DOTTED STATES OF AMERICA.
CONTAINING A DESCRIPTION OF
ALL ARTICLES REQUIRED IN CAMP
Hints on Provisions and Stores
RECEIPTS FOR CAMP COOKING
-AN OLD HUNTER" ;^^J
BOSTON , ' ** H* ^ "if
LEE AND SHEPARD, PUBLISHERS
CHARLES T. DILLLINGHAM
By LEE AND SHEPARD.
All rights reserved.
Section. P a ge«
I. Quantity of Provisions required on a Trip.
and Comparative List of Provisions. 9
II. List of Provisions from which to select . 15
III. The Hunter's Paraphernalia ... 19
IV. The Camp Fire 23
V. General Remarks on Camp Routine . 29
VI. Cooking Utensils ..... 39
VII. General Remarks on Camp Cookery . 45
Index to Receipts 57
VIII. Recipes for Camp Cookery ... 6i
IX. The Last Resource in
Index to Section X. .... 116
X. On the Treatment of Drowning, Wounds,
Stings, etc., 117
Index to Section XL . . . . 130
XL Miscellaneous Receipts .... 131
XII. Signs of the Weather .... 135
The want of a cheap, portable and reliable Hand
Book devoted to the interior economy of the Hunter's
Camp, and more especially to the Art of Camp
Cookery, has long been felt. We have some excellent
works on Hunting, some of which devote a few pages
to these subjects, but these books, in their elaborate
bindings, with their numerous illustrations, and costing
a considerable sum of money, are better fitted to grace
a Drawing Room table, or to occupy places in the
Library, than to be carried through the vicissitudes of
a campaign. Their usefulness would scarcely com-
pensate the Hunter for the care which he would feel
bound to bestow on them in order to keep their beauty
unsullied by the unavoidable exposure to dampness,
dirt, and the thousand little accidents of Camp life.
More acceptable to the Hunter, be he professional or
amateur, would be a rough and ready handbook which
he could use without fear and and trembling, and
6 JNTR OB UC TJON.
which could be consigned, without compunction, to any
corner of the larder, not always, in truth, dispensing
the odors of Araby the Blest. Such a want I have
endeavored to fill : such a is here handbook offered to
Many years of experience in the economy of Camp
life, supplemented by diligent research among the best
authorities on the subject, have, I trust, qualified me
to undertake the compilation of these pages.
The various sections of the work need not be com-
mented on here, with the exception of Section IX,
which contains the Receipts for Camp Cookery. The
Receipts here given cover a large area, comprising not
only the directions for preparing the frugal fare of
the hardened Hunter, but also the formulas for con-
cocting the somewhat more dainty dishes affected by
the amateur Nimrod.
As to whether a professional hunter should confine
himself to the commonest diet and abjure the fare
of civilization, I need express no opinion. That is
merely a matter of personal election. I may, however,
mention the obvious fact, that the better nourished
the body is, the more hardship it can endure. Good
food keeps us in good health , exercise, or work, also
conduces to the same desirable end. The better our
health the greater pleasure do we take in working,
and the greater the benefit derived therefrom. Thus
we have these two powers, food and exercise, while
separately benefiting us, most intimately depending on
each other for their ability to bestow that benefit,
and hence while undergoing plenty of exercise we
must not neglect to appropriate a sufficiency of its
con-comitant adjunct, nourishing food. From these
facts it will be seen that the idea held by some
young amateur hunters, that they should deprive them-
selves of their customary diet in supposed manly
emulation of their more hardy professional brethren,
is as hurtful as foolish. While the wiry old scout
thrives on his bear meat broiled in the coals, sup-
plemented by some meal and tea, and scorns to prepare
any compound dishes, the amateur who leaves home
for a week's holiday in the wilderness is liable to be
seriously inconvenienced, if not actually made ill, by
too great a change in his diet. Again, we must re-
member that to please one's self in the choice of
food, as well as in other matters, is a part of that
liberty which the hunter fondly expects to enjoy, and
should obtain, when, casting off the shackles of civil-
ization, he seeks pleasure, sport, and health in the
wilds of the forest, or on the waters of the lagoons.
Thus I have considered it to be my duty to
present receipts which shall meet the desires of all
classes of hunters and excursionists.
With hunters, to be able to cook their food prop-
erly, is a prime necessity of life. No more piteous
object exists than the young hunter who, though
surrounded by plenty, has yet to content himself with
the plainest food, and that not cooked but spoiled by
the injudicious application of fire. And yet there are
hundreds of such amateur hunters who, when out on
their initiatory shooting excursion find themselves sud-
denly confronted by a deficiency of which they never
thought, a lamentable ignorance of the art of cooking.
If such young hunters follow the advice presented in
this handbook, they may expect their efforts in cook-
ing to meet with success.
To make the work as a guide to Camp Cooking
more complete, I have added some general remarks
on t*he different modes of cooking, such as Boiling,
Roasting, etc., which I hope will prove instructive.
The experience of many Trips into the wilderness
has been drawn upon to present correct views to the
reader, and that the pages here offered to the public
will enable all hunters to escape the painful episodes
which usually attend the amateur's initiation into the
mysteries of Camp life is the earnest wish of
"An Old Hunter."
THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
THE QUANTITY OF PROVISIONS REQUIRED ON A
HUNTING TRIP, AND COMPARATIVE LIST OF
In making up our list of groceries for a
hunting excursion several circumstances are to
be considered, the duration of the trip being,
of course, the first consideration. The sec-
ond consideration is as to whether we can
purchase provisions en route. If we can, then
we need not carry as much food with us as
we should have to take if we were going to
pass through an uninhabited country. The
last consideration under which we can at-
io THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
tempt to limit the amount of provisions
which we transport, is the chance of securing
the game of which we go in search. The
experienced hunter can best deal with these
questions himself, but while there are circum-
stances which may authorize him to limit to
a certain extent the amount of provisions
which he carries, I would most earnestly ad-
vise all amateurs to take with them enough
food to provide full meals for every day of
their intended stay. The inexperienced inva-
riably carry too little food, and even when
they think they are most munificently provided,
they are sure to be on short commons ere
they return to their homes. We may consider
a few methods of arriving at an approximate
idea of the quantity of provisions required by
a party contemplating a hunting excursion.
If four of us start on a two- week's trip we
will require, at three meals per day, enough
food to provide 168 meals. This number
contains only 56 dinners, and as pur break-
fasts and suppers are generally composed of
PROVISIONS REQUIRED. u
lighter food than that which we consume at
the mid-day meal, we may so far moderate
our list of groceries as to provide the most
substantial articles for the dinners only. I
speak of confining our expenses to the lowest
possible rale, as I am aware that money is
very often quite a consideration even with
those who can afford, for pleasure, to spend
a few weeks on a hunting trip.
Another way in which to arrive at the
quantity of food which we should carry, is, to
consider the value thereof in money. Thus,
if we pay $3, $4 or $5 per week for board
we are provided with different classes of tables
according to the rates which we pay. If we are
willing to live on the board which $3 per
week provides — very good board for a hunter —
the grocery list of four men for two weeks
need not cost more than $24. The only
trouble in making up such a list is to know
how to place our money to the best advan-
tage, or, what quantities of different articles
to buy. As a criterion of what is required,
THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
I give below a list of groceries which were
taken by three young hunters on an actual
trip, and which gave perfect satisfaction and
left no great surplus to be carried home. It
is to be noted that this was a duck shooting
excursion, by water, in birch bark canoes :
COMPARATIVE LIST OF PROVISIONS.
Three Men for Two Weeks :
Pork (very fat)
Lard (for frying) .
Boston Baked Beans
Flour . .
PROVISIONS REQUIRED. 13
Cooking Raisins . . . 2 lbs
Syrup 1 gal
Pickles 4 bottles
Marmalade 2 jars
Harvey's Sauce ... 2 bottles
Baking Powder .... 1 tin
Mixed Herbs . . . . 1 tin
Onions 10 lbs
Potatoes, and in same bag, a few
carrots .... 1-2 bush
Salt, Pepper, Mustard, Vinegar.
Bread, Butter, Eggs, Milk and Potatoes were pur-
chased occasionally en route:
The above is a very simple list of plain food,
but when to this is added the game secured,
ducks, snipe and fish, we have the materials
wherewith to concoct very elaborate meals.
While this party were careful to go out fully
provisioned for the two weeks of their intended
stay, the game which they bagged enabled
them to prolong their trip to three weeks, and
thus they had the full pleasure of hunting
without any fear of being stinted in their ra-
14 THE HUXTEKS HANDBOOK,
When going in pursuit of different game,
through different descriptions of country, the
kind of provisions which the hunter should
carry varies somewhat, and it is therefore im-
possible to give any definite list by which he
may be guided ; but I think that reference to
the list presented above, and a consideration
of the methods advanced for ascertaining
the quantity required, with a glance at the
list in Section II, will enable him to arrive
at a close estimate of what he actually re-
quires, and to see what articles of luxury are
at his disposal. To the amateur I can merely
reiterate my admonition that he trust not to
fickle chances of the chase, nor yet to the
procurability of provisions en route.
LIST OF PROVISIONS FROM WHICH TO SELECT.
That the hunter may see at a glance what
articles are available, and that he may over-
look none of the necessaries, I submit a list
of such provisions as are suitable for his
larder. When we take into consideration the
varieties of canned goods which modern trade
places at the disposal of the housekeeper, we
have a very long list from which to select
our provisions for camping out. But I wish
to warn the young hunter against purchasing
largely of canned goods. He will find them
in most cases, to be very expensive food, and
such as is apt to pall on the appetite. He
will occasionally long for an honest dish of
Ham and Eggs, Pork and Beans, Fried
16 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
Potatoes or Flap-jacks. Such canned goods
as will be found most useful are as follows :
Cooked Corn Beef, Ham, Lobsters, Salmon,
Baked Beans, Pea flour, Liebig's Extract of
Beef, Lambs' Tongues, Sardines, Marmalade,
Condensed Milk. We have in these the ma-
terials for cold lunches.
The long list of canned luxuries offered
by most grocers is also open to inspection,
Canned Soups, in Tomato, Pea, Chicken,
Oxtail, Maccaroni, Soup Bouilli, etc., Canned
Oysters, Mackerel, Deviled Ham, Deviled
Meats, Roast Lamb and Mutton, Smoked
Beef, Tenderloin, Bonne Bonche, Pigs' Feet,
Corn, Peas, Succotash, Tomatoes, Strawber-
ries, Quinces, Pears, Peaches, Pine Apples,
etc., and in sauces we have Harvey, Nabob,
Browning, Worcestershire, Chutney, Tobasco,
French and German Mustard, etc., and a host
of other articles.
It may be observed that by taking a few
cans of the luxuries the amateur may make
PROVISIONS TO SELECT. 17
his meals in the wilderness more like
those at home, and so escape the unpleasant
craving for food to which he has been used.
I well remember that in our first trips into
the wilds, when we carried no canned articles,
our chief craving was for fresh meat, and
when we failed to secure any game, and
were forced to live on ham or salt pork day
after day, this craving became very marked
and detracted in no small degree from the
pleasure of the trip. With our modern supply
of canned meats, no hunter need experience
The other groceries from which to select
are, Ham, Pork, Lard, for frying, Codfish,
Smoked Herrings, Flour, Oatmeal, Cornmeal,
Potatoes, Onions, Carrots, Compressed Vege-
tables, White Beans, Cheese, Rice, Raisins,
Brown Sugar, White Sugar, Syrup, Tea, Coffee,
Cocoa, Chocolate, Broma, Kaoka, Pickles,
Curry Powder, Baking Powder, Mixed Herbs,
Corn Starch, Pilot Bread, and in fact the
whole range of groceries, as necessity or
iS THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
fancy dictates. Do not forget those necessary
articles, Salt, Pepper, Mustard, and Vinegar.
Butter may be taken and also eggs, packed
in salt, if these articles cannot be bought en
route. Bread is too bulky to carry, and if
we take plenty of flour we may bake our
THE HUNTER'S PARAPHERNALIA.
When contemplating a trip, the hunter, es-
pecially if he be an amateur, should make out
a list of every article which he will require,
both in groceries and in personal belongings,
and as each article is packed away in its
proper place he should mark it off the list.
In this way he will be sure to procure every-
thing which may be needed, and he will es-
cape the disagreeable experience of finding,
when well on his journey,that some little but
much needed article, such as salt, has been
The following list comprises the articles gen-
erally required when on a hunting trip via
2o THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
If bark canoes are used, we should take a
spare paddle, a pole, leg-of-mutton sail, canvas
and tacks for repairs, a sponge, some rosin
and a rosin pot and iron. This iron, being
heated, is used to melt the old rosin on the
canoe, and so cover leaks when they occur at
seams which have been previously rosined.
We may next enumerate the tent, with its
bag, poles, ropes and pegs complete. A good
long rope should be carried to secure the tent
in gales, and will be found otherwise useful.
Cooking utensils, per Section VII. Provisions,
per Sections I and II.
Groceries may be best carried in strong cot-
ton bags, holding each about 10 pounds,
marked in pencil with the name of contents,
and packed in water-proof boxes. These boxes
should be the size of common biscuit boxes,
for if they are too big and very heavy, when
packed, they are awkward to handle.
Canned goods, potatoes, etc., which will not
be injured by water, may be carried in bags,
such as salt sacks. A sharp axe and a supply
THE HUNTER'S PARAPHERNALIA. z\
of matches are required. Matches may be
carried in a large-mouthed bottle, securely
corked, in a waterproof tin box.
We may enumerate other articles as fol-
lows: Gun, powder, shot, (different sizes) wads
and caps, or cartridges for breech-loaders,
cleaning utensils, rags and oil. Belt and hunt-
ing knife. A sewing bag containing needles,
thread, etc., fishing outfit, wax candles, change
of shirt, pants and socks for night. Mocas-
sins for night, a tin of boot-grease, (see Section
XI) blankets, water-proof bags to hold bed-
ding and clothes, overcoat, Rubber coat,
Cups, plates, knife, fork and spoon. Cloth
for washing dishes. Each member should
have a haversack containing towels, comb,
brush, soap, tooth brush, handkerchief, etc.
Such articles as tobacco may also be carried
in the haversack. Reading matter may be
carried if desired. Rubber sheets are excel-
lent articles for spreading on the ground un-
der the bedding, and for covering goods in
rainy weather. Lastly, any medicines which
22 THE HUXTER'S HAXDBOOK.
may be thought requisite should be carried.
(See section X.)
The experienced hunter will know without
any remarks on my part, what of the above
mentioned articles will be most useful to him,
but to the amateur I would say that, so far
as is commensurate with his capabilities of
transportation, he is at liberty to consult his
comfort, and should take with him on his
trip, all articles which may actually conduct
to his enjoyment of his holiday. He should
be careful that all articles of his parapher-
nalia are properly packed in appropriate
receptacles, so that in unloading his boat or
canoe he will not have a multitude of loose
articles to handle.
It is impossible to place before the amateur
any absolute list of his requirements, but from
the above table he will be able to select
whatever he may need for any description of
THE CAMP FIRE.
The quality of our fire depends, of course,
upon the wood which we find at hand, and
sornewhat, though not necessarily in any
great degree, upon the state of the weather.
In some localities wood is very scarce and
we have to exercise great economy in its use.
In such cases the fire should be built in a
hole or trench so as to prevent drafts of air
from hastening combustion. In selecting a
permanent camping place, wood is one of the
most important considerations. In some places
quantities of drift wood abound, and when
near by we have the standing hard wood*
we are in the cook's paradise.
Care should be taken that the fire is not
built too close to the tent, and also that it be
24 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
placed to leeward thereof to prevent danger
ffrom sparks. In making our fire we first pro-
cure a large log, green if possible, and place
it, length wise to the wind, on the spot chosen
as our fire-place. This is called the "Back
log," and against it we build our fire, on
whichever side is most convenient. Over the
Back log, from behind, project our cranes, or
"spumgullions" — poles driven into the ground
and notched on the upper side to receive, the
handles of our kettles, as they swing over the
blaze. In laying the sticks for the fire we
should place them all one way, parallel to the
back log, and start the flame at the windward
end. By laying the wood in this manner, we
secure a more compact fire than when we
cross-pile the sticks, and the sticks fall clown
to their own burning as those below are con-
sumed; but if we cross-pile the sticks they fall
apart when burnt through the middle, and ne-
cessitate a continual raking to keep them
together. The object of placing the back log
parallel to the wind is to prevent its being
CAMP FIRE. 25
burned through the middle, and to allow us
to work with greater ease on either side of the
In undertaking the different methods of
cooking, we require different kinds of fires.
Thus, for boiling an ordinary fire will suffice,
but for frying we require a good bed of coals
and no blaze. This subject is more fully re-
ferred to in "General Remarks on Cooking,"
Before cooking each meal we should brush
the loose ashes away from the fire with a
bough. If we camp on the same spot for a
few days, the accumulation of ashes at our
fire place will be very inconvenient ; and they
should be covered with a thin layer of earth
and the fire continued thereon, or we may
select a new spot for the fire, covering the
old ashes as before to prevent their being
blown about. Should we wish to cook a very
elaborate dinner, we should start two fires,
about five yards apart, and so escape the
great heat which one large fire would throw
26 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
out. At one of these fires we ma}' perform
the roasting or frying ; at the other, the
In rainy weather, when not being used for
cooking, the fire should be covered with slabs
of wood to shed the rain, or a frame work
of poles should be erected over it and a
rubber sheet, or a roof of bushes, placed
thereon. If the fire is not kept burning
all night some dry sticks should be placed
under cover of the tent and will save much
trouble in starting the fire in the morning
when everything will be wet with dew.
Should the hunter be reduced to the neces-
sity of using grass or hay with which to cook,
he should twist the hay into tight ropes or
blocks about two feet long and of three or
four inches diameter. The tighter these blocks
are compressed the longer they will burn, and
the hotter will be the fire. It is a fact that
on the Western Prairies, where wood is often
extremely scarce, some farmers use this des-
CAMP FIRE. 27
cription of fuel for both the purposes of
cooking and heating their habitations.
In using his axe to cut up fire wood, the
amateur cannot employ too much care both
to prevent accidents to himself or companions,
and to avoid breaking the handle or dulling
the axe on stones. For the production of
fire a good supply of matches should be car-
ried and the utmost care bestowed upon their
safe keeping. The hunter will do well to pro-
vide himself with a sun, or burning glass, and
if by any accident his matches are lost, this
glass on being held at the proper focal dis-
tance, in the sunshine, will readily ignite paper,
leaves, or small splints. But as this glass is
available only during sunshine, it is well to
have other methods of procuring fire at our
command. If some paper or cloth be placed
in a gun on a charge of powder, it will be
ignited when the gun is fired, and may be
coaxed into flame. Another method is to
scatter some powder on a stone, and having
placed some dry leaves on the powder in such
28 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
a manner as to prevent these being blown
away, explode a cap on the powder by a
blow of the axe or a stone. The sparks pro-
duced by striking two stones together will also
explode powder. In using these methods some
of the powder should be dampened and formed
into a ball. This will burn slowly and throw
off a vast quantity of sparks, and produce
great heat. Some of the uncivilized tribes of
Polynesia procure fire by inserting a pointed
stick into a corresponding hole in another
piece of wood, and twirling the stick rapidly
between the palms of the hands. This method
may be looked upon as being the hunter's
last resource, and I hope none of my readers
will ever have to test its efficacy.
GENERAL REMARKS ON CAMP ROUTINE.
For the guidance of the amateur who is not
conversant with the General Economy of Camp
life, I may present a series of short remarks
on the system of management which he should
follow when on an excursion. As the circum-
stances under which hunting trips are under-
taken vary so widely, some being by land and
in pursuit of different kinds of game, and
some by water in various conveyances, it may
be well if I confine myself to speaking of
some definite kind of trip, and from the observ-
ations advanced the amateur may determine
what method of management to pursue when
on any kind of excursion. For the present,
we may consider that the following remarks
3o THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
apply, in chief, to the conducting of a Duck
shooting excursion, by water, in bark canoes.
The daily work in Camp, such as cooking,
collecting wood, etc., should either be under-
taken by each member in turn, or each mem-
ber should be assigned a special duty for
the whole trip.
If possible, go into Camp before dark, and
have all arrangements completed before night-
In selecting a Camping ground, the condi-
tions to be desired are, plenty of wood, good
water, with a convenient landing place, and
a dry, level, sheltered spot for the tent.
A bed of spruce boughs may be made as
follows: Cut off all large butts; lay the
boughs in tiers, commencing at the top of the
bed, placing the butts toward the bottom, and
over this spread a rubber sheet or a blanket.
The blankets used at night should not be
spread down in the daytime.
In case of rain, dig a small trench round
the tent to prevent water from running in.
CAMP ROUTINE. 31
At night loosen the tent-ropes, as the dew
causes the canvass to contract.
Guns may be strapped round the tent-poles;
ammunition boxes placed at the head of the
beds ; grocery boxes, at night, placed inside
the tent, ranged at the foot of the beds ;
haversacks suspended from the tent-poles, or
kept at the head of the beds, or, in daytime,
hung outside the tent.
Stretch a rope, high up between the tent,
poles, on which to hang clothing at night-
In daytime, the rope may be suspended out-
side for the same purpose, or a pole will
answer the same end.
On rising in the morning spread all the
bedding on the grass, if dry, to air ; when
taken in, fold it up neatly, and place each
man's bundle at the head of his bed.
If, during a continuance of rainy weather,
the bedding becomes damp, seize every op-
portunity of drying it before the fire.
When on an excursion for any length of
time, such articles of clothing as shirts, socks,
32 ' THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
etc., may be washed on a fine day, and hung
in the sun to dry.
At night, the canoes should be lifted out
of the water, and may be placed on their sides
close to the curtains of the tent as an addi-
tional shelter from the wind.
On breaking up Camp, or starting on a
day's journey, examine and repair the canoes
before loading up.
The consistency of which to make rosin de-
pends on the season of the year and the
temperature of the water. If too hard, the
fosin splits or cracks in cold water, and if
too soft it runs in warm weather. Use more
or less grease according to circumstances. Wet
the finger before applying it to press or
smooth the rosin on the canoe.
When not in use, keep the canoe in the
shade. Let it remain on its bottom in the
grass if no shade is available.
When at the ponds for the evening shoot-
ing, the canoe should be hid in the bushes,
or it may be masked by placing boughs and
CAMP ROUTIXE. 33
grass in it so as to hide the entire structure.
When the canoe is thus disguised the hunter
may sit in it to shoot, or he may paddle to
within gun-shot of ducks in the water.
Cooking utensils, after being cleaned, and
when not in use, should be ranged on a slab,
or other piece of wood, near the fire-place.
A small rack may also be erected here on
which to hang dish-towels, etc.
Small saplings, stripped of their branches,
but having the forks left on, may be driven
into the ground on either side of the tent door,
and will form excellent racks on which to hang
shot-bags, belts, etc., during the day, and
against which to lean paddles, fishing-poles,
The grocery boxes should be over-hauled
and cleaned occasionally, and all parcels ex-
amined and kept neatly tied up.
Place such groceries as are most used in a
box by themselves.
Each member of the party should be ac-
quainted with the whereabouts of every article.
THE HUNTER'S HA XD HOOK,
This will prevent much mauling and tossing
of goods. The maxim, "Have a place for
everything, and keep everything in its place,''
should never be more strictly obeyed, and its
observance is never followed by better results,
than when in Camp.
Keep all dishes, knives, etc., in a box by
All articles which will admit of it should
be carried in bags as these adapt themselves
to any shape in the canoe, and contract as
their contents diminish.
Ham and Pork should be wrapped in a clean,
strong cloth, and may be carried in a bag.
Occasionallv, on a fine dav, the contents
of all bags should be spread out in the sun,
(that is, vegetables, and such articles as will
be benefited thereby) and the bags allowed to
get aired and dried.
Do not forget that the guns, being much
used, require to be cleaned occasionally.
Neat's-foot oil is excellent to use on locks,
CAMP ROUTINE. 35
A rule which all amateurs should follow is,
"Do not argue before breakfast."
Those who do not bathe for pleasure daily,
when the opportunity presents, should make it
a duty to do so.
Never fire at small birds with Duck-shot ; it
will be a waste of ammunition. Use the pro-
per sizes of shot for different game.
If possible, let the Tent be dry before
folding it up to remove.
When leaving a camping ground, and after
the canoes are loaded, take a last look and
examine the ground carefully, that nothing
may be left behind.
When in the Canoe, the guns, if loaded,
should occupy the following positions : The
bow-man should rest his, hammers downward,
on the bar in front of him, with the but
running back by his knees; the stern-man also
rests his against the bar in front of him, and
in the same position as described for the bow,
keeping the muzzle pointed outwards clear of
the man in the bow. When in pursuit of
36 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
game, or when passing through places where
ducks may lurk, the bow-man should keep his
gun in hand ready for action. Keep the gun,
when loaded, except when required for im-
mediate use, at half-cock, and in raising it in
the Canoe elevate the muzzle first, and do
not let the hammer catch on the bars, etc.
At all times, when carrying or holding a
loaded gun, keep its muzzle elevated, or de-
pressed, and pointing out of range of all
Let the weight of each man be known, and
in loading the Canoe distribute the cargo so
that when manned she will float on an even
When one person alone is paddling an
empty Canoe, he will find it to be a great
assistance to place a few stones in the bow
as ballast, especially if the wind be blowing.
For sailing in a Canoe a leg~of-mntto?i sail
is generally used. The mast is strapped into
a notch in the back edge of the fore-mid
CAMP ROUTIXE. 37
bar, and its heel fits into a small step screwed
to the ribs beneath.
Two Canoes may be lashed together and
blankets or sheets used as sails. The Canoes
are placed at about four feet apart at the
center bars, and the tent-poles, are securely
lashed across to the fore-mid and aft-mid
bars of each Canoe. The lashings should
be securely fastened at each gunnel at
each bar. The sail may be placed in
either Canoe, or each may carry one. When
sailing in this manner before the wind, great
speed may be attained with perfect safety.
When passing over good bottoms, the pole
may be used as a pleasant change from pad-
dling, but none but those who are well
practiced in the art should venture to pole a
In going down stream, keep the current ;
in going up, hug the shore.
. If the hunter has to pass through danger-
ous rapids, he should lash all his valuable
3 8 THE Hi\\ TEA'S HANDBOOK.
articles to the canoe and divest himself of
shoes and all superflous clothing.
From the foregoing remarks, the amateur
will gather that all is required to render his
life in Camp pleasant, and to crown with suc-
cess his efforts at house-keeping in the wil-
derness, is some small stock of neatness and
activity, and in fact that he follow, in some
degree, the well-recognized customs of civilized
Regular Trappers can and often do per-
form their cooking with a surprisingly
small number of utensils. In fact, a kettle
for tea is the stock in trade of many. Their
game is spitted before the glowing coals or
roasted in a bed of ashes in the midst of
the fire, and potatoes or bread are baked
before the open fire. Thus they rival in the
limited resources of their cuisine, the paucity
of those Kings of the Chase, the red denizens
of the primeval prairies. And yet those old
trappers are perfectly happy, and for the best
of reasons, that they have never known any
other mode of living. I do not mean to sav
that they are ignorant of the customs of civ-
4 o THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
ilization, I merely state that they are so ac-
customed to their mode of living that they do
not desire, and would not be content, under
any other circumstances. But I do not ex-
pect the amateur hunter to confine himself
to such a limited list of cooking utensils.
The man who devotes but a few clays in a
year to the exciting chase may be allowed, in
following out the same line of conduct as that
pursued by the professional hunter, to retain,
as far as he wishes, the habits of his daily life.
He should not feel called upon to stint himself
of any comforts when selecting his cooking
utensils for a trip.
For excursions to different localities, by dif-
ferent modes of conveyance, and for different
periods of time, the number and description
of cooking utensils required varies greatly.
Nevertheless, I present a full list of these ar-
ticles, and the hunter can easily decide what
he will require, both as necessities or as attri-
butes to his greater comfort.
The first and most important article of our
COOKING UTENSILS. 41
list of cooking utensils, is the tea kettle —
most important, for only in one way can we
prepare this cheering beverage. This may be
of tin, and should be of a capacity suitable
to the number composing the hunting party.
One kettle, if kept properly clean, will very
well answer for the making up both tea and
Next we have the Frying-pan. This is
an old stand-by for hunters, and a most
useful article. All kinds of fish, flesh and
fowls may be cooked in this ever-ready
utensil. There is a pan made expressly for
cooking at the camp fire, having a long iron
handle, but this instrument I cannot recom-
mend. The handle is heavy and unwieldy.
For our greater comfort in cooking we may
attach a long wooden handle to the short
iron one of the pan, tying it thereto with
twine or wire. This handle may be detached,
if so desired, for greater ease of transporta-
tion. If necessary, two frying pans may be
carried, and while one is employed in frying
4 2 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
fish or ham, the other may be used for
frying potatoes, warming beans, etc., or for
stewing articles. The second pan will well
repay the trouble of transportation.
We next want the utensils in which to
cook our potatoes, beans, rice or oatmeal.
For potatoes, a tin kettle will suffice, but if
possible, an iron pot should be carried for
cooking the other articles as they burn very
earily when cooked in tin. Nevertheless, a
tin kettle will do very well, requiring but a
little more attention to keep the contents
well stirred and the fire in a moderate
condition. It is a good plan to have kettles
of different sizes, such as will fit inside one
another. In this way we greatly increase our
abilities to cook without sacrificing space in
A Dutch Oven is an excellent article on
a hunting excursion, and should be taken
when space in the boat or canoe will per.
mit. Its use is referred to in Section VII.
COOKING UTENSILS. 43
There are a variety of cooking appliances
manufactured for the use of the hunter,
such as the " Tripod and Utensils " and
" The Camp Cooking Stove " with its com-
pactly arranged pots, but for cooking at the
open camp fire the utensils mentioned
above are all that are necessary. To enume-
rate, we may say that the cooking utensils
required on an ordinary hunting trip — for
example, a Duck shooting excursion, via
water, in canoes, a party of four, for ten
days — are as follows :
1 Tea Kettle, tin.
1 Potato Kettle, tin.
1 Rice, etc., Kettle, iron preferred.
I or 2 Fry Pans.
Dutch Oven, if possible.
When we remember that we can roast our
game before the fire, or burried in the
ashes, it will be seen that, with the above
utensils, our methods of cooking are as
uncurtailed as if we had a domestic cooking
range on which to manipulate our meals
44 THE HUNTER'S II A XD BOOK.
Great care should be taken of the cooking
utensils, and to much attention cannot be
paid to keeping them clean. Section VI
contains some remarks further relating to the
hunters' Cooking Utensils, and should be
read in this connection.
GENERAL REMARKS ON CAMP COOKING.
When en route, and the chief object is to
cover distance, the hunter has little time to
bestow on cooking. He then falls back on
his canned goods, and probably confines his
efforts at cooking to the production of the
ever-acceptable can of Tea. But when in a
stationary camp, and, indeed, whenever he
can spare time when en route, the hunter
should put forth his best efforts and produce
at least one solid, substantial and comfort-
able meal per day. To the person who is
at all conversant with the art of cooking,
the preparing of such a meal is an absolute
pleasure. More especially does he feel
gratified if his companions on the trip are
46 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
deficient in knowledge of cooking, for, in
truth, the experienced cook then becomes
the most important personage in the party,
and he also has the pleasure of knowing
that his efforts are appreciated, for the good
will of hunters, as well as that of the
proverbial morose husband, is reached through
their stomachs. Though such a person may
be quite willing to undertake the cooking
for his party, during the entire trip, yet a
more desirable state of affairs exists when
all the party are able to undertake that im-
portant duty in rotation. (We refer, of
course, to parties who have no hired cook
with them.) No party should ever venture
to go out on a hunting excursion without
numbering in their ranks at least one per-
son who can cook. It appears to be foolish
to write such an evident, simple remark, but
when amateur hunters act foolishly, must I
not suit my conversation to their conpre-
hension? I have known parties to act just
thus foolishly. I once met with a party of
CAMP COOKIXG. 47
young men on an excursion, and far from
home. They had a good supply of provisions
with them, but, from sheer ignorance of how
to cook their food, they were glad to buy
meals at the houses of farmers on the way.
But we will revert to a more pleasant part
of our subject — we will endeavor, as is one
of the chief objects of this pamphlet, to
teach such young amateur hunters how to
enjoy, to its fullest, their food.
In cooking, be it in the kitchen of kings,
or at the humble camp fire of the hungry
hunter, too much attention cannot be paid
to that God-like quality — cleanliness. All
our cooking utensils should undergo close
inspection before being used, and after use
they should be cleaned and put away in
their proper place. All articles to be cooked
should be thoroughly cleaned, and the cook
himself would do well to pay a little at-
tention to personal cleanliness before he
undertakes to exercise his art. Look you !
of what more disgusting object can we con-
4 8 THE HUXTER'S HAXDBOOK.
ceive than the person who, rousing from his
blankets in camp, proceeds to prepare the
morning meal with utensils which, though
musty from last night's supper, are yet clean
when compared with his unsanctifled condition?
The sight of a slovenly, dirty person cooking our
food detracts in no small degree from our
appetite. If several of the party are able
to assist in preparing a meal, one should
collect wood and attend to the fire ; another
may clean such articles as game, potatoes,
etc., so that he who undertakes to super-
intend the cooking may give his undivided
attention to the handling of the small
groceries. If the cook has no assistance, he
should so regulate his work that all the
rougher tasks are completed first, so that he
may wash his hands before undertaking the
more delicate office of manipulating the in-
gredients of his various dishes. The cook
must not forget that different articles vary in
the length of time required to cook them,
and he should place on the fire first those
CAMP COOKING. 49
requiring the longest time ; he will thus have
all his articles ready for table at once, and
nothing need be allowed to get cold. ■.
This is the simplest method of preparing
food, and by it almost every description of
fish, meat, fowls and vegetables may be
cooked. When in camp we need not confine
the operation of boiling to any particular
description of kettle ; we may even boil
articles in our frying pan, the essential con-
dition of the operation being merely that
the articles are cooked in boiling water. It
is to be noted that soups, stews, etc., are
made by boiling, and owe their names to
their ingredients rather than to the utensils
in which they are prepared. The hunter
may often be called upon to use the uten-
sils at his command for purposes far
different from those for which, in the
economy of civilization, they were intended.
5 o THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
In boiling articles the hunter must pay
attention to the following points : — the pot
must be kept boiling, and not allowed to
cease boiling until the article is cooked ;
boil slowly ; know the time required to cook
the article (given in the different recipes)
and abide by it ; skim the pot when a scum
is seen to form on the surface. When the
object is to extract substance from scraps of
meat, or from bones, as in making soups,
the pot may be allowed to boil faster, but
should be kept closely covered. The follow-
ing remark, taken from an excellent author-
ity on Cooking, may be of interest, as it
will apply as well to any articles which the
hunter may cook, as to the meat spoken of.
"Two mutton chops were covered with cold
water, and one boiled fiercely, and the other
simmered gently, for three-quarters of an
hour ; the flavor of the chop which was
simmered was decidedly superior to that of
the one which was boiled \ the liquor which
boiled fast was in like proportion more
CAMP COOKIXG. 51
savoury^ and, when cold, had much more
fat on its surface j this explains why quick
boiling renders meat hard, etc., — because its
juices are extracted in a greater degree."
When the water evaporates quickly, more hot
water should be added. Some remarks on
the boiling of Vegetables will be found
under that head in the recipes.
ON ROASTING AND BAKING.
A method of roasting fish and game,
much in vogue with old hunter's, is to cover
them up in a bed of hot coals, where they
remain until cooked. This method is not to
be recommended to amateurs. Nevertheless,
he will find, in the recipes, directions for
its use, and he may experiment with some
fish or game on which he does not depend
for a meal. Great experience is required to
ensure its successful accomplishment. A
simpler method of roasting is by spitting
his game before a good clear fire. It is
52 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
thus continually under his surveillance, and
the operation should be as successful as it
is simple. A pan should be placed under
the article being roasted to catch the fat
which exudes. A little water should be
placed in the pan, with some salt, and the
article cooking should be frequently basted
with this liquor. The fire should not be too
hot at first, as, by hardening the outside of
the meat, it prevents the heat from pene-
trating. When about half cooked, the meat
may be placed nearer the fire, or the fire
increased. The time required to roast various
articles is given in the recipes. The Spit
is merely a stick inserted in the meat or
game to be roasted, and serves to hold the
article before the fire. It may be laid over
a forked stick, or supported in any manner
found convenient. The article being roasted
should be frequently turned, and basted as
Baking, in our domestic kitchens, consists
of placing the article to be cooked in the
CAMP COOKING. 53
oven, and observing various regulations.
Such an operation we, of course never per-
form when on a hunting excursion, but we
can bake bread, potatoes, etc., before the
fire in the same manner as we roast meat.
There is no difference in the operations ;
the articles operated upon bestow the name
on the method of operation. Thus our
bread is baked, our game roasted.
Bread, and all compound dishes may be
best baked in a Dutch Oven, and the
amateur who considers his comfort should,
when possible, have one of these articles
among his cooking utensils. The oven his
placed before a hot bed of coals, and by
collecting the heat, and by reflection, readily
cooks any articles consigned to its care.
Frying may be termed the hunter's rough
and ready method of preparing food. By
this method all fishes, flesh, and fowls may
54 THE HUNTER'S HAXDBOOK.
be cooked. The following points should be
observed : — Have a clear fire of coals ; make
the pan hot and grease it well before
placing articles in it to cook ; olive oil is
better than lard or other grease ; if using pork
fat, cut it up and try out, and place the
meat in the remaining oil ; all articles
should be frequently turned to allow the
steam to evaporate ; shake the pan often,
and do not allow the articles to stick ; take
care that the sputtering fat does not take
fire, and if it does, remove the pan at once
from the coals and blow out the blaze. The
observing of these points, and of the direc-
tions found in the different recipes, should
enable the hunter to attain complete success
in frying his pan-cakes, ham and eggs, trout
The term Stewing is applied to the pro-
duction of compound dishes, in which the
various ingredients are boiled together. By
this method we can produce many savoury
and fragrant dishes. Stewing is also an
economical process, for we may thus cook
together scraps of meat, small birds and
other articles which alone would prove to be
but sorry morsels. It has been stated that
all cookery is but an aid to digestion, and
while I hold that some cookery may be
very detrimental to the digestive organs, I
will acknowledge that the process of stewing
resembles the action of the stomach, and is
therefore, if from no other reason, to be
highly recommended to the hunter's use.
The points to be observed when stewing
articles are as follows : — let the pot boil
slowly ; stir frequently to prevent burning,
and keep the pot continually boiling until
the mass is cooked. Further remarks on
stewing will be found in all recipes for
preparing dishes by that useful method.
The hunter who carries the requisite uten-
sils has all of the methods of cooking just
56 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
mentioned at his command, and he must be
indeed shiftless who, being provided with a
sufficiency of good food, can not prepare it
in such a manner that he may not only eat
it, but also enjoy it to its fullest extent.
In closing this Section, I may quote the fol-
lowing from an excellent authority : — "To some
extent the claims of either process of cook-
ing depend upon the taste of the individual.
Some persons may esteem the flavor of
fried meats, while others will prefer broils or
stews. It is important, however, to under-
stand the theory of each method of cooking,
so that whichever may be adopted, it may
be done well. Bad cooking, though by a
good method is far inferior to good cooking
by a bad method."
INDEX TO RECEIPTS.
RECEIPTS FOR CAMP COOKERY, (SEC. VIII.)
General Remarks ...... 61
i Plain Pea Soup 63
2 Bean Soup 64
3 Liebig's Extract of Beef. 64
4 Canned Soups 65
5 Vegetable Soups 65
6 Smoked Herrings 66
7 Fish, to bake in the coals 67
8 Fish, ordinary method of cooking . . 68
9 Brook Trout 68
10 Salmon 68
Codfish. (See No. 89.) 10S
Fish-cakes. (See Nos. 90-91.) . . 109-110
11 Oysters, stewed 69
12 Oysters, fried 70
13 Oysters, raw 70
14 Lobsters, as canned ..... 70
15 Lobsters, stewed 70
16 Lobster Salad . 71
17 Lobster Croquettes 71
1 3 Salmon, as canned 71
19 Salmon, stewed 72
INDEX TO RECEIPTS.
20 Venison, moose, bear-meat, etc., to roast
21 Ducks, partridges, quails, etc., roasting in the
22 Ducks, partridges, squirrels, etc., roasting be-
fore the fire
23 Ducks, to stew . . .
24 Ducks, to fry ....
25 Snipes, to fry ....
26 Snipes, to stew ....
27 Snipes, on toast
28 Turkey, to boil ....
29 Goose, to roast
30 Rabbit, to roast ....
31 Rabbit, curried
32 Rabbit, with onions
33 Salt Beef and Pork, stewed .
34 Corned Beef, canned, cold
35 Corned Beef, canned, stewed
36 Ham, Bacon or Pork, to fry
37 Ham, Bacon or Pork, to roast or bake
33 Ham and Eggs
3) Ham or Pork, with onions
40 Ham, barbecued .
41 Pork fritters
42 Pork and Beans. No. I
43 Pork and Beans. No. 2
44 Eggs, to poach
AS Eggs, to boil
46 Eggs, Savory
47 Eggs, curried
IXDEX TO RECEIPTS.
48 Potatoes, to bake
49 Potatoes, to boil
50 Potatoes, (raw) fried . . .
51 Potatoes, (boiled) fried
52 Potato fritters ....
53 Onions, to boil
54 Onions, to fry ....
55 Vegetables, miscellaneous
56 Vegetables, canned
57 Rice, plain boiled
5S Rice, with raisins
59 Rice, savory
60 Rice croquettes
61 Rice pudding
62 Oatmeal pancakes
63 Flour pancakes
64 Indian Meal pancakes
65 Oatmeal porridge
65 Corn Meal porridge
6/ Corn Meal porridge, fried
63 Hoe Cake
69 Corn Bread ....
70 Oat Cake . . . . .
72 Batter pudding, baked or boiled
73 Rice pudding ....
74 Cossacks' Plum pudding
60 INDEX TO RECEIPTS.
SALAD-DRESSINGS AND SAUCES.
75 Dressing for Canned Lobster, etc. . . . ioo
j6 Tomato Salad ....... ioi
yy Dutch sauce, for Meat or Fish . . . ioi
78 Sauce for Ducks, Geese, etc. .... 101
79 Drawn Butter, for Fish, Onions, etc. . . 102
80 Pudding sauce 102
81 Sauce Hollandaise, or Drawn Butter . . 103
82 Plum pudding Sauce 103
Tea, General Remarks.
83 Tea, to steep or draw ..... 105
84 Coffee, to draw 106
85 Coffee, to improve flavor of ... . 107
86 Coffee, substitute for cream in 107
87 Coffee, Essence or Extract of . . .107
88 Beverages, miscellaneous .... 10S
89 Codfish, salt, to boil 108
90 Fish Cakes, with raw fish .... 109
91 Fish Cakes, with cooked fish . . . .110
THE LAST RESOURCE, OR WHAT TO USE WHEN PRO-
VISIONS RUN SHORT. (Sec. IX.)
92 Potato soup 112
93 Dandelions, as greens 114
94 Corn Meal n ^
95 Frogs, to roast, fry or stew . . . .115
96 Miscellaneous articles of diet . . .115
RECEIPTS FOR CAMP COOKERY.
Note. — If the hunter should wish to prepare any
of the compound dishes mentioned in these Receipts,
he must remember to include the different ingred-
ients in his list of groceries. In all the receipts the
quantities may be varied, but the proportions should
Soups are seldom made at the Camp fire,
but as times may occur when scraps of meat
and carcasses of game might be concocted
into a fragrant dish, I feel that these Re-
ceipts would not be complete without some
reference being made to Soups. As a gen-
eral rule soups may be made out of any
62 THE HUNTER'S HA XD BOOK.
flesh or game which will impart its substance
and flavor to the water. Canned soups are
excellent articles of diet, and when we have
a jar of Liebig's Extract of Beef we can
produce a soup unrivalled in the whole range
of cookery for its wholesome and sustaining
qualities. Soups should be allowed to boil
for a long time in order that the full sub-
stance of the article operated upon may be
extracted. The soup should boil slowly and
be frequently skimmed. In making soups in
camp we wish to produce a good strong ar-
ticle, rather than the clear, delicate dish of
society dinners. To this end it is a good
plan to place a small quantity of vegetables,
properly cut up, in the pot when first plac-
ing it on the fire. In the time required to
extract the substance from the meat these
vegetables will have dissolved, and will be
thoroughly incorporated with the liquor. Other
vegetables may be added at such times as
will allow of their being cooked without their
dissolving. Thus, carrots may be put in
CAMP COOKERY. 63
three-quarters of an hour before the soup is
to be taken off the fire \ potatoes and onions,
twenty minutes before. All vegetables for
soups should be thoroughly cleaned, cut into
small pieces, and placed in cold water ready
to add to the soup when required. In thick-
ening soups with flour, the flour should be
mixed with cold water and all lumps broken
up, and then stirred into the boiling soup.
Should the hunter have to place himself on
short rations, he will find the soup pot to
be his best friend.
PLAIN PEA SOUP.
Put 3 pounds pork, well soaked, and cut
into 4 or 5 pieces, into 3 quarts water. Add
1-2 pound split peas, 1-2 teaspoonful sugar, a
little pepper, 3 ounces fresh vegetables or 2
ounces compressed. Boil 2 hours, or until
peas are tender. Broken biscuit may be
added. Salt beef may be used instead of
pork, but should be well soaked. Do not
64 THE HUNTER'S HA XD BOOK.
add vegetables until the meat and peas have
boiled an hour and a half.
To i gallon water add i 1-2 pints white
beans, 2 pounds pork, or a ham bone, 4
onions cut fine, and pepper. Boil until beans
are dissolved. If the beans have been soaked
in water for some time, say over night, about
2 hours will suffice to cook them.
liebig's extract of beef.
That the hunter may see the full value of
this article, I quote the following from the
wrapper accompanying the pots : "A quarter
of a teaspoonful of Extract dissolved in boil-
ing water will, with the addition of a suf-
ficient quantity of salt, produce a breakfast
cupful of strong and clear Beef tea." This
is an excellent beverage to partake of in
the early morning before undertaking to pre-
CAMP COOKERY. 65
pare the regular breakfast. "An excellent
soup, equal to that prepared from fresh meat,
is obtained by boiling soup vegetables, with
some bones and marrow, till done, and then
adding the necessary quantity of Extract, with
plenty of salt. Soups made with peas, len-
tils, beans, potatoes, bread, barley, carrots,
turnips, and other vegetables, gain by the ad-
dition of Extract as much as if fresh meat
had been boiled with them, equal in quantity
to what would be required for producing the
The canned soups sold by grocers, are to
be recommended. Directions for use accom-
pany each can or package.
(A good dish to use when rations run short.)
3 onions, 3 small turnips, 1 carrot, and 4
potatoes, all cut up. Put into the pot with
66 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
1-4 pound butter, same of lean ham, or any
bones or scraps of meat, and a pinch of
mixed herbs. Place over fire for 10 minutes,
then add a spoonful of flour well mixed in
2 quarts of water, and a dessertspoonful Ex-
tract of Beef, (if on hand,) salt and pepper.
Boil until vegetables are well cooked, skim,
and serve with toasted bread.
(Under this head we have the canned fish which
we may purchase for our larder, as well as those
which we may catch with the fly, or hook and line).
The simplest way to cook these fish is to
toast them, at the end of a pointed stick
over the coals, first cleaning and removing
the skin. Another method is to scald in
boiling water until the skin curls up, then
remove head, tail and skin. Clean well. Put
into fry pan with a little butter or lard.
Fry gently a few minutes, dropping in a lit-
CAMP COOKERY. fy
tie vinegar. These are excellent articles on
a trip, and may, if occasion arises, be eaten
without any more cooking than what they re-
ceived in being smoked.
BAKING FISH IN THE COALS.
Clean the fish, and if it is large enough
to be emptied through a hole in the neck, do
not slit the belly. Season the inside with salt
and pepper, and if liked, stuff with Indian
meal. Have ready a good bed of glowing
coals, and lay the fish in this and cover it up,
using first some ashes or dead embers, that
the fish may not be burnt. Half an hour, more
or less, according to size, is required for the
operation. Experience alone can determine
the time required. On removing the fish from
the fire and peeling off the skin, the flesh
will be found to be clean and well soaked.
The amateur should experiment in this method
before he undertakes to trust to it for the
production of a meal.
63 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
ORDINARY METHOD OF COOKING FISH.
All fish, eels included, may be cooked by
frying, the larger ones being cut up into
several pieces. After cleaning the fish, wipe
and dry well in a cloth. Place in the hot
pan with plenty of fat. Sprinkle with in-
dian meal. Turn frequently and shake the
pan often. Season with salt, pepper, and a
few drops of any sauce desired.
If small, fry as directed in No. 8. If
large, boil and serve with drawn butter.
Salmon may be boiled and served with
drawn butter (No. 79 ) or cut into pieces
and fried. Time of boiling varies according
CAMP COOKERY. 69
to size. Add salt to the water in which it
Directions for use are generally printed on the
cans. The following will be found useful :
Pour the liquor off the oysters into the fry
pan to stew with twice the quantity of milk.
Add a little butter, the size of a marble,
some salt and pepper, and a little crumbled
biscuit, or thicken with a little flour. As soon
as the liquor boils throw in the oysters and
let them remain for 30 seconds. Then pour
into dish for immediate use. When milk can-
not be had, use water, same quantity as the
liquor of the oysters, and to the above named
ingredients add a pinch of mixed herbs. A
few drops of lemon juice is an improvement,
when herbs are not used.
70 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
Dry the oysters in a clean cloth. Dip in
beaten ez'X and then in biscuit crumbs. Or
sprinkled with Indian meal. Add salt and
pepper. Fry for four or five minutes in lard,
which is better for this purpose than butter.
Turn them when necessarv.
When oysters are used raw, as canned, add
salt, pepper and vinegar to suit the taste.
LOBSTER, AS CANNED.
When lobsters are eaten cold, as prepared
in the cans, the salad given in No. 75, will
be an excellent addition.
Chop the lobster fine, add a little milk or
water, 2 raw beaten eggs, and a small lump
CAMP COOKERY. 71
of butter. Stew in frying pan for five min-
utes. Salt and pepper to taste.
Mix olive oil, mustard, vinegar, salt and
a hard boiled egg. Beat up together, add
lobster, lettuce and seasoning to suit the taste.
Sliced cucumber or tomato may be substituted
Chop the lobster fine ; add pepper and
salt. Mix with one fourth as much bread
crumbs as there is meat. Form into balls
with 2 tablespoons of melted butter. Dip in
beaten egg and roll in biscuit crumbs. Fry
SALMON, AS CANNED.
Add salt, pepper and vinegar to suit taste.
72 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK,
Some people cannot eat canned salmon ;
they find that it poisons them. These un-
pleasant effects will not be experienced if the
fish is prepared as follows : — Pour off all the
oil and place the salmon in a little water
in the fry pan. Let simmer for a minute,
and pour off the water. Add a little fresh
water, and thicken with flour, or bread or
biscuit crumbs. Salt, pepper and a pinch of
mixed herbs to suit the taste. Stew gently
for five minutes.
(All game should be kept for a day or two before
being used, if the weather will permit.
Venison, moose, or bear meat may be
spitted in joints of several pounds before the
fire, turning occasionally and sprinkling with
salt and pepper. Baste as required. (See
"General Remarks, Camp Cookery," — Roast-
ing.) Use any sauce preferred.
CAMP COOKERY. 73
Ducks, partridges, quail, etc., may be roasted
in the coals in the manner described for
fish in No. 7. Draw and clean in the usual
manner, but do not pluck off the feathers.
Stuff with bread crumbs or broken biscuit
well seasoned with salt and pepper. Dip
the bird in water to wet the feathers, and
bury in the ashes and coals. The time re-
quired can only be judged by experience ;
the size of bird and strength of fire are to
be considered. A teal will require half an
hour or more, other birds proportionately.
When taken from the fire remove the skin,
and if the operation has been successful the
flesh will be found to be clean and tender.
(For sauces for game see No. 78.)
Ducks, partridges, pigeons, turkeys, geese,
black-birds, snipes, squirrels, etc., may be
spitted before the fire. Clean the birds well,
and observe the directions given for "Game"
74 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK'.
in No. 20. The birds may be split open down
the back and extended on the spitting stick,
or they may be roasted whole, with appro-
priate dressings. (For dressings see No. 78,
etc.) Time required to roast Woodcock or
Snipe, 15 or 20 minutes. Pheasant or Par-
tridge, 20 or 30 minutes. Duck, 45 minutes,
Turkey, 3 hours for a large one : 2 hours
for middling size.
DUCKS, ALL. KINDS, TO STEW.
Clean well and divide into convenient
pieces. Place in the pot in enough cold
water to cover them, or as much as you
will require to produce the desired quantity
of stew. Place on the fire and boil slowly.
Add salt, pepper, and a pinch of mixed
herbs, Worcestershire or other sauce to suit
taste, also some onions, carrots, potatoes, etc.,
cut fine. A few of these vegetables may
be placed in the pot when first put to the
fire. They will dissolve in the time re-
CAMP COOKERY. 75
quired to stew the game, and add a pleas-
ant body to the dish. Time required, about
one hour and a half. The remainder of veg-
etables may be added as follows: carrots,
about 45 minutes before stew will be cooked ;
potatoes, onions, or turnips, about 30 min-
utes. If vegetables are not used to thicken
the stew, by being allowed to dissolve, a
little flour or corn starch may be used for
that purpose. To stew slowly for a long
time is the secret of success in making
these stews, and yet the pot must be removed
from the fire as soon as the meat is suffic-
iently cooked. Inspect the meat occasion-
ally and you will know just when it is
done. Do not let the contents of the
pot burn at the bottom. Skim the pot fre-
DUCKS, TO FRY.
Having cleaned and plucked the bird, di-
vide into pieces, such as legs, wings, and
j6 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK,
make four pieces of the body. Dry the meat
\ in a cloth, and place in the hot frying pan
with some pork fat previously tried out. Sea-
son with salt, pepper, and any sauce desired.
Fry slowly until done. Remove the meat
from the pan and set in a dish by the fire
to keep warm. Then to the fat in the pan
add a little water (sufficient to make the de-
sired quantity of sauce) thicken with flour,
to which has been added an onion chopped
line and some mixed herbs. Stir briskly
until incorporated, and stew for about five
minutes. Pour over the fried duck, and
SNIPES, TO FRY.
Same as for Ducks, (No. 24) but do not
cut the birds up after cleaning. Omit onion
from the sauce.
SNIPES, TO STEW.
Same method as for Ducks, (No. 23.)
Place 6, 10, or 12 birds in the pot, whole,
CAMP COOKERY. 77
at once. If the birds are very fat, remove
the fat before stewing them. Skim pot fre-
SNIPE ON TOAST.
After dressing the birds fasten a very thin
piece of fat ham or bacon round the breast
of each and fry in boiling hot lard for two
minutes. Sprinkle with pepper and salt, and
serve each on a piece of toast.
TURKEY, TO BOIL.
Pluck the bird carefully, draw and singe
it ; wash it inside with warm water. Wipe
dry with a cloth. Cut off the head and
neck close to the backbone, leaving enough
of the crop skin to turn over the stuffing.
Draw the sinews from the legs, and cut off
the feet just below the first joint of the leg.
Press the legs into the sides and skewer
them firmly. Fill the breast with sausage
or forcemeat, or bread crumbs, herbs and
78 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
onions. Put into sufficient hot water to
cover it ; boil gently for from one and a
half to two hours. Remove the scum as it
rises. (For sauces see Nos. 78, 79, 81.)
GOOSE, TO ROAST.
Having picked, cleaned and singed the bird
make a stuffing as follows : 2 ounces onion
(if the flavor of raw onions is not liked,
slice and partly boil them) chopped fine ; 1
ounce sage or mixed herbs ; 4 ounces bread
crumbs, stale ; a lump of butter, size of a
walnut, and a little pepper and salt. Mix
the whole well together with the yolks of
two eggs. Do not quite fill the goose, as
the stuffing will swell. Tie it to the spit at
both ends, and roast for an hour and a half,
or an hour and three quarters.
RABBIT, TO ROAST.
Skin and clean thoroughly, and spit before
a good fire. (Observe the directions given in
"General Remarks on Cooking," — Roasting.)
CAMP COOKERY. 79
Skin and wash the rabbit and cut it into
joints. Put on to stew with 2 ounces but-
ter and 3 onions sliced. When the onions
are brown pour in one pint of stock, made
with Extract of Beef. (See No. 3.) The
stock should be boiling when added to the
stew. Mix 1 tablespoonful of curry powder
and 1 tablespoonful flour smoothly with a
little water and add to the stew. Stew slowly
for half an hour or more. A little lemon
juice is an improvement. Serve with boiled
RABBIT WITH ONIONS.
Clean the Rabbit and put it on to boil
in enough cold water to cover it. When
boiled tender take it out, joint it, and fry
in lard to a light brown. Remove from the
pan and set by the fire to keep warm. Have
six onions sliced, and fry them in the lard.
80 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
When done add a little water and a table-
spoonful of flour. Let this simmer for a
minute, and pour over the rabbit.
SALT BEEF AND PORK STEWED.
Cut the beef and pork, or either, into
dice and place in the pot or pan to stew.
If the meat is very salt the water may be
poured off after stewing for 2 minutes, and
fresh water added. After stewing gently for
half an hour, add vegetables, carrots, potatoes,
etc., and some pepper and mixed herbs.
Thicken with flour or rice. When vegetables
are cooked, remove the stew and add toasted
bread, or broken biscuit.
CANNED CORNED BEEF, COLD.
After removing the beef from the can, cut
into slices, and use with pepper, mustard,
and Worcestershire, or any other sauce to
CAMP COOKERY. 81
suit taste. Canned beef should be kept in
a cool place, and placed in cold water for
some time before being opened.
CANNED CORNED BEEF, STEWED.
Stew together some carrots, onions and po-
tatoes, or some compressed vegetables, with
herbs, pepper and salt to taste, and when
nearly cooked add as much canned beef as
desired. Let simmer until the gelatine in
the beef has become incorporated with the
stew — between 5 and 10 minutes.
HAM, BACON, OR PORK, TO FRY.
The simple operation of frying these meats
is properly understood by few. The following
points should be attended to : — The slices cut
should not be more than one-eighth of an
inch thick. If very salt, and these meats
generally are, the slices should be soaked in
warm water for at least an hour, and the
82 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
water changed two or three times. If this
does not extract the salt sufficiently, the slices
may be boiled for a short time before fry-
ing. After soaking, pare off all rind, etc.,
and trim nicely. Wipe and dry the slices
before placing in the pan. Have the pan
hot and well greased, and fry the slices
quickly until brown, turning them when neces-
sary. Add pepper and sauce to taste.
HAM, BACON OR PORK, TO ROAST OR BAKE.
The slices of ham, etc., as cut and pre-
pared as dictated in No. 36, may be roasted
before the fire on a spit, or rolled up and
secured with a wooden skewer, and baked in
the Dutch oven.
HAM AND EGGS.
Prepare the ham as directed in No. 36.
(For this purpose the slices may be cut a
little thicker if so wished.) When fried re-
CAMP COOKERY. 83
move from pan and set by the fire. See
that the pan is not very hot, and break into
it the desired number of eggs. In doing
this hold the egg very near the pan, and
do not let it spread much. The pan must
be held very steady until the eggs are set.
Dip a little of the hot grease over the eggs.
Add pepper and salt if necessary. When
the eggs are cooked place each on a slice of
ham and serve. A nicer method of prepar-
ing *eggs for this dish is by poaching them
in water. (See No. 44.)
HAM, OR PORK, AND ONIONS.
Prepare the ham, etc., as directed in No.
36, and place by the fire to keep warm.
Have ready some onions, say 2 per man,
previously sliced and stewed until nearly
cooked, with pepper, some herbs if liked,
and salt if necessary. On taking the ham
from the pan, place the onions, from which
drain the water, in it and fry for about 5
84 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
minutes. Add a tablespoonful moist flour.
Turn over the ham or pork, and serve. (See
Prepare as in No. 36, then lay the slices
in the pan, pepper each, and spread on each
one-fourth teaspoon of made mustard. Pour
in vinegar in proportion of half a teaspoon^
ful to a slice ; fry quickly, turning often.
Remove and place on a dish. Then add to
gravy half a glass of wine, if on hand, and
one teaspoonful sugar, boil up once and pour
over the slices of ham.
Prepare slices of pork as directed in No.
36. Place in pan and fry until nearly done.
Have at hand a thick batter made of one
part corn meal to two parts flour, mixed with
cold water. Dip the slices of pork in the
CAMP COOKERY. 85
batter, and replace in fry pan until cooked
a nice brown.
PORK AND BEANS. NO. I.
Soak 1 quart beans over night. Next day
boil with 1 large onion. When nearly done
take out the onion, and place the beans in
a dish to bake before the fire, or in Dutch
oven. In centre of beans put 1-2 pound
salt pork, not fully buried. Pour in some
of the water in which the beans were boiled,
and bake one hour.
PORK AND BEANS. NO. 2.
Boil the beans, (time about 3 hours) and
when half done add pieces of pork, some
pepper and an onion cut fine. If water
evaporates, add more, but regulate so that
when the beans are boiled there will be no
water to pour off. Do not bake. A supply
of these beans may be kept for some days
in a jar, and warmed in a frying pan, etc.,
86 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK, '
EGGS, TO POACH.
Have some water, well salted, simmering
in the frying pan, and into this break the
eggs, one at a time, carefully, so as not to
break the yolk. Let the egg run slowly
from the shell, holding the hand as near the
water as possible. Dip the hot water over
the eggs. Remove them before they are hard.
Time about two and a half minutes. Place
each upon a piece of thin buttered toast.
This is an excellent way of preparing eggs to
eat with fried ham or pork. (See No. 38.)
EGGS, TO BOIL.
Time required, to boil soft, three minutes.
After that time they become hard. The wa-
ter should not be boiling violently, as it is
then liable to burst the shell and spoil the
egg. Place the egg gently in the pot, as
a very slight blow will crack the shell.
CAMP COOKERY. 87
Break 5 eggs into a dish, add a pinch
of salt, pepper and thyme, or mixed herbs ;
beat them well together ; have the frying pan
ready and place in it about 2 ounces fresh
butter ; let it boil ; then pour in the eggs
and stir quickly until cooked, about 4 min-
utes, and serve immediately.
Slice 2 onions and fry in butter until
brown, add 1 tablespoonful curry powder ;
add 1 pint of broth made of Extract of
Beef, (See No. 3) and stew until onions are
tender. Thicken with a little flour or corn
starch. Have 8 eggs boiled hard and slice
them into the stew. Let them get warm
but do not boil.
88 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
Potatoes may be baked before the open
fire. Have a good bed of coals and place
the potatoes on a stone before them. Turn
them when necessary. When done they will
crack open when squeezed gently in the
The simple operation of boiling potatoes is
best performed as follows : — Wash, and leave
the skin on, and throw them into boiling wa-
ter, salted. When soft enough to allow a
fork to be thrust through them easily, dash
a little cold water into the pot, let the po-
tatoes remain two minutes, and then pour
off the water. Replace them over a slow
fire until the steam is evaporated. Peel
them and place them in an open dish. Time,
about half an hour.
CAMP COOKERY. 89
POTATOES (RAW), FRIED.
Peel large potatoes and cut in slices a
quarter of an inch thick. Dry in a cloth
and fry in lard. Have a quick lire, and
move the slices of potato continually, turning
as required. When crisp, place on a plate
to drain, and sprinkle with salt and pepper.
5 1 -
POTATOES, BOILED, TO FRY.
Take any cold potatoes, cut them into
slices, and place them in the hot frying pan
with plenty of fat. Add salt and pepper,
and stir and turn frequently with a knife.
Time, about 20 minutes.
5 2 -
Beat together 1 cupful mashed potatoes, 2
eggs (beaten,) 1-2 pint of milk, 1 tablespoon-
ful of flour, (mixed with some of the milk)
go THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
and a little melted butter, about one table-
spoonful. Fry in some lard. Turn when re-
Peel and wash the onions, and boil in
salted water until soft. Change the water
once, when the onions are half cooked, if so
wished. When soft remove from pot, and
pour some drawn butter over them (See No.
79.) Time, about half an hour.
The following method gives a dish of rather
strong onions, but is liked by many. It may
be used also to prepare the onions for ham
or pork (See 39) : Peel and slice the desired
number of onions, and place them in the hot
frying pan with plenty of lard or pork fat.
Add salt, pepper, and sauce, to suit the taste.
Stir frequently, and cut as fine as desired
while frying. When nearly done sprinkle a
CAMP COOKERY. 91
little flour over them, and stir them well up
so as to cook the flour well, and break all
To cook other vegetables, such as carrots,
turnips, etc., to use alone, clean them well,
slice them, and lay in cold water until pla-
cing them in the pot. Have the water boiling
briskly, and salted. Skim the water before
putting in the vegetables. When the vegeta.
bles sink, they are generally done. Test
with a fork, and take them off as soon as
Directions for use generally accompany each
can. Canned Tomatoes are especially to be
recommended to the hunter, and are excel-
lent when stewed with bread crumbs, or
broken biscuit, salt and pepper.
92 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
RICE, PLAIN BOILED.
Pick over the rice and wash it in cold
water. To i pint rice put 3 quarts of
boiling water and 1-2 teaspoonful salt. Boil
for 17 minutes from the time it begins
to boil. Then pour off all the water, and
replace pot over a moderate fire, with cover
off, to steam fifteen minutes. Be accurate as
RICE, BOILED, WITH RAISINS.
Prepare the rice as directed in No. 57.
When it has been boiled for 10 minutes,
throw in a handful of cooking raisins and let
boil and steam as in No. 57. If the raisins
are put in at first they are liable to be
boiled to pieces.
Wash and pick 1-2 pound rice ; stew it
gently in a little broth, (made of Ext. Beef,
CAMP COOKERY. 93
See No. 3) with an onion, some mixed
herbs, and a pinch of salt. When the rice
is swelled, dip it out of pan and place be-
fore the fire to dry. Then place on a dish
and pour the broth it was boiled in round
To some cold boiled rice add enough
beaten egg to allow of making the rice into
balls. Add also sugar and lemon peel, or
any flavoring to suit the taste. Then form
the mass into small oval balls or cakes,
sprinkle with bread crumbs, and dip in beaten
egg. Fry in butter. When done sprinkle
See No. 73.
Mix together, dry, 1-2 pint flour, 1-2 pint
oatmeal, and 2 teaspoonfuls Baking Powder.
94 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
Add enough cold water to form into a thick
batter, and a pinch of salt. Have the fry-
ing pan hot, and grease it with a piece of
pork fat. Pour on some of the batter, form-
ing three cakes which will not touch one
another. When one side is cooked, turn with
a knife. A little experience will teach the
exact amount of Baking Powder to use to
produce light cakes, and the proper consist-
ency of the batter. A good bed of hot
coals is required, to fry properly, and the
pan must be well greased before cooking each
batch of cakes.
To i pint of flour add enough milk to
form into a thick batter. Beat up 3 eggs,
and add. Beat the whole until perfectly
smooth. Add a pinch of salt. Fry in the
frying pan, observing the directions given in
CAMP COOKERY. 95
INDIAN MEAL CAKES.
(The following is quoted from "The Complete
American Trapper," and may be tried if wished.
We have never tested this Recipe, but it should be a
''Indian meal cakes are easily made by
dropping a quantity of the hot mush (Indian
meal porridge, boiled for an hour,) in the
frying pan, having previously stirred in a
small quantity of soda, (or baking powder)
and turning it as soon as the lower side is
browned." See directions for frying in No.
Moisten 1 pint of oatmeal with some cold
water, add a little salt, and pour into 2
pints of boiling water. Boil half an hour or
more. If too thick add more water. Boil
slowly and stir frequently.
96 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
CORN MEAL PORRIDGE.
Corn, or Indian meal porridge is made in
the same manner as Oatmeal, (See No. 65)
and the same proportions of meal and water
are used. Boil for at least one hour.
CORN MEAL PORRIDGE, FRIED.
The porridge, or sapaun, as the Indians term
it, produced by following recipe No. 66, may
be sliced when cold, and fried with lard or
Pour enough boiling water, or milk, on
corn meal, (salted) to moisten it. Let it
stand for an hour, or longer. Put three ta-
blespoonfuls on the hot frying pan, and form
into a round cake about half an inch thick.
When brown, turn it over. Grease the pan
with lard or pork fat.
CAMP COOKERY. 97
Into i pint of corn meal pour boiling wa-
ter enough to wet it. Dissolve one-half tea-
spoon soda in hot water, (or mix same quan-
tity of baking powder with the meal while
dry) and add it with two well beaten eggs,
1 teaspoon salt, and butter the size of an
egg. Stir well and bake in buttered pans
(tin plates will do) for half an hour in the
Dutch oven, or before the open fire. Have
a strong fire, in either case.
To i pint of oatmeal add i teaspoon of
baking powder, mix well, and add enough
cold water to moisten, and a pint of salt.
Spread about half an inch thick on the fry-
ing pan well greased. Hold over the fire
to bake. Turn when bottom is done ; or
roast in the Dutch oven. The cake should
not scorch, but gradually dry through.
gS THE HUNTERS HANDBOOK.
7 1 -
When camping out, we can make excellent
bread by the following method : — To i quart
of flour add 3 teaspoonfuls of baking pow-
der, and mix well while dry. Add a pinch
of salt. Mix with cold water, or sweet
milk, into a thick dough that can be handled
without sticking. Knea.d it thoroughly ; on
this depends its excellence. Rub dry flour
on the hands to prevent the dough from
sticking. Form into round biscuits or loaves.
Bake before a good fire, or in the Dutch
oven. These biscuits may also be baked in
a frying pan, holding it over the fire, to
cook slowly, and turning the biscuits as often
as necessary. They are best when cold.
BATTER PUDDING, BAKED OR BOILED.
Take 6 ozs. flour, a little salt, and 3 eggs
beaten ; beat all together with milk,, added
CAMP COOKERY. 99
by degrees, until of the thickness of cream,
put into a buttered pan, and bake in Dutch
oven for about an hour. If to be boilled,
Put the mixture into a buttered and floured
mold, (tin cups will answer the purpose) and
tie over with a cloth. Place the mould in a
kettle of boiling water. Boil one hour and
a half, or more. The longer time will pro-
duce a lighter article. Eat with butter and
Boil some rice and raisins, as directed in
No. 58, but do not steam the rice. Let
there be a little water in it. When done,
add two or three beaten eggs, well stirred
in, and a little sugar. Let simmer four or
five minutes, and set aside to cool.
COSSACKS' PLUM PUDDING.
Mix well together 1 lb. of flour, 3-4 lb.
raisins, 3-4 lb. pork fat chopped fine, 2
ioo THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
tablespoonfuls syrup or sugar, and 1-2 pint
water. Tie tightly in a cloth, and boil 4
hours. For sauce see No. 82.
SALAD-DRESSINGS AND SAUCES.
DRESSING FOR CANNED LOBSTER, ETC.
Rub the yolks of 2 hard-boiled eggs to a
smooth paste with 1 dessert spoonful of salad
oil, or melted butter, add to it 2 teaspoon-
fuls of made mustard, and 1 teaspoonful fine
white sugar, and put to it gradually a cup
2 potatoes mashed; 1 tablespoonful made
mustard; 1 teaspoonful salt; 3 tablespoonfuls
salad oil, or melted butter ; 4 tablespoonfuls
vinegar ; yolks of 2 hard-boiled eggs pounded
fine ; 1 onion cut fine, and one tablespoonful
Anchory or other sauce. Mix. all together
and pour over lobster, etc.
CAMP COOKERY. 101
Cut tomatoes, not over ripe, into slices.
Cut up, as fine as possible, some small on-
ions, one to each tomato, and sprinkle over
slices of tomato. Add pepper, salt and vin-
egar. Onions may be soaked, or partially
cooked, if considered too strong.
DUTCH SAUCE FOR MEAT OR FISH.
Put 6 spoonfuls of water, and 4 of vine-
gar, into a warm pan, and thicken with the
beaten yolks of 2 eggs. Make quite hot,
but do not boil. Squeeze in some lemon
juice. Pour over meat, etc.
SAUCE FOR DUCKS, GEESE, ETC.
Chop very fine 1 oz. onion and 1-2 oz.
sage or mixed herbs. Put them into the
frying pan to stew with 4 tablespoonfuls of
to- THE IJLWTER'S HANDBOOK.
water. Simmer gently for 10 minutes, then
add i teaspoonful of pepper and salt, and i
oz. fine bread crumbs, or biscuit broken very
fine. Mix well together. Then pour to it
a gill of broth (see No. 3) or melted but-
ter, Stir well together, and simmer a few
DRAWN BUTTER, OR WHITE SAUCE, FOR FISH,
To the desired quantity of milk, add
enough moistened flour to thicken; add a
lump of butter and a little salt. Boil slowly
for ten or fifteen minutes. If milk cannot
be had, water will dc. (See 81.)
1 teaspoonful of milk, and 2 yolks of eggs
well beaten, and some sugar ; place on fire,
and stir till it just comes to the boil ; then
let it cool. When luke-warm, stir it into a
CAMP COOKERY. 103
glass of sherry, or the same quantity of
water with a small dash of any liquor.
SAUCE HOLLANDAISE, OR DRAWN BUTTER FOR
2 spoonfuls of flour mixed with 1 pint of
water. Place in fry-pan, and when cooked
add pepper, salt, lemon juice, and the yolks
of 2 eggs, beaten. Take off fire and add
1-2 lb. butter. Stir all the time.
PLUM PUDDING SAUCE.
Mix some fine white sugar with some
melted butter ; add a glass of sherry, a
small glass of brandy, and a little nutmeg
and lemon-peel grated.
To ensure having a good cup of tea, you
must buy a good article from a responsible
104 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
grocer. No article of commerce is more
largely adulterated, or with more disgust-
ing, baneful substances than tea. The vast
difference in the prices of this article shows
at once that the modern trade therein has
become greatly prostituted. If the tea which
is sold for fifteen cents per pound is good,
how shall we name that which is sold for
ninety cents per pound ? If the ninety cents
is an honest price, and no fancy figure,
then the tea sold at the lower price must in-
deed be trash. That the hunter may be
careful when purchasing this his favorite bev.
erage, I quote the following remarks from
one of our daily papers: —
" A recent analysis of some samples of al-
leged tea in New York, showed that the
specimens examined contained the following
articles : Nutgalls, currant leaves, iron filings,
filbert husks, sulphate of copper, oak bark,
hornets' and wasps' nests shredded and col-
ored, acetic acid, aloes, manila paper, vernal
grass, and other things too numerous and dis-
CAMP COOKERY. 105
gusting to mention." As teas vary some-
what in strength, and as different people have
different tastes to be suited, it is impossible
to lay down any exact rule for the amount
of tea to add to a given quantity of water.
As a general guide the following formula
may be used : —
8 3 .
TEA, TO STEEP OR DRAW.
An old rule runs, " 1 teaspoonful for each
cup, and one for the tea-pot." This is
rather ambiguous. It may mean either "1
teaspoonful for each cup placed on the table,
i. e., for each person," or "1 teaspoonful for
each cup of tea expected to be used, or for
each cup of water placed in the tea-kettle."
However, the following is generally used at
the camp fire: — Put 1 oz. tea, or 2 1-2
tablespoonfuls, heaped, to 4 pints of boiling
water. Remove immediately from the fire.
Cover slowly. Shake the kettle, and place
by the fire, but do not let it boil. Should
io6 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
this proportion make the tea too strong, or
too weak, regulate the next drawing accord-
ingly. Use the purest soft water attainable.
Tea which is allowed to stand for a long
time with the leaves in it, becomes very un-
wholesome, and if it is desired to keep some
cold, to drink during the day, it should be
poured from the leaves into another can as
soon as sufficiently drawn, or the leaves may
be dipped out with a spoon. Tea drank to
excess will produce nervousness, and strong
green tea may so far injure health as to
produce lameness and neuralgia.
COFFEE, TO DRAW.
(Buy fresh ground, rather than the imported packages.)
Add coffee to boiling water in the propor-
tion of 1 oz., or 3 table.spoonfuls, to 1
quart. Boil for 30 minutes or longer. If
the coffee does not settle, dash in half a cup
of cold water, and let stand a few minutes.
Should the coffee be weak, use more when
CAMP COOKERY. 107
COFFEE, TO IMPROVE FLAVOR OF
The flavor of coffee may be greatly im-
proved, and its delicate aroma increased, by
adding a little soda to the water with which
it is made. A very little will suffice.
COFFEE, SUBSTITUTE FOR CREAM IN.
Beat an egg to a froth, put to it a piece
of butter the size of a walnut, place in a
can and pour the coffee on to it gradually
from the pot, or stir the egg into the coffee,
when off the fire, if you have no other can
COFFEE, ESSENCE, OR EXTRACT OF.
This article, sold by grocers, is to be rec-
ommended, and produces, with boiling water,
an instantaneous cup of coffee. Directions
accompany each bottle.
io8 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
The following articles, which are all to be
recommended, have directions printed on the
wrappers or boxes : — Cocoa, chocolate, Cadbury's
essence of cocoa, broma, kacka, etc. Cocoa
forms a very nourishing drink to partake of
in the morning before the labor of cooking
a regular breakfast is undertaken, and will be
of use to those amateurs who are unaccus-
tomed to very early rising, or to working be-
fore breakfast. It may be prepared with
water alone, if no milk is to be procured.
A few bottles of lime juice will be an excel-
lent addition to the hunter's outfit.
The following useful Receipts were omitted under the
heading of "Fish " :
8 9 .
COD-FISH, SALT, TO BOIL.
Wash the fish well, and cut into pieces,
according to size of pot. Place in the pot
CAMP COOKERY. 109
with cold water and set on fire to boil slow-
ly. Change the water once. This will
freshen the fish, and render it cleaner. A
good method is to soak the fish, cut up, in
water over night, and cook next day. When
done, remove skin and bones. For sauce
see Nos. 79-81.
FISH CAKES (WITH RAW FISH).
1 pint salt cod-fish, raw, picked very fine,
and as many raw, whole, peeled potatoes as
will be equal to 2 pints. Put together in
cold water and boil until potatoes are thor-
oughly cooked ; remove from the fire and
drain off the water. Mash together. Add
butter size of an egg, two well-beaten eggs,
and a little pepper. Mix well together.
Drop, 1 spoonful at a time, into the frying
pan well, greased with lard. Brown* and
turn. Do not mould these cakes with the
hand ; drop the mixture from a spoon. Use
sauce, mustard, etc.
no THE HUX TEN'S HAXDBOOK.
FISH CAKES (WITH COOKED FISH).
Take cold, boiled cod-fish and cold, boiled
potatoes. Pick all the bones from fish, and
mash fish and potatoes together. Add a
little pepper, and salt if necessary. Form
into cakes, and fry with lard until the out-
sides are brown and crisp. Use sauce, mus-
THE LAST RESOURCE, OR WHAT TO USE WHEN
PROVISIONS RUN SHORT.
The hunter may sometimes find himself
far from home, with his provisions at a very-
low ebb, no money in his pocket, and no
game to be secured. It is then that he has
to call up all his powers of endurance, and
to exercise all his knowledge of cooking to
make his provisions go as far as possible.
True, if he is passing through a settled coun-
try he can not starve, but if his route lies
through a land of famine he may have to
eat many things which are not included in
the list of his ordinary food. We do not gen-
erally eat frogs, meadow-hens, or beavers,
and yet these are all good articles ot food,
and the hunter who can obtain them, when
ii2 THE HU XT EFTS Hs* XDBOOK.
his provisions are expended, should consider
himself to be in luck. He might be re-
duced to the necessity of eating still more
objectionable articles. I have known men
who were glad to eat skunk flesh. What
we eat is more a matter of custom than of
the superior fitness of the articles of our
diet. This fact appears more fully when we
remember that the natives of the South Seas
eat their snakes, beetles and worms ; the
Chinese their birds' nests ; the civilized in-
habitants of Europe their frogs and horse
flesh, and the Esquimaux the oily blubber
of the whale. Mostly every school-boy in
America can relate how the Indians of the
North and West eat their dogs ; how the
cannibals of Polynesia devour their own spe-
cies. But we will not enter into any deep
discussion on this subject. We merely wish
to show the amateur hunter that should he
be placed on short rations, by any unavoid-
able circumstances, or be perfectly destitute of
his ordinary food, he has still at his com-
CAMP COOKERY. 113
mand many articles which will sustain life.
The hunter should watch his decreasing stock
of provisions with a jealous eye, and so
regulate his return journey that he will reach
a place where he may replenish his larder
before his stock is entirely consumed. As
stated elsewhere, the soup-pot is the best
utensil to use when rations run short. A
proper manipulation will make a small amount
of food do great service.
The following receipts may be of use to the
hunter \ some of them, indeed, may be used
at any time, but they are so appropriate for
use in times of scarcity of provisions that we
have placed them under this head.
Peel and chop 4 onions and put them in-
to a kettle with 2 oz. fat or butter, add 3
quarts of water, and boil half an hour.
Then add 4 lbs, peeled and sliced potatoes,
pepper and salt to taste ; stir well on the
U4 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
fire for half an hour. Any scraps of meat*
biscuits, or a little rice, barley or flour, or
some mixed herbs will of course improve
DANDELIONS, AS GREENS.
Gather some tops of dandelions, wash well,
and put into just enough salted boiling water
to cover them. When tender squeeze out all
the water, place them in the frying-pan, and
fry for a few minutes, with a little salt, pep-
per and butter, or pork fat. When done,
add some slices of hard-boiled eggs if ob-
If a good supply of this wholesome article
is carried in a bag, it will form a valuable
stand-by when what is generally considered to
be more dainty food is scarce. Methods for
using are given in Nos. 64-66-67-68-69.
CAMP COOKERY. 115
FROGS, TO ROAST, FRY OR STEW.
The hind legs only of frogs are used.
These may be roasted before the fire, (see
No. 20,) fried in the pan, (see Nos. 24-25,)
or stewed, (see Nos. 23-26,) using such in-
gredients as are obtainable.
MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES TO USE.
The following articles may be used if oc-
casion arises : — Squirrels are very good as
food. This fact is not generally known
among amateur hunters. Cook as directed in
Nos. 22 or 25. Meadow-hen ; roast, (see
No. 22,) fry, (see No. 24) or stew, (see No.
23.) Black-birds — same as meadow-hens.
If the hunter has to eat any very strong,
objectionable flesh or fowls, the articles should
be thoroughly washed and par-boiled, and
such things as onions, pepper and salt used
freely, if on hand.
INDEX TO SECTION XI.
To preserve Meat and Fish 131
To salt Meat and Fish 132
To preserve Dead Game 133
Boot Grease 133
How to Load a Gun ...... 134
THE TREATMENT OF DROWNING, WOUNDS, ACCIDENTS,
BITES AND STINGS, ETC.
As the hunter is much exposed to accidents, he
should have in his outfit such simple remedies as
experience teaches him may be most useful. We may
enumerate the following articles : — A strip of Stick-
ing Plaster, Bottle of Tincture of Arnica, Bottle of
some strong Liniment, Bottle of Diarrhoea Mixture,
Bottle of Dark Brandy, and a box of Cathartic Pills.
The following methods of treating Bites, Wounds,
Cuts, etc., will prove to be effectual, in the absence
of a Physician.
BURNS AND SCALDS.
To burns apply some cotton dipped in oil,
or grease the spot with any fat at hand.
Scalds may be treated in the same way j or
n8 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
covered with scraped raw potato ; or cover
the scald with treacle, and dust well with
Use thin strips of sticking plaster. Bring
the edges of the wound carefully together.
Cut two broad pieces of sticking plaster so
as to look like a comb ; clean the wound,
pouring on some lukewarm water ; place a
piece of the plaster on either side of the
wound. These pieces should have been so
cut, and must be so arranged, that they
shall interlace each other. Cross the pro-
jecting strips, or teeth, and by pulling them
through each other close the wound, then
press the sticking plaster well clown, both
on the flesh and where it crosses itself.
TREATMENT OF £>/?OtVA r /A'G t ETC. 119
CONTUSIONS, OR BRUISES.
Bathe with Tincture of Arnica, and bind
with a piece of cotton, on which pour a few
drops of the Tincture, or bathe in cold wa-
ter and bind with damp cotton. If the
skin is broken dilute the Arnica with twelve
When an artery is divided or torn the
blood jumps out of the wound, and is of a
bright scarlet color. If a vein is injured
the blood is darker and flows evenly. To
stop the latter apply a bandage, and under
it place a piece of cotton or other cloth
folded, so as to press on the vein. In ap-
plying bandages to arrest arterial bleeding
be careful to place them between the wound
and the heart. If the wound is in the arm,
tie a piece of tape, or cord that will not
120 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
cut, loosely round the arm above the cut.
Pass a small stick under the tape and twist
it round until the tape compresses the arm
tightly enough to arrest the bleeding. Then
tie the stick in position. If it still bleeds
place a cork, or piece cf wood rolled in
cloth, underneath the tape, on the inside of
the fleshy part of the arm where the artery
may be felt beating. If the wound is in the
leg and the twisted tape, placed above the
wound, fails to arrest the bleeding, place the
cork in the direction of a line drawn from
the inner part of the knee a little to the out-
side of the groin. The object is to com-
press the artery.
BLEEDING AT THE NOSE.
Plug the nostrils with lint, and bathe the
forehead and nose with cold water, keeping
the head raised. Raise the arms, and place
both hands behind the head, allowing the
TREA TMENT OF DRO WNING, E TC. 1 2 1
head to rest on them. To chew a piece of
paper, or other substances, also tends to ar-
rest the bleeding.
When a person is rendered unconscious,
untie all strings, collar, etc., and loosen any
clothing that is tight and interferes with the
breathing. Raise the head, and note if there
is any bleeding from any part; apply smell-
ing salts or a burning feather to the nose,
and hot bottles to the feet.
If a bone, or other substance is caught in
the throat, insert the forefinger and press
upon the roof of the tongue to induce vom-
iting. If this does not have the desired
effect, swallow a large piece of potato or
soft bread. If these fail to remove the ob-
122 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
struction, take a mustard emetic. (A large
teaspoonful of mustard, mixed with a tumbler
of warm water.)
Send for medical assistance immediately,
and in the mean time proceed as follows :
i. Strip the body and rub it dry ; then rub
with hot blankets, and place on a warm bed,
in a warm room if possible. 2. Cleanse
away the froth from the nose and mouth.
3. Apply warm bricks or stones, bottles, etc.,
to the arm-pits, between the thighs, and to
the soles of the feet. 4. Rub the body with
the hands enclosed in warm socks. 5. If
possible, place the body in a warm bath.
6. To restore breathing, put the pipe of a
common bellows into one nostril, (or blow
into the nostril)' carefully closing the other
and the mouth ; at the same time draw
downwards, and push gently backwards the
upper part of the windpipe, to allow a free
TREATMENT OF DROWNING, ETC. 1:3
admission of air; blow the bellows gently,
to inflate the lungs, till the breast is raised
a little ; then set the mouth and nostrils free,
and press gently on the chest. Repeat this
operation of inflating the lungs until signs
of life appear. When the patient revives
apply smelling salts to the nose, if obtain-
able, and give some warm wine or brandy
and water. Never hold the body up by the
feet. Do not rub the body with salt or
spirits and do not roll on casks. These
remedies should be continued for twelve
SUNSTROKE, APOPLEXY, AND FITS.
Raise the head and support it by gentle
pressure on the sides of the head ; unloose
all tight clothes, strings, etc., and apply
cold water to the head and face. Send for
medical assistance if procurable.
124 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
(Bane berries; fools parsley; deadly nightshade;
water hemlock ; thorn apple ; opium, etc.)
Give emetics, large draughts of fluids, tickle
the throat, apply smelling salts to the nose,
dash cold water over the face and chest,
apply mustard poultices, and endeavor to
rouse the person by walking between two
persons, and, if possible, by electricity.
VEGETABLE IRRITATING POISONS.
(Mezereon ; monks-hood ; bitter apple ; gamboge,
Give emetics of mustard or chamomile, large
draughts of warm milk, or other bland fluids,
leech the belly if necessary, and give strong
infusion of coffee.
(Old-wife ; sea-lobster ; mussel ; tunney ; blower ; rock-
Give an emetic, excite vomiting by tickling
TREATMENT OF DROWNING, ETC. 125
the throat, and draughts of warm water. Fol-
low emetics by purgatives, and give sugar
and water to drink freely.
BITES OF REPTILES.
(Viper ; black-viper ; rattle-snake, etc.)
If possible, immediately tie a tape or string
between the wound and the heart, and draw
tight. Scarify the parts with a penknife, or
other sharp instrument to excite bleeding, and
apply a cupping glass over the bite, fre-
quently removing it, and bathing the wounds
in volatile alkali, (or some liniment.) If a
cupping glass cannot be procured, make the
wound bleed as much as possible, and suck
it, or burn it well with a hot poker. Give
the patient plenty of whiskey, if possible, and
cover up warmly.
BITES OF MAD ANIMALS.
Tie a string tightly above the part, cut out
the bite, and cauterize the wound with a red
126 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
hot poker, or lunar caustic. Give a purga-
tive, and plenty of warm drink.
For small bites (where the animal is not
mad) bathe the part well with Tincture of
Arnica diluted with twelve times the quantity
Rub the part with green sage leaves, or
bathe with water in which some herbs have
STINGS OF BEES AND WASPS.
Pull the sting out, pressing a watch key
over it to expose it well ; suck the wound,
if possible, and bathe with cold water.
TREATMENT OF DIARRHOEA.
This complaint is very liable to attack
amateur hunters, being induced by change of
TREATMENT OF DROWNING, ETC. 127
water, diet, and mode of living. A bottle of
Diarrhoea mixture may be procured of any
druggist, and should have a place in the
hunter's outfit. In absence of such med-
icine try the following : — Half a cupful of
milk or water, and one teaspoonful of pepper,
mix and drink. Abstain from soft food.
Brandy and pepper is a more effectual remedy.
Dr. Franklin, in his "Advice to Swimmers,"
says : " It is certain that much swimming is
the means of stopping diarrhoea, and even of
producing constipation. With respect to those
who do not know how to swim, or who are
affected with diarrhoea at a season which
does not permit them to use that exercise, a
warm bath, by cleansing and purifying the
skin, is found very salutary, and often affects
a radical cure."
BLACK-FLIES, MOSQUITOES, ETC., OINTMENTS FOR
These pests generally infest every locality
frequented by the hunter, and to guard against
128 THE HUNTER'S HA XD BOOK.
their bites some of the following prepara-
tions should be carried :
i. The simple herb, pennyroyal, found in
most sandy localities, rubbed on the hands
and face, will check the attacks of insects.
2. Make an ointment of i ounce oil of
pennyroyal, 3 ounces lard. Put into a little
wooden box, or wide-mouthed bottle, and
apply when required.
3. Mix common tar and sweet oil in equal
parts. Bottle for use.
4. Tobacco smoke is obnoxious to mos-
quitoes, and if the pipe be lighted, those pests
will not be so troublesome.
BLACK-FLIES, MOSQUITOES, ETC., TO RID THE
When these insects infest the tent, a
smudge should be lighted in the windward door-
way or placed under the windward curtain.
The smudge is composed of birch, or other
bark, set on fire and covered with green
TREATMENT OF DROWNING, ETC. 129
grass, leaves, or other materials which will
create a large amount of smoke. While
the smoke is passing through the tent, drive
out all the insects with a towel or cloth,
then close the tent, and the smudge may be
removed. It is a good plan to continue the
smudge outside the tent, in such a position
that the breeze will drift the smoke on the
canvas. This will drive off the insects with-
out filling the tent with the smoke.
INDEX TO SECTION X.
THE TREATMENT OF DROWNING, WOUNDS,
Burns and Scalds ......
Contusions or bruises ....
Bleeding at the nose ....
Sunstroke, Apoplexy, and Fits
Narcotic Poisons . ....
Vegetable Irritating Poisons
Bites of Reptiles
Bites of Mad Animals
Stings of Bees and Wasps
Treatment of Diarrhoea ....
Black-flies, Mosquitos, etc., Ointments for
protection from ......
Black-flies, Mosquitos, etc., to rid the tent
TO PRESERVE MEAT AND FISH.
The hunter may at times secure more game
than he can immediately use, and he should
then employ some of the following methods
to preserve the surplus for future needs : —
i. To dry meat and fish :— For meat, cut
the flesh intp small, thin strips, all the meat
being cleaned off the bones. If venison,
place the pieces of meat on the inside of
the hide of the animal, and mix well with
salt. Roll these pieces up in the hide and
let it stand for three hours. Build a frame
over the fire-place by driving four forked
poles into the ground in the form of a
square, and about six feet apart. The forks
132 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
should be about four feet above the ground.
On these lay a frame-work of poles, spread
the strips of meat on the frame, and start
a good steady fire of hard wood beneath.
Keep the fire lighted for twenty-four hours.
The meat thus prepared will keep for al-
most any length of time. Moose and bear
meat is dried in the same manner. If the
hide is not available to wrap the salted
strips in, place them in layers in any vessel.
The object is to let them absorb the salt,
which the fire afterward dries in.
Fish may be dried in the same manner.
Scale them, spread open by cutting down
the back, clean them, and remove backbone.
2 To salt meat and fish : — When it is not
desired to keep the meat or fish for any
length of time, we may cut the meat into
convenient pieces, and place in layers in an
earthen vessel, using pepper and salt freely,
and keeping the vessel covered in a cool
place. For fish, clean as usual, from the
belly cut down the back, and so divide into
MISCELLAXEOUS RECEIPTS. 133
two pieces, place in layers in an earthen or
wooden vessel, sprinkling each piece freely
with salt and a little pepper. Keep in a
TO PRESERVE DEAD GAME.
If only for a short time, clean, pluck and
place in a covered jar, using salt and pep-
per freely. If for a long time, proceed as
follows : — Take out the intestines, pluck, fill
the inside with unground wheat, and place
the fowl in a heap or cask of the same
grain, in such a manner as to insure its
being covered. It will keep for months.
A simple preparation for boots and shoes
is made as follows : Melt together 1 part
black rosin, 2 parts beeswax, and 3 parts
tallow (candle will do) or other fat. This
keeps the leather soft and waterproof. Pour
into a tin box, and melt at fire when wanted
134 THE HUXTER'S HAXDBOOK.
HOW TO LOAD A GUN.
The following old-fashioned rhyme contains some
good hints on loading a muzzle loader : —
"Our sport almost at hand, we charge the
Whilst ev'ry well-bred Dog lies quietly
Charge not before. If over night the
Stands loaded, In the Morn the Prime
will hiss ;
Nor Prime too full, else You will surely
The hanging Fire, and lose the pointed
Yet cleanse the Touch-hole first ; a Par-
Most to the field for this wise Purpose
In charging next, good Workmen never
To ram the Powder well, but not the
SIGNS OF THE WEATHER.
It is very convenient for the hunter to be
able to tell, by observing the present state
of the weather, what state will exist during
the next day, or for perhaps a longer period.
He may thus tell whether he will be able
to strike tent, or start on any arranged ex-
cursion on the morrow, or whether he had
better remain in camp and avoid a wetting.
The signs of the weather, as seen in the
sky and clouds, are nothing more than the
existing state of the weather, but as one state
is invariably followed by another of a de-
scription which never varies, we may, by
observing the present state, after some expe-
rience, foretell the state which shall neces-
sarily succeed. In presenting a few remarks
136 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
to guide the hunter in fore-casting the weather,
f we shall not touch upon any of the complex
considerations by which "the weather prophet"
arrives at his learned conclusions, We shall
confine ourselves to some of the simplest
rules laid down by those observers of nature
who have given us the benefit of their studies ;
rules which have been proved to be trust-
SIGNS IN THE SKY AND HEAVENLY BODIES.
An easily-remembered little rhyme runs as follows :
Evening red and morning grey
Will set the traveler on his way ;
But evening grey and morning red
Will bring down rain upon his head.
This is truth and poetry combined. An
old couplet, worthy of credence, says :
If it rains before seven,
It will clear before eleven,
In other language, early morning rains do
not continue for any length of time.
61GJVS OF THE WEATHER. 137
A clear sky and dead calm at sunset, with
the sun going down a well-defined form, but
on which the eye can gaze without being
dazzled, indicate, in summer, a warm, bright
morrow ; in winter, such a sunset is suc-
ceeded by sharp frost.
A yellow sunset indicates wet, soon to fol-
If it rains before sunrise, there will be a
A red evening foretells fine weather, but
if the color spreads very far upwards from
the horizon in the evening ; or if the color
spreads in like manner at sunrise, it foretells
wind or rain, or both.
If the sun at rising appears enlarged there
will shortly be sudden and sharp showers, if
in summer; but in winter settled and moder-
Halos, cornas, etc., indicate coining rain or
A haziness in the atmosphere, which ob-
scures the sunlight, and makes the sun look
138 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
white or ill-defined, foretells rain. If at night
the moon and stars grow dim, rain will fol-
If the sun is white at setting, or shorn of
his rays, or goes down behind a bank of
clouds on the horizon, bad weather is to be
If the moon looks pale and dim, expect
rain , if red, wind ; if of her natural color,
with a clear sky, fair weather will obtain.
If the sun at rising is surrounded by an
iris, or circle of white clouds, fair weather
will follow, for a short time.
If there are red clouds in the west at
sunset, it will be fine ; if they have a tint
of purple, it will be very fine ; or if red,
bordered with black in the southeast.
If there be a ring or halo round the sun
in bad weather, fine weather is at hand.
If there be lightning without thunder after
a clear day, fair weather will continue.
Before much rain the clouds grow bigger,
and increase very fast. When the clouds are
SIGNS OF THE WEATHER. 139
formed like fleeces, but dense in the middle
and bright towards the edges, with a bright
sky, they are signs of frost, with hail, snow,
or rain. If clouds from high in the air, in
thin white trains like locks of wool they fore-
tell wind and probably rain. When a gen-
eral cloudiness covers the sky, and small
black fragments of clouds fly underneath, they
are a sure sign of rain, and probably it will
be lasting. Two currents of clouds always
portend rain, and, in summer, thunder.
If at sunrise many clouds are seen in the
west and soon disappear, fine weather will
If the clouds at sunrise move to the west,
fine weather, of short duration, will exist.
If there be a rainbow during continued wet
weather, the rain will soon be over.
If a rainbow disappear suddenly, it will be
The following signs all foretell foul, wet
weather : —
If the sun rise pale, or purple red, or
140 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
even dark blue, there will be rain during
If the clouds are red at sunrise, there will
be rain the next day.
If at sunrise many dark clouds are seen in
the west, and remain, it will rain on that
If the sun at rising is covered by a dark
spotted cloud, it will rain the same day.
If the sun burn more than usual , or there
be a halo round the sun or moon during fine
weather, foul weather is at hand.*
If it rain during sunshine, showers will
If the full moon rise pale ; wet. If it rise
red ; wind.
If the stars appear larger, and closer, and
flicker, rain or wind is at hand.
An Aurora Borealis foretells wet weather.
A continued rain from the south is scarcely
* In "The Wreck of the Hesperus" the Old Sailor says:
"I pray thee put into yonder port, For I fear a hurricane."
"Last night the moon had a golden ring, and to night no
moon we see."
SIGNS OF THE WEATHER. 141
ever succeeded by settled weather before the
wind changes, either to the west or some
point of the north.
If rain falls during an east wind, it may
be expected to continue for twenty-four hours.
If the sun be seen double, or more times
reflected in the clouds, expect a heavy storm.
A very red eastern sky at sunset, indicates
SIGNS IN FOGS AND MISTS.
A less complicated class of Signs of the Weather
than those observed in the sky, but one none the
less accurate in its readings, is that presented by the
movements of fogs and mists, and the various cir-
cumstances under which these are formed. Some of
the simplest conditions under this Class, and the re-
sults to which they lead, are as follows :—
If mists rise in low ground and soon van-
ish, expect fine weather.
If mists rise to the hill-tops, expect rain
in a day or two.
A black mist indicates coming wet.
1 42 THE HUNTER'S HAXDBOOK.
When the fog leaves the mountains and
rises higher, fair weather is at hand.
If the dew lies plentifully on the grass
after a fine clay, it is a sign of another. If
not, and there is no wind, rain will follow.
If near the full moon there be a general
mist before sunrise, it will be fine for sev-
If the fields are covered with a mist be-
fore sunrise, fine weather is indicated.
If a white mist, or dew, form in the eve-
ing near a river, and spread over the adjoin-
ing: land, there will be fair weather.
If there be a damp fog or mist, with wind,
rain will follow.
If the fields in the morning be covered
with a heavy wet fog, it will generally rain
within two or three days.
If a morning fog form into clouds, at dif-
ferent heights, which increase in size and
drive in layers, thunder and heavy rain are
S/GXS OF UNE WEATHER. 143
SIGNS GIVEN BY ANIMALS, INSECTS, AND INANI-
Any change in the weather has its effect upon an-
imals, birds, insects, and some inanimate objects, and
these, by their actions, impart to us their knowledge
of what state of weather is approaching. True, by
observing the signs which have been treated of in
Parts 1 and 2 of this Section, we may foretell the
coming state as soon as can animals or birds, but by
knowing the meaning of the signs which those crea-
tures exhibit, we may avail ourselves of a large store
of knowledge which, though second-hand, is ready-
made, and as useful as easy of acquirement. The
facts which have been noted by Naturalists, etc., un-
der this head, are very volumnious, but we shall re-
fer only to those which may be of use to the hun-
When rain is coming, ravens caw, swallows
chntter, small birds plume themselves and
make a show of washing, crows make a great
noise in the evening, and geese cackle more
Sheep huddle together at the approach of
144 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
bad weather, and turn their tails in its direc-
tion. Dogs feel lazy at the approach of rain.
If spiders, in spinning their webs, make the
terminating filaments long, we may, in propor-
tion to their length, conclude that the weather
will be fine and continue so for ten or twelve
days. Spiders generally alter their webs once
in 24 hours ; if they do this between six and
seven in the evening, there will be a fine
night ; if they alter their web in the morning,
a fine day; if they work during rain, expect
fine weather, and the more active and busy
the spider is, the finer will be the weather.
If spiders web (gossamer) fly in the autumn
with a south wind, expect an east wind and
fine weather. When spiders break and de-
stroy their nests, and creep away, wet weather
may be expected.
If gnats fly in compact bodies in the beams
of the setting sun, there will be fine weather.
If bats flutter and beetles fly about, there
will be a fine morrow.
SIGNS OF THE WEATHER. 145
If owls scream during foul weather, it will
change to fair.
If storks and cranes fly high and steadily,
In all of the following cases, rain is to be
If ditches and drains smell stronger than
If tobacco smoke seems denser and more
If the convolonlus and chickweed close.
If foxes and dogs howl and bark more than
If moles cast up hills.
If horses stretch out their necks, and sniff
the air, and assemble in the corner of a
field, with their heads to leeward.
If turkeys gobble, and if quails make more
noise than usual.
If sea-birds fly towards land, and land-birds
If swallows fly lower than usual.
146 THE HUNTER'S HANDBOOK.
If the crow makes a great deal of noise,
and fly round and round.
If water-fowl screams more than usual, and
plunge into the water.
If cranes place their bills under their
If fish bite more readily, and gambol near
the surface of the streams and ponds.
If frogs and toads croak more than usual.
If the owl screech.
When sea-gulls and other birds fly inland
a stoim is to be expected.
If the wind be hushed with sudden heat,
thunder and rain are foretold.
Sudden rains do not last long, but when
the air grows thick by degrees, and the sun,
moon, and stars shine dimmer and dimmer,
it is then likely to rain six hours.
After very warm and calm weather, a squall
or storm, with some rain, may follow ; likewise
at any time when the atmosphere is heated
SIGNS OF THE WEATHER. 147
much above the usual temperature of the
season, and when there is, or recently has
been, much electric or magnetic disturbances
in the atmosphere.
Storms are most frequent in December
January and February. In September there
are generally one or two storms. The ver-
nal equinoctial gales are stronger than the
NOTE. All mention of the readings of scientific in-
struments as presaging the weather, has been pur-
posely omitted, as the general hunter does not carry
such instruments on his excursions. While it is im-
possible to enumerate the sources whence the re-
marks on the weather have been gathered, I wish,
nevertheless, to express my indebtedness to a very
useful volume entitled "Enquire Within," and to a
copy of "Vernier's Almanac."
"In less than one hundred pages is much and deep
THE STARS AND THE EARTH;
Thoughts upon Space, Time and Eternity.
WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY
THOMAS HILL, D.D., L.L.D.
Late President of Harvard University.
Cloth, 50 Gents.
"The main purpose of the book is to show, from the laws of light,
how the past may he actually present to God, and may hereafter
become actually present 10 men."— Churchman, New Yoik
" The author takes up the phenomenon of light, and by it shows how
the past is the present with God. further on. he seeks to prove the
unity of the Creator by the proofs of unity pervading the creation,
laying down the theory that the universe may be the embodiment of
a single thought occupying neither space nor time, the volume is
sublime poetry "—Christian Register lso&tun.
"■ It is poetic in its suggestions, and leaves the impression that nature
gives the cue to things liidden and mysterious. There is no dogmatic
conclusion, and yet the dogmas of oniniprosence and omniscience aro
elucidated by it. In less than one hundrtd pages is much and deep
philosophy "— Boston Commonwealth.
" It cannot but be valuable to the student of science as well as Hie
professor nf leligion, and lends to bring them closer together and
reconcile them "—Potter's M»itltl>/.
" We common i the book to the curious an"< thouohtful reader, as-
suring him that hnviiiar once read it he will > or be likely ever to for-
get the impressions made by it "— Chicago .idvMice.
SHORTHAND WITHOUT A MASTER.
SHORTHAND BY THE " ALLEN METHOD."
A. Self -Instructor, whereby more Speed than Long-Hand
Writing is gained at the First Lesson, and
additional Speed at each sub-
By G. G. ALLEN,
Principal of the Allen Stenographic Institute, Boston.
Price 50 Cents.
There is scarcely any acquirement so helpful to the student, scientist,
or professional man, as shorthand writing. Heretofore, all the methods
have required so long a time before one could become so proficient as to
ui.ike it of any advantage, t'.iat men in middle life or busy men have not
een able to uive the time ^o learn if ; but l>y the "Allen Method" one can
most in " ihj idle mo nents of ;i lvi-y hfe," certainly, in an hour a d;iy
two or three mouths, become so expert as to report a lecture verbatim.
m Rev. Dr. THOMAS HILL, Late President of Harvard College.
Portland, June 2, 1883.
. nost cordiallv indorse the main principles of Mr. Allen's method of
printing phonography; thev all are thoroughly practical, and must, of
necessity, lead to better practical results than the analytic methods usu-
ally pursued. I hope Mr. Allen's methods will bring into more general
use the phonographic style of shorthand.
From R. M. Pflsifer, of R. M. Fulsifer <fc Co., Proprietors of the
The "Herald," Boston, Aug. 17,1881.
Bear Sir:— I have for the past eight months employed as my private
stenographer a gentleman educated at vour Institute, and recommended
to me by yon. I have been entirelv satisfied with the service which he
has rendered. Respectfully yours, R. M. PULSIFER.
37 Matthews, Harvard College.
I had taken but two lessons of you, and at my third lesson I wrote
three times as fast as an ordinary long-hand writer.
S. B. PEARMAIN.
1G4 nANOVER Street, Boston.
After taking a two months' cou r se I wrote from matter with which I
was entirely unfamiliar, one hundred and forty words per minute.
B. C. STICKNEY.
549 Thipd Street, Boston.
Before completing a three months' course I could write one hundred
and sixty-five words per minute. I find no difficulty in taking down
sermons, speeches, lectures, etc., verbatim. THOMAS F. MacKEY.
I have taken a three months' course of lessons, and am now doing law
reporting. MINNIE E. CONLAN.
Reporting for some of the best Boston lawyers, she earns more In a day
thaa ordinary lady employes can in a week.
How the Ant can be enlarged to the size of the Elephant
BEGINNINGS WITH THE MICROSCOPE.
A WORKING HANDBOOK,
Containing Simple Instructions in the Art and Method of Using
the Microscope, and Preparing Articles for
By WALTER P. MANTON, M.D.,
Author of " Taxidermy without a Teacher," "Insects,"
and " Field Botany."
Llastrated, Price 50 Cents.
This dainty little manual treats of
1. The Microscope and Working Tools.
2. Preparing Objects.
3. Stains and Staining.
B. Needle Preparations and Section Cutting.
7. How to Work.
9. What to work with.
Dr. Manton, whose previous *'■ Practical Helps to Natural History "
are having an extensive salo, here gives in a simple and comprehen-
sive manner, a fund of information about "the revealer of those
particles which in the aggregate go to make up bodies visible to
the naked eye, but which, taken singly, are so small that their size
must be magnified many times in order that the human eye may
determine their structure.*'
This handbook will be found equally valuable as a manual for
schools, as an instructor to the energetic youth who receives one of
these valuable instruments as a premium, or as a book of reference
by the lucky youngster who has a sample dcpoe>ited in his Christmas
stocking or left beside his pla e on his birthday.
HANDBOOK OF THE TELEPHONE.
4®" EVERYBODY WANTS
AN ACCOUNT OF THE
Phenomena of Electricity, Magnetism, and Sound, as
involved in its action; with directions for
making a Speaking Telephone.
Prof. A. E. DOLBEAR, of Tufts College.
Author of M The Art of Projecting."
16mo. Illustrated. 50 Cents.
" An interesting little book upon this most fascinating subject,
which is treated in a very clear and methodical way. First, we have
a thorough review of the discoveries in electricity, then of magnetism,
then of those in the study of sound— pitch, velocity, timbre, tone, res-
onance, sympathetic vibrations, etc. From these the telephone is
reached and by them in a measure explained." — Hartford Co want.
" It treats of electricity, magnets, the galvanic battery, thermo-elec-
tricity, magneto-electricity, magneic induction, and all the appli-
ances for producing the wonderful and useful results that have already
come to the world by the invention of the telephone. It is a little
book that will be desired by al classes of the community; neatly
C rinted a'id tastefully bound. Every young person in the land should
ecome familiar with the principles of physical science involved in
this discovery "-N.&. Journal of Education.
" This is a subject of much interest at present, and Prof. Folbeae's
exposition of it will be welcomed. The author elucidates the phenom-
ena of elecfricitv, magnetism and sound, as involved in the action of
the telephone : describes the workings of the speaking telephone, and
gives directions for making one. The author is specially qualified to
write on the subject, as he is the inventor of the telephone which he
describes l lis descriptions are plain and are helped out by a dozen
or mor ■ engravings."— Hustun Journal.
•N") little book is capable of doing- better service."
By WALTER K. FOBES.
WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY GEORGE M-
Cloth, 50 Cents,
P A T/nj
" The Manual is divided into four parts. Part First describes a series
of gymnastics to give strength and elasticity to the muscles used in
speaking. Fart Second is a system of vocal exercises for daily prac-
tice. Part Third, the application of the vocal exercises to the reading
of short extracts, showing the effect when thus applied I'art Four
is a chapter giving general hints on elocution, and showing how easily
defects in speech may be cured.
W th or without an instructor, this Manual is just what the student
is in great need of and he can supply that need by a study of ' Llocu-
tion Simplified ' "— The Dartmouth, Hanover. A'. 11.
" A very useful book for boys, giving them practical instruction in
an art altogether too much neglected uow in our educational metii-
ods."— Hartford Courant.
'•This valuable little book occupies a place heretofore left vacant,
as a digest of elocution that is both practical and methodical, and low
in price."— iV. Y. Tribune.
" No little book is canable of doing better service in the community,
if its inculcations and instructions are carefully followed."— The
Churchman, New York.
" A book treating this subject within a limited srace. and bringing it
within the comprehension of the novice and amateur of the art. is
certainl* needed. We believe that this is just such a work"— The
'■ The rules laid down are expli it and to the point, and are illustra-
ted by copious extracts from the great masters of English speech,
'ihe Appendix contains some valuable hint« on lisping, stammering,
stuttering, and other defects of speech "— Commercial liulhtm , Boston
" Mr <:eo. M. Baker has written an Interesting introduction, full oj
valuable advice."— Boston Gazette.
A MOST VALUABLE COMPANION.
FIELD BOTANY :
A Hand-Book for the Collector.
Instructions for Gathering and Preserving Plants, and
the Formation of a Herbarium; also, Complete
Instructions in Leaf Photography, Plant
Printing, and the Skeletonizing
By WALTER P. M ANTON.
Illustrated. Cloth, 50 Cents.
"A most valuable companion The amount of information con-
veyed in tlie small compass is surprising."— Demorest's Monthly, New
" It is just what the boys and girls need for the spring campaign in
Botany, aud at the modest price of fifty cents is accessible to all."—
Christian Register, Boston.
" Tt is entirely practical, and gives the collector just the knowledge
required to render his work permanent and satisfactory Itssmall-
aess fits it to be carried- in the pocket, which is a consideration."—
National Baptist, iV. Y.
" Of inestimable value to young botanists.**— Rural New Yorker.
"There are many practical suggestions in the book, also, which would
orobably be new, and which would certainly be useful to teacher as
well as pup 1."— Kingston (N. Y.) Freeman.
" We heard a class of bright young botanists recite the other day,
n I we thought at the time now delightful a thing it would be to
•rosecute in these blossoming months that entertaining study our-
eUes. I erhaps we shall carry out the thought If we do, this little
.fork shall be our vade mecum." - Chicago Standard.
THE TRIBULATIONS OF A FRENCHMAN.
A Frenchman's Struggles with the English Language.
Amusing as a narrative, instructive as a handbook of French
By DPzroif. IE. CL IDTTIBOIS,
Author of "The French Teacher, a right system of teaching French."
Cloth, 50 cents ; cheap edition, paper, 30 cents.
"Who has not heard of Professor Dubois, " the funny Frenchman »'!
Many will remember his instructive, amusing, and witty lectures,
"Broken English; or, the Mistakes, Trials, and Tabulations of a
Frenchman while wrestling with the English Tongue." After
listening to his story of how he went to the theatre expecting to sco
Laura Keene appear in two pieces, supported by her husband ; how
ho told some of his mishaps over and over again, because his hearers
kept saying "Do tell," "I want to know," &c. ; how he said,
"kicked the bucket," and used other expressions of a like nature,
supposing them to be the most polite forms of speech; what a
Btruggle he had with certain little words to find out how to say
broke i off, broken up, broken out, broken down, broken in, &c,
and how he made other mistakes almost without number, many a
listener has expressed the hope the Professor would have thj lecture
put in some permanent form, that it might not be forgotten.
Finally taking the advice of his friends, Professor Dubois has con-
cluded to add the materials collected in later years, and have the
whole published as one of Lee and Shepard's popular handbooks.
It is published in English and French, on opposite pages, and will
thus be a very valuable aid to those learning French.
"FULL OF SERVICEABLE INFORMATION."
Handbook of Conversation :
Its Faults and Its Graces.
i. Dr. Peabody's Lecture. 2.— Mr. Trench's Lecture.
3.— Mr. Parry Gwinn's " A "Word to the Wise ; or,
Hints on the Current Improprieties of Ex-
pression in "Writing and Speaking."
4.— Mistakes and Improprie-
ties in Speaking and
ANDREW P. PEABODY, D.D., L.L D.,
Late of Harvard University.
Cloth, 50 Cents.
" A book which will he of incalculable value to the young man or
woman who will carefully m>te and follow out its numerous and valu-
able suggestions It is worth owning, and ought to be studied by
many who heedlessly misuse their mother tongue."— Boston Deacon.
" This little manual contains a great varietv of valuable matter for
the instruction of those who would improve their style in conversa-
tion. It is in fact one of the veiy best and clearest handbooks of its
kind that we have seen "— T lie Day, Baltimore.
"It is a useful handb o'c on the proprieties and common errors of
English speech.' — The Churchman
*' Th°: book is full of serviceable information and can be advanta-
geously read and kept for reference bv everv one who desires to con-
verse and to write properly and gracefully '''—Paper World.
' II tp is a neat nocket-volume. which every person phonld have
for re v.\\ reference Kor the young it is of especial value and to the
oi.l it U of great interest."— Vox Popuh.
KNOW WHAT YOU ARE DRINKING.
A Handbook for Water Drinkers.
BY G. L. AUSTIN, M. D.
Price 50 Cents.
" This little book furnishes to non-professional men a ready and
pleasing method of determining water to the extent necessary to af-
ford a perfect idea as regards its wliolesomeness for drinking pur-
poses. We cannot but congratulate the author on the happy concep-
tion and execution of this work, which cannot fail to make many
friends in its behalf."— Chicago Chemical Review.
" The tests are, for the most part, simple, and are described in lan-
guage devoid of technicalities. The work will be of service to all who
wish to know what they a.e drinking."— Medical bulttiin, l J hnu.
"This will prove a very acceptable hook to those who drink water,
and who hive any special desire to know what kind of water they
drink. It has been prepared by an entirely competent person."— Chi-
"It condenses into fifty pages what one would have to' wander
through a small chemical librar- to find, we commend the book as
deserving of a wide circulation "— N. Y. Independent.
"Another of Lee and Shepard's model litt'e ' Handbooks,' wlrch
have proven a popular card it contains the gist of the science."—
Des Mines State Leader.
'• A most valuable little book."- Boston Globe.
r ,« D i r " & us t' n 'M 1 well-known authority, and his conclusions will com-
mand attention."— Brooklyn Eagle.
coI- N ° *.?"? ran P ernsp this book, even for a few moments, without
seeimr tnat it is verv systematic and concise; plainly written, and well
worth the price asked "- Medical and Surg.cal Journal, Si. Louis.
USEFUL IN AN EMERGENCY.
WHAT IS TO BE DONE?
A Handbook for the Nursery, with useful Hints for Children
By ROBEBT B. DIXOJST, M.D.
Surgeon of the Fifth mass. Infantry ;
PHYSICIAN TO THE BOSTON DISPENSARY.
Price, cloth, SO cents; paper, 30 cents.
This is not only a useful, but at the same time a clever little hand-
book, and one which is well adapted for all who have any regard
for their own health or that of their children. The book contains
hints and remedies fjr the treatment of accidents and diseases,
and they are so clearly arranged that any on ". can easily understand
what do do in an emergency when a physician cannot be reached, or
before his services can be obtained. Besides the general hints, there
is a prefix containing a set of rules on the personal care of the health,
arranged in such a clear and concise manner that they will be not
only instructive, but, at the same time, exceedingly interesting read-
ing. If people of ad classes cannot or will not eat, drink, and avoid
all that is recommended in this book, at least they can learn the
reason why such and such conditions of atmosphere, diet, and exer-
cise should be sought for, and such an 1 such determiidng causes of
ill health be shunned. If every boy and girl in the l.ind could be
taught the rules to be found in this little book, we have no hesitation
in saying they would be saved much suffering and disease, and
would add incalculably to the strength of our Continent by producing
and preserving a sounder and more vigorous race of human beings.
This handbook will be found especially useful for cottagers during
the summer season, who live at some distance from their physician.
It is, witbort doubt, the best book of the kind yet prepared for the
rHE MOST COMPLET E BOOK OF THE KI ND EVER WRITTEN.
A concise and simple Treatise on the Management of Small Boaife
and Yachts under all Conditions; with Explanatory Chapteis on or.
dinary Sea Manoeuvres, and the Use of Sails, Helm, and Anchor, and
Advice as to what is proper to be done in Different Emergencies;
Supplemented by a short
VOCABULARY OF NAUTICAL TERMS.
By DOUGLAS FRAZAR,
Formerly Fourtn Officer of the Steamship ••Atlantic," Master ef ti e Bark " Maryland, " and Conv
minder of the Yacht " Fennimore Cooper " in the Northern Seas of Chn.a and Japw*.
Numerous Illustrations. Cloth, $1.00.
" Capt. Frazar has done his work in a sailorly way, using no techni-
calities but which he explains fully before hr goes an inch further.
His ideas are clear and concise, his method simple and practical, and
his teachings so plain that his little book will be hailed with real
pleasure by all who are embryo yachtsmen. The illustrations, of which
there are over two dozen, are ' right to the point,' ami from them the
beginner can at once* see' what some men would take pages to explain.
* • * I his little work is of great practical value, and shoula be in the
hands of every yachtsman."— Nautical Gazette.
" Capt Frazar is the son of a shipmaster, and was fami 1 ar with boats,
Yachts, and shipping generally, from his youth until he rose to the top
of his profession as a seaman. * * It is, unquestionably, the most
complete book of the kind ever written, and will, no doubt, be read
with interest by all who have anything to do with boats or yachts."—
" Its directions are so plain, that with the aid of the accompanying
pictorial illustrations and diagrams given in the book, it does seem
as if •anybody,' aft r reading it, could safely handle a sailboat in a
squall."— Times, Hartford.
" The work is admirably done, and by a thorough study of these di-
rections, boat sailing, which lias been considered the most dangerous,
is really made one of the most safe of sports." — Providence Journal.
" Of course Capt. Frazer does not pretend that one may become an
Expert sailor bv reading his book, but he gives a great amount of val-
uable information, and so smooths the way to the practical knowledge
which can only be gained by actual experience."— New Bedford Mer-
" Here is a book that every boy ought to have There are certain
things boys will do. They fish, shoot, swim, and sail it may be added
that they al«o drown and are shot. * * Boys should be taught how
^o do these things which, when igno'antly attempted, vield danger.
Here we have a good guide to the art of boat sailinsr; sensible instruc-
tion, full explanation! and a clear evidence of the fact that to be care-
less is to be in danger. We can heartily commend the volume."—
"JUST HOW IT IS DONE."
Cyclones, and Tornadoes.
By Prof. ^W. N. JDJk. VIS.
Cloth, 50 cents.
"A popular treatise upon the causes of these phenomena,
which have lately become of such frequency in the West and
South, has become much needed. The public have become
somewhat familiar with these through reading of their ter-
rible effects, but there is a too general lack of knowledge as
to their causes. The study of the natural phenomena of the
earth, sea, and air have yielded great additions to the general
stock of knowledge on these subjects, and the reasons giving
rise to any one of these great disturbances, as well as the
more common experiences of rain and wind, can be accurately
explained, if not always predicted, by those who watch the
weather reports. Every one should master the explanations
given in this little book." — Lowell Tunis.
" Any of the thousands in this country who have been blown
into the middle of next week by tornadoes during the past
few years can discover precisely how it was done by reading
this little book, which belongs to Lee & Shepard's ' Science
Series.' It is in fact an essay on the theory of storms, accom-
panied by a number of cuts and diagrams intended t<> throw
additional light upon the subject. To say the very least of
the book, it is exceedingly interesting and instructive, whether
the theory advanced is correct or not." — C/ii'-af/o Herald.
" Mr. Davis, who is an instructor in Harvard College, in the
essay before us, has given his theory of storms, in an inter-
esting and convincing manner. At a time like the present,
when the West seems singled out for the most extraordinary
natural disturbances, and the East is not free from dangerous
storms and floods, such a work is of real value, not only as
showing the causes, but also the means of prevention, of those
apparently ungovernable phenomena. The action of whirl-
winds and cyclones, the causes of motion, the danger of tor-
nadoes, etc., are clearly described, and are useful to the
scientist as well as to the layman." — Boston Commercial B\d
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS