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Full text of "Hurd's iron ore manual ... of the Lake Superior district, with values based on 1911 prices and guarantees at Lake Erie, method of determination of prices, premiums and penalties, tables of values and statistical data"

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-A: ur.fi 



RUKARD HURD 



LIBRARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY. OF CALIFORNIA. 



Class 



HURD'S IRON ORE MANUAL 



Hurd's Iron Ore Manual 

A 

General Reference, Guide, Hand Book 
OF THE 

Lake Superior District 

WITH 

Values Based on 1911 Prices and Guarantees 
at Lake Erie 

Method of Determination 
OF 

Prices, Premiums and Penalties 



Tables of Values 

AND 

Statistical Data 



BY 

RUKARD HURD, C. E. 

Secretary Minnesota Tax Commission _ 

^ Of THE 

UNIVERSITY 

^ ^ OF 
Price, $7.50 




F. M. CATLIN, SALES AGENT 

51O CAPITAL BANK BLOG. 

ST. PAUL, MINN. 

I til 



_' BXCt ' 





COPYRIGHT 1911 
BY RUKARD HURD 



SYNDICATE PRINTING COMPANY 
MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 



THIS WORK IS DEDICATED TO 

MY DEAR WIFE 
KATHERINE HATFIELD HURD 



212350 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

Frontispiece Map of Iron Ranges of Lake Superior Region 

Introduction 

Governing Factors 1 

Iron Unit 1 

Iron Unit Value 1 

Base Unit Value 2 

Basic Percentages, Prices and Base Unit Values 2 

Determination of Natural and Dried Percentages 2 

Lake Erie Prices 3 

Valley Prices 3 

Determination of Base Unit Values for 1911 3 

Determination of 1911 Prices, Premiums and Penalties 3 

(a) Prices for Standard Ores 3 

(b) Prices for Over-Standard Ores Premium 4 

(c) Prices for Sub-Standard Ores Penalty 4 

Phosphorus Premium and Penalty 5 

Additional Premiums or Penalty by Private Contract 5 

Mathematical and Trade Calculating Decimals 5 

Base Unit Value for Change in Price 5 

Base Unit Value for Change in Price and of Natural Iron Base 5 

Defination of Bessemer Ore 6 

Decimal Multiple of 1911 for Determining New Prices 6 

Old Range- Vermilion Bessemer 

Illustrative Schedule No. 1 8 

Price Schedule No. 1 9 

Mesaba Bessemer 

Illustrative Schedule No. 2 10 

Price Schedule No. 2 11 

Old Range- Vermilion Non-Bessemer 

Illustrative Schedule No. 3 12 

Price Schedule No. 3 13 

Mesaba Non-Bessemer 

Illustrative Schedule No. 4 14 

Price Schedule No. 4 15 

Phosphorus Value Table 16 

Permanent Base Unit Value Schedule and Determining Decimal 17 

Moisture Tables 18 

Minnesota Tax Commission's Valuation of Iron Ore 20 

Net Values, Cost of Production *nd Delivery 25 

Present Value of Iron Ore Royalties on Mineral Leases 29 

Newly Created Wealth Through Mineral Value 29 

Extent of Capital and Diversity of Ownership 29 

Mineral Leases 29 

Determining Valuation Factors 30 



Present Value of Iron Ore Royalties on Mineral Leases Continued Page 

Rule for Determining Present Royalty Value 30 

Total Royalty 30 

Life of the Mine 30 

Present Value of the Royalty 30 

Illustrations 31 

Determining Interest Rate and Factors 31 

Table of Present Values, Quarterly 33 

Table of Present Values, Annual 34 

Prospecting, Mining and Ore Estimating 35 

Prospecting for Iron Ore 35 

Mining Methods 36 

Open Pit 37 

Milling 38 

Underground 38 

Ore Estimates 39 

Mesaba Range 39 

Western Mesaba Range, Special Report 40 

Cuyuna Range, Special Report 41 

Shipments by Mines 1910, Prior and Total 

Marquette Range 43 

Menominee Range and Baraboo District 44 

Gogebic Range 46 

Mesaba Range 47 

Vermilion Range 50 

Shipments by Ranges 1855-1910 51 

Prices of Iron Ore, Production and Prices of Pig Iron .... 1855-1910 52 

Rail Freights, Mines to Upper Lake Ports 1855-1910 53 

Vessel Freights to Lower Lake Ports 1855-1910 54 

Shipments and Receipts by Ports 1905-1910 55 

Lake Erie Stock Piles 1905-1910 56 

Production of Iron Ore in United States 1907-1908 57 

Imports of Iron Ore 1880-1910 57 

Apparent Annual Consumption of Iron Ore in U. S 1889-1910 58 

Production of Steel in United States 1860-1910 59 

Production of Finished Steel and Iron in the U. S 1887-1909 60 

Production of Coke in the U. S. and Rail Freight 1907-1908 61 

Shipments and Prices of Connellsville Coke 1889-1909 61 

Rail Freight on Iron Ore from Lower Lake Ports 1890-1910 62 

Production and Price of Limestone for Furnace Flux and Rail Freight. . . 63 

Charts of Pittsburgh Prices of Ore, Pig and Steel 1890-1910 64 

Average Yearly Prices of Iron Ore at Various Points 66 

Geology and Mineralogy Lake Superior Iron District with Map 67 

Publications on Lake Superior Iron District 83 

Iron Ore Reserves of United States 85 

Tables of Iron Ore Values for 1911 at Lake Erie 

Old Range- Vermilion Bessemer 45%-61% inclusive 89 

Mesaba Bessemer 45%-61 % inclusive 109 

Old Range Vermilion Non-Bessemer . . . 45%-60% inclusive 129 

Mesaba Non-Bessemer 45%-60% inclusive 147 



Introduction 

Mining engineering, exploration and drilling, outlining of ore bodies, 
horizontal and vertical sectioning and cross-sectioning of the ore bodies and 
of the intermediate layers of other material, showing results of innumerable 
chemical analyses, have reached a high degree of efficiency. Many operators, 
especially on the Mesaba Range, know in advance for years to come, the 
exact grades of ores they can mine and ship, what tonnages to group and how 
to raise to standard sub-grade ore. 

Chemical analyses are so important that everywhere is found the ore 
sampler at drills for every five feet of drilling, in test pits, in open pits, 
underground, at mine stock pile, in cars at mine, in cars at upper dock, in 
vessel at upper dock, in vessel at lower dock, at lower dock stock pile, in 
cars a.t lower dock, in cars at furnace, in stock pile at furnace so vital is it 
for the mine and furnace operators to have the most accurate information 
of the ores to be reduced to metal. 

What is Iron- ore worth? How is its value determined? 

The ores of the Lake Superior District, Bessemer and non-Bessemer, of 
the *Old Range, Vermilion and the Mesaba, while varying in some re- 
spects, are generally similar as to contents, physical characteristics and struc- 
ture. These conditions made it possible for producing and consuming inter- 
ests** to agree and to establish on these ores a standardization of grades and 
prices and providing premiums for over-standard and penalties for sub-stand- 
ard ores, based upon metallurgical principles. A great economic achievement 
was thereby realized. Mining and ore reduction could then proceed along 
lines of business order, stability and permanency. The system as a whole 
has given satisfaction to all concerned. Any defects appearing in the calcu- 
lations, for the extremes of sub-standard values, and for over-standard values 
made by using arbitrary premiums instead of units or parts of units, can by 
agreement be corrected, To make the "basic system" consistent throughout 
a re-classification of grades and prices is evidently necessary, as will ap- 
pear from a study of net values herein considered. 

The law of supply and demand fixes the price for standard ores of basic 
values and the uniformity of the "basic system" places each furnace on an 
equality in having to pay the same price for such standard ores. This equal- 
ity should extend to the sub-standard ores. While the reduction of ores is not 
a fixed science, and the cost varies according to furnace location, conditions 
and management, there should be established a closely approximated uni- 
form reduction cost and a scientific penalization that wiir give an actual 
commercial value and a fair profit to present non-marketable ores. 

In the absence of published explanation, the "basic system" has seemed 
very intricate, confusing and mysterious to mining men generally, and all 
along the line from mine to furnace, time and labor are consumed and wasted 
in miscalculating values and misapplying premiums and penalties. Even ore 



"The Marquette, Menominee and Gogebic iron ranges as a group have the 
trade name, Old Range. 

**The Lake Superior Ore Association organized January 14, 1905. 



experts do not agree in their interpretations of the system, and many tables 
in use show discrepancies. It has therefore been difficult to reconcile and 
harmonize these differences. 

Simple mathematical calculations can remove the confusion and make 
the subject comprehensible. Nontechnical language has been used to 
explain the various steps followed in formulating (1) A method for the 
determination of prices, premiums and penalties; (2) a series of illustrative 
mathematical schedules; (3) reference tables of iron ore values at Lake 
Erie, for each percentage and fraction thereof covering all grades of stan- 
dard iron ores of the Lake Superior district. 

The owner and lessee of developed iron ores of known analyses may 
see at a glance what his ore is worth and how to determine its possible 
increase or decrease in value. The furnace man is able to know in like 
manner what he will have to pay for ore under a wide range of prices and 
of base unit values. 

Time, weight, distance, measure, money, interest, discount, have all 
been determined and reference tables constructed for use in calculations. 
It is hoped that the tables here presented will prove valuable when iron 
ore values are considered. 

During the study of the iron ore situation considerable data had to be 
prepared and many sources were consulted. The information was widely 
scattered. Everything of known possible technical or historical worth has 
been assembled, consolidated and incorporated in, or written for, this Iron 
Ore Manual of the Lake Superior District. The general statistics are 
introduced to show the connection and relation between the raw and 
finished products. The desire is to furnish those interested, especially heads 
of departments in general offices, mines and furnaces, a ready general refer- 
ence, guide, hand-book on iron ore. 

The iron ore districts of New York, New Jersey, Alabama, Tennessee 
and Colorado, on account of their limited extent and production, ownership 
by consuming interests and without a basic system of valuation of ores, 
are not now considered. 

Herein are given: Values and their determining method, Minnesota 
taxation and its methods, shipments, prices, transportation, net values with 
cost of production and delivery, rule for determining present values of iron 
ore royalties, prices and production of pig iron, geology and mineralogy, 
latest special reports, publications, concluding with the iron ore reserves 
of tfie United States. 

The information credited to the Iron Trade Review, Marine Review, 
Iron Age, American Iron and Steel Association, United States Geological 
Survey Reports and Congressional Reports and that found in the Engineer- 
ing and Mining Journal, has been of great service and statistical value. 

Suggestions and criticisms for use in future editions are invited. 




State Capitol, St. Paul, Minnesota. 
April 21, 1911. 



Method and Determination 

OF 

1911 
Prices, Premiums and Penalties 

at Lake Erie 
OF 

Natural Iron Ores 

OF THE 

Lake Superior District 
Governed by 1911 Basic Guarantees 

WITH 

Illustrative Schedules 

AND 

Tables of Iron Ore Values 

By RUKARD KURD, C. E. 



GOVERNING FACTORS 

To determine the furnace value of natural iron ore, as mined, many fac- 
tors must be considered, such as: Percentages of content, physical charac- 
teristics and structure, lump value, density, porosity and availability. The 
percentage of natural iron content is the governing factor in all ore con- 
tracts. 

THE IRON UNIT 

The primary determinant for calculating values of natural iron ore is the 
"Iron Unit" of one (1) per cent of a long ton, such ton containing one hun- 
dred (100) units of one (1) per cent each. 

THE IRON UNIT VALUE 

The percentage of natural iron, that is, the number of determining "Iron 
Units" contained therein, is found by expelling the moisture, always present 
in natural iron ore, by drying the sample at 212 degrees F., and analyzing 
the dried sample. Deducting the percentage of moisture found in the nat- 
ural iron sample from one hundred, and multiplying the remainder, expressed 
decimally, by the percentage of iron found in the dried sample the result is 
the percentage of natural iron, the iron unit value. See table, page 18. 

-i 



BASE UNIT VALUE 

In order to obtain the market value of iron ore of any grade, it is 
necessary to establish a standard or "base unit value" for each grade. This 
is theoretically determined by dividing the price per ton by the percentage 
of natural iron, but, practically, having as standards an agreed trade base 
price per ton, with a guaranteed percentage of natural iron units (and 
agreed precentages of moisture, and of phosphorus, if Bessemer) in the 
ton, a base unit of value is established. This base unit when multiplied by 
the percentage of natural iron determines the price for standard ore. When 
the product is increased by certain agreed premiums the result is the price 
for over-standard ore, and when, beginning with the price of 50 per cent ore 
of any class, certain agreed penalties are decTuctetl the result is the price 
for sub-standard ore. 



THE 1911 BASIC GUARANTEES, PRICES AND BASE UNIT VALUES 
FOR STANDARD IRON ORES LAKE SUPERIOR DISTRICT 

The following standards established the 1911 base percentages and 
prices for Lake Superior ores, and determined their base unit values from 
which are calculated prices, premiums and penalties of all classes: 



*BASE PERCENTAGES 



PRICES 



Standard Grade 


Natural 
Iron 


Phos. 


Moist 


Iron 
Dried 


Lake 
Erie 


Val- 
ley 


Base Unit 
Value 


Old Range- Vermilion Bessemer . . 
Mesaba Bessemer 


55.00 
55.00 


.045 
045 


10 
10 


61.12 
61.12 


$4.50 
4.25 


$5.10 
4 85 


$0.0927273 
0.0881818 


Old Range- Vermilion Non-Besse- 
mer ' 
Mesaba Non-Bessemer 


51.50 
51.50 




12 
12 


58.52 
58.52 


3.70 
3.50 


4.30 
4.10 


0.0834951 
0.0796116 



















DETERMINATION OF NATURAL AND DRIED IRON PERCENTAGES 

Having a given percentage of standard Bessemer natural iron, divide by 
.9, or of non-Bessemer natural iron, divide by .88 to obtain percentage of 
iron dried. Having a given percentage of standard Bessemer iron dried, multi- 
ply by .9, or of non-Bessemer iron dried, multiply by .88 to obtain percentage 
of natural iron. This applies to ores having moisture percentages as above. 
See moisture table on page 18. 

The base unit value for each grade is obtained by adding an arbitrary 
60 cents per ton, rail freight, to the Lake Erie base price, making the Valley 
base price, and dividing this Valley base price by the base percentage of 
natural iron. 

The Valley base price therefore establishes the base unit value and de- 
termines the premium and penalty. 



Base percentages established in 1907. For 1905-6 the natural iron base per- 
centages were: Old Range, Vermilion and Mesaba, Bessemer 56.70%; non-Besse- 
mer 52.80%, except Mesaba non-Bessemer, 53%. 

fOre prices announced April 21, 1911 



2 



LAKE ERIE PRICES 

As all ore is sold delivered at Lower Lake ports, the accompanying 
tables of iron ore values give Lake Erie base prices which are used in mar- 
ket quotations and govern ore contracts. 



VALLEY PRICES 

Valley base prices are therefore an arbitrary sixty (60) cents, rail 
freight, more per ton than the calculated Lake Erie base price of the tables. 



DETERMINATION OF 1911 BASE UNIT VALUES 

1. For Old Range-Vermilion Bessemer, the Valley base price, $5.10, 
divided by the base 55 per cent natural iron, determines the base unit value, 
$0.0927273. 

2. For Mesaba Bessemer, the Valley base price, $4.85, divided by the 
base 55 per cent natural iron, determines the base unit value, $0.0881818. 

3. For Old Range-Vermillion non-Bessemer, the Valley base price, $4.30, 
divided by the base 51.50 per cent natural iron, determines the base unit 
value, $0.0834951. 

4. For Mesaba non-Bessemer, the Valley base price, $4.10, divided by 
the base 51.50 per cent natural iron, determines the base unit value, 
$0.0796116. 

DETERMINATION OF 1911 PRICES, PREMIUMS AND PENALTIES 

(A) LAKE ERIE PRICES FOR STANDARD GRADES 

1. Lake Erie prices for Old Range- Vermilion Bessemer ore of the fol- 
lowing percentages (or fraction thereof) of natural iron: 50, 51, 52, 53, 54 
and 55 are determined by multiplying each percentage by the base unit 
value of $0,0927272 and deducting sixty (60) cents per ton. See Schedule 

1, on page 8. 

2. Lake Erie prices for Mesaba Bessemer ore of the following per- 
centages (or fraction thereof) of natural iron: 50, 51, 52, 53, 54 and 55, 
are determined by multiplying each percentage by the base unit value 
of $0.0881818 and deducting sixty (60) cents per ton. See Schedule No. 

2, on page 10. 

3. Lake Erie prices for Old Range-Vermillion non-Bessemer ore of the 
following percentages (or fraction thereof) of natural iron: 50, 51, 52 and 
53, are determined by multiplying each percentage by the base unit value 
of $0.0834951 and deducting sixty (60) cents per ton. See Schedule INo. 3, on 
page 12. 

4. Lake Erie prices for Mesaba non-Bessemer ore of the following per- 
centages (or fraction thereof) of natural iron: 50, 51, 52 and 53, are deter- 
mined by multiplying each percentage by the base unit value of $0.0796116 
and deducting sixty (60) cents per ton. See Schedule No. 4, on page 14. 



It will be specially noted that the base unit value determines the price 
of the above classes and percentages of standard ores. Their value below 
the base price is simply an automatic reduction. It is in no sense a penalty. 

The same results for Lake Erie prices may also be obtained by a process 
of addition. Beginning with the 50 per cent base price, add thereto the base 
unit value of the proper class; the sum is the 51 per cent price. Add to 
that amount the same base unit value; the total is the 52 per cent price; 
and so on for each, per cent, the cumulative premium applying at the proper 
place. See Constructive Schedules 1, 2, 3 and 4 on pages 8, 10, 12 and 14. 

(B) LAKE ERIE PRICES FOR OVER-STANDARD GRADES PREMIUMS 

Lake Erie prices of all grades of standard Bessemer ore, Old Range- 
Vermilion and Mesaba of the following percentages (or fraction thereof) 
of natural iron: above 55, 56, 57, 58, 59 and 60, and of all grades of standard 
non-Bessemer ore, Old Range-Vermilion and Mesaba of the following per- 
centages of natural iron: above 53, 54, 55, 56, 57 and 58, are determined by 
multiplying the percentage of natural iron by the base unit value of the 
proper class as shown above, and deducting sixty (60) cents per ton, and 
then, within the limits specified and beginning with the 55.01 per cent Besse- 
mer and the 53.01 per cent non-Bessemer, adding thereto a premium of one 
(1) cent, cumulative, per unit. 

The premium never exceeds 15 cents per ton per iron unit, and beyond 
the percentages named the calculations for succeeding prices revert to the 
use of the original base unit values, each percentage, however, receiving the 
premium of 15 cents per ton. See Schedules 1, 2, 3 and 4, on pages 8, 10, 12 
and 14. 

(C) LAKE ERIE PRICES FOR SUB-STANDARD GRADES PENALTIES 

For Bessemer ore, deduct from the 50 per cent Lake Erie base price 
1^ base units of the proper class; the result is the 49 per cent price; deduct 
from that amount 2 base units, the result is the 48 per cent price; deduct 
2 base units from each succeeding result, and each result will give Lake Erie 
price for 47, 46, 45, 44, 43, 42, 41 and 40 per cent. 

The 1911 penalty for each unit below 49 per cent is: for Old Range- Ver- 
milion $0.1854546; for Mesaba $0.1763636. 

For non-Bessemer ore, deduct from the 50 per cent Lake Erie base price 
l 1 ^ base units of the proper class; the result is the 49 per cent price; deduct 
from that amount and from each succeeding result 2 base units, and each 
result will give Lake Erie price for 48, 47, 46, 45, 44, 43, 42, 41 and 40 per cent. 

The 1911 penalty for each unit below 49 per cent is: for Old Range-Ver- 
milion $0.1669902; for Mesaba $0.1592232; although for below 49 per cent 
trade ore tables carry the $0.1592232 as an arbitrary 18 cents. 

TABULAR PRICES FOR ESTIMATING 

The prices for 45, 46 and 47 percentages of natural iron in the tables 
of values, and the prices for 40 to 45 percentages found in the Illustrative 
Schedules are given as of service for estimating probable future value of 
sub-grade reserve ores. 



PHOSPHORUS PREMIUM AND PENALTY 

Should there be a phosphorus premium or penalty the amount to foe 
added or deducted will be found in the standard table of phosphorus values, 

on page 16. 



ADDITIONAL PREMIUM OR PENALTY BY PRIVATE CONTRACT 

Any further premium for such as lump value is added to and any further 
penalty for such as silica, manganese and sulphur, is deducted from the 
standard prices for standard ores, by private contract at an arbitrary amount 
per ton. 



MATHEMATICAL AND TRADE CALCULATING DECIMALS 

To secure mathematical accuracy seven (7) decimals are used in< calcu- 
lating units of value and prices, and are given in the illustrative schedules. 

For trade purposes five (5) decimals in the price are sufficient, and are 
so used in the tables of iron ore values. 

Any tonnage multiplied by the tabular price of the proper percentage 
of any given grade, will result in the value of that tonnage at Lake Erie. 



BASE UNIT VALUE FOR CHANGE IN PRICE 

Should the present natural iron base standards continue, but the price of 
ere be raised or lowered from 1911 prices, the base unit values to correspond 
with such new prices within the limits named, will be found in the schedule 
of permanent base unit values. A new table of ore values would be con- 
structed by the method herein described in "Determination of 1911 Prices, 
Premiums and Penalties," using any other consideration named in the new 
ore contracts. See Schedule on page 17. 



BASE UNIT VALUE FOR CHANGES IN PRICE AND OF NATURAL IRON 

BASE 

Where both base price and natural iron base standards change, add to 
the new Lake Erie base price, 60 cents, making the Valley base price; and 
divide this Valley base price by the new base percentage of natural iron, 
thereby establishing the new base unit value, and proceed as described in 
"Determination of 1911 Prices, Premiums and Penalties." 



In the event of a change in base price, but no change in the 1911 base 
natural iron percentages, new values may be quickly determined, as follows: 

To any given 1911 Lake Erie price, of any percentage, or fraction, of any 
grade, add 60 cents (for Valley price, which determines the base unit value) 
and multiply the total by the decimal multiple corresponding with the new 
base price; deduct from that amount (the Valley price) 60 cents, and the 
result is the new Lake Erie price. For decimal multiple, see schedule on 
page 17. 

A DEFINITION OF BESSEMER ORE 

Bessemer ore dried at 212 W F. has a typical analysis of 61.55 per cent 
iron, 0.47 per cent phosphorus, 4.6 per cent silica and 1.5 per cent manganese. 
With a generally accepted moisture of 10 per cent this is equivalent to 55.39 
per cent natural iron. The per cent of iron may be diminished provided 
there is a diminution of phosphorus equal to .0075 for each per cent of iron 
loss. 

ABNORMAL CONDITIONS 

The work cannot enter into abnormal conditions. Until mine and fur- 
nace operators agree upon and establish tables, of premiums for lump ore, 
and of penalty for excess of silica, manganese, sulphur, etc., settlements for 
such contents must of necessity remain a matter for private adjustment. 
They cannot now be tabulated. 

Even though furnaces may be able to buy sub-grades ores at their own 
terms and for less than the tabular price, the price determined from base 
values are given to govern theoretically until sub-grade values are established 
that will be accepted and adhered to by buyer and seller. 



Illustrative Schedules 

and 
Abridged Tables 

of 
Values 



1911 



COMPILED BY 
RUKARD KURD 



ILLUSTRATIVE SCHEDULE No. 1 
OLD RANGE-VERMILION BESSEMER 

Constructive Mathematical Table of Lake Erie Prices by Subtraction of l^fand 2 
Base Units, as indicated, by Addition of the Base Unit and the Premium, 
and by Multiplication of the Base Units with added Premium 



BY SUBTRACTION 




Natural Iron 
Per Cent 


Net Lake 
Erie Price 


Total 
Penalty 


50 
1* 

49 
2* 

48 
47 
46 
45 
44 
43 
42 
41 
40 


$4.0363650 
. 1390909 


$0.1390909 
.3245455 
.5100001 
.6954547 
.8809093 
1.0663639 
1.2518185 
1.4372731 
1 . 6227277 
1.8081823 


$3.8972741 
. 1854546 


$3.7118195 
. 1854546 


$3.5263649 
. 1854546 


$3.3409103 
. 1854546 


$3.1554557 
. 1854546 


$2.9700011 
.1854546 


$2.7845465 
. 1854546 


$2 . 5990919 
. 1854546 


$2.4136373 
. 1854546 


BY MULTIPLICATION 


$2.2281827 


Natural Iron 
Per Cent Base Unit 


*Lake Erie 
Price ,-j 




BY ADDITION 




60 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
60 
61 


$4.0363650 
.0927273 


Premium 

$0.01 
.03 
.06 
.10 
.15 
.15 


50 x $0.0927273 
51 x .0927273 
52 x .0927273 
53 x .0927273 
54 x .0927273 

55 x .0927273 

Premium 
56 x .0927273+ Ic 

57 x .0927273+ 3c 
58 x .0927273+ 6c 
59 x . 0927273 + lOc 
60 x . 0927273 +15c 
61 x .0927273+15c 


$4.0363650 
4.1290923 
4.2218196 
4.3145469 
4.4072742 
4.5000015 
4.6027288 
4.7154561 
4.S381834 
4.9709107 
5.1136380 
5 . 2063653 


$4.1290923 
.0927273 


$4. 2218196 
.0927273 


$4 3145469 
.0927273 


$4.4072742 
.0927273 


$4.5000015 
. 1027273 


$4.6027288 
.1127273 


$4.7154561 
. 1227273 


$4.8381834 
. 1327273 


$4.9709107 
. 1427273 


$5.1136380 
.0927273 


$5.2063653 



L* H Base Units. 2* 2 Base Units. 

Every price includes a deduction of 60 cents per ton. 



SCHEDULE No. 1 OF PRICES 
OLD RANGE-VERMILION BESSEMER 

Base Natural Iron 55%, Base Valley Price $5.10, Base Unit Value $0.0927273 
Base Lake Erie Price $4.50 

*ABRIDGED TABLE 



CLASS 


Natural 
Iron 
Per Cent 


Net 
Lake Erie 
Price 










Penalty 




40 


$2.2281827 


$1.8081823 




41 


2.4136373 


1.6227277 




42 


2.5990919 


1.4372731 




43 


2 . 7845465 


1.2518185 


Sub-Standard 


44 


2.9700011 


1.0663639 




45 


3.1554557 


.8809093 




46 


3.3409103 


.6954547 




47 


3.5263649 


.5100001 




48 


3.7118195 


.3245455 




49 


3.8972741 


. 1390909 









Base Unit Value 




f 50 


$4.0363650 


$0.0927273 




51 


4.1290923 


.0927273 


Standard. . . 


52 


4.2218196 


.0927273 




53 


4.3145469 


.0927273 




54 


4.4072742 


.0927273 




55 


4.5000015 


.0927273 








Premium 




56 


$4 . 6027288 


$0.1027273 




57 


4.7154561 


.2154546 


Over Standard. . . 


58 


4.8381834 


.3381819 




59 


4.9709107 


.4709092 




60 


5.1136380 


.6136365 




I 61 


5.2063653 


.7063638 



Special Note: 

"Complete tables are placed at the end of the Manual for convenient reference. 
The Penalty ending with 49.99% is deducted pro rata from prices. 
The Premium beginning with 55.01% is added pro rata to prices. 



ILLUSTRATIVE SCHEDULE No. 2 
MESABA BESSEMER 

Constructive Mathematical Table of Lake Erie prices by Subtraction of 1} and 2 
Base Units, as indicated, by Addition of the Base Unit and the Premium, 
and by Multiplication of the Base Unit with added Premium 



BY SUBTRACTION 




Natural Iron 
Per Cent 


Lake Erie 
Price 


Total 
Penalty 


60 

1* 

49 

2* 
48 

47 
46 
45 
44 
43 
42 
41 
40 


$3.8090900 
. 1322727 


$0.1322727 
.3086363 
.4849999 
.6613635 
.8377271 
1.0140907 
1.1904543 
1.3668179 
1.5431815 
1.7195451 


$3.6768173 
. 1763636 


$3 . 5004537 
. 1763636 


$3.3240901 
. 1763636 


$3.1477265 
. 1763636 


$2.9713629 
.1763636 


$2.7949993 
.1763636 


$2.6186357 
. 1763636 


$2.4422721 
.1763636 


$2.2659085 
. 1763636 


BY MULITPLICATION 


$2.0895449 


Natural Iron 
Per Cent Base Unit 


*Lake Erie 
Price 




BY ADDITION 




50 x $0.0881818 
51 x .0881818 
52 x .0881818 
53 x .0881818 
54 x .0881818 

55 x .0881818 
(To adjust) 

Premium 
56 x .0881818+ Ic 

57 x .0881818+ 3c 
58 x .0881818+ 6c 
59 x .0881818+ lOc 
60 x .0881818+ loc 
61 x . 0881818+ 15c 


$3.8090900 
3.8972718 
3 . 9854536 
4.0736354 
4.1618172 

4.2499990 
.0000010 


50 
51 
52 
53 
54 

55 

56 
57 
58 
59 
60 
61 


$3.8090900 
.0881818 


Premium 

$0.01 
.03 
.06 
.10 
.15 
.15 


$3.8972718 
.0881818 


$3 . 9854536 
.0881818 


$4.0736354 
.0881818 


$4.1618172 
.0881818 


$4 . 2499990 
(to adjust) 10 


$4.2500000 
(to adjust) 10 


$4.2500000 

4.3481808 
4.4563626 
4.5745444 
4.7027262 
4.8409080 
4.9290898 


$4.2499990 
.0981818 


4.3481808 
.1081818 


$4.4563626 
.1181818 


$4 . 5745444 
.1281818 


$4.7027262 
.1381818 


$4.8409080 
.0881818 


$4 . 9290898 



1* H Base Units. 2* 2Base Units. 

*Every price includes a deduction of 60 cents per ton. 

10 



SCHEDULE No. 2 OF PRICES 
MESABA BESSEMER 

Base Natural Iron 55%, Base Valley Price $4.85, Base Unit Value $0.0881818 
Base Lake Erie Price $4.25 

*ABRIDGED TABLE 



CLASS 


Natural 
Iron 
Per Cent 


Net 
Lake Erie 
Price 










Penalty 




40 


$2.0895449 


$1.7195451 




41 


2.2659085 


1.5431815 




42 


2.4422721 


1.3668179 




43 


2.6186357 


1 . 1904543 


Sub-Standard 


44 


2 . 7949993 


1.0140907 




j ^rm 

45 


2.9713629 


.8377271 




46 


3.1477265 


.6613635 




47 


3.3240901 


.4849999 




48 


3 . 5004537 


.3086363 




49 


3.6768173 


.1322727 








Base Unit Value 




f 50 


$3.8090900 


$0.0881818 




51 


3.8972718 


.0881818 


Standard 


52 


3.9854536 


.0881818 




j \jt* 

53 


4.0736354 


.0881818 




54 


4.1618172 


.0881818 




( 55 


4 . 2500000 


.0881818 








Premium 




56 


$4.3181808 


$0.0981818 




57 


4.4563626 


.2063636 


Over-Standard 


58 


4 . 5745444 


. 3245454 




) *w 

59 


4.7027262 


.4527272 




60 


4 . 8409080 


. 5909090 




I 61 


4.9290898 


. 6790908 



Special Note : 

''Complete tables are placed at the end of the Manual for convenient reference. 
The Penalty ending with 49.99% is deducted pro rata from prices. 
The Premium beginning with 55.01% is added pro rata to prices. 



11 



ILLUSTRATIVE SCHEDULE No. 3 
OLD RANGE-VERMILION NON-BESSEMER 

Constructive Mathematical Table of Lake Erie prices by Subtraction of 1$ and 2 
Base Units, as indicated, by Addition of the Base Unit and the Premium, 
and by Multiplication of the Base Unit with added Premium 



BY SUBTRACTION 




Natural Iron 
Per Ceut 


liike Erie 
Price 


Total 
Penalty 


50 
i 

49 
I 

48 
47 
46 
45 
44 
43 
42 
41 
40 


$3 . 5747550 
.1252426 


$0.1252426 
.2922328 
. 4592230 
.6262132 
. 7932034 
.9601936 
1.1271838 
1.2941740 
1.4611642 
1.6281544 


$3.4495124 
. 1669902 


$3.2825222 
. 1669902 


$3.1155320 
.1669902 


$2 . 9485418 
.1669902 


$2.7815516 
.1669902 


$2.6145614 
. 1669902 


$2.4475712 
.1669902 


$2.2805810 
. 1669902 


$2.1135908 
.1669902 


BY MULTIPLICATION 


$1.9466006 


Natural Iron 
Per Cent Base Unit 


*Lake Erie 
Price 




BY ADDITION 




50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
60 


$3 . 5747550 
.0834951 


Premium 

$0.01 
.03 
.06 
.10 
.15 
.15 
.15 


50 x $0.0834951 
51 x .0834951 
52 x .0834951 

53 x .0834951 

Premium 
54 x . 083495 1-f Ic 

55 x .0834951+ 3c 
56 x .0834951+ 6c 
57 x . 0834951 + lOc 
58 x . 0834951 +15c 
59 x . 0834951 +15c 
60 x . 0834951 +15c 




$3 . 5747550 
3.6582501 
3.7417452 
3.8252403 
3.9187354 
4.0222305 
4 . 1357256 
4.2592207 
4.3927158 
4.4762109 
4 . 5597060 


$3.6582501 
.0834951 


$3.7417452 
.0834951 


$3 . 8252403 
.0934951 


$3.9187354 
. 1034951 


$4.0222305 
.1134951 


$4.1357256 
. 1234951 


$4.2592207 
.1334951 


$4.3927158 
.0834951 


$4.4762109 
.0834951 


$4 . 5597060 



1* 11 Base Units. 2* 2 Base Units. 

* Every price includes a deduction of 60 cents per ton. 



12 



SCHEDULE No. 3 OF PRICES 
OLD RANGE- VERMILION NON-BESSEMER 

Base Natural Iron 51.50%, Base Valley Price $4.30, Base Unit Value $0.0834951 
Base Lake Erie Price $3.70 

*ABRIDGED TABLE 



CLASS 


Natural 
Iron 
Per Cent 


Net 
Lake Erie 
Price 










Penalty 




f 40 


SI. 9466006 


$1.6281544 




41 


2.1135908 


1.4611642 




42 


2.2805810 


1.2941740 




43 


2.4475712 


1.1271838 


Sub-Standard 


44 


2.6145614 


.9601936 




: 45 


2.7815516 


.7932034 




46 


2.9485418 


.6262132 




47 


3.1155320 


.4592230 




48 


3.2825222 


. 2922328 




49 


3.4495124 


. 1252426 








Base Unit Value 




f 50 


$3.5747550 


$0.0834951 


Standard 


j 51 


3.6582501 


.0834951 




/ 

1 52 


3.7417452 


.0834951 




[ 53 


3.8252403 


.0834951 








Premium 




f 54 


$3.9187354 


$0.0934951 




55 


4.0222305 


. 1969902 




56 


4.1357256 


.3104853 


Over-Standard 


<} 57 


4 . 2592207 


. 4339804 




1 

58 


4.3927158 


. 5674755 




59 


4.4762109 


. 6509706 




60 


4.5597060 


. 7344657 



Special Note: 

-Complete tables are placed at the end of the Manual for convenient reference. 
The Penalty ending with 49.99% is deducted pro rata from prices. 
The Premium beginning with 53.01% is added pro rata to prices. 



13 



ILLUSTRATIVE SCHEDULE No. 4 
MESABA NON-BESSEMER 

Constructive Mathematical Table of Lake Erie prices by Subtraction of 1A and 2 
Base Units, as indicated, by Addition of the Base Unit and the Premium, 
and by Multiplication of the Base Unit with added Premium 



BY SUBTRACTION 




Natural Iron 
Per Cent 


Lake Erie 
Price 


Total 
Penalty 


50 
1* 

49 

2* 

48 
47 
46 
45 
44 
43 
42 
41 
40 


$3.3805800 
.1194174 


$0.1194174 
.2786406 
.4378638 
.5970870 
.7563102 
.9155334 
1.0747566 
1.2339798 
1.3932030 
1 . 5524262 


$3.2611626 
. 1592232 


$3.1019394 
. 1592232 


$2.9427162 
.1592232 


$2.7834930 
. 1592232 


$2 . 6242698 
. 1592232 


$2.4650466 
.1592232 


$2 . 3058234 
.1592232 


$2 . 1466002 
. 1592232 


$1 . 9873770 
.1592232 


BY MULTIPLICATION 


$1.8281538 


Natural Iron 
Per Cent Base Unit 


*Lake Erie 
Price 




BY ADDITION 




50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 


$3.3805800 
.0796116 


Premium 

$0.01 
.03 
.06 
.10 
.15 
.15 
.15 


50 x $0.07961 16 
51 x .0796116 
52 x .0796116 

53 x .0796116 

Premium 
54 x .0796116+ Ic 

55 x .0796116+ 3c 
56 x .0796116+ 6c 
57 x . 0796116+ lOc 
58 x . 0796116+ 15c 
59 x . 0796116+ 15c 
60 x . 0796116+ 15c 


$3.3805800 
3.4601916 
3 . 5398032 
3.6194148 
3.7090264 
3.8086380 
3.9182496 
4.0378612 
4.1674728 
4.2470844 
4.3266960 


$3.4601916 
.0796116 


$3.5398032 
.0796116 


$3.6194148 
.0896116 


$3.7090264 
.0996116 


$3 . 8086380 
.1096116 


$3.9182496 
.1196116 


$4.0378612 
.1296116 


$4.1674728 
.0796116 


$4.2470844 
.0796116 


$4.3266960 



1* 1 Base Units. 2* 2 units used instead of the arbitrary 18 cents. 

*Every price includes a deduction of 60 cents per ton. 

14 



SCHEDULE No. 4 OF PRICES 
MESABA NON-BESSEMER 

Base Natural Iron 51.50%, Base Valley Price $4.10, Base Unit Value $0.0796116 
Base Lake Erie Price $3.50 

*ABRIDGED;TABLE 



CLASS 


Natural 
Iron 
Per Cent 


Net 
Lake Erie 
Price 










Penalty 




40 


$1.8281538 


$1.5524262 




41 


1.9873770 


1.3932030 




42 


2.1466002 


1.2339798 




43 


2.3058234 


1.0747566 


Sub-Standard. 


44 


2.4650466 


.9155334 




: 45 


2.6242698 


.7563102 




46 


2.7834930 


. 5970870 




47 


2.9427162 


.4378638 




48 


3.1019394 


. 2786406 




49 


3.2611626 


.1194174 








Base Unit Value 




f 50 


$3.3805800 


$0.0796116 


Standard 


51 


3.4601916 


.0796116 




J "* 

} 52 


3.5398032 


.0796116 





[ 53 


3.6194148 


.0796116 








Premium 




54 


$3.7090264 


$0.0896116 




55 


3.8086380 


.1892232 




56 


3.9182496 


.2988348 


Over-Standard 


57 


4.0378612 


.4184464 




58 


4.1674728 


.5480580 




59 


4 . 2470844 


.6276696 




60 


4.3266960 


.7072812 



Special Note: 

"Complete tables are placed at the end of the Manual for convenient reference. 
The Penalty ending with 49.99% is deducted pro rata from prices. 
The Premium beginning with 53.019o is added pro rata to prices. 



15 



STANDARD TABLE OF PHOSPHORUS VALUES 





PENALTY 






PREMIUM 




Phosphorus 






Phosphorus 






Per cent 


Penalty 
Cents 


Progression 
Per Unit 


Per cent 


Premium 
Cents 


Progression 
Per Unit 






Cents 






Cents 


.045 


.0000 


.0000 


.045 


.0000 


.0000 


.046 


.0080 


.0080 


.044 


.0080 


.0080 


.047 


.0165 


.0085 


043 


.0165 


.0085 


.048 


.0255 


.0090 


.042 


.0255 


.0090 


.049 


.0350 


.0095 


.041 


.0350 


.0095 


.050 


.0450 


.0100 


.040 


.0450 


.0100 


.051 


.0555 


.0105 


.039 


.0555 


.0105 


.052 


.0665 


.0110 


.038 


.0665 


.0110 


.053 


.0780 


.0115 


.037 


.0780 


.0115 


.054 


.0900 


.0120 


.036 


.0900 


.0120 


.055 


.1025 


.0125 


.035 


.1025 


.0125 


.056 


.1155 


.0130 


.034 


.1155 


.0130 


.057 


.1290 


.0135 


.033 


.1290 


.0135 


.058 


.1430 


.0140 


.032 


.1430 


.0140 


.059 


.1575 


.0145 


.031 


.1575 


.0145 


.060 


.1725 


.0150 


.030 


.1725 


.0150 


.061 


.1880 


.0155 


.029 


.1880 


.0155 


.062 


.2040 


.0160 


.028 


.2040 


.0160 


.063 


.2205 


.0165 


.027 


.2205 


.0165 


.064 


.2375 


.0170 


.026 


.2375 


.0170 


.065 


.2550 


.0175 


.025 


.2550 


.0175 


.066 


.2730 


.0180 


.024 


.2730 


.0180 


.067 


.2915 


.0185 


.023 


.2915 


.0185 


.068 


.3105 


.0190 


.022 


.3105 


.0190 


.069 


.3300 


.0195 


.021 


.3300 


.0195 


.070 


.3500 


.0200 


.020 


.3500 


.0200 








.019 


.3705 


.0205 




| " 




.018 


.3915 


.0210 








.017 


.4130 


.0215 




) ' 




.016 


.4350 


.0220 








.015 


.4575 


.0225 




'. '. '. 


* [ \ 


.014 


.4805 


.0230 








.013 


.5040 


.0235 




! '. '. 




.012 


.5280 


.0240 








.011 


.5525 


.0245 




'. '. '. 


| \- 


.010 


.5775 


.0250 








.009 


.6030 


.0255 




'. '. '. 




.008 


.6290 


.0260 








.007 


.6555 


.0265 




'. '. '. 




.006 


.6825 


.0270 







.... 


.005 


.7100 


.0275 



16 



SCHEDULE OF PERMANENT BASE UNIT VALUES 



FOR DETERMINING FROM ANY BASE PRICE 

VALLEY PRICES, PREMIUMS AND PENALTIES 

BASE NATURAL IRON, BESSEMER 55% NON BESSMER 51.50% 

And the Corresponding Decimal Multiple to apply to Rule on Page 6 
Deduct from all calculations 60 cents to obtain Lake Erie prices 

Specially Compiled by Rukard Hurd for this Manual 



Old Range-Vermilion Bessemer 

1911 Base Standard 
55% $5.10 $0.0927273 
Lake Erie Price $4.50 



Mesaba Bessemer 

1911 Base Standard 

55% $4.85 $0.0881818 

Lake Erie Price $4.25 



Valley 
Base 


Valley 
Base Unit 


1911 
Decimal 


Valley 
Base 


Valley 
Base Unit 


1911 
Decimal 


Price 


Value 


Multiple 


Price 


Value 


Multiple 


$4.85 


$0.0881818 


.95098 


$4.60 


$0.0836364 


.94845 


4.90 


.0890909 


.96078 


4.65 


.0845454 


.95876 


4.95 


.0900000 


.97059 


4.70 


.0854545 


.96907 


5.00 


.0909091 


.98039 


4.75 


.0863636 


.97938 


5.05 


.0918182 


.99020 


4.80 


.0872727 


. 98969 


5.10 


.0927273 


1 . 00000 


4.85 


.0881818 


.00000 


5.15 


.0936364 


1.00980 


4.90 


.0890909 


.01031 


5.20 


.0945454 


1.01961 


4.95 


.0900000 


. 02062 


5.25 


.0954545 


.02491 


5.00 


.0909091 


.03093 


5.30 


.0963636 


.03921 


5.05 


.0918182 


.04124 


5.35 


.0972727 


.04902 


5.10 


.0927273 


.05155 


5.40 


.0981818 


1.05882 


5.15 


.0936364 


.06186 


5.45 


. 0990909 


1.06863 


5.20 


. 0945454 


.07216 


5.50 


. 1000000 


1.07843 


5.25 


.0954545 


.08247 


5.55 


. 1009091 


1.08823 


5.30 


.0963636 


.09278 


5.60 


.1018182 


1.09804 


5.35 


.0972727 


. 10309 


5.65 


.1027273 


1.10784 


5.40 


.0981818 


.11340 


5.70 


.1036364 


1.11765 


5.45 


.0990909 


.12371 


5.75 


. 1045454 


1.12745 


5.50 


. 1000000 


.13402 


5.80 


. 1054545 


1.13725 


5.55 


.1009091 


.14433 


5.85 


. 1063636 


1.14706 


5.60 


.1018182 


.15464 


Old Range- Vermilion Non-Bessemer 


Mesaba Non-Bessemer 


1911 Base Standard 


1911 Base Standard 


51.50% $4.30 $0.0834951 


51.50% $4.10 $0.0796116 


Lake Erie Price $3.70 


Lake Erie Price $3.50 


$4.05 


$0 . 0786408 


.94186 


$3 . 85 


$0.0747573 


.93902 


4.10 


.0796116 


.95349 


3.90 


.0757281 


.95122 


4.15 


.0805825 


.96512 


3 . 95 


.0766990 


.96341 


4.20 


.0815534 


.97674 


4.00 


.0776699 


.97561 


4.25 


.0825243 


.98837 


4.05 


.0786408 


.98780 


4.30 


.0834951 


1.00000 


4.10 


.0796116 


1.00000 


4.35 


.0844660 


1.01163 


4.15 


.0805825 


1.01219 


4.40 


.0854369 


1.02326 


4.20 


.0815534 


1.02439 


4.45 


. 0864078 


1.03488 


4.25 


.0825243 


1.03659 


4.50 


.0873786 


1.04651 


4.30 


.0834951 


1.04878 


4.55 


. 0883495 


1.05814 


4.35 


.0844660 


1 . 06097 


4.60 


.0893204 


1.06977 


4.40 


.0854369 


1.07317 


4.65 


.0902913 


1.08139 


4.45 


.0864079 


. 08536 


4.70 


.0912621 


1.09302 


4.50 


.0873786 


.09756 


4.75 


.0922330 


1 . 10465 


4.55 


.0883495 


.10976 


4.80 


.0932039 


1.11628 


4.60 


.0893204 


.12195 


4.85 


.0941748 


1.12791 


4.65 


.0902913 


.13415 


4.90 


.0951456 


1.13953 


4.70 


.0912621 


. 14634 


4.95 


.0961165 


1.15116 


4.75 


.0922330 


.15854 


5.00 


.0970874 


1.16279 


4.80 


.0932039 


.17073 


5.05 


.0980582 


1.17442 


4.85 


.0941748 


.18293 



-17 



MOISTURE TABLE 

MOISTURE RANGING FROM 1% TO 10%, INCLUSIVE 

Showing by the Per Cent of Moisture Found in Iron Dried at 212* F. 

The Per Cent of Natural Iron 

Specially Compiled by Rukard Hurd for this Manual 



Per Cent 


1% 


2% 


3% 


4% 


5% 


6% 


7% 


8% 


9% 


10% 


Iron Dried 
























Natural 


Natural 


Natural 


Natural 


Natural 


Natural 


Natural 


Natural 


Natural 


Natural 




Iron 


Iron 


Iron 


Iron 


Iron 


Iron 


Iron 


Iron 


Iron 


Iron 


35.00 


34.65 


34.30 


33.95 


33.60 


33.25 


32.90 


32.55 


32.20 


31.85 


31.50 


36.00 


35.64 


35.28 


34.92 


34.56 


34.20 


33.84 


33.48 


33.12 


32.76 


32.40 


37.00 


36.63 


36.26 


35.89 


35.52 


35.15 


34.78 


34.41 


34.04 


33.67 


33.30 


38.00 


37.62 


37.24 


36.86 


36.48 


36.10 


35.72 


35.34 


34.96 


34.58 


34.20 


39.00 


38.61 


38.22 


37.83 


37.44 


37.05 


36.66 


36.27 


35.88 


35.49 


35.10 


40.00 


39.60 


39.20 


38.80 


38.40 


38.00 


37.60 


37.20 


36.80 


36.40 


36.90 


41.00 


40.59 


40.18 


39.77 


39.36 


38.95 


38.54 


38.13 


37.72 


37.31 


37.80 


42.00 


41.58 


41.16 


40.74 


40.32 


39.90 


39.48 


39.06 


38.64 


38.22 


38.70 


43.00 


42.57 


42.14 


41.71 


41.28 


40.85 


40.42 


39.99 


39.56 


39.13 


39.60 


44.00 


43.56 


43.12 


42.68 


42.24 


41.80 


41.36 


40.92 


40.48 


40.04 


40.50 


45.00 


44.55 


44.10 


43.65 


43.20 


42.75 


42.30 


41.85 


41.40 


40.95 


40.50 


46.00 


45.54 


45.08 


44.62 


44.16 


43.70 


43.24 


42.78 


42.32 


41.86 


41.40 


47.00 


46.53 


46.06 


45.59 


45.12 


44.65 


44.18 


43.71 


43.24 


42.77 


42.30 


48.00 


47.52 


47.04 


46.56 


46.08 


45.16 


45.12 


44.64 


44.16 


43.68 


43.20 


49.00 


48.51 


48.02 


47.53 


47.04 


46.55 


46.06 


45.57 


45.08 


44.59 


44.10 


50.00 


49.50 


49.00 


48.50 


48.00 


47.50 


47.00 


46.50 


46.00 


45.50 


45.00 


51.00 


50.49 


49.98 


49.47 


48.96 


48.45 


47.94 


47.43 


46.92 


46.41 


45.90 


52.00 


51.48 


50.96 


50.44 


49.92 


49.40 


48.88 


48.36 


47.84 


47.32 


46.80 


53.00 


52.47 


51.94 


51.41 


50.88 


50.35 


49.82 


49.29 


48.76 


48.23 


47.70 


54.00 


53.46 


52.92 


52.38 


51.84 


51.30 


50.76 


50.22 


49.68 


49.14 


48.60 


55.00 


54.45 


53.90 


53.35 


52.80 


52.25 


51.70 


51.15 


50.60 


50.05 


49.50 


56.00 


55.44 


54.88 


54.32 


53.76 


53.20 


52.64 


52.08 


51.52 


50.96 


50.40 


57.00 


56.43 


55.86 


55.29 


54.72 


54.15 


53.58 


53.01 


52.44 


51.87 


51.30 


58.00 


57.42 


56.84 


56.26 


55.68 


55.10 


54.52 


53.94 


53.36 


52.78 


52.20 


59.00 


58.41 


57.82 


57.23 


56.64 


56.05 


55.46 


54.87 


54.28 


53.69 


53.10 


60.00 


59.40 


58.80 


58.20 


57.60 


57.00 


56.40 


55.80 


55.20 


54.60 


54.00 


61.00 


60.39 


59.78 


59.17 


58.56 


57.95 


57.34 


56.73 


56.12 


55.51 


54.90 


62.00 


61.38 


60.76 


60.14 


59.52 


58.90 


58.28 


57.66 


57.04 


56.42 


55.80 


63.00 


62.37 


61.74 


61.11 


60.48 


59.85 


59.22 


58.59 


57.96 


57.33 


56.70 


64.00 


63.36 


62.72 


62.08 


61.44 


60.80 


60.16 


59.52 


58.88 


58.24 


57.60 


65.00 


64.35 


63.70 


63.05 


62.40 


61.75 


61.10 


60.45 


59.80 


59.15 


58.50 


66.00 


65.34 


64.68 


64.02 


63.36 


62.70 


62.04 


61.38 


60.72 


60.06 


59.40 


67.00 


66.33 


65.66 


64.99 


64.32 


63.65 


62.98 


62.31 


61.64 


60.97 


60.30 


68.00 


67.32 


66.64 


65.96 


65.28 


64.60 


63.92 


63.24 


62.56 


61.88 


61.20 


Factor. . . 


.99 


.98 


.97 


.96 


.95 


.94 


.93 


.92 


.91 


.90 



Multiply the per cent of Iron dried at 212 F. by the factor corresponding 
to the per cent of moisture found therein. The result is the per cent of Natural 
Iron. 

The above is an abridged table and applies only to the even percentages of 
moisture and of Iron dried as stated. To obtain any per cent or fraction thereof: 

Deduct from 100 the per cent of moisture found in Natural Iron dried at 
212 F. and multiply the remainder, expressed decimally, by the per cent of Iron 
dried. The result is the per cent of Natural Iron. 



18 



MOISTURE TABLE 

MOISTURE RANGING FROM 11% TO 20%, INCLUSIVE 

Showing by the Per Cent of Moisture Found in Iron Dried at 212 F. 

The Per Cent of Natural Iron 

Specially Compiled by Rukard Hurd for this Manual 



Per Cent 
Iron Dried 


11% 


12% 


13% 


14% 


15% 


16% 


*17% 


18% 


19% 


20% 


Natural 
Iron 


Natural 
Iron 


Natural 
Iron 


Natural 
Iron 


Natural 
Iron 


Natural 
Iron 


Natural 
Iron 


Natural 
Iron 


Natural 
Iron 


Natural 
Iron 


35.00 
36.00 
37.00 
38.00 
39.00 


31.15 
32.04 
32.93 
33.82 
34.71 


30.80 
31.68 
32.56 
33.44 
34.32 


30.45 
31.32 
32.19 
33.06 
33.93 


30.10 
30.96 
31.82 
32.68 
33.54 


29.75 
30.60 
31.45 
32.30 
33.15 


29.40 
30.24 
31.08 
31.92 
32.76 


29.05 
29.88 
30.71 
31.54 
32.37 


28.70 
29.52 
30.34 
31.16 
31.98 


28.35 
29.16 
29.97 
30.78 
31.59 


28.00 
28.80 
29.60 
30.40 
31.20 


40.00 
41.00 
42.00 
43.00 
44.00 


35.60 
36.49 
37.38 
38.27 
39.16 


35.20 
36.08 
36.96 
37.84 
38.72 


34.80 
35.67 
36.54 
37.41 
38.28 


34.40 
35.26 
36.12 
36.98 
37.84 


34.00 
34.85 
35.70 
36.55 
37.40 


33.60 
34.44 
35.28 
36.12 
36.96 


33.20 
34.03 
34.86 
35.69 
36 . 52 


32.80 
33.62 
34.44 
35.26 
36.08 


32.40 
33.21 
34.02 
34.83 
35.64 


32.00 
32.80 
33.60 
34.40 
35.20 


45.00 
46.00 
47.00 
48.00 
49.00 


40.05 
40.94 
41.83 
42.72 
43.61 


39.60 
40.48 
41.36 
42.24 
43.12 


39.15 
40.02 
40.89 
41.76 
42.63 


38.70 
39.56 
40.42 
41.28 
42.14 


T38.25 
;39.10 
,39.95 
40.80 
41.65 


37.30 
38.64 
39.48 
40.32 
41.16 


37.35 
38.18 
39.01 
39.84 
40.67 


36.90 
37.72 
38.54 
39.36 
40.18 


36.45 
37.26 
38.07 
38.88 
39.69 


36.00 
36.80 
37.60 
38.40 
39.20 


50.00 
51.00 
52.00 
53.00 
54.00 


44.50 
45.39 

46.28 
47.17 
48.06 


44.00 
44.88 
45.76 
46.64 
47.52 


43.50 
44.37 
45.24 
46.11 
46.98 


43.00 
43.86 
44.72 
45.58 
46.44 


42.50 
43.35 
44.20 
45.05 
45.90 


42.00 
42.84 
43.68 
44.52 
45.36 


41.50 
42.33 
43.16 
43.99 
44.82 


41.00 
41.82 
42.64 
43.46 
44.28 


40.50 
41.31 
42.12 
42.93 
43.74 


40.00 
40.80 
41.60 
42.40 
43.20 


55.00 
56.00 
57.00 
58.00 
59.00 


48.95 
49.84 
50.73 
51.62 
52.51 


48.40 
49.28 
50.16 
51.04 
51.92 


47.85 
48.72 
49.59 
50.46 
51.33 


47.30 
48.16 
49.02 
49.88 
50.74 


46.75 
47.60 
48.45 
49.30 
50.15 


46.20 
47.04 
47.88 
48.72 
49.56 


45.65 
46.48 
47.31 
48.14 
48.97 


45.10 
45.92 
46.74 
47.56 
48.38 


44.55 
45.36 
46.17 
46.98 
47.79 


44.00 
44.80 
45.60 
46.40 
47.20 


60.00 
61.00 
62.00 
63.00 
64.00 


53.40 
54.29 
55.18 
56.07 
56.96 


52.80 
53.68 
54.56 
55.44 
56.32 


52.20 
53.07 
53.94 
54.81 
55.68 


51.60 
52.46 
53.32 
54.18 
55.04 


51.00 
51.85 
52.70 
53.55 
54.40 


50.40 
51.24 
52.08 
52.92 
53.76 


49.80 
50.63 
51.46 
52.29 
53.12 


49.20 
50.02 
50.80 
51.66 

52.48 


48.60 
49.41 
50.22 
51.03 
51.84 


48.00 
48.80 
49.60 
50.40 
51.20 


65.00 
66.00 
67.00 
68.00 


57.85 
58.74 
59.63 
60.52 


57.20 
58.08 
58. 9B 
59.84 


56.55 
57.42 
58.29 
59.16 


55.90 
56.76 
57.62 
58.48 


55.25 
56.10 
56.95 
57.80 


54.60 
55.44 
56.28 
57.12 


53.95 
54.78 
55.61 
56.44 


53.30 
54.12 
54.94 
55.76 


52.65 
53.46 
54.27 
55.08 


52.00 
52.80 
53.60 
54.40 


Factor . . . 


.89 


.88 


.87 


.86 


.85 


.84 


.83 


.82 


.81 


.80 



Multiply the per cent of Iron dried at 212 F. by the factor corresponding 
to the per cent of moisture found therein. The result is the per cent of Natural 
Iron. 

The above is an abridged table and applies only to the even percentages of 
moisture and of Iron dried as stated. To obtain any per cent or fraction thereof: 

Deduct from 100 the per cent of moisture found in Natural Iron dried at 
212 F. and multiply the remainder, expressed decimally, by the per cent of Iron 
dried. The result is the per cent of Natural Iron. 



19 



The Minnesota Tax Commission 

and 

Its Valuation of Iron Ore 

By Rukard Hurd 

The history of the Lake Superior Iron District would not be complete 
without referring to the Minnesota Tax Commission, and the manner in 
which it has accomplished the arduous work of valuing for taxation purposes 
the greatest known iron ore deposit in the world, of the Vermilion and 
Mesaba Ranges, contained within the State of Minnesota and in the counties 
of St. Louis and Itasca. 

The Minnesota Tax Commission was created by an act of the legislature 
approved April 23, 1907. On April 27, 1907, the three commissioners were ap- 
pointed by the governor to serve for two, four amd six year terms respectively, 
and on that date qualified, organized, elected a secretary and were then ready 
for business. It is a permanent commission, in continuous session, has been 
granted very broad powers, is maintained by an annual appropriation of $30,- 
000, and obtains such additional extra appropriation upon request as it finds 
necessary to facilitate its work. 

The commission is in sole charge of taxation matters and of tax officials. 
The commission is practically a court on taxation, and establishes its own 
procedure; it orders and grants hearings; considers and decides upon all 
applications for reduction or abatement of taxes; prescribes and publishes 
taxation blanks and forms; orders re-assessments both on its own volition 
or upon certified official requests, appointing its own special assessors; has 
authority to call for persons and papers. Finally, the commission is the 
State Board of Equalization. 

Among the many matters taken under immediate consideration were: 
1st, The determination of the relation of the true to the assessed value of 
realty prevailing throughout the state by the sales method, which resulted 
in obtaining for the years 1902-1907 inclusive, a record of 53,010 real estate 
sales amounting to $98,647,719, the assessed valuation of which for year of 
transfer was $42,892,017; and 

2d: The placing of an ad valorem value on the realty contained within 
the so-called ore belts of the Vermilion Range in St. Louis County, and the 
Mesaba Range in St. Louis and Itasca Counties.* 

The Mesaba Range, after hasty and often unreliable and incomplete ex- 
ploration, had only been opened and shipping since 1892 For a number of 
years the value of its grade of iron ore had not been fully commercially de- 
termined. The total tonnage was not known and explorations were mainly 
incomplete and unreliable. 

*From 1881 to 1897 there was a tax of one cent per ton on shipments. 

20 



No previous attempt had been made to locate and assess tonnage. Crude 
methods and arbitrary values were used, based upon previous output, or ex- 
pected shipments and such fragmentary information as was available. The 
1906 realty assessment on the mines amounted to a total of $64,486,409. 

The Tax Commission decided to avoid arbitrary methods and to obtain, 
if possible, the necessary information on which to base an intelligent, just 
and equitable assessment of the mineral properties. 

On June 18, 1907, by circular letter, the commission requested all owners 
and operators of iron ore properties to furnish by July 15, 1907, full informa- 
tion concerning their holdings tonnages with average analyses, character 
and structure of the ore, date and term of mining leases and amount of roy- 
alty, mining and other cost, average price of their ore for a term of years at 
Lower Lake ports, etc., etc. 

The commission, with its secretary and the state inspector of mines, 
then proceeded upon a thorough investigation and inspection of the under- 
ground and open pit mines, of prospects and of mineral lands on the ranges. 
It became apparent that many mines were operating under the most favor- 
able conditions and shipping high grade ore at low cost, while many other 
mines had a higher cost and lower grade of ore, and many others were min- 
ing under adverse conditions, with excessive rock, water, quicksand and a 
low grade of ore. Many mines had ore beginning at the surface; others 
would have 50 to 100 feet of overburden containing many millions of cubic 
yards that must be removed at great cost prior to open pit mining; while 
others, on account of overburden could be operated only as underground 
mines. 

The commission grasped the situation and evolved the unprecedented 
plan of placing an ad valorem value on and taxing iron ore in the ground and 
by the ton. 

Taking the Hull-Rust and the Mahoning mines as models, or standards 
for the highest type of mining of high grade ore under the most favorable 
conditions and at the minimum cost, by a process of comparison, elimination 
and adjustment, there were created 6 groups or classes of active shipping 
mines, with differentials to cover the varying adverse conditions of each 
class. The reserves, part of active mines, or independent tonnages, were 
placed in 3 groups or classes, according to their availability as future active 
mines. 

The prospects were assessed as near as their value could be approxi- 
mated according to their surrounding conditions and speculative value, on ac- 
count of proximity to or possibly being part of known ore bodies, until devel- 
opment should make a reclassification necessary. 

The mineral lands within the known ore belt were similarly treated, 
their values being gradually increased as they approached to what seemed 
good prospects. 

Within 90 days after receipt of the tax commission's circular letter, 
mining companies and mineral owners generally complied with the request, 

21 



furnishing data as to mining cost, analyses, prices, etc., and complete inven- 
tories of 258 mines and reserves, containing a total of 1,192,509,757 tons of 
merchantable iron ore. 

The next step was the classification of this great tonnage into the 6 
groups of active mines and the 3 groups of reserves. 

Then was considered the average price of iron ore for a term of years 
at Lower Lake ports, and the costs of production and delivery, the difference 
being the full value in Minnesota of ore ready for shipment. Then followed 
considerations of the term of the lease, the average life of the mine and the 
present or discounted value of all the ore in the mine or reserve on a 4 per 
cent annuity basis. Then came an investigation through every known source: 
sales of realty, U. S. census, state auditor and state board of equalization 
reports, etc., of the average per cent prevailing throughout the state of true 
to assessed value on all realty, and the application of that ratio to this min- 
eral realty. 

Proceeding in the above outlined manner, the Tax Commission denned its 
classification and based the taxable value per ton of ore in the ground as 
follows : 

CLASSIFICATION FOR 1907 
ACTIVE MINES 

Class 1 : Inexpensive mining and high grade ore 32 cents 

Class 2: Comparatively inexpensive mining and lower grade ore.. 30 cents 

Class 3: Higher mining cost and mixed grade ore 27 cents 

Class 4 : Underground, low mining cost and high grade ore 23 cents 

Class 5: Underground, higher mining cost and medium grade ore. .19 cents 

Class 6: Underground, high mining cost, excess rock and water. . .14 cents 

RESERVES 

Class 1: Partially developed and stripped, about ready for ship- 
ping 15 cents 

Class 2 : Not stripped and not fully developed 10 cents 

Class 3 : Not stripped and only partially developed 8 cents 

Prospects, unexplored but located near to developed tonnages to be 
assessed at from $2,000 to $20,000 per 40-acre tracts. 

Mineral lands unexplored, but in ore belt, to be assessed at from $3.00 
to $50.00 per acre. 

After due notice and a public hearing, the Tax Commission placed a total 
assessed valuation of $186,720,026.00 on a total of 1,192,509,757 tons. In addi- 
tion, the assessed valuation on 1858 prospects and parcels of mineral lands, 
was raised to $4,986,656. The personality of the mining companies was 
assessed and the total was $4,334,490. 

The 1908 grand total assessment made by the Tax Commission, after due 
notice and a public hearing, was $174,273,632 on a total of 1,193,728,959 tons, 
a decrease from 1907 value of $12,446,394. This decrease was caused by de- 
ductions for shipments, stock piles (assessed as personal property) correc- 
tions of tonnage estimates hastily prepared for the commission in 1907, and 
by revisions of classifications. 

22 



In 1909, there was a further re-classification and the establishment of 
rates for active mines, their reserves and sub-reserves, to use in determining 
the assessed valuation per ton of iron ore in the ground, as follows: 

CLASSIFICATION FOR 1909 



Class 


Active Mines 


Reserves 


Sub-Reserves 




Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


1 


33 


21 


15 


2 


30 


18 


15 


3 


27 


15 


10 


4 


23 


11 




5 


19 


10 




6 


14 












8 





And the total assessment made by the Tax Commissioii, after due notice 
and a public hearing was $199,008,838 on 1,310,190,194 tons. 

In 1910 the Tax Commission made the customary yearly adjustments; of 
deductions for shipments and stock piles, of additions for new tonnages and 
re^classifications of certain reserves into rates for active mines and the Com- 
mission then ordered a general raise of five (5) per cent on all realty in the 
townships, villages and cities (except the Village of Gilbert which had no 
ore) contained withim the known ore belts of the Vermilion and Mesaba 
ranges. This action of the Tax Commission resulted in a total assessed value 
of $220,423,038 for 1910 upon a total of 1,347,596,291 tons. 

This general raise established new rates for determining the assessed 
valuation per ton of iron ore in the ground, for the active mines, reserves 
and sub-reserves. The 33-cent class changed to .3465 cents, the 30-oent class 
to .3150 cents, etc. The new rates are as follows: 

CLASSIFICATION FOR 1910 



Class 


Active Mines 


Reserves 


Sub-Reserves 




Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


1 


.3465 


.2205 


.1575 


2 


.3150 


.1890 


.1575 


3 


.2835 


.1575 


.1050 


4 


.2415 


.1155 




5 


.1995 


.1050 




6 


1470 










0840 













Re-classification and adjustments are necessarily made every year. From 
the remaining tonnage of the previous year must be deducted over-estimates 
(subject to verification by the mining engineer to the Tax Commission), ship- 
ments and stock piles. New developed tonnage and increases in estimates 
must be added and rates must be increased as properties pass from reserves 
to active mines. 

Since 1908, there has been a yearly increase in tonnage notwithstanding 
decreases by revised estimates and shipments, and there has been a largely 
increased yearly assessed value. 



23 



The summary of the work of the Tax Commission in assessing the min- 
eral properties of the state in 1907-8-9 and 10, the state board assessment 
of 1906, and the shipments of those years are as follows: 





Remaining 
Tonnage 
May 1st 


Assessed 
Value 


Minnesota 
Shipmenta 


1906 




$ 64 486 409 


25 611 384 


*1907 


1 192 509 757 


186 720 026 


29 180 975 


*1908. . 


1 193 78 959 


174 273 632 


18 098 894 


*1909 


1 310 190 194 


199 008 838 


29*284*496 


*1910 


1 347 596 9 91 


220 423 038 


30 317 583 











* Assessed value 9! the remaining tonnage only; the assessment of Personalty, Prospects and 
Mineral Lands is not included. 

The following is a comparative statement of realty assessments on ton- 
nages, prospects and mineral lands in towns, villages and cities in the ore 
belts of St. Louis and Itasca counties: 

State Board of Equalization 1906 $64,486.409 

Minnesota Tax Commission 1907 191,706,682 

Minnesota Tax Commission 1908 180,210,693 

Minnesota Tax Commission 1909 204,526,139 

Minnesota Tax Commission 1910 224,669,845 

This great work has been accomplished by the Tax Commission without 
the slightest friction, without drastic measures of any kind and apparently 
with, the feeling among the operators that they were being fairly treated, 
and that they had every opportunity of presenting proof and of being heard 
at all times on points or questions at issue. 

The estimates of the official mining engineer to the Tax Commission, 
the School of Mines of the University of Minnesota, and of its representative, 
Edward P. JMcCarty, E. M., Professor of Mining, in verifying tonnage esti- 
mates, are accepted cheerfully and practically without question. They in- 
spire confidence and insure satisfaction to the operators and Tax Commis- 
sion. 

In fact, some operators know through this source for me first time the 
actual facts regarding their property. 

The Cuyuna Range is still in its infancy. Exploration work on a large 
scale has just begun. There may be hundreds of millions of tons of iron ore 
waiting development only the expenditure of millions of dollars can deter- 
mine this. See special Cuyuna Range report in this manual. 

The Vermilion Range also may have a new life awaiting it from the 
tonnages yet undiscovered. 

The Minnesota Tax Commission has brought to light vast tonnages and 
values. It has assessed every tonnage property on its own merits regardless 
of ownership and by a method that is fair to all concerned 



24 



Net Values of Iron Ores 

Average Costs of Production, Administration and Transportation 
By Rukard Hurd 

As the Valley furnace price establishes the base unit value and 
determines the premium and penalty on iron ores, it will be of interest 
to know how these factors affect the net value of iron ore, and if the 
ratio of fair, remunerative profit is equitably apportioned between mine 
and furnace. 

To produce one ton of pig iron at Pittsburg, and worth there in 1910 
an average of $17.19 for Bessemer, required about 4,000 Ibs. of 55% ore 
(or 4,200 Ibs. of 51.50% ore), 2,200 Ibs. of coke and 1,200 Ibs. of limestone, 
approximate cost of these items is distributed as follows: 
Ore 4,000 Ibs. at $5.00 per ton $8.93 Freight ($1.73 Total $10.66 

Ore 4,200 Ibs at 4.00 per .ton 7.50 Freight 1.73 Total 9.23 

Coke 2,200 Ibs. at 2.10 per ton 2.31 Freight .83 Total 3.14 

Lime 1,200 Ibs. at .53 per ton .28 Freight .35 Total .63 

Total cost using $5.00 ore $14.43 

Total cost using 4.00 ore 13.00 

The net values per ton are $2.76 and $4.19, according to the grade of 
the ore used, and they are subject to a deduction for furnace operation and 
administration. 

The approximate cost of the items named at the Valley furnace is 
distributed as follows: 

Ore 4,000 Ibs. at $5.00 (per tons $8.93 Freight $1.14 Total $10.07 

Ore 4,200 Ibs. at 4.00 per ton 7.50 Freight 1.14 Total 8.64 

Coke 2,200 Ibs. at 2.10 per ton 2.31 Freight 1.19 Total 3.80 

Lime 1,200 Ibs at .44 per ton .24 Freight .19 Total .43 

Total cost using $5.00 ore .$14.30 

Total cost using 4.00 ore 12.87 

pnd the net values would be in proportion as named from Pittsburg. 

In considering the average net values of iron ores a general average 
of all producing mines has been taken. 

Net values here presented may 'be subjected to further revision for 
carrying charges classified as follows: 

1. Diversified tonnages needed for mixing and grading 

2. Non-profitable, low-grade ore wnich must be mined and shipped as 

encountered 

3. Reserve ores for distant future use 

4. Protracted non-working periods 

5. Profit and loss items: (a) Excessive water 

(b) Strikes 

(c) Fires 

(d) Accidents 

(e) Other contingencies 

(f) Negative explorations 

Both gross and net average values have been figured for the year 
1910, and for the 19-year period, 1892-1910, inclusive. That is from the open- 
ing of the Mesaba Range in 1892 when all iron ranges were in operation. 
As values were more or less unstable during the first half of the above 
mentioned period, and as Mesaba values had hardly been determined at that 
time, another comparative period of 10 years (1901-1910) is given. 

25 



The general average shipments from Minnesota for 1910 approxi- 
mates 58.50% iron dried and 11.96% moisture, or 51.55% natural iron, 
and indicates the general lowering of grades. 

Values based on 55 per cent Bessemer and 51.50 per cent non-Bessemer 
are taken instead of on general average cargo analyses. The latter could 
be used if the individual shipments of mine groups and trade ore blends 
were separately reported. 



Gross Value 
The 1910 value per ton of ore at lower lake ports is taken as follows: 

Bessemer, Old Range Vermilion $5.00 

Bessemer, Mesa'ba 4.75 

Non-Bessemer, Old Range Vermilion 4.20 

Non-Bessemer, Mesaba 4.00 

Cost Group 

The following grouping has been adopted as a basis for general average 
estimate of production and delivery at lower lake ports : 

1. Production: (a) Mining Cost 

(b) Development 

(c) Exploration 

(d) Depreciation 

(e) Supplies and Repairs 

2. Royalty 

3. Administration: (a) General Office 

(b) Profit and Loss 

(c) Commissions 

(d) Insurance 

(e) Taxes 

(f) Miscellaneous 

4. Transportation: (a) Rail 

(b) Vessel 

Item 1. Each mine has its own special problem; extremes are often 
encountered. While open pit mining is comparatively inexpensive, its cost 
for preparatory stripping may largely counterbalance underground mining 
costs. Taking into consideration these and other conditions, $1.40 for the 
Old Range, $1.25 for the Vermilion and 70 cents for the Mesaba, are adopted 
as conservative average estimates for total production costs. 

Item 2. Royalty is paid by the operator and depends upon the terms 
of the lease; there is a wide range in rates. The average estimate of Old 
Range royalties is 38 cents, although many old leases fall as low as 10 
and 15 cents. The Vermilion royalties are based on old leases and are 
estimated at 33 cents. Old leases on the Mesaba Range call for 15 to 25 
cents, but the newer leases with very largely increased royalties, and a 
tendency to excess, raise the present average estimate to 50 cents. 

Item 3. An average estimate of 20 cents on all ranges is made for 
administration costs. 

Item 4. Transportation rates are public and fixed. For the Old Range 
and the Vermilion they are here averaged. 

26 



These items when assembled present the following table: 
GENERAL AVERAGE ESTIMATE COST TABLE 



Item 


Average Costs 


Old Range 


Vermilion 


Mesaba 


1 


Production 


$1.40 


$1.25 


$0.70 


2 


Royalty 


.38 


.33 


.50 


3 


Administration 


.20 


.20 


.20 


4 


Transportation : 
Rail 


.37* 


.97* 


.80 




Vessel 


.60* 


.70 


.70 














Total cost 


$2.95 


$3.45 


$2.90 













* Averaged. 

The following tables show 1910 gross and net values per ton at Lake 
Erie for Bessemer and non-Bessemer Ores, containing 55 per cent and 51.50 
per cent natural iron: 

(a) VALUES OF ORE CONTAINING 55 PER CENT NATURAL IRON 



1910 






Estimated 


Estimated 


Lake Erie 


Range 


Grade 


Average 


1910 


Gross Values 






Cost 


Lake Erie 










Net Values 


$5 000 


Old Range 


Bessemer 


$2.95 


$2.050 


5 000 


Vermilion 


Bessemer 


3.45 


1.550 


4 756 


Mesaba 


Bessemer 


2.90 


1.856 


4.556 


Old Range 


Non-Bessemer . . . 


2.95 


1.606 


4.556 


Vermilion 


Non-Bessemer . . . 


3.45 


1.106 


4 342 


Mesaba 


Non-Bessemer . . . 


2.90 


1.442 













(b) VALUES OF ORE CONTAINING 51.50 PER CENT NATURAL IRON 



1910 
Lake Erie 
Gross Values 


Range 


Grade 


Estimated 
Average 
Cost 


Estimated 
1910 
Lake Erie 
Net Values 


$4 643 


Old Range 


Bessemer 


$2.95 


$1.693 


4 643 


Vermilion 


Bessemer 


3.45 


1.193 


4 409 


Mesaba . 


Bessemer 


2.90 


1.509 


4 200 


Old Range 


Non-Bessemer . . . 


2.95 


1.250 


4.200 


Vermilion 


Non-Bessemer . . . 


3.45 


.750 


4.000 


Mesaba 


Non-Bessemer . . . 


2.90 


1.100 













The 1910 values are given to illustrate how the 1911 lowering of prices 
50 cents per ton on all grades affects profits or net values. 

27 



Referring to the Table of Pri-ces or Ore from 1855 to 1910, on page 52, 
assuming that such prices are equivalent to prices on present (base grades, 
deducting the foregoing total average costs from the gross value per ton 
from each range we have Table No. 1: 

COMPARATIVE TABLE NO. 1. 



General Average 
Gross Values 


Range 


Grade 


General Average 
Net Values 


1910 


10 Year 
Period 


19 Year 
Period 


1910 


10 Year 
Period 


19 Year 
Period 


$5.00 
5.00 
4.75 
4.20 
4.20 
4.00 


$4.32 
4.32 
3.90 
3.53 
3.53 
3.27 


$3.95 
3.95 
3.39 
3.16 
3.16 
2.75 


Old Range.. 
Vermilion 
Mesaba 
Old Range.. 
Vermilion 
Mesaba 


Bessemer 
Bessemer 
Bessemer 


$2.05 
1.55 
1.85 
1.25 
.75 
1.10 


$ 1.37 
.87 
1.00 
.58 
.08 
.37 


$1.00 
.50 
.49 
.21 
.29 
.15 


Non-Bessemer 
Non-Bessemer 
Non-Bessemer 



It may be claimed that the total costs for each range shown in the 
General Average Cost Table are excessive by 50 cents per ton for the 19 
year period and by 25 cents for the 10 year period, and that production and 
royalty costs have largely increased only during recent years. If so, such 
conditions are covered in Table No. 2: 

COMPARATIVE TABLE NO. 2. 



General Average 






General Average 


Gross Values 






Net Values 










Range 


Grade 














10 Year 


19 Year 








10 Year 


19 Year 


1910 


Period 


Period 






1910 


Period 


Period 


$5.00 


$4.32 


$3.95 


Old Range.. 


Bessemer 


$2.05 


$1.62 


$1.50 


5.00 


4.32 


3.95 


Vermilion.. . 


Bessemer . . 


1.55 


1.12 


1.00 


4.75 


3.90 


3.39 


Mesaba 


Bessemer 


1.85 


1.25 


.99 


4.20 


3.53 


3.16 


Old Range.. 


Non-Bessemer 


1.25 


.83 


.71 


4.20 


3.53 


3.16 


Vermilion.. . 


Non-Bessemer 


.75 


.33 


.21 


4.00 


3.27 


2.75 


Mesaba 


Non-Bessemer 


1.10 


.62 


.35 



It can be readily seen from these fixed cost charges and fluctuations 
that lowering prices, bad management, great disaster, financial distress 
or general adverse conditions may destroy profit and create loss. 

The need of a re-classification of certain grades and prices is apparent. 
Normal conditions should prevail between ore and iron, mine and furnace, 
and prices should move in harmony and practically along parallel lines. 



28 



Present Value of Iron Ore Royalties 

Of Mineral Leases Containing Merchantable Tonnage 

By Rukard Hurd 
Newly Created Wealth Through Mineral Value 

The recent development of vast tonnages of iron ore in what has been 
considered a wilderness of rock and swamp, without timber and useless for 
agriculture and known as "mineral lands" or "wild lands," having previously 
only a nominal, speculative or prospective value, has brought to life practi- 
cally a new form of value: that of the present worth to the fee owner of the 
loyalty on the ore therein covered by a mineral lease. 

More and more must this element of value be reckoned with; by the state 
in the enforcement of the inheritance taxes, by probate courts in the admin- 
istration of estates, and by other courts in adjudication and in> proceed- 
ings of receiverships, trusts, bankruptcy, etc., where mineral rights are 
involved. Newly developed wealth usually entails litigation as to ownership 
and value. 

Extent of Capital and Diversity of Ownership 

To respond to furnace demands for tonnages of every possible grade, 
physical characteristics and structure, and to obtain even a reasonable profit, 
mining operations must be conducted on a very extensive scale, Operation, 
equipment, supplies, wages, carrying charges, etc., require an enormous 
working capital. Therefore very few active mines or reserves containing de- 
veloped tonnages of iron ore are owned in fee by the operating company. This 
would require an investment of capital as vast in proportion as is the developed 
tonnage, and in amount almost beyond comprehension. The Vermilion and 
Mesaba Ranges alone have a total of nearly 1,400,000,000 tons of merchan- 
table iron ore assessed at $225,000,000, the full value of which approximates 
$562,000,000. These mines and reserves have a very large, widely scattered 
ownership, resident and non-resident. The known tonnage on the Mesaba 
Range is contained within some 35,000 acres. There is an equal or perhaps 
larger acreage within the so-called Mesaba "ore belt" either unexplored, or 
explored and found barren of iron ore, or located as to almost certainly con- 
tain no ore. 

Mineral Leases 

From the diversified fee ownerships the mine operators have from time 
to time secured, ordinarily upon a small payment, what is known as a 
"mining option" or the right to explore, and to obtain a lease with the 
privilege of mining the ore. These leases are made for a period usually of 
fifty (50) years, and the amount of royalty to be paid the fee owner for each 
ton of ore mined and shipped is stated therein. The lease also provides 
for an annual minimum payment in quarterly installments, being advance 
payments on account, and a charge against the maximum royalty on the ore 
as mined. Such minimum payment is made quarterly to the fee owner 
whether ore is mined or not. It is practically a guaranteed annual income, 
rental or annuity. 

As a rule these leases are executed when the explorations and drillings 
seem to demonstrate that a sufficient tonnage will be developed to justify 

29 



an agreed minimum payment based upon an estimate of expected minimum 
shipments. Complete explorations follow in due time and the full extent, 
quantity and quality of the ore body is determined. The fee owner receives 
regular reports of the explorations and mining. Occasionally leases may 
contain modifications, such as a sliding scale of royalty or an increased 
royalty for increase in metallic content. 

All leases may be surrendered by the lessee upon giving stipulated 
notice, usually ninety (90) days, in which event he loses all advance made 
on account of annual minimum payments. Under all mineral leases the 
operating company pays all taxes and assessments. 

Valuation of Developed Leases 

The minimum annual payment is a purely estimated, arbitrary amount 
and regular royalties range from ten cents (lOc) to one dollar and ten cents 
($1.10), and even more, per ton. There is no uniformity in rates. Each 
lease must be valued according to its terms and own merits. 

On mines or reserves that have been thoroughly explored and where thp 
tonnage is developed and the amount and grade of merchantable ore is 
known, a simple but accurate method of determining the present or dis- 
counted value of the total royalty of a mineral lease is herewith presented. 

The Determining Valuation Factors 

1. Unexpired period of the lease 

2. Amount of merchantable tonnage subject to royalty 

3. Total value of the same calculated by the royalty rate per ton 

4. Amount of the annual minimum payment or annuity, on esti- 
mated tonnage 

5. Amount of an annual minimum payment or annuity on actual 
tonnage 

6. "Life of mine," the term required to mine out the total tonnage 

7. Present value of one dollar, per annum, payable quarterly 

RULE FOR DETERMINATION OF PRESENT VALUE OF ROYALTIES 

Total Royalty 

Multiply the tonnage (reduced by the equivalent due by reason of any 
overpayment of annual minimum advanced) by the amount of royalty per 
ton. The result is the total royalty which the fee owner will ultimately re- 
ceive, and it will be paid in, approximately, quarterly installments. 

Life of the Mine 

Divide the total royalty, as ascertained, by the amount of the annual 
minimum payment. The result is the "life of the mine;" that is, the annuity 
paying period, or the number of years required to exhaust the ore. Provided, 
however, that if this period as calculated extends beyond the lease, then the 
tin-expired term oTthe lease should be arbitrarily considered as the "life cf 
the mine." It is safe to assume that the operator will exhaust the ore 
during the life of the lease. 

Present Value of the Royalty 

A Where total royalty does not exceed total of guaranteed annual minimum 

payments 

Multiply the annual minimum payment, payable quarterly, by the present 
value of one dollar per annum, payable quarterly, at the assumed rate of 
interest and for the number of years determined as the life of the mine. 
The result is the present royalty value of the lease. 

30 ' 



B Where total royalty exceeds total of guaranteed annual minimum pay- 
ments 

Divide the total royalty by the unexpired term of the lease. The 
amount is the adjusted approximate annual minimum which will he paid. 
Multiply this annual minimum payment by the present value of one dollar 
per annum, payable quarterly, at the assumed rate of interest and for 
the number of years of the unexpired term of the lease. The result is the 
present royalty value of the lease. 

This method is a practical approximation for finding the true present 
value of the excess of developed tonnage over the assumed minimum. It 
will be specially noted that no general rule can be laid down when determin- 
ing factors have yearly variations. 

Attention is again called to the assumption that the ore will be ex- 
hausted before the expiration of the lease. 

Illustration for A 

Term of lease 50 years 

Unexpired term of lease 30 years 

Royalty per ton 25 cents 

Complete explorations develop as remaining 2,000,000 tons 

Total royalty at 25c per ton, = $500,000 

Life of the mine, $500,000 -f- $20,000 25 years 

Guaranteed annual minimum payments $20,000 x 25 = $500,000. 

[At 7%) f $239. 104 

Present Value At 8% $20,000 per year, payable quarterly, J 219.796 
Present Value < At g% for 2 5 Years 1 202.962 

(At 10% j i 188.210 



Illustration for B 
Term of lease 50 years 
Unexpired term of lease 30 years 
Royalty per ton 25 cents 

Complete explorations develop as remaining 4,000,000 tons 
Total royalty at 25c per ton, = $1,000,000 

Life of the mine, the unexpired term of the lease = 30 years 
Guaranteed annual minimum payments $20,000 x 30 z= $600,000 
Excess of total royalty over annual minimum value $1,000,000 $600,000 = 

$400,000 
Adjusted approximate annual minimum payment, $1,000,000-^-30 = $33,333 



fAt 7%1 f $424. 332 

Present Value At 8% $33 ' 333 P er vear > Payable quarterly J 386.329 

rrebent value ^ At g% f for 30 years. 1353.803 

[At 10%J I 325.773 



DETERMINING INTEREST RATE AND FACTORS 

While under the conditions named the security of the investment is 
unquestioned, for calculating present value the determining interest rate 
depends upon a number of factors, such as: 

1. Average worth of money at the given time and interest rate ex- 
pected for a long time investment. 

31 



2. Fluctuating yearly income as the property passes back and forth 
from shipping and non-shipping stages, from large royalty income on ship- 
ments one year to minimum annual payments when not operating. 

3. Quality of the ore and availability for furnace demands. 

4. Amount of the tonnage and the time required under normal mining 
conditions to exhaust the ore. 

5. Character and standing of the lessee, and his ability to meet the 
terms of the lease. 

6. Possibility of a surrender of the lease, depending upon whether the 
ore is good or lean, monetary situation and the financial condition of the 
lessee. 

Under all these conditions such an investment demands and is en- 
titled to a high rate of interest, even greater than a highest grade pre- 
ferred stock or bond security would yield. Capitalists would not entertain 
the purchase of such a proposition at ordinary rates of 5, 6 or even 7%. 
While 10% seems to be the customary prevailing interest rate, it would 
appear that 8% to 10% should be now used in calculating the present value 
of iron ore royalties, that is, the investment required to purchase the 
royalty rights of a mineral lease containing known, developed tonnage of 
merchantable iron ore. 

Royalty only Basis of Value 

It will be observed that the assessed or full value or market price of 
the tonnage is not and should not be considered. That concerns only the 
operating company and the tax officials. That value has gone beyond the 
control of the fee owner with the lease; his value is in the royalty alone. 

Valuation of Undeveloped Leases 

On leases of properties not developed, or only partially developed, or 
containing present non-merchantable ore, or where in underground mines 
an estimate of total tonnage is impossible, any appraisement of royalty 
value ibecomes a matter of judgment of experts familiar with mining and 
geological conditions. 

Accuracy of Information 

As has been previously stated in this manual, the exploration is now 
so thorough that the outlining of the ore bodies and the securing of accurate 
Information to obtain correct estimates of the amount of tonnage and its 
grade especially on the Mesaba Range, is now practically a known quantity. 
To a certain extent this holds true of many underground mines on other 
ranges. Where formeily their ore bodies could be followed, blocked out and 
their tonnages known for only a year or two ahead, modern drilling methods 
now disclose the geological formation and determine the character and 
extent of the ore body. 

Tables of Present Values 

For convenient reference in connection with this subject standard tables 
of present values, quarterly and annual, are embodied with and follow this 
article. 

32 



Of THE 

UNIVERSITY 

OF 




PRESENT VALUE OF ONE DOLLAR PER ANNUM 

PAYABLE QUARTERLY 
At the End of Each Quarter 

Due in any Number of Years from 1 to 50, inclusive 
Specially Compiled by Rukard Hurd for this Manual 



Years 


5 per cent 


6 per cent 


7 per cent 


8 per cent 


9 per cent 


10 per cent 


1 


0.9701 


0.9643 


.9587 


.9532 


.9478 


.9425 


2 


1.8939 


1.8740 


1.8547 


1.8359 


1.8174 


1.7992 


3 


2.7738 


2.7322 


2.6922 


2.6531 


2.6151 


2.5782 


4 


3.6119 


3.5419 


3.4748 


3.4098 


3.3470 


3.2863 


5 


4.4099 


4.3057 


4.2063 


4.1105 


4.0186 


3.9301 


6 


5.1700 


5.0262 


4.8898 


4.7593 


4.6345 


4.5153 


7 


5.8939 


5.7061 


5.5287 


5.3600 


5.1998 


5.0473 


8 


6.5834 


6.3474 


6.1258 


5.9162 


5.7182 


5.5309 


9 


7.2398 


6.9524 


6.6838 


6.4312 


6.1938 


5.9706 


10 


7.8652 


7.5231 


7.2053 


6-9081 


6.6304 


6.3704 


11 


8.4607 


8.0616 


7.6927 


7.3497 


7.0307 


6.7338 


12 


9,0280 


8.5695 


8.1482 


7.7585 


7.3980 


7.0641 


13 


9.5682 


9.0488 


8.5740 


8.1370 


7.7350 


7.3644 


14 


10.0825 


9.5009 


8.9718 


8.4875 


8.0442 


7.6374 


15 


10.5725 


9.9273 


9.3436 


8.8121 


8.3278 


7.8856 


16 


11.0391 


10.3298 


9.6910 


9.1126 


8.5881 


8.1112 


17 


11.4836 


10.7094 


10.0158 


9.3908 


8.8267 


8.3164 


18 


11.9068 


11.0675 


10.3194 


9.6485 


9.0457 


8.5028 


19 


12.3098 


11.4053 


10.6031 


9.8870 


9.2467 


8.6723 


20 


12.6937 


11.7240 


10.8681 


10.1078 


9.4310 


8.8264 


21 


13.0594 


12.0247 


11.1159 


10.3124 


9.6001 


8.9665 


22 


13.4075 


12.3084 


11.3474 


10.5082 


9.7553 


9.0938 


23 


13.7382 


125.760 


11.5639 


10.6772 


9.8977 


9.2096 


24 


14.0550 


12.8284 


11.7661 


10.8395 


10.0283 


9.3148 


25 


14.3557 


13.0666 


11.9552 


10.9898 


10.1481 


9.4105 


26 


14.6423 


13.2913 


12.1318 


11.1290 


10.2580 


9.4975 


27 


14.9150 


13.5031 


12.2969 


11.2579 


10.3589 


9.5766 


28 


15.1749 


13.7032 


12.4512 


11.3772 


10.4513 


9.6486 


29 


15.4224 


13.8918 


12.5954 


11.4877 


10.5363 


9.7139 


30 


15.6581 


14.0697 


12.7301 


11.5900 


10.6142 


9.7733 


31 


15.8825 


14.2377 


12.8561 


11.6848 


10.6855 


9.8273 


32 


16.0963 


14.3960 


12.9739 


11.7725 


10.7510 


9.8765 


33 


16.2998 


14.5454 


13.0838 


11.8537 


10.8112 


9.9210 


34 


16.4937 


14.6864 


13.1866 


11.9288 


10.8663 


9.9617 


35 


16.6784 


14.8194 


13.2828 


11.9985 


10.9170 


9.9986 


36 


16.8543 


14.9449 


13.3725 


12.0630 


10.9635 


10.0321 


37 


17.0218 


15.0633 


13.4564 


12.1227 


11.0060 


10.0626 


38 


17.1813 


15.1749 


13.5349 


12.1780 


11.0451 


10.0903 


39 


17.3332 


15.2803 


13.6082 


12.2292 


11.0809 


10.1155 


40 


17.4779 


15.3796 


13.6767 


12.2765 


11.1139 


10.1384 


41 


17.6157 


15.4733 


13.7407 


12.3204 


11.1441 


10.1592 


42 


17.7469 


15.5618 


13.8005 


12.3610 


11.1717 


10.1781 


43 


17.8719 


15.6453 


13.8565 


12.3986 


11.1972 


10.1954 


44 


17.9909 


15.7240 


13.9088 


12.4335 


11.2204 


10.2110 


45 


18.1043 


15.7982 


13.9576 


12.4657 


11.2418 


10.2252 


46 














47 


18.2123 


15.8683 


14.0032 


12.4956 


11.2614 


10.2382 


48 


18.3141 


15.9343 


14.0459 


12.5233 


11.2794 


10.2499 


49 


18.4131 


15.9967 


14.0858 


12.5488 


11.2959 


10.2606 


50 


18.5062 


16.0556 


14.1231 


12.5726 


11.3110 


10.2703 




18.5951 


16.1111 


14.1578 


12.5945 


11.3250 


10.2791 



33 



PRESENT VALUE OF ONE DOLLAR PER ANNUM. 



PAYABLE ANNUALLY 

At the End of Each Year 

Due in any Number of Years from 1 to 50, inclusive 



Years 


5 per cent 


6 per cent 


7 per cent 


8 per cent 


9 per cent 


10 per.cent 


1 


0.9524 


0.9434 


.9346 


.9259 


.9174 


.9091 


2 


1.8594 


1.8334 


1.8080 


1.7833 


1.7591 


1.7355 


3 


2.7232 


2.6730 


2.6243 


2.5771 


2.5313 


2.4869 


4 


3.5460 


3.4651 


3.3872 


3.3121 


3.2397 


3.1699 


5 


4.3295 


4.2124 


4.1002 


3.9927 


3.8897 


3.7908 


6 


5.0757 


4.9173 


4.7665 


4.6229 


4.4859 


4.3553 


7 


5.7864 


5.5824 


5.3893 


5.2064 


5.0330 


4.8684 


8 


6.4632 


6.2098 


5.9713 


5.7466 


5.5348 


5.3349 


9 


7.1078 


6.8017 


6.5152 


6.2469 


5.9952 


5.7590 


10 


7.7217 


7.3601 


7.0236 


6.7101 


6.4177 


6.1446 


11 


8.3064 


7.8869 


7.4987 


7.1390 


6.8052 


6.4951 


12 


8,8633 


8.3838 


7.9427 


7.5361 


7.1607 


6.8137 


13 


9.3936 


8.8527 


8.3577 


7.9038 


7.4869 


7.1034 


14 


9.8986 


9.2950 


8.7455 


8.2442 


7.7862 


7.3667 


15 


10.3797 


9.7122 


9.1079 


8.5595 


8.0607 


7.6061 


16 


10.8378 


10.1059 


9.4466 


8.8514 


8.3126 


7.8237 


17 


11.2741 


10.4773 


9.7632 


9.1216 


8.5436 


8.0216 


18 


11.6896 


10.8276 


10.0591 


9.3719 


8.7556 


8.2014 


19 


12.0853 


11.1581 


10.3356 


9.6036 


8.9501 


8.3649 


20 


12'.4622 


11.4699 


10.5940 


9.8181 


9.1285 


8.5136 


21 


12.8212 


11.7641 


10.8355 


10.0168 


9.2922 


8.6487 


22 


13.1630 


12.0416 


11.0612 


10.2007 


9.4424 


8.7715 


23 


13.4886 


12.3034 


11.2722 


10.3711 


9.5802 


8.8832 


24 


13.7986 


12.5504 


11.4693 


10.5288 


9.7066 


8.9847 


25 


14.0939 


12.7834 


11.6536 


10.6748 


9.8226 


9.0770 


26 


14.3752 


13.0032 


11.8258 


10.8100 


9.9200 


9.1609 


27 


14.6430 


13.2105 


11.9867 


10.9352 


10.0266 


9.2372 


28 


14.8981 


13.4062 


12.1371 


11.0511 


10.1161 


9.3066 


29 . 


15.1411 


13.5907 


12.2777 


11.1584 


10.1983 


9.3696 


30 


15.3725 


13.7648 


12.4090 


11.2578 


10.2737 


9.4269 


31 


15.5928 


13.9291 


12.5318 


11.3498 


10.3498 


9.4790 


32 


15.8027 


14.0840 


12.6466 


11.4350 


10.4062 


9.5264 


33 


16.0025 


14.2302 


12.7538 


11.5139 


10.4644 


9.5694 


34 


16.1929 


14.3681 


12.8540 


11.5869 


10.5178 


9.6086 


35 


16.3742 


14.4982 


12.9477 


11.6546 


10.5668 


9.6442 


36 


16.5469 


14.6210 


13.0352 


11.7172 


10.6118 


9.6765 


37 


16.7113 


14.7368 


13.1170 


11.7752 


10.6530 


9.7059 


38 


16.8679 


14.8460 


13.1935 


11.8289 


10.6908 


9.7327 


39 


17.0170 


14.9491 


13.2649 


11.8786 


10.7255 


9.7570 


40 


17.1591 


15.0463 


13.3317 


11.9246 


10.7574 


9.7791 


41 


17.2944 


15.1380 


13.3941 


11.9672 


10.7866 


9.7991 


42 


17.4232 


15.2245 


13.4524 


12.0067 


10.8134 


9.8174 


43 


17.5459 


15.3062 


13.5070 


12.0432 


10.8380 


9.8340 


44 


17.6628 


15.3832 


13.5579 


12.0771 


10.8605 


9.8491 


45 


17.7741 


15.4558 


13.6055 


12.1084 


10.8812 


9.8628 


46 


17.8801 


15.5244 


13.6500 


12.1374 


10.9002 


9.8753 


47 


17.9801 


15.5890 


13.6916 


12.1643 


10.9176 


9.8866 


48 


18.0772 


15.6500 


13.7305 


12.1891 


10.9336 


9.8969 


49 


18.1687 


15.7076 


13.7668 


12.2122 


10.9482 


9.9063 


50 


18.2559 


15.7619 


13.8007 


12.2335 


10.9617 


9.9148 



34- 



Prospecting, Mining and Ore Estimating 
Methods in Minnesota 

With Special Reports on the 
Western Mesaba and Cuyuna Ranges 

A Reprint from the Second Biennial Report, 1910, of the 
Minnesota Tax Commission 



PROSPECTING FOR IRON ORE 

In metal mine prospecting the percussion drill is largely used for iron, 
zinc, lead, gypsum and coal worK. 

The churn drill or form of percussion drill as used on the Mesaba 
Iron Range consists of a chisel drill on an extensible hollow rod. This 
rod is attached by a flexible coupling to a pump which forces a stream of 
water into the hole and out of perforations near the attachment to the 
bit. This water returns inside the casing, which is an ordinary pipe, 3 
inches in diameter when in surface material and 2 inches in rock and ore. 
The drill is manipulated by a rope passing several times over a drum driven 
by a 6 to 8 horsepower oscillating engine, and the "jerk" is given by a man 
tightening or slacking the rope coil. The drill is rotated by hand, the driller 
standing on a platform built in the tripod. When boulders are encountered 
they are blasted out with dyanmite. A churn drill outfit, boiler and all, 
costs from $1,000 to $2,000. 

When taconite or hard slate is struck the churn drill has to be aban- 
doned and the diamond drill is used until it passes through the taconite 
into the ore. It is customary to blast out the hole and force the casing 
down and then resume drilling with the churn drill. This blasting is done 
by suspending in the hole two or more sticks of dynamite and firing them 
with a battery. The casing, which had been partly pulled out, is then forced 
down with a drive weight, and the churn drill inside chops out the hole 
until the casing can follow to the bottom of the hole. A churn drill will 
make from 5 to 25 feet a day in a formation in which it can be used at all. 
Three men are required to run it. Wood and water hauling may run up 
expenses sometimes requiring a team for each. 

The surface indications of iron are meager and not very reliable. Some 
of the explorations have taken into account the topographical features of 
the district, and the theoretical geological conditions, but generally a tract 
located on or in the vicinity of the ranges is selected and drilled without 
regard to indications on the surface. The unit of explorations is forty 
acres, and this is called locally a "forty." The federal mining laws do not 
apply in Minnesota so the property is included in the vertical boundaries 
of the tract. The usual test for a forty-acre tract is to put five holes 
one in the center and four 300 feet toward the center from each corner. 
However, drilling five holes is not considered a final test. 

In proving up an ore body or testing completely, the practice is to divide 
the property into squares of 300 feet each, commencing 100 feet inside of 

35 



the forty line, and drilling on the intersections. The Oliver Iron Mining 
Company ignores the survey lines, which are very irregular; they tie the 
tract to some surveyed property and lay it off in squares of 100 feet each. 
Drill holes are then sunk on each second and third intersection accord- 
ing to the purposes of the test and the intersections are taken alternately so 
as to leave the smallest possible radius of undrilled land. Sometimes, in 
drilling for development, it is necessary to put holes in at closer intervals; 
especially where the work is along the edge of an irregular deposit. The ore 
bodies do not always taper out. 

Most of the drilling is done by contract. The usual contract price is 
$3.00 per foot for churn drill and $6.00 per foot for diamond drill work. In 
some cases the diamond drill work costs more. Considerable test pitting 
is done ?.t the surface at a cost of $1.60 to $2.00 per foot, a ten cent increase 
for each 10 feet after the first 20 feet being customary. Daily reports of 
the work are made to the contractor and frequent reports to the parties 
interested. Samples are taken every 5 feet, and wherever the formation 
changes, these samples are usually analyzed for iron, phosphorus, mangan- 
ese and silica. The drill results are platted showing the location and the 
record of the holes. These reports are signed and dated and are considered 
reliable data as to the property. The contractors are well known and 
responsible, and misleading or false reports are rare. 

The drill holes vary much in depth in different districts; near Hibbing 
one hole is over 350 feet in ore. It is a rule when ore is found to go through 
it. If quartzite is found this is taken as final, but most of the ore bodies 
are bottomed in taconite and sometimes the drill will go through a bed of 
ore into a taconite layer and then again into ore. It is generally believed 
that much ore exists below the present bottom. The old rule was to stop 
when taconite was found, but some of the best ore bodies are found to be 
below the taconite. Usually these are the extensions of ore bodies which 
outcrop to the north. In some parts of the range the finding of taconite 
under the surface is considered a good indication of an ore body beneath. 

In seme of the mines jumper drills worked by man power are used to 
check the grade of the ore or do surface work. The Mahoning mine sunk 
numerous test pits in the ore body to determine the character and grade 
in advance of mining. Much test pitting and drilling is now done before 
any property is considered sufficiently well known to permit planning its 
mining. 

The cost of the diamond drill outfits in use is from $2,500 to $4,000; 
the shallow nature of the work permitting a comparatively cheap equip- 
ment. 

Prospecting on the Vermilion range is generally done with a diamond 
drill, followed up by the sinking of shafts and the driving of drifts after 
the ledge has been struck. On the Cuyuna range churn and diamond drills 
are used. The holes are much deeper as a rule than on the Mesaba and 
in case of the diamond drill work frequently driven on an angle. The con- 
tract price on the Cuyuna is $2.00 per foot for churn drilling and $4.00 per 
foot for diamond drilling. 

MINING METHODS 

On the Vermilion range the mining is confined to underground work 
and this will be the method employed upon the Cuyuna range. On the 
Mesaba range conditions are such that a large part of the mining may be 

36 



done by open pit work. The ore ledges on the Vermilion stand at angles 
approaching 80 degrees and in some cases are vertical. The ore is hard 
so hard that the ordinary air drill makes very slow progress through it and 
the expensive diamond drill must be largely used, both for mining and ex- 
ploring the formation. A large amount of explosives is required to break 
the ore into small enough pieces to permit loading. The Cuyuna range 
ore, while not as hard as Vermilion ore, nevertheless will be more expensive 
to mine than that of the Mesaba range. 

Open Pit Mining 

The Mesaba ore is soft. It lies near the surface in an almost horizontal 
plane, with a covering of 20 feet or more of glacial drift composed of sand 
and clay in which there are many huge boulders. The ore bodies vary in 
size but are fairly uniform in most respects. They may be a mile or more 
m length, though this is unusual. The width of the body sometimes reaches 
a half mile, with a thickness running from 50 to 300 feet. The open pit 
method is much used, both for stripping over burden and mining ore. There 
are, however, many deposits where open pit mining cannot be employed. 
Its application is determined by the thickness and extent of the ore body 
relative to the overburden; the character of the ore; the distance of haul 
to the dump, etc. The increasing efficiency of the steam shovel, the greater 
cost of timbering and the lack of skilled miners necessary for underground 
mining, all have contributed toward extending open pit mining. 

In open pit mining the ore body is reached by removing the overburden 
with a steam shovel, not unlike that used in railroad excavation work. 
Many million cubic yards have been stripped to lay bare the ore bodies 
and recently a stripping depth of 150 feet, involving seven million cubic 
yards of stripping, was undertaken. The steam shovel has removed more 
material on the Mesaba range than the total excavation required for the 
Panama canal. 

A shovel crew consists of an engineer, a crane man, and four pit men 
to prepare the road bed and lay the track upon which the steam shovel 
stands. A "spotter" keeps the stripping train which stands on a parallel 
track moving as the successive cars are filled. The shovel lifts four or 
five tons at a time from the bank and dumps its load into cars. In many 
cases it is necessary to shake up the earth by the use of powder. Charges 
are placed in drill holes a short distance back from the edge of the bank, 
and on exploding the charge, which is done by means of the ordinary 
fuse and cap, the bank is loosened up to permit easy working for the 
shovel. The large boulders require breaking up by the use of dynamite. 
The dump cars loaded by the steam shovel are hauled to the dump by a 
"dinky" engine or by engines weighing as much as 60 tons. 

In this way the ore is cleaned off and made ready for mining, the final 
cleaning up of the top of the ore being done by men with shovels and 
wheelbarrows. The ore is so soft that the shovel frequently digs it with- 
out .blasting, though in general black powder is used to shake up the mass. 
It is the universal practice to load the ore direct from the pit into railroad 
cars which are drawn out three to ten at a time by a standard gauge loco- 
motive. In this way the deposit is worked down bench by bench, until 
a little of the rim only is left. The grades become too heavy for the loco- 
motive or the deposit too thin and underground mining finishes the work. 
The ore is generally carried in steel cars which have a nominal capacity 

37 



of 50 tons each, actual capacity 46 tons. A standard shovel weighs 90 tons, 
and one crew can load up to 8,000 tons of ore per ten-hour day, with 4,000 
or 5,000 as an average day's work. Both stripping and ore handling are 
done on a two-shift basis of ten hours each. Work is suspended on Sunday 
except that of repairing the shovels. 

Milling System 

The milling system is a combination of open pit and underground min- 
ing. The ore is stripped as in open pit mining. A shaft is sunk near the 
edge of the ore body and drifts are run into the ore, say 60 feet below 
its top. Raises are made from the drift to the surface and through these 
the ore is "milled" down into chutes, loaded into cars and hauled by mules 
or electric power to the shaft where it is hoisted to the surface and dumped 
into railroad cars. When the ore is very soft it may be "milled" into the 
raises by use of the pick alone In other cases blasting must be resorted 
to. In some cases the steam shovel is used to throw the ore into the 
"mill." As the "mill" becomes larger it finally becomes too dangerous for 
the miner on account of the steepness of the sides and underground mining 
methods must be used. A relatively small amount of ore has been won on 
the Mesaba by "milling." 

UNDERGROUND MINING 

Only a few deposits permit the removal of all the ore without resorting 
to underground mining and many mines may be worked only by under- 
ground methods. Formerly the square set system, much used in metal 
mining elsewhere, was the accepted method on the Mesaba. While satis- 
ractory in the main and still employed to a limited extent in a few places 
this method has given way to the "slicing and caving" system which is 
effective and economical. Nearly all the ore is recovered. The method 
consists in beginning at the top of the ore and working out a slice, dropping 
the surface as the work goes on. The caving of the surface is necessary 
on account of the character of the roof, which is generally sand or a gravel. 
A shaft is sunk as in the milling system and a drift is run into the ore. 
Sub-levels are then driven at distances from 8 to 14 feet high and raises 
are run to the top of the ore. The ore is sliced out just wide enough to 
carry the roof while working. The ore is shoveled into the raises, at the 
bottom of which a chute is set from which the ore is drawn direct into mine 
cars. As each slice is taken out the overburden is caved either of its 
own weight or is blasted down. This overburden packs so as to hold up 
laterally with a little temporary timbering and lagging. 

Slice after slice is taken until the whole top of the ore body has been 
drawn into the raises, when the same process is gone through on the nexi 
sub-level. The floors of the slices are covered with plank or boards so 
as to keep the sand from mixing with the ore and to make a roof for the 
next slice below. This floor under the sand follows the ore down with 
each slice. This general system has a number of modifications, permitting 
it to be used on the other ranges. It calls for the use of a small amount of 
timber and is comparatively free from accident to miners. 

Regarding the three methods of mining in vogue it may be said in gen- 
eral that underground mining is increasing while open pit work has reached 
Its maximum service. 

38 



ORE ESTIMATES 
Mesaba Range 

To make an "ore estimate" certain recognized principles must be 
adapted to the particular case in hand, for each property presents an indi- 
vidual problem. In general, it may be said that a total tonnage estimate is 
the one first made. This will suffice in case of reserve ore bodies, and needs 
but little adjustment, provided the ore body has been thoroughly drilled. 
Where the drill data is incomplete, it will be necessary from time to time 
to revise the ore estimate. 

As to the method it may be briefly stated as follows: The outline of 
the ore body is established from the drill holes. The ore lying without 
the outer rim of holes is elliptical in outline and triangular in cross section. 
Inside this outer limit of the ore body is drawn a line connecting the cen- 
ters of the bases of all these triangles. This line should Be midway between 
the crest and toe of the slope of the ore bank. 

The area inclosed, multiplied by the average depth of ore in all holes 
within the area, is the total volume of ore. 

The number of cubic feet per ton for various grades of ore has been 
established by experience dealing with every part of the ranges and it 
varies from 13 cubic feet for 62 per cent iron to 17 cubic feet for 49 per 
cent iron. All analyses are based on the dried samples. 

The ore is carefully graded into: (a) bessemer, (b) non-bessemer, and 
in some cases, into (c) ore material. 

The limiting analyses are about as follows: 





Iron 
per cent 


Phos- 
phorus 
per cent 


Silica 
per cent 


Mangan- 
ese 
per cent 




61.55 


.047 


4.6 


1.0 


^on Bessemer 


57 20 


099 


7 2 


1.5 













All ore above 49 per cent is considered merchantable. 

The ore material class is made up of the ore lying between 40 per 
cent and 49 per cent. It may or may not have commercial value, depending 
upon whether it can be washed or concentrated. 

Furthermore, from the drill records and the locations of drill holes, 
cross sections of the ore body may be made. The sections may be made 
by passing vertical planes through adjoining holes; then all the planes 
(in practically the same plane) joined together, constitute a section. By 
many engineers a plane is passed which cuts as many of the holes in one 
directioa as possible, and those holes not on the section are projected 
upon it. This second method is simple and can be used in making esti- 
mates without a correction for the length of section due to the broken 
planes. 

If inaccuracy occurs in that the hole is off the section and it does not 
show the true depth of ore at the place indicated, interpolation may be 
used to correct this depth from adjoining holes by a section at right angles 
to the one in question. 



39 



The ore sometimes ends abruptly against rock and then again will run 
out in long lenses. In general it may be stated that the edge of the ore 
body is placed at a distance outside the outer rim holes equal to the depth 
of ore in the hole. An examination of the sections will show the different 
grades of ore more or less continuous in layers. From these sections 
carefully drawn to scale their areas may be measured and by the method 
cf "average end areas" the total volume of the body obtained and the num- 
Der of tons computed. This cross section method usually checks closely 
the first method described. 

As the shipments are made from each property the number of tons 
shipped is annually deducted so that the ore remaining in the mine is 
checked up each year. 

Where doubtful drill records, irregular, or large rock intrusions render 
the above described methods unsatisfactory, it becomes necessary to make 
a "pillar estimate" in order to ascertain the tonnage in the mine. This con- 
sists in measuring up the ore pillars from the underground maps, giving 
due consideration to "probable ore," thus determining the ore tonnage. 

Vermilion Range 

Estimates are made for this range by measuring up the pillars of ore 
from the underground maps. 

WESTER'N MESABA RANGE ESTIMATES 
Special Report 

The distinguishing feature of the Western Mesaba ore formation is 
the incompleteness and irregularity of the alteration as compared with 
Eastern Mesaba. The ore bodies show all gradations from ferruginous 
chert to completely oxidized iron ore almost free from silica and alumina. 

The ore may be generally characterized as silicious, carrying from 30% 
to slightly over 60% iron; the phosphorus compared with Eastern Mesaba 
ores is notably low, rarely a'bove 0.05% and frequently as low as 0.01%; 
the percentage of silica varies from 25% to 75% 35% being perhaps a 
normal silica percentage. This silica or "sand" is not water-worn, it con- 
sists of small sharp fragments derived from the disintegration of the fer- 
ruginous chert, the so-called "iron-bearing taconite." 

Experiments in concentration indicate that, while much of the silica 
is so combined with iron as to be wholly unsusceptible of concentration, the 
probabilities are decidedly in- favor of concentration or more correctly 
speaking, washing being developed to a commercial success. 

The softness of the ore formation practically limits drill prospecting 
to churn drilling. Since much of the ore is largely composed of the sharp 
"sand" just referred to it is difficult if not impossible to judge from an 
examination of the drillings (which consist wholly of sharp fragments) 
whether the stratum passed through is taconite or paint-rock, or whether it 
is material that can be commercially washed. 

Recent development by test pits and raises has disclosed large quantities 
of "paint-rock." One of the distinguishing features of paint-rock on Eastern 
Mesaba is the presence of comparatively large percentages of alumina and 
phosphorus which are readily determined by analysis. On the Western 
Mesaba the paint-rock contains so little alumina and phosphorus that de- 
pendence cannot be placed upon the chemical analysis of drill samples 
to distinguish between paint-rock and ore. Until quite recently ore esti- 

40 



mates in the Western Mesaba district were based wholly upon chemical 
analysis. Three grades were established: First, a non-Bessemer shipping 
ore containing 57% iron and 0.04% phosphorus of which quite a little tonnage 
was developed. Second, a first-class silicious ore averaging 49% iron and 
0.04% phosphorus. Third, a second-class silicious ore averaging 40% iron 
and 0.04% phosphorus. It was assumed that the bulk of the silicious ore 
could be successfully raised to merchantable grade by washing. The sink- 
ing of test pits quickly showed a wide variation in chemical analysis of 
churn-drill samples and test pit samples from the same stratum. This 
variation was caused by a washing away of silica and alumina and concen- 
tration of iron due to the churning action in the drill hole. The alumina !n 
some cases was reduced from 17% to 0.2%, while the iron was correspond- 
ingly increased, in some instances sufficiently to make drill samples run 
7% higher than test-pit samples. 

This selective or concentration action within the drill hole might readily 
make a poor class of paint-rock appear to be a good grade of non-Bessemer 
ore; it might readily show a large tonnage of washable ore in ground which 
really averaged as low as 30% iron. 

A number of comparisons between drill hoJe and test-pit data show that 
a concentration of iron in the drill hole is inevitable. The degree of 
concentration varies greatly but would seem to average about 4%. There- 
fore in grading this 4% reduction has been adopted. 

The impracticability of using the chemical analysis as a basis for the 
classification of the ore as "washable" and "non-washable" led to the adop- 
tion of a classification of test-pit and drill samples, according to physical 
characteristics into "ore" "sand and ore" "paint-rock" and "taconite." A 
number of estimates were made on this plan by a leading mining company 
but its engineers have now abandoned the method as unsatisfactory. 

It would be impossible for two men, however expert and conscientious, 
to check within reasonable limits on an ore estimate based purely on the 
physical characteristics of drill samples. Therefore estimates are based on 
the chemical analysis. 

As a matter of fact, present day estimates in the Western Mesaba 
district are largely speculative and will so remain until the washing plant 
now in construction at Coleraine has thoroughly tested out the various ore 
bodies, determining the ratio of washable to non-washable ore and the ratio 
of concentration. 



CUYUNA RANGE ESTIMATES 
Special Report 

The deposits are irregular in shape. The drilling shows them in the 
form of lenses which are commonly narrow and may be single or double; 
when double they are parallel and are separated by lean material. There 
are no outcrops and no topographic features to indicate the presence of an 
ore deposit. The iron-bearing formation continues for miles though the 
bodies of ore are small and in general end abruptly; the greatest length 
is approximately 2,000 feet. 

Two hundred (200) feet is probably close to the average width for the 
north part of the range, while the width is considerably less on the south 
end. 

41 



The greatest depth shown to date is 850 feet. Greater depths are ob- 
tained on the north than on the south range. Four hundred and fifty (450) 
feet is in all probability a fair average depth. These lenses of ore are 
pitched at a high angle in many cases nearly vertical. 



Samples taken* from the Kennedy mine, situated in the N 1 /^ of the 
of Section 30-47-28, averaged 57.06 per cent iron, .119 per cent phosphorus, 
.61 per cent manganese, 11.10 per cent silica with a moisture of approximate- 
ly 10 per cent. This is typical of the ore as it is found on the north end 
of the range. The percentage of iron is lower on the south end. Cuyuna 
ores are hydrous and silicious limonites, usually red or brown in color, 
intermixed with paint-rock. Some hematites are found. From present indi- 
cations the percentage of iron is higher near the top of the ore body and 
decreases with depth. 

Over the range in general the phosphorus is higher than that just 
shown in the Kennedy mine. Bessemer ore seems to exist only in very 
small quantities. 

Manganese will run about as shown in the Kennedy. 

Silica is high and usually increases as the iron decreases until the 
ore becomes too lean to be merchantable. 

Moisture is as yet largely undetermined, but it may in some cases reach 
14 per cent. 

The texture of the ore runs from soft, slaty to a dense, hard, silicious 
ore. 

The ore will probably be rated only as of medium grade. Its physical 
characteristics make it a desirable furnace material, while low iron and 
high silica detract from its value. 

Mining must be done entirely iby underground methods no stripping 
being possible. At present the Kennedy mine owned by Rogers, Brown & 
Company is the only one hoisting ore. Two levels are opened up on this 
property and a stock pile has accumulated awaiting the completion of the 
railroad and ore docks. The season of 1911 should see a fair production 
from this mine. 

The Meacham shaft of Rogers, Brown & Company in the NE 1 ^ of the 
NE*4 of Section 11-46-29 is made of concrete and has been sunk 78 feet to 
the ledge and will be continued to 400 feet in depth. Railroad tracks have 
been provided for this shaft and the property should be a producer in 1911. 

At Ironton a location is now building and a shaft just begun in the 
SE^ of the NE%, Section 10-46-29. Tracks and yards are already in place. 
This property also belongs to Rogers, Brown & Company. 

There are no other active mines at present on the Cuyuna range. 



42 



IRON MINES OF THE MARQUETTE RANGE 

With 1910, Prior and Total Shipments From Each Mine 

Reprinted from the Iron Trade Review 







Shipments 






1910 


Prior 


Total 


American (Sterling) 


163,290 


240,339 


403,629 


Austin 


188,588 


433,037 


621,625 


Beaufort (Ohio) 


23,427 


566,705 


590,132 


Bessie 




59,097 


59,097 


Breitung Hematite 


114,202 


301,583 


415,785 


Cambria 


150,422 


2,037,727 


2,188,149 


Champion 


18,746 


4 394 385 


4,413,131 


*Cleveland-Cliffs Group 


955 374 


21 449 896 


22,405,270 


East New York 




327,604 


327,604 


Empire 


53,687 


203,095 


256,782 


Foxdale 




31,447 


31,447 


Hartford 


183,471 


1,766,951 


1,950,422 


Imperial 


83,404 


376,691 


460,095 


Jackson 


40,320 


3,885,213 


3,925,533 


Lake Angeline 


244 923 


8 285 460 


8 530 383 


Lake Superior 


271 445 


14 961 563 


15,233,008 


Lillie 


10,121 


1 748 490 


1,758,611 


Lucy (McComber) . ... 


11,257 


519 031 


530,288 


Maas 


208,103 


220 611 


428,714 


Magnetic (stock pile) 




292 


292 


Mary Charlotte 


197,522 


1,057,184 


1,254,706 


Mitchell 


23,428 


29,319 


52,747 


Moore 




68 131 


68,131 


Negaunee 


348 818 


3 662 127 


4 010 945 


New York (York) 




1 123 071 


1,123,071 


Palmer ... . 




14 172 


14,172 


Portland 


49,584 


79 652 


129,236 


Princeton (Swanzey) 


89,441 


1 271 761 


1,361,202 


Queen (Blue) 


230,119 


5 992 421 


6,222,540 


Republic 


150,732 


6,193,471 


6,344,203 


Richmond 


95 772 


688 455 


784,227 


Rolling Mill 


115,193 


578,916 


694,109 


Star West (Wheat) 




204 649 


204,649 


Stegmiller 


48,842 


39869 


88,711 


Stephenson 


225,726 


122 968 


348,694 


Volunteer 




1,419,197 


1,419,197 


Washington 


96 769 


65 341 


162,110 


Webster 




34 905 


34,905 


Winthrop (Marquette) 




1 912 022 


1,912,022 


Miscellaneous 




5 537,143 


5,537,143 










Total 


4 392 726 


91 903 991 


96,296,717 











"Cliffs, Lake, Moro and Salisbury Mines. 



IRON MINES OF THE MENOMINEE RANGE 

With 1910, Prior and Total Shipments From Each Mine 

Reprinted from the Iron Trade Review 



Name of Mine 




Shipments 






1910 


Prior 


Total 


Alpha 




1 370 


1 370 


Antoine . . 




1 353 792 


1 353 792 


Aragon 


241 046 


5 836 281 


6 077 327 


Armenia 


65 473 


311 608 


377 081 


Baker ... . 


39 417 


45 003 


84 420 


Baltic ... . 


171 930 


1 168 663 


1 340 593 


Berkshire 


97 999 


37 735 


135 734 


Breen . . . 




75 425 


75 425 


Bristol (Claire) 


270 742 


2 185 367 


2 456 109 


Calumet 




121 354 


121 354 


Caspian .... 


171 334 


527 971 


699 305 


Chapin (Ludington) 


465 543 


17 183 934 


17 649 477 


Chatham . . . 


51,988 


129 439 


181 427 


Clifford . . . 


91,081 


103 626 


194 707 


Columbia 




942 703 


942 703 


Commonwealth 


89,116 


2 511 784 


2 600 900 


Crystal Falls 




1 735 251 


1 735 251 


Cuff 




58 419 


58 419 


Cundy (Quinnesec) 




1 344 645 


721 321 


Dober (Riverton) 


84,269 


2 110 877 


2,195 146 


Dunn 


136,144 


1 521 871 


1 658 015 


Eleanor (Appleton) . 




18 719 


18 719 


Fairbanks (P't R.) . 




379 789 


379 789 


Florence 


239,161 


2 718 019 


2 957,180 


Fogartv . 


51,071 


117,865 


168,936 


Forest 




11 988 


11,988 


Genesee (Ethel) 


66,185 


471,439 


537,624 


Gibson 


45,202 


57,151 


102,353 


Great Western . ... 


80,709 


1,872,228 


1,952,937 


Groveland .......' 


26,462 


74,092 


100,554 


Hemlock 


115,407 


1,589,818 


1,705,225 


Hiawatha 


128,884 


485,612 


614,496 


Hilltop 




20,229 


20,229 


Hollister 


49,434 


46,982 


96,416 


Hope 




28,530 


28,530 


James 


78,388 


152,971 


231,359 


Keel Ridge 




93 101 


93 101 


Kimball 




16,224 


16,224 


Lamont (Monitor) 


3,183 


555 341 


558,524 


Lincoln ... 




241 627 


241,627 











44 



IRON MINES OF THE MENOMINEE RANGE Concluded 

AND BARABOO DISTRICT 

With 1910, Prior and Total Shipments From Each Mine 
Reprinted from the Iron Trade Review 







Shipments 






1910 


Prior 


Total 


Loretto 


116,048 


1,195,020 


1,311,068 


Mansfield 


114,357 


1,102,998 


1,217,355 


McDonald . . . 


6,022 


1,144 


7,166 


Michigan ... 


17,922 


153,797 


171,719 


Millie (Hewitt) 




368,267 


368,267 


Monongahela 




9,310 


9,310 


Munroe 


20,022 


278,556 


298,578 


Nanaimo 




373,765 


373,765 


Northwestern 




35,810 


35,810 


Penn Iron Mining Company 


344,760 


8,500,375 


8,845,135 


Pewabic .... 


380,376 


6,936,789 


7,317,165 


Quinnesec . . 


744 


3,147 


627,215 


Saginaw (Perkins) 




502,985 


502,985 


Sheridan 




116,299 


116,299 


Tobin 


235,812 


1,394,737 


1,630,549 


Tully 


2,726 




2,726 


Verona 




130,975 


130,975 


Vivian 


14,827 


405,412 


420,239 


Youncs 


98,399 


375,385 


473,784 


Zimmerman 


25,555 


12,135 


37,690 


Miscellaneous 




1,057,306 


1,057,306 










Total 


4,237,738 


71,213,055 


75,450,793 



BARABOO DISTRICT 
(In Wisconsin) 



Illinois 




309,741 


309,741 


Iron Ridge 


14,487 


158,994 


173,481 


Mayville 


77,195 


411,892 


489,087 










Total 


91,682 


880,627 


972,309 



45 



IRON MINES OF THE GOGEBIC RANGE 

With 1910, Prior and Total Shipments From Each Mine 

Reprinted from the Iron Trade Review 



Name of Mine 




Shipments 






1910 


Prior 


Total 


Anvil 


7 235 


766 962 


774 197 


Ashland 


231 506 


5 386 884 


5 618 390 


Atlantic 


79 847 


1 547 123 


1 626 970 


Brotherton 


102 626 


1 752 498 


1 855 124 


Gary (and Superior) . 


205 674 


2 540 147 


2 745 821 


Castile 


20,197 


35 247 


55 444 


Chicago 




68 727 


68 727 


Colby 


194,754 


2 450 347 


2 645 101 


Davis (Wisconsin) 




103 961 


103 961 


Eureka 


41,611 


462 134 


503 745 


Geneva 




7 108 


7 108 


Harmony (Germania) . . 


20,080 


422 239 


442 319 


Hennepin ... 




259 733 


259 733 


Iron Belt 


66,627 


1 185 502 


1 252 129 


Ironton . . . 


109,925 


848 985 


958 910 


Jack Pot 




99 090 


99 090 


Meteor (Comet) 




216 367 


216 367 


Mikado . . . 


52,715 


997 085 


1 049 800 


Montreal 


187,325 


2 804 485 


2 991 810 


Newport 


1,182,324 


5 845 039 


7 027 363 


*Norrie Group 


1,333,006 


24 052 924 


25 385 930 


Ottawa (Odanah) ... 


83,389 


481 359 


564 748 


Palms 




1 284 489 


1 284 489 


Pence 


8,954 


40 566 


49 520 


Pike 


3,324 


98 732 


102 056 


Puritan (Ruby) 


50,019 


109 572 


159 591 


Shores 




55 808 


55 808 


Sunday Lake 


115,486 


1 306 975 


1 422 461 


Tilden 


99,937 


5 088 635 


5,188 572 


Upson 




11 375 


11,375 


Winona 


10,500 




10 500 


Yale (West Colby) 


108,253 


373 173 


481,426 


Miscellaneous 




117,232 


117,232 










Total 


4,315,314 


60,820,503 


65,135,817 











*Norrie, N. Norrie, E. Norrie, Aurora, Pabst and Vaughn Mines. 



IRON MINES OF THE MESABA RANGE 

With 1910, Prior and Total Shipments from Each Mine 
Reprinted from the Iron Trade Review 



Name of Mine 


Shipments 


1910 


Prior 


Total 


Adams 


1,258,295 
135,685 
152,834 


12,585,828 
288,927 
923,881 
207,650 
1,731,036 
82,175 
231,699 
2,143,028 


13,844,123 
424,612 
1,076,715 
207,650 
1,998,619 
107,579 
233,351 
2,143,028 

17,673 
874,026 
9,665,922 
123,303 
379,814 
8,892,513 

1,198,879 
713,048 
241,343 
2,581^229 
152,075 
3,471,597 
16,987 
2,543,402 
913,713 
837,761 
1,147,391 
1,380,267 

319,453 
171 
1,794,472 

1,855,846 
7,214 
135*636 

19,617,649 
248,540 
360,057 
1,743,622 
145,069 

3,268,586 
1,331,576 
2,203,461 
462,275 

546,882 
27,711 


Adriatic 


Asjnew 


Ajax (Kanawha) 


Albany 


267,583 
25,404 
1,652 


Alberta 


Alexander 


Auburn ... . 


Bansror 


17,673 
117,173 
544,353 
57,789 
110,630 
1,032,815 

1,105,160 


Bessemer 


756,853 
9,121,569 
65,514 
269,184 
7,859,698 

93,719 
713,048 
241,343 
1,946,993 
152,075 
2,942,375 
16,987 
2,201,854 
636,176 
678,192 
1,075,759 
1,278,034 

319,453 
171 
1,737,233 

1,668,853 


Biwabik 


Brav 


Brunt 


Burt 


Canisteo 


Canton 


Cass 




Chisholm 


634,236 


Cincinnati 


Clark 


529,222 


Columbia 


Commodore 


341,548 
277,537 
159,569 
71,632 
102,233 


Corsica 


Crosby 


Croxton 


Cyprus . . 


Day 


Diamond 




Duluth 


57,239 

186,993 
7,214 
53,009 

1,485,099 
8,264 
204,640 
31,614 


Elba 


Elizabeth 


Euclid 


82,627 

18,132,550 
240,276 
155,417 
1,712,008 
145,069 

2,985,287 
1,220,788 
1,917,410 
164,514 

238,873 


Fayal 


Forest 


Fowler 


Franklin 


Frantz 


Genoa 


283,299 
110,788 
286,051 
297,761 

308,009 
27.711 


Gilbert 


Glen 


Grant . . 


Hanna 


Harold.. 



47 



IRON MINES OF THE MESABA RANGE Continued 

With 1910, Prior and Total Shipments from Each Mine 
Reprinted from the Iron Trade Review 



Name of Mine 


Shipments 


1 
1910 


Prior 


Total 


Hartley 


113,512 
224,406 
82,393 
151,854 
801,088 


390,108 
1,545,523 
418,336 
1,111,146 


503,620 
1,769,929 
500,729 
1,263,000 
801,088 
8,314 
270,864 
814,780 
168,553 
15,580,481 
33,575 

1,109,609 

213,317 
945,644 

339,695 
1,197,269 
58,406 

493,017 
4,962,469 
116,422 
1,406,403 
958,016 
2,877,892 
1,846,005 
2,463,165 
121,391 

109,086 
15,267 
83,922 
14,046,855 
1,116,360 
131,318 
220,765 
4,392 
1,349,747 
17,486 
966,974 
36,581 
680,495 
77,117 
628,899 
8,681,082 
279,296 
17,198,817 


Hawkins 


Hector (Hale) 


Higgins No. 2 


Hill 


Hobart 


8,314 
270,864 
400,907 


Holland 




Holman 


413,873 
168,553 
3,189,975 

f 8,227 

231,842 


Hudson 


Hull-Rust 


12,390,506 
25,348 

877,767 

213,317 
925,330 

196,789 
795,349 
7,464 

472,668 
4,962,469 
94,722 
1,277,745 
768,970 
2,262,496 
858,095 
2,144,253 
121,391 

109,086 


Humphrey 


Iroquois ... 


Jennings 


Jordan 


20,314 

142,906 
401,920 
50,942 

20,349 


Kellogg 


it. s 
Ivinney ... . ........ 


Knox 


La Belle 


*Lake Superior Group 


Larkin (Tesora) 


21,700 
128,658 
189,046 
615,396 
987,910 
318,912 


La Rue 


Laura 


Leetonia 


Leonard 


Lincoln 


Longyear 


McKinley 




Mace 


15,267 
83,922 
1,515,723 
72,035 
23,265 


Maderia 




Mahoning . . 


12,531,132 
1,044,325 
108,053 
220,765 

"i,133',484" 
16,523 
900,463 

557,315 
7,614 
628,899 
7,316,409 
279,296 
17,198,871 


Malta 


Mariska 


Mayas 


Meadow 


4,392 
216,263 
963 
66,511 
36,581 
123,180 
69,503 


Miller 


Miniiewas 


Minorca 


Mississippi 


Mohawk 


Monica 


Monroe 


Morris 


1,364,673 


Morrow 


Mountain Iron (Aetna) 




*Burt, Hull and Hull-Rust Mines. 
fA Trespass. 



IRON MINES OF THE MESABA RANGE Concluded 

With 1910, Prior and Total Shipments From Each Mine 

Reprinted from the Iron Trade Review 



Name of Mine 




Shipments 






1910 


Prior 


Total 


Myers . . 


131,440 


914,736 


1,046,176 


Nassau 


39 


31,112 


31,151 


Onandaga . . . 


61,935 


90,797 


152,732 


Pearce 


60,411 


242,830 


303,241 


Pearson 


78 133 


68,683 


146,816 


Penobscot 




706 071 


706 071 


Perkins 


80,622 


59,029 


139,651 


Pettit 


62,456 


496,830 


559,286 


Pillsbury 




1,640.265 


1,640,265 


Roberts 


26,915 


190,154 


217,069 


Sauntry-Alpena 


242,373 


700,140 


942,513 


Scranton 




1 168 


1.168 


Sellers 


954,042 


2,870,890 


3,824,932 


Seville 


2,677 


23,585 


26,262 


Schley 


13,369 




13,369 


Sharon 




329,535 


329,535 


Shenango 


965,148 


2,303,257 


3,268,405 


Silverton . . 


13,740 




13,740 


Sliver 


358,432 


305,364 


663,796 


Sparta . 




1,244,197 


1,244,197 


Spring 


31,909 


35,773 


67,682 


Spruce (Cloquet) 


613,947 


5,166,199 


5,780,146 


St. Clair .... 




94,688 


94,688 


St Paul 




137 430 


137,430 


Stephens 




454 819 


454,819 


Stevenson 


953,079 


9,984,191 


10,937,270 


Susquehanna 


176,869 


583,592 


760,461 


Sweeney 


769 


7,579 


8,348 


Syracuse 


2,363 


5,509 


7,872 


Tener 




853 765 


853,765 


Troy. . 


104,057 


489,824 


593,881 


Union 




399,877 


399,877 


Uno 


341,939 




341,939 


Utica 


232,582 


1,303,649 


1,536,231 


Victoria . 


27,592 


289,525 


317,117 


*Virerinia Group 


992,389 


8,218,097 


9,210,486 


. AA,1*11U> V>HWU^. 

Virginia JMme 


299,046 




299,046 


Wacoutah 


35,498 


226,424 


261,922 


Webb 


46,384 


369,783 


416,167 


Williams (N Cincinnati) 




97,842 


97,842 


Wills 


26,712 


20,148 


46,860 


Winnifred (Day) 


67,686 


365,102 


432,788 


Yates 




679,038 


679,038 


Yawkey 


30,439 


145,689 


176,128 


Total 


29,201,760 


195,703,424 


224,905,184 



*Lone Jack, Missabe Mountain, Norman and Ohio Mines. 



IRON MINES OF THE VERMILION RANGE* 
With 1910, Prior and Total Shipments From Each Mine 
Reprinted from the Iron Trade Review 



Name of Mine 


Shipments 


1910 


Prior 


Total 


Chandler 




9,537,378 
6,991,297 
1,359,611 


9,537,378 
7,517,732 
1,419,486 
51,650 
1,558,961 
8,357,363 
1,885,992 


Pioneer . 


526,435 
59,875 
51,650 
206,386 
75,511 
283,320 


Savoy. . . 


Section 30 


Sibley. . . . ...... 


1,352,575 

8,281,852 
1,602,672 


Soudan (Minnesota) . 


Zenith . ... . 


Total 


1,203.177 


29,125,385 


30,328,562 





GRAND SUMMARY OF SHIPMENTS 



Range 


1910 


Prior 


Total 


Marquette 


4,392,726 


91,903,991 


96,296,717 


Menominee 


4,237,738 


71,213,055 


75,450,793 


Gogebic 


4,315,314 


60,820,503 


65,135,817 


Baraboo 


91,682 


880,627 


972,309 


Mesaba 


29,201,760 


195,703,424 


224,905,184 


Vermilion 


1,203,177 


29,125,385 


30,328,562 










Grand Total 


43,442,397 


449,646,985 


493,089,382 



50 



YEARLY TONNAGE SHIPMENTS OF IRON ORE FROM EACH RANGE OF 
THE LAKE SUPERIOR DISTRICT 



Since the Opening of the Lock and Canal at Sault Ste. Marie in 1855 
Reprinted from the Iron Trade Review 



Year 


Marquette 


Menomiuee 


Gogebic 


Vermilion 


Mesaba 


Grand Total 


1855 


1 449 










1 449 


1856 


36 343 










36343 


1857 


25 646 










25 646 


1858 . 


15,876 










15 876 


1859 


68 832 










68 832 


1860 . . . . 


114,401 










114,401 


1861 


49 909 










49 909 


1862 


124 169 










124 169 


1863 


203,055 










203,055 


1864 


243 127 










243 127 


1865 . . . 


236,208 










236 208 


1866 


278 796 










278 796 


1867 


473 567 










473 567 


1868 . 


491,449 










491 449 


1869 


617 444 










617 444 


1870 


830,940 










830 940 


1871 


779 607 










779 607 


1872 


900,901 










900,901 


1873 


1,162,458 










1,162,458 


1874 


919,557 










919,557 


1875 . . . 


891,257 










891 257 


1876 


992 764 










992 764 


1877 


1,010,494 


4,593 








1,015087 


1878 


1 033 082 


78028 








1 111 110 


1879 


1,130,019 


245,672 








1,375.691 


1880 


1 384 010 


524 735 








1 908 745 


1881 


1,579,834 


727,171 








2,307,005 


1882 


1,829,394 


1,136018 








2 965 412 


1883 


1 305 425 


1 047 415 








2 352 840 


1884 . 


1,548,034 


895,634 


1 022 


62,124 




2,506 814 


1885 


1 480 422 


690 435 


119 860 


225 484 




2 516201 


1886 


1,627,383 


880,006 


747,589 


304,396 




3,559 374 


1887 


1 851 414 


1 193 343 


1 303 267 


394 252 




4 742 276 


1888 
1889 


1,918,750 
2 634 816 


1,191,101 
1,796 755 


1,424,699 
2 016391 


511,953 
844 682 




5,046,503 
7 292 644 


1890 


2,993,664 


2,282,237 


2,847,786 


880,114 




9,003,801 


1891 


2,512 242 


1,824 619 


1,839,574 


894 618 




7 071 053 


1892 
1893 
1894 


2,665,169 
1,835,893 
2 060 260 


2,261,499 
1,466,197 
1 137 949 


2,971,991 
1,329,385 
1 809 468 


1,167,650 
820,621 
948 513 


4,245 
613,620 
1 793 052 


9,070^554 
6,065,716 
7 749 242 


1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 


2,097,838 
2,604,221 
2,715,035 
3,125,039 
3,757,010 


1,923,798 
1,560,467 
1,937,013 
2,522,265 
3,301,052 


2,547,976 
1,799,971 
2,258,236 
2,498,461 
2,795,856 


1,077,838 
1,088,090 
1,278,481 
1,265,142 
1,771,502 


2,781,587 
2,882,079 
4,275,809 
4,613,766 
6,626,384 


10,429 037 
9,934,828 
12,464,574 
14,024,673 
18,251,804 


1900 
1901 


3,457,522 
3 245 346 


3,261,221 
3 619 053 


2,875,295 
2 938 155 


1,655,820 
1 786 063 


7,809,535 
9 004 890 


19,059,393 
20 593 507 


1902 
1903 
1904 
1905 
1906 
1907 
1908 
1909 
1910 


3,868,025 
3,040,245 
2,843,703 
4,215,572 
4,057,187 
4,388,073 
2,414,632 
4.256,172 
4,392,726 


4,612,509 
3,749,567 
3,074,848 
4,495,451 
5,109,088 
4,964,728 
2,679,156 
4,875,385 
4,237,738 


3,654,929 
2,912,708 
2,398,287 
3,705,207 
3,643,514 
3,637,102 
2,699,856 
4,088,057 
4,315,314 


2,084,263 
1,676,699 
1,282,513 
1,677,186 
1,792,355 
1,685,267 
841,544 
1,108,215 
1,203,177 


13,342,840 
12,892,542 
12,156,008 
20,158,699 
23,819,029 
27,495,708 
17,257,350 
28,176,281 
29,201,760 


27,562,566 
24,271,761 
21,755,359 
34,252,115 
38,421,173 
42,170,878 
25,892,538 
42,504.110 
43,350,715 


Total.. 
To Adjust. 


96,336,406 
39 689 


75,306,746 
+ 144 047 


65,179,956 
44 139 


30,328,562 


224,905,184 


492,056,854 
+ 60,219 


Baraboo 












972 309 
















Total... 


96,296,717 


75,450,793 


65,135,817 


30,328,562 


224,905,184 


493,089,382 



Author's note; 

There should be added to the above grand total 1,032,528 tons of which 972,309 tons are ship- 
ments from the Baraboo district in Wisconsin, and 60,219, tons are to correct miscellaneous 
shipment records prior to 1891 from the Marquette, Menominee and Gogebic ranges. The correct 
grand total of shipments is 493, 089,382 tons, as shown in preceding lists of individual mine ship- 
ments. 



PRICES OF IRON ORE AT LOWER PORTS 
FOR EACH RANGE SINCE OPENING 



PRICES OF PIG IRON 
AND PRODUCTION 



Reprinted from the Iron Trade Review 



Year 


Old Range- Vermilion 


Mesaba 




Year 


Price 


Long 
Tons 


Bessemer 


Non- 
Bessemer 


Besse- 
mer 


Non- 
Besse- 
mer 


1855. . 
1856. . 
1857.. 
1858. . 
1859. . 
I860.. 
1861.. 
1862.. 
1863. . 
1864.. 
1865. . 
1866. . 
1867.. 
1868. . 
1869. . 
1870. . 
1871.. 
1872.. 
1873. . 
1874. . 
1875. . 
1876. . 
1877. . 
1878. . 
1879. . 
1880.. 
1881.. 
1882.. 
1883. . 
*1884.. 
1885. . 
1886. . 
1887.. 
1888. . 
1889. . 
1890.. 
1891.. 
1892 . . 
1893.. 
1894. . 
1895. . 
1896. . 
1897.. 
1898. . 
1899. . 
1900.. 
1901.. 
1902.. 
1903.. 
1904.. 
1905.. 
1906.. 
1907.. 
1908. 
1909.. 
1910. . 
1911.. 


$10.00 
8.00 
8.00 
6.50 
6.00 
5.25 
5.25 
5.25 
7.50 
8.50 
7.50 
9.50 
10.50 
8.25 
8.25 
8.50 
8.00 
9.00 
1200 
9.00 
7.00 
6.75 
6.50 
5.50 
6.25 
9.25 
9.00 
9.00 
6.00 
*5.25 
4.75 
5.25 
6.00 
4.75 
4.50 
5.50 
4.50 
4.50 
3.85 
2.75 
2.90 
4.00 
2,60 
2.75 
3.00 
5.50 
4.25 
4.25 
4.50 
3.25 
3.75 
4.25 
5.00 
4.50 
4.50 
5.00 
4.50 


$10.00 
8.00 
8.00 
6.50 
6.00 
5.50 
5.00 
5.37 
7.50 
8.50 
7.50 
9.50 
8.00 
8.25 
9.50 
8.50 
8.00 
7.50 
9.00 
7.00 
4.50 
5.50 
4.25 
4.25 
4.75 
8.00 
7.00 
6.25 
4.75 
4.50 
4.00 
4.50 
5.00 
4.00 
4.50 
5.25 
4.25 
3.65 
3.20 
2.50 
2.25 
2.70 
2,15 
1.85 
2.15 
4.25 
3.00 
3.25 
3.60 
2.75 
3.20 
3.70 
4.20 
3.70 
3.70 
4.20 
3.70 






1855. . 
1856. . 
1857.. 
1858. . 
1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 
1865. 
1866. 
1867. 
1868. 
1869. 
1870. 
1871.. 
1872. . 
1873.. 
1874. . 
1875. . 
1876. . 
1877.. 
1878. . 
1879. . 
1880. . 
1881 . . 
t!882.. 
1883.. 
1884. . 
1885. . 
1886. . 
1887. . 
1888.. 
1889. . 
1890. . 
1891.. 
1892. . 
1893.. 
1894. . 
1895.. 
1896. . 
1897 
1898. . 
1899. . 
1900. . 
1901.. 
1902. . 
1903.. 
1904.. 
1905.. 
1906.. 
1907.. 
1908.. 
1909.. 
1910. . 


$2775 
27.12 
26.37 
22.25 
23.37 
22.75 
2025 
23.87 
35.25 
59.25 
46.12 
46.87 
44.12 
39.25 
40.62 
33.25 
35.12 
48.87 
42.75 
30.25 
25.50 
22.25 
18.87 
17.62 
21.50 
28.50 
25.12 
21.85 
19.04 
17.18 
15.27 
18.96 
21.37 
17.38 
18.00 
22.15 
15.15 
15.00 
12.65 
9.65 
9.40 
12.40 
8.35 
9.55 
10.30 
24.15 
16.15 
15.90 
21.50 
13.35 
15.50 
17.25 
21.50 
16.00 
14.75 
19.00 


700.159 
788,515 
712,640 
629,548 
750,560 
821,223 
653,164 
703,270 
846,075 
1,014,282 
831,770 
1,205,663 
1,305.023 
1,431,250 
1,711,287 
1,665,179 
1,706,793 
2,548,718 
2,560,963 
2,401,262 
2,023,733 
1,868,961 
2,066,594 
2,301,215 
2,741,853 
3,835,191 
4,144,254 
4,623,323 
4,595,510 
4,097,868 
4,044,526 
5,683.329 
6,417,148 
6,489,738 
7,603,642 
9,202,703 
8,279.870 
9,157,000 
7,124,502 
6,657,388 
9,446,308 
8,623,127 
9,652,680 
11,773,934 
13,620,703 
13,789,242 
15,878,354 
17,821,307 
18,009,252 
16,497,033 
22,992,380 
25,307,191 
25,781,361 
15,936,018 
25,795,471 
27,298i545 



















































































































$3.00 ' 
2.35 
2.15 
3.50 
2.25 
2.25 
2.40 
4.50 
3.25 
3.25 
4.00 
3.00 
3.50 
4.00 
475 
4.25 
4.25 
4.75 
4.25 





$1.90 ' 
2.25 
1.90 
1.75 
2.00 
4.00 
2.75 
2.75 
3.20 
2.50 
3.00 
3.50 
4.00 
3.50 
3.50 
4.00 
3.50 



*The Vermilion and Gogebic Ranges opened in 1884. 

tPrior to 1882 prices are for No. 1 Anthracite Foundry Pig iron at Philadelphia, 
prices are for Bessemer Pig Iron in the Valley at the||time ore prices were fixed. 



Succeeding 



RAIL FREIGHTS ON IRON ORE TO UPPER LAKE PORTS 

Reprinted from The Marine Review 



Year 


Marquette Range 


tfenominee 
Range 


Gogebic 
Range 


Mesaba 
Range 


Vermilion Range 


Marquette 


Escanaba 


Escanaba 


Ashland 


Duluth 
Superior 
Two 
Harbors 


Two Harbors 
From 


Ely 


Tower 


1855 


S3 00 
1.27 
1.27 
.87 
.87 
1.09 
1.09 
1.09 
1.09 
1.09 
1.10 
1.10 
1.10 
1.10 
1.10 
1.10 
.95 
.84 
.84 
.84 
.65 
.55 
.55 
.55 
.55 
.55 
.55 
.55 
.55 
.40 
.45 
.55 
.55 
.45 
.45 
.45 
.45 
.40 
.40 
.32 
.32 
,32 
.32 
.32 
.25 
.25 
.25 
.25 
.25 
.25 
.32 
.32 
.32 
.32 
.32 
.32 
.32 














1856 
1857 


























1858 
1859 
1860 
1861 
1862 
1863 
1864 
















































































1865 
1866 
1867 
1868 
1869 
1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 














$1.55 
180 
1.80 
1.85 
1.85 
1.70 
1.70 
2.00 
2.00 
1.25 
1.15 
1.15 
1.15 
1.15 
1.25 
1.25 
1.25 
1.10 
.80 
.80 
.80 
.80 
.70 
.70 
.70 
.70 
.65 
.65 
.52 
.52 
.52 
.52 
.40 
.40 
.40 
.40 
.40 
.40 
.40 
.40 
.40 
.40 
.40 
.40 
.40 
.40 


























































































































































1882 
1883 




















1884 
1885 










$0.85 
.75 
.75 










1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 


" $0.80 
.70 
.70 


















.70 
.70 
.70 
.70 
.52 
.52 
.52 
.45 
.40 
.40 
.40 
.40 
.40 
.40 
.40 
.40 
.40 
.40 
.40 
.40 
.40 


.65 

.65 
.65 
.65 
.52 
.52 
.52 
.45 
.40 
.40 
.40 
.40 
.40 
.40 
.40 
.40 
.40 
.40 
.40 
.40 
.40 


" $0.80 
.80 
.80 
.80 
.80 
.80 
.80 
.80 
.80 
.80 
.80 
.80* 
.80 
.80 
.80 
.80 
.80 
.80 
.80 
.80 


ii.oo 

.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
1.00 
1.00 
1.00 
1.00 
1.00 
1.00 
1.00 
1.00 
1.00 
1.00 
1.00 
1.00 


$6.90 
.90 
.90 
.90 
.90 
.90 
.90 
.90 
.90 
.90 
.90 
.90 
.90 
.90 
.90 
.90 
.90 
.90 
.90 
.90 


1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 


1901 
1902 
1903 
1904 
1905 


1906 
1907 . . 


1908 
1909 
1910 
1911 



53 



VESSEL FREIGHTS ON IRON ORE TO LOWER LAKE PORTS 

Reprinted from The Marine Review 



Year 


Marquettc 


Escanaba 


Duluth 
Superior 
Ashland 
Two Harbors 


1855 . 


$3.00 






1856 


3.00 






1857 .... 


2.67 






1858 


2 09 






1859 


2.00 






1860 


2 00 






1861 . 


2.21 






1862 


2.89 






1863 . .... 


3.19 






1864 


3.37 






1865 . 


3.23 






1866 


4.17 


$3.77 




1867 


2.98 


3.28 




1868 


3.11 


2.44 




1869 


3.21 


2.43 




1870 


3.06 


2 40 




1871 


2.83 


207 




1872 


3.59 


2.50 




1873 


3.44 


274 




1874 


3.84 


* 




1875 


2.87 


* 




1876 


2.54 


* 




1877 


1.40 


* 




1878 


1.26 


.85 




1879 


1.61 


1.07 




1880 


2.50 


1 77 




1881 


2.25 


1.55 




1882 


1.50 


1.22 




1883 


1.30 


1.11 




1884 


1.21 


98 




1885 


101 


.84 


$1.20 


1886 


135 


1.16 


1.49 


1887 


175 


1.49 


2.11 


1888 


1.22 


.97 


1.34 


1889 


1.14 


1.00 


1.29 


1890 


1.16 


.99 


1.26 


1891 


.96 


.74 


1.05 


1892 


1.06 


.87 


1.20 


1893 


.85 


.70 


.88 


1894 


.70 


.53 


.79 


1895 


.83 


.64 


.96 


1896 


.80 


.61 


.91 


1897 


.60 


.45 


.63 


1898 


.60 


.48 


.61 


1899 


.84 


.72 


.95 


1900 


.94 


.85 


1.05 


1901 


.74 


.62 


.84 


1902 


.68 


.59 


.76 


1903 


.73 


.63 


.83 


1904 


.61 


.54 


.70 


1905 


.70 


.60 


.76 


1906 


.70 


.60 


.76 


1907 . . 


.70 


.60 


.76 


1908 


.60 


.50 


.65 


1909 


.60 


.50 


.65 


1910 . . 


.65 


.55 


.70 


1911 


.55 


.45 


.60 



*No shipment. 

Freight rates are averaged. 



54 



Shipments and Receipts of Iron Ore 



Shipments by Ranges, Ports and Rail and Receipts at Lake Erie Ports 

Reprinted from the Iron Trade Review 
SHIPMENTS BY RANGES, GROSS TONS 



Range 


1910 


1909 


1908 


1907 


1906 


1905 


Marquette 


4,392,726 


4,256,172 


2,414,632 


4,388,073 


4,057,187 


4,215,572 


Menominee 


4 237 738 


4 875,385 


2,679,156 


4,964,728 


5,109,088 


4,495,451 


Gogebic 


4,315,314 


4,088,057 


2,699,856 


3,637,102 


3,643,514 


3,705,207 


Vermilion. 


1,203,177 


1,108,215 


841,544 


1,685,267 


1,792,355 


1,677,186 


Mesaba 


29 201 760 


28 176 281 


17 257 350 


27 495 708 


23 819029 


20 158 699 


Baraboo 


91,682 


' 82,759 


122,449 


95,790 


144,589 


132,001 


Total 


43,442,397 


42,586,869 


26,014,987 


42,266,668 


38,565,762 


34,384,116 



SHIPMENTS BY PORTS AND ALL-RAIL, GROSS TONS 



Port 


1910 


1909 


1908 


1907 


1906 


1905 


Escanaba 


4,959,726 


5,747,801 


3,351,502 


5,761,988 


5,851,050 


5,307,938 


Marquette 
Ashland 
Two Harbors 


3,248,516 
4,094,374 
8271,177 


2,909,451 
3,834,207 
9,181,132 


1,487,487 
2,513,670 
5 702,237 


3,013,826 
3,436,867 
8,188,906 


2,791,033 
3,388,106 
8 180,125 


2,977,828 
3,485,344 
7,779,850 


Superior 


8,414,799 


6,540505 


3,564,030 


7,440,386 


6,083,057 


5,118,385 


Duluth 


13,640,166 


13,470,503 


8,808,168 


13,448,736 


11,220,218 


8,807,559 


Total by lake... 
Total by rail 


42,628,758 
813,639 


41,683,599 
903,270 


25,427,094 

587,893 


41,288,755 
975,959 


37,513,589 
1,052,173 


33,475,904 
907,212 


Total 


43 442 397 


42 586 869 


26 014,987 


42 266 668 


38,565,762 


34,384,116 

















IRON ORE RECEIPTS AT LAKE ERIE PORTS, GROSS TONS 



Port 


1910 


1909 


1908 


1907 


1906 


1905 


Toledo .... 


1,225,202 


1,374,224 


680,553 


1,314,140 


1,423,741 


1,006,855 






11,088 




83,043 


35,847 


51,202 


Huron 
Lorain ... 
Cleveland 


197,951 
2,884,738 
6,344,943 


243,082 
2,796,856 
6,051,342 


213,377 

2,286,388 
4,240,815 


971,430 
2,621,025 
6,495,998 


778,453 
2,191,965 
6,604,661 


825,278 
1,605,823 

5,854,745 


Fairport 
Ashtabula 
Conneaut 
Erie 


1,516,434 
9,620,638 
6,309,548 
942 592 


1,734,277 
8,056,941 
7,007,834 
1,235,057 


1,518,961 
3,012,064 
4,798,631 
828,602 


2,437,649 
7,521,859 
5,875,937 
2,294,239 


1,861,498 
6,833,352 
5,432,370 
1,986,539 


2,008,621 
6,373,779 
5,327,552 
2,112,476 


Buffalo 


4,704,439 


5,002,235 


2,835,099 


5,580,438 


4,928,331 


3,774,928 


Detroit 


296 412 


159 889 
























Total 


34,042,897 


33,672,825 


20,414,491 


35,195,758 


32,076,757 


28,941,259 

















55 



Lake Erie Stock Piles 



Iron Ore on Lake Erie Docks Dec. 1 and May 1 1905-1910 

Reprinted from the Iron Trade Review 
IRON ORE ON LAKE ERIE DOCKS, DEC. 1, GROSS TONS 



Port 


1910 


1909 


1908 


1907 


1906 


1905 


Toledo 


433,215 


332,456 


590,925 


518 645 


281 000 


368 024 


Sandusky 
Huron 


17,728 
375,118 


39,557 
477,333 


36,079 

458 158 


44,546 
415 730 


17/167 
245 499 


52,977 
208 023 


Lorain 


259 448 


407 129 


496 274 


366 271 


336321 


271 695 


Cleveland 
Fairport 
Ashtabula 


1,638,795 
839,970 
3 287,816 


1,547,142 
867,640 
2,594 359 


1,458,392 
835,821 
2 293 531 


1,281,335 
523,981 
2 056 820 


1,224,606 
590,783 
1 631 312 


1,330,619 
759,961 
1 589 951 


Conneaut. . 


1,329,997 


1,411,002 


1,296,675 


1 ,000,774 


1,057,424 


976 976 


Erie 


792 Oil 


788 046 


730 530 


652 219 


552 631 


564 961 


Buffalo 


452,783 


501,125 


315,148 


435,407 


315,412 


315 780 
















Total 


9,426,681 


8,965,789 


8,441,533 


7,385,728 


6,252,455 


6,438,967 



IRON ORE ON LAKE ERIE DOCKS, MAY 1, GROSS TONS 



Port 


1910 


1909 


1908 


1907 


1906 


1905 


Toledo 


366 63 1 


380,675 


217,788 


147,397 


52,550 


71 642 


Sandusky 
Huron 


22,468 
336,693 


31,528 
379,364 


42,256 
392,731 


5,439 
98,106 


29,320 
80 738 


44,444 
68 100 


Lorain 


205 445 


362 096 


327 052 


176 300 


140 452 


165 586 


Cleveland 
Fairport 


985,725 
541 299 


1,018,055 
562 679 


1,029,198 
225 328 


447',573 
154 246 


350,382 
266 162 


513,559 
390 869 


Ashtabula 


1,609931 


1,392,430 


1,799,454 


568,485 


462 564 


623 451 


Conneaut 
Erie 
Buffalo 


461,365 
550,187 
364 336 


497,203 
557,029 
189 209 


462,392 
595,660 
388 441 


139,853 
189,276 
50 313 


148,528 
169,488 
90 906 


96,295 
236,414 
61 271 
















Total 


5 444 080 


5 370 268 


5 480 300 


1 976 988 


1 791 090 


2 271 631 

















56 



Production of Iron Ore in the United States 

In 1907 and 1908 

Reprinted from "The Production of Iron Ores, Pig Iron, and Steel in 1908," United States 
Geological Survey, 1909. By E. C. Harder 



States 
Gross Tons 


1907 


1908 


States 
Gross Tons 


1907 


1908 


Minnesota 
Michigan 


28,969,658 
11,830342 


18,652,220 
8,839,199 


Pennsylvania 
Tennessee 


837,287 
813 690 


443,161 
635 343 


Alabama 


4,039,453 


3,734,438 


New Jersey 


549,760 


394,767 


New York 
Mont., Nev., N. Mex , 


1,375,020 


697,473 


Georgia 
Mo. and Iowa 


444,114 
111,768 


321,060 
98,414 


Utah, Wy., Tex., Ark., 


[ 949,925 


584,591 


North Carolina 


50,439 


48 522 


Col Cal and Wash 






Conn and Mass 


37 166 


28 112 


Virginia . 


786,856 


692,223 


Ohio 


23,589 


26,585 


WVa Kv .nH MH 


o SOS 


CO OOC 








Wisconsin 


838,744 


733,993 


Total 


51,720,619 


35,983,336 















Imports of Iron Ore 

By Countries, In 1907, 1908 and 1909 





1< 


K)7 


1< 


K)8 


1< 


X)9 


Gross Tons 


Tons 


Values 


Tons 


Values 


Tons 


Values 


Cuba . . ... 


657 133 


$2 522 710 


579 668 


$1 756 091 


927 774 


$2 681 028 


Spain 


296,318 


760,801 


126,074 


331,070 


291,547 


664,460 


Greece 


23 800 


42,927 


4 580 


5311 


19080 


21,782 




89 685 


97 735 


48285 


48 285 


224 395 


330 056 


United Kingdom . . . 


5,765 


16,491 


2,028 


32,027 


869 


12,846 


Germany 
Canada 


273 
26,878 
125 


2,096 
51,328 
1 102 


602 
5,013 
1 


4,052 
16,321 

28 


3 
27,155 
3 


100 
84,613 
179 


Russia in Europe 


54,995 


161,697 


5,750 


15,220 


32,010 


62,418 


French Africa 


65 940 


252 897 






37,208 


67,515 


Other countries 


8,256 


27,699 


4,627 


15,843 


134,913 


654,081 
















Total 


1,229,168 


$3,937,483 


776,898 


$2,224,248 


1,694,957 


$4,579,078 



Imports of Iron Ore For Twenty Years 

Totals for 1881-1910 



Years 


Gross Tons 


Years 


Gross Tons 


Years 


Gross Tons 


1881 


782 887 


1891 


912,856 


1901.. 


966,950 


1882 


589 655 


1892 


806 585 


1902 


1,165,470 


1883 


490 875 


1893 


526 951 


1903 


980 440 


1884 


487*820 


1894 


168 541 


1904 


487,613 


1885 


390 786 


1895 


524 153 


1905 


845,651 


1886 


1 039 433 


1896 


682 806 


1906 


1 060 390 


1887 


1 194 301 


1897 


489 970 


1907 


1,229,168 


1888 


587 470 


1898 


187 093 


1908 


776,898 


1889 


853 573 


1899 


674 082 


1909 


1,694,957 


1890 


1 246 830 


1900 


897 831 


1910 


2.591.C31 















Note For many years Cuba has annually shipped more than one-half of the imported iron ore. 
The above tables are credited to the Bureau of Statistics of the U. S. Department of Com- 
merce and Labor. 



57-- 



Apparent Annual Iron Ore Consumption 

In the United States 
1889-1910, Gross Tons 

Compiled from the American Iron and Steel Association Statistics and 1910 Report and 

"The Production of Iron Ores, Pig Iron and Steel in 1908," 

United States Geological Survey, 1909. By E. C. Harder 



Year 


Domestic 
Iron Ore 
Produced 


Stocks 
of Ore at 
Mines 


Imports 


Exports 


Stocks of 
Great 
Lower Lake 
Ports 
Dec. 1 


Zinc 
Resid. 


Apparent 
Consump- 
tion 


Pig Iron 
Produced 


1889. 


14,518,041 


2,256,973 


853,573 




2,607,106 


43,648 


14,366,562 


7,603,642 


1890. 


16,036,043 


2,000,000 


1,246,830 




3,893,487 


48,560 


16,302,025 


9,202,703 


1891. 


14,591,178 


2,450,279 


912,864 




3,508,489 


38,228 


15,476,989 


8,279,870 


1892. 


16,296,666 


2,911,740 


806,585 




4,149,451 


31,859 


16,032,687 


9,157,000 


1893. 
1894. . 
1895. . 


11,587,629 
11,879,679 
15,957,614 


3,526,161 
3,236,198 
2,976,494 


526,951 
167,307 
524,153 




4,070,710 
4,834,247 
4,415,712 


37,512 
26,981 
43,249 


11,616,412 
11,600,393 
17,203,255 


7,124,502 
6,657,388 
9,446,308 


1896. . 


16,005,449 


3,405,302 


682,806 




4,954,984 


44,953 


15,765,128 


8,623,127 


1897. . 


17,518,046 


3,098,287 


489,970 




5,923,755 


33,924 


17,380,184 


9,652,680 


1898. . 


19,433,716 


2,846,457 


187,208 




5,136,407 


48,502 


20,708,604 


11,773,934 


1899. . 


24,683,173 


2,320,278 


674,082 


40,665 


5,530,283 


65,010 


25,513,903 


13,620,703 


1900.. 


27,553,161 


3,709,950 


897,831 


51,460 


5,904,670 


87,110 


26,722,583 


13,789,242 


1901.. 


28,887,479 


4,239,823 


966,950 


64,703 


5,859,663 


52,311 


29,357,171 


15,878,354 


1902.. 


35,554,135 


3,834,717 


1,165,470 


88,445 


7,074,254 


65,246 


35,886,921 


17,821,307 


1903.. 


35,019,308 


6,297,888 


980,440 


80,611 


6,371,085 


73,264 


34,232,399 


18,009,252 


1904. . 


27,644,330 


4,666,931 


487,613 


213,865 


5,763,399 


68,189 


30,224,910 


16,497,033 


1905. . 


42,526,133 


3,812,281 


845,651 


208,017 


6,438,967 


90,289 


43,433,138 


22,992,380 


1906.. 


47,749,728 


3,281,789 


1,060,390 


265,240 


6,252,455 


93,461 


49,355,343 


25,307,191 


1907.. 


51,720,619 


3,033,110 


1,229,168 


278,208 


7,385,728 


93,413 


51,880,398 


25,781,361 


1908.. 


35,983,336 


6,065,397 


776,898 


309,099 


8,441,533 


110,225 


32,473,268 


15,936,018 


1909.. 
1910.. 


51,294.271 


6,135.271 


1,694,957 
2,591.031 


455,934 

644,875 


8,965,789 
9,426,681 


141,264 


52,080,428 


25,795,471 
27,298,545 



The above table includes data on certain factors from which an approxi- 
mate estimate of the annual consumption of iron ore in the United States 
is deduced. The result is of course merely an approximation, for no data 
are available on certain factors which should enter into the final result. 
The elements accounted for in the table and estimate are (1) domestic iron- 
ore production; (2) stock of ore at mines; (3) imports of ore; (4) exports 
of ore; (5) stocks of ore at lake ports; (6) zinc residuum production." 



58 



Production of Steel 

In the United States 
1860-1910, Gross Tons 

Compiled from the American Iron and Steel Association Statistics and 1910 Report and 
"The Production of Iron Ores, Pig Iron and Steel in 1908," 
United States Geological Survey, 1909. By E. C. Harder 



Year 


Bessemer 


Open-Hearth 


Crucible 


Other Steel 


Total 


1860 . 






* 11,838 




11 838 


1863 






8075 




8075 


1864 






9258 




9 258 


1865 






13 627 




13 627 


1866 






16 940 




16 940 


1867 


2 679 




16 964 




19 643 


1868 


7,589 




19,197 




26 786 


1869 


10 714 


893 


19 643 




31 250 


1870 


37,500 


1,339 


29,911 




68 750 


1871 


40 179 


1 785 


31 250 




73 214 


1872 


107 239 


2 679 


26 125 


6 911 


142 954 


1873 


152 368 


3 125 


31 059 


12 244 


198 796 


1874 


171 369 


6250 


32 436 


5 672 


215 727 


1875 


335 283 


8080 


35 180 


11 256 


389 799 


1876 


469 639 


19,187 


35 163 


9202 


533 191 


1877 


500,524 


22,349 


36098 


10 647 


569 618 


1878 


653 773 


32,255 


38309 


7 640 


731 977 


1879 


829,439 


50,259 


50 696 


4 879 


935 273 


1880 . . 


1 074 262 


100 851 


64 664 


7 558 


1 247 335 


1881 


1 374 247 


131 202 


80 145 


2 720 


1 588 314 


1882 


1 514 687 


143 341 


75 973 


2 691 


1 736 692 


1883 


1 477 345 


119356 


71*835 


4*999 


1 673 535 


1884 


1 375 531 


117 515 


53 270 


4 563 


1 550 879 


1885 


1 519430 


133 376 


57 599 


1 515 


1*711*920 


1886 


2 269 190 


218 973 


71 973 


2 367 


2 562 503 


1887 


2 936 033 


322 069 


75 375 


5 594 


3 339 071 


1888 


2,511,161 


314,318 


70 279 


3 682 


2,899 440 


1889 


2 930 204 


374 543 


75 865 


5 120 


3 385 732 


1890 , 


3 688,871 


513,232 


71 175 


3 793 


4 277,071 


1891 


3 247 417 


579 753 


72 586 


4 484 


3 904 240 


1892 


4 168 435 


669 889 


84 709 


4 548 


4 927 581 


1893 


3 215 686 


737 890 


63 613 


2 806 


4019 995 


1894 


3 571 313 


784 936 


51 702 


4081 


4 412 032 


1895 


4 909 128 


1 137 182 


67 666 


858 


6 114 834 


1896 


3 919 906 


1 298,700 


60 689 


2 394 


5281,689 


1897... 


5,475,315 


1,608,671 


69 959 


3012 


7,156,957 


1898 


6 609017 


2 230 292 


89747 


3 801 


8 932 857 


1899 


7 586 354 


2 947 316 


101 213 


4 974 


10 639 857 


1900 .... 


6 684 770 


3 398 135 


100 562 


4 862 


10 188 329 


1901 


8 713 302 


4 656 309 


98 513 


5 471 


13 473 595 


1902 


9 138 363 


5 687 729 


112 772 


8 386 


14 947 250 


1903 


8 592 829 


5 829 911 


102 434 


9,804 


14,534,978 


1904 


7 859 140 


5 908 166 


83 391 


9 190 


13 859 887 


1905 


10 941 375 


8 971 376 


102 233 


8 963 


20 023 947 


1906 


12 275 830 


10 980 413 


127 513 


14 380 


23 398,136 


1907... 


11 667 549 


1 1 549 736 


131 234 


14,075 


23,362,594 


1908 


6 116 755 


7 836 729 


63 631 


6 132 


14 0232 47 


1909 


9 330 783 


14 493 936 


107 355 


22 947 


23 955 021 


1910 


9,4 12*722 


16*504*509 


122*303 


55,365 


26,094,919 



*Part of the 1860-1871 Crucible Steel Production should be credited to "Other Steel." 
"The first steel produced in this country was probably made in Connecticut in 1728 by Samuel 
Higley and Joseph Dewey. Crucible steel was first successfully produced in the United States in 
1832 at the works of William and John H. Garrard, at Cincinati, Ohio. Bessemer steel was first 
made in thia country in September 1864, by William F. Durfee at an experimental plant at 
Wyandotte, Mich., and open-hearth steel in 1864 by the New Jersey Steel and Iron Company at 
Trenton, N. J." 



59 



Production of Finished Rolled Steel and Iron 



In the United States 1887-1909 



Reprinted from American Iron and Steel Association Report 1910 



Years 


Iron and 
Steel Rails 
Gross 
Tons 


Plates and 
Sheets, Ex- 
cept Nail 
Plate 


Wire 
Rods 
Gross 
Tons 


Structural 
Shapes, Not 
Including 
Plates 


Nail 
Plate 
Gross 
Tons 


Bars, 
Hoops, and 
all Other 
Forms 


Total 
Gross 
Tons 


1887 . . 


2,139,640 


603,355 






308,432 


2,184,279 


|*H 

5,235,706 


1888 


1 403 700 


609 827 


279 769 




289 891 


2 034 162 


4 617 349 


1889 


1,522,204 


716,496 


363,851 




259,409 


2,374,968 


5,236,928 


1890 


1 885 307 


809 981 


457 099 




251 828 


2,618 660 


6 022 875 


1891 


1,307,176 


678,927 


536,607 




223,312 


2,644,941 


5,390,963 


1892 


1 551 844 


751 460 


627 829 


453 957 


201 242 


2 579 482 


6 165 814 


1893... 


1,136,458 


674 345 


537,272 


387,307 


136,113 


2,104,190 


4,975,685 


1894 


1 021 772 


682 900 


673 402 


360 305 


108 262 


1,795,570 


4,642 211 


1895. . 


1,306 135 


991 459 


791,130 


517,920 


95,085 


2,487,845 


6,189,574 


1896 


1 122 010 


965 776 


623 986 


495 571 


72 137 


2 236 361 


5 515841 


1897 


1 647 892 


1 207 286 


970 736 


583,790 


94,054 


2,497,970 


7,001,728 


1898 


1,981,241 


1,448,301 


1,071,683 


702,197 


70,188 


3,239,760 


8,513,370 


1899 


2,272 700 


1 903 505 


1 036 398 


850,376 


85,015 


4,146,425 


10,294,419 


1900 


2,385,682 


1,794,528 


846,291 


815,161 


70,245 


3,575,536 


9,487,443 


1901 


2,874 639 


2 254 425 


1 365 934 


1,013,150 


68,850 


4,772,329 


12,349,327 


1902 


2,947,933 


2,665,409 


1,574,293 


1,300,326 


72,936 


5,383,219 


13,944,116 


1903 


2,992 477 


2 599 665 


1 503 455 


1,095,813 


64,102 


4,952,185 


13,207,697 


1904 


2,284,711 


2,421,398 


1,699,028 


949,146 


61,601 


4,597,497 


12,013,381 


1905 


3 375 929 


3 532 230 


1 808 688 


1,660,519 


64,542 


6,398,107 


16,840,015 


1906 


3,977,887 


4,182,156 


1,871,614 


2,118,772 


54,211 


7,383,828 


19,588,468 


1907 


3 633 654 


4 248 832 


2 017,583 


1,940,352 


52,027 


7,972,374 


] 9,864,822 


1908 
1909 


1,921,015 
3 023 845 


2 1649,693 
4 234 346 


1,816,949 
2 335,685 


1,083,181 
2,275,562 


45,747 
63,746 


4,311,608 
7,711,506 


11,828,193 
19,644,690 



















Rolled forging blooms and forging billets are included from 1905. 
shapes were included with bars, hoops, etc. 



Prior to 1892 structural 



60 



Production of Coke 



In the United States 1907-1908 

Reprinted from American Iron and Steel Association Report 1910 



States Net Tons 


1907 


1908 


Pennsylvania 
West Virginia 


26,513,214 
4,112,896 


15,511,634 
2,637,123 


Alabama 


3 021 794 


2 362 666 


Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Massachusetts, 
Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, New Jersey, 
New York, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin 
Virginia 


2,655,610 
1,545 280 


2,286,092 
1 162 051 


Colorado and Utah . 


1,421,579 


982 291 


Illinois 


372,697 


362 182 


New Mexico 


265,125 


274 565 


Tennessee 
Ohio 


467,499 
270,634 


214,528 
159,578 


Georgia 


74,934 


39,422 


Washington 


52,028 


38,889 


Kansas 


6 274 


2 497 








Total . 


40.779.564 


26.033.518 



Shipments and Prices of Connellsville Coke 

1881-1910 

Reprinted from American Iron and Steel Association Report 1910 



Calendar 
Years 


Total 
Ovens 


Shipments 
Net Tons 


Aver- 
age 
Price 


Calendar 
Years 


Total 
Ovens 


Shipments 
Net Tons 


Aver- 
age 
Price 


1881.. 

1882 


8,208 
9,283 


2,639,002 
3,043,394 


$1.63 

1 47 


1896.. 
1897 


18,351 

18 628 


5,411,602 
6 915 052 


1.90 
1 65 


1883. 


10,176 


3,552,402 


.14 


1898 


18 643 


8 460 112 


1 55 


1884 
1885 
1886 

1887 


1-0,543 
10,471 
10,952 
11,923 


3,192,105 
3,096,012 
4,180,521 
4,146,989 


.13 
.22 
.36 
.79 


1899.. .. 
1900.. .. 
1901 
1902.. . 


19,689 
20,954 
21,575 
26,329 


10,129,764 
10,166,234 
12,609,949 
14,138,740 


2.00 
2.70 
1.95 
2 37 


1888 
1889 
1890 
1891. . . . 


13,975 
14,458 
16,020 
17,204 


4,955,553 
5,930,428 
6,464,156 
4,760,665 


1.19 
1.34 
1.94 
1 87 


1903 
1904 
1905.. . . 
1906 


28,092 
29,119 
30,842 
34 059 


13,345,230 
12,427,468 
17,896,526 
19 999 326 


3.00 
1.75 
2.26 
2 75 


1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 


17,256 
17,513 
17,834 
17,947 


6,329,452 
4,805,623 
5,454,451 
8,244,438 


1.83 
1.49 
1.00 
1.23 


1907.. .. 
1908.. .. 
1909.. .. 
1910.... 


35,697 
37,842 
39,158 
39,137 


19,029,058 
10,700,022 

17,785,832 
18,689,722 


2.90 
1.80 
2.00 
2.10 



Freight Rates per Net Ton for 1911 on Furnace Coke 

Connellsville Field to 



Pittsburgh $0.75 

Youngstown 1.35 

Cleveland 1.65 

Buffalo.., . 1.85 



Philadelphia an df nn 
Schuylkill Valley t $2 - 
Chicago 2.35 



61 



Rail Freights on Iron Ore 
1890-1910 

Rate per Gross Ton from Lake Erie Docks 
Specially compiled by Rukard Hurd for this Manual. 



Year 


Cleveland, Fairport, Lorain 
and Ashtabula 


Buffalo and Erie 
To 
Philadelphia 
and 
Schuylkill 
Valley 


To 
Youngstown 


To 

Pittsburgh 


1890. . 


$0.625 
.625 
.625 
.675 
.675 

.675 
.625 
.625 
.59 
.59 

.69 
.69 
.69 
.69 
.69 

.69 
.69 
.69 
.69 
.64 
.64 


$1.05 
1.05 
1.05 
1.15 
1.15 

1.15 
1.05 
1.05 
.98 
.98 

1.18 
1.18 
1.18 
1.18 
1.18 

1.18 
1.18 
1.18 
1.18 
1.04 
1.04 


$1.36 
1.36 
1.36 
1.46 
1.46 

.46 
.46 
.28 
.33 
.33 

.43 
.43 
.43 
.43 
.43 

1.43 
1.43 
1.53 
1.53 
1.53 
1.53 


1891 


1892 


1893 


1894 


1895 


1896 


1897 


1898 


1899 


1900 


1901 


1902 


1903 


1904 


1905 


1906 


1907 


1908 


1909 


1910 





Note For direct load, vessel to car, the above rates are 8 cents per ton less. 



62 



UNIVERSITY 

Of 



Production and Price of Limestone for 
Furnace Flux 

1906-1909, Gross Tons 
WITH 1911 RAIL FREIGHTS 

From United States Geological Survey Report and other Sources 
Compiled by Rukard Hurd for this Manual 



STATES 


1906 


1907 


Quantity 
Gross 
Tons 


Value 


Value 
per ton 
Cents 


Quantity 
Gross 
Tons 


Value 


Value 
per ton 
Cents 


Pennsylvania 


6,396,765 
909,375 
500,702 
3,098,346 
43,574 
513,452 
803,643 
1,019,931 
552,651 
467,341 


$3,168,186 
384,282 
210,124 
1,013,497 
28,381 
294,659 
473,062 
513,413 
301,913 
219,707 


.49 
.42 
.42 
.33 
.65 
.57 
.59 
.50 
.55 
.47 


7,178,508 
970,158 
577,052 
2,497,616 
55,371 
584,964 
939,437 
1,063,772 
672,801 
541,610 


$3,829,967 
423,315 
279,838 
1,134,793 
43,612 
343,866 
604,654 
528,587 
397,244 
275,517 


.53 
.44 
.48 
.45 
.79 
.59 
.64 
.50 
.59 
.51 


Illinois 


Indiana 


Ohio 


Missouri 


New York 


Alabama 


West Virginia .... 
Colorado 


Virginia 


Total 
All others 
Grand total & av.. 


14,305,780 


$6,607,224 


.46 


15,081,289 


$7,861,393 


.52 


1,771,422 


$1,005,468 


.57 


2,038,008 


$1,283,096 


.63 


16,077,202 


$7,612,692 
1908 


.47 


17,119,297 


$9,144,489 
1909 


.53 


Pennsylvania 
Illinois 


4,350,381 
1,209,326 
272,505 
1,444,412 
18,524 
357,194 
582,958 
666,087 
441,490 
289,369 


$2,324,173 
540,718 
139,703 
635,354 
14,678 
205,758 
386,874 
337,742 
276,146 
169,847 


.53 
.45 
.51 
.44 

.79 
.58 
.66 
.51 
.62 
.59 


4,593,822 
1,820,590 
369,938 
2,161,681 
43,909 
580,802 
974,650 
900,993 
462,291 
388,746 


$3,165,872 
714,631 
190,809 
1,130,082 
31,075 
343,891 
512,585 
492,497 
267,806 
213,444 


.48 
.39 
.51 
.52 
.70 
.59 
.52 
.54 
.58 
.55 


Indiana 


Ohio 


Missouri 


New York 


Alabama . . . 


West Virginia .... 
Colorado 


Virginia 


Total 


9,632,246 


$5,030,993 


.52 


14,297,422 


$7,062,692 


.49 


All others 


1,459,196 


874,248 


.60 


1,475,441 


859,115 


.58 


Grand total & av.. 


11,091,442 


$5,905,241 


.53 


15,772,863 


$7,921,807 


.50 



1911 Freight Rates on Limestone per Gross Ton from Adjacent Quarries 



To Pittsburg, 
Youngstown, 
Cleveland, 
Buffalo, 



65 cents 
35 " 
50 " 
35+ " 



To Chicago, 

Philadelphia, 
Schuylkill Valley, 



20+ cents 

80 

65 



63 



Average Annual Prices at Pittsburgh 

1891-1900 

Bessemer Iron Ore 

Bessemer Pig Iron and Bessemer Steel Billets 

From Statistics of the American Iron and Steel Association 

and The Iron Trade Review 

Compiled by Rukard Hurd 




64 



Average Annual Prices at Pittsburgh 

1901-1910 

Bessemer Iron Ore 

Bessemer Pig Iron and Bessemer Steel Billets 

From Statistics of the American Iron and Steel Association 

and The Iron Trade Review 

Compiled by Rukard Hurd 




65 



Average Yearly Prices at Pittsburgh 
1890-1910 

Bessemer Iron Ore, Bessemer Pig Iron, Bessemer Steel Billets 

Average Yearly Price Bessemer Ore 

at Cleveland, Youngstown, Pittsburgh, Philadelphia and Schuylkill Valley Points 

From American Iron and Steel Association records for prices on Pig Iron and 

Steel Billets, and the Iron Trade Review for Ore Prices 

Specially compiled by Rukard Hurd for this Manual 





Average Price Bessemer Ore 


Average Pittsburgh 












With Freight Added 


JT rices 


Year 


Cleveland 














and all 


Philadel- 












Lower Lake 
Ports 


phia and 
Schuylkill 


Youngs- 
town 


Pittsburgh 


Bessemer 
Pig 


Bessemer 
Steel 






Valley 






Iron 


Billets 


1890.. 


$5.50 


$6.86 


$6.125 


$6.55 


$18.87 


$ 


1891.... 


4.50 


5.86 


5.125 


5.55 


15.95 


25.33 


1892.... 


4.50 


5.86 


5.125 


5.55 


14.37 


23.63 


1893.... 


3.85 


5.31 


4.525 


5.00 


12.87 


20.44 


1894.... 


2.75 


4.21 


3.425 


3.90 


11.38 


16.58 


1895.... 


2.90 


4.36 


3.575 


4.05 


12.72 


18.48 


1896.... 


4.00 


5.28 


4.625 


5.05 


12.14 


18.83 


1897 ... 


2.60 


3.93 


3.225 


3.65 


10.13 


15.08 


1898.... 


2.75 


3.93 


3.34 


3.73 


10.33 


15.31 


1899 ... 


3.00 


4.43 


3.59 


3.98 


19.03 


31.12 


1900.... 


5.50 


6.93 


6.19 


6.68 


19.43 


25.06 


1901.... 


4.25 


5.68 


4.94 


5.43 


15.93 


24.13 


1902.... 


4.25 


5.68 


4.94 


5.43 


20.67 


30.57 


1903.... 


4.50 


5.93 


5.19 


5.68 


18.98 


27.91 


1904.... 


3.25 


4.68 


3.94 


4.43 


13.76 


22.18 


1905.... 


3.75 


5.18 


4.44 


4.93 


16.36 


24 . 03 


1906.... 


4.25 


5.68 


4.94 


5.43 


19.54 


27.45 


1907.... 


5.00 


6.53 


5.74 


6.14 


22.84 


29.25 


1908.... 


4.50 


6.03 


5.24 


5.64 


17.07 


26.31 


1909.... 


4.50 


6.03 


5.14 


5.54 


17.41 


24.62 


1910.... 


5.00 


6.53 


5.64 


6.04 


17.19 


25.38 



66 



Geological Map 

Lake Superior 

Pre-Cambrian Iron Bearing Districts 
Furnished by The Iron Age* 




! From issue of March 9, 1911 



67 



Geology and Mineralogy 

FOREWORD 

This Article Should be used in Connection with the Following Reprint on 
"The Geology and Mineralogy of the Lake Superior District" 

In Monograph 52 of the U. S. Geological Survey just issued from the 
press, C. R. Van Hise and C. K. Leith summarize the geology of the Lake 
Superior region and its ore deposits. This is the first comprehensive at- 
tempt to consider the geology of the region as a whole in any of the U. S. 
Geological Survey reports. The monograph is accompanied by revised 
geological maps of all the iron ranges and a general geological map of the 
entire region. In connection with the present report, we are interested 
principally in the treatment of the iron formations and the iron ores. It 
is shown that the iron formations of the region belong to three geological 
periods, and that the last of these periods, the upper Huronian (which in- 
cludes the Mesaba and Cuyuna districts of Minnesota) contains over 75% 
of the known ore of Lake Superior. The total area of the iron formations of 
the Lake Superior region is 227 square miles, but the iron ores occupy only 
a small fraction of this area. 

The ores are concentrated in the upper parts of the iron formation. The 
concentration is mainly accomplished by percolating waters taking out the 
silica, usually leaving the ores very porous; but sometimes this action is 
followed by slumping of the ore or by crushing during the folding with 
the result that pore space is eliminated. The concentration takes place 
where the percolating waters are able to flow freely. These places are 
determined by a great variety of conditions, such as folds, impervious base- 
ments, bedding, etc. Other things being equal, it is obvious that the iron 
formations with the largest area of exposure at the rock surface is the 
one which would have the most chance of being entered by concentrating 
waters from the surface. A comparison of the ore reserves of different 
areas shows that they are roughly proportional to the area of exposure. For 
instance, the Mesaba iron formation, with a flat dip and a correspondingly 
wide area of exposure, shows a high reserve, while the equally thick Gogebic 
formation, standing steeply and therefore with smaller exposure, has a 
much smaller reserve. 

The ores are fully described with reference to chemical, mineralogical 
and physical characteristics, with the aid of many tables of quantitative 
determinations and graphic diagrams, prepared with the co-operation of Mr. 
W. J. Mead. Some of the quantitative data for the first time presented, 
cover the average chemical and mineralogical composition for each district 
and for the region as a whole, the porosity, the density, the cubic contents per 
ton, phosphorus distribution, etc. The phosphorus tables show clearly that 
the phosphorus is associated with the iron rather than silica, and by taking 
out silica in the concentration of the ores, whether in nature or artifically 
by washing, as in the western Mesaba, phosphorus is increased. 

Of especial note is a new conception of the ultimate source of the iron 
formations. They are sediments thought to be derived from basic volcanic 
rocks which were abundantly extruded over this area both before and during 
the deposition of the sediments. Some of these volcanic rocks were sub- 
marine extrusives, which may have contributed hot iron-bearing solutions 
directly to the sea in which the iron-bearing sediments were being deposited. 



The Geology and Mineralogy 

of the 

Lake Superior Iron Districts 



Occurrence of Iron Ores in the Lake Superior 
Districts of the United States 



Reprint from "The Production of Iron Ores, Pig Iron, and Steel in 1908," 
published by the United States Geological Survey, 1909. By E. C. Harder 



Iron minerals are classified as sulphides, oxides, carbonates, silicates, 
etc., of which only the oxides and carbonates are used in the steel industry. 
The ores of iron are generally classed under four heads: 

1. Hematite: Including all the anhydrous sesquioxides (Pe 2 O 3 theoret- 

ical percentage of iron, 70). This is known locally as red hema- 
tite, specular ore, gray ore, fossil ore, oolitic ore etc. 

2. Brown ore: Including hydrated sesquioxides, such as limonite, goth- 

ite, and turgite (Fe 2 O 3 nH 2 O -theoretical percentage of iron, 59.8- 
66). This is known locally as brown iron ore, brown hematite, bog 
ore, limonite, etc. 

3. Magnetite: Including magnetic oxides (pe 3 O 4 theoretical percent- 

age of iron, 72.4). Magnetite is known generally as magnetic iron 
ore. 

4. Iron carbonate: Including carbonates of various types (Fe CO 3 

theoretical percentage of iron, 48.2). Iron carbonate is known lo- 
cally as spathic iron ore, kidney ore, black band ore, siderite, etc. 

69 



Hematite has always been predominant as an ore of iron, and at present 
constitutes almost nine-tenths of the iron ores produced. Brown ore and 
magnetite are far below it in importance, each furnishing at present about 
one-twentieth of the total iron-ore production. The production of iron car- 
bonate is insignificant in comparison with that of the other ores, constituting 
only about one-twentieth of 1 per cent of the total. 



For purposes of description, the iron-ore deposits of the United States 
may be conveniently grouped into three districts the eastern district, the 
central district, and the western district. The eastern district includes the 
northeastern and southeastern commercial districts, the central district in- 
cludes the Mississippi Valley and Lake Superior districts, and the western 
district includes the Rocky Mountain and Pacific Slope districts. 

The following descriptions are partly the result of personal observation 
and partly summarized from various reports. A bibliography of the prin- 
cipal articles on iron ores of the United States is given at the end of this 
report. Some of the descriptions of the western deposits were taken from 
unpublished notes kindly furnished the survey by Mr. R. C. Hills and Mr. O. 
A. Hershey. 



Central District 

The iron ores of the central district may be classified as 
follows. 

Hematite: 

Soft, hard, and specular hematite associated with the pre-Cambrian iron 
formations of the Marquette, Menominee, Penokee-Gogebic, Mesabi, 
Vermilion, Cuyuna, and Baraboo ranges, Lake Superior district. 



Clinton hematite in east-central Wisconsin and in Missouri. 

************* 
Brown Ore. 

Bog ore in central and northwestern Wisconsin. 

70 



Magnetite: 

Magnetite formed by regional and contact metamorpbism of the pre- 
Cambrian hematite deposits in the Marquette, Mesabi, and Gunflint 
ranges, Lake Superior district. 

Titaniferous magnetite in gabbro in northern Minnesota. 
Iron carbonate: 

Iron carbonate and silicate composing the unaltered iron formation in 
the Lake Superior district. 



HEMATITE 

Lake Superior Hematite. The Lake Superior hematite deposits consti- 
tute by far the most important type of iron ore in the United States and yield 
about four-fifths of the total annual product. They are grouped into seven 
minor districts or ranges, viz: The (a) Vermilion, (b) Mesabi, and (c) 
Cuyuna ranges of northern Minnesota; the (d) Penokee-Gogebic, (e) Mar- 
quette (including the Republic and Swanzy areas), and (f) Menominee (in- 
cluding the Crystal Falls, Iron River, Metropolitan and Florence areas) 
ranges of northern Michigan and Wisconsin, and the (g) Baraboo range of 
southern Wisconsin. Other districts with similar ore occur in Ontario and 
north and northeast of Lake Superior. 

The rocks of the Lake Superior district range in age from Archean to 
Cambrian with the following succession: 

Succession of Rocks in Lake Superior Iron-ore District 

Cambrian: 

Potsdam sandstone. 

Algonkian: 

Keweenawan series (sediments, trap, gabbro, etc.). 

Huronian series: 

Upper Huronian quartzite, iron formation, and slate. 
Middle Huronian quartzite, iron formation, and slate. 
Lower Huronian quartzite, conglomerate, dolomite, slate, iron forma- 
tion and instrusives. 

Archean: 

Laurentian series (granite, gneiss, and porphyry). 

Keewatin series (greenstone, basic schists, and iron formation). 

Of these rocks only the upper and middle Huronian and the Keewatin 
contain productive iron-ore deposits. (*) Iron ores occur in the upper Huron- 
ian, in the Mesaba, Cuyuna, Penokee-Gogebic, and Menominee districts; in 
ttie middle Huronian, in the Baraboo district; in both the upper and the 
middle Huronian, in the Marquette district; and in the Keewatin, in the 
Vermilion district. 



*Leith, C. K., a summary of Lake Superior geology with special reference t<? 
recent studies of the iron-bearing series. Bimo. Bull. Am. Inst. Min. Eng. No. 3, 
1905, p. 453. 

71 



The iron ores are contmed to the iron formations, in which they occur 
as local concentration deposits, resulting largely from the leaching out of 
silica from the iron formation, though partly from additional precipitation of 
iron oxide. The iron formations are bedded deposits consisting chiefly of a 
mixture of chert or quartz and ferric oxide segregated in Dands or mingled 
irregularly. Banded iron formation which has become highly crystalline 
through metamorphism and in which the bands are bright red is known as 
jasper. The ordinary reddish-gray iron formation consisting of banded or 
irregularly intermingled chert and iron oxide is known as ferruginous chert; 
on the Mesabi range the local name "taconite" is appiled to it. There are 
many other subordinate phases of the iron formations resulting from meta- 
morphism or from an admixture with other sediments. Locally, masses of 
cherty iron carbonate and hydrous ferrous silicate (greenaiitej occur, which 
are supposed to be remnants of the original form in which the iron forma- 
tions were deposited. Greenalite is characteristic of the Mesabi district, 
and cherty iron carbonate occurs in all the other districts. The ferruginous 
chert was formed by the weathering of the iron carbonate and greenalite. 
Where the cherty iron carbonate has been altered by contact or regional 
metamorphism, local areas of amphibole-magnetite rocks occur. Where the 
ferruginous chert was metamorphosed, jasper is found. Frequently layers 
and lenses of slate are found interbedded with the iron formation, and these 
show all gradations to ferruginous chert. Paint rock, a decomposed slate 
deeply stained and impregnated with ferric oxide, is characteristic of many 
of the iron-ore deposits. It forms from slate lenses at tue same time that 
the alteration of the surrounding iron formation to iron ore and ferruginous 
chert is taking place. The last and most important phase of the iron forma- 
tion is the iron ore itself, which occurs locally along the outcrop of the iron 
formation where meteoric waters have had a chance to operate and where 
favorable conditions for concentration prevail. 

The rocks have suffered folding, faulting, and metamorphism to varying 
degrees in the different ranges and these have influenced the form and char- 
acter of the ore deposits, so that there is considerable valuation in different 
districts and different parts of the same district. 

Vermilion Range 

(a) The Vermilion range is in northern Minnesota in the northern part 
of St. Louis and Lake counties. The principal ore deposits are in the vicinity 
of Tower and Ely, and occur in iron formation of Keewatin age. The rocks 
are intricately folded and intensely metamorphosed, so that the iron forma- 
tion is largely altered to jasper. The country rock is for the most part green- 
stone in which the jasper is infolded in local syn clinical basins or trough, so 
that areally it occurs in small patches surrounded by greenstone. The ores 
are associated with the jasper in these troughs and generally have a foot 
wall of greenstone. They consist of dense, hard, blue or red hematite, often 
brecciated but rarely specular. 

Mesabi Range 

(b) The Mesabi range is in central St. Louis and southeastern Itasca 
counties, Minn. The principal ore deposits are in the vicinity of Mesaba, 
Colby, Biwabik, McKinley, Sparta, Eveleth, Virginia, Mountain Iron, Buhl, 
Chisholm, Hibbing, Stevenson, and Nashwauk. The rocks of this region have 
suffered less folding and metamorphism than those of tne other ranges. 
They dip slightly to the southeast, so that the iron formation outcrops In a 

72 



general northeast-southwest belt. There are minor transverse folds. Above 
the iron formation and to the south is a thick slate; underneath it is a thin 
quartzite underlain by granite or graywacke and slate of lower-middle Huron- 
ian age, the former composing the Giants range north of the district. The 
iron formation is largely ferruginous chert, but at the eastern end of the 
range a heavy gabbro formation has metamorphosed it to amphibole-magnet- 
ite rock. 

The iron ores cover large areas along the outcrop of the iron formation and 
are irregular in their occurrence, though in general they are best developed 
and most abundant at the minor transverse folds. The deposits are very 
irregular in shape, frequently having big arms extending from the main de- 
posits, and these in places connect with other deposits. They are of great 
horizontal extent as compared with their vertical extent, being usually not 
more than 200 feet in depth, while they may extend continuously in a hori- 
zontal direction for a mile or more. Mining is carried on largely in large, 
shallow, open pits, the ore being loaded with steam shovels directly on rail- 
way cars and shipped without concentration. There are a few underground 
mines, and here the mining is carried on either by milling or by the regular 
underground methods. 

The ore is a soft porous brown, red, or blue hematite of high grade. It 
shows the layering of the original iron formation, and in places the ore layers 
can be traced directly into the iron formation bounding the deposit. The ore 
layers generally show a slumping near the contact, showing that material 
has been leached from the iron formation during the process of ore concen- 
tration. In many instances ore bodies are bounded by joint planes. The fol- 
lowing description of the factors controlling the ore deposition on the Mesabi 
range is given by Leith:* 

The agent of the alteration is water, coming more or less directly from 
the surface, carrying oxygen and carbon dioxide. The concentration of the 
ores has been found to occur where such waters have been converged. Vari- 
ous factors have determined this convergence fracturing and brecciation of 
the iron formation, existence of impervious layers in such attitudes as either 
to converge waters coming from above or to impound the waters" and deflect 
their course between two layers. * * * The iron formation and its asso- 
ciated rocks lie in beds on the south slope of the Giants range, and dip off 
gently to the south at angles averaging from 8 degrees to 10 degrees. In 
addition to the general southward tilting of the beds, they are gently flexed 
into folds with axes transverse to the trend of the range. Waters falling on 
the south slope of the Giants range, and flowing to the south, enter the eroded 
edges of the iron formation and continue their way down along its layers, 
some of which are pervious and some of which are slaty and comparatively 
impervious to water. The flow thus tends to become concentrated along the 
axes of the synclines which pitch gently to the southward. Such synclines 
are not necessarily surface troughs. They are evidenced by the attitude of 
the layers of the iron formation, and may not be apparent in the unequally 
eroded rock surface or at the surface of the irregular covering of glacial drift. 
* * * Further study shows that other factors modify the circulation of 
water and the localization of the ore, and that these secondary factors may 
be locally dominant. 

The most important of these modifying factors is the fracturing of the 
iron formation which has furnished numerous trunk channels for the circula- 

*Leith. C. K., a summary of Lake Superior geology with special reference to 
recent studies of the iron-bearing series: Bimo. Bull. Am. Inst. Min. Eng., No. 3, 
1905, pp. 485, 488, 489. 

73 



tion of underground waters. The water has been confined to narrow, irregu- 
lar, and most devious trunk channels formed by the fracturing of the iron 
formation, and while it has probably followed the fracture openings along 
synclines to a greater extent than along anticlines, it has not filled the entire 
syncline formed by the folding of the iron formation. The result is that the 
ores have developed along limited and irregular areas within the synclines. 
They may occupy a considerable part of the syncline, in which case the syn- 
clinal structure of the iron formation may be observed in the layers of wall 
rock adjacent to the ores. In other cases they occupy so small a proportion 
of the syncline that the layers of the iron formation in the adjacent wall rock 
give no indication of synclinal dips. Not infrequently several more or less 
independent deposits may have developed in the same general syncline, as, 
for instance, in the aera adjacent to the town of Virginia. To put it briefly, 
the ores show such a position, irregularity, extent, and relations to wall rocks 
as to make applicable the expression sometimes heard in the district that 
the ores have developed through the "rotting" of the iron formation along 
fractures, usually, but not always, in broad synclinal areas. 

Other factors modifying the general underground flow of water in the 
Mesabi iron formation are the numerous impervious slaty layers within the 
iron formation, and the Virginia slate capping the iron formation of the 
south; all of which have considerable effect in directing water circulation. 
So far as the water is free to flow southward through the iron formation, the 
impervious layers serve only to limit the flow below. But the continuous 
south dip of the impervious strata carries the waters down to a point where 
the ground is saturated and the waters are ponded between impervious layers 
above and below. That ponding actually occurs is shown by the fact that 
drill holes penetrating the slates and entering the iron formation frequently 
meet water under pressure, indicating artesian conditions. When ponded, 
the water seeks the lowest point of escape, which is likely to be found near 
the north margin of the slate layers. The movement of the water toward 
the lowest point of escape causes a considerable lateral movement in the cir- 
culation, and this lateral movement has probably, at least in part, controlled 
the shape of certain deposits on the range which have their longer dimen- 
sions parallel to the strike of the layers of the iron formation. 

The ponding of the water and consequent overflow has still another 
effect. Where ponded the flow is governed by the point of lowest escape 
rather than by the shape of the impervious basement. When water is drawn 
off at the edge of a basin, the flow is greatest near the point of escape and 
diminishes in all directions away from that point. This statement is true 
where the bottom of the basin is flat or fluted; hence, in the Mesabi iron 
formation, where the water is ponded, the flow is concentrated near the 
point of lowest escape regardless of whether this be over a syncline or anti- 
cline so far as both are below water level. The lowest point of escape is 
likely to be over syn'dines, but the surface erosion, both by glacial and me- 
teoric agencies, has been such that this is not always the case. For this 
reason it is not certain that iron-ore deposits near the edge of the Virginia 
slate or near the edge of the interstratafied slate layers may not have devel- 
oped along arches as well as in synclines of the iron formation. 

The above facts are intimately related to the problem of finding ore 
under the solid black Virginia slate. The question is frequently asked, Is 
there any reason why ore shall not be found under the black slate? The 
absence of ore under the slate has not been demonstrated by actual drilling; 
only a comparatively few holes have penetrated any considerable thickness 



of the Virginia slate and entered the iron formation below. Yet such holes 
as have been put down have revealed ore only near the slate margin and 
frequently of low grade. In several cases the iron formation beneath the 
slate has been shown to be of a green, unaltered variety, indicating that the 
alteration necessary for the development of ore deposits has not gone far. 
If the development of the ore is dependent upon a vigorous circulation and 
this vigorous circulation is lacking under the Virginia slate because of the 
ponding, we have here an adequate cause for the non-existence of ore deposits 
under the black slate. Yet further work may show that other factors have 
entered, and, considering the extent and value of the new iron-bearing terri- 
tory which would be thrown open were ore found under the Virginia slate, 
more actual drilling seems advisable to settle the question. 

Cuyuna Range 

(c) The Cuyuna district extends in a northeast-southwest direction 
along the Northern Pacific Railway in the vicinity of Aitkln, Deerwood, and 
Brainerd, in Crow Wing, Aitkin and Morrison counties, central Minnesota. 
Geologically the district is situated along a series of minor northeast-south- 
west anticlines in the broad synclinal basin, on the northern limb of which 
is the Mesabi district and on the southern limb the Penokee-Gogebic district. 
The first ore was discovered here in 1904 by drilling along a line of magnetic 
attraction near Deerwood. No ore has been shipped from this district. Leith 
gives the following description of the geology and structure of the dis- 
trict:* 

From the information so far available, consisting largely of drill samples, 
the succession of rocks for the Cuyuna district, from the base upward, is as 
follows: 

Quartzite and its altered equivalents, quartzose, micaceous and horn- 
blende schists. 

Iron formation, consisting principally of iron carbonate where un- 
altered, but largely altered to amphibole-magnetite rock, ferruginous 
slates, and iron ore. The ores thus far found are soft, reddish, slightly 
hydrated hematite, reddish slaty hematite, and hard blue, banded, sili- 
ceous magnetite and hematite. 

Chloritic and carbonaceous slate, interbedded in its lower part with 
"" iron formation. 

Intrusive granite and diorite, principally the latter. 
Cretaceous sediments. 
Glacial drift, 80 to 350 feet. 

It is possible that some of the igneous rock is really older than the sedi- 
mentary series, and lies unconformably beneath it, but no evidence of this 
has yet been found and the structural relations do not favor thts view. 

So far as the sedimentary rocks go, the emphasis should be placed on the 
altered phases, for they have all been much metamorphosed. Failure to 
recognize the schists as parts of the sedimentary series has caused confusion 
in the local interpretation of drill records. The changes in the quartzite 
and slate to schists are the typical anamorphic changes of the zone of rock 
flowage. When subsequently exposed at the surface, there has been a leach- 
ing out of all of the basic constituents, leaving light-colored, soft, kaolinic 
and quartzose schists. This action is most conspicuous in their upper 15 or 
20 feet. The iron formation, originally mainly iron carbonate, has also 
undergone anamorphism, resulting in the development of amphibole magnetite 



*T,eith, C. K., The geology of the Cuyuna iron range, Minnesota: Econ. Geol- 
ogy, vol. 2, p. 145. 

75 



rocks essentially similar to amphibole magnetite rocks wherever they are 
found in other parts of the Lake Superior region. This action, however, was 
not sufficiently effective to destroy a large part of the iron carbonate con- 
stituting the original mass of the formation. When exposed to weathering, 
the amphibole-magnetite rocks have remained substantially as they were, 
being very resistant, although becoming somewhat softer. The iron car- 
bonate has been altered to iron ore. The gradation phases between the iron 
carbonate and slate have become ferruginous slates. 

The anamorphism of the Cuyuna series is probably to be explained in 
large part by the existence of intrusives in the area itself and to the west and 
south of it. 

The sedimentary series has been folded into a series of repeated folds, 
as shown by drilling and magnetic work, and erosion has cut off the top of 
the anticlines, exposing the iron formation in a number of oelts, in general 
parallel, but presumably coming together at the ends of the folds. The dips 
are thus for the most part high, in the neighborhood of 80 degrees, although 
near the crests of the folds they are less. The folding has been accompanied 
by the development of cleavage in the softer layers, especially in the softer 
slates. Where the cleavage can be definitely distinguished from the bed- 
ding, there is usually a slight angle between them, and the cleavage has the 
steeper dip. The iron formation itself is less affected by the cleavage than 
the slate. 

The ores constitute the altered and concentrated upper parts of the 
steeply dipping iron formation strata exposed by the erosion of the anticlines. 
The hanging wall is commonly chloritic slate and iron* carbonate in varying 
proportions and degrees of alteration; the foot wall is either a quartz schist 
or amphibole-magnetite schist. Intrusives complicate these relations in 
many deposits, suggesting that the presence of these rocks has favored the 
development of the ore deposits. This is yet to be proved. 

The ore bodies thus far found seem to be in the form of lenses 1 to 250 
feet in thickness, with their longer dimensions parallel to the highly tilted 
bedding of the series. It is probable that also several parallel or overlapping 
lenses may be present, judging from analogy with the lower part of the Ani- 
mikie series elsewhere in the Lake Superior region, as in the Paint River, 
Crystal Falls, and western Menominee country. Along the strike these 
lenses pinch out or widen, the change often being accompanied by a change 
in grade of the ore. It is difficult to tell from the present state of exploration 
just how far the parallel lenses are independent lenses in the same general 
formation and how far they may be the result of duplication by folding. The 
broader features of distribution are undoubtedly to be explained by folding. 
There is a narrow zone of iron formation extending from east of Aitkin 
southwest past Deerwood and Brainerd and for some distance west of the 
Mississippi river, as shown by magnetic attractions and by drilling. This is 
made up of a large number of short parallel and overlapping belts. Whether 
these minor belts are repeated by folding or whether they are parallel, inde- 
pendent lenses is not known. Six miles to the north, howe/er, in the vicinity 
of Rabbit Lake, there is again a belt of iron formation which is undoubtedly 
brought up here by folding, for if it were an independent belt in a mono- 
clinal succession it would imply too great a thickness of intervening strata. 
Still farther to the northwest between Rabbit Lake and Mississippi river 
are at least two more belts of iron formation repeated by folding. Whether 
the folds reappear again elsewhere, prospectors are now trying to determine. 

The rock surface beneath the drift shows local variations of 100 feet or 

76 



more, and between widely separated points, because of the general slope 
of the surface, may show a difference of elevation of as much as 250 feet. 
Frequently the soft hanging-wall slates are found to be at lower elevations, 
because of erosion, than the harder iron formation or the foot-wall quartzite 
adjacent, as, for instance, near Pickands, Mather & Co.'s shaft in sec. 8, 45-29. 
Notwithstanding these local irregularities of the surface, it is, in a broad 
way, relatively flat. At many places in the district and in adjacent parts 
of Minnesota cretaceous deposits are found just above the rock surface and 
beneath the drift, suggesting that this flat surface may be part of a pre-Creta- 
ceous base level or peneplain. The Cuyuna district contrasts in topography 
of the rock surface with the producing ranges of the Lake Superior region, 
where there is usually a marked ridge or range giving a head to the per- 
colating surface waters of from 200 to 500 feet and making it possible for 
the waters to circulate vigorously and accomplish ore concentration to con- 
siderable depths where structural conditions allow. This suggests the in- 
ference that in the Cuyuna district vigorously circulating ore-concentrating 
waters may not have been effective to so great a depth as in other Lake Su- 
perior iron ranges. On the other hand, if the ores were developed before 
the base level and before reaching the present base levei, there may have 
been greater topographic relief, which would have aided the alteration of the 
rocks and concentration of the ore to a greater depth than would the present 
relief. The existence of the heavy mantle of weathered material over the area 
may represent a remnant of the weathered material which in the other dis- 
tricts has been removed by glacial erosion. It is obvious that the Cuyuna dis- 
trict has been one in which glacial deposition has predominated over glacial 
erosion. When it is remembered that in the other Lake Superior districts 
glacial erosion has probably removed large amounts of iron ore, the lack of 
glacial erosion in the Cuyuna district may not be an unfavorable indication. 

Gogebic Range 

(d) The Penokee-Gogebic range is in northern Michigan and Wisconsin, 
crossing the boundary in a northeast-southwest direction at'Ironwood. The 
principal mines are at Hurley, Wis., and at Ironwood, Wakefield, and Besse- 
mer, Mich. 

The ores occur in iron formation of upper Huronian age which is over- 
lain by slate and underlain by quartzite and black slate. Above the upper 
slate is a heavy gabbro of Keweenawan age, which in a few localities has 
come into contact with the iron formation and has metamorphosed it to jasper 
and amphibole-magnetite rock. For the most part, however, the iron formation 
is ferruginous chert. The sedimentary rocks dip steeply to the northwest. 
They are cut by dikes of basic igneous rocks of probable Keweenawan age, 
which cross them at varying angles to the bedding. The ores are concen- 
trated in large irregular bodies in the angles between the foot-wall quartzite 
or black slate and the igneous dikes. These two formations make an imper- 
vious trough toward which underground channels for meteoric waters con- 
verge and in which the waters are ponded and precipitate their load. The 
deposits are of a different form and character from those of the Mesabi 
range. Most of them reach depths of a thousand feet and upward, but their 
horizontal extent is very much smaller than that of the deposits of the Mesabi 
range. The ore is for the most part soft hydrated hematite, but hard slaty 
ore is abundant, and more rarely needle ore is found. In a few deposits local 
pockets of manganese oxide occur. Mining is carried on by underground 
methods entirely. 

Marquette Range 

(e) The Marquette range, including the Republic and Swanzy areas, 
occupies a large east and west elongated area west and southwest of Mar- 

77 



quette, Mich. The principal mines are in the vicinity of Michigamme, Negau- 
nee, Ishpeming, Swanzy, and Republic. Iron formations occur in both the 
upper and middle Huronian, the latter containing the principal ores. The 
iron formation of the upper Huronian is underlain by quartzite and overlain 
by slate. Ores occur locally as concentration deposits in the lower part of 
the iron formation and in other places as detrital deposits at the base of the 
quartzite underlying it. The latter type of ore is derived from deposits in 
the underlying iron formation occurring at the top of the middle Huronian. 
The middle Huronian iron formation (Negaunee) is underlain by slate, which 
in turn is underlain by quartzite. The sedimentary rocks are abundantly in- 
truded by dikes, bosses, and stocks of basic igneous rock of probable Keween- 
awan age. 

The sediments are folded into a great east-west synclinal basin com- 
posed of a number of minor synclines and anticlines. Ores occur on both 
limbs .of the basin, but are most abundant on the north limb. The deposits 
near Ishpeming and Negaunee occur in a part of the basin where the upper 
Huronian rocks have been eroded away and the middle Huronian iron forma- 
tion is exposed over the entire width of the basin. The deposits near Repub- 
lic are in a minor syncline branching southeastward from the western part 
of the main basin. The Swanzy area is southeast of the main basin. 

The ores of the middle Huronian and the detrital ores at the base of the 
upper Huronian occur at nearly the same geologic horizon, and the latter are 
derived from the former. The ores may be divided into three classes* (1) 
Ores at the base oi the iron-bearing Negaunee (middle Huronian) formation; 
(2) ores within the Negaunee formation; and (3) detrital ores at the base of 
the Goodrich (upper Huronian) quartzite. 

(1) The ores of this class occur only at the base of the Negaunee forma- 
tion, and, therefore, at the outskirts of the iron formation areas. They occur 
at places where the underlying slate has been Folded so as to form pitching 
synclinal basins. In these impervious troughs the ore deposits have devel- 
oped. In many places basic dikes have cut the rocks, and the ore has devel- 
oped between the dikes and the slate, thus presenting a similarity to the de- 
posits of the Penokee-Gogebic district. 

(2) The ores of the second class are developed at the contact of the 
iron formation with basic intrusions. They occur either in local irregular- 
ities (basins) on the surface of the intrusive masses or in pitching troughs 
formed between igneous masses and dikes branching out from them. The sur- 
faces of the igneous masses are very much altered, leached out, and impreg- 
nated with iron oxide, being changed largely to sbapstone and paint rock. 
Many of the dikes are entirely altered. 

(3) The detiital ores were formed by the breaking up of the deposits 
of types (1) and (2) during the erosional period intervening between the 
deposition of the middle and upper Huronian. These deposits are also 
localized by pitching troughs in the basic intrusions, between dikes and 
intrusive masses or slate layers, as are the lower ores. They may rest on 
a basement of soapstone (altered igneous rock), iron formation, or slate. 

The ore of classes (1) and (2) are chiefly soft hydrated hematite; 
those of class (3) are hard, specular ores with some magnetite. The meta- 
morphism of class (3) is apparently due to greater movement along the 
contact of the middle and upper Huronian during the folding than within 
these rocks themselves. With the hard ore are developed jasper and am- 
phibole-magnetite rock. 



*Van Hise, C. R., The iron-ore deposits of the Lake Superior region: Twenty- 
first Ann. Kept. U. S. Geoi. Survey, pt. 3, 1901, p. 305. 

78 



Menominee Range 

(f) The Menominee range, including the Crystal Falls, Iron River, 
Metropolitan, and Florence areas, is in Dickinson and Iron counties, Mich., 
and extends across the boundary into Florence county, Wis. The principal 
mines occur at Iron Mountain, Norway, Metropolitan, Crystal Falls, Amasa, 
and Iron River, Mich., and at Florence, Wis. 

Iron formations are found in both the upper and middle Huronian, but 
only the former carry iron ores of commercial importance. The middle 
Huronian iron formation is found only in the northern part of the district, 
while the upper Huronian iron formation occurs in the southern part of 
the district. Thus the productive areas are confined to the southern part 

The upper Huronian iron formation is known as the Vulcan formation 
in the Menominee district proper. The rocks are intricately folded so that 
the structure of the range is very complicated. The ores of the different 
areas occur in separate local basins or structural units. 

The Vulcan formation in the Menominee district proper is divided into 
three members, viz: The Curry iron-bearing member, the Brier slate mem- 
ber, and the Traders iron-bearing member. It is overlain by upper Huronian 
(Hanbury) slate and underlain by lower Huronian (Randville) dolomite. 
Iron ores may occur at any horizon within the ore-bearing members, but 
are more prevalent at the top or bottom. The deposits Are of large size 
and occur on relatively impervious formations which are usually folded into 
pitching troughs at the places where the ores are found. Pitching troughs 
may be formed (1) by the dolomite underlying the Traders member, (2) by 
a slate layer constituting the lower part of the Traders member and (3) 
by the Brier slate underlying the Curry member. 

The sedimentary formations are folded into two major anticlines 
trending a little north of west so that the iron formation is distributed 
in several belts, along which ore deposits occur locally. Minor folds are 
superimposed on the major folds. The sediments are bounded on the 
north by Archean granite and on the south by Archean (Quinnesec) schist. 

The iron ores are principally gray, finely banded hematite with subor- 
dinate amounts of flinty block hematite locally banded. 

The iron-bearing formation in the outlying areas consists mainly of fer- 
ruginous slates and cherts with some cherty iron carbonate. The former 
are generally carbonaceous immediately above and below the ore-bearing 
beds. The formation is underlain by slate, which is in turn underlain by 
lower Huronian formations. Above the iron formation is the Michigamme 
slate. In some of the outlying areas the iron formation and the underlying 
slate have not been separated from the Michigamme slate. 

In general the ores occur in pitching synclinal basins bottomed and 
capped by slate layers. They are largely soft red hematite, considerably 
hydrated in places. 



Baraboo Range 

(g) The Baraboo range is located in southern Wisconsin in the central 
part of Sauk county. The principal deposits occur near the town of North 
Freedom. 

79 



The Huronian rocks are in the form of an east and west elongated 
syncline surrounded by Cambrian sandstone and containing a considerable 
thickness of Cambrian sandstone within it. Thus only the rim of the syn- 
cline consisting of heavy bedded quartzite is exposed. This quartzite forms 
the base of the series and rests on Archean rock. Abo\e it is the Seeley 
slate and above this the iron formation which carries the ores of the dis- 
trict. The iron formation is overlain by the Freedom dolomite. The rocks 
of the iron formation immediately associated with the ores are ferruginous 
dolomite, ferruginous chert, and ferruginous slate. 

The principal workable deposits have been found in the southwestern 
portion of the syncline. The deposits are stratified and are conformable 
with the beds above and below. They have the same dip and strike as the 
associated rocks and are found dipping at angles varying from nearly ver- 
tical to nearly horizontal. 

The ore of the Baraboo range is of lower grade than the average ore 
of the other Lake Superior ranges, generally containing less than 55 per 
cent of iron. It is soft hydrated hematite, in many places containing so 
much water as to be limonitic in character. 

The iron ores of the Lake Superior district in general consist of high 
( grade hematite, ranging from hard, dense, blue, specular nonhydrated ore 
to soft, blue, red, or brown hydrated varieties. The upper portions of the 
deposits in general are more hydrated than the lower portions and in places 
contain sufficient water to form a brown ore. The ores are uniformly high 
in iron and low in phosphorus, so that the great bulk is or Bessemer grade. 
The soft ores, especially those of the Mesabi range, are frequently trouble- 
some during smelting operations, but when they are mixed with hard ore 
this trouble is remedied. 

The following tables show the average composition of the iron ores 
which are now mined and shipped in the Lake Superior district : 



Average Analysis of Iron Ore Mined in the Lake Superior District During 

1905 

Fe . . 59.6 i P 067 

SiO 2 7.5 i S 019 



Range in Composition of Iron Ore Mined in the Lake Superior District Dur- 
ing 1906 and 1907 





1906 


1907 


Fe 


38.00-65.00 


39.00-67.00 


SiO 2 


2.00-40.00 


1.00-43.00 


P 


.008-85 


.01-1.00 


s 


006- 13 


005- 14 


Mn 


.04-7.4 


.03-8.7 








********* 


* * 


* * 



Clinton hematite. Deposits of Clinton hematite occur in eastern Wis- 
consin and in Missouri. Those of Wisconsin are of considerable importance 

80 



and have been mined for many years. Those of Missouri, according to H. A. 
Buehler, have only been discovered recently by drilling ana occur at such 
depths as not to be at present workable. 

Iron Ridge Range 

In Wisconsin, the principal Clinton ores occur near Iron Ridge and 
Mayville, in eastern Dodge county, outcropping for several miles in a north 
and south direction. The entire Clinton formation is represented by iron 
ore which occurs in the form of a lens-shaped bed at the base of the Niagaran 
limestone and overlying the Cincinnatian shale. Small deposits of no com- 
mercial importance occur at the same horizon near Hartford, Washington 
county; near De Pere, Brown county; and west of Sturgeon Bay, Door 
county. 

The bed in Dodge county varies in thickness from 15 to 25 feet and 
is nearly horizontal, the overlying Niagaran limestone forming a westward 
facing escarpment above it. The ore bed is made up of numerous horizontal 
layers 3 to 14 inches in thickness. 

The ore consists chiefly of small lenticular concretions. The prevailing 
color is dark reddish-brown, though locally it becomes purple. It is gen- 
erally soft and friable, containing just enough cement to keep the concre- 
tions together. The top layer varying from 3 to 8 inches in thickness dif- 
fers from the rest in being hard and compact and of a deep purple color with 
bright scarlet streaks. It contains very few oolites and breaks with con- 
choidal fracture. Clay is intermingled with ore in the lower layers. 

The ore is of about the same grade as the soft Clinton ores of the 
eastern district. It is smelted chiefly in local furnaces, though occasionally 
shipments are made to Milwaukee. 



BROWN ORE. 

Bog ore. Bog iron ores are found in small deposits throughout the Mis- 
sissippi Valley, but only at a few localities have they been mined, the most 
Important of which are in Wisconsin. They are usually in the form of 
superficial blanket deposits mixed with more or less clay and earthy mat- 
ter. Bog deposits are for the most part too small and isolated to pay for the 
expense of mining and transportation. Occasionally, however, deposits of 
such size are found as to permit the erection of a local furnace. Such de- 
posits occur at Spring Valley and vicinity, Pierce county, Wis. 

Limonite gossan. Limonite gossan ore occurs in the upper part of the 
lead and zinc deposits in the upper Mississippi Valley. It results from the 
alteration of the iron sulphides, pyrite, and marcasite, which are associated 
with lead and zinc sulphides in the deeper parts of the veins. The gossan 
deposits of the Mississippi Valley are too small to be of commercial im- 
portance. 

MAGNETITE 

Lake Superior magnetite. Magnetite deposits worthy of notice are 
found in the Marquette, Mesabi, and Gunflint ranges of the Lake Superior 
district. They are related to the Lake Superior hematite deposits, being 

81 



formed from the cherty iron carbonate or from the hematite deposits by 
igneous intrusives or by regional metamorphism. In the Marquette range 
magnetite is formed" by both of these processes; in the other ranges it is 
formed by contact metamorphism by the great gabbro mass of northern 
Minnesota. This gabbro extends across the eastern pa/t of , the Mesabi 
range and has altered the iron formation along the contact to amphibole- 
magnetite rock and local magnetite deposits. Although considerable ex- 
ploration has been done in this area, deposits of great importance have not 
been found. 

In the Gunflint district in northern Minnesota near the Canadian bound- 
ary, the upper Huronian iron formations reappear from underneath the 
gabbro and extend northeastward into the Animikie district, Ontario. Near 
the gabbro contact the iron formation is altered to a coarsely crystalline 
green quartzite, with beds and lenses of magnetite associated with various 
ferrous silicates. The iron formation rests in Keewatin greenstone and dips 
away from it at steep angles. The magnetite lenses are most abundant near 
the contact with the greenstone. 

Local occurrences of magnetite are also found at both ends of the 
Penokee-Gogebic range where the gabbro has come into contact with the 
iron formations. 

Titaniferous magnetite. Titaniferous magnetite in large bodies is re- 
ported to occur locally in the great gabbro mass of northern Minnesota. The 
most important of these deposits are located a short distance south of the 
Gunflint district. Little has been done with them in the way of exploration 
and they are practically unknown. 

IRON CARBONATE 

Iron carbonate. Iron carbonate and silicate originally composed the 
Lake Superior iron formation and are still found in scattered masses where 
they have been protected from weathering processes. They are described 
in connection with the Lake Superior hematite. 



82 



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of 

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ABBOTT, C. E. Iron ore deposits of the Ely trough, Vermilion range, Minne- 
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ADAMS, FRANCIS S. The Cuyuna Range. Econ. Geol. Vol. 5, 1910, pp. 
729-740; Vol. 6, 1911, pp. 60-70; (to be continued). 

ANON. Mining methods on the Gogebic range: Eng. and Min. Jour., vol. 
84, p. 245. 

ANON. Swanzy iron-ore district: Iron Trade Rev., January, 1909. 

BACON, D. H. The development of Lake Superior iron ores: Trans. Am. 

Inst. Min. Eng., vol. 27, 1897, pp. 341-344. 

BAILEY, C. E. Mining methods on the Mesabi Range: Trans. Am. Inst. Min. 
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, BAYLEY, W. S., and SMYTH, H. L. Preliminary report on the Mar- 

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BOSS, C. M. Some dike features of the Gogebic iron range: Trans. Am. 
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BRINSMADE. H. B. The great iron fields of the Lake Superior district: Min. 
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CARLYLE, E. J. The Pioneer iron mine, Ely, Minnesota: Jour. Can. Min. 
Inst., vol. 7, p. 335. 

CHAMBERLIN, T. C. Clinton iron-ore deposits: Geology of Wisconsin, 1873 
to 1877, vol. 2, p. 327, and atlas. 

CLEMENTS. J. M. The Vermilion iron-bearing district of Minnesota: Mon. 
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Clements, J. M. and Smith, H. L. The Crystal Falls iron-bearing 



district of Michigan. Mon. 36. U. S. Geol. Surv. 1899. 

DENTON, F. W. Methods of iron mining in northern Minnesota: Trans. 
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ELFTMAN, A. H. The Highland range in Minnesota: Eng. and Min. Jour., 
vol. 75, p. 447. 

KURD, RUKARD Iron ore manual of the Lake Superior district, and 1911 
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IRVING, J. D. and VAN HISE, C. R. The Penokee iron-bearing series of 
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1889, pp. 341-507. 

IRVING, R. D. and VAN HISE, C. R. The Penokee iron-bearing series of 
Michigan and Wisconsin: Mon. U. S. Geol. Survey, vol. 19, 1892. 

JOPLING, J. E. The Marquette Range Its discovery, development, and re- 
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83 



LEITH, C. K. The Mesabi iron-bearing district of Minnesota: Mon. U. S 
Geol. Survey, vol. 43, 1903. 



. A summary of Lake Superior geology with special reference to re- 
cent studies of the iron j bearing series: Trans. Am. Inst Min Eng , vol 
35, 1904, pp. 454-507. 

. The geology of the Cuyuna iron range, Minnesota: Econ. Geology, 

vol. 2, pp. 145-152. 1907. 

. Comparison of Mesaba and Gogabic ranges. Trans. Lake Sup. Min 

Inst. Vol. 8, pp. 75-81. 

LONGYEAR, E. J. Explorations on the Mesabi Range: Trans. Am. Inst. Min. 
Eng., vol. 27, 1897, pp. 537-541. 

MEEKS, R. The iron ore mines of the Mesabi range: Eng. and Min Jour, 
vol. 84, p. 143. 

SMYTH, H. L. and FINLAY, J. R. The geological structure of the western 
part of the Vermilion Range, Minnesota: Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Eng., vol. 
25, 1895, pp. 595-645. 

, SMYTH, H. L., BAYLEY, W. S., and VAN HISE, C. R. The Crystal 

Falls iron-bearing district of Michigan: Nineteenth Ann. Rept. U. S. 
Geol. Survey, pt. 3, 1898, pp. 1-157; also Mon. U. S. Geol. Survey, vol. 36, 
1899. 

SPURR, J. E. The iron ores of the Mesabi range: Eng. and Min. Jour., vol. 
57, p. 583. 

THOMAS, KIRBY Mesabi iron range: Mines and minerals, vol. 23, p. 566. 
Vermilion iron bearing district of Minnesota: Mines and minerals, 



vol. 24, p. 546. 

VAN HISE, C. R. The iron-ore deposits of the Lake Superior region: Twen- 
ty-first Ann. Rept., U. S. Geol. Survey, pt. 3, 1901, pp. 305-434. 



Van Hise, C. R. and Bayley, W. S. The Marquette iron-bearing 



district of Michigan. Mon. 28. U. S. Geol. Survery, 1895. 



. Van Hise, C. R. and C. K. Leith. Geology of the Lake Superior 

region. Mon. 52. U. S. Geol. Survey 1911. 

WEIDMANIN', S. The Baraboo iron-bearing district of Wisconsin: Bull. Wis- 
consin Geol. and Nat. Hist. Survey No. 13, 1904. 

WINCHELL, H. V. The iron ranges of Minnesota: Trans. Lake Sup. Min. 
Inst., vol. 3, p. 15. 

WINCHELL, N. H. Structures of the Mesabi iron- ore: Proc. Lake Sup. Min. 
Inst., June, 1908. 

. The Mesabi iron range: Trans. Amer. Inst. Min. Eng., vol. 21, p. 644. 



WOODBRIDGE, D. E. Iron ore in Crow Wing county, Minnesota: Eng. and 
Min. Jour., vol. 84, p. 775. 

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p. 163. 

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170, 266, 319, 365, 466, 557, 892. 

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75, p. 261 

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April, 1911. 

84 



Addenda 

IRON ORE RESERVES OF THE UNITED STATES. 
Report of John Birkinbine 

Resume of the Report of John Birkinbine on the Iron Ore Reserves of 
the United States marked Appendix A to Supplemental Report of Joseph 
G. Butler, Jr., Filed with the Senate Finance Committee, June 15, 1909. 

The foregoing will indicate that the reserves of iron ore in the Lake 
Superior region, of material such as is now shipped, exceed 1,600,000,000 
tons, and that this amount may be greatly augmented by the utilization of 
some ore not now classed as desirable. 

That in the Adirondack District of New York the ore reserves amount 
to 125,000,000 tons, which may be supplemented by 25,000,000 tons of other 
New York ores and the possibility of large future additions from the deposits 
of Clinton ores in the center of the state. 

That New Jersey has over 35,000,000 tons of available ore, and in addi- 
tion 100,000,000 tons of concentrating ore can be obtained. 

That Pennsylvania has reserves amounting to 45,000,000 tons, which 
may be increased by liberal exploitations of Clinton and carbonate ores. 

That the Southern States may be counted on for a supply exceeding 
1,200,000,000 tons, and possibly a much larger amount. 

The reserves in the Rocky Mountain region and west of this, tentatively 
estimated as 100,000,000 tons, cover but a small part of the producing ter- 
ritory. 

The grand total is 3,230,000,000 tons. 

That the new England and other Atlantic states and the Central states, 
including Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Mississippi, Missouri, Arkansas and Texas, 
will further add to the reserves. 

ABSTRACT OF REPORT FOR THE CONSERVATION COMMISSION 

By Mr. C. Willard Hayes, Chief Geologist, United States Geological Sur- 
vey, Marked Appendix C to Supplemental Report of Joseph G. Butler, Jr. 
Filed with the Senate Finance Committee, June 15, 1909. 







Available Not Available 
Gross Tons Gross Ton* 


Northeastern States 




298000,000 1,095,000,000 


Vermont 
Massachusetts 
Connecticut 
New York 


Maryland 
New Jersey 
Pennsylvania 
Ohio 


538440000 1,276,500,000 




South Carolina 




West Virginia 
Eastern Kentucky 
North Carolina 
Lake Superior States. 


Georgia 
Alabama 
East Tennessee 


3,510,000,000 72,030,000,000 


Michigan 
Minnesota 
Mississippi Valley States 


Wisconsin 


315,000,000 570,000,000 


Northwest Alabama 
West Tennessee 
West Kentucky 
Rocky Mountain States . . . 


Iowa, Missouri 
Arkansas 
East Texas 


57,760.000 120,665.000 


Montana 
Idaho 
Wyoming, Colorado 
Arizona 
Pacific Slope States .... 


Utah 
Nevada 
New Mexico 
West Texas 


68,950.000 23,905,000 


Washington 
California 


Oregon 




Total . 




4,788,150,000 75,116,070,000 









The total supplies are divided into two classes, "available" and "not available." 
"Available." This class includes those Ores which can be worked at a profit under the con- 
ditions at present existing in the Iron and Steel industry in the United States. 

"Not Available." This class includes all Ores which cannot be worked at a profit under 
existing conditions in the Iron and Steel industry. 

85 



UNITED STATES STEEL CORPORATION ESTIMATED rRON ORE 

RESERVES 

Marked Appendix F to Supplemental Report of Joseph G. Butler, Jr.. Filed with the 
Senate Finance Committee June 15, 1909 







GROSS TONS 






Ores of Present 
Standard 
Commercially 


Silicious and 
Other Low 
Grade Ores 


Total 


Northern Ores 
Total 
Southern Ores 
Total Red and Brown 


1,258,289,000 
459,300,000 


365,845,000 
239,000,000 


1,624,134,000 
698,300,000 


Total 


1,717,589000 


604 843,000 


2,322,434,000 











THE CONCLUSIONS OF JOSEPH G. BUTLER, JR. 

And His Estimates on the Iron Ore Reserves of the United States Made in 

a Supplemental Report Filed With the Senate Finance. 

Committee, June 15, 1909. 

Lake Superior 1,618,000,000 tons 

New York 750,000,000 tons 

New Jersey 135,000,000 tons 

Pennsylvania 45,000,000 tons 

South 1,814,940,000 tons 

Rocky Mountain District 100,000,000 tons 



Total 4,462,940,000 tons 

"Taking the figures of the United States Steel Corporation of the 'avail- 
able ores, to-wit: 1,717,589,000 tons, it would appear that the corporation 
owns 38^ per cent of the available, desirable ores." 

SUMMARY OF THE ESTIMATES OF AVAILABLE IRON ORE RESERVES 
OF THE UNITED STATES 

Joseph G. Butler, Jr 4,462,940,000 tons 

C. Willard Hayes 4,788,150,000 tons 

John Birkinbine 3,230,000,000 tons 

U. S. Steel Corporation 1,717,589,000 to-is 



86 



OLD RANGE- VERMILION 
BESSEMER 

NATURAL IRON ORE 

LAKE ERIE PRICES 



1911 



17 TABLES 

45 PER CENT TO 61 PER CENT 
INCLUSIVE 



COMPILED BY 
RUKARD KURD 



OLD RANGE-VERMILION BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


45.00 


$3.15545 


45.50 


$3.24818 


.01 


3.15731 


.51 


3.25003 


.02 


3.15916 


.52 


3.25189 


.03 


3.16101 


.53 


3.25374 


.04 


3.16287 


.54 


3.25560 


.05 


3.16472 


.55 


3.25745 


.06 


3.16658 


.56 


3.25931 


.07 


3.16843 


.57 


3.26116 


.08 


3.17029 


.58 


3.26301 


.09 


3.17214 


.59 


3.26487 


45.10 


3.17400 


45.60 


3.26672 


.11 


3.17585 


.61 


3.26858 


.12 


3.17771 


.62 


3.27043 


.13 


3.17956 


.63 


3.27229 


.14 


3.18141 


.64 


3.27414 


.15 


3.18327 


.65 


3.27600 


.16 


3.18512 


.66 


3.27785 


.17 


3.18698 


.67 


3.27971 


.18 


3 . 18883 


.68 


3.28156 


.19 


3 . 19069 


.69 


3.28341 


45.20 


3.19254 


45.70 


3.28527 


.21 


3 . 19440 


.71 


3.28712 


.22 


3.19625 


72 


3.28898 


.23 


3.19811 


.73 


3.29083 


.24 


3.19996 


.74 


3.29269 


.25 


3.20181 


.75 


3.29454 


.26 


3 . 20367 


.76 


3.29640 


.27 


3 . 20552 


.77 


3.29825 


.28 


3.20738 


.78 


3.30011 


.29 


3.20923 


.79 


3.30196 


45.30 


3.21109 


45.80 


3.30381 


.31 


3.21294 


.81 


3.30567 


.32 


3.21480 


.82 


3.30752 


.33 


3.21665 


.83 


3.30938 


.34 


3.21851 


.84 


3.31123 


.35 


3 . 22036 


.85 


3.31309 


.36 


3.22221 


.86 


3.31494 


.37 


3.22407 


87 


3.31680 


.38 


3.22592 


.88 


3.31865 


.39 


3.22778 


.89 


3.32051 


45.40 


3.22963 


45.90 


3.32236 


.41 


3.23149 


.91 


3.32421 


.42 


3.23334 


.92 


3.32607 


.43 


3.23520 


.93 


3 . 32792 


.44 


3.23705 


.94 


3.32978 


.45 


3.23891 


.95 


3.33163 


.46 


3.24076 


.96 


3 . 33349 


.47 


3.24261 


.97 


3.33534 


.48 


3 . 24447 


.98 


3.33720 


.49 


3.24632 


.99 


3.33905 



89 



OLD RANGE-VERMILION BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


46.00 


$3.34091 


46.50 


$3.43363 


.01 


3.34276 


.51 


3 . 43549 


.02 


3.34461 


.52 


3.43734 


.03 


3.34647 


.53 


3.43920 


.04 


3 . 34832 


.54 


3.44105 


.05 


3.35018 


.55 


3.44291 


.06 


3.35203 


.56 


3.44476 


.07 


3.35389 


.57 


3.44661 


.08 


3.35574 


.58 


3.44847 


.09 


3.35760 


.59 


3.45032 


46.10 


3.35945 


46.60 


3.45218 


.11 


3.36131 


.61 


3 . 45403 


.12 


3.36316 


.62 


3.45589 


.13 


3.36501 


.63 


3.45774 


.14 


3 . 36687 


.64 


3.45960 


.15 


3 . 36872 


.65 


3.46145 


.16 


3.37058 


.66 


3.46331 


.17 


3.37243 


.67 


3.46516 


.18 


3 . 37429 


.68 


3.46701 


.19 


3.37614 


.69 


3.46887 


46.20 


3 . 37800 


46.70 


3.47072 


.21 


3 . 37985 


.71 


3.47258 


.22 


3.38171 


.72 


3.47443 


.23 


3.38356 


.73 


3.47629 


.24 


3.38541 


.74 


3.47814 


.25 


3.38727 


.75 


3.48000 


.26 


3.38912 


.76 


3.48185 


.27 


3 . 39098 


.77 


3.48371 


.28 


3.39283 


.78 


3.48556 


.29 


3.39469 


.79 


3.48741 


46.30 


3.39654 


46.80 


3.48927 


.31 


3.39840 


.81 


3.49112 


.32 


3.40025 


.82 


3.49298 


.33 


3.40211 


.83 


3.49483 


.34 


3.40396 


.84 


3.49669 


.35 


3.40581 


.85 


3.49854 


.36 


3.40767 


.86 


3 . 50040 


.37 


3 . 40952 


.87 


3.50225 


.38 


3.41138 


.88 


3.50411 


.39 


3.41323 


.89 


3.50596 


46.40 


3.41509 


46.90 


3.50781 


.41 


3.41694 


.91 


3.50967 


.42 


3.41880 


.92 


3.51152 


.43 


3.42065 


.93 


3.51338 


.44 


3.42251 


.94 


3.51523 


.45 


3.42436 


.95 


3.51709 


.46 


3.42621 


.96 


3.51894 


.47 


3.42807 


.97 


3 . 52080 


.48 


3.42992 


.98 


3 . 52265 


.49 


3.43178 


.99 


3.52451 



90 



OLD RANGE-VERMILION BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


47.00 


$3.52636 


47.50 


$3.61909 


.01 


3.52821 


.51 


3 . 62094 


.02 


3.53007 


.52 


3 . 62280 


.03 


3.53192 


.53 


3 . 62465 


.04 


3.53378 


.54 


3.62651 


.05 


3 . 53563 


.55 


3.62836 


.06 


3.53749 


.56 


3.63021 


.07 


3.53934 


.57 


3.63207 


.08 


3.54120 


.58 


3.63392 


.09 


3.54305 


.59 


3.63578 


47.10 


3.54491 


47.60 


3 . 63763 


.11 


3.54676 


.61 


3 . 63949 


.12 


3.54861 


.62 


3.64134 


.13 


3 . 55047 


.63 


3 . 64320 


.14 


3.55232 


.64 


3.64505 


.15 


3.55418 


.65 


3.64691 


.16 


3 . 55603 


.66 


3.64876 


ill 


3.55789 
3.55974 


.67 
.68 


3.65061 
3.65247 


.19 


3.56160 


.69 


3.65432 


47.20 


3.56345 


47.70 


3.65618 


.21 


3.56531 


.71 


3 . 65803 


.22 


3.56716 


.72 


3 . 65989 


.23 


3.56901 


.73 


3.66174 


.24 


3 . 57087 


.74 


3 . 66360 


.25 


3.57272 


.75 


3 . 66545 


.26 


3.57458 


.76 


3.66731 


.27 


3.57643 


.77 


3.66916 


.28 


3 . 57829 


.78 


3.67101 


.29 


3.58014 


.79 


3.67287 


47.30 


3.58200 


47.80 


3.67472 


.31 


3.58385 


.81 


3.67658 


.32 


3.58571 


.82 


3 . 67843 


.33 


3.58756 


.83 


3 . 68029 


.34 


3.58941 


.84 


3.68214 


.35 


3.59127 


.85 


3.68400 


.36 


3.59312 


.86 


3.68585 


.37 


3 . 59498 


.87 


3.68771 


.38 


3 . 59683 


.88 


3.68956 


.39 


3 . 59869 


.89 


3.69141 


47.40 


3.60054 


47.90 


3.69327 


.41 


3.60240 


.91 


3.69512 


.42 


3.60425 


.92 


3.69698 


.43 


3.60611 


.93 


3.69883 


.44 


3.60796 


.94 


3 . 70069 


.45 


3 . 60981 


.95 


3 . 70254 


.46 


3.61167 


.96 


3 . 70440 


.47 


3.61352 


.97 


3.70625 


.48 


3.61538 


.98 


3.70811 


.49 


3.61723 


.99 


3.70996 



91 



OLD RANGE-VERMILION BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


48.00 


$3.71181 


48.50 


$3 . 80454 


.01 


3.71367 


.51 


3 . 80640 


.02 


3.71552 


.52 


3 . 80825 


.03 


3.71738 


.53 


3.81011 


.04 


3.71923 


.54 


3.81196 


.05 


3.72109 


.55 


3.81381 


.06 


3.72294 


.56 


3.81567 


.07 


3.72480 


.57 


3.81752 


.08 


3 . 72665 


.58 


3.81938 


.09 


3 . 72851 


.59 


3.82123 


48.10 


3 . 73036 


48.60 


3.82309 


.11 


3.73221 


.61 


3.82494 


.12 


3.73407 


.62 


3.82680 


.13 


3.73592 


.63 


3.82865 


.14 


3.73778 


.64 


3.83051 


.15 


3 . 73963 


65 


3.83236 


.16 


3 74149 


.66 


3.83421 


.17 


3.74334 


.67 


3 . 83607 


.18 


3.74520 


.68 


3 - 83792 


.19 


3 . 74705 


.69 


3.83978 


48.20 


3.74891 


48.70 


3.84163 


.21 


3.75076 


.71 


3 . 84349 


.22 


3.75261 


.72 


3.84534 


.23 


3 . 75447 


.73 


3 . 84720 


.24 


3.75632 


.74 


3.84905 


.25 


3.75818 


.75 


3.85091 


.26 


3 . 76003 


.76 


3 . 85276 


.27 


3.76189 


.77 


3 . 85461 


.28 


3.76374 


.78 


3 . 85647 


.29 


3 . 76560 


.79 


3 . 85832 


48.30 


3.76745 


48.80 


3.86018 


.31 


3.76931 


.81 


3 . 86203 


.32 


3.77116 


.82 


3 . 86389 


.33 


3.77301 


.83 


3 . 86574 


.34 


3 . 77487 


.84 


3.86760 


.35 


3.77672 


.85 


3 . 86945 


.36 


3.77858 


.86 


3.87131 


.37 


3.78043 


.87 


3.87316 


.38 


3.78229 


.88 


3.87501 


.39 


3.78414 


.89 


3 . 87687 


48.40 


3 . 78600 


48.90 


3.87872 


.41 


3 . 78785 


.91 


3 . 88058 


.42 


3.78971 


.92 


3 . 88243 


.43 


3.79156 


.93 


3 . 88429 


.44 


3.79341 


.94 


3.88614 


.45 


3.79527 


.95 


3.88800 


.46 


3.79712 


.96 


3.88985 


.47 


3.79898 


.97 


3.89171 


.48 


3.80083 


.98 


3.89356 


.49 


3.80269 


.99 


3.89541 



92 



OLD RANGE-VERMILION BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


nPr 

Lake Erie Price 


49.00 


$3.89727 


49.50 


$3.96681 


.01 


3 . 89866 


.51 


3.96821 


.02 


3 . 90005 


.52 


3 . 96960 


.03 


3.90144 


.53 


3.97099 


.04 


3 . 90283 


.54 


3 . 97238 


.05 


3 . 90422 


.55 


3.97377 


.06 


3.90561 


.56 


3.97516 


.07 


3.90701 


.57 


3 . 97655 


.08 


3.90840 


.58 


3.97794 


.09 


3.90979 


.59 


3.97933 


49.10 


3.91118 


49.60 


3.98072 


.11 


3.91257 


.61 


3.98211 


.12 


3.91396 


.62 


3.98351 


.13 


3.91535 


.63 


3 . 98490 


.14 


3.91674 


.64 


3.98629 


.15 


3.91813 


.65 


3.98768 


.16 


3.91952 


.66 


3.98907 


.17> 


3.92091 


.67 


3.99046 


.18 


3.92231 


.68 


3.99185 


.19 


3.92370 


.69 


3.99324 


49.20 


3.92509 


49.70 


3 . 99463 


.21 


3 . 92648 


.71 


3.99602 


.22 


3 . 92787 


.72 


3.99741 


.23 


3.92926 


.73 


3.99881 


.24 


3.93065 


.74 


4.00020 


.25 


3.93204 


.75 


4.00159 


.26 


3.93343 


.76 


4.00298 


.27 


3.93482 


.77 


4.00437 


.28 


3.93621 


.78 


4.00576 


.29 


3.93761 


.79 


4.00715 


49 . 30 


3.93900 


49.80 


4.00854 


.31 


3.94039 


.81 


4.00993 


.32 


3.94178 


.82 


4.01132 


.33 


3.94317 


.83 


4.01271 


.34 


3.94456 


.84 


4.01411 


.35 


3.94595 


.85 


4.01550 


.36 


3.94734 


.86 


4.01689 


.37 


3.94873 


.87 


4.01828 


.38 


3.95012 


.88 


4.01967 


.39 


3.95151 


.89 


4.02106 


49.40 


3.95291 


49.90 


4.02245 


.41 


3 . 95430 


.91 


4.02384 


.42 


3.95569 


.92 


4.02523 


.43 


3.95708 


.93 


4.02662 


.44 


3.95847 


.94 


4.02801 


.45 


3 . 95986 


.95 


4.02941 


.46 


3.96125 


.96 


4 . 03080 


.47 


3.96264 


.97 


4.03219 


.48 


3.96403 


.98 


4.03358 


.49 


3.96542 


.99 


4.03497 



93 



OLD RANGE-VERMILION BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


50.00 


$4.03636 


50.50 


$4.08272 


.01 


4.03729 


.51 


4.08365 


.02 


4.03821 


.52 


4.08458 


.03 


4.03914 


.53 


4.08551 


.04 


4.04007 


.54 


4.08643 


.05 


4.04100 


.55 


4.08736 


.06 


4.04192 


.56 


4.08829 


.07 


4.04285 


.57 


4.08921 


.08 


4.04378 


.58 


4.09014 


.09 


4.04471 


.59 


4.09107 


50.10 


4 . 04563 


50.60 


4.09200 


.11 


4.04656 


.61 


4.09292 


.12 


4.04749 


.62 


4.09385 


.13 


4.04841 


.63 


4.09478 


.14 


4.04934 


.64 


4.09571 


.15 


4.05027 


.65 


4.09663 


.16 


4.05120 


.66 


4.09756 


.17 


4.05212 


.67 


4.09849 


.18 


4.05305 


.68 


4.09941 


.19 


4.05398 


.69 


4.10034 


50.20 


4.05491 


50.70 


4.10127 


.21 


4.05583 


.71 


4.10220 


.22 


4.05676 


.72 


4.10312 


.23 


4.05769 


.73 


4.10405 


.24 


4.05861 


.74 


4.10498 


.25 


4.05954 


.75 


4.10591 


.26 


4.06047 


.76 


4.10683 


.27 


4.06140 


. 77 


4.10776 


.28 


4.06232 


.78 


4.10869 


.29 


4.06325 


.79 


4.10961 


50.30 


4.06418 


50.80 


4.11054 


.31 


4.06511 


.81 


4.11147 


.32 


4.06603 


. .82 


4.11240 


.33 


4.06696 


.83 


4.11332 


.34 


4.06789 


.84 


4.11425 


.35 


4.06881 


.85 


4.11518 


.36 


4.06974 


.86 


4.11611 


.37 


4.07067 


.87 


4.11703 


.38 


4.07160 


.88 


4.11796 


.39 


4.07252 


.89 


4.11889 


50.40 


4.07345 


50.90 


4.11981 


.41 


4.07438 


.91 


4.12074 


.42 


4.07531 


.92 


4.12167 


.43 


4.07623 


.93 


4.12260 


.44 


4.07716 


.94 


4.12352 


.45 


4.07809 


.95 


4.12445 


.46 


4.07901 


.96 


4.12538 


.47 


4.07994 


.97 


4.12631 


.48 


4 . 08087 


.98 


4.12723 


.49 


4.08180 


.99 


4.12816 



94 




OF THE 

UNIVERSITY 

OF 



OLD RANGE-VERMILION BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


51.00 


$4.12909 


51.50 


$4.17545 


.01 


4.13001 


.51 


4.17638 


.02 


4.13094 


.52 


4.17731 


.03 


4.13187 


.53 


4.17823 


.04 


4.13280 


.54 


4.17916 


.05 


4.13372 


.55 


4.18009 


.06 


4.13465 


.56 


4.18101 


.07 


4.13558 


.57 


4.18194 


.08 


4.13651 


.58 


4.18287 


.09 


4.13743 


.59 


4.18380 


51.10 


4.13836 


51.60 


4.18472 


.11 


4.13929 


.61 


4.18565 


.12 


4.14021 


.62 


4.18658 


.13 


4.14114 


.63 


4.18751 


.14 


4.14207 


.64 


4.18843 


.15 


4.14300 


.65 


4.18936 


.16 


4.14392 


.66 


4.19029 


.17 


4.14485 


.67 


4.19121 


.18 


4.14578 


.68 


4.19214 


.19 


4.14671 


.69 


4.19307 


51.20 


4.14763 


51.70 


4.19400 


.21 


4.14856 


.71 


4.19492 


.22 


4.14949 


.72 


4.19585 


.23 


4.15041 


.73 


4.19678 


.24 


4.15134 


.74 


4.19771 


.25 


4.15227 


.75 


4.19863 


.26 


4.15320 


.76 


4.19956 


.27 


4.15412 


.77 


4.20049 


.28 


4.15505 


.78 


4.20141 


.29 


4.15598 


.79 


4.20234 


51.30 


4.15691 


51.80 


4.20327 


.31 


4.15783 


.81 


4 . 20420 


.32 


4.15876 


.82 


4.20512 


.33 


4.15969 


.83 


4 . 20605 


.34 


4.16061 


.84 


4 . 20698 


.35 


4.16154 


.85 


4.20791 


.36 


4.16247 


.86 


4.20883 


.37 


4.16340 


.87 


4.20976 


.38 


4.16432 


.88 


4.21069 


.39 


4.16525 


.89 


4.21161 


51.40 


4.16618 


51.90 


4.21254 


.41 


4.16711 


.91 


4.21347 


.42 


4.16803 


.92 


4.21440 


.43 


4.16896 


.93 


4.21532 


.44 


4.16989 


.94 


4.21625 


.45 


4.17081 


.95 


4.21718 


.46 


4.17174 


.96 


4.21811 


.47 


4.17267 


.97 


4.21903 


.48 


4.17360 


.98 


4.21996 


^.49 


4.17452 


.99 


4.220S9 



95 



OLD RANGE-VERMILION BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


52.00 


$4.22181 


52.50 


$4.26818 


.01 


4.22274 


.51 


4.26911 


.02 


4.22367 


.52 


4 . 27003 


.03 


4.22460 . 


.53 


4.27096 


.04 


4.22552 


.54 


4.27189 


.05 


4.22645 


.55 


4.27281 


.06 


4.22738 


.56 


4.27374 


.07 


4.22831 


.57 


4.27467 


.08 


4.22923 


.58 


4.27560 


.09 


4.23016 


.59 


4.27652 


52.10 


4.23109 


52.60 


4.27745 


.11 


4.23201 


.61 


4.27838 


.12 


4.23294 


.62 


4.27931 


.13 


4.23387 


.63 


4 . 28023 


.14 


4.23480 


.64 


4.28116 


.15 


4.23572 


.65 


4.28209 


.16 


4.23665 


.66 


4.28301 


.17 


4.23758 


.67 


4.28394 


.18 


4.23851 


.68 


4.28487 


.19 


4.23943 


.69 


4.28580 


52.20 


4.24036 


52.70 


4 . 28672 


.21 


4.24129 


.71 


4.28765 


.22 


4.24221 


.72 


4.28858 


.23 


4.24314 


.73 


4.28951 


.24 


4 . 24407 


.74 


4 . 29043 


.25 


4 . 24500 


.75 


4.29136 


.26 


4.24592 


.76 


4.29229 


.27 


4.24685 


.77 


4.29321 


.28 


4.24778 


.78 


4.29414 


.29 


4.24871 


.79 


4.29507 


52.30 


4.24963 


52.80 


4.29600 


.31 


4.25056 


.81 


4.29692 


.32 


4.25149 


.82 


4.29785 


.33 


4.25241 


.83 


4.29878 


.34 


4.25334 


.84 


4.29971 


.35 


4.25427 


.85 


4.30063 


.36 


4.25520 


.86 


4.30156 


.37 


4.25612 


.87 


4.30249 


.38 


4.25705 


.88 


4.30341 


.39 


4.25798 


.89 


4 . 30434 


52.40 


4.25891 


52.90 


4.30527 


.41 


4.25983 


.91 


4 . 30620 


.42 


4.26076 


.92 


4.30712 


.43 


4.26169 


.93 


4 . 30805 


.44 


4.26261 


.94 


4.30898 


.45 


4 . 26354 


.95 


4.30991 


.46 


4.26447 


.96 


4.31083 


.47 


4.26540 


.97 


4.31176 


.48 


4.26632 


.98 


4.31269 


.49 


4.26725 


.99 


4.31361 



96 



OLD RANGE-VERMILION BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


53.00 


$4.31454 


53.50 


$4.36091 


.01 


4.31547 


.51 


4.36183 


.02 


4.31640 


.52 


4.36276 


.03 


4.31732 


.53 


4.36369 


.04 


4.31825 


.54 


4.36461 


.05 


4.31918 


.55 


4.36554 


.06 


4.32011 


.56 


4.36647 


.07 


4.32103 


.57 


4.36740 


.08 


4.32196 


.58 


4.36832 


.09 


4.32289 


.59 


4.36925 


53.10 


4.32381 


53.60 


4.37018 


.11 


4.32474 


.61 


4.37111 


.12 


4.32567 


.62 


4.37203 


.13 


4.32660 


.63 


4.37296 


.14 


4.32752 


.64 


4.37389 


.15 


4.32845 


.65 


4.37481 


.16 


4.32938 


.66 


4.37574 


.17 


4.33031 


.67 


4.37667 


.18 


4.33123 


.68 


4.37760 


.19 


4.33216 


.69 


4.37852 


53.20 


4.33309 


53.70 


4.37945 


.21 


4.33401 


.71 


4.38038 


.22 


4.33494 


.72 


4.38131 


.23 


4.33587 


.73 


4.38223 


.24 


4.33680 


.74 


4.38316 


.25 


4.33772 


.75 


4.38409 


.26 


4.33865 


.76 


4.38501 


.27 


4.33958 


.77 


4.38594 


.28 


4.34051 


.78 


4.38687 


.29 


4.34143 


.79 


4.38780 


53.30 


4.34236 


53.80 


4.38872 


.31 


4.34329 


.81 


4 . 38965 


.32 


4.34421 


.82 


4.39058 


.33 


4.34514 


.83 


4.39151 


.34 


4.34607 


.84 


4.39243 


.35 


4.34700 


.85 


4.39336 


.36 


4.34792 


.86 


4.39429 


.37 


4.34885 


.87 


4.39521 


.38 


4.34978 


.88 


4.39614 


.39 


4.35071 


.89 


4.39707 


53 . 40 


4.35163 


53 . 90 


4.39800 


.41 


4.35256 


.91 


4.39892 


.42 


4.35349 


.92 


4.39985 


.43 


4.35441 


.93 


4.40078 


.44 


4 . 35534 


.94 


4.40171 


.45 


4.35627 


.95 


4.40263 


.46 


4.35720 


.96 


4.40356 


.47 


4 . 3581 2 


.97 


4.40449 


.48 


4 . 35905 


.98 


4.40541 


.49 


4 . 35998 


.99 


4 . 40634 



97 



OLD RANGE-VERMILION BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


54.00 


$4.40727 


54.50 


$4.45363 


.01 


4.40820 


.51 


4.45456 


.02 


4.40912 


.52 


4 . 45549 


.03 


4.41005 


.53 


4.45641 


.04 


4.41098 


.54 


4.45734 


.05 


4.41191 


.55 


4.45827 


.06 


4.41283 


.56 


4.45920 


.07 


4.41376 


.57 


4.46012 


.08 


4.41469 


.58 


4.46105 


.09 


4.41561 


.59 


4.46198 


54.10 


4.41654 


54.60 


4.46291 


.11 


4.41747 


.61 


4.46383 


.12 


4.41840 


.62 


4.46476 


.13 


4.41932 


.63 


4 . 46569 


.14 


4.42025 


.64 


4.46661 


.15 


4.42118 


.65 


4.46754 


.16 


4.42211 


.66 


4.46847 


.17 


4.42303 


.67 


4.46940 


.18 


4.42396 


.68 


4.47032 


.19 


4 . 42489 


.69 


4.47125 


54.20 


4.42581 


54.70 


4.47218 


.21 


4.42674 


.71 


4.47311 


.22 


4.42767 


.72 


4.47403 


.23 


4 . 42860 


.73 


4.47496 


.24 


4.42952 


.74 


4.47589 


.25 


4.43045 


.75 


4.47681 


.26 


4.43138 


.76 


4.47774 


.27 


4.43231 


.77 


4.47867 


.28 


4 . 43323 


.78 


4.47960 


.29 


4.43416 


.79 


4.48052 


54 . 30 


4 . 43509 


54.80 


4.48145 


.31 


4.43601 


.81 


4.48238 


.32 


4.43694 


.82 


4.48331 


.33 


4.43787 


.83 


4.48423 


.34 


4.43880 


.84 


4.48516 


.35 


4.43972 


.85 


4.48609 


.36 


4.44065 


.86 


4.48701 


.37 


4.44158 


.87 


4.48794 


.38 


4.44251 


.88 


4.48887 


.39 


4.44343 


.89 


4.48980 


54.40 


4.44436 


54.90 


4.49072 


.41 


4.44529 


.91 


4.49165 


.42 


4.44621 


.92 


4.49258 


.43 


4.44714 


.93 


4.49351 


.44 


4 . 44807 


.94 


4 . 49443 


.45 


4 . 44900 


.95 


4.49536 


.46 


4.44992 


.96 


4.49629 


.47 


4.45085 


.97 


4.49721 


.48 


4.45178 


.98 


4.49814 


.49 


4.45271 


.99 


4.49907 



98 



OLD RANGE-VERMILION BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


55.00 


$4 . 50000 


55.50 


$4.55136 


.01 


4.50102 


.51 


4.55239 


.02 


4.50205 


.52 


4.55341 


.03 


4.50308 


.53 


4.55444 


.04 


4.50411 


.54 


4.55547 


.05 


4.50513 


.55 


4 . 55650 


.06 


4.50616 


.56 


4.55752 


.07 


4.50719 


.57 


4.55855 


.08 


4.50821 


.58 


4.55958 


.09 


4 . 50924 


.59 


4.56061 


55.10 


4.51027 


55.60 


4.56163 


.11 


4.51130 


.61 


4.56266 


.12 


4.51232 


.62 


4.56369 


.13 


4.51335 


.63 


4.56471 


.14 


4.51438 


.64 


4 . 56574 


.15 


4.51541 


.65 


4.56677 


.16 


4.51643 


.66 


4 . 56780 


.17 


4.51746 


.67 


4 . 56882 


.18 


4.51849 


.68 


4.56985 


.19 


4.51951 


.69 


4.57088 


55.20 


4 . 52054 


55.70 


4.57191 


.21 


4.52157 


.71 


4.57293 


.22 


4.52260 


.72 


4.57396 


.23 


4.52362 


.73 


4.57499 


.24 


4.52465 


.74 


4.57601 


.25 


4 . 52568 


.75 


4.57704 


.26 


4.52671 


.76 


4.57807 


.27 


4.52773 


.77 


4.57910 


.28 


4.52876 


.78 


4.58012 


.29 


4.52979 


.79 


4.58115 


55.30 


4.53081 


55.80 


4.58218 


.31 


4.53184 


.81 


4.58321 


.32 


4.53287 


.82 


4 . 58423 


.33 


4.53390 


.83 


4.58526 


.34 


4 . 53492 


.84 


4.58629 


.35 


4.53595 


.85 


4.58731 


.36 


4.53698 


.86 


4.58834 


.37 


4.53801 


.87 


4.58937 


.38 


4 . 53903 


.88 


4 . 59040 


.39 


4 . 54006 


.89 


4.59142 


55.40 


4.54109 


55.90 


4.59245 


.41 


4.54211 


.91 


4.59348 


.42 


4.54314 


.92 


4.59451 


.43 


4.54417 


.93 


4.59553 


.44 


4.54520 


.94 


4 . 59656 


.45 


4.54622 


.95 


4 . 59759 


.46 


4.54725 


.96 


4.59861 


.47 


4 . 54828 


.97 


4 . 59964 


.48 


4.54931 


.98 


4r. 60067 


.49 


4.55033 


.99 


4.60170 



99 



OLD RANGE-VERMILION BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


56.00 


$4.60272 


56.50 


$4.65909 


.01 


4.60385 


.51 


4.66021 


.02 


4.60498 


.52 


4.66134 


.03 


4.60611 


.53 


4.66247 


.04 


4.60723 


.54 


4.66360 


.05 


4.60836 


.55 


4.66472 


.06 


4.60949 


.56 


4.66585 


.07 


4.61061 


.57 


4.66698 


.08 


4.61174 


.58 


4.66811 


.09 


4.61287 


.59 


4.66923 


56.10 


4.61400 


56.60 


4.67036 


.11 


4.61512 


.61 


4.67149 


.12 


4.61625 


.62 


4.67261 


.13 


4.61738 


.63 


4.67374 


.14 


4.61851 


.64 


4.67487 


.15 


4.61963 


.65 


4.67600 


.16 


4.62076 


.66 


4.67712 


.17 


4.62189 


.67 


4.67825 


.18 


4.62301 


.48 


4.67938 


.19 


4.62414 


.69 


4.68051 


56.20 


4.62527 


56.70 


4.68163 


.21 


4.62640 


.71 


4.68276 


.22 


4.62752 


.72 


4.68389 


.23 


4.62865 


.73 


4.68501 


.24 


4.62978 


.74 


4.68614 


.25 


4.63091 


.75 


4.68727 


.26 


4.63203 


.76 


4.68840 


.27 


4.63316 


.77 


4.68952 


.28 


4.63429 


.78 


4.69065 


.29 


4.63541 


.79 


4.69178 


56.30 


4.63654 


56.80 


4.69291 


.31 


4.63767 


.81 


4 . 69403 


.32 


4.63880 


.82 


4.69516 


.33 


4.63992 


.83 


4.69629 


.34 


4.64105 


.84 


4.69741 


.35 


4.64218 


.85 


4.69854 


.36 


4.64331 


.86 


4.69967 


.37 


4 . 64443 


.87 


4 . 70080 


.38 


4.64556 


.88 


4.70192 


.39 


4 . 64669 


.89 


4.70305 


56.40 


4.64781 


56.90 


4.70418 


.41 


4.64894 


.91 


4.70531 


.42 


4 . 65007 


.92 


4.70643 


.43 


4.65120 


.93 


4.70756 


.44 


4.65232 


.94 


4.70869 


.45 


4.65345 


.95 


4.70981 


.46 


4.65458 


.96 


4.71094 


.47 


4.65571 


.97 


4.71207 


.48 


4.65683 


.98 


4.71320 


.49 


4 . 65796 


.99 


4.71432 



100 



OLD RANGE-VERMILION BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


57.00 


$4.71545 


57.50 


$4.77681 


.01 


4.71668 


.51 


4.77804 


.02 


4.71791 


.52 


4.77927 


.03 


4.71913 


.53 


4 . 78050 


.04 


4.72036 


.54 


4.78172 


.05 


4.72159 


.55 


4.78295 


.06 


4.72281 


.56 


4.78418 


.07 


4.72404 


.57 


4.78541 


.08 


4.72527 


.58 


4 . 78663 


.09 


4.72650 


.59 


4.78786 


57.10 


4.72772 


57.60 


4 . 78909 


.11 


4.72895 


.61 


4.79031 


.12 


4.73018 


.62 


4.79154 


.13 


4.73141 


.63 


4.79277 


.14 


4 . 73263 


.64 


4.79400 


.15 


4 . 73386 


.65 


4.79522 


.16 


4.73509 


.66 


4.79645 


.17 


4.73631 


.67 


4.79768 


.18 


4.73754 


.68 


4.79891 


.19 


4.73877 


.69 


4.80013 


57.20 


4 . 74000 


57.70 


4.80136 


.21 


4.74122 


.71 


4 . 80259 


.22 


4.74245 


.72 


4.80381 


.23 


4.74368 


.73 


4 . 80504 


.24 


4.74491 


.74 


4 . 80627 


.25 


4.74613 


.75 


4.80750 


.26 


4.74736 


.76 


4 . 80872 


.27 


4.74859 


.77 


4 . 80995 


.28 


4.74981 


.78 


4.81118 


.29 


4.75104 


.79 


4.81241 


57.30 


4.75227 


57.80 


4.81363- 


.31 


4.75350 


.81 


4.81486 


.32 


4.75472 


.82 


4.81609 


.33 


4.75595 


.83 


4.81731 


.34 


4.75718 


.84 


4.81854 


.35 


4.75841 


.85 


4.81977 


.36 


4.75963 


.86 


4.82100 


.37 


4.76086 


.87 


4.82222 


.38 


4.76209 


.88 


4 . 82345 


.39 


4.76331 


.89 


4.82468 


57.40 


4 . 76454 


57 . 90 


4.82591 


.41 


4.76577 


.91 


4.82713 


.42 


4.76700 


.92 


4.82836 


.43 


4.76822 


.93 


4.82959 


.44 


4.76945 


.94 


4.83081 


.45 


4.77068 


.95 


4 . 83204 


.46 


4.77191 


.96 


4 . 83327 


.47 


4.77313 


.97 


4.83450 


.48 


4.77436 


.98 


4.83572 


.49 


4.77559 


.99 


4.83695 



101 



OLD RANGE-VERMILION BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


58.00 


$4.83818 


58.50 


$4.90454 


.01 


4.83951 


.51 


4.90587 


.02 


4.84083 


.52 


4.90720 


.03 


4.84216 


.53 


4.90852 


.04 


4.84349 


.54 


4.90985 


.05 


4.84481 


.55 


4.91118 


.06 


4.84614 


.56 


4.91251 


.07 


4.84747 


.57 


4.91383 


.08 


4.84880 


.58 


4.91516 


.09 


4.85012 


.59 


4.91649 


58.10 


4.85145 


58.60 


4.91781 


.11 


4 . 85278 


.61 


4.91914 


.12 


4.85411 


.62 


4 . 92047 


.13 


4.85543 


.63 


4.92180 


.14 


4 . 85676 


.64 


4.92312 


.15 


4.85809 


.65 


4.92445 


.16 


4.85941 


.66 


4.92578 


.17 


4.86074 


.67 


4.92711 


.18 


4.86207 


.68 


4.92843 


.19 


4.86340 


.69 


4.92976 


58.20 


4.86472 


58.70 


4.93109 


.21 


4 . 86605 


.71 


4.93241 


.22 


4 . 86738 


.72 


4.93374 


.23 


4.86871 


.73 


4.93507 


.24 


4.87003 


.74 


4.93640 


.25 


4.87136 


.75 


4.93772 


.26 


4.87269 


.76 


4.93905 


.27 


4.87401 


.77 


4 . 94038 


.28 


4.87534 


.78 


4.94171 


.29 


4.87667 


.79 


4.94303 


58.30 


4.87800 


58.80 


4.94436 


.31 


4 . 87932 


.81 


4.94569 


.32 


4 . 88065 


.82 


4.94701 


.33 


4.88198 


.83 


4.94834 


.34 


4.88331 


.84 


4.94967 


.35 


4 . 88463 


.85 


4.95100 


.36 


4 . 88596 


.86 


4.95232 


.37 


4.88729 


.87 


4.95365 


.38 


4 . 88861 


.88 


4.95498 


.39 


4 . 88994 


.89 


4.95631 


58.40 


4.89127 


58.90 


4.95763 


.41 


4 . 89260 


.91 


4.95896 


.42 


4.89392 


.92 


4.96029 


.43 


4.89525 


.93 


4.96161 


.44 


4.89658 


.94 


4.96294 


.45 


4.89791 


.95 


4.96427 


.46 


4.89923 


.96 


4.96560 


.47 


4.90056 


.97 


4.96692 


.48 


4.90189 


.98 


4.96825 


.49 


4.90321 


.99 


4 . 96958 



102 



OLD RANGE-VERMILION BESSEMER 



Per Cent 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 


Lake Erie Price 


Natural Iron 




Natural Iron 




59.00 


$4.97091 


59.50 


$5.04227 


.01 


4.97233 


.51 


5.04370 


.02 


4.97376 


.52 


5.04512 


.03 


4.97519 


.53 


5.04655 


.04 


4.97661 


.54 


5.04798 


.05 


4.97804 


.55 


5.04941 


.06 


4.97947 


.56 


5.05083 


.07 


4.98090 


.57 


5.05226 


.08 


4.98232 


.58 


5.05369 


.09 


4.98375 


.59 


5.05511 


59.10 


4.98518 


59.60 


5.05654 


.11 


4.98661 


.61 


5.05797 


.12 


4.98803 


.62 


5.05940 


.13 


4.98946 


.63 


5.06082 


.14 


4.99089 


.64 


5.06225 


.15 


4.99231 


.65 


5.06368 


.16 


4.99374 


.66 


5.06511 


.17 


4.99517 


.67 


5.06653 


.18 


4.99660 


.68 


5.06796 


.19 


4.99802 


.69 


5.06939 


59.20 


4.99945 


59.70 


5.07081 


.21 


5.00088 


.71 


5.07224 


.22 


5.00231 


.72 


5.07367 


.23, 


5.00373 


.73 


5.07510 


.24 


5.00516 


.74 


5.07652 


.25 


5.00659 


.75 


5.07795 


.26 


5.00801 


.76 


5.07938 


.27 


5.00944 


.77 


5.08081 


.28 


5.01087 


.78 


5.08223 


.29 


5.01230 


.79 


5.08366 


59.30 


5.01372 


59.80 


5.08509 


.31 


5.01515 


.81 


5.08651 


.32 


5.01658 


.82 


5.08794 


.33 


5.01801 


.83 


5.08937 


.34 


5.01943 


.84 


5 . 09080 


.35 


5.02086 


.85 


5.09222 


.36 


5.02229 


.86 


5.09365 


.37 


5.02371 


.87 


5.09508 


.38 


5.02514 


.88 


5.09651 


.39 


5.02657 


.89 


5.09793 


59.40 


5.02800 


59.90 


5.09936 


.41 


5.02942 


.91 


5.10079 


.42 


5.03085 


.92 


5.10221 


.43 


5.03228 


.93 


5.10364 


.44 


5.03371 


.94 


5.10507 


.45 


5.03513 


.95 


5.10650 


.46 


5.03656 


.96 


5.10792 


.47 


5.03799 


.97 


5.10935 


.48 


5.03941 


.98 


5.11078 


.49 


5.04084 


.99 


5.11221 



103 



OLD RANGE-VERMILION BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


60.00 


$5.11363 


60.50 


$5.16000 


.01 


5.11456 


.51 


5.16092 


.02 


5.11549 


.52 


5.16185 


.03 


5.11641 


.53 


5.16278 


.04 


5.11734 


.54 


5.16371 


.05 


5.11827 


.55 


5.16463 


.06 


5.11920 


.56 


5.16556 


.07 


5.12012 


.57 


5.16649 


.08 


5.12105 


.58 


5.16741 


.09 


5.12198 


.59 


5.16834 


60.10 


5.12291 


60.60 


5.16927 


.11 


5.12383 


.61 


5.17020 


.12 . 


5.12476 


.62 


5.17112 


.13 


5.12569 


.63 


5.17205 


.14 


5.12661 


.64 


5.17298 


.15 


5.12754 


.65 


5.17391 


.16 


5.12847 


.66 


5.17483 


.17 


5.12940 


.67 


5.17576 


.18 


5.13032 


.68 


5.17669 


.19 


5.13125 


.69 


5.17761 


60.20 


5.13218 


60.70 


5.17854 


.21 


5.13311 


.71 


5.17947 


.22 


5.13403 


.72 


5.18040 


.23 


5.13496 


.73 


5*18132 


.24 


5.13589 


.74 


5.18225 


.25 


5.13681 


.75 


5.18318 


.26 


5.13774 


.76 


5.18411 


.27 


5.13867 


.77 


5.18503 


.28 


5.13960 


.78 


5.18596 


.29 


5.14052 


.79 


5.18689 


60.30 


5.14145 


60.80 


5.18781 


.31 


5.14238 


.81 


5.18874 


.32 


5.14331 


.82 


5.18967 


.33 


5.14423 


.83 


5.19060 


.34 


5.14516 


.84 


5.19152 


.35 


5.14609 


.85 


5.19245 


.36 


5.14701 


.86 


5.19338 


.37 


5.14794 


.87 


5.19431 


.38 


5.14887 


.88 


5.19523 


.39 


5.14980 


.89 


5.19616 


60.40 


5.15072 


60.90 


5.19709 


.41 


5.15165 


.91 


5.19801 


.42 


5.15258 


.92 


5.19894 


.43 


5.15351 


.93 


5.19987 


.44 


5.15443 


.94 


5.20080 


.45 


5.15536 


.95 


5.20172 


.46 


5.15629 


.96 


5.20265 


.47 


5.15721 


.97 


5 . 20358 


.48 


5.15814 


.98 


5.20451 


.49 


5.15907 


.99 


5.20543 











104 



OLD RANGE-VERMILION BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


61.00 


$5.20636 


61.50 


$5.25272 


.01 


5.20729 


.51 


5.25365 


.02 


5.20821 


.52 


5 . 25458 


.03 


5.20914 


.53 


5.25551 


.04 


5.21007 


.54 


5.25643 


.05 


5.21100 


.55 


5.25736 


.06 


5.21192 


.56 


5.25829 


.07 


5.21285 


.57 


5.25921 


.08 


5.21378 


.58 


5.26014 


.09 


5.21471 


.59- 


5.26107 


61.10 


5.21563 


61.60 


5.26200 


.11 


5.21656 


.61 


5.26292 


.12 


5.21749 


.62 


5.26385 


.13 


5.21841 


.63 


5.26478 


.14 


5.21934 


.64 


5.26571 


.15 


5.22027 


.65 


5.26663 


.16 


5.22120 


.66 


5.26756 


.17 


5.22212 


.67 


5.26849 


.18 


5.22305 


.68 


5.26941 


.19 


5.22398 


.69 


5.27034 


61.20 


5.22491 


61.70 


5.27127 


.21 


5.22583 


.71 


5.27220 


.22 


5.22676 


.72 


5.27312 


.23 


5.22769 


.73 


5.27405 


.24 


5.22861 


.74 


5 . 27498 


.25 


5 . 22954 


.75 


5.27591 


.26 


5 . 23047 


.76 


5.27683 


.27 


5.23140 


.77 


5.27776 


.28 


5.23232 


.78 


5.27869 


.29 


5.23325 


.79 


5.27961 


61.30 


5.23418 


61.80 


5.28054 


.31 


5.23511 


.81 


5.28147 


.32 


5.23603 


.82 


5.28240 


.33 


5.23696 


.83 


5.28332 


.34 


5.23789 


.84 


5.28425 


.35 


5.23881 


.85 


5.28518 


.36 


5.23974 


.86 


5.286U 


.37 


5.24067 


.87 


5.28703 


.38 


5.24160 


.88 


5.28796 


.39 


5 . 24252 


.89 


5.28889 


61.40 


5.24345 


61.90 


5.28981 


.41 


5.24438 


.91 


5.29074 


.42 


5.24531 


.92 


5.29167 


.43 


5 . 24623 


.93 


5.29260 


.44 


5.24716 


.94 


5.29352 


.45 


5.24809 


.95 


5.29445 


.46 


5.24901 


.96 


5.29538 


.47 


5.24994 


.97 


5.29631 


.48 


5 . 25087 


.98 


5.29723 


.49 


5.25180 


.99 


5.29816 



-105 



MESABA BESSEMER 

NATURAL IRON ORE 

LAKE ERIE PRICES 



1911 



17 TABLES 

45 PER CENT TO 61 PER CENT 
INCLUSIVE 



COMPILED BY 

RUKARD KURD 



MESABA BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


45.00 


$2.97136 


45.50 


$3.05954 


.01 


2.97312 


.51 


3.06130 


.02 


2.97489 


.52 


3.06307 


.03 


2.97665 


.53 


3.06483 


.04 


2.97841 


.54 


3.06659 


.05 


2.98018 


.55 


3.06836 


06 


2.98194 


.56 


3.07012 


.07 


2.98370 


.57 


3.07189 


.08 


2.98547 


.58 


3.07365 


.09 


2 . 98723 


.59 


3.07541 


45.10 


2.98899 


45.60 


3.07718 


.11 


2.99076 


.61 


3.07894 


.12 


2.99252 


.62 


3.08070 


.13 


2 . 99429 


.63 


3.08247 


.14 


2.99605 


.64 


3.08423 


.15 


2.99781 


.65 


3.08599 


.16 


2.99958 


.66 


3.08776 


.17 


3.00134 


.67 


3.08952 


.18 


3.00310 


.68 


3.09129 


.19 


3.00487 


.69 


3.09305 


45.20 


3.00663 


45.70 


3.09481 


.21 


3.00839 


.71 


3.09658 


.22 


3.01016 


.72 


3.09834 


.23 


3.01192 


.73 


3.10010 


.24 


3.01369 


.74 


3.10187 


.25 


3.01545 


.75 


3.10363 


.26 


3.01721 


.76 


3.10539 


.27 


3.01898 


.77 


3.10716 


.28 


3 . 02074 


.78 


3 . 10892 


.29 


3.02250 


.79 


3.11069 


45.30 


3.02427 


45.80 


3.11245 


.31 


3.02603 


.81 


3.11421 


.32 


3.02779 


.82 


3.11598 


.33 


3.02956 


.83 


3.11774 


.34 


3.03132 


.84 


3.11950 


.35 


3.03309 


.85 


3.12127 


.36 


3.03485 


.86 


3.12303 


.37 


3.03661 


.87 


3.12479 


.38 


3.03838 


.88 


3.12656 


.39 


3.04014 


.89 


3.12832 


45.40 


3.04190 


45.90 


3.13009 


.41 


3.04367 


.91 


3.13185 


.42 


3.04543 


.92 


3.13361 


.43 


3.04719 


.93 


3.13538 


.44 


3.04896 


.94 


3.13714 


.45 


3.05072 


.95 


3.13890 


.46 


3.05249 


.96 


3.14067 


.47 


3.05425 


.97 


3.14243 


.48 


3.05601 


.98 


3.14419 


.49 


3.05778 


.99 


3.14596 



109 



MESABA BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


46.00 


$3.14772 


46.50 


$3.23590 


.01 


3.14949 


.51 


3.23767 


.02 


3.15125 


.52 


3.23943 


.03 


3.15301 


.53 


3.24119 


.04 


3.15478 


.54 


3.24296 


.05 


3.15654 


.55 


3.24472 


.06 


3.15830 


.56 


3.24649 


.07 


3.16007 


.57 


3.24825 


.08 


3.16183 


.58 


3.25001 


.09 


3.16359 


.59 


3.25178 


46.10 


3.16536 


46.60 


3.25354 


.11 


3.16712 


.61 


3.25530 


.12 


3.16889 


.62 


3.25707 


.13 


3.17065 


.63 


3.25883 


.14 


3.17241 


.64 


3 . 26059 


.15 


3.17418 


.65 


3.26236 


.16 


3.17594 


.66 


3.26412 


.17 


3.17770 


.67 


3.26589 


.18 


3.17947 


.68 


3.26765 


.19 


3.18123 


.69 


3.26941 


46.20 


3.18299 


46.70 


3.27118 


.21 


3.18476 


.71 


3.27294 


.22 


3.18652 


.72 


3.27470 


.23 


3.18829 


.73 


3.27647 


.24 


3.19005 


.74 


3.27823 


.25 


3.19181 


.75 


3.27999 


.26 


3.19358 


.76 


3.28176 


.27 


3.19534 


.77 


3.28352 


.28 


3.19710 


.78 


3.28529 


.29 


3.19887 


.79 


3.28705 


46.30 


3.20063 


46.80 


3.28881 


.31 


3.20239 


.81 


3 . 29058 


.32 


3.20416 


.82 


3.29234 


.33 


3.20592 


.83 


3.29410 


.34 


3.20769 


.84 


3.29587 


.35 


3 . 20945 


.85 


3.29763 


.36 


3.21121 


.86 


3.29939 


.37 


3.21298 


.87 


3.30116 


.38 


3.21474 


.88 


3.30292 


.39 


3.21650 


.89 


3 . 30469 


46.40 


3.21827 


46.90 


3 . 30645 


.41 


3.22003 


.91 


3.30821 


.42 


3.22179 


.92 


3.30998 


.43 


3.22356 


.93 


3.31174 


.44 


3.22532 


.94 


3.31350 


.45 


3.22709 


.95 


3.31527 


.46 


3.22885 


.96 


3.31703 


.47 


3.23061 


.97 


3.31879 


.48 


3.23238 


.98 


3.32056 


.49 


3.23414 


.99 


3.32232 



110 



MESABA BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


47.00 


$3 . 32409 


47.50 


$3.41227 


.01 


3.32585 


.51 


3.41403 


.02 


3.32761 


.52 


3.41579 


.03 


3.32938 


.53 


3.41756 


.04 


3.33114 


.54 


3.41932 


.05 


3.33290 


.55 


3.42109 


.06 


3.33467 


.56 


3 . 42285 


.07 


3.33643 


.57 


3.42461 


.08 


3.33819 


.58 


3.42638 


.09 


3.33996 


.59 


3.42814 


47.10 


3.34172 


47.60 


3.42990 


.11 


3.34349 


.61 


3.43167 


.12 


3.34525 


.62 


3.43343 


.13 


3.34701 


.63 


3.43519 


.14 


3.34878 


.64 


3.43696 


.15 


3.35054 


.65 


3.43872 


.16 


3.35230 


.66 


3.44049 


.17 


3 . 35407 


.67 


3.44225 


.18 


3.35583 


.68 


3.44401 


- .19 


3.35759 


.69 


3.44578 


47.20 


3.35936 


47.70 


3 . 44754 


.21 


3.36112 


.71 


3.44930 


.22 


3.36289 


.72 


3.45107 


.23 


3.36465 


.73 


3.45283 


.24 


3.36641 


.74 


3.45459 


.25 


3.36818 


.75 


3.45636 


.26 


3.36994 


.76 


3.45812 


.27 


3.37170 


.77 


3.45989 


.28 


3.37347 


.78 


3.46165 


.29 


3.37523 


.79 


3.46341 


47.30 


3.37699 


47.80 


3.46518 


.31 


3.37876 


.81 


3.46694 


.32 


3 . 38052 


.82 


3.46870 


.33 


3.38229 


.83 


3.47047 


.34 


3 . 38405 


.84 


3.47223 


.35 


3.38581 


.85 


3.47399 


.36 


3.38758 


.86 


3.47576 


.37 


3.38934 


.87 


3.47752 


.38 


3.39110 


.88 


3.47929 


.39 


3.39287 


.89 


3.48105 


47.40 


3.39463 


47.90 


3.48281 


.41 


3.39639 


.91 


3.48458 


.42 


3.39816 


.92 


3.48634 


.43 


3.39992 


.93 


3.48810 


.44 


3.40169 


.94 


3.48987 


.45 


3.40345 


.95 


3.49163 


.46 


3.40521 


.96 


3.49339 


.47 


3.40698 


.97 


3.49516 


.48 


3 . 40874 


.98 


3.49692 


.49 


3.41050 


.99 


3.49869 



111 



MESABA BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


48 . 00 


$3 . 50045 


48.50 


$3 . 58863 


.01 


3.50221 


.51 


3 . 59039 


.02 


3 . 50398 


.52 


3.59216 


.03 


3 . 50574 


.53 


3 . 59392 


.04 


3.50750 


.54 


3 . 59569 


.05 


3 . 50927 


.55 


3.59745 


.06 


3.51103 


.56 


3.59921 


.07 


3.51279 


.57 


3 . 60098 


.08 


3.51456 


.58 


3 . 60274 


.09 


3.51632 


.59 


3.60450 


48.10 


3.51809 


48.60 


3 . 60627 


.11 


3.51985 


.61 


3 . 60803 


.12 


3.52161 


.62 


3 . 60979 


.13 


3.52338 


.63 


3.61156 


.14 


3.52514 


.64 


3.61332 


.15 


3.52690 


.65 


3.61509 


.16 


3.52867 


.66 


3.61685 


.17 


3.53043 


.67 


3.61861 


.18 


3.53219 


.68 


3 . 62038 


.19 


3 . 53396 


.69 


3.62214 


48.20 


3.53572 


48.70 


3.62390 


.21 


3.53749 


.71 


3 . 62567 


.22 


3.53925 


.72 


3.62743 


.23 


3.54101 


.73 


3.62919 


.24 


3.54278 


.74 


3 . 63096 


.25 


3 . 54454 


.75 


3.63272 


.26 


3 . 54630 


.76 


3.63449 


.27 


3.54807 


. 77 


3.63625 


.28 


3 . 54983 


.78 


3.63801 


.29 


3.55159 


.79 


3.63978 


48.30 


3 . 55336 


48.80 


3.64154 


.31 


3.55512 


.81 


3.64330 


.32 


3.55689 


.82 


3.64507 


.33 


3 . 55865 


.83 


3.64683 


.34 


3.56041 


.84 


3.64859 


.35 


3.56218 


.85 


3.65036 


.36 


3.56394 


.86 


3.65212 


.37 


3.56570 


.87 


3 . 65389 


.38 


3.56747 


.88 


3.65565 


.39 


3.56923 


.89 


3.65741 


48.40 


3 . 57099 


48.90 


3.65918 


.41 


3 . 57276 


.91 


3.66094 


.42 


3 . 57452 


.92 


3 . 66270 


.43 


3.57629 


.93 


3 . 66447 


.44 


,3 . 57805 


.94 


3 . 66623 


.45 


3.57981 


.95 


3 . 66799 


.46 


3.58158 


.96 


3 . 66976 


.47 


3 . 58334 


.97 


3.67152 


.48 


3.58510 


.98 


3.67329 


.49 


3.58687 


.99 


3.67505 



-112 



MESABA BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


49 . 00 


$3.67681 


49.50 


$3.74295 


.01 


3.67814 


.51 


3.74427 


.02 


3.67946 


.52 


3.74559 


.03 


3 . 68078 


.53 


3.74692 


.04 


3.68210 


.54 


3.74824 


.05 


3 . 68343 


.55 


3.74956 


.06 


3 . 68475 


.56 


3.75089 


.07 


3.68607 


.57 


3.75221 


.08 


3.68739 


.58 


3.75353 


.09 


3.68872 


.59 ' 


3.75485 


49.10 


3 . 69004 


49.60 


3.75618 


.11 


3.69136 


.61 


3.75750 


.12 


3.69269 


.62 


3.75882 


.13 


3.69401 


.63 


3.76014 


.14 


3.69533 


.64 


3.76147 


.15 


3.69665 


.65 


3.76279 


.16 


3.69798 


.66 


3.76411 


.17 


3 . 69930 


.67 


3.76544 


.18 


3.70062 


.68 


3.76676 


.19 


3.70194 


.69 


3.76808 


49.20 


3.70327 


49.70 


3.76940 


.21 


3.70459 


.71 


3.77073 


.22 


3.70591 


.72 


3 . 77205 


.23 


3.70724 


.73 


3.77337 


.24 


3.70856 


.74 


3.77469 


.25 


3 . 70988 


.75 


3 . 77602 


.26 


3.71120 


.76 


3.77734 


.27 


3.71253 


.77 


3.77866 


.28 


3.71385 


.78 


3.77999 


.29 


3.71517 


.79 


3.78131 


49.30 


3.71649 


49.80 


3.78263 


.31 


3.71782 


.81 


3.78395 


.32 


3.71914 


.82 


3.78528 


.33 


3.72046 


.83 


3 . 78660 


.34 


3.72179 


.84 


3.78792 


.35 


3.72311 


.85 


3.78924 


.36 


3 . 72443 


.86 


3.79057 


.37 


3.72575 


.87 


3.79189 


.38 


3.72708 


.88 


3.79321 


.39 


3.72840 


.89 


3.79454 


49 . 40 


3.72972 


49.90 


3.79586 


.41 


3.73104 


.91 


3.79718 


.42 


3 . 73237 


.92 


3 . 79850 


.43 


3.73369 


.93 


3.79983 


.44 


3.73501 


.94 


3.80115 


.45 


3.73634 


.95 


3.80247 


.46 


3.73766 


.96 


3 . 80379 


.47 


3.73898 


.97 


3.80512 


.48 


3 . 74030 


.98 


3 . 80644 


.49 


3.74163 


.99 


3.80776 



113 



MESABA BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


50.00 


$3.80909 


50.50 


$3.85318 


.01 


3 . 80997 


.51 


3.85406 


.02 


3.81085 


.52 


3.85494 


.03 


3.81173 


.53 


3.85582 


.04 


3.81261 


.54 


3 . 85670 


.05 


3.81349 


.55 


3.85758 


.06 


3.81438 


.56 


3 . 85847 


.07 


3.81526 


.57 


3 . 85935 


.08 


3.81614 


.58 


3.86023 


.09 


3.81702 


.59 


3.86111 


50.10 


3.81790 


50.60 


3.86199 


.11 


3.81878 


.61 


3.86288 


.12 


3.81967 


.62 


3.86376 


.13 


3.82055 


.63 


3 . 86464 


.14 


3.82143 


.64 


3 . 86552 


.15 


3.82231 


.65 


3 . 86640 


.16 


3.82319 


.66 


3.86728 


.17 


3.82408 


.67 


3.86817 


.18 


3.82496 


.68 


3.86905 


.19 


3.82584 


.69 


3 . 86993 


50.20 


3 . 82672 


50.70 


3.87081 


.21 


3.82760 


.71 


3.87169 


.22 


3.82848 


.72 


3.87258 


.23 


3.82937 


.73 


3.87346 


.24 


3.83025 


.74 


3.87434 


.25 


3.83113 


.75 


3.87522 


.26 


3.83201 


.76 


3.87610 


.27 


3.83289 


.77 


3.87698 


.28 


3.83378 


.78 


3.87787 


.29 


3.83466 


.79 


3.87875 


50.30 


3.83554 


50 . 80 


3 . 87963 


.31 


3.83642 


.81 


3.88051 


.32 


3.83730 


.82 


3.88139 


.33 


3.83818 


.83 


3.88228 


.34 


3.83907 


.84 


3.88316 


.35 


3.83995 


.85 


3.88404 


.36 


3.84083 


.86 


3.88492 


.37 


3.84171 


.87 


3.88580 


.38 


3 . 84259 


.88 


3 . 88668 


.39 


3 . 84348 


.89 


3 . 88757 


50.40 


3 . 84436 


50.90 


3 . 88845 


.41 


3 . 84524 


.91 


3 . 88933 


.42 


3.84612 


.92 


3.89021 


.43 


3 . 84700 


.93 


3.89109 


.44 


3.84788 


.94 


3.89198 


.45 


3.84877 


.95 


3.89286 


.46 


3.84965 


.96 


3.89374 


.47 


3 . 85053 


.97 


3.89462 


.48 


3.85141 


.98 


3.89550 


.49 


3.85229 


.99 


3.89638 



-114- 



Of THE 

UNIVERSITY 

OF 
ILjFORHV! 

MESABA BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent- 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


51.00 


$3.89727 


51.50 


$3.94136 


.01 


3.89815 


.51 


3.94224 


.02 


3 . 89903 


.52 


3.94312 


.03 


3.89991 


.53 


3 . 94400 


.04 


3 . 90079 


.54 


:'. . 04488 


.05 


3.90168 


.55 


3.94577 


.06 


3.90256 


.56 


3.94665 


.07 


3.90344 


.57 


3.94753 


.08 


3.90432 


.58 


3.94841 


.09 


3.90520 


.59 . 


3.94929 


51.10 


3 . 90608 


51.60 


3.95018 


.11 


3 . 90697 


.61 


3.95106 


.12 


3.90785 


.62 


3.95194 


.13 


3.90873 


.63 


3 . 95282 


.14 


3.90961 


.64 


3.95370 


.15 


3.91049 


.65 


3.95458 


.16 


3.91138 


.66 


3.95547 


.17 


3.91226 


.67 


3.95635 


.18 


3.91314 


.68 


3.95723 


.19 


3.91402 


.69 


3.95811 


51.20 


3.91490 


51.70 


3.95899 


.21 


3.91578 


.71 


3 . 95988 


.22 


3.91667 


.72 


3 . 96076 


.23 


3.91755 


.73 


3.96164 


.24 


3.91843 


.74 


3.96252 


.25 


3.91931 


.75 


3 . 96340 


.26 


3.92019 


.76 


3 . 96428 


.27 


3.92108 


.77 


3.96517 


.28 


3.92196 


.78 


3.96605 


.29 


3.92284 


.79 


3 . 96693 


51.30 


3.92372 


51.80 


3.96781 


.31 


3 . 92460 


.81 


3.96869 


.32 


3.92548 


.82 


3.96958 


.33 


3.92637 


.83 


3.9J046 


.34 


3.92725 


.84 


3.97134 


.35 


3.92813 


.85 


3.97222 


.36 


3.92901 


.86 


3.97310 


.37 


3.92989 


.87 


3.97398 


.38 


3 . 93078 


.88 


3 . 97487 


.39 


3.93166 


.89 


3.97575 


51 . 40 


3.93254 


51.90 


3.97663 


.41 


3 . 93342 


.91 


3.97751 


.42 


3.93430 


.92 


3.97839 


.43 


3.93518 


.93 


3.97928 


.44 


3.93607 


.94 


3.98016 


.45 


3.93695 


.95 


3.98104 


.46 


3.93783 


.96 


3.98192 


.47 


3.93871 


.97 


3 . 98280 


.48 


3 . 93959 


.98 


3 . 98368 


.49 


3.94048 


.99 


3.98457 



115 



MESABA BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


52.00 


$3 . 98545 


52.50 


$4 . 02954 


.01 


3 . 98633 


.51 


4.03042 


.02 


3.98721 


.52 


4.03130 


.03 


3 . 98809 


.53 


4.03218 


.04 


3.98898 


.54 


4 . 03307 


.05 


3.98986 


.55 


4.03395 


.06 


3.99074 


.56 


4.03483 


.07 


3.99162 


.57 


4.03571 


.08 


3.99250 


.58 


4.03659 


.09 


3.99338 


.59 


4.03748 


52.10 


3.99427 


52.60 


4 . 03836 


.11 


3.99515 


.61 


4.03924 


.12 


3 . 99603 


.62 


4.04012 


.13 


3.99691 


.63 


4.04100 


.14 


3.99779 


.64 


4.04188 


.15 


3.99868 


.65 


4.04277 


.16 


3.99956 


.66 


4 . 04365 


.17 


4 . 00044 


.67 


4.04453 


.18 


4.00132 


.68 


4.04541 


.19 


4.00220 


.69 


4.04629 


52.20 


4 . 00308 


52.70 


4.04718 


.21 


4 . 00397 


.71 


4 . 04806 


.22 


4.00485 


.72 


4.04894 


.23 


4.00573 


.73 


4 . 04982 


.24 


4.00661 


.74 


4.05070 


.25 


4.00749 


.75 


4.05158 


.26 


4.00838 


.76 


4.05247 


.27 


4.00926 


.77 


4.05335 


.28 


4.01014 


.78 


4.05423 


.29 


4.01102 


.79 


4.05511 


52 . 30 


4.01190 


52.80 


4.05599 


.31 


4.01278 


.81 


4.05688 


.32 


4.01367 


.82 


4.05776 


.33 


4.01455 


.83 


4.05864 


.34 


4.01543 


.84 


4.05952 


.35 


4.01631 


.85 


4 . 06040 


.36 


4.01719 


.86 


4.06128 


.37 


4.01808 


.87 


4.06217 


.38 


4.01896 


.88 


4.06305 


.39 


4.01984 


.89 


4 . 06393 


52.40 


4.02072 


52.90 


4.06481 


.41 


4.02160 


.91 


4.06569 


.42 


4.02248 


.92 


4 . 06658 


.43 


4.02337 


.93 


4.06746 


.44 


4.02425 


.94 


4 . 06834 


.45 


4.02513 


.95 


4.06922 


.46 


4.02601 


.96 


4.07010 


.47 


4.02689 


.97 


4.07098 


.48 


4.02778 


.98 


4.07187 


.49 


4.02866 


.99 


4.07275 



116 



MESABA BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


53.00 


$4.07363 


53.50 


$4.11772 


.01 


4.07451 


.51 


4.11860 


.02 


4.07539 


.52 


4.11948 


.03 


4.07628 


.53 


4.12037 


.04 


4.07716 


.54 


4.12125 


.05 


4.07804 


.55 


4.12213 


.00 


4.07892 


.56 


4.12301 


.07 


4.07980 


.57 


4.12389 


.08 


4 . 08068 


.58 


4.12478 


.09 


4.08157 


.59 * 


4.12566 


53 . 10 


4.08245 


53 . 60 


4.12654 


.11 


4.08333 


.61 


4.12742 


.12 


4.08421 


.62 


4.12830 


.13 


4.08509 


.63 


4.12918 


.14 


4.08598 


.64 


4.13007 


.15 


4.08686 


.65 


4.13095 


.16 


4.08774 


.66 


4.13183 


.17 


4.08862 


.67 


4.13271 


.18 


4 . 08950 


.68 


4.13359 


.19 


4.09038 


.69 


4.13448 


53 . 20 


4.09127 


53 . 70 


4.13536 


.21 


4.09215 


.71 


4.13624 


.22 


4.09303 


.72 


4.13712 


.23 


4.09391 


.73 


4.13800 


.24 


4.09479 


.74 


4.13888 


.25 


4.09568 


.75 


4.13977 


.26 


4.09656 


.76 


4.14065 


.27 


4.09744 


.77 


4.14153 


.28 


4.09832 


.78 


4.14241 


.29 


4.09920 


.79 


4.14329 


53 . 30 


4.10008 


53.80 


4.14418 


.31 


4.10097 


.81 


4.14506 


.32 


4.10185 


.82 


4.14594 


.33 


4.10273 


.83 


4.14682 


.34 


4.10361 


.84 


4.14770 


.35 


4.10449 


.85 


4.14858 


.36 


4.10538 


.86 


4.14947 


.37 


4.10626 


.87 


4.15035 


.38 


4.10714 


.88 


4.15123 


.39 


4.10802 


.89 


4.15211 


53.40 


4.10890 


53 . 90 


4.15299 


.41 


4.10978 


.91 


4.15388 


.42 


4.11067 


.92 


4.15476 


.43 


4.11155 


.93 


4.15564 


.44 


4.11243 


.94 


4.15652 


.45 


4.11331 


.95 


4.15740 


.46 


4.11419 


.96 


4.15828 


.47 


4.11508 


.97 


4.15917 


.48 


4.11596 


.98 


4.16005 


.49 


4.11684 


.99 


4.16093 



117 



MESABA BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


54.00 


$4.16181 


54.50 


$4.20590 


.01 


4.16269 


.51 


4.20678 


.02 


4.16358 


.52 


4.20767 


.03 


4.16446 


.53 


4 . 20855 


.04 


4.16534 


.54 


4.20943 


.05 


4.16622 


.55 


4.21031 


.06 


4.16710 


.56 


4.21119 


.07 


4.16798 


.57 


4.21208 


.08 


4.16887 


.58 


4.21296 


.09 


4.16975 


.59 


4.21384 


54.10 


4.17063 


54.60 


4.21472 


.11 


4.17151 


.61 


4.21560 


.12 


4.17239 


.62 


4.21648 


.13 


4.17328 


.63 


4.21737 


.14 


4.17416 


.64 


4.21825 


.15 


4.17504 


.65 


4.21913 


.16 


4.17592 


.66 


4.22001 


.17 


4.17680 


.67 


4.22089 


.18 


4.17768 


.68 


4.22178 


.19 


4.17857 


.69 


4.22266 


54.20 


4.17945 


54.70 


4.22354 


.21 


4.18033 


. 71 


4.22442 


.22 


4.18121 


.72 


4.22530 


.23 


4.18209 


.73 


4.22618 


,24 


4.18298 


.74 


4.22707 


.25 


4.18386 


.75 


4.22795 


.26 


4.18474 


.76 


4.22883 


.27 


4.18562 


.77 


4.22971 


.28 


4.18650 


.78 


4.23059 


.29 


4.18738 


.79 


4.23148 


54.30 


4.18827 


54.80 


4 . 23236 


.31 


4.18915 


.81 


4.23324 


.32 


4.19003 


.82 


4.23412 


.33 


4.19091 


.83 


4.23500 


.34 


4.19179 


.84 


4 . 23588 


.35 


4.19268 


.85 


4.23677 


.36 


4.19356 


.86 


4.23765 


.37 


4.19444 


.87 


4 . 23853 


.38 


4.19532 


.88 


4.23941 


.39 


4.19620 


.89 


4.24029 


54.40 


4.19708 


54.90 


4.24118 


.41 


4.19797 


.91 


4.24206 


.42 


4.19885 


.92 


4.24294 


.43 


4.19973 


.93 


4.24382 


.44 


4.20061 


.94 


4.24470 


.45 


4.20149 


.95 


4.24558 


.46 


4.20238 


.96 


4.24647 


.47 


4.20326 


.97 


4.24735 


.48 


4.20414 


.98 


4.24823 


.49 


4.20502 


.99 


4.24911 



118 



MESABA BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


55.00 


$4.24999 


55.50 


$4.29908 


.01 


4.25098 


.51 


4.30007 


.02 


4.25196 


.52 


4.30105 


.03 


4.25294 


.53 


4.30203 


.04 


4.25392 


.54 


4.30301 


.05 


4.25490 


.55 


4.30399 


.06 


4.25588 


.56 


4.30498 


.07 


4.25687 


.57 


4 . 30596 


.08 


4.25785 


.58 


4.30694 


.09 


4.25883 


.59 


4.30792 


55.10 


4.25981 


55.60 


4.30890 


.11 


4.26079 


.61 


4.30988 


.12 


4.26178 


.62 


4.31087 


.13 


4.26276 


.63 


4.31185 


.14 


4.26374 


.64 


4.31283 


.15 


4.26472 


.65 


4.31381 


.16 


4.26570 


.66 


4.31479 


.17 


4.26668 


.67 


4.31578 


.18 


4.26767 


.68 


4.31676 


.19 


4.26865 


.69 


4.31774 


55.20 


4.26963 


55.70 


4.31872 


.21 


4.27061 


.71 


4.31970 


.22 


4.27159 


.72 


4.32068 


.23 


4.27258 


.73 


4.32167 


.24 


4.27356 


.74 


4.32265 


.25 


4.27454 


.75 


4.32363 


.26 


4.27552 


.76 


4.32461 


.27 


4.27650 


.77 


4.32559 


.28 


4.27748 


.78 


4.32658 


.29 


4.27847 


.79 


4.32756 


55.30 


4.27945 


55.80 


4.32854 


.31 


4.28043 


.81 


4.32952 


.32 


4.28141 


.82 


4.33050 


.33 


4.28239 


.83 


4.33148 


.34 


4.28338 


.84 


4 . 33247 


.35 


4.28436 


.85 


4.33345 


.36 


4.28534 


.86 


4.33443 


.37 


4.28632 


.87 


4.33541 


.38 


4.28730 


.88 


4.33639 


.39 


4.28828 


.89 


4.33738 


55.40 


4.28927 


55.90 


4.33836 


.41 


4.29025 


.91 


4.33934 


.42 


4.29123 


.92 


4.34032 


.43 


4.29221 


.93 


4.34130 


.44 


4.29319 


.94 


4.34228 


.45 


4.29418 


.95 


4.34327 


.46 


4.29516 


.96 


4.34425 


.47 


4.29614 


.97 


4.34523 


.48 


4.29712 


.98 


4.34621 


.49 


4.29810 


.99 


4.34719 



119 



MESABA BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


56.00 


$4.34818 


56.50 


$4.40227 


.01 


4.34926 


.51 


4.40335 


.02 


4.35034 


.52 


4 . 40443 


.03 


4.35142 


.53 


4.40551 


.04 


4.35250 


.54 


4.40659 


.05 


4.35358 


.55 


4.40768 


.06 


4.35467 


.56 


4.40876 


.07 


4.35575 


.57 


4.40984 


.08 


4.35683 


.58 


4.41092 


.09 


4.35791 


.59 


4.41200 


56.10 


4.35899 


56.60 


4.41308 


.11 


4.36008 


.61 


4.41417 


.12 


4.36116 


.62 


4.41525 


.13 


4.36224 


.63 


4.41633 


.14 


4.36332 


.64 


4.41741 


.15 


4.36440 


.65 


4.41849 


.16 


4.36548 


.66 


4.41958 


.17 


4.36657 


.67 


4.42066 


.18 


4.36765 


.68 


4.42174 


.19 


4.36873 


.69 


4 . 42282 


56.20 


4.36981 


56.70 


4 . 42390 


.21 


4.37089 


.71 


4.42498 


.22 


4.37198 


.72 


4.42607 


.23 


4.37306 


.73 


4.42715 


.24 


4.37414 


.74 


4 . 42823 


.25 


4.37522 


.75 


4.42931 


.26 


4.37630 


.76 


4.43039 


.27 


4.37738 


. 77 


4.43148 


.28 


4.37847 


.78 


4.43256 


.29 


4.37955 


.79 


4.43364 


56.30 


4.38063 


56.80 


4.43472 


.31 


4.38171 


.81 


4.43580 


.32 


4.38279 


.82 


4.43688 


.33 


4.38388 


.83 


4.43797 


.34 


4 . 38496 


.84 


4.43905 


.35 


4.38604 


.85 


4.44013 


.36 


4.38712 


.86 


4.44121 


.37 


4.38820 


.87 


4.44229 


.38 


4.38928 


.88 


4.44338 


.39 


4.39037 


.89 


4 . 44446 


56.40 


4.39145 


56.90 


4.44554 


.41 


4.39253 


.91 


4.44662 


.42 


4.39361 


.92 


4.44770 


.43 


4.39469 


.93 


4.44878 


.44 


4.39578 


.94 


4.44987 


.45 


4.39686 


.95 


4.45095 


.46 


4.39794 


.96 


4.45203 


.47 


4.39902 


.97 


4.45311 


.48 


4.40010 


.98 


4.45419 


.49 


4.40118 


.99 


4.45528 



120 



MESABA BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


57.00 


$4.45636 


57.50 


$4.51545 


.01 


4.45754 


.51 


4.51663 


.02 


4.45872 


.52 


4.51781 


.03 


4.45990 


.53 


4.51899 


.04 


4.46108 


.54 


4.52018 


.05 


4.46227 


.55 


4.52136 


.06 


4 . 46345 


.56 


4.52254 


.07 


4 . 46463 


.57 


4.52372 


.08 


4.46581 


.58 


4 . 52490 


.09 


4 . 46699 


.59 . 


4 . 52608 


57.10 


4.46818 


57 . 60 


4.52727 


.11 


4.46936 


.61 


4.52845 


.12 


4 . 47054 


.62 


4.52963 


.13 


4.47172 


.63 


FT 4.53081 


.14 


4.47290 


.64 


' 4.53199 


.15 


4.47408 


.65 


4.53318 


.16 


4.47527 


.66 


4.53436 


.17 


4.47645 


.67 


4.53554 


.18 


4.47763 


.68 


4.53672 


.19 


4.47881 


.69 


4 . 53790 


57 . 20 


4.47999 


57.70 


4.53908 


.21 


4.48118 


.71 


4.54027 


.22 


4 . 48236 


.72 


4.54145 


.23 


4.48354 


.73 


4.54263 


.24 


4.48472 


.74 


4.54381 


.25 


4 . 48590 


.75 


4 . 54499 


.26 


4 . 48708 


.76 


4.54618 


.27 


4.48827 


.77 


4 . 54736 


.28 


4 . 48945 


.78 


4 . 54854 


.29 


4.49063 


.79 


4.54972 


57.30 


4.49181 


57.80 


4.55090 


.31 


4.49299 


.81 


4.55208 


.32 


4.49418 


.82 


4.55327 


.33 


4 . 49536 


.83 


4.55445 


.34 


4 . 49654 


.84 


4.55563 


.35 


4.49772 


.85 


4.55681 


.36 


4 . 49890 


.86 


4.55799 


.37 


4 . 50008 


.87 


4.55918 


.38 


4.50127 


.88 


4.56036 


.39 


4.50245 


.89 


4.56154 


57.40 


4 . 50363 


57.90 


4 . 56272 


.41 


4.50481 


.91 


4 . 56390 


.42 


4 . 50599 


.92 


4.56508 


.43 


4.50718 


.93 


4.56627 


.44 


4 . 50836 


.94 


4.56745 


.45 


4.50954 


.95 


4.56863 


.46 


4.51072 


.96 


4.56981 


.47 


4.51190 


.97 


4.57099 


.48 


4.51308 


.98 


4.57218 


.49 


4.51427 


.99 


4.57336 



121 



MESABA BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


58.00 


$4 . 57454 


58.50 


$4.63863 


.01 


4.57582 


.51 


4.63991 


.02 


4.57710 


.52 


4.64119 


.03 


4.57838 


.53 


4.64248 


.04 


4.57967 


.54 


4.64376 


.05 


4.58095 


.55 


4.64504 


.06 


4.58223 


.56 


4.64632 


.07 


4.58351 


.57 


4.64760 


.08 


4.58479 


.58 


4.64888 


.09 


4.58608 


.59 


4.65017 


58.10 


4.58736 


58.60 


4.65145 


.11 


4 . 58864 


.61 


4.65273 


.12 


4.58992 


.62 


4.65401 


.13 


4.59120 


.63 


4.65529 


.14 


4.59248 


.64 


4.65658 


.15 


4.59377 


.65 


4.65786 


.16 


4.59505 


.66 


4.65914 


.17 


4.59633 


.67 


4 . 66042 


.18 


4.59761 


.68 


4.66170 


.19 


4.59889 


.69 


4.66298 


58.20 


4.60018 


58.70 


4.66427 


.21 


4.60146 


.71 


4.66555 


.22 


4.60274 


.72 


4.66683 


.23 


4 . 60402 


.73 


4.66811 


.24 


4.60530 


.74 


4.66939 


.25 


4.60658 


.75 


4.67068 


.26 


4.60787 


.76 


4.67196 


.27 


4.60915 


.77 


4.67324 


.28 


4.61043 


.78 


4.67452 


.29 


4.61171 


.79 


4.67580 


58.30 


4.61299 


58.80 


4.67708 


.31 


4.61428 


.81 


4.67837 


.32 


4.61556 


.82 


4.67965 


.33 


4.61684 


.83 


4 . 68093 


.34 


4.61812 


.84 


4.68221 


.35 


4.61940 


.85 


4.68349 


.36 


4.62068 


.86 


4.68478 


.37 


4.62197 


.87 


4.68606 


.38 


4.62325 


.88 


4.68734 


.39 


4.62453 


.89 


4.68862 


58.40 


4.62581 


58.90 


4.68990 


.41 


4.62709 


.91 


4.69118 


.42 


4.62838 


.92 


4.69247 


.43 


4.62966 


.93 


4.69375 


.44 


4.63094 


.94 


4.69503 


.45 


4.63222 


.95 


4.69631 


.46 


4.63350 


.96 


4.69759 


.47 


4.63478 


.97 


4.69888 


.48 


4.63607 


.98 


4.70016 


.49 


4.63735 


.99 


4.70144 



122 



MESABA BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


59.00 


$4.70272 


59.50 


$4.77181 


.01 


4.70410 


.51 


4.77319 


.02 


4.70548 


.52 


4.77458 


.03 


4 . 70687 


.53 


4.77596 


.04 


4.70825 


.54 


4.77734 


.05 


4.70963 


.55 


4.77872 


.06 


4.71101 


.56 


4.78010 


.07 


4.71239 


.57 


4.78148 


.08 


4.71378 


.58 


4.78287 


.09 


4.71516 


.59 


4.78425 


59.10 


4.71654 


59.60 


4.78563 


.11 


4.71792 


.61 


4.78701 


.12 


4.71930 


.62 


4.78839 


.13 


4.72068 


.63 


4.78978 


.14 


4.72207 


.64 


4.79116 


.15 


4.72345 


.65 


4.79254 


.16 


4.72483 


.66 


4.79392 


.17 


4.72621 


.67 


4.79530 


.18 


4.72759 


.68 


4.79668 


.19 


4.72898 


.69 


4.79807 


59.20 


4.73036 


59.70 


4.79945 


.21 


4.73174 


.71 


4.80083 


.22 


4.73312 


.72 


4.80221 


.23 


4.73450 


.73 


4.80359 


.24 


4 . 73588 


.74 


4 . 80498 


.25 


4.73727 


.75 


4 . 80636 


.26 


4.73865 


.76 


4.80774 


.27 


4.74003 


.77 


4.80912 


.28 


4.74141 


.78 


4.81050 


.29 


4.74279 


.79 


4.81188 


59.30 


4.74418 


59.80 


4.81327 


.31 


4.74556 


.81 


4.81465 


.32 


4 . 74694 


.82 


4.81603 


.33 


4.74832 


.83 


4.81741 


.34 


4.74970 


.84 


4.81879 


.35 


4.75108 


.85 


4.82018 


.36 


4.75247 


.86 


4.82156 


.37 


4.75385 


.87 


4.82294 


.38 


4.75523 


.88 


4.82432 


.39 


4.75661 


.89 


4.82570 


59.40 


4 . 75799 


59.90 


4.82708 


.41 


4.75938 


.91 


4.82847 


.42 


4.76076 


.92 


4.82985 


.43 


4.76214 


.93 


4.83123 


.44 


4.76352 


.94 


4.83261 


.45 


4.76490 


.95 


4.83399 


.46 


4.76628 


.96 


4 . 83538 


.47 


4.76767 


.97 


4.83676 


.48 


4.76905 


.98 


4.83814 


.49 


4.77043 


.99 


4 . 83952 



123 



MESABA BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


60.00 


$4 . 84090 


60.50 


$4 . 88499 


.01 


4.84178 


.51 


4.88588 


.02 


4 . 84267 


.52 


4 . 88676 


.03 


4 . 84355 


.53 


4.88764 


.04 


4 . 84443 


.54 


4.88852 


.05 


4.84531 


. 55 


4 . 88940 


.06 


4.84619 


.56 


4 . 89028 


.07 


4.84708 


.57 


4.89117 


.08 


4.84796 


.58 


4 . 89205 


.09 


4 . 84884 


.59 


4 . 89293 


60.10 


4.84972 


60.60 


4.89381 


.11 


4 . 85060 


.61 


4 . 89469 


.12 


4.85148 


.62 


4.89558 


.13 


4.85237 


.63 


4.89646 


.14 


4 . 85325 


.64 


4.89734 


.15 


4.85413 


.65 


4.89822 


.16 


4.85501 


.66 


4.89910 


.17 


4 . 85589 


.67 


4.89998 


.18 


4.85678 


.68 


4 . 90087 


.19 


4 . 85766 


.69 


4.90175 


60.20 


4 . 85854 


60.70 


4.90263 


.21 


4 . 85942 


.71 


4.90351 


.22 


4 . 86030 


.72 


4.90439 


.23 


4.86118 


.73 


4.90528 


.24 


4 . 86207 


.74 


4.90616 


.25 


4.86295 


.75 


4.90704 


.26 


4 . 86383 


.76 


4.90792 


.27 


4.86471 


.77 


4 . 90880 


.28 


4.86559 


.78 


4 . 90968 


.29 


4 . 86648 


.79 


4.91057 


60.30 


4.86736 


60.80 


4.91145 


.31 


4.86824 


.81 


4.91233 


.32 


4.86912 


.82 


4.91321 


.33 


4.87000 


.83 


4.91409 


.34 


4.87088 


.84 


4.91498 


.35 


4.87177 


.85 


4.91586 


.36 


4.87265 


.86 


4.91674 


.37 


4.87353 


.87 


4.91762 


.38 


4.87441 


.88 


4.91850 


.39 


4.87529 


.89 


4.91938 


60.40 


4.87618 


60.90 


4 . 92027 


.41 


4 . 87706 


.91 


4.92115 


.42 


4.87794 


.92 


4 . 92203 


.43 


4 . 87882 


.93 


4.92291 


.44 


4 . 87970 


.94 


4 . 92379 


.45 


4 . 88058 


.95 


4 . 92468 


.46 


4.88147 


.96 


4 . 92556 


.47 


4.88235 


.97 


4.92644 


.48 


4.88323 


.98 


4.92732 


.49 


4.88411 


.99 


4.92820 



MESABA BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


01.00 


$4. 92908 


61.50 


$4.97318 


.01 


4.92997 


.51 


4.97406 


.02 


4.93085 


.52 


4.97494 


.03 


4.93173 


.53 


4.97582 


.04 


4.93261 


.54 


4.97670 


.05 


4 . 93349 


.55 


4.97758 


.06 


4.93438 


.56 


4.97847 


.07 


4.93526 


.57 


4.97935 


.08 


4.93614 


.58 


4.98023 


.09 


4.93702 


.59 , 


4.98111 


61.10 


4.93790 


61 . 60 


4.98199 


.11 


4.93878 


.61 


4 . 98288 


.12 


4.93967 


.62 


4.98376 


.13 


4 . 94055 


.63 


4.98464 


.14 


4.94143 


.64 


4.98552 


.15 


4.94231 


.65 


4 . 98640 


.16 


4.94319 


.66 


4.98728 


.17 


4 . 94408 


.67 


4.98817 


.18 


4.94496 


.68 


4.98905 


.19 


4.94584 


.69 


4.98993 


61.20 


4.94672 


61.70 


4.99081 


.21 


4.94760 


.71 


4.99169 


.22 


4.94848 


.72 


4.99258 


.23 


4.94937 


.73 


4.99346 


.24 


4.95025 


.74 


4.99434 


.25 


4.95113 


.75 


4 . 99522 


.26 


4.95201 


.76 


4.99610 


.27 


4.95289 


.77 


4.99698 


.28 


4.95378 


.78 


4.99787 


.29 


4 . 95466 


.79 


4 . 99875 


61.30 


4.95554 


61.80 


4.99963 


.31 


4.95642 


.81 


5.00051 


.32 


4.95730 


.82 


5.00139 


.33 


4.95818 


.83 


5.00228 


.34 


4.95907 


.84 


5.00316 


.35 


4.95995 


.85 


5.00404 


.36 


4.96083 


.86 


5 . 00492 


.37 


4.96171 


.87 


5.00580 


.38 


4 . 96259 


.88 


5 . 00668 


.39 


4.96348 


.89 


5.00757 


61.40 


4.96436 


61 . 90 


5.00845 


.41 


4.96524 


.91 


5.00933 


.42 


4.96612 


.92 


5.01021 


.43 


4.96700 


.93 


5.01109 


.44 


4 . 96788 


.94 


5.01198 


.45 


4.96877 


.95 


5.01286 


.46 


4.96965 


.96 


5.01374 


- .47 


4.97053 


.97 


5.01462 


.48 


4.97141 


.98 


5.01550 


.49 


4.97229 


.99 


5.01638 



125 



OLD RANGE-VERMILION 
NON-BESSEMER 

NATURAL IRON ORE 

LAKE ERIE PRICES 



1911 



16 TABLES 

45 PER CENT TO 60 PER CENT 
INCLUSIVE 



COMPILED BY 

RUKARD KURD 



OLD RANGE-VERMILION NON-BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


45.00 


$2.78155 


45.50 


$2 . 86504 


.01 


2.78322 


.51 


2.86671 


.02 


2.78489 


.52 


2.86838 


.03 


2.78656 


.53 


2.87005 


.04 


2.78823 


.54 


2.87172 


.05 


2.78990 


.55 


2.87339 


.06 


2.79157 


.56 


2.87506 


.07 


2.79324 


.57 


2.87673 


.08 


2.79491 


.58 


2 . 87840 


.09 


2.79658 


.59 


2.88007 


45.10 


2.79825 


-45.60 


2.88174 


.11 


2.79992 


.61 


2.88341 


.12 


2.80159 


.62 


2.88508 


.13 


2 . 80326 


.63 


2.88675 


.14 


2 . 80493 


.64 


2.88842 


.15 


2.80660 


.65 


2 . 89009 


.16 


2.80827 


.66 


2.89176 


.17 


2.80993 


.67 


2.89343 


.18 


2.81160 


.68 


2.89510 


.19 


2.81327 


.69 


2.89677 


45.20 


2.81494 


45.70 


2.89844 


.21 


2.81661 


.71 


2.90011 


.22 


2.81828 


.72 


2.90178 


.23 


2.81995 


.73 


2.90345 


.24 


2.82162 


.74 


2.90512 


.25 


2.82329 


.75 


2.90679 


.26 


2 . 82496 


.76 


2.90846 


.27 


2.82663 


.77 


2.91013 


.28 


2.82830 


.78 


2.91180 


.29 


2.82997 


.79 


2.91347 


45.30 


2.83164 


45.80 


2.91514 


.31 


2.83331 


.81 


2.91681 


.32 


2 . 83498 


.82 


2.91848 


.33 


2.83665 


.83 


2.92015 


.34 


2 . 83832 


.84 


2.92182 


.35 


2.83999 


.85 


2.92349 


.36 


2.84166 


.86 


2.92516 


.37 


2 . 84333 


.87 


2.92683 


.38 


2.84500 


.88 


2.92850 


.39 


2.84667 


.89 


2.93017 


45.40 


2.84834 


45.90 


2.93184 


.41 


2.85001 


.91 


2.93351 


.42 


2.85168 


.92 


2.93518 


.43 


2 . 85335 


.93 


2 . 93685 


.44 


2 . 85502 


.94 


2.93852 


.45 


2 . 85669 


.95 


2.94019 


.46 


2 . 85836 


.96 


2.94186 


.47 


2.86003 


.97 


2.94353 


.48 


2.86170 


.98 


2.94520 


.49 


2.86337 


.99 


2.94687 



129 



OLD RANGE-VERMILION NON-BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


46.00 


$2.94854 


46.50 


$3.03203 


.01 


2.95021 


.51 


3.03370 


.02 


2.95188 


.52 


3.03537 


.03 


2.95355 


.53 


3.03704 


.04 


2.95522 


.54 


3.03871 


.05 


2.95689 


.55 


3.04038 


.06 


2.95856 


.56 


3.04205 


.07 


2.96023 


.57 


3.04372 


.08 


2.96190 


.58 


3.04539 


.09 


2.96357 


.59 


3.04706 


46.10 


2.96524 


46.60 


3.04873 


.11 


2.96691 


.61 


3.05040 


.12 


2.96858 


.62 


3.05207 


.13 


2.97025 


.63 


3.05374 


.14 


2.97192 


.64 


3.05541 


.15 


2.97359 


.65 


3.05708 


.16 


2.97526 


.66 


3.05875 


.17 


2.97693 


.67 


3.06042 


.18 


2.97860 


.68 


3.06209 


.19 


2.98026 


.69 


3.06376 


46.20 


2.98193 


46.70 


3.06543 


.21 


2.98360 


.71 


3.06710 


.22 


2.98527 


.72 


3.06877 


.23 


2.98694 


.73 


3.07044 


.24 


2.98861 


.74 


3.07211 


.25 


2.99028 


.75 


3.07378 


.26 


2.99195 


.76 


3.07545 


.27 


2.99362 


.77 


3.07712 


.28 


2.99529 


.78 


3.07879 


.29 


2.99696 


.79 


3.08046 


46.30 


2.99863 


46.80 


3.08213 


.31 


3 . 00030 


.81 


3.08380 


.32 


3.00197 


.82 


3.08547 


.33 


3.00364 


.83 


3.08714 


.34 


3.00531 


.84 


3.08881 


.35 


3.00698 


.85 


3.09048 


.36 


3.00865 


.86 


3.09215 


.37 


3.01032 


.87 


3.09382 


.38 


3.01199 


.88 


3.09549 


.39 


3.01366 


.89 


3.09716 


46.40 


3.01533 


46.90 


3.09883 


.41 


3.01700 


.91 


3.10050 


.42 


3.01867 


.92 


3.10217 


.43 


3.02034 


.93 


3.10384 


.44 


3.02201 


.94 


3.10551 


.45 


3.02368 


.95 


3.10718 


.46 


3.02535 


.96 


3.10885 


.47 


3.02702 


.97 


3.11052 


.48 


3.02869 


.98 


3.11219 


.49 


3.03036 


.99 


3.11386 



130 



OLD RANGE-VERMILION NON-BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


47.00 


$3.11553 


47.50 


S3. 19902 


.01 


3.11720 


.51 


3 . 20069 


.02 


3.11887 


.52 


3.20236 


.03 


3.12054 


.53 


3 . 20403 


.04 


3.12221 


.54 


3.20570 


.05 


3.12388 


.55 


3.20737 


.06 


3.12555 


.56 


3.20904 


.07 


3.12722 


.57 


3.21071 


.08 


3 . 12889 


.58 


3.21238 


.09 


3.13056 


. .59 


3.21405 


47.10 


3.13223 


47.60 


3.21572 


.11 


3.13390 


.61 


3.21739 


.12 


3.13557 


.62 


3.21906 


.13 


3.13724 


.63 


3.22073 


.14 


3.13891 


.64 


3.22240 


.15 


3.14058 


.65 


3.22407 


.16 


3.14225 


.66 


3.22574 


.17 


3.14392 


.67 


3.22741 


.18 


3.14559 


.68 


3.22908 


.19 


3.14726 


.69 


3.23075 


47.20 


3.14893 


47.70 


3 . 23242 


.21 


3.15059 


.71 


3.23409 


.22 


3.15226 


.72 


3.23576 


.23 


3.15393 


.73 


3.23743 


.24 


3.15560 


.74 


3.23910 


.25 


3.15727 


.75 


3.24077 


.26 


3.15894 


.76 


3.24244 


.27 


3.16061 


.77 


3.24411 


.28 


3.16228 


.78 


3.24578 


.29 


3.16395 


.79 


3.24745 


47.30 


3.16562 


47.80 


3.24912 


.31 


3.16729 


.81 


3.25079 


.32 


3.16896 


.82 


3.25246 


.33 


3.17063 


.83 


3.25413 


.34 


3.17230 


.84 


3.25580 


.35 


3.17397 


.85 


3.25747 


.36 


3.17564 


.86 


3.25914 


.37 


3.17731 


.87 


3.26081 


.38 


3.17898 


.88 


3.26248 


.39 


3.18065 


.89 


3.26415 


47.40 


3.18232 


47.90 


3.26582 


.41 


3.18399 


.91 


3.26749 


.42 


3.18566 


.92 


3.26916 


.43 


3.18733 


.93 


3 . 27083 


.44 


3.18900 


.94 


3.27250 


.45 


3.19067 


.95 


3.27417 


.46 


3.19234 


.96 


3.27584 


.47 


3.19401 


.97 


3.27751 


.48 


3.19568 


.98 


3.27918 


.49 


3.19735 


.99 


3.28085 



131 



OLD RANGE-VERMILION NON-BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


48.00 


S3 . 28252 


48.50 


$3.36601 


.01 


3.28419 


.51 


3.36768 


.02 


3 . 28586 


.52 


3.36935 


.03 


3.28753 


.53 


3.37102 


.04 


3.28920 


.54 


3.37269 


.05 


3 . 29087 


.55 


3.37436 


.06 


3.29254 


.56 


3.37603 


.07 


3.29421 


.57 


3.37770 


.08 


3.29588 


.58 


3.37937 


.09 


3.29755 


.59 


3.38104 


48.10 


3.29922 


48.60 


3.38271 


.11 


3 . 30089 


.61 


3 . 38438 


.12 


3.30256 


.62 


3.38605 


.13 


3 . 30423 


.63 


3.38772 


.14 


3 . 30590 


.64 


3 . 38939 


.15 


3.30757 


.65 


3.39106 


.16 


3.30924 


.66 


3.39273 


.17 


3.31091 


.67 


3 . 39440 


.18 


3.31258 


.68 


3.39607 


.19 


3.31425 


.69 


3.39774 


48.20 


3.31592 


48.70 


3.39941 


.21 


3.31759 


.71 


3.40108 


.22 


3.31926 


.72 


3.40275 


.23 


3.32092 


.73 


3.40442 


.24 


3.32259 


.74 


3.40609 


.25 


3.32426 


.75 


3.40776 


.26 


3 . 32593 


.76 


3.40943 


.27 


3.32760 


.77 


3.41110 


.28 


3 . 32927 


.78 


3.41277 


.29 


3 . 33094 


.79 


3.41444 


48.30 


3.33261 


48.80 


3.41611 


.31 


3 . 33428 


.81 


3.41778 


.32 


3.33595 


.82 


3.41945 


.33 


3 . 33762 


.83 


3.42112 


.34 


3 . 33929 


.84 


3.42279 


.35 


3.34096 


.85 


3.42446 


.36 


3 . 34263 


.86 


3.42613 


.37 


3 . 34430 


.87 


3.42780 


.38 


3.34597 


.88 


3.42947 


.39 


3 . 34764 


.89 


3.43114 


48 . 40 


3.34931 


48.90 


3.43281 


.41 


3 . 35098 


.91 


3.43448 


.42 


3.35265 


.92 


3.43615 


.43 


3 . 35432 


.93 


3.43782 


.44 


3 . 35599 


.94 


3.43949 


.45 


3.35766 


.95 


3.44116 


.46 


3.35933 


.96 


3.44283 


.47 


3.36100 


.97 


3 . 44450 


.48 


3.36267 


.98 


3.44617 


.49 


3.36434 


.99 


3 . 44784 



IS 2 



OLD RANGE-VERMILION NON-BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


49.00 


$3 . 44951 


49.50 


$3.51213 


.01 


3.45076 


.51 


3.51338 


.02 


3.45201 


.52 


3.51463 


.03 


3.45326 


.53 


3.51589 


.04 


3.45452 


.54 


3.51714 


.05 


3 . 45577 


.55 


3.51839 


.06 


3.45702 


.56 


3.51964 


.07 


3.45827 


.57 


3.52090 


.08 


3.45953 


.58 


3.52215 


.09 


3.46078 


-.59 


3 . 52340 


49.10 


3 . 46203 


49.60 


3.52465 


.11 


3.46328 


.61 


3.52591 


.12 


3.46454 


.62 


3.52716 


.13 


3.46579 


.63 


3.52841 


.14 


3 . 46704 


.64 


3 . 52966 


.15 


3.46829 


.65 


3.53092 


.16 


3.46955 


.66 


3.53217 


.17 


3.47080 


.67 


3.53342 


.18 


3.47205 


.68 


3.53467 


.19 


3.47330 


.69 


3.53592 


49.20 


3.47456 


49.70 


3.53718 


.21 


3.47581 


.71 


3 . 53843 


.22 


3.47706 


.72 


3 . 53968 


.23 


3.47831 


.73 


3 . 54093 


.24 


3.47957 


.74 


3.54219 


.25 


3.48082 


.75 


3 . 54344 


.26 


3.48207 


.76 


3.54469 


.27 


3 . 48332 


.77 


3.54594 


.28 


3.48458 


.78 


3.54720 


.29 


3.48583 


.79 


3.54845 


49.30 


3.48708 


49.80 


3 . 54970 


.31 


3.48833 


.81 


3 . 55095 


.32 


3 . 48959 


.82 


3.55221 


.33 


3.49084 


.83 


3 . 55346 


.34 


3.49209 


.84 


3.55471 


.35 


3.49334 


.85 


3 . 55596 


.36 


3.49459 


.86 


3 . 55722 


.37 


3.49585 


.87 


3.55847 


.38 


3.49710 


.88 


3.55972 


.39 


3.49835 


.89 


3.56097 


49.40 


3 . 49960 


49.90 


3.56223 


.41 


3.50086 


.91 


3.56348 


.42 


3.50211 


.92 


3.56473 


.43 


3.50336 


.93 


3 . 56598 


.44 


3.50461 


.94 


3 . 56724 


.45 


3 . 50587 


.95 


3 . 56849 


.46 


3.50712 


.96 


3.56974 


.47 


3 . 50837 


.97 


3 . 57099 


.48 


3 . 50962 


.98 


3 . 57225 


.49 


3.51088 


.99 


3.57350 



133- 



OLD RANGE-VERMILION NON-BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


50.00 


$3.57475 


50.50 


S3. 61650 


.01 


3.57558 


.51 


3.61733 


.02 


3 . 57642 


.52 


3.61817 


.03 


3.57725 


.53 


3.61900 


.04 


3 . 57809 


.54 


3.61984 


.05 


3.57892 


.55 


3 . 62067 


.06 


3.57976 


.56 


3.62151 


.07 


3 . 58059 


.57 


3 . 62234 


.08 


3.58143 


.58 


3.62318 


.09 


3.58226 


.59 


3.62401 


50.10 


3.58310 


50.60 


3.62485 


.11 


3 . 58393 


.61 


3 . 62568 


.12 


3.58477 


.62 


3.62652 


.13 


3.58560 


.63 


3.62735 


.14 


3 . 58644 


.64 


3.62819 


.15 


3.58727 


.65 


3 . 62902 


.16 


3.58811 


.66 


3.62986 


.17 


3.58894 


.67 


3 . 63069 


.18 


3.58978 


.68 


3.63153 


.19 


3.59061 


.69 


3.63236 


50.20 


3.59145 


50.70 


3.63320 


.21 


3 . 59228 


.71 


3 . 63403 


.22 


3.59312 


.72 


3 . 63487 


.23 


3.59395 


.73 


3.63570 


.24 


3.59479 


.74 


3.63654 


.25 


3.59562 


.75 


3.63737 


.26 


3.59646 


.76 


3.63821 


.27 


3.59729 


.77 


3.63904 


.28 


3.59813 


.78 


3 . 63988 


.29 


3 . 59896 


.79 


3.64071 


50.30 


3 . 59980 


50.80 


3.64155 


.31 


3 . 60063 


.81 


3.64238 


.32 


3.60147 


.82 


3.64322 


.33 


3 . 60230 


.83 


3.64405 


.34 


3.60314 


.84 


3 . 64489 


.35 


3 . 60397 


.85 


3.64572 


.36 


3.60481 


.86 


3.64656 


.37 


3.60564 


.87 


3.64739 


.38 


3 . 60648 


.88 


3 . 64823 


.39 


3.60731 


.89 


3 . 64906 


50.40 


3.60815 


50.90 


3 . 64990 


.41 


3 . 60898 


.91 


3.65073 


.42 


3 . 60982 


.92 


3.65157 


.43 


3.61065 


.93 


3.65240 


.44 


3.61149 


.94 


3.65324 


.45 


3.61232 


.95 


3.65407 


.46 


3.61316 


.96 


3.65491 


.47 


3.61399 


.97 


3.65574 


.48 


3.61483 


.98 


3.65658 


.49 


3.61566 


.99 


3.65741 



134 



OLD RANGE-VERMILION NON-BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


51.00 


$3.65825 


51.50 


S3. 69999 


.01 


3.65908 


.51 


3 . 70083 


.02 


3.65992 


.52 


3.70166 


.03 


3.66075 


.53 


3.70250 


.04 


3.66158 


.54 


3.70333 


.05 


3.66242 


.55 


3.70417 


.06 


3.66325 


.56 


3.70500 


.07 


3 . 66409 


.57 


3.70584 


.08 


3.66492 


.58 


3.70667 


.09 


3.66576 


.-59 


3.70751 


51.10 


3.66659 


51.60 


3.70834 


.11 


3.66743 


.61 


3.70918 


.12 


3.66826 


.62 


3.71001 


.13 


3.66910 


.63 


3.71085 


.14 


3.66993 


.64 


3.71168 


.15 


3.67077 


.65 


3.71252 


.16 


3.67160 


.66 


3.71335 


.17 


3.67244 


.67 


3.71419 


.18 


3.67327 


.68 


3.71502 


.19 


3.67411 


.69 


3.71586 


51.20 


3.67494 


51.70 


3.71669 


.21 


3.67578 


.71 


3.71753 


.22 


3.67661 


.72 


3.71836 


.23 


3.67745 


.73 


3.71920 


.24 


3.67828 


.74 


3.72003 


.25 


3.67912 


.75 


3.72087 


.26 


3.67995 


.76 


3.72170 


.27 


3 . 68079 


.77 


3.72254 


.28 


3.68162 


.78 


3.72337 


.29 


3.68246 


.79 


3.72421 


51.30 


3.68329 


51.80 


3.72504 


.31 


3.68413 


.81 


3.72588 


.32 


3.68496 


.82 


3.72671 


.33 


3.68580 


.83 


3.72755 


.34 


3.68663 


.84 


3.72838 


.35 


3.68747 


.85 


3.72922 


.36 


3.68830 


.86 


3 . 73005 


.37 


3.68914 


.87 


3.73089 


.38 


3.68997 


.88 


3.73172 


.39 


3.69081 


.89 


3.73256 


51.40 


3.69164 


51.90 


3.73339 


.41 


3.69248 


.91 


3.73423 


.42 


3.69331 


.92 


3.73506 


.43 


3.69415 


.93 


3.73590 


.44 


3 . 69498 


.94 


3.73673 


.45 


3.69582 


.95 


3.73757 


.46 


3 . 69665 


.96 


3.73840 


.47 


3.69749 


.97 


3.73924 


.48 


3.69832 


.98 


3.74007 


.49 


3.69916 


.99 


3.74091 



135 



OLD RANGE-VERMILION NON-BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


52.00 


$3.74174 


52.50 


$3 . 78349 


.01 


3.74258 


.51 


3 . 78432 


.02 


3.74341 


.52 


3.78516 


.03 


3.74425 


.53 


3.78599 


.04 


3.74508 


.54 


3 . 78683 


.05 


3.74591 


.55 


3.78766 


.06 


3.74675 


.56 


3.78850 


.07 


3.74758 


.57 


3.78933 


.08 


3.74842 


.58 


3.79017 


.09 


3.74925 


.59 


3.79100 


52.10 


3 . 75009 


52.60 


3.79184 


.11 


3 . 75092 


.61 


3.79267 


.12 


3.75176 


.62 


3.79351 


.13 


3.75259 


.63 


3.79434 


.14 


3.75343 


.64 


3.79518 


.15 


3.75426 


.65 


3.79601 


.16 


3.75510 


.66 


3 . 79685 


.17 


3.75593 


.67 


3.79768 


.18 


3.75677 


.68 


3 . 79852 


.19 


3.75760 


.69 


3.79935 


52.20 


3 . 75844 


52.70 


3.80019 


.21 


3.75927 


.71 


3.80102 


.22 


3.76011 


.72 


3.80186 


.23 


3.76094 


.73 


3.80269 


.24 


3.76178 


.74 


3 . 80353 


.25 


3.76261 


.75 


3 . 80436 


.26 


3 . 76345 


.76 


3 . 80520 


.27 


3.76428 


.77 


3 . 80603 


.28 


3.76512 


.78 


3 . 80687 


.29 


3.76595 


.79 


3.80770 


52.30 


3.76679 


52.80 


3 . 80854 


.31 


3.76762 


.81 


3 . 80937 


.32 


3 . 76846 


.82 


3.81021 


.33 


3.76929 


.83 


3.81104 


.34 


3.77013 


.84 


3.81188 


.35 


3 . 77096 


.85 


3.81271 


.36 


3.77180 


.86 


3.81355 


.37 


3.77263 


.87 


3.81438 


.38 


3 . 77347 


.88 


3.81522 


.39 


3.77430 


.89 


3.81605 


52.40 


3.77514 


52.90 


3.81689 


.41 


3.77597 


.91 


3.81772 


.42 


3.77681 


.92 


3.81856 


.43 


3.77764 


.93 


3.81939 


.44 


3.77848 


.94 


3.82023 


.45 


3.77931 


.95 


3.82106 


.46 


3.78015 


.96 


3.82190 


.47 


3.78098 


.97 


3.82273 


.48 


3.78182 


.98 


3.82357 


.49 


3.78265 


.99 


3.82440 



136 



OLD RANGE-VERMILION NON-BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


53.00 


$3.82524 


53.50 


$3.87198 


.01 


3.82617 


.51 


3 . 87292 


.02 


3.82711 


.52 


3.87385 


.03 


3 . 82804 


.53 


3.87479 


.04 


3 . 82898 


.54 


3.87572 


.05 


3.82991 


.55 


3.87666 


.06 


3.83085 


.56 


3.87759 


.07 


3.83178 


.57 


3.87853 


.08 


3.83271 


,58 


3.87946 


.09 


3.83365 


.59 


3.88040 


53.10 


3.83458 


53.60 


3.88133 


.11 


3.83552 


.61 


3 . 88227 


.12 


3 . 83645 


.62 


3 . 88320 


.13 


3.83739 


.63 


3.88414 


.14 


3.83832 


.64 


3 . 88507 


.15 


3 . 83926 


.65 


3.88601 


.16 


3.84019 


.66 


3.88694 


.17 


3.84113 


.67 


3.88788 


.18 


3.84206 


.68 


3.88881 


.19 


3.84300 


.69 


3.88975 


53.20 


3.84393 


53.70 


3.89068 


.21 


3.84487 


.71 


3.89162 


.22 


3 . 84580 


.72 


3.89255 


.23 


3.84674 


.73 


3.89349 


.24 


3.84767 


.74 


3 . 89442 


.25 


3.84861 


.75 


3.89536 


.26 


3.84954 


.76 


3.89629 


.27 


3 . 85048 


. 77 


3 . 89723 


.28 


3.85141 


.78 


3.89816 


.29 


3 . 85235 


.79 


3.89910 


53.30 


3.85328 


53.80 


3.90003 


.31 


3.85422 


.81 


3.90097 


.32 


3.85515 


.82 


3.90190 


.33 


3.85609 


.83 


3.90284 


.34 


3.85702 


.84 


3.90377 


.35 


3.85796 


.85 


3.90471 


.36 


3.85889 


.86 


3.90564 


.37 


3.85983 


.87 


3 . 90658 


.38 


3.86076 


.88 


3.90751 


.39 


3.86170 


.89 


3 . 90845 


53.40 


3 . 86263 


53.90 


3.90938 


.41 


3.86357 


.91 


3.91032 


.42 


3 . 86450 


.92 


3.91125 


.43 


3 . 86544 


.93 


3.91219 


.44 


3.86637 


.94 


3.91312 


.45 


3.86731 


.95 


3.91406 


.46 


3.86824 


.96 


3.91499 


.47 


3.86918 


.97 


3.91593 


.48 


3.87011 


.98 


3.91686 


.49 


3.87105 


.99 


3.91780 



137 



OLD RANGE-VERMILION NON-BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


54.00 


$3.91873 


54.50 


$3.97048 


.01 


3.91977 


.51 


3.97151 


.02 


3.92080 


.52 


3.97255 


.03 


3.92184 


.53 


3.97358 


.04 


3.92287 


.54 


3.97462 


.05 


3.92391 


.55 


3.97565 


.06 


3 . 92494 


.56 


3.97669 


.07 


3.92598 


.57 


3.97772 


.08 


3.92701 


.58 


3.97876 


.09 


3 . 92804 


.59 


3.97979 


54.10 


3.92908 


54.60 


3.98083 


.11 


3.93011 


.61 


3.98186 


.12 


3.93115 


.62 


3.98290 


.13 


3.93218 


.63 


3.98393 


.14 


3.93322 


.64 


3.98497 


.15 


3.93425 


.65 


3 . 98600 


.16 


3.93529 


.66 


3.98704 


.17 


3.93632 


.67 


3.98807 


.18 


3.93736 


.68 


3.98911 


.19 


3.93839 


.69 


3.99014 


54.20 


3.93943 


54.70 


3.99118 


.21 


3 . 94046 


.71 


3.99221 


.22 


3.94150 


.72 


3.99325 


.23 


3.94253 


.73 


3.99428 


.24 


3.94357 


.74 


3.99532 


.25 


3.94460 


.75 


3.99635 


.26 


3.94564 


.76 


3 . 99739 


.27 


3.94667 


.77 


3.99842 


.28 


3.94771 


.78 


3.99946 


.29 


3.94874 


.79 


4 . 00049 


54.30 


3.94978 


54.80 


4.00153 


.31 


3.95081 


.81 


4.00256 


.32 


3.95185 


.82 


4.00360 


.33 


3.95288 


.83 


4.00463 


.34 


3.95392 


.84 


4.00567 


.35 


3.95495 


.85 


4.00670 


.36 


3.95599 


.86 


4.00774 


.37 


3 . 95702 


.87 


4.00877 


.38 


3.95806 


.88 


4.00981 


.39 


3.95909 


.89 


4.01084 


54.40 


3.96013 


54.90 


4.01188 


.41 


3.96116 


.91 


4.01291 


.42 


3.96220 


.92 


4.01395 


.43 


3.96323 


.93 


4.01498 


.44 


3.96427 


.94 


4.01602 


.45 


3.96530 


.95 


4.01705 


.46 


3.96634 


.96 


4.01809 


.47 


3.96737 


.97 


4.01912 


.48 


3.96841 


.98 


4.02016 


.49 


3.96944 


.99 


4.02119 



138 



UNIVERSITY 

OF 



OLD RANGE-VER] 



ON NON-BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


55.00 


$4.02223 


55.50 


$4.07897 


.01 


4.02336 


.51 


4.08011 


.02 


4 . 02450 


.52 


4.08124 


.03 


4.02563 


.53 


4.08238 


.04 


4.02677 


.54 


4.08351 


.05 


4.02790 


.55 


4.08465 


.06 


4.02904 


.56 


4.08578 


.07 


4.03017 


.57 


4.08692 


.08 


4.03131 


,58 


4.08805 


.09 


4.03244 


.59 


4.08919 


55.10 


4.03358 


55.60 


4.09032 


.11 


4.03471 


.61 


4.09146 


.12 


4.03584 


.62 


4.09259 


.13 


4.03698 


.63 


4.09373 


.14 


4.03811 


.64 


4.09486 


.15 


4.03925 


.65 


4.09600 


.16 


4.04038 


.66 


4.09713 


.17 


4.04152 


.67 


4.09827 


.18 


4.04265 


.68 


4.09940 


.19 


4.04379 


.69 


4.10054 


55.20 


4.04492 


55.70 


4.10167 


.21 


4.04606 


.71 


4.10281 


.22 


4.04719 


.72 


4.10394 


.23 


4.04833 


.73 


4.10508 


.24 


4.04946 


.74 


4.10621 


.25 


4.05060 


.75 


4.10735 


.26 


4.05173 


.76 


4.10848 


.27 


4.05287 


.77 


4.10962 


.28 


4.05400 


.78 


4.11075 


.29 


4.05514 


.79 


4.11189 


55.30 


4.05627 


55.80 


4.11302 


.31 


4.05741 


.81 


4.11416 


.32 


4.05854 


.82 


4.11529 


.33 


4.05968 


.83 


4.11643 


.34 


4.06081 


.84 


4.11756 


.35 


4.06195 


.85 


4.11870 


.36 


4.06308 


.86 


4.11983 


.37 


4.06422 


.87 


4.12097 


.38 


4.06535 


.88 


4.12210 


.39 


4.06649 


.89 


4.12324 


55.40 


4.06762 


55.90 


4.12437 


.41 


4.06876 


.91 


4.12551 


.42 


4.06989 


.92 


4.12664 


.43 


4.07103 


.93 


4.12778 


.44 


4.07216 


.94 


4.12891 


.45 


4.07330 


.95 


4.13005 


.46 


4.07443 


.96 


4.13118 


.47 


4.07557 


.97 


4.13232 


.48 


4.07670 


.98 


4.13345 


.49 


4.07784 


.99 


4.13459 



139 



OLD RANGE-VERMILION NON-BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


56.00 


$4.13572 


56.50 


$4.19747 


.01 


4.13696 


.51 


4.19870 


.02 


4.13819 


.52 


4.19994 


.03 


4.13943 


.53 


4.20117 


.04 


4.14066 


.54 


4.20241 


.05 


4.14190 


.55 


4 . 20364 


.06 


4.14313 


.56 


4 . 20488 


.07 


4.14437 


.57 


4.20611 


.08 


4.14560 


.58 


4.20735 


.09 


4.14684 


.59 


4 . 20858 


56.10 


4.14807 


56 . 60 


4 . 20982 


.11 


4.14931 


.61 


4.21105 


.12 


4.15054 


.62 


4.21229 


.13 


4.15177 


.63 


4.21352 


.14 


4.15301 


.64 


4.21476 


.15 


4.15424 


.65 


4.21599 


.16 


4.15548 


.66 


4.21723 


.17 


4.15671 


.07 


4.21846 


.18 


4.15795 


.68 


4.21970 


.19 


4.15918 


.69 


4 . 22093 


56.20 


4.16042 


56.70 


4.22217 


.21 


4.16165 


.71 


4 . 22340 


.22 


4.16289 


.72 


4 . 22464 


.23 


4.16412 


.73 


4.22587 


.24 


4.16536 


.74 


4.22711 


.25 


4.16659 


.75 


4.22834 


.26 


4.16783 


.76 


4.22958 


.27 


4.16906 


.77 


4.23081 


.28 


4.17030 


.78 


4.23205 


.29 


4.17153 


.79 


4 . 23328 


56.30 


4.17277 


56.80 


4.23452 


.31 


4.17400 


.81 


4.23575 


.32 


4.17524 


.82 


4.23699 


.33 


4.17647 


.83 


4.23822 


.34 


4.17771 


.84 


4.23946 


.35 


4.17894 


.85 


4 . 24069 


.36 


4.1S018 


.86 


4.24193 


.37 


4.18141 


.87 


4.24316 


.38 


4.18265 


.88 


4.24440 


.39 


4.18388 


.89 


4.24563 


56.40 


4.18512 


56.90 


4.24687 


.41 


4.18635 


.91 


4.24810 


.42 


4.18759 


.92 


4.24934 


.43 


4.18882 


.93 


4 . 25057 


.44 


4.19006 


.94 


4.25181 


.45 


4.19129 


.95 


4.25304 


.46 


4.19253 


.96 


4.25428 


.47 


4.19376 


.97 


4.25551 


.48 


4.19500 


.98 


4.25675 


.49 


4.19623 


.99 


4.25798 



140 



OLD RANGE-VERMILION NON-BESSEMER 



Per Cent 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 


Lake Erie Price 


Natural Iron 




Natural Iron 




57.00 


$4.25922 


57.50 


$4.32596 


.01 


4.26055 


.51 


4.32730 


.02 


4.26189 


.52 


4.32863 


.03 


4.26322 


.53 


4.32997 


.04 


4 . 26456 


.54 


4.33130 


.05 


4.26589 


.55 


4.33264 


.06 


4.26723 


.56 


4.33397 


.07 


4.26856 


.57 


4.33531 


.08 


4.26990 


. .58 


4.33664 


.09 


4.27123 


.59 


4.33798 


57.10 


4.27257 


57.60 


4.33931 


.11 


4.27390 


.61 


4 . 34065 


.12 


4 . 27524 


.62 


4.34198 


.13 


4.27657 


.63 


4.34332 


.14 


4.27791 


.64 


4.34465 


.15 


4.27924 


.65 


4.34599 


.16 


4.28057 


.66 


4.34732 


.17 


4.28191 


.67 


4.34866 


.18 


4.28324 


.68 


4.34999 


.19 


4 . 28458 


.69 


4.35133 


57.20 


4.28591 


57 . 70 


4 . 35266 


.21 


4.28725 


.71 


4.35400 


.22 


4.28858 


.72 


4.35533 


.23 


4.28992 


.73 


4.35667 


.24 


4.29125 


.74 


4 . 35800 


.25 


4.29259 


.75 


4 . 35934 


.26 


4.29392 


.76 


4.36067 


.27 


4.29526 


.77 


4.36201 


.28 


4.29659 


.78 


4.36334 


.29 


4.29793 


.79 


4.36468 


57.30 


4.29926 


57.80 


4.36601 


.31 


4 . 30060 


.81 


4.36735 


.32 


4.30193 


.82 


4 . 36868 


.33 


4.30327 


.83 


4 . 37002 


.34 


4.30460 


.84 


4.37135 


.35 


4.30594 


.85 


4.37269 


.36 


4.30727 


.86 


4.37402 


.37 


4.30861 


.87 


4.37536 


.38 


4.30994 


.88 


4.37669 


.39 


4.31128 


.89 


4.37803 


57.40 


4.31261 


57.90 


4.37936 


.41 


4.31395 


.91 


4.38070 


.42 


4.31528 


.92 


4.38203 


.43 


4.31662 


.93 


4.38337 


.44 


4.31795 


.94 


4.38470 


.45 


4.31929 


.95 


4.38604 


.46 


4.32062 


.96 


4.38737 


.47 


4.32196 


.97 


4.38871 


.48 


4.32329 


.98 


4.39004 


.49 


4.32463 


.99 


4.39138 



141 



OLD RANGE-VERMILION NON-BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


58.00 


$4.39271 


58.50 


$4 . 43446 


.01 


4.39355 


.51 


4.43529 


.02 


4.39438 


.52 


4.43613 


.03 


4.39522 


.53 


4.43696 


.04 


4.39605 


.54 


4 . 43780 


.05 


4.39689 


.55 


4.43863 


.06 


4.39772 


.56 


4.43947 


.07 


4.39856 


.57 


4.44030 


.08 


4.39939 


.57 


4.44114 


.09 


4.40023 


.59 


4.44197 


58.10 


4.40106 


58.60 


4.44281 


.11 


4.40190 


.61 


4.44364 


.12 


4.40273 


.62 


4.44448 


.13 


4.40357 


.63 


4.44531 


.14 


4 . 40440 


.64 


4.44615 


.15 


4.40524 


.65 


4.44698 


.16 


4.40607 


.66 


4.44782 


.17 


4.40690 


.67 


4.44865 


.18 


4.40774 


.68 


4.44949 


.19 


4.40857 


.69 


4.45032 


58.20 


4.40941 


58.70 


4.45116 


.21 


4.41024 


.71 


4.45199 


.22 


4.41108 


.72 


4 . 45283 


.23 


4.41191 


.73 


4.45366 


.24 


4.41275 


.74 


4.45450 


.25 


4.41358 


.75 


4.45533 


.26 


4.41442 


.76 


4.45617 


.27 


4.41525 


.77 


4.45700 


.28 


4.41609 


.78 


4.45784 


.29 


4.41692 


.79 


4.45867 


58.30 


4.41776 


58.80 


4.45951 


.31 


4.41859 


.81 


4.46034 


.32 


4.41943 


.82 


4.46118 


.33 


4.42026 


.83 


4.46201 


.34 


4.42110 


.84 


4.46285 


.35 


4.42193 


.85 


4.46368 


.36 


4.42277 


.86 


4.46452 


.37 


4.42360 


.87 


4.46535 


.38 


4 . 42444 


.88 


4.46619 


.39 


4.42527 


.89 


4.46702 


58.40 


4.42611 


58.90 


4.46786 


.41 


4.42694 


.91 


4.46869 


.42 


4.42778 


.92 


4.46953 


.43 


4.42861 


.93 


4.47036 


.44 


4.42945 


.94 


4.47120 


.45 


4.43028 


.95 


4.47203 


.46 


4.43112 


.96 


4.47287 


.47 


4.43195 


.97 


4.47370 


.48 


4.43279 


.98 


4.47454 


.49 


4.43362 


.99 


4.47537 



142 



OLD RANGE-VERMILION NON-BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


59.00 


$4.47621 


59.50 


$4.51795 


.01 


4.47704 


.51 


4.51879 


.02 


4.47788 


.52 


4.51962 


.03 


4.47871 


.53 


4.52046 


.04 


4.47955 


.54 


4.52129 


.05 


4.48038 


.55 


4.52213 


.06 


4.48122 


.56 


4.52296 


.07 


4.48205 


.57 


4.52380 


.08 


4 . 48289 


.58 


4.52463 


.09 


4.48372 


.59 


4.52547 


59.10 


4.48456 


59.60 


4.52630 


.11 


4.48539 


.61 


4.52714 


.12 


4.48623 


.62 


4.52797 


.13 


4.48706 


.63 


4.52881 


.14 


4.48790 


.64 


4.52964 


.15 


4.48873 


.65 


4.53048 


.16 


4.48957 


.66 


4.53131 


.17 


4.49040 


.67 


4.53215 


.18 


4.49124 


.68 


4.53298 


.19 


4.49207 


.69 


4.53382 


59.20 


4.49290 


59.70 


4.53465 


.21 


4.49374 


.71 


4.53549 


.22 


4.49457 


.72 


4.53632 


.23 


4.49541 


.73 


4.53716 


.24 


4.49624 


.74 


4.53799 


.25 


4.49708 


.75 


4.53883 


.26 


4.49791 


.76 


4 . 53966 


.27 


4.49875 


.77 


4.54050 


.28 


4.49958 


.78 


4.54133 


.29 


4 . 50042 


.79 


4.54217 


59.30 


4.50125 


59.80 


4.54300 


.31 


4.50209 


.81 


4.54384 


.32 


4.50292 


.82 


4.54467 


.33 


4.50376 


.83 


4.54551 


.34 


4.50459 


.84 


4 . 54634 


.35 


4.50543 


.85 


4.54718 


.36 


4.50626 


.86 


4.54801 


.37 


4.50710 


.87 


4.54885 


.38 


4.50793 


.88 


4.54968 


.39 


4.50877 


.89 


4.55052 


59.40 


4.50960 


59.90 


4.55135 


.41 


4.51044 


.91 


4.55219 


.42 


4.51127 


.92 


4 . 55302 


.43 


4.51211 


.93 


4.55386 


.44 


4.51294 


.94 


4 . 55469 


.45 


4.51378 


.95 


4 . 55553 


.46 


4.51461 


.96 


4.55636 


.47 


4.51545 


.97 


4.55720 


.48 


4.51628 


.98 


4 . 55803 


.49 


4.51712 


.99 


4 . 55887 



143 



OLD RANGE-VERMILION NON-BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


60.00 


$4.55970 


60.50 


$4.60145 


.01 


4.56054 


.51 


4 . 60228 


.02 


4.56137 


.52 


4.60312 


.03 


4.56221 


.53 


4 . 60395 


.04 


4.56304 


.54 


4 . 60479 


.05 


4.56388 


.55 


4 . 60562 


.06 


4.56471 


.56 


4 . 60646 


.07 


4.56555 


.57 


4.60729 


.08 


4.56638 


.58 


4.60813 


.09 


4.56722 


.59 


4.60896 


60.10 


4.56805 


60.60 


4 . 60980 


.11 


4 . 56889 


.61 


4.61063 


.12 


4.56972 


.62 


4.61147 


.13 


4.57056 


.63 


4.61230 


.14 


4.57139 


.64 


4.61314 


.15 


4.57223 


.65 


4.61397 


.16 


4.57306 


.66 


4.61481 


.17 


4.57390 


.67 


4.61564 


.18 


4.57473 


.68 


4.61648 


.19 


4.57557 


.69 


4.61731 


60.20 


4.57640 


60.70 


4.61815 


.21 


4.57723 


.71 


4.61898 


.22 


4 . 57807 


.72 


4.61982 


.23 


4.57890 


.73 


4.62065 


.24 


4.57974 


.74 


4.62149 


.25 


4.58057 


.75 


4 . 62232 


.26 


4.58141 


.76 


4.62316 


.27 


4.58224 


.77 


4 . 62399 


.28 


4 . 58308 


.78 


4.62483 


.29 


4.58391 


.79 


4.62566 


60.30 


4.58475 


60.80 


4.62650 


.31 


4.58558 


.81 


4.62733 


.32 


4.58642 


.82 


4.62817 


.33 


4.58725 


.83 


4 . 62900 


.34 


4.58809 


.84 


4.62984 


.35 


4.58892 


.85 


4.63067 


.36 


4.58976 


.86 


4.63151 


.37 


4 . 59059 


.87 


4.63234 


.38 


4.59143 


.88 


4.63318 


.39 


4.59226 


.89 


4.63401 


60.40 


4.59310 


60.90 


4 . 63485 


.41 


4.59393 


.91 


4 . 63568 


.42 


4.59477 


.92 


4 . 63652 


.43 


4 . 59560 


.93 


4.63735 


.44 


4 . 59644 


.94 


4.63819 


.45 


4.59727 


.95 


4.63902 


.46 


4.59811 


.96 


4 . 63986 


.47 


4.59894 


.97 


4 . 64069 


.48 


4.59978 


.98 


4.64153 


.49 


4.60061 


.99 


4.64236 



144 



MESABA NON-BESSEMER 

NATURAL IRON ORE 

LAKE ERIE PRICES 



1911 



16 TABLES 

45 PER CENT TO 60 PER CENT 
INCLUSIVE 



COMPILED BY 

RUKARD HURD 



MESABA NON-BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


45.00 


$2 . 62426 


45.50 


$2.70388 


.01 


2.62586 


.51 


2.70547 


.02 


2.62745 


.52 


2 . 70706 


.03 


2.62904 


.53 


2.70865 


.04 


2.63063 


.54 


2.71025 


.05 


2.63223 


.55 


2.71184 


.06 


2.63382 


.56 


2.71343 


.07 


2.63541 


.57 


2.71502 


.08 


2.36700 


.58 


2.71661 


.09 


2.36859 


.59 


2.71821 


45.10 


2.64019 


45.60 


2.71980 


.11 


2.64178 


.61 


2.72139 


.12 


2.64337 


.62 


2.72298 


.13 


2.64496 


.63 


2.72458 


.14 


2 . 64656 


.64 


2.72617 


.15 


2.64815 


.65 


2.72776 


.16 


2.64974 


.66 


2.72935 


.17 


2.65133 


.67 


2.73094 


.18 


2 . 65292 


.68 


2.73254 


.19 


2.65452 


.69 


2.73413 


45.20 


2.65611 


45.70 


2.73572 


.21 


2.65770 


.71 


2.73731 


.22 


2.65929 


.72 


2.73891 


.23 


2.66089 


.73 


2.74050 


.24 


2.66248 


.74 


2.74209 


.25 


2.66407 


.75 


2.74368 


.26 


2.66566 


.76 


2.74527 


.27 


2.66726 


.77 


2.74687 


.28 


2.66885 


.78 


2.74846 


.29 


2.67044 


.79 


2 . 75005 


45.30 


2 . 67203 


45.80 


2.75164 


.31 


2 . 67362 


.81 


2 . 75324 


.32 


2.67522 


.82 


2.75483 


.33 


2.67681 


.83 


2.75642 


.34 


2.67840 


.84 


2.75801 


.35 


2.67999 


.85 


2.75960 


.36 


2.68159 


.86 


2.76120 


.37 


2.68318 


.87 


2.76279 


.38 


2.68477 


.88 


2.76438 


.39 


2.68636 


.89 


2.76597 


45.40 


2.68795 


45.90 


2.76757 


.41 


2.68955 


.91 


2.76916 


.42 


2.69114 


.92 


2.77075 


.43 


2.69273 


.93 


2.77234 


.44 


2.69432 


.94 


2 . 77393 


.45 


2.69592 


.95 


2.77553 


.46 


2.69751 


.96 


2.77712 


.47 


2.69910 


.97 


2.77871 


.48 


2.70069 


.98 


2.78030 


.49 


2.70228 


.99 


2.78190 



-147 



MESABA NON-BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


46.00 


$2.78349 


46.50 


$2. 86310 


.01 


2.78508 


.51 


2 . 86469 


.02 


2.78667 


.52 


2.86628 


.03 


2.78826 


.53 


2.86788 


.04 


2.78986 


.54 


2 . 86947 


.05 


2.79145 


.55 


2.87106 


.06 


2 . 79304 


.56 


2.87265 


.07 


2.79463 


.57 


2.87425 


.08 


2 . 79623 


.58 


2.87584 


.09 


2.79782 


.59 


2.87743 


46.10 


2.79941 


46 . 60 


2 . 87902 


.11 


2.80100 


.61 


2.88061 


.12 


2 . 80259 


.62 


2.88221 


.13 


2.80419 


.63 


2.88380 


.14 


2.80578 


.64 


2.88539 


.15 


2.80737 


.65 


2.88698 


.16 


2 . 80896 


.66 


2.88858 


.17 


2.81056 


.67 


2.89017 


.18 


2.81215 


.68 


2.89176 


.19 


2.81374 


.69 


2.89335 


46.20 


2.81533 


46.70 


2 . 89494 


.21 


2.81692 


.71 


2 . 89654 


.22 


2.81852 


.72 


2.89813 


.23 


2.82011 


.73 


2.89972 


.24 


2.82170 


.74 


2.90131 


.25 


2.82329 


.75 


2.90291 


.26 


2.82489 


.76 


2.90450 


.27 


2 . 82648 


.77 


2 . 90609 


.28 


2 . 82807 


.78 


2.90768 


.29 


2.82966 


.79 


2.90927 


46.30 


2.83125 


46.80 


2.91087 


.31 


2.83285 


.81 


2.91246 


.32 


2 . 83444 


.82 


2.91405 


.33 


2 . 83603 


.83 


2.91564 


.34 


2.83762 


.84 


2.91724 


.35 


2.83922 


.85 


2.91883 


.36 


2.84081 


.86 


2.92042 


.37 


2.84240 


.87 


2.92201 


.38 


2.84399 


.88 


2 . 92360 


.39 


2.84559 


.89 


2.92520 


46.40 


2.84718 


46.90 


2.92679 


.41 


2.84877 


.91 


2.92838 


.42 


2.85036 


.92 


2.92997 


.43 


2.85195 


.93 


2.93157 


.44 


2.85355 


.94 


2.93316 


.45 


2.85514 


.95 


2.93475 


.46 


2.85673 


.96 


2.93634 


.47 


2.85832 


.97 


2 . 93793 


.48 


2.85992 


.98 


2 . 93953 


.49 


2.86151 


.99 


2.94112 



148 



MESABA NON-BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


47.00 


$2.94271 


47.50 


$3 . 02232 


.01 


2.94430 


.51 


3.02392 


.02 


2 . 94590 


.52 


3.02551 


.03 


2.94749 


.53 


3.02710 


.04 


2.94908 


.54 


3.02869 


.05 


2.95067 


.55 


3.03028 


.06 


2.95226 


.56 


3.03188 


.07 


2.95386 


.57 


3.03347 


.08 


2.95545 


.58 


3.03506 


.09 


2.95704 


.59 


3.03665 


47.10 


2 . 95863 


47.60 


3.03825 


.11 


2 . 96023 


.61 


3.03984 


.12 


2.96182 


.62 


3.04143 


.13 


2.96341 


.63 


3 . 04302 


.14 


2 . 96500 


.64 


3.04461 


.15 


2.96659 


.65 


3.04621 


.16 


2.96819 


.66 


3.04780 


.17 


2.96978 


.67 


3.04939 


.18 


2.97137 


.68 


3.05098 


.19 


2.97296 


.69 


3.05258 


47.20 


2.97456 


47 . 70 


3.05417 


.21 


2.97615 


.71 


3.05576 


.22 


2.97774 


.72 


3.05735 


.23 


2.97933 


.73 


3.05894 


.24 


2.98092 


.74 


3.06054 


.25 


2.98252 


.75 


3.06213 


.26 


2.98411 


.76 


3.06372 


.27 


2.98570 


.77 


3.06531 


.28 


2.98729 


.78 


3.06691 


.29 


2 . 98889 


.79 


3.06850 


47.30 


2.99048 


47.80 


3.07009 


.31 


2.99207 


.81 


3.07168 


.32 


2 . 99366 


.82 


3.07327 


.33 


2.99525 


.83 


3.07487 


.34 


2.99685 


.84 


3.07646 


.35 


2.99844 


.85 


3.07805 


.36 


3.00003 


.86 


3.07964 


.37 


3.00162 


.87 


3.08124 


.38 


3.00322 


.88 


3.08283 


.39 


3.00481 


.89 


3.08442 


47.40 


3.00640 


47.90 


3.08601 


.41 


3.00799 


.91 


3. 087 60 


.42 


3.00958 


.92 


3.08920 


.43 


3.01118 


.93 


3.09079 


.44 


3.01277 


.94 


3.09238 


.45 


3.01436 


.95 


3.09397 


.46 


3.01595 


.96 


3'. 09557 


.47 


3.01755 


.97 


3.09716 


.48 


3.01914 


.98 


3 . 09875 


.49 


3.02073 


.99 


3 . 10034 



149 



MESABA NON-BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


48.00 


$3.10193 


48.50 


$3.18155 


.01 


3.10353 


.51 


3.18314 


.02 


3.10512 


.52 


3.18473 


.03 


3.10671 


.53 


3.18632 


.04 


3.10830 


.54 


3.18791 


.05 


3 . 10990 


.55 


3.18951 


.06 


3.11149 


.56 


3.19110 


.07 


3.11308 


.57 


3.19269 


.08 


3.11467 


.58 


3.19428 


.09 


3.11626 


.59 


3.19588 


48.10 


3.11786 


48.60 


3.19747 


.11 


3.11945 


.61 


3.19906 


.12 


3.12104 


.62 


3.20065 


.13 


3.12263 


.63 


3 . 20225 


.14 


3.12423 


.64 


3.20384 


.15 


3.12582 


.65 


3.20543 


.16 


3.12741 


.66 


3.20702 


.17 


3.12900 


.67 


3.20861 


.18 


3.13059 


.68 


3.21021 


.19 


3.13219 


.69 


3.21180 


48.20 


3.13378 


48.70 


3.21339 


.21 


3.13537 


.71 


3.21498 


.22 


3.13696 


.72 


3.21658 


.23 


3.13856 


.73 


3.21817 


.24 


3.14015 


.74 


3.21976 


.25 


3.14174 


.75 


3.22135 


.26 


3.14333 


.76 


3.22294 


.27 


3.14492 


.77 


3 . 22454 


.28 


3.14652 


.78 


3.22613 


.29 


3.14811 


.79 


3.22772 


48.30 


3.14970 


48.80 


3.22931 


.31 


3.15129 


.81 


3.23091 


.32 


3.15289 


.82 


3.23250 


.33 


3.15448 


.83 


3 . 23409 


.34 


3.15607 


.84 


3 . 23568 


.35 


3.15766 


.85 


3.23727 


.36 


3.15925 


.86 


3.23887 


.37 


3.16085 


.87 


3 . 24046 


.38 


3.16244 


.88 


3.24205 


.39 


3.16403 


.89 


3.24364 


48.40 


3.16562 


48.90 


3.24524 


.41 


3.16722 


.91 


3.24683 


.42 


3.16881 


.92 


3.24842 


.43 


3.17040 


.93 


3.25001 


.44 


3.17199 


.94 


3.25160 


.45 


3.17358 


.95 


3.25320 


.46 ' 


3.17518 


.96 


3.25479 


.47 


3.17677 


.97 


3.25638 


.48 


3.17836 


.98 


3.25797 


.49 


3.17995 


.99 


3 . 25957 



-150 



MESABA NON-BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


49.00 


S3. 26116 


49.50 


S3. 32087 


.01 


3.26235 


.51 


3.32206 


.02 


3.26355 


.52 


3.32325 


.03 


3.26474 


.53 


3.32445 


.04 


3 . 26593 


.54 


3.32564 


.05 


3.26713 


.55 


3.32684 


.06 


3.26832 


.56 


3.32803 


.07 


3.26952 


.57 


3 . 32923 


.08 


3.27071 


.58 


3.33042 


.09 


3.27191 


.59 


3.33161 


49.10 


3.27310 


49.60 


3.33281 


.11 


3.27429 


.61 


3 . 33400 


.12 


3.27549 


.62 


3.33520 


.13 


3.27668 


.63 


3.33639 


.14 


3.27788 


.64 


3.33758 


.15 


3.27907 


.65 


3.33878 


.16 


3.28026 


.66 


3.33997 


.17 


3.28146 


.67 


3.34117 


.18 


3.28265 


.68 


3.34236 


.19 


3.28385 


.69 


3.34356 


49.20 


3.28504 


49.70 


3.34475 


.21 


3.28624 


.71 


3.34594 


.22 


3.28743 


.72 


3.34714 


.23 


3.28862 


.73 


3.34833 


.24 


3.28982 


.74 


3.34953 


.25 


3.29101 


.75 


3.35072 


.26 


3.29221 


.76 


3.35191 


.27 


3.29340 


.77 


3.35311 


.28 


3.29459 


.78 


3 . 35430 


.29 


3.29579 


.79 


3.35550 


49.30 


3.29698 


49.80 


3.35669 


.31 


3.29818 


.81 


3.35789 


.32 


3.29937 


.82 


3.35908 


.33 


3.30057 


.83 


3.36027 


.34 


3.30176 


.84 


3.36147 


.35 


3.30295 


.85 


3.36266 


.36 


3.30415 


.86 


3.36386 


.37 


3 . 30534 


.87 


3 . 36505 


.38 


3 . 30654 


.88 


3.36624 


.39 


3.30773 


.89 


3.36744 


49.40 


3.30892 


49.90 


3.36863 


.41 


3.31012 


.91 


3 . 36983 


.42 


3.31131 


.92 


3.37102 


.43 


3.31251 


.93 


3.37222 


.44 


3.31370 


.94 


3.37341 


.45 


3.31490 


.95 


3.37460 


.46 


3.31609 


.96 


3.37580 


.47 


3.31728 


.97 


3.37699 


.48 


3.31848 


.98 


3.37819 


.49 


3.31967 


.99 


3.37938 



-151 



MESABA NON-BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


50.00 


$3.38058 


50.50 


$3.42038 


.01 


3.38137 


.51 


3.42118 


.02 


3.38217 


.52 


3.42197 


.03 


3.38296 


.53 


3 . 42277 


.04 


3.38376 


.54 


3.42357 


.05 


3.38456 


.55 


3.42436 


.06 


3.38535 


.56 


3.42516 


.07 


3.38615 


.57 


3.42595 


.08 


3 . 38694 


.58 


3.42675 


.09 


3.38774 


.59 


3.42755 


50.10 


3.38854 


50.60 


3.42834 


.11 


3 . 38933 


.61 


3.42914 


.12 


3.39013 


.62 


3 . 42993 


.13 


3.39092 


.63 


3 . 43073 


.14 


3.39172 


.64 


3.43153 


.15 


3.39252 


.65 


3.43232 


.16 


3.39331 


.66 


3.43312 


.17 


3.39411 


.67 


3.43391 


.18 


3.39491 


.68 


3.43471 


.19 


3.39570 


.69 


3.43551 


50.20 


3.39650 


50.70 


3. 43630 * 


.21 


3.39729 


.71 


3.43710 


.22 


3 . 39809 


.72 


3.43790 


.23 


3 . 39889 


.73 


3.43869 


.24 


3.39968 


.74 


3.43949 


.25 


3.40048 


.75 


3.44028 


.26 


3.40127 


.76 


3.44108 


.27 


3 . 40207 


.77 


3.44188 


.28 


3.40287 


.78 


3.44267 


.29 


3.40366 


.79 


3.44347 


50.30 


3.40446 


50.80 


3.44426 


.31 


3.40525 


.81 


3.44506 


.32 


3.40605 


.82 


3.44586 


.33 


3.40685 


.83 


3.44665 


.34 


3.40764 


.84 


3.44745 


.35 


3 . 40844 


.85 


3.44824 


.36 


3.40924 


.86 


3.44904 


.37 


3.41003 


.87 


3.44984 


.38 


3.41083 


.88 


3 . 45063 


.39 


3.41162 


.89 


3.45143 


50.40 


3.41242 


50.90 


3 . 45223 


.41 


3.41322 


.91 


3.45302 


.42 


3.41401 


.92 


3.45382 


.43 


3.41481 


.93 


3.45461 


.44 


3.41560 


.94 


3.45541 


.45 


3.41640 


.95 


3.45621 


.46 


3.41720 


.96 


3.45700 


.47 


3.41799 


.97 


3.45780 


.48 


3.41879 


.98 


3 . 45859 


.49 


3.41958 


.99 


3.45939 



-152 



MESABA NON-BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


51.00 


$3.46019 


51.50 


$3.49999 


.01 


3 . 46098 


.51 


3 . 50079 


.02 


3.46178 


.52 


3.50158 


.03 


3 . 46257 


.53 


3 . 50238 


.04 


3 . 46337 


.54 


3.50318 


.05 


3.46417 


.55 


3 . 50397 


.06 


3.46496 


.56 


3.50477 


.07 


3.46576 


.57 


3.50557 


.08 


3.46656 


.58 


3 . 50636 


.09 


3.46735 


.59 


3.50716 


51.10 


3.46815 


51.60 


3.50795 


.11 


3.46894 


.61 


3 . 50875 


.12 


3.46974 


.62 


3 . 50955 


.13 


3 . 47054 


.63 


3.51034 


.14 


3.47133 


.64 


3.51114 


.15 


3.47213 


.()--> 


3.51193 


.16 


3.47292 


.66 


3.51273 


.17 


3.47372 


.67 


3.51353 


.18 


3.47452 


.68 


3.51432 


.19 


3.47531 


.69 


3.51512 


51 . 20 


3.47611 


51.70 


3.51591 


.21 


3.47691 


.71 


3.51671 


.22 


3.47770 


.72 


3.51751 


.23 


3 . 47850 


.73 


3.51830 


.24 


3.47929 


.74 


3.51910 


.25 


3.48009 


.75 


3.51990 


.26 


3.48089 


.76 


3.52069 


.27 


3.48168 


.77 


3.52149 


.28 


3 . 48248 


.78 


3.52228 


.29 


3.48327 


.79 


3 . 52308 


51 . 30 


3 . 48407 


51.80 


3 . 52388 


.31 


3.48487 


.81 


3.52467 


.32 


3.48566 


.82 


3.52547 


.33 


3.48646 


.83 


3 . 52626 


.34 


3.48725 


.84 


3.52706 


.35 


3.48805 


.85 


3 . 52786 


.36 


3.48885 


.86 


3.52865 


.37 


3.48964 


.87 


3.52945 


.38 


3.49044 


.88 


3.53024 


.39 


3.49124 


.89 


3.53104 


51.40 


3 . 49203 


51.90 


3.53184 


.41 


3.49283 


.91 


3 . 53263 


.42 


3 . 49362 


.92 


3.53343 


.43 


3.49442 


.93 


3.53423 


.44 


3 . 49522 


.94 


3 . 53502 


.45 


3.49601 


.95 


3.53582 


.46 


3.49681 


.96 


3 . 53661 


.47 


3.49760 


.97 


3.53741 


.48 


3 . 49840 


.98 


3.53821 


.49 


3.49920 


.99 


3.53900 



153 



MESABA NON-BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


52.00 


$3.53980 


52.50 


$3.57960 


.01 


3 . 54059 


.51 


3 . 58040 


.02 


3.54139 


.52 


3.58120 


.03 


3.54219 


.53 


3.58199 


.04 


3 . 54298 


.54 


3.58279 


.05 


3.54378 


.55 


3 . 58358 


.06 


3 . 54457 


.56 


3.58438 


.07 


3.54537 


.57 


3.58518 


.08 


3.54617 


.58 


3 . 58597 


.09 


3.54696 


.59 


3 . 58677 


52.10 


3.54776 


52.60 


3 . 58757 


.11 


3.54856 


.61 


3 . 58836 


.12 


3 . 54935 


.62 


3.58916 


.13 


3.55015 


.63 


3 . 58995 


.14 


3 . 55094 


.64 


3 . 59075 


.15 


3.55174 


.65 


3.59155 


.16 


3 . 55254 


.66 


3.59234 


.17 


3.55333 


.67 


3.59314 


.18 


3.55413 


.68 


3.59393 


.19 


3 . 55492 


.69 


3.59473 


52.20 


3.55572 


52.70 


3.59553 


.21 


3 . 55652 


.71 


3 . 59632 


.22 


3.55731 


.72 


3.59712 


.23 


3.55811 


.73 


3.59791 


.24 


3 . 55890 


.74 


3.59871 


.25 


3.55970 


.75 


3.59951 


.26 


3 . 56050 


.76 


3.60030 


.27 


3.56129 


.77 


3.60110 


.28 


3 . 56209 


.78 


3.60190 


.29 


3 . 56289 


.79 


3.60269 


52.30 


3.56368 


52.80 


3.60349 


.31 


3 . 56448 


.81 


3.60428 


.32 


3.56527 


.82 


3.60508 


.33 


3 . 56607 


.83 


3.60588 


.34 


3 . 56687 


.84 


3.60667 


.35 


3.56766 


.85 


3.60747 


.36 


3.56846 


.86 


3.60826 


.37 


3 . 56925 


.87 


3.60906 


.38 


3 . 57005 


.88 


3.60986 


.39 


3.57085 


.89 


3.61065 


52.40 


3.57164 


52.90 


3.61145 


.41 


3 . 57244 


.91 


3.61224 


.42 


3.57324 


.92 


3.61304 


.43 


3 . 57403 


.93 


3.61384 


.44 


3 . 57483 


.94 


3.61463 


.45 


3.57562 


.95 


3.61543 


.46 


3.57642 


.96 


3.61623 


.47 


3.57722 


.97 


3.61702 


.48 


3.57801 


.98 


3.61782 


.49 


3.57881 


.99 


3.61861 



-154 



MESABA NON-BESSEMER 



Per Cent 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 


Lake Erie Price 


Natural Iron 




Natural Iron 




53.00 


$3.61941 


53.50 


$3 . 66422 


.01 


3.62031 


.51 


3.66511 


.02 


3.62120 


.52 


3.66601 


.03 


3.62210 


.53 


3.66690 


.04 


3.62299 


.54 


3.66780 


.05 


3.62389 


.55 


3.66870 


.06 


3.62479 


.56 


3 . 66959 


.07 


3.62568 


.57 


3.67049 


.08 


3.62658 


.58 


3.67138 


.09 


3 . 62747 


.59 


3.67228 


53.10 


3.62837 


53.60 


3.67318 


.11 


3.62927 


.61 


3.67407 


.12 


3.63016 


.62 


3.67497 


.13 


3.63106 


.63 


3.67587 


.14 


3.63196 


.64 


3.67676 


.15 


3.63285 


.65 


3 . 67766 


.16 


3.63375 


.66 


3.67855 


.17 


3 . 63464 


.67 


3.67945 


.18 


3.63554 


.68 


3 . 68035 


.19 


3 . 63644 


.69 


3.68124 


53.20 


3.63733 


53.70 


3.68214 


.21 


3.63823 


.71 


3.68303 


.22 


3.63912 


.72 


3.68393 


.23 


3 . 64002 


.73 


3.68483 


.24 


3 . 64092 


.74 


3.68572 


.25 


3.64181 


.75 


3.68662 


.26 


3.64271 


.76 


3.68751 


.27 


3.64360 


.77 


3 . 68841 


.28 


3 . 64450 


.78 


3.68931 


.29 


3 . 64540 


.79 


3 . 69020 


53.30 


3.64629 


53.80 


3.69110 


.31 


3.64719 


.81 


3.69200 


.32 


3.64809 


.82 


3.69289 


.33 


3.64898 


.83 


3.69379 


.34 


3.64988 


.84 


3.69468 


.35 


3.65077 


.85 


3.69558 


.36 


3.65167 


.86 


3 . 69648 


.37 


3.65257 


.87 


3.69737 


.38 


3.65346 


.88 


3 . 69827 


.39 


3.65436 


.89 


3.69916 


53.40 


3.65525 


53.90 


3.70006 


.41 


3.65615 


.91 


3.70096 


.42 


3.65705 


.92 


3.70185 


.43 


3 . 65794 


.93 


3.70275 


.44 


3 . 65884 


.94 


3 . 70364 


.45 


3.65974 


.95 


3 . 70454 


.46 


3.66063 


.96 


3 . 70544 


.47 


3.66153 


.97 


3.70633 


.48 


3.66242 


.98 


3 . 70723 


.49 


3.66332 


.99 


3.70813 



155 



MESA3A NON-BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


54.00 


$3.70902 


54.50 


$3.75883 


.01 


3.71002 


.51 


3.75982 


.02 


3.71101 


52 


3.76082 


.03 


3.71201 


isa 


3.76182 


.04 


3.71301 


.54 


3.76281 


.05 


3.71400 


.55 


3.76381 


.06 


3.71500 


.56 


3 . 76480 


.07 


3.71599 


.57 


3 . 76580 


.08 


3.71699 


.58 


3.76680 


.09 


3.71799 


.59 


3 . 76779 


54.10 


3.71898 


54 . 60 


3 . 76879 


.11 


3.71998 


.61 


3.76978 


.12 


3 . 72097 


.62 


3 . "7078 


.13 


3.72197 


.63 


3. "7178 


.14 


3 . 72297 


.64 


3. "7277 


.15 


3 . 72396 


.65 


3 . "7377 


.16 


3 . 72496 


.66 


3.77477 


.17 


3 . 72596 


.67 


3 . "7576 


.18 


3.72695 


.68 


3 . "7676 


.19 


3 . 72795 


.69 


3.77775 


54.20 


3.72894 


54.70 


3 . 77875 


.21 


3.72994 


.71 


3.77975 


.22 


3.73094 


.74 


3.78074 


.23 


3.73193 


.73 


3.78174 


.24 


3.73293 


.74 


3.78273 


.25 


3.73392 


.75 


3 . 78373 


.26 


3.73492 


.76 


3 . 78473 


.27 


3 . 73592 


.77 


3 . 78572 


.28 


3.73691 


.78 


3.78672 


.29 


3.73791 


.79 v 


3.78771 


54.30 


3 . 73890 


54.80 


3.78871 


.31 


3 . 73990 


.81 


3.78971 


.32 


3 . 74090 


.82 


3.79070 


.33 


3.74189 


.83 


3.79170 


.34 


3 . 74289 


.84 


3 . 79270 


.35 


3.74389 


.85 


3.79369 


.36 


3 . 74488 


.86 


3.97469 


.37 


3 . 74588 


.87 


3 . 79568 


.38 


3.74687 


.88 


3 . 79668 


.39 


3.74787 


.89 


3.79768 


54.40 


3.74887 


54.90 


3.79867 


.41 


3.74986 


.91 


3 . 79967 


.42 


3 . 75086 


.92 


3 . 80066 


.43 


3.75185 


.93 


3.80166 


.44 


3.75285 


.94 


3 . 80266 


.45 


3.75385 


.95 


3 . 80365 


.46 


3 . 75484 


.96 


3 . 80465 


.47 


3 . 75584 


.97 


3 . 80564 


.48 


3 . 75683 


.98 


3 . 80664 


.49 


3.75783 


.99 


3.80764 



156 



MESABA NON-BESSEMER 




Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


55.00 


$3 . 80863 


55.50 


$3.86344 


.01 


3.80973 


.51 


3 . 86453 


.02 


3.81083 


.52 


3 . 86563 


.03 


3.81192 


.53 


3.86673 


.04 


3.81302 


.54 


3.86782 


.05 


3.81411 


.55 


3.86892 


.06 


3.81521 


.56 


3.87002 


.07 


3.81631 


.57 


3.87111 


.08 


3.81740 


.58 


3.87221 


.09 


3.81850 


.59 


3.87330 


55.10 


3.81959 


55.60 


3 . 87440 


.11 


3.82069 


.61 


3 . 87550 


.12 


3.82179 


.62 


3.87659 


.13 


3.82288 


.63 


3.87769 


.14 


3 . 82398 


.64 


3.87878 


.15 


3 . 82507 


.65 


3.87988 


.16 


3.82617 


.66 


3.88098 


.17 


3.82727 


.67 


3.88207 


.18 


3.82836 


.68 


3.88317 


.19 


3 . 82946 


.69 


3.88427 


55.20 


3 . 83056 


55.70 


3 . 88536 


.21 


3.83165 


.71 


3 . 88646 


.22 


3.83275 


.72 


3.88755 


.23 


3.83384 


.73 


3 . 88865 


.24 


3.83494 


.74 


3.88975 


.25 


3.83604 


.75 


3 . 89084 


.26 


3.83713 


.76 


3.89194 


.27 


3.83823 


.77 


3.89303 


.28 


3.83932 


.78 


3.89413 


.29 


3 . 84042 


.79 


3.89523 


55.30 


3.84152 


55.80 


3.89632 


.31 


3.84261 


.81 


3 . 89742 


.32 


3.84371 


.82 


3.89851 


.33 


3 . 84480 


.83 


3 . 89961 


.34 


3.84590 


.84 


3.90071 


.35 


3.84700 


.85 


3.90180 


.36 


3.84809 


.86 


3 . 90290 


.37 


3.84919 


.87 


3 . 90400 


.38 


3 . 85029 


.88 


3.90509 


.39 


3.85138 


.89 


3.90619 


55.40 


3.85248 


55 . 90 


3.90728 


.41 


3.85357 


.91 


3 . 90838 


.42 


3 . 85467 


.92 


3 . 90948 


.43 


3.85577 


.93 


3.91057 


.44 


3.85686 


.94 


3.91167 


.45 


3.85796 


.95 


3.91276 


.46 


3 . 85905 


.96 


3.91386 


.47 


3.86015 


.97 


3.91496 


.48 


3.86125 


.98 


3.91605 


.49 


3 . 86234 


.99 


3.91715 



157 



MESABA NON-BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


56.00 


$3.91824 


56.50 


$3.97805 


.01 


3.91944 


.51 


3.97925 


.02 


3.92064 


.52 


3.98044 


.03 


3.92183 


.53 


3.98164 


.04 


3.92303 


.54 


3 . 98283 


.05 


3.92423 


.55 


3.98403 


.06 


3.92542 


.56 


3.98523 


.07 


3.92662 


.57 


3.98642 


.08 


3.92781 


.58 


3.98762 


.09 


3.92901 


.59 


3.98882 


56.10 


3.93021 


56.60 


3.99001 


.11 


3.93140 


.61 


3.99121 


.12 


3.93260 


.62 


3.99240 


.13 


3.93379 


.63 


3.99360 


.14 


3.93499 


.64 


3 . 99480 


.15 


3.93619 


.65 


3.99599 


.16 


3.93738 


.66 


3.99719 


.17 


3.93858 


.67 


3.99838 


.18" 


3.93977 


.68 


3 . 99958 


.19 


3.94097 


.69 


4.00078 


56.20 


3.94217 


56.70 


4.00197 


.21 


3.94336 


.71 


4.00317 


.22 


3 . 94456 


.72 


4.00436 


.23 


3.94576 


.73 


4.00556 


.24 


3.94695 


.74 


4.00676 


.25 


3.94815 


.75 


4.00795 


.26 


3.94934 


.76 


4.00915 


.27 


3 . 95054 


.77 


4.01035 


.28 


3.95174 


.78 


4.01154 


.29 


3.95293 


.79 


4.01274 


56 . 30 


3.95413 


56.80 


4.01393 


.31 


3.95532 


.81 


4.01513 


.32 


3.95652 


.82 


4.01633 


.33 


3 . 95772 


.83 


4.01752 


.34 


3.95891 


.84 


4.01872 


.35 


3.96011 


.85 


4.01991 


.36 


3.96130 


.86 


4.02111 


.37 


3.96250 


.87 


4.02231 


.38 


3.96370 


.88 


4.02350 


.39 


3.96489 


.89 


4 . 02470 


56.40 


3.96609 


56.90 


4.02590 


.41 


3.96729 


.91 


4.02709 


.42 


3.96848 


.92 


4.02829 


.43 


3.96968 


.93 


4.02948 


.44 


3.97087 


.94 


4.03068 


.45 


3.97207 


.95 


4.03188 


.46 


3.97327 


.96 


4.03307 


.47 


3.97446 


.97 


4.03427 


.48 


3.97566 


.98 


4.03546 


.49 


3.97685 


.99 


4.03666 



-158 



MESABA NON-BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


57.00 


$4.03786 


57.50 


$4.10266 


.01 


4.03915 


.51 


4.10396 


.02 


4.04045 


.52 


4.10525 


.03 


4.04174 


.53 


4.10655 


.04 


4.04304 


.54 


4.10785 


.05 


4.04434 


.55 


4.10914 


.06 


4.04563 


.56 


4.11044 


.07 


4.04693 


.57 


4.11173 


.08 


4.04823 


.58 


4.11303 


.09 


4.04952 


.59 


4.11433 


57.10 


4 . 05082 


57.60 


4.11562 


.11 


4.05211 


.61 


4.11692 


.12 


4.05341 


.62 


4.11822 


.13 


4.05471 


.63 


4.11951 


.14 


4.05600 


.64 


4.12081 


.15 


4.05730 


.65 


4.12210 


.16 


4.05859 


.66 


4.12340 


.17 


4.05989 


.67 


4.12470 


.18 


4.06119 


.68 


4.12599 


.19 


4.06248 


.69 


4.12729 


57.20 


4.06378 


57.70 


4.12858 


.21 


4.06507 


.71 


4.12988 


.22 


4.06637 


.72 


4.13118 


.23 


4.06767 


.73 


4.13247 


.24 


4.06896 


.74 


4.13377 


.25 


4.07026 


.75 


4.13506 


.26 


4.07156 


.76 


4.13636 


.27 


4.07285 


.77 


4.13766 


.28 


4.07415 


.78 


4.13895 


.29 


4.07544 


.79 


4.14025 


57.30 


4.07674 


57.80 


4.14155 


.31 


4.07804 


.81 


4.14284 


.32 


4.07933 


.82 


4.14414 


.33 


4.08063 


.83 


4.14543 


.34 


4.08192 


.84 


4.14673 


.35 


4.08322 


.85 


4.14803 


.36 


4.08452 


.86 


4.14932 


.37 


4.08581 


.87 


4.15062 


.38 


4.08711 


.88 


4.15191 


.39 


4.08840 


.89 


4.15321 


57.40 


4.08970 


57.90 


4.15451 


.41 


4.09100 


.91 


4.15580 


.42 


4.09229 


.92 


4.15710 


.43 


4.09359 


.93 


4.15839 


.44 


4 . 09489 


.94 


4.15969 


.45 


4.09618 


.95 


4.16099 


.46 


4.09748 


.96 


4.16228 


.47 


4.09877 


.97 


4.16358 


.48 


4.10007 


.98 


4.16488 


.49 


4.10137 


.99 


4.16617 



159 



MESABA NON-BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


^58.00 


$4.16747 


58.50 


$4.20727 


.01 


4.16826 


.51 


4 . 20807 


.02 


4.16906 


.52 


4 . 20887 


.03 


4.16986 


.53 


4.20966 


.04 


4.17065 


.54 


4.21046 


.05 


4.17145 


.55 


4.21125 


.06 


4.17224 


.56 


4.21205 


.07 


4.17304 


.57 


4.21285 


.08 


4.17384 


.58 


4.21364 


.09 


4.17463 


.59 


4.21444 


58.10 


4.17543 


58.60 


4.21523 


.11 


4.17623 


.61 


4.21603 


.12 


4.17702 


.62 


4.21683 


.13 


4.17782 


.63 


4.21762 


.14 


4.17861 


.64 


4.21842 


.15 


4.17941 


.65 


4.21922 


.16 


4.18021 


.66 


4.22001 


.17 


4.18100 


.67 


4.22081 


.18 


4.18180 


.68 


4.22160 


.19 


4.18259 


.69 


4.22240 


58.20 


4.18339 


58.70 


4.22320 


.21 


4.18419 


.71 


4 . 22399 


.22 


4.18498 


.72 


4.22479 


.23 


4.18578 


.73 


4.2255S 


.24 


4.18657 


.74 


4.22638 


.25 


4.18737 


.75 


4.22718 


.26 


4.18817 


.76 


4.22797 


.27 


4.18896 


.77 


4.22877 


.28 


4.18976 


.78 


4.22956 


.29 


4.19056 


.79 


4.23036 


58.30 


4.19135 


58.80 


4.23116 


.31 


4.19215 


.81 


4.23195 


.32 


4.19294 


.82 


4.23275 


.33 


4.19374 


.83 


4.23355 


.34 


4.19454 


.84 


4 . 23434 


.35 


4.19533 


.85 


4.23514 


.36 


4.19613 


.86 


4.23593 


.37 


4.19692 


.87 


4.23673 


.38 


4.19772 


.88 


4.23753 


.39 


4.19852 


.89 


4.23832 


58.40 


4.19931 


58.90 


4.23912 


.41 


4.20011 


.91 


4.23991 


.42 


4 . 20090 


.92 


4.24071 


.43 


4.20170 


.93 


4.24151 


.44 


4 . 20250 


.94 


4 . 24230 


.45 


4.20329 


.95 


4.24310 


.46 


4 . 20409 


.96 


4.24389 


.47 


4.20489 


.97 


4 . 24469 


.48 


4.20568 


.98 


4 . 24549 


.49 


4 . 20648 


.99 


4.24628 



160 



MESABA NON-BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


59.00 


$4.24708 


59.50 


$4.28689 


.01 


4.24788 


.51 


4.28768 


.02 


4.24867 


.52 


4 . 28848 


.03 


4 . 24947 


.53 


4.28927 


.04 


4.25026 


.54 


4 . 29007 


.05 


4.25106 


.55 


4 . 29087 


.06 


4.25186 


.56 


4.29166 


.07 


4.25265 


.57 


4.29246 


.08 


4.25345 


.58 


4.29325 


.09 


4.25424 


.59 


4.29405 


59.10 


4.25504 


59.60 


4.29485 


.11 


4.25584 


.61 


4.29564 


.12 


4.25663 


.62 


4.29644 


.13 


4.25743 


.63 


4.29723 


.14 


4.25823 


.64 


4.29803 


.15 


4 . 25902 


.65 


4.29883 


.16 


4.25982 


.66 


4.29962 


.17 


4.26061 


.67 


4.30042 


.18 


4.26141 


.68 


4.30122 


.19 


4.26221 


.69 


4.30201 


59.20 


4.26300 


59.70 


4.30281 


.21 


4.26380 


.71 


4.30360 


.22 


4.26459 


.72 


4.30440 


.23 


4.26539 


.73 


4 . 30520 


.24 


4.26619 


.74 


4 . 30599 


.25 


4.26698 


.75 


4.30679 


.26 


4.26778 


.76 


4.30758 


.27 


4.26857 


.77 


4.30838 


.28 


4.26937 


.78 


4.30918 


.29 


4.27017 


.79 


4.30997 


59.30 


4.27096 


59.80 


4.31077 


.31 


4.27176 


.81 


4.31156 


.32 


4.27256 


.82 


4.31236 


.33 


4.27335 


.83 


4.31316 


.34 


4.27415 


.84 


4.31395 


.35 


4.27494 


.85 


4.31475 


.36 


4.27574 


.86 


4.31555 


.37 


4.27654 


.87 


4.31634 


.38 


4.27733 


.88 


4.31714 


.39 


4.27813 


.89 


4.31793 


59.40 


4 . 27892 


59.90 


4.31873 


.41 


4.27972 


.91 


4.31953 


.42 


4.28052 


.92 


4.32032 


.43 


4.28131 


.93 


4.32112 


.44 


4.28211 


.94 


4.32191 


.45 


4.28290 


.95 


4.32271 


.46 


4.28370 


.96 


4.32351 


.47 


4 . 28450 


.97 


4 . 32430 


.48 


4.28529 


.98 


4.32510 


.49 


4.28609 


.99 


4 . 32589 



161 



MESABA NON-BESSEMER 



Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


Per Cent 
Natural Iron 


Lake Erie Price 


60.00 


$4.32669 


60.50 


$4.36650 


.01 


4.32749 


.51 


4.36729 


.02 


4.32828 


.52 


4.36809 


.03 


4.32908 


.53 


4.36889 


.04 


4.32988 


.54 


4.36968 


.05 


4.33067 


.55 


4.37048 


.06 


4.33147 


.56 


4.37127 


.07 


4.33226 


.57 


4.37207 


.08 


4.33306 


.58 


4.37287 


.09 


4.33386 


.59 


4.37366 


60.10 


4.33465 


60.60 


4.37446 


.11 


4.33545 


.61 


4.37525 


.12 


4.33624 


.62 


4.37605 


.13 


4.33704 


.63 


4.37685 


.14 


4.33784 


.64 


4.37764 


.15 


4.33863 


.65 


4.37844 


.16 


4.33943 


.66 


4.37923 


.17 


4.34022 


.67 


4.38003 


.18 


4.34102 


.68 


4.38083 


.19 


4.34182 


.69 


4.38162 


60.20 


4.34261 


60.70 


4.38242 


.21 


4.34341 


.71 


4.38322 


.22 


4.34421 


.72 


4.38401 


.23 


4.34500 


.73 


4.38481 


.24 


4.34580 


.74 


4 . 38560 


.25 


4.34659 


.75 


4 . 38640 


.26 


4.34739 


.76 


4 . 38720 


.27 


4.34819 


.77 


4 . 38799 


.28 


4.34898 


.78 


4.38879 


.29 


4.34978 


.79 


4.38958 


60.30 


4.35057 


60.80 


4 . 39038 


.31 


4.35137 


.81 


4.39118 


.32 


4.35217 


.82 


4.39197 


.33 


4.35296 


.83 


4.39277 


.34 


4.35376 


.84 


4.39356 


.35 


4.35456 


.85 


4.39436 


.36 


4.35535 


.86 


4.39516 


.37 


4.35615 


.87 


4 . 39595 


.38 


4.35694 


.88 


4.39675 


.39 


4.35774 


.89 


4.39755 


60.40 


4.35854 


60.90 


4.39834 


.41 


4.35933 


.91 


4.39914 


.42 


4.36013 


.92 


4.39993 


.43 


4.36092 


.93 


4.40073 


.44 


4.36172 


.94 


4.40153 


.45 


4.36252 


.95 


4.40232 


.46 


4.36331 


.96 


4.40312 


.47 


4.36411 


.97 


4.40391 


.48 


4.36490 


.98 


4.40471 


.49 


4.36570 


.99 


4.40551 





UNIVERSITY OF CAMFOHNI* 




FOR^A NO. DD6 




YC 19163 

LIBRARIES