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Full text of "The hymns of the breviary and missal"

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Prebiarp anb Jlisijsal 

Edited with Introduction and Notes by 

REV. MATTHEW BRITT, O.S.B. 

ST. martin's abbey, lacey, wash. 
Preface by 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. Hugh T. Henry, Litt. D. 




New York, Cincinnati, Chicago 

BENZIGER BROTHERS 

PRINTERS TO THE I PUBLISHERS OF 

HOLY APOSTOLIC SEE | BENZIGER's MAGAZINE 

1922 



OswALDUs Baran, O.S.B. 

Abbas S. Martini. 

Arthur J. Scanlan, S.T.D. 

Censor Librorum. 

imprimatur. 

>J* Patrick J. Hayes, D.D. 

Archbishop of New York. 
New York, July 18, 1922. 



ConTRiCHT, 1922. BY Bemzicbr Bsothms 
Printed in the United States of America. 



Contentis 

PAGE 

Preface by Rt. Rev. Msgr. Hugh T. Henry, Litt.D. 9 

Author's Preface 13 

Acknowledgments 15 

Bibliography 17 

Introduction 21 

Historical 21 

Meters 25 

Canonical Hours 31 

PART I 

The Hymns of the Psalter 33 

Prime 33 

Terce 35 

Sext 36 

None 37 

Compline 39 

Sunday at Matins 40 

Te Deum 44 

Sunday at Lauds 49 

Monday at Matins 54 

Monday at Lauds 55 

Tuesday at Matins 58 

Tuesday at Lauds 59 

Wednesday at Matins 61 

Wednesday at Lauds 63 

Thursday at Matins 64 

Thursday at Lauds 65 

Friday at Matins 66 

Friday at Lauds 68 

Saturday at Matins 70 

Saturday at Lauds 71 

6 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

The Vespers Hymns of the Psalter 73 

Sunday at Vespers 73 

Monday at Vespers 75 

Tuesday at Vespers 77 

Wednesday at Vespers 79 

Thursday at Vespers 80 

Friday at Vespers 82 

Saturday at Vespers 84 

Special Doxologies 85 

The Antiphons of the Blessed Virgin 86 

PART II 

Pkoper of the Season 91 

Advent — The Great Antiphons 91 

Christmastide 100 

The Holy Innocents 106 

The Holy Name of Jesus — Vespers 109 

Matins Ill 

Lauds 112 

The Epiphany 113 

Lent 117 

Passiontide 123 

The Seven Dolors of the Blessed Virgin . . . 132 

Eastertide — The Paschal Sequence 141 

Whitsuntide 159 

Trinity Sunday 170 

Corpus Christi 173 

Feast of the Sacred Heart 194 

Dies IrsB 202 

PART III 

Proper of the Saints 217 

The Immaculate Conception-r-Dec. 8th 217 

St. Peter's Chair at Rome— January 18th. ... 219 

Conversion of St. Paul — January 25th 221 

St. Martina— January 30th 222 

The Holy Family— 1st Sunday after Epiphany 226 
The Apparition of the Blessed Virgin at 

Lourdes — February 11th 232 

The Seven Holy Founders— February 12th. . . 237 

6 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

St. Joseph— March 19th 243 

St. Hermengild— April 13th 248 

St. Venantius— May 18th 250 

St. Juliana Falconieri — June 19th 254 

Nativity of St. John the Baptist— June 24th. . 256 

SS. Peter and Paul— June 29th 262 

The Most Precious Blood— July 1st 265 

SS. Cyril and Methodius— July 7th 271 

St. Elizabeth of Portugal— July 8th 276 

St. Mary Magdalene— July 22nd 278 

St. Peter's Chains— August 1st 282 

Transfiguration of Our Lord — August 6th. . . . 283 

The Seven Dolors of Our Lady— Sept. 15th. . . 286 

St. Michael the Archangel — September 29th . . . 291 

The Holy Guardian Angels — October 2nd 295 

The Most Holy Rosary— October 7th 298 

St. Teresa— October 15th 305 

St. John Cantius— October 20th 308 

All Saints — November 1st 312 

PART IV 

Common op the Saints 317 

Common of the Blessed Virgin Mary 317 

Common of Apostles and Evangelists (Out of 

Eastertide) 323 

Common of One Martyr (Out of Eastertide) . . . 326 

Common of Many Martyrs (In Eastertide) . . . 329 

Common of Many Martyrs (Out of Eastertide) 332 

Common of Confessors 334 

Common of Virgins 339 

Common of Holy Women 342 

Common of the Dedication of a Church 343 

De Contemptu Mundi (four parts) 350 

Authors of the Latin Hymns 355 

Tranlators of the Hymns 362 

Religious Affiliations of the Translators 372 

Glossary 373 

English Index 375 

Latin Index 380 

7 




preface 

'FTER years of patient but loving labor, the 
compiler of this volume has achieved a work of 
scholarly distinction, of elegant artistry, and 
withal of practical utility. 
It is a work of scholarly distinction. The 
field of Latin hymnology is vast in extent and rich in re- 
sources, and translators have roamed far and wide amid its 
fertile reaches for highly varied blooms and fruits. The 
compiler has therefore had many rich stores to draw upon, 
but he has wisely restricted himself to very definite limits 
of choice. The hymns of the Roman Missal and Breviary 
form a thesaurus by themselves. Many of them are world- 
famous classics. Some of them have won translation and 
commentary that fill volumes devoted to them singly. All 
of them deserve rendition into English verse and, indeed, 
have been more than once so rendered. Father Caswall and 
Archbishop Bagshawe, each for his own day, translated all 
of the Missal and Breviary hymns. Caswall did more, it is 
true, finding other treasures in the Parisian and various 
Monastic Breviaries. His competency for the task he es- 
sayed was manifold and excellent, and his Lyra Catholica 
will doubtless forever remain a Catholic classic. Bagshawe 
confined his attention to the Roman liturgical hynms, set- 
ting himself the somewhat ungrateful task of closely literal 
translation. In our own day. Judge Donahoe has published 
two series of Early Christian Hymns, including very many 
from the Roman liturgy, and has merited the high praise 
accorded him by critics. Catholic renderings into English 
of individual liturgical hymns are well-nigh innumerable. 
While Catholics have naturally been active in such appro- 
priate work, it may seem at first blush astonishing that 



PREFACE 

Protestants should have issued so many volumes of transla- 
tion, history, commentary and appreciation of our Latin 
hymnody, and should have exhausted the language of 
eulogy in appraisal of the masterpieces — the Dies Irce, the 
Stabat Mater, the Lauda Sion, the Golden Sequence, and 
the like. Charles Warren found suflQcient matter in the his- 
tory and the translations of the Dies Irce for a good-sized 
volume. Dr. Coles, an American physician, gave a volume 
to the Stabat Mater. Judge Noyes unostentatiously issued 
his Seven Great Hymns of the Mediceval Church, and the 
book ran through many editions. The name of Protestant 
editors and translators of our Latin hymns is legion. One 
of the most earnest and reverent students of Latin hymn- 
ody, and perhaps the most felicitous of all the translators, 
was an Anglican clergyman, the Rev. J. M. Neale, D.D. 
The distinction achieved by Father Britt in the present 
volume, however, does not lie in the fact that he has ven- 
tured, with catholicity of literary taste, to include render- 
ings by other than Catholic pens. Orby Shipley in his 
Annus Sanctus and the Marquess of Bute in his Roman 
Breviary had already drawn a sharp contrast — the former 
excluding, the latter including, non-Catholic renderings. 
But the present compiler has, more largely than any other, 
given representation to non-Catholic pens. He has mainly 
sought for translations that should best combine a just 
literalness with the just freedom in phrase and form ac- 
corded by literary canons in the art of translation. There 
is obvious danger, on the one hand, that the ray of doctrinal 
truth will suffer refraction when it passes from the medium 
of the Latin idiom into the medium of the English tongue. 
On the other hand, there is danger that excessive devotion 
to literalness in phrase rather than in thought w411 issue 
in idiomatic awkwardness, questionable rhyming, stilted or 
crabbed rhythm. 

While the work of Father Britt derives distinction from 
this largeness of view in selection, it also aims to secure 
elegant artistry in the translation of our wonderfully rich 
hymnody. The task is trying beyond ordinary apprehen- 
sion, for the editor must minutely weigh questions of ac- 
curacy in the rendering, must measure relative felicities of 

10 



PREFACE 

phrase, must compare stanza with stanza, must evaluate 
sensitively the appropriateness of an English metre to that 
of the Latin original. Meanwhile, he must remain always 
fearful lest some subtle essence or quintessence of the Latin 
poet's fine frenzy may have been lost, some hardly dis- 
cernible antithesis in thought or phrase overlooked (as 
Dr. Neale pointed out in several English translations of the 
Angelic Doctor's Pange Lingua), some curiosa felicitas of 
the Latin handled with unlaboriously heavy touch. The art 
of selection in the midst of many fairly satisfactory rendi- 
tions is indeed, to the conscientious anthologist, a most try- 
ing one. But the artistic labor does not end here. Merely 
to select at random will hardly suffice. But to choose the 
version always which seems best to satisfy the canons of 
art might result in the too frequent recurrence of the same 
names — those of Caswall, Neale, Newman, for instance — 
with an undesirable monotony. A large volume must have 
a large variety in authorship, when it is an anthology in 
the field of Latin hymnody. The difficulty confronted is not 
the superficial one, however, of a mere variety in names. 
In the domain of music, one may tire of the majesty of 
Bach, the stormy emotionalism of Beethoven, the "cloying 
sweetness ' ' of Mendelssohn. In literature, one may desire 
a change even from the morning freshness of Chaucer, the 
vivid heart-searchings of Shakespeare, the sententious 
rhythms of Pope. More is needed than a mere variety in 
metric forms — a device used by translators in order to 
avoid monotony. There should be variety in mental and 
spiritual experience and outlook, in poetic gifts, in rhymic 
and rhythmic facilities, in variant literary modes. To sum 
it up briefly, there should be variety in the unmeasurable 
thing called personality. For the style is the man — the 
complex, like himself, of his culture, his loves and hopes, 
his anxieties and fears. Accordingly, the compiler has 
availed himself of the labors of some sixty translators of 
the one hundred and seventy-three hymns included in his 
volume. The reader may therefore confidently look for 
that variety which is the spice of literature as of life. In- 
cidentally, he will receive a broad vision of the hymnologic 
work going on in the world around him. 

11 



PREFACE 

The utility of Father Britt's labor of love is practical 
in many ways. A good translation is really an interpreta- 
tion. It does not render merely the words or even the 
thoughts of the original writer into another tongue, but 
seeks as well to pierce into his mood, to reproduce it for 
the reader^ to catch and fix that first passion which 

beggars all behind, 
Heirs of a tamer transport prepossessed. 

And so it is that the learned Latinist may still learn at 
times something from the studious, gifted, visioned trans- 
lator, even as the learned Shakespearian etymologist may 
gain deeper insight from the action and emphasis of a Gar- 
rick or a Booth. In the lower levels of thought, a good in- 
terpretation may be gained from a good translation ; for not 
a few of the Latin hymns need intelligent commentary for 
their easy or complete elucidation — a commentary some- 
times supplied, in a large sense, by a poetic translator. On 
a still lower plane, some of the Latin hymns (such as the 
Sterne Rerum Conditor, the lit Queant Laxis) present 
grammatical tangles not readily solvable by the ordinary 
graduate of a course in Latin language and literature. But 
if the innumerable hosts of those who have had no training 
in Latin are to benefit by the wisdom, the piety, the fervor 
enshrined in the hymns of the Roman liturgy, the work of 
the translator becomes indispensable. 

It remains but to felicitate the compiler upon the com- 
pletion of his long and loving labor and to bespeak for his 
volume the attention of all students of Latin hymnology 
and all lovers of the venerable hymns of the Roman MissgJ 
and Breviary. 

H. T. Henby. 
The Catholic University of America, 
Washington, D. C. 



12 



autfjor'jf preface 

X^^^^HE purpose of this volume is to provide an in- 
^ x->ytroductory work on the hymns of the Roman 
M ^ jBreviary and Missal. In its pages will be 
^L J'f ound all the hymns in the Breviary since the 

^^1^^ Bull Divino Afflatu of Pope Pius X (1911), to- 
gether with the five sequences of the Missal, and a few 
other hymns. There is at present in English no work that 
even approximately covers this ground. Many thoughtful 
men have long felt that something should be done to make 
our liturgical hymns better known and better understood. 

The Dies IrcB, the Vexilla Regis, the Stabat Mater, the 
Lauda Sion, and the Pange Lingua are of incomparably 
greater value to the Christian than the greatest of pagan 
odes. However, the study of the ancient classics and of 
Christian hymns may and should go hand in hand. Each 
has its own purpose ; there is no quarrel between them. The 
one serves to cultivate a delicate and refined taste, the 
other enkindles in the soul the loftiest sentiments of relig- 
ion. The study of the former prepares one for a fuller 
and more generous enjoyment of the latter. 

The present volume is intended as a manual for begin- 
ners — for those who have had no access to the many excel- 
lent works on Latin hymns edited in other languages. The 
editor has no new theories of authorship to propound, no 
new historical facts to announce, and in general no new 
interpretation of disputed passages in the hymns. For 
historical data he freely acknowledges his indebtedness to 
many existing works, especially to the Dictionary of Hymn- 
ology so ably edited by the late Rev. Dr. John Julian, and 
the Rev. James Mearns, M.A. 

The translations referred to throughout the volume are 

13 



AUTHOR'S PREFACE 

metrical translations. There are no prose translations in 
English, if one excepts a considerable part of the hymns of 
the Proper of the Season, which are found in Abbot 
Gueranger's great work The Liturgical Year. The metrical 
versions given here represent the work of more than sixty 
translators, some of whom flourished as early as the seven- 
teenth century. In the selection of these translations many 
hymn-collections and many of the finest hymn-books have 
been laid under tribute. Catholic and Anglican scholars, 
especially since the days of the Oxford Movement, have 
vied with one another in rendering our Latin hymns into 
English verse. Both in the number of translators and in 
the quality of their work the honors are about equally di- 
vided. It is worthy of note that Catholic scholars have 
ordinarily translated the Roman Breviary Text, while 
Anglicans have generally rendered the Original Text as 
found in the Benedictine and Dominican Breviaries. Much 
time was spent in the selection of the translations that ac- 
company the Latin hymns. Despite the great wealth of 
translations the editor is inclined to believe that the num- 
ber of really good versions of any particular hymn is not 
great. A translation, to be worthy of the name, must com- 
bine good idiomatic English with a literal rendering of the 
original. The retention of the meter of the original is also 
very desirable. Some translators have excelled in one of 
these qualities, some in another; few have successfully 
combined all of them. In not a few instances it was found 
necessary to restrict the choice of translations to those 
made directly from the Roman Breviary Text. Often how- 
ever the two Texts while differing verbally do not differ 
greatly in sense. In such instances translations of the 
Original Text by J. M. Neale and others are freely given. 
It was a part of the instruction given the revisers of the 
hymns in 1632 that the meter and sense of each line should 
be preserved, and that expressions should not be funda- 
mentally altered. It need scarcely be said that this in- 
struction was not always followed. 

Whenever ascertainable the name of the translator of 
each hymn is given. Statements as to authorship do not as 
a rule include Doxologies, Latin or English. Considerable 

14 



AUTHOR'S PREFACE 

liberty was taken in the selection of English Doxologies. 
The number of English translations is given under each 
hymn. The number of translations credited to a hymn is 
based in great part on the versions mentioned in Julian's 
Dictionary of Hymnology and in Duffield's Latin Hymn- 
Writers. To these lists have been added several recent 
translations. All such lists are necessarily incomplete. 

The editor is not unconscious of the many shortcomings 
and imperfections of the present volume ; but if it will serve 
to enkindle in the hearts of beginners, especially of young 
men studying for the priesthood, a love for the hymns of 
Holy Church, it will have accomplished the chief purpose 
for which it was undertaken. Its preparation has been both 
a pastime and a labor of love. The result is cheerfully sub- 
mitted to the judgment and correction of the proper eccles- 
iastical authorities. The pointing out of any inaccuracies 
will be duly acknowledged and greatly appreciated by the 
editor. 

Acknowledgments 

The editor desires to express his warmest thanks to 
many kind friends for their generous assistance in the 
preparation of this work. A special word of acknowledg- 
ment is due to the Right Rev. Msgr. H. T. Henry, Litt.D., 
and to the late Right Rev. Peter Engel, O.S.B., for their 
kindly interest in the work from its inception. The editor's 
thanks are also due to many authors and publishers for per- 
mission to use the translations here assigned them : to Mr. 
Robert Bridges, the Poet Laureate, for permission to use 
hymn 12 from The Yattendon Hymnal; to the Benedictines 
of Stanbrook for hymns 99, 100, 121, 122, 138, 140 from 
their The Bay Hours of the Church; to Messrs. Burns, 
Gates and Washboume for hymns 98 and 146 from Arch- 
bishop Bagshawe's Breviary Hymns and Missal Sequences; 
to the representatives of the late Marquess of Bute for 
hymns 84, 95, 141 from his Roman Breviary in English; 
to the Rev. John Connolly for hymn 116 by the late Canon 
Hall ; to the Rev. Percy Dearmer for hymn 156 ; to Mr. Lau- 
rence Housman for hymn 164 ; to Judge D. J. Donahue for a 

15 



AUTHOR'S PREFACE 

new translation of hymn 159, and for hjnnns 86, 123, 142, 
143, from his Early Christian Hymns; to the Rev. Edward 
F. Garesche, S.J. for hymn 80; to the Rev. T. A. Lacey, 
M.A. for hymn 48 ; to the Right Rev. Msgr. H. T. Henry for 
hymns 41, 75, 96, 97, 131, 139, 144; to the Right Rev. Sir 
David Oswald Hunter-Blair, O.S.B. for a new translation 
of hymn 30, and for hymn 141 ; to Miss Julian for hymn 20 
written by her distinguished father; to the proprietors 
of Hymns Ancient and Modern {H.A. and M.) for hymns 
34B and 154; to Messrs. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & 
Co. for hymn 102 by the late Charles Kegan Paul; to 
Messrs. Longmans, Green & Co. for hymn 135, by the late 
Dr. T. I. Ball; to Mr. Alan G. McDougall for hymns 1, 
64, 77, 105, 129, 136, 138, 156 which now appear in print for 
the first time ; to Messrs. Macmillan and to the Society for 
Promoting Christian Knowledge (S.P.C.K.) for hymns 14, 
16, 18, 27, 36 by the late W. J. Courthope; to the Oxford 
University Press for hymn 4 by Messrs. Ellerton and Hort ; 
to the Rev. G. H. Palmer, B.A. for permission to use many 
copyright hymns from The Hymner — this includes all the 
hymns ascribed to Messrs. G. H. Palmer, M. J. Blacker, 
W. J. Copeland, J. W. Chadwick, and J. W. Doran ; to Mr. 
Athelstan Riley, M.A. for hymns 42 and 129 ; to The Rosary 
Magazine for hymn 139 ; to the Rev. G. R. Woodward, M.A. 
for a new translation of the Ave Maris Stella 149B, and for 
many courtesies ; to the proprietors of The English Hymnal 
for the translation ascribed above to Messrs. Athelstan 
Riley, T. A. Lacey, Percy Dearmer, and Laurence Hous- 
man. 

Among the many scholars and friends to whom the editor 
is indebted he would here make special mention of Mr. 
James Britten, K.S.G., the Rev. James Mearns, M.A., Mr. 
Alan G. McDougall and the Rev. Ildephonse Brandstetter, 
O.S.B. Many of those already mentioned have been very 
kind and helpful in looking up the owners of hymns still 
in copyright. This in itself has been no slight task as most 
of these are the property of English authors and publish- 
ers. The editor has spared no efforts to ascertain the own- 
ers of all copyright hymns ; but if through inadvertence any 
have been overlooked, indulgence is asked in so worthy a 

16 



AUTHOR'S PREFACE 

cause, and the editor promises that due acknowledgement 
will be made at the earliest opportunity. 

Bibliography 

Works containing translations of Latin hymns, without 
Latin texts and comment, will be found among the bi- 
ographies of translators at the end of this volume. 

1. John Julian: A Dictionary of Hynmology, 2nd Ed., 
London, 1907. A truly great work which sets forth the 
origin of Christian hymns of all ages and nations. Very 
valuable for Latin hymns. This work does not contain 
texts. 

2. S. W. Duffield : Latin Hymn-Writers and Their Hymns, 
New York, 1889. This work is a series of critical essays ; it 
contains a few Latin hymns and translations. It is not a 
reliable work. Funk and Wagnalls, New York. 

3. R. C. Trench: Sacred Latin Poetry, Chiefly Lyrical, 
London, 1864. Trench was the Protestant Archbishop of 
Dublin. This book is an old favorite. It contains 76 Latin 
hymns, six of which are from the Breviary and two from 
the Missal. The introduction (52 pages) is very instruc- 
tive. The book is the work of a scholar, albeit a bigoted one. 

4. F. A. March: Latin Hymns, New York, 1874. Con- 
tains Latin text of 160 hymns with brief but good notes ; 37 
of these hymns are in the Breviary or Missal. American 
Book Co., New York. 

5. Eucharistica by Right Rev. Msgr. H. T. Henry, Litt. 
D. Contains, among much other valuable matter, the Latin 
texts with translations of some forty hymns in honor of 
the Blessed Sacrament, the Sacred Heart, and the Holy 
Name. There are sixty pages of comment. The Dolphin 
Press, Philadelphia, 1912. 

6. The Catholic Encyclopedia: This great work is fre- 
quently referred to throughout this volume. It contains 
much valuable information on our Latin hymns. The ar- 
ticle on Hymnody and Hymnology was contributed by Rev. 
Clemens Blume, S.J., one of the editors of Analecta 
Hymnica. There are also some fifty articles on individual 
hymns, practically all of which were contributed by Msgr. 

17 



AUTHOR'S PREFACE 

H. T. Henry. Each article is followed by a valuable bibli- 
ography. 

7. American Ecclesiastical Review: During the last 
twenty-five years the American Ecclesiastical Review has 
contained many scholarly articles on our Latin hymns, and 
many translations. Most of the articles and translations 
are from the pen of Msgr. H. T. Henry. 

8. Latin Hymns edited with an introduction and notes 
by Rev. Matthew Germing, S.J., Loyola University Press, 
Chicago, 1920. This inexpensive booklet contains forty- 
five hymns judicially chosen and carefully edited for class- 
room purposes. 

9. Latin Hymns edited by W. A. Merrill. A small vol- 
ume of Latin hymns with brief but good notes. About 
forty of the hymns are from the Breviary and Missal. San- 
born, Boston, 1904. 

10. Hymns Ancient and Modern {H. A. S M.), Historical 
Edition, London, 1909. Contains 643 hymns, among which 
are 148 Latin hymns with English translations and notes. 
It contains a valuable Introduction (110 pages). The text 
of the Latin hymns "Hymni Latini" is also printed sepa- 
rately in vest pocket form. (Wm. Clowes & Sons, Ltd., 23 
Cockspur St., London, S.W.) 

11. L'abbe Pimont: Les Hymnes du Breviaire Romavn, 
Etudes critiques, litteraires et mystiques. 3 Vols., Paris, 
1874-1884. A valuable commentary; a good companion 
would be the work next listed below. 

12. Louis Gladu : Les Hymnes du Breviaire traduites en 
frangais avec le text latin en regard. Second Ed., Quebec, 
1913. 

13. Johan Kayser: Beitrdge sur Geschichte wid Erkld- 
rtmg der dltesten Kirchenhymnen. 2 Vols., Paderbom, 
1881-1886. An excellent commentary. 

14. Adelbert Schulte: Die Hymnen des Breviers nebst 
den Sequenzen des Missale; 2nd Ed., Paderborn, 1906. 
This work contains the Roman Breviary Text of the hymns, 
and the Original Text where it differs from the former. 
There is a very literal prose translation of each hymn to- 
gether with ample explanatory notes. It is one of the best 
works obtainable on our Latin hynms. 

18 



AUTHOR'S PREFACE 

15. F. J. Mone: Latemische Hymnen des Mittelalters, 3 
Vols., Freiburg, 1853-1855. Since its publication this has 
been one of the standard works on Latin hymns. 

16. H. A. Daniel: Thesaurus Eymnologicus, 5 Vols., 
Leipzig, 1841-1856. A valuable and extensive collection of 
hymns. The arrangement however is poor, and the abbre- 
viations and references in the notes are most obscure. The 
first volume contains in parallel columns about fifty Brev- 
iary hymns in both the Original Text and the Roman 
Breviary Text. 

17. Dreves and Blume: Analecta Hymnica Medii ^vi. 
Leipzig, 1886. This great work when completed will con- 
tain about sixty volumes. More than fifty are now in print. 
It is the most extensive work on Latin hymnody thus far 
undertaken. The work listed next below should be in the 
hands of every user of the Analecta Hymnica. 

18. James Mearns: Early Latin Hymnaries. An index 
of hymns in hymnaries before 1100. It gives references to 
the three following works where the texts of the hymns are 
printed; Analecta Hymnica {supra); Werner's Die 
dltesten Hymnensammlwigen von Rheinau, 1891; Steven- 
son's The Latin Hymns of the Anglo-Saxon Church, 1851; 
References are also given to Chevalier's Repertoriumi 
Hymnologicum, the great index to Latin hymns. 



19 



Sntrobuctton 

Historical 

X^^^^^HE use of hjTnns in the Western Church dates 
^^^^^from the fourth century, from the days of the 
■ ^ |two illustrious Doctors of the Church, SS. 
^L ^JHilary and Ambrose. The first in point of 
^^^g^^ time to write hymns was Hilary, the ever vigi- 
lant bishop of Poitiers (d. 368). St. Hilary, who had 
earned for himself the title of Malleus Ariamorum, ''the 
Hammer of the Arians," was sent into exile by the Arian 
Emperor Constantius. His place of exile was Phrygia, a 
country in western Asia Minor. During the six years of his 
enforced sojourn among the Greeks, he became familiar 
with Greek metrical hymns which were at that time coming 
into use among the Christians in the East. On his return 
to Poitiers in 361 he began the writing of Latin hymns in 
the West. His efforts were not crowned with great suc- 
cess. Most of his hymns have perished and many of those 
which bear his name are the compositions of later writers. 
In 1887, three fragments of hymns from St. Hilary's Liher 
Hymnorum were discovered; these are probably the only 
genuine hymns of St. Hilary that have survived. 

To St. Ambrose (340-397), the great Bishop of Milan, is 
to be ascribed the honor of being the real founder of 
hymnody in the West. St. Ambrose began the writing of 
hymns as a means of combating the pernicious doctrines of 
the Arians. His hymns were used to convey correct Catho- 
lic doctrine to the minds and hearts of his people. For 
this purpose he chose with remarkable judgment a simple 
strophe consisting of four iambic dimeters — four lines of 
eight syllables each. This, which is the simplest of all the 

21 



INTRODUCTION 

lyric meters, is most suitable for congregational singing 
and is easily memorized. The hymns of St. Ambrose be- 
came very popular, and from Milan they spread rapidly 
throughout the West. Many imitators arose who imitated 
the style and meter of St. Ambrose. All such hymns were 
given the general name Ambrosiani — Ambrosian hymns. So 
popular were the hymns of St. Ambrose and of the Am- 
brosian school of hymn-writers that with a few insignifi- 
cant exceptions hymns in this meter were almost exclusively 
used do^vn to the eleventh century, nor did other meters 
come into extensive use until as late as the sixteenth cen- 
tury. Even to this day hymns written by St. Ambrose or 
by his imitators greatly predominate in the Breviary. H. A. 
Daniel in his Thesaurus Hymnologicus (Vol. 1), gives 
ninety-two hymns which he ascribes to St. Ambrose or to 
his contemporaries or successors. Many of these Ambros- 
iani are certainly not the work of St. Ambrose. The Bene- 
dictine editors of the works of St. Ambrose attribute to him 
twelve hymns. Father Dreves, the eminent hymnologist, 
after a careful study of the hymnaries in the Vatican and 
at Milan in 1893, gives it as his opinion that fourteen of 
the hymns ascribed to St. Ambrose are ** genuine" and that 
four others are ** possibly his." 

During the four centuries that elapsed between the death 
of St. Ambrose (397) and that of Charlemagne (814), many 
Christian poets sang in noble strains. In meter and out- 
ward form they imitated the hymns of St. Ambrose. Con- 
spicuous among those whose hymns are used in the Divine 
OflSce are the Spanish poet Pru dentins (d. 413) whose 
Cathemerinon is frequently mentioned in this volume; 
Sedulius (5th cent.) who gave us the beautiful Christmas 
hymn A solis ortus cardine; Fortunatus (d. 609) "the last 
of the Latin poets of Gaul" and the author of the incom- 
parable Vexilla Regis and of the sublime passion hymn 
Pange lingua; St. Gregory the Great (d. 604) to whom tra- 
dition assigns a place among the hymn-writers; Paul the 
Deacon (d. 799), a Benedictine of Monte Cassino, the author 
of the first Sapphic hymn Ut queant laxis; and Rabanus 
Maurus (d. 856), the learned Archbishop of Mainz, the 
probable author of the Veni Creator Spiritus, 

22 



HISTORICAL 

The second period of hymn-writing embraces the period 
between the ninth and the sixteenth century. It was a 
period of the greatest activity. Many of the medieval 
hymn-writers were exceedingly prolific, and a mere men- 
tion of the names of those who distinguished themselves 
would be a lengthy task. The hymn-writers of the Mid- 
dle Ages allowed themselves greater liberty than the earlier 
Christian poets, and in general the rules of prosody were 
disregarded. It is noticeable also that the hymns of this 
period became more subjective than the somewhat austere 
hymns of St. Ambrose and his imitators. Popular sub- 
jects were — the Passion and Wounds of Christ, His Holy 
Name, the Joys of Paradise, the Terrors of the Judgment, 
hymns in honor of Our Lady and of the Saints. Among 
the great names of this period is that of St. Thomas Aquinas 
(d. 1274), the poet of the Blessed Sacrament; Bernard of 
Cluny (12th cent.), author of De Contemptu Mundi, a poem 
of 3,000 lines which is well known to English readers from 
Neale's translations — "The world is very evil," and 
** Jerusalem the golden," which are found at the end of 
this volume. To this period also belongs Adam of St. 
Victor, the author of many sequences of incomparable 
beauty, and the most prominent and prolific hymn-writer of 
the Middle Ages. To these great names must be added 
that of Jacopone da Todi (d. 1306), the author of the ten- 
derest of all poems, the Stahat Mater; and the still greater 
name of Thomas of Celano (d. circa 1255), the immortal 
author of the greatest of uninspired compositions, the 
Dies Irce. 

The third period of Latin hymn-writing extends to the 
present day. It is not a period marked by any great names 
nor has it been productive of any noteworthy new school 
of hymn-writers. As in all worldly things a period of 
growth and activity is followed by a period of decay. The 
art of Latin hymn-writing did not prove to be an exception 
to this rule. With the close of the Ages of Faith the sun 
of Latin hymnody set in all its splendor. Two causes con- 
spired to make Latin hymn-writing a lost art. During the 
ages when hymnody flourished men thought in Latin and 
spoke Latin ; for them Latin was a living language, and one 

23 



INTRODUCTION 

fully capable of giving expression to the most subtle and 
refined thoughts and feelings of the human soul. 

Fortunately also men gloried in their Faith and in the 
external manifestation of it in literature, in architecture, in 
painting, and in sculpture. Unfortunately these conditions 
obtain no longer. Latin has become a dead language even 
to scholars, and no one writes poetry in a language which 
he has not learned from his mother but from books. The 
second cause of the decay of hymnody was the Renaissance. 
To the Humanist no Latin poem was correct that did not 
measure up to the classical standards of the Augustan Age. 
Any deviation from this standard was a barbarism. * ' The 
Humanists,'^ says Father Clemens Blume, S.J., '' abomi- 
nated the rhythmical poetry of the Middle Ages from an 
exaggerated enthusiasm for ancient classical forms and 
meters. Hymnody then received its death blow as, on the 
revision of the Breviary under Pope Urban VIII, the 
medieval rhythmical hymns were forced into more classical 
forms by means of so-called corrections." {Cath. Encycl., 
Art. Hymnody). Pope Urban was himself a Humanist, 
the last in fact of the Humanist Popes. During his reign a 
commission was appointed to revise the Breviary, and a 
special commission of four distinguished Jesuit scholars. 
Fathers Sarbiewski, Strada, Galluzzi, and Petrucci was ap- 
pointed to correct the hymns of the Breviary. As a result 
of the labors of this commission, 952 corrections were made 
in the 98 hymns then in the Breviary. Eighty-one hymns 
were corrected: 58 alterations were made in the hymns of 
the Psalter, 359 in the Proper of the Season, 283 in the 
Proper of the Saints, and 252 in the Common of the Saints. 
The first lines of more than 30 hymns were altered. 

The Jam lucis orto sidere, the Ave Maris Stella, the 
hymns of St. Thomas Aquinas, and a few others were 
spared. Some hymns were practically rewritten, others 
were scarcely touched. In 1629, the Sacred Congregation 
of Rites approved of the alterations, and by the Bull 
Divinam Psolmodiam in 1632, Pope Urban VIII introduced 
them into the official edition of the Breviary. In connection 
with the revision of the hymns it should be borne in mind 
that the act of Urban VIII was a purely disciplinary act, 

24 



METERS 

one which the Church may recall at any time, and one which 
she probably will recall, for the work of the revisers is now 
generally regarded as a mistake. The hymns in their old 
form are still found in the Breviaries of the Benedictines, 
Dominicans, Cistercians, Carthusians, and probably a few 
others. And, strangely enough, they are still used in the 
two great Churches in Rome, St. Peter's and St. John 
Lateran. 

A word yet remains to be said as to when hymns were 
first made an integral part of the Divine Office. It seems 
fairly certam that St. Benedict, who wrote his Rule some 
ten or fifteen years before his death in 543, was the first to 
make hymns an integral part of the canonical hours. St. 
Benedict invariably styles these hymns Ambrosiani but 
does not name them. A century later hymns constituted a 
part of the Office of the secular clergy in Gaul and Spain. 
Rabanus Maurus (d. 856) testifies that hymns were in gen- 
eral use in his day. And last of all Rome admitted hymns 
into the Divine Office in the twelfth century. It must not be 
inferred, however, that no hymns were sung in the churches 
throughout the West until they were officially recognized 
as a part of the liturgical Office. From the days of St. 
Ambrose (d. 397) the singing of Latin hymns in the Church 
occupied the same position that is now accorded the sing- 
ing of hymns in the vernacular. This is true even of con- 
servative Rome long before the twelfth century. It might 
be recalled that Pope St. Gregory the Great (d. 604), him- 
self a hymn-writer of note, was for several years before 
his elevation to the Papacy a Benedictine abbot in the mon- 
astery of St. Andrew on the CaBlian Hill. While there he 
must have become familiar with the Ambrosiani of the 
Benedictine Office which he sang daily. Nor is it conceiv- 
able, from what we know of his life, that as Pope he should 
not have encouraged the singing of hymns in the churches 
of Rome. 

Metees 

A considerable variety of meters has been employed by 
the Christian poets in the composition of Latin hymns. 

25 



INTRODUCTION 

These meters or verse forms receive their name partly from 
the foot that chiefly predominates in them; as, Iambic, 
Trochaic, and partly from the number of meters or meas- 
ures they contain; as. Dimeter, Trimeter; or from the 
name of the author who originated or employed a certain 
kind of verse: as, Sapphic, Glyconic, Asclepiadic, etc. 

By far the greater part of the hymns is written in 
Iambic and Trochaic meters. In these meters Latin verses 
are measured not by single feet as in English, but by pairs 
or dipodies. In Latin it requires four Iambi or Trochees to 
make a Dimeter, while in English a verse with the same 
number of feet is called a Tetrameter. A Dimeter, there- 
fore, in these meters, contains four Iambi or Trochees; a 
Trimeter six; and a Tetrameter eight. 

The Romans learned their poetry, as they learned the 
other fine arts, from the Greeks. About two centuries be- 
fore Christ the influence of Greek poetry began to manifest 
itself in the writings of Ennius, "the Father of Roman 
poetry." The influence of Greek models increased from 
year to year till it culminated in the immortal works of 
Horace and Virgil in the Golden Age of Latin literature. 
Horace exemplifies all that is best in Latin poetry, and it 
was the poetry of Horace and his contemporaries that was 
the delight of the cultured Romans whose taste had been 
formed on Greek models. This poetry, it need scarcely be 
said, was strictly quantitative. 

But together with this classical poetry there co-existed, 
and that too from the beguming of Latin letters, a 
purely rhythmical poetry, a poetry of the people, in which 
the ballads and folk songs of the common people were 
written. The common people knew nothing of quantity 
with its artificial and arbitrary rules which the poets had 
made. Quantitative poetry was therefore the poetry of the 
educated; rhythmical or accentual poetry was the poetry 
of the common people. Now, the early hymns of the 
Church were likewise the songs of the people, and were 
necessarily written in a manner that would appeal to all 
the people and not merely to the cultured classes. This 
was effected by St. Ambrose and by the earlier writers 
of the Ambrosian school, by a compromise between the 

26 



METERS 

quantitative and the rhythmical principles. These writers 
made use of the simplest of all the lyric meters, the Iambic 
Dimeter, with its regular succession of short and long syl- 
lables ; but they took care that the accents should in general 
fall on the long syllables. Their quantitative hymns can 
therefore be read rhythmically. In the composition of his 
hymns, St. Ambrose did not make use of any greater licenses 
than did Horace and his contemporaries. -Later on, how- 
ever, it is noticeable that less and less attention was paid to 
quantity and greater attention to accent which began to re- 
place it. As early as the fifth century many hymn-writers 
employed the rhythmical principle only. This process con- 
tinued until in the Middle Ages all sense of long and short 
syllables had vanished, and hymns were written in accen- 
tual, non-quantitative meters. In studying the hymns 
chronologically, it will be observed also that the growth of 
rhyme kept pace with the growth of accent. 

The scales given below illustrate the common quantitative 
forms of the various meters employed in the composition of 
Latin hymns. In non-quantitative Latin hymns, and in 
English hymns, accent marks may be substituted for the 
marks indicating the long syllables. 

Scale "A** Iambic Dimeter 



Te lucis ante terminum, Before the ending of tlie day, 

Rerum Creator poscimus, Creator of the world, we pray 

Ut pro tua dementia That with Thy wonted favor Thou 

Sis praesul et custodia. Wouldst be our Guard and Keeper 

now. 

In this meter a spondee or an anapest may be used in the 
first and third foot. By far the greater part of the Breviary 
hymns are composed in this meter. In English this is the 
well-known Long Meter (L. M.) exemplified above. 

27 



INTRODUCTION 
Scale "B" Iambic Trimeter 



Decora lux seternitatis auream 
Diem beatis irrigavit ignibus, 
Apostolorum quae coronat principes, 
Reisque in astra liberam pandit viam. 

The beauteous light of God's eternal majesty 
Streams down in golden rays to grace this holy day 
Which crowned the princes of th' Apostles' glorious choir 
And unto guilty mortals showed the heavenward way. 

A spondee or an anapest may be used in the odd-num- 
bered feet of the Latin hymns. See hymns : 89, 91, 116, 117, 
124, 128. 

Scale "C" Trochaic Dimeter 



Dies iras, dies ilia, Day of wrath, that day whose 

Solvet saeclum in favilla: knelling 

Teste David cum Sibylla. Gives to flames this earthly 

dwelling; 
Psalm and Sibyl thus foretelling. 

The Dies Irce alone is written in this meter. Hymn 87. 
Scale **D'* Trochaic Dimeter Catalectic 



Veni Sancte Spiritus, Holy Spirit, Lord of light, 

Et emitte coelitus From the clear celestial height, 

Lucis tuae radium. Thy pure beaming radiance give. 

See hjnoin 67, which alone is written in this meter. The 

28 



METERS 

Stahat Mater is composed of six-line stanzas of trochaic 
dimeters, the third and sixth lines being catalectic. See 
hymns 54 and 57, with their translations. 

Scale **B" Trochaic Dimeter Brachycatalectic 



Ave maris Stella, Ave, Star of ocean, 

Dei Mater Alma, Child Divine who barest, 

Atque semper Virgo, Mother, Ever-Virgin, 

Felix coeli porta. Heaven's portal fairest. 

In this hymn (alone) each line consists of three trochees. 
"Brachycatalectic," i.e., wanting two syllables or the last 
foot of the final dipody. See hymn 149 and its two transla- 
tions. 

Scale **F" Trochaic Tetrameter Catalectic 



Pange, lingua, gloriosi lauream certaminis, 

Et super crucis trophaeo die triumphum nobilem, 

Qualiter Redemptor orbis immolatus vicerit. 

Sing, my tongue, the glorious battle, sing the ending of the fray; 
Now above the Cross, the trophy, sound the loud triumphant lay: 
Tell how Christ, the world's Redeemer, as a Victim won the day. 

The caesura uniformly follows the fourth foot — thus di- 
viding each verse into a trochaic dimeter acatalectic, and a 
trochaic dimeter catalectic; thus, 

Pange lingua gloriosi Sing, my tongue, the glorious 

Lauream certaminis, etc. battle, 

Sing the ending of the fray, etc. 

In the Breviary the lines are uniformly broken in two 
at the caesura, thus forming stanzas of six lines. See hymns 
52, 53, 76, 119, 132, 134B, 168 and their English translations. 

29 



INTRODUCTION 

Scale "Q'* The Asclepiadic Strophe 



Sanctorum meritis inclyta gaudia 
Pangamus socii gestaque fortia: 
Gliscens fert animus promere cantibus 
Victorum genus optimum. 

This strophe consists of three Asclepiadic lines and one 
Glyconic. The above is a classical specimen of a hymn writ- 
ten in this meter. See the translations of hymns 77, 136, 159. 

There is some difference of opinion as to how the classical 
Asclepiadic strophe should be read. This question is dis- 
cussed in the article on this hymn in the Cath. Encycl. How- 
ever, the majority of those who read these hymns in the 
Breviary, read them rhythmically as if written in dactyls. 
This is well exemplified in another article in the same work 
on the hymn Sacris solemniis — a hymn written in accentual, 
non-quantitative measures : 

Lo! the Angelic Bread feedeth the sons of men: 
Figures and types are fled never to come again. 
what a wondrous thing! lowly and poor are fed, 
Banqueting on their Lord and King. 

Hymns: 77, 92, 93, 94, 104, 118, 131, 136, 159. 
Scale "//" The Sapphic Strophe 



Ecce jam noctis tenuatur umbra. 
Lux et auroras rutilans coruscat: 
Supplices rerum Dominum canora 
Voce precemur. 

Lo! the dim shadows of the night are waning; 
Lightsome and blushing, dawn of day retumeth; 
Fervent in spirit, to the mighty Father 
Pray we devoutly. 

SO 



THE CANONICAL HOURS 

Each of the first three lines of the Sapphic strophe con- 
sists of a trochee, spondee, dactyl, and two trochees. The 
last syllable may be long or short. The fourth line is Adonic, 
and consists of a dactyl followed by a spondee. In the first 
three lines the place for the caesura is generally after the 
fifth syllable. See hymns: 7, 10, 96, 105, 106, 113, 114, 115, 
121, 135, 160, 164. Most of these hymns are translated in 
the meters, Sapphic and Adonic, of the originals. 

The Canonical Houes 

The canonical hours are: Matins, Lauds, Prime, Terce, 
Sext, None, Vespers and Compline. Matins is composed of 
parts called Nocturns or Vigils, two or three in number. 
Lauds was originally the concluding part of Matins. Even 
now Matins and Lauds are scarcely ever separated. The 
traditional view is that the Nocturns of Matins were recited 
at different times during the night. Outside of monastic 
communities, however, the observance of such nightly Vigils 
would scarcely be possible. 

There is in the Breviary a hymn assigned to each of the 
canonical hours. Many of these hymns contain allusions 
which are better understood in both the literal and sym- 
bolical sense, when it is known at what particular part of 
the day or night the hymn was formerly sung. The follow- 
ing table will be found sufficiently accurate for all practical 
purposes. 

Table** A" When the Canonical Hours Were Formerly Said 

Prime, at 6:00 A. M. First Nocturn of Matins at 9:00 
Terce, at 9:00 A. M. P. M. 

Sext, at 12:00 M. Second Nocturn of Matins at 12 :00 
None, at 3:00 P. M. P. M. 

Vespers, at 6:00 P. M. Third Nocturn of Matins at 3:00 
CompHne, at nightfall A. M. 

Lauds was said at daybreak 

In appointing these times for the recitation of the can- 
onical hours, the Church had in mind the greater divisions 
or hours of the Roman day. The Romans divided the day, 
from sunrise to sunset, into twelve equal parts called 
** hours." These were the common hours. **Are there not 

31 



INTRODUCTION 

twelve hours of the day?" (John 11, 9). They also (as did 
the Jews after the conquest) divided the day into four 
greater hours, and the night into four watches {custodies, 
vigilicE, nodes) each of which was of three common hours' 
duration. As the hours or watches of the Roman day and 
night were based on solar time, they varied in length with 
the season of the year. The season of the equinox is uni- 
formly taken as the standard. At that time the duration of 
day and night being equal, the hours and watches were 
also equal. The following Tables illustrate the greater di- 
visions of the Roman day and night, and a comparison 
with Table **A" will show how the Church adopted the 
ancient Roman subdivisions of the day and night as times 
of prayer. 

Table **B" The Greater Hours of the Roman Day 

The First Hour (Roman time) was from 6:00 A. M. to 9:00 A. M. (our time) 
The Third Hour (Roman time) was from 9:00 A. M. to 12:00 M. (our time) 
The Sixth Hour (Roman time) was from 12:00 M. to 3:00 P. M. (our time) 
The Ninth Hour (Roman time) was from 3:00 P. M. to 6:00 P. M. (our time) 
(6:00 A.M. Prime; 9:00 A.M. Terce; 12:00 M. Sext; 3:00 P.M. None; 6:00 P.M. 
Vespers.) 

Table **C*' Roman Divisions of the Night 

The First Watch, "evening," was from 6:00 P. M. to 9:00 P. M. (our time) 
The Second Watch, "midnight," was from 9:00 P. M. to 12:00 P. M, (our time) 
The Third Watch, "cock-crowing," was from 12:00 P. M. to 3:00 A. M. (our time) 
The Fourth Watch, "morning," was from 3:00 A. M. to 6:00 A. M. (our time) 

These hours and watches are frequently mentioned in 
the New Testament. In a single verse St. Mark refers to 
the four watches. "You know not when the lord of the 
house Cometh; at even, or at midnight, or at the cock-crow- 
ing, or in the morning" (xiii, 35). The Catholic Encyclo- 
pedia contains instructive articles on each of the canonical 
hours; there is also an article on Breviary, and one on 
Noctums. 



32 



®f)e llpmns! of tf)e pretiiarj» 
anb iHigsal 



Part I 

^t^ ^vmnn of tfie $s;altet: 

PRIME 

Jam lucis orto sidere 



JAM lucis orto sidere 
Deum precemur supplices, 
Ut in diurnis actibus 
Nos servet a nocentibus. 



^Linguam refraenans temperet, 
Ne litis horror insonet: 
Visum fovendo contegat, 
Ne vanitates hauriat. 



•Sint pura cordis intima, 
Absistat et vecordia: 
Camis terat superbiam 
Potus cibique parcitas. 

•Ut cum dies abscesserit, 
Noctemque sors reduxerit, 



NOW in the sun's new dawning 
ray, 
Lowly of heart, our God we pray 
That He from harm may keep us 

free 
In all the deeds this day shall see. 

May fear of Him our tongues 

restrain, 
Lest strife unguarded speech 

should stain: 
His favoring care our guardian be, 
Lest our eyes feed on vanity. 

May every heart be pure from sin, 
And folly find no place therein: 
Scant meed of food, excess denied, 
Wear down in us the body's pride. 

That when the light of day is gone, 
And night in course shall follow 
on. 



33 



THE PSALTER 

Mundi per abstinentiam We, free from cares the world 

Ipsi canamus gloriam. affords, 

May chant the praise that is our 
Lord's. 

'^ Deo Patri sit gloria, All laud to God the Father be, 

Ej usque soli Filio, All praise, Eternal Son, to Thee: 

Cum Spiritu Paraclito, All glory, as is ever meet. 

Nunc, et per omne sseculum. To God the holy Paraclete, 

Author : Ambrosian, 5th cent. Meter : Iambic dimeter. 
Translation by Alan G. McDougall. There are about 
thirty translations. Liturgical Use: Hymn for Prime 
daily throughout the year. Read the article on Prime in 
the Cath, Encycl. 

1. ''The star of light being now risen, let us humbly 
beseech God, that in our daily actions He may keep us from 
all harm." Lucis sic?M5=sol; Prime was said at sunrise. 

2. ''Bridling, may He restrain the tongue, lest the jar- 
ring discord of strife resound; may He lovingly veil our 
sight lest it drink in vanities." Fovendo: "The ablative of 
the gerund and gerundive is used to express manner, means, 
cause, etc. In this use, the ablative of the gerund is, in 
later writers nearly, and in medieval writers entirely, equiva- 
lent to a present participle" (Allen and Greenough's New 
Latin Grammar, 507). Linguam: Qui enim vult vitam 
diligere, et dies videre bonos, coerceat linguam suam a 
malo, et labia ejus ne loquantur dolum (I Peter 3, 10). For 
an exposition of the sins of the tongue, read the third chap- 
ter of St. James' Epistle. Visum: Averte oculos meos, 
ne videant vanitatem (Ps. 118, 37). 

3. "May the inmost recesses of the heart be pure, and 
may folly cease; may the sparing use of food and drink 
wear down the pride of the flesh. ' ' Parcitas : In multis enim 
escis erit infirmitas . . . Propter crapulam multi obier- 
unt; qui autem abstinens est, adjiciet vitam (Ecclus. 37, 
33-34). 

4. "That when the day has departed, and fate has 
brought back the night, still pure by virtue of abstinence, 
we may sing His glory." Sors, fate, divine ordinance, 
Ipsif dative, to Him. 

84 



TERCE 

5. "Glory be to God the Father, and to His only Son, 
together with the Holy Ghost, the Comforter, both now and 
forever. ' ' 



TERCE 

Nunc Sancte nobis Spiritus 



NUNC Sancte nobis Spiritus, 
Unum Patri cum Filio, 
Dignare promptus ingeri 
Nostro refusus pectori. 

^ Os, lingua, mens, sensus, vigor 
Confessionem personent, 
Flammescat igne caritas, 
Accendat ardor proximos. 



'Praesta, Pater piissime, 
Patrique compar Unice, 
Cum Spiritu Paraclito 
Regnans per omne saeculum. 



GOME, Holy Ghost, who ever 
One 
Art with the Father and the Son, 
It is the hour, our souls possess 
With Thy full flood of holiness. 

Let flesh and heart and lips and 
mind 

Sound forth our witness to man- 
kind; 

And love light up our mortal 
frame, 

Till others catch the living flame. 

Grant this, Father, ever One 
With Christ, Thy sole-begotten 

Son, 
And Holy Ghost, whom all adore, 
Reigning and blest forevermore. 



Author: Possibly by St. Ambrose (340-397). Meter: 
Iambic dimeter. Translation by Cardinal Newman, There 
are about twenty translations. Liturgical Use : Hymn for 
Terce daily throughout the year. In this hymn we ask the 
Holy Spirit to take possession of our hearts and inflame 
them with the fire of divine love. It is appropriate as a 
hymn for Terce, the Third Hour, for it was at that hour 
(9:00 A. M.) on Pentecost Day, that the Holy Ghost de- 
scended upon the Apostles (Acts 2, 15). Read the article 
on Terce in the Cath. Encycl. 

1. ** Deign now, Holy Spirit, who art One with the 
Father and the Son, to come to us without delay, and be 
diffused in our hearts." JJimm: The neuter is here used 
substantively and signifies unity or sameness of nature 

35 



THE PSALTER 

and substance. It is so used in the Vulgate : Pater, Verbum, 
et Spiritus Sanctus; et hi tres unum sunt. (I John 5, 7). 
Ego et Pater unum smnus (John 10, 30). Unum Patri=^ 
unum cum Patre; the dative here expresses aflBnity, rela- 
tionship, etc., as do such adjectives as affinis, similis, par, 
and impar. Dignare, imper. of dignor. Ingeri, to be in- 
fused. Refusus=dif£usviB, diffused; refusus is by enallage 
used for refimdi, as the Holy Spirit must first come to the 
soul before He can be diffused therein. This stanza might 
be paraphrased: — Sancte Spiritus, qui es unum (una 
substantia) cum Patre et Filio, dignare nunc promptus 
ingeri nobis, et refundi nostro pectori. 

2. "May mouth, tongue, mind, sense, and strength pro- 
claim Thy praise; may our charity in its fervor glow 
brightly, and may the flame thereof enkindle the hearts of 
our neighbors." 

3. *' Grant this, most loving Father, and Thou, only- 
begotten Son, equal to the Father, who reignest eternally 
with the Holy Ghost, the Comforter. ' ' 

SEXT 

3 Rector potens» verax Deus 

RECTOR potens, verax Deus, f\ GOD of truth, Lord of 
Qui temperas rerum vices, ^~^ might, 
Splendore mane illuminas, Who orderest time and change 

Et ignibus meridiem: aright. 

Who send'st the early morning 

ray, 
And light' St the glow of perfect 
day: 

' Exstingue flammas litium, Extinguish Thou each sinful fire, 

Aufer calorem noxium, And banish every ill desire; 

Confer salutem corporum, And while Thou keep'st the body 

Veramque pacem cordium. whole, 

Shed forth Thy peace upon the 
soul. 

' Praesta, Pater piissime. Almighty Father, hear our cry, 

Patrique compar Unice, Through Jesus Christ, Our Lord 



most High, 



36 



NONE 

Cum Spiritu Paraclito Who, with the Holy Ghost and 

Regnans per omne saeculura. Thee, 

Doth live and reign eternally. 

Author: Possibly by St. Ambrose (340-397). Meter: 
Iambic dimeter. Translation by J. M. Neale. There are 
about twenty translations. Liturgical, Use: Hymn for 
Sext daily throughout the year. Sext was said at noon. 
The great heat of the noonday sun is compared to the heat 
of the passions which we beseech God to extinguish. We 
implore Him also to grant us health of body and peace of 
soul. Read the separate articles on this hymn and on Sext, 
in the Cath. Encycl. 

1. ' ' mighty Ruler, truthful God, who dost regulate the 
changes of things, with splendor dost Thou light up the 
morning, and with burning heat the noonday, ' ' Verax Deus : 
Est autem Deus verax: omnis autem homo mendax, sicut 
scriptum est (Rom. 3, 4). Splendore: ''Splendor" is here 
the beauteous, beneficent light of the morning, in contra- 
distinction to the sweltering heat of midday. 

2. "Extinguish Thou the flames of strife, remove harm- 
ful heat, grant health of body and true peace of heart." 
Litium: Noli contendere verbis (II Tim. 2, 14). Color em 
noxium: evil desires. Pacem cordium: Pacem relinquo 
vobis, pacem meam do vobis; non quomodo mundus dat, 
ego do vobis. Non turbetur cor vestrum, neque formidet 
(John 14, 27). 



NONE 
♦ Rerum Deus tenax vigor 

RERUM Deus tenax vigor, r\ STRENGTH, and stay up- 

Immotns in te permanens, ^^ holding all creation, 
Lucis diurnae tempora Who ever dost Thyself unmoved 

Successibus determinans: abide, 

Yet day by day the light in due 

gradation 
From hour to hour through all its 
changes guide: 

87 



THE PSALTER 

*Largire lumen vespere, Grant to life's day a calm un« 

Quo vita nusquam decidat, clouded ending, 

Sed praemium mortis sacrse An eve imtouched by shadows of 

Perennis instet gloria. decay, 

The brightness of a holy death- 
bed blending 
With dawning glories of th* eternal 
day. 

'Praesta, Pater piissime, Hear us, Father, gracious and 

Patrique compar Unice, forgiving, 

Cum Spiritu Paraclito And thou, Christ, the co-eternal 

Regnans per omne saeculum. Word, 

Who, with the Holy Ghost, by all 

things living 
Now and to endless ages art 
adored. 

Author: Possibly by St. Ambrose (340-397). Meter: 
Iambic dimeter. Translation by J. EUerton and F. J. A. 
Hort. There are about twenty translations. Liturgical. 
Use : Hymn for None daily throughout the year. None, or 
the Ninth Hour (3:00 P. M.), corresponds to the hour of 
Our Lord's death. In this hymn we acknowledge the omni- 
potence and providence of God; and we ask that eternal 
glory be the reward of a holy death. Read the separate ar- 
ticles on None and on this Hymn, in the Cath. Encycl. The 
meter, iambic pentameter, in the above beautiful transla- 
tion is unusual in the translation of Latin hymns. 

1. **0 God, the sustaining power of created things, who 
in Thyself dost remain unmoved, and dost determine our 
times by successive changes of the light of day : ' ' Immotus, 
unchanged. Tempora: The regular divisions of time as 
marked off by the progress of the sun in the heavens. Suc- 
cessus, progress, advance, a succession of time. 

2. ''Bestow Thou upon us Thy light in the evening (of 
life), that life may never fail us, but that eternal glory 
may await us as the reward of a holy death." Largire, 
imper. of largior. Lumen, the light of glory. 



88 



COMPLINE 



Te lucis ante terminum 



TE lucis ante terminum, 
Rerura Creator poscimus, 
Ut pro tua dementia 
Sis prsesul et custodia. 



'Procul recedant somnia, 
Et noctium phantasmata; 
Hostemque nostrum comprime, 
Ne poUuantur corpora. 



'Praesta, Pater piissime, 
Patrique compar Unice, 
Cum Spiritu Paraclito 
Regnans per omne saeculum. 



OEFORE the ending of the day, 
•*-' Creator of the world, we pray 
That with Thy wonted favor Thou 
Wouldst be our Guard and Keeper 
now. 

From all ill dreams defend our 

eyes, 
From nightly fears and fantasies; 
Tread under foot our ghostly foe, 
That no pollution we may know. 

Father, that we ask be done, 
Through Jesus Christ, Thine only 

Son; 
Who, with the Holy Ghost and 

Thee, 
Doth live and reign eternally. 



Author: Ambrosian, 7th cent. Meter: Iambic dimeter. 
Translation by J. M. Neale. There are thirty-five transla- 
tions, five of which are in Mr. Shipley's Annus Sanctus. 
Liturgical Use : Hymn for Compline daily throughout the 
year. As the Jam lucis orto sidere, which was said at sun- 
rise, is an important part of Prime, the Morning Prayer of 
the Church, so the Te lucis ante terminum, which was said 
at nightfall, is an appropriate and equally beautiful part of 
Compline, the Evening Prayer of the Church. Read the 
separate articles on Compline and on the Te lucis ante 
terminum in the Cath. Encycl. 

1. * * Before the end of daylight, Creator of the world, 
we beseech Thee, that in accordance with Thy mercy. Thou 
wouldst be our Protector and our Guard." Terminum lucis: 
Compline was said after sunset, but before complete dark- 
ness enveloped the earth. 

2. **Far off let dreams and phantoms of the night de- 
part ; restrain Thou our adversary lest our bodies become 
defiled." Somnia, foul dreams; phantasmata {phantasma, 

39 



THE PSALTER 

atis), delusions. Both words convey with them the addi- 
tional idea of uncleanness. In Mr. C. Kent's translation, 
they are rendered by *'evil dreams" and ''fancies with 
voluptuous guile." Hostem, the devil, the great adversary 
of man. In the beginning of Compline we are cautioned to 
be vigilant, for our ' ' adversary, the devil, goeth about like 
a roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour" (I Peter 5, 8). 



SUNDAY AT MATINS 



Primo die, quo Trinitas 



PRIMO die, quo Trinitas 
Beata raundum condidit, 
Vel quo resurgens Conditor 
Nos morte victa liberal: 



HAIL day! whereon the One 
in Three 
First formed the earth by sure 

decree, 
The day its Maker rose again, 
And vanquished death, and burst 
our chain. 



^Pulsis procul torporibus, 
Surgamus omnes ocyus, 
Et nocte quaeramus Deum, 
Propheta sicut praecipit: 

^Nostras preces ut audiat, 
Suamque dextram porrigat, 
Et expiatos sordibus 
Reddat polorum sedibus: 



Away with sleep and slothful ease ! 
We raise our hearts and bend our 

knees. 
And early seek the Lord of all, 
Obedient to the Prophet's call. 



That 



He may 
prayer, 



hearken to our 



Stretch forth His strong right arm 

to spare, 
And ev'ry past offense forgiven, 
Restore us to our home in heaven. 



*Ut, quique sacratissimo 
Hujus diei tempore 
Horis quietis psallimus, 
Donis beatis muneret. 

''Jam nunc, paterna claritas, 
Te postulamus affatim : 
Absint faces libidinis, 
Et omnis actus noxius. 



Assembled here this holy day, 
This holiest hour we raise the lay; 
And that He to whom we sing, 
May now reward our offering! 

O Father of unclouded light! 
Keep us this day as in Thy sight, 
In word and deed that we may be 
From ev'ry touch of evil free. 



40 



SUNDAY AT MATINS 

' Ne f oeda sit, vel lubrica That this our body's mortal frame 

Compago nostri corporis. May know no sin, and fear no 

Ob cujus ignes ignibus shame, 

Avernus urat acrius. Nor fire hereafter be the end 

Of passions which our bosoms 
rend. 

^Mundi Redemptor, quaesumus. Redeemer of the world, we pray 
Tu probra nostra diluas: That Thou wouldst wash our sins 

Nobisque largus commoda away, 

Vitae perennis conferas. And give us, of Thy boundless 

grace, 
The blessings of the heavenly 
place. 

'Prsesta, Pater piissime. Most Holy Father, hear our cry, 

Patrique compar Unice, Through Jesus Christ our Lord 

Cum Spiritu Paraclito most High 

Regnans per omne saeculum. Who, with the Holy Ghost and 

Thee 
Shall live and reign eternally. 

Author: St. Gregory the Great (540-604). Meter: Iambic 
dimeter. Translation by J. M. Neale and others, from The 
New Office Hymn Book. There are about twenty transla- 
tions. Liturgical Use : Hymn for Matins from the Octave 
of the Epiphany until the first Sunday of Lent, and from the 
Sunday nearest to the Calends of October until Advent. 
First line of Original Text: Primo dierum omnium. 

1. *'0n the first day, on which the Blessed Trinity 
created the world, and on which the Creator rising, after 
vanquishing death, liberated us, ' ' Primo die — Sunday, ihe 
day on which God began the creation of the world. For the 
Work of each of the Six Days, see the Vespers Hymns of the 
Psalter, Nos. 23-28. Conditor: the Creator, God the Son, 
who rose from the dead on Sunday. In this stanza the cre- 
ation of the world is ascribed to the Trinity, and then to the 
Son, or Word alone, of whom it was said : All things were 
made by Him, and without Him was made nothing that was 
made (John 1, 3). The divine nature, the attributes, and the 
external works of the three Persons of the Holy Trinity are 
common to all of Them. However, the Redemption of the 
world is the personal work of the Son, in the sense that He 

41 



THE PSALTER 

alone became incarnate and suffered and died for us. 

2. "Banishing sloth afar, let us all rise quickly, and by 
night seek God as the Prophet commands," Ocyus, comp. of 
ociter. Propheta: The Prophet referred to is David, the 
Eoyal Psalmist. Media nocte surgebam ad confitendum tibi 
(Ps. 118, 62). In noctibus extollite manus vestras in sancta, 
et benedicite Dominum (Ps. 133, 2). 

3. ''That He may hear our prayers, and stretch forth 
to us His right hand, and restore us, purified from sin, to 
the abodes of heaven;" Dextram: The right hand is a sym- 
bol of power, strength; the stretching forth of the right 
hand signifies the exercise of power. 

4. * ' That He may reward with blessed gifts all of us who 
sing His praises in the most hallowed time of this day, in 
the hours of rest. ' ' Constr. : Ut quique sacratissimo hujus 
diei tempore .... psallimus, (eos) donis beatis muneret. 
Quique: This use of quisque for quicunque or quisquis, who- 
soever, every one who, all that, is common in the Breviary 
and in ante- and post-classical Latin generally. 

5. **We now also earnestly entreat Thee, Splendor 
of the Father, that the flames of lust, and every evil deed be 
far removed from us." Paterna claritas, Christ, whom St. 
Paul styles. Splendor Patris (cf. Heb. 1, 3; see also the 
opening line of Hymn 12). Actus noxius, sin. 

6. ''Lest the structure of our body become foul or de- 
filed, and on account of its evil desires, hell with its flames 
should burn the more fiercely. ' ' Ignes, the fires of the pas- 
sions, the desires of the flesh. 

7. "We beseech Thee, Redeemer of the world, that 
Thou wash away our sins, and generously bestow upon us 
the reward of eternal life." 

SUNDAY AT MATINS 
7 Nocte surgentes 

IVrOCTE surgentes vigilemus IVfOW, from the slumbers of the 

■*• ^ omnes, -L ' night arising, 

Semper in psalmis meditemur, Chant we the holy psalmody of 
atque David, 

42 



SUNDAY AT MATINS 

Voce concordi Domino canamus Hymns to our Master, with a voice 
Dulciter hymnos. concordant, 

Sweetly intoning. 

*Ut pio Regi pariter canentes. So may our Monarch pitifully 

Cum suis Sanctis mereamur hear us, 

aulam That we may merit with His 

Ingredi coeli, simul et perennem Saints to enter 

Ducere vitam. Mansions eternal, therewithal 

possessing 

Joy beatific. 

'Praestet hoc nobis Deltas beata This be our portion, God forever 
Patris, ac Nati, pariterque sancti blessed, 

Spiritus, cujus resonat per om- Father eternal. Son, and Holy 
nam Spirit, 

Gloria mimdiun. Whose is the glory, which through 

all creation 
Ever resoundeth. 

Author: Pope St. Gregory the Great (540-604). Meter: 
Sapphic and Adonic. Translation, a cento from The 
Eymner, in the meter of the original. The translation has 
been altered to adapt it to the Roman Breviary Text. There 
are about twenty translations. Liturgical Use: Matins 
hymn from the third Sunday after Pentecost till the Sun- 
day nearest the Calends of October. This is the companion 
hymn of Ecce jam 7ioctis, No. 10. 

1. ''Bising by night, let us all keep watch and ever de- 
vote our minds to psalmody, and with harmonious voices let 
us sing sweet hymns to the Lord." P salmis: The Psalms 
constitute the principal part of the Divine Office. They are 
so arranged in the Psalter that the 150 Psalms are said 
each week. 

2. * * That singing to the loving King, together with His 
Saints, we may merit to enter the royal court of heaven, and 
with them enjoy eternal life." 

3. ''May the Blessed Deity of the Father, Son, and like- 
wise of the Holy Spirit, whose glory resounds throughout 
the whole world, grant us this." 



43 



THE PSALTER 
8 Te Deum 

TE Deum laudamus: * te Dom- \¥7E praise Thee, God: we 
inum confitemur. ^ acknowledge Thee to be 

the Lord. 

'Te aeternum Patrem * omnis Thee, the Eternal Father, all the 
terra veneratur. earth doth worship. 

^Tibi omnes Angeli, * tibi coeli, To Thee all the Angels, to Thee 
et universae potestates: the Heavens, and all the 

Powers therein: 

*Tibi Cherubim et Seraphim, * To Thee the Cherubim and Sera- 
incessabili voce procla- phim with unceasing voice 

mant: cry aloud: 

'Sanctus, * Sanctus, * Sanctus, * Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of 
Dominus Deus Sabaoth. Sabaoth. 

'Pleni sunt coeli et terra * ma- The heavens and the earth are 
jestatis gloriae tuae. full of the majesty of Thy 

glory. 

^Te gloriosus * Apostolorum Thee, the glorious choir of the 
chorus. Apostles, 

*Te Prophetarum * laudabilis Thee, the admirable company of 
numerus, the Prophets, 

•Te Martyrum candidatus * Thee, the white-robed army of 
laudat exercitus. Martyrs doth praise. 

^* Te per orbem terrarum * sancta Thee, the Holy Church through- 
confitetur Ecclesia, out the world doth confess, 

" Patrem * immensae ma jestatis. The Father of infinite majesty, 

"Venerandum tuum verum * et Thine adorable, true, and only 
unicum Filium, Son, 

"Sanctum quoque * Paraclitum Also the Holy Ghost, the Com* 
Spiritmn. forter. 

" Tu Rex gloriae * Christe. Thou, Christ, art the King of 

glory. 

44 



TE DEUM 



^^ Tu Patris * sempiternus es Filius. Thou art the Everlasting Son of 

the Father. 

"Tu ad liberandum suscepturus Thou, when about to take upon 



hominem: * non horruisti 
Virginis uterum. 



" Tu devicto mortis aculeo : * ape- 
ruisti credentibus regna 
ccelorum. 



*'Tu ad dexteram Dei sedes, 
gloria Patris. 



m 



"Judex crederis * esse venturus. 



Thee human nature to re- 
deem the world, didst not 
disdain the Virgin's womb. 

When Thou hadst overcome the 
sting of death, Thou didst 
open to believers the king- 
dom of heaven. 

Thou sittest at the right hand of 
God, in the glory of the 
Father. 

Thou, we believe, art the Judge 
to come. 



^"Te ergo quaesumus, tuis famulis We beseech Thee, therefore, help 

Thy servants whom Thou 
hast redeemed with Thy 
Precious Blood. 

Make them to be numbered with 
Thy Saints, in glory ever- 
lasting. 

Save Thy people, Lord, and 
bless Thine inheritance. 



subveni: * quos pretioso 
sanguine redemisti. 

^^ Sterna f ac cum Sanctis tuis * in 
gloria numerari. 

"Salvum fac populum tuum 
Domine, * et benedic haere- 
ditati tuae. 

^'Et rege eos, * et extolle illos 
usque in seternum. 

^*Per singulos dies * benedicimus 
te. 

"Et laudamus nomen tuum in 
saeculum * et in saeculum 
saeculi. 

^'Dignare Domine die isto * sine 
peccato nos custodire. 

"Miserere nostri Domine: * mi- 
serere nostri. 



And rule them, and exalt them 
forever. 

Day by day, we bless Thee. 



And we praise Thy Name forever; 
yea, forever and ever. 



Vouchsafe, Lord, this day, to 
keep us without sin. 



Have mercy on us, Lord; have 
mercy on us. 



45 



THE PSALTER 

^'Fiat misericordia tua Domine Let Thy mercy, Lord, be upon 
super nos, * quemadmodum us ; even as we have hoped 

speravimus in te. in Thee. 

^® In te Domine speravi: * non con- In Thee, Lord, have I hoped: 
fundar in seternum. let me not be confounded 

forever. 

Author: Probably by St. Nicetas (335-415). Liturgical 
Use: In general, the Te Deum is said in the Office at the end 
of Matins whenever the Gloria in excelsis is said at Mass. 
This rule is sufficiently accurate for those who use the 
Eoman Breviary. In addition to its liturgical use, the Te 
Deum is used in many extra-liturgical functions as a hymn 
of thankskiving on occasions of great solemnity, such as the 
election of a pope, the consecration of a bishop, the benedic- 
tion of an abbot, canonization of a saint, religious profes- 
sions, etc. 

The Te Deum is written in rhythmical prose. There are 
about twenty-five metrical translations and several prose 
versions in English. The vigorous and justly popular trans- 
lation by Father Walworth is given below. 

The Cath. Encycl, contains a scholarly article on the Te 
Deum. Read also the articles on St. Nicetas, Sanctus, Sab- 
aoth, and many others which the text readily suggests. 

Analysis 
The Te Deum consists of three distinct parts : 

Part I (verses 1-13) contains a hymn of praise to the 
blessed Trinity; the praise of Earth and of the Angelic 
choirs; the praise of the Church Triumphant and of the 
Church Militant. 

Part II (verses 14-21) is a hymn in praise of Christ, the 
Redeemer. It proclaims the glory of Christ, the Eternal 
Son of the Father — His incarnation, victory over death, 
exaltation, future coming, and terminates with a prayer of 
supplication for those redeemed by the Precious Blood, that 
they may be numbered among the Saints. 

Part III (verses 22-29) is composed principally of verses 
from the Psalms. It contains a prayer of petition for the 

46 



TE DEUM 

divine assistance and guidance; a declaration of our 
fidelity; a prayer for deliverance from sin during the day 
(about to begin) ; it closes with a prayer for mercy for 
those who have hoped in the Lord. 

In the following Notes, the numbers refer to the verses 
of the Te Deum: 

5. Sanctus: The **Tersanctus" is found in both the Old 
Testament (Is. 6, 3) and in the New (Apoc. 4, 8). Supply 
es, art Thou. 

7. Apostolorum: Note the climax: the small number of 
Apostles, the greater number of Prophets, the white-robed 
army of Martyrs, the Church throughout the world. 

9. Marty rum: Only Martyrs were venerated in the early 
Church. The first non-Martyrs venerated in the West were 
Pope St. Sylvester (d. 335) and St. Martin of Tours (d. 
397). Candidatus, white-robed. The Blessed in general are 
represented as clothed with white robes (cf. Apoc. 7, 9-14). 

14. Rex gloria: David in prophecy referring to the ascen- 
sion of the Messias styles Him ''the King of Glory" (Pa. 
23, 7-10). The whole Psalm is very beautiful. 

16. Hominem = naturam humanam. This verse does not 
lend itself readily to translation. The difficulty is with the 
proper rendering of suscepturus hominem: (some texts 
have suscepisti, but this is immaterial). Since the Primer 
of 1546, translations like the following have found their 
way into most of our books of devotion: — "Thou, having 
taken upon Thee to deliver man"; ''When Thou tookest 
upon Thee to deliver man." It is needless to say that such 
renderings mean something quite different from the fol- 
lowing : **Thou, when about to take upon Thee man (i.e, 
human nature) to liberate the human race, didst not abhor 
the Virgin's womb." After liberandum some supply 
mundum, others hominem, men, the human race. Horruisti, 
variously rendered — fear, abhor, disdain, shrink from, etc. 

17. Mortis aculeo: (cf. I Cor. 15, 55-56). 

18. Dexter am Dei: a figurative expression signifying the 
place of highest honor, power, and glory in heaven (Ps. 109, 
1 ; Mark 16, 19). Sedes: sittest, i.e., abidest, remainest. This 
implies no particular posture of body. 

19. Crederis, passive. Thou art believed. 

47 



THE PSALTER 

20. Redemisti: (cf. I Peter 1, 18-19) Verses 22-23 are 
taken verbatim from Psalm 27, 9. 

22. Hcereditati tuce: Thine own ; those whom Thou hast re- 
deemed. 

24. Per singulos dies: every day; from Psalm 144, 2. 

27. Miserere: verbatim from Psalm 122, 3. 

28. Fiat: verbatim from Psalm 32, 22. 

29. In te: verbatim from Psalm 30, 2. 

The following translation preserves much of the spirit 
and force of the original. The seventh stanza is a render- 
ing of verses 20-21 by Monsignor Henry. The remaining 
stanzas are by Father Walworth, whose translation does 
not contain a rendering of verses 20-21. The numbers pre- 
ceding a stanza refer to the verses of the Te Deum rendered 
in that stanza. 

1-2 
Holy God, we praise Thy Name, 
Lord of all, we bow before Thee; 
All on earth Thy scepter claim. 
All in heaven above adore Thee; 
Infinite Thy vast domain. 
Everlasting is Thy reign. 

3-6 
Hark, the loud celestial hymn 
Angel choirs above are raising; 
Cherubim and Seraphim 
In unceasing chorus praising. 
Fill the heavens with sweet accord; 
Holy, Holy, Holy Lord! 

7-10 
Lo, the Apostolic train 
Join, Thy sacred Name to hallow: 
Prophets swell the loud refrain. 
And the white-robed Martyrs follow; 
And, from morn till set of sim. 
Through the Church the song goes on. 

11-13 
Holy Father, Holy Son, 
Holy Spirit, Three we name Thee, 
While in Essence only One, 

48 



SUNDAY AT LAUDS 

Undivided God wc claim Thee: 
And, adoring, bend the knee 
While we own the mystery. 

14-17 

Thou art King of glory, Christ; 
Son of God, yet born of Mary; 
For us sinners sacrificed, 
And to death a tributary: 
First to break the bars of death. 
Thou hast opened heaven to faith. 

18-19 
From Thy high celestial home, 
Judge of all, again returning, 
We believe that Thou shalt come 
In the dreadful Doomsday morning; 
When Thy voice shall shake the earth. 
And the startled dead come forth. 

20-21 

Therefore do we pray Thee, Lord: 
Help Thy servants whom, redeeming 
By Thy Precious Blood outpoured. 
Thou hast saved from Satan's scheming. 
Give to them eternal rest 
In the glory of the Blest. 

22, 26, 29 
Spare Thy people. Lord, we pray, 
By a thousand snares surrounded: 
Keep us without sin to-day. 
Never let us be confounded. 
Lo, I put my trust in Thee; 
Never, Lord, abandon rae. 

SUNDAY AT LAUDS 
? Sterne rerum conditor 

AETERNE rerum Conditor, lyTAKER of all, eternal King, 

Noctem diemque qui regis, -■-'-■■ Who day and night about 
Et temporum das tempora, dost bring: 

Ut alleves fastidium. Who weary mortals to relieve, 

Dost in their times the seasons 



give: 



49 



THE PSALTER 



^Nocturna lux viantibus 
A nocte noctem segregans, 
Prseco diei jam sonat, 
Jubarque solis evocat. 



^Hoc excitatus lucifer 
Solvit polum caligine: 
Hoc omnis erronum cohors 
Viam nocendi deserit. 



*Hoc nauta vires colligit, 
Pontique mitescunt freta: 
Hoc, ipsa petra Ecclesiae, 
Canente, culpam diluit. 



"Surgamus ergo strenue: 
Gallus jacentes excitat, 
Et somnolentos increpat, 
Gallus negantes arguit. 



•Gallo canente spes redit, 
^gris salus refunditur, 
Mucro latronis conditur, 
Lapsis fides revertitur. 

'Jesu labantes respice, 
Et nos videndo corrige: 
Si respicis, labes cadunt, 
Fletuque culpa solvitur. 



Now the shrill cock proclaims the 

day, 
And calls the sun's awak'ning 

ray — 
The wand'ring pilgrim's guiding 

light, 
That marks the watches night by 

night. 

Roused at the note, the morning 

star 
Heaven's dusky veil uplifts afar: 
Night's vagrant bands no longer 

roam, 
But from their dark ways hie them 

home. 

The encouraged sailor's fears are 

o'er, 
The foaming billows rage no 

more: 
Lo! e'en the very Church's Rock 
Melts at the crowing of the cock. 

O let us then like men arise; 
The cock rebukes our slumbering 

eyes. 
Bestirs who still in sleep would 

lie. 
And shames who would their Lord 

deny. 

New hope his clarion-note awakes, 
Sickness the feeble frame forsakes, 
The robber sheathes his lawless 

sword. 
Faith to the fallen is restored. 

Look on us, Jesu, when we fall, 
And with Thy look our souls 

recall : 
If Thou but look, our sins are 

gone, 
And with due tears our pardon 

won. 



60 



SUNDAY AT LAUDS 

'Tu lux refulge sensibus, Shed through our hearts Thy 

Mentisque somnum discute: piercing ray, 

Te nostra vox primum sonet, Our souls' dull slumber drive 

Et vota solvamus tibi. away: 

Thy Name be first on every 

tongue, 
To Thee our earliest praises sung. 

" Deo Patri sit gloria, All laud to God the Father be, 

Ejusque soli Filio, All praise, Eternal Son, to Tliee, 

Cum Spiritu Paraclito, All glory, as is ever meet. 

Nunc, et per omne saeculum. To God the holy Paraclete. 



Author : St. Ambrose (340-397) . Meter ; Iambic dimeter. 
Translation by W. J. Copeland as altered in The Hymner. 
There are eighteen translations. Liturgical Use : Hymn for 
Lauds on Sunday from the Octave of the Epiphany until the 
first Sunday of Lent, and from the Sunday nearest the 
Calends of October until Advent. The jEterne rerum Con- 
ditor, though written on so simple a subject as cock-crow- 
ing, is one of the most beautiful hymns in the Breviary. It 
would be a mistake, however, to infer from the simplicity 
of the theme, that it presents either few or slight difficulties 
to the translator. The eminent hymnologist, L'abbe Pimont, 
in his Les Hymnes du Breviaire Romam, deemed it neces- 
sary to give a prose translation of but this one hymn. It is 
one of the five Breviary hymns that Trench includes in his 
Sacred Latin Poetry, 

1. ''Eternal Maker of the world, who rulest both the 
night and day, and givest a variety of seasons to relieve 
monotony!" Temporum, times, seasons; tempora, changes, 
variety. Fastidium, lit., a loathing, aversion; here, 
monotony, wearisomeness, humdrum. 

2. '*A nocturnal light to wayfarers, separating watch 
from watch, the herald of the day sends forth his cry and 
calls forth the rays of the sun." Lux: variously rendered 
— light, star, moon, light of a lamp, etc. The meaning seems 
to be that the crowing of the cock serves for the nocturnal 
traveler as a lamp, a kindly guide to the habitations of men. 
A node noctem: nox is here used in the sense of watch — a 
fourth part of the night. The cock by his crowing, at mid- 
51 



THE PSALTER 

night and at dawn, separates the watches of the night. This 
use of nox for vigilia is not uncommon. 

In stanzas 3 and 4, the pronoun hoc occurs four times. In 
each instance it may be considered as an ablative absolute — 
supplying canente from the last line of the fourth stanza; or 
it may be translated as an ablative of instrument — By him 
(the cock). 

3. '* While he sings, the awakened morning star disen- 
thralls the heavens of darkness; all the bands of night- 
prowlers abandon their deeds of violence. ' ' Lucifer, lit., the 
light-bringer, the morning star. Erronum, from erro, onis, 
a vagabond, vagrant. Viam, way, path, life, deeds. 

4. ** While he sings, the sailor gathers new strength, the 
raging of the sea subsides : while he sings, the very Rock 
of the Church washes away his sin." Petra Ecclesice, St. 
Peter. Et ego dico tibi quia tu es Petrus, et super hanc 
petram ssdificabo ecclesiam meam (Matt. 16, 18). Culpam 
diluit: Prius quam gallus cantet, ter me negabis. Et 
egressus foras, flevit amare (Matt. 26, 75). 

5. ' * Let us, therefore, rise with alacrity ; the cock awakens 
the sleepers, chides the drowsy, and rebukes the unwilling. ' ' 
Note the climax, — jacentes, somnolentos, negantes, — the 
sleepers, the drowsy, the unwilling; also in the verbs, — 
excitat, increpat, arguit, — awakens, chides, rebukes. ** Cock- 
crowing," says Trench, ''had for the early Christians a mys- 
tical significance. It said, ' The night is far spent, and the 
day is at hand.' And thus the cock became, in the Middle 
Ages, the standing emblem of the preachers of God's word. 
The old heathen notion that the lion could not bear the sight 
of the cock, easily adapted itself to this new symbolism. 
Satan, the roaring lion (I Peter 5, 8) fled away terrified, at 
the faithful preaching of God's word. Nor did it pass un- 
noticed, that this bird, clapping its wings upon its sides, 
first rouses itself, before it seeks to rouse others" {Sacred 
Latin Poetry, p. 244). There is a similar passage in the 
Regula Pastoralis Curce, III, 40, of St. Gregory the Great. 

6. ''At the crowing of the cock, hope returns ; health is re- 
stored to the sick ; the sword of the robber is sheathed ; con- 
fidence returns to the fallen." JEgris salus: "Man's tem- 
perature is lowest and his pulse rate feeblest in the early 

52 



SUNDAY AT LAUDS 

morning hours usually between three and five. During the 
night the pulse rate probably drops at least ten beats .... 
and the temperature drops nearly two degrees from its 
daily climax." — James J. Walsh, M.D., Ph.D., in America, 
Oct. 7, 1916, p. 613. 

7. ''0 Jesus, look with compassion upon the wavering, 
and correct us with Thy look (as Thou didst correct Peter) : 
if Thou dost but look, our sins vanish, and our guilt is 
washed away by our tears." Labantes, from lahare, to 
waver, to be unstable. 

8. **0 Light, shine Thou into our hearts, dispel the leth- 
argy of the soul; may our voice first praise Thee, and to 
Thee may we pay our vows." Vota solvere, to keep one's 
promises ; to fulfill one 's vows. 



SUNDAY AT LAUDS 



10 



Ecce jam noctis 



ECCE jam noctis tenuatur 
umbra, 
Lux et aurorae rutilans coruscat: 
Supplices rerum Dominum canora 
Voce precemur: 



^ Ut reos culpae miseratus, omnem 
Pellat angorem, tribuat salutem, 
Donet et nobis bona sempiternae 



Munera pacis. 



LO, the dim shadows of the 
night are waning; 
Lightsome and blushing, dawn of 

day returneth; 
Fervent in spirit, to the world's 
Creator 
Pray we devoutly: 

That He may pity sinners in their 

sighing, 
Banish all troubles, kindly health 

bestowing; 
And may He grant us, of His 

countless blessings, 

Peace that is endless. 



'Praestet hoc nobis Deitas beata 

Patris, ac Nati, pariterque sancti 

Spiritus, cujus resonat per omnem 

Gloria mundum. 



This be our portion, God forever 

blessed, 
Father eternal, Son, and Holy 

Spirit, 
Whose is the glory, which through 

all creation 
Ever resoundeth. 



63 



THE PSALTER 

Author: Pope St. Gregory the Great (540-604). Meteb: 
Sapphic and Adonic. Translation based on a translation 
of the Original Text, by M. J. Blacker, but here rewritten 
in part to adapt it to the Roman Breviary Text. There are 
fifteen translations. Liturgical Use : Hymn for Lauds from 
the third Sunday after Pentecost until the Sunday nearest 
the Calends of October. This is the companion hymn of 
Node Surgentes, No. 7. 

1. "Behold, now the shadows of the night are fading 
away, and the ruddy light of dawn breaks forth ; suppliantly 
let us with harmonious voices invoke the Lord of creation," 
Rutilans, ruddy, rosy-fingered. 

2. ''That He may have pity on those guilty of sin, that 
He may banish trouble, bestow health, and confer upon us 
the good gifts of everlasting peace." 

3. The doxology as in hymn 7. 



11 



SUNDAY AT MATINS 
Somno refectis artubus 



SOMNO refectis artubus, 
Spreto cubili surgimus; 
Nobis, Pater, canentibus 
Adesse te deposcimus. 



'Te lingua primum concinat, 
Te mentis ardor ambiat: 
Ut actuum sequentiura 
Tu, sancte, sis exordium. 



'Cedant tenebrae lumini, 
Et nox diurno sideri, 
Ut culpa, quam nox intulit, 
Lucis labascat munere. 

*Precamur iidem supplices, 
Noxas ut omnes amputes, 



OUR limbs refreshed with 
slumber now. 
And sloth cast ofi", in prayer we 

bow; 
And while we sing Thy praises 

dear, 
Father, be Thou present here. 

To Thee our earliest morning 

song, 
To Thee our hearts' full powers 

belong; 
And Thou, O Holy One, prevent 
Each following action and intent. 

As shades at morning flee away, 
And night before the star of day; 
So each transgression of the night 
Be purged by Thee, celestial Light ! 

Cut off, we pray Thee, each 

offense. 
And every lust of thought and 

sense; 



64 



MONDAY AT LAUDS 

Et ore te canentium That by their lips who Thee adore 

Lauderis omni tempore. Thou mayst be praised forever- 

more. 

'Praesta, Pater piissime, Grant this, Father ever One 

Patrique compar Unice, With Christ, Thy sole-begotten Son, 

Cum Spiritu Paraclito And Holy Ghost, whom all adore, 

Regnans per omne saeculum. Reigning and blest forevermore. 

Author : St. Ambrose (340-397). Metee : Iambic dimeter. 
Translation by J. M. Neale. There are seventeen transla- 
tions. 

1. ''Our limbs having been refreshed with sleep, spum- 
ing our bed, we rise ; Father, we beseech Thee, that Thou 
be near us, who sing Thy praises. ' ' Spreto cubili, abl. ab- 
solute. 

2. ''Let our tongue first praise Thee, may the ardor of 
our soul seek after Thee, that Thou, Holy One, mayest be 
the source of the actions that follow — throughout the day. ' ' 
Exordium, beginning, source, etc. A good morning of- 
fering will make God the beginning or source of all our 
daily actions. 

3. "Let darkness give way to light, and night to the day- 
star, that sin, which darkness brought in, may depart with 
the gift (advent) of light." Light is a symbol of Christ; 
night and darkness are symbols of sin and of the powers of 
darkness. Christ is the True Light (John 1, 9) at whose 
rising or advent, spiritual darkness wanes. 

4. "We also suppliantly pray that Thou remove all hurt- 
ful things, and that Thou, out of the mouths of those prais- 
ing Thee, mayest be forever praised." lidem: "Idem, the 
same, is often used where the English requires an adverb 
or adverbial phrase (also, too, yet, at the same time)." — 
Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar, 298, b. In 
reading iidem, elide one i and read idem. 

MONDAY AT LAUDS 

12 Splendor paterncB gloricB 

SPLENDOR paternae gloria, /~\ SPLENDOR of God's glory 
De luce lucem proferens, ^^ bright, 

Thou that bringest light from 
light, 
55 



THE PSALTER 



Lux lucis, et fons luminis, 
Diem dies iiluminans: 



*Verusque sol illabere, 
Micans nitore perpeti: 
Jubarque sancti Spiritus 
Infunde nostris sensibus. 

'Votis vocemus et Patrem, 
Patrem potentis gratise, 
Patrera perennis glorise: 
Culpam releget lubricam. 



*Confirmet actus strenuos: 
Dentes retundat invidi: 
Casus secundet asperos: 
Agenda recte dirigat. 



'Mentem gubernet et regat: 
Sit pura nobis castitas: 
Fides calore ferveat, 
Fraudis venena nesciat. 



'Christusque nobis sit cibus, 
Potusque noster sit fides: 
Laeti bibamus sobriam 
Profusionem Spiritus. 



'Laetus dies hie transeat: 
Pudor sit ut diluculum: 
Fides velut meridies: 
Crepusculum mens nesciat. 



'Aurora lucem provehit, 
Cum luce nobis prodeat 
In Patre totus Filius, 
Et totus in Verbo Pater, 



Light of Light, light's Living 

Spring, 
Day, all days illumining. 

Thou true Sim, on us Thy glance 
Let fall in royal radiance, 
The Spirit's sanctifying beam 
Upon our earthly senses stream. 

The Father too our prayers 

implore, 
Father of glory evermore, 
The Father of all grace and might, 
To banish sin from our delight: 

To guide whate'er we nobly do. 
With love all envy to subdue. 
To make ill -fortune turn to fair. 
And give us grace our wrongs to 
bear. 

Our mind be in His keeping 

placed. 
Our body true to Him and chaste, 
Where only faith her fire shall 

feed. 
And burn the tares of Satan's 

seed. 

And Christ to us for food shall be. 
From Him our drink that welleth 

free. 
The Spirit's wine, that maketh 

whole, 
And mocking not, exalts the soul. 

Rejoicing may this day go hence, 
Like virgin dawn our innocence, 
Like fiery noon our faith appear. 
Nor know the gloom of twilight 
drear. 

Morn in her rosy car is borne; 
Let Him come forth our Perfect 

Morn, 
The Word in God the Father One, 
The Father perfect in the Son. 



66 



MONDAY AT I.AUDS 

'Deo Patri sit gloria, All laud to God the Father be; 

Ejusque soli Filio, All praise, Eternal Son, to Thee; 

Cum Spiritu Paraclito, All glory, as is ever meet. 

Nunc et per omne saeculum. To God the Holy Paraclete. 



Author: St. Ambrose (340-397). Meter: Iambic dimeter. 
Translation from The Yattendon Bymnal — a spirited 
translation. There are about thirty translations. The 
Splendor paternce gloria has been rightly styled, ''A beau- 
tiful morning hymn to the Holy Trinity, but especially to 
Christ as the Light of the World, and a prayer for help and 
guidance throughout the day. It is a companion and sequel 
to the Sterne rerum Conditor" (Julian's Diet, of 
Hymnology). 

1. **0 Splendor of the Father's glory, bringing forth 
light from light, Light of Light, and Source of light, Day 
illuminating day ! ' ' Splendor glorice : St. Paul styles Christ : 
Splendor glorise et figura substantias ejus (Patris) (Heb. 
1, 3). Christ is the brightness, or effulgence, of the Father's 
glory, and the figure, or image, of His substance. The 
similitude by which the Word is styled the ''Splendor of 
the Father's glory" is based on the sun of our solar system 
and the rays emanating unceasingly therefrom. The sun 
represents the Father ; the rays, the Son. The figure must 
not be understood as implying any inequality. Lux: Of 
Himself, Christ says: Ego sum lux mundi (John 8, 12) ; He 
is the "True Light" (John 1, 9) ; "the Orient from on 
High" (Luke 1, 78), who illuminates by His grace and by 
the light of faith "every man that cometh into this world" 
(John 1,1-9). 

2. " Thou, true Sun, descend, shining with everlasting 
brightness, and infuse into our hearts the radiance of the 
Holy Spirit." Illabere, imper. of illabor. 

3. "In our prayers, let us also implore the Father, the 
Father of eternal glory, the Father of mighty grace, that 
He may remove every dangerous inclination to sin." By 
culpa is here meant, the inclination to sin, rather than sin 
itself. 

4. ' ' May He give us strength for manly deeds, blunt the 
teeth of the envious one, bring adverse events to a favor- 

57 



THE PSALTER 

able issue, and give us the grace to act wisely." Denies, 
teeth: fig., envy, ill-will, rage; invidi, the envious one, the 
devil. Invidia autem diaboli mors introivit in orbem ter- 
rarum (Wisd. 2, 24). 

5. *'May He rule and direct our mind that our chastity 
remain unsullied ; may our faith glow with fervor, and may 
it know not the poison of error." Nobis, dat. of possession. 

6. *'May Christ be our food, and faith our drink; joy- 
fully let us drink of the sober affluence of the Spirit." 
Cibus: In the literal sense, Christ is our food in the Holy 
Eucharist. Read the words of promise (John 6, 48-59). 
Profusionem: the outpouring, *' sober affluence," "tem- 
perate excess." The Original Text has ebrietatem, inebria- 
tion. The poet had in mind the outpouring of the Holy Ghost 
upon the Apostles (Acts 2, esp. 12-17). 

7. * * Joyfully may this day pass by ; may our modesty be 
as the dawn, our faith as the noonday sun, and may our 
souls know no twilight. ' ' 

8. ''The aurora leads on the light; with the light may 
there appear to us the whole Son in the Father, and the 
whole Father in the Word. " 



TUESDAY AT MATINS 
13 Consors paterni luminis 

CONSORS paterni luminis, r\ LIGHT of Light, Day- 

Lux ipse lucis, et dies, ^-^ spring bright, 

Noctem canendo rumpimus: Co-equal in Thy Father's light: 

Assiste postulantibus. Assist us, as with prayer and 

psalm 
Thy servants break the twilight 
calm. 

*Aufer tenebras mentium, All darkness from our minds 

Fuga catervas daemonum, dispel, 

Expelle somnolentiam, And turn to flight the hosts of 

Ne pigritantes obruat. hell: 

Bid sleepfulness our eyelids fly, 
Lest overwhelmed in sloth we lie. 

68 



TUESDAY AT LAUDS 



'Sic Christe nobis omnibus 
Indulgeas credentibus, 
Ut prosit exorantibus, 
Quod praecinentes psallimus. 

*Praesta, Pater piissime, 
Patrique compar Unice, 
Cum Spiritu Paraclito 
Regnans per omne sseculum. 



Jesu, Thy pardon, kind and free, 
Bestow on us who trust in Thee: 
And as Thy praises we declare, 
O with acceptance hear our prayer. 

D Father, that we ask be done, 
Through Jesus Christ, Thine only 

Son; 
Who, with the Holy Ghost and 

Thee, 
Doth live and reign eternally. 



Author: St. Ambrose (340-397). Meter: Iambic dimeter. 
Translation by J. W. Chadwick and J. D. Chambers. There 
are twelve translations. 

1. ''0 Sharer of the Father's Light, Thyself the Light of 
Light, and Day ; aid Thou Thy suppliants who interrupt the 
night with song." See the note on the first stanza of the 
preceding hymn. 

2. ''Dispel the darkness of our minds, put to flight the 
hosts of evil spirits, drive away drowsiness lest it over- 
whelm the slothful. ' ' 

3. ' ' So, Christ, grant pardon to all of us who believe in 
Thee, that what we singing express in our songs, may be 
profitable to Thy suppliants." Prcdcinere 3, to sing or play 
before, to praise. 



14 



TUESDAY AT LAUDS 
Ales diet nuntius 



\ LES diei nuntius 
•^*- Lucem propinquam prae- 

cinit: 
Nos excitator mentium 
Jam Christus ad vitam vocat. 

^Auferte, clamat, lectulos, 
^gro sopore desides: 
Castique, recti, ac sobrii 
Vigilate, jam sum proximus. 



AS the bird, whose clarion gay 
Sounds before the dawn is 
grey, 
Christ, who brings the spirit's day, 
Calls us, close at hand: 

"Wake!" He cries, "and for my 

sake. 
From your eyes dull slumbers 

shake ! 
Sober, righteous, chaste, awake! 
At the door I stand!" 



69 



THE PSALTER 

'Jesum ciamus vocibus, Lord, to Thee we lift on high 

Flentes, precantes, sobrii: Fervent prayer and bitter cry: 

Intenta supplicatio Hearts aroused to pray and sigh 
Dormire cor mundum vetat. May not slumber more: 

*Tu, Christe, somnum discute: Break the sleep of Death and Time, 

Tu rumpe noctis vincula: Forged by Adam's ancient crime; 

Tu solve peccatum vetus. And the light of Eden's prime 
Novumque lumen ingere. To the world restore! 

'Deo Patri sit gloria. Unto God the Father, Son, 

Ejusque soli Filio, Holy Spirit, Three in One, 

Cum Spiritu Paraclito One in Three, be glory done, 
Nunc et per omne sseculum. Now and evermore. 

Author: Prudentius (348-413). Meter: Iambic dimeter. 
Translation by W. J. Courthope. There are twelve trans- 
lations. This hymn is a cento from the Hymn at Cock-Crow, 
the first of the twelve hymns of the Cathemerinon of 
Prudentius. There are twenty-five four-line stanzas in the 
Hymn at Cock-Crow. The Ales diei nuntius is composed of 
stanzas 1, 2, 21, and 25 of the complete hymn. This hymn 
affords a fair, but by no means an extreme, illustration of 
the manner in which centos have been taken from the hymna 
of Prudentius for Breviary use. 

The hymns for Lauds on Tuesday, Wednesday, and 
Thursday are from the Cathemerinon. It will be observed 
that they are replete with figurative expressions. As dark- 
ness and mists are symbolical of sin and unbelief, so light 
is a symbol of truth and of Christ. In studying these three 
hymns, attention should be paid to the figurative, rather 
than to the literal meaning of their lines. Mr. Courthope 's 
spirited translations preserve much of the spirit and beauty 
of the originals. In these translations the following stanza 
immediately precedes the doxology. It is not a translation 
of any part of the Latin text : 

Now before Thy throne, while we 
Ask, upon our bended knee, 
That this blessing granted be, 
And Thy grace implore; 

The above note applies equally to hymns 14, 16, and 18. 

60 



WEDNESDAY AT MATINS 

1. "The winged herald of the day proclaims the ap- 
proaching light; now Christ, the awakener of souls, calls 
us to life." The ''winged messenger" is the cock, who in 
Christian symbolism is a symbol of early rising and vig- 
ilance. Propinquam, approaching; Lauds was said at day- 
break, or cock-crow, the beginning of the morning watch. 
Excitator mentium: Christ by His grace is the awakener of 
souls. 

2. "Take up your beds, He cries, ye who are slothful from 
idle sleep, and watch ye, chaste, upright, and sober, for I 
am at hand." ^gro sopor e: Ye who have become slothful 
from idle, excessive, sickness-producing sleep. Sobrii: 
Sobrii estote et vigilate (I Peter 5, 8). Vigilate ergo, quia 
nescitis qua horaDominus vester ven turns sit (Matt. 24,42). 

3. "Weeping, praying, and sober, let us, with our voices, 
invoke Jesus: fervent prayer forbids the pure heart to 
sleep." 

4. "Do Thou, Christ, dispel sleep, break the bonds of 
night, free us from the sins of former days, and infuse new 
light in us. ' ' 



WEDNESDAY AT MATINS 
15 Rerum Creator optime 

RERUM Creator optime, TSZ^^ madest all and dost 

Rectorque noster, adspice: ^ control, 
Nos a quiete noxia Lord, with Thy touch divine, 

Mersos sopore libera. Cast out the slumbers of the soul, 

The rest that is not Thine. 

^Te, sancte Christe, poscimus, Look down, Eternal Holiness, 

Ignosce culpis omnibus: And wash the sins away, 

Ad confitendum surgimus, Of those, who, rising to confess, 

Morasque noctis rumpimus. Outstrip the lingering day. 

^Mentes manusque tollimus. Our hearts and hands by night, 
Propheta sicut noctibus Lord, 

Nobis gerendum praecipit, We lift them in our need; 

Paulusque gestis censuit. As holy Psalmists give the word, 



And holy Paul the deed. 



61 



THE PSALTER 

* Vides malum quod fecimus: Each sin to Thee of years gone by, 

Occuha nostra pandimus: Each hidden stain lies bare; 

Preces gementes fundimus, We shrink not from Thine awful 

Dimitte quod peccavimus. eye, 

But pray that Thou wouldst spare. 

^Praesta, Pater piissime, Grant this, Father, Only Son 

Patrique compar Unice, And Spirit, God of grace, 

Cum Spiritu Paraclito To whom all worship shall be 

Regnans per omne sseculum. done 

In every time and place. 

Author: Ascribed to Pope St. Gregory the Great (540- 
604). Meter: Iambic dimeter. Translation by Cardinal 
Newman. There are thirteen translations. There is an 
article on this hymn in the Cath. Encycl. 

1. ''Look down, sovereign Creator of the world, and 
our Ruler, and deliver us, overwhelmed by sleep, from a 
sinful rest. ' ' The time of rest, by affording occasions of sin 
and temptation, may become harmful or sinful. 

2. ''Thee, all-holy Christ, we implore that Thou forgive 
all our sins : to praise Thee, we rise and interrupt the linger- 
ing hours of the night." Moras, variously rendered — hours, 
rest, etc. ; lit., a delay, a space of time. 

3. "By night we lift up our hands and hearts, as the 
Prophet commands us to do, and as Paul, by his deeds, sanc- 
tioned." St. Paul put into practice the precept of the 
Prophet. The Prophet is David, the Royal Psalmist, who 
says: In noctibus extollite manus vestras in sancta, et 
benedicite Dominum (Ps. 133, 2). Paulus: A reference to 
St. Paul in the Acts of the Apostles: Media autem nocte, 
Paulus et Silas orantes laudabant Deum (Acts 16, 25). 

The following is Father Caswell's translation of this 
stanza : 

Who, as the holy Psalmist bids. 
Our hands thus early raise; 
And in the morning sing with Paul 
And Silas hymns of praise. 

4. ' ' Thou seest the evil that we have done ; we lay bare 
our secret faults ; sighing we pour forth our prayers ; par- 
don what we have done amiss." 

62 



16 



WEDNESDAY AT LAUDS 
jNox, et tenehrcB, et nubila 



NOX, et tenebrae, et nubila, 
Confusa mundi et turbida; 
Lux intrat, albescit polus: 
Christus venit: discedite. 



*Caligo terrae scinditur 
Percussa solis spicule, 
Rebusque jam color redit, 
Vultu nitentis sideris. 



^Te Christe solum novimus: 
Te mente pura et simplici, 
Flendo et canendo quaesumus, 
Intende nostris sensibus. 

*Simt multa fucis illita, 
Quae luce purgentur tua: 
Tu vera lux ccelestium 
Vultu sereno illumina. 

^Deo Patri sit gloria, 
Ej usque soli Filio, 
Cirni Spiritu Paraclito, 
Nunc et per omne saeculimi. 



DAY is breaking, dawn is 
bright: 
Hence, vain shadows of the night! 
Mists that dim our mortal sight, 
Christ is come! Depart! 

Darkness routed lifts her wings 
As the radiance upwards springs: 
Through the world of wakened 

things 

Life and color dart. 

Thee, Q Christ, alone we know: 
Singing even in our woe. 
With pure hearts to Thee we go: 
On our senses shine! 

In Thy beams be purged away 
All that leads our thoughts astray ! 
Through our spirits, King of day, 
Pour Thy light divine! 

Unto God the Father, Son, 
Holy Spirit, Three in One, 
One in Three, be glory done, 
Now and evermore. 



Author: Prudentius (348-413). Meter: Iambic dimeter. 
Translation by W. J. Courthope. There are seventeen 
translations. This hymn is a cento from the Morning Hymn 
of the Cathemerinon. See the note on this hymn and its 
translation, under Ales diei nuntius, hymn 14. 

1. ** Night, darkness, and clouds, confused and disordered 
state of the world, depart: light enters, the sky grows 
bright, Christ comes." 

2. ' ' The darkness of the earth is rent, pierced by a ray of 
the sun ; color now returns to things, at the appearance of 
the shining star of day." Nitentis sideris, the sun, the day- 
star; fig., Christ. 

63 



THE PSALTER 

3. "Thee alone, Christ we know; with pure and simple 
hearts, with tears and hymns we seek Thee ; incline to our 
souls." Intende, give ear to, be favorably disposed towards, 
hasten to the help of. 

4. ' ' Many things which are now bedaubed with false col- 
ors shall be purified by Thy light : Thou true Light of the 
saints, enlighten us by Thy bright countenance." Fucis, 
lit., rouge, lllita, from illino, bedaub, smear. For the line 
Tu vera lux coelestium, the Original Text has, Tu lux eoi 
sideris. Eoi from eous, adj., belonging to the morning, 
eastern. 

Light of the Morning Star, illume, 
Serenely shining, all our gloom. 



17 



THURSDAY AT MATINS 
Nox atra rerum contegit 



NOX atra rerum contegit 
Terrae colores omnium: 
Nos confitentes poscimus 
Te, juste judex cordium: 



THE dusky veil of night hath 
laid 
The varied hues of earth in shade; 
Before Thee, righteous Judge of 

all, 
We contrite in confession fall. 



^Ut auferas piacula, 
Sordesque mentis abluas: 
Donesque Christe gratiam, 
Ut arceantur crimina. 



Take far away our load of sin, 
Our soiled minds make clean 

within : 
Thy sov'reign grace, Christ, 

impart. 
From all offence to guard our 

heart. 



'Mens ecce torpet impia, 
Quam culpa mordet noxia: 
Obscura gestit tollere, 
Et te Redemptor quaerere. 



*Repelle tu caliginem 
Intrinsecus quam maxime, 
Ut in beato gaudeat 
Se collocari lumine. 



For lo ! our mind is dull and cold, 
Envenomed by sin's baneful hold: 
Fain would it now the darkness 

flee. 
And seek. Redeemer, unto Thee. 

Far from it drive the shades of 

night, 
Its inmost darkness put to flight; 
Till in the daylight of the Blest 
It joys to find itself at rest 



64 



THURSDAY AT LAUDS 



'Praesta, Pater piissime, 
Patrique compar Unice, 
Cum Spiritu Paraclito 
Regnans per omne saeculum. 



Almighty Father, hear our cry, 
Through Jesus Christ, our Lord 

most High, 
Who, with the Holy Ghost and 

Thee, 
Doth live and reign eternally. 



Author: Ascribed to Pope St. Gregory the Great (540- 
604). Meter: Iambic dimeter. Translation by J. W. Chad- 
wick. There are twelve translations. 

1-2. ''Dark night hath concealed the colors of all things 
on earth; praising Thee we pray, just Judge of hearts, 
that Thou take away our sins, and wash away the stains of 
the soul; and grant us, Christ, Thy grace that sin may 
be kept afar off." 

3. "Lo, the guilty soul which mortal sin holds fast is 
torpid ; still it longs, Redeemer, to put away its evil deeds 
and seek Thee. ' ' 

4. ''Drive out, as much as possible, the darkness that is 
within, that the soul may rejoice to be established in blessed 
light." Mens from the preceding stanza is the subject of 
gaudeat. Se collocare, to establish one's self, to dwell per- 
manently, 



18 



THURSDAY AT LAUDS 
Lux ecce surgit auria 



T UX ecce surgit aurea, 
-" Pallens facessat caecitas. 
Quae nosmet in praeceps diu 
Errore traxit devio. 

^Haec lux serenum eonferat, 
Purosque nos praestet sibi: 
Nihil loquamur subdolum: 
Volvamus obscurum nihil. 



' Sic tota decurrat dies, 
Ne lingua mendax, ne manus 
Oculive peccent lubrici, 
Ne noxa corpus inquinet. 



SEE the golden sun arise I 
Let no more our darkened eyes 
Snare us, tangled by surprise 
In the maze of sin ! 

From false words and thoughts 

impure 
Let this Light, serene and sure, 
Keep our lips without secure, 
Keep our souls within. 

So may we the day-time spend, 
That, till life's temptations end, 
Tongue, nor hand, nor eye offend! 
One, above us all, 



THE PSALTER 

•Speculator adstat desuper, Views in His revealing ray 

Qui nos diebus omnibus, All we do, and think, and say, 

Actusque nostros prospicit Watching us from break of day 
A luce prima in vesperum. Till the twilight fall. 

'Deo Patri sit gloria, Unto God the Father, Son, 

Ej usque soli Filio, Holy Spirit, Three in One, 

Cum Spiritu Paraclito, One in Three, be glory done, 
Nunc et per omne saeculum. Now and evermore. 

Author: Prudentius (348-413). Meter: Iambic dimeter. 
Translation by W. J. Courthope. There are seventeen 
translations. This hymn is a cento from the Morning Hymn 
of the Cathemerinon of Prudentius. See the note on this 
hymn and its translation, under Ales diei nuntius, hymn 14. 

1. ''Behold, the golden light arises; may the waning 
darkness, which long drew us headlong in wide-wandering 
error, depart." In prceceps, headlong; into great danger. 
It should be borne in mind that this is a hymn for Lauds, 
and that Lauds was said at daybreak. As the rising sun 
dispels the blinding darkness, so Christ, the Sun of Justice 
(Mai. 4, 2), dispels the darkness of sin and of unbelief. 

2. * ' May this light bring us contentment, and may it pre- 
serve us pure for itself; may we speak nothing deceitful; 
may we meditate nothing dark." Sibi refers to lux (i.e., 
Christus). 

3. '*So may the whole day run its course; that neither 
the tongue prone to lie, nor the hands, nor the restless eyes 
sin ; may no sin defile the body. ' ' 

4. *'An Observer stands on high, who each day beholds 
us and our actions, from early morning until evening, ' * 

FRIDAY AT MATINS 
19 Tu, Trinitatis Unitas 

rpU, Trinitatis Unitas, r\ THREE in One, and One in 

••• Orbem potenter quae regis, ^^ Three, 
Attende laudis canticum Who rulest all things mightily: 

Quod excubantes psallimus. Bow down to hear the songs of 

praise 
Which, freed from bonds of sleep, 

we raise. 

66 



FRIDAY AT MATINS 



'Nam lectulo consurgimus 
Noctis quieto tempore, 
Ut flagitemus omnium 
A te medelam vulnerum. 



^ Quo f raude quidquid daemonum 
In noctibus deliquimus, 
Abstergat illud coelitus 
Tuae potestas gloriae. 



*Ne corpus adstet sordidum, 
Nee torpor instet cordium, 
Ne criminis contagio 
Tepescat ardor spiritus. 



''Ob hoc, Redemptor, quaesumus, 
Reple tuo nos lumine. 
Per quod dieriun circulis 
Nullis ruaraus actibus. 



'Praesta, Pater piissime, 
Patrique compar Unice, 
Cum Spiritu Paraclito, 
Regnans per omne saeculum. 



While lingers yet the peace of 

night, 
We rouse us from our slumbers 

light: 
That might of instant prayer may 

win 
The healing balm for wounds of 

sin. 

If, by the wiles of Satan caught, 
This night-time we have sinned in 

aught, 
That sin Thy glorious power 

to-day, 
From heaven descending, cleanse 

away. 

Let naught impure our bodies 

stain, 
No laggard sloth our souls detain, 
No taint of sin our spirits know, 
To chill the fervor of their glow. 

Wherefore, Redeemer, grant that 

we 
Fulfilled with Thine own light 

may be: 
That, in our course, from day to 

day. 
By no misdeed we fall away. 

Grant this, Father ever One 
With Christ, Thy sole-begotten 

Son, 
And Holy Ghost, whom all adore. 
Reigning and blest forevermore. 



Author: Ascribed to Pope St. Gregory the Great (540- 
604). Metee : Iambic dimeter. Translation by G. H. 
Palmer and J. W. Chadwick. There are thirteen trans- 
lations. 

1. ' * Thou Unity in Trinity, Thou who dost mightily rule 
the world, hearken to the canticle of praise, which we, risen 
from sleep, sing. ' ' 

2. '*For we rise from our beds in the quiet time of the 

67 



THE PSALTER 

night, that we may ask of Thee a remedy for all our 
wounds. ' ' 

3. ''That whatever, by the deception of the evil spirits, 
we have failed in during the night, the same may the power 
of Thy glory from heaven blot out." Quo, conj., that. 
Coelitus, adv., from heaven. 

4. *'Lest the body become defiled and torpor of heart 
threaten, and the fervor of the soul be chilled by the touch 
of sin. ' ' 

5. **We therefore beseech Thee, Redeemer, fill us with 
Thy light, that in the lapse of days, we may fail in none of 
our actions," 



20 



FRIDAY AT LAUDS 

Sterna cceli gloria 



A ETERNA cceli gloria, 
■^^ Beata spes mortalium, 
Summi Tonantis Unice, 
Castaeque proles Virginis: 



'Da dexteram surgentibus, 
Exsurgat et mens sobria, 
Flagrans et in laudem Dei 
Grates rependat debitas. 



' Ortus ref ulget lucifer, 
Prseitque solem nuntius: 
Cadunt tenebrae noctium: 
Lux sancta nos illmninet. 



*Manensque nostris sensibus, 
Noctem repellat saeculi, 
Omnique fine temporis 
Purgata servet pectora. 



CHRIST, whose glory fills the 
heaven, 
Our only hope, in mercy given; 
Child of a Virgin meek and pure; 
Son of the Highest evermore: 

Grant us Thine aid Thy praise to 

sing, 
As opening days new duties bring; 
That with the light our life may 

be 
Renewed and sanctified by Thee. 

The morning star fades from the 

sky. 
The sun breaks forth; night's 

shadows fly : 
Thou, true Light, upon us shine : 
Our darkness turn to light divine. 

Within us grant Thy light to 

dwell; 
And from our souls dark sins 

expel ; 
Cleanse Thou our minds from 

stain of ill. 
And with Thy peace our bosoms 

fill. 



68 



FRIDAY AT LAUDS 

^ Quaesita jam primum fides To us strong faith forever give, 

In corde radices agat: With joyous hope, in Thee to live; 

Secunda spes congaudeat. That life's rough way may ever be 

Qua major exstat caritas. Made strong and pure by charity. 

*Deo Patri sit gloria, All laud to God the Father be, 

Ej usque soli Filio, All praise, Eternal Son, to Thee: 

Cum Spiritu Paraclito, All glory, as is ever meet, 

Nunc, et per omne saeculum. To God the holy Paraclete, 

Author I Ambrosian, 5th cent. Meter: Iambic dimeter. 
Translation by John Julian. There are twelve translations. 

1. *' Eternal Glory of heaven, blessed hope of mortals, 
the only-begotten Son of the most high Thunderer, the 
offspring of a chaste Virgin," Tonantis (tono 1) ''The 
Sovereign Thunderer's only Son." — Abp. Bagshawe. Tona- 
bit de coelo Dominus (II Kings 22, 14). Cf. also I Kings 2, 
10;Ps. 17,14;Ps. 28, 3. 

2. ''Give Thy right hand to those who rise; sober also 
may the soul arise, and zealous in the praise of God, return 
Him due thanks. ' ' Sobria, thoughtful, recollected. Grates = 
gratias. 

3. ' ' The risen morning star shines forth, and as a herald 
precedes the sun; the darkness of night disappears; may 
the holy light illuminate us." Lovers of allegory see in 
John the Baptist "the morning star," "the herald" that 
went before the rising Sun of Justice. 

4. "And dwelling in our hearts, may it dispel the dark- 
ness of the world, and may it preserve our hearts unsullied 
till the end of time." Lux sancta is the subject of the whole 
stanza. Noctem scbcuU, spiritual darkness, sin. 

5. "First may faith long-sought strike deep its roots in 
our hearts ; secondly, may hope rejoice us ; but greater still 
than these is charity." Qua refers grammatically to spes, 
but in sense also to fides, and is therefore equivalent to 
quibus. Nunc autem manent fides, spes, caritas, tria hjec; 
major autem horum est caritas (I Cor. 13, 13). In heaven 
faith will be changed into vision, hope into fruition, but 
charity will remain forever, 



69 



21 



THE PSALTER 
SATURDAY AT MATINS 

SummcB Parens clementice 



SUMMAE Parens clementiae, 
Mundi regis qui machinam, 
Unius et substantiae, 
Trinusque personis Deus: 



^Nostros pius cum canticis 
Flatus benigne suscipe: 
Ut corde puro sordium 
Te perfruamur largius. 

'Lumbos, jecurque raorbidum 
Flaramis adure congruis, 
Accincti ut artus excubent 
Luxu remoto pessimo. 



*Quicumque ut horas noctium 
Nunc concinendo rumpimus, 
Ditemur omnes affatim 
Donis beatae patriae. 



'Preesta, Pater piissime, 
Patrique compar Unice, 
Cum Spiritu Paraclito 
Regnans per omne saeculum. 



GREAT God of boundless mercy 
hear; 
Thou Ruler of this earthly sphere ; 
In substance one, in persons 

three, 
Dread Trinity in Unity! 

Do Thou in love accept our lays 
Of mingled penitence and praise; 
And set our hearts from error free, 
More fully to rejoice in Thee. 

Our reins and hearts in pity heal, 
And with Thy chastening fires 

anneal; 
Gird Thou our loins, each passion 

quell, 
And every harmful lust expel. 

Now as our anthems, upward 

borne, 
Awake the silence of the morn, 
Enrich us with Thy gifts of grace. 
From heaven. Thy blissful dwell- 
ing-place ! 

Hear Thou our prayer. Almighty 

King! 
Hear Thou our praises, while we 

sing. 
Adoring with the heavenly host, 
The Father, Son, and Holy Ghost! 



Author: Ambrosian, 7tli cent. Meter: Iambic dimeter. 
Translation, a cento based on Chambers. There are six- 
teen translations. First line of Original Text : SummcB Deus 
clementicB. 

1-2. **0 Father of infinite mercy, Thou who rulest over 
the vast fabric of the universe, God of one substance, and 
three in person, graciously accept, loving Father (pius), 
our tears with our hymns of praise, that with hearts free 

70 



SATURDAY AT LAUDS 

from sin we may enjoy Thee more abundantly." Pitts is 
here used for the vocative, supply Parens or Deus. Or it 
agrees with tu the subject of suscipe — Parens, tu pius ( = 
benigne) suscipe. Puro, note the genitive sordium; the 
ablative is more common. Largius, adv., comp. of largus. 

3. **Burn Thou, with becoming (holy) flames, our reins 
and our depraved hearts, that our well girded limbs may 
watch, far removed from baneful luxury." Lumbos: the 
loins, in which the ancients located the seat of the feelings 
or affections. Jecur: lit., the liver; considered formerly as 
the seat of the soul and affections. Accincti = prsBcincti: 
Sint lumbi vestri prsBcincti, et lucernae ardentes in manibus 
vestris (Luke 12, 35). The girding of the loins signifies an 
instant willingness to do the will of God. In the East where 
men wore long flowing garments it was necessary to gird 
them up by means of a belt when about to begin some work 
or set out on a journey. 

4. ''That all of us who now interrupt the hours of night 
with song, may be abundantly enriched with the gifts of 
the blessed land." 

SATURDAY AT LAUDS 

22 Aurora jam spar git polum 

AURORA jam spargit polum: HPHE dawn is sprinkling in the 
Terris dies illabitur: -^ east 

Lucis resultat spiculum : Its golden shower, as day flows in ; 

Discedat omne lubricum. Fast mount the pointed shafts of 

light: 
Farewell to darkness and to sin I 

'Phantasma noctis exsulet: Away, ye midnight phantoms all! 

Mentis reatus corruat: Away, despondence and despair! 

Quidquid tenebris horridum Whatever guilt the night has 

Nox attulit culpae, cadat. brought. 

Now let it vanish into air. 

*Ut mane, quod nos ultimum So, Lord, when that last morning 

Hie deprecamur cernui, breaks, 

Looking to which we sigh and 
pray, 

71 



THE PSALTER 

Cum luce nobis effluat, may it to Thy minstrels prove 

Hoc dum canore concrepat. The dawning of a better day. 

*Deo Patri sit gloria, To God the Father glory be, 

Ej usque soli Filio, And to His sole-begotten Son; 

Ciun Spiritu Paraclito, Glory, Holy Ghost, to Thee, 

Nunc et per omne saeculum. While everlasting ages run, 

Author: Ambrosian, 4th or 5th cent. Meter: Iambic 
dimeter. Translation by Father Caswall. There are twelve 
translations. 

1. *'The dawn now overspreads the heavens; day glides 
over the earth ; rays of light mount on high ; may every un- 
clean thing depart." 

2. ''Let phantoms of the night be banished; let guilt of 
soul depart; whatever dreadful thing of evil the night 
brought with it, let it vanish with the darkness. ' ' Constr. : 
Quidquid horridum culpas nox attulit, tenebris cadat. 

3. ''That on the last morning, together with the light, 
that which w^e here humbly pray for, and what accords with 
our song, may issue forth (come) to us." Constr. : Ut cum 
luce (seterna) mane (illud) ultimum nobis effluat, quod nos 
hie, dum hoc canore concrepat, deprecamur cernui. This 
stanza is very obscure. It seems to contain a reference to 
the present morning, and to the last morning — at the end 
of time. In this sense it might be rendered: "While the 
present morning resounds with song (canore) ^ we here with 
profound humility beg {deprecamur cernui) that the last 
morning may also dawn {effluat) for us with light eternal." 
Abp. Bagshawe translates mane ultimum as referring to 
Saturday — "On this morn of the week the last." The fol- 
lowing is from an anonymous translation in the Hymnal 
Noted: 

So that last morning, dread and great, 
Which we with trembling hope await. 
With blessed light for us shall glow. 
Who chant the song we sang below. 



72 



VESPERS HYMNS OF THE PSALTER 

The theme, or subject matter, of the Vespers hymns for 
the week is the work of the six days of creation as 
recorded in the first chapter of Genesis. The Saturday 
hymn, which is a hymn in honor of the Most Holy Trinity, 
forms the only exception. The work of each of the six 
days is explained in the article on Hexcemeron, in the Cath. 
Encycl. 

The authorship of these six hymns is not definitely 
known. The series develops in an orderly manner the work 
of creation, devoting four stanzas to the work of each day. 
There is strong probability that these hymns are the work 
of one and the same author, and that that author is no 
other than the illustrious Pope and Doctor of the Church, 
St. Gregory the Great (540-604). In this connection it is in- 
teresting to record the opinion of the editors of the care- 
fully edited Historical Edition of Hymns Ancient and Mod- 
ern (1909) : ''The set," in their opinion, "must have come 
from one author, and it is not improbable that that author 
was St. Gregory" (p. 21). And again: '"^The series as a 
whole is probably rightly identified with a set of hymns for 
every evening in the week, which Irish records describe as 
having been sent by St. Gregory to St. Columba. The ancient 
preface to Columba 's hymn Altus prosator describes the 
coming of St. Gregory's messengers with gifts, including a 
set of hymns for the evenings of the week, and the sending 
by St. Columba of his hymns to St. Gregory in return. The 
series is not unworthy of such an author, and the hymns 
go far to justify the tradition that ascribes to that most 
versatile of popes a place among the Hymn-writers" (p. 
XVII). See also the article on Hymnody, by Father 
Clemens Blume, S. J., in the Cath. Encycl., Vol. VII., p. 602. 

The Benedictine editors of the works of St. Gregory 
credit him with eight hymns [Opera, Paris, 1705) ; H. A. 
Daniel in his Thesaurus Hymnl. Vol. I, assigns him three 
others. The Lucis Creator optime given below is one of the 
eight hymns assigned him by the Benedictine editors. 

The translations of these hymns in Part I of Mr. Orby 
Shipley's Annus Sanctus are fro^l the Primer of 1706, and 

73 



THE PSALTER 

are in all probability the work of the poet John Dryden, 
who was received into the Church in 1685. 



23 



SUNDAY AT VESPERS 
Lucis Creator optime 



LUCIS Creator optime 
Lucem dierum proferens, 
Primordiis lucis novae, 
Mundi parans originem: 



'Qui mane junctum vesperi 
Diem vocari prsecipis: 
Illabitur tetrimi chaos, 
Audi pieces cum fletibus. 



BLEST Creator of the light, 
Who mak'st the day with 
radiance bright. 
And o'er the forming world didst 

call 
The light from chaos first of all; 

Whose wisdom joined in meet 

array 
The morn and eve, and named 

them Day: 
Night comes with all its darkling 

fears ; 
Regard Thy people's prayers and 

tears. 

Lest, sunk in sin, and whelmed 
with strife. 

They lose the gift of endless life; 

While thinking but the thoughts 
of time. 

They weave new chains of woe and 
crime. 

But grant them grace that they 
may strain 

The heavenly gate and prize to 
gain: 

Each harmful lure aside to cast, 

And purge away each error past. 

O Father, that we ask be done, 
Through Jesus Christ, Thine only 

Son; 
Who, with the Holy Ghost and 

Thee, 
Doth live and reign eternally. 

Author: Probably by Pope St. Gregory the Great (540- 



'Ne mens gravata crimine, 
Vitae sit exsul munere, 
Dum nil perenne cogitat, 
Seseque culpis illigat. 



*Coeleste pulset ostium: 
Vitale tollat praemiima: 
Vitemus omne noxium: 
Purgemus omne pessimum. 



^Praesta, Pater piissime, 
Patrique compar Unice, 
Cum Spiritu Paraclito 
Regnans per omne ssculum. 



MONDAY AT VESPERS 

604). Meter: Iambic dimeter. Translation by J. M. Neale. 
There are twenty-one translations; Father Caswall's being 
more widely used than any other. There are five transla- 
tions in the Annus Sanctus. Theme : The work of the first 
day — the creation of light. Dixit Dens: Fiat lux. Et facta 
est lux. Et vidit Deus lucem quod esset bona; et divisit 
lucem a tenebris. Appelavitque lucem Diem, et tenebras 
Noctem; factumque est vespere et mane dies unus (Gen. 
1, 3-5). 

1. * * august Creator of the light, who didst bring forth 
the light of day, and didst begin the origin of the world with 
the creation of new light;" Primordiis, origin, first begin- 
ning. Parans (paro 1), prepare, design. Originem, creation. 

2. "Who didst command that morning joined with even- 
ing be called Day; foul darkness descends, hear Thou our 
prayers with our weeping. ' ' 

3. ''Lest the soul burdened with sin be deprived of the 
gift of life, while it thinks of nothing eternal and fetters 
itself with sins. ' ' Exsul, an exile, banished person ; Constr. 
with the abl. or gen. 

4. ''Let it knock at the heavenly portal and bear away 
the prize of life ; let us avoid everything harmful, and purge 
out everything sinful." The subject is mens from the pre- 
ceding stanza. 



MONDAY AT VESPERS 

24 Immense cceli Conditor 

IMMENSE cceli Conditor, r\ GREAT Creator of the sky, 

Qui mixta ne confunderent, ^-^ Who wouldest not the floods 
Aquae fluenta dividens, on high 

Coelum dedisti limitem. With earthly waters to confound, 

But mad'st the firmament their 
boiind; 

^Firmans locum coelestibus, The floods above Thou didat 

Simulque terrse rivulis; ordain; 

The floods below Thou didst re- 
strain: 

76 



THE PSALTER 



Ut unda flammas temperet, 
Terrae solum ne dissipent. 



'Infunde nunc, piissime, 
Donum perennis gratiae: 
Fraudis novae ne casibus 
No3 error atterat vetus. 

*Lucem fides adaugeat: 
Sic luminis jubar ferat: 
Haec van a cuncta proterat: 
Hanc falsa nulla comprimant. 

"Praesta, Pater piissime, 
Patrique compar Unice, 
Cum Spiritu Paraclito 
Regnans per omne saeculum. 



That moisture might attemper 

heat, 
Lest the parched earth should ruin 

meet. 

Upon our souls, good Lord, bestow 
Thy gift of grace in endless flow: 
Lest some renewed deceit or wile 
Of former sin should us beguile. 

Let faith discover heav'nly light; 
So shall its rays direct us right: 
And let this faith each error chase, 
And never give to falsehood place. 

Grant this, Father, ever One 
With Christ, Thy sole-begotten 

Son, 
And Holy Ghost, whom all adore, 
Reigning and blest forevermore. 



Author: Probably by Pope St. Gregory the Great (540- 
604). Meter: Iambic dimeter. Translation by J. M. Neale. 
There are seventeen translations. Theme : The work of the 
second day — the creation of the firmament, which includes 
the whole space between the surface of the earth and the 
most distant stars. This work is thus narrated by Moses : 
Dixit quoque Deus : Fiat firmamentum in medio aquarum, et 
dividat aquas ab aquis. Et fecit Deus firmamentum, 
divisitque aquas quae erant sub firmamento ab his, qu8B 
erant super firmamentum. Et factum est ita. Vocavitque 
Deus firmamentum Ccelum: et factum est vespere et mane 
dies secundus (Gen. 1, 6-8). 

1. " great Creator of the heavens. Thou didst establish 
the sky as a boundary, dividing the floods of water, lest 
uniting they flow together." Fluentum, i, a stream, flood. 
See the article on Firmament in the Cath. Encycl, 

2. ' * Thou dost establish a place for the heavenly waters, 
and also for the streams on earth, that water might moder- 
ate the heat, lest it destroy the soil of the earth." 

3. * * Pour forth now, most gracious Lord, the gift of Thy 
never-failing grace, lest by the misfortune of some new de- 
ception the old error should overwhelm us." Vetus error, 

76 



TUESDAY AT VESPERS 

personified — our ancient enemy, the devil; or, former sins. 
4. *'Let faith increase the light, and thus produce an 
effulgence of light; may it trample under foot all vain 
things ; may nothing false supplant it." Adaugeat, the Orig- 
inal Text has inveniat; Neale translated the Original Text. 
HcBc, sc, fides. 

TUESDAY AT VESPERS 



25 



Telluris alme Conditor 



TELLURIS alme Conditor, 
Mundi solum qui separans, 
Pulsis aquae molestiis, 
Terram dedisti immobilem: 



*Ut germen aptum proferens, 
Fulvis decora floribus, 
Foecunda fructu sisteret, 
Pastmnque gratum redderet. 



'Mentis perustae vulnera 
Munda virore gratise: 
Ut facta fletu diluat, 
Motusque pravos atterat. 



■pARTH'S mighty Maker, whose 
■*-^ command 

Raised from the sea the solid land ; 
And drove each billowy heap 

away, 
And bade the earth stand firm for 

aye: 

That so, with flowers of golden 

hue, 
The seeds of each it might renew; 
And fruit-trees bearing fruit might 

yield, 
And pleasant pasture of the field: 

Our spirit's rankling wounds efface 
With dewy freshness of Thy grace: 
That grief may cleanse each deed 

of ill, 
And o'er each lust may triumph 

still. 



*Ju8sis tuis obtemperet: 
Nullis malis approximet: 
Bonis repleri gaudeat, 
Et mortis ictum nesciat. 



"Praesta, Pater piissime, 
Patrique compar Unice, 
Cum Spiritu Paraclito 
Regnans per omne saeculimi. 



Let every soul Thy law obey, 
And keep from every evil way; 
Rejoice each promised good to 

win. 
And flee from every mortal sin. 

Hear Thou our prayer, Almighty 

King! 
Hear Thou our praises, while we 

sing. 
Adoring with the heavenly host, 
The Father, Son, and Holy Ghost! 



77 



THE PSALTER 

Author: Probably by Pope St. Gregory the Great (540- 
604). Meter: Iambic dimeter. Translation anon, in the 
Hymnal Noted. There are twenty translations. First line 
of Original Text: Telluris ingens Conditor. Theme: The 
work of the third day, viz., the separation of the land 
from the water, and the creation of every species of plant. 
As recorded by Moses: Dixit vero Deus: Congregentur 
aquae, quae sub ccelo sunt, in locum unum et appareat arida. 
Et factum est ita. Et vocavit Deus aridam Terram ; congre- 
gationesque aquarum appellavit Maria. . . . Et ait: Ger- 
minet terra herbam virentem et facientem semen et lignum 
pomiferum, f aciens f ructum juxta genus suum, cujus semen 
in semetipso sit super terram. Et factum est ita. Et protulit 
terra herbam virentem, et facientem semen juxta genua 
suum, lignumque faciens fructum, et habens unumquodque 
sementem secundum speciem suam. Et vidit Deus quod 
esset bonum. Et factum est vespere et mane dies tertiua 
(Gen. 1,9-13). 

1. "Benignant Creator of the world, who didst divide the 
surface of the earth, and driving off the troubled waters 
didst firmly establish the land ; ' ' Solum, lit., ground, soil. 

2. ''That it might bring forth appropriate produce, be 
adorned with golden flowers, become prolific in fruits, and 
yield agreeable sustenance." Decora and fecwida agree 
with terra, understood. Sisteret, in the sense of existeret. 
Pastum, food for men and beasts. 

3. ' ' Cleanse by the freshness of Thy grace the wounds of 
the sin-parched soul, that it may wash away with tears its 
evil deeds, and suppress sinful emotions." Munda, imper. 
of mundare. Virore, viror, oris (from vireo 2, to be fresh, 
vigorous), freshness, power, vigor. Mens is the subj. of 
diluat and atterat. 

4. ' ' May it obey Thy commands ; may it draw nigh noth- 
ing sinful; that it may rejoice to be filled with good, and 
know not the stroke of death." Mortis ictus, the stroke of 
death, i.e., mortal sin. The Original Text, translated above, 
has actum for ictum. 



78 



WEDNESDAY AT VESPERS 



26 



Cceli Deus sanctissime 



CCELI Deus sanctissime, 
Qui lucidas mundi plagas 
Candore pingis igneo, 
Augens decoro lumine: 



"Quarto die qui flammeara 
Dum solis accendis rotam, 
Lunee ministraa ordinem, 
Vagosque cursus siderum: 



•Ut noctibus, vel Iiunini 
Diremptionis terminum, 
Primordiis et mensium 
Signum dares notissimum ; 



*ExpelIe noctem cordium: 
Absterge sordes mentium: 
Resolve culpae vinculum: 
Everte moles criminum. 

'Preesta, Pater piissime, 
Patrique compar Unice, 
Cum Spiritu Paraclito 
Regnans per omne saeculum. 



OGOD, whose hand hath spread 
the sky, 
And all its shining hosts on high, 
And painting it with fiery light, 
Made it so beauteous and 
bright: 



so 



Thou, when the fourth day was 

begun, 
Didst frame the circle of the sun, 
And set the moon for ordered 

change. 
And planets for their wider 

range: 

To night and d^, by certain line, 
Their varying bounds Thou didst 

assign ; 
And gav'st a signal, known and 

meet. 
For months begun and months 

complete. 

Enlighten Thou the hearts of men : 
Polluted souls make pure again: 
Unloose the bands of guilt within : 
Remove the burden of our sin. 

Grant this, Father, ever One 
With Christ Thy sole-begotten 

Son, 
Whom, with the Spirit we adore, 
One God, both now and evermore. 



Author: Probably by Pope St. Gregory the Great (540- 
604). Meter: Iambic dimeter. Translation by J. M. Neale. 
There are thirteen translations. Theme : The work of the 
fourth day. On the fourth day, God created the heavenly 
bodies that adorn the firmament. The Mosaic account of the 
stupendous work which the hymn endeavors to recount is 
narrated with wonderful simplicity in Genesis 1, 14-19; 

79 



THE PSALTER 

Dixit autem Deus: Fiant luniinaria in firmamento coeli, et 
dividant diem ac noctem, et sint in signa et tempora, et dies 
et annos: ut luceant in firmamento cceli, et illuminent 
terram. Et factum est ita. Feoitque Deus duo luminaria 
magna: luminare majus, ut prseesset diei: et luminare 
minus, ut praeesset nocti : et stellas. Et posuit eas in firma- 
mento coeli, ut lucerent super terram, et praeessent diei ac 
nocti, et dividerent lucem ac tenebras. Et vidit Deus quod 
esset bonum. Et factum est vespere et mane dies quartus. 

1. ' ' Most Holy God of heaven, Thou dost adorn with fiery 
brilliancy the lightsome regions of the universe, and dost 
embellish them with becoming splendor : ' ' The light created 
on the first day was a vast, luminous, nebulous mass, which 
contracted and solidified on the fourth day, thus forming 
the sun and the stars. These heavenly bodies constitute the 
"lightsome regions" of the universe. 

2. *■ * Thou, on the fourth day didst light up the fiery disk 
of the sun, didst appoint the orbit of the moon, and the wan- 
dering courses of the stars," 

3. ''That Thou mightest give to nights and days a bound- 
ary-line of separation, and a conspicuous sign for the begin- 
ning of the months. ' ' The boundary line between night and 
day — darkness and daylight — is indicated by the sun, the 
moon, and by the morning and evening stars. The new 
moon announces the beginning of the lunar month. 

4. ' ' Drive out the darkness from our hearts ; wipe away 
the defilements of our souls; loosen the chains of guilt j 
overturn the great load of our sins." 



THURSDAY AT VESPERS 

27 MagncB Deus potentice 

ll/rAGNi^ Deus potentiae, r\ SOVEREIGN Lord of Na- 

■I-TJ. Qui fertili nates aqua ^^ ture's might, 

Partim relinquis gurgiti, Who bad'st the water's birth 

Partiin levas in aera. divide; 

Part in the heavens to take their 
flight, 

And part in ocean's deep to hide; 

80 




mmmttiit 
mpimnvtt 

ncM^m nuummnt 
mtm mntnn^*^tm: 

fymtmtmmm*tm 
ttdrt ttfc* 




ttmnbim 

mmninv^M mm 

iimiiittntttmitmt 

nn^(imxmmm$m 

mmMxxmitmnv 

nmtmntxt\)ttxnihmtc^ 

mpitmxmmtG'f^t 
timimnntl«tflflmo*(i 
nmnwtmtx$*fm 



Codex Latinus— Specimen page from a Psalter executed 
in the Abbey of Meften, Bavaria, A.D. i^i^. 



THURSDAY AT VESPERS 



'Demersa lymphis imprimens, 
Subvecta ccelis erigens: 
Ut stirpe ab una prodita, 
Diversa repleant loca: 



•Largire cunctis servulis, 
Quos mundat unda sanguinis, 
Nescire lapsus criminura, 
Nee ferre mortis taedium. 



*Ut culpa nullum deprimat: 
Nullum efferat jactantia: 
Elisa mens ne concidat: 
Elata mens ne corruat. 



'Praesta, Pater piissime» 
Patrique compar Unice, 
Cum Spiritu Paraclito 
Regnans per omne saeculum. 



These low obscured, on airy wing 
Exalted those, that either race. 
Though from one element they 

spring, 
Might serve Thee in a different 

place. 

Grant, Lord, that we Thy servants 

all, 
Saved by Thy tide of cleansing 

Blood, 
No more 'neath sin's dominion 

fall. 
Nor fear the thought of death's 

dark flood! 

Thy varied love each spirit bless, 

The humble cheer, the high con- 
trol; 

Check in each heart its proud 
excess. 

But raise the meek and contrite 
soul! 

This boon, Father, we entreat. 
This blessing grant, Eternal Son, 
And Holy Ghost, the Paraclete, 
Both now, and while the ages run. 



Author t Probably by Pope St. Gregory the Great (540- 
604). Meter: Iambic dimeter. Teanslation by W. J. Cour- 
thope. There are fourteen translations. Theme: The 
work of the fifth day — the creation of the birds and fishes, 
both of which sprang from a common source, viz., water. 
The work of the fifth day is recorded in Genesis 1, 20-23 : 
Dixit etiam Deus : Producant aquae reptile animse viventis, 
et volatile super terram sub firmamento coeli. Creavitque 
Deus cete grandia, et omnem animam viventem atque mota- 
bilem, quam produxerant aquas in species suas, et omne 
volatile secundum genus suum. Et vidit Deus quod esset 
bonum. Benedixitque eis, dicens: Crescite et multipli- 
camini, et replete aquas maris; avesque multiplicentur 
super terram. Et factum est vespere et mane dies quintus. 

1. **0 God of great power, who dost assign in part the 

81 



THE PSALTER 

offsprings of the fertile water, to the deep, and in part dost 
raise them aloft in the air;" Fertili: The water is called 
fruitful since it is the common source from which the natos 
— the birds and fishes — sprang. Natos (ex). Gurgiti, lit., 
a whirlpool ; the sea, the waters. 

2. **Thou dost consign the fishes to the waters, and 
liftest up the birds on high, that animals proceeding from 
the same source might occupy different places." Supply 
cmimalia after demersa, suhvecta, and prodita. Demersa, 
all living creatures that make their home in the waters. 
Suhvecta (from suhveho, to bring up from below), the 
birds — brought up from the waters and assigned to the 
air. 

3. "Grant to all Thy servants, whom the stream of Thy 
blood hath cleansed, to know not sinful falls, nor suffer 
the loathsomeness of spiritual death." Largire, imper. of 
largior. TJnda sanguinis: This is by some taken as equiva- 
lent to unda et sanguis. It would then contain a reference 
to the blood and water that flowed from the pierced side of 
Our Lord (cf. John 19, 34). 

4. **Let guilt depress no one; let pride exalt no one, lest 
the despondent soul be disheartened, and the proud soul be 
ruined. ' ' 



FRIDAY AT VESPERS 

28 Hominis superne Conditor 

TTOMINIS superne Conditor, "IMTAKER of man, who from Thy 
"■•-■■ Qui cuncta solus ordinans, -'-*-■• throne 
Humum jubes producere Dost order all things, God alone; 

Reptantis et ferae genus: By whose decree the teeming earth 

To reptile and to beast gave birth : 

*Et magna rerum corpora. The mighty forms that fill the 
Dictu jubentis vivida, land, 

Per temporum certas vices Instinct with life at Thy com- 
Obtemperare servulis: mand, 



Are given subdued to humankind 
For service in their rank assigned. 



82 



FRIDAY AT VESPERS 

• Repelle, quod cupidinis From all Thy servants drive away 

Ciente vi nos impetit, Whate'er of thought impure to-day 

Aut moribus se suggerit, Hath been with open action blent, 

Aut actibus se interserit. Or mingled with the heart's in- 

tent. 

*Da gaudiorura praemia. In heaven Thine endless joys be- 

Da gratiarum munera: stow, 

Dissolve litis vincula: And grant Thy gifts of grace 

Adstringe pacis foedera. below; 

From chains of strife our souls 

release, 
Bind fast the gentle bands of 
peace. 

"Praesta, Pater piissime, Grant this, Father, ever One 

Patrique compar Unice, With Christ, Thy sole-begotten 

Cum Spiritu Paraclito Son, 

Regnans per omne saeculum. Whom, with the Spirit we adore. 

One God, both now and evermore. 

Author: Probably by Pope St. Gregory the Great (540- 
604). Meter: Iambic dimeter. Translation by J. D. 
Chambers, as altered in the English Hymnal. There are 
sixteen translations. First line of Original Text: Plasma- 
tor hominis Deus. Theme: The work of the sixth day — 
the creation of brute animals and of man (Gen. 1, 24-31). 
The following is verses 25 and 27 only: Et fecit Deus 
bestias terrae juxta species suas, et jumenta et omne rep- 
tile terrse in genere suo. Et vidit Deus quod esset bonum. 
. . . Et creavit Deus hominem ad imaginem suam: ad 
imaginem Dei creavit ilium ; masculum et f eminam creavit 
eos. 

1. **0 august Creator of man, who alone dost dispose 
all things. Thou didst command that the earth bring forth 
reptiles and beasts." Genus reptantis=^Te-pti[isi: genus 
/er£E=bestiae terrse. 

2. ''And at the word of the Creator, the huge bodies of 
created beings became instinct with life, to obey Thy 
servants through determined changes of time." Per certas 
vices temporum, i. e., while fixed periods of time shall last, 
man is to rule over **the fishes of the sea, the fowls of the 
air, and the beasts, and the whole earth" (Gen. 1, 26). 

83 



THE PSALTER 

3. ** Drive from us whatever evil desire may assail us 
with roused up violence, whether it attaches itself to our 
morals or intertwines itself with our actions." Se vnter- 
serit, or sows itself among. Abp. Bagshawe translates the 
last two lines : 

Or mingles with our inward lives, 
Or in our actions plays its part. 

4. ** Grant us the reward of heavenly joys; bestow upon 
us gifts of grace; rend asunder the chains of strife; draw 
closer the bonds of peace. ' ' 

SATURDAY AT VESPERS 

29 Jam sol recedit igneus 

JAM sol recedit igneus: A S fades the glowing orb of day, 

Tu lux perennis Unites, -^ To Thee, great source of light, 

Nostris, beata Trinitas, we pray; 

Infunde lumen oordibus. Blest Three in One, to every heart 

Thy beams of life and love im- 
part. 

'Te mane laudum carmine. At early dawn, at close of day, 

Te deprecamur vespere; To Thee our vows we humbly pay; 

Digneris ut te supplices May we, mid joys that never end, 

Laudemus inter coelites. With Thy bright Saints in homage 

bend. 

•Patri, simulque Filio, To God the Father, and the Son, 

Tibique sancte Spiritus, And Holy Spirit, Three in One, 

Sicut fuit, sit jugiter Be endless glory, as before 

Saeclum per omne gloria. The world began, so evermore. 

Author: St. Ambrose (340-397). Meter: Iambic 
dimeter. Translation by Father Potter, altered. First 
line of Original Text: Lux beata Trinitas. There are 
thirty-two translations, twenty of which are from the 
Roman Breviary Text. There are thirteen translations of 
this hymn in the Annus Sanctus, two of which are from the 
Original Text. This hymn is also used at Vespers on the 
Feast of the Most Holy Trinity. The Original Text is 
there given. It is interesting to compare the two texts. 
See hymn 71. 

84 



SPECIAL DOXOLOGIES 

1. **The fiery sun now sinks to rest: Thou light 
eternal, Unity and Blessed Trinity, infuse Thy light 
into our hearts. ' ' As the daylight departs we ask that the 
eternal light shall not fail us. 

2. *'We glorify Thee in the morning with a hymn of 
praise, we supplicate Thee in the evening; deign that we, 
Thy suppliants, may praise Thee among the Blessed." 

3. Jugiter, adv., forever. 



SPECIAL DOXOLOGIES 

Special doxologies are provided in the Breviary for cer- 
tain feasts and seasons. They are all written in iambic 
dimeters, and they replace the ordinary doxologies in all 
hymns of the same meter. 

The following doxology is said from Christmas till the 
Epiphany, during the Octave of Corpus Christi, on the 
feasts of the Sacred Heart and Holy Name, and on feasts 
of the Blessed Virgin and during their Octaves. 

Jesu, tibi sit gloria, All honor, laud, and glory be. 

Qui natus es de Virgine, Jesu, Virgin-born, to Thee; 

Cum Patre, et almo Spiritu, All glory, as is ever meet. 

In sempiterna saecula. To Father and to Paraclete. 

For the Epiphany and Octave 

Jesu, tibi sit gloria, All glory, Lord, to Thee we pay. 

Qui apparuisti gentibus. For Thine Epiphany to-day; 

Cum Patre, et almo Spiritu, All glory, as is ever meet. 

In sempiterna saecula. To Father and to Paraclete. 

la Pascbaltime 

Deo Patri sit gloria, To Thee who, dead, again dost live, 

Et Filio, qui a mortuis All glory, Lord, Thy people give; 

Surrexit, ac Paraclito, All glory, as is ever meet, 

In sempiterna ssecula. To Father and to Paraclete. 

For Ascensiontide 

Jesu, tibi sit gloria. All Glory, Lord, to Thee we pay. 

Qui victor in coelum redis, Ascending o'er the stars to-day; 

Cum Patre, et almo Spiritu, All glory, as is ever meet, 

In sempiterna saecula. To Father and to Paraclete. 

86 



THE PSALTER 
THE ANTIPHONS OF THE BLESSED VIRGIN 

The Antiphons of the Blessed Virgin are four in number. 
In Choir, one of the Antiphons is recited at the end of cer- 
tain hours in accordance with the following general rules : 
1. At the end of Compline, always. 2. At the end of Lauds, 
when no other hour is to follow. 3. When Lauds is fol- 
lowed by Prime and by any of the other hours, the Antiphon 
is said at the end of the last hour recited. 4. At the end of 
any hour recited in Choir when the Office is finished and 
the members of the Choir are to retire from the chapel. 

Out of Choir, an Antiphon is said at the end of Com- 
pline, and at the end of Lauds if the Office is to end with 
Lauds, otherwise at the end of the last hour recited. 

Read the first article on Antiphon in the Cath. Encycl. 
Read also the articles on: Alma Redemptoris Mater, Ave 
Regina, Regina Coeli, and Salve Regina. 



30 



Alma Redemptoris Mater 



\ LMA Redemptoris Mater 
-^^ quae pervia coeli 



MOTHER benign of our re- 
deeming Lord, 



Porta manes, et Stella maris, Star of the sea and portal of the 

succurre cadenti, skies, 

Surgere qui curat, populo: tu quae Unto thy fallen people help 
genuisti, afiford — 

Fallen, but striving still anew to 
rise. 

Natura mirante, tuum sanctum Thou who didst once, while 

Genitorem, wond'ring worlds adored, 

Virgo prius ac posterius, Gabrielis Bear thy Creator, Virgin then as 

ab ore now, 

Sumens illud Ave, peccatorum by thy holy joy at Gabriel's 
miserere. word. 

Pity the sinners who before tliee 
bow. 

Author: Ascribed to Hermann Contractus (1013-1054). 
Meter Hexameter. Julian's Diet, of Hymnol. mentions 
translations by Cardinal Newman, and by Fathers Caswall 
and Wallace, O.S.B. For the above translation the editor 

86 



ANTIPHONS OF OUR LADY 

has to thank the distinguished scholar, the Rt. Rev. Sir 
David Oswald Hunter-Blair, O.S.B. Liturgical Use: 
Antiphon of our Blessed Lady from the Vespers of the 
Saturday before the first Sunday of Advent to the Feast 
of the Purification, inclusive. 

* * loving Mother of the Redeemer, who dost remain the 
ever accessible portal of heaven, and the star of the sea, 
aid thy fallen people who strive to rise ; thou who, a Virgin 
both before and after receiving that Ave from the mouth of 
Gabriel, didst, while nature wondered, give birth to thy 
Holy Creator; have pity on us sinners." 



31 Ave Regina coelorum 

A VE Regina coelorum, TTAIL, Queen of heaven, 

■^*- Ave Domina Angelorum: •*■■■- enthroned! 

Salve radix, salve porta. Hail, by Angels Mistress owned! 

Ex qua mundo lux est orta: Root of Jesse, Gate of morn, 

Whence the world's true Light was 
born : 

Gaude Virgo gloriosa, Glorious Virgin, joy to thee, 

Super omnes speciosa, Loveliest whom in heaven they 

Vale, o valde decora, see: 

Et pro nobis Christum exora. Fairest thou where all are fair. 

Plead with Christ our sins to spare. 

AuTHOKSHip and date of composition uncertain. It has 
been in use since the twelfth century. Meter: Trochaic 
dimeter. Translation by Father Caswall. There are at 
least four additional translations. Liturgical Use: 
Antiphon proper to the season after the Purification, that 
is, from the end of Compline of Feb. 2d (even should the 
Feast of the Purification be transferred) until Maundy 
Thursday, exclusive. 

**Hail, Queen of Heaven; hail. Mistress of Angels; hail, 
Root; hail, Portal whence came forth Light unto the 
world. ' ' 

** Rejoice, glorious Virgin, surpassing all in beauty; we 
greet thee, Virgin most fair, intercede with Christ for us. ' ' 

Radix: "root of Jesse," i.e., an offshoot from the root 

87 



THE PSALTER 

of Jesse; a descendant of Jesse, the father of David. The 
Blessed Virgin was of the House of David ; Jesse therefore 
was one of her ancestors. Mary is a root of Jesse, but her 
Divine Son is the root of Jesse (cf. Is. 11, 1; Bom. 15, 12). 



32 



Regina coeli Icetare 



"DEGINA coeli laetare, alleluja, JOY to thee, Queen of heaven 



Quia quem meruisti portare, 
alleluja, 
Resurrexit, sicut dixit, alleluja, 
Ora pro nobis Deum, alleluja. 



pl^ Alleluia. 

He whom it was thine to bear; 

Alleluia. 
As He promised, hath arisen; 

Alleluia. 
Plead for us a pitying prayer; 

Alleluia. 



Author, unknown ; it is found in 14th cent, manuscripts. 
Translation by Father Caswall. There are ten transla- 
tions. Liturgical Use: Antiphon of Our Lady from Com- 
pline of Holy Saturday, inclusive, till None of the Saturday 
after Pentecost, inclusive. 



33 



Salve Regina 



SALVE Regina, mater miseri- 
cordiae, 
Vita, dulcedo et spes nostra, salve. 
Ad te clamamus, exsules filii 
Hevse. 



SAIL to the Queen who reigns 
above, 
Mother of clemency and love, 
Hail, thou, our hope, life, sweet- 
ness; we 
Eve's banished children cry to 
thee. 



Ad te suspiramus, gementes et 
flentes in hac lacrimariun 
valle. 
Eja ergo, advocata nostra, 
Illos tuos misericordes oculos ad 
nos converte. 

Et Jestmi, benedictum fructum 

ventris tui, 
Nobis post hoc exsilium ostende. 
clemens, o pia, o dulcis Virgo 

Maria. 



We from this wretched vale of 

tears 
Send sighs and groans unto thy 

ears; 
Oh, then, sweet Advocate, bestow 
A pitying look on us below. 

After this exile, let us see 

Our Blessed Jesus, born of thee. 

merciful, pious Maid, 

gracious Mary, lend thine aid. 



88 



ANTIPHONS OF OUR LADY 

Author: Ascribed to Hermann Contractus (1013-1054). 
Translation" from the Primer, 1685. There are fifteen 
metrical translations, and the beautiful prose version which 
is said after every Low Mass. Liturgical Use : Antiphon 
of our Blessed Lady from the First Vespers of the Feast 
of the Most Holy Trinity until None of the Saturday before 
the first Sunday of Advent. Since Jan. 6, 1884, the Salve 
Regina forms a part of the prayers which Pope Leo XIII 
ordered to be said after every Low Mass. 



89 



Part II 
tlf)t proper of tf^t i^eafi(on 
ADVENT 

34 The Great Antiphons of Advent 

The seven Great Antiphons, or Antiphons, as they are 
called, are said, one each day, at the Magnificat in Vespers, 
from December the 17th to the 23d, inclusive. Although not 
written in meter, they are strikingly poetical in thought, 
and replete with Scriptural allusions. Each Antiphon sa- 
lutes the coming Messias under one of His many Scrip- 
tural titles, and closes with a proper petition. The au- 
thorship and date of composition are unknown. They are, 
however, at least as old as the ninth century, and probably 
much older. There are several translations in both prose 
and verse. Mr. Shipley's Annus Sanctus contains a metri- 
cal version by H. N. Oxenham. Read the articles on the 
Antiphons, and on Advent, in the Cath, Encycl, 

O Sapientia 

OSAPIENTIA, quae ex ore Al- r\ WISDOM, that proceedest 

tissimi prodiisti, attingens a ^^ from the mouth of the Most 

fine usque ad finem, fortiter High, reaching from end to end 

suaviterque disponens omnia: mightily, and sweetly disposing 

veni ad docendum nos viam all things: come and teach us the 

prudentise. way of prudence, 

Sapientia: Ego (Sapientia) ex ore Altissimi prodivi 
(Ecclus. 24, 5). Attingens: Attingit ergo a fine usque ad 
finem fortiter, et disponit omnia suaviter (Wis. 8, 1). 

91 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 
O Adonai 

OADONAI, et Dux domus r\ ADONAI, and Leader of the 

Israel, qui Moysi in igne ^^ House of Israel, who didst 

flammae rubi apparuisti, et ei in appear unto Moses in the burning 

Sina legem dedisti: veni ad bush, and gavest Him the Law on 

redimendum nos in brachio ex- Sinai: come and redeem us by 

tento. Thy outstretched arm, 

Adonai: This is the Hebrew substitute for the ineffable 
name of Jehovah. It is rendered in the Vulgate by ** Do- 
minus, ' ' and in the Douay Bible by ' *■ Lord. " It is retained 
in both texts twice, viz., in Exodus 6, 3, and in Judith 16, 
16. Read the foot-note on Exodus 6, 3, in the Douay Bible. 
See also the articles on Adonai, and Jehovah, in the Cath. 
Encycl. Domus Israel: The House of Israel, i.e., the 
Israelites, the Jews, the chosen people of God. The ex- 
pression occurs very often in the Old Testament, and a few 
times in the New. Read the article on Jacob, and the be- 
ginning of the article on Israelite, in the Cath. Encycl. 
FlammcB rubi: Apparuitque ei (Moysi) Dominus in flamma 
ignis de medio rubi (Exod. 3, 2). In Sina legem dedisti: 
Cf. Exod., beginning with chapter 19. 



O Radix 

RADIX Jesse, qui stas in /~\ ROOT of Jesse, who standest 

signum populorum, super ^^ as the ensign of the people, 

quem continebunt reges os suum, before whom kings shall not open 

quern Gentes deprecabuntur : veni their lips; to whom the Gentiles 

ad liberandum nos, jam noli shall pray: come and deliver us, 

tardare, tarry now no more. 

Radix Jesse: In die ilia, radix Jesse, qui stat in signum 
populorum, ipsum gentes deprecabuntur (Is. 11, 10). **Root 
of Jesse," i.e., a descendant from Jesse, the father of David 
(Rom. 15, 12). Our Lord, as the Son of the Virgin Mary, 
was of the House of David, hence a root of Jesse. Signum 
populorum: An allusion to the ensign of the Cross, around 
which the nations would rally. Super quem: super ipsum 
continebunt reges os suum (Is. 52, 15). 

92 



GREATER ANTIPHONS OF ADVENT 

O Clavls David 

OCLAVIS David, et sceptrum /~\ KEY of David, and Scepter 
domus Israel; qui aperis, et ^^ of the House of Israel; who 
nemo claudit; claudis, et nemo openest, and no man shutteth ; who 
aperit: veni, et educ vinctum de shuttest, and no man openeth: 
domo carceris, sedentem in tene- come and lead the captive from 
bris, et umbra mortis. the prison-house, and him that 

sitteth in darkness and in the 
shadow of death. 

Clavis David: Hsec dicit Sanctus et Verus, qui habet 
clavem David : qui aperit, et nemo claudit : claudit, et nemo 
aperit (Apoc. 3, 7). Cf. also Is. 22, 22. Et sceptrum: Et 
Israel sceptrum hereditatis ejus (Jer. 51, 19). Et educ: 
et educeres de conclusione vinctum, de domo carceris seden- 
tes in tenebris (Is. 42, 7). 

O Orlens 

OORIENS, splendor lucis r\ ORIENT, Splendor of the 
astemae, et sol justitiae: veni, ^-^ Eternal Light, and Sun of 
et illumina sedentes in tenebris, Justice: come and enlighten them 
et umbra mortis. that sit in darkness and in the 

shadow of death. 

Oriens: Variously rendered, dayspring, sunrise, dawn, 
east. It is one of the many Scriptural titles of the Mes- 
sias, who was to be the Light of the world (John 8, 12), 
the Sun of Justice (Mai. 4, 2), the Orient from on high who 
visited us (Luke 1, 78), and who from eternity has been the 
Splendor of the Father's glory (Heb. 1, 3). Splendor: 
Candor est enim lucis aeternae (Wis. 7, 26). Illumina: II- 
luminare his, qui in tenebris, et in umbra mortis sedent 
(Luke 1, 79). 

O Rex Qentium 

OREX Gentium, et desideratus r\ KING of the Gentiles, yea, 
earum, lapisque angularis, ^-^ and the desire thereof, the 
qui f acis utraque unum : veni, et Corner-stone that makest both one : 
salva horainem, quern de Ikno come and save man, whom Thou 
formasti. hast made out of the slime of the 

earth. 

93 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

Rex Gentium: Erit radix Jesse, et qui exurget regere 
gentes, in eum gentes sperabunt (Rom. 15, 12; Is. 11, 10). 
Desideratus: et veniet desideratus cunctis gentibus (Agg. 
2, 8). Lapis angularis: Christ is the Corner-stone (Eph. 
2, 20). He is also our peacemaker who maketh both one 
(Eph. 2, 14). The Jews and Gentiles are the two who 
are made one. Christ died for all, and He founded a 
Church to save all men without distinction of race. De 
limo: Formavit igitur Dominus Deus hominem de limo 
terras (Gen. 2, 7). 

O Emmanuel 

EMMANUEL, Rex et legifer r\ EMMANUEL, our king and 
noster, exspectatio gentium, ^^ lawgiver, the expectation of 
et Salvator earum: veni ad sal- all nations and their Saviour: 
vandum nos Domine Deus noster. come and save us, Lord our 

God. 

Emmanuel: Cf. Matt. 1, 23. Exspectatio gentium: et 
ipse erit exspectatio gentium (Gen. 49, 10). Read the ar- 
ticle on Emmanuel, in the Cath. Encycl. 

The following beautiful paraphrase of five of the above 
Antiphons is found in a hymn which dates from the be- 
ginning of the eighteenth century. The translation is by 
J. M. Neale. 

34B Vent» veni, Emmanuel 

VENI, veni, Emmanuel; /~\ COME, come, Emmanuel, 

Captivum solve Israel, ^-^ And ransom captive Israel, 

Qui gemit in exilio. That mourns in lonely exile here, 

Privatus Dei Filio. Until the Son of God appear. 
Gaude! gaude! Emmanuel Rejoice! rejoice! Emmanuel 

Nascetur pro te, Israel. Shall come to thee, Israel. 

"Veni, o Jesse Virgula; O come, Thou Rod of Jesse, free 

Ex hostis tuos imgula. Thine own from Satan's tyranny; 

De specu tuos tartari From depths of hell Thy people 

Educ, et antro barathri. save, 

Gaude! gaude! Emmanuel And give them victory o'er the 

Nascetur pro te, Israel. grave. 

Rejoice! rejoice! Emmanuel 
Shall come to thee, Israel. 

94 



ADVENT 



•Veni, veni, o Oriens; 
Solare nos adveniens; 
Noctis depelle nebulas 
Dirasque noctis tenebras. 
Gaude! gaude! Emmanuel 
Nascetur pro te, Israel. 



*Veni, Clavis Davidica; 
Regna reclude coelica; 
Fac iter tutum superum, 
Et claude vias inferum. 
Gaude! gaude! Emmanuel 
Nascetur pro te, Israel. 



'Veni, veni, Adonai, 
Qui populo in Sinai 
Legem dedisti vertice 
In ma j estate gloriae. 

Gaude! gaude! Emmanuel 
Nascetur pro te, Israel. 



come, Thou Dayspring, frwn on 

high, 
And cheer us by Thy drawing 

nigh; 
Disperse the gloomy clouds of 

night. 
And death's dark shadows put to 

flight. 
Rejoice! rejoice! Emmanuel 
Shall come to thee, Israel. 

come, Thou Key of David, come 
And open wide our heavenly 

home; 
Make safe the way that leads on 

high 
And close the path to misery. 
Rejoice! rejoice! Emmanuel 
Shall come to thee, Israel. 

come, Adonai, Lord of might, 
Who to Thy tribes, on Sinai's 

height, 
In ancient times didst give the law 
In cloud and majesty and awe. 
Rejoice! rejoice! Emmanuel 
Shall come to thee, Israel. 



35 



Creator alme siderum 



CREATOR alme siderum, 
interna lux credentium, 
Jesu Redemptor omnium, 
Intende votis supplicum. 



BRIGHT Builder of the heaven- 
ly poles. 
Eternal light of faithful souls, 
Jesus, Redeemer of mankind. 
Our humble prayers vouchsafe to 
mind. 



'Qui daemonis ne fraudibus 
Periret orbis, impetu 
Amoris actus, languidi 
Mundi medela factus es. 



Who, lest the fraud of hell's black 

king 
Should all men to destruction 

bring, 
Didst, by an act of generous love, 
The fainting world's physician 

prove. 



95 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 



'Commune qui mundi nefas 
Ut expiares; ad crucem 
E Virginis sacrario 
Intacta prodis victima. 



*Cujus potestas gloriae, 
Nomenque cum primum sonat; 
Et coelites et inferi 
Tremente curvantur genu. 



Te deprecamur ultimae 
Magnum diei Judicem, 
Armis supernae gratiae 
Defende nos ab hostibus. 



'Virtus, honor, laus, gloria 
Deo Patri cum Filio, 
Sancto simul Paraclito, 
In sseculorum ssecula. 



Who, that Thou mightst our ran- 
som pay 

And wash the stains of sin away, 

Wouldst from a Virgin's womb 
proceed 

And on the Cross a Victim bleed. 

Whose glorious power, whose sav- 
ing name 

No sooner any voice can frame. 

But heaven and earth and hell 
agree 

To honor them with trembling 
knee. 

Thee, Christ, who at the latter 

day 
Shalt be our Judge, we humbly 

pray 
Such arms of heavenly grace to 

send 
As may Thy Church from foee 

defend. 

Be glory given and honor done 
To God the Father and the Son 
And to the Holy Ghost on high, 
From age to age eternally. 



Author : Ambrosian, 7tli cent. Meter : Iambic dimeter. 
Translation : a cento from the Primer, 1685^ and the Even- 
img Office, 17 10. First line of Original Text ; Conditor ahne 
siderum. The Advent hymns were greatly altered by the 
revisers under Pope Urban VIII (1632). Only one line of 
this hymn was left unaltered, and only twelve words of the 
original were retained. Including both texts there are 
about thirty translations, nine of which are in Mr. Shipley's 
Annus Smictus, both texts being represented. Liturgical 
Use: Vespers hymn for Sundays and week-days during 
Advent. 

The hymns and antiphons of Advent present in a concise 
and admirable manner the leading ideas of that holy sea- 
sou. 

96 



ADVENT 

1. '^0 Jesus, kind Creator of the stars, eternal light 
of the faithful, Redeemer of all, give ear to the prayers 
of Thy suppliants. ' ' Creator: Omnia per ipsum facta sunt : 
et sine ipso factum est nihil quod factum est (John 1, 3). 
Lux: Erat lux vera, quae illuminat omnem hominem venien- 
tem in hunc mundum (John 1, 9). 

2. ' ' Thou wast impelled by the power of love to become 
a remedy for the languid world, lest mankind should perish 
through the cunning of the devil." Constr. Qui actus 
impetu amoris, factus es medela mundi languidi, ne orbis 
fraudibus daemonis periret. Actus=comiiiot\is. 

3. *'To expiate the common guilt of mankind. Thou, a 
spotless Victim, didst go forth to the Cross from the sacred 
womb of a Virgin." 

4. * ' The might of Thy glory is such that as soon as Thy 
name is uttered, the blessed and the damned alike bend 
with trembling knee." Cujus (est). Nomen: Ut in nomine 
Jesu omne genu flectatur ccelestium, terrestrium et infer- 
norum (Philip. 2, 10). 

5. ''We beseech Thee, great Judge of the last day, de- 
fend us from our enemies with weapons of heavenly grace. ' ' 



36 Verbum supernum prodiens 

VERBUM supernum prodiens, /"^ELESTIAL Word, to this our 
E Patris astern i sinu ^ earth 

Qui natus orbi subvenis, Sent down from God's eternal 

Labente cursu temporis: clime. 

To save mankind by mortal birth 
Into a world of change and time; 

'Illimiina nunc pectora, Enlighten our hearts; vain hopes 

Tuoque amore concrema, destroy; 

Ut cor caduca deserens And in Thy love's consuming fire 

Coeli voluptas impleat. Fill all the soul with heavenly joy, 

And melt the dross of low desire. 

'Ut, cum tribunal Judicis So when the Judge of quick and 

Damnabit igni noxios, dead 

Shall bid His awful summons 
come, 

97 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

Et vox arnica debitum To whelm the guilty aoul with 

Vocabit ad coelum pios. dread, 

And call the blessed to their home, 

* Non esca flammarum nigros Saved from the whirling, black 

Volvamur inter turbines, abyss, 

Vultu Dei sed compotes Forevermore to us be given 

Coeli fruamur gaudiis. To share the feast of saintly bliss, 

And see the face of God in heaven. 

To God the Father and the Son 
"Patri simulque Filio, Our songs with one accord we 

Tibique sancte Spiritus, raise; 

Sicut fuit, sit jugiter And to the Holy Spirit, One 

Saeclum per omne gloria. With Them, be ever equal praise. 



Author: Ambrosian, 5th or 6th cent. Meter: Iambic 
dimeter. Translation by W. J. Courthope. There are 
about thirty translations, four of which are in the Annus 
Sanctus. Liturgical Use: Hymn for Matins on Sundays 
and week-days during Advent. There is an article on this 
hymn in the Cath. Encycl. 

1. * ' Heavenly "Word proceeding from the bosom of the 
Eternal Father, Thou wast born, and didst come to the aid 
of the world, in the fleeting course of time. ' ' Verhunij the 
Word, the Eternal Son (cf. John 1, 1-14). Constr.: Qui 
labente cursu temporis (abl. absol.) natus es (et) orbi sub- 
venis. 

2. "Enlighten Thou our hearts and inflame them with 
Thy love, that the joys of heaven may fill the heart which 
abandons perishable things." Constr.: Ut voluptas coeli 
impleat cor deserens caduca. 

3-4. * * That when the tribunal of the Judge shall condemn 
the guilty to the flames, and a friendly voice shall call the 
just to the heaven due to them, may we then not be cast 
headlong into the black whirlpool as the food of flames, but 
participating in the beatific vision, may we enjoy the 
pleasures of heaven." Dehitum: due to them, because 
promised to them by Christ. Constr. : Ut non volvamur 
esca flammarum inter nigros turbines, sed compotes vultu 
Dei fruamur gaudiis cceli. 

9S 



37 



ADVENT 
En clara vox redarguit 



EN clara vox redarguit 
Obscura quaeque personans: 
Procul fugentur somnia: 
Ab alto Jesus promicat. 



'Mens jam resurgat torpida, 
Non amplius jacens humi: 
Sidus refulget jam novum, 
Ut tollat omne noxium. 



' En Agnus ad nos mittitur 
Laxare gratis debitum: 
Omnes simul cmn lacrimis 
Precemur indulgentiam: 



*Ut, cum secundo fulserit, 
Metuque mundum cinxerit, 
Non pro reatu puniat, 
Sed nos pius tunc protegat. 



''Virtus, honor, laus, gloria 
Deo Patri cum Filio, 
Sancto simul Paraclito, 
In ssculorum ssecula. 



TJARK, a herald voice is call- 

"Christ is nigh," it seems to say; 
"Cast away the dreams of darkness, 
O ye children of the day." 

Startled at the solemn warning. 
Let the earth-bound soul arise; 
Christ, her Sun, all sloth dis- 
pelling. 
Shines upon the morning skies. 

Lo, the Lamb, so long expected, 
Comes with pardon down from 

heaven ; 
Let us haste, with tears of sorrow, 
One and all to be forgiven. 

So when next He comes with 

glory. 
Wrapping all the earth in fear. 
May He then as our defender 
On the clouds of heaven appear. 

Honor, glory, virtue, merit, 
To the Father and the Son, 
With the co-eternal Spirit, 
While eternal ages run. 



Author: Ambrosian, 5tli cent. Meter: Iambic dimeter. 
Translation by Father Caswall, first line altered. First 
line of Original Text: Vox clara ecce intonat. There are 
twenty-seven translations, seven of which are from the 
Original Text. The Annus Sanctus contains three trans- 
lations. This beautiful hymn breathes the spirit of Ad- 
vent: it is an excellent summary of the Epistle (Rom. 13, 
11-14), and of the Gospel (Luke 21, 25-33) of the first Sun- 
day of Advent. Liturgical Use : Hymn for Lauds on Sun- 
days and week-days during Advent. 

1. **Lo, a clear voice exhorts, penetrating everything 
darksome: Let dreams be banished afar: Jesus shines 
forth from heaven." Clara vox: These words are probably 

99 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

an allusion to the great preacher of penance, St. John the 
Baptist, who said of himself : Ego vox clamantis in deserto: 
dirigite viam Domini, sicut dixit Isaias propheta (John 
1, 23: Is. 40, 3). Redarguit: lit., to contradict, refute; to 
admonish, urge to penance. This stanza might also be 
rendered: ''Behold, a clear penetrating voice reveals the 
falsity of darksome things," etc. 

2. ''Let the slothful soul now rise, no longer remaining 
prostrate on the ground: a new star now shines forth to 
take away everything harmful. ' ' Sidus novum = Christus. 
Christ was the star that was to rise out of Jacob (Num. 
24, 17), and take away the sins of the world (John 1, 29). 
Noxium, sinful. 

3. "Behold, the Lamb is sent to us, to pay our debt 
gratuitously: together, let us all with tears pray for par- 
don." Agnus: In the Scriptures, the lamb is a most com- 
mon symbol of Our Lord (cf. Is. 53, 7; Jer. 11, 19; John 
1, 29). 

4. "That, when for the second time He comes resplen- 
dent and girdles the world with fear, He may not punish 
us according to our deserts, but may He then lovingly pro- 
tect us. ' ' Fulserit = fulgens advenerit. 



CHRISTMASTIDE 
38 Jesu, Redemptor omnium 

JESU, Redemptor omnium, TESUS, the Ransomer of man, 

Quem lucis ante originem J Who, ere created light began, 

Parem paternae gloriae Didst from the sovereign Father 

Pater supremus edidit. spring, 

His power and glory equalling. 

^Tu lumen, et splendor Patris, The Father's Light and Splendor 

Tu spes perennis omnium, Thou, 

Intende quas fundunt preces Their endless Hope to Thee that 

Tui per orbem servuli. bow; 

Accept the prayers and praise 

to-day 
That through the world Thy 
servants pay. 

100 



CHRISTMASTIDE 



'Memento, rerum Conditor, 
Nostri quod dim corporis, 
Sacrata ab alvo Virginis 
Nascendo, formam sumpseris. 



*Testatur hoc prsesens dies, 
Currens per anni circulum. 
Quod solus e sinu Patris 
Mundi salus adveneris. 



'Hunc astra, tellus, aequora, 
Hunc omne quod coelo subest, 
Salutis Auctorem novae 
Novo salutat cantico. 



* Et nos, beata quos sacri 
Rigavit unda sanguinis; 
Natalis ob diem tui 
Hymni tributum solvimus. 



'Jesu, tibi sit gloria, 
Qui natus es de Virgine, 
Cum Patre, et almo Spiritu 
In sempiterna ssecula. 



Salvation's Author, call to mind 
How, taking form of humankind, 
Born of a Virgin undefiled, 
Thou in man's flesh becam'st a 
Child. 

Thus testifies the present day. 
Through every year in long array, 
That Thou, salvation's source 

alone, 
Proceededst from the Father's 

throne. 

The heavens above, the rolling 

main 
And all that earth's wide realms 

contain, 
With joyous voice now loudly 

sing 
The glory of their new-born King. 

And we who, by Thy precious 

Blood 
From sin redeemed, are marked 

for God, 
On this the day that saw Thy 

birth, 
Sing the new song of ransomed 

earth. 

Lord, the Virgin-born, to Thee 
Eternal praise and glory be, 
Whom with the Father we adore 
And Holy Ghost forevermore. 



Author: Ambrosian, 6tli cent. Meter: Iambic dimeter. 
Translation by J. M. Neale, Father Potter, and the Even- 
ing OfiQce, 1710. First line of Original Text: Christe, Re- 
demptor omnium. There are twenty-five translations, six 
of which are in the Annus Sanctus. Liturgical Use : Hymn 
for Vespers and Matins on Christmas Day. 

1. ''Jesus, the Eedeemer of all, who, being the equal of 
the Father's glory, was begotten of the Sovereign Father 
before the beginning of light." The three Persons of the 
Holy Trinity are co-equal, co-eternal, and consubstantial. 

101 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

2. *'Thou light and splendor of the Father, Thou never- 
failing hope of all, give ear to the prayers which Thy ser- 
vants throughout the world pour forth." In the hymna, 
Christ is repeatedly styled, lux, juhar, lumen, and splen- 
dor Patris. Cum sit splendor glorise et figura substantiie 
ejus (1 Heb. 1, 3). 

3. "Remember, Creator of the world, that in being 
born Thou didst once assume the form of our body from the 
sacred womb of a Virgin." 

4. ''The present day (the Feast of Christmas) recurring 
in the course of each year, bears witness to this, that Thou 
alone didst come forth from the bosom of the Father, the 
salvation of the world." Solus = Filius unigenitus. 

5. ' ' The stars, the earth, and the seas, and every creature 
under heaven doth greet Him with a new canticle, as the 
author of the new salvation." Salutis novae: the New Law 
with its Sacraments and other means of grace. 

6. ''"We also, whom the sacred stream of Thy blood hath 
cleansed, pay Thee the tribute of a hymn on Thy birth- 
day." 



39 A soils ortus cardine 

ASOLIS ortus cardine tpROM lands that see the sun 

Ad usque terrae limitem, ■■- arise 

Christum canamus Principem, To earth's remotest boundaries, 
Natum Maria Virgine. The Virgin-born to-day we sing, 

The Son of Mary, Christ the King. 

' Beatus auctor saeculi Blest Author of this earthly frame, 

Servile corpus induit: To take a servant's form He came, 

Ut came carnem liberans, That, liberating flesh by flesh, 

Ne perderet quos condidit. Whom He had made might live 

afresh. 

* Cast8e Parentis viscera In that chaste parent's holy womb 

Coelestis intrat gratia: Celestial grace hath found its 

Venter Puellee bajulat home; 

Secreta, quae non noverat. And she, as earthly bride un- 

known, 
Yet calls that Offspring blest her 
own. 

102 



CHRISTMASTIDE 



•Domus pudici pectoris 
Templura repente fit Dei: 
Intacta nesciens virum, 
Concepit alvo Filium. 



'Enititur puerpera, 
Quem Gabriel praedixerat, 
Quern ventre Matris gestiens, 
Baptista clausum senserat. 



'Fceno jacere pertulit: 
Prsesepe non abhorruit: 
Et lacte modico pastus est, 
Per quem nee ales esurit. 



^ Gaudet chorus coelestium, 
Et Angeli canunt Deo; 
Palamque fit pastoribus 
Pastor, Creator omnium. 



'Jesu, tibi sit gloria, 
Qui natus es de Virgine, 
Cum Patre, et almo Spiritu, 
In sempiterna saecula. 



The mansion of the modest breast 
Becomes a shrine where God shall 

rest: 
The pure and undefiled one 
Conceived in her womb the Son. 

That Son, that Royal Son she bore, 

Whom Gabriel's voice had told 
afore; 

Whom, in His mother yet con- 
cealed, 

The infant Baptist had revealed. 

The manger and the straw He bore, 
The cradle did He not abhor; 
By milk in infant portions fed. 
Who gives e'en fowls their daily 
bread. 

The heavenly chorus filled the 

sky. 
The Angels sang to God on high, 
What time to shepherds, watching 

lone, 
They made creation's Shepherd 

known. 

All honor, laud, and glory be, 
Jesu, Virgin -born to Thee: 
All glory, as is ever meet, 
To Father and to Paraclete, 



Author: Sedulius, 5tli cent. Meter; Iambic dimeter. 
Translation by J. M. Neale. There are eighteen transla- 
tions, two of which are in the Annus Sanctus. Liturgical 
Use : Hymn for Lauds on Christmas Day. This is a part 
(from A to G) of an alphabetical hymn, the stanzas of 
which begin with successive letters of the alphabet. This 
hymn and No. 46, Crudelis Herodes Deum, are parts of the 
same hymn. Together they give in verse a devout descrip- 
tion of the life of Christ. 

1. ''From the beginning of the rising of the sun, to the 
uttermost bounds of the earth, let us sing Christ, the Lord, 
bom of the Virgin Mary." Car dine, lit., a hinge, also in 

103 



PROPEU OF THE SEASON 

astron. a pole : cardo mundi, cardo coeli. A solis ortu usque 
ad occasum laudabile nomen Domini (Ps. 112, 3). 

2. ''The Blessed Creator of the world assumed a servile 
body, that by flesh, He might liberate flesh, lest He lose 
those whom He had created.'' Servile corpus: formam 
servi accipiens (Phil. 2, 7). Ut came carnem lihercms: 
That by His incarnation He might liberate mankind from 
the power of the devil. 

3. ''A heavenly grace enters the bosom of the chaste 
Mother : the womb of a virgin bears secrets, which she had 
not thought of." Gratia, in the sense of the "Author of 
grace." Seer eta: the incarnate Son of God. Non noverat: 
Mary had no foreknowledge of the mystery that was to be 
wrought in her womb. 

4. * ' The mansion of her modest bosom suddenly becomes 
the temple of God: unsullied, knowing not man, she con- 
ceived in her womb a Son." Nesciens virum, (cf. Luke 1, 
34-41). 

5. ''The Mother brought forth Him whom Gabriel had 
predicted, whom the Baptist, exulting had perceived, 
though still enclosed in the womb of his mother." Puerpera, 
from puer and par ere. Baptista gestiens: Et factum est, 
ut audivit salutationem Marise Elisabeth, exultavit infans 
in utero ejus: et repleta est Spiritu sancto Elisabeth (Luke 
1, 41). The first chapter of St. Luke's Gospel is very beau- 
tiful. It contains two sublime canticles, the Magnificat 
(verses 46-55), and the Benedictus (verses 68-79). 

6. "He deigned to lie on hay, nor did He disdain the 
crib : and He, by whose providence not even a bird suffers 
hunger, is fed with a little milk." Prcesepe, is, manger, 
crib ; this word occurs in several forms ; see Glossary. 

7. "The choir of Saints rejoices, the Angels hymn their 
God, and the Shepherd, the Creator of all, became known 
to the shepherds." For the Scriptural references in this 
stanza, read Luke 2, 13-18. 



104 



40 



CHRISTMASTIDE 
Adeste, fideles 



ADESTE, fideles, 
Lseti triumphantes ; 
Venite, venite in Bethlehem; 
Natum videte 
Regem Angelorum: 
Venite adoremus, 
Venite adoremus, 
Venite adoremus Dominum. 

* Deum de Deo, 

Lumen de lumine, 
Gestant puellae viscera: 

Deum verum, 

Genitum, non factum: 
Venite adoremus Dominum. 



' Cantet nunc lo! 

Chorus angelorum: 
Cantet nunc aula ccelestium, 

Gloria 

In excelsis Deo! . 
Venite adoremus Dominum. 



COME, all ye faithful. 
Joyful and triumphant, 
hasten, hasten to Bethlehem; 
See in a manger 
The Monarch of Angels. 
O come let us worship 
Christ the Lord. 



God of God eternal, 
Light from Light proceeding, 
He deigns in the Virgin's womb 
to lie; 
Very God of very God, 
Begotten, not created. 
come, etc. 

Sing alleluia. 
All ye choirs of Angels; 
Sing, all ye citizens of heaven 
above, 
Glory to God 
In the highest. 
come, etc. 

Yea, Lord, we greet Thee, 
Born this happy morning; 
To Thee, Jesus, be glory given; 
True Word of the Father, 
In our flesh appearing. 
come let us worship 
Christ the Lord. 



• Ergo qui natus 

Die hodierna, 
Jesu tibi sit gloria: 

Patris aeterni 

Verbum caro factum! 

Venite adoremus, 

Venite adoremus, 
Venite adoremus Dominum. 

AuTHOK unknown. 18th cent. Translation by Canon 
Oakeley. There are forty translations. The complete hymn 
consists of eight stanzas, four of which are commonly used 
at Benediction during Christmastide. There are four 
translations of this hymn in Mr. Shipley's Annus Sanctus; 
the one by J. C. Earle is a translation of the complete 
hymn. The Adeste Fideles is not found in the Breviary or 
Missal. It is a beautiful invitation to the faithful **to 
come to Bethlehem" in spirit, and worship the new-born 
Saviour. 

105 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

**With the exception of the Dies Irce and the Stahat 
Mater," says W. J. Grattan-Flood, Mus.D., '4t is doubt- 
ful if there is a more popular hymn in our churches than 
the Adeste Fideles" {The Dolphin, Dec, 1905). The above 
translation is literal. In 1. 15, lo is an inter j. expressing 
great joy. Line 17, aula coelestium, the court of the blessed, 
the heavenly court. 



The Holy Innocents 



41 



Audit tyr annus anxius 



AUDIT tyrannus anxius 
Adesse regum Principem, 
Qui nomen Israel regat, 
Teneatque David regiam. 



*Exclamat amens nuntio: 
Successor instat, pellimur: 
Satelles, i, ferrum rape: 
Perfunde cunas sanguine. 



WITH terror doth the tyrant 
hear 
The King of kings hath come to 

dwell 
Where David's court shall widely 

rear 
A sceptered reign o'er Israel. 

Then cries out, raging, at the 

word: 
"He comes to stand where we have 

stood : 
Hence, soldier, and with ruthless 

sword 
Deluge the cradles deep with 

blood!" 



Quid proficit tantum nefas? 
Quid crimen Herodem juvat? 
Unus tot inter funera 
Impune Christus tollitur. 



*Jesu, tibi sit gloria, 
Qui natus es de Virgine, 
Cum Patre, et almo Spiritu 
In sempiterna saecula. 



What profiteth a crime so dread? 
What hope shall Herod's bosom 

sway? 
Alone amidst the thronging dead. 
The Christ is safely borne away! 

All glory for this blessed morn 
To God the Father ever be; 
All praise to Thee, Virgin-bom, 
All praise, Holy Ghost, to Thee. 



Author: Prudentius (348-413). Meter: Iambic dimeter. 
Translation by Monsignor Henry. There are eleven trans- 
lations. Liturgical Use : Hymn for Matins on the Feast of 

106 



THE HOLY INNOCENTS 

the Holy Innocents. This hymn is a cento from the twelfth 
and last poem in the Cathemerinon of Prudentius, and in 
its full form it contains 208 lines. First line of complete 
hymn: Quicumque Christum quceritis. Four beautiful 
centos from this hymn were included in the Breviary by 
Pius V (1568). One of these centos begins with the first 
line of the complete hymn. The following are the four 
centos, their composition, and their liturgical use : 

1. Quicumque Christum quceritis (11. 1-4; 37-44; 85-88). 
Transfiguration. 

2. sola magnarum urhium (11. 77-80; 5-8; 61-64; 69- 
72). Epiphany. 

3. Audit tyrannus anxius (11. 93-100; 133-136). Holy 
Innocents. 

4. Salvete flores martyrum (11. 125-132). Holy Inno- 
cents. 

There is an article in the Cath. Encyl., treating of all four 
hymns, under the general heading: Quicumque Christum 
quceritis. 

1. ''The anxious tyrant hears that the King of kings is 
come, who would rule the people of Israel and possess the 
royal throne of David." Tyrannus anxius: Audiens autem 
Herodes rex, turbatus est, et omnis Jerosolyma cum illo 
(Matt. 2, 3). Regum Princeps: Jesus Christ — ^the prince 
of the kings of the earth (Apoc. 1, 5). Nomen Israel = 
populus Israel. Regiam (sc. sedem). Et dabit illi Dominus 
Deus sedem David patris ejus (Luke 1, 32). 

2. ''Kendered frantic by the message, he cries out: *A 
successor is at hand, we are driven away: go, executioner, 
take the sword, drench the cradles with blood ! ' " Satelles, 
sing, for pi., attendants, bodyguard, soldiers. For the 
Scriptural account of the massacre of the Holy Innocents, 
see Matt. 2, 16-18. See also the articles on Holy Innocents 
and Herod, in the Cath. Encycl. 

3. "But what availeth so great an outrage? What 
profiteth Herod this crime? Among so many slain, Christ 
alone is safely borne away. ' ' Unus = solus. Funera, lit., 
funerals ; corpses, also death, esp. a violent death. 



107 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 
42 Salvete flores Martyrum 

SALVETE flores Martyrum, A LL hail, ye little Martyr 

Quos lucis ipso in limine -^^ flowers, 
Christi insecutor sustulit, Sweet rosebuds cut in dawning 

Ceu turbo nascentes rosas. hours! 

When Herod sought the Christ to 

find 
Ye fell as bloom before the wind. 

^Vos prima Christi victima. First victims of the Martyr bands, 

Grex immolatorum tener. With crowns and palms in tender 

Aram sub ipsam simplices hands, 

Palma et coronis luditis. Around the very altar, gay 

And innocent, ye seem to play. 

^Jesu, tibi sit gloria. All honor, laud, and glory be, 

Qui natus es de Virgine, O Jesu, Virgin-bom to Thee; 

Cmn Patre et almo Spiritu, All glory, as is ever meet 

In sempiterna saecula. To Father and to Paraclete. 



Authoe: Prudentius (348-413). Meter: Iambic dimeter. 
Translation by Athelstan Riley. There are about twenty- 
five translations. Liturgical Use : Hymn for Lauds on the 
Feast of the Holy Innocents, This hymn is a cento from 
the Cathemerinon. See the Notes on the preceding hymn. 

1. *'Hail, flowers of the martyrs, whom on the very 
threshold of life, the persecutor of Christ snatched away 
even as the whirlwind, the budding roses." Lucis, lit., 
light ; fig., life ; or in a mystical sense, Christ. 

2. *'As the first sacrifice for Christ, a tender flock of 
victims, with sweet simplicity, ye play with your palms 
and crowns at the very altar side." Aram sub ipsam: 
The Original Text has a7ite for sub. Vidi subtus aitare 
animas interfectorum propter verbum Dei (Apoc. 6, 9). 
This stanza has been greatly admired. It presents a pic- 
ture of great beauty. The following is Father Caswall's 
translation of this hymn, of which Monsignor Henry says : 
"Not to speak of the beauty and fidelity of the rendering, 
the trochaic rhythm vividly conveys the sense of the sud- 
denness of the onslaught, the ruthlessness and swiftness of 
the destruction." {Cath. Encycl. Vol. XII, p. 607). 

108 



THE HOLY NAME 



42B 

FLOWERS of martyrdom all 
hail! 
Smitten by the tyrant foe 
On life's threshold, — as the 

gale 
Strews the roses ere they 'blow. 



First to bleed for Christ, sweet 

lambs! 
What a simple death ye died! 
Sporting with your wreaths and 

palms 
At the very altar side! 



43 



Honor, glory, virtue, merit. 
Be to Thee, Virgin's Son! 
With the Father, and the Spirit, 
While eternal ages run. 

The Holy Name of Jesus 

VESPERS 

Jesti dulcis memoria 



JESU dulcis memoria, 
Dans vera cordis gaudia: 
Sed super mel, et omnia, 
Ejus dulcis praesentia. 

^Nil canitur suavius, 
Nil auditur jucundius. 
Nil cogitatur dulcius, 
Quam Jesus Dei Filius. 



'Jesu spes poenitentibus, 
Quam pius es petentibus! 
Quam bonus te quaerentibus ! 
Sed quid invenientibus? 



*Nec lingua valet dicere, 
Nee littera exprimere: 
Expertus potest credere. 
Quid sit Jesum diligere. 

"Sis Jesu nostrum gaudium. 
Qui es futurus praemium: 
Sit nostra in te gloria, 
Per cuncta semper saecula. 



JESU, the very thought of Thee 
With sweetness fills my breast; 
But sweeter far Thy face to see, 
And in Thy presence rest. 

Nor voice can sing, nor heart can 

frame. 
Nor can the memory find, 
A sweeter sound than Thy blest 

Name, 
Saviour of mankind! 

O Hope of every contrite heart, 

O Joy of all the meek, 

To those who fall, how kind 

Thou art! 
How good to those who seek! 

But what to those who find? Ah! 

this 
Nor tongue nor pen can show: 
The love of Jesus, what it is 
None but His loved ones know. 

Jesu, our only joy be Thou, 
As Thou our prize wilt be; 
Jesu, be Thou our glory now. 
And through eternity. 



109 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

Author: St. Bernard (1091-1153). Meter: Iambic 
dimeter. Translation by Father Caswall. Liturgical 
Use: This and the two following centos are used on the 
Feast of the Holy Name, which is celebrated on the Sun- 
day between the Circumcision and the Epiphany, or failing 
such a Sunday, on January 2d. 

The complete hymn as found in the Benedictine edition 
of the Opera of St. Bernard contains forty-eight stanzas. 
There are six translations of the complete hymn. Many 
centos from the hymn, including the three given here for 
Vespers, Matins, and Lauds, have been translated more 
frequently. There are two translations of these three 
centos in Mr. Shipley's Annus Sanctus. 

The Jesu dulcis memoria is a hymn of surpassing sweet- 
ness, and it has been universally accorded a place among 
the greatest hymns of the Church. According to Mr. 
James Mearns, the assistant editor of Julian's Dictionary 
of Hymnology, this hymn is "The finest and most charac- 
teristic specimen of St. Bernard's 'subjective loveliness' 
and its honied sweetness vindicates his title of * Doctor 
Melifluus.' " Father Caswall's much admired translation 
preserves much of the "honied sweetness" of the original. 

The ascription of this hymn to St. Bernard has been 
called in question. Dom Pothier has discovered a copy of 
it in manuscripts of about the year 1070, in which it is 
ascribed to a Benedictine abbess. Father Blume, S.J., in 
the article on Hymnody in the Cath. Encycl. pronounces 
against its ascription to St. Bernard. On the other hand 
Mr. James Mearns says: "This hymn has been generally 
(and there seems little reason to doubt correctly) ascribed 
to St. Bernard." {Diet, of Hymnal.) There is an article on 
this hymn in the Index Vol. of the Cath. Encycl. 

1. "Jesus! how sweet is the very thought! giving true 
joys of heart; but surpassing honey and all sweetness is 
His sweet presence." Supply est in lines 1 and 4. The 
Holy Name has Jesu m all the cases except the nom. and 
ace. 

2. "Nothing more sweet can be sung, nothing more 
pleasant can be heard, nothing more lovely can be thought 
of, than Jesus, the Son of God." 

110 



THE HOLY NAME 

3. *'0 Jesus, the hope of penitents, how kind art Thou 
to those who pray! How good to those who seek Thee! 
But what to those who find!" This question is answered 
in the following stanza. 

4. ''No tongue can tell, nor can written word express it: 
only one who knows from experience can say what it means 
to love Jesus." 

5. "Mayest Thou, Jesus, be our joy, as Thou wilt be 
our reward : in Thee be our glory forever. ' ' 



MATINS 



44 



Jesu Rex admirabilis 



JESU Rex admirabilis, 
Et triumphator nobilis, 
Dulcedo ineffabilis, 
Totus desiderabilis. 

•Quando cor nostrum visitas, 
Tunc lucet ei Veritas, 
Mundi vilescit vanitas, 
Et intus fervet caritas. 

'Jesu dulcedo cordium, 
Fons vivus, lumen mentium, 
Excedens omne gaudium, 
Et omne desiderium. 



OJESU, King most wonderful 
Thou conqueror renowned, 
Thou sweetness most ineffable, 
In whom all joys are found! 

When once Thou visitest the heart, 
Then truth begins to shine; 
Then earthly vanities depart; 
Then kindles love divine. 

O Jesu, light of all below. 
Thou fount of life and fire, 
Surpassing all the joys we know, 
And all we can desire: 



*Jesum omnes agnoscite, 
Amorem ejus poscite: 
Jesum ardenter quaerite, 
Quaerendo inardescite. 



May every heart confess Thy 

Name, 
And ever Thee adore; 
And, seeking Thee, itself inflame 
To seek Thee more and more. 



'Te nostra Jesu vox sonet, Thee may our tongues forever 

Nostri te mores exprimant, bless; 

Te corda nostra diligant. Thee may we love alone; 

Et nunc, et in perpetmmi. And ever in our lives express 

The image of Thine own. 

AuTHOESHip, Translation, etc., as in the preceding hymn. 

1. " Jesus, admirable king and noble conqueror, sweet- 
ness ineffable, wholly to be desired." Totus, wholly, alto- 
gether, above all else. 

Ill 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

2. "When Thou dost visit our heart, then truth illum- 
inates it; the vanity of the world becomes contemptible, 
and charity glows within. ' ' 

3. '*0 Jesus, sweetness of hearts, living fountain, light 
of intellects. Thou dost surpass all joys and all desires." 

4. **Let all confess Jesus, let all earnestly ask for His 
love; let all zealously seek Jesus, and in seeking Him be- 
come enkindled." 

5. ''Thee, Jesus, may our voices praise; may the 
whole course of our lives (mores) give testimony of Thee; 
may our hearts love Thee now and forever. ' ' 

LAUDS 



45 



Jesu decus angelicum 



JESU decus angelicum, 
In aura dulce canticum, 
In ore mel mirificum, 
In corde nectar coelicum. 

'Qui te gustant, esuriunt; 
Qui bibunt, adhuc sitiunt; 
Desiderare nesciunt, 
Nisi Jesum, quem diligunt. 

'0 Jesu mi dulcissime, 
Spes suspirantis animae! 
Te quaerunt pise lacrimse, 
Te clamor mentis intimae. 

*Mane nobiscum Domine, 
Et nos illustra lumine; 
Pulsa mentis caligine, 
Mundum reple dulcedine. 



JESU, Thou the Beauty art 
Of Angel-worlds above; 

Thy name is music to the heart, 

Enchanting it with love. 

Celestial Sweetness unalloyed! 
Who eat Thee hunger still; 
Who drink of Thee still feel a void, 
Which naught but Thou can fill. 

my sweet Jesu! hear the sighs 
Which unto Thee I send; 
To Thee mine inmost spirit cries 
My being's hope and end! 

Stay with us, Lord, and with Thy 

light 
Illume the soul's abyss; 
Scatter the darkness of our night, 
And fill the world with bliss. 



■^Jesu flos Matris Virginis, 
Amor nostras dulcedinis, 
Tibi laus, honor nominis, 
Regnum beatitudinis. 

Authorship, Translation, 
hymns. 



O Jesu, spotless Virgin-flower, 
Our life and joy; to Thee 
Be praise, beatitude, and power. 
Through all eternity. 

etc., as in the preceding 



112 



THE EPIPHANY 



1. "0 Jesus, glory of the Angels, Thou art a sweet 
canticle to the ear, wondrous honey to the mouth, heavenly 
nectar to the heart." 

2. ** Those who taste of Thee still hunger; those who 
drink of Thee still thirst; they know not to desire ought 
else but Jesus whom they love." Ego sum panis vitae: 
qui venit ad me, non esuriet : et qui credit in me, non sitiet 
unquam (John 6, 35). 

3. **0 my most sweet Jesus, the hope of my sighing soul; 
loving tears and the cry of my inmost heart seek after 
Thee." 

4. ''Stay with us, Lord, and illuminate us with Thy 
light; the darkness of the mind having been dispelled, fill 
the world with Thy sweetness. ' ' 

5. ''0 Jesus, flower of the Virgin-Mother, love of our 
sweetness, to Thee be praise, honor of name, kingdom of 
blessedness." 



46 



The Epiphany 
Crudelis Herodes, Deum 



CRUDELIS Herodes, Deum 
Regem venire quid times? 
Non eripit mortalia, 
Qui regna dat ccelestia. 



^ Ibant Magi, quam viderant, 
Stellam sequentes praeviam: 
Lumen requirunt lumine: 
Deum fatentur munere. 



WHY impious Herod, vainly 
fear 
That Christ the Saviour cometh 

here? 
He takes no earthly realms away 
Who gives the crown that lasta 
for aye. 

To greet His birth the Wise Men 

went, 
Led by the star before them sent; 
Called on by light, towards Light 

they pressed, 
And by their gifts their God 

confessed. 



'Lavacra puri gurgitis 
Coelestis Agnus attigit: 
Peccata, quae non detulit, 
Nos abluendo sustulit. 



In holy Jordan's purest wave 
The heavenly Lamb vouchsafed to 

lave; 
That He, to whom was sin im- 

known. 
Might cleanse His people from 

their own. 



113 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

* Novum genus potentiae: New miracle of power divine! 

Aquae rubescunt hydriae, The water reddens into wine: 

Vinumque jussa fundere. He spake the word: and poured 

Mutavit imda originem. the wave 

In other streams than nature gave. 

'Jesu, tibi sit gloria, All glory, Lord, to Thee we pay 

Qui apparuisti Gentibus, For Thine Epiphany to-day: 

Cimi Patre, et almo Spiritu, All glory, as is ever meet, 

In sempiterna saecula. To Father and to Paraclete. 

Authoe: Sedulius, 5th cent. Meter: Iambic dimeter. 
Translation by J. M. Neale. There are about twenty-five 
translations, eight of which, including both texts, are in 
the Annus Sanctus. Liturgical Use : Vespers hymn on the 
Feast of the Epiphany. First line of Original Text: 
Hostis Herodes impie. The texts differ only in the first 
two lines. In the Original Text these lines read; 

Hostis Herodes impie 
Christimi venire quid times? 

This hymn is a continuation of No. 39, A solis ortus cardine. 
The word Epiphany signifies appearance or manifestation. 
This manifestation was threefold: To the Gentiles in the 
persons of the Magi (Matt. 2, 1-12) ; to the Jews at the 
Baptism of Christ in the Jordan (Mark 1, 9-11) ; to the 
Apostles when Christ wrought His first miracle at the mar- 
riage feast at Cana (John 2, 1-11). In the hymn, it will 
be observed that a stanza is devoted to each of the three 
manifestations. 

Read the articles on Epiphcmy, Herod, Magi and Cana, 
in the Cath. Encycl. 

1. "Cruel Herod, why dost thou fear the coming of the 
Divine King? He taketh not away earthly kingdoms, who 
bestoweth heavenly ones." Regnum meum non est de hoc 
mundo (John 18, 36). 

2. "The Magi proceeded, following the star, which they 
saw leading the way: by the aid of light, they seek the 
Light: by their gifts they acknowledge Him to be God." 
In the East it was customary when visiting kings or princes 
to offer them appropriate gifts. The gifts offered by the 

114 



THE EPIPHANY 

Magi were expressive of their belief in Christ's royal gen- 
eration, in His divine nature, and in His human nature. 
Gold, the noblest of the metals, hence a gift suitable for a 
king, was symbolical of His royal generation: frankin- 
cense is a symbol of prayer, and was therefore, an ac- 
knowledgment of His Divinity; and myrrh, which is used 
in embalming, was expressive of His mortality as man. 

3. ''The Heavenly Lamb touched the cleansing bath of 
the limpid waters: by washing us, He took away (sustulit) 
sins which He Himself had not committed {detulit).''^ Ecce 
affnus Dei, ecce qui tollit peccatum mundi (John 1, 29). 
''It is the teaching of St. Thomas that the Baptism of 
Christ was the occasion when He gave to Christian Baptism 
its power of conferring grace; but that the necessity of 
this Sacrament was not intimated to men till after the 
Eesurrection" (Father Hunter's Outlines of Dogmatic 
Theology, Vol. II, p. 532). 

4. "A new manifestation of power: the water of the jars 
becomes red, and the water which was bidden to issue forth 
as wine, changed its nature." Hydrice is the subject, and 
aqucB the genitive of contents. Constr. : Et unda (quae) 
jussa (est) vinum fundere, mutavit originem. The follow- 
ing is the Catholic poet Crashaw's beautiful epigram on the 
miracle at Cana; 

Lympha pudica Deum vidit et erubuit. 
The modest water saw its God and blushed. 



47 O sola magnarum urbium 

OSDLA magnarum urbium T>ETHLEHEM, of noblest cities 
Major Bethlem, cui contigit ^ None can once with thee 
Ducem salutis coelitus compare; 

Incorporatum gignere. Thou alone the Lord from heaven 

Didst for us incarnate bear. 

^ Quern Stella, quas solis rotam Fairer than the sun at morning 
Vincit decore, ac lumine; Was the star that told His birth; 

Venisse terris nuntiat To the lands their God announc- 

Cum came terrestri Deum. ing, 

Hid beneath a form of earth. 
115 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 



^Videre postquam ilium Magi, 
Eoa promunt munera: 
Stratique votis offerunt 
Thus, rayrrham, et aurum regium. 

* Regem Deumque annuntiant 
Thesaurus, et fragrans odor 
Thuris Sabaei, ac myrrheus 
Pulvis sepulchrum praedocet. 

^Jesu, tibi sit gloria, 
Qui apparuisti Gentibus, 
Cum Patre, et almo Spiritu 
In sempiterna ssecula. 



By its lambent beauty guided, 
See, the eastern kings appear; 
See them bend, their gifts to offer. 
Gifts of incense, gold, and myrrh. 

Solemn things of mystic meaning: 
Incense doth the God disclose; 
Gold a royal child proclaimeth; 
Myrrh a future tomb foreshows. 

Holy Jesu, in Thy brightness 
To the Gentile world displayed, 
With the Father and the Spirit, 
Endless praise to Thee be paid. 



Author: Prudentius (348-413). Meter: Iambic dimeter. 
Translation by Father Caswall. There are twenty-two 
translations. Father CaswalPs translation is lofty, digni- 
fied, and musical ; it is more extensively used than all others 
combined. Liturgical Use : Hymn for Lauds on the Feast 
of the Epiphany. This hymn is a cento from the Quicumque 
Christum quceritis. See hymn 41. Read the articles on 
Bethlehem, Saba, Magi, and Epiphany, in the Cath. Encycl. 

1. **0 highly favored Bethlehem, greater than the great 
cities, to whom it was given to bring forth from heaven 
the Prince of salvation, in human form." Sola, unique, 
singularly honored. Magnarum urbium = magnis urbibus 
(abl.), a Graecism. This construction is more common 
with pronouns than with nouns (cf. Kaulen's Handbuch 
zur Vulgata, pp. 258-260). 

2. *'And a star which surpassed the disk of the sun in 
beauty and in splendor, announces to the nations that God 
has come clothed in earthly flesh. ' ' Quern = et. 

3. *'As soon as the Magi behold Him, they bring forth 
their Eastern gifts; and prostrate, together with their 
prayers, they offer incense, myrrh, and royal gold." 
Videre = viderunt. Et procidentes adoraverunt eum; et 
apertis thesauris suis obtulerunt ei munera, aurum, thus, 
et myrrham (Matt. 2, 11). 

4. **The gold and the fragrant odor of Sabean incense 
proclaim Him King and God, and the dust of myrrh fore- 
shadows the tomb." Sabceus, adj., from Saba, the chief 

116 



LENT 

city of Arabia Felix, celebrated for its myrrh and frank- 
incense. Myrrheus, adj., of myrrh, perfumed with myrrh. 
Reges Tharsis et insulae munera efferent; reges Arabum 
et Saba dona adducent (Ps. 71, 10). 



LENT 



48 



Audi benigne Conditor 



A UDI benigne Conditor 
■^*- Nostras pieces cHm fletibus, 
In hoc sacro jejunio 
Fusas quadragenario. 



* Scrutator alme cordium, 
Infirma tu scis virium: 
Ad te reversis exhibe 
Remissionis gratiam. 



^Multum quidem peccavimus, 
Sed parce confitentibus : 
Ad nominis laudem tui 
Confer medelam languidis. 

* Concede nostrum conteri 
Corpus per abstinentiam ; 
Culpae ut relinquant pabulum 
Jejuna corda criminum. 



f~\ KIND Creator, bow Thine ear 
^^ To mark the cry, to know the 

tear 
Before Thy throne of mercy spent 
In this Thy holy fast of Lent. 

Our hearts are open, Lord, to 

Thee : 
Thou knowest our infirmity; 
Pour out on all who seek Thy face 
Abundance of Thy pardoning 

grace. 

Our sins are many, this we know; 
Spare us, good Lord, Thy mercy 

show; 
And for the honor of Thy name 
Our fainting souls to life reclaim. 

Give us the self-control that 

springs 
From discipline of outward 

things. 
That fasting inward secretly 
The soul may purely dwell with 

Thee, 



"Praesta beata Trinitas, 
Concede simplex Unitas; 
Ut fructuosa sint tuis 
Jejuniorum munera. 



We pray Thee, Holy Trinity, 
One God, unchanging Unity, 
That we from this our abstinence 
May reap the fruits of penitence. 



Author: Pope St. Gregory the Great (540-604). Meter: 
Iambic dimeter. Translation by T. A. Lacey. There are 

117 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

twenty-two translations, eight of which are in the Annus 
Sanctus. Liturgical. Use: Vespers hymn on Sundays and 
week-days during Lent. Read the article on Lent, in the 
Cath. Encycl. 

1. ''Hear, loving Creator, our prayers poured forth 
with our tears, in this sacred forty-day fast." Constr. : 
Audi preces cum fletibus fusas in hoc, etc. 

2. ''Loving searcher of hearts. Thou knowest the weak- 
ness of our strength: grant us who have turned again to 
Thee, the grace of pardon." In fir ma (orum) virium = 
infirmas vires. 

3. "Much, indeed, have we sinned, but spare us confess- 
ing our misdeeds: for the glory of Thy Name, grant a 
remedy to the weak." 

4. "Grant that through abstinence our bodies may be 
brought into subjection, so that our hearts being free from 
sin may abandon the food of sin." Jejuna, lit., fasting, 
not partaking of food; it is here followed by the genitive 
criminum. 

5. "Grant, blessed Trinity and simple Unity, that the 
rewards of fasting may be profitable to Thy servants.'^ 

49 Ex more docti mystic o 

EX more docti mystico 'T^HE fast, as taught by holy lore, 

Servemus hoc jejunium, •■- We keep in solemn course 

Deno dierum circulo once more: 

Ducto quater notissimo. The fast to all men known, and 

bound 
In forty days of yearly round. 

^Lex et prophetae primitus The law and seers that were of 

Hoc praetulerunt, postmodum old 

Christus sacravit, omnium In divers ways this Lent foretold, 

Rex atque factor temporum. Which Christ, all seasons' King 

and Guide, 
In after ages sanctified. 

^Utamur ergo parcius More sparing therefore let us 

Verbis, cibis et potibus, make 

The words we speak, the food we 
take, 

118 



LENT 



Somno, jocis, et arctius 
Perstemus in custodia. 



*Vitemus autem noxia, 
Quae subruunt mentes vagas: 
Nullumque demus callidi 
Hostis locum tyrannidi. 

'Flectamus iram vindicem, 
Ploremus ante judicem, 
Clamemus ore supplici, 
Dicamus omnes cernui: 

^Nostris malis offendimus 
Tuam Deus clementiam : 
EfTunde nobis desuper, 
Remissor, indulgentiam. 

^Memento quod sumus tui, 
Licet caduci, plasmatis: 
Ne des honorem nominis 
Tui, precamur, alteri. 



^Laxa malum quod fecimus, 
Auge bonum quod poscimus: 
Placere quo tandem tibi 
Possimus hie, et perpetim. 



'Praesta beata Trinitas, 
Concede simplex Unitas, 
Ut fructuosa sint tuis 
Jejuniorum munera. 



Our sleep and mirth, — and closer 

barred 
Be every sense in holy guard. 

Avoid the evil thoughts that roll 
Like waters o'er the heedless soul; 
Nor let the foe occasion find 
Our souls in slavery to bind. 

In prayer together let us fall, 
And cry for mercy, one and all. 
And weep before the Judge's feet, 
And His avenging wrath entreat. 

Thy grace have we offended sore, 
By sins, God, which we deplore; 
But pour upon us from on high, 
O pardoning One, Thy clemency. 

Remember Thou, though frail we 

be. 
That yet Thine handiwork are we; 
Nor let the honor of Thy Name 
Be by another put to shame. 

Forgive the sin that we have 

wrought ; 
Increase the good that we have 

sought : 
That we at length, our wanderings 

o'er. 
May please Thee here and 

evermore. 

Grant, Thou Blessed Trinity, 
Grant, Essential Unity, 
That this our fast of forty days 
May work our profit and Thy 
praise. 



Author: Ascribed to Pope St. Gregory the Great (540- 
604) . Meter : Iambic dimeter. Translation by J. M. Neale. 
There are twelve translations. Liturgical Use: Matins 
hymn on Sundays and week-days during Lent. 

1. ' ' Taught by mystic use, let us observe this fast, which 
is completed in the well known tenfold round of days taken 

119 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

four times." More my stico, sacred tradition. The Lenten 
fast is of very ancient, if not of apostolic origin. A similar 
fast was observed by the prophets Moses (Ex. 34, 28) and 
Elias (III Kings 19, 7-8). Deno, see denus in the Glossary. 
Some texts have denum (= denorum). The following is 
Neale's translation of this stanza rewritten in Hymns 
Ancient and Modern: 

By precepts taught of ages past. 
Now let us keep again the fast 
Which, year by year, in order meet 
Of forty days is made complete. 

2. ''The law and the prophets first revealed this; after- 
wards Christ, the king and maker of all seasons, sanctified 
it." ifoc, sc. jejunium, the Lenten fast. Lex et prophetcs: 
By the law is meant the Mosaic Law, the Pentateuch; by 
the prophets, the later books of the Old Testament. Lex 
et prophetae usque ad Joannem (Luke 16, 16). 

3. ''Let us, therefore, use more sparingly words, food, 
and drink, sleep and jests, and let us remain severely stead- 
fast on our guard." 

4. "Moreover, let us avoid those hurtful things which 
subvert fickle souls; and let us give no occasion for the 
tyranny of the cunning foe. ' ' 

5-6. "May we, weeping before the Judge, soften His 
avenging wrath ; let us cry aloud with suppliant voices, and 
prostrate let us all say: 'By our sins, God, we have 
offended Thy goodness; pour out upon us from on high, 
f orgiver of sins, Thy mercy. ' ' ' 

7. "Remember that we are Thy creatures {tui plasmatis) 
though frail; we beseech Thee that Thou give not to an- 
other the honor of Thy Name." Plasmatis, the genitive 
denoting possession with esse; of Thy making, creation. 
Alteri, to Satan, the enemy of the human race. 

8. "Pardon the evil we have done; increase the good for 
which we pray, that we may at length be able to please 
Thee here and in eternity." 



120 



50 



LENT 
O Sol salutis, intimis 



OSOL salutis, intimis 
Jesu refulge mentibus, 
Dum nocte pulsa gratior 
Orbi dies renascitur. 



^Dans tempus acceptabile, 
Da, lacrimarum rivulis 
Lavare cordis victimam, 
Quam laeta adurat caritas. 



^Quo fonte manavit nefas, 
Fluent perennes lacrimae, 
Si virga poenitentise 
Cordis rigorem conterat. 



*Dies venit, dies tua, 
In qua reflorent omnia: 
Laetemur et nos in viam 
Tua reducti dextera. 



' Te prona mundi machina 
Clemens adoret Trinitas, 
Et nos novi per gratiam 
Novum canamus canticum. 



JESU, salvation's Sun Divine, 
Within our inmost bosoms 
shine, 
With light all darkness drive away 
And give the world a better day. 



Now 



with 



mercy 



days of grace 

flow, 

O Lord, the gift of tears bestow. 
To wash our stains in every part, 
Whilst heavenly fire consumes the 

heart. 

Rise, crystal tears, from that same 

source 
From whence our sins derive their 

course; 
Nor cease, till hardened hearts 

relent, 
And softened by your streams, 

repent. 

Behold, the happy days return. 
The days of joy for them that 

mourn ; 
May we of their indulgence share. 
And bless the God that grants our 

prayer. 

May heaven and earth aloud 

proclaim 
The Trinity's almighty fame; 
And we, restored to grace, rejoice 
In newness both of heart and 

voice. 



Author: Ambrosian, 6tli cent. Meter: Iambic dimeter. 
Translation from the Primer of 1706, probably by John 
Dryden; first three lines altered. There are twelve trans- 
lations. First line of Original Text: Jam Christe sol 
justiticB. Liturgical Use: Hymn for Lauds on Sundays 
and week-days during Lent. ''In this hymn Lent is re- 
garded as a season of waiting and penitential preparation 

121 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

for the Second Creation at Easter" {Diet, of Hymnology, 
p. 576). According to Duffield "It expresses the early 
Christian attitude towards God's works, connecting the 
looked-for Easter with the renewal of the world by spring" 
{Latin Hymn-Writers and Their Hymns, p. 335). 

1. ''0 Jesus, Sun of salvation, shine Thou in our inmost 
souls, till, the night having been dispelled, more welcome 
day is born anew to the world. ' ' This is a hymn for Lauds, 
which was said at daybreak. As the sun at daybreak dis- 
pels the darkness, in like manner we entreat the Sun of 
salvation, the true Light of the world, to flood our hearts 
with the quickening beams of His grace. 

2. '* Having given this acceptable time, grant also that 
we cleanse with floods of tears the victim of our heart, 
which may gladsome charity consume by its flames." 
Tenipus acceptabile, a time of grace ; Lent is preeminently 
a time of grace. Victima, something offered in sacrifice. 
There is an allusion here to the purification of the victims 
of sacrifice in the Old Law, and to their destruction in whole 
or in part by fire. Such for example were the holocausts, 
the peace-offerings, and the sacrifices of propitiation. So 
too shall **the victim which is our heart" be purified by 
tears of sorrow, and consumed by the flames of an ardent 
charity. Ecce nunc tempus acceptabile, ecce nunc dies 
salutis (IlCor. 6, 2). 

3. "From the selfsame source whence sins arose, shall 
ceaseless tears arise, if but the rod of penance break the 
icy coldness of the heart." Fonte, "the source" is the 
heart of man. Ab intus enim de corde hominum malae cogi- 
tationes procedunt, adulteria, fornicationes, homicidia 
(Mark 7, 21). Virga: The rod is a symbol of chastisement, 
and here, of self-inflicted chastisement. 

4. "The day comes, Thy day, on which all shall bloom 
anew; then may we too rejoice, led on the way by Thy 
right hand." Dies: The day alluded to may be either Judg- 
ment Day or the coming Easter Day. 

5. "0 loving Trinity, may the whole fabric of the uni- 
verse humbly adore Thee, and we, renewed by Thy grace, 
would sing Thee a new song of praise." Prona, prostrate. 

122 



PASSIONTIDE 



51 



Vexilla Regis prodeunt 



VEXILLA Regis prodeunt: 
Fulget Crucis mysterium, 
Qua vita mortem pertulit, 
Et morte vitam protulit. 



^Quae vulnerata lanceae 
Mucrone diro, criminum 
Ut nos lavaret sordibus, 
Manavit unda, et sanguine. 



'Impleta sunt quae concinit 
David fideli carmine, 
Dicendo nationibus: 
Regnavit a ligno Deus. 



* Arbor decora et fulgida, 
Ornata regis purpura. 
Electa digno stipite 
Tam sancta membra tangere. 



"Beata, cujus brachiis 
Pretium pependit saeculi, 
Statera facta corporis, 
Tulitque praedam tartari. 



*0 Crux ave spes unica, 
Hoc passionis tempore 
Piis adauge gratiam, 
Reisque dele crimina. 



A BROAD the Regal Banners fly, 
•^^ Now shines the Cross's mys- 
tery; 
Upon it Life did death endure, 
And yet by death did life procure. 

Who, wounded with a direful 

spear. 
Did, purposely to wash us clear 
From stain of sin, pour out a flood 
Of precious Water mixed with 

Blood. 

That which the Prophet-King of 

old 
Hath in mysterious verse foretold, 
Is now accomplished, whilst we 

see 
God ruling nations from a Tree. 

lovely and refulgent Tree, 
Adorned with purpled maj-esty; 
Culled from a worthy stock, to 

bear 
Those Limbs which sanctified 

were. 

Blest Tree, whose happy branches 

bore 
The wealth that did the world 

restore ; 
The beam that did that Body 

weigh 
Which raised up hell's expected 

prey. 

Hail, Cross, of hopes the most 

sublime! 
Now in this mournful Passion 

time, 
Improve religious souls in grace, 
The sins of criminals efface. 

123 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

'Te, fons salutis Trinitas, Blest Trinity, salvation's spring, 

Collaudet omnis spiritus: May every soul Thy praises sing; 

Quibus Crucis victoriam To those Thou grantest conquest 

Largiris, adde praemiiun. by 

The holy Cross, rewards apply. 

Author: Venantius Fortunatus (530-609). Meter: 
Iambic dimeter. Translation by W. K. Blount. There 
are about forty translations, ten of which are in Mr. Ship- 
ley's Annus Sanctus. According to Julian's Diet, of 
Hymnology the above translation, dating from 1670, is by 
far the best rendering of the Vexilla Regis in common use ; 
while J. M. Neale's translation, in various forms, is more 
widely used than all others put together (p. 1221). 
Neale's translation of the Original Text is in the Baltimore 
Manual of Prayers, p. 612. Liturgical Use : Vespers hymn 
from Passion Sunday to Wednesday of Holy Week. It 
is also the Vespers hymn on the Feasts of the Finding (May 
3) and of the Exaltation (Sept. 14) of the Holy Cross. 
The Vexilla Regis was originally intended as a Processional 
Hymn, and it is still so used on Good Friday, when the 
Blessed Sacrament is carried from the Eepository to the 
High Altar. Neale justly styles the Vexilla Regis "a 
world-famous hymn" and ''one of the grandest in the 
treasury of the Latin Church" {Medieval Hymns p. 6). 
It was composed by Fortunatus on the occasion of the re- 
ception of a relic of the True Cross, which was sent by the 
Emperor Justin II to St. Eadegunde. Read Monsignor 
Henry's interesting article on this hymn in the Cath. 
Encycl. 

1. "The banners of the King come forth; brightly 
gleams the mystery of the Cross, on which Life suffered 
death, and by His death, obtained for us life." Vexilla: 
lit. banners; here, the Cross. The vexillum was the old 
Roman cavalry standard, which, after Constantino, was 
surmounted by a Cross instead of by the Roman eagle. 
Mysterium: The Cross is by preeminence the symbol of 
man's redemption. Qua, sc. cruce. Vita: the author of 
life, Christ. Vitam {cBternam). 

2. "He was wounded by the cruel point of a spear, and 
there issued forth water and blood to cleanse us from the 

124 



PASSIONTIDE 

defilements of sin." Qucb, sc. vita, from the preceding 
stanza. Unda et sanguine: An allusion to, — sed unns mili- 
tum lancea latus ejus aperuit, et continuo exivit sanguis et 
aqua (John 19, 34). 

3. ''Now is fulfilled what David foretold in faithful song, 
saying to the nations: 'God has reigned from a Tree.' " 
A ligno: "from the wood," or, "from a tree." The 
reference is to Ps. 95, 10 : Dicite in gentibus quia Dominus 
regnavit a ligno. The words a ligno are not found in any 
present text of the Scriptures. They were, however, fre- 
quently quoted by the early Fathers; and St. Justin even 
accused the Jews of having erased them from the Hebrew 
text. If not a Scriptural, the a ligno is at least a liturgical 
expression still in use during Paschal time in the "Com- 
memoration of the Cross," in both Lauds and Vespers. 
"The words are probably a gloss by some early Christian 
scribe, transferred, in course of time, from the margin into 
the text" (Rev. J. M'Swiney, S.J., in his Translation of 
the Psalms and Canticles, p. 405). In this stanza, some 
texts read cecinit for concinit, dicens for dicendo, and reg- 
nahit for regnavit. 

4. "0 beautiful and resplendent Tree adorned with the 
purple of the King, chosen to bear on thy worthy trunk, 
limbs so holy. ' ' Purpura, purple ; here, the Most Precious 
Blood. T anger e : to touch, come in contact with. 

5. "0 blessed Tree upon whose branches hung the 
ransom of the world ; it was made the balance of the body, 
and snatched away the (expected) prey of hell." The last 
two lines are obscure, and are variously rendered. Pre- 
tium: Empti enim estis pretio magno (I Cor. 6, 20). 
Statera, lit., a steelyard; a balance, beam, scales; also the 
value of a thing, price. "Statera corporis, the payment of 
the body having been made; others read facta est: many 
read statera scbcuU, the price of the world" (March's 
Latin Hymns, p. 254). The following translations are 
good: 

"The price of human-kind to pay, 
And spoil the spoiler of his pray." 

— Neale 

125 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

"Balance sublime! upon whose beam 
Was weighed the ransom of mankind." 

— Caswall 

The last two stanzas of the hymn are not by Fortunatus. 

6. ''Hail, Cross, our only hope! In this Passiontide 
increase grace in the just, and for sinners, blot out their 
sins." 

7. "May every spirit praise Thee, Trinity, Thou 
fount of salvation; to whom Thou gavest the victory of 
the Cross, grant also the reward. ' ' 



52 



Pange lingua gloriosi 



PANGE lingua gloriosi 
Lauream certaminis, 
Et super Crucis trophaeo 
Die triimiphum nobilem : 
Qualiter Redemptor orbis 
Immolatus vicerit. 



^De parentis protoplast! 
Fraude Factor condolens, 
Quando pomi noxialis 
In necem morsu ruit: 
Ipse lignum tunc notavit, 
Damna ligni ut solveret. 

*Hoc opus nostrae salutis 
Ordo depoposcerat; 
Multiformis proditoris 
Ars ut artem falleret, 
Et medelam ferret inde, 
Hostis unde laeserat. 



* Quando venit ergo sacri 
Plenitudo temporis. 
Missus est ab arce Patris 
Natus, orbis Conditor; 
Atque ventre virginali 
Carne amictus prodiit. 



SING, my tongue, the glorious 
battle 
With completed victory rife: 
And above the Cross's trophy 
Tell the triumph of the strife: 
How the world's Redeemer con- 
quered 
By surrendering of His life. 

God, His Maker, sorely grieving 
That the first-made Adam fell, 
When he ate the fruit of sorrow. 
Whose reward was death and hell. 
Noted then this Wood, the ruin 
Of the ancient wood to quell. 

For the work of our salvation 
Needs would have his order so. 
And the multiform deceiver's 
Art by art would overthrow. 
And from thence would bring the 

med'cine 
Whence the insult of the foe. 

Wherefore, when the sacred ful- 
ness 
Of the appointed time was come, 
This world's Maker left His 

Father, 
Sent the heav'nly mansion from, 
And proceeded, God Incarnate, 
Of the Virgin's holy womb. 



126 



PASSIONTIDE 



'Vagit infans inter arcta 
Conditus praesepia: 
Membra pannis involuta 
Virgo Mater alligatt 
Et Dei manus pedesque 
Stricta cingit fascia. 



Weeps the Infant in the manger 
That in Bethlehem's stable stands; 
And His limbs the Virgin Mother 
Doth compose in swaddling bands, 
Meetly thus in linen folding 
Of her God the feet and hands. 



53 

'Lustra sex qui jam peregit, 
Tempus implens corporis, 
Sponte libera Redemptor 
Passioni deditus, 
Agnus in Crucis levatur 
Immolandus stipite. 



^Felle potus ecce languet: 
Spina, clavi, lancea 
Mite corpus perforarunt: 
Unda manat, et cruor: 
Terra, pontus, astra, mundus, 
Quo lavantur flumine! 



^Crux fidelis, inter omnes 
Arbor una nobilis: 
Silva talem nulla profert 
Fronde, flore, germine: 
Dulce ferrum, dulce lignum, 
Dulce pondus sustinent. 

^Flecte ramos arbor alta, 
Tensa laxa viscera, 
Et rigor lentescat ille, 
Quem dedit nativitas; 
Et superni membra regis 
Tende miti stipite. 

^"Sola digna tu fuisti 
Ferre mundi victimam; 
Atque portum praeparare 
Area mundo naufrago, 
Quam sacer cruor perunxit, 
Fusus Agni corpore. 



Thirty years among us dwelling. 
His appointed time fulfilled, 
Born for this, He meets His 

Passion, 
For that this He freely willed: 
On the Cross the Lamb is lifted, 
Where His life-blood shall be 

spilled. 

He endured the nails, the spitting. 
Vinegar, and spear, and reed; 
From that holy Body broken 
Blood and water forth proceed: 
Earth, and stars, and sky, and 

ocean. 
By that flood from stain are free. 

Faithful Cross! above all other. 
One and only noble Tree! 
None in foliage, none in blossom, 
None in fruit thy peers may be; 
Sweetest Wood and sweetest Iron! 
Sweetest Weight is hung on thee. 

Bend thy boughs, Tree of glory ! 
Thy relaxing sinews bend; 
For awhile the ancient rigor. 
That thy birth bestowed, suspend; 
And the King of heavenly beauty 
On thy bosom gently tend ! 

Thou alone wast counted worthy 
This world's ransom to uphold; 
For a shipwrecked race preparing 
Harbor, like the Ark of old; 
With the sacred Blood anointed 
From the smitten Iamb that rolled. 



127 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

^^ Sempiterna sit beatae To the Trinity be glory 

Trinitati gloria, Everlasting, as is meet; 

^qua Patri, Filioque; Equal to the Father, equal 

Par decus Paraclito: To the Son, and Paraclete: 

Unius Trinique nomen Trinal Unity, whose praises 

Laudet universitas. All created things repeat. 

Author: Venantins Fortunatus (530-609). Meter: 
Trochaic tetrameter catalectic. Translation by J. M. 
Neale. There are about twenty-five translations, four of 
which are in Mr. Shipley's Annus Sanctus. Liturgical. Use : 
The Pange lingua is in use in both the Missal and the 
Breviary. Missal use: The whole hymn (eleven stanzas) 
is recited or sung during the "Adoration of the Cross" in 
the morning service on Good Friday. Breviary use : For 
Office use, the hymn is divided into two equal parts with a 
common doxology. The first five stanzas are assigned to 
Matins from Passion Sunday to the Wednesday of Holy 
Week, inclusive. The same stanzas form the Matins hymn 
for the Feasts of the Finding (May 3) and of the Exalta- 
tion (Sept. 14) of the Holy Cross. The remaining five 
stanzas, beginning with Lustra sex, are used in Lauds 
whenever the Pange lingua is used in Matins. Read the 
article on the Pange lingua gloriosi, in the Cath. Encycl. 
In the opinion of Dr. Julian, this noble hymn is *'one of 
the finest of the Latin Medieval Hymns, and perhaps the 
best of its author" [Diet, of Hymnology, p. 880). Neale 
places it ''in the very first class of Latin Hymns" {Medieval 
Hymns, p. 1). Dr. Neale 's translation above is of the 
Original Text. The hymn was not greatly altered by the 
revisers. 

1. ' ' Sing, my tongue, the victory in that glorious com- 
bat, and, of the trophy of the Cross, sing a noble song of 
triumph, recounting how the Redeemer of the world, when 
immolated, conquered." Pange, frame, i. e., sing, celebrate 
in song. It has the same meaning as die in 1. 4. Daniel, 
in his Thes. Hymyiol. lists fourteen hymns beginning with 
the words Pange lingua. Law earn, victory; the Original 
Text has proslium, which to the revisers under Urban VIII 
seemed tautological. Neale, however, maintains that 
prcelium is the better word, for — *'It is not to the glory of 

128 



PASSIONTIDE 

the termination of Our Lord's Conflict with the devil that 
the poet would have us look, but to the glory of the struggle 
itself, as indeed he tells us at the conclusion of the verse" 
{Medieval Hymns, p. 4). Certaminis: The contest between 
Christ and Satan for the possession of the human race (cf. 
Gen. 3, 15). Super = de, of, about, concerning. Trophceo: 
Originally the trophceum was a tree stripped of its 
branches and adorned with the spoils of war. Representa- 
tions of the stumps of trees so adorned are often found 
on coins. The poet probably alludes to these early trophies 
in *^the trophy of the Cross." Later, however, the 
*' trophy" was a monument erected on a battle-field on the 
spot where the defeated enemy turned to flee (cf. Harper's 
Diet, of Class. Liter, and Antiq., p. 1615). 

2. ** Deeply grieved by the infidelity of the first-created 
man, when by the eating of the fatal fruit he rushed head- 
long to death, the Creator Himself then chose the tree that 
would undo the harm wrought by the former tree." 

He then resolved the Cross's wood 
Should make that tree's sad damage good. 

Ipse lignum tunc notavit: There is an ancient legend that 
the Cross of Christ sprang from a seed or bough of the 
Tree of Life. In her Christia/n Life in Song, Mrs. Charles 
gives the following version of the legend: ''When Adam 
died, Seth obtained from the guardian cherubim of Para- 
dise a branch of the tree from which Eve ate the forbidden 
fruit. This he planted on Golgotha, called the place of the 
scull, because Adam was buried there. From this tree, as 
the ages rolled on, were made the ark of the testimony, the 
pole on which the brazen serpent was lifted up, and other 
instruments ; and from its wood, at length, then grown old 
and hard, was made the Cross. ' ' 

3. ''This work the plan of our salvation demanded, that 
art might outwit the art of the multiform deceiver, and 
thence bring the remedy whence the foe wrought the in- 
jury." Ars, the wisdom of God; artem, the cunning of 
Satan. Multiformis: Satan has appeared under various 
forms: To Eve as a serpent (Gen. 3, 1) ; to Christ in the 
desert, as a man (Matt. 4, 1-10) ; to the Saints in various 

129 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

forms; and he may appear even as an angel of light (II 
Cor. 11, 14). Et medelam ferret inde .... wide: This 
thought is beautifully expressed in the Preface of the 
Cross : — Qui salutem humani generis in ligno crucis consti- 
tuisti, ut unde mors oriebatur, inde vita resurgeret, et qui 
(the serpent) in ligno vincebat, in ligno quoque vinceretur. 

4. ''When, therefore, the fulness of the sacred time was 
come, the Son, the Creator of the world, was sent forth 
from His Father's home, and, clothed in flesh. He came 
forth from a virginal womb." Plenitudo temporis: Ubi 
venit plenitudo temporis, misit Deus Filium suum factum 
ex muliere (Gal. 4, 4). Arce: heaven; the bosom of the 
eternal Father. Came: In human form. 

5. "As an Infant, He cries, hidden in a narrow manger: 
the Virgin-Mother swathes His limbs wrapped up in swad- 
dling-clothes, and a tight band binds the hands and feet 
of God." The following translation of this stanza, from 
the Divine Office, 1763, is very beautiful : 

Thus God-made-Man an Infant lies, 
And in the manger weeping cries; 
His sacred limbs by Mary bound, 
The poorest tattered rags surround; 
And God's incarnate feet and hands 
Are closely bound with swathing-bands. 

— Annus Sanctus, p. 100. 

Conditus: some texts have positus. Note the play on the 
word Conditor; the infinite Gonditor of the preceding 
stanza is here conditus, hidden, sheltered. Fascia may be 
either the subject of cingit, or the ablative. In the latter 
case Virgo-Mater is the subj. of cingit; viz., the Virgin- 
Mother, with a tight band, binds the hands and feet of God. 
The former is preferable. 

6. "When He had lived thirty years, completing the 
period of His earthly sojourning, the Redeemer, of His own 
free will, gave Himself up to His Passion, and as a Lamb to 
be slaughtered. He was lifted up on the tree of the Cross. ' ' 
Lustre»: lustrum, a period of five years: it is here the ac- 
cusative of time denoting how long. Sponte libera: Oblatus 
est quia ipse voluit, et non aperuit os suum: sicut ovis ad 

130 



PASSIONTIDE 

occisionem ducetur, et quasi agiius coram tondente se 
obmutescet, et non aperiet os suum (Is. 53, 7). Agnus: 
The Paschal Lamb of the Old Law was a most striking 
figure of Christ, the ''Lamb of God." Read the article on 
Lamb, Paschal in the Cath. Encycl. Read also Exodus 12, 
3-11. 

7. ''He partakes of gall; lo, He swoons: thorns, nails, 
and a lance pierce His tender body : water flows forth, and 
blood ; by which flood, the earth, the sea, the stars, and the 
whole world is purified." Potus: perf. part, passive, used 
frequently in an active sense, signifying one who has 
drunk or partaken of something. The allusion is to the 
potion offered to our Blessed Lord before His crucifixion. 
Et dederunt ei vinum bibere cum felle mistum. Et cum 
gustasset, noluit bibere. (Matt. 27, 34: cf. also Mark 15, 
23.) It was customary in ancient times to offer to ane 
about to be crucified a potion to sustain him or to deaden 
his sensibilities. This drink Our Lord merely tasted. 
Languet: He grows weak; languet is entirely independent 
of felle potus. Quo lavantur flumine: Of the cleansing 
power of the Precious Blood, St. Thomas, in the Adoro Te 
devote sings : 

Cujus una stilla salvum facere 
Totum mundum quit ab omni scelere. 

Whereof one only drop, in Thy sweet mercy spih, 

Would have the power to cleanse the world from all its guilt. 

8. "0 faithful (Tree of the) Cross! the one noble Tree 
among all trees : no forest yields thy like in foliage, flower, 
and fruit: sweet iron, sweet wood, that bear so sweet a 
burden." This stanza is one of great beauty. Fidelis: 
The Tree in Eden (Gen. 3, 1-7) was perfidious; the Tree on 
Calvary has become the very symbol of faith. What other 
tree can ever hope to bear foliage, flowers, and fruit of 
infinite worth and beauty ! 

9. ' ' Bend thy limbs, lofty Tree, relax thy tense fibers, 
and let that hardness which thy nature gave thee, unbend; 
and stretch on thy softened trunk the members of the 
heavenly King." 

10. "Thou alone wast deemed worthy to bear the Victim 

131 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

of the world ; and as an Ark, to provide a haven for a ship- 
wrecked world; which (ark) the sacred blood poured forth 
from the body of the Lamb hath anointed." Area: "In 
stanza 10, the Cross seems to be regarded, by a change of 
figure, as a ship in which the faithful safely ride over the 
waves of this troublesome world, after those waves have 
been smoothed for them by the anointing oil that flowed 
from the wounds of the Lamb of God" {Diet, of Hymnology, 
p. 880). 

11. "Eternal glory be to the Blessed Trinity; equal 
glory be to the Father and to the Son; equal glory to the 
Paraclete; may the whole world praise the Name of the 
One, and of the Three." 

The Seven Dolors of the Blessed Virgin 
the friday after passion sunday 



54 



Stabat Mater dolorosa 



STABAT Mater dolorosa 
Juxta Crucem lacrymosa, 
Dum pendebat FiHus. 
Cujus animam gementem, 
Contristatam et dolentem, 
Pertransivit gladius. 



^D quam tristis et afflicta 
Fuit ilia benedicta 

Mater Unigeniti! 
Quae mcerebat, et dolebat, 
Pia Mater, dum videbat 

Nati poenas inclyti. 

^Quis est homo qui non fleret, 
Matrem Christi si videret 

In tanto supplicio? 
Quis non posset contristari, 
Christi Matrem contemplari 

Dolentem cum Filio? 



AT the Cross her station keeping, 
Stood the mournful Mother 
weeping, 
Close to Jesus to the last: 
Through her heart, His sorrow 

sharing. 
All His bitter anguish bearing. 
Now at length the sword had 
passed. 

Oh, how sad and sore distressed 
Was that Mother highly blest 
Of the sole-begotten One! 
Christ above in torment hangs; 
She beneath beholds the pangs 
Of her dying glorious Son. 

Is there one who would not weep, 
Whelmed in miseries so deep 
Christ's dear Mother to behold? 
Can the human heart refrain 
From partaking in her pain, 
In that Mother's pain untold? 



132 



PASSIONTIDE 



*Pro peccatis suae gentis 
Vidit Jesura in tormentis, 

Et flagellis subditum: 
Vidit suum dulcem Natum 
Moriendo desolatum, 

Dum emisit spiritum. 

^ Eja Mater, f ons amoris. 
Me sentire vim doloris 

Fac, ut tecum lugeam: 
Fac, ut ardeat cor meum 
In amando Christum Deum 

Ut sibi complaceam. 



Bruised, derided, cursed, defiled, 
She beheld her tender Child 
All with bloody scourges rent; 
For the sins of His own nation, 
Saw Him hang in desolation. 
Till His Spirit forth He sent. 

thou Mother! fount of love! 
Touch my spirit from above. 
Make my heart with thine accord: 
Make me feel as thou hast felt; 
Make my soul to glow and melt 
With the love of Christ ray Lord. 



55 

^Sancta Mater, istud agas, 
Crucifixi fige plagas 

Cordi meo valide: 
Tui Nati vulnerati, 
Tam dignati pro me pati, 

Poenas mecum divide. 

^Fac me tecum pie flere, 
Crucifixo condolere, 

Donee ego vixero: 
Juxta Crucem tecum stare, 
Et me tibi sociare 

In planctu desidero. 



Holy Mother! pierce me through; 
In my heart each wound renew 
Of my Saviour crucified: 
Let me share with thee His pain, 
Who for all my sins was slain, 
Who for me in torments died. 

Let me mingle tears with thee. 
Mourning Him who mourned for 

me, 
All the days that I may live: 
By the Cross with thee to stay; 
There with thee to weep and pray ; 
Is all I ask of thee to give. 



56 

* Virgo virginum praeclara, 
Mihi jam non sis amara, 

Fac me tecum plangere: 
Fac ut portem Christi mortem, 
Passionis fac consortem, 

Et plagas recolere. 

*Fac me plagis vulnerari, 
Fac me Cruce inebriari, 

Et cruore Filii. 
Flammis ne urar succensus, 
Per te, Virgo, sim defensus 
In die judicii. 



Virgin of all virgins blest! 
Listen to my fond request: 
Let me share thy grief divine; 
Let me, to my latest breath. 
In my body bear the death 
Of that dying Son of thine. 

Wounded with His every wound. 
Steep my soul till it hath swooned 
In His very Blood away; 
Be to me, Virgin, nigh. 
Lest in flames I burn and die, 
In that awful Judgment day. 



133 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

^* Christe, cum sit hinc exire, Christ, when Thou shalt call me 

Da per Matrem me venire hence, 

Ad palmam victoriae. Be Thy Mother my defence, 

Quando corpus morietur Be Thy Cross my victory; 

Fac ut animae donetur While my body here decays, 

Paradisi gloria. May my soul Thy goodness praise, 

Safe in Paradise with Thee. 



Author I Ascribed to Jacopone da Todi, O.F.M. (d. 
1306). Meter: Trochaic dimeter. Translation by Father 
Caswall. There are more than sixty translations, three of 
which are in Mr. Shipley's Annus Sanctus. Father Cas- 
wall's translation is by far the most extensively used. Lit- 
urgical Use : Sequence for the Mass of the Seven Dolors on 
the Friday after Passion Sunday, and on the 15th of Sep- 
tember when another Feast of the Seven Dolors is cele- 
brated. For Office use, the Stabat Mater is divided into 
three parts for Vespers, Matins and Lauds, as follows: 

54 Vespers: Stabat Mater dolorosa. 

55 Matins : Sancta Mater istud agas. 

56 Lauds: Virgo virginum prceclara. 

The Stabat Mater is recognized as the tenderest and most 
pathetic hymn of the Middle Ages. In the simplest, and at 
the same time in the most vivid manner, it represents the 
Blessed Mother of God plunged in grief and weeping be- 
neath the Cross on which her beloved Son was suffering so 
unmerited and so painful a death. The historical event 
(John 19, 25) is narrated in the first, second and fourth 
stanzas. The remaining stanzas are made up of reflections, 
affections, petitions, and resolutions arising from the con- 
templation of Our Lord's bitter sufferings and death. There 
is an excellent article on this hymn in the Cath. Encycl. The 
same article treats of another hymn — the Stabat Mater 
speciosa which is a sort of imitation of the '* Dolorosa." 
It represents our Blessed Mother watching beside Our 
Lord's cradle at Bethlehem. The two hymns are probably 
by the same author. The Stabat Mater speciosa is given 
below with a translation by that ' ' sweet and powerful ver- 

134 



PASSIONTIDE 

sifier," Denis Florence MacCarthy. Mr. MacCarthy's 
translations of both hymns are in the Annus Sanctus. 

1. '^The sorrowful Mother stood weeping beside the 
Cross, while her Son hung thereon: a sword pierced her 
sighing, compassionate, and grief-stricken soul." Stabat: 
Stabant autem juxta crucem Jesu mater ejus, etc. (John 
19, 25). Pertransivit gladius: Et tuam ipsius animam per- 
transibit gladius (Luke 2, 35). Read the beautiful Canticle 
of Simeon (Luke 2, 29-32). The sword of Simeon's 
prophecy, which was to pierce the soul of the Mother, was 
the sword of grief that transfixed her as she stood beside 
the Cross on Calvary. Mary is the "Sorrowful Mother," 
and her Divine Son is the "Man of Sorrows" (Is. 53 3). 

2. " how sad and how afflicted was that Blessed Mother 
of the Only-Begotten ! How she grieved and suffered, that 
loving Mother, when she beheld the pains of her glorious 
Son." 

3. "Who is there that would not weep, if he should be- 
hold the Mother of Christ in such great distress? Who 
would be able not to grieve, if he should contemplate the 
Mother of Christ suffering with her Son?" Constr. : Quis 
posset non contristari. Contemplari = si contemplaretur. 

4. "For the sins of His own nation, she saw Jesus in tor- 
ments and subjected to stripes. She beheld her sweet Son 
dying, abandoned, until He yielded up the ghost." Pro 
peccatis suce gentis: Ipse enim salvum faciet populum suum 
a peccatis eorum (Matt. 1, 21). For a history of the Pas- 
sion of Our Lord, cf. Matt. 26-27; Mark 14-15; Luke 22-23; 
John 18-19. Emisit spiritum: Jesus autem iterum damans 
voce magna, emisit spiritum (Matt. 27, 50). 

5. "Ah, Mother, fount of love, make me feel the force of 
grief, make me weep with thee. Make my heart burn with 
the love of Christ, my God, that I may be pleasing to Him." 
Sibi, for ei or ipsi. This use of the pronouns is quite com- 
mon in Late Latin and in the Vulgate ; e. g., Matt. 16, 21 ; 
Mark 10, 32; Gen. 2, 18; Tobias 3, 11. 

6. "Holy Mother, mayest thou bring it to pass, that the 
wounds of the Crucified may be deeply stamped upon my 
heart. Share with me the sufferings of thy wounded Son 
who thus deigned to suffer for me." The Prophet Zach- 

135 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

arias had long foretold these same plagcE in the sacred 
members of Our Lord: Quid sunt plagae istsB in medio 
manuum tuarum? Et dicet: His plagatus sum in domo 
eorum qui diligebant me (Zach. 13, 6). The following is 
D. F. MacCarthy's rendering of this stanza: 

Blessed Mother of prediction, 
Stamp the marks of crucifixion 

Deeply on my stony heart. 
Ever leading where thy bleeding 
Son is pleading for my needing, 

Let me in His wounds take part. 

7. *' Grant that I may devoutly weep with thee, and suf- 
fer with the Crucified as long as I shall live. I long to stand 
beside the Cross with thee, and to unite myself to thee, in 
thy grief." 

8. ' * peerless Virgin of virgins, be not unfavorably dis- 
posed towards me now ; grant that I may mourn with thee. 
Grant that I may bear about (in my body) the death of 
Christ; make me a sharer in His passion, and make me 
mindful of His sufferings." Amarus, bitter; unkind, ill- 
disposed. Portem mortem Christi: A reference to II Cor. 
4, 10. Fac (me) consortem. 

9. * ' Grant that I may be wounded with His wounds, that 
I may be inebriated with the Cross and with the Blood of 
thy Son. That I may not be tormented by the flames of 
hell, may I, Virgin, be defended by thee on the day of 
Judgment. ' ' Succensus, from succendo 3, set on fire ; used 
here pleonastically. Inebriari: As in Ps. 35, 9: Inebriabun- 
tur ab ubertate domus tuae: et torrente voluptatis tuae 
potabis eos. Translation: ''They shall be inebriated (i.e., 
plentifully filled, sated, filled to overflowing) with the 
plenty of thy house ; and thou shalt make them drink of the 
torrent of thy pleasure." See also Ps. 22, 5. 

10. ''When, Christ, the hour has come for me to depart 
hence, grant that through Thy Mother I may obtain the 
palm of victory. When my body shall die, grant that the 
glory of Paradise be given to my soul." 



136 



57 



PASSIONTIDE 

Stabat Mater speciosa 



STABAT Mater speciosa 
Juxta foenum gaudiosa, 
Dum jacebat parvulus; 
Cujus animam gaudentem, 
Laetabundam et ferventera 
Pertransivit jubilus. 



^0 quara laeta et beata 
Fuit ilia immaculata 
Mater unigeniti 
Quae gaudebat et ridebat, 
Exultabat, cum videbat 
Nati partum inclyti. 



^ Quisquam est, qui non gauderet, 
Christi matrem si videret 
In tanto solatio? 
Quis non possit collaetari, 
Christi matrem contemplari 
Ludentem cum filio? 



*Pro peccatis suae gentis 
Christum vidit cum jumentis 
Et algori subditum; 
Vidit suum dulcem natum 
Vagientem, adoratum 
Vili diversorio. 

^Nato Christo in prassepe 
Cceli cives canunt laete 
Cum immenso gaudio; 
Stabat senex cum puella 
Non cum verbo nee loquela 
Stupescentes cordibus. 



'Eja, mater, fons amoris. 
Me sentire vim ardoris 
Fac, ut tecum sentiam; 



BY the crib wherein reposing, 
With His eyes in slumber 
closing. 
Lay serene her Infant-boy, 
Stood the beauteous Mother teeling 
Bliss that could not bear con- 
cealing. 
So her face o'erflowed with joy. 

Oh, the rapture naught could 

smother 
Of that most Immaculate Mother 
Of tlie sole-begotten One; 
When with laughing heart ex- 

uhing, 
She beheld her hopes resulting 
In the great birth of her Son. 

Who would not with gratulation 
See the happy consolation 
Of Christ's Mother undefiled? 
Who would not be glad surveying 
Christ's dear Mother bending, 

praying. 
Playing with her heavenly Child? 

For a sinful world's salvation, 
Christ her Son's humiliation 
She beheld ajid brooded o'er; 
Saw Him weak, a child, a stranger, 
Yet before Him in the manger 
Kings lie prostrate and adore. 

O'er that lowly manger winging. 
Joyful hosts from heaven were 

singing 
Canticles of holy praise; 
While the old man and the maiden. 
Speaking naught, with hearts 

o'erladen, 
Pondered on God's wondrous ways. 

Fount of love, forever flowing. 
With a burning ardor glowing. 
Make me, Mother, feel like thee; 



137 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 



Fac, ut ardeat cor meum 
In amatum Christum Deum, 
Ut sibi complaceam. 

^ Sancta mater, istud agas, 
Prone introducas plagas 
Cordi fixas valide; 
Tui nati coelo lapsi, 
Jam dignati fceno nasci 
Poenas mecum divide. 

* Fac me vere congaudere, 
Jesulino cohaerere, 
Donee ego vixero; 
In me sistat ardor tui, 
Puerino fac me frui, 
Dum sum in exsilio. 

'Virgo virginum praeclara, 
Mihi jam non sis amara, 
Fac me parvum rapere; 
Fac,utpulchrimi inf antem portem. 
Qui nascendo vicit mortem, 
Volens vitam tradere. 



^"Fac me tecum satiari, 
Nato me inebriari, 
Stantem in tripudio; 
Inflammatus et accensus 
Obstupescit omnis sensus 
Tali me commercio. 



"Fac me nato custodiri, 
Verbo Dei praemimiri, 
Conservari gratia; 
Quando corpus morietur 
Fac, ut animse donetur 
Tui nati gloria! 



Let my heart, with graces gifted 
All on fire, to Christ be lifted, 
And by Him accepted be. 

Holy Mother, deign to bless me. 
With His sacred Wounds impress 

me. 
Let them in my heart abide; 
Since He came, thy Son, the Holy, 
To a birth-place, ah, so lowly, 
All His pains with me divide. 

Make me with true joy delighted, 
To Child- Jesus be united 
While my days of life endure; 
While an exile here sojourning. 
Make my heart like thine be 

burning 
With a love divine and pure. 

Spotless Maid and sinless Woman, 
Make us feel a fire in common. 
Make my heart's long longing sure. 
Virgin of all virgins highest. 
Prayer to thee thou ne'er denyest, 
Let me bear thy sweet Child too. 

Let me bear Him in my bosom. 
Lord of life, and never lose Him, 
Since His birth doth death subdue. 
Let me show forth how immense is 
The effect on all my senses 
Of an union so divine. 

All who in the crib revere Him, 
Like the shepherds watching near 

Him, 
Will attend Him through the 

night. 
By thy powerful prayers protected, 
Grant, Queen, that His elected 
May behold heaven's moving light. 

Make me by His birth be guarded, 
By God's holy word be warded. 
By His grace till all is done; 
When my body lies obstructed. 
Make my soul to be conducted, 
To the vision of thy Son. 



188 



PASSIONTIDE 

This hymn is so close an imitation of the preceding hymn 
that its translation will not be found difficult. The following 
brief notes will be found quite sufficient. The numbers refer 
to stanzas of the hymn. Translation by Denis Florence 
MacCarthy. 

1. Gaudiosus = gaudens, joyful. 4. Diversorium, lit., an 
inn ; here a stable. 5. Senex cum puella; Joseph and Mary. 
Senex {cum = et) puella, hence the pi. Stupescentes, agree- 
ing in sense. 7. Prone introducas, etc. : Downward press and 
firmly fix, etc. 8. Jesulinus and puerinus, diminutives of 
Jesus and puer. 9. Vitam trader e: to give life to men. 10. 
Tripudium, joy, delight. 



58 



GLORIA, laus, et honor, tibi 
sit Rex Christe Redemptor: 
Cui puerile decus prompsit 

Hosanna pium. 
Gloria, laus, etc. 



Gloria, laus, et honor 

ALL glory, laud, and honor 
Tn Thf>P- Rprlppmpr ICina 



* Israel es tu Rex, Davidis et in- 

clyta proles: 
Nomine qui in Domini, Rex 

benedicte, venis. 
Gloria, laus, etc. 



* Ccetus in excelsis 
coelicus omnis, 

Et mortalis homo, 
creata simul. 

Gloria, laus, etc. 



te laudat 



et cuncta 



*Plebs Hebraea tibi cum palmis 

obvia venit: 
Cum prece, voto, hymnis, adsu- 

mus ecce tibi. 
Gloria, laus, etc. 



"Et tibi passuro solvebant munia 

laudis: 
Nos tibi regnanti pangimus ecce 

melos. 
Gloria, laus, etc. 



To Thee, Redeemer, King, 
To whom the lips of children 
Made sweet hosannas ring. 



Thou art the King of Israel, 
Thou David's royal Son, 
Who in the Lord's Name comest. 
The King and Blessed One. 
All glory, laud, etc. 

The company of Angels 
Are praising Thee on high. 
And mortal men and all things 
Created make reply. 
All glory, laud, etc. 

The people of the Hebrews 
With palms before Thee went; 
Our praise and prayer and 

anthems 
Before Thee we present. 
All glory, laud, etc. 

To Thee before Thy Passion 
They sang their hymns of praise; 
To Thee now high exalted 
Our melody we raise. 
All glory, laud, etc. 



139 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

® Hi placuere tibi, placeat devotio Thou didst accept their praises, 

nostra: Accept the prayers we bring, 

Rex bone, Rex clemens, cui bona Who in all good delightest, 

cuncta placent. Thou good and gracious King. 

Gloria, laus, etc. All glory, laud, etc. 

Author: Theodulf, Bishop of Orleans (b. about 760; d. 
821). Meter: Elegiac. Translation by J. M. Neale. There 
are twelve translations, two of which are in the Annus Sanc- 
tus. Liturgical Use : Processional hymn on Palm Sunday. 
There is a pretty legend concerning the composition of this 
hymn. Theodulf, so runs the legend, had for some political 
reasons been imprisoned in a monastery in Angers. Dur- 
ing his incarceration he wrote this hymn, which he sang 
from the window of his cell when the king, Louis the Pious, 
was passing in the procession on Palm Sunday in 821. The 
hymn so moved the king that he immediately ordered that 
the holy bishop be set at liberty and restored to his see. 
The legend is now discredited on historical grounds. 

The hymn is based on the following passages of Scrip- 
ture: Ps. 117, 25-26; Matt. 21, 1-16; Mark 11, 9-10; Luke 19, 
37-38 ; John 12, 12-13. This is the only instance of the use of 
elegiac verse in the hymns of the Church. Each stanza of 
this species of poetry consists of a couplet composed of a 
dactylic hexameter and a so-called pentameter verse. The 
latter is the same as the former except that it omits the last 
half of the third foot and of the sixth foot. In the following 
couplet the elegiac strophe is both imitated and described 
by the poet Coleridge: 

In the hexameter rises | the fountain's silvery column; 
In the pentameter aye | falling in melody back. 

The translation given below, which is also by J. M. Neale, 
is in the meter of the original. It is quite as literal as prose. 
The following words only will require any comment. 1. Cui 
. . . pium: to whom youthful beauty offers a loving 
hosanna. 3. Coetus codicus omnis, the whole heavenly host. 
5. Munia laudis: they offered their meed of praise. Melos 
(neut.), hymn, song. Read the articles on Hosanna, Palm 
Sunday, and on Palm in Christian Symbolism, in the Cath. 
Encycl. 

140 



EASTERTIDE 
58B 

GLORY and honor and laud be to Thee, King Christ the Redeemer! 
Children of old in whose praise sweetest hosannas outpoured. 
Israel's Monarch art Thou, and the glorious Offspring of David, 
Thou that approachest, a King, blest in the name of the Lord. 
Glory and honor and laud, etc. 

Glory to Thee upon high, the heavenly armies are singing; 
Glory to Thee upon earth, man and creation reply. 
Glory and honor and laud, etc. 

Met Thee with palms in their hands, that day the folk of the Hebrews; 
We with our prayers and our hymns, now to Thy presence approach. 
Glory and honor and laud, etc. 

They to Thee proffered their praise, for to herald Thy dolorous 

Passion ; 
We to the King on His throne, utter the jubilant hymn. 
Glory and honor and laud, etc. 

They were then pleasing to Thee, unto Thee our devotion be pleasing; 
Merciful King, kind King, who in all goodness art pleased. 
Glory and honor and laud, etc. 



EASTERTIDE 

The Paschal Sequence 

59 VictimcB Paschali 

VICTIMS Paschali pHRIST the Lord is risen 

Laudes immolent Christiani. \^ to-day: 

Christians, haste your vows to 

pay; 
Offer ye your praises meet 
At the Paschal Victim's feet; 
' Agnus redemit oves : For the sheep the Lamb hath bled, 

Christus innocens Patri Sinless in the sinner's stead. 

Reconsiliavit Christ the Lord is risen on high; 

Peccatores. Now he lives, no more to die. 



141 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 



^Mors et vita duello 
Conflixere mirando: 
Dux vitae mortuus, 
Regnat vivus. 



* Die nobis, Maria, 
Quid vidisti in via? 
Sepulchrum Christi viventis, 
Et gloriam vidi resurgentis. 



^Angelicos testes, 
Sudarium et vestes. 
Surrexit Christus spes mea: 
Praecedet vos in Galilaeam. 



'Scimus Christum surrexisse 
A mortuis vere: 
Tu nobis, victor 
Rex, miserere. 
Amen. Alleluja. 



Christ, the Victim undefiled, 
Man to God hath reconciled; 
When in strange and awful strife 
Met together Death and Life; 
Christians, on this happy day 
Haste with joy your vows to pay. 
Christ the Lord is risen on high; 
Now He lives, no more to die. 

Say, wond'ring Mary, say 
What thou sawest on thy way. 
"I beheld, where Christ had lain, 
Empty tomb and Angels twain; 
I beheld the glory bright 
Of the risen Lord of light: 
Christ my hope is risen again; 
Now He lives, and lives to reign." 

Christ, who once for sinners bled, 
Now the first-born from the dead. 
Throned in endless might and 

power. 
Lives and reigns forevermore. 
Hail, eternal hope on high! 
Hail, Thou King of victory! 
Hail, Thou Prince of Life adored ! 
Help and save us, gracious Lord. 



AttthoR! Ascribed to Wipo, 11th cent. Transla- 
tion by Jane E. Leeson. There are about twenty-five trans- 
lations, three of which are in the Annus Sanctus. Liturgical 
Use: Sequence in the Mass daily from Easter Sunday to 
Low Sunday inclusive. For the structure, the history, and 
the development of this species of hymn, read the article on 
Prose or Sequence, in the Cath. Encycl. The same work con- 
tains a well written article on the Victims PaschaU. Read 
also the article on Lamb, Paschal. No hymns occur in the 
Divine Office during the last three days of Holy Week nor 
during Easter week. 

The beautiful Paschal sequence sings the praises of the 
risen Christ. For the purpose of treatment it may be di- 
vided into two parts. The first part consists of an exhorta- 

142 



EASTERTIDE 

tion to all Christians to offer sacrifices of praise to Christ, 
the true Paschal Lamb, the Sinless One, who by His immola- 
tion on the Cross reconciles sinners to His Father. Death 
and Life engage in a most unusual combat; the Prince of 
Life dies, but by His very death He triumphs and now 
reigns in glory. The second part is in the form of a dialogue. 
Mary Magdalene is appealed to as a witness of the Resur- 
rection, and she testifies: — **I saw the sepulcher of the liv- 
ing Christ, the glory of the risen Lord, the witness-angels 
at the tomb, the napkin and the winding-sheet." Then in 
an ecstasy of joy she proclaims to the Apostles : * ' Christ my 
hope is risen and He shall go before you into Galilee." It 
concludes with a testimonial of our belief in the Resurrec- 
tion and with a petition for mercy. The history of the 
Resurrection is told in John 20 ; read also the beginning of 
Matt. 28; Mark 16; Luke 24. 

1. ''To the Paschal Victim, let Christians offer the sac- 
rifice of praise." 

2. * ' The Lamb hath redeemed the sheep ; Christ the Sin- 
less One hath reconciled sinners to His Father." 

3. ''Death and Life contended in a wondrous encounter: 
the Prince of Life died indeed, but now reigns living. ' * 

4. "Tell us, Mary, what sawest thou on the way? I saw 
the sepulcher of the living Christ, I saw the glory of Him 
that had risen. ' ' 

5. "I saw the angelic witnesses, the napkin and the linen 
cloths. Christ, my hope, hath risen : He shall go before you 
into Galilee." 

6. "We know in truth that Christ hath risen from the 
dead: Thou, victorious King, have mercy on us." Vic- 
timcB Paschali: cf. Exodus 12-13. Duello = bello. Conflix- 
erunt, fought, contended. Maria : Mary Magdalene, to whom 
Our Lord first appeared after His resurrection. 

The following is Robert Campbell's translation of the 
Victimce Paschali. Note the striking difference between this 
translation and Miss Leeson's translation above. The dif- 
ference is due to the meter. The two translations illustrate 
the hurried pace of the trochee and the stately tread of the 
iambus. 



143 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 
59B VictimcB Paschali 

THE holy Paschal work is wrought, 
The Victim's praise be told, 
The loving Shepherd back hath brought 

The sheep into His fold: 
The Just and Innocent was slain 
To reconcile to God again. 

Death from the Lord of life hath fled — 
The conflict strange is o'er; 

Behold, He liveth that was dead. 
And lives forevermore: 

Mary, thou soughtest Him that day; 

Tell what thou sawest on the way. 

*'I saw the empty cavern's gloom, 
The garments of the prison. 

The Angel-guardians of the tomb. 
The glory of the Risen." 

We know that Christ hath burst the grave, 

Then, victor King, Thy people save. 



60 



Ad regias Agni dapes 



AD regias Agni dapes, 
Stolis araicti candidis, 
Post transitum Maris rubri, 
Christo canamus Principi: 



^Divina cujus caritas 
Sacrum propinat sanguinem, 
Almique membra corporis 
Amor sacerdos immolat. 



Sparsum cruorera postibus 
Vastator horret Angelus: 
Fugitque divisum mare: 
Merguntur hostes fluctibus. 



A T the Lamb's high feast we 
•^^ sing 

Praise to our victorious King, 
Who hath washed us in the tide 
Flowing from His pierced side. 

Praise we Him whose love divine 
Gives the guests His Blood for 

wine, 
Gives His Body for the feast. 
Love the victim, love the priest. 

Where the Paschal blood is 

poured. 
Death's dark Angel sheathes his 

sword; 
Israel's hosts triumphant go 
Through the wave that drowns the 

foe. 



144 



EASTERTIDE 



* Jam Pascha nostrum Christus est, 
Paschalis idem victima, 
Et pura puris mentibus 
Sinceritatis azyma. 



'O vera cceli victima, 
Sub j acta cui sunt tartara, 
Soluta mortis vincula, 
Recepta vitae praemia. 



'Victor subactis inferis 
Trophaea Christus explicat, 
Cceloque aperto, subditum 
Regem tenebrarum trahit. 

^Ut sis perenne mentibus 
Paschale Jesu gaudium, 
A morte dira criminum 
Vitae renatos libera. 

^Deo Patri sit gloria, 
Et Filio, qui a mortuis 
Surrexit, ac Paraclito, 
In sempiterna saecula. 



Christ, the Lamb whose Blood was 

shed, 
Paschal* victim. Paschal bread; 
With sincerity and love 
Eat we manna from above. 

Mighty Victim from the sky, 
Powers of hell beneath Thee lie; 
Death is conquered in the fight; 
Thou hast brought us life and 
light. 

Now Thy banner Thou dost wave; 
Vanquished Satan and the grave; 
Angels join His praise to tell — 
See o'erthrown the prince of hell. 

Paschal triumph, Paschal joy. 
Only sin can this destroy; 
From the death of sin set free. 
Souls re-born, dear Lord, in Thee. 

Hymns of glory, songs of praise. 
Father, unto Thee we raise; 
Risen Lord, all praise to Thee, 
Ever with the Spirit be. 



Author: Ambrosian, 7th cent. Meter: Iambic dimeter. 
Translation by Robert Campbell. There are about thirty 
translations. First line of Original Text: Ad coenam Agni 
providi. Liturgical Use : Vespers hymn from Low Sunday 
to Ascension Day. This hymn was greatly altered by the re- 
visers under Urban VIII (1632) ; only three lines remained 
unaltered. There are ten translations of this hymn in Mr. 
Shipley's Annus Sanctus, both texts being represented. Of 
the translations of the Roman Breviary Text, Mr. Camp- 
bell's is more extensively used than all others combined. It 
is not so literal as some other translations, but it is a hymn 
of great beauty, and it is not surprising that it is found in 
so many hymn books. 

In the Ad regias Agni dapes, there is reference to the 
ancient custom of administering to catechumens the sac- 
raments of Baptism and Holy Communion. Originally there 
was no Mass on Holy Saturday proper. The long but beau- 

145 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

tiful ceremonies began Saturday evening and lasted 
throughout the night. The Litany and Mass were sung to- 
wards morning. During Mass the neophytes, vested in 
beautiful white robes {stolce alhce), were admitted for the 
first time to the "banquet of the Lamb," i.e., to the 
Eucharistic table. The white garments were worn during 
the week following Easter, and on Low Sunday the newly 
baptized appeared for the first time without their white 
robes. It is for this reason that Low Sunday is known in 
the language of the Church as Dommica in Albis {de- 
positis), i.e., the Sunday on which the newly baptized ap- 
peared after laying aside their white baptismal robes. 

Read the articles on Catechumen, Holy Saturday, Bap- 
tism (esp. part XV), Red Sea (esp. the last paragraph), in 
the Cath. Encycl. 

1. '^ After the passage of the Red Sea, clothed in white 
robes at the royal banquet of the Lamb, let us sing to 
Christ our King." Stolis: The stole was originally a long, 
beautiful, flowing outer garment. Maris rubri: The Red Sea 
is a symbol of Baptism. Et omnes in Moyse baptizati sunt 
in nube et in mari (I Cor. 10, 2). Under the leadership of 
Moses, who was a figure of Christ, the Jews received Bap- 
tism in figure by their passage through the Red Sea. Thus 
also by eating of the manna, they partook in figure of the 
Eucharistic manna (cf. Exodus 13). The following is Father 
Husenbeth's translation of this stanza: 

Come to the regal feast displayed. 
In robes of purest white arrayed, 
The Red Sea's threatening perils past, 
And sing to Christ secure at last. 

2. ''His divine charity gives us His sacred Blood to 
drink; and love, as priest, immolates the members of His 
august Body. ' ' 

3. **The destroying Angel sees with awe the blood upon 
the door-posts : the sea divided flees, the foe is overwhelmed 
by the waters." The sprinkling of the door-posts of the 
Israelites with the blood of the Paschal Lamb, to preserve 
them from the sword of the destroying Angel, is a figure of 
our redemption by the Blood of Him whom the Paschal 

146 



EASTERTIDE 

Lamb prefigured (cf. Ex. 12, 22-23). Divisum mare: (cf. 
Ex. 14, 22-31). 

4. "Now Christ is our Pasch, and the same is our 
Paschal victim, and the pure unleavened bread of sincerity 
for pure souls." Victima paschaliSfFaschalljamb. Itaque 
epulemur, nori in f ermento veteri, neque in fermento malitiae 
et nequitiae, sed in azymis sinceritatis et veritatis (I Cor. 
5, 8). Leaven is a symbol of corruption, hence of sin: un- 
leavened bread is symbolical of purity and of freedom from 
corruption. 

5. ''0 true Victim of heaven, by whom hell was van- 
quished, the bonds of death were broken, and the rewards 
of life regained. ' ' Cui = a quo : in the passive, this use of 
the dative is quite common. 

6. ''Hell having been subdued, Christ as victor displays 
His trophies; and, heaven opened. He drags behind Him 
the vanquished king of darkness." Trahit (post se). 

7. ''That Thou, Jesus, mayest be an everlasting 
Paschal joy to our hearts, deliver us re-born to life, from a 
dire death of sin. ' ' 



61 



Rex sempiterne cwlitum 



REX sempiterne coelitum, 
Rerum Creator omnium, 
y^qualis ante saecula 
Semper Parent! Filius. 



^Nascente qui mundo Faber 
Imaginem vultus tui 
Tradens Adamo, nobilem 
Limo jugasti spiritum. 



'Cum livor et fraus daemonis 
Foedasset humanum genus: 



OTHOU, the heavens' eternal 
King, 
Creator, unto Thee we sing. 
With God the Father ever One, 
Co-equal, co-eternal Son. 

Thy hand, when first the world 

began, 
Made in Thine ovv'n pure image 

man. 
And linked to Adam, sprung from 

earth, 
A living soul of heavenly birth. 

And when by craft the envious 

foe 
Had marred Thy noblest work 

below, 



147 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 



Tu carne amictus, perditam 
Formam reformas Artifex. 



* Qui natus olim e Virgine, 
Nunc e sepulcro nasceris 
Tecumque nos a mortuis 
Jubes sepultos surgere. 



''Qui pastor aeternus gregem 
Aqua lavas Baptismatis: 
Haec est lavacrum mentium; 
Haec est sepulcrum criminum. 



® Nobis diu qui debitae 
Redemptor affixus Cruci, 
Nostrae dedisti prodigus 
Pretium salutis sanguinem. 

^Ut sis perenne mentibus 
Paschale, Jesu, gaudium, 
A morte dira criminum 
Vitae renatos libera. 



'Deo Patri sit gloria, 
Et Filio, qui a mortuis 
Surrexit, ac Paraclito, 
In sempiterna saecula. 



Clothed in our flesh, Thou didst 

restore 
The image Thou hadst made 

before. 

Once wast Thou born of Mary's 

womb; 
And now, new-born from out the 

tomb, 
Christ, Thou bidd'st us rise 

with Thee 
From death to immortality. 

Eternal Shepherd, Thou dost lave 
Thy flock in pure baptismal 

wave — 
That mystic bath, that grave of 

sin, 
Where ransomed souls new life 

begin. 

Redeemer, Thou for us didst deign 
To hang upon the Cross of pain, 
And give for us the lavish price 
Of Thine own Blood in sacrifice. 

Grant, Lord, in Thee each faithful 

mind 
Unceasing Paschal joy may find; 
And from the death of sin set free 
Souls newly born to life by Thee. 

To Thee, once dead, who now dost 

live. 
All glory. Lord, Thy people give. 
Whom, with the Father, we adore, 
And Holy Ghost forevermore. 



Author: Ambrosian, 6th cent. Meter: Iambic dimeter. 
Translation a cento. There are ten translations. Lit- 
urgical Use : Matins liymn from Low Sunday till Ascension 
Day. This hymn is a revision of the Original Text, Rex 
ceterne Domine, the first line of which was, in the revision 
of 1568, altered to Rex sempiterne Domine (Benedictine 
Breviary Text) ; this in turn was altered in 1632 to the 

148 



EASTERTIDE 

Roman Breviary Text, Rex sempiterne ccelitum. In its orig- 
inal form, it contained sixteen stanzas. It is mentioned in 
the Rule of Aurelianus of Aries (d. 555) and by St. Bede 
(d. 735) in his De Arte Metrica. 

1. ''0 eternal King of the blessed. Creator of all things, 
Son ever equal to the Father, before all ages : ' ' The hymn 
is addressed to the Son by whom all things were made (cf. 
John 1, 1-14; Col. 1,12-22). Coelitum, from codes, itis. 

2. ' ' Who as Creator, when the world was made, didst be- 
stow upon Adam the image of Thy countenance, and didst 
yoke a noble spirit with the slime of the earth." Imago: 
Faciamus hominem ad imaginem et similitudinem nostram 
(Gen. 1, 26). Formavit igitur Dominus Deus hominem de 
limo terrae, et inspiravit in faciem ejus spiraculum vitae, et 
f actus est homo in animam viventem (Gen. 2, 7). 

3. ' ' When the envy and deception of the devil had disfig- 
ured the human race. Thou, the Maker, clothed in flesh 
didst restore the lost form." Formam, beauty. Livor = 
invidia, envy, malice. 

4. ''As Thou wast once born of a Virgin, so art Thou 
now born from the tomb ; and Thou dost bid us buried with 
Thee, to arise from the dead." (cf. Rom. 6, 4.) 

5. * ' Thou art the eternal Shepherd who dost cleanse Thy 
flock in the waters of Baptism: that is the laver of souls, 
that is the sepulcher of sin." The purification of the soul 
by washing is a common figure in the Old Testament. 
Amplius lava me ab iniquitate mea : et a peccato meo munda 
me (Ps. 50, 4). 

6. "As Redeemer fastened to the Cross, which was long 
our due, Thou didst lavishly give Thy Blood as the price 
of our salvation." Debitcs agrees with cruci; on account of 
our sins, the Cross (i.e., crucifixion) was long and justly due 
us. 

7. ''That Thou, Jesus, mayest be an everlasting 
Paschal joy to our hearts, deliver us re-born to life, from a 
dire death of sin. ' ' 



149 



62 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 
Aurora ccelum purpurat 



AURORA coelum purpurat, 
i^ther resultat laudibus, 
Mundus triumphans jubilat, 
Horrens avernus inf remit: 



^Rex ille dum fortissimus 
De mortis inferno specu 
Patrum senatum liberum 
Educit ad vitae jubar. 



'Cujus sepulchrum plurimo 
Custode signabat lapis, 
Victor triumphat, et suo 
Mortem sepulchro funerat. 



*Sat funeri, sat lacrimis, 
Sat est datum doloribus: 
Surrexit exstinctor necis, 
Clamat coruscans Angelus. 



'Ut sis perenne mentibus 
Paschale Jesu gaudium, 
A morte dira criminum 
VitSB renatos libera. 



•Deo Patri sit gloria, 
Et Filio, qui a mortuis 
Surrexit, ac Paraclito, 
In sempiterna saecula. 



THE morn had spread her 
crimson rays. 
When rang the skies with shouts 

of praise; 
Earth joined the joyful hymn to 

swell, 
That brought despair to van- 
quished hell. 

He comes victorious from the 

grave, 
The Lord omnipotent to save, 
And brings with Him to light of 

day 
The Saints who long imprisoned 

lay. 

Vain is the cavern's three-fold 

ward — 
The stone, the seal, the armed 

guard ; 
O death, no more thine arm we 

fear, 
The Victor's tomb is now thy bier. 

Let hymns of joy to grief succeed, 
We know that Christ is risen 

indeed; 
We hear His white-robed Angel's 

voice. 
And in our risen Lord rejoice. 

With Christ we died, with Christ 

we rose, 
When at the font His name we 

chose; 
Dh, let not sin our robes defile. 
And turn to grief the Paschal 

smile. 

To God the Father let us sing. 
To God the Son, our risen King, 
And equally let us adore 
The Spirit, God forevermore. 



150 



EASTERTIDE 

Author: Ambrosian, 4th or 5th cent. Meter: Iambic 
dimeter. Translation by Robert Campbell. Liturgical 
Use: Hymn at Lauds from Low Sunday to the Ascension. 
In its complete form this hymn comprises forty-four lines. 
For Breviary use it is divided into three parts. These 
parts are given here as Hymns 62, 63 and 64. In each 
hymn the stanza beginning Tu sis perennis mentium and 
the doxology form no part of the original hymn. The 
hymn was greatly altered by the revisers under Urban 
VIII (1632). The first lines of the three parts of the 
Original Text and of the Roman Breviary Text are as 
follows ; 

Roman Breviary Text Original Text 

62 Aurora caelum purpurat Aurora lucis rutilat 

63 Tristes erant Apostoli Tristes erant Apostoli 

64 Paschale mundo gaudium Claro Paschali gaudio 

Including both texts, there are twenty-seven translations 
of No. 62 ; there are about fifteen translations each of the 
Nos. 63 and 64. The Annus Sanctus contains four transla- 
tions, one of which is from the Original Text. It also con- 
tains two translations of Sermone blando angelus, which be- 
gins with the sixth stanza of the Original Text. There is an 
article on Aurora lucis rutilat in the Cath. Encycl. It is 
worthy of note that this is the only instance in the Cath. 
Encycl. in which the first line of the Original Text is used 
as a title instead of the first line of the Revised Text of 
Urban VIII — the Roman Breviary Text. Liturgical Use: 
No. 62 is the hymn for Lauds from Low Sunday to the 
Ascension. No. 63 is assigned to Vespers and Matins, and 
No. 64 to Lauds, in the Common Office of Apostles and 
Evangelists during Paschal Time. 

1. *'The dawn is purpling the sky; the air resounds with 
hymns of praise; the exulting earth shouts for joy; trem- 
bling hell rages. ' ' 

2. ''While He the almighty King leads forth the liber- 
ated host of the fathers from the darksome cavern of death 
to the light of life. ' ' Inferno specu = Limbo. There is an 
article on Limbo in the Cath. Encycl. Senatus, a council of 
elders j a body of venerable and distinguished persons such 

151 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

as the patriarchs, prophets, etc., who awaited in Limbo the 
coming of the Messias. 

3. ''Whose sepulcher, surrounded by an ample guard, a 
stone seals ; (nevertheless) as a conqueror He triumphs, and 
He buries death in His own sepulcher. ' ' Illi autem abeuntes 
munierunt sepulchrum, signantes lapidem cum custodibus 
(Matt. 27, 66). Absorpta est mors in victoria. Ubi est, mors, 
victoria tuaf Ubi est, mors, stimulus tuus? ( I Cor. 15, 
54-55). 

4. "Enough of death, enough of tears, enough of sor- 
rows! The conqueror of death has risen, the resplendent 
Angel cries." Sat = satis: Enough time have ye given to 
death, to weeping and to sorrows. Exstinctor, destroyer, 
annihilator. 

5. ''That Thou, Jesus, mayest be the everlasting 
Paschal joy of our hearts, deliver us re-born to life, from 
a dire death of sin." 



63 



Tristes erant Apostoli 



TRISTES erant Apostoli 
De Christi acerbo funere, 
Quera morte crudelissima 
Servi necarant impii. 



^Sermone verax Angelus 
Mulieribus praedixerat: 
Mox ore Christus gaudium 
Gregi feret fidelium. 



'Ad anxios Apostolos 
Currunt statim dum nuntiae, 
Illae micantis obvia 
Christi tenent vestigia. 



WHILE Christ's disciples, 
grieving, sad, 
Their Master's painful death 

deplore, 
Whom faithless servants' cruel 

hands, 
Had bathed in His own crimson 
gore; 

Quick from the happy realms 

above. 
An Angel comes on joyful wing, 
And to the women tells the joy 
That to His flock their Lord will 

bring. 

As they with eager steps make 

haste, 
Their joyous message to repeat, 
Their Master's glorious form they 

see, 
And falling clasp His sacred feet. 



152 



EASTERTIDE 



* Galilseas ad alta montium 
Se conferunt Apostoli, 
Jesuque, voti compotes, 
Almo beantur lumine. 



^Ut sis perenne mentibus 
Paschale Jesu gaudium; 
A morte dira criniinum 
Vitae renatos libera. 



'Dec Patri sit gloria, 
Et Filio, qui a mortuis 
Surrexit, ac Paraclito, 
In sempiterna saecula. 



Cheered by this tale, His faithful 

flock 
The Galilean mount ascend. 
And there with loving awe behold 
Their heart's sole wish, their 
truest friend. 

That Thou mayst be our Paschal 

joy 
Through happy, never-ending 

years. 
Thine own poor children, Jesu, 

free 
From sin's sad death with all its 

fears. 

To God the Father, and the Son, 
Who rose from death, glad praisQ 

repeat; 
Let equal praise be ever sung 
To God the Holy Paraclete. 



This is a continuation of the preceding hymn. Transla- 
tion by Father Potter. Liturgical Use : Hymn for Vespers 
and Matins in the Common Office of Apostles and Evangel- 
ists in Eastertide. 

1. ''The Apostles were sad over the bitter interment of 
Christ, whom impious servants had slain by a most cruel 
death." Servi impii, the Jews. 

2. ''The Angel, truthful in speech, had foretold to the 
women : ' Soon by word of mouth shall Christ bring joy to 
the flock of the faithful.' " Respondens autem Angelus 
dixit mulieribus : Nolite timere vos : scio enim, quod Jesum, 
qui crucifixus est, quaeritis. Non est hie ; surrexit enim sicut 
dixit (Matt. 28, 5-6). 

3. "While they forthwith as messengers are hastening to 
the anxious Apostles, they clasp the feet of the radiant 
Christ meeting them on the way. ' ' Vestigia, lit., footsteps, 
footprints : obvia agrees with vestigia. Et exierunt cito de 
monumento cum timore et gaudio magno, currentes nun- 
tiare discipulis ejus. Et ecce Jesus occurrit illis, dicens: 
Avete. IllaB autem accesserunt, et tenuerunt pedes ejus, et 
adoraverunt eum (Matt. 28, 8-9). 

153 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

4. '*To the mountain heights of Galilee the Apostles be- 
take themselves: and their wish is fulfilled; they are made 
happy by the kindly light of Jesus." Ad alta montium = 
ad altos montes. Altum, i, a height. Undecim autem dis- 
cipuli abierunt in Galilaeam in montem, ubi constituerat illis 
Jesus (Matt. 28, 16). 

5. ^'That Thou, Jesus, mayest be an everlasting 
Paschal joy to our hearts, deliver us re-born to life, from a 
dire death of sin." 



64 



Paschale mundo gaudium 



PASCHALE mundo gaudium 
Sol nuntiat formosior. 
Cum luce fulgentem nova 
Jesmn vident Apostoli. 



w 



ITH the fair sun of Easter 



morn 

The world's excelling joy is born, 
When, bright with new and greater 

grace, 
The Apostles see the Saviour's 

face. 



^In carne Christi vulnera 
Micare tamquam sidera 
Mirantur, et quidquid vident 
Testes fideles prsedicant. 



They in their Lord's fair flesh 
descry 

The wounds that shine as stars on 
high, 

And, wondering, faithful witness 
bear. 

And all that they have seen de- 
clare. 



^ Rex Christe clementissime, 
Tu corda nostra posside: 
Ut lingua grates debitas 
Tuo rependat nomini. 



*Ut sis perenne mentibus 
Paschale Jesu gaudium; 
A morte dira criminum 
Vitae renatos libera. 



Christ, most loving King, we 
pray, 

Possess our inmost hearts to-day, 

While grateful lips with glad ac- 
claim 

Sing fervent praises to Thy Name. 

Lord Jesu, that Thou mayest be 

Our Easter joy eternally, 

Our souls from death of sin set 

free 
That they, new born, may live to 

Thee, 



154 



EASTERTIDE 

^ Deo Patri sit gloria, To God the Father, and the Son, 

Et Filio, qui a mortuis From death arisen, praise be 

Surrexit, ac Paraclito, done: 

In sempiterna saecula. With God the Holy Ghost on high 

Henceforth to all eternity. 

This is a continuation of the two preceding hymns. 
Translation by Alan G. McDougall. Liturgical Use: 
Hymn for Lauds in the Common Office of Apostles and 
Evangelists in Eastertide. 

1. **A more beauteous sun proclaims to the world the 
joys of Easter, when the Apostles behold Jesus resplendent 
with a new light. ' ' The ' ' new light ' ' is that which emanates 
from His glorified body. The sun is now "more beauteous" 
for at His death it was darkened. 

2. "They wonder to see the wounds in the flesh of 
Christ shine like stars, and what they see, as faithful wit- 
nesses, they proclaim." Vulnera: That the marks of the 
nails and spear were plainly visible in the glorified body of 
Christ is evident from the testimony of St. Thomas (cf. 
John 20, 27-28). 

3. "0 Christ, King most merciful, possess Thou our 
hearts, that our tongues may return due thanks to Thy 
Name. ' ' 

4. "That Thou, Jesus, mayest be the everlasting 
Paschal joy of our hearts, deliver us re-born to life, from a 
dire death of sin." 



65 Salutis humancB Sator 

SALUTIS humanse Sator, TITAIL, Thou who man's Re- 

Jesu, voluptas cordium, -"--^ deemer art, 

Orbis redempti Conditor, Jesu, the joy of every heart; 

Et casta lux amantium: Great Maker of the world's wide 

frame, 
And purest love's delight and 
flame: 

''Qua victus es dementia, What nameless mercy Thee o'er- 

Ut nostra ferres crimina? came, 

To bear our load of sin and 
shame? 

155 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 



Mortem subires innocens, 
A morte nos ut toUeres? 



^Perrumpis infernum chaos; 
Vinctis catenas detrahis; 
Victor triumpho nobili 
Ad dexteram Patris sedes. 



*Te cogat indulgentia, 
Ut damna nostra sarcias 
Tuique vultus compotes 
Dites beato lumine. 



^Tu dux ad astra, et semita, 
Sis meta nostris cordibus, 
Sis lacrymarum gaudimn, 
Sis dulce vitae praemium. 



For guiltless, Thou Thy life didst 

give, 
That sinful erring man might 

live. 

The realms of woe are forced by 

Thee, 
Its captives from their chains set 

free; 
And Thou, amid Thy ransomed 

train, 
At God's right hand dost victor 

reign. 

Let mercy sweet with Thee prevail, 
To cure the wounds we now be- 
wail; 
Oh, bless us with Thy holy sight, 
And fill us with eternal light. 

Our guide, our way to heavenly 

rest. 
Be Thou the aim of every breast; 
Be Thou the soother of our tears, 
Our sweet reward above the 

spheres. 



Authoe: Ambrosian, 7th or Sth cent. Meter: Iambic 
dimeter. Translation by Father Potter. First line of Orig- 
inal Text: Jesu nostra redemptio. The Annus Sanctus con- 
tains eight translations of this hymn, both texts being rep- 
resented. In all there are about thirty translations. Lit- 
urgical Use: Vespers hymn from the Ascension to Pente- 
cost. 

1. '*0 Jesus, Author of man's salvation, the delight of 
our hearts, the Creator of the world redeemed, and chaste 
light of those that love Thee." Sator, lit., a sower, planter: 
** Sower of Life's immortal seed." — Caswall. 

2. ''By what mercy wert Thou overcome that Thou 
wouldst bear our sins, and innocent, wouldst suffer 
death to free us from death?" Ipse autem vulneratus est 
propter iniquitates nostras, attritus est propter scelera 
nostra (Is. 53, 5). 

3. ' ' Thou didst break open the lower regions, and remove 

156 



EASTERTIDE 

the chains of them that were bound; as a conqueror in a 
noble triumph, Thou dost now sit at the right hand of the 
Father.^' Infernum chaos, Limbo ; '*He descended into hell" 
(Creed). Ad dexteram Patris sedes: Dixit Dominus Dom- 
ino meo: sede a dextris meis (Ps. 109, 1; Matt. 22, 44); 
Dominus = Pater; Domino = Filio; sede, abide, be. The 
expression ''sit Thou at my right hand" signifies the place 
of highest honor, but it implies no particular posture of 
body. 

4. ''May Thy mercy constrain Thee to repair our loss, 
and in the contemplation of Thy countenance, mayest Thou 
gladden us with blessed light." Vultus compotes, partici- 
pating in the beatific vision. See the article on Beatific 
Vision, and Part III of the article on Heaven, in the Cath. 
Encycl. 

5. ' ' Thou guide and way to heaven, be Thou the goal of 
our hearts, our joy in tears, the sweet reward of life." 
Semita = via: Ego sum via, et Veritas et vita (John 14, 6). 



66 



/Eterne Rex altissime 



AETERNE Rex altissime, 
Redemptor et fidelium, 
Cui mors pererapta detulit 
Summae triumphum gloriae. 



^Ascendis orbes siderum, 
Quo te vocabat coelitus 
Collata, non humanitus, 
Rerum potestas omnium. 



^Ut trina rerum machina, 
Coelestium, terrestrium, 
Et inferorum condita, 
Flectat genu jam subdita. 



ETERNAL Monarch, King most 
High, 
Whose Blood hath brought re- 
demption nigh, 
By whom the death of Death was 

wrought, 
And conquering grace's battle 
fought : 

Ascending by the starry road. 
This day Thou wentest home to 

God, 
By Heaven to power unending 

called, 
And by no human hand installed. 

That so, in nature's triple frame, 

Each heavenly and each earthly 
name, 

And things in hell's abyss ab- 
horred, 

May bend the knee and own Him 
Lord. 
157 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 



*Tremunt videntes Angeli 
Versam vicem mortalium: 
Peccat caro, mundat caro, 
Regnat Deus Dei caro. 



'Sis ipse nostrum gaudium, 
Manens olympo praemium, 
Mundi regis qui fabricam, 
Mundana vincens gaudia. 



®Hinc te precantes quaesumus, 
Ignosce culpis omnibus, 
Et corda sursum subleva 
Ad te superna gratia. 



^Ut cum repente coeperis 
Clarere nube judicis, 
Poenas repellas debitas, 
Reddas coronas perditas. 



'Jesu, tibi sit gloria, 
Qui victor in coelum redis, 
Cum Patre, et almo Spiritu, 
In sempiterna saecula. 



Yea, Angels tremble when they see 
How changed is our humanity; 
That Flesh hath purged what flesh 

had stained, 
And God, the flesh of God, hath 

reigned. 

Be Thou our joy, mighty Lord, 

As Thou wilt be our great re- 
ward; 

Earth's joys to Thee are nothing 
worth, 

Thou joy and crown of heaven 
and earth. 

To Thee we therefore humbly pray 
That Thou wouldst purge our sins 

away. 
And draw our hearts by cords of 

grace 
To Thy celestial dwelling-place. 

So when the Judgment day shall 
come. 

And all must rise to meet their 
doom, 

Thou wilt remit the debts we owe. 

And our lost crowns again be- 
stow. 

All glory, Lord, to Thee we pay, 
Ascending o'er the stars to-day; 
All glory, as is ever meet, 
To Father and to Paraclete. 



Author : Ambrosian, 5th cent. Meter : Iambic dimeter. 
Translation by J. M. Neale and others. There are fifteen 
translations. Liturgical Use : Hymn for Matins from As- 
cension to Pentecost. 

1. **0 eternal and sovereign King, and Redeemer of the 
faithful, to whom the annihilation of death brought a tri- 
umph of the greatest glory:" 

2. *'Thou didst ascend above the orbits of the stars, 
whither the sovereignty over all things summoned Thee, 
which sovereignty was given Thee from heaven, not by 

158 



WHITSUNTIDE 

men.** Ccelitus, adv. from above, by the Father. Data est 
mihi omnis potestas in coelo et in terra (Matt. 28, 18). 

3. "So that the threefold fabric of the universe, creatures 
{condita) of heaven, of earth, and of hell, may now in sub- 
mission bend the knee to Thee." Condita ■= creata. Machina, 
order, structure, fabric, kingdom. Ut in nomine Jesu omne 
genu flectatur ccelestium, terrestrium, et infernorum (Phil. 
2, 10). 

4. **The Angels tremble, beholding the altered lot of 
mortals : flesh sinned. Flesh cleanses from sin, the God-Man 
reigns as God." Dei caro: lit., "the flesh of God reigns as 
God." Vicem, lot, estate, condition; versam, changed, re- 
versed. 

5. "Be Thou Thyself our joy, our abiding reward in 
heaven. Thou who, surpassing all earthly joys, dost rule 
over the fabric of the universe. ' ' 

6. ' ' Therefore, praying we beseech Thee, pardon all our 
sins, and by Thy heavenly grace raise aloft our hearts to 
Thee." 

7. "That when Thou dost unexpectedly begin to shine in 
splendor on a cloud as judge. Thou mayest remit the pun- 
ishments due, and restore our lost crowns." Et tunc vide- 
bunt Filium hominis venientem in nube cum potestate 
magna, et majestate (Luke 21, 27). 



WHITSUNTIDE 
67 Veni, Sancte Spiritus 

VENI, Sancte Spiritus, H^^^ SPIRIT, come and shine 

Et emitte ccelitus '^-■- On our souls with beams 
Lucis tuse radium. divine, 

Veni pater pauperum, Issuing from Thy radiance bright. 

Veni dator munerum, Come, Father of the poor, 

Veni lumen cordium. Ever bounteous of Thy store, 

Come, our hearts' unfailing light. 

^Consolator optime. Come, Consoler, kindest, best, 

Dulcis hospes animae, Come, our bosom's dearest guest, 

Dulce refrigerium. Sweet refreshment, sweet repose. 

159 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 



In labore requies, 
In aestu temperies. 
In fletu solatium. 

^0 lux beatissima, 
Reple cordis intima 
Tuorum fidelium. 
Sine tuo numine, 
Nihil est in homine. 
Nihil est innoxium. 



*Lava quod est sordidum, 
Riga quod est aridum, 
Sana quod est saucium. 
Flecte quod est rigidum, 
Fove quod est frigidum, 
Rege quod est devium. 



''Da tuis fidelibus, 
In te confidentibus, 
Sacrum septenariura. 
Da virtutis meritiun, 
Da salutis exitum, 
Da perenne gaudium. 



Rest in labor, coolness sweet, 
Tempering the burning heat, 
Truest comfort of our woes. 

divinest light, impart 
Unto every faithful heart 
Plenteous streams from love's 

bright flood. 
But for Thy blest Deity, 
Nothing pure in man could be; 
Nothing harmless, nothing good. 

Wash away each sinful stain; 
Gently shed Thy gracious rain 
On the dry and fruitless soul. 
Heal each wound and bend each 

will, 
Warm our hearts benumbed and 

chill. 
All our wayward steps control. 

Unto all Thy faithful just, 
Who in Thee confide and trust. 
Deign the sevenfold gift to send. 
Grant us virtue's blest increase. 
Grant a death of hope and peace, 
Grant the joys that never end. 



Author: Probably by Pope Innocent III (1161-1216). 
Meter : Trochaic dimeter catalectic. Translation by Father 
Aylward, O.P. There are about forty translations ; of these 
Father Caswall's is the most widely used. There are six 
translations in the Annus Sanctus. Liturgical Use: Se- 
quence for Whitsunday and throughout the octave. In me- 
dieval times the Veni Sancte Spiritus was known as ''The 
Golden Sequence." In the opinion of critics it is justly re- 
garded as one of the greatest masterpieces of sacred Latin 
poetry. Trench considers it the loveliest of all the hymns in 
the whole circle of sacred Latin poetry, and adds that it 
could only have been composed by one who had been ac- 
quainted with many sorrows, and also with many consola- 
tions {Sacred Latin Poetry, p. 195). "The Sequence for 
Whitsunday," says Dr. Gihr, ''can have come but from a 
heart wholly inflamed with the fire of the Holy Ghost. It is 

160 



WHITSUNTIDE 

an incomparable hymn, breathing of the sweetness of Para- 
dise, and regaling us with heaven's sweetest fragrance. 
Only the soul buried in deep recollection can suspect and 
taste the wealth of deep thought and affections this Pente- 
cost hymn contains, and that, too, in a form remarkable as 
much for beauty as for brevity" {The Holy Sacrifice of the 
Mass, p. 464). There is an article on the Veni Sancte 
Spiritus, in the Cath. Encycl. 

In studying this hymn the richness of the rhyme is deserv- 
ing of special note. In each of the six-line stanzas, lines 1 
and 2, 3 and 6, 4 and 5 rhyme ; and every third line through- 
out the hymn ends in ium. 

The introductory and thrice repeated Veni in the first 
stanza is expressive of the intense longing of a world- 
buffeted, sin-harried soul for the advent of the "best con- 
soler. ' ' The similar repetition of the verb Da in the closing 
stanza is equally expressive of earnestness and of loving 
confidence in the ''giver of gifts." 

1. "Come Holy Spirit, and send forth from heaven the 
ray of Thy light. Come, Father of the poor; come, giver 
of gifts; come, light of hearts." Pater pauperum, i.e., the 
poor in spirit (Matt. 5, 3) who may either be destitute of the 
goods of this world, or detached from them, "as having 
nothing, and possessing all things" (II Cor. 6, 10). Dator 
munerum: The Holy Spirit is the dispenser of the countless 
gifts or graces which Christ merited for us. 

2. "Thou best consoler, sweet guest of the soul, sweet 
coolness: in labor, rest; in heat, refreshment; in tears, 
solace." Consolator, the Latin rendering of the Greek 
Paraclitus, consoler, comforter. 

3. "0 most blessed Light, fill Thou the inmost recesses 
of the hearts of Thy faithful! Without Thy divine as- 
sistance there is nothing in man, nothing harmless." 

4. "Cleanse what is base, bedew what is parched, heal 
what is wounded ; bend what is rigid, warm what is chilled, 
guide what is astray." Lava, wash — by Baptism and 
Penance; riga, bedew with Thy grace; sana, heal what is 
wounded by sin; fleet e, bend what is fixed — the stubborn 
will; fove, warm what is cold — our hearts; rege, guide 
sinners. 

161 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

5. ''Give to Thy faithful confiding in Thee Thy sevenfold 
gifts. Give them the reward of virtue ; give them the death 
of safety (a happy death) ; give them eternal joy. ' ' Sacrum 
septenarium, the sacred sevenfold gifts, viz., wisdom, 
understanding, counsel, fortitude, knowledge, piety, and 
the fear of the Lord (cf. Is. 11, 2-3). 



68 



Veni Creator Spiritus 



VENI Creator Spiritus, 
Mentes tuorum visita, 
Imple superna gratia, 
Quae tu creasti pectora. 



CREATOR-SPIRIT, all-Divine, 
Come, visit every soul of 
Thine, 
And fill with Thy celestial flame 
The hearts which Thou Thyself 
didst frame. 



Qui diceris Paraclitus, 
Altissimi donum Dei, 
Eons vivus, ignis, caritas, 
Et spiritalis unctio. 



^ Tu septif ormis munere. 
Digitus paternae dexterae, 
Tu rite promissum Patris, 
Sermone ditans guttura. 



*Accende lumen sensibus: 
Infimde amorem cordibus: 
Infirma nostri corporis 
Virtute firmans perpeti. 



'Hostem repellas longius, 
Pacemque dones protinus: 
Ductore sic te praevio, 
Vitemus omne noxium. 



O gift of God, Thine is the sweet 
Consoling name of Paraclete — 
And spring of life and fire and 

love 
And unction flowing from above. 

The mystic sevenfold gifts are 

Thine, 
Finger of God's right hand 

divine; 
The Father's promise sent to 

teach 
The tongue a rich and heavenly 

speech. 

Kindle with fire brought from 
above 

Each sense, and fill our hearts with 
love; 

And grant our flesh, so weak and 
frail, 

The strength of Thine which can- 
not fail. 

Drive far away our deadly foe. 
And grant us Thy true peace to 

know; 
So we, led by Thy guidance still, 
May safely pass through every ill. 



162 



WHITSUNTIDE 

' Per te sciamus da Patrem, To us, through Thee, the grace be 

Noscamus atque Filium; shown 

Teque utriusque Spiritum To know the Father and the Son; 

Credamus orani tempore. And Spirit of Them both, may we 

Forever rest our faith in Thee. 

^Deo Patri sit gloria. To Sire and Son be praises meet, 

Et Filio, qui a mortuis And to the Holy Paraclete; 

Surrexit, ac Paraclito, And may Christ send us from 

In saeculorum saecula. above 

That Holy Spirit's gift of love. 



Author: Probably by Rabanus Maurus (776-856). 
Meter: Iambic dimeter. Translation by Father Aylward, 
O.P. There are about sixty translations, eight of which 
are in the Annus Sanctus. Liturgical Use: Hymn for 
Vespers and Terce on Whitsunday and throughout the 
octave. Terce (the 3d hour, 9:00 A. M.) was the hour on 
which the Holy Ghost descended upon the Apostles (Acts 
2, 15). The hymn is used on many other solemn occasions 
in liturgical and extra-liturgical functions as an invocation 
to the Holy Spirit. With the exception of the Te Deum, 
there is probably no other hymn so extensively used in the 
Church as the Veni Creator Spiritus. 

The authorship has been variously ascribed to Rabanus 
Maurus, Charlemagne, St. Ambrose, and to St. Gregory 
the Great. Read the articles on the Veni Creator Spiritus, 
Paraclete, and on Holy Ghost, in the Cath. Encyd. 

1. ' ' Come, Creator Spirit, visit the souls of Thy children, 
and fill with heavenly grace the hearts which Thou hast 
made." Creator: The three Divine Persons concur equally 
in their external operation; thus the Father created, the 
Son created, and the Holy Ghost created. 

2. *'Thou who art called the Paraclete, the gift of God 
most high, the living fountain, fire, love, and spiritual 
unction." Paraclitus: the Paraclete, the Holy Spirit; a 
Greek word signifying — the consoler, comforter. In the 
Scriptures the word occurs only in St. John 14, 16 ; 14, 26 ; 
15, 26; 16, 7. Donum: The Holy Spirit is called the ''gift 
of God most high. ' ' To receive the gift of the Holy Ghost 
(Acts 2, 38) is equivalent to receiving the Holy Ghost with 

163 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

His gifts. Fons vivus: Sed aqua, quam ego dabo ei, fiet in 
eo fons aquse salientis in vitam seternam (John 4, 14). 
Ignis: Earthly fire illuminates, enkindles, consumes, and 
purifies from dross ; so too, in its nature, is the fire of the 
Holy Spirit — enlightening, love-enkindling, sin-destroying, 
and purifying. This fire manifests itself in works of 
charity, and especially in preaching with zeal and fervor 
the word of God. Caritas: Deus caritas est, et qui manet 
in caritate, in Deo manet, et Deus in eo (I John 4, 16). 
Spiritalis — Spiritualis ; The grace of God is called unction 
or anointing because the effects produced by it in the 
spiritual order are analogous to those produced by oint- 
ment in the natural order. It cools, refreshes, exhilarates, 
strengthens, heals, enriches, etc. 

3. ''Thou art sevenfold in Thy gifts, the finger of the 
Father's right hand; Thou art the express promise of the 
Father, endowing tongues with speech." Septifonnis: 
The seven gifts of the Holy Ghost are enumerated by the 
Prophet Isaias : Et requiescet super eum spiritus Domini ; 
spiritus sapientias et intellectus, spiritus consilii et forti- 
tudinis, spiritus scientiaB et pietatis, et replebit eum spiritus 
timoris Domini (Is. 11, 2-3). Digitus Dei: The Holy Spirit 
is called the "finger of God" as may be seen from the fol- 
lowing parallel passages: Si in digito Dei ejicio daemonia 
(Luke 11, 20). Si autem ego in Spiritu Dei ejicio daemones 
(Matt. 12, 28). Rite, explicit, distinctly stated. Promis- 
sum, i = promissio. Et ego mitto promissum Patris mei in 
vos (Luke 24, 49). Sed expectarent promissionem Patris 
(Acts 1, 4). Sermone: A reference to the gift of tongues 
(Acts 2,4). 

4. ''Enkindle Thy light within our minds, infuse Thy 
love into our hearts ; strengthen the weakness of our flesh 
by Thy never-failing power. ' ' 

5. "Drive far away our enemy, and forthwith grant us 
peace; so that while Thou leadest the way as our guide, 
we may avoid everything harmful." 

6. "Grant that through Thee we may know the Father; 
through Thee, the Son ; and may we ever believe in Thee, 
the Spirit of Them both." 

164 



69 



WHITSUNTIDE 
Jam Christus astra ascenderat 



JAM Christus astra ascenderat, 
Reversus unde venerat, 
Patris fruendum munere 
Sanctum daturus Spiritum. 



Solemnis urgebat dies, 
Quo mystico septemplici 
Orbis volutus septies. 
Signal beata tempora. 



^Cum lucis hora tertia 
Repente mundus intonat, 



Apostolis orantibus 
Deum venire nuntiat. 



*De Patris ergo lumine 
Decorus ignis almus est, 
Qui fida Christi pectora 
Galore Verbi compleat. 



'Impleta gaudent viscera, 
Afflata sancto Spiritu, 
Vocesque diversas sonant, 
Fantur Dei magnalia. 



'Notique cunctis Gentibus, 
Graecis, Latinis, Barbaris, 
Simulque demirantibus, 
Linguis loquuntur omnium. 



NOW Christ, ascending whence 
He came. 
Had mounted o'er the starry 

frame, 
The Holy Ghost on man below, 
The Father's promise, to bestow. 

The solemn time was drawing 

nigh. 
Replete with heav'nly mystery. 
On seven days' sevenfold circles 

borne, 
That first and blessed Whitsun- 

morn. 

When the third hour shone all 

around, 
There came a rushing mighty 

sound. 
And told the Apostles, while in 

prayer. 
That, as was promised, God was 

there. 

Forth from the Father's light it 

came. 
That beautiful and kindly flame: 
To fill with fervor of His word 
The spirits faithful to their Lord. 

With joy the Apostles' breasts are 

fired. 
By God the Holy Ghost inspired: 
And straight, in divers kinds of 

speech. 
The wondrous works of God they 

preach. 

To men of every race they speak, 
Alike Barbarian, Roman, Greek: 
From the same lips, with awe and 

fear, 
All men their native accents hear. 



165 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

'Judaea tunc incredula, But Juda's sons, e'en faithless yet, 

Vesana torvo spiritu, With mad infuriate rage beset, 

Madere musto sobrios To mock Christ's followers com- 

Christi fideles increpat. bine, 

As drunken all with new-made 
wine. 

*Sed editis miraculis When lo! with signs and mighty 

Occurrit et docet Petrus, deeds, 

Falsum profari perfidos, Stands Peter in the midst, and 

Joele teste comprobans. pleads; 

Confounding their malignant lie 
By Joel's ancient prophecy. 

' Deo Patri sit gloria, To God the Father let us sing, 

Et Filio, qui a mortuis To God the Son, our risen King, 

Surrexit, ac Paraclito, And equally let us adore 

In saeculorum saecula. The Spirit, God forevermore. 

Author: Ambrosian, 4th cent. Meter: Iambic dimeter. 
Translation : First four stanzas by J. M. Neale ; remainder 
by G. H. Palmer and J. W. Doran. There are about 
fifteen translations, three of which are in the Annus Sanc- 
tus. Liturgical Use: Hymn for Matins on Whitsunday 
and throughout the octave. The hymn is a metrical setting 
of Acts 2, 1-16. 

1. *' Christ had already ascended on high, returning 
whence He came, that He might send the Holy Spirit, who 
was to be received as the gift of the Father." Fruendum: 
fut. part, of fruor, signifying one who or that which is to be 
enjoyed; here rather in the sense of ''to be imparted.'' 
Munere, by the liberality, generosity, etc. The Holy Ghost 
proceeds from the Father and the Son, and was sent by the 
Father and the Son. 

2. ' ' The solemn day drew nigh, on which the earth, hav- 
ing revolved seven times in the mystical sevenfold, an- 
nounces the blessed time." Dies, Pentecost. Septemplici = 
hebdomas, a period of seven days. It is styled mystical 
because of the well known mysterious significance of the 
number seven. The meaning of the stanza is that seven 
times seven revolutions of the earth take place between 
Easter and Pentecost. The Pentecost of the Jews was 
celebrated on the fiftieth day after the Passover or Jewish 

1G6 



WHITSUNTIDE 

Easter. The Easter and Pentecost of the Jews were figures 
of the Christian festivals. The Pentecost of the Old Law 
was the festival on which was celebrated the 'ingathering" 
of, and also the thanksgiving for the harvest (cf. Ex. 34, 
22; Dent. 16, 9-10). See also the article on Whitsunday, 
in the Cath. Encycl. 

Behold the appointed morn appear 

In solemn mystery sublime! 

Seven times sevenfold this earthly sphere 

Revolving, marked the blessed time. 

— /. D, Chambers. 

3. "When at the third hour of day the whole world sud- 
denly resounds, and announces to the praying Apostles 
that God is come." Deum = Spiritum Sanctum. 

4. '*0f the Father's light, therefore, is that beauteous, 
kindly flame, which fills with the fervor of the Word the 
hearts of those believing in Christ." Fidus is generally 
followed by the dative, but in poetry also by the genitive. 
Or, fida pectora, Christ's faithful souls. Colore verbi: This 
may be interpreted as in Neale's version, viz. *'To fill with 
fervor of His word." It would then refer to the gift of 
fervid eloquence with which the Apostles were endowed. 
Or Verhum might preferably be rendered: the Word, the 
eternal Son of God. Note the following: 

To warm each faithful breast below 
With Christ, the Lord's all-quickening glow. 

— Father Aylward. 

5. ** Filled therewith (so. colore verbi), their hearts, in- 
spired by the Holy Ghost, rejoice, and speaking divers 
tongues, they proclaim the wondrous works of God." 

6. *'At one and the same time, they (each one) spoke to 
the astonished people in the tongues of all, and they were 
understood by all, Greeks, Romans, and Barbarians." 
Noti {sunt). Cwictis, etc., are in the dative with the pas- 
sive, not the ablative. Read the article on Tongues, Gift 
of, in the Coth. Encycl. 

7. "Then faithless Judea, rendered insane by its savage 
spirit, accuses the sober, faithful followers of Christ of 
being drunk with new wine." Judcea, i.e., the Jews. 

167 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

8. *'But by the miracles wrought, Peter opposes them, 
and shows that the perfidious Jews speak falsely, proving 
it by the testimony of Joel" (cf. Joel 2, 28). 



70 



Beata nobis gaudia 



BEATA nobis gaudia 
Anni reduxit orbita, 
Cum Spiritus Paraclitus 
Illapsus est Apostolis. 



* Ignis vibrante lumine 
Linguae figuram detulit, 
Verbis ut assent proflui, 
£t caritate fervidi. 



^Linguis loquuntur omnium, 
Turbae pavent Gentilium: 
Musto madere deputant, 
Quos Spiritus repleverat. 



*Patrata sunt haec mystice, 
Paschae peracto tempore, 
Sacro dierum circulo. 
Quo lege fit remissio. 



'Te nunc Deus piissime 
Vultu precamur cernuo, 
lUapsa nobis coelitus 
Largire dona Spiritus. 

' Dudum sacrata pectora 
Tua replesti gratia: 
Dimitte nostra crimina, 
£t da quieta tempora. 



ROUND roll the weeks our 
hearts to greet. 
With blissful joy returning; 
For lo! the Holy Paraclete 
On twelve bright brows sits burn- 
ing: 

With quivering flame He lights on 

each. 
In fashion like a tongue, to teach 
That eloquent they are of speech, 
Their hearts with true love yearn- 
ing. 

While with all tongues they speak 
to all. 

The nations deem them maddened, 

And drunk with wine the Prophets 
call, 

Whom God's good Spirit glad- 
dened; 

A marvel this — in mystery done — 
The holy Paschaltide outrun. 
By numbers told, whose reckoning 

won 
Remission for the saddened. 

God most Holy, Thee we pray, 
With reverent brow low bending. 
Grant us the Spirit's gifts to-day — 
The gifts from heaven descending; 

And, since. Thy grace hath deigned 

to bide 
Within our breasts once sanctified. 
Deign, Lord, to cast our sins aside, 
Henceforth calm seasons sending. 



168 



WHITSUNTIDE 

^Deo Patri sit gloria, To God the Father, laud and 

Et Filio, qui a mortuis praise, 

Surrexit, ac Paraclito, Praise to the Son be given; 

In saeculorum saecula. Praise to the Spirit of all grace, 

The fount of graces seven — 

As was of old, all worlds before. 
Is now and shall be evermore. 
When time and change are spent 

and o'er — 
All praise in earth and heaven. 

Author: Ascribed to St. Hilary, Bishop of Poitiers (d. 
368), but on insufficient evidence. Meter: Iambic dimeter. 
Translation by W. J. Blew. There are about twenty trans- 
lations. The Annus Sanctus contains three translations, 
and a fragment of a fourth. Liturgical Use: Hymn for 
Lauds on Whitsunday and throughout the octave. 

1. ''The circle of the year has again brought back to U3 
blessed joys, when the Spirit, the Comforter, came down 
upon the Apostles." 

2. ''The fire with tremulous flame assumed the shape of 
a tongue, that they might be eloquent in speech and fervent 
in charity." Et apparuerunt illis dispertitte linguae tam- 
quam ignis, seditque supra singulos eorum (Acts 2, 3). 

3. ' ' Speaking in the tongues of all, the multitudes of the 
Gentiles are amazed: they deemed as drunk with new 
wine, those whom the Holy Ghost had filled." 

4. "These things were wrought mystically, when the 
Paschal time was completed, in the sacred circle of days in 
which by law remission occurred. ' ' Circulo = numero, as 
in the Original Text. Remissio: The allusion is to the 
annus remissionis (Ezech. 46, 17), or Year of Jubilee, 
which in the Old Law occurred every fifty years (cf. Lev. 
25). During the Year of Jubilee, debts were remitted, 
slaves liberated, etc. Read the article on Jubilee, in the 
Cath. Encycl. Read also the article on Sabbatical Year, 
as both are referred to in Lev. 25. 

5. "With bowed heads, we now beseech Thee, most 
loving God, to bestow upon us the gifts of the Holy Ghost, 
which were sent down from heaven." Largire, imper. of 
largior. 

169 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

6. "Formerly Thou didst fill with Thy grace sacred 
breasts; pardon now our sins and grant us peaceful days." 
The first two lines of this stanza may refer either to our 
own breasts sanctified in Baptism, or to the breasts of the 
Apostles which were sanctified in so wondrous a manner 
on the day of Pentecost. Note the elaborate English 
doxology. 



71 



Trinity Sunday 
O lux beata Trinitas 



OLUX beata Trinitas, 
Et principalis Unitas, 
Jam sol recedet igneus, 
Infunde lumen cordibus. 



^Te mane laudimi carmine, 
Te deprecemur vespere : 
Te nostra supplex gloria 
Per cuncta laudet saecula. 



TRINITY of blessed light, 
Unity of princely might, 
The fiery sun now goes his way; 
Shed Thou within our hearts Thy 
ray. 



To 



morning song of 



Thee our 

praise. 
To Thee our evening prayer we 

raise; 
Thy glory suppliant we adore 
Forever and forevermore. 



'Deo Patri sit gloria, All laud to God the Father be; 

Ejusque soli Filio, All praise, Eternal Son, to Thee; 

Cum Spiritu Paraclito, All glory, as is ever meet, 

Et nunc et in perpetuum. To God the Holy Paraclete. 

Liturgical Use : Vespers hymn for the Feast of the Most 
Holy Trinity. The Roman Breviary text of this hymn is 
the same as that of the Vespers hymn for Saturday, No. 
29, with the substitution of amor em for lumen in 1. 4. The 
text given above is the Original Text with a translation of 
the same by J. M. Neale. Compare the above Latin text 
with the Revised Text, hymn 29. 



72 



SummcB Parens clementite 



SUMM.^ Parens clementiae, 
Mundi regis qui machinam, 
Unius et substantias, 
Trinusque personis Deus, 



OGOD, by whose command is 
swayed 
This ordered world which Thou 

hast made; 
Parent of heavenly clemency. 
In nature One, in persons Three; 



170 



TRINITY SUNDAY 



^ Da dexteram surgentibus, 
Exurgat ut mens sobria, 
Flagrans et in laudem Dei 
Grates rependat debitas. 



'Deo Patri sit gloria, 
Natoque Patris unico, 
Cum Spiritu Paraclito, 
In sempiterna saecula. 



Assist us while our minds we raise, 
Inflamed with Thy immortal 

praise; 
That with our sober thoughts, we 

may 
Forever our thanksgiving pay. 

May age by age Thy wonders tell, 
Eternal praise Thy works reveal. 
And sing with the celestial host 
The Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. 



Liturgical Use: Hymn for Matins on the Feast of the 
Most Holy Trinity. Translation in the Primer, 1706, 
probably by John Dryden. This hymn is a cento from 
hymns already treated. The first stanza is from Hymn 21 ; 
the second, from Hymn 20. 



73 



Tu, Trinitatis Unitas 



TU, Trinitatis Unitas, 
Orbem potenter quae regis, 
Attende laudis canticum. 
Quod excubantes psallimus. 



^Drtus refulget lucifer, 
Praeitque solem nuntius: 
Cadunt tenebrae noctium: 
Lux sancta nos illuminet. 

*Deo Patri sit gloria, 
Ej usque soli Filio, 
Cum Spiritu Paraclito, 
Nunc et per omne saeculum. 



OTHOU, who dost all nature 
sway. 
Dread Trinity in Unity, 
Accept the trembling praise we 

pay 
To Thy eternal majesty. 

The star that heralds in the dawn 
Is slowly fading in the skies; 
The darkness melts — Thou true 

Light, 
Upon our darkened souls arise. 

To God the Father glory be. 
And to the sole-begotten Son, 
And Holy Ghost co-equally. 
While everlasting ages run. 



Liturgical Use: Hymn for Lauds on the Feast of the 
Most Holy Trinity. Translation by Father Caswall. 
This hymn is a cento from hymns already treated. The 
first stanza is from Hymn 19; the second, from Hymn 20. 

171 



74 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 
O DeuSy ego amo te 



ODEUS, ego amo te, 
Nee amo te, ut salves me, 
Aut quia non amantes te 
i^terno pimis igne. 



^ Tu, tu, mi Jesu, totum me 
Amplexus es in cruce; 
Tulisti clavos, lanceam, 
Multamque ignominiam. 



'Innumeros dolores, 
Sudores, et angores, 
Et mortem, et haec propter me, 
Ac pro me peccatore. 



*Cur igitur non amem te, 
Jesu amantissime, 
Non, ut in ccelo salves me, 
Aut ne aeternum damnes me, 



'^Nec praemii ullius spe, 
Sed sicut tu amasti me? 
Sic amo et amabo te, 
Solum quia Rex meus es, 
Et solum quia Deus es. 



TI/TY God, I love Thee, not be- 

■'-"■*• cause 

I hope for heaven thereby; 

Nor yet since they who love Thee 

not 
Must bum eternally. 

Thou, my Jesus, Thou didst me 

Upon the Cross embrace; 

For me didst bear the nails and 

spear. 
And manifold disgrace; 

And griefs and torments number- 
less. 
And sweat of agony; 
E'en death itself; and all for one 
Who was Thine enemy. 

Then why, blessed Jesus Christ, 
Should I not love Thee well. 
Not for the sake of winning 

heaven. 
Or of escaping hell; 

Not with the hope of gaining 

aught. 
Not seeking a reward; 
But as Thyself hast loved me, 
O ever-loving Lord? 

E'en so I love Thee, and will love. 
And in Thy praise will sing. 
Solely because Thou art my God, 
And my eternal King. 



Author: St. Francis Xavier (1506-1552). **It seems 
fairly certain that the original was a Spanish or Portuguese 
sonnet, and was written by St. Francis Xavier in the East 
Indies about 1546" {Diet, of Hymnology, p. 1679). There 
are several Latin versions ; the author of the above version 
is not known. Meter: Iambic dimeter. Translation by 
Father Caswall. There are about twenty-five translations. 

172 



CORPUS CHRISTI 

Although this hymn is not found in the Breviary or 
Missal it is deservedly very popular. There is an article 
on Deus ego amo te in the Cath. Encycl. The article 
treats of two Latin hymns beginning with the same first 
line ; both hymns are attributed to St. Francis Xavier. Of 
these hymns Dr. Duffield says: "They are transfused and 
shot through by a personal sense of absorption into the 
divine love, w^hich has fused and crystallized them in its 
fiercest heat. ' ' And to their author, he pays this beautiful 
tribute: "It is impossible to study his life without a con- 
viction there was in it a devout and gallant purpose to bless 
the world .... And in the two hymns which bear his 
name we are able to discover that fine attar which is the 
precious residuum of many crushed and fragrant aspira- 
tions, which grew above the thorns of sharp trial and were 
strewn at last upon the wind-swept beach of that poor 
Pisgah island from which he truly beheld the distant Land" 
{Latin Hymn-Writers and Their Hymns, pp. 298-315). The 
hymn offers no difficulty to the translator. 



Corpus Christi 
preliminary observations 

The next five hymns are the great Eucharistic hymns of 
St. Thomas Aquinas (1227-1274). They were written at 
the request of Pope Urban IV, on the occasion of the insti- 
tution of the Feast of Corpus Christi in 1264. The hymns 
of the Angelic Doctor are remarkable for their smoothness 
and clearness, and for their logical conciseness and dog- 
matic precision. They are pervaded throughout by a spirit 
of the profoundest piety so characteristic of the Angel of 
the Schools. It is fitting that a great Doctor of the Church 
and a great Saint should have confined his hymn-writing to 
a single subject, and that, the sweetest and profoundest of 
all subjects, the Most Holy Sacrament of the Altar. 

The hymns taken collectively contain an admirable sum- 
mary of the Catholic doctrine of the Holy Eucharist. "The 
Lauda Sion," says Archbishop Bagshawe, is in itself "a 
condensed compendium of exact theology" {Breviary 

173 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

Hymns and Missal Sequences, Preface). Several of the 
clear-cut, doctrinal statements that are found in the Lauda 
Sion occur again and again in the other hymns. To obviate 
repetitions in the Notes, and to afford additional aids to 
the proper understanding of the hymns, the following doc- 
trinal statements from authoritative sources may be found 
useful : 

1. * 'It has always been believed in the Church of God that 
immediately after the consecration, the true Body of Our 
Lord and His true Blood exist under the species of bread 
and wine, together with His Soul and Divinity: the Body 
under the species of bread, and the Blood under the species 
of wine, by force of the words; but the Body under the 
species of wane, and the Blood under the species of bread, 
and the Soul under both by force of the natural connection 
and concomitance by which the parts of the Lord Christ, 
who rose from the dead to die no more, are linked together : 
and the Divinity by reason of Its admirable Hypostatic 
Union with the Body and Soul. Wherefore it is most true 
that there is as much contained under either species as 
under both, for Christ exists whole and entire under the 
species of bread, and under every part of the species, whole 
too and entire under the species of wine and under its 
parts" (Council of Trent, Sess. 13, Ch. 3. Quoted from 
the Outlines of Dogmatic Theology, by Father Hunter, S.J. 
Vol. 3, p. 258). 

2. The following is from the Profession of Faith of Pope 
Pius IV, which was drawn up shortly after the conclusion 
of the Council of Trent: *'I profess .... that in the 
most Holy Sacrament of the Eucharist, there is truly, 
really, and substantially, the Body and Blood, together 
with the Soul and Divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ, and 
that there is made a conversion of the whole substance of 
the bread into the Body, and of the w^hole substance of the 
wine into the Blood ; which conversion the Catholic Church 
calls Transubstantiation. I also confess, that under either 
kind alone, Christ is received whole and entire, and a true 
Sacrament" (From Father Devine's The Creed Explained, 
p. 55). 

3. ''Since the species of bread and wine are not the 

174 



CORPUS CHRISTI 

proper, but only the assumed species of the Body and 
Blood of Christ, what is done to the species cannot there- 
fore be said to be done to the Body and Blood of Christ 
itself. If, for instance, the former are divided or broken, 
the Body of Christ is not thereby divided or broken. But 
as the Body of Christ exists permanently under the species, 
and is really present wherever the species are, it is actually 
borne from place to place, as are the species. We may 
rightly say, however, that the Sacrament is broken {fracto 
demum sacramento) ; for the species are an essential part 
of the Sacrament" (Father "Wilmer's Handbook of the 
Christian Religion, p. 334). 

4. ''Every day the Eucharistic mysteries place Our Lord 
in a state analogous to that which He took upon Himself in 
the Incarnation. The Eucharistic species subsist in- 
dependently of their proper substance, as the human nature 
of the Word Incarnate subsisted independently of His 
natural personality. . . . Not without reason does the 
Church, in her offices and Eucharistic hymns, constantly 
bring these two mysteries together, the Incarnation and 
Transubstantiation" (From The Eucharistic Life of 
Christ, in Father Matthew Russell's Jesus Is Waiting, p. 
87). The following paragraph expresses briefly and 
authoritatively the teaching of the Church concerning the 
Incarnation and the Person of Christ. 

5. ''But it is also necessary for eternal salvation, that 
he also believe faithfully the Incarnation of our Lord Jesus 
Christ. Now the right faith is, that we believe and confess, 
that our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, is both God and 
man. He is God of the substance of His Father, begotten 
before the world; and He is man of the substance of His 
Mother, born in the world. Perfect God and perfect man ; 
of rational soul and human flesh subsisting. Equal to the 
Father according to His Divinity; less than the Father 
according to His humanity. Who, although He is both God 
and man, yet He is not two, but one Christ. One, not by the 
conversion of the Godhead into flesh, but by the assuming 
of human nature unto God. One altogether, not by con- 
fusion of substance, but by unity of person. For as the 
rational soul and the body constitutes one man, so God and 

175 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

man is one Christ'* (From the Creed of St. Athanasius). 
Such was the Christ who was born for ns at Bethlehem; 
the Good Shepherd who sought out the lost sheep of the 
house of Israel; the great High Priest who gave Himself 
to His disciples with His own hands at the Last Supper; 
and who as Priest and Victim offered Himself on Calvary, 
and daily offers Himself on countless altars from the rising 
till the setting of the sun. 

6. "Christ is entirely present under each species and 
under each particle of either species. Christ is entirely 
present — with His flesh and blood, His body and soul. His 
manhood and Godhead under each species. Christ gave 
His disciples the same body that He possessed, and on our 
altars bread is changed into the same body which is now 
glorified in heaven ; for the words : This is My body, would 
not be true, unless the bread were changed into the living 
body of Christ as it now exists. So, too, the wine is changed 
into the blood of the living Christ. But where the body of 
the living Christ is there is also His blood, and His soul, 
and divinity; and where His blood is there is also His body, 
soul, and divinity — the entire Christ." '^ Christ is wholly 
present in each particle of either species so that he who 
receives one particle of the host receives the whole Christ" 
(Wilmer's Handbook, p. 334). 

7. The parallel passages in the Scriptures referring 
directly to the Institution of the Holy Eucharist are the 
following: St. Matt. 26, 26-28; St. Mark 14, 22-24; St. Luke 
22, 19-20; St. Paul I Cor. 11, 23-25. The following is from 
St. Luke: ''And taking bread, he gave thanks, and broke, 
and gave to them, saying: This is my body which is given 
for you. Do this for a commemoration of me. In like 
manner the chalice also, after he had supped, saying: This 
is the chalice, the new testament in my blood, which shall 
be shed for you." See also the words of promise (St. 
John 6, 48-59) which were uttered by Our Lord about one 
year before the institution of the Holy Eucharist. 

8. Types: By types, in the Scriptures, are meant such 
persons and things in the Old Law as prefigured persons 
and things in the New. The Old Law itself and the various 
sacrifices it prescribed were but the types or shadows, not 

176 




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Missale Einsiedlense — 16lh Cenliiry, 180 pages {Codex 
Msc. 10^4). Pkolo -re product ion from, the original in 
the Abbey of Maria Einsiedeln shows ''Inilium In- 
iroitas SS. Trinitatis." The miniature of the Holy 
Trinity done in strikingly rich colors and set within an 
initial which is carried out in gold allajiinst a highly 
decorative red and blue background in connection tvilh 
the appropriately ornate, yet legible, text emphasizes the 
beauty and perfection of the illuminator' s art at that 
time. 



CORPUS CHRISTI 

the reality, of future good things promised (cf. Heb. 10, 
1-19). The principal types mentioned in the hymns are: 

(a) The Paschal Lamb (Exod. 12). The Paschal Lamb 
is the most expressive type or figure of Christ mentioned 
in the Old Testament. It was slain the day before the 
Passover; it was to be without blemish; it was to be offered 
to God and then eaten ; not a bone of it was to be broken ; 
its blood sprinkled on the door-posts of the Israelites pre- 
served them from temporal death, as Christ's Blood shed 
on the Cross preserves us from eternal death. It might also 
be noted that a lamb is remarkable for its gentleness; it 
submits to unmerited suffering without complaint (Is. 53, 
7; Acts 8, 32) ; in the Old Law it was slain for sins not its 
own ; Christ is the Lamb of God who taketh away the sins 
of the world (cf. John 1, 29-36) ; He is the Lamb which was 
slain from the beginning of the world (Apoc. 13, 8), i.e., 
in the foreknowledge of God. 

(b) Manna: (Exod. 16). Manna was the miraculous 
bread of the Israelites during their forty years' sojourn in 
the desert; it came down from heaven every morning, and 
it was consumed in the morning; it was small and white; 
and such was its nature that "neither had he more that had 
gathered more, nor did he find less that had provided less" 
(Exod. 16, 18). 

(c) Isaac (Gen. 22). Isaac was a type of Christ in that 
he was the well beloved and only-begotten son of his father 
Abraham; He carried on his shoulders the wood on which 
he was to be sacrificed; he was an obedient and willing 
victim; his life, as recorded in Gen. 15-35, pictures him as 
pre-eminently a man of peace, whose willing sacrifice on 
Mount Moria was typical of the greater Sacrifice on Mount 
Calvary. 

(d) Azymes (Exod. 12-13). The azyme-bread was un- 
leavened bread prescribed by the Mosaic Law for the Feast 
of the Passover. There was also a Feast of the Azymes 
(of the Unleavened Bread) which continued for seven days. 
The Azymes and Passover were practically one and the 
same feast. Unleavened bread is a type of sincerity, truth, 
moral integrity, exemption from the corrupting leaven of 
sin, etc. (cf. I Cor. 5, 8). 

177 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

9. In the Cath. Encycl., read the following articles: 
Corpus Christi; Eucharist; Pasch; Supper, Last; Azymes; 
Lamb, Paschal; Manna; Isaac; Types in Scripture; and 
the beginning of each of the two articles on Host. 

The same work contains seven articles on the hymns of 
St. Thomas. These articles, listed under the following 
titles, are from the pen of the eminent hymnologist, the Rt. 
Rev. Monsignor H. T. Henry, Litt.D. : Lauda Sion, Adoro 
Te Devote, Sacris Solemniis, Pange Lingua, Tantum Ergo, 
Verhum Supernum, and Salutaris. Monsignor Henry's 
Eucharistica contains translations of all these hymns and 
devotes to them more than thirty pages of comment. 



75 



Lauda Sion Salvatorem 



LAUDA Sion Salvatorem, 
Lauda ducem et pastorem, 
In hymnis et canticis. 
Quantum potes, tantum aude: 
Quia major omni laude, 
Nee laudare sufficis. 



^ Laudis thema specialis, 
Panis vivus et vitalis 

Hodie proponitur. 
Quem in sacrae mensa coenae 
Turbae fratrum duodenae 

Datum non ambigitur. 



'Sit laus plena, sit sonora. 
Sit jucunda, sit decora, 

Mentis jubilatio. 
Dies enim solemnis agitur, 
In qua mensae prima recolitur 
Hujus institutio. 



PRAISE, Sion, praise thy 
Saviour, 
Shepherd, Prince, with glad be- 
havior, 
Praise in hymn and canticle: 
Sing His glory without measure, 
For the merit of your Treasure 
Never shall your praises fill. 

Wondrous theme of mortal sing- 
ing, 
Living Bread and Bread life- 
bringing. 
Sing we on this joyful day: 
At the Lord's own table given 
To the twelve as Bread from 
Heaven, 
Doubting not we firmly say. 



Sing 



with 



voice 



His praise 
sonorous; 
Every heart shall hear the chorus 

Swell in melody sublime: 
For this day the Shepherd gave us 
Flesh and Blood to feed and save 



us. 



Lasting to the end of time. 



178 



CORPUS CHRISTI 



* In hac mensa novi Regis, 
Novum Pascha novae legis, 

Phase vetus terminal. 
Vetustatem novitas, 
Umbram fugat Veritas, 

Noctem lux eliminat. 

^Quod in coena Christus gessit. 
Faciendum hoc expressit 

In sui memoriam. 
Docti sacris institutis, 
Panem, vinum in salutis 
Consecramus hostiam. 



'Dogma datur Christianis, 
Quod in carnem transit panis, 

Et vinum in sanguinem. 
Quod non capis, quod non vides, 
Animosa firmat fides, 

Praeter rerum ordinem. 



^Sub diversis speciebus, 
Signis tantum, et non rebus, 

Latent res eximise. 
Caro cibus, sanguis potus: 
Manet tamen Christus totus, 

Sub utraque specie. 



At the new King's sacred table, 
The new Law's new Pasch is able 

To succeed the ancient Rite: 
Old to new its place hath given, 
Truth has far the shadows driven. 

Darkness flees before the Light. 

And as He hath done and planned 

it— 
"Do this" — hear His love com- 
mand it, 
"For a memory of me." 
Learned, Lord, in Thy own 

science. 
Bread and wine, in sweet com- 
pliance. 
As a Host we offer Thee. 

Thus in faith the Christian 

heareth : 
That Christ's Flesh as bread ap- 

peareth. 
And as wine His Precious 

Blood: 
Though we feel it not nor see it. 
Living Faith that doth decree it 
All defects of sense makes 

good. 

Lo! beneath the species dual 
(Signs not things), is hid a jewel 

Far beyond creation's reach! 
Though His Flesh as food 

abideth, 
And His Blood as drink — He 
hideth 
Undivided under each. 



'A sumente non concisus, 
Non confractus, non divisus: 

Integer accipitur. 
Sumit unus, sumunt mille: 
Quantum isti, tantum ille: 
Nee sumptus consumitur. 



Whoso eateth It can never 
Break the Body, rend or sever; 
Christ entire our hearts doth 
fill: 
Thousands eat the Bread of 

Heaven, 
Yet as much to one is given: 
Christ, though eaten, bideth 
still. 



179 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 



"Sumunt boni, sumunt mali: 
Sorte tamen inaequali, 

Vitae, vel interitus. 
Mors est malis, vita bonis: 
Vide paris sumptionis, 

Quam sit dispar exitus. 



^"Fracto demum Sacramento 
Ne vacilles, sed memento, 
Tantum esse sub fragmento, 

Quantum toto tegitur. 
Nulla rei fit scissura: 
Signi tantum fit fractura: 
Qua nee status, nee statura 

Signati minuitur. 



^^Ecce panis angelorura, 
Factus cibus viatorum: 
Vere panis filiorum, 

Non mittendus canibus. 
In figuris praesignatur. 
Cum Isaac immolatur : 
Agnus Paschae deputatur: 

Datur manna patribus. 



"Bone Pastor, panis vere, 
Jesu, nostri miserere: 
Tu nos pasce, nos tuere: 
Tu nos bona fac videre 

In terra viventium. 
Tu qui cuncta scis et vales: 
Qui nos pascis hie mortales: 
Tuos ibi commensales, 
Cohaeredes et sodales 

Fac sanctorum civium. 



Good and bad, they come to greet 

Him: 
Unto life the former eat Him, 

And the latter unto death; 
These find death and those find 

heaven ; 
See, from the same life-seed given, 
How the harvest differeth! 

When at last the Bread is broken. 
Doubt not what the Lord hath 

spoken : 
In each part the same love-token, 

The same Christ, our hearts 
adore : 
For no power the Thing divideth — 
'Tis the symbols He provideth, 
While the Saviour still abideth 

Undiminished as before. 

Hail, angelic Bread of Heaven, 
Now the pilgrim's hoping-leaven, 
Yea, the Bread to children given 

That to dogs must not be 
thrown : 
In the figures contemplated, 
'Twas with Isaac immolated, 
By the Lamb 'twas antedated. 

In the Manna it was known. 

O Good Shepherd, still confessing 
Love, in spite of our transgress- 
ing,— 
Here Thy blessed Food possessing, 
Make us share Thine every bless- 
ing 
In the land of life and love: 
Thou, whose power hath all com- 
pleted 
And Thy Flesh as Food hath 

meted, 
Make us, at Thy table seated. 
By Thy Saints, as friends be 
greeted. 
In Thy paradise above. 



See "Preliminary Observation" 

180 



above. 



Meter : 



CORPUS CHRISTI 

Trochaic dimeter, in great part. Translation by Monsignor 
Henry. There are about twenty translations, two of which 
are in the Annus Sanctus. Liturgical Use: Sequence for 
the Feast of Corpus Christi, and throughout the octave. 

1. ''Praise, Sion, thy Saviour, praise thy Leader and 
thy Shepherd in hymns and canticles. As much as thou 
canst, so much darest thou, for He is above all praise, nor 
art thou able to praise Him enough." Sion: the faithful, 
the Church, see Glossary. Major: Benedicentes Dominum, 
exaltate ilium quantum potestis: major enim est omni laude 
(cf. Ecclus. 43, 32-34). 

2. ''To-day there is given us a special theme of praise, 
the Bread both living and life-giving, which, it is not to be 
doubted, was given to the assembly of the brethren, twelve 
in number, at the table of the holy Supper. ' ' Quern .... 
datum esse. For duodence see denus in the Glossary. 

3. "Let our praise be full and sounding; let the jubila- 
tions of the soul be joyous and becoming; for that solemn 
day is now being celebrated, on which is commemorated the 
first institution of this table." Mensce, table, the Holy 
Eucharist. 

4. "At this table of the new King, the new Pasch of 
the New Law puts an end to the ancient Pasch. The new 
supplants the old, truth puts to flight the shadow, day 
banishes night." Pascha: the Pasch, Passover (cf. Exod. 
12-13). Phase: This is another form of Pascha and has 
the same meaning (cf. Exod. 12, 21; 34, 25; Num. 9, 4). 
The English word Phase occurs only in the Douay Bible. 
The expressions "The new supplants the old," etc., refer 
to the institution of the New Sacrifice foretold by Malachias 
(1, 10-11), of which the sacrifices of the Old Law were but 
shadows, types, and figures. 

5. "What Christ did at that Supper, the same He com- 
manded to be done in remembrance of Him. Taught by 
His sacred precepts, we consecrate bread and wine into the 
Victim of salvation." 

6. "This is the dogma given to Christians, that bread 
is changed into Flesh and wine into Blood. What thou dost 
not understand, what thou dost not see, a lively faith con- 
firms in a supernatural manner." Prceter rerum ordinem: 

181 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

In an extraordinary manner, transcending the evidences of 
the senses and of the intellect. 

7. ''Under diiferent species (different) in externals 
{signis) only, and not in reality (rebus), wondrous sub- 
stances lie hidden. Flesh is food. Blood is drink : neverthe- 
less Christ remains entire under each species." The 
species of bread and wine differ in their external appear- 
ances, in taste, color, form, etc., but under each species 
there is one and the same divine substance, ''Christus 
totus." 

8. ''By the recipient the whole (Christ) is received; He 
is neither cut, broken, nor divided. One receives Him; a 
thousand receive Him ; as much as the thousand receive, so 
much does the one receive; though eaten He is not 
diminished. ' ' 

9. "The good receive Him, the bad receive Him, but 
with what unequal consequences of life or death. It is 
death to the unworthy, life to the worthy: behold then of 
a like reception, how unlike may be the result!" 

10. "When the Sacrament is broken, doubt not, but re- 
member, that there is just as much hidden in a fragment, 
as there is in the whole. There is no division of the sub- 
stance, only a breaking of the species takes place, by which 
neither the state nor stature of the substance signified is 
diminished. ' ' 

11. "Lo, the Bread of Angels is made the food of earthly 
pilgrims: truly it is the Bread of children, let it not be 
cast to dogs. It was prefigured in types, — when Isaac was 
immolated, when the Paschal Lamb was sacrificed, when 
Manna was given to the fathers. " Filiorum .... cani- 
bus: The children are the worthy; the dogs are the un- 
worthy. Non est bonum sumere panem filiorum et mittere 
canibus (Matt. 15, 26). These words were addressed by 
Our Lord to the Chanaanite woman; the children alluded 
to by Christ are the Jews, the seed of Abraham; the dogs 
are the Gentiles who were so designated on account of 
their idolatry and other sinful practices. 

12. "0 Good Shepherd, True Bread, Jesus, have mercy 
on us : feed us and protect us : make us see good things in 
the land of the living. Thou who knowest all things and 

182 



CORPUS CHRISTI 

canst do all things, who here feedest us mortals, make us 
there be Thy guests, the co-heirs, and companions of the 
heavenly citizens." Terra viventium: Credo videre bona 
Domini in terra viventium (Ps. 26, 13). 



76 

PANGE lingua gloriosi 
Corporis mysterium, 
Sanguinisque pretiosi, 
Quem in mundi pretium 
Fructus ventris generosi 
Rex effudit Gentium. 



^ Nobis datus, nobis natus 
Ex intacta Virgine, 
Et in mundo conversatus, 
Sparso verbi semine, 
Sui moras incolatus 
Miro clausit ordine. 



^In supremae nocte coenae, 
Recumbens cum fratribus 
Observata lege plena 
Cibis in legalibus, 
Cibum turbae duodense 
Se dat suis manibus. 

*Verbum care, panem verum 
Verbo carnem efficit: 
Fitque sanguis Christi merum, 
Et si sensus deficit, 
Ad firmandum cor sincerum 
Sola fides sufficit. 



^ Tantum ergo Sacramentum 
Veneremur cernui: 
Et antiquum documentum 
Novo cedat ritui: 
Praestet fides supplementum 
Sensuum defectui. 



Pange Lingua 



CING, my tongue, the Saviour*s 
*^ glory, 

Of His Flesh the mystery sing; 
Of the Blood, all price exceeding. 
Shed by our immortal King, 
Destined, for the world's redemp- 
tion, 
From a noble womb to spring. 

Of a pure and spotless Virgin 
Born for us on earth below, 
He, as Man, with man conversing, 
Stayed, the seeds of truth to 

sow; 
Then He closed in solemn order 
Wondrously His life of woe. 

On the night of that Last Supper 
Seated with His chosen band, 
He, the Paschal victim eating. 
First fulfills the Law's command: 
Then as Food to all His brethren 
Gives Himself with His own hand. 

Word made Flesh, the bread of 

nature 
By His word to Flesh He turns; 
Wine into His Blood He changes: 
What though sense no change 

discerns? 
Only be the heart in earnest. 
Faith her lesson quickly learns. 

Down in adoration falling, 
Lo! the sacred Host we hail; 
Lo! o'er ancient forms departing, 
Newer rites of grace prevail; 
Faith for all defects supplying. 
Where the feeble senses fail. 



183 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

^Genitori, Genitoque To the everlasting Father, 

Laus et jubilatio, And the Son who reigns on high, 

Salus, honor, virtus quoque With the Holy Ghost proceeding 

Sit et benedictio: Forth from Each eternally, 

Procedenti ab utroque Be salvation, honor, blessing, 

Compar sit laudatio. Might, and endless majesty. 

See ''Preliminary Observations" above. Meter: 
Trochaic tetrameter. Translation by Father Caswall. 
There are about twenty-five translations, eight of which 
are in Mr. Shipley's Annus Sanctus, Liturgical Use: 
Vespers hymn on the Feast of Corpus Christi : the Tantum 
Ergo and doxology are sung during Benediction of the 
Blessed Sacrament. It is used also as a processional hymn 
on Holy Thursday, Corpus Christi, and during the Forty 
Hours' Adoration. 

The Pange Lingua is pre-eminently the hymn of the Most 
Blessed Sacrament. It is the most beautiful of the great 
Eucharistic hymns of St. Thomas. ''This hymn," says 
Dr. Neale, "contests the second place among those of the 
Western Church with the Vexilla Regis, the Stahat Mater, 
the Jesu dulcis memoria, the Ad regias Agni dapes, the Ad 
Supernam, and one or two others, leaving the Dies Ires in 
its unapproachable glory. It has been a bow of Ulysses to 
translators" {Medieval Hymns, p. 179). The Pa/nge 
Lingua of St. Thomas is, according to Dr. Julian — "One 
of the finest of medieval Latin hymns ; a wonderful union 
of sweetness of melody with clear-cut dogmatic teaching" 
{Diet, of Hymnology, p. 878). With the addition of rhyme, 
St. Thomas imitates in this beautiful hymn the Pange 
Lingua of Fortunatus. 

1. "Sing, my tongue, the mystery of the glorious 
Body and of the precious Blood, which the King of the 
Gentiles, the fruit of a noble womb, shed for the redemp- 
tion of the world. ' ' 

2. ' ' Given to us, and born for us of a stainless Virgin, He 
dwelt on earth sowing the seed of the word, and closed in 
a wondrous manner the days of His earthly sojourning." 
Nobis datus: Parvulus enim natus est nobis et filius datus 
est nobis . . . et vocabitur nomen ejus, Admirabilis, Con- 
siliarius, Deus Fortis, Pater futuri saeculi, Princeps pacis 

184 



CORPUS CHRISTI 

(Is. 9, 6). Sparso verbi semine: Our Lord is the sower in 
the beautiful ''Parable of the Sower" (Matt. 13; Mark 4; 
Luke 8) ; the seed is the good tidings of the kingdom of 
God, which Christ came on earth to sow in the hearts of 
men. Miro clausit ordine; What this ''wondrous manner" 
was is explained in the next two stanzas. 

3. "On the night of the Last Supper, reclining with His 
brethren — the Law having been fully complied with in re- 
gard to legal meats — with His own hands, He gives Him- 
self as Food to the assembled twelve." Turhce duodence, 
to the assembly twelve in number. For duodena, see denus 
in the Glossary. Cibis in legalibus (cf. Exod. 12, 3-11). 

4. "The Word-made-Flesh changes by His word true 
bread into His Flesh; and wine becomes the Blood of 
Christ ; and if the intellect does not grasp this, faith alone 
suffices to make sure the sincere heart." This stanza, on 
account of the many verbal and real antitheses it contains, 
has been "the great crux of the translator" (Neale). In 
the article on the Pange Lingua in the Cath. Encycl. there 
are seven translations of this stanza and much interesting 
comment. Verbum caro: the Incarnate Word, the God- 
Man, the Word-made-Flesh (cf. John 1, 1-14). 

5. "Let us therefore, prostrate, adore so great a Sacra- 
ment, and let the Old Law give way to the New Ordinance ; 
let faith supplement the weakness of the senses." Et 
antiquum .... ritui: and let the Old Law (with its 
typic sacrifices and Paschal Lamb) give way to the New 
Rite (in which the Lamb of God is sacrificed). Cernui, 
adj., prostrate, profoundly bowed; with deep humility. 

6. "To the Father and to the Son be praise, glory, salva- 
tion, honor, power, and benediction also! and to Him pro- 
ceeding from Them both be equal praise. ' ' 

77 Sacris solemniis juncta sint gaudia 

SACRIS solemniis juncta sint A T this our solemn Feast, 
gaudia, -^*- Let holy joys abound, 

Et ex praecordiis sonent prse- And from the inmost breast 
conia; Let songs of praise resound; 

Let ancient rites depart, 
185 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

Recedant vetera, nova sint omnia, And all be new around, 

Corda, voces, et opera. In ev'ry act and voice and heart. 



'Noctis recolitur ccena novissima. 
Qua Christus creditur agnum et 

azyma 
Dedisse fratribus, juxta legitima 
Priscis indulta patribus. 



'Post agnum typicum, expletis 

epulis. 
Corpus Dominicum datum dis- 

cipulis. 
Sic totum omnibus, quod totum 

singulis, 
Ejus fatemur manibus. 



*Dedit fragilibus corporis fercu- 

lum, 
Dedit et tristibus sanguinis pocu- 

lum, 
Dicens: accipite quod trado 

vasculum, 
Omnes ex eo bibite. 

^ Sic sacrificium istud instituit, 
Cujus officium committi voluit 
Solis presbyteris, quibus sic 

congruit, 
Ut sumant, et dent ceteris. 



^Panis angelicus fit panis homi- 

num; 
Dat panis coelicus figuris termi- 

num: 
res mirabilis, manducat Domi- 

nvun 
Pauper, servus, et humilis. 

^ Te trina Deitas unaque poscimus. 
Sic nos tu visita, sicut te coli- 
mus: 



Remember we that eve. 

When, the Last Supper spread, 

Christ, as we all believe. 

The lamb, with leavenless bread, 

Among His brethren shared. 

And thus the Law obeyed, 

Of old unto their sires declared. 

The typic lamb consumed, 
The legal Feast complete, 
The Lord unto the Twelve 
His Body gave to eat; 
The whole to all, no less 
The whole to each, did mete 
With His own hands, as we 
confess. 

He gave them, weak and frail, 
His Flesh, their food to be; 
On them, downcast and sad, 
His Blood bestowed He: 
And thus to them He spake, 
"Receive this Cup from Me, 
And all of you of this partake." 

So He this Sacrifice 

To institute did will, 

And charged His priests alone 

That oflBce to fulfil : 

In them He did confide: 

To whom pertaineth still 

To take, and to the rest divide. 

Thus Angels' Bread is made 

The Bread of man to-day: 

The Living Bread from Heaven 

With figures doth away: 

wondrous gift indeed! 

The poor and lowly may 

Upon their Lord and Master feed. 

O Triune Deity, 

To Thee we meekly pray, 

So mayst Thou visit us, 



186 



CORPUS CHRISTI 

Per tuas semitas due nos quo As we our homage pay; 

tendimus, And in Thy footsteps bright 

Ad lucem, quam inhabitas. Conduct us on our way 

To where Thou dwell'st in cloud- 
less light. 

See ''Preliminary Observations" above. Meter: As- 
clepiadic and Glyconic. Translation, a cento based on the 
translation by J. D. Chambers. There are about Mteen 
translations, two of which are in the Annus Sanctus. 
Liturgical Use: Matins hymn for the Feast of Corpus 
Christi. The meter imitates the classical meter of Horace, 
but like all the hymns of St. Thomas, it is purely accentual. 
On account of the rhyme, the Asclepiadic lines may be 
conveniently divided at the caesura. 

1. "With this sacred solemnity let our joys be blended, 
and from our inmost heart let praises resound; let old 
things depart, let all be new — hearts, words, and works." 
Vetera: the olden rites, the Pasch and its attendant cere- 
monies; or, sin, sinful habits, the leaven of malice and 
wickedness (I Cor. 5, 7-8). Nova: let all things be new, or 
renewed by the grace of God. 

2. "Of that night, the Last Supper is recalled to mind, 
at which we believe that Christ gave the lamb and the 
leavenless bread to His brethren, according to the legal 
precepts given to the ancient fathers." (cf. Exod. 12-13.) 

3. "After the typic lamb, and when the meal was ended, 
we profess that Our Lord, with His own hands, gave His 
Body to His brethren; He so gave It that the whole was 
given to all, and the whole to each." Totum (sc. corpus). 

4. "He gave to the weak His Body as food, and He gave 
to the sad the cup of His Blood, saying: Receive ye the 
cup which I give to you, drink ye all of it. ' ' 

5. "Thus He instituted this Sacrifice (Sacrament) the 
administration of which He willed should be entrusted to 
priests alone, whom it thus behooves to receive it them- 
selves, and to give it to others. ' ' 

6. "The Bread of Angels becomes the Bread of men; 
the Bread of Heaven puts an end to types; wondrous 
thing, the poor, the servant, and the lowly, eat their Lord ! ' ' 
Panis angelicus and panis coelicus are Scriptural allusions 

187 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

to the manna of old, which was a type of the Manna of the 
New Law. Et pluit illis manna ad manducandum, et panem 
ccbH dedit eis. Panem angelorum manducavit homo: 
cibaria misit eis in abundantia (Ps. 77, 24-25). 

7. * ' triune Deity, we beseech Thee, that Thou visit us, 
as we adore Thee ; lead us by Thy ways, whither we direct 
our steps, to the light wherein Thou dost dwell. ' ' 



78 



Verbum supernum prodiens 



VERBUM supernum prodiens, 
Nee Patris linquens dexte- 
ram, 
Ad opus suura exiens, 
Venit ad vitae vesperam. 

^ In mortem a discipulo 
Suis tradendus aemulis, 
Prius in vitae ferculo 
Se tradidit discipulis. 

^Quibus sub bina specie 
Carnem dedit et sanguinem; 
Ut duplicis substantias 
Totum cibaret hominem. 



*Se nascens dedit socium, 
Convescens in edulium, 
Se moriens in pretium, 
Se regnans dat in prasmium. 



^0 salutaris hostia, 
Quae coeli pandis ostium, 
Bella premunt hostilia, 
Da robur, fer auxiliura. 

•Uni trinoque Domino, 
Sit sempiterna gloria: 
Qui vitam sine termino 
Nobis donet in patria. 



THE Heav'nly Word proceeding 
forth. 
Yet leaving not the Father's side, 
And going to His work on earth 
Had reached at length life's 
eventide. 

By false disciple to be given 
To foemen for His Blood athirst. 
Himself, the Living Bread from 

Heaven, 
He gave to His disciples first. 

To them He gave, in two-fold kind, 
His very Flesh, His very Blood: 
In love's own fulness thus de- 
signed 
Of the whole man to be the food. 

By birth, our fellow-man was He; 
Our meat, while sitting at the 

board; 
He died, our ransomer to be; 
He ever reigns, our great reward. 

O saving Victim, opening wide 
The gate of heaven to man below. 
Our foes press on from every side, 
Thine aid supply. Thy strength 
bestow. 

To Thy great Name be endless 

praise. 
Immortal Godhead, One in Three; 
grant us endless length of days 
In our true native land, with Thee. 



188 



CORPUS CHRISTI 

See the *^ Preliminary Observations" above. Meter: 
Iambic dimeter. Translation by J. M. Neale ; the last two 
stanzas by Father Caswall. There are about twenty-five 
translations, four of which are in the Annus Sanctus. 
Liturgical Use: Hymn for Lauds on the Feast of Corpus 
Christi. The Salutaris is familiar from its frequent use 
in Benediction. In this beautiful hymn St. Thomas imitates 
the hymn Verbum Supernum^ No. 36. The fourth stanza 
is an admirable example of perfect form and condensed 
meaning. It so pleased Rousseau that he would have given 
all his poetry to be its author. 

1. ''The Heavenly Word going forth, yet not leaving 
the right hand of His Father, went forth to His allotted 
work, and arrived at the evening of His life." Verbum: 
the Word, the Eternal Son of the Father (cf. John 1, 1-14). 
Dexter ami: the place of honor and dignity; by the incarna- 
tion Christ did not relinquish this. Opus: Christ said: Me 
oportet operari opera ejus qui misit me, etc. (John 9, 4). 

2. ''When about to be delivered over to His enemies, by 
a disciple, to be put to death. He first gave Himself to His 
disciples as the Bread of Life." 

3. "To them He gave His Flesh and His Blood under a 
twofold species, that He might wholly feed man, who is of 
a twofold nature." The Holy Eucharist is primarily the 
food of the soul; but on account of the intimate union of 
the body and soul, what promotes the health and vigor of 
the soul, by a sort of redundancy augments the powers of 
the body. The Holy Eucharist is a figure of that bread 
which Elias ate, "and walked in the strength of that food 
forty days and forty nights" (cf. Ill Kings 19, 6-8). 

4. "By being born, He gave Himself to us as our com- 
panion; at the table, He gave Himself as our food; dying 
He gave Himself as our ransom; now reigning in glory 
He gives Himself as our reward." Se nascens, by His 
incarnation. Convescens (convescor), while eating with 
His apostles at the Last Supper, He gave, etc. Se moriens, 
when dying on the Cross, He gave, etc. 

5. "0 Saving Victim, that openest the gate of heaven; 
hostile attacks oppress us, give us strength, bring us aid." 
Hostia, victim, host, sacrifice. According to St. Paul, 

189 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

Christ ** delivered Himself for us, an oblation and a sacri- 
fice (hostiam) to God for an odor of sweetness" (Eph. 5, 
2; Rom. 12, 1). Bella: hostile assaults of the world, the 
flesh, and the devil. Militia est vita hominis super 
terram (Job 7, 1). 

6. "Eternal glory be to the Triune God, who giveth us 
life without end in our native land above. ' ' 



79 



Adoro te devote, latens Deltas 



ADORO te devote, 
Deitas, 
Quae sub his figuris vera latitas: 
Tibi se cor meum totum subjicit, 
Quia te contemplans, totum de- 
ficit 



latens TTIDDEN God, devoutly I adore 
11 Thee, 
Truly present underneath these 

veils: 
All my heart subdues itself before 

Thee, 
Since it all before Thee faints and 

fails. 



^ Visus, tactus, gustus in te f allitur, 
Sed auditu solo tuto creditur. 
Credo quidquid dixit Dei Filius, 
Nil hoc verbo veritatis verius. 



Not to sight, or taste, or touch be 

credit, 
Hearing only do we trust secure; 
I believe, for God the Son hath 

said it — 
Word of Truth that ever shall 

endure. 



' In cruce latebat sola Deitas, 
At hie latet simul et humanitas: 
Ambo tamen credens, atque con- 

fitens, 
Peto quod petivit latro poenitens. 



On the Cross was veiled Thy 
Godhead's splendor, 

Here Thy Manhood lieth hidden 
too; 

Unto both alike ray faith I render. 

And, as sued the contrite thief, I 
sue. 



*Plagas, sicut Thomas, non in- 
tueor : 

Deum tamen meum te confiteor. 

Fac me tibi semper magis cre- 
dere. 

In te spem habere, te diligere. 



Though I look not on Thy womids 

with Thomas, 
Thee, my Lord, and Thee, my 

God, I call: 
Make me more and more believe 

Thy promise, 
Hope in Thee, and love Thee over 

all. 



190 



CORPUS CHRISTI 

^ memoriale mortis Domini, Memorial of My Saviour dying, 

Panis vivus vitam praestans ho- Living Bread, that givest life to 

mini, man ; 

Praesta meae menti de te vivere. May my soul, its life from Thee 
Et te illi semper dulce sapere. supplying. 

Taste Thy sweetness, as on earth 
it can. 

• Pie pellicane Jesu Domine, Deign, Jesus, Pelican of heaven, 

Me immundum munda tuo san- Me, a sinner, in Thy Blood to lave, 

guine: To a single drop of which is given 

Cujus una stilla salvum facere All the world from all its sin to 
Totum mundum quit ab omni save. 

scelere. 

' Jesu, quem velatum nunc aspicio : Contemplating, Lord, Thy hidden 

Oro fiat illud, quod tam sitio: presence, 

Ut te revelata cernens facie, Grant me what I thirst for and 

Visu sim beatus tuae glorias. implore. 

In the revelation of Thine essence 
To behold Thy glory evermore. 

See "Preliminary Observations" above. Meter: 
Trochaic trimeter, catalectic. The first line has a syllable 
of anacrusis, i.e., an upward beat before beginning the 
regular meter. Translation by Justice John O'Hagan. 
There are about twenty-five translations. The Adoro Te 
Devote is found in the ''Thanksgiving after Mass" in the 
front part of the Missal. A part of it is frequently sung 
in Benediction. It is an excellent example of rhymed 
prayer expressed in the simplest language. 

1. ''I devoutly adore Thee, hidden Deity, who truly 
liest hidden under these figures. My whole heart subjects 
itself to Thee, for it finds itself wholly lost in contemplating 
Thee." 

2. ''Sight, touch, and taste are each deceived in Thee, 
but by hearing only can we safely believe : I believe what- 
ever the Son of God hath said; nothing can be more true 
than this word of Him who is the Truth." Veritas: Ego 
sum via, et Veritas, et vita (John 14, 6). Christ is the 
source and fountain of all truth. 

3. "On the Cross was hidden Thy Divinity alone, but 
here Thy Humanity also lies concealed; nevertheless be- 

191 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

lieving and confessing both, I pray for what the penitent 
thief did pray." Petivit latro poenitens: Et dicebat ad 
Jesum : Domine, memento mei, cum veneris in regnnm tuum 
(Luke 23, 42). 

4. *'Thy Wounds, I do not see, as Thomas did, yet do I 
confess Thee to be my God: make me ever more and more 
believe in Thee, put my hope in Thee, and love Thee.'* 
Flag as sicut Thomas: (cf. John 20, 27-28). 

5. ''0 Memorial of the Lord's death, Living Bread that 
givest life to man: grant to my soul ever to live on Thee, 
and that Thou mayest ever taste sweet to it." Illi (sc. 
menti). 

6. '^0 loving Pelican, Jesus Lord, cleanse me, unclean, 
in Thy Blood, one drop of which hath power to save the 
whole world from all its sin." Pie pelicane: The pelican 
is a symbol of Christ and of charity. There is a legend 
that when food fails, the pelican feeds her young with her 
own blood. When she is thus represented in Christian art, 
she is said to be *4n her piety," i. e., standing over her nest 
with her wings extended, and wounding her breast from 
which fall drops of blood. 

7. '^0 Jesus, Thou whom veiled I now behold, I be- 
seech Thee that what I so thirst for may happen : that be- 
holding Thee with Thy countenance unveiled, I may be 
happy in the vision of Thy glory." See the articles on 
Beatific Vision, and on Heaven, esp. Part III, in the Cath. 
Encycl. 



80 



Ave verum Corpus natum 



AVE verum Corpus natum 
De Maria Virgine, 
Vere passum, immolatum 

In cruce pro homine, 
Cujus latus perforatum 

iJnda fluxit et sanguine, 
Esto nobis praegustatum 

Mortis in examine. 
clemens, O pie, 

dulcis Jesu, Fili Mariae. 



HAIL, true Body, truly born 
Of the Virgin Mary mild, 
Truly offered, racked and torn, 
On the Cross, for man defiled, 
From whose love-pierced, sacred 

side 
Flowed Thy true Blood's saving 

tide: 
Be a foretaste sweet to me 
In my death's great agony, 
Thou loving, gentle One, 
Sweetest Jesus, Mary's Son. 



192 



CORPUS CHRISTI 

Author: Probably by Pope Innocent VI (d. 1362). 
Meter: Trochaic tetrameter catalectic. Translation by 
Father Edward F. Garesche, S.J. There are ten transla- 
tions. This beautiful little hymn was formerly sung at the 
Elevation of the Host in Mass. It is not found in the 
Breviary or Missal. The Latin texts differ slightly. 

1. ''Hail, true Body, born of the Virgin Mary, which 
truly suffered and was immolated on the Cross for man; 
whose pierced side streamed with Water and with Blood. 
Be Thou to us a foretaste (of heaven) when we are in the 
agony of death. clement, loving, sweet Jesus, Son 
of Mary." 



81 



Anima Christi 



ANIMA Christi, sanctifica me. 
Corpus Christi, salva me. 
Sanguis Christi, inebria me. 
Aqua lateris Christi, lava me. 
Passio Christi, conforta me. 
bone Jesu, exaudi me. 
Intra tua vulnera absconde me. 
Ne permittas me separari a te. 
Ab hoste maligno defende me. 
In hora mortis meae voca me. 
Et jube me venire ad te. 
Ut cum Sanctis tuis laudem te. 
In saecula saeculorum. Amen. 



SANCTIFY me wholly, Soul of 
Christ adored; 
Be my sure Salvation, Body of the 

Lord: 
Fill and satisfy me, Thou Blood 

unpriced: 
Wash me. Sacred Water, from the 

side of Christ. 
Passion of my Saviour, be my 

strength in need: 
Good and gracious Jesus, to my 

prayer give heed: 
In Thy Wounds most precious let 

me refuge find: 
All the power malignant of the 

foeman bind: 
At death's final hour, call me to 

Thy face: 
Bid me stand beside Thee in the 

heavenly place: 
There with Saints and Angels I 

shall sing to Thee 
Through the countless ages of 

eternity. 



Author: Unknown, 14th cent. Translation by T. I. 
Ball. There are about fifteen translations in prose or 
verse. The Anima Christi has never been in liturgical use 

193 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

in the Church. It is, however, found in most Missals and 
Breviaries in the * ' Thanksgiving after Mass. ' ' This beauti- 
ful prayer has been richly indulgenced for priests who re- 
cite it after Mass. 

The Anima Christi is popularly believed to have been 
composed by St. Ignatius of Loyola, who places it at the 
beginning of his Spiritual Exercises, and frequently refers 
to it. But as the Anima Christi dates from 1330 or earlier, 
and St. Ignatius was born in 1491, it is impossible that he 
should have been the author of it. See the article on the 
Anima Christi in the Cath. Encycl. The popular metrical 
translation ''Soul of my Saviour sanctify my breast" dates 
from 1882 : its author is not known. 



Feast of the Sacred Heart 
the friday after the octave of corpus christi 



82 



Auctor beate sceculi 



AUCTOR beate saeculi, 
Christe Redemptor omnium: 
Lumen Patris de lumine, 
Deusque verus de Deo. 



'Amor coegit te tuus 
Mortale corpus sumere, 
Ut novus Adam redderes. 
Quod vetus ille abstulerat. 



'Ille amor almus artifex 
Terrae marisque, et siderum, 
Errata patrum miserans, 
Et nostra rumpens vincula. 



CHRIST, the world's Creator 
bright, 
Who didst mankind from sin 

redeem, 
Light from the Father's glorious 

Light, 
True God of God, in bliss supreme. 

Thy love compelled Thee to 

assume 
A mortal body, man to save; 
Reversing the old Adam's doom; 
Our ransom the New Adam gave. 

That love which gloriously framed 

all— 
The earth, the stars, and wondrous 

sea — 
Took pity on our parents' fall, 
Broke all our bonds and set us 

free. 



194 



THE SACRED HEART 

*Non corde discedat tuo Saviour, let Thy potent love 

Vis ilia amoris inclyti: Flow ever from Thy bounteous 

Hoc fonte gentes hauriant Heart; 

Remissionis gratiam. To nations that pure fount above 

The grace of pardon will impart. 

''Percussum ad hoc est lancea, His Heart for this was opened 

Passumque ad hoc est vulnera: wide, 

Ut nos lavaret sordibus, And wounded by the soldier's 

Unda fluente, et sanguine. spear. 

That freely from His sacred side 
Might flow the streams our souls 
to clear. 

'Decus Parenti, et Filio, Glory to Father and to Son, 

Sanctoque sit Spiritui, And to the Holy Ghost the same, 

Quibus potestas, gloria To whom all power, when time is 

Regnumque in omne est saeculum. done, 

And endless rule, in endless fame. 

Author: Unknown, 18 cent. Meter: Iambic dimeter. 
Translatioist by Father Hnsenbeth. There are eight trans- 
lations. Liturgical Use: Hymn for Vespers. Of the five 
hymns given here in honor of the Sacred Heart, the Annus 
Sanctus contains two translations of Nos. 82, 83, 84, and 
one each of Nos. 85 and 86. These hymns are evidently 
the work of the same author. '* Their play of fancy and 
of imagination, their rhetorical finish, their condensed 
phraseology, give clear intimations of a skill which has 
profited by the models constructed by St. Ambrose. They 
abound, too, in Biblical allusions, every stanza recalling 
some type, or figure, or prophecy, or fulfilment" (Msgr. 
Henry, in his Eucharistica, p. 235). 

1. *'0 Blessed Creator of the world, Christ, the Re- 
deemer of all, Light of the Father's Light, and true God of 
God." The words Lumen de lumine, Deus verus de Deo 
(vero) are from the Nicene Creed. They express the doc- 
trine of the eternal generation of the Word, the Creator of 
all things (John 1, 1-3). 

2. ''Thy love constrained Thee to assume a mortal body, 
that the New Adam might restore what the old Adam had 
taken away. ' ' For the parallel between Christ and Adam, 
see Rom. 5, 12-21. 

195 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

3. "That love, the gracious builder of the earth and sea 
and stars, took pity on the sins of our fathers, and broke 
our chains." Amor and artifex are in apposition. Patrum, 
the just of the Old Law. 

4. ''May the power of Thy wondrous love not depart 
from Thy Heart : let the nations draw from that fount the 
grace of pardon. ' ' 

5. "For this It was pierced with a lance, for this It suf- 
fered wounds, that It might cleanse us from our sins by 
the issuing forth of Water and Blood." Cor is the subject, 
from the preceding stanza. Ad hoc, for this purpose. 

6. "Glory be to the Father and to the Son and to the 
Holy Ghost, to whom be power and glory and kingdom 
forever and ever." 



83 



En ut super ba criminum 



EN ut superba criminum 
Et sseva nostrorum cohors 
Cor sauciavit innocens 
Merentis baud tale Dei! 



LO, bow the savage crew 
Of our proud sins bath rent 
The Heart of our all-gracious God, 
That Heart so innocent. 



^Vibrantis bastam militis 
Peccata nostra dirigunt: 
Ferrumque dirae cuspidis 
Mortale crimen acuit. 

'Ex corde scisso Ecclesia 
Christo jugata nascitur: 
Hoc ostium Arcae in latere est; 
Genti ad salutem positum. 

*Ex hoc perennis gratia, 
Ceu septiformis fluvius; 
Stolas ut illic sordidas 
Lavemus Agni in sanguine. 



^Turpe est redire ad crimina, 
Quae Cor beatum lacerent: 
Sed aemulemur cordibus 
Flammas amoris indices. 



The soldier's quivering lance 
Our guilt it was that drave, 
Our wicked deeds that to its point 
Such cruel sharpness gave. 

wounded Heart, whence sprang 
The Church, the Saviour's bride; 
Thou Door of our Salvation's Ark 
Set in its mystic side. 

Thou holy fount, whence flows 
The sacred sevenfold flood, 
Where we our filthy robes may 

cleanse 
In the Lamb's saving Blood: 

By sorrowful relapse, 

Thee will we rend no more; 

But like the flames, those types of 

love, 
Strive heavenward to soar. 



196 



THE SACRED HEART 

^Hoc, Christe, nobis, hoc. Pater, father and Son supreme 
Hoc sancte, dona, Spiritus, And Spirit, hear our cry; 

Quibus potestas, gloria Whose is the kingdom, praise and 

Regnumque in omne est saeculum. power, 

Through all eternity. 



Author: Unknown, 18th cent. Meter: Iambic dimeter. 
Translation by Father Caswall. There are six transla- 
tions. Liturgical Use: Matins hymn for the Feast of the 
Sacred Heart. 

1. '' Behold, how the haughty and savage horde of our 
sins hath wounded the innocent Heart of God, who de- 
serveth not such treatment. ' ' Merentis, of God not deserv- 
ing, etc. 

2. ''Our sins guide the lance of the hesitating soldier, 
and mortal sin doth sharpen the iron of the cruel shaft." 
VibroMtis militis; The soldier is represented as hesitating, 
uncertain of the exact place where he should insert the 
spear to pierce the Saviour's Heart: our sins guided the 
spear. Cuspidis: cuspis, a point, esp. the head of a spear. 

3. "From that pierced Heart was born the Church united 
with Christ : that entrance was made in the side of the Ark 
for the salvation of the human race." Genti ad salutem, 
for the human race, for their deliverance. 

4. ' ' From It unfailing grace flows forth like a sevenfold 
flood, that therein, in the Blood of the Lamb, we may wash 
our sullied robes." In Baptism we are presented with a 
stola Candida, a snow-white garment, which is symbolical 
of the sanctifying grace which adorns the soul. By sin 
this stola camdida becomes a stola sordida. Et laverunt 
stolas suas, et dealbaverunt eas in sanguine Agni (Apoc. 
7, 14: see also 22, 14). Septiformis fluvius, the seven 
sacraments. 

5. ' ' It were shameful to turn again to sins, which lacer- 
ate that blessed Heart ; but let us in our hearts emulate the 
flames, which are types of love." 

6. ''Grant us this, Christ, this, Father, this, Holy 
Spirit, to whom be power and glory and kingdom forever. ' ' 



197 



84 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 
Cor, area legem continens 



COR, area legem continens 
Non servitutis veteris, 
Sed gratiae, sed veniae, 
Sad at misericordiae. 



^Cor, Sanctuarium novi 
Intemeratum foederis, 
Templum vetusto sanctius, 
Velumque scisso utilius. 

^Te vulneratum caritas 
Ictu patenti voluit; 
Amoris invisibilis 
Ut vaneremur vulnera. 



* Hoc sub amoris symbolo 
Passus cruenta, et mystica, 
Utrumque sacrificium 
Christus Sacerdos obtulit. 



' Quis non amantem redamet? 
Quis non redemptus diligat, 
Et Corde in isto seligat 
i^^terna tabernacula? 



•Dacus Paranti at Filio, 
Sanctoque sit Spiritui, 
Quibus potestas, gloria 
Ragnumqua in omne est sseculum. 



JESUS, behind Thy Temple's 
veil. 
Hid in an ark of gold, 
On stones engraven, lay the Law 
Thy finger wrote of old. 

But in Thy Body's temple new, 
Thy life-blood's throbbing shrine, 
Held, upon fleshly tables graved, 
The law of Love Divine. 

And when that Heart in death was 

stilled. 
Each temple's veil was riven: 
And lo, within Thy Love's red 

shrine, 
To us Ao look was given. 

There make us gaze and see the 

love 
Which drew Thee, for our sake, 
great High-priest, Thyself to 

God 
A sacrifice to make. 

Thou, Saviour, cause that every 

soul 
Which Thou hast loved so well. 
May will within Thine open Heart 
In life and death to dwell. 

Grant it, Father, only Son, 

And Spirit, God of grace. 

To whom all worship shall be 

done. 
In every time and place. 



Author : Unknown, 18th cent. Meter : Iambic dimeter. 
Translation from the Marquess of Bute's Roman 
Breviary. There are seven translations. Liturgical Use : 
Hymn for Lauds on the Feast of the Sacred Heart. The 
above translation and one by Rosa Mulholland— ' ' tender 
Heart, strong ark which doth enshrine," are found in sev- 
eral hymnals. Both are in the Annus Sanctus. 

198 



THE SACRED HEART 

1. **0 Heart, Thou ark, which dost contain the law, not 
the law of ancient servitude, but of grace, of pardon, and 
of mercy. ' ' The Old Law was a law of servitude, and was 
eminently suited to the hard-heartedness of the Jews. It 
was a law of fear and bondage given amid thunders, and 
appropriately engraved on stone. The New Law, on the 
contrary, is a law of love and liberty engraved by the Holy 
Spirit on the hearts of the faithful. 

2. ''0 Heart, undefiled sanctuary of the New Law, 
temple more sacred than that of old, and veil more useful 
than that which was rent." Vetusto (templo) ; scisso 
(velo). Velum, cf. Matt. 27, 51. 

3. ' ' Thy love hath willed that Thou be wounded with an 
open wound, that we might (see and) venerate the wounds 
of Thy invisible love. ' ' Ictus, blow, stroke, stab. Patenti, 
abl. of pres. part, of patere, 2, to be open. 

4. ''Under this symbol of love. He suffered in a bloody 
and mystical manner; and Christ as priest offered a two- 
fold sacrifice." The twofold sacrifice is that of Calvary 
(cruenta) and the Mass {mystica). 

5. ''Who would not love in return one loving him? Who, 
redeemed, would not love (his Redeemer), and choose in 
that Heart an eternal dwelling place?" 



85 Quicumque certum quceritis 

QUICUMQUE certum qugeritis A LL ye who seek a comfort sure 

Rebus levamen asperis: -^*- In trouble and distress, 

Seu culpa mordet anxia, Whatever sorrow vex the mind, 

Seu poena vos premit comes. Or guilt the soul oppress: 



^Jesu, qui, ut agnus innocens, Jesus, who gave Himself for you 

Sese immolandum tradidit, Upon the Cross to die, 

Ad cor reclusum vulnere, Opens to you His sacred Heart; 

Ad mite cor accedite. to that Heart draw nigh. 

^Auditis ut suavissimis Ye hear how kindly he invites; 

Invitet omnes vocibus: Ye hear His words so blest: 

Venite quos gravat labor "All ye that labor come to Me, 

Premitque pondus criminum: And I will give you rest." 

199 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 



*Quid Corde Jesu mitius? 
Jesum cruci qui affixerant 
Excusat, et Patrem rogat 
Ne perdat ultor impios. 



^0 Cor, voluptas CcElitum, 
Cor, fida spes mortalium, 
En hisce tracti vocibus, 
Ad te venimus supplices. 

'Tu nostra terge vulnera 
Ex te fluente sanguine 
Tu da novum cor omnibus 
Qui te gementes invocant. 



What meeker than the Saviour's 

Heart? 
As on the Cross He lay, 
It did His murderers forgive, 
And for their pardon pray. 

Heart, Thou joy of Saints on 

high. 
Thou hope of sinners here, 
Attracted by those loving words 
To Thee I lift my prayer. 

Wash thou my wounds in that dear 

Blood, 
Which forth from Thee doth flow; 
New grace, new hope inspire, a 

new 
And better heart bestow. 



Authob: Unknown, 18th cent. Meter: Iambic dimeter. 
Translation by Father Caswall. There are six transla- 
tions. Father Caswall 's translation is a great favorite 
with hymn book compilers, both Catholic and non-Catholic. 
Liturgical Use : Hymn for Vespers and Matins in an Office 
of the Sacred Heart granted by special concession. This 
and the following hymn are not found in the latest edition 
of the Breviary. 

1. *'A11 ye who seek an unfailing consolation in ad- 
versity, whether uneasy guilt gnaws at you, or punishment, 
its companion, oppresses you." 

2. *' Approach that Heart disclosed by a wound, the 
gentle Heart of Jesus, who, as an innocent lamb, gave Him- 
self up to be sacrificed." Jesu is the genitive after Cor. 

3. '*Ye hear how, with the sweetest words He invites all: 
'Come ye whom labor doth weigh down, and a weight of 
sins doth oppress.' " Venite ad me omnes qui laboratis et 
onerati estis, et ego reficiam vos (Matt. 11, 28). 

4. ''What is more meek than the Heart of Jesus? Even 
those who had fastened Jesus to the Cross, It excuses, and 
It implores the Father that as an avenger He destroy not 
the godless." Pater, dimitte illis: non enim sciunt, quid 
faciunt (Luke 23, 34). 

5. "0 Heart, the delight of the Blessed, Heart, the 

200 



THE SACRED HEART 

surest hope of mortals, lo, attracted by these words, we 
suppliantly come to Thee. ' ' Hisce vocibus, viz., in the two 
preceding stanzas. 

6. ' ' Cleanse Thou our wounds in the Blood flowing from 
Thee ; grant a new heart to all, who sighing invoke Thee. ' ' 
Novum cor, a new life. 



86 



Summi Parentis Filio 



SUMMI Parentis Filio, 
Patri futuri sseculi, 
Pacis beatae Principi, 
Promamus ore canticum. 



OTHOU, the Son of God most 
High, 
Thou Father of the life to be, 
Prince of Peace, to Thee we cry, 
We bring our song of praise to 
Thee. 



^ Qui vulneratus pectore 
Amoris ictum pertulit, 
Amoris urens ignibus 
Ipsum qui amantem diligunt. 



Thy Heart was wounded by the 

blow 
Ordained of everlasting love; 
Such love among Thy flocks below 
Thou kindlest at the fires above. 



^Jesu, doloris victima, 
Quis te innocentem compulit, 
Dura ut apertum lancea 
Latus pateret vulneri? 



Dear Christ in pity for our woe 
Thou didst Thyself as victim give. 
The cruel pangs to undergo, 
To ope Thy breast that man might 
live. 



*0 fons amoris inclyte! 
vena aquarum limpida, 
flamma adurens criminal 
O cordis ardens caritas! 

' In Corde, Jesu, jugiter 
Reconde nos, ut uberi 
Dono fruamur gratias, 
Coelique tandem praemiis. 



sacred fount of love sublime, 
living spring of waters free, 
fire to cleanse away all crime, 
O Heart aflame with charity. 

Lord, keep us ever in Thy Heart, 
Thy tender love to feel and know, 
The joys of heaven to us impart, 
When we shall leave these walks 
below. 



Semper Parenti, et Filio, 
Sit laus, honor, sit gloria, 
Sancto simul Paraclito 
In saeculorum saecula. 



Glory to Father and to Son, 
And to the Holy Ghost the same. 
To whom all power, when time is 

done. 
And endless rule, in endless fame. 



201 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

Authob: Unknown, 18th cent. Meter: Iambic dimeter. 
Translation by D. J. Donahoe. There are five transla- 
tions. Liturgical Use : Hymn for Lauds in an Office of the 
Sacred Heart granted by special concession. Like the pre- 
ceding hymn it is not found in the latest edition of the 
Breviary. 

1. *'Let us sing a hymn of praise to the Son of the most 
High Father, to the Father of the world to come, to the 
Prince of blessed peace." Patri futuri sceculi: These 
words and Princeps pacis, refer to Christ, and are taken 
literally from Isaias 9, 6. 

2. ''He w^ho, wounded in the breast, endured out of love 
the stroke, doth enkindle with the flames of love those who 
reciprocate His love." Constr. : Urens (eos) ignibus amoris 
qui ipsum amantem diligunt. 

3. '*0 Jesus, Victim of sorrow, who drove Thee, inno- 
cent, thereto, that Thy side, opened by a cruel spear, should 
be exposed to injury?" Dura, hard, unfeeling. Vulneri, 
hurt, wounding. 

4. ''0 glorious fount of love! limpid spring of 
waters! flame that burnest away sins! the glowing 
love of that Heart I ' ' 

5. *'In Thy Heart, Jesus, hide us forever, that we may 
enjoy rich gifts of grace, and in the end, the rewards of 
heaven. ' ' 

6. ''Be praise, honor, and glory to the Father and Son 
forever; and likewise, through all ages to the Holy Para- 
clete." 



87 Dies irce, dies ilia 

DIES ir», dies ilia, fyHAT day of wrath, that dread- 

Solvet sseclum in favilla: •*• ful day, 

Teste David cum Sibylla. When heaven and earth shall pass 

away, 
Both David and the Sibyl say. 

^ Quantus tremor est futurus, What terror then shall us befall, 

Quando Judex est venturus, When lo, the Judge's steps appall, 

Cuncta stricte discussurus! About to sift the deeds of all. 

202 



DIES IR^ 



* Tuba mirum spargens sonum 
Per sepulchra regionum, 
Coget omnes ante thronum. 



The mighty trumpet's marvellous 
tone 

Shall pierce through each sepul- 
chral stone 

And summon all before the throne. 



*Mors stupebit, et natura, 
Cum resurget creatura, 
Judicanti responsura. 



"Liber scriptus proferetur. 
In quo totum continetur, 
Unde mundus judicetur. 



* Judex ergo cum sedebit, 
Quidquid latet, apparebit; 
Nil inultum remanebit. 



Now Death and Nature in amaze 
Behold the Lord His creatures 

raise, 
To meet the Judge's awful gaze. 

The books are opened, that the 

dead 
May have their doom from what is 

read. 
The record of our conscience 

dread. 

The Lord of judgment sits Him 

down, 
And every secret thing makes 

known ; 
No crime escapes His vengeful 

frown. 



"Quid sum, miser, tunc dicturus? 
Quem patronum rogaturus? 
Cum vix Justus sit securus? 



^ Rex tremendae majestatis, 
Qui salvandos salvas gratis, 
Salva me, fons pietatis. 



^Recordare, Jesu pie, 
Quod sum causa tuae viae: 
Ne me perdas ilia die. 



^" Quaerens me, sedisti lassus: 
Redemisti crucem passus: 
Tantus labor non sit cassus. 



Ah, how shall I that day endure? 

What patron's friendly voice se- 
cure, 

When scarce the just themselves 
are sure? 

King of dreadful majesty, 
Who grantest grace and mercy 

free, 
Grant mercy now and grace to me. 

Good Lord, 'twas for my sinful 

sake. 
That Thou our suffering flesh 

didst take; 
Then do not now my soul forsake. 

In weariness Thy sheep was 

sought; 
Upon the Cross His life was 

bought ; 
Alas, if all in vain were wrought. 



203 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 



^* Juste judex ultionis, 
Donum fac remissionis 
Ante diem rationis. 

^^ Ingemisco tamquam reus: 
Culpa rubet vultus meus: 
Supplicanti parce, Deus. 



" Qui Mariam absolvisti, 
Et latronem exaudisti, 
Mihi quoque spem dedisti. 



^* Pieces meae non sunt dignae: 
Sed tu bonus fac benigne, 
Ne perenni cremer igne. 



^' Inter oves locum praesta, 
Et ab hcedis me sequestra, 
Statuens in parte dextra. 



" Confutatis maledictis, 
Flammis acribus addictis: 
Voca me cum benedictis. 

" Oro supplex et acclinis, 
Cor contritimi quasi cinis; 
Gere curam mei finis. 



" Lacrimosa dies ilia, 
Qua resurget ex favilla, 
Judicandus homo reus. 
Huic ergo parce, Deus: 
Pie Jesu, Domine, 
Dona eis requiem. 



just avenging Judge, I pray, 
For pity take my sins away, 
Before the great accounting-day. 

1 groan beneath the guilt, Avhich 

Thou 
Canst read upon my blushing 

brow; 
But spare, O God, Thy suppliant 

now. 

Thou who didst Mary's sins un- 
bind. 
And mercy for the robber find. 
Dost fill with hope my anxious 
mind. 

My feeble prayers can make no 

claim, 
Yet, gracious Lord, for Thy great 

Name, 
Redeem me from the quenchless 

flame. 

At Thy right hand, give me a 

place 
Among Thy sheep, a child of 

grace. 
Far from the goats' accursed race. 

Yea, when Thy justly kindled ire 
Shall sinners hurl to endless fire. 
Oh, call me to Thy chosen choir. 

In suppliant prayer I prostrate 

bend. 
My contrite heart like ashes rend, 
Regard, O Lord, my latter end. 

Oh, on that day, that tearful day, 
When man to judgment wakes 

from clay. 
Be thou the trembling sinner's 

stay. 
And spare him, God, we humbly 

pray. 
Yea, grant to all, Saviour Blest, 
Who die in Thee, the Saints' sweet 

rest. 



204 



DIES IR^ 

Author: Thomas of Celano, 13th cent. Meter : Trochaic 
dimeter. Translation, a cento: stanzas 1-5, 10, 14, 17, 18, 
by W. F. "Wingfield, the remainder by Father Aylward, O.P. 
There are, or rather were, in 1895, some 234 recorded Eng- 
lish translations of this world-famous hymn. There are 
four translations in Mr. Shipley's Annus Sanctus. Litur- 
gical Use : Sequence in Requiem Masses. It is very prob- 
able that the Dies Irce was composed as a sequence for the 
first Sunday in Advent. 

The exquisite beauty of the Latin original has continu- 
ally lured translators to attempt to reproduce this noble 
hymn in the vernacular. The great number of the trans- 
lations is an eloquent witness of this fact. It is freely ac- 
knowledged that no adequate translation has yet appeared. 
Dr. Coles, a Newark physician, who made eighteen trans- 
lations of the hymn, maintains that no single version can 
reflect the totality of the original. The untranslatableness 
of the hymn is acknowledged by the Rev. Mr. Dufifield, 
whose sixth version^ in his opinion, has not carried him 
''one inch" beyond the first. 

Some idea of the difficulties that confront the translator 
may be obtained from the following apologia of Dr. Coles 
for having made so many versions: — ''To preserve, in con- 
nection with the utmost fidelity and strictness of rendering, 
all the rhythmic merits of the Latin original, — to attain 
to a vital likeness as well as to an exact literalness, at the 
same time that nothing is sacrificed of its musical sonorous- 
ness and billowy grandeur, easy and graceful in its swing 
as the ocean on its bed, — to make the verbal copy, other- 
wise cold and dead, glow with the fire of lyric passion, — 
to reflect, and that too by means of a single version, the 
manifold aspects of the many-sided original, exhausting at 
once its wonderful fulness and pregnancy, — to cause the 
white light of the primitive so to pass through the medium 
of another language as that it shall undergo no refraction 
whatever, — would be desirable, certainly, were it prac- 
ticable; but so much as this it were unreasonable to ex- 
pect in a single version" {Dies Irce in Thirteen Original 
Versions, p. 33). 
Some idea of the intangible beauty and consequent un- 

205 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

translatableness of the hymn may be obtained from the 
judicious opinions of eminent critics. Thus Mr. Saints- 
bury: "Rhyme, alliteration, cadence, and adjustment of 
vowel and consonant values, all these things receive per- 
fect expression in it, or, at least in the first thirteen stan- 
zas, for the last four are a little inferior. It is quite aston- 
ishing to reflect upon the careful art or felicitous accident 
of such a line as 

Tuba mirum spargens sonum, 

with the thud of the trochee falling in each instant on a 
different vowel; and still more on the continuous sequence 
of five stanzas, from Judex ergo to non sit cassus in which 
a word could not be displaced or replaced by another with- 
out loss. The climax of verbal harmony corresponding to 
and expressing religious passion and religious awe, is 
reached in the last, 

Quaerens me sedisti lassus, 
Redemisti crucem passus: 
Tantus labor non sit cassus! — 

where the sudden change from the dominent e sound (ex- 
cept in the rhyme foot) of the first two lines to the a's of the 
last is simply miraculous, and miraculously assisted by what 
may be called the internal sub-rhyme of sedisti and 
redemisti. This latter effect can rarely be attempted with- 
out a jingle: there is no jingle here, only an ineffable 
melody. After the Dies Irce, no poet could say that any ef- 
fect of poetry was, as far as sound goes, unattainable; 
though few could have hoped to equal it, and perhaps no 
one except Dante and Shakespeare has fully done so'* 
{Flourishing of Romance, p. 9). 

According to Dr. Duffield, the Dies Irce ''gives us a new 
conception of the powers of the Latin tongue. Its wonder- 
ful wedding of sense and sound — the u assonance in the 
second stanza, the o assonance in the third, the a and i 
assonance in the fourth, for instance — the sense of organ 
music that runs through the hymn, even unaccompanied, 
as distinctly as through the opening verses of Lowell's 
Vision of Sir Launfal and the transitions as clearly marked 
in sound as in meaning from lofty adoration to pathetic 

206 



DIES IR^ 

entreaty, impart a grandeur and dignity to the Dies Irce 
which are unique in this kind of writing. Then the wonder- 
ful adaptation of the triple rhyme to the theme — like blow 
following blow of hammer upon anvil, as Daniel says — im- 
presses every reader" {Latin Hymns, p. 249). 

Scriptural references: The hymn is replete with Scrip- 
tural references to both the Old and New Testaments. The 
actual Judgment scene will be found in detail in Matt. 24, 
27-31; Luke 21, 25-27; Apoc. 20, 12-15. 

Analysis: (a) The first six stanzas are descriptive. They 
picture with remarkable brevity and detail the Judgment 
scene of the Scriptures. 

(b) The remaining stanzas are lyric in character and ex- 
press the anguish of one of the multitude there present in 
spirit — his pleading before the Judge, who, while on earth, 
sought him unceasingly over the hard and thorny ways 
from Bethlehem to Calvary ; and now, in anticipation of the 
Judgment, pleads before a Saviour of infinite mercy, who, 
on Judgment Day, will be a Judge of infinite justice, be- 
fore whom scarcely the just will be secure. 

(c) The seventh stanza serves to connect the descrip- 
tive with the lyric part of the hymn. In it the soul acknowl- 
edges the futility of expecting aid from creatures — for even 
the Saints and Angels will be judged. 

(d) The eighth stanza represents Christ in the twofold 
character of ''King of awful majesty" in the Last Judg- 
ment, and "Fount of loving piety" in the present life. 

(e) The next six stanzas (9-14) develop the thought of 
God's mercy. They comprise two divisions of three stanzas 
each. The last stanza of each division contains an appro- 
priate prayer. The first division (stanzas 9-11) deals with 
the first basis on which an appeal for mercy may rest, viz., 
on the labors and sufferings of Christ. The second division 
(12-14) deals with the second basis on which an appeal for 
mercy may rest, viz., on the repentance of the sinner. 

(f) In the fifteenth stanza the Scriptural division of 
the sheep (the just) from the goats (the reprobates) is set 
before us : in the sixteenth stanza the picture of the Judg- 
ment is concluded with the "depart ye cursed," and "come 
ye blessed" of the Scriptures. 

207 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

There is a very interesting article on the Dies Irce, in the 
Cath. Encycl. A scholarly and extensive series of articles 
on the Dies Irce appeared in The Dolphiti, from Nov., 1904, 
to May, 1905. The series, 144 pages in all, consists of Notes 
on the Dies Irce by the Rev. Mr. Warren, M.A., a collabora- 
tor in Julian's Dictionary of Hymnology, and of Comments 
on the Notes of Mr. Warren, by the Rt. Rev. Msgr. H. T. 
Henry, Litt.D. To these articles the editor is greatly in- 
debted. In the article on Judgment, in the Cath. Encycl., 
read the last section, which treats of the General Judg- 
ment. 

The following is Sir Walter Scott's greatly admired con- 
densed rendering of the Dies Irce which is found in his Lay 
of the Last Minstrel. It consists of only twelve lines. 



87B 



THAT Day of wrath, that dreadful day, 
When heaven and earth shall pass away. 
What power shall be the sinner's stay? 
How shall he meet that dreadful day? 

When, shrivelling like a parched scroll, 
The flaming heavens together roll; 
When louder yet, and yet more dread, 
Swells the high trump that wakes the dead: 

0, on that day, that wrathful day, 
When man to judgment wakes from clay. 
Be Thou the trembling sinner's stay. 
Though heaven and earth shall pass away! 



The metrical translations of the respective stanzas, given 
below, are from various authors whose translations are 
mentioned by Mr. Warren as among the best. 

The stanzas are uniformly in trochaic sevens, thus form- 
ing a fine cento. 

1. ''That day of wrath, that day shall reduce the world 
to glowing embers, David with the Sibyl being witness. ' ' 

208 



DIES IR^ 

87G 

AH that day of wrath and woe, 
When the fire that seers foreknow 
All the world shall overflow. 

— Canon Bright 

Dies irw, dies ilia: These words of *' startling suddenness" 
with which the poet ushers in his theme are from the 
Prophet Sophonias : Dies irse, dies ilia, dies tribulationis et 
angustiae, dies calamitatis et miseriae, dies tenebrarum et 
caliginis, dies nebulsB et turbinis, dies tubae et clangoris 
(Soph. 1,15-16). Solvet: {ct II Fetev 3, 10). Teste David: 
(cf. Pss. 10, 7 ; 49, 3-6 ; and esp. 101, 26-28). Sibylla: If any 
particular Sibyl is meant it is the Erythraean Sibyl, the 
author of the well-known acrostic on the name of Christ. 
However, ** David and the Sibyl" here stand for Jew and 
Gentile, the witnesses respectively of inspiration and of 
mere natural religion. See the article on Sibylline Oracles, 
in the Cath. Encycl. 

2. *'How great shall be the trembling, when the Judge 
shall come to investigate rigidly all things." 

what trembling shall appear 
When His coming shall be near 
Who shall all things strictly clear. 

— Dean At ford 

For the Scriptural account of the Judge's coming to judge 
the world, cf. Luke 21, 25-27. Stride discussurus: To 
search and thoroughly lay bare. 

3. ''The trumphet scattering a wondrous sound through 
the sepulchers of the whole world shall gather all before 
the throne." 

At the unearthly trump's command 
Heard in graves of every land 
All before the throne must stand. 

— Canon Bright 

Tuba: Et mittet angelos suos cum tuba et voce magna: et 
congregabunt ^I^v..os ejus a quattuor ventis, a summis 
coelorum usque ad terminos eorum (Matt. 24, 31). 

209 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

4. ** Death and Nature shall stand aghast, when the 
creature shall rise again to answer to the Judge. ' * 

Death shall shrink and Nature quake 
When all creatures shall awake, 
Answer to their God to make. 

— Dean Alford 

Et dedit mare mortuos qui in eo erant : et mors et infernus 
dederunt mortuos suos qui in ipsis erant ; et judicatum est 
de singulis secundum opera ipsorum (Apoc. 20, 13). 

5. "The written Book shall be brought forth, in which 
all is contained whence the world is to be judged." 

Then the volume shall be spread 
And the writing shall be read 
Which shall judge the quick and dead. 

— Isaac Williams 

Liber: Et vidi mortuos magnos et pusillos stantes in con- 
spectu throni, et libri aperti sunt ; et alius liber apertus est, 
qui est vitaB; et judicati sunt mortui ex his quae scripta 
erant in libris secundum opera ipsorum (Apoc. 20, 12). 
The **Book" is the Book of Life which contains a most de- 
tailed record of each one's life, even of his most secret 
thoughts and idle words. 

6. ''When therefore the Judge shall be seated, whatso- 
ever is hidden shall be brought to light ; nothing shall re- 
main unpunished." 

When the Judge His place has ta'en 
All things hid shall be made plain, 
Nothing unavenged remain. 

— Abp. Trench 

With this stanza the epic or narrative part of the hymn 
closes, the remaining stanzas are lyric in character. 

7. **What shall I, wretched, then say? AVhat patron 
shall I entreat, when even the just shall hardly be without 
anxiety?" 

What shall wretched I then plead, 

Who for me shall intercede, 

When the righteous scarce is freed? 

— Isaac Williams 

210 



DIES IRM 

Patronus, advocate, counsel. Cum vix Justus: Et si Justus 
vix salvabitur, impius et peccator ubi parebunt? (I Peter, 
4, 18). 

8. ''King of awful majesty, who savest freely those who 
are to be saved, save me, Fount of mercy. ' ' 

King of dread, whose mercy free 
Saveth those that saved shall be. 
Fount of pity, pity me. 

— Lord Lindsey 

Salvandos: Read the articles on Elect, Salvation, and parts 
of the article on Grace, in the Cath. Encycl. 

9. ''Remember, loving Jesus, that for my sake Thou 
didst come upon earth: let me not, then, be lost on that 
day." 

Jesus, 'twas my debt to pay 

Thou didst wend Thy weary way; 

Keep me on that dreadful day. 

— Messenger of the Sacred Heart, England. 

Tu(B vice: Christ's whole life on earth, — 

"From the poor manger to the bitter cross." 

Ne me perdas: Quia quos dedisti mihi, non perdidi ex eis 
quemquam (John 18, 9). 

10. ''Seeking me Thou sattest weary; suffering the 
Cross, Thou didst redeem me ; let not so great a labor be in 
vain. ' ' 

Weary satst Thou seeking me, 
Diedst redeeming on the tree; 
Not in vain such toil can be. 

—Mrs. E. Charles 

Sedisti lassus: Jesus was often zveary seeking the lost sheep 
of the house of Israel, but the poet here undoubtedly had 
in mind the touching picture of Our Lord resting at Jacob 's 
well, and awaiting the Samaritan woman (John 4, 6). Dr. 
Johnson could not repeat this touching verse without 
shedding tears. 

11. "Just Judge of vengeance, grant the gift of pardon 
ere the day of accounting." 

211 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

Thou just Judge of wrath severe, 
Grant my sins remission here, 
Ere Thy reckoning day appear. 

— Dean Alford 

Ultionis: Mea est ultio, et ego retribuam in tempore (Deut. 
32, 35). 

12. **I groan like one condemned; my face reddens with 
guilt; the suppliant spare, God." 

Sighs and tears my sorrow speak. 
Shame and grief are on my cheek, 
Mercy, mercy, Lord, I seek. 

— Dr. Schaff 

Reus is here taken in the sense of one conde-mned rather 
than one accused, as the line following would seem to im- 
ply. 

13. *'Thou who didst absolve Mary, and didst hearken 
to the thief, to me also Thou hast given hope. ' ' 

Thou who Mary didst forgive 
And who badst the robber live, 
Hope to me dost also give. 

— Abp. Trench 

Mariam absolvisti: Mary Magdalen, who, whether named 
or not, is the sinner referred to by the four Evangelists ; 
Matt. 26, 7; Mark 14, 3; Luke 7, 48; 10, 38-42; John 12, 2-3. 
Latronem: the penitent thief. Et dicebat ad Jesum: 
Domine, memento mei, cum veneris in regnum tuum. Et 
dixit illi Jesus : Amen dico tibi, hodie mecum eris in para- 
diso (Luke 23,42-43). 

14. ''Unworthy are my prayers; but do Thou who art 
good benignly grant that I burn not in everlasting fire." 

Though my prayers deserve no hire, 
Yet good Lord, grant my desire, 
I may 'scape eternal fire. 

— James Dymock 

15. ''Amid Thy sheep appoint me a place, and separate 
me from the goats, placing me at Thy right hand. ' ' 

212 



DIES IR^ 

Mid Thy sheep my place command, 
From the goats far off to stand, 
Set me, Lord, at Thy right hand. 

— Abp. Trench 

Et statuit oves quidem a dextris suis, hoedos autem a sin- 
istris (Matt. 25, 33). 

16. **The accursed having been silenced and given over 
to the bitter flames, call me with the blessed." 

When the curst are put to shame, 

Cast into devouring flame, 

With the blest then call my name. 

— Dr. Schaff 

Confutatis: The wicked will be silenced when they hear 
from the lips of Our Lord : Amen, dico vobis : quamdiu non 
fecistis uni de minoribus his, nee mihi fecistis (Matt. 25, 
45). 

17. ''Kneeling and prostrate I pray, with a heart con- 
trite as though crushed to ashes; have a care of my last 
hour. ' ' 

Contrite, suppliant, I pray, 

Ashes on my heart I lay; 

Care Thou for me on that day. 

— Mrs. E. Charles 

Contritum, utterly crushed. 

18. ** Doleful shall be that day on which guilty man 
shall rise from the glowing embers to be judged : spare him, 
then, God. Merciful Jesus, Lord, grant them rest." 

Full of tears the day shall prove 
When from ashes rising move 
To the judgment guilty men: 
Spare, Thou God of mercy, then. 
Lord, all-pitying, Jesu Blest, 
Grant them Thine eternal rest. 

— Isaac Williams 

Dr. W. J. Irons' much admired translation is given be- 
low. It is more extensively used than any other transla- 
tion of the Dies Irce. Dr. Irons ' translation was made from 
the Paris Missal Text but it is generally edited to con- 
form to the Text of the Roman Missal. Judging from the 

213 



PROPER OF THE SEASON 

number of hymn-books and other books that contain this 
translation it is quite probable that a few million copies of 
it are printed each year. It is said that the sale of Hymns 
Ancietit and Modern {H. A. S M.) alone exceeds one mil- 
lion copies annually. Dr. Irons' translation is in our own 
Baltimore Manual of Prayers, and in the London Catholic 
Truth Society's Book of Sequences. The translation re- 
tains the exact meter and rhyme scheme of the original. 



87D 



DAY of wrath and doom impending, 
David's word with Sibyl's blending! 
Heaven and earth in ashes ending! 

0, what fear man's bosom rendeth, 
When from heaven the Judge descendeth, 
On whose sentence all dependeth! 

Wondrous sound the trumpet flingeth, 
Through earth's sepulchers it ringeth. 
All before the throne it bringeth. 

Death is struck, and nature quaking. 

All creation is awaking, 

To its Judge an answer making. 

Lo! the book exactly worded, 
Wherein all hath been recorded; 
Thence shall judgment be awarded. 

When the Judge His seat attaineth, 
And each hidden deed arraigneth, 
Nothing unavenged remaineth. 

What shall I, frail man, be pleading? 
Who for me be interceding, 
When the just are mercy needing? 

King of majesty tremendous. 
Who dost free salvation send us, 
Fount of pity, then befriend us! 

Think, kind Jesu! my salvation 
Caused Thy wondrous Incarnation; 
Leave me not to reprobation. 

214 



DIES IR^ 

Faint and weary Thou hast sought me, 
On the Cross of suffering bought me; 
Shall such grace be vainly brought me? 

Righteous Judge! for sin's pollution 
Grant Thy gift of absolution, 
Ere that day of retribution. 

Guilty, now I pour my moaning. 
All my shame with anguish owning; 
Spare, God, Thy suppliant groaning! 

Through the sinful woman shriven, 
Through the dying thief forgiven. 
Thou to me a hope hast given. 

Worthless are my prayers and sighing. 
Yet, good Lord, in grace complying, 
Rescue me from fires undying. 

With Thy favored sheep place me. 
Nor among the goats abase me. 
But to Thy right hand upraise me. 

While the wicked are confounded, 
Doomed to flames of woe unbounded, 
Call me with Thy Saints surrounded. 

Low I kneel, with heart submission, 
Crushed to ashes in contrition; 
Help me in my last condition! 

Ah! that day of tears and mourning! 
From the dust of earth returning, 
Man for judgment must prepare him; 
Spare, God, in mercy spare him! 
Lord all-pitying, Jesu Blest, 
Grant them Thine eternal rest. 



216 



Part III 
QTtie proper of t^t Bainti 

It will be observed that with a few noteworthy ex- 
ceptions the hymns in honor of the Saints have not been 
translated as often as the remaining hymns of the Breviary. 
This is in part explained by the fact that the cultus of a 
Saint is more or less national in character, and the Breviary 
contains few hymns in honor of Saints who are especially 
venerated in English-speaking countries. 

THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION OF THE 
BLESSED VIRGIN MARY 

Dec. 8 



88 



Pr cedar a custos virginum 



PR^CLARA custos virginum, T>LEST guardian of all virgin 

•■■ Intacta Mater Numinis, "*-' souls, 

Coelestis aulae janua, Portal of bliss to man forgiven, 

Spes nostra, coeli gaudium. Pure Mother of Almighty God, 

Thou hope of earth and joy of 
heaven ! 



'Inter rubeta lilium, 
Columba formosissima, 
Virga e radice germinans 
Nostro medelam vulneri. 



Fair Lily found among the thorns, 
Most beauteous Dove with wings 

of gold. 
Rod from whose tender root 

upsprang 
That healing Flower so long 
foretold. 



217 



PROPER OF SAINTS 

^Turris draconi impervia, Thou Tower against the dragon 

Arnica stella naufragis, proof, 

Tuere nos a fraudibus, Thou Star to storm-tossed voya- 

Tuaque luce dirige. gers dear; 

Our course lies o'er a treacherous 

deep, 
Thine be the light by which we 
steer. 

*Erroris umbras discute, Scatter the mists that round us 

Syrtes dolosas amove, hang; 

Fluctus tot inter, deviis Keep far the fatal shoals away; 

Tutam reclude semitam. And while through darkling waves 

we sweep. 
Open a path to light and day. 

^Jesu, tibi sit gloria, Jesu, born of Virgin bright. 

Qui natus es de Virgine, Immortal glory be to Thee; 

Cum Patre, et almo Spiritu, Praise to the Father infinite 

In sempiterna saecula. And Holy Ghost eternally. 

Authoe: Unknown, 17th cent. Metee: Iambic dimeter. 
Teanslation by Father Caswall. There are at least four 
translations. This hymn first appeared in the Office of the 
Purity of the Blessed Virgin, authorized by Pope Benedict 
XIV, in 1751. Present Lituegical Use: Hymn for Mat- 
ins on the Feast of the Immaculate Conception. 

1. "Illustrious guardian of virgins, chaste Mother of 
God, portal of the heavenly court, our hope, the joy of 
heaven." Ccelestis aulce janua = Janua coeli. Gate of 
heaven (Litany). 

2. '*Thou lily among the thorns, dove all-beauteous, rod 
from the root (of Jesse) producing a healing balm for our 
wounds." Rubeta, orum, thorns. Sicut lilium inter spinas, 
sic amica mea inter filias (Cant. 2, 2). Columha: Surge, 
propera, amica mea, columba mea, formosa mea, et veni 
(Cant. 2, 10). In the Scriptures the dove is a symbol of 
innocence and purity, and also of tender and devoted af- 
fection. Virga: Egredietur virga de radice Jesse et flos de 
radice ejus ascendet (Is. 11, 1). Jesse was the father of 
David, and was, therefore, a lineal ancestor of the Blessed 
Virgin. 

3. ' * Thou tower inaccessible to the dragon, star friendly 

218 



ST. PETER'S CHAIR AT ROME 

to the shipwrecked, protect us from deception, and guide us 
by thy light." Turris — Turris Davidica, Tower of David 
(Litany: cf. Cant. 4, 4). 

4. ''Dispel the shadows of error, remove treacherous 
shoals ; among so many waves, reveal a safe path to those 
astray." 



ST. PETER'S CHAIR AT ROME 

Jan. 18 

89 Quodcumque in orbe 

QUODCUMQUE in orbe nexi- pETER, whatever thou shalt bind 
bus revinxeris, ■■- on earth, 

Erit revinctum Petre in aroe The same is bound above the starry 

siderum : sky ; 

Et quod resolvit hie potestas What here thy delegated power 

tradita, doth loose, 

Erit solutum coeli in alto vertice: Is loosed in heaven's supremest 
In fine mundi judicabis saeculum. Court on high: 

To Judgment shalt thou come, 
when the world's end is 
nigh. 

■Patri perenne sit per aevum Praise to the Father, through all 

gloria, ages be; 

Tibique laudes concinamus in- Praise to the consubstantial sov- 

clytas, ereign Son, 

interne Nate, sit superne Spiritus And Holy Ghost, One glorious 
Honor tibi, decusque: sancta Trinity; 

jugiter To whom all majesty and might 
Laudetur omne Trinitas per belong; 

saeculum. So sing we now, and such be our 

eternal song. 

Author: Ascribed to St. Paulinus Patriarch of 
Aquileia (726-802). Meter: Iambic trimeter. Trans- 
lation by Father Caswall. Liturgical Use: Hymn for 
Vespers and Matins on the Feast of St. Peter's Chair at 
Rome. It is similarly used on the Feast of St. Peter's Chair 
at Antioch. First line of Original Text: Quodcumque 

219 



PROPER OF SAINTS 

vinclis super terram strinxeris. This hymn is a part of a 
longer hymn beginning: Felix per omnes festum mundi 
cardines. There are nine stanzas in the complete hymn. 
In addition to several anonymous translations in the early 
Primers, there are ten later translations, three of which are 
translations of the complete hymn. This hymn is evi- 
dently later than, and modeled on, the Decora lux which is 
used on the Feast of SS. Peter and Paul (June 29). 

1. ** Whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth with chains, O 
Peter, shall be bound in the stronghold of the skies, and 
what here the power bestowed upon thee doth loosen, shall 
be loosed in heaven's exalted height; at the end of the 
world thou shalt judge mankind." This stanza contains 
a metrical rendering of Matt. 16, 19: Et tibi dabo claves 
regni coelorum. Et quodcumque ligaveris super terram, 
erit ligatum et in coelis: et quodcumque solveris super 
terram, erit solutum et in coelis. Judicabis: Cf. Matt. 19, 
28. 

2. "To God the Father be glory through endless ages; 
Eternal Son, may we sing Thy glorious praises ; Heavenly 
Spirit, to Thee be honor and glory: unceasingly may the 
Holy Trinity be praised through all eternity." 

90 Beate Pastor Petre 

"DEATE Pastor Petre, clemens r\ PETER, Shepherd good, our 

-'-' accipe V^ voices sing of thee; 

Voces precantum, criminumque Thy very word had might from 

vincula chains of sin to free; 

Verbo resolve, cui potestas tradita To thee, by power divine, the 
Aperire terris ccelum, apertum mystic keys were given, 

claudere. Which ope the skies to men, or 

close the gates of heaven. 

* Sit Trinitati sempiterna gloria, All honor, might, and power, and 
Honor, potestas, atque jubilatia, hymns of joy we bring, 

In unitate, quas gubernat omnia, While to the Trinity eternal praise 
Per universa seternitatis ssecula. we sing: 

He rules the universe in wondrous 

Unity, 
And shall, throughout the days of 
all eternity. 
220 



CONVERSION OF ST. PAUL 

Author: Ascribed to Elpis (d. 493), wife of the phi- 
losopher Boethius (480-524). Meter: Iambic trimeter. 
Translation by T. I. Ball. Liturgical Use: Hymn for 
Lauds on the Feast of St. Peter's Chair at Rome (Jan. 18), 
and at Antioch (Feb. 22). 

This hymn is the first stanza of the hymn for Lauds on 
the Feast of SS. Peter and Paul (June 29). See hymn 117. 



CONVERSION OF ST. PAUL 

Jan. 25 



91 



Egregie Doctor Paule 



EGREGIE Doctor Paule mores 
instrue, 
Et nostra tecum pectora in coelum 

trahe : 
Velata dum meridiem cernat 

fides, 
Et soils instar sola regnet caritas. 



' Sit Trinitati sempiterna gloria, 
Honor, potestas, atque jubilatio, 
In unitate, quae gubernat omnia, 
Per universa aeternitatis saecula. 



OUR souls' great Teacher, Paul, 
our guide in wisdom's ways, 
Teach us, our fainting hearts, to 
heaven's glad clime to raise. 
Till Faith in clearest light her 

bright meridian gains. 
And Love with sun-like fire with- 
in each bosom reigns. 

All honor, might, and power, and 

hymns of joy we bring. 
While to the Trinity eternal praise 

we sing; 
He rules the universe in wondrous 

Unity, 
And shall, throughout the days of 

all eternity. 



Author and Meter as in the preceding hymn. Trans- 
lation by Father Potter. Liturgical Use: Hjann for 
Vespers and Matins on the Feast of the Conversion of St. 
Paul. 

This hymn is the second stanza of the hymn for Lauds 
on the Feast of SS. Peter and Paul (June 29). See hymn 
117. 



221 



92 



PROPER OF SAINTS 
ST. MARTINA 

Jan. 25 
MartincB celebrt 



MARTINA celebri plaudite 
nomini 
Gives Romulei, plaudite glorise: 
Insigiiem meritis dicite Virginem, 
Christi dicite Martyrem. 



'Haec dum conspicuis orta paren- 
tibus 
Inter delicias, inter amabiles 
Luxus iJlecebras ditibus afifluit 
Faustse muneribus domus. 



'Vitae despiciens commoda, dedi- 

cat 
Se rerum Domino, et raunifica 

manu 
Christi pauperibus distribuens 

opes, 
Quaerit praemia coelitum. 

*A nobis abigas lubrica gaudia 
Tu, qui Martyribus dexter ades, 

Deus 
Une et trine: tuis da famulis 

jubar. 
Quo clemens animos beas. 



WITH joyous songs, great 
Rome, Martina's fame ex- 
tol. 
Her glowing praises tell, and all 

her mighty deeds; 
A Virgin pure and chaste, she 

leads a stainless life, 
And for her Lord a Martyr bleeds. 

A happy home is hers, and all 

that makes this world 
So sweet, and fresh, and fair, to 

those who love its wiles: 
From noblest parents sprung, 'mid 

wealth, and love, and joy, 
Her life speeds on, 'mid naught 

but smiles. 

These pleasures soon she spurns — 
her wealth she gladly gives 

To Christ's own blessed poor — 
herself, to God above; 

No other wealth she seeks save 
her own spotless Spouse, 

Forever blest in His pure love. 

Thou, the Martyrs' strength, all 
cheating joys expel, 

And fill us with Thy bright and 
never-fading love; 

Show us the beam divine, which 
forms the crowning joy, 

God, Three in One, of bliss above. 



Author: Pope Urban VIII (1568-1644). Meteb: 
Asclepiadic and Glyconic. Translation by Father Potter. 
There are four translations. Liturgical Use: The com- 

222 



ST. MARTINA 

plete hymn is divided into three parts of three stanzas each 
and is used as follows : 

92 Vespers: Martince celebri 

93 Matins: Non illam crucians 

94 Lauds : Tu natale solum 

The same doxology A nobis ahigas is used at the end of 
each part. 

1. ''Praise, citizens of Eome, the illustrious name of 
Martina, praise her glory; celebrate in song a Virgin ren- 
dered illustrious by her merits ; sing a Martyr of Christ. ' ' 
Romulei, adj., of Romulus. 

2. **As she was born of distinguished parents, she lived 
amid pleasures, amid the fascinating allurements of luxury, 
and she abounded in the rich gifts of a prosperous house. ' ' 
Constr. : Affluit ditibus muneribus domus f austas. 

3. *'But despising the comforts of life, she dedicates her- 
self to the Lord of creation, and with a lavish hand she dis- 
tributes her riches among the poor of Christ, and seeks for 
herself the reward of the Blessed." St. Martina was left 
an orphan at an early age. As soon as she obtained posses- 
sion of her property, she distributed it among the poor of 
Rome. 

4. "0 God, Three and One, Thou who dost mightily as- 
sist the Martyrs, drive far from us dangerous pleasures: 
grant to Thy servants the light wherewith Thou dost gra- 
ciously bless their souls. ' ' Juhar, the light of glory. 

93 Non illam crucians 

NQN illam crucians ungula, nHHE agonizing hooks, the rend- 

non ferae, -■- ing scourge, 
Non virgae horribili vulnere com- Shook not the dauntless spirit in 

movent; her breast; 

Hinc lapsi e Superimi sedibus With torments racked, Angels her 

Angeli fainting flesh 

Coelesti dape recreant. Recruit with heavenly feast. 



Quin et deposita sasvitie leo In vain they cast her to the 

Se rictu placido projicit ad ravening beasts; 

pedes: Calm at her feet the lion crouches 

down: 

223 



PROPER OF SAINTS 

Te Martina tamen dans gladius Till smitten by the sword at length 

neci she goes 

Coeli coetibus inserit. To her immortal crown. 

^Te, thuris reddens ara vapori- Now with the Saints Martina 
bus, reigns in bliss, 

Quae fumat, precibus jugiter in- And where Idolatry sat throned 
vocat, of yore, 

Et falsum perimens auspicium, From her victorious altar praise 
tui and prayer 

Delet nominis omine. With odorous incense soar. 

*A nobis abigas lubrica gaudia. Expel false worldly joys; and fill 
Tu, qui Martyribus dexter ades, us, Lord, 

Deus With Thy irradiating beam divine; 

Une et Trine: tuis da famulis Who with Thy suffering Martyrs 

jubar, present art. 

Quo clemens animos beas. Great Godhead one and trine. 

This is a continuation of the preceding hymn. Trans- 
lation by Father Caswall. 

1. ** Neither the agonizing hook, nor wild beasts, nor the 
rods with their painful wounds shake her constancy ; there- 
upon Angels descend from the abodes of the Blessed and 
strengthen her with heavenly food." lingular, a claw- 
shaped torturing hook. 

2. **And even the lion, laying aside his savage nature, 
with friendly gaping jaws lays himself doMTi at her feet: 
thee, at length, Martina, the sword delivers up to death 
and enrolls thee among the hosts of heaven. ' ' St. Martina 
was beheaded in 228, in the persecution under Alexander 
Severus. 

3. *'The altar which smokes, redolent with the odors of 
incense, unceasingly invokes thee with prayers, and it de- 
stroys and annihilates by the omen of thy name baneful 
idol-worship." Auspicium, divination by means of birds. 
The word is here used in the sense of idolatry, heathen wor- 
ship in general. Omine: The "omen" alluded to is a refer- 
ence to the derivation of the Saint's name Martina {the 
warlike) from Mars, Martis, the god of war. The "war- 
fare" she waged was on the idols in the vicinity of Rome, 
many of whose altars were overthrown by her prayers. 

224 



ST. MARTINA 
94 Tu natale solum 

TU natale solum protege, tu 15E thou the guardian of thy 
bonae '*-' native land, 

Da pacis requiem Christiadum And to all Christian nations grant 

plagis; repose 

Armorum strepitus, et fera prcelia From din of arms, and every 
In fines age Thracios. hostile band — 

From all our borders drive away 
our foes. 

*Et regum socians agmina sub Bid Christian princes marshal all 
crucis their force 

Vexillo, Solymas nexibus exime, Beneath the sacred standard of the 
Vindexque innocui sanguinis Rood, 

hosticum To avenge sweet Salem's sacri- 

Robur funditus erue. legions loss, 

And crush the Paynim red with 
guiltless blood. 

* Tu nostrum colimien, tu decus On thee our hopes are built, as on 
inclytum, a tower; 

Nostrarum obsequium respice Receive the homage we now 

mentium; humbly pay, 

Romae vota libens excipe, quse The vows which Rome accom- 

pio plishes this hour, 

Te ritu canit, et colit. With pious rites, and canticles' 

sweet lay. 

*A nobis abigas lubrica gaudia Keep far from us all dangerous 
Tu, qui Martyribus dexter ades, delight, 

Deus God, who comfortest Thy 

Une et Trine: tuis da famulis Martyrs' pain; 

jubar, One God in Persons Three, bestow 

Quo clemens animos beas. Thy light 

Wherewith Thou makest strong 
Thy Martyrs slain. 

This is a continuation of the preceding hymn. Trans- 
lation by Father Wallace, O.S.B. 

1. ** Protect thy native land and give to Christian nations 
the repose of holy peace : banish the din of arms and dread- 
ful wars to Thracian fields. ' ' Christiadum = Christiano- 
rum, Christians. In fines Thracios: afar, to the remotest 
regions. 

225 



PROPER OF SAINTS 

2. **And uniting the armies of kings under the banner 
of the Cross, deliver Jerusalem from bondage, and as an 
avenger of innocent blood, utterly destroy the hostile 
power (of the Turks)." SolymcB, poetical form of Hieroso- 
lyma, orum, Jerusalem. 

3. **Thou, our pillar of strength, our illustrious orna- 
ment, behold the benevolent disposition of our hearts; 
graciously accept the prayers of Rome, who in a loving 
manner sings thy praises and honors thee. ' ' 



THE HOLY FAMILY 



FIRST SUNDAY AFTER EPIPHANY 



95 



O Lux beata coelitum 



OLUX beata coelitum 
Et summa spes mortalium, 
Jesu, o cui domestica 
Arrisit orto caritas. 

'Maria, dives gratia, 
sola quae casto potes 
Fovere Jesum pectore, 
Cum lacte donans oscula. 



'Tuque ex vetustis patribus 
Delecte custos Virginis, 
Dulci patris quem nomine 
Divina Proles invocat. 

* De stirpe Jesse nobili 
Nati in salutem gentium, 
Audite nos qui supplices 
Vestras ad aras sistimus. 

' Dum sol redux ad vesperum 
Rebus nitorem detrahit, 
Nos hie manentes intimo 
Ex corde vota fundimus. 



HIGHEST Hope of mortals, 
Blest Light of Saints above, 
Jesu, on whose boyhood 
Home smiled with kindly love; 

And thou whose bosom nursed 

Him, 
O Mary, highly graced, 
Whose breast gave milk to Jesus, 
Whose arms thy God embraced; 

And thou of all men chosen 
To guard the Virgin's fame. 
To whom God's Son refused not 
A Father's gracious name; 

Born for the nation's healing. 
Of Jesse's lineage high. 
Behold the suppliants kneeling, 
O hear the sinners' cry! 

The sun returned to evening. 
Dusks all the twilight air: 
We, lingering here before you. 
Pour out our heartfelt prayer. 



226 



THE HOLY FAMILY 

*Qua vestra sedes floruit Your home was as a garden 

Virtutis omnis gratia, Made glad with fairest flowers; 

Hanc detur in domesticis May life thus blossom sweetly 

Referre posse moribus. In every home of ours. 

^Jesu, tibi sit gloria, Jesus, to Thee be glory. 

Qui natus es de Virgine, The Maiden-Mother's Son, 

Cum Patre, et almo Spiritu, With Father and with Spirit 

In sempiterna saecula. While endless ages run. 



Author t Pope Leo XIII (1810-1903). Meter: Iambic 
dimeter. Translation from the Marquess of Bute's Ro- 
man Breviary. There are three translations. Liturgicali 
Use : Hymn for Vespers on the Feast of the Holy Family. 

1. ''0 blessed Light of the Saints, and supreme hope of 
mortals, Jesus, upon whose birth domestic affection 
smiled;" Cui . . . orto. 

2. **0 Mary, rich in grace, thou alone wast able to nour- 
ish Jesus at thy chaste breast, giving Him kisses with thy 
milk;" 

3. ** And thou, of the ancient fathers, the chosen guardian 
of the Virgin, whom the Divine Child did call by the sweet 
name of Father," 

4. **Both having sprung from the noble root of Jesse, 
for the salvation of mankind, hearken to us, your sup- 
pliants, who stand at your altars." De stirpe Jesse: Et 
egredietur virga de radice Jesse, et flos de radice ejus 
ascendet (Is. 11, 1). Jesse was the father of David. Both 
Mary and Joseph were of the house of David. 

5. "When the sun declining towards evening takes away 
from things their beauty, we remaining here pour forth 
our prayers from the bottom of our hearts." Hie, viz., in 
the church. 

6. ''The grace of every virtue with which your home 
abounded, vouchsafe that we too may be able to reproduce 
the same in our home lives." Constr. : Ut detur, nos hanc 
gratiam referre posse in moribus nostris domesticis. 



227 



96 



PROPER OF SAINTS 
Sacra jam splendent 



SACRA jam splendent decorata 
lychnis 
Templa, jam sertis redimitur ara 
Et pio fumant redolentque 
acerrae 

Thuris honore. 



A THOUSAND lights their glory 
shed 
On shrines and altars garlanded; 
While swinging censers dusk the 
air 
With perfumed prayer. 



^Num juvet Summo Geniti 

Parente 
Regies ortus celebrare cantu? 
Num domus David, decora et 
vetustse 

Nomina gentis? 

^ Gratius nobis memorare parvum 
Nazarae tectum, tenuemque cul- 

tum, 
Gratius Jesu tacitam referre 
Carmine vitam. 

*Nili ab extremis peregrinus oris 
Angeli ductu, propere remigrat 
Multa perpessus Puer et paterno 
Limine sospes, 



^Arte, qua Joseph, humili ex- 

colendus 
Abdito Jesus juvenescit sevo, 
Seque fabrilis socium laboris 
Adjicit ultro. 



•Irriget sudor mea membra, 
dixit. 



And shall we sing the ancestry 
Of Jesus, Son of God most High? 
Or the heroic names retrace 
Of David's race? 



Sweeter is lowly Nazareth, 
Where Jesus drew His childish 

breath — 
Sweeter the singing that endears 
His hidden years. 

An Angel leads the pilgrim band 
From Egypt to their native land, 
Where Jesus clings to Joseph's 
arm. 
Secure from harm. 

"And the Child grew in wisdom's 

ken 
And years and grace with God and 

men;" 
And in His father's humble art 
Took share and part. 

"With toil," saith He, "my limbs 
are wet. 



Antequam sparse madeant cru- Prefiguring the Bloody Sweat:" 



ore: 
Haec quoque humane generi 
expiando 

Poena luatur. 

^Assidet Nato pia Mater almo, 
Assidet Sponso bona nupta; 

felix 
Si potest curas relevare fessis 
Munere amico. 



Ah! how He bears our chastise- 
ment 
With sweet content! 



At Joseph's bench, at Jesus' side. 
The Mother sits, the Virgin-Bride; 
Happy, if she may cheer their 
hearts 
With loving arts. 



228 



THE HOLY FAMILY 

*0 neque expertes, operae et Blessed Three! who felt the 

laboris, sting 

Nee mali ignari, miseros juvate, Of want and toil and suffering, 

Quos reluctantes per acuta Pity the needy and obscure 
rerum Lot of the poor. 

Urget egestas. 

* Demite his fastus, quibus ampla Banish the "pride of life" from 

splendet all 

Faustitas, mentera date rebus Whom ampler wealth and joys 

aequam: befall: 

Quotquot implorant columen, Be every heart with love repaid 
benigno That seeks your aid. 

Cernite vultu. 

^" Sit tibi, Jesu, decus atque virtus, Glory to Thee, Jesu dear, 

Sancta qui vitae documenta Model of holy living here! 

praebes, Who reign'st, with Sire and Holy 
Quique cum summo Genitore et Ghost, 

almo Q'er heaven's host. 

Flamine regnas. 

Author: Pope Leo XIII (1810-1903). Meter: Sapphic 
and Adonic. Translation by Monsignor Henry. There 
are two translations. Liturgical Use: Hymn for Matins 
on the Feast of the Holy Family. 

1. ^'The sacred temples are already resplendent with 
lamps; the altar is wreathed round with garlands, and in 
loving honor vessels of incense smoke and emit a pleasant 
odor." Acerra, an incense-box, a censer. 

2. ''Would it not be pleasing to celebrate in song the 
royal birth of the Son from the sovereign Father ? And to 
sing of the house of David and of the illustrious names of 
that ancient family?" Ortus, pi., both the temporal and the 
eternal birth of the Son. 

3. "To us it is more agreeable to call to mind the little 
house at Nazareth, and the simple mode of life therein; 
more agreeable to relate in song the hidden life of Jesus. ' ' 

4. ** As a wanderer, under the guidance of an Angel, suf- 
fering much, the Child quickly returns from the distant 
banks of the Nile and is safe in His father's house." 
Paterno refers to St. Joseph, His foster-father. 

5. ''Jesus grows up in His hidden life, working faithfully 

229 



PROPER OF SAINTS 

at the same humble profession as St. Joseph; and of His 
own accord He devotes Himself to the profession of car- 
pentering. ' ' 

6. **May perspiration moisten My limbs," He said, '^be- 
fore they become wet with My Blood poured forth; this 
toil must also be suffered in expiating the sins of the human 
race." Poenam luere, to suffer, undergo punishment. 

7. **The loving Mother sits beside her beloved Son; the 
good bride, beside her spouse, happy if she can lighten the 
labors of the weary with affectionate attention." 

8. *'0 ye who have endured pains and toil, who were not 
unacquainted with misfortune, help the poor whom dire 
poverty oppresses in their struggle against necessitous 
conditions." This and the following stanza call to mind 
Pope Leo's great Encyclical Rerum. novarum which treats 
of the relations between capital and labor (1891). 

9. '* Banish from men pride, with which ample wealth 
bedecks itself ; grant us equanimity in the affairs of life : 
behold with a benign countenance all who invoke the Most 
High." Columen, lit, a height; heaven. 

10. ''Praise be to Thee, Jesus, who givest the holy 
precepts of life, who reignest with the sovereign Father 
and the Holy Spirit. 



97 



O gente felix hospita 



OGENTE felix hospita 
Augusta sedes Nazarae, 
Quae fovit alma Ecclesiae 
Et protulit primordia. 



HOUSE of Nazareth the blest, 
Fair hostess of the Lord, 
The Church was nurtured at Thy 

breast 
And shared thy scanty hoard. 



^Sol, qui pererrat aureo 
Terras jacentes lumine. 
Nil gratius per saecula 
Hac vidit sede, aut sanctius. 



In all the spreading lands of earth 
The wandering sun may see 
No dearer spot, no ampler worth 
Than erst was found in thee! 



*Ad hanc frequentes convolant 
Ccelestis aulae nuntii, 
Virtutis hoc sacrarium 
Visunt, revisunt, excolunt. 



We know thy humble tenement 
Was heaven's hermitage: 
Celestial heralds came and went 
In endless embassage. 



230 



THE HOLY FAMILY 



*Qua mente Jesus, qua manu, 
Optata patris perficit! 
Quo Virgo gestit gaudio 
Materna obire raunera! 



^Adest amoris particeps 
Curaeque Joseph conjugi, 
Quos mille jungit nexibus 
Virtutis auctor gratia. 



•Hi diligentes invicem 
In Jesu amorem confluunt, 
Utrique Jesus mutuae 
Dat caritatis prsemia. 



^Sic fiat, ut nos caritas 
Jungat perenni fcedere, 
Pacemque alens domesticam 
Amara vitae temperet! 

*Jesu, tibi sit gloria, 
Qui natus es de Virgine, 
Cum Patre, et almo Spiritu, 
In sempiterna saecula. 



There, whatsoever Joseph asks 

Christ hastens to fulfill; 

While Mary loves the household 

tasks 
That wait her joyous will. 

There, Joseph toileth at her side 
Her joys and griefs to share. 
With thousand ties knit to his 

bride. 
Of love and work and prayer. 

Yet how their bosoms constant 

burn 
And deeper ardors prove 
In love of Christ, whose eyes 

return 
Tokens of mutual love. 

O then, in all the homes of earth, 
Be Love the bond of life: 
May it enthrone at every hearth 
The peace that husheth strife. 

Jesu, born of Virgin bright, 
All glory be to Thee, 
With Father and with Paraclete, 
Through all eternity. 



Author: Pope Leo XIII (1810-1903). Meter: Iambic 
dimeter. Translation by Monsignor Henry. There are 
three translations. Liturgical Use: Hymn for Lauds on 
the Feast of the Holy Family. 

1. "0 thou, in thy occupants (gente) most blessed, hos- 
pitable, august abode of Nazareth, which fostered and nour- 
ished the holy beginnings of the Church." Gente, the Holy 
Family. 

2. ''The sun, which with its golden light courses over the 
nations lying far below, hath through the ages seen nothing 
more pleasing than this house, nothing more holy.'* 

3. **To it in great numbers fly the messengers of the 
heavenly court ; they visit, revisit, and honor this sanctuary 
of virtue. ' ' 

4. ''With what a heart and hand doth Jesus fulfill the 

231 



PROPER OF SAINTS 

wishes of His foster-father! With what joy doth the Vir- 
gin strive to perform her maternal duties!" Mente, good 
will. Manu, diligence. 

5. * * Sharing in her love and solicitude, St. Joseph stands 
ever beside his spouse; the very source of virtue gra- 
ciously unites both with a thousand ties. Gratia, in a most 
loving manner. 

6. ** Loving each other, they unite in their love for Jesus; 
and Jesus gives to both the rewards of mutual love." 

7. "So may it happen that charity may unite us in an 
everlasting covenant; and fostering domestic peace may it 
alleviate the bitter things of life." 



APPARITION OF THE BLESSED VIRGIN 
MARY IMMACULATE 

Feb. 11 



98 



Te dicimus prceconio 



TE dicimus praeconio, 
Intacta Mater Numinis, 
Nostris benigna laudibus 
Tuam repende gratiam. 



'^Sontes Adami posteri 
Infecta proles gignimur; 
Labis paternae nescia 
Tu sola, Virgo, crederis. 

^ Caput draconis invidi 
Tu conteris vestigio, 
Et sola gloriam refers 
Intaminatse originis. 



*0 gentis humanae decus 
Quae tollis Hevae opprobrium, 
Tu nos tuere supplices, 
Tu nos labantes erige. 



VIRGIN Mother of our God, 
While we thy matchless 
glories chant, 
Do thou, in answer to our praise. 
To us abundant graces grant. 

We Adam's guilty children are, 
A sin-infected progeny. 
Thou art, Virgin, we believe. 
Alone from his infection free. 

The envious dragon's cruel head 
Thou with thy heel dost trample 

down. 
And of a stainless origin 
Thou only dost the glory own. 

Flower of the human race. 
Who takest Eve's reproach away, 
Protect us when we cry to thee, 
Our tottering footsteps deign to 
stay. 



232 



APPARITION OF THE BLESSED VIRGIN 

^Serpentis antiqui potens From the old serpent's wiles and 

Astus retunde et impetus, force, 

Ut ccelitura perennibus Thy clients mightily defend. 

Per te fruamur gaudiis. That, through thy mercy, they may 

win 
Those heavenly joys which neve* 
end. 

^Jesu, tibi sit gloria Jesus, to Thee be glory given, 

Qui natus es de Virgine, Whom erst the Virgin-Mother bore, 

Cum Patre, et almo Spiritu With Father and with Holy Ghost, 

In sempiterna saecula. Through endless ages evermore. 

Author: Unknown. Meter: Iambic dimeter. Trans- 
lation by Archbishop Bagshawe ; there are no other trans- 
lations. Liturgical Use : Hymn for Matins on the Feast of 
the Blessed Virgin Mary Immaculate at Lourdes. 

This Feast was authorized by Pope Leo XIII, and was 
extended to the entire Church by Pope Pius X, in 1907. 
The OflQce with its three proper hymns appeared only re- 
cently in the Breviary. 

The hymns are translated by Archbishop Bagshawe, in 
his Breviary Hymns and Missal Sequences. With the ex- 
ception of the hymn for Matins they are also translated by 
the Benedictines of Stanbrook, in their The Day Hours of 
the Church. 

To understand many allusions in these hymns, the article 
on Lourdes, in the Cath. Encycl. should be consulted. This 
is especially true of the hymn Omnis expertem. 

1. **We praise thee with jubilation, O stainless Mother of 
God; for our praises, graciously bestow upon us thy 
favor. ' ' 

2. "We guilty descendants of Adam are brought forth 
a sin-infected people ; thou alone, Virgin, we believe art 
free from our first father's infection." Crederis, passive, 
thou art believed. The dogma of the Immaculate Concep- 
tion was proclaimed by Pope Pius IX, Dec. 8, 1854. Read 
the article on Immaculate Conception, in the Cath. Encycl. 

3. ' * Thou dost crush with thy heel the head of the envious 
dragon, and dost alone preserve the glory of a stainless 
origin." Vestigio: lit., a footprint; that part of the foot 
which makes a print — the sole. It is here used in the sense 

233 



PROPER OF SAINTS 

of calcaneum, the heel. Ipsa conteret caput tuum, et tu in- 
sidiaberis calcaneo ejus (Gen. 3, 15). 

4. "0 thou, the glory of the human race, who takest 
away the reproach of Eve, protect thy suppliants, and en- 
courage us who waver." 

5. **Do thou mightily frustrate the cunning and the as- 
saults of the old serpent, and through thee may we enjoy 
the everlasting joys of heaven." 



99 



Aurora soli prcevia 



AURORA soli praevia 
Felix salutis nuntia, 
In noctis umbra plebs tua 
Te, Virgo, supplex invocat. 



^Torrens nefastis fluctibus 
Cunctos trahens voragine, 
Leni residit aequore 
Cum transit Area foederis. 



OROSY dawn! that dost pro- 
claim 
Salvation's happy day, 
To thee, Virgin, 'mid night's 

shades, 
Thy people humbly pray. 

The torrent, that engulfs all those 
Within its whirlpool drawn, 
Rests calm as o'er its softened 

wave 
The ark of God is borne. 



^Dum torret arescens humus, 
Tu rore sola spargeris; 
Tellure circimi rorida, 
Intacta sola permanes. 



While earth is parched with 

scorching heat. 
Alone thou art bedewed; 
With dew o'erspread the earth 

around. 
And thou untouched art viewed. 



*Fatale virus evomens 
Attollit anguis verticem; 
At tu draconis turgidum 
Invicta conteris caput. 

"Mater benigna, respice 
Fletus precesque supplicum, 
Et dimicantes tartari 
Victrix tuere ab hostibus. 

^Jesu, tibi sit gloria. 
Qui natus es de Virgine, 
Cum Patre, et almo Spiritu, 
In sempiterna saecula. 



The serpent rears his head aloft 
Disgorging poisoned spleen; 
But thou his proud, inflated head 
Dost crush with power as Queen. 

loving Mother, hear our prayer, 
As suppliant we cry; 
Protect us in our strife with hell 
Who dost its power defy. 

Jesu, born of Virgin bright. 
All glory be to Thee, 
With Father and with Paraclete, 
Through all eternity. 



234 



APPARITION OF THE BLESSED VIRGIN 

Author: Unknown. Meter: Iambic dimeter. Trans- 
lation by the Benedictines of Stanbrook. There are two 
translations. Liturgical Use: Hymn for Lauds. See the 
note on the preceding hymn. 

1. "0 dawn that goeth before the sun, joyous herald 
of our salvation, thy people, Virgin, suppliantly invoke 
thee amid the shades of night." Mary was the dawn that 
preceded the rising Sun of Justice. 

2. ''The torrent with its inauspicious waves which draws 
all men into the whirlpool, subsides into a placid sea while 
the Ark of the Covenant is passing." Area foederis, Ark of 
the Covenant (Litany) ; for an explanation of this title of 
our Blessed Lady, see the last paragraph of the article on 
Ark, in the Cath. Encycl. The Ark of the Covenant was the 
most sacred object the Israelites possessed, and it was the 
material symbol of the Divine presence (cf. Exod. 25, 10-22; 
Josue 3-4). 

3. "When the dry earth is parched, thou alone art be- 
sprinkled with dew; when the earth on every side is wet 
with dew, thou alone dost remain untouched" (cf. Judges 
6, 37). 

4. "The serpent vomiting forth his fatal poison lifts 
his head, but thou unconquered (Maid) dost crush the 
swollen head of the dragon." (Cf. Gen. 3, 4-15). 

5. "0 loving Mother, behold the tears and prayers of 
thy suppliants, and victoriously defend those in battle with 
the hosts of hell." 



100 Omnis expertem 

OMNIS expertem maculae T 0! Mary is exempt from stain 
Mariam •*-' of sin, 

Edocet summus fidei magister; Proclaims the Pontiff high; 
Virginis gaudens celebrat fidelis And earth applauding celebrates 
Terra triumphum. with joy 

Her triumph, far and high. 

^ Ipsa se praebens humili puellae Unto a lowly timid maid she 
Virgo spectandam, recreat paven- shows 

tem, Her form in beauty fair, 

235 



PROPER OF SAINTS 



Seque conceptam sine labe sancto 
Praedicat ore. 



^0 specus felix, decorate divae 
Matris aspectu! veneranda rupes, 
Unde vitales scatuere pleno 
Gurgite lymphae. 



* Hue catervatira pia turba nostris, 

Hue ab externis peregrina terris 

Affluit supplex, et opem potentis 

Virginis orat. 



" Excipit Mater 
cantum, 



lacrimas pre- 



Donat optatam miseris salutem; 
Compos hinc voti patrias ad oras 
Turba revertit. 



' Supplicum, Virgo, miserata 
casus, 
Semper o nostros refove labores, 
Impetrans moestis bona sem- 
piternae 

Gaudia vitae. 

^Sit decus Patri, genitaeque Proli, 
Et tibi compar utriusque virtus 
Spiritus semper, Deus unus, omni 
Temporis aevo. 



And the Immaculate Conception 
truth 
Her sacred lips declare. 

honored cave, by Mary's smile 

adorned ! 
hallowed rock, whence spring 
The living waters of a gushing 

stream, 
The gifts of life to bring. 

And thither from the farmost 

bounds of earth 
The pilgrims wend their way, 
And suppliant around the Virgin's 

shrine 
Her powerful help they pray. 

The sufferers' cry the Mother 

fondly hears, 
And grants the longed-for grace; 
And health restored, the pilgrim 

throng returns 
Unto its native place. 

Virgin ! have compassion on our 

needs, 
Refresh us laboring on; 
Obtain for us the joys of heavenly 

life, 
When sorrow all is gone. 

All praise and honor to the Father 

be. 
And to His only Son, 
And to the Spirit, power of both, 

for aye, 
In Godhead ever One. 



Author : Unknown. Meter : Sapphic and Adonic. Trans- 
lation by the Benedictines of Stanbrook. There are two 
translations. Liturgical Use : Hymn for II Vespers on the 
Feast of the B.V.M. Immaculate. The hymn for I Ves- 
pers is the Ave maris stella. See the note on hymn 98. 

1. ''The supreme teacher of faith solemnly affirms that 
Mary is free from all stain; the faithful every^vhere re- 

236 



THE SEVEN HOLY FOUNDERS 

joicing celebrate the triumph of the Virgin." Summus 
magister: Pope Pius IX, who proclaimed the dogma of 
the Immaculate Conception, Dec. 8, 1854. 

2. ''The Virgin revealing herself in all comeliness to an 
humble maid reassures the trembling girl, and with sacred 
lips declares herself to have been conceived without sin." 
The lowly maid to whom the Blessed Virgin appeared on 
eighteen different occasions was a fourteen-year-old girl, 
Bernadette Soubiroux. On one occasion she revealed her 
identity saying: *'I am the Immaculate Conception." 

3. "0 fortunate grotto, honored by the apparition of 
the Blessed Mother ! hallowed rock, whence living waters 
in full stream gush forth ! ' ' The reference is to the mys- 
terious spring from which flows the wonder-working water 
of Lourdes. 

4. ''Hither in troops do pious pilgrims come from our 
own country; hither from the foreign lands suppliant pil- 
grims come, and implore the aid of the powerful Virgin." 
Hue: hither, to Lourdes in France. Nearly five million pil- 
grims, in 5,297 pilgrimages visited Lourdes from 1867 to 
1908. 

5. * ' The Mother receives the tears of the petitioners and 
grants to the afflicted the desired health; having obtained 
their wish the pilgrims return to their own countries." 
Precantum for precantium. 

6. "0 Virgin, thou who dost compassionate the misfor- 
tunes of thy suppliants, ever alleviate our sufferings and 
obtain for the afflicted the blessed joys of eternal life." 

THE SEVEN HOLY FOUNDERS 

Feb. 12 

101 Bella dum late 

BELLA dum late furerent, et "WTHEN war was raging, and the 
urbes ^ town 

Caede fraterna gemerent cruentae, Was red with blood of brother 
Adfuit Virgo, nova semper edens bands, 

Munera matris. Our Virgin-Mother bowed her 

down 
With bounteous hands. 
237 



PROPER OF SAINTS 

'En vocat septem famulos, fideles Seven faithful sons she bid to 
Ut sibi in luctu recolant dolores, share 

Quos tulit Jesus, tulit ipsa Her Dolours, all the shame and 
consors loss 

Sub cruce Nati. Which Jesus suffered, and she bare 

Beneath His Cross. 



'Illico parent Dominae vocanti: 
Splendidis tectis opibusque 

spretis, 
Urbe secedunt procul in Senari 
Abdita montis. 



* Corpora hie poenis cruciant 
acerbis, 
Sontium labes hominum piantes: 
Hie prece avertunt lacrymisque 
fusis 

Numinis iram. 



So when their Lady called, as 

naught 
They deemed their palaces and 

wealth, 
The mountain's desert places 

sought 
Far off by stealth. 

For others' sins the scourge they 

plied, 
As they the way of penance trod; 
By prayers and tears they turned 

aside 
The wrath of God. 



'Perdolens Mater fovet, atque 

amictum 
Ipsa lugubrem monet induendum : 
Agminis sancti pia ccepta 
surgunt, 

Mira patescunt. 

•Palmes in bruma viridans 
honores 
Nuntiat patrum: proprios Mariae 
Ore lactenti vocitant puelli 
Nomine Servos. 



^Sit decus Patri, genitaeque Proli, 
Et tibi, compar utriusque virtus 
Spiritus semper, Deus unus, 
omni 

Temporis aevo. 



Token of love, the Mother's hand 
Gave to her sons their garb of 

woe; 
Sanctioned the pious work they 

planned. 

With wondrous show. 

The vine, to spread their honors 

wide. 
Her sprouts in winter greenly 

flung, 
*'See, those are Mary's servants," 

cried 
The infant tongue. 

Now to the Father thanks and 

praise; 
To Thee, Son, the same we send; 
To Thee, great Spirit, through all 

days 

World without end. 



Author: Vincent Tarozzi, 19th cent. Meter; Sapphic 
and Adonic. Translation anon, in the Servile Manual 



238 



THE SEVEN HOLY FOUNDERS 

(1892). Liturgical Use: Hymn for Matins. With the ex- 
ception of the hymn Matris sub ahnce numine, the five 
hymns formerly in use on the Feast of the Seven Founders 
have been omitted from the latest editions of the Breviary. 
The five hymns were translated by Archbishop Bagshawe 
and Father Wallace, O.S.B. Julian's Dictionary of Hym- 
nology mentions no translations of the hymns in honor of 
the Seven Holy Founders. Read the article on Servites, 
Order of, in the Cath. Encycl. 

1. ''While wars were raging and blood-stained cities 
groaned with fratricidal carnage, the Virgin appeared 
ever manifesting the new gifts of a mother." Bella: The 
bloody feuds and dissensions among the Italian cities from 
the 11th to the 13th century are familiar to the student of 
history. St. Alexis, the last of the Seven Founders, died 
in 1310. 

2. ''Behold, in her grief, she calls unto herself seven 
faithful servants that they might recall to mind the suffer- 
ings which Jesus endured, and which she, the sharer of His 
sufferings, endured beneath the Cross of her Son." The 
object of the Servite Order is to preach everywhere com- 
passion for the sufferings of Jesus crucified and of Mary 
desolate, as well as hatred for sin, the accursed cause of 
them both (cf. Servite Manual, p. xiv). 

3. "Without hesitation they obey their Lady's call: 
spurning their stately palaces and wealth, they with- 
draw afar from the city into the hidden recesses of Mount 
Senario." The Blessed Virgin first appeared to the Seven 
Holy Founders in 1233. She exhorted them to leave the 
world and dedicate themselves, under her auspices, to the 
service of God. This they did without delay. 

4. "Here they afflict their bodies with dire punishments, 
atoning for the sins of guilty men: here by their prayers 
and by their abundant tears they avert the anger of God. ' ' 

5. "The Mother greatly encourages them and tells them 
that they should wear a garb indicative of mourning; the 
pious undertakings of the holy company prosper; won- 
drous things become manifest." Mira, miracles. 

6. "A young vine becoming green in winter proclaims 
the glory of the Fathers : children unweaned proclaim them 

239 



PROPER OF SAINTS 

by name to be Mary's own Servants." The miracle of the 
vine occurred in March while the mountain was still covered 
with hoar frost. The vine which had been planted the 
preceding year, grew miraculously in a single night, and 
was covered at once with foliage, flowers, and fruit — a 
symbol of the speedy increase of their little community as 
was revealed to the bishop of Florence, Puelli: On two 
different occasions infants cried out in the street; ''Be- 
hold the servants of Mary." 

102 Sic patres vitam 

SIC patres vitam peragunt in T^HE fathers lived a life in 
umbra, -^ shade, 

Lilia ut septem nivei decoris. Yet seemed to Peter's vision seven 

Virgini excelsse bene grata, Petro White glistening lilies for the 
Visa nitere. Maid, 

The Queen of heaven. 

^ Jamque divina rapiente flamma. Through city streets, o'er hills and 
Cursitant urbes, loca quaeque plains, 

oberrant, Upborne by love divine, they trod. 

Si queant cunctis animis dolores To fix in men the Mother's pains, 
Figere Matris. The swords of God. 

^Hinc valent iras domuisse caecas. This was the power in which they 
Nescia et pacis fera corda spoke, 

jungunt. Till each wild passion owned their 
Erigunt moestos, revocant no- sway: 

centes They cheered the sad, from sinners 
Dicta piorum. broke 

Their chains away. 

*At suos Virgo comitata servos Till at last the Virgin Queen 
Evehit tandem superas ad oras: Led them to mansions in the sky, 
Gemmeis sertis decorat per aevum Mansions where garlands aye are 
Omne beatos. green. 

And never die. 

''Eja nunc coetus gemitum pre- May they hear cries of all who 
cantis pray, 

Audiant, duros videant labores: And see how hard our earthly 
Semper et nostris f aveant benigno strife : 

Lumine votis. Aiding us onward to the day 

When all is life. 

240 



THE SEVEN HOLY FOUNDERS 

*Sit decus Patri, genitaeque Proli, Now to the Father thanks and 
Et tibi, compar utriusque Virtus praise; 

Spiritus semper, Deus unus omni To Thee, Son, the same we 
Temporis aevo. send; 

To Thee, great Spirit, through all 
days. 
World without end. 

Author: Vincent Tarozzi, 19th cent. Meter: Sapphic 
and Adonic. Translation by Charles Kegan Paul. Litur- 
gical Use : Hymn for Lauds on the Feast of the Seven Holy 
Founders. 

L **The Fathers spent their lives in obscurity, — yet 
as seven lilies of snow-white beauty they seemed to Peter 
to shine — well pleasing to the Virgin high exalted." Petro: 
St. Peter of Verona saw in a vision a mountain covered 
with flowers, among which were seven lilies, dazzling white, 
of exquisite perfume. Mary herself explained the vision — 
the flowers were the Religious on Mount Senario, the seven 
lilies were the Seven Founders. 

2. *'And now divine charity impelling them, they tra- 
verse cities and wander everywhere, if perchance they 
might be able to fix the Sorrows of the Mother in the souls 
of all." 

3. **By this means they are able to restrain blind pas- 
sions; they unite (in the bonds of love) fierce hearts igno- 
rant of peace; the words of the pious preachers raise up 
the dejected and recall sinners." 

4. ''At last the Virgin leading forth her servants ac- 
companies them to the heavenly regions, and with jeweled 
garlands she adorns her servants forever blessed." 

5. **0 may they now hear the sighs of those assembled 
in prayer ; may they behold their difficult labors ; and may 
they with loving inspirations be favorable to our prayers. ' ' 

103 Matris sub almcs 

MATRIS sub almae numine \^ Mary's inspiration led, 
Septena proles nascitur: ■*-' A sevenfold offspring comes 

Ipsa vocante, ad arduum to light; 

Tendit Senari verticem. At Mary's call away they sped 

To Mount Senario's rugged height. 

241 



PROPER OF SAINTS 



'Quos terra fructus proferet 
Dum sacra proles germinat, 
Uvis repente turgitis 
Onusta vitis praemonet. 



'Virtute claros nobili 
Mors sancta ccelo consecrat: 
Tenent olympi limina 
Servi fideles Virginis. 



* Cohors beata Numinis 
Regno potita respice 
Quos hinc recedens fraudibus 
Cinctos relinquis hostium. 



'Ergo, per almse vulnera 
Matris rogamus supplices, 
Mentis tenebras disjice, 
Cordis procellas comprime. 



What fruits of grace the earth 

shall bear 
When they have sown their seeds 

divine! 
Christ's vine shall bud with 

clusters rare, 
Empurpled with the ruddy wine. 

A holy death to heaven speeds 
The souls with virtue's glory 

crowned ; 
When Mary for her servants 

pleads, 
Heaven's blessed portals they have 

found. 

O happy souls who now obtain 
The Kingdom, and the scepter 

bear! 
Look down on us who still remain 
Where Satan spreads his subtle 

snare. 

Therefore on bended knee we pray. 
For sake of Mary's bitter grief; 
Chase darkness from our mind 



And 



away, 
give our 
relief. 



troubled hearts 



• Tu nos, beata Trinitas, 
Perfunde sancto robore, 
Possimus ut feliciter 
Exempla patrum subsequi. 



And Thou, Trinity Divine! 
Confirm us in Thy holy grace! 
That so we may our hearts incline 
To walk in these Thy servants' 
ways. 



Author: Vincent Tarozzi, 19th cent. Meter: Iambic 
dimeter. Translation by Father Wallace, O.S.B. Litur- 
GiOAii Use : Hymn for II Vespers on the Feast of the Seven 
Holy Founders. 

1. *' Under the fostering care of the Blessed Mother, a 
sevenfold progeny comes into being: she calls them, and 
they direct their steps to the lofty summit of Mount Se- 
nario." Proles is the subject of nascitur and tendit. 

2. * * The vine suddenly laden with bursting clusters f ore- 

242 



ST. JOSEPH 

shadows what rich fruits the earth shall produce when this 
sacred progeny expands. ' ' The miraculous vine is referred 
to in Hymn 101. 

3. *'A holy death doth consecrate to God those rendered 
illustrious by great virtue: the faithful servants of the 
Virgin possess mansions in heaven. ' ' 

4. "0 blessed band who have obtained possession of the 
Kingdom of God; departing hence, look down on those 
whom you leave behind, surrounded by the snares of 
enemies." 

5. ' ' Suppliantly, therefore, we ask through the wounds 
of a loving Mother, — dispel the darkness of our minds, and 
restrain the passions of our souls. ' ' 

6. ''Mayest Thou, Holy Trinity, fill us with Thy 
strength, that happily we may be able to follow the example 
of the Fathers." 



ST. JOSEPH 

Mae. 19 
104 Te, Joseph, celebrent 

T^E, Joseph, celebrent agmina T ET Angels chant thy praise, 

-'- ccelitum, -*-^ pure spouse of purest 

Te cuncti resonent christiadum Bride, 

chori, While Christendom's sweet choirs 

Qui clarus meritis, junctus es the gladsome strains repeat, 

inclytae To tell thy wondrous fame, to 

Casto foedere Virgini. raise the pealing hymn, 

Wherewith we all thy glory greet. 

^Almo cum tumidam germine When doubts and bitter fears thy 
conjugem heavy heart oppressed, 

Admirans, dubio tangeris anxius, And filled thy righteous soul with 
Aflflatu superi Flaminis Angelus sorrow and dismay, 

Conceptum puerum docet. An Angel quickly came, the 

wondrous secret told, 
And drove thy anxious griefs 
away. 

243 



PROPER OF SAINTS 



^Tu natum Dominum stringis, ad 

exteras 
i^gypti profugum tu sequeris 

plagas; 
Amissum Solyrais quseris, et 

invenis, 
Miscens gaudia fletibus. 



*Post mortem reliquos mors pia 

consecrat, 
Palmamque emeritos gloria sus- 

cipit : 
Tu vivens, Superis par, frueris 

Deo, 
Mira sorte beatior. 



Thy arms thy new-born Lord, with 

tender joy embrace; 
Him then to Egypt's Land thy 

watchful care doth bring; 
Him in the Temple's courts once 

lost thou dost regain, 
And 'mid thy tears dost greet thy 

King. 

Not till death's pangs are o'er do 
others gain their crown, 

But, Joseph, unto thee the blessed 
lot was given 

While life did yet endure, thy 
God to see and know, 

As do the Saints above in heaven. 



* Nobis, summa Trias, parce pre- Grant us, great Trinity, for 

cantibus, Joseph's holy sake. 

Da Joseph meritis sidera scan- In highest bliss and love, above 

dere: the stars to reign, 

Ut tandem liceat nos tibi per- That we in joy with him may 

petim praise our loving God, 

Gratum promere canticum. And sing our glad eternal strain. 

Author: Unknown, 17th cent. Meter: Asclepiadic and 
Glyconic. Translation by Father Potter. There are seven 
translations. Liturgical Use : Vespers hymn on the Feast 
of St. Joseph. Of the three hymns given here for the Feast 
of St. Joseph, the first two are used also in the office of the 
Solemnity of St. Joseph, which is celebrated on the "Wed- 
nesday before the third Sunday after Easter. 

1. *'May the hosts of heavenly spirits praise thee, 
Joseph; may all the choirs of Christendom resound with 
thy name, thou w^ho, renowned for merits, wast united in 
chaste wedlock to the glorious Virgin." 

2. ''When thou didst wonder at thy bride grown great 
with her august Child, sorely wert thou afflicted with doubt ; 
but an Angel taught thee that the Child was conceived by 
abreathof the Holy Spirit." (Cf. Matt. 1, 18-21). Flam- 
inis: flcmien, from flo 1, to blow, just as spiritus is from 
spiro, to blow. 

3. ''Thou dost embrace the new-born Lord, and dost fol- 
low Him, a fugitive, to remote parts of Egypt: lost in 

244 



ST. JOSEPH 

Jerusalem, thou dost seek and find Him, thus mingling 
joys with tears." Solt/^nce, arum = Hierosolyma, orum, 
Jerusalem. (Cf. Luke 2, 48). 

4. "A pious death doth make other men happy after 
death, and glory awaiteth those who have merited a palm: 
but thou still living, in a wonderous manner more fortu- 
nate, dost, like the Blessed, enjoy thy God." Emeritos, the 
p. part, of the deponent emereor. 

b. "0 sovereign Trinity, have mercy on us Thy sup- 
pliants ; grant that by the merits of St. Joseph we may enter 
heaven, and that finally we may be permitted to sing unto 
Thee forever a sweet canticle." 



105 Ccelitum Joseph decus 

CCELITUM Joseph decus, atque JOSEPH, the praise and glory 

nostras J of the heavens, 

Certa spes vitse, columenque Sure pledge of life, and safety of 

mundi, the wide world, 

Quas tibi laeti canimus, benignus As in our joy we sing to thee, in 

Suscipe laudes. kindness 

List to our praises. 

^Te Sator rerum statuit pudicae Thou by the world's Creator wert 

Virginis sponsum, voluitque appointed 

Verbi Spouse of the Virgin: thee He 

Te patrem dici, dedit et minis- willed to honor 

trum Naming thee Father of the Word, 

Esse salutis. and guardian 

Of our salvation. 

"Tu Redemptorem stabulo jacen- Thou thy Redeemer, lying in a 

tem, stable, 

Quem chorus Vatum cecinit Whom long ago foretold the choir 

futurum, of prophets, 

Aspicis gaudens, humilisque na- Sawest rejoicing, and thy God 

tum adoredst 

Numen adoras. Humble in childhood. 

*Rex Deus regum, Dominator God, King of Kings, and Governor 

orbis, of the ages, 

Cujus ad nutum tremit in- He at whose word the powers of 

ferorum hell do tremble, 

245 



PROPER OF SAINTS 

Turba, cui pronus famulatur He whom the adoring heavens ever 
aether, worship 

Se tibi subdit. Called thee protector. 

'Laus sit excelsae Triadi perennis. Praise to the Triune Godhead 
Quae tibi praebens superos hon- everlasting, 

ores, Who with such honor mightily 

Det tuis nobis meritis beatae hath blest thee; 

Gaudia vitae. O may He grant us at thy blest 

petition 
Joys everlasting. 

Authok: Unknown, 17th cent. Meter: Sapphic and 
Adonic. Translation by Alan G. McDougall. There are 
six translations. Liturgical Use: Hymn for Matins on 
the Feast of St. Joseph. 

1. "Thou art, Joseph, the glory of the Blessed, the 
sure hope of our life, and the pillar of the world : graciously 
accept the praises we now joyfully sing to thee." 

2. ''The Creator of the world appointed thee the spouse 
of the most pure Virgin, and He willed that thou be called 
the father of the Word; and He made thee a minister of 
salvation." Ministrum, instrument. 

3. ''Rejoicing thou didst behold the Redeemer lying in 
the stable. Him whose advent the choir of prophets had 
foretold; and thou didst humbly adore the new-born God." 

4. "God, the King of kings, and the Ruler of the world, 
at whose nod the hosts of hell tremble, whom the heavens 
prostrate serve, makes Himself subject to thee." Se suh- 
dit: Et erat subditus illis (Luke 2, 51). 

5. "Never-ending praise be to the most high Trinity who 
didst bestow upon thee heavenly honors, and may the same 
grant us, through thy merits, the joys of a blessed life/* 



106 Iste, quern Iceti 

ISTE, quem laeti colimus fideles, "WTORSHIPPED throughout the 
Cujus excelsos canimus trium- »^ Church to earth's far ends 
phos, With prayer and solemn rite, 

Hac die Joseph meruit perennis Joseph this day triumphantly 
Gaudia vitae. ascends 

Into the realms of light. 

246 



ST. JOSEPH 



*0 nimis felix, nimis o beatus, 
Cujus extremam vigiles ad horam 
Christus et Virgo simul astiterunt 
Ore sereno. 



' Hinc stygis victor, laqueo solutus 

Carnis, ad sedes placido sopore 

Migrat seternas, rutilisque cingit 

Temp or a sertis. 



*Ergo regnantem flagitemus om- 
nes, 
Adsit ut nobis, veniamque nostris 
Obtinens culpis, tribuat supernae 
Munera pacis. 



"Sint tibi plausus, tibi sint 
honores, 
Trine, qui regnas, Deus, et 

coronas 
Aureas servo tribuis fideli 
Omne per aevum. 



blest beyond the lot of mortal 

men! 
O'er whose last dying sigh 
Christ and the Virgin-Mother 
watched serene, 
Soothing his agony. 

Loosed from his fleshly chain, 

gently he fleets, 
As in calm sleep, away; 
And diademed with light, enters 

the seats 

Of everlasting day. 



let 



us 



There throned in power, 

his loving aid 
With fervent prayers implore; 
So may he gain us pardon in our 

need. 
And peace forevermore. 

Glory and praise to Thee, blest 

Trinity ! 
One only God and Lord, 
Who to Thy faithful ones 

failingly 
Their aureoles dost award. 



un- 



Authoe: Unknown, 17tli cent. Metee: Sapphic and 
Adonic. Teanslation by Father Caswall. There are five 
translations. Lituegical Use: Hymn for Lauds on the 
Feast of St. Joseph. 

1. **He, whom we the faithful now joyfully honor, whose 
glorious triumphs we sing, Joseph, hath this day obtained 
the joys of eternal life. ' ' 

2. "0 thrice happy, and thrice blessed Saint, at whose 
last hour, Christ and the Virgin keeping watch, assisted 
with serene countenance." 

3. ''Victorious over hell, and liberated from the bonds 
of the flesh, he departs hence in a peaceful sleep to his eter- 
nal home, and crowns his temples with shining garlands. ' ' 

4. "Now reigning above, let us all beseech him to help 
us, obtaining for us pardon for our sins, and procuring for 
us (by his intercession) the gifts of heavenly peace." 

247 



PROPER OF SAINTS 

5. ''Glory and honor be to Thee, God, Three in One, 
who reignest and who dost bestow upon Thy faithful ser- 
vants everlasting crowns of gold." Servo fideli, in a col- 
lective sense — every faithful servant. Trine, see denus in 
the Glossary. 



107 



ST. HERMENGILD 

Apr. 13 
Regali solio 



REGALI solio fortis Iberise, 
Herraenegilde jubar, gloria 
Martyrum, 
Christi quos amor almis 
Coeli coetibus inserit. 



■Ut 



patiens, pollicitum 
quo potius 



perstas 

Deo 
Servans obsequiura! 

tibi 

Nil proponis, et arces 
Cautus noxia, quae placent. 



GLORY of Iberia's throne! 
Joy of martyred Saints above! 
Who the crown of life have won 
Dying for their Saviour's love. 



What intrepid faith was thine! 
What unswerving constancy! 
Bent to do the will divine 
With exact fidelity. 



Every rising motion checked 
Which might lead thy heart astray, 
How thou didst thy course direct 
Whither virtue showed the way. 



Honor, glory, majesty, 
To the Father and the Son, 
With the Holy Spirit be, 
While eternal ages run. 



'Ut motus cohibes, pabula qui 
parant 
Surgentis vitii, non dubios agens 
Per vestigia gressus, 
Quo veri via dirigit! 

*Sit rerum Domino jugis honor 

Patri, 
Et Natiun celebrent ora precan- 

tium, 
Divinumque supremis 
Flamen laudibus efferant. 

Authob: Pope Urban VIII (1568-1644). Meter: Lines 
1, 2 of each stanza, Asclepiadic; line 4 is Glyconic; line 3 
is the same as line 4 but catalectic. This and the following 
hymn are the only hymns in the Breviary written in this 
meter. Translation by Father Caswall. There are four 
translations. Liturgical Use: Hymn for Vespers and 
Lauds. Read the article on St. Hermengild, in the Cath. 

248 



ST. HERMENGILD 

Encycl. Note the spelling — Hermengild or Hermenegild. 

1. ''Brave Hermengild, shining light for the throne of 
Spain, the glory of the martyrs whom love for Christ hath 
enrolled among the august choirs of heaven. ' ' St. Hermen- 
gild was martyred in 585. 

2. **How persistently didst thou persevere in the alle- 
giance promised to God! Nothing was more dear to thee 
than this, and thou didst cautiously avoid hurtful things 
that please." Constr. : Nil potius tibi proponis quo = 
quam illud, sc. obsequium. Noxia, earthly honors, etc. 

3. ''How well thou didst restrain the passions which 
furnish food for incipient vice, making no hesitating steps 
along the path whither the way of truth directs ! ' ' 

4. "To the Father, the Lord of creation, be perpetual 
honor; may the mouths of Thy suppliants praise the Son, 
and let them glorify with sovereign praise the Holy Spirit. ' ' 



108 



Nullis te genitor 



NULLIS te genitor blanditiis 
trahit, 
Non vitae caperis divitis otio, 
Gemmarumve nitore, 
Regnandive cupidine. 

^ Diris non acies te gladii minis, 
Nee tenet perimens carnificis 

furor : 
Nam mansura caducis 
Prsefers gaudia coelitum. 

^Nunc nos e Superum protege 

sedibus 
Clemens, atque preces, dum cani- 

mus tua 
Quaesitam nece palmam, 
Pronis auribus excipe. 

*Sit rerum Domino jugis honor 

Patri, 
Et Natum celebrent ora precan- 

tium, 
Divinumque supremis 
Flamen laudibus efFerant. 



FROM the truth thy soul to 
turn, 
Pleads a father's voice in vain; 
Naught to thee were jewelled 

crown, 
Earthly pleasure, earthly gain. 

Angry threat and naked sword 
Daunted not thy courage high; 
Choosing glory with the Lord, 
Rather than a present joy. 



Now amidst the Saints in light, 
Throned in bliss forevermore; — 
Oh! from thy exalted height, 
Hear the solemn prayer we pour. 



Honor, glory, majesty. 
To the Father and the Son, 
With the Holy Spirit be, 
While eternal ages run. 



249 



PROPER OF SAINTS 

This is a continuation of the preceding hymn. Transla- 
tion by Father Caswall. Liturgical Use; Hymn for 
Matins on the Feast of St. Hermengild. 

1. "By no blandishments could thy father seduce thee, 
nor wert thou captivated by the leisure of a life of affluence, 
nor by the sparkling of gems, nor by the desire of reign- 
ing." 

2. **The sharp edge of the sword, with dire threats, did 
not terrify thee, nor did the destructive rage of the execu- 
tioner; for thou didst prefer the abiding joys of the 
Blessed to transitory ones." 

3. ''Do thou now from the mansions of the Blessed 
graciously protect us, and with willing ear receive our 
prayers, while we celebrate in song the martyr's palm ob- 
tained by thy death. ' ' 



ST. VENANTIUS 

May 18 



109 



Martyr Dei Venantius 



■V/TARTYR Dei Venantius, 
■••'-^ Lux et decus Camertium, 
Tortore victo et judice, 
Lsetus triumphum concinit. 



^Annis puer, post vincula, 
Post carceres, post verbera, 
Longa fame frementibus 
Cibus datur leonibus. 



'Sed ejus innocentiae 
Parcit leonum immanitas, 
Pedesque lambunt Martyris, 
Irae famisque immemores. 



VENANTIUS, hail! God's 

'' Martyr bright, 
Thy country's honor and her light; 
Who didst with joy thy triumph 

sing. 
Thy judge and tortures conquer- 
ing. 

A child in years, he heeds no pain, 
Nor dungeon damp, nor galling 

chain ; 
The tender youth for food is 

thrown 
To lions, mad with hunger grown. 

O wondrous sight! the beasts of 

prey 
Their food reject, and turn away; 
Then tamely lick the Martyr's feet, 
A tribute to his virtue meet. 



250 



ST. VENANTIUS 

* Verso deorsum vertice Then downwards hung, his mouth 

Haurire fumum cogitur: exposed 

Costas utrimque et viscera To clouds of smoke beneath 

Succensa lampas ustulat. disposed, 

Whilst with slow torches, burning 

clear. 
His naked breasts and sides they 
sear. 

^ Sit laus Patri, sit Filio, Praise to the Father, and the Son, 

Tibique sancte Spiritus: And Holy Spirit, Three in One; 

Da per preces Venantii Oh! grant that through this 

Beata nobis gaudia. Martyr's prayer. 

Your blissful joy we all may 
share. 



Author: Unknown, 17th cent. Meter: Iambic dimeter. 
Translation by Father Potter. There are four transla- 
tions. Liturgical Use : Hymn for Vespers. St. Venantius 
was martyred at the age of fifteen, in the year 250. 

1. '^Venantius, the Martyr of God, the light and glory 
of the people of Camarino, having triumphed over torturer 
and judge, now joyfully blends his voice with the song of 
triumph." Camertium, gen. pi. Camertes, ium, the in- 
habitants of Camerino, which was known in ancient times 
as Camers. Abp. Bagshawe renders this line: "Who 
Latium light and glory brings." As a matter of fact 
Camerino is not in Latium but in Umbria some ninety 
miles northeast of Eome. Father Caswall's translation in 
his Lyra Catholica is scarcely less happy: " Camertium 's 
light, her joy and prize." 

2. "A child in years, after chains and imprisonment and 
stripes, he is given as food to lions raging from long 
hunger. ' ' 

3. **But the ferocity of the lions spares his innocence, 
and unmindful of their rage and hunger they lick the 
Martyr's feet." 

4. "With head hung downward he is forced to inhale 
smoke, and a flaming torch scorches his ribs and his flesh 
on either side. ' ' Viscera is used to signify the flesh lying 
under the skin. 

5. "Be praise to the Father, and the Son, and to Thee, 

251 



PROPER OF SAINTS 

Holy Spirit : grant us through the prayers of Venantius the 
blessed joys of heaven." 



110 



Athleta Christi nobilis 



NOBLE champion of the Lord I 
Armed against idolatry! 
In thy fervent zeal for God 
Death had naught of fear for thee. 

Bound with thongs, thy youthful 

form 
Down the rugged steep they tear, 
Jagged rock and rending thorn 
All thy tender flesh lay bare. 

Spent with toil, the savage crew. 
Fainting, sinks with deadly thirst; 
Thou the Cross dost sign; and lo! 
From the rock the waters burst. 

Saintly warrior-prince! who thus 
Thy tormentors couldst forgive; 
Pour the dew of grace on us. 
Bid our fainting spirits live. 

To Thee, Father, with the Son 

And Holy Spirit, glory be; 

Oh, grant us through Thy Martyr's 

prayer 
The joys of immortality. 

Authoe: Unknown, 17th cent. Meter: Iambic dimeter. 
Translation by Father Caswall. There are three transla- 
tions. Liturgical Use: Hymn for Matins on the Feast of 
St. Venantius. 

1. ''The noble athlete of Christ abominates the idols of 
the pagans, and smitten with the love of God he despises 
the dangers that threaten his life." 

2. ** Bound with rough thongs he is precipitated head- 
long from a cliff; thorns lacerate his countenance, and his 
body is torn by the sharp rocks." 

3. "While the executioner's attendants drag along the 
limbs of the Martyr, they become faint with thirst ; by the 

252 



ATHLETA Christi nobilis 
Idola damnat Gentium, 
Deique amore saucius 
Vitae pericla despicit. 

*Loris revinctus asperis, 
E rupe praeceps volvitur: 
Spineta vultum lancinant: 
Per saxa corpus scinditur. 



^Dum membra raptant Martyris, 
Languent siti satellites: 
Signo crucis Venantius 
E rupe fontes elicit. 

*Bellator o fortissime. 
Qui perfidis tortoribus 
E caute praebes poculum, 
Nos rore gratiae irriga. 

"Sit laus Patri, sit Filio, 
Tibique sancte Spiritus: 



Da per preces Venantii 
Beata nobis gaudia. 



ST. VENANTIUS 

sign of the Cross Venantius causes water to issue forth 
from a rock." 

4. *'0 thou most brave warrior who dost offer to thy 
torturers a drink brought forth from a rock, refresh us 
with the dew of grace. ' ' 



111 



Dum node pulsa lucifer 



DUM nocte pulsa lucifer 
Diem propinquam nuntiat, 
Nobis refert Venantius 
Lucis beatse munera. 

^Nam criminum caliginem, 
Stygisque noctem depulit, 
Veroque cives lumine 
Diviriitatis imbuit. 

^Aquis sacri baptismatis 
Lustravit ille patriam: 
Quos tinxit unda milites, 
In astra misit Martyres. 



*Nunc Angelorum particeps, 
Adesto votis supplicum: 
Procul repelle crimina, 
Tuumque lumen ingere. 

'Sit laus Patri, sit Filio, 
Tibique sancte Spiritus: 
Da per pieces Venantii 
Beata nobis gaudia. 



^pHE golden star of morn 
-■■ Is climbing in the sky; 
The birthday of Venantius 
Awakes the Church to joy. 

His native land in depths 

Of pagan darkness lay; 

He o'er her guilty regions poured 

The light of heavenly day. 

Her in baptismal streams 

Of grace he purified; 

E'en those who came to take his 

life, 
With him as Martyrs died. 

With the Angels now he shares 
Those joys which never cease; 
Look down on us, Spirit blest, 
And send us gifts of peace. 

Praise to the Father, Son, 

And, Holy Ghost, to Thee, 

Oh, grant us through Thy Martyr's 

prayer 
A blest eternity. 



Author: Unknown, 17th cent. Meter: Iambic dimeter. 
Translation by Father Caswall. There are three transla- 
tions. Liturgical Use: Hymn for Lauds on the Feast of 
St. Venantius. 

1. ''When (the darkness having been dispelled) the 
morning star heralds in the approaching day, Venantius 
brings us the gifts of blessed light." There is reference 
here to the ancient custom of saying Lauds at daybreak. 
Light is a symbol of Christ. 

253 



PROPER OF SAINTS 

2. ''For he drove away the darkness of sin and the night 
of hell, and he made his fellow citizens acquainted with the 
true light of the Godhead." 

3. "With the waters of holy Baptism he purified his 
native land : the soldiers whom he baptized with water he 
sent as martyrs to heaven. ' ' Tingo 3, to wet, moisten ; in 
late Latin used in the' sense of *'to baptize." 

4. ''Now being a companion of the Angels, give ear to 
the prayers of thy suppliants; banish afar what is sinful, 
and pour out upon us thy light. ' ' 



ST. JULIANA FALCONIERI 

June 19 



112 



Coelestis Agni nuptias 



CCELESTIS Agni nuptias, 
Juliana, dum petis, 
Domum paternam deseris, 
Chorumque ducis Virginum. 



' Sponsumque suffixum Cruci 
Noctes, diesque dum gemis, 
Doloris icta cuspide, 
Sponsi refers imaginem. 



'Quin septiformi vulnere 
Flos ad genu Deiparae: 
Sed crescit infusa fletu, 
Flammasque tollit caritas. 



*Hinc morte fessam proxima 
Non usitato te raodo 
Solatur, et nutrit Deus, 
Dapem supernam porrigens. 



TO be the Lamb's celestial bride 
Is Juliana's one desire; 
For this she quits her father's 

home, 
And leads the sacred virgin choir. 

By day, by night, she mourns her 

Spouse 
Nailed to the Cross, with ceaseless 

tears. 
Till in herself, through very grief. 
The image of that Spouse appears. 

Like Him, all wounds, she kneels 

transfixed 
Before the Virgin-Mother's shrine ; 
And still the more she weeps, the 

more 
Mounts up the flame of love 

divine. 

That love so deep the Lord repaid 
His handmaid on her dying bed; 
When, with the Food of heavenly 

life. 
By miracle her soul He fed. 



254 



ST. JULIANA FALCONIERI 

'i^^terne rerum Conditor, All praise to Thee, Maker blest! 

interne Fili par Patri, Praise to the everlasting Son; 

Et par utrique Spiritus, Praise to the mighty Paraclete 

Soli tibi sit gloria. While ages upon ages run. 



Author: Francesco Maria Lorenzini (1680-1743). 
Meter: Iambic dimeter. Translation by Father Caswall. 
There are four translations. Liturgical Use: Hymn for 
Vespers and Matins. St. Juliana was the foundress of the 
Third Order of Servites. She died in the year 1341. 

1. ''When thou, Juliana, didst seek the nuptials of the 
Heavenly Lamb, thou didst abandon thy father's house and 
lead a choir of virgins." For an explanation of the term 
''Nuptials of the Heavenly Lamb," see the article on 
Marriage, Mystical, in the Cath. Encycl. 

2. "By day and night thou didst bewail thy Spouse 
fastened to the Cross, till pierced with a sword of sorrow 
thou didst bear the image of thy Spouse." Cuspide, a 
sharp point. 

3. ' ' Yea, with a sevenfold wound thou didst weep at the 
feet of the Mother of God, but by thy tears, the charity in- 
fused increased and rendered more keen the poignancy 
(flammas) of thy grief." Septiformi vulnere: The seven 
Sorrows of our Blessed Mother. Flammas, sc. doloris. 
Tears of sorrow increase the love of God in our hearts and 
thereby render the greatest sorrows more endurable. 

4. "Hence it was that exhausted by the approach of 
death, in no ordinary manner did God console and nourish 
thee, spreading out before thee Heavenly Food." There 
is reference in this stanza to a miraculous image found on 
the Saint's breast after her death. "Being unable to re- 
ceive Holy Communion because of constant vomiting, she 
requested the priest to spread a corporal on her breast and 
lay the Host on it. Shortly afterwards the Host disap- 
peared and Juliana expired, and the image of a cross, 
such as had been on the Host, was found on her breast" 
{Cath. Encycl.). 

5. "Eternal Creator of the world. Eternal Son equal to 
the Father, and Spirit equal to both: to Thee alone 
(0 Trinity) be glory." 

255 



PROPER OF SAINTS 
THE NATIVITY OF ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST 

June 24 
113 Ut queant laxis 



UT queant laxis resonare fibris 
Mixsi gestorum /amuli 
tuorum, 
5o/ve polluti Zabii reatum, 
Sancte Joannes. 



'Nuntius celso veniens olympo, 
Te patri magnum fore nascitu- 

rum, 
Nomen, at vitae seriem gerendae 
Ordine promit. 



'Ille promissi dubius superni, 
Perdidit promptae modules lo- 

quelae : 
Sed reformasti genitus peremptae 
Organa vocis. 



*Ventris obstruso recubans cubili, 
Senseras Regem thalamo manen- 

tem: 
Hinc parens, nati meritis, uterque 
Abdita pandit. 



'Sit decus Patri, genitaeque Proli, 

Et tibi compar utriusque virtus, 

Spiritus semper, Deus unus, omni 

Temporis aevo. 



OFOR thy spirit, holy John, to 
chasten 
Lips sin-polluted, fettered tongues 

to loosen; 
So by thy children might thy deeds 
of wonder 
Meetly be chanted. 

Lo! a swift herald, from the skies 

descending, 
Bears to thy father promise of thy 

greatness ; 
How he shall name thee, what thy 

future story, 
Duly revealing. 

Scarcely believing message so 

transcendent. 
Him for season power of speech 

forsaketh. 
Till, at thy wondrous birth, again 

returneth 
Voice to the voiceless. 

Thou, in thy mother's womb all 

darkly cradled, 
Knewest thy Monarch, biding in 

His chamber, 
Wlience the two parents, through 

their children's merits, 
Mysteries uttered. 

Praise to the Father, to the Son 

begotten. 
And to the Spirit, equal power 

possessing, 
One God whose glory, through the 

lapse of ages, 
Ever resoundeth. 



Author: Paul the Deacon (720-799), 

256 



Meter: Sapphic 



NATIVITY OF ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST 

and Adonic. Translation, a cento from The Hymner, 
based on a translation by W. J. Blew, in the meter of the 
original. There are about twenty translations of this 
beautiful hymn. Liturgical Use: Hymn for Vespers. 
The hymns given below for Matins and Lauds are parts 
of this hymn. The translations are in blank verse. In 
reading care should be taken to observe the caesura which 
in Sapphic verse occurs generally after the fifth syllable. 
There is an article on this hymn in the Cath. Encycl., and 
another on Paulus Diaconus its author, 

1. '^That thy servants may be able to sing thy deeds of 
wonder with pleasant voices, remove, holy John, the 
guilt of our sin-polluted lips." Laxis fibris is intended 
to express a good condition of the voice, freedom from 
hoarseness, etc., ''with vocal cords well strung." St. John 
is invoked for ailments of the throat, and he is even con- 
sidered a special patron of singers. The Saint's miraculous 
birth is recorded in detail in Luke 1. The whole chapter 
should be read. Zachary, the father of the Precursor, lost 
his voice on account of his disbelief in the Angel's promise 
(Luke 1, 19), and again ''his tongue was loosed" {laxis 
fibris) at the naming of John (Luke 1, 64). This stanza is 
of special interest to musicians as the syllables marked in 
italics were those chosen by Guido of Arezzo (990-1050) 
for the syllabic naming of the notes Ut, Re, Mi, Pa, Sol, 
La. The famuli mentioned in this stanza are the choir who 
(as Zachary recovered his voice at the naming of John) 
would implore their patron to endow them with voices 
worthy of singing the praises of one so illustrious. 

2. "A messenger from highest heaven discloses in due 
order to thy father that thou wouldst be born great, thy 
name, and the whole course of the life thou wouldst lead. ' ' 
Nuntius, the Archangel Gabriel (Luke 1, 19). Nomen, 
John (Luke 1, 13). Seriem vitce gerendcB (cf. Luke 1, 15- 
17). 

3. "He (Zachary) doubtful of the heavenly promise lost 
the power of ready speech; but when born, thou didst 
restore the organs of the lost voice." The disbelief of 
Zachary is recorded in Luke 1, 18 ; the penalty in verse 20 ; 
the restoration of the power of speech in verse 64. 

257 



PROPER OF SAINTS 

4. "Still resting in the concealed abode of the womb, 
thou didst perceive thy King reposing in His chamber: 
thereupon both parents by the merits of their son revealed 
hidden things." The last two lines of this stanza are 
obscure. In the translation given above the two parents 
are Zachary and Elisabeth ; and the mysteries they uttered 
are Elisabeth's "Blessed art thou among women," etc. 
(Luke 1, 42-45), and Zachary 's "Blessed be the Lord God 
of Israel," etc. (Luke 68-79). However, there is no lack of 
translators who ignore the masculine uterque and the 
singular nati and translate quite as literally as Archbishop 
Bagshawe : 

"The two Mothers then, on account of their Babes, 
Things hidden unfold." 

In this interpretation the two parents are Mary and 
Elisabeth, and the whole stanza gives us a picture of the 
Visitation. The "hidden things" uttered by Elisabeth are 
the same as those mentioned above (Luke 1, 42-45), and 
Our Lady replies in her incomparable Magnificat (Luke 1, 
46-55). This is the better interpretation. 

5. "Glory be to the Father, and to- the only-begotten 
Son, and to Thee, Spirit, power eternally equal to Them 
both, one God, forever and ever. ' ' 

114 Antra deserti 

ANTRA deserti, teneris sub rpHOU, in thy childhood, to the 
annis, -■• desert caverns 

Civium, turmas fugiens, petisti, Fleddest for refuge from the cities' 
Ne levi posses maculare vitam turmoil, 

Crimine linguae. Where the world's slander might 

not dim thy luster, 
Lonely abiding. 

^Praebuit durum tegumen camelus CameFs hair raiment clothed thy 
Artubus sacris, strophium hi- saintly members; 

dentes; Leathern the girdle which thy 
Cui latex haustum, sociata loins encircled; 

pastiun Locusts and honey, with the 
Mella locustis. fountain-water, 

Daily sustained thee. 

268 



NATIVITY OF ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST 



^ Caeteri tantum cecinere Vatum 
Corde praesago jubar afFuturum: 
Tu quidem mundi scelus aufer- 
entem 

Indice prodis. 



Oft in past ages, seers with hearts 

expectant 
Sang the far-distant advent of the 

Day-Star ; 
Thine was the glory, as the world's 

Redeemer 
First to proclaim Him. 



*Non fuit vasti spatium per orbis Far as the wide world reacheth, 
Sanctior quisquam genitus born of woman, 

Joanne, Holier was there none than John 

Qui nefas saecli meruit lavantem the Baptist; 

Tingere lymphis. Meetly in water laving Him who 

cleanseth 
Man from pollution. 

" Sit decus Patri, genitaeque Proli, Praise to the Father, to the Son 
Et tibi, compar utriusque virtus begotten, 

Spiritus semper, Deus unus, omni And to the Spirit, equal power 
Temporis sevo. possessing, 

One God whose glory, through the 
lapse of ages, 
Ever resoundeth. 



This is a continuation of the preceding hymn. Transla- 
tion by M. J. Blacker and G. H. Palmer. Liturgical Use: 
Matins hymn. 

1. "From thy tenderest years, fleeing the throngs of 
men, thou didst seek the caves of the desert, lest thou stain 
thy life by the slightest sin of the tongue." (Cf. Luke 1, 
80.) 

2. ''The camel furnished the rough covering for thy 
sacred members ; thy girdle, the sheep provided ; the foun- 
tain furnished thy drink, and honey together with locusts 
thy food." Prcehuit, this is the predicate of the whole 
stanza. Compare this stanza with Matt. 3, 4. 

3. ''The rest of the Prophets only foretold with 
prophetic spirit the Light that was to come : but thou with 
thy finger didst point out Him who taketh away the sins of 
the world." Indice prodis: Ecce agnus Dei, ecce qui tollit 
peccatum mundi (John 1, 29). 

4. "Throughout the space of the wide world there was 
no one born who was more holy than John, who was deemed 

259 



PROPER OF SAINTS 

worthy to baptize with water Him who washeth away the 
sins of the world." (Cf. Matt. 11, 11.) 

115 O nimis felix 

ONIMIS felix, meritique celsi, i~\ MORE than blessed, merit 

Nesciens labem nivei pu- ^-^ high attaining, 

doris, Pure as the snow-drift, innocent 
Praepotens Martyr, nemorumque of evil, 

cuhor, Child of the desert, mightiest of 
Maxima Vatum. Martyrs, 

Greatest of Prophets. 

^ Serta ter denis alios coronant Thirtyfold increase some with 
Aucta crementis, duplicata quos- glory crowneth; 

dam; Sixtyfold fruitage prize for others 

Trina te fructu cumulata centum winneth; 

Nexibus ornant. Hundredfold measure, thrice re- 

peated, decks thee, 
Blest one, for guerdon. 

'Nimc potens nostri meritis opi- O may the virtue of thine inter- 
mis cession, 
Pectoris duros lapides revelle. All stony hardness from our 
Asperum planans iter, et reflexos hearts expelling, 

Dirige calles. Smooth the rough places, and the 

crooked straighten 
Here in the desert. 

* Ut pius mundi Sator et Redemp- Thus may our gracious Maker and 
tor. Redeemer, 

Mentibus culpae sine labe puris. Seeking a station for His hallowed 
Rite dignetur veniens beatos footsteps, 

Ponere gressus. Find, when He cometh, temples 

undefiled, 
Meet to receive Him. 

'Laudibus cives celebrent superni Now as the Angels celebrate Thy 
Te Deus simplex, pariterque praises, 

trine, Godhead essential. Trinity co- 
Supplices et nos veniam pre- equal; 

camur: Spare Thy redeemed ones, as they 
Parce redemptis. bow before Thee, 

Pardon imploring. 

This is a continuation of the two preceding hymns. 

260 



NATIVITY OF ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST 

Translation by M. J. Blacker and G. H. Palmer. Liturgi- 
cal Use : Hymn for Lauds. 

1. ''0 thrice happy thou, and of exalted merit, knowing 
no stain upon thy snow-white purity; thou mightiest of 
martyrs, friend of solitude, greatest of prophets." 
Nemorum, nemus, a grove, forest, a place of solitude : some 
texts have eremi; eremus, desert, wilderness, solitude. 

2. ** Crowns enriched with thrice tenfold increase adorn 
some; others a double cro\\Ti adorns; but a triple crown 
with fruitage heaped up with a hundred twinings adorns 
thee." Constr. : Serta (crowns, garlands) aucta ter denis 
crementis (increase, fruit) coronat alios, quosdam dupli- 
cata serta coronant ; te ornant trina f ructu cumulata serta 
centum nexibus. The stanza plainly refers to the Parable 
of the Sower, some of whose seed falling on good ground 
"brought forth fruit, some an hundredfold, some sixtyfold, 
and some thirtyfold" (Matt. 13, 8). Our Lord Himself 
explains the meaning of this parable (Matt. 13, 18-23). 
The triple crown ascribed to St. John is probably that 
referred to in the preceding stanza, viz., that of martyr, 
hermit, and prophet. Note the following: 

Some crowns with glory thirty fold are shining: 
Others, a double flower and fruit combining: 
Thy trinal chaplet bears an intertwining 
Hundredfold fruitage. 

— H. T. Henry. 

3. "Now rendered powerful by thy rich merits, pluck 
out the stony hardness of our hearts, make plain the rough 
way, and make straight the crooked paths." (Cf. Luke 
3,4-5.) 

4. "So that the loving Creator and Redeemer of the 
world, coming, may becomingly condescend to direct His 
blessed footsteps into our hearts free from all stain of 
sin." 

5. "With songs of praise let the heavenly citizens extol 
Thee, God, One and Three; suppliantly we pray for 
pardon: spare Thy redeemed ones." 

261 



116 



PROPER OF SAINTS 
SS. PETER AND PAUL 

June 29 
Decora lux 



THE beauteous light of God's 
eternal Majesty 
Streams down in golden rays to 

grace this holy day 
Which crowned the princes of the 

Apostles' glorious choir, 
And unto guilty mortals showed 
the heavenward way. 

The teacher of the world and 

keeper of heaven's gate, 
Rome's founders twain and rulers 

too of every land, 
Triumphant over death by sword 

and shameful cross, 
With laurel crowned are gathered 

to the eternal band. 

happy Rome ! who in thy martyr 

princes' blood, 
A twofold stream, art washed and 

doubly sanctified. 
All earthly beauty thou alone out- 

shinest far, 
Empurpled by their outpoured 

life-blood's glorious tide. 

All honor, power, and everlasting 
jubilee 

To Him who all things made and 
governs here below, 

To God in essence One, and yet 
in persons Three, 

Both now and ever, while unend- 
ing ages flow. 



Author: Ascribed to Elpis, the wife of the philosopher 
Boethius. She died about 493. Meter: Iambic trimeter. 
Translation by Msgr. Canon L. Hall. First line of 
Original Text : Aurea luce et decore roseo. The hymn was 

262 



DECQRA lux aeternitatis, au- 
ream 
Diem beatis irrigavit ignibus, 
Apostolorum quae coronat Prin- 

cipes, 
Reisque in astra liberam pandit 
viam. 



*Mundi Magister, atque cceli 
Janitor, 

Romae parentes, arbitrique Gen- 
tium, 

Per ensis ille, hie per crucis 
victor necem 

Vitae senatum laureati possident. 



Roma felix, quae duormn 

Principum 
Es consecrata glorioso sanguine: 
Horimi cruore purpurata ceteras 
Excellis orbis una pulchritudines. 



*Sit Trinitati sempiterna gloria. 
Honor, potestas, atque jubilatio. 
In unitate, quae gubernat omnia. 
Per universa saeculorum ssecula. 



SS. PETER AND PAUL 

considerably altered by the revisers under Pope Urban 
VIII, in 1632. Including both texts there are at least 
twelve translations. The complete hymn consists of six 
stanzas, including the doxology. The order of the stanzas 
in the complete hymn is as follows: Decora lux; Mundi 
magister; Beate Pastor Petre; Egregie Doctor Paule; 
Roma felix; Sit Trinitati. Note the use made of parts of 
this hymn on the Feasts of St. Peter's Chair (hymn 90), 
and of the Conversion of St. Paul (hymn 91). 

1. ''The beauteous Light of Eternity hatli flooded with 
blissful fires this golden day which crowns the Princes of 
the Apostles, and opens unto the guilty a free way to 
heaven. ' ' God is ' ' the beauteous Light of Eternity. ' * The 
''blessed fires" are His graces and blessings. The 
"golden day" is the festival of the two Apostles. 

2. "The teacher of the world, and the door-keeper of 
heaven, fathers of Rome, and judges of the nations, the 
one triumphant over death by the sword, the other by the 
Cross; now laurel-crowned they sit in the assembly of 
eternal life." Mundi Magister, St. Paul (Cf. Rom. 11, 13) ; 
Cceli Janitor, St. Peter (Cf. Matt. 16, 19). Arhitri, judges 
(Cf. Matt. 19, 28). Constr. : Ille (Paulus) victor per necem 
ensis, hie (Petrus) per necem crucis possident laureati 
senatum vitae. 

3. " happy Rome, who art consecrated by the glorious 
blood of two Princes ; empurpled by the blood of these, thou 
alone dost surpass all other beauties of the world." 

4. "To the Trinity in Unity that doth govern all 
throughout eternity, be endless glory, honor, power, and 
jubilation." 

117 Beate Pastor Petre 

TIEATE Pastor Petre, clemens T>ETER, blest Shepherd, hearken 

•■-' accipe -■- to our cry, 

Voces precantum, cruninumque And with a word unloose our 

vincula guilty chain; 

Verbo resolve, cui potestas Thou! who hast power to ope the 

tradita, gates on high 

Aperire terris coelum, apertum To men below, and power to shut 

claudere. them fast again. 

263 



PROPER OF SAINTS 

^Egregie Doctor Paule, mores Lead us, great teacher Paul, in 

instrue, wisdom's ways, 
Et nostra tecum pectora in And lift our hearts with thine to 

coelum trahe: heaven's high throne; 

Velata dum meridiem cernat Till faith beholds the clear 

fides, meridian blaze; 

Et solis instar sola regnet And sunlike in the soul reigns 

caritas. charity alone. 

^Sit Trinitati sempiterna gloria, Praise, blessing, majesty, through 
Honor, potestas, atque jubilatio, endless days, 

In unitate, quae gubernat omnia. Be to the Trinity immortal given; 
Per universa seternitatis saecula. Who in pure unity profoundly 

sways 
Eternally alike all things in earth 
and heaven. 



This is a continuation of the preceding hymn. Transla- 
tion by Father Caswell. Liturgical Use: Hymn for 
Lauds on the Feast of SS. Peter and Paul. See Hymns 90 
and 91. 

1. ''0 blessed shepherd Peter, thou to whom was given 
the power to open heaven, and, opened, to close it, merci- 
fully receive the prayers of thy suppliants, and by thy 
word unloose the chains of their sins." Precantum for 
precantium. This stanza is a metrical rendering of Matt. 
16, 19 : Et tibi dabo claves regni ccelorum. Et quodcumque 
ligaveris super terram, erit ligatum et in coelis : et quod- 
cumque solveris super terram, erit solutum et in coelis. 

2. *' Illustrious teacher Paul, mould thou our lives, and 
draw with thee to heaven our hearts, till faith now veiled 
beholds the bright noonday, and, like the sun, charity alone 
doth reign." St. Paul was taken up ''even to the third 
heaven," i.e., to the abode of the Angels and Saints (Cf. 
II Cor. 12, 1-4). The same illustrious Doctor teaches us 
that — *'We see now through a glass in a dark manner" 
(i.e., by faith) : "but then face to face" (I Cor. 13, 12). 
And again, that charity remains forever — ''never falleth 
away" (I Cor. 13, 8) though in the next world faith shall 
pass into vision, and hope into the enjoyment of God. 



264 



THE MOST PRECIOUS BLOOD OF OUR 
LORD JESUS CHRIST 

July 1 
118 Festivis resonent 



T^ESTIVIS resonent compita 

•■- vocibus, 

Gives laetitiam frontibus ex- 

plicent, 
Taedis flammiferis ordine pro- 

deant 
Instruct! pueri et senes. 

^Quem dura moriens Christus in 

arbore 
Fudit multiplici vulnere San- 

guinem, 
Nos facti memores dum colimus, 

decet 
Saltern fundere lacrymas. 



^Humano generi pernicies gravis 
Adami veteris criraine contigit: 
Adami integritas et pietas novi 
Vitam reddidit omnibus. 



^Clamorem validum summus ab 

aethere 
Languentis Geniti si Pater 

audiit, 
Placari potius sanguine debuit, 
Et nobis veniam dare. 



*Hoc quicumque stolam sanguine 

proluit, 
Abstergit maculas, et roseum 

decus, 
Quo fiat similis protinus Angelis: 
Et Regi placeat, capit. 



265 



WITH glad and joyous strains 
now let each street resound, 
And let the laurel wreath each 

Christian brow entwine; 
With torches waving bright, let 

old and young go forth. 
And swell the train in solemn line. 

Whilst we with bitter tears, with 

sighs and grief profound, 
Wail o'er the saving Blood, poured 

forth upon the Tree, 
Oh, deeply let us muse, and count 

the heavy price. 
Which Christ hath paid to make 

us free. 

The primal man of old, who fell 

by serpent's guile. 
Brought death and many woes 

upon his fallen race; 
But our New Adam, Christ, new 

life unto us gave. 
And brought to all ne'er-ending 

grace. 

To heaven's highest height, the 
wailing cry went up 

Of Him, who hung in pain, God's 
own eternal Son; 

His saving, priceless Blood, His 
Father's wrath appeased. 

And for His sons full pardon won. 

Whoe'er in that pure Blood his 

guilty soul shall wash, 
Shall from his stains be freed — 

be made as roses bright — 
Shall vie with Angels pure, shall 

please his King and Lord, 
And precious shine in His glad 

sight. 



PROPER OF SAINTS 

®A recto instabilis tramite post- Oh, from the path of right ne'er 

modura let thy steps depart, 

Se nullus retrahat, meta sed But haste thee to the goal in 

ultima virtue's peaceful ways; 

Tangatur: tribuet nobile prae- Thy God who reigns on high will 

mium, e'er direct thy steps, 

Qui cursum Deus adjuvat. And crown thy deeds with blissful 

days. 

^ Nobis propitius sis, Genitor Father of all things made, to us 
potens, propitious be, 

Ut quos unigenae Sanguine Filii For whom Thy own dear Son, His 
Emisti, et placido Flamine re- saving Blood did spill; 

creas, O Holy Spirit, grant the souls by 
Cceli ad culmina transferas. Thee refreshed 

Eternal bliss may ever fill. 

Author: Unknown, 17th cent. Meter: Asclepiadic and 
Glyconic. Translation by Father Potter. There are five 
translations. Liturgical Use: Hymn for Vespers. Read 
the article on Precious Blood, in the Cath. Encycl. 

1. "Let the streets re-echo with festive song, let the 
people manifest joy in their countenances, let young and 
old arrayed in due order proceed with flaming torches." 
Compitmn (mostly pi.) crossroads; here, streets, ways. 

2. ''While mindful of the fact we worship the Blood 
which, from many a wound, the dying Christ shed upon the 
cruel Tree, it behooves us to shed at least tears." Facti, 
fact, deed, viz., the suffering and death of Christ. 

3. ''Grave loss befell the human race by the sin of the 
old Adam. The sinlessness and love of the new Adam have 
restored life to all." St. Paul draws a parallel between 
Christ and Adam (cf. Rom. 5, 12-21). 

4. "If the Father heard from heaven the loud cry of 
His expiring Son ; far more ought He be appeased by His 
Blood, and grant us pardon. ' ' 

5. "Whoever washeth his robe in this Blood, washeth 
away its stains and gaineth a roseate beauty whereby he 
forthwith becometh like unto the Angels, and pleasing to 
the King." He who cleanses his soul by Baptism and 
Penance, which derive their efficacy from Christ's atone- 
ment, shall obtain the gift of sanctifying grace {roseum 
decus) which makes him pleasing to God. 

266 



THE MOST PRECIOUS BLOOD 

6. ** Henceforth let no unstable one withdraw himself 
from the straight path, but let the final goal be touched. 
God who aideth us on the way bestoweth a noble prize. ' ' 

7. "Almighty Father, be Thou propitious to us, so that 
those whom Thou didst purchase by the Blood of Thine 
only-begotten Son, and whom Thou dost re-create in the 
Holy Spirit, those same mayest Thou one day transfer to 
the heights of heaven." Unigena, (B, adj. = unigenitus, 
only, only-begotten; it here modifies Filii. Placido, calm, 
gentle, peaceful. 



119 



Ira justa Conditoris 



IRA justa Conditoris 
Imbre aquarum vindice 
Criminosum raersit orbem, 
Noe in area sospite: 
Mira tandem vis amoris 
Lavit orbem Sanguine. 



^Tam salubri terra felix 
Irrigata pluvia, 
Ante spinis quae scatebat, 
Germinavit flosculos: 
Inque nectaris saporem 
Transiere absynthia. 



^Triste protinus venenum 
Dims anguis posuit, 
Et cruenta belluarum 
Desiit ferocia: 
Mitis Agni vulnerati 
Haec fuit victoria. 



*0 scientiae supernse 
Altitude impervia! 
suavitas benigni 
Praedicanda pectoris! 
Servus erat morte dignus, 
Rex luit pcenam optimus. 



righteous 



HE who once, in 
vengeance, 
Whelmed the world beneath the 

Flood, 
Once again in mercy cleansed it 
With the stream of His own Blood, 
Coming from His throne on high 
On the painful Cross to die. 

Blest with this all-saving shower. 
Earth her beauty straight re- 
sumed ; 
In the place of thorns and briars, 
Myrtles sprang, and roses 

bloomed : 
Bitter wormwood of the waste 
Into honey changed its taste. 

Scorpions ceased; the slimy ser- 
pent 
Laid his deadly poison by; 
Savage beasts of cruel instinct 
Lost their wild ferocity; 
Welcoming the gentle reign 
Of the Lamb for sinners slain. 

Oh, the wisdom of th' eternal! 
Oh, its depth and height divine! 
Oh, the sweetness of that mercy 
Which in Jesus Christ doth shine! 
Slaves we were condemned to die! 
Our King pays the penalty! 



267 



PROPER OF SAINTS 



'Quando culpis provocamus 
Ultionem Judicis, 
Tunc loquentis protegamur 
Sanguinis praesentia: 
Ingruentium malorum 
Tunc recedant agmina. 



'Te redemptus laudet orbis 
Grata servans munera, 
salutis sempiternae 
Dux et auctor inclyte, 
Qui tenes beata regna 
Cum Parente et Spiritu. 



When before the Judge we 

tremble, 
Conscious of His broken laws, 
May this Blood, in that dread 

hour, 
Cry aloud, and plead our cause; 
Bid our guilty terrors cease. 
Be our pardon and our peace. 

Prince and Author of Salvation! 
Lord of majesty supreme! 
Jesu, praise to Thee be given 
By the world Thou didst redeem; 
Who with the Father and the 

Spirit, 
Reignest in eternal merit. 



Author : Unknown, 17th cent. Meter : Trochaic tetram- 
eter: the lines are here divided at the caesura. Transla- 
tion by Father Caswall. There are four translations. 
Liturgical Use: Hymn for Matins on the Feast of the 
Most Precious Blood. 

1. **The just wrath of the Creator did once submerge 
the sinful world beneath an avenging rain of waters, Noe 
being safe in the Ark; finally, however, the wondrous 
power of love purified the world with Blood." Note the 
two abl. absol. constructions in lines 2 and 4: '*A flood of 
water being the avenger" . . . *'Noe the while being 
safe in the ark. ' ' 

2. *' Watered by such salubrious rain, the happy earth 
which formerly abounded with thorns, now buds forth 
flowers; and (the bitterness of) wormwood hath been 
changed into the sweetness of nectar." Ahsyntliium, 
absinth, bitter herbs. Inque: Constr. : Et absynthia tran- 
sierunt in saporem nectaris. When Adam fell, God cursed 
the earth and henceforth it was to bring forth thorns and 
thistles (cf. Gen. 3, 17-19). 

3. *' Forthwith the dire serpent laid aside his baneful 
poison, and the bloodthirsty ferocity of the brute creation 
subsided: such was the victory of the gentle wounded 
Lamb. ' ' Anguis, the devil. 

4. **0 the inscrutable depth of heavenly wisdom! the 

268 



THE MOST PRECIOUS BLOOD 

ineffable sweetness of that loving Heart! A slave was 
worthy of death, a King of infinite goodness suffered the 
punishment!" Scientice: altitudo divitiarum sapientiaB 
et scientiae Dei : quam incomprehensibilia sunt judicia ejus, 
et investigabiles viae ejus (Rom. 11, 33). 

5. **When by our sins we provoke the vengeance of the 
Judge, may we then be protected by the presence of this 
eloquent Blood: then may the hosts of threatening evils 
depart." Loquentis, pleading. 

6. **0 Thou who art the Prince and august source of 
eternal salvation, and who dost possess the blessed king- 
dom with the Father and the Holy Spirit, may the ran- 
somed world praise Thee, preserving Thy acceptable 
gifts." 



120 



Salvete Christi vulnera 



SALVETE Christi vulnera, 
Immensi amoris pignora, 
Quibus perennes rivuli 
Manant rubentis Sanguinis. 



'Nitore Stellas vincitis, 
Rosas odore et balsama, 
Pretio lapillos indices, 
Mellis favos dulcedine. 



'Per vos patet gratissimum 
Nostris asylum mentibus, 
Non hue furor minantium 
Unquam penetrat hostium. 



Quot Jesus in Pretorio 
Flagella nudus excipit! 



HAIL, holy Wounds of Jesus, 
hail, 
Sweet pledges of the saving Rood, 
Whence flow the streams that never 

fail. 
The purple streams of His dear 
Blood. 

Brighter than brightest stars ye 
show. 

Than sweetest rose your scent 
more rare, 

No Indian gem may match your 
glow. 

No honey's taste with yours com- 
pare. 

Portals ye are to that dear home 
Wherein our wearied souls may 

hide, 
Wliereto no angry foe can come, 
The Heart of Jesus crucified. 

What countless stripes our Jesus 

bore, 
All naked left in Pilate's hall ! 



269 



PROPER OF SAINTS 



Quot scissa pellis undique 
Stillat cruoris guttulas! 



^Frontera venustam, proh dolor! 
Corona pungit spinea, 
Clavi retusa cuspide 
Pedes manusque perforant. 



^Postquam sed ille tradidit 
Amans volensque spiritum, 
Pectus feritur lancea, 
Geminusque liquor exilit. 



^Ut plena sit redemptio 
Sub torculari stringitur, 
Suique Jesus immemor, 
Sibi nil reservat Sanguinis. 



*Venite, quotquot criminum 
Funesta labes inficit: 
In hoc salutis balneo 
Qui se lavat, mundabitur. 



'Summi ad Parentis dexteram 
Sedenti habenda est gratia, 
Qui nos redemit Sanguine, 
Sanctoque firmat Spiritu. 



From His torn flesh how red a 

shower 
Did round His sacred person fall! 

His beauteous brow, oh, shame 
and grief, 

By the sharp thorny crown is 
riven ; 

Through hands and feet, without 
relief, 

The cruel nails are rudely driven. 

But when for our poor sakes He 

died, 
A willing Priest by love subdued, 
The soldier's lance transfixed His 

side, 
Forth flowed the Water and the 

Blood. 

In full atonement of our guilt. 
Careless of self, the Saviour 

trod — 
E'en till His Heart's best Blood 

was spilt — 
The wine-press of the wrath of 

God. 

Come, bathe you in the healing 

flood, 
All ye who mourn, by sin opprest; 
Your only hope is Jesus' Blood, 
His Sacred Heart your only rest. 

All praise to Him, the Eternal Son, 
At God's right hand enthroned 

above, 
Whose Blood our full redemption 

won. 
Whose Spirit seals the gift of 

love. 

Author: Unknown, 17th cent. Meter: Iambic dimeter. 
Translation by H. N. Oxenham. There are six transla- 
tions. Liturgical Use: Hymn for Lauds on the Feast of 
the Most Precious Blood. There is an article on this hymn 
in the Cath. Encycl. 

270 



SS. CYRIL AND METHODIUS 

1. **Hail, ye Wounds of Christ, pledges of boundless love, 
whence unfailing streams of crimson Blood flow forth." 

2. '*In splendor ye surpass the stars; in fragrance, roses 
and balsam; in value, Indian jems; in sweetness, honey." 
Favus, i, honeycomb, honey. 

3. ''Through you stands open for our hearts a most 
inviting place of refuge, whereto the rage of threatening 
enemies can never penetrate." 

4. "What countless stripes did the naked Jesus receive 
in the judgment hall ! How many drops of Blood did His 
lacerated skin let fall on every side ! ' ' 

5. "0 grief! a thorny crown pierces His lovely brow; 
nails with blunt points pierce His feet and hands." 

6. "But after He had lovingly and of His own free will 
given up the ghost, a lance transfixed His breast, and a 
twofold stream sprang forth." Geminus liquor, Blood and 
Water (cf. John 19, 34). 

7. "That the Eedemption might be complete, Jesus is 
pressed beneath the wine-press, and, all unmindful of 
Himself, He reserves for Himself none of His Blood." 
The term "wine-press" is frequently used in the Scriptures 
in a figurative sense signifying destruction, tribulation, 
etc. (cf. Is. 63, 1-3; Apoc. 19, 11-15). 

8. "Come, all ye whom the deadly stain of sin hath in- 
fected; whoever washes himself in this saving bath shall 
be made clean. ' ' 

9. ' ' Thanks are due to Him who sitteth at the right hand 
of the sovereign Father, to Him who hath redeemed us by 
His Blood, and strengthened us by the Holy Spirit." 

SS. CYRIL AND METHODIUS 

July 7 
121 Sedibus cceli 

SEDIBUS coeli nitidis receptos CING, ye faithful, sing two 
Dicite athletas geminos, ^ athlete brothers, 
Fideles, Welcomed above to thrones of 

Slavicae duplex columen decusque light supernal ; 

Dicite gentis. Sing, of Slavonia's race, the glory 

twofold 
And strength eternal. 

271 



PROPER OF SAINTS 

^Hos amor fratres sociavit unus, One love these brethren bound in 
Unaque abduxit pietas eremo, sweetest union, 

Ferre quo muhis celerent beatae By pity same their solitude is 
Pignora vitae. broken; 

Forth they would hasten, unto 
many bearing 
Life's blessed token. 

' Luce, quae templis superis renidet, Soon o'er Bulgaria, Moravia, 
Bulgaros complent, Moravos, Bohemia, 

Bohemos; Light from the heavenly temple 
Mox feras turmas numerosa shineth glorious. 

Petro Once savage hordes, now count- 
Agmina ducunt. less flocks, to Peter 

Lead they victorious. 

* Debitam cincti meritis coronam Now with the well-earned crown 
Pergite o flecti lacrymis precan- your brow encircled, 

tum: Hear, blessed ones, to suppliant 

Prisca vos Slavis opus est datores tears bending; 

Dona tueri. Unto the Slavs, erst by your gifts 

enriched. 
Protection lending. 

^Quaeque vos clamat generosa Oh, may each gen'rous land, your 
tellus aid imploring, 

Servet aeternse fidei nitorem; Keep bright the faith through 
Quae dedit princeps, dabit ipsa every generation; 

semper Rome to that land first gave, and 
Roma salutem. ever guardeth, 

Life and salvation. 

*Gentis humanae Sator et Re- Lord, of our race Creator and 
demptor Redeemer, 

Qui bonus nobis bona cuncta By nature good, all goods on us 

praebes, bestowing, 

Sint tibi grates, tibi sit per omne Glory to Thee through ages all, 
Gloria saeclum. from grateful 

Hearts overflowing. 

Axtthok: "Iste et sequens compositi fuerunt a R. P. 
Leanetti et Rmo Salvati, revisi vero a RRmis Caprara et 
Tripepi" (Bishop Van der Stappen's Liturgia Sacra 
Vol. 1, p. 63). No other information could be obtained. 
The hymns have been improperly ascribed to Pope Leo 
XIII, who extended the Feast of SS. Cyril and Methodius 

272 




H 1) 1 r K I't» I' A S" f H A t' 

6"r AT) Rac^ 

itlft- Idlil (Hiftllfll III JUT "It- inUllKdl 

ci\ liic'iiri.j ru.i afft'tiiiii .iKcfun • 
I Ijiifniiif (ifiid.nli rllt••v<•<'•^rlllI^((I i" UixMi (i.ir f.i i <■ luutr imMdi. 
( irrdlo-rfir i>i.ji.i.- I'.i iiu- .-i.i c.i iiuiiri nuinii iriiu'di -^.ilh • 
j^. I ").uv ill .f.i.t.iii.riiK .U'imnnr oiilff inuC ' 

.Vl.ii'fi" imii' im" J- ^'V •"il'ii'"Miii i('' 

rfriiii' .111.) iii.ndfri. iniriju.'ni.im 



.lox-.T.Ii.i r ii.l" 



Ah.Iv ,. 



}•„ 



Mvsfstth Einsiedlense -IWt Century, 559 pages {Codex 
Msc. 113). Pholo-reprodaction of Page lUl from the 
original in the Abbey of Maria Einsiedeln. '^'In Die 
Secundo Paschx. Initiun Infroitus SS. Trinitafis." 
A fine specimen of Illuminated Liturgical books at a 
period ushering ia the golisa ag^ of this art in Europe, 



SS. CYRIL AND METHODIUS 

to the whole Church in 1880, at which time the hymns were 
probably written. Meter : Sapphic and Adonic. Transla- 
tion by the Benedictines of Stanbrook. There are three 
translations. Liturgical Use: Hymn for Vespers and 
Matins. 

1. **Sing, ye faithful, the two athletes admitted to the 
resplendent abodes of heaven ; sing the two pillars and the 
glory of the Slavonic race." Cyril (827-869) and Methodius 
(826-885) were brothers, born of noble parents in Thes- 
salonica. Both were consecrated bishops. Read their 
biography in the Cath. Encycl. Columen, a pillar; fig., a 
support, mainstay, strength. 

2. ' ' One love united these brothers, one tender pity drew 
them forth from their solitude that they might hasten to 
bring to many the pledges of a blessed life." Eremo, from 
their solitude, i.e., from their monastery in Constanti- 
nople. 

3. "With the light that beams resplendent in the temples 
above, they fill Bulgarians, Moravians, and Bohemians; 
they soon lead to Peter savage hordes, a numerous 
throng. ' ' Petro, i.e., to the Church. 

4. "Wreathed with crowns well earned by your merits, 
may you continue to be moved by the tears of your sup- 
pliants; there is need that you, the givers, protect your 
former gifts to the Slavs." Cincti: In poetry cingo, and 
some other verbs may, in the passive, govern the accusa- 
tive (the Greek ace; cf. Zumpt's Grammar, 458). Prisca 
dona, faith. The Slavic races were converted in the 9th 
cent. ; this hymn was composed at the end of the 19th. 

5. ' ^ May every noble land that cries to you, preserve the 
splendor of an undying faith ; Rome which first gave, will 
ever continue to give salvation." Constr. : Roma ipsa 
salutem princeps dedit, semper dabit salutem. 

6. "0 Creator and Redeemer of the human race, who 
dost lovingly bestow upon us all good things, to Thee be 
thanksgiving, to Thee be glory forever and ever." 



273 



122 



PROPER OF SAINTS 
Lux o decora 



LUX o decora patriae, 
Slavisque arnica gentibus, 
Salvete, fratres, annuo 
Vos efFeremus cantico: 

^Quos Roma plaudens excipit, 
Complexa mater filios, 
Auget corona praesulum, 
Novoque firmat robore. 



Terras ad usque barbaras 
Inferre Christum pergitis; 
Quot vanus error luserat, 
Almo repletis lumine. 



*Noxis soluta pectora 
Ardor supernus abripit; 
Mutatur horror veprium 
In sanctitatis flosculos. 



*Et nunc serena coelitum 
Locati in aula, supplici 
Adeste voto; Slavicas 
Servate gentes Numini. 



'Errore mersos unicum 
Ovile Christi congreget; 
Factis avitis aemula 
Fides virescat pulchrior. 



^Tu nos, beata Trinitas, 
Ccelesti amore concita; 
Patrumque natos inclyta 
Da persequi vestigia. 



LOVELY light of fatherland! 
Kind beacon to Slavonic race, 
Brothers, all hail! your festival 
With yearly canticle we grace. 

Whom Rome applauding did re- 
ceive, 

As mother doth her sons embrace, 

With pontiflf's miter deck your 
brows, 

Gird with new strength, new toil 
to face. 

To far-off barb'rous lands ye hie, 

Knowledge and love of Christ to 
bear; 

Whom error vain had long de- 
ceived, 

Ye now with light replenish fair. 

In hearts unfettered from the 
grasp 

Of ill, doth heav'nly ardor glow; 

Where horrid thorns the land de- 
voured, 

The flowers of holiness now grow. 

At length in heav'nly court en- 
throned. 
Ye rest securely; as we pray. 
Oh, hear our cry: the Slavic race 
Vouchsafe from God may never 
stray. 

All wanderers plunged in errors 

dark 
May Christ's one fold to union 

bring; 
While emulous of ancestral deeds 
May faith to new-born beauty 

spring. 

Do Thou, blissful Trinity, 
Inflame us with Thy heav'nly fires, 
And grant the sons may ever tread 
The noble footsteps of their sires. 



274 



SS. CYRIL AND METHODIUS 

Authors and Translatoes as in the preceding hymn. 
There are three translations. Meter: Iambic dimeter. 
Hymn for Lauds on the Feast of SS. Cyril and Methodius. 

1. **0 beauteous light of your fatherland, and light be- 
nignly disposed towards the Slavonic nations, brothers, all 
hail! we will praise you in our yearly song of praise." 
Arnica, adj., friendly. 

2. ''Whom Rome applauding receives as a mother em- 
bracing her sons, she honors them with the miter of 
bishops and endows them with new strength. ' ' Supply eos 
in the last two lines of this stanza. 

3. "Ye proceed to barbarous lands to bring them Christ: 
as many as vain error had deceived, ye fill with the blessed 
light of faith." 

4. ''A heavenly zeal takes possession of hearts freed 
from sin; the horrid sight of thorns is now changed into 
flowers of holiness." The last two lines are to be under- 
stood in a figurative sense. After the fall of man, God 
cursed the earth, and it was to bring forth thorns and 
thistles (Gen. 3, 18). This was all changed by the Re- 
demption, and the earth watered by the Blood of Christ 
would bring forth ''flowers of sanctity" where hitherto 
only thorns abounded. This is beautifully expressed in the 
second stanza of Hymn 119. 

5. "And now, ye who are established in the serene 
abode of the Blessed, hear our suppliant prayer: preserve 
for God the Slavic nations." 

6. "May the one fold of Christ unite those now sunk 
in error; may their faith, emulous of the deeds of their 
forefathers, bloom with even greater beauty." JEmula, 
adj., emulating, rivaling; constr. with the dative. 

7. "Thou, Blessed Trinity quicken us with heavenly 
love, and grant that the sons may follow in the illustrious 
footsteps of their Fathers." 



275 



PROPER OF SAINTS 
ST. ELIZABETH OF PORTUGAL 

July 8 
Domare cordis 



123 

DOMARE cordis impetus 
Elisabeth 
Fortis, inopsque Deo 
Servire, regno praetulit. 

*En fulgidis recepta coeli sedibus, 
Sidereaeque domus 
Ditata Sanctis gaudiis. 



" Nunc regnat inter coelites beatior, 
Et premit astra, docens 
Quae vera sint regni bona. 



*Patri potestas, Filioque gloria, 
Perpetuumque decus 
Tibi sit alme Spiritus. 



TO rule thy heart, Elizabeth, 
To curb all motions vain, 
Seemed better to thy godly soul 
Than as a queen to reign. 

And lo, enthroned among the 
Saints, 

Above the gleaming skies, 

Thou hast received thy rich re- 
ward. 

The joys of Paradise. 



Thy 



with the Angel 



reign is 
choirs, 

The stars beneath thy feet. 
The Blessed Vision is thy prize 
And heaven thy queenly seat. 

All power unto the Father be, 
All glory to the Son, 
And honor to the Holy Ghost 
While endless ages run. 



Author: Pope Urban VIII (1568-1644). Meter: First 
line, iambic trimeter ; 2d line, half of a pentameter ; 3d line, 
iambic dimeter. The meter is unusual and it is not found 
in any other hymn in the Breviary. Translation by D. J. 
Donahoe. There are four translations. Liturgical Use: 
Hymn for Vespers and Matins. St. Elizabeth was queen 
of Portugal ; she was born in 1271, and died in 1336. There 
is a brief sketch of her life in the Cath. Encycl. 

1. **In preference to a royal throne, Elizabeth preferred 
to subdue the passions of her heart, and, poor, to serve 
God." 

2. *■ ' Behold, now she hath been received into the shining 
abodes of heaven, and enriched with the holy joys of that 
celestial dwelling place." 

3. **Now with greater joy she reigneth among the 

276 



ST. ELIZABETH 

Blessed, and dwelleth above the stars, teaching us what 
really constitute the good things of a kingdom." 

4. **To the Father be power, to the Son glory, and to 
Thee, Holy Spirit, eternal honor." 

124 Opes decusque regium 

OPES decusque regium re- "DICHES and regal throne, for 

liqueras c"-*- Christ's dear sake, 

Elisabeth, Dei dicata numini; True Saint, thou didst despise; 

Recepta nunc bearis inter Amid the Angels seated now in 

Angelos ; bliss, 

Libens ab hostium tuere nos Oh, help us from the skies! 
dolis. 

^Praei, viamque dux salutis Guide us; and fill our days with 
indica: perfume sweet 

Sequemur: sit una mens Of loving word and deed; 

fidelium, So teaches us thy beauteous 
Odor bonus sit omnis actio, tuis charity. 

Id innuit rosis operta caritas. By fragrant roses hid. 

'Beata caritas, in arce siderum charity! what power is thine! 
Potens locare nos per omne by thee 

saeculum: Above the stars we soar; 

Patrique Filioque summa gloria, In thee be purest praise to Father, 
Tibique laus perennis alme Son 

Spiritus. And Spirit, evermore. 

Authoe: Pope Urban VIII (1568-1644). Meter: Iambic 
trimeter. Translation by Father Caswall. There are 
three translations. Liturgical Use: Hymn for Lauds on 
the Feast of St. Elizabeth. 

1. "Wealth and royal splendor, Elizabeth, thou didst 
forsake, and thou didst devote thyself to the will of God: 
now received among the Angels thou art blessed ; graciously 
protect us from the deceits of the enemy. ' ' 

2. * ' Go thou before, and as a guide point out the way of 
salvation; we will follow: may there be but one mind 
among the faithful, may every action be a good odor ! The 
charity concealed by thy roses betokens this." St. Eliza- 
beth was very charitable to the poor, and like a true Saint 
she always endeavored to conceal her charitable deeds 

277 



PROPER OF SAINTS 

from the eyes of men. The Breviary thus records the 
miracle of the roses referred to in this stanza: "In the 
depth of winter she changed the money she was going to 
distribute to the poor into roses to conceal it from the 
king." Almsdeeds and the prayers of the faithful are 
odors of sw^eetness, an acceptable sacrifice, pleasing to 
God (Philip. 4, 18; Apoc. 5, 8). 

3. "0 blessed charity which hath power to establish us 
forever in the stronghold of the stars ! To Father and to 
Son be infinite glory, and to Thee, Holy Spirit, be end- 
less praise." 



125 



ST. MARY MAGDALENE 

July 22 
Pater superni luminis 



PATER superni luminis, 
Cum Magdalenam respicis, 
Flammas amoris excitas, 
Geluque solvis pectoris. 



^Amore currit saucia 
Pedes beatos ungere, 
Lavare fletu, tergere 
Comis, et ore lambere. 



■Adstare non timet Cruci, 
Sepulchro inhaeret anxia: 
Truces nee horret milites, 
Pellit timorem caritas. 



* vera, Christe, caritas, 
Tu nostra purga crimina, 
Tu corda reple gratia, 
Tu redde cteli praemia. 



tpATHER of lights! one glance 
■*• of Thine, 

Whose eyes the universe control, 
Fills Magdalene with holy love, 
And melts the ice within her soul. 

Her precious ointment forth she 

brings 
Upon those sacred feet to pour; 
She washes them with burning 

tears, 
And with her hair she wipes them 

o'er. 

Impassioned, to the Cross she 

clings, 
Nor fears beside the tomb to stay; 
Nor dreads the soldiers' savage 

mien. 
For love has cast all fear away. 

Christ, Thou very Love itself! 
Blest hope of man, through Thee 

forgiven ! 
So touch our spirits from above. 
So purify our souls for heaven. 



278 



ST. MARY MAGDALENE 

''Patri, simulque Filio, To God the Father, with the Son 

Tibique, sancte Spiritus, And Holy Paraclete, with Thee, 

Sicut fuit, sit jugiter As evermore hath been before, 

Saeclum per orane gloria. Be glory through eternity. 

Author: Cardinal Bellarmine, S.J. (1542-1621). Meter: 
Iambic dimeter. Translation by Father Caswall. There 
are nine translations. Liturgical Use: Vespers hymn. 
Read the article on Mary Magdalen in the Cath. Encycl. 
Note the two spellings — Magdalene, Magdalen. 

1. ''Source of heavenly Light, when Thou lookest upon 
Magdalene, Thou dost excite in her the flames of love, and 
dispellest the icy coldness of her heart." Pater superni 
luminis = Christus. Christ by His suffering and death is 
the source of all grace (luminis). 

2. ** Wounded with love, she runs to anoint those sacred 
feet, to wash them with her tears, to wipe them with her 
hair, and to kiss them with her mouth. ' ' Saucia, wounded, 
smitten. Et stans retro secus pedes ejus, lacrymis coepit 
rigare pedes ejus, et capillis capitis sui tergebat, et oscula- 
batur pedes ejus, et unguento ungebat (Luke 7, 38). 

3. ''She does not fear to stand beside the Cross; in dis- 
tress she remains near the sepulcher; she does not dread 
the savage soldiery; love banishes fear." Adstare cruci, 
Cf. John 19, 25. Sepulchro inhcsret, Cf. Matt. 27, 61. Nee 
horret, Cf. John 20, 1. 

4. "0 Christ, true Love, wash Thou away our sins, fill 
our hearts with grace, and bestow upon us the rewards of 
heaven." Christe, vera caritas: Deus caritas est: et qui 
manet in caritate, in Deo manet, et Deus in eo (I John 4, 
16). 

5. "To the Father, and at the same time to the Son and 
to Thee, Holy Spirit, as has been, so be it forever, eternal 
glory." 

126 Maria castis osculis 

MARIA castis osculis 1-T^^ sacred feet with tears of 

Lambit Dei vestigia: •■•■■■ agony 

She bathes; and prostrate on the 
ground adores; 

279 



PROPER OF SAIXTS 



Fletu rigat, tergit corais, 
Detersa nardo perlinit 



^ Deo Patri sit gloria, 

Ej usque soli Filio, 
Cum Spiritu Paraclito, 
Nunc, et per omne ssculum. 



Steeps them in kisses chaste, and 

wipes them dry 
With her own hair; then forth her 

precious ointment pours. 

Praise in the highest to the Father 

be; 
Praise to the might)" co-etemal 

Son; 
And praise, Spirit Paraclete, to 

Thee, 
While ages evermore of endless 

ages rim. 



Authob: Ascribed to Pope St. G-regory the Great (540- 
604). Meteb: Iambic dimeter. Teaxslation by Father 
Caswall. There are four translations. Liturgical Use: 
Hymn for Matins on the Feast of St. Mary Magdalene. 
This hymn is a cento from a hymn of t"vrelve stanzas be- 
ginning Magno salutis gaudio. Original Text: Nardo 
Maria pistico. 

1. ''With chaste kisses, Mary kisses the feet of God, she 
washes them with her tears, dries them with her hair, and, 
when dried, anoints them with spikenard." Vestigia, lit., 
footprints, the soles of the feet ; here it is used for pedes. 
Nardus or nardum, an ointment, unguent. 



127 



Siimmi Parentis Unice 



SOIMI Parentis Unice, 
Vultu pio nos respice, 
Vocans ad arcem gloriae 
Cor Magdalenae poenitens. 



*Amissa drachma regio 
Recondita est aerario, 
Et gemma, deterso luto, 
Nitore vincit sidera. 



'Jesu, medela vulnerum, 
Spes una poenitentium, 



SON of the Highest, deign to 
cast 
On us a pitying eye; 
Thou, who repentant Magdalene 
Didst call to endless joy. 

Again the royal treasury 

Receives its long-lost coin; 

The gem is found, and, cleansed 

from mire. 
Doth all the stars outshine. 

O Jesus, balm of ever^' woimd! 
The sinner's only stay! 



280 



ST. MARY MAGDALENE 

Per Magdalenae lacrymas Wash Thou in Magdalene's pure 

Peccata nostra diluas. tears 

Our guihy spots away. 

*Dei Parens piissima, Mother of God! the sons of Eve 

Hevae nepotes flebiles Weeping thine aid implore: 

De mille vitae fluctibus Oh, land us from the storms of 

Salutis in portum vehas. life 

Safe on th' eternal shore. 

'Uni Deo sit gloria, Glory, for graces manifold, 

Pro multiformi gratia, To the one only Lord; 

Peccantium qui crimina Whose mercy doth our souls for- 

Remittit, et dat praemia. give, 

Whose bounty doth reward. 

Author; St. Odo of Cluny (879-942). Meter: Iambic 
dimeter. Translation by Father Caswall. There are 
seven translations. Liturgical Use: Hymn for Lauds on 
the Feast of St. Mary Magdalene. First line of Original 
Text : ^terni Patris Unice. 

1. **0 Thou Only-Begotten of the sovereign Father, look 
upon us with a benign countenance, Thou who callest to the 
pinnacle of glory the penitent heart of Magdalene." 

2. "The lost groat is again restored to the royal 
treasury ; and the gem wiped clean from mire surpasses the 
stars in brilliance. ' ' For the Parable of the Lost Coin see 
Luke 15, 8-9. The drachma was a small coin bearing the 
image of the reigning king. It here represents the human 
soul on which is impressed the image and likeness of God. 
The ''gem" referred to is the human soul purified by 
penance and so adorned with sanctifying grace that it out- 
shines the stars in splendor. 

3. "0 Jesus, balm of our wounds, and sole hope of the 
penitent, mayest Thou, through the tears of Magdalene, 
wash away our sins. ' ' 

4. "0 most gracious Mother of God, convey us weeping 
descendants of Eve, from a thousand waves of life to a 
haven of safety." Fluctibus, storms, aflSictions. 

5. ''To God alone be glory for His manifold graces, — 
to God who forgiveth the sins of sinners and bestoweth 
rewards." 

281 



128 



PROPER OF SAINTS 
ST. PETER'S CHAINS 

August 1 
Miris modis 



MIRIS modis repente liber, 
ferrea, 
Christo jubente, vincla Petrus 

exuit : 
Ovilis ille Pastor, et Rector 

gregis 
Vitae recludit pascua, et fontes 

sacros, 
Ovesque servat creditas; arcet 

lupos. 

^Patri perenne sit per aevum 

gloria, 
Tibique laudes concinamus in- 

clytas, 
i^^terne Nate, sit, superne 

Spiritus, 
Honor tibi, decusque: sancta 

jugiter 
Laudetur omne Trinitas per 

saeculum. 



IN wondrous mode set free, lo, 
at the Lord's command 

The galling iron chain doth fall 
from Peter's hand, 

From Peter, Shepherd blest, who 
doth with gentle sway. 

His faithful children lead in vir- 
tue's fragrant way. 

And e'er with watchful love the 
tempter drive away. 

Now to the Father be eternal glory 

done; 
Our songs we raise to Thee, 

everlasting Son; 
Spirit from on high. Thy throne 

we bow before; 
To Thee be honor, praise, and 

glory evermore: 
The Holy Trinity we worship and 

adore. 



Author : This is one stanza of the hymn described under 
hymn 89. Meter: Iambic trimeter. Translation by 
Father Potter. Liturgical Use : Hymn for Vespers. First 
line of Original Text: Petrus heatus catenarum laqueos. 
For an account of the miraculous deliverance of St. Peter 
from prison read Acts 12, 3-10. 

1. ''Suddenly and in a wondrous manner set free, Peter 
at Christ's command puts off the iron chains: he the 
shepherd and the ruler of the flock of sheep makes known 
the pastures of life and the sacred springs ; he guards the 
sheep entrusted to him, and keeps the wolves away." 
Ovilis, adj., of sheep. 



282 



THE TRANSFIGURATION OF OUR LORD 

August 6 



129 



Quicumque Christum quceritis 



Q' 



lUICUMQUE Christum quaeri- 
tis, 
Ocnlos in altum tollite: 
Illic licebit vi&ere 
Signura perennis gloriae. 



^ Illustre quiddam cernimus, 
Quod nesciat finem pati, 
Sublime, celsum, interminiun, 
Antiquius ccelo et chao. 



' Hie ille Rex est Gentium, 
Populique Rex Judaici, 
Promissus Abrahae patri, 
Ej usque in sevum semini. 



*Hunc et Prophetis testibus, 
lisdemque signatoribus 
Testator et Pater jubet 
Audire nos, et credere. 



'Jesu, tibi sit gloria, 
Qui te revelas parvulis, 
Cum Patre et almo Spiritu 
In sempiterna saecula. 



ALL ye who would the Christ 
descry, 
Lift up your eyes to Him on high: 
There mortal gaze hath strength 

to see 
The token of His majesty. 

A wondrous sign we there behold, 
That knows not death nor groweth 

old, 
Sublime, most high, that cannot 

fade. 
That was ere earth and heaven 

were made. 

Here is the King the Gentiles fear, 
The Jews' most mighty King is 

here 
Promised to Abraham of yore, 
And to his seed forevermore. 

'Tis He the Prophets' words fore- 
told. 

And by their signs shown forth 
of old; 

The Father's witness hath or- 
dained 

That we should hear with faith 
unfeigned. 

Jesu, to Thee our praise we pay. 
To little ones revealed to-day, 
With Father and Blest Spirit One 
Until the ages' course is done. 



Author: Prudentius (348-413). Meter: Iambic dimeter. 
TRANSLATioiir by Allan G. McDougall. There are twenty- 
four translations, nine of which are in Mr. Shipley's 
Annus Sanctus. Liturgical Use: Hymn for Vespers and 

283 



PROPER OF SAINTS 

Matins. This hymn is a cento from the twelfth and last 
poem in the Cathemerinon of Prudentius. The complete 
poem consists of 208 lines, and has furnished four centos 
for Breviary use: viz., sola magnarum iirhium (Ephi- 
phany), Audit tyr annus anxius, and Salvete flores 
martyrum. Read the article on Quicumque Christum 
quceritis, and the two articles on Transfiguration, in the 
Cath. Encycl. 

1. ''All ye who seek Christ, lift up your eyes on high; 
there it will be permitted you to behold a token of His 
eternal glory." The Transfiguration of Our Lord is de- 
scribed in Matt. 17, 1-9; Mark 9, 1-8; Luke 9, 28-36. On 
Mount Thabor Our Lord granted Peter, James, and John a 
sign, or foretaste, of eternal glory. The Apostles were over- 
whelmed and rendered beside themselves by only a partial 
manifestation of the majesty of Christ's glorified Body. 

2. *'A brilliant Something we perceive that can know no 
end, sublime, exalted, interminable, older than heaven and 
chaos." By chaos is meant the confused, disordered, 
primitive mass out of which the universe was made. 

3. ''This is the King of the Gentiles, and the King of 
the Jewish people, who was promised to our father 
Abraham, and to his seed forever." Christ was styled 
King of the Jews by the Magi (Cf. Matt. 2, 2). Abraham 
was the first Patriarch and the founder of the Hebrew race 
(Cf. Gen. 17, 1-9; Luke 1,55). 

4. "In the presence of the prophets who had also an- 
nounced Him, the Testator and Father commands us to hear 
and believe Him." The Prophets Moses and Elias ap- 
peared at the Transfiguration and conversed wath Our 
Lord. The testimony of the Father is found in Matt. 17, 5. 
Testator: The Father is styled "testator" in reference to 
Ps. 2, 8: Postula a me, et dabo tibi gentes hsereditatem 
tuam, et possessionem tuam terminos terrse. 

5. "Together with the Father and the Holy Spirit, 
Jesus, eternal glory be to Thee, who dost reveal Thyself to 
the little ones" (Cf. Matt. 11, 25; Luke 10, 21). 



284 



130 



THE TRANSFIGURATION 
Lux alma, Jesu 



LUX alma, Jesu, mentium, 
Dura corda nostra recreas, 
Culpae fugas caliginem, 
Et nos reples dulcedine. 

^Quam laetus est, quem visitas! 
Censors paternae dexterae, 
Tu dulce lumen patriae, 
Camis negatum sensibus. 

'Splendor paternae gloriae, 
Incomprehensa caritas. 
Nobis amoris copiam 
Largire per prsesentiam. 

*Jesu, tibi sit gloria, 
Qui te revelas parvulis, 
Cum Patre et almo Spiritu, 
In sempiterna saecula. 



LIGHT of the anxious heart, 
Jesus, Thou dost appear, 
To bid the gloom of guilt depart, 
And shed Thy sweetness here. 

Joyous is he, with whom, 
God's Word, Thou dost abide; 
Sweet Light of our eternal home. 
To fleshly sense denied. 

Brightness of God above! 
Unfathomable grace! 
Thy presence be a fount of love 
Within Thy chosen place. 

To Thee, whom children see. 
The Father ever blest. 
The Holy Spirit, One and Three, 
Be endless praise addrest. 



Author: St. Bernard (1091-1153). Meter: Iambic 
dimeter. Translation by Cardinal Newman. There are 
eight translations. Liturgical Use: Hymn for Lauds on 
the Feast of the Transfiguration of Our Lord. This hymn 
is a cento from St. Bernard's Jesu dulcis memoria. First 
line of Original Text : Amor Jesu dulcissime. 

1. ''0 Jesus, Thou loving light of souls, when Thou 
dost refresh our hearts, dispel the darkness of sin, and fill 
us with sweetness." Lux: Ego sum lux mundi (John 8, 
12). 

2. "How happy is he whom Thou visitest! Thou com- 
peer at the right hand of the Father, Thou sweet light of 
heaven, imperceptible to the senses of the flesh." The 
things denied to fleshly sense are hinted at by St. Paul, 
who was taken up to the third heaven: Quod oculus non 
vidit, nee auris audivit, nee in cor hominis ascendit, quae 
prseparavit Deus iis, qui diligunt ilium (I Cor. 2, 9). 

3. *'0 brightness of the Father's glory, incomprehensi- 
ble love, by Thy presence, bestow upon us the fullness of 
Thy love." Splendor: Christ is the brightness of the 

285 



PROPER OF SAINTS 

Father's glory (Cf. Heb. 1, 3). This line was borrowed by 
the compilers of the cento in 1568, and was retained by 
the revisers under Urban VIII, 1632. It is the first line of 
Hymn 12. 



THE SEVEN DOLORS OF OUR LADY 

Sept. 15 



131 



Jam toto subitus 



JAM toto subitus vesper eat 
polo, 
Et sol attonitum praecipitet diem, 
Dum saevae recolo ludibrium 

necis, 
Divinamque catastrophen. 



* Spectatrix aderas supplicio 

Parens, 
Malis uda, gerens cor adaman- 

tinum : 
Natus funerea pendulus in cruce 
Altos dum gemitus dabat. 



'Pendens ante oculos Natus, 

atrocibus 
Sectus verberibus, Natus hianti- 

bus 
Fossus vulneribus, quot pene- 

trantibus 
Te confixit aculeis! 

*Heu! sputa, alapae, verbera, 

vulnera, 
Clavi, fel, aloe, spongia, lancea, 
Sitis, spina, cruor, quam varia 

pium 
Cor pressere tyrannide! 



NOW let the darkling eve 
Mount suddenly on high. 
The sun affrighted reave 
His splendors from the sky, 
While I in silence grieve 
O'er the mocked agony 
And the divine catastrophe. 

Grief-drenched, thou dost appear 
With heart of adamant, 
O Mother; and dost hear 
The Great Hierophant, 
Upon His wooden bier 
Locked in the arms of Death, 
Utter in groans His parting breath. 

What lookest thou upon, 
Mangled and bruised and torn? 
Ah, 'tis the very Son 
Thy yearning breast hath borne! 
Surely, each breaking moan 
And each deep-mouthed wound 
Its fellow in thy heart hath found ! 

Surely, the taunts and woes, 
The scourge, the dripping thorn, 
The spitting and the blows, 
The gall, the lance, the scorn — 
Surely, each torment throws 
A poison-dart at thee. 
Crushed by their manifold 
tyranny. 



286 



THE SEVEN DOLORS OF OUR LADY 

'Cunctis interea stat generosior Yet thou with patient mien 

Virgo Martyribus : prodigio Beneath His Cross dost stand, 

novo. Nobler in this, I ween, 

In tantis moriens non raoreris Than all the martyr-band: 

Parens, A thousand deaths, Queen, 

Diris fixa doloribus. Upon thy spirit lie. 

Yet thou, O marvel! dost not die. 

•Sit summae Triadi gloria, laus, Holy Trinity, 

honor. Let earth and heaven raise 

A qua suppliciter, sollicita prece. Their song of laud to Thee 
Posco virginei roboris semulas The while my spirit prays: — 
Vires rebus in asperis. When evil comes to me, 

The strength do Thou impart 
That erst upheld Thy Mother's 
heart ! 



Author: Ascribed to Callisto Palumbella, 18th cent. 
Meter: Asclepiadic and Glyconic. Translation by 
Monsignor Henry. There are six translations. Liturgical 
Use : Vespers hymn. This hymn was formerly assigned to 
Matins. 

There are two Feasts in honor of the Seven Dolors of the 
Blessed Virgin. See Hymn 54. The Seven Sorrows which 
these Feasts commemorate are: 1. The prophecy of holy 
Simeon at the presentation in the Temple — ''And thy own 
soul a sword shall pierce." 2. The flight into Egypt. 3. 
The loss of the Child Jesus in Jerusalem. 4. The meeting 
of Mary and Jesus on the way to Calvary. 5. The Cruci- 
fixion. 6. The taking down from the Cross. 7. The burial 
of Jesus. See the article in the Cath. Encycl. on Sorrows 
of the Blessed Virgin Mary. 

1. *'Now let the evening come suddenly upon the whole 
heavens, and let the astonished sun dispatch the day, while 
I recount the spectacle of the cruel death and the divine 
tragedy. ' ' 

2. "Drenched with grief, thou, Mother, wast present 
at the Crucifixion, bearing in thy bosom a heart of 
adamant, while thy Son hanging on the fatal Cross uttered 
deep groans." TJdus, wet, moist, tearful. 

3. ''Before thy very eyes hung thy Son lacerated with 
cruel scourgings, thy Son wounded with gaping wounds; 

287 



PROPER OF SAINTS 

with how many sharp, penetrating points did this transfix 
thee!" 

4. "Alas! spittle, blows, stripes, wounds, nails, gall, 
aloes, sponge, lance, thirst, thorns, blood, — with what mani- 
fold tyranny do they oppress thy loving heart ! ' ' 

5. ''The Virgin the while stands there more noble than 
the martyrs : by a new wonder, Mother, dying, thon dost 
not die, though transfixed by such great and dreadful 
sorrows." 

6. "To the sovereign Trinity be glory, praise, and 
honor, from whom I suppliantly and with fervent prayer 
beg strength like the Virgin's in time of trouble." 



132 



O quot undis 



OQUDT undis lacrimarum, 
Quo dolore volvitur, 
Luctuosa de cruento 
Dum, revulsum stipite, 
Cernit ulnis incubantem 
Virgo Mater filium! 



* Os suave, mite pectus, 
Et latus dulcissimum, 
Dexteramque vulneratam, 
Et sinistram sauciam, 
Et rubras cruore plantas 
^gra tingit lacrimis. 



w 



HAT a sea of tears and 



sorrow 
Did the soul of Mary toss 
To and fro upon its billows, 
While she wept her bitter loss; 
In her arms her Jesus holding, 
Torn so newly from the Cross. 

Oh, that mournful Virgin-Mother! 
See her tears how fast they flow 
Down upon His mangled body. 
Wounded side, and thorny brow; 
While His hands and feet she 

kisses — 
Picture of immortal woe. 



'Centiesque milliesque 
Stringit arctis nexibus 
Pectus illud, et lacertos, 
Ilia figit vulnera: 
Sicque tola colliquescit 
In doloris osculis. 

*Eja Mater, obsecramus 
Per tuas has lacrimas, 
Filiique triste funus, 



Oft and oft His arms and bosom 
Fondly straining to her own; 
Oft her pallid lips imprinting 
On each wound of her dear Sonj 
Till at last, in swoons of anguish, 
Sense and consciousness are gone. 

Gentle Mother, we beseech thee 
By thy tears and troubles sore; 
By the death of thy dear 
Offspring, 



288 



THE SEVEN DOLORS OF OUR LADY 

Vulnerumque purpuram, By the bloody wounds He bore; 

Hunc tui cordis dolorem Touch our hearts with that true 

Conde nostris cordibus. sorrow 

Which afflicted thee of yore. 

'Esto Patri, Filioque, To the Father everlasting, 

Et coaevo Flaraini, And the Son who reigns on high, 

Esto summae Trinitati With the co-eternal Spirit, 

Sempiterna gloria, Trinity in Unity, 

Et perennis laus, honorque Be salvation, honor, blessing 

Hoc, et omni saeculo. Now and through eternity. 



Author: Ascribed to the Servite Callisto Palumbella, 
who composed the OflSce for the Feast inserted in the 
Breviary in 1720. Meter : Trochaic tetrameter. Transla- 
tion by Father Caswall. There are six translations. 
Liturgical Use : In the latest editions of the Breviary this 
hymn is assigned to Matins; it was formerly the Vespers 
hymn of the Feast of the Seven Dolors. 

1. *'0, with what floods of tears, with what grief is the 
Virgin-Mother overwhelmed, when mourning she beholds 
her Son taken down from the blood-stained Tree and laid 
in her arms!" Constr. : quot undis lacrimarum, quo 
dolore volvitur luctuosa Virgo Mater, dum cernit Filium 
incumbantem ulnis revulsum de (crucis) stipite. 

2. ''The desolate Mother bathes with tears that sweet 
mouth, that gentle breast, that side most sweet, that right 
hand transfixed, the left wounded, those feet red with 
blood." 

3. **A hundred times, yea, a thousand times she enfolds 
in tight embraces that breast and those arms, she imprints 
on herself those wounds : and thus in kisses of sorrow she 
wholly melts away." 

4. ' ' Mother, we beseech thee by these thy tears, by the 
cruel death of thy Son, and by the purple of His wounds, 
plant deep in our hearts the grief of thine own heart." 

5. "To the Father, and to the Son, and to the co-eternal 
Spirit, to the most high Trinity, be everlasting glory, 
eternal praise and honor, now and forever. ' ' 



289 



133 



PROPER OF SAINTS 
SummcB Deus dementia 



SUMMi^ Deus clementiae, 
Septem dolores Virginis 
Plagasque Jesu Filii 
Fac rite nos revolvere. 



^ Nobis salutem conferant 
Deiparaj tot lacrimae, 
Quibus lavare suflScis 
Totius orbis crimina. 

*Sit quinque Jesu vulnerum 
Amara contemplatio, 
Sint et dolores Virginis 
interna cunctis gaudia. 

*Jesu, tibi sit gloria, 
Qui passus es pro servulis, 
Cum Patre et almo Spiritu, 
In sempiterna saecula. 



GOD of mercy, let us run 
Where yon fount of sorrows 
flows; 
Pondering sweetly, one by one, 
Jesu's Wounds and Mary's woes. 

Ah, those tears Our Lady shed. 
Enough to drown a world of sin; 
Tears that Jesu's sorrows fed, 
Peace and pardon well may win! 

His five Wounds, a very home, 
For our prayers and praises prove; 
And Our Lady's woes become 
Endless joys in heaven above. 

Jesus, who for us did die, 
All on Thee our love we pour; 
And in the Holy Trinity 
Worship Thee forevermore. 



Author: Ascribed to Callisto Palumbella, 18th cent. 
Meter: Iambic dimeter. Translation by Father Faber. 
There are six translations. Liturgical Use: Hymn for 
Lauds on the Feast of the Seven Dolors. 

1. * ' God of infinite mercy, grant that we may meditate 
well on the Seven Sorrows of the Virgin and on the Wounds 
of Jesus her Son. ' ' 

2. ''May the numerous tears of the Mother of G-od be 
conducive to our salvation ; with which tears Thou, God, 
art able to wash away the sins of the whole world." 
Sufficis, viz., Deus from the preceding stanza. 

3. **May the bitter contemplation of the Five "Wounds of 
Jesus, and may the Seven Sorrows of the Virgin be a 
source of eternal joys to all." 

4. *' Jesus, to Thee, who didst suffer for Thy servants, be 
glory, together with the Father and the Holy Spirit, 
through everlasting ages." 



290 



134 



ST. MICHAEL THE ARCHANGEL 

Sept. 29 
Te splendor et virtus Patris 



TE splendor et virtus Patris, 
Te vita, Jesu, cordium, 
Ab ore qui pendent tuo, 
Laudamus inter Angeles. 



'Tibi mille densa millium 
Ducum corona militat: 
Sed explicat victor crucem 
Michael salutis signifer. 



"Draconis hie dirum caput 
In ima pellit tartara, 
Ducemque cum rebellibus 
Coelesti ab arce fulminat. 



•Contra ducem superbiae 
Sequamur hunc nos principem, 
Ut detur ex Agni throno 
Nobis corona gloriae. 



'Patri, simulque Filio, 
Tibique sancte Spiritus, 
Sicut fuit, sit jugiter 
Sseclum per omne gloria. 



OJESU! Life-spring of the 
soul! 
The Father's power and glory 

bright! 
Thee with the Angels we extol; 
From Thee they draw their life 
and light. 

Thy thousand thousand hosts are 

spread 
Embattled o'er the azure sky; 
But Michael bears Thy standard 

dread, 
And lifts the mighty Cross on 

high. 

He in that Sign the rebel powers 

Did with their Dragon Prince ex- 
pel; 

And hurled them from the heavens* 
high towers, 

Down like a thunderbolt to hell. 

Grant us, with Michael, still, 

Lord, 
Against the prince of pride to 

fight; 
So may a crown be our reward, 
Before the Lamb's pure throne of 

light. 

To God the Father, with the Son 
And Holy Paraclete, with Thee, 
As evermore hath been before, 
Be glory through eternity. 



Author: Ascribed to Rabanus Maurus (776-856). 
Meter: Iambic dimeter. Translation by Father Caswall. 
There are eighteen translations. Liturgical Use: Hymn 
for Vespers and Matins. First line of Original Text: 

291 



PROPER OF SAINTS 

Tihi Christe splendor Patris. In this and in the following 
hymn the Church sings the praises not only of St. Michael 
but of all the holy Angels. Read the article on Michael the 
Archangel, in the Cath. Encycl. At the end of the article 
there is an account given of Michaelmas Day. There are 
separate articles on each of the Angels mentioned in the 
following hymn (No. 135). 

In the revision of 1632, this hymn, according to the Bid. 
of Hymnology was ** recast greatly for the worse." The 
Original Text with J. M. Neale 's translation is given below. 

1. ''Thee, splendor and power of the Father, Thee, 
Jesus, the life of our hearts, we praise in the presence of 
the Angels who hang upon the words of Thy mouth." 
Pendent, to regard with close attention. 

2. *'It is for Thee this dense host of countless thousands 
of princes engage in battle : but it is the victorious Michael, 
the standard-bearer of salvation, who unfurls the standard 
of the Cross." Corona, a crown, also an assembly. Mille 
is sometimes used in the sense of countless, innumerable, 
infinite. As to the number of Angels, Cf. Matt. 26, 53; 
Apoc. 5, 11. For the ''great battle in heaven," Cf. Apoc. 
12, 7-9. 

3. "He casts the direful head of the dragon into the 
depths of hell, and hurls headlong from the heavenly citadel 
the prince together with his rebels." Hie, Michael. Of 
Satan's fall Our Lord said: Videbam satanam sicut fulgur 
de coelo cadentem (Luke 10, 18). 

4. "Let us follow this leader against the prince of pride, 
that a crown of glory may be given to us from the throne 
of the Lamb." 



134B Tibi Christe splendor Patris 

TIBI Christe splendor Patris, 'T'HEE, Christ, the Father's 

Vita, virtus cordium, ^ splendor, 

In conspectu Angelorum Life and virtue of the heart, 

Votis, voce psallimus: In the presence of the Angels 

Alternantes concrepando Sing we now with tuneful art, 

Melos damus vocibus. Meetly in alternate chorus 

Bearing our responsive part. 

292 



ST. MICHAEL THE ARCHANGEL 



^ CoUaudamus venerantes 
Omnes cceli principes, 
Sed praecipue fidelem 
Medicum, et comitem 
Raphaelem, in virtute 
Alligantem daemonem. 

^Quo custode procul pelle, 
Rex Christe piissime, 
Omne nefas inimici: 
Mundo corde et corpora 
Paradiso redde tuo 
Nos sola dementia. 



*Gloriam Patri melodis 
Personemus vocibus: 
Gloriam Christo canamus, 
Gloriam Paraclito: 
Qui trinus, et unus Deus 
Exstat ante saecula. 



Thus we praise with veneration 
All the armies of the sky; 
Chiefly him, the warrior Primate, 
Of celestial chivalry, 
Michael, who in princely virtue 
Cast Abaddon from on high. 



By 



care re- 



whose watchful 
pelling — 
King of everlasting grace — 
Every ghostly adversary, 
All things evil, all things base, 
Grant us of Thine only goodness 
In Thy Paradise a place. 

Laud and honor to the Father, 
Laud and honor to the Son, 
Laud and honor to the Spirit, 
Ever Three, and ever One, 
Consubstantial, co-eternal. 
While unending ages run. 



This is the Original Text of the preceding hymn. 
Translation by J. M. Neale. Meter : Trochaic tetrameter 
catalectic. The lines are here divided at the caesura. 



135 



Christe, sanctorum 



CHRISTE, sanctormn decus 
Angelorum, 
Gentis hmnanae sator et redemp- 

tor, 
Coelitum nobis tribuas beatas 
Scandere sedes. 



*Angelus pacis Michael in aedes 

Ccelitus nostras veniat, serenae 

pacis 



Auctor ut 
orcum 

Bella releget. 



lacrimosa in 



CHRIST, of the Angels praise 
and adoration, 
Father and Saviour Thou, of every 

nation, 
Graciously grant us all to gain a 
station. 
Where Thou art reigning. 

Angel all peaceful, to our dwell- 
ings send us, 

Michael, from heaven coming to 
befriend us, 

Breathing serenest peace may he 
attend us, 
Grim war dispelling. 



298 



PROPER OF SAINTS 



'Angelus fortis Gabriel, ut hostes 
Pellat antiques, et arnica ccelo. 
Quae triumphator statuit per 
orbem, 
Templa revisat. 



* Angelus nostrae medicus salutis, 
Adsit e ccelo Raphael, ut omnes 
Sanet aBgrotos, dubiosque vitae 
Dirigat actus. 



'Virgo dux pacis, Genitrixqua 
lucis, 
Et sacer nobis chorus Angelorum 
Semper assistat, simul et 
micantis 

Regia coeli. 



* Praestet hoc nobis Deitas beata 
Patris, ac Nati, pariterque sancti 
Spiritus, cujus resonat per 
omnem 
Gloria mundum. 



Angel of strength, who triumphed, 
tumults quelling, 

Gabriel send us, ancient foes ex- 
pelling. 

Oft in these temples may he make 
his dwelling, 
Dear unto heaven. 

Angel Physician, health on man 

bestowing, 
Raphael send us from the skies 

all glowing, 
All sickness curing, wisest counsel 

showing 

In doubt and danger. 

May the fair Mother of the Light 

be o'er us. 
Virgin of peace, with all the Angel 

chorus, 
And may the heavenly army go 

before us, 
Guiding and guarding. 

May the Godhead, endless bliss 

possessing. 
Father, Son, Spirit, grant to us 

this blessing; 
All His creation joins His praise 

confessing. 
Now and forever. 



Author: Ascribed to Rabanus Maurus (776-856). 
Meter: Sapphic and Adonic. Translation by T. I. Ball. 
There are thirteen translations. Liturgical Use: Hymn 
for Lauds. 

1. "O Christ, Thou glory of the holy Angels, the 
Creator and Redeemer of mankind, grant that we may 
ascend to the happy abodes of the Blessed." Scandere = 
ascendere; constr., scandere ad or in; it may also take the 
accusative, being used as an active verb. 

2. *^May Michael, the Angel of peace, descend from 
heaven into our homes, that he, the author of sweet peace, 
may banish dismal war to hell." St. Michael is the Angel 
of peace because he was the leader of the heavenly hosts 

294 



THE HOLY GUARDIAN ANGELS 

that fought with the rebel angels, and by his victory estab- 
lished peace in heaven (Cf. Apoc. 12, 7-9). Orcus, the in- 
fernal regions. 

3. **May Gabriel, Angel of strength, put to flight our 
ancient enemies, may he revisit the temples dear to heaven, 
which the conqueror has placed throughout the world." 
Triumphator, Christ. Templa revisat: An allusion prob- 
ably to the Archangel's visit to Zachary (Cf. Luke 1, 11- 
19). 

4. * ' May the Angel Raphael, the physician of our health, 
descending from heaven, be at our side, that he may heal 
all that are infirm, and guide us in the uncertain under- 
takings of life. ' ' The Archangel Raphael was the guide and 
protector of the younger Tobias, and the physician who 
restored the sight of the elder TolDias (Cf. Tobias 5-11). 

5. "May the Virgin Queen of Peace, the Mother of 
Light, the sacred choir of Angels, and the court of radiant 
heaven always assist us." Lucis, Christ. Ego sum lux 
mundi (John 8, 12). The Blessed Virgin is invoked as she 
is the Queen of Angels (Litany). The following is Father 
Caswall's translation of this stanza: 

Thou too, fair virgin, Daughter of the skies! 
Mother of Light, and Queen of Peace, descend; 
Bringing with thee the radiant court of heaven, 
To aid us and defend. 

6. "May the Blessed Godhead of the Father, Son, and 
Holy Spirit, whose glory resounds throughout the world, 
grant us this our prayer. ' ' 



THE HOLY GUARDIAN ANGELS 

Oct. 2 

136 Custodes hominum 

pUSTODES hominum psalli- A NGELGUARDIANS of men, 
^-^ mus Angelos, -^*- spirits and powers we sing. 

Naturae fragili quos Pater addidit Whom our Father hath sent, aids 

to our weakly frame, 
295 



PROPER OF SAINTS 



Coelestis comites, insidiantibus 
Ne succumberet hostibus. 



'Nam quod corruerit proditor 

angelus, 
Concessis merito pulsus honori- 

bus, 
Ardens invidia pellere nititur 
Quos ccelo Deus advocat. 



* Hue custos igitur pervigil advola, 
Avertens patria de tibi credita 
Tarn morbos animi, quam re- 

quiescere 
Quidquid non sinit incolas. 



Heavenly friends and guides, help 
from on high to bring, 

Lest we fail through the foeman's 
wile. 

He, the spoiler of souls, Angel- 
traitor of old, 

Cast in merited wrath out of his 
honored place. 

Burns with envy and hate, seek- 
ing their souls to gain 

Whom God's mercy invites to 
heaven. 

Therefore come to our help, 
watchful ward of our lives: 

Turn aside from the land God to 
thy care confides 

Sickness and woe of soul, yea, and 
what else of ill 

Peace of heart to its folk denies. 



*Sanctae sit Triadi laus pia jugiter, Now to the Holy Three praise 
Cujus perpetuo numine machina evermore resound: 

Triplex haec regitur, cujus in Under whose hand divine resteth 

omnia the triple world 

Regnat gloria ssecula. Governed in wondrous wise: glory 

be theirs and might 
While the ages unending run. 

Author: Ascribed to Cardinal Bellarmine (1542-1621). 
Meter: Asclepiadic and Glyconic. TRANSLATioiir by Alan 
G. McDoTigall. There are five translations. Liturgical 
Use: Hymn for Vespers. Read the articles on Guardian 
Angel and on Guardian Angels, Feast of, in the Cath. 
Encycl. 

1. '^We sing of the Angels, the guardians of men, whom 
the heavenly Father has given as companions to our frail 
nature, lest it succumb to its insidious foes." 

2. *'For since the traitor-angel fell, he was justly de- 
prived of the honors bestowed upon him, and, burning with 
envy, he now endeavors to banish those whom God calls to 
heaven. ' ' 

3. * * Fly hither then, ever-watchful guardian, and ward 
off from the land entrusted to thee both diseases of the 

296 



THE HOLY GUARDIAN ANGELS 

soul and whatsoever does not permit the inhabitants to 
rest." Not only may each individual have a Guardian 
Angel, but each nation may have a special protector among 
the heavenly spirits. Cf. the footnote on Daniel 10, 13, 
in the Douay Bible, and the article on Guardian Angel, in 
the Cath. Encycl. 

4. **May there be loving praise forever to the Holy 
Trinity, by whose eternal will is ruled this triple frame, 
and whose glory reigns supreme throughout the ages," 



137 



Mterne Rector side rum 



AETERNE Rector siderum, 
Qui, quidquid est, potentia 
Magna creasti, nee regis 
Minore providentia: 

^Adesto supplicantiura 
Tibi reorum coetui, 
Lucisque sub crepusculum 
Lucem no vara da mentibus. 

^Tuusque nobis Angelus 
Electus ad custodiam, 
Hie adsit; a contagio 
Ut criminum nos protegat. 



* Nobis draconis aemuli 
Versutias exte^minet; 
Ne rete fraudulentias 
Incauta nectat pectora. 

^Metum repellat hostium 
Nostris procul de finibus: 
Pacem procuret civium, 
Fugetque pestilentiam. 

*Deo Patri sit gloria, 
Qui, quos redemit Filius, 
Et sanctus unxit Spiritus, 
Per Angelos custodial. 

Author: Cardinal Bellarmine (1542-1621). Meter: 
Iambic dimeter. Translation by Father Caswall. There 

297 



RULER of the dread immense! 
Maker of this mighty frame! 
Whose eternal providence 
Guides it, as from Thee it came: 

Low before Thy throne we bend; 
Hear our supplicating cries; 
And Thy light celestial send 
With the freshly dawning skies. 

King of kings, and Lord most 

High! 
This of Thy dear love we pray: 
May Thy Guardian Angel nigh, 
Keep us from all sin this day. 

May he crush the deadly wiles 
Of the envious serpent's art. 
Ever spreading cunning toils 
Round about the thoughtless heart. 

May he scatter ruthless war 
Ere to this our land it come; 
Plague and famine drive away. 
Fix securely peace at home. 

Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, 
One eternal Trinity! 
Guard by Thy Angelic host 
Us who put our trust in Thee. 



PROPER OF SAINTS 

are seven translations. Liturgical Use: Hymn for Lauds 
on the Feast of the Holy Guardian Angels. 

1-2. "Eternal Ruler of the stars, who, with great power 
didst create whatever exists, and with no less providence 
dost govern the same; give heed to the assembly of the 
guilty who supplicate Thee, and, at the break of day, grant 
new light to our souls." Crepusculum, twilight — generally 
the evening twilight. Here it is used for *'dawn" as Lauds 
was said at daybreak. 

3. ''And Thy Angel, who was chosen as our guardian, 
may he be present here to protect us from the contagion of 
sin." 

4. "May he bring to naught for us the wiles of the 
envious dragon, lest he ensnare unwary hearts in the net 
of deceitf ulness. " 

5. "May he drive far from our borders the fear of 
enemies; may he procure peace among the citizens and 
banish pestilence." 

6. ' ' Glory be to the Father, who guardeth by His Angels 
those whom the Son redeemed and the Holy Spirit 
anointed." TJnxit, strengthened. 



FEAST OF THE MOST HOLY ROSARY 

Oct. 7 
138 Cwlestis aulce Nuntius 

CCELESTIS aulae Nuntius, HPHE Messenger from God's high 

Arcana pandens Numinis, -■- throne 

Plenara salutat gratia His secret counsel making known 

Dei Parentem Virginem. Hails Mary, child of David's race, 

God's Virgin -Mother, full of grace. 

^ Virgo propinquam sanguine The Mother-Maid with joyous feet 

Matrem Joannis visitat, Her friend, John's mother, goes to 

Qui clausus alvo gestiens greet; 

Adesse Christum nuntiat. He, stirring in the enclosing womb. 

Declares that Christ his Lord haa 
come. 

298 



THE HOLY ROSARY 



'Verbum, quod ante saecula 
E mente Patris prodiit, 
E Matris alvo Virginis 
Mortalis Infans nascitur. 



*Templo puellus sistitur, 
Legique paret Legifer, 
Hie se Redemptor paupere 
Pretio redemptus immolat. 



'Quem jam dolebat per litum, 
Mox laeta Mater invenit 
Ignota doctis mentibus 
Edisserentem Filium. 



'Gloria tibi Domine 
Qui natus es de Virgine, 
Cum Patre et Sancto Spiritu 
In sempiterna saecula. 



The Word, who ere the worlds 

began, 
From God the Father's thought 

forth ran, 
Of Mary, Virgin undefiled. 
For us is born a mortal child. 

Christ to the Temple courts they 

bring; 
The King's own law subjects the 

King; 
The world's Redeemer for a price 
Is there redeemed, our sacrifice. 

The joyful Mother finds once more 

The Son she mourned as lost be- 
fore; 

While doctors by His speech were 
shown 

The mysteries they had never 
known. 

To God the Three in One be praise. 
Who through these holy mysteries 
Grants grace to those who seek in 

prayer 
The glory of His bliss to share. 



Atjthoe! Father Augustine Ricchini, O.P., 18th cent. 
Meter: Iambic dimeter. Translation by Alan G. Mc- 
Dougall. There are five translations. Liturgical Use: 
Vespers hymn. Thence: The Five Joyful Mysteries — one 
stanza being devoted to each Mystery. The Breviary Of- 
fice in honor of the Most Holy Rosary, with its four proper 
hymns, was approved by Pope Leo XIII, in 1888. In 
studying the hymns it will be observed that the first three 
hymns celebrate in their fifteen stanzas, the fifteen 
Mysteries of the Holy Rosary. The fourth hymn is a re- 
capitulation of the subject matter of the first three hymns. 
The hymns were written in 1757. 

1. The Annunciation: "The messenger of the heavenly 
court, revealing the mysteries of the Divinity, salutes, as 
full of grace, the Virgin-Mother of God." Nuntius, the 
Archangel Gabriel (Cf. Luke 1, 26-28). 

299 



PROPER OF SAINTS 

2. The Visitation: **The Virgin visits one related to her 
by blood, the mother of John, who, though still enclosed in 
the womb, exultingly proclaims that Christ is present." 
Exultavit infans in utero ejus (Luke 1, 41). Propinquam 
sanguine, Elizabeth, Mary's cousin (Luke 1, 36) ; read the 
remainder of this chapter of St. Luke. It gives an account 
of the Visitation, and in it are found the two sublime 
Evangelical Canticles, the Magnificat (verses 46-55), and 
the Benedictus (verses 68-79). 

3. The Nativity: "The Word that from all eternity had 
proceeded from the intellect of the Father is born a mortal 
infant from the womb of a Virgin-Mother.*' Verbum, the 
Eternal Son (Cf. John 1, 1-14). 

4. The Presentation: *'The Child is presented in the 
temple, the Lawgiver obeys the Law, here the Redeemer 
offers Himself, and is redeemed by the offering of the 
poor." The Law (Leviticus 12, 6-8) specified the offerings 
that must be made by the rich and by the poor on the puri- 
fication of a woman after childbirth. The latter were re- 
quired to offer a sacrifice of "a pair of turtle doves, or two 
young pigeons" (Cf. Luke 2, 22-24). Mary made the 
offering of the poor, and did for Him ''according to the 
custom of the Law" (Luke 2, 27). The purification of the 
mother, and the redemption of the Child (Num. 18, 15) 
were quite different legal prescriptions, but it is reasonable 
to suppose that both ceremonies took place at the same 
time. Read the beautiful Canticle of Simeon (Luke 2, 29- 
32). 

5. The Finding in the Temple: ''Now the joyful Mother 
finds her Son whom she had already mourned as lost ; finds 
Him expounding to learned minds things they did not 
know." 

139 In monte olivis 

IN monte olivis consito 'T^HE Mount of Olives wit- 

Redemptor orans, procidit, ^ nesseth 

Mceret, pavescit, deficit, The awful agony of God: 

Sudore manans sanguinis. His soul is sorrowful to death, 

His sweat of blood bedews the 
sod. 
300 



THE HOLY ROSARY 



'A proditore traditus 
Raptatur in poenas Deus, 
Durisque vinctus nexibus 
Flagris cruentis caeditur. 



'Intexta acutis sentibus, 
Corona contumeliae, 
Squallenti amictum purpura, 
Regem coronat gloriae. 



*Molis crucem ter arduae, 
Sudans, anhelans concidens, 
Ad montis usque verticem 
Gestare vi compellitur. 



'Confixus atro stipite 
Inter scelestos innocens, 
Orando pro tortoribus, 
Exsanguis efflat spiritum. 



"Gloria tibi, Domine, 
Qui natus es de Virgine, 
Cum Patre et Sancto Spiritu 
In sempiterna saecula. 



And now the traitor's work is 

done: 
The clamorous crowds around Him 

surge ; 
Bound to pillar, God the Son 
Quivers beneath the blood-red 

scourge. 

Lo! clad in purple soiled and 

worn, 
Meekly the Saviour waiteth now 
While wretches plait the cruel 

thorn 
To crown with shame His royal 

brow. 

Sweating and sighing, faint with 

loss 
Of what hath flowed from life's 

red fount. 
He bears the exceeding heavy 

Cross 
Up to the verge of Calvary's 

mount. 

Nailed to the wood of ancient 

curse, 
Between two thieves the Sinless 

One 
Still praying for His murderers, 
Breathes forth His soul, and all 

is done! 

Glory to Thee, and honor meet, 
Jesu, of Maiden-Mother born. 
And Father and the Paraclete, 
Through endless ages of the morn ! 



Author: Father Augustine Ricchini, O.P., 18th cent. 
Meter : Iambic dimeter. Translation by Monsignor Henry. 
There are four translations. Liturgical Use: Hymn for 
Matins on the Feast of the Holy Rosary. Theme : The Five 
Sorrowful Mysteries. 

1. The Agony in the Garden: **0n the mountain planted 
with olives, the Redeemer praying falls prostrate; He 

301 



PROPER OF SAINTS 

grows sad, He fears, He grows faint, dripping with a sweat 
of blood." The Passion of Our Lord is described in Matt. 
26-27; Mark 14-15; Luke 22-23; John 18-19. 

2. The Scourging at the Pillar: **God, delivered up by 
a traitor, is dragged away to punishment; He is bound 
with rough cords and beaten with bloody scourges." 

3. The Crowning with Thorns: ''A crown of ignominy, 
woven of sharp thorns, crowns the King of glory clothed 
with a filthy purple garment. * ' 

4. The Carrying of the Cross: "Perspiring, gasping, 
and falling, He is compelled by force to carry the Cross of 
thrice heavy weight to the summit of the mountain." The 
Cross was ''thrice heavy" on account of Our Lord's weak- 
ness following the agony and the scourging. 

5. The Crucifixion: ''Fastened to the infamous gibbet, 
guiltless He hangs between the guilty, till, bloodless, He 
breathes forth His Spirit while praying for His torturers." 



140 



Jam morte victor 



JAM morte victor obruta 
Ab inferis Christus redit, 
Fractisque culpae vinculis, 
Coeli recludit limina. 



^Visus satis mortal ibus 
Ascendit ad coelestia, 
Dexterseque Patris assidet 
Consors paternae gloriae. 

'Quern jam suis promiserat, 
Sanctum daturus Spiritum, 
Linguis amoris igneis 
Mcestis alumnis impluit. 

*Soluta carnis pondere 
Ad astra Virgo tollitur, 
Excepta cceli jubilo, 
Et Angelorum canticis. 



NOW Christ, the Conqueror of 
death, 
Breaks sin's enslaving chain, 
And rising from the tomb returns, 
And opens heaven again. 

Awhile beheld by mortal men. 
He rises from their sight; 
Ascending to the Father's throne, 
He reigns in equal light. 

His promised gift unto His own 
He sends forth from above, 
And rains the Holy Spirit down 
In fiery tongues of love. 

The Virgin, freed of mortal 

weight, 
Is borne than stars yet higher, 
And with glad melody is hailed 
By each Angelic choir. 



302 



THE HOLY ROSARY 

'Bis sena cingunt sidera Our Mother's gentle brow now 

Almae parentis verticem: shines 

Throno propinqua Filii With crown in starry sheen, 

Cunctis creatis imperat. As nigh her Son, in light en- 

throned, 
She reigns creation's Queen. 

* Gloria tibi, Domine, O Jesu, bom of Virgin bright, 

Qui natus es de Virgine, All glory be to Thee, 

Cum Patre et Sancto Spiritu With Father and with Paraclete, 

In sempiterna saecula. Through all eternity. 



Author: Father Augustine Ricchini, O.P., 18th cent. 
Meter: Iambic dimeter. Translation by the Benedictines 
of Stanbrook. Liturgical Use: Hymn for Lauds on the 
Feast of the Holy Rosary. Theme: The Five Glorious 
Mysteries. 

1. The Resurrection: ''Death having been vanquished, 
Christ, the conqueror, returns from Limbo, and having 
broken the bonds of sin, He reopens the portals of heaven.'* 

2. The Ascension: ''Having appeared sufficiently long 
to men, He ascended into heaven and sits at the right hand 
of the Father, a co-sharer of His glory." 

3. The Coming of the Holy Ghost: "The Holy Spirit 
whom He had already promised to His own, He showers 
down upon His sorrowing Apostles in fiery tongues of 
love. ' ' 

4. The Assumption of the Blessed Virgin: "Liberated 
from the weight of the flesh, the Virgin is taken up to 
heaven; she is received with the jubilation of heaven, and 
with the songs of Angels. ' ' 

5. The Coronation of the Blessed Virgin: "Twelve 
stars now crown the brow of the glorious Mother ; near the 
throne of her Son, she reigns over all created things." 
There is an allusion in this stanza to the "great sign" that 
appeared in heaven : " A woman clothed with the sun, and 
the moon under her feet, and on her head a crown of twelve 
stars" (Apoc. 12, 1). See footnote on this verse of the 
Apoc, in the Douay Bible. Imperat: "reigns over" in the 
sense that she is styled — Queen of Angels, Patriarchs, 
Prophets, etc., in the Litany. 

S03 



PROPER OF SAINTS 
141 Te gestientem gaudiis 

TE gestientem gaudiis, 
Te sauciam doloribus, 
Te jugi amictam gloria, 
Virgo Mater pangimus. 



'Ave, redundans gaudio 
Dum concipis, dum visitas, 
Et edis, offers, invenis, 
Mater beata Filium, 

'Ave, dolens et intimo, 
In corde agonem, verbera. 
Spinas, crucemque Filii 
Perpessa, princeps martyrura. 



*Ave, in triumphis Filii, 
In ignibus Paraclyti, 
In regni honore et lumine, 
Regina fulgens gloria. 



^Venite gentes, carpite 
Ex his rosas mysteriis, 
Et pulchri amoris inclitae 
Matri coronas nectite. 



•Gloria tibi Domine, 
Qui natus es de Virgine 
Cum Patre et Sancto Spiritu 
In sempiterna saecula. 



THE gladness of thy Mother- 
hood, 
The anguish of thy suffering, 
The glory now that crowns thy 

brow, 
Virgin-Mother, we would sing. 

Hail, blessed Mother, full of joy 
In thy consent, thy visit too; 
Joy in the birth of Christ on earth, 
Joy in Him lost and found anew. 

Hail, sorrowing in His agony — 
The blows, the thorns that pierced 

His brow; 
The heavy wood, the shameful 

Rood- 
Yea! Queen and chief of Martyrs 

thou. 

Hail, in the triumph of thy Son, 
The quickening flames of Pente- 
cost; 
Shining a Queen in light serene, 
When all the world is tempest- 
tost. 

O come, ye nations, roses bring. 
Culled from these mysteries 

Divine, 
And for the Mother of your King 
With loving hands your chaplets 

twine. 

We lay our homage at Thy feet, 
Lord Jesus, Thou the Virgin's Son, 
With Father and with Paraclete, 
Reigning while endless ages run. 



Author: Father Augustine Ricchini, O.P., 18th. cent. 
Meter: Iambic dimeter. Translation by Abbot Hunter- 
Blair, O.S.B. There are five translations. Liturgical 
Use: Hymn for Second Vespers on the Feast of the Holy 
Rosary. Theme: 1st stanza, a summary of the three sets 

304 



ST. TERESA 

of Mysteries ; 2nd stanza, a summary of the Joyful Myster- 
ies; 3d stanza, the Sorrowful Mysteries; 4th stanza, the 
Glorious Mysteries; 5th stanza, an invitation to gather 
from these Mysteries roses and weave therefrom a crown 
for the glorious Mother of fair love. 

1. ''We sing thee, Virgin Mother, as exulting with 
joy, wounded with sorrows, and robed with eternal glory. ' ' 

2. ''Hail, Mother overflowing with joy, when thou didst 
conceive, when thou didst visit thy cousin Elizabeth, when 
thou didst give birth to thy Son, when thou didst offer Him, 
and find Him in the temple. ' ' 

3. "Hail, suffering Queen of Martyrs, thou who didst 
endure in thy inmost heart the agony, the scourging, the 
thorns, and the Cross of thy Son. ' ' Agon, onis, lit., a con- 
test or combat. The reference is to the agony in the Gar- 
den of Gethsemani. 

4. "Hail, Queen refulgent with glory in the triumphs 
of thy Son, in the fires of the Paraclete, in the honor and 
splendor of the heavenly kingdom." 

5. ' ' Come, ye nations, cull roses from these Mysteries, 
and weave therefrom garlands for the glorious Mother of 
fair love." 

ST. TERESA 

Oct. 15 

142 Regis superni nuntia 

REGIS superni nuntia, /^OD'S messenger, Theresa, 

Domum paternam deseris, ^^ Thou leav'st thy father's 
Terris Teresa barbarls home 

Christum datura, aut sanguinem. To bring mankind to Jesus 

Or gain sweet martyrdom. 

''Sed te manet suavior But milder death awaits thee, 

Mors, poena poscit dulcior: And fonder pains are thine, 

Divini amoris cuspide God's blessed Angel wounds thee 

In vulnus iota concides. With fire of love divine. 

' caritatis victima ! Sweet virgin, love's pure victim, 

Tu corda nostra concrema, So fire our souls with love, 

305 



PROPER OF SAINTS 

Tibique gentes creditas And lead thy trusting people 

Averni ab igne libera. Safe to the realms above. 

* Sit laus Patri cum Filio Give glory to the Father, 

Et Spiritu Paraclito, The Spirit and the Son, 

Tibique sancta Trinitas, One Trinity, one Godhead, 

Nunc, et per omne saeculura. While endless ages run. 



Author: Pope Urban VIII (1568-1644). Meter: Iambic 
dimeter. Translation by D. J. Donahoe. There are four 
translations. Liturgical Use: Hymn for Vespers and 
Matins. St. Teresa (1515-1582) was an illustrious mem- 
ber of the Carmelite Order. A brief account of her won- 
derful life is given in the Cath. Encycl., and a more ex- 
tended biography in Butler's Lives of the Saints. Note the 
spelling: Teresa, Teresia, Theresa. 

1. **As a herald of the heavenly King, thou dost leave, 
Teresa, thy father's house to give to barbarous lands 
either Christ or thy blood." As a mere child, Teresa and 
her little brother actually set out for the country of the 
Moors, with the hope of dying for their faith. Much to 
their disappointment they were intercepted by an uncle 
and restored to their distracted mother. 

2. **But a sweeter death awaits thee, a more delightful 
pain claims thee: pierced even unto being wounded by a 
shaft of divine love, thou dost fall." This stanza refers 
to the Transverberation of the Saint's heart. In her auto- 
biography she tells us that an Angel appeared to her, and — 
* * He had in his hand a long golden dart, and at the end of 
the point methought there was a little fire; and I con- 
ceived that he thrust it several times through my heart and 
after such a manner that it passed through my very bow- 
els; and when he drew it out, methought it pulled them 
out with it, and left me wholly inflamed with a great love 
of God" (Butler's Lives). Her body is still preserved 
incorrupt at Alba in Spain, and **her heart, too, showing 
the marks of the Transverberation is exposed there for the 
veneration of the faithful" {Cath. Encycl.) . There is an 
Oflfice and Mass in honor of the Transverberatio Cordis S. 
Teresice (Aug. 27). 

306 



ST. TERESA 

3. "0 victim of love, inflame our hearts, and deliver 
from the fires of hell the nations entrusted to thee." 



143 



HcBC est dies 



TJtJEC est dies, qua candidae 
•■--■■ Instar columbae, coelitum 
Ad sacra templa spiritus 
Se transtulit Teresiae. 

^Sponsique voces audiit: 
Veni soror de vertice 
Carmeli ad Agni nuptias: 
Veni ad coronam gloriae. 



^Te sponse Jesu Virginum 
Beati adorent ordines, 
Et nuptiali cantico 
Laudent per omne saeculum. 



BEHOLD the blessed morning, 
When, like a snow-white dove, 
Thy soul arose, Theresa, 
To join the choirs above. 

The Bridegroom calls: "From 

Carmel 
Come, sister, unto me, 
Partake the Lamb's high nuptials; 
Thy crown awaiteth thee." 

Jesus, tender Bridegroom 
By holy virgin throngs 
Be evermore surrounded. 
Be praised in endless songs. 



Author: Pope Urban VIII (1568-1644). Meter: Iambic 
dimeter. Translation by D. J. Donahoe. There are five 
translations. Liturgical Use: Hymn for Lauds on the 
Feast of St. Teresa. 

1. "This is the day on which the soul of Teresa like a 
shining white dove betook itself to the sacred temples of the 
Blessed." Instar, with genitive, like to, after the fashion 
of. Columbce, the dove is a symbol of innocence and purity. 

2. '*And she heard the voice of the Bridegroom: 'Come, 
Sister, from the heights of Carmel to the nuptials of the 
Lamb; come to receive a crown of glory.' " Veni (ad 
suscipiendam) coronam glorias. The Carmelite order was 
founded on Mount Carmel in Palestine in 1156. For an 
explanation of the term ''nuptials of the Lamb," read St. 
Teresa's own interpretation of mystical marriage quoted 
in the article on Marriage, Mystical, in the Cath. Encycl. 

3. "0 Jesus, Spouse of Virgins, may the heavenly choirs 
adore Thee, and with nuptial song praise Thee forever." 



307 



144 



PROPER OF SAINTS 
ST. JOHN CANTIUS 

Oct. 20 

Gentis Polonce 



GENTIS Polonae gloria, 
Clerique splendor nobilis, 
Decus Lycaei, et patriae 
Pater, Joannes inclyte. 



^ Legem superni Numinis 
Doces magister, et facis. 
Nil scire prodest: sedulo 
Legem nitamur exsequi. 



^Apostolorum limina 
Pedes viator visitas; 
Ad patriam, ad quam tendimus, 
Gressus viamque dirige. 



*Urbem petis Jerusalem: 
Signata sacro sanguine 
Christi colis vestigia, 
Rigasque fusis fletibus. 



'^Acerba Christi vulnera, 
Hserete nostris cordibus, 
Ut cogitemus consequi 
Redemptionis pretium. 



•Te prona mundi machina, 
Clemens adoret Trinitas, 
Et nos novi per gratiam 
Novum canamus canticum. 



GLORY of the Polish race, 
splendor of the priestly 
band, 
Whose lore did thy Lyceimi grace, 
John, father of the fatherland. 

The Law of the supernal Will 
Thou teachest both in word and 

deed; 
Knowledge is naught — we must 

fulfill 
Li works, not barren words, our 

creed ! 

On foot to Apostolic Rome 
Thy pilgrim spirit joyful hied; 
Oh, to our everlasting home 
The path declare, the footstep 
guide ! 

Again, in Sion's holy street. 
Anew thou wet'st with tearful 

flood 
The pathway of the Saviour's feet 
Erst wet with His redeeming 

Blood. 

sweet and bitter Wounds of 

Christ, 
Deep in our hearts imprinted stay. 
That the blest fruit the sacrificed 
Redeemer gained, be ours for aye! 

Then let the world obeisance due 
Perform, God, to Thy high 

Will; 
And let our souls, by grace made 

new. 
Sing to Thee a new canticle! 



Author: Unknown, 18th cent. Meter: Iambic dimeter, 

308 



ST. JOHN CANTIUS 

Translation by Monsignor Henry. There are five trans- 
lations. Liturgical Use : Vespers hymn. There is a short 
biography of John Cantius, St. (1412-1473), in the Cath. 
Encycl. 

1. "Illustrious John, the glory of the Polish race, and 
the noble ornament of the priesthood, the glory of thy Uni- 
versity and the father of thy country!" Lyccei: the Uni- 
versity of Cracow in which St. John was a professor of 
theology. A brief history of the University is given at the 
end of the article on Cracow, in the Cath. Encycl. 

2. **As teacher thou dost both teach and observe the 
Law of the Heavenly Divinity: to know availeth not; we 
must diligently strive to fulfil the Law." 

3. *'A traveler on foot thou dost visit the tombs of the 
Apostles: to our true country which we seek, direct thou 
our steps and our way." Limen, a threshold; Limina 
Apostolorum, an ecclesiastical term meaning a pilgrimage 
to the sepulchers of SS. Peter and Paul in Rome. St. Peter 
rests in the great church bearing his name, and St. Paul 
in the Basilica of St. Paul '^ outside the walls." Pedes, 
itis, adj., on foot. Pedes viator, a pilgrim. St. John made 
four pilgrimages to Rome on foot. He also made a pil- 
grimage to Jerusalem. 

4. *'Thou dost visit the city of Jerusalem, and dost 
venerate the footprints marked with the Sacred Blood of 
Christ, and thou dost bedew them with abundant tears." 

5. ''0 bitter Wounds of Christ, be ye deeply implanted 
in our hearts, that we may be ever mindful to seek earnestly 
the reward of our redemption. ' ' 

6. **0 loving Trinity, may the whole fabric of the uni- 
verse prostrate adore Thee, and we, renewed by Thy grace, 
would sing Thee a new song of praise. ' ' 

145 Corpus domas jejuniis 

CORPUS domas jejuniis, T ONG fasting hath thy body 

Caedis cruento verbere, •"-' tamed, 

Ut castra pcenitentiimi With many cruel stripes it bleeds, 

Miles sequaris innocens. Though innocence exemption 

claimed 
For thee from penitential deeds. 

309 



PROPER OF SAINTS 



^Sequamur et nos sedulo 
Gressus parentis optimi, 
Sequamur, ut licentiam 
Carnis refrasnet spiritus. 

'Rigente bruma, providum 
Praebes amictum pauperi, 
Sitim famemque egentiiun 
Esca potuque sublevas. 



*0 qui negasti nemini 
Opera roganti, patrium 
Regnum tuere, postulant 
Gives Poloni, et exteri. 



'Sit laus Patri, sit Filio, 
Tibique, sancte Spiritus; 
Preces Joannis impetrent 
Beata nobis gaudia. 



Then let us follow in the path 
Of John, our father and our guide ; 
Who follows him, his spirit hath 
The power to curb all carnal pride. 

In winter's frost thy loving care 
Provides a garment for the poor; 
For those who want thou dost 

prepare 
Of meat and drink a copious store. 

thou who never didst deny 
Thine aid unto the suppliant's 

prayer, 
Hear Christendom's and Poland's 

cry. 
And save thy country from 

despair. 

Now let us chant in glad refrain 
Unto the Triune God our praise: 
O may the prayers of John obtain 
Blest joys for us in endless days. 



Author: Unknown, 18th cent. Meter: Iambic dimeter. 
Translation by Father Wallace, O.S.B. There are four 
translations. Liturgical Use: Hymn for Matins on the 
Feast of St. John Cantius. 

1. ''Thou didst subdue thy body with fasts, and with 
bloody blows didst lacerate it, that as an innocent soldier 
thou mightest follow the army of penitents." 

2. "Let us also follow diligently in the footsteps of the 
good father: let us follow, that the spirit may restrain 
the licentiousness of the flesh." 

3. "During the cold winter thou offerest to the poor the 
kindly provided garment, and with food and drink thou 
dost alleviate the thirst and hunger of the needy." St. 
John not only gave away his food and clothing, but on one 
occasion at least he even gave away his shoes and walked 
home barefooted (Matins, Lectio V). 

4. "0 thou who didst refuse assistance to no one asking 
for it, the Polish nation and strangers beseech thee that 
thou protect thy native kingdom." 

310 



ST. JOHN CANTIUS 

5. '* Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to Thee, 
Holy Spirit : may the prayers of John obtain for us blessed 
joys." 



146 



Te deprecante, corporum 



TE deprecante, corporum 
Lues recedit, iraprobi 
Morbi fugantur, pristina 
Redeunt salutis munera. 



^Phthisi, febrique, et ulcere 
Diram redactos ad necem, 
Sacratis morti victimas, 
Ejus rapis e faucibus. 



'Te deprecante, tumido 
Merces abactae flumine, 
Tractas Dei potentia 
Sursura fluunt retrogradae. 



*Cum tanta possis, sedibus 
Cceli locatus, poscimus: 
Responde votis supplicura, 
Et invocatus subveni. 



""O una semper Trinitas, 
trina semper Unitas: 
Da, supplicante Cantio, 
Sterna nobis preemia. 



WHEN thou dost pray thy 
mighty prayer, 
Disorders flee, and plagues abate. 
And bodies, wasting in disease, 
Regain at once their healthful 
state. 

When phthisis, fevers, ulcers dire, 
Have brought men to their latest 

breath, 
When they are mourned as victims 

doomed. 
Thou tak'st them from the jaws of 

death. 

Thou pray'st; and goods, which 

down the stream 
Are hurried on at headlong pace. 
Drawn by the mighty hand of 

God, 
Float upwards, and their source 

retrace. 

Do thou, who canst such wonders 

work. 
Now from thy throne in heaven 

deign 
To listen to our suppliant prayers, 
That we may answering help 

obtain. 

Trinity forever One, 
Unity forever Trine, 
That we may gain eternal joys. 
To Cantius' prayer Thine ear 
incline. 



Author: Unknown, 18th cent. Meter: Iambic dimeter. 
Translation by Archbishop Bagshawe; this is a good 
specimen of Bagshawe 's style. There are five translations. 



311 



PROPER OF SAINTS 

Liturgical Use : Hymn for Lauds on the Feast of St. John 
Cantius. 

1. *'At thy prayer bodily sickness departs, dreadful 
plagues are put to flight, former blessings of health re- 
turn." 

2. ''Thou dost snatch from his very jaws the victims 
devoted to death — those brought nigh to a dire death by 
consumption, fever, and ulcer." 

3. ''At thy prayer, goods carried away by a swollen 
stream, are, by the mighty hand of God, drawn backwards, 
floating up the stream." 

4. ' ' Since thou, now dwelling in the mansions of heaven, 
art able to do such wonders, we ask that thou give heed to 
the prayers of thy suppliants, and aid them when invoked. ' ' 

5. " Trinity forever One, Unity forever Three : grant 
ua through the intercession of Cantius an eternal reward. ' ' 

FEAST OF ALL SAINTS 

Nov. 1 



147 



Placare, Christe, servuUs 



PLACARE, Christe, servuHs, 
Quibus Patris clementiam 
Tuas ad tribunal gratiae 
Patrona Virgo postulat. 



*Et vos beata, per novem 
Distincta gyros agtnina, 
Antiqua cum praesentibus, 
Futura damna pellite. 



CHRIST, Thy guilty people 
spare! 
Lo, kneeling at Thy gracious 

throne, 
Thy Virgin-Mother pours her 

prayer. 
Imploring pardon for her own. 

Ye Angels, happy evermore! 
Who in your circles nine ascend. 
As ye have guarded us before. 
So still from harm our steps 
defend. 



^Apostoli cum Vatibus, 
Apud severum Judicem, 
Veris reorum fletibus 
Exposcite indulgentiam. 



Ye Prophets and Apostles high! 
Behold our penitential tears; 
And plead for us when death is 

nigh, 
And our all-searching Judge 

appears. 



312 



ALL SAINTS 



*Vo9 purpurati Martyres, 
Vos candidati praemio 
Confessionis, exsules 
Vocate nos in patriam. 



° Chorea casta Virginum, 
Et quos eremus incolas 
Transmisit astris, coelitum 
Locate nos in sedibus. 



• Auferte g«item perfidam 
Credentium de finibus, 
Ut unus omnes unicum 
Ovile nos pastor regat. 



^ Deo Patri sit gloria, 
Natoque Patris unico, 
Sancto simul Paraclito, 
In sempiterna saecula. 



Ye Martyrs all! a purple band, 
And Confessors, a white-robed 

train ; 
Oh, call us to our native land. 
From this our exile, back again. 

And ye, choirs of Virgins 

chaste! 
Receive us to your seats on high; 
With Hermits whom the desert 

waste 
Sent up of old into the sky. 

Drive from the flock, Spirit 

blest! 
The false and faithless race away; 
That all within one fold may rest. 
Secure beneath one Shepherd's 

sway. 

To God the Father glory be. 
And to His sole-begotten Son; 
And glory, Holy Ghost, to Thee, 
While everlasting ages run. 



Author: Ascribed to Rabanus Maurus (776-856). 
Meter: Iambic dimeter. Translation by Father Caswall. 
There are seven translations. Liturgical. Use : Hymn for 
Vespers. First line of Original Text: Christe Redemptor 
omnium. 

1. '*Be merciful, Christ, to Thy servants, for whom 
the Virgin-Patroness implores the mercy of the Father at 
the throne of Thy grace." 

2. *'And ye, blessed hosts, divided into nine circles 
(choirs), drive away past, present, and future evils." 

3. **Ye Apostles, together with the Prophets, earnestly 
entreat forgiveness of the severe Judge, on account of the 
sincere tears of the guilty. ' ' 

4. ''Ye purple-robed Martyrs, and ye who are white- 
robed on account of your confession, call us exiles to our 
native land." Confessionis: Confessors "confess their 
faith ' ' by the practice of heroic virtue. Read the article on 
Confessor, in the Cath. Encycl. Candidatus, the Saints in 
general are styled "white-robed" (Cf. Apoc. 7, 9-14). 

313 



PROPER OF SAINTS 

5. **Ye chaste choir of Virgins, and ye whom the desert 
waste hath sent as dwellers to heaven, establish us in the 
mansions of the Blessed." 

6. "Drive away the faithless race from the land of the 
faithful, that one Shepherd may rule over us all as over 
one fold." 

''When the celebration of All Saints was extended to 
the Frankish empire in 825, after having been observed in 
Rome for two centuries, and its celebration fixed on the 
1st of November, the verse Gentem auferte perfidam 
Credentium de finibus was added to the hymn with refer- 
ence to the Normans and Saracens who were laying waste 
both the northwest of Gaul and the south of Italy" {The 
Roman Breviary its Sources and History, by Dom Jules 
Baudot, O.S.B., p. 68). 



148 



Salutis (Bternce dator 



SALUTIS aeternas dator, 
Jesu, redemptis subveni: 
Virgo parens clementiae 
Dona salutem servulis. 



"Vos Angelorum millia, 
Patrumque coetus, agmina 
Canora Vatum: vos reis 
Precamini indulgentiam. 



^Baptista Christi praevius, 
Summique coeli Claviger, 
Cum ceteris Apostolis 
Nexus resolvant criminum. 



*Cohors triumphans Martyrum, 
Almus Sacerdotum chorus, 
Et virginalis castitas 
Nostros reatus abluant. 



GIVER of life, eternal Lord! 
Thy own redeemed defend; 
Mother of grace! thy children 

save. 
And help them to the end. 

Ye thousand thousand Angel 

hosts ! 
Assist us in our need; 
Ye Patriarchs! with the Prophet 

choir ! 
For our forgiveness plead. 

Forerunner blest! and Thou who 

still 
Dost heaven's dread keys retain! 
Ye glorious Apostles all! 
Unloose our guilty chain. 

Army of Martyrs! holy Priests 
In beautiful array! 
Ye happy troops of Virgins chaste! 
Wash all our stains away. 



314 



ALL SAINTS 

•''Quicumque in alta siderum All ye who high above the stars 

Regnatis aula principes, In heavenly glory reign! 

Favete votis supplicum, May we through your prevailing 

Qui dona cceli flagitant. prayers 

Unto your joys attain. 

* Virtus, honor, laus, gloria Praise, honor, to the Father be, 

Deo Patri cum Filio, Praise to His only Son; 

Sancto simul Paraclito, Praise, Holy Paraclete, to Thee, 

In sseculorum saecula. While endless ages run. 

Author: Ascribed to Rabanus Maurus (776-856). 
Meter: Iambic dimeter. Translation by Father Caswall. 
There are eight translations. First two lines of Original 
Text : Jesu Salvator smculi Redemptis ope suhveni. There 
is another form of this text beginning : F estiva smclis coli- 
tur. Liturgical Use: Hymn for Lauds on the Feast of 
All Saints. 

1. *'0 Jesus, giver of eternal life, aid those whom Thou 
hast redeemed : Virgin, Mother of mercy, grant salvation 
to thy servants." Bona: obtain through thy intercession. 

2. * ' ye thousands of Angels, ye assembly of Patriarchs, 
and melodious host of Prophets, ask forgiveness for sin- 
ners." The Prophets are called canorous or melodious on 
account of the poetical nature of the language they fre- 
quently use. 

3. "May the Baptist, the forerunner of Christ, may the 
key-bearer of heaven, together with the other Apostles 
loosen the chains of our sins." The key-bearer is St. 
Peter: Et tibi dabo claves regni ccelorum (Matt. 16, 19). 

4. "May the triumphant host of Martyrs, the august 
ohoir of priests and virginal chastity wash away our guilt. ' ' 
Virginalis castitas = virgines castae. 

5. "All ye who reign as princes in the hi^ court of 
heaven, give ear to the prayers of the suppliants who ask 
earnestly for the gifts of heaven." 



315 



Part IV 



tS^t Common of tfie i^atntK 
COMMON OF THE BLESSED VIRGIN MARY 



149 

AVE maris Stella, 
Dei Mater alma, 
Atque semper Virgo, 
Felix coeli porta. 

^Sumens illud Ave 
Gabrielis ore, 
Funda nos in pace, 
Mutans Hevae nomen. 

' Solve vincla reis. 
Prefer lumen caecis, 
Mala nostra pelle. 
Bona cuncta posce. 



*Monstra te esse matrem, 
Smnat per te preces, 
Qui pro nobis natus, 
Tulit esse tuus. 

'Virgo singularis. 
Inter omnes mitis, 
Nos culpis solutos 
Mites fac et castos. 

*Vitam praesta puram, 
Iter para tutum, 
Ut videntes Jesum, 
Semper collaetemur. 



Ave Maris Stella 



\ VE, Star of Ocean, 
-^^ Child Divine who barest. 
Mother, Ever-Virgin, 
Heaven's Portal fairest. 

Taking that sweet Ave 
Erst by Gabriel spoken, 
Eva's name reversing, 
Be of peace the token. 

Break the sinners' fetters. 
Light to blind restoring, 
All our ills dispelling, 
Every boon imploring. 

Show thyself a Mother 
In thy supplication; 
He will hear who chose thee 
At His Incarnation. 

Maid all maids excelling, 
Passing meek and lowly. 
Win for sinners pardon, 
Make us chaste and holy. 

As we onward journey 
Aid our weak endeavor. 
Till we gaze on Jesus 
And rejoice forever. 



317 



COMMON OF SAINTS 

'Sit laus Deo Patri, Father, Son, and Spirit, 

Summo Christo decus. Three in One confessing, 

Spiritui sancto, Give we equal glory 

Tribus honor unus. Equal praise and blessing. 

Author : Unknown. It is at least as old as the 9th cent. 
Meter: Trochaic dimeter, each verse being composed of 
three trochees. There are nineteen translations, two of 
which are given here. Liturgical Use: Vespers hymn on 
Feasts of Our Lady. 

The fine translation given above was made by Mr. Athel- 
stan Riley, M.A., for his translation of the Hours of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary, ''Little Office," 1891. 

The beautiful translation given below is from the pen 
of the Rev. G. R. Woodward, M.A. It is a new transla- 
tion, and by the kindess of its author it is here published 
for the first time. 

There is an article on this hymn in the Cath. Encycl. 

1. ''Hail, Star of the Sea, loving Mother of God, and 
Ever- Virgin, happy Gate of Heaven ! ' ' The name Mary is 
derived from the Hebrew ' ' Miriam, ' ' which signifies ' ' Star 
of the Sea"; in Chaldaic it means "Lady." Cceli porta: 
By her powerful intercession with her Divine Son she 
opens for sinners the gates of heaven. Ave: Ave gratia 
plena: Dominus tecum; benedicta tu in mulieribus (Luke 
1, 28). Read the first of the two articles on Anmmciation, 
in the Cath. Encycl. Of. also Luke 1, 26-38. 

2. "Receiving that Ave from the mouth of Gabriel, es- 
tablish us in peace, reversing the name of Eva." Heva 
= Eva, which "reversed" gives Ave. 

3. "Break the chains of sinners, give light to the blind, 
drive away evils, ask for all that's good." Vincla for 
vincula. Ccecis, to those who are spiritually blind, who 
have eyes and see not (cf. Ps. 134, 16). 

4. ' ' Show thyself to be a Mother ; through thee may He 
receive our prayers — He who, born for us, deigned to be 
thy Son." Tuus (Filius). 

5. "Virgin all-excelling, meek above all others, make us, 
freed from sin, meek and chaste." 

6. "Preserve our life unspotted, make safe our way, 
that, seeing Jesus, we may rejoice together forever." 

318 



THE BLESSED VIRGIN MARY 

7. **To God the Father be praise, to Christ most high 
be glory, and to the Holy Spirit, to the Three be one 
honor." Vnus, equal, the same. 

149B Ave Maris Stella 

HAIL, Sea-Star we name thee, 
Ever-Maid acclaim thee, 
God His Mother, Portal 
To the life immortal. 

Ave was the token 
By the Angel spoken: 
Peace on earth it telleth, 
EvcCs name re-spelleth. 

Free the worldly-minded 
Luminate the blinded. 
Every ill repressing. 
Win us every blessing. 

Plead, and play the Mother! 
He will, and none other. 
Born for our salvation. 
Hear thy supplication. 

Maiden meek and lowly, 
Singularly holy. 
Loose the sins that chain us; 
Sanctify, sustain us. 

Help us live in pureness, 
Smooth our way with sureness. 
Till we also eye Thee, 
Jesu, ever nigh Thee. 

Father, Son, we bless Thee, 
Likewise do confess Thee, 
Holy Spirit, Trinal, 
Onely, first and final, 

150 Quern terra, pontus, sidera 



Q 



UEM terra, pontus, sidera T^HE God whom earth, and sea, 
Colunt, adorant, praedicant -■- and sky 

Adore, and laud, and magnify, 

319 



COMMON OF SAINTS 



Trinam regentem machinam, 
Claustrum Marise bajulat. 



^ Cui luna, sol, et omnia 
Deserviunt per tempora, 
Perfusa coeli gratia, 
Gestant puellae viscera. 



' Beata Mater munere, 
Cujus supernus artifex 
Mundum pugillo continens, 
Ventris sub area clausus est. 



* Beata coeli nuntio, 
Fcecunda sancto Spiritu, 
Desideratus gentibus, 
Cujus per alvum fusus est. 



'Jesu tibi sit gloria, 
Qui natus es de Virgine, 
Cum Patre, et almo Spiritu 
In sempiterna saecula. 



Who o'er their threefold fabric 
reigns, 

The Virgin's spotless womb con- 
tains. 

The God, whose will by moon and 

sun 
And all things in due course is 

done, 
Is borne upon a Maiden's breast, 
By fullest heavenly grace possest, 

How blest that Mother, in whose 

shrine 
The great Artificer Divine, 
Whose hand contains the earth 

and sky. 
Vouchsafed, as in His ark, to lie. 

Blest, in the message Gabriel 

brought; 
Blest, by the work the Spirit 

wrought ; 
From whom the Great Desire of 

earth 
Took human flesh and human 

birth. 

All honor, laud, and glory be, 
Jesu, Virgin-born to Thee; 
All glory, as is ever meet, 
To Father and to Paraclete. 



Author: Ascribed to Fortunatus (530-609). Meter: 
Iambic dimeter. Translation by J. M. Neale. There are 
eighteen translations. Liturgical Use: Hymn for Matins 
on Feasts of the Blessed Virgin which have no proper hymn 
for Matins. The Original Text has cethera for sidera in the 
first line. This is the only point of difference between the 
Original and the Revised Texts. The hymn for Lauds is a 
continuation of this hymn. The texts differ in several in- 
stances. 

1. *'The womb of Mary carried the Ruler of the triple 
kingdom, Him, whom earth, and sea, and sky honor, adore 
and praise." Trina machina may refer either to ** terra, 

320 



THE BLESSED VIRGIN MARY 

pontus, sethera," or to the threefold rule of Christ over 
"those that are in heaven, on earth, or under the earth" 
(Philip. 2, 10). Claustrum, lit., a bolt, bar; by meton., an 
enclosure. 

2. "The womb of a Virgin, filled with the grace of 
Heaven, bears Him to whom the moon and sun and all 
things are, at all times, subject." Spiritus Sanctus super- 
veniet in te, et virtus Altissimi obumbrabit tibi (Luke 1, 
35). 

3. "0 Mother, blessed by a (singular) gift, in the ark of 
whose womb was enclosed the heavenly Creator, who holds 
the universe in the hollow of His hand." Munus, the singu- 
lar privilege of being the Mother of God. Mundum pugillo 
continens: Quis mensus est pugillo aquas, et coelos palmo 
ponderavit? quis appendit tribus digitis molem terrse, 
et libravit in pondere montes, et colles in statera? (Is. 40, 
12). Constr. : Sub cujus area ventris clausus est. 

4. "Blessed by the message of Heaven, overshadowed 
by the Holy Spirit, out of whose womb came forth the De- 
sired of Nations." Nuntium, i, a message; here, the An- 
nunciation (Luke 1, 26-38). Desideratus gentihus: Et 
veniet Desideratus cunctis gentibus (Aggeus 2, 8). 

151 O gloriosa virginum 

OGLORIOSA virginura, r\ GLORIOUS Lady! throned 

Sublimis inter sidera, ^^ on high 

Qui te creavit, parvulum Above the star-illumined sky; 

Lactente nutris ubere. Thereto ordained, thy bosom lent 

To thy Creator nourishment. 

*Quod Heva tristis abstulit. Through thy sweet Offspring we 

Tu reddis almo germine: receive 

Intrent ut astra flebiles, The bliss once lost through 

Ceeli recludis cardines. hapless Eve; 

And heaven to mortals open lies 
Now thou art Portal of the skies. 

'Tu regis alti janua, Thou art the Door of heaven's 

Et aula lucis fulgida: high King, 

Light's Gateway fair and glister- 
ing; 
321 



COMMON OF SAINTS 



Vitam datam per Virginem 
Gentes redemptae plaudite. 



*Jesu, tibi sit gloria. 
Qui natus es de Virgine, 
Cum Patre, et almo Spiritu 
In sempiterna saecula. 



Life through a Virgin is restored; 
Ye ransomed nations, praise the 
Lord! 

All honor, laud, and glory be, 
Jesu, Virgin-born, to Thee; 
All glory, as is ever meet. 
To Father and to Paraclete. 



This hymn is a continuation of the preceding hymn. 
Translation by J. W. Doran and M. J. Blacker. There are 
fourteen translations. Liturgical Use: Hymn for Lauds 
on Feasts of Our Lady. First line of Original Text: 
gloriosa Femina (or Domina). 

1. **0 most glorious of Virgins, the most exalted among 
the Blessed, Him who created thee thou didst nourish as 
a Child at thy maternal breast." Sidera, all created 
heavenly beings. 

2. "What hapless Eve deprived us of, thou, by thy be- 
loved Offspring, didst restore: that those who weep may 
enter heaven, open thou the door thereof." Car do, a hinge, 
by synec, a door, gate. 

3. "Thou art the Door of the great King, the refulgent 
Hall of light: sing, redeemed nations, the Life given us 
through a Virgin." Vitam = Christum. Plaudite, ap- 
plaud, here used transitively. 



152 



Memento, rerum Conditor 



MEMENTO, rerum Conditor, 
Nostri quod olim corporis, 
Sacrata ab alvo Virginis 
Nascendo formam sumpseris. 



'Maria Mater gratiae, 
Dulcis Parens clementiae, 
Tu nos ab hoste protege, 
Et mortis hora suscipe. 



REMEMBER, Creator Lord, 
That in the Virgin's sacred 
womb 
Thou wast conceived, and of her 

flesh 
Didst our mortality assume. 

Mother of grace, Mary blest. 
To thee, sweet fount of love, we 

fly; 

Shield us through life, and take 

us hence 
To thy dear bosom when we die. 



822 



APOSTLES AND EVANGELISTS 



'Jesu, tibi sit gloria, 
Qui natus es de Virgine, 
Cum Patre, et almo Spiritu, 
In sempiterna ssecula. 



O Jesu, born of Virgin bright, 
Immortal glory be to Thee; 
Praise to the Father infinite, 
And Holy Ghost eternally. 



This hymn is from the Little Office of the Blessed Virgin. 
The first stanza is from Hymn 38 ; the second is a continua- 
tion of the two preceding hymns. Meter: Iambic dimeter. 
Translation by Father Caswall. 

1. ''Remember, O Creator of the world, that Thou didst 
once assume the form of our body, by being born of the 
sacred womb of a Virgin." 

2. **Mary, Mother of grace, sweet Mother of mercy, pro- 
tect us from the enemy, and receive us in the hour of 
death." 



COMMON OF APOSTLES AND EVANGELISTS 



153 



OUT OP EASTERTmE 



Exultet orbis gaudiis 



EXULTET orbis gaudiis: 
Ccelum resultet laudibus: 
Apostolorum gloriam 
Tellus et astra concinimt. 



'Vos saeculorum judices, 
Et vera mundi lumina: 
Votis precamur cordium, 
Audite voces supplicum. 



'Qui templa coeli clauditis, 
Serasque verbo solvitis, 
Nos a reatu noxios 
Solvi jubete, quaesumus. 



NOW let the earth with joy 
resound, 
And heaven the chant re-echo 

round ; 
Nor heaven nor earth too high can 

raise 
The great Apostles' glorious 
praise. 

ye who, throned in glory dread, 
Shall judge the living and the 

dead. 
Lights of the world forevermore! 
To you the suppliant prayer we 

pour. 

Ye close the sacred gates on high; 
At your command apart they fly: 
Oh! loose for us the guilty chain 
We strive to break, and strive in 



vam. 



323 



COMMON OF SAINTS 

* Prascepta quorum protinus Sickness and health your voice 
Languor salusque sentiunt: obey; 

Sanate mentes languidas; At your command they go or stay: 

Augete nos virtutibus. From sin's disease our souls 

restore; 
In good confirm us more and 
more. 

" Ut, cum redibit arbiter So when the world is at its end, 

In fine Christus saeculi, And Christ to judgment shall 

Nos sempiterni gaudii descend, 

Concedat esse compotes. May we be called those joys to 

see 
Prepared from all eternity. 

* Patri, simulque Filio, Praise to the Father, with the Son, 
Tibique sancte Spiritus, And Holy Spirit, Three in One; 
Sicut fuit, sit jugiter As ever was in ages past, 
Sseclum per omne gloria. And so shall be while ages last. 

Author: Unknown, 10th cent. Meter: Iambic dimeter. 
Translation by Father Caswall. There are ten transla- 
tions. Liturgical Use: Hymn for Vespers and Lauds. 
First line of Original Text : Exultet caelum laudibus. For 
the hymns of the Apostles and Evangelists in Eastertide, 
see Hymns 63 and 64. 

1. **Let the earth exult with joy, let the heavens re- 
echo with praise ; earth and heaven together sing the glory 
of the Apostles." 

2. '*Ye judges of mankind and true lights of the world, 
we beseech you with the yearnings of our hearts : give ear 
to the prayers of your suppliants." Judices: The Apostles 
are to judge the world (cf. Matt. 19, 28). Lumina: Vos 
estis lux mundi (Matt. 5, 14). They were to enlighten by 
their doctrine a world sunk in the darkness of sin and er- 
ror. 

3. **Ye who close the heavenly mansions, and with a 
word can unfasten their bolts, command, we beseech you, 
that we sinners be freed from our guilt." Sera, a bar or 
bolt for fastening a door. Quaecumque alligaveritis super 
terram, erunt ligata et in cobIo: et quaBcumque solveritis 
super terram, erunt soluta et in coelo (Matt. 18, 18). Nos: 
constr. — Jubete, nos noxios solvi a reatu. 

324 



APOSTLES AND EVANGELISTS 

4. **Ye whose commands sickness and health forthwith 
obey, heal our languishing souls, enrich us with virtues." 

5. ' ' That when Christ shall come again, as Judge, at the 
end of the world, He may grant that we become possessed 
of eternal happiness." 



154 



Sterna Christi munera 



AETERNA Christi munera, 
Apostolorum gloriam, 
Palmas et hymnos debit03 
Lsetis canamus mentibus. 



* Ecclesiarum Principes, 
Belli triumphales duces 
Coelestis aulae milites, 
Et vera mundi lumina. 



^Devota sanctorum fides, 
Invicta spes credentium, 
Perfecta Christi caritas 
Mimdi tyrannum conterit. 



*In his Paterna gloria, 
In his triumphal Filius, 
In his voluntas Spiritus, 
Ccelum repletur gaudio. 

'Patri, simulque Filio, 
Tibique sancte Spiritus, 
Sicut fuit, sit jugiter 
Sseclum per omne gloria. 



THH' eternal gifts of Christ the 
■*■ King, 

The Apostles' glory, let us sing; 
And all with hearts of gladness 

raise 
Due hymns of thankful love and 

praise. 

For they the Church's Princes are. 
Triumphant leaders in the war, 
The heavenly King's own warrior 

band, 
True lights to lighten every land. 

Theirs was the steadfast faith of 

Saints, 
The hope that never yields nor 

faints, 
The love of Christ in perfect glow. 
That lay the prince of this world 

low. 

In them the Father's glory shone, 
In them the Spirit's will was done, 
The Son Himself exults in them; 
Joy fills the new Jerusalem. 

Praise to the Father, with the Son, 
And Holy Spirit, Three in One; 
As ever was in ages past, 
And so shall be while ages last. 



Author: St. Ambrose (340-397). Meter t Iambic 
dimeter. Translation based on Neale. There are thirteen 
translations. Liturgical Use : Hymn for Matins on feasts 
of the Apostles and Evangelists. This hymn was origi- 

325 



COMMON OF SAINTS 

nally written for feasts of Martyrs. In its complete form 
it contained eight stanzas. The hymn Christum profusum 
sanguinem, for Martyrs in Paschaltide, is a part of the 
Sterna Christi munera. The above hynm consists of 
stanzas 1, 2, 6, 7, of the original. 

1. ''Let us sing with joyful hearts songs of triumph 
and becoming hymns, let us sing the glory of the Apostles, 
and the eternal gifts of Christ.*' The construction in this 
stanza is unusual. Canamus is the predicate of the whole 
stanza. P almas: fig., victories; here, hymns of victory. 

2. ''They are the princes of the Church, the triumphant 
leaders of the war, the soldiers of the heavenly court, and 
the true lights of the world." 

3. "The steadfast faith of the Saints, the unyielding 
hope of believers, the perfect charity of Christ trample 
under foot the tyrant of the world. ' ' Tyramnum, the devil. 

4. "In them triumphs the glory of the Father; in them 
triumphs the Son; in them the will of the Holy Spirit is 
accomplished, and heaven is filled with joy. ' ' 



COMMON OF ONE MARTYR 

OUT OF EASTERTmE 

155 Deus tuorum militum 

DEUS tuorum militum r\ GOD, of those that fought Thy 

Sors, et corona, praemium, ^-^ fight, 
Laudes canentes Martyris Portion, and prize, and crown of 

Absolve nexu criminis. light, 

Break every bond of sin and shame 
As now we praise Thy Martyr's 
name. 

* Hie nempe mundi gaudia, He recked not of the world's 

Et blanda fraudum pabula allure, 

Imbuta f elle deputans, But sin and pomp of sin forswore : 

Pervenit ad coelestia. Knew all their gall, and passed 

them by, 
And reached the throne prepared 
on high. 

326 



ONE MARTYR 

^ Poenas cucurrit f ortiter, Bravely the course of pain he ran, 

Et sustulit viriliter, And bare his torments as a man: 

Fundensque pro te sanguinem, For love of Thee his blood 
Sterna dona possidet. outpoured, 

And thus obtained the great 
reward. 

* Ob hoc precatu supplici With humble voice and suppliant 

Te poscimus, piissime; word 

In hoc triumpho Martyris We pray Thee therefore, holy 

Dimitte noxam servulis. Lord, 

While we Thy Martyr's feast-day 

keep, 
Forgive Thy loved and erring 
sheep. 

^Laus et perennis gloria Glory and praise for aye be done 

Patri sit, atque Filio, To God the Father, and the Son, 

Sancto simul Paraclito, And Holy Ghost, who reign on 

In sempiterna saecula. high. 

One God, to all eternity. 

Author! Ambrosian, 6th cent. Metee: Iambic dimeter. 
Translation by Alan G. McDougall. There are sixteen 
translations. Liturgical Use: Hymn for Vespers. There 
is a longer form of this hymn in thirty-two lines. The 
translations are practically all from the Roman Breviary 
Text. 

1. ''0 God, Thou who art the portion, the crown, and 
the reward of Thy soldiers, absolve from the chains of sin 
those singing the praises of Thy Martyr." 

2. "He, indeed, regarding as imbued with bitterness the 
joys of the world and the seductive pleasures of sin, hath 
attained heavenly joys." Pabulum, food; anything pleas- 
ing to the taste or senses. 

3. "He bravely ran the way of torture, and suffered 
manfully; and shedding his blood for Thee, he now pos- 
sesses Thy eternal gifts." Poenas cucurrit, a poetical 
constr., the accusative in answer to the question whither. 

4. "Wherefore we beseech Thee, most loving God, with 
suppliant prayer, in consequence of the triumph of Thy 
Martyr, forgive Thy servants' sins." Oh hoc = quam ob 
rem. In hoc triumpho: This refers to the feast day of the 

327 



COMMON OF SAINTS 

Martyr; the hymn is sung on each anniversary of the 
Martyr's triumph. 



156 



Invicte Martyr, unicum 



INVICTE Martyr, unicum 
Patris secutus Filium, 
Victis triumphas hostibus, 
Victor fruens ccelestibus. 



* Tui precatus munere 
Nostrum reatum dilue, 
Arcens mali contagium, 
Vitae repellens tsedium. 



^Soluta sunt jam vincula 
Tui sacrati corporis: 
Nos solve yinclis saeculi, 
Dono superni Numinis. 



* Deo Patri sit gloria, 
Ejusque soli Filio, 
Cum Spiritu Paraclitos 
Nunc, et per omne saeculum. 



MARTYR of God, whose 
strength was steeled 
To follow close God's only Son, 
Well didst thou brave thy battle- 
field, 
And well thy heavenly bliss was 
won! 

Now join thy prayers with ours, 
who pray 

That God may pardon us and 
bless; 

For prayer keeps evil's plague 
away, 

And draws from life its weari- 
ness. 

Long, long ago, were loosed the 

chains 
That held thy body once in thrall; 
For us how many a bond remains ! 
love of God release us all. 

All praise to God the Father be, 
All praise to Thee, Eternal Son; 
All praise, O Holy Ghost, to Thee, 
While never-ending ages run. 



Author: Unknown, 10th cent. Meter: Iambic dimeter. 
Translation by Percy Dearmer. There are twelve trans- 
lations. Liturgical Use : Hymn for Lauds in the Common 
of one Martyr. First line of Original Text: Martyr Dei, 
qui unicum. 

1. **0 unconquered Martyr, thou who didst follow the 
only-begotten Son of the Father, thy enemies having been 
overcome, thou dost triumph, and, as victor enjoy heavenly 
delights." Triumphas: The Martyr's triumph consists in 
the possession and enjoyment of eternal glory. 

2. '*By virtue of thy intercession wash thou our guilt 

328 



MANY MARTYRS 

away; keep at a distance the contagion of sin, and drive 
away life's weariness." Precatus (n.), prayer. Munere, 
merit, favor. 

3. "Loosened now are the chains of thy sacred body; 
deliver us also, by the grace of the Heavenly Godhead, 
from the chains of the world." Vinclis — vinculis. 



COMMON OF MANY MARTYRS 



IN EASTERTIDE 



157 



Rex gloriose Martyrum 



REX gloriose Martyrum, 
Corona confitentium, 
Qui respuentes terrea 
Perducis ad coelestia: 



^Aurem benignam protinus 
Intende nostris vocibus: 
Trophaea sacra pangimus: 
Ignosce quod deliquimus. 



^Tu vincis inter Martyres, 
Parcisque Confessoribus: 
Tu vince nostra crimina, 
Largitor indulgentiae. 



*Deo Patri sit gloria, 
Et Filio, qui a mortuis 
Surrexit, ac Paraclito, 
In sempiterna ssecula. 



GLORIOUS King of Martyr 
hosts. 
Thou Crown that each Confessor 

boasts. 
Who leadest to celestial day 
Those who have cast earth's joys 
away: 

Thine ear in mercy, Saviour, lend, 
While unto Thee our prayers 

ascend; 
And as we cotmt their triumphs 

won. 
Forgive the sins that we have done. 

Martyrs in Thee their triumphs 
gain, 

From Thee Confessors grace ob- 
tain; 

O'ercome in us the lust of sin, 

That we Thy pardoning love may 
win. 

To Thee who, dead, again dost 

live. 
All glory, Lord, Thy people give; 
All glory, as is ever meet, 
To Father and to Paraclete. 



Author: Ambrosian, 6th cent. Meter: Iambic dimeter. 
Translation by R. F. Littledale and G. H. Palmer. There 

329 



COMMON OF SAINTS 

are fifteen translations. Liturgical Use : Hymn for Lauds. 
There is an article on this hymn in the Cath. Encycl. From 
the references to Confessors, in this hymn, it would seem 
that it was originally intended for the feasts of Martyrs 
and Confessors. See the article on Martyr in the Cath. 
Encycl. 

1. *'0 glorious King of Martyrs and Crown of Con- 
fessors, who leadest to heavenly things those who despise 
the things of earth. ' ' 

2. ' ' Turn quickly a gracious ear to our prayers ; we sing 
of sacred victories; pardon what we have done amiss." 
TrophcBum, lit., a trophy, a monument of victory; by 
meton., the victory itself. 

3. ''In the Martyrs Thou dost conquer, and Thou dost 
spare the Confessors : dispenser of mercy, conquer Thou 
our sins.'* Inter — per. The Martyrs are the faithful 
soldiers of Christ, who conquers in their victories, as a 
general conquers in the achievements of his army. The 
Confessors are ''spared," i.e., they are not called to shed 
their blood for Christ. 

158 Christo profusum sanguinem 

CHRISTO profusum sangui- THHE Martyrs' triumphs let us 
nem, ^ sing, 

Et Martyrum victorias, Their blood poured forth for 

Dignamque coelo lauream Christ the King, 

Lsetis sequamur vocibus. And while due hymns of praise 

we pay, 
Our thankful hearts cast grief 
away. 

^Terrore victo sseculi, The world its terrors urged in 

Poenisque spretis corporis, vain; 

Mortis sacrae compendio They recked not of the body's 

Vitam beatam possident. pain; 

One step, and holy death made 

sure 
The life that ever shall endure. 

^Traduntur igni Martyres, To flames the Martyr Saints are 

Et bestiarum dentibus: hailed; 

By teeth of savage beasts assailed ; 

330 



MANY MARTYRS 

Armata saevit ungulis Against them, armed with ruthless 

Tortoris insani manus. brand 

And hooks of steel, their torturers 
stand. 

*Nudata pendent viscera: The mangled frame is tortured 

Sanguis sacratus funditur: sore, 

Sed permanent immol?iles The holy life-drops freshly pour; 

Vitae perennis gratia. They stand unmoved amidst the 

strife, 
By grace of everlasting life. 

* Te nunc Redemptor quaesumus. Redeemer, hear us of Thy love, 

Ut Martyrum consortio That, with the Martyr host above, 

Jungas precantes servulos Hereafter, of Thine endless grace, 

In sempiterna saecula. Thy servants also may have place. 

Author: St. Ambrose (340-397). Meter: Iambic dimeter. 
Translation by J. M. Neale and others. This hymn is a 
cento from the hymn Sterna Christi mmiera; the first 
stanza was added by the revisers of the hymns under Pope 
Urban VIII, 1632. There are eight translations of the 
Roman Brev. Text, and five, in part or entire, of the origi- 
nal hymn. Liturgical Use: Matins hymn for Many Mar- 
tyrs in Eastertide. 

1. ^'Let us with gladsome voices sing of the blood shed 
for Christ, of the victories of the Martyrs, and the laurels 
worthy of heaven." Sequi, lit., to follow, accompany. 
Lcetis sequamur vocibus, Let us follow with joyous songs, 
etc. 

2. "Having overcome the terrors of the world and de- 
spised the pains of the body, by the brief torments ac- 
companying a holy death, they now possess a happy life.'* 
Compendio: The Martyrs acquire in a brief space what 
others obtain in a lifetime. 

3. ''The Martyrs are delivered over to the flames and to 
the teeth of wild beasts ; armed with hooks, the hand of the 
mad torturer rages." Ungula, a torturer's claw-shaped 
hook. 

4. "Their entrails laid bare protrude, their holy blood is 
poured forth ; but by the grace of eternal life they remain 
steadfast." 

331 



COMMON OF SAINTS 

5. **Now, Redeemer, we beseech Thee, that Thou unite 
forever Thy suppliant servants with the company of the 
Martyrs.'* 

COMMON OF MANY MARTYRS 



159 



OUT OF EASTERTIDE 



Sanctorum mentis 



SANCTORUM meritis inclyta 
gaudia 
Pangamus socii, gestaque fortia: 
Gliscens fert animus promere 

cantibus 
Victorum genus optimum. 



Hi 



fatue mundus 



floribus 



sunt, quos 

abhorruit ; 
Hunc fructu vacuum, 

aridum 
Conterapsere tui nominis asseclae 
Jesu Rex bone ccelitum. 



^Hi pro te furias, atque minas 

truces 
Calcarunt hominum, saevaque ver- 

bera: 
His cessit lacerans fortiter un- 

gula, 
Nee carpsit penetralia. 



*Caeduntur gladiis more biden- 

tium: 
Non murmur resonat, non queri- 

monia; 
Sed corde impavido mens bene 

conscia 
Conservat patientiam. 



SING, Sons 
sounding 



praise 



of the Church 
the Martyrs' 



God's true soldiers applaud, who, 
in their weary days. 

Won bright trophies of good, glad 
be the voice ye raise. 

While these heroes of Christ ye 
sing! 

They, while yet in the world were 

by the world abhorred; 
Felt how fading the joys, fleeting 

the wealth it stored; 
Spurned all pleasure for Thee, and 

at Thy call, Lord, 
Came forth strong in Thy Name, 

as King. 

Lord, how bravely they bore fury 
and pain for Thee! 

Scourge, rod, sword, and the rack 
strongly endured; but free 

Sang out, bold in Thy love, long- 
ing on high to be; 

Earth's might never their souls 
could bend. 

While they, shedding their blood, 

victims for Jesus fell, 
No sound out of their lips came of 

their throes to tell; 
Bowed low, patient and meek, 

loving the Lord so well, 
Turned they still to the Christ, 

their Friend. 



332 



MANY MARTYRS 

'Quae vox, quae poterit lingua What joys, bright with the blood 
retexere, shed for thy love they 

Quae tu Martyribus munera prae- share, 

paras? Those brave Martyrs of Thine 

Rubri nam fluido sanguine fulgi- crowned with Thy laurels 

dis rare; 

Cingunt tempora laurels. Man's tongue never can tell, never 

can half declare. 
How pure now is their bliss above! 

*Te summa o Deltas, unaque Yet we, Father on high, God of 

poscimus; eternal might, 

Ut culpas abigas, noxia sub- Lift weak voices in prayer asking 

trahas, for peace and light; 

Des pacem famulis, ut tibi Cleanse Thou out of our hearts 

gloriam every stain and blight, 

Annorum in seriem canant. So our songs may be songs of love. 

Author: Unknown, 8th cent. Meter; Asclepiadic and 
Glyconic. Translation by D. J. Donahoe. There are thir- 
teen translations. Liturgical Use : Vespers Hymn. There 
is an exceptionally interesting article on the Sanctorum 
meritis, in the Cath. Encycl. J. M. Neale's translation, 
which is found in most hymn books, is in the Baltimore 
Manual of Prayers, p. 651. 

1. **Let us sing, companions, the heroic deeds of the 
Saints and the glorious delights merited by them: the soul 
glowing with zeal strives to celebrate in song the noblest 
kind of conquerors." 

2. *' These are they whom the world foolishly abhorred; 
but, Jesus, good King of the Blessed, the followers of 
Thy Name despised the world as void of fruit and parched 
of flowers." Hunc, sc, mundum. 

3. "For Thy sake they despised the rage, the savage 
threats, and the brutal blows of men: the fiercely lacerat- 
ing hook yields to them, nor does it rob them of their in- 
ner lives." Penetralia, the life of the soul. 

4. ''Like sheep, they are slaughtered by the sword: no 
murmur is heard, no complaint; but with dauntless cour- 
age, the soul self-possessed preserves its patience." 

5. "What voice, what tongue can recount the gifts which 
Thou dost prepare for Thy Martyrs'? For, red with flow- 

333 



COMMON OF SAINTS 

ing blood they bind their temples with resplendent laurels." 
6. * * We beseech Thee, supreme and only Godhead, that 
Thou banish our sins from Thy sight, drive away all evils, 
and grant peace to Thy servants, that they may sing glory 
to Thee forever." 



COMMON OF CONFESSORS 



160 



Iste Confessor 



ISTE Confessor Domini colentes 
Quem pie laudant populi per 
orbem : 
Hac die laetus meruit beatas 
Scandere sedes. 



'Qui pius, prudens, humilis, 

pudicus, 

Sobriam duxit sine labe vitam. 

Donee humanos animavit aurae 

Spiritus artus. 



'Cujus ob praestans meritum 
frequenter, 
i^gra quae passim jacuere mem- 
bra, 
Viribus morbi domitis, saluti 
Restituuntur. 



*Noster hinc illi chorus obsequen- 
tem 
Concinit laudem, celebresque 

palmas; 
Ut piis ejus precibus juvemur 
Omne per aevum. 



THIS the Confessor of the Lord, 
whose triumph 
Now all the faithful celebrate, 

with gladness 
Erst on this feast-day merited to 
enter 

Into his glory. 

Saintly and prudent, modest in 

behavior. 
Peaceful and sober, chaste was he, 

and lowly. 
While that life's vigor, coursing 

through his members, 

Quickened his being. 

Sick ones of old time, to his tomb 

resorting. 
Sorely by ailments manifold 

afflicted, 
Oft-times have welcomed health 

and strength returning. 
At his petition. 

Whence we in chorus gladly do 

him honor, 
Chanting his praises with devout 

affection, 
That in his merits we may have a 

portion. 
Now and forever. 



334 



CONFESSORS 

'Sit salus illi, decus, atque virtus, His be the glory, power and 
Qui super coeli solio coruscans, salvation, 

Totius mundi seriem gubernat Who over all things reigneth in 
Trinus et unus. the highest, 

Earth's mighty fabric ruling and 
directing, 
Onely and Trinal. 

Author: Unknown, 8tli cent. Meter: Sapphic and 
Adonic. Translation, a cento from The Hymner. There 
are twelve translations. First line of Original Text: Iste 
Confessor Domini sacratus. Liturgical Use: Hymn for 
Vespers and Matins on Feasts of Confessors Bishops, and 
Confessors not Bishops. Read the article on Confessor, in 
the Cath. Encycl. 

1. ''This Confessor of the Lord, whom reverent nations 
throughout the world lovingly venerate, merited on this 
day to ascend with joy to the blest abodes." Hac die, i.e., 
the Feast Day of the Saint, the day of his death. If it is 
not the day of the Saint's death, the last two lines are 
changed thus : 

Hac die laetus meruit supremos 
Laudis honores. 

"On this day "merited with joy the highest honors of 
praise." Scandere = ascendere. 

2. "Pious, prudent, humble, and chaste, he led a sober 
life, without stain, as long as the breath of life animated his 
human members. ' ' Humanos artus, his body, frame. Spiri- 
tus aurcB, lit., a breath of air. Read St. Paul's conception of 
a Bishop (1 Tim. esp. 3, 2). 

3. "On account of his eminent merits it often happens 
that members (the faithful) lying sick in various places, 
are restored to health, the violence of their disease being 
overcome." Membra saluti restituuntur = membris salus 
restituitur. 

4. "Wherefore to him does our choir sing gracious 
praises, and celebrate his victories : may we be aided by his 
pious prayers throughout the ages." 

5. "To Him who is resplendent on the throne of heaven, 
be salvation, glory, and power; to Him who, Three and 
One, ruleth the course of the whole world. 

335 



161 



COMMON OF SAINTS 
Jesu Redemptor omnium 



JESU Redemptor omnium, 
Perpes corona Praesulum, 
In hac die clementius 
Indulgeas precantibus. 



'Tui sacri qua nominis 
Confessor almus claruit 
Hujus celebrat annua 
Devota plebs solemnia, 

'Qui rite mundi gaudia 
Hujus caduca respuens, 
i^ternitatis praemio 
Potitur inter Angelos. 



* Hujus benignus annua 
Nobis sequi vestigia: 
Hujus precatu servulis 
Dimitte noxam criminis. 



'Sit Christe Rex piissime 
Tibi, Patrique gloria. 
Cum Spiritu Paraclito, 
Nunc et per omne saeculum. 



JESU, the world's Redeemer, 
hear; 
Thy Bishops' fadeless crown, draw 

near: 
Accept with gentlest love to-day 
The prayers and praises that we 
pay. 

The meek Confessor of Thy Name 
To-day attained a glorious fame; 
Whose yearly feast, in solemn 

state, 
Thy faithful people celebrate. 

The world and all its boasted 

good, 
As vain and passing, he eschewed; 
And therefore with Angelic bands. 
In endless joy forever stands. 

Grant then that we, most gracious 

God, 
May follow in the steps he trod: 
And, at his prayer, Thy servants 

free 
From stain of all iniquity. 

To Thee, Christ, our loving 

King, 
All glory, praise, and thanks we 

bring: 
All glory, as is ever meet. 
To Father and to Paraclete. 



Author: Ambrosian, 8th cent. Meter: Iambic dimeter. 
Translation by J. D. Chambers. There are eight trans- 
lations. Liturgical Use: Hymn for Lauds on the Feast 
of a Confessor and Bishop. 

1. **0 Jesus, the Redeemer of all, the eternal crown of 
Bishops, mayest Thou on this day be graciously indulgent 
to Thy suppliants." Perpes, itis = perpetuus. Prcesul, a 
patron, protector (post classical) ; the word had a quite 
different meaning in classical Latin. 

336 



CONFESSORS 

2. **0n this day shone resplendent the glorious Confessor 
of Thy Name, whose yearly solemnity a devout people cele- 
brate. ' ' Qua refers to die in the preceding stanza. Claruit, 
"shone resplendent" in glory among the Saints and An- 
gels. 

3. ''Rightly despising the fleeting joys of this world, he 
obtains an eternal reward among the Angels." Rite = 
merito. Prcemium ceternitatis = prasmium aeternum. 

4. ' ' Graciously allow us to follow his footsteps ; through 
his intercession, forgive Thy servants the punishment 
due to their sins." Annuere, grant, permit. 



162 



Jesu corona celsior 



JESU corona celsior, 
Et Veritas sublimior, 
Qui confitenti servulo 
Reddis perenne praemium: 



' Da supplicant! coetui, 
Hujus rogatu, noxii 
Remissionem criminis, 
Rumpendo nexum vinculi. 



•Anni reverso tempore, 
Dies refulsit lumine, 
Quo Sanctus hie de corpore 
Migravit inter sidera. 

*Hic vana terras gaudia, 
Et luculenta praedia, 
Polluta sorde deputans, 
Ovans tenet coelestia. 

'Te Christe Rex piissime. 
Hie confitendo jugiter, 
Calcavit artes dsemonum, 
Saevumque averni principem. 



JESU, eternal Truth sublime, 
Through endless years the 
same! 
Thou crown of those who through 

all time 
Confess Thy holy Name: 

Thy suppliant people, through the 

prayer 
Of Thy blest Saint, forgive; 
For his dear sake, Thy wrath 

forbear, 
And bid our spirits live. 

Again returns the sacred day. 
With heavenly glory bright. 
Which saw him go upon his way 
Into the realms of light. 

All objects of our vain desire. 
All earthly joys and gains. 
To him were but as filthy mire; 
And now with Thee he reigns. 

Thee, Jesu, his all-gracious Lord, 

Confessing to the last, 

He trod beneath him Satan*s 

fraud. 
And stood forever fast. 



337 



COMMON OF SAINTS 

•Virtute clarus, et fide, In holy deeds of faith and love, 

Confessione sedulus, In fastings and in prayers. 

Jejuna membra deferens. His days were spent; and now 

Dapes supernas obtinet. above 

Thy heavenly Feast he shares. 

'Proinde te piissime Then, for his sake Thy wrath lay 

Precamur omnes supplices: by, 

Nobis ut hujus gratia And hear us while we pray; 

Poenas remittas debitas. And pardon us, Thou most 

High, 
On this his festal Day. 

'Patri perennis gloria. All Glory to the Father be; 

Natoque Patris unico, And sole Incarnate Son; 

Sanctoque sit Paraclito, Praise, holy Paraclete, to Thee; 

Per omne semper saeculum. While endless ages run. 

Author: Ambrosian, 6th cent. Meteb: Iambic dimeter. 
Translation by Father Caswall. There are eight trans- 
lations. Liturgical Use: Hymn for Lauds of a Confessor 
not a Bishop. 

1. **0 Jesus, Thou most exalted crown, and truth most 
sublime, who iDestowest an eternal reward on Thy Con- 
fessor." Confitenti servulo = Confessori. 

2. ''Through his intercession grant to Thy suppliant 
assembly the remission of their sins, whilst Thou dost rend 
asunder the bond of the chain (of sin)." 

3. "The space of a year having elapsed, the day again 
shines forth in its splendor, on which this Saint, leaving 
his earthly body, ascended into heaven." 

4. ** Considering the vain joys and showy goods of the 
world as defiled with filth, he now in triumph possesses 
those that are heavenly." Codestia (sc. gaudia et praedia). 

5. *'By unceasingly confessing Thee, Christ, most lov- 
ing King, he trampled under foot the wiles of the evil 
spirits, and the savage prince of hell." 

6. ''Renowned for faith and virtue, zealous in the con- 
fession of his faith, bearing his members mortified he now 
participates in the heavenly banquet." 

7. "We suppliants, therefore, all beseech Thee, most 
gracious God, that on his account Thou remit the punish- 

338 



VIRGINS 

ment due to us." Gratia, prep., hujus gratia, on his ac- 
count, for his sake. 

8. *' Eternal glory to the Father, and to the only-begotten 
Son of the Father, and to the Holy Spirit, through all eter- 
nity." 



163 



COMMON OF VIRGINS 
Jesu, corona Virginum 



JESU, corona Virginum, 
Quem mater ilia concipit, 
Quae sola Virgo parturit: 
Haec vota clemens accipe. 



'Qui pergis inter lilia, 
Septus choreis Virginum, 
Sponsus decorus gloria, 
Sponsisque reddens praemia. 



'Quocumque tendis, Virgines 
Sequuntur, atque laudibus 
Post te canentes cursitant, 
Hymnosque dulces personant. 



*Te deprecamur supplices; 
Nostris ut addas sensibus, 
Nescire prorsus omnia 
Corruptionis vulnera. 

'Virtus, honor, laus, gloria 
Deo Patri cum Filio, 
Sancto simul Paraclito, 
In sseculorum saecula. 



JESU, the Virgins' crown, do 
Thou 
Accept us as in prayer we bow; 
Born of that Virgin, whom alone 
The Mother and the Maid we own. 

Amongst the lilies Thou dost feed, 
By Virgin choirs accompanied — 
With glory decked, the spotless 

brides 
Whose bridal gifts Thy love 

provides. 

They, wheresoe'er Thy footsteps 

bend, 
With hymns and praises still 

attend : 
In blessed troops they follow 

Thee, 
With dance, and song, and 

melody. 



We pray Thee therefore to bestow 
Upon our senses here below 
Thy grace, that so we may endure 
From taint of all corruption pure. 

All laud to God the Father be, 
All praise. Eternal Son, to Thee; 
All glory as is ever meet, 
To God, the holy Paraclete. 



Author: Ascribed to St. Ambrose (340-397). Meteb; 
Iambic dimeter. Translation by J. M. Neale, There are 
thirteen translations. Liturgical Use : Hymn for Vespers 

339 



COMMON OF SAINTS 

and Lauds. This beautiful hymn is founded on Is. 28, 5; 
Canticle of Canticles 2, 16 ; Apoc. 14, 4. 

1. *'0 Jesus, crown of Virgins, whom that Mother con- 
ceived who alone as Virgin did give birth to a Child, graci- 
ously accept these our prayers." 

2. *'Thou walkest among the lilies surrounded by choirs 
of Virgins, as a bridegroom adorned with glory dispensing 
gifts to brides." Pergis: The Original Text has pascis — 
which text Neale translates. The texts differ but slightly. 
Qui pascitur inter lilia (Cant. 2, 16). The lily is a sym- 
bol of virginal purity; it is here used for Virgins them- 
selves. 

3. '* Whithersoever Thou goest, Virgins follow, and with 
songs of praise they hasten after Thee, causing sweet 
hymns to resound." 

4. '*We suppliantly beseech Thee that Thou grant to our 
senses that they may know nothing whatever of all the 
wounds of corruption." Addas = des, tribuas. Sensibus, 
to our souls. Nescire, to have nothing to do with. 



164 Virginis Proles 

VIRGINIS Proles, Opifexque CON of a Virgin, Maker of Thy 

Matris, »^ Mother, 

Virgo quem gessit, peperitque Thou, Rod and Blossom from a 

Virgo; Stem unstained, 

Virginis festum canimus beatae, Now while a Virgin fair of fame 

Accipe votum. we honor, 

Hear our devotion! 

^Haec enim palraae duplicis beata Lo, on Thy handmaid fell a two- 
Sorte, dum gestit fragilem fold blessing, 

domare Who, in her body vanquishing the 
Corporis sexum, domuit cruen- weakness, 

turn In that same body, grace from 
Caede tyrannmn. heaven obtaining, 

Bore the world witness. 

'Unde nee mortem, nee amica Death, nor the rending pains of 
mortis death appalled her; 

Mille poenarum genera expave- Bondage and torment found her 
scens, undefeated: 

340 



VIRGINS 

Sanguine efTuso meruit serenum So by the shedding of her blood 
Scandere coelum. attained she 

Heavenly guerdon. 

*Hujus oratu Deus alme nobis Fountain of mercy, hear the 

Debitas pcenas scelerum remitte; prayers she offers; 

Ut tibi puro resonemus almum Purge our offences, pardon our 
Pectore carmen. transgressions, 

So that hereafter we to Thee may 
render 
Praise with thanksgiving. 

^Sit decus Patri, genitasque Proli, Thou, the All-Father, Thou, the 
Et tibi compar utriusque virtus One-Begotten, 

Spiritus semper, Deus unus omni Thou, Holy Spirit, Three in One 
Temporis aevo. co-equal, 

Glory be henceforth Thine through 
all the ages, 
World without ending. 

Author: Unknown, Sth cent. Meter: Sapphic and 
Adonic. Translation by Laurence Housman. There are 
eight translations. Liturgical Use: Hymn for Matins in 
the Common of Virgins. To be more explicit, the five 
stanzas of this hymn are used as follows: 

a) The complete hymn for Virgin-Martyrs. 

b) Stanzas 1, 4, 5, for Virgins. 

c) Stanzas 4, 5, for Holy Women. 

1. * * Offspring of a Virgin and Creator of Thy Mother, 
whom a Virgin carried in her womb, and to whom a Virgin 
gave birth; we celebrate in song the Feast of a Virgin; 
hear Thou our prayer." The Virgin mentioned in the 
first two lines is our Blessed Lady; the Virgin mentioned 
in the third line is the Saint whose Feast is being cele- 
brated. For a Virgin-Martyr the last two lines read : 

Virginis partos canimus decora 
Morte triumphos. 

**We sing of the triumphs obtained by the glorious death 
of a Virgin." 

2. *'For she was blessed with the portion of a twofold 

341 



COMMON OF SAINTS 

palm of victory; while she strove to overcome the frailty 
of her sex, she overcame also the tyrant red with slaugh- 
ter." Ccedes, slaughter, carnage, the blood shed in slaugh- 
ter. The ** twofold palm" is that of virginity and martyr- 
dom. The word ''martyr" means a witness, i.e., one who 
by his death bears witness to the truth of the Christian 
religion. 

3. ''She feared neither death nor the accompaniments of 
death, the countless methods of torture; having shed her 
blood she merited to ascend to an untroubled heaven." 
Arnica mortis, things pertaining to, or accompanying 
death. 

4. "At her intercession, gracious God, remit the pun- 
ishment of our sins due to us, that with a pure heart we 
may raise aloft a sweet song to Thee. ' ' 

5. "Glory be to the Father and to the incarnate Son, and 
to Thee, Holy Spirit, ever the co-equal power of both, One 
God. forever and ever." 



COMMON OF HOLY WOMEN 
165 Fortem virili pectore 

FORTEM virili pectore TTIGH let us all our voices raise 

Laudemus omnes feminam, -■--■- In that heroic woman's praise 
Quae sanctitatis gloria Whose name, with saintly glory 

Ubique fulget inclyta. bright, 

Shines in the starry realms of 
light. 

'Hsec sancto amore saucia. Filled with a pure celestial glow, 

Dum mundi amorem noxium She spurned all love of things 

Horrescit, ad coelestia below; 

Iter peregit arduum. And heedless here on earth to stay, 

Climbed to the skies her toilsome 
way. 

'Carnem domans jejuniis, With fasts her body she subdued, 

Dulcique mentem pabulo But filled her soul with prayer's 

Orationis nutriens, sweet food : 

Coeli potitur gaudiis. In other worlds she tastes the bliss 

For which she left the joys of this. 
342 



DEDICATION OF A CHURCH 

*Rex Christe virtus fortium, O Christ, the strength of all the 

Qui magna solus efficis, strong; 

Hujus precatu, quaesumus, To whom our holiest deeds 

Audi benignus supplices. belong! 

Through her prevailing prayers 

on high, 
In mercy hear Thy people's cry! 

°Deo Patri sit gloria, To God the Father, with the Son, 

Ejusque soli Filio, And Holy Spirit, Three in One, 

Cimi Spiritu Paraclito, Be glory while the ages flow, 

Nunc, et per omne sasculum. From all above, and all below. 

Author: Cardinal Silvio Antoniano (1540-1603). Meter: 
Iambic dimeter. Translation by Father Caswall. There 
are nine translations. Liturgical Use : Hymn for Vespers 
and Lauds. 

1. "Let us all praise that valiant woman with a manly 
heart, who, by the glory of her sanctity, everywhere shines 
gloriously." Mulierem fortem quis inveniet (Prov. 31, 10). 
Virili, manly, strong, brave. 

2. "Smitten with holy love, she traverses the arduous 
way to heaven, while she shudders at the baneful love of 
the world." 

3. "She subdued her body with fasting, and she nour- 
ished her soul with the sweet food of prayer, and thus ob- 
tained the joys of heaven. ' ' 

4. "King Christ, the strength of the strong, who alone 
dost accomplish great things, we pray Thee, through her 
intercession, graciously hear Thy suppliants." 



COMMON OF THE DEDICATION 
OF A CHURCH 

166 Coslestis urbs Jerusalem 

CCELESTIS urbs Jerusalem, nHHOU heavenly, new Jerusalem, 

Beata pacis visio, ■*■ Vision of peace in prophet's 

Quae celsa de viventibus dream! 

With living stones built up on 
high, 

843 



COMMON OF SAINTS 



Saxis ad astra tolleris, 
Sponsaeque ritu cingeris 
Mille Angelorum millibus. 



"0 sorte nupta prospera, 
Dotata Patris gloria, 
Respersa sponsi gratia, 
Regina formosissima, 
Christo jugata Principi, 
Coeli corusca civitas. 



'Hie margaritis emicant, 
Patentque cunctis ostia: 
Virtute namque praevia 
Mortalis illuc ducitur, 
Amore Christi percitus 
Tormenta quisquis sustinet. 



*Scalpri salubris ictibus, 
Et tunsione plurima, 
Fabri polita malleo 
Hanc saxa molem construunt, 
Aptisque juncta nexibus 
Locantur in fastigio. 



'Decus Parenti debitmn 
Sit usquequaque Altissimo, 
Natoque Patris unico, 
Et inclyto Paraclito, 
Cui laus, potestas, gloria 
interna sit per saecula. 



And rising to yon starry sky; 
In bridal pomp thy form ie 

crowned, 
With thousand thousand Angels 

round ! 

Bride, betrothed in happy hour, 
The Father's glory is thy dower; 
The Bridegroom's grace is shed on 

thee 
Thou Queen all fair eternally; 
To Christ allied, thy Prince 

adored, 
Bright shining city of the Lord! 

Behold with pearls they glittering 

stand 
Thy peaceful gates to all expand; 
By grace and strength divinely 

shed 
Each mortal thither may be led; 
Who, kindled by Christ's love, will 

dare 
All earthly sufferings now to bear. 

By many a salutary stroke. 

By many a weary blow that broke. 

Or polished with a workman's 

skill, 
The stones that form that glorious 

pile, 
They all are fitly framed to lie 
In their appointed place on high. 

Fair and well-pleasing in Thy 

sight, 
Parent most high, enthroned in 

light. 
And for Thine only Son most 

meet. 
And Thee, all-glorious Paraclete, 
To whom praise, power, and glory 

rise 
Forever through the eternal skies. 



Author: Unknown, 6th or 7th cent. Meter: Iambic di- 
meter. Translation by J. W. Irons. There are about 

344 



DEDICATION OF A CHURCH 

thirty translations. Liturgical Use: Hymn for Vespers 
and Matins. First line of Original Text: Urhs Jerusalem 
beata, or Urbs beata Jerusalem. The hymn was greatly 
altered by the revisers under Pope Urban VIII, in 1632. 
The Original Text, as found in the Benedictine and Do- 
minican Breviaries, with J. M. Neale's much admired 
translation of the same is given below. It is interesting to 
compare the two texts. It will be noticed that the rugged 
beauty of the Original Text, in trochaic tetrameter, is re- 
placed in the Roman Breviary Text by smooth polished 
iambics. "With reference to the revision, Neale thinks that 
the grand old hymn ''lost half its beauty in the process" 
{Medieval Hymns, p. 18). This hymn is based on the fol- 
lowing passages of the New Testament : I Peter 2, 5 ; Apoc. 
21; Eph. 2, 19-22; Heb. 12, 22. 

1. "Jerusalem, heavenly city, blessed vision of peace, 
who, built of living stones, art raised aloft to the stars, 
and like a bride art encircled by countless thousands of 
Angels." *'The heavenly city, Jerusalem" is the Church 
Triumphant, the Blessed. In Hebrew, the word Jerusalem 
means ''vision of peace." The "living stones" are the 
souls of men. 

2. "0 bride dowered with a fortunate dowry, with the 
glory of the Father, and with the grace of the bridegroom 
shed over thee ; queen all-beauteous united to Christ the 
King, resplendent city of heaven!" Sorte, lot, marriage 
portion, dowry. The bride is the Church Triumphant, and 
the bridegroom is Christ, who is the glory of the Father 
(Heb. 1, 3). 

3. "Thy gates here glitter with pearls and stand open 
to all ; each mortal who follows virtue is dra\vn thither ; each 
one who, impelled by the love of Christ, endures torments." 
Ostia patetit, cf. Apoc. 21, 21-25. Tormenta is not re- 
stricted to Martyrs only, but refers to anyone who en- 
dures trials and tribulations (Acts 14, 21). 

4. "Polished by vigorous blows of the chisel and by 
countless strokes of the Master's mallet, these stones raise 
up this mighty structure, and, bound together with appro- 
priate joints, they are placed aloft in the highest summit." 
Fastigium, gable, pediment, summit; here, by synec. the 

345 



COMMON OF SAINTS 

splendid edifice itself. Saxa is the subject of the whole 
stanza. 

5. "Let due glory be given everywhere to the most high 
Father, and to the only-begotten Son of the Father, and 
to the glorious Paraclete; to whom be praise, power, and 
glory, through everlasting ages. 



167 



Alto ex Olympi vertice 



ALTO ex Olympi vertice 
Summi Parentis Filius, 
Ceu monte desectus lapis 
Terras in imas decidens, 
Domus supernae, et infimae, 
Utrumque junxit angulum. 



'^Sed ilia sedes coelitum 
Semper resultat laudibus, 
Deumque Trinum et Unicum 
Jugi canore praedicat: 
Illi canentes jungimur 
Almae Sionis aemuli. 



Haec templa, Rex coelestium, 
Imple benigno lumine: 
Hue o rogatus adveni, 
Plebisque vota suscipe, 
Et nostra corda jugiter 
Perfunde cceli gratia. 



*Hic irapetrent Hdelium 
Voces precesque supplicum 
Domus beatae munera, 



FROM highest heaven, the 
Father's Son, 
Descending like that mystic stone 
Cut from a mountain without 

hands, 
Came down below, and filled all 

lands; 
Uniting, midway in the sky, 
His house on earth, and house on 

high. 

That house on high, — it ever rings 
With praises of the King of kings; 
Forever there, on harps divine, 
They hymn th' eternal One and 

Trine; 
We, here below, the strain 

prolong, 
And faintly echo Sion's song. 

Lord of lords invisible! 

With Thy pure light this temple 
fill: 

Hither, oft as invoked, descend; 

Here to Thy people's prayer 
attend; 

Here, through all hearts, forever- 
more. 

Thy Spirit's quick'ning graces 
pour. 

Here may the faithful, day by day, 
Their hearts' adoring homage pay; 
And here receive from Thy dear 
love 



346 



DEDICATION OF A CHURCH 

Partisque donis gaudeant: The blessings of that home above; 

Donee soluti corpore Till loosened from this mortal 

Sedes beatas impleant. chain, 

Its everlasting joys they gain. 

'Decus Parenti debitum To God the Father, glory due 

Sit usquequaque Altissimo, Be paid by all the heavenly host; 

Natoque Patris unico, And to His only Son most true; 

Et inclyto Paraclito, With Thee, mighty Holy Ghost! 

Cui laus, potestas, gloria To whom, praise, power, and 
i5]terna sit per ssecula. blessing be, 

Through th' ages of eternity. 



This is a continuation of the preceding hymn. Trans- 
lation by Father Caswall. Liturgical Use: Hymn for 
Lauds on the Feast of the Dedication of a Church. 

1. ''From the highest heights of heaven came the sov- 
ereign Father's Son, like the stone riven from the mountain 
descending to the lowest plains, and He joined together the 
two corners of the earthly and heavenly dwelling places.'* 
Venit is understood in the first two lines. Christ is the 
stone that came down from on high. He is also the corner- 
stone that makes both one, Jews and Gentiles, or the 
heavenly and the earthly kingdom (Cf. I Pet. 2, 6; Eph. 
2, 20). The figure of the stone riven from the mountain 
is probably an allusion to the dream of Nabuchodonosor 
(Cf. Dan. 2, esp. 34-45). 

2. *'But that abode of the Blessed ever resounds with 
praises, and extols with ceaseless song the Triune God; to 
it we rivals of holy Sion are joined in song." Illi, sc. sedes 
Coelitum. Jugi, adj., perpetual. Sion ordinarily stands 
for the Church Militant; it is here used for the Church 
Triumphant. 

3. "These temples, king of the Blessed, fill with Thy 
kindly light ; hither, come Thou when invoked, and receive 
the prayers of Thy people, and fill our hearts forever with 
the grace of Heaven." 

4. "Here may the voices of the faithful and the prayers 
of Thy suppliants obtain the rewards of the heavenly 
home; and may they enjoy the gifts acquired, till, freed 
from the body, they take possession of the blessed abodes." 

347 



COMMON OF SAINTS 



168 



Urbs Jerusalem beata 



URBS Jerusalem beata, 
Dicta pacis visio, 
Quae construitur in coelis 
Vivis ex lapidibus, 
Et Angelis coronata, 
Ut sponsata comite. 

^Nova veniens e coelo, 
Nuptiali thalamo, 
Praeparata, ut sponsata 
Copuletur Domino: 
Plateae et muri ejus, 
Ex auro purissimo. 



Portae nitent margaritis 

Adytis patentibus; 

Et virtute meritorura 

Illuc introducitur 

Omnis qui ob Christi nomen 

Hie in mundo premitur. 



* Tunsionibus, pressuris 
Expoliti lapides, 
Suis coaptantur locis 
Per manus artificis, 
Disponuntur permansuri 
Sacris sedificiis. 



BLESSED City, heavenly Salem, 
Vision dear of peace and love, 
Who, of living stones upbuilded, 
Art the joy of heaven above, 
And, with Angel cohorts circled, 
As a Bride to earth dost move! 

From celestial realms descending. 

Ready for the nuptial bed, 

To His presence, decked with 

jewels, 
By her Lord shall she be led: 
All her streets and all her 

bulwarks 
Of pure gold are fashioned. 

Bright with pearls her portal 

glitters ; 
It is open evermore; 
And, by virtue of His merits, 
Thither faithful souls may soar, 
Who for Christ's dear Name in this 

world 
Pain and tribulation bore. 

Many a blow and biting sculpture 
Polished well those stones elect. 
In their places now compacted 
By the heavenly Architect, 
Who therewith hath willed forever 
That His palace should be decked. 



169 



Angularis fundamentum 



' A NGULARIS fundamentum 
•^^ Lapis Christus missus est, 
Qui parietum compage 
In utroque nectitur, 
Quem Sion sancta suscepit. 
In quo credens permanet. 



'Omnis ilia Deo sacra, 
Et dilecta civitas, 



CHRIST is made the sure Foun- 
dation, 
And the precious Corner-stone, 
Who, the two walls underlying, 
Bound in each, binds both in one. 
Holy Sion's help forever. 
And her confidence alonCr 



All that dedicated City, 
Dearly loved by God on high. 



348 



DEDICATION OF A CHURCH 



Plena modulis in laude, 
Et canore jubilo, 
Trinum Deum unicumque 
Cum fervore praedicat. 

^ Hoc in templo, summe Deus, 
Exoratus adveni; 
Et dementi bonitate 
Precum vota suscipe; 
Largam benedictionem 
Hie infunde jugiter. 



'Hie promereantur omnes 
Petita acquirere, 
Et adepta possidere, 
Cum Sanctis perenniter 
Paradisum introire, 
Translati in requiem. 



'Gloria et honor Deo 
Usquequaque Altissimo, 
Una Patri Filioque, 
Inclyto Paraclito, 
Cui laus est et potestas, 
Per seterna saecula. 



In exultant jubilation 

Pours perpetual melody; 

God the One, and God the Trinal, 

Singing everlastingly. 

To this temple, where we call 

Thee, 
Come, Lord of Hosts, to-day; 
With Thy wonted loving-kindness 
Hear Thy people as they pray; 
And Thy fullest benediction 
Shed within its walls for aye. 

Here vouchsafe to all Thy servants 
What they supplicate to gain; 
Here to have and hold forever 
Those good things their prayers 

obtain ; 
And hereafter in Thy glory 
With Thy blessed ones to reign. 

Laud and honor to the Father; 
Laud and honor to the Son; 
Laud and honor to the Spirit; 
Ever Three, and ever One: 
Consubstantial, co-eternal, 
While unending ages run. 



The above hymn is the Original Text of Hymns 166 and 
167. Meter: Trochaic tetrameter. Translation by J. M. 
Neale. 

1. ''Jerusalem, blessed city, called the vision of peace; 
city built up in heaven of living stones, and surrounded 
by Angels, as a bride by her attendants." 

2. *"Tis the New Jerusalem coming down from heaven, 
adorned for the nuptial chamber, that as a bride she may 
be united to her Lord: her streets and her walls are of 
purest gold." 

3. ''Her gates glitter with pearls, her inmost shrines 
are wide open: and every one that suffers in this world 
for the Name of Christ, finds entrance there, in virtue of 
His merits." 

4. "These stones, polished by blows and by afflictions, 
are fitted to their places by the hands of the Builder : they 

349 



COMMON OF SAINTS 

are arranged to remain forever in the sacred edifice." 
Pressura, cb, oppression, affliction. 

5. "Christ the corner-stone was sent to be the founda- 
tion bound in both joints of the walls ; whom holy Sion re- 
ceived, and believing in Him, she endures forever." 

6. ''All this beloved city, sacred to God, is full of melo- 
dies: in praise and joyful song she extols with zeal the 
Triune God." 

7. ''In this temple, O most high God, be present when 
Thou art invoked; and in Thy merciful goodness receive 
our prayers; here pour out forever Thy abundant bless- 
ings. ' ' 

8. "Here may all merit to obtain what they ask for, and 
to keep what they have obtained: so that when taken to 
their rest they may merit to enter Paradise forever with 
the Saints." 

9. "Everywhere be there glory and honor to God most 
high; equal glory to the Father, Son, and glorious Para- 
clete, to whom belong praise and power through everlast- 
ing ages." 



DE CONTEMPTU MUNDI 

The four following hymns are centos taken from a long 
poem of about 3,000 lines written by Bernard of Morlaix 
about 1140. The translations are by Dr. J. M. Neale. 
The hymns have never been in use in the Breviary. The 
meter is, in Neale 's words, "Dactylic hexameter, divided 
into three parts, between which a caesura is inadmissible. 
The hexameter has a tailed rhyme, and feminine leonine 
rhyme between the two first clauses." Neale speaks of 
the "majestic sweetness" of the meter, and Trench, whose 
taste was equally good, comments on its "awkwardness 
and repulsiveness. " Whatever opinion one may adopt 
concerning the Latin hymn, there can be only one opinion 
about Neale 's beautiful translations. Neale first trans- 
lated the 96 lines which Trench printed in his Sacred Latin 
Poetry; he later translated a larger cento of 218 lines. 
The translation contains twice as many lines as the original. 

350 



DE CONTEMPTU MUNDI 

The complete translation will be found in Neale's Mediceval 
Hymns, and in a volume more easily obtained — Henry T. 
Coates' Fireside Encyclopedia of Poetry, p. 624 (John C. 
Winston Co., Philadelphia). A prose translation of the 
complete poem, by Henry Preble, appeared in the Ameri- 
can Journal of Theology, in 1906. 



170 



Hora novissima 



HORA novissima, tempora pes- 
sima sunt; vigilemus. 
Ecce minaciter imminet arbiter 
Ille supremus, — 



THE world is very evil; 
The times are waxing late; 
Be sober and keep vigil, 
The Judge is at the gate; 



Imminet, imminet, ut mala ter- The Judge that comes in mercy, 

minet, aequa coronet. The Judge that comes with might, 

Recta remuneret, anxia liberet. To terminate the evil, 

aethera donet. To diadem the right. 

Curre, vir optime; lubrica re- Arise, arise, good Christian, 

prime, praefer honesta. Let right to wrong succeed; 

Fletibus angere, flendo merebere Let penitential sorrow 

coelica festa. To heavenly gladness lead. 



Luce replebere jam sine vespere, 

jam sine luna; 

Lux nova lux ea, lux erit aurea, 

lux erit una. 

Patria splendida, terraque florida, 

libera spinis, 

Danda fidelibus est ibi civibus, 

hie peregrinis. 



To the light that hath no evening. 
That knows nor moon nor sun. 
The light so new and golden. 
The light that is but one. 

home of fadeless splendor, 
Of flowers that bear no thorn, 
Where they shall dwell as children 
Who here as exiles mourn; 



Tunc erit omnibus inspicientibus Midst power that knows no limit, 

ora Tonantis Where knowledge has no bound, 

Summa potentia, plena scientia, The Beatific Vision 

pax rata Sanctis. Shall glad the Saints around. 

Hie homo nititur, ambulat, utitur; Strive, man, to win that glory; 

ergo fruetur. Toil, man, to gain that light; 

Pax, rata pax ea, spe modo. Send hope before to grasp it, 

postea re capietur. Till hope be lost in sight. 

351 



COMMON OF SAINTS 



Plaude, cinis meus, est tua pars 

Deus; ejus es et sis; 

Rex tuus est tua portia, tu sua; 

ne sibi desis. 



Exult, dust and ashes, 
The Lord shall be thy part, 
His only, His forever 
Thou shalt be and thou art. 



171 



Hie breve vivitur 



HIC breve vivitur, hie breve 
plangitur; hie breve fletur; 
Non breve vivere, non breve 
plaudere, retribuetur. 

retributio! stat brevis actio, 

vita perennis; 

retributio! ccelica mansio stat 

lue plenis. 

Sunt modo proelia, postmodo 

praemia, — qualia? plena: 

Plena refectio, nullaque passio, 

nullaque poena. 

Spe modo vivitur, et Sion angitur 

a Babylone; 

Nunc tribulatio, tunc recreatio, 

sceptra, coronae. 

Qui modo creditur, ipse videbitur 

atque scietur, 

Ipse videntibus atque scientibus 

attribuetur. 



BRIEF life is here our portion; 
Brief sorrow, short-lived care; 
The life that knows no ending. 
The tearless life, is there. 

happy retribution! 
Short toil, eternal rest; 
For mortals and for sinners 
A mansion with the blest! 

And now we fight the battle. 
But then shall wear the crown 
Of full and everlasting 
And passionless renown; 

And now we watch and struggle, 
And now we live in hope. 
And Sion in her anguish 
With Babylon must cope; 

But He whom now we trust in 
Shall then be seen and known; 
And they that know and see Him 
Shall have Him for their own. 



Mane videbitur, umbra fugabitur. The morning shall awaken, 

ordo patebit; The shadows shall decay. 

Mane nitens erit, et bona qui gerit. And each true-hearted servant 

ille nitebit. Shall shine as doth the day. 

Nunc tibi tristia, tunc tibi There grief is turned to pleasure, 

gaudia, — gaudia, quanta Such pleasure as below 

Vox nequit edere, lumina cernere. No human voice can utter, 

tangere planta. No human heart can know. 

Pars mea, rex meus, in proprio There God, our King and Portion, 

Deus ipse decore In fulness of His grace, 

Visus amabitur, atque videbitur Shall we behold forever, 

auctor in ore. And worship face to face. 

352 



172 



DE CONTEMPTU MUNDI 
O bona patria 



OBONA patria, lumina sobria Tj^OR thee, dear, dear country, 

te speculantur; J- Mine eyes their vigils keep; 

Ad tua nomina sobria lumina For very love, beholding 

collacrimantur. Thy happy name, they weep. 

Est tua mentio pectoris unctio. The mention of thy glory 

cura doloris. Is unction to the breast, 

Concipientibus aethera mentibus And medicine in sickness, 

ignis amoris. And love, and life, and rest. 



Tu locus unicus illeque coelicus 

es paradisus. 

Non tibi lacrima, sed placidissima 

gaudia, risus. 

Lux tua mors crucis atque caro 

ducis est crucifixi; 

Laus, benedictio, conjubilatio per- 

sonat Ipsi. 



O one, only mansion! 

Paradise of joy! 

Where tears are ever banished, 

And smiles have no alloy; 

The Cross is all thy splendor; 
The Crucified thy praise; 
His laud and benediction 
Thy ransomed people raise. 



Est ibi consita laurus, et insita With jaspers glow thy bulwarks, 

cedrus hysopo; Thy streets with emeralds blaze; 

Sunt radiantia jaspide mcenia. The sardius and the topaz 

clara pyropo. Unite in thee their rays; 

Hinc tibi sardius, inde topazius. Thine ageless walls are bonded 

hinc amethystus. With amethyst unpriced; 

Est tua fabrica contio coelica. Thy Saints build up its fabric, 

gemmaque Christus. The corner-stone is Christ. 

Tu sine litore, tu sine tempore Thou hast no shore, fair ocean! 

fons, modo rivus; Thou hast no time, bright day! 

Dulce bonis sapis, estque tibi lapis Dear fountain of refreshment 

undique vivus. To pilgrims far away! 

Est tibi laurea, dos datur aurea. Upon the Rock of Ages 

sponsa decora. They raise thy holy tower; 

Primaque principis oscula su- Thine is the victor's laurel, 

scipis, inspicis ora. And thine the golden dower. 



173 



Urbs Sion aurea 



T TRBS Sion aurea, patria lactea, TERUSALEM the golden, 

^ cive decora, J With milk and honey blest, 

Omne cor obruis, omnibus ob- Beneath thy contemplation 

struis et cor et ora. Sink heart and voice opprest. 

353 



COMMON OF SAINTS 



Nescio, nescio, quae jubilatio, lux 

tibi qualis, 

Quam socialia gaudia, gloria quam 

specialis. 

Sunt Sion atria conjubilantia, 

martyre plena, 

Give micantia, principe stantia, 

luce serena. 

Sunt ibi pascua mentibus afflua 

praestita Sanctis; 

Regis ibi thronus, agminis et sonus 

est epulantis. 

Gens duce splendida, contio Can- 
dida vestibus albis, 
Sunt sine fletibus in Sion sedibus, 
aedibus almis. 



I know not, I know not 
What joys await us there, 
What radiancy of glory, 
What light beyond compare. 

They stand, those halls of Sion, 
Con jubilant with song. 
And bright with many an Angel, 
And all the Martyr throng; 

The Prince is ever in them. 
The daylight is serene. 
The pastures of the blessed. 
Are decked in glorious sheen. 

There is the throne of David; 
And there, from care released, 
The song of them that triumph, 
The shout of them that feast; 

And they who with their Leader 
Have conquered in the fight. 
Forever and forever 
Are clad in robes of white. 



S54 



AUTHORS OF THE LATIN HYMNS 

AMBROSE, ST. (340-397), Bishop of Milan, is justly 
styled "the Father of Church-song in the West." He be- 
came, like St. Hilary, a great champion of orthodoxy against 
the Arians in the West. And it was while he and his 
faithful flock v/ere besieged in his Cathedral by the im- 
perial troops that, as St. Augustine tells us, he first com- 
posed hymns for them to sing " lest they faint through 
fatigue ^ of sorrow ." The simple, austere hymns of St. 
Ambrose have always been considered the ideal in Church- 
song. Many hymns have been ascribed to him, and there 
is some difference of opinion as to what hymns he actually 
wrote. The latest authority on this subject is the eminent 
hymnologist Father Dreves, who made a careful study of 
the early hymnaries in the Vatican and at Milan. He thus 
classifies the hymns of St. Ambrose : 

I. Certified as his hy early writers. JEterne rernm Hoti-, 
ditor . 2. Deus C ypf^t^^ oTYininm 3. Illuminans altissimus . 
4. Veni Redemptor gentiu m. 5. Jam surgit hora. terti^ . 

li. Others also genuine. 6. JEterna Christi munera, Et 
martyrum. 7. Agnes beatsB virginis. 8. Amore Christi no- 
bilis. 9. Apostolorum passio. 10. Apostolorum supparem. 
11. Grates tibi, Jesu, novas. 12. Hie est dies verus Dei. 13. 
Splendor paternse glorias. 14. Victor, Nabor, Felix, pii. 

III. Possibly his. 15. Jesu corona virginum. 16. Nunc, 
Sancte nobis Spiritus. 17. Rector potens, verax Deus. 18. 
Rerum Deus tenax vigor. 

The Benedictine editors of the works of St. Ambrose 
assign twelve to him. Among them, and not mentioned 
above, are the two Breviary hymns: Somno refectis artu- 
bus, and Consors paternas luminis. 

There are three excellent articles in the Cath. Encyc l. 
on Ambr osian Hymn nrfrnphy, Amhrosian Chant , and ...Am- 
brose, St. Hymns : 2, 3, 4, 9, 11, 12, 13, 154, 158, 163. 

SMKKOSIAN. a great many hymns, mostly of the 

355 



AUTHORS OF THE HYMNS 

fifth or sixth century, are styled Amhrosiani — Ambrosian 
hymns. They are so styled either because they were 
formerly supposed to have been written by St. Ambrose, 
or because they imitate the stanzaic form, the style, meter, 
and austere objectiveness of the genuine hymns of the 
Saint. It is now known for certain that many hymns 
formerly thought to be his are the compositions of unknown 
writers. These hymns are uniformly written in Iambic 
dimeter. The term Ambrosian implies no ascription of 
authorship, but merely a poetical form. Hymns ; 1, 5, 20, 
21, 22, 29, 35, 36, 37, 38, 50, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 69, 
71, 155, 157, 161, 162. 

ANTONIANO, CARDINAL SILVIO (1540-1603) was 
educated at the University of Ferrara, in which institution 
he later became professor of classical literature. He is 
best known as a student of educational problems. Hymn : 
165. 

BELLARMINE, CARDINAL (1542-1621) was a dis- 
tinguished Jesuit theologian and controversialist. He 
was born at Montepulciano in Italy. He became Arch- 
bishop of Capua but resigned that see to accept the office 
of librarian of the Vatican. He was proclaimed Venerable 
by Pope Urban VIII, in 1627. Hymns: 125, 136, 137. 

BERNARD OF CLAIRVAUX, ST. (1091-1153) was born 
near Dijon in France. Abbot and Doctor of the Church — 
surnamed the ''Mellifluous Doctor." There is much doubt 
as to the authorship of the hymns usually ascribed to St. 
Bernard. Even his claim to the celebrated hymn, Jesu 
dulcis memoria has been called in question. Dom Pothier 
found it in a MS. of the 11th century, in which it is ascribed 
to a Benedictine Abbess. During his lifetime, St. Bernard 
exercised an extraordinary influence both by his eloquence 
and by his writings. Hymns : 43, 44, 45, 130. 

BERNARD OF CLUNY (or of Morlaix) was born at 
Morlaix in Brittany early in the 12th century. He entered 
the celebrated Benedictine Abbey of Cluny where he re- 
mained until his death, the date of which is unknown. He 
is the author of one of the most famous poems of the 
Middle Ages, the De contemptu mundi, which contains 
about 3,000 lines in dactylic hexameters. It is dedicated 

356 



AUTHORS OF THE HYMNS 

to Peter the Venerable, Abbot of Cluny (1122-1156). 
There is a fine analysis of this great poem in the article on 
Bernard of Cluny, in the Cath. Encycl. Hymns : 170, 171, 
172, 173. 

ELPIS (d. about 493) was the wife of the philosopher 
Boethius (480-524). Elpis was the aunt of St. Placidus, 
the well-known disciple of St. Benedict. Recent researches, 
however, have led to the conclusion that there is no reason, 
or at least insuflBcient reason, to ascribe the authorship of 
Aurea luce {Decora lux) to Elpis. None of the ancient 
MSS. attribute it to her (James Mearns in the Did. of 
Eymnology, p. 1632). Hymns : 90, 91, 116, 117. 

FORTUNATUS, VENANTIUS (530-609) was a native 
of the district of Treviso in Upper Italy and was educated 
at Ravenna, where he devoted himself to the study of 
oratory and poetry. He was miraculously cured of a 
disease of the eyes through the intercession of St. Martin 
of Tours. It was while on a visit to the tomb of this Saint 
that he made the acquaintance of Queen Radegunde at 
Poitiers. It was here that he was ordained priest, and 
later consecrated Bishop of Poitiers, where he remained 
until his death. Fortunatus represents ''the last expiring 
effort of the Latin muse in Gaul" to retain something of 
the ''old classical culture amid the advancing tide of bar- 
barism" {Diet, of Hymnol., p. 383). Hymns: 51, 52, 53, 
150, 151. 

GREGORY THE GREAT, ST. (540-604). This illustri- 
ous Pope and Doctor of the Church was born at Rome, 
where he founded the Benedictine monastery of St. 
Andrew, of which he himself became Abbot. Much against 
his owTi will he was elected Pope to succeed Pelagius II, in 
590, The Benedictine editors of St. Gregory's works 
ascribe to him eight hymns. Daniel assigns him three 
others. In the light of the latest researches it must be 
admitted that Pope Gregory's place in hymnody cannot as 
yet be definitely fixed. Hymns: 6, 7, 10, 15, 17, 19, 23, 24, 
25 26 27 28 48 49 126 

HERMANN CONTRACTUS (1013-1058) was born at 
Altshausen in Suabia. He was a cripple from birth and 
could not move without assistance — hence the surname 

357 



AUTHORS OF THE HYMNS 

Contractus, the crippled. Despite his physical defects, he 
entered the school of St. Gall in his seventh year, and 
quickly mastered Greek, Latin, Arabic, history, music, 
mathematics, philosophy, and theology. He was one of the 
most learned men of his time. At the age of thirty he 
entered the Benedictine monastery of Reichenau, where he 
became Abbot and spent the remainder of his days. 
Hymns : 30, 33. 

HILARY, ST. (d. 368). Bishop, Confessor, and Doctor 
of the Church. He was born at Poitiers of heathen 
parents ; and it was in his native city that he was elected 
Bishop. As Bishop, his strenuous opposition to the Arian 
heresy earned him the title of Malleus Arianorum — ''The 
Hammer of the Arians." His hostility to the Arians 
caused him to be exiled to the distant coasts of Phrygia. 
Many hymns have been ascribed to St. Hilary, most of 
which are of doubtful authenticity. In 1887, a fragment of 
St. Hilary's Liber Hymnorum was discovered. This con- 
tains three hymns or parts of hymns which can with rea- 
sonable certainty be ascribed to him. Hymn 70 has often 
been ascribed to him, but on insufficient evidence. 

INNOCENT III, POPE (1161-1216) was born at Anagni 
in Italy. He was one of the most learned theologians and 
jurists of his time. During his active reign, which lasted 
eighteen years, the Papacy reached the zenith of its power 
and influence. Hymn : 67. 

INNOCENT VI, POPE (d. 1362) was born at Mont in 
France. He attained eminence as a professor of civil law 
at Toulouse. As Pope he was actuated by lofty ideals and 
did much to reform abuses. Hymn : 80. 

JACOPONE DA TODI (or Jacobus de Benedictis) was 
born at Todi in Italy early in the thirteenth century, and 
died at an advanced age in 1306. He studied law, probably 
at Bologna, and for some years he followed the profession 
of advocate. About 1278 he entered the Franciscan Order, 
in which, out of humility, he chose to remain a simple lay 
brother till the end of his life. Hymns : 54, 55, 56, 57. 

LEO XIII, POPE (1810-1903) was born at Carpineto in 
Italy. He was Nuncio to Brussels, and for thirty-two years 
Bishop of Perugia. He was elected Pope in 1878. His long 

358 



AUTHORS OF THE HYMNS 

reign during troublous times afforded him ample opportuni- 
ties for the exercise of consummate statesmanship. The 
whole world recognized his great intellectual endowments. 
His Latin Poems, Charades, Inscriptions, and Hymns are 
translated by the Rt. Rev. Monsignor H. T. Henry, Litt. 
D. {Dolphin Press, Philadelphia). Hymns: 95, 96, 97. 

LORENZINI, FRANCESCO M. (1680-1743) was an 
Italian poet born in Rome. He acquired a high reputation 
as a poet, and was remarkable for the energy of his style. 
He became president of the Academy of Arcades in 1728. 
Hymn: 112. 

NICETAS, ST. (335-415) was Bishop of Remesiana, in 
what is now modern Serbia. He was a friend and con- 
temporary of St. Paulinus of Nola. SS. Paulinus and 
Jerome praise Nicetas as a hymn-writer. Hymn: 8. 

ODO, ST. (879-942), Abbot of the celebrated Abbey of 
Cluny, was born near Le Mans in France. He was widely 
known as a promoter and reformer of religious life in 
France and Italy. He is the author of an epic poem on 
the Redemption. Hymn : 127. 

PALUMBELLA, CALLISTO was a Bishop of the 
Servite Order. He lived in the eighteenth century. 
Hymns : 131, 132, 133. 

PAULINUS, ST. (726-802), Patriarch of Aquileia, was 
born near Cividale in Italy. He possessed a profound 
knowledge of the sciences of jurisprudence and theology, 
and was equally well versed in the Scriptures and in the 
writings of the Fathers. He was a friend of Charlemagne, 
whom he greatly assisted in restoring civilization in the 
West. Hymns: 89, 128. 

PAUL THE DEACON (b. circa 720— d. circa 799). 
Paul was born at Friuli in Italy. He was celebrated both 
as a poet and as an historian. He was a Benedictine monk 
of Monte Cassino. Among his works is a valuable ' ' History 
of the Lombards, ' ' and a ' ' Commentary on the Rule of St. 
Benedict." Hymns: 113, 114, 115. 

PRUDENTIUS, AURELIUS CLEMENS (348-413) 
was born in northern Spain. He was successively an ad- 
vocate, a judge, and the holder of some important military 
position at court. At the age of fifty-seven he retired from 

359 



AUTHORS OF THE HYMNS 

active life and devoted the remainder of his days to the 
service of God, and to the writing of sacred poetry. His 
poem, the Catliemerinon, is frequently referred to in this 
volume. A new and excellent translation of it by Messrs. 
Pope and Davis, with Latin and English texts on opposite 
pages, is published by J. M. Dent & Co., Aldine House, 
London, W. C, England; 208 pages, with notes. Hymns: 
14, 16, 18, 41, 42, 47, 129. 

RABANUS MAURUS (776-856) was born at Mainz in 
Germany. He studied under Alcuin at Tours, and became 
successively Abbot of the Benedictine monastery of Fulda, 
and Archbishop of Mainz. He is commonly reputed to have 
been the most learned man of his age. His fame as a 
teacher spread throughout Europe, and Fulda became the 
most celebrated seat of learning in the Frankish Empire. 
Hymns: 68, 134, 135, 147, 148. 

RICCHINI, AUGUSTINE, 18th cent. Father Ricchini 
was a Dominican, a friend of Pope Benedict XIV, and 
successively Secretary of the Congregation of the Index, 
and Master of the Sacred Palace. Hymns: 138, 139, 140, 
141. 

SEDULIUS, CAELIUS, was born probably at Rome in 
the 5th century. Late in life he became a convert to 
Christianity and remained a lajinan. His principal work 
is his Carmen Paschale, in five books. The first book con- 
tains a summary of the Old Testament ; the remaining four 
contain a summary of the New Testament. Hymns : 39, 46. 

TAROZZI, VINCENTIUS, was Secretary of Latin 
Letters to Pope Leo XIII, who was Pope from 1878-1903. 
No other information obtainable. Hymns: 101, 102, 103. 

THEODULPH, ST. (760-821) was Bishop of Orleans in 
France. He was probably an Italian by birth. He became 
a member of the court of Charlemagne, through whose in- 
fluence he became Bishop of Orleans. * ' After the death of 
Charles he continued for some time on friendly terms with 
the Emperor Louis, but, falling under suspicion of being 
concerned in the plot in favor of Bernard of Italy, he was 
imprisoned in 818, at Angers, where he seems to have died 
in 821" (Julian's Diet, of Hymnol). Hymn: 58. 

THOMAS AQUINAS, ST. (1227-1274) was born at 

360 



AUTHORS OF THE HYMNS 

Aquino, a to^Ti near Naples. He entered the Dominican 
Order and became one of the greatest doctors of the 
Church. He is by common consent, * ' The Poet of the Most 
Holy Sacrament of the Altar. ' ' He composed the Mass and 
Office of the Feast of Corpus Christi and five sublime 
hymns in honor of the Blessed Sacrament. Hymns: 75, 
76, 77, 78, 79. 

THOMAS OF CELANO was born at Celano in Italy 
about 1200, and died about 1255. He was one of the first 
disciples of St. Francis Assisi. On the death of St. Francis, 
Thomas, at the request of Pope Gregory IX, wrote his 
life. He also wrote two beautiful sequences in honor of 
St. Francis. His immortality as a poet is based on his 
very probable authorship of the greatest of all hymns, the 
Dies Irce. Hymn: 87. 

URBAN VIII, POPE (1568-1644) was born at Florence, 
and was educated at the Collegio Romano. He graduated 
from the University of Padua as Doctor of Laws. He is 
commonly recognized as a generous patron of learning, and 
was himself a man of letters, and an elegant writer and 
poet. It is not unnatural that a man of his taste and 
culture should have become imbued with the Humanistic 
spirit of the age in which he lived. It was under his direc- 
tions that the hymns of the Roman Breviary were revised 
by a committee of four distinguished Jesuit scholars. The 
revised hymns were published in 1632, and are still found 
in the Roman Breviary. Hymns : 92, 93, 94, 107, 108, 123, 
124, 142, 143. 

WIPO was a native of Burgundy, and flourished during 
the first half of the eleventh century. He was a secular 
priest, and was for some time chaplain to the Emperors 
Conrad II, and Henry III, to each of whom he presented a 
collection of poems. Hymn: 59. 

XAVIER, ST. FRANCIS (1506-1552), the Apostle of 
India and Japan, was born near Sanguesa in Spain. He 
studied at the University of Paris, and was one of the first 
associates of St. Ignatius of Loyola when the latter 
founded the Society of Jesus. Shortly after his ordination 
he began his wonderful missionary career which ended only 
with his death. Hymn : 74. 

361 



TRANSLATORS OF THE HYMNS 

AYLWARD, VERY REV. JAMES AMBROSE, O.P. 

(1813-1872) was the Dominican Prior at Woodchester, 
England. His translations were edited by Mr. Orby 
Shipley, in whose Annus Sanctus many of them appear. 
^'Father Aylward," says Mr. Shipley, "was a cultured and 
talented priest of varied powers and gifts, whose memory 
is held dear by all who knew and were influenced by him. ' ' 
Hymns : 67, 68, 87. 

BAGSHAWE, MOST REV. EDWARD GILPIN (1829- 
1915). Educated at St. Mary's College Oscott, and at Lon- 
don University. Bishop of Nottingham (1874), titular 
Archbishop of Seleucia (1904). Translated all the hymns 
of the Breviary and Missal in his Breviary Hymns and 
Missal Sequences (Burns, Oates and Washbourne, London, 
1900). His translations are the latest as well as the most 
literal of all the translations of our Latin hymns. His sole 
aim was "to keep to the sense of the original, neither add- 
ing to this nor taking from it" {Preface). His translations 
are too labored and prosy, but it is unfair to judge them 
without considering the purpose of their pious author. 
Hymns : 98, 146. 

BALL, REV. THOMAS ISAAC, LLD. (1838-1916). 
Dr. Ball contributed numerous translations of Latin hymns 
to many hymnals, notable among which are the Appendix 
to the Hymfial Noted, 1863, and The New Office Hymn Book, 
1905. His translations are faithful, musical, and sustained. 
Hymns : 81, 90, 135. 

BENEDICTINES OF STANBROOK, Worcester, Eng- 
land. The translations ascribed to The Benedictines of 
Stanhrook are taken from their classic little volume The 
Day Hours of the Church, which contains the Breviary 
Office in Latin and English for all the Hours except 
Matins. (Burns, Oates and Washbourne, London, 1916.) 
Hymns : 99, 100, 121, 122, 140. 

362 



TRANSLATORS OF THE HYMNS 

BLACKER, REV. MAXWELL JULIUS, MA. (1822- 
1888). Mr. Blacker was educated at Merton College, Ox- 
ford. His numerous translations from the Latin are in 
The Hymner. Hymns : 10, 114, 115, 151. 

BLOUNT, WALTER KIRKHAM (d. 1717). Author of 
the Office of Holy Week, Paris, 1670. Hymn : 51. 

BLEW, REV. WM. JOHN, M.A. (1808-1894) was edu- 
cated at Wadham College, Oxford. ''His translations are 
terse, vigorous, musical, and of great merit. They have 
been strangely overlooked by the compilers of recent hymn- 
books" {Diet, of Hymnol.). His translations appeared in 
The Church Hymn and Tune Booh, 1852. Hymns : 70, 113. 

BUTE, THE MARQUESS OF, M.A. (1847-1900) was 
educated at Christ Church, Oxford. Convert, 1869. 
Translator of the Roman Breviary into English. The 
translations of Latin hymns in his Roman Breviary in 
English are the work of many scholars, both Catholic and 
non-Catholic. It is not known which hymns are from the 
pen of the Marquess. The following are from his Roman 
Breviary: 84, 95, 141. 

CAMPBELL, ROBERT (1814-1868) was an advocate of 
Skerrington, Scotland. Convert, 1852. Educated at the 
Universities of Glasgow and Edinburgh. In 1850 many 
of his translations appeared in the St. Andrew's Hymnal. 
Many others were left by him in MSS. and were edited by 
Mr. Orby Shipley. From these Mr. Shipley published a 
considerable number in his Annus Sanctus, 1884. His 
translations are ''smooth, musical, and sustained" {Diet, 
of Hymnol.). Hymns: 59B, 60, 62. 

CASWALL, REV. EDWARD, M.A. (1814-1878) was 
educated at Brasenose College, Oxford. Convert, 1847. 
After his conversion he joined Cardinal Newman at the 
Oratory, Edgbaston. Father Caswall, despite the great 
names of Newman, Faber, and others, is pre-eminently 
"The Poet of the Oratory" (Father Matthew Russell, 
S.J.). With Dr. Neale, Father Caswall shares the honor of 
being the most felicitous of the translators of our Latin 
Hymns. His translations appeared in his Lyra Catholica, 
in 1848, the year following his reception into the Church. 
" Caswall 's translations of Latin hymns from the Roman 

363 



TRANSLATORS OF THE HYMNS 

Breviary and other sources have a wider circulation in 
modern hymnals than those of any other translator, Dr. 
Neale alone excepted. This is owing to his general faith- 
fulness to the originals, and to the purity of his rhythm" 
{Diet, of Hymnol.). Many of Father Caswall's translations 
appear in the Amius Sanctus and are characterized by Mr. 
Shipley as "vigorous, dogmatic hymns." Father Caswall 
translated the Roman Breviary Text. Despite his un- 
doubted ability as a translator, one can not but regret that 
so many of his translations are in Common Meter instead 
of Long Meter. Hymns : 22, 31, 32, 37, 42B, 43, 47, 54, 73, 
74, 76, 78, 83, 85, 86, 88, 89, 93, 106, 107, 108, 110, 111, 112, 
117, 119, 124, 125, 126, 127, 132, 134, 137, 147, 148, 152, 153, 
162, 165, 167. 

CHADWICK, JOSEPH WILLIAM, M.A. (1841-1882). 
Educated at Queen's College, Oxford. Vicar of Westgate 
Common, Wakefield. His translations in this volume are 
from The Hymner. Hymns : 13, 17, 19. 

CHAMBERS, JOHN DAVID, M.A. (1805-1893) was 
educated at Oriel College, Oxford, and was admitted to the 
bar in 1831. His translations are found principally in his 
Lauda Syon, which appeared in two parts in 1857 and 
1866. ''His translations of Latin hymns are close, clear, 
and poetical; they have much strength and earnestness, 
and the rhythm is easy and musical . . . Greater use, 
however, might be made of these translations than has been 
done. Their earnestness and dignity would raise the tone 
of many collections" {Diet, of Hymnol.). Hymns; 13, 21, 
28, 161. 

COPELAND, WM. JOHN, M.A. (1804-1885). Mr. 
Copeland was educated at Trinity College, Oxford. His 
translations, mostly from the Roman Breviary Text, ap- 
peared in his Hymns for the Week and Seasons (1848). 
He was also the editor of Cardinal Newman's Sermons. 
Hymn: 9. 

COURTHOPE, WILLIAM JOHN, LL.D. (1842-1917), 
was educated at Harrow, and New College, Oxford. Mr. 
Courthope was professor of poetry at Oxford, 1895-1901. 
Author of History of English Poetry, 4 vols., 1895-1903. 
He contributed five beautiful translations of Latin hynms 

364 



TRANSLATORS OF THE HYMNS 

to Church Hymns, 1903 ; through the kindness of The Mac- 
millan Company all of these spirited translations appear 
in this volume. Hymns : 14, 16, 18, 27, 36. 

DEARMER, REV. PERCY, MA., D.D. (b. 1867), was 
educated at Christ Church, Oxford. He was one of the 
compilers of the English Hymnal, 1906, to which he con- 
tributed ten translations. He was appointed to the Chair 
of Ecclesiastical Art, King's College, London, 1919. Hymn : 
156. 

DONAHOE, JUDGE DANIEL JOSEPH, was born at 
Brimfield, Mass., 1853, and was educated at Wesleyan 
University. He is the author of several volumes of poetry, 
original and translated. His translations from the Latin 
comprise two volumes under the title Early Christian 
Hymns, published by the Donahoe Publishing Co., Middle- 
town, Conn. These translations, 288 in all, include 115 
hymns from the Breviary and Missal. They are uniformly 
musical but quite free. Early Christian Hymns is the most 
extensive work of its kind thus far undertaken in America, 
or even in England since the days of Neale and Caswall. 
Judge Donahoe is a frequent contributor to several maga- 
zines. Hymns : 86, 123, 142, 143, 159. 

DORAN, J. W. No information obtainable. His trans- 
lations are from The Hymner. Hymns : 69, 151. 

DRYDEN, JOHN (1631-1701). Poet-Laureate, 1670. 
Convert, 1685. Mr. Orby Shipley and Mr. W. T. Brooke 
ascribe to John Dryden the bulk of the 120 translations of 
Latin hymns in The Primer, or Office of the B. V. Mary in 
English, 1706. Many of these translations are in the Annus 
Sanctus, the Preface of which contains a discussion of the 
question of Dryden 's authorship. Hymns: 50, 72. 

ELLERTON, REV. JOHN, M.A (1826-1893). Mr. El- 
lerton was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge. He is 
widely kno"v\Ti as an hymnologist, editor, hymn-writer, and 
translator. He was one of the editors of Church Hymns, 
1871, published by the Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge ( 8. P. C.K.). Hymn: 4. 

PABER, FREDERIC WILLIAM, D.D. (1814-1863). 
Father Faber was educated at Balliol College, Oxford. 
Convert, 1845. In 1849 he established in London the 

365 



TRANSLATORS OF THE HYMNS 

* * Oratorians, ' ' or Priests of the Congregation of St. Philip 
Neri, where he remained as superior until his death. 
Father Faber is the author of many well known prose 
works full of sweetness and unction, and a Book of Hymns , 
150 in number, many of which have become very popular. 
He is best known as a writer of original hymns, not as a 
translator. Hymn: 133. 

GARESCHE, REV. EDWARD FRANCIS, S.J., M.A. 
(b. 1876). Father Garesche was educated at St. Louis 
University, and at Washington University. Practiced law 
1898-1900. Entered the Society of Jesus, 1900. Lawyer, 
author, professor, poet, and formerly editor of The 
Queen's Work, St. Louis. Hymn: 80. 

HALL, RT. REV. MSGR. CANON LOUIS (1844-1911) 
was educated at St. Edmund's, Old Hall, and was ordained 
in 1868 for the Diocese of Southwark. In the division of 
the diocese in 1882 he was made Canon of the diocese of 
Portsmouth, and was several times Administrator of the 
diocese. Msgr. Hall was a devout and cultured priest, and 
a musician and composer of ability. Many of his hymns, 
the editor has been informed, are still unpublished. Hymn : 
116. 

HENRY, RT. REV. MSGR. HUGH THOMAS, LITT.D., 
LL.D. (b. 1862), poet, lecturer, and hymnologist. Profes- 
sor of Homiletics in the Catholic University of America. 
Msgr. Henry was educated at La Salle College, the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, and at St. Charles Seminary, 
Overbrook, Pa. For many years he was professor of Eng- 
lish and of Gregorian Chant at St. Charles, and rector of 
the Roman Catholic High School in Philadelphia. He con- 
tributed to the Catholic E^icyclopedia some fifty scholarly 
articles on our Latin hymns. He is widely and favorably 
known as a hymn-writer and translator. His translations 
appeared principally in his Eucharistica (Dolphin Press, 
Philadelphia), and in the pages of the American Ecclesiasti- 
cal Review, and in other periodicals. He has also rendered 
into English verse the Poems, Charades, and Inscriptions 
of Pope Leo XIII (Dolphin Press). Hymns: 8, 41, 75, 96, 
97, 131, 139, 144. 

HORT, FENTON JOHN ANTHONY, B.A. (1828-1892), 

366 



TRANSLATORS OF THE HYMNS 

was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge. He held 
several distinguished appointments at Cambridge Uni- 
versity. He translated a few Latin hymns. Hymn : 4. 

HOUSMAN, LAURENCE (b. 1867). Author and 
artist. He contributed several translations to the English 
Hymnal, 1906. His devotional poetry is found chiefly in 
his Spikenard, 1898, and in his Bethlehem, 1902. Hymn: 
164. 

HUNTER-BLAIR, RT. REV. OSWALD (Sir David 
Hunter-Blair, Baronet), O.S.B., M.A. (b. 1853). Born at 
Dunskey, Scotland. Educated at Eton and Magdalen Col- 
leges, Oxford. Convert, 1875. Entered the Benedictine 
Order in 1878. Master of Hunter-Blair 's Hall, Oxford, 
1899-1909. Elected Abbot of St. Benedict's Abbey, Fort 
Augustus, Scotland, 1913. Author, historian, and extensive 
contributor to Catholic periodicals and to the Catholic 
Encyclopedia. Hymns: 30, 141. 

HUSENBETH, VERY REV. FREDERICK 
CHARLES, D.D. (1796-1872). Educated at Oscott CoUege. 
Provost and Vicar-General of Northampton Diocese. 
Author and editor of many volumes pertaining to doctrinal, 
historical, and liturgical matters. Notable among these is 
his Missal for the Laity. A number of his translations are 
in Mr. Shipley's Annus Sanctus. Hymn : 82. 

IRONS, WILLIAM JOSIAH, B.A. (1812-1883). Edu- 
cated at Queen's College, Oxford. He is best known for his 
translation of the Dies Irce, which is more extensively used 
than any other translation of that great hymn. Hymns: 
87D, 166. 

JULIAN, REV. JOHN, D.D. (1839-1913) was editor of 
the Dictionary of Eymnology, a monumental work which 
sets forth the origin and history of Christian hymns of all 
ages and nations. It contains much valuable information 
on Latin hymns. Hymn: 20. 

LACEY, REV. THOMAS ALEXANDER, M.A. 
(b. 1853). Educated at Balliol College, Oxford. He was one 
of the committee that compiled The English Hymnal, to 
which he contributed eleven translations from the Latin and 
one from the Greek. His translations are of a high order. 
Hymn : 48. 

367 



TRANSLATORS OF THE HYMNS 

LEESON, JANE ELIZABETH (1807-1882). Of Miss 
Leeson's personal history nothing is known. She pub- 
lished several books of hymns, especially for children. Her 
widely used translation of the Victimce Paschali first ap- 
peared in Father Formby's Catholic Hymns, 1851. Miss 
Leeson, the editor has been informed, was a devout Catholic. 
Hymn: 59. 

LITTLEDALE, REV. RICHARD FREDERICK, B.A., 
LL.D. (1833-1890), was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, 
and was an hymnologist of note. He contributed hymns to 
many collections, and was one of the contributors to the 
Marquess of Bute's Roman Breviary in English. Hymn: 
157. 

MacCARTHY, DENIS FLORENCE (1817-1882) was 
Professor of poetry in the Catholic University of Dublin. 
By his incomparable version of Calderon, ''the Spanish 
Shakespeare," he has won a permanent place in English 
letters. He was an ardent patriot and a devout Catholic. 
Hymn: 57. 

McDOUGALL, ALAN G., was born in 1895, and was re- 
ceived into the Church in 1919. He resides in London. 
Mr. McDougall is the author of Pange Lingua — a collection 
of Breviary hymns of old use, with English metrical trans- 
lations. The translations are exceptionally good and they 
rank among the most felicitous in the language. They are 
"equal to Neale's at his best" is the opinion of no less an 
authority than Mr. James Britten. This is high praise but 
it is not unmerited. The volume contains a scholarly thirty- 
page introduction by Dr. Adrian Fortescue. Pange Lingua 
is published by Burns, Oates and Washbourne, 22 Orchard 
St., London, and it is a beautiful specimen of the book- 
maker's art. Hymns: 1, 64, 77, 105, 129, 136, 138, 155. 

NEALE, REV. JOHN MASON, D.D. (1818-1866) was 
educated at Trinity College, Cambridge. Dr. Neale was 
an eminent hymnologist and a most felicitous translator 
of Greek and Latin hymns. His translations of Latin 
hymns appeared in his Mediceval Hymns and Sequences, 
1851, and in the Hymnal Noted, 1852 and 1854, in which 94 
out of the 105 hymns therein are translated from the Latin 
by Dr. Neale. Most modern hymnals contain some of 

368 



TRANSLATORS OF THE HYMNS 

Neale's translations; two, however, easily obtained, are 
especially deserving of note; viz., the Rev. G. R. Wood- 
ward's Songs of Syon, and the Rev. G. H. Palmer's The 
Hymner. The latter book, so we are told in the Preface, 
contains "translations of all, save two, of the Hymns from 
the Sarum Breviary ... Of the total number nearly 
one-half are from the pen of the late Dr. J. M. Neale, of 
whose vigorous and scholarly renderings the editor has 
gladly availed himself." Neale's translations are from the 
Original Text, not from the Roman Breviary Text. 
Hymns : 3, 5, 6, 11, 23, 24, 26, 34B, 38, 39, 46, 49, 52, 53, 58, 
58B, m, 69, 71, 78, 134B, 150, 154, 158, 163, 168, 169, 170, 
171, 172, 173. 

NEWMAN, JOHN HENRY CARDINAL (1801-1890) 
was educated at Ealing, and at Trinity College, Oxford. 
Convert, 1845. Founder and superior of the Birmingham 
Oratory and School. Rector of the Catholic University in 
Dublin, 1854-1858. Created Cardinal by Pope Leo XIII, 
in 1879. His translations from the Roman Breviary, thirty- 
three in all, are found in his Verses on Various Occasions. 
His most popular translation is that of the Nimc Sancte 
nobis Spiritus, hymn 2 of this volume. Hymns : 2, 15, 130. 

OAKELEY, VERY REV. FREDERICK, M.A. (1802- 
1880) was educated at Christ Church, Oxford. He was a 
prominent Tractarian and author. Convert, 1845. Canon 
of the Cathedral of Westminster. He is widely known for 
his fine translation of the Adeste Fideles. Hymn: 40. 

O'HAGAN, JOHN (1822-1890) was born at Newry, 
Ireland, and was educated by the Jesuit Fathers in Dublin, 
and at Trinity College. Justice O'Hagan was a devout 
Catholic, a distinguished lawyer, and man of letters. He 
was a member of the Supreme Court of Judicature in 
Ireland. His fine translation of the Adoro Te devote was 
a great favorite with the late Father Matthew Russell, 
S. J., who included it in several of his charming little books 
on the Blessed Sacrament. Hymn: 79. 

OXENHAM, HENRY NUTCOMBE (1829-1888) was 
educated at Balliol College, Oxford. Convert, 1857. He is 
the author of several volumes. Several of his translations 
are in Mr. Shipley's Annus Sa/nctus. Hymn: 120. 

369 



TRANSLATORS OF THE HYMNS 

PAUL, CHARLES KEGAN, MA. (1828-1902), was edu- 
cated at Eton College, Oxford. Convert, 1890. He was an 
author, and head of the well-known publishing house of 
Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. Hymn : 102. 

PALMER, REV. GEORGE HERBERT, B.A., was edu- 
cated at Trinity College, Cambridge. Mr. Palmer is the 
editor of The Antiphoner and Grail, and The Hymner, 
which is exceptionally valuable both for the number and 
quality of its translations from the Latin. All the trans- 
lations by Mr. Palmer, M. J. Blacker, J. W. Doran, and 
J. W. Chadwick in this volume, are from The Hymner. 
Hymns: 19, 69, 114, 115, 157. 

POTTER, REV. THOMAS JOSEPH (1828-1873). 
Convert, 1847. Father Potter was for many years pro- 
fessor of Belles Lettres and Sacred Eloquence at All Hal- 
lows College, Dublin. He is the author of several volumes, 
one of which. Sacred Eloquence, has been widely used as a 
text-book in Catholic Seminaries. He translated the 
Vespers hymns of the Breviary for the Catholic Psalmist. 
Hymns : 29, 38, 63, 65, 91, 92, 104, 109, 118, 128. 

PRIMER. The Primer, or Office of the B. V. Mary in 
English, was a book of devotion which was very popular 
with our forefathers. Several editions appeared in the 
17th and 18th centuries. The Appendix to Mr. Shipley's 
Annus Sanctus, contains many beautiful translations from 
different editions of the Primer. Hymns : 33, 35, 50, 71. 

RILEY, ATHELSTAN, M.A. (b. 1858), was educated at 
Eton and at Pembroke College, Oxford. Mr. Riley is one 
of the compilers of the English Hymnal, 1906, to which he 
contributed seven translations from the Latin. The Eng- 
lish Hymnal (Oxford University Press, London) is one of 
the finest of modern hymnals. It contains 162 translations 
from the Latin, many of which are recent translations of 
unusual beauty. Hymns : 42, 149. 

SCOTT, SIR WALTER (1771-1832), the eminent poet 
and novelist, is the author of a fine condensed rendering of 
i\iQ Dies Ircd. Hymn:87B. 

SHIPLEY, ORBY, M.A. (1832-1916), was educated at 
Jesus College, Cambridge. He was an Anglican clergy- 
man for twenty-two years. He entered the Church in 1878, 

370 



TRANSLATORS OF THE HYMNS 

and at the time of his death he was one of the last of the 
illustrious band of converts whose conversion is traced 
directly to the Tractarian Movement. Mr. Shipley was 
an hymnologist of great ability and his compilation, the 
Annus Sanctus is repeatedly referred to in this volume. 
He is also the editor of the Carmina Mariana, and other 
collections now out of print. He edited the MSS. of Robert 
Campbell, and of the Very Rev. Prior Aylward, O.P., and 
included many of their finest translations in his Annus 
Sanctus (Burns, Gates & Washbourne, London). 

WALLACE, REV. WILFRID, O.S.B., D.D. (d. 1896). 
Father Wallace was educated at London University and in 
Rome. He was ordained a secular priest and was known 
to the world as John Wallace. In 1877 he entered the 
Benedictine Order and was afterwards known by his re- 
ligious name Wilfrid. In his Hymns of the Church, 1874, 
he translated all the hymns of the Breviary and Missal. 
Several of his translations are in Mr. Shipley's Annus 
Sanctus. Strangely enough his best translations are from 
the Passion Offices which are not included in the latest 
edition of the Breviary. Hymns : 94, 103, 145. 

WALWORTH, REV. CLARENCE ALPHONSUS 
(1820-1900) was an Episcopal clergyman who entered the 
Catholic Church and became one of the founders of the 
Paulist Congregation. His fine translation of the Te Deum 
is in extensive use. Hymn: 8. 

WINGFIELD, WILLIAM FREDERICK, M.A. (1813- 
1874), was educated at Christ Church, Oxford. Convert, 
1845. Before his conversion he was an Anglican clergy- 
man ; after his conversion, a barrister. Hymn : 87. 

WOODWARD, REV. GEORGE RATCLIFF, M.A. 
(b. 1848), was educated at Harrow, and at Gonville and 
Caius College, Cambridge. He is the editor of the excellent 
hymnal, Songs of Syon, to which he contributed many 
translations from the Latin, Greek, and German. His 
translations from the Latin do not include any of the 
Breviary hymns. He is also the author of the widely 
known Cowley Carol Booh. Hymn : 149B. 

YATTENDON HYMNAL, 1899. The Yattendon 
Hymnal was edited by Mr. Robert Bridges, the Poet- 

371 



TRANSLATORS OF THE HYMNS 

Laureate. It contains, in all, one hundred hymns, many of 
them recent translations of a high order. Hymn : 12. 

Religious Affiliations of Translators 

It is interesting to record here the religious affiliations 
of the translators whose hymns find a place in this volume. 
It will be observed from the biographies given above that 
among the Catholic translators fully one-half are converts. 
Among those classed as Anglicans the writer believes that 
all are of the High Church party. 

CATHOLICS : Aylward, Bagshawe, Bute, Campbell, Cas- 
wall, Donahoe, Dry den, Faber, Garesche, Hall, Henry, 
Hunter-Blair, Husenbeth, Leeson, McDougall, MacCarthy, 
Newman, Oakeley, O'Hagan, Oxenham, Paul, Potter, Wal- 
lace, Walworth, and Wingfield. The translations in the 
Primers are all by Catholics. 

ANGLICANS: Ball, Blacker, Blew, Chadwick, Cham- 
bers, Copeland, Courthope, Dearmer, Ellerton, Hort, 
Housman, Irons, Julian, Lacey, Littledale, Neale, Palmer, 
Riley, and Woodward. 

The religious affiliation of Doran is not definitely known 
to the writer ; he was probably an Anglican. 

Scott was nominally a Presbyterian with a leaning 
toward the Episcopal Church. 



372 



GLOSSARY 

Aurora, <b, the dawn. In alleg. the Blessed Virgin, who was 
the Dawn that heralded the rising Sun of Justice. 
(Mai. 4, 2.) 

Avernus, i, hell. The Humanistic revisers of the Breviary 
hymns introduced many pagan poetical names for 
heaven and hell. 

Bethlem, another form of Bethlehem, the birthplace of 
David and of Christ. It is five miles south of 
Jerusalem. 

Christiades, um, pi. Christians. This word occurs twice. 
It is not found in the dictionaries, not even in Du 
Cange. See hymns 94, 104. 

circulus, i, circle. Used in the hymns in such expressions 
as ''dierum circulo," "dierum circulis," and in the 
Vulgate — ''post anni circulum" — "after the course of 
a year." "Now the circling years disclose." — Pope: 
Odyssey. 

coelites (pi. of cosies, itis), the blessed, the heavenly spirits. 
This word and juhar were great favorites with the re- 
visers of the Breviary hymns. 

compos, potis, with genitive, partaking of, sharing in, par- 
ticipating in. 

confiteor 2, to praise. Confitebor tibi Domine in toto corde 
meo (Ps. 9, 2). 

denus for the pi. deni. The singular form of the distributive 
numerals is quite common. 

edo, edidi 3, to beget, bring forth, cause. 

Flamen, inis (from flare, to blow), the Holy Spirit; just 
as "spirit" is from spirare, to blow. 

Genitor, oris, the Father; Genitus, the Son. 

in, prep., in, into; as, for. Et dederunt in (as, for) escam 
meamfel (Ps. 68, 22). 

juhar, aris, ray, beam, splendor, glory. 

jugis, adj., continual, perpetual; jugiter, adv., forever. 

livor, oris, fig., envy, spite, malice, ill-will; mostly poet, and 
post-Auff. for invidia. 

373 



GLOSSARY 

lubricus, adj., slippery, dangerous; impure, unclean. See 
''lubricous" in any unabridged English dictionary. 

lumbi, orum, the loins, reins, considered as the seat of the 
passions or affections. 

machina, ce, structure, fabric, frame, order. 

Numen, inis, God, the Godhead, the Divine Will. 

obvius, adj., in the way so as to meet, meeting. 

Olympus, i, heaven. See ''Avernus." 

Orcus, i, hell. See "Avernus." 

palma, cb, a palm, palm branch ; victory, the palm branch as 
a symbol of victory. 

pango, to fasten; to compose, to write, hence ''to sing." 

plaga, ce, wound, blow, stripe. See following word. 

plaga, cb, region, quarter, lands. See preceding word. 

polus, i (or pi.), heaven, the heavens. 

prcBsepe, is, a manger. Also praesepes, is; praesepia, ae; 
praesepium, i. 

Sion, lit., a hill in Jerusalem on which stood the royal 
palace; fig., the Church, esp. the Church Militant, the 
faithful. In general, Sion is the Church on earth; 
Jerusalem, the Church in heaven. The necessities of 
meter do not always permit this distinction to be ob- 
served. 

SolymcB, arum, and Solyma, orum are poetical forms of 
Hierosolyma, orum, Jerusalem. 

Tartarus, i, and Tartara, orum, hell. See "Avernus." 

Verbum, i, The Word, the Eternal Son, the second Person 
of the Holy Trinity. 

votum, i (mostly pi.), prayer, wish, desire, "votum 
solvere," to fulfill one's vows or obligations, "voti 
compotes/' having obtained their wish. 



374 



ENGLISH INDEX 

HYMN 

Abroad the Regal Banners fly 51 

Ah that day of wrath and woe 87C 

All glory, laud, and honor 58 

All hail, ye little Martyr flowers 42 

All ye who seek a comfort sure 85 

All ye who would the Christ descry 129 

Angel-guardians of men, spirits and powers we sing 136 

Antiphons of Advent 34 

As fades the glowing orb of day 29 

As the bird, whose clarion gay 14 

A thousand lights their glory shed 96 

At the Cross her station keeping 54 

At the Lamb's high feast we sing 60 

At this our solemn Feast 77 

Ave, Star of Ocean , 149 

Before the ending of the day 5 

Behold the blessed morning 143 

Bethlehem, of noblest cities 47 

Be thou the guardian of thy native land 94 

Blessed City, heavenly Salem 168 

Blest guardian of all virgin souls 88 

Brief life is here our portion 171 

Bright Builder of the heavenly poles 35 

By Mary's inspiration led 103 

By the crib wherein reposing 57 

Celestial Word, to this our earth 36 

Christ is made the sure Foundation 169 

Christ, of the Angels praise and adoration 135 

Christ the Lord is risen to-day 59 

Come, all ye faithful 40 

Come, Holy Ghost, who ever One 2 

Creator-Spirit, all-Divine 68 

Day is breaking, dawn is bright 16 

Day of wrath and doom impending 87D 

Doxologies, Special — following hymn 29 

Earth's mighty Maker, whose command 25 

375 



INDEX, ENGLISH 

HYMN 

Eternal Monarch, King most High 66 

Father of lights I one glance of Thine 125 

Flowers of martyrdom all hail 42B 

For thee, dear, dear country 172 

From highest heaven, the Father's Son 167 

From lands that see the sun arise 39 

From the truth thy soul to turn 108 

Giver of life, eternal Lord 148 

Glory and honor and laud 58B 

Glory of Iberia's throne 107 

God of mercy let us run 133 

God's messenger, Theresa 142 

Great God of boundless mercy, hear 21 

Hail day ! whereon the One in Three 6 

Hail, holy Wounds of Jesus, hail 120 

Hail, Queen of heaven, enthroned 31 

Hail, Sea-Star we name thee 149B 

Hail, Thou who man's Redeemer art 65 

Hail to the Queen who reigns above 33 

Hail, true Body, truly born 80 

Hark, a herald voice is calling 37 

He who once, in righteous vengeance 119 

Hidden God, devoutly I adore Thee 79 

High let us all our voices raise 165 

His sacred feet with tears of agony 126 

Holy God, we praise Thy Name 8 

Holy Spirit, come and shine 67 

In wondrous mode set free, lo, at the Lord's com- 
mand 128 

Jerusalem the golden 173 

Jesu, eternal Truth sublime 162 

Jesu, salvation's Sun divine 50 

Jesu, the very thought of Thee 43 

Jesu, the Virgins' Crown, do Thou 163 

Jesu, the world's Redeemer, hear 161 

Jesus, behind Thy Temple's veil 84 

Jesus, the Ransomer of man 38 

Joseph, the praise and glory of the heavens 105 

376 



INDEX, ENGLISH 

HYMN 

Joy to thee, Queen of heaven 32 

Let Angels chant thy praise, pure spouse of purest 

Bride 104 

Light of the anxious heart 130 

Lo, how the savage crew 83 

Lo, Mary is exempt from stain of sin 100 

Long fasting hath thy body tamed 145 

Lo, the dim shadows of the night are waning 10 

Maker of all, eternal King 9 

Maker of man, who from Thy throne 28 

Martyr of God, whose strength was steeled 156 

Mother benign of our redeeming Lord 30 

My God, I love Thee, not because 74 

Noble champion of the Lord 110 

Now Christ, ascending whence He came 69 

Now Christ, the Conqueror of death 140 

Now from the slumbers of the night arising 7 

Now in the sun's new dawning ray 1 

Now let the darkling eve 131 

Now let the earth with joy resound 153 

Blest Creator of the light 23 

Christ, the world's Creator bright 82 

Christ, Thy guilty people spare 147 

Christ, whose glory fills the heaven 20 

come, come, Emmanuel 34B 

for thy spirit, holy John, to chasten 113 

glorious King of Martyr hosts 157 

glorious Lady I throned on high 151 

O glory of the Polish race 144 

God by whose command is swayed 72 

God, of those that fought Thy fight 155 

God of truth, Lord of might 3 

God, whose hand hath spread the sky 26 

great Creator of the sky 24 

highest Hope of mortals 95 

House of Nazareth the blest 97 

377 



INDEX, ENGLISH 

HYMN 

Jesu, King most wonderful 44 

Jesu, Life-spring of the soul 134 

Jesu, Thou the Beauty art 45 

kind Creator, bow Thine ear 48 

Light of Light, Dayspring bright 13 

lovely light of fatherland 122 

more than blessed, merit high attaining 115 

Peter, Shepherd good, our voices sing of thee . . 90 

rosy dawn! that dost proclaim 99 

Sovereign Lord of Nature's might 27 

Splendor of God's glory bright 12 

strength and stay upholding all creation 4 

Thou, the heavens' eternal King 61 

Thou, the Son of God most High 86 

Thou, who dost all nature sway 73 

Three in One, and One in Three 19 

Trinity of blessed light 71 

Our limbs refreshed with slumber now 11 

Our souls' great Teacher, Paul, our guide in wis- 
dom's ways 91 

Virgin Mother of our God 98 

Peter, blest Shepherd! hearken to our cry 117 

Peter, whatever thou shalt bind on earth 89 

Praise, Sion, praise thy Saviour 75 

Remember, Creator Lord 152 

Riches and regal throne, for Christ's dear sake.. 124 

Round roll the weeks our hearts to greet 70 

Ruler of the dread immense 137 

Sanctify me wholly, Soul of Christ adored 81 

See the golden sun arise 18 

Sing, my tongue, the glorious battle 52 

Sing, my tongue, the Saviour's glory 76 

Sing, Sons of the Church, sounding the Mar- 
tyrs ' praise 159 

Sing, ye faithful, sing two athlete brothers 121 

Son of a Virgin, Maker of Thy Mother 164 

Son of the Highest, deign to cast 127 

378 



INDEX, ENGLISH 

HYMN 

That day of wrath, that dreadful day 87 

That day of wrath, that dreadful day 87B 

The agonizing hooks, the rending scourge 93 

The beauteous light of God's eternal Majesty 116 

The dawn is sprinkling in the east 22 

The dusky veil of night hath laid 17 

Thee, Christ, the Father's splendor 134B 

Th' eternal gifts of Christ the King 154 

The fast, as taught by holy lore 49 

The fathers lived a life in shade 102 

The gladness of thy Motherhood 141 

The God whom earth, and sea, and sky 150 

The golden star of morn Ill 

The Heav'nly Word proceeding forth 78 

The holy Paschal work is wrought 59B 

The Martyrs' triumphs let us sing 158 

The Messenger from God's high throne 138 

The morn had spread her crimson rays 62 

The Mount of Olives witnesseth 139 

The world is very evil 170 

Thirty years among us dwelling 53 

This the Confessor of the Lord, whose triumph. . . 160 

Thou heavenly, new Jerusalem 166 

Thou in thy childhood, to the desert caverns 114 

To be the Lamb's celestial bride 112 

To rule thy heart, Elizabeth 123 

Venantius, hail! God's Martyr bright 109 

We praise Thee, God 8 

What a sea of tears and sorrow 132 

When thou dost pray thy mighty prayer 146 

When war was raging, and the town 101 

While Christ's disciples, grieving, sad 63 

Who madest all and dost control 15 

Why impious Herod, vainly fear 46 

With glad and joyous strains 118 

With joyous songs, great Rome, Martina's fame 

extol 92 

With terror doth the tyrant hear 41 

379 



INDEX, ENGLISH 

HYMN 

With the fair sun of Easter morn 64 

Worshipped throughout the Church to earth's far 

ends 106 

LATIN INDEX 

(a =: accentual, q = quantitative) 

HYMN 

Adeste, fideles a 40 

Adoro Te devote a 79 

Ad regias Agni dapes q 60 

sterna Christi munera q 154 

sterna cceli gloria q 20 

-Sterne Rector siderum q 137 

jEterne rerum Conditor q 9 

-Sterne Rex altissime q 6Q 

Ales diei nuntius q 14 

Alma Redemptoris Mater q 30 

Alto ex Olympi vertice q 167 

Angularis fundamentum a 169 

Anima Christi 81 

AntiphonaB Majores 34 

Antra deserti q 114 

A solis ortus cardine q 39 

Athleta Christi nobilis q 110 

Auctor beate saeculi q 82 

Audi benigne Conditor q 48 

Audit tyrannus anxius q 41 

Aurora coelum purpurat q 62 

Aurora jam spargit polum q 22 

Aurora soli praevia q 99 

Ave Maris Stella a 149 

Ave Regina coelorum a 31 

Ave verum Corpus natum a 80 

Beata nobis gaudia q 70 

Beate Pastor Petre q 90 

Beate Pastor Petre q 117 

Bella dum late q 101 

Christe, sanctorum q 135 

Christo prof usum sanguinem q 158 

380 



INDEX, LATIN 

HYMN 

Coelestis Agni nuptias q 112 

Coelestis aulae Nuntius q 138 

Coelestis urbs Jerusalem q 166 

Coeli Deus sanctissime q 26 

Coelitum Joseph q 105 

Consors paterni luminis q 13 

Cor, area legem continens q 84 

Corpus domas jejuniis q 145 

Creator alme siderum q 35 

Crudelis Herodes, Deum q 46 

Custodes hominum q 136 

Decora lux q 116 

Deus tuorum militum q 155 

Dies Irae a 87 

Domare cordis q 123 

Doxologies, Special — following hymn 29 

Dum nocte pulsa q Ill 

Ecce jam noctis q 10 

Egregie Doctor Paule q 91 

En clara vox redarguit q 37 

En ut superba 6riminum q 83 

Ex more docti mystico q 49 

Exultet orbis gaudiis q 153 

Festivis resonent compita q 118 

Fortem virili pectore q 165 

Gentis PolonaB gloria q 144 

Gloria, laus, et honor a 58 

Hasc est dies, qua q 143 

Hie breve vivitur q 171 

Hominis superne Conditor q 28 

Hora novissima q 170 

Immense coeli Conditor q 24 

In monte olivis q 139 

Invicte Martyr, unicum q 156 

381 



INDEX LATIN 

HYMN 

Ira justa Conditoris q 119 

Iste Confessor q 160 

Iste, quern Iseti q 106 

Jam Christus astra ascenderat q 69 

Jam lucis orto sidere q 1 

Jam morte victor q 140 

Jam sol reeedit igneus q 29 

Jam toto subitus q 131 

Jesu, corona celsior q 162 

Jesu, corona Virginum q 163 

Jesu, decus angelicum a 45 

Jesu, dulcis memoria a 43 

Jesu, Redemptor omnium, Perpes q 161 

Jesu, Redemptor omnium, Quem q 38 

Jesu, Rex admirabilis a 44 

Lauda Sion a 75 

Lucis Creator optime q 23 

Lustra sex a 53 

Lux alma, Jesu q 130 

Lux ecce surgit aurea q 18 

Lux decora q 122 

Magnae Deus potentiae a 27 

Maria castis osculis q 126 

MartinaB celebri q 92 

Martyr Dei Venantius q 109 

Matris sub almse q 103 

Memento, rerum Conditor q 152 

Miris modis repente q 128 

Nocte surgentes q 7 

Non illam crucians q 93 

Nox atra rerum contegit q 17 

Nox, et tenebrae, et nubila q 16 

Nullis te genitor q 108 

Nunc Sancte nobis Spiritus q 2 

bona patria q 172 

Deus, ego amo Te a 74 

382 



INDEX, LATIN 

HYMN 

gente f elix hospita q 97 

gloriosa virginum q 151 

Lux beata ccelitum q 95 

Lux beata Trinitas a 71 

Omnis expertem q 100 

nimis f elix q 115 

quot undis lacrimarum q 132 

sola magnarum urbium q 47 

Sol salutis, intimis q. 50 

Opes decusque regium q 124 

Pange lingua {Passion) q 52 

Pange Lingua {Corpus Christi) a 76 

Pascbale mundo gaudium q 64 

Pater superni luminis q 125 

Placare, Christe, servulis q 147 

Praeclara custos virginum q 88 

Primo die, quo Trinitas q 6 

Quern terra, pontus, sidera q 150 

Quicumque certum quaeritis q 85 

Quicumque Cbristum quaeritis q 129 

Quodcumque in orbe q 89 

Rector potens, verax Deus q 3 

Regali solio f ortis IberiaB q 107 

Regina coeli, Isetare a 32 

Regis superni nuntia q 142 

Rerum Creator optime q 15 

Rerum Deus tenax vigor q 4 

Rex gloriose Martyrum q 157 

Rex sempiterne coelitum q 61 

Sacra jam splendent q 96 

Sacris solemniis a 77 

Salutis asternae dator q 148 

Salutis humanae Sator q 65 

Salve Regina a 33 

Salvete Christi vulnera a 120 

Salvete flores Martyrum q 42 

Sancta Mater, istud agas a 55 

383 



INDEX, LATIN 

HYMN 

Sanctorum meritis q 159 

Sedibus cceli q 121 

Sio patres vitam q 102 

Somno ref ectis artubus q 11 

Splendor paternse glorias q 12 

Stabat Mater dolorosa a 54 

Stabat Mater speciosa a 57 

SummaB Deus clementise q 133 

SummaB Parens clementiae {Saturday) q 21 

Summse Parens clementiae q 72 

Summi Parentis Filio q 86 

Summi Parentis Unice q 127 

Te deprecante, corpormn q 146 

Te Deum laudamus 8 

Te dicimus praeconio q 98 

Te gestientem gaudiis q 141 

Te, Joseph, celebrent q 104 

Telluris alme Conditor q 25 

Te lucis ante terminum q 5 

Te splendor et virtus Patris q 134 

Tibi, Christe, splendor Patris a 134B 

Tristes erant Apostoli q 63 

Tu natale solum q 94 

Tu, Trinitatis Unitas (Friday) q 19 

Tu, Trinitatis Unitas q 73 

Urbs Jerusalem beata a 168 

Urbs Sion aurea q 1731 

Ut queant laxis q 113 

Veni Creator Spiritus q 68 

Veni, Sancte Spiritus a 67 

Veni, veni, Emmanuel a 34B 

Verbum supernum prodiens (Advent) q 36 

Verbum supernum prodiens a 78 

Vexilla Regis prodeunt q 51 

Victimae Pascbali a. 59 

Virginis Proles q 164 

Virgo virginum praBclara a 56 

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