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Full text of "The hymn of Cleanthes; Greek text tr. into English"

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EXTS FOR STUDENTS, No. 26 



THE 

YMN OF CLEANTHES 

GREEK TEXT TRANSLATED INTO 
ENGLISH 

WITH BRIEF INTRODUCTION AND NOTES 



BY 

E. H. BLAKENEY, M.A. 



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TEXTS FOR STUDENTS. No. 26 

GENERAL EDITORS: Caroline A. J. Skeel, D.Lit. ; 
H. J. White, D.D. ; J. P. Whitney, D.D., D.C.L. 



THE 
HYMN OF CLEANTHES 

GREEK TEXT TRANSLATED INTO 
ENGLISH 

WITH BRIEF INTRODUCTION AND NOTES 
BY 

E. H. BLAKENEY, M.A. 



LONDON 

SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING 
CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE 

NEW YORK: THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 
I92I 



C 




"The Hymn to Zeus is a splendid attempt 
to bring into harmony the author of nature 
with the traditional Zeus, and divine providence 
with his will. There is no attempt to discredit 
orthodoxy, but rather to purify it and use its 
elements of truth for a higher purpose."— 
Mahaffy. 





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THE HYMN OF CLEANTHES 



NOTE ON CLEANTHES AND THE STOICS. 

Cleanthes, the Stoic philosopher, was born at Assos, in 
theTroad, about the year 331 B.C. and died at an advanced 
age in 232 B.C. The successor to Zeno, the founder of 
Stoicism, he was president of the Stoa for over thirty 
years and was himself succeeded by Chrysippus. He Avas 
evidently a man of profound earnestness and masterful 
energy, combining strong intellectual convictions with deep 
religious feeling. 

Like all the great teachers of his school, he must be 
reckoned as a pantheist, though (as Taylor notes, Ancient 
Ideals, i. 376) Stoic emotions about the divine are diverse, 
often vague, springing from a deep-seated reverence for all- 
ruling "law " (call it what we will — Destiny, Nature, Zeus, 
Providence, or the Universal Reason). In Stoicism, 
though in some respects Cleanthes revolutionized the study 
of physics, which he regarded as giving the surest rule for 
human conduct generally, the main interest of the creed 
lies in its moral postulates. Physics is to be regarded as 
the scaffolding of ethics. 

Among the great prophets of ancient Israel religion 
became at once "universal and individual, centred in the 
inner life of the subject" (Caird, Evolution of Religion, ii. 
119) ; and a not dissimilar process of development may be 
traced in the philosophy of Stoicism. From the first it was 
a religious philosophy, and it is here that it makes its 
supreme appeal. 

Stoicism, as Grant has shown (Ethics of Aristotle), was 



Mil048'i 



THE HYMN OF CLEANTHLS 



less a gfti)uinti product of Hellenic thought than an 
importation from the East. It represented a synthesis 
bet\Teen Hellenism and Oriental speculation. Not one 
of the greater Stoic teachers was a native of Greece 
proper. It is worth remembering that the Apostle Paul's 
birthplace, Tarsus, was a stronghold of the creed of 
the Stoics ; and there is no reason to suppose that 
Paul was a stranger to their tenets.^ Lactantius (Insti- 
tutesj iv. 9) admits that Zeno had anticipated certain 
features of Christian teaching : " Zeno rerum naturae dis- 
positorem atque opificem universitatis Xoyov priedicat"; 
and the words in Heb. ii. 10 have a distinctly Stoic 

flavour : St' ov τά ττάντα καΙ δλ' ου τα ττάντα (God is the 

final and efficient cause of all things). ^ Certainly the Stoic 
system foreshadowed the doctrine of a true brotherhood 
of man. 

What was peculiar to Stoicism was its constant insistence 
on Morality, and its " grim earnestness and devout sub- 
mission to the divine will." Virtue, in that system, is 
alone good ; vice bad ; all other things are αδιάφορα 
(indifferent). It was in a strictly practical spirit that Stoic 
ethics was developed by the Eomans, as we see in Seneca ; 
but the later Stoicism, confronted with the facts of life, had 
in some points to soften the rigid outlines of earlier theory, 
just because the idealism and the pessimism of that earlier 
theory were fatal to any effort of moral reform ; " the cold, 
flawless perfection of triumphant reason was an impossible 
model, which could only discourage and repel aspirants to 
the higher life" (Dill, Roman Society, bk. iii., chap. i.). 
There was no room in such an austere doctrine for the 

^ Hastings, Dictionary of the Bible, iv. 616. Hicks, Gh-eek Phil, in 
N. T., p. 94. 

2 For traces of Stoicism in the Pauline Epistles, see the illuminating 
discussion by Lightfoot, " St. Paul and Seneca," in his edition of the 
Philippians." AVe might instance two thoughts, at least, which show 
that Paul did owe something to Stoicism : (1) αύτάρκβια (2 Cor. vi, 10), 
(2) the worldwide city of God (Eph. ii. 19, Ool. iii. 11). 



NOTE ON CLEANTHES AND THE STOICS 5 

Christian virtue of humility or of pity ; there the system 
broke down. 

Some of the paradoxes of the "Porch " (notably the crown- 
ing paradox of the "Sapiens," the ideal wise man — an im- 
possible figure) are keenly ridiculed by Horace {Sat. I. iii. 
124 sq., Π. iii. 'passim, vii. 83 sq. " The Christian's Ideal 
Figure could never be accepted by the Stoic as an example 
of his typical Wise Man" [E. R. Be van, Stoics and 
Sceptics, p. 70]) ; but, in his later years, it is probable that 
Horace learnt to appreciate better the doctrine of the 
Stoics and to view their system with more sympathy. ^ 

The pantheism 2 of the later Stoics tended, it is clear, 
more and more toΛvards theism ; God had become to these 
philosophers (Epicurus is a case in point) less of an ab- 
straction, more and more of a "living presence"; we may 
do well to remember the famous motto which Seneca lays 
down as a rule of life in his tenth letter.^ And closely 
bound up with its doctrine of God is the Stoic doctrine of 
immortality. True, the older Stoics permitted themselves 
little more than the hope of a limited immortality; but their 
thought of Death Avas far from that of a mere extinction 
(as we find it set forth in Eastern speculation) ; rather death 
was the resolution of man's earthly nature into its original 
elements — a dissolution of the body — while the animating 
principle, the soul, returns to its native birthplace "in the 
heavenlies." We may compare Virgil's line {/En. vi. 730), 

1 See D'Alton, Horace and his Age, pp. 84 sqq., 133 sqq., for proofs 
of this changed attitude. 

2 The Stoic conception that God is in all things is balanced by that 
of the Neo-Platonists, whose root principle is tliat all things are in 
God. For the attitude of Plotinus towards Stoicism consult Inge, 
Τΐίβ Philosophy of Ploiinus, vol. i. There is a brief, but valuable, dis- 
cussion of Stoicism in its connexion with Christian ethics and theology 
in Lake and Foakes-Jackson's The Beginnings of Christianity, part i. , 
pp. 246 sqq. (1920). 

•^ " So live with men as if God saw you ; so speak with God as 
if men heard you" (Lightf., Essay on "St. Paul and Seneca," 
Philipp.,6 pp. 279 sqq.). 



THE HYMN OF CLEANTHES 



" igneus est oUis vigor et caslestis origo," with the solemn 
words of Eccles. xii. 7. 

What the position of Cleanthes really was, in the sphere 
of religion, "vve can neΛ'er fully ascertain; we possess his 
teaching only in fragments, and we cannot properly judge 
a thinker by the disjecta membra of his philosophy. 
But we seem to discover in Cleanthes, when we read his 
hymni (was it written in early, middle, or later life?), a 
genuinely religious man, "bent on giving a theological 
interpretation of the world, and breathing a pious sub- 
mission to the world-order which it is refreshing to feel and 
come in contact with " (Davidson, The Stoic Creed, p. 27). 
NotAvithstanding the materialism apparent in his physical 
speculations, *' he can yet infuse into his submission to the 
cosmic order such an amount of willing acquiescence as to 
give the impression of the deepest religious feeling" (ib., 
p. 229).- Lightfoot was justified in calling his hymn the 
noblest expression of heathen de\^otion which Greek litera- 
ture has preserved to us. Nothing quite so impressive, of 
its kind, Avas ever again to appear in pagan history till, 
nearly half a millennium later. Stoicism was destined to 
produce its final and exquisite fruit in the Meditations of 
the Emperor Marcus Aurelius. 

GREEK TEXT OF THE HYMN. 

Κΰδιστ* αθανάτων, ττολνώννμε, παγκρατζς del 
Zer, φνσ€ω<5 ο.ρχηγ€, νόμον μίτα ττά,ντα κυβερνών ^ 
χαΐρζ ' σ€ yap ττάντεσσι θίμι^ θνητοίσι ττροσανΒαν. 
€κ σου γαρ yevos ecr/xei/, hos^ μίμημα λαχόΐ'τε? 

1 Which may be regarded as a summary of his whole theology. 

2 An ethical fervour of a high order is shown in the lines of 
Cleanthes (frag. 45) duoled bv Eusebias, Pra'paratio Evangclica, 679= 
(ed. Gitford, 1903). '[See "Added Note," p. 16.] 

3 The MS. has -ήχου, which gives no sense. Bergk conjectures ό'λου. 
W. L. Newman conjectures άγοΟ (from a70s = a leader). 



GREEK TEXT OF THE HYMN 



5 μοννον^ oora ζώζί τ€ καΐ 'ίρττζί θνητ ΙπΧ yaiav. 
τψ σ€ καθνμνήσω^ καΐ συν κράτος atev ctetVw. 
σοι 8η ττας o8e κόσμος Ιλισσόμζνος Trepl γαιαι/ 
ΤΓζίθεται, y k€v ayySy καΐ €κών νττο σ€ΐο κρατ€Ϊταί * 
τοΐον €;(eis viro^pyov aviKr^TOts ΙνΙ \€ρ(τΙν 

ΙΟ άμφήκη, ττυρόεντα, ά€ίζο)θντα κζραννόν, 

του yap νπο 7Γληyrjs φύσεως πάντ eppiya^iv, 
ω συ κατευθύνεις kolvov Xoyov ος 8ta πάντων 
φοιτγ.^ μtyvύ μένος μεyάλoLς μίκροΐς τε φάεσσιν^ 
ως τόσσος γ€γαώ9, ύπατος βασιλεύς 8ta παντός. 

15 ού8ε τι yίyvετaι Ipyov επΙ γθονί σου 8ίγα, 8αΐμον^ 
ούτε κατ αιθέρων θείον πόλον ουτ* ενί πόντω, 
πλην οπόσα ρεζουσι κακοί σφετερ^σιν άνοίοΛς, 
άλλα συ καΐ τα περισσά επίστασαι άρτια θειναι^ 
κα\ κοσμεΐν τα άκοσμα, καΐ ου φίλα σοΙ φίλα εστίν, 

20 ώδ€ γαρ εις εν ατταντα συνήρμοκας εσθλά κακοΐσιν^ 
ωσθ' ενα yίyvεσθaι πάντων λόyov αΐεν εόντα, 
ον φεύyovτες εωσιν 'όσοι θνητών κακοί εισι, 
8ύσμοροι, οϊ τ αγαθών μεν άε\ κτησιν ποθεοντες 
οϋτ εσορωσι θεού Koivhv νόμον, ούτε κλύουσιν, 

25 φ κεν πειθόμενοι συν νω βίον εσθλον εχοιεν» 

αύτοΙ 8' αυθ' όρμωσιν άνευ κάλου άλλος επ άλλα, 
ot μεν υπέρ 8όξης σπου8ην 8υσεριστον έχοντες, 
οΐ δ* επΙ κερ8οσύνας τετ ραμμένοι ού8ενϊ κόσμο)^ 
άλλοι δ' εις ανεσιν και σώματος η8εα e/aya, 

30 σ7Γ€ΰδοι/τ€5 μάλα πάμπαν ei/ai/rta των8ε yεvεσθaι. 
άλλα Ζεύ πάν8ωρε, κελαινεφες, άρχικεραυνε^ 
ανθρώπους ρύοιο άπειροσύνης άπh λυγρης, 
ην συ, πάτερ, σκε8ασον \1η)χης απο, 8ος 8ε κυρησαι 
yvώμηςJ y πίσυνος συ 8ίκης μετά πάντα κυβερνάς^ 

35 όφρ αν τιμηθεντες άμειβώμεσθά σε τι/λΓ, 
ύμνούντες τα σα 'εpya 8ιηνεκες, ώς επεοικε 
θνητον εόντ, επεί άντε βροτοΐς yεpaς άλλο τι μείζον, 
ούτε θεοΐς, ή κοινον άεΐ νόμον εν 8ίκΊ] ΐ'μνεΐν. 



THE HYMN OF CLEANTHES 



TRANSLATION OF THE GREEK TEXT. 

Most glorious of Immortals, mighty God, 

Invoked by many a name, sovran King 

Of universal Nature, piloting 

This world in harmony with Law, — all hail ! 

Thee it is meet that mortals should invoke, 

For Λve Thine offspring are, and sole of all 

Created things that live and move on earth 

Receive from Thee the image of the One. 

Therefore I praise Thee, and shall hymn Thy power 

Unceasingly. Thee the wide world obeys. 

As onward ever in its course it rolls 

Where'er Thou guidest, and rejoices still 

Beneath Thy sway : so strong a minister 

Is held by Thine unconquerable hands, — 

That two-edged thunderbolt of living fire 

That never fails. Under its dreadful blow 

All Nature reels ; therewith Thou dost direct 

The Universal Reason which, commixt 

With all the greater and the lesser lights, 

Moves thro' the Universe. How great Thou art, 

The Lord supreme for ever and for aye ! 

No work is wrought apart from Thee, God, 

Or in the world, or in the heaven above. 

Or on the deep, save only what is done 

By sinners in their folly. Nay, Thou canst 

Make the rough smooth, bring wondrous order forth 

From chaos ; in Thy sight unloveliness 

Seems beautiful ; for so Thou hast fitted things 

Together, good and e\dl, that there reigns 

One everlasting Reason in them all. 

The wicked heed not this, but suffer it 

To slip, to their undoing ; these are they 



TRANSLATIoii OF THE GEEEK TEXT 

Who, yearning ever to secure the good, 
Mark not nor hear the law of God, by wise 
Obedience unto which they might attain 
A nobler life, with Eeason harmonized. 
But now, unbid, they pass on divers paths 
Each his own way, yet knowing not the truth, — 
Some in unlovely striving for renown, 
Some bent on lawless gains, on pleasure some, 
AVorking their own undoings self-deceived. 
Thou most bounteous God that sittest throned 
In clouds, the Lord of lightning, save mankind 
From grievous ignorance ! Oh, scatter it 
Far from their souls, and grant them to achieve 
True knowledge, on whose might Thou dost rely 
To govern all the world in righteousness ; 
That so, being honoured, we may Thee requite 
With honour, chanting without pause Thy deeds. 
As all men should : since greater guerdon ne'er 
Befalls or man or god than evermore 
Dv.ly to praise the Universal Law. 



ARGUMENT OF THE HYMN.^ 

(1) Clean thes feels himself akin to the divine, and 
therefore worthy to hold communion with it ; (2) he 
expresses his admiration for, and submission to, the divine 
order of the world ; (3) he recognizes that the moral evil in 
the world is the result not of fate but of man's freewill ; 
(4) he prays God to free human souls from ignorance ; 
and (5) closes with an apostrophe in praise of God's law. 

^ [Note. — The editor is indebted to various writers for valuable 
suggestions embodied in his introduction and notes ; but a general 
acknoAvledgement must here suffice. — February, 1921.] 



10 THE HYMN OF CLEANTHES 



COMMENTAEY. 

1. 7Γολυώνυ/^€: most of the "di majores"are called 
τΓολνώννμοί by the poets (e.g., Dionysus, with his sixty 
titles : he was distinctly ττολνζώης καΐ ττολνμορφοζ, Plut. 
Moralia, 389^). Cf. Theocr. xv. 109 (Aphrodite), ττολυ- 
ώι/ν/Λ€ κοΧ πολύναζ. So Artemis is designated in Aristophanes 
by the titles Dictynna, Agrotera, Pandrosus, Phosphorus, 
Tauropolis : Rogers on JFas^s, 368, Ellis on Catull. xxxiv. 
21, sis quocunque tibi placet | sancta nomine. In Baby- 
lonian mythology the god of Babylon received the names, 
attributes, and powers of the older deities (Merodach or 
Marduk = Ea = Hadad = Sin : cf. Sayce, Gifford Lectures^ 
1902, p. 329); similarly Egyptian theology saw in the 
various gods mere forms of one divinity (for example, 
Nu = Temu = Ra. As Ra was the father of the gods, every 
god in the Egyptian pantheon represents some phase of 
him, and he represents every god : Budge, EgijiMan 
Religion^ chap. iii.). In the Fdg-Veda (i. 164, 46) one poet 
says : " That which is One the sages name in various ways 
— Agni, Yama, Matarisvan." The thoughtful Hindu of 
to-day looks through the maze of his mythology to the 
philosophical background of the One eternal self- existent 
Being in whose unity all visible symbols are gathered 
(Monier-Williams, Indian Wisdom^ chap. i.). For a note on 
πολυώνυμος sec Sykes and Allen on Homeric Hymn to 
Demeter, 18. The word appears to have possessed a special 
significance from the Stoic standpoint, as Diogenes 
Laertius indicates. The concept implied in 11. 1, 2 is 
criticized by St. Basil, Hexcem. Hom. i. On αρχηγός, cf. 
Clem. Alex., Strom, vii. 840. 

2. νόμου : cf Cic. de Nat. Dem\ i. 36, Zeno naturalem 
legem divinam esse putat eamque vim obtinere [ = hepya) 
recta imperantem prohibentemque contraria. Heraclitus 
was the first to identify the law of nature with the will of 



COMMENTARY 11 



God : frag. 91, τρέφονται πάντες ol ανθρώπινοι νόμοι νπο €Vo? 
του θζίον. This view was adopted by the Roman jurists 
(cf. Cic. de Legg. ii. 8, " law is no device of man ") ; and 
Wordsworth in his Ode to Duty has made the thought 
current coin — "stern daughter of the voice of God, 
Duty !" Cleanthes is several times referred to in Cic. de 
Nat. Deor. — e.g. ii. § 13, iii. § 16 (see J. B. Mayor's notes) : 
cf. also Minucius, 19, § 10. 

κυβερνών: cf. 1. 29. Parmenides, frag. 12, (in the 
midst of these circles is the) δαι/χίοι/ η πάντα κνβερνζι, viz. 
the dea genetrix (Aphrodite, ace. to Plut. Amator. 13; but 
cf. Burnet, Early Greek Pliilosophy^ 2nd ed., § 94). For 
κυβερνάν in metaph. sense, see n. in Lightfoot, Ignat.'-^ 
(Polye. ii.), 

4. €K σου yap yevos εσμεν: see ActS xvii. 28, 
where the words are given του γαρ καΐ yevos εοτμεν. St. 
Paul may have derived them directly from the Φαινο'/χ€ΐ/α of 
Aratus of Soli (in Cilicia), fior. 270 B.C. ; but probably they 
were almost proverbial in the Apostle's day. The human 
reason, according to Aratus, is a "fragment" of the 
divine; it is the doctrine of divine immanence. Man's 
moral sense is an " efflux of God," "a particle (άττόστασ/χα) 
of Zeus," and so far is one with the moral movement of the 
universe {cf G. H. Rendall, Marcus Aurelius Antoninus to 
Himself Introd., p. cxxix) : cf Eurip. frag. 1007, ό vovs yap 
ήμων €στ6ΐ/ εν εκάστω θεό?. There is a curious parallel to be 
found in the so-called ΑΟΓΙΑ IHCOY (from an early 
Greek papyrus discovered nearly twenty-five years ago) : 
[Jesus said] εγειρον Toi/ λίθον κάκεΐ ενρϊΐσεις με, σχίσον το 
ξύλον καγώ εκεΐ ειμί {if. Matt, xviii. 20, John xiv. 20, and 
other passages quoted in Lock and Sanday's ed., 1897). 
Compare William Watson, The Unhioion God : 

" The God I know of I shall ne'er 

Know, though he dwells exceeding nigh : 
Raise fJioii the stone and find me therCy 
Cleave tJiou the wood, ami there am I." 



12 THE HYMN OF CLEANTHES 



We may recall here the Orphic lines : 

Zei>s Ίτρωτοί -yivero, 
Zeys ΰστατο$ άρχικ^ραυροί, 
ZeiiS κ€φα\η, Ζβύί μέσσα 
Διό? δ' έκ ττάντα τέτυκται. 

The pantheistic sense of the word Zevs (v. 2) ought not 
to be overlooked. God, in the Stoic creed, was not 
personal (in the Christian sense), but an unknown living 
Power immanent in Nature — natura natimms, είμαρμίνη, 
vovs. 

€vos μ ί μη μα: see Driver on Gen. i. 3. Philo de- 
scribes the spirit (the essence of man's rational part) as a 
" figure and impress of divine power," and goes on to say 
μίμημα καΙ άττζ.υκόνισμα dvOpLoiros (i.e. φvσeωs XoytKrjs of 
which God is the άρχ^τυττον); cf. Musonius ajy. Stob. 
καθόλου 81 α.νθρω7Γ0<ζ μίμημα μ\ν Oeov μόνον των ίττιγείων 

ίστίν. Clem. Rom. speaks of man as an impress of the 
divine image (ad Cor. i. 33 ; cf. Heb. i. 3) ; so in Wisd. ii. 23 
we read, "God created man to be immortal and made 
him to be an image of His own eternity " (proper being, 
RV.). Plat. Tim. 37^ develops this thought. For the 
sense cf. Hom. //. xvii. 447, Odijss. xviii. 13L 

6. Cf. Ps. cxlv. 1. Aratus, Phcenom. 1, ck Δώ? αρχώμ€- 
σθα τον ουδετΓΟτ dvSpes €ωμ€ν \ άρρητον. 

7. Cleanthes seems here to be endeavouring to interpret 
the Cynic formula, "live agreeably to nature" {ομολογον- 
μ€νως τη φνσει ζην). But in his hands it gets an added 
meaning, for in nature {φνσι<;) — whether the nature of 
things or man's inward nature — the Stoic doctor finds a 
common reason {λόγο<;) and a common law {v6μos). See 
James Seth's Studi/ of Ethical Principles (chapter on 
" Eigorism ") ; Bevan, Stoics and Sceptics, lect. i. 

We may illustrate the religious attitude of Cleanthes 
still further by the lines reproduced by Epictetus 
{Enchirid. 53) : 



COMMENTARY 13 



&yov δ' μ', & 7j€v, και σύ y' η Πεπρωμένη 
δτΓΟί ΊΓοθ' ϋμιν βίμι ζίατετα^μένο^' 
ws 'έψομαί y &οκνο$ • τ)ν be μη θέλω 
KaKOs yev6μevot ούδΐν ήττον 'έ\ρομαι. 

Thus rendered by Seneca {Ejp. 107, § 10) : 

due, parens celsique dominator poli, 
quocumque placuit : nulla parendi mora est. 
Adsuni inipiger. fac nolle : comitabor gemens 
malusque patiar facere quod licuit bono, 
ducunt volentem fata, nolentem trahunt. 

The lines are by way of answer to the objection that 
irpovoLa cannot exist with the doctrine of freewill. 

9. α viK-rJ TO is: Hom. II viii. 30; Soph. O.C. 1515; 
Job xlii. 2. 

10. Kepavv6v\ from Homer onward the weapon of Zeus 
(κεραννοφόροζ, κ€ραννουχο^, tonans, tonitrualis). Heracl. 
frag. 20 with Bywater's reiF., ib. 28, τά 8e πάντα οίακίζα 
Kepavvos '. Ritter-Preller, 28. κεραυνός was a semi-oracular 
word for fire : " The peculiar kind of matter forming, as it 
were, the body of the Logos, Her. believes to be fire" 
(Adam, Religious Teachers of Greece, p. 223). According to 
Cleanthes the " Logos " was eternal, and so it was conceived 
by Heraclitus himself; "it" was without beginning or 
end, piloting [οίακίζα) all things through all, like a wary 
steersman. 

For 11. 9-13 cf. Heb. iv. 12 (Westcott). 

12. KOLvhv λόγον: Ritter-Preller (ed. 7, 1888), 
398 (c). In Plotinus the word λόγο? has several shades of 
meaning — Reason, Creative power (or activity), etc., Inge, 
Phil, of Plotinus, i. 156. In Philo we find the λόγο? separated 
from the supreme God, and it is frequently personified (as 
in N.T., John i. 14), becoming the immanent reality of the 
world (not unlike the Socratean conception of God as 7} Iv 
τω τταντι φρόνησι^, \Yordsworth's " Wisdom and Spirit of 
the Universe": Adam, loc. cit., p. 371). In Cleanthes' 
hymn, as generally in Stoicism, the world is permeated by 



U THE HYMN OF CLEANTHES 

Reason, which is ethical, not merely intellectual. The 
emphasis on kolvos should not be overlooked. The great 
masters of Stoicism were cosmopolitan in their outlook, as 
they were in origin. The κοινωνία of the Universe is a 
familiar thought with them ; all men share in the universal 
reason of God (the world-soul), subject to a ωιηιηοη law 
and a common citizenship. In the Meditations of M. 
Aurelius it is not without significance that the word kolvos 
(and its compounds) occurs more than eighty times : Dill, 
Roman Society, pp. 324 5^. ; G. H. Kendall, oj). cit,, Introd., 
p. cxxxvii. Observe how the author of 4 Maccabees 
would enlist the Stoic doctrine in the service of Jewish 
philosophy. 

13. Slo. πάντων φοιτά : Wordsworth's Tintern Abbey, 
(a Presence) "that rolls thro' all things." 

14. ΰ 7Γ α τ 9 : often in Homer as an epithet of Zeus. 

15. ty. John i. 3. For Βαΐμον cf. Bacchyl. iii. 37, ντΓ^ρβίζ 
Βαΐμον (of Zeus). 

16-18. Nature is here put under the immediate govern- 
ment of the deity. 

17-20. Evil is not directly due to God, but a necessary 
accompaniment of the process by which He created the 
world out of Himself. Cleanthes appears to argue somewhat 
as Browning would do : cf. Plat. Bep. ii. 379<=, ovB' άρα 6 
eeos κ.τ.λ. ; Eccles. vii. 13 foil, (and Tyler's Introd. to 
his ed. of Eccles., p. 73, ed. 2). The hymn is throughout 
inspired by the consciousness that it is one spiritual power 
which penetrates and controls the Universe, and is the 
source of every work done under the sun, "except what 
evil men do in their folly." Caird, Evol. of Eelig. in 
Greek Philosophers^ ii. 76 ; E. R. Be van, Stoics and Sceptics, 
p. 54. 

18. τΓ€ρισ•σά> <αρτ la, odd )( even {i.e. the recon- 
ciliation of opposites) ; cf. Plat. Gorg. 45 Ρ ; Ritter-Preller, 
53, 55. 



COMMENTARY 15 



19. Cf. Heracl. frag. 61, τφ fxlv θ€ψ καλά ττάντα καΙ ά-γαθα 
και δίκαια, άνθρωτνοι δε ά μίν άδικα ύττειλϊ^φασιν, ά δε δίκαια. 

21. The everlastingness of the Logos : cf. Heracl. frag. 2. 
Similarly M. Antoninus. Cf. Butler, Sermon xv. 

24. Cf. Heracl. frag. 101, quoted in n. on 1. 2. 

28. ov8€VL• κόσ μω =ατάκτω^, 7'ecMeSSly. 

29. ανεσ Lv = indulgence. Cf. Plat. Eep. 561*. 

30. The text is very uncertain here, and I am not sure 
that I have grasped the sense. Perhaps = "bringing about 
the opposite of what they wish." 

31. ττάν8ωρ€: epithet of Earth, Fate (Bacchyl. frag. 
20). Cf. the (hexameter) line in Jas. i. 17, ττασα δόσι? 
κ. τ. λ., with which we may quote the words in Plat. 
Euthyjp, 18, ov8lv yap ήμΐν kcmv dyadov 6 τί αν μη €Κζΐνοί 
(i.e. the gods) δώσιν. 

κζλαίνεφζζ•. Homeric epithet. Cf. Ps. xcvii. 2-4. 

32. ατΓ e ιροσ-ύνη? = οίγνοία<ί (the condition of the 
φαύλοι). 

33. σ κ e δ α σ V : in the Platonic philosophy ignorance 
is the source of evil. With this and the next line cf. 
Heracl. frag. 19, eV το σοφόν, (ττίστασθαι γνώμην ή 
κυβερνάται πάντα δια πάντων. Plutarch's Kx^epv^ats θεον. 

37, 38. Cf. the celebrated words with which Hooker 
concludes the first book of his Ecclesiastical Polity. The 
Stoics seem to have been the first to introduce into morals 
the concept of Law — " which is law for man because it is 
the law of the universe": Acton, Hist, of Freedom in 
Antiquity, pp. 24, 25. In many respects the Stoic teaching 
is the nearest approach to Christianity. AVarde Fowler, 
Socicd Life at Eome, p. 117; Gwatkin, Church Hist. i. pp. 
22, 23. Similarly among the Jews the law (Torah) was 
the revelation in time of what is timeless and eternal. 

The reader should carefully compare the lines in Soph. 
O.T. 863 sqq. (of the immutable order of law) : cf El. 1093 
s^., Ajao:, 1130 sqq., 1343 sqq. The whole argument of the 



16 THE HYMN OF CLEANTHES 

? 

Antigone turns on the conflict between divine law and 
human ordinance ; and, as we know, these rival principles 
often come into sharp conflict: August. Conff. iii. 8 (an 
important chapter); Thomas Aquinas, Summa c. Gentiles^ 
chaps, cxvi., cxxvii., who points out, however, that the 
terminus ad quern of all divine law is the love of God. Cf. 
the noble words of Dante {Paradiso) : 

Ε la sua voluntate e nostra pace. 



ADDED NOTE. 

The passage in Eusebius runs thus : 

Tayadbv έρωτας μ' οίον εστ' ; &kov€ δη. 
Ύβτα^μένον, δίκαιον, 'όσων, ΐύσββέ^, 
κρατούν έαντου, χρήσιμον, καλόν, δέον, 
αύστηρόν, αύθέκαστον, άεισύμφερον, 
άφοβον, άλντΓον, Χυσιτ€\έί, άνώδυνον, 
ώφέΧιμον, ενάρβστον, άσφα\έ$, φίλον, 
'έντίμον, όμόλο'/ούμζνον , . . . 
ey/cXe^s, ατυφον, eTriyueXe's, ττραον. σφοδρ 
χρονιξόμενον, άμεμιττον, ael διαμένον. 



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