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BY R. T. TRALL, M. D. 








Entered, according to act of CongresB, in the year 1850, by 


in the Clerk's Office of the District Coart for the Southern District of 

New York. 


201 William street. 


On looking over the excellent work of Mr. Horsell, 
in view of its republication in this country, it oc- 
curred to me that a few explanatory and corrective 
remarks would enhance its value to the American 
reader. In prosecuting this duty, I found so many 
topics upon which I could not forbear commenting, 
that I concluded to supply the editorial matter in an 
Appendix form, without disturbing the text. One es- 
tablished fact is said to be worth a thousand new 
theories ; yet, for want of ascertained and demonstrable 
principles, a multitude of truths are lost, or misapplied. 
If the people can be thoroughly indoctrinated in the 
general principles of Hydropathy, they will not err 
much, certainly not fatally, in their home-application of 
the Water-Cure appliances to the common diseases of 
the day. If they can go a step further, and make 
themselves acquainted with the laws of life and health, 
they will well-nigh emancipate themselves from all need 
of doctors of any sort. With these convictions, I have 


commented freely on whatever opinion seemed erro- 
neous, and on whatever fact appeared to be misappre- 
hended. The reader will, I trust, be enabled to bear 
"with me, for speaking so strongly in the mode absolute. 
Want of room rendered arguments and details inad- 
missible. I claim, however, not to have taken any posi- 
tion at variance with popular or medical opinions unad- 
visedly, nor to have asserted any principle without ample 



New York, 16 Laight*8t.> 





Nataral daration of haman life-^Common opinions erroneotu— Fatal 
coDseqaences of ignorance — Proportion ot deaths in infancy, man- 
hood, and old age — Bible testimony— Agea of iiatriarcb»— 'An hun- 
dred and twenty years allotted to man — Abraham, Isaac, Ishmael, 
Sari^, Levi, Moses, Joshua, Elisha, and others— Bishop Lowth'i 
translation of Isaiah's prophecy— Long life dependent on obserr- 
ance of nataral laws. 



Law of Ood three-fold, moral, mental, and organic— Scriptural illua- 
tration of obedience and disobedience-^Disease, pain, and premft> 
tnre death, results of neglect of organic laws — Cbareing God fool- 
ishly — Of all systems of nature that of man only liable to derange- 
ment— -Man not naturally subject to disease and premature death- 
Old age the only legitimate cause of death — Report of Dra. Smith 
and Amott — Testimony of Sylvester Graham — Of Hesiod — Of Dr. 
Campbell — Of Dr. Bigel — Capt. Claridge on organic laws — Regis- 
try of Dr. Clarke — Infant mortality from bad ventilation — Average 
life among ihe Friends — Children of drunkards — Physiological law 
of waste and supply— Effects of stimulants— Causes of onequal "* 
tribution of property— Duration of life in animals. 



True term of life further considerect— Testimony of Hnfeland— Of 
Licbtenberg— Haller's collection of cases of longevity— *Names of 
persons who have lived from 95 to 370 years — 'Remarkable indi- 
viduals — Democrates— Zeno — Palemon—Cato— Pliny's cases of 
longevity—- PromiBcuous ezample8*~American Indians— Natives 
of Shetiand — Of Sierra Leone — Herodotus on the Macrobians — 
The Circassians— New Zealanders— Examples nearer home— *Com- 

girison with wild animals — Savaees — ^People of Iceland — Asia— 
ngland — Scotland — Ireland — Fatner Mathew— France — Spain- 
Greece — Egypt — India — The Bramins — Ethiopia— Hungary^ 
Germany — Cliinate as aftcting health and loogevi^— Intemper* 




DEATH, 60-64 

Why we should IWe loag^Destroying oar bodies sinfal — A death of 
peace — Natural death— Results from obedience to organic laws — 
Such obedience secures us against disease and pain, and assures 
old age — The fear of death — The end of life insensible, like its 
beginning-^Sensations of the act of dying — Death not terrible to 
those who live right. 



The vital principle— Importance of the quality of food — Testimony of 
Cheyne — Constipation and diarrhoea — Habits of society — Quuitity 
of food — Error in stuffing the stomach— Excesses from variety- 
Weighing and measuring quantity useless — Honest instinct the 
best guicfe — Bad advice of the doctors. 


SOLID FOOD, 70-93 

Animal and vegetable food*— Arguments presented for and against 
each — Proof deduced from comparative anatomy — Effects of ex- 
clusive animal diet — Of exclusive vegetable diet — Nutritious mat- 
ter in vegetables — Testimony of Dr. Jackson — Dr. CuUen— Dr. 
Franklin — The Wallachians — The ancient Bramins — Rousseau — 
Hunger in carnivorous and frugivorous animals — Effects of aliment 
on the character and temper of men — Vegetable eaters gentle, 
mild, beautiful, and strong — Cruel men and tyrants — The Persian 
children — Children of Lacedasmon — Eastern Christians — Noah and 
his sons — The Jewish law relative to animal food— Animal blood — 
Daniel and the king's moat — Dr. Clarke on swine— Elijah's food 
in the wilderness — John the Baptist — Argument that animals eat 
one another answered — The term fi^, among the Egyptians, 
meant the lotus plant — Fishermen on the borders of the Dead 
Sea — Testimony of naturalists — Professor Lawrence — Baron Cu- 
vier — Testimony of distmguished men — Economy of rentable 
diet — Political considerations — The experience of all mankind. 


LIQUID FOOD, 94-113 

Fluid parts of the human body — Rules ibr drinking water — Water 
the mstinctive remedy of all animals in diseases — Artificial bever- 
ages — Commendations of water drinking and bathing — Pindar — 
Pythagoras — The Macedonian women afler accouchement- 
Charlemagne's encouragemeut of bathing — Works of Drs. Floyer 


and Hancock— TiMofs ''Advice to the People"— Bathing or 
washing part of the Mahometan religion — Ancient Bri tons— Baa- 
pail's remarks — ^John Wesley's recommendations — Webb the pe- 
destrian — William Cobbett — Remarks of Richerand, Drs. Collen, 
Gregory! Dancan, Cbeyne, Bash, Oliver, Johnson, Thackray, Gre- 
ville, Pratt, Hoffman, Gamett, Farre, Hnfeland, Arbathnot, Oi^hen, 
Kitchener — Dr. Wilson's account of himself when at Graefen- 
barg— Statement of Campbell regarding Mr. Camver, a traveler 
in Airioa— Proper times for drinking water^-Varioas kinds of 
grass eaten by cows, horses, goats, sheep, swine — ^Water alone 
necessary for animt^s — Whitlaw's remarks on swine— Eating 
swine's flesh the caose of cutaneoos disorders— >Scriptaral illostra- 
tions of water drinking—" Son^ of the Horebite" — *' Address of 
the Town Pamp"— >Bemarks of author. 


ON DRUGS, 114-185 

Goethe's " Fanst" — Wealth amasied by patent-medicine venders- 
Six tons shipped by one London hoase for South America— -No 
surgeons in dhina— Story of an Irish sailor — Ambiguous phrase- 
ology of the profession — Illustrative anecdote— Physicians m Hol- 
land — Prohibition of the use of mercury, and consequent decrease 
of disease in that country — The country practitioner and his three 
draughts— Doctors' learned nonsense, and their obscure lan- 
gnage— Confidence in drugs by the vulsar — ^Exohmce of the 
lancet for the ploughshare by distinguished men — Small-pox not 
common in ancient times — Medicinal murders— A physician of 
Worcester and his watch— Drugs used in porter and ale, and the 
duties paid on them — Voltaire's story of Zadig — liord Byron, Mo- 
liere, etc. — Sarcastic remarks on doctors and medicine— -Druff- 
ging system opposed to nature — ^The monk Bernardo's cmre with 
water, in 1724-— The excessive charges of doctors. 


AIR, 196-144 

Substance of air— Respiration — Necessity of pure air— The Black 
Hole of Calcutta— Anecdote of Dr. E. Johnson— Darwin's ad- 
dress to the people of Nottingham^Mode of changing air by 
swinging the door. 

EXERCISE, 145-153 

Necessity of exercise-^Motion the soul of the unirene— Inactivity 
disposes to disease— Remarks of Dryden — Voltaire's story of 
Caul and Ogul— Employments of distinguished men— Beasona 
showing the value of exercise. 



WATEB, 154-186 

Efficacy of water in treating diaeaaes — Advice to patienta aa to 
water drinking — Bale to regulate the quantity — Injection-^ 
General ablationa-^Bubbing wet sheet— Its powerful effect on 
the skin— Exudations from ue body — Oral bath — Nasal bath — 
Shower bath— > Wet sheet packing — Sweating in the blanket— 
The half bath— The full bath— The plunging bath— Loeal 
baths — Head baths — The sitting baths — Foot batha^-The drop 
bath— The finger bath— The leg bath— The douche— The cold 
bandages — The heatine bandages — Constipation, or oostive-- 
ness — Fevers — Gout — Bheumatism — ^Inflammations— Inflamma- 
tion of the brain — Croup— Sore throat and stiff neck — Inflam- 
mation of the lung8*~Inflammation of the stomach — ^Inflamma- 
tion of the bowels — Inflammation of the liver — Inflammation of 
the kidneys — Inflammatory eruptions — Erysipelas — Measles— 
Small-pox — Scarletina — Dropsy — Ulcers— Cholera — Cancer — 
Diarrhoea — Nose-bleeding — Spitting of blood — Vomiting of blood 
— Dysentery — Common colds — Cough — Pain of the chest — Sore 
eyes — Wounds — Nose colds — Bums — Deafness — ^Asthma — Sick- 
ness or vomiting — Tic doloureux. 



Obstacles to reform — Men of the past — Men of the present— Inju- 
rious customs and habita— Alcohol — Tobacco — Opium— Tea- 
Coffee — Condiments — Enormous waste of property— Summary 
of arguments. 

APPENDIX, 211-246 

Temperance orders — Excessive stimulation — Distilling milk^ 
Moderate drinkers — Diet at Graefenburg— Animal fiit — Theory 
of stimulation — Animal fat in cold climates — Digestibility of 
food— Theory of population — Is man a drinking animal? — Stim- 
ulating water — Alcoholic medicines— Salt — Causes of cholera — 
High charges — Drugged liquors — " When doctors disagree"— 
Process of hydropathy — Cutaneous transpiration — Oxygen and 
respiration — Exercise and sensible perspiration — General ablu- 
tions — Cutaneous exhalations — The rubbing wet sheet — The 
wet sheet pack — The sweating blanket — Stimulants and tonics^ 
The plunge bath — The douche bath— Wet bandages — Constipa- 
tion—Fevers—Grout and rheumatism— Inflammation of the 
brain-— Inflammation of the lungs — ^Gver complaints — Cutaneous 
eruptionfr— Cholera and bowel complaints— Noae-bleeding— 


One page of personal experience ia worth folioa of tbeoretie ftndes.^DB. 

Silly, aimple, John Boll ! why will yon pin yonr laith to fallible or fallaeiiiM 
authority, when you may get the truth ao a little peraonal examinatioAf— 
Db. Dickbon. 

Thk temperance reformation foimd me, as it did a large 
majority of my feUow-men, addicted to the so-called moderate 
use of strong drinks, which we had been taught to beMeve 
were necessary to our comfort and strength, nay, ahnost 
essential to life itself. And though I had a good constitutioD, 
the excitement occasioned by these drinks, and that arising 
from preachmg eight or ten times a week, sometimes to thou- 
sands in the open air, so deranged and shattered my nenroua 
system, and so impaired my general health and strength, that 
exertion caused me great fatigue. I was constantly troubled 
with headache and incapacity for mental effort, which I have 
BOW reason to believe were increased by the absurd sy$tem qf 

In the year 1833, 1 signed the pledge to abstain from ardent 
spirits ; and two years' trial proved so satisfactory, that I then 
resolved to take the second stage in the temperance progress, 
and to adopt what appeared to me to be the only plan of 
personal safety,* and also of removing the great curse oi 

* Alcohol 19 the human fystem » an lahmaelke— hit hand it againtt 
every man, and every man's hand is against him. Nature tells as plainly 
she does not need bim-^that he ia her enemy-^not one of her principles 
will sostain the theory that she is benefited by his inflaence in any form. 
Every sach principle cries oat against this abuse— this interference with 
her operations. Every fibre, and tissue, and organ of the living system 
sets itself in battle-array against alcohors invasion, in whatever form ha 
may disguise himself to the eye and the taste. 


10 PftSFAOE. 

dninkennesB from the land,* viz.^ Tsktotalxsm. I confess 
I did this with some reluctance, fearing it would injure my 
health ; such were my foolish notions of strong drink. I hare 
since proved that teetotalism "is the first application of science 
to diet on a large and popular scale/' and now sincerely beliere 
that all unnatural beverages might be at once banished from 
the earth, not only without any loss (except that of disease, 
crime, and misery), but with the greatest possible benefit to 
mankind. ' 

For months previously to my adopting the teetotal prin- 
ciple, I had thought I should be necessitated to decline the 
ministry altogether, in consequence of a settled pain in my left 
breast ; but after three months' abstinence it began sensibly to 
decline, and in six months it finally left me. My general health 
improved, and I was enabled to endure much more fatigue, 
and to do my work with much more pleasure. But still my 
dyspeptic complaint did not leave me. I was troubled with 
constipation and headache, especially when I studied more 
than usual, so that I was under the necesdty of taking aperient 
medicine, never less than once a month, and often <mce or twice 
a week. 

Soon after the publication of Mr. Claridge's excellent work 
on Hydropathy, it fell into my hands; I gave it a careful 
reading, and then a second ; I studied its reasonings and fiicts, 
and was so fully convinced of the force of most of his observa- 
tions, that I soon began, by degrees, to adopt so much of his 
plan as circumstances would admit of, and as I thought my 
case demanded. Commencing the third stage in temperance, 
I left off tea, coffee, etc., and all hot liquids; also pepper, 
vinegar, mustard, and all hot spices; took nothing m<H'e than 

* Lord Althorp told the House of Commons, that drinking intoxicating 
liqaon was the immediate cause of drunkenness. Would yoa first re> 
move the cause or the effect, if you were aiming at the overthrow of 
any evil ? Philosophy— the philosophy of common sense, says the 
CAUSE. Them abstain. Abaiidon it, and secure yourself against ita 
bewitching influence. 

PUBF ACI. 1 1 

lukewarm ; and generally, if I todc ankaal food, I took it 
quite cold. I rose earlier in the morning ; took a cold ablution 
the moment I was out of bed ; rubbed myself dry with a very 
coarse towel, principally for the sake of the friction ; during 
which, and dressing me, etc., I drank from three to six glasses 
of cold water. I then took a brisk walk of two or three miles, 
and returned with a good appetite, to breakfast upon bread 
and butter and cold water, or Scotch oatmeal and milk. No 
doubt many of my readers are ready to shiver at even the re- 
cital of the above plan; because there are very few, com. 
paratively, who have any idea of the extent of the salubrious 
effects of water, taken internally, and applied in different ways 
externally. In the former, this arises from the custom of taking 
hot tea, coffee, etc., from an early age. The long indulgence 
of these fictitious habits produces an unhealthy state of feeling, 
attended with fear that cold water would produce unpleasant 
sensations, and some injury to the stomach, etc. There is, 
therefore, a barrier to its use, made up of fear, dislike, preju- 
dice, and custom.* But when this barrier can be leaped over, 
or broken down, by a little reasoning and reflection, after a few 
essays, the individual finds that he has been deprived of one 
of the most powerful conducers to health and longevity, as 
well as of a great source of pleasure. By the great change 
produced in the feelings ; the greater aptitude for bodily ex- 
ertion; the marked accession of cheeifulness and gayety, which 
are the result of a fair trial, all these soon make a disciple. 
The increased relish for food, and the quantity that can be 
taken, and eadly digested; the light and refreshmg sleep, with- 
out disturbing dreams ; these with the former make a con- 
TBRT. The improved skin and complexion, conferring' the 
freshness of youth ; the clear eye, the sweet and wholesome * 
breath : all these united to the foregoing, produce a zbalous 
ADVOCATE, anxious for others to share his benefits— at least 

* A mode of life con£>rn^ble with n^tare will admit of no other" 


this has been the ease with the author <^ these pages. Besides, 
argaiDg the matter merely on the ground of feeling, independ- 
ent of health and longevity, what can exceed the beauty, 
freshness, and purity of a glass of cold water, taken fresh 
from the spring, or from our one-armed friend, the pump? 
It leaves no mawkish taste behind it; none of those inex- 
pressible feelings which are the results of what is called pood 
cheer; but when taken before breakfast, after a bath, or gen- 
eral ablution, it cleanses all the passages, purifies the mouth, 
and, filling it with sweet and pleasant fluids, makes the indi- 
vidual cheerful, hungry, and wide awake. What a contrast is 
this to creeping down stairs with the eyes half closed, hud- 
dling up to the fire, and swallowing scalding hot tea, etc., 
eating a few bits of toast, without an appetite, and requiring 
some relish to make it go down. ''We speak that we do 
know," and that which you may prove to be true, if you will 
TRY rr. 

In consequence of adopting the plan before referred to, 
I have been enabled to do without the least particle of medi- 
cine since April, 1842. Constipation has made its exit, head- 
ache and I soon began to be on bad terms, and it threatened 
to leave me altogether, if I did not, sometimes, treat it with a 
little tea, coffee, or something more comfcnrting than pure cold 
water. However, after mature deliberation, I rejected the 
proffered terms ; consequently we parted ; and since that time, 
whenever it makes a call, it finds such a cold reception, that it 
soon takes its departure. 

In all probability it will be thought presumptuous in one 
unconnected with the medical profession,* to write a book on 

• We ask, with Dr. Dickson, " Who will tell me that this kind of study 
k only proper for medical persqns ? Who shall say that this description 
of knowledge may not be made interesting to the world at large?" With- 
out a proper knowledge of the laws of your organization, how can you 
possibly put in practice the Greek maxim, ** Know yourselves." Bow- 
Und Hill was no medical man, but as a friend of humanity-^a minister of 
f^ligion^^nd an advocate for an enlightened view of things, be vaccinated, 

PfiXFAC*. 18 

keahh and liMigevity; bat having been extenmrelj benefited 
by the adoption of the plan he recommends to othen, the 
author thinks he is perfectly justified, nay, called upon, as a 
philanthrc^ist and Christian, to attempt to lead others into the 
same paths, knowing them to be safe and happy. While he 
makes no pretensions to medical science, he hopes he is guided 
by common sense and a desire to do good. He cannot, there- 
fore, consent to be reasoned or ridiculed out of his feelings and 
purposes ; nor to believe that an illusion, the truth oi which 
has been asserted by some ioi the most eminent of the faeulty, 
and confirmed by the greatly improved health of himself and 
of thousands. 

In the following pages the author has endeavored to argue 
the questi<Mis at issue, without sophistry, in a plain manner ; 
and he hopes the reader, by trusting to his common sense, and 
drawing from the facts adduced such conclusions as are ob« 
viously inevitable, will be able to distinguish truth from error, 
and will resolutely choose the former for his guide. We have 
had enough of fine-spun theories, subtle speculations, and 
metaphysical disquisitions ; we want facts — stubborn facts, for 
these are the thumb of the right hand in argument. Indeed, 
there can be no fair arguing without them. They are its 
basis — ^its starting point. To this standard we appeal ; this is 
the pedestal upon which truth must stand ; because " all those 
so-called arguments which are destitute of sud foundational 
facts, are not arguments, but only noisy disputes — ^mcre sono- 
rous nothings." To all who can subscribe to this mode of 
judging of truth, we cheerfully dedicate the following facts 
and reasonings, patiently waiting their verdict. 

As the author's object in the preparation of these sheets 
was, not origiimlity or fame, but usefulness, he has, in several 
instances, made use of facts and reasonings which he had met 

with his own hands, not less than 100,000 persons, notwithstandiiig the 
clamor that was raised against him ; being denotmoed from the polpiti 
and instilted by the populace. Doctors have written, and written weU, 
on divinity ; and why not ministers write on health and longevity ? 


with in his course of reading, and which he embodied with re- 
marks of his own, in his commonplace book, without having 
appended the authors' names ; as at that time he merely wrote 
for hid own guidance, and had not the most distant idea of 
offering his views to the public. Moreover, his desire beii^ 
to call attention to a subject of vital importance, he thought it 
was of little moment whether he attained that object by pre- 
senting his views in the statements of others, or in language 
and figures which might be more properly denominated his 
own — ^believing that the name of an author can give little 
authority to what may be advanced. Good reasons require 
no authority, and bad ones derive no weight from any man's 

To all who are not familiar with the writings of Hufeland, 
Olaridge, E. Johnson, Graham, Wilson, Courtney, Weiss, etc., 
it is presumed it will be an advantage to be presented with 
their views ; and even those who are, may be glad to have 
thehr memories refreshed by meeting with their old friends, 
from whose pages we have largely drawn, and who may be 
read with great advantage. If those who are in the pursuit 
of health and longevity would purchase the above works with 
the money they save by giving up all unnatural drinks, etc., 
and would occupy the time they ought to save from unneces- 
sary and injurious sleep in reading them, they would be tpiser, 
BBTTER, and HAPPIER. After reading, and carefully study- 
ing the above works, those who cannot avail themselves of the 
valuable advice and assistance of such men as Drs. £. John- 
son, Lovell, etc., may, in all simple cases, adopt the plan here 
laid down for their treatment ; and if they will be guided by 
reason, nature, and facts, they will have no complicated or 
chronic diseases to cure. 

In conclusion, if these pages should contribute, in any small 
degree, to afford useful hints, or call attention to this much 
neglected subject, the author's end will be gained, and his 
labor amply repaid. 



Nob ett Tlrere aed vtlen vite. 

Life ii coily U& when blefsed with hk&ltb. 

Thb present is emphatically a day of inquiry, Nothing is 
now taken for granted. Even children must know why certiun 
things are done. Nothing is regarded as being right because 
established, or good because antiquated, Every thing must 
submit to the test of searching investigation ; and we see the 
result of this spirit of the times. Antiquated notions, and es- 
tablished usages and symptoms, are crumbling to atoms. The 
minds of men are like a great sea, the waters of which are in 
incessant motion. Science and literature are no longer pent 
up in a few colleges, royal societies, or inaccessible volumes : 
from being the greatest of distinctions, they are now become 
popular. Their portals are no longer guarded by a dark 
phraseology, but having left their retreat, they have begun the 
work of instructing the people. 

It is not only a day of inquiry, but also of extraordinary activi- 
ty. Idleness is neither charact^stic of the pious, or the impi- 
ous — of those who are really right, or positively wrong. A. Ful- 
ler was right when he said, " It is an affecting truth that nothing 
stands still — ^all things are at work — in the natural, moral," intel- 
lectual, and commercial "world," But if these rcmarks^were 
applicable to his time, how much more so to ours.* As men 

* That these are traly wondrous days, look at that " great faet,*^ the 
Anti-ComrLaw League, which aims to increase the size of the poor man*s 
loaf. Last year (1^44), they raised £50,000 ; now they ask for £ 100,000, 
and they will get it. The Dissenters' zeal has aroused the Church of 
England into activity, in the work of edjicatioo ; and her friends have 
raised near £200,000 for that object, and will yet do much more. The 


see &nd feel the force of truth, or what they beliere to be truth, 
they seek with diligence to extend its influence. All are at 
work, in the church and the world — above and beneath ; and 
all this various movement tends to universality and diffusion. 

Among the other Christian and benevolent institutions of 
the day, which are the glory of our land, is the Temperance 
Reformation, which has already, amidst much oppositipn, ac- 
complished a large amount of good, directly, in the reclama- 
tion of thousands of drunkards, and indirectly perhaps still 
more, in checking the drinking habits of the community. By 
the multitude these effects have been unappreciated, because 
to a great extent unnoticed, or if noticed, they have not been 
attributed to their proper cause. But to those who have pro- 
moted, and anxiously prayed for, and watched its progress, 
and been familiar with its multifarious and benevolent bearings, 
they are palpable and glorious. The general impression againsi 
drunkenness has been deepened ; the public mind has been en- 
lightened as to the deceitful and deleterious properties of alco- 
holic drinks ; genteel society is veering round in favor of so- 
briety ; and the nation at large is now convinced of the neces- 
sity and importance of the Temperance Reformation. Thou- 
sands of men, once degraded and wretched in the extreme, are 
now become sober and happy. Thousands of youth, it is be- 
lieved, are now so well informed, and so much influenced by 


Weftleyans, oflter r&ifliog £221,000 for tbeir Centenary Fund, have now 
undertaken to provide £200,000 more for schools. The Independents 
propose to have a day-school attached to every chapel, to accomplish 
which they have resolved to raise the sum of £250,000 (quarter of a 
million), in five years. Then comes the Free Church of Scotland, con- 
sisting of five hundred ministers, backed by a million of their people, 
'who have spumed the state of yoke, and asserted their claim to perfect 
liberty of conscience. They have already raised £200,000 to build 
places of worship; £100,000 more for the support of their ministers; 
and now they ask the religions world to assist them to raise £300,000 
more. What do these facts betoken, but eamestneis, powers and intellU 
gence in the people, sach as was never before known ? And the ends 
are even more noble than the means ; they are Freedom, Knowledge, and 


tonperance proceedings, that they are not v^ likely to fall 
in the snare of their fathers. Thousands of families, once deso- 
lated and despised, and upon the verge of ruin, are now well 
jHTOvided for, united, and happy. Many neighborhoods, once 
noted for disorder, riot, and immorality, are now peaceable and 
quiet. Many places of worship, once comparatively empty, 
are now frequented by numbers (^ reformed characters, hear- 
ing the word of life. And of these there are hundreds, who 
were once like the man among the tombs, cutting themselves, 
who are now dothed, and in their right mind, sitting at the 
feet of Jesus. It has also given rise to several valuable insti- 
tutions, such as the Independent Order cf JReckabites,* a first- 
rate benefit society, consisting of a noble army of ** life-guards" 
of our temperance rights, thirty thousand strong, and still in- 
creasing (see Appendix, A.) ; the United Order of FerMUe 
EecIi^biteSy consisting of five hundred tents ; besides a goodly 
number of juvenile male and female tents, composed of chil- 
dren, who are the hope of the world. Then comes the Tern* 
perance Providence Institution,j[ which has already issued more 
than one thousand policies — a proof of the estimation in which 
it is held by the temperance public, for whose benefit it was 
established; also the Temperance Emigrant Society,\ estab- 

* See RoIeSi which can be had of any of the memben, some of whom 
are to be found in most towns. Their Monthly Magazine is one of the 
best and cheapest of our temperance publications, and can be had of any 
bookseller— of Houlston, Paternoster Bow. 

t Their office is 39 Moorgate-st, London. The Third Annual Report 
of this society may now be had (gratis) on application, with tracts ex- 
plaining the benefit of Life Assurance. The brilliant success of this insti* 
tution, and the remarkable exemption fit>m loss which it has enjoyed, 
justify us in urging upon the friends of temperance the dut^f as well as 
detirablenesSf of securing a share in its benefits. We wrge upon every 
teetotaler the importance of getting full information immediately, which 
will be most obligingly given by the secretazy, Theo. Compton, Esq., 

t A share in the above society entitles the holder thereof to eighty acrea 
of land, a house to live in (having more conveniences in it than one fin* 
which a person must give £10 per annum in London or Liverpool), and 


lished in Liverpooli under the patronage of L. Heywortb, 
Esq. — a guaranty for its respectability, as is also the moral 
and religious character of its secretary, Mr. R. Gorst. They 
have now numbers subscribing for 30,080 acres of land, which 
will be their own property, and their heirs, forever. The 
Temptrance Building Societies,* designed to assist every tee- 
totaler to become his own landlord, and thus furnish homes for 
the people. And lastly, though not least, it has given rise to 
a spirit of inquiry into the various branches of physical science^ 
and led thousands, who previously disregarded the laws of 
health, to read, think, examine, and practice them. This is a 
natural consequence of an enlightened adoption of our views ; 
and in proportion as this spirit is cultivated, will be the per- 
manency and success of our operations. We do not say that 
the preservation of health, and the attainment of longevity, are 
the only motives by which temperance men will be influenced ; 
there are various and important benefits of a pecuniary, moral, 
and religious character, which also operate upon their minds, 
and regulate their conduct. But we do insist upon the im- 

£9 5«. in cash, or with its worth in goods. The entrance is two shillings 
and sixpence, and the subscription one shilling per week, per share. 
Prospectoses may be had, gratis ; likewise the laws of the society, price 
sixpence ; and a pamphlet giving a description of Wiseoruinf in the United 
StcUet. Their agent is gone out to this place, to purchase and prepare 
the land, build the houses, and make the necessary arrangements for the 
reception of the first portion of emigrants, which left England in April 
(1844). For further information, prospectus, rules, etc., apply to the 
secretary, Temperance Hotel, 17 Bulton-st., Liverpool. 

* The first, second, and third are established at Harf s Temperance Ho- 
tel, 159 Aldersgate-st., London; the South London, at the Temperance 
Hall, Waterloo Road — E. R. Mesban, secretary, 6 Fleming-st., Kingsland 
Boad, London. The entrance money varies, but the monthly subscrip- 
tion is ten shillings per share. Members may increase the number of 
their shares at any time, without any extra entrance money. The asso- 
ciation is to continue in existence until every nnadvanced share becomes 
of the value of £ 120, which it is fully expected will be in ten years, or 
less. For prospectuses, etc., gratis, apply (if by letter post-paid, with 
stamp for reply) to the secretary, J. B. Maoarthur, 3 Taymouth Terrace, 
Lc»doa Hospital, London. 


portance of ccxisidering the temperance moyement in its variouB 
and immediate relations to individual health and physical hap- 

One of the most important and interesting of human concerns 
is the enjoyment of health, inasmuch as without it aU sublu- 
nary blessmgs would be tasteless, and life itself be irksome. 
The evils, however, would not rest here ; for it is a well-estab- 
lished fact, that health and virtue are nearly as closely related 
as body and soul — ^that they flow from the same source— that 
our physical nature holds our moral nature, in a great measure, 
in dependence — ^that, when the habits of the animal economy 
are bad, the moral habits cannot be good, disease being often 
the parent of crime. Hence, it has been very properly assert- 
ed that ** Philosophy has been in the wrong, not to descend 
more into the physical man ; there it is that the moral man 
lies concealed." But notwithstanding this important bearing 
of health upon the "Affairs of body and mind— of time and eter- 
nity — it is a notorious fact that, of all others, this is a subject 
which has been the most neglected. Man seems desirous to 
know every thing and every body besides himself, though 

— " all wisdom centres here." 

To a great extent, we have been content to think hy proxy, and 
have therefore mainly left the care of our property in the hands 
of the lawyer, the care of our bodies in the hands of the doc- 
tor, and the care of our souls in the hands of the parson. The 
result of ignorance and indifference is, we have involved our- 
selves in a vast amount of personal and relative suffering. But 
we are beginning to see, as Poor Richard says, that " Trusting 
too much to others' care is the ruin of many, for in the affairs 
of this life men are saved, not hy faith, but by the want of it. 
But a man's own care is profitable ; for if you would have a faith- 
ful servant, and one you like, serve yourself J* So if you woidd 
have your property, body, and soul taken care of, do it tour- 






Maakiad, like all oflbr organic beiaga, ought to Htb aeeordhg to aatora'f lam^ 
wtthoQt pain ; and die a natural death :— i. e., without illneaa or nffeaeing. But with 
ua almost eTerj one diea from the efTecti of poisonoua drugi, intozicattng liqnonii 
advlterated food, want of water, air, and exerciae.— R. duaiDCiit; £•«. 

Let the reader give us his undivided attention, and bring 
with him an unprejudiced mind, while we take into considera- 
tion the natural duration of human life ; and also endeavor to 
ascertain whether that life ought to be spent under the influence 
of pain and disease. 

Our object will be to show, by the aid of Scripture, philos- 
ophy, and facts, that the opinions generally entertained on 
these subjects are very unsound in their character, and pre- 
judicial in their influence. 

Probably no theory can come more welcome to the human 
mind, than that which establishes on good ground, the hope 
of the enjoyment of health to "a good old age." For not- 
withstanding the trials, vexations, and difficulties incident to 
this life, the love of it generally increases with our years, and 
18 evidently one of the inherent principles of our nature, which 
cannot be explained away by any of the subtleties of the 
sophist, or be overcome by any assumed dignity derived from 
a "false philosophy." There are many of these inextinguish- 
able prm^ples in our nature : such as our love of freedom — 


love of country— love of home, and others; but the h^e <f 
life predominates* — " Skin for skin, yea, all that a man hath 
win he give for his life." 

It is an admitted fact, that disease has increased and the 
duration of human life decreased, from the time of the Patri- 
archs down to our own days, and more especially in civilized 
countries ; but the catise of this fact, which does not lie very 
deep, we have interested ourselves very little about. At pres- 
ent the popular opinion is, that the natural duration of human 
life is seventy years ; which opinion is certainly not founded upon 
facts or observation, for these go to prove that about one fourth 
of the children that are bom die within the first eleven months 
of life ; one third within twenty -three months ; and one half 
before they reach their eighth year,\ Two thirds of mankind 
die before they reach the thirty-ninth year ; and three fourths 
before the fifty-first; so that, as Bufifon observes, of nine 
children thi^ are bom, only one arrives at the age of seventy- 
three ; of thirty, only one lives to the age of eighty ; while out 
of 200, only one lives to the age of ninety ; and in the last place, 
out of 11,996, only one drags on a languid existence to the 
age of 100 years. The mean term of life is, according to the 
same author, eight years in a new-born child. As the child 
grows older, his existence becomes more secure; and after 
the first year he may reasonably be expected to live to the age 
of thirty-three. Life becomes gradually firmer up to the age 
of seven ; when the child, after going through the dangers of 
dentition, will probably live forty -two years and three months. 
After this period the sum of probabilities, which had gradually 

* There is nothing of which metk are so fond, and withal so careless, as 
life.— Bruyer*. 

t When we contemplate a churchyard, the earth of which is con- 
posed, in a great measare, of the bodies of infiints, it is natoral for us to 
fiincy, but surely it is not reasonable for us to believe, that these beings 
were bom for no other purpose than to die. Fault must exist some 
where ; it cannot be in the providence of God ; it must therefore attach 
to the improvidence and indiscretion of man. Consequences as fiital 
originate horn ignorance as from crime.— J{«tV2'« E$$ay$ on Jntanitf, etc. 


increased, nndei^oes a progressive decrease ; so thai a ch^d 
of fourteen cannot be expected to lire beyond thirty-seven 
years and five months ; a man of thirty, twenty-dght years 
more ; and in the last place, a man of e^hty-four, but one 
year more. Such is the result of observation and of calcula- 
ticms on the different degrees of probabilities (ji human life, by 
HaUey, Eresbroom, Wargentin, Buffon, etc., etc. 

As the popular opinion cannot therefore be founded on the 
above, or on any well-founded statements of a similar description, 
we must look for its basis some where else. And it is likely we 
shall find it resulting from a misunderstanding of the 10th verse 
of the 90th Psalm, which says, " The days of our years are three- 
score years and ten, and if by reason of strength they be four-score 
years, yet is there strength, labor, and sorrow, for it is soon ctU 
off^ and we fly away." Let the reader observe, that rightly to 
understand an author, we must coni»der the circumstances 
under which he wrote, and also, if possible, the general drift 
of his observations and reasonings. It may, therefore, be 
proper to observe, that this Psalm is generaUy admitted to 
have been written by Moses, and that it has special reference 
to the sentence passed upon Israel in the wilderness, for their 
unbelief, murmuring, and rebellion against the Lord. The 
sentence declared that their carcasses should fall in the wilder- 
ness — ^that they should be wasted by a series of miseries for 
thirty-eight years together, until they were all destroyed ; ex- 
cepting Joshua and Caleb, in whom " was found another spirit, 
and who followed the Lord fully." Let us also carefully ob- 
serve, that Moses is not speaking of the lives of men in gen- 
eral, but merely adverting to an awful faet^ which was actually 
taking place at that time among the rebellious Israelites in the 
** great and terrible wilderness." That he was not speaking of 
the lives of men generally, may be inferred from the fact, that 
he, as well as many of his brethren, lived to considerably more 
than even ninety years. Moreover, as he complains of the 
people being cut off through the displeasure of God, it is 
reasonable to suppose that he was not alluding to the period 


during which men were capable of living, but simply to the 
fact, that owing to the judgments of the Almighty, which befell 
the Israelites on account of their sins, hut few of them attained 
a more lengthened existence than seventy or^ eighty years. 
" For we are consumed," he says, ** by thine anger, and by 
thy wrath we are troubled." — " It is soon cut off," etc. ; lan- 
guage indicating that they died — ^not a natural death, having 
reached the end of the natural term of life, but were *^ con- 
sumed,'* — " cut of*** 

The eminent Dr. Farre, in his evidence before the parlia- 
mentary committee, appointed in 1843, to inquire into the 
causes, extent, and consequences of drunkenness, gave it as his 
opinion, that by the last grant of Providence to man, the nat- 
ural term of his life is 120 years ; in confirmation of which he 
quoted. Gen. vi. 3 : " My spirit shall not always strive with 
man, for that he also is flesh ; yet his days shall be an hundred 
and twenty years." He also further observes, " That where 
disease, arising from other causes, does not shorten it [human 
life], the reason why so few attain that age [120], is to be 
found in the excessive stimulation to which the mass of the 
community are continually subject." (See Appendix, B.) The 
history of mankind clearly shows that the above expressed 
intention of God was gradually carried into effect ; the prin- 
ciple of vitality appearing to become weaker until the close of 
the era in which the postdiluvian Patriarchs flourished ; when, 
although several centuries had elapsed since the deluge, we 

* What a striking contrast does this case present to that given of the 
children of Israel when they left Egypt Then it is said (Ps.<;v. 37), 
The Lord brought them oat " with silver and gcAd ; and there was not 
one feeble person among the tribes." God's blessing upon their plain 
food and hard work had produced this — ^but now he is counteracting the 
order of nature— reversing nature's laws, in order to punish his rebellious 
people. There is nothing miracolouB in the former case— it is the coarse 
of natare— in exact accordance with organic laws, which are God's laws; 
but there is in the latter, inasmach as exercise in the open air, and even 
angel's food, sent direct from heaven, did not promote health — because 
God was oonsaming them. 


find that 120 years was about the averctpe of htiman existence. 
Abraham lived to the age of 175 years. His sons Isaac and 
Ishmacl died, the former at the age of 180, and the latter at 
137. Sarah, the only female of the ancient world of the dura- 
tion of whose life we are accurately informed, lived 127 years. 
Jacob lived to the age of 147, and his son Joseph, although 
subject to all the excitement arising from the peculiarly trying 
circumstances in which he was placed, reached the age of 110. 
" The years of the life of Levi were an hundred, thirty, and 
seven years." Ex. vi. 16. Kohath, the second son of Levi, 
according to Archbishop Usher, was thirty years old when 
Jacob came into Egypt, and lived there 107 ; he therefore 
attained the same age as Levi, as did also his son Amram, the 
father of Moses. Moses lived to be 120 years old ; while the 
sacred historian relates concerning him that "his eye was not 
dim, nor his natural force abated.'' So far, therefore, as the 
vital principle is concerned, he was a young man even at that 
advanced age, notwithstanding the harassing life he had led. 
Had he not shared the same fate as his brethren, in con- 
sequence of the improper spirit which he manifested at the 
" Waters of Meribah," he would have lived many years longer. 
He died, not a natural death, but was cut off, Joshua, who 
succeeded him in the government of Israel, died at the age of 
100 years ; and Eli, at a much later penod> reached ninety- 
eight years, and did not then die of old age> or of disease, but 
was killed by a fall from his seat, on hearing that the Philis- 
tines had triumphed over the Israelites — had slain his sons 
Hophni and Phineas, and had taken the ark of God. Elisha, 
a man of great severity of manners, who despised ease and 
wealth, lived far above 100 years; and Simeon, a man full 
of hope and confidence in God, was distinguished by a life of 
ninety years. 

That human life shall be greatly prolonged, beyond its pres- 
ent short limits, is one of the plain declarations of prophecy. 
The following is Bishop Lowth's ti*anslation of that sublime 
passage recorded in Isaiah Ixv. 20, 23. 



" No more shall there be an in&nt ahort-livfld, 
Nor an old man who hath not fulfilled his days ; 
For he that dieth a hundred years old shall die a boy, 
And the sinner that shall die at an hundred years shall be deemed 

Aud they shall build houses and inhabit them ; 
And they shall plant vineyards, and eai the fruit of them ; 
They shall not build and another inhabit ; 
They shall not plant and another eat ; 
For as the days of a tree shall be the days of my people. 
My chosen shall not labor in vain, 
Neither shall they genei^te a riiort-lived race." 

** Every one who has read the sacred original, must allow 
that this translation is literal ;" indeed, it is generally admitted 
to be one of the best translations of this book : *' and without 
staying in this place to settle the point respecting the number 
of years that it allots to man, it must be evident that it appor- 
tions to the inhabitants of this world a much longer period than 
three-score years and ten ;"* though even that woidd be more 
than double the present average of human life in our country. 
Thus we think there is no ground, from Scripture, to suppose 
that mankind are enjoying the full term of human life. And 
the probability is, that the Scriptures have made known to us 
no specific or absolute limit to our life on earth, but that God 
has wisely made it dependent on the observance or non-obsery- 
anco of nature's laws. 

* Anti-Bacchus. A cheap and first-rate work. — Smow. 




Pfai]otophy, Wisdom^ tmd Liberty sapport each other— he who »ttt not reMon k 
« fr^fioc— he who cannot i» a/iwi— «nd he who dara not i» a tlave* 

Sib W. DftUMKOHO* 

Having, as we conceive, shown in the preceding chapter, 
from the Scripture of Divine truth, that the popular opinion, 
in reference to the natural duration of human life is erroneous, 
and believing that philosophy is always consonant with Holy 
Writ, we proceed to examine their joint testimony on the sub- 

And here we premise, that God has evidently established a 
three-fold law, which must be obeyed by man, in order to his 
enjoyment of health and longevity. Those laws are moral, 
mental, and organic. These are the laws of God — ^the reflec- 
tions of his holy and blessed character and perfections. It is 
evident that an infinitely wise and good Being must suit hb 
laws to that which is to be governed. There must be adapta- 
Hon. Moral laws are not swted to irrational creatures, nor 
mental laws to material things. Mere matter is governed en- 
tirely by organic laws — ^mind by intellectual laws — ^and moral 
beings by moral laws. Hence it is, that as moral agents, we 
are under moral laws, as accountable beings to God. These 
laws, by which we are to be governed, or by which we shall 
be judged and condemned at the last day, are revealed to us 
in the Scriptures ; and have special reference to our conduct 
toward God, ourselves, and our fellow-men. And though 
the full amount of happiness or misery, resulting from the 
manner in which we observe these laws, will not be realized in 
this life, yet God has often made obedience to those laws a 
condition on which has rested the manner in which he has in- 
tended to deal with his rational creatures; this was more 
especially the case with the Jews, his aneient people. Hence 


we read of such promises, founded op such conditwM as the 
following, viz. : '' If ye will walk in my statutes, and keep my 
commandments and do them ; then will I give you rain in due 
season, and the land shall yield her increase, and the trees of 
the field shall yield their fruit. And your thrashing shall 
reach into the vintage, and the vintage shall reach unto the 
sowing time,* and ye shall eat your bread to the full, and 
dwell in your land safely." '< The inhabitant shall not say, I 
am sick." " And ye shall serve the Lord your God, and he 
shall bless thy bread and thy water, and I will take sickness 
away from the midst of thee." Ex. xxiii. 25. 

On the other hand, God threatens them, '' K ye will not 
hearken unto me, and will not do all these commandments ; 
and if ye shall despise my statutes, or if your soul abhor my 
judgments, so that ye will not do all my commandments, but 
break my covenant, I also will do this unto you : I will even 
appoint over you, terror, consumption, and burning ague, that 
shall consume the eyes and cause sorrow of heart. And if ye 
will walk contrary unto me, and will not hearken unto me ; if 
ye will not be reformed by me by those things, but will walk 
contrary unto me ; then will I also walk contrary unto you, and 
I will punish you yet seven times more for your sins. And ye 
shall eat the flesh of your sons, and the flesh of your daugh- 
ters, f The Lord shall make the pestilence cleave unto thee, 
until he have consumed thee from off the land. The Lord 
shall smite thee with consumption, and with fever, and with an 

* " This ifl a nervous and beautiful promise of sueh entire plenty of corn 
and wine, that before they could have reaped and thrashed out their 
Gonii the vintage should be ready, and before they could have pressed 
out their wine, it would be time to sow again. The prophet Amos, 
chap. ix. 13, expresses the same blessing in the same manner : The 
ploughman shall overtake the reaper, and the treader of grapes him who 
soweth seeds.*' — Dodd. 

t This was literally fulfilled at the siege of Jerusalem. Josephus, 
*' Wars of the Jews,*' book 7, chap. 2, gives us a particular instance in 
dreadful detail of a woman named Mary, who, in the extremity of the 
famine during the siege, killed her sucking child, roasted, and had eaten 
part of it when discovered by the soldiers ! See also Jar. xix. 9. 


extreme burning ; with the blotch of Egypt, and with emerods, 
and with the scab, and with the itch, whereof thou canst not 
be healed/' See Lev. xxvi. 14, etc., Deut. xxviii. 16, etc. 
These are astonishing declarations and prophecies, and though 
delivered more than 3000 years ago, are now fulfilHng in the 
persons and sufferings of the Jews, affording demonstrable 
proof that obedience to the laws of God will secure his bless- 
ing, and that disobedience will insure his curse. 

In the New Testament, all moral excellency is based on 
faith in God : on the belief of his paternal goodness, and the 
merciful and gracious character of the Lord Jesus Christ. 
The work of the Holy Spirit on the heart, producing repent, 
ance toward God and faith in our Lord Jesus Christ! en- 
abling the subject of its influence to turn from sin, and to walk 
in the ways of God. 

We are also under mental laws, as intellectual beings. We 
have capacities for knowledge, improvement, and the expan- 
sion of our intellectual powers. This capability should be cul- 
tivated ; because if left to itself we can expect but little pro- 
gress. We differ from animals by the reason which we exer- 
cise, and for which their instinct is a substitute ; if our minds 
are neglected, we only show that we have a capacity for im- 
provement, but as to the actual employment of that capacity 
we might almost as well be brutes. Let man be trained — ^his 
capabilities be employed — give him opportunities to unfold and 
improve his faculties, and he shows at once his vast superiority 
to all the creatures amidst which he is placed. Nay, it is 
almost impossible to set bounds to the extent of his powers. 
"Who can easily weigh the vast sense of Plato, or master the keen 
logic of Aristotle, or grasp the scientific research of Newton, 
or fathom the all-comprehending philosophy of Bacon ? Cul- 
tivate the human intellect, and in the chemist's laboratory it 
can analyze or compound the various substances of the earth ; 
it can resolve them into their original elements, or re-construct 
them into their appropriate forms. Cultivate the mind, and, 
by an unerring geometry, it can measure the earth, and even 


the heavens ; with the mariner's compass, it can sail a ship to 
any part of the globe, and at any hour tell the place which 
she occupies on tlie immense expanse of water. Cultivate the 
mind, and availing itself of steam, made of nature's beverage, 
it can effect land or water traveling with the speed of the 
wind ; inventing types, it can receive and communicate tliougbt 
to an indefinable extent ; and, by reason and memory, it can 
possesss itself of the knowledge of all antiquity." Is not such 
a mind worth cultivating ? Let us remember that every child 
has this mmd in embryo ! That it will be trained in some 
form. Beading, study, and reflection are as necessary to 
mental health and vigor as food, digestion, |tnd exercise are to 
physical. By the diligent use of these a man may excel in 
intellectual things, but if he neglects them. Be remains mentally 
sick and dwarfish. 

We are also under organic laws, having organic bodies. 
These bodies were originally formed of the earth, and are 
earthy. They also require sustenance, and presetTation from 
evil, etc. Therefore, food in proper quantity and quality, air, 
exercise, etc., are necessary to its well-being. Obedience to 
any one of these laws will not of itself secure the three-fold 
end. Obeying the organic and intellectual laws, and yet re- 
belling against the moral, may bring upon us the chastising 
rod of our Heavenly Father, though this mode of punishing 
sin is not so often adopted by Him toward us, under the Chris- 
tian dispensation, as it was toward the Jews, ours being a 
more spiritual economy. Neglect of the organic laws will 
produce disease, pain, and premature death. A man may be 
very intellectual and devotional, but this will neither prevent 
disease, sustain life, nor avert other calamities. Nor is it right 
for a man to pray against sickness or peril, if he neglect the 
laws which affect the physical constitution. He would be thus 
tempting God to reverse the laws of the universe. This is a 
subject which has been much misunderstood, and has led to 
** charging God foolishly," with a large amount of the suffering 
of the world, but of which man has been the real author. We 


shall therefore paj a Ittde more attentkn to this part of the 
subject, and try to "justify the ways of God to men/' by 
throwing the blame upon its proper authors. When a man 
who thinks, as well as sees, suflfers his eye to range over the 
various minor systems which compose the one great scheme 
of the universe ; when he looks at the planetary system, and 
beholds worlds whirling in countless numbers, with inconceiv- 
able rapidity, yet infallible precisbn ; when he dwells on the 
vegetable system, and sees myriads of plants rising from the 
same earth, living in the same air, warmed by the same sun, 
watered by the same rain, yet differing from each other, and 
affording year after year each his own peculiar product, with 
unerring exactitude ; when, with more inquisitive glance, he 
penetrates the thicker veil with which nature has sustained the 
chemical world, and watches the several phenomena resulting 
from chemical operations — combustion, putrefaction, vegetation, 
fermentation, etc. — observes the unfailing exactitude with which 
all these render obedient homage to the one great law of afl^- 
ty ; then, when he looks inward and contemplates his own sys- 
tem, beautiful as the most beautiful, and not less worthy of 
omnipotent wisdom than the most worthy ; when he looks in- 
ward, and beholds there all confusion and imperfection ; when 
he perceives that, of all the systems of nature, that of man 
alone is liable to derangement, etc. ; — ^the mind cannot but be 
irresistibly struck with the anomaly, and the tongue cannot but 
exclaim, " Why is it so?" It is thus : that while all other sys- 
tems of the universe aiye sustained and governed by immutable 
laws, as gravitation, chemical affinity^ instinct, etc., etc., the 
system of man depends solely for support upon laws, the per- 
fect or imperfect fulfillment of which has been left dependent 
on the capricious conduct of man himself. I am not attempt- 
ing to prove that man is not " bom to die;" I am only endeav- 
oring to show that he was not, by God, subject to disease, and 
premature death. I cannot believe that it formed a part of 
the original design of the Almighty Architect of the universe, 
that one half of naankind should die before they have attained 


tbe age of eight years ; that is, before they hare lired long 
enough to fulfill any one conceivable intention ; in fact, before 
they are themselves fully formed. If any man dies while any 
one of his c»'gans is unimpaired, he dies prematurely, and be- 
fore he has fulfilled the final cause of his existence. For God 
is an economist in every thing ; he creates nothing in vain — 
never falls short, or exceeds the object in view. There is but 
one legitimate cause of death ; and that is old age. And here 
we see the goodness of God : there is nothing painful in death 
from old age, if the soul has found peace with God, through 
our Lord Jesus Christ. It makes its advances with a gradual 
and steady step, which is scarcely noted ; and the old man 
drops into the tomb almost insensibly — "his end is peace." 
Thus it will appear that nature's laws are immutable, and un- 
changeable, and that when they are obeyed there will be no 
exception to the enjoyment of health and longevity. Many 
such instances have occurred since the Christian era — a proof 
that man is not so constituted as to render it inevitable that he 
should live in a state of disease, and die at so early a period 
as now bounds his existence. Combe, in his highly talented 
work, the " Constitution of Man, considered in relation to ex- 
ternal objects,"* says, " I hope I do not err in stating that nei- 
ther disease nor death, in eariy or middle life, can take place 
under, the ordinary administration of Providence, except when 
the organic laws have been infringed." The pains of prema- 
ture death, then, are the punishments of infringement of these 
laws ; and the object of that chastisement probably is, to im- 
press upon us the necessity of obeying them, that we may 
live, and to prevent our abusing the remedial process inherent 
to a great extent in our constitution. That death in old age 
only is the natural institution of the creation, is evident from all 
the philosophic reasoning we can bring to boar upon the sub- 
ject. Drs. Smith and Arnott, in their celebrated report to the 
government, in 1836, say, "There is nothing in the physiologi- 

* Pablished bj Fowlen & WeUs, New York. 


cal constitution of man to prevent bis long surviving the age 
of seventy years, or more, if the causes which now prevent 
their doing so were removed." Dr. S. Graham, in his excel- 
lent "Lectures to Young Men," observes, ''If mankind al- 
ways lived precisely as they ought to live, they would, as a 
general rule, most certainly pass through the several states of 
life, from infancy to old' age, without sickness; enjoying, 
through their long-protracted years, health, serenity, and 
peace; individual and social happiness; and grradually wear 
out theur vital energies, and finally lie down, and fall asleep in 
death, without s^ony — without pain." Disease is not natural, 
but artificial ; as much so as any production can be artificial. 
Man, at his creation, was endowed with the gift of health, and 
was destined to enjoy longevity, and not to be the sickly, suf- 
fering creature we now behold him. " He was designed to 
enjoy health, and sink by slow degrees into the bosom of his 
parent earth, without disease or pain." — Vegetable Begimen, 
Hesiod tells us that '' before the time of Prometheus,* man- 
kind were exempt from all suffering ; and that death, when at 
length it came, approached like sleep, and gently closed their 
eyes." And Dr. Campbell speaks with his accustomed force 
and perspicuity, when, in the first number of that prodigy, the 
Christian Witness (which has obtained a circulation of thirty 
thousand per month), he gives it as his opinion that " prema- 
ture decay, sickness, and death are matters very much under 
the control of man." Dr. Bigel asserts, ''M^ is, physically 
and morally, the author of his own ills." If we lived on 
healthy food and drink, such a thing as disease would be im« 
possible. — Whitlaw, 

Captain Claridge has presented his readers with some very 
striking remarks on man's organism, in which he clearly shows 
that man, as an organized being, must be subject to the or- 
ganic laws. An organized being is one which derives its ex- 

* Prometheua first iiutracted mankind in the culinary and other luei 
of fire, and ako let them the example of elanghtering an ox. 



iBtence from a preyiously existing organised being» which sub- 
sists on food, which grows, decays, and dies. The first law» 
then, that must be obeyed, in order to render an organized 
being perfect in its kind, is that the germ from whence it 
springs shall be complete in all its parts, and sound in its 
whole constitution. If we sow an acorn in which some vitnl 
part has been destvoyed altogether, the seedling plant, and the 
full-grown oak (if ever it attain maturity), will be deficient in 
the lineaments which are wanting in the embryo root ; if we 
BOW an acorn, entire in its parts, but only half ripened, or 
damaged in its whole texture by damp or other causes, the 
seedling oak will be feeble, and will probably die early. A 
similar law holds good in regard to man. For instance, a man, 
from h^h living and indolence, contracts gout ; his sons, how- 
ever temperate, may nevertheless be afflicted with gout by in- 
heritance ; that is, supposing gout to be an hereditary disease, 
as some assert. Here we have a clue to that declaration of 
Jehovah^ in which he declares he '' will visit the iniquity of 
the fathers upon the children,'' which he does sometimes *' upon 
the children's children, unto the third and fourth generation.*' 
A second organic law, according to Mr. Claridge, is, that 
the organized being, the moment it is ushered into life, and as 
long as it continues to live, must be supplied with food, light, 
air, and every other physical element requisite for its support, 
in due quantity, and of the kind best suited to its peculiar con- 
stitution. Obedience to this law is rewarded with a vigorous 
and healthy development of its powers ; and in animals, with a 
pleasing consciousness of existence, and aptitude for the per- 
formance of their natural functions. Disobedience is punished 
with feebleness, stunted growth, general imperfections, or an 
early death. A few facts shall illustrate this. At a meeting 
of the " British Association," held in Edinburgh, in 1834, there 
was read an abstract, by Dr. J. Clarke, of a registry kept in 
the Lying-in Hospital of Great Britain-st., Dublin, from the year 
1758 to the end of 1833, from which it appeared that, in 
1781, when the hospital was imperfectly ventilated, every 


sixth chSld died, within nine days of its birth, of convulsive dis- 
ease ; and that after means of thorough ventilation had been 
adopted, the mortality of infants within the same time, in five 
succeeding years, was reduced to nearly one in twenty ; thus 
showing that, as they approached to perfect obedience of or- 
ganic laws, human life was preserved. Again, the Society of 
Friends, who are composed of all ranks and classes, and whose 
pursuits are as various as their local habitations, and who are 
therefore equally subject to all the ordinary contingencies of 
life, are nevertheless remarkable for their temperance, health, 
and longevity. An inquiry having been made some years ago, 
previously to the formation of an assurance society exclusively 
for themselves, a search was made into the pubhc register of 
the parish of Chesterfield, in Derbyshire, and also that of 
Chesterfield Monthly Meeting of Friends. The following are 
the results : the united ages of one hundred individuals, suc- 
cessively buried in Chestei*field churchyard, ending November 
16, 1834, were 2515 years and six months — making the aver- 
age of each life twenty-five years and two months. But of the 
individuals buried among '' Friends," ending the 2'7th of No- 
vember, 1834, the total of their ages were 4790 years and seven 
months — giving an average of forty-seven years and ten months, 
or nearly double that of the general population. Pursuing the 
calculation still further, they found that only two of the one 
hundred buried in the churchyard reached eighty and upward ; 
but among Friends, nineteen attained to eighty or more. In 
the churchyard, twelve of the number were buried whose ages 
were seventy and upward ; but of Friends, thirty died who 
were at least seventy years old.* These facts speak volumes 

* From their Annual Monitor, for 1836, it appears that rather mora 
than two hundred adults are recorded, of whom ninety were from tev 
enty to eighty-four yeara old, averaging full eighty yean each ; and of 
these one fourth were from seventy-eight to ninety-eight, and ten produce 
an average of full niuety-four years. Now it should be remembered that 
these statistics were obtained and published by the above respectable 
society, in connection with the question of assurance, and that ^one. 


in favor of our system ; and whenever our principles are more 
generally adopted by that religious society, as we believe they 
will be, not only by them, but also by all thinking, independ- 
ent people, there is no question but their difference of health 
and longevity will be still more striking. 

The effect of intemperance in shortening life is strikingly 
exemplified in the contrast afforded by other classes of society 
with the Friends. For it appears from accurate calculation 
that in London, only one in forty attains the age of eighty, 
while among the Friends not less than one in ten reaches that 

A third organic law, applicable to man, as stated by Mr. 
Claridge, is, that he shall duly exercise his organs, this con- 
dition being an indispensable prerequisite of health. The re- 
ward of obedience to this law, is enjoyment in the very act of 
exercising the functions, a pleasing consciousness of existence, 
and the acquisition of numberless gratifications of which labor, 
or the exercise of our powers, is the procuring means. Dis- 
obedience is punished with derangement and sluggishness of 
the functions, with general uneasiness or positive pain, and the 
denial of gratification to numerous faculties. 

Health and longevity, in the wide and physiological accepta- 
tion, consist in all the actions of which living beings are capable, 
not only the internal action, as of the heart, vessels, etc., but 
also of the external action of the limbs, in running, leaping, etc. 
All physiologists agree that life consists in the constant wast- 
ing and reproduction of the body, particle by particle, by a 

where it became their interest not to exaggerate ; and they ne the more 
valuable to us aa being incidental. 

* Dr. Macnish says the children of drunkards "are more than or- 
dinarily liable to inherit all the diseases of those from whom they are 
sprung." On this aoconnt the chances of long life are mach diminished 
among the children of dmnkarda. In proof of this it is only necessary to 
remark that, according to the London bills of mortality, one half of the 
children born in the metropolis die before attaining their third year; 
while of the cluldren of Friends, one half aotqally attain the age of 
Ibrty-aeven yean. 


perpeioal pulling down of the old materials^ and a perpetual 
replacement of them by new; by perpetual disorganization, 
and perpetual reorganization. The first process therefore is, 
What ? Eating ? No : it is the wasting, the pulling down. 
You must waste before you can nourish it. Does not the 
appetite precede the act of eating ? And what is appetite but 
a sensation that the body has suffered waste, and calling upon 
us to repair it ? The natural means by which the body is dis- 
organized are, the exhalations from the lungs, of the several 
secretions required for the assimilation of our food, as the 
gastric juice, bile, etc. The natural law, therefore, appears to 
be, that every one who desires to enjoy the pleasures of health 
must expend in labor the energy which the Creator has in- 
fused into his limbs, which he may do in various ways. The 
penalty for neglecting this law of nature is imperfect digestion 
and disturbed sleep ; debility of body and mental lassitude ; 
and if carried to a certain length, confirmed bad health and 
early death. Thus thousands are daily tampering with th^r 
health ; aggravating human depravity ; creating or increasing 
disease ; and then, laying the blame to Providence, they malign 
the character of the ever-blessed God. He merely maintains 
the law of his throne, that ectuse (the violation of his laws) 
shall produce effect (disease and early death). As society has 
not obeyed this law, the consequences are, the h^her orders 
despise labor, and suffer as above ; and the lower orders are 
oppressed with harder living, and more work than their mas- 
ters' horses, etc., and hence suffer exhaustion; a desire is 
created for stimulants, such as alcoholic drinks, tea, spices, 
etc., which produce disease and shorten life. In this we dis- 
cover the chief sources of disease and premature death. In 
this we discover also the chief sources of the enormous 
inequality of the distribution of property— -one living, a mass 
of bloated disease, on, perhaps, £300,000 per annum, while 
another is doomed to a life of squalid misery, and drags out 
a wretched existence on some few pounds. And yet we are 
told these things are cardained by a merciful Providence 1 Im- 


.possible! Believe it who can; I will not try!* Why not? 
Because Qod never could design that his creatures should live 
a short and miserable life, and then die a violent and un- 
natural death. The above evils produce these effects, and 
lead to this result ; therefore, they are not of divine appoint- 
ment. To say they are, is a reflection upon the Deity, of 
which no rightly constituted mind will be guilty. God is 
always consistent with himself ; his laws, physical and moral, 
do not clash. There is a glorious uniformity in all his works 
and ways ; and all his truths are as connected as an undivided 
chain. But there seems to be a sort of consolation in being 
able to saddle the blame of any wrong course we have taken 
upon others — after the example of Adam and Eve. Hence, 
if the lady cannot please herself with the goods sent home, 
she visits the shopkeeper with a gentle scolding, and returns 
the articles upon his hands ; the shopkeeper is vexed, repri- 
mands the journeyman, and mulcts him in his wages ; the poor 
journeyman is enraged, and flies, perhaps, to exciting liquors, 
goes home and plays the hero over his wife, or boxes the ears 
of the errand boy, who, aroused in his turn, has no resource 
than to kick the dog, or worry some less valiant animal. It is 
just the same in the political and social world. The executive 
is blamed, taxes are heavy, there is too much monopoly, etc., 
all of which are true ; but the |)arties forget that *' true genius 
rises above circumstances." There are some awkward things, 
for which we can blame neither the government nor society at 
large, nor any individual in it, except ourselves ; this we are 
anxious to avoid, therefore we attribute it to Providence. If 
parents are afflicted with disease, it is a visitation of Providence ; 
if they have a long train of children wailing under scrofula, 
blindness, etc., it is quite orthodoxly and complacently set 
down to the account of Providence ; and on . they proceed, in 

* Is there not more propriety in the noble sentiment of Bumbold: 
" The Creator does not intend that the greater part of mankind should 
eome into the world with saddles apon their backs, and bridles in their 
mouths, and a few, ready booted and spurred, to ride the rest to death." 


self-coDgiutulation, filling the world with tfach objects, assert- 
ing that there is no help for it — such being the will of ProT- 
idence. What but ignorance and superstition* could have 
produced ^uch tfn philosophic and God-dishonoring views? 
Surely it ought never to be thought, that while wild animab, 
who live according to nature in obedience to organic laws, are 
free from contagious distempers and premature decay, an ex- 
ception has been made with regard to man, the masterpiece 
of Creative goodness. And we never hear of their lying dead 
in numbers through the fields, l^or is there any reason to be- 
lieve they are subject to debility, except the failure of strength 
consequent on their having reached the period of existence 
appointed to their kind by the Creator. And if we reason 
analogically, and consider how definitive nature is in her oper- 
ations — with how much exactness she apportions the substance 
which forms the bones, muscles, hair, nails, etc., it can hardly 
be denied that the astonishing deviation from such laws, of 
which human disease is an instance, must be attributed to some 
ejtraneous cause acting powerfully in contravention of the order 
of nature. If a man rises at a late hour in the morning, with 
a brain-hammering headache, he soon consciously refers it to 
the previous night's excess either in eating or drinking, or 
both ; and knows it is a natural consequence of his own error ; 
yet it is as much the work of Providence as blindness in a 
new-born child. Nay, further ; if the result of a public dinner 
is only indigestion, or a headache, it is a natural consequence, 
but if the victim of sensuality drops down dead in the street, 
or more quietly dies in his bed during the night, then it is a 

* Thunder and lightning; were considered for many ages in the same 
light as diseases have hitherto been, as awfal visitations of Providence. 
In all such storms, the Deity was believed to be personally present, 
and to wield the thunderbolt with his " red right arm ;" but science has 
at length shed her influence over mankind, and has consigned this creed 
to poetry and superstition. Let Christians, especially, beware how they 
commit themselves in this matter, lest they fill the mouths of infidels, 
and expose their own ignorance of God's laws, and arraign his wisdom 
and goodness. 


visitation of Providence, and tbe coroner's jury gives a verdict 
accordingly. The undertaker's fees being paid, and other ac- 
counts settled, without one useful lesson, on they go again, to 
open a new case, Hke spendthrifts of life, regardless of the 
reducing store, saying, " To-morrow shall be as to-day, and 
much more abundant." We will not characterize such mental 
and moral delinquency by any hard names, but it does appear 
to us, that men have frequently been denounced and punished 
for opinions much less dishonorable to God, and less detri- 
mental to human happiness. 

From the whole, then, there resulteth this general conclu- 
sion : that man is an organized being ; subjected to organic 
laws ; that there is no such thing as perfect health where those 
laws are not obeyed ; that it would be contrary to the scheme ^ 
of man's existence ; that the philosophy of life and health, 
the light of science, the testimony of all ages, and the force of 
argument prove it to be impossible. On the other hand, we 
maintain that there is nothing unreasonable in supposing it 
possible, with respect to the organization and vital force of 
man, that the one may endure and the other act, during 150 
or even 200 years. One fact which gives weight to this 
theory, is the connection which is known to exist between the 
period for arrivmg at maturity, and the duration of human 
life. This deduction is based upon the principle that animals, 
in general, live eight times as long as they are in growing to 
maturity. The elephant and camel are, perhaps, among the 
longest livers; the former often attains to 100 years, and 
arrives at maturity about the twelfth year; the latter lives 
from seventy to ninety, and arrives at maturity about the ninth 
year. The horse, the mule, and the ass seldom live more 
than forty years, and arrive at maturity about the fifth year. 
They may, however, ascribe their short life, in some degree, 
to the improper and unnatural manner in which they are 
treated by man.* Thus, in an ordinary state, i. e., when 

* There can be no doabt that the domestication of animals entaila 


nature is not forced on by art, man requires twenty<>five years 
to attain to maturity, which would, according to the above 
reasoning, assign to him a life of 200 years ; whereas, all thai 
we contend for is, that "his days shall be an hundred and 
twenty years." 

upon them many disorders and much misery. It is not uncommon for a 
gentleman who has three or four saddle horses in his stable, to be unable 
on the same day to ride one of them. An English horse, indeed, is be- 
coming so precarious a possession, that wherever he goes it requires aa 
English grocHn to keep him alive. We learn from veterinary writers, 
that horses are more exposed to tetanus than the human subject ; that 
rheumatism is frequent among them, and that they are not even exempt 
from gout. How different this from the state of the horse in his wild 
state. While yet unsubdued ; yet untouched by the withering hand of 
man, we find the animal so active and powerful, that he easily defends 
himself against the strongest bull. At thirty years old, and even at forty, 
he is known still to enjoy his full vigor. — See Newton's ** Betnm to 
Nature,^' a good but dear work. 




Since tho mighty mind of Bacon beat down hypotlieali, and introdnoed fiie. indoe 
liTe syvtem, pfaikMoptay has reaiooed from facts ; and experimental philosophy ha* 
been appIaBded.-^Ar. 

The most perfect system has ever been allowed to be that which ean reconcile and 
bring together the grei^st number offaeu, that come witliin the sphere of the snb- 
ject of it. In this consists the sole glory of Newton, whose discorery rests upon no 
higher order of proof. Human authority seldom settles any thing with me ; for 
whenever I have had an interest in Icnowlng the truth, I have generally appealed 
from the decrees of that unsatisfactory court to the less fallible decision of the court 
^faet.'^Dn, Dickson. 

Faeu are the arguments of God->tiie outworkings of his power. He who fights 
against/ocls, fighu against God.— Da. F. Less, F.S.A. 

Dr, Hufeland, in his Macrobitic, a work which has been 
translated into nearly all European languages, after citing nu- 
merous cases of extreme longevity, says, " We ought to have 
some fixed ideas as to what ought to be the true term of life ; 
but we can hardly imagine to what an extent doctors differ on 
this point. Some assign to man extreme longevity, while 
others cut life very short We might be tempted to believe 
that death occasioned by old age was the true term of man's 
life ; but a calculation established upon such a basis, would 
lead us into great errors, in an artificial state like ours." And 
this, in fact, is the very error into which people have fallen. 

The learned Lichtenberg declared that the secret had been 
discovered of inoculating people with old age before their 
time; and added, "We see, everyday, men thirty or forty 
years old, presenting all the appearance of decrepitude, defor- 
mity, wrinkles, gray hairs, and other defects, which one only 
expects to find in men of eighty or ninety years of age." To 
the inquiry, " How long, in general, can man live ?" facts an- 
swer, ** from one hundred and fifty to one hundred and seventy, 
and even two hundred years.' 



Haller, who collected most of the cases of longevity known 
in Europe in liis time, gave examples of more than one 
thousand persons who attained to 100, and 110 years; sixty 
persons from 110 to 120; twenty-nine from 120 to 130; fif- 
teen from 133 to 140; six from 140 to 150; and one to 169 
years. From the statistics of Russia, it appears that, in 1830, 
there were in that country, among others, the following in- 
stances of longevity: one hundred and twenty persons who 
had reached from 116 to 120 years; one hundred and twenty, 
one from 120 to 125 ; three from 125 to 130; five from 130 
to 140 ; one to 145 ; three from 150 to 155 ; one to 160 ; and 
one to 165. In the tables of mortality for England and Wales, 
commencing at 1813, and ending with 1830, being a period of 
eighteen years, we find that from the age of eighty-one to that 
of one hundred and twenty-four^ upward of 245,000 persons 
were buried, of whom more than seven hundred exceeded one 
hundred years. 

The following, with some additions, are copied from Baker's 
" Curse of Britain :*' 

William Dupe, ..... 05 

His father, 102 

ETis grandfather, . * • . . .108 

Michell Vivian, 100 

John Crossley, 100 

Lewis Comaro, 100 

Admiral H. Eolvenden, . . • .100 

Jane Milner, 102 

Eleanor Aymer, . . . . .103 

Eleanor Pritchard, .... 103 

( 104 
Her sisters, who are still living, . j inft 

William Popman, ... . 103 

William Marmon, . . . . . 103 

Wife of Cicero, . ... 103 

Stender, 108 



Susan Edmonds, 
St. John the Silent; 
James the Hermit, 
Bar Decapellias, 
Mrs. Hudson, 
Helen Q-rey, 
Mrs. Alexander, 
St. Theodosius, 
John Pinklam, 
St. Anthony, 
Mary Nully, 
Thomas Davies, 
His wife, . 
Ann Parker, 
Gorgies, . 
Simon Stylites, 
Coobah Lord, 
De Longueville, 
Ant. Senish, 
Ann Wall, 
J. Walker, . 
W. Eauper, 
W. Cowman, 

E. M. Gross, 
Paul the Hermit, 

F. Lupatsoli, 
M. Mahon, . 
John Weeks, 
R. Glen, 
St. Epiphamus, 
George Wharton, 







































Louis Wholebam, 
John Bailes, . 
Margaret Darley, 
Francis Peat, 
Wmiam Ellis, . 
Bamberger, . 
Peter Gorden, . 
John Garden, 
Richard Lloyd, . 
John Taylor, 
Catharine Lopez, 
Margaret Forster, 
John Mount, 
Margaret Patten, 
Juan Marroygota, 
Rebecca Pury, 

Dumitor Radaloy, 
Laurence, . 

Countess of Desmond, 
Mr. Ecleston, 
Solomon Nibel, 
William Evans, . 
Joseph Bam, 
Colonel Thomas Winsloe 
Llywark Ken, 
Judith Crawford, 
Catherine Hyatt, 
Thomas Garrick, 
Francis Consist, 
James Bowels, . 
Thomas Parr, 
Thomas Damma, 




munbering took place, the seventy-sixth of our en, there were 
Mvinff m that part of Italy which lies between the Apennines 
and the Po only, 124 naen who had attained to the age of 100 
years and upward, viz.: fifty-one of 100; fifty-seven of 110; 
two of 125 ; four of 130 ; four of from 132 to 137 ; and three 
of 140. Besides these, there were living in Parma, five men, 
three of whom were 120, and two were 130 ; in Placentia, one 
of 130; at Facentia, a woman of 132; and in Velligacian, a 
small town near Placentia, there were living ten persons, six 
of whom were 110, and four were 120. 

Francis Secardia Hongo died A.D. 1Y02, aged 114 years* 
ten months, and twelve days. He left behind him forty -nine 
children — was never sick in his life. His sight, hearing, mem- 
ory, and agility were the surprise of all who knew him. At 
110, he lost all his teeth; but he cut two large ones, in his 
upper jaw, the year before he died. He never used to drink 
strong drinks, coffee, etc. ; never used tobacco ; and his only 
drink was water. His habits, in other respects, were tem* 

In the " Miscellanea Curiosa*' may be found an interesting 
account of a man 120 years of age, without the loss of a tooth, 
and of a brisk and lively disposition, whose only drink, from 
his infancy, was pure water. 

Sinclair, in his " Code of Health, etc.," speaks of the famous 
civilian, Andrew Tieraqueaus, who is said, for thirty years to- 
gether, to have given yearly a book, and by the same wife a 
son, to the world, and who lived to a good old age. He never 
drank any thing but water, from his infancy. 

In the year 1792, died in the ducby of Holstein, an indus- 
trious day-laborer, named Stender, in the 103d year of his 
age. His food, for the most part, was oatmeal and butter- 
milk. He rarely ever ate fiesh ; he was never sick, and could 
not be put out of temper. He had the greatest trust in Provi- 
dence; his chief dependence was in the goodness of God, 
which no doubt greatly conduced to his health and longevity. 

Ant Senish, a farmer of Puy, in Limoges» died in 1770, in 


the 111th year of his age. He labored till within fourteen 
days of his death. His teeth and hair remained, and his sight 
had not failed him. His usual food was chestnuts and turkey- 
corn. He had never been bled, nor used any medicine. 

Died, on the 26th of June, 1636, at Bybrook, Mrs. Letitia 
Cox, upward of 160 years of age. She declared she had 
never drank any thing but water during the whole of her life ; 
as did also another woman, at Holland Estate, who died 
eighteen months before, at the age of 140. 

Lewis Comaro, a Venetian nobleman, died at Padua, in 
1565, at above 100 years of age. In early life he had been 
very intemperate, and consequently greatly diseased. From 
his thirty-fifth to his fortieth year, his life was a burden to 
him. By a regular way of living, he repaired his health, in a 
remarkable manner ; and in bis eighty-first year says, " I am 
free from apprehension of disease, because I have nothing in 
my constitution for a disease to feed upon — from the appre- 
hension of death, because I have . spent a life of reason. I 
know that, barring accidents, no violent disease can touch me. 
I must be dissolved by a gentle and gradual decay, like oil in 
a lamp, which affords no longer life to the dying taper. But 
such a death cannot happen of a sudden." 

Bichard Lloyd died near Montgomery, aged 132 years and 
ten months. He was a tall, strong, upright man ; had no gray 
hairs ; had lost none of his teeth ; and could see to read with* 
out spectacles. His food was bread, cheese, and butter, for 
the most part ; and his drink whey, buttermilk, or water, and 
nothing else. But being persuaded by a neighboring gentle- 
man to eat flesh-meat, and drink malt liquor, he soon fell off, 
and died. 

Dr. Lower speaks of a man in the north, aged 120, who 
had been accustomed to eat very little animal food, but lived 
upon oatmeal pottage and potatoes, and sometimes he took a 
little milk. He was a laboring man, and never remembered 
being sick. 

Dr. £. Baynard gives an account of one Seth Unthank, then 


(1706) living at Batb, whose chief drink was sour buttermilk. 
He was wonderfully nimble, and, not above two years before, 
had walked from Bath to London, 106 miles, in two days, and 
came home again in two days more. His uncle was 126 years 
old when he died, and had been one of the Bishop of Durham's 
pensioners. The doctor also speaks of one John Bailes, of 
Nortbaifipton, whom he visited, then living, in his 129th year. 
He says he had a very strong voice, and spake very loud ; 
and told the doctor he had buried the whole town (except 
three or four) twenty times over. " Strong drink," quoth the 
old man, " kills 'em all." He was never drunk ; his drink was 
water, small beer, and milk ; and his food, for the most part, 
was brown bread* and cheese. He cared not much for flesh- 

Mrs. Hudson lived 105 years, and then died of an acute 
disease, brought on by catching cold. She could see to thread" 
a needle at that age. Her food was very little else than bread 
and milk, all her lifetime. 

Louis Wholeham, of Ballinamona, Cork, died at the age of 
US' years and seven months. He had not lost a tooth, nor 
had he one gray hair on his head. His diet, all through life, 
was mostly potatoes and milk ;| but, on an average, he had 

* Bread being an article so much in nae, it is of importanee we tfaonld 
uae the best— that which is most calculated to promote health. The best 
bread is made of equal parts of wheat and rye, ground down together, 
no bran being taken oat, and madp into unfermented biscuits. Fine 
wheat flour, being of a starchy nature, is apt to occasion constipation, 
acidity, and flatulence. This bread would be found of great service to 
weak stomachs, which are often injured by the least extrication of air, 
when bread ferments a second time in the stomach. 

t Much has been said for and against milk. In favor of it, we are told 
of persons being cured of long-standing diseases, by living exclusively 
upon it, for six or seven years ; and also we are referred to the health 
and longevity of some who have made much use of it. (See Appendix, 
C.) On the other hand, we are told that the cows aboat our towns and 
cities are greatly diseased, in consequence of being subjected to the un- 
natural and unhealthy influences of bad air, want of exercise, and im« 
proper food. Cows are also diseased, we are told, through the vegeta- 



flesh one day in the week, until the last ten years, when he 
took a dislike to it, and could not eat it. It is a remarkable 
fact, showing how we cling to life, that he declared, on his 
death-bed, that he should have been more resigned to die 
eighty years ago than he was at that time. 

Joice Heath, of America, was being exhiUted in several of 
their large towns, at the age of 162 ; and when asked what 
was her food, said, ** Corn-bread and potatoes is what I eat." 

Francisco Lupatsoli, of Smyrna, lived 113 years. He 
drank nothing but water and milk ; having used neither tea, 
coffee, etc. He lived chiefly upon bread, figs, etc. He could 
hear well, and see without spectacles, even to the hst. 

Zeno is said to have died at the age of ninety-eight years, 
having never experienced any sickness or indisposition what- 

If we refer to the Ameiican Indians, we find, at the first 
arrival of Europeans among them, it was not uncommon to 
find persons who were above 100 years old. They lived fru- 
gally, and drank only pure water. Strong drinks were un- 
known to them till introduced by Christians, by whom they 
have been taught to drink ; and now they hardly reach half 
the age of their parents. — Kalm. 

The same traveler says the natives of Shetland give an 
account of one Fairville, who arrived at the age of 102, and 
never drank any malt liquor, distilled water, or wine. They 
say his son lived longer than he ; that his grandchildren lived 
to a great age, and seldom or hever drank any stronger liquor 
than milk, or water, or bland. This last is made of butter- 
milk, mixed with water. 

The natives of Sierra Leone, whose climate is said to be the 
worst on earth, are very temperate ; they subsist entirely on 

bles they eat ; and that, if the animal be diseased, so must the milk, as 
also the butter and cheese. (See Whitlaw'a *' Treatise on Fever," and 
ClarVs "Treatise on Pulmonary Consumption.") Annatto and arsenic 
are sometimes added to cheese ; tlie former to give it color, and the latter 
freshness and tenderness.' (See ** Library of Health," vol. ii. p. 9.)- 


small quantities of boiled rice, with occasional supplies of fruit, 
and drink only cold water ; in consequence of which they are 
strong and healthy, and live as long as men in the most pro- 
pitious climates. 

Herodotus tells us that the average life of the Macrobians 
was 120 years, and that they never drank any thing stronger 
than milk. But if there be one portion of the globe more 
than another, to which the general consent of mankind accords 
the 'first place in point of beauty and symmetry, it will be the 
Circassian race ; and we are much gratified in being able to 
adduce this nation as an illustration of the position we have 
taken. We will make one short extract from "Travels in 
Circassia, Kirm, etc.," by E. Spencer, Esq., who says, " Owing 
to the robust firmness and temperate manner of living, the 
Circassians generally attain an advanced age; their diseases 
being neither numerous nor dangerous." This must be at- 
tributed, independently of their simple diet, to their constant 
exercise, pure air, etc. 

It is mentioned in Keppis' "Life of Captwn Cook," that 
when that great navigator first visited the New Zealanders he 
was astonished at the perfect and uninterrupted health they 
were found to enjoy. In all the visits which were paid to this 
people, not a single person was found who appeared to have 
any complaint, nor among the number who were seen naked, was 
once perceived the slightest eruption on the skin, or the least 
mark which indicated that such eruption had formerly existed. 
" Their wounds heal with remarkable facility, without any ap- 
plications. It abounds with a great number of old men, many 
of whom, by the loss of their teeth and hair, appeared to be 
very ancient, and yet none of them were decrepit. Although 
they are not equal to the young in muscular strength, they 
do not come behind them with regard to cheerfulness and 
vivacity. Water, as far as our navigators could discover, is 
the universal and daily liquor of the New Zealanders."* 

* How are the mighty fiilleii ! In the Soath Seas, and also in New 
Zealand, the most heart-i«nding contrast is now presented to their former 


But we may refer to our own country for faois and illus- 
trations equally striking. In the "Patriot," of the 12th of 
October, are notices of the death of four individuals then re- 
cently deceased ; of whom one was in his ninety-second year, 
another in his ninety-fifth, a third in his 100th, and the other 
in his 114th. Also in the said paper of December 4th, 1843» 
is recorded the death of Jane MQner, in her 102nd year. She 
was a member of the Moravian Church, at Baildon. 

William Dupe died at Oxford, September 2drd, 1843, aged 
ninety-five years. His eldest surviving child is sixty years of 
age ; the youngest, an infant of two years old. Up to a very 
recent period, he exhibited no marked appearance of either 
mental or bodily decay ; and at Christmas last (1842), he ad- 
dressed a large meeting at a temperance festival. The most 
remarkable facts in connection with the long life and great 
vigor of this patriarch is, that he was the son and grandson of 
water drinkers. The united nges of these three persons exceed 
three centuries ; the grandfather attaining 108 years ; the fa- 
ther 102. Two facts, exhibiting the strength and consistency 

comparative state of health and happiness. Disease and mortality abound 
almost nnparalleled in character, arising from the introduction of strong 
drinks. Traders from Christian countries threaten to depopulate these 
islands in a very few years, unless missionary influence and exertions, in 
connection with teetotalism, prevent it, and save them from their fate. 
That we do not exaggerate, we refer our readers to the state of the pop- 
uhttion when Captain Cook landed, and their present state— the contrast 
is humiliating and alarming. Then, according to the statements of A. 
Chapin, M.D., late a resident in those islands, the population was not 
less than 400,000. Estimating a period of fifty-seven years since their 
discovery by Europeans, and also taking into account losses occasioned 
by their wars, he supposes, with great reason, that their population should 
have increased at least one half, making at present a probable total of 
600,000. The terrible facts, however, are weU known, that the popula- 
tion of these islands only amounts to 135,000, making the fearful loss, 
during fifty-seven years, of not less than 465,000, which, Mr. C. adds, is 
chargeable to the customs or vices carried there from ether places. 
These appalling facts will excite less surprise, when it is known, on tho 
authority of Mr. Ellis, that a sum of not less than 12,000 dollars was ex- 
pended in Tahite alone, in one year, for intoxicating drinks. 


oi WWam Dupe's attachm^t to water are recorded. When 
a jouDg man he was most rudely threatened with strong drink 
by compulsion ; he at length defended himself by a blow which 
broke his assailant's jaw-bone. When the lamp of life was 
flickering, he steadfastly refused to take wine, ordered by hu 
medical attendant^ and even made it one of his last requests, 
that there should be no drinking at his funeral. 

John Crossley, Esq., whose food in the latter part of his 
.life was chiefly milk, lived above 100 years. 

Helen Grey died in her 105th year. She was of small 
stature, exceedingly lively, peaceable, and good-tempered ; and 
a few years before her death she acquired new teeth. 

Thomas Ganick, of the county of Fife, in the 108th year 
<^ his age, was in the possession of great vigor; he died on 
the 3rd of July, 1847, being then 151 years of age. For 
twenty years previous he had never been confined to his bed 
by sickness. 

Ana Parker, who was the oldest woman in Kent, died at 
109. Another old woman died recently in the western part 
of England, at the age of 110, leaving 460 descendants, more 
than 200 of whom attended her funeral. Also a Scotch news- 
paper, published in 1889, notices an old woman, then living m 
Glasgow, who was 130 years of age, and who, for the last 
fifty years, had not taken intoxicating drinks. She had never 
any occasion to take drugs, nor was a lancet ever applied to 
her frame. She was perfectly free from aflections of the chest, 
and during the last century had been a perfect stranger to 
paSn. Her pulse did not exceed seventy strokes per minute. 
Her grandfaUier died at the age of 129; her father at 120. 
Her grandfather and father were both very temperate. 

In the year 1757, J. Effingham died in Cornwall, in the 
144th year of his age. He never drank strong heating liquors, 
seldiMn eat flesh, and always lived remarkably temperate. 
Till his 100th year he scarcely knew what sickness was ; and 
eight days before his death he walked three miles. 

The Countess of Desmond lived to the age of 146, and pre- 


served her faculties nearly to the Uist. Upon the min of the 
bouse of Desmond, she was obliged, at the age of 140, to 
trarel to London from Bristol, to solicit reUef from the court, 
bemg reduced to poverty. Lord Bacon says she renewed her 
teeth twice or thrice. 

Thomas Parr, of Shn^hire, maintained himself by day labor, 
which it would be much better for those to be employed in who 
are injuiing the public by selling what they call Parr's Life Pills, 
but which, like most others, are Death Pills, When about 120, 
he married a widow for his second wife. Till his 130th year he 
performed his usual work, and was accustomed to thrash. Some 
years before his death his eyes and memory began to fail; 
but his hearing and senses continued sound to the last In his 
152nd year he was taken to court, where he only lived nine 
months, in consequence of the change in his mode of living. 
When his body was opened by Dr. Harvey, his bowels were 
found to be m the most perfect state. He died merely of a ple- 
thora, occasioned by living too high. Parr's great-grandson 
died at Cork a few years ago, at the age of 103. 

Several of the above cases show that a good constitution, 
so favorable to longevity, may transmit a good stanien vita ; 
and this confirms our observations on the first organic law. 

On a long freestone slab, in Catry Church, near Cardiff, is 
the following inscription: ''Here lieth the body of William 
Edwards, of the Cairy, who departed this life the 24th of 
February, A.D. 1688. Anno Que statis su88 168.^' 

In the year 1670 died Henry Jenkins, aged 169. IBs mon- 
ument is in the church of Bolton-upon-Swale, in Yorkshire. 
It was proved from the registers in chancery, and other courts, 
that he had appeared 140 years before as an evidence, and had 
an oath administered to him. When he was above the age of 
100 he could swim across rapid rivers. 

The last case we shall cite is that recorded m the *' County 
Chronicle," of December 13th, 1791 ; in which it is stated that 
" Thomas Cam, according to the parish register of St. Leonard, 
Shoreditch, died the 28th of January, 1588, aged 207 years !" 


The correspofident ci that paper adds» ''This is an mstance of 
longevity so far exceeding any other on record, that one k 
disposed to suspect some mistake, either in the register or in 
the extract/' But on apptication to the proper authorities he 
received the following : 



Fol: 35 

ThomaB Cam was bnriel y 22 intt of Jannarye Aged 207 


Holywell Street. 



Copy Augnst 25, 



Parish Clerk. 

" It thus appears/' adds oar correspondent, " that Cam was 
bom in the year 1381, in the fourth of BIcbard II., living 
through the reign of that monarch, and through those of the 
whole of the following sovereigns, viz. : Henry IV., Henry V., 
Henry VI., Edward IV., Edward V., Richard III., Henry VII., 
Henry VIII., Edward VI., Mary, and to the thirteenth of Eliz* 

It has also been justly observed, that wild animals do not 
live a life of misery and pain, nor, except by accident, do they 
die young. And we ask, why should man ? unless by artificial 
means, and a departure from nature's laws, he injures* and de- 
stroys himself. Of all animals, he is not only the handsomest, 
but the strongest, according to his weight. No animal, not 
even the lion, has such firmly-knitted joints, such strong mus- 
cles, or such a well-built frame as man. No other animal has 
calves to his legs ; and if the joints of the whole body be taken 
mto consideration, those of man will be found far superior to 
those of other animals. Few animals can equal man in sup- 
porting long trials of strength, and enduring fatigue. The 
strongest horse, or dog, cannot bear the fatigue of walking so 
long as man. We have examples of savages passing three 


days and nights without repose or nonrtehmeilt, at the same 
time marching quickly through their native wilds, pursuing or 
pursued, when even their horses and dogs were wearied and 
left hehind. Thus we see, notwithstanding our frequent viola- 
tions of organic laws, how much we are capahle of doing or 
sufiferiog. No animal can support changes of climate like man : 
witness the Norwegian, wending his way through the Arabian 
deserts, where the traces of none, save the tiger's foot, are seen. 
We have numerous examples, too, of men subduing wild ani- 
mals, by the main strength of their muscles and joints. These 
facts admitted, and they cannot be denied, is it not evident 
that man, who in his wild state is capable of doing and suflfer- 
ing so much, has in his civilized state greatly infringed the or- 
ganic laws, and is suffering the consequence, in an emaciated 
frame, a short hfe of disease and suffering, and an early and 
agonising death. How oftmi do the votaries of intemperate 
indulgence say, " A short life and a merry one." The former 
they effectually secure; but their very indulgences deprive 
them of the latter. 

Some suppose climate has every thing to do with health and 
longevity. That it has something, we readily admit ; but it 
has not so much as many are disposed to believe. There can, 
however, be no doubt that Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and 
England have, in modern times, furnished the greatest number 
of old men, as will be seen by the list we have presented. Dr. 
Cheyne says there is no place in the world more hkely to 
lengthen out life than England, especially those parts of it that 
have a free, open air, and a gravelly and chalky soil, if, to due 
exercise and abstemiousness, a plain, simple diet were added. 
Easton, " On Longevity," mentions one Numas de Cugna» a native 
of Bengal, who died in 1666, at the astonishing age of 370 
years ; he also quotes two respectable Portuguese authors, in 
support of the fact. However favorable a northern climate 
may be to longevity, too great a degree of cold is, on the other 
hand, prejudicial to it. The medium, rather inclining to cold, 
with some degree of civilization, are best suited to the full 


development of the physical organs, and also to longevity. 
In Iceland, and ^e northern parts of Asia, snch as Siberia, 
mi^n attain, at most, to the age only of sixty or seventy. But 
besides England and Scotland, Ireland is celebrated for the 
longevity of its inhabitants; and we doubt not, henceforth, 
having taken the advice of Father Mathew, and are now ban- 
ishmg the reptiles, skong drinks, from their beautiful green 
isle, it will be still more celebrated. St. Patrick is said to have 
banished all natural reptiles from their shores; but Father 
Mathew is conferring a still greater boon on his country, by 
banishing artificial ones, in the shape of whisky, etc. May he 
go on and prosper ! As a proof of the longevity of Irishmen, 
we observe that, in Dunsford, a small place in that country, 
there were living, at one time, eighty persons above the age of 
fourscore ; and Lord Bacon saj^ there was not a village in the 
whole island, as he believed, in which there was not one man 
upward of eighty. In France, instances of longevity are not 
so abundant; though a man died there, in 1757, at the age of 
121. The case is the same in Italy ; yet, in the northern prov- 
inces of Lombardy, there have been some instances of great 
age. In Spain, also, there have been instances, though sel- 
dom, of men who lived to the age of 110. That healthy and 
beautiful country, Greece, is still as celebrated as it was form- 
erly, in regard to longevity. Toumefort found, at Athens, an 
old consul, who was 118 years of age. The island of Naxos is 
particularly celebrated on this account. Even in Egypt and 
India, there are instances of long life, particidarly among the 
vegetarian Bramins, anchorites, and hermits, who detest the 
indolence and intemperance of the other inhabitants of those 
countries. Ethiopia formerly was much celebrated for the Ion** 
gevity of its inhabitants ; but a very different account is given 
by Bruce, as to its present condition, showing that climate is 
not the only prerequisit;e for longevity, as that cannot have 
been altered much, Some districts oi Hungary are distin- 
gpiished by the great age of the people who reside in them« 
Germany contains abundance of old people ; but it affords few 



bstances of very long life. Even b Holland, people may be- 
come old ; though this is not often the case, as few live there 
to the age of 100 years. 

On the whole, then, it will be found to be an incontrovertible 
fact, that the more a man follows and is obedient to those laws 
which the all- wise Ruler of the universe has established for his 
guidance, the longer will he live, other things being equal ; 
and, though this is a general law, it is not so much the effect 
of climate as the mode of living. In the same districts, there- 
fore, as long as the inhabitants lea4.a temperate life, they will 
attain to old age ; but as soon as they become highly civilized^ 
and by these means sink into luxury, dissipation, and corrup- 
tion, which is commonly the case, their health will suffer, and 
their lives be shortened. In the course of nine years' advo- 
cacy of the temperance cause, we have often met with objec- 
tions to our views of intemperance in eating and drinking being 
destructive of health and longevity ; and we are ready to ad- 
mit that there are exceptions to the rule ; but they are so rare 
as to be anlt/ exceptions, and not the rule. Yet, we are cer- 
tain, had those persons who, by more than usually good con- 
stitutions, have lived to seventy or eighty years, adopted a ra- 
tional mode of living, they would have been honored with 
ranking with our Jenkinses, Parrs, and Cams ; and instead of 
being distinguished, in their latter days, by palsied limbs, by 
racking pains, an intellect betokening a state of dotage, and, 
as Bishop Berkely observes, being set up as the devil's decoys,* 
to draw in proselytes, they would have sunk into the grave 
as into a sweet repose, at the close of a long, useful, and happy 

* Dr. Cheyne mentions one of tfaeie decoys, who had drank from two 
to four bottles of wine every day, for fifty years, and boasted that he was ^ 
ss bale and hearty as ever. " Pray/* remarked a bystander, ** where are 
your boon companions 7" '' Ah !" he quickly replied, ** that's another 
question : if the truth may be told, T. have buried three entire generations 
of them/' And, as £ir< Beddoes observes, " Neither do all who are ex- 
posed to its contagion, catch the plague ; and yet is the hazard sufficient to 
yaduce every man in his sober senves [when if the drunkard in hit t] to 
l^eep out of the way of infection." 


life, and perhaps been enabled, to the very last, to relish the 
enjoyments of reason. Thus, instead of decoying others into 
bad ways, they would have been able to communicate to them 
the lessons of wisdom, which they had been taught by long 
personal experience and observation. (See Appendix, D.) 

The above facts, to which we have called attention, are all 
derived from unimpeachable and, as regards our object, from 
disinterested sources ; and are of such an unequivocal nature^ 
that we may confidently base our system upon them, as to its 
influence on health and longevity. If, however, they fail to 
convince, even the least skeptical, we think we may safely 
adopt the language of Abraham to the rich man, " neither will 
they be persuaded, though one rose from the dead.'* 




It if a common argnment among divines in die bdulf of reli^oas Hfia^ tbat a con- 
trary behaTior haa ancli conaequences when we come to die t It la indeed true, but 
aeema an argwnent of a avbordlnate kind ; the article of deatli la more fireqnently of 
abort duration. la it not a stronger persaasive, that virtue makea ns happy daily, 
than lliat it amooths the pillow of a death*bed t— Shkn btoks. 

Mavt of our readers on closing the book, after reading the 
remarks in the preceding chapter, will perhaps exclaim, " We 
do not wish to live so long !*' Perhaps not. And how many 
there are who feel in their old age, as did Louis Wholefaam, 
at the age of 118, less resigned to die than he was eighty 
years before. Even the Christian who has "a good hope 
through grace," and knows that "if the earthly house of his 
tabernacle were dissolved, he has a house not made with hands* 
eternal in the heavens ;" even he fees the physician at no small 
cost, and takes the most nauseous drugs to ward off the " last 
enemy." One reason for this anxiety probably is, that the 
evening of the longest day finds most men with their work but 
imperfectly done, and therefore but ill prepared for their final 
account. Besides, as we are not isolated beings, we cannot 
a^ver the bond which unites us to the whole human family ; 
and therefore we eat not to ourselves — we drink not to our- 
selves — we live not to ourselves — we die not to ourselves. 
" Living or dying we are the Lord's,'' and are bound to take 
care that we do not, by indulgence or neglect, render that 
body a mass of disease and infirmity, and useless to him and 
his church on earth. The lame, the blind and the maimed, 
among the Jews, were neither received as a sin-offering or a 
peace-offering. We owe to God, hie church, and the world, 
the longest and the best life we can live, and are under the 
most solemn obligations not to injure or shorten it. " Do thy- 

DEATH. 61 

self no harm/' and '' Thou shalt not kill/' are among the posi- 
tive laws of Jehovah, still binding on the conscience of all; 
and he ''will not hold him guiltless" who violates them. 
They form a part of that great standard by which, in the day 
of judgment, every man's actions will be tried. Their design 
is obvious. Like all pther divine commands or prohibitions, they 
state the rights either of God or of his creatures ; and demand 
a regard to those rights on pain of eternal death. One com- 
mand guards one precious interest, another presents and de- 
fends another. The prohibitions before us refer to two of our 
dearest interests — our health and our lifb. They are both 
the gift of God. Most tenderly has he guarded, most sternly 
does he threaten, and most dreadfully will he punish every 
earthly invader who dares lift up his hand against them, or 
who carelessly injures them. 

But still we are dying creatures, and though by proper at- 
tention, and the due observance of those laws which pertain to 
life and health, we may greatly promote both, yet '' it is ap- 
pointed unto man (mee to die." This is the purpose of God — 
the decree of Jehovah. While, therefore, we are concerned to 
live well and long, let us be equally anxious to die well and 
happy. This is of great importance physically ; as no one 
who had a great fear of dying ever attained to a great age. 
But it is of infinitely more unportance morally ; for, though a 
man dies^ he shall " live again/' either in happmess or woe. 

" Since then we die but once, and after dealh 
Oar state no alteration knows, 
Bat when we have resigned our breath, 
The immortal spirit goes 
To endless joys or everlasting woes; 
Wise is the man who labors to secure 
That mighty and important stake. 
And by all methods strives to make 
His passage safe, and his reception sure. 

Let the reader remember, that if by temperance, etc., he 
should secure health and long life, and should nevertheless 


neglect bis soul, it niU profit hbn nothing. All earthlj Uess- 
ings, even health and life, though among the greatest, hayo 
onlj the condition of an annuity for life ; and as such, each 
succeeding year makes a considerable decrease in their value ; 
and at death the whole is at an end forever. But not so with 
the man who has " fled for refuge" to the world's Redeemer — 
has found " redemption in his blood, and the forgiveness of 
sins" — is ''justified by faith" — "has peace with God" — *'the 
love of God shed abroad in his heart by the Holy Ghost given 
unto him." He dies in peace ! And can it be otherwise ? 
Having obeyed the organic laws, he dies, not of disease and 
racking pain, but of old age. Having experienced ''repent- 
ance toward God, and faith in our Lord Jesus Christ ;" and 
having obtained " grace to help him in time of need," he has 
" finished his course of joy?" and is now about to receive " the 
crown of life which the Lord has promised to those that love 
him." His death*bed is, therefore, a glorious place. The 
heavens are ser^e — ^his anchorage is good, having entered 
within the veil ; he knows his future inheritance is secured by 
the death of Christ— therefore we need not wonder that 

" The ohamber, where the good man meeti his &te, 
Is privileged beyond the common walk 
Of virtaous life, quite on the verge of heaven." 

With him all is calm and serene. Behind him all is sprinkled 
with atoning blood. Around him all is conquered. Before 
him all is fraii^ht with good-— rich, boundless, and eternal. 
No wonder, then, that he should die in peace, for he has no 
guilt to torment hun ; "being justified by faith" he has peace 
with God. Death cannot terrify him, f(»* its stmg is taken 
away — ^nor is there any thing in eternity to create anxiety for 
the **j%idge is Jus friend" Thus 


Yott see the man ; you Bee his hold on heaven, 
Through nature's wreck, through vanquished agonies ; 
Like the stars Btmggling in this midnight gloom ; 
What gleams of joy ! What more than human peace ! 


Where the frail mortal, the poor abject worm t 
No, not in death the mortal to be found. 
His conduct is a legacy for all, 
Bicher than Mammon's for their single hire. 
His comforters he comforts ; great in ruin." 

Still there are thousands who could subscribe to all we have 
said above, as to the comforts of God's people in dying dr- 
cumstances, who are, nevertheless, *' through fear of death, all 
their lifetime subject to bondage." This in the Christian arises 
in most cases from a mistaken notion respecting the actual 
separation of the soul from the body in the article of death. 
An eminent author has very justly said — " No man certdnly 
ever felt what death is ; and as insensibly as we enter into 
life," supposing there be no guilt on the conscience, " equally 
insensibly do we leave it. The beginning and the end are 
here united. My proofs are as follows: First, no man can 
have any sensation of dying ; for to die, means nothing more 
than to lose the vital power ; and it is the vital power by 
which the soul communicates sensation to the body. In pro- 
portion as the vital power decreases, we lose the power of sen- 
sation, of consciousness ; and we cannot lose life without at the 
same time, or rather before, losing our vital sensation, which 
requires the assistance of the tenderest organs.* We are 
taught also by experience, that all those who ever passed 
through the first stage of death, as in cases of partial drown- 
ing, etc., and were again brought to life, unanimously as- 
serted that they felt nothing of dying, but sunk at once into 
a state of insensibility." The same author cautions us against 
being led into error on this subject, " by the convulsive throbs, 
the rattling m the throat, and the apparent pangs of death, 

* Death, of all estimated evils, is the only one whose presence never 
incommoded any body, and which only causes concern during its absence. 
•^Areenlaus, There is nothing terrible in death bat what our lives have 
made so; hence many a Christian has been able to say, with Dr. Good- 
win, " Is this dying 1 Is this the enemy that dismayed me so long-^ 
now appearing so harmle8t«~and even pleasant V 


whicb are obserred in many persons in a dying state. These 
symptoms arc painful to the spectators, and not to the dying, 
who are not sensible of them. The case is the same as if one, 
from the dreadful contortions of a person in an epileptic fit, 
should come to a conclusion respecting his internal feelings. 
This would be evidently wrong ; for, from what affects us so 
much, he suffers nothing." If, therefore, we hare imbibed 
the spirit of the sweet singer of Israel, and can say of his 
" Shepherd," " He restoreth my soul ; he leadeth me in paths 
of righteousness for his name's sake ;" let us also say, " Yea, 
though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I 
will fear no evil, for thou art with me ; thy rod and thy staff 
they comfort me." 

** To die, IB landing on some peaceful ihore, 
Where billows never beat, nor tempests roar; 
Ere well we feel the friendly strokot 'tis o'er."— Oofii. 




ProTidence has gifted man with reason ; to this, therefore, if left the choice of hii 
food and drink, and not to instinct, as among the lower animals. It thus becomee 
his du^ to apply his reason to the regulation of his diet ; to shvn excess in quantity, 
and what is noxious in quality ; to adhere, in short, to the simple and the natnral ; 
among which the bounty of his Maker lias afforded him an ample selection; and 
beyond which, if he deyiat», sooner or later he will suffer the penalty. 

Pbovt's BsisttBWATSs IteAnu. 

The vital principle, which we call life, though modified by 
peculiar circumstances, is the same in all human beings. It 
becomes, therefore, of importance that these circumstances 
should be understood by us, because, as we have seen in the 
chapter on " Health and Longevity," this principle can only 
be secured in a healthy state for many years by the regular 
and harmonious action of ail the functions of the system. It 
is subject to, and a consequence of, a due performance of the 
organic laws. Proper food, water, air, exercise, and rest, with 
entire abstinence from drugs, are essential to its continuance. 
Every circumstance which tends to enfeeble the organic fune* 
tions, diminishes, in a greater or less degree^ the force of the 
vital functions. 

A little attention to the subject of diet will be sufficient to 
show how much health and longevity depend upon a proper 
line of conduct in this respect; inasmuch as the whole con- 
stitution of our bodies may be changed by it alone : nor is it 
less important in the cure of disease. Hence, it is truly aston- 


ishing that Priessnitz, that man of nature, should be ao much 
influenced by the gross mode of living generally adopted by 
the Germans.* The manner in which this matter is handled 
by Mr. Claridge (See Appendix, E.), in his otherwise excel- 
lent work, is a great drawback on its merits and usefulness. 
Yet there is much in PriessmU's system of diet which is very 
excellent ; such as taking their aliments cold, etc. 

The object of food being to supply the system with nutri- 
ment, health in a great measure depends on a proper supplyf 
of the best quality. This is also of great importance mentally 
as well as physically ; for as Dr. Cheyne justly observes, " He 
that would have a clean head must have a clean body." The 
stomach, which has been denominated by Lord Bacon "the 
father of the family;" and by J. J. Gumey, Esq., "the 
kitchen of the house," is the centre of sympathy, and inti- 
mately connected with the body and the mind ; the most im- 
portant organ m the preservation, or the restoration of health ; 
b capable of modifying the action of every substance sub- 
mitted to it ; and if either the body or mind be hurt, intelli- 
gence of the injury is soon carried to it, and it soon becomes 
distended and offenced,| in proportion to the importance of 

* We are informed by those who have visited Graefenbarg, that patients 
are provided with the veal of calves not more than a day or two old. 
Haras, coane, dry, or toogh, being first boiled, and then baked. Pork, 
goose, duck, and sausages, all baked, help to vary the repast Add to 
this, old mutton and cow beef, stewed in vinegar, succeeded by rancid 
bam, served up with mashed grey peas. They have also cucumbers 
cured in nothing but salt and water, which the Germans devour with 
avidity ; yet wonders are effected, proving the eflScacy of the water 

t The invigorated state, which in two or three years would ensue, on 
a return to the laws of nature, the appetite would measure the quantity 
of vegetable food proper to be taken during the day ; an advantage which 
IS lost at a well-fumished table, where the flavor of the dishes is too se- 
ductive for us to recollect the juice of the meat that has been com 
pressed for our destruction. Betum to nature. 

I The stomach, that great organ, soon. 
If overcharged, is out of tune ; 


the part, and the degree in wfaicb it is hart ; thk injury la 
resented either by excess of languor or excitemmit — doing too 
little in the first case, and too much in the latter. In the one 
ease constipation, and in the other diarrhoea is increased, in 
each as are subject thereto ; and all chronic isomplaints are 
exasperated. The habits of society very much contribute to 
this state of things. The quantity* of food commonly made 
use of by those who can get it, its innutritive qualities, and the 
almost endless variety of dishes, tend very much to injure the 
functions oi the stomach, and to frustrate its important opera- 
tion. These people think the more plentifully they stuff them- 
selves, the better they must thrive, and the stronger they must 
grow ; forgetting, if they ever knew, that it is not the quantity 
taken into the stomach, but that which is properly digested 
and assimilated, which nourishes and strengthens — all besides 
this weakens. 

Food is of two kinds, solid fuid liquid ; and important as the 
subject is, still no specific, but only general, rules can be laid 
down for its use. It is very difficult to ascertain the exact 
quantity, etc., of food proper for every sex, age, constitution, 
and condition of life ; nor is such a nicety at all necessary, ex- 
Blown up with wind that lore annoyB 

The ear, with most unhallow'd noiie 1 

Now all these sorrows and diseasea 

A man may fly from, if be pleases ; 

For early rising will restore 

His powers to what they were before ; 

Teach him to dine at nature's call. 

And to sop lightly, if at all ; 

And leave the folly of night dinners 

To fools, and dandies, and old tinners. 
* It is your saperflnoos second conrses, and ridicaloas variety of . wines, 
ices, desserts, etc., which are served np, more to gratify the appetite • 
and pamper the pride of the host, than to promote the health of those 
who partake thereof; it is these which overcome the stomach and 
pumlyze digestion, and seduce children of larger growth to sacrifice the 
health and comfinrt of sovotbI years for the baby pleasures of tickling their 
tongues for a fsw nmiates with champagne, cnstards, and trifles. 


eept in extreme cases, which wQl never occur U> the man of 
nature. Mankind were never intended to weigh and measure 
their food ; they have a better standard to go to — honest in- 
stinct,* which seldom fuls to make out a title to be called un- 
erring. Our stomachs are, in general, pretty good judges of 
what is best for them, if we would allow them to guide us. 
Thousands have perished for being inattentive to their call, for 
one who has implicitly obeyed them. Tet nothing is more 
common than for invalids to inquire of their medical attendant 
what food is proper for them. What nonsense ! Their doctor 
might with more propriety be required to tell them what was 
most agreeable to thcu* palates, f ** A fool or a physician at 
forty," is an adage containing more truth than is commonly 
believed. He who has not by that time learned to observe the 
causes of self-disorder, shows few signs of wisdom ; and he who 
has carefully noted down| the things which create disorder in 
himself, must possess much knowledge, which a physician at 

* The hone or the ox whioh decliaes Harrowgate waten, is wiier 
than man ; nature has made the waters nauseous to warn all animals 
against drinking it ; the animal, therefore, which follows instinct, is right ; 
fhe reasoning animal, man, is wrong. — Timet, 

Prompted by instinct's never-erring power, 

Each creature knows its proper aliment. 

Directed, boonded by this power within, 

Their cravings toe well'«imed : 

Volaptuoos man 

Is by superior ftealties misled ; 

Misled from pleasure even in quest of joj»~~Armtir<mg. 
t A Dutchman who had been a long time in the free use of ardent 
spirits, was at length persuaded to give them up, and to join a temper- 
ance society. A few months after, feeling unwell— a sinking at the 
stomach — ^he sent for a doctor, who prescribed for him, an ounce of 
spirits. Not understanding what an ounce was, he asked a friend, who 
told him eight drachms make an ounce. Ah ! exclaimed the Dutchman, 
the doctor understands my case exactly ; I used to take six drachms 
(small glasses) in a day, and I always wanted two more. 

t Locke says, ** Were it my business to understand physic, would not 
tiie sorer way be to consult nature itself in the history of diseasep and 
dwir cure, than to espouse the principles of the dogmatists or chemists f *' 


8 pop visit ought not to pretend to.* Bat if we could lay 
down specific rules, as to the kind and quality, and also the 
time of taking food, there would be two grand obstacles in the 
way of accomplishing our object: 1. They are not always 
under our control. 2. Few have moral courage enough to 
war against appetite and adopt them, even when tiiey com- 
mend themselves to their judgment. 

" Bat alas, these are snbjects on which there's no reasoning ; 
For you'll still eat your goose, duck, or pig,t with its seasoning; 
And what is far worse — notwithstanding its haffing, 
Von'U make for your hare and your veal a good staffing. 
And I fear if a leg of good mutton you boil, 
With sauce of vile capers that mutton you'll spoil ; 
And though, as you think, to preserve good digestion, 
A mouthful of cheese is the best thing in question, 
In Gath do not tell it, nor in Askalon blab it, 
You're strictly forbidden to eat a Welsh rtfbblt." 

* I never yet met with any person of common sense (except in acate 
illness), whom I did not think much fitter to choose for himself than I 
was to determine for him. — Dr. Heberden. 

t Nothing is more common than for people to take (because advised 
by the doctor) a rasher of broiled or fried bacon for break&st to cure the 
heartburn. (See Appendix, F.) The practice is almost too absurd to 
be reasoned upon. We have induced several to abandon it, with good 
effect. For though a small portion may not do macb harm to persons 
who have to go to plough, or to thrash in the bam all day, to stndioos 
and sedentary persons, who have little exercise and fresh air, it most be 
injurious. But we are told that working men^ who are the most healthy 
class of the community, eat bacon and pork. We ask how moch of it 7 
Not so much per month as some eat in a day { besides the fact, that they 
often work from twelve to sixteen hoars per day in the pore open air, by 
means of which, and the perspiration, they throw off its noxiotts partiolet. 





If A regnliir and reasoDable mode of life be of mch importance to ttie healthy and 
robust, how much more eaaential moat it be for weakly persoDS and invalids I" We 
are justified ia aaaertiDg, tiiat no euro can be effected witiioat a suitable and natural 
diet*— Da. Wkiss. 

All solid food is either of animal or vegetable origin ; and 
difference of opinion prevails as to whether of the two, or an 
admixture of both, be best adapted to the constitution of man. 
As we do not wish to lead our readers blindfold — ^because we 
believe in the force of truth — we will lay before them the sub- 
stance of what has been said on both sides of the question, in 
order that they may judge for themselves, as we have.f 

In favor of animal food, it has been asserted that it is more 
allied to our nature, and more easily assimilated to its nourish- 
ment ; that it b highly favorable to corporeal exertion ;| that 

* The choice and measares of the materials of which our bodies are 
composed, and what we take daily by poands, is at least of as much im- 
portance as what we take seldom, and only by grains and spoonfuls. — 

t The author was, in part, a carnivorous aninul when he commenced 
these sheets, but became wholly an herbivorous and frugivorous one be- 
fore be had finished them. Magna est Veritas ! 

t Are not the Irish, who live almost exclusively on potatoes and butter- 
milk, as strong as any race of men in Europe 7 It is notorious that they 
are vigorous, even to a proverb ; so that if a man remarkable for the large 
ness of his limbs be exhibited in London, it is ten to one but he comes 
from the sister kingdom. We find also, in UUoa's book on South America, 
that men may be abundantly sustained on vegetables. He tells us that 
** instances are common,'' on that continent, *' of persons in good health at 
one hundred and thirty or forty years of age." The habits of the Span- 
iards are very different from ours. And we are told by travelers, that it 
is astonishing what a distance a Spanish attendant will accompany, on 



we can subsist upon it much longer without becoming hungry ; 
and because it consists ci parts which have already been digest* 
ed by the proper organs of an animal, it only requires solution 
and mixture, whareas y^etable food must be conterted into the 
substance of an animal nature by the proper action of our own 
viscera, and therefore requires more labor of the stomach, and 
other digestive organs."" (See Appendix, Q.) For these reasons 
it is saki the dyspeptic, the bilious, and the nervous, whose 
organs of digestion are weak, find in general ammal food the 
most suitable ; that men inhabiting northern regions, where the 
system is liable to be weakened, and even exhausted, by ex- 
treme temperature, and especially by the dejHressing agency of 
cold,f a large quantity of animal food is required, as being 
more stimulating and invigorating. It is also said, that con- 
sidered anatomically, man is evidently designed to live on ani- 
mal food, at least in parts .^ And lastly, it is argued that na- 

ibot, a traveler's mu)e or carriage— not less than forty or iSfty miles a day 
— ^raw onfoDS and bread being his only fare. 

• Dr. Cheyne has combated this notion, and asserts that the jelly — ^the 
juices or chyle of animal substances — is infinitely more tenacious and 
gluey (vide " Memoirs of the Academy Royal," for 1729 and 1730), and 
its last particles more closely united, and separated with greater difficulty, 
than those of vegetable substances. The flesh of animals, I say, must 
with far greater difficulty be digested and separated. As a proof of which, 
is it not said in favor of animal food, that a person can go longer on it than 
he can on vegetables ? Yes f because the former is not so easily or so 
soon digested, or cleared oflT the stomach. - 

t This is, perhaps, the best reason of the whole, if it be applied to cases 
in an extremely cold climate. (See Appendix, H.) Hence the Russian 
will consume his three pounds of tallow, and three quarts of train oil per 
day, which contain about sixty per cent, of carbon — and which is also 
about the per centage of fat bacon and ham. 

t This is a most unfortunate argument in favor of animal food, because 
the reverse is notoriously the fact. Comparative anatomy teaches us 
that man resembles fmgivorous and herbivorous animals in every thing, 
and carnivorous animals in nothing ; he has neither claws wherewith to 
seize or hold his prey, nor distinct and pointed teeth, to tear the living 
fibre, as is the case with the lion, tiger, wolf, dog, cat, etc. ; the vulture, 
owl, hawk, etc. It is only by softening and disguising dead flesh by coli- 


lure seems to have provided oiher aniBials for die use of man, 
from the astonishiiig increase of some s<Hi8.* 

Against a vegetaUe diet it has been aigned, that it has a 
constant tendency to sourness ; is not so easily assimilated to 
our nature ; distends the stoaiach by the quantity of ahr which 
it contains, and which is extricated or let loose by the warmth 
of the stomach ;f that it does not contain so large a propor- 
tion of nutriment^ and is not, therefore, so nutritious and in- 
vigorating as animal food; and that vegetables of the pulse 
kind are liable to strong objections as articles of diet by civil- 

naiy proparations, thftt it is rendered sasceptible of mastication and diges- 
tion, and that the sight of its bloody jaioes and raw horas do not excite 
intolerable loathing and disgust. The orang-oatang perfectly resembles 
man, both in the order and number of his teeth, and is the most anthro- 
pomorphous of the ape tribe, which are strictly frugivorous. This animal, 
which lives on fruits and vegetables, is so vigorous, that when first taken 
it requires half a dozen men to hold him. Formerly those who had the 
care of them in menageries, etc., fed them on flesh, from which they have 
now ceased, or nearly so, because it rendered them gross and shortened 
their lives. There is no other species of animals, which live on different 
food, in which this analogy exists. In many frugivorous animals the 
canine teeth are more pointed and distinct than those of man. The re- 
semblance also of the human stomach and that of the *' Man of the 
Woods,'* is greater than that of any other animal. The intestines are also 
identical with those of herbivorous animals, which presents a large sur- 
face for absorption, and have ample and cellulated colons. The ciecum 
also, though small, is larger than that of carnivorous animals ; and even 
here, the orang-outang retains its accustomed similarity. See more on 
this subject in Cuviery Lecons d'Anat. Comp. torn. iii. etc. Reesj Cycl<^... 

* So large is the increase of pigeons, that in the space of four years 
14,760 may come from a single pair ; and in the same time, 1,274,840 
from a pair of rabbits. But it should be remembered, that the increase of 
animals, as also the production of a certain amount of any kind of vege- 
table food, depends, to a large extent, .on the will of man. Hence we 
sometimes obstruct this increase. 

t This is true of cabbage, greens, etc., which are fit, as articles of diet, 
for cows, pigs, etc. Nevertheless, this distension of the stomach, to some 
extent, is essential. 

X From analyses by ezperienoed chemists— such as MM. Percy, Van- 


ized man,* as being rery ind^^lable, at least to all but the ro- 
bust, etc. (See Appendix, I.) 

On the other hand, it has been argued in favor of a vegeta- 
ble diet, and against aninaal food, that in temperate climates, 
like ours, an animal diet is more wasting than a vegetable, be- 
cause it excites, by its stimulating properties, a temporary fever 
after each meal made of it, by which the springs of life are 
urged into constant preternatural and weakening exertion ; that 
persons who live chiefly on animal food are subject to determi- 
nation of blood to the head,f to corpulency, and to various 
acute and fatal disorders, as the scurvy, malignant ulcers, in- 
flammatory fevers, etc. ; and that there appears in this mode 

guielin, etc. — it is foand that the proportion of natritioas matter, ia aomo 
of the most common haman aliments, is as follows : 

Net amonnt of nutrl* 
OroM Weight Kind of Food. ttous matter. 

Ibo. Iba. 

100 Lentiles (dry), 94 

" Peas (dry), 93 

" Beans (dry), 89 to 90 

" Wheat, 85 

" Barley, 83 

" Eye, 80 

*« Bice, 80 

*' Bread, 80 

<' Flesh (average) 35 

<' Potatoes 25 

«' Beet Root, 14 

" Carroto, 10 

" Cabbage, 7 

** Greens 6 

" Tmiuips, ....... 4 

* Not so, then, it seems to the man of nature, who only eats to answer 
the demands of nature, and not merely to gratify his appetite. 

t If adopdng a vegetable diet shoald occasion considerable paleness 
and shrinking of features for a time, it is no bad sign, and is not essential 
to the system, as yonng children who are so brought up have a fine color 
in the second year, and enjoy perfect health and considerable strength. 
Nor should such paleness, etc., excite our apprehension, since the vessels 
being less loaded, it is thus the determination of blood to the head is pre- 



of living a strong tendency to promote the fomtation of many 
chronic diseases, as we seldom see those who indulge in this 
diet, remarkable for health and longevity. Besides, it is said 
a man could not live entirely upon animal food,* but he 
could on vegetables ; and a vegetable diet, when it consists of 
articles easily digested — such as bran bread,f pulse, Scotch 
oatmeal, potatoes, plain puddings, rice, etc. — is highly favora- 
ble to longevity. 

There are also instances of persons making great exertion 
with this aliment. Dr. R. Jackson says, ** I have wandered a 
good deal about the world, and never followed any prescribed 
rules in any thing ; my health has been tried in all wajrs ; and 
by the aid of temperance and hard work, I have worn out two 
armies, in two wars, and probably could wear out another be- 
fore my period of old age arrives. / eat no anivfud food, drink 
no wine, or malt liquor, or spirits of any kind ; I wear no flan- 
nel, and neither regard wind nor rain, heat nor cold, where 
business is in the way." This food has also a most beneficial 
influence on the mental powers, and tends to preserve a delica- 
cy of feeling, a liveliness of imagination, and an acuteness of 
judgment, seldom enjoyed by those who live chiefly on flesh. 
Dr. Cullen observes of vegetable diet, that it never over-dis- 
tends the vessels, or loads the system — "never interrupts the 
stronger motions of the mind; while the heat, fullness, and 
weight of animal food, is an enemy to its vigorous efforts." 
The celebrated Dr. Franklin, partly on the recommendation of 
Tryon, and partly on the ground of economy, took entirely to a 
vegetable diet. His frugal meals frequently consisted of only 
a biscuit, or a slice of bread and bunch of raians, or a bun 
with a glass of water. At one time, he and another printer at 
Philadelphia spent only eighteen pence per week, in diet, between 
them ; and he mentions that his progress in study was propor- 

^ The late Sir £. Bariy prevailed upon a man to live eight daya on par> 
tridges, without vegetables ; but he was obliged to desist, from the ap- 
pearance of strong symptoms of putrefaction. 

t Bread made of flour having only the broad bran taken out of it. 


tk>D6d to that clearness of ideas, and qnickness of conception, 
wbich are the* fruits of temperance in eating and drinking. It 
also further appears that animal food is more easily carried to 
excess ; has a continual tendency in it, as has also the human 
body itself, to putrefaction ; fills the blood-vessels, and loads 
the brain, which causes heaviness and stupor, and lays the 
foimdation of disease; in particular, corpulency, obesity, and 
putrescent acrimony. Animal food is less adapted to the sed- 
entary than the laborious, and least of all to the studious, whose 
diet ought to consist of vegetables. Volney, in his "Travels," 
speaking of the Wallachians, says : " They are in general tall, 
well built, and of very wholesome complexion. Diseases are 
very rare among them," and that '* their manners, so far as 
I have been able to judge of them, are simple. Temperate in 
their repasts, they prefer vegetables to fruits, and fruits to the 
most delicate meats." Sir W. Temple, speaking of the ancient 
Bramins, says:^ "Their temperance was so great that they 
Hved upon rice or herbs, and on nothing that had sensitive life. 
If they fell ill, they counted it such a mark of intem^rance, that 
they would frequently die out of shame and suUenness ; but 
many lived a hundred and fifty, and some, two hundred years. 
Rousseau, speaking of the moral effect of aliment, says, it is 
" clearly evinced in the different tempers of the carnivorous 
and the frugivorous animals; the former, whose destructive 
passions, like those of ignorant men, lay waste all within their 
reach, are constantly tormented with hunger, which returns 
and rages in proportion to their own devastation. This creates 
that state of warfare or disquietude, which seeks, as in mur- 
derers, the night and veil of the forest ; for, should they ap- 
pear on the plain, their prey escapes, or, seen by each other, 
their warfare begins. The frugivorous animals wander tran- 
quilly on the plains, and testify their joyful eadstence, by frisk- 
ing and basking in the conjugal rays of the sun, or browsing, 
with convulsive pleasure, on the green herb, evinced by the 
motion of the tail, or the joyful sparkling of the eye, and the 
gambols of the herds." 


The same effect of aliment is seen among the difierent spe- 
cies of men; and the peaceful tempef of the frngiTorous 
Asiatic is strongly contrasted with the ferodous temper of the 
camiyorous European.* 

Moreoyer, it is notonons, that the nations which subsist on 
yegetable diet are of all men the handsomest, the most robust, 
the least exposed to disease, and violent passions, and attain 
longevity : such are, in Europe, a great portion of the Swiss. 

The negroes, doomed to labor so severely, live entirely on 
manise, potatoes, and maize. 

From the Pythagorean school, Epaminondas, so celebrated 

* The Tartan, whom Gibbon calUan feeling, bloodthirsty moiderers, 
and who live almost wholly on animal food, are exceedingly ferocious 
and cmel ; whfle the Bramin and Hincloo, who live entirely on a vegetBp 
ble diet, are altogether as gentle and mild ; proving that — 

"All sre not lATAgies— come, ye gentle iwain, 
Like Brama's healthy sods, (m Indus* banks, 
Whom the pure streams and garden-fniit aostaln, 
Ye are the sons of nature I Your mild hands 
Are innocent."— %roAn Dyer. 

Who will assert, as asks a popular writer, that, had the popalace of 
Paris satisBed their hanger at the ever-fumished table of vegetable natare, 
they would have lent their .brutal suffrage to the proscription-list of Bo- 
bespierre ? Could a set of men, whose passions were not perverted by 
unnatural stimuli, look with coolness on an mUo dafef Is it to be believed 
that a being of gentle feelings, rising from his meal of roots and vegeta- 
bles, would take delight in sports of blood T Was Nero a oian of tem- 
perate life ? Did Muley Ismael's pulse beat evenly ? Though history 
has decided none of these questions, a child could hardly hesitate to an* 
swer in the negative. Surely the bile-suffused cheek of Bonaparte, his 
wrinkled brow, and yellow eye, the ceaselessness and inquietude of his 
nervous system, speak no less plainly the character of his ambition than 
his murders and victories. It is next to impossible, had Bonaparte de- 
scended from a race of vegetable-eaters, that he could have had either 
the inclination or the power to ascend the throne of the Bourbons. It is 
such a man, with violent passions, blood-shot eyes and swollen veins, oc- 
casioned by the stimuli of flesh and alcohol, that alone can fight a woman, 
make a hell of domestic life, and destroy his fellow-man by wholesale. 
We commend this sulgect to the attention of all who are oi^KMod to 
licensed mnrder. 


for his skOl in mecbanics, and Milo, of Crotona, for his strength^ 
copying the virtues of their founder, who was allowed to be 
the first-rate genius of his day, and the father of philosophy 
among the Greeks."" 

The children of the Persians, in the time oi Cyrus, and by 
his orders, were fed with bread, water, and cresses ; and Ly- 
curgus introduced a considerable part of the physical and 
moral regimen of these children into the education of those of 
of Lacedsemon. Such diet prolongs infancy, and consequently 
prolongs life. It is also surprismg to what a great age the 
eastern Christians — who retired to the deserts of Egypt and 
Arabia — ^liyed, on very little food. We are informed, by Cas- 
sian, that ** the common measure used by them, in twenty-four 
hours, was about twelve ounces, with mere element to drink.'* 

Haller says, " This food, then, which I have hitherto de- 
scribed, and in which flesh has no share, is salutary, insomuch 
that it fully nourishes a man, protracts life to an advanced age,f 
and prevents or cures such disorders as are attributable to the 
acrimony or grossness of the blood." A physician, in a '* Prac- 
tical Essay," written some hundred years ago, says, "Whoever 
can resolve, in bad spirits, a bad constitution, and in advanced 
fife, to go into such a regimen, may, I think, fairly be manu- 
mitted from drugs." 

Mr. Slingsby and Dr. Knight both lived many years on 
bread, milk, and vegetables, and without intoxicating drinks ; 
they had excellent spirits, and were very vigorous. In fact, 
hundreds are now pursuing a similar course, with like results. 
The author of ** Vegetable Regimen" gives an account of a 

* It is affirmed, by Haller, that Newton, oar own great geometrician, 
wrote his philosophic work, which sheds a lustre on his name and ooan- 
trj, on simple bread and water only. 

t That animal food and fermented liqnors will more readily ^certainly, 
and cruelly create, and exasperate diseases, pains, and sufferings, and 
sooner cut off life than vegetable food will, there con be no more doubt 
than any proposition of Eaclid, if reason, philosophy, the nature of things, 
Of experienee hav« any evidence or force in them.— Pr. Cheftte. 


number of pers(His, who have been living upon this diet, ana 
upon distilled water, for five years past, whose hedth Is so 
good that " they have no need of medicine, and that, without 
an exception, their indispositions, where they happen at all, are 
80 trifling as scarcely to deserve the name." He further ob- 
serves, that " no ill effects have, in any instance, been felt from 
the adoption of this regimen/' To prove how greatly the 
stomach is fortified, and the digestion improved, by the general 
increase of health, occasioned by vegetable diet, he says, " that 
a person thus nourished is enabled to bear what one, whose 
humors are less pure, may sink under ; the children of our 
family can, each of them, eat twelve or eighteen walnuts, with- 
out Uie most trifling indigestion — an experiment which those 
who feed their children in the usual manner would consider it 
adventurous to attempt.'' (See Appendix, J.) The same 
author, speaking of the effect of vegetable diet on children, 
refers to the case of his own, four in number, all under nine 
yeara of age, who, he says, had not cost him '' one farthing for 
medicine, or medical attendance, in the course of two years." 
He also states Uiat several medjpal men, who had " examined 
ihem with a scrutinizing eye, all agreed that they knew no- 
where a whole family which equals them in robustness. Th^ 
health may be verified by the inspection of any stranger, who 
shall be disposed to take that trouble." Indeed, it seems to 
be the opinion of those who have made the experiment in then: 
own circle, and who are therefore the best judges in the case, 
that the observance of the laws of nature, by children, would 
greatly improve their health and strength ; that their irritabili- 
ty would gradually subside ; they would become more robust 
and beautiful, their carriage be more erect, their step more 
firm ; and that the danger of parents being deprived 6[ them, 
at an early period, would be much diminished ; while, by their 
light repasts, their hilarity would be greatly augmented, and 
their intellects cleared, in a degree which would astonishingly 
illustrate the delightful effect of this regimen. 

But we shall be told, by the very people who will blame ua 


for the reference, that we Bhonld go to a higher authority than 
erring mortals, and submit our theory to the test of Scripture. 
We will do so, not because we place the weight of our argu- 
ment there, but because some will seek to condemn our prac- 
tice from that source. Our forte is in the human, physiological, 
and moral view of the subject. Our opponents tell us we do 
wrong in rejecting " the good creatures of God," though they 
refuse frog soup, etc., etc., which are regarded with so much 
attachment by other nations ; and that in Gen. iii. 9, God gave 
to Noah and his smis '' every living thing that moveth," to be 
meat for^hem, '' even as the green herb." True, and though 
nothing is more plain, from nature and its eternal laws, and 
from justice and equity, than that, in the original intention, 
one woman was designed for one man, yet, for " the hardness 
of their hearts," God permitted plurality of women to the 
Jews ; nevertheless, our Lord has declared that ** from the be- 
ginning* it was not so." This same people, though they had 
not only God's general and imperceptible providence, as we 
have now, for their government and direction, but also his mi- 
raculous, senfflble, and visible presence, to instruct and guide 
them, yet they applied to Samuel the prophet, saying, ** Give 
us a king to judge us, like all the nations. But the thing dis- 
pleased Samuel," because he saw that they were rejecting the 
Lord that he "should not reign over them." The Lord said 
unto Samuel, " Hearken unto the voice of the people, in all 
that they say imto thee." Was this sanction ? No ! God only 

* Then God said (Gren. i. 29), Behold I have giyen you every herb 
bearing seed, which is upon the face of the whole earth, and every- green 
tree, in which is the froit of the tree yielding seed, to yon it shall be given 
for meat. It seems firom this, says an eminent philosopher, that man was 
originally intended to live apon vegetables only ; and as no change was 
made in the stnictare of men's bodies after the flood, it is not probable 
that any change was made in the article of food. It may also be inferred 
from &is passage, that no creature whatever was origiaally designed to 
prey on others; for nothing is here said to be given to any beast of the 
earth besides gfeen herbs,— Dr. Priestley. Though God gave man do- 
nmiioii ov«r all his creatures, he confined him to tiie green herb for food. 


permitted it, that, as good Matthew Henry says, " They lufght 
be beaten with their own rod — to prevent something worse," 
and that it might " serv'e his own wise purposes, even by their 
foolish counsels."* To show that the Lord did not approve of 
their demand, we refer to the above passage, and also to Ho- 
sea, xiii. 11; where God says, "I gave them a king in mine 
anger, and took him away in my wrath." Lastly, we refer 
to the facts mentioned in Num. ii. ; Ps. Ixxviii. 30, 31 ; cvi. 14, 
16, where we are informed that they grew weary of their veg- 
etable diet, the manna, the angel's food, of which they spake 
80 disrespectfully, and with which Providence had^ so gra- 
ciously fed them ; " They soon forgot his works ; they waited 
not for his counsel ; but lusted exceedingly in the wilderness, 
and tempted God in the desert. And he gave them their re- 
quest; but sent leanness into their souls. But while ih&r 
meat was in their mouths, the wrath of God came upon them, 
and slew the fattest of them, and smote down the chosen men 
of Israel." 

Observe how cautiously, and with what amomits to almost a 
prohibition, the Jewish law directs this permit of animal food, 
viz., absolutely and positively not to eat the blood of the ani- 
malf (in which its most deleterious qualities chiefly consist, and 

* Cheyne supposes that animal food and strong liquors were permitted 
to man to shortea life, in order to prevent the excessive grov^th of 
wickedness. ViThatever may be thought of this idea, certain it is, man's 
life became gradually shortened with the introdaction of animal food ; 
and of the consumption of which we have no account till after the deluge, 
a period of 2000 years. 

t How those who profess to regard the Bible as the rule of their doc- 
trine and practice, can eat blood, we cannot conceive. Is not the pro* 
hibition as binding now as ever it was T The original reason holds as 
good now, '' the blood is the life," and hence it has been sacred, as the great 
instrument of expiation, and because it was typical of tbat blood by which 
we enter into the holiest. It is certain it was not eaten before the 
deluge, because animal food was not in use. After the deluge it was - 
one of the seven Nohic precepts. It was prohibited at the giving of the 
law which was renewed under the gospel, in Acts xv. 20, 29. And 
the command id still scrupulously obeyed by the Oriental Chriatiant, aad 


because blood globoles resist digestion). Now this, in. rea]it3r 
and by insinuation, is to say, tbat nnce, for the hardness oi 
your hearts, and your unconquerable lusting, you cannot be 
l^ronghe to abstain altogether from animal food, yet because 
" the blood is the life thereof," and has morbific qualities, you 
are to drain it as much as possible of all its moisture, and to 
eat it plain. By this method, animal food will be less pernicious, 
and will approach very near to yegetables. There is no under- 
standing this permission in any other way, nor is it otherwise to 
be reconciled to common sense, however both Jews and Chris- 
tians have at present dwindled and diluted its true import — 
Cheyne. ' In reference to the distinction noade by Jehovah be- 
tween the clean and unclean under the law, Dr. A. Clarke says, 
** While God keeps the eternal interests of man steadily in view, 
he does not forget his earthly comforts ; he is at once solicitous 
both for the health of his body and his soul. He has not for- 
bidden certain aliments because he is a sovereign, but because 
he knew they would be injurious to the health and morate of 
the people. The close connection that subsists between the 
body and the soul we cannot fully comprehend ; and as little 
can we comprehend the influence which they have on each 
other. Many moral alterations take place in the mind in eon- 
sequence of the influence of the bodily organs ; and these latter 
are greatly influenced by the kind of aliment which the body 
receives. In all this God shows himself the tender Father of a 
numerous family, pointing out to his inexperienced, froward, 
and ignorant children those kinds of aliments which he knows 

by the whole Greek Church ; and why 7 becaoae the reasoni still Bobdit. 
If the eaters of blood knew that it affords a very erode, almost indigest- 
ible, and nnwholesome aliment, they certainly would not, on these phys> 
leal reasons, leaving moral considerations oat of the question, be so much 
attached to the consumption of that from which they eould expect no 
wholesome nutriment, and which, to render it even pleasing to the 
palate, requires all the skill of the cook. See much on the subject in aa 
excellent work by Dr. Delaney, entitled ** BeveUition Examined with 
Candor," a work of onoommon merit, and too little known, in three 
■mall volumes. 



wUl be injurious to tbeir health and domesdc happiness, and 
prohiiHtiDg them on pain of his highest di^leasure. On the 
same ground he forbade all fish that have not both fins and 
scales, such as the conger, eel, etc., which abound in gross 
juices and fat, which very few stomachs can digest Who, for 
instance, that hves solely on swine's flesh* has pure blood and 
healthy juices ? And is it not evident, in many cases, that the 
man partakes considerably of the nature of the brute on which 
he exclusively feeds ? I could pursue this subject much fur- 
ther, and bring many proofs founded on indisputable facts, but 
I forbear, for he who might stand most in need of caution, would 
be the first to take offence." 

We have a most pleasing instance of firmness in adhering to 
their vegetable regimen, in Daniel and his captive companions 
(Dan. chap. i.). They were put under the care of the master 
of the eunuchs, and they were ''appointed a daily provision 
of the king's meat, and of the wine which he drank." But 
they were such rigid teetotalers and vegetarians, that they 
proposed in their hearts that " they would not defile them- 
selves with the king's meat and wine." Daniel requested, 
therefore, that they might be allowed to carry out their plan, 
which appeared so Utopian that the prince of the eunuchs ob-^ 
jected, lest, if they were not found looking as well as their 

* Dr. A. Clarke is known to have entertained strong prejudices against 
swine's flesh and tobacco, and is reported to have said on one occasion, 
'* If I were to offer a sacrifice to the devil, it should be a roasted pig, 
•tttfied with tobacco ;'' and on another occasion, being called upon to ask 
a blessing at dinner, on which occasion there was a roaster smoking be- 
fore him, he very solemnly said, ** O Lord, if thou canst bless under the 
Gospel what tbuu didst curse under the law, bless the pig V* An instance 
of the savage cannibalism of these animals came under the author's notice 
not long since. A sow had actually seized a young child, which was play- 
ing at the door, and was making off with it, had not the screams of the 
child brought its mother to its assistance. Pigs are certainly most filthy, 
ferocious, foul-feeding animals ; they are the most subject to cutaneout 
diseases and putreiiMtion of any creature, insomuch, that in the time of a 
piagoe, diey are universally destroyed by all wiw nations, as we do mad 


companions,* it migbt occasion him the loss of his head. This 
was a serious matter! Daniel, however, had none of those 
fears ; he knew the merits of the plan proposed, and therefore 
says, " Prove us for ten days," allowing us nothing but " pulse 
to eat (that is, peas, lentiles, etc.), and water to drink." The 
trial was accordingly made, and proved most triumphant ; for, 
at the end of ten days, they were not only no worse, but very 
much better, ** furer and fatter in flesh, "f of a more beautiful 
look, and better complexion than ** all those which did eat the 
portion of the king's meat." In addition to which, their intel- 
lects were kept clear and vigorous ; so that, " in all matters of 
wisdom and understanding that the king inquired of them, he 
found them ten times better than all the magicians and astrol- 

* People will not believe the benefit of a vegetable diet, nor how mnch 
it oontrtbates to the health of the body, anlew they try it 

t Dr. Higgiogbottom says, A person fat in flesh (that is, ia muscle) is 
beautiful io coantenaace ; so Daniel was; every lineament of the features 
may be seen in perfectiuu ; the mascles give expression to the counte- 
nance. Not BO with the gross, whose lineaments, which ought to givo 
beauty to the countenance, are filled up, or effused with fat, and form a 
hirgef round fiice, nearly destitute of expression. Fat persons, if not dis- 
eased, are candidates for it. Most persons may get &t, if they would only 
adopt the course of those of whom Prior speaks : They eat, and drink, 
and sleep — what then ? why, sleep, and drink, and eat again. Some will 
tell us they should get fitt, live how they would, which we question. 
The plan of Abemetfay, to live on sixpence a day, and earn it, or that of 
Dr. Saddiffe, Keep your eyes open, and your mouth shut (that is, sleep 
less tend eat less), would soon prove the contrary. For, as Dr. Arbuth- 
not says, You may see an army of forty thousand soldiers, without a fat 
man ; and I dare affirm that, by plenty of rest, twenty out of forty shall 
grow &t. The portly appearance of landlords of inns, butchers, and but- 
lera, is obviously referable to their high living and moderate exercise- 
But it is rather remarkable that the legs of these men are seldom fet. 

They have- 
Enlarged body, diminlsbeid \eg.-^Skak9peare. 

It is the size of the calves of the legs which indicate strength, ihey being 
formed of muscle, or red flesh. R. Holker, while he was a drunkett sol- 
dier, used to pad his stockings to make calves to his legs; but when h» 
beoame a teetotaler, he got new calveft. So have many others. 


ogers that were m all his reahn." Agahx, when God was about 
to prepare his seryant EUijah, the greatest- and best man of his 
age, for a forty days' journey through the wilderness, to Ho- 
reb, he did not furnish him with animal food, but sent an angel 
to give him ''a cake of bread and a cruse of water;" upon 
which Jay says, " Nature is content with little, and grace with 
less. How many disorders arise from excess ! A voracious 
appetite is a judgment ; a deUcate one an infirmity ; a dainty 
one is a disgrace. Ministers, above all men, should not be 
griven to appetite, or be fond of dainty meat ; and those who 
entertain them should not insult them by the nature and the 
d^ree of their preparations." John the Baptist, also, who 
was spoken of as coming in " the spirit and power of Elias, 
had his raiment of camel's hair, and a leathern girdle about 
his loins ; and his meal was locusts and wild honey." The 
locust was the fruit of the locust-tree. Thus we see that He 
who could as easily have fed John with flesh as with vegeta- 
bles, frowns not upon the humble fare, but makes it sustain his 
favorite, and his Son's forerunner. And yet there are hun- 
dreds of his servants, now on earth, who speak of vegetable 
food, and those who choose to live on it, as unworthy of their 
notice — the latter, in fact, as rejecting the "good creatures of 
God." But, certain it is, they cannot charge us vnth cruelty 
to animals. We say, " Live and let live," which they cannot 
say ; for, according to their notions, if the animal lives, man 
cannot. Hence, blood must be shed, and the law of God be 
broken, for their support, in spite of the horrors with which 
it naturally inspires us. That is not all the evil : life, which 
has been so greatly curtailed by the use of animal food, is still 
further abridged by the violence which prevails among the 
human race, chiefly as the effect which this aliment has upon 
the passions of man. Man who, in the early ages of the world, 
and while he was content to live upon vegetable diet, was seen 
to spare the lives of animals, has {^ccustpmed himself no longer 
to spare even the lives of his fellov^-men. If the Almighty in- 
tended n^an should be an animal qf pr^y, hqw is it t)^^t he haa 


implanted within him au instinctive abhorrence of animal tor- 
ture, and to the shedding of blood ? Should not this be man's 
guide ? Some seek to evade the force of this principle, by say- 
ing. Animals eat one another, and why may we not eat them ? 
What ! if a wolf worries a lamb, does that justify us in doing 
the same ? But, it is still objected. Nature has furnished us 
with dog-teeth — ^for what purpose ? Surely you are not justi- 
fied in doing all you have the means of doing ! But what is 
to become of the cattle ? We should be eaten up if we were 
not to destroy them. We say, breed less, and you need not 
fear the consequence. There is land sufficient for a large in- 
crease of men and animals. '' England alone, which now con- 
tsdns only about fifteen millions of inhabitants, is capable of 
producing, by spade husbandry, a sufficiency of nutritive vege- 
tables for the support of one hundred and twenty millions of 
human beings ; but if every one must consume a pound of 
flesh a day, there is scarcely enough land for the existing pop- 
ulation/' — Vegetable Cookery, li tigers,* wolves, and vultures 
praise flesh-eating, are we to admit that they speak the truth ? 
Ask a child, even one who has been used to animal food, and 
is rather fond of it, whether she will go with you into the gar- 

* A party of gentlemen from Bombay, one day, vigiting the Btupendoas 
temple of Elephanta, discovered a tiger's whelp in one of the obscare 
recenes of the edifice. Desirona of kidnapping the cab, without encoan- 
tering the fary of its dum, they took it op hastily and retreated. Being 
left entirely at liberty, and extremely well fed, the tiger grew rapidly, 
and appeared tame and fondling as a dog, and in every respect entirely 
domesticated. At length, when having obtained a vast size, and, not- 
withstanding its apparent gentleness, it began to inspire terror by its tre- 
mendous power of doing mischief, it fell in with a piece of raw meat, drip- 
ping in the blood. It is to be observed that, up to that moment, it had 
been studiously kept from raw animal food. The instant, however, it 
had dipped its tongue in blood, something like madness seemed to have 
seized the animal ; a destructive principle, hitherto dormant, was awak- 
ened. It darted furiously, and with glaring eyes, upon its prey ; tore 
it with fury to pieces ; and growling and roaring, in the most fearful 
manner, rushed off toward the dau^e. -^Borough Road Sehool-Leston 


den, to gather some cherries, or to the slaughter-house, to see 
the ox killed ; or, as Dr. Alcott says, " conceiye of slaughter 
and flesh-eating in Eden !" 

But we shall he told, " The Saviour eat fish ! and his dis- 
ciples were fishermen !" Granted. And although, as we said 
before, we do not need references to the Scripture to defend 
our practice in abstaining from dead flesh ; yet we beg to re- 
mind those who go to that resource for their defence, that it is 
possible to be misled by sounds, and from prejudice and cus- 
tom to form views not exactly in accordance with " the mind 
of the spirit ;" and these views constituting errors in judgment, 
may lead to errors in practice, which may have a very preju- 
dicial effect on ourselves and on others. We are all too apt 
to take things for granted, which are not quite self-evident, 
especially if they suit our inclinations — as in the case of the 
lovers of strong drink ; the slaveholder ; and, shall we add, flesh- 
eaters? We often associate certain ideas with certain forms 
of speech, which, perhaps, could not be logically borne out. 
Are you sure this is not the case here ? The word fish does 
not always apply exclusively to an animal, nor does the word 
fisherman include only one kind of fishers. For we know, in 
reference to fish, that the Israelites said (Num. xi. 5), " We 
remember the fish which we did eat freely in Egypt ; the 
cucumbers and the melons, and the onions and the garlick." 
Herodotus tells us that fish was in common use in his time 
among the Egyptians ; that it was sometimes used fresh and 
sometimes roasted. Sometimes they dried it in the sun, then 
beat it small in a mortar, and afterward sifted it through a 
piece of fine cloth ; and thus formed it into cakes, as bread. 
This is the very way in which the Egyptians now prepare the 
lotus plant. See "Beauties of Nature and Art Displayed," 
vol. xii. page 141. Pococke also says, "that when he was in 
Upper Egypt, they told him that here was a large fish called 
lotus, which probably is the lotus that was so highly esteemed 
by the Egyptians." Pinkerton's Col. Parkhurst, in his '* Greek 
Lexicon," says, ** It seems not very natural to understand the 


Greek word, opsarion (John xxi. 9) as signifying fisb. It sig- 
nifies some other kind of provision, of the delicious sort, that 
may be eaten with l>read. Indeed, fish and honey (Luke xxiv. 
42) do not seem to be very suitable to be eaten together." 
In addition to this evidence, Calmet says, '* James and John 
were fishermen with Zebedee their father," and yet "they 
never ate either fish or flesh." Josephus says no animal 
fish will live in the Dead Sea, and yet the prophet Eze- 
kiel speaks of an abundance of fishers who should live on 
its borders. We should recollect ^so, that when the net 
brake, while the disciples were fishing, the fish did not escape, 
which we think tbey woukl have done had they been animals. 
" But it was a miracle ! Therefore the fish were kept from 
getting away." Would it not have been more to the purpose 
t6 have preserved the net from breaking ? See " VegetaUe 
Cookery." We have before referred to what has been called 
the " anatomical argument/' and believe no intelligent natural- 
ist, or comparative anatomist, will for one moment place him- 
self in competition with Professor Lawrence and Baron Cuvier, 
and try to |M'Ove man a fiesh-eater from his structure. We 
have also spoken of the physiological influence of animal food, 
and are perfectly satbfied of what Dr. Alcott has said as to the 
advantage which vegetable-eaters have over others, as to the 
superior appetite which they enjoy. To be sure he is not always 
hungry. Indeed, what some people call hunger — a morbid sen- 
sation of gnawing — ^is unknown to him. But there is scarcely 
a moment of his life, at least when he is awake, in which he 
could not enjoy the pleasure of eating, even the coarsest viands, 
with a high relish, provided, however, he knew it was proper 
for him to eat. Nor is his appetite fickle, demanding this or 
that particular article, and disconcerted if it cannot be obtain- 
ed. It is satisfied with any thing which the judgment directs ; 
and though gratified in a high degree by dainties, when no- 
thing better and more wholesome can be obtained, he never 
craves for them. The vegetable-eater has a more quiet, happy, 
and perfect digestion, and his food produces better solids and 


fluids than that of the flesh-eater ; it also gives greater solidity 
and strength to the frame. We have already giyen cases in 
confirmation of this statement, and are satisfied if a iasr eom« 
parison were instituted, the result would he to confirm our views. 
We say a fair comparison — ^that is, compare English with En- 
gUsh, etc., etc. The vegetahle-eater, if temperate in the use <^ 
his vegetables (for many greatly err here, supposing they 
must take large quantities, as they falsely suppose this food 
less nutritious, which ia not the fact, as shown in the table), 
and if in other respects he conform to the organic laws, will 
endure, better than the flesh-eater, the extremes of heat and 
cold, which is allowed to be a sure sign of a good state of 

Another branch of our subject has been termed the medical ; 
and those who have written on it have asserted, that if health 
is the best preventive and security against disease, and if a 
well-selected and properly administered vegetable diet is best 
calculated to promote and preserve perfect health, then this 
part of our subject is disposed of at once, and the superiority 
of the diet we commend is established beyond the possibility 
of a doubt. Yet, for the sake of some who may doubt our 
premises, we refer to a few facts. It is now generally known 
that Howard, the philanthropist, was a vegetable-eater for 
about forty years, and yet how free from disease, amidst all 
the contagion with which he was constantly surrounded ! The 
Rev. Josiah Brewer, who is either an abstsdner, or rigidly tem- 
perate, now a missionary in Smyrna, has been much exposed 
to. disease, and, like Mr. Howard, to the plague itself, and 
yet we are not aware that he has ever suffered a single day's 
sickness as the consequence of his exposure. The Rev. Mr. 
Crocker went out to a sickly part of Africa some years since, 
and has remained at his station, thus far, in perfect health, 
while many of his friends have sickened or died. He is a 
vegetarian. Gen. T. Sheldon, of the United States, also a 
vegetarian, has spent several years in the most sickly parts of 
the Southern States, with an entire immunity from disease ; and 

ON 80U0 FOOD. 89 

he gives it as his opinion, that it is no matter where we are, eo 
that our dietetic and other habits are correct. Is not this 
thought worthy of the attention of our missionary committees, 
and also of our missionaries ? Let them try it. Hear also 
the star, the idol of the British army. Sir B. Sale, who, when 
sending his dispatches from Jellakbad to the commander-in- 
chief, says, " I will not mention as a privation, the European 
troops having been without spirits, because I believe that to 
be a circumstance tending to keep them in the highest health, 
and in the most admirable state of discipline ; crime has been 
almost unknown ; and a murmur is never heard, although they 
are deprived of their usual quantity of animal food." 

Those who have viewed this matter politically, tell us that 
the produce of an acre of land in wheats com, potatoes, fruit, 
etc., will sustain animal life sixteen times as long as when the 
produce of the same acre is converted into flesh by feeding 
and fattening animals on it. But if we admit this estimate is 
too high, and if the diiference is only eight to one, the result 
may perhaps surprise us ; and if we have not done it before, 
may lead us to reflection. The people of the United States 
are believed to eat, upon the average, an amount of animal 
food equal at least to one whole meal a day, and those ot 
Great Britain one in two days. Taking this estimate to be 
correct, we, by substituting a vegetalde for animal food, might 
sustain forty-nine instead of twenty-one millions of inhabitants, 
and they fifty instead of fifteen ; and this, too, in their present 
comfort, and without clearing any more land. Here, then, we 
are consuming that unnecessarily (if animal food is unneces- 
sary) which would sustain sixty-three millions of human beings 
in life, health, and happiness. 

Many people think we ought not to take into consideration 
the economical bearings of the subject, on the ground of its 
being mean or parsimonious. But conscious as we are of 
higher objects, in consulting economy, than the saving of mo- 
ney, that it may be expended on things of more value than the 
mere indulgence or gratification of the appetites or the pas- 


flions, m a world irbere ih^e are drmikards to reelaim, minds 
to educate, and sonls to save, ve have yentored to call atten- 
tion to this subject. We have all heard of ** a good garden 
half supporting a family ;" and if a garden of a given siee will 
half support a family, one twice as large would support it 
wholly. Ten bushels of com, properly cooked, will support an 
adult individual a year. Four times this amount is a good 
allowance for a family of five persons. But how small a spot 
of good soil is required for raising forty bushels of com ! But 
as it is perhaps desirable to vary the food, let the cultivator, 
if he please, raise only twenty bushels of com, and plant the 
rest of the ground with peas, potatoes, etc., and he will have 
abundance, which it would require more than ordinary gluttony 
to consume. 

Notwithstanding we may be told that arguments drawn from 
experience are fallacious, we must refer to this bearing of the 
subject, because we differ from our objector — ^we think it is a 
proper test. It is a notorious fact that one half of. the 
900,000,000 of human beings which inhabit our globe live 
on vegetables, either from necessity or choice ; or if they get 
meat at all, it is so rarely that it can hardly have any effect on 
their structure or character. In addition to nations and in- 
dividuals before referred to, we name the Japanese of the in- 
terior, who, according to some of the British geographers, live 
principally upon rice and fruits; and yet they are the finest 
men in all Asia. The New Hollanders, who eat flesh freely, 
are not only mere savages, but they are among the most 
meagre and wretched of the human race. Nearly the same 
remarks will apply to the Chinese, and with little modification 
to Hindostan. In short, the hundreds of millions of Southern 
Asia, are, for the most part, vegetable-eaters ; and a large 
proportion of them live chiefly on rice, though by no means 
the most favorable vegetable for exclusive fise. What coun- 
tries like these have maintained their ancient, moral, intel- 
lectual, and political landmarks ? Granted they have made 
but little improvement from century to century ; it is some- 


ihiDg not to have deteri<nrated. Let m proeeed with our 

general view of the world, ancient and modem. 

The old world were all vegetarians, and the Jews of Pales- 
tine nearly so ; for though flesh of various kinds was admisd- 
ble by their law, except at their feasts, and on special ooca^ 
sions, they ate chiefly bread, milk, honey, and fruits. 

"The ancient Greeks," says Porphyiy, "lived entirely on 
the fruits of the earth." " The ancient Syrians abstained from 
every species of animal food." By the laws of Triptolemus, 
the 4-thenians were strictly commanded to abstain from all 
living creatures. Even so late as the days of Draco, the Attic 
oblations consisted only of the fruits of the earth. 

" The Greek historians, when describing the primitive ages 
of the world, relate that the first race of men regaled them- 
selves on every mild and wholesome herb they could* discover, 
and on such fruits as the trees spontaneously produced ; that 
the food of the primeval generations was difiierent, according to 
the respective productions of various countries; the ancient 
Arcadians lived on acorns ; the Argives, on pears ; the Athe- 
nians, on figs. We behold Fabricius, concerning whom the 
king of Epirus declared, that it was easier to turn the sun from 
its course, than this venerable patriot from his principles, after 
having been honored with several triumphs, 'eating,' says 
Seneca, 'in a comer of his cottage, tlte pulse he had himself 
raised and gathered in his garden.' The Romans were so 
fully persuaded of the superior eflects of vegetable diet, that 
besides the -private examples of many of their great men, they 
publicly countenanced this mode of diet in their laws concern- 
ing food ; among which were the Lex Fransua and the Lex 
Zicinta, which, allowing but very little flesh, permitted pro- 
miscuously and without limitation all manner of things gathered 
from the earth, from shmbs, and from trees. Plutarch says, 
' It is best to acaustom ourselves to eat no flesh at all, for the 
earth aflbrds plenty enough of things, not only fit for nourish* 
ment, but for enjoyment and delight.* And again, ' You ask 
me for what reason Pythagoras abstuned from eating the flesh 


of brutes ? For my pftrt, I am astonislied to think, on the con- 
trary, what appetite first induced man to taste of a dead car- 
cass ; or what motive could suggest the notion of nourishing 
himself with flesh of animals which he saw the moment before 
bleating, beUowing, walking, and looking about them. How 
could he bear to see an impotent and defenceless creature 
slaughtered, skinned, and cut up for food? How could he 
endure the sight of the convulsed limbs and muscles ? How 
bear the smell arising from the dissection ? Whence happened 
it that he was not disgusted and struck with horror when he 
came to handle the bleeding flesh, and clear away the clotted 
blood and humors from the wounds? We should therefore 
rather wonder at the conduct of those who first indulged them< 
selves in this horrible' repast, than at such as have humanely 
abstained from it.' " See this subject treated at large, in an 
excellent work, " Vegetable Diet Defended," by Dr. W. A. 
Alcott, which will amply repay for a careful reading. Did our 
limits permit, we could furnish a list of names, and an array of 
facts, which would astonish those who have never considered 
the subject ; but we should exceed our bounds, and tire our 
readers, long before we had exhausted our resources. To 
those, however, who feel a deep interest in the matter, and 
have time or patience thoroughly to investigate the subject, 
we recommend the pertf^al, among physiologists, of Dr. Gra- 
ham's " Lectures on the Science of Human Life ;" Dr. Combe's 
"Principles of Physiology Applied to Health;" Hitchcock's 
" Lectures on Diet," etc. ; Combe " On the Constitution of 
Man." Among physicians. Dr. Alcott, of America; Dr. 
Cheyne; Sir J. Sinclair; Dr. Taylor; Dr. Abemethy ; the 
celebrated Hufeland, of Germany; Dr. CuUen; Dr. Cran- 
stome ; Dr. Lambe ; Dr. Whitlaw, who says, " that all phi- 
losophers have given their testimony in favor of a vegetable 
diet, from Pythagoras to Franklin." We have also quoted 
from some of the most eminent philosophers and philanthro- 
pistSy and might have added thereto, from Pythagoras, Plato, 
Plautus, Plutarch, Porphyry, Lord Bacon, Sir W. Temple, 

ON 80LI0 rOQD. M" 

CjrvB the Great, Lord K«ms, Professor Dick, Sir E. Home* 
Pope, Sir I. Newton, Sir R. Phillips, Howard, Shelley, New- 
ton, Linnsus, Baron Cuvier, etc. ; but their works are before 
the public, and invite attention. 

We are greatly indebted to Dr. Alcott for his " Vegetable 
Diet Defended," and think his "seven-fold cord" will not ** eas- 
ily be broken ;" it is too late in the day of human improve- 
ment to meet them with no argument but ignorance, and with* 
no other weapon but ridicule. After all, we think with him, 
that the moral bearing of the subject is by far the most import- 
ant. And though the physiological may be deemed the most 
important by some, yet what great end would be accomplished, 
even could we biing mankind back to nature's simplicity, if it 
were only to make them better and more perfect animals ; still 
it would be a point gained ; " but after all, we wpuld reform 
his dietetic Jiabits, principally, to make him better morally ; to 
make him better in the discharge of his varied duties to his 
fellow-beings and to God. We would elevate him, that he 
may become as truly godlike or godly as he now too often is, 
by his unnatural habits, * earthly, sensual, and devilish.' We 
would have him a rational being, fitted to fill the space which 
he appears to have been originally designed to fill — ^the gap in 
the great chain of being between the higher quadrupeds and 
angelic bebgs — restored to his true dignity — a child of God, 
and an heir of a glorious immortality." 

Having thus fully stated the reasons which have induced us 
to abandon animal food, and why we wish others to adopt the 
same course, we leave it, satisfied that if we err, we err on the 
safe side — we err in company with some of the greatest men 
that have ever existed in this or any other country — with men 
with whom it is an honor to be associated. Ours is certainly 
the oldest — best authorized — most innocent — and most in ac* 
cordance with humanity, health, and longevity. 




A mode of life ooDfomiable with natare win admit of no other beverage than pure 
cold water, ordained by her at the common drink for all mankind. To the preaent. 
day, tbia law of nature ia renounced by the folly, ignorance, aTersion, prejudice, and 
anpenlition of man. Whenever the roioe of nature makea itaelf heard, it ia aoon 
ailenced by our aenaualtty, incUnationa, and paaaiona. Manyj again, are deficient in 
aound Judgment, or the neceaaary strength of mind to lay down a prejudice occaaionr 
ally aopported by medieal men. There are, moreover, a number of persona, enemies 
to water from the most improper motives. But all these circumstances are insuffl* 
cient to conceal the inestimable properties of cold water from quiet and deliberate 
reason. By the force of conviction, in fact, to which prejudice must yield, correct 
ideas of the activity of cold water have already gained ground ; and we need now no 
longer doubt their ultimate triumph.— Wxiss. 

Next to air, liquid food is essential for the support of life-? 
without it no person can exist for any space of time, though 
instances are not wanting of individuals who have lived long 
without solid food. We have known several persons living 
from twenty to thirty days on nothing but cold water. And 
when we consider how greatly the fluids exceed the solids in 
the composition of the human body, it has often astonished us 
that no more attention has been paid to it. It is calculated, by 
Mead, Keil, Prout, M. le Can, Berzelins, Martin, etc., that 
there exists, in a healthy condition of the human body, above 
eighty parts in every one himdred of water — ^in the chyme 
more than ninety ; in the human blood about seven hundred 
and eighty parts in every one thousand ; in the bile more than 
nine hundred parts in every one thousand ; in the urine above 
nine hundred and thirty parts in every one thousand ; and in 
the muscle, or the flesh of the animal, more than seventy-seven 
parts in every one hundred. It must, therefore, be clear, that 
whether we consider water as an hydroprophylactic (a preven- 
tive), or as an hydrotherapeutic (a curative), very much de- 

ON uauiD. Fooa 95 

pends upon a free use of it as a drink. If the human frame 
be, properly speaking, an hydraulic machine (as Mead says it 
b), contrived with the most exquisite art, in which there are 
numberless tubes, properly adjusted and disposed, for convey- 
ing the fluids to its various parts, it is evident that liquid food 
is necessary to replace fluids which the body is c(Mistantly los- 
ing, by perspiration and other means. The time of takbg, and 
also the quantity needed, are indicated by thirst, when the 
body is in health. Water should be taken, also, at every mea), 
for the purpose of assisting digestion. (See Appendix, K.) 
Heiice, those who drink little complain of indigestion. It is 
necessary as a vehicle to convey our solid food from the stomach 
into all the diflerent parts of the body, in a liquid state ; to keep , 
the blood in a sufficient state of fluidity to be circulated through- 
out the smaller vessels ; to wash and carry off the saline par- 
ticles which are constantly accumulating in the body ; to clear 
away the impurities of the blood ; to promote the necessary 
secretions, such as bile, etc. ; and to keep the body in a due 
state of temperature. The liquids in common use are, chiefly, 
water and milk (which are nature's bevert^es), tea, coffee, in- 
toxicating drinks, etc. (which are compounded by art). We 
shall proceed to make a few observations on each of them, ob- 
serving, in the outset, that art cannot improve upon the produc- 
tion of infinite goodness and wisdom. In support of this, a 
host of first-rate medical and other authorities might be quoted. 
We shall give a few, as a sample. Milton says — 

*' O mad Hess ! to think the use of Btrongest wioes, 
And strongest drink, onr chief sopport of health, 
When God, with these forbidden, made choice to war, 
His mighty champion, strong aboTe compare. 
Whose drink was only from the limpid brook." 

No creatiure besides man seeks artificial liquids, either as a bev- 
erage or as a medicine. The brute creation, when thirsty, 
repair to the brook to quench their thirst, and, when wounded, 
toassunge their pain. This is the. beverage on which the ox 
fattens, and on which the horse and the elephant grow strong. 


Man only despises it, though he has seen his predecessors pay 
the penalty, in diseased bodies, tortured minds, and early 
death. These, however, are only modem and partial evils; 
for history informs us that, in the remotest ages of antiquity, 
water served as the exclusive beverage of man, and as the sole 
purifier of his skin, etc. It was the chief remedy which the 
intuitive instinct of man suggested to him, in all prevalent dis- 
eases ; and as long as he was acquainted with no other remedy 
for those purposes, and his life was in accordance with nature, 
he remained healthy and strong, and attained to longevity. 
With the progress of time, artificial, mostly warm^ beverages 
and baths, and stimulating food, mostly flattering to the palate, 
assumed the place of cold water and vegetable food ; and the 
consequences of this luxurious mode of life soon made their 
appearance. Debility and diseases, of all kinds, now super- 
seded the sense of health, strength, and comfort, which was 
experienced before. The irritability of the nervous system 
was augmented; disturbances of the digestive organs, of all 
the functions of the mind, and of the whole animal economy, 
were created. Medical men had recourse to stimulating and 
poisonous drugs, etc., for the purpose of removing those evils, 
and repairing the shattered systems of their fellow-men. This 
was only a further encroachment upon'nature, and, consequent- 
ly, proved inadequate to the purpose. Age succeeded to age, 
and school to school. Many new systems of treating disease, 
etc., rose, flourished, and fell, because none answered the ne- 
cessities of the people. Error made way for error, in the 
practice of dru^ing, as man departed from the laws of nature ; 
and thus the multitude lay neglected ; and, with few excep- 
tions, their progress to the grave was even facilitated by the 
very means which were used, professedly, to heal and cure 
them. Happily, there have been, in all Bgea, a few thinking, 
independent men, who have dared to think and act for them- 
selves, and who have sought to recall the use of cold water as 
a beverage, and also as a medicine, from the disuse into whieh 
it had fallen, aad to lead mankmd back to original and natttral 

ON LiauiD ifoon. 97 

modes of life. Many of these having left their record behind 
them, we beg to refer the reader to a few of them, which bear 
more particularly upon water as a beverage, and as a pre- 
ventive of disease. 

Pindar says, '' The best thing is water, and the next gold." 
Pythagoras strongly recommended the use of cold water to his 
disciples, to fortify both their body and mind. The Macedo- 
nians considered warm water as enervating; their women, 
after accouchment, were washed in cold water. Virgil called 
the ancient inhabitants of Italy a race of men hard and austere, 
who immersed their newly born children in the rivers, and 
accustomed them to cold water. Charlemagne, aware of the 
salubrity of cold bathing, encouraged its use throughout his 
empire, and introduced swimming as an amusement at his 
court. Dr. Floyer published a work on this subject, 1702; 
from which period to 1722, it went through six editions in 
London. Dr. Hancock, in 1772, published an anti-fever trea- 
tise, on the use of cold water, which went through seven edi- 
tions in one year. But the merit of settling the use of cold 
water on a just principle, belongs to our own countryman, 
Currie, whose work, published in 1797, upon the eflBcacy of 
water, may be considered the scientific base of hydropathy. 
Tissot, in his " Advice to the People," published in Paris, 1797, 
shows the importance of cold water. Under the head of 
"Facts and Figures," chap, iii., reference was tbade to the 
Greeks, Romans, Circassians, New Zealanders, American In- 
dians, Bramins, the natives of Scotland, and of Sierre Leone, 
etc., as remarkable for their health and longevity, chiefly as 
the result of their free use of water. To these might have 
been added the Turks, who as Slade remarks in his excellent 
work, '' Becords of the East," that notwithstanding their igno- 
rance of medical skill, added to the extreme irrregularity of 
their living, both as it regards diet and exercise, yet they enjoy 
particularly good health, and he says this anomaly is owmg to 
two causes : first, the religious necessity of washing tlieir arma 
feet, and necks, from three to five times a day, always with 


cold water; secondly, by their constant use of the vapor 
bath ; gout, rheumatism, headache, and consumption are un- 
known in Turkey. In England, nature is known only by 
name, and till the eyes of many were opened by the diffusion 
of temperance truth, none but those who were reduced to the 
last stage of poverty, ever thought of satisfying their thirst 
with water. Still, even now, there are very few who have 
carried their principles out in all their legitimate bearings. 
And perhaps the greatest hindrances in the way of its more 
extensive use as a beverage, is, it costs us nothing. Make 
things cheap, and they are almost sure to be despised. la 
our artificial state, we do not esteem things according to their 
real worth. And it is more than probable that hundreds, who 
now have as great an aversion to water as a mad dog has, would 
use it more fully, and would take more exercise in the open 
air, if these blessings were not also enjoyed by the workinor 
classes. This was not the case in England formerly ; for Dr. 
Henry, in his " History of England," says, " The ancient Bri- 
tons were noted for being swift of foot, having fine athletic 
frames, and great strength of body; their only drink was 
water." Mr. Raspail, in his twelve lectm*es on the physiology 
of health and disease, reported in the " Medical Times " of Sep- 
tember 9, 1843, says, " In the state of nature, pure water is 
the best drink for every living being — the most delightful of 
all beverages." And the reason why it is not generally so 
regarded, is because we have departed from the simplicity of 


The celebrated John Wesley, that keen observer of men and 
things, published a work in lUI, called "Primitive Physic," 
(a most significant title) which has gone through near 100 
editions, and is still extensively used. He recommends cold 
water internally and externally, both as a preventive and cure 
of disease. Webb, the noted pedestrian, remarkable for vigor 
of mind and body, was exclusively a water drinker. CJobbett, 
who in some respects was as great as he was singular, bears 
the following testimonv to the benefit of water drinking, men- 


tally and physically. " In the midst of a society, where wine 
and spirit are considered as of little more value than water, I 
have lived two years without either ; and with no drink but 
water, except when I have found it convenient to obtain milk ; 
not an hour's illness ; not a headache for an hour ; nor the 
smallest ailment ; not a restless night ; not a drowsy morning 
have I known during these two famous years of my life. The 
sun never rises before me ; I have always to wait for him to 
come and give me light to write by, while my mind is full of 
vigor, and while nothing has come to cloud its clearness." 

These united testimonies go to confirm all that has been said 
in pnuse of cold water — and show that it is, as has been often 
asserted, the grand beverage of organized nature, the drink 
appointed by a merciful and unerring God, to primeval man, 
and all attempts to improve it by the admixture of alcoholic, 
narcotic, or aromatic substances have only tended to injure or 
poison it, and those who have thus used it. The art of pre- 
paring liquors is the greatest curse ever inflicted on humanity. 
Water, which nature has so abundantly provided, is the best 
fitted for man to drink : it is suitable for every variety of con- 
stitution, and is more effectual than any other in allaying thirst, 
thereby showing it to be the beverage designed to supply the 
loss of fluids, to which we are perpetually subject. Simple 
aqueous drinks promote digestion, by facilitating the solution 
of solids, and by serving as a vehicle to their divided parts. 
The purest water is rendered stimulating by the air and salts 
it contains. — Rkherand, (See Appendix, L.) 

Simple water without any addition, is the proper drink of 
mankind. — CulUn, 

When taken fresh and cold it is the most wholesome drink, 
and the most grateful to those who are thirsty, whether they 
be sick or well. It quenches the thirst, cools the body, and 
thereby destroys acrimony; it often promotes sweat, expels 
noxious matters, resists putrefaction, aids digestion, and in fine, 
strengthens the stomach. — Dr, Gregory, 

When men contented themselves with water, they had more 


health aad strength ; and at this daj, those who drink nothing 
but water, are more healthy and live longer. — Dr. Duncan. 

Beyond all peradventure, water was the primitiye — the 
original beveragei and it is the only fluid fitted for the ends 
appointed by nature. Happy had it been for the race of man- 
kind if other mixed and artificial liquors had neyer been in- 
Tented. — Dr. Cheyne, • 

Look at the horse, with every muscle of his body swelled 
from morning to night in the plough or team ; does he make 
signs for spirits to enable him to clear the earth, or climb the 
hills ? No ; he requires nothing but cold water and substantial 
food. — Dr, Rush, 

The moment we depart from water, we are left, not to <^ 
instinct of nature, but to an artificial taste. Under the guid- 
ance of the instinct God has implanted within us, we are 
safe, but as soon as we Jeave it we are in danger.-^i>r. Oliver. 

The water drinker glides tranquilly through life, without 
much exhilaration or depression, and escapes many diseases to 
which others are subject. They have short but vivid periods 
of rapture, and long intervals of gloom. The balance of enjoy- 
ment then turns decidedly in favor of the water drinker ; and 
there is but little doubt but that every person might, gradually, 
or even pretty quickly, accustom himself to the aqueous bever- 
age. — Dr, Johnson, 

The intellectual excitement produced by other drinks, is 
more than counterbalanced by the subsequent depression ; and 
ruin of health, and abbreviation of life are the ultimate re- 
sults. — Thrackray, 

The strength which they seem to impart is temporary and 
unnatural. It is a present energy purchased at the expense 
of future weakness. — Dr, K, Greville, 

Man in ordinary health, like all other animals, requires not 
any such stimulant, and cannot be benefited by the habitual 
employment of any quantity of them, large or small, etc. — 
Eighty Eminent Surgeons, 

I assert that they are in every instance, as articles of diet^ 

ON LiaUID FOOD. 101 

pernicious, and as medicines, wholly unnecessary, etc. — Dr, E. 
Johnson, (See Appendix, M.) 

Water is the most suitable drink for man, is best fitted to 
prolong life, and does not chill the ardor of genius. Demos- 
thenes' sole drink was water. — Zimmerman. 

If people would accustom themselFes to drink water, they 
would b# free from many diseases, such as tremblings, apo- 
plexies, giddiness, pain in the head, gout, stone, dropsy, rheu- 
matism, and such like. — Dr. Pratt. 

No remedy can more effectually secure health and prevent 
disease than pure water. — Hoffman. 

Who has not observed the extreme satisfaction which children 
derive from quenching their thirst with pure water ; and who 
that has perverted his appetite by beverages of human inven- 
tion, but would be a gainer on the score of mere animal grati- 
fication, without any reference to health, if he would bring back 
his vitiated taste to the simple relish of nature. — Dr. Oliver. 

Man is the only animal accustomed to swallow unnatural 
drink : water is the best diluent. — Dr. Gamett. 

The healthy man requires only water. — Dr. Farre. 

The best drink is water ; a liquor commonly despised, and 
even by some people considered prejudicial ; I will not hesi- 
tate, however, to declare it to be one of the greatest means of 
prolonging life : it is the greatest promoter of digestion, and by 
its coolness and fixed air, it is an excellent strengthener of the 
stomach and nerves. — Dr. Hufeland. 

It is the chief ingredient in the animal fluids, and solids ; for 
a dry bone distilled affords a quantity of insipid water ; and 
the human brain is known to consist of more than eighty parts 
in every one hundred of water ; therefore water appears to be 
the proper drink for every animal. — Dr. Arbuthnot. 

It is my opinion, that those who belong to such a society 
(Nature's Beverage Society) will seldom have occasion for 
medical men. — Dr. Orphen. 

Among other innumerable advantages which the water 
drinker enjoys, he saves a considerable sum of mcmey per 


aimnm» which others waste in artificial drinks ; and in drags to 
care the diseases which these drinks induce. The water 
drinker enjoys an ezqaisite sensibility of palate, and a relish 
for plain food that the wine drinker has no idea of. Happy 
those who are wise enough to be convinced that water is the 
best drink, and salt the best sauce. — Dr. Kitchener. (See 
Appendix, N.) • 

A multitude of other quotations might haye been made, 
piecisely of the same kind, from Sweetin, Bceerhaye, CelsuSy 
Cooper, Parr, Sydenham, Haller, Stahl, Hufeland, Galen, and 
Hippocrates, corroborated by 5000 medical men in America. 
Indeed, the experience of persons in all ages confirm the voice 
of God in nature, and in the Bible, that ''all that drink waiter 
ahall be comforted." 

Mr. Priessnitz is of opinion that all persons may drink water 
without the slightest risk, in any quantity, only observing one 
rule : viz., never to drink so much as to be inconvenienced by 
it ; and after a little practice, you will be able to determine 
how much you can take with advantage. The general rule 
should be about from twelve to thirty glasses per day. The 
patient should cease drinking, for the time, when it produces 
shivering, and should produce reaction by exertion. Dr. Wil- 
son tells us, that when he was at Graefenburg, in eight months 
he took 500 cold baths, '400 sitz baths, and reposed 480 hours 
in a wet sheet, and drank about 3500 tumblers of cold water. 
He drank upward of thirty glasses one morning before break- 
fast,* and meant to have taken a few more, but was so hungry 
he could stay no longer. On some persons, drinking water 
produces diarrhoea, which, though it aSinns them, proves to 
those who understand the mode of its operation, that it has 
disturbed bad humors which were lodged in the stomach, and 

* Campbell, io his Trayels in Airica, speaking of a Mr. Camver, who 
dioed with him and his oompanions in their tent, says, he can drink no- 
thing bat water : indeed he is the greatest water drinker he ever heard 
of. I saw him drink three pints of water at supper the preceding eve- 
iiiog, and he aasored as he drank a pailfol always daring die night. 


shows the propriety of coatinuing and even inoreasing its use. 
All times of the day are proper for drinking water, but the 
morning before breakfast is the best, especially if taken with 
exercise in the open air, as this stimulates the action of the 
water. It should be always taken fresh from its source and as 
oold as possible. If you have not the convenience of a good 
spring or^ump to which you can repair, keep your water in a 
decanter, having a good stopper, in which it will remain longer 
cold, and preserve its fixed air. Much as water may be de- 
spised through our ignorance of its value, it is the only fluid 
provided by the Creator for the drink of innumerable animated 
beings who inhabit every part of the air, the earth, end the 
aeas; and hence it might be reasonably inferred, that it is an 
agent in the promotion of health* strength, and longevity, of 
incalculable value. After many experiments, botanists have 
found that the cow eats of 276 kinds of grass and herbs ; the 
horse of 262 ; the goat of 449 ; sheep of BSl ; and swine of 
cmly 72. But though deriving their nourishment from these 
various kinds of solid food, water is their only diluent (except- 
ing the filthy hog),* the only one provided to quench their 
thirst, for cooling the fever to which they are occasionally sub- 
ject, and for repairing the waste of the circidating fluids. 
Water alone as a drink is necessary to maintain the courage 
and strength of the lion, and the bulk and sagacity of the ele- 
phant. The bear, while roaming amidst icebergs, and the 
cfmiel, while traveling over burning sands, and beneath a burn- 
ing sky, have no other drink to protect them from the effects 
ei cold in the one case, and of heat in the other. It is one of 
the greatest blessings bestowed upon man : '* the Deity is the 
manufacturer ; the ocean the raw material ; the sun the genera- 

* Whidaw lays, of all the abomiDable feeding creatureB the swme may 
be said to be the chief; it is more liable to disease, and entails mora 
misery on the human race than any other animal ; we think with him, it 
would be no loss to man, if the whole breed of them had shared the fata 
of the Oadarean herd. Eating swine's flesh is the cause of most of our 
cataneoos disc tuses. 


tor of the vapor ; the sky the eondenser; electricity and attrac* 
tion the distributors, in showers and dews, so finely attenuated 
as to be respired through the pores of the most delicate plants ; 
rivei-s and lakes are so abundantly distributed as to support, 
not only the whole vegetable, but also the animal creation. It 
checks and extinguishes the most destructive ailments, and 
finds its level between the tops of mountains, and the tops 
of houses. It wants neither steamboat or locomotive to be 
transported. It cfeanses and beautifies all nature, and is so 
salubrious to man, that it neither disorders the stomach, ex- 
cites the passions, or maddens the brain : it is so necessary to 
all life that the humblest insect essts not without it. The 
loftiest monarch of the forest, and man the monarch of all, in 
its absence, drop their heads on the parched grround and die. 
In allusion to its cheering and refreshing virtues, the sacred 
record says, ** As cold water to a thirsty soul, so is good news 
from a far country." It is made a grand emblem of greater 
blessings : hence, says Jehovah, " I will pour wafer upon him 
that is thirsty, and floods upon the dry ground.'' It was a 
" bottle of water '' that Abraham gave to his handmaid Hagar 
to drink, when he sent her away from his dwelUng ; it was 
water with which the Almighty supplied her in the desert, 
and by which he graciously preserved her son Ishmael from 
death. When God engaged to supply the wants of his faithful 
ones by the prophet Isaiah, it is not luxuries that he promises, 
but simply '' bread and water.'' Isaiah xxxiii. 16. A similar, 
but enlarged promise was given to the children of Israel in the 
days of Moses. Exodus xxiii. 25. When God threatened the 
Jews, in Isaiah iii. 1, it was to take away their ^* whole stay of 
bread and the whole stay of water." It was water that Ehjah 
asked of the widow of Zarephath, and that was provided for 
him by the angel. We read of the well of which Jacob drank, 
and his children, and his cattle ; and when the children of 
Israel in their journeys through the wilderness, were fed with 
bread from heaven, God, who could have given them wine, ale, 
tea, etc., had it been better for them, gave them water from 

ON LiaUID POOD. 105 

the rock. And aMong the chief blessings of the land of Canaan, 
they were told by Moses it was ** a land of brooks of water, of 
fountains and depths of water that spring out of the valleys 
and hills/' The mighty Sampson was a water drinker, and 
when ready to faint, " God clave a hollow place in the jaw 
bone (his weapon with which he smote the PhiUstines), and there 
came water thereout, and when he had drank, his spirit came 
again, and he revived/' Elijah drank of the brook Cherith, 
and Obadiah fed the prophets of the Lord with bread and 
water. Among the offences which Eliphaz unjustly charged 
upon Job, we find him saying : ** Thou hast not given water 
to the weary to drink ;'' and as a striking illustration of the 
invigorating nature of water, the prophet Isaiah speaks of the 
smith while working at the forge as fainting for want of it. 
God himself is called ''the Fountain of living water," as is also 
the enjoyment of the redeemed in glory. 

The following verses are copied from the "Metropolitan 
Magazine," and form a happy contrast to the bacchanalian 
songs so frequently inserted in different journals : 


O ! WATER for me! bright water Hot me^ 

And wine for the tremulous debauchee ! 

It cooleth the brow, it cooleth the brain, 

It maketh the faint one strong again ; 

It comes o'er the sense like a breeze from the sea, 

All freshness, like infant purity. 

Oh ! water, bright water for me, for me ! 

Give wine, give wine, to the debauchee ! 

FiU to the brim ! fill, fill to the brim ! 
Let the flowing crystal kiss the rim ! 
For my hand is steady, my eye is true ; 
For I, like the flowers) drink nought but dew. 
Oh ! water, bright water's a mine of wealth, 
And the ores it yieldeth are vigor and health. 
So water, pure water for me, for me ! 
And wine for the tremulous debauchee ! 



Fill again to the brim \ again to the brim! 
For water atrengtheneth life and limb ! 
To the days of the aged it addeth length. 
To the might of the strong it addeth strength. 
It freshens the heart, it brightens the sight, 
'Tis like quaffing a goblet of morning light. 
So water, I will drink nought but thee, 
Thou parent of health and energy ! 

When o'er the hills, like a gladsome bride, 
Morning walks forth in her beauty's pride. 
And leading a band of laughing hours, 
Bruahee the dew from the nodding flowmv ; 
Oh ! cheerily then my voice is heard, 
Mingling with that of the soaring bird. 
As he freshens his wing in the cold grey cloud ; 

But when evening has quitted her sheltering yew, 

Drowsily flying and weaving anew 

Her dusky meshes o'er land and sea — 

How gently, O sleep, fall thy poppies on me ! 

For I drink water, pure, cold, and bright, 

And my dreams are of heaven the livelong night ; 

So hurrah for thee, water ! Hurrah, hurrah I 

Thou art silver and gold, thou art ribbon and star! 

Hurrah for bright water ! Hurrah, hurrah ! — E. Johnson. 

The disciples of the pump will hardly require an apology 
from us for presenting them with the following beautiful speech 
of our one-armed friend, slightly altered and abridged from the 
" New England Magazine." 

[Scene, — ^The comer of two prmcipal streets. The Town 
Pump talking through its nose.] 

" Noon by the north clock ! Noon by the east ! High noon, 
too, by the hot sunbeams, which fall scarcely aslope upon my 
head, and almost make the water bubble and smoke in the 
trough under my nose. Truly, we public characters have a 
rough time of it! Among all the town officers, who sustains, 
for a single year, the burden of such manifold duties as are 
imposed in perpetuity upon the Town Pump ? The title of 

ON LiaUID FOOD. 107 

town treasurer is rightfully mine ; and aa guardian of the best 
treasure the town has, the overseers of the poor ought to make 
me their chairman, since I provide bountifully to the pauper, 
without expense to the ratepayer. I am at the head of the 
fire department, and one of the physicians of the board of 
health. As a keeper of the peace, all water drinkers will con- 
fess me equal to the constable. I perform some of the duties 
of the town clerk, by promulgating public notices, when pasted 
on my front. To speak within bounds, I am chief person of 
the municipality, and exhibit an admirable pattern to my broth- 
tr oflScers, by the cool, steady, upright, downright, and impar- 
tial discharge of my duties, and the constancy with which I 
stand at my post. Summer or winter, nobody seeks me in 
vain ; for, all day long, I am seen at the busiest comer, just 
above the market, stretching out my arm to rich and poor alike ; 
and at night I hold a lantern over my head, both to show where 
I am and keep people out of the gutters. At this sultry noon- 
tide, I am cupbearer to the parched populace, for whose bene- 
fit an iron goblet is chained to my waist. I cry aloud to all 
and^ sundry in my plwnest accents, and at the very tiptop 
of my voice. Here it is, gentlemen ! here is the good liquor ! 
Walk up, walk up, gentlemen, walk up, walk up ! Here is the 
superior stuff 1 Here is the unadulterated ale of father Adam — 
better than Cognac, Hollands, Jamaica, strong beer, wine, tea, 
coffee, or cocoa ! Here it is by the hogshead or the glass, and 
not a farthing to pay ! Walk up, gentlemen, and help your 
selves ! It were a pity if all this outcry should draw no cus- 
tomers. Here they come. A hot day, gentlemen, quaff, and 
away again, so as to keep yourselves in a nice cool sweat. You, 
my friend, will need another cupful to wash the dust out of 
your throat, if it be as thick there as it is on your shoes. I 
see you have trudged half-a-score miles to-day, and, a ^se 
man, have passed by the taverns, and stopped at the running 
brooks. Otherwise, betwixt heat without and fire within* you 
would have been burnt to a cinder, or melted down to nothing 
at all, in the fashion of a jelly-fish. Drink, and make room 


for that fellow who seeks my aid to quench the fiery fever of 
last night's potations, which he drained from no cup of mine. 
Welcome, most rubicund sir ! You and I have been great 
strangers, hitherto ; nor, to confess the truth, will my nose be 
anxious for a closer intimacy, till the fumes of your brijath be 
a little less potent. Mercy on you, man ! The water abso- 
lutely hisses down your red-hot gullet, and is converted quite 
into steam in the miniature Tophet which you mistake for a 
stomach. Fill again, and tell me, did you ever, in beer-shop, 
tavern, or dram-shop, spend the price of your children's food 
for a swig half so delicious ? Now, for the first time these tea 
years, you know the flavor of cold water. Good bye! and 
whenever you are thirsty, remember that I keep a constant 
supply at the old stand. What next ! Oh, my little friend, 
you are let loose from school, and come here to scrub your 
blooming face, and drown the memory of certain taps of the 
ferule, and other schoolboy troubles; take it, and may your 
heart and tongue never be scorched with a fiercer thirst than 
now! There, my dear, put down the cup, and yield your 
place to this elderly gentleman, who treads so tenderly over 
the paving stones, that I suspect he is afraid of breaking them. 
What ! He limps by, without so much as thanking me, as if 
my hospitable offers were only meant for people who have no 
wine*cellars. Well, well, sir, no harm done, I hope ! Go, draw 
the cork, tip the decanter ; but when your great toe shall set 
you a-roaring, it will be no affair of mine. If gentlemen love 
the pleasant titillation of the gout, it is all one to the Town 
Pump. This thirsty dog, with his red tongue lolling out, does 
not scorn my hospitality, but stands on his hind legs and laps 
eagerly out of the trough. See how lightly he capers away 
^ain. Jowler, had you ever the gout? Then wipe your 
mouths, my good friends ; and while my spout has a moment's 
leisure, I will delight you with a few histcnical reminiscences. 
In ffar-famed antiquity, beneath a darksome shadow of venera- 
ble b<Mighs, a spring bubbled out of the leaf-strewn earth, in the 
very 8p«^. where you now behold me on the sunny pavement. 

ON LiaUID FOOD. 100 

The water was as bright and clear, and deemed as precious, as 
liquid diamonds. Your primitive forefathers drank of it from 
time immemorial, when the art of preparing the accursed 
draught was unknown in the land. The young and gray headed 
often knelt down on the grass beside the spring, and drank of 
its cQpl and refreshing stream. For many years it was the 
watering-place, and, as it were, the washbowl of the vicinity, 
whither all decent folks resorted to purify their visages, and 
gaze — at least the pretty maidens did — ^in the mirror it made. 
On Sabbath days, whenever a, babe was to be baptized, the 
sexton filled his basin here, and placed it on the commimion- 
table of the humble church, which partly covered the sight of 
yonder stately edifice. Thus one generation after another was 
consecrated to Heaven by its waters, and cast their waxing and 
waning shadows into its glassy bosom, and vanished from the 
earth, as if mortal life were but a flitting image in a fountain ! 
Finally,. the fountain vanished also; cellars were dug on ail 
sides, and cartloads of gravel were flung upon its source, 
whence oozed a turpid stream, forming a puddle in the comer 
of two streets. In the hot months, when its refreshment was 
most needed, the dust flew in clouds over the forgotten birth- 
place of the waters, now their grave. But in the course of 
time a Town Pump was sunk into the source of its ancient 
spring. When the first decayed, another took its place, then 
another, and still another — till here I stand, ladies and gentle- 
men, to serve you. Drink and be refreshed ! The water is as 
pure and cold as that which slaked the thirst of your venerable 
ancestors, beneath the aged boughs, though now the gem of the 
wilderness is treasured imder these hot stones, where no shad- 
ow falls but from the brick buildings. And be it the moral of 
my story, that as this wasted and long-lost fountain is now 
known and prized again, so shall the virtues of cold water, too 
little valued since our father's days, he yet recognized by all. 
Your pardon, good people I I must interrupt my stream of 
eloquence, and spout forth a stream of water, to replenish the 
trough for this drover and his oxen, who have come from afar. 


No part of my business is pleasanter than the watering of cat- 
tle. Look how rapidly they lower the water-mark on the sides 
of the trough, till their capacious stomachs are moistened with 
a gallon or two a-piece, and they ean afford time to breathe it 
in with sighs of calm enjoyment. Now they roll their quiet 
'eyes around the rim of their monstrous drinking vessel. An 
ox is your true toper. But I perceive, my dear auditors, that 
you are impatient for the remainder of my discourse. Impute 
it, I beseech you, to no defect of modesty, if I insist a little 
longer on so fruitful a topic as. my own multifarious merits. It 
is altogether for your good. The better you think of me the 
better men and women you will find yourselves. I shall say 
nothing of my all-important aid on washing-days, though on 
that account alone I might call myself the household-god of a 
hundred families. Far be it from me, also, to hint at the show 
of dirty faces which you would present without my puns to 
keep you clean. Nor will I remind you how often, when the 
midnight bells made you tremble for your combustible town, 
you fled to the Town Pump, and found me always at my post^ 
firm amid the confusion, and ready to drain my vital current 
on your behalf; neither is it worth while to lay undue stress 
on my claims to a medical diploma, as the physician whose 
simple rule of practice is preferable to all the nauseous lore 
which has found men sick or left them so, since the days of 
Hippocrates. ' Let us take a broader view of my beneficial in- 
fluence on mankind. No, these are trifles, compared with the 
merits which wise men concede to me, if not in my single self, 
yet as the representative of a class — of being the grand re- 
former of the age. From my spout, and such spouts as mine, 
must flow the stream that shall cleanse our earth of a vast por- 
tion of its crime and anguish, which has gushed from the fiery 
fountains of the still and the beer vat. In this mighty enter- 
prise the cow shall be my great confederate. Water and milk ! 
The Town Pump and the cow ! Such is the glorious copartner- 
ship that shall tear down the distilleries, brew-houses, and 
malt-kilns, and finally monopolize the whole business of quench- 


ing thirst. Blessed consummation ! When shall the glorions 
day dawn upon us ! 

" Ahem 1 dry work, this speechifying* especially to an nn- 
practiced orator. I nerer conceived, till now, what toil the 
temperance lecturers undergo for my sake. Hereafter they 
shall have the business to themselves. Do, some kind Chris- 
tians, pump a stroke or two, just to wet my whistle! Thank 
you, sir ! My dear hearers, by my instrumentality you will 
collect your useless vats, liquor-casks, and beer-barrels into one 
great pile, and make a bonfire, in honor of the Town Pump ; 
and when I shall have decayed, like my predecessors, then, if 
you revere my memory, let a marble fountain, richly sculp- 
tured, take my place upon this spot. Such monuments should 
be erected every where, and inscribed with the names of the 
distinguished champions of my cause. There are some honest 
and true friends of mine, who, nevertheless, by their fiery 
pugnacity in my behalf, do put me in fearful hazard of a 
broken nose, or even of a total overthrow upon the pavement, 
and the loss of the treasure which I guard. I pray you, gen- 
tlemen, let this fault be amended. In the moral warfare which 
you are to wage, and indeed in the whole conduct of your lives, 
you cannot choose a better example than myself, who has 
never permitted the dust and sultry atmosphere, the turbu- 
lence and manifold disquietudes of the world around us, to 
reach that deep, calm well of purity, which may be called my 
86ul ; and whenever I pour out that soul, it is to cool earth's 
fevers, or to wash its stains. One o'clock ! Nay, then, if the 
dinner-bell begins to speak, I may as well hold my peace. 
Here comes a pretty young girl of my acquaintance, with a 
large stone pitcher for me to fill. May she draw a husband, 
while drawing her water, as Rachel did of old ! Hold out 
your vessel, my dear ! There, it is full to the brim ; so now 
run home, peeping at your sweet image in the pitcher as you 
go, and forget not, in a glass of my own liquor, to drink, * Suc- 
cess to the Town Pump !' " When the happy day shall arrive 
that the banded sons of temperance shall fully carry out their 


principles ; when they shall abandon all artificial drinks, and be- 
coxne, indeed, water drinkers, then their wives, their sons, and 
their daughters, and the banners around which they shall rally, 
for the life of the nations, and the elevation of their own char- 
acters, shall shine forth with wisdom's mottos — "All that drink 
water shall be comforted!" "No distillation but the dew of 
heaven 1" " No drink but the crystal well !'* When the voice 
of the whole people shall go forth, saying, "Let the golden 
grain be all gathered to our gamers, and let num feed on the 
fat of the land ; let the land be occupied in growing useful 
vegetables and herbs, roots, and fruit, and not useless tea, cof- 
fee, etc. ; let the fruit of the trees ripen only to give sweeten- 
ing and variety to man's necessaiy food, and let none forsake 
their own mercies for useless and injurious articles, which give 
not strength to the system* but only tend to pamper a vitiated 
appetite; let them com^ to vegetable diet and water;" then 
shall every cheek glow with health, man's life be greatly 
lengthened, his enjoyments vastly increased, and his labor and 
anxiety much diminished. Sleep shall be sweet to the weary, 
and joy again be in the habitation of woe. Love and peace 
shall prevail, and the blessings of cold water and vegetable 
food enhance the value of every other earthly blessing. When 
the dayspring from on high shall visit us, and the pure water 
of life flow as a river, to purify and refresh the soul, then 
shall the earth bring forth her increase, and God, even our 
God, shall bless us ; then, ye favored sons and daughters of 
Bfitain, whose heritage this may be, with all the most benign 
gifts of God '< whatsoever things are pure, whatsoever things 
are lovely, whatsoever things are of good report ; if there be 
any virtue, if there be any praise, think on these things." 

After nearly three years' abstinence from all artificial drink, 
the increase of health, and vigor of body and mind, and the 
return of a natural appetite, which enables its possessor to en- 
joy plain food, we bid farewell to all but nature's beverage ; 
and while some are quaffing strong drinks, scalding tea, etc., 
ftnd fancying they should be greatly abridging their comforts 

OK.LiaUID POOD. 118 

if thej were to abandon them, ererj member of Nature's Bev- 
erage Society exclaims, " Give me reviving and purifying wa- 
ter ! the rills, the stream, or the torrent which pours from the 
bright sides of our cloud-crested mountains; the gush, cool 
and clear, that bubbled up before Hagar and the faintmg Ish- 
mael ; that followed the stroke of A^ prophet's rod, from the 
rock of Horeb; that refreshed the inhabitants of Paradise! 
Give me the pure water that Isaac drank from the pitcher of 
Kebekah ; that Elijah received from the hand of the angel, and 
the Saviour enjoyed at the well of Jacob; that cheered the 
spirits of the favored Israelites, the valiant Gideonites, the 
noble Nazarites, and the honored Bechabites ; that quenched 
the thirst of mighty Samson, the holy Daniel, the fearless 
John, and the youthful Timothy ! Give me of these cheering 
springs, these flowing brooks, and these crystal rivers, whose 
transparent surface reflects all that is calm, or soft, or bright 
in the beautiful firmament above! Give me those gentle 
streams, in health and in sickness ; give me those waters, un- 
tainted and free, until I drink of that river, 'the streams 
whereof make glad me city of our God.* " 


ON DKU09. 115 

our own reach. We have been looking for help from others 
too long ; and it is a melancholy fact that, independent of mul- 
titudes who are swept off the stage of life in spite of, or, in 
some instances, in consequence of the host of physicians, sur- 
geons, druggists, etc., who are well paid* to preserve the pub- 
lic health, scarcely has a man reached his fortieth year before 
he feels he is grown old and decrepit — a proof that we cannot 
depend upon the faculty. Nor is it all necessary, seeing " thb 
is not a matter of speculative science, nor of normal art ; but a 
matter simply and exclusively of common sense." 

prefer signs to sense, men's words to the examination of God's works ; 
until they take the trouble to make themselves aisqnainted with the laws 
of their own economy, they never can learn todistingnish the tme physi- 
cian from the mere pretender, whether the latter be a literate person 
with a diploma, or an unlettered quack without it." 

* Could we get a correct account of the sums spent annually in dmgi, 
hospitals, madhouses, doctors, etc., we should be astounded. [Think 
of the princely wealth, amassed by patent-medicine venders, and of the 
piil'Warehonses in London, like castles. It is a fact, which we can state 
upon excellent authority, that one house in London shipped nx tons 
of blue pills, at once, for South America.] It is not so in other eountriea, 
•bowing that there is something wrong in our ** state of Denmark." In 
China, for instance, there are no surgeons at all : nature and temperance 
do for them more than all our doctors and drugs can do for us. Perhaps 
one principal reason why their physicians are so successful, though not 
half so learned as ours, is because — no cure, no pay. And is not this 
rational f Is it not calculated to make it the interest of medical men to 
exert their skill in caring their patients quickly ? We pay for physic 
what we deny for talent ; for a long illness what we refuse to speedy 
recovery ; as if we thought medical men, above all others, were incapable 
of beiog influenced by temptation, while our very mode of remunerating 
them forces them to be corrupt. We do this, too, at a time when their 
numbers are so great that, could even one half of them live honestly, the 
other half must starve. What a happy nation of fools must that be, which 
■opposes that any class of mankind wUl put the interests of the public in 
competition with their own ! This is not the rule, but the exception, and 
is only found where grace has implanted it. Disinterested benevolence 
is an exotic, and its possessor is bom from above — ^is a new creature, and 
therefore can do exptoits of which poor faoman natore is utterly inca- 


There is great reaaon, we thiiik, to endeavor to open the 
eyes of the public, as to the evils of the present mode of dcMng* 
business, on account of the little dependence that can be 
placed on the opinions of medical men, and the small amount 
of relief that can be expected from drugs, themselves being 
judges : for, as Dr. Harrison justly observes, '' I need not tell 
you,'' who have made this a subject of investigation, '' that 
there are very few diseases for which we have nearly cer- 
tain cures ; that the use of remedies of great and general 
efficacy, for the cure of particular diseases, is at least pre- 
carious, often unavailing, and sometimes pernicious. In con- 
sequence of this imperfect state of medicine, vast multitudes 
every year languish long, at last die of consumption, dropsy, 
gout, stone, king's-evil, cancer, asthma, etc., etc., in spite of 
all our faculty can do for them." There are thousands of per- 
sons who have so debilitated their constitutions by departing 
-fipQm nature's laws, that though they are daily proving in their 
own persons the truth of Dr. Harrison's remarks, yet are so 
blinded by, and prejudiced in favor of, the old system, that 
they think they are among the " millions in this country to 
whom," Dr. Johnson says, " physic is daily as indispensable as 
food."* These people will not believe their own senses,! and 

* I am Biire I am within the bounding of trath, when I aasert, thai, 
throughout England, there is not more than one man in a hundred who 
does not find it necessary, at least once a month, to take medicine ; that 
is, to carry the masterpiece of God's creative wisdom to the doctor, to 
have it mended. Why, I would discard my tinker if my saucepan re- 
quired mending so often. — Dr. E. Johnson. 

t This reminds us of a story told of an Irish sailor in a uaval fight, who 
was commanded to clear the decks, preparatory to a second engagement 
with the enemy's vessel. The dead were to be thrown overboard, while 
the wounded were carried below. Of course the doctor went round to 
see where life was extinct ; but in one instance in which he pronounced 
the man as dead, the poor fellow had only fainted. The sailor went on 
with his work, casting one with another overboard, until at last he came 
to the man who had fainted, and who was jast coming to hiooself. The 
sailor was about to cast him overboard, when he faintly said, *' I am not 
dead." This was a fact ; but the sailor was like many more now in r«& 

ON DBU6S. 117 

would be even more iDdignant than tbe doctors themselves, if 
the plan of Dr. Forth was acted upon in this country. He 
asserts that, ** a monarch who could free his state from this 
pestilent set of physicians and apothecaries, and entirely inter- 
dict the practice of medicine, would deserve to be placed by 
the side of the most illustrious characters who have ever con- 
ferred benefits on mankind. There is scarcely a more dis- 
honest trade^ imaginable than that of medicine, in its present 
state." Mr Whitlaw says, ** I most anxiously pray that the 
physical leaders of this great empire may pause before it is too 
late, and no longer humbug the people by tracing out effects 
without a cause, which is the greatest insult to God's moral 
government of the universe, as the whole of his works are 
cause and effect." (See Appendix, 0.) 

Perhaps few circumstances have tended more to create sus- 
picion in the minds of the thinking portion of the community^ 
as to the ''fallacy of the facultj'," than the ambiguous manner 
and dark phraseologyf by which medical men have expressed 

erence to drugs — he preferred authority to fact — and exclaimed, ** Arrah 
now, nonsense, not dead! The doctor says you are dead, and he knows 
better than you !" So we urge the fact that, notwithstanding the public 
have been drenched with drugs, and have gone on in a coarse of physi- 
cal degeneracy, it is all to no purpose — authority is their reason, and to 
the voice of common sense, and living facts, they cry — ^* Arrah, nonsense i 
man must be a diseased creature — he must die early — he cannot do with- 
out medicine — the doctor says so, and he knows better than we do.'' 'See 
" British Temperance Advocate." 

* Physicians in despair of making medicine a science, have agreed to 
convert it into a trade."- 2>r. Akennde* 

t A medical witness being examined at the Old Bailey, on a case be- 
fore the court, used the word tumefaction; upon which Mr. Justice 
Coleridge said, " X suppose by tumefaction, you mean swelling V* Wit- 
ness: ** Yes, my brd," Mr. Coleridge: ** Then would it not be much 
better to use plain English than to speak in a sort of mcmgrel Latin?" 
We say, yes, my lord ; better fqr the health and pockets of the people, 
bat not for keeping up the farce of drugging and fleecing them ; for, as 
held by Dr. Kitchener, and the celebrated Dr. J. Brown, " If medicine 
be entirely divested of ito mystery, its power over the mind, which in 
most cases forms its main strength, will po longer exist." 


themselyes. In general, who among the nniniiiated think of 
reading medical works? Or, if they should attempt it, do 
thej not find it absolutely necessary to have a medical dictionary 
at their elbow ? Who thinks of asking his medical attendant 
why he recommends such a course to his patient? ''Give 
reasons, indeed ! no, not if they were as plentiful as blackberries 
in autumn." Porter, ale, spirits, drugs, etc., have been ad- 
ministered in profusion, when it would hare occasioned great 
uneasiness if a reason had been sought to justify the practice, 
simply because that is a scarce commodity with most practi- 
tioners, they having imbibed "their creed in the surgery of 
their master." They believe " that mercury* is good in liver 
complaints, and is to be tried in all complaints, when all other 
remedies have failed ; that purgatives are always demanded ; 
that bleeding, opiates, and emetic sudorifics are fit for rheum- 
atism ; that colchicum defieth gout ; that sal volatile, valerian, 
and sundry other ill-flavored stuffs, are requisite for hysterical 
women ; that indigestion — that puzzling protean fiend — ^is to 
be combated pell-mell by all the above remedies." 

According to this mode of doing business, what does it 
matter whether a man be well versed in medical science, or be 
a mere novice ; he can easily proceed in the old beaten track, 
because " the remedies are named opposite the disease ; nay 
more, there are remedies to counteract the evil effects of other 
remedies.f 'Acts to amend certain acts passed* in the last 

* In Holland, physicians are prosecated and heavily fined for admini»> 
tering mercury. There are few chemists' shops there ; and since the law 
has prohibited the administration of mercury, disease has greatly de- 

t I lately met with a country practitioner, who, upon being asked by 
a lady whom he attended, the intention of three different draughts which 
he had sent her, replied that one would warm, the second cool her, and 
the third was calculated to moderate the too violent effects of either. 
The same doctor (Paris) remarks : " The file of every apothecary would 
famish a volume of instances where the ingredients of the prescription 
are fighting together in the dark, or at least, are so adverse to each other, 
as to constitute a most incongruous and chaotic mass." 

pres6riptio{i« Moreorer, the remedies itre kflowni to them* 
selves ; unknown to their patients, whose queries, if any, are 
answered in an unknown tongue of technicality. The whole 
process, in fact, is one of jog-trot routine, whereby if the 
patient recovers, so — ^he must take some tonics ; if he dies, so-^ 
he swallowed the pharmacopceia, and what can a man do 
more?" — Drs. Wilson and Ghilly, To such inquiries we say, 
why, if you must continue in practice, study its philosophy, 
that you may be able to give the people scientific truth in ex- 
chaise for their cash, and a plain, straightforward " answer to 
every man who asketh you a reason of the hope" you entertain 
of the efficacy of your mode of treatment ; and not in the " pretty 
gibberish invented to cheat the ignorant,*' and tp mystify your 
practice. Who has not been placed in a similar position to 
that of the person to whom Dr. E. Johnson wrote those ad- 
mirable letters on " Lifip, Health, and Disease ?" He had been 
for some time laboring under a '' combination of most dissimilar 
symptoms, all of which, he was assured, are presented by the 
term indigestion.'* When he questioned his medical attendants 
on the subject, they evinced every disposition to satisfy him ; 
but they could not avoid making use of phrases which were to 
him words without meaning. He was told that his digestion 
was impaired. He asked what was meant by that, and was 
told his " digestive apparatus was deranged in its economy.'' 
My poor brother was still no nearer the mark ; and his medical 
attendant observing his puzzled looks, proceeded to explain 
and make the matter perfectly clear, telling him that his 
"secretions were depraved, his gastric juices deficient, his 
native functions feebly performed, and that the tone, the en- 
ergy, the nisus formatives — in fact, the vis vit«e — was full 
twenty per cent, below par." The enlightened patient bowed 
his gratitude for this luminous explanation, and sadly reseated 
lumself in his chair of sickness — as wise, perhaps, but cer- 
tainly no wiser, than he was before. How should he ? There 
was nothing in all this likely to convey any definite idea to his 
mind, as to the nature or cause of the evil under which he was 


r, or the proper means of removing it. His medical 
attendant was to him, what St. Paul (1 Cor. xir. 11) calls a 
barbarian, speaking in an unknown tongue. This is a very 
proper term, applicable to all who, while the j articulate sounds, 
convey thereby no distinct meaning to their hearers. This is 
not learning, as it is thought to be by some, but barbarism : 
or, in the language of Home Tooke, " an example of the subtle 
art of saving appearances, and of discoursing learnedly on a 
subject with which we are perfectly unacquainted." For in- 
stance, if you ask one of those learned gentlemen, '' why opium 
sets yott to sleep," his answer will be, "from its narcotic power. 
Narcotic ccxnes from the Greek word narcosis, privation of 
sense/' How satisfactory ! Now those who are weak enough 
to believe all that is told them, whether they understand it or 
not> are delighted to be told in Greek that it does set them 
to sleep. They are astonished, and he]s& very learned man. 
Thus they 

'* Wrap nonsense round 
Injpomp and darkness, tiii it seems profoand; 
Flay on the hopes, the terrors of mankind 
With changeful skill ; * * • * 
While reason, like a grave-face mammy, stands 
With her arms swathed in hieroglyphic bands." — Moore. 

Such is the mode in which the schoolmen juggle : instead 
of an answer they give you an echo ! Had these barbarian 
wordmongers been as anxious to enlighten the public mind as 
they have been to feather their own nests, they would, long 
ago, have preferred reason to mystification, and thus advanced 
the good of the community at large.* But as the great Locke 
justly observes, " Vague and insignificant forms 6f speech, and 
abuse of language, have so long passed for mysteries of science, 
and hard and misapplied words, with little or no meaning, 
have, by prescription, such a right to be mistaken for deep 

* See much on this subject in that withering expos6 of the l&UMilty 
by Dr. Dickaon, of whksh he has published a ** People's Editioa." 

ON DRUGS. 121 

learning and height of speculation, that it will not be easy to 
persuade either those who speak or those who hear them, that 
they are but the covers of ignorance and hindrances of true 

In consequence of the obscure language commonly em- 
ployed by the faculty, the people have been deterred from 
investigating a subject, in which, of all others, they are most 
deeply and intimately concerned. But as most other anti- 
quated notions and systems are being weighed in the even- 
handed balances of an enlightened people, and many of them 
have been " found wanting," is it any wonder that the drug 
system should be submitted to the analysis of common sense ? 
The introduction of steam, galvanism, gas, etc., have produced 
a revolution of thought and action ; petty objects have given 
way to comprehensive views; and petty interests have been 
made to yield to the general good, by the force of the no-mo- 
nopoly principle. Is the drugging system to claim an exemp- 
tion ? On what ground ? Let the protectionists tell us. 

We are far from being satisfied with our hydropathic doc- 
tors. There is .evidently, in some of them, a disposition to 
retain two of the old evils — monopoly a\id high charges ; the 
latter they seek to accomplish by means of the former. (See 
Appendix, P.) If they realize their object, the poor especially 
will be prevented from enjoying the benefit of the water cure, 
in case of accident, etc. They cannot pay £3 per week, 
while in one of the establishments, besides traveling expenses 
and loss of time, etc. And because a few benevolent individ- 
uals have tried, partially, to remedy the evil, they have been 
denounced. Well, be it so. Let them persevere, and they 
will live down such interested opposition, and be regarded as 
the benefactors of their race when their traducers are covered 
with merited disgrace. The makers and venders of strong 
drinks, swords, drugs, tea, Jack Ketch, the grave-digger, etc., 
like these, have adopted the old, but ruinous maxim — "Live 
and let live." This is utterly impossible. How can they live 
if others persisi in living also. 


Though we place little confidence in the opinions of the ad- 
vocates of drugs, the public does ; and as in most cases, the 
best way to get at the whole truth, is, if possible, to hear the 
statements of those who have been '* behind the scene," we 
shall avail ourselves of the views of a few of the initiated. It 
would, however, be an endless task, and produce an evil we 
are anxious to avoid (a large book), to quote all the just sar- 
casms and severe criticisms of medical men of high repute on 
their own profession, many of whom confessed they were 
skeptics in the science, and, as a proof of their sincerity, they 
beat their lancets into ploughshares, and left the profession in 
disgust. Among others, we mention Sir James Mackintoshy 
Locke, Crabbe, M'Kenzie, Sir H. Davy, and Lord Longdale. 

Sir W. Knighton, who was at the head of his profession, and 
was also physician to George IV., says, <'It is somewhat 
strange that though in many arts and sciences improvement 
has advanced in a step of regular progression from the first, in 
others it has kept no pace with time; and we look back to 
ancient excellence with wonder not unmixed with awe. Med- 
icine seems to be one of those ill-fated arts whose improvement 
bears ho proportion to its antiquity.'' 

Had not facts borne out the truth of the doctor's statement, 
how could we account for the fact, that there has been, as Mr. 
Abemethy observes, an increase of disease ; nay, many new 
ones, of only three or four hundi*ed years' standing. Some 
even less than that — diseases quite unknown to the ancients. 
Measles is a complaint of modern times ; scarlatina still more 
recent, having made its appearance only about two hundred 
years ago. The small-pox is of no very ancient date, since 
Hippocrates, Galen, etc., give it no place in their nosological 
histories. We learn from "Barrow's Travels," that to this 
day, Southern Africa is wholly exempt from small-pox and 
canine madness. It seems no writer mentions scurvy before 
Strabo, who tells us that it broke out for the first time in 
Augustus' reign, at which period wb know how luxurious the 
Ronaans had become. 

• ON DRUGS. 123 

The celebrated Dr. J. Gregory, the leading physician of the 
oity of Edinburgh, who held his profession in disgust, asserts, 
that medical doctrines are little better than stark staring ab« 
surdities. Being asked what he thought of Dr. Baillie, he 
replied, "Baillie knows nothing but physic;" in revenge for 
which, Baillie wittily rejoined, " Gregory knows every thing but 
physic." Dr. Dickson, says, " How I ever came to believe one 
half of the rubbish propounded by medical teachers, I cannot 
now understand ; for the whole doctrine of the schools is a tissue 
of the most glaring and self-evident absurdities." — " Could you 
only see as I have seen," says Dr. Dickson, " the farce* of a 
medical consultation, I think you would agree with me, that the 
impersonification of physic, like the picture of Garrick, might 
be best painted with comedy on one side, and tragedy on the 
other." " Less slaughter, I am convinced, has been effected by 
the sword than by the lancet, "f Again, " Of the cas§s of mor- 
tality in the earlier months of our existence, no small proportion 
consists of those who have sunk under the oppression of phar- 
maceutical filth. More infantile subjects in this metropolis, 
are, perhaps, diurnally destroyed by the mortar and pestle 
than in the ancient Bethlehem fell victims in one day to the 
Herodian massacre." And again, " Conscience feels little con- 
cern in cases of medicinal murder." This is " speaking out" 
with a vengeance, as the " racking effects of these days." 

* The aathor recollects an instance which came under his own observ- 
ation, some years ago, which greatly tended to shake his &ith in drug- 
gery. An eminent physician of the city of Worcester being called in to 
his friend, who was living in a lone farmhouse, and where the author 
was visiting, after a few questions had been put and answered, the doc- 
tor, on examiniag the patient's pulse, held with his other hand his gold 
watch to his ear, for at least two minutes. Some general directions 
having been given, and a few compliments passed, the doctor was about 
to withdraw, when the lady of the house, informing him that her clock 
had stopped in the night, wished to know the city time, in order to sot 
the clock right — when, lo ! behold ! the doctor 'discovered that bis watch 
also had stopped in the night, he having forgotten to wind it up. How 
was it that the doctor did not discover this when counting the pulsations 
of his patient? t Reid's Essays on Insanity 


In the "British and Foreign Review," of January, 1838, we 
have the following testimony of one of the most eminent phy- 
sicians of London. He says, " I visited the different schools, 
and the students of each other hinted, if they did not assert, 
that the other sects killed their patients. I found that, pro- 
vided the physician of each was a man of talent and expe- 
rience, the mortality was fairly balanced." The same " Re- 
view," speaking of the gentlemen in the chemical line, whose 
section of the business it is to supply the material of adultera- 
tion* to the brewers, etc., says, " Unless our information is very 
incorrect, there are not many prescriptions faithfully prepared 
in the British dominions. We believe there is scarcely a med- 
icine, however simple, which the chemists' art cannot imitate, 
in cheap and base material; yet physicians prescribe with 
calm satisfaction." Dr. Franks asserts, that '* thousands are 
slaughtered in the quiet sick-room." 

It were easy to collect, from the pages of medical writers, 
of note in their day, numerous passages of similar import; 
but we pass on to give one or two from non-professional 

Voltaire gives an account of one Zadig, who, in an engage- 
ment, was dangerously wounded in the eye, near to which an 

* Dr. Lardner says, ** It is absolately frightful to contemplate the list 
of poisons and drugs with which porter has been doctored." He men- 
tions, among others, " opium, henbane, coculus indicus, aloes, and oil of 
vitriol;" and be might have added, tobacco, grains of paradise, saltpetre, 
nux vomica, etc. (See Appendix, Q.) From parliamentary returns, we 
find that some years the duty paid to government— 

For niix vomica, was £631 4«. Zd. 

extract of do., 4 7 6 

coculus indicus, 579 19 5 

grains of paradise, 3191 2 2 

The consumption of these, which have been chiefly employed in making 
beer and porter, has, of late years, increased. Nux vomica, for example, 
which is a horrid poison, paid duty, in 1830, £191, but, in 1833, it paid 
£517 155. ; coculua indicus, in 1829, £139 15*., but, in 1833, £569 19*. 
5d. (Sf'o moro in " Racchns," cliap. xi., and " Anti-Bacchus," pp. 71, 72.) 


ON ORUOS. 125 

abscess formed. The alarm became great, and Hermes, the 
celebrated physician, was sent for, who came, attended by a 
numerous retinue, and pronounced that Zadig would lose his 
eye, and even predicted the day and the hour when the dread- 
ful accident would take place. Had it been the right eye, 
said he, I could have cured it ; but the wounds of the left eye 
are without* remedy. All Babylon, in deploring the fate of 
Zadig, venerated the profound knowledge of Hermes. Two 
days after, the tumor discharged itself spontaneously, and Za- 
dig was perfectly cured. Hermes wrote a book, in which his 
object was to prove that Zadig ought not to have been 

Lord Byron called medicine " the destructive art of healing," 
and on one occasion says, " I got well [of a fever], by the 
blessing of barley water, and refusing to see my physician."* 

Moliere, so long the terror of the apothecaries of Paris, makes 
one of his dramatis per sonci say to another, " Call in a doctor, 
and if you do not like his physic, 1*11 soon find you another 
who will condemn it ;" showing how completely at variance 
medical authorities are, so that perhaps it would be difficult to 
find any two of them agreeing, (See Appendix, R.) For 
proof of this, we refer our readers to the " Fallacy of the Fac- 

Le Sage was even more severe, when he said, *' Death has 
two wings : on one are war, plague, famine, fire, 8hi[)wreck, 
with all the other miseries, that present him, at every instance, 
with a Yiew prey ; on the other wing you behold a crowd of 
young physicians, about to take their degrees before him. 
Death, with a demon smile, dubs them doctors, having first 

* Some people tell yoa, with an air of the miraculooa, that they recov- 
ered, althongh given over by their doctor ; when they might, with more 
reason, have said, they recovered because they were given over. How 
jast i^as the observation of the author of " Lacon :" " The rich patient 
cares the poor physician much oftener than the poor physician the rich 
patient ; and the rapid recovery of the one usually depende upon the pro- 
crastinated disorder of the other." 


made them swear never, in any way, to alter the established 
practice of physic." 

Locke, Smollett, Goldsmith (all three physicians), held their 
art in contempt ; Swift, Temple, Hmne, Adam Smith, Hazlitt, 
etc., were equally severe. 

That shrewd observer of human nature, John Wesley, pub- 
lished a work, in 1747, in which, after deprecating the myste- 
ries with which the science of medicine is surrounded, and the 
manner in which drugs were imposed upon the community, he 
proceeds in a manner which shows that he thought water 
might very profitably supersede the use of drugs altogether. 
He says, " The common method of compounding and decom- 
pounding medicines can never be reconciled to common sense. 
Experience shows that one thing will cure most diseases, at 
least as well as twenty put together. Then why add the other 
nineteen ? Only to swell the apothecary's bill ; nay, possibly, 
on purpose to prolong the distemper, that the doctor and he 
may divide the spoil.'' 

Captain Claridge, having inquired by what delusions man- 
kind were first induced to take drugs, says, " In the middle 
ages, the use of water as a drink, and a cure for diseases, fell 
into total disuse, when, in the time of the Crusade, the Arabian 
doctors introduced the use of oriental drugs, to which they 
attributed miraculous virtues. But were these the dictates 
of reason and nature ? Have mankind become healthier since 
their introduction? Quite the revei'se! Are those nations, 
who have done the most homage to this science, the strongest 
and soundest? They are, beyond contradiction, physically, 
if not morally, the most miserable of all. How is it with indi- 
viduals ? Their lives are worse than death. Nay, even the 
masters of physic suffer very severely from its eflfects them- 
selves." He further says, " This is the most dreadful malady 
of mankind ; the poison-plague, dug out, by themselves, from 
the black abysses of the earth ; thus has it been stared at as 
the effects of deep science, for centuries ; thus has frequently 
the hist shilling been offered at its altar. For this, the greatest 

ON DRUGS. 137 

enemy that could have beset mankind, as many millions have 
been spent as irould pay off the national debt. To the study 
of these dangerous errors, have millions of men applied the 
yr\io\e of their lives and abilities. Backed by science, they 
contended against nature ; but how does she punish those who 
wish to master her !'' 

This last quotation gives us a clue to the evil. The effects 
have been mistaken for the causes, and this error in judgment 
has led to errors in practice. For instance, as Constant justly 
observes, ''It is now generally admitted, that many of the 
seemingly violent phenomena of inflammations are not, strictly 
speaking, morbid movements, but consist, in part at least, sim- 
ply of energetic endeavors of nature to rid herself of an inju- 
rious agent or influence." The drugging system is at war with, 
in opposition to, nature — actually obstructing her operations. 
Hence, if nature seeks to relieve herself by vomiting, she is in- 
sulted by a dose of brandy ; and in many cases, by these and 
other means, by violently increasing the vital force, it is ulti- 
mately destroyed. Whereas, the object should be, not to op- 
pose but to assist nature, by placing the diseased organism gen- 
erally on such a footing as shall enable their vegetative and 
conservative properties to operate as easily and as efficiently as 
possible ; to develop their power, and compensate, by an act 
of self-reparation, for any disturbing influence of the morbid 
agent. This, in fact, is the object sought in the hydropathic 
mode of treatment, and is generally effected. This effect, how- 
ever, is not produced so much by our measure, as by nature 
herself ; and all that we can do is to liberate the normal action 
from any oppressing or obstructing causes, and afford it free- 
dom of exertion.* In many cases — such as slight indigestion, 

* Dr. Craigie, a popular writer, says : " When healthy properties are 
impaired, we know of no agent by which they can be directly restored ; 
when vital action is perverted or deranged, we possess no means of im- 
mediately rectifying it, but mast be satisfied with using those means un- 
der which it is most likely to rectify itself." This, we maintain, is a ra- 
tional and common-sense view of the gobject* 


etc. — twenty-four hours' abstinence, or ceasing to load oar al- 
ready over-burdened stomach, with free exercise in the open 
air, and copious draughts of cold water, will render any other 
remedy altogether unnecessary. Some rather serious cases 
have come under our observation — such as vertigo, etc. — which 
have been cured by little else than putting the patient under 
proper regimen, allowing from nine to twelve ounces of bread, 
and from four to eight ounces of water per day, for several 
weeks. And we could produce high medical authority in sup- 
port of the theory, that remedial means, no matter of what 
kind, possess in themselves no power of directly changing a 
diseased condition into a healthy one. All that it can effect is, 
to aid the efforts of the body in its own restoration ; to accom- 
plish which, we challenge drugs to a competition with water. 
As successful results are the test of medical, as well as of 
all other truth, and is the professed aim of all treatment, we 
appeal to this tribunal, believing, with Dr. Macartney, one of 
the first physiologists of his day, that " water, when its proper- 
ties and modes of application are well known, will be worth 
all other remedies put together." A conviction of this kind 
induced Bernardo, a monk of Sicily, in the year 1724, to go to 
Malta, where he effected some astonishing cures with water, 
the fame of which spread throughout Europe. The water was 
iced, which he used internally and externally. He allowed his 
patient to eat very little. The doctors laughed at him at first, 
but confident of the soundness of his theory, and of the superior 
efficacy of his plan to theirs, he made a proposition that they 
should take one hundred patients, and said if they, by their 
mode of treatment, could cure forty, he would undertake to 
cure the other sixty, more easily and securely, and in shorter 
time. His success was amazing. Look, also, at the practice 
of the German peasant, Priessnitz, which, however nnnaturai it 
may appear to those who have not investigated the subject, 
and to otliers who have all their lifetime outraged nature, by 
living in opposition to her laws, proves, by its stupendous effects, 
that it is built on the soundest and most rational physiological 

ON DRU63. 12d 

principles. Where, in the history of drugs and drug doctors, 
shall we find a man, who, like him, has had under his charge 
nearly 3000 patients within two years (fourteen of whom were 
doctors), most of whom had exhausted the resources of science 
and drugs, who can say with him, that during that time he has 
not lost more than two individuals ? In these days utility is 
every thing.' We care not a rush for theories — ^give us results. 
Compare the above facts with cases treated by drugs in our 
hospitals, etc. But this plan has several other advantages : it 
is not revolting to the sense of taste — can be self-administered 
— every where procured — and, if not abused, is within the reach 
of all classes of the community. 

As a proof of the growing estimation in which it is held, we 
refer to the facts, that there are already from twenty to thirty 
establishments, in different parts of this kingdom, most of 
which are presided over by very eminent medical men, who 
have relinquished the lucrative practice of drugs, the capabili- 
ties of which they were well acquainted with, and have em- 
braced hydropathy. Among these we mention, with respect,- 
Drs. E. Johnson, Courtney, Lovell, King, Sir E. Scudamore, 
Hume, Whetherhead, Wilson, Gully, Weiss, etc., etc. Besides 
which, a number of persons have, and are still practicing it 
privately, in their own houses, with very great advantages. 
(See Appendix, S.) 

But notwithstanding the mass of evidence which has been 
produced in favor of the superior value of water as a thera- 
peutic, it is in this, as in most other cases, where the parties 
concerned are influenced by prejudice and interest, the mind 
will be warped ; for as Locke says, " Who, even by the most 
cogent arguments, will be prevailed with to disrobe himself at 
once of ail his old opinions and pretences to knowledge and 
learning, which, with hard study he hath all his time been 
laboring for, and turn himself out stark naked, in quest of new 
notions ? All the arguments that can be used will bo as little 
able to prevail, as the wind was with the traveler to part with 
his cloak, which he held only the faster. It is, therefore, too 



much to expect the regular pnictitioiier, wbo has veiy natural] j 
great prejudices* against so great an imiOTation on his accus- 
tomed mode of thinking and acting, to adopt our plan, unless 
he had not a good practice on the old plan. On the other 
hand, as a medical writer says, "A oomfortahle medical prac- 
tice is a yery pleasant, easy-goiog business, which may be easily 
described : a compliment or two-^« promise — and a prescrip- 
tioQ — and last, though not least, a guinea." This is the reason 
assigned, by the same author, why so few medTcal men are 
found conducting the water cure, for he seems reluctant to 
ascribe it to their want of discernment, to discover its superior- 
ity over that of drugs. But even some of those who have 
adopted hydropathy, and who had long enjoyed the monopoly 
of drugging the people, are exceedingly annoyed at finding 
their ** vested right " unceremoniously invaded by persons c^ 
the ''lower orders of society — some from among tinkers, or 
tailors, or teetotal messengers, or any others who have nothing 
else to do." These unprofessional men who write upon and 
practice the water cure are severely reprimanded, as ** acting 
from purely selfish motives." Whereas in scores of instances 
they have absolutely no remuneration whatever, except that 
ansing from the alleviation of the sufferings of their fellow-men. 
Besides, charges of this kind come with a very bad grace from 
such men as Dr. Graham, etc., who have enriched themselves 
by their enormous charges for advice, etc., no more calculated 
to benefit the patient than that ^ven by these ttnprofessional 
tankers, etc., etc. " Physician, heal thyself" of selfishness, and 
refrain from throwing stones, till you have secured your own 

* Dr. Bigel, of Strasborg, aays, It miut be remembered that I am a 
doctor, and that pride mmt aoffer by receiving lenoiia from so hamble a 
•oaroe at that of a pea«nt. And speaking of the condact of medical men* 
in reference to hydropathy, he aaya, I fthall not look for the motives, lest 
I shoald not find them of the most honorable nature ; bat will eontent 
myself with observing that its too great simplicity was, and still is, its 
only fault The learned fear to be robbed of their science— the practi- 
tioner of hif connection— and the i^thecaiiea tremble for their afaope and 

ON DR0O8. 181 

windows. But wbat is implied in all this outcry against non- 
professional men, in which we are sorry to find some of our 
liydropaths are joining? Why, though it is indisputable that 
great good has resulted from the efforts of those persons 
on whom contempt is sought to be brought by calling them 
opprobious names, these results have not been produced by 
medical men. The monopoly has been broken in upon — their 
craft is in danger. It was not a doctor,* but a teetotal mes- 
senger, etc. Fudge ! What is the difference to a sick man, 
whether it was a " tinker, tailor, teetotal messenger,'' etc., or a 
fellow of some learned university who was dubbed with an 
M.D., that found out, or employed, the means of making or 
keeping him well. We are advocates for an enlightened view 
of things. Truth fears nothing so much as concealment, and 
desires nothing so much as clearly to be laid open to the view 
of all. Truth will successfully assert its own supremacy — 
bear ultimately its proper sway on the subject ; and demmi- 
strate, to the satisfaction of all persons of discernment, and free 
from prejudice, that the system now considered is of great 
efficacy, and one worthy of the entire eonfidenee of the pub- 
lic"! ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ withhold any thing on this subject, 
which we know to be true, though it may entail abuse, mis- 
i^presentation, and a variety of disagreeables which most men 
are naturally anxious to avoid. But there are too many who 

* The practice of physic has been more improved by the casual experi- 
ment of illiterate nations, and the rash ones of vagabond qaacks, than by 
the reasonings of all the once celebrated professors of it, and theoretic 
teachers in the several schools of Barope ; very few of whom have fur* 
nished us with one new medicine, or have taught us better how to use 
our old ones, or have in any instance at all improved the art of curing 
diseases. — Dr, Jfeberden't Medicine. 

Reform not often proceeds from within, and in no time or country did 
it ever make progress, unless assisted from withsoaU-^Dr, Diekson. 

t Dr. Graham. This gentleman regards hydropathy only as an auxil- 
iary to drugs. This, however, is in direct opposition to several very 
eminent and successful hydropaths, who are of opinion that mixing the 
water treatment with that of drugs, is highly dangerous; may cost the 
patient his life ; and cannot fail to bring hydropathy into contempt. 



feel like the French king, who said, ** Tlicse matters, however 
bad, and however destined to be removed by man's enlighten- 
ment, will last my time, and serve ray purpose. Apres nous 
le Delufje." Is this right ? Are we to hold our peace when 
evil is rampant, and choose ease rather than usefulness ? — per- 
sonal convenience rather than the public good ? Away with 
such views! Spurn them with the contempt they deserve, 
and '' work while it is called to-day.*' Expect, however, that 
you will meet with opposition ; for though we are grieved that 
it should be so, yet so it is, that giving offence to some parties 
in making known any novelty, or seeking to introduce or extend 
any improvement, cannot be avoided. This is the natural con- 
sequence of things. '' Persecution has ever been the reward 
of truth, before that truth has made itself fashionable."* 
" And whosoever shall move one step beyond the line of the 
world's convention, must expect to meet with the thundering 
anathemas and obloquies of all who wish to stand well with 
the arbiters of public opinion."! Pei-secution is the last re- 
source of those, who, conscious that they cannot defend them- 
selves and their practices by logic, employ brute force. And 
whenever you see a disputant in a rage, and hear him threaten, 
you may be sure he feels he is beaten in argument : hence, if 
he can, he turns persecutor, this being his forlorn hope. The 
ingenious De Foe says, ** He that opposes his judgment against 
the consent of the times, ought to be backed with unanswer- 
able truths ; and he that hath truth on his side is a fool as well 
as a coward, if he be afraid to own it, because the currency of 
the multitude^ of other men's opinions." ** In proportion as 

* Dr. F. Leet, the teetotal champion. 

t Bentham. 

X An error is not the better for being common, nor truth the worse for 
having lain neglected ; and if it were pat to the vote any where in the 
world, I doabt, as things are managed, whether truth would have the 
majority : at least while the authority of men, and not the examination of 
things ma*t be iu measure. — Locke. Truth has nothing to do with num- 
bers, but with knowledge and correct judgment. Nothing is more olear 
from history, than that iu most tilings the n)ajority ^ in the v^rong. 

ON DRUGS. 133 

any branch of study leads to important and useful results — ^in 
proportion as it gains ground in public estimation — ^in propor- 
tion as it tends to Overthrow prevailing erroi-s — ^in the same 
degree it may be expected to call forth any declamation from 
those who are trying to despise what they will not learn, and 
wedded to prejudices which they cannot defend. Gahleo 
probably would have escaped persecution, if his discoveries 
could have been disproved, and his reasonings refuted." 

How often have we heard persons exclaiming when the doc- 
tor has sent his comphments, etc., at Christmas, 

" Oh ! what a bill ! 
Here's half-a-crown for draught and pill, 
Which did not cost him two pence." 

And though the people have been more to blame in this 
matter than the doctor, they are now beginning to open their 
eyes to the value of cold water — they see 

" That's the best physic which doth cure our ills, 
Without the charge of 'pothecaries' bills." 

There are, however, multitudes who still estimate and re- 
munerate the service of their professional attendant by no 
other criterion than the quantity of drugs they have taken.* 

* Of a great many anecdotes told us by one well acquainted with 
English medical practice, we shall select one as an illustration of the ex- 
tent of prejudice existing upon this subject, and its effects in corrupting 
practitioners. An elderly lady received a hurt in her arm, which re- 
quired the attendance of a medical practitioner, residing at two or three 
miles* distance. He dressed it about twenty times, and saw it completely 
healed. Now was his time to consider how be should be paid. My 
only chance, said he to himself, is to begin ordering medicine. He 
therefore afiected to think unfavorably of the appearance of the skin of 
her arm: it betokened a bad state of the blood. I shall send you some- 
thing for it, said he. He now began a course of medicine, to which the 
old lady very willingly submitted ; at length it amounted to nine pounds ; 
he admitted she was well, and sent in his bill. When he next called, 
she told him she had got the bill, and was wishing to pay it. " But I 
think," said she, " you must surely have committed a mistake in draw 


Nay, they even boast of the quantity they have taken in a 
given time. How frequently do we hear the finish tint given 
to their credulity : " The doctor smd if I had not had a con- 
stitution like a horse, I never could have stood it :*' and he 
might have added : " Had you not the mind of an ass, you 
never would." But without being too sanguine, may we not 
hope to live to see the day when the good sense of the peo- 
ple will induce them to abandon those "innocent? deceptive 
medicines, which are in many cases given to please the pa- 
tient" — that we shall hear wholesale druggists declare that 
" times are bad," that " water is riz and drugs are fell" — ^that 
young dentists, before they get old, will be surprised to find 
that there is not so much toothache — ^that whole sets are not 
destroyed at a sitting, by mercury and calomel ; or by slower 
degrees, though with equal efiFect, by hot tea, coffee, etc. ; 
and animal food, as in the days of yore — that drugs will be 
like the Latin language, a dead letter, or like some other 
things, be rendered obsolete by time and the progress of 
man's enlightenment — that the service of a vast majority of 
medical men will be dispensed with as useless, and the few 
who remain to direct the agency of cold water, shall enjoy 
the full confidence of an enlightened temperate people, and 
be cheerfully and liberally compensated in exchange for sci- 
entific truth, not for " murderous drugs." 

That we are not singular, or so much so as some imagine, 
we refer to the declaration of a few, whose testimony may 
have some weight with the public. Dr. Orphen says, " Every 

ing it oat." " What geems wrong, madam ?" inqaired he. " If there 
bo any error, of course we can easily rectify it !" " Oh, why, you have 
nine pounds here for medicine— that is all very well — I have had that 
But you have three pounds ten for dressing my arm. Now you know, 
I had nothing there. You were only put to a little trouble, which was 
the same as nothing. I cannot understand this part of your bill at all !" 
** Oh ! very well !** said he, " if you think so, we'll deduct the charge 
ff)r dressing !" It is needless to add that the balance was ample remii» 
neration for his service, as well as for his medicines ! — Chafnf^ert' Mdin* 
hurgk Journal, No. 34, Ntw Seriea, 

ON DRUGS. 135 

yoar adds to my conviction that if the public would act with 
common sense, and relinquish those drinking habits which 
have so long domineered over society, they would enjoy such 
a portion of health as would starve almost all the physicians. 
This is my simple statement," says he, " contrary to my oton 
personal interest and advantage." And Dr. Courtney says, 
"Plain, wholesome food, and the pure element, water, and 
nothing stronger, should ever enter the system, and take my 
word for it, whoever follows this system, will seldom want a 
doctor. The teetotalers [especially those of them who have 
taken the third stage] are the very worst customers the 
doctor ever had. They will close the shops of the doctors as 
fast as they will the breweries." The "Times," in review- 
ing Mr. Claridge*s work on hydropathy, says, "Apothecaries 
Hall, our next door neighbor, to which, we have often resorted 
for relief, and departed under a notion that we obtained it, 
now totters to a fall on the fiat of a Silesian peasant." The 
" Era" also observes ; " If one tithe of the beneficial effects 
adduced by Mr. Claridge, from the simple element, cold wa- 
ter, can be substantiated, we can only say, let the doctors look 
to themselves, or they will ere long have a roughish time of 
it." Of hydropathy, therefore, we may say with great pro- 
priety and assurance : 

** Great doctor ! the art of curing 's cored by thee ; 
We now thy patient physic see 
From all inveterate diseases free ; 
Purged of old errors by the care, 
New dieted, put forth to clearer air ; 
It now will strong and healthful prove ; 
Itself before lethargic lay, and could not move.'' — Old Poem, 

As, however, those who are "advocates for an enlightened 
view of things," must, in carrying out their principles, in en- 
deavoring to make converts to their opinions, necessarily have 
up-hill work for a time, and sometimes " break a lance for 
their opponents, yea, even receive a few scars in the bloodless 
encounter," we must console ourselves as well as we can, and 
*' heal all their scratches with water," 





The enjoyment of free air may be considered aa a nourishment equafly neeeasary 
for our eziatenee as eating and drinking. Pure air is essentially the greatest means 
of strengthening and supporting life ; while c<Mifined and oormpted air is the most 
subtle and deadly poison. — ^Do. Hufeland. 

There are few circiimstances essential to the preservation 
of health, to which so little attention is generally paid, as the 
breathing of pure air. A short explanation of the manner in 
which the atmosphere acts on the animal body, will probably 
be the best means of impressing on the mind of the reader the 
importance of a due supply of this first necessary of life. In 
doing this we shall be as brief as possible. 

The air we bi'eathe is a subtle and fluid substance, which 
surrounds every part of the globe, and which all living beings 
respire, either by the limgs, the pores of the skin, or by both.* 

* Respiration, says Professor Liebig, is the &lling weight, the bent 
spring which keeps the clock in motion ; the inspirations or expirations 
are the stroke of the pendulum which regulate it. In oar ordinary time- 
pieces, we know, with mathematical accuracy, the effect produced on 
their rate of going, by changes in the length of the pendulum, or in the 
external temperature. Few, however, have a clear conception of the in- 
fluence of air and temperature on the health of the human body ; and yet 
the research into the conditions necessary to keep it in the normal state 
is not more difficult than in the case of a clock. Dr. £. Johnson says, 
Respiration is as certainly performed by the skin as the lungs, and that 
nothing can be more certain than that nature, in her anxiety to insore a 

AIR. 187 

It is the element to which the animal and vegetable world 
owes its life, beauty, and preservation. All the changes which 
we see take place in different beings here below, depend upon 
air. It is so needful to the existence of animals, that the 
greater part of them could not live more than half a minute 
if they were deprived of it ; and the others could not, gen- 
erally, bear the want of it more than two days. It is neces- 
sary to the birds of the air, and the fish of the sea ; and even 
plants, in order to vegetate, have need of air. Sounds could 
not be propagated without it, nor could winds be formed. The 
sun itself could not furnish us with ^her a sufficiency of light 
or heat, if the air did not surround our globe. 

Every square inch of the surface of the globe is pressed by 
a column of air of fifteen pounds weight ; every square foot, by 
one of 2160 pounds ; and a middle-sized man, whose surface 
is about fourteen feet, carries a load of atmospheric air, equal 
to 30,240 pounds weight! By means of heat the air may be 
made to occupy a space of 650,000 times grSliter than that 
which it occupies in its common atmospheric state. 

fall and perfect accomplishment of the alMmportant functions of respira- 
tion, has provided us with a double set of respiratory apparatus, viz., the 
lungs and the skin. As a proof of this, he refers to experiments, which 
have shown that the animal breath consists of carbonic acid, the vapor of 
water, and nitrogen. And that the same experiments of the same ex- 
perimenters, have proved that the exhalations from the body — the breath 
of the skin — is also composed of the same constituents — carbonic acid, 
^apor of water, and nitrogen — and that, therefore, perspiration and res- 
ph'ation, as the very words themselves would indicate, are essentially the 
same. Liebig also says, from the first moment that the functions of the 
lungs, or of the skin, are interrupted or disturbed, compounds, rich in 
carbon, appear in the urine — that carbon which ought to have been given 
off either by the longs or by the skin, whichever of the two happen to 
be in fault. But important as the skin is, as our assistant organ of res- 
piration, we utterly deprive ourselves of its assistance, by the absurd 
fashion of our dress, and the ridiculous care with which we defend the 
skin from all access of atmospheric air — thus, to a large extent, shutting 
out the oxygen so vitally essential to life ; and shutting in the carbonic 
acid, which is known to be so deadly to all animal, and also to vegetable 
^e. When shall we learn to be wise ? " When shall it once be ?" 


This ur u a compound of different sm, called gases ; of 
which a gas called oxygen (and sometimes from its being in- 
dispensable to the maintenance of animal life, vital air) forms 
twenty-one parts in every 100 ; the remaining seventy-nine 
parts being a gas called nitrogen, or azote. The air which is 
drawn into the lungs in the act of breathing, and through the 
pores of the skin, acts on the blood, which is returned through 
the veins from different parts of the body, so as to change it 
from dark purple to a light scarlet. In this process the oxy- 
gen disappears, having formed chemical combinations with 
certain substances contai|pd in the venous blood, by which it 
is changed partly into a gas, called carbonic acid gas, and partly 
into water. A minute proportion of this gas is consequently 
found in the present air we meet with. The carbonic acid gas 
is not only unfit for the support of life, but it is positively a 
poison, since a given proportion of the atmospheric air will 
support an animal much longer, if this gas be removed as fast 
as it is formed; than if it be suffered to remain. By the ab- 
straction of the substance from which these new combinations 
are formed, the blood is purified and rendered fit to stimulate 
to proper action the nerves and muscles ; to restore the struc- 
ture of the various portions of the body, which are continually 
becoming useless, and being removed, to furnish the secretions, 
as they are called, by which the process of digestion, and 
other processes necessary to the existence of our bodies are 
performed. In short, to use the emphatic language of Scrip- 
ture, which has been quoted and illustrated by the greatest 
physiologists of this country, " the blood is the life thereof ;** 
and the blood itself loses its vitality, if it be not continually 
purified by exposure to the action of atmospheric £dr. 

From the above it will be evident, that if an animal be con- 
fined to a given quantity of air, every time the act of breathing 
is repeated, that air is contaminated, and is becoming less fit 
for the proper performance of the process above described. 
Every time the blood circulates it consequently gets more im- 
pure, and less capable of stimulating the heart, and other 

AIR. 139 

organs, to action. The circulation becomes more langoid, till 
the heart ceases to beat, and the animal dies. This truth 
might be proved by reference to such facts as — ^the short time 
during which a person can exist in a diying-bell — ^the well- 
known story of the black-hole, or, prison of Calcutta — ^and cir- 
cumstances which have occurred and are still occurring in the 
accursed African slave trade. 

It is calculated that every individual consumes about five 
cubic feet of air in an hour, or in other words, deprives such a 
quantity of air of its oxygen, or vital principle. If a hundred 
persons, therefore, were confined in a room thirty feet long, 
twenty-five broad, and thirty high, the whole of the air in that 
apartment, consisting of 22,500 cubic feet, unless renewed, 
would be rendered noxious in about four hours and a half. 
By an experiment of the* celebrated Hales, a gallon of air was 
consumed, or spoiled, by the steam of the breath, in one min- 
ute, so as to be unfit for respiration; hence a hogshead, or 
sixty-three gallons, would hardly supply a human bemg for an 

There are several very interesting and ably written articles 
in that excellent periodical, the ** Christian Witness," on this 
subject, which will amply repay the attention of the reader. 
The appeal is to the women of England, on behalf of 300,000 
young men and boys, engaged in the various branches of trade 
and industry in the metropolis, and suffering by the late-hour 
system. Their condition is described with great minuteness, 
and shown to be painful in the extreme. Employed for six- 
teen, or seventeen, or more hours every day, in shops badly 
ventilated, nearly filled with customers for several hours, at 
night having twenty or thirty gas-burners, each consuming as 
much oxygen as four persons, always standing on their legs, 
compelled to take their three meals in half an hour — ^all this 
must, in the end, be ruinous to the health of those who are 
compelled to endure it. The air they breathe in the daytime 
is decidedly bad, and becomes gradually more and more im- 
pure, until in the evening, when the doors are closed, the shop 



more crowded, and the gas burning, it becomes positively and 
actively pernicious. The results of such a state of things may- 
be efisily inferred. The lungs imperfectly perform their func- 
tions ; as a necessary consequence, the blood is only partially 
oxygenized, or changed from the venous into the arterial ; the 
circulation becomes sluggish; all the secretions are rendered 
impure by the impurity of the blood ; digestion is impaired ; 
the muscular system is weakened; and the whole physical 
constitution becomes, in a greater or less degree, the subject of 
chronic disease. This subject is now, happily, exciting' great 
interest, and we beseech our readers to peruse the articles above 
referred to for themselves. Let them do it without delay, and 
act upon their convictions. 

Is it not also surprising, that while we take so much care 
about our food, we should not bestow even more attention upon 
an article equally, if not more, essential to health and enjoy- 
ment ? Hence the absurdity of endeavoring to make our rooms 
air tight — of huddling ourselves up in a large quantity of 
clothes* by day and by night — and in the latter case, of sur* 
rounding ourselves with close-drawn bed curtains, as if we ac- 
tually wanted to stifle ourselves. We do not act so foolishly 
with the delicate and fragile plants in our gardens. As it has 
been beautifully said, " See how they are buffeted by the wind, 

* The case adverted to by Dr. E. Johnson is not of uncommon occurs 
rence. He says — " I got into a coach a mile from London, the ot^er day, 
becaose there was no room outside. The weather was dry, but cold and 
•harp. Ill the comer of the coach there sat a mighty combination of bone 
and muscle, thew and sinew, all assisting in the formation of what should 
have been a man. He was at least six feet high, and ' bearded like a 
pard ;' and seemed as well able to carry the coach as the coach was to 
carry him ! As soon as I entered the vehicle, I let down the window ; 
but before I had succeeded in doing so, there issued, from amidst the 
cloaks, and coats, and shawls, and wrappings, and mnfflings, in which this 
great thing had enveloped itself, a voice of supplication and woe : ' For 
God's -sake do not let the window down! I am so susceptible — so ex- 
tremely suscpptible !' Had he been as capable of thinking as he was 
susceptible of feeling, he would have seen he was the author of the evil 
of which he complained." 

AIR. 141 

nnd alternately scorched by the sun^ and deluged by the rain, 
and frozen by the frost, and spattered by the mud, and brush- 
ed and bruised by the passenger's foot ! Yet how greenly and 
healthily they grow ! Take them into your parlor, and warm 
them by the fire, and curtain them with flannel,* and defend 
them from the cold, and the wind, and the rain, and the rude 
contact of the traveler's foot, and the other 'discomforts' of 
this out-of-door existence. What think you, will they continue 
to flourish as greenly and as healthily as before ? * Oh ! but,' 
say you, * there is a difference between a man and a cabbage !* 
A diflference ! why, I know there are many differences ! A 
man does not bear leaves and look green ; a cabbage has nei* 
ther arms nor legs ; and though it has as good a heart as 
many who rejoice in the name and nature of man, still that 
heart contains no blood. But what of all this ? To constitute 
analogy, it is not necessary that there should be agreement in 
every particular. At this rate there would be no analogy be- 
tween man and woman, nor even between man and man ; for 
there are, probably, no two men in existence exactly alike. But, 
in all that concerns our present purpose, the man and the plant 
are perfectly analogous ; they are both living beings, destined 
to exist under certain circumstances — living systems, destined 
to occupy a certain position within the circumference of that 
circle of existence which constitutes the universal whole. 
Those who are not conversant with animal and vegetable phys- 

* Mr. Beamisfa, speaking of the action of the atmosphere on the sur- 
face of the skin, says: " There is not one of these surfaces which is not 
^lermeable to the external air, nor is there one of the elementary cells of 
our body which does not absorb and elaborate the atmospheric gases, 
thereby disengaging and absorbing caloric by turns. Hence the injuri- 
ous effect of wearing flannel next the skin ; for, by preventing the action 
of the atmosphere, it effectually stops the elaboration of caloric by that 
organ, weakens its tissues, and throws often an overpowenng amount of 
labor upon the lungs, producing, first, functional derangement, and ulti- 
mately, organic changes. What would be said if a piece of flannel were 
constantly worn upon the mouth ? . And yet this would be about as phi- 
losophical as applying it to the skin. 


iology, will be astonisbed, upon examination, to find bow little, 
indeed, is the real and essential difference between plants and 
animals. In all, life is the same — more or less complex, but 
still the same ; consisting, in all, of a number of effects, result- 
ing from and depending upon the four grand conditions of mat- 
ter: viz., organism, contractility, sensibility, and stimuli." 

Dr. Bigel observes : " Air is the food of the lungs, being the 
same to them as food is to the stomach ;" and Dr. Hufeland 
even goes so far as to assert, that there is a great accession of 
vital nourishment from without, which is received by our lungs 
and skin, and which is of much more importance than the 
nourishment received by the stomach. 

The Abbe Sanctorius, a Florentine, who was well qualified 
to give an opinion, supports the same view. He was upward 
of twenty years engaged in determining what quantity of per- 
spiration ought to pass from the body when in a healthy state. 
To ascertain this, he placed small glasses, some not larger than 
thimbles (having first cleaned and weighed them), on various 
parts of the body, when, after indefatigable research, the re- 
sult proved that every man ought to pass from his body daily^ 
from six to seven pounds ; two pounds and a half are supposed 
to pass by the ordinary means of evacuation, and the remain- 
der by the pores of the skin. (See Appendix, T.) But as few 
persons take more than one pound and a half of solids, and 
two pounds of liquids, into their stomachs in a day, the ques- 
tion now arises, whence this great residue originates ? the an- 
swer is, that men, like all other organic things, feed upon air. 
If this be true, it follows, that much depends upon what sort 
of air we breathe ; that of crowded or confined cities or rooms 
being productive of evil, while that of a fine open room and 
country contributes, as every one ought to know, to health, 
' cheerfulness, and longevity. 

Nothing is more common, and attended with more serious 
consequences, than copamon colds. They are generally pro- 
duced by persons going from the external cold air into the 
warm air of a heated room, and nnf, as is generally supposed. 

AIK. 143 

by going out into the cold air. Hence we often hear persons 
express their fear of "taking cold," but never of "taking 
heat/' When a person, in cold weather, goes into the open 
air, every time he draws in his breath the cold air passes 
through his nostrils and windpipe into the lungs, and conse- 
quently diminishes the heat of those parts. As long as he 
continues in the cold air he feels no bad effects from it ; but as 
soon as he returns home he approaches the fire to warm him- 
self, and very often takes some Chinese soup, or alcoholic drinks, 
to keep the cold out, as it is said. Now this is the very way to 
^x a cold in the head and chest, because of the sudden transi- 
tion effected in the temperature of the parts by the incautious 
use of heat. The person soon feels a glow of heat within his 
nostrils and breath, as well as over the whole surface of the 
body, which is succeeded by a disagreeable dryness and huski- 
ness felt in the nostrils and breast. By and by, a short, dry, 
tickling cough comes on ; he feels a shivering, which induces 
him to draw nearer to the fire, but all to no purpose ; for the 
more he tries to heat himself, the more he becomes chilled. 

It should therefore be a rule with all persons, when they go 
into, or come out of, a very cold atmosphere, never to go di- 
rectly from, or to, a room that has a fire in it ; or if they can- 
not avoid that, to keep for a considerable time at the utmost 
distance from it ; and above all, they should refrain, both before 
and after, from taking warm or strong liquors for some time. 

The want of attention to pure air, has had a very prejudicial 
effect on the health of the community ; hence it is computed, 
by qualified authorities, that the annual loss of life, from filth 
and bad air, is greater than the loss of life from death or 
wounds in any modem war in which this country has been en- 
gaged. The poor-law commissioners stale, that of the 43,000 
cases of widowhood, and of the 112,000 cases of destitute 
orphanage, relieved by the poor-rates of England and Wales 
alone, it appears that the greatest proportion of deaths of the 
heads of families occurred from removable causes — of which 
bad air forms one. 


I liave thus endeavored briefly to explain and enforce a very 
dark, complicated, and much-neglected subject, from the full 
conviction that there is no station in life in -which some know- 
ledge of it may not be of essential service, and that the prac- 
tice to which the reader's attention has been directed would 
greatly tend to the preservation of health, and the attainment 
of longevity. And as the importance of the subject is very 
happily elucidated by the following anecdote, we shall conclude 
with it It is said that the late Dr. Darwin, one day, at 
Nottingham, assembled a large crowd of people around him, 
and thus addressed himself to them: "Ye men of Notting- 
ham ! listen t6 me. You are ingenious and industrious me- 
chanics.  By your industry, life's comforts are procured for 
yourselves and families. If you lose your health, the power 
of being industrious will forsake you. That you know; but 
you do not know that to breathe fresh and changed air con- 
stantly, is not less necessary to preserve health than sobriety 
itself. Air becomes unwholesome in a few hours, if the win- 
dows are shut. Open those of your sleeping rooms when- 
ever you quit them to go to your workshops. Keep the win- 
dows of your workshops open whenever the weather is not in- 
supportably cold. I have no interest in giving you this ad- 
vice. Remember what I, your countryman, and a physician, 
tell you. If you would not bring infection and disease upon 
yourselves, and to your wives and little ones, change the mr 
you breathe ; change it many times a day, by opening your 

* In cases where persons cannot leave their room for more than a few 
minutes, the air may be changed, most effectually, by what is called 
pumping the room, which is done in the following manner : the doors 
and windows are put wide open, when a person, holding the door in his 
hand, violently swings it backward and forward. Thus, in a very short 
time, the bad air is exchanged for that which is fresh and pure. This 
may be done also in the cottages of the poor, even where their windows 
will not open, and where they have only one door. 

BZ«RCI8& 145 




*nie rtadiout, the contemplative, the ▼aletadinaiy, and thoM of weak nenrea, if tbey 
aim at beaMa and k»g life, rnvfltm^ exesreiao in a food air apartof UmIt religioiL — 
Db. Chsynk. 

I do not allow the itate of the weather to be urged against the proaecnCion of meaB* 
aret 00 eetentlal to health, since it is in the power of eTery one to protect fchemselTea 
fipom cold by clotiiing, and the exercise may be taken in a okamber, with the windows 
tiirown open, by actively walking backward and forward, as sailors do on shipboard. 
— Abkbnstuy. 

' The wise, fbi^cure, on exercise depend ; 
God never made his work for man to mend.— Dbtdbn. 

Bbtslatiok, nature, reason, and high medical authority, all 
show the importance, and enforce the necessity of exercise. 
Hence we find the sovereign Father of the universe himself 
his son Jesus Christ, and the eternal Spirit, engaged in a variety 
of works of providence and of grace. If from the Deity we 
descend to angels, they are described as the most active minis- 
ters of God, which ** do his pleasure." And of the "great mul- 
titude" of redeemed souls, who come out of "great tribulation," 
we are told that they " rest not day and night," praising God. 

Descending from heaven to earth, the same law seems im- 
pressed upon all. Our own nature, which owes its growth, 
its improvement, its health, and pleasures— nay, even society 
itself owes to exercise its being, its continuance, and its com- 
forts. Yet not these alone enjoin the duty ; for we are sent, 
by high authority, to the animal world, to read there, in the 



plainest language, the repnx^ of thooe wlio disr^anl the dic- 
tates of their own nature — who liide their hands in their 
bosoms, and refuse to labor. For the condemnation of such. 
Providence hath created one animal (the American sloth), the 
very opprobrium of the race, to hold up to scorn a vice which 
brings with it disease and misery, and ** shall clothe a man 
with rags." 

From the divine, the angelic, the rational, the animal nature* 
we might proceed to the inanimate world. The heavenly bodies, 
which are ever moving, and the elements composing this lower 
world, arc all in the same useful motion, fulfilling the will of 
their groat Creator, and bearing testimony against man's indo- 
lence. A wise and benevolent Author must possess some end 
in the production of his works ; but this end, whatever it was, 
could never be promoted by inactivity, which is, in fact, the 
next in degree to non-existence. Even innocent Adam was 
put <' into the garden of Eden to dress it, and to keep it," 
showing that, though we may have abundance of this world's 
good, we are not exempt from labor. Motion is the soul of 
the universe, which is governed by the same laws as man. 
Hence, that the air and sea may not become injurious to the 
earth and its inhabitants, by the corruption which a dead still- 
ness would produce, they are violently agitated, not by the 
gentle, light winds, but by storms and tempests, whicli pu- 
rify the whole. Thus — 

" By ceaMlew action, all that is subsists; 
Constant rotation of the unwearied wheel 
That nature rides upon, maintains her health, 
Her beauty, her fertility. She dreads an instant's pause, 
And lives but while she mores." ^ » #fi t 

The structure of man's body,* as well as of his mind, plainly 

* Addison, after giving a description of the human body, says, *' The 
general idea of an animal body, without considering it in its niceties of 
anatomy, let us see how absolutely necessary exercise is for the right 
preservation of it There must be frequent motions and agitations, to 
mix, digjsst, and separate the juices contained in it, as well as to clear 

fiXERCISB. 147 

shows that he was never intended for a merely oontemplatiye 
fife ; and a thousand instances prove that exercise, health, and 
longevity are inseparable. Those whom poverty obliges to 
labor for daily bread are not only the most healthy, but gen< 
erally the most happy, and the longest livers. Industry and 
sobriety seldom fail to place them above want, and water, air, 
and exercise, the three best doctors, serve them mstead of 
physic. This is more peculiarly the case with those who live 
by the culture of the ground, and are consequently much ex- 
posed to all sorts of weather, and who take much exercise. 

The love of activity shows itself very early in man. So 
strong is this principle, that the healthy youth cannot be re- 
strained from it, even by the fear of punishment ; and this love 
of motion is surely a strong proof of its utility, because nature 
implants no dispositions in vain. It seems to be a universal 
law, through the whole animal creation, that no being, without 
exercise, should enjoy health, or be able to find subsistence. 
Every creature, except man, takes as much of it as b necessary. 
He alone, and such animals as are under his control, deviate 
from this original law, and hence suffer the just consequences. 

Inactivity never fails to induce a universal relaxation of the 
solids, which disposes the body to innumerable diseases ; for 
when the solids are relaxed, neither digestion nor any of the 
secretions can be duly performed, in which case the worst con- 
sequences ensue. And how can persons, who loll about all 
day in easy chairs, and sleep long nights on beds of down, fail 
to be relaxed ? Nor do such greatly mend the matter, who 
never stir abroad but in a coach, sedan, or such like. These 
elegant pieces of luxury are become so common^ that the in- 

and cleanse the infinitude of pipes and strainers of which it is composed, 
and to give their solid parts a more firm and lasting tone/' 

The number of muscles in the human body is 474, and that of the Ixmes 
247 ; and it is reasonable to conclude, that a very considerable degree of 
active corporeal exertion must be daily necessary, in order to afford «if- 
ficient exercise for so large a number of bodies, possessing great solidity, 
and exprenly formed for action. 


liafaitaDts of great towns seem to be in some danger of losing 
the use of their limbs alt<^ether. It is now thought, by some* 
to be below any one to walk, who can afford to be carried. 
How ridiculous would it seem, to a person not acquainted with 
modem luxury, to behold the young and healthy swinging 
along on the shoulders of their fellow-creatures ! or to see a 
iat carcass, oyeirun with disease occasioned by indolence and 
intemperance, dragged through the streets by half a dozen 
horses ! And though many of them have not exercise enough 
to keep their humors wholesome, yet they dare not make a 
visit to their next-door neighbor but in a coach, or sedan, 
lest they should be looked down upon. Strange that men 
should be such fools as to be laughed out of the use of their 
limbs, and to throw away their health, in order to gratify a 
piece of vanity, or to comply with a ridiculous and injurious 
fashion! But we abound in absurdity and inconsbtency : 
thus, though it is generally admitted that air and exercise are 
good, yet what means are made use of to avoid them ! what 
stopping of crevices; what wrapping up in warm clothmg; 
what shutting of doors and windows ! Many London families 
go out once a day to take an airing, three or four in a car- 
riage, one perhaps sick ; they go five or six miles, or as many 
turns in Hyde Park, with the glasses both up, all breathing 
over and over again the same air they brought out of town 
with them in the carriage, with the least possible change, and 
rendered worse and worse every moment ; and this they call 
taking exercise, or an airing! Our forefathers acted more 
wisely, and enjoyed the benefits arising therefrom. 

By chase oar long-lived fathen earned their food, 
Toil Strang their nerves, and purified their blood ; 
Bat we, their sons, a pamper'd race of men, 
Are dwindled down to three-score years and ten. 
Better to hont in fields, for health unbonght, 
Than fee the doctor for a nauseous draught. — Dryden. 

Voltaire gives us a very pleasant .story of Caul, a voluptu- 
ary who could be managed with difficulty by his physician^ 

EXERCISS. . 149 

and wfaoi on finding himself very ill from indolence and in- 
temperance, requested advice : " Eat a basilisk stewed in rose- 
water/' replied the physician. In vain did the slaves search 
for a basilisk, until they met with Zadig, who, approachii^ 
Ogul, exclaimed, ''Behold that which thou desirest; bat 
my lord," continued he, '' it is not to be eaten ; all its virtues 
must enter through the pores. I have, therefore, inclosed it 
in a little ball, blown up, and covered with a fine skin ; thou 
must strike this ball with all thy might, and I must strike it 
back again, for a considerable time, and by observing this 
•regimen, and taking no other drink than rose-water, for a few 
days, thou wilt see and acknowledge the effect of my art." 
The first day Ogul was out of breath, and thought that he 
should have died of fatigue ; the second he was less fatigued, 
and slept better ; in eight days he recovered all his strength. 
Zadig then said to him, '' There is no such thing in nature as 
a basilisk ! but thou hast taken exercise and been temperate, and 
hast there/ore recovered thy health,*^* 

Whosoever examines the accounts handed down to us of the 
greatest men, and of the longest livers, will generally find 
-they were most exposed, lived on plain, coarse food, and took 
much exercise. This is often mentioned as something sur- 
prising in them, whereas the truth is, this is the cause of that 
which we wondered at, and had they accomplished what they 
did, under other circumstances, we might have wondered at 
it. Labor is neither disadvantageous or disgraceful, but pro- 
fitable and JiiHiorable. The patriarchs and the distinguished 
sons of Jesse were shepherds, as were Moses and some of the 
prophets. Paul, though no mean scholar, was a tent maker. 
Cleanthes was a gardener's laborer, and used to draw water 
and spread it on his garden in the night, that he might have 
time to study during the day. Ho was the successor of 
Zeno. JSsop and Terence, whose names will live while lan- 

*The remarks made by Sir C. Scarborough to the DnchoM of Porta- 
moath, woald applj to the bon vivant generally : " Yoa moat eat 
take more exerciM— 4ake phyno— or be tick.'' 


giiRge UftMf were slayea. Gsesar studied in the eamp> swrbi 
rivers, holding his writings out of the waters in one haad ; 
while his clothing was spun and woven hy his sisters. Ma- 
homet made his own fires, swept his own house, milked his 
ewesy and mended his own shoes and. pantaloons. Charle- 
magne, gresi in war, and greater in peace, filled his palace 
with learned men, founded schools and academies through his 
dominions, and jet was so industrious that he could frame 
laws even to the selling of eggs. Of Gustavus Vasa it is saki, 
**A better labcnrer never struck steel."* Besides which we 
might refer to Alfred the Great, Dr. Franklin, Lord M<»i- 
boddo, Louis Philippe,f the late king of the French, etc;» 
etc. It is very doubtful if these men would ever have been 
so distinguished as they are, had they not been brought to 
the endurance of such privations and fatigues of body. These 
rendered their minds vigorous, their understandmg clear, their 
perceptions acute, and all their mental faculties not only bright 
and elevated, but preserved them even in advanced life. 

The immense advantage of exercise may be seen, if we con* 
nder that, ** the more exercise any person takes, the lai^er is 
the quantity of oxygen he inhales, and the warmer he be- 
cmnes ; consequently the person who takes but little exercise, 
inhales but little oxygen, loses, in a great measure, its warm* 
ing, vivifying, and strengthening agency. (See Appendix, U.) 
When there is a deficiency of oxygen in the system, the black 

* It u astonishing what can be done by diligence and peneTeranc*. 
The veiy earth trembles at the stroke of an undivided mind. That &- 
moos distorber and scourge of mankind, Charles XII. of Sweden, used 
to say, that, by resolution and perseverance a man might do every thing. 
Certainly he may do much more than at first setting out he tiiought it 

t Loois Philippe had been taught from his youth to wait upon himself; 
to despise all sorts of effeminacy ; to sleep habitually on a wooden bed, 
with no covering but a mat ; to expose himself to heat, cold, and rain ; 
to accustom himself to fatigue by daily exercise, and by walking ten or 
fifteen miles with leaden soles to his shoes. See " Chambers' Miscellany 
of Useful and Entertaining TracU«" 


blood frcm the y&sb is but imperfectly changed by the air in 
the lungs, and a blood unfit for the purposes of life flows 
through the body ; the consequence of which is — ^must be — ^a 
falling off in the health to a greater or less extent. Hence 
arises those very prevalent affections — chilliness, languor, low 
spirits, headaches of different kinds, fsuntings, palpitations, stu- 
por, apoplexy, etc." 

In fact, so important and necessary is exercise, that without 
it, none of the various processes connected with the important 
functions of digestion could be properly performed. The 
health of all parts, and the soundness of their structure, de- 
pend on perpetual renovation ; and exercise, by promoting at 
once absorption and secretion, invigorates life, renovates all 
the parts and organs, and renders them fit for all the purposes 
of health and longevity. It also mainly contributes to the 
proper circulation of the blood, and insures its imbibing the 
wholesome influences of the atmosphere, which, as shown 
above, form a principal source of our well-being. A brisk cir- 
culation animates the whole man, whereas deficient exercise, 
or continued rest, weakens the circulation, relaxes the muscles, 
diminishes the vital heat, checks perspirations, injures the di- 
gestion, sickens the whole frame, and thereby renders the in- 
dividual subject to all attacks which disease may make upon him. 

Indolence* not only occasions disease, and renders men use- 
less to society, but actually injurious, for 

" Satan finds some miflchief still, 
For idle hands to do.t"— Watts, 

1\> say a man is idle is but little better than to say he is 
wicked. The mind, if not engaged in some useful pursuit, is 

* Addison' says, " An idle body is a monster in the creation ; all nature 

is busy about him.'' . A modem poet has beautifully shown that 

** Nature lives by toil ; 
Beasts, birds, air, fire, tiie beaveiM and rolKng worlds, 
All live by action : notiiiog lies at rest, 
Bat death and ruin. Man is born to care ; 
FaahJonM, Improved by labor." 

There are bnt very few who know how idle and innocent. 


coDstantly in quest of idk pkasHre, or mipraased with tlie 
apprehension of some imaginaiy evO. From these sources 
proceed most of the miseries of mankind. This applies par* 
ticularlj to the aged, who bj no means ought to give way to a 
remission of exercise, since motion is the tenure of life. By de- 
grees, the demand may sink to Utile more than a bare quit-rent ; 
but that quit-rent must be paid, since life is held by the tenure. 
The following reasons, in addition to what has been said 
before, show the value of exercise : 

1. Your life will probably be prolonged by it. It is little 
less than suicide to neglect that, without doing which you are 
almost sure to shorten your days. The Creator has not so 
formed the body, that it can endure to be confined, without 
exercise, while the mind bums and wears upon its enei^es and 
powers every moment. 

2. You will enjoy more with than without exercise. This 
remark is to be applied only to those who exercise daily ; and 
to such it does apply with great force. Every one who is in 
this habit will bear ample testimony to this point. 

8. You will add to tbe enjoyment of others. A cheerful 
companion is a treasure ; and all will gather around you as 
such, if you are faithful to yourself ; for exercise will make you 
cheerful, and cheerfulness will make you friends. 

4. Your mind will be strengthened by exercise. The medi- 
cal poet has justly observed, 

** *T'm the great art of life to manage well 
The reatiefls mind ;" 

and that by neglecting exercise, and injuring the bodily healthy 
you also 

** The moat important health. 
That of the mind, destroy/' 

Were you wishing to cultivate a morbid, sickly taste, which 
will, now and then, breathe out some beautiful poetic images, 
or thought, like the spirit of some most refined essence, too 
delicate to be handled or used in this matter-of-fact world, and 
too ethereal to be enjoyed, except by those of like palate, you 

BXB&CIBB. 158 

shut yourself up in your room for a few ^ears, tOl your nerves 
only continue to act, and the world floats before you as a 
dream. But if you wish for a mind that can fearlessly dive into 
what is deep, soar to what is high, grasp and hold what is 
strong, and move and act among minds ccmscious of its strength, 
firm in its resolre, manly in its aims and purposes, be wre to 
be regular in taking exercise. 

We shall conclude our remarks on this head by a few oi Dr. 
£. Johnson's concluding observations, in that invaluable work, 
"Life, Health, and Disease." 

If you would preserve your health, therefore, exercise, severe 
exercise-^proportioned, however, to your strength — ^is the only 
means which can avail you.* Recollect, the body must be dis- 
organized, wasted, sweated, before it can be nourished^ With 
plentiful bodily exertion, you can scarcely be ill; without 
bodily exertion you cannot possibly be well. By " well,'' I 
mean the enjoying as much strength as your system is capable 
of-^but by exertion and exercise, I do not mean the petty 
affair of a three miles' walk : I mean what I say — ^bodily exer- 
tion, to the extent of quickened breathing and sensible per- 
spiration, kept up for three or four hours out of the twenty- 
four — say, four or five miles before breakfast, four or five 
before dhmer, four or five early in the evening ; or to save the 
evening for other purposes, a healthy man may walk a dozen 
miles before breakfast, with an advantage to himself which will, 
in a week or two, perfectly astonish him. Most men, even the 
operative manufacturers and shop keepers, may do this, if they 
will take the trouble to rise early enough; and fortunately 
the exercise taken before breakfast is worth all that can be 
taken afterward. (See Appendix, Y.) 

But — I beg your pardon — I must make another short quo- 
tation, which has this moment occurred to me—one which* 
though exceedingly short, embodies in itself the truth and 
wisdom of a hundred volumes : it is the following brief aphor- 
ism of the late Mr. Abemethy, with which I shall conclude— 
"If you would be well, live upon sixpence a day and earn it/* 







Mott bletMd water! neither tongue cea tell 

llie bletsedneM thereof; no heart can think, 
Save only tfaoae to whom it hath been g^Ten, 

To taale of that dirineat gift of Heaven. 
I stooped and drank of that divineat well, 

Freah from the rock of agea where It ran ; 
It had a heavenly quality to 9>ell 

All pain : I roae a renovated man ; 
And would not now, when that relief waa known, 
For wurlda that needful auffering have forgone. 

Notwithstanding the efficacy of the hydropathic mode of 
treatmg^ diseases, if we consider the contempt in which every 
thing else is held, which is thought to be new, is it not surpris- 
ing that many should be found skeptical as to its ultimate suc- 
cess 1 But amidst all the opposition with which it has had to 
contend, it has effected wonders, and produced an unparalleled 
sensation throughout the land. 

Without attempting a defence of the water cure, which has 
been ably done by Drs. E. Johnson, Courtney, Wilson, etc., we 
shall pass on to give what appears to have been the most 
simple and efficacious plans pursued ; reminding our readers, 
that those who are not suffering from hereditary disease, and 
who follow nature, will not need to have recourse even to 
these. In cases of diseases of long standing, of a complicated 
nature, and which affect the more vital parts of the body, it is 

WATBll. 155 

not recommended to the patient to treat himself, but to place 
himself, if possible, under the care of some one who has studied, 
and understands the principles of the care.* We refer all 
those who wish to understand it, to the authors before named, 
by whom the principles are explained ; the various modes of 
application given ; and the practice defended ; though not in 
that simple and plain manner we could have desired. This, 
however, may be accounted for, seeing they wrote for the in- 
formation and direction of medical men, in whose hands they 
wish to keep the cuce ; hence the free use of medical tech- 
nicality, with which their works abound. 

Patients who perspire in the morning, should commence 
drinking small doses, at short intervals, during the process of 
sweating, in order to keep up and promote the perspiration, 
and to cool important internal organs. Too much should not 
be taken, as it would check perspiration. A short time after 
breakfast, one glass of cold water should be taken every 
quarter or half hour, according to circumstances. A copious 
use of cold water during meals, if you are resolved to use hot, 
fat, and indigestible food, cannot be too strongly recommended* 
Let eadi, however, test by experunent how much he ought 
to use, as he al<me is judge in the case. One grand criterion 
by which he may judge of the proper quantity of water to be 
taken generally is, when shivering takes place — ^in which case 
the patient should cease for a tiaie, and have recourse to ex- 
ercise, the sure means of removing any ill effects. 

Under the head of the internal uses of cold water, we may 
classify injections into the different parts of the body ; such as 
the throat, ears, etc. The syring^f is of great importance in 

* Though all curable diseaBes are curable by hydropathy, yet there 
are diieaaea, such as where the general flyBtem is bo fiur weakened as not 
to have snfiScient energy left to enable .the patient to tmdergp the treat- 
ment—disease of the langs— organic defects— where the patieqt con only 
be relieve4* 

t ^ bone syringe can be procared for ninepence, and v^ae^ ^thq^t f^ 

secon4 perBpn. 


all diseases of the abdomen. In tome dangerous cases, ten or 
twelve injections have been §^ven in one day ; but they should 
be used as sparingly as possible. They should seldom exceed 
one or two daily, and in some cases tepid water will answer 
better than cold, especiallj in commencing the treatment with 
very irritable persons. 

The different processes of the cold water treatment consist 
in ablutions — the i-ubbing wet sheets — ^the wet sheet to lie in 
— wet bandages-^^sweating in the blankets — and the various 
baths. To promote and increase the effects of cold water, used 
internally, it is applied externally in a variety of ways, acc<ml-* 
ing to the objects to be fulfilled in the treatment. We may 
first mention the 


which should be used by all persons, in health to preserve it» 
and in disease to cure it. The best time for these is the morn- 
ing, immediately after rimng from bed, before dressing, and 
before the body has become chilled. The patient must take 
exercise afterward, if possible, in the open air. Very great 
invalids only may be allowed, after washing, to retire to bed. 
The time required is only about five minutes, and the method 
is very simple, and can do no harm. The mode of taking the 
ablution is as follows : The patient stands in a spacious vessel 
(so that the water which runs off may not soil the room — 
where this is of moment, a large thick cloth should be spread 
under the vessel, and extend some distance beyond it); the 
naked, hand, or a large sponge, is dipped in the water, and 
conveyed briskly for some three or four minutes, over the 
whole surface of the bodyr-^e quicker the better. (See Ap- 
pendix, W.) Water may also be poured on the head ; but all 
persons, especially at first, are not able to bear the latter ap- 

Another plan is, the patient has a wet sheet (not well wrung 
out as for sweating), tlirowil orer the head and body, wM«h 

WAT£B. 157 

creates a BeD8ati(»i, or slight shock, and is an excellent tonk. 
In this he remains one, two, or three nainutes, or even more, 
if there he much heat in the system ; one or two persons should 
assist the patient un well ruhhing the body while in the sheets 
and also with a dry one after the wet one is removed. The 
rubbing should be applied more vigorously to the parts dis- 
eased, if any. If this course be regularly attended to, with 
drinking freely of cold water, it will be found of great value to 
persons suffering from gout, in its infancy, nervous irritability, 
or weakness of the skin, etc. Let any person try it, and he 
will soon become a convert to our opinions. 

If there were arguments needed to convince any of its im- 
portance, to all classes of the community, we need only call 
attention to the structure of that most important, but grossly 
neglected organ — the skin. The importance of a correct per- 
formance of its functions, is thus clearly shown by Dr. K 
Johnson. ** When the great exteait of the skin is considered — its 
structure — ^its great sensibility — ^its exceeding vascularity — and 
the great abundance of nerves with which it is supplied — it 
cannot be doubted, I think, that so elaborate a piece of ma- 
chinery was constructed in order to fulfill some very important 
functions in animal Fife. And whatever those functions noay be, 
it must manifestly contribute to the due performance <^ those 
functions to keep the skin clean, and have it frequently re- 
freshed by general ablutions. And again, whatever its func- 
tions may be, it must, I think, materially interfere with them 
to have the skin constantly covered from contact with cold air, 
wliich all experience proves to be so invigorating to the system 
generally, and to have it perpetually snteared and choked up 
with the grease of perspiration. Thus the skin is seen to be 
the most important and extensive organ of the human body ; 
the greatest medium for purifying it; and every moment a 
multitude of useless, corrupted, and worn-out particles evap- 
orate through its numberless small vessels,* in an insensible 

* Obfitnicted penpiration is the cause of manj of the moat painfal d]*> 
Olden of mankind ; which we abali be eoBvineed ol^ if we connder tet 


manner. This secretion is inseparatelj conneeted with life, 
and ihe due circulation of the blood. 

If we were in a state of nature, the outward fur, by playing 
upon the surface of the skin, would dry up, and carry off this 
moisture, as soon as it reached that surface. But in our artifi- 
cial state, the air never being permitted to blow upon our 
bodies, they being covered three or four deep, with wrappings 
of various sorts, to exclude that axr, which we appear to dread 
as if it would be death, our skins become clogged, and, by 
degrees, as we get older, the accumulation of stucco increases, 
becoming daily more and more impervious, until at length we 
get crusted over with a substance similar to Roman cement, or 
plaster of Paris! And yet we expect to have our health! 
Impossible ! Disease must be the consequence, sooner or later. 
On the other hand, were the state of the skin well attended to, 
these horrid complaints, the gout, rheumatism, nervousness, 
and a thousand other miseries, to which we are now subject^ 
would cease to be ; and the annoying visitation of colds would 
no longer afflict us. Ancient history lells us that the perspi- 

a healthy penon of middle station, perspires, within twenty-foar hoan, 
no lets *V»»n from three to six poands, as was proved by the experiments 
of Sanctorias, who, to ascertain this fact, passed more than twenty years 
of his life in the weighing chair. It is thns, that the system expek, throagh 
the pores, ** noxious matters, which, if retained in the body by a constricted 
skin, cannot be otherwise than productive of serious consequences; for 
this extensive outside covering is a neceteary outlet for the wastes of na- 
ture, and discharges, when in a healthy state, more than the lungs, blad- 
der, and bowels together. By microscopic inspection, it is fiiUy proved, 
that the surface of the skin resembles a very scaly fish ; those scales aro 
so small, that a space occupied by a grain of sand, will cover 250 of them. 
On examining one of these scales by a highly magnifying power, it is 
clearly seen that one scale covers 500 pores, or holes through which 
perspiration escapes ; consequently, the space occupied by a grain of sand, 
say the twentieth part of an inch, includes and covers 125,000 pores. 
What then must the surface of the whole skin cover % This is beyond all 
calculation, equally true and wonderful. Hence, it is proved to a de- 
monstration, that the skin is constructed to answer the most important 
porpotes in the animal economy. See Dr. Graham " On the Skin.*' 

WATSJl* 150 

ration from the body of Alexander the Great was sweet to the 
smell — something like as if it were perfumed. (See Appendix, 
X.) So are the exudations from the bodies of all persons in 
a perfectly clean and healthy state. They know no more what 
the word dyspepsia means, experimentally,, than do their 
ploughboys: their days are unclouded, their nights undis- 
turbed, and existence to them is real delight. On the other 
hand, the skin being the seat of feeling, persons whose skin is 
weak have generally a sensation much too delicate for either 
health or enjoyment ; they laugh or cry at the veriest trifles, 
showing great mental as well as physical weakness ; and are 
so internally and externally afflicted by every variation of the 
atmosphere, that at length they become real barometers. 
Such a constitution is called the rheumatic, and arises chiefly 
from want of strength in the skin to perform its functions. It 
is also not to be forgotten, that the skin is the grand assistant 
of nature, in the removal, as well as in the prevention of dis- 
ease; and that a man with open pores, and a skin sufficiently 
vigorous, may depend on being cured much more easily, and 
with more certainty. Without a sound skin, there can be no 
complete restoration. 

That such an organ must be a great support of health and 
longevity, no one can deny ; and rt is therefore astonishing 
that, with all our progress in knowledge, we should have neg- 
lected it so much ; that, instead of paying that attention to it 
which its importance demands, we should, from pur infancy* 
have done every thing in our power to relax and weaken it, 
and to stop up its pores. Hence we have neglected washing 
and rubbing all over us, bathing, etc., and have substituted 
warm rooms, beds, and clothing. Is not this irrational ? and 
when we pursue quite a different course with our horses, is it 
not unaccountable? The most ignorant person is convinced 
that proper care of the skin is indispensably necessary for the 
existence and well-being of horses, and of various other ani- 
mals. The groom often denies himself sleep, and other grati- 
fications, that he may curry his horses sufficiently. If they 


become meagre and weak, the first reflection is, whether l^ere 
may not have been some neglect in regard to cleaning them. 
Such a simple idea, however, never occurs to him in respect to 
his children. If they grow feeble and sickly, if they pine away 
and are afflicted with worms in the external parts of the body, 
all the consequence of dirtiness,* he thinks rather <^ drugs, of 
witchcraft, and of other absurdities, than of the real cause- 
that is, neglecting to keep the skin clean and hard, by wash- 
ing, rubbing, and exposure to the lur as much as possible. 
Since we show so much prudence and intelligence in regard to 
animals, why not in r^;ard to man ? 

AUutions, though alone of great value, in some cases, are 
for the most part preparations for a more powerful system of 
treatment The first five or six may be tepid ; afterward they 
should be quite cold. Continued for a quarter of an hour, or 
longer, they act as a stimulant and refrigerant; if for a shorter 
time, they have a strengthening and exhilarating effect, and 
tend to equalize the circulation of the blood. They are fitted 
for all constitutions, even for women, children, and persons of 
old age. After ablutions, as regards mildness of operations^ 
follow the various baths ; as the 


which consists in regularly rinsing the mouth with water, which 
is retained for several seconds, and, by bending the head back- 
ward, is brought in contact with the posterior faucus, which 
also requires cleansing. This bath deserves especial recom- 
mendation, as an excellent tonic, a purifier of the mucous mem- 

* '' We speak from experience," sayt Dr. M. Syder, " when we de- 
clare it to be onr opinion, that if both sexes were to wash their whole 
bodies as often as they do their hands and &ces, they wotild escape a 
mnltitade of diseases, local as well as general, or constitational. Inferior 
animals set us an example in this respect; yet ' reasoning man* is a more 
filthy animal than can be found in the creation. If we pursue him in his 
whole length of life, a pig (filthy as it is) is a clean, delicate piece of ani- 
nation to htm." 

WATER. 101 

brane and sftBvary glands ; its salutary effects extend, also, to 
the remote organs, which are not brought in contact with the 
water. The 


consists in repeatedly drawing cold water up the nose, and 
again expelling it ; and is of great use in colds of the head, in 
solving obstructions, and strengthening the structures. 


are generally understood, if not sufficiently used. Very weak 
persons had better begin their use with tepid water, and they 
will soon prefer cold. They are of great use in diseases re- 
quiring repeated sweatings for their cure, and for patients who, 
in consequence of congestions, and diseases of the chest, cannot 
bear the full baths after the process of sweating. They should 
be in common daily use in all families, who wish to keep out 
of the hands of the doctor. 


is of essential service. The sheet, when used in rubbing, is 
not so well wrung out as when otherwise used. The patient 
standing, it is thrown over the head and body, which creates a 
slight shock ; friction is then used actively, by the patient (if 
able), and by an attendant. '(See Appendix, Y.) This is con- 
tinued for one or Gve minutes. After the sheet is removed, 
the process is completed by friction with a dry sheet, till a 
glow is produced. This is a fine tonic, and has been very use- 
ful to Sir F. B — ^n and others, who, though induced reluctantly 
to try it, were perfectly astonished at its effects. 


is one of the pnncipal means employed in the hydriatic treat- 
ment. A large, coarse linen sheet is dipped in cold water. 


well wrung out, aiid spread smoothly upon a mattntts upon 
which a blanket has been previously laid; the patient reclkes 
upon this sheet, and the body is then carefully enveloped in it. 
It should be wound tight round the body. Two or three blan- 
kets should then be thrown over the patient, and well tucked 
in, so as to exclude the air. (See Appendix, Z.) If this does 
not sufficiently promote perspiration, let a light feather-bed be 
added. Hie first impression of the sheet is certainly disagree- 
able; the feeling of cold, however, passes away in about a 
quarter of a minute, or rather more, in cases where the patient 
has not much animal heat, and is then succeeded by a pleasant 
coolness, a genial warmth, and ends in perspiration. This, 
however, is not at all times desirable. The nature of the dis- 
ease, and the object to be gained, must determine this case, as 
also the time the patient- should remain in the covering. 

The wet sheets are of remarkable utility in all febrile dis- 
eases. In acute fevers they must be changed according to the 
degree of heat — perhaps every quarter of an hour — ^until the 
dry, hot skin of the patient becomes softer, and more prone to 
perspiration. When that symptom is observed, the renewal of 
the wet sheet may be delayed for a longer period, until per- 
spiration actually ensues. The patient must then remain for 
several hours in this state, until uneasy sensations and other 
inconveniences render it necessary to extricate him ; but it is 
more advisable to keep him in the loosened envelopment until 
perspiration ceases spontaneously, when a tepid ablution, or 
half bath, should follow. This mode of treatment immediately 
abstracts morbid heat, lowers the pulse, relieves headache, aiid 
thirst in most cases, and that without in any degree enfeebling 
any function of the frame. If there should be headache, let 
it be removed by cold applications to the part; or if the 
feet remain cold for a long time, let them be wrapped in a dry 
blanket In acute eruptions of the skin — measles, scarletina, 
small-pox, etc. — the wet sheets are not less serviceable, when 
the eruption cannot make its way to the surfiace, in consequence 
of the dxy state and heat of the skin, and of the violence of the 

WATEB. 168 

fever, or where the rash has receded snddesly, owmg to other 
disturbances. In both cases the wet sheets are of essential ser- 
vice ; one application of them suffices sometimes to re-establish 
the eruption. If the rash fail to make its. appearance after the 
first or second envelopment, cdd affusion is to be preferred. 
In a hot summer's day, after a long, but not very fatiguing 
walk, few things can exceed the refreshing, calming influence 
of a wet sheet. It is then far more refreshing than a tepid 
bath. It instantly cools the surface, relieves the spirits, and 
induces sleep ; these effects render it of eminent service in nerv- 
ous affections, and some states of diseased minds. 


is another mode of producing perspirationi and is perhaps the 
most disagreeable part of the treatment ; although the patient 
soon becomes reconciled to it, because the unpleasant sensa- 
tions are succeeded by the relief occasioned by the commence- 
ment of perspiration, which \^ much increased by the air that 
enters by the window, which at this time may with impunity 
be thrown open. (See Appendix, AA.) The mode is, the 
patient is enveloped in a large coarse blanket, the legs extend- 
ed, and the arms kept close to the body ; the blanket is then 
wound round it as tight as possible, confining it well at the 
neck and under the feet, that the heat given off by the body 
may be well retained. Over this is placed, and well tucked in, 
another blanket or two, and then a small feather-bed ; finally 
a counterpane is spread over all, to promote perspiration. As 
soon as this appears, the windows are thrown open, and the 
patient allowed a wme-glass of cold water every half hour. 
Diseased parts are bandaged with a damp cloth before the pa^ 
tient is enveloped in the sheet. If headache be induced, a 
damp cloth is applied. The duration of the sweating depends 
on the nature of the disease and the constitution of the indi- 
vidual. In most cases, the patient has sweated long enough 
when the perspiration bresks out on the face ; when the attendr 


ant takes off all but the blanket, in which the patient proceeds 
to the bath m straw shoes, having the face, and those parts of 
the legs and feet which are exposed to the ur, damped with a 
cold wet cloth. Haying arrived there, he washes his head, 
neck, and chest, and then plnnges into the bath, where he re- 
mains from two to six minutes. Some people sweat every day, 
others alternate days, or only on the third day. The redness 
induced in the spine of the patient, after using the cold bath, 
is considered the touchstone to detemune the strength the pa- 
tient possesses to contend with the disease. Many patients are 
not allowed to sweat at all— perhaps not more than one half — 
and considerable difference as to the time is observed. Some are 
kept in the blankets for an hour— *two hours — and some even 
three. Some will perspire in a quarter of an hour, while others 
require from three to five hours for that purpose. This treat- 
ment is of great service m gout, rheimiatism, fever, scrofula, 
cutaneous diseases, and many other complaints. The morning, 
from four to six o'clock, is the best time for sweating. After 
the bath, patients who can walk, or take other exercise, should 
dress quickly, go mto the open air, drink cold water, and after- 
ward take a rational breakfast. 


is generally used as a stimulant and tonic, when the full bath 
wotdd be too powerful for the patient — and serves as a pre- 
parative to it. (See Appendix, B6.) The water is between 
fifty-nine and seventy-seven degrees of Fahrenheit ; from three 
to six inches deep ; continued from five minutes to an hour ; and 
generally employed after the patient has been in the wet sheet. 
He sits down in it, and cold water is either sprinkled or poured 
over him, after which, friction, and exercise in the open air, must 
be actively used. If this bath be intended as a preparation for 
more active treatment, it must be of short duration ; but if the 
object be to produce a derivative effect — ^to remove congestions 
from other organs — the duration of the baths must be regu- 


lated by the effects. The patient must remain in ihem until 
revulsion is produced. 


IB sometimes used after the sweating process, at other times 
without the preyious part of the treatment. The effects are 
stimulating and strengthening, but it also acts as a powerful 
depressor ; it is necessary, therefore, that sufficient vital energy 
should exist in the patient using it, to produce a full and proper 
degree of reaction after its employment. It also requires cau- 
tion, and should never be taken, if there is reason to doubt the 
capabilities of the person being able to withstand the sudden 
depressing effects, or where there is congestions, inflammations 
of the internal organs, or diseases of the chest. The patient» 
after wetting his head and chest quickly, should enter the bath 
at once, as "delay is dangerous.'' Half a minute, or one min- 
ute, is generally sufficient. 


may be taken, by the patient who is not able to plunge him- 
self, by being laid upon a sheet held by several persons, which 
is quickly plunged into the water, and again withdrawn. The 
object of these baths is nearly the same as that of the former, 
but their action is more stimulating. One, or, for the most, 
&ye plunges, suffice to cool the body ; in obstinate nervous 
fevera, however, they are occa^onally to be repeated several 
times in the course of the day. (See Appendix, CO.) There 
are also 


by which we understand baths of tepid or cold water, into 
which a portion of the body is plunged, and in which it re- 
mains immersed for a certain time. Their action is more pow- 
erful than that of local ablutions. 



are used for rheumatic pains in the head, common headaches, 
rheumatic inflammations of the eye, deafness, loss of smell and 
taste. They tend to disturb the morbid humors which nature 
generally evacuates in the form of abscesses in the ears. They 
are also used to prevent or cure the flow of blood to the head ; 
but in this case only for a few minutes, in order to avoid too 
great a reaction ; and should be followed by exercise in the 
open air in the shade. This bath is used as follows : a wash 
hand basin should be placed at the end of a rug on the floor. 
On this rug the patient should extend himself, so that his head 
may reach the basin, at the bottom of which may be placed a 
towel, for the head to rest upon. Then the back of the head 
must be placed in the water — first on one side and then the 
other ; lastly, the back part of the head is again placed in the 
water. In chronic inflammations of the eyes, each part of the 
head should remain in the water for fifteen minutes ; and as 
long for deafness, loss of smell and taste. All this will occupy 
an hour, during which time the water should be renewed twice. 
If these baths are continued with perseverance, success is cer- 
tain. This success is generally announced by violent headache, 
until the formation of an abscess takes place, which ends by 
breaking. For the common headaches, the back part of the 
head may be exposed to the water from ten to fifteen minutes ; 
if they are obstinate, a foot bath and a sitz bath, both slightly 
chilled, should be used for half an hour each. If necessary, 
this process may be repeated several times in the course of the 


is taken in a vessel or tub so constructed that the patient can 
remain for the necessary time in a sitting posture ; say, from a 
quarter of an hour to an hour. The bath is made of wood or 
zinc ; the latter is the best. The height of the pedestal of the 
vessel should be four inches, the diameter seventeen inches. 


the hmer depth nine inches, and the hdght of the baek seven 
inches. The depth of the water should seldom exceed four 
inches, in order that the reaction maj be the sooner effected. 
If thej produce headache, apply a wet bandage. The best 
time for uung this bath is an hour before dinner, or before 
going to bed. In the latter case there is the advantage of 
securing a night's rest to the patient. In order to secure the 
object sought, the patient should rub the abdomen well with 
his wet hand or with flannel, and not fail to take exercise in 
the open air both before and after. If the bath is to act as a 
stimulant, the water must be very cold, not exceeding 41o of 
Fahrenheit, two inches deep, and continued for five minutes ; 
where it is to have a tonic action, the temperature should be 
from 50^ to 57^ and continued from ten to fifteen minutes. 
These are to be repeated frequently during the day. This 
bath is in general use, and of great service in drawing the 
humors from the head, chest, and abdomen; it relieves flatu- 
lency, and is of the utmost value to the sedentary and studious. 


which are employed almost exclusively as a comiteracting 
agent against the pains of the upper part of the body, may be 
taken in a small tub, at the depth of one or two inches, and 
continued from fifteen to thirty minutes. When the water 
becomes warm it should be changed. Care' should be taken 
that the feet are warm before they are put into the water, and 
exercise should be taken immediately after to bring back the 
heat to them. Rubbing them with a dry hand assists this 
very much. Cold foot baths are sure means of preventing 
tendency to cold feet ; the application of hot water only weak- 
ens the skin, and renders the feet more susceptible to cold. 


'is a term applied to the mode of applying single drops of very 
cold water, which fall from a height of several fathoms, on a 


psHKvIar part of the body, at certain intervals, between which 
the part is briskly rubbed. It produces violent excitement 
and irritation of the nenrous system ; and should not iher^ore 
be applied to the vital parts, or such as are abundantly sup- 
plied with nerves. They are of great use in chronic cases of 


IS used for whitlows, etc. The finger is placed in a glass of 
cold water, three times a day, fifteen minutes each time ; the 
finger and hand bandaged ; then the elbow must be placed in 
wfltor twice a ^y, and a heating bandage placed on the arm 
aboye it ; this will haye the effect of drawing the inflammation 
fioom the hand. 


u used when these parts are afflicted with ulcers, ringworms, 
or fixed rheimiatic pains. They act as stimulants, and may 
be used for an hour, and sometimes longer. They always de- 
termine abscesses, and where they already exist, they cause an 
abundant suppuration. 


of all means employed, is the most powerful in moving bad 
humors lodged in the system : it is used in the greater number 
of chronic diseases, and consists of a column of water about the 
thickness of one's wrist> conducted through a pipe, having a 
fall of from twelve to twenty feet. This is used with a view 
to invigorate weak parts, on which the water is made to fall, 
except the head and chest. It is used from two to ten min- 
utes, and the patient soon becomes delighted with its invigor- 
ating effects. The time for douching is one hour after break- 
fast, and two after dinner ; but * should never be taken when 
the body is cold. (See Appendix, DD.) Active exercise 
should follow and cold water should not be drank immediately 

WATta* 169 

after, as a rapid generation of heat is thus impeded. Besides 
the above, there are tihe cold bandages, and the stimidatrng, 
strengthening, or heating bandages. 


have two different operations, each of which is distinct from the 
other : one is in that of cooling the part to which they are applied, 
and the other that of raising its temperature. Where the former 
eifects are sought, the cloths should be of a size suited to the part 
inflamed, folded six or eight times, dipped into very cold wa- 
ter, gently expressed before application, and renewed every five 
minutes. In cases of inflammation of the brain, etc., the water 
should not be more than 44°, and should be continued night 
and day, until danger is averted. One omission of changing the 
wet cloths at the proper time, will be sufficient to frustrate the 
beneficial results, for violent reaction is only to be subdued by 
continued cold. There is no part to which a bandage is so 
frequently applied as round the body, over the stomach and 
bowels, for the purpose of increasing the heat of the stomach, 
and assisting digestion, from which results the formation of 
better juices. They are applied in an infinity of ways, and 
are very useful in many complaints; imparting tone to the 
nerves and vessels of the part to which they are applied. 
Those afflicted with complaints of the chest and throat, wear 
one round the neck, and on the breast at night ; those with 
weak and inflamed eyes, wear one at the back of the head and 
neck ; those who have weak digestion and are otherwise debili- 
tated, wear one round the waist all day, while gouty or rheu- 
matic persons have also their feet and legs encased in them by 
night. The umschlag or bandage is invariably applied to 
wounds, bruises, and generally diseased parts ; as also to any 
part of the body where pain is felt. Its assuaging power is 
almost incredible. They cure intestinal congestion, constipation, 
relaxation, and promote the exuding of bad humors, which is 
manifest by the color and odors which follow. (Appendix, E£.) 




coDBist of pieces of linen folded two or three times, and dipped 
in cold water, well wrung out, and applied to the part ; hav- 
ing been drawn lightlj round it, a dry bandage is added to 
prevent, as much as possible, the entrance of cold air. The 
clothes should be changed only when they begin to dry. 
These bandages may be worn day and night on any part of 
the body, and ore of great service in any afllictions of the 
abdomen. In the latter case, take a piece of linen, sufficiently 
large to go round^ the body twice, wet one foot of it, or more 
if necessary ; after it has been well wrung out, apply the wet 
part to the parts affected, which must be covered lightly by 
the dry parts, twice. 

Having thus spoken of the various modes of applying the 
water, we may proceed to a few of the diseases which are 
curable by these methods ; at the same time reminding our 
readers that we only throw out hints. First, because we 
deem prevention better than cure, and therefore beg to refer 
them to Chapter II., and in most cases tittle else will be need- 
ful ; and secondly, our limits being circumscribed, we cannot 
go into lengthened detdl ; but if our readers have money to 
purchase, time to read, mind to comprehend, and stand in 
need of more minute detail, they may possess it by procuring 
the "Hand Book of Hydropathy,'* etc., and a medical dic- 

The cases treated successfully by this mode are 


which has been properly denominated ** the> mother of most 
chronic diseases ;" and tibose who are afilicted by it are said 
to *' repose on a volcano, the devastating eruption of which is 
aitrays to be dreaded.*' 

Common sense teaches us that if the alimentary canal be- 
GooneB closed at the lower extremities, health must be ruined ; 

WATER. 171 

ds it induces disordered stomachs, depraved appetites, and 
itaapaired digestion. These preclude a sufficient supply of 
nourishment, hence, paleness, laxity, flaccidity, the nervous 
symptoms, wasting of the muscular flesh, languor, debility, 
the relaxation of the menses, the suspension of other excre- 
tions, serous effusions, dropsy, and death. 

The usual modes of combating thb evil are the most irra- 
tional and unsuccessful ; in fact they only tend to strengthen 
and perpetuate it. Hence it is impossible to describe the hor- 
rors produced by Morrison's and Parr's pills, and other pur- 
gatives, which have been taken by wholesale. These and all 
other unnatural and violent stimulants force on an unwilling 
action, and produce a temporary and deceitful calm, but re- 
action of a most prejudicial kind succeeds, and a terrible 
storm, which eonvukes the whole system, fdlows. And yet 
peopple cannot be persuaded that this habit of swallowing forc- 
mg medicines is the chief cause of all their sufferings, both of 
Blind and body. And here let it be distinctly understood, 
ihat the evil is not so much in the medicine as in the purg- 
ing^^the effect produced, not the agent which produces it. 
(See Appendix, FF.) 

To prevent or cure constipation, the hydropathic treatment 
IB more successful than any other yet attempted. But the 
greatest difficulty is in getting people to be firm and patient. 
They wish to realize effects in a few days which can only be 
brought about in months ; for it will often be found necessary 
to pursue the treatment for six or twelve months before the 
bowels will be brought to act naturally. But surely the boon 
is worth an effort, even a protracted one. The first matters 
to be attended to are, diet and exercise : let the patient, there- 
fore, read again the chapters on these subjects. Let him then 
commence in earnest, by rising early in the morning, sponge 
and rub himself well all over; drink freely of cold water, 
and take a brisk walk of three or four miles, or use other ex- 
ercise for an hour, so as to produce a glow of heat. When 
the coBtiveness baa been of several years standing, add sitz 


and foot fattUia, mnaeUags by day and vaghi, and douches oa 
the abdomen, to ooirect the we^ew of this part He will 
find this plan iar more effectual than all the tonic, aperient, 
and antibXoQS pills and potions, the announcement of which, 
and of their right honorable, and right leTcrend patrons, the 
advertinng colnmns of newspapers and magaanes are filled* 
This treatment has never Med to effect a cure, even in cases 
where there has been no natural evacuatic»s from the bowels 
for upward of thirty years. 


are of such frequent oecurrenoe, that one half of mankind is 
said to perish by them alone; but they hare iuTaiiaUy yi^ded 
to the cold-water treatment; so that of the thousands so 
treated by Priessniti, he is said . nerer to have lost a patient 
in fever. The general symptoms of this disease are increased 
heat, affections of the head and loins, weariness of the limbs^ 
rigors in various degprees, from shivering to chronic spasms ; 
the naib and lips are livid, and the skin is usually pale, cold, 
and dry, and the thirst is excessive. (See Appendix, GG.) 

During the treatment of fever the patient must abstain horn 
animal food, cheese, egg^ butter, and all stimulating food or 
drink. His food should be cold. He should drink nothing 
but cold water. The room must be well aired and dry. All 
excitement be avoided, and evacuation secured daily. He 
should lie on a mattrass, sleep as much as possible, and should 
never be waked under any circumstances. 

In the excitement of fever of any kind, the wet sheet, and 
cold or tepid ablutions are of the first importance. They 
speedily carry off the morbid heat, relieve pain, and tranquil- 
ize the pulse without in any degree adding to the debility of 
the various structures of the body, already sufficiently great. 
The propriety of drinking cold water also in fever is clearly 
indicated, and has proved most beneficial. Instances have 
gccuyd H Graefenbuig, of persons being kept in the half 
jHHpijfjjJhfl^ ^^ hours, and others being put in fnmi forty 


to fifty wet sheets in the course of twenty-four hours, with 
complete success. In the first appearance of fever, let the 
patient be wrapped in wet sheets, and let umschlags be ap- 
plied to the head at the same time. The latter are to be 
changed more frequently than the former, where there is vio- 
lent headache. The sheets must be repeated according to the 
degree of fever, every half hour or hour. If the patient be 
relieved after three or four applications, and his head be 
clearer, he may be washed with cold water, of about 55*^ ; 
after which he should take moderate exercise in his room, or 
if fine, in the open air. Thirst should at all times be relieved 
by cold water, but during the process of sweating, not so as 
to check it. During the ^whole process, the bowels should be 
kept open by bandages round the body, and by clysters, re- 
peated seven or eight times a day, if necessary ; in short, they 
must be contmued till an evacuation is efifected. The band- 
ages are not to be renewed before they are perfectly dry. 


is a formidable monster which s^pears in various shapes, the 
medical treatment of which is an act of insanity. Drugs are 
of no i}se here ; nay, they are injurious. Drs. Mudie and 
Bigel assert, with a perfect knowledge ai causes, and a deep 
conviction, founded upon innumerable and notable facts, that 
the sudorific process, and cold water, are the only means of 
curing this disease. The cure of the gout requires the appli- 
cation of the whole treatment. It should be felt on the entire 
system, before it be particularly applied to the parts afflicted. 
(See Appendix, HH.) The first object should be, by the su- 
dorific process, or baths, to relieve that excessive irritability of 
the skin, which is the source of so much pain ; adding to this, 
exercise in the open air. By degrees gouty subjects should 
leave off flannel, which they may do with impunity on the fifth 
or eighth day after treatment. When the patient is not too 
weak, he may go immediately to the douche, taken generally 


OTer the body* bat only for a few nunntes. It is only when 
be is able to sustain it easily that he should expose the suffer- 
ing part to it, to put the humors which are there established, 
in motion. Cold water must be taken freely ; the diet must 
be vegetable and scanty ; much exercise m the open ahr, and 
friction, by rubbing and brushmg the whole body, and of the 
affected parts particularly, are very necessary. If the patient 
be yoimg and strong, much perspiration is of the greatest im- 
portance, but with umschlags applied to the diseased parts. 
Few pass more than five or six weeks under the treatment 
without having the crisis, i. e., without being charged with 
eruptions or boils. On the appearance of the crisis, the 
douche, and process of perspiring, should be either moderated 
or remitted, in order not to augment the crisis. All that has 
been said above on gout and its treatment, equally applies to 


which bears such a great resemblance to it, that it is supposed 
to take the same origin. The principal means to be employed 
are the application of the wet sheets the first thing in the 
Bioming ; the next morning sweating in the blankets ; the third 
monmig wet sheets again, then the blankets, and so on alter' 
nately. After eaoh, a cold ablution ; a sits bsith daily at 
twdve o'clock, and a tepid one at six in the evening, with wet 
bandages over the painful parts. 

are very numerous, and arise from various causes. 


is the most dangerous, and may prove fatal. The general 
symptoms are — pain of the head, redness of the eyes, deafness, 
flushed face, singing in the ears, and intolerance of the light 
Hie patient is noisy, and evmces great strength ; has a hard 

WATBB. 175 

puke and a hot, dry sldn. The treatment ahould be as follows : 
The part of the head affected should be shaven immediately, 
and application of cold water laid over the whole head, and 
changed every five minates, or sooner if the bandages become 
warm; as much depends upon this point. Several napkins 
/ should be placed in very cold water, under 40^ if possible, 
and never above 50^ that the applications may follow in quick 
succession. To neglect this may be fatal. Sometimes there 
is great difficulty in getting the patient to drink, as they dis^ 
like water ; but this must be overcome, if possible. It is also 
of great importance that the bowels act freely. The head 
should be raised, the room kept quiet and well aired, and the 
light excluded. (See Appendix, II.) If aftw twenty-four 
hours no favorable symptoms appear — such as free perspiration, 
copious discharge of blood from the nose, the bleeding jnles, 
plentifitf discharge of urine, it is advisable to pour cold water 
over the whole body of the patient, and by the wet sheets and 
blankets seek to promote perspiration. If the patient be de* 
lirious, the nervous excitement must be allayed by cold affu- 
sions, not only of the head, but of the whole body. There are 
also infiammations of the throat, such as 


which dangerous disease is confined to a definite period of in- 
fancy, from two to the sixth or eighth year, and takes place 
in spring generally, or late in autumn. Plethoric children 
are most endangered by it. The premonitory symptoms are-^ 
hoarseness and fretfulness toward evening ; to this is added a 
dry, hollow cough, pulse hard, and the face flushed. As soon as 
the least of the above symptoms appear, the child should be 
wrapped in a well wrung wet sheet, and the umschlag applied 
round its throat, for the purpose of producing perspiration ; 
if the object be promoted, the patient be relieved, the cough 
loosened, and respiration become more free, he should be 
allowed to remain at least eight or ten hours in moderate per- 


spvatkn. This should be foHowed bj an ablation of cold 
water, at 65 to 70*, when the patient should be put to bed 
and lighUj covered, to keep up a slight action of the skin. As 
the disease is sometimes of a rerj insidious character, and maj 
retnm after all danger was thought to be passed, it n proper 
to wrap the patient again in wet sheets in the erening, even 
when he had passed the day farorably, and to renew the ap- 
phcatimis to the throat, foDowed by the ablution. For 


gaigle well and often with cold water ; rub the throat and 
chest sereral times a day with the hand dipped in cold water ; 
and wear a heating bandage round the neck and on the chest, 
during the night In some few stubborn cases the wet sheet 
is necessary, but generally the aboTe will be quite sufficient. 


commences, for the most part, suddenly, with a violent rigor, 
followed by heat, pain in the chest, shortness of breath, rest- 
lessness, palpitation of the heart» determination of blood to the 
head, and may be classed among the most dangerous diseases. 
It is therefore advisable that some one well versed in the 
water cure be consulted, if possible. Till this can be accom- 
plished, the patient may be wrapped in a well wrung sheet, a 
wet bandage (less wrung out) should be applied to his chest, 
and he should be laid in bed, with his head raised ; water may 
be given him from time to time of 64*. This temperature is 
best obtained by placing a bottle containing water, well closed, 
into hot water. If there be a dryness and heat of the skin, the 
sheets should be changed in half an hotir or an hour. The 
tepid bath must always fcMow each sweatbg. The reappear- 
ance of a discharge of blood is a very favorable symptom, and 
should be moderately promoted. (See Appendix, J J.) 

WATBB, 177 


18 attended with fixed pains and burmng heat in tlie 8t(»iaeli, 
nausea and sickness^ pulse hard> cold, clammy sweats, and pain 
upon taking any kind of food. To cure it the patient should 
take a half bath at 77^ the water of which reaches above the 
stomach. During the bath he should drink water in small 
doses (which has stood) ; but frequently while in the bath lua 
whole body should be washed and gently rubbed by two at- 
tendants. The patient should rub the region c^ the stomach 
himself as he can bear it. If the particular pain be somewhat 
abated after the lapse of a quarter of an hour, and the attack 
be modified, the patient should be couTeyed to bed, wrapped 
in a wet sheet, having previously applied a moderately wrm^ 
bandage over his stomach. When this becomes iiisome to 
him, let him take a tepid ablution, apply well wrung bandages 
round his body ; return him to bed, and r^ulate his covering 
so that he may be rather warm than cold.^ Here also obtain 
help if possible. 


is another of its dangerous forms, and is attended with burning 
pain in the vicinity of the seat of inflammation, which subse- 
quently spreads over the whole abdomen, and produces great 
heat. This is often succeeded by vomiting, convulsions, and 
fever. If it arises from a rupture, it should be immediately 
reduced by an experienced person, if possible, if it will not 
yield to very cold bandages. Success is sometimes obtained 
by means of baths of 91% in which the patient remains for an 
hour or longer, when he may be able to return the rupture 
himself. When the inflammation origmates in cold, it should 
be combated at first by clysters of moderately cold water, and 
by well wrung cloths applied to the whole ahdomeux, by cover- 
ing the body sufficiently, and drinking water in small quanti- 
ties, but frequently. 



imfLAiiMATioir or ths iim 

it genenlly chamcteriied by acate pain below (he ribB on the 
right lidey at the same time the part is very sensitiYe to the 
touch ; the pain is increased by stretching out the arm or 1^, 
also by taking a deep inspiration ; in fact, the whole of the 
light side more or less feels the pain. (See Appendix, EK.) 
In all diseases, bat this particnlarly, beware of mercury, and 
have recourse to cold ablutions every morning, with friction; 
wear the stimulating bandages ; take a uta bath two hours foe- 
fore dinner, and drink cold water freely, with exercise in the 
open air. The sudorific blankets should be used once or twice 
a week, or perhaps oftener, as the object should be to promote 
akin erisis. Dr. Weiss speaks of one of his patients passing a 
temarkably round gall stone, half an inch in diameter, and ra- 
ther more in length, as the result of the water treatment— 
n proof of its efficacy. 


is attended with sharp pain about the region of the kidneys, 
which is increased by coughing and vomiting, causing numb- 
ness in the thigh of the ailected side, and an inability to stand 
or walk. The padent lies with most ease on the side affected. 
The urine is generally voided by drops, and sometimes totally 
suspended. In the treatment, the wet sheets are to be re- 
peated more or less frequently, according to the degree of in- 
flammation; the same applies to the wet bandages, which 
should not be well wrung out, and changed every five or seven 
minutes, in severe cases. Cold water should be taken fre- 
quently, in small quantities, and clysters and sitz baths are of - 
great service ; but the water should be tepid at first. 


or breaking out on the skin, require little more than dietetic 
treatment, cleanliness, pure air, vegetable food, and nature's 



WATBR* 179 

beverage, to which may be added, if needed, the wet eheete. 
The greatest caution becomes necessarj to aydd snoh trash as 
*' Gowland*s lotion/' etc., etc, all of which tend to check, and 
throw the eruption inward, instead of enticing it to the surface 
of the skin. Thousands have been sacrificed in this manner. 
(See Appendix, LL.) 


attaeks chiefly the face and legs, but may present itself on any 
part of the body. It b often an effort of oature to relieve it* 
sdf of a dangerous humor by the skin, and should not be sub- 
mitted immediately to cold ablutions. The entire body should 
be subjected to the cure. Cold water should be taken fre- 
quently, in small doses ; the invalid should perspire in a wet 
sheet, and apply heating bandages to the diseased parts. 
Caie must be taken that the patient does not ehange the ban- 
dages too often, as they are apt to do, with a view of easing 
the pain ; {or, although every fresh application brings imme- 
diate relief, yet in this manner the exhalation from the sldn, 
which is most essential to recovery, might be easily interrupted. 
The great object should be to force a crisis of the skin quickly, 
and when ablutions are used, they should be tepid at first. 
This treatment^ which excludes all cold water ablutions, is al- 
ways successful, whereas no other is. 


are so well known as to need no description. The fever, which 
generally attends them, constitutes their chief danger. It is 
its violence which closes the pores, and prevents the breaking 
out of the eruptive matters, which would give general relief. 
Directly it is observed, the patient should be wrapped up in 
a wet sheet, which should be renewed when it becomes warm, 
if the fever be virulent ; but must not be carried too far, so aa 
to int^ere with the development of the eruption. The body, 
should npt be washed in col4 water, but slightly tepid. Ooii« 


gettioaB of the head and longs should be combated by coolipg 
applications, and the bowels kept regular by tepid clysters. 


is one of those diseases, the cure of which, even by hydro- 
pathy, can only be effected under certain conditions. The 
great object is to produce a crisis by copious sweating, or co- 
pious discharge of urine. Before enyeloping the patient in 
the wet sheet, the parts which are swcdlen, or the whole body, 
if the dressy be general, should be well rubbed, for ten min- 
utes, with a rough cloth, or horse-hair gloves. Provide the 
patient with a urinal when put in the sheet, and allow him to 
perspire as much as his constitution will bear — ^the more the 
better. As to persons being in danger of dropsy from water 
drinking, the idea is perfectly ridiculous : a case c^ the kind 
was never known, and we are persuaded never will be. 


require no other treatment than the bandages and the sweating 
process, under which, we must not be surprised at seeing them 
enlarge. If, however, this aggravation proceeds too far, the 
bandage must be dry, and the wounds must be bathed after- 
ward in lukewarm water. 


which Dr. T. G. Graham says can only be treated successfully 
by "warmth, opium, and salt,'' and to which "hydropathy is 
not at all applicable, has, however, been cured repeatedly by 
it, and by it alone. Its symptoms are general weariness, flatu- 
lency, nausea, a sense of oppression at the stomach, violent 
purging and vomiting, and constant desire to go to the water 
closet. The treatment should be a sitz bath, of the tempera- 
ture of 62""; aod jf there be headaahe, apply wet banda^. 

WATER. 181 

Let two or three persoiis be employed in oonstantly nibbing 
tbe stomach, abdomen, back, legs, and arms, with the hands 
frequently dipped in cold water, till the natural warmth is 
produced. In no cases is it so necessary to drink freely of cold 
water. Gases hare occurred in which from twenty to thirty 
glasses have been taken in an hour. (See Appendix, MM.) 


is thought to be incurable by water, but. only by those who 
are unacquainted with its efficacy. The treatment is the same 
as for ulcers, with the exception of the patient paispiring for a 
longer period every day. 


when recait, may be successfully treated by drinking freely 
of cold water, and by taking wet bandages, light food» and sits 
baths. It is often an effort of nature to carry off prejudicial 
humors, which must not be checked, but rather promoted, at 
least for a time. Those who are subject to attacks of this dis- 
order should take daily ablutions, sitz baths of short duration, 
adhere to a vegetable diet, and to nature's beverage. 


should be met with washing the throat and nape of the neck 
with cold water, applying a wet bandage to the stomach* or 
washing the whole body in cold water. (See Appendix, NN.) 
The colder the water, the better. If the above does not suc- 
ceed, take a wet sheet, slightly wrung out, folded up in part, 
lay it on the door (in summer on a stone floor), and lay the 
patient on it, with his head rather raised on the sheet, which is 
now to be wrapped round his body. Cold bandages are at 
the same time to be applied to his neck and chest, and he is 
to be lightly covered. This has niever failed. 



is not always to be considered as a primary disease. It is often 
only a symptom, and, in some cases, not an unfayorable one. 
This is the case in pleorisies, etc. In the dropsy, scurry, or 
consumption it is a bad symptom, and shows tbat the lungs 
are ulcerated. The treatment of this disease, especially if it 
be far adranced, is very difficult, and reqiures great caution ; 
therefore, none should attempt it but those well versed in the 
art. The same remarks will apply to 

voMirnro or bu>ov, 

which is equally, if not more dangerous than the preceding ; 
the treatment of which, as also that of uterine floodmg, mu- 
cous discharges, etc., are described with g^eat minuteness in 
the able work of Mr. Weiss ; but his remarks are too extensire 
for our limits. 


is generally occasioned by indulgence in unripe fruit, sleeping 
at night with open windows, etc., and is considered contagious. 
The symptoms are much like those of diarrhoea, and also the 
mode of treatment The symptoms however differ, in that 
there is more acute pain of the bowels, blood generally appears 
m the stools, to which when the patient goes he feels a bear- 
ing down, as if the whole bowels were falling out ; and some- 
times a part of the intestines b actually protruded. At the 
commencement of the attack, the patient should drink cold 
water copiously, at short intervals; and clysters should be 
used, at first tepid, afterward of cold water; and after the bow- 
els are completely emptied of their contents, copious perspira- 
tion must be promoted. 


Nothing is more ocmimon than to hear people cry, '^Bewate 

WATEB. . 188 

Ihat you do not take cpld !" Bat we never hear tliem oaa- 
tioned against taking heat They become as deficate about 
faeing a little cold> and proceed as cautiously as if they weie 
conscious they were walking on the brink of some precipice ; 
but you may keep frizsdmg them in the heat till they are almost 
baked, and no cctticem is manifested. But the fact is, we ought 
to be more afraid of taking heat, for that will be much more 
prejudicial to our health than cold. Small as may be the no- 
tice taken of these compkunts at first, they are often of fearful 
consequence, as laying the foundation of various other disor- 
dera. l^y chiefly arise from obstructed perspiration* or hwring 
previously taken heat. The great object should be to increase 
the tone of the nerves, and avoid every thing calculated to 
lessen it. Heat generally lowers it, while cold, wisely ap|£ed, 
at prop^ times, and in due degrees, hdghtens it. The mo- 
ment that tone is given, it causes an invigorated action of Afd 
vessels, which UMures an improved secretion and excretion, 
whereby irritation and pam are always relieved, and the wa^ 
paved for restoration. Here then we recognise, at once, this 
mode of action of the invaluable agency of cold water, and 
find a full and sufficient answer to many of the objections ad- 
vanced against the practice of hydriatics. Great attention 
should be paid to the state of the skin ; the patient should 
drink freely of cold water, and be much in the open air. If 
he has cough only, let him gargle well with cold water ; rub 
the throat and chest several times a day with the hand dipped 
in cold water ; wear a heating bandage round the neck and on 
the chest at night. 


is treated the same as the gout, winch has been prevbusly de- 


When the eye has been injured by external means, first remove 
the cause, as far as possible, after which make use of the ex* 


tomal and inteinal api^ieatioii of water in the beat form adapt- 
ed to the ease. Where it anses finom the stale of the body, it 
most not be treated locallj only, but generally. In some cases 
the back of the head shonld be placed in eold water three 
times a day, for ten minutes each time, and the eye bath be 
used for fiye minutes, twice a day. After the eyes are closed 
in water for about a minute, they should be opened for the 
othor four minutes. At night apply a heatii^ bandage at the 
bade of the neck ; this, and also the head bath, have a ten- 
dency to draw all inflammation from the front part <^ the bead. 
In most cases foot baths twice a day are highly beneficiaL 


Keep the wounded part in tepid water until it ceases bleed- 
ing, then put on a heating bandage ; when this becomes warm, 
put another laiger one over it, so that it may extend beymid 
the part afflicted. If the foot be wounded, let it remain in the 
water for an boor twice a day, to draw out the inflammation ; 
then ^ply the bandage night and day, but continue it fisur be- 
yond Uie wounded part. 


when not of long continuance, are considered healthy as re- 
lieving the system of some of the bad humors. To cure this, 
snuff cold water up the nostrils seyend times a day, be much 
in the open air, and wear a heating bandage on the forehead at 
night. To cure 


apply constantly to the part cold wet cloths, without a dry one 
oyer them. 

should be treated by rubbing the body all over twice a day 
with a cold wet cloth, wearing a heating bandage oyer the ears 
at night, and drinking plentifully of cold water. This process 
will very of t^ relieve deafness, but in obstinate cases the whole 
treatment must be resorted to. 

WATMB. 18& 


The triumphs of hydropathy in the cure of asthma have been 
very great, chiefly by inyigorating the digestive organs, and the 
whole frame, and not by virtue of any specific mfluence on the 
respiratory apparatus. Though in this respect great relief 

has sometimes been afforded. T. B , of U , had been 

a great sufferer from asthma, and after one week's abstinence 
from drugs, hot Hquids, and animal food, and by drinking thirty 
glasses of cold water a day, taking a daily ablution with much 
friction, and as much exercise in the open air as he could bear, 
he threw up a solid mass of phlegm nearly the size of his hand ; 
of course he was instantly relieved. He continued improving 
upon the above plan, with an occasional wet sheet, till, at the 
end of five weeks, he found his appetite returned — ^his strength 
greatly increased — ^his breath nearly as good as ever it was — 
and he had gamed nine pounds in weight. Constant exercise 
in pure air, combined with a vegetable diet, cold ablutions, 
sweating, the abandonment oi flannel, the plunge bath, douche, 
etc., work so great an improvement in the digestive organs and 
chest, as perfectly to rid the sufferer of this very troublesome 
complaint. As this is not properly an affection of the lungs, 
but of the stomach and intestines, the digestive organs are 
its grand and primary seat. It is therefore, as Dr. Graham 
observes, necessary in some obstinate cases to confine the pa- 
tient to so small a quantity of food, that he wiU at times al- 
most be disposed to devour his fingers' ends. The patient 
should drink cold water plentifully, avoid stimulating food, eat 
no suppers, walk much up hill, in ord^ to bring the lungs 
into full play, sweat in the wet sheet every second day, fol- 
lowed by a cold ablution, to which may be added a shallow 
foot bath for five minutes, just before returning to bed, to be 
followed by rubbing with a rough cloth, until they are quite 
warm. Friction between the shoulders and on the chest is 
of great service, which sometimes produces boils, and which 
should be encouraged for a time. Many oases of instantane- 


oi» relief have been witnessed, by administeging cold water 
only in 


We refer to one or two. The wife of the Bev. J. HoweIl» of 
Brill, was suddenly seized with incessant sickness. Her medi- 
cal attendant administered brandy, port wine, tea, etc., all of 
which were instantly ejected, which induced him to say she 
could not survive long. She begged for a cup of cold water, 
which he refused ; but through the interference of several tee- 
totalers, and at the request of her husband, he consented : she 
at once revived ; more was given to her with good effects and 
she was soon pronounced out of danger. Also* James Os- 
borne, of Berkhamstead, became ill, with loss of appetite, and 
constant sickness. Nothing would stay on hia stomach ex- 
cept cold water, which soon placed him out of danger. Many 
other cases might be called, showing that " water is best" 


is a very painful, and in some cases, a very obstmate disease, 
of a rheumatic, gouty, or nervous character ; is very irregular 
in its invasion and course ; and is one of those diseases given 
up by the doctor, as well as by the patient. Yet, under the 
water treatment, cases have ocQurred of relief being afforded 
in two hours, and a thorough cure effected in a few days» 
while the disease has been only acute. Where it is of long 
standing, and chronic, it is not so easily dealt with. When it 
is occasioned by a cold, the object shouldbe to incite a crisis 
by perspiration, or in some other way, by means of the envel- 
opment and cold ablutions. As every thing depends upon s 
crisis, every thing possible should be done to produce it H 
the disease be chronic, great attention should be paid to dieter 
which should be vegetable. Most cases will yiel4 to a vegeta- 
ble diet, heating bandages, proper potations of cold-water 
clysters, and sitiE baths. 






To remaiii halfway i» a ncrioM labor; in all things we moit go right to the end.— 


** It if seldom that any combinatiott of men is limited to its original elements, or its 
proposed object; There is a gravitatiOB in the social, as well as in the phyiiesl 

"QlT«me one fanndred taetotslers, who wee ansdoua only to know, and to diffosa 
the truth, rafli«: than ten thousand who are disposed to be quiet, and to keep back 
part of the truth." ** The truth, the whole trnlh, and nothing but the truth.** " It fts 
nofe noble to head car age, tiian to be in Ito rear/* 

Onb of the greatest, evils from which mankmd have suf- 
fered, and are still suffering, is> that they have allowed cus- 
tom aad appetite to be their teachers axid rulers, instead of 
reason, observation, facts, and revelation. Hence manj noble 
efforts, made to remove the various social, physical, and moral 
evils under which mankind are groamng, have been rendered 
nugatory. This unhappy influence has crept in amcmg some 
of our temperance reformers, and has considerably retarded 
the full development of our glorious principles. We have 
before endeavored to show that this progressive reform for 
which we plead, is only isarrying out the principle of the tem- 
perance r^ormation ; hence, we can only account for the eon^ 
duct aad fears of some of our friends, on the ground that 
there are among us three classes of individuals, consisting of 
man behind their day— men brfare their day — and men <^ their 


daj. There are men behind their daj, and in some respeeta 
men behind themselYea, for in other matters, they are among 
the leaders. Here, however, they hang as dead weights upon 
the energies of their more advanced brethren, and seem ex- 
ceedingly conscious of' alarm at every onward movement: 
they feel as little sympathy with their times, as their times 
feel with them. Their cry b, '' Tou go too fast and too far ; 
the people are not ready for your extreme views." Perhaps 
no^ and we question if they ever will be, if left to you and to 
themselves. But we rej<Mce to know, there are men who are 
befcHre their day, though their number is but few ; nor is it, 
perhaps, to be expected, that they should be numerous, 
though the duties they have to perform, are something like 
the ancient prophets: pointing to the future, and preparing 
the people for its arrival. Standbg on a loftier eminence than 
their cotemporaries, their eye sweeps along the horison ; and 
though the distant cloud b no larger than a man's hand, they 
regard it as the precursor of a glorious rain, and it enables 
them to speak of subjects, and to promise blessings, which 
sound strange to the multitude. Nevertheless, their vcHce is 
hekng heard, and we trust shall never cease to be heard in the 
world, correcting its abuses, exalting its views, animating its 
activity, enlarging its expectations, and enhancing its real hap« 
piness. There are also men of their day, who, marking its 
peculiarities, and falling in with its movements, accelerate its 
progress toward a better state of things: of these there are 
thousands engaged in the temperance cause, whose conduct 
does great credit to their heads and to their hearts. They 
have learned one great pomt, to ''cease to do evil," by having 
been taught to abandon a physical pcMson, and now they are 
going on, in a physical sense, to "learn to do well" m other 
respects. They have adopted Brother Jonathan's motto — 
** Get right, and go ahead t" They have got right in refer- 
ence to alcoholic drinks, and now they are gmng ahead to 
destroy other baneful customs and practices. And why 
ahottld they be satisfied with pulling down the temple of Bao- 


chus, magiiifieent though the achievement be ; let them go on,, 
and '' take us the foxes, the little foxes, that spoil the vines : 
for our vines have tender grapes." Let the formation of cor- 
rect habits, as far as possible, be promoted with regard to 
food, dHnk, cleanliness, air, exercise, drugs, water, etc., and 
the health and longevity, the happiness, ay, and the salva- 
tion of the community will be promoted thereby. 

This subject has been treated with some ability by " Berean/* 
in the "Temperance Weekly Journal," a high water mark 
paper, which ought to be read by all. In reference to the use 
of tea, coffee, tobacco, etc., he says, " Why, unquestionably, if a 
man knowingly uses that which is physically injurious, he com- 
mits moral evil. Yea, if he wastes, on that which is merely 
worthless, money which ought to be employed in doing good, 
then, unquestionably, he is morally guilty. 'To him that 
knoweth to do good, and doeth it not, to him it is sin.' 

" Perhaps," says he, " I may be allowed to give a few rea- 
sons why I think the pledged abstainer from alcohol will do 
well to discountenance all other injurious articles of food and 

"1. One artificial, injurious custoqi has a natural tendency 
to support anothert therefore tobacco smoking will support 
alcohol drinking. 

. " 2. It cannot be expected that the slave of one bad habit 
can be the most efficient reformer of customs and usages near 
akin to that by which he himself is enslaved. 

" 3. If the same physical laws which declare alcohol to be a 
pCMSon, also declare tea, coffee, tobacco, etc., to be poisons, 
then the man who urges those laws in support of abstinence 
from the former poisons, will^at all events, not be in any de- 
gree the less consistent if he also ui^es the same laws in sup- 
port of abstinence from the latter poisons. 

" 4. There may be cases in which a thorough-going reformer 
may consider it expedient to avoid attackmg several bad usages 
at once, but very often that which appears to superficial ob- 
servers to be expedient, is, in the end, found to be very bad 


policy. Sound principle and sound expediency always go 
together ; etc. 

'' 5. It is the soundest policy, and, therefore, the most ex- 
pedient, in carrying out the principles on which the temperance 
reformation is based, to keep well in adrance of public opinion, 
until public opinion is brought up to the standard of truth. 
By keeping far in adrance of public opinion, we keep up an 
interest in our advocacy, arising from the very opposition which 
that advocacy excites, providing that opposition is an opposi- 
tion referring to the principles of our cause, and not founded 
on personal animosities, or of party spirit. 

"6. Abstinence from alcohol, opium, tobacco, tea, coffee, 
mustard, pepper,* mint, sage, onions [animal food], and all 
similar exciting and strongly flavored articles is much more 
in advance of public opinion than mere abstinence from alco- 
holic liquors ; and, consequently, if such comprehensive absti- 
nence is founded on the principles of truth, it will, whenever it 
is advocated with equal ability and zeal, create much more 
public interest, and will prove much more efficient than mere 
abstinence from alcohol. It will lead people to take more 
enlarged and comprehensive views of the great temperance 
question. They will be more impressed with its magnitude 
and importance, and their zeal to exert themselves in its favor 
will be excited in. a corresponding degree. The more I study 
this great question, the more convinced I am, that in reference 
to it, in all its various bearings, it is our duty to abandon the 
principle of slavish expediency, and to be only anxious to pro- 
mote the inquiry, and the solution of the inquiry — 'What is 
truth V *' 

Condiments, particularly those of the spicy kind,*are non- 
essential to the process of digestion, in a healthy state of the 
system. They afford no nutrition. Though they may assist 
the action of a debilitated stomach, for a time, their continual 
use never fails io produce an indirect debility of that organ. 
They afiect it as alcohol or other stimulants do. The present 

* The Engluh oonBume aboat six nuUkms poancU of pepper annually. 


relief afforded, is at the expense of future suffering. — Dr. Seau" 
mont. Besides ivliich, they induce us to eat more tban nature 
rcqtdres, for which end they are taken. A gracious Provi- 
dence gave them to the Indians, because their burning sun 
enervates their bodies, which then require stimulants. In our 
climate, on the contrary, the air is more compressed, and, con- 
sequently, contains more oxygen, which predisposes us to take 
in inflammatory diseases ; stimulants, therefore, only augment 
this predisposition. Let us use, says Priessnitz, seasonings 
which nature has given us, and leavte foreigners to theirs. 
(See Appendix, OO.) 

As to people not being able to do without tea, coffee, to- 
bacco, etc., the idea is perfectly ridiculous. How did our 
ancestors do without them ? Tea has not been imported into 
Europe 200 years ; and even then, not as a beverage, but for 
medicinal purposes. It was first used in Britain about the 
year 1066; and became a fashionable beverage at court, 
owing to the example of Katherine, queen of Charles 11., who 
had been accustomed to it in Portugal. 

Some of the most respectable authorities that modem medi- 
cine can produce, have strongly condemned the use of tea; 
among whom are Oullen, Tissot, Linnseus Ksempfer, Curry, 
Beaumont, etc. They object to the use of tea, because, 1., the 
tea leaf, when fresh from the tree, is of a poisonous nature, 
and though it loses some of its acrimony, by its being steeped, 
and afterward dried, yet, even in that state, in which it is sent 
to this country, it retains much of its narcotic or stupifying 
qualities. 2. There is an astringency in tea which renders it 
extremely injurious to the constitution, and like the frequent 
bracing of a drum, must ultimately relax and debilitate. S. 
In addition to its natural pemiciofus qtiaHties, the manner in 
which it is prepared, by being dried either on iron or copper 
plates, must ulthnately be extremely injurious. The corrosions 
of copper are undoubtedly pernicious ; those of iron may not 
perhaps, be equally so, yet the effluvia of any steaming metal 
cannot be favorab^ to health. 4. The maimer in which teas' 


are eonveyed to Europe, ckwely packed up in sligkt wooden 
chests, lined with a compositioa of lead and tin, and liable to 
be affected by the corrosion of those two metals, must render 
the article here much more unwholesome than eren in China. 
6. Not only is the tea itself a pernicious article, but it is often 
mixed with a yariety of other substances, of an injurious cha- 
racter, with a view, it is said, to improve its color or flavor. 
6. Its evil effects are increased by its being taken hot. All 
hot liquids enfeeble the digestive organs, the stomach, and the 
alimentary canal ; are not so easily and readily absorbed by 
the lymphatic vessels, and do not promote the circulation so 
well as cold water. 

Dr. Duncan, in his " Treatise on Hot liquors," says. That 
by hot liquors, the blood is inflamed ; and such whose blood is 
inflamed, live not so long as those who are of a cooler temper; 
a hot blood being commonly the cause of fluxes, rheums, ill- 
digestion, pains in the limbs, headache, dimness of sight, and 
especially of hysteric vapors. He also imputes the cause of 
ulcers to a hot blood, and declares that if men keep their blood 
cool and ^weet, by a moderate and cooling diet, they would 
never be troubled with ulcers, or any breakings out. 
. Dr. Millittgen, in his ** Curiosities of Medical Experience," tells 
us he " knew a person who could never never indulge in tea 
without experiencing a disposition to commit suicide, and no- 
thing could arouse him from this state of morbid excitement 
but the pleasure of destroying something — books, papers, or 
any thing within his reach. Under no other circumstance than 
this influence of tea were these fearful aberrations observed." 

Dr. F. Lee, editor of the *' National Temperance Advocate," 
b^g asked what was the best beverage for morning and eve- 
ning repasts, said, " Beyond all question, water is the proper 
beverage of man." 

Dr. Harris says. Tea has injured thousands annually, by 
affecting the nerves, disturbing the functions of the brain, 
weakening the coats of the stomach, and otherwise enfeebling 
the digestive organs, as well as destroying the healthy hue of 


blooming and youtihful faces. How many wrinked old maids 
are to be met with throughout her majesty's dominions, who 
have made themselves look aged and wrinkled by the impru- 
dent use of tea, with all its adulterations ; etc. 

R T. Claridge, Esq., says, If the female portion of thcS 
community knew how injurious these drinks were, principally 
because they are taken hot; how they spoil the skin, take 
away its delicacy, render it rough and yellow, and consequently 
cause them to lose, before their time, their freshness of com- 
plexion, the color of their cheeks, the coral hue of the lips, the 
whiteness of the teeth, and the brilliancy of the eyes, so as to 
imprint on the physiognomy the traces of premature old age ; 
these reasons would, I am persuaded, be sufficient to occasion 
them to renounce these beverages, and drink only cold water ; 
a resolution which would guarantee them against these losses, 
and preserve to them, as long as possible, the charms of their 

Professor Liebig asserts, that coffee impedes the digestion 
of food for an hour or two, its carbonaceous principle requir- 
ing oxygen ; and that green tea should be looked upon as a 

Dr. Graham, of America, declares that there is no truth in 
science more perfectly demonstrable than that alcohol is one 
of the most energetic and fatal poisons known to man; and 
with equal certainty can it be proved that tea, coffee, tobacco, 
and opium are powerful poisons to the human body. 

Dr. Graham says, '' Formerly I ranged myself among those 
who looked upon black tea as a wholesome beverage ; but 
among the many changes which time, observation, and reflec- 
tion have wrought in my sentiments, this is one, that we had 
better let tea alone ! I think it weakens the stomach, etc.'* 

Mr. Whitlaw says, "The next destructive drink of which 
I have to take notice, is tea. To persons ' whose anxious in- 
quiry is the way to health,' I would say, avoid the use of tea. 
If the digestive organs be weak, and the body otherwise pre- 
disposed to disease, the effects of tea on the system is mos^ 



iDJurioafl. It may, indeed, be a slow poison, as I baYe often 
been told ; bat at the same time, it is a certain one. That 
class of diseases commonly called nervous, tremors, habitual 
depression of spirits, and b1\ the miserable train <^ symptoms 
arising from laxity and debility, may justly be ascribed, in 
nine cases out of ten, to this insidious poison. Even its mod- 
erate use gives rise to many dbtressing symptoms, such as 
flatulency, a sensation of sinking at the stomach, watchfidness, 
and the feeble tremulousness known by the epithet nervous,** 

As Dr. Cullen lived in the age when the injurious efifect of 
tea was beginning to show itself on the constitutions ai the 
people, we will hear his opinion. ' After referring to the ex* 
periments of Drs. Smith and Lettsom, and to "the observa- 
tions which I have made in the course of fifty years, in all 
sorts of persons, I am convinced that the qualities of tea are 
narcotic and sedative." Speaking of the *' poisonous nature 
of tea," he asserts that this does not arise, as " has been al- 
leged," from " the large quantity of warm water which com- 
monly accompanies it ;" though he admits " some bad effects 
may arise from this cause : but from attentive observation, I 
can assert, that wherever any considerable effects appear, they 
are in nine of every ten persons entirely from the qualities of 
the tea ; and that any like effects oi warm water do not ap- 
pear in one of a hundred who take in this very largely." > 

" Cold water ! let thy praise be sung by every son of earth ; 
Yet all the pens of wisest scribes can never tell thy worth : 
Thoo lucid, sparkling, glittering gem, by mercy thou wert given ; 
Thy crystal streams refresh our souls, and make us think of heaven." 

J, JnnoardM. 

Among the various articles of foreign growth, which a vi- 
tiated appetite has introduced into general use, is coffee, which 
was first known in England about 1652. Perhaps the best 
thing that can be said of it, is, that it powerfully counteracts 
the effects of narcotics, and hence it is used by the Turks, with 
some propriety, in abating the influence of the inordinate quan- 
tities of opium they are accustomed to swallow. In propor- 


turn as coffee is indulged in, it proves stimulating and heating, 
creating thirst, and producing watchfukiess, tremors, and' 
manj of those complaiqts- called nervous; it has a very bad 
effect on persons subject to bilious attacks and sick headaches. 
Let such try cold water for breakfast one week, and they will 
be convinced of the justness of our remarks. We know, to 
them, it will not be very comfortable, nor can we conceive it 
very comfortable to be constantly, or nearly so, troubled with 
sick headache, etc. 

As a proof of the bad effects of tea, coffee, etc., let a ner- 
vous or dyspeptic person use two or three cups of strong tea, 
and the effects will be nightmare, disturbed sleep, and the 
other violent symptoms of indigestion, etc. Coffee will pro- 
duce fever, disturbed rest, and in the morning, headache and 
heartburn ; the dose is repeated, the excitement which it pro- 
duces gives an hour's relief, but it only strengthens the cause 
of their uneasiness, and renders permanent the effects. 

Water, cold water, is therefore preferable to artificial, hot 
drinks, of any kind, because it promotes health — does not in- 
jure the nerves— promotes sleep — it is nature's beverage — it 48 
highly nutritious and strengthening-^has been recommended 
b5^ the cream of the medical profession — ^has been the exclu- 
sive drink of most who have been noted for great muscular 
strength, health, and longevity — and, what is very important, 
it is the most economical. This latter remark we shall seek to 
amplify and improve hereafter. 

Of the sottish, silly, expensive, and injurious habits of smok- 
ing, chewing, and snuffing, we cannot avoid sapng a few 
words. Some have so high an opinion of their moral and 
physical qualities, that they wonder that Miltcm, in speaking 
of the productions of Eden, had never mentioned the noblest 
of them all, the tobacco plant. This plant, as shown by Dr. 
A. Clarke, was not, as is generally supposed, introduced into 
this country by Sir W. Raleigh, but by Mr. R. Lane, some 
time about 1385. In 1796, the tobacco imported into this 
kingdom amounted to 2d,608,'7'75 lbs. Of this, 11,490,446 


Ibft. were delirered out for home consumption, ihe duty of 
which, paid to goyemment, amoanted to £287,252 lis* In 
two jearB it had increased so much, that in 1798, seventy 
ships, lad^i with thn noxious weed, came into the port of 
Iiondon, whose cargoes amoanted to 40,000,000 Ihs. ! 

Were it not too serions a matter, we might be almost 
tempted to smile at the paltry arguments adduced in flavor oi 
tobacco^ etc. The poor man says, it stays his stomach when 
he has no food — perhaps it may ; but it is only by injuring its 
powers of digestion. On the other hand, if it stays an empty 
stomach, the expenditure tends to keep it empty^^as well as 
the stomachs of those who are dependent upon its consumers. 
The practice also tends to keep schools partially empty as 
well as stomachs ; many not being able to send their children 
in consequence of this drain of the pocket. 

The filthy habit of making a dust hole of the nosef is be* 
come so common that one would be almost disposed to think 
our streets were as famous for bad smells as are those of 
Edinburgh, and therefore the nostrils are filled with the pow- 
der of this dangerous weed, which is called snuff. Foreign- 
ers may think these persons mad, but this is a mistake, they 
lire only foolish. '' This snuff gives a man something to d6 
when he has nothing ; spares many an ^npty head the trouble 
of making an answer ; gives politicians, hypocrites, and knaves 
time to compound a lie, when they have not one ready ; fur- 
nishes a wise look for a fool's face ; enables men by grimace 
to cover an emotion ; and prevents people leading you by the 
nose, for fear of dirtying their fingers ;" at least so says " The 
Commissioner ;" and we thmk he is more than half right So 
that after aU, as its votaries assert, it is not altogether useless. 

* The cost of a hogsbead of tobacco, of 1200 lbs., varies from £14 to 
£25 ; the daty of which is £198. 

t It has been justly remarked that if Providence had designed the 
nose for a dost hole, he would have tamed it the other way upward ; 
and man for a smoking animal, he would have made a hole in the top of 
his head to answer the purpose of a chinmey . 


It is really astonishing that this " smoke-plague/' in less 
than 300 years should have spread as it has, justifying the re- 
marks oi Quarlesy who says, 

" Tobaccp ! a ^it^, that has beset 
The world, and made more alaYes than Mahomet; 
That has condemned us to the servile yoke 
Of slavery, and made us slaves to smoke.'* 

Teetotalers, as a body of physical reformers, ought not to 
encourage smoking and snuffing, because the habit is 

1. Useless. Not indeed to the goremment, as it pays a 
very large duty — ^nor to the vender, as he makes a good profit; 
but to the consumer it yields no benefit, but is a constant 
drain upon his pocket. It does not satisfy the cravings of 
hunger, by imparting the least portion of nutriment — will not 
quench thirst — does not enrich him, adorn him, or render him 
respectable or useful. Quite the reverse. It is emphatically 
a useless habit. It is 

2. Foolish. Of all the habits which men have contracted, 
smoking is one of the most foolish. To see a man, it may be 
a man of education, benevolence, and intelligence, calling him- 
self a gentleman, ay, and a Christian too, sticking a pipe or a 
cigar in his mouth, and drawing in, for the purpose of puffing 
out, the smoke of a lighted herb, does appear truly ridiculous. 
The author has induced several old smokers to try to smoke in 
the dark, which sets the practice in a still more ridiculous light. 
Few can so enjoy it, and many are not able to tell whether their 
pipe is in or out. 

The following circumstance took place in Liverpool, wherein 
a reformer of evil habits satirized with good effect. He drank 
tea with a number of smokers in a celebrated temperance hotel, 
and insinuated himself into their good graces. The tray being 
removed, pipes and tobacco were introduced, and had got well 
to work, when he rang the bell, and desired the waiter to bring 
a basin with water, some soap, and a clean pipe. With the 
water and soap he made a lather, and conmienced to blow 


bubbles; he launched them one after another into the air, 
where they floated for a time hke Ldlliputian balloons ; these 
burnt, and had their places supplied by others newly formed. 
How the smokers did but laugh at the silly man, who had 
chosen to adopt such a childish amusement ! At their sneers 
he was evidently chagrined, as he rose from his seat and said : 
*' Gentlemen, you have each chosen your own amusement, I 
mine ; and that blowing bubbles is more rational, more philo- 
sophical than smoking tobacco, I am j»epared to prove. You 
draw air through a pipe, I blow air through it — your smoke 
ascends upward, so do my bubbles ; they are much cheaper, 
much cleanlier, do not pollute the atmosphere, and are withal 
more philosophical — Sir Isaac Newton blew soap bubbles to 
ascertain some of the properties of light." 

This satire and reasoning had its effect on some, who ad- 
mitted its (one, and never smoked again ; while others frowned 
upon the satirist as a regular spoil-company, as some will no 
doubt do on us, for devoting so much space to so light a sub- 
ject as smoke ; but this is because they are not alive to the 
philosophy of smoking. It is 

3. Injurious to the producer; hence, since the American 
war, the culture of this herb has decreased considerably in 
Virginia, the proprietors of the land finding it more profitable 
to devote the ground to the produce c^ com. They found also 
that the culture of tobacco impoverished the land, reduced 
both men and animals to a miserable state oi dependence — was 
very perplexing and laborious — ^in a word, that it has every 
kind of inconvenience connected with it. It is injurious to the 
i^nsumer, both as it respects health and morals, intellect and 
circumstances. It is a powerful narcotic, and also a strong 
stimulant, and taken internally, in small doses, proves power- 
fully emetic and purgative. Its essential oil is celebrated for 
its extreme virulence, and when applied to a wound is said by 
Bedi, to be as fatal as the poison of a viper.* An eminent 

* Dr. A. Giaike Bays a iingle drop of tho chemkal oil of tobacco, pat 


author says tobacco is a very powerful narcotic poison. If the 
saliva, the secretion of which it provokes, be impregnated with 
its essential oil, and so swallowed, the deleterious influence is 
communicated directly to the stomach; or if, as more fre- 
quently happens, it is rejected, then the blandest fluid of the 
human frame, that which, as a solvent and diluent, performs 
an office in digestion secondary only to the gastric juice it- 
self, is lost. Eoempfer ranks it with the strong vegetable 
poisons. No medical or scientific man of modem date has 
dared to record in writing an opinion in favor of the practice, 
but many have against it. It is 

4. Vulgar.* Only dwell upon the idea for a few moments. 
Who are the persons that are the greatest slaves to the habit ? 
Generally the sot, the idle ; persons who have little respect for 
themselves, and are little respected by others — ^the outcast of 
society. This consideration alone ought to weigh with respect- 
able people, and induce them to abandon it. It has been said, 
and pertinently, that the practice of smoking and chewing, and 
snuffing, was more befitting the negroes of Jamaica, the Hot- 
tentots of Africa, and the savage tribes of America, than the 
enlightened and intellectual inhabitants of Great Britain. Hap- 
pily, this consid^ation is beginning to influence some ; hence 
very few use the "vulgar pipe," who can command the more 
respectable cigar. But then, such fall under the lash, which 
those deserve who practice a habit so 

5. Expen»ve. Think of five millions of money (some as- 
sert seven and a half) spent annually in dust and smoke. 
Many persons, scarcely able to procure the necessaries of life 
(some not able), yet by sacrificing health and decency, spend 

on a cat's tongue, produced violent convulsions, and killed her in the 
■pace of one minute. 

* Merchants frequently lay tobacco in log houses, to the end that be- 
ooming impregnated with the volatile salt of the excrements, it may be 
rendered brisker, stronger, and more foetid. In preparing cigars and 
twist, and in preserving them, stale urine is used to keep them moist, and 
to preserve their flavor. Think of this when you smoke and chew to- 
beoco ! We can vouch for the above, haying been behind the scene. 


one shilling and sixpence per week, some more.* But eren 
the former sum amounts to nearly £200 in fifty years, and at 
compound interest would amount, in fifty years, to £800 ster- 
ling. Is it possible for Christians to vindicate such ccmduct ? 
If so, any thing may be vindicated, on the score of expend- 

6. Offensive. The author of these pages has, on more 
than one occasion, been made ill by the fumes of tobacco ; so 
much so as to be obliged to leave the room, notwithstanding 
he had been a considerable smoker for twelve years. Again, 
how offensive it is to sit behind a schoolboy, dandy, shopman, 
or fop, on a stage-coach, puffing away his pipe or cigar. It is 
true, some few ladies tolerate smoking, but most of them de- 
test it, as well they might. Persons addicted to the use of 
tobacco are not generally aware, how very offensive to others it 
renders their breath, or they would soon leave it off. Again, 
how it discolors and injures the teeth ! In fact, their parlors, 
clothes, furniture, etc., are all tainted with the stinking nui- 
sance. Alas! that respectable men should submit to such 
low, miserable habits. It encourages 

7. Slavery. Not only are thousands slaves to the habit, 
but slave-labor is actually employed to produce this luxury 
for the freeborn sons of Britain, for Christians, and even for 
teetotalers. Yes, this tobacco is prepared for the social pipe, 
the friendly pinch, and for the delicious quid, at the expense 
of a hopeless and interminable slavery to thousands of our fel- 
low-men ; and of the whip, the lash, the labor, and the sorrow 
of a slave. Yes, the sighs and groans of the slave may be 
heard in every breeze, and may serve to assist to waft indul- 
gence and evil to the shores of our land of liberty. It has, 
therefore, been said, that every penny spent in tobacco is one 
farthing premium to perpetual slavery, and to encourage 
the planters in Cuba and Virginia to buy African slaves to 

* Many families spend doable this ium— and some treble. If they 
only spend doable, by paying it into the building society, they might live 
rent free, and in ten years have the house lor thier own. 


Increase riarery. Think of tbis when you smoke tobacco. 

It is 

8. Demoralizing. An eminent Trriter on ethics calculates 
that one tenth of all drunkards are made sach hj first getting 
a liking for tobacco. ** Orer this they talk politics, religion, 
science, morals, refinement; abuse the government for dis- 
honesty, the people for stupidity, the parsons for hypocrisy, 
and tradesmen for knavery ; and finish, while they blow the 
last blast in each other's faces, and shake the dust out of the 
mouth of the instrument, by remarking, ' I'll tell you what, we 
are in a strange mess altogether/ After this, they send {<x 
the ladies, if they have no drawing-room to retire to, and take 
a cup of tea ; having spanned the earth for their afternoon's 
gratification — the drinks of Asia and Europe, and the smoke 
of America." And yet some say it does not lead to drinking. 
Can all this be done without it ? We know it is not. After 
the youngster has learned to smoke, he must go to the pot- 
house ; at first for the sake of company, and then for the sake 
of the drink. Then he learns to gamble, swear, and fight ; 
and then many have recourse to thieving to support the cost 
of drinking, smoking, and loss of time. Hear what the Rev. 
J. A. James says : '' It may seem trifling to say, that the first 
cigar a young man takes within his lips often proves his first 
step in a career of vice. I grieve and tremble over every 
youth whom I see contracting this habit ; it often leads to 
other and worse things." Dr. FothergiU says, '' The consider- 
ation whether or not it is right for Christians* to indulge in 
the use of tobacco, or to traffic in it, is one of no trifling import- 
ance. It is one that is happily claiming a large share of at- 
tention, and great good will doubtless result from strict inves- 
tigation, and free and temperate discussion. My own observa* 
tion has led me to believe that its ordinary use is a source of 
great evil, that it is wholly unnecessary, and that its universal 
abandonment would be highly advantageous." 

* The me of tobacco is a criminal indulgance, anbgooroi n g the piofeM 
on of the wisdom of God. — ^ev» Dr* H€miU9n, 



Those who wish to be iiiriher mforraed on this sabjecl, we 
recommend to read Dr. A. Clarke's " Dissertation on the Use 
and Abuse of Tobacco," " The Anti-Smoker," " Jriendly Ad- 

▼ioe, etc.," by Bidley. 

Hoping we have succeeded in proving that health, enjoy- 
AMit, and kmgevity are matters very much under our own 
control; that animal food, strong drinks, tea, coffee, all hot 
drinks, tobacco, snuff, etc., are not only useless, but positively 
hurtful, we shall proceed to show that people use them, not 
because they are necessary, but because they like them ; and 
that, on the principle of self-denial, and the pnnnotion of the 
public good, it is the duty of all to abandon them. 

Is it not really grievous to think of a rati(mal Christian man, 
capable of high intellectual, refined, spiritual enjoyment, taking 
some or all of the above articles, for the same reasons that boys 
eat sugar-plums, because they like them ? Truly, " there is no 
flccoimting for taste." It is one of the most artificial things m 
the world, to gratify which, men will rob themselves of their 
independence,* and of their means of doing good to the bodies 
and souls of men. It is possible for men, and even animals, to 
train themselves to like or dislike any thing. Hence the Es- 
» quimaux, who delights in train-oil, candles, and rotten flesh, is 
disgusted at sugar. The Red Indians eat lai^e quantities of 
vermin, and even clay ; the Chinese regard rats and dogs as 
delicious fare. The Asiatic wraps up a small portion of quick- 
lime in a betel-leaf, and chews it, as many here chew tobacco ; 
and our more polished neighbors, the French, regard a dish 

* It is not the greatneas of a man's meanB that makes faim mdepend- 
ent, BO mach as the Boiallness of his wants ; and it is mach easier to save 
than to get money. To do the former, you have'only to consult yourself; 
for die latter, others. How many, by living up to, rather than a little 
under, their income, have deprived themselves of the last portion of that 
independence, which ought to be dear to every n»n I They are, there- 
fore, bound down by their taskmasters, in a state of vassalage. That man 
only, who Hves within his income, can be just, humane, charitable, and 
independent; while he who lives beyond it becomes, almost necessarily, 
rapcusious, niean, &ithless, and contemptible, ^ 


of frog-soup as a great daintj. Therefore the argument of 
the agreeable flavor of an article proves nothing. But in refer- 
ence to many of our enjoyments, so called, we think we pay 
** too dear for our whistle," We purchase at too high a price — 
the price of our consistency, the sacrifice of our health and real 
enjoyment, and that of the interests of humanity* and religion. 
It cannot be consistent for teetotalers and Christians (both 
of whom profess to be influenced by the principles of self- 
denial, and a desire to do good to all men, to the utmost pos- 
sible extent) to spend the vast sums of money they do on 

* The use of tea, by the Americans and Earopeans, has a fatal effect 
upon the Chineaew In ike firat place, the tea-plant takes up a great part 
of their land, so that they have not sufficient left to grow provisions ; and 
so scarce is land, in some places, that whole streets or towns are built 
upon rivers, and people live in floating houses ail their lives. Then a 
large portion of their time is taken up in gathering and preparing the tea, 
00 as to leave litde for cultivation of the land not so occupied. This loss 
of land and time produce tha same effect on the Chioeee as the growth 
of opi^m does on the Hindoos. The people have not sufficient to support 
them even in the best years; and when a partial famine comes, they 
perish by thousands. Mr. Malcolm, who visited China as a deputatien 
from the American Baptist Missionary Society, represents the condition 
of the people there as being most deplorable. He says he saw a number 
of men lying in tiie market-place dying and dead, firom absolute want; 
and that this was a common thing. The poor people go round begging 
for bread, so long as they can get any, and then lie down and die ; and 
W. Barrow says that, in one city alone, nine thousand little helpless chil- 
dren are cast out to perish every year, by their own parents, because they 
havo not the means of roaring them. This is the effect which our use 
of tea has upon tiie poor Chmese^ this is the way in which they live, or 
rather die, by our use of tea. The opium which the Chinese use is the 
life and blood of the Hindoo, and the tea which we use is the life and 
blood of the Chinese. All who use it are accomplices in this robbery 
and destruction. These remarks are equally applicable to the consump- 
tion of coffee, tobacco, snuff, and eigars. The ground and time that are 
devoted to their growth might be employed in promoting the improve- 
ment and weU-being of the whole human fimuly. This has been urged 
by anti^teetotalers. We cannot say they are necessaries. Then give 
them up. (See more on this subject, in " Temperance and Luxury," by 


tea,* coffee,f tobacco^ etc.> while their societies are crippled for 
want of funds; drunkards dying by thousands; and sinners 
going to hell by multitudes. This need not be the case — ^this 
must not continue to be the case. We feel persuaded that we 
shall have a change for the better, before we shall witness the 
removal of intemperance, and the renovation of the world. We 
are persuaded that plans will be devised and executed, for the 
di£fusion of truth, which have not yet been attempted, nay, 
even thought of; that efiforts and sacrifices will be made on so 
gigantic a scale, as to throw the puny doings of the present 
day completely into the shade. We are laying ourselves open 
to the rebuke of the apostle, of all seeking their own ; not the 
things which are Christ's. In reference to himself and the 
early Christians generally, he could say, " none of us liveth to 
himself — but unto the Lord." He was the great centre where 
all their lives met. So it is now, where the great principles of 
the Gospel have taken full possession of the heart Selfishness 
18 a wretched principle, which, in the devoted Christian's heart, 
is daily losing ground, giving way to the hallowed influence of 
lore to God, and to our fellow-man, which is expanding his 
heart wider and wider, and making the wants of the world his 

* Of the mne milUoiii aDnaally paid by oonmimers of tea, £3,500,000 
are paid to the orown for duty, or more than 100 per cent About 
54,000,000 of lbs. are annually exported from Canton to all parti of the 
world, and it is a remarkable fact that of this quantity Great Britain and 
Ireland alone consume nearly 32,000,000 of lbs. — ^being about 10,000,000 
lbs. more than all the world besides. 

t The average consumption of coffee in the United Kingdom is one 
pound per head, but in the United States it is about six pounds per 
head . The reasons of this difference probably are— 'teetotalism has spread 
much more extensively among them ; besides which they have no duty 
to pay on this article. The consumption in the United Suites in 1841, for 
a population of 17,000,000, was 100,200,247 lbs. ; and in the United King- 
dom fur the same period,^ for a population of 28,000,000, 28,421,466 lbs. 

t We spend, as a nation, about £5,000,000 annually upon tobaocu, about 
£10,000 of which goes daily to the government; and we spend £500,000 
for the purpose of diffusing that truth which we believe to be essential to 
men's happiness in time i|n4 in eternity, What an anomaly! Will 
unbelievers give us credit for sincerity I Hoy^ can they ? 


own ; while the mass of misery arising from intempenmce and 
sin, is constantly presenting opportunities for the employment 
of his utmost capabilities. He now finds that self-denial is a 
golden mine, containing abundance of ore — ^but to possess it he 
must dig — ^he must go beneath the surface — ^he must descend 
into the depths. This self-denial not only respects subduing 
all that is sinful, but includes abstinence even frcMtn lawful 
things, if thereby we can do good. That is the greatest self- 
denial where there is the greatest inclination, and yet such a 
love to Christ and our fellow-men, as excites us not only to 
curb or suppress it, but continually and vigorously to oppose 
it till conquered. This was the influence which induced Paul 
to say, " If meat make my brother to offend, I will not eat 
flesh while the world standeth." Christ laid it down as one 
oi the fundamental laws of his kingdom, " Whosoever will come 
after me, let him deny himself and take up his cross, and foUow 
me.'' So that we see, both in entering upon, and proceeding 
in the divine life, self-denial is one of its essentials. Among 
many other practical exhibitions of this heaven-bom principle, 
we have pleasure in recording the following. The venerable 
W. Jay, says he was one day attending a missionary tea 
meeting, and before the close of it, a minister rose up and said 
he had to present a donation. The offering was not large in 
itself — ^but it showed a nobleness of disposition, and was be- 
yond the two mites of the applauded widow. " These two 
guineas,'' said he, " are sent from a servant, who was allowed 
so much by her mistress for tea, but who had, during two 
years, denied herself the use of this beverage to aid your col- 
lection ! 

The sum of £6 lis, 4d. was lately presented, as saerifice 
money, at a Wesleyan missionary breakfast, with a paper 
stating that if the 337,598 members of that society in Great 
Britain, would do the same, it would amount to more than 
£1,000,000 per annum. 

This great principle is not only taught us by Scripture and 
Christianity — but is also the grand law of nature, inscribed by 


the hand of God on every part of creation. Not for itself, says 
the excellent Payson, but for others, does the snn disperse his 
beams. Not for herself but for others, does the earth unlock 
her treasures. Not for themselves but for others, do the 
clouds distill their showers. Not for themselves but for others, 
do the trees produce then- fruits, or the flowers difluse their 
fragrance and display their various hues. So, not for himself 
but for others, are the blessings of God bestowed upon man ; 
and whenever, instead of diffusing them around, he devotes 
them exclusively to his own gratification, and shuts himself up 
in the dark, dreary, and flinty caverns of selfishness, he trans- 
gresseth the great law of creation — ^he cuts himself off from 
the created universe and its Author — ^he sacrilegiously converts 
to his own use, the favors which were given him for the benefit 
of others — and must be considered not only as unprofitable, 
but as a fraudulent servant who has worse than wasted his 
lord's money. He who thus lives to himself, and consumes 
the boimties of Heaven upon his lusts, or consecrates them to 
the demon of avarice, is a barren rock in a fertile plain — ^he is 
a thorny bramble in a fruitful vineyard — ^he is the very Arabia 
desert in the moral world. And if he is highly exalted in 
wealth and power, he stands inaccessible and strong, like an 
isolated, towering cliff, which exhibits only a cold and cheerless 
prospect — ^intercepts the genial beams of the sun— chills the 
vale below with its gloomy shade — ^adds fresh keenness to the 
freezing blast — and tempts down the lightning of angry Heaven. 
How different this from the gently rising hill, clothed to its 
summit with fruits and flowers, which attracts and receives the 
dew of heaven ; and retaining only sufficient to maintain its 
fertility, sends down the remainder in a thousand streams, to 
bless the vales which lie at its feet. 

After all, this self-denial is not so difficult of performance, 
or so unpleasant as some imagine, if a man be but influenced 
by heaven-bom principles, and Remembers that he is '* created 
anew in Christ Jesus unto good works, which God hath before 
ordained that we should walk in them." Though it may in- 


▼olve the k)ss of some worldly gratification, he enjoys '' the 
laxury of doing good" — of being doubly blessed, i. e., of being 
blessed, and made a blessii^. 

The nervous language of a late popular author is so much 
in point, that we cannot resist the desire of giving our readers 
the advantage of perusing it. He says, ''Man has various 
appetites and desires m common with inferior animals, which 
are to be denied, not exterminated ; to be renounced as masters, 
guides, or lords ; and to be brought into strict and entire subor- 
dination to our moral and intellectual powers. The reason for this 
is, because they do not carry with them their own rule. They 
are blind impulses. Present their objects, and they are excited 
as easily when gratification would be injurious, as when it 
would be useless. Our desires are undiscerning instincts, gen- 
erally directed to what is useful, but often clamoring for grati- 
fications which would be injurious to health, would debilitate 
the mind, and oppose the general good. This blindness of 
desire makes the demand for self-denial urgent and continual. 
But besides this, when once we yield the reins to appetite, we 
know not where it will take us, as it always carries with it a 
principle of growth. It expands by indulgence, and if not re- 
strained may prove awfully destructive. God has set bounds 
to the desires of the brute, but not to those of man ; in brutes, 
for example, the animal appetites impel to a certain round of 
simple gratifications, beyond which they never pass. But man, 
having imaginations and inventions, is able by these noble 
faculties to whet his sensual desires to any extent. He is able 
to form new combinations of animal pleasures, and to provoke 
appetite by stimulants. The east gives up its spices, and the 
south holds not back its vintage ; sea and land are rifled for 
luxuries ; while the animai finds its nourishment in a few plants, 
perhaps in a single blade, man's table groans under the spoils 
of all regions ;* and the consequence is, in not a few instances, 

* Swift has jocosely observedi " Such is the extent of modem epicarism, 
that the world must be compassed before a wa8lb,er>woman can sit down 
to bresklast," by a voyage to the east for tea and to the west for sugar. 


the whole stimigth of the soul nins mto appetite, just ns some 
rich soil shoots up into poisonous weeds, and man, the rational 
creature of God, degenerates into the most thorough sen- 

And though some may ridicule the idea, and try to laugh to 
scorn the man who chooses to tread this path of self-denial, 
yet it will be found in the end, that the history of such wiU 
most interest and absorb a discerning public. In reading the 
history of individuals, who is the man whom you select as the 
object of your special admiration ? Is it he who lived to in- 
dulge himself? Whose table was most luxuriously spread? 
Whose current of life flowed most equally and pleasantly ? 
Were such the men to whom monuments have been reared, 
and whose memories, freshened with the tears of joy and 
reverence, grow and flourish, and spread through every 
age? Oh no! It is he who has denied himself; who has 
made the most entire sacrifice of appetite and private interest 
to God and mankind ; who has walked in a rugged path, and 
clung to good and great ends, in persecution and pain ; who, 
amidst the solicitations of ambition, ease, and private friend- 
ship, and the menaces of tyranny and malice, has listened to 
the voice of conscience, and found a recompense for blighted 
hopes and protracted sufferings in conscious uprightness, and 
the favor of God. 

Who is most lovely in domestic life ? It is the martyr to 
domestic affliction ; the mother forgetting herself, and ready to 
suffer, toil, and die for the happiness of her children. Who 
is it that we honor most in public life ? It is the martyr to 
his country ; he who serves her, not when she has honors for 
his brow, and wealth for his coffers, but who clings to her in 
her dangers and falling glories, and thinks life a cheap sacrifice 
to her safety and freedom. Whom does the church retain in 
most grateful remembrance? The self-denying apostle, the 
fearless confessor, the devoted martyr; men who have held 
fast the truth even in death, and bequeathed it to future ages 
amidst blood. Above all, to what moment of the life of Christ 


does the Christiaii turn, as the most affecUiig aad sublime Ulus- 
tration of his divine charity ? It is the moment wh^, in the 
spirit of self-denial, he bore the agony imd shame of the cross. 

** Thus all great virtues bear the impress of self-denial ; and 
were God's present constitution of our nature and life so re- 
versed, as to demand no renunciation of desire, the chief in. 
terest and glory of our present being would pass away. There 
would be nothing in history to thrill us with itdmiration. We 
should have no consciousness of the power and greatness of 
the soul. We should love feebly and coldly, for we should 
find nothing in one another to love earnestly." 

Let us not then complain that Providence has made self- 
dental necessary, or that the blessed Jesus has made it a chief 
ingredient in his religion, and thus summons us to the work ; 
it is for our interest. Organic and moral law here hold one 
language, and our own souls bear witness to the teaching of 
Christ, that while it is eminently calculated to promote our 
health of body, it is also the " narrow way which leadeth unto 
life." Thus self-denial " hath the promise of the life that now 
is,iand of that which is to come." The practice of self-denial 
will also have an important bearing on our dying circumstances. 
If at that moment our reason is spared to us, and memory re- 
tains its hold on the past, will it gratify us to see that we have 
lived, not to deny, but to indulge ourselves ? That we have 
bound our souls to any passions ? That we gave the reins to 
lust ; that we were palsied by sloth ; that through the love of 
gain we hardened ourselves against the claims of humanity ; 
or through the love of man's favor we parted with truth and 
moral independence; or that in any thing reason and con- 
science were sacrificed to the impulse of desire, and God for- 
gotten for present good ? Shall we then find comfort in re- 
membering our tables of luxury, our pillows of down, our wealth 
amassed and employed for private ends, or our honors won by 
base compliance with the world ? Did any man, in his dying 
moments, ever regret his conflicts with himself — his victories 
over appetite — ^his scorn <rf impure pleasures — or his sufferings 


in a rigfateouB eaiue t Did any man erer moum that lie bad 
impoTerished himself in the service of mankind ? Are these 
the recollections which harrow np the soul, and darken and 
appall the last hovr ? To whom is the last honr most serene 
and fnll of hope ? Is it not to him, who, amidst perils and 
allurements has denied himself, taken up his cross, and followed 
the self-denying Jesus ? 

Thus you see, to deny ourselves is to withstand, to renounce 
whatever without or within interferes with our convictions of 
right, with the claims of mankind, our conscience, and our God. 
Jt is to suffer, to make sacrifices for our principles. The con- 
duct of Jesitt is our guide. He not only came to teach us 
religion, but also to show it £orth in himself, to personify it 
He is not a mere channel through which certain communica- 
tions are made to flow from God ; not a mere messenger, ap- 
pointed to utter the words which he had heard, and then to 
disappear, and to sustiun no further connection with his mes- 
sage. He came to be a living manifestation of his reli^on. 
This is a peculiarity worthy of attention, showing that Christ- 
iamty is not a mere code of laws — ^not an abstract system, but 
a living, embodied religion. It comes to us in a human form ; 
it offers itself to our eyes as well as our ears ; it breathes, it 
moves in our sight ; it is more than precept, it is example and 

Let our readers, if they lay claim to the Christian character, 
hasten to conform themselves to Christ, and to the laws of his 
kingdom ; in doing which they will promote the glory of " God 
in the highest, peace on earth, and good- will among men;" 
they wiU reap the advantage of it in their own souls. " Mil- 
lions yet unborn will call them blessed, and when they have 
run the race of life, their dying moments will be cheered by 
the pleasing recollection, that they have labored to promote 
the good" of the world. 



Tempbranob Ordbrs— (A.) Page 17. 

Sevbn years ago, temperance beneficial societies were first 
instituted in the United States. The most prominent order exist- 
ing is that of the Sons of Temperance. This order now comprises 
a National Division, thirty-five Grand Divisions, about five thou* 
sand subordinate Divisions, with two hundred and fifty thousand 
contributing members. Besides this moral army of perma- 
nently organized teetotalers, there are various other associa- 
tions adopting the total abstinence and mutual assurance basis, 
the principal of which are the Rechabites, the Temples of Honor, 
the Cadets of Temperance, and the Daughters of Temperance. 
Add to these the Washingtonians and other total abstainers, 
unconnected with any particular organization, and we have b 
million pledged foes to £jng Alcohol, nearly all recruited 
within the last quarter of a century. 

ExcBssrvB Stimulation — (B.) Page 24. 

That excessive stimulation — all artificial stimulation is exces- 
sive-^iot only wears out the vital organism prematurely, but 
throws the machinery of life into disorder, whereby deaths oc- 
cur suddenly and violently, is proved by every day's experience 
in civilized society. Our witnesses are fevers, inflammations, 
convulsions, cholera, consumption, etc. The most deplorable 


aspect in which we can view the effects of a htirried and disor- 
derly working of the organic functions is that of hereditary 
transmission. The offspring of the parent who transgresses 
the laws of life and health are frequently the greatest, and al- 
ways the most pitiful sufferers. A man bom with an originally 
powerful constitution, may indulge in all manner of " riotous 
living/' and endure to sixty or seventy years, while his off- 
spring, to whom he has bequeathed his acquired infirmities, 
cannot hold out, under the same excesses, more than forty or 
fifty years. How sacred the duty, how awful the responsibilitv 
of parents, in this relation ! 

DisTiLLBRT Milk — (C.) Page 49. 

In the cities of New- York and Brooklyn, and in the village 
of Williamsburg, many thousands of cows are kept in close, 
ill-ventilated, and horribly filthy stables, fed on distillery slops, 
and every other kind of foul, refuse material ; and their milk, 
which is an absolute p(»son, is sold to our citizens, and swal- 
lowed by our infantile population. The animals thus treated 
soon become diseased, when they are killed, and their carcasses 
peddled out to the people, under the name of beef. Although 
books have been written on this subject, and although the press 
has, during the last ten years, often and repeatedly called the 
attention of the sovereign people and the constituted authori- 
ties to these enormous evils, they still remiun unchecked and 
untouched. The rights of property appear to have a much 
stronger cls&m on legislating powers than the rights of persons. 
The right of a rich man to get richer, in the prosecution of a 
nuisance-business, is regarded higher than the right of a poor 
man to live ! Because " private rights," as the phrase goes, 
are not to be meddled with ; the public, who happen to be too 
ignorant to know their wrongs, or too feeble to defend their 
rights, may be cheated, defrauded, maimed, robbed, and poi- 
soned, all because a certain select, few, privileged, rich distillers 


find it profitable to sell their putrescent slops to be manufac- 
tured into a fluid resembling milk, after having converted the 
natural food of man — the grains and fruits which God gave 
him to eat-— into alcoholic poison. If there is a business on 
earth pre-eminently nefarious, it is thb ; if there is any system 
of legblation more thoroughly barbarian than all others, it is 
that which cherishes and protects the pn^rty principle at the 
expense of the image of God ! 

Moderate Drinkebs — (D.) Page 59. 

These "devil's decoys" are the greatest obstacles in the 
way of all reforms. The man who deals in intoxicating liquors 
in a palace, and preserves the external forms of respectability, 
has an influence for evil which the low grog-shop keeper, the 
loafer, can make no pretensions to. So with the moderate 
drinker. He maintains a respectable exterior ; his position in 
society is honorable ; he " can drink or let it alone." His coun- 
sel is listened to, and his example followed by others. Not so 
with the gutter-drunkard, or the immoderate drinker. No one 
considers his condition or ways exemplary. He rather serves 
as a frightful example to warn others from treading in his foot- 
steps ; while the man of character and station misleads others 
into his downward habits, many of whom inevitably become 
miserable and ruined drunkards. When I hear of a learned 
professor, an eminent statesman, a distinguished physician, or 
a Christian minister, who advocates or practices the moderate 
use of wine, I am always reminded of the devil's decoy. 

Diet at Grabfenburg — (E.) Page 66. 

Much has been said and written about the unphysiological 
character of a portion of the dietaiy system at PrieBsnitz's 


cttablitliaiieiit Penona not ficcHstomed to provide a table for 
water-core patientoy caa have little idea of the difficaltj d 
coatroUing artificial appetites. Imi^ne a man sarroanded hj 
five hundred invaUdfl, all having their opinions, conceits, and 
prejudices ; all having been long addicted to improper or in- 
temperate eating and drinking; all full of nu»'bid cravings, 
and, in exact ratio to their intensity, incapable of self-control ; 
most of them, too, nervous, peevish, irritable, and fault-finding, 
because the consequences of over-indulgence demand self- 
denial and privation as indispensable conditions of restoration ; 
and some conception may be formed of the herculean task of 
carrying out any dietetic arrangement on strictly physiological 
rules. It is true that some articles of food, usually found on 
the table at Graefenburg, are positively bad ; and the greater 
part of the dietary system would admit of improvement. It is 
not to be supposed that Priessnitz, with all his vastness and 
originality of mind, has had the opportunity of investigating 
theoretically and reducing to practice all the details of a phys- 
iological regimen. To his great credit, however, and evin- 
cive of his quick perception and accurate observation, be it 
said, that his special directions to his patients as to what food 
is best for them, are singularly judicious and philosophical, 
according with the more profound investigations of Graham, 
Lambe, and other dietetic reformers. He gives them to un- 
derstand, in general terms, that the more simple and plain 
their food the sooner they may expect to recover health. He 
tells them that coarse, unconcentrated food is the best, eaten 
cool or cold ; that brown or unbolted meal is far preferable to 
fine or superfine for the farinaceous part of their diet; he 
teaches them that the most rapid and perfect cures are made 
by abandoning all animal food ; that simple brown bread and 
pure water are sufficient in themselves for perfect nutrition, 
and then leaves them to their own responsibility. What more 
could one man do among so many, whose appetites were ten 
times as strong as their wills ? Although he did not, amid 
the opposition and persecution which surrounded and embar- 


rassed him, strictly cany out his own views of diet, be has 
taken a ppdtbn far in advance of the medical profession, and 
which, fifty years hence, like the writings <^ Graham, Lambe, 
Alcott, Smith, and Comaro, will be better imderstood and 
appreciated than now. 

Animal Fat — (P.) Page 69. 

Nothing more strongly illiistrates the utter absurdity and 
total want of all philosophical principle, in the popxdar medi- 
cal practice of the day, than this plan of relieving particular 
symptoms at the expense of the general health. This applies 
to the dietetic as well as the medicinal treatment. Heartburn 
indicates acidity, foul secretion, morbid matter in the stomach, 
or decomposed, unhealthy, and acrid bile in the duodenum, 
near the lower orifice of the stomach. It is so much easier to 
quiet this feeling for the time jthan to cure it permanently, 
that the doctors generally content themselves with smother- 
ii^ the sensation, while they allow the causes to go on undis- 
turbed. They tinker away at the effect without tlunking ei 
the condition. Almost any stimulating substance, as brandy, 
pepper, mustard; 'Or alkaline material, as soda, magnesia, 
saleratus ; or greasy compound, as fat ' pork, bacon, cod liver 
oil, will allay or overcome the feeling for a time. But this is 
only stifling the outcries of nature^ and changing the form of 
disease into less apparent, but really more destructive condi* 
tions. Medical books are full of inconsistencies in theory and 
contradictions in experience on the subject of greasy foods, 
fat meats, and animal oik. 

liebig imagines that fat, employed as food, serves an im- 
portant part in the animal economy, by supplying carbon to 
be ** burnt in the lungs,'' thus supporting respiration and pro- 
moting animal heat. He has entirely and most strangely over- 
looked the obvious fact, that the offensive carbon is merely 
thrown off in this way ; got rid of as useless and effete matter 


Thk ekemical theory of liebig, which makes fat an atimentaiy 
piinciple, also makes alcohol an alimentaiy principle. Alco- 
hol is a highly noxious, and highly carbonated liquid. The 
organism resents, rejects, and expels it in all posnble ways. 
Much of its plus-carbon is ejected from the lungs by means of 
the respiratory function. The increased chemical and physio- 
logical action requisite to get rid of it, of course increases the 
animal heat temporarily; but so for from this process, this 
preternatural augmentation of heat, being a useful way to sap- 
port respiration, it is an abaolute febrile and injurious effeet, 
tending to exhaust the vitality, and prematurely wear out the 
organic machinery. 

Now, strange as it may seem, Pereira, in his able work on 
food and diet — able in the chemical sense <»ly, does actually, 
on the ground I am controverting, declare alcohol an aliment- 
ary principle ! I only wonder that, following out this wild 
vagary, tobacco was not made an alimentary principle. '* The 
filthy weed" is in very general use ; it contains much carbon ; 
and one has only to smell the breath of a tobacco-eater to dis- 
cover that some of its elements are expelled from the system 
through the lungs. Why not then say, tobacco furnishes car- 
bon to be " burnt in the lungs," thus supporting respiration, 
thus maintaining the animal heat, and thus becoming an im- 
portant alimentary principle ! Ridiculous as b this conclusion, 
it results legitimately from the premises assumed in relation 
to the uses of animal oils. Such are the egregious errors re- 
sulting from the substitution of mere chemical analyses, always 
imperfect, for physiological principles, always true and immu- 

Pereira says : '* Fixed oil or fat is more difficult of digestion, 
and more obnoxious to the stomach, than any other alimentary 
principle." Is not this good ground to suspect it is not an 
alimentary principle at all ? Surely nature cannot be so in- 
consistent as to provide an indigestible and obnoxious aliment- 
ary principle ! But, per contra, Professor C. A. Lee, of this 
city, in editing Pereira's work^ tells us that he has treated 


many eases of cholera iafantum, where every thing would be 
rejected from the stomach except salt pork, or fat bacon, rare 
broiled^ and given in small quantities at a time. Here is an- 
other delusion of theory. Because a given article of food, or 
medicine, or poison, will resist the efforts of the stomach to 
expel it, when the digestive orgims are incapable of acting on 
any nutritive materia], and when no food at all should be 
forced into the stomach, it by no means follows that such arti- 
cle is best. When the stomach rejects particular articles of 
medicine, the physician is very apt to try one drug after an- 
other, until, something stays on the stomach. Then he ima* 
^nes that he has achieved a great victory. Perhaps he has ; 
and conquered the stomach instead of the disease. The allo- 
pathic system is mainly practiced on the principle of silencing 
the efforts of nature. It is a mischievous practice, whetiier 
m the use of calomel and opium as remedies, or fat pork and 
bacon as victuals. 

How much more rational and common-sensical is it, in chol- 
era cases, as instanced by Br. Lee, to give the patient plenty 
of tepid or cool water to dilute and wash away the offending 
material in the stomach, then let it alone until rest and resto- 
ration allow the natural appetite to determine when food is 
wanted and can be digested. 

Theory of Skmulation — (G.) Page Yl. 

The common notions of stimulation entertiuned by the medi- 
cal faculty, have led to a practice incalculably injurious. When 
the digestive organs have been worn down, as it were, with 
excitement, over-burdened with concentrated and improper 
aliment, and over- worked by stimulating food, drinks, nervines, 
condiments, etc., it is the* general ^ practice to undertake to 
counteract the consequences by giving additional intensity to 
the causes ; that is, to lash up the stomach, digestive powers, 
and nervous system to additional efforts by new, and ever- 



vaxiedf aod oonstanily increasing stumilantB. Una is exactly 
analogous to whipping a bone whqse strength has been ot^- 
tasked by too heavy a load. The application of the laah causes 
the abased animal to expend his vitality Dastw than he could 
in any natural use of his muscles, and he 9eem8 stronger. But 
nobody supposes a horse thus treated will live as lon^ or do 
as much work during his natural life as one whose exhausted 
strength was invigorated by rest instead of violence. 

To re-invigorate the exhausted digestive powers of the hu* 
man animal, rest and quiet are nature's indications. This im- 
plies the absence of all stimulating or irritating ingesta. We 
know that in a depressed state of the vital powers, in those 
accustomed to various stimuli, stimulating food feels the most 
agreeable for the moment ; and in these cases animal food, to 
those in the habit of using it, of course, feels more pleasant 
than vegetable. But it oppresses the body more in the end 
by its very power of stimulation. I have treated many bad 
cases of dyspepsia, and my experience has been uniformly and 
most deddedly in favor of the strictest vegetable diet. The 
great advantage of this consists, in my opinion, in its greater 
punty of material,^ in its natural adaptation to the human con- 
stitution, and in its complete destitution of all stimulating 

Akimal Fat in Cold Cumatss — (H.) Page 71. 

This " best reason" will appear one of the very worst when 
rightly apprehended. The fact that people c<m bear in a very 
cold climate what would kill them outright in a very warm 
one, does not prove that they can do no better. Persons in 
temperate latitudes can bear, in the winter season, a kind and 
degree of gross, greasy, and impure animal food, wliich, in the 
summer season, would immediately endanger their lives. For 
what other reason are oysters adjudged, by popular sentiment, 
to be unhealthy during the months which have no letter r — ^the 



four hottest months of the year ? The only scientific argument 
yet brought to bear in favor of animal fat, or animal food, in a 
cold climate, is the carbonic theory of respiration. This I have 
attended to in the preceding note. I Trill further remark in this 
place, that the carbonaceous theorists singularly enough seem 
to overlook the fact, that the various kinds of vegetable food 
known, contain as much carbon as the various kinds of animal 
food in use. Nature has not done her work so blunderingly 
as to forget to put the proper quantity of carbon in the purest 
and best kinds of food. It is true that the fixed oils, both 
animal and vegetable, contain a much larger quantity of carbon 
than other forms of animal and vegetable matters do. But 
ample experience has demonstrated that all oily matters are 
the very poorest dietetic substances, even if they are useful at 
all. In every part of the earth, the people whose diet consists 
of a large proportion of animal oils, are among the lowest and 
most degraded of the human family, physically and mentally. 
Those who refer to the diminutive and deformed Esquimaux, 
who devour immense quantities of train oil, as evidence of the 
necessity or utility of fat in a cold climate, should be reminded 
of the Russian Cossacks, and a tribe of Finlanders, who inhabit 
an extremely rigorous latitude, subsisting on the most simple 
and rather scanty vegetable fare, and who enjoy a high degree 
of physical strength, symmetry, and activity. 

It has long been a popular fallacy that alcohol was necessary 
in cold climates ; but recently Sir John Boss and other North- 
sea navigators have dispelled this delusion by actual experi- 
ment. Similar experiments, I have no manner of doubt, would 
dispel the similar error in relation to blubber oil and fat meats. 

DiGKSTiBiLiTT OF FooD — (I.) Page 73. 

The capacity of the stomach to digest any given article of 
food is so much a matter of habit, that no correct conclusions 
can be drawn from the first efiTect of any kind the stomach has 


not been aceiutomed to. The digestive powers are also very 
nraeh modified by the sum total of dl our voluntary habits. 
Persons who have been for a considerable time trained to a 
ecHrrect vegetable regimen, can eat» not only with impunity, but 
with pleasure and profit, cabbage, cucumbers, spinage, aspara- 
gus, simply boiled, and even many esculent roots without any ( 
preparation at all; whereat in a stomach just frcnn its concen* 
trated food, stimulating flesh, wanning condiments, and ener- 
vating hot drinks, they might produce a k^gular fit of colic. 
The same remarks i4>ply to various kinds of nuts, which in 
some produce extreme indigestion, while others can use them 
with entnre impunity. The fallacy of reasoning from the imme- 
diate feeling produced in the stomach depraved by false 
ingests, thus taking a morbid habit to guide us instead of an 
ascertamed physiolo^cal principle, may be well illustrated by 
referring to the article of old cheese. What is called old, rich, 
strong cheese, is, in my judgment, one of the most indigestible 
injurious, I had almost said poisoncms, articles of diet known. 
Tet it is in extensive use ; and most persons say it feels well 
in the stomach. Indeed, many persons who eat pretty heavy 
dinners take a piece of it as a '* digester," just as others do a 
glass of brandy. That it is essentially a bad thing I have 
proved in the following manner — ^I have known several persons 
who have disused it several months, living at the same time on 
plain food, mostly vegetable. In this way the natural sensi- 
bility of the tongue, palate, throat, stomach, etc., was measur- 
ably restored. On eating a moderately sized piece of good, old, 
rich cheese, a '< canker in the mouth,'' and a constipated state 
of the bowels would always exist the next day. I have known 
the experiment repeated, and have tried it several times my- 
self, always with these results. 

Theory of Populatioh — (J.) Page 78. 
The doctrine of " divine permission," as commonly under- 


stood and applied to ouryoluntary habits, has been prodactiTe 
of much confusion in theology, as it has of mischief in hygiene. 
Regarding God as the great first cause, we must, of necessity, 
admit that nothing can happen without his permission. But 
to suppose that animal food and alcoholic liquors were per- 
mitted man to shorten his life, and prevent an excessive growth 
of wickedness, according to Dr. Cheyne, is indirectly charging 
the Almighty with at least a very cruel and awkward way of 
accomplishing a desirable end. More consistent is it with his 
attributes, and more consonant with a rational philosophy, to 
suppose that h^ permits us to infringe his laws, that he gives 
us ability to act, in our very limited sphere, against the general 
order of nature, for the benevolent pturpose of teaching us that 
order. This, it may be presumed, can be done in no better 
way than by making us practically acquainted with the bless- 
ings of conforming our lives to his laws, and the miseries in- 
separably connected with their infraction. Good and evil, in 
this sense, may be said to be '^ permitted," and intended to 
teach us, by our own individual experience, the relations of 
cause and effect ; in other words, the laws by which we, and 
all the universe of matter and of mind, are, have been, and 
ever will be governed. 

Philosophers have been much puzzled in their attempts to 
make out a satisfactory theory of population. Mr. Malthas 
has contended that population has a tendency to increase faster 
than the means of subsistence, imless some extraordinary coun- 
teracting causes be interposed. On this assumption, ''war, 
pestilence, and famine" may be hailed as special godsends, to 
keep the race down to the level of the means of subsistence ; 
but it places the Creator in an attitude ht)m which our reason 
revolts. Mr. Doubleday, on the other hand, has lately met 
the positions of Mr. Malthus with an opposite theory. He has 
undertaken to show that poverty is the great cause of a rapid 
increase, and that a good degree of the comforts of life "dead- 
ens the principle of increase." He proves the first clause of 
his jNToposition by adverting to the fact that poor folks hav« 


the most cbfldren ; and the hitter part by qnoting the weD- 
known historical data» that wealthy and luxnrions famOies very 
lieqaently nin oat, as hare done wealthy and hurarioos nar 
tions. The doctrines of both these gentlemen are too narrow 
and superficial to be worthy of God^ or honorable to man. . 

They are both mistaken, I think, in endeavoring to turn nian's ' 

abase of nataral laws into " natural tendencies." 

Graat wealth and extreme poverty are equally in violation 
(^ the ''natural constitution of man." That God who noade 
the earth, fashioned it to produce sustenance enough for all the 
beings created in his own image. If men have got at variance 
with themselves, warred upon each other ; if some have usurped 
too much of the d<Mnain of our common mother earth, and 
others have not where to lay their heads ; if men have de- 
nnged their proper social reliUions, perverted the laws of ihear 
own organization, and entailed upon themselves and 80<»ety 
innumerable "permitted" evils, let them pause long before 
they charge all these results to " natural tendencies." When 
men live according to the laws of their being, extreme wealth 
and extreme poverty, by which one portion of mankind are 
pampered to death and the other starved, will soon cease to 
exist ; and there will be no more trouble about either excessive 
CT deficient population. Look over the world. In some of 
the European nations, it takes the labor of a hundred or a 
thousand peasants, or serfs, to maintain one yoimg sprig of 
nobility in a life of fashionable dissipation. In nearly aQ coun* 
tries, a vast amount of toil and talent is wasted in miscultivat- 
ing the earth for tobacco, cofifee, tea, and other injurious nar- 
cotics and nervines ; and an immense amount of the natural 
food of the human family, g^ns and fruits, is manufactured 
into alcoholic poisons. So long as man ravages the earth ui- 
stead of ruling it, so long as he plays tyrant instead of lord 
over it, and over the rest of the animal creation, so long will 
the theory of population be an unsolved problem, to those who 
oannot distinguish between man's transgressions and God's 


Much has been said about the Mosaic regulations ccmcem- 
ing diet, etc. Moses was, no doubt, a sagacious legislator, and 
a much better physiologist than most doctors now-a-days who 
undertake to direct the eating habits of the people. He had, 
it must be recollected, an ignorant, sensual, semi-barbarous 
people to deal with, such as are a majority of the himian race 
at this day. His teachings in relation to their personal habits 
were as much ** in advance of the age" as he could have had 
any reasonable expectation they could appreciate^ or would 
practice Hence his permission to eat the very best kinds of 
animal food, so long as he could not at once rabe their de- 
praved appetites above the flesh-pots which ** their s^uls lusted 
after/' while he gave specific directions to lead them into the 
ways of personal cleanliness, bodily purity, and better health, 
shows him to have been a philosopher of the progressive 

Let the reformer of the present day, be he theological or 
physiological, set up a standard of moral life, or a law of eat- 
ing and drinking, in all respects strictly adapted to the laws 
of God and nature, and the best condition and highest happi- 
ness of the whole human family, and how many could he in- 
duce to " walk therein ?" We should all be Moses-like, and 
try to lead erring humanity to truth and nature, step by step, 
always keeping the standard of reform as far in advance of 
the mass of the people as they can distinctly perceive and be 
induced to follow. 

Is Man a Drineinq Animal ?-*(E.) Page 95. 

This is a disputed point. Dr. Lambe, of London, has argued 
very ably that man is not naturally a drinking animal. The 
great majority of dietetic writers hold the opposite opinion, while 
a few think his best condition requires him to drink largely, 
even at meals. There can be no doubt — indeed. Dr. Alcott 
and others have proved it by direct experiment — ^that those 
who adopt a vegetable regimen and make a large proportion 


of their food consist of succulent fruits and watery yegetables, 
can be perfectly sustained and nourished without water-drinfe- 
ing. It is also certain that those who employ greasy dishes, 
who eat much animal food, and who use salt and spices freely, 
or who partake freely of concentrated farinaceous preparations, 
find a large quantity of water, as drink, necessary to cany off ' 

the sahne particles and other impurities, and assuage the fac- 
titious fever of the organism. This, though, is not nature, bat 
a perversion of it. I think in all cases the thirat is the safe 
rule to go by. All persons should be sure and have pure freak 
water. Hard water ought certainly never to be used as a 
drink, or f^r culinary purposes. I am convinced that the habit 
of drinking much at meals is wrong, unless, as I have just 
remarked, thirst is provoked by stimulating food, oondini^itSy 
or seasonings. 

SmnTLATiKO Water — (L.) Page 99. 

Bicherand's expression — ''The purest water is rendered 
stimulating by the air and salts it contains," is one of those 
unaccountable absurdities which have, in some strange way, 
got into the heads and books of a large class of men calling 
themselves scientific. Pure water is entirely free from all saline 
ingredients ; and is not in the least degree stimulating. It ia 
simply nutritious and solvent. It enters largely ii^to all the 
solid structures of the body, forms the greater part of the fluids, 
serves as a vehicle to carry the elements of reparation and 
growth to all parts of the system, and the effete, or waste par- 
ticles, from the organism through the several excretions. This 
view of its uses shows at once why it should not be in any 
sense or degree saline nor stimulating. Waters which contain 
various salts, earthy matters, alkalies, or mineral substances, 
like our famous Spas, are fruitful sources of disease. The 
great number of medicinal springs, so celebrated in all parts 
of the fashionable world, for curing the fashi<Hiable complaiats 

APPBimix. aS6 

of feshiooable folks, owe thw whole fame to the ridiciiloiis 
fashionable conceit, that impure water, which is not fit f<nr 
healthy people to swallow, is much the healthiest for fashion- 
ably sick persons. 

Alcohouo Medicines — (M.) Page 101. 

The employment of alcoholic liquors, as medicines, by so 
large a portion of the medical faculty, is, in my opinion, the 
greatest stumbling-block in the way of the temperance refor- 
mation. Bo lof^ as the rarious fonns of intoxicating drinks are 
used as remedies, they will be abused as beverages ; and so long 
will innumerable qnadcs drive a flourishing trade in selling 
sweetened liquors, moderately drugged, under the names of 
Sarsaparilla Extracts, Life Balsams, Purifying Syrups, Anti* 
dyspeptic Bitters, Anti-bilious Cordials, etc., etc. The regfdar 
trade may thank their own bad example for such a prosperous 
state of the business of their rivals of the irregular trade. 

Several eminent medical men — as eminent as any among 
the living or dead — ^have expressed their decided conviction 
that all alcoholic medicines were, to say the. least, unnecessafy. 
They have given, too, many weighty reasons for such a condu* 
sion ; yet, although I am not aware of a sound argument in 
their favor ever being advanced, their routine and most empyri* 
oal employment continues almost unabated in force to this 
n^oment. It is not a little singular that so many homceopathio 
practitioners, who profess to administer the materia medica on 
a principle totally opposite to the doctrine of the allopathists, 
give the alcoholic stimulants generally in allopathic quantities. 

It is perhaps impossible to make physicians or people com- 
prehend, so long as all the poisons of the mineral, vegetable, and 
animal kingdoms are recognized by the faculty as remedies, why 
the alcoholic poison should not be in the catalogue. We see, 
therefore, but little encouragement without directing the bat- 
tering-rams pf temperaaoe refonn against the apothecary shop, 


To clear the ftuthorued pluumaeopoeia of its ''ardoit spirits, 
malt liquon, wine, and cider/' we shall probably be obliged to 
asnihilate the whole tribe of drugs and destructiyes, an achieye- 
ment, by the way, which, when accomplished, will do more to 
presenre the public health than all the sanatory statutes enacted 
since the world began. 

I cannot here refrain from administering a little reproof to a 
certain class of temperance men, on the subject of practical 
total abstinence ; I mean those who have pledged themselves 
not to drink the alcoholic bane, but who continue to ecU it. It 
is an every-day afiiair for such persons to cry aloud, *' plum- 
pudding — ^wine," at the refectories; to eat brandied steakst 
brandied mince-pies, and brandied sweet-meats, or cakes and 
gravies in which wine constitutes one of the component parts. 
Thus they observe the mere letter of the pledge and trample 
on its spirit This is a pitiful exhibition of pretaided philan- 
thropy ; and the man must be grossly the slave of a perverted 
i^petite, or lamentably blind in his understanding of the tem- 
perance principle, or sadly deficient in the spirit of true hu- 
manity, who can, for a m<mient's gratification of a morbid taste, 
commend to his fellow-creatures the eating principle of alco- 
holic stimulation, while peradventure he is in the habit of 
declaiming often, long, loud, and strong against its drinking 

Salt— (N.) Page 102. 

Probably no article, as a mere condiment or seasoning, is 
less harmful than salt, if used very moderately. But I am 
fully persuaded its ordinary free use is highly injurious. As a 
dietetic article I regard it as worse than useless — common 
opinion, and the frequent assertions of medical books to the 
contrary notwithstanding. The free use of salt irritates the 
mouth, throat, and stomach, creating thirst and fever, and pro- 
voking unnatural appetite, while it loads the circulating fluids 


with a foreign ingredient, which the excretory organs must 
labor inordinately to get rid of. It produces glandular ob- 
structions, rigidity of fibre, stiffness of muscles, and impover- 
ished blood. The antiseptic quality of salt has been often 
alleged as a ground of its utility ; but this is precisely the 
quality that renders it most unfit for nutritive purposes. Per- 
fect digestion requires the most easy transformation of the 
alimentary materials — ^not easy in point of time, but in respect 
to purity and congeniality of proximate elements. The anti- 
wptic quality of salt renders the alimentary substances with 
which it mixes and combines, particularly the fibrous portion 
of animal food, hard, insoluble, and so far indigestible. That 
well-known putrescent condition of the body, called scurvy, so 
common among sailors confined for a long time to salted pro- 
visions, is at least strong presumptive evidence against its 
utility. On chemical grounds, it is argued Uiat most of the 
vegetable and animal substances employed as food, contain a 
greater or less proportion of the elements of common salt — 
soda and hydro-chloric acid. To this it is a sufficient reply, 
that nature has put the elements of our food together in exactly 
the right proportion, those substances containing precisely 
what the oi^anio economy requires, so that we need make no 
extraneous additions. 

Causes of Cholera — (0.) Page 117. 

The prevalence of cholera during the past season, has caused 
an immense amount of crimination, unmeaning, of course, to be 
uttered against the Most High, from high places and low places. 
Nothing is more common than to hear this pestilence spoken of 
as the *' scourge of the Almighty," the ** mysterious dealings 
of Providence," the " wrath of the Deity," etc., etc. It seems 
to be miuch easier to blaspheme God and hbel nature than to 
mend our own manners when evils beset us. " Fasting, hu- 
miliation, and pmyer" arp all commendable, when intelligently 


exercised; but when, in view of any pieviafiBgepideimc disease, 
we pray God to '' avert His anger/' while we continue to practice 
our own misdeeds, which are in fact the canaes of the epidemic^ 
our devotion can have no moral character above that of solemn 
mockery. His will, and His power, to "stay the pestilence/' 
will always be coupled with the condkbn, that we cease to 
transgress the laws of our being. It is an historical truth that, 
in all parts of the world, so for as we can derive any authentic 
data, no person whose voluntary habits were phymolc^cally 
correct, has died of this disease. In this city we can find no 
account of any person who lived on plain, unconcentrated 
vegetable food, and fruits of good quality, and drank nothing 
but pure water, having ever died of cholera ; nor do I believe 
such a case will ever be known. This is true of 1832, 1834, 
and 1849 — all the years it has vimted us. I know the con- 
trary has been often asserted, and is perhaps generally believed^ 
and I know, too, that the assertion is wholly false. 

I can imagine no disease more artificially induced, more 
deariy the result of the false customs of society, more evidently 
the consequence of our own voluntary habits than the Asiatic 
cholera ; and what is true of people in one part of the worid 
is true of aH Whatever may be the remote or excitii]^ 
causes of this disease, or any disease, it is very dear to my 
own mind that we can never have the cholera unless a morbid 
condition exists within ourselves, upon which those remote and 
exciting causes operate ; and this condition, being the aggre- 
gate result of all our habits of life, is perfectly within our own 

HiOH Charges — (P.) Page 121. 

On this subject, as on all others, we should examine both 
sides. It is very true that hydrqpaUiio estatdishments m/^^^ 
bo so arranged and inanaged as to be able to treat patients at 
One half, or less, the usual rates. It would require, how- 
i^ver, more capital and patronage than hydropaths liaye thus 


far enjoyed. In this country, an establishment must ne got 
up with considemble attendon to comfort and appearances, or 
it will not be patronized at alL It is much more expensiye to 
keep a good establishment than a common boarding-house, as 
any one can understand by looking at the machinery, attend- 
ants, wear and tear, etc., required. Moreover, there are al- 
ways frequent applications from '^ charity patients," invalids 
who have expended all their substance through the kind at- 
tentions of doctors and ajtothecaries, and who come penniless 
to the water-cure as a last resort. Many of these the hydro- 
path, if he has a few drops of the milk of human kindness in 
his composition, cannot turn away. He must take them, 
board, lodge, supply, and attend them for just what they have 
to pay — " be the same more or less." Now, if he graduated 
his scale of charges at the lowest living rates to the paying 
class, the non-paying, unless he hardened his heart, would 
inevitably sink him. It may be said that the poor ought to 
have friends who should each contribute a Kttle to their ex- 
penses, or the public might assist them instead of the hydro- 
path bearing all the burden. All this might be so ; but it is 
not infrequently quite otherwise. If a benevolent public, or 
if philanthropic individuals of wealth could be induced to con- 
struct the right kind of establishments, so that system, associa- 
tion, and capital could be combined, the expenses could be 
reduced proportionately. 

Drugged Liquors — (Q.) Page 124. 

To the list of adulterating agents named in the text, in com- 
mon use by the manufacturers of intoxicating drinks, may be 
added various essential oils, logwood. Brazil-wood, alum, green 
vitriol, capsicum, bitter oranges, sugar of lead, oil of bitter 
almonds, India berry, poke berries, elder berries, poison hem- 
lock, laui-el water, prussic acid, dragon's blood, lamb's blood, 
gom benzoin, red sanders, burnt sugar, salt of tartar, and 


many others. A late author on chemistry, enumerates forty- 
six adulterating ingredients employed in the manufacture of 
beer alone. Nine tenths of the sweet wines in market are 
extensively adulterated. In fact, the greater proportion of all 
the liquors of commerce consist of alcoholic poison, dragged 
with still other poisons. 

'*Whbn Doctor's Disaqrer" — (R.) Page 126. 

Dr. C. Herring has related the following anecdote : While 
traveling through Germany, he was invited to the house of a 
rich old gentleman, who had been an invalid for twenty years. 
This gcntlemcan had at first consulted two physicians of celeb- 
rity, but as they quan'eled about his complaint, he deter- 
mined to seek other advice. But first he resolved, that if he 
could find three doctors who perfectly agreed upon his case 
without hesitation, to allow himself to be treated by them, but 
not otherwbe. For this purpose he had consulted many emi- 
nent physicians, whose advice and prescriptions he had re- 
corded in a book kept for the purpose, which, as may be sup- 
posed, had cost him a pretty sum of money, but never found 
any three who agreed respecting his case. 

This book had the appearance of a ledger in large folio, and 
was kept in the form of tables. In the first column were the 
names of the physicians, amounting to 477 ; in the second, 
those of the disease, with explanations concerning its nature ; 
of these there were 313, differing importantly from each 
other ; in the third column were the remedies proposed ; these 
consisted of 832 prescriptions, containing in all 1097 remedies. 
The sum total of fees appeared at the end of each page. 

Progress of Hydropathy — (S.) Page 129» 

In the United States, the doctrines of water-cure have pro- 
gressed with a rapidity unparalleled by any other reformatory 


innovation on established usages. The oldest establishment 
in this country only dates back six years ; now there are prob- 
ably more than one hundred. Another evidence of the con- 
stantly increasing interest felt in this subject, is the great num- 
ber of books and periodicals constantly emanating from the 
press on this subject. The Water-Cure Journal, published by 
Fowlers and Wells, in this city — the oldest and l^iding hydro- 
pathic periodical of this country, has attained an extent of 
circulation equaled by few monthlies in the world, and is now 
acquiring readers and patrons faster than ever before. 

CuTANBOUs Transpibation — (T.) Page 142. 

The experiment mentioned in the text does not prove that 
every person ought to expel through the skin from four and a 
half to five and a half pounds of effete material; but that 
some persons do. The quantity of perspirable matter in dif- 
ferent individuals must vary according to their general habits 
of life, particularly as regards exercise, food, and drink. 

That we '' feed upon air," is literally trae. The skin is without 
doubt, in some degree, a breathing organ. It is capable of 
absorbing a certain amount of water, thus in some measure 
allaying thirst ; and its ability to derive nourishment of the 
more ethereal kind, the vital or electrical principle, from the 
surrounding atmosphere, is in my mind unquestionable. In 
this sense, however, its principal function is that of a regu- 
lator. Persons of open, porous, vigorous skins, can bear with 
impunity alternations of temperature and varying electrical 
states, which, to those whose cutaneous vessels are obstructed, 
torpid, feeble and inactive, would prove injurious or even fataJ. 
Hence the importance of regular, daily, cold bathing, espe- 
cially to those who spend much time in-doors, and bundle 
themselves up, after the manner of most people, in a surplus 
quantity of flannel. 


OxTOEN AKD RisPiRATiON — (U.) Page 150. 

The idea that oxygen Is a heating agmit is no better ground- 
ed than the oppodte opinion, sometimes advanced, that it is a 
cooling agent The more rational view appears to be this: 
respiration is a process which aids powerfully in the regulation 
of the animal temperature. The oxygen of the atmosphere 
certainly performs an important part in the organic economy, 
such as combining with and aiding the expulsion of effete car- 
bon, or, to use the modem chemical phrase, ''burning the car- 
bop in the lungs ;" also, supplying the electrical principle to 
the blood, or, to speak more modemly, the magnetic element to 
the nerves. The animal machine is, to a greater extent than 
is generally supposed, self-regulating ; a harmonious balance 
of all its functions gives it its best vital condition ; and this 
will be warming or cooling, according to the necessities oi the 
case. Free resjMration calls into play many muscles, organs, 
and functions ; this general activity and balance of the several 
systems which compose the one CHrganism, appropriate what 
is useful from surrounding media, and reject what b injurious, 
thus defending the body alike from extr^nes of heat or cold; 
but it is a very partial investigation of the phenomena of life 
which imputes the combined results of the resjMratory function 
to the chemical properties of oxygen alone. 

ExzRCiss AND Sensible Pebspiration — (V.) Page 163. 

This rule for exercising will hardly do for all, without s6me 
qualifications. Those who live simply, bathe regularly, and 
exercise much habitually, sweat but very little under severe 
exertion. With them, sensible perspiration is no rule of action. 
The sensations of heat and fatigue are their better guides. 
That perspiration which is necessary to waste, change, disor- 
ganize, and re-compose, is mainly insen^ble. The profuse 
sweating so generally observed upon laborers and others, when 


exercising serereij, is, to a great extent, the pouring out of the 
surplus fluid demanded by thirst-proroking habits of eating 
and drinking. 

GsNi&BAL ABLunoKs-**-(W.) Page 156. 

For rubbing the surface of the body, and the processes of 
bathing or friction, coarse cloths appear to jne far better than a 
sponge. The greater facility with which they can be handled 
is no small argument in their favor. I never apply any strong 
shock to the head, as a douche, or large, compact stream. 
The pouring bath, or shower, may be applied to the head 
moderately in persons whose circulation is not materially un* 
balanced. Those liable to headache after bathing, or subject 
to what is called a *' rush of blood to the head," had better 
only wet the head with the hand or sponge. 

Cutaneous Exhalations — (X.) Page 169. 

Few persons seem to have a correct idea of the natural 
smell of a human being. It is a common and rather vulgar 
prejudice, that the strong, rank, fetid odor, that often exhales 
from the body of a laboring man in a state of perspiration, and 
the stench which frequently arises from the feet of a man who 
wears flannel stockings and uses no foot baths, indicates 
strength, health, and animal vigor. This mistake appears 
rather foolish on examination. All these persons, by adopting 
regular bathing habits and eating wholesome food, will soon 
lose the whole of this filthy and most unnatural smell. If the 
outlets of the body are clogged up with dead, putrescent par- 
ticles, which ought to be expelled, and the pores of the sldn 
are obstructed by decayed and waste rotting matter, which 
ought to be cleaned out, the sweat or steam arising from the 
body will necessarily be charged with offensive effluvia. To 
smell sweet, a human being has only to keep clean. 


Thk Rubbing Wet Sheet— (Y.) Page 161. 

The method of throwing the sheet oner the head is rery 
awkward, and entirely unnecessary. Wrapping it closely 
around the neck, enyeloping all the body except the head, is 
much more eonvenient, and equally useful. This is one of the 
best of the water-cure appliances ; and competent of itself, if 
perseveringly employed, in conjunction with a proper regimen, 
to cure many chronic diseases. 

The Wet Sheet Pack— (Z.) Page 162. 

The wet sheet packing process admits of the exercise of con* 
siderable tact and dexterity on the part of the attendant 
Patients often speak of comfortable or disagreeable sensations, 
as they are packed skillfully or bunglingly. The head should 
be raised on pillows sufficiently to rest perfectly at ease. The 
blankets or comfortables should be spread next to the mattrass, 
so that the body can be enveloped more evenly and rapidly. 
Care should be taken to fold the clothing closely about the neck, 
yet not so as to be oppressively tight in the least. Especial 
pains should always be taken to double the blankets well 
around the feet. If the feet get warm readily, the patient 
generally comes out of the operation with agreeable feelii^ ; 
but if they remain cold, the whole body feels uncomfortable 
a long time afterward. When the feet get warm with diffi- 
culty, a jug of hot water should be placed under them. The 
object of the wet sheet is never directly to excite sensible per- 
spiration, as our author seems to suppose. The mtention is to 
fill the superficial capillary vessels with blood, to develop the 
external or remote circulation, or, in other words, to produce a 
glow. The sensation of warmth should be the test for the 
time of remaining packed, not the perspirable or non-perspirable 
condition of the body. 


The Sweating Blanket — (AA.) Page 163, 

Though this process was fonnerly resorted to very frequent- 
ly, it is now seldom employed. Experience has proved that 
the other more mild and more agreeable processes, if the diet 
is plain and weU regulated, will acccnnplish all that can be 
gained by forced sweating. Still there are a few cases, or 
rather conditions, in which it is decidedly advantageous. It is 
best adapted to persons of a gross, over-full habit of body, who 
require deterging pretty thoroughly. Gouty, rheumatic, and 
scrofulous subjects are most frequently in this condition. We 
should look to the state of the patient, rather than the name 
of the disease, in determining upon this process. During six 
years of water-cure practice, I have not used the dry sweating 
blanket in more than half a dozen cases. The dry packing is 
frequently serviceable to very feeble persons, who cannot ex- 
ercise after a bath. In such cases it may follow the cold ablu- 
tion, rubbing wet sheet, or wet pack, the patient remaining en- 
veloped long enough to get up a comfortable glow. It is often 
useful, too, as a preparation for a cold bath of any kind, in 
those whose bodily temperature is k>w. 

Stimulants and Tonics — (BB.) Page 164. 

These terms, in our hydropathic lencon, have no particular 
meaning that I can discover. Their loose and indefinite employ- 
ment in medical books b a source of endless confusion in ideas. 
In the allopathic technical sense, a stimulant is an article which 
produces a rapid and transient increase of vital energy (vital 
expenditure) and arterial action ; a tonic produces the same 
effects more slowly, but they continue longer. Now these 
effects, called tonic and stimulant, are nothing more nor less 
than manifestations of the resistance of the organism to foreign 
and unnatural agents ; hence, as all medical authors admit, the 


loDg-oontinaed administration of any stimulant or tonic, though 
it is apparently strengthening at first, is invariably debilitating 
in the end. But the word stimulant, as generally employed in 
medical parlanoe, means an impression — any impresaon ; in 
other words, any effect <^ any cause which excites vital acticHi, 
or occasions vital disturbance, whether remedial or oth^nprise. 
Calomel, in medical writings, is sometimes called a stimulant, 
and sometimes a sedative ; so of opium, and a hundred oih^ 
things. Water-cure authors, in adopting the ambiguous lan- 
guage of the aUopaths, have made some of their writings very 
absurd and contradictory. For example. Dr. £. Wilson says, 
in explaining the modu9 cpermidi of tiie hydropathic processes : 

" There is one part of this process, however, that calls for 
special remark, and that is, the sudden immersion of the body 
in cold water while bathed with perspiration. This is easily 
explained ; the skin is stimulated to excess, and were not some 
means taken to check the action, it would be prcdonged indefi- 
nitdy, and would be a cause of chiU to the surface of the body, 
and give rise to cold and fever. The cold water applied in 
the manner described is 9k stimulant ; it produces a momentary 
shock to the nervous system, causes the arrest of the perspra- 
tion. and is followed by a general reaction. In describing the 
manner in which cold was produced by draughts of cold air, I 
had occasion to remark that the checked perspiration was the 
effect, and not the cause, of the injury done to the system ; 
and that the real cause of mischief was the chilling of the cuta- 
neous nerves and the consequent depression of the nervous 
powers. Cold never injures the body when acting as a sHmU" 
lant ; it is only when it acts long upon the surface, and robs 
the latter of its heat." 

Observe the incongruous senses in which the word stimulant 
is used, in the above quotation. In the first place, the skin is 
stimulated to excess by heat ; this excessive stimulation is coun- 
teracted by the opposite stimulant of cold ; and then we are 
told that a stimulant, as such, can never do any injury ; but if 
the stimulation acts too long the body is injured, not by tbo 


stimulant, cold, bat by being robbed of its heat» cold being the 
robber ! Such reasoning is, simply, learned nonsense. 

The Plunge Bath— (CC.) Page 165. 

By ** more stimulating/' the author means that the shock or 
impression is stronger. The plunge is one of the best baths 
on rising in the morning, as a hydroprophylactic measure. 
But, for the very reason that it is more shocking, I do not 
like it in fevers, especially those of nervous character. As a 
general rule, aU those acute diseases, fevers, and inflammatory 
affections, in which the circulation is materially and continu* 
ously disturbed, and when, also, the nervous system is greatly 
exhausted, as in those forms of fever called typhoid, or ner- 
vous, are best treated by such applications as produce but a 
moderate first impression, as the wet rub sheet, packing sheet, 
ablutions, etc. 

The Douche Bath— (DD.) Page 168. 

Like the sweating blanket, the douche has been rather over- 
done at some of the establishments. Very nervous and irri- 
table persons, and those subject to strong determinations to 
the brain, should always employ it cautiously, and with great 
moderation. For the majority of patients, from one to three 
minutes are amply sufficient. The best time for so powerful 
an application is when the stomach is nearly or quite empty ; 
in the morning on rising, two to three hours after breakfast, 
and three to four hours after dinner. 

Wet Bandages — (EE.) Page 169. 

The object of these can never be to " increase the heat of 
the Btoinach." The temperature of that organ is of no pmeti* 


oal coDsequeiice. In all dyspeptic or delHlitated stoiiiaclis» Hie 
Teasels are relaxed, engorged, and overloaded. They have 
not sufficient contractile power to circulate their contents 
freely; hence accumulation, distension, congestion. A cold 
wet bandage, applied around the abdomen, operates on the 
double principle of direct and counter-irritation. The first im- 
pression excites the muscular fibres to contractile efifbrts, while 
that law of the animal economy which determines an increase 
of the circulating fluids to any point where an unnatural, un- 
usual, or disproportionate impression is made, in some degree 
unloads the internal vessels, by calling more blood to the su- 
perficial. Whatever may be true or false in theory, none can 
dispute the great benefit derived from these apphances in all 
local diseases. 

Constipation — (FF.) Page l7l. 

Thb is rather sophistical. The distinction attempted to be 
drawn between the agent producing an evil effect, and the said 
effect produced, is to my mind inconceivable. If a man is bled 
to death by the operation of venesection — a circumstance, by 
the way, not uncommon — it may as logically be said that the 
evil, death, was not so much from the agent, the lancet, as 
from the effect produced, viz., the bleeding. 

In treating constipation hydropathically, more depends on 
the dietetic than on the bathing part of the management. I 
have never yet had a case to mans^e in which the bowels 
could not be brought to act regularly in a few days, and na- 
turally in a few weeks. Months and years are sometimes 
required to remove all the distressing consequences of consti- 
pation and establish the general health ; but I must think the 
motions of the bowels can, in all curable cases, be soon regu- 
lated by appropriate regimen. For food, unfermented wheat 
meal bread or biscuit, cracked wheat mush, boiled wheat, one 
or all should be prominent among the articles employed. Good, 

ilPPBNDIX. 389 

ripe, uncooked apples are excellent as part of the meal. Knead- 
ing, rubbing, thumping, and pounding, gently of course, the 
abdomen is a good exercise to promote free peristaltic action. 

It is melancholy to reflect on the multifarious forms of dis- 
ease which can be traced mainly to constipated bowels. Dys- 
pepsia, liver complaints, nervous debility, hysteria, hypochon- 
driasis, asthmatic and dropsical affections, cholera, colic, piles, 
skin diseases, etc., T^ith their countless combinations and rami- 
fications, may be generally traced to this starting point. Among 
our females who live in the ordinary way, scarcely one in a 
hundred is exempt from suffering on this account. The com- 
mon primary cause is concentrated food and mixed dishes. 
Baker's bread, superfine flour in the shape of hot rolls, butter- 
biscuits, tea-cakes, short-cakes, etc., cause an immense amount 
of obstruction, debility, disease, and deformity. Under the 
general delusion that bran is a "mechanical irritant" or only 
food for horses and hogs, medical and non-medical people 
have rejected the very best part of their natural and healthful 
aliment. Mistaking sensuality for refinement, and man's de- 
pravity for God's intention, they have misimprovcd instead of 
bettering the order of nature, and dearly have they paid for 
the rash attempt. 

When the cholera broke out m New York, in May last^ our 
very learned and most egreg^ously mistaken Medical Council, 
Board of Health, and Sanatory Committee, by their official 
recommendations as to what the people should eat, drink, 
wear, and take as medicines, to prevent or ward off an attack, 
destroyed many more lives than they saved, if there is any truth 
in testimony. The whole sum and substance of their authori- 
tative teaching was to induce people to use the most consti- 
pating kinds of food, and to resort to '' checking" medicines on 
the appearance of any premonitory or suspicious symptom. 
Now it is a matter of plain commcHi sense, as all will see, whose 
brains are not bewildered with the learned jargon of the doc- 
tors, that binding up the bowels with an unusual proportion 
id concentrated food and stimulants is exactly the way to 


p ro d BC< dbstroction, followed hy inflammation, diarriuBa, 
aad death. I have yet to learn of a single death among the 
thottsanda irho porsaed the contnuy waj— -eating nneoncen- 
uated and loo$mmp larmaeeoiu food, with plenty of good fruits 
and Tegetablea. 

Fevbrs— (GG.) Page 172. 

The hydropathic treatment of fevers is extremely simple, and 
has been, as far as I hare been able to learn, uniformly successful 
I have nerer heard of a fatal result when the patient was water- 
treated from first to last Those who believe in the supremacy 
of drugs and destructives — supreme in mischief, I grant — ^may 
impute this success to the kind assistance of that mngular deity 
who has been called chance. No matter. Chance never has 
and never will succeed as well on the other side. The number 
who have been treated for fevers of all kinds at water-cure 
eatabliahments, and by water-cure practitioners in private prac- 
tice, must amoont to thousands. Is it not worth investigating 
why none ct these have died ? In my own practice I have 
treated continued, inflammatory, biHous, scarlet, typhus, and 
ship fevers, aad in no case has the fever held out against the 
water appliances beyond the first week. The convalescence of 
a hydropathic patient contrasts advantageously with that of 
the half drugged-to-deaih subject of allopathic empyricism. 
He is never shattered, nuured, or scarred in body, broken in 
constitution, nervous, pretematurally sensitive, full <^ aches 
and pains, ever liable to rdapses, and constantiy taking cold, 
as we know is the fact with many who recover from a fever in 
tpke of the disease and the doctor both. 

Non-professional persons who undertake the home-treatment 
<^ fevers are apt to do too much. Hie indications are — to allay 
the thirst by free water-drinking ; to cleanse the bowels (when 
necessary) by copious water-injections, and to regulate the 
temperature by hot» warm, cool, or cold applications, generally 


or locally, accordiog to the degree of heat. Cold ablations, 
the wet sheet pack, or rubbing wet sheet, continued until the 
temperature becomes nearly natural, and repeated as often as 
it rises above the natural stimdard, will, in a few days at most, 
effect a subsidence of the general fever. If the feet incline to 
be cold, apply warm cloths or bottles of hot water ; if any part 
is unnaturally hot, apply cold wet cloths frequently changed. 
Very long baths, or any strong applications which shock the 
system, I do not think desirable ; nor do I believe exercise is 
to be recommended as a curative measure in any continued 
fever. Careful, gentle, quiet management, attending mainly to 
the regulation of the bodily temperature, is the best plan to 
treat all fevers. 

As to food, the less the better, as a general rule, for the first 
few days. Until the violence of a fever is materially abated, the 
patient cannot digest, and burdening his stomach with food 
only adds to his troubles. It is a pernicious custom of the 
doctors and lay-folks — constantly stuffing the stomach of a 
fever patient with soups and slops, and toasts and teas. Let 
the stomach alone until it is capable of performing its digestive 
function. The appetite will then let you know it. 

(^OUT AND Rheumatism — (HH.) Page 173. 

In treating these complamts, as far as sudorific processes 
are concerned, I would follow the rule previously intimated^ 
which is applicable to all diseases alike — the condition of the 
body. I think the majority of gouty and rheumatic subjects 
will get thoroughly cured the soonest with but little sweating. 
I am in favor of what are sometimes called " long packs," in 
these complaints, where there are no strong determinations to 
the head or chest. The wet-sheet pack for an hour or an 
hour and a half, twice a day, followed by the plunge or 
douche, or a powerful shower, appears to me the best leading 



meatore. All that the author recommendB in respect to the 
management in other particnlarB, my experience fully en- 
dorses. There are no diseases in which out-door exercise, 
particulariy walking, to the full extent of the patient's muscu- 
lar ability, is more indispensable. 

iNrLAMMATioN OF THE Brain — (II.) Page 175. 

I can see no necessity for shaving the head, or any part of 
it. Cold wet cloths can be changed once a minute, or oftener, 
if necessary ; nor should we by any means wait twenty-four 
hours to see if favorable symptoms would not supersede the 
necessity of general treatment. We should never neglect 
general treatment a moment in any severe local inflammation. 
The wet sheets and general baths should be employed here 
precisely as in the case of simple fever ; and all the rules ap- 
plicable to the management of fevera will equally apply to all 
local inflammations. The only practical distinction is that 
something additional must be done to the seat of the local 

Inflammation of the Lungs — (J J.) Page 176. 

While discussing the pretensions of the hydropathic system 
with my whilom associates of the allopathic school, the ques- 
tion has more than once been asked me in seeming triumph, 
as though its very statement was a knock-down argument, 
<*How would you treat pleurisy, or inflammation of the 
lungs ?*' The question is as easily answered as asked. And 
although I assure the orthodox gentlemen that I have been in 
the habit, for years, of treating all kinds of acute inflammaioiy 
afiections of the chest, in men, women, and children, from 
sixty years of age down to six days, with hydropathy, and 
nothing else ; although I aver that no one has ever died under 


such treatment, and notwithstanding I offer to give them 
name> plaee> time, and opportunity, they shake their full- 
stuffed heads dubiously, as much as to say, " There mttst be 
some mistake about it." 

Here, as in all visceral inflammations, the general treatment 
is most important. Attend to the symptoms of fever as if it 
were only a fever; and apply wet bandages to the chest. 
Sitting and half baths, tepid or cold, according .to the degree 
of general heat, are valuable auxiliaries to the wet-sheet pack- 

Liver Complaints — (KK.) Page 178. 

Acute inflammation of the liver is, in this climate, a very 
rare disease ; hence the symptoms described in the text are 
not often recognized. What is known, or rather talked about 
and tampered with so much as " liver coinplaint," comprises 
various morbid conditions of that organ, as torpor, congestion, 
enlargement, induration, and chronic inflanmiation. For prac- 
tical purposes, all those modifications of a morbid state may 
be regarded and treated as essentially the same. Imperfect 
functional action of the liver may emphatically be said to be 
the general condition consequent on the artificial habits of 
society. There are but few sound livers among us ; in fact, 
the same affection has become general among our domesti- 
cated animals, resulting from the unnatural habits we have 
forced upon them. 

There is an anatomical reason why the liver should be more 
liable to congestion and obstruction than any other organ in 
the body — Pliable, I mean, in reference to our improper habits. 
Unlike any other organ in the body, it is supplied with the 
yenotts or impure blood for its functional purposes. The 
venous or black blood from all parts of the body, charged 
with impurities, waste matters, and effete particles, passes on 
its way to the lungs for purification. A considerable portion 
of this blood is sent through the liver. This fact proves that 


the liver has much to do ia relieving the blood of some of its 
useless and poisonous elements. If, then, the articles of our 
food and drink are impure, improper, or unnatural in anj 
sense, the blood must become more loaded with effete matter 
than the various excreU>ry organs can separate without their 
notion being preternaturally increased. From the situation of 
the liver in relation to the venous circulation, it is at once 
manifest that it will be more readily overloaded with the float- 
ing impurities of the mass of blood than any other organ ; 
and all experience corresponds with thb fact. It is well 
known that fattened animals, hogs, cattle, poultry, kept on 
food to them unnatural and impure, almost invariably have 
diseased livers ; and although these livers are very dainty 
dishes for human epicures to eat, these epicures must pardon 
me if I remind them that their own livers are in no better con- 
dition, but rather worse. 

In treating all the multitudinous ailments, commonly, and 
with about equal propriety, called " liver complaint," " dys- 
pepsia," " nervous debility," "hypochondriasis," "jaundice," 
etc., a persevering course of the rubbing-wet sheet, wet-sheet 
pack, and sitz baths, are generally efficacious. Bad cases 
ought to remain under regular treatment one or two years. 
The diet should be strictly devoid of grease, condiments, and 
all concentrated aliments. 

Cutaneous Eruptions — (LL.) Page 179. 

The injury done to the constitution by repellent applications 
to the skin is not so well understood by the people as it ought 
to be. Washes made of different preparations of lead, and 
ointments of various preparations of mercury, constitute the 
regular orthodox prescriptions for almost all sorts of " breakings 
out" on the surface. These healing medicaments are pretty 
" sure cure," and exactly to the same extent sure kUL They 
do indeed smooth over the outside by repelling the disease to 
the internal mucous membrane. The following may serve to 


iilu6trate a principle of rery general apj^cation: Onoe upon a 
time, I was consulted by a fond motiier as to what slie should 
do for her litUe boy's head. The child had an eruptiye disease 
of the scalp, a mild form of tinea capitis, or scalled head. I 
answered, " Bathe it daily ; give it no salt or grease to eat ; 
keep the whole body healthy ; let the eruption take care of 
itself; it does not look pretty, but it will disappear in due time; 
if you scatter it away with salves, ointments, or washes, it will 
show itself intenially." My advice did not prevail ; as usual in 
such cases a doctor was sent for who knew how to do some • 
thing. He applied some sort of an ** all<healing" ointment. 
The disease disappeared from the scalp and re-appeared on the 
mucous membrane of the windpipe, producing cough, and a 
hoarse, rough, croup-like sound of the voice, which may prove 
the germ of an early death from consumption. 

Cholbra and Bowel Complaints — (MM.) Page 181. 

The cholera was treated in various parts of the United States 
hydropathically during its recent prevalence as an epidemic, 
and, as far as we have any account, with a success far beyond 
any other method employed. The management was consider* 
ably diversified by different practitioners. As a deduction 
from both theory and experience I am inclined to prefer, as a 
general rule, warm and tepid water internally to cold. In 
many cases, where there is great general heat, almost any 
quantity of cold water would be harmless. But in the majority 
of cases I think moderately warm water safer and more effica- 
cious. On free drinking, and copious injections of warm or 
tepid water, I would place my main dependence, as far as local 
measures are concerned. For external appUoations I prefer 
cool or cold. The rubbmg wet sheet, and wet-sheet pack have 
sometimes wonderfully re-restablished the external heat and 

Tp bpwel opmplaints generally, cholera morbus, cholera 
infantum, dysentery, and diarrhoea, all these remarks apply 


with equal force. The bowels should be promptly cleaofled ct 
all offending material by copious injections, repeated as often 
as the purging, griping, or other distressing sj^mptoms demand. 
If there is much nausea, retchings, or vomiting, drink warm 
water freely until relief is obtained, Sitz baths and wet band- 
ages are among the appliances which should not be neglected. 

Nose Bleeding — (NN.) Page 181. 

A method of arresting nasal hemorrhage, by compressing 
the upper lip, has lately been noticed in the medical jounials. 
It is the discovery of an old shipmaster, whose process was to 
roll up a piece of paper and place it under the upper lip. 
lying a knot in a bandage, and applying it on the upper lip, 
then fastening the bandage around the head has succeeded. 
The explanation is, that pressure on the upper lip compresses 
the artery furnishing the blood. 

Condiments — (00.) Page 1J)1. 

I cannot admire such reasoning. The same argument can 
be adduced with equal propriety m favor of tea, coffee, and 
tobacco. The idea that people who are enervated by a 
burning sun require stimulants, is a most palpable absurdity. 
They require exactly the contrary : the most rigid abstinence 
from every stimulating thing. It is the most common thing in 
the world for us erring mortals to mistake our own abuses for 
f gracious providences." " What did God make wine for, if not 
for us to enjoy ?" asks the red-nosed critic, deeply steeped in 
alcoholic as well as theologic lore, in profound ignorance of the 
fact that God never made it at all I "What did God make 
hogs for, if not to eat ?" exclaims the swine-lovbg sensualist. 
Pitiful humanity, that cannot perceive, in all the multitudinous 
tribes of animated nature, any higher niotive of the Creator, 
than to pamper, bruta^, and sensualbe his noblest wx>r^man- 
ship — uAntl 


















Milk and Water. 

VBSk, iind Unliermeiited V^e. 

Tea, Coffee, Sec. 


Health, Wealth, Cteameu, Strength, 


Serenity of Mind ; 

together with 

Phyaical Strength, Repatatioa, « 

Solid enjoyment. 


Small Beer. 
Cider and Parry. 

Intdxieating Wine, Ale, Porter, 


Strong Beer. 


(So eaUed,) 

General Health. 



Vhid jUuiha$ of tr^foymni, 

followed by 

Depression, indigestion, and sinking 

at 0x9 Stomach. 


XX & XXX. 


(Grog; Brandy 
) and Water. 

Flip and Shrub. 

^ Bitters in- 
) fused 
i to Spirits. 

Raw Spirits 
after Dmner. 

(Raw Spirits in 
( the Morning. 




















Inflamed Eyes. 

Red Nose and 













Black Eyes 


Bloody Nosoa. 



Broken Boneau 


* { Union-Housei, 




The Hulks. 

Solitary coiv 


^ ^ GALLOWt. 


Abernelfay, qttoled • 83,114,145^153 
Abhidoiis, general .... 156 
Aetirity, day of great • - • 15 
AddiMH, quoted • 146, 151 

AiB, the natare and impoituioe of 136 
«« the food of the lungs - 142 

Akenaide, Dr., quoted • - 117 

Alcohol, an IshmaeUte ... 9 
Alcott, Dr., quoted • • • 86, 87, 92 
Animal food, queationable 70, 93 

Aniimls cmly drink of water • • 103 
" life of .... 40 

" effects of domesticatiaii • 40 
Amos ix. 12, quoted, vri&L remarks 28 
Amram, the age <k - -25 

Arbnthnot, Dr., quoted • 70, 101 

Arcadians snd Argircs - •  91 
Ar|nstrong, quoted • • • • 68 
Amott's, Dr., report • • • 32 
Asiatics referred to -902 

Asthma, treatment of • - 185 

Athenians, frugiyorovia • • • 91 
Bacchus and Anti-Baochna • 124 

Bacon and pork, injuriona 69, 82 

Bacon, Lord, quoted • • • 57 
Bailes, John, an account of • • 49 
Baillie, Dr., referred to • • •123 
Bandages, cold '169 

" heating - • • • 170 

Barbarian 120 

Barrow, W., qnotod • • • 203 
Baths, cold and rapor • - - 98 
drop and finger - • 167,168 
foot, 167, fun, • . . 165 
hal^ 164, head • • • 166 
leg, 168, local . • • 165 
plunging, 165, sittinf • • 166 
oral, nasal, and shower 160, 161 
Baynard, Dr., quoted - • - 48 
Beamish, Dr., quoted • - -141 
Beaumont, Dr., quoted - -191 

Beddoes, Dr., quoted • • . 58 
Beer, extensively drugged . . 124 
Berean, ouoted • • • . 189 
Berkley, Bishop, quoted • - . 58 
BemardU), an account of • '128 

BerzeUus, referred to • • • 94 
BigeL Dr., quoted • • 33^ 130 

Blood, tihe life of animals • 81 

" the .eatfaBgoi; forbidden • 80 

Bread, brown the best ... 94 
Brewer, Bat. J., referred to • • 8S 
Britata, Cone 0^ qooled 53 




Britons, Ancient, aocouit of the • 96 
Brown, Dr. J., quoted - 117 

Bruce, referred to • - - 57 

Bruyers, quoted - • - - 28 
Buffon, statistics by - - -22 

Cesar, an account of - • • ISO 
Calmet, quoted • - • - 87 
Cam, Thomas, a^e of - • - 55 
Campbell, Kev. Dr., quoted • • 33 
" Travels in Africa - • 102 
Cancer, how to cure ... i8i 
Cami, M. le, referred to - - - 94 
Carbonic acid gas, poisonous - > 138 
Cato, age oii etc. .... 46 
Charlemagne, and cold bathing 97 

Cheese drugged and fanjurious 50 

Chest, pain at the • - 183 

Cheyne, Dr., quoted, 56, 58, 71, 77, 80, 100, 

114, 145 
China, physicians of - • • 115 
Chinese referred to • - 90, 202 

Cholera, treatment of - - 180 

Circassian race, their health, etc. . 51 
Claridge, quoted - 21, 36, 126, 193 
Clarke, Dr. A., quoted - 81, 196 

Clothes, people wear too much - 140 
Cobbett, a water drinker - - 98 
Coffee, when introduced • 194 

<* the quantity consumed • 204 
Colds, common • 142, 182 

Coleridge, Justice, anecdote of • 117 
Combe's Constitution of Man - • 32 
Condiments, not needed by us - 190 
Constant, quoted .... 127 

Constipation 170 -f" 

Comaro, It., an account of • • 48 
Courtney, Dr., quoted * • -135 
Cowper's Task, quoted • • -146 
Cows, their food . • - • 103 
Cox, L., an account of - - - 48 
Crabbe, Dr., referred to • -122 

Craigie, Dr., ouoted -127 

Croup, remarks on • • • - 175 
Cullen, Dr., quoted - - • 99, 194 
Cunie, Dr., quoted .... 97 
Cugna, astopiBhing age of • • 56 
Daniel a teetotaler aiul v^petarian • 88 
Dark phraseology, • • 117 

•* effects of - 190 

Darwin, Dr., quoted -144 

D'Aubigne, quoted • • • • 187 
Davy, Sir H., refinred to - • 129 
Deamets, how cund • . • IM 



PKATB, general remarks on - 60, 63 
'* but one legitimate cause of 32 
Decoys, some drimcers are - • 84 
De Foe, quoted .... 132 
Delaney, Dr., quoted - • • 81 
Democrates, age of - - - - 46 
Demosthenes * ... - loi 
Desmond, Countess, accormt of • 53 
Diarrhoea^ how treated - - - 181 
Dickson, Dr., quoted 12, 42, 114, 123 

Diet, general e*Fect of - - 69, 71 
Diseases, there are many new ones 122 

- 33 
121, 129 

. 28 
. 168 
. 180 

- 126 

- 115 

- 127 

99, J92 















- 13 

24, 101 

- 172 

- 141 
• 97 


all artificial 

Doctors, Hydropathic 

Dodd, Rev. Dr., quoted 

Douche, use of the . . . . 

Dropsy, how cured ... 

Dbuos, their introduction 
" annual cost of - « 
«* are at war with nature 
" not as efficacious as water 
*' better pay for skill thfm for 

Duncan, Dr., quoted • ; 

Dysentery, how treated - ' 

Edinburgh, Chambers' Journal 

Kducation, spread of . . 

Effingham, J., age of 

Emigration Society, account of 

Era newspaper quoted - 

Eruptions, inflammatory 

Erysipelas, how treated - 

Esqmmanx .... 

Ethiopia and longevity • 

ExEHcisi:, general remarks on 

Experience, an api>eal to 

Eyes, sore, how cured 

Facts and Fioubes 

" appeal to - 

Faculty, fallacy of the 

Parre, Dr., remarks 

Fever, remarks on - . • 

Flannel, bad effects on the skin 

Floycr, Dr., referrpd to - 

Food, solid^ quantity of • 

analysis of different kinds of 


*' liquid, remarks on 
Fotherp;iIl, Dr., quoted - 

Frankhn, Dr., a vegetarian 

French king .... 

Friends, the Society of, referred to 

Fuller, A., quoted . 

Garrick, Thomas, age of - 

Germany and longevity . 

Germans, referred to 

Goats, their different kinds of food 

Gout, treatment of . 

Graham, Dr., quoted 

Greece and longevity 

Greeks, the ancient, frugivorous 

Grey, Helen, an account of . 

Hagar, furnished with water, etc. 

Ham, account of carbon In fat 

Hamilton, Rev. Dr. - 

Health and Lonoevxtt 

Heartburn, ]u)w to core the • 

94, 112 











131, 185, 193 









Heath, Joice, an aeeovnt of 
Henry's, Dr., Ancient Britoaa 
Henry, Rev. M. 
Herodotus, quoted > 
Hiffgingbottom, quoted 
HiU, R., referred to . 
Hindostan, referred to 
Holker, R., referred to 
Hollanders, the New, referred 
Hongo, F. S., an account of 
Horebites, the song of 
Horse, different kinds of food 
Howard, a vegetarian 
Hudson, Mrs., an account of 
Hufeland, quoted 
Hufiman, quoted 
Idleness, evils of • • 
Independents, and education 
Indians, the American 

Inflammation of the brain 













to . 90 






























32, 119, 136, 140 






Inquiry, day of - - 
Instinct, generally unerring, 
Inwards, J., quoted 
Irish, the great strength of 
Ishmael .... 
Jacob, well of, and age - 
Jackson, Dr. R., mode of life, 
James, Rev. J. A. - 
Japanese, vegetarians 
Jay, Rev. W., ouoted 
Jenkins, age or, etc. 
Johnson, E., quoted - 
Johnson, Dr. J., quoted 
Josephus, quoted 
Kalzu, quoted . 
Keil, referred to 
Kempfer, quoted 
Kitchener, Dr., quoted - 
Knight, Dr., a vegetarian 
Knighton, Sir W., quoted 
Lacedemonians, referred to 
Lardner, Dr., quoted 
Late hour system - 
Laws, nature's - 
" mental >  
'• _ moral 
" organic - 
League, Anti-Corn Law, 
Lees, Dr. P., quoted 
Liebig, Professor. 
Le Sage, referred to 
Life, statistics of 

" natural term of 
Live and let live 
Lloyd, Richard, an account of 
Locke, <iuoted, 68, 122, 129, 

Longevity, persons remarkable for 
Lowth'i Bishop, translation • 

- 87 

- 50 

• 94 

- 199 
. 117 

- 77 

- 122 

- 77 

• 124 

• 139 

• 31 
. 29 

• 27 

. 15 













Macartift0j, Dr^ oooledl - • • 1S6 
Mnccdoniaaa, tad oold baOing 97 

MaliomeC, maile tais own Urea, etc. • 150 
M.acolin't Ti«it to China, etc. • - 203 
Man, etmctareof hiabody • 146 

MHthew, Fatlier, and teetolaUam - 57 
MfMiical Timea, quoted • - • 98 
Mefulea, amaU-po^ and acarlettaa • 179 
Men of, before, and behind Uieir day 187 
MiUc-ngra, Dr., quoted - • • 192 

Milton, quoted 95 

Milk» eometimeB dlacaaed 49 

Moliere, qnoted .... 125 
Mpwton, Sir L, referred to • 77, 198 
Newton'a return to nature 41 

Korwegiana, referred to - -56 

Noar, cold, how to cure - - - 184 
" bleeding at the • -181 

Oatmeal, Scotch, the uae of • 11, 47 
OliTer, Dr., quoted  100, 101 

Orang'outuig • • • - • 78 
Orphen, Dr., quoted • 101, 134 

Oxygen, a vital air • . -138 

Parr, an account of • • • • 54 
Parkhurat, quoted .... 86 
Paria, Dr., qnoted - • - 118 

Payaon, qnoted - • - • 236 
Pepper, quantity uaed, etc • • 190 
Peraecution, the reward of truth • 132 
Persians, the children of tiie • 77 

Perspiration, obstructed - - 157 

Philippe, Louia, referred to • - 150 
Philosofbt of thx Subjbct 87-41 
Piffeona, large increaae of • • 78 
PiUa, blue, quantity uaed- • • 115 
Pliny, on human 1£Bb • - • 46 
Pococke, quoted • • - • 86 
Poleman, an account of • -46 

Pratt, Dr., quoted • • -101 

PacrACC 9 

Priestley, Her. Dr., quoted • 79 

Prevention better than cure • - 114 
Prleaanitz, referred to - 66, 102, 128 
Paooaxsszvs Rcfouc • - 187,-210 
Prout, quoted - - • 6S, 94 

Psalm, popular opinion of 90th 83 

Pythagoras referred to • • • 97 
Quarlea, on Tobacco • • - 197 
Rabbits, remarkable increaae of • 78 
RadclifFe's, Dr., advice ... 83 
Raapail's lectures on health • • 98 
Kechabite8,I.O. andU.O.F.,etc • 17 

Redi, quoted 198 

Reid, on insanity, etc. • 22, 123 

Re^iration, Liebig and Johnson on • 136 
Rheumatiam, how to cure ttie • 174 
Richerandj on water • - - 99 
Romans, the, vegetaxisna « 91 

Room, how to air a • 144 

Rumbold, noble aentixaent of • -38 
Ruah, Dr., on water • - • 100 
Sales*, Sir R., remarks ... 89 
Sanctortua, referred to - 149,156 

Bampaon, a water drinker • - 105 

ScariKurouli'a, Sir C, advlee • 
Self-denial . . . . 
Seneca, referred to 
Scniah, Antony, an aocoont of* 
Shakapeare, quoted 
Sheldon, Gen. T., a yegetarian 



Skin, the importance oi the 106, 140^ 157 


Slade's records of the East, quoted 
Slavery, promoted by smokers 
SlixiMby, Mr., a vegrtaiian 
Smitn's report to government 
Smoker, Anti, referred to 
Snnli^ remarka on. 
South Seaa, an account of 
Southey, quoted 
Spaniards, habita of 
Spitting blood, treatment of • 
Stimulating food, flattens the palate 
Sweating, the blanket 
Sweden, Charlea XIL of - 
Swift, quoted 
Swine, filthy beast - 
Syder, Dr. M., quoted 
Syringe, use of - • <• 
Tartars, flesh eaters and crud 
Tea, how and when introduced 
Temperance Journal 

" Providence Inatitution 

" Building 
Temple, Sir. W. 
Thermometer, a moral, etc. 
Thrackray, quoted 
Throat, common sore, ete. 
Tic Doloureux 
Tissot's advice to the peonle 
Times, newspaper, quoted 
Tobacco, general remarks cm 
Tooke, Ilome, quoted - • 
Town Pump, speech of the 
Turks, their use of coffee 
Ulcers, treatment of 
Ulloa, on South America 
Unthank, Seth, an account of 
Usher, Archbiahop, on Isaiah 
Vegetable regimen, quoted 
" cookery, quoted 

Volney's Travels, quoted, 
Voltaire, quoted 
Vomiting of blood, etc. - 
Watkb, general remarks on 

" quantity taken - 
Webb, the pedestrian 
Weiss, Dr., quoted 
Wesley, primitive physic 
Wealeyan Bfissionary Sode^ 
Wet sheets, to lie in 
Whitlaw, quoted 
Wholeham, L., an account of 
Wilaon, Dr., ouoted, 
Witness, the Christian, quoted 
Wounds, treatment of 





















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