crumbs, or 
broken biscuit, salt and pepper. 



92 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

MISCELLANEOUS DISHES. 

57- 

RICE, PLAIN BOILED. 

Pick over the rice and wash it in cold 
water. To i pint rice put 3 quarts of 
boiling water and 1-2 teaspoonful salt. Boil 
for 17 minutes from the time it begins 
to boil. Then pour off all the water, and 
replace pot over a moderate fire, with cover 
off, to steam fifteen minutes. Be accurate as 
to time. 

58- 

RICE, BOILED, WITH RAISINS. 

Prepare the rice as directed in No. 57. 
When it has been boiled for 10 minutes, 
throw in a handful of cooking raisins and let 
boil and steam as in No. 57. If the raisins 
are put in at first they are liable to be 
boiled to pieces. 

59- 

SAVORY RICE. 

Wash and pick 1-2 pound rice ; stew it 
gently in a little broth, (made of Ext. Beef, 



CAMP COOKERY. 93 

See No. 3) with an onion, some mixed 
herbs, and a pinch of salt. When the rice 
is swelled, dip it out of pan and place be- 
fore the fire to dry. Then place on a dish 
and pour the broth it was boiled in round 
it. 

60. 

RICE CROQUETTES. 

To some cold boiled rice add enough 
beaten egg to allow of making the rice into 
balls. Add also sugar and lemon peel, or 
any flavoring to suit the taste. Then form 
the mass into small oval balls or cakes, 
sprinkle with bread crumbs, and dip in beaten 
egg. Fry in butter. When done sprinkle 
with sugar. 

61. 

RICE PUDDING. 

See No. 73. 

62. 

OATMEAL PANCAKES. 

Mix together, dry, 1-2 pint flour, 1-2 pint 
oatmeal, and 2 teaspoonfuls Baking Powder. 



94 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

Add enough cold water to form into a thick 
batter, and a pinch of salt. Have the fry- 
ing pan hot, and grease it with a piece of 
pork fat. Pour on some of the batter, form- 
ing three cakes which will not touch one 
another. When one side is cooked, turn with 
a knife. A little experience will teach the 
exact amount of Baking Powder to use to 
produce light cakes, and the proper consist- 
ency of the batter. A good bed of hot 
coals is required, to fry properly, and the 
pan must be well greased before cooking each 
batch of cakes. 

63. 

FLOUR PANCAKES. 

To i pint of flour add enough milk to 
form into a thick batter. Beat up 3 eggs, 
and add. Beat the whole until perfectly 
smooth. Add a pinch of salt. Fry in the 
frying pan, observing the directions given in 
No. 62. 



CAMP COOKERY. 95 

64. 
INDIAN MEAL CAKES. 

(The following is quoted from "The Complete 
American Trapper," and may be tried if wished. 
We have never tested this Recipe, but it should be a 
success.) 

''Indian meal cakes are easily made by 
dropping a quantity of the hot mush (Indian 
meal porridge, boiled for an hour,) in the 
frying pan, having previously stirred in a 
small quantity of soda, (or baking powder) 
and turning it as soon as the lower side is 
browned." See directions for frying in No. 
62. 

65. 

OATMEAL PORRIDGE. 

Moisten 1 pint of oatmeal with some cold 
water, add a little salt, and pour into 2 
pints of boiling water. Boil half an hour or 
more. If too thick add more water. Boil 
slowly and stir frequently. 



96 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

66. 
CORN MEAL PORRIDGE. 

Corn, or Indian meal porridge is made in 
the same manner as Oatmeal, (See No. 65) 
and the same proportions of meal and water 
are used. Boil for at least one hour. 

67. 

CORN MEAL PORRIDGE, FRIED. 

The porridge, or sapaun, as the Indians term 
it, produced by following recipe No. 66, may 
be sliced when cold, and fried with lard or 
pork fat. 

68. 

HOE CAKE. 

Pour enough boiling water, or milk, on 
corn meal, (salted) to moisten it. Let it 
stand for an hour, or longer. Put three ta- 
blespoonfuls on the hot frying pan, and form 
into a round cake about half an inch thick. 
When brown, turn it over. Grease the pan 
with lard or pork fat. 



CAMP COOKERY. 97 

69. 
CORN BREAD. 

Into i pint of corn meal pour boiling wa- 
ter enough to wet it. Dissolve one-half tea- 
spoon soda in hot water, (or mix same quan- 
tity of baking powder with the meal while 
dry) and add it with two well beaten eggs, 
1 teaspoon salt, and butter the size of an 
egg. Stir well and bake in buttered pans 
(tin plates will do) for half an hour in the 
Dutch oven, or before the open fire. Have 
a strong fire, in either case. 

70. 

OAT CAKT. 

To i pint of oatmeal add i teaspoon of 
baking powder, mix well, and add enough 
cold water to moisten, and a pint of salt. 
Spread about half an inch thick on the fry- 
ing pan well greased. Hold over the fire 
to bake. Turn when bottom is done ; or 
roast in the Dutch oven. The cake should 
not scorch, but gradually dry through. 



gS THE HUNTERS HANDBOOK. 

7 1 - 
BREAD. 

When camping out, we can make excellent 
bread by the following method : — To i quart 
of flour add 3 teaspoonfuls of baking pow- 
der, and mix well while dry. Add a pinch 
of salt. Mix with cold water, or sweet 
milk, into a thick dough that can be handled 
without sticking. Knea.d it thoroughly ; on 
this depends its excellence. Rub dry flour 
on the hands to prevent the dough from 
sticking. Form into round biscuits or loaves. 
Bake before a good fire, or in the Dutch 
oven. These biscuits may also be baked in 
a frying pan, holding it over the fire, to 
cook slowly, and turning the biscuits as often 
as necessary. They are best when cold. 

PUDDINGS. 

72. 
BATTER PUDDING, BAKED OR BOILED. 

Take 6 ozs. flour, a little salt, and 3 eggs 
beaten ; beat all together with milk,, added 



CAMP COOKERY. 99 

by degrees, until of the thickness of cream, 
put into a buttered pan, and bake in Dutch 
oven for about an hour. If to be boilled, 
Put the mixture into a buttered and floured 
mold, (tin cups will answer the purpose) and 
tie over with a cloth. Place the mould in a 
kettle of boiling water. Boil one hour and 
a half, or more. The longer time will pro- 
duce a lighter article. Eat with butter and 
sugar. 

73- 

RICE PUDDING. 

Boil some rice and raisins, as directed in 
No. 58, but do not steam the rice. Let 
there be a little water in it. When done, 
add two or three beaten eggs, well stirred 
in, and a little sugar. Let simmer four or 
five minutes, and set aside to cool. 

74- 

COSSACKS' PLUM PUDDING. 

Mix well together 1 lb. of flour, 3-4 lb. 
raisins, 3-4 lb. pork fat chopped fine, 2 



ioo THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

tablespoonfuls syrup or sugar, and 1-2 pint 
water. Tie tightly in a cloth, and boil 4 
hours. For sauce see No. 82. 

SALAD-DRESSINGS AND SAUCES. 

75- 

DRESSING FOR CANNED LOBSTER, ETC. 

Rub the yolks of 2 hard-boiled eggs to a 
smooth paste with 1 dessert spoonful of salad 
oil, or melted butter, add to it 2 teaspoon- 
fuls of made mustard, and 1 teaspoonful fine 
white sugar, and put to it gradually a cup 
of vinegar. 

Another: — 

2 potatoes mashed; 1 tablespoonful made 
mustard; 1 teaspoonful salt; 3 tablespoonfuls 
salad oil, or melted butter ; 4 tablespoonfuls 
vinegar ; yolks of 2 hard-boiled eggs pounded 
fine ; 1 onion cut fine, and one tablespoonful 
Anchory or other sauce. Mix. all together 
and pour over lobster, etc. 



CAMP COOKERY. 101 

76. 
TOMATO SALAD. 

Cut tomatoes, not over ripe, into slices. 
Cut up, as fine as possible, some small on- 
ions, one to each tomato, and sprinkle over 
slices of tomato. Add pepper, salt and vin- 
egar. Onions may be soaked, or partially 
cooked, if considered too strong. 

77- 

DUTCH SAUCE FOR MEAT OR FISH. 

Put 6 spoonfuls of water, and 4 of vine- 
gar, into a warm pan, and thicken with the 
beaten yolks of 2 eggs. Make quite hot, 
but do not boil. Squeeze in some lemon 
juice. Pour over meat, etc. 

78. 

SAUCE FOR DUCKS, GEESE, ETC. 

Chop very fine 1 oz. onion and 1-2 oz. 
sage or mixed herbs. Put them into the 
frying pan to stew with 4 tablespoonfuls of 



to- THE IJLWTER'S HANDBOOK. 

water. Simmer gently for 10 minutes, then 
add i teaspoonful of pepper and salt, and i 
oz. fine bread crumbs, or biscuit broken very 
fine. Mix well together. Then pour to it 
a gill of broth (see No. 3) or melted but- 
ter, Stir well together, and simmer a few 
minutes longer. 

79- 

DRAWN BUTTER, OR WHITE SAUCE, FOR FISH, 
ONIONS, ETC. 

To the desired quantity of milk, add 
enough moistened flour to thicken; add a 
lump of butter and a little salt. Boil slowly 
for ten or fifteen minutes. If milk cannot 
be had, water will dc. (See 81.) 

80. 

PUDDING SAUCE. 

1 teaspoonful of milk, and 2 yolks of eggs 
well beaten, and some sugar ; place on fire, 
and stir till it just comes to the boil ; then 
let it cool. When luke-warm, stir it into a 



CAMP COOKERY. 103 

glass of sherry, or the same quantity of 
water with a small dash of any liquor. 

81. 

SAUCE HOLLANDAISE, OR DRAWN BUTTER FOR 
FISH. 

2 spoonfuls of flour mixed with 1 pint of 
water. Place in fry-pan, and when cooked 
add pepper, salt, lemon juice, and the yolks 
of 2 eggs, beaten. Take off fire and add 
1-2 lb. butter. Stir all the time. 

82. 

PLUM PUDDING SAUCE. 

Mix some fine white sugar with some 
melted butter ; add a glass of sherry, a 
small glass of brandy, and a little nutmeg 
and lemon-peel grated. 

BEVERAGES. 

TEA. 

General Remarks. 
To ensure having a good cup of tea, you 
must buy a good article from a responsible 



104 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

grocer. No article of commerce is more 
largely adulterated, or with more disgust- 
ing, baneful substances than tea. The vast 
difference in the prices of this article shows 
at once that the modern trade therein has 
become greatly prostituted. If the tea which 
is sold for fifteen cents per pound is good, 
how shall we name that which is sold for 
ninety cents per pound ? If the ninety cents 
is an honest price, and no fancy figure, 
then the tea sold at the lower price must in- 
deed be trash. That the hunter may be 
careful when purchasing this his favorite bev. 
erage, I quote the following remarks from 
one of our daily papers: — 

" A recent analysis of some samples of al- 
leged tea in New York, showed that the 
specimens examined contained the following 
articles : Nutgalls, currant leaves, iron filings, 
filbert husks, sulphate of copper, oak bark, 
hornets' and wasps' nests shredded and col- 
ored, acetic acid, aloes, manila paper, vernal 
grass, and other things too numerous and dis- 



CAMP COOKERY. 105 

gusting to mention." As teas vary some- 
what in strength, and as different people have 
different tastes to be suited, it is impossible 
to lay down any exact rule for the amount 
of tea to add to a given quantity of water. 
As a general guide the following formula 
may be used : — 

8 3 . 

TEA, TO STEEP OR DRAW. 

An old rule runs, " 1 teaspoonful for each 

cup, and one for the tea-pot." This is 

rather ambiguous. It may mean either "1 

teaspoonful for each cup placed on the table, 

i. e., for each person," or "1 teaspoonful for 
each cup of tea expected to be used, or for 

each cup of water placed in the tea-kettle." 

However, the following is generally used at 

the camp fire: — Put 1 oz. tea, or 2 1-2 

tablespoonfuls, heaped, to 4 pints of boiling 

water. Remove immediately from the fire. 

Cover slowly. Shake the kettle, and place 

by the fire, but do not let it boil. Should 



io6 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

this proportion make the tea too strong, or 
too weak, regulate the next drawing accord- 
ingly. Use the purest soft water attainable. 
Tea which is allowed to stand for a long 
time with the leaves in it, becomes very un- 
wholesome, and if it is desired to keep some 
cold, to drink during the day, it should be 
poured from the leaves into another can as 
soon as sufficiently drawn, or the leaves may 
be dipped out with a spoon. Tea drank to 
excess will produce nervousness, and strong 
green tea may so far injure health as to 
produce lameness and neuralgia. 

84. 

COFFEE, TO DRAW. 
(Buy fresh ground, rather than the imported packages.) 
Add coffee to boiling water in the propor- 
tion of 1 oz., or 3 table.spoonfuls, to 1 
quart. Boil for 30 minutes or longer. If 
the coffee does not settle, dash in half a cup 
of cold water, and let stand a few minutes. 
Should the coffee be weak, use more when 
next making. 



CAMP COOKERY. 107 

85- 

COFFEE, TO IMPROVE FLAVOR OF 

The flavor of coffee may be greatly im- 
proved, and its delicate aroma increased, by 
adding a little soda to the water with which 
it is made. A very little will suffice. 

86. 

COFFEE, SUBSTITUTE FOR CREAM IN. 

Beat an egg to a froth, put to it a piece 
of butter the size of a walnut, place in a 
can and pour the coffee on to it gradually 
from the pot, or stir the egg into the coffee, 
when off the fire, if you have no other can 
at hand. 

87. 

COFFEE, ESSENCE, OR EXTRACT OF. 

This article, sold by grocers, is to be rec- 
ommended, and produces, with boiling water, 
an instantaneous cup of coffee. Directions 
accompany each bottle. 



io8 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

88. 
MISCELLANEOUS BEVERAGES. 

The following articles, which are all to be 
recommended, have directions printed on the 
wrappers or boxes : — Cocoa, chocolate, Cadbury's 
essence of cocoa, broma, kacka, etc. Cocoa 
forms a very nourishing drink to partake of 
in the morning before the labor of cooking 
a regular breakfast is undertaken, and will be 
of use to those amateurs who are unaccus- 
tomed to very early rising, or to working be- 
fore breakfast. It may be prepared with 
water alone, if no milk is to be procured. 
A few bottles of lime juice will be an excel- 
lent addition to the hunter's outfit. 

APPENDIX. 

The following useful Receipts were omitted under the 
heading of "Fish " : 

8 9 . 

COD-FISH, SALT, TO BOIL. 

Wash the fish well, and cut into pieces, 
according to size of pot. Place in the pot 



CAMP COOKERY. 109 

with cold water and set on fire to boil slow- 
ly. Change the water once. This will 
freshen the fish, and render it cleaner. A 
good method is to soak the fish, cut up, in 
water over night, and cook next day. When 
done, remove skin and bones. For sauce 
see Nos. 79-81. 

90. 

FISH CAKES (WITH RAW FISH). 

1 pint salt cod-fish, raw, picked very fine, 
and as many raw, whole, peeled potatoes as 
will be equal to 2 pints. Put together in 
cold water and boil until potatoes are thor- 
oughly cooked ; remove from the fire and 
drain off the water. Mash together. Add 
butter size of an egg, two well-beaten eggs, 
and a little pepper. Mix well together. 
Drop, 1 spoonful at a time, into the frying 
pan well, greased with lard. Brown* and 
turn. Do not mould these cakes with the 
hand ; drop the mixture from a spoon. Use 
sauce, mustard, etc. 



no THE HUX TEN'S HAXDBOOK. 

91. 

FISH CAKES (WITH COOKED FISH). 

Take cold, boiled cod-fish and cold, boiled 
potatoes. Pick all the bones from fish, and 
mash fish and potatoes together. Add a 
little pepper, and salt if necessary. Form 
into cakes, and fry with lard until the out- 
sides are brown and crisp. Use sauce, mus- 
tard, etc. 



SECTION IX. 

THE LAST RESOURCE, OR WHAT TO USE WHEN 
PROVISIONS RUN SHORT. 

The hunter may sometimes find himself 
far from home, with his provisions at a very- 
low ebb, no money in his pocket, and no 
game to be secured. It is then that he has 
to call up all his powers of endurance, and 
to exercise all his knowledge of cooking to 
make his provisions go as far as possible. 
True, if he is passing through a settled coun- 
try he can not starve, but if his route lies 
through a land of famine he may have to 
eat many things which are not included in 
the list of his ordinary food. We do not gen- 
erally eat frogs, meadow-hens, or beavers, 
and yet these are all good articles ot food, 
and the hunter who can obtain them, when 



ii2 THE HU XT EFTS Hs* XDBOOK. 

his provisions are expended, should consider 
himself to be in luck. He might be re- 
duced to the necessity of eating still more 
objectionable articles. I have known men 
who were glad to eat skunk flesh. What 
we eat is more a matter of custom than of 
the superior fitness of the articles of our 
diet. This fact appears more fully when we 
remember that the natives of the South Seas 
eat their snakes, beetles and worms ; the 
Chinese their birds' nests ; the civilized in- 
habitants of Europe their frogs and horse 
flesh, and the Esquimaux the oily blubber 
of the whale. Mostly every school-boy in 
America can relate how the Indians of the 
North and West eat their dogs ; how the 
cannibals of Polynesia devour their own spe- 
cies. But we will not enter into any deep 
discussion on this subject. We merely wish 
to show the amateur hunter that should he 
be placed on short rations, by any unavoid- 
able circumstances, or be perfectly destitute of 
his ordinary food, he has still at his com- 



CAMP COOKERY. 113 

mand many articles which will sustain life. 
The hunter should watch his decreasing stock 
of provisions with a jealous eye, and so 
regulate his return journey that he will reach 
a place where he may replenish his larder 
before his stock is entirely consumed. As 
stated elsewhere, the soup-pot is the best 
utensil to use when rations run short. A 
proper manipulation will make a small amount 
of food do great service. 

The following receipts may be of use to the 
hunter \ some of them, indeed, may be used 
at any time, but they are so appropriate for 
use in times of scarcity of provisions that we 
have placed them under this head. 

92. 

POTATO SOUP. 

Peel and chop 4 onions and put them in- 
to a kettle with 2 oz. fat or butter, add 3 
quarts of water, and boil half an hour. 
Then add 4 lbs, peeled and sliced potatoes, 
pepper and salt to taste ; stir well on the 



U4 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

fire for half an hour. Any scraps of meat* 

biscuits, or a little rice, barley or flour, or 

some mixed herbs will of course improve 
this dish. 

93- 

DANDELIONS, AS GREENS. 

Gather some tops of dandelions, wash well, 
and put into just enough salted boiling water 
to cover them. When tender squeeze out all 
the water, place them in the frying-pan, and 
fry for a few minutes, with a little salt, pep- 
per and butter, or pork fat. When done, 
add some slices of hard-boiled eggs if ob- 
tainable. 

94. 

CORN MEAL. 

If a good supply of this wholesome article 
is carried in a bag, it will form a valuable 
stand-by when what is generally considered to 
be more dainty food is scarce. Methods for 
using are given in Nos. 64-66-67-68-69. 



CAMP COOKERY. 115 

95- 

FROGS, TO ROAST, FRY OR STEW. 

The hind legs only of frogs are used. 
These may be roasted before the fire, (see 
No. 20,) fried in the pan, (see Nos. 24-25,) 
or stewed, (see Nos. 23-26,) using such in- 
gredients as are obtainable. 

96. 

MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES TO USE. 

The following articles may be used if oc- 
casion arises : — Squirrels are very good as 

food. This fact is not generally known 
among amateur hunters. Cook as directed in 
Nos. 22 or 25. Meadow-hen ; roast, (see 
No. 22,) fry, (see No. 24) or stew, (see No. 
23.) Black-birds — same as meadow-hens. 
If the hunter has to eat any very strong, 
objectionable flesh or fowls, the articles should 
be thoroughly washed and par-boiled, and 
such things as onions, pepper and salt used 
freely, if on hand. 



INDEX TO SECTION XI. 

MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 

Page. 

To preserve Meat and Fish 131 

To salt Meat and Fish 132 

To preserve Dead Game 133 

Boot Grease 133 

How to Load a Gun ...... 134 



SECTION X. 

THE TREATMENT OF DROWNING, WOUNDS, ACCIDENTS, 
BITES AND STINGS, ETC. 

As the hunter is much exposed to accidents, he 
should have in his outfit such simple remedies as 
experience teaches him may be most useful. We may 
enumerate the following articles : — A strip of Stick- 
ing Plaster, Bottle of Tincture of Arnica, Bottle of 
some strong Liniment, Bottle of Diarrhoea Mixture, 
Bottle of Dark Brandy, and a box of Cathartic Pills. 

The following methods of treating Bites, Wounds, 
Cuts, etc., will prove to be effectual, in the absence 
of a Physician. 

I. 

BURNS AND SCALDS. 

To burns apply some cotton dipped in oil, 
or grease the spot with any fat at hand. 
Scalds may be treated in the same way j or 



n8 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

covered with scraped raw potato ; or cover 
the scald with treacle, and dust well with 
flour. 

2. 

ORDINARY CUTS. 

Use thin strips of sticking plaster. Bring 
the edges of the wound carefully together. 

3- 

LARGE CUTS. 

Cut two broad pieces of sticking plaster so 
as to look like a comb ; clean the wound, 
pouring on some lukewarm water ; place a 
piece of the plaster on either side of the 
wound. These pieces should have been so 
cut, and must be so arranged, that they 
shall interlace each other. Cross the pro- 
jecting strips, or teeth, and by pulling them 
through each other close the wound, then 
press the sticking plaster well clown, both 
on the flesh and where it crosses itself. 



TREATMENT OF £>/?OtVA r /A'G t ETC. 119 
CONTUSIONS, OR BRUISES. 

Bathe with Tincture of Arnica, and bind 
with a piece of cotton, on which pour a few 
drops of the Tincture, or bathe in cold wa- 
ter and bind with damp cotton. If the 
skin is broken dilute the Arnica with twelve 
parts water, 

5- 

HEMORRHAGE. 

When an artery is divided or torn the 
blood jumps out of the wound, and is of a 
bright scarlet color. If a vein is injured 
the blood is darker and flows evenly. To 
stop the latter apply a bandage, and under 
it place a piece of cotton or other cloth 
folded, so as to press on the vein. In ap- 
plying bandages to arrest arterial bleeding 
be careful to place them between the wound 
and the heart. If the wound is in the arm, 
tie a piece of tape, or cord that will not 



120 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

cut, loosely round the arm above the cut. 
Pass a small stick under the tape and twist 
it round until the tape compresses the arm 
tightly enough to arrest the bleeding. Then 
tie the stick in position. If it still bleeds 
place a cork, or piece cf wood rolled in 
cloth, underneath the tape, on the inside of 
the fleshy part of the arm where the artery 
may be felt beating. If the wound is in the 
leg and the twisted tape, placed above the 
wound, fails to arrest the bleeding, place the 
cork in the direction of a line drawn from 
the inner part of the knee a little to the out- 
side of the groin. The object is to com- 
press the artery. 

6. 

BLEEDING AT THE NOSE. 

Plug the nostrils with lint, and bathe the 
forehead and nose with cold water, keeping 
the head raised. Raise the arms, and place 
both hands behind the head, allowing the 



TREA TMENT OF DRO WNING, E TC. 1 2 1 

head to rest on them. To chew a piece of 
paper, or other substances, also tends to ar- 
rest the bleeding. 



VIOLENT SHOCKS. 

When a person is rendered unconscious, 
untie all strings, collar, etc., and loosen any 
clothing that is tight and interferes with the 
breathing. Raise the head, and note if there 
is any bleeding from any part; apply smell- 
ing salts or a burning feather to the nose, 
and hot bottles to the feet. 



CHOKING. 

If a bone, or other substance is caught in 
the throat, insert the forefinger and press 
upon the roof of the tongue to induce vom- 
iting. If this does not have the desired 
effect, swallow a large piece of potato or 
soft bread. If these fail to remove the ob- 



122 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

struction, take a mustard emetic. (A large 
teaspoonful of mustard, mixed with a tumbler 
of warm water.) 

9- 

DROWNING. 

Send for medical assistance immediately, 
and in the mean time proceed as follows : 
i. Strip the body and rub it dry ; then rub 
with hot blankets, and place on a warm bed, 
in a warm room if possible. 2. Cleanse 
away the froth from the nose and mouth. 
3. Apply warm bricks or stones, bottles, etc., 
to the arm-pits, between the thighs, and to 
the soles of the feet. 4. Rub the body with 
the hands enclosed in warm socks. 5. If 
possible, place the body in a warm bath. 
6. To restore breathing, put the pipe of a 
common bellows into one nostril, (or blow 
into the nostril)' carefully closing the other 
and the mouth ; at the same time draw 
downwards, and push gently backwards the 
upper part of the windpipe, to allow a free 



TREATMENT OF DROWNING, ETC. 1:3 

admission of air; blow the bellows gently, 
to inflate the lungs, till the breast is raised 
a little ; then set the mouth and nostrils free, 
and press gently on the chest. Repeat this 
operation of inflating the lungs until signs 
of life appear. When the patient revives 
apply smelling salts to the nose, if obtain- 
able, and give some warm wine or brandy 
and water. Never hold the body up by the 
feet. Do not rub the body with salt or 
spirits and do not roll on casks. These 
remedies should be continued for twelve 
hours. 

10. 

SUNSTROKE, APOPLEXY, AND FITS. 

Raise the head and support it by gentle 
pressure on the sides of the head ; unloose 
all tight clothes, strings, etc., and apply 
cold water to the head and face. Send for 
medical assistance if procurable. 



124 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

ii. 

NARCOTIC POISONS. 

(Bane berries; fools parsley; deadly nightshade; 
water hemlock ; thorn apple ; opium, etc.) 

Give emetics, large draughts of fluids, tickle 
the throat, apply smelling salts to the nose, 
dash cold water over the face and chest, 
apply mustard poultices, and endeavor to 
rouse the person by walking between two 
persons, and, if possible, by electricity. 

12. 

VEGETABLE IRRITATING POISONS. 

(Mezereon ; monks-hood ; bitter apple ; gamboge, 
etc.) 

Give emetics of mustard or chamomile, large 
draughts of warm milk, or other bland fluids, 
leech the belly if necessary, and give strong 
infusion of coffee. 

POISONOUS FISH. 
(Old-wife ; sea-lobster ; mussel ; tunney ; blower ; rock- 
fish, etc.) 

Give an emetic, excite vomiting by tickling 



TREATMENT OF DROWNING, ETC. 125 

the throat, and draughts of warm water. Fol- 
low emetics by purgatives, and give sugar 
and water to drink freely. 

14. 

BITES OF REPTILES. 
(Viper ; black-viper ; rattle-snake, etc.) 
If possible, immediately tie a tape or string 
between the wound and the heart, and draw 
tight. Scarify the parts with a penknife, or 
other sharp instrument to excite bleeding, and 
apply a cupping glass over the bite, fre- 
quently removing it, and bathing the wounds 
in volatile alkali, (or some liniment.) If a 
cupping glass cannot be procured, make the 
wound bleed as much as possible, and suck 
it, or burn it well with a hot poker. Give 

the patient plenty of whiskey, if possible, and 
cover up warmly. 

BITES OF MAD ANIMALS. 

Tie a string tightly above the part, cut out 
the bite, and cauterize the wound with a red 



126 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

hot poker, or lunar caustic. Give a purga- 
tive, and plenty of warm drink. 

. 16. 

SIMPLE BITES. 

For small bites (where the animal is not 
mad) bathe the part well with Tincture of 
Arnica diluted with twelve times the quantity 
of water. 

17- 

NETTLE STING. 

Rub the part with green sage leaves, or 
bathe with water in which some herbs have 
been steeped. 

18. 

STINGS OF BEES AND WASPS. 

Pull the sting out, pressing a watch key 
over it to expose it well ; suck the wound, 
if possible, and bathe with cold water. 

19. 

TREATMENT OF DIARRHOEA. 

This complaint is very liable to attack 
amateur hunters, being induced by change of 



TREATMENT OF DROWNING, ETC. 127 

water, diet, and mode of living. A bottle of 
Diarrhoea mixture may be procured of any 
druggist, and should have a place in the 
hunter's outfit. In absence of such med- 
icine try the following : — Half a cupful of 
milk or water, and one teaspoonful of pepper, 
mix and drink. Abstain from soft food. 
Brandy and pepper is a more effectual remedy. 
Dr. Franklin, in his "Advice to Swimmers," 
says : " It is certain that much swimming is 
the means of stopping diarrhoea, and even of 
producing constipation. With respect to those 
who do not know how to swim, or who are 
affected with diarrhoea at a season which 
does not permit them to use that exercise, a 
warm bath, by cleansing and purifying the 
skin, is found very salutary, and often affects 
a radical cure." 

20. 

BLACK-FLIES, MOSQUITOES, ETC., OINTMENTS FOR 
PROTECTION FROM. 

These pests generally infest every locality 
frequented by the hunter, and to guard against 



128 THE HUNTER'S HA XD BOOK. 

their bites some of the following prepara- 
tions should be carried : 

i. The simple herb, pennyroyal, found in 
most sandy localities, rubbed on the hands 
and face, will check the attacks of insects. 

2. Make an ointment of i ounce oil of 
pennyroyal, 3 ounces lard. Put into a little 
wooden box, or wide-mouthed bottle, and 
apply when required. 

3. Mix common tar and sweet oil in equal 
parts. Bottle for use. 

4. Tobacco smoke is obnoxious to mos- 
quitoes, and if the pipe be lighted, those pests 
will not be so troublesome. 

21. 

BLACK-FLIES, MOSQUITOES, ETC., TO RID THE 
TENT OF. 

When these insects infest the tent, a 
smudge should be lighted in the windward door- 
way or placed under the windward curtain. 
The smudge is composed of birch, or other 
bark, set on fire and covered with green 



TREATMENT OF DROWNING, ETC. 129 

grass, leaves, or other materials which will 
create a large amount of smoke. While 
the smoke is passing through the tent, drive 
out all the insects with a towel or cloth, 
then close the tent, and the smudge may be 
removed. It is a good plan to continue the 
smudge outside the tent, in such a position 
that the breeze will drift the smoke on the 
canvas. This will drive off the insects with- 
out filling the tent with the smoke. 



INDEX TO SECTION X. 

THE TREATMENT OF DROWNING, WOUNDS, 

ETC. 



No 




Page. 




General Remarks 


117 


I 


Burns and Scalds ...... 


117 


2. 




Il8 


3- 




Tl8 


4- 


Contusions or bruises .... 


119 


5- 


Hemorrhage 


119 


6 


Bleeding at the nose .... 


120 


7- 




121 


8. 




121 


9- 




122 


10. 


Sunstroke, Apoplexy, and Fits 


I23 


ii 


Narcotic Poisons . .... 


124 


12. 


Vegetable Irritating Poisons 


124 


J 3- 




124 


14. 


Bites of Reptiles 


125 


I 5- 


Bites of Mad Animals 


I2 5 


16. 




126 


17- 




126 


i3. 


Stings of Bees and Wasps 


126 


19. 


Treatment of Diarrhoea .... 


126 


20 


Black-flies, Mosquitos, etc., Ointments for 






protection from ...... 


127 


21 


Black-flies, Mosquitos, etc., to rid the tent 








128 



SECTION XI. 
MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 

TO PRESERVE MEAT AND FISH. 

The hunter may at times secure more game 
than he can immediately use, and he should 
then employ some of the following methods 
to preserve the surplus for future needs : — 

i. To dry meat and fish :— For meat, cut 
the flesh intp small, thin strips, all the meat 
being cleaned off the bones. If venison, 
place the pieces of meat on the inside of 
the hide of the animal, and mix well with 
salt. Roll these pieces up in the hide and 
let it stand for three hours. Build a frame 
over the fire-place by driving four forked 
poles into the ground in the form of a 
square, and about six feet apart. The forks 



132 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

should be about four feet above the ground. 
On these lay a frame-work of poles, spread 
the strips of meat on the frame, and start 
a good steady fire of hard wood beneath. 
Keep the fire lighted for twenty-four hours. 
The meat thus prepared will keep for al- 
most any length of time. Moose and bear 
meat is dried in the same manner. If the 
hide is not available to wrap the salted 
strips in, place them in layers in any vessel. 
The object is to let them absorb the salt, 
which the fire afterward dries in. 

Fish may be dried in the same manner. 
Scale them, spread open by cutting down 
the back, clean them, and remove backbone. 

2 To salt meat and fish : — When it is not 
desired to keep the meat or fish for any 
length of time, we may cut the meat into 
convenient pieces, and place in layers in an 
earthen vessel, using pepper and salt freely, 
and keeping the vessel covered in a cool 
place. For fish, clean as usual, from the 
belly cut down the back, and so divide into 



MISCELLAXEOUS RECEIPTS. 133 

two pieces, place in layers in an earthen or 
wooden vessel, sprinkling each piece freely 
with salt and a little pepper. Keep in a 
cool place. 

TO PRESERVE DEAD GAME. 

If only for a short time, clean, pluck and 
place in a covered jar, using salt and pep- 
per freely. If for a long time, proceed as 
follows : — Take out the intestines, pluck, fill 
the inside with unground wheat, and place 
the fowl in a heap or cask of the same 
grain, in such a manner as to insure its 
being covered. It will keep for months. 

BOOT GREASE. 

A simple preparation for boots and shoes 
is made as follows : Melt together 1 part 
black rosin, 2 parts beeswax, and 3 parts 
tallow (candle will do) or other fat. This 
keeps the leather soft and waterproof. Pour 
into a tin box, and melt at fire when wanted 
to apply. 



134 THE HUXTER'S HAXDBOOK. 

HOW TO LOAD A GUN. 

The following old-fashioned rhyme contains some 
good hints on loading a muzzle loader : — 

"Our sport almost at hand, we charge the 
Gun, 

Whilst ev'ry well-bred Dog lies quietly 
down. 

Charge not before. If over night the 
piece 

Stands loaded, In the Morn the Prime 
will hiss ; 

Nor Prime too full, else You will surely 
blame 

The hanging Fire, and lose the pointed 
Aim 

Yet cleanse the Touch-hole first ; a Par- 
tridge Wing, 

Most to the field for this wise Purpose 
bring. 

In charging next, good Workmen never 
fail 

To ram the Powder well, but not the 
Ball. 



SECTION XII. 



SIGNS OF THE WEATHER. 



It is very convenient for the hunter to be 
able to tell, by observing the present state 
of the weather, what state will exist during 
the next day, or for perhaps a longer period. 
He may thus tell whether he will be able 
to strike tent, or start on any arranged ex- 
cursion on the morrow, or whether he had 
better remain in camp and avoid a wetting. 

The signs of the weather, as seen in the 
sky and clouds, are nothing more than the 
existing state of the weather, but as one state 
is invariably followed by another of a de- 
scription which never varies, we may, by 
observing the present state, after some expe- 
rience, foretell the state which shall neces- 
sarily succeed. In presenting a few remarks 



136 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

to guide the hunter in fore-casting the weather, 
f we shall not touch upon any of the complex 
considerations by which "the weather prophet" 
arrives at his learned conclusions, We shall 
confine ourselves to some of the simplest 
rules laid down by those observers of nature 
who have given us the benefit of their studies ; 
rules which have been proved to be trust- 
worthy. 

1. 

SIGNS IN THE SKY AND HEAVENLY BODIES. 
An easily-remembered little rhyme runs as follows : 

Evening red and morning grey 
Will set the traveler on his way ; 
But evening grey and morning red 
Will bring down rain upon his head. 

This is truth and poetry combined. An 
old couplet, worthy of credence, says : 

If it rains before seven, 
It will clear before eleven, 
In other language, early morning rains do 
not continue for any length of time. 



61GJVS OF THE WEATHER. 137 

A clear sky and dead calm at sunset, with 
the sun going down a well-defined form, but 
on which the eye can gaze without being 
dazzled, indicate, in summer, a warm, bright 
morrow ; in winter, such a sunset is suc- 
ceeded by sharp frost. 

A yellow sunset indicates wet, soon to fol- 
low. 

If it rains before sunrise, there will be a 
fine afternoon. 

A red evening foretells fine weather, but 
if the color spreads very far upwards from 
the horizon in the evening ; or if the color 
spreads in like manner at sunrise, it foretells 
wind or rain, or both. 

If the sun at rising appears enlarged there 
will shortly be sudden and sharp showers, if 
in summer; but in winter settled and moder- 
ate weather. 

Halos, cornas, etc., indicate coining rain or 
snow. 

A haziness in the atmosphere, which ob- 
scures the sunlight, and makes the sun look 



138 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

white or ill-defined, foretells rain. If at night 
the moon and stars grow dim, rain will fol- 
low. 

If the sun is white at setting, or shorn of 
his rays, or goes down behind a bank of 
clouds on the horizon, bad weather is to be 
expected. 

If the moon looks pale and dim, expect 
rain , if red, wind ; if of her natural color, 
with a clear sky, fair weather will obtain. 

If the sun at rising is surrounded by an 
iris, or circle of white clouds, fair weather 
will follow, for a short time. 

If there are red clouds in the west at 
sunset, it will be fine ; if they have a tint 
of purple, it will be very fine ; or if red, 
bordered with black in the southeast. 

If there be a ring or halo round the sun 
in bad weather, fine weather is at hand. 

If there be lightning without thunder after 
a clear day, fair weather will continue. 

Before much rain the clouds grow bigger, 
and increase very fast. When the clouds are 



SIGNS OF THE WEATHER. 139 

formed like fleeces, but dense in the middle 
and bright towards the edges, with a bright 
sky, they are signs of frost, with hail, snow, 
or rain. If clouds from high in the air, in 
thin white trains like locks of wool they fore- 
tell wind and probably rain. When a gen- 
eral cloudiness covers the sky, and small 
black fragments of clouds fly underneath, they 
are a sure sign of rain, and probably it will 
be lasting. Two currents of clouds always 
portend rain, and, in summer, thunder. 

If at sunrise many clouds are seen in the 
west and soon disappear, fine weather will 
obtain. 

If the clouds at sunrise move to the west, 
fine weather, of short duration, will exist. 

If there be a rainbow during continued wet 
weather, the rain will soon be over. 

If a rainbow disappear suddenly, it will be 
fine. 

The following signs all foretell foul, wet 
weather : — 

If the sun rise pale, or purple red, or 



140 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

even dark blue, there will be rain during 
the day. 

If the clouds are red at sunrise, there will 
be rain the next day. 

If at sunrise many dark clouds are seen in 
the west, and remain, it will rain on that 
day. 

If the sun at rising is covered by a dark 
spotted cloud, it will rain the same day. 

If the sun burn more than usual , or there 
be a halo round the sun or moon during fine 
weather, foul weather is at hand.* 

If it rain during sunshine, showers will 
continue. 

If the full moon rise pale ; wet. If it rise 
red ; wind. 

If the stars appear larger, and closer, and 
flicker, rain or wind is at hand. 

An Aurora Borealis foretells wet weather. 

A continued rain from the south is scarcely 

* In "The Wreck of the Hesperus" the Old Sailor says: 
"I pray thee put into yonder port, For I fear a hurricane." 
"Last night the moon had a golden ring, and to night no 
moon we see." 



SIGNS OF THE WEATHER. 141 

ever succeeded by settled weather before the 
wind changes, either to the west or some 
point of the north. 

If rain falls during an east wind, it may 
be expected to continue for twenty-four hours. 

If the sun be seen double, or more times 
reflected in the clouds, expect a heavy storm. 

A very red eastern sky at sunset, indicates 
bad weather. 

2. 

SIGNS IN FOGS AND MISTS. 

A less complicated class of Signs of the Weather 
than those observed in the sky, but one none the 
less accurate in its readings, is that presented by the 
movements of fogs and mists, and the various cir- 
cumstances under which these are formed. Some of 
the simplest conditions under this Class, and the re- 
sults to which they lead, are as follows :— 

If mists rise in low ground and soon van- 
ish, expect fine weather. 

If mists rise to the hill-tops, expect rain 
in a day or two. 

A black mist indicates coming wet. 



1 42 THE HUNTER'S HAXDBOOK. 

When the fog leaves the mountains and 
rises higher, fair weather is at hand. 

If the dew lies plentifully on the grass 
after a fine clay, it is a sign of another. If 
not, and there is no wind, rain will follow. 

If near the full moon there be a general 
mist before sunrise, it will be fine for sev- 
eral days. 

If the fields are covered with a mist be- 
fore sunrise, fine weather is indicated. 

If a white mist, or dew, form in the eve- 
ing near a river, and spread over the adjoin- 
ing: land, there will be fair weather. 

If there be a damp fog or mist, with wind, 
rain will follow. 

If the fields in the morning be covered 
with a heavy wet fog, it will generally rain 
within two or three days. 

If a morning fog form into clouds, at dif- 
ferent heights, which increase in size and 
drive in layers, thunder and heavy rain are 
foretold. 



S/GXS OF UNE WEATHER. 143 



SIGNS GIVEN BY ANIMALS, INSECTS, AND INANI- 
MATE OBJECTS. 

Any change in the weather has its effect upon an- 
imals, birds, insects, and some inanimate objects, and 
these, by their actions, impart to us their knowledge 
of what state of weather is approaching. True, by 
observing the signs which have been treated of in 
Parts 1 and 2 of this Section, we may foretell the 
coming state as soon as can animals or birds, but by 
knowing the meaning of the signs which those crea- 
tures exhibit, we may avail ourselves of a large store 
of knowledge which, though second-hand, is ready- 
made, and as useful as easy of acquirement. The 
facts which have been noted by Naturalists, etc., un- 
der this head, are very volumnious, but we shall re- 
fer only to those which may be of use to the hun- 
ter. 

When rain is coming, ravens caw, swallows 
chntter, small birds plume themselves and 
make a show of washing, crows make a great 
noise in the evening, and geese cackle more 
than usual. 

Sheep huddle together at the approach of 



144 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

bad weather, and turn their tails in its direc- 
tion. Dogs feel lazy at the approach of rain. 

If spiders, in spinning their webs, make the 
terminating filaments long, we may, in propor- 
tion to their length, conclude that the weather 
will be fine and continue so for ten or twelve 
days. Spiders generally alter their webs once 
in 24 hours ; if they do this between six and 
seven in the evening, there will be a fine 
night ; if they alter their web in the morning, 
a fine day; if they work during rain, expect 
fine weather, and the more active and busy 
the spider is, the finer will be the weather. 
If spiders web (gossamer) fly in the autumn 
with a south wind, expect an east wind and 
fine weather. When spiders break and de- 
stroy their nests, and creep away, wet weather 
may be expected. 

If gnats fly in compact bodies in the beams 
of the setting sun, there will be fine weather. 

If bats flutter and beetles fly about, there 
will be a fine morrow. 



SIGNS OF THE WEATHER. 145 

If owls scream during foul weather, it will 
change to fair. 

If storks and cranes fly high and steadily, 
fair weather. 

In all of the following cases, rain is to be 
expected : 

If ditches and drains smell stronger than 
usual. 

If tobacco smoke seems denser and more 
powerful. 

If the convolonlus and chickweed close. 

If foxes and dogs howl and bark more than 
usual. 

If moles cast up hills. 

If horses stretch out their necks, and sniff 
the air, and assemble in the corner of a 
field, with their heads to leeward. 

If turkeys gobble, and if quails make more 
noise than usual. 

If sea-birds fly towards land, and land-birds 
to sea. 

If swallows fly lower than usual. 



146 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK. 

If the crow makes a great deal of noise, 
and fly round and round. 

If water-fowl screams more than usual, and 
plunge into the water. 

If cranes place their bills under their 
wings. 

If fish bite more readily, and gambol near 
the surface of the streams and ponds. 

If frogs and toads croak more than usual. 

If the owl screech. 

When sea-gulls and other birds fly inland 
a stoim is to be expected. 

If the wind be hushed with sudden heat, 
thunder and rain are foretold. 

General Remarks. 

Sudden rains do not last long, but when 
the air grows thick by degrees, and the sun, 
moon, and stars shine dimmer and dimmer, 
it is then likely to rain six hours. 

After very warm and calm weather, a squall 
or storm, with some rain, may follow ; likewise 
at any time when the atmosphere is heated 



SIGNS OF THE WEATHER. 147 

much above the usual temperature of the 
season, and when there is, or recently has 
been, much electric or magnetic disturbances 
in the atmosphere. 

Storms are most frequent in December 
January and February. In September there 
are generally one or two storms. The ver- 
nal equinoctial gales are stronger than the 
autumnal. 

NOTE. All mention of the readings of scientific in- 
struments as presaging the weather, has been pur- 
posely omitted, as the general hunter does not carry 
such instruments on his excursions. While it is im- 
possible to enumerate the sources whence the re- 
marks on the weather have been gathered, I wish, 
nevertheless, to express my indebtedness to a very 
useful volume entitled "Enquire Within," and to a 
copy of "Vernier's Almanac." 



FINIS. 



"In less than one hundred pages is much and deep 
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OR 



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THOMAS HILL, D.D., L.L.D. 

Late President of Harvard University. 

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SHORTHAND WITHOUT A MASTER. 



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Portland, June 2, 1883. 
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From R. M. Pflsifer, of R. M. Fulsifer <fc Co., Proprietors of the 
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The "Herald," Boston, Aug. 17,1881. 
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How the Ant can be enlarged to the size of the Elephant 

BEGINNINGS WITH THE MICROSCOPE. 

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THE TRIBULATIONS OF A FRENCHMAN. 



Broken EnGUSh. 

A Frenchman's Struggles with the English Language. 

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*■>•> 



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KNOW WHAT YOU ARE DRINKING. 



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'• A most valuable little book."- Boston Globe. 

r ,« D i r " & us t' n 'M 1 well-known authority, and his conclusions will com- 
mand attention."— Brooklyn Eagle. 

coI- N ° *.?"? ran P ernsp this book, even for a few moments, without 
seeimr tnat it is verv systematic and concise; plainly written, and well 
worth the price asked "- Medical and Surg.cal Journal, Si. Louis. 



USEFUL IN AN EMERGENCY. 

WHAT IS TO BE DONE? 

A Handbook for the Nursery, with useful Hints for Children 
and Adults. 

By ROBEBT B. DIXOJST, M.D. 

Surgeon of the Fifth mass. Infantry ; 

PHYSICIAN TO THE BOSTON DISPENSARY. 



Price, cloth, SO cents; paper, 30 cents. 



This is not only a useful, but at the same time a clever little hand- 
book, and one which is well adapted for all who have any regard 
for their own health or that of their children. The book contains 
hints and remedies fjr the treatment of accidents and diseases, 
and they are so clearly arranged that any on ". can easily understand 
what do do in an emergency when a physician cannot be reached, or 
before his services can be obtained. Besides the general hints, there 
is a prefix containing a set of rules on the personal care of the health, 
arranged in such a clear and concise manner that they will be not 
only instructive, but, at the same time, exceedingly interesting read- 
ing. If people of ad classes cannot or will not eat, drink, and avoid 
all that is recommended in this book, at least they can learn the 
reason why such and such conditions of atmosphere, diet, and exer- 
cise should be sought for, and such an 1 such determiidng causes of 
ill health be shunned. If every boy and girl in the l.ind could be 
taught the rules to be found in this little book, we have no hesitation 
in saying they would be saved much suffering and disease, and 
would add incalculably to the strength of our Continent by producing 
and preserving a sounder and more vigorous race of human beings. 

This handbook will be found especially useful for cottagers during 
the summer season, who live at some distance from their physician. 

It is, witbort doubt, the best book of the kind yet prepared for the 
non-professioual world. 



rHE MOST COMPLET E BOOK OF THE KI ND EVER WRITTEN. 

Practical Boat-Sailing. 

A concise and simple Treatise on the Management of Small Boaife 
and Yachts under all Conditions; with Explanatory Chapteis on or. 
dinary Sea Manoeuvres, and the Use of Sails, Helm, and Anchor, and 
Advice as to what is proper to be done in Different Emergencies; 
Supplemented by a short 

VOCABULARY OF NAUTICAL TERMS. 
By DOUGLAS FRAZAR, 

Formerly Fourtn Officer of the Steamship ••Atlantic," Master ef ti e Bark " Maryland, " and Conv 
minder of the Yacht " Fennimore Cooper " in the Northern Seas of Chn.a and Japw*. 

Numerous Illustrations. Cloth, $1.00. 



" Capt. Frazar has done his work in a sailorly way, using no techni- 
calities but which he explains fully before hr goes an inch further. 
His ideas are clear and concise, his method simple and practical, and 
his teachings so plain that his little book will be hailed with real 
pleasure by all who are embryo yachtsmen. The illustrations, of which 
there are over two dozen, are ' right to the point,' ami from them the 
beginner can at once* see' what some men would take pages to explain. 
* • * I his little work is of great practical value, and shoula be in the 
hands of every yachtsman."— Nautical Gazette. 

" Capt Frazar is the son of a shipmaster, and was fami 1 ar with boats, 
Yachts, and shipping generally, from his youth until he rose to the top 
of his profession as a seaman. * * It is, unquestionably, the most 
complete book of the kind ever written, and will, no doubt, be read 
with interest by all who have anything to do with boats or yachts."— 
Traveller, Boston. 

" Its directions are so plain, that with the aid of the accompanying 
pictorial illustrations and diagrams given in the book, it does seem 
as if •anybody,' aft r reading it, could safely handle a sailboat in a 
squall."— Times, Hartford. 

" The work is admirably done, and by a thorough study of these di- 
rections, boat sailing, which lias been considered the most dangerous, 
is really made one of the most safe of sports." — Providence Journal. 

" Of course Capt. Frazer does not pretend that one may become an 
Expert sailor bv reading his book, but he gives a great amount of val- 
uable information, and so smooths the way to the practical knowledge 
which can only be gained by actual experience."— New Bedford Mer- 
cury. 

" Here is a book that every boy ought to have There are certain 
things boys will do. They fish, shoot, swim, and sail it may be added 
that they al«o drown and are shot. * * Boys should be taught how 
^o do these things which, when igno'antly attempted, vield danger. 
Here we have a good guide to the art of boat sailinsr; sensible instruc- 
tion, full explanation! and a clear evidence of the fact that to be care- 
less is to be in danger. We can heartily commend the volume."— 
Hartford Courant. 



"JUST HOW IT IS DONE." 



Whirlwinds, 
Cyclones, and Tornadoes. 

By Prof. ^W. N. JDJk. VIS. 

(Harvard College.; 

Cloth, 50 cents. 

"A popular treatise upon the causes of these phenomena, 
which have lately become of such frequency in the West and 
South, has become much needed. The public have become 
somewhat familiar with these through reading of their ter- 
rible effects, but there is a too general lack of knowledge as 
to their causes. The study of the natural phenomena of the 
earth, sea, and air have yielded great additions to the general 
stock of knowledge on these subjects, and the reasons giving 
rise to any one of these great disturbances, as well as the 
more common experiences of rain and wind, can be accurately 
explained, if not always predicted, by those who watch the 
weather reports. Every one should master the explanations 
given in this little book." — Lowell Tunis. 

" Any of the thousands in this country who have been blown 
into the middle of next week by tornadoes during the past 
few years can discover precisely how it was done by reading 
this little book, which belongs to Lee & Shepard's ' Science 
Series.' It is in fact an essay on the theory of storms, accom- 
panied by a number of cuts and diagrams intended t<> throw 
additional light upon the subject. To say the very least of 
the book, it is exceedingly interesting and instructive, whether 
the theory advanced is correct or not." — C/ii'-af/o Herald. 

" Mr. Davis, who is an instructor in Harvard College, in the 
essay before us, has given his theory of storms, in an inter- 
esting and convincing manner. At a time like the present, 
when the West seems singled out for the most extraordinary 
natural disturbances, and the East is not free from dangerous 
storms and floods, such a work is of real value, not only as 
showing the causes, but also the means of prevention, of those 
apparently ungovernable phenomena. The action of whirl- 
winds and cyclones, the causes of motion, the danger of tor- 
nadoes, etc., are clearly described, and are useful to the 
scientist as well as to the layman." — Boston Commercial B\d 
letin. 



LIBRARY OF CONGRESS