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THE HYGEIAN HOME COOK-BOOK.
HYGEIAN HOME COOK-BOOK
OR, HEALTHFUL AND
PALATABLE FOOD WITHOUT CONDIMENTS.
Rv v TV TR ALL, M. D.
AUTHOR OF "HYDROPATHIC ENCYCLOPEDIA •"
'HYDROPATHIC COOK-BOOK;" "HYGIENIC HAND BOOK'" "THE
TRUE HEALING ART;" "DIGESTION AND DYSPEPSIA'"
" THE BATH ;" " WATER-CURE FOR THE MILLION ■» '
"THE MOTHER'S HYGIENIC HAND-BOOK," AND '
VARIOUS OTHER WORKS.
S. R. WELLS, PUBLISHER, 3S9 BROADWAY.
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1874, by
SAMUEL R. WELLS,
In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C.
BROOKLYN, N. Y.
STEREOTYPED BY THE ORPHANS ON THE CHURCH CHARITY FOUNDATION.
HE work now offered to the public is an explanation of
our mode of cooking at "Hygeian Home." More
than twenty years ago the " Hydropathic Cook Book "
was published, as an exposition of the theory and
practice of cookery adapted to that age and stage of the Dietetic
Reformation ; and that work is still commended to those who
desire a more complete treatise on diet, with a plan for plain and
But for a dozen years past our table for invalids has been pre-
pared without the employment of milk, sugar, salt, yeast, acids,
alkalies, grease, or condiments of any kind. Our only seasonings
have been fruits and other foods in a normal state, so prepared and
combined as to produce the requisite flavor to please without
perverting the taste.
As our institution stands alone among all the real or pretended
health institutions in the world in this respect, we have taken much
pains and made many experiments to improve every article and
perfect every dish ; and we have reason to believe that all persons
who desire pure and palatable food, and who wish to "eat to live,"
will find ample directions in this little volume.
Among the special advantages of the plan we have adopted, so
far as invalids are concerned, is the absence of sour stomach, bilious-
ness, and constipation, so troublesome to all dyspeptics who use
milk and sugar. Nor do our patients have any desire to drink at
meals. Pure food never occasions thirst ; and all physiologists
know that taking water with food renders digestion and assimila-
tion imperfect in all persons, and seriously interferes with the re-
covery of health by invalids.
As we use no seasonings, they are not mentioned in our recipes.
But those who cannot change at once from high-seasoned to un-
seasoned food, may season to suit with anything they please, re-
collecting that the rule of health always is, the less the better. The
recipes are good in their own merits ; and it is for the reader to
choose what concessions he will make to habit or vitiated appe-
tences. He may be assured, however, that a little perseverance in
the use of unseasoned food will generally soon restore the normal
sensibilities, so that the purest food will be the most palatable.
Florence Hights, N. J. R. T. T,
Chapter I — Breads
General Rules — Premium Bread — Cold Water Loaf Bread — Hot
Water Rolls— Hot Water Loaf Bread — Mush Rolls— Gems —
Fruit Gems — Wheat-Meal Crisps — Oat -meal Crisps — Cocoanut
Bread — Fruit Bread — Sweet Potato Bread — Sweet Potato Fruit
Bread — White Potato Bread — Fancy Breads — Pumpkin Bread — Ap-
ple Bread — Snow Bread — Corn and Graham Bread — Farina and
Graham Bread — Rye and Indian Bread — Mixed Meal Bread — Plain
Johnny Cake — Pumpkin Johnny Cake — Rye Bread — Oat -meal Bread
— Brown Bread — Berry Short Cake — Corn Dodgers — Rice Cakes —
Berry Toast — Apple Toast — Rhubarb Toast — Whole Grains and
Chapter II — Mushes 21
General Rules — Crushed Wheat Mush — Corn Grits — Hominy —
Farina — Oat-meal Mush — Corn-meal Mush — Graham Mush — Rye
Mush — Berry Mush — Rice Mush.
Chapter III — Pies 25
General Rules — Graham Pie Crust — Mush Pie Crust — Oat-meal
Pie Crust — Potato Pie Crust — Corn-meal Pie Crust — Cocoanut Pie
Crust — Apple Pie — Berry Pie — Cranberry Pie — Rhubarb Pie —
Pumpkin Pie — Stewed Apple Pie — Peach Pie — Pear Pie — Dried
Fruit Pies— Cocoa-custard Pie — Tarts — Dumplings.
Chapter IV — Puddings 31
General Rules — Hygienic Brown Betty — Indian Pudding — Corn
Mush Pudding — Sweet Potato Pudding — Birds' Nest Pudding — •
Baked Apple Pudding — Sweet Apple Pudding — Rice and Apple
Pudding — Snow Ball Pudding — Steamed Pudding.
Chapter V — Sauces 35
, General Rules — Cocoanut Sauce — Date Sauce — Lemon Sauce —
Orange Sauce — Currant Sauce — Fig Sauce — Apple and Tomato
Sauce — Dried Fruit Sauce — Grape and Apple Sauce — Shortcake
Chapter VI — Soups 39
General Rules — Vegetable Soup — Tomato Soup — Split Pea
Soup — Bean Soup — Green Bean Soup — Green Pea Soup — Spinach
Soup — Vegetable and Rice Soup — Potato Soup — Asparagus Soup —
Vegetable Broth — Barley Broth — Porridges — Gruels.
Chapter VII — Vegetables 44
General Rules — Model -cooked Potatoes — Boiled Potatoes —
Boiled Peeled Potatoes — Mashed Potatoes — Browned Potatoes —
Browned Mashed Potatoes — Baked Potatoes — Roasted Potatoes —
Steamed Potatoes — Sweet Potatoes — Mashed Sweet Potatoes —
Boiled Turnips — Browned Turnips — Boiled Beets — Chopped Beets
and Tomatoes — Parsnips — Browned Parsnips — Carrots — Boiled
Cabbage — Cabbage and Tomatoes — Cauliflower — Asparagus —
Greens — Green Peas — Green Beans — Boiled Green Corn — Roasted
Green Corn — Succotash — Garden Beans — Lima Beans — Boiled
Dried Beans — Baked Dried Beans — Mashed Baked Beans — Beans
and Cabbage — Split Peas — Dried Green Peas — Cucumbers.
Chapter VIII — Fruits 55
General Rules — Baked Apples — Baked Apples with Dates —
Baked Pared Apples — Steamed Apples — Stewed Apples — Stewed
Dried Apples — Pears — Peaches — Stewed Dried Peaches — Apricots-
— Quinces — Pineapples — Cranberries — Blackberries — Whortleberries
— Raspberries — Strawberries — Cherries — Plums — Currants — Goose
berries — Bananas — Oranges — Lemons — Tomatoes — Melons — Rhu-
barb — Pumpkin — Squash — Grapes — Prunes — English Dried Cur-
rants — Figs.
Chapter IX — Preserving Fruits 64
General Rules — Berries — Strawberries — Grapes — Packing Grapes
— Apples — Peaches — Pears — Tomatoes — Bananas — Rhubarb — Ve-
getables — Miss Jones' Invention.
ERFECT bread is made of the meal of any
kind of grain and pure water. It may be
rendered as light, crisp, and tender as de-
sirable by kneading or otherwise working at-
mospheric air into the dough. Water of any tempera-
ture may be employed in making the dough. Hot or
boiling water renders the bread softer and damper, cool
and cold water renders it more dry and brittle. But
for the best possible article the water cannot be too cold.
Iced-water renders the bread tender and most delicious,
if the kneading is well managed.
Excellent bread may be made of wheat-meal, rye-
meal, corn-meal, oat-meal, or of various admixtures of
them, to please the fancy or suit the taste. Those who
employ wheat-meal exclusively should see that the grain
be plump., clean, and properly ground. In grinding it
should be finely comminuted, or cut into small particles
by s^arp stones or hand mills. If ground with dull
stones the branny portion will be rubbed off in flakes,
10 HYGEIAN HOME COOK-BOOK.
and good light bread cannot be made of the article.
The white wheat is more easily managed than the red,
and makes a handsomer appearance on the table, al-
though I cannot say that it is more wholesome than the
It is very important that the meal be freshly ground,
as all meal or flour deteriorates continually. We have
it fresh from the mill twice a week. Private families
with hand mills can grind it fresh every day.
Mix unbolted wheat-meal (Graham flour) with pure
cold water — the colder the better — to a stiff dough;
knead thoroughly ten or fifteen minutes, or until the
dough becomes elastic and spongy, and does not re-
quire the bread-board longer to be dusted with flour to
prevent sticking as it is rolled out. For baking the
dough may be rolled out and out into various forms, 4o
suit taste or convenience. It may be made into rolls,
squares, strips, rings, "diamonds," " fingers," etc., the
object in all cases being to expose as much of the
surface as possible to the heat of the oven.
The rolls and "fingers" are made three ox four inches
long and three-fourths of an inch thick ; squares and
diamonds are one to two inches in diameter (these re-
quire pricking), and one-half to three-fourths of an inch
thick ; strips may be three or four inches long, one inch
wide, and one-fourth of an inch thick ; rings are made
by cutting out a circle of dough one-half to three-fourths
of an inch in thickness, and three inches in diameter,
then cutting out a ball from the centre of the circle one
inch in diameter. The rings and balls present a beau-
tiful appearance on the table, and no shape in which
dough can be cut is in better condition for baking.
For baking, a quick oven is required. The bread
should be placed immediately on the grates of the oven,
never on tins ; it should be placed in the hottest part of
the oven at first, and removed back a little as soon as a
crust is formed. Care must be taken to have the dough
thoroughly baked, or it will become heavy when cold.
The time required for baking is twenty to forty minutes,
according to the size of the bread and the heat of the
oven. When well done the bread has an elastic or
This is mixed and kneaded in the same manner as
the " Premium" bread ; but is molded in a larger form,,
and baked in a more moderate heat, to insure its being
thoroughly done in the centre, without burning the
outside. It is usually made in loaves two-and-a-half to
three-and-a-half inches thick, and of any length desired.
It should be in the oven about one hour. If the crust
is too hard, cover it in an earthen jar, or envelop it close-
ly in a linen cloth until cold, when it is ready for the
table. It should never be cut while hot.
12 HYGEIAN HOME COOK-BOOK.
HOT WATER ROLLS.
This is commonly called "soft bread." It is made
by pouring boiling water over wheat-meal, and stirring
with a strong spoon to a stiff dough ; then kneaded
quickly and rolled out into any desired form ; " rolls "
and "diamonds," are the best forms for this kind of
bread. This bread has a very sweet flavor, and ' ' new
beginners " are very fond of it.
HOT WATER LOAF BREAD.
This is made in the same manner as the preceding,
except that it is molded into long loaves, three or four
inches thick. It requires baking* about one hour in a
These are made light, spongy, and soft enough for
toothless persons, by mixing with cold mush of any
kind, sufficient meal to form a soft dough ; then rolled
to the size of the thumb, and baked in a hot oven twenty
or thirty minutes. A few English currants may be added
to render them more palatable.
Stir into the coldest water any kind of meal and mix
to a stiff batter, yet so that it may lift with a spoon and
settle smooth of itself ; drop immediately into hot gem
pans (iron are best) ; let them stand on the top of the
stove a few minutes, then bake in a hot oven thirty or
forty minutes. When done they should be light and
dry when broken. If mushy on the inside the batter
was not thick enough. If the gem pans are hot and
kept smooth no greasing is necessary.
These are made in the same manner as the preceding,
with the addition of any kind of dried fruit that may be
preferred. Seedless currants, thoroughly washed and
soaked in a very little water, or raisins stoned and stewed
soft, are commonly preferred. The addition of a little
grated cocoanut, makes an article of food which is
simple, wholesome, and luxurious.
Make a dough as for "Premium Bread;" roll to the
thickness of a table knife blade ; cut in any desired
form ; prick with a fork ; put it on the grate in a hot
oven, and watch closely to see that it becomes cooked
and crisp without being browned. If well managed
these crisps are delicious, very tender, and well adapted
to those who have poor teeth.
14 HYGEIAN HOME COOK-BOOK.
These maybe made of oat-meal or oat-meal mush,
mixed with boiling water to a stiff dough ; then kneaded
a little ; mixed with a little wheat-meal to prevent its
crumbling; moulded, cut into small thin cakes, and
baked twenty or thirty minutes in a hot oven. If made
very thin, and kept in a cool, dry place, they will retain
a rich flavor for several days.
Add to three quarts of wheat-meal one grated cocoanut
(or in that proportion); mix with water to a stiff dough ;
knead till the dough becomes spongy ; mold into any
desired form, and bake in a hot oven twenty to thirty
minutes. This bread is a great favorite on festive occa-
Make a dough as for either of the first three kinds of
bread ; roll out the dough on the bread-board of any
thickness desired ; cover this with a mixture of the fol-
lowing fruits, or with either one or more of them :
stoned raisins, stoned dates, English currants, and
stewed figs ; cocoanut may be grated over the fruit
if its flavor is also desired ; turn the dough over the
fruit, and roll up tightly into a loaf, and bake in a hot
oven. If made with cold water, as in " Premium"
bread, it may be rolled in a cloth and steamed two or
three hours. This is regarded as a very rich and savory
dish, and also wholesome.
SWEET POTATO BREAD.
Boil sweet potatoes with the skins on, peal and mash
through a colander ; mix with an equal quantity of
wheat-meal; if too moist add more wheat-mea! ; if too
dry add a little boiling water ; knead together quickly as
for "Hot Water " bread, or roll it into "Diamonds,"
and bake in a quick oven.
SWEET POTATO FRUIT BREAD.
Make a dough as in the preceding recipe, adding
grated cocoanut if desired ; roll out thin and spread on
any one or more kinds of fruit (raisins and figs are
sufficient), mentioned in the recipe for " Fruit Bread ;"
make into a loaf and bake in a quick oven.
WHITE POTATO BREAD.
Wash and peel the potatoes ; boil them in as little
water as will cover them ; mash them through a col-
ander with the water in which they were boiled ; heat
the whole to the boiling point ; mix in wheat-meal until
sufficiently stiff to knead ; cut into small cakes and
bake in a hot oven. The flavor usually preferred is
secured by using three parts of meal to one of potatoes.
l6 HYGEIAN HOME COOK-BOOK.
Make " Sweet Potato Bread" as already mentioned ;
roll thin and cut into fanciful shapes with cake cutters,
or make a dough as for "Premium Bread," adding
freely of grated cocoanut, and roll thin and cut into any
desirable forms ; bake in a hot oven.
Stew pumpkin very dry and mix with wheat-meal to a
rather soft dough ; make the dough into the shape of
loaf bread, diamonds, rolls, or roll thin and divide into
pieces with cake cutters.
This is made precisely as the preceding, substituting
apple sauce for pumpkin. Sweet apples, and those of a
mild acid flavor, are the best for this kind of bread.
Mix thoroughly together two parts of dry, clean snow,
and one part of corn meal ; turn the mass into an iron
baking pan, and bake in a very hot oven. The bread
should be one to one and a half inches in thickness.
CORN AND GRAHAM BREAD.
Take cold corn meal mush, and knead wheat-meal
into it till the mass becomes a soft dough ; shape it into
a loaf, or into " diamonds," and bake in a hot oven, as
long as possible without burning the crust.
FARINA AND GRAHAM BREAD.
Cold boiled farina and wheat-meal may be made into
nice bread, in the manner of the preceding recipe. It
does not require baking so long.
RYE AND INDIAN BREAD.
Mix two parts corn meal and one part rye-meal ; pour
on boiling water enough to wet the whole ; pack it into
a pan and steam five or six hours, then set it into the
oven to brown. Raisins, dates, currants, or other fruits,
may be added to this kind of bread, if desired.
MIXED MEAL BREAD.
Take one part each of rye flour, wheat-meal, and
oat-meal, and three parts of corn-meal ; mix thoroughly ;
pour on boiling water enough to scald all the meal ;
pack into a pan and steam six or seven hours. Before
sending to the table it should be browned in the oven.
Prunes, raisins, dates or currants mav be added to this
kind of bread.
PLAIN JOHNNY CAKE.
Wet corn-meal with either hot or cold water, pack it
one inch thick in a baking pan, and bake in a hot oven.
18 HYGEIAN HOME COOK-BOOK.
PUMPKIN JOHNNY CAKE.
Take pumpkin stewed until it is very dry and sweet,
and stir corn meal into it until the mass becomes a
rather stiff dough ; spread it on a baking pan on which
dry meal has been sifted, and bake in a hot oven.
Pour boiling water on rye-flour or rye-meal, and mix
into a stiff dough ; make it into loaves about three inches
in diameter, or cut into squares or rolls, and bake in a
Take oat-meal mush and knead in dry oat-meal ; roll
out to the thickness of one quarter of an inch, and cut
with a cake cutter, or roll thin as a knife blade ; bake as
crisps. Boiling water may be poured on the uncooked
oat-meal instead of using the mush.
Scald two parts of corn-meal, let it stand one or two
hours ; add two parts of rye and one of wheat-meal ;
mix thoroughly, and as stiff as can be stirred with a
strong iron spoon ; add raisins or currants if desired,
and steam five or six hours ; then place it in a moderate
oven two hours. It mav be served warm or cold.
BERRY SHORT CAKE.
Mix water (the colder the better), wheat-meal, and a
little grated cocoanut, so as to form a stiff batter ; drop
the batter in hot bread pans three-fourths of an inch
thick ; bake in a hot oven ; when cold, split open, lay
each half crust down, and cover with ripe strawberries,
raspberries, blackberries or whortleberries. Good ripe
peaches will answer in place of berries. Any of the fruit
sauces, mentioned in another chapter, may be added if
desired, on serving the dish.
Mix corn meal and the coldest water to a stiff dough ;
mold into small cakes of an oval shape ; place in hot
pans previously dusted with meal ; smooth the top with
the hands dipped in water, and bake in a hot oven one
Take two parts of boiled rice, one part of corn meal,
and one part of stoned or seedless raisins chopped fine ;
mix with water to a soft dough, roll into small cakes,
and bake in a pan dusted with meal to prevent sticking.
It should remain in the oven until a crust is formed.
Toast thin slices of Graham bread, dip them in hot
20 HYGEIAN HOME COOK-BOOK.
water, and cover with hot stewed berries. Blackberries
and whortleberries are commonly preferred.
Apple sauce or stewed apples may be employed in the
same manner as berries. If very tart, dates may be used
Peel, and cut the stalks in pieces, put them in a stew
pan, add a little water, some stoned dates, and a few
English currants well picked and washed ; let them all
cook until done, and then pour them over the toasted
WHOLE GRAINS AND SEEDS.
These may be roasted over burning coals, or on a hot
stove, if placed in a "corn-popper" and shaken con-
stantly ; or boiled until soft. Wheat and rice are the
favorite grains for boiling, and corn for roasting 01
USHES of all kinds should be stirred as little
as possible while cooking, after the material
sets, or stops sinking, to the bottom. Much
stirring breaks up the particles and frees the
starchy matter, rendering the food pasty, and destroying
the light, spongy, delicate appearance it should present
on the table; too much stirring also makes it more
liable to adhere to the bottom of the vessel. The
water should boil when the meal or grain is stirred in,
be kept boiling, and the mush stirred frequently for a
few minutes, when it will cease sinking ; then cover
closely and cook slowly for an hour or more. Mushes
should not be too thick, nor so thin as to spread much
on the plate when dished. The tendency of fruit when
cooked in mushes is to settle and adhere to the kettle ;
hence in adding fruit, the better way, as a general rule,
is to cook it separately and mix just before dishing. The
fruit for this purpose should always be cooked slowly
and in as little water as possible.
22 HYGEIAN HOME COOK-BOOK.
CRUSHED WHEAT MUSH.
As the grits swell very much in cooking, they should
be stirred gradually into boiling water until a thin mush
is formed ; the boiling should be continued slowly for
two or three hours ; the coarser the grits the longer they
should be boiled. Raisins may be cooked with it for a
seasoning, or stoned dates may be added after it is
In this market this is prepared from white corn,
which is cut into coarser or finer particles of nearly
uniform size ; the coarser kind is called samp. It is
cooked in the same manner as wheaten grits (crushed
wheat — cracked wheat), and requires boiling from one to
two hours, according to the size of the grits.
This is very coarse corn grits, the grains of corn
being broken into coarse pieces. It should be washed
several times ; soaked over night, then boiled in the
same water four or five hours. Raisins give this dish a
very rich flavor.
This should be gradually stirred into hot water ; a
small quantity will cook in half an hour, but larger
quantities require boiling slowly one or two hours.
Grated cocoanut gives it a fine flavor.
Put into your kettle nearly as much water as you wish
mush ; when it boils stir in the oat-meal evenly until a
thin mush is formed ; then cover and let it boil slowly
half to three-fourths of an hour.
This is made in the same manner as oat-meal mush,
but is improved by longer cooking. The coarser the
meal the longer it should be cooked. Very fine meal
does not make good mush. English currants or raisins
may be cooked with it. Sliced sweet apples may be
cooked in it by spreading them near the surface, an
hour before it is done.
This is made of Graham-flour (wheat-meal) and hot
water, in the same manner as oat-meal mush ; but re-
quires cooking only about twenty minutes ; care is
required in stirring it not to have it lumpy. Stoned
dates make the best seasoning.
This is made in the same manner as Graham mush ;
it is not so palatable as the other mushes.
24 HYGEIAN HOME COOK-BOOK.
Pick and wash the berries; stew them in a little
water, adding a few stoned dates, stirring frequently
until well cooked ; then stir in very evenly a little Graham
flour or oat-meal. Blackberries, raspberries, or whortle-
berries may be used.
Wash the rice and boil it until the grains are soft ; do
not stir it ; when done uncover and let the steam escape.
Raisins are the proper fruit when seasoning is desired.
A convenient method of cooking fruited rice mush is,
to put the washed rice into a wet bag, rilling about one-
fourth of it (mixing raisins if desired), and then boil or
HE chief difficulty in making Hygienic pies is,
to have the crust soft and tender without yeast
or grease. But this can be done in various
ways, and of various materials. But however
made and however tender, they can all be rendered
still more so by covering them in a stone crock, or,
better still, with a few folds of linen cloth, so that the
crust will absorb the moisture of the contents. The
following recipes for making crust will suit nearly all
tastes and circumstances.
GRAHAM PIE CRUST.
Pour boiling water into wheat-meal and stir to a soft
dough ; roll out as thin as possible ; sprinkle a little
meal over the pie plate, and spread this as the bottom
crust. Make the top crust by mixing wheat-meal with
ice-cold water ; add grated cocoanut if desired ; knead
as quickly as possible co a stiff hard dough ; roll very
thin ; cover and bake immediately.
26 HYGEIAN HOME COOK-BOOK.
MUSH PIE CRUST.
Take any coid mush — wheat-meal, cold boiled rice,
corn-meal, or oat-meal, or any mixture of them ; knead
a little wheat-meal into it and roll thin, making the
upper and under crusts alike. If there is only mush
enough for one crust, the top crust may be made accord-
ing to the preceding recipe.
OAT-MEAL PIE CRUST.
Scald two parts of oat-meal with one part water, and
roll thin. This crust bakes very quickly, so that fruit
which requires much cooking should be cooked before
making into the pie.
POTATO PIE CRUST.
Boil dry mealy potatoes ; sift through a colander ;
mix them thoroughly with one-half the quantity ; add
boiling water equal to about one-fourth the bulk of the
mixture ■ roll thin, and bake in a moderate oven.
CORN-MEAL PIE CRUST.
A very tender crust for squash, pumpkin, or custard
pies, may be made by placing dry corn-meal on the
bottom of the dish.
COCOANUT PIE CRUST.
A rich and very delicious pie crust may be made as
follows : mix one part grated cocoanut with two parts
Graham flour, and water (the colder the better) suffi-
cient to make a stiff dough ; knead five minutes, then
add one part of boiled rice and mix thoroughly
Make a crust according to either of the above recipes
except the last ; spread the bottom crust on the plate ;
on this sDread a few dates, stoned and cut into small
pieces ; sift a little meal over this, and lay on the apples
in slices or stewed ; if the fruit is very juicy sift on more
meal ; cover with the top crust ; have the fruit extend
close to the edges of the crust, which should be wet so
that the top and bottom crust will adhere at their edges ;
with a knife roll the edges under so that they will be
smooth ; bake immediately, being careful not to have
the top crust much browned. As soon as done, cover
tight with a dish about two inches deep, and let it steam
till cold, when the crust will be very tender.
This may be made in the same manner as apple pie,
using blackberries, raspberries or whortleberries instead
of apples. It requires more dates than apple pie does
for sweetening, unless the berries are very ripe.
This is also made in the same manner as the pre-
ceding, only two or three times the quantity of dates are
28 HYGEIAN HOME COOK-BOOK.
required. A top crust may be used or not ; or narrow
strips of a thin crust may be laid across. If no top
crust is used it will not need to be covered when done.
Peel the stalks and cut into small pieces, putting
dates both below and above them.
Stew the pumpkin according to the recipe in this work
for so doing ; when nearly dry and quite rich, it is ready
for the pie. Mix two parts of corn-meal and one part
of Graham flour ; sift the mixture over a pie plate to the
depth of an eighth of an inch ; upon this spread a layer
of the stewed pumpkin, and on this lay stoned raisins ;
cover with another layer of pumpkin- and bake in a
moderate oven. Dates may be used instead of raisins, if
preferred. They should be stewed and put through the
STEWED APPLE PIE.
This may be made according to the recipe for pump-
kin pie, omitting the top crust.
This is made in the same manner as apple pie.
PIES. 2 9
• This may be made in the same manner as the pre-
DRIED FRUIT PIES.
Nearly all kinds of dried fruits may be made into pies
in the same manner as green fruit, first stewing the fruit.
It is better to mash the fruit through the colander, and
make the pie after the recipe for pumpkin pie.
Make an under crust according to the recipe for
cocoanut pie crust, and fill with stewed pumpkin or
squash, sweetened with a little date sauce. Other stewed
fruits may be used, as apples, peaches, raisins or berries.
This pie is improved by the addition of a little lemon
Mix Graham flour plentifully with grated cocoanut ;
pour into the mixture ice-water enough to make a stiff
dough ; knead it hard ; roll very thin and cut into round
cakes two or three inches in diameter ; cut out the
centre of a part of them, leaving a narrow rim ; put three
layers of these rims on one centre or round piece, wet-
ting them so as to make them unite; prick the centre
with a fork and bake in a quick oven, yet not so as to
30 HYGEIAN HOME COOK-BOOK.
brown them. They should be crisp and tender when
done. When wanted for use they have only to be filled
with some kind of fruit sauce, as stewed English currants,
pineapple, marmalade, etc.
Make a crust of wheat-meal, water, and grated cocoa-
nut, thoroughly kneaded as for " Premium Bread ;"
roll out quickly a small piece of the dough, a little
thicker than for pie crust ; press it into a tea cup with
the hand ; fill with sliced tart apples, peaches, whortle-
berries, or other fruit ; press together ; bake in a mod-
erate oven one hour, and serve with sauce. Dates and
raisins may be employed to sweeten when apples 01
other tart fruits are used.
UDDINGS are intermediate between mushes
and pastry. They are substantially baked
mushes, or pies with the crust and contents
intimately interblended. The principal skill
required in producing hygienic puddings, consists in
selecting such materials as will, when cooked, present a
light spongy mass, and such seasoning ingredients as
will render them palatable without impairing their diges-
tivity. Puddings and mushes should always be eaten
very slowly and with dry cracker, hard bread, or other
solid food, to insure proper mastication.
HYGIENIC BROWN BETTY.
Prepare a quantity of apples for stewing, cleanse some
raisins and currants, and stone some dates ; the propor-
tions may be according to taste or fancy ; cut some
Graham bread into thin slices; put into the stewing
kettle a layer of the fruits ; then a layer of bread, repeat-
ing and alternating until the kettle is nearly full, or
32 HYGEIAN HOME COOK-BOOK.
until a sufficient quantity is prepared ; then pou> on
cold water until it reaches within two inches of the top
of the pudding ; set it where it will simmer slowly with-
out burning ; cook until the bread and fruit are tho-
roughly soft, when the liquor will be very rich ; serve
warm or cold. Grated cocoanut may be added if its
flavor is desired.
Prepare apples for stewing, and stone some dates ; put
Indian-meal into the baking, and pour boiling water into
it enough to make a thin mush. Add the apples and
dates, grated cocoanut if desired, and bake five or six
hours. Raisins and figs may be employed wi-th the
other fruits, or instead of them. It may be served with a
dressing of stewed English currants, or stewed figs, but
is excellent without any sauce.
CORN MUSH PUDDING.
Early in the morning make a mush of corn-meal,
stirring it very thick ; place it where it will simmer
slowly and not burn ; let it cook seven or eight hours ;
an hour before done add as many raisins as may be de-
sired ; just before removing from the fire stir in grated
cocoanut enough to flavor well ; put it into molds to
cool. It should be served the next day, with or without
a dressing of currant or fig sauce.
SWEET POTATO PUDDING.
Grate half a dozen raw sweet potatoes ; mix them
with two quarts of green apple juice ; add sufficient
grated cocoanut to flavor, and raisins if desired ; then
mix with Graham flour enough ro make a batter of the
proper consistency for gems ; bake in a pudding dish,
or in gem pans. The batter needs beating, and the
apple juice should be as cold as possible.
BIRDS' NEST PUDDING.
Put into the bottom of the pudding dish a few stoned
raisins ; fill two-thirds full with quartered apples— or
the apples may be cored whole, and the cavity filled with
the raisins ; make a batter as for gems, adding grated
cocoanut ; pour the batter over the apples and bake in a
moderate oven. When done loosen the edges of the
crust, and turn it upper side down on a plate. Cur-
rant sauce is a good dressing.
BAKED APPLE PUDDING.
Boil good apples, with dates enough to sweeten them,
in about one-fifth their bulk of water. Put all through
a colander; stir in some grated bread crumbs, and a
few drops of lemon juice ; bake about forty minutes.
SWEET APPLE PUDDING.
Pare and core good ripe sweet apples ; fill the centre
of each with raisins s.nd cranberries ; put them into
34 HYGEIAN HOME COOK-BOOK.
boiling water into which Indian-meal has been stirred
to the consistence of thin mush ; bake about three
hours. If the apples are not very sweet a few dates
will give the requisite flavor, added to the cranberries
RICE AND APPLE PUDDING.
Boil the rice until it is soft, half fill the pudding disn
with peeled and cored apples whose cavities have been
filled with dates ; put the rice over the fruit as a crust,
and bake one hour.
Pare and core large mellow apples ; fill the cavities
with dates or raisins ; inclose them in cloths spread
over with boiled rice ; bake one hour. Before turning
them out they should be dipped in cold water. Stewed
currants or figs make a good sauce for this kind of pud-
Mix three parts of bread or crackers cut into small
pieces, one part tart apples cut in small pieces, and one
part dried sweet fruit — raisins, dates, figs, or a mixture
of them, chopped fine ; add sufficient water to prevent
the pudding drying while cooking ; mix thoroughly and
steam four or five hours, according to quantity.
ERSONS whose ideas of sauces as dressings
or relishes for food, are limited to combina-
tions of butter, sugar, salt, vinegar, and
spices, may be astonished to learn what vari-
eties of wholesome as well as palatable articles can be
made by combinations of fruits and their juices. The
number is practically unlimited, but Hygienists
usually have or soon acquire appetences so nearly nor-
mal that they are satisfied with few. All that is required
to make a wholesome and palatable sauce or dressing,
is a selection of fruits that are themselves wholesome,
and such admixtures and preparations of them as will
suit the taste. The following recipes are favorite speci-
Stew equal parts of chopped figs, raisins and English
currants for an hour in water sufficient to cover them ;
when nearly done add grated cocoanut in quantity to
36 HYGEIAN HOME COOK-BOOK.
suit the taste, and a little Graham flour to thicken. An
excellent sauce maybe made by adding grated cocoa-nut
to date sauce.
Boil the dates for an hour, or until tender, in water
enough to cover them ; sift through a colander, rejecting
such portions as will not pass ; stir thoroughly, adding
more water if too thick, and boil again ; if too sweet
acid fruit of any kind, boiled and passed through a col-
ander, may be added before it is boiled the last time.
Dried or canned fruits may be used with the dates ; or
the juices of canned fruits may be added without passing
through the colander.
This is made in the same manner as date sauce,
omitting all fruits, except the dates, and adding the
grated peel of lemon sufficient for the flavor desired.
Grate the peel before the lemon is cut, and care should
be taken to grate only the yellow part, as the white part
is bitter and indigestible.
APPLE AND TOMATO SAUCE.
Boil good ripe tomatoes, which have been scalded and
peeled, fifteen to twenty minutes; then add an equal
quantity of sliced apples, and cook until the apples are
dried fruit sauce.
All kinds of fruit, or mixtures of them, cooked until
well done and properly thinned with water, make good
dressings, or sauces for puddings and mushes.
GRAPE AND APPLE SAUCE.
Equal parts of stewed grapes and sweet apples, strained
through a thin cloth, and thickened with a little rice or
Graham flour, make a rich sauce for rice, hominy, samp,
and other mushes. Sour apples and dates may be used
instead of sweet apples.
This is made in the same manner as the above, sub-
stituting orange for lemon, and adding some acid fruit
when the orange juice is not sufficiently tart.
Pick and wash English currants very carefully, then
stew a few minutes, and serve cold.
Wash the figs ; chop them coarse, and stew in water
enough to make the sauce of the requisite consistence.
SAUCE FOR SHORT CAKE.
Stew dates and rub them through a colander ; set the
liquid over the fire, and when boiling thicken with a
'38 HYGEIAN HOME COOK-BOOX.
little Graham flour or farina, wet with berry juice. Or
chop figs into small pieces ; stew in a small quantity of
water; strain, and it is ready for use.
This sauce is intended specially for strawberry short-
cake, but will answer for berry cakes of all kinds.
Note. — The above sauces or dressings may be used indiscrimi-
nately with crushed wheat, rice, hominy, oat -meal, all kinds of
mushes, steamed puddings, berry cakes, etc. Either of them is an
excellent relish for any dish for which any dressing is desired ; but
we have indicated such preferences as experience in providing for a
great variety of tastes and habits has suggested.
YGIENIC soups consist of one or more vege-
tables boiled very soft, and equally diffused
through a large proportion of water. If
eaten with bread, cracker, uncooked fruit, or
other solid food, they are not objectionable as slop food.
They are usually made of varying proportions of pota-
toes, peas, beans, carrots, turnips, beets, parsnips, etc.,
and sometimes flavored with tomatoes. The following
varieties are favorites with us.
Take three medium-sized turnips, a small head of
cabbage, four or five medium-sized carrots, three me-
dium-sized parsnips, and three quarts of pared potatoes ;
chop all of the vegetables except the potatoes very fine ;
put them in three quarts of water ; boil them till nearly
done ; then add the potatoes and cook until they are
reduced to a pulp. A small quantity of tomatoes may
be added, or not, as preferred. Beans and peas added
to vegetable soup increases its richness.
40 HYGEIAN HOME COOK-BOOK.
Scald and peel good ripe tomatoes ; stew them one
hour ; strain through a coarse sieve ; add grated pota-
toes to thicken sufficiently, and cook half an hour longer.
SPLIT PEA SOUP.
Wash one pint of split peas, and boil in three quarts
of. water three hours.
Wash the beans ; put them in cold water and raise
the temperature slowly to the b oiling point ; add water
enough to have the soup of the thickness desired ; boil
until the beans* are softened ; press them through a col-
ander, and boil for a minute or two. Sago, soaked,
may then be added if desired.
GREEN BEAN SOUP.
Boil one quart of garden or kidney beans, and put
them through the colander ; add an equal quantity of
vegetable broth ; dredge in a little Graham flour or oat-
meal ; stir the dish until it boils ; then add one ounce
of spinach and one ounce of parsley, chopped fine ; scald
till these are done,, and send to the table.
GREEN PEA SOUP.
Take three pints of peas ; three medium-sized turnips,
one carrot, and the pods of the peas ; boil one quart of
SOUPS. 4 1
the largest of the peas with the pods until they are quite
soft ; rub them through a fine colander : return the
pulp into the pan ; add the turnips, the carrot, sliced,
and a quart of boiling water ; when the vegetables are
nearly soft, add the smaller peas. Potatoes may be used
instead of turnips.
Take two quarts of spinach, half a pound of parsley,
two carrots, two turnips, and one root of celery ; stew
all of them in a pint of water until quite soft ; rub them
through a coarse sieve ; add one quart of hot water and
boil them twenty minutes.
VEGETABLE AND RICE SOUP.
Take one pound of turnips, half a pound of carrots,
one-fourth of a pound of parsnips, half a pound of pota-
toes, and three tablespoonsful of rice ; chop the vege-
tables fine ; put the turnips, carrots, and parsnips into a
pan with a quart of boiling water ; add the rice ; boil
them one hour ; add the potatoes and two quarts of
water, and boil them until they are all well done.
Wash and pare, but do not cut, the potatoes, put them
in a little more than enough of boiling water to cover
them; if any lumps remain after boiling pass them
42 HYGEIAN HOME COOK-BOOK.
through a colander. This soup is as delicious as it is
simple, and is always a favorite with Hygienists.
Prepare asparagus as for boiling in the ordinary man-
ner ; cut the tender part of the stalks into small pieces ;
add half the quantity of potatoes, and cook till a thick
soup is formed. This is a favorite and delicious dish.
This may be made of various combinations and pro-
portions of the vegetables used in making soups, to suit
different tastes or fancies. The following recipe will
serve as a basis. Take four turnips, two carrots, one
onion, and a spoonful of lentil flour. Cut the vegetables
in pieces, and boil all the ingredients together until well
cooked, in water sufficient to make a thin soup.
Take four ounces of pearl barley ; two turnips, and
three ounces of corn-meal ; steep the barley (after being
washed) twelve hours ; put it on the fire in five quarts
of water ; add the turnips chopped fine ; boil one hour ;
stir iri the meal ; thin if necessary with more water, and
let it simmer gently twenty minutes.
These are thin mushes. Oat-meal is the favorite article
for porridge ; but wheat-meal makes a good dish. The
following recipe will serve for all dishes of this kind.
Stir one-fourth of a pound of oat-meal into a little cold
water until the mixture is smooth and uniform ; add
one pint of boiling water, and boil twenty minutes.
These are thin porridges. They may be made in the
same manner, adding two or three times as much water.
They are seldom used except for fever patients. Wheat-
meal and corn-meal make the best dishes.
LL boiled vegetables should be cooked in as
ltttle water as possible ; the secret of procur-
ing the richest flavor and best quality of boiled
vegetable food consists in using just water
enough to have it nearly evaporated when the vegetables
are done. The water should be boiling when the vege-
tables are put in it and raised to the boiling point as soon
as possible afterwards. With few exceptions all edible
vegetables are more wholesome as well as nutritive when
fully ripe. The principal exceptions are, peas, beans,
corn, cucumbers and spinach, which may be eaten at
any stage of growth. The fresher they are the better
always. The cook who would economize fuel and labor
should know that boiling is a process that cannot be
hurried. If the water is kept at the boiling point nothing
more can be done to hurry the cooking. Any additional
heat is lost in steam. All vessels in which vegetables
are boiled should be kept clean and bright. In baking
potatoes it is important that those of nearly uniform size
be selected, if all are to be placed on the table at the
same time. Probably no common article of food is
more abused by the agriculturist and maltreated by the
cook, than the potato. And we commend to all who
would understand the culture, preservation, and best
method of using this important tuber, a little work by
Dr. John McLaurin, entitled the "Model Potato."*
MODEL COOKED POTATOES.
Select potatoes of uniform size ; wash quickly in cold
water, without cutting; put them in a kettle or tight-
lidded saucepan, filling the vessel about two-thirds full ;
cover tightly, and cook them in their own juices. They
should be put in an oven or over a fire sufficiently hot
to convert the water they contain into steam. As soon
as softened they can be peeled and placed on the table,
or served with their skins on. Cooked in this manner
potatoes have a richness of flavor unknown to any other
Wash in cold water without cutting ; cover them with
water, and boil in a covered vessel until soft enough to
be readily penetrated with a fork ; pour off the water ;
shake them up loosely, and let them remain uncovered
to dry. Some kinds of potatoes have a richer flavor
when cooked with the skins on.
* For sale by S. R. Wells. Price 50 cents.
46 HYGEIAN HOME COOK-BOOK.
BOILED PEELED POTATOES.
Wash, pare, and put them in cold water ; if old they
are improved by soaking several hours ; then boil them
in water just sufficient to cover them, the kettle being un-
covered ; as soon as the fork will readily pass through
them, pour off the water, shake them up loosely, and let
them remain uncovered a few minutes. This method
renders them dry and mealy.
Wash, pare and boil the potatoes according to the
preceding recipe ; when tender pour off the water and
mash them until smooth and destitute of lumps ; then
beat them with a fork until they are light and white, and
send to the table, not pressed down, but laid in the dish
Take cold boiled potatoes, cut them in thin slices ; lay
them on a gridiron ; place them over the fire, or on a
tin in a hot oven ; if the latter, put them first on the
bottom so that the under side will brown and the mois-
ture escape ; then change them to the upper grate to
brown the upper side. Send them immediately to the
BROWNED MASHED POTATOES.
Take cold mashed potatoes ; compress them into a
dish, smoothing the top ; place them in a hot oven till
warmed thoroughly through, and browned on the top.
An elegant dish may be made by forming the mashed
potatoes into small cones two and a half inches high,
placing them on a pan, and browning quickly in a hot
If the potatoes to be baked are all to be served at the
same time, it is very important that they are of nearly
uniform size. They require a hot oven, and as soon as
done, the skin of each should be broken to let out the
vapor, then served immediately.
Wash them carefully ; cover with hot ashes, and when
done they will be very rich and mealy.
In cooking potatoes by steam, the steam should be
generated before putting the potatoes into the steaming
vessel, and kept up briskly afterwards until they are
done. It will render them more dry and mealy to take
off the cover just before they are done, or put them in
an oven to dry and finish.
These may be baked or boiled with their skins on.
When boiled they should be peeled before sending to
48 HYGEIAN HOME COOK-BOOK.
the table. They may be par-boiled, then peeled and
browned in the oven. They are excellent if sliced and
browned the next day after being boiled.
MASHED SWEET POTATOES.
Sweet potatoes may be boiled and mashed, or mashed
and browned in the manner mentioned for white potatoes.
Wash and peel the turnips ; put them in just boiling
water enough to cook them and be evaporated by the
time they are soft. They may be sent to the table whole,
sliced or mashed. A little potato added and mashed
with them makes a nice dish.
These are very palatable when prepared of cold boiled
turnips in the same manner as mashed or sliced potatoes.
Early turnips are best, when cooked dry and mashed.
Wash the beets without cutting. The tops and fibrous
roots should be twisted off instead of cut, so as not to
waste the juice; they may be boiled like turnips, or
steamed like potatoes ; a large kettle full requires boiling
steadily four or five hours. When very tender place
them in cold water and remove the skins ; then slice
immediately and send to the table. Beets may also be
baked like potatoes.
CHOPPED BEETS AND TOMATOES.
Chop very tenderly cooked beets very fine ; mix them
with an equal quantity of canned or stewed tomatoes ;
boil them together a few minutes, and send to the table.
Wash the parsnips, scrape their skins off, and if large
cut them in pieces ; put them into boiling water and
cook till very tender. It is well to have all the water
evaporate in the process of cooking, and if they are
browned a little on the bottom of the kettle it will add to
the richness of their flavor. When stewed until the
liquor becomes rich and sweet, this should be served
with the parsnips.
Cold boiled parsnips, sliced and browned in the same
manner as potatoes, make an excellent relish with break-
These may be boiled and browned in the same man-
ner as parsnips and potatoes. They require longer
cooking than parsnips, and to most persons are much
50 HYGEIAN HOME COOK-BOOK.
Take off the outer leaves ; cut the head in quarters 01
half-quarters ; cook in as small a quantity of water as pos-
sible until thoroughly done. It should be cooked in a
CABBAGE AND TOMATOES.
Chop the cabbage fine ; place it in a kettle witn very
little water, and cover tightly; let the moisture nearly
evaporate, and when nearly done, add one half the
quantity of canned or stewed tomatoes ; cook thoroughly,
being careful not to burn the mixture.
Cut off the green leaves ; cleanse the heads carefully
from insects ; then boil in water just sufficient to be
evaporated when the article is tender.
Put the stalks into cold water ; cut off all that is very
tough ; then peel and tie the stalks in a bundle or
bundles ; boil fifteen to twenty minutes, or until tender ;
lift them on the dish, remove the string, and send to the
Under this head are comprised spinach, beet-tops, cab-
bage-sprouts, turnip-leaves, mustard-leaves, all of which are
VEGETABLES. 5 1
excellent, and milk-weed leaves, cowslips, and dandelion
leaves, which, though a trifle bitter, are not unwhole-
some. All require to be carefully washed and cleaned,
and boiled until very tender ; then drained in a colander
and sent to the table.
These are much richer in flavor if gathered just before
being cooked ; do not wash the pods unless necessary ;
shell and cook immediately in just water enough to
make a rich sweet gravy with them.
When very young and tender it improves them to
wash the pods and then scald them in the water in which
the peas are to be cooked ; then remove the pods and
add the peas ; when cooked they will have a sweeter
flavor, derived from the juices of the pods.
When very young the pods need only to be clipped,
cut finely, and boiled in as little water as possible until
tender ; when older, break off the ends and strip off the
strings that line their edges ; break them into small
pieces, and boil until tender. They require boiling
three or four hours.
BOILED GREEN CORN.
Trim off the husks and silk ; put the ears in hot
water, and boil them twenty or thirty minutes ; or the
52 HYGEIAN HOME COOK-BOOK.
ears may be steamed one-half to three-fourths of an hour.
The kernels may be cut from the cob, scraping the cob
after cutting, a little hot water added, and cooked by
boiling ten or fifteen minutes.
ROASTED GREEN CORN.
Remove the husks and silk ; place the ears on a
gridiron, and this over red hot coals or in a hot oven.
This is usually made of green corn and garden beans,
though string beans are sometimes added. Cut the corn
from the cobs, scraping them afterwards ; add the beans
and a trifle of hot water ; cover closely and boil until
the beans are soft. Lima beans and sugar corn make
an excellent succotash.
Shell the beans from the pod ; add a very little water,
and cook until the beans are very tender and the juice
These should be cooked in the same manner as garden
BOILED DRIED BEANS.
Wash the beans thoroughly, and put them in a kettle
of colfi W ater; let them be heated slowly to the boiling
point, and cooked until done— about three hours. Do
not parboil them. It is a mistaken notion that the first
water is injurious. It removes much of the richness of
the bean to turn off the water. It is well to let them
soak over night, first washing them, and then cooking
them in the water in which they have been soaked.
BAKED DRIED BEANS.
Prepare them as for boiling ; boil them nearly soft,
place them in the baking pan, with a part of the water,
and let them bake in the oven until moderately browned.
MASHED BAKED BEANS.
Prepare them according to the preceding recipe, only
a little drier ; then with a spoon or pestle mash them to
a powder and bake. This is a delicious dish.
BEANS AND CABBAGE.
When the beans are half boiled, add a head of cabbage,
cut into small pieces. Beans and potatoes may be mixed
in the same manner.
Pick them over carefully and wash thoroughly ; put
them over the fire in cold water ; adding hot water as
they become dry ; they may be cooked nearly dry, or
more moist, as preferred. They require cooking about
54 HYGEIAN HOME COOK-BOOK.
two hours. They may be baked in the same manner as
beans. When cold they may be sliced and browned,
making a nice breakfast dish.
DRIED GREEN PEAS.
Pick over and wash thoroughly ; soak them over night
in soft water ; in the morning put them over the fire in
the water in which they have been soaked ; boil three
hours and a half, or until tender. These may be baked
in the same manner as beans.
These require no cooking. They are not objection-
able to healthy stomachs, nor to most invalids, if eaten
fresh as a part of the meal. If kept any time they should
be placed in the refrigerator, or in cold water
HE majority of good ripe fruits cannot be im-
proved by cooking, provided they are to con-
stitute a principal or even large proportion of
21 the meal ; nevertheless they can be cooked in
many ways without impairing their wholesomeness, and
rendering some of them more acceptable to invalid
stomachs, as well as agreeable to tastes variously culti-
vated, and more or less vitiated. Fruits may be baked,
steamed, boiled, or stewed, the only rules to be observed
being, to cook them uniformly until soft, and not scorch
or burn them. We give a list of our favorite recipes.
Fruits should be cooked in stone or porcelain vessels,
not in tin, brass, or copper.
Select apples of nearly uniform size ; fill the baking
plate with them, pour on a few spoonsful of water, and
cook till softened all through.
56 HVGEIAN HOME COOK-BOOK.
BAKED APPLES WITH DATES.
Take large tart apples ; pare and core them whole ;
fill the place of the core with dates ; place them in the
baking plate, pour over them a little water, and cook till
BAKED PARED APPLES.
Pare, quarter, and core the apples ; fill the pudding
dish with them ; if very tart distribute a few pieces of
dates among them ; if very juicy add no water, if not add
a little ; bake and place them in a cool place.
For steaming apples should be prepared as for baking.
About twice as much time is required as for baking.
Apples may be stewed whole, or with the skins or
cores, or both removed. They certainly have a richer
flavor when cooked with the skins on. When quite tart
a few dates may be cooked with them. A very nice and
delicious dish is made by passing s-tewed apples through
a colander, beating them until light and spongy, and
placing them in a pudding dish, to be moderately
browned in the oven.
STEWED DRIED APPLES.
Pick over the fruit carefully, reject all imperfect or
discolored pieces ; wash thoroughly ; then boil in just
water enough to cover them. They may be flavored
with proper proportions of dried peaches, raisins, figs,
dates, or quinces.
Pears may be baked, boiled, or stewed, in the same
manner as apples. Some varieties of small early pears
are very delicious when boiled whole without paring, or
stewed a long time with a few dates among them.
As pears are among the most perishable of fruits, they
may be picked before they are quite ripe, and* placed in
a dry cool place to ripen. A favorite method with us of
cooking such pears is, to pare, halve and core them,
and stew in sufficient water to make a rich juice, adding
a few figs to flavor. Send the dish cold to the table.
The idea of cooking good ripe peaches is never to be
entertained. But those of inferior quality, or those not
fully ripe, may be improved by boiling them. They
should be peeled, except when the skins are very smooth,
clean and tender. They should not be stoned. Figs
are the best seasonings, and should be cut in pieces and
cooked with them.
58 HYGEIAN HOME COOK-BOOK.
STEWED DRIED PEACHES.
Dried peaches (or dried pears when obtainable) may
be stewed in the same manner as dried apples. A nice
dish may be prepared by cooking them rather dry,
mashing them through a colander, placing the pulp on
a pie plate, and baking moderately in the oven.
Apricots are to be prepared and used in the same
manner as peaches.
Quinces are of little value per se, but when dried or
canned, are excellent to flavor other fruits with.
The remarks in relation to quinces are equally appli-
cable to pineapples.
Pick and wash the berries; add dates enough to
sweeten to suit the taste ; stew in as little water as pos-
sible without burning them until they become soft ; then
mash the whole through a colander and set away to cool.
Ripe and rich-flavored blackberries neither admit of
nor require cooking. But when the fruit is unripe or
inferior, it should be cooked. Pick over the fruit, and
wash if necessary ; put it into a stew kettle with a very
little water ; if very sour add a few dates ; boil fifteen
minutes ; serve cold.
When not fully ripe these may be cooked in the same
manner as blackberries.
The same remarks apply to these berries.
When not fully ripe, strawberries, for invalids, should
be stewed with a few dates, taking care not to have them
very juicy. When ripe and clean, no cooking, prepara-
tion, or seasoning can improve them. If sandy or dirty
they should be quickly rinsed in cold water before serv-
ing. An ornamental dish may be prepared by putting a
layer of green leaves around the edge of the dish, and
filling it with the hulled berries.
When too sour or not sufficiently ripe to eat without
cooking or seasoning, cherries may be stewed and
sweetened with dates.
60 HYGEIAN HOME COOK-BOOK.
There are many varieties of plums, some of which are
sweet and luscious, while others are sour and unpalatable.
They are to be managed in the same manner as cherries.
Green currants are not unwholesome when stewed
and sweetened with dates. When fully ripe they are
good without cooking.
These may be managed in the same manner as cur-
These are not cookable. They should be peeled, sliced,
an d eaten with bread, rice, or mushes.
These may be put on the table whole, or peeled and
the sections separated.
We only use lemons to flavor sauces, pies, puddings,
FRUITS. 6 1
Very ripe tomatoes are better uncooked. But if im-
perfectly ripened they should be stewed in as little water
as possible and for a long time. They may be cooked
in half an hour, but will improve if stewed one or even
two hours longer. Crumbs or pieces of toasted bread
are an excellent addition ; or the juice maybe thickened
with a little Graham flour.
None of the numerous varieties of watermelons and
muskmelons can be improved by cooking. They should
not be taken from the vines till fully ripe, and the
sooner after being gathered they are eaten, the more
wholesome and delicious.
This is prepared as for making pie, and stewed with
dates to sweeten.
Some of the richer kinds of pumpkins are good if
baked ; but all are excellent when properly stewed or
steamed. As little water as possible without allowing
the pumpkin to burn should be used. Like tomatoes,
pumpkin is rendered richer and sweeter by prolonged
cooking. When nearly done it should be left uncovered,
to evaporate some of the water.
62 HYGEIAN HOME COOK-BOOK.
Stewing is the usual method of cooking all kinds of
squashes; but some of the more solid and richer kinds
are excellent and sometimes preferable when baked.
Wash, wipe, cut in four or more pieces, remove the
seeds, and bake in a pan. Steaming squash, however,
is better than boiling it.
The idea of cooking rich ripe grapes is inadmissible ;
if sour or not fully ripe, they may be stewed in as little
water as possible, and pressed through a colander to re-
move the skin and seeds.
Stew them until soft in just water enough to cover
them ; do not stir them so as to mangle the skins ; they
should appear on the table plump and unbroken.
ENGLISH DRIED CURRANTS.
These are generally used to flavor ether dishes, but
are excellent of themselves; they maybe stewed in the
same manner as most other dried fruits.
When quite fresh, figs are better uncooked ; when old
they should be quickly washed in boiling water, and
then stewed until soft.
These may be eaten uncooked with other foods ; but
we seldom use them except to sweeten and flavor other
fruits and foods.
ANNING, drying, and refrigeration are the
only hygienic processes for preserving fruits,
vegetables, or foods of any kind. Antiseptics
of every sort — salt, sugar, vinegar, alcohol, etc.,
not only add injurious ingredients, but change the
organic arrangement of the constituent molecules, dete-
riorate the quality of the food, and lessen its nutritive
The process of canning has reached great perfection
within a few years, so that almost all kinds of fruits and
vegetables can be preserved in their natural flavors for an
indefinite time, without a particle of sugar or salt. All
that is required is a perfect expulsion of atmospheric air,
and its complete exclusion afterwards. Some articles
require heating to the boiling point, and others con-
siderable cooking in order to expel all the air.
Of the various jars for canning, the best are ' ' Masons, "
PRESERVING FOODS. 6$
the "Gem," and the "Hero." These are all of glass,
and for fruits no other material should be employed.
Within a few years great improvements have been
made in drying fruits and vegetables. And the recent
introduction of "Boswell's Heater and Dryer" seems to
be all that can be desired for families to dry any food
they wish to preserve in that manner, economically and
The objections to drying in the sun is the exposure of
the articles to dust and insects, while drying over a range
or in an oven is troublesome and expensive. Some of
the methods for. drying which have been introduced and
patented, although rapid and economical, do not well
preserve the nutritive value and natural flavor of the
articles. Some of them are so arranged that the steam
or vapor which is evaporated from the lower tiers or
layers passes through those above, thus cooking <w/and
dissipating their juices and flavor. This is obviated in
"Boswell's Heater and Dryer." This is so arranged
that a current of fresh air carries the moisture of each
layer into the flue, producing an article which for flavor,
richness, color, and nutritive value, cannot probably be
excelled. As the Heater is useful also in drying clothes,
heating rooms, and in cooking victuals, every family which
has fruit to dry will find it doubly economical ; and it
would pay many who do not raise fruit, to purchase in
season and dry for themselves in Boswell's Heater.
Fruits for canning should he carefully selected, and all
66 HYGEIAN HOME COOK-BOOK.
imperfect, decayed, or unripe ones rejected. When
sandy or unclean they should be quickly and carefully
washed. Blackberries, raspberries, and whortleberries,
are canned without difficulty so as to keep well. Straw-
berries require longer cooking and more careful manage-
ment. Grapes, cherries, currants, and all of the staple
fruits are successfully canned with little trouble.
Cover them with a little water in a stewing kettle ; boil
for a few minutes, being careful not to have them burned ;
fill the jar with them while boiling hot ; wipe the edges
of the jars clean ; screw down the top tight, and put
them in a cool place. Do not let a draught of cold air
strike them, or they may break. The jar for receiving
the fruit should be clean and hot. A convenient me-
thod of heating it is to place it sidewise into hot water,
(being careful that the water enters the inside the mo-
ment it touches the outside, or the vessel may crack),
give it a whirl, lift it out and let the water run out, set it
in a pan over the stove or in a warm place, and fill
immediately. When stone jars are employed for can-
ning, place them on the stove, with a little cold water
in them, some time before commencing to cook the
fruit. When the water in them is heated nearly to the
boiling point, they may be emptied and filled with the
hot fruit. The cork should fit closely, and be covered
with cement. This may be made of sealing-wax and
PRESERVING FOODS. 67
bees-wax, or of resin and bees-wax ; the proportions of
sealing-wax and bees-wax should be such that the
cement when cold will be neither sticky nor brittle.
The cement should be melted and poured over the corks
instantly after they are applied to the jars. The jars
should be watched until cold, and if any air-bubbles
appear in the cement, prick them and add more cement.
As these berries are exceptional, we give a special
recipe. Boil the fruit thirty minutes after filling the jars
in the manner above mentioned, let them stand five
minutes to settle ; fill the shrinkage, seal tight, and turn
the jars on their top ; let them remain in this position
over night ; the next morning the imperfect ones can
be detected and corrected.
Canned grapes are admissable with mushes and pud
dings in the winter season, or as a relish with any kind
of farinaceous food at all seasons. Select the freshest,
nicest bunches, and can in the usual manner. An ex-
cellent jelly for farinaceous dishes may be prepared by
stewing the grapes, mashing them through a colander to
remove the skins and seeds/ and then canning in the
68 HYGEIAN HOME COOK-BOOK.
Grapes may be easily preserved in the following man-
ner : Take the late grapes ; pick them carefully ; spread
them out in a cool place in layers on shelves ; let them
remain two weeks ; then pack them in barrels with dry
hard-wood sawdust. Bran will answer very well. Packed
in this manner the fruit will keep good through the
winter. After packing they.should be kept in a cool
and dry place.
Grapes may be kept in good condition for several
weeks, by dipping the end of the stem of perfect bunches
in melted sealing-wax, then wrapping the bunches in
tissue paper, and laying or suspending them in a dry
cool place. The more paper that is placed between them
the longer they will keep.
Peel, quarter, core, and stew until soft; then can
them in the same manner as berries.
In order to preserve their color, peaches after being
peeled should be kept in cold water, until you are
ready to can them. They are canned in the same man-
ner as berries. They may be canned with or without
peeling and stoning. It is important that they are boil-
ing hot when sealed, and that all of the fruit is covered
by its juices.
PRESERVING FRUITS. 69
These may be treated in the same manner as peaches.
If gathered before they are quite ripe, they may be laid
away in a dry, cool place to ripen, and then canned.
Those of the firmest flesh, or least juicy, are the best
for canning ; cover them with hot water ; remove the
skins and cut away all the green part ; then stew and can
in the usual manner. This fruit may be improved by
much cooking before canning. There is no objection to
tin cans for preserving tomatoes, if they are new ; and
the fruit is more easily kept in them, as they can be
hermetically sealed without difficulty.
Peel the rhubarb ; stew with dates enough to sweeten
as desired, and can in the usual manner.
This fruit may be canned in the usual manner. It
makes an admirable sweetening and flavoring ingredient
Green corn, peas, beans, and asparagus, are preserved
by canning with more difficulty than are most kinds of
70 HYGEIAN HOME COOK-BOOK.
fruits ; hence nearly all the canning establishments add
more or less sugar, salt, or some other antiseptic. But
this is entirely unnecessary. Ifwell cooked and managed
in all respects in the manner recommended for straw-
berries, there need be no difficulty in keeping them fresh
and sweet the year round.
Note. — A Miss Jones, of New York, has invented a method of
canning fruit in their own juices without cooking them, which is
said to be a labor-saving and economical improvement on all exist-
ing methods of canning. It consists in removing the air from the
fruit and vessel holding it, filling the vacuum by infiltrating the
juices of other fruit, previously prepared, and then sealing. Con-
siderable machinery is required for this process, and we hope she
will soon have it so perfected and cheapened that it may come
into general use.
_AJ?PLE and Tomato Sauce.
BAKED Apple Pudding.
Baked Apples with Dates..
Baked Dried Beans
Baked Pared Apples
Beans and Cabbage
Bean Soup •
Birds' Nest Pudding.
■■ T 9
Corn-meal Pie Crust 26
Corn Mush Pudding 32
Cranberries •■»• 5 8
Cranberry Pie 27
Crushed Wheat Mush 22
Currant Sauce 37
X>ATES 6 3
Date Sauce 3 6
Dried Fruit Pie 29
Dried Fruit Sauce 37
Dried Green Peas 54
ENGLISH Dried Currants
Boiled Beets 4 8
Boiled Cabbage 5©
Boiled Dried Beans 52
Boiled Green Corn 5*
Boiled Peeled Potatoes 4 6
Boiled Potatoes 45
Boiled Parsnips 49
Boiled Turnips - 4»
Brown Bread J °
Browned Mashed Potatoes.. 4 6
Erowned Parsnips 49
Browned Potatoes 4°
Browned Turnips 4 8
CABBAGE and Tomatoes 50
Chopped Beets and Tomatoes 49
Cocoanut Bread 14
Cocoanut Pie Crust 26
Cocoanut Sauce 35
Cold Water Loaf Bread 11
Corn and Graham Bread 16
Corn Dodgers 19
Corn Grits 22
Corn-meal Mush 23
Farina and Graham Bread,
Gems , »
Graham Mush 23
Graham Pie Crust 25
Grape and Apple Sauce 37
Grapes • 02
Green Beans • 5 1
Green Bean Soup • • 4°
Green Peas 5*
Green Pea Soup 4°
Greens ■•• 5°
Hot Water Loaf Bread.
Hot Water Rolls
Hygienic Brown Betty
XiEMONS 6 °
Lemon Sauce 3"
Lima Beans < 5 2
MASHED Baked Beans 53
Mashed Potatoes 46
Mashed Sweet Potatoes 48
Mixed Meal Bread 17
Model Cooked Potatoes 45
Mush Pie Crust 26
Mush Rolls 12
OAT-MEAL Bread 18
Oat-meal Crisps 14
Oat-nTeal Mush... 23
Oat-meal Pie Crust 26
Orange Sauce 37
Peach Pie. 28
Pear Pie 29
Plain Johnny Cake 17
Potato Pie Crust 26
Potato Soup 41
Premium Bread 10
Preserving Fruits 64
Prun es 62
Pumpkin Bread 16
Pumpkin Johnny Cake 18
Pumpkin Pie. 28
Rice and Apple Pudding 34
Rice Cakes 19
Rhubarb Pie 28
Rhubaro Toast ao
Roasted Green Corn 52
Roasted Potatoes 47
Rye and Indian Bread 17
Rye Bread 18
Rye Mush 23
Short-cake Sauce 37
Snow Ball Pudding 34
Snow Bread 16
Spinach Soup 41
Split Peas 53
Split Pea Soup 40
Squash _ 62
Steamed Apples.. 56
Steamed Potatoes 47
Steamed Pudding 34
Stewed Apple Pie 28
Stewed Apples 56
Stewed Dried Apples 57
Stewed Dried Peaches 57
Sweet Apple Pudding 33
Sweet Potato Bread 15
Sweet Potatoes 47
Sweet Potato Fruit Bread 15
Sweet Potato Pudding 33
Tomato Soup 40
"VEGETABLE and Rice Soup. . 41
Vegetable Broth 42
Vegetable Soup 39
"WHEAT-MEAL Crisps 13
White Potato Bread 15
Whole Grains and Seeds 20
mapBriattwG wmm@m 3
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Mother's Hygienic Hand-Book,
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XL Diseases during Pregnancy.
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XV. Disorders Incident to Labor.
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XVIII. Disorders of Childhood.
XIX. Training of Children.
XX. Hygiene of Infancy.
XXI. Raising Children by Hand.
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