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^^ Mariy Lands 



The. Book of the 

Doone end Crockett Club 






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^Dr. W. L. 



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Hunting 

In Many Lands 

Cfie ISoofe of ti)e ^oone anti Croc&ett Clut) 

EDITORS 

THEODORE ROOSEVELT 
GEORGE BIRD GRINNELL 




NEW YORK 
FOREST AND STREAM PUBLISHING COMPANY 

^895 



f' 30152rX 
^i^ JUL 27 1936 Mi 



Copjnight, 1895, by 
Forest and Stream Publishing Company 



Forest and Stream Press, 
New York, N.V., U. S. A, 



Contents 

Page 

Hunting in East Africa 13 

\V. A. Chanler. 

To the Gulf of Cortez 55 

George H. Gould. 

A Canadian Moose Hunt 84 

Madison Grant. 

A Hunting Trip in India 107 

Elliott Roosevelt. 

Dog Sledging in the North 123 

D. M. Barringer. 

Wolf-Hunting in Russia 151 

Henrj' T. Allen. 

A Bear-Hunt in the Sierras 1S7 

Alden Sampson. 

The Ascent of Chief Mountain . . . 220 

Henry L. Stimson. 

The Cougar 238 

Casper W. Whitney. 

Big Game of Mongolia and Tibet . . 255 



W. W. Rockhill. 



5 



Hunting in Many Lands 

Page 

Hunting in the Cattle Country . . .278 

Theodore Roosevelt. 

Wolf-Coursing 318 

Roger D. Williams. 

Game Laws 358 

Charles E. Whitehead. 

Protection of the Yellowstone National 
Park 377 

George S. Anderson. 

The Yellowstone National Park Protec- 
tion Act 403 

Head-Measurements of the Trophies at 
the Madison Square Garden Sports- 
men's Exposition 424 

National Park Protective Act .... 433 

Constitution of the Boone and Crockett 
Club 439 

Officers of the Boone and Crockett Club 442 

List of Members 443 



6 



List of Illustrations 



Crown of Chief Mountain . . Frontispiece 

From the southeast. One-half mile distant. Photo- 
graphed by Dr. Walter B. James. 

Facing page 

A Mountain Sheep 55 

Photographed from Life. From Forest and Stream. 

Rocky Mountain and Polo's Sheep . . 75 

The figures are drawn to the same scale and show 
the difference in the spread of horns. From Forest 
and Stream. 

A Moose of the Upper Ottawa ... 85 

Killed by Madison Grant, October lo, 1893. 

How our Outfit was Carried . . . .123 

Photographed by D. M. Barringer. 

Outeshai, Russian Barzoi 151 

Winner of the hare-coursing prize at Colombiagi (near 
St. Petersburg) two years in succession. In type, 
however, he is faulty. 

Fox-hounds of the Imperial Kennels . 177 

The men and dogs formed part of the hunt described. 

7 



Hunting in Many Lands. 

Facing page 

The Chiefs Crown from the East . . 229 

Photographed by Dr. Walter B, James. Distance, 
two miles. 

Yaks Grazing 255 

Photographed by Hon. W. W. Rockhill. 

Ailuropus Melanoleucus 263 

From Forest and Stream. 

Elaphurus Davidianus 271 

The Wolf Throwing Zloeem, the Barzoi 319 

From Leshe's Weekly. 

Yellowstone Park Elk i']'] 

From Forest and Stream. 

A Hunting Day 395 

From Forest and Stream. 

In Yellowstone Park Snows 413 

From Forest and Stream. 

On the Shore of Yellowstone Lake . 419 

From Forest and Stream. 

Note. — The mountain sheep s head on the cover is from a photo- 
graph of the head of the big ram killed by Mr. Gould in Lower Cali- 
fornia, as described in the article " To the Gulf of Cortez." 



Preface 

The first volume published by the Boone 
and Crockett Club, under the title "American 
Big Game Hunting," confined itself, as its 
title implied, to sport on this continent. In 
presenting the second volume, a number of 
sketches are included written by members who 
have hunted big game in other lands. The 
contributions of those whose names are so 
well known in connection with explorations 
in China and Tibet, and in Africa, have an 
exceptional interest for men whose use of the 
rifle has been confined entirely to the North 
American continent. 

During the two years that have elapsed 
since the appearance of its last volume, the 
Boone and Crockett Club has not been idle. 
The activity of its members was largely in- 
strumental in securing at last the passage by 
Congress of an act to protect the Yellowstone 
National Park, and to punish crimes and of- 
fenses within its borders, though it may be 

9 



Hunting In Many Lands 

questioned whether even their efforts would 
have had any result had not the public inter- 
est been aroused, and the Congressional con- 
science pricked, by the wholesale slaughter 
of buffalo which took place in the Park in 
March, 1894, as elsewhere detailed by Capt. 
Anderson and the editors. Besides this, the 
Club has secured the passage, by the New 
York Legislature, of an act Incorporating the 
New York Zoological Society, and a consider- 
able representation of the Club is found in the 
list of its officers and managers. Other ef- 
forts, made by Boone and Crockett members 
In behalf of game and forest protection, have 
been less successful, and there Is still a wide 
field for the Club's activities. 

Public sentiment should be aroused on the 
general question of forest preservation, and 
especially in the matter of securing legislation 
which will adequately protect the game and 
the forests of the various forest reservations 
already established. Special attention was 
called to this point in the earlier volume pub- 
lished by the Club, from which we quote: 

If it was worth while to establish these reservations, it is worth 
while to protect them. A general law, providing for the adequate 
guarding of all such national possessions, should be enacted by Con- 
gress, and wherever it may be necessary such Federal laws should be 



Preface 

supplemented bylaws of the States in which the reservations lie. The 
timber and the game ought to be made the absolute property of the 
Government, and it should be constituted a punishable offense to 
appropriate such property within the limits of the reservation. The 
game and timber on a reservation should be regarded as Government 
property, just as are the mules and the cordwood at an army post. If 
it is a crime to take the latter, it should be a crime to plunder a forest 
reservation. 

In these reservations is to be found to-day every species of large 
game known to the United States, and the proper protection of the 
reservations means the perpetuating in full supply of all the indigenous 
mammals. If this care is provided, no species of American large game 
need ever become absolutely extinct ; and intelligent effort for game 
protection may well be directed toward securing through national 
legislation the policing of forest preserves by timber and game 
wardens. 

A really remarkable phenomenon in Ameri- 
can animal life, described in the paper on the 
Yellowstone Park Protection Act, is the atti- 
tude now assumed toward mankind by the 
bears, both grizzly and black, in the Yellow- 
stone National Park. The preservation of the 
game in the Park has unexpectedly resulted in 
turning a great many of the bears into scav- 
engers for the hotels within the Park limits. 
Their tameness and familiarity are astonishing; 
they act much more like hogs than beasts of 
prey. Naturalists now have a chance of study- 
ing their character from an entirely new stand- 
point, and under entirely new conditions. It 
would be well worth the while of any student 



Hunting in Many Lands 

of nature to devote an entire season in the Park 
simply to study of bear life ; never before has 
such an opportunity been afforded. 

The incident mentioned on page 421 was 
witnessed by Mr. W. Hallett Phillipps and 
Col. John Hay. Since this incident occurred, 
one bear has made a practice of going into the 
kitchen of the Geyser Hotel, where he is fed 
on pies. If given a chance, the bears will eat 
the pigs that are kept in pens near the hotels ; 
but they have not shown any tendency to mo- 
lest the horses, or to interfere in any way with 
the human beings around the hotels. 

These incidents, and the confidence which 
the elk, deer and other animals in the Park 
have come to feel in man, are interesting, for 
they show how readily wild creatures may be 
taught to look upon human beings as friends. 

Theodore Roosevelt, 
George Bird Grinnell. 

New York, August i, 1895. 



12 



Hunting in Many Lands 



Hunting in East Africa 

In the month of July, 1889, I was encamped 
in the Taveta forest, 250 miles from the east 
coast, and at the eastern foot of Mt. Kili- 
manjaro. I was accompanied by my servant, 
George Galvin, an American lad seventeen 
years old, and had a following of 130 Zanzi- 
baris. My battery consisted of the following 
weapons: one 8-bore smooth, using a cartridge 
loaded with 10 drams of powder and a 2-ounce 
spherical ball; one .577 and one .450 Express 
rifle, and one 12-bore Paradox. All these were 
made by Messrs. Holland & Holland. My 
servant carried an old 12-bore rifle made by 
Lang (intended to shoot 4^ drams of powder, 
but whose cartridges he recklessly loaded with 
more than 7) and a .45-90 Winchester of the 
model of 1886. 

Taveta forest has been often described by 
pens far abler than mine, so I will not attempt 
to do this. It is inhabited by a most friendly 
tribe of savages, who at the time of my visit 

13 



Hunting in Many Lands 

to them possessed sufficient food to be able to 
supply the wants of my caravan. I therefore 
made it abase at which I could leave the major 
part of my following, and from which I could 
with comfort and safety venture forth on shoot- 
ing trips, accompanied by only a few men. 

The first of these excursions was made to 
the shores of Lake Jipe, six hours' march from 
Taveta, for the purpose of shooting hippos. I 
took with me my whole battery and thirteen 
men. This unlucky number perhaps influenced 
my fortunes, for I returned to Taveta empty 
handed and fever stricken, after a stay on the 
shores of the lake lasting some days. How- 
ever, my experiences were interesting, if only 
because they were in great measure the result 
of ignorance. Up to this time my sporting ex- 
perience had dealt only with snipe and turkey 
shooting in Florida, for on my road from the 
coast, the little game seen was too wary to give 
me a chance of putting a rifle to my shoulder. 

The shores of Lake Jipe, where I pitched 
my tent, were quite flat and separated from the 
open water of the lake by a wide belt of swamp 
growth. I had brought with me, for the pur- 
pose of constructing a raft, several bundles of 
the stems of a large palm growing in Taveta. 

14 



Hunting- in East Africa 



t> 



These were dry and as light as cork. In 
a few hours' time my men constructed a raft, 
fifteen feet in length and five feet in width. 
On trial, it was found capable of supporting 
two men, but even with this light load it sank 
some inches below the surface of the water. I 
fastened a deal box on the forward end as seat, 
and instructed one of the men, who said he 
understood boatman's work, to stand in the 
stern and punt the craft along with a pole. 
During the night my slumbers were constantly 
disturbed by the deep, ominous grunting of 
hippopotami, which, as if to show their con- 
tempt for my prowess, chose a path to their 
feeding grounds which led them within a few 
yards of my camp. The night, though starlit, 
was too dark for a shot, so I curbed my im- 
patience till the morning. 

As most people are aware, the day begins in 
the tropics as nearly as possible at 6 o'clock 
and lasts twelve hours. Two hours before 
dawn I was up and fortifying myself against the 
damp morning air with a good breakfast of 
roast chicken, rice and coffee. My men, wrap- 
ped in their thin cotton shirts, lay about the 
fires on the damp ground, seemingly unmindful 
of rheumatism and fever, and only desirous to 

IS 



Hunting in Many Lands 

sleep as long as possible. I awoke my crew at 
a little after 5, and he, unassisted, launched the 
raft. The swamp grass buoyed it up manfully, 
so that it looked as if it disdained to touch the 
yellow waters of the lake. When it had been 
pushed along till the water was found to be two 
feet deep, I had myself carried to the raft and 
seated myself on the box. I was clad only in 
a flannel shirt, and carried my .577 with ten 
rounds of ammunition. As we slowly started 
on our way, my men woke up one by one, and 
shouted cheering words to us, such as, " Look 
out for the crocodiles ! " "If master dies, who'll 
pay us ! " These cries, added to the dismal 
chill of the air and my boatman's only too ap- 
parent dislike of his job, almost caused me to 
turn back ; but, of course, that was out of the 
question. 

Half an hour from the shore found me on 
the edge of the open water, and, as if to endorse 
my undertaking, day began to break. That 
sunrise! Opposite me the rough outlines of 
the Ugucno Mountains, rising several thousand 
feet, lost their shadows one by one, and far to 
the right towered Mt. Kilimanjaro, nearly four 
miles high, its snowy rounded top roseate with 
the soft light of dawn. But in Africa at least 

16 



Hunting in East Africa 

one's higher sensibilities are dulled by the ani- 
mal side of his nature, and I fear I welcomed 
the sun more for the warmth of its rays than 
for the beautiful and fleeting vision it produced. 
Then the hippos ! While the sun was rising my 
raft was not at rest, but was being propelled by 
slow strong strokes toward the center of the 
lake, and as the darkness lessened I saw the 
surface of the lake dotted here and there by 
spots, which soon resolved themselves into the 
black, box-like heads of my game. They were 
to all appearance motionless and appeared quite 
unconscious or indifferent to the presence, in 
their particular domain, of our strange craft 
and its burden. 

I approached them steadily, going more 
slowly as the water grew deeper, and more 
time was needed for the pulling out and dip- 
ping in of the pole. When, however, I had 
reached a position some 150 yards from the 
nearest group, five in number, they all with a 
loud snort faced me. I kept on, despite the 
ardent prayer of the boatman, and when within 
100 yards, and upon seeing three of the hippos 
disappear beneath the surface, I took careful 
aim and fired at the nearest of the remaining 
two. I could see the splash of my bullet as it 

17 



Hunting in Many Lands 

skipped harmlessly along the surface of the 
lake, and knew I had missed. At once all heads 
in sight disappeared. There must have been 
fifty in view when the sun rose. Presently, 
one by one, they reappeared, and this time, as 
if impelled by curiosity, came much closer than 
before. I took aim at one not fifty yards away, 
and could hear the thud of the bullet as it 
struck. I thought, as the hippo at once disap- 
peared, that it was done for. I had not yet 
learned that the brain of these animals is very 
small, and that the only fatal shot is under 
the ear. 

After this shot, as after my first, all heads 
vanished, but this time I had to wait much 
longer ere they ventured to show themselves. 
When they did reappear, however, it was too 
close for comfort. One great head, blinking 
its small eyes and holding its little horselike 
ears at attention, was not twenty feet away, 
and another was still closer on my other side. 
While hesitating at which to shoot I lost my 
opportunity, for they both ducked simultane- 
ously. 

I was riveted to my uncomfortable seat, and 
I could hear my boatman murmuring "Allah ! " 
with fright, when slowly, but steadily, I felt the 

i8 



Hunting in East Africa 

raft rise under my feet. Instinctively I remem- 
bered I had but one .577 rifle, and hastened, 
my hands trembling, to fasten it with a loose 
rope's end to the raft. My boatman yelled 
with terror, and at that fearful cry the raft 
splashed back in the water and all was again 
still. One of the hippos, either with his back 
or head, must have come in contact with the 
bottom of the raft as he rose to the surface. 
How far he would have gone had not the 
negro screamed I do not know, but as it was 
it seemed as if we were being held in mid air 
for many minutes. I fancy the poor brute was 
almost as frightened as we were, for he did 
not reappear near the raft. 

I now thought discretion the better part of 
valor, and satisfied myself with shooting at the 
animal from a somewhat greater distance. I hit 
two more in the head and two — who showed 
a good foot of their fat bodies above the water 
— in the sides. None floated on the surface, 
legs up, as I had been led to expect they would 
do; but the men assured me that they never 
come to the surface till sundown, no matter 
what time of day they may have been shot. 
This, needless to state, I afterward found, is 
not true. My ammunition being exhausted, 

19 



Hunting in Many Lands 

and the sun blazing hot, I returned to camp. 
I awoke the next day feeling anything but 
energetic ; nevertheless, I set out to see what 
game the land held ready for the hunter, dis- 
satisfied with his experiences on water. The 
country on the eastern side of Lake Jipe is 
almost flat, but is dotted here and there with 
low steep gneiss hills, stretching in an indefinite 
line parallel to the lake and some three miles 
distant from it. I made my way toward these 
hills. On the way I put up some very small 
antelope, which ran in such an irregular man- 
ner that they presented no mark to my un- 
skilled arm. 

We reached the hills, and I climbed one and 
scanned the horizon with my glasses. Far to 
the northwest I spied two black spots in a grassy 
plain. I gave the glasses to my gun-bearer 
and he at once said, "Rhinoceros!" I had 
never seen these beasts except in a menagerie, 
and the mention of the name brought me to my 
feet eager to come to a closer acquaintance 
with them. The wind blew toward me and the 
game was too far for the need of caution, so I 
walked rapidly in their direction. When I got 
to within 250 yards, I could quite easily dis- 
tinguish the appearance of my quarry. They 

20 



Huntinp" in East Africa 



c> 



were lying down and apparently oblivious to 
my approach — perhaps asleep. My gun-bearer 
(a Swahili) now began to show an anxiety to 
turn back. This desire is, in many cases, the 
distinguishing trait of this race. On we went, 
but now cautiously and silently. The grass 
was about two feet high, so that by crawling 
on hands and knees, one could conceal most of 
his body. But this position is not a pleasant 
one with a blazing sun on the back, rough soil 
under the knees and a thirteen-pound rifle in 
the hand. 

We got to within fifty yards. I looked back 
for the negro with my .577. He was lying 
flat on his stomach fifty yards to the rear. I 
stood up to beckon him, but he did not move. 
The rhinos did, and my attention was recalled 
to them by hearing loud snorts, and, turning 
my head, I saw the two beasts on their feet 
facing me. I had never shot an 8-bore in my 
life before, so it is not to be wondered at that 
the shock of the recoil placed me on my back. 
The animals were off before I could recover 
my feet, and my second barrel was not dis- 
charged. I ran after them, but the pace of a 
rhino is much faster than it looks, and I soon 
found pursuit useless. I returned to the place 

21 



Hunting in Many Lands 

where they had lain, and on looking about 
found traces of fresh blood. My gun-bearer, 
as an explanation for his behavior, said that 
rhinos were devils, and were not to be ap- 
proached closely. He said I must be possessed 
of miraculous power, or they would have charg- 
ed and slain me. The next day, fever laid me 
low, and, though the attack was slight, some 
days elapsed before I could muster strength to 
take me back to Taveta. 

After a few days' rest in camp — strengthened 
by good food and spurred to fresh exertion by 
the barren result of my first effort — I set out 
again, accompanied by more men and in a dif- 
ferent direction. 

My faith in myself received a pleasant en- 
couragement the day before my departure. 
My head man came to me and said trade was 
at a standstill, and that the natives could not 
be induced to bring food to sell. On asking 
him why, I learned that the Taveta people 
had found three dead hippos in Lake Jipe and 
one rhino near its shores. Meat — a rare treat 
to them, even when not quite fresh — filled their 
minds and bodies, and they were proof even 
against the most tempting beads and the bright- 
est cloths. I cannot say that I shared my 



Hunting in East Africa 

head man's anxiety. The fact that I had not 
labored altogether in vain, even though others 
reaped the benefit of my efforts, filled me with 
a certain satisfaction. 

A day's march from Taveta brought me to 
the banks of an almost stagnant brook, where I 
made camp. The country round about was a 
plain studded with low hills, here thinly thatch- 
ed with short grass, and there shrouded with 
thick bush, above which every now and then 
rose a giant acacia. The morning after my 
arrival, I set out from camp with my 8-bore in 
my hands and hope in my heart. Not 200 
yards from my tent, I was startled by a snort 
and then by the sight of two rhinos dashing 
across my path some fifty yards away. This 
time I did not succumb to my gun's recoil, but 
had the doubtful satisfaction of seeing, from a 
standing position, the animals disappear in the 
bush. I made after them and found, to my 
delight, a clear trail of fresh blood. Eagerly 
pressing on, I was somewhat suddenly checked 
in my career by almost stumbling over a rhino 
apparently asleep on its side, with its head 
toward me. Bang ! went the 8-bore and down 
I went. I was the only creature disturbed by 
the shot, as the rhino had been dead some 

23 



Hunting in Many Lands 

minutes — slain by my first shot ; and my satis- 
faction was complete when I found the hole 
made by my bullet. My men shouted and sang 
over this, the first fruits of my expedition, 
and even at this late day I forgive myself for 
the feeling of pride I then experienced. I 
have a table at home made of a piece of this 
animal's hide, and supported in part by one of 
its horns. 

The next day I made an early start and 
worked till 4 o'clock p. m., with no result. 
Then, being some eight miles from camp, I 
turned my face toward home. I had not gone 
far, and had reached the outskirts of an almost 
treeless savanna, when my gun-bearer brought 
me to a halt by the word mbogo. This I knew 
meant buffalo. I adjusted my glass and fol- 
lowed the direction of my man's finger. There, 
500 yards away, I saw a solitary buffalo feeding 
slowly along toward two low bushes, but on 
the further side of them. I did not think what 
rifle I held (it was a .450), but dashed forward 
at once. My gun-bearer was more thoughtful 
and brought with him my 577. We actually 
ran. When within eighty or ninety yards of 
the two bushes behind which the beast was 
now hidden, I slackened pace and approached 

24 



Hunting in East Africa 

more cautiously. My heart was beating and 
my hands trembling with the exertion of run- 
ning when I reached the nearest bush, and my 
nerves were not exactly steadied by meeting 
the vicious gaze of a large buffalo, who stood 
not thirty feet on the other side. My gun- 
bearer in an instant forced the .577 into my 
hands, and I took aim at the shoulder of the 
brute and fired, without knowing exactly what 
I was doing. The smoke cleared, and there, 
almost in his tracks, lay my first buffalo. His 
ignorance of my noisy and careless approach 
was apparently accounted for by his great age. 
His hide was almost hairless and his horns 
worn blunt with many encounters. He must 
have been quite deaf and almost blind, or his 
behavior cannot be accounted for. The noise 
made by our approach, even with the favorable 
wind, was sufificient to frighten any animal, or 
at least put it on its guard. 

My men, who were dreadfully afraid of big 
game of all sorts, when they saw the buffalo 
lying dead, danced with joy and exultation. 
They kicked the dead body and shouted curses 
at it. Camp was distant a good two hours' 
march, and the day was drawing to a close. 
The hungry howl of the hyenas warned me 

25 



Hunting in Many Lands 

that my prize would soon be taken from me 
were it left unguarded. So piles of firewood 
were made and the carcass surrounded by a 
low wall of flames. I left three men in charge 
and set out for camp. There was but little 
light and my way lay through bits of forest 
and much bush. Our progress was slow, and 
my watch read 10:30 p. m. before I reached 
my tent and bed. 

The following day I set out for a shooting 
ground distant two days' march from where I 
had been camped. Several rivers lay in my 
path and two tribes of natives. These natives 
inhabit thick forest and are in terror of stran- 
gers, as they are continually harassed by their 
neighbors. When they saw the smallness of 
my force, however, they endeavored to turn me 
aside, but without success. Quiet and deter- 
mination generally win with these people. The 
rivers gave me more trouble, as they were deep 
and swift of current, and my friends, the natives, 
had removed all bridges. But none of the 
streams exceeded thirty feet in width, and an 
hour's hard work with our axes always provided 
us with a bridge. 

The second day from my former camp 
brought me to the outskirts of the forest and 

26 



Hunting in East Africa 

the beginning of open country. I had hardly 
made camp before three SwahiH traders came 
to me, and after the usual greetings began to 
weep in chorus. Their story was a common one. 
They had set out from Mombasa with twelve 
others to trade for slaves and ivory with the 
natives who inhabit the slopes of Kiliman- 
jaro. Fortune had favored them, and after 
four months they were on their way homeward 
with eighteen slaves and five good sized tusks. 
The first day's journey was just over when they 
were attacked by natives, three of their num- 
ber slain and all their property stolen. In 
the darkness they could not distinguish what 
natives attacked them ; but their suspicions 
rested on the very tribe among whom they had 
spent the four months, and from whom they 
had purchased the ivory and slaves. I gave 
them a little cloth and some food, and a note 
to my people at Taveta to help them on their 
way. Of course, they were slave traders, and 
as such ought possibly to have been beaten 
from my camp. But it is undoubtedly a fact 
that Mahomedans look on slave trading as a 
perfectly legitimate occupation; and if people 
are not breaking their own laws, I cannot see 
that a stranger should treat them as brigands 

27 



Hunting in Many Lands 

and refuse them the least aid when in distress. 
I know that my point of view in this matter 
has few supporters in civilization. 

The next day, after a short march, I pitched 
my tent on the banks of a small stream, and 
then set out to prospect for game. I found 
nothing, but that night my slumbers were dis- 
turbed by the splashing and grunting of a 
herd of buffalo drinking. 

These sounds kept me awake, so that I was 
enabled to make a very early start — setting out 
with four men at 4:45. The natives had as- 
sured me that the buffalo came to drink about 
midnight, and then fed slowly back to their 
favorite sleeping-places in the thick bush, 
reaching there just about sunrise. By making 
such an early start I hoped to come up with my 
quarry in the open places on the edge of the 
thick bush just before dawn, when the light is 
sufficiently bright to enable one to see the fore- 
sight of a rifle. Dew falls like rain in this part 
of the world, and we had not gone fifty paces 
in the long grass before we were soaking wet, 
and dismally cold to boot. My guide, cheered 
by the prospect of a good present, led us con- 
fidently along the most intricate paths and 
through the thickest bush. The moon over- 

28 



Hunting in East Africa 

head, which was in its fifteenth day, gave excel- 
lent light. Every now and then some creature 
would dash across our path, or stand snorting 
fearfully till we had passed. These were prob- 
ably waterbuck and bushbuck. Toward half 
past five the light of the moon paled before 
the first glow of dawn, and we found ourselves 
on the outskirts of a treeless prairie, dotted 
here and there with bushes and covered with 
short dry grass. Across this plain lay the bush 
where my guide assured me the buffalo slept 
during the day, and according to him at that 
moment somewhere between me and this bush 
wandered at least loo buffalo. There was little 
wind, and what there was came in gentle puffs 
against our right cheeks. I made a sharp 
detour to the left, walking quickly for some 
twenty minutes. Then, believing ourselves to 
be below the line of the buffalo, and therefore 
free to advance in their direction, we did so. 

Just as the sun rose we had traversed the 
plain and stood at the edge of what my men 
called the nyiimba ya mbogo (the buffalo's home). 
We were too late. Fresh signs everywhere 
showed that my guide had spoken the truth. 
Now I questioned him as to the bush ; how 
thick it was, etc. At that my men fidgeted un- 

29 



Hunting in Many Lands 

easily and murmured " Mr. Dawnay." This 
young Englishman had been killed by buffalo 
in the bush but four months before. However, 
two of my men volunteered to follow me, so I 
set out on the track of the herd. 

This bush in which the buffalo live is not 
more than ten feet high, is composed of a net- 
work of branches and is covered with shiny 
green leaves; it has no thorns. Here and 
there one will meet with a stunted acacia, 
which, as if to show its spite against its more 
attractive neighbors, is clothed with nothing 
but the sharpest thorns. The buffalo, from 
constant wandering among the bush, have 
formed a perfect maze of paths. These trails 
are wide enough under foot, but meet just over 
one's shoulders, so that it is impossible to 
maintain an upright position. The paths run 
in all directions, and therefore one cannot see 
far ahead. Were it not for the fact that here 
and there — often 200 feet apart, however — 
are small open patches, it would be almost 
useless to enter such a fastness. These open 
places lure one on, as from their edges it is 
often possible to get a good shot. Once 
started, we took up the path which showed 
the most and freshest spoor, and, stooping low, 

30 



Hunting in East Africa 



't> 



pressed on as swiftly and noiselessly as possible. 
We had not gone far before we came upon 
a small opening, from the center of which rose 
an acacia not more than eight inches in thick- 
ness of trunk and perhaps eighteen feet high. 
It was forked at the height of a man's shoulder. 
I carried the 8-bore, and was glad of an oppor- 
tunity to rest it in the convenient fork before 
me. I had just done so, when crash ! snort ! 
bellow ! came several animals (presumably buf- 
falo) in our direction. One gun-bearer literally 
flew up the tree against which I rested my rifle; 
the other, regardless of consequences, hurled 
his naked skin against another but smaller tree, 
also thorny; both dropped their rifles. I stood 
sheltered behind eight inches of acacia wood, 
with my rifle pointed in front of me and still 
resting in the fork of the tree. The noise of 
the herd approached nearer and nearer, and my 
nerves did not assume that steelly quality I had 
imagined always resulted from a sudden dan- 
ger. Fly I could not, and the only tree climb- 
able was already occupied; so I stood still. 

Just as I looked for the appearance of the 
beasts in the little opening in which I stood, the 
crashing noise separated in two portions — each 
passing under cover on either side of the open- 

31 



Hunting in Many Lands 

ing. I could see nothing, but my ears were 
filled with the noise. The uproar ceased, and 
I asked the negro in the tree what had hap- 
pened. He said, when he first climbed the tree 
he could see the bushes in our front move like 
the waves of the sea, and then. Ham delillah — 
praise be to God — the buffalo turned on either 
side and left our little opening safe. Had they 
not turned, but charged straight at us, I fancy 
I should have had a disagreeable moment. As 
it was, I began to understand why buffalo shoot- 
ing in the bush has been always considered un- 
safe, and began to regret that the road back to 
the open plain was not a shorter one. We 
reached it in safety, however, and, after a short 
rest, set out up wind. 

I got a hartbeest and an mpallah before 
noon, and then, satisfied with my day, returned 
to camp. By 4 p. m. my men had brought in 
all the meat, and soon the little camp was filled 
with strips of fresh meat hanging on ropes of 
twisted bark. The next day we exchanged the 
meat for flour, beans, pumpkins and Indian 
corn. I remained in this camp three more days 
and then returned to Taveta. Each one of 
these days I attempted to get a shot at buffalo, 
but never managed it. On one occasion I 

32 



Hunting in East Africa 



'S 



caught a glimpse of two of these animals in 
the open, but they were too wary to allow me 
to approach them. 

When I reached Taveta, I found a capital 
camp had been built during my absence, and 
that a food supply had been laid in sufficient 
for several weeks. Shortly after my arrival I 
was startled by the reports of many rifles, and 
soon was delighted to grasp the hands of two 
compatriots — Dr. Abbott and Mr. Stevens. 
They had just returned from a shooting jour- 
ney in Masai land, and reported game plenty 
and natives not troublesome. My intention 
was then formed to circumnavigate Mt. Kili- 
manjaro, pass over the yet untried shooting 
grounds and then to return to the coast. 

I left five men in camp at Taveta in charge 
of most of my goods, and, taking 1 18 men with 
me, set out into Masai land. Even at this 
late date (1895) the Masai are reckoned danger- 
ous customers. Up to 1889 but five European 
caravans had entered their territory, and all 
but the last — that of Dr. Abbott — had report- 
ed difficulties with the natives. My head man, a 
capital fellow, had had no experience with these 
people, and did not look forward with pleasure 
to making their acquaintance; but he received 

33 



Hunting In Many Lands 

orders to prepare for a start with apparent 
cheerfulness. We carried with us one ton of 
beans and dried bananas as food supply. This 
was sufficient for a few weeks, but laid me 
under the necessity of doing some successful 
shooting, should I carry out my plan of cam- 
paign. Just on the borders of Masai land live 
the Useri people, who inhabit the northeast 
slopes of Kilimanjaro. We stopped a day or 
two with them to increase our food supply, and 
while the trading was going on I descended to 
the plain in search of sport. 

I left camp at dawn and it was not till noon 
that I saw game. Then I discovered three 
rhinos; two together lying down, and one soli- 
tary, nearly 500 yards away from the others. 
The two lying down were nearest me, but were 
apparently unapproachable, owing to absolute 
lack of cover. The little plain they had chosen 
for their nap was as flat as a billiard table and 
quite bare of grass. The wind blew steadily 
from them and whispered me to try my luck, so 
I crawled cautiously toward them. When I got 
to within 1 50 yards, one of the beasts rose and 
sniffed anxiously about and then lay down again. 
The rhinoceros is nearly blind when in the bright 
sun — at night it can see like an owl, I kept on, 

34 



Hunting in East Africa 

and when within icxd yards rose to my knees 
and fired one barrel of my .577. The rhinos 
leapt to their feet and charged straight at me. 
"Shall I load the other barrel or trust to only 
one?" This thought ran through my mind, 
but the speed of the animals' approach gave 
me no time to reply to it. My gun-bearer was 
making excellent time across the plain toward 
a group of trees, so I could make no use of the 
8-bore. The beasts came on side by side, in- 
creasing their speed and snorting like steam 
engines as they ran. They were disagreeably 
close when I fired my second barrel and rose 
to my feet to bolt to one side. As I rose they 
swerved to the left and passed not twenty feet 
from me, apparently blind to my whereabouts. 
I must have hit one with my second shot, for 
they were too close to permit a miss. Perhaps 
that shot turned them. Be that as it may, I 
felt that I had had a narrow escape. 

When these rhinos had quite disappeared, 
my faithful gun-bearer returned, and smilingly 
congratulated me on what he considered my 
good fortune. He then called my attention to 
the fact that rhinoceros number three was still 
in sight, and apparently undisturbed by what 
had happened to his friends. Between the 

35 



Hunting in Many Lands 

beast and me, stretched an open plain for some 
350 yards, then came three or four small trees, 
and then from these trees rose a semi-circular 
hill or rather ridge, on the crest of which stood 
the rhino. I made for the trees, and, distrust- 
ing my gun-bearer, took from him the .577 and 
placed it near one of them. Then, telling him 
to retire to a comfortable spot, I advanced with 
my 8-bore up the hill toward my game. The 
soil was soft as powder, so my footsteps made 
no noise. Cover, with the exception of a small 
skeleton bush, but fifty yards below the rhino, 
there was none. I reached the bush and knelt 
down behind it. The rhino was standing broad- 
side on, motionless and apparently asleep. I 
rose and fired, and saw that I had aimed true, 
when the animal wheeled round and round in 
his track. I fired again, and he then stood still, 
facing me. I had one cartridge in my pocket 
and slipped it in the gun. As I raised the 
weapon to my shoulder, down the hill came my 
enemy. His pace was slow and I could see 
that he limped. The impetus given him by 
the descent kept him going, and his speed 
seemed to increase. I fired straight at him and 
then dropped behind the bush. He still came 
on and in my direction ; so I leapt to my feet, 

36 



Hunting in East Africa 

and, losing my head, ran straight away in front 
of him. I should have run to one side and 
then up the hill. What was my horror, when 
pounding away at a good gait, not more than 
fifty feet in front of the snorting rhino, to find 
myself hurled to the ground, having twisted 
my ankle. I thought all was over, when I had 
the instinct to roll to one side and then scram- 
ble to my feet. The beast passed on. When 
he reached the bottom of the hill his pace 
slackened to a walk, and I returned to where I 
had left my .577 and killed him at my leisure. 
I found the 8-bore bullet had shattered his off 
hind leg, and that my second shot had pene- 
trated his lungs. I had left the few men I had 
brought with me on a neighboring hill when I 
had first caught sight of the rhinos, and now 
sent for them. Not liking to waste the meat, 
I sent to camp for twenty porters to carry it 
back. I reached camp that night at 12:30 a. m., 
feeling quite worn out. 

After a day's rest we marched to Tok-i-Tok, 
the frontier of Masai land. This place is at 
certain seasons of the year the pasture ground 
of one of the worst bands of Masai. I found 
it nearly deserted. The Masai I met said their 
brethren were all gone on a war raid, and that 

37 



Hunting in Many Lands 

this was the only reason why I was permitted 
to enter the country. I told them that I had 
come for the purpose of sport, and hoped to 
kill much game in their country. This, how- 
ever, did not appear to interest them, as the 
Masai never eat the flesh of game. Nor do 
they hunt any, with the exception of buffalo, 
whose hide they use for shields. I told them 
I was their friend and hoped for peace; but, 
on the other hand, was prepared for war 
should they attack me. 

From Tok-i-Tok we marched in a leisurely 
manner to a place whose name means in Eng- 
lish "guinea fowl camp." In this case it was 
a misnomer, for we were not so fortunate as 
to see one of these birds during our stay of 
several days. At this place we were visited by 
some fifty Masai warriors, who on the receipt 
of a small present danced and went away. The 
water at guinea fowl camp consisted of a spring 
which rises from the sandy soil and flows a few 
hundred yards, and then disappears into the 
earth. This is the only drinking-place for sev- 
eral miles, so it is frequented by large num- 
bers and many varieties of game. At one time 
I have seen hartbeest, wildbeest, grantii, mpal- 
lah, Thomson's oryx, giraffes and rhinoceros. 

38 



Hunting in East Africa 

We supported the caravan on meat. I used 
only the .450 Express; but my servant, George 
Galvin, who used the Winchester, did better 
execution with his weapon than I with mine. 

Here, for the first and last time in my Af- 
rican experiences, we had a drive. Our camp 
was pitched on a low escarpment, at the bottom 
of which, and some 300 feet away, lay the 
water. The escarpment ran east and west, and 
extended beyond the camp some 500 yards, 
where it ended abruptly in a clifT forty or fifty 
feet high. Some of my men, who were at the 
end of the escarpment gathering wood, came 
running into camp and said that great num- 
bers of game were coming toward the water. 
I took my servant and we ran to the end of 
the escarpment, where a sight thrilling indeed 
to the sportsman met our eyes. First came 
two or three hundred wildbeest in a solid 
mass; then four or five smaller herds, num- 
bering perhaps forty each, of hartbeest ; then 
two herds, one of mpallah and one of grantii. 
There must have been 500 head in the lot. 
They were approaching in a slow, hesitating 
manner, as these antelope always do approach 
water, especially when going down wind. 

Our cover was perfect and the wind blowing 
39 



Hunting in Many Lands 

steadily in our direction. I decided, knowing 
that they were making for the water, and to 
reach it must pass close under where we lay 
concealed, to allow a certain number of them to 
pass before we opened fire. This plan worked 
perfectly. The animals in front slackened 
pace when they came to within fifty yards of 
us, and those behind pressed on and mingled 
with those in front. The effect to the eye was 
charming. The bright tan-colored skins of the 
hartbeest shone out in pleasing contrast to the 
dark gray wildbeest. Had I not been so 
young, and filled with youth's thirst for blood, 
I should have been a harmless spectator of this 
beautiful procession. But this was not to be. 
On catching sight of the water, the animals 
quickened their pace, and in a moment nearly 
half of the mass had passed our hiding-place. 
A silent signal, and the .450 and the Winches- 
ter, fired in quick succession, changed this 
peaceful scene into one of consternation and 
slaughter. Startled out of their senses, the 
beasts at first halted in their tracks, and then 
wheeling, as if at word of command, they 
dashed rapidly up wind — those in the rear re- 
ceiving a second volley as they galloped by. 
When the dust cleared away, we saw lying 

40 



Hunting in East Africa 

on the ground below us four animals — two 
hartbeest and two wildbeest. I am afraid that 
many of those who escaped carried away with 
them proofs of their temerity and our bad 
marksmanship. 

Ngiri, our next camp, is a large swamp, sur- 
rounded first by masses of tall cane and then 
by a beautiful though narrow strip of forest 
composed of tall acacias. It was at this place, 
in the thick bush which stretches from the 
swamp almost to the base of Kilimanjaro, that 
the Hon. Guy Dawnay, an English sportsman, 
had met his death by the horns of a buffalo 
but four months before. My tent was pitched 
within twenty paces of his grave and just under 
a large acacia, which serves as his monument, 
upon whose bark is cut in deep characters 
the name of the victim and the date of his 
mishap. 

Here we made a strong zariba of thorns, as 
we had heard we should meet a large force of 
Masai in this neighborhood. I stopped ten 
days at Ngiri, and, with the exception of one 
adventure hardly worth relating, had no diffi- 
culty with the Masai. Undoubtedly I was 
very fortunate in finding the large majority of 
the Masai warriors, inhabiting the country 

41 



Hunting in Many Lands 

through which I passed, absent from their 
homes. But at the same time I venture to 
think that the ferocity of these people has been 
much overrated, especially in regard to Euro- 
peans ; for the force at my disposal was not 
numerous enough to overawe them had they 
been evilly disposed. 

One morning, after I had been some days at 
Ngiri, I set out with twenty men to procure 
meat for the camp. The sun had not yet risen, 
and I was pursuing my way close to the belt of 
reeds which surrounds the swamp, when I saw 
in the dim light a black object standing close 
to the reeds. My men said it was a hippo, but 
as I drew nearer I could distinguish the out- 
lines of a gigantic buffalo, broadside on and 
facing from the swamp. When I got to with- 
in what I afterwards found by pacing it off to 
be 103 paces, I raised my. 5 77 to my shoulder, 
and, taking careful aim at the brute's shoulder, 
fired. When the smoke cleared away there 
was nothing in sight. Knowing the danger of 
approaching these animals when wounded, I 
waited until the sun rose, and then cautiously 
approached the spot. The early rays of the 
sun witnessed the last breathings of one of the 
biggest buffaloes ever shot in Africa. Its head 

42 



Hunting in East Africa 

is now in the Smithsonian Institute at Wash- 
ington, and, according to the measurement 
made by Mr. Rowland Ward, Piccadilly, Lon- 
don, it ranks among the first five heads ever 
set up by him. 

After sending the head, skin and meat back 
to camp, I continued my way along the shore 
of the swamp. The day had begun well and 
I hardly hoped for any further sport, but I was 
pleasantly disappointed. 

Toward 1 1 o'clock I entered a tall acacia 
forest, and had not proceeded far in it before 
my steps were arrested by the sight of three 
elephants, lying down not loo yards from me. 
They got our wind at once, and were up and 
off before I could get a shot. I left all my men 
but one gun-bearer on the outskirts of the for- 
est and followed upon the trail of the elephant. 
I had not gone fifteen minutes before I had 
traversed the forest, and entered the thick and 
almost impenetrable bush beyond it. And 
hardly had I forced my way a few paces into 
this bush, when a sight met my eyes which 
made me stop and think. Sixty yards away, 
his head towering above the surrounding bush, 
stood a monstrous tusker. His trunk was 
curled over his back in the act of sprinkling 

43 



Hunting In Many Lands 

dust over his shoulders. His tusks gleamed 
white and beautiful. He lowered his head, 
and I could but just see the outline of his 
skull and the tips of his ears. This time my 
gun-bearer did not run. The sight of the ivo- 
ry stirred in him a feeling, which, in a Swahili, 
often conquers fear — cupidity. I raised some 
dust in my hand and threw it in the air, to see 
which way the wind blew. It was favorable. 
Then beckoning my gun-bearer, I moved for- 
ward at a slight angle, so as to come opposite 
the brute's shoulder. I had gone but a few 
steps when the bush opened and I got a good 
sight of his head and shoulder. He was ap- 
parently unconscious of our presence and was 
lazily flapping his ears against his sides. Each 
time he did this, a cloud of dust arose, and a 
sound like the tap of a bass drum broke the 
stillness. I fired my .577 at the outer edge of 
his ear while it was lying for an instant against 
his side. A crash of bush, then silence, and no 
elephant in sight. I began to think ihat I had 
been successful, but the sharper senses of the 
negro enabled him to know the contrary. His 
teeth chattered, and for a moment he was mo- 
tionless with terror. Then he pointed silently 
to his left. I stooped and looked under the 

44 



Hunting in East Africa 

bush. Not twenty feet away was a sight which 
made me share the feeHngs of my gun-bearer. 
The elephant was the picture of rage; his fore- 
legs stretched out in front of him, his trunk 
curled high in the air, and his ears lying back 
along his neck. I seized my 8-bore and took 
aim at his foreward knee, but before I could 
fire, he was at us. I jumped to one side and 
gave him a two-ounce ball in the shoulder, 
which apparently decided him on retreat. The 
bush was so thick that in a moment he was out 
of sight. I followed him for some time, but 
saw no more of him. His trail mingled with 
that of a large herd, which, after remaining to- 
gether for some time, apparently separated in 
several directions. The day was blazing hot, 
and I was in the midst of a pathless bush, far 
away from my twenty men. 

By 2 p. M., I had come up with them again 
and turned my face toward camp. On the way 
thither, I killed two zebras, a waterbuck and a 
Thomsonii. By the time the meat was cut up 
and packed on my men's heads the sun had set. 
The moon was magnificently bright and served 
to light our road. For one mile our way led 
across a perfectly level plain. This plain was 
covered with a kind of salt as white as snow, 

45 



Hunting in Many Lands 

and with the bright moon every object was 
as easily distinguished as by day. The fresh 
meat proved an awkward load for my men, and 
we frequently were forced to stop while one 
or the other re-arranged the mass he carried. 
They were very cheery about it, however, and 
kept shouting to one another how much they 
would enjoy the morrow's feast. Their shouts 
were answered by the mocking wails of many 
hyenas, who hovered on our flanks and rear 
like a pursuing enemy. I shot two of these 
beasts, which kept their friends busy for a while, 
and enabled us to pursue our way in peace. 

This white plain reaches nearly to the shores 
of Ngiri Swamp on the north, and to the 
east it is bounded by a wall of densely thick 
bush. We had approached to within 400 
yards of the point where the line of bush joins 
the swamp, when I noticed a small herd of 
wildbeest walking slowly toward us, coming 
from the edge of the swamp. A few moments 
later, a cry escaped from my gun-bearer, who 
grasped my arm and whispered eagerly, simba. 
This means lion. He pointed to the wall of 
bush, and near it, crawling on its belly toward 
the wildbeest, was the form of a lion. I 
knelt down and raised the night sight of my 

46 



Hunting in East Africa 



't> 



.450, and fired at the moving form. The white 
soil and the bright moon actually enabled me 
to distinguish the yellow color of its skin. A 
loud growl answered the report of my rifle, and 
I could see the white salt of the plain fly as 
the Jion ran round and round in a circle, like a 
kitten after its tail. I fired my second barrel 
and the lion disappeared. The wildbeest had 
made off at the first shot. I tried, in the 
eagerness of youth, to follow the lion in the 
bush ; but soon common sense came to my 
rescue, and warned me that in this dark growth 
the chances were decidedly in favor of the 
lion's getting me, and so gave up the chase. 
Now, if I had only waited till the great cat 
had got one of the wildbeest, I feel pretty 
sure I should have been able to dispose of it 
at my leisure. When I returned to camp, I 
ungratefully lost sight of the good luck I had 
had, and gnashed my teeth at the thought 
that I had missed bringing home a lion and 
an elephant. I was not destined to see a lion 
again on this journey, but my annoyance at 
my ill fortune was often whetted by hearing 
them roar. 

However, by good luck and by George's 
help, I succeeded in securing one elephant. 

47 



Hunting in Many Lands 

The story of how this happened shall be the 
last hunting adventure recorded in this article. 
We had left Ngiri and were camped at the 
next water, some ten miles to the west. I had 
been out after giraffes and had not been un- 
successful, and therefore had reached camp in 
high good humor, when George came to me 
and said things were going badly in camp — 
that the men had decided to desert me should 
I try to push further on into the country ; and 
that both head men seemed to think further 
progress was useless with the men in such 
temper. I was puzzled what to do, but wasted 
no time about making up my mind to do some- 
thing. I went into the tent and called the 
two head men to me. After a little delay, they 
came, greeted me solemnly and at a motion 
from me crouched on their hams. There is 
but little use in allowing a negro to state a 
grievance, particularly if you know it is an 
imaginary one. The mere act of putting their 
fancied wrongs into words magnifies them in 
their own minds, and renders them less likely 
to listen to reason. My knowledge of Swahili 
at this time did not permit me to address them 
in their own language, so I spoke to them in 
English, knowing that they understood at least 

48 



Hunting in East Africa 

a few words of that tongue. I told them that 
I was determined to push on ; that I knew 
that porters were Hke sheep and were per- 
fectly under the control of the head men; con- 
sequently, should anything happen, I would 
know on whom to fix the blame. I repeated 
this several times, and emphasized it with 
dreadful threats, then motioned for them to 
leave the tent. I cannot say that I passed a 
comfortable night. Instead of songs and 
laughter, an ominous stillness reigned in the 
camp, and, though my words had been brave, 
I knew that I was entirely at the mercy of 
the men. 

Before dawn we were under way, keeping a 
strict watch for any signs of mutiny. But, 
though the men were sullen, they showed no 
signs of turning back. Our road lay over a 
wide plain, everywhere covered thickly with 
lava, the aspect of which was arid in the 
extreme. 

No more green buffalo bush, no more aca- 
cias, tall and beautiful, but in their place rose 
columns of dust, whirled hither and thither by 
the vagrant wind. Two of my men had been 
over this part of the road before, but they pro- 
fessed to be ignorant of the whereabouts of 

49 



Hunting in Many Lands 

the next water place. Any hesitation on my 
part would have been the signal for a general 
retreat, so there was nothing for it but to as- 
sume a look of the utmost indifference, and to 
assure them calmly that we should find water. 
At noon the appearance of the country had 
not changed. My men, who had incautiously 
neglected to fill their water bottles in the 
morning, were beginning to show signs of 
distress. 

Suddenly my gun-bearer, pointing to the 
left, showed me two herds of elephants ap- 
proaching us. The larger herd, composed 
principally of bulls, was nearer to us, and 
probably got our wind ; for they at once 
turned sharply to their right and increased 
their pace. The other herd moved on un- 
disturbed. I halted the caravan, told the men 
to sit down and went forward to meet the ele- 
phants, with my servant and two gun-bearers. 
I carried a .577, my servant carried the old 
i2-bore by Lang, his cartridges crammed to 
the muzzle with powder. We were careful 
to avoid giving the elephants our wind, so we 
advanced parallel to them, but in a direction 
opposite to that in which they were going. As 
they passed us we crouched, and they seemed 

50 



Hunting in East Africa 

unconscious of our presence. They went about 
400 yards past us, and then halted at right 
angles to the route they had been pursuing. 
There were five elephants in this herd — four 
large, and one small one, bringing up the rear. 
Some 60 yards on their right flank was a small 
skeleton bush, and, making a slight detour, we 
directed our course toward that. The leading 
animal was the largest, so I decided to devote 
our attention to that one. I told George to 
fire at the leg and I would try for the heart. 
We fired simultaneously, George missing and 
my shot taking effect altogether too high. 

Two things resulted from the discharge of 
our rifles : the gun-bearers bolted with their 
weapons and the elephants charged toward us 
in line of battle. As far as I can calculate, an 
elephant at full speed moves 100 yards in 
about ten seconds, so my readers can judge 
how much time elapsed before the elephants 
were upon us. We fired again. My shot did 
no execution, but George, who had remained 
in a kneeling position, broke the off foreleg of 
the leading animal at the knee. It fell, and 
the others at once stopped. We then made 
off, and watched from a little distance a most 
interesting sight. 

5-1 



Hunting in Many Lands 

The condition of the wounded elephant 
seemed to be known to the others, for they 
crowded about her and apparently offered her 
assistance. She placed her trunk on the back 
of one standing in front of her and raised her- 
self to her feet, assisted by those standing 
around. They actually moved her for some 
distance, but soon got tired of their kindly 
efforts. We fired several shots at them, which 
only had the effect of making two of the band 
charge in our direction and then return to 
their stricken comrade. Cover there was none, 
and with our bad marksmanship it would have 
been (to say the least) brutal to blaze away 
at the gallant little herd. Besides, cries of 
"water! " "water! " were heard coming from my 
thirsty caravan. So there was nothing for it 
but to leave the elephant, take the people to 
water, if we could find it, and then return and 
put the wounded animal out of its misery. 

An hour and a half later we reached water, 
beautiful and clear, welling up from the side 
of a small hill. This is called Masimani. On 
reaching the water, all signs of discontent 
among my people vanished, and those among 
them who were not Mahomedans, and there- 
fore had no scruples about eating elephant 

52 



Hunting in East Africa 

meat, raised a cheerful cry of tembo tamu — 
elephant is sweet. I did not need a second 
hint, but returned, and, finding the poor ele- 
phant deserted by its companions, put it out of 
its misery. It was a cow with a fine pair of 
tusks. The sun was setting, and my men, 
knowing that activity was the only means of 
saving their beloved elephant meat from 
hyenas, attacked the body with fury — some 
with axes, others with knives and one or two 
with sword bayonets. It was a terrible sight, 
and I was glad to leave them at it and return 
to camp, well satisfied with my day's work. 

From Masimani, for the next four days, the 
road had never been trodden by even an Arab 
caravan. I had no idea of the whereabouts 
of water, nor had my men; but, having made a 
success of the first day's march, the men fol- 
lowed me cheerfully, believing me possessed 
of magic power and certain to lead them over 
a well-watered path. A kind providence did 
actually bring us to water each night. The 
country was so dry that it was absolutely 
deserted by the inhabitants, the Masai, and 
great was the surprise of the Kibonoto people 
when we reached there on the fourth day. 
They thought that we had dropped from the 

53 



Hunting in Many Lands 

clouds, and said there could not have been 
any water over the road we had just come. 
These Kibonoto people had never been visited 
by an European, but received us kindly. The 
people of Kibonoto are the westernmost in- 
habitants on the slopes of Kilimanjaro. 

From there to Taveta our road was an easy 
one, lying through friendly peoples. After a 
brief rest at Taveta, I returned to the coast, 
reaching Zanzibar a little over six months 
after I had set out from it. 

Perhaps a word about the climate of the 
part of the country through which I passed 
will not be amiss. Both my servant and my- 
self suffered from fever, but not to any serious 
extent. If a sedentary life is avoided — and 
this is an easy matter while on a journey — if 
one avoids morning dews and evening damps, 
and protects his head and the back of his neck 
from the sun, I do not think the climate of 
East Africa would be hurtful to any ordinarily 
healthy person. For my part, I do not think 
either my servant or myself have suffered any 
permanent ill effects from our venture; and 
yet the ages of twenty-one and seventeen are 
not those best suited for travels in the tropics. 

W. A. C hauler. 

54 




A MOUNTAIN SHEEP. 



To the Gulf of Cortez 

About a year ago, my brother, who is a 
very sagacious physician, advised me to take 
the fresh liver of a mountain sheep for certain 
nervous symptoms which were troublesome. 
None of the local druggists could fill the pre- 
scription, and so it was decided that I should 
seek the materials in person. With me went 
my friend J. B., the pearl of companions, and 
we began the campaign by outfitting at San 
Diego, with a view to exploring the resources 
of the sister republic in the peninsula of 
Lower California. Lower California is very 
different from Southern California. The lat- 
ter is — well, a paradise, or something of that 
kind, if you believe the inhabitants, of whom 
I am an humble fraction. The former is what 
you may please to think. 

At San Diego we got a man, a wagon, four 
mules and the needed provisions and kitchen 
— all hired at reasonable rates, except the 
provisions and kitchen, which we bought. 

55 



Hunting in Many Lands 

Then we tried to get a decent map, but 
were foiled. The Mexican explorer will find 
the maps of that country a source of curious 
interest. Many of them are large and elabo- 
rately mounted on cloth, spreading to a great 
distance when unfolded. The political divi- 
sions are marked with a tropical profusion of 
bright colors, which is very fit. A similar 
sense of fitness and beauty leads the designer 
to insert mountain ranges, rivers and towns 
where they best please the eye, and I have 
had occasion to consult a map which showed 
purely ideal rivers flowing across a region 
where nature had put the divide of the high- 
est range in the State. 

My furniture contained a hundred cartridges, 
a belt I always carry, given by a friend, with a 
bear's head on the buckle (a belt which has 
held, before I got it, more fatal bullets than 
any other west of the Rockies), and my usual 
rifle. J. B, prepared himself in a similar way, 
except the belt. 

Starting south from San Diego, we crossed 
the line at Tia Juana, and spent an unhappy 
day waiting on the custom house officials. 
They, however, did their duty in a courteous 
manner, and we. with a bundle of stamped 

S6 



To the Gulf of Cortez 

papers, went on. The only duties we paid 
were those levied on our provisions. The 
team and wagon were entered free under a 
prospector's license for thirty days, and an 
obliging stableman signed the necessary bond. 
The main difficulty in traveling in Lower 
California lies in the fact that you can get 
no feed for your animals. From Tia Juana 
east to Tecate, where you find half a dozen 
hovels, there is hardly a house and not a 
spear of grass for thirty miles. At Tecate 
there is a little nibbling. Thence south for 
twenty-five miles we went to the Agua Hechi- 
cera, or witching water; thence east twenty- 
five miles more to Juarez, always without 
grass ; thence south to the ranch house of the 
Hansen ranch, at El Rayo, twenty-five miles 
more. There, at last, was a little grass, but 
after passing that point we camped at Agua 
Blanca, and were again without grass for 
thirty miles to the Trinidad Valley, which 
once had a little grass, now eaten clean. 
Fortunately we were able to buy hay at 
Tia Juana, and took some grain. Fortu- 
nately, also, we found some corn for sale at 
Juarez. So, with constant graining, a little 
hay and a supply of grass, either absent or 

57 



Hunting In Many Lands 

contemptible, we managed to pull the stock 
through. 

Besides our four hired mules there was an- 
other, belonging to our man, Oscar, which we 
towed behind to pack later. The animal was 
small In size, but pulled back from 200 pounds 
to a ton at every step. Its sex was female, but 
its name was Lazarus, for the overwhelming 
necessity of naming animals of the ass tribe 
either Lazarus or Balaam tramples on all dis- 
tinctions of mere sex. We started, prepared 
fpr a possible, though improbable, season of 
rain ; but we did not count on extreme cold, 
yet the first night out the water in our bucket 
froze, and almost every night It froze from a 
mere skin to several Inches thick. To give an 
idea of the country, I will transcribe from a 
brief diary a few descriptions. Starting from 
Tia J nana, we drove or packed for nearly 200 
miles In a southeasterly direction, until we 
finally sighted the Gulf and the mountains of 
Sonora in the distance. At first our road lay 
through low mountains, in valleys abounding 
in cholla cactus. From Tecate southward, 
the country was rolling and clotted with 
brushwood, until you reach Juarez. Juarez 
is an abandoned, or almost abandoned, placer 

58 



To the Gulf of Cortez 

camp. Here, amid the countless pits of the 
miners, the piflons begin, and then, after a 
short distance, the pine barrens stretch for 
forty miles. Beyond again you pass into hills 
of low brush, and plains covered with sage and 
buckweed, until finally you cross a divide into 
the broad basin of the Trinidad Valley. This 
is a depression some twenty miles long and 
perhaps five miles wide on the average, with a 
hot spring and a house at the southwestern 
end, walled on the southeast by the grim 
frowning rampart of the San Pedro Martir 
range, and on the other sides by mountains of 
lesser height, but equal desolation. 

We had intended at first to strike for the 
Cocopah range, near the mouth of the Colo- 
rado River, and there do our hunting. Several 
reasons induced us to change our plan and 
make for the Hansen ranch, where deer were 
said to be plenty and sheep not distant; so we 
turned from Tecate southward, made one dry 
camp and one camp near Juarez, and on the 
fifth day of our journeying reached a long 
meadow, called the Bajio Largo, on the Han- 
sen ranch. We turned from the road and fol- 
lowed the narrow park-like opening for four 
miles, camping in high pines, with water near, 

59 



Hunting in Many Lands 

and enough remnants of grass to amuse the 
animals. This region of pine barrens occurs 
at quite an elevation, and the nights were 
cold. The granite core of the country crops 
out all along in low broken hills, the interven- 
ing mesas consisting of granite sand and 
gravel, and bearing beside the pines a good 
deal of brush. Thickets of manzanita twisted 
their blood-colored trunks over the ground, 
and the tawny stems of the red-shank covered 
the country for miles. The red-shank is a love- 
ly shrub, growing about six or eight feet high, 
with broom-like foliage of a yellowish green, 
possessing great fragrance. If you simply 
smell the uncrushed shoots, they give a faint 
perfume, somewhat suggestive of violets ; and 
if you crush the leaves you get a more pun- 
gent odor, sweet and a little smoky. Also, 
the gnarled roots of the red-shank make an 
excellent cooking fire, if you can wait a few 
hours to have them burn to coals. All things 
considered, the pine barren country is very 
attractive, and if there were grass, water and 
game, it would be a fine place for a hunter. 
From our camp at Bajio Largo, J. B. and I 
went hunting for deer, which were said to be 
plentiful. We hunted from early morning till 

60 



To the Gulf of Cortez 

noon, seeing only one little fellow, about the 
size of a jack rabbit, scuttle off in the brush. 
Then we decided to go home. This, however, 
turned out to be a large business. The lofty 
trees prevented our getting any extended 
view, and the stony gulches resembled each 
other to an annoying degree. At last even 
the water seemed to flow the wrong way. So 
we gave up the attempt to identify landmarks, 
and, following our sense of direction and taking 
our course from the sun, we finally came again 
to the long meadow, and, traveling down that, 
we came to camp. Here we violated all rules 
by shooting at a mark — our excuse was that 
we had decided to leave the vicinity without 
further hunting; and, at all events, we spoiled 
a sardine box, to Oscar's great admiration. 

In order to get a fair day's journey out of a 
fair day, we had to rise at 4 or 5 o'clock. 
Oscar once or twice borrowed my watch to 
wake by, but the result was only that I had to 
borrow J. B.'s watch to wake Oscar by; so I 
afterwards retained the timepiece, and got up 
early enough to start Oscar well on his duties. 

The question of fresh meat had now become 
important. We left Bajio Largo and drove to 
Hansen's Laguna, a shallow pond over a mile 

61 



Hunting in Many Lands 

long, much haunted by ducks. Here we made 
a bad mistake, driving six or eight miles into 
the mountains, only to reach nowhere and be 
forced to retrace our steps. Night, however, 
found us at El Rayo, the Hansen ranch house, 
and, as it turned out, the real base of our 
hunting campaign. The Hansen ranch is an 
extensive tract, named after an old Swede, who 
brought a few cattle into the country years 
ago. The cattle multiplied exceedingly, to the 
number, indeed, of several thousand, and can 
be seen at long range by the passer-by. They 
are very wild and gaunt at present, and will 
prance off among the rocks at a surprising 
rate before a man can get within 200 yards of 
them. Ex-Governor Ryerson now owns these 
cattle, and his major-domo, Don Manuel Mur- 
illo, a fine gray-haired veteran, learning that I 
had known the Governor, gave me much 
friendly advice, and sent his son to guide us 
well on the road to the Trinidad Valley and 
the sheep land. He also provided us with 
potatoes and fresh meat, so that we lived 
fatly thenceforth. 

Our track lay past an abandoned saw-mill, 
built by the International Company. Thence 
we were to go to Agua Blanca, the last water 

62 



To the Gulf of Cortez 

to be had on the road ; for the next thirty 
miles are dry. The saw-mill was built to 
supply timber to the mining town of Alamo, 
some twenty-five miles south. The camp is 
now in an expiring state and needs no timber, 
but is said to shelter some rough and vio- 
lent men. The road from the mill was deep 
in sand, and our pace was slow. The dark- 
ness was coming cold and fast when we finally 
drove on to the water and halted to camp. 

Two men were there before us, with a sad-' 
die-horse each, and no other apparent equip- 
ment. When we arrived, the men were water- 
ing their animals, and at once turned their 
backs, so as not to be recognized. Then they 
retired to the brush. We supped and staked 
out the mules, and then sent Oscar to look up 
our neighbors. Oscar went and shouted, but 
got no answer, and could find no men. We 
thought that our mules were in some danger, 
and J. B., who is a yachtsman, proposed to 
keep anchor watch. So Oscar remained awake 
till midnight, when he awoke me and retired 
freezing, saying that he had seen the enemy 
prowling around. I took my gun and visited' 
the mules in rotation till 2:30. Then J. B. 
awoke, chattering with cold, but determined, 

63 



Hunting in Many Lands 

and kept faithful guard until 5, when we began 
our day with a water-bucket frozen solid. 

All our property remained safe, and a dis- 
tant fire twinkling in the brush showed that 
our neighbors were still there. After break- 
fast Oscar again sought the hostile camp, and 
finally found a scared and innocent French- 
man, who cried out, on recognizing his visitor: 

"Holy Mary! I took you for American 
robbers from the line, and I have lain awake 
all night, watching my horses." 

From Agua Blanca we drove across the 
Santa Catarina ranch, for the most part plain 
and mesa, covered with greasewood and buck- 
brush. This latter shrub looks much like sage, 
except that its leaves are of a yellow-green 
instead of a blue-green. It is said to furnish 
the chief nutrition for stock on several great 
ranches. Certainly there was no visible grass, 
but buckbrush can hardly be fattening. To- 
ward night, we crossed the pass into the Trini- 
dad Valley and drove down a grade not steep 
only, but sidelong, where the wagons both 
went tobogganing down and slid rapidly to- 
ward the gulch. The mules held well, how- 
ever, and before dark we were camped near 
the hot spring at the house of Alvarez. 

64 



To the Gulf of Cortez 

Our friend, Don Manuel Murillo, had recom- 
mended us both to Alvarez and to his sister, 
Senora Paula, but both of these were absent. 
Don Manuel had also urged us to get the 
Indian Anastasio for a guide. 

"For heaven's sake," he said, "don't venture 
without a guide. You may perish from thirst, 
as others have done before you." 

We tried at first to hire burros and let our 
mules rest, but the Indian who owned the 
burros stated that his terms were "one burro, 
one day, one dollar" — an impudent attempt at 
robbery, which we resented. 

We interviewed Anastasio, however, who 
said he would start at any moment; and, leav- 
ing Oscar to guard the wagon, we packed two 
mules, saddled two more for J. B. and myself, 
and, giving Anastasio the tow-rope of a pack- 
mule, we started after him. Anastasio was 
the most interesting figure of the trip, and I 
must be pardoned if I go into some detail 
about him. He spoke some Spanish and 
understood a good deal. When he did not 
understand, he never stated that fact, but 
either assumed a stony look or answered at 
cross-purposes ; so that we did not get to know 
a great deal about each other for some time. 

65 



Hunting In Many Lands 

He had, too, a lingering remnant of tlie 
distrust of horses and mules that his ancer- 
tors must have felt in Spanish times, and when 
his pack-mule got a stone in her hoof, he 
observed it with anxiety from a distance, but 
could not summon resolution to meddle with 
so serious a matter. 

Moreover his measure of distance was prim- 
itive. I would ask, for instance, how many 
miles it was to our next stop. He might say 
three miles for an all-day journey of six times 
that length, or he might tell you that we were 
nine miles from a spot which we reached in 
half an hour. 

I then substituted leagues for miles, think- 
ing that the Mexican usage would be more 
familiar to him ; but at last Anastasio said, 
rather impatiently, that all this business of 
leagues and miles was rather confusing and 
outside of his experience. We would reach 
the next water shortly before sunset, and that 
was all the calculation he was accustomed to, 
and quite close enough. 

Aside from his knowledge of Spanish, Anas- 
tasio was indeed a fine representative of the 
best of the stone age, and as we journeyed on, 

one got an excellent idea of the life of the sav- 

66 



To the Gulf of Cortez 

age here in early times. About 3 o'clock in 
the afternoon, we reached the only water spot 
on the trail. Anastasio parted some withered 
reeds, and, looking earnestly, said, " Dry." A 
short distance further up, he repeated the 
word, and yet again, till, at his fourth attempt, 
he said, "Very little," and we camped. By 
scraping away the mud and grass, we got a 
small gravelly hole, and dipped out the slowly 
seeping water, a cup at a time. We thus 
managed to give each of the mules a little in 
a pan, and to get a canteen full for cooking. 

Then I noticed Anastasio gathering wood, 
which I thought at first was for general use, 
but I found it was a private pile, to be used, so 
to speak, for bedding. Anastasio did not take 
the ax to secure his wood, but smashed off 
mesquite branches with a rock or pulled out 
some old root. He quite despised pinon and 
juniper logs, saying they gave no heat — mean- 
ing, probably, that they burned out too soon. 

We turned in soon after supper, and the 
night was cold. Anastasio said he feared 
snow. The reason for his fear was soon evi- 
dent. My bed was about twenty feet from 
Anastasio's, and during the night I would turn 
and watch him. He carried but one small 

67 



Hunting in Many Lands 

blanket of about the texture of a gunny sack. 
He lighted a long smouldering fire, stripped 
himself naked, except a breech-clout, and, with 
his back to the coals and his front protected 
by his gauzy blanket, he slept until the cold 
roused him, when he put on more wood and 
slept again. I offered him four pairs of warm 
horse blankets to sleep in, but that was not 
the thing. He said that he needed to have 
the fire strike him in the small of the back, 
and that he slept in that way always. So 
throughout the night, in my wakeful moments, 
I saw the light reflected from his mahogany 
person. Evidently snow or cold rain would be 
disastrous to people who need a fire all night; 
for, with no covering against the cold and with 
fires extinguished by storm, they might easily 
freeze to death. 

We were packed and marching at 7:30 next 
morning, and to those who know the inward- 
ness of packing in winter, that statement means 
a good deal. It means, for instance, that J. B. 
got up, at my summons, long before dawn and 
cooked a splendid breakfast, and that the 
mules were caught and grained and saddled, 
and the packs made and lashed, by the ear- 
liest sun. 

68 



To the Gulf of Cortez 

J. B. was a wonder. He seemed to enjoy 
giving his fellow mortals the best breakfasts 
and suppers — for we never had any midday 
meals — that our supplies could furnish. Al- 
ways rising at the first call, in the dark, some- 
times with an accompaniment of snow or rain, 
he managed the commissariat to perfection. 

I in my humble way packed and saddled 
and did other necessary work, and Anastasio 
regarded us with benevolent curiosity, though 
always ready to get wood or water or mules 
when we asked him to do so. 

We were now approaching the true desert. 
This term is not restricted to the broad level 
sand wastes along the Gulf, but includes the 
arid and waterless mountains adjacent, and 
this must be borne in mind when the Mex- 
icans tell you that sheep are to be found in 
the desert. 

We passed the last of the brushy hills, and, 
crossing a small divide, came over slopes of 
volcanic cinders to a little water spot with 
dwarf willows and grass. This was our hunt- 
ing camp. The country through which our 
route had lain heretofore was altogether gran- 
itic, though one could see hills apparently of 
stratified material in the distance. Toward 

69 



Hunting in Many Lands 

the desert, we met beds of conglomerate and 
trachyte, and mountains covered with sHde- 
rock, ringing flint-like clinkers from some 
great volcanic furnace. But doubtless some 
accurate and industrious German has de- 
scribed all this, in a work on the geology of 
the peninsula, and to that valuable treatise 
I will refer you for further facts. 

The vegetation had somewhat changed. 
There were more cactuses, particularly the 
fleshy kind called venaga, though I noticed 
with surprise the absence of the great fruit- 
bearing cactuses, the saguarro and pitaya, all 
along our route. The Spanish daggers were 
very numerous, as were also mescal plants, 
both of these forming veritable thickets in 
places. 

The venaga cactus is similar to the bis- 
naga, found in other parts of Mexico, except 
in the disposition and curvature of the thorns. 
They are stumpy plants, growing from a foot 
to three feet or so in height, and a foot or 
more in diameter, like a thickset post. Those 
of us who delighted in Mayne Reid's " Boy 
Hunters" will remember how the adventurous 
young men saved themselves from dying of 
thirst by laying open these succulent cactuses 

70 



To the Gulf of Cortez 

with their long hunting knives and drinking 
the abundant juices. I have often and faith- 
fully tried to perform the same feat, out of 
reverence for my heroes, but failed to find 
anything juicier than, say, a raw turnip — by no 
means satisfying as a drink. The venagas are 
found on the mountains where sheep haunt, 
with their hard prickly rinds broken and the 
interior hollowed out, and Anastasio said that 
the sheep do this by knocking holes in the 
cactus with their horns and then eating the 
inside. 

This cactus country makes the third variety 
of wilderness encountered in the peninsula. 
There are four: First, and best, the pine 
barrens ; second, the brushy hills and plains, 
covered with sage, greasewood and buckweed; 
third, this spike-bearing volcanic region ; and 
fourth, the appalling desolation of the ac- 
knowledged desert. 

The moment we had unloaded and watered 
our animals, Anastasio and I set out to look 
for deer. Anastasio wore the spotted and tat- 
tered remnant of a frock-coat, once green, 
given him by an Englishman, of whom I shall 
say more later. He had guarachis, or sandals, 
on his feet, bare legs, a breech-clout, and on 

71 



Hunting in Many Lands 

his head a reddish bandanna handkerchief in 
the last stages of decay; and as he peered 
over some rock, glaring long and earnestly in 
search of game, he reminded one of those lean 
and wolfish Apaches that Remington draws in 
a way so dramatic and so full of grim sig- 
nificance. 

Anastasio was fifty-one years old and had 
no upper incisors, but the way he flung his 
gaunt leathern shanks over those mountains 
of volcanic clinkers, armed with the poisoned 
bayonets of myriads of mescal, cactus and 
Spanish dagger, was astonishing. 

I told him that I was not racing and that he 
would scare the game. In fact, he did start 
one little fellow, but he said he always saw 
the game first, and for this day I was quite 
powerless to hold him in ; so I decided to 
return to camp before dark. This disgusted 
Anastasio greatly. "In this way we shall 
never kill," said he. " We are going to suffer 
from hunger." I assured him that we had 
plentiful supplies, but he had come for meat. 
Unbounded meat had been the chief incentive 
for his trip, and hungry he was determined 
to be. 

The next day J. B. set out early with the 
72 



To the Gulf of Cortez 

red man. I arranged camp, and two or three 
hours later took what I supposed was a differ- 
ent direction, but soon encountered the pair 
returning. J. B. had a painful knee, and An- 
astasio had started his racing tactics and kept 
them up until J. B. was quite lame. 

The Indian reported that he had seen sheep. 
J. B. had used the glass without finding them, 
and then Anastasio had captured it and looked 
through the wrong end, nodding and saying 
he could count five, very big. This, I am 
sorry to say, was false and affected on Anasta- 
sio's part, and J. B. was skeptical about the 
sheep altogether ; but I knew how hard it was 
to find distant game, when you don't know 
exactly how it should appear. To reach the 
supposed sheep, the mountain must be climbed 
and the crest turned, for the wind permitted 
no other course. J. B. did not feel up to the 
task, and I directed him to camp. Anastasio 
and I climbed for about four hours, and reached 
a position whence his sheep would be visible. 
He was now discontented because J. B. had 
not lent him his gun. No request had been 
made for the gun, to be sure, but I confess 
that a request would have met with my earnest 
opposition in any event. Evidentiy Anasta- 

73 



Hunting in Many Lands 

sio's expectations of fresh meat were now so 
dim as to cast serious shadows on my skill as a 
hunter; but, resigning himself to the inevita- 
ble, he crawled to the summit of the ridge for 
a view. He stared long and said he could 
make out one ewe lying down under a juniper. 
I tried the glass. He was right. His unaided 
sight seemed about equal in definition to my 
field-glass. On this occasion he declined to 
use the glass, even with some appearance of 
disgust. We could get no nearer unseen, and, 
though the distance was very great, I decided 
to risk a shot. 

I fired, in fact, two or three shots at the 
ewe, alarming her greatly, when from beneath 
a cliff which lay below us a band streamed out. 
Two big rams started off to the right. Anas- 
tasio and I ran down a bit, and I tried a long 
shot at the leading ram. The distance was 
great, and the run had pumped me a little. I 
missed. The second ram was still larger. He 
stopped a moment at 1 50 yards and I dropped 
him. Anastasio grunted satisfaction. I swung 
to the left, where the rest of the band was 
journeying, sighted at the shoulder of a young 
ram and fired. The ball passed through my 
intended victim, dropping him, and entered 

74 




r^iMjin^. ^*it$hs 




ROCKY MOUNTAIN AND POLOS SHEEP. DRAWN TO SAME SCALE. 



To the Gulf of Cortez 

the eye of a yearHng ram who stood behind, 
thus killing two rams at one shot — a most 
unusual accident. 

The rest of the band were now quite dis- 
tant, and, though I fired several shots, at An- 
astasio's desire — he said he wanted a fat ewe 
— none took effect. 

I cleaned the sheep and skinned out the big 
head. Anastasio took one small ram entire 
on his back, supporting it by a rope passed 
over the top of his head, and started down 
with it, while I followed after with the big 
horns. It was i o'clock. The head might 
have weighed thirty-five pounds fresh. It 
grew to weigh 1,500 pounds before dark. 
Stumbling down through the slide-rock, with 
legs full of venomous prickers, I passed below 
camp without noticing it, and was well on the 
other side, when I thought I had gone about 
far enough, and shouted. J. B.'s voice an- 
swered across a small hill, and I discovered 
that he had never reached camp at all, but 
had found a water spot, and wisely decided 
not to leave it without good reason. 

I scouted a bit to the west, but found un- 
familiar country, and, as the sun had set, we 
were seemingly about to stay by that water all 

75 



Hunting in Many Lands 

night, when I turned around and saw a pale 
column of smoke rising above the crest of the 
ridge against the evening sky. 

At once we marched around the ridge, and, 
as we rose over the divide, we saw the whole 
hillside flaming with signal fires. Our dear 
old Anastasio had become alarmed and set fire 
to fifteen or twenty dead mescals in different 
places to guide us home. God bless a good 
Indian ! 

With vast content we prepared and ate a 
luxurious supper. Anastasio, however, fear- 
ing that he might be hungry in the night, im- 
paled all the ribs of one side of the ram on a 
pole and planted it in a slanting position over 
the fire. Thus he was enabled to put in his 
time during his wakeful moments, and face 
the prospect of a remote breakfast without 
discouragement. 

The next day, I spent the morning in wash- 
ing, resting, and cutting spikes out of my legs. 
Anastasio packed in the second small ram, 
and ate ribs and slept. Then, in the after- 
noon, we got the rest of the big fellow down. 
Anastasio, to make his load lighter, smashed off 
the shanks with a stone, althouorh he carried 
a knife in his belt — a striking trick of heredity. 

76 



To the Gulf of Cortez 

And then we talked. " The Trinidad Val- 
ley is not my country," said Anastasio ; "this 
is my country. Yonder, under that red rock 
on the mountain side, about five miles away, 
there is a spring in the gulch on the edge of 
the desert. I was born there, and lived there 
twenty years with my father's family. Here 
where your camp is" — about twenty feet square 
of slide-rock level enough to stand on — "we 
sowed crops. We scraped a hole between 
the stones with our hands, put in squash 
seeds, watered them by carrying water from 
the spring in our hands and raised several 
hills." 

So he went on, not in so connected a way, 
but showing, bit by bit, his manner of life. 
His tribe, which he called the Kil-ee-ou, must 
have been very restricted in numbers at best. 
His territory was a few leagues of desert, or 
almost desert, mountains, every yard of which 
he knew by heart, while just over the ridge 
dwelt the Cocopahs, his mortal enemies. 
Sometimes a score of men armed with bows 
would start a tribal hunt for deer, though the 
sheep were beyond their means of attack. 
Sometimes they journeyed a few leagues to 
the Gulf to eat mussels. We could see the 

77 



Hunting in Many Lands 

great blue sheet and the leagues of salt in- 
crustations glimmering white on the hither 
side, and at one spot on the horizon the blue 
peak of some Sonora mountain rose out of the 
seeming ocean. 

But a few deer and mussels and a half dozen 
hills of squashes could not fill the abyss of the 
Indian appetite. The stand-by was roasted 
mescal. These plants grow in great numbers 
in the country adjoining the desert, and at 
every season there are some just right for 
roasting. The Indians selected these and 
cooked them for two or three days in a hole 
in the ground, by a process called tatema, 
similar in principle to a clam-bake. This 
roasting converts the starchy leaves and 
heart into a sugary mass, so that the result- 
ing food is something like a sweet fibrous 
beet. The Indian's life really lay in gather- 
ing and roasting mescal. And when a storm 
prevented the necessary fires, the tribe passed 
days, often many days, without food. 

So much for Anastasio's early life. A year 
ago, he told us, he went hunting with two 
Americans. One of them came from under 
the earth, where there were six months of 
night, and had passed two seas and been a 

78 



To the Gulf of Cortez 

month on the train. We supposed, from this, 
that Anastasio had served as guide to an 
Enghshman, whose home he described at the 
Antipodes. The six months of night were, 
perhaps, represented by the London fogs, and, 
if he passed a month on the train, he must 
have come by the Southern Pacific. The 
Englishman had presented Anastasio with the 
very undesirable gaberdine I have before de- 
scribed. Anastasio said that the Englishman 
shot quail in the head every time with his 
rifle, but on meeting a band of eleven sheep 
he fired nine shots without hitting. Anasta- 
sio said he trembled, but I incline to think 
that the Indian had run him out of breath. 
Finally the Englishman secured two ewes and 
a lamb, after three weeks of hunting. 

Look at my fortune ! A single day on the 
mountain, and three rams to show for it ; one 
with horns that are an abiding splendor — six- 
teen inches around the base and forty-two 
inches on the outer sweep. 

I thought at first that the horns made more 
than one complete spiral, but, on leveling them 
carefully, I saw that the entire curve would not 
be complete without the points, which were 
smashed off. In this connection it is only fair 

79 



Hunting in Many Lands 

to consider that I carried my lucky bear's head 
belt, and invariably sacrificed to the Sun, as 
several ragged garments, hung on spikes and 
branches, may still testify. 

The weather threatened storm. J. B.'s leg 
would not permit him to hunt. Anastasio 
was full of meat, eating roasted ribs night and 
day, beside his regular meals, and we decided 
to retreat. 

I noticed that the sheep hides had little of 
the under wool that the Northern sheep have 
in December, nor were the animals fat, though 
the flesh was sweet and tender, and the livers 
had their desired medicinal effect. 

Anastasio said it was customary to hunt in 
summer, when the sheep were fat, and were 
compelled to resort to the water holes. Aside 
from the meanness of taking advantage of the 
animals* necessities, the summer is a bad sea- 
son for hunting, both because the flesh is rank 
and spoils quickly, and the heat and insects 
are intolerable. 

We packed our mules in a gentle rain, and 
Anastasio made a great bundle of rejected 
meat for his own use. To get rope, he slightly 
roasted the leaves of the Spanish dagger, tore 
the hot spikes in shreds with his tough fingers 

80 



To the Gulf of Cortez 

and knotted the fragments into a strong, pli- 
able cord. 

In two days we were again in the Trinidad 
Valley, and in two days more — one of them 
passed in facing a cold, driving storm, of great 
violence — we had reached our old friend, Don 
Manuel Murillo, at El Rayo. Here we lay 
over a day to rest the animals, and Don 
Manuel again played the part of a good angel 
in letting us have some hay. 

I tried a shot at a duck on a little pond. 
The shot was a costly success. The duck 
died, but I had to wade for his remains 
through many yards of frozen mud and dirty 
water. The duck, though lean, was tender. 
My last hunt was for deer at El Rayo, with 
a boy of Don Manuel's for guide. Toward 
noon I saw two deer and shot them. I do not 
at present know just how to class them. The 
tail is that of the ordinary mule-deer, or black- 
tail, of Colorado and Montana, but there is no 
white patch on the rump. 

The most of the deer in Lower, as well as 
in Southern, California have little white on 
their rumps, as in these specimens, but the 
upper surface of the tail is generally dark. 
The majority of the animals also are smaller 

8i 



Hunting in Many Lands 

than the typical mule-deer of our Northern 
States, but whether the differences between 
the two are great enough and constant enough 
to form a defined variety, some more compe- 
tent naturalist must decide. Pending authori- 
tative decision, I will submit, as a working 
theory of a purely amateur kind, this sugges- 
tion : that the Mexicans are right in saying 
that the northern zone of their country con- 
tains two varieties of deer — one a large ani- 
mal, called "buro," identical with our North- 
ern mule-deer; the other called "venado," a 
mule-deer too, but only a cousin of the "buro," 
much smaller, and with the white parts of the 
mask, throat, rump and tail either absent or 
much diminished in extent. 

Our journey home was accomplished in the 
worst weather. Snow, cold rain, gales of sur- 
prising fury, made life a struggle ; but we 
jumped at every chance for progress, and 
finally crossed the line twenty-five days after 
we had left it — tired, ragged, dirty, but with 
our mules alive and our hearts contented. 

Our experience of the peninsula indicated 
that there were few inhabitants of any kind, 
brute or human. We saw hardly a dozen rab- 
bits on the trip. There were some quail and 

33 



To the Gulf of Cortez 

many ducks, but the latter were visitors only. 
Deer were very scarce, and there were but a 
few half-wild cattle visible. 

As for human beings, there was not an in- 
habited house on our road from Alvarez Place, 
in the Trinidad Valley, to El Rayo, a distance 
of fifty-five miles; nor from El Rayo to Juarez, 
twenty-five miles more. Indeed, except for the 
few hovels at Tecate, the houses for the rest 
of the way were hardly more numerous. And 
yet we had a strong impression that the coun- 
try had nearly all the population it could sup- 
port. Given a moderately dry year, and the 
part of Lower California which we visited can 
be thought fit only for bogus land companies 
and goose-egg mines ; or, yes, it might be an 
ideal spot for a health resort or a penal 
colony. 

George H. Gould. 



83 



A Canadian Moose Hunt 

In October, 1893, I made an extended trip 
with my brother into the country around the 
head waters of the Ottawa. Our original plan, to 
push northward toward the " Height of Land " 
after caribou, was frustrated by high winds, 
which made travel on the large lakes slow and 
dangerous. The crossing of a ten-mile lake, 
which could be accomplished in a morning if 
calm, would consume several days with a high 
wind blowing, necessitating a tedious coasting 
on the windward shore. After much delay 
from this cause and from heavy rains, which 
made hunting difficult in the extreme, we at 
length abandoned the hope of caribou on this 
trip, and turned southward from Birch Lake 
into Lake Kwingwishe — the Indian name for 
meat bird. This was about the northern limit 
of moose, although a few are found beyond it. 

Our repeated failures to see this great deer 
would not form interesting reading, although, 
if recorded, they would, no doubt, bring to the 

84 



A Canadian Moose Hunt 

mind of many a moose hunter memories of 
times when the hunt was hard and the result 
— a blank. It is my purpose in this article to 
merely sketch one or two instances of this 
sort, which, in contrast to days of unrewarded 
watching, were red-lettered with excitement. 
I only give the episodes because too often we 
relate our victories alone, and missed shots 
and barren tramps are consigned to ill-merited 
oblivion, however real they were. 

After hunting the country around Lake 
Kwingwishe, we at length camped on a small 
pond near the east shore. Here we watched 
and called every night and morning; then we 
visited neighboring swamps and ponds, carry- 
ing a canoe through the forest by compass. 
It was always the same — wet and hungry, 
tired out with tramping through tamarack 
swamps, we would call half the night, some- 
times startled with false alarms from hoot owl 
or loon, and then lie down in a rain-soaked 
tent without a fire, for smoke always scares a 
moose. The first streaks of dawn came, and 
again we were up and anxiously watching the 
shore for the appearance of the monster we 
were after. There were his tracks a few hours 
old, but we could never catch him making 

85 



Hunting in Many Lands 

them. It was too early in the season to trail 
them down, as the bulls were traveling con- 
tinuously in impenetrable swamps, and our 
best chance was to run across them on the 
waterways. 

One morning, on a pond we had named 
" Little Trout Pond," because it looked as 
though it should have trout in it, but did not; 
we awoke, after some specially exhausting 
and disappointing "back pond" expeditions, 
and found Chabot, one of our two Indian 
guides, gone. Late in the afternoon he re- 
turned. He had been seeing the country, and 
had found a swamp about three miles off full 
of fresh tracks, " so big moose," and he de- 
scribed tracks such as must have belonged to 
the Irish elk. Soon after sunrise on the fol- 
lowing day we were there. Cold lunch, no 
dinner and lots of beautiful fresh tracks, one 
the largest I ever saw. 

We watched motionless all day, saw the sun 
cross the zenith and sink out of sight, saw 
the twilight fade away and the moon come 
up. About midnight we went back to camp, 
through the woods. Night travel in a forest 
that you can scarcely get through in the day- 
time is beyond description. 

86 



A Canadian Moose Hunt 

" So good swamp," said Chabot sadly that 
night as he crawled into his tent. 

The next day we pitched a rough camp on 
a hogback between two barren plains, about 
five miles from our main camp. It rained hard 
as soon as we got the tent up, and we watched 
a runway at the foot of the hill until dark and 
then turned in. 

The next morning it rained so heavily that 
we lay in our tent, four of us, until about 1 1 
A. M., when it slacked up a little. My diary 
says, " No fire and little breakfast." Before 
this " little breakfast " was finished we heard a 
moose call close by. Seizing our rifles, we 
started with Chabot to stalk him. The brevity 
of a diary is sometimes eloquent. Mine says, 
"Walked from 12 m. to 4.30 p. m. through the 
bush. Didn't hear that moose again." 

The latter hour found us back in camp to 
get breakfast, when our other guide, Jocko, 
who had gone to the main camp for food, 
came back in great excitement, having found 
some fresh signs close at hand. Breakfast 
was dropped and again we started. We got 
back just after dark from that trip and ate — 
for the first time that day — some cold par- 
tridge and pork. 

87 



Hunting in Many Lands 

This was a fair sample of our hunting day, 
but did not equal the following one. It rained 
all that night, and the tent, not having been 
properly stretched, leaked. We were awakened 
by the crackling of a fire the guides had made. 
It was direct disobedience of orders, and con- 
trary to the most elementary rules of moose 
hunting; but, cold and faint for want of food, 
we yielded to the innate perversity of the In- 
dian. We made a wild-eyed, starved group, 
warming our fingers around the little blaze as 
it snapped up through the still, wet morning 
air. The teapot was just beginning to boil, 
the pork was just sizzling, when we sprang to 
our feet. A crash of antlers, as though two 
bulls were fighting, sounded not a hundred 
yards away. The noise was perfectly clear, 
having a metallic ring to it, and was caused 
by moose horns striking a hard substance. 

Again. Without a word, we seized our rifles, 
and left our breakfast and fire, and I never 
saw that spot afterward. Again came the 
sound, still distinct, but further off, this time 
like a birch canoe dragged through alders. 
The animal had been on the runway which 
crossed at the foot of the hill we were camped 
on when he scented the fresh-lit fire. Well, to 

88 



A Canadian Moose Hunt 

^ake a long story short, we followed that trail 
three weary hours of running and creeping 
through frightful swamps and thickets, hearing 
every few minutes the sound just ahead of us, 
but with never a sight of the game. His 
huge tracks, which we crossed now and again, 
showed he was not even trotting. Nearly 
exhausted, we kept following the sound di- 
rectly, and so cutting across and gaining on 
him. Once he seemed just ahead, and we 
expected to see him each second ; but we had 
to pay for the luxury of that fire, as for other 
good things in life, so we never saw a hair of 
him. When, at last, completely used up, we 
burst out on a lake and saw the muddy tracks 
and the water still " riled up " where he had 
crossed. Jocko swore he heard him crash up 
the opposite bank; but we were at the end 
of our strength and could go no further. A 
man must eat sometimes, even on a moose 
hunt. 

Now comes the really tragical part of this 
episode ; our canoe was not twenty feet from 
where this perverse animal had entered the 
water, and we were on the little pond where 
our permanent camp stood. Still we felt en- 
couraged, for, as Chabot said that night, 

89 



Hunting in Many Lands 

" Hear him now, see him pretty soon." But 
not for many days. 

One more sample to encourage would-be 
moose hunters, and then we will kill a moose 
just to show how easy it is. Two nights after 
the above adventure we changed our camp 
and the weather at the same time. It was 
clear now, but it grew very cold, and made 
night work in the canoe a horror. 

It was my brother's turn to call, and I was 
just dropping off to sleep in my tent, within a 
few feet of the lake shore, when from the other 
side of the water, about a quarter of a mile 
distant, a bull moose called. On the cold, 
still air it rang out like a trumpet — a long 
call, very different from the call made by 
Indian hunters. Jocko, who was with me in 
camp, was frantic with excitement, especially 
as my brother, who must have heard it, did 
not answer. Again the call sounded. The 
bull must be on the shore. I thought he 
might swim over. Then came the answering 
call, close at hand, of a cow. Jocko laughed 
and whispered, " Chabot call him." Then 
there was silence for a few minutes, followed 
by a final bellow, evidently further off. The 
mock cow bawled and screamed and bleated 

9° 



A Canadian Moose Hunt 

frantically, but no sound came back. My 
brother and his man kept it up until late that 
night, and then came to the camp almost 
frozen. That incident ruined my faith in call- 
ing, for every condition of wind and weather 
was perfect, and Chabot's calling apparently 
most enticing. 

After this and similar episodes, we left the 
Kwingwishe country, after hunting it carefully 
as far north as Sassanega Lake. We passed 
Sair's Lake and the Bois Franc, and finally 
reached the Little Beauchene. Near the last 
lake my brother killed a young bull moose, 
whose meat was the first fresh food, except 
partridge, we had had for over three weeks. 
It was delicious, and we felt the change of 
diet at once in increased strength and energy. 
For continuous use moose meat is much 
superior to other venison, as it is of a rich 
flavor which does not readily pall on the taste. 
The myth about moose muffle being such a 
hunters' delicacy has never allured me to 
actually eat it, but I suppose a starving man 
might, after consuming his boots, manage to 
swallow it. 

There were many fresh signs in the neigh- 
borhood of the Little Beauchene Lake, but 

91 



Hunting in Many Lands 

some lumbermen had arrived a few days 
before us and had scared the game away. 
This starting the quarry is the real difficulty 
in moose hunting ; for, when once disturbed, 
the bull leaves with all his kith and kin, so the 
only chance in these regions is to find him 
immediately on arrival in a new district and 
before he comes across your tracks. 

Still working slowly southward, we hunted 
more back ponds, until at last my turn came 
on the twenty-seventh hunting day. Let no 
man say that moose hunting is a picnic. 

We had camped on a little strip of land, 
between a pond and a long narrow swamp, 
about 4 o'clock on a beautiful afternoon. 
Leaving my brother and Jocko to eat dinner 
in comfort, I started to the head of the 
swamp. The water was so low that we could 
barely force the light canoe through the 
lily-pads. Old moose signs were plenty. A 
family of moose had evidently been there 
all summer, but until we reached the upper 
end we saw no fresh tracks. The sluggish 
stream we were on drained a shallow lake, 
and, after a few hard plunges, our canoe 
floated clear of the mud into the silent 
waters of a circular pond. It was a basin 

92 



A Canadian Moose Hunt 

about a half mile across, surrounded by low 
hardwood hills, and so shallow that a moose, I 
think, could have waded across the deepest 
part. The shores were marked up with some 
very large tracks, but fresh signs had long 
since ceased to excite in me anything more 
than a passing interest. We made the tour of 
the lake slowly and quietly. Nothing was in 
sight except four wood ducks. This was 
"last chance" pond, and if I got no moose 
here, we must return to Mattawa for another 
outfit, which I had about made up my mind to 
do. The night settled still and cold — oh, so 
cold ! — and the stars came out with wonderful 
distinctness. 

What was that ? 

Chabot had started up, listened, and a sec- 
ond later was driving the birch across the lake 
noiselessly. As we neared the shore, it was 
inky black — a mammoth would not have been 
visible ten yards away. Twigs breaking at 
long intervals told that something was on 
shore just in cover of the bushes. We waited 
some time and at last I whispered to Chabot, 
"Muckwa?" (bear). 

" Not muckwa — cow," answered the guide. 

As he spoke, the short call of a bull floated 
93 



Hunting in Many Lands 

out on the cold air from the side of the pond 
that we had just left. I think Chabot was 
right about the cow being in the bushes, but 
he may have been mistaken — one's hearing 
becomes unnaturally sensitive after a few 
weeks' continuous straining to catch and distin- 
guish the most distant sounds. But there was 
no mistake about that bull's call. He was well 
back from the shore on the hillside. The 
wind was wrong, and, although he grunted 
at intervals for an hour, he paid no attention 
to Chabot's most seductive pleadings. We 
imitated with paddles the splashings of a 
cow walking in the shallow water, but this and 
other devices had no effect. When at last 
even my Indian could no longer bear the 
bitter cold of the wind which had sprung up, 
we started for camp. Long past midnight 
we crawled into our blankets, and I dropped 
asleep cursing the day I had first gone after 
moose. 

We were on that pond again before daylight. 
Not a sound to be heard, not a living thing 
to be seen, when the sun rose. We took our 
stand on a small point opposite the outlet and 
watched. I sat on a fallen tree motionless, 
hour after hour. Chabot dozed beside me. 

94 



A Canadian Moose Hunt 

Those four ducks played and fed within thirty 
feet, and a muskrat worked at house-building 
a few yards away. The silence was intense. 
There was not a breath of wind. I knew my 
brother was doing the same thing on a neigh- 
boring pond, and I fell to thinking whether 
there was some special Nemesis about this 
hunt, or it was the fault of the guides. I 
glanced at the outlet in front of me, about 
a half mile distant. 

There was a moose, stalking with the utmost 
deliberation along the edge of the woods and 
then into the shallow water. 

Chabot was roused by a hasty shake, and a 
second later the canoe was flying across the 
lake. As we crossed, I inspected the moose 
closely. He was walking slowly, nibbling the 
long reed-like grass that stuck up from the 
water. His neck seemed very stiff, and he 
swung his legs from his hips and shoulders. 
The hump was extremely conspicuous, perhaps 
because his head was carried low to get at the 
grass. He was a young bull, nearly full grown, 
and with small antlers. He looked occasion- 
ally at the canoe, now fast nearing him ; but 
we had the advantage of the wind, and the sun 
was going down behind us. It was just 5 

95 



Hunting in Many Lands 

o'clock. He walked, now out toward us, now 
back to shore, as though about to bolt for the 
bush, but working slowly toward the north, 
where we afterwards found a much-used run- 
way, leading to the marsh my brother was 
watching, two miles away. I opened fire about 
fifty yards off, when the moose was standing 
in about a foot of water, looking suspiciously 
at us. The shot was too high, but struck him 
in the shoulder. He started in a lumberinp" 
gallop along the shore. I fired again. This 
turned him into the woods at an old lumber 
road. We heard the twigs snap sharply for a 
minute, and then a heavy crash and silence. 
I thought we had lost him, but Chabot de- 
clared that he was down. I sprang ashore 
the moment the canoe grounded, and dashed 
in on his trail, which was perfectly clear on 
the soft moss. Looking ahead through the 
open woods for the animal, which I thought 
had turned, I almost fell over his prostrate 
body. 

His head rested against a small windfall, 
which he had tried to clear — an effort which 
appeared to have cost him his life. Moss hung 
from some small spruce trees close by, which 
had been kicked up in the death struggle. 

96 



A Canadian Moose Hunt 

The shoulder shot had been the fatal one, but 
he had been hard hit in the side too. 

He was not full grown, and measured only 5 
feet 6yi inches in height, and 8 feet 35^ 
inches in length, from the nose to root of tail. 
His girth at the shoulder was 5 feet 11% 
inches. His nose showed none of the Jewish 
characteristics which taxidermists are fond of 
giving their mounted moose heads. The fore- 
head and shoulders were brownish instead of 
black, like the rest of the body. The hind- 
legs were wholly white, as were the forelegs 
below the knee. I am inclined to think he 
was a ranger moose, but could not tell with 
certainty, as his horns were too undeveloped. 
The velvet was still hanging in places, but 
very dry. This was unusual, as it was the 
loth of October. 

Ordering Chabot to dress the moose, I 
went back to the canoe, having decided to 
watch until dark, although there seemed no 
possibility of seeing another moose after the 
firing. My lazy guide, instead of obeying my 
order, merely cut the skin, with the result that 
all the meat spoiled — probably just what he 
wanted, fearing he would have to portage it 
out of the bush. We returned to our point 

97 



Hunting in Many Lands 

and dozed again. At a quarter of 7 it was 
getting dark fast, and in the north a black, 
ugly-looking cloud was gathering. We might 
as well go back to camp if it was going 
to blow and rain, so I told Chabot to shove 
off and to give one last toot of his horn, 
just for luck. 

The air was still as death with the dread of 
the impending storm. Chabot took up the 
coiled birch, and the echoes rang out with a 
short grunting call, which so much resembles 
a man chopping wood. Before they died 
away, there came from behind us, just to our 
right, the unmistakable answering grunt of a 
bull moose. He was probably on his way to 
the lake, and our call merely hastened him 
and brought him out into the open before it 
was too dark to shoot. He was very near and 
came steadily forward, stopping now and then 
to listen. We could hear him plainly as his 
horns broke the twigs at every step — once or 
twice he lashed the bushes with them. He 
repeated his grunts, ungh ! ungh ! every few 
steps. He was so evidently reckless that, to 
take no chance, I allowed Chabot to answer 
only once — with the short call. I say short call, 
in distinction to the long modulated call which 

98 



A Canadian Moose Hunt 

is used to good purpose in Maine and New 
Brunswick, but which I have never known to 
succeed in this part of Canada. The moose 
paused for a moment in the alders that formed 
a close thicket at the water's edge, and I 
feared he had seen or scented us ; then sud- 
denly and noiselessly he stepped out from a 
cove a short hundred yards away. He had 
taken less than ten minutes from the first call 
to his appearance. 

At the first alarm we had pushed off and 
were floating quietly just by the shore. The 
water was so shallow that the birch made, to 
my ears at least, a frightful scraping as it 
pushed over the dead sticks that lay in the 
water, and the wind was unfavorable. I never 
shall forget the appearance that bull made as 
he stepped fiercely and proudly out, with his 
head up, swinging a splendid set of antlers as 
lightly as straws. He did not see us, but 
strode about ten yards into the shallow lake, 
where the water scarcely covered his hoofs, 
and, first glancing away for a second, turned 
like a flash and faced us full, looking down on 
us in surprised disgust. He was greatly ex- 
cited and the mane on his hump was erect, in- 
creasing his natural height, and there was 

99 



Hunting in Many Lands 

nothing timid or deer-like in his appearance; 
I have seen in the arena a bull step out from 
the darkened stall into the glare of sunlight, 
and gaze for a moment at the picadors with a 
sort of indignant surprise ; so this great bull 
moose looked. 

We gazed motionless at each other, I know- 
ing that it was one of the grandest and rarest 
sights on the American continent, and he 
thinking, no doubt, what a disgraceful imita- 
tion of a cow the motionless canoe made. 
Chabot's breath was coming hard behind me, 
and I felt the birch bark quiver. 

As I raised my rifle, I realized that it had 
suddenly grown very dark under this western 
bank, and the bull precisely resembled In color 
the background, and, large as he was, made a 
very poor mark. The tall grass, which I had 
looked over in watching him, now sticking up 
in front of the sights, bothered me. I fired at 
the root of his neck, and the rifle gave a sup- 
pressed roar in the heavy air and the smoke 
hung like a pall. The bull ran straight for- 
ward, hesitated as though about to charge, 
then turned and made wonderful speed along 
the lake shore. The moment I could see him 
I fired again. In the dim twilight he was 

100 



A Canadian Moose Hunt 

almost out of sight. When the smoke cleared 
he was gone. 

Neither of us moved. It was too frightful 
to miss such an immense creature at that 
range. We heard him crash up the hillside 
and then stop a short distance back in the 
wood. Then I knew he either was down or 
had turned, unless he had found an open lum- 
ber road, where his horns would make no 
sound ; for a moose can go in the most mys- 
terious manner when he chooses to be quiet 
— but there was nothing quiet about this bull. 

Chabot declared that he had heard him 
cough, but I did not believe it. I pointed to 
the spot where he had entered the bush, and 
a moment later the canoe grated on the beach. 
There were the huge tracks with the hoofs 
wide spread, and the trail entering an old 
lumber road. 

All this took less time to happen than to 
read, and yet it was now dark, so quickly had 
night fallen. By straining my eyes I saw it 
was 7 o'clock — just two hours after the first 
bull was killed. Chabot wanted to go back to 
camp, which was the proper thing to do, espe- 
cially as I had now just one cartridge left. I 
had only taken a handful with me that morning. 



Hunting in Many Lands 

We entered the forest foot by foot, Chabot 
following the trail where I could scarcely see 
to step. A few yards in and the track turned 
from the old road into the thick bush, and we 
knew the moose was near. A little further, 
and we scarcely moved — stepping like cats 
from tree to tree, expecting every second to 
hear an angry grunt and have the bull emerge 
from the impenetrable veil of night that hung 
around us. 

At last we came to a windfall, and we were 
for some time at a loss to find whether he had 
gone across or around it. In lighting a match 
with extreme caution, the light fell on a tall 
moose wood stem about as large as one's fm- 
ger. Four feet from the ground it was drip- 
ping with bright red blood. The coughing 
Chabot had heard was now, we thought, ex- 
plained, and the game hard hit. We decided 
to go back to camp ; for, as my guide put it 
very clearly, the wounded bull would either 
fiofht or run. I wasn't anxious for the first 
alternative in the dark and tangled wood, with 
one cartridge ; and the second meant a long 
chase on the morrow. If we left him until 
the morning, he would be either dead or too 
stiff from his wound to eo far. 



A Canadian Moose Hunt 

So back we went to camp, amply repaid by 
the events of two hours for weeks of hard- 
ship and exposure. Just at daylight the next 
morning, as we were leaving camp, prepared 
to take and keep the trail of that bull if it 
led to Hudson Bay, my brother appeared with 
Jocko. He had had no breakfast, and had 
come a long distance through a frightful bush 
in order to be in at the death, as he had heard 
the firing, and shrewdly suspected that in the 
dusk a wounded moose was the result. 

" From the tracks at my lake," said he, as 
he strode up to the fire, "there are two bull 
moose around here — a large and a small one ; 
which did you get?" 

" Both," replied Chabot. 

We took the trail at the water's edge, and 
found it smeared with blood. The bull could 
not have gone far. A short walk brought us 
to the windfall where we had turned back the 
night before, and which had seemed so deep 
in the woods. 

A hundred yards beyond it lay the bull on 
his right side. The second shot had struck 
him in the center of the left ham and ranged 
through him. The meat was spoiled, as was 
the hide — that is, the hair came out so badly 

103 



Hunting in Many Lands 

that it was not worth while to prepare it ; but 
th-e neck and scalp were perfect, except a bad 
scar on the forehead, received in fighting. 

He was a grand sight as he lay dead in 
that silent autumn forest — for I never can get 
over the impression that somehow or other 
the moose is a survival of a long past order 
of nature, a fit comrade for the mammoth and 
the cave bear. He was short and thickset, 
with immense chest power — probably a swamp 
moose. The neck was short and stout, and he 
had a Jewish cast of nose. No bell — merely 
the common dewlap. He measured at the 
shoulder 6 feet 6 inches; 9 feet Sj4 inches 
from nose to tip of tail ; girth at shoulders, 
6 feet 2}4 inches. We skinned and decapi- 
tated the moose, one after the other. The 
meat of both was completely spoiled, and it 
seemed wicked to leave those two huge car- 
casses to the bears and wolves ; but there was 
no help for it, so we started for Mattawa. I 
doubt if we could have carried out any of the 
meat if we had tried, for we had to throw 
away everything not absolutely necessary on 
the long portages that followed. At last we 
reached Rosiceau's, on Snake Lake, and, with 
the welcome the old man gave us, felt quite 

104 



A Canadian Moose Hunt 

at home once more. Then passing by the 
scenes of a former hunt, we reached Fort 
Eddy, an old Hudson Bay post, and then 
the Ottawa River. We ran the Cave rapids, 
and at sundown on a beautiful day the town 
of Mattawa swung in sight, and the hunt 
was over. 

The country we had traversed contained 
little except bears and moose. We saw a few 
caribou tracks, and brought home with us a 
curious caribou antler, which we found in the 
woods. 

The fur animals have, within the last five 
years, been exterminated, and the very few 
beaver that survive have abandoned their old 
habits, and live in holes in the banks of the 
larger streams. We found traces of one of 
these bank beaver, but he was probably travel- 
ing and we could not catch him. A few mink 
were shot, but the country is completely strip- 
ped of everything else of value. If the present 
law, prohibiting the trapping of otter and 
beaver, can be enforced, perhaps the land 
may be restocked, but it will take years. It 
is fit for nothing except fur and timber, and, 
with efficient game wardens, could be made to 
produce a large return from these sources. 

105 



Hunting in Many Lands 

Partridges and loons abounded, but ducks 
were seldom seen. 

The lakes form a complete system of com- 
munication by means of easy portages, but 
there are no streams that contain trout and no 
springs to supply drinking water. This lack 
of fresh water caused us considerable suffering, 
as the lake water is supposed to be dangerous, 
and a pail of spring water, which we got at the 
start, was carried for days over portages as our 
most precious baggage. We did not see a 
sign of a brook trout during the entire trip, 
and I do not believe that there were any in 
the waters we traversed. There may have 
been lake trout, but our trolling produced 
only pike and pickerel. 

This absence of small game and fish makes 
the country very uninteresting, and the long 
monotony between most exciting events is the 
greatest drawback to hunting on the Upper 
Ottawa. 

Madison Grant. 



1 06 



A Hunting Trip in India 

Early in 1881 I landed at Bombay, intend- 
ing to get as many varieties of big game shoot- 
ing as possible during the course of the year. 
I was well armed with introductions, including 
many from the Department of State, and dur- 
ing my stay in India was treated by the 
English military officers, civil officials, plant- 
ers and merchants with a hearty hospitality 
which I cordially appreciated. Thanks to this 
hospitality, and to the readiness with which all 
to whom I was introduced fell into my plans, 
I was able to get a rather unusually varied 
quantity of sport. 

My first trip was in March, after tigers. On 
the I St of March I started from Hyderabad 
with Colonels Eraser and Watson, and trav- 
eled by palanquin that day and night, and most 
of the next day, striking the foot of the Gat 
at a place called Rungapore, and then going 
on over a great plain, beyond which we 
camped. The scenery was magnificent, and 

107 



Hunting in Many Lands 

we heard much news of the devastation of 
tigers among the large herds of miserable- 
looking cattle belonging to the poor villagers 
roundabout. The thermometer went up to 
96 degrees in the shade during the day, but 
the nights were lovely and cool. Thanks to 
Colonel Fraser, we were fitted out as comfort- 
ably as we could be, and the luxury of the 
camp life offered the strongest possible con- 
trast to my experiences in roughing it on the 
buffalo range in northwestern Texas. 

For the first two days we accomplished 
nothing, though several of the cattle we had 
put out for baits were killed, and though we 
started and beat the jungles with our elephants 
whenever we received khubber, or news. Our 
camp equipage included twenty elephants, 
forty camels and bullocks, thirty horses for 
the troopers, and fifty baggage horses. We 
had seventeen private servants, twenty-six 
police, fifty-two bearers, and an indefinite 
number of attendants for the elephants and 
camels, and of camp followers. An Indian of 
high position. Sir Salar Jung, was along also; 
so our total retinue comprised 350 men, in 
addition to which we employed each day of 
beaters 150 or 200 more. 

108 



A Hunting Trip in India 

On March 5th, one of the shikaris brought 
word that he had seen and heard a tigress and 
two cubs at a nullah about six miles away. 
Immediately we started up the valley, Col. 
Fraser, Col. Watson and myself, each on his 
own elephant. The jungle was on fire and 
the first beat was not successful, for we had to 
fight the fire, and in the excitement the brute 
got off. However, some of the watchers saw 
her, and marked her down in another small 
ravine. Through this we again beat, the ex- 
citement being at fever heat. I was, of course, 
new to the work, and the strangeness of the 
scene, the cries of the beaters and watchers, 
the occasional explosion of native fireworks, 
together with the quantity of other game that 
we saw, impressed me much. In this ravine I 
was favored by good luck. The tigress broke 
right in front of me, and I hit her with a ball 
from a No. 12 smooth-bore. She sickened at 
once and crawled back into the jungle. In 
we went on the elephants, tracking her up. 
She made no attempt to charge, and I finished 
her off with another barrel of the smooth-bore 
and two express bullets. The crowd of natives 
ran up, abusing the tigress and praising me, 
while the two colonels drank my health. We 

109 



Hunting in Many Lands 

then padded the tigress and rode back to 
camp, having been gone from half past 9 in 
the morning till 7 in the evening. This ti- 
gress weighed, when we brought her in, 280 
pounds; her living weight must have been 
much more. 

Next day we again got news of a tigress, 
with one cub, but we failed to find her. The 
following day, for a change, I tried still-hunt- 
ing through the woods. There was not much 
game, but what we did see was far from shy, 
and the shooting was easy. The camp was on 
a terrace, and from it we went up a range of 
hills to the stalking ground. It was a stony 
country and the trees were scrubby. I shot 
two cheetul, or spotted deer, and also two of 
the little jungle cocks. The next day again 
was a blank, but on the 9th we got another 
tiger. Thanks to the courtesy of my friends, 
I was given the first shot, again hitting it with 
one barrel of the smooth-bore. The heat was 
very great on this day. It was not possible to 
touch the gun barrels without a glove, and the 
thirst was awful. In the evening the cool bath 
was a luxury indeed. By moonlight the camp 
was very fine. The next morning I was off at 
daybreak, snipe shooting around a big tank, 



A Hunting Trip in India 

seven miles away. On my return I found that 
my companions had gone out for a beat, and 
so, after a hurried breakfast, I jumped on my 
horse and rode after them. That afternoon 
we beat two ravines and got a tiger. This 
was the last tiger that we killed. The weather 
was getting very warm, and, though we stayed 
a week longer out, we failed to get on terms 
with Mr. Stripes again. However, 1 shot three 
sambur stags. Two of them were weighed 
in camp, their weight being, respectively, 450 
and 438 pounds. 

It was now getting hot, and I determined 
to start northward for my summer's hunting 
in the Himalayas and Cashmere, although it 
was rather early to try to get through the 
mountains. I left Lahore on April 6th for the 
Pir Pinjal. My transportation consisted of 
eight pack ponies and three native single- 
horse carts. I was shown every courtesy by 
Mr. McKay, a member of the Forest Depart- 
ment, at Gujarat. I intended to make a hunt 
for gorals and bears in the mountains around 
the Pir Pinjal before striking through to Cash- 
mere. The goral is a little mountain antelope, 
much like the chamois, only with straight 
horns. The bear in the region in which I 



Hunting in Many Lands 

was hunting was the black bear, which is very 
much Hke our own black bear. Further on in 
the Himalayas is found the red or snow bear, 
which is a good deal like the great brown bear 
of Europe, or a small and inoffensive grizzly. 
After leaving Gujarat, I traveled for several 
days before coming to my hunting ground 
proper, although on the way I killed some 
peacocks, partridges, and finally some very 
handsome pheasants of different kinds. The 
country offered the greatest possible contrast 
to that in which I had been hunting tigers. 
Everything was green and lovely, and the 
scenery was magnificent beyond description — 
the huge steep mountains rising ahead of me, 
while the streams were crystal-clear, noisy tor- 
rents. The roads were very rough, and the 
wild flowers formed great carpets everywhere. 
On the 1 6th of April I began my shooting, 
having by this time left my heavy baggage 
behind, and having with me only what the 
coolies could carry. I had two shikaris, four 
servants and twelve coolies, besides myself. 
On April i6th I killed my first goral. I had 
hunted in vain all day, but about 5 o'clock one 
of the shikaris advised my starting out again 
and climbing around the neighboring cliffs, I 

112 



A Hunting Trip in India 

did this for two and one-half hours, and then 
got a close shot and killed the little beast. 
This was my first trial of grass-shoes, and my 
first experience in climbing over the stupen- 
dous mountain masses; for stupendous they 
were, though they were only the foothills of 
the Himalayas proper. Without grass-shoes 
it is impossible to climb on these smooth, 
grassy slopes; but I found that they hurt my 
feet a great deal. The next day I again went 
off with my two shikaris over the mountains. 
Each of them carried a gun. I had all I could 
do to take care of myself without one, for a 
mis-step would have meant a fall of a thousand 
or two feet. In the morning we saw five 
gorals and I got one. At lo I stopped and a 
coolie came up with a lunch, and I lay reading, 
sleeping and idly watching the grand moun- 
tains until the afternoon, when we began again 
to examine the nullahs for game, being all the 
time much amused by the monkeys. At 4 we 
started again, and in a jagged mass of preci- 
pices I got another goral. The next day I 
repeated my experience, and had one of the 
characteristic bits of bad luck, offset by good 
luck, that come to every hunter — missing a 
beautiful shot at fifty yards, and then, by a 

113 



Hunting in Many Lands 

fluke, killing a goral at 300 yards. The ani- 
mal, however, fell over 1,000 feet and was 
ruined. I myself had a slip this day and went 
down about fifty feet. The following day I 
again went off to climb, and the first ascent 
was so steep that at the top I was completely 
blown, and missed a beautiful shot at a goral 
at fifty yards. I then arranged a beat, but 
nothing came from it, and the morning was a 
blank. In the afternoon I gave up beating 
and tried still-hunting again. It was hard 
work, but I was very successful, and killed 
two gorals and a bear. 

At this time I was passed by two English 
officers, also going in to shoot — one of them. 
Captain S. D. Turnbull, a very jolly fellow and 
a good sportsman, with whom I got on excel- 
lent terms; the other, a Captain C, was a very 
bad walker and a poor shot, and was also a 
disagreeable companion, as he would persist 
in trying to hang around my hunting grounds, 
thus forcing me continually to shift. 

On April 21st I tried driving for gorals, 
and got four, and on the next two days I got 
three gorals and two bears. So far I had had 
great luck and great sport. The work was 
putting me in fine trim, except my feet, which 

114 



A Hunting Trip in India 

were getting very sore. It was very hard 
work going after the gorals. The bears offered 
easier stalking, and, like our American black 
bear but unlike our grizzly, they didn't show 
ficrht. The climbinor was awful work. The 
stones and grass-shoes combined bruised and 
skinned the soles of my feet, so that I could 
not get relief without putting them in clarified 
butter and then keeping them up in the air. 
Accordingly I tried resting for a day, and 
meant to rest the following day too; but 
could not forbear taking a four hours' stroll 
along the banks of the brawling, snow-fed 
river, and was rewarded by shooting a surow 
— a queer, squatty, black antelope, about the 
size of a Rocky Mountain white goat and with 
similar horns. The next day I rested again, 
hoping my feet would get better. Instead 
they got worse, and I made up my mind that, 
as they were so bad, I might as well get some 
hunting anyhow, so off I tramped on the 27th 
for another all-day jog. It would be difficult 
to describe the pain that my feet gave me all 
day long. However, it was a real sporting 
day. I suffered the tortures of the damned, 
but I got two gorals and one tahr— a big species 
of goat with rather small horns — and then hob- 

"5 



Hunting in Many Lands 

bled back to camp. Next day I stayed quietly 
in camp, and then started back to the camp 
where I had left my heavy baggage. On the 
way I picked up another black bear. My feet 
were in a frightful condition, but I had had a 
fortnight's excellent sport. 

I then went on to Cashmere, and on May 6th 
reached Siringur. The scenery was beautiful 
beyond description, and the whole life of the 
natives very attractive to look at. However, 
something did not agree with me, for I was 
very sick and had to go to bed for several 
days. There were one or two American 
friends there, and these and the Englishmen, 
to whom I had letters of introduction, treated 
me with extreme courtesy. As soon as I got 
well, I started off for the real mountains, hop- 
ing especially to get ibex and markhoor. The 
ibex is almost exactly the same as the Euro- 
pean animal of that name. The markhoor is 
a magnificent goat, with long whitish hair and 
great spiral horns. They also have in these 
Cashmere valleys a big stag called the barra- 
migh, which is a good deal like our wapiti, 
only not half so large. On May 21st I started 
off, first by boat, but I was bothered from the 
beginning by chills and fever. I was weak, 

116 



A Hunting Trip in India 

and glad I didn't have to march. At first, all 
I did in shooting was to have my coolies beat 
some brush patches near camp. Out of one 
of them they started a little musk-deer, which 
I shot. Soon I began to get very much better 
and we took up our march. I was going to- 
ward Astor, but encountered much snow, as it 
was still early in the season for these high 
mountains. I saw some grand barramigh, but 
their horns were, of course, only just growing, 
and I didn't molest them. 

Very soon I got into a country where the 
red bears literally swarmed. From May 26th 
to June 5th, during which time I was traveling 
and hunting all the time, I shot no less than 
sixteen, together with two musk-deer, but saw 
nothing else. The marching was very hard, 
and some of the passes dangerous. I met a 
British officer, Lieutenant Carey, on the 30th, 
who treated me very well indeed. The scenery 
was very beautiful, although rather bleak. I 
did not pick up strength as much as I had 
hoped. On June 3d I christened my camp 
Camp Good Luck, because of the phenomenal 
success I had with the bears. That morning 
we left by 4 to cross the river before the snow 
had melted. The thermometer would go down 

117 



Hunting in Many Lands 

to 30 degrees, even in the valleys, at night, so 
that everything would freeze, and then would 
go up to no in the day, and when the snow 
melted the streams would come down in a per- 
fect torrent. Not two miles beyond the river 
I saw three bears on the side of a hill, a she 
and two two-year-old cubs. My shikari made 
a splendid stalk and brought me within forty 
yards, and I got all three with a shot apiece. 
The delight of my camp followers was amus- 
ing. I then left the tents, and, taking only my 
blankets and a lunch basket with me, started 
off again. At midday I slept, and at 2 o'clock 
started up the nullah, seeing a number of 
bears. One of them I got within fifty yards, 
and two others, right and left, at 100 yards. 
The skinning took a long time, and the stream 
which I had to cross was up with the evening 
flood, so that I didn't get back to camp until 
10 o'clock. I had shot unusually well, I had 
been happy and was all tired out, and it is 
needless to say how I slept. 

Soon after this I began to suffer from fever, 
and I had to work very hard indeed, as I was 
now on the ibex ground. For several days, 
though I saw ibex, I was unable to get near 
them. Finally, on June 9th, I got my first 

118 



A Hunting Trip in India 

one, a young buck with small horns. I had to 
hunt way up the mountain, even beyond bush 
vegetation, and the hot sun at midday was 
awful. Nevertheless, by very hard climbing, 
I managed on this day to get within shot first 
of a herd of nine females, which I did not 
touch, and then of the young buck, which I 
killed. On June 13th, by another heart-break- 
ing climb, very high up, I got a second small 
buck. I did not get back to camp that night 
till half past 9 — tired out, feet badly cut with 
the stones and bruised all over ; but in spite of 
the fever I enjoyed every day — the scenery 
was so grand and the life so exhilarating. 
Four days afterwards came a red-letter day. 
I started early in the morning, clambering up 
among the high mountains. Until noon I saw 
nothing; then several flocks of ibex came in 
sight, one of them of eleven big bucks. I had 
to wait four hours to get into a position to 
stalk; then by quick work and awful climbing 
I came within close range and killed three. It 
was half past 10 in the evening before I got 
back to camp, very nearly done up, but exult- 
ant over my good luck. 

The traveling now became very severe and 
I had a great deal of difficulty even with the 

119 



Hunting in Many Lands 

coolies, and though I hunted hard I got little 
game until July 8th. I had been shifting, try- 
ing to get on markhoor ground, and on this 
day I killed my first markhoor. The shikaris 
and I left the coolies to go around the path 
while we went over the mountain, a five hours' 
climb, keeping a sharp lookout for game. Just 
at the beginning of the ascent we saw three 
fine-looking markhoor grazing in a nullah, and 
after a stalk of about a mile, during which 
time it began to rain, the beasts went into a 
jungle on the steep side of the mountain. 
Through this we still-hunted and I got a shot 
through the bushes at lOO yards. By good 
luck I hit and great was the rejoicing. Five 
days later I got two ibex, which at a distance 
we had mistaken for markhoor. Then I was 
attacked by a terrible dysentery and was with- 
in an ace of dying. For a fortnight I was un- 
able to leave camp, excepting when I was car- 
ried slowly along by the coolies in the effort 
to get me out of the mountains. On August 
I St I shot a second markhoor. We were jour- 
neying at the time. In the very rough places 
I had to walk, though awfully weak ; elsewhere 
the coolies carried me. The markhoor was 
just below us, round a turn in the Indus Val- 

I20 



A Hunting Trip in India 

ley. I was in advance with one of the shikaris 
and got a quiet shot, and more by good luck 
than anything else — for I was very weak — I 
killed. I now began gradually to pick up 
strength, and when near Astor I got a urial, a 
kind of wild sheep. 

I had no other experience of note till I got 
back to Siringur, where I stayed to recuperate, 
and at the end of August went ofT once more 
into the foothills, this time after barramieh. 
In a week's work I killed three, but again 
became sick, and had to give up and come in. 

I forthwith returned to India, the hot weath- 
er being by this time pretty well over. As I 
was very anxious to kill an elephant, I went 
down to Ceylon, reaching that island the end 
of October and going out to Kandy. I met 
a number of Englishmen, who were very kind 
to me, as were some Eurasian gentlemen. On 
November i6th I left Minerva for a regular 
hunt. It was very interesting shooting through 
the tropical jungle and I had good luck. There 
were plenty of elephants, but at first I didn't 
get any, though I shot five spotted deer and a 
boar. Finally, however, I got two of the big 
brutes I was mainly after. One of them, which 
I killed on the 20th of the month, was said to 

121 



Hunting in Many Lands 

be a rogue that had killed two villagers and 
done at intervals a good deal of damage to the 
crops. An old native tracker had guaranteed 
to show me this elephant. He kept his word. 
For three or four miles we had a very exciting 
track, and then came on him standing in the 
jungle, occasionally flapping his ears, and crept 
up to within thirty yards. I think he was 
asleep and I got a perfectly good shot, but, 
extraordinary to say, I missed. However, 
when he ran I went after him, and, getting 
very close, I shot him in the hip, so injuring 
his leg that he could not get away. He could 
still get round after us, and we passed a most 
lively half-hour, he trumpeting and charging 
incessantly, until, after expending a great 
quantity of cartridges, I finally put a bullet 
behind his eye, and down he went. 

Soon after this I went back to Kandy, and 
early in December left India for good. 

Elliott Roosevelt. 



122 



Dog Sledging in the North 

A good many years ago, my friends, Boies 
Penrose, Granville Keller, and I concluded 
that it would be a fitting termination to a very 
successful summer and fall hunting trip in the 
Rocky Mountains to endeavor to kill some 
moose and caribou in the Lake Winnipeg 
country, Manitoba. Thus we should combine 
very different kinds of sport amid surround- 
ings more dissimilar than we imagined at the 
time. The whole of this rather memorable 
trip occupied nearly six months. 

Our adventures during the latter part of the 
hunt, that is, during our sojourn in the far 
north— while a part of the every-day experi- 
ence of those familiar with the winter life in 
the woods of that country — were of a character 
totally unknown to the majority of sportsmen 
in the United States, and for this reason it has 
been thought worth while to give a short 
account of them. 

If my recollection serves me correctly, we 
123 



Hunting in Many Lands 

arrived at Selkirk, at the lower end of Lake 
Winnipeg, in the latter part of October, to 
find navigation already closed. We had hoped 
to reach the upper part of the lake by means 
of a steamer, but found this impossible, and 
were therefore obliged to go on sleds to our 
first hunting ground — a moose country to the 
south of the head waters of the Fisher River, 
between Lake Winnipeg and Lake Winni- 
pegosis. 

At Selkirk we were joined by a Mr. Phil- 
lips, and we had there employed an Indian boy 
to look after the dogs. This Indian was a 
magnificent specimen physically, and certainly 
the best walker that I have ever known. With 
the exception of a pardonable fondness for our 
whisky, he behaved very well at first, but after- 
ward became so insufferably lazy that he was 
scarcely fit for the simple work of driving one 
of the dog teams — a change which was to be 
attributed entirely to our kind treatment of 
him. He was, however, a good trailer, but 
the worst shot that I remember to have met. 
He seemed to have no difficulty in finding 
moose, but could not hit them, which was the 
exact reverse of our experience. 

Portions of the country between Lakes 
124 



Dog Sledging in the North 

Winnipeg and Winnipegosis, visited by our 
party, are as flat as the flattest portions of 
New Jersey, and for great distances nothing 
could be more level except possibly a billiard 
table. It is traversed by very few rivers or 
even creeks, there being immense stretches of 
territory where the only guide back to camp is 
the sun when it shines, or when it does not 
your compass, or the dog-sled trail through the 
snow leading to the camp. The diff"erent por- 
tions of this region are so much alike that it is 
almost impossible to tell one from another. 

Owing to the fact that it is very dangerous 
to be caught out over night, with the ther- 
mometer ranging anywhere from zero to 50 
degrees below, we took the precaution to 
mount a big red flag in the top of the highest 
spruce we could find near our camp, so that, by 
climbing a high tree anywhere within a radius 
of a mile or so, one could easily see this flag. 
To still further reduce the chance of getting 
lost, we blazed the trees in a straight line for 
four miles due south of the camp, and, as the 
dog-sled trail came into our camp (which was 
in the heavy timber) from the north, it was 
not difficult to find one's way home in the 
evening. These precautions — needless else- 

125 



Hunting in Many Lands 

where, but wise in this country — were taken 
principally because each of us had always been 
in the habit for years of hunting alone — a 
practice which I would recommend to anyone 
who desires to be really successful in killing 
big game. 

This vast expanse of flat country is quite 
heavily wooded over large areas, the timber 
being spruce, tamarack, poplar, birch, etc., with 
a great abundance of red and gray willow. 
The underbrush is sometimes very thick. 
There are, however, innumerable open places, 
which bear the local name of muskegs. These 
are, of course, marshes in summer, and covered 
with a heavy growth of grass; in winter they 
are frozen hard, and traveling over them is 
comparatively easy. 

The moose seem to be fond of remaining 
close to the edges of these muskegs, which are 
usually fringed with a heavy growth of wil- 
lows. It would appear, however, that they 
venture out into these open places either dur- 
ing the night, early in the morning, or late in 
the afternoon ; and, as these were the times 
when we were very glad either to be in camp 
or to be returning to it, we had more success 
in finding the moose in the timber, or on the 

126 



Dog Sledging in the North 

little so-called ridges, which sometimes attain 
the remarkable height of four or five feet. 

Up to the time of leaving this camp we had 
very little opportunity to use snowshoes, as 
the snow was not yet — about the last of No- 
vember — deep enough to make these neces- 
sary. We hunted all of the time in mocca- 
sins, boots of any description being simply out 
of the question, as they would soon freeze as 
hard as iron. After the cold weather set in, 
one day's experience with boots was quite suf- 
ficient for me, and I came to the conclusion, as 
I had often before in other regions, that it is 
very difficult to improve, in the matter of 
clothing, upon the customs of the country. 
The sudden change to moccasins was v^ery 
tiring at first, but after one gets used to walk- 
ing in them he will find that he can walk fur- 
ther and hunt better in them than any other 
style of foot-gear. We used, as I remember, 
first one or two pairs of heavy woolen socks, 
then a very heavy so-called "German" sock, 
coming up to the knee, over which we wore 
the high laced moccasin of the country. 

Before we had very long been engaged in 
moose huntinor we all learned that we were not 
so expert in the art of killing big game as we 

127 



Hunting in Many Lands 

previously imagined ourselves. In all my ex- 
perience I have never met with any animal 
which is so difficult to get a shot at, even when 
quite numerous, as the moose in this region. 
It must always be borne in mind that to kill 
a moose — especially in a country where they 
have been hunted for generations by the In- 
dians — by the thoroughly sportsmanlike meth- 
od of following the trail of one until you 
finally get a shot at it and kill it, is a totally 
different thing from killing the same moose 
either by calling him at night in the autumn 
or by paddling on him in a canoe in the sum- 
mer. In fact, of all the difficult things I have 
ever undertaken in the way of sport, I regard 
this as the most difficult ; and before I got my 
first shot I began to think that there was a 
great deal of truth in the Indian's sneering 
remark, "White man no kill moose." Finally 
one day my luck turned, but that it did so was 
due more to the realization of my own infe- 
riority, and lack of the proper kind of knowl- 
edge, than to anything else. 

It happened in this way : having thoroughly 
convinced myself that the moose either smelt 
me or in some other way found out that I was 
in their neighborhood before I could be made 

128 



Dog Sledging in the North 

aware of the same fact, I concluded that there 
was something radically wrong in my manner 
of hunting them, although I employed every 
method known to me — methods which had 
been acquired in an experience during which 
I had killed considerably over one hundred 
head of big game, throughout the Rockies and 
the Alleghanies. In short, I was exceedingly 
painstaking and careful. Notwithstanding all 
my precautions, however, I remember that I 
had the satisfaction one night of knowing that 
I had started during the day eight different 
moose, each separately, without hearing or 
seeing a single one of them. This sort of 
thing lasted for twenty-two consecutive days, 
or until I finally concluded that, as our Indian 
seemed to have no trouble in seeing moose, I 
would follow his tactics. Waiting, therefore, 
one morning until I was sure that the Indian 
had left camp, I changed my course so as to 
intersect his trail, followed this for some dis- 
tance, and watched carefully his foot-prints, so 
as to read the record of his hunt. 

Pretty soon it became apparent that he had 
come across a moose trail. He tried it first 
with the toe of his moccasin, then with the 
butt of his gun, and satisfied himself that it 

129 



Hunting in Many Lands 

was too old to follow. He went on until he 
came across another trail, and evidently had 
spent considerable time in making up his mind 
whether it was worth while to follow this trail 
or not. He then followed it for a few yards, 
and, to my surprise, suddenly left it, and went 
off almost at right angles to the leeward. I 
supposed that he had given up the moose 
trail, but nevertheless I followed further on 
his track. Again to my surprise, I presently 
found him gradually coming around in a cir- 
cuitous fashion to the trail again, until he 
finally reached it. He then immediately re- 
traced his steps, making another semi-circle, 
bearing generally, however, in the direction 
the moose had gone, and again came to the 
trail. This occurred four or five times, until 
finally the explanation of his conduct flashed 
upon me, for there lay his cartridge. I saw — 
as he afterward described it to me — where he 
had shot at the moose, which had just arisen 
out of its bed a short distance away, but, as 
usual, he had missed it. Now I had noticed, 
in my three weeks' experience, that I had 
come upon the moose either lying down or 
standing in some thicket, but that they had 
been able to wind me considerably before my 

130 



Dog Sledging in the North 

arrival at the spot marked by their beds in 
the snow. Not until then had occurred to me 
what is well known to many who still-hunt 
moose, namely, that before lying down they 
generally make a long loop to the leeward, 
returning close to their trail, so that they 
can readily get the wind of anyone following 
upon it long before he reaches them, when, of 
course, they quietly get up and sneak away. 
In fact, they do not seem to have an atom of 
curiosity in their composition, and in this are 
different from most other wild animals that I 
have known. By making these long loops to 
the leeward the hunter reduces to a minimum 
the likelihood of being smelt or heard by the 
moose; and in these animals the senses of 
smell and hearing are very acute, although 
their eyesight seems to be bad. 

Having quite satisfied myself as to what it 
was necessary to do, I waited until the next 
day to put it into execution, because by the 
time I had made my discovery it was about 
half past 2 o'clock, and the sun was near the 
horizon. 

The following day I went out bright and 
early, and, after varying success in finding a 
good trail, I ^^^ across a trail made by five 

131 



Hunting in Many Lands 

bull moose, a photograph of one of which is 
shown. After satisfying myself that the trail 
had been made during the previous night, I 
began making the long loops to the leeward 
which I had found to be so necessary. I 
finally came to the place where the moose had 
lain down — a bed showing one of them to 
have unusually large horns — but they had 
gone on again, in a manner, however, that 
showed that they were merely feeding, and 
not alarmed. I redoubled my precautions, 
stepping as if on eggs, so as not to break the 
twigs underneath my feet. In a short time I 
heard the significant chattering of one of the 
little red pine squirrels so abundant in that 
region. I at once knew that the squirrel had 
seen something, but had not seen me. It did 
not take me long to make up my mind that 
the only other living things in that vicinity 
which would be likely to cause him to chatter 
were these moose, and that they were prob- 
ably startled, although I had not been con- 
scious of making any noise. At any rate, I 
ran quite rapidly toward the end of a small 
narrow muskeg on my left, but some distance 
away, to which chance conclusion and prompt 
action I owe probably one of the most fortu- 

132 



Dog Sledging in the North 

nate and exciting pieces of shooting that has 
occurred in my experience. I was shooting at 
that time a Httle double rifle (.450-120-375 
solid bullet), which had been made for me by 
Holland & Holland, and which was fitted with 
one of my conical sights. 

Before I was within fifty yards of the end 
of the muskeg, I saw one of the moose dash 
across it, about 150 yards away. I fired quick- 
ly, and in much the same way that I would 
shoot at a jacksnipe which had been flushed in 
some thicket ; but had the satisfaction of see- 
ing the animal lurch heavily forward as he 
went out of sight into the timber. Almost 
immediately, and before I had time to reload, 
the second moose followed. I gave him the 
other barrel, but I did not know until after- 
ward that he was hit. In fact, it was hard to 
get a bullet through the timber. I reloaded 
quickly, and ran forward to get to the opening; 
but before I reached it, the third moose passed 
in immediately behind the others, I again 
shot quickly, and felt that I had probably hit 
him. By running on rapidly I reached the 
edge of the opening in time to intercept the 
fourth moose. As he came into the opening I 
got a good shot at him, not over eighty yards 

^33 



Hunting In Many Lands 

distant, and felt very sure of this one at least. 
I then reloaded, when, to my amazement, the 
fifth, in a very deliberate manner, walked, not 
trotted, into the muskeg, which at the point 
where the moose crossed it was not over sixty 
or seventy feet wide. He first looked up and 
down, as if undetermined what to do, and then, 
probably seeing one of the other moose on the 
ground, commenced walking up toward me. 
As luck would have it, I got a cartridge jam- 
med in my rifle, and could not pull it out or 
knock it in, although I nearly ruined my fin- 
gers in my attempt to do so. Of course, this 
was the biggest bull of all, and I had the su- 
preme satisfaction of seeing him deliberately 
walk out of my sight into the woods, and he 
was lost to me forever. His horns were much 
larger than those which I got. Up to that 
time I had no idea that I had killed any 
except the last moose that I shot at, but 
thought that perhaps I had wounded one or 
two of the others, feeling that I would be very 
lucky if I should ever come up with them. 

Going down to the place where the moose 
had disappeared, after I had got my rifle fixed 
— that is, had extracted the cartridge and put 
in another — I found one of the moose dead ; 

134 



Dog Sledging In the North 

another, a big one, on his knees, and the 
third a short distance away, looking very de- 
jected and uncomfortable. I did not know 
then that the largest bull of all had stopped 
on the other side of a little thicket ; and when 
I commenced to give the finishing touches to 
the wounded moose in sight, he, accompanied 
by another wounded one, got away. As I shot 
the big one on his knees, I was surprised by a 
noise, and upon turning around found the de- 
jected looking small bull coming full drive to- 
ward me. I had only time to turn around and 
shoot him in the breast before he was on me. 
I do not think that he intended to charge ; his 
coming toward me was probably entirely acci- 
dental. Still it had the effect of sending my 
heart in my mouth. I then started out after 
the wounded one, but when I saw that he was 
not bleeding much concluded that, as it was 
growing late, and I was seven or eight miles 
from camp, I would not have more than time 
to cover up the three moose with snow so that 
I could skin them the next morning. Before 
doing so, however, I sat down on top of my 
biggest moose, and, as these were the first 
moose that I had ever seen, I surveyed them 
with a great deal of satisfaction. 

135 



Hunting in Many Lands 

About this time Phillips, who had been at- 
tracted by the shooting, appeared in the dis- 
tance, and I hailed him by a shot, when he 
came to me. We then carefully covered up 
the moose with snow and pulled out for camp. 
When we arrived there and told our story, a 
more disconsolate looking Indian you could 
not have found in the whole region, and he 
doubtless came to the conclusion that his 
sweeping assertion as to the inability of a 
white man to kill a moose in that country 
was perhaps a little too broad. 

Our luck seemed to turn from this time and 
we got several very good moose, but unfortu- 
nately no other large heads. After telling this 
story I do not wish to go upon record as a 
game slaughterer, for those who know any- 
thing of my hunting know that I am strongly 
opposed to anything of the kind. We usually 
have killed only enough game for meat in 
camp, but at this time we had to feed beside 
ourselves ten dogs. Moreover, I have never 
thought that the killing of bulls made very 
much difference in the amount of the game, 
although in shooting them we have usually 
made it a rule to kill only such heads as we 
wished to take home. I should add, moreover, 

136 



Dog Sledging in the North 

that all the meat that we did not use of the 
moose that we killed in this country was dis- 
tributed among some Indians whom we met 
on our return, and who, hearing of our luck, 
followed our dog trail to the hunting grounds 
after our departure. 

Having had enough moose hunting, and 
anxious to kill caribou, we concluded to cross 
Lake Winnipeg, which by this time — early 
in December — was frozen hard with nearly six 
feet of ice, the cracking of which, especially at 
night, produces a very curious and never-to-be- 
forgotten sound, which can be heard for miles. 
We soon reached the lake, but were detained 
a day or two waiting for a favorable day to 
cross — that is to say, one when the wind did 
not blow, as when it does the exposure in 
crossing on the ice is terrific. After finally 
venturing upon the ice, we made some forty or 
fifty miles the first day, and reached the edge 
of an island, in the middle of which there were 
a few houses occupied principally by Icelandic 
immigrants. These earn a precarious liveli- 
hood by fishing for whitefish and jackfish prin- 
cipally in the summer. They keep up this 
fishing all through the winter, however, to 
supply their own needs, by setting their nets 

137 



Hunting in Many Lands 

underneath the ice, employing a very simple 
method, which, if De Long and his party had 
known and provided for, they would never 
have perished so miserably in the Lena delta. 
Here we were witnesses to the fact which en- 
titles us to claim that the common domestic 
cow is not, strictly speaking, properly to be 
classed among the herbivora. We distinctly 
saw a very ordinary looking cow devour with 
evident relish, while she was being milked, a 
large jackfish, which had been taken from a 
frozen pile stacked up outside of the house 
and thawed for her evening meal. 

These Icelanders live as a rule in a primi- 
tive but very comfortable way. They are 
much more neat and cleanly than many of the 
immigrants who come to the United States, 
and it is a pity that we do not have them in 
this country, for they seem to be very indus- 
trious and would make good citizens. How- 
ever, it is probable that they were in search of 
cold weather, and would not be happy unless 
they had it. If this is the case, they most cer- 
tainly have chosen the best spot on this conti- 
nent which is at all accessible ; for the region 
around Lake Winnipeg Is, I am told, one of 
the coldest places where any reliable record 

138 



Dog Sledging In the North 

of the temperature is kept. During our trip, 
and especially while we were on the east side 
of the lake, the temperatures recorded were 
very low, often 45 degrees below zero. In 
fact, during our absence there was a record 
of 50 degrees below zero at Selkirk and 
Winnipeg; and, as we were over a hundred 
miles to the north, it is not unreasonable to 
J, appose that the temperature was quite as 
^w, if not lower, with us. It must not be for- 
gotten, however, that, except for the cracking 
pf the frozen trees, it is deathly still and quiet 
^n these regions when the temperature drops 
to 10 degrees below zero. Indeed, when the 
temperature is below that point, it is usually 
much more comfortable for one who is out in 
such weather than a temperature of zero, or 
even 20 degrees above, with a heavy wind. 
Under these conditions, however, an ordinary 
man when out hunting cannot occasionally sit 
down on a log and smoke his pipe, for any 
length of time, with a great amount of pleas- 
ure. Like the persecuted boy in the play, 
although there are no policemen about, he is 
compelled, and indeed is usually perfectly will- 
ing, to keep "movin' on." 

After leaving Big Island, as I remember the 
139 



Hunting in Many Lands 

name, we made our way across to the mouth 
of the Bad Throat River, where there was an 
old lumber camp, which a great many years 
ago was the scene of an important conflict be- 
tween the Hudson Bay Company's men and 
the men of the Northwest Fur Company, in 
which quite a number were killed. Here we 
got another team of dogs, and picked up an- 
other member for our party in the person of an 
Englishman, who by choice had drifted into 
this country and lived there, marrying an In- 
dian squaw shortly after our return. Unfor- 
tunately, the good old-fashioned plan of per- 
forming the marriage ceremony by running 
together under a blanket had been abolished, 
so he had to wait until the yearly visit of the 
priest. This marrying of squaws is of course 
common among the white men of this region. 

As we had only a few things to get before 
starting out for the famous caribou country 
between the head waters of the Hole, the As- 
kandoga and the Blood Vein rivers, we were 
not delayed long at this place. The snow was 
now quite heavy, at least enough so for com- 
fortable snowshoe traveling, and we made 
rapid time after leaving the Bad Throat River. 
In this connection it is to be remarked that 

140 



Dog Sledging in the North 

comparatively little snow falls in this region. 
This seems singular, and I do not know the 
meteorological explanation of the fact. There 
is certainly very much less, for instance, 
than in Minnesota, hundreds of miles to the 
south. The snow, however, is usually a dry 
powder all through winter, and very rarely 
becomes crusted. 

In traveling over broken timbered country 
with dog-sleds, very much the same routes are 
followed that one takes with a canoe in sum- 
mer — that is to say, you avoid the rough 
country by traveling on the rivers, which are 
usually covered with thick ice, or over the 
same portages that are used in summer. It 
was necessary for either Penrose, Keller or 
myself to lead the way with our snowshoes, 
while the others took care of the dog-sleds 
behind. The dogs followed accurately in the 
trail beaten out by our snowshoes for them. 

The country on this side of the lake, unlike 
that of the west, is very rough, rocky and rug- 
ged, and especially so near the lake shore. It 
is quite thickly timbered. As one advances 
into the interior, however, this aspect changes, 
so that the country near the height of land is 
more open, and there are long stretches of 

141 



Hunting In Many Lands 

nearly level country traversed by rocky, mossv 
covered and roughly parallel ridges. There is 
more or less timber on these ridges, and in the 
so-called muskegs between them. This is the 
country which the caribou seem to prefer. 

After about two weeks' hard traveling, we 
reached the country which had been recom- 
mended to us and came upon great abundance 
of caribou sign. In fact, there were millions 
of tracks, but, curiously enough, no caribou 
were to be seen. We afterward found that 
they had been driven out by a lot of wolves, 
which probably had followed them down from 
the north. While this explanation was inter- 
esting, it was not productive of any great 
amount of satisfaction to the party, for we had 
been counting definitely upon fresh meat, and 
so had our dogs. At least, after doing the ter- 
rific work necessary to make this journey, it is 
fair to presume that they had counted upon 
being fed, and not being left to starve miser- 
ably while tied to a tree. 

To add to our hardships, our Indian te- 
pee, made of canvas, began to smoke so ex- 
cessively as to cause us the greatest discom- 
fort, and we all thought we had pneumonia; 
but afterward concluded it was nothing but 

142 



Dog Sledging in the North 

irritation of the lungs, due to breathing pine 
smoke a good many hours each day. In fact, 
it was almost unbearable. An Indian tepee 
of this kind, properly made by a squaw, is be- 
yond doubt the most comfortable of all hunt- 
ing tents in any respectable climate ; but in a 
climate of 40 degrees below zero it is an 
abomination. We used frequently to crawl 
into our sheep-skin sleeping bags, wrap several 
blankets around the bags and put the fire out, 
merely to get relief from the annoyance of the 
smoke. In the morning the steam which arose 
from our bodies, and from the meal which we 
might be cooking, got mixed up with the 
smoke, so that it was impossible to distinguish 
each other when four feet apart. In fact, we 
were sometimes inclined to think that the dogs 
on the outside were better off than ourselves, 
though the appearance they presented in the 
morning was not such as to cause us to wish 
to change places with them. They were each 
tied by a short chain to the pine trees about 
the camp, and after a night of low temperature 
there were to be seen in the morning only 
twelve white mounds of snow; not that any 
snow had fallen during the night, or that the 
dogs had crawled underneath that already on 

143 



Hunting in Many Lands 

the ground. Their white appearance was sim- 
ply due to the dense coating of frost which 
had been produced from the condensation 
caused by the heat of their bodies. It must 
not be forgotten, however, that they are as 
hardy and as well able to withstand this rigor- 
ous climate as the wolves, from which many of 
them are directly descended. All of the so- 
called "huskies" are of this type. 

Altogether things were not very pleasant 
about this time. Our Christmas Day rations 
consisted of one small roll each with a little 
coffee for breakfast, and in the evening each 
man was given a small piece of rabbit. 

The rabbits in this country were unfortu- 
nately not as abundant as they were on the 
opposite side of the lake, where the Indian 
boy one day went out with one of our rifles to 
visit his rabbit snares and to shoot rabbits for 
the dogs. Before long we heard him shoot 
four times. He came back to camp with eight 
rabbits, which had certainly been killed with 
the rifle, none of them having been snared. 

Those of us who were able to hunt at all 
hunted with the greatest perseverance, but 
with little success, until finally some one 
brought in the report that caribou had been 

144 



Dog Sledging in the North 

seen, and in a very few days the country again 
contained numbers of them. 

One morning, shortly after the first caribou 
had been seen, Keller, who had been quite 
sick, was unable longer to tolerate the smoke 
of the tepee, and took a little walk with 
his rifle close around our camp. He soon 
came upon the fresh trail of a bunch of cari- 
bou. He had followed it only a few hundred 
yards when he saw one of the caribou lying 
down. He is a dead shot, the best I have 
ever known in my life. He carefully steadied 
himself, raised his .45-90 Winchester, aimed at 
the caribou lying down and fired. When he 
went up to look at it, to his amazement, 
he came across another dead caribou, between 
the spot where he had fired and the one at 
which he had aimed. It had been shot straight 
through the temples. On going further, he 
found the other caribou shot exactly where he 
had aimed at it, some twenty yards distant 
from the first one. The only possible way in 
which he could explain this remarkable occur- 
rence is that the caribou which had been shot 
through the head, and which he had not seen, 
had risen out of its bed just as he was in the 
act of firing and interposed his head directly 

145 



Hunting in Many Lands 

in the line of fire. The fact of having fresh 
meat in camp, of course, brought great joy to 
us all, and especially to the semi-starved dogs. 
As in the case of killing the first moose, it 
seemed to have the effect of changing our 
luck, for we afterward killed a number of cari- 
bou, although we were not successful in get- 
ting good heads. 

These caribou are totally different from the 
moose in the kind of food they live upon and 
in their general habits. They prefer a differ- 
ent sort of a country, the two rarely being 
found together. They spend much of their 
time in the muskegs, which seem to be charac- 
teristic of all of that region of the country; but 
these muskegs are not open, like those on the 
west side of the lake, being more or less cov- 
ered with a growth of stubby jack pine, from 
which usually hangs an abundance of long gray 
moss. The caribou feed upon this moss, while 
the moose, on the other hand, are fond of the 
tender sprouts of the red and gray willow. 
The caribou, however, are often found on the 
rocky ridges, where they find good feed on the 
moss growing upon the rocks. Indeed, they 
seem to have no settled place of abode, like 
moose, being probably one of the most rest- 

146 



Dog Sledging in the North 

less animals on the face of the earth. They 
seem to be always on the move. Unlike the 
moose, they are very inquisitive, in this respect 
being more like the antelope than any other 
animal. They are found singly, or in twos or 
threes, or in small bunches of ten to twenty, 
but often in great herds of a hundred or per- 
haps a thousand. They spend a great deal of 
their time on the lakes in the winter, where 
they play with each other like kittens. They 
are wonderfully quick in their actions. They 
are also very sure of their footing, and we saw 
a number of places in the snow where they 
had slid down quite steep rocks for some dis- 
tance, probably by putting their four feet close 
together. Great herds often come down from 
the region on the western shore of Hudson 
Bay and return the following summer. 

Very few people have any idea of the im- 
mense numbers of caribou which are found in 
the great tract of country to the west of Hud- 
son Bay. By many who are familiar with 
this country they are believed to be as numer- 
ous as the buffaloes ever were in the early 
days. When more or less scarce, as they 
were during the greater portion of our hunt, 
they afford excellent hunting ; but I should 

J47 



Hunting in Many Lands 

imagine that when they are very numerous 
there would be little sport in killing them, for 
as a rule they are not at all shy or difficult to 
approach. In general it may be said that the 
caribou of this region, known as the wood- 
land caribou, live in the wooded districts dur- 
ing the summer and autumn, but in the winter 
time go to the higher land. Wind and cold 
seem to have no terror for them, and I doubt 
very much whether there is an animal in the 
world, with the exception perhaps of the 
musk-ox or the polar bear, that is so well 
fitted by nature to withstand the intense cold 
of the region in which they live. When one 
sees a caribou's track for the first time, he is 
amazed at its size, and its difference from the 
long, narrow, sharp-toed track of the moose, 
and naturally comes to the conclusion that the 
animal must be much larger than it really is. 
As a matter of fact, they are not much larger 
than the black-tailed deer, and considerably 
smaller than the elk of the Rocky Mountains. 
Until he has seen them, one is likely to imag- 
ine that the caribou is an ungainly, misshapen 
animal. This is a great mistake. Not only 
are they as a rule well proportioned, but they 
are extremely graceful. Their curious horns 

148 



Dog Sledging in the North 

give them, of course, rather an odd appear- 
ance. The meat we found to be dehcious, 
and rather better than moose meat. 

After having remained as long as we de- 
sired in this country, and as long as we could 
stand the infernal smoke of the tepee, and 
after having secured a good supply of meat 
for our return journey, we loaded our tobog- 
gans and retraced our steps without especial 
incident to the mouth of the Bad Throat 
River. From there we took a sleigh to Sel- 
kirk, driving over the lake on the ice, and 
arriving at Selkirk the latter part of January 
or the ist of February. 

To those who may contemplate taking a 
similar trip to the Canadian woods in winter, I 
would say that it will prove a very interesting 
and never-to-be-forgotten experience, and that 
the hardships of such a trip are not necessarily 
severe if one will be guided entirely by the ad- 
vice of the inhabitants of the region, especially 
as to his clothing and general outfit. I feel 
certain that, if one goes to the right locality, 
not only will he get good sport, but he will 
get it under very pleasant and novel condi- 
tions, and return home more benefited in 
every way than if he had taken a trip of the 

149 



Hunting in Many Lands 

same duration to some warm climate. Under 
no circumstances, however, let him imagine 
that he knows more than the people of the 
country as to what he should do and wear. 

D. M. Barringer. 



150 



Wolf-Hunting in Russia 

The enormous extent and diversified condi- 
tions of the various localities of this empire 
would naturally suggest a variety of sport in 
hunting and shooting, including perhaps some- 
thing characteristic. In the use of dogs of the 
chase especially is this suggestion borne out 
by the facts, and it has been said that in no 
other country has the systematic working to- 
gether of fox-hounds and greyhounds been suc- 
cessfully carried out. 

Unfortunately, this sort of hunting is not 
now so general as prior to the emancipation of 
the serfs in 1861. A modest kennel for such 
sport consists of six to ten fox-hounds and four 
to six pairs of barzois,* and naturally demands 
considerable attention. Moreover, to use it 
requires the presence of at least one man with 
the fox-hounds and one man for each pair or 
each three greyhounds. To have a sufficient 
number of good huntsmen at his service was 

*Barzoi — long-haired greyhound, wolf-hound, Russian greyhound. 
151 



Hunting in Many Lands 

formerly a much less expensive luxury to a 
proprietor than now, and to this fact is due 
the decline of the combined kennel in Russia. 

This hunt is more or less practised through- 
out the entire extent of the Russian Empire. 
In the south, where the soil is not boggy, it is 
far better sport than in Northern Russia, where 
there are such enormous stretches of marshy 
woods and tundra. Curiously enough, nearly 
all the game of these northern latitudes, in- 
cluding moose, wolves, hares, and nearly all 
kinds of grouse and other birds, seem to be 
found in the marshiest places — those almost 
impracticable to mounted hunters. 

Though the distances covered in hunting, 
and also in making neighborly visits in Russia, 
are vast, often recalling our own broad West- 
ern life, yet in few other respects are any simi- 
larities to be traced. This is especially true of 
Russia north of the Moscow parallel ; for in 
the south the steppes have much in common 
with the prairies, though more extensive, and 
the semi-nomadic Cossacks, in their mounted 
peregrinations and in their pastoral life, have 
many traits in common with real Americans. 
Nor is it true of the Caucasus, where it would 
seem that the Creator, dissatisfied with the 

152 



Wolf-Hunting in Russia 

excess of the great plain,* extending from the 
Finnish Gulf to the Black Sea, resolved to 
establish a counterpoise, and so heaved up the 
gigantic Caucasus. There too are to be found 
fine hunting and shooting, which merit de- 
scription and which offer good sport to moun- 
tain amateurs. 

The annual hunt in the fall of 1893 in the 
governments of Tver and Yaroslav, with the 
Gatchino kennels, will give a good idea of 
the special sport of which I have spoken. It 
is imperative that these hounds go to the hunt 
once a year for about a month, although for 
the most part without their owner. The mas- 
ter of the hunt and his assistant, with three or 
four guests, and oftentimes the proprietors of 
the lands where the hounds happen to hunt, 
usually constitute the party. The hunt changes 
locality nearly every year, but rarely does it go 
further from home than on this occasion, about 
450 versts from Gatchino. As a rule it is not 
difficult to obtain from proprietors permission 
to hunt upon their estates, and this is some- 
what surprising to one who has seen the free- 
dom with which the fences are torn down and 

* The Waldeir hills, extending east and west half-way between St. 
Petersburg and Moscow, are the only exception. 



Huntlng^ in Many Lands 

left unrepaired. It is true that they are not of 
the strongest and best type, and that peasant 
labor is still very cheap ; yet such concessions 
to sport would rarely be made in America. 

It was at Gatchino, on the loth day of Sep- 
tember, that the hunting train was loaded with 
men, horses, dogs, provisions and wagons. The 
hunt called for twenty-two cars in all, includ- 
ing one second-class passenger car, in one end 
of which four of us made ourselves comfort- 
able, while in the other end servants found 
places. The weather was cold and rainy, and, 
as our train traveled as a freight, we had two 
nights before us. It was truly a picturesque 
and rare sight to see a train of twenty-two cars 
loaded with the personnel, material and live 
stock of a huge kennel. The fox-hounds, sev- 
enty in number, were driven down in perfect, 
close order by the beaters to the cracks of the 
Russian hunting whip and installed in their 
car, which barely offered them sufficient ac- 
commodation. The greyhounds, three sorts, 
sixty-seven in number, were brought down on 
leashes by threes, fours or fives, and loaded in 
two cars. Sixty saddle and draft horses, with 
saddles, wagons and hunting paraphernalia, 
were also loaded. Finally the forty-four gray 

154 



Wolf-Hunting in Russia 

and green uniformed huntsmen, beaters, driv- 
ers and ourselves were ready, and the motley 
train moved away amid the uttered and unut- 
tered benedictions of the families and relatives 
of the parting hunt. 

Our first destination was Peschalkino, in the 
government of Tver, near the River Leet, a 
tributary of the Volga, not far from the site of 
the first considerable check of the Mongolian 
advance about 1230. I mention this fact in 
passing to give some idea of the terrahi, be- 
cause I think that it is evident to anyone who 
has visited this region that the difficulty of 
provisioning and of transportation in these 
marshes must have offered a greater obstacle 
to an invading army than did the then defend- 
ers of their country. 

We passed our time most agreeably in play- 
ing vint* and talking of hunting incidents along 
the route. Many interesting things were told 
about the habits of wolves and other game, and, 
as they were vouched for by two thorough gen- 
tlemen and superb sportsmen, and were veri- 
fied as far as a month's experience in the field 
would permit, I feel authorized to cite them 
as facts, 

* Vint — game of cards resembling whist, boaston znA pr/f&ence. 



Hunting in Many Lands 

The bear has been called in folk-lore the 
moujik's brother, and it must be conceded that 
there are outward points of resemblance, es- 
pecially when each is clad in winter attire; 
moreover the moujik, when all is snow and ice, 
fast approximates the hibernating qualities of 
the bear. One strong point of difference is 
the accentuated segregative character of the 
former, who always live in long cabin villages.* 

But it is rather of the wolf's habits and do- 
mestic economy that I wish to speak — of him 
who has always been the dreaded and accursed 
enemy of the Russian peasant. In the question 
of government the wolf follows very closely the 
system of the country, which is pre-eminently 
patriarchal — the fundamental principle of the 
mir. A family of wolves may vary in number 
from six to twenty, and contain two to four 
generations, usually two or three, yet there is 
always one chief and one wife — in other words, 
never more than one female with young ones. 
When larger packs have been seen together 
it was probably the temporary marshaling of 
their forces for some desperate raid or the pre- 

* The bear is caricatured in Russian publications as a humorous, 
light-hearted, joking creature, conversing and making common sport 
with the golden-hearted moujik, his so-called brother. 



Wolf-Hunting in Russia 

liminaries of an anarchistic strike. The cho- 
ruses of wolves and the special training of the 
young for them are interesting characteristics. 
Upon these choruses depends the decision of 
the hunter whether or not to make his final 
attack upon the stronghold of the wolves; by 
them he can tell with great precision the num- 
ber in the family and the ages of the different 
members. They are to wolf-hunters what tracks 
are to moose- and bear-hunters — they serve to 
locate the game. When the family is at home 
they occur with great regularity at twilight, 
midnight and dawn. 

In camp near Billings, Montana, in the fall 
of 1882, we heard nightly about 12 o'clock the 
howling of a small pack of coyotes ; but we 
supposed that it was simply a "howling pro- 
test" against the railway train, passing our 
camp at midnight, that had just reached that 
part of the world. Possibly our coyotes have 
also howling choruses at regular intervals, like 
the Russian wolves. 

There was such a fascination in listening to 
the wolves that we went out several times 
solely for that purpose. The weirdness of the 
sound and the desolateness of the surroundings 
produced peculiar sensations upon the listener. 

157 



Hunting in Many Lands 

To an enthusiastic lover of sport and nature 
these pleasurable sensations might be well 
compared with the effect of the Niebelungen 
songs upon an ardent Wagnerite. The old 
professional huntsmen could tell just what 
members of the family and how many were 
howling ; they scarcely disagreed upon these 
points. 

These old hunters pretended to interpret 
the noisy assemblies of the wolves as regards 
content or discontent, satisfaction or dissatis- 
faction. 

Owing to the difficulty of securing wolves 
under most favorable circumstances, especially 
old ones, it would be considered folly to make 
a drive if the matinal howl had not been 
heard. But to make a successful drive in a 
large marshy forest many beaters must be em- 
ployed, and, as they are gathered from far and 
near, considerable time is necessary to collect 
them ; therefore it is almost essential to know 
that the wolves were "at home" at midnight 
as well as dawn. 

While in the vicinity of a certain wolf family 
whose habitat was an enormous marshy wood, 
entirely impossible to mounted men, we were 
compelled to await for forty-eight hours the re- 



Wolf-Hunting in Russia 

turn of the old ones, father and mother. At 
times during this wait only the young ones, at 
other times the young and the intermediate 
ones, would sing. Not hearing the old ones, 
we inferred they were absent, and so they 
were — off on a raid, during which they killed 
two peasant horses ten miles from their strong- 
hold. It was supposed that the wolves of in- 
termediate age also made excursions during 
this time, as indicated by the bowlings, but not 
to such great distances as the old ones. It 
was perfectly apparent, as we listened one 
evening, that the old ones had placed the 
young ones about a verst away and were mak- 
ing them answer independently. This seemed 
too human for wolves. 

After one day and two nights of travel we 
arrived at the little station of Peschalkino, on 
the Bologoe-Rybinsk Railway, not far from 
the frontier between the two governments, 
Tver and Yaroslav, where we were met by 
two officers of the guard, a Yellow Cuirassier 
and a Preobiajensky, on leave of absence on 
their estates (Koy), sixteen versts from the 
rail. They were brothers-in-law and keen 
sportsmen, who became members of our party 
and who indicated the best localities for game 



Hunting in Many Lands 

on their property, as well as on the adjoining 
estates. 

Peschalkino boasts a painted country tavern 
of two stories, the upper of which, with side 
entrance, we occupied, using our own beds and 
bed linen, table and table linen, cooking and 
kitchen utensils; in fact, it was a hotel where 
we engaged the walled-in space and the brick 
cooking stove. As to the huntsmen and the 
dogs, they were quartered in the adjacent un- 
painted log-house peasant village — just such 
villages as are seen all over Russia, in which a 
mud road, with plenty of mud, comprises all 
there is of streets and avenues. After having 
arranged our temporary domicile, and having 
carefully examined horses and dogs to see how 
they had endured the journey, we made ready 
to accept a dinner invitation at the country 
place of our new members. Horses were put 
to the brake, called by the Russians Ameri- 
kanka (American), and we set out for a drive 
of sixteen versts over a mud road to enjoy 
the well-known Slav hospitality so deeply en- 
grafted in the Ponamaroff family. 

I said road, but in reality it scarcely merits 
the name, as it is neither fenced nor limited in 
width other than by the sweet will of the trav- 

i6o 



Wolf-Hunting in Russia 

eler. Special mention is made of this road 
because its counterparts exist all over the em- 
pire. It is the usual road, and not the excep- 
tion, which is worse, as many persons have 
ample reasons for knowing. This condition 
is easily explained by the scarcity of stone, 
the inherent disregard of comfort, the poverty 
of the peasants, the absence of a yeoman 
class, and the great expense that would be 
entailed upon the landed proprietors, who live 
at enormous distances from each other. The 
country in these and many other governments 
has been civilized many generations, but so 
unfinished and primitive does it all seem that 
it recalls many localities of our West, where 
civilization appeared but yesterday, and where 
to-morrow it will be well in advance of these 
provinces. The hand-flail, the wooden plow- 
share, the log cabin with stable under the 
same roof, could have been seen here in the 
twelfth century as they are at present. Thanks 
to the Moscow factories, the gala attire of the 
peasant of to-day may possibly surpass in bril- 
liancy of color that of his remote ancestry, 
which was clad entirely from the home loom. 
With the exception of the white brick church- 
es, whose tall green and white spires in the 

i6i 



Hunting in Many Lands 

distance appear at intervals of eight to ten 
versts, and of occasional painted window cas- 
inofs, there is nothinof to indicate that the col- 
orings of time and nature are not preferable 
to those of art. The predominating features 
of the landscape are the windmills and the 
evenness of the grain-producing country, dot- 
ted here and there by clumps of woods, called 
islands. The churches, too, are conspicuous 
by their number, size, and beauty of architect- 
ure ; school-houses, by their absence. Prior to 
1 86 1 there must have been a veritable mania 
here for church-building. The large and beau- 
tiful church at Koy, as well as two other pre- 
tentious brick ones, were constructed on his 
estates by the grandfather of our host. 

Arrived at Koy, we found a splendid coun- 
try place, with brick buildings, beautiful gar- 
dens, several hot-houses and other luxuries, all 
of which appeared the more impressive by con- 
trast. The reception and hospitality accorded 
us at Koy — where we were highly entertained 
with singing, dancing and cards until midnight 
— was as bounteous as the darkness and rain- 
fall which awaited us on the sixteen versts' 
drive over roadless roads back to Our quarter 
bivouac at Peschalkino. 

162 



Wolf-Hunting in Russia 

The following morning marked the begin- 
ning of our hunting. About lo o'clock all was 
in readiness. Every hunter* had been pro- 
vided with a leash, a knife and a whip ; and, 
naturally, every huntsman with the two latter. 
In order to increase the number of posts, 
some of the huntsmen were also charged with 
leashes of greyhounds. I shall in the future 
use the word greyhound to describe all the 
sight hounds, in contradistinction to fox- 
hound ; it includes barzois (Russian grey- 
hounds), greyhounds (English) and crosses 
between the two. The barzois numbered 
about 75 per cent, of all the greyhounds, and 
were for the most part somewhat less speedy 
than the real greyhounds, but better adapted 
for wolf- hunting. They also have greater 
skill in taking hold, and this, even in hare 
coursing, sometimes gives them advantage 
over faster dogs. One of the most interesting 
features of the coursing was the matching of 
Russian and English greyhounds. The leash 
system used in the field offers practically the 
same fairness as is shown by dogs at regular 
coursing matches. The leash is a black nar- 

* Hunter-gentleman, huntsman, man of the hunt — conventional 
terms. 

163 



Hunting in Many Lands 

row leather thong about fifteen feet long, with 
a loop at one end that passes over the right 
shoulder and under the left arm. The long 
thong with a slit at the end, forming the hand 
loop, is, when not in use, folded up like a lariat 
or a driving rein, and is stuck under the knife 
belt. To use it, the end is put through the 
loop-ring collars, which the greyhounds con- 
tinually wear, and is then held fast in the left 
hand until ready to slip the hounds. Where 
the country is at all brushy, three dogs are the 
practical limit of one leash, still for the most 
part only two are employed. It is surprising 
to see how quickly the dogs learn the leash 
with mounted huntsmen ; two or three days 
are sufficient to teach them to remain at the 
side of the horse and at a safe distance from 
his feet. Upon seeing this use of the leash 
with two dogs each, I was curious to know 
why it should be so ; why it would not be 
more exciting to see half a dozen or more 
hounds in hot pursuit racing against each 
other and having a common goal, just as it 
is more exciting to see a horse race with a 
numerous entry than merely with two com- 
petitors. This could have been remedied, so 
I thought, by having horsemen go in pairs, 

164 



Wolf-Hunting in Russia 

or having several dogs when possible on one 
leash. Practice showed the wisdom of the 
methods actually employed. In the first place, 
it is fairer for the game ; in the second, it 
saves the dogs; and finally, it allows a greater 
territory to be hunted over with the same 
number of dogs. 

There are two ways of hunting foxes and 
hares, and, with certain variations, wolves also. 
These are, by beating and driving with fox- 
hounds, and by open driving with greyhounds 
alone. In the first case a particular wood 
(island) is selected, and the fox-hounds with 
their mounted huntsmen are sent to drive it 
in a certain direction. The various leashes of 
greyhounds (barzois alone if wolves be expect- 
ed) are posted on the opposite side, at the 
edge of the wood or in the field, and are 
loosed the second the game has shown its in- 
tention of clearing the open space expressly 
selected for the leash. The mounted beaters 
with the fox-hounds approach the thick woods 
of evergreens, cottonwood, birch and under- 
grov^fth, and wait on its outskirts until a bugle 
signal informs them that all the greyhound 
posts are ready. The fox-hounds recognize 
the signal, and would start immediately were 

165 



Hunting In Many Lands 

they not terrorized by the black nagaika — a 
product of a country that has from remotest 
times preferred the knout* to the gallows, and 
so is skilled in its manufacture and use. At 
the word go from the chief beater the seventy 
fox-hounds, which have been huddled up as 
closely as the encircling beaters could make 
them, rush into the woods. In a few minutes, 
sometimes seconds, the music begins — and 
what music ! I really think there are too 
many musicians, for the voices not being clas- 
sified, there is no individuality, but simply a 
prolonged howl. For my part, I prefer fewer 
hounds, where the individual voices may be 
distinguished. It seemed to be a needless use 
of so many good dogs, for half the number 
would drive as well ; but they were out for 
exercise and training, and they must have it. 
Subsequently the pack was divided into two, 
but this was not necessitated by fatigue of the 

* Though not pertinent to the subject, I cannot refrain from 
relating a curious comparison made to me by a very intelligent 
Russian, aide-de-camp general of the late Emperor: "Just as the 
scarcity of women in early American times caused them to be highly 
appreciated and tenderly cared for, so the relative scarcity of men 
in early Russia caused the Government to appreciate them and to 
preserve them at all hazards. Logically follows the exalted position 
of woman to-day in the United States and the absence of capital 
punishment in Russia." 

i66 



Wolf-IUintiiTj; in Russia 



t> 



hounds, for we hunted on alternate days with 
greyhounds alone. 

One could well believe that foxes might re- 
main a long time in the woods, even when 
pursued by such noise ; but it seemed to me 
that the hares* would have passed the line of 
posts more quickly than they did. At the 
suitable moment, when the game was seen, 
the nearest leash was slipped, and when they 
seemed to be on the point of losing another 
and sometimes a third was slipped. The poor 
fox -hounds were not allowed to leave the 
woods; the moment the game appeared in the 
open space they were driven back by the stiff 
riders with their cruel whips. The true fox- 
hound blood showed itself, and to succeed in 
beating some of them off the trail, especially 
the young ones, required most rigorous action 
on the part of all. This seemed to me a pros- 
titution of the good qualities of a race care- 
fully bred for centuries, and, while realizing 
the necessity of the practice for that variety 

* There are two varieties : the so-called white hare and the so- 
called red hare. The former becomes white in winter, and weighs, 
when full grown, ten pounds ; the latter has a reddish gray coat 
which does not change, and weighs about one and a half pounds less 
than the other variety. The red hare frequents the fields less than 
does the white. The foxes are the ordinary red ones. 

167 



Hunting in Many Lands 

of hunt, I could never look upon it with com- 
plaisance. 

It is just this sort of hunt* for which the 
barzoi has been specially bred, and which has 
developed in him a tremendous spring ; at the 
same time it has given him less endurance 
than the English greyhound. It was highly 
interesting to follow the hounds with the beat- 
ers ; but, owing to the thickness of the woods 
and the absence of trails, it was far from being 
an easy task either for horse or rider. To re- 
main at a post with a leash of hounds was 
hardly active or exciting enough for me — ex- 
cept when driving wolves — especially when the 
hounds could be followed, or when the open 
hunt could be enjoyed. In the second case the 
hunters and huntsmen with leashes form a line 
with intervals of lOO to 150 yards and march 
for versts straight across the country, cracking 
the terrible nagaika and uttering peculiar ex- 
citing yells that would start game on a parade 

* In Northern Russia, owing to the extensive forest, brush and 
marsh lands, every effort was made to utilize the small open spaces 
or clearings for the greyhounds, and this was the usual way of 
hunting ; while in Southern Russia, where steppes predominate, the 
open hunt — chasse it cotirre — prevailed. This explains why the 
Crimean barzoi also has more endurance than the now recognized 
type from the north. 

168 



Wolf-Hunting in Russia 

ground. After a few days I flattered myself 
that I could manage my leash fairly and slip 
them passably well. To two or three of the 
party leashes were not intrusted, either be- 
cause they did not desire them or for their 
want of experience in general with dogs and 
horses. To handle a leash well requires ex- 
perience and considerable care. To prevent 
tangling in the horse's legs, especially at the 
moment the game is sighted, requires that the 
hounds be held well in hand, and that they be 
not slipped until both have sighted the game. 
I much prefer the open hunt to the post sys- 
tem. There is more action, and in fact more 
sport, whether it happens that one or several 
leashes be slipped for the same animal. When 
it is not possible to know whose dogs have 
taken the game, it belongs to him who arrived 
first, providing that he has slipped his leash. 

So much for the foxes and hares, but the 
more interesting hunting of wolves remains. 
Few people except wolf -hunters — and they 
are reluctant to admit it — know how rarely 
old wolves are caught with hounds. All admit 
the danger of taking an old one either by a 
dagger thrust or alive from under* barzois, 

* This is the Russian phrasing, and correctly describes the idea. 
169 



Hunting in Many Lands 

however g-ood they be. There is always a 
possibiHty that the dogs may loosen their hold 
or be thrown off just at the critical moment. 
But the greatest difficulty consists in the in- 
ability of the hounds to hold the wolf even 
when they have overtaken him. When it is 
remembered that a full-grown wolf is nearly 
twice as heavy as the average barzoi, and that 
pound for pound he is stronger, it is clear that 
to overtake and hold him requires great speed 
and grit on the part of a pair of hounds. 

A famous kennel,* which two years since 
caught forty-six wolves by the combined sys- 
tem of hunting, took in that number but one 
old wolf — that is, three years or more old. 
The same kennel last year caught twenty-six 
without having a single old one in the number. 
We likewise failed to include in our captures a 
single old wolf. I mention these facts to cor- 
rect the false impression that exists with us 
concerning the barzois, as evidenced by the 
great disappointment when two years since a 
pair, in one of the Western States, failed to 
kill outright a full-grown timber wolf. At the 
field trials on wolves, which take place twice 
a year at Colomiaghi, near Petersburg, im- 

* That of the Grand Duke Nicolas Nicolaievitch. 
170 



Wolf-Hunting in Russia 

mediately after the regular field trials on 
hares, I have seen as many as five leashes 
slipped before an old wolf could be taken, and 
then it was done only with the greatest diffi- 
culty. In fact, as much skill depends upon 
the borzatnik (huntsman) as the dogs. Almost 
the very second the dogs take hold he simply 
falls from his horse upon the wolf and endeav- 
ors to thrust the unbreakable handle of his 
nagaika between the jaws of the animal ; he 
then wraps the lash around the wolf's nose 
and head. If the hounds are able to hold 
even a few seconds, the skilled borzatnik has 
had sufficient time, but there is danger even to 
the best. I saw an experienced man get a 
thumb terribly lacerated while muzzling a wolf, 
yet he succeeded, and in an incredibly short 
time. On another occasion, even before the 
brace of hounds had taken firm neck or ear 
holds, I saw a bold devil of a huntsman swing 
from his horse and in a twinkling lie prone 
upon an old wolf's head. How this man, 
whose pluck I shall always admire, was able 
to muzzle the brute without injury to himself, 
and with inefficient support from his hounds, 
it is not easy to understand, though I was 
within a few yards of the struggle. Such 

171 



Hunting in Many Lands 

skill comes from long experience, indifference 
to pain and, of course, pride in his profession. 
Having hunted foxes and hares, and having 
been shooting as often as the environs of Pes- 
chalkino and our time allowed, we changed 
our base to a village twenty-two versts distant 
over the border in the government of Yaros- 
lav. It was a village like all others of this 
grain and flax district, where the live stock 
and poultry shared the same roof with their 
owners. A family of eleven wolves had been 
located about three versts from it by a pair of 
huntsmen sent some days in advance ; this ex- 
plained our arrival. In making this change, I 
do not now recall that we saw a single house 
other than those of the peasant villages and 
the churches. I fancy that in the course of 
time these peasants may have more enlight- 
enment, a greater ownership in the land, and 
may possibly form a yeoman class. At the 
present the change, slow as it is, seems to 
point in that direction. With their limited 
possessions, they are happy and devoted sub- 
jects. The total of the interior decorations of 
every house consists of icons, of cheap colored 
pictures of the imperial family and of samo- 
vars. In our lodgings, the house of the village 

172 



Wolf-Hunting in Russia 

starost, the three icons consumed a great part 
of the wall surface, and were burdened with 
decorations of various colored papers. No 
one has ever touched upon peasant life in Rus- 
sia without mentioning the enormous brick 
stove {lezanka"^)] and having on various hunts 
profited by them, I mean to say a word in be- 
half of their advantages. Even as early as 
the middle of September the cold continuous 
rains cause the gentle warmth of the lezanka 
to be cordially appreciated. On it and in its 
vicinity all temperatures may be found. Its 
top offers a fine place for keeping guns, am- 
munition and various articles free from mois- 
ture, and for drying boots;f while the horizon- 
tal abutments constitute benches well adapted 
to thawing out a chilled marrow, or a sleeping 
place for those that like that sort of thing. A 
generous space is also allowed for cooking pur- 
poses. In point of architecture there is noth- 
ing that can be claimed for it but stability; ex- 
cepting the interior upper surface of the oven, 
there is not a single curve to break its right 
lines. It harmonizes with the surroundines, 
and in a word answers all the requirements of 

* Lezanka means something used for lying on. 
f Hot oats poured into the boots were also used for drying them. 
173 



Hunting in Many Lands 

the owner as well as of the hunter, who always 
preserves a warm remembrance of it. 

The wolves were located in a large marshy 
wood and, from information of the scouts based 
on the midnight and dawn choruses, they were 
reported "at home." Accordingly we prepared 
for our visit with the greatest precautions. 
When within a verst of the proposed curved 
line upon which we were to take our stands 
with barzois, all dismounted and proceeded 
through the marsh on foot, making as little 
noise as possible. The silence was occasion- 
ally broken by the efforts of the barzois to 
slip themselves after a cur belonging to one of 
the peasant beaters, that insisted upon seeing 
the sport at the most aggravating distance for 
a sight hound. It was finally decided to slip 
one good barzoi that, it was supposed, could 
send the vexatious animal to another hunting 
ground ; but the cur, fortunately for himself, 
suddenly disappeared and did not show him- 
self again. 

After wading a mile in the marshy bog, we 
were at the beginning of the line of combat — 
if there was to be any. The posts along this 
line had been indicated by the chief huntsman 
by blazing the small pine trees or by hanging 

174 



Wolf-Hunting in Russia 

a heap of moss on them. The nine posts were 
estabHshed in silence along the arc of a circle 
at distances from each other of about 150 
yards. My post was number four from the 
beginning. In rear of it and of the adjoining 
numbers a strong high cord fence was put up, 
because it was supposed that near this part of 
the line the old wolves would pass, and that 
the barzois might not be able to stop them. 
The existence of such fencing material as part 
of the outfit of a wolf-hunter is strong evidence 
of his estimate of a wolf's strength — it speaks 
pages. The fence was concealed as much as 
possible, so that the wolf with barzois at his 
heels mieht not see it. The huntsmen sta- 
tioned there to welcome him on his arrival 
were provided with fork-ended poles, intend- 
ed to hold him by the neck to the ground until 
he was gagged and muzzled, or until he had 
received a fatal dagger thrust. 

While we were forming the ambuscade — 
defensive line — the regular beaters, with 200 
peasant men and women, and the fox-hounds, 
were forming the attack. 

Everything seemed favorable except the in- 
cessant cold rain and wind. In our zeal to 
guard the usual crossings of the wolves, we 

175 



Hunting in Many Lands 

ignored the direction of the wind, which the 
wolves, however, cleverly profited by. It could 
not have been very long after the hounds were 
let go before they fell upon the entire family 
of wolves, which they at once separated. The 
shouts and screams of the peasants, mingled 
with the noises of the several packs of hounds, 
held us in excited attention. Now and then 
this or that part of the pack would approach 
the line, and, returning, pass out of hearing 
in the extensive woods. The game had ap- 
proached within scenting distance, and, in spite 
of the howling in the rear, had returned to de- 
part by the right or left flank of the beaters. 
As the barking of the hounds came near the 
line, the holders of the barzois, momentarily 
hoping to see a wolf or wolves, waited in 
almost breathless expectancy. Each one was 
prepared with a knife to rush upon an old 
wolf to support his pair; but unfortunately 
only two wolves came to our line, and they 
were not two years old. They were taken at 
the extreme left flank, so far away that I could 
not even see the killing. I was disappointed, 
and felt that a great mistake had been made 
in not paying sufficient attention to the direc- 
tion of the wind. Where is the hunter who 

176 



Wolf-Huntlne in Russia 



t> 



has not had his full share of disappointments 
when all prospects seemed favorable ? As oft- 
en happens, it was the persons occupying the 
least favorable places who had bagged the 
game. They said that in one case the barzois 
had held the wolf splendidly until the fatal 
thrust; but that in the other case it had been 
necessary to slip a second pair before it could 
be taken. These young wolves were consider- 
ably larger than old coyotes. 

So great was the forest hunted that for 
nearly two hours we had occupied our posts 
listening to the spasmodic trailing of the 
hounds and the yelling of the peasants. Fi- 
nally all the beaters and peasants reached our 
line, and the drive was over, with only two 
wolves taken from the family of eleven. Shiv- 
ering with cold and thoroughly drenched, we 
returned in haste to shelter and dry clothes. 

The following morning we set out on our 
return to Peschalkino, mounted, with the bar- 
zois, while the fox-hounds were driven along 
the road. We marched straight across the 
country in a very thin skirmish line, regard- 
less of fences, which were broken down and 
left to the owners to be repaired. By the time 
we had reached our destination, we had en- 

177 



Hunting in Many Lands 

joyed some good sport and had taken several 
hares. The following morning the master of 
the imperial hunt, who had been kept at his 
estates near Moscow by illness in his family, 
arrived, fetching with him his horses and a 
number of his own hounds. We continued 
our hunting a number of days longer in that 
vicinity, both with and without fox-hounds, 
with varying success. Every day or two we 
also indulged in shooting for ptarmigan, black 
cocks, partridges, woodcocks and two kinds of 
snipe — all of which prefer the most fatiguing 
marshes. 

One day our scouts arrived from Philipovo, 
twenty-six versts off, to report that another 
family of wolves, numbering about sixteen, 
had been located. The Amerikanka was sent 
in advance to Orodinatovo, whither we went 
by rail at a very early hour. This same rainy 
and cold autumnal landscape would be intoler- 
able were it not brightened here and there by 
the red shirts and brilliant headkerchiefs of 
the peasants, the noise of the flail on the dirt- 
floor sheds and the ever-alluring attractions of 
the hunt. 

During this short railway journey, and on 
the ride to Philipovo, I could not restrain 

178 



Wolf-Hunting in Russia 

certain reflections upon the life of the people 
and of the proprietors of this country. It 
seemed on this morning that three conditions 
were necessary to render a permanent habi- 
tation here endurable.: neighbors, roads and 
a change of latitude ; of the first two there are 
almost none, of latitude there is far too much. 
To be born in a country excuses its defects, 
and that alone is sufficient to account for the 
continuance of people under even worse condi- 
tions than those of these governments. It is 
true that the soil here does not produce fruit 
and vegetables like the Crimean coast, and 
that it does not, like the black belt, "laugh 
with a harvest when tickled with a hoe"; yet 
it produces, under the present system of culti- 
vation, rye and flax sufficient to feed, clothe 
and pay taxes. What more could a peasant 
desire? With these provided his happiness is 
secured; how can he be called poor? With- 
out questioning this defense, which has been 
made many times in his behalf, I would simply 
say that he is not poor as long as a famine or 
plague of some sort does not arrive — and then 
proceed with our journey. 

From Orodinatovo to Philipovo is only ten 
versts, but over roads still less worthy of the 

179 



Hunting in Many Lands 

name than the others already traveled. The 
Amerikanka was drawn by four horses abreast. 
The road in places follows the River Leet, on 
which Philipovo is situated. We had expected 
to proceed immediately to hunt the wolves, 
and nearly 300 peasant men and women had 
been engaged to aid the fox-hounds as beaters. 
They had been assembled from far and near, 
and were congregated in the only street of 
Philipovo, in front of our future quarters, to 
await our arrival. What a motley assembly, 
what brilliancy of coloring ! All were armed 
with sticks, and carried bags or cloths contain- 
ing their rations of rye bread swung from the 
shoulders, or around the neck and over the 
back. How many pairs of boots were hung 
over the shoulders ? Was it really the custom 
to wear boots on the shoulders? In any case 
it was de rigueur that each one show that he 
or she possessed such a luxury as a good pair 
of high top boots ; but it was not a luxury to 
be abused or recklessly worn out. Their sys- 
tem of foot-gear has its advantages in that the 
same pair may be used by several members of 
a family, male and female alike. 

It was not a pleasure for us to hear that the 
wolves had been at home at twilight and mid- 

i8o 



Wolf-Hunting in Russia 

night, but were not there at dawn ; much less 
comforting was this news to those peasants 
living at great distances who had no place 
near to pass the night. The same informa- 
tion was imparted the following day and the 
day following, until it began to appear doubt- 
ful whether we could longer delay in order to 
try for this very migratory pack. 

Our chances of killing old wolves depended 
largely upon this drive, for it was doubtful 
whether we would make an attack upon the 
third family, two days distant from our quar- 
ters. Every possible precaution was taken to 
make it a success. I was, however, impressed 
with the fact that the most experienced mem- 
bers of the hunting party were the least san- 
guine about the old wolves. 

Some one remarked that my hunting knife, 
with a six-inch blade, was rather short, and 
asked if I meant to try and take an old wolf. 
My reply was in the affirmative, for my inten- 
tions at that stage were to try anything in the 
form of a wolf. At this moment one of the 
land proprietors, who had joined our party, 
offered to exchange knives with me, saying 
that he had not the slightest intention of at- 
tacking a wolf older than two years, and that 



Hunting In Many Lands 

my knife was sufficient for that. I accepted 
his offer. 

At a very early hour on this cold rainy au- 
tumnal morning we set out on our way to the 
marshy haunts of the game. Our party had 
just been reinforced by the arrival of the com- 
mander of the Empress's Chevalier Guard 
regiment, an ardent sportsman, with his dogs. 
All the available fox-hounds, sixty in number, 
were brought out, and the 300 peasants 
counted off. The latter were keen, not only 
because a certain part of them had sportsman- 
like inclinations, but also because each one re- 
ceived thirty copecks for participation in the 
drive. Besides this, they were interested in 
the extermination of beasts that were living 
upon their live stock. 

The picture at the start was more than 
worthy of the results of the day, and it re- 
mains fresh in my mind. The greater portion 
of the peasants were taken in charge by the 
chief beater, with the hounds, while the others 
followed along with us and the barzois. Silence 
was enforced upon all. The line of posts was 
established as before, except that more care 
was exercised. Each principal post, where 
three barzois were held on leash, was strength- 



Wolf-Hunting in Russia 

ened by a man with a gun loaded with buck- 
shot. The latter had instructions not to fire 
upon a wolf younger than two years, and not 
even upon an older one, until it was manifest 
that the barzois and their holder were unequal 
to the task. 

My post was a good one, and my three dogs 
were apparently keen for anything. At the 
slightest noise they were ready to drag me off 
my feet through the marsh. Thanks to the 
nagaika, I was able to keep them in hand. 
One of the trio was well known for his grit in 
attacking wolves, the second was considered 
fair, while the third, a most promising two- 
year-old, was on his first wolf-hunt. Sup- 
ported by these three dogs, the long knife of 
the gentleman looking for young wolves and 
the yellow cuirassier officer with his shotgun, I 
longed for some beast that would give a strug- 
gle. The peasants accompanying us were 
posted out on each flank of our line, extending 
it until the extremities must have been sepa- 
rated by nearly two miles. 

The signal was given, and hunters, peasants 
and hounds rushed into the woods. Almost 
instantly we heard the screams and yells of 
the nearest peasants, and in a short time the 

X83 



Hunting In Many Lands 

faint barking of the fox-hounds. As the sounds 
became more audible, it was evident that the 
hounds had spHt into three packs — conclusive 
that there were at least three wolves. My 
chances were improving, and I was arranging 
my dogs most carefully, that they might be 
slipped evenly. My knife, too, was within con- 
venient grasp, and the fox-hounds were point- 
ing directly to me. Beastly luck ! I saw my 
neighbor, the hunter of young wolves, slip his 
barzois, and like a flash they shot through the 
small pine trees, splashing as they went. From 
my point of view they had fallen upon an ani- 
mal that strongly resembled one of themselves. 
In reality it was a yearling wolf, but he was 
making it interesting for the barzois as well 
as for all who witnessed the sight. The strug- 
gle did not last long, for soon two of the bar- 
zois had fastened their long teeth in him — one 
at the base of the ear, the other in the throat. 
Their holder hastened to the struggle, about 
lOO yards from his post, and with my knife 
gave the wolf the coup de grace. His dogs 
had first sighted the game, and therefore had 
the priority of right to the chase. So long as 
the game was in no danger of escaping no 
neighboring dogs should be slipped. His 

184 



Wolf-Hunting in Russia 

third barzoi, on trial for qualifications as a 
wolf-hound, did not render the least aid. 

Part of the fox-hounds were still running, 
and there was yet chance that my excited dogs 
might have their turn. We waited impatient- 
ly until all sounds had died away and until the 
beaters had reached our line, when further in- 
dulgence of hope was useless. Besides the 
above, the fox-hounds had caught and killed a 
yearling in the woods ; and Colonel Dietz had 
taken with his celebrated Malodiets, aided by 
another dog, a two-year-old. What had be- 
come of the other wolves and where were 
most of the hounds? Without waiting to 
solve these problems, we collected what we 
could of our outfit and returned to Philipovo, 
leaving the task of finding the dogs to the 
whippers-in. The whys and wherefores of the 
hunt were thoroughly discussed at dinner, and 
it was agreed that most of the wolves had 
passed to the rear between the beaters. It 
was found out that the peasants, when a short 
distance in the woods, had through fear formed 
into squads instead of going singly or in pairs. 
This did not, however, diminish the disappoint- 
ment at not taking at least one of the old ones. 

The result of this drive logically brought up 
185 



Hunting in Many Lands 

the question of the best way to drive game. 
In certain districts of Poland deer are driven 
from the line of posts, and the same can be 
said of successful moose-hunts of Northern 
Russia. Perhaps that way may also be better 
for wolves. 

After careful consideration of the hunting 
situation, we were unanimous in preferring 
hare and fox coursing with both fox-hounds 
and barzois, or with the latter alone, at discre- 
tion, to the uncertainty of wolf-hunting; so we 
decided to change our locality. Accordingly 
the following day we proceeded in the Amer- 
ikanka to the town of Koy, twenty -five 
versts distant. We arrived about noon, and 
were quartered in a vacant house in the large 
yard of Madam Ponamaroff. Our retinue of 
huntsmen, dogs, horses, ambulance and wagons 
arrived an hour later. 

There was no more wolf-hunting. 

Henry T. Allen. 



1 86 



A Bear- Hunt in the Sierras 

A few years ago, a friend and I were cruis- 
ing for our amusement in California, with out- 
fit of our own, consisting of three pack horses, 
two saddle animals, tent and camp furnishings. 
We had started from Los Angeles ; had ex- 
plored various out-of-the-way passes and val- 
leys in the San Bernardino and San Rafael 
Mountains, taking care the while to keep our 
camp supplied with game ; had killed deer and 
exceptionally fine antelope in the hills adjoin- 
ing the Mojave Desert ; had crossed the San 
Joaquin Valley and visited the Yosemite, where 
the good fortune of finding the Half Dome, 
with the Anderson rope, carried away by ice, 
gave us the opportunity for one delicious climb 
in replacing it. 

Returning to Fresno, we had sold our ponies 
and ended our five months' jaunt. My friend 
had gone East, and I had accepted the invita- 
tion of a member of the Union Club in San 
Francisco, to whom I bore a letter of introduc- 
es? 



Hunting in Many Lands 

tion, to accompany him upon a bear-hunt in 
the Sierras. He explained to me that the 
limited extent of his ranch in the San Joaquin 
Valley — a meager and restricted demesne of 
only 7,000 acres, consisting of splendid pas- 
turage and arable land — made it necesssary for 
the sheep to look elsewhere than at home for 
sustenance during the summer months. 

Many of the great ranches in the valley pos- 
sessed prescriptive rights to pasturage over 
vast tracts in the high Sierras. These, al- 
though not recognized by the law, were at 
least ignored, and were sanctioned by custom. 
The land belonged to nobody — that is, it be- 
longed to Uncle Sam, which, so far as a Texas 
or California stockman was concerned, amount- 
ed to exactly the same thing. The owner of 
such a right to pasturage zealously maintained 
his claim ; and if, for any reason, he could not 
use it himself during a particular season, he 
formally gave his consent to some one else to 
enjoy the privilege in his stead. It was con- 
sidered a gross violation of etiquette for a 
stockman to trespass upon that portion of the 
forest habitually used by other sheep. Such 
intrusions did occur, particularly upon the part 
of Mexicans with small flocks — "tramp sheep" 

188 



A Bear-Hunt in the Sierras 

they were called; but when the intruder was 
shot, small sympathy accompanied him to the 
grave, and the deep damnation of his taking 
off, in more senses than one, served as a salu- 
tary reminder to other gentlemen with discour- 
teous tendencies to maraud. The consequence 
of all this was that a big ranchman spoke of 
his summer range with the same sense of pro- 
prietorship and security of possession as of his 
alfalfa field or pits of ensilage. 

We arrived at my friend's ranch in the even- 
ing, and the next morning but one were in the 
saddle and on our way — it having been ar- 
ranged that the younger brother of my host 
was to take his place upon the hunt. As we 
were to arrive at the sheep-herders' camps on 
the fourth day from the ranch, no elaborate 
preparations were necessary; we took but a 
single animal for the pack, besides the horses 
we rode. A Mexican herder, Leonard, was 
the third member of the party — cook, packer, 
guide, general storehouse of information and 
jest. The first night we camped in the foot 
hills, in a grove of big-cone pines, curiously 
enough in the exact place where, a fortnight 
before, my friend Proctor and I had pitched 
our tent on the way from the Yosemite to 



Hunting in Many Lands 

Fresno, and which we had left without the 
slightest expectation, on the part of either, of 
ever seeing again. 

Little of the journey to the mountains re- 
mains in my memory. We passed a great 
timber chute of astonishing length — twenty or 
forty miles, or something of the sort — down 
which timber is floated from the great pine 
and spruce forests to the railroad, with little 
trouble and at slight expense ; the water being 
of commercial value for purposes of irrigation 
during the summer, and bringing a good price 
after it has fulfilled its special function as car- 
rier. The drinking water for my friend's ranch 
was taken from this, a supply being drawn in 
the cool of the morning sufficient to last 
throughout the day, and most grateful we 
found it during sultry August days in a part 
of the country where ice is not to be procured. 

Each of the four days of our journey we 
were climbing higher* among the mountains, 
into a thinner and more invigorating atmos- 
phere. The days were hot so long as one re- 
mained exposed to the sun, but the shadows 
were cool and the nights most refreshing. 
Upon the last morning of our journey, cross- 
ing a mountain creek, my attention was called 

190 



A Bear-Hunt In the Sierras 

to a rude bridge, where had occurred a battle 
of the ranchmen upon the occasion of an at- 
tempted entry by a "tramp" owner with his 
flock into somebody's "summer range." The 
intruder was killed, and I believe in this par- 
ticular instance the possessor of the unwritten 
right of exclusive pasturage upon Govern- 
ment land found the laws of California awk- 
ward to deal with ; not so deadly, it may be, 
as a six-shooter, but expensive and discourag- 
ing to quiet pastoral methods. 

Another point of interest was Rattlesnake 
Rock, which we rounded upon the trail. This 
was a spot peculiarly sheltered and favored by 
the winds, the warmest corner that snakes wot 
of, and here they assemble for their winter's 
sleep. In the mild days of early spring, when 
the rest of the world is still frozen and forbid- 
den, this one little nook, catching all the sun, 
is thawed and genial. From beneath the ledge 
crawl forth into the warmth great store of rat- 
tlers, big and little. Coming out from the Yo- 
semite Valley, I had killed one quite four feet 
in length and of exactly the same girth as my 
wrist, which I was assured was not at all an 
extraordinary size for them "in these parts." 
Near this rock, in an unfeeling manner, I shot 



Hunting in Many Lands 

the head off another big one, and he will no 
longer attend the yearly meeting of his kind 
at Rattlesnake Rock. 

Upon this stage of our journey we met no 
one, yet the noble forest of spruce through 
which we were traveling bore only too plainly 
the signs of man's presence in the past, and of 
his injurious disregard of the future. Every- 
where were the traces of fire. The trees of 
the Sierras, at the elevation at which we were, 
an altitude of 8,000 or 10,000 feet, grow more 
sparsely than in any forest to which we are 
accustomed in the East. Their dry and unim- 
peded spaces seem like heaven to the hunter 
familiar only with the tangled and perplexing 
undero-rowth of the " North Woods," where 
the midday shadow, the thick underbrush, the 
uneven and wet, mossy surface, except upon 
some remote hardwood ridge, are the unvary- 
ing characteristics. In the Rocky Mountains, 
and that part of the Sierras with which I am 
familiar, it is quite different. In California 
the trees do not crowd and jostle one another, 
but have regard for the sacredness of the per- 
son so far as the mutual relation of one and 
all are concerned. Broad patches of sunshine 
beneath the trees encourage the growth of rich 

192 



A Bear-Hunt in the Sierras 

grasses, none so sweet as those which are 
found at a great altitude ; and, although the 
prevailing tint under foot is that of the red- 
dish earth, tufts of succulent feed abound suf- 
ficient to repay the sheep for cruising every- 
where, while occasional glades furnish the most 
delicious and abundant pasturage. As in every 
forest, the processes of nature are slow — it takes 
a long time for the dead past to bury its dead. 
On every side lie fallen trees ; and a genera- 
tion of rain and snow, sunshine and wind and 
tempest, must elapse before these are rotted 
away, and by the enrichment of the soil can 
furnish nourishment and life to their progeny 
and successors. Naturally these trees are a 
hindrance and annoyance to the sheep herder; 
they separate his flock and greatly increase his 
labors. The land is not even his master's, 
whose one idea is temporary gain, hence there 
is no restraining influence whatever for their 
preservation. "So long as it lasts my lifetime, 
what matter?" is the prevailing sentiment. 

As there is no rain during the summer 
months, the fallen trees become perfectly dry; 
a handful of lighted twigs is all that is re- 
quired to set fire to them, when they blaze or 
smoulder until consumed. Owing to the ab- 

193 



Hunting in Many Lands 

sence of underbrush, forest fires are far less 
common than would be expected ; but, of 
course, the soil is impoverished by the depri- 
vation of its natural enrichment, the decay- 
ing wood, and the centuries to come will 
there, as well nigh everywhere in our country, 
point the finger of scorn at our spendthrift 
forestry. 

Although this is the chief economic injury, 
the beauty of the woods is sadly marred ; all 
large game is frightened away, except the 
bear, which is half human and half hog in 
his methods, and minds it not at all — in fact, 
finds the presence of man perfectly intelligi- 
ble, and his fat flocks a substantial addition to 
his own bill of fare. Leonard pointed out to 
us a certain mountain shrub, a rank poison to 
sheep. Every cluster of it in his range is 
known to the herder, who keeps the sheep in 
his charge at a safe distance. This is one of 
his important duties; for, if a sheep eats of this 
plant, he is a "goner." 

In one particular the pasturage of the high 
Sierras has greatly suffered. The ranchmen 
naturally wish to get their sheep off the home 
range as early in the spring as possible — in 
fact, the last month there is one of starvation. 

J 94 



A Bear-Hunt in the Sierras 

The new crops have not yet grown, nothing 
remains standing of the old but a few dead 
stalks of weeds, the supply of alfalfa cut the 
year before has long since been exhausted, 
and, metaphorically speaking, the sheep and 
cattle have to dine, as the hungry Indian is 
said to do, by tightening his belt half a dozen 
holes and thinking of what he had to eat week 
before last. Only the weaklings die, however ; 
the others become lean and restless, and as 
eager as their masters to start for the moun- 
tains. The journey supplies them with scant 
pickings, just enough to keep body and soul 
together, but morally it is a relief from the 
monotony of starvation at home, and they 
work their way stubbornly and expectantly up 
the mountains and into the forest as soon as 
the sun permits and anything has grown for 
them to eat. The consequence of this close 
grazing is that certain species of the grasses 
upon which they feed are never allowed to 
come to flower and mature their seed; hence 
those with a delicate root, the more strictly 
annual varieties, which rely upon seed for per- 
petuation of the plant, have a hard time of it. 
Where the sheep range, the wild timothy, for 
example — a dwarf variety and an excellent, 

195 



Hunting in Many Lands 

sweet grass — has almost disappeared, although 
formerly it grew in abundance. 

The forest glades through which we passed 
had the appearance of a closely-cropped pas- 
ture, as different as possible from the profu- 
sion of tall grasses and beautiful flowering 
plants which grow in similar openings un- 
troubled by sheep. So far as the grasses are 
concerned — or "grass," by which, I take it, is 
ordinarily designated the foliage of the plant — 
I doubt if it is molested to any great extent 
by deer. Their diet is mainly the tender 
leaves of plants — "weeds" to the unscientific 
person. The heads of wild oats and of a few 
of the grasses might prove sufficiently sweet 
and tempting to arrest their fancy ; but as for 
grazing, as sheep or cattle do, it is not their 
habit. When deer shall have come to trudge 
up hill in the plodding gait of the domestic 
beasts, and shall have abandoned their present 
method of ascending by a series of splendid 
springing leaps and bounds, the very embodi- 
ment of vigor and of wild activity, time enough 
then for them to take to munching grass, the 
sustenance of the harmless, necessary cow. At 
present they are most fastidious in their food, 
and select only the choicest, tenderest tips and 

196 



A Bear-Hunt in the Sierras 

sweetest tufts of herbage, picking them here 
and there, wandering and meditating as they 
eat. I will not say that they never touch 
grass, for I have seen deer feeding among 
cattle in the open, but it is not by any means 
the chief article of their diet, and when they 
partake of it under such circumstances, it is 
more as a gratification of their social instincts, 
I think, than from any particular love of the 
food itself. 

A little before noon upon the fourth day, 
we arrived at one of the sheep camps, to which 
we had been directed by a stray herd, and 
where we were to find the foreman of the 
sheep gang. At that hour of the day there 
were naturally in camp but a few men. The 
cook was there, of course. His functions were 
simple enough — to make bread, tea, and boil 
mutton, or bake it in a Mexican oven beneath 
the coals. With him was the chief herder and 
a half-witted Portuguese, who, upon the day 
following, in the plenitude of his zeal and 
mental deficiency, insisted upon offering him- 
self as live bait for a grizzly, as will be nar- 
rated. 

During the afternoon I strolled further up 
the mountain with my rifle, in the hope of a 

197 



Hunting in Many Lands 

shot at a stray deer, and to have a look at the 
lay of the land. Bear tracks I saw and a little 
deer sign also, but it was too early in the day 
regularly to hunt. All nature nodded in the 
dozy glare of the August afternoon, and after 
the hot journey in the saddle I found a siesta 
under the clean spruce trees refreshing. To- 
ward sunset I awoke to find a pine martin in a 
tree across the gulch reconnoitering, and evi- 
dently turning over in his mind the probabili- 
ties whether the big creature curled up on the 
hillside "forninst" him were of the cast of 
hunter or hunted. I soon brought him out 
of that, and upon my return to camp the hide 
was graciously accepted by the chief herder, 
who converted the head of it into a tobacco 
pouch with neatness and dispatch. At the 
evening meal there were good-natured refer- 
ences to chile con oso — bear's meat cooked with 
red peppers — regret expressed that the camp's 
larder could at present afford none, and expres- 
sions of confidence that this delicacy would 
soon be set before us — all most politely and 
comfortably insinuated. They had the gratifi- 
cation of their desire ; it was on the next day 
but one. 

That night there was a great jabbering of 
198 



A Bear-Hunt in the Sierras 

bad Spanish around the camp-fire. Had this 
been the rendezvous of Sicilian brigands, it 
doubtless would have had a slightly more pic- 
turesque appearance, but the difference would 
have been only of degree, not at all of kind. The 
absence of rain made tents unnecessary. Piles 
of bedding, of cooking and riding equipment, 
defined the encampment. Around the fire a 
dozen Mexicans clustered, of whom, except 
the chief herder and Leonard, not one spoke 
English. They wore the broad hats of their 
race, and were arrayed for protection against 
the cool night winds of the Sierras in old and 
shabby cloaks, some of which had been origin- 
ally bright in color, but now were subdued by 
age and dirt into comfortable harmony with 
the quiet tones of the mountain and the forest. 
Old quilts and sheepskins carpeted a small 
space where we had been invited to seat our- 
selves upon our arrival. Then, as throughout 
our stay, every possible mark of hospitality 
was shown us — a delicious, faint survival of 
Castilian courtesy. 

Long after I had turned in, somewhere in 
the dead vast and middle of the night, I was 
aroused by the sound of scurry and scampering 
among the bunch of sheep which was rounded 

199 



Hunting in Many Lands 

up near the camp. Experience has taught 
these creatures to efface themselves at night, 
and they are only too glad to sleep quietly, as 
near as possible to humans, with no disposi- 
tion to wander after dark. They realize their 
danger from bears, yet the protection which a 
Mexican affords is a purely imaginary thing, 
as unsubstantial as the baseless fabric of a 
vision, of as little real substance for the pro- 
tection of the flock as the dream of mutton 
stew and fat bear, by no means a baseless fab- 
ric, which engrosses the sleeping shepherd, 
body and mind. The disturbance upon this 
occasion soon subsided. One and another of 
the shepherds sleepily moved in his blankets 
— perhaps swore to himself a hurried prayer 
or two — but not one of them spoke aloud or 
indicated the slightest intention of investigat- 
ing the cause of the commotion. Only too 
well they and the sheep knew what it signified. 
Quiet reigned again, and, attaching no impor- 
tance to the incident, I was promptly asleep. 

In the morning I learned that the disturb- 
ing cause had been the charge of a grizzly 
into the flock within a stone's throw of us, a 
sound too familiar to occasion comment at the 
time. There were the tracks, to leeward of 

200 



A Bear-Hunt in the Sierras 

the sheep, of a she grizzly and two cubs. 
Their approach had been without a sound ; 
not the snap of a twig, or the faintest footfall, 
had given any signal of their presence. The 
mother had critically overhauled the flock in 
her mind from a slight rise of ground, on a 
level with their backs or slightly higher, and 
made deliberate choice of a fat wether, having 
a discriminating eye, and being too good a 
judge of sheep flesh to take any but such as 
are in prime condition. A single quick rush 
and she has secured her victim, in an instant, 
before the rest are fairly upon their feet, and 
is off, carrying the sheep in her mouth as 
easily as a cat would her kitten, her delighted 
cubs trotting behind. Every two or three 
nights this occurrence was repeated, with no 
interference upon the part of the Mexicans. 
"What recks it them?" "The hungry sheep 
look up and are not fed." On the contrary, 
the bears are. As for the Mexicans, they 
have "lost no bear!" To have seen the in- 
truder would have been only a gratuitous 
anxiety, since nothing in the world would 
have tempted them to fire at it. Should they 
risk life and limb for a sheep? and that the 
patrons, who had so many ! It was not their 



Hunting in Many Lands 

quarrel ! The charge of the grizzly was a 
thing as much to be accepted as an incident 
of the Sierras as the thunderbolt — equally 
dangerous to him who should interfere as the 
lightning stroke to one daring to interpose his 
rifle between the angry heavens and the fore- 
doomed tree. 

We may feel sure that the lesson is not lost 
upon the cubs. They are taught energy, sa- 
gacity, craft in maturing their plans, courage 
and promptness in their execution. They are 
taught reverence for the ursine genius, un- 
bounded admiration for their mother's leader- 
ship and steadiness of nerve, at the same time 
that they are taught contempt for the stupid- 
ity of sheep and the pusillanimity of humans. 
It may be that an apologist for the latter 
might find a word to mitigate their too severe 
sentence. A she grizzly of the Sierras, at 
night, with hungry cubs to feed, is not an 
altogether pleasant thing to face when infuri- 
ated by wounds, none of which may be bad 
enough to cripple her, yet combined are amply 
sufificient to make her pretty cross and danger- 
ous. The Mexican is a poor shot, but what 
can you expect? His vocation is a humble 
one. Were he of more positive and deter- 



A Bear-Hunt in the Sierras 

mined temperament, he would be a vaquero of 
the plains, or boyero {Anglici; "bull-whacker") 
on the Santa Fe trail or down in old Mexico ; 
and not the dry nurse of these "woolly idiots," 
in whose race, for innumerable centuries, man 
has elaborately cultivated stupidity, and, by 
systematic process of artificial selection, has 
faithfully eliminated every sign of insubordi- 
nation and the last trace of individuality of 
temperament, and that which in our race is 
called character. No native-born white man 
in this country can be induced to follow, for 
any length of time, the vocation of shepherd. 
The deadly monotony of the occupation drives 
him either to imbecility or desperation. It is 
well known that men who habitually care for 
any animal come in time to resemble him. 
Stable boys, bred to the vocation of groom, 
become horse-faced and equine of disposition, 
eventually they wheeze and whistle like a 
curry-comb. Cowboys partake of the scatter- 
brained recklessness of the Texas steer which 
they tend. No one can admit dogs to be daily 
and familiar companions without absorbing 
into his system somewhat of their sense of hu- 
mor and of their faithfulness. The lion-tamer, 
who enters unscathed the den of his charge, 

203 



Hunting in Many Lands 

must share the robustious courage and deter- 
mination of the beast with which he associates. 
The rat-catcher, whether he be ferret or man, 
partakes of the fierce slyness of the game he 
follows; and I remember that, years ago, be- 
fore I ever heard mention of this peculiarity 
of resemblance, I could detect, plainly writ in 
the face of the attendant of ** Mr. Crowley," 
when he was kept in the old arsenal building 
in Central Park, the reflected temperament 
and animalism of the poor, indolent, captive 
chimpanzee, whose fellow and all too sympa- 
thetic friend he had made himself. Naturalists 
are well aware of this phenomenon. 

If this be so, and stupidity catching, what 
more potent influence of fatty degeneration of 
the intellect could there be than the uninter- 
rupted society of sheep, with nothing in the 
world to think of except their care — without 
even the stimulating influence of gain to re- 
deem the paralyzing service. The sheep are 
not their own, and if the bears eat them up the 
keepers do not feel the stimulating ache in 
their money -pocket that might tempt them, 
however feebly, to resist aggression. More- 
over, as a rule, they are wretchedly armed. 
Each of these men carried an old six-shooter 

204 



A Bear-Hunt in the Sierras 

of an outlandish and forgotten pattern, good 
enough to try a chance shot at another Mexi- 
can with, but only a source of more or less 
pleasurable titillation to a bear, were one ever 
to be discharged at him, and about as effective 
as pelting an alligator with strawberries. If 
the last stage of misery for a horse be to drag, 
along its rigid road of stone and iron, the city 
horse -car with its thankless freight of fares, 
the corresponding degradation of the "gun" 
is to rest upon the hip of a degenerate sheep- 
herder, half Spaniard, half Indian and half coy- 
ote. Any self-respecting weapon reduced to 
such straits would be conscious of its low es- 
tate ; its magazine would revolve in a creaky, 
half-hearted, reluctant fashion ; it would doubt- 
less fire an apologetic bullet ; its report would 
be something between "scat" and "beg your 
pardon," to which a bear would pay but slight 
heed. Others of the Mexicans were armed 
with old muskets, somewhat rusty and ram- 
shackly, but with a furry longitudinal perfora- 
tion throughout their length, along which — it 
could not creditably be called a bore — a ball 
could after a fashion, if you gave it time 
enough, be propelled. Leonard was excep- 
tionally fortunate in this respect ; he carried an 

205 



Hunting in Many Lands 

old rim-fire .44-40 Winchester, the action of 
which occasionally worked and occasionally did 
not. Comparatively speaking, he was rather a 
swell in the matter of firearms ; but if one 
should put his trust in him in case of emergen- 
cy as a sheet anchor to windward, there was 
always the remote possibility, were the strain 
too intense, that he might not be a dependence 
of absolute security. 

The afternoon of this day, much against my 
real inclination, but in accordance with the 
prevailing desire, we started out, the whole 
rabble of us, to follow the she grizzly's trail. 
It could not be called a "still-hunt," for the 
reason that six men hunting in a pack are 
never still ; however, it did not matter. We 
found in a neighboring gulch bits of the fleece, 
bones and hides of three sheep, and the suffi- 
ciently plain evidence, upon the trampled and 
bloody ground, of recent feasts. Yet this was 
the banqueting hall and not the children's 
nursery. A bear thinks nothing of a little 
stroll of ten miles or so before or after eating. 
It aids digestion, and in case of a female, as 
this was, wards off an attack of the nerves. 
Particularly a bear with cubs would put at 
least that distance between herself and hunt- 

206 



A Bear-Hunt in the Sierras 

ers. Moreover they are so clever that I doubt 
not this one knew already by scent and subtle 
process of ratiocination how many of us there 
were in camp, where we were from, the color 
of our hair, what sort of rifles we carried, their 
caliber, how heavy a bullet and how many 
grains of powder they fired. This is said in the 
light of after events and of further experience. 
That afternoon, in our unjustifiably san- 
guine forecast, we had hopes of finding this 
particular bear. The half-witted " Portugee," 
of whom I have spoken, showed especial 
zeal in the presence of the pah'on, and in- 
sisted, in spite of mild and repeated caution, 
in going ahead and scrupulously investigating 
every possible ambuscade where there was the 
remotest chance of finding the bear, or, what 
was much more likely, of the bear finding him. 
In consideration of the fact that this was a she 
one which we were after, that she was proud 
and well fed, and on the lookout for pursuit, 
had the "Portugee" found her, she would in 
all probability have received his visit with cor- 
dial warmth. Not speaking his tongue fluent- 
ly, I was unable to express my solicitude except 
by signs and admonitory gestures. The rest 
of the party apparently seemed to think that, 

207 



Hunting in Many Lands 

while the bear was interested and occupied 
with him, a good opportunity would be offered 
for getting in a shot ; and as Portuguese were a 
drug in the market in that part of California, 
and grizzly bears, dead, a great rarity, he was 
suffered to contribute his mite to the success of 
la ckasse, and all went merrily. Not a thicket 
or a den did he leave unprobed. 

An hour or two were spent in beating 
up the gulch to its head. Then a barren 
mountain side presented itself, three or four 
miles of it, with no shelter. Leonard ran 
the trail here like a dog, literally ran it, and 
the pack of hunters tailed behind him for a 
half or three-quarters of a mile. A bit before 
sundown we were at the edge of the chaparral 
— a tangle of bushes and quaking asp — rather a 
baddish place in which to stumble upon her se- 
rene highness. However, my companions did 
me the honor to promote me to the " Portu- 
gee's" place and function. With rifle across 
the crook of arm, we stole as silently as might 
be — the United States army would have made 
more noise — into the jungle. Sunset overtook 
us up on the far edge, with a stretch of open 
forest in sight, and, I doubt not, with Madam 
Bruin and her cubs miles ahead in some inac- 

208 



A Bear-Hunt in the Sierras 

cessible snarl of bushes, where the crackling 
underbrush would warn her of approach as 
fully as could the most complete system of 
burglar alarms. 

That night, leaving word that whoever might 
be the first to stir in the morning should call 
me, I unrolled my blankets under a spruce 
somewhat apart from the crowd, and was soon 
asleep. Before daylight I was astir, had a cup 
of coffee and a bite, and was off. Upon the 
previous afternoon I had picked the direction 
I would take, which was to skirt certain open- 
ings in the forest below. Fresh sign I saw 
that assured me of the excellence of the range 
for bear, but I encountered nothing alive worth 
powder and ball, and returned to camp about 
9 o'clock. I was greeted by Leonard with 
the joyful news that during my absence he 
had seen from camp a big bear cross the side 
of the mountain only a mile or so away, and 
disappear over the ridge. This happened 
about 7 o'clock. The chief herder and my 
companion received the information some- 
what in a spirit of respectful incredulity, but 
Leonard assured me that it was so, and we 
made preparations to follow the trail toward 
night. Meanwhile I breakfasted and slept. 

209 



Hunting in Many Lands 

We left camp about 3 o'clock in the after- 
noon, and without the slightest difficulty found 
the beast's trail exactly where the Mexican 
had said we should. Before this time I had 
killed an odd bear or so in Colorado, and had 
had some little experience in unraveling the 
trail of game. It may be rather priding my- 
self upon the accomplishment, but let me here 
acknowledge the superiority of professional 
talent. Leonard, to all intents and purposes, 
had been born and raised on a sheep range. 
His earliest recollections had been of the 
sheep camps of the Sierras, of the reputation 
of the arch-enemy of the flock and of the 
havoc which he works. From infancy he, like 
all the herders, had been constantly upon the 
lookout for bear sign ; it was his one keen- 
est intellectual accomplishment and diversion. 
The result of this special training was such 
an acuteness of vision and nice discrimination 
of eye that he could clearly distinguish a bear's 
footprints upon the naked sand and gravel 
where at a quick glance I was unable to see 
any indication whatever. A single grain of 
sand displaced was sufficient to arrest his eye ; 
he detected it instantly. To him the minutest 
particle had its weather-beaten side as well as 

210 



A Bear-Hunt in the Sierras 

a boulder. A bear could not put his foot 
upon the ground without leaving an impress 
which he could detect. His talent was so 
quick and unerring that we soon organized a 
division of labor. He was to concentrate his 
energies and attention upon the trail, while I, 
by his side or a step in advance, when the 
trail read itself and permitted such a course, 
was to watch ahead and around for both of us. 
Fortunately this arrangement was satisfactory 
to him. The hardest of the trail to decipher 
was where it was written in condensed short- 
hand across a mountain slide or coulisse of 
naked granite boulders. Here not one trace 
was to be found in a dozen yards. Fortunately 
we could trust in the genius of the bear; he 
was aware, as well as La Place, that a straight 
line is the shortest distance between two 
points. He undoubtedly knew exactly where 
he was heading. We had his general direc- 
tion, and by beating about for a tuft of grass 
here with a blade displaced, a stray gooseberry 
bush there with a leaf awry, and yonder a 
patch of thicker vegetation, betraying inter- 
ference, we soon succeeded, owing mainly to 
Leonard's genius as a pathfinder, in getting 
through a couple of acres of this most vague 

2H 



Hunting in Many Lands 

and illegible pedography. At last we had the 
trail upon the mountain side once more, where, 
after such difficulties surmounted, following it 
was a comparative luxury. 

After having proceeded in this manner for 
perhaps two hours, we entered timber, and 
were obliged to advance with greater caution 
to avoid the slightest sound which might be- 
tray our presence and give the alarm. With 
two men the risk of doing this is increased in 
geometrical ratio. One person alone, travel- 
ing through the woods, may, and almost cer- 
tainly will, break an occasional twig under 
foot. If game is within hearing, the sound 
will inevitably be detected ; the deer, if it be a 
deer, will lift his head and listen ; but if the 
hunter stops and waits for a time, the chances 
are that the animal will, after due interval of 
silence, resume his feeding if so engaged, or 
his rumination, be it physical or moral, and 
the alarm may not prove fatal. Not so when 
companions are hunting together. It would 
seem as if the second man, with dreadful 
promptness, never failed to snap his twig also, 
which sounds as loud as a pistol coming upon 
the strained attention of the listening beast, 
who is off like a streak, leaving the disap- 

212 



A Bear-Hunt in the Sierras 

pointed hunter, as he hears him crashing 
away, to moralize that company in the chase 
halves the pleasure and doubles the sorrow. 
The only safety where union is necessary 
is to proceed with exaggerated and fantastic 
caution. 

Leonard was a treasure in this. He had 
dreamt of grizzlies all his life, yet had never 
been in at the death. His heart was in the 
hunt — he fairly sighed for gore. We crept 
into the woods as silent as panthers and as 
"purry" in the ardor of the chase. After a 
mile or so our bear had come to an immense 
fallen spruce, lying across the trail, with the 
big butt, five or six feet in diameter, to our 
right, the top pointing up the hill. Over the 
middle of this, at right angles, lay another 
large tree, with the point toward us. I felt 
that behind the first of these, if I had been the 
original and unmolested settler in these parts, 
as the bear was, with all the world before me 
where to choose, I should have made the bed 
for my morning nap. It was long after day- 
light when he had reached this covert. He 
had doubtless been stirring soon after sunset 
the evening before ; he had, it is not unlikely, 
been traveling all night; had feasted heartily 

213 



Hunting in Many Lands 

upon a sheep during that interval, and by the 
time he reached this place, which may have 
been in his mind from the start, was feeling 
comfortably lazy and inclined to the refresh- 
ment of sleep. Behind that tree, so admirably 
suited for the purpose, I trusted that he might 
still remain. The big end would protect a 
cool space from the heat of the morning sun, 
and we might yet be so lucky as to find him in 
his lair beneath its shelter. A signal to Leon- 
ard was enough, and we proceeded to circle 
the fallen timber, which fortunately the wind 
permitted, with all the caution of which we 
were capable. Had the gentleman we were 
after been our dearest friend at the crisis of a 
fever, we could not have tiptoed about his bed 
with more solicitude lest we disturb sweet 
slumber. The big tree lay in front of us ; by 
this we crept at a respectful distance, and then 
approached the further end of the tree lying 
across it. With great care I sneaked up until 
I could look over its trunk at the desired 
point. Alas ! no bear had made his nest 
there. 

Sorrowfully, but without a sound, I crawled 
upon the intervening log and slowly stood 
erect. There, directly beneath me, where I 

214 



A Bear-Hunt in the Sierras 

could have jumped into it most comfortably, 
was the deserted form of the bear, which he 
had dug in the morning within an hour after 
Leonard had seen him, and in which the great- 
er part of the day had been spent, until he had 
stirred abroad for water, with which to wash 
down the recollection of his muttons. Al- 
though ardently hoping that he was behind 
the tree, I had not in the least expected to 
find his bed in this particular place. Had he 
stayed quietly there until our arrival, he would 
have given one of us a delicious surprise, and 
the mutual agitation of the moment might 
have induced a shot with unpremeditated 
haste, and possibly have caused me to get 
off that fallen spruce tree in somewhat quick- 
er time than I had climbed it One naturally 
would not feel any keen desire to display his 
acrobatic skill in walking a log for the enter- 
tainment of an infuriated grizzly. A few hairs 
proclaimed him a cinnamon, who is either a 
variety of the grizzly or his first cousin — au- 
thorities differ ; at all events, he closely resem- 
bles him except in color, which, although of a 
uniform light, fady brown, might be an ex- 
treme type of the "sorrel top" of the Rockies. 
In size the cinnamon fully holds his own with 

215 



Hunting in Many Lands 

the grizzly; I should say that his head was 
rather longer. The generous excavation which 
this one had made showed that he was no 
mean representative of his species. 

Not twenty yards away, and near the end of 
the big tree where I had expected to find him, 
was a little spring. To this, still without a 
word, we proceeded, saw where he had stood 
to drink more than once, doubtless long and 
deep. To our left, in the soft earth, lay his 
retreating footsteps — a continuation of the 
general direction of his previous course. A 
moment's pause for closer scrutiny, a smile 
and a whispered word exchanged — just to 
show that we were not bored ; then, respect- 
ful of the silence of the darkening woods, we 
were again upon the trail. It was now easy 
to see why he had left his lair ; it faced the 
west, and the heat of the afternoon sun had 
annoyed him, warmly clad and irritable with 
high living. 

We had proceeded only about a stone's 
throw further when I caught a glimpse of our 
bear. Within twenty paces, under the shadow 
of a tree at the edge of a cool, umbrageous 
thicket, between him and the setting sun, lay 
the beast we were after ; or, as I for a moment 

216 



A Bear-Hunt in the Sierras 

thought, judging from the great inchoate mass 
of brown fur, a pair, perhaps male and female, 
or one, it might be, a yearling cub. With fin- 
ger lifted I signaled Leonard to stop. A 
great head was slowly raised and turned my 
way. A bullet between the eyes and down it 
went again, and I threw another cartridge into 
the chamber, expecting to see the second bear 
spring to his feet, ready to do whatever, in his 
judgment, the occasion required, either to fight 
or to run. Whichever he might elect to do, it 
was well to be prepared. "Give him another 
shot," said the prudent Leonard, and I fired a 
second time, sending this ball quartering and, 
like the first, through the brain ; then I realized 
that there was but one, and he of creditable size. 
We soon had him out in the open, for nothing 
is easier to roll about than a bear just killed. 
He is like a great jelly-fish, and I have seen a 
little terrier no larger than a rabbit worry and 
shake a great carcass four times as large as 
the most commodious kennel he could desire, 
provided he were a sensible pup and had the 
comfortable instinct of wild things for snug- 
ness rather than ostentatious display. Enough 
of daylight remained for us to get his pelt off, 
with head and claws unskinned and attached, 

217 



Hunting in Many Lands 

and to hurry over the mountain by moonlight 
with our trophy, a junk of rank meat for such 
as might desire it not forgotten. 

We were cordially welcomed back to camp, 
and, after the usual pow-wow, the cook, with 
due formality, with Mexican chile and Spanish 
politeness, proceeded to concoct the boasted 
chile con oso — a much overrated dish when 
made of a touofh old cinnamon he bear. After 
I had turned in I heard much laughter, and 
subsequently learned that it was at an incident 
of the day. As we were starting out in the 
afternoon, and before we had struck the bear's 
trail, in order to avoid any possibility of a pre- 
mature shot I had casually inquired of Leon- 
ard if he wished to earn five dollars. 

"Certainly, Sefior, I am always glad to get 
the chance." 

"Well, don't shoot then until I give the 
word, and you shall have it." 

This circumstance Leonard had innocently 
narrated to the group around the camp-fire 
in the fuller elaboration of the hunt, and the 
story had an immediate success, the idea seem- 
ing to prevail that nothing in the world could 
have tempted him to fire before he was com- 
pelled to — which, as a matter of fact, I think 

218 



A Bear-Hunt in the Sierras 

was only prudent on his part, considering the 
arms he bore. 

The next morning, to the infinite chagrin of 
some of us, the younger /^/;'^« discovered that 
his presence was required at home, where, if 
he was mildly chid by my friend, his elder 
brother, who in generosity to his junior had 
yielded his own place and the leadership of 
this expedition, I should not greatly grieve. 

Upon the third day thereafter we regained 
the ranch. 

Alden Sampson. 



aig 



The Ascent of Chief Mountain 

In the most northern corner of the Piegans* 
country, in northwestern Montana, almost 
grazing the Canadian border with its abrupt 
side, stands a turret -shaped mountain. Be- 
hind it the great range of the Rockies, which 
for hundreds of miles has been trending stead- 
ily northwood, bends sharply away toward the 
west, leaving the corner on which the moun- 
tain stands a huge protruding pedestal for its 
weird shape. Ninety years ago Lewis and 
Clarke saw it from far to southward as they 
passed along the dwindling Missouri and call- 
ed it Tower Mountain ; but to the Indians it 
has always been The Chief Mountain. Even 
those prosaic German geographers to whom 
we owe so much for information about our 
own and other lands have either seen it and 
fallen under the spell of its strange power, or 
have taken their nomenclature directly from 
the Piegans, for they have crowned it Kaiser 
Peak. 

230 



The Ascent of Chief Mountain 

For more than a year we had been num- 
bered with the Chief's subjects. During the 
previous summer we had been seeking the 
acquaintance of the mountain goat; not the 
shorn degenerate which throngs the slopes of 
the Cascades and straggles among the southern 
peaks of Montana, but the true snowy buffalo 
of the northern Rockies ; and from the ledges 
of the St. Mary Mountains, where we had 
sought him, could be seen still further to the 
northward the Piegans' Chief. Of the range, 
yet not in it, like a captain well to the front of 
his battle-line, he pressed out into the broad 
prairie, as if leading a charge of Titans toward 
the far distant lakes. And through the long 
months of an Eastern winter, and the still 
longer months of an Eastern summer, above 
all the memories of that wondrous land where 
every butte and mountain peak teems with 
legend, and where every bison skull on the 
prairie tells its story, had towered the clear-cut 
image of that Northern mountain, a worthy 
sovereign of any man's allegiance. Now, as 
inevitably as an antelope returns to its lure, we 
had returned for a closer look at our moun- 
tain. Down deep in our hearts, battling with 
the awe which we felt for him, was the almost 

221 



Hunting in Many Lands 

unspoken hope that perhaps in some way we 
might struggle up his sheer sides and make 
him, in a way he was to no one else, our king. 

We were a party of three, the Doctor and I, 
and our faithful packer, Fox. A cold storm 
was blowing spitefully across the open foot- 
hills and out on to the prairie as we broke 
camp under the high banks of Kennedy Creek 
on the morning of the last stage of our jour- 
ney. The clouds, driving over the range from 
the northwest, swung so low that they hid the 
peaks, and the great pedestal of the Chief met 
them all uncrowned, indistinguishable from the 
others about him. It was one of those doubt- 
ful mornings with which the mountains love to 
warn off strangers, or to greet their friends — 
one which might presage a week of storm or 
usher in a fortnight of surpassing beauty. 

We had camped for the night at the last of 
those ranches which stretch along the bottom 
lands of the St. Mary River, and just as we 
started, its owner, Indian Billy, decided to go 
with us. 

Even he had never been to the foot of his 
tribe's famous peak, and the dark-skinned 
idlers of the ranch who gathered about us as 
we flung the lash ropes over our horses ecu id 

222 



The Ascent of Chief Mountain 

tell us little more than legends of it. Several 
Bloods from across the Canadian border de- 
clared that the boundary line ran, not where 
the white men had marked it on the prairie 
with their insignificant piles of stones, but 
through the deep cleft in the Chief's wall, 
where the Great Spirit himself had placed it; 
thus giving to the Bloods, who knew it best, 
their proper share of the mountain. And, 
getting warmer in their enthusiasm, they re- 
minded Billy of their standing challenge to 
his tribe, the Piegans — fifty horses to anyone 
who should run around that wall, small as it 
seemed, in half a day. 

For our part it was hard to realize even on 
that cold September morning that the long 
dreaming was over and the reality before us. 
It took all the straining of the pack ponies on 
the wet lead-ropes to remind us that we were 
at last climbing the foothills of the great peak. 
Our presence there, far from breaking the long 
enchantment, surrendered us bodily to it, and 
Billy, riding over the successive slopes before 
us, swaying in the saddle with the hawk-like 
motion of the prairie Indian, seemed a fit am- 
bassador to lead us to his king. As the day 
passed, the clouds gradually lightened; and 

223 



Hunting in Many Lands 

finally, just as we surmounted one of the high- 
er foothills, at the summit of the long, sloping, 
forest-clad pedestal before us broke through 
the crown of the Chief. Toward us, on the 
east, it showed a black rectangular wall 2,000 
feet in length, 1,500 in height, and from its 
sharp corners the broken mists streamed away 
southward like tattered garments. 

A few hasty pictures, taken while Fox 
mended a broken pack cinch, and we pressed 
on toward the foot of the mountain. Some 
benign influence was with us even thus early, 
and we were guided into the easiest way. 
Streaks of burned forest, bristling with wind- 
falls, were slowly but successfully threaded, 
long rock slides luckily avoided, while we 
mounted steadily slope after slope; until 
finally, late in the afternoon, we pulled our 
panting horses out, just above timber line, 
upon the comparatively level summit of the 
pedestal. The foot of the great crown wall 
was still a mile away and 1,000 feet above us, 
but we were near enough and high enough for 
our purpose; and in a deep basin, sheltered 
from the wind and carpeted with softest moun- 
tain grass, and with the only water in the 
neighborhood sparkling up from a spring in 

224 



The Ascent of Chief Mountain 

the bottom, we found a perfect camp. As 
soon as the tents were pitched, Fox set about 
preparing dinner, while the seven horses, freed 
from their loads, buried their noses in the grass 
in perfect contentment. 

As he sat in the door of the tent, the Doc- 
tor's eyes seemed glued to his field glass, while 
the object lenses ever pointed in the one direc- 
tion, westward; under the brim of the Indian's 
broad hat, as he lay apparently dozing before 
the fire, I could see his black eyes fixed on 
the same point; and even Fox, constantly 
shifting his position about the fire, rarely took 
one which placed his back toward that black 
wall behind which the sun was now gradually 
sinking. For myself, all the longing of the 
past year had concentrated itself into a desire 
to rush over this last remaining distance; to 
get to that magic crown, to feel it with hand 
and foot, and to see whether, as the Piegans 
aver, it denied even a single foothold for a 
mortal man. 

After dinner the Doctor and I did go to it. 
We clambered out of our little basin on to the 
higher portion of the domelike pedestal, and 
from this platform, on which rests the great 
crown, looked past its two edges at the vast 

225 



Hunting in Many Lands 

mountain range behind it, stretching north 
and south. Then we picked our way toward 
it, through the loose boulders and broken 
rock; saw the summit hang further and fur- 
ther over us as we advanced into the gloom at 
its foot, and after finally reaching it and press- 
ing ourselves against it where it rose sheer 
from its pedestal, we hurried back to camp 
through the twilight, thoroughly awed by the 
solemnity of the place. 

The storm of the morning had cleared into 
a most perfect night ; and, as we lay about the 
fire, Billy told us all that the old men had told 
him of the Chief. A full-blooded Piegan, in 
his new life as a ranchman he had not lost 
touch with the traditions of his tribe. Only 
one Piegan, he said, had ever attempted to 
climb the mountain. Years ago a hunting 
party of their young men had been encamped 
on the opposite side, where the cliffs do not 
overhang so much, and ledges run temptingly 
up for a distance ; and one of them, the 
youngest and most ambitious of the band, de- 
clared that he would go to the summit. He 
started, and his companions watched him from 
below until he passed along one of the very 
highest ledges, out of sight. Then the spirit 

226 



The Ascent of Chief Mountain 

of the mountain must have met him ; for, 
though they waited many days, and searched 
for him all around the base, he never came 
back. And the Piegans, being a prairie tribe 
and not over fond of the mountains at best, 
thereafter avoided any close acquaintance with 
their king. 

A story had come to them, however, from 
the Flatheads across the range — a tribe whose 
prowess they always respected in war, as they 
believed in their truthfulness in peace — and 
as the story related to their mountain, they 
had treasured it among their own legends. 
Still earlier, many years before even the oldest 
Piegan was a boy, there had lived a great Flat- 
head warrior, a man watched over by a spirit 
so mighty that no peril of battle or of the hunt 
could overcome him. When at last in his old 
age he came to die, he told the young men his 
long-kept secret. Many years before, as the 
time approached for him to go off into the 
forest and sleep his warrior sleep, in which he 
hoped to see the vision which should be his 
guide and protection through life, he had de- 
cided to seek a spot and a spirit which had 
never before been tried. So, carrying the 
usual sacred bison skull for his pillow, he had 

227 



Hunting in Many Lands 

crossed the mountains eastward into t»he far-off 
Piegan country. Then, with none to aid him 
save the steady power of his own courage, he 
had ventured upon the ledges of the Chief of 
the Mountains, and, choking down each gasp 
of panic when at overhanging corners the 
black walls seemed striving to thrust him off 
and down, he had finally forced his way to the 
very summit. For four days and nights he had 
fasted there, sleeping in the great cleft which 
one can see from far out on the prairie. On 
each of the first three nights, with ever in- 
creasing violence, the spirit of the mountain 
had come to him and threatened to hurl him 
off the face of the cliff if he did not go down 
on the following day. Each time he had re- 
fused to go, and had spent the day pacing the 
summit, chanting his warrior song and waving 
his peace pipe in the air as an offering, until 
finally, on the fourth night, the spirit had 
yielded, had smoked the pipe, and had given 
him the token of his life. None of the young 
Flatheads, however, said Billy, had dared to 
follow their great warrior's example ; so that to 
this day he was the only man who had braved 
the'spirit of the Chief and made it his friend. 
After we were rolled in our blankets, and 
228 



The Ascent of Chief Mountain 

the late moon, rising from the prairie ocean 
behind us, had turned the dark, threatening 
wall to cheering silver, we thought again of 
the old warrior's steadfastness and longed to 
make his example ours. 

The Doctor's thermometer marked 20 de- 
grees Fahrenheit when Fox called us, and the 
morning bucket which he dashed over us was 
flavored with more of the spirit of duty than 
usual. But otherwise the weather had been 
made for us. Yesterday's storm had beaten 
down the smoke from Washington forest fires, 
which had clouded everything for the past 
month, and the Sweet Grass Hills twinkled 
across one hundred miles of prairie as if at 
our feet ; and yet there was hardly a breath 
of wind. Under the lee of the wall itself ab- 
solute stillness brooded over ledges which even 
a moderate breeze could have made dangerous. 
We did not make an early start. The thing 
could be done quickly if it could be done at 
all, for there was only 1,500 feet of cliff. 

Our men did not give the attempt to reach 
the summit from this, the eastern side, even 
the scant compliment of a doubt; in their 
minds its failure was certain, but they were 

229 



Hunting in Many Lands 

willing to see how far we could get up. The 
Doctor, too, had at first suggested, and with 
perfect correctness, that to try a difficult side 
of a mountain before reconnoitering the other 
was bad mountaineering, to say the least. But, 
on the other hand, this east side was the fa- 
mous side of the Chief — the side which every 
passer-by on the prairie saw and wondered at. 
With our glasses we had mapped a course 
which seemed not impossible; was it not bet- 
ter to meet our king face to face than to steal 
on him from behind ? Besides, this wonderful 
weather might not last long enough for us to 
reach the other side. And so our final conclu- 
sion was to try the east face. 

Half way up the sheer face of the cliff was 
divided horizontally by a broad, steep shelf 
which ran nearly the length of the mountain. 
That shelf could clearly be crossed at any 
place ; the difficulty would lie with the walls 
below and above it. The lower one was bad 
enough at best, but it was easy to recognize as 
least bad a place where a s4ope of shale abut- 
ted against it, shortening it some 300 feet. 
The upper wall in general seemed even worse, 
but it was furrowed by two deep chimneys, 
side by side, one of which led into the moun- 

230 



The Ascent of Chief Mountain 

tain's well-known cleft. The other chimney 
seemed to lead directly to the summit, but its 
lower mouth was inaccessible — cut off by over- 
hanging cliff. Our plan, therefore, if we could 
ever reach the halfway shelf, was to use the 
first chimney in the beginning, then try to find 
a way around the dividing shoulder into the 
second, then follow that to the top. And at 
9 o'clock we began on the lower wall. 

Of course, the work which followed was not 
so difficult as it had promised from below — 
rock work rarely is — but it thoroughly taxed 
our slender experience, and, for a single man 
without a rope, must have been far worse. 
The Doctor and I took turns in leading, car- 
rying up or having thrown to us from below a 
rope, on which the others then ascended. Most 
of the difficulty was thus confined to one man, 
and he could often be assisted from beneath. 
We were not skilled enough in the use of the 
rope to risk tying ourselves together. 

Two hundred feet up came our first trouble, 
perhaps the worst of the day. We were sid- 
ling along a narrow shelf, with arms out- 
stretched against the wall above, when we 
reached a spot where the shelf was broken 
by a round protruding shoulder. Beyond it 

231 



Hunting in Many Lands 

the ledge commenced again and seemed to 
offer our only way upward. I was leading at 
the time, and, after examining it, turned back 
to a wider portion of the shelf for consulta- 
tion. It was not a place one would care to 
try if there was an alternative. 

We braced the Indian against the wall, and 
his skillful hand sent the lariat whirling up at 
a sharp rock above our heads. Time after 
time the noose settled fairly around it, but 
found no neck to hold it, and came sliding 
down. Then, almost before we knew it, the 
Doctor had run out along the ledge to the 
shoulder and had started around. For a mo- 
ment he hung, griping the rounded surface 
with arms and knees ; then a dangerous wrig- 
gle and he was on the other side. 

Under his coaching the Indian and I fol- 
lowed ; but Fox, when half way, lost his head, 
and barely succeeded in getting back to the 
starting point. He would not try again. The 
poor fellow's moccasins had lost some of their 
nails and he had slipped once or twice that 
morning, thus destroying the nerve of one 
who had at other times shown himself a good 
climber. But of the Indian's companionship 
for the rest of the day we were now sure. 

232 



The Ascent of Chief Mountain 

Again, when near the top of that first wall, 
and when the halfway ledge seemed almost 
within our grasp, the shallow cleft — up which 
we were scrambling — ended in a deep pocket 
in the cliff's face, with no outlet above. The 
Doctor tried it at one corner, but the treach- 
erous crumbling rock warned him back. I 
tried it at another, but was stopped by an 
overhang in the cliff. No help for it but to 
go back and try to find a way around. 

Fifty feet below we landed on a small shelf 
running horizontally along the mountain's face, 
and, after following it northward a few mo- 
ments, we found another channel leading up. 
The Doctor started to investigate it, while 
Billy and I continued on slowly looking for 
a better. Almost immediately, however, we 
heard the Doctor shout " All right," and, fol- 
lowing him, came out at last upon the great 
halfway shelf of the mountain. 

This was a steep slope of shale, which 
seemed in places quite ready to slide in an 
avalanche of loose rock over the edge of the 
cliff below; but the relief of being out upon it, 
and able once more to stand upright without 
the sensation of a wall against your face, 
apparently trying to shove you outward 

233 



Hunting in Many Lands 

from your slender foothold, was simply inde- 
scribable. 

After crossing the shelf and eating our 
lunch in the mouth of the first or left-hand 
chimney, we attacked the upper wall. Fol- 
lowing up the chimney a short distance, we 
found at last a narrow ledge leading to the 
right, and, creeping around on it, I looked into 
the right-hand chimney above its forbidding 
mouth. It led as a broad, almost easy, stair- 
case clear to the top of the wall above, and 
for the first time we felt as if our king were 
really ours. 

Six or seven hundred feet more of steady 
work, and we could feel the summit breeze 
beginning to blow down the narrow mouth of 
the chimney. Billy was then sent to the front, 
and at half past one the first Piegan stepped 
out on the summit of the Chief Mountain. 

It is a long ridge of disintegrated rock, 
flanked at either end by lower rounded tur- 
rets, and at its highest part is no wider than a 
New England stone wall. On the opposite 
western side the cliffs fell away as on our own, 
but they seemed shorter, were composed of 
looser rock, and far down below we could see 
steep slopes of shale meeting them part way. 

234 



The Ascent of Chief Mountain 

After we had picked out our various land- 
marks in the wonderful outlook about us, and 
I had made my record from compass and ba- 
rometer, we pushed our way carefully along 
to the highest point of the narrow ridge, in 
order to mark it with a cairn of rocks. Just as 
we reached it, the Indian, who was still in the 
lead, suddenly stopped and pointed to the 
ground. There, on the very summit of Chief 
Mountain, safely anchored by rocks from the 
effect of wind or tempest, lay a small, weather- 
beaten bison skull. It was certainly one of 
the very oldest I have ever seen. Even in the 
pure air of that mountain top it had rotted 
away until there was little else than the frontal 
bone and the stubs on which had been the 
horns. Billy picked it up and handed it to us 
quietly, saying with perfect conviction, "The 
old Flathead's pillow!" 

We left the skull where it had been found. 
Much as we should have treasured it as a 
token of that day, the devotion of the old 
warrior who had brought it was an influence 
quite sufificient to protect this memorial of his 
visit. We shared his reverence far too much 
to allow us to remove its offering. And then, 
too, as Billy suggested, we were still on top of 

23s 



Hunting In Many Lands 

the Chief, and the Chief had certainly been 
very forbearing to us. Those long walls, now 
darkened by the afternoon shade, those narrow 
ledges whence the downward climber could no 
longer avoid seeing the stone he dislodged 
bound, after two or three lengthening jumps, 
clear to the pedestal below, loomed very sug- 
gestively before his mind. But the Chief still 
remained gracious, and Billy worked even 
more steadily and sure-footedly going down 
than in the morning. We had all gained con- 
fidence, and besides we were certain of our 
course. By 5 o'clock we had reached the last 
bad place — where Fox had left us — and, after 
avoiding that by swinging down hand over 
hand on the rope from a ledge above, it was 
only a few moments to the bottom. 

That night, after we were all safe in camp, 
and the great cliff beamed down on us more 
kindly than ever in the moonlight, the Doctor 
and I decided that we had been more favored 
than the old Flathead warrior, for the spirit of 
our mountain had been with us even before we 
reached its top. 

And for our success an explanation beyond 
our physical powers seemed necessary to 
others also; for, when a few days later we 

236 



The Ascent of Chief Mountain 

returned to the ranch in the St. Mary's Val- 
ley, Billy, who had preceded us, met us with 
the mien of the prophet who is denied by his 
own, and told us that his cousins, the Bloods 
from across the border, had suggested that, 
when next he returned from a trip to the 
range, he should bring them a likelier story 
than that he had climbed the east face of the 

Chief Mountain. 

Henry L. Stimson. 



237 



The Cougar 

It was upwards of twelve years ago that I 
had been down to one of the Rio Grande River 
towns herding up Mexicans, whom I expected 
to aid me in discovering gold where none ex- 
isted. On my way down I had run across a 
mountain lion making off with a lamb, and 
shot and secured him after a little strategic 
maneuvering. On the return journey, after I 
had hired as many of the greasers as I desired, 
I camped at night about twenty miles from 
home, in a log cabin that had lost the door, 
the roof and all the chinking from between 
the logs. 

There was no reason to fear wild beasts — • 
and the cabin would have been no protection 
for me even if there had been ; nor was the 
structure any protection from the numerous 
cut-throat, horse-stealing Mexicans who flour- 
ished in that section of the country as thickly 
as cactus. However, I lariated my horse and 
threw down my blankets in this tumble-down 

238 



The Couear 



& 



shack, and turned in. I have quite a habit of 
sleeping on my back, and I was awakened some 
time in the night by a feeHng of oppression on 
my chest. Having been accustomed to life 
in a country where the Indians were rampant, 
and where the wise man on awakening looked 
about him before stirring, I opened my eyes 
without moving, and there, standing directly 
on my breast, looking me squarely in the face, 
was a skunk, with its nose not, I swear, six 
inches from my own. 

It was a bright moonlight night, and I could 
see that the little devil was of the kind whose 
bite is said to convey hydrophobia. But that 
did not worry me ; it was not the bite I feared. 
I realized perfectly that if I moved I might 
get myself into trouble. I knew that the only 
thing for me to do was to let the skunk gam- 
bol over me until he wearied of the pastime 
and went out of the cabin. 

I have a lurking suspicion that that skunk 
knew I was awake and in mental agony ; for, 
after looking me in the face, he ran down my 
body on one leg and then up again, actually 
smelling of one of my ears ; and then he trot- 
ted off me on to the floor of the cabin, where 
he nosed about awhile, then up again on my 

239 



Hunting in Many Lands 

body ; and, after sprinting a few seconds over 
my person, he went down and out of the cabin. 

So soon as he had disappeared out of the 
door I jumped to my feet and, drawing my 
gun, rushed out after him. He was plainly 
visible just to the right of the cabin, and I 
blazed away. Immediately after I had shot 
him I regretted it, for I had to move camp. 

The next day, on my way back to camp, I 
journeyed over a divide that was more or less 
noted as a den for mountain lions ; though to 
designate any particular locality as a "den" 
for cougars is incorrect, for it is not an animal 
that remains in any one place for any great 
length of time. He is a wandering pirate, 
who makes no one district his home for any 
long period. 

However, this especial divide was said to 
harbor more of them than any other; or, at 
least, there were more signs of them, and 
more were reported to be started from there 
by hunters than elsewhere in the territory. 
Be that as it may, on the particular day of 
which I write I accidentally ran across the 
only cougar I ever have killed which gave me 
a fight and stampeded my horse, so that I 
was obliged to foot it into camp. 

240 



The Cougar 

I do not think the bronco is as fearful of 
the cougar as of the bear, at least my experi- 
ence has not been such. I have had a mus- 
tang jump pretty nearly from under me on 
winding a bear, and I have wasted minutes 
upon minutes in getting him near the carcass 
of a dead one, that I might pack home a bit of 
bruin's highly-scented flesh, and I never had 
any similar experience where the cougar was 
concerned. I have had my pony evince reluc- 
tance to approach the slain lion, but not show 
the absolute terror which seizes them in the 
neighborhood of bear. 

My experience at this particular time, as I 
say, was novel in two respects — first, the fright 
with which my bronco was stricken ; and sec- 
ond, the fight shown by the cougar. I had 
reached the top of the divide, and was picking 
my way across the fallen timber, which so 
often blocks the trail over the tops of divides 
in New Mexico. I remember distinctly hav- 
ing gained a clear spot that was pretty well 
filled with wild violets, which grew in great 
profusion thereabouts, and was guiding my 
pony that I should not trample upon them; 
for in that God-forsaken district, 10,000 feet 
above the level of the sea, it seemed too bad 

241 



Hunting in Many Lands 

to crush the Hfe out of the dainty Httle flowers 
that hold up their heads to the New Mexico 
sunshine. 

Without warning, my bronco, which was 
travehng along at a fox -trot, stopped sud- 
denly, and looking up I saw, not more than 
fifty yards away, about as large a mountain 
lion as I had ever encountered, standing mo- 
tionless and looking at us with utmost com- 
placency. To throw myself out of the saddle 
and draw my Sharps-forty from the saddle 
holster was the work of a very few seconds. 
Throwing the bridle rein over my arm, I 
slipped in a cartridge, and was just pulling 
down on him when the cougar started off at a 
swinging trot to one side at right angles to 
where he had stood, and through some small 
quaking aspens. Without thinking of the 
bridle being over my arm, I knelt quickly in 
order to get a better sight of the animal, and 
almost simultaneously pressed the trigger. 

As I did so my bronco threw up his head, 
which spoiled my aim, and, instead of sending 
the ball through the cougar's heart, as I had 
hoped to do, it went through the top of his 
shoulders, making a superficial wound — not 
sufficiently severe to interfere with his loco- 

243 



The Cougar 

motion, as I immediately discovered ; for, with 
a combined screech and growl, that lion 
wheeled in my direction, and made for me 
with big jumps that were not exactly of 
lightning rapidity, but were ground-covering 
enough to create discomfort in the object of 
his wrath. 

My bronco, meanwhile, was jumping all over 
the ground, and I realized I could not hold 
him and make sure of my aim. To swing 
myself into the saddle and make away would 
have been simple, but I knew enough of the 
cougar to know that if I retreated, he, in his 
fury, would be sure to follow ; and on that 
mountain side, with its fallen timber and rough 
going, I should have little chance in a race 
with him. I had no revolver to meet him in 
the saddle at short range, and a knife was not 
to my liking for any purpose, so far as an 
infuriated cougar was concerned, except for 
skinning him, once I had put sufficient lead 
into his carcass to quiet his nerves. There 
was nothing for me to do but fight it out on 
foot ; therefore I dropped the bridle rein and 
turned the bronco loose (thinking he would 
run his fright off in a short distance), and gave 
myself up to the business of the moment, 

243 



Hunting in Many Lands 

which, with the beast getting nearer every 
instant, was becoming rather serious. I do 
not know how others have felt under Hke 
conditions ; but there is something about the 
look of a cougar on business bent, with its 
greenish, staring eyes, that produces a most 
uncomfortable sensation. I have been sent 
up a tree post-haste by a bear, and I have 
had an old bull moose give me an unpleasant 
quarter of an hour, but I am sure I never 
experienced a more disagreeable sensation 
than when I looked through my rifle sights 
at that loping lion. He did not seem to be in 
any feverish anxiety to reach me, but there 
was an earnest air about his progression that 
was ominous. 

Under any circumstances, it is not altogeth- 
er pleasing to have a mountain lion, on his 
busy day, making for you, and with only about 
fifteen to twenty yards between him and his 
quarry. I presume the delicacy of the situa- 
tion must have impressed itself upon me ; for 
my next shot, although I aimed for one of 
those hideous eyes, missed far enough to clip 
off a piece of skin from the top of his skull 
and to whet his appetite for my gore. My 
bullet seemed to give him an added impetus; 

244 



The Cougar 

for, with almost a single bound and a blood- 
chilling screech, by the time I had put anoth- 
er cartridge into my single-shot rifle, he was 
practically on top of me. Fortunately, his 
spring had landed him short, and in another 
instant I had very nearly blown his entire 
head off. He was a monster. I skinned him 
and hung his pelt on a tree ; and, on foot, 
made my way into camp, after a fruitless 
search for my bronco. 

I have killed five cougars, and this is the 
only one that ever gave me a fight. I record 
it with much pleasure, for there is an uncer- 
tainty about the cougar's temperament and an 
alacrity of movement that are altogether un- 
settling. You never know in what mood you 
find the mountain lion, and he does not seem 
by any chance to be in the same one more 
than once, for those I have shot have evinced 
different dispositions; generally, however, 
bordering on the cowardly. At times their 
actions are sufficient to characterize them as 
the veriest cowards in the world, and yet 
again, on very slight provocation, they are 
most aggressive and cruelly ferocious. There 
are many well -authenticated stories, to be 
had for the asking of any old mountaineer, 

245 



Hunting in Many Lands 

of the unwonted craftiness and ferocity of the 
cougar, and I suppose I could fill a couple 
of chapters of this volume by recounting 
yarns that have been told me during my 
Western life. 

Between ourselves, I do not think hunting 
the cougar ir very much sport. It is an in- 
structive experience, and one, I think, every 
hunter of big game should have; but, at the 
same time, in my opinion it does not afford 
the sport of still-hunting deer, antelope, elk, 
moose or bears. In the first place, there is 
really no time you can still-hunt the cougar 
except in winter, when there is a light snow on 
the ground, and at all times it is most difficult, 
because you are dealing with an animal that 
embodies the very quintessence of wariness, 
and is ever on the lookout for prey and en- 
emies. You have to deal with an animal that 
knows every crevice and hole of the mountain 
side, that moves by night in preference to day, 
and rarely travels in the open ; whose great 
velvety paws enable it to sneak about abso- 
lutely unheard, and that will crouch in its lair 
while you pass, perhaps within a dozen feet. 

Yet there are only two ways of really hunt- 
ing the mountain lion — by still-hunting and by 

246 



The Cougar 

baiting. I have tried baiting a number of 
times, but have never found it successful. 
Others, I understand, have found it so; but in 
a score of cases, where I have provided tempt- 
ing morsels, and lain out all night in hopes of 
getting a shot at the marauder, in none have I 
been rewarded, and in only one or two have 
I got a glimpse of a pair of shining eyes, that 
disappeared in the gloom almost on the in- 
stant of my discovering them. 

Probably the most successful method of get- 
ting a shot at this wary beast is by hunting it 
with dogs (though I never had the experience), 
for the mountain lion has small lungs and 
makes a short, fast race. With dogs on his 
trail he is likely to take to a tree after a not 
very long run, which rarely occurs when he is 
still-hunted on foot. Yet, if the hunter values 
the lives of his dogs, he must be sure of his 
first shot, for the cougar is a tough customer 
to tackle when in his death throes ; and I have 
been told, by those who have hunted in this 
way, that many a young and promising dog 
has had the life crushed out of him by the 
dying lion. Their forelegs are short and very 
powerful ; but, curiously enough, unlike the 
bear, they do not use them in cutting and 

247 



Hunting in Many Lands 

slashing so much as in drawing the victim to 
them to crush out its life with their strong 
jaws. 

I have said, one never knows how to take 
the cougar. Almost every mining camp in the 
West will produce somebody who has met and 
scared him to flight by a mere wave of the 
hand or a shout, and that identical camp will 
as like as not produce men that have had the 
most trying experiences with the same animal. 
It is this knowledge that makes you, to say 
the least, a little uncomfortable when you 
meet one of these creatures. I have had many 
trying experiences of one kind and another, 
and hunted many different kinds of game, but 
none ever harassed my soul as the cougar 
has. On one occasion I had been about five 
miles from camp, prospecting for gold, which 
I had discovered in such alluring quantities 
as to keep me panning until darkness put an 
end to my work and started me homeward. 
It was a pretty dark night, and my trail lay 
along the side of a mountain that was rather 
thickly wooded and a pretty fair sort of hunt- 
ing country. I had left my cabin early in the 
morning, intent on finding one of the numer- 
ous fortunes that was confidently believed to 

248 



The Cougar 

be hidden away in those New Mexico gulches, 
and was armed only with pick, shovel and pan. 
I was sauntering along, beset by dreams of 
prospective prosperity, based on the excellent 
finds I had made, when suddenly in front of 
me — I am sure not more than twenty-five feet 
— two great balls of fire rudely awakened me 
and brought my progress to an abrupt halt. I 
dare say it took a second or two to bring me 
down to earth, but when the earthward fiipfht 
was accomplished I immediately concluded 
that those balls of fire must belong to a 
mountain lion. 

At that time my experience with the cougar 
had been sufficient to put me in an uncertain 
frame of mind as to just what to expect of the 
creature. I had not an idea whether he was 
going to spring at me or whether I could scare 
him away. However, on chance, I broke the 
stillness of the night by one of those cowboy 
yells, in the calliope variations of which I was 
pretty well versed in those days, and, to my 
immense relief, the two glaring balls of fire 
disappeared. 

Trudging on my way, I had once more lost 
myself in the roseate future incidental to 
placers averaging three dollars in gold to the 

249 



Hunting in Many Lands 

cubic yard, when, as suddenly as before, and 
as directly in front of me, those two glaring 
balls shone out like a hideous nightmare. This 
time, I confess, I was a little bit annoyed. I 
knew that, as a rule, mountain lions do not fol- 
low you imless they are ravenous with hunger 
or smell blood. I had not been hunting, and, 
consequently, my clothes and hands were free 
from gore, and I was therefore forced to the 
sickening conclusion that this particular beast 
had selected me as a toothsome morsel for its 
evening repast. I cannot honestly say I was 
flattered by the implied compliment, and, sum- 
moning all my nerve, I reached for a rock and 
hurled it at those eyes, to hear it crash into 
the dry brush, and, greatly to my peace of 
mind, to see the diabolical lights go out, for it 
was too dark to distinguish the animal itself. 

Congratulating myself on the disappearance 
of the hideous will-o'-the-wisp, I set out at a 
five-mile-an-hour gait for camp. My castles in 
the air had by this time quite dissolved, and I 
was attending strictly to the business of the 
trail, wishing camp was at hand instead of a 
mile off, when once more those greenish lan- 
terns of despair loomed up ahead of me — not 
more than a dozen feet away, it seemed. I 

250 



The Cougar 

presume the beast had been trailing me all the 
time, though, after its second visitation, I kept 
a sharp lookout without discovering it, but 
evidently it had kept track of my movements. 

I had no proof of its being the same animal, 
of course, but I was pretty well persuaded of 
its identity, and I became thoroughly con- 
vinced that this particular cougar had grown 
weary of waiting for its supper, and was about 
to begin its meal without even the courtesy of 
*'by your leave." The uncanny feature of the 
experience was that not a sound revealed its 
approach on any occasion, and I had no inti- 
mation of its call until it dropped directly in 
my path. I leaned against a friendly tree and 
thought pretty hard, watching the animal most 
intently to see that it did not advance. It 
stood there as still as death, so far as I could 
distinguish, not moving even its head, and the 
steady glare of its eyes turned full upon me. 

I made up my mind that, if the animal was 
going to feast on me that evening, I would 
disarrange its digestion, if possible. My short- 
handled prospecting pick was the nearest ap- 
proach I had to a weapon, and, summoning all 
my ancient baseball skill, and feeling very care- 
fully all around me to see that there were no 

251 



Hunting in Many Lands 

intervening branches to arrest its flight, I 
hurled that pick at those two shining eyes, 
with a fervid wish that it might land between 
them. My aim was true and it landed — just 
where I cannot say, but I do know that it 
struck home ; for, with a screech calculated to 
freeze one's blood, and a subsequent growl, 
the lion made off. For the rest of the mile to 
camp I had eyes on all sides of the path at 
once, but I was not molested. 

I have since often wondered whether hun- 
ger or pure malice possessed that brute. Owen 
Wister, to whom I told the story not very long 
ago, suggested curiosity, and I am half inclined 
to believe his interpretation; for, if hunger had 
been the incentive, it seems as if a tap on the 
nose with a prospecting pick would not have 
appeased it, though the cougar's propensity 
for following people, out of unadulterated 
wantonness to frighten them, is well known. 
At any rate, he showed his cowardly side 
that trip. 

The cougar is a curious beast, capricious as 
a woman. One day he follows his prey stealth- 
ily until the proper opportunity for springing 
upon it comes ; again he will race after a 
deer in the open ; at one time he will flee at 

252 



The Couear 



&' 



a shout, at another he will fight desperately. 
They are powerful animals, particularly in the 
fore quarters. I have seen one lope down a 
mountain side, through about six inches of 
snow, carrying a fawn by the nape of the neck 
in its jaws, and swinging the body clear. 

In the West generally, I think, the lion is 
considered cowardly — a belief I share, though 
agreeing with Theodore Roosevelt, who in 
"The Wilderness Hunter" says cougars, and, 
in fact, all animals vary in moods just as much 
as mankind. Because of their feline strategy 
and craftiness, they are most difficult animals 
to hunt ; I know none more so. Neither do I 
know of any beast so likely to still the tender- 
foot's heart. Their cry is as terror-striking as 
it is varied. I have heard them wail so you 
would swear an infant had been left out in the 
cold by its mamma; I have heard them screech 
like a woman in distress; and, again, growl 
after the conventional manner attributed to 
the monarch of the forest. The average camp 
dog runs to cover when a cougar is awakening 
the echoes of the mountain. I should call it 
lucky, for those who hunt with dogs, that the 
lion does not pierce the atmosphere by his 
screeches when being nunted ; for, if he did, I 

253 



Hunting in Many Lands 

fear It would be a difficult matter to keep dogs 
on his trail. There seems to be something 
about his screeching that particularly terror- 
izes dogs. 

Casper W. Whitney. 



9^ 



Big Game of Mongolia and Tibet 

From remote antiquity hunting has been a 
favorite pastime of the emperors of China, 
but at no time has it been conducted with such 
magnificence as under the Mongol dynasty in 
the thirteenth century and during the reigning 
Manchu one. 

Marco Polo's account of a hunt of Kublai 
Khan reads like a fairy tale. The Emperor 
left his capital every year in March for a hunt- 
ing expedition in Mongolia, accompanied by all 
his barons, thousands of followers and innu- 
merable beaters. " He took with him," says 
Polo, "fully 10,000 falconers and some 500 
gerfalcons, besides peregrines, sakers and 
other hawks in great numbers, including gos- 
hawks, to fly at the waterfowl. He had also 
numbers of hunting leopards {cheetah) and 
lynxes, lions, leopards, wolves and eagles, 
trained to catch boars and wild cattle, bears, 
wild asses, stags, wolves, foxes, deer and wild 
goats, and other great and fierce beasts. 

255 



Hunting in Many Lands 

"The Emperor himself is carried upon four 
elephants in a fine chamber, made of timber, 
lined inside with plates of beaten gold and 
outside with lions' skins. And sometimes, as 
they may be going along, and the Emperor 
from his chamber is holding discourse with the 
barons, one of the latter shall exclaim : ' Sire, 
look out for cranes!' Then the Emperor in- 
stantly has the top of his chamber thrown 
open, and, having marked the cranes, he casts 
one of his gerfalcons, whichever he pleases; 
and often the quarry is struck within his view, 
so that he has the most exquisite sport and 
diversion there, as he sits in his chamber or 
lies on his bed ; and all the barons with him 
get the enjoyment of it likewise. So it is not 
without reason I tell you that 1 do not believe 
there ever existed in the world, or ever will 
exist, a man with such sport and enjoyment as 
he has, or with such rare opportunities." 

In the latter part of the seventeenth century, 
during the reign of the Emperor K'ang-hsi, 
Father Gerbillon followed the Emperor sev- 
eral times on his hunting expeditions into 
Mongolia, and has told us in his accounts of 
these journeys of the enthusiasm and skill dis- 
played by the Emperor in the pursuit of game, 

256 



Big Game of Mongolia and Tibet 

which he usually shot with arrows, though he 
also had hawks and greyhounds with him. 

I find no mention of the use of firearms in 
these imperial hunts, nor do I believe that 
it has ever been considered, by the Tartars 
and Mongols, sportsmanlike to use them. 

Coursing and hawking were probably in- 
troduced into China and Mongolia after the 
Mongol conquest of Western Asia, where 
those royal sports had then been in vogue 
for a long time. At present the Manchus 
keep great numbers of hawks, caught for the 
most part in the northern portion of the prov- 
ince of Shan-hsi, and with them they take 
hares and cranes. Greyhounds are no longer 
numerous in Mongolia and China, though they 
are much prized, and I have seen some among 
the Ordos Mongols and in Manchu garrisons. 
They were short-haired, of a clear tan color 
with black points, and showed good blood in 
their small tails and depth of chest. 

Besides the great annual hunts on the 
steppes — which, leaving aside the sport and 
incidental invigorating influence on the cour- 
tiers, helped, by the vast numbers of troops 
which took part in them, to keep quiet the 
then turbulent Mongol tribes — the emperors 

257 



Hunting in Many Lands 

of China have had, at different times, great 
hunting parks, inclosed by high walls, at con- 
venient distances from their capital, or even in 
close proximity to it, where they could indulge 
their fondness for the chase. Several of these 
parks (called wei chang) are still preserved 
for imperial hunts, and one I visited in 1886, 
to the north of Jehol and about six days' 
travel from Peking, is some ninety miles long 
from north to south, and over thirty miles 
from east to west. It is well stocked with 
pheasants, roebucks, stags, and, it is said, there 
are also tigers and leopards in it. The park 
is guarded by troops, and any person caught 
poaching in it, besides receiving corporal pun- 
ishment, is exiled for a period of a year and 
a half to two years to a distant town of the 
empire. During my visit to this park, I and 
my three companions camped just outside one 
of the gates, and, by paying the keepers a 
small sum, we were able to get daily a few 
hours' shooting in a little valley inside the 
wall and near our camp. Though we had 
no dogs, and lost all the winged birds and 
wounded hares, we bagged in nine or ten days 
over 500 pheasants, 150 hares, lOO partridges 
and a few ducks. 

258 



Big Game of Mongolia and Tibet 

A mile or so south of Peking is another 
famous hunting park, called the Nan-hai-tzu, 
in which is found that remarkable deer, not 
known to exist in a wild state in any other 
spot, called Cervus davidi. Of late years a 
number of these deer have been raised in the 
imperial park of Uwino at Tokio, and also in 
the Zoological Garden of Berlin, where a pair 
were sent by the German Minister to China, 
Mr. Von Brandt. This deer is known to the 
Chinese as the ssu-pu-hsiang-tzu, "the four 
dissimilarities," because, while its body shows 
points of resemblance to those of the deer, 
horse, cow and ass, it belongs to neither of 
those four species — so say the Chinese. 

The Chinese proper show but rarely any 
great love for sport. They are fond of fishing, 
and I have seen some very good shots among 
them, especially at snipe shooting, when, with 
their match-locks fired from the hip, they will 
frequently do snap shooting of which any of 
our crack shots might be proud. But the 
Chinese are essentially pot hunters, and have 
no sportsmanlike instincts as have the Man- 
chus and Mongols, with whom sport is one of 
the pleasures of life, though it is also a source 
of profit to many Mongol tribes. In winter 

259 



Hunting in Many Lands 

they supply with game — deer, boars, antelope, 
hares, pheasants and partridges — the Peking 
market, bringing them there frozen from re- 
mote corners of their country. 

Among the big game in the northern part 
of the Chinese Empire the first place properly 
belongs to tigers and leopards. In Korea 
tigers are quite common, and a special corps 
of tiger hunters was kept up until recently by 
the Government. The usual method of kill- 
ing tigers is to make a pitfall in a narrow 
path along which one has been found to trav- 
el, and on either side of it a strong fence is 
erected. When the tiger has fallen into the 
pit, he is shot to death or speared. The skin 
belongs to the king, and the hunters are re- 
warded by him for each beast killed. The 
skins are used to cover the seats of high dig- 
nitaries, to whom they are given by the king, 
as are also the skins of leopards ; and tigers' 
whiskers go to ornament the hats of certain 
petty officials. 

Leopards are so numerous in Korea that I 
have known of two being killed within a few 
weeks inside of the walls of Seoul. 

Tigers are also found in Manchuria, and, as 
before mentioned, in parts of northern and 

260 



Big Game of Mongolia and Tibet 

southeastern China. I have seen the skin of 
a small one hanging as an ex voto offering in 
a lama temple near the Koko-Nor, and was told 
that it had been killed not far from that spot. 
Colonel Prjevalsky, however, says that the 
tiger is not found in northwestern China; so 
the question remains an open one. 

Leopards, at all events, are common in 
northeastern and northwestern China, in the 
hunting parks north of Peking, in the moun- 
tains of northwest Kan-su and to the south of 
Koko-Nor. Bears are common from northern 
Korea to the Pamirs. The Chinese distin- 
guish two varieties, which they call "dog bear" 
or "hog bear," and "man bear." The first is 
a brown bear, and the latter, which is found on 
the high barren plateaus to the north of Tibet, 
where it makes its food principally of the little 
lagomys or marmots, which live there in great 
numbers, has for this reason been called by 
Colonel Prjevalsky Ursus lagomyarius. I 
killed one weighing over 600 pounds, whose 
claws were larger and thicker than those of 
any grizzly I have seen. Its color is a rusty 
black, with a patch of white on the breast. 

Besides these two varieties of bears, there is 
another animal, which, though it is not proper- 

261 



Hunting in Many Lands 

ly a bear, resembles one so closely that it is 
classed by the Chinese and Tibetans in that 
family. It is known to the Chinese as hua 
hsiung, or "mottled bear," and Milne Edwards, 
who studied and described it, has called it At- 
luropus melanoleucus. This animal was, I be- 
lieve, discovered by that enterprising mission- 
ary and naturalist, Father Armand David (who 
called it "white bear"), in the little eastern 
Tibetan principality of Dringpa or Mupin, in 
western Ssu-ch'uan.* Five specimens have so 
far been secured of this very rare animal: 
three are in the Jardin des Plantes of Paris, 
the other two in the Museum at the Jesuits' 
establishment, at Zikawei, near Shanghai. 

The stag or red deer ("horse deer" in Chi- 
nese) is found in Manchuria and northern Ko- 
rea, and the Tibetan variety, called shawo, must 
be very abundant in portions of eastern Tibet, 
to judge from the innumerable loads of horns 
which I have passed while traveling through 
eastern Tibet on the way to China, in which 
latter country they are used in the preparation 
of toilet powder. There is also a small deer 
in the mountains of Alashan, in western Kan- 
su and Ssu-ch'uan, and in the Ts'aidam ; but I 

* See Nouvelles Archives du Museum de Paris, X., pp. i8 and 20. 
262 



e^"'^^'^^^^\^ 




Big Game of Mongolia and Tibet 

know nothing concerning it save its Mongol 
name, bura, and its Chinese, ja;/^/w, or "sheep 
deer." Prjevalsky, however, gives some inter- 
esting details concerning it. Some Chinese 
mention a third variety, called met lu, or 
"beautiful deer," said to live in the Koko-Nor 
country. 

The musk deer is found in most parts of the 
Himalayas and Tibet, and as far northeast as 
Lan-chou, on the Yellow River, in the Chi- 
nese province of Kan-su. It is hunted wher- 
ever found, and nearly all the musk ultimately 
finds its way to Europt; or America, as it is 
not used to any great extent by either Tib- 
etans, Chinese or any of the other peoples in 
whose countries it is procured; the Chinese 
only use a small quantity in the preparation 
of some of their medicines. They distinguish 
two varieties of musk deer: one, having tusks 
much larger than the other, is called "yellow 
musk deer." 

Next in importance among the game of this 
region we find the Antilope gutturosa and the 
Ovis burhil, or "mountain goat," which range 
from eastern Mongolia to western Tibet. Hut 
more important than these from a sportsman's 
point of view is the argali, of which Col. Prje- 

263 



Hunting in Many Lands 

valsky distinguishes two varieties : the Ovis ar- 
gait, ranging along the northern bend of the 
Yellow River, between Kuei-hua Ch'eng and 
Alashan; and the white-breasted argali, or Ovis 
poll, ranging from the Ts'aidam and western 
Ssu-ch'uan to the Pamirs. 

The name argali is, I think, an unfortunate 
one to give to this species, as it is a Mongol 
word solely used to designate the female ani- 
mal, the male of which is called kuldza. 

The Antilope hodgsoni, called orongo in 
Mongol, has about the same range as the Ovis 
poll. It is by far the most beautiful antelope 
of this region — the long, graceful, lyre-shaped 
horns, which it carries very erect when run- 
ning, being frequently over two feet in length. 

Although, to my mind, what are commonly 
regarded as cattle should no more be consid- 
ered game when wild than when tame, still, as 
I am perhaps alone of this opinion, I must 
note, among the game animals of this part of 
Asia, yaks and asses, which are found in west- 
ern Mongolia, Turkestan and in many parts 
of Tibet, especially the wild northern country, 
or Chang-t'ang. 

The wild yak is invariably black, with short, 
rather slender horns (smaller than our buffa- 

264 



Big Game of Mongolia and Tibet 

lo's), bending gracefully forward. The head 
is large, but well proportioned, and the eyes 
quite large, but with a very wild look in them. 
The legs are short and very heavy, the hoofs 
straight and invariably black. The hair, which 
hangs down over the body and legs, the face 
alone excepted, is wavy, and on the sides, belly 
and legs is so long that it reaches within a few 
inches of the ground. The tail is very bushy 
and reaches to the hocks, all the hair being of 
such uniform length that it looks as if it were 
trimmed. When running, the yak carries its 
tail high up or even over its back, and when 
frightened or angered holds it straight out 
behind. 

The calves have a grunt resembling that of 
the hog, hence the name Bos grun7tiens, but in 
the grown animal it is rarely heard ; it is at 
best only a dull, low sound, unworthy of such 
a big, savage-looking beast. The bones of the 
yak are so heavy that it is nearly impossible to 
kill one except by shooting it through the heart 
or wounding it in some equally vital spot. 
Although I have shot a great many of these 
animals in northern Tibet, I have never bag- 
ged any except when shot as above mentioned, 
nor have I ever broken the limb of one. It is 

265 



Hunting in Many Lands 

true that I have done all my shooting with a 
.44 caliber Winchester carbine, which was en- 
tirely too light for the purpose. 

The yak is not a dangerous animal except 
in the case of a solitary bull, which will some- 
times charge a few yards at a time, till he falls 
dead at the hunter's feet, riddled with bullets. 
When in large bands yaks run at the first shot, 
rushing down ravines, through snow banks and 
across rivers, without a moment's hesitation, in 
a wild stampede. 

Mongol and Tibetan hunters say that one 
must never shoot at a solitary yak whose horns 
have a backward curve, as he will certainly 
prove dangerous when wounded ; but the same 
beast may be shot at with impunity if in a 
band. In fact, the natives never shoot at 
yaks except when in a good-sized bunch. Na- 
tives usually hunt them by twos and threes, 
and, after stalking to within a hundred yards 
or even less, they all blaze away at the same 
time. 

The number of yaks on the plateaus north 
of Tibet is very considerable, but there are no 
such herds as were seen of buffaloes on our 
plains until within a few years. I have never 
seen over 300 in a herd, but Col. Prjevalsky 

266 



Big Game of Mongolia and Tibet 

says that when he first visited the country 
around the sources of the Yellow River, in 
1870, he saw herds there of a thousand head 
and more. Yaks are enormous feeders, and, 
in a country as thinly covered with grass as 
that in which they roam, they must travel 
great distances to secure enough food. As it 
is, it is the rarest thing in the world to find 
even in July or August fine grazing in any 
part of this country ; the yaks keep the grass 
as closely cut as would a machine. 

In some of the wildest districts of western 
China a wild ox {budorcas) is still found. Fa- 
ther Armand David thus describes it {Nou- 
vclles Archives du Museum de Paris, X., 17): 
"It is a kind of ovibos, with very short tail, 
black and sharp horns, with broad bases touch- 
ing on the forehead ; its ears are small, and, as 
it were, cropped obliquely. The iris is of a 
dirty yellow gold color, the pupil oblong and 
horizontal. The fur is quite long and of a 
dirty white color, with a dash oi brown on the 
hind quarters." 

The wild ass is no longer found, I believe, 
to the east of the Koko-Nor, but from that 
meridian as far west as Persia is met with in 
large numbers, and in the wilds to the north of 

267 



Hunting In Many Lands 

Tibet in vast herds, quite as large and numer- 
ous as those of yaks. 

The wild ass (called kulan or hulan in Mon- 
gol) stands about twelve hands high, and is 
invariably of a tan color, with a dark line run- 
ning down the back, and white on the belly, 
neck and feet. The tail is rather short, and 
thinly covered with hair; the head is broad, 
heavy, and too large for the body of the ani- 
mal. It carries its head very high when in 
motion, and when trotting its tail is nearly 
erect. Its usual gait is a trot or a run. A 
herd always moves in single file, a stallion 
leading. As a rule, a stallion has a small 
band of ten or twelve mares, which he herds 
and guards with jealous care day and night. 
Frequently these bands run together and form 
herds of 500 or even of 1,000. 

One often meets solitary jackasses wander- 
ing about ; they have been deprived of their 
band of mares in a fight with some stronger 
male. These have frequently proved most 
troublesome to me; they would round up 
and drive off my ponies — all of which were 
mares — to add to the little nucleus of a band 
they had hidden away in some lonely nook in 
the hills. I have frequently had to lose days 

268 



Big Game of Mongolia and Tibet 

at a time hunting for my horses, and I finally 
made it a point to shoot all such animals 
that came near my camp ; though I had a 
strong dislike to killing them — they looked 
so like tame asses — and I never could see any 
sport in it, though the meat was good enough 
— much better than yak flesh. 

The hulan is very fleet and has wonderfully 
acute hearing, but it possesses too great curi- 
osity for its own safety ; it will generally circle 
around the hunter if not shot at, and come 
quite near to have a look at the strange, 
unknown animal. 

It is said that wild camels and horses are 
found in some of the remoter corners of south- 
western Turkestan and south of Lob-Nor, and 
specimens of them have been secured by 
Prjevalsky, Grijimailo and Littledale. The 
question is now whether these animals are 
domesticated ones run wild, or really wild 
varieties. Naturalists will probably disagree 
on this point. For the time being these ani- 
mals are too little known for me to express 
an opinion on the subject, and, not having 
seen any, I can add nothing to what has been 
written on the subject. 

My own shooting in Mongolia and Tibet 
269 



Hunting in Many Lands 

has always been under difficulties. Traveling 
without European companions, and my Asiatic 
one not knowing how to handle our firearms, 
I have been able to give but little time to 
sport. When pressed for food, however, I 
have killed yaks, asses, argalt, mountain sheep 
and antelope ; I have also bagged a few bears 
and leopards ; but, as my only rifle was rath- 
er for purposes of defense than for shooting 
game, I never went much out of my way to 
look up these animals, though I felt great con- 
fidence in my good little Winchester, having 
killed the largest yak I ever shot at, and a fine 
bear, each with one shot from it. 

The game I mostly shot while in Tibet was 
yak; but, as I never killed any save for meat 
— not believing in the theory of destroying ani- 
mal life for the sake of trophies to hang upon 
the wall — I made no phenomenal bags, though 
big game was so plentiful in many sections of 
the country that even with a native match- 
lock it would have been possible to have killed 
many more animals than I did. 

The yak I approached at first with consid- 
erable trepidation, as I had read in various 
books of their savageness and of the danger 
that the hunter was exposed to from one of 

270 



Big Game of Mongolia and Tibet 

these big animals when wounded ; but now I 
am wiser, and I can reassure those who would 
kill these big beasts; they look more dangerous 
than they really are, and will hardly ever push 
their charge home, even when badly wounded. 
The first time I saw them we were traveling 
up a rather open valley beside a frozen rivulet, 
where, upon reaching the top of a little swell, 
some six or eight hundred yards off, were a 
couple of hundred yaks coming down toward 
the stream to try and find a water hole. I 
made signs to the men behind me to stop, and, 
jumping from my horse, I crawled along to 
within about 200 yards of them, when I blazed 
away at the biggest I could pick out, stand- 
ing a little nearer to me than the rest of the 
herd. They paid hardly any attention to the 
slight report of my rifle ; only the one at 
which I shot advanced a short distance in 
the direction of the smoke and then stopped, 
waving his great bushy tail over his back and 
holdinor his head erect. I fired aofain, when he 
and the rest of the herd turned and ran on to 
the ice, where I opened fire on them once 
more. They seemed puzzled by the noise, 
but my bullets did not seem to harm them. 
Finally one charged and then another, and 

271 



Hunting in Many Lands 

at last the whole herd came dashing up in my 
direction ; but "I lay very low," especially as at 
this seemingly critical moment I found that I 
had no more cartridges in my gun. After 
awhile they turned and trotted back to the 
river, and I made for my horse, much disap- 
pointed at my apparent failure to do any of 
them any injury. 

In the meantime my men had pushed on 
about half a mile, and we stopped in a little 
nook to take a cup of tea. Having here sup- 
plied myself with cartridges, I thought I would 
try to get another shot at the yaks, some of 
which I could still see on the mountain side 
beyond the stream. My delight was great 
when, coming up to the place where I had last 
seen them, a big bull was lying dead, shot 
through the heart. 

The only time I ever encountered a solitary 
bull he bluffed us so completely that I do not 
know but my reputation as a sportsman will 
suffer materially by mentioning the incident. 
One day, as we were rounding the corner of a 
hill, we saw an immense fellow, not 200 yards 
off; and my two big mastiffs, which by this 
time were getting hardly any food — as our 
stock of provisions was running very short, and 

272 



Big Game of Mongolia and Tibet 

who passed most of their time while we were 
on the march vainly chasing hares, marmots 
and any other animals they could see — made a 
dash for the yak and commenced snapping at 
him. He trotted slowly off, but soon, becom- 
ing angry, turned on the dogs, who came back 
to the caravan. He followed them until within 
twenty yards of us. All my recollections of the 
dangers encountered by Prjevalsky with yaks, 
all his remarks of the extraordinary thickness 
and impenetrability of their skulls, of the diffi- 
culty of killing these monstrous animals, and 
of their ferociousness when wounded, came 
vividly to my mind in an instant. I saw my 
mules and horses gored and bleeding on the 
ground, my expedition brought to an untimely 
end, and a wounded yak waving his tail trium- 
phantly over us, for I was certain that with my 
light Winchester I could never drop him dead 
in his tracks. We did not even dare so much 
as look at him, but kept on our way, and the 
yak walked beside us, evidently rejoicing in his 
victory. The dogs, now thoroughly cowed, 
took refuge on the side of the caravan furthest 
from the infuriated animal, and so we marched 
on for about half a mile, when, in utter dis- 
gust, he turned and trotted off to the hillside, 

273 



Hunting in Many Lands 

where he stood watching us, his bushy tail 
stretched out as stifif as iron behind him, paw- 
ing the ground, and thus we left him. 

Shooting wild asses was much tamer busi- 
ness. We saw them sometimes in herds of 
five or six hundred. They would mix with our 
mules even when grazing around the camp, and 
often took them off five or six miles, when we 
had great difficulty in getting them back. We 
frequently, however, killed one for meat, which 
we found to be very savory; though most of 
my men, who were Mahomedans, would only 
eat it when very hard pushed by hunger, as 
their religion forbade them to eat the flesh of 
any animal without cloven hoofs. I always 
felt, however, in shooting these animals, as if 
I were destroying a domestic mule, and could 
never bring myself to look upon them as fit 
game for a sportsman. This was strongly im- 
pressed upon me one day when, desiring to 
get a fine specimen, whose skin and bones I 
could bring back for the National Museum, I 
shot a very large jack which was grazing some 
distance from our line of march, and broke its 
hind legs, and was then obliged to go up to 
the poor beast and put a ball into its head. 
After accomplishing this disagreeable duty in 

274 



Big Game of Mongolia and Tibet 

the interest of science — though to no purpose, 
as it turned out, for I was obliged to throw 
away the skin and bones a few days after, 
because I had no means of transporting them 
— I made a solemn promise to myself that I 
would never shoot a kyang again ; and, I am 
pleased to say, I broke my promise but twice, 
and then I did so only to give us food, of 
which we stood in great need. 

Shooting antelope in Tibet is not more ex- 
citing — or interesting, for that matter — than 
shooting them elsewhere, and I do not know 
that anything special can be said about this 
sport beyond the fact that the number of 
Hodgson antelope which we met in parts of 
northern Tibet was sometimes extraordinarily 
great. These animals suffer greatly, however, 
from some plague, which frequently sweeps off 
enormous numbers of them. I have passed 
over places where the bones of a hundred or 
more of them might be seen, one near the 
other; and districts which I had visited in 1889, 
and where I had found great numbers of them, 
were absolutely without a sign of one when I 
was there again in 1892. 

Of bear-hunting I can say but little. On 
different occasions, in various parts of north- 

275 



Hunting in Many Lands 

ern Tibet, I killed six or eight pretty good 
sized brown bears; but a man would have to 
be blind not to be able to hit one at twenty- 
five or thirty yards, and it is always possible 
to get as near them as that, even in the open 
country which they frequent. They have ap- 
parently no dens, but live in the holes in the 
ground which they dig to get the little mar- 
mots on which they feed. These bears are, 
however, very fleet, as I once or twice found 
out when trying to ride them down on horse- 
back, and when they nearly proved a match 
for the best ponies I had. The natives stand 
in great dread of them, and will never attack 
them except when there are three or four men 
together, when they approach them from dif- 
ferent directions and open fire all at the same 
time. They say these bears are man-eaters, 
and even when the men with me saw them 
lying dead they showed great repugnance to 
touch the body, or even to come near them; 
though they might have made eight or ten 
dollars by splitting them open and removing 
the gall — a highly-prized medicine among the 
Chinese, who also find a place for bears' paws 
in their pharmacopoeia. 

On the whole, though Korea, Mongolia and 
276 



Big Game of Mongolia and Tibet 

Tibet have plenty of big game, they are not 
countries for a sportsman, and unless he has 
some other hobby to take him there, he had 
better seek his fun elsewhere in more accessi- 
ble quarters of the globe. 

W, W. RockhilL 



277 



Hunting in the Cattle Country 

The little hunting I did in 1893 and 1894 
was while I was at my ranch house, or while 
out on the range among the cattle ; and I shot 
merely the game needed for the table by my- 
self and those who were with me. It is still 
possible in the cattle country to kill an oc- 
casional bighorn, bear or elk; but nowadays 
the only big game upon which the ranchman 
of the great plains can safely count are deer 
and antelope. While at the ranch house itself, 
I rely for venison upon shooting either black- 
tail in the broken country away from the river, 
or else whitetail in the river bottoms. When 
out on the great plains, where the cattle range 
freely in the summer, or when visiting the 
line camps, or any ranch on the heads of the 
longer creeks, the prongbuck furnishes our 
fresh meat. 

In both 1893 and 1894 I made trips to a 
vast tract of rolling prairie land, some fifty 
miles from my ranch, where I have for many 

278 



Hunting in the Cattle Country 

years enjoyed the keen pleasure of hunting the 
prongbuck. In 1893 the pronghorned bands 
were as plentiful in this district as I have 
ever seen them anywhere. A friend, a fellow 
Boone and Crockett man, Alexander Lam- 
bert, was with me ; and in a week's trip, in- 
cluding the journey out and back, we easily 
shot all the antelope we felt we had any right 
to kill ; for we only shot to get meat, or an 
unusually fine head. 

In antelope shooting more cartridges are 
expended in proportion to the amount of 
game killed than with any other game, be- 
cause the shots are generally taken at long 
range ; and yet, being taken in the open, there 
is usually a chance to use four or five car- 
tridges before the animal gets out of sight. 
These shots do not generally kill, but every 
now and then they do ; and so the hunter is 
encouraged to try them, especially as after the 
first shot the game has been scared anyway, 
and no harm results from firing the others. 

In 1893, Lambert, who was on his first hunt 
with the rifle, did most of the shooting, and I 
myself fired at only two antelope, both of 
which had already been missed. In each case 
a hard run and much firing at long ranges, to- 

279 



Hunting in Many Lands 

gether with in one case some skillful maneu- 
vering, got me my game ; yet one buck cost 
nine cartridges and the other eight. In 1894 
I had exactly the reverse experience. I killed 
five antelope for thirty-six shots, but each one 
that I killed was killed with the first bullet, 
and in not one case where I missed the first 
time did I hit with any subsequent one. 
These five antelope were shot at an average 
distance of about 150 yards. Those that I 
missed were, of course, much further off on an 
average, and I usually emptied my magazine 
at each. The number of cartridges spent 
would seem extraordinary to a tyro ; and a 
very unusually skillful shot, or else a very 
timid shot who fears to take risks, will of 
course make a better showing per head killed; 
but I doubt if men with much experience in 
antelope hunting, who keep an accurate ac- 
count of the cartridges they expend, will see 
anything out of the way in the performance. 
During the thirteen years I have hunted in 
the West I have always, where possible, kept 
a record of the number of cartridges expended 
for every head of game killed, and of the dis- 
tances at which it was shot. I have found 
that with bison, bears, moose, elk, caribou, big- 

280 



Hunting in the Cattle Country- 
horn and white goats, where the animals shot 
at were mostly of large size and usually sta- 
tionary, and where the mountainous or wooded 
country gave chance for a close approach, the 
average distance at which I have killed the 
game has been eighty yards, and the average 
number of cartridges expended per head slain 
three: one of these representing the death 
shot and the others standing either for misses 
outright, of which there were not very many, 
or else for wounding game which escaped, or 
which I afterward overtook, or for stopping 
cripples or charging beasts. I have killed but 
one cougar and two peccaries, using but one 
cartridge for each ; all three were close up. 
At wolves and coyotes I have generally had to 
take running shots at very long range, and I 
have killed but two for fifty cartridges. Black- 
tail deer I have generally shot at about ninety 
yards, at an expenditure of about four car- 
tridges apiece. Whitetail I have killed at 
shorter range; but the shots were generally 
running, often taken under difficult circum- 
stances, so that my expenditure of cartridges 
was rather larger. Antelope, on the other hand, 
I have on the average shot at a little short 
of 1 50 yards, and they have cost me about nine 

281 



Hunting in Many Lands 

cartridges apiece. This, of course, as I have 
explained above, does not mean that I have 
missed eight out of nine antelope, for often 
the entire nine cartridges would be spent at 
an antelope which I eventually got. It merely 
means that, counting all the shots of every 
description fired at antelope, I had one head 
to show for each nine cartridges expended. 
Thus, the first antelope I shot in 1893 cost me 
ten cartridges, of which three hit him, while 
the seven that missed were fired at over 400 
yards' distance while he was running. We saw 
him while we were with the wagon. As we 
had many miles to go before sunset, we cared 
nothing about frightening other game, and, as 
we had no fresh meat, it was worth while to 
take some chances to procure it. When I 
first fired, the prongbuck had already been 
shot at and was in full flight. He was beyond 
all reasonable range, but some of our bullets 
went over him and he began to turn. By run- 
ning to one side I got a shot at him at a little 
over 400 paces, as he slowed to a walk, bewil- 
dered by the firing, and the bullet broke his 
hip. I missed him two or three times as he 
plunged off, and then by hard running down 
a water course got a shot at 180 paces and 



Hunting in the Cattle Country 

broke his shoulder, and broke his neck with 
another bullet when I came up. This one 
was shot while going out to the hunting 
ground. While there, Lambert killed four 
or five; most of the meat we gave away. I 
did not fire again until on our return, when 
I killed another buck one day while we were 
riding with the wagon. 

The day was gray and overcast. There 
were slight flurries of snow, and the cold wind 
chilled us as it blew across the endless reaches 
of sad-colored prairie. Behind us loomed Sen- 
tinel Butte, and all around the rolling surface 
was broken by chains of hills, by patches of bad 
lands, or by isolated, saddle -shaped mounds. 
The ranch wagon jolted over the uneven 
sward, and plunged in and out of the dry 
beds of the occasional water courses ; for we 
were following no road, but merely striking 
northward across the prairie toward the P. K. 
ranch. We went at a good pace, for the after- 
noon was bleak, the wagon was lightly loaded, 
and the Sheriff, who was serving for the nonce 
as our teamster and cook, kept the two gaunt, 
wild-looking horses trotting steadily. Lambert 
and I rode to one side on our unkempt cow 
ponies, our rifles slung across the saddle bows. 

283 



Hunting in Many Lands 

Our stock of fresh meat was getting low 
and we were anxious to shoot something; but 
in the early hours of the afternoon we saw no 
game. Small parties of horned larks ran along 
the ground ahead of the wagon, twittering 
plaintively as they rose, and occasional flocks 
of longspurs flew hither and thither; but of 
larger life we saw nothing, save occasional 
bands of range horses. The drought had been 
very severe and we were far from the river, so 
that we saw no horned stock. Horses can 
travel much further to water than cattle, and, 
when the springs dry up, they stay much 
further out on the prairie. 

At last we did see a band of four antelope, 
lying in the middle of a wide plain, but they 
saw us before we saw them, and the ground 
was so barren of cover that it was impossible 
to get near them. Moreover, they were very 
shy and ran almost as soon as we got our eyes 
on them. For an hour or two after this we 
jogged along without seeing anything, while 
the gray clouds piled up in the west and the 
afternoon began to darken ; then, just after 
passing Saddle Butte, we struck a rough prai- 
rie road, which we knew led to the P. K. ranch 
— a road very faint in places, while in others 

284 



Hunting in the Cattle Country 

the wheels had sunk deep in the ground and 
made long, parallel ruts. 

Almost immediately after striking this road, 
on topping a small rise, we discovered a young 
prongbuck standing off a couple of hundred 
yards to one side, gazing at the wagon with 
that absorbed curiosity which in this game so 
often conquers its extreme wariness and timid- 
ity, to a certain extent offsetting the advan- 
tage conferred upon it by its marvelous vision. 
The little antelope stood broadside, too, gaz- 
ing at us out of its great bulging eyes, the 
sharply contrasted browns and whites of its 
coat showing plainly. Lambert and I leaped 
off our horses immediately, and I knelt and 
pulled the trigger ; but the cartridge snapped, 
and the little buck, wheeling around, cantered 
off, the white hairs on its rump all erect, as 
is always the case with the pronghorn when 
under the influence of fear or excitement. My 
companion took a hasty, running shot, with no 
more effect than changing the canter into a 
breakneck gallop ; and, though we opened on 
it as it ran, it went unharmed over the crest of 
rising ground in front. We ran after it as 
hard as we could pelt up the hill, into a slight 
valley, and then up another rise, and again got 

285 



Hunting in Many Lands 

a glimpse of it standing, but this time further 
off than before; and again our shots went wild. 
However, the antelope changed its racing 
gallop to a canter while still in sight, going 
slower and slower, and, what was rather curi- 
ous, it did not seem much frightened. We 
were naturally a good deal chagrined at our 
shooting and wished to retrieve ourselves, if 
possible ; so we ran back to the wagon, got our 
horses and rode after the buck. He had con- 
tinued his flight in a straight line, gradually 
slackening his pace, and a mile's brisk gallop 
enabled us to catch a glimpse of him, far 
ahead and merely walking. The wind was 
bad, and we decided to sweep off and try to 
circle round ahead of him. Accordingly, we 
dropped back, turned into a slight hollow to 
the right, and galloped hard until we came to 
the foot of a series of low buttes, when we 
turned more to the left ; and, when we judged 
that we were about across the antelope's line 
of march, leaped from our horses, threw the 
reins over their heads, and left them standing, 
while we stole up the nearest rise ; and, when 
close to the top, took off our caps and pushed 
ourselves forward, flat on our faces, to peep 
over. We had judged the distance well, for 

336 



Hunting in the Cattle Country 

we saw the antelope at once, now stopping to 
graze. Drawing back, we ran along some lit- 
tle distance nearer, then drew up over the 
same rise. He was only about 125 yards off, 
and this time there was no excuse for my fail- 
ing to get him ; but fail I did, and away the 
buck raced again, with both of us shooting. 
My first two shots were misses, but I kept cor- 
recting my aim and holding further in front of 
the flying beast. My last shot was taken just 
as the antelope reached the edge of the broken 
country, in which he would have been safe; 
and almost as I pulled the trigger I had the 
satisfaction of seeing him pitch forward and, 
after turning a complete somersault, lie mo- 
tionless. I had broken his neck. He had 
cost us a good many cartridges, and, though 
my last shot was well aimed, there was doubt- 
less considerable chance in my hitting him, 
while there was no excuse at all for at least 
one of my previous misses. Nevertheless, all 
old hunters know that there is no other kind 
of shooting in which so many cartridges are 
expended for every head of game bagged. 

As we knelt down to butcher the antelope, 
the clouds broke and the rain fell. Hastily we 
took off the saddle and hams, and, packing 

287 



Hunting in Many Lands 

them behind us on our horses, loped to the 
wagon in the teeth of the cold storm. When 
we overtook it, after some sharp riding, we 
threw in the meat, and not very much later, 
when the day was growing dusky, caught sight 
of the group of low ranch buildings toward 
which we had been headed. We were received 
with warm hospitality, as one always is in a 
ranch country. We dried our steaming clothes 
inside the warm ranch house and had a good 
supper, and that night we rolled up in our 
blankets and tarpaulins, and slept soundly in 
the lee of a big haystack. The ranch house 
stood in the winding bottom of a creek; the 
flanking hills were covered with stunted cedar, 
while dwarf cottonwood and box elder grew 
by the pools in the half-dried creek bed. 

Next morning we had risen by dawn. The 
storm was over, and it was clear and cold. Be- 
fore sunrise we had started. We were only 
some thirty miles from my ranch, and I direct- 
ed the Sheriff how to go there, by striking east 
until he came to the main divide, and then fol- 
lowing that down till he got past a certain big 
plateau, when a turn to the right down any of 
the coulees would bring him into the river 
bottom near the ranch house. We wished our- 

288 



Hunting in the Cattle Country 

selves to ride off to one side and try to pick up 
another antelope. However, the Sheriff took 
the wrong turn after getting to the divide, and 
struck the river bottom some fifteen miles out 
of his way, so that we reached the ranch a 
good many hours before he did. 

When we left the wagon we galloped straight 
across country, looking out from the divide 
across the great rolling landscape, every fea- 
ture standing clear through the frosty air. 
Hour after hour we galloped on and on over 
the grassy seas in the glorious morning. Once 
we stopped, and I held the horses while Lam- 
bert stalked and shot a fine prongbuck; then 
we tied his head and hams to our saddles and 
again pressed forward along the divide. We 
had hoped to get lunch at a spring that I 
knew of some twelve miles from my ranch, 
but when we reached it we found it dry and 
went on without halting. Early in the after- 
noon we came out on the broad, tree-clad bot- 
tom on which the ranch house stands, and, 
threading our way along the cattle trails, soon 
drew up in front of the gray, empty buildings. 

Just as we were leaving the hunting grounds 
on this trip, after having killed all the game 
we felt we had a right to kill, we encountered 

289 



Huntinof in Manv Lands 



t> 



bands of Sioux Indians from the Standino- 

o 

Rock and Cheyenne River reservations com- 
ing in to hunt, and I at once felt that the 
chances for much future sport in that par- 
ticular district were small. Indians are not 
good shots, but they hunt in great numbers, 
killing everything, does, fawns and bucks alike, 
and they follow the wounded animals with the 
utmost perseverance, so that they cause great 
destruction to game. 

Accordingly, in 1S94, when I started for 
these same orrounds, it was with some mis- 
givings ; but I had time only to make a few 
days' hunt, and I knew of no other accessible 
grounds where prongbuck were plentiful. My 
foreman was with me, and we took the ranch 
wagon also, driven by a cowboy who had just 
come up over the trail with cattle from Colo- 
rado. On reaching our happy hunting grounds 
of the previous season, I found my fears sadly 
verified; and one unforeseen circumstance also 
told against me. Not only had the Indians 
made a great killing of antelope the season 
before, but in the spring one or two sheep 
men had moved into the countr}'. We found 
that the big flocks had been moving from one 
spring pool to another, eating the pasturage 

290 



Hunting in the Cattle Country 

bare, while the shepherds whom we met — wild- 
looking men on rough horses, each accom- 
panied by a pair of furtive sheep dogs — had 
taken every opportunity to get a shot at ante- 
lope, so as to provide themselves with fresh 
meat. Two days of fruitless hunting in this 
sheep-ridden region was sufficient to show that 
the antelope were too scarce and shy to give 
us hope for sport, and we shifted quarters, a 
long day's journey, to the head of another 
creek ; and we had to go to yet another before 
we found much game. As so often happens on 
such a trip, when we started to have bad luck 
we had plenty. One night two of the three sad- 
dle horses stampeded and went back straight as 
the crow flies to their home ranee, so that we 
did not get them until on our return from the 
trip. On another occasion the team succeeded 
in breaking the wagon pole ; and, as there was 
an entire absence of wood where we were at 
the time, we had to make a splice for it with 
the two tent poles and the picket ropes. 
Nevertheless it was very enjoyable out on 
the great grassy plains. Although we had 
a tent with us, I always slept in the open in 
my buffalo bag, with the tarpaulin to pull over 
me if it rained. On each night before going 

291 



Hunting in Many Lands 

to sleep, I lay for many minutes gazing at the 
extraordinary multitude of stars above, or 
watching the rising of the red moon, which 
was just at or past the full. 

We had plenty of fresh meat — prairie fowl 
and young sage fowl for the first twenty-four 
hours, and antelope venison afterward. We 
camped by little pools, generally getting fair 
water; and from the camps where there was 
plenty of wood we took enough to build the 
fires at those where there was none. The 
nights were frosty, and the days cool and 
pleasant, and from sunrise to sunset we were 
off riding or walking among the low hills and 
over the uplands, so that we slept well and ate 
well, and felt the beat of hardy life in our veins. 

Much of the time we were on a high divide 
between two creek systems, from which we 
could see the great landmarks of all the 
regions roundabout — Sentinel Butte, Square 
Butte and Middle Butte, far to the north and 
east of us. Nothing could be more lonely and 
nothing more beautiful than the view at night- 
fall across the prairies to these huge hill 
masses, when the lengthening shadows had 
at last merged into one and the faint glow of 
the red sun filled the west. The rolling prai- 

292 



Hunting in the Cattle Country 

rie, sweeping in endless waves to the feet of 
the great hills, grew purple as the evening 
darkened, and the buttes loomed into vague, 
mysterious beauty as their sharp outlines soft- 
ened in the twilight. 

Even when we got out of reach of the 
sheep men we never found antelope very 
plentiful, and they were shy, and the coun- 
try was flat, so that the stalking was extremely 
difficult; yet I had pretty good sport. The 
first animal I killed was a doe, shot for meat, 
because I had twice failed to get bucks at 
which I emptied my magazine at long range, 
and we were all feeling hungry for venison. 
After that I killed nothing but bucks. Of the 
five antelope killed, one I got by a headlong 
gallop to cut off his line of flight. As some- 
times happens with this queer, erratic animal, 
when the buck saw that I was trying to cut off 
his flight he simply raced ahead just as hard as 
he knew how, and, as my pony was not fast, he 
got to the little pass for which he was headed 
200 yards ahead of me. I then jumped off, 
and his curiosity made him commit the fatal 
mistake of halting for a moment to look round 
at me. He was standing end on, and offered 
a very small mark at 200 yards ; but I made a 

293 



Hunting in Many Lands 

good line shot, and, though I held a trifle too 
high, I hit him in the head, and down he came. 
Another buck I shot from under the wagon 
early one morning as he was passing just be- 
yond the picketed horses. The other three I 
got after much maneuvering and long, tedious 
stalks. 

In some of the stalks, after infinite labor, 
and perhaps after crawling on all fours for an 
hour, or pulling myself flat on my face among 
some small sagebrush for ten or fifteen min- 
utes, the game took alarm and went off. Too 
often, also, when I finally did get a shot, it 
was under such circumstances that I missed. 
Sometimes the game was too far ; sometimes 
it had taken alarm and was already in motion. 
Once in the afternoon I had to spend so much 
time waiting for the antelope to get into a fa- 
vorable place that, when I got up close, I found 
the light already so bad that my front sight 
glimmered indistinctly, and the bullet went 
wild. Another time I met with one of those 
misadventures which are especially irritating. 
It was at midday, and I made out at a long dis- 
tance a band of antelope lying for their noon 
rest in a slight hollow. A careful stalk brought 
me up within fifty yards of them. I was crawl- 

294 



Hunting in the Cattle Country 

ing flat on my face, for the crest of the hillock 
sloped so gently that this was the only way to 
get near them. At last, peering through the 
grass, I saw the head of a doe. In a moment 
she saw me and jumped to her feet, and up 
stood the whole band, including the buck. I 
immediately tried to draw a bead on the latter, 
and to my horror found that, lying flat as I 
was, and leaning on my elbows, I could not 
bring the rifle above the tall, shaking grass, 
and was utterly unable to get a sight. In an- 
other second away tore all the antelope. I 
jumped to my feet, took a snap shot at the 
buck as he raced round a low-cut bank and 
missed, and then walked drearily home, chew- 
ing the cud of my ill luck. Yet again in more 
than one instance, after making a good stalk 
upon a band seen at some distance, I found it 
contained only does and fawns, and would not 
shoot at them. 

Three times, however, the stalk was success- 
ful. Twice I was out alone; the other time 
my foreman was with me, and kept my horse 
while I maneuvered hither and thither, and 
finally succeeded in getting into range. In 
both the first instances I got a standing shot, 
but on this last occasion, when my foreman 

295 



Hunting in Many Lands 

was with me, two of the watchful does which 
were in the band saw me before I could get a 
shot at the old buck. I was creeping up a low 
washout, and, by ducking hastily down again 
and running back and up a side coulee, I man- 
aged to get within long range of the band as 
they cantered off, not yet thoroughly alarmed. 
The buck was behind, and I held just ahead of 
him. He plunged to the shot, but went off 
over the hill crest. When I had panted up to 
the ridge, I found him dead just beyond. 

One of the antelope I killed while I was out 
on foot at nightfall, a couple of miles from the 
wagon ; I left the shoulders and neck, carrying 
in the rest of the carcass on my back. On the 
other occasion I had my horse with me and 
took in the whole antelope, packing it behind 
the saddle, after it was dressed and the legs 
cut off below the knees. In packing an ante- 
lope or deer behind the saddle, I always cut 
slashes through the sinews of the legs just 
above the joints ; then I put the buck behind 
the saddle, run the picket rope from the horn 
of the saddle, under the belly of the horse, 
through the slashes in the legs on the other 
side, bring the end back, swaying well down on 
it, and fasten it to the horn ; then I repeat the 

296 



Hunting in the Cattle Country 

same feat for the other side. Packed in this 
way, the carcass always rides perfectly steady, 
and can not, by any possibility, shake loose. 
Of course, a horse has to have some little 
training" before it will submit to being packed. 

The above experiences are just about those 
which befall the average ranchman when he is 
hunting antelope. To illustrate how much 
less apt he is to spend as many shots while 
after other game, I may mention the last 
mountain sheep and last deer I killed, each 
of which cost me but a single cartridge. 

The bighorn was killed in the fall of 1894, 
while I was camped on the Little Missouri, 
some ten miles below my ranch. The bot- 
toms were broad and grassy, and were walled 
in by rows of high, steep bluffs, with back of 
them a mass of broken country, in many places 
almost impassable for horses. The wagon was 
drawn up on the edge of the fringe of tall cot- 
tonwoods which stretched along the brink of 
the shrunken river. The weather had grown 
cold, and at night the frost gathered thickly 
on our sleeping bags. Great flocks of sandhill 
cranes passed overhead from time to time, the 
air resounding with their strange, musical, 
guttural clangor. 

297 



Hunting in Many Lands 

For several days we had hunted persever- 
ingly, but without success, through the broken 
country. We had come across tracks of moun- 
tain sheep, but not the animals themselves, and 
the few blacktail which we had seen had seen 
us first and escaped before we could get within 
shot. The only thing killed had been a white- 
tail fawn, which Lambert had knocked over by 
a very pretty shot as we were riding through a 
long, heavily-timbered bottom. Four men in 
stalwart health and taking much outdoor exer- 
cise have large appetites, and the flesh of the 
whitetail was almost gone. 

One evening Lambert and I hunted nearly 
to the head of one of the creeks which opened 
close to our camp, and, in turning to descend 
what we thought was one of the side coulees 
leading into it, we contrived to get over the 
divide into the coulees of an entirely different 
creek system, and did not discover our error 
until it was too late to remedy it. We struck 
the river about nightfall, and were not quite 
sure where, and had six miles' tramp in the 
dark along the sandy river bed and through 
the dense timber bottoms, wading the streams 
a dozen times before we finally struck camp, 
tired and hungry, and able to appreciate to the 

298 



Hunting in the Cattle Country 

full the stew of hot venison and potatoes, and 
afterward the comfort of our buffalo and cari- 
bou hide sleeping bags. The next morning 
the Sheriff's remark of " Look alive, you fel- 
lows, if you want any breakfast," awoke the 
other members of the party shortly after dawn. 
It was bitterly cold as we scrambled out of 
our bedding, and, after a hasty wash, huddled 
around the fire, where the venison was sizzling 
and the coffee-pot boiling, while the bread was 
kept warm in the Dutch oven. About a third 
of a mile away to the west the bluffs, which 
rose abruptly from the river bottom, were 
crowned by a high plateau, where the grass 
was so good that over night the horses had 
been led up and picketed on it, and the man 
who had led them up had stated the previous 
evening that he had seen what he took to 
be fresh footprints of a mountain sheep cross- 
ing the surface of a bluff fronting our camp. 
The footprints apparently showed that the an- 
imal had been there since the camp had been 
pitched. The face of the cliff on this side 
was very sheer, the path by which the horses 
scrambled to the top being around a shoulder 
and out of sight of camp. 

While sitting close up around the fire finish- 
299 



Hunting in Many Lands 

ing breakfast, and just as the first level sun- 
beams struck the top of the plateau, we saw on 
this cliff crest something moving, and at first 
supposed it to be one of the horses which had 
broken loose from its picket pin. Soon the 
thing, whatever it was, raised its head, and we 
were all on our feet in a moment, exclaimine 
that it was a deer or a sheep. It was feeding 
in plain sight of us only about a third of a 
mile distant, and the horses, as I afterward 
found, were but a few rods beyond it on the 
plateau. The instant I realized that it was 
game of some kind I seized my rifle, buckled 
on my cartridge belt, and slunk off toward the 
river bed. As soon as I was under the pro- 
tection of the line of cottonwoods, I trotted 
briskly toward the cliff, and when I got to 
where it impinged on the river I ran a little 
to the left, and, selecting what I deemed to be 
a favorable place, began to make the ascent. 
The animal was on the grassy bench, some 
eight or ten feet below the crest, when I last 
saw it; but it was evidently moving hither and 
thither, sometimes on this bench and some- 
times on the crest itself, cropping the short 
grass and browsing on the young shrubs. 
The cliff was divided by several shoulders 

300 



Hunting in the Cattle Country 

or ridges, there being hollows like vertical 
gullies between them, and up one of these I 
scrambled, using the utmost caution not to dis- 
lodge earth or stones. Finally I reached the 
bench just below the sky line, and then, turn- 
ing to the left, wriggled cautiously along it, hat 
in hand. The cliff was so steep and bulged 
so in the middle, and, moreover, the shoulders 
or projecting ridges in the surface spoken of 
above were so pronounced, that I knew it was 
out of the question for the animal to have seen 
me, but I was afraid it might have heard me. 
The air was absolutely still, and so I had no 
fear of its sharp nose. Twice in succession I 
peered with the utmost caution over shoulders 
of the cliff, merely to see nothing beyond save 
another shoulder some forty or fifty yards dis- 
tant. Then I crept up to the edge and looked 
over the level plateau. Nothing was in sight 
excepting the horses, and these were close up 
to me, and, of course, they all raised their 
heads to look. I nervously turned half round, 
sure that if the animal, whatever it was, was 
in sight, it would promptly take the alarm. 
However, by good luck, it appeared that at 
this time it was below the crest on the terrace 
or bench already mentioned, and, on creeping 

301 



Hunting in Many Lands 

to the next shoulder, I at last saw it — a year- 
ling mountain sheep — walking slowly away 
from me, and evidently utterly unsuspicious of 
any danger. I straightened up, bringing my 
rifle to my shoulder, and as it wheeled I fired, 
and the sheep made two or three blind jumps 
in my direction. So close was I to the camp, 
and so still was the cold morning, that I dis- 
tinctly heard one of the three men, who had 
remained clustered about the fire eagerly 
watching my movements, call, " By George, 
he's missed; I saw the bullet strike the cliff." I 
had fired behind the shoulders, and the bullet, 
of course going through, had buried itself in 
the bluff beyond. The wound was almost in- 
stantaneously fatal, and the sheep, after striv- 
ing in vain to keep its balance, fell heels over 
head down a crevice, where it jammed. I de- 
scended, released the carcass and pitched it on 
ahead of me, only to have it jam again near 
the foot of the clifif. Before I got it loose 
I was joined by my three companions, who 
had been running headlong toward me through 
the brush ever since the time they had seen 
the animal fall. 

I never obtained another sheep under cir- 
cumstances which seemed to me quite so re- 

302 



Hunting in the Cattle Country 

markable as these ; for sheep are, on the 
whole, the wariest of game. Nevertheless, 
with all game there is an immense amount 
of chance in the chase, and it is perhaps not 
wholly uncharacteristic of a hunter's luck that, 
after having hunted faithfully in vain and with 
much hard labor for several days through a 
good sheep country, we should at last have ob- 
tained one within sight and earshot of camp. 
Incidentally I may mention that I have never 
tasted better mutton, or meat of any kind, than 
that furnished by this tender yearling. 

In 1894, on the last day I spent at the 
ranch, and with the last bullet I fired from my 
rifle, I killed a fine whitetail buck. I left the 
ranch house early in the afternoon on my 
favorite pony, Muley, my foreman riding with 
me. After going a couple of miles, by sheer 
good luck we stumbled on three whitetail — a 
buck, a doe and a fawn — in a long winding 
coulee, with a belt of timber running down its 
bottom. When we saw the deer, they were 
trying to sneak off, and immediately my fore- 
man galloped toward one end of the coulee 
and started to ride down through it, while I 
ran Muley to the other end to intercept the 
deer. They were, of course, quite likely to 

303 



Hunting in Many Lands 

break off to one side, but this happened to be 
one of the occasions when everything went 
right. When I reached the spot from which I 
covered the exits from the timber, I leaped off, 
and immediately afterward heard a shout from 
my foreman that told me the deer were on 
foot. Muley is a pet horse, and he enjoys im- 
mensely the gallop after game ; but his nerves 
invariably fail him at the shot. He stood 
snorting beside me, and finally, as the deer 
came in sight, away he tore — only to go about 
200 yards, however, and stand and watch us 
with his ears pricked forward until, when I 
needed him, I went for him. At the moment, 
however, I paid no heed to Muley, for a crack- 
ing in the brush told me the game was close, 
and in another moment I caught the shadowy 
outlines of the doe and the fawn as they 
scudded through the timber. By good luck, 
the buck, evidently flurried, came right on the 
edge of the woods next to me, and, as he 
passed, running like a quarter horse, I held 
well ahead of him and pulled the trigger. 
The bullet broke his neck and down he went — 
a fine fellow with a handsome ten-point head, 
and fat as a prize sheep ; for it was just before 
the rut. Then we rode home, and I sat in a 

304 



Hunting in the Cattle Country 

rockinc^- chair on the ranch house veranda, 
looking across the river at the strangely 
shaped buttes and the groves of shimmer- 
ing cottonwoods until the sun went down 
and the frosty air bade me go in. 

I wish that members of the Boone and 
Crockett Club, and big game hunters gener- 
ally, would make a point of putting down all 
their experiences with game, and with any 
other markworthy beasts or birds, in the re- 
gions where they hunt, which would be of 
interest to students of natural history; not- 
ing any changes of habits in the animals and 
any causes that tend to make them decrease in 
numbers, giving an idea of the times at which 
the different larger beasts became extinct, and 
the like. Around my ranch on the Little Mis- 
souri there have been several curious changes 
in the fauna. Thus, magpies have greatly de- 
creased in number, owing, I believe, mainly to 
the wolf-hunters. Magpies often come around 
carcasses and eat poisoned baits. I have seen 
as many as seven lying dead around a bait. 
They are much less plentiful than they for- 
merly were. In this last year, 1894, I saw one 
large party; otherwise only two or three strag- 

305 



Hunting in Many Lands 

glers. This same year I was rather surprised 
at meeting a porcupine, usually a beast of the 
timber, at least twenty miles from trees. He 
was grubbing after sagebrush roots on the 
edge of a cut bank by a half-dried creek, I 
was stalking an antelope at the time, and 
stopped to watch him for about five minutes. 
He paid no heed to me, though I was within 
three or four paces of him. Both the luciver, 
or northern lynx, and the wolverine have been 
found on the Little Missouri, near the Kildeer 
Mountains, but I do not know of a specimen 
of either that has been killed there for some 
years past. The blackfooted ferret was al- 
ways rare, and is rare now. But few beaver 
are left; they were very abundant in 1880, but 
were speedily trapped out when the Indians 
vanished and the Northern Pacific Railroad 
was built. While this railroad was building, 
the bears frequently caused much trouble by 
industriously damming the culverts. 

With us the first animal to disappear was 
the buffalo. In the old days, say from 1870 
to r88o, the buffalo were probably the most 
abundant of all animals along the Little Mis- 
souri in the region that I know, ranging, say, 
from Pretty Buttes to the Killdeer Mountains. 

30(5 



Hunting in the Cattle Country 

They were migratory, and at times almost all 
of them might leave ; but, on the whole, they 
were the most abundant of the game animals. 
In 1 88 1 they were still almost as numerous as 
ever. In 1883 all were killed but a few strag- 
glers, and the last of these stragglers that I 
heard of as seen in our immediate neighbor- 
hood was in 1885. The second game animal 
in point of abundance was the blacktail. It 
did not go out on the prairies, but in the 
broken country adjoining the river it was far 
more plentiful than any other kind of game. 
It is greatly reduced in numbers now. Black- 
tail were not much slaughtered until the buf- 
falo began to give out, say in 1882; but they 
are probably now not a twentieth as plentiful 
as they were in that year. Elk were plentiful 
in 1880, though never anything like as abun- 
dant as the buffalo and the blacktail. Only 
straggling parties or individuals have been 
seen since 1883. The last I shot near my 
ranch was in 1886; but two or three have 
been shot since, and a cow and calf were seen, 
chased and almost roped by the riders on the 
round-up in the fall of 1893. Doubtless one 
or two still linger even yet in inaccessible 
places. Whitetail were never as numerous 

307 



Hunting in Many Lands 

as the other game, but they have held their 
own well. Though they have decreased in 
numbers, the decrease is by no means as great 
as of the blacktail, and a good many can be 
shot yet. A dozen years ago probably twenty 
blacktail were killed for every one whitetail ; 
now the numbers are about equal. Antelope 
were plentiful in the old days, though not 
nearly so much so as buffalo and blacktail. 
The hunters did not molest them while the 
buffalo and elk lasted, and they then turned 
their attention to the blacktails. For some 
years after 1880 I think the pronghorn in 
our neighborhood positively increased in num- 
bers. In 1886 I thought them more plentiful 
than I had ever known them before. Since 
then they have decreased, and in the last 
two years the decrease has been quite rapid. 
Mountain sheep were never very plentiful, and 
during the last dozen years they have de- 
creased proportionately less than any other 
game. Bears have decreased in numbers, and 
have become very shy and difficult to get at ; 
they were never plentiful. Cougars were al- 
ways very scarce. 

There were two stages of hunting in our 
country, as in almost all other countries simi- 

308 



Hunting in the Cattle Country 

larly situated. In 1880 the Northern Pacific 
Railroad was built nearly to the edge of the 
Bad Lands, and the danger of Indian war was 
totally eliminated. A great inrush of hunters 
followed. In 1881, 1882 and 1883 buffalo, elk 
and blacktail were slaughtered in enormous 
numbers, and a good many whitetail and 
prongbuck were killed too. By 1884 the 
game had been so thinned out that hide hunt- 
ing and meat hunting had ceased to pay. A 
few professional hunters remained, but most 
of them moved elsewhere, or were obliged to 
go into other business. From that time the 
hunting has chiefly been done by the ranch- 
ers and occasional small grangers. In conse- 
quence, for six or eight years the game about 
held its own — the antelope, as I have said 
above, at one time increasing ; but the gradual 
increase in the number of actual settlers is 
now beginning to tell, and the game is becom- 
ing slowly scarcer. 

The only wild animals that have increased 
with us are the wolves. These are more plen- 
tiful now than they were ten years ago. I 
have never known them so numerous or so 
daring in their assaults on stock as in 1894. 
They not only kill colts and calves, but full- 

309 



Hunting in Many Lands 

grown steers and horses. Quite a number 
have been poisoned, but they are very wary 
about taking baits. Quite a number also have 
been roped by the men on the round-up who 
have happened to run across them when gorged 
from feeding at a carcass. Nevertheless, for 
the last few years they have tended to increase 
in numbers, though they are so wary, and now- 
adays so strictly nocturnal in their habits, that 
they are not often seen. This great increase, 
following a great diminution, in the number of 
wolves along the Little Missouri is very curi- 
ous. Twenty years ago, or thereabouts, wolves 
were common, and they were then frequently 
seen by every traveler and hunter. With the 
advent of the wolfers, who poisoned them for 
their skins, they disappeared, the disappear- 
ance being only partly explicable, however, by 
the poisoning. For a number of years they 
continued scarce ; but during the last four or 
five they have again grown numerous, why I 
cannot say. I wish that there were sufficient 
data at hand to tell whether they have de- 
creased during these four or five years in 
neio-hboring regions, say in central and east- 
ern Montana. Another curious feature of the 
case is that the white wolves, which in the 

310 



Hunting in the Cattle Country 

middle of the century were so common in this 
region, are now very rare. I have heard of 
but one, which was seen on the upper Can- 
non Ball in 1892. One nearly black wolf was 
killed in 1893. 

I suppose all hunters are continually asked 
what rifies they use. Any good modern rifle 
is good enough, and, after a certain degree of 
excellence in the weapon is attained, the differ- 
ence between it and a somewhat better rifle 
counts for comparatively little compared to 
the difference in the skill, nerve and judgment 
of the men using them. Moreover, there is 
room for a great deal of individual variation of 
opinion among experts as to rifles. I person- 
ally prefer the Winchester. I used a .45-75 
until I broke it in a fall while goat-hunting, 
and since then I have used a .45-90. For my 
own use I consider either gun much preferable 
to the .500 and .577 caliber double-barreled 
Express for use with bears, buffalo, moose 
and elk ; yet my brother, for instance, always 
preferred the double-barreled Express; Mr. 
Theodore Van Dyke prefers the large bore, 
and Mr. H. L. Stimson has had built a special 
•577 Winchester, which he tells me he finds 
excellent for grizzly bears. There is the same 

3" 



Hunting in Many Lands 

difference of opinion among men who hunt 
game on other continents than ours. Thus, 
Mr. Royal Carroll, in shooting rhinoceros, buf- 
falo and the like in South Africa, preferred 
big, heavy English double-barrels; while Mr. 
William Chanler, after trying these same dou- 
ble-barrels, finally threw them aside in favor of 
the .45-90 Winchester for use even against 
such large and thick-hided beasts as rhinoc- 
eros. There was an amusing incident con- 
nected with Mr. Chanler's experiences. In a 
letter to the London Field he happened to 
mention that he preferred, for rhinoceros and 
other large game, the .45-90 Winchester to the 
double-barrel .577, so frequently produced by 
the English gun makers. His letter was fol- 
lowed by a perfect chorus of protests in the 
shape of other letters by men who preferred 
the double-barrel. These men had a perfect 
right to their opinions, but the comic feature 
of their letters was that, as a rule, they almost 
seemed to think that Mr. Chanler's preference 
of the .45-90 repeater showed some kind of 
moral delinquency on his part ; while the gun 
maker, whose double-barrel Mr. Chanler had 
discarded in favor of the Winchester, solemnly 
produced tests to show that the bullets from 

312 



Hunting in the Cattle Country 

his gun had more penetration than those from 
the Winchester — which had no more to do 
with the question than the production by the 
Winchester people of targets to show that this 
weapon possessed superior accuracy would 
have had. Of course, the element of penetra- 
tion is only one of twenty entering into the 
question ; accuracy, handiness, rapidity of fire, 
penetration, shock — all have to be considered. 
Penetration is useless after a certain point has 
been reached. Shock is useless if it is gained 
at too great expense of penetration or accu- 
racy. Flatness of trajectory, though admira- 
ble, is not as important as accuracy, and when 
gained at a great expense of accuracy is sim- 
ply a disadvantage. All of these points are 
admirably discussed in Mr. A. C. Gould's 
"Modern American Rifles." In the rig-ht 
place, a fair-sized bullet is as good as a very 
big one; in the wrong place, the big one is 
best ; but the medium one will do more good 
in the right place than the big one away from 
its right place ; and if it is more accurate it 
is therefore preferable. 

Entirely apart from the merit of guns, there 
is a considerable element of mere fashion in 
them. For the last twenty years there has 

313 



Hunting In Many Lands 

been much controversy between the advocates 
of two styles of rifles — that is, the weapon with 
a comparatively small bore and long, solid bul- 
let and a moderate charge of powder, and the 
weapon of comparatively large bore with a 
very heavy charge of powder and a short bul- 
let, often with a hollow end. The first is the 
type of rifle that has always been used by 
ninety-nine out of a hundred American hunt- 
ers, and indeed it is the only kind of rifle that 
has ever been used to any extent in North 
America; the second is the favorite weapon 
of English sportsmen in those grandest of the 
world's hunting grounds, India and South 
Africa. When a single-shot rifle is not used, 
the American usually takes a repeater, the 
Englishman a double-barrel. Each type has 
some good qualities that the other lacks, and 
each has some defects. The personal equation 
must always be taken into account in dealing 
with either ; excellent sportsmen of equal ex- 
perience give conflicting accounts of the per- 
formances of the two types. Personally, I 
think that the American type is nearer right. 
In reading the last book of the great South 
African hunter, Mr. Selous, I noticed with 
much interest that in hunting elephants he 

314 



Hunting in the Cattle Country 

and many of the Dutch elephant hunters had 
abandoned the huge four and eight bores 
championed by that doughty hunter, Sir Sam- 
uel Baker, and had adopted precisely the type 
of rifle which was in almost universal use 
among the American buffalo hunters from 1870 
to 1883 — that is, a rifle of .45 caliber, shooting 
75 grains of powder and a bullet of 550 grains. 
The favorite weapon of the American buffalo 
hunter was a Sharps rifle of .45 caliber, shoot- 
ing about 550 grains of lead and using or- 
dinarily 90 to 1 10 grains of powder — which, 
however, was probably not as strong as the 
powder used by Mr. Selous; in other words, 
the types of gun were identically the same. I 
have elsewhere stated that by actual experi- 
ence the big double-barreled English eight 
and ten bores were found inferior to Sharps 
rifle for bison-hunting on the Western plains. 
I know nothing about elephant or rhinoceros 
shooting ; but my own experience with bison, 
bear, moose and elk has long convinced me 
that for them and for all similar animals (in- 
cluding,. I have no doubt, the lion and tiger) 
the. 45-90 type of repeater is, on the whole, the 
best of the existing sporting rifles for my own 
use. I have of late years loaded my car- 

315 



Hunting in Many Lands 

tridges not with the ordinary rifle powder, but 
with 85 grains of Orange lightning, and have 
used a bullet with 350 grains of lead, and then 
have bored a small hole, taking out 15 or 20 
grains, in the point ; but for heavy game I 
think the solid bullet better. Judging from 
what I have been told by some of my friends, 
however, it seems not unlikely that the best 
sporting rifle will ultimately prove to be the 
very small caliber repeating rifle now found in 
various forms in the military service of all 
countries — a caliber of say .256 or .310, with 
40 grains of powder and a 200grain bullet. 
These rifles possess marvelous accuracy and a 
very flat trajectory. The speed of the bullet 
causes it to mushroom if made of lead, and 
gives it great penetration if hardened. Cer- 
tain of my friends have used rifles of this type 
on bears, caribou and deer ; they were said to 
be far superior to the ordinary sporting rifle. 
A repeating rifle of this type is really merely a 
much more perfect form of the repeating rifles 
that have for so long been favorites with 
American hunters. 

But these are merely my personal opinions ; 
and, as I said before, among the many kinds of 
excellent sporting rifles turned out by the best 

?.i6 



Hunting in the Cattle Country 

modern makers each has its special good 
points and its special defects; and equally 
good sportsmen, of equally wide experience, 
will be found to vary widely in their judgment 
of the relative worth of the different weapons. 
Some people can do better with one rifle and 
some with another, and in the long run it is 
'* the man behind the gun " that counts most. 

Theodore Roosevelt, 



«3t!! 



Wolf-Coursing 

While wolf -coursing is one of the most 
thrilling and exciting sports to be enjoyed 
in this country, it is less indulged in than 
any other sport ; this, too, in the face of the 
fact that no country offers such excellent op- 
portunities for its practice. This is, no doubt, 
due to the fact that it is a sport requiring 
special preparation, a thorough knowledge of 
both the game and country, and is very trying 
on horse, rider and hound. Russia seems to 
be the only country in which it has a foothold 
and a permanent place in the hearts of its 
sportsmen. In fact, with the Russians it 
might be called a national pastime. How- 
ever, did it require in this country the same 
outlay of money, time and preparation that it 
does in Russia, I doubt very much its advance- 
ment as a sport. 

There are really but two species of wolf in 
this country — the timber wolf, generally called 
the gray, and the prairie wolf or coyote. In 

31^ 



Wolf-Coursing 

different sections one hears of other varieties ; 
but these, I believe, are merely variations in 
color and size, and are not specific differences. 
While the habits of the coyote or prairie wolf 
are well known to a majority of sportsmen, it 
is not so with the timber or gray wolf, and a 
few words in regard to the latter will not be 
amiss. 

My experience is that the wolves of Mon- 
tana and Wyoming are larger, stronger and 
fiercer than those further south, though it is a 
fact that the largest single wolf that I ever saw 
killed was in Arizona. However, he was an 
exception to the general run of them there. 
If we may judge of the Russian or European 
wolf from specimens to be seen in menageries 
and zoological gardens, the American wolf, 
while not so tall or leggy, is more compact, 
with heavier head, coarser muzzle, smaller 
ears, and perhaps a little heavier in weight — • 
the American wolf standing from 29 to 36 
inches at shoulder, and weighing from 85 to 
125 pounds. I am also inclined to think that 
the American wolf is, when run down to a 
death-finish, a much more formidable foe for 
dogs than his European relative. I reached 
this conclusion only after hunting them with 

319 



Hunting in Many Lands 

high-priced hounds, that had won medals in 
Russia for wolf-killing, but which demonstrat- 
ed their utter inability even to hold American 
wolves. 

Alive, the wolf is the enemy of man and 
beast, and when dead he is almost useless. 
His skin has but little commercial value, and 
even dogs refuse to eat his flesh. I have 
never known dogs to tear and mutilate a 
wolfs carcass, and verily believe they would 
starve to death before eating its flesh. And 
yet I have read accounts of hunters feeding 
their dogs upon wolf meat. I recall an effort 
I made to cultivate in my dogs a taste for 
wolf meat. I cut up a quantity of bear meat 
into small strips and tossed them to the dogs, 
which would gulp them down before they could 
fall upon the ground. Substituting a piece of 
wolf meat was of no avail ; they detected it 
instantly, and those which were fooled into 
swallowing it immediately lost interest in the 
proceedings and walked away. 

The wolf is by nature cowardly, being defi- 
cient in courage comparative to his strength 
and great size, but he often becomes coura- 
geous from necessity. When reduced to ex- 
tremity by hunger, he braves danger, and has 

320 



Wolf-Coursing 

been known in numbers to attack man, though 
no such incident ever came under my personal 
observation. I have had them dog my foot- 
steps throughout a long day's hunt, always 
managing to remain just beyond gunshot dis- 
tance; and upon one occasion, when I had 
shot a pheasant, one actually carried it off 
in full view before I could reach it, and, not- 
withstanding I fired several shots that must 
have come uncomfortably close, he made off 
with his dangerously earned meal. 

As a general thing, however, the wolf mani- 
fests a desire to run, rather than fight, for life, 
and when alone will frequently tuck his tail 
between his legs, and run like a stricken cur 
from a dog that he could easily crush out 
of existence. They are great believers in the 
maxim, "In union there is strength." The 
female, while apparently more timid than the 
male, seems to lose all sense of danger when 
hemmed in and forced to a fight, and attacks 
with intrepidity. I once shot a female at long 
range, the bullet from my Winchester passing 
through her hind quarters and breaking both 
legs. When I got up to her, she was sur- 
rounded by the ranch dogs — an odd assortment 
of "mongrel puppy, whelp and hound, and cur 

321 



Hunting in Many Lands 

of low degree" — furiously attacking first one, 
then another of them as they circled around 
her; and, though she was partially paralyzed, 
drat'-ging her hind quarters, she successfully 
stood off the entire pack until another bullet 
ended the struggle. When in whelp they 
fight with great obstinacy, and defend them- 
selves with intrepidity, being seemingly insen- 
sible to punishment. When captured young 
they are susceptible of taming and domestica- 
tion, though they are never free from treach- 
ery. Though I have heard it denied, I know it 
to be a fact that the dog has been successfully 
crossed upon the wolf. I saw any number 
of the produce around the old Spotted Tail 
agency. They closely resembled wolves, and 
were hardly distinguishable from them in ap- 
pearance, though generally lacking the good 
qualities of faithfulness and attachment pos- 
sessed by the dog. 

The amount of damage a wolf can do in 
a horse or cattle country is almost beyond 
belief. He slaughters indiscriminately, carry- 
ing waste and destruction to any section he 
honors with his presence. When a pack of 
these nocturnal marauders come across an un- 
protected flock of sheep, a sanguinary massacre 

322 



Wolf-Coursing 

occurs, and not until they have killed, torn or 
mangled the entire flock will they return to 
the mountains. Thus the wolves become a 
scourge, and their depredations upon herds 
of sheep and cattle cause no inconsiderable 
loss to the rancher. They frequently plunder 
for days and nights together. I am not pre- 
pared to state whether it is owing to daintiness 
of appetite or pure love of killing, but as it is a 
fact that a single wolf has been known to kill 
a hundred sheep in a night, it would seem that 
this indiscriminate slaughter was more to satis- 
fy his malignity than his hunger. It is a prev- 
alent idea that the wolf will eat putrid meat. 
This I have not found to be true. He seldom 
if ever devours carcasses after they begin to 
putrify, choosing to hunt for fresh spoils rather 
than to return to that which he had half de- 
voured, before leaving it to the tender mercies 
of the coyotes, who have an appetite less nice. 
The coyote is a good scavenger, following 
in the footsteps of the wolf, and will pick 
bones until they glisten like ivory. His 
fondness for domestic fowl and his thieving 
propensity often embolden him to enter farm- 
yards and even residences during the daytime; 
yet he often seems contented to dine upon 

323 



Hunting in Many Lands 

corrupt flesh, bones, hair, old boots and sad- 
dles, and many remarkable gastronomic per- 
formances are credited to him. I had occasion 
to "sleep out" one night in the Powder River 
country, and, after picketing my horse, I threw 
my saddle upon the ground near the picket 
pin, and, placing my cartridge belt beneath the 
saddle — which I used as a pillow — I was soon 
sound asleep. Imagine my surprise at day- 
break — knowing there was not a human being 
within fifty miles of me — to find that my car- 
tridge belt was missing. After a short search 
I found the cartridges some few hundred yards 
away, and a few remnants of the belt. The 
coyotes had actually stolen this from under 
my head without disturbing me, devoured it 
and licked all the grease from the cartridges. 
I felt thankful that they had not devoured my 
rawhide riata. 

Of all animals that I have hunted, I con- 
sider the wolf the hardest to capture or kill. 
There is only one way in which he can be suc- 
cessfully coped with, and that is with a pack of 
dogs trained to the purpose and thoroughly 
understanding their business. Dogs, as a 
rule, have sufficient combativeness to assail 
any animal, and, as a general thing, two or 

324 



Wolf-Coursing 

three of them can easily kill another animal of 
same size and weight ; but the wolf, with his 
wonderful vitality and tenacity of life, com- 
bined with his thickness of skin, matted hair 
and resistant muscles, is anything but an easy 
victim for even six or eight times his number. 
I spent the winter of 1874-75 i^i a portion 
of the Rocky Mountains uninhabited except 
by our own party. Wolves were very plenti- 
ful, and we determined to secure as many pejts 
as possible. Owing to the rough nature of 
the country and our inability to keep up with 
the dogs on horseback, we tried poisoning, but 
with only moderate success. While others 
claim it is an easy matter to poison wolves, 
we did not find it so. In a country where 
game is plentiful, it is almost impossible to 
poison them. We tried trapping them, with 
like results. Always mistrustful and intensely 
suspicious, they imagine everything unusual 
they see is a trap laid to betray or capture 
them, and with extreme sagacity avoid every- 
thing strange and new. When caught, they 
frequently gnaw off a foot or leg rather than 
be taken. Our cabin was surrounded by a 
stockade wall, over which we could throw such 
portions of deer carcasses as we did not use, 

325 



Hunting in Many Lands 

and at nightfall the wolves, attracted by the 
smell of the meat, would assemble on the out- 
side, and we shot them from the portholes. 
It required a death shot ; for, if only wounded, 
no matter how badly, they would manage to 
get far enough away from the stockade to be 
torn into shreds by the survivors before we 
could drive them off. I have always found 
the wolf a most difficult animal to shoot. En- 
dowed with wonderful powers of scent and 
extremely cunning, it is almost impossible to 
stalk them. Frequently, after a long stalk 
after one, have I raised my head to find him 
gone, his nose having warned him of my 
approach. 

The successful chase of the wolf requires 
a species of knowledge that can be acquired 
only by experience. It also requires men, 
horses and dogs trained and disciplined for 
the purpose ; and woe to the man, horse or 
dog that undertakes it without such prepara- 
tion. The true sportsman is not a blood- 
thirsty animal. The actual killing of an an- 
imal, its mere death, is not sport. Therefore, 
upon several occasions, I have declined to join 
a general wolf round-up, where men form a 
cordon, and, by beating the country, drive 

326 



Wolf-Coursing 

them to a common center and kill them in- 
discriminately. I have always preferred hunt- 
ing them with hounds to any other method of 
extermination. The enjoyment of sport in- 
creases in proportion to the amount of danger 
to man and beast engaged in it, and for this 
reason coursing wolves has always held a pe- 
culiar fascination for me. A number of years 
spent in the far West afforded me ample op- 
portunity to indulge my tastes in this line of 
sport, so my knowledge of wolf-hunting and 
the habits of the wolf has been derived from 
personal experience and from association with 
famous hunters. 

The principal drawback to the pleasure of 
wolf-coursing is the danger to a good horse 
from bad footing, and the possible mutilation 
and death of a favorite dog — death and de- 
struction of hounds being often attendant 
upon the capture and death of a full-grown 
wolf. I do not know that I can give a better 
idea of the sport than by describing a day's 
wolf-hunting I enjoyed in the early seventies 
near Raw Hide Butte, in Wyoming. 

We had notified the cook, an odd character 
who went by the name of Steamboat, to call 
us by daybreak. As we sat up late talking 

327 



Hunting in Many Lands 

about the anticipated pleasures of the morrow, 
it seemed to me that I had hardly closed my 
eyes when Steamboat's heavy cavalry boots 
were heard beating a tattoo on the shack 
door, I rolled out of my bunk, to find Maje 
and Zach, my companions in the hunt, dressed 
and pulling on their shaps. Hastily dressing, 
I followed them out to the corral just as the 
gray tints of earliest morning were gathering 
in the sky. The horses had been corralled the 
night before, and, with Steamboat standing in 
the door, using anything but choice language 
at our delay in coming to breakfast, we sad- 
dled up. Having ridden my own horse, a 
sturdy half-breed from Salt Lake, very hard 
the day before in running down a wounded 
antelope, I decided on a fresh mount ; and, as 
luck would have it, I selected one of the best 
lookers in the band, only to find out later, to 
my sorrow, that I had fallen upon the only 
bucking horse in the lot. While we break- 
fasted upon antelope steak, flapjacks and 
strong coffee. Steamboat was harnessing a 
couple of wiry cayuses to a buckboard, and, 
as we came out, we found him with the strike 
dogs chained to the seat behind him, impa- 
tient to be off. The party consisted of Maje, 

328 



Wolf-Coursing 

a long-legged, slab-sided, six-foot Kentuckian, 
mounted on a "States" horse; Zach, an out- 
and-out typical cowboy, who had come up 
from Texas on the trail, mounted on a pinto 
that did not look as though he had been fed 
since his arrival in the territory, but, as Zach 
knowingly remarked, " No route was too long 
or pace too hot for him"; Steamboat in the 
buckboard, holding with a pair of slips Dan, 
an English greyhound, and Scotty, a Scotch 
deerhound ; while the other dogs, consisting 
of a pair of young greyhounds, a pair of 
cross-bred grey and deerhounds, and Lead, an 
old-time Southern foxhound, were making the 
horses miserable by jumping first at their 
heads, then at their heels, in their eagerness 
to facilitate the start ; and myself on the buck- 
ing broncho. 

While crossing the creek a few hundred 
yards above the ranch, I heard old Lead give 
mouth, a short distance ahead, in a chapar- 
ral rendered impenetrable by tangled under- 
growth, and which formed secure covert for 
countless varmints. Knowing that he never 
threw his tongue without cause, I dug my 
spurs into my horse, with the intention of 
joining him. But I reckoned without my host, 

329 



Hunting in Many Lands 

and for the next few minutes all my ener- 
gies were devoted to sticking to my horse, 
who then and there in the creek bed pro- 
ceeded to give an illustration of bucking that 
would have put the wild West buckers to 
shame. Lead had jumped a coyote that put 
off with all the speed that deadly terror could 
impart — all the dogs after him full tilt. It re- 
quired quite a display of energy upon the part 
of Zach and his pinto to whip the dogs off; 
and, had it not been for the fact that Dan and 
Scotty — who had jerked Steamboat literally 
out of the buckboard and raced off together 
with the slips dangling about their heels — ran 
into a bush, and the slips catching held them 
fast, we would have been called upon to par- 
ticipate in a coyote and not a wolf-hunt — as, 
when once slipped, no human power could 
have stopped these dogs until they had tested 
the metal of Brer Coyote. By the time Zach 
and the dogs returned, I had convinced my 
broncho that I was not a tenderfoot, having 
"been there before," and he was contented to 
keep at least two feet upon the ground at the 
same time. 

We rode probably five or six miles, carefully 
scanning the trackless plains, without sighting 

330 



Wolf-Coursing 

a wolf, when Maje, who had ridden off a mile 
to our right, was seen upon a butte wildly 
waving his hat. We instinctively knew that 
game was afoot, and, as he disappeared, we 
commenced a wild stampede for the butte. 
Steamboat, with slips and reins in one hand 
and blacksnake whip in the other, came 
thundering after us, lashing his team into a 
wild, mad run — and how he managed to hold 
himself and dogs on the bounding buckboard 
was a mystery to me. Reaching the butte, we 
espied Maje a mile away, riding for dear life. 
It did not take long to decide, from the gener- 
al direction taken, that the wolf would shortly 
return to us. Keeping well back out of sight, 
we impatiently awaited his return, and, had 
it not been for the pure malignity of my 
broncho, the wolf would have doubled back 
within a few hundred yards of us, and a close 
race have resulted. 

I had taken the dogs from Steamboat, and, 
with the release cord of the slips around my 
wrist, sat in the saddle ready to sight and slip 
the dogs. Becoming impatient under the re- 
straint, the dogs ran behind my horse, and, as 
the strap of the slips got under his tail, he 
again commenced bucking, and before I could 

331 



Hunting in Many Lands 

control him we were in full view of the wolf, 
which, upon sighting us, veered off to the left. 
Although not over a half mile away, the dogs 
failed to sight him. With a cheer to the loose 
dogs, we pushed forward at top speed, the 
cracking of the quirts upon our horses' flanks 
being echoed in the rear by the incessant pop- 
ping of Steamboat's whip as he lashed the 
panting cayuses to the top of their speed in 
a vain effort to keep up with us. 

We joined Maje at the point where we had 
last seen the wolf, which by this time had 
disappeared. Going over a rise, we dropped 
down into an arroyo, where the foxhound 
again gave tongue, and started back on the 
trail almost in the same direction in which 
we had come. Thinking that for once he was 
at fault, and back-tracking, I took the two dogs 
in slips up the arroyo, while Maje, Zach and 
the pack of dogs followed the foxhound, and 
were soon out of sight and hearing. Circling 
around for some distance and seeing no sign 
of the wolf, I rode upon a high point, and, 
searching the country carefully through my 
glasses, I could see the party probably a mile 
and a half away ; and» from the manner in 
which they were getting over the ground, I 

332 



Wolf-Coursing 

knew they had again sighted. A hard ride of 
two miles, in which the dogs almost dragged 
me from my horse in their eagerness, brought 
me within sighting distance of the dogs — the 
voice of the foxhound, which was in the rear, 
floating back to me in strong and melodious 
tones across the plains. Slipping Dan and 
Scotty, they went from the slips like a pair 
of bullets and soon left me far behind. Upon 
rounding a point of rocks, I saw one of the 
young dogs lying upon the ground. A hasty 
glance showed me, from the violent manner in 
which he strained to catch his breath, that he 
had tackled the wolf and his windpipe was 
injured. It afterward developed that he had 
become separated from the pack, and, in cut- 
ting across country, had imprudently taken 
hold of the wolf, which, with one snap of his 
powerful jaws, had utterly disabled him, and 
then continued his flight. Like most wolves, 
he seemed to be able to keep up the pace he 
had set over all kinds of ground. It seemed 
to him a matter of indifference whether the 
way was up or down hill, and he evidently 
sought the roughest and stoniest ground, fol- 
lowing ravines and coulees — this giving him 
a great advantage over horses and hounds. 

333 



Hunting in Many Lands 

My horse beginning to show signs of distress, 
I realized that, if the chase was to be a 
straightaway, I would see but little of it and 
probably not be in at the death anyway; 
so I again sought a high point that gave a 
commanding view over a large area of coun- 
try, and determined to await developments. 
Every once in a while, with the aid of my 
glasses, I could see -the pack, fairly well 
bunched, straining every muscle, running as 
though for life. I could catch occasional 
glimpses of the wolf far in advance, as he 
scurried through the sagebrush, showing little 
power of strategy, but a determined obstinacy 
to outfoot his relentless foes. 

Fortune again favored me. By degrees the 
superior speed and stamina of the hounds 
began to tell, though both seemed to be run- 
ning with undiminished speed. The wolf, find- 
ing that, with all his speed and cunning, they 
were slowly but surely overtaking him, circled 
in my direction, and I was soon again an im- 
portant factor in the hunt, urging the dogs 
with shouts of encouragement. I was now 
near enough to note that one of the young 
greyhounds, which had evidently been running 
cunning by lying back and cutting across, was 

334 



Wolf-Coursing 

far in advance of the pack — not over loo yards 
behind the wolf, and gaining rapidly. Striking 
a rise in the ground, he overtook the wolf and 
seized him by the shoulder. The wolf seemed 
to drag him several yards before he reached 
around, and with his powerful, punishing jaws 
gave him a slash that laid his skull bare and 
rolled him over on the prairie. 

Slight as this interruption was, it encouraged 
Dan to greater effort, and the next minute he 
had distanced the pack, nailed the wolf by the 
jowl, and over they went, wolf on top. Scotty 
was but a few paces behind, and, taking a hind 
hold, tried to stretch him. With a mighty 
effort the wolf tore himself loose from both 
and started to run again. He had not gone 
thirty paces before Scotty bowled him over 
again. Rising, he sullenly faced his foes, who, 
with wholesome respect for his glistening ivo- 
ries, seemed to hesitate while recovering their 
wind, as they were sadly blown after their long 
run, the day being an intensely hot one. At 
this point I rode up. The wolf lay closely 
hugging the ground, his swollen tongue pro- 
truding from foam-flecked chops, and with 
keen and wary eye he watched the maddened 
pack circling about looking for a vulnerable 

335 



Hunting in Many Lands 

point Varied experience in the art of self- 
defense had taught him skill and quickness, 
and as each dog essayed to assail him he found 
a threatening array of teeth. Throwing my- 
self from the saddle, I cheered them on. Dan 
and Scotty hesitated no longer, but rushed 
savagely at him, one on either side, and the 
whole pack, including the one recently scalped, 
regardless of his gaping wound, followed them. 
For a few minutes the pile resembled a 
struggling mass of dogs, and the air seemed 
filled with flying hair, fur and foam, and the 
snapping of teeth was like castanets. At first 
the wolf seemed only intent upon shaking off 
his foes and escaping, but the punishment he 
was receiving could not long be borne; and 
from then on to the last gasp, with eyes flam- 
ing with rage, every power seemingly put 
forth, he fought like a demon possessed. As 
he tossed the dogs about, seemingly breaking 
their hold at will, I was singularly impressed 
with his enormous size and strength, his shaggy 
appearance and his generally savage look, and 
suggested to Maje and Zach, who had come 
up in the meantime, that we take a hand in 
the fray, as I doubted the ability of the dogs 
to finish him without serious loss. However, 

336 



Wolf-Coursing 

we decided to give them the opportunity, and 
ere long they had him hors de combat, stretched 
upon the ground, his body crimson with his 
own life's blood, in the last throes of death. 
He was one of the largest specimens I had 
ever seen, weighing not less than 1 20 pounds, 
the green pelt weighing twenty- four. His 
carcass, when stood up alongside of Scotty, 
seemed several inches taller, and I afterward 
measured the latter and found him to be thirty- 
one inches. 

All of the dogs received more or less pun- 
ishment ; none escaped scathless, but really 
much less damage was done than I expected. 
This was owing to the fact that Dan and 
Scotty, two of the staunchest seizers I ever 
saw, engaged him constantly in front, while 
the other dogs literally disemboweled him. 
Scotty had a bad cut on the side of the neck, 
requiring several stitches to close, and the 
muscles of his shoulder were laid bare ; while 
Dan's most serious hurt was a cut from dome 
of skull to corner of eye, from which he never 
entirely recovered, as he ever afterward had a 
weeping eye. One of the cross-breeds, whose 
pads were not well indurated, suffered from 
lacerated feet, and one of his stoppers was torn 

337 



Hunting in Many Lands 

almost off, necessitating removal. A wolf's 
bite is both cruel and dangerous, and wounds 
on dogs are obstinate and very hard to heal 
— more so than those of any other animal. 
While skinning the wolf, our horses were 
standing with lowered heads, heaving flanks, 
shaking and trembling limbs ; my horse, much 
to my satisfaction, evidently without a good 
buck left in him. 

After a full hour's rest for man and beast, 
we started back to the ranch. Taking Steam- 
boat with the buckboard, I went back to the 
point of rocks with the intention of taking up 
the injured dog. Upon arrival there no trace 
of him could be found ; he had mysteriously 
disappeared. Thinking that he had recovered 
sufficiently to make his way back to the ranch, 
we increased our speed and soon joined the 
others, who had been heading directly for 
home. The ride home was devoid of incident, 
the monotony being occasionally broken by 
our frantic efforts to restrain the dopfs from 
chasing innumerable jack rabbits that bounded 
away on three legs, in their most tantalizing 
way, inviting us to a chase. We also got 
within rifle shot of a band of antelope, seem- 
ing quite at ease, feeding and gamboling 

338 



Wolf-Coursing 

sportively with each other, until a pistol shot 
at long range sent them skimming gracefully 
over the plains, finally vanishing like a flying 
shadow in the distance. While crossing the 
creek below, and within sight of the ranch, we 
again heard Lead give tongue in the chapar- 
ral above the ranch, and in a few minutes he 
had a coyote busy, doubtless the same one we 
had disturbed in taking a constitutional in the 
morning. The dogs, now a sorry looking set, 
had been jogging lazily along behind us, but 
in a moment were all life and action. Their 
spirits were contagious, and, though we had 
positively agreed under no circumstances to 
run a coyote, we very soon found ourselves 
flying after the vanishing pack in full pursuit. 
A pretty race ensued. When first dislodged 
the coyote appeared lame to such an extent 
that I thought his leg broken; but after warm- 
ing up this affection entirely disappeared, and 
the pace was a hot one for the first mile. The 
dogs ran well together, and were gradually 
lessening the gap between them and their 
wily foe, who, realizing this, displayed tact in 
selecting the very worst possible ground for 
footing, and soon regained his lost vantage. 
It began to look as though the coyote would 

339 



Hunting in Many Lands 

again give us the slip, when one of the young 
dogs, that Zach in his excitement had ridden 
over several minutes before and presumably 
killed, was seen to dash out from a draw and 
bowl over the coyote. His hold was not a 
good one, but he succeeded in turning the 
coyote, who then made a straight line for a 
bunch of cattle grazing near, becoming tempo- 
rarily unsighted among the cattle. The dogs 
again fell behind, and when again sighted the 
coyote was making a bee line for the ranch. 
By the time the creek was reached, he was in 
evident distress and sorely pressed. With a 
final effort he dashed through the creek up the 
opposite bank, and, as he dodged into the 
open corral gate, one of the greyhounds 
flicked the hair from his hind quarters. It 
was his last effort. By the time we reached 
the corral, he was being literally pulled to 
pieces. We could not see that he made ad- 
ditional wounds upon any of the dogs. In 
the excitement of the finish of the chase I 
had lost Maje, and it was only after the death 
in the corral that I missed him. Going to the 
adobe wall, I peered over and saw him some 
distance away standing beside his horse. 
Upon going back to him, we found that his 

340 



Wolf-Coursing 

horse had stepped into a prairie dog hole, 
throwing him violently, and, turning a somer- 
sault, had landed upon him. The only dam- 
age to Maje was, he had been converted 
for the time being into a cactus pincushion ; 
but his "States" horse had broken his fore leg 
at the pastern joint and had to be shot. 

After the long run of the morning, this race 
afforded us ample scope for testing both the 
speed and staying qualities of the dogs as well 
as of our horses. 

We were disappointed in not finding the in- 
jured dog at the ranch. In fact, he was never 
afterward heard of, and doubtless crawled away 
among the rocks and died alone. After sew- 
ing up Scotty's wounds, dressing the minor 
cuts of the other dogs and removing the cactus 
and prickly pear points from their feet (the 
latter not a small job by any means), we were 
soon doing full justice to Steamboat's satisfy- 
ing if not appetizing meal. 

In contrast to our simple preparations and 
equipment for this, an average wolf-hunt in 
that country, wolf-hunts in Russia, as described 
to me by my friend, St. Allen, of St. Peters- 
burg, are certainly grand affairs; but when 
the two methods of hunting are compared, I 

341 



Hunting in Many Lands 

cannot but believe that the balance of sport is 
in our favor. 

I have frequently been asked what breed of 
dogs I consider best for wolf-hunting. Hav- 
ing tried nearly all kinds, experience and ob- 
servation justify me in asserting that the grey- 
hound is undoubtedly the best. In the first 
place, there is no question of their ability to 
catch wolves, and, when properly bred and 
reared, their courage is undoubted. It is a 
general supposition that the greyhound is de- 
void of the power of scent. This is a mistake, 
as can be attested by anyone who has ever 
hunted them generally in the West upon large 
game, especially wolves, which give a stronger 
scent than any other animal. Of course, this 
power is not as well developed in the grey- 
hound as in other breeds, because the uses to 
which he is put do not require scent, and, 
under the law of evolution, it has deteriorated 
as a natural consequence. Unrivaled in speed 
and endurance, these qualities have been de- 
veloped and bred for, while the olfactory 
organs have been necessarily neglected by 
restricting the work of the dogs to sight hunt- 
ing. Experience has taught me that they are 
the only breed of dogs that, without special 

342 



Wolf-Coursing 

training or preparation, will take hold and stay 
in the fight with the first wolf they encounter 
until they have killed him. I have heard it 
said that this was because they did not have 
sense enough to avoid a wolf. At all events, 
it is a fact that they will unhesitatingly take 
hold of a wolf when dogs older, stronger and 
better adapted to fighting will refuse to do so. 
I have found that, while all dogs will hunt or 
run a fox spontaneously, with seeming pleas- 
ure, they have a natural repugnance and great 
aversion to the proverbially offensive odor pe- 
culiar to the wolf. I once hunted a pack of 
high-bred foxhounds, noted for their courage. 
They had not only caught and killed scores of 
red foxes, but had also been used in running 
down and killing sheep-killing dogs. Though 
they had never seen a wolf, I did not doubt 
for an instant that they would kill one. While 
they trailed and ran him true, pulling him 
down in a few miles, they utterly refused to 
break him up when caught. The following 
extract, from an article I wrote some years ago 
on the "Greyhound," for the "American Book 
of the Dog," expresses my views of the cour- 
age and adaptability of the greyhound for 
wolf-hunting : 

343 



Hunting in Many Lands 

"A general impression prevails that the 
greyhound is a timid animal, lacking heart 
and courage. This may be true of some few 
strains of the breed, but, could the reader have 
ridden several courses with me at meetings of 
the American Coursing Club which I have 
judged, and have seen greyhounds, as I have 
seen them, run until their hind legs refused to 
propel them further, and then crawl on their 
breasts after a thoroughly used up jack rabbit 
but a few feet in advance, the singing and 
whistling in their throats plainly heard at fifty 
yards, literally in the last gasp of death, trying 
to catch their prey, he or she would agree with 
me in crediting them with both the qualities 
mentioned." 

In hunting the antelope, it is not an uncom- 
mon thing to see a greyhound, especially in 
hot weather, continue the chase until he dies 
before his master reaches him. An uninjured 
antelope is capable of giving any greyhound 
all the work he can stand, and unless the latter 
is in prime condition his chances are poor in- 
deed to throttle. A peculiar feature of the 
greyhound is that he always attacks large 
game in the throat, head or fore part of the 
body. I have even seen them leave the line 

344 



Wolf-Coursing 

of the jack rabbit to get at his throat. Old 
"California Joe," at one time chief of scouts 
with Gen. Custer, in 1875 owned a grand 
specimen of the greyhound called Kentuck, 
presented to him by Gen. Custer. I saw this 
dog, in the Big Horn country, seize and throw 
a yearling bull buffalo, which then dragged the 
dog on his back over rough stones, trampled 
and pawed him until his ears were split, two 
ribs broken, and neck and fore shoulders 
frightfully cut and lacerated, yet he never re- 
leased his hold until a Sharps rifle bullet 
through the heart of the buffalo ended the 
unequal struggle. Talk about a lack of cour- 
age! I have seen many a greyhound single- 
handed and alone overhaul and tackle a coy- 
ote, and in a pack have seen them close in 
and take hold of a big gray timber wolf or 
a mountain lion and stay throughout the fight, 
coming out bleeding and quivering, with hard- 
ly a whole skin among them. In point of 
speed, courage, fortitude, endurance and fine, 
almost human judgment, no grander animal 
lives than the greyhound. He knows no fear; 
he turns from no game animal on which he is 
sighted, no matter how large or how ferocious. 
He pursues with the speed of the wind, seizes 

345 



Hunting In Many Lands 

the Instant he comes up with the game, and 
stays In the fight until either he or the quarry 
is dead. Of all dogs these are the highest In 
ambition and courage, and, when sufficiently 
understood, they are capable of great attach- 
ment. 

In selecting dogs for wolf-killing, the most 
essential qualities to be desired are courage, 
strength and stamina to sustain continued ex- 
ertion, with plenty of force and dash. Train- 
ing is a matter requiring unlimited patience, 
coupled with firmness and judgment, and a 
large amount of love for a dog. It also re- 
quires constant watchfulness of a dog's every 
movement and mood to make a successful 
wolf-courser of him. Many a good dog has 
been ruined at the outset by not being fully 
understood. 

They should receive their first practical 
work when about one year old, provided they 
are sufficiently developed to stand the hard 
work necessary. They generally have mind 
enough at this age to know what is expected 
of them. It is, of course, better to hunt a 
young dog first with older and experienced 
dogs, which will take hold of any kind of game. 
The larger and stronger the dog, the better; 

346 



Wolf-CoursIng 

for it requires immense powers of endurance, 
hardihood and strength to hold, much less 
kill, a wolf. The latter are particularly strong 
in the fore quarters and muscles of the 
neck and jaw. As an evidence of their great 
strength, I saw a wolf, while running at full 
speed, seize the Siberian wolfhound Zlooem 
by the shoulder and throw him bodily into the 
air, landing him on his back several feet away, 
and yet this wolf did not weigh as much as 
the dog. 

Particular care should be taken to see that a 
young dog gets started right in his practical 
training. Encourage him with your presence; 
do all you can to see that he is sighted 
promptly ; spare no expense or pains in get- 
ting a good mount, and keep as close as pos- 
sible during the fighting ; enliven him with 
your voice, and encourage him to renewed 
effort ; for his ardor increases in proportion to 
the encouragement and praise received. Ride 
hard, to be in early at the death. His confi- 
dence once gained, he will place implicit re- 
liance in your assistance ; but, let him be 
beaten off once or twice through lack of en- 
couragement, and he will soon lose his relish 
for the sport and show a disposition to hang 

347 



Hunting in Many Lands 

back ; while he may seem to be doing his best, 
a practiced eye will soon detect a want of 
ardor and dash. A pack of hounds, with a 
good strike dog and confidence in their owner, 
will carry everything before them; by keeping 
them in good heart they always expect success 
to crown their efforts. 

If from any cause in the final struggle the 
dogs are getting the worst of it, or the other 
dogs refuse to assist the seizers, one must not 
hesitate an instant about assisting them; this 
requires perfect coolness, self-control and pres- 
ence of mind, so as not to injure the dog. To 
attempt the use of the pistol or gun is too 
dangerous. A well-directed blow with a good 
strong hunting knife, delivered between the 
shoulders, will generally break the spine, leav- 
ing the wolf entirely at the mercy of the 
hounds. 

I would advise no one to attempt the Rus- 
sian method of taping the jaws while the wolf 
is held by the seizers. I had an experience of 
this kind once. After a long chase, the wolf, 
in his efforts to escape, leaped a wall, and, 
in alighting upon the farther side, thrust his 
head and neck through a natural loop formed 
by a grapevine growing around a tree. Reach- 

348 



Wolf-Coursing 

ing him as soon as the hounds, I fought them 
off ; but, although he was virtually as fast as if 
in a vise, it required the united efforts of five 
of us to bind his legs and tape his jaws, and 
this was only accomplished after a severe 
struggle of some minutes, I am sure I would 
not have trusted any dog or dogs I ever hunt- 
ed to have held him during this operation. 

One should always be provided with a spool 
of surgeon's silk and a needle, for these will 
assuredly be called into use. Old Major, a 
greyhound owned by Dr. Van Hummel and 
myself, full of years and honors, is still alive. 
He was a typical seizer and afraid of nothing 
that wore hair. His entire body is seamed 
with innumerable scars, and has been sewed 
up so often that he resembles a veritable piece 
of needlework. As an evidence of his speed, 
strength and early training, I recollect that, 
shortly after I had hunted him in the West, 
I had him at my home in Kentucky. The 
Doctor was on a visit to me, and we had taken 
Major t-o the country with us while inspecting 
stock farms. At Wyndom Place, where we 
were admiring a handsome two-year-old Long- 
fellow colt, running loose in the field, the own- 
er, before we were aware of his intention, set 

349 



Hunting in Many Lands 

Major after the colt "to show his speed and 
style." We both instantly saw his error, but 
it was too late — we could not call the dog off. 
He soon overhauled the colt, and, springing at 
his throat, down they went in a heap — the 
colt, worth a thousand dollars, ruined for life. 
One of the most glaring instances of im- 
proper training and handling of wolfhounds 
that ever came under my observation was the 
Colorado wolf-hunt that attracted so much at- 
tention in the sporting press of this country, 
England and Russia. Mr. Paul Hacke, an 
enthusiastic fancier, of Pittsburg, Pa., while in 
Russia attended a wolf-killing contest in which 
the barzois contested with captive wolves. 
He became so much enamored of the sport 
that he purchased a number of trained barzois 
and brought them to this country. They were 
a handsome lot and attracted much attention 
while being exhibited at the bench shows. I 
was one of the official judges at the Chicago 
Bench Show in 1892, and wolfhound classes 
were assigned me. While I admired them 
very much for their handsome, showy appear- 
ance, I expressed grave doubts as to their 
ability to catch and kill timber wolves, not- 
withstanding I had read graphic accounts of 

350 



Wolf-Coursing 

their killing coyotes in thirty -five seconds. 
This doubt was shared and expressed by 
others present who had had practical experi- 
ence in wolf-hunting. This coming to the 
ears of Mr. Hacke, who is always willing to 
back his opinion with his money, he issued 
a sweeping challenge offering to match a pair 
of barzois against any pair of dogs in the 
United States for a wolf-killing contest, for 
$500 a side. His challenge was promptly 
accepted by Mr. Geo. McDougall, of Butte 
City, Montana. 

I was selected to judge the match, and in 
the spring of 1892 we made up a congenial 
carload and journeyed to Hardin, in the wilds 
of Colorado, where our sleeper was side- 
tracked. Arrangements were made at an 
adjoining horse ranch, and every morning a 
band of horses was promptly on hand at day- 
light. On the night of our arrival at Hardin, 
a fine saddle horse had been hamstrung in his 
owner's stable by wolves. It was a pitiful 
sight, and added zest to our determination 
to exterminate as many as possible. 

We were awakened from our sound sleep 
the first morning by the familiar sounds of 
saddling, accompanied by the pawing and 

351 



Hunting In Many Lands 

bucking of horses, swearing of men, and snarl- 
ing and growling of dogs. After a hasty 
breakfast, eaten by lamplight, we were soon 
mounted and in motion for the rendezvous. 
We had hardly crossed the Platte River, near 
which our camp was located, before the ad- 
vance guard announced a wolf in full flight. 
A glance through my field-glasses convinced 
me that it was an impudent coyote, and we 
continued our search. We had probably rid- 
den an hour through sand and cactus before 
one of the hunters had a wolf up and going. 

McDougall had selected Black Sam, a cross 
between a deerhound and a greyhound, as his 
first representative, and he was accordingly in 
the slips with a magnificent -looking barzoi 
representing Mr. Hacke. Porter, from Salt 
Lake, the slipper and an old-time hunter, had 
all he could do to hold them until the word to 
slip was given. They went away from the 
slips in great style, the barzoi getting a few 
feet the best of it; but in the lead up to 
the wolf the cross-breed made a go-by, and, 
overtaking the flying wolf, unhesitatingly 
seized and turned it. Before it could straight- 
en out for another run, the barzoi was upon it, 
and unfortunately took a hind hold, which it 

352 



Wolf-Coursinof 



& 



easily broke. The cross-breed, without having 
received a cut or even a pinch, lost all interest 
in the proceedings, and stood around looking 
on as unconcerned as though there was not 
a wolf within a hundred miles ; and, though 
the wolf assumed a combative attitude, at bay, 
ready to do battle, and made no effort to avoid 
her canine foes, neither dog could be induced 
to tackle her again. The barzoi acted as 
though he was willing if any assistance was 
afforded by the half-breed. Neither of these 
dogs showed any evidence of cowardice, in my 
opinion, though credited with it by represent- 
atives of the press present. The evidences of 
this feeling are unmistakable, and I have seen 
fear and terror too often expressed by dogs, 
when attacked or run by wolves, not to recog- 
nize it when present. They did not turn a 
hair, and walked about within twenty feet of 
the wolf with their tails carried as gayly as 
though they were on exhibition at a bench 
show. Very different was the action of a 
rancher's dog, evidently a cross between a St. 
Bernard and a mastiff, that came up at this 
stage of the game. As soon as he caught 
sight of the wolf, every hair on his back re- 
versed, his tail drooped between his legs, and 

353 



Hunting in Many Lands 

the efforts of three strong men could hardly 
have held him. This I call fear and coward- 
ice ; the actions of the others, a lack of proper 
training and knowledge of how to fight. As 
the wolf was a female and apparently heavy 
witli whelp, I at the time thought this was the 
cause of their queer actions ; but later, when 
skinning the wolf for the pelt, I found no 
evidence of whelp, but a stomach full of calf's 
flesh. In the second course, Allan Breck, a 
big, powerful Scotch deerhound, and Nipsic, a 
lighter female of the same breed, were put in 
the slips and a male wolf put up. They read- 
ily overhauled him. Allan, leading several 
lengths in the run up, promptly took a shoul- 
der hold and bowled over the wolf; then, as 
though he considered his whole duty per- 
formed, quietly looked on, while Nipsic kept 
up a running fight with the wolf, attacking 
him a score of times, but was unable alone 
to disable or kill him. It was only after the 
wolf and Nipsic were lassoed and dragged 
apart by horsemen that she desisted in her 
crude efforts to kill the wolf. She displayed 
no lack of courage, but a total lack of training 
and knowledge of how to fight. In the final 
course two grand specimens of the barzoi were 

354 



Wolf-Coursing 

placed in the slips ; one of them, Zlooem, a 
magnificent animal, all power and life, who 
had won the Czar's gold medal in St. Peters- 
burg in a wolf contest, impressed me forcibly 
with the idea that, if he once obtained a throat 
hold, it would be all over with the wolf. On 
this occasion I had a most excellent mount, a 
thoroughbred Kentucky race mare, and, as one 
of the conditions of the match was that I 
alone was to be allowed to follow the hounds, 
I determined to stay with them throughout 
the run at all hazards, and to be in at the 
death. The wolf was put up in the bottom 
land of the Platte River. The footing was 
excellent, and, as he had but a few hundred 
yards' start, I was enabled to be within fifty 
yards of them throughout the run and fighting. 
The wolf at first started off as though he had 
decided to depend upon speed to save his 
pelt, disdaining to employ his usual stratagem, 
and the hounds gained but little upon him. 
Finding that but one horseman and two 
strange-looking animals were following him, 
he slackened his pace, and in an incredibly 
short time Zlooem was upon even terms with 
him, and, seizing by the throat, over and over 
they went in a cloud of sand, from which the 

355 



Hunting in Many Lands 

wolf emerged first, again on the retreat, with 
both hounds after him full tilt. Within a 
hundred yards they again downed him, only 
to be shaken off. This was repeated probably 
a half dozen times, and, though both the bar- 
zois had throat and flank holds, they were un- 
able to "stretch him." After five minutes of 
fast and furious fighting, they dashed into a 
bunch of frightened cattle and became sepa- 
rated. Though I immediately cut the wolf out 
of the bunch of cattle and he limped off in full 
view, the dogs were too exhausted to follow, 
and their condition was truly pitiable. Zlooem 
staggered about and fell headlong upon his 
side, unable to rise. Both were so thoroughly 
exhausted from their tremendous efforts that 
they could not stand upon their feet; their 
tongues were swollen and protruding full 
length, their breath came in short and labored 
gasps, the whistle and rattle in their throats 
was audible at some distance, while their legs 
trembled and were really unable to sustain the 
weight of their bodies. At the expiration of 
ten minutes, I signaled the slippers to come 
and take the dogs up ; and thus ended the bid 
of the Russian wolfhound for popularity in 
this country. 

356 



Wolf-Coursing 

Upon our return to Denver we were waited 
upon by a ranchman who had heard of the 
failure of a pair of these dogs to catch and kill 
wolves. He stated that he had a leash of 
greyhounds that could catch and kill gray 
timber wolves, and deposited $500 to bind a 
match to that effect. He was very much in 
earnest, and I regretted that we could not raise 
a purse of $500, as I should like to have seen 
the feat performed — my experience being that 
it required from four to six to accomplish this, 
and that even then they have to understand 
their business thoroughly. 

Roger D. Williams. 



357 



Game Laws 

Laws for the preservation of wild animals 
are a product of civilization. The more civil- 
ized a nation, the broader and more humane 
will be these laws. 

Our ancestors of the flint age were lawless. 
After the fall "thorns also and thistles" came 
forth, and man ceased from eating herb-bear- 
ing seed and fruit, and turned his hand to kill- 
ing and eating flesh — "even as Nimrod, the 
mighty hunter before the Lord." Many great 
and dangerous animals then existed, and it was 
a necessity to kill off the cave bear, the cave 
tieer and the mastodon. The earliest of Chal- 
dean poems indicates the equally great fishing 
of those days: "Canst thou draw out levia- 
than with an hook, or his tongue with a cord 
which thou lettest down?" All savage nations 
are still ruthless and wasteful in their destruc- 
tion of animal life. An example is found on 
the plains, where a thousand buffalo were 

35« 



Game Laws 

driven over the walls of a canon that a tribe 
might have a feast, although the tribe might, 
and often did, starve during the coming 
winter. 

With the slow progress of civilization, at 
first customs grew up, and then laws were 
enacted consonant with the degree of educa- 
tion of the lawmakers. In ancient Oriental 
nations only a few animals were protected for 
the use of the rulers. Thus the elephant, the 
cheetah and the falcon in the East came under 
royal protection. The Normans, when they 
were not at war, followed the chase with ardor, 
and passed laws for the protection of deer, 
wolves and the wild boar. The Saxons, like 
the Romans, guarded their forest preserves, 
but left the open country free for chase to all 
the people. After the Conquest the new Nor- 
man rulers applied their own stern and selfish 
laws over all England. Not only was the 
chase forbidden, but the bearing of arms used 
in the chase as well, and the conquerors thus 
preserved the game for their own use, and also 
kept in subjection the disarmed people. Their 
punishments were barbarous, and comprised 
maiming and death, and the killing of a deer 
or a wild boar was punished with putting out 

359 



Hunting in Many Lands 

the eyes or death. No greater penalty was 
inflicted for the killing of a man. 

The underlying principle maintained was 
that all wild game was the property of no one, 
and that to which no one had title belonged to 
the sovereign. So the king held all lands not 
apportioned, and granted permission to his 
chiefs to hunt therein. He also created the 
right of free chase, warren and free fishery, 
thus authorizing a designated person to pro- 
tect game and to follow the chase on the land 
of others, or protect and take fish from rivers 
and streams that flowed over the properties of 
other men. These claims of right became 
numerous and so burdensome that they were 
subsequently restricted by Magna Charta. 
The fascination of the chase, indulged in for 
years, became so inwrought in the English 
mind that it formed the principal recreation of 
the people, shared in alike by nobles, priests 
and peasants, evoking a world of romance and 
legend in Robin Hood tales, and a sturdy, 
semi-warlike pride. The exercise formed a 
school of stalwart out-of-door men, whose de- 
scendants of like taste have invaded the re- 
motest isles of the sea, and girdled the earth 
with the colonies of England. The taste 

360 



Game Laws 

made its fair mark on English verse from the 
early date of Chevy Chase, when, 

To chase the deer with hawk and hound 
Earl Percy took his way, 

down to this present year of grace, when Conan 
Doyle's archer sings : 

So we'll drink all together 
To the grey goose feather, 
And the land where the grey goose flew. 

The pomp and dignity of the chase, its pur- 
suit by the highest clergy and the sad result of 
want of skill by an archbishop are quaintly dis- 
closed in the trial of the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury for accidentally killing a game-keeper 
instead of a deer in the forest of Bramshill in 
the year 1621, as reported at length in Vol. II. 
of Cobbett's State Trials. 

The right in the crown to all wild game, 
thus claimed and established in England, be- 
came part of the common law, and was in- 
herited by the American colonies ; and thus 
wild game in our Republic became the prop- 
erty of the people, and the duty of its care 
and protection fell upon the different States 
of the Republic, and in the territories upon 
Congress. 

361 



Hunting in Many Lands 

It is unnecessary to enumerate the different 
game laws and the various cruel judgments 
entered therein in the English courts, or to 
refer to the many essays and orations written 
and delivered against the game laws of the 
various European States. They met the con- 
demnation alike of philanthropists, statesmen 
and poets. Charles Kingsley wrote in 1848, 
on behalf of the people, the bold and pathetic 
song: 

The merry brown hares came leaping 
Over the crest of the hill. 

It defended the poacher lad, but lost for the 
writer his lawn sleeves. 

The great distinction to be ever borne in 
mind between the game laws of Europe and 
those of America is, that the former were 
passed for the protection of game for a class, 
while the laws of a republic are passed for 
the preservation of game for the use of all the 
people. The former encountered the hostility 
of all the people save the aristocracy ; the lat- 
ter should obtain the approbation of all the 
people, rich and poor, for they are passed and 
maintained for the good of the people at large. 

The value of the fish and game to the peo- 
ple of the State of Maine is greater and brings 

362 



rame 



Laws 



into the State more money than its hay crop 
or its potato crop. The value of a mountain 
stream is nothing except as it may water peo- 
ple or kine. Stock and protect that river by 
suitable laws, and the fishing privileges may be 
rented for an annual rental that will pay all 
the taxes of every county through which it 
runs. Yet often it is that the inhabitant of 
that county complains of the injustice of pre- 
venting him from taking fish therein at his 
pleasure at any season of the year. 

The earliest recorded game law is found in 
the twenty-second chapter of Deuteronomy, 
where it is forbidden to take a bird from her 
nest. The earliest law upon this subject in 
America that we find was the act of the As- 
sembly of Virginia of 1699, II. William III., 
wherein the killing of deer between January 
and July was prohibited under a penalty of 
500 pounds of tobacco. In Maryland an act 
was passed on the same subject in 1 730, which 
recites the evils of constant shooting — " Which 
evil practice, if not put a stop to, may in a few 
years entirely destroy the species of deer, to 
the great damage of the good people of this 
province; be it enacted by the Right Honor- 
able the Lord proprietary, by and with the 

3^3 



Hunting in Many Lands 

consent of his Lordship's Governor and the 
upper and lower Houses of Assembly, that it 
should not be lawful that any person (Indians 
in amity with us excepted), between January 
first and July last, to kill any deer under the 
penalty of 400 pounds of tobacco." South 
Carolina followed In 1 769 with an act prohibit- 
ing the killing of deer during the same period, 
"under a penalty of forty shillings proclama- 
tion money." Both of these acts prohibited 
night hunting with fire-light, as did also the 
Statutes of the Mississippi Territory, 

The earliest laws upon this subject in Ken- 
tucky were passed In 1775 by the Legislature, 
appropriately holding its sessions under the 
greenwood trees, and their author was Daniel 
Boone. 

The earliest law in the State of New York 
was passed In 1791 (2 Session Laws of 1791, 
p. 188), and it prohibited the killing of "heath 
hen, partridge, quail or woodcock" on Long 
Island, or "In the city and county of New 
York," under penalty of twenty shillings. 

Laws upon this subject thereafter multiplied 
in New York, varying In their scope and char- 
acter with every Legislature. Sometimes the 
prosecution was left to the county prosecutor; 

364 



Game Laws 

sometimes it was permitted to the informer, 
who shared the penalty ; sometimes the power 
of enacting laws was reserved to the State ; 
sometimes it was delegated to the supervisors. 
In 1879, by the influence of the Society for the 
Preservation of Game, a complete act was 
passed, entitled "An Act for the Preservation 
of Moose and Wild Deer, Birds, Fish and 
other Game," which for many years was vigor- 
ously enforced by that Society, and became the 
model for like laws in many other States. 
This law made the possession of game during 
the close season the offense, and not prima 
facie evidence of killing, and also it removed 
from the various local supervisors the power 
of making laws upon this subject. 

These two essential features of law cannot 
be too strongly insisted upon with all law- 
makers. Under this statute hundreds of pro- 
secutions were made and convictions had in 
the markets of the great cities. The bidding 
for game by wealthy cities is the incentive 
to unlawful killing, and the closing of the 
markets stops the poacher's business more 
thoroughly than the conviction of an occasion- 
al poacher. When the law permitted game 
killed in other States during the open season 

365 



Hunting in Many Lands 

to be sold in the State of New York in the 
close season, there was no lack of evidence to 
show that every head of game was killed else- 
where and in the open season, and the petit 
jury always found in favor of the oppressed 
market man. When the law was changed so 
that all game, wherever killed, was decreed 
illegal, the defense was plead that such a law 
restricted commerce and was unconstitutional ; 
and it was not until the Society carried the 
case of Royal Phelps, President of the Society 
for the Preservation of Game, against Racey, 
through to the court of last resort, as re- 
ported in 6oth New York Reports, that this 
defense was decreed insufficient. That case 
was followed in Illinois (97 111., 320), and Mis- 
souri (ist Mo. App., 15), and in other States, 
until it became the established law of the 
land. The Supreme Court of the United 
States held (125 U. S., 465), that a State 
cannot prohibit the importation of merchan- 
dise from another State, but can the sale. 
That court also sustained the right of States 
to protect fisheries and destroy illegal nets 
(Lawton vs. Steel, 152 U. S.), and it affirmed 
the right of States to compel the maintenance 
of fishways in dams erected in rivers (Holyoke 

366 



Game Laws 

Co. vs. Lyman, 82 U. S.). The United States 
courts also maintained purchaser's title to 
marsh lands and enjoined trespassers from 
shooting thereon in Chisholm vs. Caines (U. S. 
Circuit Court of the 4th District). Thus, step 
by step, the game laws of the land were sus- 
tained, held to be constitutional and enforced. 
The forms of defense which offenders deem 
it righteous to make to game prosecutions are 
without number, and as fraudulent as their 
trade is wasteful. One instance will illustrate. 
The writer, as counsel for the Society for the 
Protection of Game, prosecuted one Clark, 
a prominent poulterer in State street in Al- 
bany, for having and offering for sale several 
barrels of quail. The case was tried at Al- 
bany, Hon. Amasa J. Parker appearing for 
the defense. After the plaintiff's witnesses 
had proved the possession of the birds, the 
offering for sale as quail, and the handling 
of several of them by the witnesses, the de- 
fendant testified that these birds were not 
quail at all, but were English snipe, and that 
their bills were pared down and the birds were 
thus sold as quail, as they brought a better 
price, and that he frequently did so in his 
trade. Probably no person in the court-room 

367 



Hunting in Many Lands 

believed this evidence, but the jury found for 
the defendant. 

The defense has been frequently interposed, 
that the birds in question were not the prohib- 
ited birds, but were some other or foreign 
variety, until it was found that it was nec- 
essary always to purchase and to produce 
in court, fresh or dried, some of the game 
in regard to which the suit was being tried. 

Before leaving the litigation of the courts 
of the State of New York, and in order to 
show how early and ardently the gentlemen of 
the old school followed the diversions of the 
chase, it is well to cite the case of Post 
against Pierson, tried in 1805 before the ven- 
erable Judges Tompkins and Livingston, and 
reported in 3d Cain's New York Reports. It 
there appears that Mr. Post, a worthy citi- 
zen of that most traditional hunting ground, 
Lone Island, organized a fox-hunt. The chase 
went merrily — 

An hundred hounds bayed deep and strong, 
Clattered an hundred [more or less] steeds along, 

and they started a fox and had him in view, 
when one Pierson, of Hempstead, the defend- 
ant in the case, well knowing of the chase, yet 

368 



Game Laws 

with wicked and felonious mind intercepted, 
shot, killed and carried away the fox. Post 
brought suit for the value of the animal, and 
the injury to the outraged feelings of the 
members of the hunt. Counsel learned in the 
law declaimed, and the wise opinion of the 
court, citing all the authorities from PufTen- 
dorf down, covers five printed pages, and 
finally decided that, " However uncourteous 
or unkind the conduct of Pierson in this in- 
stance may have been, yet this act was pro- 
ductive of no injury or damage for which a 
legal remedy can be applied." 

Probably to correct this ruling, the Statute 
of 1844 was passed, which provides that any- 
one who starts and pursues deer in the Coun- 
ties of Suffolk and Queens shall be deemed 
in possession of the same. 

A great responsibility Is thrown upon the 
Government of the United States to protect 
the large game in the different national parks. 
In a few years they will contain the only rem- 
nants of the buffalo, elk, antelope and moun- 
tain sheep. Poachers, like wolves, surround 
these parks, killing only to sell the heads 
for trophies. Captain George S. Anderson 
and Scout F. Burgess have done a good 

369 



Hunting in Many Lands 

work in the Yellowstone Park in capturing 
poachers, which efforts were recognized by the 
Boone and Crockett Club. If authority should 
be given to the army to try and punish these 
poachers by martial law, it would save many a 
herd elsewhere, and also relieve the Govern- 
ment from great expense for the transporting 
and trial of offenders. 

When we reflect how many and valuable 
races of animals in North America have be- 
come extinct or nearly so, as the buffalo and 
the manatee ; how many varieties of birds that 
afforded us food, or brightened the autumn 
sky with their migrations, have been annihi- 
lated, as have been the prairie fowl in the 
Eastern States and the passenger pigeon in 
all our States, the necessity of these laws ap- 
pears urgent. A few suggestions that experi- 
ence has taught us in regard to these matters 
are worthy of record. 

We must remember that in a republic no 
law is effective without public opinion to back 
it. Therefore, cotemporaneously with making 
our laws, we should by writing and speaking 
educate the public mind to appreciate and sus- 
tain them. Experience has taught that in 
these prosecutions the public prosecutor is a 

370 



Game Laws 

laggard. He prefers noted criminal cases and 
neglects these, which he regards as trivial of- 
fenses. Therefore the law should authorize 
private prosecutors, on giving security for 
costs and damages, to make search and con- 
duct prosecutions in their own names. 

Next, it is to be remembered that a single 
private person will make himself odious in the 
community by bringing such prosecutions, and 
is often deterred by the fear of revenge. 
Therefore, societies should be formed, com- 
posed of many good citizens ; they should em- 
ploy their own counsel, and prosecute in the 
name of the society or its president. 

Next, the law should definitely fix a penalty 
for having in possession, transporting or ex- 
posing for sale. This is more important than 
prohibiting the killing, as it is the marketing 
of dead game that incites the killing. It is 
the market hunter that has destroyed all 
feathered life on our prairies, and the cold 
storage process has enabled him to trans- 
port to other States or countries, and make 
his gains there. Close the market and the 
killing ceases. 

Another step to success is the procuring of 
the conformity of the laws in neighboring 

371 



Hunting in Many Lands 

States. The laws of New York may prohibit 
the sale of quail, ruffed grouse and prairie 
fowl, and the societies may enforce them in 
New York city, and day by day see the mon- 
strous wrong of carloads of prairie fowl and 
other valuable game brought into Jersey City, 
and sold to the population of that town and to 
the ocean vessels sailing from its docks. Our 
Western prairies are denuded of their birds, 
that are frozen in the close season and are 
afterward shipped to Europe, and sold in the 
markets there at a price often less than they 
would bring in New York city. 

Ao-ain, laws on these subjects should be as 
simple as possible, including in the one open 
and close season as many kinds of game as 
possible, and creating a general public under- 
standing that the shooting season opens at a 
fixed date, say October ist, and that no shoot- 
ing or possession of game is to be allowed 
prior to that date, and that the close season 
for all game should commence on another cer- 
tain date, say February ist. 

Lastly, a defective law, that is permanent 
and uniform throughout the State, is more 
effective than a better and more detailed law 
varying in different counties and towns, and 

372 



Game Laws 

frequently altered. In illustration of the va- 
garies of lawmakers in this respect, it is to be 
remembered that the law of 1879, passed by 
the Legislature of the State of New York, 
was a complete and well-studied statute, made 
after much consultation, and meeting the ap- 
proval of all the societies of the State, as well 
as the market men, and operated in the main 
satisfactorily to all. Since that date members 
of the Legislature from the different localities 
introduced bills making some exception or ad- 
dition to the act, to benefit their little town or 
locality, to prohibit fishing in certain waters, 
to protect certain other animals, to provide 
certain restrictions as to weapons of chase or 
means of fishing, or times and seasons ; or 
giving powers to county supervisors to legis- 
late in addition to the general legislation of 
the State. Two hundred and fourteen such 
acts and ordinances have been passed since 
1879, until the general law has been obscured 
and brought into contempt. These acts and 
ordinances include, among other curiosities, 
the protection of muskrats and mink, the 
preservation of skunks and other vermin, the 
prohibition of residents of one county from 
fishing in another county, and protecting parts 

373 



Hunting in Many Lands 

of certain lakes or rivers in a different manner 
or season from other parts. In some of the 
acts words are misspelled ; in one it is enacted 
that ''wild birds shall not be killed at any 
time." Another act was passed defining the 
word "angling," as used in the general statute, 
thus — "taking fish with hook and line and by 
rod held in hands," leaving the troller or the 
happy schoolboy, that drops his hand-line from 
the bridge, exposed to the dire penalties of the 
law. While writing in this year of grace, 
eighteen hundred and ninety-five, the Legisla- 
ture has passed a law permitting the sale of 
game at any time in the year, providing it is 
shown to have been killed 300 miles from the 
State. 

This most unreasonable law was procured 
largely through the influence of the Chicago 
market men. The States lying west of Chi- 
cago have been endeavoring to protect their 
game. Salutary laws have been passed pro- 
hibiting the killing and freezing of game, and 
the transportation of it outside of those terri- 
tories. The markets of Chicago and the other 
great cities of the West being closed to the 
public sale of game, the dealers sought to open 
the markets of New York, and they have thus 

374 



rame 



Laws 



done so by this law. The Governor was fully 
advised of the purpose and effect of the law, 
but the powerful societies of the market men 
were promoting it and the bill was approved. 
In a few years the conspicuous prairie fowl 
will exist only in the naturalists' books. 

In olden times laws upon these subjects pro- 
tected only animals which lent pleasure to the 
chase, and also certain royal fish which were 
deemed to belong to the king. These old 
laws were selfish and severe, and were en- 
forced with the cruelty of the age. A gentler 
spirit has since dawned upon the world, and 
now most game laws shelter as well the song 
bird as the wild boar and the stag. The true 
hunter derives more pleasure in watching the 
natural life around him than in killing the 
game that he meets. His heart feels the poet- 
ry of nature in the "wren light rustling among 
the leaves and twigs," and in the train of 
ducks as, 

Darkly seen against the crimson sky, 
Their figure floats along. 

He stops to enjoy the guttural syllables where 
"Robert of Lincoln is telling his name" in the 
summer meadow. At early dawn and even- 

375 



Hunting in Many Lands 

tide he listens to the bugle call of the great 
migration in the skies and exclaims : 

Thou hast no sorrow in thy song, 
No winter in thy year. 

He feels the love that is begotten by con- 
tact with nature, and he it is in these later 
days who has extended the laws to protect all 
birds of meadow and woods, while in return he 
is rewarded by a choir of songsters giving 
thanks in musical numbers, 

Better than all measures 

Of delightful sound, 
Better than all treasures, 

That in books are found. 

Chas. E, Whitehead. 



376 



Protection of the Yellowstone 
National Park 

The first regular expedition to enter the 
region now embraced within the limits of the 
National Park was the Washburn party of 
1870. 

In the summer of 1871 two parties — one 
under Captain J. W. Barlow, U. S. Engineers, 
and the other under Dr. F. V. Hayden, U. S. 
Geological Survey — made pretty thorough 
scientific explorations of the whole area. 

As a result of the reports made by these 
two parties, and largely through the influence 
of Dr. Hayden, the organic act of March i, 
1872, was passed, setting aside a certain desig- 
nated "tract of land as a public park or pleas- 
ure ground for the benefit and enjoyment of 
the people." It further provided that this 
Park should be " under the exclusive control 
of the Secretary of the Interior, whose duty it 
shall be, as soon as practicable, to make and 
publish such rules and regulations as he may 

377 



Hunting in Many Lands 

deem necessary or proper for the care and 
management of the same. Such regulations 
shall provide for the preservation from injury 
or spoliation of all timber, mineral deposits, 
natural curiosities or wonders within the Park. 

" He shall provide against the wanton de- 
struction of the fish and game found within 
said Park, and against their capture or de- 
struction for the purpose of merchandise or 
profit. 

"And generally shall be authorized to take 
all such measures as shall be necessary or 
proper to fully carry out the objects or pur- 
poses of this act." 

It will be seen that "timber, mineral de- 
posits, natural curiosities and wonders" were, 
by the terms of the law, protected from "in- 
jury or spoliation." The Secretary of the In- 
terior must, by regulation, "provide against 
the wanton destruction of fish and game," and 
against their "capture for the purpose of mer- 
chandise or profit." The Park proper includes 
nearly 3,600 square miles, but under the act of 
1 89 1 a timber reserve was set aside, adding 
about twenty-five miles on the east and about 
eight on the south, making the total area nearly 
5,600 square miles. By an order of the Secre- 

378 



Protection of the Yellowstone Park 

tary of the Interior, dated April 14, 1891, this 
addition was placed under the control of the 
Acting Superintendent of the Park, "with the 
same rules and regulations " as in the Park ; it 
thus in every respect became a part of the 
Park itself. 

Dr. Hayden drew the Park bill from his 
personal observations, made in the summer of 
1 87 1. At that time the territorial lines were 
not run, and their exact location was not 
known. He consequently chose for his initial 
points the natural features of the ground, and 
made his lines meridians and parallels of lati- 
tude. His selections seem almost a work of 
inspiration. The north line takes in the low 
slopes on the north of Mt. Everts and the val- 
ley of the East Fork of the Yellowstone, where 
the elk, deer, antelope and mountain sheep 
winter by thousands ; it leaves outside every 
foot of land adapted to agriculture ; also — 
and this is more important than all — it passes 
over the rugged and inaccessible summits of 
the snowy range, where the hardiest vandal 
dare not put his shack. 

The east line might have been placed where 
the timber reserve line now runs without much 
damage to material interests ; but in that case 

379 



Hunting in Many Lands 

the owners of prospect holes about Cooke 
City would have long since secured segre- 
gation. As the line runs, it is secured by the 
impassable Absarokas — the summer home of 
large herds of mountain sheep — and it in- 
cludes not a foot of land of a dime's value 
to mortal man. Both south and west lines 
are protected by mountain heights, and they 
exclude every foot of land of any value for 
agriculture, or even for the grazing of do- 
mestic cattle. 

The experiment was once made of winter- 
ing a herd of cattle in the lowest part of 
the Park — the Falls River meadows, in the 
extreme southwest corner — and, I believe, not 
a hoof survived. Their bones by the hundreds 
now whiten the fair valley. 

Following the act of dedication, Mr. N. P. 
Langford was on May lo, 1872, appointed 
superintendent, without salary. He was di- 
rected to "apply any money which may be 
received from leases to carrying out the object 
of the act." He never lived in the Park, 
never drew a salary, and never, except by 
reports and recommendations, did anything 
for its protection. In his first report he sug- 
gests that "wild game of all kinds be pro- 

380 



Protection of the Yellowstone Park 

tected by law," that trapping be prohibited, 
and that the timber be protected from the 
axman and from fires. Unfortunately I am 
unable to possess myself of any of his sub- 
sequent reports; but I know that he toiled 
earnestly and without pay — and to no results. 
On April i8, 1877, Mr. P. W. Norris was 
appointed to succeed him. He also served 
for love until July 5, 1878, when appropria- 
tions began, and something was done for 
"Park protection." In his report for 1879 ^^ 
speaks of having stopped the killing of bison, 
and says that other game, although "grown 
shy by the usually harmless fusillade of tour- 
ists," was in "abundance for our largest par- 
ties." He also protected the wonders by 
breaking them off with ax and crowbar, and 
shipping them by the carload to Washing- 
ton and elsewhere. His men did their best 
to protect the forests from fires, and with only 
fair success. By this report (1879) ^^ seems 
that "no white men have ever spent an entire 
winter at the Mammoth Hot Springs"; he 
strongly recommended game protection, but 
not the prohibition of hunting. There was 
then but a single game superintendent, and he 
without authority to act. As at present, the 

381 



Hunting in Many Lands 

main trouble was with the "Clark's Fork" 
people. The regulations permitted hunting 
for "recreation" or "for food," which would 
always be made to cover the object of any 
captured poacher. 

Major Norris was doubtless a valuable man 
for the place and the time; but, as he expressed 
it in a manifesto dated July i, 1881, and head- 
ed "Mountain Comrades," "The construction 
of roads and bridle paths will be our main ob- 
ject," to which he added the work of "explo- 
rations and research." His entire force lived 
upon game, which was hunted only in season, 
and preserved, or jerked, for a supply for the 
remainder of the year. He was succeeded by 
Mr. P. H. Conger on February 2, 1882, but Mr. 
Conger did not arrive until May 22 following, 
when he seems to have fallen full upon the 
trials and the tribulations that have beset his 
successors. He reported the necessity for pro- 
tecting the wonders and the game, but seems 
to have accomplished nothing in either direc- 
tion. His reports are largely made up of lists 
of the distinguished visitors by whose hand- 
shake he was anointed. He was relieved in 
August, 1884, by Mr. R. E. Carpenter, who 
was removed in May, 1885, without accom- 

.-.82 



Protection of the Yellowstone Park 

plishing anything. Mr. David W. Wear was 
next in succession, and remained until legislat- 
ed out of office in August, 1886. Nothing of 
value seems to have been done in these two 
administrations. In the sundry civil appro- 
priation bill for 1886-87 the item for the pro- 
tection and improvement of the Park was 
omitted. By the act of March 3, 1883, the 
Secretary of War was authorized, on request 
from the Secretary of the Interior, to detail 
part of the army for duty in the Park, the 
commander of the troops to be the acting su- 
perintendent. As there was no money appropri- 
ated to pay the old officers, they, of course, had 
business elsewhere. Captain Moses Harris, 
First Cavalry, was the first detailed under the 
new regime. He arrived there on August 17, 
1886, and assumed control on the 20th. From 
this time on things assumed a different aspect. 
He had the assistance of a disciplined troop of 
cavalry, and he used it with energy and discre- 
tion. It very soon became unsafe to trespass 
in the Park, winter or summer, and load upon 
load of confiscated property testified to the 
number of his captures. His reports show the 
heroic efforts made to prevent and extinguish 
fires, to prevent the defacement of the geysers 



Hunting in Many Lands 

and other formations, and to protect the game. 
In his report for 1887 he pays his respects to 
our enemies from "the northern and eastern 
borders" — the same hand that has continued 
to depredate until this day. He speaks of the 
"immense herds of elk that have passed the 
winter along the traveled road from Gardiner 
to Cooke City," and he goes on to say that 
"but little efficient protection can be afforded 
to this species of game except upon the Yel- 
lowstone and its tributaries. He remained in 
charge until June i, 1889, when he transferred 
his duties to Captain F. A. Boutelle, and in 
the three years of his rule he inaugurated and 
put in motion most of the protective measures 
now in use. 

Captain Boutelle, in succession to Captain 
Harris, continued his methods, and protection 
prospered. Meantime, in 1889, an additional 
troop of cavalry was detailed for duty in the 
Park in the summer, and had station at the 
Lower Geyser Basin. The principal use of this 
troop was in protecting the formations and the 
forests, but the work was well done and the 
foundation was laid for future efficiency. 

I came to the Park in February, 1891, in 
succession to Captain Boutelle. On his depar- 

384 



Protection of the Yellowstone Park 

ture there was only one man left here familiar 
with the Park and its needs, and that was Ed. 
Wilson, the scout. He had been a trapper 
himself, and was thoroughly familiar with ev- 
ery species of game and its haunts and habits. 
He was brave as Csesar, but feared the mys- 
terious and unseen. He preferred to oper- 
ate alone by night and in storms ; he knew 
every foot of the Park, and knew it better 
than any other man has yet known it; he 
knew its enemies and the practical direction of 
their enmity. He came to me one morning 
and reported that a man named Van Dyck 
was trapping beaver near Soda Butte ; that he 
spent his days on the highest points in the 
neighborhood, and with a glass scanned every 
approach ; and that the only way to get him 
was to go alone, by night, and approach the 
position from the rear, over Specimen Moun- 
tain. To this I readily assented, and at 9 
that night, in as bad a storm as I ever saw, 
Wilson started out for the forty -mile trip. 
He reached a high point near the one occu- 
pied by Van Dyck, saw him visit his traps 
in the twilight and return to his camp, where 
at daybreak the next morning Wilson came 
upon him while sleeping, photographed him 

385 



Hunting in Many Lands 

with his own kodak, and then awakened him 
and brought him to the post. But, unfortu- 
nately for the cause of Park protection, Wilson 
disappeared in July of that year, and his re- 
mains were found a mile from headquarters 
in the June following. That left me unsup- 
ported by anyone who knew the place and 
its foes; I was fortunate, however, in having 
as his successor Felix Burgess, who for more 
than three years has ably, bravely and intelli- 
gently performed the perilous and thankless 
duties of the position. 

But before going on with a description of 
my own work in the Park, I will say a few 
words of my predecessors. In looking over 
the list, I think I can, without disparage- 
ment of the rest, single out three for especial 
mention. 

Langford was an explorer and pioneer; by 
his writings he made the Park known to this 
country and to the whole world. He was an 
enthusiast and his enthusiasm was contagious. 
Protection was not yet needed, but a knowl- 
edge of the place was, and to this he largely 
contributed. He was the proper man and he 
came at the proper time. 

Next came Major N orris. To him protec- 
386 



Protection of the Yellowstone Park 

tion was a minor or unconsidered subject. 
His "usually harmless fusillade of tourists" 
reminds one of Paddy's remark to his master : 
"Did I hit the deer, Pat?" "No, my lord, 
but you made him I'ave the place." For his 
time he was exactly suited ; he penetrated 
every remote nook and corner; built roads, 
blazed trails, and in general made accessible 
all the wonders written of and described by 
Mr. Langford. Protection was not yet due, 
but it was on the road and close at hand. 

For this part of the work Major Harris was 
an ideal selection, and he came none too soon. 
Austere, correct, unyielding, he was a terror to 
evil doers. And, after all, is there anything 
more disagreeable than a man who is always 
right? I believe Major Harris was always 
sure he was right before he acted, and then no 
fear of consequences deterred him. He once 
arrested a man for defacing the formations 
at the Upper Basin. The man confessed that 
he had done it, but that it was a small offense, 
and that if put out of the Park for it he would 
publish the Major in all the Montana papers. 
He was put out, and the Major was vilified 
in a manner with which I am personally very 
familiar. The next year this same man was 

387 



Hunting in Many Lands 

sent to the penitentiary for one year for "hold- 
ing up " one of the Park coaches in the Gardiner 
Cailon. In 1891 I derived great assistance in 
the protection of the wonders and the forests 
from Captain Edwards, who, with his troop, 
had served in the Park before. Unfortunately 
he had to leave in the autumn, and I was 
again left alone with my ignorance and my 
ofood intentions. 

In May, 1892, Troop D of the Sixth Caval- 
ry was sent to my assistance. Captain Scott 
was in command, and he has remained until 
the present time. Hard as iron, tireless 3,nd 
fearless, he has been an invaluable assistant in 
all that pertains to Park protection. 

In protecting the beauties and wonders of 
the Park from vandalism, the main things to 
be contended against were the propensities of 
women to gather "specimens," and of men to 
advertise their folly by writing their names on 
everything beautiful within their reach. Small 
squads of soldiers were put on guard at each 
of the geyser basins, and at other points where 
protection was needful, with orders to arrest 
and threaten with expulsion anyone found 
breaking off or gathering specimens. Only 
a few examples were needed to materially 

388 



Protection of the Yellowstone Park 

diminish this evil. Of course, it still contin- 
ued in small degree, but those who indulged 
in it had to be at great pains to conceal their 
operations, and this of itself greatly reduced 
the destruction. I personally engaged in a 
long controversy with a reverend despoiler, 
whom I detected in the act of breaking off 
a specimen. A large part of his defense was 
that, as I had on no uniform, he did not know 
it was necessary to be watchful and careful in 
my presence. 

The names of the vain glared at one from 
every bit of formation, and from every place 
where the ingenuity of vanity could place 
them. Primarily I ordered that every man 
found writing his name on the formations 
should be sent back and made to erase it. I 
once sent a man from the Mammoth Springs 
and once a man from the Canon to the Upper 
Basin to scrub his autograph from the rocks; 
and one morning a callow youth from the 
West was aroused at 6:30 a. m. at the Foun- 
tain Hotel and taken, with brush and soap, to 
the Fountain Geyser, there to obliterate the 
supposed imperishable monument of his folly. 
His parents, who were present, were delighted 
with the judgment awarded him, and his fel- 

389 



Hunting in Many Lands 

low tourists by their taunts and gibes covered 
him with confusion as with a garment. But, 
notwithstanding the sharpest watch and great- 
est care, new names were constantly being add- 
ed, and they could not easily be detected from 
the old ones on account of the number of 
names already there. So, in the early part of the 
season of 1892, with hammer and chisel, where 
necessary, the old names were erased and we 
started even with the world, and the geyser 
basins are practically free from this disfigure- 
ment to-day. The remedy was heroic and 
successful, as such remedies usually are. 

The protection of the forests — perhaps of 
more material importance than any other form 
of Park protection — became a subject of study, 
care and attention. As a rule, fires originated 
in one of three ways: by carelessly left camp 
fires, by lightning, or by the rubbing together 
of two trees swayed by the wind. There is no 
way of preventing the last two forms of igni- 
tion ; the only thing to be done is to keep a 
ceaseless watch, and, so far as practicable, pre- 
vent the fire from spreading. The extensive 
areas burned over in days evidently prior to 
the advent of white men make it very appar- 
ent that these two agencies of destruction were 

390 



Protection of the Yellowstone Park 

then at work, as It is certain they have been 
since. Camping parties are many of them from 
cities, and they know little, and care less, 
about the devastation a forest fire may create. 
They leave a small and apparently harmless 
bunch of coals where their camp fire was ; 
after they have passed on, a wind springs up, 
fans the embers into flame, the dry pine nee- 
dles are kindled, and at once the forest is 
ablaze, and no power on earth can put it out. 
When once the flame reaches the tree tops, if 
the wind be strong, a man on horseback can 
scarce escape before it. As the wind ceases 
the fire quiets down, only to spring up again 
next day on the appearance of the afternoon 
breeze. The only time to fight the fire is 
when the wind has gone down and the flames 
have ceased. Then water poured on smoul- 
dering logs, earth thrown on unextinguished 
stumps, and the clearing of a path before the 
line of fire in the carpet of pine needles are 
the effective means of extinguishment. After 
a fire is once got under control it is no unusual 
thing for it to reappear 5CK) yards from any 
of its previous lines, carried there as a spark 
through the air, and dropped in the resinous 
tinder ever ready to receive and spread it. 

391 



Hunting in Many Lands 

In the four seasons during which I have 
been in the Park but one fire of any magni- 
tude has occurred. That broke out along the 
main road, about a mile north of Norris, in 
July, 1893. As it did not break out near a 
camping place, its origin could not be traced 
to camp fires ; nor could it be charged to 
lightning or rubbing of trees. It was evi- 
dently started by a match or other fire care- 
lessly dropped by a member of the road crew, 
then working near there, or possibly by a cigar 
stump thrown from a stage by a tourist. It 
was at once reported to me by telegraph. The 
troop was at drill, and in less than twenty min- 
utes a dozen men, under charge of a sergeant, 
were on their way, with shovels, axes and 
buckets, to the scene of the trouble. An hour 
later the report was that it was beyond con- 
trol. I then sent out the balance of the troop, 
under Lieutenant Vance, and ordered Captain 
Scott down from the Lower Basin with all 
available men of his troop. Thus the whole 
of the two troops were at the scene, and they 
remained there toiling and fighting night and 
day for twenty days, when a providential rain 
put an end to their labors. The area burned 
over included some exceptionally fine timber, 

392 



Protection of the Yellowstone Park 

was in extreme length nearly six miles, and in 
breadth from a few feet in some places to near 
a mile in others. 

A fire in pine woods may be successfully 
fought so long as it is kept confined to the 
ground, but once it gets a start in the tree 
tops no power on earth can cope with it ; no 
effort is of the slightest avail. Campers who 
leave their fires unextinguished often make 
the excuse that they did not believe any dam- 
age could result, as the coals were nearly dead. 
Although such might be the case at the hour 
of their leaving, in the still air of morning, the 
afternoon wind is quite capable of blowing 
them into dangerous and destructive life. My 
rule has been to insist on the rigorous enforce- 
ment of the regulation requiring expulsion 
from the Park in such cases. One or two 
expulsions each year serve as healthy warn- 
ings, and these, backed by a system of numer- 
ous and vigilant patrols, have brought about 
the particularly good results of which we can 
boast. In 1892 a fire on Moose Creek was 
sighted from a point near the Lake, and re- 
ported to me that night by wire from the 
Lake Hotel. Before the next evening, Cap- 
tain Scott was on the spot with his troop, and 

393 



Hunting" in Many Lands 

the fire was soon under control. In a few 
hours it would have been in the heavy timber 
on the shore of Shoshone Lake, and there 
is no limit to the damage it might have 
wrought. 

As a last heading of my subject I shall 
touch on the protection of the game. This 
was never seriously attempted until Major 
Harris came to the Park, in i8S6; but he 
attacked it with an earnestness and a fear- 
lessness that has left a lasting impress. It is 
not probable that the Park is the natural home 
of bison, elk or deer, yet the last remnant of 
the first and great numbers of the last two 
are found here. The high altitude, great cold 
and extreme depth of snow make it a forbid- 
ding habitat for the ruminants. They remain 
here simply because they are protected. Pro- 
tection was given by a system of scouting 
extended over the best game ranges, and 
throughout the season of probable game de- 
struction. A good many captures were made ; 
the poachers were turned loose and their prop- 
erty confiscated ; this was all the law allowed. 
The depredating element of the community 
soon came to care very little for this menace 
to their business, for they entered the Park 

394 



Protection of the Yellowstone Park 

with an equipment that was hardly worth 
packing in to the post, and, if taken from 
them, occasioned but small loss. 

The accumulation of this sort of property 
had become great, and, as I had no proper 
storage room for it, I began my work by mak- 
ing a bonfire of it. A first requisite to suc- 
cessful work was to become acquainted with 
the names, the haunts and the habits of those 
whom it was necessary to watch or to capture. 
Ed. Wilson was thoroughly familiar with all 
this, and many is the lesson I patiently took 
from him. He described to me the leaders 
among the poachers from the several regions 
— Cooke, Henry's Lake, Jackson's Lake and 
Gardiner. To begin with the Cooke City 
parties, he named to me three as particularly 
active and dangerous : these were Van Dyck, 
Pendleton and Howell. Van Dyck, he told 
me, was at that time trapping beaver near 
Soda Butte, but he had not been able to 
definitely locate him. He made two trips 
there through cold and storm, but to no pur- 
pose. Finally, on his third expedition, he 
caught him, as already stated, sleeping in his 
bed. His property was destroyed, and he was 
held in the guard house awaiting the instruc- 

395 



Hunting in Many Lands 

tions of the Secretary of the Interior, which 
for some reason were very slow in coming. 
At last he was released, and ordered never 
again to cross the Park boundary without per- 
mission. 

The next year Pendleton made a trip in the 
Park in early May, and got out with two 
young bison calves, which he was carrying on 
pack animals in beer boxes. Of course, they 
died before he got them to a place where he 
could raise them in safety, and he soon started 
back to renew his evil work. He was ar- 
rested and confined, and his case took exactly 
the same course as Van Dyck's had taken. 

The last of the trio was Ed. Howell. Know- 
ing of him and his habits, I kept him as well 
under watch as possible. During a trip I 
made to the east side of the Park in October, 
1893, I saw many old signs of bison in several 
localities. Howell having disappeared from 
public view for a month or two, I sent Burgess 
out in January, 1894, with orders to carefully 
scout this country. I indicated to him exactly 
where I expected him to find signs of the ma- 
rauder. He encountered very severe weath- 
er, and was not able to make a full tour of 
the places indicated ; but he did report hav- 

396 



Protection of the Yellowstone Park 

ing found, in the exact locality I had desig- 
nated to him, tracks of a man on skis drawing 
a toboofsran. These tracks were old and could 
not be followed, but they formed a valuable 
clue. I next sent to the Soda Butte station 
and had a thorough search made near that 
place. It was found that the same tracks had 
passed over the hill behind the station, going 
toward Cooke. Careful inquiry developed the 
fact that Howell had come in for provisions 
with his equipment, but that he had not 
brought any trophies with him. Calculating 
the time when he should be due apfain in 
the bison country, I gave Burgess an order 
to repeat his trip there, and stay until he 
brought back results. He left the Lake 
Hotel in a severe storm on March nth, and 
camped the night of the 1 2th where he had seen 
the tracks on his previous visit. Next morning, 
when scarcely out of camp, he found a cache 
of six bison scalps suspended in a tree. The 
ski tracks near by were old, and he was not 
able to follow them. He possessed himself of 
the spoils and started down Astringent Creek 
toward Pelican. When near the latter stream, 
he found a lodge, evidently occupied at the 
time, and the tracks near It, fresh and distinct, 

397 



Hunting in Many Lands 

pointing to the southward. Soon he heard 
shots, and far off in the distance he espied the 
culprit in the act of kilHng more of the game. 
The problem then arose as to how he was 
to make the capture. With him was only 
a single soldier, and the two had for arms 
only a .38 caliber revolver. It was certain 
that this was Howell, and it was known that 
he was a desperate character. 

In giving Burgess his orders, I had told him 
that I did not send him to his death — that 
I did not want him to take risks or serious 
chances ; I impressed upon him the fact that, 
as far as Howell was concerned, even if times 
were hard, the wages of sin had not been 
reduced. All this he knew well, but there 
was a desperate criminal armed with a rifle ; 
as for himself, he might as well have been 
unarmed. However, fortune favored him, and 
soon Howell became so occupied in removing 
the scalp from one of his bison that Burgess, 
by a swift and silent run, approached within 
four or five yards of him undiscovered. It 
would have been easy enough to kill him then, 
but it was too much like cold-blooded murder 
to do so at that range ; at 200 or 300 yards it 
would have seemed entirely different. How- 

398 



Protection of the Yellowstone Park 

ell's rifle was leaning against a buffalo's car- 
cass a few yards from him. He made a step 
toward it, when Burgess told him to stop or he 
would shoot. Howell then turned back and 
said, "All right, but you would never have got 
me if I had seen you sooner." He was found 
surrounded by the bodies of seven bison freshly 
killed, and, to illustrate more fully the wanton 
nature of the man, of the eight scalps brought 
in to the post, six were cows and one of the 
others was a yearling calf. 

His case went through the same course as 
the others, and finally toward the last of April 
he was turned loose, with orders to quit the 
Park and never return. He, however, is cast 
in a different mold from some of the previous 
captures, and some time in July he reappeared 
with the most brazen and shameless effrontery. 
He was reincarcerated, tried, and sentenced 
for disobedience of the order of expulsion. 
His sentence was thirty days in jail and fifty 
dollars fine, and this he now has under appeal. 
Insufificient as is Howell's punishment, his 
crime has been of more service to the Park 
than any other event in its history ; it created 
the greatest interest throughout the country, 
and led to the passage of the Park Protection 

399 



Hunting in Many Lands 

Act, which was signed by the President on 
May 7th. A strange coincidence in the cases 
of Van Dyck and Howell is that both were 
accompanied by their faithful watchdogs, and 
neither dog gave a sign of the approach of 
the enemy, and both men swore vengeance 
on their faithless protectors. 

The preservation of elk, deer, antelope and 
the carnivora is assured. Their numbers else- 
where, their wide distribution within the Park, 
their relatively small commercial value, added 
to the danger attendant on killing them within 
the Park, is a sufficient protection. Moose 
and mountain sheep will probably increase for 
similar reasons, although they are less gener- 
ally distributed and are of greater value to 
head hunters. With the bison it is different. 
They have entirely disappeared from all other 
parts of the country, and they are of sufficient 
money value to tempt the cupidity of the 
hunters and trappers who surround the Park 
on all sides. It is told that a fine bison 
head has been sold, delivered in London, for 
^200 — nearly $1,000 in our money. A tax- 
idermist would probably be willing to pay 
$200 to $500 for such a scalp. Many a hardy 
frontiersman, who has no sentiment for their 

400 



Protection of the Yellowstone Park 

preservation and no respect for the law, will 
take his chances of capture for such a sum. 

Another animal that is difficult of preserva- 
tion is the beaver; the trouble in this case 
is entirely due to the ease with which traps 
may be set in places where it is impossible to 
find them, and the ease with which the pelts 
may be packed and carried out. Within the 
last four years beaver have increased enor- 
mously, so I feel justified in saying that their 
preservation is so far successful. 

For the general protection of the Park there 
are stationed within its lines two troops of 
cavalry. They are both kept at the Mam- 
moth Hot Springs for eight months of the 
year, and one of them is sent to the Lower 
Geyser Basin during the four months of the 
tourist season. Small outposts are kept at 
Riverside on the west. Snake River on the 
south. Soda Butte on the northeast, and Nor- 
ris near the center. Besides these a winter 
station has been placed in the Hayden Valley, 
and summer stations are kept at the Upper 
Basin, Thumb, Lake and Caflon. Between 
these a constant stream of patrols is kept up, 
so that no depredator can do very much dam- 
age without detection. There is allowed but 

401 



Hunting In Many Lands 

one civilian scout, who is overworked and 
underpaid. With all this enormous territory 
to guard, with all that is beautiful and val- 
uable to protect, with the last of the bison 
to preserve, it would seem that this rich Gov- 
ernment should be able to expend more than a 
paltry $900 per year for scouts, and more than 
$500 (which it receives for rentals) for the 
other needs of the Park. 

There are very few who appreciate the 
amount of work done here by the soldiers 
in summer and in winter, in cold and in 
storms, on foot, on horseback and on snow- 
shoes — and all without murmur or word of 
complaint. Never before was it so well 
placed before the public as it was by Mr. 
Hough in his Forest and Stream articles sum- 
mer before last. Should Congress be stirred 
to make a more liberal appropriation for the 
purpose of carrying out the provisions of the 
act of May 7th, to him, more than to any 
other man, will the credit be due. 

Geo. S. Anderson. 



40? 



The Yellowstone National Park 
Protection Act 



On May 7, 1S94, President Cleveland approved an Act 
"to protect the birds and animals in Yellowstone Na- 
tional Park, and to punish crimes in said Park, and for 
other purposes." 

This law, as finally enacted, owed much to the efforts 
and labor of members of the Boone and Crockett Club, 
who for many years had persistently struggled to induce 
Congress to pass such necessary legislation. The final 
triumph is a matter of congratulation to every sportsman 
interested in the protection of game, and fulfills one of 
the great objects sought to be attained by the foundation 
of the Club. While the statute, in many of its details, 
could readily be improved, it is still, in its general fea- 
tures, sufficient to serve the purposes of its enactment. 
To those not conversant with the subject, the statement 
may seem astonishing, that from the establishment of the 
Park in 1872 to the passage of the Act in 1894 no law 
protecting either the Park, the animals or the visitors was 
operative within the Yellowstone Park — a region contain- 
ing about 3,500 square miles, and larger than the States 
of Delaware and Rhode Island. This condition of af- 
fairs was frequently brought to the notice of the National 
Legislature, and in 1887 their attention was called to 
it by a startling episode. A member of Congress, Mr. 

403 



Hunting in Many Lands 

Lacey, of Iowa, was a passenger in a stage which was 
•'held up" in the Park and robbed. The highwaymen 
were afterward apprehended, but escaped the punishment 
suited to their crime because of the great doubt existing 
as to whether any law was applicable. As to game 
offenses, regulations were powerless for prevention in 
the absence of any penalties by law to enforce them. 

The explanation of this anomalous situation is to be 
sought in the circumstances under which the Park had 
been set apart. The eminent scientists, who interested 
themselves in this important object, were surrounded 
with difficulties. The vastness of the tract proposed to 
be included, the question of expense, the selfish interests 
opposing the measure, were obstacles not easy to over- 
come. Congress was told, "Give us the Park; nothing 
more is needed than to reserve the land from public sale 
or settlement." Doubtless the remoteness and isolation 
of the region might have been thought, at the time, suffi- 
cient to insure protection. But it was the wonderful 
scenery and extraordinary objects of interest in the Park 
which were then thought of ; the forests and the game 
did not enter much into the consideration of the found- 
ers. And so Congress passed the Act of 1872, merely 
defining the limits of the Park and committing it to the 
keeping of the Department of the Interior, which was 
empowered to make rules and regulations for its control. 

A great work was accomplished when Congress was 
persuaded to forever dedicate this marvelous region as a 
National Park, for the benefit of the entire country; and 
it was hoped and expected that Congress would, in time, 
supplement the organizing Act by the needful additional 
legislation. But this was not to be had for many years 

404 



Yellowstone Park Protection Act 

to come. For some time after the year 1872, the reser- 
vation was occasionally visited by a few adventurous 
spirits or Government parties on exploring expeditions. 
During that period it became the refuge of the large 
game which had gradually receded from the lower coun- 
try before the advance of settlement and railroads. The 
abundance of game astonished all who beheld it. Bears, 
deer, elk, sheep, moose, antelope, buffalo, wolverines and 
many other kinds of wild beasts were collected within an 
area which afforded peculiar advantages to each and all. 
Nowhere else could such a gathering of game be found 
in one locality. It should be remembered that those 
who visited the Park in the early days we have men- 
tioned confined their investigations to a limited portion 
of it. The great winter ranges and breeding grounds 
were almost unknown. During this period, game killing 
was so slight and the supply so great that restrictions, by 
those exercising a very uncertain authority in the reser- 
vation, were hardly pretended to be enforced. 

But from about the year 1878 the depredations on the 
game of the Park attained alarming proportions. The 
number of visitors had largely increased. The skin 
hunter and the record hunter — twin brothers in iniquity 
— appeared on the scene, and their number grew from 
year to year. It was then that regulations and prohibi- 
tions were promulgated from the Department of the In- 
terior, but they were known to contain only vain threats, 
which could be defied with impunity. And so the slaugh- 
ter continued, and likewise other depredations. Learned 
associations, sportsmen's associations, visitors of all lands, 
showered petitions upon Congress to pass some protect- 
ive law. All that Congress did, however, was in 1883 to 

405 



Hunting in Many Lands 

confer authority for the use of troops in the Park. This 
was something, and the effect of their presence was very 
beneficial, and insured the only protection the Park had 
until the present time. Congress seemed affected with 
an apathy which no appeals could change. The result 
was non-action. 

Some Congressmen thought they were justified in de- 
clining to take any interest in the matter, because few, if 
any, of their constituents had ever visited the Park. 
Others thought that it should be a Wyoming or Montana 
affair, and should be turned over to one or the other of 
those then territories. A few seemed to labor under 
the impression that the Park was nothing but a private 
pleasure ground, resorted to by the wealthy class, and 
that it was no part of the Constitutional functions of a 
Republican Government to afford security to wild ani- 
mals, or to incur any expense therefor. These narrow 
views were not shared by most of the principal men in 
Congress ; among these we had many staunch friends, 
including especially several who held seats in the Sen- 
ate. Chief among them was Senator Vest, of Missouri, 
who at all times was found ready to do everything in 
his power to promote the welfare of the Park. Senator 
Manderson, of Nebraska, and many others were quite as 
willing. It was largely due to the gentlemen we have 
named that the Senate, as a body, was imbued with their 
views, and on all occasions recognized the important 
national objects to be attained by the Park, not only as a 
great game preserve, but also as a great forest reserva- 
tion of the highest economic importance. 

With the assistance of some of the present members of 
the Boone and Crockett Club, a bill was framed which 

406 



Yellowstone Park Protection Act 

afforded in its provisions ample protection to the Park, 
while it added largely to its area on the south and on 
the east, embracing the great breeding grounds of the 
elk. This bill was introduced by Senator Vest. But 
new difficulties now arose, more serious than any hitherto 
encountered. By the completion of the Northern Pacific 
Railroad a large influx of travel set in toward the Park. 
It was now thought money was to be made there. Rail- 
roads through it were talked about. Mines, situated 
near its northern border, were said to contain untold 
wealth, needing only a railroad for their development. 
A mining camp, called Cooke City, was started, and it 
was urged that a railroad could reach it only by going 
through the Park. Corporate influences made them- 
selves felt. The bill introduced by Senator Vest again 
and again, in session after session, passed the Senate: 
The promoters of a railroad through the Park thought 
they saw their opportunity. Afraid to launch their 
scheme of spoliation before Congress as an independent 
measure, they sought to attach it as a rider to the Park 
bill. They reasoned that those who desired the passage 
of that bill regarded it as so important that they would 
be willing to consent to its carrying a railroad rather 
than see all legislation on the subject dropped or de- 
feated. The plan was well conceived, but failed of 
execution. The friends of the bill recognized that it 
was wiser to leave the Park unprotected than to consent 
to what would be its destruction. They recognized that, 
once railroads were allowed within the Park, it would be 
a reservation only in name, and that before long the 
forests and the game would both disappear. They there- 
fore refused the bait held out to them by the railroad 

407 



Hunting in Many Lands 

promoters, who thereafter always blocked the passage of 
the Park bill. In return they were always defeated in 
their own scheme. The House Committee having the 
protection bill in charge never failed to burden it with 
the railroad right of way whenever it came to them, 
blandly ignoring the evident fact that a railroad was not 
an appropriate nor a relevant feature to a law for the 
protection of the Park. And so it happened that the bill 
which had been the child of affection became an object 
of dread, and was denounced as bitterly as it had before 
been advocated by its original friends. It was thought 
better to have it die on the calendar than to take the 
risk of its adoption by the House of Representatives 
with the obnoxious amendment incorporated by the 
committee. 

AjjaVt from that amendment, it was feared the bill 
would not only encounter an opposition instigated by 
pecuniary interests, but might itself fail to call to its sup- 
port any counteracting influence. Those who opposed 
the railroad, ana notably the members of the Boone and 
Crockett Club, who invariably appeared before the Pub- 
lic Lands Committee to argue against it, were at the 
very least stigmatized as "sentimentalists," who impeded 
material progress — as busybodies, who, needing nothing 
themselves, interfered to prevent other people from 
obtaining what was necessary and beneficial to com- 
merce. With practical legislators such animadversions 
are frequently not lacking in force, for nothing more 
incurs their contempt than a measure which has not 
what they call a practical object, by which they mean a 
moneyed object. While throughout the country there 
was considerable general interest taken in the preserva- 

408 



Yellowstone Park Protection Act 

tion of the Park, such influence was not sufficiently con- 
centrated to make itself felt by Congress. The Park 
was everybody's affair, and in the House of Representa- 
tives no one could be found to take any special interest 
in it. And so the fight went on from year to year. In 
Congress after Congress the bill was passed in the 
Senate, and emerged from the House Committee on Pub- 
lic Lands weighted down by the burden of the railroad. 
Secretary after Secretary of the Interior protested against 
this feature of the bill, and so did every officer of the 
Government who had any part in the administration or 
exploration of the Park. But their protests were with- 
out effect on the committee, which in those days seemed 
to regard the railroad as the most important feature of 
the bill. 

It was clearly shown that the railroad would not only 
be most harmful to the Park, but could serve no useful 
purpose ; for it was quite possible for a railroad to reach 
the mines without touching the Park, whereas the pro- 
jected route cut through the Park for a distance of some 
fifty miles. The public press throughout the country 
was almost unanimous in denouncing the threatened 
invasion of the reservation. But the railroad in interest 
had a strong lobby at work, and many of the inhab- 
itants in the territories and States nearest the Park 
showed the most selfish indifference to its preservation, 
and a greedy desire to plunder it. The railroad lobbyists 
were very active. They saw the necessity of trying to 
avoid openly outraging public opinion. Accordingly 
they changed the bill, so that, instead of conferring a 
right of way through the Park, it segregated and threw 
out of the reservation that portion through which the 

409 



Hunting in Many Lands 

railroad was to go. This was supposed to be a conces- 
sion to public sentiment ; but it must have been thought 
that the public were very easily deceived, for there was 
really no concession at all, save to the railroad interests. 
Instead of a right of way through a portion of the Park, 
they now asked, and were offered by the committee, 
the land itself. The Committee of the House proposed 
that this land should be thrown out of the Park, and 
any and all railroads be allowed to scramble for it. 
The area thus doomed is situated north of the Yellow- 
stone River, and constitutes one of the most attractive 
portions of the Park. It includes the only great winter 
range of the elk. In the winter there can be seen there 
some 5,000 animals, and no one who has traveled over 
this region in summer has failed to observe the enormous 
number of shed horns, showing how extensively the 
range is resorted to by this noble animal. Here too can 
be found a* large band of antelope at all times, number- 
ing about 500, and a smaller, but considerable, band of 
mountain sheep. 

The friends of the Park succeeded in stopping the 
proposed railroad legislation, but they could accomplish 
nothing else in Congress. They had more success with 
another branch of the Government. There was a statute 
authorizing the President to set apart any part of the 
public domain as a forest reservation. Taking advan- 
tage of this, certain members of the Boone and Crockett 
Club saw an opportunity of substantially obtaining the 
enlargement of the Park which they had been vainly en- 
deavoring to obtain from Congress. They laid the mat- 
ter before General Noble, then Secretary of the Interior. 
He recommended to President Harrison that the tract in 

410 



Yellowstone Park Protection Act 

question should be constituted a forest reserve. This 
was done. In 1891 the President issued a proclamation, 
establishing the Yellowstone Park Forest Reserve. It 
embraced some 1,800 square miles, abutting on the east 
and south boundaries of the Park. The Secretary after- 
ward had the same regulations extended to the Re- 
serve as had been put in operation in the Park. This 
important action was followed by further proclama- 
tions, instituting other forest reservations in different 
sections of the country. The Executive and its repre- 
sentative, the Department of the Interior, have at all 
times been most sympathetic and helpful in the move- 
ment for forest and game preservation. They have 
sternly resisted all assaults upon the Park. 

The organization of the Boone and Crockett Club had 
been a great step toward Park protection. Its member- 
ship included those who had shown most interest in 
obtaining legislation. One of the main objects of the 
society was the preservation of the game and the forests. 
It brought together a body of men whose motives were 
entirely disinterested, and who were able to make their 
influence felt. To their efforts must be largely attributed 
the success which was ultimately attained. But that suc- 
cess might have been indefinitely deferred had not Con- 
gress been awakened to its duty by an event as shocking 
as it was unlooked for. 

For years one of the cherished objects of the Park had 
been the preservation of perhaps the only surviving band 
of buffalo. It had sought refuge in the mountains. It 
was known to be on the increase and it was supposed 
that it would remain unmolested. Its number had been 
estimated as high as 500. Its habitat was a wild and 

411 



Hunting in Many Lands 

rugged country, affording a seemingly secure asylum. 
For a long time these buffalo remained comparatively 
safe. In the summer it would have been of no use to 
slaughter them for their heads and hides. In the winter 
the snow was so deep and their haunts so remote as to 
render it well nigh impossible to pack heads or hides 
out to a market. But a desperate man was found to 
take desperate chances. The trouble came to the Park 
from the mining camp of Cooke. A notorious poacher 
named Howell made it his headquarters. Its prox- 
imity to the northeast boundary of the Park made it a 
convenient point from which to conduct his raids and to 
which he might convey his booty. If he killed even a 
single buffalo, and safely packed out of the Park its head 
or hide, he was sure of realizing a large sum. If he was 
captured while making the attempt, he knew he was safe 
from punishment, and that there was no penalty, even if 
there was an offense. A less lawless man might have 
indulged a flexible conscience with the idea that, as there 
was no punishment, there was no crime. A similar view 
of ethics had been indulged in by a prominent member 
of the gospel, who had killed game in the Park, and 
sought extenuation on the ground that he had not vio- 
lated any law. But Howell was not a man who sought 
to justify his actions; it was sufficient for him that he 
incurred no risk. The time he selected for his deed of 
destruction he thought the most propitious for covering 
up his tracks. His operations were conducted in the 
most tempestuous weather in that most tempestuous 
month, March, in the year 1894. The snow then was 
deepest, and Howell felt there would be little chance of 
interference by scouting or other parties. Eluding the 

412 



Yellowstone Park Protection Act 

guard stationed in the northern portion of the Park, on 
stormy nights, he stole into the Park and built a lodge in 
the locality where the buffalo wintered. In it he stored 
his supplies, which he had conveyed on a toboggan. He 
traveled on skis, the Norwegian snowshoes, ten feet 
long, which are generally used in the Northwestern 
country. This enabled him to traverse the roughest 
mountain range with ease and great rapidity, even in 
the deepest snow. Once established, the killing was an 
easy matter. He had only to find the buffalo where the 
snow was deep. The ponderous, unwieldy animals had 
small chance of escape from his pursuit. His quarry 
was soon located, and he needed no assistance to make a 
surround; for, while the frightened, confused beasts were 
plunging in the snow, in a vain attempt to extricate 
themselves, the butcher glided swiftly around them on 
his snowshoes, approaching as close as he chose. With 
his rapid-firing gun he slaughtered them as easily as if 
they had been cattle in a corral. How many he killed 
will never be known. The remains of many of his vic- 
tims will never be found. 

But while the ruffian was busiest in his bloody work, 
a man was speeding over the snow toward him from the 
south. He too was on skis. He too was a mountain man, 
who thought as little of the obstacles before him as Howell 
did. But the object of his trip was not the buffalo, but 
Howell. It was human game he was pursuing. Howell 
had not covered up his tracks as well as he thought. 
The trailer had struck a trail which he never left till it 
brought him to the object of his pursuit. This man was 
Burgess, the Yellowstone Park scout. He had learned 
of Howell's presence in the Park, and was sent out, with 

413 



Hunting in Many Lands 

the intention of apprehending him, by the energetic su- 
perintendent, Captain Anderson, He proceeded on his 
course as swiftly as a howling wind would permit, when 
he was surprised by seeing suspended from some trees 
six buffalo scalps. He now felt that he was in close 
vicinity to the man he was hunting, and that his business 
had become a serious one. He knew the man who had 
done that deed was prepared to resist and commit a 
greater crime. But this did not deter him and he again 
took the trail. He had proceeded only a short distance 
when he heard six shots. Hastening up a hill, he saw 
Howell engaged in butchering five buffalo, the victims of 
the six shots. Howell's gun was resting on the body of 
one of the slain animals, a few feet away from where he 
was engaged in removing a scalp from another of the 
bison. So occupied was he in his work that he did not 
perceive the scout, who had emerged in plain view, and 
who silently glided to the weapon, and, securing it, had 
Howell at his mercy. The demand to throw up his 
hands was the first intimation Howell had that he was 
not alone in the buffalo country. It must have been 
difficult for the scout at that moment not to forget that 
ours is a Government of law, and to refrain from making 
as summary an end of Howell as Howell had made of 
the buffalo. 

The poacher accepted his capture with equanimity, 
casually remarking that if he had seen Burgess first he 
never would have been captured. He was conveyed to 
the post headquarters. As soon as the Secretary of the 
Interior heard of his arrest, he ordered his discharge, as 
there was no law by which he could be detained or other- 
wise punished. Howell was proud of his achievement 

414 



Yellowstone Park Protection Act 

and of the notoriety it gave him, boasting that he had 
killed altogether eighty of the bison. This statement 
may only have been made for the purpose of magnifying 
his crime and so enhancing his importance. It may, 
however, be true. Besides those actually known to have 
been slaughtered by him, the remains of thirteen other 
bison, it is said, have been found in the Park. It is 
probable they were all killed by him. 

When the intelligence of what had happened reached 
the country, much indignation was manifested. The 
public, which after all did have a vague sense of pride in 
the Park, and a rather loose wish to see it cared for, was 
shocked and surprised to discover that no law existed by 
which the offense could be reached. They were aroused 
to the knowledge that the Park was the only portion of 
our domain uncontrolled by law. The Boone and Crock- 
ett Club took prompt advantage of this awakened feeling, 
and redoubled its efforts to secure action by the Na- 
tional Legislature. Congress had long been deaf to the 
appeals of the few individuals who, year after year, 
endeavored to obtain a law ; but now, at last, they 
realized that some action was really needed if they 
desired to save anything in the Park. Mr. Lacey, of 
Iowa, the gentleman whom we have mentioned as having 
had a practical experience of the condition of affairs in 
the Park, was naturally the first to take hold of the 
opportunity which public opinion afforded. He willingly 
adopted the chief jurisdictional and police features con- 
tained in the Park bill to which we have so frequently 
referred as repeatedly passing the Senate. He readily 
acquiesced in all the amendments which were proposed 
by members of the Boone and Crockett Club. The Club 

415 



Hunting in Many Lands 

pushed the matter vigorously. The aid of many promi- 
nent members of the House of Representatives was en- 
listed. Before the hostile railroad party knew of the 
movement, the bill was presented to the House, unani- 
mous consent for its consideration obtained, and it was 
passed. In the Senate the bill was among its friends, 
and Senator Vest was again instrumental in securing its 
passage. The promoters of the railroad scheme thought 
it more prudent not to meddle with the bill in the 
Senate, as they would have been certain to have en- 
countered defeat. 

The Act provides penalties and the means of enforc- 
ing them, and thus secures adequate protection. It 
makes the violation of any rule or regulation of the 
Secretary of the Interior a misdemeanor. It prohibits 
the killing or capture of game, or the taking of fish in an 
unlawful manner. It forbids transportation of game, 
and for the violation of the Act or regulations it imposes 
a fine not to exceed $i,ooo, or imprisonment not to 
exceed two years, or both. It also confiscates the traps, 
guns and means of transport of persons engaged in kill- 
ing or capturing game. Finally a local magistrate is 
appointed, with jurisdiction to try all offenders violating 
the law governing the Park, and it specifies the jurisdic- 
tion over felonies committed in the Park. By a happy 
coincidence the new system was inaugurated by the trial 
and conviction of the first offender put on trial, and it 
was Howell who was the first prisoner in the dock. He 
had returned to the Park after the passage of the law, 
and was tried and convicted of violating the order of the 
Secretary of the Interior, by which he was expelled after 
he had slaughtered the buffalo. This was retributive 

416 



Yellowstone Park Pr©tection Act 

justice indeed. The Club had desired that the law 
should be extended by Congress over the Yellowstone 
Park Forest Reserve, but legal difificulties were encoun- 
tered, so that this protection had to be deferred. It is to 
be hoped that in the near future this important adjunct 
to the Park may have the same law applied to it. 

The Park is now on a solid foundation, and all that 
is necessary for its future welfare is the prevention of 
adverse legislation cutting down its limits or authoriz- 
ing railroads within it. In the winter of 1894-95 the 
railroad scheme, now disguised under the form of a 
bill to regulate the boundaries of the Park, came up 
again. This was the old segregation plan. It aimed 
not only to cut off from the Park that valuable portion 
already described, and embracing 367 square miles north 
of the Yellowstone, but also to make extensive cuts in 
the Forest Reserve for railroad and other purposes, 
amounting to 640 square miles. This spoliation was not 
permitted. Congress seemed at last to be determined to 
support the Park intact, and the Committee of the Fifty- 
fourth Congress in the House having the Park legislation 
in charge manifested this disposition by adverse reports 
on all the bills to authorize railroads and on the segre- 
gation bill as well. 

The present boundaries only need marking on the 
ground — a mere matter of departmental action. There 
is no need of legislation on the subject. The bounda- 
ries, especially on the north, afford such natural features 
as constitute the best possible barrier to prevent depre- 
dation from without, and to insure the retention of the 
game within, the Park. Notwithstanding the inadequacy 
of the protection in former years, the game has increased 

417 



Hunting in Many Lands 

largely, especially since the military occupation. Com- 
petent authority has estimated the number of elk as high 
as 20,000, though this is probably too large a figure. 
Moose are frequently encountered. Mountain sheep and 
antelope are found in goodly numbers. It is doubtful 
now whether there are over 200 buffalo left. Bears of 
the different varieties are very plentiful and deer are also 
quite abundant. The animals thoroughly appreciate 
their security. They have largely lost their fear of man, 
Antelope and sheep can be seen in the vicinity of the 
stage roads, and are not disturbed by constant travel. 
Wild geese, ducks and other birds refuse to rise from the 
water near which men pass. 

But bears show the most indifference for human pres- 
ence. Attracted by the food obtained, they frequent the 
neighborhood of the hotels in the Park. The writer of 
these notes, together with some companions, had a good 
opportunity, in the latter part of August, 1894, to observe 
how bold and careless these generally wary animals may 
become if not hunted. 

When we reached the Lake Hotel, the clerk asked us if 
we wished to see a bear, as he could show us one after we 
had finished dinner. We went with him to a spot some 
200 feet back of the hotel, where refuse was deposited. 
It was then a little after sunset. We waited some mo- 
ments, when the clerk, taking his watch out of his pocket 
said, " It is strange he has not come down ; he is now a 
little overdue." Before he had replaced his watch, he 
exclaimed, "Here he comes now," and we saw descend- 
ing slowly from a hill close by a very large black bear. 
The bear approached us, when I said to the clerk, "Had 
uot we better get behind the timber ? He will be fright- 

418 



n " 



^:^ 



' 'f ^^ 




*>'■ 




fc - 


^ .... . -..^^ 




■ . ,^ \:^ 




' ' .ii^^ffk"*;-.* 




^ x^m^-- ''- . 




ON THE SHORE OF YELLOWSTONE LAKE. 



Yellowstone Park Protection Act 

ened off should he see us." He answered, " No, he will 
not be frightened in the least," and continued to con- 
verse with us in a loud voice. We were then standing in 
the open close by a swill heap and the bear was coming 
toward us, there being no timber intervening. We did 
not move, but continued talking. The bear came up to 
us without hesitation, diverging slightly from his direct 
route to the swill heap so as to approach nearer to where 
we were. He surveyed us leisurely, with his nose in the 
air, got our scent, and, seeming content that we were 
only harmless human beings, turned slowly away and 
went to the refuse, where he proceeded to make a meal. 
We watched him for quite a while, when a large wagon 
passing along the road nigh to where we stood, the bear 
stopped feeding and turned toward the hotel in the 
direction in which the wagon was traveling. Our guide 
exclaimed, "He has gone to visit the pig sty," and in a 
little while we were satisfied this was so by hearing a 
loud outcry of "b'ar, b'ar," which we afterward found 
proceeded from a Chinaman, one of whose special duties 
it was to keep bears out of the pig sty. 

After the departure of the black bear we retraced our 
steps, but before getting to the hotel I suggested to one 
of my companions, Del. Hay, that if we returned to the 
refuse pile we might see another bear. We accordingly 
went back on the trail to within a few yards of where we 
stood before. When we stopped we heard, in the timber 
near by, a great noise, as if dead pine branches were 
being smashed, and there emerged into the open a large 
grizzly. Although he was not quite so familiar as the 
black bear, he showed no hesitation, but walked straight 
toward us and the object of his visit — the swill. Before 

419 



Hunting in Many Lands 

reaching his destination, however, he stopped and squat- 
ted on his haunches, calmly surveying the scene before 
him. The reason why he stopped became at once ap- 
parent. From the same hill down which the black bear 
had come we saw another grizzly, larger than the first, 
moving toward us at a rapid gait, in fact, on a lope, 
while the first grizzly regarded him with a look not 
altogether friendly or cordial. The second bear did not 
stop an instant until he reached the swill heap, where he 
proceeded to devour everything in sight, without any re- 
gard to us or to his fellow squatted near by. The latter 
apparently had had some experience on a former occa- 
sion which he was not desirous of repeating. 

Three men coming through the timber toward us made 
a considerable racket, and the two bears moved off at no 
rapid gait in opposite directions ; but they went only a 
short way. Until we left the spot we could see them on 
the edge of the timber, looking toward us, and, no doubt, 
waiting for more quiet before partaking of the delights 
before them. It was not easy to realize the scene before 
us was actual. The dim twilight, the huge forms of the 
bears pacing to and fro through the whitened dead tim- 
ber, made it appear the creation of a disordered fancy. 
It did not seem natural to be in close proximity with 
animals esteemed so ferocious, at liberty in their native 
wilds, with no desire to attack them and with no disposi- 
tion on their part to attack us. When the three men 
joined us and were talking about the bears, one of them 
shouted, "Here come two more," and before we could 
realize it we saw two good-sized cinnamons at the feast. 
They paid no attention whatever to us, but were entirely 
absorbed in finishing up what the other bears had left. 

420 



YeDowfitone Park Protection Act 

By this time it was fast becoming dark and we returned 
to the hotel. I should have said that we measured the 
distance from the nearest point from the black bear to 
where we stood, and found it to be exactly twenty-one 
feet. The other bears were but a few yards further. 

When we returned to the house we entertained our 
friends with an account of what we had seen, and had 
there not been many eye-witnesses we probably would 
have been entirely disbelieved.* As we were narrating 
our story a man came into the room and said, "If you 
want some fun, come outside; we have a bear up a tree." 
We went outside of the hotel, and not over forty feet 
from it found a black bear in a pine tree. It seems that 
the wagon, already mentioned, had been stopped at the 
pine tree and the horses had been taken out. The 
owner, returning to his wagon, found the bear in it, and 
this was the explanation why the bear had so suddenly 
taken to the tree. 

The animal was considerably smaller than the one we 
had seen earlier ; in fact, it was not more than half as 
large, but still full grown. Quite a number of packers 
and teamsters stood about, amusing themselves by mak- 
ing the bear climb higher, till at last one of them asked 
our driver, Jim McMasters, why he did not climb the 

* Colonel John Hay, of Washington, was one of the spectators 
of this curious scene. Captain Albrecht Heese, of the German 
Embassy, tells us that in July, 1895, while stopping at the Lake 
Hotel, he saw a very large bear eating out of a trough in the daytime 
while a number of tourists were present ; and that the bear was 
finally chased away from the trough by a cow. At the Upper Geyser 
Basin a bear was domiciled in the hotel ; it took food from the hands 
of the hotel keeper, following him around like a dog. 

421 



Hunting in Many Lands 

tree and shake the bear out. It was quite dark, and Mc- 
Masters repUed that he would not mind doing so if there 
were enough daylight for him to see. His companions 
continuing to banter him, he finally said, "I believe I'll 
go up anyhow," and up he went, climbing, however — in- 
stead of the tree the bear had ascended — a companion 
tree which grew alongside of the other, the trunks of 
the two not being more than a foot or so apart and the 
branches interlaced. We soon lost sight of McMasters 
and of the bear also ; for, as Jim climbed the bear would 
climb too, until at last they both had reached the top of 
their respective perches, when we heard Jim cry out, 
"Boys, he's got to come down ; I can reach him." With 
that he proceeded to break off a small branch of his 
tree, and we could hear him whack the bear with it, and 
also could hear the bear remonstrating with a very un- 
pleasant voice, at times approaching a roar. But at last 
the bear seemed to have made up his mind that it was 
better to come down than stay up and be whacked with 
a pine branch, so down he came, but not with any great 
rapidity, stopping at every resting place, until Jim came 
down too and gave him a little persuading. 

We could now see the action, but its dangerous features 
were lost sight of in its amusing ones. Jim had climbed 
into the tree down which the bear was descending, and 
when he was not persuading the bear he was pleading 
with us somewhat as follows: "Now, boys, don't throw 
up here, and don't none of you hit him until he gets 
down. If he should make up his mind to come up again 
he'd clean me out, sure." After each speech of this sort 
he would move down to where the bear was and apply 
his branch, whereupon both the man and the animal 

422 



Yellowstone Park Protection Act 

would descend a few pegs lower. At last the bear was 
almost near the ground. We all formed a circle around 
the tree, prepared to give both man and beast a reception 
when they should alight. The beast came first, and 
every fellow who had anything in the way of wood in his 
hand gave the bear a blow or two as a warning not to re- 
turn to the wagon again. Bruin made off into the tim- 
ber with great precipitancy, Jim, when he got down, 
did not seem to think that he had done anything more 
than if the bear had been a "possum," which he had 
shaken out of the tree. 



423 



Head -Measurements of the Trophies at the 

Madison Square Garden Sportsmen's 

Exhibition 



During the week beginning May 14, 1895, there 
was held in Madison Square Garden, New York, a 
Sportsmen's Exhibition. There was a fair exhibit of 
heads, horns and skins, for which the credit largely 
belongs to Frederick S. Webster, the taxidermist. 

At the request of the managers of the Exhibition, 
three of the members of the Boone and Crockett Club — 
Messrs. Theodore Roosevelt, George Bird Grinnell and 
Archibald Rogers — were appointed a Committee on Meas- 
urements. There were heads and skins of every kind of 
North American big game. Many of them were ex- 
hibited by amateur sportsmen, including various mem- 
bers of the Boone and Crockett Club, while many others 
were exhibited by furriers and taxidermists. 

Some of the measurements are worth recording. For 
convenience we tabulate, in the case of each animal, the 
measurements of the specimens exhibited by amateur 
sportsmen w'^o themselves shot the animals. For pur- 
poses of comparison we add the measurements of a few 
big heads exhibited by taxidermists or furriers ; also for 
purposes of comparison we quote the figures given in 

424 



Head- Measurements of Trophies 

two works published with special reference to the ques- 
tion of horn measurements. One is the "Catalogue and 
Notes of the American Hunting Trophies Exhibition " at 
London in 1887. The moving spirit in this exhibition 
was Mr. E, M. Buxton, who was assisted by all the most 
noted English sportsmen who had shot in America. The 
result was a noteworthy collection of trophies, almost all 
of which belonged to animals shot by the exhibitors 
themselves. Very few Americans took part in the exhi- 
bition, though several did so, one of the two finest moose 
heads being exhibited by an American sportsman. 

The other big game book quoted is Rowland Ward's 
"Measurements," published in London in 1892. This is 
a very valuable compilation of authentic records of horn 
measurements gathered from many different sources. In 
many cases it quotes from Mr. Buxton's catalogue. The 
largest elk head, for instance, given by Ward is the one 
mentioned in the Buxton catalogue. But in most in- 
stances the top measurements given by Ward stand 
above the top measurements given in the catalogue, 
because the latter, as already said, contains only a 
record of the trophies of amateur sportsmen, whereas 
many of Ward's best measurements are from museum 
specimens, or from picked heads obtained from furriers 
or taxidermists, who chose the best out of those pre- 
sented by many hundreds of professional hunters. 

At the Madison Square exhibition there were numer- 
ous bear skins, polar, grizzly and black, submitted by 
men who had shot them. There were a few wolf and 
cougar skins and one peccary head ; but there was no 
satisfactory way of making measurements of any of 
these. The peccary's head, which was submitted by Mr. 

425 



Hunting in Many Lands 

Roosevelt, of course, had the tusks in the skull, so that it 
was not possible to measure them ; for the same reason 
it was not possible to measure the skulls which were in 
the heads of the bear, wolf and cougar skins exhibited by 
Mr. Roosevelt. 

There were few Oregon blacktail deer heads exhibited, 
and these were not large. The one exhibited by Mr. 
Roosevelt, for instance, had horns 21 inches in length, 
4 inches in girth and 17 inches in spread. 

In measuring most horns it is comparatively easy to 
get some relative idea of the size of the heads by giving 
simply the girth and length. The spread is often given 
also ; but this is not a good measurement, as a rule, 
because, in mounting the head, it is very easy to increase 
the spread ; and, moreover, even where the spread is 
natural, it may be excessive and out of proportion to the 
length of the horns, in which case it amounts to a de- 
formity. The length is in every case measured from the 
butt to the tip along the outside curve of the horn. The 
girth is given at the butt in the case of buffalo, sheep, 
goat and antelope; but in the case of deer it is given at the 
narrowest part of the horn, above the first tine; in elk this 
narrowest part comes between the bay and tray points ; 
in blacktail and whitetail deer it comes above the " dog- 
killer" points, and below the main fork in the horn. 
Even in the case of elk, deer, sheep and buffalo the 
measurements of length and girth do not always indicate 
how fine a head is, although they generally give at least 
an approximate idea. The symmetry of the head cannot 
be indicated by these measurements. In elk and deer 
heads, extra points, though sometimes mere deformities, 
yet when large and symmetrical add greatly to the 

426 



Head- Measurements of Trophies 

appearance and value of the head, making it heavier and 
grander in every way, and being a proof of great strength 
and vitalitv of the animal and of the horn itself. In con- 
sequence, although the measurements of length and girth 
generally afford a good test of the relative worth of 
buffalo, elk, sheep and deer heads, it is not by any means 
an infallible test. 

With moose and caribou heads the test of mere length 
and girth is of far less value ; for many of them have 
such extraordinary antlers that the measurements of 
length and girth mean but little, and give hardly any 
idea of the weight and beauty of the antlers. With 
moose a better idea of these qualities can be obtained by 
measuring the extreme breadth of the palmation, and the 
extreme length from the tip of the brow point backward 
in each horn. Caribou horns are often of such fantastic 
shape that the actual measurements, taken in any ordi- 
nary way, give but a very imperfect idea of the value of 
the trophies. Very long horns are sure to be fine speci- 
mens, and yet they may not be nearly as fine as those 
which are much shorter, but more branched, and with the 
branches longer, broader and heavier, and at the same 
time more beautiful. Thus, at the Madison Square Gar- 
den, C. G. Gunther's Sons, the furriers, exhibited one 
caribou with antlers 50 inches long, of the barren ground 
type, with 43 points. These horns were very slender, 
and would not have weighed more than a third as much 
as an enormous pair belonging to a woodland caribou, 
which were some 10 inches shorter in extreme length, 
and with rather fewer points, but were more massive 
in every way, the beam being far larger, and all of the 
tines being palmated to a really extraordinary extent. 

427 



Hunting in Many Lands 

TABULATED SERIES 
With name of owner, and locality and date of capture. 

BISON BULL. 

Girth. Length. 

1. P. Liebinger, Western Montana, '93 12}^ 19 

2. Theodore Roosevelt, Medora, N. D., Sept., '83. 1224^ 14 

3. Theodore Roosevelt, S W. Montana, Sept., '89. 12^ i?^ 
No. 2 was an old stub-horn bull, the animal being bigger in body 

than No. 3, which, like No. i, was a bull in the prime of life. 

F. Sauter, the taxidermist, exhibited a head killed in 
Montana in 1894, which measured 14 inches in girth 
and 18 inches in length. 

In Ward's book the horns of the biggest bison given 
measure 15 inches in girth and 20^ inches in length. 

BIG-HORN SHEEP. 

Girth. 

4. Geo. H. Gould, Lower Cal., Dec., '94. 16^ 

5. G. O. Shields, Ashnola River, B. C. . . . \b]^ 

6. Arch. Rogers, N. W. Wyoming 16 

7. Arch. Rogers, N. W. Wyoming 15^ 

8. T. Roosevelt, Little Mo. River, N. D. . 16 

No. 4 had the tip of one horn broken ; it is on the whole the finest 
head of which we have any record. 

No. 5 was a very heavy head, the horns huge and with blunted tips. 

A head was exhibited by C. G. Gunther's Sons which 
measured 17^ inches in girth, although it was but it^Y^ 
inches in length. 

In Buxton's catalogue the three biggest rams exhibited 
by English sportsmen had horns which measured respect- 
ively, in girth and length, 15^ and 39 inches, \6y% and 
38^ inches, and 16^ and 31 inches. 

In Ward's catalogue the biggest specimen given had 
428 



Length. 


Spread, 


42 >^ 


25^ 


3714: 


22>^ 


34 


17 


33^ 


23 


29>^ 


18K 



Head- Measurements of Trophies 

horns which were 17^ inches in girth and 41 inches 
in length. 

WHITE GOAT. 

Girth. Length. 

9. Walter James, Swift Current River, Mont., '92.. s}^ ^^Vz 

10. T. Roosevelt, Big Hole Basin, Mont., Aug.,' 89. S'h 9iV 

11. Theodore Roosevelt, Heron, Mont., Sept., '86 . . 5 93^ 

No. II was a female; as the horns of the female white goat 
always are, these horns were a little longer and slenderer than those 
of No. 10, which was a big-bodied buck. 

In Buxton's catalogue the biggest horns given were 5 
inches in girth and 2>% inches in length. The two big- 
gest specimens given in Ward's were 5 inches in girth by 
io_^ inches, and 5/^ by 9^ inches. 

MUSK ox. 

There was no musk ox head exhibited by an amateur 
sportsman. One, which was exhibited by W. W. Hart & 
Co., had horns each of which was 29^ inches by 20^ 
inches ; the height of the boss was 13 inches. One 
of the members of the Boone and Crockett Club, Mr. 
Caspar W. Whitney, has this year, 1895, killed a number 
of musk ox ; but he did not return from his winter trip 
to the Barren Grounds until June. 

PRONGBUCK. 

Girth. Length. 

12. Theodore Roosevelt, Medora, N. D., Sept., '84. b% 16 

13. A. Rogers 6 I2>^ 

14. A. Rogers 6^ 10 J^ 

No. 13 measured from tip to tip tyi inches. The greatest width 
inside the horns was ?>% inches; the corresponding figures for No. 
14 were 7j^ and 10^ inches. 

429 



Hunting^ in Many Lands 

In Buxton's catalogue the largest measurements given 
were for a specimen which girthed ^^ inches, and was 
in length 15)^ inches. 

In Ward's catalogue the two biggest specimens given 
measured respectively 15% inches in length by 6^ 
inches in girth, and 12^ inches in length by 6^ inches 
in girth. 

WAPITI OR ROUND-HORN ELK. 

Girth. Length. Spread. Points. 

15. A. Rogers, Northwestern Wyoming. 8 64^ 48 7-I-7 

16. G. O. Shields, Clark's Fork, Wyo.. 8^ S^H 50 6+7 

17. T. Roosevelt, Two Ocean Pass, '91. 6ji 56^^ 46^ 64-6 

18. T. Roosevelt, Two Ocean Pass, '91. y^ 50%" 47 6-J-6 

19. P. Liebinger, Indian Creek, Mont. 6^ 50^ 54 8-|-8 

No. 15, as far as we know, is the record head for amateur sports- 
men in point of length. 

No. 16 has very heavy massive antlers ; though these are not so 
long as the antlers of No. 17, yet No, 16 is really the finer head. 

In Buxton's catalogue the three finest heads measure 
respectively 8 inches in girth by 62^ inches in length by 
48>4 inches spread, with 7-I-9 points; and 7^ inches 
in girth by 60% inches in length by 52 inches spread, 
with 6-\-6 points ; and 8^ inches in girth by 55 inches 
in length by 41^ spread, with 6+6 points. 

These are also the biggest heads given in Ward's 
catalogue. 

MULE OR BLACKTAIL DEER. 

Girth. Length. Spread. 

20. T. Roosevelt, Medora,N. D., Oct., '83. 5 26^ 28j4 

21. P. Liebinger, Madison R., Mont., '89. 4^ 2$}^ 25«^ 
No. 20 is an extremely massive and symmetrical head with 28 

points. 
No. 21 has 35 points. 

430 



Head- Measurements of Trophies 

A still heavier head than either of the above, with 34 
points, was exhibited by the furriers, C. G. Gunther's 
Sons; it was in girth 5^ inches, length 26 inches and 
spread 28)^ inches. 

In Buxton's catalogue the length of the biggest mule 
deer horn exhibited was 28;^ inches. 

In Ward's catalogue the biggest heads measured re- 
spectively : girth 4^2 inches by 28^^ inches length, and 
girth 5^ inches by 27 inches length ; they had 10 and ii 
points respectively. 

WHITETAIL OR VIRGINIA DEER. 

Girth. L«ngth. Spread. 

22. G. B.Grinnell, Dismal River, Neb., '77. 4^ 24 ig^^ 

23. T. Roosevelt, Medora, N. D., '94 4 22^ 15^ 

No. 22 is a very fine head with 18 points ; very symmetrical. 
No. 23 has 12 points. 

In Ward's measurements the biggest whitetail horns 
are in girth 5^ inches, and in length 27^ inches. 

MOOSE. 

Girth. 

24. Col. Haselton, Chesuncook, Me., '87.... 8^ 

25. A. Rogers 7 

26. T. Roosevelt, Bitter Root Mt., Mont., '89. s}4 

No. 24, a pair of horns only, is, with the possible exception of a 
head of Mr. Bierstadt's, the finest we have ever seen in the possession 
of an amateur sportsman. The measurements of the palm of one 
antler were 41^ by 21^ inches. 

No. 26 has a spread of 40^ inches, and the palm measured 29 by 
13 inches. 

In Buxton's catalogue the biggest moose given had 
horns which in girth were 8^ inches and in length 35^ 

431 



Length. 


Points, 


41 


27 


31M' 


14 


30 


22 



Hunting in Many Lands 

inches; the palm was 41 by 24 inches; the spread was 
65 inches. These measurements indicate a head about 
as fine as Col. Haselton's, taking everything into con- 
sideration. 

The largest head given by Ward was 6}^ inches in 
girth by 39^ inches in length and 51^ inches spread. 
It had 25 points, and the breadth of the palm was 
i$yi inches. 

For the reason given above, it is difficult in the case 
of moose, and far more difficult in the case of caribou, to 
judge the respective merits of heads by the mere record 
of measurements, 

CARIBOU. 

Girth. Length. Points. 

27. A. Rogers 4|^ 41X 16 

28. T. Roosevelt, Kootenai, B. C, Sept., '88. 5>^ 32 14 

Neither of these is a big head. C. G. Gunther's Sons 
exhibited one caribou with 43 points. Its horns were 
5^ inches in girth by 50 inches in length. They also 
exhibited a much heavier head, which was but 37 inches 
long, but was 6^ inches in girth, with all of the tines 
highly palmated ; one of the brow points had a palm 
17^ inches high. 

In Buxton's catalogue the biggest caribou antler given 
girthed 5^ inches and was in length 37 j^ inches. The 
biggest measurements given by Ward are 5^ inches 
in girth by 60 inches in length for a specimen with 
37 points. 



432 



National Park Protective Act 



An Act to protect the birds and animals in Yellowstone National 
Park, and to punish crimes in said Park, and for other purposes. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives 
of the United States of America in Congress assembled, 
That the Yellowstone National Park, as its boundaries 
now are defined, or as they may be hereafter defined or 
extended, shall be under the sole and exclusive jurisdic- 
tion of the United States; and that all the laws applicable 
to places under the sole and exclusive jurisdiction of the 
United States shall have force and effect in said Park : 
Provided, however, That nothing in this Act shall be con- 
strued to forbid the service in the Park of any civil or 
criminal process of any court having jurisdiction in the 
States of Idaho, Montana and Wyoming. All fugitives 
from justice taking refuge in said Park shall be subject 
to the same laws as refugees from justice found in the 
State of Wyoming. 

Sec. 2. That said Park, for all the purposes of this 
Act, shall constitute a part of the United States judicial 
district of Wyoming, and the district and circuit courts 
of the United States in and for said district shall have 
jurisdiction of all offenses committed within said Park. 

Sec. 3. That if any offense shall be committed in said 
Yellowstone National Park, which offense is not pro- 
hibited or the punishment is not specially provided for 

433 



Hunting in Many Lands 

by any law of the United States or by any regulation of 
the Secretary of the Interior, the offender shall be sub- 
ject to the same punishment as the laws of the State of 
Wyoming in force at the time of the commission of the 
offense may provide for a like offense in the said State ; 
and no subsequent repeal of any such law of the State of 
Wyoming shall affect any prosecution for said offense 
committed within said Park. 

Sec. 4. That all hunting, or the killing, wounding, or 
capturing at any time of any bird or wild animal, except 
dangerous animals, when it is necessary to prevent them 
from destroying human life or inflicting an injury, is pro- 
hibited within the limits of said Park; nor shall any fish 
be taken out of the waters of the Park by means of 
seines, nets, traps, or by the use of drugs or any explo- 
sive substances or compounds, or in any other way than 
by hook and line, and then only at such seasons and in 
such times and manner as may be directed by the Secre- 
tary of the Interior. That the Secretary of the Interior 
shall make and publish such rules and regulations as he 
may deem necessary and proper for the management and 
care of the Park, and for the protection of the property 
therein, especially for the preservation from injury or 
spoliation of all timber, mineral deposits, natural curiosi- 
ties, or Wonderful objects within said Park ; and for the 
protection of the animals and birds in the Park from 
capture or destruction, or to prevent their being fright- 
ened or driven from the Park ; and he shall make rules 
and regulations governing the taking of fish from the 
streams or lakes in the Park. Possession within the said 
Park of the dead bodies, or any part thereof, of any wild 
bird or animal shall be prima facie evidence that the 

434 



National Park Protective Act 

person or persons having the same are guilty of violat- 
ing this Act. Any person or persons, or stage or express 
company or railway company, receiving for transporta- 
tion any of the said animals, birds or fish so killed, taken 
or caught shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, 
and shall be fined for every such offense not exceed- 
ing three hundred dollars. Any person found guilty 
of violating any of the provisions of this Act, or any 
rule or regulation that may be promulgated by the 
Secretary of the Interior with reference to the manage- 
ment and care of the Park, or for the protection of 
the property therein, for the preservation from injury 
or spoliation of timber, mineral deposits, natural curi- 
osities or wonderful objects within said Park, or for 
the protection of the animals, birds and fish in the said 
Park, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall 
be subjected to a fine of not more than one thousand dol- 
lars, or imprisonment not exceeding two years, or both, 
and be adjudged to pay all costs of the proceedings. 

That all guns, traps, teams, horses, or means of trans- 
portation of every nature or description used by any per- 
son or persons within said Park limits, when engaged 
in killing, trapping, ensnaring or capturing such wild 
beasts, birds, or wild animals, shall be forfeited to the 
United States, and may be seized by the officers in said 
Park and held pending the prosecution of any person or 
persons arrested under charge of violating the provisions 
of this Act, and upon conviction under this Act of such 
person or persons using said guns, traps, teams, horses, 
or other means of transportation, such forfeiture shall be 
adjudicated as a penalty in addition to the other punish- 
ment provided in this Act. Such forfeited property shall 

435 



Hunting in Many Lands 

be disposed of and accounted for by and under the 
authority of the Secretary of the Interior. 

Sec. 5. That the United States circuit court in said 
district shall appoint a commissioner, who shall reside in 
the Park, who shall have jurisdiction to hear and act 
upon all complaints made, of any and all violations of 
the law, or of the rules and regulations made by the Sec- 
retary of the Interior for the government of the Park, 
and for the protection of the animals, birds and fish, and 
objects of interest therein, and for other purposes author- 
ized by this Act. Such commissioner shall have power, 
upon sworn information, to issue process in the name of 
the United States for the arrest of any person charged 
with the commission of any misdemeanor, or charged 
with the violation of the rules and regulations, or with 
the violation of any provision of this Act prescribed for 
the government of said Park, and for the protection of 
the animals, birds and fish in the said Park, and to try 
the person so charged ; and, if found guilty, to impose 
the punishment and adjudge the forfeiture prescribed. 
In all cases of conviction an appeal shall lie from the 
judgment of said commissioner to the United States dis- 
trict court for the district of Wyoming, said appeal to be 
governed by the laws of the State of Wyoming providing 
for appeals in cases of misdemeanor from justices of the 
peace to the district court of said State; but the United 
States circuit court in said district may prescribe rules of 
procedure and practice for said commissioner in the trial 
of cases and for appeal to said United States district 
court. Said commissioner shall also have power to issue 
process as hereinbefore provided for the arrest of any 
person charged with the commission of any felony within 

436 



National Park Protective Act 

the Park, and to summarily hear the evidence introduced, 
and, if he shall determine that probable cause is shown 
for holding the person so charged for trial, shall cause 
such person to be safely conveyed to a secure place for 
confinement, within the jurisdiction of the United States 
district court in said State of Wyoming, and shall certify 
a transcript of the record of his proceedings and the tes- 
timony in the case to the said court, which court shall 
have jurisdiction of the case: Provided, That the said 
commissioner shall grant bail in all cases bailable under 
the laws of the United States or of said State. All proc> 
ess issued by the commissioner shall be directed to the 
marshal of the United States for the district of Wyoming; 
but nothing herein contained shall be construed as pre- 
venting the arrest by any officer of the Government or 
employee of the United States in the Park without pro- 
cess of any person taken in the act of violating the law 
or any regulation of the Secretary of the Interior : Pro- 
vided, That the said commissioner shall only exercise 
such authority and powers as are conferred by this Act. 

Sec. 6. That the marshal of the United States for the 
district of Wyoming may appoint one or more deputy 
marshals for said Park, who shall reside in said Park, 
and the said United States district and circuit courts 
shall hold one session of said courts annually at the town 
of Sheridan, in the State of Wyoming, and may also 
hold other sessions at any other place in said State of 
Wyoming or in said National Park at such dates as the 
said courts may order. 

Sec. 7. That the commissioner provided for in this 
Act shall, in addition to the fees allowed by law to com- 
missioners of the circuit courts of the United States, be 

437 



Hunting in Many Lands 

paid an annual salary of one thousand dollars, payable 
quarterly, and the marshal of the United States and his 
deputies, and the attorney of the United States and his 
assistants in said district, shall be paid the same compen- 
sation and fees as are now provided by law for like ser- 
vices in said district. 

Sec. 8. That all costs and expenses arising in cases 
under this Act, and properly chargeable to the United 
States, shall be certified, approved and paid as like costs 
and expenses in the courts of the United States are cer- 
tified, approved and paid under the laws of the United 
States. 

Sec. 9. That the Secretary of the Interior shall cause 
to be erected in the Park a suitable building to be used 
as a jail, and also having in said building an office for 
the use of the commissioner ; the cost of such building 
not to exceed five thousand dollars, to be paid out of 
any moneys in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated 
upon the certificate of the Secretary as a voucher therefor. 

Sec. 10. That this Act shall not be construed to 
repeal existing laws conferring upon the Secretary of 
the Interior and the Secretary of War certain powers 
with reference to the protection, improvement and con- 
trol of the said Yellowstone National Park. 

Approved May 7, 1894. 



438 



Constitution of the Boone and Crockett Club 

FOUNDED DECEMBER, 1 887. 



Article I. 

This Club shall be known as the Boone and Crockett 
Club. 

Article II. 

The objects of the Club shall be — 

1. To promote manly sport with the rifle. 

2. To promote travel and exploration in the wild 
and unknown, or but partially known, portions of the 
country. 

3. To work for the preservation of the large game of 
this country, and, so far as possible, to further legislation 
for that purpose, and to assist in enforcing the exist- 
ing laws. 

4. To promote inquiry into, and to record observa- 
tions on the habits and natural history of, the various 
wild animals. 

5. To bring about among the members the inter- 
change of opinions and ideas on hunting, travel and 
exploration ; on the various kinds of hunting-rifles ; on 
the haunts of game animals, etc. 

439 



Hunting in Many Lands 

Article III. 

No one shall be eligible for membership who shall not 
have killed with the rifle in fair chase, by still-hunting or 
otherwise, at least one individual of one of the various 
kinds of American large game. 

Article IV. 

Under the head of American large game are in- 
cluded the following animals : Bear, buffalo (bison), 
mountain sheep, caribou, cougar, musk-ox, white goat, 
elk (wapiti), wolf (not coyote), pronghorn antelope, 
moose and deer. 

Article V. 

The term " fair chase " shall not be held to include 
killing bear, wolf or cougar in traps, nor '* fire-hunting," 
nor "crusting" moose, elk or deer in deep snow, nor 
killing game from a boat while it is swimming in 
the water. 

Article VI. 

This Club shall consist of not more than one hundred 
regular members, and of such associate and honorary 
members as may be elected. 

Article VII. 

The Committee on Admissions shall consist of the 
President and Secretary and the Chairman of the Execu- 

440 



Constitution, Boone and Crockett Club 

tive Committee. In voting for regular members, six 
blackballs shall exclude. In voting for associate and 
honorary members, ten blackballs shall exclude. Can- 
didates for regular membership who are at the same 
time associate members shall be voted upon before 
any other. 

Article VIII. 

The Club shall hold one fixed meeting a year, to 
be held the second Wednesday in January, and to be 
called the annual meeting. 

Article IX. 

This Constitution shall not be changed, save by a four- 
fifths vote of the members present. 



MI 



Officers 
of the Boone and Crockett Club 

1895 

President. 
Theodore Roosevelt, New York. 

Secretary and Treasurer. 
George Bird Grinnell, New York. 

Executive Committee. 

W. A. Wadsworth, Geneseo, N. Y. 

Archibald Rogers, Hyde Park, N. Y. 

Winthrop Chanler, New York. 

Owen Wister, Philadelphia, Pa, 

Charles Deering, Chicago, 111. 

Editorial Committee. 

Theodore Roosevelt, New York. 

George Bird Grinnell, New York. 

442 



List of Members 
of the Boone and Crockett Club 



* Deceased 
Lieut. Henry T. Allen, 
Capt. Geo. S. Anderson, 
F. H. Barber, 
D. M. Barringer, 
Hon. T. Beal, 
Albert Bierstadt, 
W. J. Boardman, 
Wm. B. Bogert, 
Hon. Benj. H. Bristow, 
Wm. B. Bristow, 
A. E. Brown, 
Major Campbell Brown, 
Col. John Mason Brown,* 
W. A. Buchanan, 
H, D. Burnham, 
Edw. North Buxton, 
H. A. Carey,* 
Royal Carroll, 
Judge John Dean Caton,* 
J. A. Chanler, 

443 



Washington, D. C. 

Yellowstone Park, Wyo. 

Southampton, L. I. 

Philadelphia, Pa, 

Washington, D. C. 

New York. 

Cleveland, Ohio. 

Chicago, 111. 

New York. 

New York, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Spring Hill, Tenn, 

Louisville, Ky. 

Chicago, 111. 

Chicago, 111, 

London, Eng. 

Newport, R, I, 

New York. 

Ottawa, 111, 

New York, 



Hunting in Many Lands 



W. A. Chanler, 

Winthrop Chanler, 

Frank C. Crocker, 

A, P. Gordon-Cumming, 

Chas. P. Curtiss, 

Paul J. Dashiell, 

E. W. Davis, 

Chas. Deering, 

H. C. de Rham, 

W. B. Devereux, 



New York. 

New York. 

Portland, Me. 

Washington, D. C. 

Boston, Mass. 

Annapolis, Md. 

Providence, R. I. 

Chicago, 111. 

New York. 

Glenwood Springs, Colo. 



Col. Richard Irving Dodge, 
Dr. Wm. K. Draper, 
J. Coleman Drayton, 
Capt. Frank Edwards, 
Dr. D. G. Elliott, 
Maxwell Evarts, 
Robert Munro Ferguson, 
J. G. Follansbee, 
Frank Furness, 
W. R. Furness, Jr., 
Jas. T. Gardiner, 
John Sterett Gittings, 
George H. Gould, 
De Forest Grant, 
Madison Grant, 
Gen. A. W. Greely, 
Geo. Bird Grinnell, 



Washington, D. C. 

New York. 

New York. 

Washington, D. C. 

Chicago, 111. 

New York. 

New York. 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Jekyll Island, Brunswick, Ga. 

Albany, N. Y. 

Baltimore, Md. 

Santa Barbara, Cal. 

New York. 

New York. 

Washington, D. C. 

New York. 



444 



List of Members 



Wm. Milne Grinnell, 

Arnold Hague, 

Hon. Wade Hampton, 

Howard Melville Hanna, 

Major Moses Harris, 

Maj. Gen. W. H. Jackson, 

Dr. Walter B. James, 

Col. Jas. H. Jones, 

Clarence King, 

C. Grant La Farge, 

Alex. Lambert, 

Dundas Lippincott,* 

Hon. Henry Cabot Lodge, 

Francis C. Lowndes, 

Frank Lyman, 

Geo. H. Lyman, 

Chas. B. Macdonald, 

Prof. John Bache MacMasters, 

Henry May, 

Col. H. C. McDowell, 

Dr. C. Hart Merriam, 

Dr. J. C. Merrill, 

Dr. A. Rutherfurd Morris, 

J. Chester Morris, Jr., 

H. N. Munn, 

Lyman Nichols, 

Jas. S. Norton, 

445 



New York. 

Washington, D. C. 

Columbia, S. C. 

Cleveland, Ohio. 

Washington, D. C. 

Nashville, Tenn. 

New York. 

New York. 

New York. 

New York. 

New York. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Washington, D. C. 

New York. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Boston, Mass. 

Chicago, 111. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Washington, D. C. 

Lexington, Ky. 

Washington, D. C. 

Washington, D. C. 

New York. 

Chestnut Hill, Pa. 

New York. 

Boston, Mass. 

Chicago, 111. 



Hunting in Many Lands 



Francis Parkman,* 
Thos. Paton, 
Hon. Boies Penrose 
C. B. Penrose, 
R. A. F. Penrose, 
W. Hallett Phillips, 
Col. W. D. Pickett, 
H. C. Pierce, 
John J. Pierrepont, 
Capt. John Pitcher, 

A. P. Proctor, 

Hon. Redfield Proctor, 

Prof. Ralph Pumpelly, 

Percy Pyne, Jr., 

Hon. Thos. B. Reed, 

Douglas Robinson, Jr., 

Hon. W. Woodville Rockhill, 

Archibald Rogers, 

E. P. Rogers,* 

Elliott Roosevelt,* 

John Ellis Roosevelt, 

J. West Roosevelt, 

Hon. Theo. Roosevelt, 

Elihu Root, 

Bronson Rumsey, 

Lawrence Rumsey, 

Dean Sage, 

446 



Boston, Mass. 
New York. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Washington, D. C. 
Meeteetse, Wyo. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Washington, D. C. 
New York. 
Washington, D. C. 
Newport, R. I. 
New York. 
Portland, Me. 
New York, 
Washington, D. C. 
Hyde Park, N. Y. 
Hyde Park, N. Y. 
Abingdon, Va. 
New York. 
New York. 
New York. 
New York. 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
Albany, N. Y. 



List of Members 



Alden Sampson, 
Hon. Carl Schurz, 
Philip Schuyler, 
M. G. Seckendorf, 
Dr. J. L. Seward, 
Gen. Phil. Sheridan,* 
Gen. W. T. Sherman,* 
Chas. F. Sprague, 
Henry L. Stimson, 
Hon. Bellamy Storer, 
Rutherfurd Stuyvesant, 
Frank Thompson, 
B. C. Tilghman, 
T. S. Van Dyke, 
Hon. G. G. Vest, 
W. A. Wadsworth, 
Samuel D. Warren, 
Jas. Sibley Watson, 

Maj. Gen. W. D. Whipple, 

Chas. E. Whitehead, 

Caspar W. Whitney, 

E. P. Wilbur, Jr., 

Col. Roger D. Williams, 

R. D. Winthrop, 

Owen Wister, 

J. Walter Wood, Jr., 



Boston, Mass. 
New York. 
Irvington, N. Y. 
Washington, D. C. 
Orange, N. J. 
Washington, D. C. 
New York. 
Boston, Mass. 
New York. 
Washington, D. C. 
New York. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
San Diego, Cal. 
Washington, D. C 
Geneseo, N. Y. 
Boston, Mass. 
Rochester, N. Y. 
Norristown, Pa. 
New York. 
New York. 
South Bethlehem, Pa. 
Lexington, Ky. 
New York. 
Philadelphia Pa, 
New York. 



447 



i