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HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING 



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HYDRAULIC POWER 
ENGINEERING 



A PRACTICAL MANUAL 

ON THE CONCENTRATION AND TRANSMISSION OF 

POWER BY HYDRAULIC MACHINERY 

^ '- .^■^*" 

G: CROYDON ^ARKS 

ASSOCIATE MBMBBR OF THE INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 

MEMBER OP THE INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS 

FELLOW OP THE CHARTERED INSTITUTE OF PATENT AGENTS 



Second BMtioiit iBnlnvgcb 



IVITH ABOUT TWO HUNDRED AND FORTY ILLUSTRATIONS, 




LONDON 

CROSBY LOCKWOOD AND SON 

7 STATIONERS' HALL COURT, LUDGATE HILL 

13^ 



Printed at The Darien Press, Edinburgh, 



I 



PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION. 

THIS work may be regarded as a successor to 
a smaller volume by the same Author on 

" Hydraulic Machinery," published in 

1 89 1, which he prepared with a view to the assistance 
of engineering students and others who might be 
practically interested in the subject, 
rt In the present volume an attempt is made to give an 

Q outline discussion and description of the main points 

and principles requiring attention by engineers having 
the responsibility of designing or constructing works 
and appliances for the utilisation of water for the 
transmission of power. 

It would be impossible in any single volume to 

I deal adequately or comprehensively with the many 

^ problems arising in the different sections into which 

^ the very large subject of Hydraulics and Hydraulic 

Engineering naturally divides itself. The Author, 

^ therefore, has contented himself with giving examples 

-L which have special reference to the particular sections 

x in which they occur ; ^ and in addition, he has en- 

^ deavoured to lead up to the general subject by a 

brief examination of the principles underlying the 

whole study. 

The development of hydraulic power machinery 
has been somewhat of a modern movement, but the 
examples which arc to be found in the following pages 



160021 



VI PREFACE. 

will possibly lead the engineer and designer to go still 
further in the realisation of the most convenient form 
of power transmission available for industrial under- 
takings and commercial manufactures. In practice it 
is constantly found that new problems are raised, and 
new forms of machinery required for their satisfactory 
solution. 

The Author wishes to acknowledge here the ser- 
vices which have been rendered him by members of 
his staff, in the preparation of the examples and 
drawings given in the volume, and in compiling 
many of the tables now published here for the first 
time. Free use (it should also be mentioned) has 
been made of information published in the " Pro- 
ceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers," the 
permission of the Council of that Institution having 
been kindly given for that purpose; and additional 
information has been obtained from descriptions of 
works appearing in the Engineer and Engineerings 
and in Cassier^s Magazine. Many of the illustra- 
tions have been specially prepared from information 
kindly placed at the service of the Author by the 
several engineering firms referred to in the work. 

The Author would refer students who may seek 
fuller information on the question of Hydraulic Motors 
and Turbines to Mr Bodmer's treatise upon that 
subject. 

1 8 Southampton Buildings, 
London, W.C. 

January 1900. 



PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION. 



IN the present edition, the work has been enlarged 
for the purpose of including some examples ot 
new developments connected with Hydraulic 
Pressing and Lifting machinery, and introducing 
illustrations of typical Valves and machines. The 
text, also, has been generally revised, the Author's 
aim being to condense and improve rather than to 
expand the volume, in view of the many additional 
illustrations now introduced — about 40 in number. 

The limitations of the work as a single volume 
for convenient handling have precluded the intro- 
duction of other desirable features, such as various 
forms of lifts, cranes, and power pumps. Students 
and others seeking further information as to pumps 
and cranes may be referred to the works on " The 
Construction of Pumps " and " Cranes and Lifting 
Machinery," by Mr E. C. R. Marks, as convenient 
text-books on those subjects. 

The thanks of the Author are due and are hereby 
tendered to Messrs Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth, 



viii PREFACE. 

& Co. Limited, of Manchester; Messrs Breuer, 
Schumacher, & Co., of Kalk ; Messrs Fielding & 
Piatt Limited, of Gloucester ; the Hydraulic Engi- 
neering Company, of Chester ; Messrs Henry Berry 
& Co., of Leeds, and other firms who have kindly 
placed photographs and information as to their work 
at his disposal. 

1 8 Southampton Buildings, 
London, W.C. 

April 1905. 



CONTENTS. 



PART L— HYDRA ULICS, 
CHAPTER I. 

PAGE 

Principles of Hydraulics 3 

CHAPTER II. 
The Observed Flow of Water - - - 21 



PART IL--PRELIMINAR K 

CHAPTER III. 
Hydraulic Pressures 35 

CHAPTER IV. 
Materials 44 

CHAPTER V. 
Test Load 51 



PART III.— JOINTS. 

CHAPTER VI. 
Packings for Sliding Surfaces - - - - 67 

CHAPTER VII. 
Pipe Joints 86 



X CONTENTS. 

PART IV.— VALVES, 
CHAPTER VIII. 

PACE 

Controlling Valves iii 



PART v.— LIFTING MACHINERY. 

CHAPTER IX. 
Platform Lifts 143 

CHAPTER X. 
Workshop and Foundry Cranes - - - - 188 

CHAPTER XI. 
Warehouse and Dock Cranes - . . - 203 

CHAPTER XII. 
Hydraulic Accumulators 211 



PART VI— HYDRAULIC PRESSES. 

CHAPTER XIII. 
Presses for Baling and other Purposes - - 225 

CHAPTER XIV. 
Sheet Metal Working and Forging Machinery 243 

CHAPTER XV. 
Hydraulic Riveters 253 

PART VII. —PUMPS. 

CHAPTER XVI. 
Hand and Power Pumps 269 

CHAPTER XVII. 
Steam Pumps 276 



CONTENTS. xi 

PART VIIL— HYDRAULIC MOTORS. 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

PACE 

Turbines 285 

CHAPTER XIX. 
Impulse Turbines 295 

CHAPTER XX. 
Reaction Turbines ------- 304 

CHAPTER XXI. 
Design of Turbines in Detail - . . . 323 

CHAPTER XXII. 
Water Wheels 339 

CHAPTER XXIII. 
Hydraulic Engines 343 

CHAPTER XXIV. 
Recent Achievements 362 



APPENDIX. 

Table showing Pressure of Water in Pounds 
PER Square Inch for every Foot in Height 
TO 270 Feet 383 

Action of Pumps : Table of Diameters, Areas, 
and dlspl.\cements in imperial gallons per 
Foot of Travel ------- 384 



LIST OF TABLES. 

I. Stresses in Hydraulic Machinery for 

Loads applied in One Direction only - 54 



xii LIST OF TABLES. 

PAGE 

n. Thickness in Inches of Cast-iron Cylinders 
FOR Test Pressures of Pounds and Tons 
PER Square Inch 58 

III. Thickness of Steel Cylinders (Unham- 

mered Castings) for Test Pressures of 
Tons per Square Inch - - - - 59 

IV. Coefficients of Ram Efficiencies for Hemp 

OR Leather Packing 85 

V. Maximum Loading for Wrought-iron Bolts 89 

VI. Dimensions of Circular Flanges of Cast- 
iron Pipes with Tongued and Grooved 
Joints 96 

VIL Breaking Weight of Steel Wire Ropes - 177 

VIII. Coefficients of Efficiency of Steel Wire 

Rope and Short Link Chain - - - x8i 

IX. Coefficients of Efficiency of Pulley 

Wheels Turning on Pins - - - - 182 

X. Presses for Baling : Pressure in Tons per 
Square Foot of Platten to Bale Mate- 
rial TO GIVEN Weights . - - - 226 

XL Sizes of Wrought-iron Bars for Presses 234 

XII. Pressure of Water in Pounds per Square 

Inch for i to 270 Feet in Height - - 383 

XIII. Action of Pumps: Diameters, Areas, and 
Displacements in Imperial Gallons per 
Foot of Travel 384 



INDEX 385 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Fig. page 

Niagara Falls - - - Frontispiece 

I, 2. Diagrams illustrating Equal Pressure on 

Surfaces - - - - - 9, lo 

3. Diagram illustrating Principle of Archimedes 11 

4- Hydraulic Ram - - - - 17 
5-9. Appliances and Arrangements for Observing 

Flow of Water - - - 21-28 

10. Diagram illustrating Flow of Water in Bends 30 

11-13. Hydraulic Cylinders - - - 41,42 

14. Diagram illustrating Extension of Metal - 48 

15. Cylinder in cross-section, showing Thickness 

of Walls ----- 55 

16-24. Construction and Casting of Cylinders - 60-63 

25-28. Leather Packing for Plungers - - 67 

29-33. Leather Cup Packings - - - 68-70 

34, 35. Leather Hat Packings - . . 74 

36-46. Leather U Packings - - - - 75-79 

47. Pipe Flange ----- 87 

48, 49. Pipe Joints - - - - - 9i» 93 

50-59. Do. - - - . . 98-103 

60-64. Pipe Swivelling Joints . . - 104-107 

65, 66. Stop Valve - - - - -112,114 



XIV 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Fig. 






PAGE 


67-69. Shock Valve - 


- 


» 


- 115, 116 


70, 72. Slide Valve - 


- 


- 


- 117, 121 


71. Piston Valve - 


- 


- 


118 


73. Armstrong Valve 


- 


- 


122 


74. Spindle Valve 


- 


- 


123 


75, 76. Balanced Valve 


- 


- 


124 


^^, Multiple Ram Lift - 


- 


- 


124 


78, 79. Meacock's Valve 


- 


- 


126 


80. Scott's Valve 


- 


- 


128 


81. Dearden's Valve 


- 


- 


129 


82-84. Berr/s Patent Valve 


- 


- 


- 130. 131 


85-87. Fielding's Valve 


- 


- 


- 131, 132 


88. Bjomstad's Valve - 


- 


- 


133 


89. Brindle/s Valve 


- 


- 


133 


90-92. Brindley's Patent Valve 


- 


- 


- i35» 136 


93. Berry's Patent Safety Non-return Valve 


137 


94, 95. Middleton's Patent Controlling 


Valve 


138 


96-98. Ram Platform Lift - 


- 


- 


- 146-149 


99. Intensifier 


- 


- 


160 


100, loi. Ellington's Lift 


to 


- 


164 


102. Multiple Chain Lift - 


- 


- 


168 


103, 104. Suspended Passenger Lift 


- 


- 


170 


105. Safety Gear - 


- 


- 


173 


106. Otis Safety Gear 


- 


- 


175 


107, 108. Rope and Chain Wheels 


- 


- 


178 


X09. Chain Pulleys 


- 


- 


183 


1 10, III. Hydraulic Jack 


- 


- 


- 189, 190 


1 12,1 1 2A. Young's Patent Drum Puller 


- 


193 


113. Wall Crane - 


- 


- 


194 


114, 115. Foundry Crane 


- 


- 


- i95» 197 


116. Travelling Lifting Ram 


- 


- 


198 


117. Shop Crane - 


- 


» 


199 


118. Direct Puller 


- 


- 


200 


119. Duckham's Weigher 


- 


- 


201 


120. Multiple Jigger 


- 


- 


204 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



XV 



Fig. 
121. 

122. 

123. 

124. 

125. 

126. 

127-I3I. 

132. 

133. 
134. 

135- 
136. 

137-139. 
140. 

141, 142. 

143- 

144, M5- 
146. 

147. 
148. 

149-152. 
153-161. 
162-165. 

166. 

167, 168. 

169- 1 7 1. 

172. 

174. 

175- 
176, 177. 

178. 
179-181. 

182. 



Warehouse Crane - - - 

Travelling Wharf Crane 

Dock Crane - - - - 

Movable Coaling Cranes 

Movable Gantry Cranes 

Movable Coaling Crane 

Accumulator- . . - 

Scott's Differential Machine 

Diagram illustrating Baling Pressure 

Hydraulic Press - - - 

Bars of Hydraulic Press 

Head of do. 

Baling Press - - - - 

Punching Bear - - . 

Forging Press - - - . 

Cylinders and Ram (in section) of Tweddell 

Punch - - - - 

Plate Shears - - - - 

Plate Bender 
Tube Drawing Bench 
Wheel Press - - - - 

Riveters . . - - 

Steam Hydraulic Forging Presses - 
Hand Pressure Pump 
Belt-driven Pumps - - - 

Plunger Pump . . _ 

Worthington Pumps 
Fly-wheel Pressure Pump - 
Vertical Cylinder Pump 
Fly-wheel Pump (Berry) 
Diagram illustrating Velocity of Turbine 
Girard Turbine . - - 

Pelton Wheel 
Hector Water Motor 
Axial-flow Turbine - - - 



PACK 


205 


207 


208 


facing' 210 


facing' 210 


facing 210 


- 213-220 


221 


228 


232 


233 


235 


- 238-241 


244 


- 245,247 
1 


1 

248 


- 249,250 


251 


252 


252 


- 254-257 


facing 266 


- 269-272 


273 


- 274,275 


- 276-278 


278 


279 


280 


286 


288 


289 


- 290, 291 


293 



xvi LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Fig. tav.r 

183. Thrust Bearing - - - - 294 

184-189. Diagrams illustrating Impulse Turbines - 296-302 

190-197. Do. do. Reaction Turbines - 306-318 

198-204. Regulations for Turbines - - - 325-331 

205. Overshot Water Wheel - - - 340 

206. Breast Water Wheel - - - 341 

207. Undershot Water Wheel - - - 342 
208-212. Diagrams illustrating Action of Hydraulic 

Motors ----- 346-350 
213-2x5. Brotherhood Engine - - - 35 ^ 352 

216, 217. Armstrong Engine - - - - 353, 354 

218, 219. Armstrong Capstan - - - - 355i 35^ 

220. Valve of Early Armstrong Engine - - 357 

221, 222. Rigg Engine - . - - 358, 360 

223. Hydraulic Dock at San Francisco - facing 362 

224-226. Machinery of Tower Bridge on the Thames 364, 366 

227. View of the Tower Bridge over the Thames facing 366 

228. Water-balance Cliff Railway, in section - 368 

229. Rail-gripping Brake for Cliff Railway - 369 

230. View of Cliff Railway at Lynton - f cuing 370 
231, 232. Glasgow Harbour Tunnel Lifts - - 372, 374 

233. 4,000-ton Hydraulic Forging Press (Cam- 

melPs Works, Sheffield) - - facing 374 

234. River Bank of Niagara Falls Power Instal- 

lation - - - - facing 376 

235. Interior of Niagara Falls Power-house fcunng 378 

236. Bird's-eye View of Hydraulic Power Instal- 

lation at Niagara Falls - - fctcing 380 



PART L^HYDRAULICS. 



A 



HYDRAULIC POWER 
ENGINEERING. 



-•-•- 



CHAPTER V 
PRINCIPLES OF HYDRAULICS. 

General Properties of Water.— There are certain 
properties of water which render it particularly suitable to 
the requirements of the hydraulic power engineer. There are 
three distinct methods of using water for transmitting power. 
By the first method the water is placed at some height above 
a given datum level, and by its descent is caused to turn a 
water-wheel In this case the water acts by its large weight 
and high viscosity; and if either of these two properties 
were wanting, the water would be of small use for this 
method. By the second method the water is subjected to 
great pressure, and is applied to a piston moving in a cylin- 
der. In this case the water acts by its high viscosity and 
power to withstand a pressure without serious loss by internal 
friction. 

The difference between these two methods is more appa- 
rent when it is pointed out that whereas in the first case the 
entire absence of weight would mean absolute inefficiency to 
perform work, in the second case the weight of the water 



4 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

becomes a serious obstacle to its use, and requires special 
care to be taken in designing certain hydraulic machinery to 
prevent mishaps. 

Although these two methods appear to be antagonistic, 
there is the third method requiring the water to have all the 
properties above enumerated. The water is caused to act 
by its kinetic energy, and is first subjected to a greater or 
less pressure, and thus caused to acquire a velocity. This 
velocity is then abstracted in passing through the machine, 
and the corresponding energy is thus applied to perform 
work. This is the principle on which turbines are 
designed. 

If water is allowed to flow unconfined it will not come to 
rest until its upper surface corresponds to a horizontal 
plane such as the upper surface of a canal at rest. A 
horizontal surface is not a flat plane, but is curved to the 
radius of the earth, and may be defined as that surface in 
which the force of gravity is the same at all points. 

From the above definition it is apparent that the weight 
of any body varies according as it is placed nearer to or 
further above the level of the sea. Thus a water-wheel 
placed on a mountain, and consuming say 20 cubic feet of 
water per second, will not be doing the same number of 
horse-powers as if it were placed at the sea-level, and con- 
suming the same quantity of water. If, however, the power 
is expended in lifting, as, for instance, in connection with 
a vertical mine shaft, this difference of weight is of no im- 
portance, as the weights to be lifted have been reduced in a 
like proportion. When the power is expended in crushing 
ore, or overcoming certain frictional resistances, the wheel 
will require more water on the mountain than at sea-level to 
overcome the same resistance. 

The density of water {i.e,, its weight compared to that of 
some body bulk for bulk) is varied either by a change of 
temperature or by a change of pressure. In determining 
specific gravities of bodies distilled water at a temperature 



PRINCIPLES OF HYDRAULICS. 5 

of 62* F. and barometric pressure of 30 inches of mercury 
is taken as the standard, and called unity. The weight of 
the body to be compared is observed and compared bulk 
for bulk to this standard. Thus wrought iron has a specific 
gravity of 7.8, or i cubic inch of wrought iron weighs the 
same as 7.8 cubic inches of distilled water, each taken at the 
standard temperature and pressure. 

The standard weight of water has been fixed by the 
Board of Trade at 62.2786 lbs. per cubic foot at 62* F. 
and 30 inches barometric pressure. The greatest density of 
water as affected by change of temperature is found to cor- 
respond to 39.3° F., and at this temperature i cubic foot 
weighs 62.425 lbs. 

As regards change of density by alteration of pressure, 
one atmosphere (14.7 lbs.) of additional pressure is found 
to cause a reduction of volume of .00005, ^"^ consequent 
increase of weight of .000050002. If this reduction of 
volume be assumed to increase directly as the pressure 
applied, the reductions corresponding to the usually employed 
hydraulic pressures are : — 

750 lbs. (i ton) per sq. in., .00254= 4.386 in. j>er cub. ft. 
i,5co „ (f ton) „ .00508= 8.772 

2,240 „ (I ton) „ .00761 = 13.158 

4,480 ,, (2 tons) ,, .01522 = 26.316 

6,720 „ (3 tons) „ .02283 = 39.474 



»» 



Wrought iron subjected to a pressure of i ton per square 
inch is compressed to the extent of .000077 of its length, 
hence water is about three times as elastic as iron. 

The water employed by the hydraulic engineer is either 
river water or town service water, and in either case foreign 
substances are carried in solution, thereby altering the 
density. In unfiltered water small particles of matter are 
carried in suspension, and as these particles have almost 
without exception a greater density than the water, a further 
increase of density is encountered. 



6 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

The following are the average weights per cubic foot of 
different samples : — 

River water - - - 62.5 lbs. = 1,000 oz. 
Salt water - 64.0 „ 

Dead Sea - - 73.0 „ 

At a temperature of 32** F., and barometric pressure of 
30 inches, water passes into the solid form called ice, and 
owing to the great change in viscosity is useless in this 
form for the purposes of the hydraulic engineer. This 
change of condition from the liquid to the solid is accom- 
panied by a change of volume and consequent change of 
density. The weight of i cubic foot of ice is 57.5 lbs. 

An increase of pressure delays solidification, as also does 
absolute rest of the particles of water ; but as reduction of 
pressure to atmosphere and agitation both bring about rapid 
solidification, this property of retarded solidification is of no 
moment, as in all hydraulic appliances the water is subject 
to both atmospheric pressure and agitation during the per- 
formance of its function. 

Hydrostatics. — ^l^he name hydrostatics is given to the 
study of the principles governing the conditions of equili- 
brium of a column or quantity of water. 

PascaPs Principle. — Pascal discovered that if water be 
enclosed in a vessel and a pressure applied, as for instance 
by pressing on a piston in a cylinder attached to the vessel, 
that the pressure is transmitted equally in all directions. 
Thus if small frictionless pistons working in cylinders be 
attached to the vessel in any position or direction, and each 
having the same area, say i square inch, then if any one 
of these be pushed inwards with a force of say 10 lbs., each 
of the others must have the same force of 10 lbs. applied to 
it to prevent it moving outwards. 

If, now, two of these small pistons be connected or 
merged into one, consequently having an area of double 



PRINCIPLES OF HYDRAULICS. 7 

the original or 2 inches instead of i, the pressure required 
is that of two of the original pistons or 20 lbs. In the same 
way, if two pistons be applied to the vessel, one having an 
area one hundred times that of the other, then the pressure 
required to prevent motion of the large piston will be one 
hundred times that of the small piston, and vice versd. If 
motion is allowed to take place, the small piston will move 
through a distance one hundred times that of the large 
piston, or in other words the velocity of the small piston 
will be one hundred times that of the large piston ; thust 
what is gained in force is lost in velocity. 

This principle was so well understood by Pascal at the 
time of his discovery (a.d. 1664) that we cannot improve 
upon his own clear wording. 'Mf a vessel full of water, 
closed on all sides, has two openings, the one a hundred 
times as large as the other, and if each be supplied with a 
piston which fits exactly, a man pushing the small piston 
will exert a force which will equilibrate that of a hundred 
men pushing the piston which is a hundred times as large, 
and will overcome that of ninety-nine. And whatever 
may be the proportion of these openings, if the forces 
applied to the pistons are to each other as the openings, they 
will be in equilibrium. Whence it appears that a vessel full 
of water is a new principle of mechanics, and a new machine 
for the multiplication of force to any required degree, since 
one man will by this means be able to raise any given 
weight. It is, besides, worthy of admiration that in this new 
machine we find that constant rule which is met with in all 
the old ones, such as the lever, wheel and axle, screw, etc., 
which is that the distance is increased in proportion to the 
force; for it is evident that as one of these openings is a hun- 
dred times as large as the other, if the man who pushes the 
small piston drives it forward i inch, he will drive the large 
piston backward only one hundredth part of that length." 

Principk of Surfaces of Equal Pressure. — Whereas the 
above principle is entirely independent of the action of 



8 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

gravity, the one about to be discussed is a direct conse- 
quence of gravity. This principle states that in any hori- 
zontal layer of a liquid at rest the pressure is the same at all 
points, and the intensity of that pressure is directly propor- 
tional to the depth of immersion. 

The demonstration of this principle is very easy, as we 
may imagine a small cube of some substance having the 
same weight as water immersed at any depth, then, if this 
cube is to remain stationary in a horizontal direction, the 
forces acting upon its opposite faces must be equal. The 
intensity of the pressure corresponding to any depth is best 
ascertained by direct experiment. Pascal performed this ex- 
periment with an apparatus known as PascaFs vases. He 
used glass vases having detachable bases formed of sheet 
metal, which were placed in contact with the smooth edges 
of the vases, thus forming a water-tight joint. The vase was 
fixed vertically in mid-air, and the base placed in position. 
A fine string attached to the centre of the base passed 
upwards and over a pulley, and had a weight attached to its 
other end. The base was thus pulled upwards with a known 
force. On carefully admitting water to the vase, the level 
of the water rose until its weight produced a sufficient down- 
ward pressure to overbalance the weight, and so allow the 
escape of the water through the bottom of the vase. By 
noting the height of the water at the time of overbalancing, 
it was found that the balance weight has the same weight as 
a column of water having a horizontal area equal to the 
opening in the bottom of the vase, and a height repre- 
sented by the height to which the water rose in the vase. 

Various shapes of vases were tried, some expanding from 
the base, and others contracting. The result was always the 
same, and was entirely independent of the total weight of 
water in the vase, but directly dependent upon the height to 
which the water rose. Thus we may have a hole of say 
3 inches diameter, containing a diaphragm which is pressed 
upwards with a sufficient force to balance a column of water 



PRINCIPLES OF HYDRAULICS. 



30 feet high, and the pressure required is the same, whether 
the hole be in the bottom of a lake or a tube which contracts 
until its diameter is only i inch or less. 

Fig. I illustrates this principle. Suppose the small plugs 
or pistons shown in the tube to be of negligible weight and 
frictionless, then the pressure in pounds to be exerted on each 
plug to prevent motion is found by measuring the area of 



1"T." »- 




_Y.— 



Fig. I. 

the plug in inches and multiplying by the corresponding 
height h in inches, as shown in the figure, and by the weight 
of I cubic inch of water. The tubes are all shown of 
parallel bore, but it matters nothing what shape of tube is 
used, nor how many contortions it makes before arriving at 
the plug. 

Taking the weight of water as 62.5 lbs. per cubic foot, or 



lO 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



.434 lb. per 12 cubic inches, we arrive at the following 
values, in which h represents the height or head in feet : — 

Pressure per sq. foot - - - =/= 62.5 A. 

„ „ inch - - - =/ = .434 ^• 

Height due to pressure/ per sq. foot = A = .016/. 

„ „ per sq. inch = ^ = 2. 304 /. 

By the above principle we are also enabled to ascertain 
the pressure acting against a vertical plane due to water 
at rest reaching any height up that plane or to some 



J 




^-^.- 



U f >p? 



I 

- 1 

h 



/ 




I t 

I / 



(C-^-H 



r 



4 -/» 



^ 




Fig 2. 



height above it. As the pressure is directly proportional 
in any horizontal plane to the height of water above 
that plane, we may calculate the pressure corresponding 
to the bottom edge of the vertical plane, and represent 
this pressure by the length of a line p drawn at right 
angles to the plane as shown in Fig. 2. By now draw- 
ing a sloping line joining the extremity of this line to the 
point o, where the surface of the water meets the vertical 
plane, and measuring the horizontal lengths joining the 
plane to the sloping line, we have the pressures correspond- 



PRINCIPLES OF HYDRAULICS. tl 

ing to any levels. By adding up these pressures ascertained 
for narrow horizontal strips the total pressure on the plane 
is ohtained. This is the same as finding the immersed area 
of the plane, say in square feet, and muhiplying by the 
pressure Pj ascertained for i square foot at a depth corre- 
sponding to the depth of immersion of the centre of gravity 
of the immersed area of the plane — 

Area x P, = total pressure. 
PrindpU of Arckimtdes. — About the year 150 B.C. Archi- 




FiE- 3- 



medes made the discovery that if bodies are immersed in 
water they lose in weight, and the amount of that loss is re- 
presented by the weight of the water displaced. Thus any 
body having i cubic foot capacity when immersed in dis- 
tilled water loses weight to the extent of 62.15 lbs. When 
once the body has passed below the surface of the water, the 
depth to which it is afterwards immersed makes no difference 
to the truth of the principle, for though by the principle of 
surfaces of equal pressure there is an increasing upward 
pressure applied to the Iwdy by the water as its immersion 



12 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

becomes greater, there is also a correspondingly increasing 
downward pressure. 

Fig. 3 is a practical illustration of this principle in a form 
constantly met with in hydraulic machinery. Three bodies, 
A, B, c, are shown partly immersed in water, a is a solid 
cylinder of iron, having the weight Wj when weighed in air. 
When immersed, as shown, there is an upward pressure Pj 
due to the weight of water displaced, so that if a cord were 
attached to the iron cylinder a to prevent it sinking, the 
tension in the cord would be Wj - Pj. The body b represents 
a hollow cylinder of iron which is immersed to such a 
depth that it floats. In this case the weight Wg acting 
downwards is balanced by the pressure Pj, due to the water 
displaced acting upwards ; consequently Wg - Pg = O. c re- 
presents a hollow iron cylinder immersed to a depth such 
that the upward pressure Pg, due to the water displaced, is 
greater than the weight Wg of the cylinder. In this case 
Wg - Pg = - P^, where P4 represents the magnitude of a 
downward pressure necessary to prevent the cylinder rising 
to such a height that Wg = Pg at which the cylinder would 
float as in the case of b. 

A point worthy of consideration in connection with 
floating bodies is whether the body is in a state of stable 
or unstable equilibrium. In order to find whether the 
equilibrium is stable or otherwise, it is necessary to find 
the centre of gravity G of the floating body and the centre 
of buoyancy or centre of gravity O of the water displaced. 
If G is above O as shown in the figure the equilibrium is 
unstable, whereas if G is below O the equilibrium is stable. 
In the case shown at a the equilibrium is always stable, 
while in the case shown at c the equilibrium is always 
unstable. 

The Barometric Column, — The phenomenon of the 
barometric column was first investigated by Galileo, who 
found that the greatest height to which water will stand in 
a tube from which the air had been exhausted is about 34 



PRINCIPLES OF HYDRAULICS. 1 3 

feet. Torricelli made further experiments and also used 
mercury. He pointed out that for a tube of any area the 
height to which a liquid stands is such that the weight of 
liquid column in the tube is always the same, no matter 
what liquid is employed, and that this weight represents 
the pressure of the atmosphere on the area of the tube. 
The average pressure of the atmosphere ascertained by this 
method is 14.7 lbs. per square inch. 

The heights to which water will stand in a closed tube 
for various altitudes and atmospheric pressures are : — 

34 feet corresponding to 14.7 lbs. = pressure at sea-level. 
31.7 „ „ 13.7 „ = „ 1,880 feet. 

30-6 >» »» 13-2 »» = »t 2,870 „ 

29.5 » » 12.7 „ = „ 3,900 „ 

Theoretical Hydraulics.— The first point to be con- 
sidered under this head is the principle of continuity of 
flow. If water is flowing through a pipe with any velocity, 
and the flow is to be continuous, the same quantity Q of 
water must pass any points we may choose in the tube in 
the same space of time. Ifv represents the velocity of flow, 
and A the cross sectional area of the tube, the quantity Q 
may be represented as Axv, and this is true for all points 
in the tube. Hence whenever there is continuity of flow 
we have the equation — 

Q = Az/. 

Instead of a tube of uniform cross section, a tube of 
varying cross section may be used, and consequently there 
will be a change of velocity. A diminution of area causes 
an increase of velocity and vice versa, 

Q = Az/ = A^v^ = A2«'2> etc. 

Velocity due to Head, — The phenomenon of water flowing 
when subjected to a head or pressure has been made use 
of from the earliest times, but the law governing this velocity 
was investigated by Torricelli in a.d. 1644. Torricelli 
announced the law. that, when water is subjected to a 



14 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

head or pressure and allowed to flow unrestrained, the 
velocity of the water is the same that a body would acquire 
in falling through a height corresponding to the head of 
water producing the flow. If the velocity be represented 
by V feet per second and the height or head of water by A 
feet, then— 

7/= J2gk, ^=32.2. 

In ascertaining the velocity of flow from an orifice in a 
vertical plane it is usual to take the height A as measured 
from the centre of gravity of the plane area of the opening. 
This method is not strictly correct, but for a head of three 
times the depth of the opening the error amounts to only 
I per cent., and for greater heads the error is less. 

If the velocity is known and it is required to find the 
head producing the velocity, the above equation may be 
written — 

A = ^ 

The head A is often referred to as the pressure head, and 
the quantity — as the velocity head. 

Although the above equation is all that is required in 
reference to velocity of outflow from orifices, it does not 
state the conditions existing within the vessel containing the 
water. If the vessel 'is of larger cross sectional area than 
the orifice, then the velocity in it will be less than the velocity 
of outflow, while if at any part the vessel is contracted so 
as to have a cross sectional area less than the orifice, the 
velocity of that part becomes greater even than the velocity 
due to the head. This latter condition was observed by 
Bernoulli in a.d. 1738. Venturi made further experiments 
in A.D. 1 791, and observed that an increase of velocity was 
accompanied by a decrease of pressure in the tube or vessel 
below the pressure of the atmosphere. There is of course 
a limit to this increase of velocity, that limit being reached 



PRINCIPLES OF HYDRAULICS. 1 5 

when the pressure in the tube becomes zero, or when a 
complete vacuum prevails. 

Experiments conducted on tubes having a gradually 
changing cross sectional area show that where the tube is 
large, and the velocity of flow in consequence small, the 
pressure in the tube rises, until if the tube becomes so large 
that the velocity of flow is almost nil, the pressure approaches 
very nearly to that of the head producing the flow through 
the pipe. On the other hand, when the area of the tube 
contracts, the pressure falls. If these pressures and the 
corresponding velocities are noted, it is found that the 
amount by which the pressure falls below that due to the 
head is the amount of pressure head necessary to produce 
the velocity occurring in the tube. Written as an equation — 

As this is true for any part of the tube, the equation may 
be written — 

^=A +!i. = A2+i2., etc., 

which is known as the hydrodynamic equation. 

The Energy of Water, — There are three ways of expressing 
the enfergy of a quantity of water. In the first place, the 
water may be stored at a height above the level at which 
it is to be employed to perform work, the energy existing 
in the potential form. In the same way that, if a heavy 
body be sustained at some height, its potential energy may 
be expressed in foot-pounds by multiplying the weight of 
the body in pounds by the height in feet, so the potential 
energy of water may be expressed 

W^ = potential ertergy.' 

Instead of the head being given, it is often stated that the 
water is at a certain pressure per square inch. In this case 
the energy per pound may be expressed by multiplying the 



l6 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

pressure per square inch by the length in feet of a column 
of water weighing i lb., and having a cross sectional area of 
I inch. Suppose a cylinder of i square inch area to contain 
a piston which is driven forward by water under a pressure 
p pounds, when the piston has moved forward 2.304 feet, 
I lb. of water has passed into the cylinder, and the work 
done is represented by / x 2.304 foot-pounds. Thus the 
pressure energy of i lb. of water is / x 2.304 foot-pounds 
or for any weight of water — 

W x/ X 2.304 = pressure energy. 

It has already been pointed out that the height A due 
to a pressure / pounds per square inch is 2.304^ feet. 
Therefore — 

WA = W x/ X 2.304. 
Potential = Pressure 
energy. energy. 

The third expression for the energy of water is used in 
the case of flowing water. It is well known in connection 
with falling bodies that the energy stored in the body in the 
kinetic form, due to the body having fallen freely from some 
known height, is ascertainable from the velocity acquired by 
the body in falling, and is represented by the equation — 

W — = kinetic energy. 

It has already been stated that the velocity acquired by 
water under a head A is the same as that of a body falling 
freely through the distance A, hence the kinetic energy of 
a weight of water W is ascertained from its velocity by the 
above equation. By the principle of the conservation of 
energy, the potential energy must equal the kinetic energy, 
or — 

2^ 
which is easily proved since v^ = 2gA, as already pointed out 
under Velocity due to Head, 



PRINCIPLES OF HYDRAULICS. 



17 



If an inspection be now made of the hydrodynamic 
equation, we see that by multiplying each side by W the 
equation becomes — 



rV 



2 



Fromr the equation in this form it is noticed that the 




Fig. 4. 

energy may occur partly as potential energy and partly as 
kinetic energy, or partly as pressure energy and partly as 
kinetic energy, as W^j may be written W/^ x 2.304. It is 
very important that this fact should be grasped at this stage, 
as there are very few hydraulic machines in which the 
energy does not occur in this form while the machine is 
at work. 

The relation existing between the different forms in which 

B 



1 8 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

the energy may occur can be rendered more clear by an 
examination of the working of the hydraulic pump, com- 
monly known as the hydraulic ram, illustrated in Fig. 4. 
The object of the apparatus is to pump water to a consider- 
able height by utilising the potential energy of a supply of 
water placed at a smaller height. At the joint a connection 
is made to a length of pipe, usually 10 to 20 feet, leading 
to the supply of water to be utilised. Connection is made 
at G to the receiving tank to which the water is to be 
pumped, so that the air contained in the bell f is com- 
pressed to a pressure corresponding to the head of water 
connected to G. When the valve b is shut the water in the 
pipe A is stationary. The weights c applied to the valve b 
are sufficient to overcome the pressure in the pipe a and 
thus cause the opening of the valve. The water now begins 
to acquire a velocity and escape through the valve b, thus 
converting the whole or part of its potential energy into 
kinetic energy. As the water escapes through the valve b 
it meets the guide d and is deflected, causing an upward 
pressure on the valve spindle sufficient to overcome the 
weight c and close the valve. The water in the pipe a, 
having a velocity and corresponding kinetic energy, is now 
entrapped in the pipe, and as this energy cannot be dis- 
sipated and cannot continue wholly in its present form, 
as the velocity of the water has been checked, it is 
evident there must be a conversion of energy to the 
pressure form. 

This conversion causes a heavy pressure to be generated 
in the pipe a, and when this pressure has risen above the 
pressure in the chamber f the ball valve £ will be raised, 
and water will flow from a to f as long as the pressure is 
maintained in the pipe a greater than the pressure in f. 
During the entry of the water from a to f the pressure in 
F is increased owing to the compression of the air. This 
increase of pressure overcomes the pressure acting at G, 
and there is a consequent flow through g to the elevated 



PRINCIPLES OF HYDRAULICS. 1 9 

tank. On the closing of the valve E the pressure in a 
again returns to that due to the smaller head, and the valve 
B is free to be operated by the weights c causing a repeti- 
tion of the operation. Thus we have converted potential 
energy to kinetic, kinetic to pressure, and pressure to 
potential energy. 

The Reaction of Flowing Water. — When water is flowing 
from an orifice with a velocity due to some head of water, 
we have noticed that the velocity v is the same that would 
be acquired if each particle started from the upper surface 
of the water and fell freely under the influence of gravity. 
It is possible to calculate the magnitude of a force F which, 
acting for one second on the weight W of water flowing per 
second, would cause it to acquire the velocity v, AsF acts 
for one second the distance through which it acts is ^v, and 
the equation may be written — 

2 2g 

g 
The expression W- will be at once recognised as the usual 

formula for momentum. As W may be written wav^ in 
which w is the unit weight of water and a the area of the 
orifice, the formula becomes — 

F = = 2wa.—' 

g ^g 

in which — may be substituted by ^ so that — 

F = 2Wah, 

As wah represents the weight of the column of water 
producing the velocity, the force F is equal to twice the 
weight of the column. 

Several experiments have been performed to demonstrate 



20 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

the above fact. In one form the jet of water is allowed to 
meet a plane, when the plane is urged away from the jet 
with the force F as above calculated. In another form the 
plane is placed against another orifice subjected to a head 
of twice that producing the jet, when it is seen that the jet 
retains the plane in position, thus keeping back the greater 
pressure by the reaction force F. 



CHAPTER II. 

THE OBSERVED FLOW OF WATER. 

The remarks upon the flow of water in the last chapter had 
reference to the theoretical velocities, and no allowance was 
made for loss by friction and other causes. These losses must 
now be investigated before the formulae there given can be 
successfully applied to the design of hydraulic machinery. 








Fig. 5. 

The attempt to ascertain the exact quantity of water flow- 
ing through an orifice has been the cause of a large number 
of experiments being performed. Fig. 5 shows the orifice 
as usually arranged, the edges being chamfered off so as to 
produce a sharp line in contact with the water. The orifice 
may be cut in a piece of hardwood or in thin metal. As 
these orifices are largely employed in accurately measuring 



22 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



the water flowing from a hydraulic machine under trial, and 
for other similar purposes, it is essential that some standard 
should be fixed in order that the exact quantity of water 
flowing per second may be computed from tables compiled 
from well-authenticated experiments. It is found that if the 
inner edge of the oriflce is rounded off, the flow is subject to 
alteration for a comparatively small difference of form, hence 
the sharp edge is always employed. 

In using an oriflce the vessel should be considerably 
larger than the oriflce, in order that the velocity of approach 
may be small compared to the velocity of discharge. For the 
same reason the head should not be too small. As the water 
issues from the oriflce a contraction takes place, known as the 
contracted vein, so that the effective area of the oriflce is less 
than the measured area. The values of the coefficient of con- 
traction have been assigned by different authorities as ranging 
between .71 and .60, generally .63, of the measured area. 

The velocity of flow at the contracted area a, Fig. 5, should 
be the velocity due to the head, but owing to frictional losses 
it falls to values of .99 to .97 of the theoretic value. These 
values are called the coefficients of velocity. 

The most important point to settle is the coefficient of 
discharge ; the quantity of water actually flowing can then 
be ascertained by multiplying the quantity due to the area 
of the oriflce and the theoretic velocity by this coefficient — 

Values of c (from Hamilton Smith's Tables). 
Circular Orifices {Vertical), 



\ 

1 

1 

1 Head in 
Feet. 

1 


Diameter of Orifice in Feet 


■ 


.02 


.04 


.07 


.10 


.20 
.600 

•597 
.592 


.60 


I.O 


1 

I 

1 10 

100 


.644 
.611 

•593 


.623 
.603 
.592 


.612 

.599 
.592 


.60S 
.598 
.592 


•595 
.596 
.592 


.591 

.595 
.592 



THE OBSERVED FLOW OF WATER. 



23 



Head in 
Feet. 



I 

10 

100 



Square Orifices {Vertical), 



.02 



.648 
.616 

•599 



Side of Square in Feet. 



.04 



.628 
.608 

■598 



.07 



.618 
.605 
.598 



.10 



.20 



.613 .605 
.604 .603 
.598 .598 



.60 



.601 
.602 

.598 



I.O 



•599 
.601 

.598 



Rectangular Orifices^ i 


foot wide ( Vertical), 


1 

1 
i 

' HcA<l in 


Depth of Orifice in Feet. 


ncau m 
FceL 


.125 


•25 


.50 


•75 


1.0 


1.5 


2.0 


I 
10 


.632 
.606 


.632 
.603 


.618 
.601 


.612 
.601 


.606 
.601 


.626 
.601 


• • • 

.602 



It must not be supposed, because there is a great differ- 
ence between the discharge from an orifice and that calculated 
from the area of the orifice, that there is a corresponding 
loss of energy. The loss of energy is given by the coefficient 
of velocity, and as the energy is proportional to the square 
of the velocity, assuming the coefficient of velocity to be .98, 

the energy is -i (.982^)2 = .962/2 xhis is an efficiency of 

^g ^g 

96 per cent, or a loss of 4 per cent. 

The quantity of water flowing may also be measured by 
means of a weir. Fig. 6 shows a weir fixed in a stream for 
the purpose of measuring the supply of water. There are 
two kinds of weir usually employed. One consists of a rec- 
tangular notch considerably narrower than the stream, so 
that the water may approach it freely in all directions. In 
the second form the weir is suppressed at the ends by boards 



24 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



such as A, so that the water flows in parallel lines so far as 
the lateral directions are concerned, but free approach is 
permitted from below. In taking the height of water above 
the weir the operation should be conducted some distance 
back from the weir, as the upper surface of the water slopes 
in a direction towards the weir. 

The method of gauging with a rod, as shown, is only suited 
for large heads and for rough estimates. The best method 




Fig. 6. 

of measuring the head is with the hook gauge, invented by 
Boyden in a.d. 1840, which consists of a rod having a scale 
marked accurately and reading by the aid of a vernier to ten- 
thousandths of a foot. The bottom end of the rod is fitted 
with an upturned point, which is adjusted to the level of the 
water when the bottom edge of the weir has been reached 
but no flow is taking place. The vernier is now set to zero, 
and when the water has reached the maximum height above 
the weir the rod is carefully raised by means of a worm-wheeA 



THE OBSERVED FLOW OF WATER. 



25 



and thumbscrew until the point just touches the surface. A 
second reading is now taken, and the height of the water is 
at once ascertained. The point can be accurately set to the 
level of the water, as if lifted too high a pimple is formed on 
the-surface of the water due to capillary attraction. 

The flow taking place over weirs may be calculated from 
the equation — 

9 = ^.- sfig.bH , 

in which b represents the length of the weir in feet, and H 
the height measured by the hook gauge Numerous experi- 
ments have been performed to ascertain the value of the 
coefficient of discharge c. 



Values of c (from Hamilton Smith's Tables). 









Length b in Feet. 






ITaa^ m 












Feet, 
















.66 


1.0 


2.0 3.0 


5.0 


10 


19 


.1 


.632 


•639 


.646 


.652 


.653 


.655 


.656 


.2 


.611 


.61S 


.626 


.630 


.631 


.633 


.634 


• 3 


.601 


.608 


.616 


.619 


.621 


.624 


.625 


•4 


.595 


.601 


.609 


.013 


.615 


.618 


.620 


.6 


.587 


.593 


.601 


.605 


.608 


.613 


.615 


.8 


■ • ■ 


• • ■ 


•595 


.600 


.604 


.611 


.613 


I.O 


■ ■ • 


• • • 


.590 


.595 


.601 


.608 


.611 


1.4 


■ • ■ 


• • • 


.580 .587 

1 


•594 


.602 


.609 



If there is a noticeable velocity of approach where the 
hook gauge is placed, the above formula must be modified 
as follows : — 

in which h represents the head producing the observed 
velocity of approach, c having the same values as before. 
In selecting c the new head H + 1.4^ must be used. 



26 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



When the weir is suppressed by the boards a the same 
equation applies as for the free weir if there is no velocity 
of approach, but different values of c must be used — 

3 
Values of c (from Hamilton Smith's Tables). 



Head in 
Fe«t. 


Length b in Feet. 

1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


7 


10 


19 


.1 
.2 

3 

.4 

.6 

.8 

1.0 

1.4 


• • • 

.645 
.639 
.636 
.638 

.643 
.648 

• ■ • 


... 
.642 
.636 

.633 
.634 

.637 
.641 

• • • 


• • • 

.641 

.633 
.630 

.630 

.633 
.637 
.644 


.638 
.631 
.628 
.627 
.629 

.633 
.640 


.658 

.637 
.629 

.625 

.623 

.625 

.628 

•634 


.658 

.637 
.628 

.623 

.620 

.621 

.624 

.629 


.657 

.635 
.626 

.621 

.618 

.618 

.619 

.622 



When there is a perceptible velocity of approach the 
equation becomes — 

q^c- J^.b{R + i.33>4)V 

and c must be found from the table corresponding to the 
head H+ i.33>4. 

The flow from a short tube, usually about three diameters 
in length, called the standard tube, is very instructive, and 
is of practical interest to the hydraulic engineer. This tube, 
Fig. 7, is arranged in the side or bottom of a vessel, and has 
a perfectly sharp inner edge, as in the case of the orifice. It 
is found by experiment that the discharge from a short tube 
is greater than from the ori6ce of similar diameter, but the 
velocity of outflow is considerably less. As the water com- 
pletely fills the tube where it is discharged, the coefiicients of 



THE OBSERVED FLOW OF WATER. 



27 



velocity and discharge are always equal. The values of 
these coefficients vary from .83 to .80, decreasing for larger 
heads. 

If the tube be made of glass or other transparent material, 
it is noticed that there is a contracted vein occurring within 
the tube. The tube is very inefficient owing to the low 
value of the coefficient of velocity, and the energy of the 
issuing stream may be found as in the case of the orifice, and 



\ 

X 
X 



!*M*y^'^«""*^"**^'*m'"'^**'"** 




Fig. 7. 



is represented by —{,S2vy = (.672/)^ — . This is an efficiency 

of 67 per cent., or a loss of 33 per cent. 

The low efficiency of the standard tube has caused experi- 
ments to be made with coned tubes, with the result that 
much higher velocities have been obtained. The cone is 
described by the angle which one of its sides produced would 
make with the centre line ; thus a cone of 10** angle has a 
total convergence of 20°. Experiments on these cones show 



28 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

that as the angle is increased from o" the coefficient of dis- 
charge increases from about .82 to .946, corresponding to an 
angle of i3*'-24', when it again decreases. The coefficient 
of velocity, however, continues to increase until for an angle 
of 48*'-5o' it has a value of .984. This continued increase 
appears to suggest that the highest coefficient is obtained 
with a cone having the form of the contracted vein due to 
the velocity corresponding to the head of water available. 

There are two arrangements of supply pipes which con- 
cern the hydraulic power engineer ; first, where it is desired 
to conduct the water from an elevated reservoir to work a 
turbine, and secondly, where high-pressure water is dis- 
charged into a pipe to be consumed in working hydraulic 




■-'^ ^ "^ 4^ 




1 






Figs. 8 and 9. 



machines placed in various positions. In the first case the 
same quantity of water flows from end to end of the pipe, 
whereas in the second, the quantity is reduced by being 
abstracted by branch pipes leading to the machines. In all 
cases it is essential that there should be as small loss as 
commercial circumstances will permit. The losses occurring 
are caused by eddy currents due to the sudden change of 
section of the pipe, or to bends, and by friction of the water 
against the sides of the pipe. 

The losses due to change of section may be explained 
with reference to Figs. 8 and 9. If the section is reduced 
suddenly the conditions of the standard tube obtain with 
the consequent loss of efficiency. This evil may be largely 



THE OBSERVED FLOW OF WATER. 



29 



remedied by substituting a cone and keeping the velocity in 
the pipe low. When a sudden enlargement occurs the loss 
is caused by the water whirling round, and if f be the greater 
velocity, and v^ the reduced velocity, the loss of head may 
amount to — 

This loss may, however, be largely prevented by the use 
of a cone. 

The friction of water in a pipe is found to vary directly 
as the square of velocity of flow, and the length of the pipe, 
and inversely as the diameter of the pipe, also directly as a 
coefficient which is reduced for an increase of velocity — 

all the dimensions being in feet. 

Values of^^ for Smooth Iron Pipes. 



Diameter d. 


Velocity v. 


Feet. 


1.0 


2.0 


3.0 


4.0 


6.0 


10.0 


•05 


.047 


.041 


.037 


.034 


.031 


.029 


.1 


.038 


.032 


.030 


.028 


.026 


.024 


•25 


.032 


.028 


.026 


.025 


.024 


.022 


.5 


.028 


.026 


.025 


.023 


.022 


.020 


•75 


.026 


.025 


.024 


.022 


.021 


.019 


I.O 


.025 


.024 


.023 


.022 


.020 


.018 


1-5 


.023 


.022 


.021 


.020 


.018 


.016 


2.0 


.021 


.020 


.019 


.017 


.016 


.014 


30 


.019 


.018 


.016 


.015 


.014 


.013 


4.0 


.017 


.016 


.015 


.013 


.012 


.011 


6.0 


•015 


.014 


.013 


.012 


.011 


• • • 



When the theoretic head in a parallel pipe has been 
diminished in accordance with the above formula, instead of 
having the same value for any part of the pipe, it is found 



30 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



to decrease in the direction of flow ; this decrease is known 
as the hydraulic gradient. 

In the previous chapter it was pointed out that the reaction 
force of flowing water is equal to the weight of twice the 
column producing the velocity of flow, and as this fact has 





Fig. lo. 

an important bearing on several branches of hydraulic design, 
it is worthy of further consideration. As an example, we 
may consider a pipe having a right angle bend in which 
the water is stationary, and the total pressure due to the 
head and pipe area = P. By referring to Fig. iq we see that 



THE OBSERVED FLOW OF WATER. 3 1 

there are two pressures P tending to force the pipes to part 
at the joints. If the water be now allowed to flow with the 
velocity due to the head producing P, these pressures P are 
at once changed to 2P by the reaction. To prevent the 
joints parting, a concrete block or other obstruction must 
be built in contact with the bend, and the force against this 
obstruction is the resultant aP^ of the forces 2P. 

The magnitude of the force aP^ may be found in the same 
way for any other bend in the pipe, either greater or less 
than a right angle. When the bend is 180*, the force aPj 
becomes 4P. 

If the velocity of flow does not represent the total head, 
the force 2P becomes — 

P0+2P, > 

in which Po is the total pressure due to the pressure head 
and pipe area, while P is the total pressure due to the 
velocity head and pipe area. The meaning of pressure head 
and velocity head have already been given. 

Instead of a pipe bend the water may be caused to flow 
against a curved vane or guide, when the pressures are 
identical with those above considered. 



PART IL— PRELIMINARY. 



CHAPTER III. 
HYDRAULIC PRESSURES. 

Before proceeding with an examination of the principles 
connected with hydraulic power in its application to 
machinery, it is desirable that the more general principles 
which govern the employment of the various members or 
parts when placed in combination in any one machine shall 
be understood, and the fitness of the respective parts for 
the duties required inquired into. 

In the description and illustration of what we may term 
the elements — that is, the component parts or details of 
machines — we shall be • led to introduce much information, 
which to the experienced hydraulic engineer or draughtsman 
will no doubt appear superfluous. The more experienced 
reader should, however, bear in mind that to many practical 
engineers the conditions and mode of working, the details 
of construction, the soundness or unsoundness of various 
arrangements, and even the general principles of action of 
hydraulic machinery, are a true terra incognita^ while to the 
younger engineers and draughtsmen the more fundamental 
portion of our description may not be the least valuable. 

We shall, then, first take up the consideration of the 
elements, the details of construction, of hydraulic machinery, 
commencing with the simplest parts, such as the valves and 
seatings, various types of packings (their friction and best 
method of construction), pipes, joints, glands, safety valves, 
stop valves — passing from the simplest screw-down valve 
to the more complicated types which command the whole 
action of a complex machine by the movement of a single 
lever, and may almost be considered machines ip them- 



36 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

selves — and the various other details, the correct design 
and construction of which are of importance as affecting 
the permanence, economy, or safety of the machine. 

For the proper consideration of the subject, it is absolutely 
necessary to divide hydraulic machinery operated by pres- 
sure energy into at least three classes, defined according to 
the intensity of the pressure by which they are operated. 
This is due to the extended range of pressure adopted in the 
working of different types of hydraulic machines. Thus, 
the author has designed hoists which work successfully and 
with fair economy with a water pressure of only 5 lbs. per 
square inch, and on the other hand plants for testing the 
internal steel tubes of modern ordnance to the intense 
pressure of 1,000 kilogrammes per square centimetre, or 
about 6^ tons per square inch, a pressure equivalent to that 
of a column of water nearly 6^ miles high. 

The contrast between steam and hydraulic machinery is 
in this respect very striking. Whereas in the case of 
hydraulic work we have a range of pressure of from say 
5 lbs. to 22,400 lbs. per square inch, necessitating consider- 
able modification in the details of construction and choice 
of material for the various parts, we have in the case of 
steam machinery a maximum practical range of pressure of 
from 7 lbs. per square inch to 300 lbs. per square inch only, 
and the small modification of construction and material of 
detail at the higher pressures is due more to the difference 
of temperature of the steam than to difference in its pressure ; 
a difference of temperature which, on the other hand, does 
not occur in the case of hydraulic machinery. 

We shall, then, divide hydraulic pressure machinery into 
three classes : — 

1. Low Pressure. — Comprising all machines intended to 
work with a pressure of less than 200 lbs. per square inch. 

2. Medium Pressure. — Comprising machines intended to 
work at a pressure of from 400 lbs. per square inch to 1,500 
lbs. per square inch. 



HYDRAULIC PRESSURES. 37 

3. High Pressure, — Comprising machines intended to 
work at pressures of from' i ton to 10 tons per square 
inch. 

The low-pressure class is largely used in the operation of 
hydraulic lifts for hotels, etc., steam or gas engines being 
fixed in the basement to supply the requisite pressure, either 
direct or by pumping into a tank on the roof of the building, 
at a sufficient height to furnish an adequate head for work- 
ing the lift. Hoists supplied with pressure from the water 
supply mains of the town also fall into this class, and are 
largely used. It is an excellent practice, in the case of large 
works and manufactories in which fire-mains are laid down 
and steam pumps fixed to supply them, to keep the pumps 
running as required throughout the day instead of standing 
idle, and utilise the pressure in the operation of hoists of 
this first class throughout the establishment. 

The medium-pressure class includes the Armstrong type. 
The pressure originally employed by the late Lord Arm- 
strong (who may be considered the foster-parent of the 
system of working an entire plant of lifting and hauling 
machinery by hydraulic pressure generated at some con- 
venient centre and distributed by mains) was 700 lbs. per 
square inch — a very suitable pressure for dock and station 
work and many descriptions of hydraulic machines, and 
adopted as a mean pressure by the hydraulic-power com- 
panies of London, Manchester, and Hull for their extensive 
plants for the distribution of power to consumers by mains 
laid beneath the public streets. 700 lbs. per square inch is, 
however, objectionably low, and even absohitely inadmissible 
for direct use in powerful hydraulic presses — generally in- 
volving the additional complication of an intensifier — and 
too high for simple application to direct-acting lifts when the 
height of lift is considerable. Medium pressures of from 
700 lbs. to 1,500 lbs. per square inch are usually employed 
in connection with hydraulic riveting plants of the Tweddell 
and other types. 



38 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

With reference to the third class, working at pressures of 
from I ton to lo tons per square inch, a higher pressure 
than 2 tons to 3 tons per square inch is not to be recom> 
mended for permanent machinery and plants. For small 
apparatus, such as punching bears for boiler and ship work, 
where portability is one of the most sought for qualities of 
the machine, a pressure of 4 tons per square inch may be 
adopted with fair success, but pressures exceeding 3 tons per 
square inch should never be employed unless the conditions 
of the case are in great measure compulsory. 

The reasons why pressures of say from 3 tons per square 
inch to 7 tons per square inch cannot be used with such 
practical success as lower ones do not arise so much from 
any difficulty in making joints, valves, or rams initially free 
from leakage, or in obtaining sufficient strength in the 
cylinders to resist the intense pressure ; but lie in the rapid 
wear of the ram packings, from causes which will become 
apparent when we consider the action of the various pack- 
ings available, as we propose to do in a subsequent chapter ; 
and also in the rapid deterioration of the valves and valve 
seats. At these high pressures, when once a current (how- 
ever infinitesimal) is established past the valve seat, either 
through the lodging of a minute particle of some hard sub- 
stance on the seat or other cause, the water cuts rapidly into 
the metal of the valve or valve seat, sometimes forming a 
straight groove, sometimes a curious crooked one. In a very 
short time a large plant may be rendered useless for a time 
from this cause. 

To comprehend the nature of this erosion of the hardest 
metals by a current of water, it is necessary to consider 
the enormous velocity at which water will pass through 
an aperture at these high pressures. The table below 
gives the velocity in feet per second, at pressures of 
from 700 lbs. to 10 tons per square inch, which the mole- 
cules of water will acquire if discharged into a vacuum 
through an approximately frictionless aperture. Velocities 



HYDRAULIC PRESSURES. 



39 



for intermediate pressures may be calculated from the for- 
mulae — 



Velocity in feet per second = 12,1 gV pressure in lbs, per sq« in., 
and velocity in feet ,, =577 Vpressure in tons per sq. in. 



Velocity in feet \ 
per second... / 



Pressure per \ 
sq. in / 



326 


472 


577 


707 


816 


912 


999 


1290 


1527 


lb 


s. 


1 


Tons. 

1 1 « 1 1 1 


700 


1500 


1 


li 


2 


2i 


3 


5 


7 



1824 



10 



Thus the velocity of the molecules of water and any small 
particles of solid matter they may carry with them is as high 
at a pressure of 10 tons per square inch as the muzzle 
velocity of a modern gunshot, and the effect of this bom- 
bardment of the valves and seats may be compared to the 
action of the well-known sand blast. Even at a pressure of 
only 2 tons per square inch the velocity will be seen to be 
816 feet per second, and will rapidly cause erosion or cutting 
if once a current is established. It is on this account advis- 
able with all high-pressure hydraulic work to pass the water 
through a rough filter before reaching the pumps, in order 
that it may be as free from all solid particles as possible. 

A pressure as high as 2 tons per square inch, however, 
may be successfully employed throughout a large establish- 
ment, and is indeed a very suitable pressure to adopt where 
capstan or other rotary engines are not needed, and the work 
required is mainly press work. We remember a well-known 
engineer asserting that it was impossible to work a large 
plant of hydraulic machinery with success at a pressure of 
4,000 lbs. per square inch. This is, however, quite a mis- 
take. The writer had under his personal observation for 
many years a large plant working at this pressure, and 
comprising forging presses, hoists, punching and shearing 
machines, boiler and girder riveters, and, in addition, the 
crane and hoist of a steelworks, and with perfect success. 



40 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

t 

It must, however, be admitted that to prevent failure careful 
attention is needed. Accumulator packings must be replaced 
at regular intervals, whether worn out or not, and all valves 
and seatings similarly examined at stated periods, and trued 
up or replaced if showing the least tendency to deterioration. 
If in addition ample pumping power and accumulators in 
duplicate be provided, a pressure of 2 tons per square inch 
can be adopted as confidently as a pressure of 700 lbs. per 
square inch, and has the advantage noted above of being 
much more suitable for heavy press work. 

Three tons per square inch may be considered as the 
standard pressure adopted in the Manchester packing houses ; 
many oil presses, and a considerable number of the large 
cotton-baling presses used in India, are also worked up to 
this pressure. In the case of such presses, however, an 
accumulator is rarely used for the maximum pressure, and 
pumps, valves, pipes, etc., are subjected to the extreme 
pressure only at the termination of the stroke of a press. 

In treating of the materials used in the construction of 
hydraulic work, we shall make our remarks very brief, limit- 
ing them to such features as are of special importance in 
connection with hydraulic machinery. The general pro- 
perties of such materials will be found so fully detailed in 
many works already in the hands of engineers, that it would 
be superfluous to recapitulate them here. 

Cast iron is the metal most largely employed by the 
hydraulic engineer. It has, however, a reputation for want 
of reliability, especially in the construction of cylinders for 
high pressures. This reputation has been too often earned, 
however, by failure from improper disposition of the material, 
inadequate dimensions, or improper treatment in the foundry. 
As instances of the former fault, we illustrate below two 
typical cases, examples of which may frequently be met with 
in practice, even in the work of reputable engineers, and 
such as we have known to result in failure in more than one 
instance. 



HYDXAULIC PRESSURES. 



41 



Figs. 1 1 and 1 2 represent a cross section through a cylinder 
(diameter = D), having a passage (diameter = d) cast on at 

I 




Fig. II. 

the side. Fig. 1 1 shows the faulty construction, and Fig. 1 2 
the correct construction. In Fig. 11 it will be seen the 
designer has determined the thickness T of the cylinder D 

1 




Fig. 12. 

in the ordinary way, and then clapped on the passage d 
without considering the effect of the addition on the stress 



42 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

on the metal between the cylinder and passage — that is 
at A. Thus, if P be the water pressure, the stress on the 
. D + rf^ 



metal at . 



2V 



< P, while at B it is only 



Hence if the metal at b be properly proportioned to with- 
stand the pressure P, the metal at a is decidedly too weak, 
and its thickness should have been T + f, as indicated in 
Fig. 12. 

Fig. 13 similarly illustrates a faulty and a correct method 
of making the inlet-pipe connection to the side of a high- 




fig- i-i- 



pressure cylinder, a is, of course, the correct construction, 
and B the faulty one. At b a large hole for the reception 
of the inlet nipple has been drilled and tapped, and only 
reinforced by a shallow boss, and, in some cases which have 
come under our notice, by no boss at all. At A only the 
comparatively small and necessary inlet hole penetrates the 
barrel of the cylinder, and the strength of the metal thus 
taken away is amply supplied by the substantial boss into 
which the inlet nipple is screwed. Such faulty constructions 
as those illustrated by Figs. 11 and 13 may stand the test 
pressure, and work without failure for a considerable time, 



HYDRAULIC PRESSURES. 43 

or, indeed, if there be ample material, may outlive the 
machine. On the other hand, if the thickness of the metal 
be originally somewhat inadequate, or the machine over- 
stressed through some accidental cause, weak points have 
been provided by the designer at which fracture may com- 
mence, causing, possibly, great loss and annoyance, and 
resulting simply from the want of a few pounds of metal in 
the right place. The construction illustrated at b is espe- 
cially faulty owing to the intense stresses liable to occur at 
the edges of the nipple hole, owing to the break of con- 
tinuity of the metal and consequent localisation of strain. 

If, however, cast-iron cylinders be well and properly 
designed, cast from a suitable blending of metal, and with 
proper care on the part of the founder, they may be used 
with confidence for pressures up to 2 tons per square inch ; 
and for thoroughly steady loads, such as those obtaining in 
the case of ordinary presses used in the compression of 
yielding and elastic substances, a pressure of 3 tons per 
square inch is not inadmissible. 



CHAPTER IV. 
MATERIALS. 

There is, in general, no true economy in the employment 
of inferior metal in the construction of parts of machines in 
which great strength is required, since the loss of strength 
due to the inferior quality of the metal is far from com- 
pensated for by a slightly diminished first cost of the 
machine. In low-pressure hydraulic machines the thickness 
of the castings is frequently dictated by the exigencies of 
manufacture, and not by the working stresses to which they 
are subjected; but in the case of cylinders of medium 
pressure, and still more so in the case of the cylinders of 
high-pressure machines, which are frequently worked up to 
their full test pressure, or say one-half their probable initial 
breaking load, metal of first-class quality should invariably 
be employed. The cast iron for such purposes should be of 
at least such quality that a test bar i inch square, cast 
on end, will not break with a tensile load of 9 tons, and a 
bar I inch by 2 inches, placed on edge and carried by 
supports 3 feet apart, should sustain 30 cwt. in the centre 
without fracture. The metal, when cast into the actual 
shapes in which it is used, will in general have a considerably 
lower resistance to fracture than that of the test specimens, 
and it will not be wise to exceed a test stress on the metal 
of the complete machine of say 3 J tons per square inch. 

With respect to the working stress and factor of safety, 
as it is commonly called, we shall have something to say 
further on, as also as to the peculiar and dubious character 
of the stress sustained by thick cylinders under internal fluid 
pressure. 



MATERIALS. 45 

With regard to wrought iron, there is little to be remarked 
having special reference to hydraulic work. When used for 
cylinders, it must of course be thoroughly sound, and should 
not be designed for a higher test stress than 8 tons per 
square inch distributed, and if the thickness of the metal be 
considerable a lower stress may be advisable ; a point we 
intend to discuss further on. For rolled Staffordshire bars 
of fair quality, a test stress of lo tons per square inch is not 
too high, if applied in simple direct tension. 

Steel is a material which has only lately come into general 
use for hydraulic cylinders, but the success which has re- 
warded the efforts of the steel-founder in the production of 
thoroughly sound and reliable steel castings is causing steel 
to rapidly replace cast iron in the construction of cylinders 
for high pressures. The breaking strength in tension of the 
metal employed is usually stated at 24 tons per square inch, 
but this is not probably obtained in the actual cylinder 
casting, the test stress on which it will be well to limit to 
8 tons per square inch for cylinders of moderate thickness. 
For sound hammered steel cylinders, or hydraulic forged, a 
test of 10 tons per square inch of metal will not be too high. 

Solid drawn steel tubes forms an excellent, indeed the 
best material available for high-pressure hydraulic tubes. 

For the rams of hydraulic presses and hoists, rolled or 
hammered steel is frequently used, and sometimes steel 
castings, but there is a difficulty in getting the latter 
sufficiently sound on the surface for use in high-pressure 
work. Indeed, even in the case of hammered steel it is 
necessary to allow ample metal in the forging to permit of 
a substantial first cut being taken off over the surface (the 
rough should be at least f inch larger in diameter than the 
finished ram), as otherwise it is impossible to eradicate the 
unsoundness due to the surface blowholes invariably found 
in the ingot. These, although closed in by the subsequent 
Hammering, which leaves an apparently sound face in the 
finished iise, are not really welded up, but reappear in the 



46 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

shape of an unsound surface on the first cut being taken off 
in the lathe. 

Malleable cast iron, toughened sometimes by the addition 
of a little scrap steel, is used with success for small short 
cylinders. Its ultimate strength, i inch thick, does not 
exceed in general 15 tons per square inch, and for J inch 
thick about 20 tons per square inch. The test stress may 
be taken at 8 tons per square inch, if the metal does not 
exceed f inch thick. It is, however, a treacherous material, 
very liable to unsoundness, and should only be used for 
small and unimportant work. 

The alloys of copper, tin, and spelter are of the greatest 
importance to the hydraulic engineer, owing to their freedom 
from corrosion by water. Hence they are used almost to 
the exclusion of any other metal for barrel linings, plungers, 
valves and valve seats, screwed caps and plugs, etc. Brass 
also forms an excellent sheathing for the outside of rams, 
and its use for that purpose is highly conducive to the 
durability of leather packings, while in all cases in which a 
cylinder is bored to receive a leather-packed piston it should 
also be lined with brass or gun-metal, unless there be special 
circumstances which militate against their use. For the 
smaller class of pumps gun-metal castings are almost ex- 
clusively employed. The castings so used are in general 
somewhat, but not greatly, tougher and stronger than good 
cast iron. A test stress of 4 tons per square inch of metal 
may be permitted for gun-metal pump barrels. 

For hydraulic pressures exceeding 4 tons per square inch 
steel should be used in place of gun-metal. The portion of 
the brass foundry occupied in the production of hydraulic 
castings should be separate from that in which the 
commoner descriptions of metal are cast. Very annoying 
inequalities in the strength and closeness of the metal, due 
either to carelessness or wilful neglect on the part of the 
workmen, are otherwise extremely liable to occur. For 
pump plungers the rolled alloys, such as Kingston metal 



MATERIALS. 47 

and rolled phosphor bronze, are very reliable. These and 
similar alloys, in the form of rolled rods and solid drawn 
tubes, can now be procured of the strength of steel, and at 
very moderate prices. 

Phosphor and manganese bronze castings are also used 
for pump barrels, and are said to have an ultimate breaking 
weight of about 19 tons per square inch of metal, but as far 
as the author's experience extends this cannot be depended 
on in the actual castings. The test stress for phosphor 
bronze pump castings may be taken at 6 to 7 tons per 
square inch of metal. ' Rams are coated with copper by 
electro-deposition by the Broughton Copper Company, of 
Manchester, and other firms, at very moderate cost. The 
finished thickness of copper usually supplied is -^j inch. 
The durability of the sheeting so formed can be relied on, 
and its great gain in the first cost, as compared with bras^ 
sheathing, has brought this plan into favour. 

leather and one or two other materials of special utility 
for hydraulic work will be dealt with in connection with 
their applications. 

Having considered the safe test stresses of the materials 
employed in hydraulic work, we have now to consider the 
not less important question as to what proportion the actual 
working stress should bear to that stress. 

Very hazy notions on this subject have been held up to 
recent times, and, indeed, are still held. Great importance 
used to be attached to the determinations of the so-called 
" elastic limit " of a material, by which term was intended 
that stress at which the metal began to take noticeable 
permanent set. It was demonstrated by Mr Hodgkinson, 
however, that cast iron had no definite " elastic limit." • By 
experiments with long cast-iron bars (15 feet long) he 
showed that cast iron takes a permanent set with small 
loads, increasing gradually, as the load is increased, up to 
the breaking point. Ductile wrought iron and mild steel 
have, however, a definite " elastic limit " of stress, or rather 



48 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING 



they have a definite " breaking-down " point. This will be 
better understood by reference to the annexed diagram, 
Fig. 14, which represents the extension of a mild steel bar, 
I inch square, 10 inches long, under loads progressing in 
strain up to the breaking point. The author has carried out 
a very large number of experiments with mild steel bars, and 




Fig. 14. 

has invariably found the stress and strain diagram (drawn 
automatically by the bar itself) to have the characteristics 
illustrated by Fig. 14. From o to a the extensions of the 
bar are very nearly proportionate to the stress applied ; in 
other words, they follow Hook's law ut iensio sic vis, a is 
the true elastic limit. From a to b is a transition stage ; 



MATERIALS. 49 

the extension is no longer proportionate, but increases more 
and more rapidly. The extension between o and a is a 
very minute portion of the length of the bar, and is exag- 
gerated in the diagram so as to make it capable of represen- 
tation. When the stress reaches the amount indicated by 
the point b, the bar extends without increase of load a 
distance of -J inch or more in a specimen lo inches long — 
it, so to speak, " breaks down." Hence b has been termed 
the " breaking-down point " of the bar. The " elastic limit," 
as ordinarily found by the aid of a pair of dividers, may be 
anywhere between a and b, or even below a. 

The specimen now extends from b to c without increase 
of load. In diagrams taken with apparatus of too sensitive 
a nature in the writer's opinion to be reliable, and also in 
diagrams taken by apparatus in which the load on the 
specimen is measured by the water pressure in the hydraulic 
cylinder of the testing machine, the line b c appears as a 
jagged line. 

There can be little doubt, however, that these apparent 
fluctuations in the load in the specimen are due mainly to 
imperfections in the recording apparatus, owing to the rapid 
stretch of the specimen from b to c. With well-designed 
apparatus in which the actual load, as measured by the 
dead-weight lever, is recorded, the line between b and c is 
found to be almost, if not quite, straight and horizontal, 
c is usually a very well marked point, from which the 
extension of the bar increases very rapidly with increasing 
load. At D the maximum load which the bar can sustain 
without immediate fracture is reached. From d to E the 
load on the bar materially diminishes, until the bar, having 
stretched to e, suddenly breaks. 

The whole subject is a very interesting one, but since we 
are concerned not with the behaviour of metals under test, 
but with their use in hydraulic machines simply, we must be 
brief. Our present object is to point out that the so-called 
" elastic limit " is not in itself a quantity of much importance, 

D 



so HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

since it can be raised at pleasure. For instance, if the bar, 
the behariour of which under test is illustrated by Fig. 14, 
had been subjected to a preliminary load of 22^ tons, we 
know by the results of many experiments that, on being 
subsequently tested, its " elastic limit," instead of being 
about 18 tons per square inch, would have been found to 
be more than 22^ tons to the square inch, and no such 
stage as that between b and c would be observed. Hence 
a steel or iron master, who has to do with an engineer who 
has great faith in a high " elastic limit " as a measure of the 
strength of a bar — and there are such engineers — has merely 
to watch his opportunity and apply a stress equal to the 
prescribed " elastic limit " before the inspector commences 
his test, and he will be sure of the bar passing the test as 
far as regards the " elastic limit." 

Not only can the " elastic limit " be raised ; it can also 
be lowered by manipulation. By compressing a bar of 
wrought iron endways, powerfully, its " elastic limit " may 
be reduced to as little as 5 tons per square inch without 
affecting sensibly its ultimate breaking weight. 

Hence we must discard the " elastic limit," at any rate 
taken by itself, as in any way measuring the value of the 
bar for constructive purposes. In comparing the quality of 
two bars, it is necessary that the specimens should be of 
equal length and equal diameter. The important points, 
then, to be observed, as determined by tests, are the ultimate 
breaking weight and the ultimate extension. 

Having thus disposed of the claims of the " elastic limit " 
to be considered as a basis from which to determine the 
relation between test straps and working stress, we have 
next to consider from what sound basis their relations may 
be determined in the special case which we have to consider, 
viz., that of hydraulic power machinery. 



CHAPTER V. 

TEST LOAD. 

Having disposed of the pretension of the so-called " elastic 
limit " to be considered an indication of the safe working 
load of a bar of wrought iron or steel, we have now to point 
out another fallacy, which has a deep root in the minds of 
many. It is a common belief that if a piece of metal or a 
machine pass its " test " without giving signs of undue strain 
by taking permanent set — for instance, in the case of a bar 
stressed in tension, or, as in the case of a hook or a punching 
machine, by a permanent springing open of the jaw — that it 
is quite safe for any number of repetitions of the test load. 
Some early experiments of Sir Wm. Fairbairn went to show 
the fallacy of this error in the case of riveted girders, but 
were too crudely conducted to be conclusive. More re- 
cently, however, the researches of Wohler and Spangenberg 
have thrown a flood of light on the subject. 

It appears from their experiments that the breaking weight 
of a piece of metal depends not merely on the absolute magni- 
tude of the stress per square inch, but also on the frequency 
of repetition and the range of variation of the stress. The 
experimentsj though very extensive and amply conclusive as 
to the general results, were not conducted with sufficient 
care to suggest an exact formula ; but the general nature of 
the results will be readily understood by considering the 
breaking weights, as determined from them, of a bar of 
wrought iron loaded either by (i) a steady load applied con- 
stantly ; (2} a steady load applied and removed alternately 
an indefinite number of times ; (3) a steady load applied 



52 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

alternately in opposite directions— that is, alternately com- 
pressing and extending the fibres. 

The breaking weight in the first case is 20 tons per square 
inch, in the second 13^ tons, and in the third 6f tons per 
square inch. Thus the breaking weight in the three cases 
have the proportions 3 : 2 : i, or i : | : ^. 

As an example of the first case, we may instance the links 
which connect the balance-weight chain of a slow moving 
hoist to the cage or to the balance weight ; as an example 
of the second, the columns, head, cylinder, etc., of a hydraulic 
press ; and as an example of the third, the piston rod of a 
steam engine, or the spindle of an overhead pulley of a hoist. 

What is known as the Dynamic Theory of Loads is now 
largely accepted by leading engineers, more especially in 
connection with bridge design. The theory states that if 
a load be applied quite suddenly the strain produced is 
double of that which would result from the application of 
the same load very gradually; also if a load be suddenly re- 
moved, and applied in the opposite sense, the resulting strain 
is three times that which would result from the removal of the 
load and application of the reverse load very gradually. 

In treating of the safe working loads, as determined from 
the test stress, we shall in all that follows suppose that the 
metal is stressed in one direction only, but that the stress is 
applied and removed continually in the ordinary working of 
the machine. If the stress be alternately applied in oppo- 
site directions, one-half the working load, as determined 
by the following considerations, must be taken as the safe 
working load. 

We may divide working loads roughly into four classes — 
(i) Perfectly steady loads ; (2) ordinary loads, not perfectly 
steady, but nearly so, and perfectly steady loads applied to 
machines in which failure would involve considerable loss or 
annoyance; (3) loads applied with more or less but not 
excessive shock ; (4) loads in which failure must result in 
danger to life or limb. 



TEST LOAD. S3 

As types of the first class of loads may be taken hand- 
worked hydraulic presses operating on yielding materials. 
Here we have the class of stress most favourable to the life 
of the machine, and the working stress may be four-fifths the 
test stress. Hydraulic punching bears and hydraulic jacks, 
and similar small tools will also fall under this head, and 
may be worked up to four-fifths their test stress if otherwise 
properly proportioned. Indeed, machines of this class are 
often worked up to their full test load. As types of the 
second class may be taken large hydraulic baling presses 
worked rapidly and frequently, high-pressure hydraulic accu- 
mulators, fitted with safety valves, and high-pressure work in 
general ; for this class the working load may be two-thirds 
the test load. Medium-pressure hydraulic work, in which 
the load is very steady, may also be included in this class. 
As types of the third class may be taken medium-pressure 
hydraulic hoists, accumulators, etc, chain hooks and similar 
parts, and medium-pressure work in general, for which the 
working load should not exceed one-third to one-half the test 
load, according to the degree of shock incidental to the 
working of the machine. For the fourth class, which is in- 
tended to cover such work as hotel-lifts, etc., the working 
load should not exceed from one-fourth to one-fifth the test 
load — abundant strength being specially provided in all 
parts liable to deterioration or wear. If frequent skilled 
supervision cannot be guaranteed, a still larger margin 
should be allowed. 

Gun-metal high-pressure hand pumps may be worked up 
to two-thirds the test pressure. Gun-metal high-pressure 
pumps driven by steam cylinders direct, or by belt, may be 
worked up to half the test pressure, or, if of cast iron, up to 
one-third the test pressure. 

Table I. gives the test stresses and working stresses suit- 
able for the materials most frequently used in hydraulic 
machinery, and the proper proportion of working load to 
test load. 





II 


■*»=!I"0 




i 
1 


■«(Ktt|iO 


? ^ ^ ^ -5 ^ 2 J ^ ?^ i;'^ ^" 


1 


■iimipjO 




1 


-opu.1^3 


= ' s ' ^ 'S '^ ^^ ^ -*^ -■^ 1'^ 


Q 


1 


■iimip.0 


S : : ; : : : : : r : : : 


-apdjiio 


^^4|Hs n. ==^^^^^ 


z 


1 


■AimiptO 


: : . 1 : : : : :, ::,:::: 


3 


■«pa.,^3 




< 


1 


-imtpjo 


8 : r ^ : : : ::::::: 


1 


■«pui|X3 


•=- ? |- ? J ^I'S ? .^ :: :. 


If 


To-a P'ti-'a 


5 s , g . s . ^ a. «.,,.. , 


i 


■i«U!pjO 


5..i.^a. «jj ?J-.... 


1 


■i»pu!|/;3 


«H H^ M^ -^-- 


I 


i 
i 


■ireutpjo 


;?«- -.-« "a? "?-:■■■ 


1 


"POil^D 


- H 5t ^ wp ,. ,j .^ 


i 
a 
1 

1 


1 

1 

Is 
|I 


1 1 ■ II w 1 li 1 :i ;i J 

, ■ I i ail 1 |i i J J J 

i ■J 5 3 t 'SjfS ill ■'! ■! i« |1 

i ! 1 11 i.itl ^iii ill 



TEST LOAD. 



55 



The next point to be examined is a peculiar description 
of stress which is only found in the thick cylinders of high- 
pressure hydraulic work. Fig. 15 represents a cross section 
through a thick cylinder. Internal radius = r, external 
radius = r+/ when unstressed. These radii become, when 
stressed by internal fluid pressure, say r^ and ^i + ^i re- 
spectively. If the stretch of the material follow the elastic 
or Hooke's laws, the circumferential tension of any ring of 
fibres will be proportional to the whole extension of the ring 




Fig. 15. 

divided by the whole circumference of the ring. In other 
words, the tension will vary as the extension per unit of 
length. Hence the stress at the internal circumference of 
the cylinder will be to the stress at the external circum- 
ference as — 

r^-r . (ri4-0-(r-h/) 

and since the internal pressure tends to compress the 
material radially, and thus cause a reduction in the thick- 



S6 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

ness, and as the circumferential tension also tends to reduce 

the thickness, /^ is necessarily less than /, and the fraction 

(/* — r) — ^/ — / ) r —T 

^^ '- — ^^ ^ less than the fraction -1 Hence the 

r+/ r 

tension on the fibres of the external circumference is less 

than that on those of the internal circumference, and the 

former do not take their fair proportion of the work of 

resisting the disruptive effect of the internal pressure.* 

Lam^ was the first writer to accurately determine the 

effect of this inequality of stress throughout the thickness 

of the cylinder on the supposition of extension being 

directly proportional to stress. He obtained the formula 

/= -^^ — -^, where / is the tension at the internal cir- 

cumference, P the internal pressure, R the external radius, 

and r the internal radius. We have omitted from the 

formula the term involving the external pressure, since, in 

such cases as we are concerned with, the external pressure 

will, in general, be comparatively very small. The steps by 

which this result is arrived at may be consulted in Lame's 

" Traits de I'Elasticit^," or Ibbetson's " Theory of Elasticity," 

or Rankine's "Applied Mechanics," the result obtained 

being the same in each. 

P R2 + /^ 
The formula may also be put in this form : /= --. -— 

where T is the thickness of the cylinder, P and / may be 
taken in tons or pounds per square inch, and R, r and T 
in inches, or any other units of length or weight at pleasure, 
provided the same units be used for P as for/ and the same 
unit for T as for R and r. 



* The above must not be taken as an exact statement of the true 
conditions of stress and strain throughout the metal of the c^'lioder, as 
we have not taken account of the effect of the radial compression on 
the relations of stress and strain, but simply as an approximate illuslra- 
tion of the necessary variation of the strain throughout this thickness. 



TEST LOAD. 



57 



If R be nearly equal to r, we obtain the usual formula for 
the tension on the metal of a thin cylinder, viz., 

J r^ 

Professor Pearson (see footnotes pp. 550 and 552 of 
Todhunter's " History of Elasticity ") considers that Lamp's 
formula for the strength of a thick cylinder errs on the side 
of assigning too high a value to the strength of the cylinder. 
The author does not, however, consider this conclusion to 
be confirmed by experience. On the contrary, we know 
that the actual materials in construction do not follow 
Hooke's law in their extension with precision, and there 
is, so to speak, a sort of "give-and-take" action, which 
tends to cause a greater equality of stress throughout the 
thickness of a cylinder than Lamp's formula would indicate. 
On the other hand, however, the internal circumference of 
the cylinder in the case of castings is usually the most un- 
sound, owing to the exterior of the cylinder cooling first, 
and the inner rings of metal later, while at the same time it 
is the part most severely stressed in actual work. 

The plan of circulating water through the core bar, as adopted 
in America in the casting of ordnance, may be employed 
with advantage in the case of important hydraulic cylinders, to 
ensure soundness in the inner layers of cast-iron cylinders. 

On the whole, the author considers it better to be guided 
by the results of successful practice in assigning the test 
pressure for hydraulic cylinders, rather than by a formula 
based on a defective theory. Tables I. and II. exemplify 
his own practice, and have been used successfully in fixing 
the dimensions of many hundreds of hydraulic cy li nders. For 
low-pressure work, the following dimensions may be adopted 
for pressure (test) not exceeding 500 lbs. per square inch : — 



Inside diameter in 
inches • 


3 


3l 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


XI 


1 
la 13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


xS'ao 

1 


22 


24 


26 


28 


30 


Thickness in inches 


1 


A 


\ 


\ 


\ 


ft 


ft f 


f 


} 


1 


1 


} 


} 


i 


i 


\ 


I 


I 


X 


X 


A 


li 



58 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



Table II. 

Thickness in Inches of Cast-iron Cylinders for Test 

Pressures of 



Inside 


Lbs. per Square Inch. 






Tons per Square Inch. 




Diam. 
Ins. 






1 


















800 
1 


1,000 

e 


1,200 
i 


1.500 
i 


I 

§ 


il 

i 


li 

i 


li 
li 


2 
14 


24 
14 


24 
18 


2i 
14 


3 

2 


3 


3i 


A 


i 


i 


i 


1 


i 


I 


I* 


18 


18 


li 


24 


24 


4 


i 


i 


i 


A 


i 


I 


'i 


li 


li 


li 


24 


2| 


28 


5 


i 


A 


i 


i 


I 


Ij 


If 


i« 


i| 


24 


24 


2J 


34 


6 


i 


i 


i 


« 


1* 


li 


18 


2 


24 


2j 


3 


38 


3i 


7 


A 


i 


1 


i 


ij 


If 


li 


24 


2i 


3 


34 


33 


44 


8 


i>« 


3 


i 


I 


If 


i| 


2 


2i 


2j 


31 


31 


48 


4l 


9 


i 


1 


i 


H 


14 


li 


2* 


2i 


34 


3l 


48 


4i 


58 


lO 


i 


* 


I 


li 


li 


2k 


2* 


3 


3i 


44 


4J 


58 


6 


II 


i 


i 


I 


li 


If 


2i 


21 


3i 


3i( 


48 


54 


6 


68 


12 


i 


I 


li 


li 


2 


2* 


3 


36 


44 


5 


5i 


64 


74 


13 


i 


I 


14 


'* 


2i 


2f 


31 


3i 


4i 


5i 


64 


7 


7J 


14 


i 


I* 


'* 


ti 


2i 


2i 


3t 


4^ 


4i 


5l 


68 


74 


84 


15 


I 


I* 


19 


If 


2i 


3 


38 


4i 


54 


64 


74 


8 


83 


i6 


I 


li 


li 


li 


2i 


3i 


a 


4i 


54 


64 


74 


84 


94 


«7 


U 


il 


li 


i| 


2i 


3i 


4i 


5 


5i 


7 


8 


9 


10 


i8 


tj 


If 


It 


2 


2S. 


38 


4i 


58 


64 


78 


88 


91 


lOj 


20 


>i 


1* 


'i 


2* 


3 


3i 


4i 


Si 


6J 


8J 


98 


log 


I If 


22 


'i 


16 


li 


2§ 


3if 


48 


54 


61 


74 


8j 


104 


"6 


123 


24 


ig 


ift 


»i 


2* 


38 


4? 


5f 


7 


84 


92 


"4 


128 


•4 


26 


li 


«J 


2i 


2| 


3i 


Si 


64 


76 


H 


10} 


12 


13I 


154 


28 


i« 


2 


*l 


23 


4i 


Si 


68 


8J 


94 


"4 


13 


•48 


164 


30 


li 


2i 


21 


3i 


4 


Si 


7i 


8} 


104 


124 


13J 


158 


178 



TEST LOAD. 



59 



Table III. 

Thickness of Steel Cylinders (Unhammered Castings) 

FOR Test Pressures of 



1 

Inside 
Diam. 

Ins. 


Tons per Square Inch. 


I 


li 


li 


If" 


2 


2j 


24 


2i 


3 


34 


4 


5 


3 


■ ■ • 


• • • 


• • ■ 




• • ■ 


■ • • 


• • • 


• • • 


• « « 


I 


li 


14 


3* 


■ • • 


• • • 


• • • 




• • • 


• ■ • 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 


li 


14 


14 


1 
4 


• • • 


• • « 


• • • 




• • • 


• • • 


• • • 


« • • 


I 


14 


ti 


16 


5 


• • • 


• • • 


• • ■ 




■ •• 


■ • • 


li 


ll 


ll 


14 


18 


2 


6 


• • • 


• • • 


• • « 




I 


li 


I* 


If 


18 


18 


ij! 


24 


1 7 


• • • 


• • • 


• • » 


I 


li 


ll 


18 


i4 


li 


•ij 


2i 


26 


. 8 


■ • • 


■ • • 


I 


li 


li 


18 


14 


18 


li 


2i 


28 


3 


9 


■ a • 


I 


li 


I* 


IB 


If 


If 


1} 


2 


28 


28 


34 


ID 


... 


il 


li 


If 


14 


If 


i| 


2 


2i 


24 


2j 


36 


II 


I 


li 


IB 


li 


iS 


■i 


2 


24 


28 


28 


3i 


4 


' 12 


I 


il 


If 


I| 


IS 


2 


2i 


28 


24 


3 


38 


44 


»3 


I* 


J| 


14 


I| 


i| 


2i 


28 


26 


2| 


34 


3i 


4i 


14 


n 


«i 


If 


I| 


2 


2i 


24 


2| 


2i 


34 


4 


5 


^5 


li 


li 


ij 


2 


24 2i 


28 


2j 


3i 


3J 


44 


54 


i6 


Ij 


li 


li 


2 


24 


24 


2i 


3 


34 


3J 


44 


56 


17 


18 


IS 




2i 


2$ 


2l 


3 


34 


34 


4i 


4S 6 


; l8 


li 


iS 1 2 


21 


24 


2j 


3i 


38 


38 48 


5 


64 


20 


li 


I? 1 24 


24 


2i 


3i 


3i 


3i 


4 


41 


54 


7 


22 

1 
1 


li 


2 2g 


2i 


3 


38 


38 


4 


48 


54 


6 


7fi 


!24 


If 


2i 


2| 


2l 


3i 


3i 


4 


48 


4l 


5i 


64 


84 


26 


li 


21 


2} 


3i 


3i 


4 


48 


4i 


5i 


6i 


7i 


9 


28 


2 


2i 


2j 


31 


3i 


4i 


48 


Si 


54 


6i 


78 


9i 


30 


ai 


2i 


3i 


3g 


4 


44 


S 


54 


5i 


7 


84 


104 



6o 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



A few remarks may be here appropriately introduced on 
certain points in the design and construction of high-pres- 
sure hydraulic cylinders of these materials, non-attention to 
which will frequently result in failure and disappointment. 

In the first place, the internal corners at the bottom 
should be struck to a large radius, as shown by Fig. i6 ; and 
if the cylinder be cast with a sohd bottom, the interior of 
the bottom should be struck to a radius not exceeding the 
diameter of the cylinder in length. A good practical rule is 
to make the corners one-fourth the internal diameter of the 




tvS; 




1 it 






f Jl 


- 




*-*. 














^ J 




■ 


^ 


b 




L. 


,:,: ;;,;^ 






ng. 17. 



cylinder in radius, and the bottom three-fourths the internal 
diameter of the cylinder in radius. If these proportions be 
adopted, the thickness of the bottom of the cylinder will be 
sufficient if made equal to that of the walls, as illustrated by 
Fig, 16, In the case of long cylinders, in which it is neces- 
sary to carry the core bar through the bottom in order to 
provide a support for its end, the same proportions may be 
adopted, simply inserting the necessary plug for stopping the 
hole left by the core bar. 

The necessity of a large rounding of the corners arises 
from the fact that if they be left nearly square (see 6, Fig. 1 7), 



TEST LOAD. 



6l 



the crystals of the casting arrange thetnselves during cooling 
in such a manner as to invite fracture along the line a i 
(Fig, 17), and unless the cylinder be constructed of a thick- 
ness unnecessarily great for the pressure to which it is sub- 
jected, deterioration gradually goes on along the line a b, 
until sooner or later failure takes place, as illustrated by Fig. 
18 ; and a conical piece a breaks away from the end of the 
cylinder. Fig, 19 shows the arrangement of crystals in a 
cylinder with a curved bottom of equal thickness to the 




Fig. 18. 



Fig 19- 



Fig. ao illustrates a properly-designed cylinder, and simi- 
lar to Fig. 16, but with a plug inserted by driving from 
the inside. This method is found amply sufficient for 
cylinders of diameters ranging to 10 inches or 13 inches 
inside, or even more. For larger cylinders, the method 
illustrated by Fig. ai may be adopted, in which the plug is 
made tight by means of a U leather and back plate. 

The sources of weakness to which attention was drawn 
in Chapter III. should also be carefully avoided, and it is 
also in general advisable to construct high-pressure hydraulic 
cylinders in the form of plain cylinders, as the castings are 



62 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



less likely to suffer from unequal contraction, and the risk 
of unsoundness due to " drawing " at the junction of ribs, 
anns, lugs, Hanges, etc., is avoided ; also the cylinder is 
then more readily replaced, and at less cost, if found de- 
fective. Very considerable deviation from this rule may, 
however, be made without incurring undue risk, if proper 
skill be possessed and employed by the designer and 
founder. 

In the second place, supposing the cylinder skilfully 
designed and of adequate proportions, the two great essen- 




tials required (o ensure soundness in the casting are, firstly, 
the metal shall be of close texture, otherwise, though amply 
strong enough to resist the stresses due to internal hydraulic 
pressure, the casting will fail from its permeability, and 
under intense pressure the water will ooze through the 
metal. Also, from the examination of cast-iron cylinders, 
which have been ruptured in ordinary work, although ap 
patently of adequate strength to resist the pressure to which 
they have been subjected, the author has been led to con- 
sider it probable that a partial permeation of the metal by 
the water may result in a higher intensity of stress on the 



TEST LOAD. 



internal layers of a cylinder than would be due to the 
pressure of the water within the cylinder; and hence a 
cylinder may be erroneously considered to have failed from 




F'S- 12- Fig. 23. 

deficient thickness of metal, when the failure has really 
resulted from porosity in the casting. 
Thirdly, it is necessary that a " head " of ample dimensions 




Fig. a4. 

should be cast on the end of the cylinder which is upper- 
most in the mould (usually the bottom of the cylinder in 
actual work). This head should not only be of sufficient 



64 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

depth to produce adequate fluid pressure on the casting, but 
also of sufficient bulk^ in order that it may remain fluid 
longer than the body of the cylinder, and thus maintain a 
pressure on the metal during the whole period of solidi- 
fication. Hence, to be effective, the head should take the 
form illustrated by Fig. 22 or 23, and not that illustrated 
by Fig. 24, which is ineffective and irrational, though not 
un frequently adopted. 

If due attention be paid to the points here briefly dis- 
cussed, the thicknesses given in Tables II. and III. will be 
found amply sufficient for the te§t pressures there stated. 

Having thus cleared the ground by defining the meaning 
to be assigned to tests and working pressure and stress, and 
their proper relative and absolute values for the various mate- 
rials employed in the construction of hydraulic machinery, 
we are now at liberty to discuss the proper proportions 
and design of the details and component parts of such 
machinery. 



PART IlL— JOINTS. 



K 



CHAPTER VI. 
PACKINGS FOR SLIDING SURFACES. 

The packing by means of which the rams, pistons or 
plungers of hydraulic machinery are enabled to slide to and 
fro at the same time that the passage of fluid past the slid- 
ing surfaces is prevented, may be divided into two classes, 
viz., firstly, that in which the packing is self-acting — that is. 



Ji 



Fig. 25. 

maintained in water-tight contkct with the sliding surface 
by the simple action of the hydraulic pressure itself; and 
secondly, that in which the tightness of the packing is 
dependent on mechanical compression by means of glands 
or junk rings, as in the case of stuffing boxes. 





Fig. 26. 



Fig. 27. 



Fig. 28. 



Of the first, or self-acting class of packing, the simplest is 
the spiral leather packing (Figs. 25, 26, 27, and 28). This 
is a very excellent packing for small plungers and pistons. 
It consists simply of a strip of supple leather t\ inch or 



68 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



J inch wide, and of sufficient length to wrap round the 
plunger three, four, or five times (Fig. 25). Fig. 26 repre- 
sents the plunger without the packing, Fig. 27 the packing 
in course of being wound on, and Fig. 28 the plunger 
packed and ready for use. The operation of packing a 




Figs. 29 and 30. 

plunger in this manner is apparently very simple, but yet 
requires a certain amount of skill and practice to perform 
it with speed and neatness. The strip of leather must first 
have one end cut with a sharp knife to an acute angle. It 
must then be tried in the groove of the plunger, and shaved 



PACKINGS FOR SLIDING SURFACES. 69 

if necessary down to the proper thickness to just fill the 
groove up to the required working diameter which will fit 
the pump barrel tightly. It is then wrapped round the 
plunger, and the free end chamfered off to a gradual taper 
and length to just fill the length of the groove. The free 
end is then hammered into the unfilled portion of the groove 
with the handle of a screwdriver or file, and the plunger is 
ready for use. 

This description of packing is only suitable for small 
plungers not exceeding i inch or i^ inches diameter, but is 




fig 31 



Fig 3* 



a very simple, cheap and durable packing for such|^small 
work, and is perfectly reliable and water tight at even the 
highest pressures 

The most simple selfacting packing for rams, pistons 
and plungers, next to the spiral leather packing previously 
described, is the cup type of packing, which is constructed 
in three forms, commonly termed cup, hat and Unpacking 
respectively. The cup packing is illustrated by [Figs 39 
and 30, and simple tools for and the process of manufacture 
by Figs. 31 and 3a. 

The cup packing is used as a packing for pistons, for 



70 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



making water-tight joints at the ends of plugs and plungers, 
and similar purposes, and owes its self-acting tightness to 
the pressure of the water on the internal surface of the cup, 
which expands the rim of the cup and forces it against the 
pump barrel or other surface with which water-tight con- 
nection is to be maintained. It might at first sight appear 
that the whole depth of the cup would be directly useful 
in forming the joint ; or, in other words, that the hydraulic 
pressure acting on the internal surface of the rim of the cup 
would press the whole external surface of the rim of the cup 
against the pump barrel, and that hence the water-tightness 
of the packing would be enhanced by increasing the depth 




Fig. 33- 



of the cup rim. This is not, however, found to be the case 
in practice. The effective portion of the cup is merely a 
narrow ring of surface near the point a, Fig. 29, where the 
leather touches the piston, and the remaining portion of the 
cup leather is in a great measure superfluous. This fact is 
evidenced in several ways in a very convincing manner. 
For instance, the wear takes place almost entirely at a. 

Fig. 33 represents a section through a worn-out packing. 
The indentation b inside the packing is due to the external 
wear of the packing at a, as the leather is forced out by the 
internal pressure from the inside of the cup to supply the 
portions worn away by external friction. The localisation 
of the wear is so marked as to lead superficial observers to 



PACKINGS FOR SLIDING SURFACES. 7 1 

suppose that the leather has been cut by the pressure of the 
edge of the piston. The effect is, however, entirely due to 
fair wear, and is not to be obviated by rounding the edge of 
the piston or other such expedients occasionally suggested. 

Another proof is furnished by the fact that the friction of 
the cup is independent of the depth of the rim, and is the 
same practically for a packing 2 inches deep as for one an 
inch or less in depth ; whereas, were the water-tightness of 
the cup due to the pressure on the whole internal surface of 
the rim, it would be reasonable to suppose that the friction 
would increase with the depth of the cup. 

The manufacture of a cup leather is a very simple opera- 
tion. A disc F of leather (see Fig. 31) of suitable diameter 
is soaked in warm water until quite pliable. It is then placed 
centrally on the hollow mound a, and the plunger b screwed 
down on it by means of the central screw c (the head d of 
which may be conveniently held in a vice) and nut e, until 
it is forced into the mound a. When the leather is dry the 
edge is trimmed off to an angle of 45'', either by means of a 
sharp knife, or, preferably, in a wood chuck in the lathe. If 
the leather is required without a central hole, external clamps 
may be used in place of the central screw c to force the 
plunger b into the mould. If a number of leathers are to 
be manufactured, a small hydraulic press, of about to tons 
power, will be found very convenient, as also a sheet-iron 
oven heated by steam for drying the packings. The latter, 
however, requires great care in use, as, if overheated in 
drying, the leathers rapidly fail in ordinary work. It is poor 
economy to use inferior material for hydraulic leathers. 
Sound oak-tanned leather should be selected, cut from the 
best part of the butt. If the packings are not subject to 
much wear, indiarubber cups may, however, be used with 
advantage in all cases where packings are liable to become 
dry through being used only occasionally. 

It has been previously remarked that the depth of a cup 
packing has but little influence on its water-tightness. We 



72 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

may further add that it is really prejudicial to the efficiency 
and durability of the packing to make the rim of the leather 
unduly deep, for the simple reason that the stress on the 
leather during its manufacture is greatly increased by in- 
creasing the depth of the cup. This stress is greatest also 
at the very part (a) of the leather which is subject to the 
greatest wear in actual work. If the cup be deep, and very 
great care be not taken in the manufacture, the leather is 
liable to tear at this point, or, if not actually torn, to suffer 
great deterioration, which, although it may be disguised and 
concealed by subsequent dexterous manipulation, never fails 
to show itself afterwards in an abnormally short life of the 
leather. There is no advantage whatever in making the cup 
more than i inch deep, and any greater depth than this is 
not merely useless, but, for the reason here pointed out, 
really undesirable as leading to injury to the packing at the 
very part at which the greatest soundness is required. 

The barrel in which the cup leather works should, if pos- 
sible, be lined with gun-metal or brass. For medium and 
high pressures it should invariably be so lined. The attempt 
to use leather packings under high pressures for pistons 
working in cast-iron barrels, unlined, always results in great 
annoyance and frequent delays from the rapid deterioration 
of the bore of the cylinder, and consequent constant failure 
of the packings, which are only durable when they have an 
absolutely smooth surface unaffected by corrosion to work 
against. In the case of thick cast-iron cylinders working 
at high pressures, owing, apparently, to the comparative 
porosity or looseness of texture of the interior surface of the 
casting forming the bore, which has already been commented 
on, the friction of the leathers appears at times to tear away 
considerable portions of the internal surface, leaving rough 
places, which destroy the packings after a few passages over 
them. Steel castings are not free from this defect, and suffer 
occasionally even more than cast iron. 

These remarks do not, however, apply so strongly to cast- 



PACKINGS FOR SLIDING SURFACES. 73 

iron rams, the external surface of which is generally very close 
in texture and capable of receiving a high polish, and can 
also be readily kept in good condition as regards polish and 
lubrication. Even in the case of rams, however, it has been 
found highly conducive to the durability of the leathers to 
case the lower part of the rams of hydraulic presses, for 
instance, with gun-metal. The rams of hydraulic presses 
for baling Manchester goods, and for cotton pressing, are 
invariably so cased by first-class makers. 

The laws governing the friction of cup and similar leathers 
were investigated carefully by Mr Hick, of Bolton, and found 
to be in the main very simple. The author's own experience 
fully endorses Mr Hick's results, which may be stated in the 
following form : — 

Let P be the total load on a ram or piston, and D its 
diameter in inches. The whole friction of the packing of 
the ram or piston is — 

the leather packing being in the condition as regards lubri- 
cation usually met with in practice, and the ram and cylinder 
in iirst-class condition as regards polish and soundness of 
surface. For instance, let the ram of a press be 10 inches 
diameter and the load be 100 tons, corresponding to a 
hydraulic pressure of 1.27 tons per square inch, then the 
friction of the packing will be — 

, 4 X 100 ^ o *. 

/= — = .4 tons = 8 cwt. • 

100 X 10 

or — per cent, of the whole load. The friction in this case 
10 " 

is a very inconsiderable amount compared with the total 

load, but if the packing be small in diameter the percentage 

of the whole pressure absorbed by friction becomes very 

appreciable, and must be taken carefully into account when 



74 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



designing apparatus involving the use of pistons or plungers 
packed with leather for determining the intensity of hydraulic 
pressures. 

For instance, if the packing be ^ inch in diameter, the 
percentage of the whole load absorbed by the friction of the 
packing will be — 

4-r J=i6 per cent., 
which is a very notable amount. 




Figs. 34 and 35. 

It will be observed that the above remarks as to the 
friction and wear and tear of leather packings apply equally 
to all leather packings of the cup type, and not merely to 
cups, but also to hat and U packings. 

The action of the hat packing (Figs. 34 and 35) and U 



PACKINGS FOR SLIDING SURFACES. 



75 



packing (Figs. 36 and 37) is, indeed, identical with that of 
the cup packing proper. The point of greatest wear and the 
method of calculating the friction are the same for all three 
kinds of packing. The tools used in and mode of manu- 
facture are, however, different, for neither the hat packing 
nor the U can be made in so simple a manner. Figs. 38 




Figs. 36 and 37. 



and 39 illustrate the formation of the hat packing from a 
circular disc of leather. The packing is finished by cutting 
out the central disc and chamfering the edge to an angle 

of 45". 

The pressure employed in forcing the leather into the 
die may be supplied by means of a central screw and nut, 
as previously described for the ordinary cup packing (p. 69). 



76 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



In this case, of course, a small hole must be first cut in the 
disc of leather for the central screw to pass through. This 
hole must in any case be small, otherwise it will be found 
impossible to make a satisfactory packing on account of the 
tearing and distorting of the leather. If screw clamps, or a 
small screw, or hydraulic press be employed, however, the 
central hole may be dispensed with. These remarks apply 
equally to the manufacture of U leathers, which indeed are 
frequently made by means of the press in which they are 
subsequently to be used. 

The dies used in the production of U leathers are illus- 
trated by Figs. 40 and 41. 




Fig. 38. 



Fig. 30- 



The pressing is effected in two stages ; first the leather 
is pressed into a cup shape (see Fig. 40) ; and at a second 
operation (Fig. 41) the cup is pressed into a hat shape, with 
a U-shaped rim, part of the rim of the original cup going to 
form the internal rim of the U, as will be readily understood 
from the figures. The central disc is then cut out and the 
edges chamfered to an angle of 45°, as in the case of the 
hat packing. 

The discs of leather used in the manufacture of leather 
packings are very readily and rapidly cut out of the hide by 
means of a knife-cutter fitted to the end of an ordinary hand- 
drill, and adjustable to any radius by a set screw, the discs 



PACKINGS FOR SLIDING SURFACES. 



71 



cut out of the centre of large packings being, of course, used 
for smaller packings. 

The formula which we have already given for the friction 
of cup, U and hat packings, viz., 

, P 

where / is the friction of the leather packing, P the whole 
load on the ram or piston, and D its diameter in inches, may 
be conveniently thrown into a form in which the friction is 
given as a function of the hydraulic pressure per square inch 
and diameter of the packing. For if/ be the pressure per 
square inch — ■ 

P=/D'x.7854; and hence 
/=.04x .7854 x^r) = .o3r4 x X)p. 




Fie- 40- 



Fig. 4"- 



In this form the formula is applicable to packings used for 
other purposes than maintaining rams or pistons light, the 
pressure per square inch and diameter of the packing alone 
being required to be known. 

From the foregoing brief description of the method of 
working leather hydraulic packings, the truth of our remarks 
as to the inadvisability of employing an unnecessarily deep 
packing win be sufficiendy apparent, especially as regards U 
packings. Fig. 43 illustrates the proportions to be recom- 
mended for ordinary U packings, which will indeed be found 
ample for all purposes. The internal diameter of a U pack- 
ing should be about y\ incb less than that of the ram which 



;8 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERINQ. 



passes through it, and the external diameter about ^ inch 
greater than the recess or cylinder in which it fits, the 
diameter being measured at a and b. This will ensure the 
tightness of the packing when first inserted. For large 




Fig. 4*. 



packings a somewhat greater margin may be allowed. It is 
always best to fit the mouths of cylinders in which U leathers 
are used with glands (Fig. 43), the mouth of the ram being 
well rounded, so that the leather can be put in place without 
any injury to its shape or edges. The ends of rams should 




Fig. 43. 



Fig. 44. 



similarly be well rounded or tapered for a distance of say 
half an inch, with the same object. 

For many purposes it is, however, sufficient to simply turn 
a groove in the mouth of the cylinder to receive the packing. 



PACKINGS FOR SLIDING SURFACES. 



79 



as in Fig. 44. The leather, if of large diameter, is easily 
inserted in the groove by first doubling it into the shape 
illustrated by Fig. 45, but, if small, practice and care are 
necessary to avoid injury to the leather. A small leather 
is usually inserted by first suppling it by letting oil stand in 
the rim a short time, if the leather be at all harsh ; it is then 
pushed into the groove as far as it can be got to go, leaving 
as little remaining out of the groove as possible, and a blow 
or two from a piece of wood struck by a hammer will then 
usually suffice to put it in the shape illustrated by Fig. 46, 
and another blow at H will drive it neatly into the groove. 




Fig. 45- 




Fig. 46. 

It is, however, better practice to fit the mouth of the 
cylinder with a gland. The studs securing the gland should 
not be subjected to a test stress exceeding 5 tons per square 
inch, if of wrought iron, and if this maximum be not ex- 
ceeded, a sufficient margin of strength will be provided to 
compensate for extra stresses due to unequal tightening of 
the nuts. The thickness of the flange of the gland, if of 
cast iron, may be ij times the diameter of the studs, and 



8o HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

the width of the flange three times the diameter of a stud. 
The projecting portions of the gland should be i J times the 
stud in length. 

If / be the hydraulic test pressure per square inch, d the 
diameter of the ram, and c the width of the packing, the 
whole stress on the studs due to the hydraulic pressure is — 

{d-{-€)cTrp — i.i^i6 {d+c)pc. 

Hence if n be the number of studs, and d^ the diameter of a 
stud at the bottom of a thread, the stress on the studs per 
square inch is — 

4 nd^ 

which, as before stated, should not exceed 5 tons, or about 
11,200 lbs. 

We have recommended | inch as the most suitable dimen- 
sions for Cy but if circumstances render it advisable to reduce 
the space occupied by the packing to minimum limits, c may 
be diminished to yV ^^^^ without very greatly subtracting 
from the efficiency of the packing. 

There is a difference of practice among manufacturers of 
hydraulic packing leathers, some preferring to use the grain 
and some the skin side of the hide for the wearing surface. 
The latter plan makes the neatest leather in appearance, and 
is generally to be recommended. 

Hemp Packing^. — The first cost of leather hydraulic 
packings is comparatively high, and if the surfaces against 
which they work are not carefully looked after, and maintained 
in a state of perfect polish and well lubricated, the packings 
will deteriorate rapidly and become no inconsiderable portion 
of the expense of maintenance of a hydraulic plant. For 
these reasons hemp packings, which are water-tightened by 
strong mechanical compression by means of a stuffing box and 
gland, are used by many engineers wherever possible ; since 



PACKINGS FOR SLIDING SURFACES. 8 1 

the first cost of the hemp packing is comparatively incon- 
siderable, while at the same time the packing can be renewed 
more rapidly and with less loss of time. If the rod or 
plunger which is to be packed is heated, as is necessarily 
the case with some types of steam pumps, leather packings 
are altogether inadmissible, and hemp, asbestos, or some 
similar packing must be used. 

On the other hand, the friction of the mechanically com- 
pressed hemp packing is far greater than that of the self- 
acting leather packing ; also, if the hydraulic pressure for 
which the packing is used be high (and hemp packing, 
contrary to the opinion of many, may be employed success- 
fully for very high pressures, such as 3 tons or more per 
square inch), there is considerable risk of scoring the surfaces 
of the ram and plungers in actual work, owing to the neces- 
sarily intense pressure with which the packing must be forced 
against the sliding surface in order to secure water-tightness. 
A further objection to hemp packing is that the packing 
must be compressed with sufficient force to ensure its 
being tight under the highest pressure at which the 
machine in which it is used is intended to work; hence, 
although the machine may be frequently working under a 
comparatively low pressure, the friction of the packing is 
always that due to the high pressure, and may amount to 
a very large percentage of the whole work done by the 
machine, whereas, if leather packings be used, since the 
pressure on the packing varies directly with the work which 
the machine is performing, Xh^ percentage of power absorbed 
by the friction of the packings is, within certain limits, prac- 
tically constant. 

It must be left, then, to the judgment of the engineer 
to decide which description of packing shall be employed in 
any given case, each type having its own special advantages 
and defects, which must be duly weighed and taken into 
consideration before arriving at a decision. The friction of 
hemp packings cannot be so. definitely determined by ex- 

F 



82 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

periment for any given conditions of use as that of leather 
hydraulic packings. We have not merely to consider the 
intensity of the hydraulic pressure employed as in the case 
of leathers, but the depth of the stuffing boxes and diameter 
of the packing surface, as also the degree of pressure applied 
by means of the stuffing box gland. Under the same degree 
of compression there is no doubt that a deep stuffing box will 
produce more frictional resistance than a short one ; but, on 
the other hand, the deep stuffing box will not require so in- 
tense a compression as the short one, and hence in actual 
practice the friction of the short stuffing box may exceed that 
of the long one, if the packing is to be water-tight under a 
given maximum pressure. It is, however, very desirable in 
practice to have a simple formula by which to determine the 
probable maximum friction of a hemp packing under given 
conditions. If the packing be screwed up judiciously, and 
the stuffing box of fair proportions, the formula may take 
the form of cpd=fy where c is a constant, to be determined 
by experiment within assigned limits as to pressure and 
diameter, p the hydraulic pressure (maximum) per square 
inch, d the diameter of the ram or rod in inches, and/ the 
total amount of the friction. For many purposes it is suffi- 
cient to take /as equal to one-tenth the pressure per square 

inch, multiplied by the diameter of the ram, or/=^ and 

the friction of a hemp packing judiciously used will rarely 
exceed this amount within very wide limits of pressure and 
diameter. 

A very simple method of ascertaining the approximate 
friction of a ram packing is available when the ram can be 
loaded and fixed so as to rise and fall vertically. Let the 
ram be loaded, perfectly centrally, with any weight, the 
amount of which need not be exactly ascertained, and let 
the pressure per square inch required to raise the ram at 
the lowest speed be ascertained by means of an accurate 
pressure gauge communicating directly with the cylinder. 



PACKINGS FOR SLIDING SURFACES. 



83 



and let the pressure be Pj. Next let the pressure in the 
cylinder be similarly ascertained when the ram is descend- 
ing as slowly as possible, and let the pressure be Pg. It is 
very important that the motion of the ram should be exceed- 
ingly slow during the experiment. Then the friction of the 

P -P 
packing will be approximately — l — ^ x area of ram in 

square inches. 

It is most necessary in carrying out such an experiment 
as this, however, to test the accuracy of the pressure gauge 
employed, since the ordinary commercial pressure gauge 
is frequently grossly inaccurate, and in the case of high 
hydraulic pressures as a general rule absolutely unreliable. 

The following table gives suitable dimensions of the pack- 
ing space for stuffing boxes of various diameters : — 



Diameter 


Diameter 
of 


Depth of 


Diameter 


Diameter 

of 

Stuffing 

Box. 


Depth of 


of 


Stuffing 


Stuffing 


of 


Stuffing 


Ram. 


Box 
Inside. 


Box. 


Ram. 


Box. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


I 


if 


2 


12 


I4J 


6i 


2 


2I 


3 


14 


I^t 


7 


3 


4i^ 


3i 


16 


i8i 


7i 


4 


si 


4 


18 


20| 


7« 


5 


6| 


44 i 


20 


22} 


8i 


6 


71 


4l i 


22 


25 


8i 


' 7 


88 


5i 


24 


27i 


9 


8 


9l 


54 


26 


29i 


9i 


9 


II 


5* 


28 


314 


9J 


1 10 

i 


12J 


6 

1 


30 


334 


10 



The dimensions of the gland studs for stuffing boxes 
should be proportioned in a similar manner to those for 
the glands for U leathers, but with a larger margin of 
strength. 



84 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

Let, as before, n be the number of studs or bolts — 

d^ the diameter of a stud at the bottom of the 

thread. 
D the diameter of the ram or rod. 
Dj the internal diameter of the stuffing box. 
P the maximum pressure in pounds per square 

inch« 

Then d-^ should not be less than 

(D,-D)(D, + D)P 
5000 X n 

The thickness of the flange of the gland should not be 
less than if times the external diameter of the stud, and its 
width may be three times the diameter of a stud for cast 
iron. 

P in the above formula is to be taken as the maximum 
working pressure, or one-half the test pressure, the larger 
of the two values being selected ; that is, if the maximum 
working pressure be greater than half the test pressure, P 
must be taken equal to the working pressure ; but if half 
the test pressure be greater than the maximum working 
pressure, then P should be taken equal to half the test 
pressure. 

Table IV. gives the efficiencies of rams or rods, working 
with leather or hemp packing. It has been calculated from 
the preceding rules, and will be found to agree with practice, 
providing the stuffing box is of fair proportions, and the ram 
or rod polished and lubricated. 

Let P = gross power of ram = area of ram multiplied by 

pressure per square inch. 
„ Pi = nett power of ram. 

„ ^= coefficient, taken from table. 
Then Pj = c?. 



PACKINGS FOR SLIDING SURFACES. 



85 



Table IV. 

Coefficients of Ram Efficiencies for Hemp or 

Leather Packing. 



Diameter c. 
of ^' 
Ram. 


luffing Leather 


Diameter q, 
of ^* 
Ram. 

r 


uffing Leather 


Box. Packing. 


Box. Packing. 

1 


Inches. 




1 


Inches. 






A 


• • • 


.36 


3i 


.96 


.98 


A 


• • • 


.57 


3f 


.96 


.98 


i 


• • • 


.68 


4 


.96 


.99 


A 


• ■ • 


.78 


4i 


.97 


.99 


i 


•49 


.84 


5 


.97 


■99 


A 


■59 


.87 


Si 


.97 


.99 


i 


.66 


.89 


6 


.97 


■99 


A 


.70 


90 


H 


.98 


■99 


i 


74 


.92 


7 


.98 


.99 


A 


77 


.92 


74 


.98 


■99 


i 


•79 


•93 


8 


.98 


.99 


H 


.81 


■94 


H 


■98 


99 


f 


.83 


.94 


9 


■98 


99 


i 


■!5 


95 


9i 


.98 


.99 


1 


87 


.96 


10 


■98 


99 


i4 


.88 


96 


II 


.98 


99 


i| 


.89 


96 


12 


.98 


99 


i8 


90 


97 


13 


99 


99 


i^ 


91 


97 


14 


99 


99 


i| 


.92 


97 


15 


.99 


99 


If 


92 


97 


16 


99 


99 


ij 


93 


97 


18 


99 


99 


2 


93 


.98 


20 


99 


99 


2i 


94 


98 


22 


99 


99 


2k 


94 


98 


24 


99 


99 


2} 


95 


98 


26 


99 


99 


3 


95 


98 


. 28 


99 


99 


3J 


96 ; . 

1 


98 


30 


99 


99 



CHAPTER VII. 

PIPE JOINTS. 

In our last chapter we described the usual methods of 
making the joints between sliding surfaces water-tight by 
means of animal and vegetable packings, in a self-acting 
manner or by forcible mechanical compression of the 
packing material by means of glands or bolts, or their 
equivalents. In the present article we propose to treat 
similarly of the various methods of making the joints be- 
tween surfaces, fixed with reference to each other, water- 
tight. The joints between such surfaces are made either 
by placing between them suitable sheets or rings of canvas, 
lead, copper, leather, indiarubber, guttapercha, paper, and 
various other material, and forcing them tightly together by 
means of bolts and nuts, or their mechanical equivalents ; 
or by using U or similar self-acting packings. In designing 
such a joint we have principally to consider the stress which 
must be brought upon the metal of the bolts and nuts in 
order to ensure water-tightness under a given pressure, and 
the dimensions which it is advisable to give the flanges, in 
practice, in order that they may be of adequate strength to 
resist the stress thus brought upon them. The stress upon 
the bolts, considered as a simple tensile stress, consists of 
two parts in general — one due solely to the hydraulic pres- 
sure on the surface exposed to it, which may be exacfly 
calculated when the extent of that surface is known, and the 
pressure per unit of area to which it is subject ; and another 
part due to the elastic reaction of the surfaces themselves 
and that of the joint material between them. 

To make this clear, we will consider a joint such as that 



PIPE JOINTS. 



8r 



illustrated by Fig. 47, in which b may be a valve chest, for 
instance, and a its cover ; the joint being made by truly 
facing the surfaces, painting them, inserting a sheet of brown 
paper say between them, and then drawing them forcibly 
together by screwing up the nuts and bolts which pass 
through the flanges. If the nuts be screwed up when pres- 
sure is not admitted to the valve chest b, a complicated 
stress is brought upon the metal of the bolts — mainly a 
longitudinal tension, but complicated by torsional stress due 
to the inclination of the helix of the screw-thread and the 
friction between the thread and nut brought into play by the 
twisting action of the spanner, and complicated in addition 




Fig- 47- 



by possible bending stresses due to inequality or unequal 
yielding of the joint surfaces and flanges. For true surfaces 
and faced nuts, we may, however, treat the stress in practice 
as a simple tension. Let L be the length of the spanner 
used in inches, and F the force in pounds applied at its end 
by the workman in screwing up ; then for ordinary bohs, 
having Whitworth threads, the total stress in tension on the 
metal of the bolt may be fairly taken at an average value of 

T = — T- m pounds, 

where T is the whole stress on the bolt in pounds, con- 
sidered as tensile, and d is the diameter of the bolt over the 



88 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

thread in inches, the stress on the bolt per square inch at 
the bottom of the thread may, of course, be found by 
dividing T by the area of the section at the bottom of the 
thread. 

If now water be admitted to the valve box b, at a pres- 
sure of/) pounds per square inch, and S be the surface of 
the cover a exposed to the pressure in square inches, the 
whole upward pressure on the cover a will be pS in pounds, 
and this pressure may be transmitted to the bolts practically 
undiminished or increased, in addition to the stress T due 
to the screwing up, making the whole load on the bolts 

^ ^ 6FL« ^ 

where n is the number of bolts. 

We say ptay be so transmitted advisedly, as the determina- 
tion of the exact amount which will be added to the initial 
stress on the bolts in every particular case is highly complex, 
and indeed hopeless from an engineer's point of view, in 
very many cases depending, as it does, on the extensibility 
or compressibility of the various parts forming the joint. 
In practice we need not,' however, enter into such an in- 
vestigation ; it is sufficient for our purpose to know that the 
whole load on the bolts of the joint is not likely to exceed 
the amount stated, viz., 

6FL« ^ 

so that if the effective area of the bolt section be pro- 
portioned to sustain this load safely, the error, if any, will 
be in general on the side of safety. 

It is to be remarked that of the two parts of the expression 
for the whole load on the bolts, the one part, /S, is usually 
determinable with fair accuracy, whereas the other part, 

■ , , can only be fixed by estimation. In fixing the 
value to be assigned in any particular case to this latter 



PIPE JOINTS. 



89 



part, we may take a step towards a simplification of the 

expression by assuming that L bears a definite relation to 

d. For instance, let L«m x 1/; then the load on the bolts 

will be 

6/wF« +/S = say W. 

Table V. has been calculated from this formula, assuming 
«= 16, and F=5o lbs. for a i-inch bolt and= 100 lbs. for 
a 2-inch bolt, and of proportionate values for intermediate 
diameters. The figures in the third column represent the 
maximum test load for good wrought iron bolts, and are 
calculated on a basis of a maximum gross stress on the 
bolt, amounting at the bottom of the thread to about 
24,000 lbs. per square inch. The figures in the fourth 
column represent the test load, if an allowance be made for 
the unequal distribution of stress among the bolts corre- 
sponding to a reduction of 25 per cent, in the effective 
strength of the joint. 

Table V. 
Maximum Loading for Wrought-Iron Bolts. 



Diameter 
of Bolt. 




Stress due to 
Screwing up s ion V. 



lbs. 
3,600 
4,200 
4,800 
5»400 
6,000 
6,600 
7,200 
8,400 
9,600 



Maximum Net Test 


Net Test 


s,+s 
s 


Load->*^ 


Load=^ 


H 


H 




lbs. 


lbs. 




31648 


2,736 


2.31 


5»844 


4,383 


1.96 


8,502 


6,376 


1-75 


Mi256 


8,442 


1.64 


» 5*582 


11,686 


1.51 


20,088 


15*066 


1.44 


24,000 


18,000 


1.4 


33»36o 


25,020 


^•34 


46,080 


34,560 


1.28 



The test loads given in the third column may be adopted 
when there is a reasonable certainty of the bolts being 
screwed up so as each to take an equal share of the whole 



90 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

load ; but in general it will be more judicious to limit the 
test load to the amount given in the fourth column. 

Besides being of sufficient strength to resist the maximum 
load which can be brought on them in ordinary work, the 
bolts of a joint must also be capable of binding the joint 
surfaces together with sufficient force to ensure its water- 
tightness. It is to be observed, however, in this connection, 
that the water-tightness of a joint does not depend wholly 
on its forcible compression by means of the bolts and nuts. 
In the case of a paint joint the adhesion of the paint to the 
surfaces assists in preventing the passage of water, and in 
the case of a properly formed guttapercha or leather joint 
the internal water pressure, acting on the more or less 
yielding joint packing, assists in rendering the joint water- 
tight. The initial screwing up of the bolts must, however, 
put a sufficient pressure on the joint surfaces to bring into 
play and supplement these assistant actions. It may be 
taken as a good empirical rule that the pressure on the joint 
surfaces due to the screwing up of the bolts should be at 
least equal in intensity per square inch of joint surface to the 
hydraulic pressure under which the joint is required to be 
water-tight. This may be expressed symbolically in the 
form 

if Si be the whole area of the joint. Hence there is a 
certain limiting relation between the area of the joint 
surface and that of the surface exposed to water pressure 
for each diameter of bolt. If the limiting relation be ex- 
ceeded, it will not be practicable for a workman, using an 
ordinary length of spanner and exerting an ordinary amount 
of pressure on the end of the spanner, to bring the surfaces 
together with sufficient force to ensure the water-tightness 
of the joint. The limiting ratio of Si to S is obviously, with 
the data assumed in Table V., equal to the number in the 
second column divided by the number in the fourth. The 



PIPE JOINTS. 



91 



coneeponding ratio of the whole surface to the outside of 
the joint to the surface exposed to pressure inside the joint 

or ? is given in column 5 of Table V. 

Joints such as those illustrated by Fig. 47 are, however, 
suitable only for low pressures. For medium and high 
pressures it is necessary to confine the joint material when 
used in grooves or recesses, in order that the internal pres- 
sure may be prevented from forcing it out, and also to take 
advant^e of the effect of that pressure in addmg to the 




Fig. 48. 

water-tightness of the joint in the manner to which we have 
already alluded. The principles and data which we have 
exhibited above will still, however, be applicable, as will be 
readily understood, and maybe directly applied to determine 
the necessary number and dimensions of the bolts. 

As a first illustration, we will take the well-known double- 
lu^ed Armstrong pipe joint (Fig. 48), so largely used for 
medium pressures of 500 lbs. to 800 lbs. per square inch. 

In this joint a recess about ^ inch wide is turned in the 
end of one pipe and a corresponding projection on the end 



92 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

of the next length, which enters the recess, forming a space 
dovetailed in section, in which a guttapercha ring \ inch in 
diameter is placed. The flanges are drawn together and 
the guttapercha ring compressed by means of two stout bolts 
passing through lugs cast on the pipes, as clearly shown in 
the figure. If D be the inside diameter of the pipe in 
inches, we have, in this case — 

4 

S + Si = (D+i)2^ 

4 

Hence ^ = -55-^ 

Let the test pressure of the pipes, when laid, be taken at 
1,600 lbs. per square inch, then — 

.^ i6oo + D2^ 

Z2 1=628D2 

n 2 

Hence, referring to Table V., for values of — , we find 
j-inch bolts will suffice for pipes not exceeding /?13z. 

in. diameter = 2.09 inches. The corresponding value of 

-^ — = /-^ — rs-^ = 2.To. Hence the tabular value, viz., 
S (2.09)-^ 

2.31, is not exceeded, and there should be no difficulty in 

making the joint by an ordinary amount of screwing up. 

Similarly, 2-inch bolts will suffice for pipes not exceeding 

x/fT^ in. diameter, or 7.42 inches. For pipes of this 

diameter -1- — = ( -^) = 1.29, and the tabular value, viz., 
S V7-42/ 

T.28, is slightly exceeded, a result which may be taken as 

indicating 7 or 8 inches as about the limit beyond which 



it is not desirable to employ so small a number as two bolts 
to make the joint. Proceeding as above, we find — 



J-JD. bolU tuitable for pipes ni 



exceeding a.09 in. diameter. 
a.64 
3«9 
3-«7 
4-31 
4-9 
S-3S 
6.31 
7.41 



The lugs may be made ij times the diameter of the bolt 
in thickness, or a little more — a usual practice in the case of 
5-inch pipes, forinstance, 
being to make the pipes 
1 inch thick in the barrel, 
the bolts I J inches dia- 
meter, and the iugs 2{ 
inches thick. The test 
pressure for such pipes 
before being laid is 
usually 3,500 lbs. per 
square inch, or some- 
what in excess of that 
given in Table II., in 
which the test pressure 
for a pipe 5 inches dia- 
meter and I inch thick 
is given as i ton per 
square inch. 

Fig. 49 illustrates a 
form of joint similar to 
the Armstrong jiipe joint, 
but in which a flat strip of guttapercha is employed 
instead of a round one as a jointing material, or in 
place of guttapercha a leather annulus may be used. The 




Kig. 49. 



94 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

packing ring is here completely enclosed in a recess, and 
the joint may be used for the highest attainable pressures. 
The width of the groove need not exceed f inch in any case, 
and may, where desirable, be even less ; and its depth may 
be J inch. 

If D be the diameter of the pipe, the outer diameter of 
the groove may be D + 1^ inches, and its inner diameter 
D + ^ inch. 

S will then be = (D + ^f-, and 

4 

S + Siwillbe = (D + il)2- 

4 

Hence ^-±8.= fD+^iV ^ ^.^D + sV 
S VD + i; V4D + 2>'' 

and the test stress on each bolt is — 

(2 D+i)2 , ^ 

n being the number of bolts, and / the test pressure in 
pounds per square inch, as above. 

In the case of this description of joint it will not be profit- 
able to employ large diameters of bolts for pipes of small 
diameters, for the reason that if a sufficient number of bolts 
be employed to enable a workman with an ordinary length 
of spanner and ordinary exertion to screw up the joint suffi- 
ciently tight to prevent leakage, large bolts, in the case of 
small pipes, will have an excess of strength to resist the 
additional stress brought on them by the water pressure. 
The limiting diameter of pipe for which a particular size of 
bolt is suitable will be found by equating 



\4D + 2/ 



for this particular form of joint to the corresponding value 



PIPE JOINTS. 95 

in column 5 of Table V., and hence determining D. Pro- 
ceeding in this manner, we find that — 

3-in. bolts should not be used for pipes of less than 1.375 in. diam. 



* J 








s.o 




li 








2.17 




li 








2.78 




If 








3.25 




Ij 








3.6 




Ij 








4.2s 




2 , 








5.22 





The thickness of the flanges of pipes of the type illustrated 
by Fig. 49 is more properly a function of the diameter and 
pitch of the bolts than of the thickness of the pipe metal. 
The following is a rule which may be used with advantage 
to determine the proper thickness of the flange. Let d^ be 
the diameter of the bolts in eighths of an inch, and c the 
pitch or distance between the centres of two adjacent bolts, 
measured along the arc of the circle of bolt centres in inches, 
then the thickness of the flange should not be less than 



vm 



the width of the flange (dimension a, in Fig. 49) being 
equal to 

^8+3 



Hence we obtain the dimensions tabulated in Table VI. for 
joints of the type illustrated by Fig. 49. 

If the thickness of flange, as given by the table, for any 
particular case be less than the thickness of the barrel or 
body of the pipes, the thickness of the flange should be 
made greater than that given in the table, or say not less 
than the thickness of the pipe. 



96 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



Table VI. 

Dimensions of Circular Flangbs of Cast-Iron Pipes with 

tongued and grooved joints. 









Thickness op Flangb in Inchss. 


Diameter 


Width 

of 
Flange 










of 
Bolts. 




Pitch op Bolts in Inchss. 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


12 


In. 


Id. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


{ 


H 


I.16 


I 


.9 


.82 


.76 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 


i 


»i 


1-43 


1.23 


I. II 


1. 01 


.94 


.88 


• • • 


• • B 


I 


2J 


1-7 


1.48 


1.33 


1.21 


1. 12 


1.05 


I 


• • • 


li 


3 


2 


1-73 


;.f 


1.42 


I-3I 


123 


1. 16 


I 


li 


3i 


• • • 


2.01 


1.65 


1.52 


1.42 


1.35 


I. 16 


li 


3i 


• • • 


2.3 


2.05 


1.88 


1.73 


1.63 


1-53 


1-33 


14 


3| 


• • • 


• • • 


2.33 


2.13 


1.97 


1.84 


1.73 


;i6 


1} 


4i 


• • • 


• ■ • 


2.88 


2.63 


2.43 


2.27 


2.15 


2 


4S 


• • • 


• • • 


■ • • 


3.17 


2.94 


2.74 


2.59 


2.24 



The strength of flat cover plates is open to considerable 
doubt, but the following formulae give results which are 
found efficient in practice — 



dfi 



/=W/x.i, 



in which d is the distance between the centres of bolt holes 
in inches, / thickness of plate in inches, / the stress in tons 
per square inch to which the metal is to be stressed, W is the 
total load on the cover in tons, and / the inside diameter of 
the spigot. 

According to the above rule, the cover for a 6-inch cylin- 
der of a hotel lift working at 750 lbs. per square inch requires 
to be about 2 inches thick — 



PIPE JOINTS. 97 

* =10.5*,/= .9 ton (from Table I.), W=i2.6 tons, /=7". 



.2 



10.5 XI' ^ ^ 

^ X .9= 12.6 X 7 X.I. 

6 



By Grashofs rule — 



= 2.3 . 



where r is the radius in inches, and / the pressure per 
square inch in tons, so that 

/= \/2.7 = 1.7". 

Flat cylinder ends are only suitable for very small sizes 
and low pressures, owing to their great thickness for mode- 
rate strength. For large cylinder covers the dished form is 
generally employed and shown in Fig. 16 {an/e) and Fig. 
50. When there is a joint, as in Fig. 50, the rise V should 
be about one quarter the diameter, and the thickness of 
the cover the same as the sides of a cylinder of diameter /. 
The cover and cylinder will then have about equal strength. 
The question of bolts has been already dealt with. 

Fig. 51 illustrates the old method of joint for a long 
hydraulic main, while the more modern method adopted by 
the London Hydraulic Power Company is shown in side 
elevation and section in Fig. 52. The joints are of the 
spigot and faucet type, turned up with a V groove, in which 
is inserted an indiarubber or guttapercha ring. The pipes 
are made in about 9-foot lengths, and are held together by 
the bolts passing through the lugs at the end of each length. 
In the old form of pipes the face of the lugs was nearly 
flush with the end of the pipe ; but in this new form shown 
in Fig. 52 the lugs are set back some distance from the end, 

G 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



an improvement which has been found to i 

strength some 35 per cent, very few failures of lugs having 

occurred since this form was introduced by the Company, 




Fig. 50. 



whereas with the old type of lugs failures were not un- 
common. Fig. 53 is a full size section of the rubber ring 
when compressed in the V groove. 

Fig. 54 illustrates the ordinary socket and spigot joint 



used in long mains, in which the pressure does not exceed 
250 lbs. per square inch. After placing the spigot end of 
one length in the socket end of another, and ramming into 




Fig- SI. 



the bottom of the socket some greased hemp, the joint is 
made by pouring in molten lead. The lead by running 
into the groove a round the inside of the socket prevents 
the pressure from forcing the plug of lead out. If the main 




is intended for a permanency, the socket may be filled with 
a rust joint cement in place of lead. A good joint compo- 
sition is as follows: — 2 parts by weight of sal-ammoniac, 



lOO HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

I part flour of sulphur, 200 parts iron borings ; the whole 
made to 3. paste with water. This mixture makes a lasting 
cement, although a slowly setting one, and is one not to be 
used when the pipe is required for immediate service. 




Fig- 53- 

The drawback to a rust-joint is that the pipes must be 
broken if any alteration to the main is required, as the 
cement sets harder than cast iron, if properly made, whereas 
with a joint made with lead the lead can be cut out if the 
joint is to be broken. In socket and spigot jointed mains 




Pig. 54- 



it is a good practice to put flange joints every 100 or 150 
feet run for the convenience of alterations or repairs. 

When a pipe main is laid on the surface of the ground, 
exposed to the varying temperature between day and night, 
expansion joints (Fig. 55) are sometimes put in the main 



PIPE JOINTS. 



lOI 



at intervals of 400 to 500 feet to obviate the tendency to 
crack, and to prevent the creeping of the joints, which 
commonly causes leaks. 

The expansion joint shown in Fig. 55 is formed by turn- 
ing the spigot end of one length of pipe to work through a 
bored gland and stuffing box cast on the socket end of 
another length of pipe. The gland and stuffing box are 
bushed with gun-metal, and the gland packed with hemp in 
the usual way. In an exposed main it is necessary to anchor 
the stuffing box length of pipe firmly to a concrete or stone 
block to prevent its tendency to creep. Especially is this 
necessary if the main is on an incline instead of lying 
horizontally, for gravity will then assist the creep of the 
pipe down the incline. 




Fig. 55. 



An exposed main of cast-iron piping, some 500 feet long, 
will vary on the average i inch in its length between mid- 
day and midnight in the summer season ; but this amount 
of expansion will be reduced to about .3 inch if a stream of 
cold water be kept rapidly and continuously running through 
the pipe. 

It is not always possible or convenient to arrange cast- 
iron mains or conduits for conveying the hydraulic pressure, 
in which case it is desirable to be able to attach, at any re- 
quired position upon the pipe employed, a means of connect- 
ing one portion with another, or of attaching a branch to the 
main supply. 



I02 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



Pipes of wrought iron, steel, or copper, under 3 inches 
diameter, may be very readily jointed together for low pres- 
sure by means of a right and left hand screw coupling socket 
nut, which draws the ends together into metallic contact ; 



^////y///////j 




\VsS\\v\VV\v.V 



V/////////////A 



Fig. 56. 




^\\VVV\\\\\\V\'^ 



the end of one pipe being turned truly flat, and the other to 
a truly sharp edge, as shown in Fig. 56. The objection to 
this mode of coupling arises from the difficulty experienced 



>»vy>!y:ryyy>^>y^vv>y/x '•••^•••••yyy»x^vi^^<5» 



}• 



:i 






I 



5 




Fig. 57. 



in releasing the pipes, it being impossible to undo the joints 
unless the pipes have room to separate when the nut is un- 
screwed, which, in many cases, would be quite impracticable. 
A similar mode of jointing is shown in Fig. 57, in which a 



PIPE JOINTS. 



103 



rubber ring is inserted to make the joint, but of course the 
same objection applies in this case as to the former joint. 

The more common, although more costly, method of 
jointing pipes is illustrated at Fig. 58. 




The end of one pipe is screwed to receive a collar a, and 
before this collar is placed upon the screwed portion a nut 
B is passed over the pipe, so 
that the nut is then made, 
as itwere, a part of the pipe. 
The end of the junction 
piece, or T-piece, is also 
similarly screwed, and a 
leather washer is inserted 
between the ends, as shown. 
The connection of copper 
pipes is usually effected by the method illustrated at Fig. 59, 
the socket being brazed on to one and the flange brazed 
on to the other end, having first been screwed on their 
respective pipes. 




104 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 





PIPE JOINTS. 



105 



With the application of hydraulic power to cranes, rivet- 
ing machinery, etc., swivelling or turning joints for the 
walking pipes are a necessity. Fig. 60 illustrates a gun- 




Fig. 62. 

metal right-angle swivelling connection for a pressure of not 
more than 700 or 800 lbs. per square inch. It consists of 
a flanged pipe a turning easily in the elbow piece b, having 



io6 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



the stuffing box c enlarged so that the ring d may seat on 
the shoulder and relieve the flange of the pipe a from any 
pressure consequent upon screwing down the gland e. Fig. 
6i shows the same kind of swivelling connection, but having 
a hat leather packing in place of a stuffing box. Both these 




Fig. 63. 



types answer well, but have the one drawback of the pres- 
sure acting on the sectional area of the pipe thickness and 
forcing the flange of the pipe a against the ring d to an 
extent which prevents this form of connection being used 
for higher pressures than above stated. To obviate this the 
joint shown in Fig. 6a is adapted, in which the swivelling 



PIPE JOINTS. 



107 



piece A is packed by two U leathers b, which are kept apart 
by the brass ring c, this ring being drilled with holes for the 
passage of the water. The leathers are secured in their 
position on the pin d by means of the washer e and nut and 
cotter F. If due care is taken in its manufacture, this joint 
is thoroughly reliable, with pressures up to i,6oo lbs. per 
square inch, and lasts a long time before requiring renewal 
of the packing. Fig. 63 illustrates a similar connection, but 
with plain leather washers for packing in place of the U 




leathers as shown in Fig. 62. The swivelling piece a has a 
shallow stuffing box b at each end, for which the rings c c 
act as the glands, these glands being fitted with pegs so as 
to turn with the piece a, and they can be tightened up by 
means of the locking nut D. 

Fig. 64 shows a swivelling joint suitable for a pressure of 
3 to 4 tons per square inch, in which hat leather packings 
are employed. The hollow pin or pipe c has an enlai^ed 
end at B round which the joint a revolves, and is secured 
from sliding endways by the set collar e. Sometimes the 



I08 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

hollow pin or pipe c has the swell b made the whole width 
of the turning joint a, in which case two set collars are 
required, one at each side of the turning joint, and close 
to the gland nuts, to retain the joint a in position. This 
last arrangement has the advantage that it permits of the 
introduction of fresh leathers without disconnecting the 
pipe c. 



PART IV,— VALVES, 



CHAPTER VIII. 
CONTROLLING VALVES. 

Of all the auxiliary mechanism employed in hydraulic 
power works the valves are the most important, for on 
their efficient working depends the success of the under- 
taking. 

The design of valves for hydraulic machinery varies accord- 
ing to the purposes for which that machinery is intended, 
and the constant applications for patents in connection with 
hydraulic valves must be taken as evidence of the import- 
ance of the subject, and at the same time as a proof of the 
necessity for the special attention which is necessary in 
designing any hydraulic valve. 

In the present chapter it is intended to point out some 
of the leading features that go to make a successful working 
valve, and then to describe in detail some of the more 
common types of valves. 

Fig. 65 illustrates an ordinary form of stop valve for 
medium pressures consisting of a cast-iron body a, having 
lugs for connecting to the pressure pipes forming the 
hydraulic main, and provided with a cap secured to the valve 
body by the studs b. A hard gun-metal valve seat is screwed 
into the body at c, making a tight joint by means of the 
rubber ring. The cap has a tapped gun-metal bush d, in 
which works the screwed stalk of the gun-metal valve 
spindle £ ; the bottom of the stuffing box has a gun-metal 
bush F, and a gland ring G presses upon the packing when 
the cap is screwed down. 

If H is the diameter of the bore in the bush, the valve 
seat of which is angled off at 45"*, and the end of the 
valve spindle is level with the bottom of the mitre seat 



1 12 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

when the valve is shut, then the required lift of the valve 
spindle E off its seat so as to have an annular space between 
it and its seat equal in area to the water passage h is ■305H ; 
but in order to lessen the loss of head consequent upon the 




Fig. 6s. 



flow of water through the valve the lift of the spindle E is 
made from .37SH in large valves to .5H in small ones. 

For a similar reason the sectional area of Ihe annular 
space J round the spindle should not be less in width than 
.375H. 

In general practice it is better to shut the valve against the 



CONTROLLING VALVES. II3 

flow of water than with it, for the reason that the water pres- 
sure on the spindle causes all backlash in the screw-threads 
and other parts to be taken up before the closing of the valve. 
To prevent leakage, the pressure of the spindle e upon 
its micre seat c per square inch of seat surface requires to be 
at least equal to the water pressure per square inch. Let H 
and H, equal respectively the inner and outer diameter of the 
mitre turned on the valve seat, also let / be the water pressure 
per square inch and P the least total pressure on the valve 
spindle e to ensure the water not leaking through, then 

P = ^ x/TT = Hi2 X .7854/>. 
4 

We may now determine the size of a hand-wheel for, say, 
a i^-inch stop valve for 750 lbs. pressure per square inch. 
Let X equal the diameter of hand-wheel, and assume a man 
can exert a maximum turning effort of 120 lbs. on the rim 
of the hand-wheel. For a valve of this size the spindle e 
would be about i^ inches diameter, and the pitch of the 
1 J-inch screw cut upon the stalk about 6 threads per inch. 
In ihis example there are four resistances to be overcome by 
the hand-wheel, viz., P, the pressure ; the friction of the valve 
when turning on its seat at the instant of closing, which, 

taking .3 as the coefficient of friction, equals .3^ (H^^ - H^) - ; 

4 
the friction of the spindle in its stuffing box, which may be 

obtained from Table IV., thus (i -.93)P; also the friction 

of the screw due to the pressure P, the coefficient of friction 

being in this case .15. 

For one revolution of the hand-wheel the work done 

amounts to 120 x ;«: x ir, which must balance the resistances : 

(i.)pxr+ 

(2.).3/KHi«-H«)x^xirx7r+ _ 

4 — * 

(3-) (i--93)Px4x^ + 
(4.) .isPx I'xir 

H 



20 x ^ X ^r. 



114 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

Solving this equation for x we get the above example, 8.5 
inches as the diameter of the hand-wheel. 

In large stop valves, from about 4 inches and upwards, 
it is found necessary to attach a balancing arrangement, 
otherwise one man would not |be able to Open or close 
them. 

Fig. 66 illustrates a similar stop valve to that shown by 
Fig. 65, but having its valve spindle packed by a leather lace 




Pig 66 

instead of the ordinary stuffing box This method of pack- 
ing answers very well for valve spmdles not more than ij 
inches diameter, but for diameters above ij inches the 
stuffing box form of packing should be adopted. 

Where a number of hydraulic tools are at work it is 
advisable to put in the main a safety valve, for the simul- 
taneous stopping of several tools will so suddenly check the 
falling accumulator as to augment the normal pressure to a 
dangerous extent unless it can find relief The safety or 



CONTROLLING VALVES. 



115 



shock valve shown in Fig. 67 is designed for this purpose, 
and consists of an ordinary cast-iron T-piece, having flanges 
for bolting to the pipes forming the hydraulic main, the stalk 
of the tee piece being provided with a gun-metal mitre valve 
and seat, while the valve is loaded by a combined adjustable 
spring and dead-weight lever. The minimum pressure is 
put on by the spring by adjusting the height of the cross- 
head and locking the nuts, and the additional pressure above 




Fig. 67. 



Fig. 68. 



that of the accumulator is obtained by adjusting the position 
of the weight upon the lever. 

Fig. 68 illustrates a closed-up spring-loaded safety valve, 
of which the body is made entirely of gun-metal with an 
overflow pipe at a. The point of suspension of the spring- 
loaded plate is above the plane upon which the spring bears 
to ensure stable equilibrium. This form of relief valve pre- 
vents any tampering with it after the spring is set to allow 
the valve to lift at a given pressure. 



li6 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



Although safety valves relieve the pipe of stress from ex- 
cess of pressure, they have the disadvantage of allowing the 
water that flows through the valve to run to waste. To 
obviate this the arrangement as illustrated by Fig, 69 is em- 
ployed, which is called a shock or 
relief valve, and consists of a closed- 
up spring-loaded small ram working 
through a stuffing box and gland in 
a cylinder having branches for con- 
necting to the pipes of the hydraulic 
main. The ram is loaded by the 
spring to the working pressure by 
the method shown in Fig, 68, and 
when the pressure through any cause 
rises above the normal the ram is 
raised, and thus the pipe is relieved 
of any excessive stress that would 
occur if there were no relief. The 
spring can be either cylindrical or of 
volute form, but in any case it must 
be sufficiently long to admit of a large 
deflection without much increase of 
pressure. The apparatus is practi- 
cally a small accumulator. 

The London Hydraulic Power 

Company place a shock valve on 

~ each side of every stop valve in 

their 6-inch pressure main, and in 

most hydraulic plants worked by an 

accumulator it is advisable to put a 

shock valve in the delivery main 

close to the accumulator. 

In tnost forms of hydraulic machinery worked by pressure 

enei^ that part of the mechanism which is acted upon 

directly by the water pressure consists in some form or other 

of a ram working in a cylinder tendered water-tight by means 




Fig. 69. 



CONTROLLING VALVES. 



"7 



of a hemp or leather packing, such as the ram of a press or 
lift, and the function of the valve is to admit the water from 
Che pressure pipe to the cylinder, and then to close the 
admission when the ram has ran out sufficiently far, and 
finally to open the cylinder to exhaust so that the water within 
the cylinder may run to waste while the ram is returning in 




Fig. 70. 

most cases without hydraulic aid. The type of valve in 
common use for low-pressure lifts is .shown in Fig. 70, and 
is termed a rack slide valve, a is the gun-melal valve sliding 
on a gun-metal face pinned to the cast-iron valve body. 
The valve is worked by a rack on its upper side engaging a 
pinion B, which is fast on the axle of the rope wheel f. An 



ii8 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 




CONTROLLING VALVES. IIQ 

endless rope engages this wheel, one end of which passes 
up through the cage or platform of the lift, c is the pressure 
inlet, E the branch for connection to the lift cylinder, d the 
outlet or exhaust, g the pressure port, always open, h the 
port leading to the cylinder, and k the exhaust port. The 
side of the port h opening to pressure is often cut in 
the shape of a large V, so that the closing of this port to 
pressure may be effected more gradually and thereby reduce 
the chance of any shock. The valve is shown in the posi- 
tion when the cylinder is fully open to exhaust, and on pulling 
the rope so as to move the valve a to the right, the exhaust 
is closed, in which position the valve face should lap at 
least J inch over each side of the port h to ensure no leak- 
ing. Upon moving the valve further to the right it uncovers 
the port H to pressure. This form of valve is particularly 
convenient for any kind of hydraulic lift or crane, as the rope 
working the valve can be led away in any direction. 

Sometimes small shock valves are inserted in the slide 
valve body, but for low pressures the general practice is to 
put an air vessel between the valve and the cylinder to reduce 
the effect of shock. The rack slide valve is seldom used for 
larger inlets than 3^^ to 4 inches, as the friction of the valve 
on its face is then more than can conveniently be overcome 
by one man, and the type of valve shown by Fig. 7 1 is then 
generally adopted for low-pressure lifts. It consists of a 
leather packed gun-metal piston valve d^, and rod d actuated 
by a rack and pinion e and working in a gun-metal lined 
cast-iron valve body, having the branches a to pressure, b to 
cylinder of the lift, and c to exhaust. The gun-metal liner 
has narrow vertical slots or holes cut round it, opposite the 
branch b, and these slots are covered by the piston valve Dp 
when in the middle of its stroke, f is the rope wheel round 
which a cord is wound and led away to the lift. As the 
pressure is acting on equal piston valve areas the valve is 
balanced, permitting the wheel f to be easily revolved. 

When the piston valve is lowered so as to uncover the top 



I20 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

end of the vertical slots, the pressure passes from a along 
the branch b to the cylinder, and when the piston valve is 
raised so as to uncover the bottom end of the slots, the 
water in the cylinder can pass by the branch b into c, and 
thus to exhaust. 

Slide valves cannot be successfully used for pressures 
exceeding i,6oo or 1,700 lbs. per square inch, and although 
many attempts have been made to automatically balance 
them, failure has invariably been the result, owing to the fact 
advanced at the beginning of this chapter, viz., that a valve 
to be tight must be pressed upon its seat with at least an 
equal pressure per square inch to that of the water. 

Fig. 72 illustrates a slide valve similar in working to the 
one shown in Fig. 70, but modified in design, for pressures 
up to 1,600 lbs. per square inch, a is the connecting branch 
to the pressure main or supply, b is the branch to the exhaust, 
and c is the branch to the cylinder. This valve in the 
smaller sizes is usually made of gun metal throughout, having 
a loose face k pinned on to the body. 

The valve rod l is enlarged in the middle of its length, 
and has a hole cut in it to receive the stalk of the valve d. 
The rod works through packed glands at each end, and is 
so arranged that it can be withdrawn through the stuffing 
box. The ports f and g, which lead into the branches b 
and c, are opened and closed by the slide valve d, and the 
enlarged part of the rod l prevents the valve moving too far 
either way. 

Should the lift or crane which is worked by this valve be 
suddenly checked, when lowering with a heavy load, by 
moving the valve to close the port g, the pressure in the 
cylinder would be augmented above the working pressure. 
This excess pressure then finds relief through the bye pas- 
sage H and small flap valve e. This small valve e then 
becomes a shock valve, and is usually made in the form of a 
weighted leather washer, pinned or screwed to the face of 
the valve body, as shown in the plan. The advantage 



CONTROLLING VALVES. 121 

in making the ports g circular is the possibility of a more 
gradual opening and closing of the potts than is obtained 
with rectangular openings 

There are vanous ways of operating this valve For in 
stance, the valve rod l can be connected to a rack and 




worked by a pinion and rope wheel, as in Fig. 70, or it can 
be readily worked by a combination of levers. 

When the pressure exceeds 1,600 lbs. per situate inch the 
valve should be of the design illustrated by Fig. 73, first 
employed by Lord Armstrong's firm for crane purposes. 



122 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

The valve can be worked vertically or horizontally as may 
be desired, a is the pressure inlet, b exhaust outlet, c the 
passage to the press or lift cylinder ; d and e are the valve 




spindles working through stuffing boxes, and closing the 
ports to A and U respectively. These spindles are ke|it 
down on their seats by means of the springs c and h bear- 



CONTROLLING VALVES. 



123 



ing against the crossplate j, this latter being secured to 
the valve body by two bolts. The proportions or sizes of 
the springs may be determined by the method stated at the 
beginning of this chapter. The valve spindles are lifted by 
means of a T-shaped lever f. On pulling the lever to the 
left or right the spindle valve d or e is raised, and on releas- 




Fig. 74- 

ing the lever the valves automatically close the pwrts. The 
larger sizes of this design of valve are fitted with a small 
shock relief, as already described. 

For heavy pressures up to 3 and 4 tons per square inch 
the simplest and most convenient type of valve is illustrated 
by Fig. 74. It is usually made entirely of gun-metal, the 



124 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 




CONTROLLING VALVES. 12$ 

valve spindles a and b being packed with leather laces and 
fitted with handles. In using this valve the spindle a is 
opened first, admitting pressure to the cylinder of the press ; 
it is then shut, and the valve spindle b opened, allowing the 
water from the cylinder to exhaust, care being taken not to 
have both valves open at once, or the pressure water will run 
to waste. To obviate the possibility of both valves being 
opened at one time the author has designed valves with 
spindles placed side by side, and actuated by means of 
gearing working right and left hand screwed valve stems. 

A good example of a partially balanced spindle valve is 
shown in Figs. 75 and 76. Fig. 75 is a sectional elevation, 
and Fig. 76 the plan of Meacock's valve for admitting 
the pressure to the cylinders of the two power jigger or 
multiple chain lift shown in section by Fig. 77, in which c 
is the inlet to the cylinder containing the small ram, and 
c^ the inlet to the cylinder containing the larger ram. The 
valve arrangement consists of four plug valves d d^, e e^, 
which are held upon their respective seats by the water 
pressure acting upon the increased area of their spindles 
F F^ over the areas of the valve ports G g^ The chambers 
H H^ above the spindles f f^ are charged with water. This 
water has to be displaced during the rising of the plug 
valves, and they can only automatically return upon their 
seats as the chambers h h^ become charged with water 
through the clearance effected by the diameter of the valve 
stalks I i^ being less than the diameter of the passages in 
which they work, thereby ensuring steady action. The 
springs j j^ are for the purpose of keeping the plug valves 
D D^, E E^ upon their seats when water pressure is shut off 
from the supply main. The pressure inlet is marked k, and 
is common to both of the valve plugs d d^. The exhaust 
outlet is marked l, and serves for both the valve plugs E e^ 
The pipe m communicates with the internal ram b through 
the inlet c, and the pipe n is connected at c^ to the cylinder 
A^ containing the ram a. The valve plugs d d^, e e^ are 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



actuated by the two double 
cams o o' fixed on the spindle 
p. By partially rotating the 
spindle p in one direction by 
means of a wheel or a lever 
fixed to it, the valve plug d 
is raised, thereby admitting 
pressure to the ram B, and 
, byfurtherrotatingthe spindle 
p the valve plug d is liberated 
by means of the slipping hnk 
Q, when it automatically seats 
Itself, thereby closing com 
munication to the ram b 
During this time the cam 
raises the valve plug d', so 
that the annular area of the 
ram a is admitted to pressure 
For raismg a maximum load 
a third movement of the cam 
again raises the valve plug d, 
at the same time retaining the 
valve plug d' open, both rams 
now being subjected to pres- 
sure. 

If the spindle p is turned 
in the opposite direction, thus 
causing the cams to operate 
upon the exhaust valve plugs 
E e', either the small cylinder 
B or large cylinder .\' may be 
opened to exhaust, or by a 
further movement both may 
be opened. By this means 
a great economy of pressure 
water is effected. 




CONTROLLING VALVES. 12/ 

An arrangement of four slide valves may be used in place 
of the four spindle valves just described, as shown in sec- 
tional elevation and plan in Figs. 78 and 79. The slides are 
made to automatically cover the ports leading to the cylin- 
ders A^ B by the pressure acting upon the valve spindles 
D D^, E E^, as shown at r r^ These slides are caused to open 
the ports to admit pressure to the cylinders a^ b, or to put 
them to exhaust by the action of the pair of double cams o o^ 
fixed upon the spindle p, and operating in a similar manner 
to that described for the opening of the plug valves. The 
inlet K is connected to the pressure main, and the outlet l to 
the exhaust, while the pipe m communicates with the inlet c, 
and the pipe n with the inlet c^ 

Brindley's patent water pressure balanced pilot valve 
controlling a larger main valve is employed with advantage 
when a small movement is desirable for the operating lever 
as in connection with riveting plants and hydraulic presses. 

A convenient form of valve for use in connection with 
presses, cranes, lifts, and other pressure machinery is that 
shown in Fig. 80, a production of Messrs George Scott & 
Son of London and Liverpool, the valve being patented, 
and consisting of a casing in which there is one spindle, 
one stuffing box, and one lever, and no weights, b is the 
inlet for pressure water, e the outlet for exhaust, c the 
connection to the machine. The water entering at b 
passes beneath the mitred valve into the machine. This 
valve being raised by the lever which moves the cam h, 
the exhaust valve is actuated in the same manner, and it 
will be seen that both valves cannot be opened simul- 
taneously while both can be closed at once ; in order to 
keep the two valves closed when not opened by the cam 
the pressure water is turned on to the tops of both valves, 
leakage being prevented by leathers p as shown. Thus 
when the valves are open they are in equilibrium, but when 
closed they have ample power behind them to keep them 
so, being at the same time proportioned so as to relieve 



r28 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

any sudden heavy pressure set up by shock on the lam. 
The springs are inserted simply to overcome the clasping 




or sticking tendencies of the leathers. These valves work 
very efficiently, and having few moving parts, are most 
readily controlled. 



Controlling valveS. 



(29 



The same type of valve is used with four or more spindles 
instead of two when greater area is required. 

A hydraulic valve having a central plug or spindle in 
which the water passages are formed in a manner to avoid 
the cutting of the leathers is shown at Fig. 8i. The 
spindle is made to work between bushes, perforated holes 
forming the water passages to enable the water to travel 




from the miet through and out through the opening to 
the press, or to pass from the press and out through the 
lower opening to the exhaust, the water being kept within 
the valve chamber by means of the cup leathers placed in 
a position to prevent the wear taking place such as results 
when the leathers are formed upon the moving spindle. 



130 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



Berry's patent valve is shown in Figs. 82, 83, 84, in 
which the valve spindles are moved by means of a hand 
lever and a cam or tappet spindle, a is an inlet passage 
to the valve box from the accumulator, and c' an outlet 
passage from the box to the accumulator. ^ is an outlet 
passage from the valve box to the cylinder of the hoist, and 
(^ an inlet passage from the hoist cylinder to the valve 
box. ^ is a passage connecting a and c, and d a passage 
connecting a' and f'. e is an auxiliary or actuating valve 
for shutting olT communication from the passage a to h, and 
/is a non-return valve for shutting off communication from 




the passage <: \o k g is an actuating valve for shutting 
off communication from the passage c^ to d, and A is a 
similar non-return valve for shutting off communication 
from the passage a' to d. When the handle j is raised 
in the direction shown by the arrow, the valve e admits 
water from the accumulator to the passage b. The water 
forces the valve / upwards and gains admittance to the 
passage c, and thence to the cylinder of the hoist raising 
the unloaded platform. When the platform is at the proper 
height the handle J is brought back into the horizontal 
position, and the valves/and e fall on to their seats. The 
load is then run on to the hoist, so that the back pressure 



CONTROLLING VALVES. 



131 



from the hoist exceeds that in the accumulator. This 
pressure would raise the valve e, but is prevented by the 
non-return valve / As soon as the load is ready to be 
lowered, the handle / is moved in the opposite direction, 
raising the valve g, and ad> 
mitting the water from the 
hoist cylinder through the 
passage ^ to the passage d, 
and the water having a greater 
pressure than in the accumu- 
lator, forces up the valve A, 
and returns along a' to the 
accumulator as the load de- 
scends. 

The passages a a' may be connected together so that 
only one pipe may be required to the accumulator, and 
similarly the passages i: c^ may be arranged so that only 
one pipe shall go to the hoist cylinder when simplicity of 
connection is desired. 




Fig. 84. 




Fig. 85. 

Fielding's valve, illustrated in Figs. 85, 86, 87, has a 
working piston on which are threaded packing leathers, 
these leathers being held in position by collars or distance 
pieces. In the outer body there are four annular chambers 



132 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



separated from each other by pressure tight joints made by 
shoulders upon the inner bush. The first and the third 
chambers are connected to the cylinder of the machine to 
be worked, the second is the pressure inlet, and the fourth 
the outlet branch. The ports are formed by drilling a 
number of small holes in the inner bush opposite the second 




3 



Fig. 86. 

and third chambers. A similar passage is formed opposite 
the first chamber, the holes in this case being larger and 
fewer in number. The fourth chamber may be made open 
to one end of the inner bush. The movement of the piston 
is made by a lever or any other suitable means. 




Fig. 87. 



Bjornstad's valve is shown in Fig. 88, in which a piston 
is moved in a barrel covering and uncovering the ports that 
communicate from the pressure at a to the cylinder at a^, 
or from the latter to the exhaust at a*, cup leathers being 
formed with their outer lips turned inwards and supported 
by metallic parts of the valve so as to prevent the edges of 
the leather being torn when passing over the ports. 



CONTROLLING VALVES. I33 

Brindley's valve is shown at Fig. 89, in which a central 
hollow working plug or stem e forms the pressure valve, the 




upper end being enlarged as 
shown. Around the smaller 
portion of the hollow stem a 
sleeve f is placed to form the 
exhaust valve. In this ar- 
rangement the pressure valve 
or stem forms a hollow core 
which passes through the 
sleeve - like exhaust valve. 
The pressure enters at b, and 
passes to the cylinder at c, and 
from thence to the exhaust at 
D. The seat is formed by the 
plug c, around which is placed 
a leather, this plug being ad- 
justable and removable. 

Around the upper end of 
the reduced portion of the 
valve stem a screwed or threaded collar H is placed, which 
is prevented from revolving by set pins carried upon the 
body of the valve, and below this collar is the loose sleeve 




Fig- S9. 



134 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

F forming the exhaust valve, and which is provided with an 
enlarged lower end to seat against the face formed at the 
bottom of the central passage within the valve body. When 
this exhaust valve is depressed or moved off its seat the 
water from the branch c connected to the machine is free 
to pass into the exhaust branch or outlet connection d. A 
nut lever j upon the screwed collar is turned for raising or 
lowering the collar, the nut being kept in position between 
two bosses or shoulders formed upon the casing of the valve. 
When the lever is moved in one direction the pressure valve 
is raised from its seat, and when moved in the opposite 
direction the exhaust is depressed from its seat, the springs 
K and L being placed to assist in retaining the valves against 
their seats and for resisting shocks. 

Brindley's patent valve, shown in Figs. 90, 91, 92, is used 
in positions where a very easily manipulated valve is re- 
quired, by causing one pilot or small valve to control the 
movement or operation of the main valve. The main 
admission valve a is constructed of two diameters, the 
larger forming a piston sliding in the chamber x, the smaller 
forming the valve face, having suitable packings within 
the valve casing through which it works. The valve face 
formed at the bottom of a controls the passage of pressure 
liquid from the supply pipe f through the short port y into 
the pipe or conduit j communicating with the machine 
to be operated. The piston of the valve a, when in the 
position shown, has a space z between it and the valve 
chest to permit cushioning, and at its upper side has 
another space which communicates through the valve by 
the ports r s into the chamber y, to which the supply pipe 
is secured, and it also communicates by the passage e with 
the chamber of the pilot valve c. 

Attached to the piston portion of the valve a is a spindle 
L passing through a cover e^ on the top of the valve chest, 
the spindle being controlled by an external spring in such a 
manner that normally the admission valve a is lifted up 



CONTROLLING VALVES. 



135 



fram its seat The pilot valve c controls the passage of 
liquid from the chamber in which it works through the 
passage D into the conduit feeding the machine, and this 
valve Q is operated by a cam carried upon the handle shaft 
K. The guide stem B on the valve c is of smaller diameter 
than the guide stem a on the lower portion, in order that 
the pressure in the valve chamber may act to keep the pilot 
valve closed. The- exhaust valve B is of two diameters, the 




Fig. 90. 



Fig. 91. 



larger working in a chamber x', the smaller being formed to 
close the opening to the exhaust passage c, but when open 
allowing this passage to communicate with the conduit j. 

A second pilot valve is arranged so that when lifted it 
allows the space above the piston of the valve b to com- 
municate by a passage E^ and D^ with the exhaust pipe c. 
In this exhaust valve ports s' and r^ lead through the main 
valve from the chamber communicating with the conduit ]. 




136 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

The exhaust valve b is normally lifted up by a spindle pass- 
ing through the valve cover and held by an external spring ; 
a cam placed upon the hand lever shaft controls the lifting 
of the second pilot valve. The hand lever or cam shaft is 
arranged so that the cams control the pilot valves upon the 
single handle being moved. 

The action of the valve is such that when both pilot 
valves are closed the pressure supply passes from f into the 
chamber v and through the 
ports R s into the chamber X, 
thus acting upon the piston 
portions of the valve a, forc- 
ing it on to its seat to close 
the passage from f to the con- 
duit J. Similarly the exhaust 
valve B closes the passage 
from the supply J to the 
branch G by the pressure 
from the fluid in the conduit 
Y passing through the passages s' r' to the top of the piston. 
When the lever is moved to lift the stem of the admission 
pilot valve c, then the pressure which has accumulated over 
the piston portion of the valve a passes by the passage E 
through the pilot valve box into j, thus removing the pressure 
from the top of the piston and allowing the spring to open 
the valve a for placing the admission pipe in communi- 
cation with the branch j. The exhaust valve is controlled 
in a similar manner by the pressure being taken from the 
upper side of the piston head of the valve and turned into 
the passage d' beneath the valve, thus allowing the spring to 
draw the valve from its seal and place the exhaust branch in 
free communication with j. 

Berry's patent safety non-return valve is shown in Fig. 
93, arranged so that if a reduction of pressure in the main 
occurs or the main fractures, the valve closes and retains the 
pressure in the cylinder or machine that is being supplied, 






CONTROLLING VALVES. 



>3> 

thus preventing the rams in the cylinder moving backwards. 

The pressure enters at 7 and passes through valve 3 to 
the outlet branch 8. When the fluid is admitted to the 
working cylinder through the port 7, the valve 3 is lifted. 
When the actuating valve is moved to exhaust, the fluid in 
the working cylinder begins 
to move in the opposite direc- 
tion acting on the top of the 
collar 2, closes it and its valve 
3 on to its seat, thus stopping 
the exhaust; but on the at- 
tendant operating the foot 
lever of the auxiliary valve in 
connection with the cylinder 
20, the ram 19 raises the 
valve 3, thus allowing the 
pressure to escape. If a 
fracture occurs in the pres- 
sure mains between the main 
stop-cock and the pressure 
cylinder, the valve 3 closes, 
retaining the fluid, which, 
however, can be discharged 
at will by admitting pressure 
beneath the ram 19. 

Middleton's patent controlling valve is shown at Figs. 
94 and 95, the valve being of a slide or D-pattern, and 
being employed for distributing water to two divisions of 
cylinders. Two valves are mounted upon one stem, and are 
arranged to supply one or both cylinders as may be desired. 
The main valve a and the secondary valve b are mounted on 
the same valve spindle c. The first movement of the valve 
rod pushes the valve a and opens the primary valve ports 
only without moving the secondary valve; a ^further move- 
ment of the valve rod in the same^di recti on causes the play 
or space at x to be taken up, which then opens the secondary 




Fig- 93- 



138 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

valve ports, thus turning power into the second or other 
cylinders as may be required. The operation is such that 
when the valves have not only shut off the power water from 






n 



3' 



alt the cylinders and have opened Ihe cylinders to the exhaust 
in the position shown, lifting of the load will be effected by 
the valve rod being moved a short distance only, so as to 







open the supply ports to the cylinder or cylinders fed by the 
primary valve a. If Ihe load be a light one, the hoist will 
ascend without further attention ; but if it be too heavy, and 



CONTROLLING VALVES. 1 39 

the hoist remains stationary, the attendant pulls the valve 
over, and thus draws the secondary valve b so as to open its 
supply p>ort, supplying power to the secondary cylinders, and 
thus effecting the movement of the load. 

This type of valve is useful for double power cranes or 
lifts where two or more cylinders have to be used for varying 
loads. 



PART V,— LIFTING MACHINERY, 



CHAPTER IX. 

PLATFORM LIFTS. 

One of the most popular applications of hydraulic power is 
connected with lifting machinery, when passengers or goods 
are raised from floor to floor of lofty warehouses, or for 
general manufacturing premises. The question of correct 
working is greatly misunderstood, and what is far more serious 
the safety of such lifts is only too often a matter quite ignored 
by those responsible for the working of the machines. It is 
said that any person can construct a lift, for the pressure is on 
the water, and the only thing remaining for the constructor 
is to make a simple machine to transform this pressure into 
mechanical power. Then again, too, safety appliances are 
mentioned as being specially provided to meet any emergency 
which is likely to arise, so that the possibility of danger 
or accidental occurrence is a matter to be treated with 
equanimity by those about to trust their lives in such 
machines ; whereas the fact is only too painfully advertised 
that but few persons can properly construct and erect a lift 
which is at once economical, safe, and simple in principle. 

There is probably no piece of machinery subject to more 
unfair usage and more rough and careless handling than 
the hydraulic lift, for it is to be everybody's assistant, and 
every one handles it in a manner that he or she considers 
to be the best way. We have known valves to be pulled 
violently backwards and forwards by warehouse and factory 
lads and girls, causing shocks and strains to be given to all 
parts of the machinery, which have produced permanent 
injury and sometimes disaster; while in many cases fatal 
accidents, attributed to the lift, and reported as "another 



144 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

lift accident " in the daily journals, may be clearly traced to 
reckless and contributory negligence on the part of those 
injured. Similarly, the so-called safety appliances seldom 
prove of service in the cheap and common lift, for being 
always in a stationary or fixed position during the normal 
working, ihey get quite stiff, rusty, and clogged up with 
dirt and grease, and refuse to act when suddenly they are 
liberated after long standing unused. 

To be of any practical or real service as safeguards, the 
appliances which are supposed to arrest the motion of the 
cage or lift platform when an accident occurs, such as the 
severing of a cable or chain, or the disconnection of a ram, 
should always be in actual use or work. They should form 
the absolute and definite base upon which the motion of the 
car or platform depends, so that in the event of any failure 
occurring the gear at once comes into play, and does 
its part promptly and well. When this condition of con- 
struction is more fully understood, we shall hear less of such 
accidents, which have made life-users tremble in the past, 
and which have caused the demands to be made for com- 
pulsory registration of all passenger hoists and lifts. The 
author considers that every lift should be under the super- 
vision of the Board of Trade, and licensed before being 
allowed to carry passengers. 

There is in many minds a strong prejudice against being 
pulled up by any mechanical appliance used in connection 
with hoists and lifts, while the same feeling does not appear 
to be induced when the persons are pushed up. Thus it 
is that nervous persons entering a lift, which is suspended 
by chains or ropes, sometimes reflect as to what will happen 
to them in the event of such chains or ropes giving way or 
failing. They do not allow any feeling or question of failure 
to trouble them when they are unable to see the mechanism 
which operates the lift ; they simply conclude that it is 
something they cannot understand, because it is not imme- 
diately before their eyes. To this class of person a ram lift 



PLATFORM LIFTS. 1 45 

is quite safe, and greatly to be preferred to any suspended 
type; whereas the fact remains on record that the most 
serious accident which has happened to any public lift 
occurred upon a direct-acting or ram lift. There are elements 
of danger everywhere, but probably the safest place in the 
world, taking the number of persons carried into account, 
and the careless handling that controls the working of lifts 
generally, is a car of a modem high-class suspended elevator. 

A good lift provides for every contingency which can 
befall it : excessive speed, overloading, failure of the valve, 
breakage of the ram or suspending cables — all of these are 
properly anticipated by the high-class maker ; but, as in the 
case of every refinement, they have to be paid for in the 
first instance. Here it is that cheap and common lifts come 
in and secure a market ; they are capable of raising as much 
load, and at as quick a speed, as the good and safe lift, while 
they cost about 50 per cent. less. The manufacturer who 
would scorn to ride in a vehicle which did not possess 
absolute strength and finish in all its parts, and who would 
not countenance any suggestion that unlicensed vehicles 
should ply for public hire, does not hesitate to erect in his 
manufactory the cheapest lift that he can buy, knowing also 
at the same time that the elements of safety are not provided 
for in the common class of lift. Government inspection 
should protect the workpeople when the indifference of the 
employer fails to do so. 

In our description of lifts, we shall divide them into the 
two before-mentioned classes, viz., direct-acting or ram lifts, 
and suspended lifts. These two classes are often spoken of 
according to the kind of balance employed, as a weight- 
balanced ram lift, or hydraulic-balanced ram lift. There 
are four leading styles of balancing arrangements in vogue 
for lifts ; the two styles most often used are known as the 
dead weight and the hydraulic balance, while the two less 
frequently used are the combined weight and compensating 
balance and the combined hydraulic and compensating 

K 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 




PLATFORM LIFTS. 1 47 

balance, the word compensating being used to indicate that 
the balancing arrangement provides for the varying water 
displacement of the lift ram while moving in or out of the 
cylinder. 

The conditions that determine the description or style of 
lift most economical to adopt to meet given requirements 
are in themselves of such a varying nature as not to admit 
of classification, depending as they do upon the weight to 
be lifted, the nature of the weight, the height of lift, the 
kind of building it is to work in, the nature of the ground 
the building stands upon, the water pressure at the base- 
ment of discharged level, also whether the lift can be worked 
by an engine and pumps. Generally loads of from 3 tons 
and upwards are most conveniently dealt with by a ram lift ; 
for lighter loads a suspended lift may be used. It is not 
usual to put a compensating balance to suspended lifts or 
ram lifts of short travel, but they are of great economy in 
a ram lift of long travel, say from 30 feet and upwards, 
especially when the working pressure in the lift cylinder is 
small. 

Figs. 96 and 97 are a sectional elevation and plan of a 
dead-weight balanced ram lift for a warehouse consisting of 
a wooden platform with guard rail upon three of its sides ; 
the platform is bolted to joist or girder iron, and mounted 
upon a cast-iron platten a. The platten is strongly bolted 
to the end of a truly turned and polished ram b, made up 
in lengths of cast-iron piping joined together by screwed 
nipples c, the pipe ends being tapped to receive them. A 
blank flange is bolted to the end of the last length of piping 
to form the end of the ram. The cylinder is made by 
bolting together pipe lengths d, with a blank flange at the 
end, the upper end being bolted to the foundation plate e, 
which is cast with a recess forming an annular space round 
the ram in excess of that between the ram and cylinder. 
The foundation plate is provided with a flange to which is 
bolted the stuffing box, and it also carries the branch to 



148 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



which can be attached, in most cases direct, the valve f. 
The rope g from the valve wheel passes round pulleys and up 
each front corner of the well-hole. Clips are attached to the 
rope at positions near to the highest and lowest positions of 
the ram against which a striking bar connected to the lift 
platform can act, so that when the ram nears its extreme 
position at the top or bottom of its travel the valve is auto- 
matically closed to pressure or exhaust respectively. The 



^' 





^ 



J. 



4 



\ 



•tr' 



1.. 



<> 






•T 

J. 






I 



-^'-.rfl 



M 






?^iri"*'; %."« :<•?: » 



TT 



Fig. 97. 



slippers or runners which work against the guides are generally 
cast iron, made an easy fit upon the guides h, which may 
be made of hardwood, planished bar or T-iron, and are 
firmly secured to the walls of the well-hole. The adjustable 
balance weights k are placed in cast-iron frames. These 
frames run upon T-iron or other guides bolted to the wall 
of the well-hole, and are connected to the lift by means of 
wire ropes or chains passing over pulleys on opposite sides 
at the top of the well-hole. 

It is convenient at this point to call the attention of the 



PLATFORM LIFTS. 



149 



reader to a few points in lift design, which materially ajfect 
the working arrangements when a load is wheeled on to the 
platform of the lift ; the weight first comes upon the edge 
of the platform, tending to tilt it, the ram resists this tilting 
action by a bending stress on cross-sectional planes, and the 
resistance of the ram to cross breaking ought to be some 




tig. 98. 

six to eight times as much as the stress induced by placing 
the whole load lifted at the most distant edge of the 
platform. 

Assuming the working pressure to be high, and the ram 
consequently small, the size of the ram would be insufficient 
to resist the bending stress induced by the tilting of the 
platform, and a wrought-iron braced framing l {Fig. 98) 



ISO HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

must be provided to carry the platform, having the guides 
placed close to the top and bottom of the framing. The 
tilting of the platform is now resisted by the guides, leaving 
the ram to support the dead load only. 

When a cage or cabin is used in place of a platform, this 
braced iron framing is not needed, the bracing in the cage 
or cabin being sufficient to prevent bending of the ram. 

In making a long ram, by jointing together lo or 12 foot 
lengths of piping, the connecting nipples should be so 
screwed as to leave some 3 inches in the middle of their 
length plain, and the inside thread at the end of the pipe 
lengths should be turned off for a distance of if inches from 
the end, and made a good fit on the unscrewed part of the 
nipple. After screwing the pipe lengths together, the ends 
of each length should be drilled, the hole rhymered, and 
a steel pin driven or screwed in to prevent the nipple from 
unscrewing. 

For the purpose of calculation, the diameter of such a 
ram built up with lengths of pipes, and considered as a 
long column supporting a load, may be taken very approxi- 
mately as equal to half the sum of the diameter of the 
nipple at the bottom of its thread and the out-diameter of 
the pipe of which the ram is made. In small diameter 
rams, as shown in Fig. 98, the screwed nipple is turned out 
of the solid ram, and its diameter may be .66 to .70, the 
diameter of the ram. If therefore it is required to ascertain 
the supporting strength of the ram as shown in Fig. 98, the 
equivalent diameter of a long solid column of equal strength 

would be ^ — to —^ or .83 to .85 times the diameter of 
2 2 

the jointed or built up ram. 

In many ram lifts the pressure or junction pipe from the 

valve connects direct to the side of the cylinder, and in 

order that the full waterway of the pipe may be utilised the 

clearance between the ram and the cylinder should not be less 

than quarter the diameter of this junction pipe ; thus with 



PLATFORM LIFTS. IS I 

a 2, 3, and 4 inch junction pipe the clearance between the 
ram and the cyh'nder requires to be ^, |, and i inch respec- 
tively. A 1-inch clearance makes a very large cylinder, and 
as }-inch clearance is sufficient for all rams of medium size, 
and of any run out, it is most economical to cast an enlarge- 
ment or recess round the bore-hole at the bottom or under- 
side of the foundation plate, and to connect the pipe from 
the valve to this recess as in Fig. 96. 

The size of valve suitable for a medium-pressure ram lift 
need never exceed one quarter the diameter of the ram, and 
when the diameter of the junction pipe between the valve and 
the cylinder is in this proportion the velocity of the water in 
the pipe is sixteen times the velocity of the ram. In any 
direct-acting lift when the ram is down, the water pressure 
acting on the ram is greater than when the ram is up by a 
column of water equal in amount to the displacement of 
the ram, and as the ram rises this column lessens by the 
amount the ram has risen. We will assume an allowance 
of I foot per second as the speed of the ram in the final 
part of its up stroke, or when it has nearly completed its 
run out, the platform being weighted with its full load, and 
the head of water absorbed in overcoming frictional resist- 
ances in the pipes and valve, and in imparting the velocity 
to the water as 12 feet. This is most conveniently allowed 
for by reducing the working pressure by 5 lbs. per square 
inch when calculating the size of the ram, therefore in our 
examples we shall assume 5 lbs. as equivalent to the head 
of water absorbed in frictional and other losses. 

When the high velocity of the water in the pipe joining 
the valve to the cylinder is considered, it is not surprising 
that the too sudden closing of the valve to pressure induces 
vibratory stress in the water, and consequently in the ram, 
giving the latter jerks or shocks when stopping. It should 
be the aim of every lift-maker to so construct his lifts as 
to reduce to a minimum these jerks, especially in lifts for 
hospitals and hotels. 



152 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

The best preventative to jerks produced by closing the 
valve to pressure is to bolt the valve direct on to the 
cylinder. On the majority of lifts this cannot be done, 
therefore the connecting pipe between the valve and cylinder 
should be as large in diameter and as short in length as 
possible, hence a 2 or 3 inch valve requires a 3 or 4 inch 
connecting pipe. 

To further reduce shock, the port-holes in the valve should 
be made with V-shaped openings so as to admit of very 
gradual opening or closing as described in Chapter VIII., 
while in large valves for low pressure it is advantageous to 
insert in the valve body a bye-pass valve to act as a shock 
valve to reduce the intensity of the shocks or jerks of the 
ram. Some designers arrange an air vessel on the con- 
necting pipe between the valve and cylinder, which will also 
reduce the intensity of the shocks of the ram, but nothing 
in the shape of shock valves, or air vessels, is so effective 
as making the lift valve to give a very gradual opening or 
closing of the port-holes, while connecting it to the cylinder 
by a large diameter pipe of very short length. 

It is not usually considered necessary to apply safety gear 
to ram lifts, as the only time an unbalanced ram lift could 
fall at a dangerously rapid pace would be in the unlikely 
event of the bursting of the cylinder, junction pipe or valve. 
This contingency should be impossible if the usual liberal 
margin of strength or factor of safety is adopted, and the 
pipes so protected that they cannot be damaged by falling 
weights. Drain cocks to the cylinder, pipe and valve, to 
drain off all the water in frosty weather, or for repairs, 
should always be provided. 

The ram of a direct-acting ram lift, either unbalanced, or 
with a hydraulic balance, acts as a column in supporting 
the load, and is in compression, but if we attach to the ram 
platten or platform, by means of wire rope or chain, balance 
or counterpoise weights, an altered condition of stress is set 
up in the ram. For a considerable portion of its length 



PLATFORM LIFTS. 153 

from the top, the ram, instead of supporting the load as a 
column, is in effect really hanging or suspended from it. 
Part of the ram is always in tension, and another portion is 
always in compression, while the neutral or dividing plane, 
where the tension ends and the compression begins, is con- 
stantly varying in position according to the pressure on the 
ram. Should the ram from any cause become cracked, and 
thus break above the neutral plane, or should the means of 
connection securing the platform to the ram give way, then 
the platform would be violently dragged up to the top by 
the balance weights, and serious damage, of course, would 
result. An accident of this character happened to a lift at 
Paris, where several passengers were crushed to death. 

This accident has had a great deal to do with the move- 
ments which have been initiated by some inventive engineers 
to prevent the possibility of such partings of cage and ram ; 
although it is very much to be doubted whether our English 
practice of firmly constructing ram lifts could even have 
given room for such an accident 

The application of high pressure to direct-acting lifts is a 
matter which produces great economy in their working, seeing 
that but small and slender rams are capable of carrying a 
comparatively heavy load. These small rams at first give 
rise to a suspicion of weakness and danger, but from the 
examples to be seen on every hand working, particularly in 
London in connection with the London Hydraulic Power 
Company, we can easily prove their strength, and thus obtain 
confident assurance of their fitness for the duties they have 
to perform. Messrs Easton & Anderson supplied a lift 
for Queen Anne's Mansions, Westminster, where a 5-inch 
diameter of ram, having a stroke of loi feet, is working still 
with a pressure of water due to a column 142 feet high, or 
about 62 lbs. per square inch upon the area of the ram. 
This ram weighs 2,817 lbs., and raises a load less than its 
own weight ; thus the upward pressure upon this ram is the 
pressure per square inch multiplied by the area of the ram 



154 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

in inches — that is, 23.7 square inches x 62 lbs. = 1,469 lbs., 
which is a little more than half the weight of the ram itself. 

It seems remarkable upon the first glance that such slender 
rams can safely support a load when standing so far out of 
the point of rest, as it were, of the ram, which we appear to 
imagine as a column ; but the fact is the rams are seldom 
under compression, seeing that they weigh more than the 
load that they have to lift, together with the surplus weight 
or preponderance which is necessary to cause them to 
descend when the cage is empty ; consequently the water 
pressure only serves to relieve the weight of the ram, and 
not to support it altogether. 

In all lifts the ram should be screwed and pinned or 
otherwise securely fastened to a cast-iron cap to which the 
joist irons can be firmly bolted, the latter making a support 
to which the wood forming the platform or cabin can be 
secured. The wire ropes or chains of the counterpoise 
weights should be securely attached to the ends of the joist 
irons, and never in any case to the wood forming the plat- 
form, nor to the top or sides of the cage or cabin. 

In the following examples — 

R = run out of ram in feet. 

/ = length of ram in feet. 

/ = nett working pressure in pounds per square inch 

at top level of cylinder. 
W = load to be raised. 
Wj = load to be raised including weight of cabin or 

platform. 
j: = diameter of ram in inches. 

Then for an unbalanced cast-iron ram lift — 

This is the approximate value of x because, after filling in 
the values and solving for x, it must be divided by a suitable 



PLATFORM LIFTS. 1 55 

coefficient from Table IV. to allow for the stuffing-box 

friction, and thus the correct value of x is obtained. It 

should be noted that in the above formula it is assumed that 

the weight in pounds per foot run of a finished cast-iron ram 

x^ 
does not exceed — . Hollow wrought-iron rams are not so 

2 

common as cast-iron ones, and where their finished weight 

x^ 
in pounds per foot run does not exceed — , as they need not, 

we have for an unbalanced wrought-iron hollow ram lift — 



x^ ,/-^^^ 

V 3.14/-/ 



The value of x thus obtained to be corrected for stuffing- 
box friction by dividing it by the proper coefficient as in 
the previous case. 

If the ram is of small size, and the weight per foot is 
represented by x^ lbs., the formula becomes — 



'-/: 



w, 



7854/)-/ 



Case I. — Find the diameter of a cast-iron ram for an 
unbalanced lift to raise 14 cwt. 50 feet high, water pressure 
45 lbs. per square inch, platform to weigh 8 cwt. Here we 
have /=say 53 feet, / = 4S-5 = 40i Wi = (i44-8) 112 = 
2464 lbs., then — 



= 7 2x2464 ^ 



X 

53 
for a 22-inch diameter ram the coefficient of efficiency = .99, 

hence ^^•'*^ = 22.55, the corrected value for x. As this is 

V-99 
a little over 22^ inches diameter, we should put in a 23-inch 

ram. Now this would be an absurdly large ram to employ 

for only raising 14 cwt. 50 feet high, and our reason for 

noticing it is to demonstrate the saving of water effected as 



156 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

this common type of lift gradually approaches in design the 
more perfect form. 

A diminution in the size of the ram can be made as some 
of the platform and ram weight can be balanced, as shown 
in Fig. 96 ; we cannot balance all the weight, as some weight 
must be left in the ram in order that it may descend in the 
cylinder and force the water through the valve to exhaust 
when the lift is being lowered without any load upon the 
platform. The size of ram for a balanced lift is given by 
the following formula — 



"/- 



W 



7854 (/-.434R) 

After solving for x its value must be corrected for stuffing- 
box friction as before. 

Case II. — Same as Case L, but the ram and platform to 
have as much as possible of their weight balanced, as in 
Fig. 96. Here we have R = 50, / = 45 - 5 = 40, W = 14 x 
112 = 1568 — 



.=yi5i|= ,0.4.8. 

> 1 4. -16 



4-36 

On referring to Table IV. we find the efficiency of a 
lo-inch ram working through a stuffing box = .98, hence the 

corrected value of ^=i^^^ 

As this is the diameter of the ram on the assumption that 
there is no friction in the balance ropes and pulleys, the 
diameter of the ram as found by the above rule must be 
increased to allow for the packing in the gland being 
screwed unnecessarily tight and for the friction of the 
balance-weight ropes, or chains, over their pulleys, for which 
we will add 20 per cent, to the ram area, giving in round 
numbers an 1 1 J-inch ram. The amount of counterpoise or 
balance weight required is equal to the weight of the ram 
and platform, less the weight of the column of water dis- 
placed by the ram, and the additional allowance to over- 



PLATFORM LIFTS. 157 

come the friction of the stuffing box, etc, during the descent, 
equivalent to lo per cent of the balance weights. 

Ram = 3,498 
Platform = 896 

4i394 
Less water column 2,235 



2>i59 
Less 10 per cent. 215 



1,944 lbs. 



With the water pressure of 40 lbs. the ram would refuse 
to rise right to the top, but as the lift began to slow down 
this pressure would rise, approaching the maximum of 45 lbs. 
A pressure of 42 lbs. is sufficient to send the ram to the top. 

Fig. 96 shows a convenient form of balance, as it admits 
of easy adjustment of the weights. 

In the case just considered, the weight of the water column 
displaced by the ram had to be left unbalanced in order that 
the ram should descend, and in raising the lifl the whole of 
this dead or displacement weight has to be lifted by the 
pressure water. In order to obviate this, the balance weight 
is sometimes connected to the platform by heavy link chain, 
so that as the ram rises the chain in passing over its support- 
ing pulley at the top of the well-hole gradually increases the 
weight of the counterpoise, and at the same time reduces the 
weight to be lifted by an equal amount, and thus balances 
the water column. 

The proper weight per foot of these heavy chain con- 
nections is half the weight of the water column per foot. If 
P represents the pressure on the ram area, W the useful load 
to be lifted, and tv the weight of the water column displaced 
by the ram — 



158 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

This result may at first seem paradoxical, as P is evidently 
less than W, but it is the same as if the pressure acting on 
the ram is represented by the head actings on the ram at 
half stroke, thus — 

2 

The diameter x of the ram is given by the following 
equation — 



-4: 



w 



.7854 0> + . 217 R) 

The ram area given by the above equation must now be 
increased by 66 per cent, to allow for stuffing-box friction 
and the friction of the chains and wheels, and a margin to 
cause the lift to descend empty. 

The balance weights must be the same as the total weight 
of the ram and platform, less the weight of the compensating 
chains and 10 per cent, for friction and margin to cause the 
lift to descend empty. 

Case III. — Same conditions as Case I., but with a com- 
pensating balance. 



^=\/: 



1568 



= 739-3=6.25". 



7854 (40 +.217x50) 

Add 66 per cent, to area and x = 8". 

Balance weights : Ram =1,700 

Platform = 896 

2,596 
Less compensating chains ( — j 531 

2,065 
Less 10 per cent. 206 

1,860 lbs. 

These weights leave a margin of 235 lbs. to overcome 
friction when ascending with full load, and 205 lbs. when 
descending. 



PLATFORM LIFTS. 159 

When the weight to be raised is heavy and the available 
working pressure small, the size of the ram, balance weights 
and chains, and overhead wheels or chain pulleys, becomes 
very large and clumsy. For large weights it is advisable to 
use an intensifier, and by loading its ram with weights, to 
convert it into a hydraulic balance. Such a machine is 
shown in Fig. 99, in which a is a hollow ram, sliding over 
the fixed ram b, and working in the cylinder c. To the ram 
A can be attached the adjustable weights f, and the fixed 
ram b is tied to the cylinder c by the guide bolts G g. The 
inside of the ram a communicates through the opening d 
direct with the lift cylinder, and the displacement of the ram 
R is of sufficient capacity to contain the displacement water 
when the lift ram is down. The valve is connected to the 
cylinder c at e, and sufficient weights are placed at f to 
prevent the lift ram descending too rapidly. When the lift 
ram is down the displacement water fills the inside of the 
hollow ram a, which is then quite home in the cylinder c, 
and upon opening the lift valve the pressure enters the 
cylinder c, forcing the ram a out, and consequently the ram 
of the lift. As the balance ram a runs out of the cylinder c, 
its end pressure gradually increases in proportion to the 
increased head of water. By suitably proportioning the 
diameters of the lift ram and ram a, the variation of the load 
to be lifted, caused by the varying water column in the ram 
cylinder, may be balanced at all parts of the stroke. 

The correct diameters for the lift ram and the ram a can 
be ascertained as follows : — 

Let W = nett load to be lifted in pounds. 

p = water pressure per square inch at level x v. 
R = run out of ram in feet. 
Ri = run out of ram a in feet, 
r = ratio of area of ram b to lift ram area, 
X = diameter of lift ram in inches. 
y = ratio of area of ram a to area of lift ram. 



l6o HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 




PLATFORM LIFTS. l6l 

In designing, the top level of the lift ram, lowest level of 
ram a, and exhaust outlet should all be on line x v. These 
conditions are assumed in the following equations. The 
level of the ram a may be varied, but the balance weights f 
then require readjustment. 



"/ 



vv 



(R + R.).43 l 



yr. 



Balance weights — r x (platform + ram - water column). 
The balance weight thus found must include the weights f, 
the cylinder a, and the water contained in the annulus 
between a and b, and lying below the line x y. 

Case IV. — Same conditions of load and lift as Case I., 
but to be balanced by the above hydraulic method. 

W= 1,568 lbs. 
Platform = 896. 

R = 50 feet. 

/ = 45-5 = 40- 
Select r=4. 

Then Ri= 12.5 feet. 

(5o+i2.5).43 \ 
v = -( 40 . ^ a4=io.q. 



"/ 



1568 / 

-5 = vio.25 = 'i4 . 

7854 X40X 19.9 o 04 



To find diameter of A, V10.25 x 19.9 = 14 J". 
Diameter of B = 2 x 3^" = 6 J". 



l62 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

Allowance must now be made for friction, and diameter 
of A increased accordingly. 

Friction of lift ram : W= 1,568 

Platform = 896 
Ram, 3^" diam. hollow, ^ thick = 760 



3.224 
4 per cent. = 1 28.96 

Friction of ram 6 = 2^ 7, of 31^1^ ^ g^ ^ 

4 

Friction of ram A= i 7« of _!?? = 16 

'^ 4 



Total 225 

Friction of rams descending empty = 1 1 1 

Hydraulic friction of descent = 50 



;86 



Pressure on ram A = 6400, which has to balance 1568 x 4 = 
6272, leaving a margin of 128, hence 200 lbs. must be added, 

requiring an additional area of = 5 inches. The ram A 

40 

must therefore be increased to 14 J inches. 

Balance weights : Platform = 896 

Ram = 760 



1,656 
Less water column 178 



1,478 
4 

5>9" 



Owing to the increase of the area of the ram A, a dis- 
crepancy of about 25 lbs. occurs, which can be rectified by 
reducing the balance weights. 



PLATFORM LIFTS. 



163 



The word efficiency as commonly applied to lift work has 
a very vague meaning ; its meaning in this chapter is, how- 
ever, defined as the ratio of the theoretical quantity of water 
required to raise the load to the actual quantity the lift con- 
sumes. The following table shows at a glance the efficiency 
of the direct-acting ram lifts in the cases that have just been 
considered. The theoretical quantity of water at 45 lbs. per 
square inch to raise 14 cwt. 50 feet high is 75.5 gallons. 





Ose. 


Description. 


Gals. 


Efl&ciency. 


— 


Ideal lift or theoretical - - - - 


75-5 


I 




IV. 


Compensating hydraulic balance 


95-7 


.79 




III. 


Compensating and counterpoise balance - 


109.0 


.69 




n. 


Counterpoise weight only 


225.0 


.339 



With higher and more suitable pressures the efficiency of 
ram lifts averages from .75 to .80 per cent., the latter amount 
being only met with in lifts of good design and build. 

Fig. 100 shows Ellington's hydraulic balance, which con- 
sists of a balancing cylinder m, connected by distance bolts 
end to end with the larger working cylinder n. There is 
a piston to each cylinder, fitted with a leather packing, 
and connected by a common rod d, working through stuffing 
boxes in the cylinder covers. The lift cylinder is connected 
by the pipe h to the annular space e e, which, when the 
piston G is at top of its stroke, is equal in capacity to the 
displacement of the lift ram. The annular area l of the 
lower piston is sufficient when subjected to the working 
pressure to lift the net load and overcome friction of both 
the up and down strokes, whilst the full area of the upper 
piston G is calculated when subjected to the working pressure 
to balance the weight of the cage and ram less the friction 



l64 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 




PLATFORM LIFTS. 1 65 

of the down stroke. This piston is subjected to the water 
pressure at all times. 

If the lift ram is assumed to be at the bottom of its 
stroke, then, on the starting valve being opened, pressure 
water is admitted to the cylinder c, and the two pistons g 
and L commence to descend, forcing the water from e e 
through the pipe h to the lift cylinder ; the lift ram is thus 
caused to ascend, and in doing so requires increasing pressure 
to compensate for the reduced displacement. This increase 
of pressure is supplied by the head of water accumulating on 
the two pistons g and l. 

When the exhaust is opened the water from cc only 
passes away, the water at b being simply forced back into 
the pressure mains. To make good the leakage the pressure 
water can be admitted by f under the lower piston when the 
lift ram is at the bottom of its stroke ; thus water will flow 
from B past the leathers into the annular space e e and 
supply the deficiency. 

If the parts of this apparatus are properly proportioned, 
the lift ram and the balance pistons are in equilibrium for 
every part of the stroke. The only serious criticism to be 
offered to this form of balance is the use of internal pack- 
ings, it being a sine qua non in high-class design to use ex- 
ternal packings wherever possible. If in Fig. 99 two inverted 
rams had been used, in place of the weights f, always open 
to pressure, an inspection will show that the two systems 
are practically identical. The lift ram (Fig. 99) would in 
this case require to be of altered diameter to allow for the 
weight of water in the two added rams. 

When the working pressure is sufficiently high, such as 
750 lbs. per square inch as supplied by the London Hydraulic 
Power Company, it frequently happens that the size of ram re- 
quired to overcome the load is too small to sustain the load 
when considered as a column. The hydraulic balance shown 
in Fig. loi is much in favour under these circumstances. The 
water column is unbalanced in this type. A hollow ram a 



l66 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

works through a stuffing box in the cylinder b. The cylinder 
B is connected by the tension bolts ee to a crosshead f 
carrying the fixed ram c, working through a stuffing box in 
the ram a. The ram a is supplied with a crosshead G carry- 
ing the weights h h, which are proportioned to balance the 
dead weight of the cage or platform and the ram, less the 
water column due to the strokes of the lift ram and the ram 
A and a margin for causing the down stroke. The cylinder 
B is connected through the port j with the lift cylinder, and 
has the same displacement volume. The pressure water 
enters from the lift valve at f. 

When the lift ram is down the balance ram a is up as 
shown, and on opening the valve the pressure acting on the 
area of the ram c forces the ram a into the cylinder b, thus 
causing the lift ram to run out, and when the valve is opened 
to exhaust the margin of weight in the lift ram to cause the 
descent raises the balance ram a to the top of the cylinder 
B. The area of the ram c must be such that, at the pressure 
available, the total pressure is sufficient to overcome the 
useful load together with the column of water of a height 
represented by the stroke of the lift ram added to the stroke 
of A, and leave a sufficient margin to overcome the friction 
of the up and down strokes. 

When pressure water is not available, either from want of 
sufficient height or absence of an existing supply, a ram lift 
can be worked fairly economically by a steam or gas engine, 
the engine being employed to drive a small pressure pump 
which forces water from a tank into a small accumulator 
which has a pipe connection to the lift valve. A suitable 
pressure for the accumulator is from 1,000 to 1,200 lbs. per 
square inch, and the capacity of the accumulator should be 
from one and a half to twice the consumption of water for 
one complete journey of the lift. 

The pumps should be proportioned to deliver when 
working continuously a larger amount of water than is 
required by the intermittent working of the lift, and gear 



PLATFORM LIFTS. 1 67 

should be fitted such that when the accumulator is fully 
charged with water the pumps are automatically thrown out 
of action, thus economising power. A slight fall of the 
accumulator should bring the pumps again into action. 

Where steam power is available the Worth ington steam 
pump can be employed to pump the water direct into the 
ram cylinder, the valve being controlled by the cord passing 
through the cage. 

The openings to the lift wells in hotels are guarded with light 
iron gates which the lift attendant alone can open, while in 
warehouses a wood guard rail is simply hinged to one side of 
the lift opening. This rail is lifted up when passing in or out 
of the lift and then dropped upon its supports. Many attempts 
have been made to secure the opening and closing of the 
guard rail or iron gate by the up and down movement of the 
lift cabin or platform, but it is found that mechanical closing 
begets carelessness on the part of the attendants, fiy fixing a 
vertical balanced sliding door in the opening at the bottom of 
the lift well, and making a hole in the floor to receive the door, 
the platform or cabin, in its descent, can be made to depress 
the door level with the floor, and on the ascent of the plat- 
form the excess of balance weight will cause the door to rise 
and guard the well-hole. At the top floor a sliding door can 
be fixed and partly balanced by means (3f weights and chains, 
the top of the cabin or cage being arranged to engage the 
door in ascending so as to lift it clear of the entrance to the 
cage, the descent of the cage allowing the door to drop to 
the floor and guard the well-hole. On the intermediate 
floors it is most satisfactory to open and close the guard rail 
or gates by hand. 

Passing on to consider the second division of our subject, 
viz., suspended lifts. Fig. 102 illustrates in elevation the more 
common arrangement of this form of lift, a is an ordinary 
cabin or cage, well braced and boarded on the three sides, 
but open in front. To the bottom of the cabin are secured 
the two girder irons b lying side by side, with sufficient space 



l68 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 




P///Wi'///>//'//'/X^ 



PLATFORM LIFTS. 1 69 

between to receive the safety gear. These girders are secured 
by tension bolts cc to corresponding girder irons d. At 
the top of the cabin a, and between the girder irons d, are 
placed the grooved wheels that convey the wire rope to the 
safety gear fixed below the cage. Two lifting ropes e are 
used, one passing to the right hand and the other to the left 
hand of the cage, and thence to the safety gear. Four 
slipper guides are fixed to the cage, sliding up and down 
upon the hardwood guides f f, which are securely attached 
to the brickwork at the sides of the well-hole. The ropes e 
pass round the overhead pulleys g g to an ordinary hydraulic 
multiple hoist shown at h. This hoist is made in exactly 
the same vfay as those to be described in Chapter XL, and is 
bolted to the wall with the ram working downwards. To the 
crosshead are attached the balance weights j, sufficient to 
almost balance the weight of the cage. 

The valve k is placed in the well-hole under the cabin 
as in the case of ram lifts, and the starting rope passes down 
through the cage on each side of the well hole, and is con- 
nected to the pulley on the valve. Stops are attached to the 
starting rope, so that the cabin when nearing the termination 
of its travel operates against these stops and automatically 
closes the valve. 

The size of the valve need not, as before stated, exceed one 
quarter the diameter of the hoist ram, and the weight of the 
ram, crosshead, pulleys, and balance weights should be such 
as to admit of the cabin descending when empty at the rate 
of I foot per second. 

When the cage or cabin is at the bottom level the ram of 
the hoist is up in the cylinder h, and on pulling the rope l 
to open the valve to pressure the ram is forced out of the 
cylinder and the cage ascends until, on nearing the top of 
its travel, it operates on the upper stop on the rope, thus 
closing the cylinder to pressure. If the rope is pulled further 
the cylinder is opened to exhaust, and the excess of weight 
in the cage above the balance weights causes it to descend, 



lyo HVDRAULIC POWER ENCtNF.ERING. 




PLATFORM LIFTS. 171 

pulling the ram back into the cylinder. On nearing the 
bottom the cage operates on the lower stop on the rope, 
closing the valve to exhaust. To secure the efficient work- 
ing of this lift, all the precautions mentioned at the com- 
mencement of this chapter must be observed. The correct 
size of rope and its friction, together with the necessary size 
of ram for the pressure available, will be considered at the 
end of^this chapter. 

Fig. 103 illustrates a high-class passenger lift consisting of 
a cabin a made of pitch pine, walnut, oak, or mahogany, and 
having its interior well upholstered and sometimes mirrored. 
The girder irons b are connected by the bolts c c to the ends 
of the cross girder d at the top of the cabin. This girder is 
made in two parts firmly bolted together, and carries the 
grooved pulleys e, which deflect four supporting wire ropes, 
two to the right and two to the left of the cage, to the safety 
gear fixed underneath. 

The ropes e pass round the overhead pulley c down to 
the hydraulic multiple hoist shown at h, which is bolted to 
the wall at the back of the well-hole with the ram working 
downwards. 

The starting rope l passes down one side of the well-hole 
through the cabin to the wheel on the valve k, and returns 
by the other side of the well-hole between the side of the 
cabin and the wall. 

The working of this lift is precisely similar to the one pre- 
viously described, and the difference of construction of this 
multiple hoist, viz., placing the rope wheels in line with each 
other instead of side by side, as shown in Fig. 102, is for the 
purpose of economising space in the well-hole, and thus 
allowing a roomy cabin to be used. 

The type of hydraulic multiple hoist shown for suspended 
lifts in Figs. 102 and 103 answers well for water pressures 
varying from 150 to 1,200 lbs. per square inch ; but for less 
pressures better results are obtained by using the hoist 
illustrated by Fig. 104, which is largely used. 



172 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

The arrangement consists of a cylinder a truly bored and 
fitted with a leather or metallic packed piston b, having two 
piston rods c c working through hemp packed stuffing boxes 
in the cylinder cover e, and connected to a crosshead 
carrying the balance weights d and the pulley f. The 
cylinder has at each end branches c g. The lower branch 
connects direct to the valve k, while the upper branch con- 
nects to the pressure pipe j, and is not controlled by the 
valve K. This lift cylinder is generally placed on one side 
of the well-hole on the basement floor level, and the wire 
lifting ropes pass from the cage round the overhead pulley 
at the top of well-hole, and descending pass round the 
pulley F and upwards to the anchorage at top of well-hole. 
The action is as follows : — When the piston is at the 
bottom of the cylinder, as shown, the cabin is at its highest 
level, and on the valve being moved by pulling the rope 
upwards the lower branch g is opened to the pressure pipe j, 
and the pressure water is admitted to the under side of the 
piston B. 

The area of the top side of the piston b is less than the 
area of the under side by the area of the rods c, hence there 
is an upward pressure. This pressure, together with the 
excess weight of the cabin over the balance weights d and 
piston B causes the cage to descend, lifting the piston b. 
The water passes from the top of the piston through the 
valve, and fills the space below the piston. On the cage 
nearing its lowest position a stop on the valve rope l is 
operated, causing the valve to be closed. 

Upon pulling the rope further, the lower branch G is 
opened to exhaust, and the water pressure acting upon the 
top side of the piston forces it down, thus raising the cabin. 

Various kinds of safety gear have from time to time been 
introduced for suspended lifts, many of which are absolutely 
worthless. Fig. 105 illustrates a well-known type of safety 
gear suitable for light weight passenger lifts. The hardwood 
guide A runs from top to bottom of the well-hole, and is en- 



PLATFORM LIFTS. 



173 



gaged by the slipper guides bolted to the sides of ihe cage. 
The bracket B is bolted to the under side of the cabin, and 
carries the tension bolts c c connecting this bracket with the 
cross girder over the top of cabin. Two bell crank levers 
D D are pivoted to the angle plate b, their longer anns being 







joined tt^ether by the bar e, which is provided with joggles 
for engaging the corresponding projections on the eccentric 
cams F F. These cams are keyed fast upon the ends of two 
shafts running under the cabin, and supported by bearings 
formed in the angle bracket b. At the other end of these 



174 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

shafts two similar cams are keyed, and the shafts being 
provided with short levers h, that are linked together by 
the bar g, any movement of one shaft produces a corre- 
sponding movement in the other. The cabin should be 
suspended by four ropes, two of which pass down each side 
of the cage, as previously described. These two ropes are 
anchored by means of shackles to the short arm of the bell 
crank levers d d. 

The weight of the cabin is thus divided equally between 
the four ropes, which are adjusted in length so that the long 
arms of the bell crank levers d d hang vertically. The cams 
F F are just clear of the guide a ; but upon any one of the 
ropes stretching or breaking the tension of the adjacent rope 
pulls the bell crank levers d d out of the vertical, thus pull- 
ing over the connecting link e, and causing the cams f f 
to engage the guide a. The frictional resistance of the cams 
F f on the guide causes the cams to revolve on their shafts, 
and firmly grip the guide a, thus supporting the cage. By 
this arrangement the breaking of any one of the four suspen- 
sion ropes brings into action the four cams. 

Fig. 1 06 illustrates the Otis safety gear, a is the hard- 
wood guide running from top to bottom of the well-hole. 
Two rocking levers b are provided, turning on the pins c 
carried by castings bolted to the wood crossbeams upon 
which the cabin rests. To the side of the wood beam is 
bolted the bracket f, carrying the shaft g running under 
the cabin, and supported at the other end by a similar 
bracket bolted to the beam. To each end of this shaft are 
keyed the strikers e, which are actuated by the rocking levers 
B through the medium of the set screws h h. The cage is 
suspended by four ropes, two of which pass down each side 
of the cage, and are fastened to the suspending eyes of the 
bolts K K. These bolts connect to the lever b at an equal 
distance on each side of the pin c, and by adjustment of 
their nuts the lever b is placed horizontally. Should one of 
the ropes stretch or break while the cabin is travelling up or 



PLATFORM LIFTS. 



175 



down, the lever b, being relieved of the pull of the broken 
rope upon one arm, is tilted up by the pull of the remaining 




Fig. 106. 

rope upon the other arm. This movement of the lever b 
actuates the striker e, and causes it to push the wedge d up. 



176 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

thus preventing the further descent of the cage. The fric- 
tion of the back of the wedge against the casting being much 
less than that of the face of the wedge against the guide, the 
weight of the cabin assists in fixing more securely the wedge 
against the guide. 

The two kinds of safety gear described are independent of 
the elasticity of a spring for their action, and from the fact 
that they have few and simple parts they are not likely to 
become clogged with dirt, as often happens with a badly 
thought out gear. 

The number of lifting ropes for suspended cabins or 
cages varies from two to eight, and as the safety gear re- 
quires four it becomes necessary to either increase or reduce 
the number. This is easily done by introducing a crosshead 
having three holes for the attachment of ropes. Two ropes 
are attached, one at each end, and pass off in one direction ; 
while a third rope is attached in the middle, and passing off in 
the opposite direction, resists the tension due to the other two. 

In order to provide against the possibility of a dangerously 
rapid descent of the cage, due to the valve being opened too 
wide for the load^ being raised or lowered, a centrifugal 
governor which is actuated by a light endless wire rope or 
belt suitably attached to the safety gear and passing over 
idle pulleys, is used. Should the governor revolve too 
quickly, the rope is retarded by a friction brake, and by the 
tension thus produced the rope is caused to operate the 
safety wedges, and check the descent of the cage. 

To ensure a long life for the wire ropes of a suspended 
lift the stress on the wires due to tension, together with the 
stress due to the wire bending round the smallest pulleys» 
should not exceed the stress which experience has shown the 
wire will stand frequently repeated. For steel wire of aver- 
age quality this stress may be at least 70,000 lbs. per square 
inch. Again, when life would be jeopardised by an acci- 
dent, as in a lift or crane, the working stress should not 
exceed one-eighth the breaking stress of the rope. 



PLATFORM LIFTS. 



177 



The latter consideration will enable the size of the rope 
to be determined, while by the former the correct size of the 
wire of which the rope is to be made can be ascertained 
when the diameter of the smallest wheel over which the rope 
passes is known. Assuming the breaking weight of good 
plough steel wire rope to be 150 tons per square inch of 
metallic section, then the ratio of the diameter of the wires 
of the rope to the diameter of the smallest wheel round which 
the rope passes should be about ^^. 

If the ratio is much larger than this, and the steel of which 
the wires are made be not of good quality, rapid deterioration 
of the rope commences, and rupture will take place if the 
rope is not replaced. 

Table VII. gives the breaking weight in tons of good 
average quality plough steel wire ropes : — 

Table VII. 
Breaking Weight of Steel Wire Ropes. 



Diam. of rope in inches 


A 


a 


A 


i 


A 


§ 


! 


i 


I 


Circumference in inches 


I 


ja 


i| 


If 


If. 


2 


2i 


2i 


31 


Weight in pounds per 
fathom - 


li 


lA 


lA 


2j 


3 


4 


5i 


7i 


loj 


Breaking weight of 
rope in tons 


4 


5i 


74 


10 


Hi 


JSi 


2IJ 


28J 


40 



When the maximum stress induced in the wires of a rope 
passing round a pulley does not exceed 70,000 lbs. per 
square inch, the power expended in bending the rope on to 
the pulley is largely given off again upon the rope leaving 
the pulley. 

Fig. 107 illustrates part of a grooved rope wheel, and a b is 
a horizontal line passing through the centre of the wheel, and 
c c is the centre line of the wire rope passed round the 
wheel as shown. It is assumed that this centre line does 

M 



178 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

f 




PLATFORM LIFTS. 1 79 

not alter in length when the rope is bent round the wheel. 
This erroneous assumption does not perceptibly affect the 
results. Thus it is evident that the wires below the centre 
line c c of the rope must accommodate themselves to a less 
circumference than the wires in a plane normal to the paper ; 
whereas those outside of the centre line accommodate them- 
selves to a larger circumference. The wires accomplish 
this in the former case by bulging or spreading out laterally 
and creeping, and in the latter by straightening and draw- 
ing in to the centre of the rope. Thus the rope circular 
below A B before it touches the wheel becomes slightly oval 
above a b, where it lies in the groove, as shown by the full 
line D. The distance between d and the dotted line e indi- 
cates the extent to which the rope is distorted out of the 
true circle. 

Thus the work lost in bending a rope round a circle is 
the frictional resistance of the wires sliding upon each other 
in the act of accommodating themselves to the varying 
circumferences in which they are forced to lie. 

Let D = diameter at bottom of the groove of the rope 

wheel in inches. 
„ d — diameter of the wire rope in inches, and if the 
coefficient of friction = .2, the efficiency of a 
rope passed half round a wheel is 

.17^ 
I - ' 



D + ^ 



The efficiency for various sized ropes passing half round 
pulleys of different diameters calculated by this formula are 
given in Table VIII. 

Fig. 108 illustrates a square chain wheel with a chain a b 
suspended from it. In turning the wheel in the direction of 
the arrow a quarter of a revolution the links a and b each 
turn a quarter round on their supporting links c and d. 
Thus when the wheel makes a complete revolution the fric- 
tional loss of the chain is the same as that of a link turning 



l8o HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

twice round an iron rod of circular section equal in diameter 
to the bar iron of which the chain is made. Now this holds 
true whatever may be the size of wheel, pitch of chain, or 
diameter of chain iron, so that we get for the efficiency of a 
chain lapping half round a wheel the formula — 

The coefficients of efficiencies for different sizes of chain 
passing half round pulleys of varying diameter calculated by 
this formula are given in Table VIII. 



PLATFORM LIFTS. 



Coefficients of Efficibkcv of Stkbl Wibb Rope ani> Short Link 
Chain (Friction of Pin not included). 







i 




WBofRop.orCb.inl™ 


nlnch«. 








i 






if 




i 


. 


lil! 


a 


1 


1 


Ijj 


1 


i 
5 


■ 8 „ 
J8 ,. 




.» 


W ■»« -K 
9» -98 -9« . 

. .. .,8 . 
. .. .5* 


a .96 

B .97 

.98 
.98 

■98 
9J 


9« 
98 
98 


.96 . 
-96 

.98 . 
.98 
98 

-98 
.98 


)8 M 

*8 .95 . 

8 .96 . 

. .98 
■ .98 
- -98 

,98 

.98 

-99 


J* .95 

fi .96 
JB .M 

. .98 
. -98 
98 
■98 
-98 
■98 


■98 
.98 

■9» 


.96 

■98 
.98 
.98 
,98 
■98 
98 
.98 


■98 
.98 
.98 


■16 

.96 

■97 

.98 

.98 
.98 
.98 
.98 
.98 
.98 



iSz 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



The formula for the efficiency of a pulley on its axle or 
pin is the same as for the efficiency of a chain lapping half 
round a wheel, providing always that the pressure of the 
wheel upon its axle does not exceed 5 cwt. per square inch 
(measured on the diameter of the axle), which amount should 
not be exceeded in lift designing. Table IX. has been 
calculated by this formula, and for the convenience of 
readily ascertaining the efficiency of lifts, pulley blocks, etc., 
the average ratio of the diameter of the pins to diameter of 
the pulleys is given here : — 



Diameter of Wheels 
in Inches. 

I to 16 

16 „ 24 

Above 36 



Average Pin 
Ratio. 

i or .125 



Table IX. 
Coefficients of Efficiency of Pulley Wheels Turning on Pins. 



Ratio Diam. 

of Pin to 

Diam. of 

Wheel. 


.06 

.976 


.07 
.97a 


.08 


.09 


.1 


.11 
.956 


.13 

.952 


•>3 
.948 


•944 


•«5 
■94 


.16 
•936 


.17 


.18 


.19 


.a 


Coefficient 


.968 


.964 


.96 


.93a 


.928 


.934 


.93 



To illustrate the practical application of the Tables, let 
Fig. 109 represent the pulleys in the ram and cylinder cross- 
heads of a hydraulic jigger or hoist, the pulleys being spread 
out to show clearly the varying stresses in the chain. The 
top circles indicate the chain sheaves or pulleys in the 
cylinder crosshead, and the chain is anchored to the cylin- 
der on the right hand, and pays off the left hand top 
sheave. The bottom circles indicate the pulleys or sheaves 



PLATFORM LIFTS. 



183 



in the ram crosshead, which move downwards in the direc- 
tion of the arrow. 



LetP 

,, w 

N 



)i 



>> 



E = 



total net power forcing out the ram. 
stress on anchorage chain, 
weight lifted. 

number of plies of rope or chain, 
efficiency of pin and wheel with rope or chain 
round half its circumference. 




->- 



.a,^j^,£.y 



-P 



:^ 



I 




..^ 



I 



Fig. 109. 



When the ram has its full pressure on, but is stationary, 

p 
/ = — , but the instant movement of the ram occurs some of 

its power is spent in overcoming the friction of the wheel on* 
its pin and the chain on the wheel. Thus in the figure the 
stress on the anchorage chain would equal/, the stress on 
the next chain to it would equal £/, again on the next to 



1 84 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

that the stress would equal E^/, and so on to the last ply, 
where the stress would equal E^* "*'/>. Hence — 

W = E<*'-^!^, and/= ^ 



^IS-l) 



As an example, let the ram of the jigger geared 8 to i 
exert a pressure of P =» 8 tons, then / = i ton. The sheaves 
would be about 14 inches diameter, with about 2 inches 
diameter pins, so that the efficiency = .94. A chain yV i'^ch 
diameter would be used, the efficiency of which on a 14- 
inch sheave = .98, therefore the efficiency of the chain wheel 
and pin = .94 x .98 = .93 = E. 

We have W = .937x t, and this equation is easily solved 
by means of a table of common logarithms — 

log. .931 = 1.96895 

. 7 

1.78265 

The corresponding number of which = .6. 

W = .6xi=.6 ton. Thus the efficiency of the wheels 
and chain alone is but .6. 

Particular attention is directed to the difference in the 
stresses of the paying-off end and the anchorage end of 
the chain. The size of the chain or cable should be deter- 
mined by dividing the total pressure pushing out the ram by 
the number of chains or rope plies, and not by merely con- 
sidering the weight lifted. Many breakdowns in hydraulic 
hoists have occurred through putting in cable or chain of 
such a size as only to lift the load safely, and omitting to 
take into account the extra stress induced in the anchorage 
end of the chain or cable. In an average hydraulic hoist or 
jigger geared or multiplied up by pulleys 10 to i the stress 
on the anchorage end of the chain is just twice that on the 
paying-off end. 

Many years ago the late Lord Armstrong published the 
efficiencies of his multiple hoists, which are very convenient 



PLATFORM LIFTS. 



I8S 



for determining approximately the size of cylinder required 
when the load and working pressure are known. It is 
advisable to calculate independently the required size of 
cylinder in each case, only using Armstrong's results given 
below to aid for first approximation : — 

Direct acting 
Geared 2 to 



4 
6 

8 

10 

12 

16 



» 



}) 



» 



if 



»> 



»i 



»i 



93 per cent. 


80 




76 




72 




67 




63 




59 




54 




50 





Case V. (see Fig. 102). — Required the size of cylinder for 
a hoist to raise 14 cwt. 50 feet, working pressure 45 lbs. per 
square inch. The hoist may be geared 6 to i, and the travel 
of the ram is then 8 feet - 4 inches. The height of the top 
of the cylinder h, above the valve K, is nearly 20 feet, corre- 
sponding to a pressure of 8.5 lbs., and the working pressure 
is 45 lbs. - 5 lbs. (for speed and valve friction) / - 8.5 lbs. = 
31.5 lbs. 

The hoist has to lift the load of 14 cwt. plus the weight 
left in the cage to bring it down empty, say 2 cwt., and the 
area of the ram 

16 X 112 X 6 100 ^ , 

= X — = 479 square mches, 

31-5 72 

the corresponding diameter of which is 24.75 inches. 

The size of the rope wheels can now be fixed at 32 inches 
diameter. Suppose the cabin to weigh 14 cwt., and to be 
supported by four |-inch ropes. The first step in the calcu- 
lation is to determine the efficiency of the ropes working 
over five 32-inch wheels upon 2j-inch pins. Consulting 
Table VIIL, we find the efficiency of a f-inch rope on a 



1 86 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

30-inch wheel .99, which is also the efficiency of four ropes 
on the wheel. The efficiency of the sheave on the pin = .96. 
Therefore efficiency of the sheaves, rope, and pins of the 
hoist only = (.96 x .99)* = .95* = .76. 

The next step is to ascertain how much of the cage weight 
must be left unbalanced to enable it to overcome the friction 
to descend empty. The overhead pulleys may be 32 inches 
diameter, and as the ropes only lap one quarter of the 
circumference on each, the efficiency of two pulleys is equal 
to the efficiency of one = .99, and the efficiency of sheaves 
on pins .96. 

Therefore, the weight to overcome this = 
{i-(.99 X .96)} X weight ofcage = .o5 X 14 X 112 = 78 lbs. 

Again, the cage has to overcome the friction 
of the pulley sheaves of the hoist, having an 
efficiency of .77. Then the weight to overcome 
this is (i -.77) X weight of cage = .23 x 14 x 112 = 360 „ 

Finally, the cage has to pull the ram into the 
cylinder against the friction of its stuffing box, 
and, from Table IV., this 24 inches diameter ram 

requires 90 lbs. to move it, so that ^ x 



100 



6 77 



= 20 „ 



Total 458 lbs. 

It will be remembered the weight assumed in 
the trial ram was 2 cwt., whereas we require 
458 lbs. As this is the theoretical amount, we 
must increase it about 10 per cent., giving say 
5 cwt. Then we get for the load to be lifted 

14x112 = 1,568 lbs. 

Weight left in cage for descent, 112 x 5 - = 560 „ 
Extra pull required to overcome friction of 
top or overhead pulleys = 

(load + weight of cage) X .05 - - = 156 „ 

Total weight 2,284 lbs. 



PLATFORM LIFTS. 1 87 

Area of ram — 

2284x6 X 100 ^ , 

— = 50s square inches, 

31.5x77 ^ ^ ^ 

and correcting this area for the friction of the ram in its 

stuffing box, 5—5 = 570 square inches, corresponding to a 

•99 
diameter of 27 inches. 

This would be a very uneconomical arrangement of hoist 

to adopt under the circumstances, but the case is cited to 

show how necessary it is to independently calculate the size 

of cylinder required for each case separately, and not trust 

to any table of efficiencies, as necessarily such tables can 

only give average results, thus causing the diameter of the 

cylinder in some cases to be much larger, and in other cases 

— as, for example, the above — much smaller than required. 



CHAPTER X. 

WORKSHOP AND FOUNDRY CRANES. 

Having fully discussed the various valves and lifts worked 
by hydraulic power, we now proceed to examine the hydraulic 
machinery used for lifting and conveying heavy weights. 

As a fitting commencement of our discussion, we take the 
hydraulic jack, as being one of the earliest adaptations of the 
principle of the hydraulic press to practical use. Fig. no is 
a section of the most common type of hydraulic jack. Water 
is inserted in the cistern or chamber a through the charging- 
hole B ; the screw is now replaced in the hole b, and the jack 
is ready for use. In working the jack, the head c or toe d 
is placed under the weight to be raised, and the hand lever e 
is oscillated, causing reciprocation of the pump plunger f. 
The water in the chamber a passes into the pump barrel 
through the suction valve g, and is forced out through the 
valve H into the hydraulic cylinder i, thus causing the ram k 
to move outwards in relation to the cylinder carrying the 
head c and toe d. The ram k is prevented from moving too 
far out by the small hole l, which allows the water to leak 
from the cylinder i, so giving a signal that the ram has com- 
pleted its stroke. To lower the ram the thumbscrew m is 
loosened, letting the water pass back from the cylinder i to 
the chamber a. 

A few precautions should be observed in working the jack. 
If the water has been removed for the purpose of examina- 
tion or repairs, after refilling, the pumps should be given a 
few strokes with the screw m loose, to force water into the 
cylinder i, and so drive the air out. When the ram is in use 



WORKSHOP AND FOUNDRY CRANES. l8| 




I90 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



the air screw N must be slacked ; at all other times it should 
be screwed home. 

Experiments made at various times to ascertain the effi- 
ciency of the hydraulic jack give results that agree generally 
with what might have been anticipated by a theoretical 
investigation. The accompanying diagram (Fig. in) shows 
the general results arrived at by experiment. The ordinates 
represent the pressures applied to the handle, and the 



K 








«o- i' 


:::::::::::::::;:: "2* 


^ 


:::_::-_ 


.1' 


















; = ;■':::: 




■t'.\ -.. 



Fig. I 



abscisss the loads to be lifted. The full line or "curve" 
gives the actual pressures required on the handle of a 
hydraulic jack, having a mechanical advantage of 64 to i 
when lifting various loads. The dotted line gives the pres- 
sures which would be required if there were no friction in 
the jack. An examination of the diagram shows that a 
pressure of about 3 lbs. is required on the handle when 
there is no toad on the jack, showing that this amount 



WORKSHOP AND FOUNDRY CRANES. I9I 

of pressure is required to lift the jack and overcome the 
friction. 

As the pressure to overcome these resistances will be a con- 
stant quantity no matter what useful load is being lifted, we 
can draw the chain line in the diagram parallel to the full 
line, and indicating the amount of energy lost on this 
account. It will now be noticed that there is a further 
loss to be accounted for, which commences at nothing for 
no load and increases regularly with the increase of load. 
This extra loss is entirely due to friction in the various parts 
of the machine due to the increased pressure on the handle, 
and consequently increased water pressure. The curve in 
the figure gives an efficiency of 75 per cent, at the full load, 
which may be taken as a fair average case in designing, 
though large jacks in very good condition will show an 
efficiency approaching 80 per cent. When lifting a quarter 
of the full load the efficiency falls to about 70 per cent., and 
for smaller loads the jack rapidly becomes an inefficient 
machine. It must be remembered that the loss of efficiency 
we have investigated above is not the total loss, as we have 
neglected the friction on the up stroke of the handle, also 
the leakage of the pump plunger and valves. 

We are now in a position to fix the diameter of the ram, 
length of lever, and diameter of pump barrel, so that the 
only remaining operation is to ascertain the mass of metal 
required in the various parts to give sufficient strength. 

The jack can be damaged by three principal strains, viz. : 
(i.) The load to be raised iiy the head may crush the walls 
of the cistern attached to the jack cylinder. (2.) The load 
to be raised may shear off the lifting foot at the base of the 
jack cylinder. (3.) The load may be such that the pressure 
within the cylinder necessary to raise it may burst the walls 
of the cylinder. Now the crushing strength of the metal 
usually employed — viz., malleable iron or cast steel — is so 
high that the limits of casting actually ensure that the walls 
will be strong enough to carry the load. We employ, say, 



192 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

cast steel, which will have an ultimate crushing strength of 
40 tons per square inch, or malleable iron, which will have 
an ultimate strength of 36 tons per square inch ; and wishing 
to make the cistern as light as possible for convenience in 
handling, we find we cannot get walls to be depended upon 
in castings which are less than ^^ inch in thickness. Thus, 
if we take a 4-ton jack, our cistern is 3 J inches diameter, which 
gives us an area of 3.5 x 3. 141 6 x yV = 3.4 inches, to carry 
the load of 4 tons. Other considerations, of course, come 
in with respect to the arrangement of the metal ; but even 
then the limit of casting ensures us ample margin for safety 
in working. Similarly, too, the projecting foot, which may 
be sheared off, is subject to such a light load in proportion 
to its ultimate strength, that we require to consider chiefly 
the rough usage which may be given to this projection, and 
arrange a substantial foot for this, rather than for the actual 
load to be legitimately lifted by it. 

The bursting strain in the cylinder, however, we estimate 
with more care, seeing that the strain is one of tension instead 
of compression, and that our metal employed may not be 
equally strong in each case of straining. The diameter of 
the cylinder being 2 inches, we have a strain of 2 x jt pounds 
per square inch acting to burst the cylinder, while the metal 
resisting this bursting tendency is the thickness of the 
wall on each side; the value of x being that produced 
by the pump and lever. The load of 8,960 lbs. has to 
be raised by the pressure given to the 2-inch ram. This 
amount we have calculated to be 11,636 lbs., and as the 
area of 2 inches = 3. 14 inches, the pressure per square inch 
becomes 11,636 -f- 3.14 = 3,705 lbs. per square inch in 
cylinder; 3,705 x 2 = total bursting pressure within cylinder 
= 3.3 tons. 

Assuming the metal to be of steel, moderately good, and 
with an ultimate tensile strength of 38 tons per square inch, 
with a factor of safety of 5, we may put 5 J tons per square 
inch upon the metal, so that the combined thickness of the 



WORKSHOP AND FOUNDRY CRANES. I93 

walls of the cylinder should equal ^ = .6 of an inch. This 
would make each wall ^ inch thick, a dimension which 




might give trouble in casting in the event of the core slightly 
shifting, so that | inch is allowed instead. 

A very useful hydraulic tool is made by Messrs Youngs 
of Birmingham, a peculiar feature of the tool being that the 




ram is made hollow so that it permits of a blow being given 
to the load when under the pressure of the ram, the impact 
or shock being frequently useful in effecting a starting when 



194 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



Steady pressure would not effect the initial movement. Fig. 
112 illustrates one form of this hollow ram apparatus, 
designed as a bolt forcer for forcing out bolts from the 
couplings of screw propeller shafts and other similar 
purposes. 

We win next examine some of the more useful designs of 
workshop and foundry cranes. Fig. 113 shows a very con- 
venient form of wall crane. The ram a is fixed to the 




bottom of the crane post, and has a hole passing up its 
centre for the entry of the water. The cylinder b carries 
the jib c, and moves vertically between the sides of the 
crane posts so lifting the load, rollers D E being fitted to 
reduce friction. The crane may be slewed through 180°, 
the water connection having a swivel joint for this purpose. 
The valves are placed apart from the crane in a position 
easily accessible to the workman. This type of crane is 



WORKSHOP AND FOUNDRY CRANES. I95 




196 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

generally used to serve machine tools, and is made in sizes 
to lift from 5 cwts. to 10 tons with a rake up to 25 feet. 

Fig. 114 shows a hydraulic foundry crane of a type intro- 
duced by Messrs Tannett, Walker, & Co. The large central 
ram a not only acts the part of a crane post, but has a water 
pressure always acting upon it by means of the difference of 
area produced by the reduction of the diameter at its lower 
part. The total upward pressure acting on this ram is 
sufficient to nearly balance the total weight of the crane. 
The two side rams b and c are of a sufficient size to lift the 
total useful load when brought into use simultaneously. For 
light loads one only of the rams b and c is used, the other 
being left open to exhaust. The slewing is operated by 
hand, the top part of the crane swinging round on the roller 
path D to reduce friction, while a balance weight e is added 
which reduces the strains in the crane and also the side 
friction. This type of crane is very much used in foundries 
and steel-works. 

Another type of crane used in steel-works has a central 
ram only which is large enough to lift the load and balance 
the weight of the crane as well; this form is not by any 
means so economical as the one described above. 

For heavy foundry work, the crane as shown in Fig. 115 
is employed, having all motions operated by hydraulic 
pressure. The drawing represents a lo-ton crane having a 
vertical lift of 8 feet, with a maximum rake of 20 feet. The 
rams are all fitted with multiplying chains and wheels, so 
that a short stroke of the ram gives the necessary lift to the 
load, or motion to the travelling carriage or crane, as the 
case may be. When water is admitted to the cylinder a, 
the ram is lifted, the motion being transmitted through the 
chain b, the travel of which is multiplied in the ratio of 
4 to I by the pulleys c. This motion is, however, halved 
by the block d, so that the travel of the weight to be 
lifted is double that of the ram a^ The racking motion 
is performed by two small rams £ f, arranged side by side, 



WORKSHOP AND FOUNDRY CRANES. ig7 




198 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

and having chains attached to the travelling carriage G. 
These rams are so arranged that when one is fully out the 
other is in. On admitting water to the one that is in, the 




carri^e is travelled or racked along, the other ram being 
drawn in at the same time. The slewing motion is per- 
fonned by two rams h, placed at the back of the crane post, 
and similarly arranged to the rams E F, but much larger in 



WORKSHOP AND FOUNDRY CRANES. 



199 



diameter. These rams travel with the crane and act on a 
fixed wheel i secured to the floor plate. All the valves are 
placed on the side of the crane post, and are operated by 
an attendant from the foot-plate k. The dead weight of 
the crane and load is supported by live rollers. 

Other types of shop cranes are simply modifications of those 
described, arranged to suit special requirements. In auxiliary 
lifting appliances, the handy tool, shown at Fig. 1 16, is useful 
for light work, such as lifting weights into and out of lathes 



r^ 







Fig. 117. 



or other machines. The ram a is supported on rollers 
running on channel irons b, which may form the jib of a 
crane, or may be fixed over the machine to be served. The 
water is fed in through the walking pipe c, having swivel 
connections, the valves being placed near the machine to 
be served, and handy to the workman. The ram and 
cylinder are sometimes placed in a horizontal position. 
This form of lifter is very useful in connection with riveting 
machines, being used either to support a portable riveter, 
or the work to be riveted by a fixed riveter. 



200 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



4: 



The form shown in Fig. 117 is intendfKt to be supported 

from a crane, and carries its own valves, the water being fed 

to the valves by a spiral pipe. By the use of one of these 

the work can be much more quickly and accurately adjusted 

for riveting than if the lai^e crane is to 

be operated each time. 

Fig. 118 shows a form of direct puller 
without any chain multiplying gear. 

The principle of water acting upon a 
ram or piston is so definite and constant, 
that it has been applied most ingeniously 
by Mr Duckham to suspended weighing 
machines. The application is one that 
has special advantages for crane or dock 
work, seeing that the amount of rough 
usage generally extended to such appli- 
ances is quite sufficient to damage any 
spring, and to damage any lever or 
elaborate mechanism. The attention 
given to this class of machinery is such 
that the gauges or standards areabsolutely 
accurate. 

We illustrate the machine in section 

in Fig. 119. The construction of the 

machine we will now describe in detail. 

The cyhnder is bored out perfectly true 

and lapped with emery to a fine dead 

polish, thus ensuring an absolutely smooth 

surface ; the piston rod B, with its plates 

and leathers, is then fitted. A is the 

hanging strap, b the piston rod, d the 

Fig. 118. cylinder, c the space filled by the liquid. 

The indicator gauge screws into the 

cylinder, and a filling plug is also inserted in the cylinder, 

so that it may be filled with the liquid when desired. Oil 

is generally employed, although in cold climates glycerine is 



WORKSHOP AND FOUNDRY CRANES. 



201 



sometimes used. Leakage will not affect the correctness 
of the indicator upon the gauge unless the piston actually 




Fig. 119. 

comes into contact with the bottom of the cylinder, when 
it will, of course, cease to indicate until filled. Re-filling 



202 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

is usually necessary about once a month when the machine 
is in constant use. 

When a load is suspended from the piston rod of the 
machine a pressure is communicated to the liquid, which 
pressure is then transmitted to the indicating gauge for 
registration on the dial. The gauge is of the ordinary 
Bourdon type, having an elastic steel tube of a flattened 
form of transverse section at one end, and bent to present 
the figure of a circular arc. The effect of the pressure is to 
flatten the curvature of the tube and to cause the free end 
to move with an oscillatory motion ; the free end of the 
tube has connected to it a rod which gives motion to a rack 
gearing into a pinion working the hand which indicates the 
pressure. These suspended hydraulic weighing machines are 
now used for dead weights requiring indication up to within 
20 lbs., such for example as for weighing boilers, heavy 
goods, and large packages, where they have been found 
to be invaluable. 



CHAPTER XL 

WAREHOUSE AND DOCK CRANES. 

The importance of this branch of hydraulic machinery will 
be appreciated when we state that it was to the wharf crane 
that the late Lord Armstrong first applied the hydraulic prin- 
ciple, the pressure being obtained from an elevated tank. 
The elevated tank, however, soon had to give way to the 
dead-weight accumulator. The success of the early Arm- 
strong cranes was such, both from satisfactory working and 
saving in cost, that the system rapidly spread, until to-day 
it is almost universally employed for wharf purposes. 

In some of the original designs internal packing was used 
in order to provide two powers to the crane ; this practice 
has now been abandoned, and all packing is external wher- 
ever possible. 

Fig. 1 20 shows a multiplying hydraulic jigger. This very 
useful and most frequently employed appliance has the 
advantage that it can be placed in any convenient position 
either inside or outside of a building, working vertically or 
horizontally, and the rope or chain can be led off to raise 
a cage or for use with a crane jig. A ram a works in the 
cylinder 6, and has a set of pulleys attached to its head, a 
similar set being secured to the base of the cylinder. The 
lifting rope or chain is anchored to the cylinder, and passes 
alternately over the pulleys attached to the ram head and 
the cylinder base, and finally away to the load, thus multi- 
plying the stroke of the ram. In the illustration the stroke 
of the ram is 5 feet, which is multiplied eight times, giving 
a lift of 40 feet, while the net load lifted after allowing for 
friction is i ton. If the ram is placed horizontally a slightly 




HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



larger allowance for friction must 
be made. Guide rods c are pro- 
vided to direct the ram a in its 
outward course, also to act as a stop 
when the ram has made its full 
stroke. The valve D is automatically 
closed at the ends of the stroke by 
: c 'be tappet rod e. 

As the loads to be lifted vary 
greatly, it is often desirable to have 
more than one power, and so save 
pressure water. There are two good 
ways of effecting this which we 

gwill describe. By the first method 
the cylinder is made larger in bore 
than the diameter of the ram to lift 
light loads, and a second ram is 
used, made in the form of a tube, 
and carrying a stuffing box through 
which the smaller ram works. This 
tubular ram has no base, so that 
the water has access to both rams. 
The outer ram works in a stuffing 
box on the cylinder in the usual 
way. Now if both rams be left free 
to move when the water is applied, 
the lifting effort will be that due to 
the combined area of the two rams, 
or in other words, to the area of a 
circle having a diameter the same 
as the ram working through the 
outer stuffing box. This constitutes 
the higher power. For lifting light 
loads the tubular ram is secured in 
its lower or in-position by a pair of 
claws which are passed overits upper 




WAREHOUSE AND DOCK CRANES. 



205 



edge, so that the water pressure is only free to operate the 
smaller ram. By the second method three equal-sized rams 
working in three cylinders placed side by side are all attached 
to one common head carrying the rope pulleys. By passing 
pressure water to all three rams, the maximum load is lifted, 




Fig. 121. 



whereas if the central ram be opened to exhaust the remain- 
ing two will lift two-thirds of the maximum load. For very 
light loads the central ram only is used, the other two being 
open to exhaust. 

Fig. 121 is an illustration of a crane suitable for use in 
railway goods sheds, and for general loading and unloading 



206 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

purposes. The lifting is performed by a multiple jigger of 
the type already described, while the slewing is operated by 
two small rams placed under the floor, which alternately 
pull a chain which is anchored to a pulley upon the pillar. 
The valve levers are placed at the back of the crane. 

Another very common type of warehouse crane is the 
wall crane used for loading and unloading ships. These 
cranes are fitted with long jibs having a derricking motion 
operated by a hydraulic ram, also a slewing motion of i8o*, 
so that one of these cranes can serve a wide frontage of the 
warehouse. 

It is often convenient to employ a travelling wharf crane, 
such as shown in Fig. 122, which is of the bridge type, 
having an opening large enough for a railway truck to pass 
through. The pressure water is supplied from stand pipes 
or hydrants by walking pipes. The arrangement will be 
readily understood from an inspection of the drawing. All 
valves are contained in the cabin. 

In another type of travelling wharf crane the base is 
made short without the bridge, but in all other respects the 
design is similar to the one illustrated in Fig. 122. These 
travelling cranes should always be provided with rail clips 
to grip the rails, and so steady the crane when lifting heavy 
loads. Screw blocks are also provided on heavy cranes to 
relieve the axles of the load. , 

Fig. 123 illustrates a large dock crane capable of lifting 160 
tons through a height of 50 feet, with a direct puller of the type 
already shown in Fig. 118. For lifting lighter loads of 35 
tons a 3 fall chain block is used, operated by a hydraulic motor 
or ram and cylinder. The chain passes between pocketed 
or pitched chain rollers on the motor, and is then deposited 
in a well. The slewing is performed by a hydraulic motor 
which drives a vertical shaft carrying a pinion wheel gearing 
into a large circular rack. When it is intended to use the 
chain hoist the large hydraulic cylinder is drawn into an in- 
clined position by a chain attached to a hydraulic capstan. 



WAREHOUSE AND DOCK CRANES. 



207 



The valve of the large cylinder is operated by a man stand- 
ing on the elevated platform ; all the other movements are 
operated from the cabin. The pressure water is supplied 
from a plant of machinery separated from the crane. 




Fig. 122. 



We will close our remarks on cranes with a caution 
respecting shock due to the too sudden closing of valves. 
If a load is being raised or lowered it has velocity, and there- 
fore kinetic energy ; now this energy must be absorbed in 



20B HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

doing work before the load can be brought to rest. The 
only means we have at our disposal is to close the valve, and 
so cause a rise of pressure in the hydraulic cylinder. As 




water is only very slightly compressible, the load must be 
almost at rest by the time the valve is closed if there is no 
relief valve. A knowledge of the laws of moving bodies 



WARtllOUSE aND dock CRANES. 20^ 

tells us that the less time taken to arrest motipn the greater 
is the force or pressure required, so that in reducing the time 
by closing the valve quickly we greatly increase the water 
pressure, and a cylinder may thus be broken. By inserting 
a shock valve either opening to the accumulator pressure or 
controlled by a spring, we ensure that the pressure in the 
cylinder can never rise above some fixed amount. 

Fig. 124 illustrates movable cranes constructed by the 
Hydraulic Engineering Company of Chester, for lifting loads 
of T J tons through a height of 50 feet at a rake of 28 feet 
3 inches, this rake allowing an overhang of 23 feet from the 
side of the jetty. The lifting cylinder is placed vertically 
between the cheeks of the mast, the turning cylinders are 
also attached to the mast and revolve with it, one end of 
the turning chains being anchored to a stationary drum 
attached to a footstep casting fixed to the bottom of the 
pedestal. In this casting, and a roller path provided at the 
top of the pedestal, the crane mast revolves. The power 
water is supplied through " walking " pipes attached to the 
pressure hydrants, and flexible hose pipes carry the exhaust 
water back to corresponding hydrants on the return water 
mains. 

Gantry cranes are illustrated at Fig. 125, which shows 
part of an installation of ten cranes constructed by the 
Hydraulic Engineering Company of Chester for the Welling- 
ton Harbour Board, New Zealand. These are of double 
power for raising loads of 15 or 40 cwts., the height of lift 
being 84 feet, and they are fitted with hydraulic gear for 
luffing the load between the maximum rake of 37 feet and 
the minimum rake of 14 feet 6 inches. 

The cranes sit upon gantries which span two lines of rails 
and adroit of locomotives passing beneath, the gantries being 
also utilised as a platform or bridge to enable passengers to 
pass to or from the vessels and for crossing the railway 
lines. 

A 25-ton coaling crane is shown at Fig. 126, constructed 

O 



2IO HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

by the Hydraulic Engineering Company of Chester, the 
maximum rake being 41 feet 7 inches with a minimum rake 
of 20 feet. The load of 25 tons can be raised through 50 feet 
and slewed through a complete revolution. The height to 
the top of the mast is 7 1 feet from the rail level, and to the 
centre of the jib head sheave pin at the maximum rakes it 
is 63 feet and 78 feet respectively. The structure, supported 
on four double-trod wheels, is self- traversing by means of a 
Brotherhood 3-cylinder hydraulic engine and spur gearing 
on rails arranged in pairs at a gauge of 23 feet 3 inches. 

The pedestal of the crane is of pyramidal form constructed 
of steel plates and angles. The mast is composed of two 
heavy plate girders having the main lifting cylinder bolted 
between them, and it revolves in a brass-lined toestep steadied 
by a live roller ring supported by the pedestal. A direct- 
acting luffing cylinder is carried on cast steel trunnions at 
the top of the mast. 

The working pressure is 780 lbs. per square inch. The 
cranes being in use at the Mersey Docks. 




[ -iBjaccf. 2IO, ajhr Fig. 125. ^ 



h 



CHAPTER XII. 
HYDRAULIC ACCUMULATORS. 

■ 

Hydraulic power is generally employed in an intermittent 
manner, and when the pressure is produced by mechanical 
means, the demand upon the pumping machinery is fre- 
quently very great, while at other times it may not be 
required at all for some period. It is thus evident that if 
the water were to be used direct from the pumps, they 
would have to be of sufficient capacity to meet the utmost 
demand, and to be capable of giving the maximum quantity 
required at all times and periods ; so that, in fact, an im- 
mense waste of energy would result, owing to the diminished 
conditions requiring a diminished supply from the pumps. 

Thus, supposing for example that a lift and a press are to 
be supplied with hydraulic pressure by means of a pumping 
engine, and that the lift requires loo gallons and the press 
60 gallons per minute, a pump must be employed capable 
of meeting this double demand, and must supply 160 gallons 
of water per minute. But the lift will not require the water 
more than once in every five minutes, while the press will 
require to be supplied once only in every ten minutes, when 
working at its greatest possible speed This united demand, 
then, requires in one minute out of every ten that 160 
gallons of water at full pressure shall be supplied with 
promptitude and certainty; but for nine minutes out of 
every ten this amount would be considerably in excess of 
the actual needs, seeing that during every five minutes an 
absolute cessation of delivery to the lift and the press is 
thus secured for a period of four minutes. The average 
amount of water that could be supplied, provided means 



212 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

were at hand for storing up the quantity ready for the full 
demand, we can determine very easily. During every ten 
minutes the lift will have made two strokes, and in so doing 
will have consumed each time loo gallons of water. In the 
same time the press will have required 60 gallons of water. 

Thus 260 gallons of water will be required in that time, so 
that, if the pumps can be allowed to run constantly, they 
can be set to work with a delivery of 26 gallons per minute 
theoretically. But to provide for leaks or waste we require, 
say, 25 per cent, above this amount, and thus supply 32^ 
gallons per minute for the duty named. 

The simplest way of storing up this water is to erect a 
tank at a height sufficient to give the required pressure by 
the weight or head of the water column alone. This arrange- 
ment is frequently and generally adopted for hydraulic lifts 
in warehouses, hotels, and lofty buildings. The water used 
upon such premises for this purpose is usually pumped up 
over and over again, so that a large amount of water is not 
required, as the water escaping from the lifts discharges into 
one common tank, from which the pump draws it again. 
As soon as the water rises to its determined height within 
the tank, a ball or other valve closes the delivery pipe, 
and the pumps stop ; and when the water level falls, they 
again start automatically. With this kind of demand it is 
absolutely essential that the pumps should start off without 
any dead centre to be overcome or met, and it is found that 
no pump will maintain this supply, stopping and starting even 
after standing for a length of time, so well and so effectually 
as the Worthington. The advantage of employing a tank 
for such work as that of supplying a lift is obvious from the 
fact that water may be pumped up in the daytime, ready 
for any demand which may be made during the night, while 
the pumps are themselves not at work. 

When pressures such, for instance, as 700 lbs. to the inch 
are employed, it becomes quite impracticable to adopt a tank 
or a water tower, seeing that a column to give that pressure 



HYDRAULIC ACCUMULATORS. 213 

would need to be 1,610 feet high, and pressures as great as 
3 tons to the inch of course could not be provided for 




Fig. 127- 
at all in this direction. In such cases accumulators are 
employed, and assume generally the form of a vertical 
cylinder, fixed at one end, as illustrated in Fig. 127, and 



214 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING, 




\ 
\ 



HYDRAULIC ACCUMULATORS. 215 

free at the other, having a ram or plunger working through 
a stuffing box and gland, or through a gland and leather 
cup packing, as indicated in Fig. 128. The hempen packing 
is the best, owing to its being more easily renewed, but 
great friction is often induced by such glands being too 
tightly screwed down. The ram or plunger carries a load, 
which, in the example illustrated, is made up of cast-iron 
weights of circular form, which are suspended from the head 
of the ram cap by means of long bolts passing through them. 
Instead of cast-iron weights, where space is not so valuable, 
a tank or vessel, as shown in Fig. 129, is carried by the 
bolts passing down from the ram cap, either in a truly 
vertical form, or inclined so as to obtain a more central or 
distributed support for the load. Within the tank all kinds 
of material in loose form, such as slag, stones, bricks, etc., 
are thrown to make up the amount necessary to give the 
required pressure upon the ram, in order that it may store 
up the work that the pumps are doing. 

The accumulator should be placed as near to the pumps 
as possible; and if the system of pipes supplied is very 
extensive, it is often desirable to place another accumulator 
in some position where it may be of most service in taking 
up quickly any sudden demand that may be made upon 
the pipes. The load of the accumulator is made to strike 
against a stop when quite up, so that as soon as it is lifted 
to the full height the water cannot escape from the pumps, 
and they are compelled to stop until the reduction of the 
pressure by the draught of water permits them to start again. 
The weights are sometimes arranged to act upon a rod 
which has a collar attached at any desired point, so that 
when the weights or the tappet oar strikes the collar the 
valve is closed, the steam supply shut off from the pump, 
or the belt driving the pumps is thrown on to the loose 
pulley. When the weights fall away from the collar by 
reason of the draught of water from the accumulator, the rod 
controlling the valve or the belt also falls by its own weight, 



2l6 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 




HYDRAULIC ACCUMULATORS. 217 

or under the influence of an added weight Thus so long 
as the accumulator ram is not up to its full stroke the pump 
will continue to supply water, and will stop when the full 
stroke is reached. 

When the pressure is very slight, and only a small quantity 
of water is required, a plain ram, as shown in Fig. 127, 
would not be suitable, on account of the small diameter 
that would be required. Again, when only a small quantity 
of water under high pressure is required, a small ram, 
heavily loaded, might not be possible. In these cases a 
differential accumulator, as shown at Fig. 128, is employed. 
These accumulators are used with great success by Mr 
Tweddell in connection with his hydraulic riveting machines. 
The ram in the ordinary accumulator (Fig. 127) is free to 
rise in the cylinder, and carries with it the weight. The 
cylinder rests in the bottom or base plate, which is securely 
bolted to the foundations. There is only one gland, and 
that at the top end of the cylinder. Assuming the ram to 
be 6^ inches diameter, the area of which is 38.18 inches, 
and the pressure upon the water to be 700 lbs. per square 
inch, then the load, together with the weight of the ram, 
must exceed 33.18x700 = 23,226 lbs.; whereas, with the 
differential accumulator, as illustrated in Fig. 128, the same 
load of 10 tons 7^ cwts. is acting upon an annular area 
obtained from the difference of the two diameters, viz., 
7 J and 6 J inches. 

Thus — 7 J in. diameter = 44. 1 7 in. area, and 

6i „ =33.18 „ 



Net area, say= ii.o in. 
Pressure per square inch = -~^H. =2111 lbs. 



II 



Similarly, if only a light pressure of 700 lbs. per square 
inch is required from the differential accumulator, then the 
load must include the weight of the moving cylinder, which 



2l8 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 




HYDRAULIC ACCUMULATORS. 219 

has two stuffing glands, one over each part of the ram, as 
indicated. The weight then upon the column or ring of 
water within the cylinder will be 700x11 = 7,700 lbs., as 
against 23,226 lbs. in the simple accumulator. 

The cylinder of the differential accumulator in Fig. 128 is 
in reality the load plate in addition to the water cylinder. 
Chocks of timber are provided for the weight to rest upon 
when right down and not in use. Fig. 130 illustrates a fixed 
cylinder type of differential accumulator, the moving ram 
working through two packed glands, and a pit being formed 
beneath the cylinder for the ram end to work within. 

Spring-loaded accumulators have been adopted in some 
cases, but their range is too narrow to require our giving 
any attention to their construction. 

In hydraulic installations it is frequently desirable to pro- 
duce a very heavy pressure beyond the ordinary working 
pressure of the power mains, or beyond the working pressure 
of the machines, such increased pressure being to give a 
final squeeze in connection with pressing operations or in 
connection with riveting plants. 

A convenient manner of producing this increased pressure 
is by. means of an intensifier which, in its simplest form, is 
arranged as a piston working within a cylinder, the piston 
rod passing through a gland-packed cover, and working in 
a smaller cylinder carried above the main cylinder. The 
water from the main is admitted underneath the piston in 
the large cylinder, and the whole pressure upon it is trans- 
mitted by the piston rod or plunger on to the water within 
the small cylinder, the difference in area of the main piston 
and the piston rod or plunger giving the difference in 
pressure between the supply main in the lower cylinder, 
and the intensified main delivery from the upper cylinder. 
After the water has been withdrawn from the intensifier 
cylinder, and used in giving the final pressure, the main 
cylinder valve is opened to the exhaust, and the water 
from the intensifier main connection is returned into 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 




the upper cylinder 
forcing downwards 
the main piston in 
the lower cylinder. 

Fig. 131 illustrates 
an intensifier for use 
with a water pressure 
of 750 lbs., the water 
from the mains enter- 
ing thelower cylinder, 
and forcing upwards 
the hollow ram work- 
ing upon the upper 
fixed hollow plunger. 
The intensified pres- 
sure from within the 
hollow ram and the 
hollow fixed plunger 
guide is delivered 
through the connec- 
tion shown at the 
upper end of the 
fixed ram, while the 
supply main connec- 
tion is shown near 
the base block of the 
outer cylinder. The 
ratio of areas of the 
main ram and the 
hollow fixed ram or 
plunger gives the 
degree of increase 
of pressure produced. 
The use of an in- 
tensifier of this type 
in London, where 



HYDRAULIC ACCUMULATORS. 221 

the main ram was 15^ inches diameter, and the fixed 
ram 6 inches diameter with a stroke of 13 feet, in a manu- 
factory for making lead pipes, displaced steam of about 
15 h.p., and the cost from the public supply mains com- 
pared favourably with the old system, notwithstanding the 
fact that steam power was still in use foe other purposes in 
the same manufactory. 




Fig. 132- 



A simple form of differential machine is made by Messrs 
George Scott & Son of London and Liverpool, for use in 
connection with a hydraulic press for economising the use of 
high pressure water, it being well known that in most appli- 
cations of the hydraulic press although a high pressure is 
necessary to finish the operation of pressing, yet a very 
moderate pressure is sufficient for the greater part of the 
operation of the machine. 



222 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

The differential machine consists of two cylinders one 
above the other, the piston rod of the piston in the larger 
cylinder projecting through a cover and stuffing box into 
the smaller cylinder where it serves as the ram, the larger 
cylinder being filled with water with its piston at the lowest 
extremity. The pressure water is let into the small cylinder 
by means of a valve, and the water in the larger cylinder is 
driven into the press, forcing the ram of the press upwards 
for the larger part of its stroke. The connection between 
the differential machine and the press is then closed, and 
the high pressure water let into the press to finish the 
operation. An example of this type of machine is taken from 
a press at work in which the press ram was of 12 inches 
diameter, having a stroke of 1 1 inches. The full operation 
took 1,240 cubic inches pressure of water under 30 cwt. 
pressure, but with a differential machine 255 cubic inches 
of pressure was used, the remainder of the stroke being 
accomplished by the low pressure water supply. The 
machine is illustrated in Fig. 132. 



PART VL— HYDRAULIC PRESSES, 



) 



CHAPTER XIII. 

PRESSES FOR BALING AND OTHER 

PURPOSES. 

Although the principle of this class of machinery was first 
stated by Pascal, it was some one hundred and fifty years 
later ere Bramah usefully applied it to the construction of a 
press. Pascal's statement has been given in full in Chapter 
I., and amounts to saying that the pressure on a piston is 
directly proportional to its area. 

Bramah's closed vessel consisted of a pipe having attached 
to one end a pump barrel, which formed the smaller cylinder, 
and to the other end a large cylinder containing a ram, and 
having a cup leather packing, then for the first time used. 
The large cylinder had four tension bars attached to it 
which supported a head or table, and the ram carried a 
similar table or platten. On placing articles on the platten, 
and operating the pump, a multiplied pressure was given to 
the article placed on the platten. The modern baling press 
is a repetition of Bramah's apparatus on an enlarged scale. 

The very general use of the hydraulic press, in one form 
or another, warrants special attention being given to the 
construction and details of the parts required for particular 
purposes. Presses are employed for compressing fibrous 
material, as cotton, wool, esparto grass, peat moss, etc., into 
small bulk for shipment; for extracting oil and essences 
from seeds or roots, for embossing paper and printing lino- 
leum, also for sheet metal working and forging operations. 

Baling presses are generally provided with a wood or iron 
box mounted on wheels and having a loose bottom. The 

P 



226 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



material is packed tight by hand in this box, which is then 
placed in the press, and the ram pumped out, forcing the 
loose bottom upwards, and compressing the material. For 
the greater part of the run out of the ram but little pressure 
is required, as the material offers only a slight resistance, but 
after the ram has run out about four-fifths of the height of 
the box, the pressure rapidly increases owing to the great 
resistance of the material to further compression. 

An inspection of Table X., which gives the pressures 
in tons per square foot of platten or bottom of baling box 
to bale cotton, wool, hay, and esparto grass to a given weight 
per cubic foot, reveals the rapid increase of resistance to 
compression of these materials after the ram has run out 
four-fifths of the box. 

Table X. . 

Presses for Baling : Pressure in Tons per sq. ft. of Platten 
TO Bale Material to the Weights given. 



Weight in Pounds 
per Cubic Foot. 



80 

70 
60 

SO 
40 

30 
20 

15 
10 



Weight in Pounds 

per Cubic Foot, 

Hand'paclced. 



Cotton. 



1 




2J>» 


fi 


II 


1 


V V 1 


ti 


OCQ 


CL4 



Wool, . 
Slightly Greasy 



Hay. 



V V 



fi 

9 

t 

Oh 



V it 



4.25 



V 

0. 



20 


350 


18.82 


250 


• • • 


• • a 


17.5 


180 


16.47 


140 


• • • 


• • • 


'5 


100 


14. 1 1 


70 


12 


60 


12.5 


50 


11.76 


35 


10 


31 


10 


25 


9.41 


15 


8 


14 


7.5 . 


10 


7.05 


6 


6 


5 


5 


3.5 


4.7 


2.25 


4 


1-5 


3.75 


1.8 


3.5 


1.15 


3 


1 -^7 


2-5 . 


I.I 


2.37 


.6 


2 


•3 



Esparto 
Grass. 



> C 



10 
8 
6 
4 

3 

2 



9 
8! 

V 



• • • 


> • • 

80 


30-3 


15.5 


2.25 


.9 


.3 


• • ■ 



The baling box should be i^ inches less in length, 
breadth, and height than the size of bale required. The 



PRESSES FOR BALING, ETC. 227 

pressures in the Table are for the compression only, and an 
allowance for the friction of the material against the sides of 
the baling box must be added. For bales of 40 lbs. per 
cubic foot and under add 25 per cent, to the above pressures, 
and for heavier bales add 40 per cent. 

Large baling presses are usually supplied with hydraulic 
pressure pumps driven by steam power, and, as the available 
power is constant, while the work to be performed varies 
greatly, many arrangements have been tried for saving time, 
although the one usually adopted consists of a battery of 
pumps arranged in groups. . The pumps are all set to work 
during the earlier part of the stroke, thus driving out the 
ram at a rapid rate. When the pressure rises, so that the 
work done by the pumps is the maximum available from the 
steam plant, one group of pumps is automatically tripped or 
put out of action in a manner to be described in Chapter 
XVI. The remaining pumps continue to work until the 
further rise of pressure causes the power to reach the maxi- 
mum, when another group of pumps is tripped. This 
tripping is continued until the last group of pumps only 
remain, and these are so proportioned that they trip when 
the bale is of the required density. By properly proportion- 
ing the pumps the ram can be driven out in the shortest 
space of time possible for any number of pump plungers 
and power available. We will illustrate this fact by first con- 
sidering the case where only two pump plungers are used. 

In the case of a pump haying two or any other number of 
plungers, the smallest plunger is fixed in size by causing it 
to absorb the maximum power available when on the point 
of tripping. The remaining plunger may be given any size, 
and must be arranged to trip out when such a pressure is 
reached that the two plungers working together absorb the 
maximum power available. There is, however, a size for 
this larger plunger, which will cause the ram to travel out 
in the shortest time. As the equations to the curves of 
pressures for the different materials are unknown, it is im- 



228 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



possible to give an equation for finding the size of the larger 
plunger; the graphic method in Fig. 133, however, gives 
very close approximations to the truth. Fig. 133 represents 
the curve of pressures for baling hay to a weight of 50 lbs. 
per cubic foot, or to a bulk of one-tenth that of hand-packed 
hay. A B represents the length of the baling box filled with 




I'ig- 133- 

hay, A c the stroke of the ram, and c b the final depth of 
the bale of hay. The curve a m f j d is the curve of pres- 
sures per square inch of pumps drawn out to a scale making 
c D equal to a c. This curve is ascertainable from Table 
X. Complete the square a c d e, and join £ c, cutting 
the curve in f, and draw the vertical f g, then f g represents 



PRESSES FOR BALING, ETC. 229 

the pressure per square inch at which the larger pump must 
trip. This pressure being known, the combined area of the 
two pump plungers can be fixed such that the total available 
power is absorbed at this pressure. The size of the smaller 
plunger being already fixed, the larger is ascertained by 
subtraction. 

If three pump plungers are to be used, the pressures at 
which the two larger must trip can be found by drawing the 
diagonals l m, h j so that the area of the square a c d E is 
divided into three equal parts, or 

from which a l may be found. The diagonals l m, h j 
having been drawn, the verticals m n, j k give the pressures 
at which the pumps must trip. The sizes of the plungers 
are now ascertained by finding the combined area of the 
small and medium plungers, at the pressure j k, to absorb 
the maximum available power, from which area the size of 
the medium plunger is found, as before, by subtraction. 
In the same way the combined area of the three plungers 
is found for the pressure m n, and the size of the largest 
ascertained by subtracting the combined area of the other 
two. 

An example will render the process more clear. Hay is 
to be baled to a weight of 50 lbs. per cubic foot, and the 
press is to be worked with a maximum pressure of 2 tons 
per square inch. The maximum available power is 3f 
horse-power. Referring to Table X., the weight of hand- 
packed hay is 5 lbs. per cubic foot. When compressed to 
50 lbs. per foot, the space occupied will be one-tenth, or 
the ram must travel nine-tenths up the baling box. a b and 
A c can now be laid down, making c b one-tenth of a b. 
Construct the square a c d £, and draw the curve of pres- 
sures, making c d represent 2 tons. Draw the diagonal e c, 



230 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

and scale off f g, which in this case is .217 ton. The sizes 
of the plungers may now be settled. 

3I h.p. = 35000 X 3.75 = 123750 foot-lbs. per minute. 

Efficiency of pumps, say .66. 

Energy available = 1 23750 x .66 = 8 2 500!^ foot-lbs. perminute. 

The velocity of the plungers may be anything up to 
50 feet per minute. In the case under consideration the 
small plunger may be made i inch diameter, and its travel 
in feet per minute will then be 

— 5 =23.16 feet. 

•7054 X 2 X 2240 

A I -inch plunger working against a pressure of 2 tons 
per square inch requires to travel through 23.16 feet to 
develop 82,500 foot-pounds of energy. As the plungers are 
only single acting, the actual velocity of the plunger becomes 
23.16x2 = 46.32 feet per minute, which is under 50 feet 
velocity. The stroke and consequent number of revolutions 
may be settled last. 

The size of the larger plunger may now be ascertained. 
Let A be the area in inches of the larger plunger — 

(■7854 + A).2i7 X 2240 X 23.16 = 82500 foot-lbs. 
A = 6.68 square inches. 
3 inches diameter = 7.07 inches area. 

Therefore we may use a 3 inches diameter plunger tripping at 
a pressure of 450 lbs. per square inch, and a i inch diameter 
plunger tripping at a pressure of 2 tons. 

By adopting a stroke of 4 inches, the number of revolu- 
tions per minute of pump shaft is 

23.16 X 3 = 70.08 revolutions. 

The large ram of the press must be proportioned to give 
a pressure of 31 tons per square foot of platten, with an 
addition of 40 per cent, to overcome friction of baling box. 



PRESSES FOR BALING, ETC. 23 1 

and 2 tons for stuffing box friction, making a total of 45 tons 
per square foot of platten. 

If three plungers had been desired, the smallest would 
still be the same size — i inch diameter. The two larger 
ones are found by drawing the two hnes l m, h j in Fig. 133, 
as directed, and scaling m n, j k. 

JK =.48 ton per square inch. 
MN = .o62 



)} 99 



The area a of the middle plunger is found as before, but 
for a pressure of .48 ton. 

(.7854 + A).48 X 2240 X 23. 16 = 82500. 

A = 2.53 square inches, 
if inches diameter = 2.40 inches area. 

The area b of the large plunger may now be found — 

(B + .7854 + 2.4o).o62 x 2240 x 23.16 = 82500. 

B = 22.47 square inches. 

5I inches diameter =21.64 inches area. 

The plungers to be used are 5^ inches diameter tripping 
at 132 lbs, per square inch, if inches diameter tripping at 
1,085 lbs. per square inch, and i inch diameter tripping at 
2 tons per square inch. 

If in designing the 5i-inch plunger gives trouble and re- 
quires a wider spacing of the cranks than is necessary for the 
strength of the crankshaft, the stroke may be increased to 
6 inches, and the diameters of plungers reduced accordingly. 

4 inches increased to 6 inches. 

I in. diam. =.7854 area reduced = .7854 x^ = . 52 in. area = lS in. diam. 
If „ =2.40 „ =2.40 xj=i.6 „ =14 

5} „ ^21.64 „ =21.64x^=14.42 „ =4^ 



If 



Fig. 134 represents the usual form of hydraulic press, 
having a cylinder a of cast iron or steel, the latter being much 
in request for presses for export, as the weight is then only 



232 HVnUAUI.IC POWER ENGINEEKIKG. 




PRESSES FOR BALING, ETC. 



233 



about one-third. The cylinder has a U leather packing b 
and ram c, and rests on the faced edge of the base plate d. 
The head e of the press is attached to the base d by bolts, 
or pillars f, usually four in number. The ram carries a 
platten g, on which the article to be pressed rests. Water 
is admitted to the cylinder at h. Instead of the pillars f 
being made, as shown, with a nut at each end, they are 
sometimes made with two forged collars at each end, and 
the bosses of the head and base are split to receive them, 
and fitted with caps bolted on. The platten is guided by 




T 



J 



l<<^ 
{T 



> 



Ft 

I 






t 






12 



Fig. 135- 

the bars f, and has its corners curved to fit the bars, or 
sometimes slipper guides are bolted to the platten to increase 
the rubbing surface. 

Suitable thicknesses for the cast-iron rams are given in 
the following table : — 



Diam. of Ram in 
Inches. 


6 


8 


10 


12 
2 


14 

2Jk 


16 
2i 


18 
2i 


20 
2i 


Thickness of Ram 
in Inches. 


li 


If 



The pillar f is shown in detail in Fig. 135, and the sizes 
are given in Table XI. (next page). 



234 



HYDRAULIC POWER EN(;iNEERING. 



Table XL 

Sizes of Wrought-Iron Bars for Presses. 
4 Bars to a Press. 







A 








Press 




For length of 






Test 










Load. 














1' to 4' 


4' to 7' 


7' to 10' 


10' to 13' 


B. C. 


Tons. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


1 
In. 


lO 


Ij 


li 


l| 


• • • 


li 


18 


20 


li 


li 


i! 


• a » 


l| 


18 


30 


li 


li 


ij 


■ « • 


l| 


li 


40 


li 


li 


2 


2i 


li 


•i 


60 


li 


2 


2* 


2i 


li 


2 


80 


2ji 


2j 


2* 


2* 


2i 


2i 


ICO 


28 


24 


2i 


3 


28 


2i 


150 


2* 


3 


3i 


3i 


2« 


2j 


200 


3i 


3i 


3i 


3i 


31 , 38 • 


300 


4 


4 


4 


4i 


4 


4i 



D. E. I F. G. 



H 



In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In 


2i 


2 


1 


} 


U 


2i 


2 


i 


J 


li 


2i 


2A 


i 


j 


19 


2j 


28 


i 


1 


I^ 


3i 


3A 


i 


1 


>S 


3i 


3A 


i 


i 


2i 


38 


3i 


i i 


28 


3i 


4A 


I I 


23 


4 


4i 


> ; I 


3i 


58 


6 


I 


I 


4 



Fig. 136 is a plan of the usual form of press-head. The 
stresses occurring in the head vary according to the manner 
in which the load is distributed, and are worthy of investi- 
gation. 

In any manner of loading in which the centre of pressure 

of the load coincides with the centr6 of the head, or at the 

intersection of G H, N O, the load is equally distributed to 

the four pillars at A B C D, and if W represents the total 

load or pressure on the head, each pillar carries a load of 

W 

— . Whatever share of the load is carried by the ribs EF, 

4 

GH, IK, and LM, NO, PQ is transmitted to the four side 

ribs AD, BC, and AB, CD, which in turn transmit the load 

to the pillars. As the four ribs AD, BC, AB, CD, each 

W 
carry an equal load, that load is evidently — 

4 



PRESSES FOR BALING, ETC. 



235 



Four typical methods of loading have been selected for 
investigation, and any others may be considered as similar 
to one or other of these with sufficient accuracy. 




These four methods of loading are : — 

(i.) Load distributed over the whole press-head within 
the centre lines A B C D. 

(2.) Distributed over the area bounded by the line R. 

\3'/ » » » ♦> ^« 

\4»/ » » 11 >» ^» 



236 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

In all these cases the load W may be divided into two 

W 
parts — ; one of which is supported by the ribs running in 
2 

one direction, as AB, EF, GH, IK, DC ; and the other by 

the ribs at right angles to these, as AD, LM, NO, PQ, BC. 

In (i) the load - carrried by AB, EF, GH, IK, DC is 

2 

divided up as follows : — 

16 8 8 8 16 2' 

and a similar load is carried by the remaining bars, so that 

AD carries a load of — -. 

16 

AD also carries half the loads of EF, GH, IK, so that 
the total load on AD is — 

—^ + —7 + —^ + —- = — as above stated. 
16 16 16 16 4 

The bending moments may now be expressed : — 

forAD = SW^. 

128 

forEF, GH, orIK = ^. 

64 

The load on AD is not evenly distributed. 

W 
In (2) the load — is carried by EF, GH, IK as follows : — 

2 

w w w_w 

6 ■*""6""*"6""T' 
Half of these loads are carried by AD, or — 

12 12 12 4 ' 



PRESSES FOR BALING, ETC. 237 

The bending moments in this case are : — 

WL 



for AD = 



24 



torEK, GH, or IK=^-. 

48 

W 
In (3) the load — is carried by EF, GH, IK, as follows : — 

2 

w w w_w 
8482 

Half of these are carried by AD, or — 

W W W^W 
16 8 16 4* 

The bending moments are : — 

forAD = 3WL 

64 

forEForIK = ^^, 

64 

forGH= — . 
32 

VV 
In (4) the load — is carried by GH — 

2 

2 2 * 

Half of this is carried by AD — 

4^ 4" 
The bending moments are : — 

WL 



for AD = 



76' 



forGH = --, 
8 

for EForIK = 0. 



238 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 




"r 



Fig. 137- 



PRESSES FOR BALING, ETC. 239 

The section of metal required may now be determined. 
The flat plate of metal forming the face of the head is made 
of the same thickness of metal as the ribs, and may be 
included in taking out the sizes. 

By first neglecting the flat plate each rib may be deter- 
mined as a rectangular section by equating its bending 
moment to the moment of resistance of a rectangle. Thus 
for AD in (i)— 

128 " 6 

where b is the width of the rib, // the height, and /the stress 
to which the metal is to be subjected. If L is in feet, b and 
h must also be in feet, and if w is in tons, /must be in tons. 
By selecting values for b and /and solving this equation, 
the value of h can be found ; it is usual to fix values for b 
and/ and if h is unsuited, b must be varied and another 
value found for h. 

These values being settled, the correct height h^ of the 
head can be ascertained as follows : — 

I^t r be the distance between the ribs. 

Then/&i = '^ + ^'+'^. 
2 4r 2 

To avoid difficulties in casting it is usual to find the 
dimensions of the strongest rib, and make the others of the 
same dimensions. 

The formulae have been worked out for square heads 
with three intermediate ribs. They are, however, applicable 
to any rectangular head with not less than three intermediate 
ribs, and having the load distributed over a rectangle having 
the same ratio of sides as the head. 

F*g' ^37 represents a baling press and box complete. 
The cylinder a, containing the ram carrying the platten b, is 
carried by the base c, which in turn is connected to the head 
D by the bars e. Guide rails f are attached to the bars £ 
and supported at g. The baling box h runs on grooved 



240 HYDRAULIC POWER KNGINEERING, 




PRESSES FOR BALING, ETC. 



241 



3R- 



+ 



L.....J 



:'fn 



wheels resting on the rails f. The bottom of the baling 
box consists of a piece of grooved hardwood resting on a 
ledge or fillet. The cotton or other material to be baled is 
packed in the box h by hand, and the box is then drawn 
into the press by revolving the 
handle i which causes the chain 
K attached to the baling box H 
to travel, and so move the box h. 
The front of the box h is cut 
away at the top to clear the hard- 
wood block M on the press-head. 
When the box is central over the 
ram, the water is pumped into 
the cylinder a, and the platten b 
passed up inside the box H carry- 
ing the hardwood bottom with it. 

When the baling operation is 
completed, the hinged doors n 
and o of the haling box are 
opened, and the box h withdrawn 
by turning the handle 1. The 
upper part of the baling box h 
has three of its sides hinging out- 
wards to allow of the expansion j 
of the bale on the pressure being 
released. 

The box h having been re- 
moved from the press, the doors 
N and o are closed and refilling 
commenced. The bale in the 
press is at the same time hooped 
with iron bands which are passed 
through the slots in the hardwood blocks, and secured 
round the bale by riveting or other suitable means. 
The ram is now lowered into the cylinder, and the bale 
removed. 



Ep 



ff 



w 



V 



u 



W- 



^--.-.--J 



^ 



rit. • 



242 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

Fig. 138 represents a dumping press which is made in 
exactly the same way as the hydraulic presses already noticed, 
but in place of the baling box it is supplied with steel bars 
tf, a, a, of strong T section. The bars are usually hinged at 
the base, and fitted with a draw-pin at the head of the press. 
The material is lightly baled in up-country districts in screw- 
power presses, and when brought to the quays is pressed or 
dumped to the requisite size for shipment in a press of this 
description. 

Fig. 139 represents one form of hydraulic oil-press suit- 
able for extracting oils or essences from seed and roots. 
The press is precisely similar to a baling press in the main 
features, but has a series of hanging plates or platforms 
equally spaced as shown. The seeds or roots are placed 
in flat canvas or horse-hair bags, which are placed on the 
plates, and the press is then operated. The oil or essence 
escaping trickles off the edges of the plates, and over the 
down-turned edge of the platten into the flat tank a, where 
it is run off by the pipe b into suitable vessels. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

SHEET METAL WORKING AND FORGING 

MACHINERY. 

It was about the year i860 that the hydraulic press was 
first practically used for the forging of ingots for big guns 
at Messrs Whitworth's. About the same time the English 
engineer in charge of the Vienna locomotive shops intro- 
duced a hydraulic press for forming the various details of 
locomotives and railway stock. The work done was of a 
varied nature, including forging in closed dies, punching, 
and drawing out and dumping operations. 

Needless to say, there was the usual prejudice to the new 
tools and methods, but their superiority was evident to lead- 
ing engineers, so that at the present time the hydraulic press 
is almost solely used for large work, whilst its popularity for 
small work is rapidly increasing. 

Before passing to the hydraulic machine tools proper we 
will notice a small hand-worked punching bear illustrated in 
Fig. 140. The punch is attached to a ram a fitted with a 
cup leather, and working in a cylinder b formed in the main 
frame of the bear. The cylinder is surmounted by a water 
cistern c containing a pressure pump worked by a hand 
lever d. When the pump is worked water is forced into the 
cylinder b, so driving the ram down and forcing the punch 
through the metal. To raise the punch clear of the work 
the thumbscrew e is loosened, and the cam f attached to 
the lever g is operated, thus driving the water back into the 
cistern c. 

We will now consider the usual types of forging presses in 






t • 



» 



244 



HVDRAUUC POWER ENGINEERING. 



use. Fig. 141 gives a general idea of the arrangement of a 
large forging press. The cylinder a, carrying the ram b, is 
supported by two or four vertical columns c, secured to the 
base D, which carries the anvil or bottom die. Two cylinders 
E F are fixed to the press, and are always open to the pres- 
sure water, so that when the large cylinder a is open to 
exhaust, the pressure acting on the rams G h drives the ram 




Fig. 140. 

B up, thus the press is controlled by one valve only. In 
many designs of press the drawback cylinders E f are placed 
the reverse way up, and are secured to the large head cast- 
ing, being then provided with tension rods to lift the ram b. 
Arrangement of minor points must, however, be governed 
by circumstances, as if the press is too lofty it will interfere 
probably with the passage of overhead travelling cranes. 



SHEET METAL WORKING AND FORGING. 245 

When four columns are used, they are so disposed as to 
keep the press as narrow as convenient in one direction, so 
that the tackle for handling the forging may be brought as 
close as possible to the dies. Various methods are adopted 
for securing the head to the columns ; In the press shown 
the head rests on a collar or neck formed on the column, 
and is secured by a nut. In 
another method the column 
has two collars formed near 
each end, and the head and 
base castings have bosses 
bored out and fitted with 
caps ; the column is in- 
serted and the cap bolted 
on. 

In some presses provision 
is made for altering the 
depth of the gap or space 
between the ram and anvil, 
or"daylight,"asit iscalled. 
This is generally done by 
placing the cylinder at the 
bottom, and the top casting 
is made adjustable by hav- 
ing the pillars screwed for 
a considerable length, and 
provided with two nuts for 
locking the casting in the 
required position. 

Different firms have at 
times produced presses varying in design and claiming 
special advantages. The Davy press has two cylinders 
placed side by side, and attached to one common cross- 
head, the crosshead being provided with a long arm pro- 
jecting upwards from its centre, and having a turned cylin- 
drical part at iis upper end. This cylindrical part works 




Fig. 141. 



246 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

in a tubular guide placed between the two cylinders, and 
together with the guides working on the columns forms 
a triangular support, giving great steadiness to the top die. 
Another advantage of this form of press is that the pressure 
on the dies may be considerably off the centre line of the 
press without causing severe straining. 

A multiple power press, designed by Messrs Tweddell, 
Fielding, & Piatt, has three equal-sized rams placed side 
by side below the floor level, the rams all acting on a 
common crosshead, connected by strong tension bars, which 
also act as guides to the head of the press carrying the top 
die ; whilst the bottom die is supported by a base which also 
carries the three hydraulic cylinders. Three different powers 
are obtained by this arrangement, according to the number 
of rams acted upon by the pressure water. This press also 
has the advantage that the head room is unobstructed, thus 
allowing a free passage for travelling cranes. 

For very large forging presses it is not usual to work with 
an accumulator, the water being supplied direct from a pump 
into the cylinder, the idle part of the stroke being performed 
by the pressure of water contained in an overhead tank. 
The lifting cylinders are frequently operated by a steam 
accumulator, or by pressure water from an ordinary accu- 
mulator. 

By another method the pressure is applied by a direct 
steam driver, which consists of a large steam cylinder 
coupled direct to a plunger, which is connected without 
the interposition of valves to the press cylinder, the steam 
cylinder being operated by an ordinary slide valve. 

It is absolutely necessary to use a high pressure in the 
cylinders — usually 2 to 3 tons per square inch — otherwise 
the machines become very costly and heavy in weight, or the 
manufacture is rendered impossible. 

Fig. 142 shows the usual arrangement of a small open-sided 
or C press, which can be conveniently made for pressures up 
to about 150 tons. In the illustsation a vertical forging ram 



SHEET METAL WORKING AND FORGING. 247 

A is shown, also a horizontal ram b, each supplied with a 
drawback ram constantly open to the water pressure. Two 
valve levers are shown, one to each cylinder. Hydraulic 
push-back cylinders are supplied to each ram, and are always 
subjected to the pressure water. Machines of this type may 
be used for all kinds of stamping and punching as well as 
general forging. 

Fig. r43 shows a section 
of the cylinders and ram 
of a Tweddell punch. The 
ram A carrying the punch 
is formed of two circular 
parts placed eccentric to 
each other, thus placing 
the punch well forward and 
easily visible. The ram a 
is packed by a U leather, 
and works in the gun-metal 
lined cylinder b. The re- 
turn motion of the ram is 
effected by the drawback 
ram or piston c working in 
the cylinder d, which is 
always open to the pressure 
water. A water-saving ap- 
pliance is added, which is 
operated by the lever e, 
and closes the valve when 
the punch has penetrated 
the metal. 

The working of the water-saving appliance will be better 
understood by an examination of Fig. 144, which illustrates 
a manhole punch or flanging press. The only difference 
between this and the last press lies in the fact that the dies 
are arranged centrally with the ram. The down stroke of 
the ram causes an oscillation of the lever F, which by means 







248 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

of the adjustable tappets or nuts c causes a movement of the 
liand lever h, which operates the balanced valve i, cutting 
off the water pressure. The attendant now gives the valve a 




further movement, opening it to exhaust, the ram rises, and 
in doing so oscillates the lever f in the ojiposite direction, 
causing the adjustable nuts k to move the hand lever H 



SHEET METAL WORKING AND FORGING. 249 

and valve i back to the central position, ready to be again 
operated by the attendant to cause the next down stroke. 

Fig. 145 shows a shearing machine having the water-saving 
mechanism so arranged that the valve may be worked by 
either hand or foot power. In this machine the drawback 
ram is placed behind the large cylinder in the main casting. 

Fig. 146 illustrates Tweddell's plate-bender, for forming 




Fig. 144. 



the shells of large boilers and for similar work. The plate 
to be bent is fed through the slot a, water pressure is then 
applied to the cylinder b, causing the die c to advance 
towards the die d, so bending the plate. The die c is 
returned, on the cylinder b being opened to exhaust, by the 
drawback ram e. The plate is now further advanced and 
another stroke of the die c given. By this mfeans the plate 
is bent to the final curve at the rate of 2 to 3 feet per 



250 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGIKEERING. 



minute. An adjustable stop is provided which prevents the 
dies coming too close together, and so forming a circle of 
less radius than is required. The dies are not made to any 
radius, but the die d has a central rib, while the die c has 
two ribs a short distance apart. To remove the work the 
head f is slewed round. A hinged tie-bolt is, however, some- 




Fig. 145. 



times provided to connect the die d to the main frame at its 
upper end. 

Fig. 147 shows in plan the general arrangement of a tube- 
drawing machine. A hydraulic cylinder a is provided, having 
connected to it two long bars b supported on feet. The tube 
to be drawn is first slightly reduced at one end, and then, 
having been threaded on to the mandrel, is placed in the 



SHEET METAL WORKING AND FORGING. 2SI 

machine with its reduced end passing through the die carried 
in the holder c. The tail end of the mandrel is now attached 
to the support D, and the reduced end of the tube is gripped 
by the jaws e carried by the crosshead f, capable of being 
drawn along by the water pressure acting on the piston c. 
The stroke being completed, the tube is removed and the 
crosshead f returned by water acting on the back of the 




piston G, the water in front being returned to the accumu- 
lator. 

Fig. 148 shows a hydraulic press arranged for putting on 
and taking off railway rolling stock wheels. The action will 
be readily understood from the illustration. The wheels to 
be operated upon having been suitably adjusted between the 
tension bars a, the ram b is pumped out by the hand pump 
C so forcing on or taking off the wheel. 



252 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINKKRING. 



J 3- 




CHAPTER XV. 

HYDRAULIC RIVETERS. 

The very general use of the hydraulic riveter for ship- 
building, boiler-making, and girder work is undoubtedly 
due to the efforts of the late Mr R. H. Tweddell and to 
Messrs Fielding & Piatt. 

Water power is particularly suitable for riveting, in that 
the machines consume no energy except when actually at 
work, and being portable in most cases, can be readily 
carried to any desired position upon a scaffold or within a 
structure or frame where ordinary machines having rotating 
power or shafting could not be employed. The system of 
laying the hydraulic pipes or mains with union branches at 
positions likely to be suitable for any special tool, or any 
part of a building yard or dock, provides, with the use of 
travelling on telescopic joints, an easily controlled and 
economical method of mechanical riveting. In Fig. 149 is 
shown in sectional elevation the motive power end of a 
portable riveter. 

The water pressure is used to give three distinct move- 
ments to the operating members. First, in the cylinder 
formed within the ram b, the ram d being forced out, carry- 
ing with it the plate-closing die e, also the ram b and rivet- 
closing die c. Second, in the cylinder a forcing out the 
riveting die c, thus closing the rivet. Third, the water 
always at constant pressure on ram h, within the draw- 
back cylinder g, carries back or returns the rams b and d 
when the other cylinders are opened to exhaust. The water 
from L enters the cylinder within b by means of the sliding 



254 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEER[NG. 




HYDRAULIC RIVETERS. 



2SS 



packed joint at the upper end of the ram b, and the passage 
shown in dotted lines k admits the pressure from the valve 
which is usually attached adjacent to the passage. Swivel- 
ling is provided for by the suspension arm m being formed 
with a boss for the frame stem n to pass through. 

Fig. 150 illustrates a portable riveter having a hand worm 
and wheel for swivelling the frame into any position to suit 




Fig. 150. 

the work. The hanger is made of cast steel, and by means 
of a flexible pipe the necessary movement is obtained without 
difficulty. 

Variable power is sometimes desirable in connection with 
fixed or portable machines, so as to obtain the best results 
without necessitating a constant consumption of water when 
the duty is not a constant one. Fig. 151 illustrates in 
elevation a double power and plate-closing riveter of 150 



2S6 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

tons power, and having a gap of 8 feet suitable for marine 
boiler plate riveting. 

Fig. 152 illustrates in sectional view the motive power end 
of a plate-closing riveter, having arranged thereon also water- 
saving rams whereby an economy of about 60 per cent is 
obtained. Three valve levers are employed to control the 




Fig. 151. 



three valves .\ i! c, being the water saving valve, the plate- 
closing valve, and the main ram valve respectively. Water 
from a tank having a head of about 20 feet supplies the valve 
A, which is used to advance the plate-closing ram o, which 
carries the closing tool d. The water-saving and drawback 
piston ram E is fed by water on both sides of the piston, the 
difference of area of the full outer against the inner annular 



HYDRAULIC RIVETERS. 




iS8 ilYDRAULiC POWEk ENGiNEEklNG. 

end causing the ram e to advance and with it the rams d and 
F, so that the plate-closing tool d and the cupping die / are 
brought close up to the work, the movement being assisted 
also by the low-pressure or tank water being at the same 
time taken into the main cylinder h and the plate-closing 
cylinder k. Pressure water is then admitted into the main 
cylinder, the effective area being the diflference of the areas of 
the plate-closing ram k and the main cylinder h, some water 
escaping from the plate-closing to the main cylinder through 
the common supply pipe to allow the main cylinder h to 
move relatively to the plate-closing cylinder k. After the 
pressure has been kept on the rivet a short time, the water 
from K and h is exhausted back into the tank, the pressure 
on the annular drawback piston £ causing the return stroke 
on the other or full area end of the piston being opened to 
the exhaust. 

Wherever possible the cylinder should be lined with gun- 
metal or phosphor bronze, the valves being also of the same 
metal throughout. 

With a view to securing economy alike in plant and 
in water, forging presses and other machines are now 
made as combination steam power and hydraulic power 
presses. Instead of an ordinary loaded or weighted water 
accumulator being employed, a steam pressure plunger is 
arranged for giving the final pressure to the water in the 
press cylinder, while the ordinary up and down movements ^ 
of the press are effected by gravity or by the steam draw- 
back or lifting pistons or rams. 

In the forging plants constructed on this principle, the 
power is obtained by means of a steam cylinder, the 
piston of which is large, and is arranged for receiving the 
steam upon its under side only, while the piston rod pro- 
jects into and forms the plunger for imparting the pressure 
to water in the hydraulic power supplying cyhnder mounted 
immediately above it. The water under pressure from this 
small cylinder is supplied to the main or press cylinder that 



HYDRAULIC RIVETERS. 259 

is carried or formed upon the press-head and which is sup- 
ported by the four pillars or wrought-steel columns. The 
ram or plunger of the press works in this cylinder, and its 
outer end is attached to the crosshead, upon which the 
forging die block or tool is mounted. 

The downward motion of the press is effected by gravity, 
the weight of the crosshead and ram being sufficient for 
that purpose ; the hydraulic cylinder filling automatically 
during the movement of the ram with water from a tank or 
cistern without pressure. When the work is reached by 
the crosshead forging tool, and pressure is then required 
to be given to it, the water supply from the tank to the 
cylinder is cut off, and the connection simultaneously made 
to the steam accumulator cylinder, thereby admitting the 
water from the water cylinder which is under the pressure 
of the steam thrust plungers. By this system the full 
pressure water is only drawn upon when the actual thrusting 
is required to be exerted by the press, and not for simply 
carrying down the crosshead, thus economising the water, 
and limiting its consumption to the actual thrusting or 
working stroke. 

The upward or return movement of the crosshead and 
its forging tool is obtained by means of steam drawback 
cylinders mounted above the press-head ; these cylinders 
also serve for regulating the downward movement of the 
crosshead when no pressure water is being supplied to the 
working or press-ram cylinder. 

The forging press constructed in accordance with this 
system by Messrs Breuer, Schumacher, & Co. Ltd, Kalk, 
Germany, is illustrated at Fig. 153. The valve gear consists 
of a balanced piston valve working in a brass liner, and is 
so arranged as to admit and exhaust the steam and to 
admit the exhaust steam into the upper part of the cylinder 
during the down stroke, so that the cylinder may be kept at 
an even temperature. 

When steam is admitted, the piston rises and the piston 



26o HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

rod forces the water from the cast-steel pump cylinder into 
the press, forcing the ram of the movable crosshead down- 
wards, and doing the work. A tank is provided close to the 
press from which the whole of the pipes between the pump 
and the press rams and also the press cylinder are kept 
full of water. 

The press itself is composed of a strong cast-steel head 
forming the hydraulic cylinder and a cast-iron base con- 
nected together by means of four wrought-iron columns, 
the movable crosshead being guided on these columns. 
On the head two small steam return-stroke cylinders are 
mounted for opening and closing the press, allowing the 
crosshead with the tool to sink into the work before the 
large steam cylinder and hydraulic pressure connection is 
brought into action. The drawback pistons when a stroke 
is completed raise the crosshead sufficiently for the work 
to be taken out or turned on the anvil, whilst the piston of 
the large steam cylinder sinks to the bottom preparatory to 
beginning another stroke. 

The total stroke of the press is made up of a number of 
single strokes; as soon as one stroke has been made, the 
lever is raised to its middle or horizontal position, and on 
being depressed again a second stroke follows. This 
process can be repeated until the whole stroke has been 
attained. 

If with smaller work or smaller tools pressure is required 
lower down, it is only necessary to raise the valve lever 
above its horizontal position and lower it down to it again, 
when the crosshead can be lowered to any desired position. 
On lowering the lever, pressure is at once again exerted. 
It is also possible to work to the maximum limits at any 
.desired pressure, as the valve gear can be cut off at any 
instant, the steam consumption being proportionate to the 
stroke. 

As the steam cylinder is only single acting from below, 
the steam consumption is extremely economical, and the 



HYDRAULIC RIVETERS. 261 

press also works expansively, especially with work not 
requiring the full pressure, that i^ the steam pressure in the 
cylinder is proportionate to the resistance offered by the 
work ; in other words, if the work requires the full pressure, 
the full force of the steam comes into play ; but if, as is 
often the case with forging, the work does not require the 
full pressure, the pressure in the cylinder is proportionately 
less. 

The press illustrated by Fig. 153 is for 3,000 tons, and 
shows the lower anvil block cleared of its foundations, which 
would be made up ordinarily to the level of the upper face 
of the base blocks to which the pillars are secured. 

The steam distribution and working is such that when 
the lever and the valve are in their highest positions, steam 
is admitted underneath the pistons of the two return-stroke 
cylinders. When the lever is in its middle position, the 
steam exhausts from the above cylinders, and the crosshead 
sinks by gravity on to the work, the hydraulic cylinder 
meanwhile filling with water. With the lever below its 
middle position, the steam is admitted under the piston of 
the driving cylinder, forcing the pressure water into the 
cylinder of the press, and the pressure bar against the work 
until the stroke is finished. 

Fig. 154 shows a similar type of press of 1,200 tons, 
while in Fig. 155 a similarly acting steam hydraulic press 
for 300 tons is shown in which the steam drawback or 
return-stroke cylinder is arranged immediately above the 
hydraulic cylinder, the projecting piston rod from the draw- 
back cylinder being provided with a crossbar and side-sling 
rods for carrying the travelling crosshead and forging tool. 

When light work is to be provided for overhung or 
single frame presses are made for working with steam 
and hydraulic power combined, the steam cylinder being 
mounted upon the framework as shown in Fig. 156. 

Fig. 157 illustrates a 10,000 tons steam-hydraulic 
armour plate forging press made by Messrs Breuer, 



262 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

Schumacher, & Co. Ltd. In this powerful press the 
return or up stroke steam cylinders are arranged above 
the upper head, and the piston rods pass direct and through 
the head to the crosshead, while three hydraulic rams give 
the pressure to the travelling crosshead die for the maxi- 
mum power, although the centre one or the two side or 
outer ones may be used as desired for varying powers. A 
triple steam-driving arrangement is also employed by using 
one, two, or three cylinders, which makes it possible to 
supply the press with three different degrees of pressure 
water, and thus to give it varying pressures as may be 
desired during the progress of the forging or bending of 
the armour plate. 

Steam hydraulic bloom shears constructed on the same 
principle as the forging presses illustrated are shown in 
Fig. 158, the advantages of this combination power principle 
being particularly important for obviating delay and loss of 
heat in cutting a billet into short blooms before it passes to 
the rolling mills. 

In the shears shown the steam cylinder and its hydraulic 
pressure cylinder are independent of the shears framework, 
and a hand-regulated valve controls the steam supply to the 
cylinder, the piston rod of which forms the plunger for the 
hydraulic cylinder above it. • A pipe connects the hydraulic 
cylinder at the shears with the one on the engine and passes 
sufficient water under pressure for each stroke of the shears. 
The upper shear blade is drawn directly back after each 
stroke by means of a steam cylinder placed on the top of 
the shear frame, the piston rod of which is connected by 
links and rods with the side of the upper blade-holder. 
This cylinder is also connected with the valve gear of the 
driving cylinder. The steam is distiributed by a balanced 
piston valve, so constructed that steam can be cut off at any 
desired point, ensuring economy in steam consumption. 
The hydraulic driving cylinder ends above in a small 
chamber, from which it is usually shut off by means of a 



HYDRAULIC RIVETERS. 263 

spring valve. This chamber is kept in connection with a 
water tank placed above it, and supplies the hydraulic 
cylinder with fresh water as soon as the simple valve gear 
opens the piston valve. The pressure cylinder for the shears 
is also connected by pipes with the water tank, from whicH 
it is filled with water for the idle stroke of the upper blade- 
holder. 

Shears of this construction work in the following 
manner : — 

When the hand lever is raised as far as possible, it lifts 
the valve to its highest position and opens the space below 
the piston to the exhaust, and also opens the connection 
between the steam and the lifting cylinder. At the same 
time the spring valve at the top of the hydraulic cylinder is 
opened to let the water down from the tank. With the 
valve gear in this position the upper blade-holder is lifted, 
forcing back the water through the small hydraulic cylinder 
and the pressure pipe to the tank. The piston then sinks 
by gravity to its lowest position, and the small hydraulic 
cylinder is filled with water from the pressure cylinder for 
the shears. With the valve in the middle position the steam 
is cut off from the lifting cylinder and opened to exhaust, 
the spring valve at the top of the hydraulic cylinder remain- 
ing open. The blade-holder now sinks by gravity until the 
blade rests on the work, the movement being almost in- 
stantaneous. The pressure cylinder is now filled with water 
from the small hydraulic cylinder. With the valve below 
the middle position the steam is admitted below the piston 
and the valve in the small hydraulic cylinder closed. The 
piston rises and forces a certain quantity of water into the 
pressure cylinder above the shears, forcing the upper blade 
downwards and cutting through the billet. The movements 
are as economical and quick as possible, as power is only 
actually expended in the return stroke of the upper blade 
and in the actual cutting. All the so-called idle movements, 
' such as the sinking of the piston, and of the upper blade on 



264 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

to the work by gravity, utilise absolutely no power. Even 
the actual shearing, which increases with the area of the 
section to be cut, need only utilise the amount of steam 
actually necessary for the work, as the driver can, by adjust- 
ing the lever, regulate the cut-off to a nicety to suit the work 
to be sheared. Moreover the machine practically regulates 
this automatically, for if too much steam is admitted the cut 
is effected more rapidly and the driver must shut off steam 
sooner, the cut being finished during the period of expan- 
sion, and if too little is admitted the cut is effected too 
slowly and the driver must open the valve further to admit 
more steam. 

Fig. 159 illustrates shears of this steam hydraulic type for 
cutting steel plates. 

Fig. 160 shows a patent steam hydraulic flanging press 
constructed by Messrs Breuer, Schumacher, & Co. for flang- 
ing the ends of large boilers. In this press the lifting 
cylinders are hydraulic as well as the pressing or lowering 
cylinders. The water for filling the cylinders is not taken 
from an open tank, but from a low pressure weighted 
accumulator. 

Messrs Armstrong, Whitworth, & Co. have constructed 
hydraulic presses of 12,000 tons power, the working pres- 
sure of which was 3 tons per square inch, the ram being 
72 inches in diameter, the height above the floor of the 
press was 33 feet, width 22 feet, working clearances between 
boiler 1 1 feet 6 inches, stroke of ram 5 feet, speed of ram 
4 feet 6 inches per minute, two draw-back cylinders being 
employed with rams of 10 inches diameter, 6 feet stroke, 
two 8-inch raking cylinders also being u?ed of 30 feet stroke, 
four lo-inch roller cylinders 40 feet stroke. The auxiliary 
motions in connection with the press were worked from 
an independent accumulator service of i ton per square 
. inch, the approximate weight of the press and pits being 
1,250 tons. 

The steam hydraulic forging press illustrated in Fig. 161 



HYDRAULIC RIVETERS. 265 

is one specially designed by Messrs Fielding & Piatt for use 
on board ship in place of the ordinary steam or pneumatic 
hammer, the peculiar advantage of this type of press being 
that it does its work with a squeeze instead of a blow, and 
being self-contained and working with no vibration renders 
it especially suitable for such purposes. 

The press shown is capable of working at about 50 to 60 
strokes per minute, or when used for planishing about double 
the speed is attained. The power of the press is about 
60 tons, the steam pressure being 80 lbs. to 100 lbs. per 
square inch, the stroke of the ram being 1 2 inches. 




Fig. IS3.-STKAM HVL1KAU1.IC FORCIMJ PRESS (J.OOO TONS). 



[fiST. 153-161 /fl /n^(A 266. 




Fig. 154.— Stbah Hvt>RAULic FoRctNG Press (I, zoo Tons). 




fifi- 155.— Stk.im lIvnRAiii.ic Fom;iM; I'ress {300 To\s). 




Fig. 158.— Stram Hydraulic Bi.noii Snu^' 




Fig. l6a-.STEflM HVDRAliLlC Vi.f.KGlX'.: Vl 



PART VIL-^PUMPS. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

HAND AND POWER PUMPS. 

In examining briefly the ordinary forms of hand and 
power driven pressure pumps for transmitting water under 
pressure to presses, accumulators or other hydraulic 
machines, we pass over entirely the ordinary suction and 
bucket and plunger or force pumps used for the domestic 
supply and delivery water into tanks or reservoirs, and glance 




Fig. 162. 

instead at the type of hand pressure pump as shown in 
sectional elevation in Fig. 162. 

The pressure pump as shown is suitable for working up to 
pressures of 2 tons per square inch, and is particularly useful 
for boiler and other testing purposes, the pump a being fitted 
with a trip lever h for opening the suction valve upon the set 
pressure being obtained. The plunger b. Fig. 163, is re- 
ciprocated in the cylinder a of the pump casting, the water 



270 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



entering from the cistern or tank to which the pump is 
secured through the suction valve c protected by a strainer 
D to fill the cylinder a. The back stroke of the plunger 
forces the water through the non-return valve f, closing at 
the same time the suction valve c, and delivering the water 
through the end branch e of the pump stem to the pipe 
attached thereto. To release the pressure the stop spindle 
G is turned, thereby opening the delivery port to an outlet 
port allowing the water to flow back into the cistern. 




^^^ 



Fig. 163. 

The plunger is reciprocated by a hand lever which is 
placed on the «id of the spindle k, thus giving the desired 
movement to the tumbler or cam arm l, which works in an 
opening provided in the central portion of the plunger. 

The passages for the water are drilled out of the solid 
metal of the casting, and the ends afterwards plugged by 
screwed and riveted plugs as shown in Fig. 164. The trip 
or release valve is described in connection with the vertical 
plunger pump shown in Figs. 166 and 167. The hand 



HAND AND POWER PUMPS. 



271 



pressure pump illustrated in Fig. 165 is provided with a ver- 
tical plunger a, and has the hand lever balanced and pivoted 
on to the standard or frame B, a trip or relief valve c is 
arranged upon the pump, and the stop or release valve d is 
placed horizontally. The passages and valves of the pump 
are similar to the valves shown in Fig. 163, the plunger also 
being of the same type, having its packing formed by a leather 
lace bound tightly round a groove. 

Pumps driven by belting or gearing for hydraulic purposes 




have much in common with the typical hand pump already 
examined, and Figs. 166 and 167 show in elevation and in 
detail a very useful type of belt-power pressure pump. The 
crank shaft is connected direct to the plungers, which are 
arranged in varying sizes upon the standard for the puqjose 
of giving a quick run up of water at a low pressure for such 
a duty as a packing press where, as we have before pointed 
out, a varying pressure is always required during the travel 



272 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



of the press to suit the density of the material which is being 
compressed. 

Trip levers are connected with each pump, and they are 
so arranged that the pressure produced upon the water by 
the resistance of the material between the press platten 




Fig. 165. 

and head shall cause a small valve b to raise the loaded 
lever c, and with it the bottom foot lever d, which then 
raises the suction valve w off its seat, thus causing the power 
of the pump to be given to the two remaining plungers, which 
are of smaller area. When the pressure is further increased 



HAND AND POWER PUMPS. 



273 



owing to the material being more densely compressed, the 
second trip lever is caused to move by its valves being urged 
to overcome the corresponding weighted lever, and thus 




F 



Fig. 166. 



another plunger is thrown out of action, leaving the last 
plunger of a smaller diameter to give the final pressure to 
produce the maximum load against which it is set by its trip 
lever. By this arrangement of trip levers any desired pressure 

S 



274 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



can be produced upon the final plunger while leaving the 
early movements of the pump to deliver water at a very 
much lower pressure, thereby economising the power and 
water and making the pressing operation a quick one. It 
should be noted that the trip valve which acts against the 
loaded lever does not allow any water to escape, but simply 
moves upwards within its bored port, the leather packing on 




///////////////////////////////////////////////^^^^ 
T\g. 167. 



the end of the valve keeping the pressure tight within the 
pump passages. 

The well-known bucket and plunger pump employed for 
ordinary water-raising purposes, where a continuous flow of 
water is required from the single up and down motion of one 
plunger, has its counterpart arrangement for hydraulic power 
purposes as shown in Fig. 168. In this pump, which is 
suitable alike for hand or power, the suction valve a is only 



HAND AND POWER PUMPS. 



27S 



Operated at each alternate stroke, and b; propoitioning the 
areas of the plunger half the quantity of water drawn in the 
suction valve a is delivered throi^h the delivery valve B at 
each stroke. The non-return valve c, which acts as the 
check valve to the full end of the piston, is forced upon 
its seat during the in or suction stroke of the piston by the 
pressure water travelling from the annular or front end of 
the pump, the valve B being open for delivery during this 
period. During the outward stroke of the piston the suction 




Fig. 16S. 



valve A is forced on to its seat, but the check valve c is 
raised, allowing the full bore of the pump barrel to be dis- 
charged through it, half of this quantity going to fill up the 
annular space in front of the piston, while the other half is 
delivered through the outlet valve b. This counterbalancing 
of fluid pressure within the pump barrel renders the arrange- 
ment particularly suitable for all classes of pumping 
machinery, as no unequal strains are set up during the 
working of the pump at any speed. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

STEAM PUMPS. 

The varieties of steam pumps for hydraulic pressure purposes 
are almost as numerous as the varieties of the ordinary steam 
engine, although possibly the pumps have more in common 
than have the engines produced by various makers. 

Unquestionably the most satisfactory type for general 




Fig. 169. 

purposes of a small installation where steam is available is 
the duplex pump, first introduced and perfected by H. K 
Worthington, of America. The Worthingtori pump, as illus- 
trated in Fig. 169, has two steam cylinders side by side, the 
piston rods of each cylinder being continued to act as the 
pump rods of the two pumps at the opposite end, the pump 



STEAM PUMPS. 



277 



castings being connected to the cylinders by distance pieces, 
as shown. The valve of each steam cylinder is an ordinary 
slide valve, but the ports are duplicated at each end. No 
lap or lead is given to the valve, but a small space or slack 
is given between the nuts and the jaw of the valVe. This 
lost motion permits the valve rod to travel slightly before 
moving the valve, thus allowing a slight pause in the motion of 
the piston at the end of each stroke, thereby giving the water 
valves time to seat smoothly and without violence. The 
valve of one cylinder is controlled by the piston rod of the 
other, the motion being transmitted through the vibrating 
arm pivoted on the distance piece. The moving parts being 




F^. 170. 

always in contact, the blow which arises with tappet con- 
trolled valves is avoided. When the piston in its motion 
covers the first port, which is the exhaust, the steam remain- 
ing in the cylinder is cushioned in front of the piston, thus 
causing a gradual arrest of its movement. One or other of 
the slide valves being always open, there is no dead point, 
and the pump is therefore capable of being stopped and 
started at any time. This property of constant readiness for 
full duty enables the Worthington or duplex pump to be 
employed for working direct on to hydraulic lift cylinders or 
on to an accumulator, the pump following up the motion of 
the lift on the rise and fall of the accumulator automatically 



278 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



when the pressure from the pump delivery main is drawn 
upon. In connection with pumps it is desirable to employ 
an air chamber on the suction main as well as on the delivery 
main, in order to make the flow of water continuous and to 

ensure that the cylinder shall be 
filled at each stroke. When an air 
vessel is not possible on the suction 
side, it is an advantage to give the 
water entering the valve a little 
head by causing a T branch con- 
nection with the suction pipe and 
the pump barrel to be made, the 
water in the T thus standing above 
the pump barrel. The flow into 
the suction pipe should not exceed 150 to 200 feet per 
minute. The speed of the plunger may be from 65 to 150 
feet per minute. 

The pressure pump shown in section in Fig. 170 is a 
Worthington packed plunger or double-ram pressure pump. 




Fig. 171. 




Fig. 172. 



The barrel is divided, so that each end is an independent 
single-acting plunger drawing water at the one end, while 
the opposite plunger is forcing it out at the other end of the 
divided barrel. A number of independent pressure valves 



STEAM PUMPS. 




28o HVbRAtiLlC POWER EJjGltJEERIl4G. 

are employed, easily accessible, and are contained in small 
chambers for resisting heavy pressures. These pumps work 
up to 8,000 lbs. to the square inch. The plungers are 
connected by means of yokes and outside rods, so that they 
move together as one plunger and become double acting by 
the division of the barrel. Fig. 1 71 shows a sectional view 
of the pump barrels and their valves, a common suction 
and delivery branch being alone required for the two inde- 
pendent double-acting pump barrels. These pumps work 
best when the plunger speed does not exceed 50 feet per 
minute. 

A fly-wheel doiible-acting pressure pump, having a hori- 




Fig. 174. 

zontal steam cylinder, as shown in Fig. 172, is often em- 
ployed for small hydraulic installations. The valves are 
arranged at the extreme end of the pump, and being imme- 
diately above each other, admit of easy examination and 
renewal. 

A vertical cylinder engine with expansion valve having 
direct coupled pumps is shown at Fig. 1 73. In this example 
the water Is drawn in and forced out at right angles to the 
line ofaxis of the pump. The valves are very accessible, and 
the pump plungers are easily packed. This type of engine 



STEAM PUMPS. 281 

is in use at the pumping station of the Hydraulic Power 
Company, of London. 

The pumps illustrated in Fig. 174 were made by Messrs 
Berry for the London County Council, and have two steam 
cylinders with direct-acting pumps, 2^ inches diameter by 
1 2 inches stroke, the pump plunger rods being connected 
through the back ends of the cylinders to 9 inches diameter 
steam pistons. The pumps supply an accumulator, and 
work at 750 lbs. per square inch. 



PART VIIL— HYDRAULIC MOTORS. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 
TURBINES. 

Before proceeding to the detailed examination of the 
various types of turbines, we will examine the action of a 
stream of water on a curved vane. If a stream of water 
having a certain velocity Ci meets a stationary curved vane, 
the path of the stream will be altered, following the curve of 
the vane and leaving in the direction which the vane would 
take if continued. Neglecting losses from friction, the 
velocity c^ of the stream will be the same on leaving the 
vane as on entering, the only change being one of direction. 
If now a velocity w^ be given to the vane, an inspection of 
the diagram (Fig. 175) will show that the water may never 
touch the vane at all ; for when the stream has reached c^ the 
vane will have travelled to Wj. To obviate this, either the 
orifice of the stream must be given a motion similar in direc- 
tion and magnitude to w^, or the direction and velocity of 
the stream must be altered to r, the resultant of c^ and ze/j. 
The motion of the stream relative to the moving vane again 
coincides with c^. The motion of the stream on leaving the 
vane will again coincide with ^2 relativMy to the vane, but as 
the vane and stream each have the velocity ze/^, the absolute 
or real velocity of the stream on leaving the vane will be the 
resultant of ^2 And w^, or u. On entering the vane the stream 
had an absolute velocity of c, and a corresponding store of 
energy — 

\2^/ 



286 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



On leaving the vane the absolute velocity of the water is u 
and the corresponding energy — 

Now if u is less than c the energy remaining in the water on 
leaving the vane must be less than the original energy con- 
tained in the stream, so that neglecting the losses by friction 
the difference of energy has been imparted to the vane, and 
is capable of being applied to perform useful work. 





Fig. 175. 



The velocity of entry c is generally fixed by circumstances, 
and the designer has to convert as large a percentage of the 
energy contained in the stream at disposal into useful work. 
This is obtained by keeping the velocity u of discharge as 
low as possible, and thereby increasing the difference between 
the energy of the entering stream and that of the leaving 
stream. The velocity u cannot in practice be made O, as 
the water would not then flow from the vane at all. 

It will be noticed that no mention has been made of the 
exact curve a turbine vane should take, and it may be here 



TURBINES. 287 

Stated that there is no particular curve to be followed, the 
only conditions being that the curve of the vane shall flow 
gradually from the angle of entry to the angle of exit. 

There are two distinct classes of turbines, namely, Impulse 
and /Reaction. Each of these classes contains several types, 
having the flow of the water arranged in different directions. 
These types may be enumerated as below : — 



Impulse. 

No Suction Tube, 

Radial outward flow. 

„ inward „ 
Axial flow. 
Pelton wheel. 



Reaction. 

With or without Suction 
Tube, 



Radial outward flow. 

„ inw 
Axial flow. 



„ inward „ 



In an impulse turbine the action of the stream follows 
very closely the explanation already given, and our sub- 
sequent remarks will relate more to precautions to be 
observed in designing. The water is directed into the vanes 
of the wheel in the required direction by fixed guide vanes, 
so arranged in size that the wheel is never allowed to become 
filled with water or drowned. The outlet is also above water, 
so that the stream in passing through the turbine is at all 
times under atmospheric pressure. 

Fig. 176 shows a section elevation of a Girard impulse 
turbine, and Fig. 177 shows an end elevation partly in 
section of the same wheel. The water enters through the 
pipe A, and passing through the regulator valve b, is directed 
by the guide vanes c into the wheel vanes or buckets d at 
the correct angle for preventing shock from impact. After 
passing through the wheel buckets the water falls away at as 
low a velocity as circumstances will permit through the open- 
ing or tail-race e. The supply of water is regulated by the 
hand-wheel attached to the screw f which operates the lever 
G, and so causes motion of the slide valve b, which admits 
the water to the required number of guide passages. This 



288 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

I 




TURBINES. 



289 



method of governing is well adapted to impulse turbines, 
and has no appreciable effect on the efficiency. 

Fig. 178 illustrates the general arrangement of a Pelton 
wheel, which is a type of axial flow impulse turbine. The 
water leaves the jet a at a velocity dependent upon the 
head of water available, and meets the cups or buckets on 




Fig. 178. 

the wheel rim with as little shock as possible. The buckets 
are in the form of two hemispheres, joined together at the 
centre by a straight thin rib. The water meets the rib, and 
is divided into two streams, one going each way and acting 
on the curved surfaces of the buckets as the stream of water 
does in any other form of impulse turbine. The speed of the 
wheel should be such that the water on discharge from the 
buckets is almost stationary. 

T 



290 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



Figs. 179, iSo, and 181 illustrate a type of Pelton wheel 
known as the Hector Water Motor, constructed by Mr P. 
Pitman of Ledbury especially for pressures for domestic use, 
with water of 40 lbs, to 1,000 lbs, per square inch. 

The illustrations show a multiple-nozzle Pelton wheel 
designed to give 50 brake horse-power at a speed of 




Fig. 179. 

135 revolutions, when using 700 cubic feet of water per 
minute at 50 ft. head. The water enters by a branch 24 in, 
diameter, and passes to the three nozzles through three 
valves controlled by the hand-wheels outside. The valve- 
screws are double-threaded, and are entirely outside the 
casing, the spindles being packed by stuffing-boxes, and the 



! 213 




292 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

bonnets made easily removable, so that valves, &c., can 
be withdrawn, if necessary, without breaking any pipe- 
joints. The nozzles are each 3f in. diameter, and they, 
together with the whole of the buckets, bearings, valves, 
and seatings, are constructed of phosphor-bronze to prevent 
corrosion and the consequent impairment of efficiency with 
use. The wheel itself is made of steel plate, J in. thick and 
4 ft. diameter, mounted on a 3-in. shaft, and turned and 
balanced after being keyed up. It will be seen that the 
buckets are widened out at the sides more than is usual, this 
having been done to allow the water to spread and leave the 
wheel freely when its velocity has been abstracted. 

The casing is constructed of ^-in. steel plates riveted on 
a framing of angles by ^-in. rivets at 3-in. pitch. It is caulked 
at all joints and is absolutely water-tight. The top half of 
the casing may be lifted off, and half of one of the lower 
sides is also made removable, so that all buckets and nozzles 
may be conveniently got at or removed. 

Fig. 182 shows an axial flow reaction turbine, which, 
though much like an impulse turbine in general appearance, 
is so proportioned and erected that the vanes are always 
full of water or drowned, and the water is discharged under 
the water level of the tail-race. The action of the water on 
the vanes is similar to that given in the general explanation, 
but the velocity of the water through the wheel is not 
necessarily uniform, but depends on the sizes of the open- 
ings for outlet from the fixed guide vanes, also the outlet 
from the wheel vanes. Where the openings are narrow, 
the velocity is correspondingly great, and where wide, corre- 
spondingly small, as in a pipe of varying diameter. 

Reaction turbines are frequently fitted with suction tubes 
which permit of the wheel being placed at a height above 
the tail-race level dependent on conditions to be afterwards 
explained. The suction tube may alter the velocity of flow 
through the wheel according to its area of outlet and the 
pressure energy remaining in the water at the time of outflow. 



TURBINES. 



293 



Fig. 183 shows the usual type of thrust-bearing used 
in turbines having a vertical shaft. 

The arrangement will be better understood after an exami- 
nation of Fig. 182. The vertical shaft a rests on a massive 
foundation, and carries at its upper end a fixed oil cup 




Fig. 182. 



which contains the fixed steel block b. The mainshaft c 
carries a gun-metal block d which rests on the block b. 
The mainshaft c passes through a plummer block not shown 
in the figures, which provides lateral stability. The turbine 
wheel is supported by a hollow cast-iron shaft suspended 



294 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



from the main shaft c by the lantern k, which carries a brass 
bush F for steadying the upper end of the vertical shaft a. 
The turbine wheel is supported laterally by a brass bush 
carried by the lower end of the hollow cast-iron shaft, and 
fitting the vertical shaft a. The nut c allows the turbine 
wheel to be adjusted 
vertically to compensate 
for the wear of the thrust 
block D. 

There is an immense 
variety of turbines, but 
the more important 
types are — (i) The 
Fourneyron turbine, in 
which the water flows 
from within the wheel 
outwards, and at right 
angles to the axis; (2) 
the centre vent turbine, 
in which the water flows 
from the outside of the 
wheel towards its centre, 
also at right angles to its 
axis ; (3) the Jonval or 
parallel Sow turbine, in 
which the water flows 
through the wheel 
parallel to the axis ; 
and (4) partial turbines, which may be of either of the other 
types, but in which the water flows into the wheel only 
round a portion of the circumference. 

In all turbines the water is conducted by a set of fixed 
guide curves or plates into the revolving wheel, where it 
meets with buckets or curved partitions against which it 
impinges, causing the wheel to revolve. 




Fig. 183. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

IMPULSE TURBINES. 

In designing a turbine to utilise the energy of a supply of 
water under a head or pressure, there must be known the 
quantity of water flowing, and the head or pressure available. 
The fullest particulars as to variation of supply, highest 
flood levels, minimum supply during summer months, should 
also be ascertained if the proposed turbine is to meet the 
requirements to the best advantage. Where the fall is great 
and the quantity of water small, the choice must be in 
favour of an impulse wheel with partial admission, as a 
reaction turbine would require to be so small and to work 
with such a high number of revolutions that the design 
would become unsuitable if not impossible. If the head or 
fall is only a few feet, and the water supply fairly regular, as 
is the case where a reservoir or pound is used, a reaction 
turbine is very suitable, as it is not afi'ected by change of 
level in the tail-race caused by flood, provided there is a 
corresponding rise in the top level; whereas an impulse 
turbine would require to be placed at a sufficient height 
above the level of the tail-race as to ensure that the flood 
shall never reach the wheel. 

The chief objection to the reaction type as frequently 
constructed is the inability to economically supply varying 
power j so long as the power is the same that the turbine 
was designed to supply, a very good performance may be 
expected, but if a greater or less power is required the 
efficiency falls off" rapidly. It will be seen that many reaction 
wheels are unsuited to a situation where the water supply 
falls short in dry weather, as if the wheel is designed to give 



296 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



good results for high powers, the power given out with a 
limited supply will fall so much as to be practically useless. 
On the other hand, if the wheel is designed to be economical 
at low powers, it will never give out large powers, although 
there may be a large water consumption. Reaction turbines 
have been used in conjunction with impulse turbines, in 
which case the reaction wheel is set to work at its most 
economical power, whilst any alteration in power is obtained 
by regulating the supply to the impulse wheel. 

Before commencing the design of an impulse turbine, the 
actual velocity of the water at the guide passages must be 
ascertained. If the water enters the guides from a long 





K 





Fig. 184. 

pipe or open channel and vertical pipe, having already dis- 
cussed the formulae in a previous chapter, we can calculate 
the actual effective head h^ after allowing for frictional and 
other losses. This head should be calculated from the 
outlet level of the guide passages, allowance being made for 
the height h^ above the tail level to allow for the buckets of 
the wheel, as shown in Fig. 184. 

The velocity c of flow from the guide passages will 
then be — 

^=.9572^'^ (0 

.95 being the value of a coefficient taken from actual 
observation. 



IMPULSE TURBINES. 297 

The next step is to find the total outlet area of the guide 
passages necessary to pass the maximum quantity of water. 
If the area were only made large enough to pass the quantity 
of water flowing with the velocity r, it would be found that 
the full quantity would not flow, as there is a certain amount 
of obstruction from the vanes passing across the guide 
passages. A smaller velocity is assumed in calculating the 
area of the openings having a value of .8% so ,that the 
formula becomes— 

in which Q represents the quantity of water in cubic feet 
per second, and A the required area in square feet. We 
have now two more dimensions to settle, namely, the width 
of the buckets and the radius of the wheel ; either of these 
can be adjusted to requirements by an alteration of the 
other. Before proceeding further a trial radius should be 
decided upon, also the angles a and a^ (see Fig. J 85). 

The wheel velocity is fixed between narrow limits by 
the velocity of entry of the water if the turbine is to be a 
really eflicient machine ; as is also the angle a of entry. 

We will try to explain the reason for this by the aid of 
the diagrams (Fig. 185). 

We have already observed in our preliminary remarks that 
the less the value of u, the velocity of exit, the greater the 
efficiency of the turbine, while the direction of inlet does not 
of itself affect the efficiency, except that no turbine has yet 
been designed in which the velocity of u can be regulated 
without adjusting the angle of inlet a. 

From the point draw ^, representing to scale the abso- 
lute velocity and direction of the stream passing through the 
guide passages of a turbine. Draw c^, as shown, and com- 
plete the parallelogram by drawing a/j, the wheel velocity. 
For the present argument we will assume that the velocity 
c^ of exit is the same as c^, and that W2 is equal to w^. 



298 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 




The direction ofw^ must 
of necessity be parallel 
to Wi, while the direction 
of ^2 may be altered at 
will. Select a direction 
for ^-2, making any angle 
ttg with the ordinate Oy; 
complete the parallelo- 
gram, and obtain the 
corresponding value of ». 
In all the diagrams the 
angle a^ has the same 
value. In the first dia- 
gram, by selecting a ver- 
tical direction for r^ and 
consequent value of 
ttj = o", the value of c^ is 
small, whilst ze/^ is large, 
giving u a forward direc- 
tion and high velocity. 

In the second diagram 
c^ and ze/j have been 
made equal to each 
other, and the angle P 
( = 90** - ttj) is con- 
sequently bisected by 
the line c, c^ and w^ 
being the same in value 
as c^ and w^^ are equal 
to each other, so that u 
will have a slightly for- 
ward direction and small 
value. 

In the third diagram 
^1 has a large value, and 
zf/| a small value, so 



IMPULSE TURBINES. 299 

that on drawing out the parallelogram c^ w^ the velocity u 
is found to have a large value in a backward direction. 
Now, as we have previously shown that u should be as 
small as possible, it is evident, without further demon- 
stration, that c^ should be slightly greater than 7</^, and 
consequently ^2 greater than 7V^. To what extent this rule 
may be followed in practice, and the modifications necessary 
in the various designs of inward, outward, or radial flow 
turbines, will be further explained. 

In an axial turbine the value of w^ being the same as u\, 
it would appear at first sight that the conditions above stated 
apply without correction ; but this is not so, as owing to 
the height h^ (Fig. 184), the stream of water will increase in 
velocity in passing through the vanes, the additional velocity 

being represented by *j2gh^ ; but as there is friction be- 
tween the vanes and the stream, the velocity of the water 
will be reduced below the theoretical amount, so that the 
complete formula becomes — 

^.^ = (<^i^ + 2^A,)j-~ - - - - (3) 

The value of/ is variable between .05 and . i . The value 
of h^ cannot yet be fixed, so that in calculating ^2 an assump- 
tion must be made, 6 inches to i foot being a suitable dimen- 
sion. It is scarcely necessary to remark that with high 
falls, and consequently high velocities, A^ may be neglected 
in the preliminary calculations, as its effect becomes scarcely 
noticeable ; whereas with a low fall the height h^ forms a 
considerable portion of the total head. 

In an inward flow radial turbine w^ is less than w^ by an 
amount dependent upon the ratio of the depth of the vane 
to the radius, and as Cj should be slightly greater than Wfy 
the value of c^ (greater than c^) may be temporarily fixed 
approximately equal to 7tf-^, Fig. 186 will make this clear. 

Fig. 187 shows the diagram for an outward flow radial 
turbine, in which w^ becomes greater than w^ by an amount 



300 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



dependent upon the ratio of the depth of the vane to the 
radius, c^ must be slightly greater than w^, and consequently 
considerably greater than 7Vy 

Having arrived at suitable values of c^, w^, and a and a^, 
we may calculate the width of the vanes necessary to pass 




Fig. i86. 



Fig. 187. 



the quantity of water flowing. The values of A, the area of 
outlet, and r, the radius, being known, we have the following 
formula — 

e. (width of vane) = - - (4) 

^ ^ 27rr. cos. a - z^t^ ^^' 

in which z^ is the number of guide vanes and /^ their thick- 



IMPULSE TURBINES. 



301 



ness. The width e^ of outlet from the vanes may be calcu- 
lated in the same way by the formula — 



<?j = 



A, 



27rr, COS. a, - gj/j 



is) 



in which A^ represents the area necessary to pass the quan- 
tity Q of water flowing with the velocity d ; r, represents the 
radius at outlet, /^ the thickness, 
and Z2 the number of vanes. 
Z2 should always be less than j?^, 
so that the vanes shall not be 
choked with water, and so in- 
terfere with free deviation. For 
the same reason the width of 
the wheel vanes should be made 
larger than the value given by 
the above equation. 

If the radius chosen gives 
unsuitable values for e^ and ^2 
a new radius must be selected, 
and the calculations repeated. 
If, however, the value of ^^ comes 
out too small, partial admission 
should be resorted to. 

The values chosen for the 
angles a and Oj, if too large, will 
give trouble, and must be re- 
duced, and a new trial made. 

The above remarks apply 
equally to all classes of impulse 
turbines. There are, however, 
two more points to be con- 
sidered in connection with axial flow turbines — namely, the 
centrifugal effect of the water due to the fact that the stream 
enters the vanes in a tangential direction, whilst the vanes 
move in a circular path; also owing to the fact that all 




Fig. 188. 



302 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

parts of the vane are not at the same radial distance, the 
quantities w-^ and w^ have variable values. 

The centrifugal' effect may be easily counteracted, as will 
be seen with reference to the diagram (Fig. i88). The 
values of the angles a^ and a, having been fixed, and the 
design of the turbine completed in every way, the absolute 
path of the stream of water through the turbine may be 
easily found by measuring the length of the turbine vane in 
terms of c^ ; now mark off P^ P the same multiple of w^ and 
the point P indicates where water entering at the point O 
would leave the vanes. If, for example, the length of vane 
equals 2 x r^ then a distance equal to 2 x iv^ must be marked 
off. The circumference of the vanes must now be drawn to 







Fig. 189. 

scale, and the distance O P marked off tangentially from O 
will indicate the correct radius of the wheel where the water 
leaves. If the value of c^ differs greatly from c^ the mean 
value should be taken in making the above calculation. 
The vanes may now be corrected in shape, as shown by full 
lines in Fig. 189. 

With regard to the effect of the varying radius, and conse- 
quent variation of w^ and o/j, we have only to turn back to 
the diagrams (Fig. 185) to see the result. The design 
should be prepared with reference to the mean radius, when 
the outer radius will give a diagram similar to the first, and 
the inner radius a diagram similar to the third in Fig. 185. 
To get the best effect the curve of the vane must be gradu- 
ally changed to suit the varying values of c^ and Wy An 



IMPULSE TURBINES. 303 

inspection of Fig. 184 shows that the direction of w will be 
forward at the outer radius, and backward at the inner; 
consequently in designing an axial wheel the radius should 
be as large as possible, and the width e of the vanes as 
narrow as possible. 

We will now consider the Pelton wheel, which is a special 
form of axial flow turbine, having the angle a = 90**, and con- 
sequently ^1 + ^1 = ^; and, as we have already explained, c^ 
should also equal w{. We find that in a Pelton wheel the 
velocity nf-^ should be half the actual velocity C of the water 
issuing from the jet. The angle a, cannot be made equal to 
90**, as the water would strike the next bucket. There is a 
certain amount of impact where the jet of water meets the 
thin edge of the bucket, as it is impossible to make a sharp 
edge in practice. The chief advantages claimed for the 
Pelton wheel are its simplicity of construction, which renders 
it particularly suitable for transport in new countries, and its 
high efficiency. 



CHAPTER XX. 

REACTION TURBINES. 

In order that the theory of reaction turbines may be made 
clear, we will start our investigation by reconsidering the 
design of impulse turbine examined in our last chapter. 
Referring back to Fig. 184, the vanes might easily be so 
designed by properly proportioning the width e^ and ^j, 
that the area A, is equal to the area A^ and consequently 
greater than the area A, measured in a direction at right 
angles to the direction of flow as shown in Fig. 190. If this 
is done, the water will still have the velocity c^ on leaving 
the wheel, but the buckets will be filled with water at the 
inlet and outlet. The correct velocities r, c^y c^ are shown 
in Fig. 190, and are the same as for an impulse wheel. If 
the outlet be now placed under water as in Fig. 182, the 
wheel will become filled with water at all parts, and, neglect- 
ing the slight variation in the frictional losses due to the 
altered conditions, will have the action of a free deviation 
impulse turbine. 

The design of the turbine may now be altered so that the 
area A2 has a larger or smaller value than that given by the 
conditions of Fig. 190, and as the wheel is at all parts full of 
water, the velocity of flow at any point is governed by the 
formula Q = Av, By altering the area Ag we not only alter 
the velocity c<^ but also the velocities c and c^^ and, whereas 
the velocity c for impulse turbines has one particular value 
for any given head of water, the velocity c for reaction wheels 
may have a comparatively large range of values for any given 
head. 

Fig. 191 shows what takes place if the value of ^ is the 



REACTION TURBINES. 30S 

same as ^j, or if the vanes are of the same width throughout. 
In the Figs. 190, 191, 192, we have taken the same values 
for a and a, for the sake of comparison, while a has also 
been taken equal to a,. In Fig. 19I) Ag will consequently 
equal A, and c^ will equal c. Taking the value for Wj, which 
makes u vertical, we see that c^ enters the vanes in a vertical 
direction. This diagram is typical of the design of the 
Jonval turbine as conducted on the European continent. 

In Fig. 192 the wheel vanes have been contracted, causing 
diminution of the area Aj in relation to A, and consequent 
increase of the velocity c^ above c. Applying the correct value 
for Wa, ^1 is given a backward direction. Thus we see that 
for any values of a and a, by altering the ratio of the areas 
A and A, we can produce different values of c for the same 
head of water. In the diagrams the same length of line has 
been taken to represent the value of c^ but it must not be 
supposed on this account that c^ has the same arithmetical 
value in each case. As we have not yet investigated the 
formulae for calculating the true value of c under any con- 
ditions, some value had to be assumed in order that the 
diagrams could be drawn out, so that, while in each diagram 
the values of r, c^, ^„ w^^ w^, and u are proportional to the 
lengths there given, the diagrams must not be compared by 
measurement. 

The correct value of c for any conditions must next be in- 
vestigated. As the turbine is filled with water, and the flow 
at any point is governed by the formula Q = Av, the energy 
contained in the water at any point is evidently represented by 
the hydrodynamic equation already investigated in Chapter 
I., or, if A represents the useful head of water, the energy of 
I lb. of water is — 

,^ = ^ +!X = ^ 4.*X = etc. 

If h^ represents the pressure energy of the water on leaving 
the guide passages, then the total energy of the water on 

U 



306 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 




-A— 






^«..-^»— — • 



i- 



—y. 




' — ?- 



— ^™ 



Figs. 190, 191, and 192. 



REACTION TURBINES. 



307 



leaving the guide passages is Aj + — . Now this energy, 

neglecting losses, must balance the energy h^ of the total 
head of the water, measured from its surface to the level of 
outflow from the buckets, as shown in the diagram Fig. 
193, therefore — 



^ = ^1 + - 



(I) 



I 
I 

I 
I 
I 
I 

I 
I 

K. 

I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 

1 




Fig. 193- 



As, however, the water level in the tail-race is liable to vary 
and rise a height h^ above the outflow level, the useful head 
h is evidently represented by h^ - h^^ so that from equation 
(i) we get — 






(^) 



We must now consider what is taking place in the turbine 



308 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

buckets due to the change of velocity from c^ to c^. From 
the hydrodynamic equation — 

h, + '^^/i, + 'l ... (3) 

therefore ^^ - >4^ = fk! - 5l - . - (4) 

By substituting this value for ^j-/^ in equation (2) we 
get— 

^=^(^+^2^-^i') - - - (s) 

The values of c^ and r^ may now be expressed in terms of r, 
since — 

Ca I C mm A. * AAO 

.-. c^ = -c - - . . (sa) 

similarly ^^^A^' ' " " ^5^) 

Substituting these values in equation (5) — 

.•4-(^'-a.)'} - • <" 

.*. (^ = 2gh. 



I 



-a)'-(i 



1 



= KV2^>4 (8) 

The solution in equation (7) will give the value of c for the 
corresponding values of A, A^, and A^ The equation in 
this form is not suitable for direct use, as, though we may 



REACTION TURBINES. 309 

assume values for A and A^, the value of A^ is entirely 
dependent of the values of A and A, and the angles a and 
ttg. So that having selected the values of A, Ag, a and ag, it 
is necessary to draw out a diagram similar to Figs. 190, 191, 
or 192, and so obtain the corresponding values of Aj 
and o^* 

In drawing out the diagram c^ should first be drawn in 
the correct direction making the angle ag with the vertical, 
and having a length not less than i inch, preferably 2 inches. 
w^ must now be drawn so as to give m a vertical direction. 
The length of c may now be calculated from equation (5a) 
and drawn in a direction making the selected angle a with 
the vertical. On drawing w^ equal to a/g for an axial flow 
turbine and completing the parallelogram the value and 
direction of c^ are obtained. A^ may now be calculated from 
equation (5^). 

Equation (7) may now be solved, and the value of c 
obtained, whence the other values, c^^ c^ w^y w^ may be 
obtained either graphically or by calculation. This com- 
pletes the calculation necessary in the case of an axial 
flow turbine working under the conditions assumed in the 
Figs. 190, 191, 192. If the value of u resulting is considered 
too high, then the process must be repeated with an altered 
ratio of A : Ag, and if necessary altered values for a and Og. 

If the calculation has to be made for an outward or 
inward flow radial wheel the only altered condition is in the 
value of a/j, which will not equal w^ but will have a greater 
or less value. If r^ and r^ be the radii corresponding to w^ 
and w^ respectively, then 

•••a'i = a'2-~ - - (9) 

This new value for w^ must be used in drawing out the 
diagram, and consequently c and c^ will have an altered 
ratio to c^. This operation may be performed graphically, 
as in Figs. 186, 187, Chapter XIX. 



310 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



As it is not always convenient to resort to graphic 
methods, we may evolve an equation from equation (6) in 
which Aj is expressed in terms of A, A,, sin a and sin a^ 

Referring to any of the diagrams, Figs. 190, 191, 192, W2 
may be expressed — 



therefore by (9) — 



W2 = ^2 ^^^ ^2 



zt/j = -1 z^/g = -1 ^2 sin aj 
^2 ^2 



(10) 



(XI) 




Fig. 194. 



The whole operation of fixing the values of c, c^, c^^ w^, w^ 
may be performed by the following very simple graphic 
method : — 

Having selected a and ag, and the ratio r^ : r^ in the case 
of inward or outward flow turbines, draw out the diagram to 
any scale as shown by the light lines in Fig. 194. Set up a 
vertical OG and draw OF at right angles equal to AB in the 
diagram, and with the length CD mark off FG completing 



REACTION TURBINES. 311 

the triangle OFG. From G set off GH at right angles to 

OG and equal to AE. 

Join OH. Then OF = rp ¥G=^c^ and GH = ^ to any 

scale 

And FG2 - 0F2 = OG^, 

or c^^ -c^ ^OGj. 

Again GH2 + OG2 = OH2, 

or ^+r«2-rj2=OH2. 

From equation (5) — 

therefore OH* = 2^>^ = z/*, where v represents the velocity 
due to the head h. 
Extracting the roots 

0H = «;. 

The velocity v due to the head h for the case under con- 
sideration may now be calculated and marked off from OH 
to any suitable scale (say 20 feet to i inch), as shown by the 
thick line in the diagram. 

Draw r, Cyy c^ parallel to GH, OF, and FG respectively, 
and scale off their lengths to the same scale that was used 
fort'. 

Apply these corrected lengths to the diagram, and measure 
off «/^, w^ Uy and the investigation is complete. 

The head A is the total head, less about 15 per cent, 
allowance for losses by friction. 

According to the properties of triangles c^^ may be ex- 
pressed 

rj2_-^^^^2_ 2^0^! sin a - - (12) 

substituting the values for w^^ and ^f/j given by (11) and 
simplifying 

but by (s^) ^i^ = ^-( A~) » therefore the quantity contained 
in the brackets in (13) equals (x") • 



312 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

(^)'-{-(?,)-(^)''^»V-A|.sin.s...}(M) 

substituting this value in equation (6) — 

(15) 

simplifying and extracting the value of c — 

(16) 

The values of r, r^, c^ w^ and W2> ^ investigated by the 
above-described methods, are the theoretical values, and do 
not take into account the losses caused by friction of the 
pipes and vanes. There are several separate causes for loss 
in reaction turbines, namely, friction of vertical supply pipe ; 
friction of guide vanes ; friction of wheel buckets ; loss by 
leakage between guide vanes and top of wheel buckets ; loss 
from energy represented by the velocity u ; and when the 
wheel is not running at its best speed, loss by impact due 
to the angle of inflow a^ being different to the corresponding 
angle of the wheel buckets. 

The first of these losses may be calculated by the formula — 

d 2g 

By making the velocity v small, such as 3 to 5 feet per 
second, the head lost on this account is very small. Values 
oi fo have already been given in Chapter II. 

The head lost by friction of guide vanes is given by the 
equation — 

2g 

in which/has the value .11, determined by exp>eriment. 



REACTION TURBINES. 313 

The losses occurring through leakage between the guide 
vanes and wheel are dependent on the pressure hx at that 
point, and on the width of opening between the guides 
and wheel, usually \ inch. As an attempt to calculate 
this loss would require a good many assumptions to be 
made, it is advisable to make an allowance as observed 
from good examples of turbines. The loss by leakage is 
found to be fairly represented by about 4 to 5 per cent, of 
the total head, so that we may write the equation — 

^ = .o4Hto.osH - - (19) 

It may be here observed that on account of this leakage 
the velocity c will actually rise by 4 or 5 per cent, above 

what is required by the ratio — . In fact the gap be- 

A2 

tween the guides and wheel is a sort of useless addition to 
the areas Aj and A^. 

The losses occurring in the wheel buckets may be calcu- 
lated by a modification of equation (18), for instead of a 
uniform velocity we have a velocity varying from Ci to c^. 
Assuming that the change from Ci to r, takes place by 
uniform acceleration, then the equation becomes— 

^=/'^'-^- - - (-) 

in which /has the same value as before. 

The energy lost in every pound of the ofF-flowing water 
due to the velocity u is represented by the equation — 

>»«=! - - - (") 

By combining the above equations the useful head ^„, 
representing the proportion of the total head H, which is 
converted into useful work, may be found. 

i4a = H-(^i + ^„ + A» + >5a + ^4i) - (22) 



314 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

The head h for use in solving the equations (7) and (16) 
is given by the equation — 

>ft = H-(>4i + A„ + >4,i + /4,0 - - (23) 
consequently — 

K^h-h^y^ - - ' (23a) 

The equations (17) to (23) are not in a form for direct 
use, as they contain the quantities r, c^^ c^ », which are 
unknown until equation (17) or (23) has been solved. They 
might, however, be worked out in suitable form and included 
in equations (7) and (16), but there is then the disadvantage 
that all operations are conducted at once, and it becomes 
difficult to follow the effect of the various losses. 

A very near approximation to the value of r, corresponding 
to the head ^, as given by equation (23), is obtained by first 
calculating c^ r^ r, by equation (7) or (16), and then using 
these values in solving equation (23). This method is, of 
course, not strictly correct ; but as some of the quantities in 
the equations (17) to (20) are only approximate, it is useless 
to be too critical. 

An example worked out for a head of 10 feet, and A = At, 
a = 04 = 60°, as shown in Fig. 191, gives a loss of head of 
1.66 feet, or 

^ = H - 1.66 = 10 - 1.66 = 8.33, or 83.3 per cent., 

or a loss of 16.66 per cent due to friction. Experiments 
conducted on existing turj)ines give values of 82 to 86 per 
cent, for h. There is a further loss of about 12.6 per cent, 
due to the velocity u of off-flow, so that the useful head K 
given in equation (22) is — 

^ = H-(i.66 + i.26) 
= 10 - 2.92 = 7.08, or 70.8 per cent. 

Allowing 2.8 per cent, for shaft friction leaves 68 per 
cent, for the brake efficiency of the turbine, which is a good 
performance for the design under consideration. By in- 
creasing a = 04 to 66"* the brake efficiency is improved to 



REACTION TURBINES. 31S 

73 per cent., and by further enlargement of the angles a and 
ttj a better efficiency may be expected. 

The calculations for the velocities being completed, the 
proportions of the turbine, such as width of guide and wheel 
passages, diameter, number and depth of buckets and guide 
passages, may be settled. If the wheel is required to give a 
certain brake horse-power, the corresponding quantity of 
water, Q cubic feet, can be calculated from the value K in 
equation (22). 

0_ B.H.P.x 33000 .V 

^ 60 X 62.27 x^„ ^ ^' 

The area A necessary to pass this quantity is A = ^ so that 

the width of guide passages e^ may now be calculated from 

the formula — 

A 



^1 = 



27rrj COS. a - ^i^i 



in which r^ represents the mean radius for an axial wheel, 
and z^ the number of guide vanes, and /^ their thickness. 
As, however, the passage of the wheel vanes across the 
openings of the guide passages reduces the effective area, A is 
diminished below the value above found, so that Mt-^ is the 
number of wheel vanes, and t^ their thickness, the equation 
becomes — 

^1 = —, ^ " (25) 

27rri cos. a - (z^t^ + z^t^ 

In the same way the width e^ of the wheel at outflow is 
found by — 

e^ bl . . (26) 

27rr2 COS. Og - 22/2 

If the diameter chosen gives unsuitable values for e and ^2» a 
new diameter must be selected, and the calculation repeated. 
The number z^ of guide vanes may be found by making the 
width of opening of passage, measured at right angles to 
the direction of flow, equal to about 5 inches. The 



3i6 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



number arg is then given either equal to z^ or slightly greater. 
The depth of the buckets may now be settled so as to give 
a change of direction to the water not too abrupt. The 
dimensions satisfying this condition varies from about 8 to 
12 inches. The depth of guide passages may be from | to i 
of the depth of the buckets. 

Instead of discharging the water from the buckets direct 
into the tail-race, it is evident we may lift the wheel some 




Fig. 195. 

height above the tail-race level and connect a hermetically 

sealed pipe, called a suction tube, to the guide passage 

frame enclosing the wheel from the atmosphere, and having 

an opening under the tail-water. If this pipe be filled with 

•water, the rate of flow in it, when the turbine is at work, will 

depend upon its sectional area A3, and compared with c the 

A 
velocity in this pipe will be —c, and making the outflow area 

Ag 



REACTION TURBINES. 



317 



A4, the velocity of off-flow becomes 



A« 



If the velocity of 



off-flow c^ is the same as u, as it will be if the suction tube 
is of annular form, as shown in Fig. 195, having a width ^g* 
then the calculation is the same as that for a turbine without 
suction tube. There will, of course, be greater loss owing 
to tbe increased wetted surface of the annular suction tube 
above that of a plain tube. 




Fig. 196. 

If, now, the inner ring be removed, the off-flow area A^ 
appears to have the full area of the suction tube, but whether 
this is so or not depends on several circumstances. The 
water in flowing from the wheel with the velocity u cannot 
at once alter its velocity to ^3 = ^4 ^^ suit the area of the 
suction tube Ag = A4. The result is that there is a central 
core of comparatively dead water somewhat of the shape 
shown in Fig. 196. As the water passes down the suction 



3i8 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



tube the velocity changes from u by values approaching 
nearer and nearer to ^4, until, if the tube is sufficiently long 
in proportion to its diameter, the velocity ^4 is reached. If 
the tube is short and of large diameter, the velocity outflow 

A 

^4 will not be represented by — r, but will have some higher 

value, as the whole area A4 is not in that case effective. 



I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 




Fig. 197. 

This uncertainty of the velocity c^ may be overcome by 
putting a bottom plate into the suction tube and curving 
the lower edge outwards to form a lip as shown in Fig. 197. 
The area A4 has now a definite value, and if an inner tube 
is to be used, it should be somewhat similar in shape to the 
dotted line in Fig. 197. Experiments on turbines prove 
that if this inner tube is only an approximation to the true 



REACTION TURBINES. 319 

shape, the efficiency of the wheel falls below the efficiency 
without an inner tube. Generally it is advisable to leave 
out the inner tube. 

By altering the area A4 the velocity c^ may be altered, 
but in altering it will have an effect on the other velocities 
c, ^1, ^2j so that a new equation must be evolved before c can 
be ascertained. Referring to Fig. 197, the useful head k 
is represented by A^ - h^, so that as before — 

h^K-K = h^-h^^r~ - (27) 

adding y^g - h^ to each side — 

^ = ^-^ + ^-^4 + __ - (28) 

By equations (3) and (4) //j - fi^ has been shown equal to 
2 



c c • 

-2- - JL similarly — 

2^ 2g 



therefore — 



2 



>4« + '' =.^4 + ^* - - (29) 



2g 2g 



Substituting these values in equation (28) — 

A^^{c^ + q^-Ci^ + c^^-u^) - (31) 
^g 

Expressing c^y c^ «, c^ in terms of c — 

A A A A 

C^=^—€, ^2=--^,« = r2COS.aj= --^COS. 02,^4=—^. 
Ai Ag Ag A4 

Substituting these values in (31) — 

The expression i + ^tt;) "(t-) ^^ already been dealt 



320 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

/A \2 
with m equation (15), and (t-) cos.^ag may be written 

/A \2 

( — j (i -sin^ttg), therefore — 

(33) 

consequently — 

vaj ^*"'^^ L' - 1;) J ^ ^^ • A, ^^^ ^ ^^'^ ^^ ■*■ (a J 

(34) 



= K J2gh. 



The value of shaving been found from the above equation, 
the corresponding values of ^j, ^2» ^i» «'2» "> ^s ^'^^ ^4 ™*y 
be easily ascertained, and after making due allowance for 
frictional losses, the calculation of the dimensions of the 
wheel proceeded with as before. 

As regards the losses, the frictional loss in the suction 
tube may be ascertained with sufficient accuracy by the 
equation — 

/ c^ 
d 2g 

in which c^ represents the average velocity in the suction 
tube, combining this with equation (17) — 

>^i=/o.^.?+/5.j' - - (35) 

a 2g a 2g 
Equation (21) must now be written — 

^« = i ■ ■ - (36) 

By substituting these new values in equations (22) and 
(23) the values of h^ and h are ascertained. 



REACTION TURBINES. 3^1 

If the velocity c^ is less than u, an examination of equation 
(23a) shows that A^ is greater for a suction tube turbine than 
for the same turbine without a suction tube. 

The amount by which the head A^ is increased is repre- 
sented by — 

It has already been pointed out that the change of velocity 
from u to C4 seldom takes place without loss from eddy 
currents. If the whole head A^^ represented by the change 
be lost, then A^ has the vaiue — 

as before. Generally A„ will lie between these two extremes, 
and may be expressed — 

K>A-'''<A-t+'J . . (37) 

2g 2g 2g 

No mention has been made as to the maximum height 
of suction tube allowable in a turbine. The height to 
which water will stand in a vacuum tube when balanced 
by the pressure of the air is 34 feet, so that with perfect 
conditions the height of the vane outlet above the tail- 
water level may be 34 feet. There are objections' to this 
in practice, as any slight reduction in the velocity u would 
at once cause a vacuum in the suction tube, and on 
the velocity u again increasing, the two surfaces of water 
would again approach with a loud report known as the 
water hammer. Further than this, all water contains more 
or less air and other gases in solution, which are given off 
on a reduction of pressure. The gases thus entering the 
suction tube added to the air leaking in through the joins 
would very soon destroy the continuity of water with a con- 

X 



322 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

sequent loss of head. In practice the following heights of 
suction tube are found to be the limits : — 



Diameter. 
Feet. 


Height. 
Feet. 


Diameter. 
FeeL 


Height. 
Feet. 


13.0 - 


- 9-84 


4.9 


- 19.68 


"•5 - 


- II. 15 


3-3 - 


- 26.24 


9.8 - 


- 12.46 


2.0 


- 27.88 


8.2 - 


- 13-77 


0.98 - 


- 29.52 


6.5 - 


- 14.76 


0.49 - 


- 31-16 



CHAPTER XXI. 

DESIGN OF TURBINES IN DETAIL. 

In the preceding chapters it has been pointed out that there 
is one particular speed at which any turbine is best suited 
to run. At this speed the efficiency is highest, and conse- 
quently the water consumption per horse-power lowest. If 
the work being performed by the turbine is for any reason 
reduced, the turbine will accelerate in speed, and if the 
work is increased the speed is reduced. In impulse turbines 
this alteration of the speed causes loss from impact of the 
water against the wheel buckets, and the consumption per 
horse-power is increased. In reaction turbines there is a 
loss by impact due to this change of speed, but in addition 
the velocity of flow through the wheel is liable to consider- 
able variation. As the speed of the wheel is reduced, the 
velocity increases until, when the wheel ceases to revolve, 
the velocity approaches nearly to that due to the head acting 
on the wheel. 

If, on the other hand, the speed of the wheel is increased 
above its best value, in most designs of reaction turbines 
the velocity of the water through the wheel is again in- 
creased. This is most noticeable in the designs illustrated 
by Figs. 191 and 192. In a design similar to Fig. 190 the 
increase would be trifling. 

This increase of speed is due to the fact that while one 
part of the yane is acted upon by the water, the other part is 
acting upon the water and forcing it through the wheel after 
the manner of a centrifugal pump. This unsuitability of the 
turbine to a variation of speed is of very little practical 
importance, as the usual requirement is for a fixed speed 



324 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

with variation of power. In most instances the water supply 
is none too plentiful, especially during the summer months, 
so that it becomes necessary to make the water consumption 
in some measure proportional to the power required. There 
are many forms of regulating devices for varying the power 
and water consumption of turbines. In some instances 
these appliances are worked by hand, while in others their 
action is rendered automatic through the agency of a 
governor. The most primitive form of regulator used for 
both impulse and reaction turbines consists of a sluice placed 
in the head-race. The part closing of this sluice causes 
the water on passing it to acquire a greater velocity and 
consequent loss of head. The turbine is now working with 
a considerably reduced head, but with the same velocity, 
hence the angle of the wheel vanes is unsuited to the new 
condition, and there is consequently considerable loss of 
efficiency and increased water consumption per horse-power. 
If the head is reduced to one-half, the efficiency would fall 
to about 30 per cent. This form is evidently unsuitable. 

A form of regulator, which is applicable to reaction tur- 
bines only, consists of a sluice applied to the tail-race or 
suction tube. Referring to Fig. 197, the bottomplate of 
the suction tube might be made adjustable in position, so 
that by rising or falling it would alter the area A4 of off-flow. 
Instead of adjusting the bottom plate, it is usual to cause 
the lower part of the suction tube to telescope on the 
upper part, thus altering the area A^. Though this form of 
regulator does not alter the efficiency of the turbine much 
when the variation of the opening is slight, still it has very 
little effect on the quantity of water flowing even when 
closed to one-fpurth of its full area. This fact is easily 
accounted for, as the reduction of area A4 causes less differ- 
ence between the pressures h^^ and Z/^, and a consequent 
reduction of useful head h. The remainder of the total 
head is absorbed in giving to the water a high velocity of 
off-flow c^. 



DESIGN OF TURBINES IN DETAIL. 325 

Fig. 198 shows a form of regulator which has been used 
at times. Between the guide vanes and wheel vanes 
a sliding regulator is placed, having holes corresponding 
with the openings in the guides. On causing the regulator 
to pass across the faces of the guide openings, their area 
is reduced, and the flow of water consequently interfered 
with. An inspection of the drawing will show that this 
form is very unsuitable for reaction turbines, as there is 
a sudden enlargement of area on entry to the wheel. For 
impulse turbines the effect on the efficiency is not very detri- 
mental within limits, but owing to the distance between the 
guide openings, the turbine re- 
quires to be larger in size for a 
given power, thus increasing the 
cost. 

A modification of the above- 
described regulator has already 
been illustrated in Fig. 177, as 
applied to a Girard or partial 
admission impulse turbine. In I 

this form the sliding regulator ; 

has no holes, but advances from I 

one side, thereby cutting out I 

entirely one or more of the guide Fig. 198. 

passages. In the figure all the 

passages are shown closed. This method of regulation 
gives very good efficiencies, and has been applied in various 
forms to both impulse and reaction turbines. 

One modification of the above-described regulator is 
shown in Fig. 199, where each guide passage is provided 
with a vertically operated sluice a, having the appearance 
of a spade. This sluice is so operated that the guide 
passage is either fully open or closed. The sluices are 
controlled by a circular guide rail which may be revolved 
by hand or by a governor mechanism. This guide rail 
consists of an upper and lower rail b and c, communicating 




326 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



at two places by means of sloping grooves or cams, such 
as D. Small rollers attached to the sluices bear on the 
guide rails b when the guide passages are open; and on 
revolving the circular guide rail these rollers pass in turn 
down the sloping grooves d on to the lower guide rail c, 
thus causing the sluices a to enter the guide passage and 
stop the flow of water. 




Fig. 199. 



Owing to the length required for the efficient working 
of the sloping groove it is usual to attach several sluices 
to one roller. By having two sloping grooves placed 
opposite to each other the closing of the guide passages 
always takes place equally on two opposite sides of the 
wheel, so that the wheel is always truly balanced about 
its centre, with a consequent minimum of friction. When 
this system of regulating is applied to reaction turbines 
it becomes necessary, especially if the velocity of flow 
through the wheel buckets is great, to make some provision 



DESIGN OF TURBINES IN DETAIL. 



327 



for the velocity of the water being reduced gradually, and 
shock thereby avoided. The space between the guide vanes 
and wheel may be used for this purpose, for as the wheel 
vanes pass under the guide ()assages containing dead water, 
the pressure will be reduced, and the continued flow of the 
water in the wheel buckets will cause air to be sucked in 
through this space. On the wheel buckets again coming 
under the active guide passages this air is expelled in front 
of the entering water with little or no loss of efficiency. 
When the buckets are large, and this method of inlet would 
prove insufficient, air ports in the guide passages are arranged 




Fig. 20a 



to open automatically on the shutting of the sluice. Of 
course this method of air-cushioning is not allowable in 
suction tube turbines. 

Instead of only two sloping grooves there is sometimes 
provided a groove for each roller ; the regulation then ensues 
from the whole of the guide passages being more or less 
opened or closed. The efficiency of this form is very low, 
and the method cannot be recommended. 

Fig. 200 shows a regulator in which hinged flaps, attached 
to the top edge of alternate guide vanes, are used. These 
flaps are caused to oscillate through about 90"* of angle, 



328 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



thus opening or closing two guide passages. The motion 
of the flap is brought about by reciprocation of the vertical 
rod A, operated by a cam groove similar to that shown at d, 
Fig. 199. 

A very well-known regulator is illustrated in Fig. 201, 




Fig. 201. 



known as the scroll regulator. A scroll or blind a, made 
of leather or indiarubber, stiffened with metal strips, is 
attached by one of its ends to the top of the guide apparatus. 
The other end is attached to a roller attached to the end of 
a revolving arm, and on the arm being revolved the blind 



DESIGN OF TURBINES IN DETAIL. 



329 



is wound upon the roller or vice versd. Two of these 
scrolls and rollers are usually applied to a turbine, so that 
the wheel is always balanced. In a modified form of this 
regulator each scroll is displaced by a half ring of metal. 
The guide passages of one-half of the turbine are deflected 
upwards While the other half are deflected downwards, as 
seen m Fig. 202. Each of the two half rings a b is thus 




i///um//i 



'rrTMyxrrm 



Fig. 202. 



enabled to slide off the passages it has to control, without 
covering up the passages under the control of the other. 

The arrangement shown in Fig. 203 was used by Professor 
James Thomson in his inward flow turbines. Some of the 
guide vanes are hinged, so that on being oscillated they 
reduce the opening of the guide passages. The movement is 
effected by link-work operated from a hand-wheel or governor 
mechanism. 

A turbine has been designed by Nagel and Kamp in 



330 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



which both the guide passages and wheel buckets are 
reduced in area. The arrangement is as follows : — The 
guide apparatus is provided with a false or movable side 
having a slot for each guide vane to pass through, and on 
this side being advanced towards the other side of the guide 
apparatus in a radial wheel the effective area is reduced. 
The wheel is arranged to rise or fall on its axis, and in 

I 




Fig. 203. 

so doing operates this false side. One side of the wheel 
buckets is also movable in relation to the rest of the wheel, 
but fixed in relation to the guide vanes. Thus on the wheel 
being moved on its axle, the guide and wheel passages are 
altered in area. The arrangement has the disadvantage 
that it is costly and complicated. 

The only other form of regulator requiring notice consists 



DESIGN OF TURBINES IN DETAIL. 



331 



of a ring capable of sliding over the outflow openings of the 
wheel buckets. Fig. 204 shows this arrangement as applied 
to the large turbines at Niagara Falls. The wheel buckets 
A and guide passages b are divided by two partitions so as 
practically to form three turbines side by side, and as the 
wheel is already double, having a top and bottom turbine, 
there are really six turbines coupled to one shaft. There 
are two rings, such as C, connected together by rods passing 
through guides, and as these rings are advanced over the 




Fig. 204. 

outflow areas, two of the six turbines are throttled, the 
remaining four still performing their full duty without loss 
of efficiency in them. When the two wheels are entirely 
closed the power is reduced to about two-thirds, and when 
four are closed the power is slightly under one-third of the 
full power. This form is particularly suited to large wheels, 
and those working with a large head of water and corre- 
spondingly high velocity of flow. The figure shows the 
lower portion only of a Niagara turbine. 



332 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

Examples. 

Impulse turbines (Example i). 

A quantity of lo cubic feet of water per second is avail- 
able, and after deducting head lost in pipe friction and 
bends, it is estimated that the available head is 332 feet. 

Q= 10 
H = 332 

XJF • TT n Q X 62 X 60 X H 

Maximum H.P. =-^ = 374 

33000 

Select a r= 74" 

^= .95 'J2g/i =138.4 feet per second (A = H - ^o)- 

Owing to the small quantity of water and high velocity, 
the turbine must be an outward flow Girard wheel with 
partial admission. 

Any number of revolutions per minute may now be 
selected. 

Select R = about 210 per min. = 3.5 per sec. 

In Fig. 190, o/j is much less than c^, take w^ = 63 for pur- 
poses of trial, then 

a/, . ^ 60 



, = circumference, or — = 17 ft. or 5.4 ft dia. 
R per second 3.5 

Select depth Ao of vanes = 6 inches, then outer diameter = 
6.4 feet. Draw out diagram, as Fig. 194, to scale, making 

a =74* c =138.4 r=2.7 

a2 = 78'' W'i = 63 r=3-2 

(Suitable scales for c and r are 50 feet = i inch and i foot = 
I inch respectively), then by measurement c^ = 80, Wo = 74, 
^2= 76, w — 15, ttj = 61' ; by calculation (equation 3, p. 299), 

^2 = 75-8. 

As the values of Tg by the two methods practically agree, 
the assumption 7t'^ = 6^ was correct. If these values had 
differed widely, the mean between the two should then be 



DESIGN OF TURBINES IN DETAIL. 333 

taken, and the other values, c^, etc., found by correcting the 
diagram. 

The brake H.P. may now be found. 

c r= 138.4 is velocity due to 300ft. head . '. head lost -- 32—10.0 7o 

<-j=8o „ „ 105.0 „ } 

« =15 .. » 4 .. .. = 4 = i-*7o 



17.0 7 

Shaft friction S-o 7, 



22.0 % 
Then loo : 374 :: 78 : B.H.P. 
B.H.P. = 291.7, or say 280 H.P. available. 
The dimensions of guides and buckets may now be 
settled. 

A = —^ = - — ^—;i = .081 square feet. 
.89^ .89 X 138.4 

This is equivalent to an opening 3 inches wide x 4 inches 

measured at right angles to direction of flow. 

(?i for guides = 3 inches, and using two guide passages, their 

opening will be 2 inches each, or 4f inches measured on 

circumference. The pitch of wheel buckets must not be 

less than 5 inches, and their thickness is \ inch. 

Number of wheel buckets = ^ — 5i_l — L? = 38. 

si 
By scaling the width of inlet to bucket at right angles to 
c^j and outlet at right angles to ^2, their values are 3^ and 2^ 
inches respectively — 

^1 ^ 3i ^ ^1 = ^2 ^ ^F ^ ^3 •'• ^2 = 4*9 inches, say 5^ inches to 
give extra clearance. 

Collecting the values — 



Q = loft. 


a =74^ 


c =138.4 ft. ^1=3 in- 


H =332 „ 


01=61'' 


<-j= 80 ,, ^1 (for buckets) = 3 J in. 


H.P. =374 


0,-78' 


^3= 76 „ ^2 = si » 


B. H.P. =291 


Wi=63 ft. 


rj = 5 ft. 5 in. «! =2 


Load =280 H.P. 


Wa=74 >» 


^a= 6 „ 5 „ 2., =38 



Regulation as shown in Fig. 177. 



334 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

Example 2 — 

Quantity of water - - Q = 30 feet per sec. 
Head ... - H= 15.6 feet. 

// = H-//,= i4.5 „ 

•K€ TJ r> Q X 62.2 X 60 X H . Q 

Max. H.P. = -^ = 52.8. 

33000 

Select a = 68' 

c=.gs n/^^= 28.88 
A = ~- - 1. 1 7 square feet. 

Select mean diameter of wheel for axial flow, 3 feet. 

As ^o is a large percentage of the total head, ^2 ^^Y ^ 
taken approximately equal to c^. 

Draw out the diagram Fig. 190, making u vertical, and 
select w^ = W2=ish ^^r trial. Then for r= 28.88, c^ = 15.5, 
and ^2= 16.5 by measurement. 

By equation (3), p. 299, ^2= 16.5. 

The correct values are therefore ^1 = 15.5, C2=i6,$, 

The brake H.P. may be found — 

c =28.88 velocity due to 13 ft. .". head lust 1.5 ft. -=9.7 7o 

^1 = ^5*5 »» 3*75 »» \ c -12 **/ 

^2=lO-5 n 4-25 -«o =3-25 »> ^ 

u= 6 „ .56 „ „ .56 „ -3-25 7o 

i6.iS7o 
Shaft friction 4-oo 7o 



20.157. 



Then 100 : 52.8 :: 79.8 : B.H.P. 
B.H.P. = 42, or say 40 H.P. available. 

By equati9n (4), p. 300, e^ may be found. Take z^ = 20, 
^1 = I inch ^ .02 feet. 



DESIGN OF TURBINES IN DETAIL. 335 

,j= A 1,17 37ft. = 4r 

^ 2ffrcos.a - Sj/j 2 X 3.14 X 1.5 X. 374 -.4 

A5 = 2 = 3£. ^ I g. Take a^o = i^, /« = i inch == .02 ft. 
' ^2 16.5 ' ' ' * 

,p, A 1.8 

Then e^ = ^ — - = — 7 

" 2irr2COS.a2 - z^t^ 2 x 3.14 x 1.5 x .309 - .36 

= .7 feet = 8| inches nearly. 
Allowing for clearance, make ^2 = 9 inches. 

Revolutions per min. = 1 — x 60 = 98. 

3-14x3 
Collecting the values — 

Q =30 ft. a =68' f =28.88 ft. c^ = 44in. 

H =15.6 ,, ai=46° 0='5'5 >» ^1 (for buckets) = 4} ,, 

H.P. =52.8 03=72° ^2=16.5 „ ^2 =9 „ 

B.H.P.=42 tt;j = i5.5 ft. ri= 1.5 ,, 2i =20 

Load =40 H.P. W2=iS'S » ^j= 1*5 >» H ='8 

Depth of buckets may be made 8 inches, and depth of 
guides 6 inches. 

Regulation by any of the methods shown in Figs. 199, 
200, 2or, 202. 

Reaction turbines (Example 3). 

Quantity of water - - Q = 30 feet per sec. 
Head . - - - H= 15.6 feet. 

Jonval type A = A2. 
Max. H.P. = 52.8. 
Select a =72° 

Draw out the diagram, Fig. 191, to any scale, making 

A 

^2 = r c. With the dimensions thus found for r, r^ c^^ con- 

A2 
struct the diagram. Fig. 194. 

Assume a loss of head of 15 7o> ^nd find velocity due to 

// = .85H ; mark off this value on the diagram to a suitable 



336 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

scale, and complete the diagram and scale off values for 

c =21.2 feet. 
^1= 6.1 „ 

<:2 = 21.2 „ 

Wj, o/jji *nd « may be found by graphic method from c^ — 
^1 = 0/3=20.5 
u = 6.1 

Find brake H.P. By eq. (23a), /4„ = /4 - ^^ = .85H - — 

= (.85-.04)H = .8iH. 
.•. Hydraulic losses - - - - *9 7o 
Shaft friction 4 ^'/^ 

Then 100 : 77 :: 52.8 : B.H.P. 
B.H.P. = 40.65. 
The dimensions of the wheel may now be settled. 

A = -i = -5 — = 1.41 square feet. 
c 21.2 

Select radius 1.25 feet and ^1 = 15, ^i = i inch = .02 feet, 

c:^= 16, /2 = .02, then 

<? = Lii- ~ by eq. (25) 

2 X 3.14 X 1.5 X. 309 -(15 X. 02 + 16 X .02) -^ ^ ^ *" 

= .609 feet = 7^ inches. 

Por Jonval turbines e^^e^ Owing to the obstructing 

action of the vanes, A2 is not in practice equal to A, but 

slightly greater. 



Collecting the values — 


3-14x3 


— x^w. 


Q =30 ft- 


a =72° 


c =28.88:ft. 


^1= 7i»n. 


H =15.6 „ 


ai= 0' 


^•i = i5-S .. 


^8= 7i » 


H.P. =52.8 


02=72' 


fj=i6.5 „ 


-1=15 


B.H.P. =40.65 


Wj = 20. 5 


'•1= 1-5 » 


«a=i6 


Load =40 H.P. 


a/3=:20.5 


'•3= 1-5 »» 


/j=/2= J in. 



Depth of buckets 6 inches and guides 6 inches. . 
Regulation by any of the methods shown in Figs. 199, 200,201. 



DESIGN OF TURBINES IN DETAIL. 337 

Example 4 — 

Design an inward flow radial turbine for the same con- 
ditions. 

Q = 30 feet. 

H = 15.6 feet. Max. H.P. = 52.8 feet. 

Select — - = — = .666. 
Ag 1.5 

„ rj = 2 feet. 

Draw out the diagram as in Fig. 190 to any scale, making 

c^ = -^, and observing ratio r^ : r^ 
A2 

With the dimensions thus formed for c, c^, c^, construct 
diagram, Fig. 194. 

Assume a loss of head of 15 7o» ^"^ ^"^ velocity due to 
^ = .85H, and mark off this value on the diagram to a suit- 
able scale, and complete the diagram and scale off values for 

^ =25 feet. 

^1= 7 w 
^2=16.8 „ 

Wp Wjj ^ ™^y ^^^ ^^ found by graphic methods from ^g — 

^1 = 21.3 

W2= 1 6. 1 

« = 5-3 
«! by measurement = 24*. 

Find brake H.P. By equation (23a) ^u = ^ - ^4i = •85H - — 

= (.85 - .o3)H = .82H .-. Hydraulic losses - 18 7o 

Shaft friction - -47! 



Then 100 : 78 :: 52.8 : B.H.P. 
B.H.P. = 4i.i8. Say 40. 

y 



227. 



338 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. ^ 

The dimensions of the wheel may now be settled. 

A = -^ = ^— = 1.2 square feet. 

c 25 

Select Si = 18, 50 = 20, t^ = ty — .02 feet. 
Then (by equation 25) — 

2 X 3.14 X 2 X .258 - (18 X .02 + 20 X .02) 

A9 = -^ ~ _5^ = 1.8 square feet. 
^2 10.8 

Then (by equation 26) — 

' 2 X 3.14 X 1.5 X. 309 -(20 X .02) 



■■XV^T\yiUhA\yil^ LJV«& lllll 


1. — 


3.14x4 


^ — 


J v««. 


Collecting the values — 










Q =30 ft. a =75'» 




r =25 ft. 




<?!= 5|m. 


H =15.6 „ ai = 24" 




^1= 7 » 




e->- 8f „ 


H.P. =52.8 03 = 72** 




^3=16.8 ,, 




ai = i8 


B.H.P.=4i.i8 7£/i = 2i.3 


ft. 


n= 2 „ 




£4 = 20 


Load =40 H.P. W2=i6.\ 


>i 


'a= 1-5 »i 


A 


=/;= iin. 



Depth of buckets 6 inches, and guides 6 inches.* 
Regulation by any of the methods shown in Figs. 202, 203, 



CHAPTER XXII. 

WATER WHEELS. 

In the overshot water wheel, as illustrated in Fig. 205, the 
water acts upon the buckets or paddles of the wheels chiefly 
by its weight, passing from a trough or stream over the 
upper face of the wheel so as to fall against the surface of 
the buckets. This type of wheel is useful for low falls 
varying from 10 to 65 feet, the head water level not varying 
more than 2 feet. The efficiency varies from 60 per cent, 
to 75 per cent. The efficiency of the wheel is decreased 
by the loss of water, which arises owing to the horizontal 
velocity of the water when falling upon the wheel, and 
further loss results owing to the fact that the tail water 
does not flow freely from the wheel pit, but gives instead a 
certain amount of back wash in an opposite direction to the 
flow of the tail-race. The useful horse-power obtainable, 
assuming an efficiency of 65 per cent., is 

.65 X — '—^ — ^ — = .o74QH, where H is the available head 

550 
measured in feet. 

The water should have a velocity greater than the cir- 
cumference of the wheel ; thus if the wheel has a peripheral 
velocity of 6 feet per second, the water should be flowing at 
about 10 feet per second. This velocity is obtained by 

falling through a heiglit id^-2gh or ^ = i?^=i.55 ^^^^ 

64.4 

or the water should enter the wheel at a position 1.55 feet 
below the surface level of the head water. 

To remedy the practical losses arising from the non- 
clearance of the tail water, and to enable the wheel to be 



340 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENCIINEKRINO. 



immersed beyond the i foot extreme limit of immersion 
for an overshot wheel, the breast wheel, as shown in Fig. 
206, is employed. 

The water acts by weight only, dropping almost vertically 
into the buckets through the openings in the pen trough, 




Fig. 205. 

which is shaped to the circumference of the wheel. The 
masonry breast or curved edge adjacent to the wheel is not 
employed in the large wheels of this type where the 
diameter exceeds 1 9 feet. The buckets are only partially 
filled, and the space between the inner edges of the buckets 
and the wheel shrouding admits of free ventilation during 



WATER WHEELS. 



341 



the movement of the wheel. The efficiency of the ordinary 
breast wheel varies from 70 to 75 per cent. 

The oldest type of wheels known is that of the undershot, 
as illustrated in Fig. 207. The efforts of Poncelet led to 
great improvements in the efficiency of this wheel. It is 
used for falls up to 6 feet, acting on the same principle as 




Fig. 306. 



the impulse turbine. The stream of water should flow down 
an incline of i in 10 to impinge upon the curved blades 
near the bottom of the wheel and leave them with very 
Utile velocity and consequent work un absorbed. 

The diameter of the wheel should be at least twice the fall, 
the speed of the periphery between 50 and 60 per cent, of the 
velocity due to the fall measured to the centre of the inlet 



342 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



orifice. The depth of the bucket in the radial direction equal 
at least to one-half the fall. The number of buckets found to 
be most efficient is 1.6, the diameter of the wheel in feet + 16. 
Thus with a fall of 3 feet, and for a wheel of 12 horse- 
power, the diameter will be 6 feet. 




Fig. 207. 



The fall being 3 feet, the velocity due to that height — 
z; = 8 ^3 = 1 3.86 feet per second. 

Number of revolutions = -^Sp — = 22. 

TTO 

Assuming a duty of 60 per cent., then the cubic feet of 
water Q required will be — 

^ 3X.6 ^^^ ' 

which will require a width of 10 feet 6 inches with a depth of 
stream taken at 7 inches, and a discharge assumed as about 
70 per cent, of the theoretical quantity on to the wheel. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

HYDRAULIC ENGINES. 

Under the head of hydraulic engines we propose to discuss 
the motors in which the hydraulic pressure, acting on a 
reciprocating piston in a cylinder, causes the revolution of 
a shaft from which power may be taken for doing work of 
any kind. Before discussing the best known types in detail, 
it is advisable to inquire into the causes of loss and means 
of prevention with a view to the production of an ideal 
motor. 

The water pressure available may either be expressed in 
feet of head or as pressure per square inch, usually the latter 
for the type of motor under discussion. Whichever form is 
given, the conversion to the other is very simple. Since a 
column of water i square inch in section and i foot high 
weighs .434 lbs., it is evident that the pressure per square 
inch in pounds -r .434 will give the corresponding head in 

feet, or -^ = H, and conversely H x .434 = A The head 

•434 
H or pressure p being known, the total energy per pound of 

water can be calculated. 

According to the hydrodynamic equation the total energy 

of I lb. of water is — 

•434 2^ .434 

where / represents the actual pressure in pounds per square 
inch at any point, and v the velocity of flow at the same 
point ; while L represents the pressure in pounds per square 
inch lost from all causes between the source of supply and 



344 HYDRAULIC POWER KNGINEERING. 

the point under consideration. By assuming the source of 
supply to be close to the cylinder of the hydraulic engine, 
the quantity L may be taken as equal to o, as by so doing 
the investigation will be much simplilied. We have now 

two quantities to deal with, namely, -^^, representing the 

•434 

head producing the pressure / in pounds per square inch of 
the water passing into the cylinder ; and — representing the 

energy absorbed in producing the velocity v of the flow into 
the cylinder. 

We have already (Chapter II.) examined the conditions 
necessary for the change of velocity of the water without 
loss of energy on entering the cylinder. In a perfect design 
of motor the passage from the valve to the cylinder would 
require to be conical or trumpet-mouthed, allowing a change 
of velocity to occur without loss by eddy currents. Having 
arranged for the economical entry of the water to the 
cylinder, we are now at liberty to examine its action upon 
the piston, and as the water entering the cylinder must have 
a velocity corresponding to that of the piston, we must first 
investigate the true velocity of the piston at each part of its 
stroke. 

In the accompanying diagram, Fig. 208, let a b c D 
represent the crank path of a hydraulic engine, then a c 
will represent the length of the piston stroke. When the 
crank-pin is on the dead centre a the piston has no velocity, 
whereas when the crank-pin arrives at b, assuming the con- 
necting rod of infinite length, the forward velocity v of the 
piston is equal to the circumferential velocity v^ of the 
crank-pin ; for all intermediate positions of the crank-pin 
between a and b the piston will have a series of velocities 
varying between o and v^. The values of v may be ex- 
pressed as a function of v^. Take any point e in the crank 
path, and draw a tangent e g to represent the velocity v^, 
and resolve the velocity v^ into its components e h, h g, in 



HYDRAULIC ENGINES. 345 

which E H represents the horizontal velocity v of the piston 
corresponding to the point e. Let fall the vertical e f, 
then the triangle o e f is similar to the triangle of velocities 
E G H, so that 

f;: »c :: EH : EG :: EF : EO 

V EF . n 

or - =— -. =sin 6. 

v^ EO ' 

therefore v^v^^xnB - - - (2) 

The velocity v of the piston, therefore, varies as the curve 
of sines, and its value at any point of the stroke may be 
found by the aid of a table of sines, or by describing a semi- 
circle with radius OB = v^ to any suitable scale, when the 
ordinates, such as e f, e^ f^, measured to the same scale, will 
give the velocity v for the corresponding i>oints f f^ of the 
stroke. 

Having obtained the values of v^ we can now by the aid of 
the hydrodynamic equation (i) find the corresponding values 

of/, as E may be substituted by -^2i_ ; p^ being the pressure 

•434 
per square inch when the water is at rest. The equation 

then becomes — 

E = -A..^+?? . . (3) 

.434 .434 2g 

or p=p^-— X.434 - - (3a) 

The values of/ thus obtained may be plotted as ordinates 
(Fig. 209). The curve thus produced will dip from the 
commencement of the stroke to the centre, when, owing to 
the decreasing velocity, it ivill again rise by a similar contour 
until at the end of the stroke it has the value /o as at the 
commencement. 

If the piston had moved forward through the stroke with 
a very small velocity, the pressure /« would have remained 
constant throughout the stroke, so that the work done per 



346 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



square inch of piston area would be/oS foot-pounds, S being 
the length of stroke in feet. But p^S represents the area of 
the parallelogram ailc, which therefore is a measure of 
the total available energy per square inch of piston area. 




I ^ f 

^ ^ ^ A 

A 1: 




Figs. 208, 209, and 210. 

Instead, however, of the pressure /„ we have the varying 
pressure/, so that the area of the diagrams ai klc repre- 
sents the work done per square inch of piston area by the 
varying pressure /. The difference i K l between the dia- 



HYDRAULIC ENGINES. 347 

grams a i l c and a i k l c, therefore, represents the kinetic 
energy due to the varying velocity of the water, and is a 

function of the quantity — in the hydrodynamic equation. 

The diagram a i k l c gives the curve of pressures acting 
upon the piston, supposing that the base of the piston is 
always close up to the valve opening without any intervening 
water ; this, however, is not the case, because as the piston 
recedes there is an increasing quantity of water to be ac- 
celerated. We will now proceed to deduce the curve of 
pressures necessary to produce this acceleration. It is well 
known in connection with steam engines that the force /» 
necessary to produce acceleration of the reciprocating parts 
is represented by the equation — 

in which R is the radius of crank circle, x the distance 
travelled by the piston at any moment, and v^ the crank-pin 

R - jc 
velocity, all expressed in feet. Since , at the com- 
mencement and termination of the stroke has the values 

-^ and — --, the equation becomes — 
K. R 

A=±f I' - - - (5) 

for those points, the + sign representing accelerating force, 
and the - sign retarding force. 

Now the column of water to be accelerated may be con- 
sidered as a piston, and we may assume for the time that its 
weight w per square inch of piston area is that of a column 
of water i square inch in area, and having a length equal to 
the length of the piston stroke. If the calculation be made, 
we get the straight line curve m n (Fig. 210), of which the 
vertical ordinates, such as a m, c n, represent the accelerating 
or retarding force fit, at the corresponding point of the stroke 



348 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

for the assumed weight w. But as the only point of the 
stroke at which w really represents the weight of the water 
is at the end b, it is evident that the corresponding value of 
/a is equal to the true value /b for the varying water column. 
At the commencement of the stroke, as a/ = o, so/b = o> and 
the values of /b for any intermediate point may be found by 
multiplying the value of /» given by equations (4) and (5) 

by the ratio -— , or — 

The operation may, however, be more easily performed by 
graphic method on the diagram (Fig. 210) by dividing ac 
and c N into a similar number of equal parts, and drawing 
radial lines from o to c n and a m, and ordinates from a c, 
when points of intersection will be points on the curve by 
the principle of similar triangles, a o n in the figure repre- 
sents the curve thus produced, and the ordinates /b must be 
subtracted (observing the signs + and - ) from the ordinates 
/o in Fig- 209; thus we obtain the ordinates /^ in Fig. 211, 
which may be expressed by the equation (3a and 6 com- 
bined) — 

A=A-^^x.434-{±-.^^-j^.-^) - (7) 

The diagram a i k p c thus produced is the diagram of 
work for the outward stroke of a hydraulic engine satisfying 
the condition laid down, namely, absence of hydraulic losses 
from friction between the source of supply and the cylinder. 
This diagram must accordingly have an area equal to the 
area of the parallelogram a i l c b, and consequently the area 
above the line i l must balance the vacant area below that 
line, or area aonc, Fig. 210, equals area ikl. Fig. 209. 
That this is so is capable of mathematical proof. 

So far we have made no mention of the back pressure 
due to expelling the exhaust water. As the velocity during 



HYDRAULIC ENGINES. 349 

exhaust is the same at each point of the stroke as the velocity 
during the working stroke, the back pressure will be repre- 
sented by the ordinates of the diagram Fig. 209, added to 
the ordinates of the diagram Fig. 210, and the combined 
area aqs, Fig. 212, represents the energy lost on this 
account. Since the area a o n c is equal to the area i k l, 
the area a c q s is evidently equal to twice area i k l. 

The only condition which remains to be investigated is 
when a length of pipe / of diameter d intervenes between 
the valve opening and the cylinder, or when a similar pipe 
of any length and diameter is attached to the exhaust outlet. 
It is evident that the velocity of the water in the pipe must 
be dependent upon the velocity v of the piston at every 
point of the stroke. Since Q = A2', and the areas of the 
pipes vary as the diameters squared, the velocity v^ in the 
pipe varies in relation to v inversely as the squares of the 
diameter d of the pipe and d of the cylinder, or — 

z^i : » : : D^ : ^ 

^I^^ /ox 

•••^1 = -^ - - - (3) 

Similarly the weight w-^ of the water in unit length of the 
pipe varies in relation to w the weight of unit length of water 
in the cylinder directly as their diameters squared, or — 

w^\w \\d^ \\y^ 

wd^ . . 

•••^^1=^ - - - (9) 

As z/ is a function of v^ we may substitute the values v^ and 
w'l for V and w in equation (5), when — 



^ ^d^ w /D^ V I 



and 7V being taken equal to /x .434, p^ will represent the 
accelerating force per square inch of piston area at the 



3SO 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



commencement of the stroke. As w is a constant quantity 
throughout the stroke, the diagram of accelerating forces 
will be bounded by a straight line curve, as m o n in Fig. 
2IO. The diagram so produced must now be subtracted 
from the diagram aikpc, Fig. 211, to obtain the true 
values of /t ^ox these altered conditions. 

A similar investigation may be made for the exhaust pipe, 

and the diagram, so pro- 
duced, added to the dia- 
gram ACQS, Fig. 2 1 2, taking 
care to observe the + and 
- signs. 

We do not propose to 
investigate the energy lost 
by friction of pipes and 
bends, as the matter has 
already been treated in 
Chapter II., and the for- 
mulae there given may be 
applied, so that we are now 
in a position to examine 
some of the leading designs 
of hydraulic engines, and 
note to what extent it has 
been found advisable to 
follow the precise arrange- 
ment of details demanded 
by our preliminary investi- 
gation. 

Fig. 213 shows a sectional elevation of a Brotherhood 
engine, while Fig. 214 shows a cross section of the same. 
The design consists essentially of three cylinders a b c, fitted 
with single acting rams or pistons d e f, and placed at 120'' 
to each other. These three pistons operate by means of 
connecting rods one common crank-pin g, which imparts 
circular motion to the shaft h. The pressure water is 



/ 


R 


.^^. 




^ 


A 


4 


/ 


1 




c 




Figs. 211 and 212. 



HYDRAULIC ENGINES. 



3SI 



admitted Troni the supply pipe i to each cylinder during the 
outward stroke of its piston by means of a revolving valve K, 
which is driven by the plate l attached to the end of the 
crank-pin g. The valve k is of simple construction, having 
a passage m ending in a splayed mouth of such dimensions 
that communication between the supply pipe i and cylinder 
port m' is maintained through i8o°, or a half revolution of 
the valve. The alternate half of the valve is cut away, so as 
to allow free escape of the exhaust water during the other 




Hg. 213- 



half revolution, thus permitting the exhaust water to flow 
away by the pipe n. The port face o is composed of lignum 
vitie. Each piston is operated upon by pressure water during 
1 80° of the revolution of the crank-pin, and, as there are 
three cylinders, there is no dead centre ; the turning moment 
applied to the crank-shaft is, moreover, almost uniform, as 
will be seen by reference to the polar diagram, Fig. 315, 
in which vectors such as oa, ob, oe, of represent the 
turning moments for the corresponding positions of the 



3S2 



HYDRAULIC l-oWER ENGINEt:RIN<:;. 



crank-pin. These vectors also represent the velocity of 
flow in the supply pipe i, which is also very unifonn. 

In our preliminary examination we took the supply as 
being close to the cylinder, which we now see was justifiable, 
as the only water which is at rest at the ends of the stroke is 
the small quantity contained in the port m' and the cylinder 
clearance space. The flow in the pipe i may be rendered 
practically uniform by placing an air bell or a shock valve 
similar to Fig. 69 (p. 1 16), of suitable size, as close as possible 




to the valve. It may be pointed out that the piston stroke is 
veiy short, thus allowing a moderately high number of revolu- 
tions per minute without excessive velocity of the entering 
and exhaust water — a condition tending, as we have seen, to 
improve the efficiency of the engine. In ihe figure the port 
m' is shown entering the cylinder with an abrupt enlarge- 
ment, thereby causing loss by eddy currents ; but owing to the 
high pressure (700 lbs. per square inch and upwards) usually 
applied to these engines, and the comparatively low velocity 



HYDRAULIC ENGINES. 



353 



of the entering water, the loss so caused forms a very small 
percentage of the whole energy imparted to the engine. Of 
course with low pressure, and the same velocity of entry, the 
losses are of moment, and the conditions laid down in our 
preliminary examination require to be rigidly adhered to if 




the engine is expected to show a satisfactory efficiency. The 
energy lost per square inch of piston area from this cause 
may be ascertained by an application of equations (30) and 

(10). Equation (3a) must of course be multiplied by =-^ 



354 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



if » be taken as the piston velocity as before, when the re- 
sulting diagram gives the losses per square inch of piston 
area. In applying equation (lo) the second half of the 
diagram will evidently disappear, causing the energy and 
pressures represented by the 
first half to belost or subtracted 
from the diagram of work. 

Fig. ai6 shows in plan the 
general arrangement of a large 
size Armstrong enginein which 
three oscillating cylinders abc 
are used, placed side by side, 
and operating a three-throw 
crank shai^ D, having the 
cranks placed at lao* to each 
other, so that the turning 
moment applied to the crank 
shaft is precisely similar to that 
already described in reference 
to the Brotherhood engine. 
The valves e f g controlling 
the admission of water to the 
cylinders are of the reciprocat- 
ing type, and are operated by 
connecting links worked from 
oscillating studs on the gud- 
geons of the cylinders. The 
water passes from the valves 
by pipes HiK connected to the 
gudgeons by a swivel union of the t>-pe shown in Fig. 63 (p. 
105), and so through ports in the gudgeons to the cylinders. 
In the smaller size of these engines, instead of the three 
reciprocating valves e f o, each cylinder is fitted with a 
valve of the type shown in Fig. 217, in which the oscillation 
of the cylinder operates the valve. The pressure water is 
admitted through the pipe l, and the oscillation of the 




HYDRAULIC E?IGINES. 



355 



cylinder causes the oscillation of the valve u attached to the 
cylinder gudgeon, thus opening the port n to the pressure 
water L. The port N communicates through a port in the 
gudgeon with the cylinder, thus allowing pressure water to 
enter the cylinder so long as the port n is open. During 
the progress of the stroke the oscillation of the piston, and 
consequently that of the valve m, is reversed, so that when 
the piston is fully out the valve has again closed, and occu- 
pies the position shown in the figure. The further oscilla- 




tion of the cylinder will cause the port n to open to the 
space o, which is in direct communication with the exhaust 
p. Valves of this type are liable to cause serious frictional 
losses due to the throttling of the water, as the valve, when 
nearly shut, is in the form of a long narrow slit. 

Figs, 3i8 and 319 show in elevation and plan a three- 
cylinder Armstrong capstan, fitted with valves abc of the 
type just described. The capstan is started in the usual 
manner by the button d, arranged in the floor, being de- 
pressed by the operator's foot, thus allowing water to pass 



$$6 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

through the valve e to the supply pipe F, feeding the 
cylinders c h i. The exhaust water is conducted away by 
the waste pipe k. 

The valve shown in Fig. 2zo is interesting, as being the 
type used on the early designs of Armstrong engines. In 
these engines the pressure water was allowed to act on both 
sides of the piston during the outstroke. The piston rod 
was made of such diameter that its area was half of that of 
the cylinder, so that the piston was pushed outwards with a 




Fig. 219- 



total pressure due to half its area, and the water contained 
in the forward end of the cylinder was returned to the supply 
pipe. On completing the outstroke the tail end of the 
cylinder was connected to the exhaust, while the forward 
end still communicated with the pressure supply. Thus the 
pressure water acting on the small area of the front of the 
piston drove back the piston, expelling the water from the 
lar^e side to exhaust. By this means only half the work was 
done on the outstroke, the remaining half being performed 
on the return stroke. The cylinders were of the oscillating 



HYDRAULIC ENGINES. 



357 



type, and the valve a was formed solid with the gudgeon. 
The port b connects to the lai^e side of the piston, and the 
port c to the smalt side. The port c is always open to the 
pressure supply d, while the port B is alternately open to the 
pressure supply d and exhaust pipe e. A small shock 
valve F was apphed as shown to prevent the pressure in the 







cylinder rising above that in the supply pipe, in case of any 
irregularity in the action of the valve. 

In all the types of engine we have described up to the 
present no attempt has been made to economise water 
when working a light load. Several more or less successful 
attempts have been made to produce an engine which shall 
consume pressure water in some proportion to the useful 



358 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERIKG. 

load- The best known of these engines is the revolving 
engine of Rigg. 

Fig. 221 shows a sectional elevation of Ri^'s engine. 
The design consists essentially of three or four cylinders 
such as A B c arranged radially about a pin or gudgeon a. 
Each cylinder is fitted with a piston or ram e f c, which is 
attached at its outer end to a revolving fly-wheel h by the 




joints 1 K L, Now, if the axis of the (ly-wheel coincides with 
the centre of the gudgeon D, it is evident that the cylinders 
and rams will be revolved about the gudgeon when the fly- 
wheel H is turned, but the rams will not make a reciprocat- 
ing stroke in the cylinders. If now the centre of the gudgeon 
D is moved off the axis of the wheel h, as shown in the 
figure, each ram on arriving at m will project some distance 
out of the piston, while at n the ram will recede into the 



HYDRAULIC ENGINES. 359 

piston. Thus in one complete revolution of the wheel h each 
ram will evidently make an out and return stroke, the length 
of this stroke being twice the eccentricity of the gudgeon d 
from the axis of the wheel h. If water pressure now be 
applied to each cylinder when at n, and the port opened to 
exhaust at m, the ram will be driven outwards, causing revo- 
lution of the wheel h and consequent revolution of the 
pistons and cylinders — hence the name revolving engine. 

The quantity of water used is directly proportional to the 
length of piston stroke, and consequently to the eccentricity 
of the gudgeon d which corresponds to the crank-throw in 
an ordinary engine. By shifting the gudgeon d nearer to, or 
farther from, the axis of h, the power of the engine is varied 
and also the consumption of water. The pressure water 
enters through the ports o operated by a valve of the type 
shown in Fig. 213. The gudgeon d, which is subject to all 
the conditions of stress of an ordinary crank-pin, has to be 
capable of adjustment in position whilst the engine is run- 
ning. Fig. 222 shows the relay engine for controlling the 
gudgeon d. The gudgeon is securely attached to the two- 
ended ram p which passes iqto the cylinders q r. By means 
of the internal plunger s the effective area of the ram p in 
the cylinder r is reduced to about half of its area in the 
cylinder Q. The cylinder r is always open to the pressure 
supply, while the cylinder q is capable of communication to 
the pressure supply or exhaust by means of two small valves 
at T operated by a centrifugal governor not shown in the 
figure. 

When the engine is running below its normal speed as in 
starting, or if overloaded, the governor operates a valve which 
allows the water in the cylinder q to escape to exhaust, thus 
allowing the eccentricity of the gudgeon d to be increased, 
and consequently the power of the engine augmented. 
When the power of the engine is abreast of the load the 
governor will have acquired its normal position and closed 
the exhaust valve, thus locking the ram p in its new position. 



Jfc 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGlKEERING. 



If the load, or some part of it, be now removed, the engine 
will revolve quicker, thus causing the centrifugal governor to 
operate a valve connecting the cylinder Q to the cylinder r, 
and owing to (he larger area of the ram p in the cylinder Q, 
the ram p will travel into the cylinder R, causing less eccen- 
tricity of the gudgeon d. When the speed of the engine 
again becomes normal the valve will be closed and the 




motion of the plunger p arrested. Thus the water con- 
sumption is automatically controlled according to the load 
applied to the engine. 

There have been several attempts to attain this end, 
notably that of Hastie, who arranged for the crank-throw of 
an engine to be altered automatically by the variable turning 
moment required in the crank-shaft to overcome the load, 
A pair of hydraulic cylinders were arranged with plungers and 



HYDRAULIC ENGINES. 36 1 

pitch chain connections to the crank-shaft, so that the load 
caused the chains to be partly wound round the shaft, thus 
driving the plungers back into their cylinders against the 
pressure water. The shaft was of cam form at the parts 
where the chains operated, so that at some point the turning 
moment required to overcome the load balanced the water 
pressure in the cylinders. This apparatus governed the 
crank-thtow of the engine, thereby producing economy of 
pressure water. The arrangement, though ingenious, has 
now dropped out of use. 

The efficiency of hydraulic engines varies from about 50 
to 80 per cent. For well-designed engines of the types 
illustrated, and working with a pressure of 700 lbs. per 
square inch and upwards, an efficiency of 70 to 80 per cent, 
may be expected. The horse-power is then given by the 
equation — 

H.P.=-Mt .R«xC 
33000 

in which / = pressure in pounds per square inch. 
A = area of piston in square inches. 
L = stroke in feet. 
R = revolutions per minute. 
n = number of single-acting cylinders. 
C = efficiency — .70 to .80. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 
RECENT ACHIEVEMENTS. 

Hydraulic Lifts. — Probably the most powerful com- 
bination of hydraulic lifts is that employed in connection 
with the hydraulic dock at the Union Iron Works, San 
Francisco, which is capable of raising a ship of 4,000 tons 
weight a height of 32 feet. Eighteen hydraulic rams are 
arranged on each side of the dock, which consists of a 
platform built of cross and longitudinal steel girders 62 
feet wide, 440 feet long, provided with keel and sliding 
bilge blocks for the ship to rest upon. A set of four single- 
acting hydraulic plunger pumps 3^ inches diameter and 
36-inch stroke, working at forty double strokes per minute, 
transmit water at a pressure of 1,100 lbs. per square inch 
to the thirty-six hydraulic rams, each of 30 inches diameter, 
with a stroke of 16 feet. On the top of each hydraulic ram 
is a 6-foot pulley over which eight steel cables 2 inches 
in diameter pass, one end of each cable being anchored 
to the bed plates supporting the cylinders, while the other 
is secured to the side girders of the platform. The illustra- 
tion of the dock in Fig. 223 is from Gassier' s Magazine^ 
and shows a vessel in position on the platform. 

When a ship is being lifted it sometimes happens that 
the load is not evenly distributed on the platform. Some 
rams, therefore, may carry a full load, while others are much 
underloaded. The platform is kept level by means of specially 
designed valve gear operated by the moving rams in such 
a manner that when one ram has a light load it moves 
ahead of the others, but in doing so lifts a lever and closes 
its inlet valve, so that the rams are practically stopping and 



*^^^^^^H^| 


p 








B 




'^:B 




1 


'^ 1 




1 


/j^^U 




m 



RECENT ACHIEVEMENTS. 363 

starting dependent upon the load which may come upon 
them, the valves being opened and closed automatically by 
the movement of each of the rams. The valve box is 
secured on the ram itself and moves up and down with it, 
the inlet and outlet pipes working through stuffing boxes in 
the usual manner. 

The application of hydraulic power for effecting the open- 
ing of the. bascules of the Tower Bridge over the Thames 
at London is shown in Figs.' 224, 225, 226, and 227. 

On each of the outside main moving girders quadrants 
are arranged having'toothed racks bolted thereon. Two racks 
are placed on each quadrant, the pitch being 5.9 inches, 
and pinions mounted on two shafts across the bridge 
gearing to these quadrants. The lower shaft with its 
pinion is driven from the east end of the pier, and the 
upper one from the west on the south pier, while on the 
north pier the lower shaft is driven from the west, and the 
upper one from the east end. These pinions are actuated 
from gearing having a ratio of 6 to i by hydraulic engines 
placed in chambers at the ends of the ' piers, the machinery 
at each end of each pier being sufficient for the full require- 
ments of one bascule, that at the other end of the pier 
being in reserve. 

Each set of machinery consists of two three-cylinder 
hydraulic engines of unequal power, having pinions on 
their crank-shafts which gear into spur-wheels on an inter- 
mediate shaft, a pinion on which gears into the spur-wheel 
on the end of the rack-pinion shaft. The hydraulic engines 
were made of unequal power as a provision against the 
effect of wind on the large exposed surfaces of the bascules. 
It has been found, however, that it is not necessary to use 
more power than that given by one small engine. 

The engines have three plungers 8J inches diameter, 
27-inch stroke in the large engines, and 7^ inches diameter 
and 24-inch stroke in the small engines. Each cylinder 
is provided with a separate working valve, separate spindles 



RECENT ACHIEVEMENTS. 365 

being employed for the admission of pressure and the 
release of exhaust water. On the crank-shaft of each 
engine there is a brake wheel against which brake blocks 
attached to levers are thrust. The blocks are kept apart 
by hydraulic cylinders, and rams placed between the levers. 
They are drawn together by wire ropes and counter-weights 
when the bascules are standing. Before starting the bas- 
cules, pressure is admitted to the cylinders by releasing the 
brakes. 

In ordinary working each bascule is raised and lowered 
by one hydraulic engine, the other three engines being in 
gear and running idle, the water circulating through their 
cylinders and valves. This provision is arranged in order 
that the power may be varied or the engine changed by the 
driver without having to leave his cabin. Clutches are 
provided by which any of the hydraulic engines can be 
thrown entirely out of gear. The time occupied in raising 
and lowering the bascule is about i^ minutes. 

At each end of each pier an accumulator is provided 
with a ram 22 inches in diameter and an 18-foot stroke. 
In the machinery chambers other hydraulic pumps are 
provided for delivering water to the top of the main towers 
for fire and domestic use. Provision is made for two 
hydraulic hoists having cradles 14 feet 9 inches long, 6 feet 
6 inches wide, 11 feet high, the length of the lift being 
about no feet, for taking passengers to and from the high- 
level footways while the bascules are raised. The cradles 
are lifted and lowered by wire ropes from vertical cylinders, 
and rams placed in duplicate in the towers, safety gear 
being provided for gripping the guides and supporting the 
cradles in case of failure. Inter-locking gear is also 
arranged upon the cradles to prevent the hoist being 
started until both inside and outside doors are closed, or 
to prevent the doors being opened until the proper platform 
is reached and the hoist stopped. 

The hydraulic power for the bridge is generated by two 



RECENT ACHIEVEMENTS. 367 

double tandem compound surface condensing engines, 
each of 360 I.H.P., the cylinders being 19J and 37 inches 
diameters respectively, while the pumps are yf inches 
diameter and 38-inch stroke. One engine is sufficient to 
provide power for the bridge, while the other is held in 
reserve. The water pressure is 700 lbs. per square inch. 
The engines are supplied with steam by four Lancashire 
boilers, 7 feet 6 inches diameter, 30 feet long, working at 
85 lbs. pressure. In addition to the four accumulators in 
the piers, there are at the engine-house two accumulators 
with rams 20 inches diameter having a stroke of 35 feet 

The pressure pipes are arranged in duplicate, while the 
return water pipes are single. The mains are protected 
from frost by hot-water pipes running alongside them, 
although a mixture of glycerine and water is employed in 
connection with the cylinders for the working of the bas- 
cules forming a small system of its own. Duplicate pumps 
actuated by hydraulic pressure placed within the south pier 
supply this subsidiary system. The machinery was designed 
by Sir W. G. Armstrong & Company in conjunction with 
and under the direction of Sir J. Wolfe Barry. 

It has been found by experience that the time required 
for the bridge to be opened for the passage of vessels at any 
particular period is so short that it is found unnecessary to 
use the lifts for conveying passengers from the lower to the 
higher level. Pedestrians who wish to ascend to the upper 
footway can do so by means of 205 steps arranged within 
the towers. 

The two bascules each weigh 1,070 tons, and they are 
carried on live ring rollers. 

Water-balance Railways- — The author has intro- 
duced hydraulic brakes for controlling the motion of cars 
on cliff or inclined railways, using in connection with the 
water-balance system brakes which press against the rams 
under the influence of hydraulic pressure exerted through 



RECENT ACHIEVEMENTS. 369 

rams working in cylinders fed by pumps diiven directly from 
one of the axles of the cars. Fig. 228 is an elevation of such 
a railway, similar to those constructed and erected by the 
author in various parts of the country; and Fig, 239 is a 
sectional elevation of the hydraulic rail-gripping brakes in 
use upon such cars. 

The system of working in connection with these railv/ays 
is to employ water in the form of ballast, which is introduced 
into the car when at the upper platform to overbalance the 
weight of the loaded car standing at the lower platform, and 
on the arrival of the water-ballasted car at the lower platform 
it discharges its water into a tank arranged there, from which 




tank the water is ^ain pumped back to a tank at the upper 
station, so as to enable the same water to be used over and 
over again. 

The tanks are arranged between the girders or framework 
of the cars, and made of a capacity such as will contain 
water sufficient to overbalance the bottom car when fully 
loaded and ttie upper car having no passengers therein. 
The advantages of employing hydraulic balance as against 
hauling by direct driving of the top rope pulley is that the 
weight of the water introduced is regulated to suit the 
number of passengers to be carried, the conductor at the 
2 A 



370 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

lower station signalling to the brakesman at the top the 
number of passengers to be carried before the upper car is 
fully charged with water. It frequently happens that it is 
unnecessary to employ any water as ballast, owing to the 
preponderance of passengers for the down over those travel- 
ling on the up journey. 

Hydraulic buffers are arranged at the lower platform, so 
that on the car striking one pair the water or liquid is driven 
out through a contracted passage into the cylinders of the 
opposite pair, thus forcing out the rams of the buffers ready 
for the journey of the next car down. 

The arrangement of the hydraulic brakes for gripping the 
rails is shown in Fig. 229. The water or fluid under pres- 
sure acts behind rams which force outwards the slippers 
against the rail heads, the rail slippers being shaped to suit 
the head of the rail, and to thus grip it on the under side 
of the head, and prevent the car from mounting should any 
unforeseen contingency arise. A general arrangement of a 
cliff railway is shown in Fig. 230, one car being on the 
downward journey, the other in a correspondingly higher 
position on the other upward track, above the two bridges 
shown in the illustration, whif h is a photograph of the 
Lynton and Lynmouth Cliff Railway, which was constructed 
under the author's direction. 

Glasgow Harbour Tunnel Lifts.— The hydraulic 
elevators employed in connection with the Glasgow Harbour 
Tunnel are more powerful than any yet constructed for a 
similar purpose, though the height of the lift is not so great 
as at the Eiffel Tower. The load at Glasgow on each cage 
is 12,000 lbs., and the maximum lift 72 feet. The Eiffel 
Tower lift was for 72 persons, and the height 420 feet. 

There are six elevators in each shaft, three for raising and 
three for lowering vehicles. Fig. 231 illustrates three of the 
multiplying cylinders, and Fig. 232 shows the position of the 
car and the cylinders in the shaft. The diameter of the 




Kig- 2JO. -Click Ra: 



\Tofa.r /'aj;.no. 



RECENT ACHIEVEMENTS. 37I 

elevating cylinders is 13 inches, the lowering cylinders being 
11^ inches diameter. The stroke of the rams in the cylinders 
is one-sixth of the car travel, the gearing being by three 
tandem sheaves, as shown in Fig. 231. The cylinders were 
tested to a pressure of 1,800 lbs. per square inch, the work- 
ing pressure from the accumulators being 750 lbs. per square 
inch. The piston is 30 inches long, and the ram is 10 inches 
in diameter of cast iron ; the piston, stuffing boxes, and 
gland being all of bronze. 

The ram is ij inches thick, and through the centre a 
3-inch steel rod attached above the piston and passing 
through the head is arranged so as to rigidly connect the 
travelling sheave with the piston. The sheaves are respec- 
tively 52, 56, and 60 inches diameter. 

Four steel lifting ropes are employed, the ends being 
attached to adjustment rods, two ropes paissing down to 
each side of the cage. Each rope is ^ inch diameter, and is 
composed of six strands of steel wire wound round a hemp 
core, the strand itself consisting of eighteen wires, and each 
rope is tested up to 24 tons. 

The main valves are bolted directly to the cylinder head. 
Each valve is 3 inches diameter, and has openings so 
graduated that the retarding or accelerating effort of the 
water when closing or opening the valve is constant. The 
levers from the operating gallery are connected with the 
pilot valve, which controls the operation of the main valve, 
so that the travel of the pilot valve lever is only slight in 
relation to the main valve. The main valve works on the 
differential principle, the area above being double that below 
the valve piston. The pressure is constantly below the valve 
piston, and the valve is moved down by admitting the pres- 
sure above the piston causing the valve to descend. The 
valve rises if communication is opened between the top of 
the valve cylinder and the discharge tank. 

The lifting cylinders are arranged so that there is a pre- 
ponderance of weight on the car side with pressure being 



RECENT ACHIEVEMENTS. 373 

admitted above the piston to lift the load, or communication 
is established from above the piston to the discharge tank to 
lower the load. Water is consumed proportional to the load 
lifted, there being two powers. For load of 6,000 lbs. or less 
the cylinders use 37.8 gallons when lifting the load 74 feet, 
while for a greater load than 6,000 lbs., 70.7 gallons are 
consumed for the same travel. This change of power is 
rendered automatic by the use of a valve which remains 
closed with a load of less than 6,000 lbs., so that the water 
beneath the main piston lifts a balance check valve and is 
forced into a pipe connected with the main cylinder head. 
When lowering the car, however, this balance check valve 
closes and an unbalanced check valve lifts, thus opening 
communication from below the piston to the discharge tank. 
An amount of water equal in volume to the space beneath 
the piston is drawn in below the piston, and on the reverse 
stroke when lifting this water is introduced above the piston, 
so that the actual quantity of water used is that due to the 
displacement of the plunger only. 

When lifting loads above 6,000 lbs. the preponderance 
of effort is below the piston of the automatic valve which 
rises and opens communication between the valve and the 
discharge tank. 

The lowering cylinders are arranged so that the weight of 
the car is overbalanced and the tendency of the unloaded 
car would be to rise, but when loaded to descend thus 
using no water, the water in this case serving only as a 
brake. Should a vehicle be too light to overcome the 
overbalance and friction of the machine, water pressure 
is introduced into the cylinders. 

Triple grip safety catches are fitted beneath each car 
arranged on the Otis Company's system, this Company 
having carried out and constructed the elevators. 

Hydraulic Forging Press. — Fig. 233 is an illustration 
of a 4,ooo-ton hydraulic forging press in use at the works 



374 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 





iR. 2,i3.-4000-To\- ilvi 




s iCammell's \V™ks, .Sheffield). 



RECENT ACHIEVEMENTS. 375 

of Messrs Charles Cammelf & Co. Ltd., Sheffield. This 
press, although not being by any means the largest of its 
kind in Sheffield, is probably one of the best examples of 
the heavy forging press now so generally adopted for dealing 
with massive forgings. Presses of over 10,000 tons power 
are working in the most satisfactory manner upon blocks of 
metal totally beyond the power of any steam hammer. 

In the 4,000-ton Davy Press illustrated, which is from a 
photograph of Messrs Cammell's forge, two main rams of 
36 inches diameter are mounted in the upper frame casting 
9 feet 3 inches apart at the centres. Two lifting rams are 
also arranged thereon each of 9 inches diameter, the stroke 
of the press being 7 feet. The four columns carrying thp 
head are of steel 20 inches diameter, the centres of the same 
being 15 feet in one direction, and 6 feet 4 inches in the 
other. The distance between head and block is 21 feet. 
The press is supplied with water at 4,500 lbs. per square 
inch pressure, by means of three single-acting pump 
plungers, each 6 inches diameter and 12-inch stroke, 
driven from the crank-shaft of a pair of steam engines 
having cylinders of 34 inches diameter. The supply water 
to the pumps is fed from a low-pressure main at 60 lbs. 
pressure, this low pressure being also useful in filling the 
main cylinders when the smaller or lifting rams are working, 
raising the crosshead and tool. This arrangement for 
supplying pressure water to the pump barrels admits of 
small valves being fitted to the pumps. 

The pumps work at varying speeds up to sixty or more 
revolutions per minute, the speed of lifting when the low- 
pressure water is introduced into the main cylinders and the 
high pressure to the lifting cylinders being 8 inches per 
revolution, while the speed of descent under the full load 
is ^ inch per revolution, the relative areas of the lifting 
and lowering rams being 16 to i. Two levers control the 
whole movements of the press, one of these being also 
for starting the pumps. In operation the forging tool 1$ 



376 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

raised 2 feet per second, this quick motion being necessary 
to admit of moving the forging readily while hot. 

The employment of the forging press admits of a much 
lower building being constructed than would be possible 
with a steam hammer. This advantage also enables cranes to 
travel over the entire press, and thus to command the whole 
forge area. The two travellers shown in Messrs CammelFs 
forge are respectively of 150 and no tons lifting power. 

Niagara Power. — The amount of water power flowing 
to waste, so far as mechanical energy is concerned, in various 
parts of the world, is truly appalling in its immensity. The 
installations, however, at Tivoli (by means of which power 
developed there is transmitted to Rome, 16 miles distant), 
at Geneva, Schaffhausen, Zurich, Telluride (in Colorado), 
and other places, are amply sufficient to warrant the assertion 
that the trend of commercial utilisation of such water waste 
is becoming a factor for profitable consideration wherever 
mechanical power of any kind for any purpose is required. 

The flow of water at the crest of the Horse Shoe Falls at 
Niagara has been found to be about 275,000 cubic feet per 
second, and it has been estimated that over 100,000,000 
tons per hour pass over the Fall. The plunge of this 
immense mass of water from one level to another of 165 
feet has enabled the Fall to be harnessed, and energy taken 
therefrom by the Niagara Falls Power Company. 

The theoretical horse-power which is available at the Falls 
has been given by the United States Government engineers 
at 6,750,000 H.P., an amount which, if produced by steam, 
would necessitate the consumption of more coal than is at 
present raised throughout the world. 

The more generally known installation of hydraulic power 
in which the Niagara Falls are utilised is that concerning 
the Niagara Falls Power Company, which was the outcome 
of the International Niagara Commission, over which Lord 
Kelvin presided as Chairman. The power-house, which is 



RECENT ACHIEVEMENTS. 377 

now working under the control of the Niagara Falls Com- 
pany, has twelve turbines and dynamos, some 5,000 H.P. 
each, and the work is well advanced for th^ duplicating of 
the plant to meet the growing demand for the electrical 
energy produced. 

The older Company that has been working since 1881 
under the name of the Niagara Falls Hydraulic Power 
Manufacturing Company, has an installation where the 
generators are placed at the bottom of the Fall and water 
taken through iron tubes from the Canal cut for that purpose 
at the higher level, as shown in Fig. 234, which is a general 
view of the bank reproduced from a photograph taken at 
Niagara. From this it will be seen that the power-house is 
placed at the lower level. Two large conduit tubes convey 
water to the turbine plants shown in the interior view of the 
power-house (Fig. 235). 

In this power-house there are now working fourteen 
wheels, and the total of 30,000 H.P. is transmitted, the 
effective head on the wheels being 210 feet. In addition 
to the utilisation of the water by the Company in its own 
turbine-house, the water is supplied from the Company's 
Canal to various other concerns having their own turbines 
for generating power for various purposes ; the outflow or 
tail-race discharges of these independent works is clearly 
seen in the general view showing the river bank (Fig 234). 

The growth of the city of Niagara is practically a record, 
for there is springing up on every hand manufacturing plants, 
faster than the growth of the new power plant in the power- 
house justifies. The population of Niagara has more than 
doubled during the past four years, and the increase is 
continuing at the same rate. 

Although the Niagara Falls Power Company, which is a 
separate Company to that of the Niagara Falls Hydraulic 
Power Manufacturing Company, has the right to take suffi- 
cient water to produce 200,000 H.P., there is now in progress 
on the Canadian side of the Falls the buildings for a plant 






378 HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

which is to develop a further 250,000 H.P., while still 
further concessions have been granted by the Canadian 
Government which will ensure an additional 200,000 H.P. 
when such is required. 

The history of one of the power plants at the Falls is 
typical of the whole industrial growth of that city. The 
first attempt to develop power on a large scale was by the 
Hydraulic Canal. This was built in 1858, being but 30 feet 
wide and but a few feet deep. Small power was made for 
several mills, using only a part of the head, which at the 
brink of the cliff is 210 feet. There were until recently no 
turbines which would work at any such head,* and until the 
wheel-makers could provide better wheels the power usage 
had to be small. Some twenty-eight years since Jacob 
Schoelkopf, of Buffalo, bought the Canal, together with 
property adjoining, and in 1878 Mr Schoelkopf and his 
associates organised the Niagara Falls Hydraulic Power 
Manufacturing Company, which acquired the property. 
In 1896 the State of New York granted to this Company 
the right to enlarge the Canal to a width of 100 feet and a 
depth of 14 feet below lowest water. This work has been 
going on for several years, as the water was needed, and at 
present the Canal can supply about 50,000 H.P. 

The first modern development was finished in 1896, 
when the 8-foot pen-stock over the bank was completed. 
The power-house was built at the foot of the cliff, and the 
water was taken down to the wheels through the pen-stock, 
discharging underneath the wheels at nearly the level of the 
river. The first construction was a success, and in 1898 
another pen-stock was put in 1 1 feet in diameter, down the 
bank, enlarging to 13 feet under the power-house. Demand 
for power was so great that within a short time it became 
necessary to duplicate this large pen-stock, and No. 3 was 
added of the same size as No. 2. 

This development now produces about 33,000 H.P., the 
wheels being 2,500 H.P. each, carrying on horizontal shafts 



RECENT ACHIEVEMENTS. 379 

two 1,250 machines. The old development of turbines of 
short head for direct power to mills at the brink of the cliff 
now produces about 10,000 H.P., so that the Canal is 
actually putting out some 43,000 H.P. 

From inquiries made by the author on the spot from the 
Buffalo and Niagara Falls Electric Light and Power Com- 
pany, he found that power is supplied at the rate of 83. 1 o 
cents per 1,000 watts per week, 44 cents per 16 candle- 
power lamp per month, with 10 per cent, discount on same; 
arc lamps for commercial purposes are charged 67 dollars 
per year, for city lighting purposes (being of large size) 75 
dollars per year ; whereas power is supplied at 35 dollars 
per horse-power per year under 10 H.P., and 25 dollars per 
horse-power per year for all over 25 H.P. 

At the time of making these inquiries, soft coal was on 
sale at 2.75 dollars per ton, and anthracite at 6 dollars per 
ton in the district. 

The illustration shown in Fig. 236, by kind permission of 
Messrs Cassier, gives a bird's-eye view and section of the 
Niagara installation, from which it will be seen that water is 
taken from the upper level above the first Fall, and allowed 
to pass through turbines mounted in a power-house and 
wheel-pit, the discharge or tail-race water from the turbines 
passing through the tunnel leading out into the lower level 
below the Falls. The wheel-pit of the Niagara Falls Power 
Company is a long slot cut in the rock, instead of a group of 
small wheel-pits, and the tail-race from each wheel or turbine 
is connected by a short curve to the main tail-race tunnel. 

The turbines are arranged, some for developing i, 100 H.P. 
per wheel, others 5,000 H.P. per wheel. The 1,100 H.P. tur- 
bines are of the Jonval type, the fall of water being 140 feet 
on to the wheels, which make 250 revolutions per minute. 

Various manufacturing establishments have already erected 
machinery on the ground near to the Niagara Falls installa- 
tion. But beyond the mere local uses for the power, and 
the enormous development of industries which must attend 



38o HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

this form of producing mechanical energy from one centre, 
other applications are being made for transmitting the power 
to a distance, for the purpose of displacing private plants at 
present employed for electric lighting and for ordinary manu- 
facturing purposes. 

Seeing that the transmission of oil by means of a pipe line 
for a distance of over 400 miles, and also the transmission of 
natural gas by a pipe line for a distance of 1 20 miles, have 
been found feasible, it is not too much to expect that ere 
long there will be distributed mechanical power to similar 
distances, and with results which will be not only economical 
but advantageous, alike to the users and to the districts 
where it is employed, by reason of its displacing private 
steam or other power-generating motors and leaving the 
atmosphere free from the products of combustion necessarily 
attendant upon the use of coal for power-producing purposes. 

Turbine for Small Fall.— As an example of what is 
possible under difficult and unpromising conditions, the 
turbine installed at Strensham Mills, near Worcester, is 
worthy of notice. Owing to the natural conditions of the 
River Avon the water head available varies from 4 feet in 
summer, with a diminished supply, to 2 feet in winter, with 
an excessive supply. 

The horse-power required was 40, and it became neces- 
sary to design a turbine adapted to the varying conditions. 
A Jonval turbine was selected, having a double ring of 
vanes. The outer ring of vanes is sufficient to supply the 
power under a 3-foot head, and as the head is diminished 
by flood, the gate^ closing the inner ring of guide passages 
are opened to allow a larger quantity of water to pass. 

The method of using two rings of vanes allows scope in 
designing, as the outer vanes can be speeded for correct 
working under a 3-foot head, and the inner for correct 
working under a 2-foot head. The turbine is 13 ft. 2 in. 
in diameter, and makes 14 revolutions per minute. 



APPENDIX. 



PAGB 

TABLE XII. Pressure of Water - - - 383 
TABLE XIII. Action of Pumps - - - 384 



APPENDIX. 



TABLE XIL—Pressure of Water.* 

Showing pressure of water in pounds per square inch for every foot in 
height to 270 feet. By this Table, from the pounds pressure per 
square inch the feet head is readily obtained, and vice versd. 



m 

1 


•8 


1 


isure 
are inch. 


1 




1 


3 £ 


1 

X 


J 

iS 


• 

1 

X 


essure 
uare inch. 


** 


*i 


II 


** 


*» 


*{ 


S 9 


*■* 


I 




I 






I 


u 






I 


a;? 


I 


K. 




s. 


9» 


s. 




}L 




78.40 


336 


s. 


0.43 


46 


19.93 


39-42 


136 


58.91 


x8i 


97-90 


a 


O.S6 


^l 


ao.35 


93 


39-85 


137 


59-34 


183 


78.84 


337 
338 


98.33 


3 


1.30 


48 


30.79 


93 


40.38 


138 


59-77 


'S3 


79.27 


98.76 


4 


1-73 


49 


31.33 


94 


40.73 


139 


60.31 


184 


79.70 


339 


99-20 


5 


3.16 


50 


ai.65 


95 


4i.>S 


140 


60.64 


185 


80.14 


330 


99-63 


6 


3.59 


51 


33.09 


96 


41.53 


141 


61.07 


186 


80.57 


331 


100.06 


7 


3.03 


S3 


33.53 


97 


42.01 


143 


61.51 


'^2 


81.00 


333 


100.49 


8 


3.46 


53 


23.95 


98 


:r.ji 


143 


61.94 


188 


81.43 


233 


100.93 


9 


3.89 


54 


33.39 


99 


144 


62.37 


189 


81.87 


234 


101.36 


10 


4-33 


55 


33.83 


zoo 


43-31 


145 


63.81 


190 


83.30 


23s 


101.79 


II 


4.76 


56 


34. 36 


lOI 


43-75 


146 


63.34 


191 


83.73 


236 


102.33 


12 


5.30 


57 


3469 


I03 


44-18 


'*2 


63.67 


192 


83.17 


237 


103.66 


»3 


5.63 


58 


35.13 


103 


44.61 


148 


64. xo 


193 


83.60 


238 


103.09 


>4 


6.06 


|9 


85.55 


104 


4505 


149 


64-54 


194 


84.03 


239 


103.53 


15 


6.49 


60 


"5.99 


105 


45.48 


150 


64.97 


195 


84.47 


240 


103.96 


16 


6.93 


61 


36.43 


106 


45-91 


151 


65.49 


196 


84.90 


241 


104.39 
104.83 


>7 


7.36 


63 


36.85 


107 


46.34 


152 


65.84 


;^ 


85.33 


242 


18 


7-79 


63 


37.29 


108 


46.78 


153 


66.37 


85.76 


243 


X05.36 


»9 


8.33 


64 


37.73 


109 


47.31 


154 


66.70 


199 


86.30 


244 


X05.69 


20 


8.66 


65 


38.15 


XIO 


47-64 


155 


67.14 


300 


86.63 


245 


106.13 


ai 


9.09 


66 


38.58 


111 


48.08 


156 


67.57 


30X 


87.07 


246 


X06.56 


33 


.9.53 


% 


39.03 


113 


48.51 


157 


68.00 


ao3 


87.50 


247 


T06.99 


33 


9.96 


»9-45 


113 


48.94 


158 


68.43 


203 


87.93 


248 


'°7-43 


34 


10.39 


69 


29.88 


"4 


49-38 


159 


68.87 


204 


88.36 


249 


X07.86 


»5 


10.83 


70 


30-32 


"5 


49.81 


160 


69.31 


205 


8S.80 


250 


X08.29 


36 


11.36 


7X 


30.75 


116 


50.24 


161 


69.74 


306 


89.23 


251 


108.73 


37 


XI. 69 


73 


31.18 


117 


50.68 


163 


70.17 


307 


89.66 


252 


109.16 


38 


13.13 


73 


31.63 


118 


51.11 


163 


70.61 


208 


90.10 


253 


109.59 


39 


13.55 


74 


32.05 


119 


51.54 


164 


71.04 


209 


90.53 


254 


X 10.03 


30 


13.99 


75 


32.48 


I30 


51-98 


165 


7147 


3 10 


90.96 


25s 


11a 46 


3« 


'3-S! 


76 


32.92 


131 


52.41 
52.84 


166 


71-91 


3ZI 


91.39 


256 


XX0.89 


3a 


13.86 


77 


33-35 


133 


167 


72.34 


212 


91.83 


257 


1XX.32 


33 


14.29 


78 


33.78 


123 


53-28 


168 


72.77 


213 


92.26 


258 


XXI.76 


34 


14.72 


29 


34-21 


134 


53-71 


169 


73-20 


214 


92.69 


259 


112. 19 


35 


15.16 


80 


34.65 


135 


54.15 


170 


73-64 


215 


93-13 


260 


112.62 


36 


«5.59 


8z 


35.08 


136 


54.58 


171 


74-07 


2X6 


93-56 


361 


1x3. 06 


32 


16.03 


83 


35.52 


137 


55-01 


172 


74.50 


217 


93-99 


263 


113.49 


3« 


*5-15 


?3 


35.95 


138 


%^ 


173 


74-94 


3l8 


94-43 


363 


X 13.92 


39 


16.89 


b 


36.39 


139 


174 


75.37 


319 


94.86 


364 


114.36 


40 


i7-3a 


l\ 


36.83 


X30 


56.31 


175 


75.80 


330 


95-30 


265 


1x4.79 


41 


«7.75 
Z8.19 


86 


37-^5 


131 


56.74 


176 


76.33 


331 


95-73 


366 


xi5.a2 


4a 


87 


37.68 
38.1a 


X33 


57-18 


177 


76.67 


223 


96.16 


^ 


XXS.66 


43 


18.63 


88 


133 


57.61 


178 


77.10 


323 


96.60 


X 16.09 


44 


19.05 


89 


38.55 
38.98 


134 


58.04 
58.48 


179 


77.53 


224 


97.03 


269 


1x6.52 


45 


«9.49 


90 


^?5 


180 


77.97 


225 


97-46 


370 


X16.96 



* For permission to quote the Tables given in this Appendix, the Author is 
indebted to the kind courtesy of the Worthington Pumping fengine Company. 



384 



HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 



TABLE XIII.— Action of Pumps : Diameters, Areas, and 

Displacements. 



u 

V 



\ 

if 
} 
i 
I 

;{ 

if 

« 

2 

2j 

2i 



2 

4 

3 

3 
3 
3 

3 
3t 
3J 
32 

4 
4 
4 
4 

i 

6 



ii 

< 



.OI22 
.0490 
.1104 

.1963 
.3068 

•4417 
.6013 

.7854 
•9940 
1.227 

1.484 
1.767 

2-073 
2-405 
2.761 

3- MI 

3-546 
3.976 

4-430 
4.908 

5-4" 
5-939 
6.491 
7.068 
7.669 
8.295 
8.946 
9.621 

10.32 

11.04 

"79 
12.56 
14.18 

15.90 
17.72 

19.63 
21-54 
23.75 
25.96 
28.27 
30.67 
33.18 
35-78 
38.48 
41.28 

44- 17 



6 w 

go's 

0-- *« 

5^ 



.0005 
.0021 
.0047 
.0084 
.0132 
.0190 
.0259 

.0339 
.0429 

.0530 

.0641 

.0763 

.0895 

.1038 

.1192 

.1356 

• 153' 
.1717 

-1913 
.2120 

-2337 
-2565 
.2804 

•3053 
.3313 
.3583 
.3864 

.4156 
.4458 
.4769 

.5193 
.5426 
.6125 

.6868 

.7655 
.8480 

.9348 
1. 026 
1. 121 
1.221 
1.325 
1.433 
1-545 
1.662 

1.783 
1.908 



V 

Q 



7} 
8 

8i 

8i 

9 

9 

9 

9; 
o 

o: 

O; 

oi 

I 

1:; 

'': 

1:' 



A 






47- 17 
50.26 

53.45 
56.74 
60.13 

63.61 
67.20 
70.88 
74.66 

78-54 
82.51 

86.59 
90.76 

95-03 
99.40 

103.8 

108.4 

113.0 

117.8 

122.7 

127.6 

»32.7 
137-8 

143-1 

148.4 

153-9 

159.4 

165.1 

170.8 . 

176.7 

182.6 

188.6 

194.8 

201.0 

207.3 

213.8 

220.3 

226.9 

=33-7 
240.5 
247.4 
254-4 
261.5 
268.8 
276.1 
283.5 



E u 



.Sm 



SJ2 
io'o 



3- 
3. 
3- 
3. 
3. 
3. 



2.037 
2.171 
2.309 
2.451 
2.597 
2.747 
2.903 
.062 
.225 
.393 
.564 
.740 
.920 
4-105 
4-294 
4.484 
4.682 
4.881 
5.088 
5-300 
5.512 
5-732 

5-952 
6.182 
6.410 
6.649 
6.886 

7.132 
7.388 

7-633 

7.888 

8.147 
8.415 
8.683 

8-955 
9.236 

9.516 
9.802 
10.095 
10.389 
10.687 
10.990 
11.297 
11.612 
11.927 
1 2. 247 







E ^ 




1 


-2U- 






«=-.«» 






— « s > 






^§S 






g=3H 






go^ 


•* 




o-r *» 


E 


i 


1-S8 


Q 


< 


Q 


i9i 


291.0 


12.571 


19! 


29R.6 


13.900 


19 J 


306.3 


13.232 


20 


314.1 


13.569 


20i 


330.0 


14.256 


21 


346.3 


14.960 


2li 


363-0 


15-681 


22 


380L1 


16.420 


22^ 


397.6 


17. 176 


^3. 


415-4 


17-945 


23* 


433-7 


18.735 


'*, 


452.3 


19-539 


24* 


471.4 


20W364 


25 


490.8 


2t.3(» 


25i 


510.7 


22.062 


26 


530.9 


22-935 


26* 


551.5 


23.824 


^7. 


572.5 


24-732 


27i 


593.9 


25.656 


28 


615.7 


26.598 


28i 


637.9 


27. 567 


29 


660.5 


28.533 


29* 


683.4 


29.522 


30 


706.8 


30-533 


11 


754.8 


32.607 


32 


804.2 


34-74X 


33 


855.3 


36.949 


34 


907.9 


39.»2i 


35 


962.1 


41.562 


36 


1017.9 


43-973 


37 


1075.2 


46.448 


38 


1134.1 


48.993 


39 


1194.6 


51.607 


40 


1256.6 


54-259 


41 


1320.3 


57-037 


42 


1385.4 


59.849 


43 


1452.2 


62-735 


44 


1520.5 


65.586 
68.688 


45 


1590-4 


46 


1661.9 


71-794 


47 


1734.9 
1809.6 


74.948 


48 


78-175 


49 


1885.7 


81.462 


50 


1963.5 


84.801 



The Worthineton Pumping Engine Company point out that in estimating the 
capacity of Worthington Pumps (t.r., the delivery in gallons per minute or per nour) 
at a given rate of piston speed, it should be noted that the Worthington Pump has 
two double-acting water plungers ; its capacity, therefore, being double that of any 
ordinary double-acting pump of same size, or foiu* times as large as asingle-«cting pump. 



INDEX. 



ACCUMULATORS, 211- 
222 
Archimedes, principle of, 1 1 
Areas and displacements in 

pump action, 384 
Armstrong valve, 121 
Axial-flow turbines, 299 



BALANCED lifts, 163 
Baling press, 225 
Barometric column, 12 
Bars for presses, 233 
Bear punching, 242 
Belt power pump, 271 
Berry's patent valves, 130, 131 
Bjornstad's valve, 132 
Bolts, maximum loadings for, 89 

— for flanges, 95 
Brakes, hydraulic, 369 
Bramah, 225 

Breast wheel, 341 
Bridge machinery, 363 

— valve, 127 

Brindle/s patent valve, 133, 134 
Bucket and plunger pump, 274 
Buffers, 370 



CAM M ELL'S forging press, 
375 
Capstan, 355 



Cars and cages, 1 50 

Cast iron, 40 

Cast-iron cylinders, 41, 58 

— pipes, 86 
Casting, 60, 63 
Chain lifts, 167 
Circular flanges, 87 

— of cast-iron pipes, dimensions 

of, 96 
Cliff railways, 367 
Clips for lifts, 173 
Coefficients of efficiency, 1 8 1 - 1 82 
Compensating balance, 163 
Conditions for lifts, 147 
Controlling valves, 1 1 1 
Copper coating rams, 47 
Cotton press, 225 

— density, 226 
Cranes, 188 
Cylinders, cast-iron, 58 

— steel, 59 

— thickness of, 57, 58, 59 



DAVY press, 375 
Dearden's valve, 1 29 
Density of water, 5 

— of cotton, 226 
Designing lifts, 142 

— turbines, 321 

Direct acting pumps, 276 



2 a 



386 INDEX. 

Direct acting lifts, 185 
— puller, 200 

Double-acting pumps, 276-281 
Duckham weigher, 200 
Dumping press, 239 



EFFICIENCY of jacks, 190 
— of balanced lifts, 163 

— of hydraulic motors, 361 

— of lifts, 185 
Elasticity, limit of, 48 
Elevators, Otis, 171, 174, 371 
Energy of water, 1 5 
Engines, hydraulic, 341 

— pumping, 276 
Equal pressure, 7 
Extension of metals, 47 



FALLS of Niagara, 376 
— utilised, 379 
Fielding's valve, 131 
Flow of water, 21 
Forging presses, 249, 373 
— Cammell & Co.'s, 375 
Foundry cranes, 196 
Friction of leathers, 73 



GIRARD turbine, 287 
Glasgow subway lifts, 370 
Grooved pulleys, 179 
Gun-metal castings, 46 



HAMILTON SMITH'S 
tables, 22 
Hand-power pumps, 269 
— punch, 243 
Head of water, Niagara, 379 



Hector water motor, 290-292 

Hemp packing, 80 

Hick's formula, 73 

High pressure, 37 

Hook's law, 48 

Hydraulic accumulators, 211 

— cranes, 188 

— engines, 343 

— intensifiers, 220 

— lifts, 143 

— mains, 97 

— packings, 67 

— pipe joints, 86 

— presses, 225 

— ram, 17 

— valves. III 
Hydrostatics, 6 



IMPULSE turbines, 295 
Intensifiers, 220 
Inward flow, 287 



JACKS, hydraulic, 188 
Jigger, 203 
Joints, flanged, 98 

— for sliding surfaces, 74, loi 

— of pipes, 86, 108 

— leather, 67 

— swivelling, 104, 108 



LEATHER packings, 67 
Lifting machinery, 143 
Lifts, hydraulic dock, at San 
Francisco, 362 

— Glasgow Harbour Tunnel, 370 

— Otis, 171, 174, 371 

— direct-acting, or ram, 145 

— suspended, 169, 204, 370 



INDEX. 



387 



Lifts, Tower Bridge, 365 
Loads, test^ 51 
Low pressures, 36 
Lynton Cliff Railway, 370 



MALLEABLE cast iron, 46 
Materials, 44 
Maximum strains, 54 
Meacock's valve, 125 
Measuring flow of water, 21 
Medium pressure, 36 
Middleton's patent valve, 137 
Multiple power lift, 169, 171, 
204 



NIAGARA power installa- 
tion, 376 
Nuts for press bars, 233 



OIL press, 241 
Orifices, wheel, 22 
Otis lifts, elevators, 171, 174, 

371 
Outward flow turbine, 299 

Overshot wheel, 339 



PACKINGS, 67, 85 
Pascal's theory, 6 
Pelton-wheel, 289-303 
Phosphor bronze, 47 
Pipe joints, 86 
Pipes, 102 
Piston valve, 118 
Platform lift, 143 
Portable riveters, 255 
Potential energy, 1 5 
Presses, 225 



Presses for baling, pressures of 
platten to bale in, 226 

— wrought-iron bars for, 234 
Pressure of water, 383 
Pressures, 36 

Principles of equal pressure, 7 

— of hydraulics, 3 
Properties of water, i 
Puller, direct, 200 
Pulleys, 179 
Pumps, 227, 269 

— action of, diameters, areas, 

and displacements, 384 
Punching bear, 242 



RAIL-GRIPPING brake, 
369 
Ram lifts, 145 

Reaction of flowing water, 19 

— turbines, 304 
Recent achievements, 362 
Regulator, 325 

Rigg engines, 358 
Riveters, 253 
Ropes, wheel, 177 

— wire, 177, 181 



SAFE loads, 52 
Safety wedges, 173 
Salt water, 6 

Scott's differential machine, 221 
— valve, 80 
Shock valves, 115 
Slide valves, 117, 121 
Sliding surfaces, 68 
Square oriflces, 23 
Steady loads, 52 
Steam pumps, 277 
Steel cylinders, 59 



388 



INDEX. 



Steel rope, i8o, i8i 

breaking weight of, 177 

Slop valves, iii, 114 
Strensham Mills, turbine at, 380 
Stresses in machines, 54 
Suspended lifts, 167 
Swivelling joints, 104 



TEST loads, 51 
Theoretical efficiency lifts, 
163, 185 
Tower Bridge machinery, 363 
Turbines, 285-342, 380 
TweddelFs riveter, 253 



u 



LEATHERS, 75 
Undershot wheels, 342 



VALVE, piston, 118 
— shock, 115 
— stop. III, 114 
Valves, controlling, 1 1 1 



Valves, slide, 117, 121 
Velocity of water, 28, 31, 39 
— due to head, 13 



WAREHOUSE cranes, 203 
Water, flow of, 21 

— pressure of, 383 

— properties of, 1 

— wheels, 339 

Water- balance railways, 367 
Waterfalls, utilisation of^ 376 
Weight of cotton, 226 

— of water, 6 
Wharf cranes, 206 
Wheel press, 251 

Wheels for ropes or chains, 179 
Wire ropes, 177, 181 
Workshop cranes, 194 
Worthington pumps, 277 
Wrought-iron bars, 233 



Y 



OUNG'S drum puller, 193 



PrinUd at The Daribn Press, Edinburgh, 



Statiomsbs' Hall Couxt, London, E.CX 



CROSBY LOCKWOOD & SON'S 

Scientific, Technical and 
Industrial Books. 



MECHANICAL ENQINEERINQ 
CIVIL ENQINEERINQ . . . 
MARINE ENQINEERINQ. Ac. 
MININQ A METALLURQY 
COLLIERY WORKING. Ac. . 

ELECTRICITY 28 

ARCHITECTURE A BUILDINQ . 26 
SANITATION A WATER SUPPLY 28 



PAae 
1 

10 

17 

, 19 

21 



PAae 

CARPENTRY A TIMBER ' . . 29 

DECORATiVe ARTS 31 

NATURAL SCIENCE 88 

CHEMICAL MANUFACTURES . 84 

INDUSTRIAL ARTS 36 

COMMERCE. TABLES. Ao. . . 41 

AGRICULTURE A GARDENING' 48 

AUCTIONEERING. VALUING. Ao. 46 



LAW A MISCELLANEOUS. . . 47 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, ETC. 



THB MECHANICAL ENQINEER'5 POCKET-BOOK. 

Comprising Tables, Fonnabe, Rules, and Data : A Handy Book of Reference 
for Daily Use in Engineering Practice. By D. Kinnsar Clark, M. Inst. C.E., 
Fifth Edition, thoroughly Revised and Enlarged. By H. H. P. Powlss, 
A.M.I C.E., M.I.M.E. Small 8vo, 700 pp., bound in flexible Leather Cover, 
rounded comers JVet 6/0 

Summary of contents :— Mathematical tables.— Measurement op surfaces 
AND Solids.— English Weights and Measures.— French metric Weights and 
Measures.— Foreign weights and measures.— moneys.— specific Gravity, 
weight, and Volume.— Manufactured Metals.— steel Pipes. -Bolts and Nuts.— 
SUNDRY Articles in wrought and Cast iron, copper, brak, Lead. Tin, Zinc- 
strength OF Materials. — STRENGTH of Timber.— Strength of Cast iron.— 

STRENGTH OF WROUGHT IRON.— STRENGTH OF STEEL.- TEMSILE STRENGTH Of COPPER, 

Lead. &c.— resistance of Stones and other Building Materials.— Riveted Joints 
IN Boiler plates.— boiler shells.- WiRBdE^opss and hemp ropes.— Chains amd 
ChainCablbs.— Framing.— Hardness op Metals. Alloys, and stones.- Labour op 
ANIMALS.— Mechanical principles.— Gravity and Fall of Bodies.— accelerating 
and Retarding forces.— Mill Gearing, Shafting. &c— Transmission of Motive 
Power.— Heat.— Combustion : Fuels.— Warming, ventilation, Cooking Stoves.— 
Steam — Steam Engines and Boilers.— Railways.- Tramways.— Steam Ships.— 
pumping steam engines and pumps.— coal gas. gas engines, &c.— air in motion. 
—Compressed air.— Hot Air Engines.— Water Power.— speed of Cutting Tools. 
—COLOURS.— Electrical Engineering. 

" Mr. dark manifests what ts an Innate perception of what Is Ukcly to be useful In a poclcet- 
book, and he is really unztvalled in the an of condensation. It is very difficult to hit upon any 
mechaniral engineering subject concerning which this work suppBes no information, and the 
excellent index at the end adds to its utility. In one word, it is an exceedtnfrly tiandy and efficient 
tool, possesacd of which the engineer will be saTed many a wearisome calculation, or yet more 
weamome hunt through various text-books and treatises, and, as such, we can heartily racommend 
to our readers. "— 7m Bngvuer, 

" It would be found difficult to compw more matter wltbln a similar compass, or produce a 
book of 700 pages which should be wan compact or oonvenient for pocket refeienee. . . . Will 
be appnctatedoy merhasteal angiaesrs of all claaNS."-*/ViMMkie/ Bneitutr. 



CROSBY LOCKWOOD S» SON*S CATALOGUE. 



MR. HUTTON'8 PRACTICAL HANDBOOKS. 



THB W0RK5' MANAGER'S HANDBOOK. 

Comprising Modern Rnles. Tables, and Data. For SnriDeers, Millwrig^its, 
and Boiler Makers ; Tool Makers, Machinists, and Metal Workers ; Iron and 
Brass Founders, &c By W. S. Hutton, Civil and Mechanical Engineer, 
Author of "The Practical Engineer's Handbook." Sixth Editioa, carefully 
Revised, and Enlarged. In (&e handsome Volume, medium 8vo, strongly 
bound 16/0 

W^ Tkt Author having compiUd RnUa and Data for Mt omn mu4na gnat 
varUty of modtm Mgimuring work, and having found his notSM gtcirvmtly nufml^ 
dtcidtd to publish thtm — r9vts$d to daf—btli$vmg that a practical work, suittd to 

th» DAILY KBQUIRBMBNTS OP MQDBRN BNGINBBKS, WOuld Ot faVOUnMy r$cHvid. 



** The author treats ererj subject from the point of view of one who has 
Botes for appUcation In workshop practice, rather than from the theoredcal or litccanr 
volume contains a great deal of that Und of infomutlon which is galaod onlj by 
and Is seldom wiitten in books. 'V TJu Bnginttr, June 5, 1885. 

" Ot this «dltloD wo may repeat the appracianvo remarks we made upon the fint and third. 
Slace the appearance of the latter very considerable modifications have been made, although the 
total number of pages remains almost the same. It Is a very useAil cnl)(«tinn of mles, tabMS, and 
workshop and drawing oflice data."— The Enginttr, Mav 10, 1895. (Second Notice.) 

" The volume is an exceedingly useful one, brimnil with «iu[mm>r» n«tt». uieaocanda. a 
nilas, and well worthy of being on every mechanical engineer's bookshelf. "—MtckMnumi ly^rtd, 

"' The Information is prKiaely that likely to be reouired In prai^^ . . The work ' 

weeks' 



a des ir able addition to the library not only of the weeks' manager, bat of any one oonnected vllk 
1 engineering.*'— AAh(>v y»umml, 
Bnmtul of useful informatioa, stated In a concise form, Mr. Hntten's books have mat a 

!: want among engineers. The book must prove estremdy ossftd to every ptactkal omb 
ng a copy."— /VwcMoi/ Bttgimtr, 

THB PRACTICAL BNQ1NBER*5 HANDBOOK. 

Comprising a Treatise on Modem Engines and Boilers, Marine, Looomocive. 
and Stationary. And containing a large collection of Rules and PracdcaJ 
Data relating to Recent Practice in Designing and Conscracting all kinds of 
Engines, Boilers, and other Engineering work. The whole constituting a com- 
prehensive Key to the Board of Trade and other Examinations for Certificates 
of Competency in Modem Mechanical Engineering. By Waltbk S. Hutton, 
Civil and Mechanical Engineer, Author of "The Works' Manager's Handbook 
for Engineers," &c. With upwards of 4So Illustrations. Sixth Editioo. 
Revised and Enlarged. Medium Bvo, nearly 560 pp., strongly bound. 18/0 

W^ This Work U duigfud as a eompanton to tht Author's **Wokks' 
Managkr's Handbook." It posstssn many ntw and original fsaturu, and con- 
tains, lik$ its Ortdsctssor, a quantity of mattor not originally inundsd for publication 
but colUcUd oy th$ Author for his own uuinth* construction ofagrtat varitty of 
Modern Enginbxring Work. 

Ths information is givm in a condsnstd and conci$» form, and is ittustratod by 
upwards of 4*0 Engravings ; and comprises a quantity of t ab ui att d mattor of grtat 
valus to au sngagsd m dtstgning, constructtngt or estimating for Enginks, Boilsrs, 
Mu/ OTHER Engineering WORK. ^ 



"We have kept It at hand^for several weeks, referring to It as occasion arose, and we have not 
on a single occasion consulted Its page* without finding the Infoimadon of which we warn In r""^ " 

"A thoroug^v good practical handbook, whfcrh no engineer can go throogh wltboBt 
soeMthing that wul be of service to him."— Afar^nw Enginegr. 

" An excellent book of reference for engineers, and a valuable test'book for ttw katt of 
engineering. "Sc»uman. 

"This valuable manual embodies the reaults and ezperlcooe of the leading antboiitles en 
aaechankal engineering."- ^M/<f«>if A«wi. 

" The author has collected together a surprising quantity of rules and practical data, and has 
Shown much Judgment In the selections be has made. . . . There is no doubt thai this book b 
one of the most useful of its kind published, and will be a very popular compendium. "—Bngt m mr. 

" A mass of infonnanon let down in simple language, and in such a form that it can be ( 
r eferred to at anv time. The matter Is uniformly good moA weO choten. and is graetly el» 
by the fflustrations. The book will find its way on to most engmeets' shelvea, w h e r e k will 1 
one of the most useAil books of refor en c e. "—Pradumt i7fywu«r. 

" Fun of useful informatioa, and should be found on the oAoe ihalf of all pesctkal engineers. * 
'^BttfUth MteMmnie, 



MECHANICAL BNGINBBRING, &c. 



MR. HUTTON'8 PRAOTIOAL HANDBOOKS-com^^mmI. 



5TEAM BOILER CONSTRUCTION. 

A Practical Handbook for Engineers, Boiler-Makers, and Steam Users. 
Containing a large Collection of Rules and Data relating to Recent Practice 
in the Design, Constmction, and Wcnrking of all Kinds of Stationary, LocO' 
motive, and Marine Steam-Boilers. By Walter S. Hutton, Civil and 
Mechanical Engineer, Author of "The Works' Manager's Handbook," "The 
Practical Engineer's Handbook," &c. With upwards of 500 Illustrations. 
Fourth Edition, carefully Revised, and Enlarged. Medium 8vo, over 680 p^es, 

cloth, strongly bound 1 8/0 

B9^ This Wokk is issvtd in comHmuiHon of tJu Siriu of Handbooks writUn 
bythsA tUhof, vis. : — " Thb Works' Manager's Handbook " and " Thb Practical 
Enginbbr's Handbook," nhich are so highly apprtciatsd by $nginstrs for thg 
practical naturt of thnr information ; and is constqusntiy written in ihs sams styU 
as those works. 

The Author believes that the conceniration^ in a convenient form for easy 
reference^ of such a large amount of thoroughly practical in/ormatum on Steam- 
Boilers, WW be of considerable service to those for whom it is intended, and he trusts 
the book may be deemed worthy of as favourable a reception as has been accorded to 
its predecessors. 

" One of the best. If not the best, books on bofleis that has ever been published. The faifor* 
motion is 01 the rifl^ht Idnd, in a simple and accessible fonn. So fiir as generation Is concerned, this 
Is, undoubtedly, the standard book on steam pracrice."— A/rr/rfoi/ Revitw. 

" E^ery detail, both in boiler design and management, is clearly laid before the reader. The 
volume shows that boiler construction has been reduced to the condition of one of the most exact 
sciences ; and such a book Is of the utmost value to the /Sn dt HUU Engineer and Works Manager." 
•^itariiu Rnglnur. 

" There has long been room for a modem handbook on steamjwilers ; there Is not that room 
now, because Mr. Hutton has fiUed it. It is a thoroughly practical book for those who are occupied 
in the constmction, design, selection, or use of boilers."— fff/ito^cr. 

" The book Is of so important and comprehensive a character that It must find its way Into the 
libraries of every one interested in boiler using or boiler manufitcture if they wish to be thoroughly 
infotmed. We strongly recommend the book for the intrinsic value of its contents."— Jf«cAtffMry 

PRACTICAL MECHANICS' WORKSHOP COMPANION. 

Comprising a great variety of the most cweful Rules and FormtiUe in Mechanical 
Science, with numerous Ijables of Practical Data and Calculated Results for 
Facilitating Mechanical Operations. By William Tbmplbton, Author of 
" The Engineer's Practical Assistant," &c., &c. Eighteenth Edition, Revised, 
ModemisMl, and considerably Enlarged by Walter S. Hutton, C.E., Author 
of "The Works' Manager's Handbook,*; "The Practical Engineer's Hand- 
book," &c Fcap. 8vo, nearly 500 pp., with 8 Plates and upwards of 250 Illus- 
trative Diagrams, strongly bound for workshop ox pocket wear and tear . 6/0 

" In Its modernised form Hutton's * Templeton ' should hare a wide sale, for it contains much 
valuable information which the mechanic will often find of use, and not a few tables and notes which 
be might look for in Tain in other worics. This modernised edition will be appreciated kqr all who 
have learoed to value the original editions of ' Templeton.' "—EngUsk Mtchanic. 

" It has met with great success in the engineering workshop, as we can testify ; and there are 
a great many men who, in a great measure, owe theb rise in Im to this little book.''—BtiiUUtt£ 
Ntwi. 

"This familiar text-book— well known to all mechanics and engineers— Is of essential service 
to the every-dav requirements of engineers, millwrights, and the various trades connected with 
engineering ana building. The new modernised emtion is worth its weight in gc]dL"SMiUin£ 
Ntwt. (Second Notice.! 

" This well-known and largely-used book contains information, brought up to date, of the 
sofft so useful to the foreman and draughtsman. So much fresh biformation has been lntn>du^d as 
to constitute it practically a new book. It will be largely used In the office and workshop."— 
Mtehanicat World. 

" The publishers wisely entmsted the task of revisloo of this popular, valuable, and useiu 
book to Mr. Hutton, than whom a more competent man they could not have found."— /r»». 



BNQINEER'5 AND MILLWRIGHTS ASSISTANT. 

A Collection of Useful Tables, Rules, and Data. By William Tbmplxton 
Eighth Edition, with Additions. zSmo, cloth 2/6 

"Occupies a foremost place among books of this kind. A more suitable present to an 
appreotioe to any of the mechanical trades could not possibly be iaMAit.'-^wtUing fftwt, 

'A deservedly popular work. It should be In the * diawer ' of every mechaaic."— iPfCf /^A 

A • 



CROSBY LOCKWOOD «• SON'S CATALOGUE. 



THB MECHANICAL BNQINBER'5 RBPBRENCE BOOK. 

For Machine and Boiler Constnictton. In Two Parts. Part I. Gmkemal 
Engikbbring Data. Part II. Boilbk Construction. With 51 Plates and 
numeroos Illustrations. By Nblson Foley, M.I.N. A. Second JC^tian, 
Revised throughout and much Enlarged. Folio, half-bound . JV(et 



PART I.— MBASURBS.— CIRCUMFBRBNCBS AND AREAS, &C., SQUARES. CUBBS, 

FOURTH POWERS.— SQUARE AND CUBB ROOTS SURFACE OF TUBES.— RECIPROCALS.— 

LOGARITHMS. — MENSURATION. — SPKIFIC GRAVmSS AND WEIGHTS.— WORK AMD 

POWER.- HEAT.- COMBUSTION.— Expansion and contraction.— expansion op 
Gases.— STEAM.— STATIC Forces.— gravitation and attraction.— motion amd 
Computation of resulting forces.- accumulated work.— cbntre and Radius 
OP Gyration.— MOMENT of inertia.— Centre of Oscillation.— ELBCTRXcrrr.— 
Strength of materials.- Elasticity.— Test Sheets of Metals.- Friction.— 
Transmission of Power.- Flow of Liquids.— flow of Gases.~Air pumps, surface 

Condensers, &c Speed op Stbamships.—Propellbrs.— Cutting tools.— Flangbs. 

— COPPBR shrbts and tubes.— Screws, Nuts, bolt heads, &c.— Various Recipes 
AMD Miscellaneous Matter.- With DIAGRAMS for Valvb-Gbar, Belting and 
Ropes, discharge and Suction pipes, screw Propellers, and copper Pipes. 

PART 11.— Treating of power of boilers.— Useful Ratios.— Notes on 
Construction. — cylindrical boilbr shells. — Circular furnaces. — flat 
Plates.— Stays. — Girders.— Screws. — Hydraulic Tests. — Rivbting. — Boilbr 
Setting. Chimneys, and Mountings.— Fuels. &c.— Examples of Boilers and speeds 
OP STEAMSHIPS.— Nominal and Normal Horse Power.— With DIAGRAMS for all 
Boiler Calculations and drawings of many varieties op boilers. 

" Mr. Foley is wdl fitted to compile sucli a woric The diagrams are a great featnie of the 
work. It may be stated that Mr. Fowy has ptoduced a volume which will undoubtedly fulfil the 
desire of the author and become indispensable to all mechanical engineer^"- lAtrine Emgittttr. 

" We have carefullT examined this work, and pronounce it a most excellent reiSfeoce book 
for the use of marine engineers.**— 70MrM«/ a/Amtriean Socitfy o/Nmval Bngitt€trs. 

TBXT-BOOK ON THE 5TEAM ENGINE. 

With a Supplement on Gas Engines and Part II. on Heat Emgimks. By 
T. M. Goodbye, M.A., Barrister-at-Law, Professor of Mechanics at the Royal 
College of Science, London ; Author of "The Principles of Mechanics," " The 
Elements of Mechanism," &c Fourteenth Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth . 6/0 

" Proisasor Goodere has given us a treatise on the steam engine, which win bear compailMm 
with anythixur written by Huxley or Maxwell, and we can awatd it no hi^^ier praiee."— itiyrfwarr. 

** Af r. ooodeve's text-book is a work of which every young engineer should possess himself." 
-^Mining youmeU. 

ON QAS ENGINES. 

With Appendix describing a Recent Engine with Tube Igniter. By T. M. 

Goodbye, M.A. Crown 8vo, cloth 2/6 

" Like all Mr. Goodere's writings, the present is no exception in point of general exceHenoe. 
It is a valuable Uttle volume."— IftcAawica/ World, 

GA5 AND OIL ENGINE MANAGEMENT. 

A Practical Guide for Users and Attendants, being Notes on Selection, 
Construction, and Management. By M. Powis Balb, M.I M.E., A.M.I.CE. 
Author of •' Woodworking Machinery," &c. Crown 8vo, cloth . Ntt 3/6 

THE GAS-ENGINE HANDBOOK. 

A Manual of Useful Information for the Designer and the Engineer. By E. W. 
Roberts, M.E. With Forty Full-page Engravings. Small Fcap. 8vo, leather. 

iiti 8/6 

A TREATISE ON 5TEAM B0ILER5. 

Their Strength, Construction, and Economical Working. By R. Wilson, CE. 

Fifth Edition, xamo, cloth 6/0 

" The best treatise that has ever been published on steam \KliKt%.'''-^i^iMter. 

THE MECHANICAL ENGINEER'S COMPANION. 

Of Areas, Circumferences, Decimal Equivalents, in inches and feet, millimetres, 

anares, cubes, roots, &c. ; Strength of Bolts, Weight of Iron, &c. ; Weights, 
easures, and other Data. Also Practical Rules for Engine Proportions. By 
R. Edwaxds, M.Inst.C.E. Fcap. 8vo, cloth. 8/6 

**A v«qr oaaAil little volume. It contains many tables, rlawili«w1 data and memotanda 
genenlly nsafkil to eoglneen."— £fvte«rr. 

"What It prolMim to be, * a haa^ office conpaaloii,' glvlnc tai a mcdnct fom a vailetjr of 
infermatien llkm to be leqnlrad by mechanical anglneen In tbekr everyday oCoa woA.''^WBlMr«. 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, *<:. 5 

A HANDBOOK ON THE 5TEAM ENGINE. 

With especial Reference to Small and Mediuin*sized Engines. For the Use of 
Engine Makers, Mechanical Draughtsmen, Engineerine Students, and ciser« 
of Steam Power. By Herman Haedbr, C.E. Translated from the German 
with additions and alterations, by H. H. P. Powles, A.M.I.C.E., M.I.M.K. 
'rh'rd Edition, Revised. With^nady x,too Illustrations. Crown 8vo, 
cloth , Net 7/6 

"A perfect encyclopaedia ef the steam engine and its details, and one which roust take a per< 
manent place in English drawinK-ofiices and workshops."—^ Foretnan PatUm-maiur. 

'* This is an excellent book, and should be in tne hands of all who are Interested in the coa> 
stractloo and design of. medium-sized stationary engines. . . . A careful study of its contents and 
the axranKement of the sectious leads to the conduSoa that there is protiablv no other book like h 
in this country. The volume aims at shovring the results of practical experience, and it certainly 
uiay claim a complete achievement of this idea."— iVa/urr. 

"There can be no Question as to its value. We cordially commend it to aU concerned in the 
design and construction of the stoam engine."— .l/erAdMitra^ trortd. 

BOILER AND FACTORY CHIMNEY5. 

Their Draught-Power and Stability. With a chapter on Lightning Conductors, 
By Robert Wilson, A.I.C.E., Author of " A Treatise on Steam Boilers," &c. 
Crown 8vo, cloth 8/6 

" A valuable contribution to the literature of scientific building."— rA« Builder, 

BOILER MAKER'5 READY RECKONER & A5515TANT. 

With Examples of Practical Geometry and Templadng, for the Use of Platers, 
Smiths, and Riveters. By John Courtney. Edited by D. K. Claric, 
M.I.C.E. Fourth Edition, 480 pp., with X40 Illnstrations. Fcap. Svo, half- 

boimd 7/0 

" No workman or apprentice should be without this book."— /rvn Trade Circular, 

REFRIQERATION, COLD 5T0RAQE, & ICE-MAKINQ: 

A Practical Treatise on the Art and Science of Refrigeration. Bv A. J. 
Wallis-Taylbr, A.M.Inst.CE., Author of " Refrigerating and Ice- Making 
Machinery." 600 pp., with 360 Illtistrations. Medium Svo, cloth. JV// 1 5/O 

*'The author has to be congratulated on the completion and production of such an impor> 
tant work and it cannot fail to have a large body of readers, for it leaves out nothing that would in 
any way be of value to those interested in the subject." — Steamship. 

" No one whose duty it is to handle the mammoth preserving installations of these latter days 
cjii afford to be without this valuable book."— C/aj^t'w Herald, 

THE POCKET BOOK OP REPRIQERATION AND ICE- 

MAKINQ. 

By A. J. Wallis-Tavlek, A.M.Inst.C.E. Author of " Refrigerating and Ice- 
making Machinery," &c. Third Edition, Enlarged. Small Crown Svo, cloth. 

[Just Published, Net 316 

REFRIQERATINQ & ICE-MAKINQ MACHINERY. 

A Descriptive Treatise for the Use of Persons Employing Refrigerating 
and Ice-Making Installations, and others. By A. J. Waixis-Taylbr, 
A.-M. Inst. C.E. Third Edition, Enlarged. Crown Svo, cloth . . 7/6 

" Pnctical. explicit, and profusdy iUustrated."— C^^nv* Herald. 

" Vn recommend the book, which gives the cost of various systems and illustrations shoving 
details of parts of machinery and general arrangements of complete installations."— ^m^U^. 

" May be recommended as a useful description of the machinery, the processes, and of the 
facts, figures, and tabulated physics of lefrigerating. It is one of the best compilations on the 
subject. —i5fV*fM»r. 

BNQINEERINQ ESTIMATES, C05T5, AND ACCOUNTS. 

A Guide to Commercial Engineering. With numerous examples of 1t«timat«>f 
and Costs of Millwright Work, Miscellaneous Productions, Steam Engines and 
Steam Boilers; and a Section on the Preparation of Costs Accounts. Bv 
A General Manager. Second Editioiu Svo, cloth. . . 12/0 

•« This is an excellent and very useftil book, coveting subject-matter In constant re<nilsltioo la 
every factory and workshop. . . . The book is invaluable, not only to the young engineet, bat 
also to the estimate department of every works,"— Suilder. 

" We accord the work unqualified prdse. The Infonnatloa Is ghrsn In a plain, stnlglitiorward 
maaner, and bears throughout evidence of the Intimate practical acqualittance dT the author with 
aveiy phase of commeicial engineering."— iftcA«»rfai/ IrWM. 



CROSBY LOCKWOOD * SON'S CATALOGUE. 



THE MECHANICAL HANDLING OF MATERIAL. 

Being a TmtlM on th« Handling of Material tuch as Coal, Ore, Timber, &c., 
by Automatic or Semi'Automatic Machinery, together with the Various 
Aooetsories oaed in the Manipulation of such Plant, and Dealing fully with 
the Handling, Storing, and warehousing of Grain. B7 Gborob Fredbsick 
ZiMMBR^ A.M.Inst.C.E. 538 pages duper*Royal Octavo, cloth, with 550 
Illustrations (including Numerous Folding Plates) specially prepared for the 
Work. i/usf FtUfluJud, Net 25.0 

HOISTINQ MACHINERY. 

An Elementary Treatise on. Including the Elements of Crane Constroction 
and Descriptions of the Various Tj^pes of Cranes in Use. By Joseph 
Horner, A.M I.M.E., Author of ** Pattern-Making," and other WotWs. 
Crown 8vo, with 215 Illustrations, including Folding Piates, cloth. Net 7/6 

AERIAL OR WIRE-ROPE TRAMWAY5. 

Their Construction and Management. By A. J. Waixis-Tavxjbr, A.M.Inst.C.B. 

With 81 Illustrations. Crowm Svo, cloth 7/6 

"An excellent volume, and a very {food exposition of the rcrious ssrstems of rope tnnsaussion 
in use, and gives as well not a little valuable infonnation about their worklng^. repair, and manage- 
ment. We can safely recommend it as a useful general treatise on the subject."— £Mete«rr. 

MOTOR CARS OR P0WER-CARRIAQE5 FOR COMMON 

ROADS. 

By A. J. Wallis-Tayler, A.M.Inst.C.E. aia pp., with 76 Illustrations. 
Crown Svo, cloth 4/6 

" A work that an engineer thinlcin^ of turning his attention to motor-carriage work, wouM 
do well to read as a preliimnary to startutg operations."— £«vvi««rte^. 

PLATING AND BOILER MAKING. 

A Practical Handbook for Workshop Operations. By Joseph G. HoKitBa, 

A.M.I.M.E. 380 pp. with 338 Illustrations. Crown Svo, cloth . 7/6 

" This work is characterised by that evidence of ck>N acquaintance with worlcshop methods 
which win render the book exceedingly acceptable to the practical hand. We have no hesitation 
in commending the woik as a serviceable and practical handbook on a sul^ect which has not 
hitheito received much attention from those qualified to deal with it in a satislactory manner.".— 
Michanicai IVortd. 

PATTERN MAKING. 

Embracing the Main Types of Engineering Construction, and including 
Gearing, Engine Work, Sheaves and Pulleys, l*ipes and Columns, Screws, 
Machine Parts, Pumps and Cocks, the Moulotng of Pattei^s in Loam and 
Greensand, Weight of Castings, &c By J. G. Horner, A.M.I.M.E. Third 
Edition, Enlarged. With 486 illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth. . Net 7 IS 

" A weD-written technical guide, evidently written by a man who understands and has prac- 
tised what he has written about. . . . We coraiaUy reconunend It to engineering students, yoaog 
journeymen, and others desirous of being initiated into the m)psteries of pattern -making. "-^ariUir. 

" An excellent vtuU mtcum. for the apprentice who desires to become master of his trade." 
—Eng-ltsh Mtchanic. 

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING TERMS 

n^ockwood's Dictionary of)- Embracing those current in the Drawing OflSoe, 
Pattern Shop, Foundry, Fitting, Turning, Smiths', and Boiler Shops, &c Com* 

f rising upwards of 6,000 Definitions. Edited by J. G. Horner, A.M.I.M.E. 
'bird Edition, Revised, with Additions. Crown Svo, cloth . . Jfet 7/6 

** Just the sort of handy dictionary required by the various tiades engaged In mechanical en- 
fflneering. The practical engineering pupil will find the book of great value mw studies, and every 
foreman engineer and mechanic shoula have a co^"— Building Newt. 

TOOTHED GEARING. 

A Practical Handbook for Offices and Workshops. By J. Horner, A.M.I.M.E. 
Second Edition, with a new Chapter on Recent Practice. With 1B4 Illustra- 
tions. Crovm 8vo, cloth. Vjust Publiihrd, 6/0 
" We give the book our unqualified praise for its thorouglmess ot treatment, and recommend 
it to all interested as the most practical book on the subject yet written."- Utekanicml WtrUL 

FIRE5, FIRE-ENGINE5, AND FIRE BRIGADES. 

With a History of Fire-Engines, their Construction, Use, and Manage- 
ment ; Foreign Fire Sjrstems ; Hints on Fire-Brigades, &c By CTfTt. 
Young, CE. 8to, cloth £1 4^ 

^ w" T^"<* '^ ^^^^*i?^ ¥ ate taterested In the subject of fires and file appwatns «• can 
most heartily rommend this yaociLr^Bnginurt$tg, 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING. &c. 



ATRIAL NAVIGATION. 

A Pimcdail Handb ok on th« Construction of Dirisible Balloons, Afirottats, 
AftropUuiM, and A^romocon. By Frbdbkick walkbr, C.E , Auociata 
Member of tba Aeronautic Institute. Witb 104 Illustrations. Large Crown 
8vo, cloth Nit 7/6 

STONB-WORKINQ MACHINERY. 

A Manual dealing with the Rapid and Eoocomical Conversion of Stone. With 
Hints cm the Arrangement and Management of Stone Works. By M. Powis 
Balb, M.I.M.E. Second Edition, enlarged. Crown 8vo, cloth . . 9/0 
" The book should be fai the hands of evwy melon or student of maomfnkk."—C4U4tty 



" A capital handbook for all who manipulate stone for buOdinc or ornamental parposaa."— 
Maekintry MmrktL 

PUMP5 AND PUMPING. 

A Handbook for Pump Users. Being Notes on Selection, Construction, and 
Management. By M. Powis Balb, M.I.M.B. Fourth Edition. Crown 
8vo, doth 8/6 

"The matter Is let forth as condaaly as ponlbla. In foct, condensation rather than (ttftise* 
noM has been the author's afan throughout ; yet he does not seem to have omitted aaytbtaiff likely to 
be of use."— ^(MfrMM/^f Gut Lig^kMnf. 

** Thcrouffhly practical and clearly wtltien." — Gltugvw Herald, 

MILLINQ MACHINES AND PROCESSES. 

A Practical Treatise on Shaping Metals by Rotary Cutters. Including 
Information on Making and Grinding the Cutters. By Paul N. Hasluck, 
Author of " Lathe' Work." With upwards of 300 Engravmgs. Large crown 8 vo, 

cloth 12/6 

" A new depaituie In engineering Htentuie. . . . We can raeonunend thli work to all la. 
terested in milling machines ; it b what tt profeaaas to be—e practical tieatifle.'*— £^^«M<r. 

" A capital and reliable book whkh will no doubt be of considerable aerrkre both to those 
who ate already acquafatted with the process as well as to those who contemplate Its adoption."— 

LATHE-WORK. 

A Practical Treatise on the Tools, Appltanoei, and Processes employed In 
the Art of Turning. By Padl N. Haslucx. Eighth Edition. Crown 8vo, 

cloth 6^0 

" Wittten by a man who knows not only how work ought to be done, but who also knows how 
to do It, and how to convey hb knowledge to others. ToaDtumonthbbook wouldbevahlafale.''— 



We can safely leoommend the work to young engineers. To ttie amateur It wfl ibnply be 



nvaluable. To thestudantitwIDconTagragreatdeBrofusaAil 

SCREW-THREADS, 

And Methods of Producing Them. With numeroiu Tables and complete 
Directioiu for using Screw-Cutting Lathes. By Paol N. Haslocx, Author 
of " Lathe- Work," ftc. Sixth EdiUon. Waistcoat-pocket sise .1/6 



** Fun of usaAil information, hints and practical c i t tl d am . Taps, dies, aad s cs ewl B g tools 
generalhr are illustrated and their action describod.''~Jftc*a»^k)e/ tV»rld. 

"It is a complete compondlum of all the detafls of the 8craw<utting lathe \ la fact, a mttUrnm- 
iH ' fm ^m on all the subjects tt treats upon.''-^««;^im4vr M$d BttUdtr. 

TABLES AND MEMORANDA FOR ENQINBBRS, 

MECHANICS, ARCHITECTS, BUILDERS, Ac. 

Selected and Arranged by Francis Smith. Seventh Edition, Revised, including 
Electrical Tables, FoRMULiB, and Memoranda. Waistcoat-pocket siae, 
limp leather 1/6 

" It would, perhaps, be as difficult to make a small pocket-book sdection of notas and fbrmute 
to suit all enpneen as it would be to make a universal medicine ; but Mr. Smith's waistcoat' 
pocket collection may be looked upon as a succeaiful attempt."— £>v^«Mcr. 

; of ui ' ' 



' The best evampie we have ever seen of 070 pages of oseAil matter pecked Into the dlmen> 
skMS of a CMid-ciam.'''^Bt$UdiHr News. " A varltable pocket treesurr of knowledge. "^Avm. 



POCKET QL055ARY OP TECHNICAL TERM5. 

English* French, Frencfa«English ; with Tables soitable for the Architectural, 
Engineering, Mannfacturing, and Nautical Professi<ms. By John Jambs 
Fletcher. Third Edition, soo pp. Waistcoat*pocket siae, limp leather 1 /6 



'* It to a very great advantage for readers and conespondonti In France and Hngland to have 
so large a number of the worda raladng to engineering and manufcctuies ooleoted m a Upotlan 
vohuBa. The Mttie book will be useftil both to gudentt and tnnaHaw '--jtrekitirt. 

" The gloasary of tams to vary oomplece, and many of the Tables era new aad weO arranged. 
We cofdtally ooomead the book." Mtrkmrnirmi WMd, 



8 CROSBY LOCK WOOD * SON'S CATALOGUE. 

THE ENQINEER'S YEAR BOOK FOR 1905. 

Comprising Formube, Rales, Tables, Data and Memoranda in Civil, Mecfaaaical, 
Electrical, Marine and Mine Engineering. By H. R. Kbmpb, A.M. Inst. C.X., 
M.I.E.E., Principal Technical Officer, Engineer-in-Chief 's Office, General Pott 
Office, London, Author of "A Handbook of Electrical Testing, "."Tbe 
Electrical Engineer's Pocket -B«ok," &c With x,ooo Illustrations, spedallT 
Engraved for the work. Crown 8vo, 950 pp., leather. [Just PubUshstl. 8/0 

"Kempo's Year Book really requires no commenrlation. Its sphere of usefulness Is widely 

known, and ic is used by en^neers cbe world over/'— 7*<fe« B*fitu*r. | 

"The Tolume is dutiocUy In advanca of moR sttnilar publkstioQS In this coontsy.'*— 

" Thb Tataiable aad well-daslgiied book of raHMence meets the demands of ad deiii.il|Hluiiu d 
•nglneerL"— sSo/wm^air XtvUw. 

" Teems with up-to-date infonnatlon In eveiy branch of englnaaring and 
BuUdine Nemt. 

" The needs of the engineeitog pioffesalon coold hardly bo supplied la a mora 
complete and convenient fonn. To say that it mora than wistalns all compaiiaoos is pnlae of the 
highest tort, and that may Justly be said of It."— Afiw^^v you/mml. 

" There is certainly room for the new comer, which suppttea eocplaaatianB aad 1 
well as formula and ubles. It deserres to become one of the most, sucrewfiil of the 
annuals."— >4 rchiucu 

" Brings together with great skill all the technical Infonnatlon which an engineer has to 1 
day by day. It is in erery way admirably equipped, and is sura to prove su ccessfu L"— Si * am tm » 

" The up-to-dateness of Mr. Kempo's compilation is a qnaSty that wBl not be lost on tbe 1 
people for whom the work is intended."— {rAtvvw Htruid, 

THB PORTABLE ENGINE. 

A Practical Manual on its Construction and ManagemenL For tke nst 
of Owners and Users of Steam Ei^ines generally. By William Dtson 
Wansbrougk. Crown 8vo, cloth 3/0 

** This Is a work of value to those who use steam machinery. . . . Should be raad by evaiy 
one who has a steam engine, on a farm or elsewhere."— Jfard Lant Bjtfrut, 

IRON AND STEEL. 

A Work for the Forge, Foundry^ Factory, and Office. Containing ready, 
useful, and trustworthy Information for Ironmasters and their Stock>takecs : 
Managers of Bar. Rail, Plate, and Sheet Rolling Mills; Iron and Metal 
Founders; Iron Ship and Bridge Builders ; Mechanical. Mining, and Cod« 
suiting Engineers ; Architects, Contractors, Builders, &c. By Chaklks Hoakb, 
Author of ^' The Slide Rule," &c Ninth Edition. 3amo, leather . 6/0 

CONDENSED MECHANICS. 

A Selection of Formulae, Rules. Tables, and Dau for the Use of Engineering 
Studenu, &c. By W. G. C. Huchbs, A.M.I.CE. Crown 8vo, cloth . 2/0 

" The book Is well fitted for those who ara preparing for examination and wish to refresh 
their knowledge by going through their formulae again."— Jfar^Mc Engituer, 

THE SAFE U5E OF STEAM. 

Containing Rules for Unprofesaonal Steam Users. By an Enginkbs. Eighth 

Edition. Sewed 6d. 

" If steam-users would but learn this little book by heart, boOer expkMfons would become 
sensatkma hf their fmritr."—Mn£Usk Meehanic. 

THE CARE AND MANAGEMENT OF STATIONARY 

BNOINES. 

A Practical Handbook for Men-in-charge. By C. HtntST. Crown 8vo. NtiltO 

THE LOCOMOTIVE ENGINE. 

The Autobiography of an Old Locomotive Eisgine. By Robbct WBATim* 
BOKN, M.I.M.E. With Illustrations and Portiaits of GBOKCXand RoBBrr 
Stbphknson. Crown 8vo, cloth. /{Tet 2/6 

THE LOCOMOTIVE ENGINE AND ITS DEVELOPMENT. 

A Popular Treatise on the Gradual Improvements made in Railway Enginct 
between 1803 and 1903. By Clbmbnt E. Strbtton, CE. Sixth Edition, 
Revised and Enlarged. Crown 8vo, cloth Ntt 4/6 

" Students of raQway history and all who ara Interested In the evohitlott of tbm modera 
looomodve will find much to attract and entertain In this volume."— 77k« Timu, 



MECHANICAL ENGISEERING. &c. 



TOOLS FOR ENGINEERS AND WOODWORKERS. 

A Practical Treatise including Modern Instruments of Measurement. By 

iosBPH Horner, A. M.Inst. M.E., Author of "Pattern Making," "Hoisting 
lachinery," &c. Demy 8vo, with 456 Illustrations. 

[Just Publishtd, 9.0 nft. 

MODERN MACHINE 5H0P TOOLS, 

A Practical Treatise describing in every detail the Construction, Operation 
and Manipulation of both Hana and Machine Tools ; being a work of Practical 
Instruction in all Cl.isses of Machine Shop Practice, including Chapters on 
Filing, FittinK and Scraping Surfaces; on Drills, Reamers, Taps and Dies; 
the Lathe and its Tools ; Planers, Shapers and their Tools ; Milling Machines 
and Cutters ; Gear Cutters and Gear Cutting ; Drilling Machines and Drill 
Work ; Grinding Machines and their Work ; Hardening and Tempering, 
Gearing, Heltini, and Transmission Machinery; Useful Data and Tables. 
By Wiui.iAM H. Van Dervoort, M.E. Fourth Edition. Illustrated by 673 
Engravings of Latest Tools and Methods, all of which are fully described. 
Medium 8vo, cloth. [fust Pubiished. Net 21/0 

LOCOMOTIVE ENGINE DRIVINQ. 

A Practical Manual for Engineers in Charge of Looomodve Engines. By 
Michael Rkvnolos, formerly Locomotive Inspector, L. B. ft S. C R. 
Eleventh Edition. Including a Ksr to thb Locomotivb Enginb. 
Crown 8vo, cloth ........... 4/6 

Mr. Revnolds has supplied a i««nt, and has supplied it irefl. We am confidentljr ncom* 



It 



aiend the booic not qnly to toe practical driver, but to ereryoae who takes an inteiwt la the 
petfonnance of locomotiTe engines." — TM« Enginur. 

" Mr. Reynolds has opened a new chapter in the Iheratora of the dajr. This admirable 
practical treatise, of the practical utility of which we have to speak in terms of warm commendation." 

THE MODEL LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEER, 

l^lreman, and Engine<Boy. Comprising a Historical Notice of the Pioneer 
Locomotive Engines and their Inventors. By Michakl Rbvnolds. Second 
Edition, with Revised Appendix. Crown 8vo, doth. .... 4/6 

" We should be g^lad to see this book in the posaenioo of ev e ryo ne In the kingdom who has 
laid, or is to lay, hands on a locomotive engine. "—/rvH. 



CONTINUOUS RAILWAY BRAKES. 

A Practical Treatise on the several Systems in Use in the United Kingdom .* 

their Construction and Performance. By M. Rbvnolds. 8vo, cloth 9/0 

" A popular explanation of the different brakes. It wHl be of great assistance In foiming 
public opinion, and will be uudied with benefit by those who take an interest in the bnk»."—En£iiik 
Mtehanic. 

STATIONARY ENGINE DRIVING. 

A Practical Manual for Engineers in Charee of Statioiuuy Engines. By 
MiCHABL Rbynouds. Sixth Edition. With Plates and Woodcuts. 
Crown 8vo, cloth 4/6 

" The author's advice on the various points treated is clear and pnc:^ictL"-~BngiMwring. 

" Our author leaves no stone unturned. He is determined that his readen shaO not only 
know something about the stationary engine, but aO about \x.''-~£ngvutr. 

ENGINE-DRIVING LIFE. 

Stirring Adventures and Incidents in the Lives of Locomotive Engine* 

Drivers. By Mick abl Rbvnolds. Third Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth . 1/6 

** From first to last perfectly fascinating. Willde CoUins's most thrilling coocepdons are 
thrown into the ahade by true incidents, endMss in their vaneiy. reJated in every page."— JVtfrCft 

THE ENGINEMAN'5 POCKET COMPANION, 

And Practical Educator for Enginemen, Boiler Attendants, and Mechanics. 
By MiCHABL Rbynolds. With 45 Illustrations and numerous Di«gram.c. 
Fourth Edition, Revised. Rojral x8mo, strongly bound for pocket wear. 8/6 

" A most meritorious work, giving in a succinct and practical form all the information a a 
engine-minder desirous of mastering the scientific principles of his daily calling would requite. ' — 
tJU MilUr, 



lo CROSBY LOCKWOOD * SON'S CATALOGUE. 



CIVIL ENGINEERING, SURVEYING, ETC. 



PIONEER IRRIGATION. 

A Manual of Information for Farmers in the Colonies. By E. O. Mawson, 
M.Inst.C.EM Executive Engineer. Public Works Department. Bombay. With 
Additional Chapters on Light Railways by E. R. Calthrop, M.Inst.CE., 
M.I.M.E. Illustrated by Numerous Plates and Dia^ams. Demy 8vo, cloth. 

U^tPubliihed. A V^ 10/6 
Summary of contents :—Valuh op Irrtcation, and Sources of Watbr 
SUPPLY.— Dams and weirs.— Canals.— Underground Water.- Methods op irri- 
GATioN.— Sewage Irrigation.— Imperial automatic Sluice Gates.— the Culti- 
vation OF Irrigated Crops. Vi-getables, and Fruit Trees.— Lici-rr Railways 
FOR Heavy Traffic— Useful Memoranda and Data. 

TUNNELLINQ. 

A Practical Treatise. By Charlbs Prblini, C.E. With additions by 
Charlbs S. Hill, C.E. With 150 Diagrams and Illustrations. Royal 8vo, 
cloth N<M 6/0 

PRACTICAL TUNNELLING. 

Explaining in detail Setting-out the Works, Shaft«sinking, and H^uling-driving, 

Ranging the Lines and Levelling underground, Sub>£xcavating, 'Ambeiing 

and the Construction of the Brickwork of Tunnels. By F. W. SiMilS, 

M. Inst. C.E. Fourth Edition, Revised and Further ExteiMled, including the 

most recent (i 895) Examples of Sub-aqueous and other Tunnels, by D. Kinnbak 

Clark, M. Inst. C.E. With 34 Folding Plates. Imperial Bvo, cloth £2 2s. 

" The present (1896) edition has been brouglit ilfrht up to date, and is a woric to «mcli cfaril 
engineers should have ready access, and engineers who hare conaiuctkm work can hardly afford 



to be without, but wtilch to the younger members of the professloa is Invahiable. as from its pages 
they can learn the sute to which the science of tunnelling has attained."— ^««/ai»y Ntwi. 

THE WATER 5UPPLY OF TOWNS AND THE CON- 
STRUCTION OP WATBR-WORKS. 

A Practical Treatise for the Use of Engineers and Students of EDgineering. 
By W. K. Burton, A.M.Inst.CE.,^ Consulting Engineer to the Tdcyo 
Water-works. Second Edition, Revised and Extended. With numerous 
Plates and Illustrations. Super-royal 8vo, buckram 26/0 

I. introductory. — II. DIFFHRBNT QUALITIBS OF WATHR. — III. QUAKTrTY OK 
WaTKR TO BB PROVIDBD.— IV. ON ASCBRTAINING WHRTHBR A PROPOSED SOURCB OF 
SUPPLY IS SUFFICIBNT.— V. ON ESTIMATING THB STORAGB CAPACITY RBOUIRBO 
TO BB PROVIDBD.— VI. CLASSIFICATION OF WATBR-WORK&— VII. IMPOUNDING KBSBR,- 

votRS.— VIII. Earthwork Dams.— IX. Masonry Dams.— X. Thb puripication op 

Water.— XI. Settling Reservoirs.— XI I. Sand Filtration XIII. Purification 

of Water by action of iron. Softening of Water by Action of Limb, Natural 
filtration.— XIV. service or Clean Water Reservoirs— Watbr Towbrs— stand 
Pipes.— XV. the Connection of Settling Reservoirs. Filtbr Beds and Servicb 
Reservoirs.— XVI. pumping Machinery.— xvii. Flow of Watbr in CoNourrs— 
Pipes and open Channels.— XVIU. Distribution Systems.— XIX. Special Pro- 
visions for the extinction of Firb.— XX. pipes for Water-works.— XXI. Prb- 
vbntion of Wastb of Water.- XXII. Various appliances usbo in Connectiom 
WITH Water-works. 

appendix I. By prof. JOHN MILNE. F.R.S.— CONSIDERATIONS CONCERNING THB 
PROBABLE EFFECTS OF EARTHQUAKES ON WATBR-WORKS, AND THB SPECIAL PRB- 

cautions to be taken in Earthquake Countries. 

appendix ii. by john de rijke, ce.— on sand dunbs and dune sand as 
A SouRCB OF Water Supply. 

" The chapter upon filtration of water is very complete, and the details of constructiaii weB 
Illustrated. . . . Tne work should be specially valuable to civQ engineefs enp^ged in wock la 
Japan, but the interest is by no means confined to that locality."— £M|fi«*Mr. 

" We congratulate the author upon the practical commonsenae shown In the ptepantkia o 
this worIc . . . The plates and aiagrams have evidently been prepared with peat caie^ and 
cannot £ail to be of great assistance to the student."— ^Mi^i^. 

RURAL WATER SUPPLY. 

A Practical Handbook on the Supply of Water and Constractioo of Water* 
works for small Country Districts. By Allan Grbbnwbix, A.M.I.C£., 
and W. T. Curry, A.M.I.CE., F.G.S. With Illustrations. Second EditioD, 
Revised. Crown 8vo, cloth * 6/0 

" We consdentkMisly lecommend It as a very nsefttl book for those coocenied In obHtatlDg 
water for small districts, giving a great deal of practical Information in a small coauQaas."— i0M<tfir. 

~ 1 wfehw 



** The vtdume contains valuable information upon all matters coonected with water snpp^. 
It is fall of details on points which ate contbioally before water-woiks I 



CIVIL ENGINEERING, SURVEYING, &c. ii 



THE WATER 5UPPLY OF CIT1E5 AND TOWNS. 

By William Humbbr. A. M. Inst. C.E., and M. Inst. M.E., Antbor of " Cast 
and Wrought Iron Brieve Construction," &c., &c. Illustrated with u Doable 
Plates, X Single Plate, Coloured Frontispiece, and upwards of 950 Woodcuts, 
and containing 400 pp. of Text. Imp. 4to, elegantly and substantially 

half-bound in morocco Ntt £6 6a. 

List of cont ents :— i. historical Skbtch of somb op thh mbans that havb 

BBBN AIXJPTKU fOk IHH SUPPLY OH WaTBR TO ClTIBS AND TOWNS.— II. WATER AND 

thb Forbign Mattbr usually associatbd with rr.— IIL Rainfall and evapora- 
tion.— IV. SPRINGS AND THB WATER-BRARING FORMATIONS OF VARIOUS DISTRICTS. 
—V. MBASURBMBNT AND ESTIMATION OF THB FLOW OF WaTBR.— VI. ON THB SRLBCTION 
OF THB SOURCE OF SUPI'LY.— VII. WELLS.— VIII. RBSBRVOIRS.—IX. THE PURIFICATION 
OF WATBR.— X. PUMPS.— XI. PUMPING MACHINERY.— XII. CONDUITS.— XIIL DISTRIBU- 
TION OF Water. —XIV. meters, service Pipes, and House Fittings.— XV. Thb Law 
AND Economy op Watbr-works.— XVI. Constant and Intermittent supply.— 
XVII. description of plates.- Appendices, giving Tables of Rates of Supply, 
VBLOcrriES, &c, Ac. togbthbr with Specifications of several works illus- 
trated, AMONG which WILL BE FOUND : ABERDEEN, BiDBFORD, CANTBRBURY, 

Dundbb, Halifax, Lambeth, Rothbrham. Dublin, and others. 

" Th« most systematic and valuable work upon water suppljr hltliefto pioduced in English, or 
in any other language. Mr. Humber's work is cluracterised almost throughout by an 
•xluttstlTeneM much mora distincthre of French and German than of English technical treatises." 

THE PROGRESS OF ENGINEERING (1863-6). 

By Wm. Humber, A.M.Inst.C.E. Complete in Four Vols. Containing 148 
Double Plates, with Portraits and Copious Descriptive Letterpress. Imp!. 410, 
half-morocco. Price, complete, £1 2 1 2«. \ or each Volume sold separately 
at £3 3s. per Volume. Descriptive List 0/ Contents on amplication. 

HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. 

A Practical Manual on the Concentration and TransmissioD of Power by 
Hydraulic Machinery. By G. Croydon Marks, A.M.Inst.C.E. With 
nearly 900 Illustrations. 8vo, doth. Net Q/O 

SUMMARY OF CONTENTS :— PRINCIPLES OF HYDRAULICS.— THE FLOW OF WATER,— 

HYDRAULIC Pressures.— matbriau—Tbst Load.— Packings for Sliding Surfaces. 
—Pipe Joints.— Controlling Valves.— Platform Lifts.— Workshop and Foundry 
Cranes.— Warbhousb and dock CRANBi>.— Hydraulic Accumulators.— Presses 
FOR Baling and othhr pur poses.— Sheet metal working and Forging Machinery. 
—Hydraulic Riveters.— Hand and Power pumps.— steam pumps.— Turbines.— 
IMPULSE Turbines.— Reaction turbines.— Design of turbines in Detail.— Water 
Wheels.— Hydraulic Engines.— Rbcbnt achibvbments.— pressi'rb of Water.— 
Action of pumps, &c 

" Wo hare nothuig but praise for this thoroughly valuable work. The author has succeeded 
la rendering his subject interesting as well as instructive."- /VarMM/ Engineer. 

" Can be unhedtatingty recommended as a useftil and up-tonlate manual on hydrauHc tians 
mission and utilisation of power."— A/ecAaiff at/ IVorkl. 

HYDRAULIC TABLES, C0-EFFICIENT5, & F0RMULi4B. 

For Findins the Discharge of Water from Orifices, Notches, Weirs, Pipes, and 
Rivers. With New Formulse, Tables, and General Information on Rain-fall, 
Catchment-Basins, Drainage, Sewerage, Water Supply for Towns and Mill 
Power. By John Nbvillb, C.E., M.R,I.A. Third Edition, revised, with 
additions. Numerous Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth . 14/0 

" It is, of all English books on the subject, the one nearest to completeness."— ^rrAtect. 

HYDRAULIC MANUAL. 

Consisting of Working Tables and Explanatory Text. Intended as a Guide in 

Hydraulic Calculations and Field Operations. By Lowis D'A. Jackson, 

Author of "Aid to Survey Practice," "Modem Metrology," &c Fourth 

Edition, Enlarged. Large crown 8vo, cloth 1 Q/Q 

"The author has constructed a manual which may be accepted as a tmstwoithy guide 
to this branch of the engineer's profession."— £Mir<M«m'iitf. 

WATER ENGINEERING. 

A Practical Treatise on the Measurement, Storage, Conveyance, and Utilisa- 
tion of Water for the Supply of Towns, for Mill Power, and for other Porposas. 
ByCHAKLBsSLAGG,A.M.Inst.C.E. Second Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth . 7/6 



' As a small practical treatise OB die water supply of towns, and on some appHcatfons of water- 
power, the work is In many raspects 9ntnmX."-^SngimtriMg, 



12 CROSBY LOCK WOOD ^ SON'S CATALOGUE. 
THE RECLAMATION OP LAND PROM TIDAL WATERS 

A Handbook for Engineer^, Landed Proprietors, and others interested in Works 
of Reclamation. By A. Bbazblsv, M.Inst. C.E. 8vo, cloth. y*t 10/6 

" The book shows in a concise way wbat has to be done in reclaiming' land from the sea. m<i 
the best way of doin; it. The work contains a great deal of practical and tu«ftil infonnanon whicU 
cannot fail to be of service to engineers entrusted with the enclosure of salt marshes, and to land- 
owners intending to reclaim land from the sea. " — The /'.nj^Mfer. 

"The author has carried out his task efficiently and well, and hU book contains a large 
amount of information of great service to engineers and others Interested m works of reclamatirm.'' 

MASONRY DAM5 FROM INCEPTION TO COMPLETION. 

Including numerous Formube, Forms of Specification and Tender, Pocket 
Diagram of Forces, &c For the use of Civil and Mining Engineers. Br 

C F. CouRTNBV, M. Inst. C.E. 8vo, cloth 9/0 

" Contains a good deal of TaluaUe data. Many useftil suggestions will be found in the 
remarks on site and position, locadon of dam, foundations and construction.'— i?KtA/iiv^ A!rvx. 

RIVER BAR5. 

The Causes of their Formation, and their Treatment by " Induced Tidal 
Scour " ; with a Description of the Successful Reduction bj this Method of 
the Bar at Dublin. By 1. J. Mann, Assist. £ng. to the Dublin Port and Docks 
Board. Royal 6vo, cloth 7/6 

" We recommend all intetested In harbour works— and, Indeed, those ccmcetned In the 
bnprovements of liTcrs generally— to read Mr. Mann's interesting work."— ^«vv*cfr. 

TRAMWAYS: THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND WORKING. 

Embracing a Comfnehensive History of the System ; with an exhanstiTe 
Analysis of the Various Modes of Traction, including Hone Power^ Steam, 
Cable Traction, Electric Traction, &c. : a Descriptaon of the Vaneties of 
Rolling Stock ; and ample Details of Cost and Working Expenses. New 
Edition, Thoroughljr Revised, and Including the Progress recently made is 
Tramway C<nistruction, &c., &c By D. Kinnbar Clark, M. lnst.CE. 
With 400 Illustrations. 8vo, 780 pp., buckram. 28/0 

" The new TohmM is one whkb will rank, among ttamway engineers and those intetestad In 
tramway woridng, with the Author's worid-famed book on railway mnchineiy. "— 7i*# Bngtrutr. 

SURVEYING AS PRACTISED BY CIVIL ENGINEERS 

AND 5URVBY0R5. 

Including the Setting-out of Works for Construction and Surveys Abroad, with 
niany Examples taken from Actual Practice. A Handbook for u.se in the field 
and the Office, intended also as a Text-book for Students. By Tohn White- 
law, Tun., A.M. Inst. C.E., Author of " Points and Crossings.' With about 
260 Illustrations. Demy 8vo, cloth Net 1 0/6 

"This work is written with admirable lucidity, and will certainly be found or distina value 
both to students and to tliosc eni;.-it:ed in actual practice."— 7 Ar Buiider. 

PRACTICAL SURVEYING. 

A Text-Book for Students preparing for Examinations or for Survey-work in 
the Colonies. By Gborgr W. Usill, A.M.I.C.E. Eighth (Mition, 
thoroughlj^ Revised and Enlarged, by Alex Bbazelev, M. Inst. C.K. 
With 4 Lithographic Plates and 360 Illustrations. I..arj;e crown 8vo, 7/0 
cloth ; or, on Thin Paper, leather, gilt edges, rounded corners, for pocket use 

[ /ust Puilis/uii. 1 2/6 

" The best forms of instruments are described as to thdr consttuctioa, oaes and modes 
of employment, and there are innumerable hints on work and equipment such as the authoc, la 
hb expenence as surveyor, drauff htsman and teaciier. has found neccasaiy, and wUch the studsBS 
Id his uiexperience wiU find most serviceable."— £»^i>Mcr. 

"The first book which should be put \a the hands of a paptt 01 Oril Engineering."— 

AID TO SURVEY PRACTICE. 

For Reference in Surveying, Levelling, and Setting-out; and in Roate Sor* 
▼eys of Travellers by Land and Sea. With Tables, Illustrations, and Records. 
By L. D'A. Jackson, A. M.LC.E. Second Edition. 8vo, cloth . 12/0 

" Mr. Jackson has produced a valuable vadt-mtcHtm for the surveyoc. We can 1 
tbis book as concaintng an admirable supplement to the teaching of the aocompUslied 

'* The aothor brings to his work a foitaiiate anion of theosy aad 
aided by • deer and hida style of wiking, lenden die book ■ very 1 



CIVIL ENGINEERING, SURVEYING, &e. 13 



SURVEYINQ WITH THE TACHBOMETER. 

A practical Manual for the use of Civil and Military Engineers and Snnreyon. 
Including two aeries of Tables specially computed for the Reduction of 
Readings in Sexagesimal and in Centesimal Degrees. By Nbil Kbnnbdt, 
M. Inst. C.E. With Diagrams and Plates. Second Edition. Demy 8vo, cloth. 

\Jfiit Published. Aet lOie 
" The work is very clearly written, and should remove all difficulties in the way of any surveyor 
destroQS of maldnf use of this useful and rapid instrument. "—Namrt. 

ENGINEER'S & MININQ SURVEYOR'S FIELD BOOK. 

Consisting of a Series of Tables, with Rules, Explanations of Sjrstems, and 
use of Theodolite for Traverse Surveying and plotting the work with minute 
aocnracT by means of Straight Edge and Set Square only ; Levelling with the 
Theodolite, Setting-out Curves with and without the Theodolite, Earthwork 
Tables, &c.^ By W. Davis Haskoll, C.E. With numerous Woodcuts. 
Fourth Edition, Enlarged. Crown 8vo, cloth 1 2/0 

'* The book Is very handy ; the separate tables of sines and tangfents to every minute wID make 
it usefU for many other purposes, the genuine traverse tables existing all the same."— -^iAeyMrNm. 

LAND AND MARINE SURVEYINQ. 

In Reference to the Preparation of Plans for Roads and Railways ; Canals, 
Rivers, Towns' Water Supplies; Docks and Harbours. With i>eKription 
and Use of Surveying Instruments. By W. Davis Haskoll,, C.E. S<K;ond 
Edition, Revised, wiUi Additions. Large crown 8vo, cloth . 9/0 

" This book must prove of great value to the student. We have no hesitation in recom< 
mendlnf^ It, feelintf assured that It will more than repay a careful ttady."—MecMafUeai iVorU. 

" A most useful book for the student. We can strongly recommend it as a careAilly*written 
aad valnable test-book. It ei^oys a well-deserved repute among surveyors."— ^v^/dlrr. 

PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF LEVELLING. 

Showing its Application to Purposes of Railway and Civil Engineering in 
the Constructi(xi of Roads ; with Mr. Tblford's Rules for the same. By 
Fkbdbrick W. Simms, M. Inst. C.E. Eighth Edition, with Law's Practical 
Examples for Setting-out Railway Curves, and Trautwinb's Field Practice 
of Laying*out Circular Curves. With 7 Plates and ntunerous Woodcuts. 
8vo 8/6 

" The text-book on levelling in most of our en^eertag schools and colleges."— £Mite«fr. 

** The publishers have rendered a substantial service to the profession, espedally to the 
younger members, by bringing out the present edition of Mr. Slmms's useful work."— fnfitatfrifV' 

AN OUTLINE OF THE METHOD OF CONDUCTING 

A TRiaONOMBTRICAL SURVEY. 

For the Formation of Ge<»raphical and Topographical Maps and Plans, Mili* 
tary Reconnaissance, LEVELLING, &c., with Useful Problems, FormulS| 
and Tables. By Lieut. -General Fromb, R.E. Fourth Edition, Revised and 
partly Re-written by Major-General Sir Charlbs Warrrn, G.C.M.G., R.E. 
With Z9 Plates and 115 Woodcuts, rojral 8vo, cloth .... 1 6/0 

** No words of praise from us can strengthen the position so well and so steadily maintained 
by this work. Sir Charles Warren has revised the entire work, and made such additions as were 
to bring every portion of the contents up to the present dax<t,"-~Brvad Arrow. 



TABLE5 OF TANGENTIAL ANQLE5 AND MULTIPLES. 

For Setting-out Curves from 5 to 300 Radius. By A. Bbazxlrt, M.Inst. C.E. 
6th Edtuon, Revised. With an Appendix on the use of the Tables for 
Measuring up Curves. Printed on 50 Cards, and sold in a cloth box, waistcoat- 
pocket size 3/6 

" Each table is printed on a small card, which, pbced on the theodolite, leaves the hands free 
to manipulate the instrument— no small advantage as regards the rapidity of work."— iifvuMrr . 

" Very handy : a man may know that all bis day's work must fall on two of these cards, which 
he puts into his own card-case, and leaves the rest behind."— j<iA«M«iMM. 

HANDY GENERAL EARTH-WORK TABLES. 

Giving the Contents in Cul»c Yards of Centre and Slopes of Cuttings acd 
Embankments from 3 inches to 80 feet in Depth or Height, for use with either 
66 feet Chain or zoo feet Chain. By J. H. Watson Buck, M. InsL C.E. 
On a Sheet mounted in cloth case 8/0 



14 CROSBY LOCKWOOD * SON'S CATALOGUE. 



EARTHWORK TABLES. 

Showing tb« Contents in Cnbic Yards of EmlMUikm«BtB, CnttingB, ftc, of 

Hei^tt or D«Dths np to an average of 80 feeL By Jo6BPK BsoADMnrr, C E., 

and Francis <Jampin, CE. Crown 8to, cloth 6/0 

" The my In which accufacjr to attained, by a thnple dlvtolon of each crav aectlan Into three 
elaoaents. two In which are constant and one vaiuUe, to higenious." 



A MANUAL ON EARTHWORK. 

By Alex. J. Gkaham, C.E. With numerous Diagrams. Second Edition. 
x8mo, cloth 2/6 

THE CONSTRUCTION OP LARGE TUNNEL SHAFTS. 

A Practical and Theocetical Essay. By T. H. Watson Bock, M. InsL CE., 
Resident Engineer, L. and N. W. R. With Folding Plates, Svo, doth 1 2/0 

" Many of the methods given are of extreme practical value to the nuson, and the 
tioos on the lonn of arch, the rules for ordeiing the stone, and the coasunictk» of the 
win be found of considerable use. We commend the book to the engineering 
BuikUmeNaus. 

" Will be regarded by dvil englneeis as of the utmost value, and calculated to swre moch 
time and obvtote many misrakes. "—C»UUry Guardian. 

CAST & WROUGHT IRON BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION 

(A Complete and Practical Treatise onX including Iron Foondatioos. In 
Three Parts.— Theoretical, Practical, and Descnpdve. By William Hommd, 
A. M. Inst. C.E., and M. Inst. M.E. Third Edition, revised and much im- 
proved, with xis Double Plates (ao of which now first appear in this edition), 
and numerous Additions to the Text. In a vols., imp. 4to, half 4)oand m 

morocco £6 16s. 60. 

" A venr valuable contribution to the standard literature of dvfl engineering. In addition to 
elevations, plans, and sections. Urge scale details are given, which very moch enhance the 
instructive worth of those illustrations."— C^z^ Ertgriiutr and ArehUatfs ycumoL 

"Mr. number's stately volumes, lately issued— in whkh the most important bridges 
eracted during the last five years, under the direction of the late Mr. BruneC Sir W. Cnott, 
Mr. Hawkshaw, Mr. Page. Mr. Fowler, Mr. Hemana. and others among our moot emfaent 
engineers, are drawn and specified in great ditita!L"—Eng1nMr. 

ESSAY ON OBLIQUE BRIDGES 

(Practical and Theoretical). With x^ large Plates. By the late Gbomsb 

Watson Buck, M.I.CE. Fourth Edition, revised b^ his Son, J. H. Watson 

Buck, M.I.CE. ; and with the addition of Description to Diagrams far 

Facilitating the Construaion of Oblique Bridges, by W. H. Baklow, M.I.CE 

Royal 8vo, cloth 1 2/0 

"The standard text-book for all engineers rcgaidlng skew aiches Is Mr. Bnckl tmadss, 
and It would be impossiMeto consult a better."— fiyiMCfr. 

'Mr. Buck's treatise is recognised as a standard text-book, and hto treatment has dl rested 



the subject of many of the Intricacies supposed to belooc to h. As a guide to the engtaeer and 
architect, on a confessedly difficult subject. Mr. Buck's work is unsurpasMd."— /MMJNir Alrwt 

THE CONSTRUCTION OP OBLIQUE ARCHES 

(A Practical Treatise on). By John Hart. Third Edition, with Plates. 
Imperial 8vo, cloth 8/0 

GRAPHIC AND ANALYTIC STATICS. 

Ill their Practical Application to the Treatment of Stresses in Rood, S<did 

Girders, Lattice, Bowstring, and Suspension Bridges, Braced Iron Archies and 

Piers, and other Frameworks. By R. Hudson Graham, CE. Containing 

Diagrams and Plates to Scale, with numerous Examples, many taken from 

existing^ Structtu-es. Specially arranged for Class-work in CcJleges and 

Universities. Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged. 8vo, cloth . 1 6/0 

" Mr. Graham's book will find a place wherever graphic and analytic statics are oaed or 
itudled."— ^M^'ftf^r. 

"The work is excellent from a practical point of view, and has evideudjr been iw ep are d 
with much care. The directions for working are ample, and are illustrated by an abondaaoe of 
well-selected examples. It is an excellent text-book for the practical dnughtsman."- 



WEIGHTS OP WROUGHT IRON & 5TEEL Q1RDER5. 

A Graphic Table for Facilitating the Computation of the Weights of Wroosht 
Iron and Steel Girders, ftc, for Parliamentary and other Estlmatei. By 
J. H. Watson Bock, M. Inst. CE. On a Sheet 2/6 



CIVIL BNGINBBRING, SURVEYING, &c. 13 



QBOMBTRY FOR TECHNICAL STUDENTS. 

An Introduction to Pore and Applied Geometry and th« Mensuration of 
Surfaces and Solids, including Problems in Plane Geometry useful in Drawing. 
By £. H. Spragub, A.M.I.C.E. Crown 8vo, cloth. I^et 1/0 

PRACTICAL GEOMETRY. 

For the Architect, Engineer, and Mechanic. Giving Rnles for the Dellneakioo 
and Application of various Geometrical Lines, Figures, and Carves. By 
E. W. Tarn, M.A., Architect. 8vo, cloth 9/0 

" No book with the same objects in view has ever been published In which the deezness of 
the rules laid down and tlie ilhutiatiTe diagrams have been so satisfactory."— sSct^twmw. 



THE QEOMETRY OP C0MPA55E5. 

Or. Problems Resolved by the mere Description of Circles and the Use of 
Coloured Diagrams and Symbols. By Ouwr Byrns. Coloured Plates. 
Crown 8vo, cloth 8/6 

EXPERIMENTS ON THE FLEXURE OF BEAM5. 

Resulting in the Discovery of New Laws of Failure by Buckling. By Albert 
E. Guv. Medium 8vo, cloth Net 9/0 

HANDY BOOK FOR THE CALCULATION OP 5TRAIN5 

In Girders and Similar Structures and their Strength. Consisting of Formulae 
and Correspondins Diagrams, with numerous details for Practical Applica- 
tion, &C. By WILLIAM HUMBBR, A. M. Inst. C.E., &c Fifth Edition. 
Crown 8vo, with nearly zoo Woodcuts and 3 Plates, cloth . . 7/6 

" The fonnalK ara neatly expressed, and the diamms f[oo±."—Aaufuntiit. 
** We heartiljr rommend tlm really hatufy book to our engineer and aichkact 
BngiUh MteMmnic. 



TRUSSES OF WOOD AND IRON. 

Practical Applications of Science in Determ „ 

Weishts, Safe Loads, Scantlings, and Details of Construction. Witl 
Working Drawings. By William Griffiths, Stuveyor. Oblong 



Practical Applications of Science in Determining the Stresses. Breaking 

With Complete 
8vo, doth. 

4/6 

"Thb handy Uttle book enters so minutely into every detail connected with the con- 
struction of roof tninei that no student need be ignorant of these maxttn." —Practical Bnginur. 

THE STRAINS ON STRUCTURES OP IRONWORK. 

With Practical Remarks on Iron Construction. By F. W. Shbilds, M.I.CE. 
8vo, doth 6/0 

A TREATISE ON THE STRENGTH OP MATERIALS. 

With Rules for Application in Architecture, the Construction of Suspension 
Bridges. Railways, &c By Pbtbr Barlow, F.R.S. A new Edition, revised 
by his Sons, P. W. Barlow, F.R.S., and W. H. Barlow, F.R.S. ; to which 
are added, Experiments by Hodgkinson, Fairbairn, and Kirkaldv ; and 
Formulse for calculating Uirders. &c. Edited by Wm. Hombbr, A.M.I.C.E. 
8vo, 400 pp., with 19 Plates and numerous Woodcuts, doth . 18/0 

** Valuable aHke to the student, tyro, and the experienced practitioner. It wID always rank 
in ftttuM as it lias hitherto done, as the standard treatise on tlut particular subject."— Arv^Mtfcr. 

5APE RAILWAY WORKING. 

A Treatise on Railway Aoddents, their Cause and Prevention ; with a De* 
scription of Modem Appliances and Systems. By Clbmbnt £. Strbtton, 
CE. With Illustrations and Cok>ured Plates. Third Edition, Enlarged. 
Crown 8vo, cloth 8/6 

**A boolt for tiie engineer, the directors, the manoiren; and. in short, all who wish for 
iniomiatlon on railway matters will find a perfect encydopaedia in ' Safe Railway Working.' "— 
Raitmay Review. 

EXPANSION OP STRUCTURES BY HEAT. 

By John Kbilt, C.E., late of the Indian Public Works Department. Crown 

Svo, doth 8/6 

" The aim the author has let before him, vis., to show the effects of heat upon nataOlc and 
other stfuctures, is a laudable one, ior tttis to a branch of physics upon wlilch the engineer or 
architect can find but little reiiabie and compreheoilTe data hi books." B u iMm t, 



i6 CROSBY LOCKWOOD «• SOITS CATALOGUE. 



i 



ENGINEERING STANDARDS COM. 
MITTEE'S PUBLICATIONS. 



The Engineering Standards Committee is the outcome of a 
Committee appointed by the Institution of Civil Engineers at the instance 
of Sir John Wolfe Barry, K.C.B., to inquire into the advisability of 
Standardising Rolled Iron and Steel Sections. 

The Committee is supported by the Institution of Civil Engineers, the 
Institution of Mechanical Engineers, the Institution of Naval Architects, 
the Iron and Steel Institute, and the Institution of Electrical Engineers ; 
and the value and importance of its labours has been emphatically 
recognised by His Majesty's Government, who have made a liberal grant 
from the Public Funds by way of contribution to the financial resources of 
the Committee. 

The subjects already dealt with, or under consideration by the 
Committee, include not only Rolled Iron and Steel Sections, but Tests 
for Iron and Steel Material used in the Construction of Ships and their 
Machinery, Bridges and General Buildmg Construction, Railway Rolling 
Stock Underframes, Component Parts of Locomotives, Railway and 
Tramway Rails, Electrical Plant, Insulating Materials, Screw Threads and 
Limit Gauges, Pipe Flanges, Cement, &c. 

Reports already Published : — 

1. BRITISH STANDARD SECTIONS (9 lists). 

Angles, Equal and Unequal.— Bulb Ancles, Trbs and Plates.— 
Z AND T BaKsS. — Channels. — Bea.ms, Net I/O 

2. BRITISH STANDARD TRAMWAY RAILS AND FISH 

PLATES : STANDARD SECTIONS AND SPECIFICATION. 

Net 21/0 

3. REPORT ON THE INFLUENCE OF GAUGE LENGTH 

AND SECTION OF TEST BAR ON THE PERCENTAGE OF 
ELONGATION. 

By Professor W. C. Unwin, F.R.S. Net 2/6 

4. PROPERTIES OF STANDARD BEAMS. 

included in No. 6.) Net 1 /O 

6. PROPERTIES OF BRITISH STANDARD SECTIONS. 

Diagrams, Definitions, Tables, and Formulae. * Net 6/0 

7. BRITISH STANDARD TABLES FOR COPPER CON- 

DUCTORS AND THICKNESSES OF DUELECTRIC. Net 2 6 

8. BRITISH STANDARD SPECIFICATION FOR TUBU- 

LAR TRAMWAY POLES. Net 5/0 

9. BRITISH STANDARD SPECIFICATION AND SEC- 

TIONS FOR BULL-HEADED RAILWAY RAILS. i\V/ 10.6 

10. BRITISH STANDARD TABLES OF PIPE FLANGES. 

Net 2/6 

11. BRITISH STANDARD SPECIFICATION AND SEC- 

TIONS OF FLAT-BOTTOMED RAILWAY RAILS. Net 10/6 

12. BRITISH STANDARD SPECIFICATION FOR PORT- 

LAND CEMENT. Net 2/6 

13. BRITISH STANDARD SPECIFICATION FOR STRUC- 

TURAL STEEL FOR SHIPBUILDING. Net 2/6 

14. BRITISH STANDARD SPECIFICATION FOR STRUC- 

TURAL STEEL FOR MARINE BOILERS. Net 2/6 



MARINE SNGINSBRING, NAVIGATION, &€. 17 

MARINE ENGINEERING, SHIPBUILDING* 

NAVIGATION, ETC. 



MARINE ENQINB5 AND BOILERS. 

Their Dengn and Construction. A Handbook for the Use of Students. 
Engineers^ and Naval Constructors. Based on the Work " Berechnung una 
Konstruktion der Sch*flFsmaschinen end Keaselj" by Dr. G. Baurr, Engineer* 
in-Chief of the Vulcan Shipbuilding Yard, Stettin. Translated from the Second 
German Edition by £. M. Donkin, and S. Bryan Donkin, A.M.I.CE. 
Edited by Leslie S. Robertson, Secretary to the Engineering Standards 
Committee, M.I.C.E., M.I.M.E., M.LN.A.,&c. With numerous Illustrations 
and Tables. Medium 8vo, cloth. [Just Pu6lisfud, ^Sh ^*t. 

Summary uF CuNibMs:— PAa.T 1.— MAIN ENGINES.— Dbthrmination up cyun- 

DBR DlMBNblONS.— The UTILISATION OP STEAM IN THE tNolNB-— STROKE OP PISTON. 

—Number op revolution^.— turning Moment.— Balancing op tmbMoving Parts. 
-Arrangement op main engines.— details np mai»> Engine.^.- The Cylinder.— 
Valves.- Various Kinds op Valve Gear. -Pisto"" Rods.— PisTONb.— Connecting 
Rod and CRO^sHEAD.— Valve Gear RoDf.— Bed Plates. — Engine C'^lumns,— 
Reversing AND turninc. cfar. Part ii.— PUiVPs.— Air, CiRriT. atinc feed, and 

AUXILIARY P< MPS. Pa RT III.-SY4 AFTING, V ESISTANCE OF SHIPS. PROPELLERS. 

— Thru^-t Shaft and Thrust Block.— tunni-l shapt:» and • lummer Blocks.— 
SHAPf Couplings.— STPkN tubp.— i hf. s- rv w pbopi-llbr.— Coms ruction of the 

screw, part IV.— PIPES AND CONNECTIONS.— GENhraL REMARKS, FLANGES, 
Valvfs. *c.— Unubw V/ater FniiNos.— Main &team, auxiliary mpam, and 

EXHAt'ST PIPING — PPBD V/ ATER, BiLGB. BaLLAST AND CiRCULAT ING PiPES. PART V.— 

STEAM BOi LERS.> Firing AhD Tt^B Generation op Steam.— Cylindrical noriBRS. 
— Ltkomotivh Boiler*. — Watpr-'uhb B^n ers. — Small Ti'BB Watpr-Tubb 
Boilers.— 5iMOKF Box.— Funnfl a'^ d B.p br Lagging.- Frt>rRD Dravght.^boii br 
FlTTiNrSANi M^UNTl^G*. PABTVI— MEASURING INiTPUMENTS. PART VII.— 
VARIOUS bETAILS,— Bolts, Nuts, "sckiiw thread". &c.> Platforms, ^'Rating*. 
L*DDBR>. — Found tion^. — Sbatincs. — LubRiCATutN. — vi- ni ilation of Encinb 
Rooms.— Rules for spare Gear, part viil.— additional tables. 

THE NAVAL ARCHITECTS AND SHIPBUILDER'S 

POCKBT-BOOK 

Of Formolse, Rules, and Tables, and Marine Engineer's and Surveyor s Handy 
Book of Reference. By Clbment Mackrow, M.I.N.A. Eighth Edition, 
carefully Revised and Enlarged. Fcap., leather . . N$i 1 2/6 

summary op CONTBNTb :— aiGNS AND SYMBOLS, DECIMAL FRACTIONS.— TRIGO- 
NOMBFRY.- PRACTICAL GBOMBTRY — MENSURATION.— CENTRES AND MOMENTS OF 

Figures. -Moments of inertia and Radii Gyration.— alobbraical Expressions 
FOR Simpsons rules.— mechanical principlbs.— centre of GRAvrrv.— Laws of 
Motion. -Displacement, cbntre of buoyancy.— centre of Gravity of ship's 

hull.— STABILITY CURVES AND MBTACENTRBS.— SEA AND SHALLOW-WATBR WAVBS. 

-Rolling op ships.— propulsion and Resistance op Vessels.— spbbd Trials.— 
Sailing. Cbntbb of Effort.— Distances down Rivbrs, coast Lines.- stbbring and 
rudders of Vessels.— Launching Calculations and VELocrriBS.— weight of 

MATBRIAL AND GEAR.- GUN PARTICULARS AND WBIGHT.— STANDARD GAUGES.— 

Riveted Joints and RrvBTiNG — Strength and tests of Matbrials.— Binding 
AND Shearing stressbs.— Strength op shafting. Piixars, wheels, Ac — 
HYDRAULIC Data. ftc. — Conic sections. Catenarian curves. — Mechanical 

POWERS, work.— BOARD OF TRADE REGULATIONS FOR BOILERS AND ENGINBS.— BOARD 
OF TRADE REGULATIONS FOR SHIPS.— LLOYD'S RULES FOR BOILERS.— LLOYD'S WEIGHT 
OF CHAINS.— LLOYD'S SCANTLINGS FOR SHIPS.— DATA OF ENGINES AND VBSSBLS.— 
SHIPS' FITTTNGS and TESTS.— SEASONING PRBSBRVING TIMBER.- MBASURBMBKT OF 
TIMBBR.— ALLOYS. PAINTS, VARNISHES.- DATA FOR STOWAGE.— ADMIRALTY TRANS- 
PORT REGULATIONS. — RULES FOR HORSE-POWBR, SCREW PROPBLLBRS, &C— PBB* 
C8NTAGBS FOR BUTT STRAPS.— PARTICULARS OF YACHTS.— MASTING AND RIGGING. 

-Distances OF Foreign ports.— Tonnage Tables.- vocabulary op French and 
ENGLISH Terms.— ENGLISH Weights and measures.— foreign weights and Mea- 
sures.— Decimal Equivalbnts.— Useful numbers.— circular Measures.— Abbas 

of and CIRCUMPB&BNCBS OF CIRCLES.- AREAS OF SEGMENTS OP CIRCLES.- TaBUS 

op Squares and cubes and Roots of Numbbrs.— Tables op Logarithms of Num- 

BBRS.— TABLBS of HYPERBOLIC LOGARITHMS.— TABLES OF NATURAL SiNBS, TANGBNTS. 

—Tables op Logarithmic Sines, Tangents. &c. 

"IntheMdavsofadTancwl knowtodMawwk Ilka tfalslsofttMgvMCastvahM. It confilm 
STUt amonuoflnfonnatkm. We onbedtaBngly ny that It ii the most valuabia compttatloo for ks 
specific parpoee that has erar t>een printed. No naval archtooct. engineer, Kirveyor, wwhub, 
wood or mm shipbuilder, can afford to be without this work."— AiiM/tou Magmjrttu. 

" Should ba used by all who an engaged In the coostrucden or design of vasaaia. . . . Wm 
ba found to contain the iMm useful ubiaa and forauite requiied by shtpbuUdan, coBacted fnm Iba 
best snthoritlai, and put together tai a popular and sfanpla fonn. It is ef — capdensl BUHrti."— 
Mn£in4tr. 

" A pocket-book of this description mnat ba a narsMky in the shipbuilding trade. It ( 
tains a aiasB of usafbl tailonnatlon ciaaiiy a api a ii ad and piaaanted in a handy focm.' " 
Mngin€tr, 



i8 CROSBY LOCKWOOD S' SON'S CATALOGUS. 



WANNAN'5 MARINE ENOINEER'5 GUIDE 

To Board of Trade Examinacioiis for Certificates of Conpeteocy. Confining 
all Latest Qnestioos to Date, with Simple, Clear, and Cocioct Soladoos; 
303 Elementary Questions with Illustrated Answers, and Verbal Questions 
and Answers ; complete Set of Drawings with Statements completed. By 
A. C. Wann AN, C.E., Consulting Engineer, and E. W. I. Wannan, M.I.M.E., 
Certificated First Class Marine Engineer. With numerous Engravincs. Third 
Edition, Enlarged. 500 pages. Large crown 8vo, cloth . . JW/ 1 Q/Q 

" The book U clcArlv and plainly written and avoids unnecessary entlanatians and fonnuias. 
and we consider tt a valuable book tor students of manms engineenng. "■^N a u tU ai Ma^mMttu. 

WANNAN'S MARINE ENGINEER'S POCKET-BOOK. 

Containing Latest Board of Trade Rules and Data for Marine Engineers. 

By A. C. Wamnam. Third Edition, Revised, Enlarged, and Brought up to 

Date. Sqtiare x&mo, with thumb Index, leather S!0 

" There is a great deal of useful information in this little pocket-book. It is of the nile-of- 
thumb order, and is. on that account, well adapted to the uses of the sea-gaing engineer.''— 

THE SHIPBUILDING INDUSTRY OP GERMANY. 

Compiled and Edited by G- Lehmann-Felskowski. With Coloured Prints, 
Art Supplements, and numerous Illustrations tliroughout the text. Super- 
royal 4to, cloth AV/ 10^6 

SEA TERMS, PHRASES. AND WORDS 

(Technical Dictionary of) used in the English and Frendi Langoages 
(English- French^ French-English). For the Use of Seamen, Engineers, Pilots, 
Shipbuilders, Shipowners, and Ship-brokers. Compiled by W. ^luux, late ct 
the African Steainship Company. Fcap. 8vo, doch limp . fl/Q 



" This volume will be highly appreciated by seamen, engineen, pOota, sUpbufiden and ship- 
owneis. It will be found wonderfully accurate and complete. "—ScM sm aH, 

MARINE ENGINEER'S POCKET-BOOK. 

Consisting of useful Tables and Formnls. By Pkakk Pkoctok, A.LN.A. 
Third Edition. Royal 39mo, leather 4/0 



" We rBCODunend It to our readers as gotaig tu to sapphr a kmg-fslt wanL"— i W— l e /SctoKH. 
" A mot useftil companloo to all marine angineets.'*— f/wfftirf Siuviei ~ 



ELEMENTARY MARINE ENGINEERING. 

A Manual for Young Marine Engineers and Apprendoes. By J. S. Brewer. 
Crown 8vo, cloth ■ . . • . 1 /6 

PRACTICAL NAVIGATION. 

Consisting of The Sailor's Sea-Book, by J. Greenwood and W. H. 
RossBR ; with Mathematical and Nautical Tables for Working the Problems, 
by H. LaW| C.E., and Professor J. R. Young, xamo, half-bcmnd . 7/0 

THE ART AND SCIENCE OF SAILMAKING. 

Bv Samuel B. Sadler, Practical Sailmaker, late in the employment of 
Messrs. Ratsey and Lapthome, of Cowes and Gosport. Plates. 4to, cloth. 

12/6 

" This extremdy practical work gives a complete educatlaa ia aS the bnmcliaa of the mann- 
f acture, cutting out, roping, seaming, and goring. It Is copknuly IDiistiaied, and will form a firtt* 
rate teat-book and guide.' —/VrCrmM«A Tttnts. 

CHAIN CABLES AND CHAINS. 

Comprising Sizes and Curves of Links, Studs, &c, Iron for Cables and Chains, 
Chain Cable and Chain Making, Forming and Welding Links, Strength of 
Cables and Chains, Certificates for Cables, Marking Cables, Prices of Chain 
Cables and Chains, Historical Notes, Acts of Paruajment, Statutory Tests, 
Charges for Testing, List of Manufacturers oi Cables, &c, ftc. By 
Thomas W. Traill, F.E.R.N., M.Inst.C.E., Engineer-Surveyor-in>Quef, 
Board of Trade, Inspector of Chain Cable and Anchor Proving Establishments, 
and General Superintendent, Lloyd's Committee on Proving Establishmenta. 
With nametons Tables, Illustrations, and Lithogn^ihic Drawings. FcJiot 
doth £2 2a. 



It cootalns a vast amount of vafaaable lofofmatloa. NodUng ■wim to be waadag to awka it 
plete and standard work of i«fe>v>oe on t|ie auMect."— JV^MStaa/ ." 






MINING, METALLURGY, 6* COLLIERY WORKING. 15 

MINING, METALLURGY, AND 
COLLIERY WORKING. 



THE OIL FIELDS OF RUSSIA AND THE RUSSIAN 

PETROLKUM INDUSTRY. 

A Practical Handbook on the Exploration, Exploitation, and Management 
of Russian Oil Properties, including Notes on the Origin of Petroleum in 
RusAia, a Description of the Theory and Practice of Liquid Fuel, and a 
Translation of the Rules and Regulations concerning Russian Oil Properties. 
Hy A. Bebby Thompson, A.M.I.M.E., late Chief Engineer and Manager of 
the European Petroleum Company's Russian Oil Properties. About 500 pp. 
With numerous Illustrations and Photographic Plates, and a Map of the 
BaIakhany-Saboontchy>Romany Oil Field. Super>royal 8vo, cloth. 

[Just Publisfud. Net £3 3«. 

MACHINERY FOR METALLIFEROUS MINB5. 

A Practical Treatise for Mining Engineers, Metallurgists, aod Managers of 
Mines. By £. Hbnry Davibs, M.£., F.G.S. 600 pp. With Folding Plates 
and other Illustrations. Medium 8vo, cloth .... Net 2ff/0 

" Deals exhaustively with the many and complex details which Sfo to make up the sum total of 
machinery and other requirements tor the !»uccessml workinf^ of metalliferous mines, and as a book 
uf ready reference is of the hi)f hest value to mine managers and directon." — Mining yournmL 

THE DEEP LEVEL MINES OF THE RAND, 

And their Future Development, considered from the Commercial Pmnt of View. 
By G. A. Dbnny (of Johannesburg), M.N.E.I.M.E., Consulting Engineer to 
the General Mining and Finan<x Corporation, Ltd., of London, Berlin, Paris, 
and Johannesburg. Fully Illustrated with Diagrams and Folding Plates. 

Royal 8vo, buckram Net 25/0 

*' Mr. Denny by confining' Umaelf to the consideration of the future of the deep-lerel mines 
of the Rand breaks new ground, and by dealing with the subiect rather from a commercial stand* 
point than from a scientific one, appeals to a wide circle of readers. The book cannot foil to prove 
of very great value to investors in bouth African mines."— A/'mtM/' youmaU 

PROSPECTING FOR GOLD. 

A Handbook of Practical Information and Hints for Prospectory based on 
Personal Experience. By Danibi^. Rankin, F.R.S.G.S . M.R.A.S , formerly 
Manager of the Central African 0>mpany, and Leader of African Gold Pros- 
pecting Elxpeditions. With Illustrations specially Drawn and Engraved for 
the Work. Fcap. 8vo, leather Net 7/6 

"This well-compiled book contains a collection of the richest g^ems of useful knowledge for 
the prospector's benefit. A special table ia given to accelerate the spotting at a glance of minerals 
associated with goid^—Aftntnir J^oitmui. 

THE METALLURGY OF GOLD. 

A Practical Treatise on the Metallurgical Treatment of Gold-bearing Ores. 
Including the Assaying^ Melting, and Refining of Gold. By M. Eisslbr, 
M. Inst. M.M. Fifth Edition, Enlarged. With over 300 Illustrations and 
numerous Folding Plates. Mediiua 8vo, cloth .... Net 2i /Q 



" This book thoroughly deserves Its title of a ' Practical TreatlM.' Tlie whole ptooeai ofgold 
mining, ftom the breaking ot the quartz to the assay of the bullion, is described in dear and onlmy 
nanaave and with mtich, but not too much, fiilness of deuiiL"—J!arurday Hevuw, 

THE CYANIDE PR0CE55 OF GOLD EXTRACTION. 

And its Practical Application on the Witwatersrand Gold Fields and elsewhere. 
By M. EissLBRf M. Inst. M.M. With Diagrams and Working Drawings. 
Thiid Edition, Revised and Enlarged. 8vo, cloth .... Net 7/8 

" This book is iusc what was needed to acquaint mining men with the actual woridag of a 
process which is not only the most popular, but u, as a genenl nile, the noet suooesslul for the 
extraction oi gold from tailings."— i/wM^v youmeU, 

DIAMOND DRILLING FOR GOLD & OTHER MINERALS. 

A Practical Handbook on the Use of Modem Diamond Core Drills in Pro- 
jecting and Exploiting Mineral-Bearing Properties, including Particulars of 
the Costs of Apparatus and Working. By G. A. Dbnnt, M.N.E. Inst. M.E., 
M. Inst. M.M. Medium 8vo, x68 pp., with Illustrative Diagrams . 12/8 

" There is certainly scope for a work on diamond drilling, and Mr. Denny deserves greieAil 
recognition for supptying a decided wwDtt'—Jitning yot»rm«U, 

t f 



20 CROSBY LOCKWOOD S- S0JV5 CATALOGUE, 



GOLD ASSAYING. 

A Practical Handbook, giving the Afodus Oferawfi for the Accurate Assay o/ 
Auriferous Ores and Hulhon, and the Chemical Tests required in the Processes 
of Extraction by Amaluamatio', Cyanidation, and Chlorination. With an 
Appendix of Tables and i)taii.sti»s. By H. Joshua Phillips. F.l.C, F.C.S.. 
Assoc.Inst C.£., Author of " Lngineering Chemistry," etc. With Numerous 
Illustiations. Large CroH-n 8vo, cloth. [Just Published^ Aet 7/6 

FIELD TESTING FOR GOLD AND SILVER. 

A Practical Manual for Prospectors and Miners. By W. H. Mkrsitt. 
M N.E. Inst. M.E., A.R.S.M., &c. With Photographic Plates and other 
Illustrations. Fcap. 8vo, leather ..... Net QIQ 

"As an inscructor of prospectors' classes Mr. Menrltt has the advantage of knowing 
exactly the infunnation likely to be most valuable to the miner in the field. The contents cover 
all the details of sAmplinf: and testinf; tfold and silver ores. A useful addition to a prospectors 
kit."— il/tni Kj^ yaurnai, 

THE PROSPECTOR'S HANDBOOK. 

A Guide for the Prospector and Traveller in search of Metal* Bearing or other 

Valuable Minerals. By J. W. Andbrson, M.A. (Camb.), F.R.G.S. Tenth 

Edition. Small crown 8vo, 3/6 cloth ; or, leather .... 4/6 

•• win supply a Ducb'leh want. especuDjr amonf Colonists, in whose wajr are to often thrown 

many minetalofj^al spccimenji the value of which it is difBcult to de t e i m i n e. "~-Enginter. 

" How to And commercial minerals, and how to identify them when tbejr an foimd, are the 
eadfakg points to which attention is directed. "—iMMtfftr y«ummi, 

THE METALLURGY OF SILVER. 

A Practical Treatise on the Amalsamation, Roasting, and LixiviatioD of Silver 
Ores. Including the Assaying, Melting, and Refining of Silver Ballion. By 
M. EissLBR, M. Inst. M.M Third Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth 10/6 

" A practical treatise, and a technkal worit which we are convinced will snpply a lonff-fdt 
want amonufst practical men, and at the same time be of value to students and othcts Indirectly 
connected with the industries."— Aft MtNr youmai. 

THE HYDRO-METALLURGY OF COPPER. 

Being an Account of Processes Adopted in the Hydro-Metallnrcical Treat* 

ment of Cupriferous Ores, Including the Manufacture of Coppo- Vitriol, with 

Chapters on the ^ources of Supply of Copper and the Roasting of Capper Oit&. 

By M. EissLER, M. Inst. M.M. 8vo, cloth .... AV/ 12/6 

" In This volume the variou« pmcrfses for the extraction of copper by wat methods are fuDy 
detailed. Costs are ewrn wh. n a^ aiKible, ai:d a great deal of useful infomiati -n abtut the copper 
industry of the world is presented m an interesting and attractive mannet."~-Mintn^ ypumai, 

THE METALLURGY OF ARGENTIFEROUS LEAD. 

A Practical Treatise on the Smelting of Silver-Lead Ores and the Refining of 
Lead Bullion. Including Repons on vanous Smelting Establishments and 
Descriptions of Modem Smelting Furnaces and Plants in Europe and America. 
By M. EissLBR, M. Inst. M.M. Crown 8vo, cloth .... 12/6 

" The numerous metallurgical processes, which are fuQy and extensively treated oC, embrace 
all the suges experienced in the passaire of the lead from the various natural states to its facne iron 
the refinery as an article of commerce. — Practical Engirutr, 

METALLIFEROUS MINERALS AND MINING. 

By D. C. Davibs, F.G.S. Sixth Edition, thoroughly Revised and mod) 
Enlarged by his Son, E. Hbnrv Davibs, M.E., F.G.S. 6oo pp., with 173 

Illustratiotis. Large crown 8vo, cloth Ntt 1 2/6 

" Neither the practical miner nor the general reader, interatted In mines, can have a beltet 
book for his companion and his guide."— J/tMin^ youmai. 

EARTHY AND OTHER MINERALS AND MINING. 

By D. C. Davibs, F.G.S., Author of " Metalliferous Minerals," &c Third 

Edition, Revised and Enlarged by his Son, E. Hbmbt Davibs, M.E., F.G.S. 

With about 100 Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth 1 2/6 

" We do not remember to have met with any English worli on nlntafr mattees that contains 
the same ■"«^«"» of information packed in equally convenient form.' -^ommw^. 

BRITISH MINING. 

A Treatise on the History, Discovery, Practical Development, and Pnton 
Prospects of Metalliferous Mines in the United Kingdom. By Robbkt 
Hunt, F.R.S., late Keeper of Mining Records. Upwards of 950 pp., with 
930 Illostrations. Second EdittoUi Revised. Soper-royml 8vo, doch 4^2 St* 



MINING, METALLURGY, 6* COLLIERY WORKING. 21 



POCKET-BOOK FOR MINERS AND METALLURGISTS. 

Comprising Rolas, Formuls, Tabl«s, and Notes for Use in Field and Office 
Work. By P. Danvbrs Power, F.G.S., M.K. Seoond Edition, Corrected. 

Fcap. 8vo, leather 9/0 

" This exceOent book la an admlnbto example of Its Uad, and ouffht to find a aige sal* 
amongat F.iugHsh-spoalring prospeccon and mininc engineen."— i?N^'mMfi<Hf . 

THE MINER'S HANDBOOK. 

A Handy Book of Reference on the subjects of Mineral Deposits, Mining 
Operations, Ore Dressing, &c. For the Use of Students and others interested 
in Mining Matters. Compiled by John Milne, F.R.S., Professor of Mining 
in the Imperial University of Japan. Third Edition. Fcap. 8vo, leather 7/6 

" ProfesBor MQno's handbook is sure to be received with faTonr by all connected with 
mining, and will be extremely popular amoni; students."— A Uunautn. 

IRON ORES of GREAT BRITAIN and IRELAND. 

Their Mode of Occurrence, Age and Origin, and the Methods of Searching for 
and Working Them. With a Notice of some of the Iron Ores of Spain. By 
J. D. KbndalLi, F.G.S., Mining Engineer. Crown 8vo, cloth . 16/0 

MINE DRAINAGE. 

\ Complete Practical Treatise on Direct*Acting Underground Steam 
Pumping Machinery. By Stephen Michell. Seoond Edition, Re-written 
and Enlarsed. With 350 Illustrations. Royal 8vo, cloth . AV/ 25/0 

HORIZONTAL PUMPING ENGINES.— ROTARY AND NON-ROTARY HORIZONTAL 
ENOINBS.— SIMPLB AND COMPOUND STBAM PUMPS.— VERTICAL PUMPING ENGINES.— 

rotary and non-rotary vertical engines.- simple and compound steam 
pumps. — triple-expansion steam pumps. — pul.sating steam pumps. — pump 
Valves.— Sinking pumps, &c., 8cc. 

'*Thls Tolunw contains an Immense amount of Important and Interastlng new matter. 
The book should undoubtedly prove of great use to all who wish for infonnatton on the sab- 
jecL"— r** Enginter, 

ELECTRICITY AS APPLIED TO MINING. 

By Arnold Lupton, M.Inst.C.E., M I.M.E., M.I.E.E., late Professor of 
Coal Mining at the Yorkshire College, Victoria University, Minine Engineer 
and Colliery Manager; G. D. Aspinall Pare, M.I.E.E., A.M.I. M.E., 
Associate of the Central Technical College, City and Guilds o^ London. Head 
of the Electrical Engineering Department, Yorkshire College, Victoria 
University : and Herbert Pbrkin, M.I.M.E.. Certificated Colliery Manager, 
Assistant Lecturer in the Mining Department of the Yorkshire College, 
Victoria University. With ahout 270 Illustrations. Medium 8vo, cloth. 

Net 9/0 

(For SUMMARY OF CONTENTS, See p.lfO 33.) 

THE COLLIERY MANAGER'S HANDBOOK. 

A Comprehensive Treatise on the La3ring-ont and Working of Collieries, 
Designed as a Book of Reference for Colliery Managers, and for the Use of Coal- 
Mining Students preparing for First<lass Certificates. Bv Caleb Pamelt, 
Mining Engineer and Surveyor ; Member of the North of England Institute of 
Mining and Mechanical Engineers ; and Member of the SoutE Wales Institute 
of Mining Engineers. With over i,ooo Diagrams, Plans, and other Illustra- 
tions. Fifth Edition, Carefully Revised and Greatly Enlarged, x.aco pp. 
Medium 8vo, cloth. \Just i'ubiishid. Net £1 5s. 

Geology — Search for Coal.— Mineral Leases and other Holdings.— 
Shaft sinking.— Fitting Up the Shaft and Surface arrangements.— Steam 
Boilers and their Fittings.— Timbering and Walling.- Narrow work and 
Methods of Working. — Underground Conveyance. - Drainage.— The Gases 
MET with in Mines ; Ventilation. — on the Friction op air in Mines. — The 
Priestman Oil Engine: Petroleum and Natural Gas. — Surveying and 
Planning — Safety Lamps and firedamp Detectors.— Sundry and Incidental 
Operations a.nd Appliances.— Colliery Explosions.— miscellaneous questions 
and answers.— ^/^fymu»; summary op report of h.m. commissioners on 
accidents IN Mines. 

" Mr. Pamety's work {i amlnently lultad to the purpose for which It Is Intonded, being dear, 
faiterestinK, exhaustive, rich in detail, and up to date, giving descriptions of the latest mactiines in 
•very department. A mining engineer could scaicely go wrong who f<dlowed tids work."— C«^/fer> 
(hiardiaH. 

" Mr. Panely has not only gtven us a comprehensive referance book of a vatr high order 
ttltaUa to the requirements of mining engineers and colliery managers, but has also provided 
mining students with a class-book that ts as mterasting as it is instructive."— C0i//<ry Managw. 

^'Tbls Is the most complete 'alUcound' wotk oq coai-mlnmg published In the JSagUsh 
Unguage. ... No Hbraiy of coal-mlnlng books Is complete without lL'"—C4Ui*ry Bnginur 
(.ScranioQ. Fa., U.S.A.i. 



12 CB0SB7 LOCKWOOD S' SON*S CATALOCVS. 



PRACTICAL COAL-MININQ. 

An Elementary Class-Bcok for the Use of Students attending Classes in Pre- 
paration for the Board of Education and County Council Examinations, or 
Qualifying for First or Second Class Colliery Managers' Certificates. By 
T. H. CocKiN, Member of the Institution of Mining Engineers, < ertificated 
Colliery Manager, Lecturer on Coal-Mining at Sheffield University college. 
With Map of the British Coal-fields and over 200 Illustrations specially Drawn 
and Engraved for the Work. Crown 8vo, 440 pp. [fust Published. Net 4 6 

COLLIERY WORICINQ AND MANAOBMBNT. 

Comprising the Duties of a Colliery Manager, the Oversight and Arrange- 

ment of labour and Wages, and the different Systems of Working Coal 

Seams. By H. F. Bulman and R. A. S. Rbdmavnb. 350 pp., with 

s8 Plates and other Illustrations, including Underground Photographs. 

Medium 8vo, cloth. ^ 1 6/0 

" This b. indeed, an ■dxnirabie Handbook for CoIHarT Managers. In tect h b an huUspensaUe 

ail^unct to a Colliery Manager's education, as weD as being a most useful and ince««sring wofk 

on tlie subject for all who in any way have to do with coal mining. The undeignmnd photographs 

are an attractiTe feature of the work, being very lifelike and necessaiily tiue representations of the 

scenes they depict."— C«//<cry Gumrdtan.. 

" Mr. Bulman and Mr. Redmayne. are to be congratulated on baTlng soppHed anautfaorita- 
tive work dealing with a side of the subject of coal mining which has hitherto received but scant 
treatment. The iUustratioat are excellent,"— ^a/mw. 

COAL AND COAL MINING. 

By the late Sir Warington W. Smtth, M.A.. F.R.S. Eighth Edition, 

Revised and Extended by T. Forstbr Brown, Chief Inspector of the Mines 

of the Crown and of the Duchy of Cornwall. Crown 8vo, doth. . 3/6 

" As an outline is given of eveiy known coal>field hi this and other countries, as well as of the 

principal methods of working, the book will doubtless laterast a very large nnmber of leaders."— 

Mimitt£ ycitmal. 

NOTES AND PORMULiC FOR MINING STUDENTS. 

By ToHN Hbsmam Mbrtvauk, M.A., Late Professor of Mbang in the Duriiam 

College of Science, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Fourth Edition, Revised and 

Enlarged. By H. F. Bulman, A.M.Inst.C.R. Small crown 8vo, cloth. 2/6 

"The author has done his work In a creditable manner, and has produced a book that will 

be of service to students and those who are practically engaged in mining opeaxUm%."—^fvmetr 

INFLAMMABLE GAS AND VAPOUR IN THE AIR 

(The Detection and Measurement of). By Frank Clowvs, D.Sc, Lond., 
r.I.C. With a Chapter on The Dstsction and Mxasurkmbnt op Pktro- 
iKvu Vapour, by Bovkrton Rbdwood, F.R.S.E. Crown 8vo, doth. Ntt 6/0 

" Professor Qowes has given us a volume on a subject of much Industrial Importance . . . 
Those interasted in these matters may be recommended to study this book, which is easy of compc*- 
hensaon and contains many good things."— r<%« Enfinter, 

COAL & IRON INDUSTRIES of the UNITED KINGDOM. 

Comprising a Description of the Coal Fields, and of the Principal Seams ot 
Coal^ with Rettims of their Produce and its Distribution, and Analyses of 
Special Varieties. Also, an Account of the Occurrence of Iron Ores in Veins or 
Seams ; Analyses of each Variety ; and a History of the Rise and Progress of 
Pig Iron Manufacture. By Richard Mbadb. 8vo, cloth . £1 8s. 

" A book of reference which no one engaged in the iron or coal trades should omit from 
Us ttbory."— /nm and C«at Trades Review. 

ASBESTOS AND ASBESTIC. 

Their Properties, Occurrence, and Use. By Robbrt H. Jonbs, F.S.A., 
Mineralogist, Hon. Mem. Asbestos Club, Black Lake, Canada. With 
Ten Collotype Plates and other Illustrations. Demy 8vo, cloth. . 16/0 
" An teteresting and Invaluable work." — Colliery Cttardian. 

GRANITES AND OUR GRANITE INDUSTRIES. 

ByGBORCB F. Harris, F.G.S. With Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth 2/6 

TRAVERSE TABLES. \ 

For use in Mine Surveying. By William Lintbrn, C.E. With two plates. 
Small crown Bvo, cloth . . . . i . . jy^t 3/0 



ELECTRICITY. ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING, A-c. 23 



ELECTRICITY, ELECTRICAL 
ENGINEERING, ETC. 



THE ELEMENTS OF ELECTRICAL ENQINEERINO. 

A First Year's Course for Students. Bj Tyson Sbwbll, A.I.E.E.. Assistant 
Lecturer and Deinonstrator in Electrical Enginterine at the Polytechnic, 
Regent Street, London Second Edition, Revised, with Additional Chapters 
on Alternating Current Working, and Appendix of Questions and Answers. 
45opages, with 274 Illustrations. Demy 8vo, cloih .... Net 7/8 

Ohm's Law.— UNiis Employed in Electrical Enginebking. -Series and 
Parallel Circuiis; current Density and potential Drop in the CiRCUrr.— 
The Heating Effecf wf the Electric current.— The Magnetic Effecfofan 
Electric Currh>t.— the Magnetisation of Iron.— electro-chemistry ; primary 
Battkries.— ACCUMULATORS.— Indicating Instruments; ammeters, Voltmeters, 
Ohmmeters.— Electricity Supply Meters.— measuring instruments, and the 
Measurement of Electrical Resistance. — Measurement of Potential Dif- 
ferbnce. Capacity, current strength, and Permeability.- arc Lamps.— incan- 
descent Lamps; Manufacture and Installation; Photometry. — The Con- 
tinuous Current Dynamo.— Direct Current Motors alternatin . currents. 

—transformers. Alternators. Synchronous Motors.— Polyphase Working.— 
appendix of Questions and answers. 

"An excellent treatise for students of the elementary facts connected with electrical 
ensfineering."- 7"*^ Electrician. 

" One of the best br>oks for those commencing the study of electrical engineering. Every- 
thing is explained in simple language which even a beginner cannot fail to understand." — Engineer. 

" One welcomes this book, wiiich is sound in its treatment, and admirably calculated to give 
students the knowledge and information they most require." — Naturt, 

THE ELECTRICAL TRANSMISSION OF ENERGY. 

A Manual for the Design of Electrical Circuits. By Arthur Vaughan 
Abbott, C.E., Member America Institute of Electrical Engineers, Member 
American Institute of Mining Engineers, Member Americaii Society of Civil 
Engineers, Member American Society of Mechanical Engineeis, &c. With 
'Jen Folding Diagrams and Sixteen Full-page Engravings. Fourth Edition, 
entirely Re-Written and Enlarged. Royal 8vo. cloth. 

\JuU Published. Net 30/0 

CONDUCTORS FOR ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

Their Ma: crisis and Manufacture, The Calculation of Circuits, Pole-Line 
Construction, Underground Working, and other Uses. By F. A. C. Pbrrinb, 
A.M., D.Sc. ; formerly Professor of Electrical Engineering, Leland Stanford, 
Jr., University; M.Amer.I.E.E. 8vo, cloth .... Net ^Qj" 

Conductor materiai-s— alloyed conductors— Manufacture op Wire— 
Wire-Finishing— Wire insulation— Cables— Calculation of Circuits— Kelvin's 
Law OF Economy in Conductors— multiple Arc Distribution— Alternating 
CURRENT Calculation— Overhead Lines— Pole Line— Line insulators— Under, 
ground Conductors. 

WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY; 

Its Origins, Development, Inventions, and Apparatus. By Charles Henry 
Skwall. With 85 Diagrams and Illustrations. Demy 8vo, cloth. 

Net 10/6 

ELECTRICITY A5 APPLIED TO MINING. 

By Arnold Lupton, M.Inst C.E., M.I.M.E., M.I.EE., late Professor of 
Coal Mining at the Yorkshire College, Victoria University, Mining Engineer 
and Colliery Manager; G. D Aspinall Parr, M.I.Il.E., A M.I.M.E., 
Associate of the Central Technical College, City ai.d Guilds of Lonuon, Head 
of the Electrical Engineering Dtpartment, Yorkshire College, Victoria 
University; and HskBuRT Pkrkin, M I.M E., Certificated C<.lliery Manager, 
Assistant Lecturer in the Mining Depariment of the Yorkshire College, 
'., r' Victoria University. With ab« ut 170 lUustrati. Ds. Mediimi 8vo, cloth. A>/ 9/* 

INTRODUCT ORY. — Dynamic Elect ricij-y. — Driving of the Dynamo. — The 
bi BAM TURBINE.— Distribution of Iilectrical Energy.- Starting and stopping 
electrical Generatora and Motors.— ELEC'i ric Cables*.— Central Electrical 
plants.— Electricity applied to pumping and Haulimc.— Electricity applied 
to Coal-Cutting.— typical Electric plants Recently Erected. — Electric 
Lighting by arc and glow Lamps— Miscellaneous applications of Electricity 
— Ex-ECTRicrrY AS Compared with other modes of Transmitiing Power.— 
Dangers of ELECTRicmr. . « 



24 CROSBY LOCKWOOD ^ SON*S CATALOGUE. 
DYNAMO, MOTOR AND SWITCHBOARD CIRCUITS 

FOR ELBCTklCAL ENOINEBRS. 

A Practical Book dealing with tbe Mibject of D'ract, Alternating anH Poly- 
phase Currents. By Wiluam R. Bowkbr, CE., M.E., E.E., Consa'tini; 
Tramway Engineer. 8vo, cloth. i/ttst PuSlUked, Net 6/0 

DYNAMO ELECTRIC MACHINERY: Its CONSTRUC- 
TION. DB5ION, and OPERATION. 
By Samuel Shbldon, A M., Ph.D , Professor of Physics and Electrical 
Ensineerins at the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, assisted by Hobart 
Mason, B S. 

In two voluwtis, sold $tparately, as follows : — 
Vol. I.— DIRECT CURRENT MACHINES Fifth Edidon, Revised. Large 
crown 8va. 380 pag^s, with 200 Illustratioas Air/ 1 S^Q 

Vol. 11.— ALTERN\TING CURRENT MACHINES. Large crown 8va 260 

pages, with 184 Illustrations AV/12/0 

Derisned as Text-bonks 'or usf in Technical Educational Institutions, and tnr En^een 
whose work includes the h-«pdlinr ot Direct and Altematlnc Curreat Machine! respecciTely, and 
for Students proficient in mathematics. 

ARMATURE WINDINGS OP DIRECT CURRENT 

DYNAMOS. 

Extension and App'ioUion of a General Winding Rule. Bv E Arnold, 
Engin<>er. As«istait Professor in Eiectro'echnics and Machine Design at the 
Ritfa PoIytfK:hnic School Translated from thf> Original German by Francis 
B. Dr Grrss. M.S.. Chief of Tes'ing Department, Crocker- Wheel«r Cnm- 
pany Wi.h 146 Illustrations. Medium 8vo, cloth . . AV/ 12/*- 

ELECTRICAL AND MAGNETIC CALCULATIONS. 

For the Use of Electrical Engineers and Artisans, Teachers, Students, and all 
others interested in the Theory and Application of Electricity and Magnetism. 
Bv A. A. Atkinson, Professor of Electricity in Ohio University. Crown 8vo, 

cloth Net 9/0 

" To teachers and tho<w who already possess a fair knowledge of their subject we can recom* 
mend this book as beinff useful to consult wnen requiring data or tormulae which It is neither con- 
venient nor necessary to retain by memory."— 77^ Eltctrician. 

SUBMARINE TELEGRAPHS. 

Their History, Construction, and Working. Founded in part on WGnschsn- 
DORPP's " Trait6 de Til6graphie Sous-Marine," and Compiled from Authorita- 
tive and Exclusive Sources. By Charlxs Bright, F. R. S. E. , A . M.Inst. C. E. , 
M.I.E.E. 780 pp., fully Illustrated, indudii^ Maps and Folding Plates. 
Royal 8vo, cloth Net £3 3s. 

" There are few, If any, persons mora fitted to write a tseatlse oo flubmadne telegraphy than 
Mr. Charles Bright. He has done his work admirably, and has written hi a way which will 
appeal as much to the layman as to the engineer. This admirable rolume muse for many years to 
coma, hold the position of the English classic on submarine telegraphy."— £M;^Ne«r. 

" This book is full of information. It makes a book of reference which should be in every 
engineer's library."— AWMrr. 

THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER'S POCKET-BOOK. 

Consisting of Rules, Formulae. Tables, and Data. By H. R. Kbmpb, 
M.I.E.E., A.M. Inst. C.E., Teconical Officer Postal Telegraphs, Author of 
"A Handbook of Electrical Testing," &c. Second Edition, thoroughly 
Revised, with Additions. With numerous Illustratioas. jamo, leather 0/0 

" It la the best book of Its Mnd."— £Aic«rtfM/ Stigiturr. 

" The Electrical Engineer's Pockat-Book Is a good aa».''—BleeirMmn. 

** Stroni^ raooomonded to those engaged in the electrical Induitries.''— JTilrrfHiM/ Xn>iew, 

POWER TRANSMITTED BY ELECTRICITY. 

And applied by the Electric Motor, including Electric Railway Construction. 
By P. Atkinson. A.M.. Ph.D. Third Edition, Fully Revised, and New 
Matter added. With 94 Illustrati<xis. Crown 8vo, cloth . Net 9/0 

DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM. 

Bt Philip Atkinson, A.M., Ph.D., Author of "Elements of Static 
Electricity," &c. Crown 8vo, 4x7 PP>i ^"^th xao Illustrations, cloth . 10/6 



ELECTRICITY, ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING, *«. aa 



THE MANAQEMBNT OP DYNAMOS. 

A Haadybook of Theory aod Practice for the Use of Mechanics, Kngineers, 
Students, and others in Uharge of Dynamos. By G. W. Lummis*Patbkson. 

Third Edition, Revised Crown 8vo, cloth 4/6 

" TlM sub|«ct to created in ■ maimer which any intaUigent man who Is fit to be entrusted with 

chaise of an engine should be able to undentand. It is a uiefial book to ail who make, tand, or 

empioir e l e ctik. machinery "-mArcMiKX. 

HANDBOOK FOR THE USE OF ELECTRICIANS. 

In the Operation and Care of Klectrical Machinery a^d Apparatus of the 
U. S. Sea-Coast Defences. iiy Gko. L. Anderson j A.M., Captain 
U. S. Artillery. Prepared under the direction of the Lieutenant-Gencral 
Commanding the U. S. Army. Royal 8vo, cloth . . . Net 21 lO 

THE STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY. 

A Popular Encyclopedia of Words and Terms Used in the Practice of Electrical 
Engineering. Containing upwards of 3,000 definitions. By T. O'Conox 
Sloans, A.M., Ph.D. Third fixiiiion, with Appendix. Crown 8vo, 6go pp., 

390 Illustrations, cloth Aei 7/6 

"The worlc ba» many anractire features ta it, and is, beyond doubt, a well put together and 

useftil publication. The amount of ground covered may be gathered from the fact that in the index 

about 5,000 relarences will be iouMui7'—£dtaHeat lUvUw. 



ELECTRIC LIGHT FITTINQ. 

A Handbook for Working Electrical Engineers, embodying Practical Notes on 
Installation Management. By J. W. Urquhart. With numerous Illustra- 
tions. Fourth Edition, Revised. Crown 8vo, cloth. [Just Publishtd. 5/0 
'* This TotttioK deals with the merh«ntr< of electric lighting, and to aaoiwned to men who 
are already engaged in the worlc, or are training for it. The work traversei a great deal of ground, 
and may be read as a sequel to the author's useful work on ' Electilc Li^X. —Bkctrieimn. 

ELECTRIC LIGHT. 

Its Production and Use, Embodying Plain Directioas for the Treatment of 

Djrnamo-Alectric Machines, Batteries, Acctimulators, and Electric Lamps. 

By J. W. Urquhart, C.E. Seventh Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth . 7/6 

** The whole ground of electric lighting to muce or less covered and explained in a Toiy dear 

and concise manner, "^A/ec/rioe/ Review, 

DYNAMO CONSTRUCTION. 

A Practical Handbook for the Use of Engineer-ConstmctOTS and Electricians* 
in-Charge. Embracing Framework BuUding, Field Magnet and Armatture 
Winding and Grouping, Compounding, &c. By J. W. Urquhart. Second 
Edition, Enlarged, with 1x4 Illustration . Crown 8vo, cloth 7/6 

' Mr. Urquhart's book b the first one which deals with these matten in such a way that the 



sagineering student can undentand them. The book Is vmt readable, and the author leads hto 

—Jam 



reaien up to dlAcuk soblects by raasonably simple xmt^"—Et^itieeriHg Review. 

ELECTRIC SHIP-LIOHTINO. 

A Handbook on the Practical Fitting and Rtmning of Ships' Electrical Plant 
For the Use of Shipowners and Builders, Marine Electricians, and Seagoing 
Rngineers-in-Charse. By J. W. Urquhart, C.£. Third Edition, Revised 
ana Extended, with 88 Illustrations, Crown 8vc, cloth 7/6 

" Mr. Urquhart to to be Qighly complimented for placing such a Taluable work at the service 
uf matlne electricians."— 77w Suamsh^. 

ELECTRIC LIOHTINO (ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES OF). 

By Alan A. Campbbli. Swinton, M.InstCE., M.I.E.E. Fifth Edition. 
With 16 Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth 1/6 

ELECTRIC LIGHT FOR COUNTRY HOUSES. 

A Practical Handbook on the Erection and Running of Small Installations, 
with Particulars of the Cost of Plant and Working. By J. H. Knight. 
Third Edition, Revised. Crown Bvo, wrapper . 1/0 

HOW TO MAKE A DYNAMO. 

A Practical Treatise for Amateurs. Containing Illustrations and Detailed 
Instructions for Constructing a Small Dynamo to Produce the Electric Light. 
By Alfred Crofts. Sixth Edition, Revised. Crown 8vo, cloth . 2/0 

THE STUDENT'S TEXT-BOOK OF ELECTRICITY. 

By H. M. Noad, F.R.S. 650 pp., with 470 Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth. 

0/0 



26 CROSBY LOCK WOOD S' SON'S CATALOGUE. 



ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING, ETC. 



SPECIFICATIONS IN DETAIL. 

By Frank W. Macey, Architect, Author vf "Conditions of Contract." 
Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged, containing 644 pp., and 3,000 Iltustn- 
tions. Royal 8 vo, cloth. {Just Pudluhtd. iVV/ 21/0 

SUMMARY OF CONTENTS:— GBNBRAL NOTBS riNCLUDINC POINTS IN SPRCIPIC \TION 
WRrriNO, THE ORDRR OF A SPECIFICATION, AND NOTBS ON ITBMS OFTEN OMfTTRD 

FROM A SPECIFICATION).— Form of Outside Cover to a specification.— specifica- 
tion ( h Works and List of ge>eral conditions.— preliminary iTbMS aNCLiroiNc 
shoring and House Bkeakbri.— Drainage (incuto'NG Rain-water Wells and 
Reports).— Excavator (including concrete Floors, roofs. Stairs, and wallsi. 
—Pavior.— BRICKLAYER (iNcn;niNG flintwork, Rivbr and other Walling. Spring- 
water Wells, Storagf TA^KS. Fountains. Filters, Terra Cotta and Faience).— 
Mason.— Carpenter, Joiner and ironmonger (including Fencing anh Pilin'^i.— 
Smith and Fuunper (including Heating, F'rb hydrants, stahi e and Cow-housb 
FrmNG8».—SLATFR (including slate Masonk—Tilnr. -Stone Tilfr.-shingler.— 
Thatcher. — Plumber (including Hot-watbr worki. — Zincworkbr. — C'^^ppbr- 

SMrrH. — PLASTEkBR. — CaSF IFTEk. — BELLHANGBR. — GLAZIBR. — PAINTER.— P« PBR- 
HANGBR. — GBNBRAL REPAIRS AND ALTERATIONS— VENTILATION. — ROAD-MAKING 

FLECiRic Lighting.- INDEX. 

PRACTICAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTION. 

A Handbook for Students Prepariiu; for ExaminMioos, and a Book of 
Reference for Persons Engaged in Buildin|(. By John Parnbll Allxn, 
Surveyor, Lecturer on Building Construction at the Durham College of 
Science, Newcastle-on-Tyne. Fourth Edition, Revised and £nlvi;ed. 
Medium 8vo, 570 pp., with over x,ooo Illustrations, cloth . AV/ 7/6 

" The noet oonplate espcMhloo of bulldliic consanctkio tre have intw It oontafaii aD tbat is 
neccauiy to piepan Mudems for tlie Tsiloas eTamlnarions in boUdhig coo ti u c U oa. " Sm'fdiHe 
News. 



" The author depends nearly as mnch od hit dhsrams as on his type. The pases •ogi 
the hand of a man of experience In buOdinsf operations and the Tohune most be a oieiaing to 
many taachera as well as to studentf."— 7iW Arckittct. 

PRACTICAL MA50NRY. 

A Guide to the Art of Stone Cutting. Comprising the Construction, Setting 
Out, and Working of Stairs, Circular Work, Arches, Niches, Domes, Penden- 
tivesj VaulL«i, Tracery Windows, ftc. ; to which are added Supplements 
relating to Masonry Estimating and Quantity Surveying, and to Building 
Stones and Maibles, and a Glossary of Terms. For the Use of Students, 
Masons, and Ciaftsmen. By William R. Purchasb, Building Inspector to 
the Borough of Hove. Fifth Edition, EnlM-^ed. Royal 8vo, %7& pp., with 
se Lithographic Plates, comprising over 400 Diagrams, doth. 

\]i»ai PuUisfud. Net JIB 



" The book Is apractical treatise on the subject, the author hlmaelf having cooimcnced as m 
operadve mason, and afterwards acted as foreman mason on many \axg9 and unportant balkfin(;<i 
prior to the attahiment of bis present position. Most of the examples jo^en are from actual vork 
tarried out. It should be found of gaieral utility to architectund students and otben, as well as to 
thoae to whom it la specially addressed."— T^wmo/ q/'tfu RaytU MstUutt ^BriUxh ArthiUctx. 

MODERN PLUMBING, 5TEAM AND HOT WATER 

HBATINQ. 

A New Practical Work for the Plumber, the Heating Engineer, the Architect, 
and the Builder. By J. T. Lawler, Author of " American Sanitary Plumbing/ 
&c. With 284 Illustrations and Folding Plates. 4to, cloth . Iftt 21/* 

HEATING BY HOT WATER, 

VENTILATION AND HOT WATER SUPPLY. 

By Walter Jones, M.l.M.E. 360 pages, with 140 Illustration*. Medium 
8vo, cloth. {Just Publufud, Net 6 O 

CONCRETE: ITS NATURE AND USES. 

A Book for Architects, Builders, Contractors, and Clerks of Works. By 

Gborgk L. SuTCLirrB, A.R.I. B.A. Second Edition, thoroughly Revised 

and Enlarged. 396 pp., with Illustrations. Crown 8vo. cloth. 

[/»f / Published. Hit 9/0 

" The author treats a <Uillcult subject in a ludd manner. The manual filla a long Wt gap. 
It b carefU and exhaustive ; equally uselUl as a student's guide and an aichitect^ boo« of 
velarence."— ycmmo/ ^tfu R«ytU InstUtue ^BriHsk Archiuets, 



] 



ARCHITECTURE, BUtLDtNC, «<. 27 



L0CKW00D»5 BUILDER'5 PRICE BOOK for 1905. 

A Comprehensive Handbook of the Latest Prices and Data for Builders, 
Architects, Engineers, and Contractors. Re*constracted, Re>written, and 
Greatly Enlarged. By pRANas T. W. MiLUW. 800 clasely>printed pases, 
crown 8vo, dotb. \Jujt Piihlisked 4/0 

" Tbli book b ■ very oseftil one, and ihoold find a place fai eveiy F^g^fh office connected 
with the buildinfl; and ensnieenns ptofeaalons.''— /M^AftrtKu. 
" An azcMWDt book of r«ionoco."^AreMteet 
" Cumpik he ishre. rallaUe. well ananged. legible, and wen hamid."~-BrMsk ArthUui. 

MEASURING AND VALUING ARTIFICERS' WORK 

Slie Student's Guide to the Practice oO* Containing Dbectioos for taking 
imensions, Abstracting the same, and bringing the Quantities into Bill, with 
Tables of Constants for v aluation of Labour, and for the Calculation of Areas 
and Solidities. Originally edited \xj £. Dobson, Architect. With Additions 
by £. W. Tarn, M.A. Seventh Edition, Revised. Crown Bvo, cloth. 7/6 
" The most complete neatlae on the principles of measuring and rolumg aitlficen' work." 

TECHNICAL GUIDE, MEASURER, AND ESTIMATOR. 

For Builders and Surveyors. Containing Technical Directions for Measuring 
Work in all the Building Trades, Complete Specifications for Houses, RomIs, 
and Drains, and an ^uy Method of Estimating the parts of a Building 
collectively. By A. C Bxaton. Ninth Edition. Waistcoat-pocket sixe. 1/6 
" No buflder, aichltect, surveyor, or valuer shookl be witbont his * Beaton."*— lAiitfAnr Ntws. 

THE HOUSE-OWNER'S ESTIMATOR. 

Or, What will it Cost to Build. Alter, or Repair? A Price Book for Un- 
pro f e s siooal People as well as toe Arcnitectnral Surveyor and Bidlder. By 
I. D. SmoM. Edited by F. T. W. Miluw, A.R.I.B.A. Fifth Editioo. 

Ourefolly Revised. Crown 8vo, cloth Ifti 8/6 

" In two years It will repay Its cost a hundred timet ovei."~~FieU. 

SPECIFICATIONS FOR PRACTICAL ARCHITECTURE. 

A Guide to the Architect, Engineer, Surveyor, and Builder. Upon the Basis 
of the Work by A Baktholombw, Revised, Corrected, and greatly added to 
by F. RoGBKS, Architect. Third Edition. 8vo, cloth ... 1 5/0 
" ( )iie of the books with whfch every young architect mntt be equipped."— ^fvMtax: 

ARCHITECTURAL PERSPECTIVE. 

The whole Course and Operations of the Draughtsman in Drawing a LMTEe 

House in Linear Perspective. Illustrated by 43 Folding Plates. By F. O 

Fbxguson. Third Edition. 8vo, boards 3/9' 

" It is the most intelligible of the treaHses on this ill-treated subject tliat I have met witb."— 
E. INGRBSS BBLL, ESQ.. hi the R.LB.A. Journal, 

PRACTICAL RULES ON DRAWING. 

For the Builder and Young Student in Architecture. By G. Pynb. 4to. 8/6 

THE MECHANICS OF ARCHITECTURE. 

A Treatise on Applied Mechanics, especisdly Adapted to the Use of Architects. 
By E. W. Tarn, M.A., Author of *^ The Science of Building," &c. Second 
Edition, Enlarged. Illustrated with xas Diagrams. Crown 8vo, cloth 7/6 
" The book is a veiy useful and helpful manual of architectural meclunics."— i7M<Uler. 

A HANDY BOOK OF VILLA ARCHITECTURE. 

Bein^ a Series of Designs for Villa Residences in various Styles. With 
Outline Specifications and Estimates. By C. Wickbs, Architect, Author of 
" The Spires and Towers of England," &c. 61 Plates, 4to, half*morocco, gilt 
edges ... £1 lis, 60. 

DECORATIVE PART OF CIVIL ARCHITECTURE. 

By Sir Wiixiam Chambbrs, F.R.S. With Portrait, Illustrations, Notes, and 
an Examination or Gkccian AKCKiTBcroitB, by Josbph Gwilt, F.S.A. 
Revised and Edited by W. H. Lbb>s. 66 Plates, 4(0, doth . 21/0 

THE ARCHITECTS GUIDE. 

Being a Text-book of Useful Information for Architects, Engineers, Surveyors, 
Contractors, Clerks of Works, &c. By F. Rogbrs. Crown 8vo. . 8/6 



a8 CROSBY LOCKWOOD S' SON'S CATALOGOS. 



SANITATION AND WATER SUPPLY- 



THE PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 

Being a Brief Account of the Scientific Principles of Sewaf^e ParUicatt<Mi. and 
their Practical Application. By Sidney Rarwisb, M.D. (Lond.)» H.Sc., 
M.R.C.S., D.P.H. (Camb.), Fellow of the Sanitary Institute. Medical Officer 
of Health to the Derbyshire County Cnancil S^ond Ed tion, Revised 'nd 
Enlarged, with an Appendix on tHe Analvsis of SeN%'age and S wage Effluents. 
With numerous Illustrations and Diagrams. Demy 8vo, c oth. 

\Jusiptd>luked. H«t 10/6 

SirMMARY OF CONTP.NTS : — SE « AGR : ITS NATURE AND COMPCSITIQf. — THE 

Chemistry of srwa<;e.— Varieties of sp.wace and the Cha «gbs t U'iderg>es.— 
RiVBK Pollution AS its Effects.— thf, i.amd Treatment of sewage.— Precipi- 
tation, PRECiPITAVI-S. AvD TA^KS.— THE LlQUEFACTIO"* OF SEWAGE.— PRINCIPLES 
INVOLVED IN THE OXIDATION OF SRWAGE.— ARTIFICIAL PROCESS'S OF PURIFICATION.— 
AUTOMATIC DlSTRIBl'TORS AND SPECIAL FILTERS —PARTICULARS OF ShWKRACR AHD 

Srwacb Disp >sal sch-mes RRQiiiR»-n Bt Local GoVKR^MftNT Board— Useful 
Data.— -«*/««r«f/ijr.- Thh Apparatus REQUiRtD for sowacb Analysis.— Standard 
Solutions used in the m«thod of SaWAGE analysis.— r«*/«; F.st!matio.n of 
Amm )>' I a.— Nitrogen as Nitrates —ivcubator Test, Oxygbn Absorbsd.— To 
Co.nvbrt Graims per Gallon lo Parts paR ioo,ooa 

THE HEALTH OFFICER'5 POCKET-BOOK. 

.\ Guide to Sanitary Practice and Law. For Medical Officers of Health, 
Sanitary Inspectors, Members of Sanitary Authorities, &c. By Edward 
F. Willoughbt, M.D. (Load.), &c. Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged. 
Fcap. 8vo, leather Nit 10/6 

" A mine of condensed tnfonnation of a pertinent and useful kind. The various subjects 
of wbich It trrats e.n; succinctly but fully and icienti;i:al>y de«lt with." — Tfu Lanctt. 

" We recommend all thu&e eni^jf -id m practical sanitary work to furnish theottelves with a 
copy for reference." — Sanitary ycurHal. 

WATER AND ITS PURIFICATION. 

A Handbook for the Use of Local Authorities, Sanitary Officers, and others 
interested in Water Supply. By S. Ridbal, D.Sc. Lond.,^ F.LC. Sea>nd 
Edition, Revised, with Auditions, including numerous Illustrations and Tables. 
Lar^e Crown 8vo, cloth Net 9/0 

RURAL WATER SUPPLY. 

A Practical Handbook on the Supply of Water and Construction of Water* 
works for Small Country Districts. By Allan Grbbnwbll, A.M.I.C.E., 
andW. T. Currv, A.M.LC.E. Revised Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth 6/0 

THE WATER SUPPLY OF CITIE5 AND TOWNS. 

By William Humbbr, A.M. Inst. C.E., and M.Inst. M.E. Imp. 4to, hxdf* 
bound morocco. (See page ix.) Air^ £6 6S> 

THE WATER SUPPLY OF TOWNS AND THE CON- 
STRUCTION OF WATER-WORKS. 

By Professor W. K. Burton, A.M. Inst. C.E. Second Edition, Revised 
and Extended. Royal 8vo, cloth. (See page xa) .... £1 0«. 

WATER ENOINEERINO. 

A Practical Treatise on the Measurement, Storage, Conveyance, and Utilisa* 
tion of Water for the Supply of Towns. By C. Slagg, A.M. Inst. CE. 7/6 

SANITARY WORK IN SMALL TOWNS AND VILLAGES. 

By Charlbs Slagg, A. M. Inst. CE. Crown 8vo, cloth . . 3/0 

PLUMBING. 

A Text'book to the Practice of the Art or Craft of the Plumber. By W. P. 
BucKAN. Ninth Edition, Enlarged, with 500 lUusuations. Crown 8vo, 8/6 

VENTILATION. 

A Text>book to the Practice of the Art of Ventilating Buildings. By W. P. 
BucHAN, R.P. Crown 8vo, cloth 8/6 



CARPSNTR7, TIMBER. «<. 29 



CARPENTRY, TIMBER, ETC. 



THE ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLE5 OF CARPENTRY. 

A Treatise on the Pressure and Equilibrium of Timber Framing, the Resistance 
of Timber, and the Construction of Floors, Arches, Bridges, Roofs, Uniting 
Iron and Stone with Timber, &c. To which is added an Lssay on the Nature 
and Properties of Timber, &c., with Descriptions of the kinds of Wood used 
in Buildmg ; also numerous Tables of the scantlings of Timber for diflferent 
piurposes, the Specific Gravities of Materials, &c. By Thomas Trsdgold, C.E. 
with an Appendix of Specimens of Various Roofs of Iron and Stone, IIlus* 
trated. Seventh Edition, thoroughly Revised and considerably Enlarged by 
E. Wykdham Tarn, M.A., Author of "The Science of Building," &c 
With 6x Plates, Portrait of the Author, and several Woodcuts. In One large 

Vol., 4to, cloth £1 6«. 

" Ouirht to be in every architect's and every builder's Vtinry."~-B»tiUer. 

"A work whose monumental ezceUence must commend it wherever akJlfiil carpentry is 

concerned. The author's principles are rather confirmed than impaired by time. The additioEal 

plates are of great intrinsic value."— ^Mi^dttfV' A^fw 

WOODWORKING MACHINERY. 

Its Rise, Progress, and Construction. With Hints on the Management of Saw 
Mills and the Economical Conversion of Timber. Illustrated with Examples 
of Recent Designs by leading English, French, and American Engineers. By 
M. Powis Balk, A.M.Inst.C.£., M.I.M.E. Second Edition, Revised, 
with large Additions, large crown 8vo, 440 pp., cloth .... Q/0 

" Mr Bale is evidenthr an expert on the subject, and he has collected to mnch infomuition 
that his book is aU-sufficiant for builders and others enlaced In the conversion of timber. "—ArdUttet. 

" The most comprehensive compendlujn of wood-worldnK machlnaiy we have innn The 
author is a thorough master of his subject."— ^Mtf4<<«v A'inM. 

SAW MILLS. 

Their Arrangement and Management, aod the Economical Conversion of 
Timber. By M. Powis Balb, A.M.Inst.C.£. Second Edition, Revised. 
Crown 8vo, cloth. 1 0/Q 

" The odfrnMutrutiaH of a large sawing estabUahment b dbcusaed, and the waMtct evamined 
from a financial standpoint. Hence the sixe, shape, order, and disporitlon of saw mUb and the Hke 
are gone Into in detail, and the course of the timber is traced firom itk receptioa to Its delivery in its 
CQOveited state. We could not desire a more complete or practical treatise.''— ^Mtf^itrr. 

THE CARPENTER'S GUIDE. 

Or, Book of Lines for Carpenters ; comprising all the Elementary Principles 
essential for acquiring a knowledge of Carpentry. Founded on the late Pbtbk 
Nicholson's standard work. A New Edition, Revised by Aktkur Ashpitbl, 
F.S.A. Together with Practical Rules on Drawing, by Gborgb Pynb. 
With 74 Plates, 4to, cloth £1 1 %, 

A PRACTICAL TREATISE ON HANDRAILINQ. 

Showing New and Simple Methods {or Finding the Pitch of the Plank, Drawing 
the Moulds, Bevelling, Jointing*up, and Squaring the Wreath. By Gkorcb 
CoLUNGS. Revised and Enlarged, to which is added A Trbatiss om 
Stair-building. Third Edition, with Plates and Diagrams, xamo, cloth. 

2/6 

" wm be found of practical utility in the execution of this difficult branch of Joinery."— ^MtiUer. 
*' Almoat every difficuh phase of this somewhat intricate branch of joinery is elucidated by 
the aid of piatea and eatplanatory letterpress. "—FumttMrt GoMtttt. 

CIRCULAR WORK IN CARPENTRY AND JOINERY. 

A Practical Treatise on Circular Work of Single and Double Curvature. By 

Gborgb Collings. With Diagrams. Fourth Edition, lamo, cloth . 2/6 

" An exceOent example of what a book of this land should be. Cheap in price, dear in 
definition, and practical In the examples selected."— £M»/<irr. 

THE CABINET-MAKER'5 GUIDE TO THE ENTIRE 

CONSTRUCTION OP CABINET WORK. 

By RiCHAKO BiTMBAO. Illustrated with Plans, Sections and Working 
Drawings. Ctqwh Qvo, ctoth 2/6 



30 CROSBY LOCKWOOD ^ SON*S CATALOGUE. 
HANDRAILINQ COMPLETE IN EIGHT LESSONS. 

On the S<]aare-Cm System. By J". S. Goldtmorf, Teacher of Geometry 

and Building Construction at the H^alifaz Mechanics' Institute. With Eii^t 

Plates and over 150 Practical Exercises. 4to, cloth .... 8/6 

" Likaty to be of considerable Talue to Jotnen and oChen who take a pikla In good work. 
The anang«ment of the book is excellent, we bcaitlty commend It to teachcis and smdents."— 
Timber Tradtt ycumoL 

TIMBER MERCHANT'S and BUILDER'S COMPANION. 

Containing New and Copious Tables of the Reduced Weight and Measure. 

ment txT Dexds and Battens, of all sizes, and other Us«ful Tables for the use of 

Timber Merchants and Builders. By William Dowsing. Fourth Edition, 

Revised and Corrected. Crown 8vo, cloth 3/0 

" We are glad to see a fouith edition of these admirable tables, which for cociectness and 
simplicity of arrangement leave nothing to be desited."-- TVmter TrmJts yomrmai. 

THE PRACTICAL TIMBER MERCHANT. 

Being a Guide for the Use of Building Contractors, Surveyors, Builden, &c., 
comprising useful Tables for all purposes oonnecteid with the Timber Trade, 
Marks of Wood, Essay on the Strength of Timber, Remarks on the Growth of 
Timber, &c. By W. Richardson. Second Edition. Fcap. 8vo, cloth . 3/6 

" This handy manual contains much Taluable infonnation for the use of timber merchants, 
buflders, foresters, and all othen connected with the growth, sale, and manufacture of timber."— 
y«urHal ^f Forestry. 

PACKINO-CASE TABLES. 

Showing the number of Superficial Feet in Boxes or Packing-Cases, from six 

inches square and upwards. By W. Richardson, Timber Broker. Third 

Edition. Oblong 4to, doth 3/6 

" Invaluable labour-saving tables."— /rvwM^fvV' 
" Will save much labour and calculation."— (;rMYr. 

GUIDE TO SUPERFICIAL MEASUREMENT. 

Tables calculated from x to aoo inches in length by x to xo8 inches in breadth. 

For the use of Architects, Surveyors^ Engmeers, Timber Merchants, 

Builders, &c. By Jambs Hawkings. Fifth Edition. Fcap., cloth. 3/6 

" These tablei wiD be found of great assistance to all who require to main calculatioos of 
superficial measurement."— fn^/siA Mtckanic. 

PRACTICAL FORESTRY. 

And its Bearing on the Improvement of Estates. By Charlss B. Curtis, 
F.S.I., Professor of Forestry, Field Engineering, and General Estate 
Management, at the College of Agriculture, Downton. Second Edition, 

Revised. Crown 8vo, cloth 3/6 

Prrfatory Remarks. — Objects op planting. — Choice of a Forester. — 
Choice of soil and Site.— laving out of Land for plantations.— Preparation 
OP the Ground for Planting.— Drainage.— planting.— Distances and disi-ri- 
BUTioN OP Trees in plantations.— Trees and Ground Game.— attention after 
PLANTING.— Thinning of Plantations — Pruning of Forest Trees.— Realization. 
—Methods of Sale.- measurement of Timber.- measurement and Valuation 
of Larch Plantation.— Fire Lines.— Cost of Planting. 

" Mr. Curtis has fai the course of a series of short pithy chapters aAbrded much informa- 
tion of a useful and practical character on the planting and subsequent treatment of trees.'— 
/U$uinUed Carptnitr and Builder. 

THE ELEMENTS OF FORESTRY, 

Designed to afford Infonnation concerning the Planting and Care of Foce:tt 
Trees for Ornament or Profit, with suggestions upon the Creation and Care xA 
Woodlands. By F. B. Hough. Large crown 8vo, doth ... 1 0/O 

TIMBER IMPORTER'S, TIMBER MERCHANT'S, AND 

BUILDER'S STANDARD OUIDB. 

By Richard E. Grandv. Comprising: — An Analysts of Deal Standards, 
Home and Foreign, with Comparative Values and Tabular Arrangemenu for 
fixing Net Landed Cost on Baltic and North American Deals, including ail 
intermediate Expenses, Freight, Insurance, &C., &c ; together with copioos 
Informacum for the Retailer and Builder. Thud Edition, Revised. lamo, 

doth 2/0 

" Everything it pretends to be: buQt up gradually, it leads one ttaax a forest to a treenail, and 

throws in, as a imuceweight, a host of material concenuns bricks, columns, dsteras, Scc.''~~Enfiish 

Mtckanic. 



DSCORATIVS ARTS, S-c. 31 



DECORATIVE ARTS, ETC. 



SCHOOL OF PAINTING FOR THE IMITATION OF 

WOODS AND MARBLES. 

As Taught and Praaised by A. R. Van dbr Burg and P. Van dbr Bukg, 
Directors of th« Rotterdam Painting Institution. Royal folio, xS^ by 12^ in., 
Illustrated wiih 24 full-size Coloured Plates ; also Z2 plain Plates, comprising 
154 Figures. Fourth Edition cloth Net £l fis. 

List of Platbs. 
X. Various tools rbquirbo for woou painting.—*, $. walnut : PRBLiMiNAJtY 

STACBS OP GRAINING AND FINISHED SPBCIMBN. — 4. TOOLS USBD FOR MARBLB 

Painting and mbthod of Manipulation.— s, 6. St. Rbmi marblbj Earlibr 

OPRRATIONS AND FiNISKBD SPECIMBN. — 7. METHODS OP SKBTCHING DiPFBRBNT 
GRAINS, KNOTS, dcc— a, 9. ASK : PRELIMINARY STAGBS AND FINISHED SPBCI- 
MBN. — xa Methods oh Sketching Marble Grains. — xx. xa. Brbchb Marble; 
Preliminary Stages of Working and Finished specimen.— x«. Maple ; Methods 
OF producing the Differbnt Grains.— i4« 15. Biro's-Eyb maple ; Prbuminary 
Stages and Finished Specimen.- i& Methods of Sketching thb Differbnt 
Specibs op white Marble.— 17. x& White Marble j Preliminary Stages of 

PROCE.SS AND FINISHED SPBCIMBN— X9. MAHOGANY; SPECIMENS OF VARIOUS GRAINS 
AND METHODS OF MANIPULATION. —90. 9X. MAHOGANY ; EARLIER STAGES AND 
FINISHBD SPBCIMBN.— aa, 33, 24. &IENNA MARBLB: VaRIBTIBS OF GRAIN, PRBUMINARY 
STAGRS AND FINISHBD SPBCIMBN.— •$, 96, 97. JUNIPER WOOD; METHODS OF PRO- 
DUCING Grain, &c ; prbliminary Stages and Finished Specimen.- aS, ao, yx Vert 
DB Mbr Marble; Varieties of Grain and methods of working, Unfinishbd 
AND Finished specimens.- sx, 39, «3. oak ; Varieties of Grain, tools Employed 

AND methods op MANIPULATION, PRBLIMINARY STAGES AND FINISHED SPECIMEN.— 
34, 35. 3&. WaULSORT MARBLE; VARIETIES OF GRAIN, UNFINISHBD AND FINISHBD 
SPECIMENS. 

"Those who daalre to attain skill In the an of palntixig woods and marblaswiD find advantacw 
in consulting this book. . . . Some of the Workug Men's Quos sboukl glv« thair young men 
the opportunity to study if'SuiUUr. 

" A compfehenstre guide to the ait. The explanations of the proceaaei, the manipulation 
and management of the coloun, and the beautifully executed plates win not be the least Tauiable to 
the student who alms at making his work a (aithAd transciipt oif nature."— i^MiiUtffV' Nrms. 

" Students and novices are fioitunate who aie able to become the poaseason of ao noble a 



ELEMENTARY DECORATION. 

A Guide to the Simpler Forms of Everyday An. Together with PRACTICAL 
HOUSE DECORATION. By Jambs W. Facbv. With ntunerous Illus- 
tratiooft. In One Vol., strongly luuf-hoaDd 0/0 

H0U5B PAINTING, ORAININO, MARBLING, AND 

SIGN WRITING. 

A Practical Manual of. By Ellis A. Davidson. Eighth Edition. With 

Coloured Plates and Wood Engravings. Crown 8yo, clotL 6/0 

" A mass of Ixiformation of use to the amareiir and of Talue to the ptactical iaMML"—£HgrlisA 
Mttk M Hic, 

THE DECORATOR'S A55I5TANT. 

A Modem Guide for Decorative Artists and Amateurs, Painters, Writers, 
Gilders, &c Containing upwards of 600 Receipts, Rules, and Instructions ; 
with a variety of Information for General Work connected with every Class of 
Interior and Exterior Decorations, &c. Eighth Edition. Cr. 8vo . 1 /O 

" FuH of teceipts of value to decorators, painters, gilders, &c The book contains the gist of 
larger treatises 00 colour and technical processes. It would be difficult to meet with a work ao luU 
of varied information on the painter s an."—SttiJdtH£ News, 

MARBLE DECORATION 

And the Terminology of British and Foreign Marbles. A Handbook for 

Students. By Gborgb H. Blagrovb, Author of " Sharing and tu Applica* 

tion," &c. with a8 Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth .... 3/6 

"Thia oaost useful and much waniad handbook should be in the hands of every aichltacx axul 

bulkier."— diMUtttiV- tVtrU. 

"A carefully and useAiDy written treatise ; the work Is essentially practical."- 



32 CROSBY LOCK WOOD S' SON'S CATALOGUE, 



DELAMOTTE'8 WORKS ON ILLUMINATION AND 

ALPHABETS. 



ORNAMENTAL ALPHABET5, ANCIENT & MBDIiCVAL. 

From the Eighth Century, with Nomenit; tnclndin^ Gothic, Chorch-Text, 
large and small, German, Italian, Arabesque. ^ Initials for lUuminauoD, 
Monograms, Crosses, &c., for the use of Arcnitecniral and Engineering 
Draughtsmen. Missal Painters, Masons, Decorative Painters, Lithographers, 
Engravers, Carvers, &c, &c. Collected and Engraved by F. Dblamottb, 
and printed in Colours. New and Cheaper Edition. Royal 8vo, oblong, 
ornamental boards 2/8 

" For those who insert eoameUed sentences roond gilded cbattces, who blazon shop legends 
over ihop-doors, who letter church walls with pithy sentences from the Decalogue, this boolc will be 
osefilL "^A thetueum, 

MODERN ALPHABETS, PLAIN AND ORNAMENTAL. 

Including German, Old English, Saxon, Italic, Perspective, Greek, Hebrew, 
Court Hand, Engrossing, Tuscan, Riband, Gothic, Rustic, and Arabesque ; 
with several Origmal Designs, and an Analysis of the Roman and Old English 
Alphabets, large and small^ and Numerals, for the use of Draughtsmen, 
Surveyors, Masons, Decorative Painters, Lith<^raphers, Engravers, Carvers, 
&c. Collected ana Engraved by F. Dblamottk, and printed in Colours. 
New and Cheaper Edition. Royal 8vo, oblong, ornamental boards 2/8 

" There is comprised in It erery posdble shape Into which the letters of the alphabet and 
numerals can be formed, and the talent which has been expended in the conception oftlie Taiious 
plain and ornamental letters is woa<iottul."-^Statulard, 

MEDIAEVAL ALPHABETS AND INITIALS. 

By F. G. Dblamottb. Containing ai Plates and Illuminated Title, printed 

in Gold and Colotu^ With an Introduction by J. Willis Bkooks. Fifth 

Edition. Small 410, ornamental boards JVet 0/O 

'*A volume in which the letters of the alphabet come fbrth glorified in gOdliig and all the 
colours of the prism Interwoven and intertwined and intermingled, "--^mm. 

A PRIMER OP THE ART OF ILLUMINATION. 

For the Use of Beginners ; with a Rudimentary Treatise on the Art, Practical 
Directions for its Exercise, and Examples taken from Illuminated MSS., 
printed in Gold and Colours. By F. Dblamottb. New and Cheaper 
Edition. Small 4to, ornamental boards SIO 

" The examples of ancient MSS. reopmmended to the student, which, with much good aense. 
the author chooses from collections accessible to all, are selected with judgment and knoiriedge as 
wen as taste"— ^/A«n«Mm. 

THE EMBROIDERER'S BOOK OF DESIGN. 

Containing Initials.^ Emblems, Cyphers, Monograms, Ornamental Bocders. 
Ecclesiastical Devices, Mediaeval and Modem Alphabets, and Natiooai 
Emblems. Collected by F. Dblamottb, and printed in Colours. Oblong 
royal 8vo, ornamental wrapper JVet 2.0 

** The book win be of great assistance to ladies and jroung chlldroa who are endowed wltli 
the art of plying the needle in tUs most ornamental andussAtl pretty wotk.'''—£ast Am^Uoh TVmws. 



WOOD-CARVINQ FOR AMATEUR5. 

With Hints on Design. By A Lady. With zo Plates. New and Cheaper 

Edition. Crown 8vo, in emblematic wrapper 2/0 

" The handicraft of the wood-carver, so wdl as a book can impast it, may be leant tmm. * A 
Lady's ' publication."— ^IA<N«MM. 

PAINTING POPULARLY EXPLAINED. 

By Thomas John Gullick, Painter, and John Timbs, F.S.A. Indtiding 
Fresco. Oil. Mosaic, Water-Colour, Water-Glass, Tempera, l^pfrnfrir. 
Miniature, Painting on Ivory, Vellum, Ponery, Enamel, Glan, ftc Fifth 
EUlition. Crown 8vo, cloth fl/Q 

**• Adopted as a Priu Book at South KtnsimgUm. 
" Much may be learned, even by thoee who fancy they do not require to be taoght, from the 
carelUl perusal of this unpretending but comprehensiTe treatise."— ^rr7n«nMA 



NATURAL SCIENCE, An. 33 



NATURAL SCIENCE, ETC. 



THE V151BLE UN1VBR5B. 

ChapCen 00 the Origin and Constniction of the Heavens. By J. B. Goas, 
F.R.A.S., Aothor of" Star Groaps," &c Illostrated by 6 Stellar PhoCographs 
and la Platef. Demy 8vo, doth 1 6/0 

STAR GROUPS. 

A Student's Guide to the Constellations. By J. Bllaxd GokKi F.R.A.S., 
M.R.I.A.. ftc., Author of "The Visible Universe,'* "The Scenery of the 
Heavens,'' ftc With 30 Maps. Small 4to, cloth 6/0 

AN ASTRONOMICAL GLOSSARY. 

Or, Dictionary of Terms used in Astronomy. With Tables of Data and Lists 
of Remarkable and Interesting Celestial Objects. By J. Ellakd Gorb, 
F.R.A.S., Author of " The Visible Universe," &c Small crown 8vo, doth. 

THE MICROSCOPE. 

Its Construction and Management. Induding Technique. Photo-micrography, 
and the Past and Future of the Microscope. By Dr. Hbnri van Hsukck. 
Re^Edited and Augmented from the Fourth French Edition, and Translated 
by Wtnnx £. Baxtss, F.G.S. Imp. 8vo, doth .... 1 B/O 

A MANUAL OP THE MOLLUSCA. 

A Treatise on Recent and Fossil Shells. By S. P. WooDWAaD, A.L.S., 
F.G.S. With an Appendix on Rscbnt and Fossil Conchological 
DiscovBKiBS, bv Ralph Tats, A.L.S., F.G.S. With 93 Plates and 
upwards of 300 Woodcuts. Reprint d Fourth Edidon (z88o). Crown 8vo, 
doth 7/6 

THE TWIN RECORDS OF CREATION. 

Or, Geology and Genesis, their Perfect Harmony and Wonderfol Concord. 
ByG. W. V. lbVaux. 8vo, doth 6/0 

LARDNER'S HANDBOOKS OP SCIENCE. 
HANDBOOK OP MECHANICS. 

Enlarged and re-written by B. trOKwr, F.R.A.S. Post 8vo, doth . 6/0 

HANDBOOK OF HYDROSTATICS AND PNEUMATICS. 

Revised and Enlarged by B. Lobwt, F.R.A.S. Post 8vo, doth . 6/0 

HANDBOOK OP HEAT. 

Edited and re-written by B. Lokwt, F.H.A.S. Post 8vo, doth . 6/0 

HANDBOOK OP OPTICS. 

New Edition. Edited by T. Olvkr Harding, B. A. Small 8vo, doth 6/0 

ELECTRICITY, MAGNETISM, AND ACOUSTICS. 

Edited by Gro. C. Fostsr, B.A. Small 8vo, doth . . •6/0 

HANDBOOK OP ASTRONOMY. 

Revised and Edited by Edwin Dunk IN, F.R. A. S. 8vo, doth . . 9/6 

MUSEUM OP SCIENCE AND ART. 

With upwards of 1,900 Engravings. In Six Double Volumes, £1 1 a. Cloth, 
or half-morocco £1 11a. 6d. 

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY FOR SCHOOLS . . 3/6 
ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY FOR SCHOOLS . 36 

THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. 

Revised by E. B. Bright, F.R.A.S. Fcap. 8vo, doth 2/6 



34 CROSBY LOCK WOOD <ft- SON*S CATALOGUE. 



CHEMICAL MANUFACTURES, 
CHEMISTRY, ETC. 



THE OIL FIELDS OP RU55IA AND THE RUSSIAN 

PETROLEUM INDUSTRY. 

A Practical Handlx)ok on the Exploration, Exploitation, and Management 
of Russian Oil Properties, including Notes on the Origin of Petroleum in 
Russia, a Description of the Theory and Practice of Liquid Fuel, and a 
Translation of the Rules and Regulations concerning Russian Oil Properties. 
By A. Beedy Thompson', A.M.LM.E., late Chief Engineer and Manager of the 
European Petroleum Company's Russian Oil Properties. Ahout 500 pp., with 
numerous Illustrations .ind Photographic Plates, and a Map of the BaiaJchany- 
Saboontchy- Romany Oil Field. Super-royal 8vo, cloth. 

i/usi PtUflisktd. Net £3 3s. 

THE ANALYSIS OF OILS AND ALLIED 5UB5TANCB5. 

Bv A. C. Wright, M A.Oxon., B.Sc.LoDd., formerly Anistant Lecturer in 
Chemistry at the Yorkshire College, Leeds, and Lecturer in Chemistry at the 
Hull Technical School. Demy 8vo, cloth N§t 9/0 

THB QA5 BNQINBBR'S l>OCKET-BOOK« 

Comi^rising Tables, Notes and Memoranda relating; to the Manofikcton, 
Distribution and Use of Coal Gas and the Construction of Gas Works. By 
H. O'Connor, A.M.In8t.C.B. Second Edition, Revised. 470 pp., crown Bvo, 
fully Illustrated, leather 10/S 

" The book contains a vast amount of faiformatlon. The author goes consecndvdjr through 
the engineering details and practical methods involved in each of the different proce M ea or peits 
of a gas-works. He has certainly succeeded in making a compilation of hara matteis of feet 

itely interesting to read."— ^raj tyorld. 

" The volume contains a great quantity of specialised informatloii. compOed, vre beUeve, fram. 



amiy s 
absolutely interesting to read."— ^raj tyorld. 

at qua 
trustworthy sources, which should make it of consideiable vahie to those for whooi It b sperlfaaiiy 



produced. —£H^M/#r. 

LIQHTINQ BY ACETYLENE 

Generators, Burners, and Electric Fnmaoes. By William E. Gibbs, M.E. 
With 66 Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth 7/8- 

ENQINEERINQ CHEMISTRY. 

A Practical Treatise for the Use of Analytical Chemists, Engineers, Iron 
Masters. Iron Founders, Students and others. Compruun^ Methods ctKaalyux 
and Valuation of the Principal Materials used in Engineering Work, widi 
numerous Analyses, Examples and Suggestions. By H. Joshuhi Phiixips, 
F.I.C., F.C.S. Third Ediuon, Revised and Enlarged. Crown 8vo, 490 «)., 
with Plates and other Illustrations, cloth. .... N*t 10/8 

"In this work the author has renderad no small service to a numerous bodjr of practical 
men. . . . The analytical methods may be pronounced most ntkfectory. being as aocnnte as th* 
despatch required ui engineering chemuts permits. "--C4»/iirfna/ Nnu. 

" The analytical methods given are, as a whole, such as aA Ukely to give rapid aad tntst- 
wofthy results in experienced hands. . . . There is much exceOant dea cii pt i ve matter in the work. 
the chapter on ' Oils and Lubrication ' being spedalljr noticeable tai this 1 



N ITRO- EXPLOSIVES. 

A Practical Treatise concerning the Properties, Manufacture, aad Analysis, 
of Nitrated Substances, includmg the Fulminates, Smokeless Powders, and 
Celluloid. By P. Gkrald Sanford, F.I.C, Consulting Chemist to the Cotton 
Powder Company, Limited, ftc. With Illustrations. Crown Bro, doth. 9/0 

One of the very few text-books fai which can be found Just what Is wanted. Mr. Sanford 
tlie 



goes steadily through tne whole list of explosives commonlv used, he names any given exploalve, 
andtdhusof what It b composed and how It b m a nuf ac tur eo. The tiook t» mwm Luu''-^£ti£ii u tr. 

A HANDBOOK ON MODERNIEXPL05IVE5. 

A Practical Treatise on the Manufacture and Use of Dynamite. Gun*Cottoo, 
Nitro>Glycerine and other Explosive Compounds, including Collodion-Cotton. 
With Chapters on Explosives m Practical Application. By M. Eisslbb, M.B. 

Second Edition, Enlarged. Crown 8vo, cloth 1 2/8- 

" A veritable mine of inCotmatian on the subject of explosives employed for military, minias 
and blasting purposes."— ^rmy tmtl Navy GajuUe. ^ 



CHEMICAL MANUFACTURES, CHEMISTRY. Sa. 33 
A MANUAL OP THB ALKALI TRADE. 

Including the Manufacture of Sulphuric Acid, Sulphate of Soda, and Bleaching 
Powder. By John Lomas, Alkali Manufacturer. ^ With 333 Illustrations 
and Working I^awings. Second Edition, with Additions. Super-royal 8vo, 
cloth £1 lOa. 

** We find not meffeiy a sound and luminous explanation of the chemical principles of the 
mde, but a notice of numerous matters which have a most important bearing on the successful 
conduct of alkali works, but which are Keactally overlooked by even experienced technological 



DANQER0U5 QOOD5. 

Their Sources and Properties, Modes of Storage and Transport. With Notes 
and Comments on Accidents arising therefrom. A Guide for the Use of 
Government and Railway Officials, Steamship Owners, ftc. By H. Jo6HI7a 
Phillips, F.I.C, F.C.S. Crown 8vo, 374 pp., cloth .... 9/0 
** Merits a wkls dicalaelon, and aa InteIHgeiit, appcecUtlva study.*— CAcinftw/ JMnar. 

THE BLOWPIPE IN CHEMISTRY, MINERALOOY, Etc. 

Containing all known^ Methods of Anhydrous Analysis, manv Working 

Examples, ^d Instructions for Making Apparatus. By Lieut. -Colonel W. A. 

Ross, R.A., F.G.S. Second Edition, Enlarged. Crown 8vo, cloth . 6/0 

** The student who goes conscientiously through the coune of experimentation here aid down 
win gain a better insight into inorganic chemistry and mineralogy than if he had * got up ' any of the 
best tSKt-books of the day, and passed any number of examinations in their cootents. *^CAr»w<c«/ 
.Vi 



THE MANUAL OP COLOURS AND DYE-WARE5. 

Their Properties. Applications, Valuations, Impurities and Sophistications. 

For the Use of Dyers, Printers, Drysalters, Brokers, &c By J. W. Slatsr. 

Second Edition, Revised and greatly Enlarged. Crown 8vo, cloth . 7/S 

** There Is no other work which coven precisely the same ground. To students preparing 
4or aamlnadons In dyeing and printing it wiU pvora exceedingly useful"— CAMMiea/ Ntms, 

A HANDYBOOK POR BREWER5. 

Being a Practical Guide to the Art of Brewing and Malting. ^ Embracing the 
Condusions df Modem Research which bear upon the Practice of Brewing. 
By Hbrbbrt Edwards Wright, M.A. Second Edition, Enlarged. Crown 
8vo, 530 pp., cloth ... ... ... 1 2/6 

** May be consulted with advantage by the student who te preparing himself for examinatiotiBl 

whDe the scientific brewer will find in it a rtiufn^ of all the most important discoteries of 

a times. The work te w ritte n throughout In a clear and concise manner, and the author 

great can to discriminate between vague fhoorlea and well-established iacts "^Brtwtr^ 

** We have great pleasure In reconimen<Ung this handy book, and have no hesitation In saying 
that It H one of the best— if not the best— which has yet been written on the subject of beer-brewing 
la tiUs coontiy ; It shoold have a place on the shelves of evefy brewer's ttbcsry.**— ^rvnwP 



PUEL5: SOLID, LIQUID, AND OA5EOU5. 

Their Analysis and Valuation. For the Use of Chemists and Engineers. By 
H. J. Phillips, F.C.S. . formerlv Analytical and Consulting Chemist to the 
G.B. Rlwy. Fourth Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth 2/0 



: to have Its place fai the laboratory of every metallurgicai establishment and wherever 
ftoal Is ased~oo a Isria scaiis." Cktmtttml Nwws. 

THE ARTI5T5* MANUAL OP PIGMENTS. 

Showing their Composition. Conditions of Permanency, Non-Permanency, and 

Adulterations, &c, with Tesu of Purity. By H. C. Standagb. Third 

Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth 2/6 

** This work is Indeed inw/ZMwu'w^ r wr. and we can. with good conscience, reeommeBd It to 
aB who coaM la contact with pigments, whether as makers, dealers, or use«s."— CArwr rfo a / Xtview, 



A POCKET-BOOK OP MENSURATION AND QAUQINQ. 

Containing Tables. Rules, and Memoranda for Revenue Officers, Brewers, 
Spirit Merchants. &c. By J. B. Mant, Inland Revenue. Second Edition, 
Revised. i8mo, leather 4/0 

•' SlMukl be tai the hands of every piactical biewet.'— Smwrf* Ttmnrnt, 

C 2 



36 CROSBY LOCKWOOD «• SON'S CATALOGUE. 

INDUSTRIAL ARTS, TRADES, AND 

M ANUFACTURE S. 

THE CULTIVATION AND PREPARATION OF PARA 

RUBBER. 

By W. H. Johnson, F.L.S., F R.H.S., Director of Agriculture, Gold Coast 
Colony, West Africa, Commissioned by Government in 1903 to visit Ceylon to 
Study the Methods employed there in the Cultivation and Preparation of 
Para Rubber and other Agricultural Staples for Market, with a view to Intro- 
duce them into West Africa. Demy 8vo, cloth, i/ust PuAihhed, Net 7/6 
Si;mma,ry op CoNrBNTS: — iNrRouucTORV. — thb Para Rubber Trrb iHevea 

brasilitnsis) AT HOMR and ABROAD.— CULTIVATION OF THR TRHB :— PROPAGATION.— 

SiTB FOR PLANTATION.— Distance Apart to plant the Trees.- Transplanting.— 
Cultivation.— Insect Phsts and Fungoid disrases.— Collecting the Rubber: 

— Various methods Employed in Tapping Rubber Trees. — Flow of Latex 
increased by wounding the tree.— how to tap.— the prrparatir»n of rubber 
FROM THE LATEX:— Latk.k— Various ^fBTHODS Employed inthr preparation of 
RUBBRR.— Suggested Method for Preparing Rubber.— scrap Rubber.— Yield op 
Para Rubbbr from CultivatedTrees:—Cevlon.— Malay peninsula —Gold Coast. 
West Africa.— Establishment and Maintenance of a Para Ru 'Ber Plantation :— 
Ceylon.— Malay peninsula.— Commercial Value of the Oil in Hbvea Sebo& 

TBA MACHINERY AND TEA FACTORIES. 

A Descriptive Treatise on the Mechanical Appliances required in the 
Cultivation of the Tea Plant and the Prraaration of Tea for the Market. By 
A. J. Wallis-Tavlkr, A. M. Inst. C.E. Medium 8vo, 468 pp. With ai8 

Illustrations Nti 26/0 

Summary of Contents. 
Mechanical Cultivation or Tillage of the Soil.— Plucking or Gathbrimg 
the Leaf.— Tea Factories.- the Dressing, Manufacture, or prbparatiom 
op Tea by Mechanical Means. — Artificial withering of the Lkaf.— 
Machines for Rolling or Curling the Leap.- Fbrubntinc Procbss. — 
Machines for the automatic drying or Firing of the leaf.— Machinbs foe 
Non-Automatic Drying or Firing op the Leaf.— Drying or Ffring Machinbs. 

— breaking or CUITING, AND SORTING MACHINES.— PACKING THE TBA.— MBANS 
of TRANSPORT ON TRA PLANTATIONS.— MISCELLANEOUS MACHINERY AND APPARATUS. 

—FINAL Treatment of the Tea.- Tables and Memoranda. 

" The subject of tea machinery is now one of the fint interest to a large class of peopte, to 
whom we strongly commend the \KA\xTM"'-Chafnber of Cemmerct yoummL 

" Contains a very full account of the machinery necessary for the proper outfit of a factoiv, wbA 
al<M> a description of the prncessec best carried out by this va.9KMsMVi,'''—y»unflS9cit^^Arts, 

FLOUR MANUFACTURE. 

A Treatiise on Milling Science and Practice. By Frikdrich Kick, Imperial 

Reeierun^srath, Professor of Mechanical Technology in the Imperial Genaaa 

Poljrtechnic Institute, Prague. Translated from Uie Second Enlarged and 

Revised Edition. By H. H. P. Powlbs, A.M.Inst.C.E. 400 pp.. with 

s8 Folding Plates, and 167 Woodcuts. Royal 8vo, cloth . . £1 6*. 

" This invaluable work is, and will remain, thestandvd authority on the science of mOSiic. . . . 

The miller who has read and digested this work will have laid the foundatioo, so to speak, ef a 

successful career ; he will have acquired a number of general fxlnclples which he can pvocaad to 

apply. In this handsome volume we at last have the accepted text-book of modem nlDinc la good, 

found KncUsh. which has little. If any. trace of the German Idiom."— TA^ MilUr 

** The appearance of this celebrated work In English is very opportune, and British millers 
-Mill, wo are sure, not be slow in availing themselves of its pages."— Am/rrr' G«*eae. 

COTTON MANUFACTURE. 

A Manual of Practical Instruction of the Processes of Opening, Canfing, 
Combing, Drawing, Doubling and Spinning of Cotton, the Methods of 
Dyeing, &c. For the Use of Operatives, Overlookers, and ManaCutnrers. 
By John Lister, Technical Instructor, Pendleton. 8vo, cloth . . 7/8 

" A d'Utinct advance in the literature of cotton manufacture."— AfecMrwvy. 

" It is thoroughly reliable, fulfilling neariy all the requirements desifed."— Gteigvir StrmkL 

MODERN CYCLES. 

A Practical Handbook on their Construction and Repair. By A. T. Waixis- 
Taylbr, a. M. Inst. C. E., Author of " Refrigerating Machinery, ''^&c With 

upwards of 300 Illustrations. Crown 8 vo, cloth 10/0 

"The book will prove a valuable guide for all those who aspire to the manuActuio or 
of their owr nuKhlnes. — TAc FieJd. 



" A very useful book, which is quite entitled to rank as a standard work for stodeots of cvcis 
construction.' — IVJuetitt^. 

MOTOR CARS OR POWER CARRIAGES FOR COMMON 

ROADS. 

By A J. Wallis-Taylkr, A.M.Inst. C.E. Crown 8vo, cloth . . 4/6 
" A work that an mgineer, thinking of tuming his attention to motor*canlage worir, would 
do well to read as a preliminary to starting operations."— j?»^K««n'M;p. 



INDUSTRIAL AND USEFUL ARTS. 37 

PRACTICAL TANNING. 

A Handbook of Modern ProcesesSi Receipts, and Suggestions for the Treatment 
of Hides, Skins, and Pelts of every Description. By L. A. Flemming, 
American Tanner. 47a pages. 8vo, cloth Nel 26/0 

THE ART OP LEATHER MANUFACTURE. 

Beinc a Practical Handbook, in which the Operations of Tanning, Currying, 
and Leather Dressing are fully Described, and the Principles of Tanning 
E3q>Uuned, and many Recent Processes Introduced ; as also Methods for the 
Estimation of Tannm, and a Description of the Arts of Glue Boiling, Gut 
Dressing, ftc By Albxandbr Watt. Fourth Edition. Crown 8to. cloth. 

9/0 

1 A totmd, compnhensl're treatise on tasuiinff and Us accessories. The book is an WDinently 



I INXxluctlon, whteh fedounds to the cremt of both author and pubUshen."— CA<mi<«i 

aCVMW. 

THE ART OP 50AP-MAKINO. 

A Practical Handbook of the Manufacture of Hard and Soft Soaps, Toilei 
Soaps, &C. Including many New Processes, and a Chapter on the Recovery of 
Glycerine from Waste Leys. By Albxandkr Watt. Sixth Edition, 
including an Appendix on Modem Candlemaking. Crown 8vo, cloth . 7/0 
" A thoraushly practical treatise. We congratulate the author on the success of his endeavout 
to fin a Toid in Engflsh technical Uteraturo."— A«iMr#. 

"The work will prove vary usehd, not merely to the technological student, but to the 
psactlcal soap boiler who wishes to understand the theory of his art." — Cfutnicai News. 

PRACTICAL PAPER-MAKINO. 

A Manual for Paper-Makers and Owners and Managers of Paper-Mills. With 

Tables, Calculations, &c. By G. Clappbrton, Paper-Maker. With Illus> 

trations of Fibres from Micro-Photographs. Crown 8vo, cloth 0/0 

" The autlior caters for the requirements of responsible mill hanck, apprentices, Ac. , whilst 
his mwp^*** will be found of great service to students of technology, as well as to veteran ^per* 
and mlU owners. The illustrations form an excellent feature."— Th* World 's Pt^/tr Tradt 



THB>RT OP PAPER-MAKING. 

A Practical Handbook of the Manufacture of Paper from Rags, Esparto, 
Straw, and other Fibrous Materials. Including the Manufacture of Pulp from 
Wood Fibre, with a Description of the Machinery and Appliances used. To 
which are added Details of Processes for Recovering Soda from Waste Liquors. 
By Albxandbr Watt. With Illustrations. Crown Svo, cloth . . 7/O 

'It may be regarded as the standard work on the subject. The book is full ofTsluablc 
Ion. The ' Art of Paper- Making ' is in every respect a model of a text-book, either for a 
i class, or for the private student. '—Pap*r and Printing Tradts yntmal. 



A TREATISE ON PAPER. 

For Printers and Stationers. With an Outline of Paper Manufacture ; Complete 
TiJ>les of Sizes, and Specimens of Different Kinds of Paper. By Richard 
Parkinson, late of the Manchester Technical School. Demy Svo, cloth 8/6 

CEMENTS, PA5TB5, OLUE5, AND OUM5« 

A Practical Guide to the Manufacture and Application of the various Aggluti* 
nants required in the Building, Metal- Working, Wood- Working, and Leather- 
Working Trades, and for Workshop and Ottace Use. With upwards of ooa 
Recipes. By H. C. Standagb. Third Kdition. Crown Svo, cloth Sf/O 

**We have pleasure in speaking favouratilv of this volume. So far as we have had 
wbkh Is not inconsiderable, this manual is trustwonhy."— ^M«m>Mm. 



THE CABINET-MAKER'S GUIDE 

TO IHB BNTIkB CONSTRUCTION OP CABINBT WORK. 

Including Veneering, Marquetrie, Buhlwork, Mosaic, Inlaying, &c. By 
Richard Bitmbad. Illustrated with Plans, Sections, and Working Drawings. 
Small crown Svo, cloth 2/8 

FRENCH POLISHINQ AND ENAMELLING. 

A Practical Work of Instruction. Including Numerous Recipes for making 
Polishes, Varnishes, Glase-Lacquers, Revivers, &c. By Richard Bitmbad, 
Author of " The Cabmet- Maker's Guide." Small crown Svo, cloth . 1/6 



38 CROSBY LOCK WOOD S' SON'S CATALOGUE. 



WATCH REPAIRING, CLEANING, AND ADJUSTING. 

A Practical Handbook dealing with the Materials and Tools Used, and the 
Methods of Repairing, Cleaning, Altering, and Adjusting all kinds of English 
and Foreign M^ntches, Repeaters, Chronographs and Marine Chronometers. 
Bv F. J. Garrard, Springer and Adjuster of Marine Chronometers and Deck 
Watches for the Admiralty. With over aoo Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth. 

iV^/ 4/6 

MODERN HOROLOGY, IN THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

Translated from the French of Claudius Saunibr. ex-Director of the School 
of Horology at Macon, by Julien Tripplin, F.R.A.S., Besancoa Watch 
Manufacturer, and Edward Kigg, M.A., Assayer in the Royal Mint. With 
Seventy-eight Woodcuts and Twenty-two Coloured Copper Plates. Scoood 
Edition. Super-royal 8 vo, £2 2 •. doth ; half-calf . . £2 10a. 



" TiMve is no horologlcal work in the En^riish lanpiag* at all to be cooipaiwl to thhj 
tloD of M. SauQier's for clearness and completeness. It is alike good as a gulae for the stira 
as a leferance for the experienced horologut and skilled woricman."— /f^rw/qfica/ 7«wrMJL 

** The latest, the most complete, and the most reliable of those tttenury prooiictioiis to which 
o o nthi e nt al watchmakers are indebted for the mechanical superiority over their Ensliah tuatlisea 
—hi tet. the Book of Books is M. Saunter s * Treatise.' "—frm tckma J kt r, ytwtUtr, tmdSihmtamWk 



THE WATCH ADJUSTER'S MANUAL. 

A Practical Guide for the Watch and Chronometer Adjuster in Making. 
Springing, Timing and Adjusting for Isochronism, Positions and Temperatures. 
By C. E. Fkitts. 370 pp., with Illustrations, Svo, cloth ... 1 Q/O 

THE WATCHMAKER'S HANDBOOK. 

Intended as a Workshop Companion for those engaged in Watchmaking and 

the Allied Mechanical Arts. Translated from the French of Claudius 

Saunibr, and enlarged by Juubn Tripplin, F.R.A.S., and Edward Rigo, 

M. A., Assayer b the Royal Mint. Third Edition. Cr. Bvo, cloth. . Q/Q 

" Each part Is trulv a treatise in itselC The arrangement Is good and the langnsge b dear 
and concise. It is an admirable guide for the young inxc\aa»k.vt."^BHgiiU€riti£. 

HISTORY OP WATCHES & OTHER TIMEKEEPERS. 

By Jambs F. Kbndal, M.B.H. Inst. 1/6 boards; or cloth, gilt . 2/6 
" The best which has yet appeared on this subject in the English language."— JMkfMta. 
" Open the book where you may, there is interesting matter in it coocemlqg the h g e a ioe e 
devices 01 the ancient or modern horoioger."— ^Sa/Kf1^Jr Rgviem-, 

ELECTRO'PLATINQ&ELECTRO'REFININQOPJVIETALS. 

Being a new edition of Alexander Watt's " Electro -Dbposition.** Re* 
vised and Largely Rewritten by Arnold Philip, B.Sc., A.I.E.E., Principal 
Assistant to the Admiralty Chemist. Large Crown 8vo, cloth. . N§i 1 2/6 

** Altogether the work can be highly rrcoir mended to every clectro>plater, and Is of m- 
doubted interest to every electro-inetaUuigist.''— irVf-r/rica/^mVw. 

"Eminently a book for the practical worker in electiDKknMdtiofi. It contains pwrtkil 
deacfiptk}ns of methods, processes and materials, as actually puisuea and used In the wodohoix''— 
Bngiiutr, 

fiLECTRO-METALLURQY. 

Practically Treated. By Albxandek Watt. Tenth Edition, including the 

most recent Processes, xamo, cloth 8/6 

" From this book both amateur and artisan may leain everything necassaiy for the Meeaaafui 
prosecution of electroplating."— /r«n. 

JEWELLER'S ASSISTANT IN WORKING IN GOLD. 



A Practical Treatise for Masters and Woricmen, Compiled from the 

of Thirty Years' Workshop Practice. By Gborgb £. Gbb. Crown 8^ 7/6 



" This manual of technical educatloa to appanody destined to be a vakiabit 
•handicraft which to oeitainly capabl e of greet hnpro^ement."— TTu Times, 

CLECTROPLATINQ. 

A Practical Handbook on the Deposition of Copper, Silirar, Nickel, Gold, 
Aluminium, Brass, Platinum, &c., &c. By J. W. Urquhabt, C.E. Foortb 
Edition, Revised. Crovm 8vo, cloth. 6/0 

" An excellent practical manual."— J^nin'fMvWMr. 

** An esceOent work, giving the newest infonnation."— AfrwAirfae/ ytmmml. 



INDUSTRIAL AND USEFUL ARTS. 39 



ELECTROTYPINQ. 

The Reproduction and MuItipUcaiion of Printing Surfaces and Works of Art 
by the Klectro-Deposition of Metals. By J. W. Ukquhast, C.B. Crown 8vo, 
doth 5/Q 

** The book li thorougl^ practical : the reader Is. thetefote, conducted through the leading 
laws of electiicity, then thiougii the metab used by electrotypen, the apparatus, and the depositing^ 
procenas. up to the final prepara t ion of the work?*— '^rT ^tummi. 



iiOLD5MITH'5 HANDBOOK. 

By Gborgs E. Gbb, Jeweller, &c. Fifth Edition. lamo, cloth . . 3/0 
"A good, sound educator."— #/'«r«<(yin/ Jf^itrruU, 

SILVERSMITH'S HANDBOOK. 

By Gborgk E. Gbb, Jeweller, ftc. Third Edition, with numerous Illustra- 
tioiu. lamo, cloth 3/0 

" The chief meift of the work Is Its practical character. . . . The woricera In the trade will 
■paadfly discover Its merits when they sit down to study It." — Engiish Meckanic 

*«* Tht abov§ two works togtlhtr^ Mtrongly half-bound^ pries 7s. 

5HEET METAL WORKER'5 INSTRUCTOR. 

Comprising a Selection of Geometrical Problems and Practical Rules for 
Describing the Various Patterns Required by Zinc, Sheet-Iron, Copper, and 
Tin-Plate Workers. By Rbubbn Hbnrv Warn, Practical Tin-Plate Worker. 
New Edition, Revised and greatly Enlarsed by Joseph G. Horner, 
A.M.I.M.E. Crown 8vo, 954 pp., with 430 Illusirauons, cloth . 7/6 

SAVOURIES AND SWEETS 

Suitable for Luncheons and Dinners. By Miss M. L. Allen (Mrs. A. 
Macaire), Author of '* Breakfast Dishes," &c. Twenty-ninth Edition. F'cap 
8vo, sewed *! /Q 

BREAKFAST DISHES 

For Every Morning of Three Month*. By Miss Allen (Mrs A. Macaire), 
Author of " Savouries and Sweets," &c. Twenty-second Edition. F'cap 8vo, 
sewed -|/0 

BREAD & BISCUIT BAKER'S & SUQAR-BOILER'S 

A55I5TANT. 

Including a large variety of Modern Recipes. With Remarks on the Art of 

Bread-m^cing. By Robert Wells. Third Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth . f /Q 

" A larfe number of wrinkles for the ordinary cook, as well as the baker. "-^SailMn<ay Rtvitw. 

PASTRYCOOK & CONFECTIONER'S OUIDE. 

For Hotels, Restaurants, and the Trade in general, adapted also for Family 

Use. By R. Wells, Author of " The Bread and Biscuit Baker " . .1/0 

** We cannot speak too highly of this really excellent work. In these days of keen competition 
our veaden cannot do better than puichaae thb book."— Ar^kfr*/ TWnm. 

ORNAMENTAL CONFECTIONERY. 

A Guide for Bakers. Confectioners and Pastrycooks ; including a variety of 
Modern Recipes, and Remarks on Decorative and Coloured Work. With xaa 
Original Designs. By Robert Wells. Crown 8vo, cloth 5/0 

"A Taloable work, practical, and should be in the hands of every baker and confoctloner. 
Tba lUustratlve designs are worth treble the amount charged for the work."— AoAtfr'i Timu. 

MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER. 

Containing a large Collection of Redoes for Cheap Cakes, Biscuits, &c. With 
remarks on the Ingredients Used in their Manufacture. By R. Wells. 1/0 
" The work is of a decidedly practical chaiacter, and In every recipe ward b had to economical 
m9MDfi."—N«rth BrUtsM Daiiy Mail. 

RUBBER HAND STAMPS 

And the Manimilation of Ruhher. A Practical Treatise on the Manufacture of 
Indiarubber Hand Stamps, Small Articles of Indiarubber, The Hektograph, 
Special Inks, Cements, and Allied Subjects. By T. O'Conor Sloanb, aTm., 
Ph.D. With numerous Illustrations. Square 8vd, cloth. . , 5/O 



40 CROSBY LOCKWOOD &■ SON'S CATALOGUE. 

HANDYB00K8 FOR HANDIGRAFT8. 

BY PAUL N. HASLUCK. 

Editor of " Work " (New Series), Author of " Lathe Work," " Milling Mochbei," ftc 

Crown 8vo, 144 pp., price xs. each. 

BSr Thts§ Handtbooks havt butt writtm to supplv informoHoH for Wobkmbm. 
Students, and Amateurs in the several Handicrafts^ on the actual Practicb cf 
the Workshop, and are intended to convey in plain language Tbchnical Know- 
LXDGB of the several Crafts. In describing the processes employed, and the mampu- 
lotion of material, workshop terms are used ; workshop practice is fully expUumed : 
and the text is freely illustrated with drawings of mwUm tools, appliances, ana 
processes. __ _ _ _ 

METAL TURNER'S HANDYBOOK. 

A Practical Manual for Workers at the Foot-Lathe. With xoo IIlustratioQS. 

1/0 

" The book will be of wrvice alike to the amateur and the artisan tamer. It dlt|ilaf» 
thorouch knowledge of the subject."— &v^mmm. 

WOOD TURNER'S HANDYBOOK. 

A Practical Manual for Workers at the Lathe. With over 100 Illnstracioiu. 

1/0 

" We recominend the book to young turners and amateun. A multitnde of liuiliinen have 
hitherto sought in vain for a manual of this special iad\isXxy."--MecMaHicttt H^erld. 

WATCH JOBBER'5 HANDYBOOK. 

A Practical Manual on Cleaning, Repairing, aad A4fQSting. With upwards of 

zoo Illtistrations • . • • I/O 

" We strongly advise all young persons connected with the watch tiade to acqMiie and tcudy 
this Inexpensive work."—C/*r/t€wweii ChrcnicU. 

PATTERN MAKER'S HANDYBOOK. 

A Practical Manual on the Construction of Patterns for Poanders. With 
upwards of 100 Illustrations ^ . .1/0 

" A most Taluable, if not indispensable, manual for the pattern 1 ' " 



MECHANIC'S WORKSHOP HANDYBOOK. 

A Practical Manual on Mechanical Manipulation, embracing Infionnatioii 
on various Handicraft^ Processes. With Useful Motes and Miscellaneoas 

Memoranda. Comprising about aoo Subjects 1 /Q 

"A very clever and useful book, which should be found in every workshop; and It shoiHa 
cenainly find a place in all technical schools."— Sa/Mnfay JUvttm, 

MODEL ENGINEER'S HANDYBOOK. 

A Practical Manual on the Construction of Model Steam Bogines. With 

upwards of 100 Illustrations I/Q 

" Mr. Hasluck has produced a very good little \>OQlk.''—BuiUUr» 

CLOCK JOBBER'S HANDYBOOK. 

A Practical Manual on Cleaning, Repairing, and Adjusting. With upwards of 

xoo Illustrations I/Q 

" It is of inestimable service to those commencing the trader "'—C ov t tU r y Strnndtn^ 

CABINET WORKER'S HANDYBOOK. 

A Practical Manual on the Tools, Materials, Appliances, and Procenes 
employed in Cabinet Work. With upwards of xoo Illustrations > 1/0 

Mr. Hasluck's thorough-going little Handybook is amongtt the moet practical guides we 



have seen for beginners in cabmet-work."— SafuriMy Revitw. 

WOODWORKER'S HANDYBOOK. 

Embracing Information on the Tools, Materials, Appliances and Processes 
Employed in Woodworking. With 104 Illustrations I/Q 

" Written by a man who knows, not only bow work ought to be done, but how to do It, MM 
how to convey his knowledge to <3X)Mn."—EHginteriHg, 

" Mr. Hasluck writes admirably, and gives complete Instructions. "•'^ngimatr. 

" Mr. Hasluck combines the experience of a practical teacher with the manipulative skill and 
scientific knowledge of processes of the trained mechanician, aad the «"»«"«»t ate marvels of what 
can be produced at a popular price. "—5cA«0/maxcrr. 

"Helpful to workmen ot all ages and degrees of experience."— ZM!^ CAreitick, 

" Concise, clear, and practical."— .Sa«Mr<<«y Review. 



COMMBRCE, COUNTING-HOUSE WORK, TABLES. <ft«. 41 

COMMERCE, COUNTING-HOUSE WORK, 

TABLES, ETC, 



LES50NS IN COMMERCE. 

By Professor R. Gambaro, of the Royal High Commercial School at Genoa. 
Edited and Revised by Jambs Gault, Professor of Commerce and Commercial 
Law in King's College, London. Fourth Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth . 8/6 

** The publisheis of this wowk hsre rendered conildeimble service lo the cause of commaiclal 
edacatloa by the oppottune prodactloa of this volume. . . . The woik Is peculiarly acceptable to 
Bagilsh leaders and an admirable addition to mrhting class books. In a phrase, w« think the woifc 
attains Its object In furnishing a brief account of those laws and customs of BiWsh trade wteh which 
tlie cooamercial man interested therein should be famili a r . "— CA a iwArr ^Comtrntrct jou r n a l, 

" An invaluable guide In the hands of those who are preparing for a conunenul career, and. 
In fhct, the infoimatloa it contains on matters of busineH atiould be fanprassed on every one."— 
CttmHng HouM, 

THE PORBIQN COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENT. 

Being Aids to Commercial CorresfMndence in Five Languages— English, 
French, German, Italian, and Spanish. By Conrad E. Bakks. Third 
Edition, Carefully Revised Throughout. Crown 8vo, cloth . . 4/0 

" Whoever wishes to conespond in all the languages mentioned by Mr. Baker cannot do 
better than study this work, the materials of which are ex c ellent and conveniently arranged. They 

: not of entire specimen letters, but— what are fu more useful— short passages, sentences, or 

s exprassing the same general idea in various forms."— ^M#m«mipi. 

" A carefiil examination has convinced us that It Is unusually c o m p lete, weO arranged and 
leBabia. The book is a thoroughly good one. "—^choo t m ms Ur, 

FACTORY ACCOUNTS: their PRINCIPLES & PRACTICE. 

A Handbook for Accountants and Manufisctnrers, with Appendices on the 
Nomenclature of Machine Details; the Income Tax Acts; the Ratine of 
Factories ; Fire and Boiler Insurance ; the Factory and Workshop Acts, &c., 
including also a Glossary of Terms and a large number of Specimen Rulings. 
By Emila Garckk and J. M. Fblls. Fifth Edition, Revised and Enlargol. 
Demy 8vo, cloth 7/6 

" A very Interesting description of the requirements of Factory Accounts. . . . The principle 
of assimilating the Factory Accounts to the general commercial books Is one which we thoroughly 
agree with."— ^ciWMwAiM/r' y^Hrftal. 

" Characterised by extreme thoroughness. There are few owners of factories who would not 
derive great benefit from the perusal of this most admirable •wKthL.''—LocmlG0vtmmtnt Chr»n4cU. 

MODERN METROLOGY. 

A Manual of the Metrical Units and Systems of the present Century. With 
an Appendix . containing a proposed English System. By Lowis D. A. 
Jackson, A. M. Inst. C. £., Author of " Aid to Survey Practice," &c. Large 

crown 8vo, cloth 1 2/6 

" We recommend the work to all interested in the practical reform of our weights and 



A SERIE5 OP METRIC TABLE5. 

In which the British Standard Meastires and Weights are compared with those 
of the Metric System at present in Use on the Continent. By C. H. Dowling, 

C.E. 8vo, cloth 10/6 

" Mr. DowUng's Tables are well put together as a ready recfconec for the conversion of one 
Into the Q/tbmi"—AUumnttn. 



IRON AND METAL TRADE5' COMPANION. 

For Expeditiously Ascertaining the Value of any Goods bought or sold by 
Weight, from is. per cwt. to zias. per cwt., and from one fisrthing per pound to 
one shilling per pound. By Thomas Downis. Strongly bound in leather, 
396 pp 0/0 

" A most useful set of Ubles. nothing like them before maia)titA."—BuUdiMr Ntwt. 

'* Although specially hdapced to the iron and metal trades, the Ubles will be found uselbl ia 
•very odier buSness in which merchandise b bought and sold \3y weight."- ^a^/aw> Acw/. 



42 CROSBY LOCKWOOD ^ SON'S CATALOGUE. 



NUMBER, WEIGHT, AND FRACTIONAL CALCULATOR. 

Containing npwards of 950,000 Separate Calcalattoos, showing at a Glance the 
Value at 439 Different Rates, ranging from T^^ith of a Penn^ to aos. each, or per 
cwt., and £vo per ton, of any number of articles consecutively, from x to 470. 
Any number ot cwtsi^ ors., and lbs., from i cwt. to 470 cwts. Any nnmbcr of 
tons, cwts., qrs., and lbs., from x to x,ooo tons. By William Chadwicx, 
Public AccountanL Fourth Edition, Revised and Improved. 8vo, stroogly 

bound 18/6 

" It Is u easy of reference for any answer or any Dumber of uiswen as a dl c tio n a i y. For 
inakln^ up accounts or osdniates Um book must prove mTaluable to all wbo have any c o nri c i e ra bie 
quantity of calculations InTolvine price and measure in any combination to do." — Bn^tutr. 
" The most perfect work of the kind yet preperad."— CAu^ww Htrald, 

THE WEIGHT CALCULATOR. 

Being a Series of Tables upon a New and Comprehensive Plan, exhibiting at 
one Reference the exact Value of any Weight from x lb. to 15 tons, at 300 
Prc^essive Rates, frt>m \di, to i6Ss. per cwt., and containing x86.ooo Direct 
Answers, which, with their Combinations, consisting of a angle additioo 
(mostly to be performed at sightX will afford an aggregate (H xo,a66,ooo 
Answers ; the wnole being calciuated and designed to ensure conrectncss and 
promote despatch. By Hbnrv Harbbn, Accountant. Sixth Edition, carefully 
Corrected. Royal 8vo, strongly half-bound £1 ff •• 

" A practical and useful work of reference for men of boslncai generally. "— /rwnwgiMy . 

" Of priceless value to busineaa nten. It is a neceasaiy book fai all meecantfle oBces."— 
Sh^gUtd indt^tndtni. 

THE DISCOUNT GUIDE. 

Comprising several Series of Tables for the Use of Merchants, Manufaanicra, 
Ironmongers, and Others, by which maybe ascertained the Exact Profit arising 
from anv mode of usins Discounts, either in the Purchase or Sale of Goods, ana 
the method of either Altering a Rate of Discount, or Advancing a Price, so as 
to produce, by one operation, a sum that will realise any required Profit tthitx 
allowing one or more Discounts : to which are added Taoles of Profit or 
Advance from x^ to 90 per cent.. Tables of Discount from x^ to 98] per cent., 
and Tables of Commission, ftc, from | to xo per cent. By Hbnrv Harbbn, 
Accountant. New Edition, Corrected. Demy 8vo, half-bound . £1 ffs. 



" a book such as this can only be appreciated by busincas men. to whom the saving ef tkaa 
means saving of money. The work must prove of great value to merchants. manuCKtuien, aad 
general traders."— ^rttCrA Trad* JcurHoi, 

TABLE5 OP WAQB5. 

At 54i 5't 50 Mid aZ Hours per Week. Showing the Amounts of Wages from 
One quarter of an hour to Sixty-four hours, in each case at Rates of Wages 
advancing by One Shilling from 4s. to 555. per week. By Thos. Garbutt, 
Accountant. Square crown Svo, half-bound 8/0 

IRON-PLATE WEIGHT TABLES. 

For Iron Shipbuilders, Engineers, and Iron Merchants. Containing the 
Calculated Weights of upwards of 150,000 diflferent sises of Iron Plates from 
I foot by 6 in. by | in. to xo feet by s feet by x in. Worked out on the Basis of 
40 lbs. to the square foot of Iron of x inch in thidtness. By H. Burunsom 
and W. H. Simpson. 4to, half-bound £1 ffa« 



ORIENTAL MANUALS AND TEXT-BOOKS 

Notice, Messrs. Crosby Lockwood & Son will forward on application a New 
and Revised List of Text-books and Manuals for Students in Oriental 
Languages, many of which are used as Text-books for the Examinations for the 
Indian Civil Service and the Indian Staff Corps; also as Class Books in 
Colleges and Schools In India. 



AGRICULTURE. FARMING. GARDENING, ««. 



43 



AGRICULTURE, FARMING, 
GARDENING, ETC. 

THE COMPLETE GRAZIER AND FARMER'S AND 

CATTLB BRBBDBR'S ASSISTANT. 

A Compendium of Husbandry. Originally Written b^ William Yo17ATT. 
Fourteenth BUiition, entirely Ke-written, considerably Enlarged, and brought 
up to Present Requirements, by William Frbam, LL.D., Assistant Com* 
missioner, Royal Commission on Agriculture, Author of " The Elements of 
Agriculture," &c. Royal 8vo, z,ioo pp., 450 Illustrations, handsomely bound. 

£1 Il«. 60. 



BOOK. I. ON THB VaRIBTIBS, BRBBDING, 

Rbarinc, Fattbning and Manacb* 

UBMT OP CaTTLB. 

Book ii. on thb economy and Man- 
acbmbnt op thb dairy. 

SOCK III. ON THB BRBBDING. RBARIMG. 

AMD MANAGBMBNT OP HORSBS. 
SOCK IV. ON THB BRBBDING, RBAKINC, 

AMD FATTBNING OP SHBBP. 

Book v. on thb Brbbding, rbakjng. 

amd fattbning op swinb. 
book vi. on tub disbasbs op uvb 

STOCK. 



BOOK VII. ON THB BRBBDING, RBARINC 
AND MANAGBMBNT OP POULTRY. 

Book Vlii. on Farm Oppicbs and 

IMPLBMBNTS OP HUSBANDRY. 

BOOK IX. ON THB CULTURB AND MAN- 
AGBMBNT OP Grass Lands. 

Book x. on thb Cultivation and 

APPLICATION OP GRASSBS. PULSB AND 

Roots. 
Book XI. On Manurbs amd thbir 
Application to Grass Land and 

CROPS. 

Book xil. monthly calbndars op 
Farmwork. 



** Dr. FuBBin Is to be congvatulated on the auccesBfuI sttempt he has made to give us a woik 
frtilch will at once become the standoxd classic of the turn practice ot the comitiv. We believe 
-that It will be found that it has no compeer axaoog the many works at present In exmence. . . . 
The Ubutiations are admirable, while the frontispiece, which represents the well-Imown buU, 
New Year's Gift, bred by the Queen, is a work of art "— TJu Tttm*. 

** The book must be recognised as occupyfaig the proud position of the most exhaustlre work 
■of P siw r ence in the English language on the subject wHh which it deals."— >fM«furMj*«. 

** The most comprehensive guide to modem &rm practice that exists in the EngUsh language 
to^lay. . . . The book is one that ought to be on every turn and in the library of every land 
owner, "—ifenk Lan4 Ejc^rtss. 

*' In point of exhaustiveness and accuracy the work will certainly hold a pre.emlnent and 
uilque podtion among books dealing with sdendfic agricultural practke. It is, in fact, an agiicul- 
tuid Ubnuy of ItseU'^—Ar^rM Briitsh AgricuitHrist. 

FARM Live 5T0CK OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

By Robert Wallace, F.L.S., F.R.S.E., &c. Professor of Agricultare and 
Rural Economy in the Univ«rsity of Edinourgh. Third Edition, thoroughly 
Re^nsed and considerably Enlarged. With over zao Phototypes of Prise 
Stock. Demy 8vo, 384 pp., with 79 Plates and Maps, doth. . 1 2/6 

** A really complete work on the history, breeds, and management of the fwm stock of Great 
Britaia, and one vddch Is likely to find Its way to the shelves of every country gentleman's Hbrary." 
^Ttu T\fm€s. 

"The * Farm Live Stock of Great Britain' Is a productloa to be proud of, and Its Issue not the 
4east of the services which its author has rendered to agricultural science."— SmMtA Farmer, 

NOTE-BOOK OP AGRICULTURAL FACTS & FIQURES 

FOR FARMERS AND FARM STUDENTS. 

By Primross McConnbll, B.Sc.. Fellow of the Highland and Agricultural 
Society. Author of "Elements of Farming." Seventh Edition, Re-written, 
Revised, and greatly Enlarged. Fcap. 8vo, 480 pp., leather, gilt edges. 

\Just Published. Net 7/6 

CONTENTS :— Surveying and Levelling.— weights and Measures.- Machiner y 
.and Buildings. — Labour. — Operations. — Draining. — embanking. — Geological 
Memoranda. — Soils. — Manures. — Cbopping. — Crops.— Rotations. — Weeds. — 
Feeding.— Dairying.— Live stock.— Horses.- Cattle. — shebp.—pigs.— Poultry.— * 
torbstry.— Horticulture.— Miscellaneous. 

** Ko farmer, and certainly no agricultural student, ought to be without this tmUtum-in^mrvo 
maaaal of all subjects connected with the term."— A^rc* British Africutturist. 

** This little pocket-book pontains a large amount of useful infonnation upon all kinds of 
agricultural subjects. Something of the kind has long been wanted."— iVarA Lant Exptess. 

"The aBo«mt of Information It contains Is aMst surpiUng ; the arrangement of the matter is 
ao metho <Bra l al t hough so c o m pre is ed - a s to belnteBlglMe to eyeriioaewtio takes a glance throegh 
« pages. They teem with information."— ^anw and Home, 

THE ELEMENTS OF AGRICULTURAL QEOLOOY. 

A Scientific Aid to Practical Fanning. By Prim rose McConnsll. Author of 
"Note- Book of Agricultural Facts and Figures." 8vo, cloth . Net 21/Q 
"On every page the work bears the impress of a masterly knowledge of the subjea dealt 
with, and we have notJihig but unstinted praise to offer. '*—/vv/</. 



44 CROSBY LOCKWOOD «• SON'S CATALOGUE. 
BRITISH DAimriNQ. 

A Handjr Volnme on tbe Work of tbe Dairy-Fnrm. For the Uae of TecbnloJ 
Instruction Classes, Students in AgricultnnJ Colleges and the Working Dairy- 
Fanner. By Prof. J. P. Shbldom. With Illustrations. Second Bdation. 
Revised. Cfrown 8vo, cloth 2/o 



" Confidently racominended as a oaaAil text 'book on djdvy fanolnff."— ^^rfcwAhcns/ 
** PiobaUy toe best half-crown manual on daliy woik that has yet bean produced." 
MHMsk AgrUuUurisL 

"It b the Mundeit Utile work we have yet seen on tiie subject.''— 77l« Times. 

MILK, CHEESE, AND BUTTER. 

A Practical Handbook on their Properties and the Processes of their Produc- 
tion. Including a Chapter on Cream and the Methods of its Separation firom 
Milk. By Tohn Oliver, late Principal of the Western Dairy Institute, 
Berkeley. With Coloured Plates and aoo Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth. 

7/a 

" An exhanitlTe and maateiiy productkm. It may be cordially racommeaded to all ttudaits 
and ptacdtlonen of dairy science.' —AVrM BriHsk AgricuUurist 

" We recommend this very compreheosiTe and careluUy- written book to dalry.fiumeis and 
students of dairying. It ii a dlstioct acquisition to the library of the agriculturist. "-^/riCMiewni/ 

SYSTEMATIC SMALL FARMING. 

Or, The Lessons of My Farm. Being an Introduction to Modem Farm 

Practice for Small Farmers. By R. Scott Burm, Author of "Outlines of 

Modem Farming," &c. Crown 8vo, cloth O/O 

" This is the completest book of its class we have seen, and one which every amateur fiumer 
will read with pleasure, and accept as a guide."— /'ilc/rf. 

OUTLINES OP MODERN FARMING. 

By K. Scott Burn. Soils, Manures, and Crops — Farming and Farming 
Economy — (Rattle, Sheen, and Horses — Management of Dairy^ PigSi uiid 
Poultry — Utilisation of Town-Sewage, Irrigation, &c. Sixth Edition. In One 
Vol., 1,950 pp., half-bound, profusely Illustrated 12/0 

FARM ENQINEERINQ, The COMPLETE TEXT-BOOK of. 

Comprising Draining and Embanking | Irrigation and Water Supplv ; Farm 
Roads, Fences and Gates ; Farm Buildmgs ; Barn Implements and Machines; 
Field Implements and Machines ; Agricultural Surveving, &c. Bv Professor 
John Scott. In One Vol., 1,150 pp., halMiotmd, with over 600 Illustrations. 

12/0 
"Written with great care, as well as with knowledge and abiHty. The author has done his 
woric wen ; we have found him a very trustworthy guide wherever we have tested Us ttatemcots. 
The volume will be of great value to agricultural students."— J/«r4 Lant Exfrtss, 

THE FIELDS OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

A Text- Book of Agriculture. Adapted to the Syllabus of the Science and 
Art Department. For Elementary and Advanced Students. By Hugh 
Clements (Board of Trade). Second Edition, Revised, with Additions. 

i8mo, cloth 2/6 

" It is a long time since we have seen a book which has pleased us more, or wiilch contabw 
such a vast and useful fund of Imowledge." — EducatioKai TimtM. 

TABLES and MEMORANDA for FARMERS, ORAZIERS, 

AORICULTURAL 5TUDBNT5, PURVEYORS, LAND AQBNTA, 
AUCTIONBBR5, &c. 

With a New System of Farm Book-keeping. By Sidney Francis. Fifth 
Edition. 979 pp., waistcoat-pocket size, limp leather . . '1/6 



" Weighing less than 1 oc, and occupying no more space than a match-box, it contains ai 
of ftcts and calculations which has never beiore, in such handy form, been obtainable. Every 
operation on tlte farm is dealt with. The worIc may be taken as thorougiily accurate, the whole of 
the taUes having been revised by Dr. Fream. We cordially recommend tLT—BttTs H'ukij 
MtMStngtr. 

THE R0THAM5TED EXPERIMENTS AND THEIR 

PRACTICAL LB550N5 FOR PARMBRS. 

Fait I. Stock. Part II. Crops. By C. J. R. Tiprss. Crown 8vo, doth. 

8/6 

** We have no doubt that the book win be wclcoaed by a large class of farmoii and otbai* 
inteceated in a^iicultuf."— i5<ewrf»rrf. 



AGRICULTURE. FARMING, GARDENING, Sh:, 45 



FERTILISERS AND FEEDING STUFFS. 

Their Properties and Uses. A Handbook for the Practical Farmer. By 
Bernard Dyrr, D.Sc. (Lond.). With the Text of the Fertilisers and Feeding 
Staffs Act of 1893, The Regulations and Forms of the Board of Agriculture, 
and Notes on the Act by A. J. David, B. A., LL.M. Fourth Edition, Revised. 
Crown 8vo, cloth 1/0 

"This Bttle book is precisely what it professes to be— *A Handbook for the Pnctical 
Famier.' Dr. Dyer has done fennpn good service in placing at their disposal so much oaeAil 
kifonnation in so intelligible a form."— rA^ ritms. 

BEES FOR PLEASURE AND PROFIT. 

A Guide to the Manipidatioa of Bees, the Production of Honey, and the 
General Management of the Apiary. By G. Gordon Samson. With 
numerous Illustrations. Crown 8vo, wrapper 1/0 

BOOK-KEEPING for FARMERS and ESTATE OWNERS. 

A Practical Treatise, presenting, in Three Plans, a System adapted for all 
Classes of Farms. By Johnson M. Woodman, Chartered Accountant. 
Fourth Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth. [Just Publisktd, 2/6 

** The voiume is a capital study of a most Important subject."- ^fHieM/A<f«/ GmMMt, 

WOODMAN'S YEARLY FARM ACCOUNT BOOK. 

Giving Weekly Labour Account and Diary, and showing the Income and 
Expenditure under each Department of Crops, Live Stock, Dairy, ftc, &c. 
With Valuation, Profit and Loss Account, and Balance Sheet at the End ot the 
Year. By Johnson M. Woodman, Chartered Accountant. Second Edition. 

Folio, half-bound ^ti 7/6 

" Contains every requisite for keeping farm accounts readfly and accurately."— /tf^WcwiVMrs: 

THE FORCING GARDEN. 

Or, How to Grow Early Fruits, Flowers and Vegetables. With Plans and 
Estimates for Building Glasshouses, Pits and Frames. With Illustrations. 

By Samubl Wood. Crown 8vo, cloth . 8/6 

" A good book, containing a great deal of Taluable teaching.**- G mrdtfurs' Magmmint. 

A PLAIN GUIDE TO GOOD GARDENING. 

Or, How to Grow Vegetables, Fruits, and Flowers. By S. Wood. Fourth 

Edition, with considerable Additions, and numerous Illustrations. Crown 

8vo, doth 8/6 

'* A very good boolc, and one to be lalghly recommended as a practical guide. The practical 
dlrectkms are excellent."— ^iA<«urMM. 

MULTUM-IN-PARVO GARDENING. 

Or, How to Make One Acre of Land produce ;£6so a year, by the Cultivation 
of Fruits and Vegetables ; also. How to Grow Flowers in Three Glass Houses, 
so as to realise ^176 per annum clear Profit. By Samubl Wood, Author of 
" Good Gardening, &c. Sixth Edition, Crown 8 vo, sewed . . • 1/0 

THE LADIES' MULTUM-IN-PARYO FLOWER GARDEN. 

And Amateur's Complete Guide. By S. Wood. Crown Svo, cloth . 3/6 

POTATOES: HOW TO GROW AND SHOW THEM. 

A Practical Guide to the Cultivation and General Treatment of the Potato. 
By J. Pink. Crown Svo 2/0 

MARKET AND KITCHEN GARDENING. 

By C. W. Shaw, late Editor of " GarJening Illustrated." Crown Svo, cloth. 

3/6 



46 CROSBY LOCKWOOD «• SON'S CATALOGUE, 



AUCTIONEERING, VALUING, LAND 
SURVEYING, ESTATE AGENCY, ETC. 



INWOOD'5 TABLES FOR PURCHASING ESTATES 

AND FOR THB VALUATION OP PROPBRTIBS, 

Including Advowsons, Assurance Policies, Copyholds, Deferred Annnititt, 
Freeholds, Ground Rents, Immediate Annuities, Leaseholds, IJfe Interests, 
Mortgages, Perpetuities, Renewals of Leases. Reversions, Sinking Funds, 
&c., &c. aSth Edition, Revised and Extended bv William Schooling, 
F.R.A.S., with Logarithms of Natural Numbers and Thoman's L<q;aritbinic 
Interest and Annuity Tables. 360 pp., Demy 8vo, cloth. 

i/ust Publuha, N*i 8/0 
" Those Interested In the puichaie and tale of ertates, and to the adjustment of oonpenatloa 
cases, as well as In transactions In annuities. Ufa inaonocea, &c, will find the prnwnt edWoa d 
eminent service."— it MWN<cnt«v. 

" This valuable Dock Itas been considerably enlarged and Improved by the labonn of 
Mr. Schooling, and Is now very complete indeed." — Econormist. 

" AUoi^ether this edition will prove of extreme value to many classes of pfofritlonal nea In 
saving them many long and tedious calculations."— /Htwf/M'x' Review. 

THE APPRAISER, AUCTIONEER, BROKER, HOUSE 

AND aSTATB AQBNT AND VALUBR*5 POCKBT ASSISTANT. 

For the Valuation for Purchase, Sale, or Renemml of Leases, Annuities, and 
Reversions, and of Property generally ; with Prices for Inventories, &c. By 

iOHN Whbbler, Valuer, &c. Sixth Edition, Re-written and grooly Extended 
y C. NoRRis. Royal 3amo, cloth 5/0 

*' A neat and concise book of re f erence, containing an admirable and deariy-azfanged list of 
prices for inventories, and a very pracdcal guide to determine the value of fumituxe,-&c "^-standrntd, 

" Contains a large quantity of varied and uaeftil Infbrmatloa as to the valuatlaa for imtrhane. 
sale, or renewal of leases, annuities and reversions, and of property generally, with prices to 
faiveotorles, and a guide to detecmlne the value of interior fittings and other ( ~ 



AUCTIONEERS: THEIR DUTIES AND LIABILITIES. 

A Manual of Instruction and Counsel for the Yoong Auctioneer. By Robbbt 
Squibbs, Auctioneer. Second Editi<», Revised. I>emy 8vo, doth . 12/8 

" The work is one of general excellent character, and gives much inJoimatloB la a ooa- 
pendioos and satisfactory torm." '-BuiitUr. 

" May be recommended as giving a greet deal of infoimatlon on tite tew nhtlng to 
auctioneers. In a very readable form. — Ziow yMtmal. 

THE AGRICULTURAL VALUER'S ASSISTANT. 

A Practical Handbook on the Valuation of Landed Estates; including 
Example of a Detailed Report on Management and Realisation ; Forms of 
Valuations of Tenant Right ;^ Lists of Local Agricultural Customs ; Scales of 
Compensation under the Agricultural Holdings Act, and a Brief Treatise on 
Compensation under the Lands Clauses Acts, &c By Tom Bright, Agricul* 
tural Valuer. Author of "The Agricultural Surveyor and Elstate Agent's 
Handbook." Fourth Edition, Revised, with Appendix containing a Digest of 
the Agricultural Holdings Acts, 1883 — 2900. Crown 8vo, cloth . Ntt SIO 

'* Full of taUes and examples In connection with the valuation of tenant'rtght, eitatait taboer, 
contents and weights of timber, and fMim produce of all kinds."— ^^virMAWne/ GmMtttt. 

** An eminently practicai handbook, full of practical tables and dataof nndoabted ' 
value to surveyors ana auctioneecs la peaparing valuations of all kinds."— Fa< 



POLE PLANTATIONS AND UNDERWOODS. 

A Practical Handbook on Estimating the Cost of Forming, Reoovadng, 
Improving, and Grabbing Plantations and Underwoods, their Valuatioa for 
Purposes of Transfer, Rental, Sale or Assessment. By Tom Bright. Qnown 
Bvo, doth 8/6 



••To valnen, foiesten and agents It wffl be a welcome tU.'^Nortk BrUtthAgriemlbmrUL 
" Well calnilated to aadst the valuer in the discharge of his dutte^ aad ef undoobfcsd T ' 



and use both to surveyots aod su ct J oaae w la pcapariag vlnaHonsofaB 



AUCTIONEERING, VALUING, LAND SURVEYING, Sni. 47 



AGRICULTURAL SURVEYOR AND ESTATE AGENT'S 

HANDBOOK. 

Of Practical Rules, FormuIaB, Tables, and Data. A Comprehensive Manual 
for the Use of Surveyors, Agents, Landowners, and others interested in the 
Equipment, the Management, or the Valuation of Landed Estates. By 
Tom Bright, Agricultural Surveyor and Valuer, Author of "The Agri* 
cultural Valuer's Assistant," &c. With Illustrations. Fcap. 8vo, Leather. 

AV/ 7/e 

" An exceedingly useAiI book, the contents of which are admirably chosen. The classes for 
whom the woric is intended will find it convenient to have this comprehensive handbook accessible 
for refafence." — Live Stock yourtuU, 

" It is a singularly compact and well informed compendium of the facts and fissures likely to 
be requh«d in estate work, and Is certain to prove of much service to those to whom it is 
addrened." — Scotsman. 

THE LAND VALUER'S BEST ASSISTANT. 

Being Tables on a very much Improved Plan, for Calculating the Value of 
Estates. With Tables for reducing Scotch, Insh, and Provincial Customary 
Acres to Statute Measure, ftc. By R. Hudson, C.B. New Edition. 

Royal 39mo, leather, elastic oand A/O* 

" Of faxalcttlable value to the coontiy gentleman and professional man."— F ji - wM rj* Journal. 

THE LAND IMPROVER'S POCKET-BOOK. 

Comprising Formulse, Tables, and Memoranda required in any Computation 
relating to the Permanent Improvement of Landed Property. By Tohn Ewart, 
Surveyor. Second Edition, Revised. Royal 3amo, oblong, leather . 4/0' 
** A compendious and handy littl votumo."— sJjMdMtor. 

THE LAND VALUER'S COMPLETE POCKET-BOOK. 

Being the above Two Works bound together. Leather .... 7/S 

HANDBOOK OP HOUSE PROPERTY. 

A Popular and Practical Guide to the Purchase, Tenancy, and Com- 
pulsory Sale of Houses and Land, including Dilapidations and Fixtures : 
with Examples of all kinds of Valuations, Information on Building and on the 
right use of Decorative Art. By E. L. Tarbuck, Architect and Surveyor. 
Seventh Edition. lamo, cloth \Just Publuhtd. SIO 

'The advice Is thoroughly practical.*— £aw Journal. 



" For all who have deaUngs with house property, this is an Indispensable guidt."^Decoraiion. 
** Carefully brought up to date, and much unproved by the addition of a divWon on Fine Art. 
A well-written and thoughtial woik.''—Latul Agtnts' Rotord. 



LAW AND MISCELLANEOUS. 



MODERN JOURNALISM. 

A Handbook of Instruction and Counsel for the Voong Journalist. By John 
B. Mackik, Fellow of the Institute of Journalists. Crown 8vo, cloth . 2/0 



" This invaluable guide to JoamaUsm Is a work irtilch all aspirants to a JoumaUatlc caieer wiU- 
tead with advantage. "--ymrMA/if^. 

HANDBOOK FOR SOLICITORS AND ENGINEERS 

Engaged in Promoting Private Acta of Parliament and Provisional Orders for 
the Authorisation of Railways, Tramways, Gas and Water Works, &c. 
By L. L Macassst, of the Middle Temple, Barrister-at-Law, M.I.C.E. 
Bvo, cloth £1 6t. 

PATENTS for INVENTIONS, HOW to PROCURE THEM. 

Compiled for the Use of Inventors, Patentees and others. By G. G. M. 
Hardimgham, Assoc. Mem. Inst. C.E., ftc. Demy 8vo, cloth '1/6 

CONCILIATION & ARBITRATION In LABOUR DISPUTES. 

A Historical Sketch and Brief Statemont of the Present Position of the 
Question at Home and Abroad. By J. S. Jbams. Crown 8vo, aoopp.. 



4« 



CROSBY LOCKWOOD *• SON'S CATALOGUE. 



EVERY MAN'S OWN LAWYER. 

A Handy-Book of the Principles of Law and Equity. With a Concise 
Dictionary of Legal Terms. By A Barkistbr. Forty-second Edition, 
care fully Revised, and comorisingr New Acts of Parliament, including the 
Prevention of Cruelty to Children Act, 1904 ; Weights and Measures Act^ 1904 ; 
Licensing Act, 1904; Shot Hours Act, 1904; as well as the Motor Car Act, 
1903; Employment of Children Act, 1903; Poor Prisoners' Defenc* Ad, 
1903, &c. Judicial Decisions pronounced dumg the year have also been duly 
noted. Crown 8vo, 800 pp., strongly bound in cloth. [Just PubUshtd. 0/8 

*,* TMis Standard Work of Rejermce forms a Complktb Epitomb op the 
Laws op England, contusing {amongst other matter) ; 

THE RIGHTS AND WRONGS OF INDIVIDUALS 



landlord and tenant 
Vendors and purchasers 
Leases and mortgages 

ioiNT-STOCK Companies 
IASTERS. SERVANTS AND WORKMEN 
CONTRACTS AND AGREEMENTS 
MONEY-LENDING, SURBTISHIP 
PARTNERSHIP. SHIPPING LaW 

Sale and purchase of Goods 
Cheques, Bills and Notes 
Bills of Sale, Bankruptcy 
LIFE, Fire, and Marine insurance 
LIBEL AND Slander 



Criminal Law 
Parliamentary ELBcnoNS 
County couNaLS 
District and Parish Councils 
Borough Corporations 
Trustees and Executors 
Clergy and churchwardens 
copyright. Patents, Trade Marks 
husband and Wife, Divorce 
infancy, custody of Children 
Public Health and Nuisances 
Gamk Laws, Gaming. Innkeepers 
Taxes and Death Duties 



Forms of wills, agreements, notices. Ac 



•^ The cbjtct ^f this W0rk is tt enatU those whs eansuUit to hsl^ thomuelvts is tho 
law ; and thereby to dispense, as far as possible, with pr^essiontU assistmnee and adyies. There 
an many wrongs and grievances which persons submit to firom Urns to time throng not 
knowing how or where to e^ly fsr redress/ and mat^y persons have as great a dread ef« 
lawyer's qfflce as ^a Uon's dm. With this book at hand ii is believed that many a SUC-AMD- 
BiGHTPENCE may be saved; many a wrong redressed ; many a right redaimod; many a law 
twit avoided ,- and many an evil abated. The work has estabhshod itsel/ as the standard legai 
adviser ^/eUl classes, and has also mad* a rep%Uait»n/or itstt/ as a tts^/iU book «/ refirenesjbf 
lawyers residing at a distance yVvM law Hbraries, who art glad to have at hand t 
e m b o dyin g recent de e i s i on e and ena o m en i s . 



*,* Opinions of thb Prbss. 

" The amount of information eiven in the volume is simply wonderful. The continued 
popularity of the worlc shows that it (utfils a useful purpose." — Law ycurMal. 

" As a book of reference this volume is without a rival."— Pull Mall Gasette. 

" No Englishman ought to be without this hook.''—£Mj^fieer. 

"Ought to be in every business establishment and in all libraries."— 5A<^f A/ Post. 

" The ' Concise Dictionary ' adds considerably to its value,"— IFestmiMSter Gasette. 

" It Is a complete code of Ensllsh Law wiltten In plain languain, whkh aO can nndcntaad. 
. . . Should be In the hands of erwy biulneM man, and all who wisii to atiolish lawyefsT UBs."— 
tVeekly Times. 

'* A useful and concise epitome of the law, complied with condderable care."— L«w Magmaime. 

" A complete digest of the most useftd facts which constitute English Itw."— Globe. 

"Admirably done, admlnbly arranged, and admitably cheap."— jL«n<r Mercury. 

" A concise, cheap, and complete epitome of the English law. So plainly written thatlMsrlio 
runs may read, and he who reads may understand. "—^i(f»r». 

" A dictionaiy of legal facts wen put together. The book Is a vety useful < 



LABOUR CONTRACTS. 

A Popular Handhook on the Law of Contracts for Works and Services. By 
David Gibbons. Fourth Edition, with Appendix of Statutes by T. F. Uttlsv, 



Solicitor. Fcap. 8vo, cloth 



8/6 



BRADBURY, AGNBW, & CO. LO., PRINTERS, LONDON AND TONBRIDGB. I1S7 : 33.2.05.] 



^i 



WEALE'S SERIES 



OF 



SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL 

WORKS. 



*' It is not too much to say that no books have ever proved more 
popular with or more useful to young engineers and others than the 
excellent treatises comprised in Weale's Series. "—Bngineer. 



^ Jl^in €lttssihh %hU 



CIVIL ENQINEERINQ AND 8URVEYINO S 

MINING AND METALLURGY . . . . S 

MEOHANIOAL ENGINEERING .... 4 

NAVIGATION, SHIPBUILDING, ETa 6 



AROHITECTURE AND BUILDING . 
INDUSTRIAL AND USEFUL ARTS. 
AGRICULTURE, GARDENING, ETa 
MATHEMATICS, ARITHMETICi ETa 



■0CK8 OP REFERENCE AND MISCELLANEOUS VOLUMES 




^r\h 



6 

8 

. ID 

n 



CROSBY LOCKWOOD AND SON, 
7, STATIONERS* HALL COURT, LONDON, E.C. 

1905. 



2 WEALE'S SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL SERIES. 

CIVIL ENGINEERING & SURVEYING. 
OlTil Bntfineering. 

By Hkmicv Law, M.Inst.CK. IncIadioK a Treatise oa Htdkaolic 
Emginbbrimg by G. R. Burnbll, M.I.CE. Seventh Edition, raviaed. 
with Largb Additions by D. K. Clakk, M.I.C.E. . Q/Q 

Pioneer SJntfineering: 

A Treatise on the Engineering Operations connected with the Scttlemeot of 
Waste Lands in New Countries. By Edward Dobsom, li.lNST.CK. 
With numerons PUtet. Second Edition 476 

Iron Bridges of Moderate Span: 

Their Construction and Erection. By IIamilton W. Pbmdkbd. ^i^th 40 
Illustrations . • . 2/0 

Iron and Steel Bridges and Viaducts. 

A Practical Treativ upon their Construction for the nse of Engineers, 
Draughumen, and Students. By Francis Campin, CE. With lUos. 3/6 

Construotional Iron and Steel Work, 

As applied to Public, Private, and Domestic Boildingi. By Francis 
Campin, C.E 3/6 

Tubular and other Iron Girder Bridges. 

Describing the Britannia and Conway Tubular Bridges. By G. Dktsdalb 
Dbmpsby, C.E. Fourth Edition 2/0 

Materials and Oonstruction : 

A Theoretical and Practical Treatise on the Strains, Deslsning, and Ereo 
tioo of Works of Construction. By Francis Campin, C£. . 3/0 

Sanitary Work in the Smaller Towns and in Villages. 

By Charles Slagg, Assoc M.Inst.C.E. Third Edition . . 3/0 

Construction of Roads and Streets. 

By H. Law, CE., and D. K. Clark, CE. Sixth Edition, revised, with 
Additional Chapters by A. J. Wallis-Taylbr, A.M. Inst. CE. . 6/0 

Gas Works, 

Their Construction and Arrangement and the Mannfisctare and Distriba- 
tion of Coal Gas. Originally written by S. Hughes, CE. Ninth Edition. 
Revised, with Notices of Recent Improvements, by Hbnrv O'Comneb, 
A.M. Inst. C.E., Author of "The Gas Engineers* Pocket Book.'* 

i/tttt Ptt^&sJUd. 6/0 

Water Works 

For the Supply of Cities and Towns. With a Desqiption of the^ Principal 



Geolosical Formations of England as in6uencing Supplies of Watar. By 
Samubl Hughbs, F.G.S., CE. Enlarged Edition .... 470 

The Power of Water, 

As applied to drive Flour Mills, and to give motion to Tbrfaines and other 
Hydrostatic Engines. By Joseph Glynn, F.R.S. New Edition . 2/0 

Wells and Well-Sinking. 

By John Gso. Swindell, A.R.I.B.A.jand G. R. Bitrnblu CS. Reviced 
Edition. With a New Appendix on the Qualities of Water. Illostrated 2/0 

The Drainage of Lands, Towns, and Buildings. 

By G. D. Dempsey, CE. Revised, with large Additions on Recent 
Practice, by D. K. Clark, M.I.CE. Thiid Edition . . . 4/6 

The Blasting and Quarrying of Stone, 

For Building and other Purposes. With Remarks on tha Blowing np of 
Bridges. By Gen. Sir J. Burgoynb, K.C.B 1 ^6 

Foundations and Concrete Works. 

With Practical Remarks on Footingf, Plankins, Sand, Concreta B^on, 
nie-driving, Caissons, and CoiTerdams. By E. Dobson. Ninth Ed. t /6 



WBALS'S SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL SERIES. S 
Vnenmatios, 

Including Aocraatici and the Phenomena of Wind Correnta. for the Um of 
B^Einnen. By CHAXLas Tomlinson, F.R.S. Fourth Bdttioa . 1 /O 

I«Ancl »nd Bntfineerintf Surreying. 

For Students and PracticaTUse. ByT. Bakbs, CB. Nineteenth BditloB, 
Revised and Extended by F. E. Dixon. A.M. Inst. CE., Profesiiooal Am»- 
date of the Institution ot Surveyon. With numaraaa IDustFatioas and tw« 
lithographic Plates 2/0 

Hansuration and Measuring. 

For Stndenu and Practical Use. With the Mensuration and LevoIHa| of 
Land for the purposes of Modem Engineering. By T. Bakbk, CE. Mew 
Edition by E. Nucbnt, CE 1/0 

MINING AND METALLURGY. 
Mining Oaloulations, 

For the use of Students Prei>aring for the Examinations for ColUeqr 
Managers' Certificates, comprising numerous Rules and Examples in 
Arithmetic, Algebra, and Mensuration. By T. A. O'Donamub, M.B^. 
First-Class Certificated Colliery Manager 3/S 

Jfincralotfy, 

Rudiments of. By A. Ramsat, F.G.S. Fourth Edition, rerised sad 
enlarged. Woodcuts and Platet 3/0 

<Soal and Goal Mining, 

A Rudimentarr Treatise on. Bt the late Sir Waxingtom W. Smyth, 
F.R.S. Eighth Edition, revised by T. FossTBK Brown . . 3/6 

Metallur^ of Iron. 

Containinc Methods of Assay, AnalvMS of Iron Ores, Processes of Manu- 
facture of Iron and Steel, ftc By li. Badbkman. F.G.S. With numerous 
Illustrations. Sixth Edition, revised and enlarged .... 6/0 

'The Hineral Snnreyor and Valuer** Complete Ooide. 

By W. LiNTBKN. Fourth Edition, with an Appendix on Magnetic aal 
Angular Surveying 3/0 

■Slate and Slate Quarrying: 

Scientific, Practicai7 and CommerciaL By D. C DArm, F.O.S. With 
numerous Illustrations and Folding Plates. Fourdi Edition . 3/0 

X First Book of Mining and Quarrying, 

With the Sciences connected therewith, for Primaij Sdioob and Self-In- 
struction. By J. H. ColUns, F.G.S. Second Edition . . .1/0 

-Subterraneous Surveying, 

With and without the Magnetic Needle. By T. Fbnwick and T. Bakbb, 
CE. Illustrated 2/0 

Mining Tools. 

Manual of. By Wiluam MoKCANt, Lecturer on Practical Mining at the 
Bristol School of Mines 2/0 

Mining Tools, Atlas 

Of Engravings to Illustrate th« above, containing 935 Unstrationsof Mining 
Tools, drawn to Scale. 4to 4/0 

Physical Geology, 

Partly based on M^or-Genenl Fortlock'i " Rudiments of Geology. " 
By Ralph Tatb, A.1..S., ftc. Woodcuts 2/0 

Historical Ctoology, 

Partly based on Major-General Portlock's " Rudiments." By tUt*m 
Tats, AL.S., ftc. Woodcuts 2/0 

.<leol(Mfy, Physical and Historical* 

Consisting of *' Physical Geology," which sets forth the Leading Prfndplea 
of the Science ; and '* Historical Geology," which treats of me MliMml 
and Organic Omditiona of the Earth at each suooeasive epoch. By Ralph 
Tats,F.G.S . . 4/0 



wbale's scientific and technicax series. 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING. 
Tlitt Workman's Manual of Bntfln««pin|( Drawing. 

By John Maxton, Instructor in Engineering Drawug, Royal Naval 
College, Greenwich. Eighth Edition. 300 Plates and Diagnuns • 3/6 

Faals: fikilid, Uqnid, and Gaseous. 

Their Analysis and Valuation. For the Use of Chemists and EUigineers. 
By H. J. Phillips, F.CS., formerly Analytical and Consulting Chemist 
to the Cfreat Eastern Railway. Fourth Edition 2/C> 

Fasly Its Combustion and Boonomy. 

Consisting of an Abridgment of " A Treatise on the CombustiOD of Coal and 
the Prevention of Smoke." By C W. Williams, A.I.C.E. With Exten- 
sive Additions by D. K. Clakk, M.Inst.C.E. Fourth Edition . 3/6 

Thm Boilermaker's Assistant 

In Drawing, Templating, and Calculating Boiler Work, ftc By J. Court- 
NBY, Practical Boilermaker. Edited by D. K. CiJiRK, CK. . 2/0 

The Boiler-Maker's Beady Beokoner, 

With Examples of Practical Geometry and Templating for the Use of 
Pbuters. Smiths, and Riveters. By John Courtnby. Edit«l by D. K. 

Clark, M.I.CE. Fifth Edition 4/(> 

%• TA* last two H^orks in On* Volum*^ half-bound. eniitUd ** The Boilbr- 
maker's Rbady.Reckonbr and Assistant/' By J. Courtnky and 
D. K- Clark. Price 7/0. 

Steam Boilers : 

Their Construction and ManagemenL By R. Armstrong, CJL Illustrated 

1/6 
Steam and Machinery Management. 

A Guide to the Arrangement and Economical Management of Machinery. 
By M. Powis Balb, M.InstM.E. 2/6 

Steam and the Steam Bntfine, 

Stationary and Portable. Beingan Extension of the Treatise on the Steank 
Engine of Mr. J. Sbwkll. By D. K. Clark, CE. Fourth Edition 3/6 

The Steam Bntfine, 

A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of, with Rules and Examples for 
Practical Men. By T. Baker, CE 1/6 

The Steam Bn^ine. 

By Dr. Lardner. Illustrated t /6 

liooomotive Bntfines. 

ByG. D. Dempsey, C.E. With large Additions treating of the Modern 
Locomotive, by D. K. Clark, M.InsLCE. . • . . 3/0 

I«ooomotive Bntfine-Drivin^. 

A Practical Manual for Engineers in charge of Locomotive Engines. By 
Michael Reynolds. Eleventh Edition, jf. 6d. ; doth boards . 4/6 

Stationary Bnglne-Drivin^. 

A Practical Manual for Engineers in charge of Stationary Engines. By 
Michael Reynolds. Seventh Edition, ^r. 6d. ; doth boards . 476 

The Smithy and Forge. 

Including the Farrier's Art and Coach Smithing. By W. J. E. Crane. 
Fourth Edition 2/6 

Modem Workshop Praotice, 

As applied to Marine, Land, and Locomotive Engines, Floating Docks, 
Dredging Machines, Bridges, Ship-building, &c. By J. G. Winton. 
Fourth Edirion, Illustrated ... 3/6 

Meohanioai Bngineering. 

Comprising MeuUurgy, Moulding, Casting, Forging, Tools, Workshop 
Macninery, Mechaniou Manipulation, Manufacture of the Steam Engine, 
&c By Francis Campin, C.£. Third Edition .... 2/6 

Details or Machinery. 

Comprising Instructions for the Execution of various Works in Iron in the 
Fitting-Shop, Foundry, and Boiler- Yard. By Francis Campin. C.E. 3/0 






WEALE*S SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL SERIES. 5 
Blemantary SSntfineering : 

A Manual for Young Marine Engineers and Apprantioea. In the Form of 

SHestions and Answers on Metals, AUojrs, Strength of Materials, ftc. 
yT. S.BRBWBR. Fifth Edition 1/8 

Power in Motion: 

Horse-power Motion, Toothed- Wheel Gearing, Long and Short Drivhif 
Band% Aimilar Forces, &c. By Jambs Abmour, C.£ Third Editioo 2/0 

Iron and Iteat, 

Exhibiting the Principles concerned in the Constmctioo of Iron Beam^ 
Pilhus, and Girders. By J. Armour, CE 2/0 

Practical Mechanism, 

And Machine Tools. By T. Bakbr, C.E. With Remaifct oa Tools sad 
Machinery, by J. Nasmyth, CE 2/6 

Mechanics : 

Being a concise Exposition of the General Principles of Mechanical Sdcne^ 
and tneir Applications. By Charlbs Tomlinson, F.R.S. . •1/6 

Cranes (The Gonstruction of). 

And other Machinery for Raising Heavy Bodies for the Erection of BoDd- 
ings, &c By JosBPH Glynn, F.R.S 1/6 



NAVIGATION, SHIPBUILDING, ETC. 
The Sailor's Sea Book: 

A Rudimentary Treatise on Navigation. Bv Jambs Gbbbmwooo, B.A 
With numerous Woodcuts and Coloured Plates. New and enluved 
Edition. By W. H. Rossbr 2/6 

Practical Navigation. 

Consisting of The Sailor's Sba-Book, hy Tambs Grbbnwood and W. H. 
Ro'ssER ; together with Mathematical and Nautical Tables for the Working 
of the Problems, bv Hbnry Law, C.E., and Prof. J. R. Young. 7/0 

Navigation and nautical Astronomy, 

In Theory and Practice. By Prof. J. R. Young. New Editioa. 2/6 

Mathematical Tables, 

For Trig<Miometrical, Astronomical, and Nautical Calculations ; to whldi is 
prefixed a Treatise on Logarithms. By H. Law, CE. Together with a 
Series of Tables for Navigation and Nautical Astronomy. By Professor J. 
R. Young. New Edition 4/0 

Masting, Mast-Making, and Rigging of Ships. 

Also Tables of Spars, Rigpng, Blocks ; Chain, Wire, and Hemp Rop^ 
ftc., relative to every class of vessels. By Robsrt Kipping, N.A. . 2/0 

Sails and Sail-Making. 

With Draughting, and the Centre of Effort of the Sails. By Robbbt 
Kipping, N.A. 2/6 

Marine Bngines and Steam Vessels. 

By R. Murray, C.E. Eighth Edition, thoroughly Kvised, wbh Addi- 
tions by the Author and by Cborcb Carlulb, CE. . . 4/6 

Haval Architecture : 

An Exposition of Elementary Principles. By Jambs P^akb • . 3/6 

Ships for Ocean and River Service, 

Principles of the Construction ot By Habon A. Sommbrpbldt . t /6 

Atlas of Engravings 

To Illustrate the above. Twelve hu-ge folding Platen Royal 4to, doth 7/6 

«rhe Forms of Ships and Boats. 

By W. Bland. Tenth Edition, with nameroos Illuatntioiw sad 
Models t/6 



6 WEALE'S SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL SERIES. 

ARCHITECTURE AND THE 

BUILDING ARTS. 
Ck>nstmotioBaI Iron and Steel Work, 

Ai applied to Public, PriTats, and Domestic Buildinfa. By Fsavcis- 
Camkn, CE 3/6. 

BnildinK Bstatee : 

A Treatise oa the Devel<^ment, Sale, Purchase, and MaDSfemaiit of Build- 
ing Lasd. By F. Maitland. Third Bditioa 2/0* 

The Soienoe of Building : 

An Elementary Treatise on the Principles of Coostruction. By B. WntiK 
HAM Takn, M.A Load. Fourth Edition 3/S. 

The Art of Building : 

General Principles of Construction, Strength, and Use of Material^ Worldng. 
Drawings, Specifications, ftc By Edwako Dobsow, li.R.LB.A. . 2/0* 

A Book on Building, 

Civil and Ecclesiastical. By Sir SDiniirD BacKBTT, Q.C (Lord Gkim* 
thobpb). Second Edition 4/6- 

Dwelling-Housea (The Breotion of), 

Illustrated by a Perspective View, Plans, and Sections of a ^ir of Villas, with.- 
Specification, Quanuties, and Fstimsfffs, By S. H. Brooks, Ardiicect 2/& 

Cottage Building. 

By C Bruck Allbn. Twelfth Editbn. with Chapter oa Eoooonic Cot- 
tages for Allotments, by E. E. Allen, CK 2/0 

Aoouatics in Relation to Arohiteoture and Building t 

The Laws of Sound as applied to the Arrangement of BuildiagRi By Pro- 
fessor T. Rogrr Smith, F.R.I.B.A New Edition, Revised . . 1/6- 

The Rudiments of Practioal Brioklaying. 

General Principles of Bricklaying ; Arch Drawing, Cuttin|(. and Setting ;. 
Pointing ; Pavmg, Tiling, &c. By Adam Hammond. Witn 68 Woodcnta 

1/6 

The Art of Practical Brick Cutting and Setting. 

By Adam Hammond. With 90 Engravings 1/^ 

Briofcwork : 

A Practical Treatise, embodying the General and Hifl^er Principles of 
Bricklaying, Cutting and Setting ; with the Application oTGooBielry to RooT 
Tiling, &c ByF.WALKKR t/6 

Bvioks and Tilea, 



Rudimentary Treatise on the Manufacture of; containing am Outline of thf» 
Principles of Brickmakinr. By £. Dobson, M.R.LB.A Additions by 
C ToMLiNSON, F.R.S. Illustrated 3/0 

The Practical Brick and Tile Book. 

Compriung: Brick and Tile Making, by E. Dobson, IC.Inst.CE.; 
Piractical fiRiCKLAViNC, by A Hammond ; Brick'COTTimo amo Sktting, 
by A Hammond. 550 pp. with sto Illustratione, half-bonnd • . Q/O 

Oarpentnr and Joinery — 

Thb Elbmbntary Principlbs or CARrsNTRV. Chiefly compoeed firoai tho- 
Standard Work of Thomas Trbdgold, C.E. With AdditaonsiaadTBXATiSK 
ON JoiNBRT, by E. W. Tarn, M.A. Eighth Edition . 3/6- 

Oarpentrj and Joinery — ^Atlae 

Of 35 Plates to accompany and Illustrate the foregoing book, ^tk 
Descriptive Letterpress. 410 6/0 



WEALE'S SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL SERIES. 7 
A Praotioal Treatise on Handrailiiiif; ' 

Showing New and Simple Methods. By Gbo. Collings. Third Editio^ 
including a Tkbatisb on Stairbuilding. With Plates . . 2/o 

OlronlaF Work In Carpentry and Joinery. 

A Practical Treatise on Circular Work of Single and DouUe Cnrratare. 
By GsoRGB Collings. Fourth Edition 2/6 

Roof Oarpentry: 

Practical Lessons in the Framing of Wood Roofs. For the Use of Woridiis 
Carpenters. By Gbo. Collings 2/0 

The Gonstmotion of Roofs of W(x>d and Iron; 

Deduced chiefly from the Works of RobLwn, Tredf[^>ld, and Hnmber. By 
E. WvNOHAM Tarn, M.A., ArchitecL Fourth Edition . . .1/6 

The Joints Made and Used by Builders. 



By Wyvill J. Christy, Architect. With x6o Woodcatt . • 3/0 

Shoring 

And its Application : A Handbook for the Use of Students. By Gbokgb 
H. Blagrovb. With 31 Illustrations 1/6 

The Timber Importer's, Timber Merohant's, and 
Builder's Standard Guide. 

By R. E. Grahot 2/0 

Plumbing: 

A Text-Book to the Praaice of the Art or Craft of the Plumber. With 
Chapters upon House Drainage and Ventilation. By Wm. Paton Buchan. 
Ninth Edition, with 51a Illustrations .... . . 3/6 

Ventilation : 

A I'ext Book to the Practice of the Art of Ventilating Buildings. By W. P. 
Buchan, R.P., Author of " Plumbing," &c. With 170 Illustrations 3/6 

The Practical Plasterer: 

A Compendium of Plain and Ornamental Plaster Work. By W. Kmur 2/0 

House Painting, Graining, Marblintf, ft 8i^ Writing. 

With a Course of Elementary Drawing, and a Collection of Useful Receipts. 
By Elus a. Davidson. Eighth Edition. Coloured Plates . . o/O 

%* TA£ aSfftfCt in cloth boardx, strongly bounds %IQ 

A Grammar of Colouring, 

Applied to Decorative Painting and the Arts. By GsoRGB Fislix New 
Edition, enlarged, by Ellis A. Davidson. With Coloured Plates 3/0 

Blementary Decoration 

Asapplied to Dw-elling Houses, &c. By James W. Fackv. Illustrated 2/0 

Practical House Decoration. 

A Guide to the Art of Ornan1ent.1l Painting, the Arrangement of Coloors in 
Apartments, and the Principles of Decorative Design. By James W. Facbt 

2/6 
%* ThM last two Works in On* kandsomt Vol.^ half-hound, entitled '* HOUSB 
Decoration, Elementary and Practical," /'^c' 6/0> 

Portland Cement for Users. 

By Henry Faija, A.M.Inst.C.E. '1 hird Edition, Corrected . . 2/0 

Umes, Cements, Mortars, Concretes, Mastics, Plas- 
tering, ftc. 

By G. R. Burnrll. C.E. Fifteenth Edition t/Q 



8 WEALlfS SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL SERIES. 
Masonry and Stone-Gutting. 

The Principles of Masonic Projection and their a|>pUcatioa to Constnictioo. 
ByEowARD DoBSOK, M.R.LB.A. 2/6 

Arohes, Piers, Buttresses, fto.: 

EnerimeDtal Essays on the Principles of Coottniotioo. By W. Blamd. 

1/6 

Qnantities and Measurements, 

In Bricklayers', Masons', Plasterers'. Plumbers', Patnten', Pkperiuinger«*, 
Gilders*, Smiths', Carpenters' and Joiners' Work. By A. C Beaton. 1 /6 

The Complete Measurer: 

Setting forth the Measurement of Boards, GlaM, llmbar sad Stone. By R. 
HoRTON. Sixth Edition • . 4/0 

Ouide to Snperfloial Measurement : 

Tables calculated from i to too inches in length, by i to toS indies ia 
breadth. For the use of Architects, Surveyors, Engineers, Timber Mer- 
chants, Builders, &c. By James Hawking*. Fifth Edition . . 3/6 

Lifht: 

An Introduction to the Science of Optics. For the Use of Students of Arehi- 
tecture, Engineering, and other Applied Sdenoes. By E. W. Takn. 
M.A. t/6 

Hints to Youn^ Architects. 

By Gborcb Wightwick, Architect. Sixth Edition, revised and enlarged 
by G. HusKissoN Guillaumb, Architect 3/6 

Architecture— Orders : 

The Orders and their iGsthetic Principles. By W. H. Lbxds. Illustrated. 

1/6 
Architecture— Styles : 

The History and Description of the Styles of Architecture of Various 
Countries, from the Earliest Period. By T. Talbot Bitry . . 2/0 

*«* Orders and Stylbs or Architbcturb, in One Vai,, 3/6* 

Architecture — Desi^ : 

The Principles of Design in Architecture, as deducible from Nature and 
exemplified in the Works of the Greek and Gothic Architects. By Edw. 

Lacy Garbbtt, Architect. Illustrated 2/6 

*«* Tke iArtg prtceding Workt in One kandsemg V^L^ kei^f-ionnd, eettiiUd 
** Modern Architecture,"/^' 6/0- 

Perspective for Be^nners. 

Adapted to Young Students and Amatenn in Architecture, PEtnting, ftc 
By George Pyne 2/0 

Architectural Modelling in Paper. 

By T. A. Richardson. With Illustrations, engrared by O. jEwrrr \ /6 

Glass Staining, and the Art of Painting on Glass. 

From the German of Dr. Gessbrt and Emanuel Otto Fromberg. With 
an Appendix on The Art of Enamelling . . - . . . 2/6 

VitruTius—The Architecture of. 

In Ten Books. Translated from the Latin by Jossnc Gwilt, F.S.A., 
' F.R.A.S. With 93 Plates 6/0 

N.B,—Thi* is the only Edition e/^ViTRtJVius procurmble at a mMlermte /fiee, 

Grecian Architecture, 

An Inquiry into the Principles of Beauty in. With an Historical View of the 
Rise and Progress of the Art in Greece. By the Earl of Aberdeen, t /Q 

The two freceding Workt in One handsome Vol.,, hmifihotmd, mtitUd 
" Ancient Architecture," price 6/0* 



• • 



WEALE'S SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL SSBHS. 9 

INDUSTRIAL AND USEFUL ARTS. 
Oaments, Pastas, Olusa, and Onins. 

A Guide to the Mann&ctttre and Application of Agglatinanfi. ytVtL 900 
Recipes and Formal*. By H. C. Standagb 2/0 

Glooka, Watohss, and Bslla for Public Pnrposas. 

A Radimentary Treatise. By Edmund Bbckbtt, Lord Gkimthoktb. 
LL.D., K.C F.R.AS. Eigbth Edition, with new List of Great Bells and 
an Appendix on WeatheroodcB. [Just ^Mbluksd^ 4/6 

*«* The abavty htuuUotntly houtui^ claih iomrdSf 6/6* 

Bleotro-Metallurtfy, 

Practically Treat^. By Audcandbk Watt. Tenth Bditioa . 3/6 

The Goldsmith's Handbook. 

Containing full Instructions in the Art of Alloying, Melting, Redodng, 
Colouring, Collecting and Refining, R<'covery of Waste, S<^dors, *«*«— ^'«, 
&C., &c. By Gborgb £. Gkb. Sixth Edition 3/0 

The Silversmith's Handbook, 

On the same plan as the Goldsmith's Handbook. By G. E. Gbb. 3/0 
*«* The last two IVorks, in One hatuuomt Vol., kalf-Umnd^ 7/0- 

The Hall-Marking of Jewellery. 

Comprising an account of all the different Assay Towns of the United 
Kingdom ; with the Stamps and Laws relating to the Standards and Hall 
Mancii at the various Assay OfRces. By Georob £. Gbb . . 3/0 

French Polishing and Bnamelling. 

Numerous Recipes for making Polishes, Varnishes, ftc. By R. Bitmbad. 

1/6 

Praotioal Organ Building. 

By W. E. Dickson, M.A. Second Edition, Revised, with Additions 2/6 

Ooaeh-Building : 

A Practical Treatise. By Jambs W. Bubgbss. With 57 lUostntioiis 2/6 

The Cabinet-Maker's Guide 

To the £nth% Construction of Cabinet -Work. By R. Bitmbad . 2/6 

The Brass Founder's Manual: 

Instructions for Modelling, Pattern Making, ftc By W. Graham . 2/0 

The Sheet-Metal Worker's Guide. 

For Tinsmiths, Coppersmiths, Zincworkers, &c By W. J. E. Cbanb. 1 /6 

Sewing Machinery: 

Its Construction, History, ftc By J. W. URQaHART, CE. . . 2/0 

•Gas Fitting: 

A Practical Handbook. By John Buick. New Edition . . 2/6 

•Construction of Door I^ocks. 

From the Papers of A C. Hobbs. Edited by C. Tomlinson, F.R.S. 2/6 

The Model Locomotive Bngineer, Fireman, and 
Bngine-Boy. 

By MiCHAKL Rbynolds 3/6 

The Art of Letter Painting made Basy. 

By J. G. Badbnoch. With la full-page Engravings ^ Examples . 1 /6 

The Art of Boot and Shoemaking. 

Measurement, Last-fitting, Cutting-out, Closing, ftc By J. B. LsNa 2/0 

Mechanical Dentistry: 

^^ By Chari.bs Huntbr. Fourth Edition 3/0 

W(x>d Bngraving: 

A Practical and Easy Introduction to the Art. By W. N. Bbowm . 1 /6 

(Laundry Management. 

A Handbook for Use in Private and Public Laundries . . 2/0 



10 WSALI'S SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL SERIES. 



AGRICULTURE, GARDENING, ETC. 



Dndning mnd ■mbaakln^* 



A Pncdcttl TkcatiM. By Prof. Johx Scott. Wilb 61 maatntioM 1/6- 

Irvltfatioii And Water Supply: 

A Practical Treadle on Water Meadows, Sewage Inrigatioo, Warping, ftc. : 
oa the Construction of Wells, Poods, ReserToin, &c. By Prof. Jomm 
Scott. With 34 lUnstrations |/6. 

Tana Roads, Fenoes, and Gates: 

A Practical Treatise on the Roads, Tramways, and Waterways of the 
Farm ; the Principles of Enclosures ; and the aiffcrent kinds of Fences 
Gates, and Stiles. By Prot John Scott. With 75 Illustrations . |/6 

Tana Buildings: 

A Practical Treatise on dke Buildings necessary for various kinds of Farms, 
their Arrangement and Construction, with Plans and Estimates. By Prot 
John Scott, With 105 Illustrations 2t/0- 

Bam Implements and Haohines : 

Treatug of the Application of Power and Machines used in the Threshing> 
ham, Stockyard, Dairy, &c By Pn>£ J. Scott. With 193 lUustiatioas, 

2/0 
Vield Implements and Haohines : 

With Prindples and Details of Construction and Points of Ezoellenoe, thdr 
Management, ftc. By ProU Johm Scott. With 138 Illnstrstions . 2/0- 

A^oultural SnPTeying: 

A Treatise 00 Land Sunreymg, Levelling, and Setting-ont ; with Directioo« 
for Valuing EsUtes. By Prof. J. Scott. With 6e Illustrations . | /q 

Tana Engineering. 

By Professor John Scott. Comprising the above Seven Volumes in One, 
>f 150 pagOf ■Bd over 600 Illustrations. Half>bound \ . . | 2/0' 

Outlines of Farm Management. 

Treating of the General Work of the Farm ; Stock ; Contract Work ; 
Labour, ftc. By R. Soott Burn 2/S 

Outlines of I^anded ES states Management. 

Treating of the Varieties of Lands, Methods of Farming, Setting-out of 
Farms, Roads, Fences, Gates, Drainage, ftc. By R. Scott Burn . 2.'& 

Boils* Manures, and Crops. 

(VoL I. OtrxxiNBs or Modern Farming.) By R. Scott Burn . 2/0- 
Tanning and Farming Boonomy. 

(VoT II. Outlines or Modern Farming.) By R. Scott Burn 3/0 

•took: Cattle, Sheep, and Horses. 

(VoL III. OtiTLiNKS or Modern Farming.) ByR. Scott Burn 2/6- 

Dairy, Pigs, and Poultry. 

(Vol. IV. Outlines of Modern Farming.) By R. Scott Borh 2/0 

Utilization of Sewage, Irrigation, and Reolamation 
of Waste Land. 

(VoL V. Outlines of Modern Farming.) By R. Scott Burn . 2/S> 
Outlines of Modern Farming. 

By R. Scott Burn. ConNi-tini; of the abore Five Velumes in One, 
I,a50 pp., profusely Illustrated, hall-bound ..... 1 2/0> 



weale's scientific and technical series. II 



Book-keeping for Farmers and Batate Owners* 

A Practical IVaatis*, prvsenting, in ThrM Plans, a lystem adapted fiv aB. 
claim of Farms. By J. M. Woodman. Foorth Ed&uoa . 2/S 

Beady Beokoner for the Admeasurement of Land. 

By A. Akman. Reriaad and extended by C NoBSis. Fifth BdllioB 210- 

Miller's, Com Merchant's, and Farmer's Beady 
Beokoner. 

Second Edition, rerised, with a Price List of Modern Floor liUl MsrhiiiMf. 
by W. S. HuTTOM, CE 2/0 

The Hay and Straw Measurer. 

New Tables for the Use of Auctioneers, Valuers, Famecs, Haj and Stiwr 
Dealers, ftc. By JOMM Stbblb 2/0* 

Meat Production. 

A Manual Ipr Prodooera, Distributors, and Conswmeis of Batehenf Meal. 
By John Ewakt 2/^. 

Sheep: 

The History, Structure, Economy, and Diseases of. By W. C SrooinSL 
M.ILV.S. Fifth Edition, with fine EasiuTiags .... 3^ 

Market and Kitchen Oardeninif. 

By C. W. Shaw, Ute Editor of " Gardeninf Illustrated'* . . 3/0. 

iri<:j*ii^^ Gardening Made Basy. 

Showing the best means of CultiTatins every known VMetable aad Hei^ 
ftc., with directions for sBaaacement all the year round. By GaoBas M. wi 
Glbmmt. Illustrated %j^ 

Cottage Gardening : 

Or Flowers, Fraita, and Vogeubles far Small Gardens. By B. HoanAT. 

1/e 

Garden Beoeipts* 

Edited by Cmakus W. QtiiN %f^ 

Fruit Trees, 

The Scientific and Profiuble Culture ot From the French eff M. Dv 
Brkoil. Fifth Edition, carefully Revised by Gbokgb Glsniit. Wkk. 
iSjWoodcnU 3/13. 




The Tree Planter and Plant Propagator: 

With numerous Illustrations of Grafting, Layering, Budding, 
Houses, Piu, ftc. By Samdbi. Wood .... 

The Tree Pruner: 

A Practical Manual on the Pruning of Fruit Tkees, Shrubs, Qimbera, and 
Flowering Plants. With numerous Illustrations. BySAMUXL Woott t/S- 

*«* 7TU mi0Vg 7rm0 KMr. im Omt, A mm dtfftm fy km^-Smmd, /riei 3/6* 

The Art of Grafting and Budding. 

By Chaklu Baltbt. With Illustrations . ^^ 



12 WEALE*S SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL SERIES. 



MATHEMATICS, ARITHMETIC, ETC. 
DesoriptiTtt Geometry, 

An Elementary Treatise on j witb a Theory of Shadows and of PerspectiTa, 
extracted from the French of G. Mongk. To which is added a Descripiioa 
of the Principles and Practice of Isometrical Progectioo. By J. F. Hbatmss, 
M.A. With Z4 Plates 2/0 

Praotloal Plane Oeometnr: 

Giving the Simplest Modes of Constructing Figures contained in one Plana 
and ^ometrical Construction c^ the Ground. By J. F. Hbathbk, M.A. 
With ats Woodcuts 2/0 

Analsrtioal Geometry and Gonio Seotions, 

A Rudimentary Treatise on. Bv Jambs Hann. A New Edition, re- 
written and enlarged by Professor J . K. Young .... 2/0 

Buolid (The Elements of). 

With many Additional Propositions and Explanatory Notes; to whidi is 

prefixed an Introductory Essay on Logic By Hbnrv Law, C.E. . 2/6 

%* Sold also te^rately^ viz : — 

Bnolid. The First lliree Books. By Hbnry Law, CE. . . .1/6 

Bnolid. Books 4, 5, 6, it, is. By Hbnry Law, CB. . . .1/6 

Plane Trigonometry, 

The Elements of. By Jambs Hanm t /6 

Spherical Trigonometry, 

The Elements of. By Jambs Hank. Revised by Charles H. Dow- 

UNO, CE 1/0 

%* Or with " TheEUmenit of Plant Trigonometry** in One Volume, 2''6 

Differential Calculus, O 

Elements of the. By W. S. B. Woolhovsb, F.R.A.S., &c . • 1/6 

Integral Calculus. 

By HoMsssHAM Cox, B. A. 1/6 

JLlgebra, 

The Elements of. By Jambs H addon, M.A. With Appendix, containing 
Miscellaneous Investigations, and a Collection of Problems . . 2/0 

A Key and Companion to the Above. 

An extensive Repository of Solved Examples and Probleou in Aleebra. 
By J. R. Young 1 /B 

Commercial Book-keeping. 

With Commercial Phrases and Forms in English, French, Italian, and 
German. By Jambs Haddon, M.A 1/6 

Arithmetic, 

A Rudimentary Treatise on. With full Ex|>lanations of its Hieoretical 
Principles, and numerous Examples for Practice. For the Use of Schools 
and for Self-Instruction. By J. K. Young, late ProfesMr of Mathematics 
in Belfast College. Thirteenth Edition 1/6 

A Key to the Above. 

ByJ.R. Young 1/6 

Bqnational Arithmetic, 

Applied to Questions of Interest, Annuities, Life Assuranoe, and General 
Commerce ; with various Tables by which all Calculations may be greatly 
faciliuted. ByW. Hipslby 1/6 

Arithmetic, 

RudimentaiT, lor the Use of Schools and Self-Instniction. By Jambs 
Haddon, M.A. Revised by Abraham Akman . • 1 /6 

A Key to the Above. 

y A. Arman 1/6 



T 



WEALE*S SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL SERIES. 13 
Mathematioal Instrumants ; 

Their Construction, Adjastment, Testing, and Use concisely Ex]>lun«d. 

Bv J. F. Hbathbk, M.A., of the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. 

Fifteenth Edition, Revised, with Additioas by A T. Walmislbt, 

M.I.CE. Orijdnal Edition, in z vol., Illustrated .... 2/0 

%* In vrderit^ tkt abavi, be carg/ki ic xay " Origit$al Edition^ or rim tks 

Hunger in the Series (3a), te tlistinguigh it /rim the Enlarged Edition in 

3 vols, {as/cllows) — 

Draving and Mttasuring Inatmiiittits. 

Including — I. Instruments employed in Geometrical and Mechanical Draw> 
ing, and in the Construction, Copying, and Measurement of Maps and 
Puuis. II. Instruments used for the purposes of Accurate Measurement, 
and for Arithmetical CompuUtions. fiy J. F. Hbatusr, M.A. | /6 

Optical Instrumttits. 

Including (more especially) Telescopes, Microscopes, and Apparatus for 

Srodudng copies of Maps and Plans by Photography. By J. P. Hbathbs, 
I.A Illustrated 1/6 

Snnreylntf and Astronomloal Instnim«nts. 

Incluamg[— I. Instruments used for Determining the Geometrical Features 
of a pjortion of Gromid. II. Instruments emfMoyed in Astronomical Ob- 
servations. By J. F. Hbather, M.A. Illustrated. . • 1/6 

*•* Tke ahave three volumes form an enlargement of the Author's original work, 
** Afathematieal Instruments^" price 2/0- {Described at top ^ page,) 

Hathematioal Instriun«nta : 

Their Construction, Adjustment, Testing and Use. Comprising Drawing, 
Measuring, Optical, Surveying, and Astronomical Instruments. By T. F. 
Hbathbk, M.A. £nlaxged Edition, for the most part entirely re-wntten. 
The Three Parts as above, in One thick Volume 4/6 

The Slide Rule, and How to Use It. 

Containing full, easy, and simple Instructions to perform all Business Cal<- 
culations with unexampled rapidity and accuracy. By Chaslbs Hoasb, 
C£. With a Slide Rule, in tuck of cover. Eighth Editioo . . 2/6 

Logarithms. 

With Mathematical Tables for TrigonomebKal, Astronomical, and Nautical 
Calculations. By Hbnrv Law, CE. Revised Edition . . 3/0 

Ckmiponnd Interest and Annuities (Theory of). 

With Tables of Logarithms for the more Difficult Computations of Interest, 
Discount, Annuities, &c., in all their Applications and Uses for Mercantile 
and State Purposes. By Fbdor Thoman, Paris. Fourth Edition . 4/0 

Mathematioal Tables, 

For Trigonometrical, Astronomical, and Nautical Calculations ; to which is 
prefixed a Treatise on Logarithms. By H. Law, C.£. T<^ether with a 
S«ies ef Tables for Navigation and Nautical Astronomy. By Professor J. 
R. Young. New Edition 4/0 

Hathematics, 

As applied to the Constructive Arts. By FxANas Camkn, CE., &c. 
Third Editioo 3/0 

Astronomy. 

By the late Rev. Robert Main. F.R.S. Third Edition, reviaed and cor- 
rected to the Present Time. By W. T. Lynk, F.R.A.S. . . 2/0 

Statics and Dynamics, 

The Principles and Practice of. Embracing also a clear development of 
Hydrostatics^ Hydrodynamics, and Central Forces. ByT. Bakbr, CE. 
Fourth Edition > • • 1/6 



14 WE axe's scientific and technical series. 

^OOKS OF REFERENCE AND 

MISCELLANEOUS VOLUMES. 

A Dictionary of Painters, and Handbook for Piotnro 
Amateurs. 

BeiiiK a Guide for Visitors to Public and Private Picture Galleries, mod for 
Art-Students, including CHossary of Terms, Sketch of Principal Sdiools of 
Pkintinx, &c. By Philippe Daryl, B.A. 2/6 

Paintintf Popularly Bxplained. 

By T. J. GuLLiCK, Painter, and John Timbs, F.S.A Including Fresco, 
Oil, Mosaic, Water Colour, Water>GIass, Tempera Encaustic, Miniature, 
Painting on Ivory, Vellum, Pottery, Enamel, Glass, &c. Sixth Edition 6/0 

A Dictionary of Terms used In Architecture, Build- 
ing, Engineering, Mining, Metallurgy, Arctha- 
ology, the Fine Arts, ftc. 

ByJoHNWBAUS. Sixth Edition. Edited by R. Hunt, F.R.S. . 6/0 

Music : 

A Rudimentary and Practical Treatise. With numerous Examples. By 
Charlbs Child Spbncbr 2/6 

Pianoforte, 

The Art of Playing the. With numerous Exercises and Lessons. By 
Charlbs Child Spbncbr 1/6 

The House Manager. 

A Guide to Housekeeping, Cookery, Pickling and Preserving, Household 
Work, Dairy Management, Cellarage of Wines, Home-brewing and Wine- 
making, Gardening, &c By An Old Housbkbbpkr . . 3/6 

!Manual of Domestic Medicine. 

By R. GooniNG, M.D. Intended as a Family Guide in all cases of 
Accident and Emergency. Third Edition, carefully revised . . 2/0 

Management of Health. 

A Manual of Home and Personal Hygiene. By Rev. Jambs Baird 1 /O 

Katural Philosophy, 

For the Use of Beginners. By Charlbs Tomlinson, F.R.S. . . 1/6 

The Blementary Principles of Blecrtric Ughting. 

By Alan A. Campbbll Swinto^, M.Inst.CE., M.I.E.E. Fifth 
Edition 1/6 

The Electric Telegraph, 

lu History and Progress. By R. Sabinb, CE., F.S.A., ftc. . . 3/0 

Handbook of Field Fortification. 

By M^or W. W. Knollys, F.R.G.S. With 163 WoodcuU . . 3/0 

Xogic, 

Pure and Applied. By S. H. Emmbns • . • • • • 1 /6 

Xocke on the Human Understanding, 

Selections from. With Notes by S. H. Emmbns . • • • 1 /6 

IThe Gomjpendious Calculator 

{Intuttive Calculations), Or Easy and Concise Methods of Performing the 
various Arithmetical Operations required in Commercial and Business 
Transactions ; together with Useful Tables, &c. By Daniel O'Gorman. 
Twenty-eighth Eidition, carefully revised by C. NoRRis . . . 2/6 



WEALE'S SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL SERIES. 15 



MeasuMi, Weights, and Moneys of all Nations. 

With an Analysis of the Christian, Hebrew, and Mahometan Calendars. 
By W. S. & WooLBOVSB, F.R.AS., F.S.S. Serenth Edition . 2/6 

Grammar of the Bnglish Tongue, 

spoken and Written. With an Introduction to the Study of Comparativ* 
Philology. By HyobClaskb,D.CL. Fifth Edition. . : 1/6 

Dictionary of the Bnglish Langaage. 

As Spoken and Written. Containing above loo^ooo Words. By Hvos 
Clakkb, D.CL. 3/6 

Composition and Ponotuation, 

Familiarly Explained for those who have neglected the Study of Grammar. 
By Justin Brbnam. Nineteenth Ediiion. 1/0 

French Grammar. 

With Complete and Coadse Rules on the Oeoders of French Noons. Br 
G. L. Strauss, Ph.D 1/6 

Bnglish-French Dictionary. 

Comprising a large number of Terms used in Engineering, Minmg, ftc 
By Alfred Elwbs 2/0 

French Dictionary. 

In two Parts— I. French-English . II. En^ish-French, complete in 
One VoL 3/0 

French and Bnglish Phrase Book. 

Containing Introductory Lessons, with Translations, Vocabularies of Words, 
Collection of Phrases, and Easy Familiar Dialogues . • 1 /6 

German Grammar. 

Adapted for English Students, from Hejse's Theoretical and Practical 
Grammar, by Dr. G. L. Strauss 1/6 

German Triglot Dictionary. 

By N. E. S. A. Hamilton. Part I. Gennan-French-English. Part II. 
English-German-French. Part III. French'German-English . 3/0 

German Triglot Dictionary. 

(As above). Together with German Grammar, in One Volume 6/0 

Italian Grammar. 

Arranged in Twenty Lessons, with Exercises. By Alprbd Elwxs. 1 /O 

Italian Triglot Dictionary, 

Wherein the Genders of all the Italian and French Nouns are carefullr 
noted down. By Alprkd Elwrs. VoL I. Italian- EngIish*French. 2/6 

•Italian Triglot Dictionary. 

By Alfred Elwrs. Vol. II. English-French- Italian . 2/6 

Italian Triglot Dictionary. 

By Alprbo Elwbs. Vol. III. French- Italian-English . . . 2/6 

Italian Triglot Dictionary. 

(As above). In One VoL 7/6 

Spanish Grammar. 

In a Simple and F^tical Form. With Exercises. By Alfrbd Elwes 1 /0 

Spanish-Bnglish and BngUsh-Spanish Dictionaj^. 

Including a large number of Technical Terms used in Mining, Engineering, 
ftc., with the proper Accents and the Gender of e v er y Nona. By Alprsd 

4/0 

*•* Or with the Grammar, 6^0* 



16 WEAL£*S SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL SEKIESi. 
PoptugQAStt Grammar, 

In a Simple and Practical Fonn. With Exercise*. By Alpsbo Elwks. I/Q 

Popto^AStt-Bn^liih and Bngliah-Poptu^AStt Dio- 
tionary. 

Including a large number of Technical Terms used in Mining, Engineering, 
ftc, with the proper Accents and the Gender of every Noun. By ALntso 

Elwbs. Fourth Edition, revised 6/0 

%* Or with ttu Grammak, 7/0* 

Animal Physios, 

Handbook of. By Dionysius Lardnbk, D.CL. With 590 Illustrations. 

lo One Vol. (73a pagesX cloth boards 7/6 

•»• Sold iUso in Two PmrU^ at follows : — 
Animal Physics. By Dr. Lardnbk. Part I., Chapters I.— VII. 4/0 
Amimal Physics. By Dr. Lardnbr. Part II., Chapters VIII.— XVIII. 

3/0 



aaAOBURY, ACNBW & CO., LD., FRIMTBRS, LONDON AND TONBRIDGB. 

[229.17.5.05I