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THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 




iJHI 



\ 



THE 

H Y M N S of CALLIMACHUS, 

Tranflated from the Greek into English Verfe, 

With Explanatory NOTES. 

To which are added, 

Seie6i Epigrams y and the Coma Berenices of the fame Author, 
Six Hymns of Orpheus, 

AND 

The Encomium of Ptolemy by Theocritus. 

By TF I L L I A M D D D, B. A. 

Late of Clare-Hall, Cambridge. 




LONDON: 

Printed for the T R A N S L A T O R, 

And SOLD by 

T. Waller" in FlceUStreety and J. Ward, m;\x i\\z Royal Exchavge. 

M DCC LV. 



\ 



T O 



HIS G R A. C E 



TH O MA S 



T>\JKY.o^NETJ^CJSTLE, 

Chancellor of the Univerfity of Cambridge. 



My lord, 

H E N it was propofed to me by my 
Lord Bijhop of Chefler^ that I iliould 
offer thefe Firft Fruits of my academical 
Labours to your Grace, it was with 
much Satisfaction, that I embraced the Propo- 
fal : Nothing doubting of your Grace's Favour to 
a Member of that Univerfity^ which has been fo ^i- 

A 2 




flinmaiflied 






DEDICJ'TION, 

ftinguillied by your Regard, and more efpeclally to a 
Member of that College^ which claims the Honour of 
your Grace's Education. But when the Honourable 
Gentleman *, who has long been an Ornament to that 
learned Body in general, and to our Society in par- 
ticular, was pleafed to introduce my Caufe to your 
Grace, your ready and pleafing Acceptance of my 
little Tribute, was no more than the Fruits of a rea- 
fonable and well grounded Expe6i:ation. 

The Author, here offered to your Grace's Pa- 
tronage, was happy in the Smiles and Prote(9:ion of 
the moft Noble and Worthy Princes : His Merits 
were equal to their Efteem, his Gratitude no incon- 
liderable Means of perpetuating their Glory, and 
thofe very Paflages, wherein he applauds his Bene- 
fa6):ors, fufficient Teftimonies of the Excellency of 
their Judgment. 

It has been my Endeavour, that he fhould lofe 
none of his deferved Praife in an Engliflj Drefs ^ 
how far I have fucceeded, muft be left to the De- 

* The Honourable "thomas To-mjhend, Efqv Member for the Univerfity o^ Cambridge. 

cifion 



BEDICATJON, 

cifion of others : But I fhall efteem myfelf happy, 
if the acknowledged Worth of the Author ihall re- 
commend to your Grace's Regard, the more hum- 
ble Labours of the I'ranjlator. 

Our Author and his Patrons are no more ; but 
the Works of the one are the ftandino; Memorials or 
the Fame of both : And, (in the Words of one of 
our Poets) 

-=.=.-What Reward 
" Than this more excellent, for Pow'r and Wealth 
To gain the Stamp of Worth and honeft Fame, 
Midft all Mankind ? This, this th' Atridas have : 
When all the Plunder of old Priam^s Houfe 
And all their mighty Wealth is loft in Night, 
And buried in Oblivion's greedy Grave. 

Theoc. Encom. p. 196. 

Suffer me, my Lord, (without that Flattery which 
have rendered Dedications infamous) heartily to wiih, 
that your Grace, like thefe illuftrious Perfons, may 
gain the Stamp of Worth and honefl Fame^ by di- 

refiling 



DEDICJriO N, 

re(9:ing all your Actions, — the leaft of which, in your 
high Station, is important — to the Glory of God, the 
Honour of your moft gracious Sovereign, and the 
Good of your Country : That fo, when, like theirs, 
your outward Splendor Ihall be diminilhed, and you 
ileep in Duft, yovir Fame may flourifti in happy Im- 
mortality below, yourfelf may flourilh in far more 
happy Immortality above. I am, 



My LOR D, 

Tf^ith all due RefpeS7y 



7^our Grace's moft devoted^ 



moft ohiiged and obedient 



humble Servant^ 



h'crch 24, 1755. 

William Dodd. 



PREFACE 



" A S it is the ^efign of the following notes to illuftrate and explain 
/% fuch parts of the anti«nt Mythology as .occur in the hymns here 
,X JL prefented to the reader in an E?!g///Jj drefs, it may be proper, in 
order to his forming a right judgment of particulars, to lay before him a 
general view of my fentiments concerning the rife and progrefs of what is 
called Mythology in the world. To do this at large, and produce the proofs 
and teftimonies that are neceffiiry from antiquity, would vallly exceed the 
bounds of a preface, which obliges me to content myfelf at prefent with 
giving only a fhort iketch of what I take to be the true flate of the cafe. 
The chief difficulty then, I apprehend, that attends an enquiry of this 
kind, and has rendered fo many attempts fruitlefs, is the want of a clue to 
lead us regularly up to the fountain ; which mull have been originally one, 
however afterwards, in their courfes, the flreams took different tindlures in 
different ages and countries. For were we once well acquainted with the 
nature and properties of the water at the fpring-head, we might eafily, by 
following the current down again, perceive when and how it became adul- 
terated and corrupted with adventitious mixtures. The Mythology of the 
Greeks and Remans, who lived in the midnight of Paganifm, juft before the 
day dawned, and the fun of righteoufnefs arofe upon the earth, is one vaft 
ocean of confufion, which ingulphed into itfelf ail the broken traditions of 
theological, phylical, and hiflorical truths that came near it, and converted 
them into fables, changing the truth of God (as the Apoftle fpeaks of them) 
into a LIE. Accordingly, if we look into the mufler-roll of their gods, and 
the fadls related of them, we (hall find fome owe their birth to the great 
things revealed to believers from the beginning concerning the Saviour of 
the world, and what he was to be, to do, and to fuffer, for the falvation 
of men. Thefe may be put to the fcore of theokgy. Another fet of gods 
are the operations of nature and the mechanical agents, that peiTorm them, 
deified, which may therefore be faid to have a /'^jt'/'V^/ divinity ; while a third 
part of the annals of heaven is made up of broken and disjointed fragments 
concerning heroes and heroines that lived, or were reported to have lived, 
and aifted upon earth ; and thefe venerable perfonages cannot, I think, be 
allowed more than an hijhrical godhead. 

Thefe I take to be the three grand fources of mythology ; and were they 
always kept diftindl, it might be no difficult matter, perhaps, to refer each 

3 copy 



PREFACE. 

copy to its original. But the misfortune Is, they are not ; for generally, if not 
always, the theological and phyfical ^zrts are mixed and blended, and often 
there is a jumble of all three together, nothing being more common than to 
find a god ading in a threefold capacity, fometimes as a theological, fometimes 
as a phyfical, and fometimes as an hiftorical god. In this cafe, to untwifl the 
cord, fliew which was the original flamen, and how, when, and by whom the 
others were added, and woven into it — Hie labor, hoc opus — for here thofe in- 
genious gentlemen the poets, that twifted it, can give us no affiftance. They 
knew not what the materials were, or whence they came ; but they took what 
they found, added what embelliflmients they fanfied, and then worked them 
all up together, each according to his own imagination. From the time 
when the true hiftory of the Greeks begins, to the firft apoftafy of the Gen- 
tiles from the patriarchal faith and worfliip to idolatry — a period which goes 
under the general denomination of the fabulous age — is a great gap In the 
mythological chain, by which we are deprived of the firfl and mofc valuable 
links of it. If we knew what were the objedls of the heathen worfliip at 
their firft going off, and afterwards in particular of the Canaanifes, it would 
guide us downwards to unravel the mythology of the GreekSy who (as 
mod: learned men feem to agree) were fome of thofe that fled weft- 
ward, when difpoffefTed by yojhua. 'Till we have this knowledge, we 
are in a labyrinth without a clue ; we find matters in a great confufion, and 
after all our labours fliall leave them in a greater. 

To this knowledge no book can help us but the Bible, which begins with 
the beginning of the world and man, and brings down a hiftory of the true Re- 
-ligion inftituted by God, with the deviations and corruptions introduced by 
Satan, to the times of the Greeks and Romans, thus filling up the deficiency, and 
conipleating the chain. By the light aflbrded us in Scripture we find, that two 
of the abovementioned fources of mythology, divinity and phyfics^ were ori- 
ginally united, the latter being ufed as illufcrative and explanatory of the 
former. The invifible things of God from the creation of the ivcrlJ, from 
the beginning, ever fince there was a revelation made of them, are clearly 
ffcn, not by the eye of fenfe, but that of faith, being tinderfood by the 
things that are made, even his eternal power and godhead are exhibited to 
us by vifible objeifts, and not otherwife to be known or conceived. The 
counfels of the eternal Three foreordained before, and executed in time, for 
the redemption of man, are fhown us as in a glafs by the operations performed 
in nature, and the bright rulers that carry on thefe in the material world are 
reprefentatives of the more glorious ones that carry on thofe in the fpiritual. 
Iht' heavens, by the light enHuined in their tabernacle the fun, placed in them, 
and thence irradiated on the earth, moon and ftars, declare and hold forth 
to us an image of the: glory cf God, the divine light, that from the humanity 
of our Lord is poured forth on his Churches and Saints ; while the air in 
conjundion with the light dlffufed thro' the univcrfal fyflem of nature, to 

3 animate 



PREFACE. 

animate and give breath to all creatures, is a moft exprelfive emblem of aa 
oirmiprefent fpirit, the author, giver, and preferver of fpiritual life. The 
patriarchs and believers made that ufe of the knowledge of nature defi-^ned by 
him who gave it them ; they regarded it as a ladder, wherebv they migbt 
afcend to a knowledge of the almighty Lord of nature, and his fpiritual 
operations in the oeconomy of redemption. But the nations, after their apoftacy 
at Babel, dropt the originals, and worfliipped the copies inflead of them, 
ferving the creature more, or rather than the creator. For, from that time! 
we find it conftantly charged upon the Babylonians, Egyptians, Canaanites, and 
other neighbouring nations, that they paid divine honours to the H'^jl of Hca- 
"jen, thofe powers in the fervice o^ Jehovah, which, from their tents, the folar, 
lunar, and ftellar orbs, flationed in fuch beautiful order and array in the 
firmament, are divided, and fent abroad to all nations under heaven. Fos, o 
clarijima miindi liimina I became now the general invocation ; and by the 
, names of the idols and temples of the Canaanites, and others remaining upon 
record in the Bible to this day, it appears, that they knew what great and 
wonderful things the powers of the heavens performed in nature, for which 
they adored them as the Gods that governed the world. That the heavens 
were the ruling agents in this fyftem was true ; but when they afcribed fu- 
prcmacy and independency to them, they forgot that there were higher than 
they, and that it was Jeho'vah that made the heavens. They were found 
philofophers, though rotten divines. But in procefs of time, the knowledo-e 
even of philolbphy declined, and was loft ; people received the Gods and 
creeds of their anceftors without the reafons of them, and fo worfliipped 
they knew not what, they knew not why ; only their fathers did it, and 
therefore fo did they. The knowledge of philofophy being gone, the latter 
heathens patched up matters with fragments of hillory and fable ; and as 
it had been ufual among the old idolaters for kings and great men to take the 
names of their Gods, they confounded the hiftorical adtions of the prince 
v/ith the phyfical adions of the God, which introduced that intricate and 
often utterly inextricable confufion in the Greek and Roman mythology, la- 
mented in vain by the critics and beaux efprits of modern times. The hymns 
called Orphic (whoever was the author of them) plainly appear to have'been 
wrote when the phyfical mythology was declining, and the hiftorical or fa- 
bulous gaining ground, are a fort of iflhmus between the two feas, 
waflied by the waves of both. In many places his defcriptions of the natural 
agents and their operations are amazingly juft and beautiful, and the com- 
pound epithets, he ufes to defcribe them beyond meafure, full, ftrong, and 
exprefiive; and in others, where there is a mixture of the fabulous, a 2;reat 
deal of true philofophy is fiill difcernable. But in Homer the cafe is widely 
different. There the fabulous almofl wholly lofes fight of the phyfical." And 
though there are many particulars, which may be referred to nature, the 

b labyrinth 



PREFACE. 

labyrinth is fo intricate, that it requires a clue far more exadl, than we can 
at prefent have, to carry us through its mazes. 

It cannot be expedled, that matters fhould be much better in this particular 
with our author, who is but a modern, in comparifon of i/^^w^r, and who 
lived, though in an age of polite learning, yet, in the very darkeft times of 
Paganifm. Notwithftanding, this, by fome means or other, he has mixed 
in the prefent hymns, feveral particulars well deferving notice, and which 
may fully fatisfy the reader of the fitnefs of the key above-given to open the 
heathen mythology, Spanheim has proved, beyond controverfy, that he was 
no ftranger to the LXX tranflation of the Bible; an opinion which the fol- 
lowing obfervations will, I imagine, abundantly confirm, as to remember it, 
in the perufing of them, will be of fervice to me, as well as my readers. I 
have been fo large in my notes, that there is little occafion to fay more on 
this fubjeft : and as I have provided a copious index, it will be eafy to refer 
to any particular. 

It was my original intention to have given Mr. Priori tranflation of the 
two firft hymns of our author, which are incomparable pieces of poetry : 
but upon a clofe examination, I found many mifunderftandings of the origi- 
nal, which would have occafioned fo frequent carping, that I determined to 
tranflate them afrefh ; which I have done in rhyme, for no other reafon 
than becaufe I was unwilling to enter the lifts with fo excellent a mafter as 
Mr. Prior, in blank verfe, confcious how much I muft lofe by fuch a com- 
petition : — The reft are in blank ; which, doubtlefs, is the moft proper for 
fuch compofitions. I have fpared no pains to make the work as acceptable 
as might be to my worthy friends and fubfcribers, whofe generous affiftance 
I thus beg leave to acknowledge ; and though fo long time has intervened 
fince my propofals were firft delivered, I truft the work has loft no- 
thing thereby, as I have not been wanting in a diligent revifal of it ; 
indeed the pains and labour it has coft me will very greatly overbalance 
every thing I can exped; from it : for though the work was nearly 
finilhed, before I took my degree, in the year 1750, -Sit Cambridge ; the 

toil of correding, printing, and a long &c. , amidft my many other 

neceflTary avocations, has been truly grievous and burdenfome. And after all 
perhaps, I am only making myfelf a ftage for ill-natured criticifm to difplay 
its malignity : be it fo : yet let me afllire every reader of this work, that if 
they enter upon it with a mind as candid and open to truth, as unprejudiced 
and unbigotted to any man's notions or opinions as my own, they will 
never cenl'ure others for differing in judgment with regard to fuch matters, 
but with fatisfadtion hear all, and give cool impartial reafon the final de- 
cifion : the treatment which through my notes I have given to others, 
will, I hope, gain to me the like. However, be the remarks of the envious 
and ill-natured what they pleafe, 1 Ihall always find caufe to rejoice in the 
obliging readlnefs of my friends to afllft and promote my endeavours : and 

2 here 



PREFACE. 

here I cannot omit to pay a particular regard to my dear and worthy friend 
tiie reverend Mr. Parkhurji, who has furniflied me with many excellent re- 
marks, and from whofe found judgment, enlarged underflanding, un- 
wearied application, and generous opennefs of heart, the world has great 
and valuable fruits to expedl : Dr. R. Schomberg too has, with abundant 
civility, favoured me with his obfervations ; and it gives me pleafure thus to 
■ acknowledge his learned and friendly aHlftance. To Maurice 'Johnfon^ Efq; 
I am indebted for the head of Callimachus, prefixed to this volume, which is 
taken from a curious drawing by that celebrated antiquary Beanpre Bell, Efq; 
copied from a fine antique. And very many particular kindncfles I have 
received from various other friend?, whofe names I efteem not more an 
honour to my lift, than the friendll:iip they are pleafed to favour me with, 
an happinefs to my life 

' The original propofals promifed head and tail-pieces ; but the tail-pieces, I 
found, depended entirely upon chance, according as there was room left 
at the end of each hymn or not : and for this reafon, I threw all into one> 
placing the a?7tiqiies intended for the tail-pieces in the head-pieces ; by 
which means, there are the fame number of figures, and the fame expence 
to me — nay, indeed, the head at the beginning, as well as the SeleB Epi- 
grams are more than were at firft propofed— but it was my defire to pleafe 
and fatisfy my fubfcribers. Each plate contains fomewhat explanatory of 
paflages in the author, or in the notes, and every piece is copied from the re- 
mains of antiquity, found either in Montfaii^07i, or Spe??ce's Polymetis, which book 
will beft fhew the ufe of fuch antient remains for the explanation of the poets. 
Callimachus has been happy in the regard of great and learned men : the Vari- 
orum edition of his works prefents us with all their labours together : there 
we fee Gravius, Stepha7is, Frifcblinus, Voet, Faber, and his ingenious daughter 
Madam Dacier, Dr. Bentley, and, above all, Spanheim^ uniting their endeavours 
to fet forth the beauties and excellencies of our poet : and fuch names, I hope, 
will be fufiicient to juftify. my choice, I can never too largely commend 
the obfervations of Spanheim upon Callimachus, which are a rich fund of 
learning, and difcover at once the moft ingenious, and the moft cultivated 
mind : I have gathered plentifully from them ; and had formerly digefted 
many more of his remarks into my own ; which are in a great meafure 
dropped, as I have omitted moft part of my critical notes, my fondnefs for 
that fort of writing being confiderably abated. 

I have fubjoined the Life oi Callimachm, as compiled by Bajil Kemiet, 
which is very exa6l and impartial : and thus have, to the utmoft of my ability, 
endeavoured to make the work as perfeil as I was able. 



b 2 THE 



THE 



L I F E of CAL L IMACHUS. 



CAL L I M yi C HU S was born in Cyrene*, the famous city of antient Libya. 
His common title of Battiadss makes the grammarians ufuaiiy affign one 
Battus for his father: but, perhaps, he may as well derive that name from 
king Battus, the founder o^ Cyrene, from whofe line, as Stmbo-\ afTures us, he declared 
himfelf to be defcended. We are not informed of the particular year of his birth •, 
though few of the poets have been forgotten by Eufebius. However, it's agreed, that 
he commenced his fame under the patronage oi Ptolemy Philadelphus, and continued 
it in the reign of his fucceflbr Ptolemy Euergetes ; whofe queen Berenice having con- 
fecrated her locks in the temple of Venus, and a cunning mathematician having ftolen 
them thence to trandate them to heaven, gave occafion to the fine elegy of this poet, 
which we have now only in the Latin of Catullus. 

Whoever was his father, the poet has paid all his duties and obligations to him 
in a moft delicate epitaph, which we find in the Anthologia, and which fliews, that 
Martial had good reafon to alTign him the crown among the Grecian writers of the 
epigram. The old gentleman is fuppofed thus to addreis the vifitants at his tomb : 

\Vhoe'er thou art, that to this tomb draw'ft nigh. 

Know, here interr'd the fon and fire 1 lie 

Of a Callimachus : illuftrious name. 

By each ennobled, and renown'd in fame : 

The fire was glorious 'midft the warlike throng, 

The fon fuperior to all envy fung : 

Nor is it ftrange ; for whom the Nine behold. 

When young with favour, they regard when old. 

Before Callimachus was recommended to the fiivour of the court, he taught fchool 
\n Alexandria, and had the honour o{ cducMing Apollonius, the author of the Jrgonau- 
tics : who making him but an unkind requital for his labour, provoked Callimachus 
to vent his paffion in an inveftive poem, levelled againll his ungrateful ichokr, 
under the reproachful nam.e of IB IS^; which furnifhed Ovid with a pattern and. a 
title for his biting piece of the fame nature. 

How capable foever our poet might be of the higheft attainments in verfe, he 
leems to have had a particular fancy for fhort copies. And when his envious rivals 
uied to alledge this as their main objeftion againfl: his Mufe, that he could not 
attempt any thing of bulk •, he gave them the ingenious anfwer at the end ot the 
hymn to Apollo, which feems to be compofed and introduced with all that^r/, whicii 
0^:id makes the great excellency of Callimachus. 

• ?t"ab. 1. 17. p ^3"; + F^g-^37* t ^"'^- '^^Callim. 

Envy 



The L I F E of CALLI MACHVS. 

Envy, grown pale with fclf-confuming cares, 

Thus fhed her poifon in /^polio's ears : 

" I hate the bard, who cannot pour his fong, 

" Full as the fea, and as the torrent ftrong." 

The fiend Apollo fcorning, fpurn'd afide 

With angry foot indignant and reply'd : 

" Headlong defcends the deep Affyrian flood, 

" But with pollution foul'd, and black with mud ; 

" While the Meliffa facred waters bring, 

" Not from each flream, but from the pureft fpring j 

" From whofe fmall urn the limpid current rills 

'* In clear perfedion down the gladden'd hills." 

Flail king, once more thy conqu'ring arm extend. 
To final ruin ranc'rous Envy fend ! 

The fcholiaft on this place obferve?, that to flop the mouths of thefe detractors, 
the poet compofed his Hecate, a work of a large fize ; now loft, but frequenly cited 
by Grecian and Roman authors. 

■ Thofe few perfons who have a right tafte, and a juft efteem for thefe fmaller com- 
pofitions, will think that Callmachus needed nothing elfe to enfure his reputation. 
And if it be true, what Suidas reports, that he wrote above eight hundred pieces, he 
•will ftand free enough from the imputation of lazinefs, though he have no unwieldy 
labour to produce in his own defence. 

What we now have under his name are a few hymns and epigrams : the firft of 
which, as they make far the larger part of his remains, fo they are of the grearetl 
credit, and feem the main foundation of his fair charafter amongft his modern 
friends. 

It looks a little ftrange that Ovid *, when he gives him a place in his fine cata- 
logue of poets, fliould pronounce him immortal, barely upon account of his art, 
and at the fame time, exprefsly deny his title to wit. 

Indeed, we have ftill many prodigious inftances of his art, as (befides the apology 
already fet down} the manner of bringing king Ptolemy i, praifes into the hymns to 
Jupiter, the making Apolo, while yet in his mother's belly, prophefy the fame 
prince's viftories ; and the like. Yet it will be a difficult matter to perluade any 
one, who has confidered the furprizing delicacy of his thought and turn, to com- 
pound for half his applaufe, and to quit the credit of his invention, for that of 
his judgment. Both the talents feem fo happily ten^pered togetfier, that it is hard 
to give an inftance of one virtue, without difplaying the other in the fame view. 
What can be a nobler proof of both, than the gracefulnefs of thofe tranfitions, 
where, while he is commending one Deity, he draws in another with fo genth force, 
as not to wrong the firft fubjetft by obliging a new one ? Of this kind is that ad- 
mired ftroke on Hercules, in the hymn to Di(na : 

Thy approach 



At heaven's eternal portals Phxbus waits 

* Baltladei toto fimper tiintabitur orbe, 

^anivii ingenio mn lalet, aitemakt, Am. ..I. 15. i- '■ 

2 W ith 



The LIFE r>^ C A L L I MA C BU S. 

With Acaceftan Hermes^ this thy arms, 

And that the produce of thy fports to take : 

Such erft Apollo's tafk, or ere at heav'n's 

Bled banquets great Alcides found a place, 

Whofe is that duty now ? The rich repaft 

"With thee approaching, at the gates of heav'n 

He waits unwearied. Him mean time the Gods, 

But chief his envious ftep-dame, geafelefs fcofF 

In pleafant vein, when from the car he bears 

A bull's vaft weight, or by its hind- leg drags. 

Impatient fpurning, a wild boar's huge bulk 

Slow up heav'n's fleep — while thee in crafty guife 

Goddefs he thus befpeaks : " On noxious beafts 

*♦ Employ thy darts: that mortals may bellow 

" Alcides the preferver's name on thee ! 

•' Suffer the harmlefs goat, the timid hare 

** Secure to range ; ought injure they mankind ? 

•• Poor is the triumph there : the wild boars wafte, 

" The wild bulls level all the blooming year : 

*♦ Thefe are man's foes : pour all thy rage on thefe." 

Thus fpeaking, all-indignant he bears off 
His burden, labouring. — — 

What can be a fairer argument for the union of the fame talents, than thofe wife 
and delicious fentences, which, ftriking us fuddenly in a work where one would not 
expeft them, look as much like infpiration as any thing that poefy can produce .' 
Two of thefe, in the very firft hymn, may vie with the entire labours of more bulky 
authors. The firft of them is a fine anfwer to the modern libertines, who, from the 
fanfied uncertainty of a future ilate, take occafion to live and die at a venture, and 
cxpeft as good a chance as their neighbours. The poet is fpeaking o{ Jupiter's title 
to the empire of heaven, as a thing acknowledged and unenvied by his two brothers ; 
and hence he refiedts on the folly of the antient ftory-tellers, who would make the 
three fons oi Saturn divide the three realms by lot : 

Vain bards of old, to fiftion that incline. 
Fabling relate, that heav'n by lot was thine : 
In equal things the urns dark chance we try -, 
But how bears hell proportion to the fky ? 
The difference who but madmen have not feen. 
Wide as the diftance either realm between ? 

The other, is the concluding ftrain of the hymn, where he makes his farewel- 
prayer to the Deity : 

Hail, father — ! tho' above all praifes, hear; 
Grant wealth and virtue to thy fervant's prayer : 
Wealth, without virtue, but enhances Ihanie, 
And virtue, without wealth, becomes a name : 

Send 



The LIFE of CJLLIMACHUS, 

Send wealth, fend virtue then ; for join'd, they prove 
The blifs of mortals, and the gift oijove. 

Some learned men have endeavoured to make Otvi's judgment fpeak a more fa- 
vourable fenfe. But whoever cafts his eyes on what Ikinfius* has performed in 
that caufe, and confiders how he is gravelled in the impoffible attempt, will be 
apt to imagine, that Ovid intended his words fhould be underftood according to their 
natural import, but that through z. fpirit of envy and emulation, he has wilfully 
contracfled his rival's praifes. It is plain, he had no higher ambition than to be 
thought to be fuperior to CalUmachus \ and he declares he fhould admire a miflrefs 
who would honour him with that preference f. 

But the greateft teflimonies of Callimachus's worth, and the foundation of his cha- 
racter with the antients, were his numerous pieces in the elegiac ftrain. Ofthefe, 
we have only the hymn on Minerva'^ bath, and Cattdlus's tranflation of the copy on 
queen Berenice^ hair. The former feems, like his other hymns, to incline mofl to 
the free fpirit of lyrics -, the curious flory oitireftas making the greater part of the 
poem. The other is more agreeable to our common notions of elegy -, and, as it 
is commonly printed with the works of Tihullus and Propertius in the fame flrain, 
fo it may vie with the fvveetefl and moft exaft of their pieces. For inftance, they 
have nothing of a more natural turn, than that thought, which makes it a greater 
honour to belong to the queen's head, than to have a place among the conflellations : 
the ftar is fuppoied to fpeak, and thus compliments its miflrels : 

But tho' fuch honour and fuch place is mine, 
Tho' nightly preft by Gods and feet divine : 
To hoary Tethys tho' with light reftor'd, 
Thefe — let me fpeak, — and truth defend the word : 
J Thou too, Rhatnnufian virgin, pard'ning hear> 
For I mufl fpeak •, llnce neither force nor fear 
Can make me cover what I io revere : 
Not tho' enrag'd the pow'rs on high (hou'd rife. 
Revenging tear, and hurl me from the fliies ! 
All thefe — bear no proportion to the pain 
Of fatal final abfence from myqueen, 
With v/hom while yet an unexperienc'd maid, 
I fhar'd fuch unguents, on her lovely head ! 

Ah, why amidll the liars mult I remain .'' 
Wou'd God, I grew on thy dear head again ! 
Take heav'n who wou'd, were that willi'd pleafure mlnej 
Orion's felf might next Hydrochoiis fhine ! 

This fpectmen (which to be fure has loft nothing in the Latin verfion) is of itfelf 
almoft ejiough to juftify ^tintilian J, when he gives Callimacbus the crown in elegy. 



i 



* 



Prolegom. in Hefud. 

Efi quet Callimachi pra nojliii rufica dicit 

Carmina ; cut flaae, fictinus :pfa placet, 

Amor. !. 2. £1. a; 
Lib. 10. c. I. 

and 



The L I F E of CALLIMACHUS. 

and to Ihow that Proper tius was not much out in his choice, when he pitched on 
him for his pattern *. 

There is indeed another pafTage in Propertius, which feems to contradift his former 
judgment, and which is commonly alledged by thofe who pretend to cenfure Calti- 
machus. It is in the thirty-third elegy of the fecond book, 

^u fatius memorem Miifis imitere Philetam, 
Et no7i injiatt fomnia Callimachi. 

It is true, by joining non with inflati\x\ the conftrudion, the difficulty is eafily folved, 
and the fuppoied detraftion turns into a commendation. But it is much more ra- 
tional to imagine, that Propertius here cenfures ibme particular work oi Callinmchus 
(at prefent not extant) as bombaft and extravagant ; advifing his friend to apply 
himfelf to fome eafier and morp agreeable labour. Scaliger judges the particular 
piece to have been the A/t/« which Martial flouts as a hard obfcure bufinefs ; 
and which Propertius's friend might then probably think of tranflating. This con- 
jedlure may be farther improved from hence, that in one of the old epigrams in the 
Anthologia, Callimachus is fuppofed to have been honoured with the commands of the 
Mufes in a dream, for the undertaking that difficult work. But whatever becomes 
of this point, it is impolTible Propertius fliould defign any general refle(flion ; fince 
he declares it for his higheft wifh, to be called the Roman Callimachus \ . 

* Inter Callimachi fat erit placuijje libellos, 
Et cecinijfe modis, pure poeta, tuts . 

Lib. 3. Eleg. 6. 

—Like fweet Callimachus to pleafe. 
And to hiave fung, pure poet, like to thee. 
Will prove, indeed, fufficient fame for me. 

f Ut mflris tumefaBa fuperhiat Umbria lihris, 
Umbria Romani patria Callimachi. 

Let Umbria glory in her poet's lays, 
The natal place of Rome's Callimachus. 



A L IS T 



A L I S T of the Subscribers Names* 



N. B. Thofe marked with *, are for Royal Paper. 



A. 



* TT "W" I S Grace Peregrine, Duke of An- 
I — I carter. 

*-■-■*• Richard Aftel!, of Everton, Efq; 

* Adams, Efq; 

* John Abdey, Efq; 

Thomas Artington, of Arlington in the County 

of York, Efq; 
Thomas James Agar, Efq; 
The Rev. Mr. Adcoclc, of Oakham, 
The Rev. Mr. Affleck, ofDaventrv. 
The Rev. Dr. Aftrey, Reflor of St. James, 

Garlick-hythe, 2 Copies. 
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Hart-flreet. 
The Rev. Mr. Atkinfon. 

* The Rev. Mr. Arnetr. 

Mr. Townfend Andrews, of Trinity-Hall, 

Cambridge. 
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* Mr. Atkins. 
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B. 

* His Grace the Duke of Bedford. 

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* The Right Hon. Lord Vere Bertie. 

* The Right Hon. Lord Brownlow Bertie; 



* Sir John Barnard. 

* Nathaniel Booth, Efq; of HampfteaJ. 

* Robert Bird, Efq; of Coventry, 
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* Claudius Bofanquet, Efq; 

* Captain Chriftopher Burrows. 

* Francis Beauchamp, Efq; of Cotnwall. 
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Temple. 

* Bernard, Efq; of Lincoln. 

Thomas Byrd, Efq; 

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the Duke of Ancafter. 
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Coil. Oxford. 
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Mr. Earner, 



Mr. Fenne? 



SUBSCRIBERS NAMES. 



Mr. Bennet. 
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* Mr. Blake. 

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Mifs Martha Bird. 
Mrs. Ball, of Epfom. 
Mrs. Barrington, 



* His Grace the Archbiihop of Canterbury. 

* The Lord Bifliop of Chefter. 

* Captain Somcrs Clarke. 
John Cay, Efq; 
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John Cuthbcrt, Efq; of St. Peter's Coll. Camb, 

Thomas Crifpe, Efq; 

Captain John Carter, of Trinity-hall, Camb. 

Dr. Cocicburn. 

The Rev. Mr. Courtail, Fellow of Clare-hall. 

The Rev. Mr. Calthorp, of Bofton. 

The Rev. Mr. Clagett. 

The Rev. Mr. Conder. 

The Rev. Mr. Cope, 2 Copies. 

Mr. Cater, of Coventry. 

Mr. Cay, of Clare-hall. 

Mr. Samuel Chandler. 

Mr. Cooper. 

Mr. Caldecot. 

Mr. Richard Calthrop. 

Mr. Chapman, Gravel-ftreet. 

Mr. Noah Curteis, of Stamford. 

Mr. Clarke, of St. John's Camb. 2 Copies. 

Mr. Collnett. 

Mr. Con nop. 

» Mr. Carter. 

Mr. Cook. 

Mafter Court. 

Mrs. Collcut. 



D. 



* The Right Hon. the Earl of Delaraine. 

*■ John Dixon Dyke, Efq; of Lillingftone Caftle 

in Kent. 
Williani Duncombc, Efq; 
■ — Duncombe, Efq; 
John Dupre, Efq; 2 Copies. 



John Day, Efq; 

Thomas Dinely, Efq; Tower-hill. 

Thomas Dickenfon, Efq; 

* John Dickfon, Efq; n n n 
The Rev. John Duncomb, Fellow of C.C.C.C. 
The Rev. William Denifon, M. A. of Magda- 
len-hall Oxford, and Chaplain to his Grace 
the Duke of Beaufort. 

The Rev. Mr. Debat. 
The Rev. Mr. Denham. 
The Rev. Mr. Dobfon. 

* Mr. Abraham Deheuille." 

* Mr. John Dorrien. 
Mr. William Dealtry. 

Mr. Dinglev, Little St. Helen's. 
Mr. Samuel Dent. 

* Mr. James Dod. 

* Mr. Dawes. 
Mr. Dove. 
Mr. Davis. 
Mr. Davidfon. 

* Mr. Darval, 2 Copies. 
Mrs. Dawkihs. 

Mrs. Dodd. 
Mrs. Davies. 
Mifs Dickenfon. 



* The Right Rev. Thomas, late Lord Bifhop 
of Ely. 

* Carey Elwes, Efq; 
John Elford, Efq; 

* Robert E'lcfton, Efq; 

* Stephen Fades, Efq; 

* The Rev. Mr. Ellis. 
The Rev. Mr Edgar. 

Mr. Edwards, Fellow of Clare-hall. 
Mr. Erfkine. 

* Mr. Elliet. 
Mr. Ewer. 
Mr. Eaft. 
Mr. Eaton. 
Mr. Edwards. 
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Mrs. Eflex. 

Mifs Molly Edwards. 
Mifs Eaflmafh. 



Lord Fortefcue. 

* John Freeman, Efqj 



John 



SUBSCRIBERS NAMES, 



* John Ford, Efq; 

* William Franks, Efq; 
The Rev. Mr. Frances. 
The Rev. Mr. Fowle. 
The Rev. Mr. Fleetwrood. 
Captain James Field. 
Mr. Forfter, of Bourne. 
Mr. Edward Forfter. 

Mr. Fletcher. 

Mr. Fowle, of Pater-nofler-row. 

Mr. Fuller. 

Mr. Freeman. 

Mr. Floyd. 

Mr. Fox. 

Mr. Faden. 

Mr. French. 

Mr. Fooley. 

Mr. Fry. 

Mifs Mary Amy Fawler, of Epping-foreft. 

Mifs Fofter. 

G. 

* The Right Hon. the Earl of Gainfborough. 

* Admiral Gafcoigne. 

* Peter GaulTen, Efq; 
Philip Garbrand, Efq; 
George Green, Efq; 

George Gent, of Lincoln's Inn, Efq; 

,* Gale, Efq; 

Captain Grimfteed. 

The Rev. Mr. Goddard, late Prefident of Clare- 
hall. 
The Rev. Mr. Gooch, of Caius Coll. Camb, 
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The Rev. R-Ir. Gebar. 
The Rev. R^r. Gibfon. 
The Rev. Mr. Gilbert. 

* -Mr. William Gafcoigne, of Clare-hall. 
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Mr. James Gaylard. 

Mr. Goflin, 2 Copies. 

Mr. Goodwin. 

Mr. Godfrey. 

Mr. Thomas Grace. 

Mr. Edward Gordon. 

Mr. Geldwyer, of St. John's Cambridge. 

Mr. Goodall, 2 Copies, 

Mr. Garry. 

Mr. Graham. 

Mr. Gibfon. 

* Mr. Gray. 
Mr. Green. 
Mafter Giitens. 



Mrs. Thomazin Gouge; 
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Mrs. Sarah Godfrey. 
Mifs Grantham. 
Mrs, CJolling. 2 Copies. 
Mifs Gilbert. 
Mifs Green. 

H. 

* The Right Hon. the Earl of Halifax. 

* Richard Hopkins, Efq; of Coventry. 
John Harrifon, Efq; ofSleaford. 

The Rev. Mr. Heron of Sleaford. 

The Rev. Mr. Harrifon. 

The Rev. Mr. Huddesford. 

The Rev. Mr. Hayward, Fellow of Clare-hall. 

The Rev. Mr. Hazeland, of St. John's Coll. 
Camb. 

The Rev. Mr. Harbin. 

The Rev. Mr. Home, M. A. Fellow of Mag- 
dalen Coll. Oxford. 

The Rev. Mr. Hitchen. 

The Rev. Mr. Hill. 

The Rev. Mr. Humphreys." 

Mr. James Holcombe. 

Mr. Harrifon of Stratford. 

Mr. Thomas Heacock 

Mr. Harknefs, of Trinity-hall Cambridge. 

Mr. Hallam, Fellow of King's Coll. Camb.' 

Mr. Hagar, Fellow of Clare-hall Camb. 

Mr. Hardy. 

Mr. Highmore. 

Mr. Hurft. 

Mr. Hide. 

Mr. Thomas Hurdeis, of Clare-hall. 

Mr. Samuel Horn, B. A. of Univerfity Coli. 
Oxford. 

Mr. Horn, London bridge. ^ 

Mr. George Hodgfon, 

Mr. Thomas Hefier. 

Mr. Harries. 

Mr. Humberfton. 

Mr. Thomas Hoars." 

Mr. Hall. 

Mr. Hill. 

* Mr. Hawkins. 
Mr. Hanbury. 
Mr. Hay. 

* Mrs. Henniker. 

Mrs. Harvev, of Norwich. 

Mrs. Haverkam. 

Mrs. Harding. 

Mifs Molly Haverkam. 

Mrj. Hartoip> 

2 



SUBSCRIBERS NAMES. 



Mrs. Hartopp, of Maryland Point. 
Mifs Jenny Haverkam. 

I. 

* Thomas Jenkinfon, Efq; of Sleaford, 2 Cop. 

* Maurice Jchnfon, Efq; of Spalding. 
Charles Jenens, Efq; of Gopfal, Leicefterfhire. 

* Jenings, Ef(^ 

Dr. Jenings. 

* The Rev. John Jones, LL. B. 

* The Rev. Mr. Johnfon. 
The Rev. Mr. James. 
The Rev. Mr. Jackfon. 
Mr. Jones, of Trinity-hail. 
Mr. Jeremiah Ives. 

Mr. Thomas I\ es, of Bourne. 

Mr. Jones. 

Mr. hwin;. 

Mr. Ireton. 

Mafter Jackfon. 

Mrs. Ives, of Norwich. 

Mrs. Jarvis. 

Mrs. Jackfon. 

K. 

* His Excellency Sir Benjamin Keene, Embaf- 
fador to Spain. 

Dr. Kemp. 

The Rev. Mr. Kelham. 

The Rev. Mr. Kingfman. 

The Rev. Mr. Kidgeil. 

The Rev. James Knight, LL. B. 

* The Rev. Mr. Gilbert Knott, 2 Copies.] 
Mr. Robert Kelham, of Staple's Inn. 

Mr. King, of Stratford, 2 Copies* 
Mr. Kirton. 

* Mr. Knight. 
Mr. Keeling. 
Mr. Kendall. 
Mifs Kir-k, 



* The Right Rev. the Lord Bifhop of Lincoln. 
The Library of St. John's Coll. Cambridge. 

Ditto of Clare-hall. 

* ■ Lee, Efq; 

* Richard S. Long, Efq; 
Captain Laws. 

The Rev. Mr. Longmire, Fellow cf St, Peter's 
Coll, Cambridge^ 



The Rev. Mr. Lewis. 
The Rev. Mr. Lamb. 

* Mr. J. Lodge. 
M. J. Lane. 
Mr. Lefevre. 
Mr. If. Lefevre. 
Mr. Leonard Lefevre. 

Mr. Langton, of Clare-hall, 

Mr. George Langftafte. 

Mr. Langley, of St. John's Camb. 

Mr. Lucas. 

Mr. Leflingham. 

Mr. Lloyd. 

Mafter Lawrence. 

Mr?. Lefevre. 

Mifs Lambert. 

M. 

Thomas Medlycot, Efq; 

James Mitchell, Efq; of C. C. C. C. 

* George Monro, Efq; 

* The Rev. Mr. Merrick, 2 Copies. 
The Rev. Mr. Milner. 

Mr. Maferes, of Clare-hall. 

Mr. Peter Maferes, Ditto. 

Mr. Marriott, of Trinity-hall Camb.. 

Mr. Meridith. 

Mr. John Mathews. 

Mr. Mortimer. 

Mr. Martin. 

Mr. Murray, 2 Copies. 

Mr. Manning. 

* Mr. Moore, 
Mr. Maddox. 
Mafter Matthew, 
Mrs. Mafters. 
Mrs. Milbank. 
Mil's Miller. 

N: 

* His Grace the Duke of Newcafllc. 

* The Hon. Mr. Noel. 
John New, E^q; 

* Roger Nevil, Efq; 
The Rev. Dr. Newcome, Dean of Rochefler, 

and Mafter of St. John's Coll. Cambridge. 

The Rev. Dr. Newe, Archdeacon of Hunting- 
don. 

The Rev. Dr. Newton of St. Georgd's Hanover- 
fquarc. 

The Rev. Mr. Newcome. 

Mr. Newman. 

Mr. Nairn, of St. John's Cambridge. 

Mr. Newcombe 



SUBSCRIBERS NAMES. 



Mr. Newcombe." 

Mr. Norris, 4 Copies 

Mr. Norton. 

Mr. Neal. 

Mifs Newman. 



O. 



* The Right Rev. the Lord BiHiop of Oxford. 

* The Right Hon. Arthur Onllow, Efq; Speaker 
of the Houfe of Commons. 

The Rev. Mr. Owen. 
Mr. Owen. 
Mr. Ofborn. 

- P; 

* James Pembroke, Efq; 

* Pelham, Efq; 

* George Perkins, Efq; 

William Pochin, Efq; of Leicefteifhire. 

George Pochin, Efq; 

Thomas Pochin, Efq; 

Frederic Plefs, Efq; 

Richard Parrot, Efq; 

John Parkhurfl-, Efq; of Catifby. 

Charles James Packe, Efqj 

* John Philips, Efq; 

* Thomas Pitt, Efq; 
Captain John Pelly. 
The Rev. Mr. Pochin. 

The Rev. Mr. Plumbtree, Fellow of Queen's 

Coll. Cambridge. 
The R?v. Mr. Powel, Fellow of St. John's 

Coll. Cambridge. 
The Rev. Mr. Price. 
The Rev. Mr. Parkhurft. 
The Rev. Mr. Piercy. 

* The Rev. Mr. Porter. 
The Rev. Mr. Potter. 

* Mr. John Perkins. 

Mr. Thomas Parker, Greenwich, 
Mr. Robert Parker. 

* Mr. Thomas Perkins. 

* Mr. Peck. 

Mr. James Poole, of St. Peter's, Cambridge. 

Mr. John Pare. 

Mr. Palmer, Fellow of Clare-hall, 

Mr. Parr. 

Mr. Priddle. 

Mr. Pilkington. 

Mr. Powel. 

Mr. Pierce. 

Mr. Payne. 

Mr. Pocock. 



Mr. Pitts. 

Mrs. Parker, Garlick-hiH. 

IVIrs. Portington. 

Mrs. Philips. 

Mrs. Pel kins. 

Mlfs Philips. 

* The Rev. Dr. Reynolds, Chancellor of Lin- 
coln. 

* Theodore Robinfon, Efq; 

George Robinfon, Efq; of Trinity Coll. Camh, 
George Robinfon, Efq; of Northamptonfliire. 
Peter Roberts, Efq; 
Samuel Roycroft. Efq; 

* John Rofs, Efq; 
The Rev. Mr. Romain. 
The Rev. Mr. Richardfon. 
The Rev. Mr. Read. 

* The Rev. Mr. Ruffell. 
The Rev. Mr. Rudge. 

Mr. Samuel Richardfon, 2 Copies, 

* Mr. Reifenbec. 
Mr. Ranfome. 
Mr. Roughton. 
Mr. Rondeau. 

Ml. Reade, of St. John's Coll. Cambridge. 

Mr. Redftone. 

Mr. William Roberts. 

* Mr. Richards. 
Mr. Rogers. 
Mr. Ray 

Mr. Randal. 
Mr. Rayment. 
Mr. Roe. 
Mr. Remington, 
Mr. Reynolds. 
Mrs. Roberts. 
Mrs. Rogers. 

* MifsRofs. 



* Andrew Stone, Efq; 

* John Selwyn, jun. Efq. 

* Dr. Simpfon. 
Dr. Smith. 

Dr. R. Schomberg. 

The Rev. Mr. Stephens, of lilewcrth. 

The kev. Mr. Streat. 

The Rev. Mr. Smith, LL. B. 

The Rev. Mr. Smith. 

The Rcy. Mr. ShepparJ, 

d Ti.c 



SUBSCRIBERS NAMES. 



'fhs Rev, Mr. Sdgwlck. 
The Rev. Mr. Simpfon. 
•Grantham, 

Societies at 



Svjraiunam, 
Oakham, 
Spalding, 
Stamford, ^c. 



* Mr. J. Skelton. 

* Mr. Lewis Stephens, M. A. and Student of 
Chrift's Church, Oxford, 2 Copies. 

Mr. Smith. 

Mr. Shove. 

Mr. South. 

Mr. Stow. 

Mr. Sear;, of Wanflead. 

Mr. Sheppard. 

Mr. John Swaine. 

Mr. Ste\'ens. 

Mr. James Stiilingfleet, M. A. Fellow of Merton 

Coll. Oxford. 
Mr. Edward Stillingflset, B. A. of Wadham 

Coll. Oxford. 
Mr. Sykes, of Savage Gardens. 
Mr. Sympfon. 
Mr. Smith. 
Mr. Saunderfon. 
Mr. Smart. 
Mr. Stewert. 
Mr. Sail. 

* Mr. Solomon. 

* Mrs. Selwyn. 

Mr. Jonathan Shakefpear. 
Mrs. Sewell. 
Mrs. Snell. 

* Mrs. Skinner. 
Mifs Sykcs, of Epfom. 
Mifs Smith. 



T. 



* The Right Hon. the Earl of Tyrconnel. 

* The Hon. Thomas Townlhend, Member for 
the Univcifity of Cambridge. 

* The Hon. Charles Townfliend. 

* Thomas Townflirnd, Efq: 

* Thomas Townfliend, jun. Efq; of Clare-hall. 

* Charles Tovt'ofhend, £f j; 

* The Hon. Roger Townfhend. 
George Toilet, Efq; of Lincoln's Inn. 

* - Thornton, Efq; 

* James Turner, Efq; 
Thomas TroUope, E(<^; 

The Hon. and Rev. Mr. Talbot. 
The Rev. Mr. Toller. 



The Rev. Mr. Tratter. 

* 'T-he Rev. Mr. William Totton. 

* The Rev. Mr. Totton. 
The Rev. Mr. Townfliend. 
The Rev. Mr. Thompfon. 

The Rev. Thomas Trimnall, LL. B. 

Mr. Thomas Thurlow, jun. of Norwich. 

Mr. Tottingham. 

Mr. James Turner. 

Mr. John Thorpe. 

Mr. Tudman. 

Mr. Seth Thompfon, of Clare-hall. 

Mr. Travers, Orgaiiift to his Majefty's 

Chapel. 
Mr. Toms, 2 Copies. 

* Mr. Truemaii. 
Mr. TufF. 

* Mr. Townfliend. 
Mr. Towers. 

Mr. Talbot. 
Mrs. Tottingham". 
Mrs. Toller. 
Mrs. Thompfon. 

* Mifs Albinea Townfliend. 

* Mifs Mary Townfliend. 

* Mifs Charlott Truelove. 
Mifs Town. 

V. 

Godfrey Woodward Vane, Efq; of Clare-hall. 

Henry Valentine, Efq; 

Henry Uthwat, Efq; 

The Rev. Mr. Valentine. 

Mr. Samuel Vaughan. 

Mr. Vane; 

* Mr. Vincent. 

* Mr. Voitier. 

W. 

» The Right Hon. the Earl of Winchelfea. 

* Sir Francis Whitchcote, Bart. 

* The Rev. Dr. Wilcox, Dean of York, and 
Mafter of Clare-hall. 

^ Dr. Samuel Wathin. 

* Captain Willyams. 

The Rev. Sir Gilbert Williams. 

* William Wallen, Efq; 

* Thomas Watfon, Efq; 

* John Ward, Efq; 
John Whittingham, Efq; 

* Gilbert Welt, Efq. 
Jofiah Wren, Efq; 3 Copies. 

The Rev, Mr. Waller, of Portfmouth. ■ 
The Rev. Mr. Whately, 5 Copies. 

The 



SUBSCRIBERS NAMES. 



The Rev. Mr. Wllley, M. A. Fellow of Chrift's 
Coll(.>je, Cambridge. 

* The Rev. Mr. Warren. 

The Rev. Mr. Wyat, Vicar of Weft-ham, 
The Rev. Mr. George Watfon. 
The Rev. Mr. Weatherill, Fellow of Univerfity 
Coll. Oxford. 

* The Rev. Mr. Wollafton; 
The Rev. Mr. Wray. 

The Rev. Mr. Wefton. 
The Rev. Mr. Wood. 

* Mr. Warcup. 
Mr. Mark Warcup. 
Mr. Williams. 

Mr. Walker, of Queen's Coll. Camb. 
Mr. Robert Watts, of Stratford, Effex. 
Mr. Charles Wheeler, of Clare-hall. 
Mr. Waller, lo Copies. 

Mr. Bar. Wall, Student of Chrift-Church Ox- 
fold. 



Mr. Thomas Weft. 

Mr. Wadkins. 
Mr. Webfter, 
Mr. Ward. 
Mr. Wnllis. 
* Mr. Woollafton. 
Mr. Walley. 
Mr. White. 

Wefton.' 

Wilcox. 

Wright. 

Withers- 
Mr. Worfeley. • 
Mr. Walton. 

Mr. Scarth Wyatt, of Ware, 
Mrs. Wigget, of Norwich, 
Mrs. Welfli. 
Mrs. Wells. 
Mifs Weyland. 
Mifs Williamfon. 



Mr. 
Mr. 
Mr. 

Mr. 

* 



Names which came too late to be inferted in their proper Places,' 



* The Right Rev. the Lord Bifhop of Norwich. 

Mr. John Barnard, Little St. Helens. 

Thomas Browne, Efq; 

Thomas Cockburn, Efq; of York. 

Mrs. Cary. 

Mrs. Carbonnel. 

Mifs CarbonneU 



Mr. Thomas Dowera, of ^Vare. 

Mr. Henry, 2 Copies. 

Mr. Jofeph Imbleton, White Chappie. 

Mr. John Jones. 

Mrs. Hewet. 

Mifs Horton. 

Mifs Elizabeth King, of Ditto. 



K<i'iA '^A/* •Mi^ •jy* •uv* k^*#> k^^a •^iw 'yv* *jfHA •\i/' •\fi(* *\^ tar •\a/' na^ '\a/^ "jy* '^a/* •^^' n-jy* ^iv* *\(V* W "J^ "^ ^s?1' 



After all the exadeft Care, it has been impoflible to prevent many Errors of the Prefs, which 
the Reader is defired to correii and excufe. In p. 49, n, 147. 2 col. 1. 5. dele wilH/'g, 



THE 










r*:';v 







( v:r> - 






'I I. 




nn/.Tirmu- ,r,i,/f,' 



THE 



Firft Hymn of Callimachus. 




7i Jupiter. 

H I L E we to Jove the pure libations pay, 
Than Jove what apter claims the hallow'd lay ? 
The God, whofe power difpcrs'd, whofe arm 
fubdued 



The daring Titans, earth's rebellious brood : 



Who 



Ver. I. Libations'^ Orig. Uafx "Smuha-i, the 
true fenfc of which is that given in the tranfla- 
tion : Mr. Prior's is very wide of the author's 
meaning, as well as of the time when the hymns 
were fang, , 

IVhi/e we to Jovefeleif the holy vi^im. 

'Tis a pleafing refleftion, that there are fcarce 
any of the religious cuftoms of the Heathens, 
but confirm the truth of divine revelation. It 



will be impoffible to give a rational account of 

thefe Uliations among them, without having re- 

courfe to pofitive injiitution. And the pofitive 

inftitution will be as unaccountable, unlefs we 

fuppofe it to refer to the great libation, " the 

blood poured out and flied for many for the re- 

miffionof fins."See Num. xxviii. 7. Deut.xn. 27. 

Ver. 3. The God, whofe power, &c.J The 

Original is n-iAoitwn E?«'ir;p«, fhe difperjcr or 

fcatterer of the giants born of the earth. It is 

B well 



2 THE HYMN TO JUPITER. 

Who rules the fky, unbounded and alone, 
For ever great, for ever fix'd his throne ? 

In trembling doubt my mind delays the fong, 
Thy birth difputed and the conteft long : 
How fhall I fing ? Didaean doft thou hear, 
Or, doth Lyccean more delight thine ear ? 



lO 



Zealous 



well known to the learned reader, that the dc- 
fcendants of Cain are diftinguiflied in fcripture, 
by the name of the fons of Men, or Adam ; 
thofe oi Seth, by the name of the fons of God, 
Gen. vi. 2. Attending to this remark, we may, 
I hope, give a fatisfacioiy reafon of the epithet 
'anT^i^Uvm, (earth-born) and others of the fame 
fenfe in other writers, when applied to the giants 
in the Heathen Mythology. The Lord God 
formed mati (of) the dull of the earth. Gen. ii. 
7. The original word for earth in this paf- 
fage is, n.D'lkln HADMeH, and there is no 
difpute but the name Jdam DTk^ — is very 
nearly related to it. Since then the giants 
(D'VSJ Ne PHLIM, the deferters of the true 
worfhip) are the fons and daughters of men 
{Ha Da M) or Jdam, &<•«. vi. 4. and confe- 
quently derive their pedigree from (HADMeH) 
the earth : we have here a plain ground for 
the Heathen tradition of the giants, the rebels 
againft God being fons of the earth. — It is re- 
markable in this View, that the LXX render 
the word Ne PHLIM by Vtyami., Gen. vi. 4. 
]t may perhaps be alfo poffible to affign a reafon 
of the attributes EAarsifa (the Jcatterer or difper- 
fer of the UmMyotut, earth born) which Callima- 
ctus afcribes to his Jupiter or fupreme god. 
The learned Spanheim has well proved, that our 
poet was acquainted with the LXX. tranflation 
of the Bible, and even if he was not, there is 
no doubt, but tradition would preferve, though 
in a confufed and imperfect manner an account 
of the great event which happened at Babel. 
Where we find, that no fooner was the earth 
freed from thofe fearful impreflions, which the 
deluge mult have made upon the eye-witneffes 



of it, and mankind again multiplied, but the 
fom of men (the earth-born race) began again to 
rebel againfl God : and fo became Ne PHLIM 
or giants. Gen. xi. 4. So the Lord fcattered 
them abroad upon the face of the whole earth, 
Gen. xi. 8, g. 

Ver. 9, DiSiaan, &c.] y«/;V^r was generally 
worfhipped by his votaries, as without end, 
though not without beginning : his birth-place 
being the fubjedl of much difpute, and various 
nations claiming that honour to themfelves : a 
matter eafily to be accounted for : as there were 
many Jupiters (kings fo called) and each 
country in which a 'Jupiter had been born, 
maintained itfelf the birth-place of the fovereign 
Jupiter. The difpute feems to have been 
carried higheft between the Arcadians and Cre- 
tans, each vindicating to thtir country, the 
glory of firft bringing to light the great king of 
of the gods. Callimachus here takes upon 
him to decide the controverfy ; and though fe- 
vere upon the Cretan, gives him his juft honour, 
determining the birth-place of Jupiter in Arca- 
dia, the place of his education in Crete. Cicero 
(in his Nature of the Gods, B. iii. c. 21.) tells 
us, that, " The divines reckon up three Ju- 
piters, two of which they report to have been 
born in Arcadia ; the father of the one Mther., 
whofe offspring too were Proferpitie and Bacchus : 
the father of the other Callus, whofe daughter 
the goddefs of war, Minerva, is faid to be ; 
the third, a Cretan, the fon of Saturn, whofe 
fepulchre is fhewn in that ifland." See, in this 
and the next obfervation — the religion of na- 
ture, and the admired wifdom of thefe Greeks 
and Romans ! 



THE HYMN TO JUPITER, 

Zealous of fame and of his country's worth, 

On Ida's mount the Cretan boafts thy birth : 

The fons of Areas with refentment glow, 

And thy great birth-place in their country fhew. 

Who vaunts, dread fovereign, and who vaunts in vain, 

Say — J but why a{k ? — the Cretans ever feign : 



15 



Their 



Vcr. 15. Who vaunts. Sec.'] The original is — 

Kptile; aei -^evrcii' xxt, &C. 

The Cretans pretending to fhew the tomb of Ju- 
piter in their iflaiid, feem greatiy to have offend- 
ed their idolatrous brethren of the nations : and 
to have drawn upon themfelves that odious cha- 
ra£ter which v/e find in our author, and which, 
from him we plainly learn, was given to them 
on account of this impious prophanation of their 
Jupreme : 

Tarn mendax magnJ tumulo quam Creta tonantls : 

fays Lucan : and Cicero — j^b Euhemero autem y 
mortes, ij fepultura: demon/lrantur Deorum. 
Utrum igitur hie confirmajje videlur religio- 
nem, aut penitus totam fujiulijje ? — Saint Paul 
takes notice of this proverb to fhew the allowed 
vilenefs of the Gentile world : " One of thetn- 
felves, even a prophet of their oiun, faid, The 
Cretans are always liars, evil beads, flow 
bellies." — The prophet here fpoken of, is Epi- 
tnenides, a Cretan poet (the word ■mfo(prHr,f, pro- 
phet, ftriftly fpeaking, means no more than one 
that /peaks from, for, or injlcad of another : in 
the fame manner as pro-conful, ttjjo in compo- 
fition being all one with inn^ : ("0 poets are 
called ■a(<i(pyiTai Mao-aur, the prophets of the mujes, 
which may be faid very properly of Epimenides, 
who is commonly flyled, 0«o5 amp, a divine 
man, and his writings xfinrftoi, oracles. See 
Hammmd on St. Luke.) From him it was that 
St. Paid took this line, upon which the learn- 
ed Dr. Hammond obferves, " Chryfojhm and 
TheophylaSi (ny oi Epimenides, that he, feeing the 
Cretans build a fepukhral monument to Jupiter 



and worfliip him, as one that ivas or had been 
but a man, in zeal, and jealoufy, and rage, 
fjj^wiras, for that god of his, he writes thefc 
verfes to Jupiter, beginning Kfolt; «« 4'£i'rixt, 
which Chryfojhm makes up into a dillich : 

—— Kasi yaf tci^ov, li avx, CHO 
K.fi^ii eliKlwavlo' <tv S'a Sate;, iai7t ya.f am. 

But it mufl be obferved that thefe verfes are 
in Callimachus's hymn ■arfof Aia, which that they 
are the very lines here referred to in Epimenides, 
doth no way appear, but by Cbryfo/htn^s con- 
jedure : nay, the contrary mull be concluded, 
from the xaxa S>;fia, which here follows, but 
not in Callimachus : it is then moft probable that 
Callimachus borrowed thence the firfl words, 
and added the reft of his own, and fo applied it 
to his own purpofe : fo that all St, ChryfoJhm\ 
difficulties and fuppofuions muft fall to the 
ground, ^c." — See the comment. That Calli- 
machus did not borrow from Epimenides, is plain 
and obvious : bcfides, both St. ChryfoJlom and 
Dr. Hammond might have confidered, that this, 
which St. P^«/ quotes, Is itfelf a compleat hex- 
ameter verfe : 

And Erafmus, in his Chiliads tells us, that 
St. Jerom found in a work of Epimenides (enti- 
tuled de Oraculis) this very line : fo that St. 
ChryfoJlom need not have been fo anxious after, 
what he thought, filling it up ; nor could any 
thing fo well fill it up, to St. Paul's purpofe and 
argument, as its own words. Callimach::s men- 
tions nothing of the aaxct flji^i*, or yartfti afyai : 
and that he took ihe hrft words from Epimeni- 
des is fcarce probable or worthy a difpute ; as the 
B 2 proveib 



4 THE HYMN TO JUPITER. 

Their impious adions all their claims difprove : 
Prefumptuous, they have built the tomb of Jove , 
Immortal Jove, who bears no dying frame, 
A God, thro' all eternity the fame ! 

Where the brown forefts on Parrhaiia nod 
Thick, dark, and awful, Rhea bore the God ; 
All holy hence that bleft retreat was made 
Rever'd the gloom, and unapproach'd the fhade : 
Down from fair woman to the reptile race 
Each teeming female flies the facred place : 



20 



25 



Nor 



proverb was, doubtlefs, Co common in every 
one's mouth : nay, indeed, upon the whole, it 
feenis probable, that Epimenieles ufed the words 
in a fenfe very different from CaUimachus. 

Ver. 18. The tomh'\ The fcholiaft is ingeni- 
ous enough upon this pafTage ; and feems de- 
flrous to free the Cretans from the odium of fo 
prophane an aftion, as pretending to fhew the 
tomb of the fupreme "Jupiter amongft them. 
" For, fays he, in Crete, upon the tomb of 
Minos was this infcription Miwo; tb Aioj ta(poq, the 
tomb s/" Minos, the fon cyjupiter. In procefs of 
time, by fome means or other, the firft vvords 
were effaced and obliterated, infomuch thatonly 
A105 T«^o;, the tomb of Jupiter, remained ; And 
from hence arofe the notion that Jupiter was 
buried \n Crete, and that this was his tomb. "Ano- 
ther folution he gives of the matter, which is 
this ; " The Corybantes who took the care of 
the young God, in order to deceive his voracious 
father Saturn the better, did in fail build a 
tomb for him, as if he had been really dead." 
The firff is plaufible and ingenious ; but we 
in thefe times need be in no danger of declar- 
ing, that moft probably there was a real tomb 



of a real Jupiter, a king of Crete, in all liicely- 
hood buried in his own realms : which as Ju- 
piter was the fupreme God of the nations, be- 
came in time (when they mifunderftood their 
true Jupiter, and mifconceived him) a matter 
of great offence. 

Ver. 21. Parrhafta'] Arcadia was fo called 
from Parrhafus, one of the fons of Lycaon ; here 
it was in ihe mountain Lycaus^ that Rhea 
brought forth the divine Jupiter : whofe birth- 
place was ever after held in extraordinary vene- 
ration by the Arcadians. Paufanius (in Arca- 
dicis, p. 513) fpeaking of it fays, " In the 
fummit of the mountain is the cave of Rhea ; 
where none except the facred priefteffes [yvmi%t 
ftorai; lEfaif T)){ 0ia) Were permitted to enter; 
and if any one contemptuoufly entered it, death, 
within the year, was neceffarily his fate." 
Milton fpeaking of Evez bower (B. iv. ver. 703) 
has fome lines that are a good comment on this 
paffage — 

— Other creature here 
Beaft, bird, infedt or worm durft enter none. 
Such was their awe of man. 



THE HYMN TO JUPITER. 

Nor daring there the pangs of birth to prove ; 
Such pious horror guards the hallow'd grove. 
The mighty burden of her womb refign'd, 
The goddefs fought fome Hving ftream to find : 
All due ablutions to perform, and lave 
Thy infant limbs in its aufpicious wave : 
Arcadia's realm cou'd then no ftreams fupply : 
Its fields were barren, and its meads were dry : 
No friendly Lad on bleft the thirfty fwain, 
No filver Erymanthus fed the plain : 
Then woods and wilds above the hollows rofe. 
Where fmooth, with liquid lapfe, laon flows ; 



ZO 



35 



Obf( 



cure 



Ver. 30. ^c] There is fomething very re- 
markable in the account which the poet gives 
us of this purification of the mother and the 
child : for that both are mentioned, the origi- 
nal puts out of all difpute : 

ilxi T9K0IO 

The ToJtoio Xvfi.a.Ta are the partus fordes, and as 
Mad. Dacier (whofe authority here doubtlefs 
fhould be allowed) obferves, refers not to the 
infant but to the mother : The word xtJT^njirairo, 
according to Hefyc/iius, is expreflive not of 
fimple wafhing only, but anointing with oil, 

fisra AaiB ^BirccaSai, to a^eii}/ai (*£Ta Ta /sj'ao'Sasi— 

to anoint after zvajinng. And it was an univerfal 
cuftom aniongft ihe Greeks for women to purify 
themfelves by wafhing : A cuftom not eafily 
accounted for unlefs we have recourfe to the 
original and pofitive inftitution of purification by 
wafhing j and indecdj this would open a large 



field of enquiry, and might, perhaps, well repay 
our labour: However, this is worthy obfervation, 
" That the mother of the king of the gods, and 
the king of the gods himfelf had need of purifi- 
cation by water." Nothing can more fully 
declare the univerfal confent of all mankind in 
the natural uncleannefs of all fejl>. Water and 
oil we know are the acknowledged types of the 
fpirit ; and a lamh and a pigeon, types of the 
Son and Holy Spirit, were offerings for women 
under the law. — See Levit. xii. Now water is 
the great and appointed cleanfer. I fhall leave 
the reader to purfue thefe hints if he thinks pro- 
per, referring him to St. Luke ii. 21 — 24. 
There is one thing more alfo obferveable in the 
original, that the water which .^^^a fought after, 
is called Poo» oJaTo;. — a river of water, living or 
running water. See Levit. xiv. 5. and St. John 
vii. 38, 39. 

Ver. 33.] It was a common opinion with 
the ancients, that fountains and rivers partook 

of 



6 THE HYMN TO JUPITER. 

Obfcure with duft the rattUng chariots rode, 

Where thunders, deep-defcending, Meks' flood : 40 

Where rapid Carion rolls his waves along, 

Couch'd in their haunts fecure the favage throng : 

O'er the parch'd defert, where Metope's tide 

Chearing the vales, and plenteous Crathis glide, 

Thoughtlefs of gurgling ftreams confin'd below, 45 

The hinds, burnt up with thirft, impatient drag'd and flow. 

Di ST RE ST the Goddefs heav'd a feeble flgh. 
Then fpoke (and fpeaking rear'd her arm on high :) 

*< Prove 



of the fame viciflitude, rife and decay, to which 
all things in naiure are fubjedt: So Oviii hys 
(Metam. 1. 15.; 

Fidi ego, quod fuerat quondam, tfc. 

The face of places, and their forms decay. 
And that is folid earth, that once was fea : 
Seas in their turn retreating from the {hore. 
Make folid land what ocean was before : 
And what were fields before, now wafli'd 

and worn, 
By falling floods from high to valleys turn, (sfc. 
And the parch'd defart floats in flreams un- 
known, 
VVond'ring to drink of waters not her own,i3'c. 

Dryden. 

The pafTage in CalUmachus is a proof of the 
fame opinion ; Truly poetical as it is, I am 
furprized that FrifchHntis fhould find fault with 
it as fibulous ; and prefer the account given by 
Paufanias of the aridity and moifture of Arca- 
dia. For we muft confider thefu two in their 
proper fpheres, the one as a poet, the other as 
an hi dorian and naturalifl ; the one is fuppofed 
not to give the cxael-, but poetical reafon of 
things (which with the poets is generally wide of 



the truth) but from the other we expeil a ra- 
tional and real folution of a matter of fadt. 
" Thai Arcadia, hys Frifchlinus, fhould be en- 
tirely devoid of water before the birth of yupiter, 
and that then fo many great rivers fhould fud- 
denly fpring up, is a thing no way confonant 
with truth, but feems to be a fiftion of the poet, 
in order to enhance the praifes oi Jupiter. Do I 
myfelf judge the opinion o( Paufanias far more 
agreeable to truth, than this of the poets, con- 
cerning the aridity and moiflure of Arcadia. 
In his Arcadia, he fpeaks thus — " But if the 
country is troubled with great drought, by 
means of which the com and fhrubs are all 
withered and parched up, then the prieft of 
Lycesan Jupiter, turning with prayers to the 
water of the fountain, having flain facrifices, and 
performed all neceffary rights, dips a branch of 
oak into the furf<;ce of the water, which im- 
mediately becomes troubled, and fends forth a 
vaporous, black fleam like a cloud ; foon after 
which this ftcam or cloud afcends, and then 
piefently the clouds gather all around, the fky 
lowers, and fhurly fliowers of rain refrcfh the 
Arcadian vallies." This cuftoni, defervcsour 
attention. 



THE HYMN TO JUPITER. 
«* Prove thou, O earth, with me a mother's woes, 
" Light are thy pangs and lefs fevere thy throes:" 
She faid ; her fcepter on the rock defcends, 
Wide at the blow, the rock dilparted rends : 
Impetuous to the paffage crowds the tide, 
And rufhes roaring down the rocks rough fide. 
This happy ftream thy infant limbs receiv'd, 
By thee firft honour'd, as with thee it liv'd : 
There bath'd thy limbs, and wrapt in purple bands, 
Thy mother gave thee to fair Neda's hands : 
To Didle's cave commanding to repair, 
And tend with fecret zeal her mighty care : 



50 



55 



60 
Neda, 



Ver. 5. She /aid, &c.] There can be no doubt, 
but that Cal/imachus borrowed this from the 
hiftory recorded in the Old Teftament, of the 
like miracle performed by Mofes, or at leaft, 
that the ftory, if traditional, which I rather in- 
cline to believe, was originally derived from 
thence. " Mofcs took the rod from before the 
Lord, as he commanded him. And Mofes and 
Aaron gathered the congregation together before 
the rock, and he faid unto them, hear now ye 
rebels, muft we fetch you water out of this 
rock ? And Mofes lift up his hand, and with his 
rod he fmote the rock twice ; and the water 

came out abundantly " Numb. xx. 9 — 1 1: 

See alfo Exod. xvii. 6. It is obferveable, that 
St. Paul particularly applies this to Chrift : 
" They did all drink the fame fpiritual drink: 
for they drank of that fpiritual rock that followed 
theiD, and that Rock was Chrifi j" i Cor, x. 4. 



And this confideration will be pleafing to the 
fcriptural reader, that Rhea fhould (according 
to the heathen mythology) require water from 
Xhe rock, to W£7/2» her new-born infant." Such 
remarkable particulars in the blind devotion of 
the idolatrous nations muft give great evidence 
to the truth of that fyflem, which in its purity 
can alone account for, and folve thefe ftrange, 
and otherwife inexplicable circumflances in their 
praftice : And my defign is to fuggelt fuch hints 
as may ea/ily be cat ried on by perfons tolerably 
fkilled in thefe matters. It is remarkable, that 
Jpollonius, the cotemporary of CalUmachus, in 
his Argonautics, mentions this fame miracle of 
Rhea's, done in Cyzicum ; and fomething of 
the fame kind Pniifanias tells us oi Atalantay 
who, when hunting, being a-thirft, ftnick a 
rock with her hunting-ftaff, and thence flowed 
water. 



8 THE HYMN TO JUPITER. 

Neda, of all the nymphs that Ammon nurft, 
In age, fave Styx and Philyre, the lirft. 

Nor to the nymph was Rhea's favour fhewn 
By this great truft, and precious pledge alone : 
No trivial honour, and no fmall reward, 
Confirm'd her love, and witnefs'd her regard : 
Her favourite's name, the favourite flream fhe gave, 
Which rolls by Leprion's wall, its antient wave : 
And to Callifto's race its bounty yields. 
Gladdening at once both fhepherds, flocks, and fields. 



65 



70 
To 



Ver. 61. Neda, &c.] Callunachus mentions 
here but three of Jtipiter^s nurfes (for that is, 
I think, beyond doubt the meaning oi ft,x,iua-a,!\o, 
in the original, and not — quee ipfi ohjUtruata 
funt — who were tnidwives to Rhea ; the fcho- 
iiaft well explains the word by ii^i^xv, mitrie- 
bant) — That there were more than three, con- 
trary to the opinion of fome, the original plainly 
declares, by informing us, that Neda was 
youngeft of all the nymphs engaged in this 
care, fave Styx and Philyre — had there been no 
more than thefe three — fhe was, in one word, 
the youngell: of all. Paufanias, in his Area- 
dies, mentions three nurfes of Jupiter, " The 
Arcadians, fays he, call Thifoa, Neda and Agno 
the nurfes of Jupiter ; the firft of which gave 
name to a city, the fecond to a river, the third 
to a fountain." Ithonie, Adrajle and Ida are 
alfo left upon record as honoured with the Of- 
fice : Adrajie is afterwards mentioned by our 
author (ver. 75) — all which {hew the truth of 
what I have advanced. HoelzUnus reads this 
line in the author — 

So-Homer yiv.yi^i ssuralS) — ftirx is cxcjj.tive here, 
" AJax was the belt of the Grecians, fays He- 



fner, fi.tr cciJ-Vj^ova. 'ari\eima." This Philyre was 
the mother of the Centaur Chiro7t, fprung from 
her and Saturn : Chiron is often from her called 
Pbillyri'des ; and Achilles is faid to have been 
educated at her houfe. So Pindar — |a»6oj 

Axi^Eu; TafiEv fj.i}im ipi^Dfa; iv Ao/y.oi;. Nem, iii. 76. 

We may obferve, that the Poet has addreft liim- 
felf to Jupiter thus far ; and afterwards con- 
tinues to do fo, but here he fays, at //« tots ftai- 
uaa.no — qua ipfuin tunc nutriebant ; and this is 
no impropriety. For he turns, as it were, from 
addrcfiing his deity to inform the people of Neda 
and the other nurfes of Jupiter, and fettles the 
age and authority of Neda, no trivial matter 
amongft the zealous worfhippers of this god : — 
fo that I. cannot approve a reading once offered, 
ai Ti? TOTE, quee fe tibi mitrices prabuerunt. 
Dr. Benttey, the younger, would have f/.ii' refer 
to Rhea, and in the true fpirit of criticifm, cries 
out, " J'erte, qua ipfani (Rheam) tunc par- 
lurientem curabantT — ; perperam, ipfum, cum 
Jovem alloquitur." But he does not fcem to 
liave attended diligently to the true fenfe of 
li.uiu(7atlo in this place. 

Vei. 69. And to Callifto's race, Szc] The 
orJL^inal is viuvot ^nxaowiij AfXToio — Areas was the 
Ion of Callijlo and from her it is, that the autlior 

heie 



THE HYMN TO JUPITER. 

To Cnoflus brought, the Melian nymphs abode, 
With joy the MeHan nymphs embrac'd the God ; 
His wants Adrafte fedulous fuppHes, 
And in the golden cradle lulls his cries : 
Milk from the duteous goat the God receives, 
And pleas'd the labouring bee her tribute gives : 



75 



Hence 



here calls the jfrcadians, " the psfierity of the 
Lycaonian fhe-bear." She was ihe daughter of 
Lycaon, and as the fable goes, was ravifted by 
'Jupiter, on which account the jealous "Juno 
turned her into a (he bear. She was killed by 
the arrows of Diana, and by her gallant re- 
moved into the heavens, where flie was made a 
conftellation known by the name of A^toj, or 
lJr[a major. Ovid relates the whole fiory : 

'Jove faw the charming huntrefs unprepar'd, 
Stretch'd on the verdant turf, without a giard : 
^' Here I am fafe, he cries, from yuno's eye. 
Or fliou'd my jealous queen the theft defcry : 
Yet Wi. u'd I venture on a theft like this. 
And ftand her rage for fuch, for fuch a blils." 
Diana's fliape and habit ftrait he took, ^i. ^c. 

AddisoV" 

And thus he fucceeded ; as you may fee at large 
in the 2d book of the Metamorphoses •, This 
was the thunderer of the heathens ! — Some 
have given the fable an hiftorical explication— 
A potent prince, under the appearance of a modeft 
fuit and addrefs, rohhed Calli/io of her virtue, the 
fruits of this afterwards appearing, flie, to avoid 
the anger of his queen, was obliged to fly to 
the woods ; which is fignificantly expreft by 
faying, fhe was turned into a bear : She was 
killed by Diana's darts, that is, in child-bed ; 
and honours being conferred on her by the king, 
in complaifance, flie was faid to be made a 
conflellation, no uncommon piece of flatrery. 
There appears in the former lines of the original 
great beauty, not to be expreft in a tranflation. 

■ ■ Tofi£» TToSi TroXw XXT KUTO 

&c. 



In the words ttoOi and avfji/^ifirai, I mean parti- 
cularly ; for I cannot be ot Stephen's mind, that 
?ro6i is here an expletive only, ornandi gratia : 
Thereare fewer fuch expletives in theGreek lan- 
guao-e,Iconceive,than wefometimes imagine ; 1081 
here may very elegantly be conftrued olim ; and as 
a river is a thing of continual courfe, ever rolling, 
and yet ever rolled away, it is not only longjincc 
Tree., but ftiU, rolh on, (rujA/piferai. 

Labitur & labetur in omne volubilis avum. 

Ver. 71.] The head-piece to this hymn will 
be a good comment upon this paffage : as will 
alfo the following lines from the moft learned 
and ufeful part of Ovid's works, his Liber Fajlo- 
rum, \. V. ver. 115. 

• Na'ii /}malthaa Cretiea nobilis Ida 

Dicitiir in fylvis occuluijje Jovem. 
Hu!C fuit hisdorum mater formofa dtiorum 

Inter diifaoi confpicienda greges : 
Cornibus aereis at que in Jua terga recurvis, 

Ubere, quod nutnx poff'et habere Jovis. 
Lac dabat ilia Deo. Sedfregit in ai bore conn/, 

Truncaque dimidia parte decoris erat. 
EiiftuUt hoc nymphe : cinxitq; recentibus herbis, 

Et plenum pomis ad Jovis ora tulit. 
Ille ubi res cceli tenuit., fcUcque paterno 

Sedit is' invi£io nil Jove rnujus erat : 
Siller a Nutricem, Nuti ids fertile cornu 

Fedt ; quod Domince nunc quoque r.oinen habet. 

\tr. yj. Milk J Bochart very well 

illuftrates this pilTige ; " Goats milk, he tells 
us, was not only of great ufe in medicine, but 
by many people ufcd for daily food. Hence 
Solomon, in his Proveris xxvii. 7.7. Aiii 
goats- milk enough for thy food, for the food of 
C tiiy 



lo THE HYMN TO JUPITER. 

Hence Amalthea 'midft the ftars was found : 
Hence fame the bee, and Jove's protedion crown'd.- 



HlGH- 



thy houfhould, and the life of thy maidens. 
Paulus Mgineta obferves, that, Lac miiliebre eji 
temperattffimum — mox Caprillum, h'lnc afminum, 
ev'illumqi'.e is' pojiremo vacc'mum. Woman's milk 
is moft temperate and wholfome, then goats, 
then afles, and fheep's, and laftly cows." And 
hence the fupreme of the Gods, Jupiter (or 
more probably fome prince of Crete about the 
time of Abraham) was faid to he brought up with 
goats milk, and the aftronomers gave the goat 
a place amongft the ftars. They, who know how 
frequently the letters N and L are changed one 
for the other, will eafily perceive that Amalthea 
came from the Phoenician, HDl^H Amantha, 
which comes from the Hebrew HjCK Amanth, 
which is ufed for a nurfe both in Ruth iv. i6. 
and in the 2d book of Samuel iv. 4. — Galen ob- 
ferves, Non tuto Lac caprarum ifferri obfque 
Melle, cummultis qui folumfumpferant, in ventre 
fit coagulatum, quod hominem mire gravat atque 
fuffocat. — That goats milk is not taken fafely 
without /("is^-y, &c. — ; with which they were not 
unacquainted, who in antient times affigned Ju- 
piter two nurfes ; one Amalthea (the goat) who 
fed him with goats milk, the other Melijfa (the 
bee) who fed him with honey. Didymus in his 
hook E|5)7)i(7E4;s nivJofix^K, fays, Melijfea Creten- 
Jium regem pri/),um, isfc. That Meliffcus the 
king of the Cretans firft facriticed to the Gods, 
and introduced new rightsand facred ceremonies. 
He had two daughters Amalthea and Melijfa, 
which nurfed the child J«/>//fr, and fed him with 
g02ts milk and honey : VV hence arofe that fable 
of the poets, that bees flew to him, and filled 
ths child's mouth with honey. Some of the 
anticnts tell u?, that infants are firft fed with 
milk and honey : Barnabas in his epiftle, fays, 
" Why then fhould I mention milk and honey, 
fincean infant is hrft nouriflied with honey, then 
with milk V — See Bochart de Anmialibus, Sf. 
1. 2. C..51. — It is fomewhat very remarkable 
that this divine infant fliould be nourilhed with 
the fame food, that the celebrated prophecy of 
Ifaiah appoints for the San of the Fir gin : " But- 
ter and honey fhall he eat, that he may know to 
refufe the evil, and to choofe the good, ch, vii. 



ver. 15. Butter is milk with this addition, that 
it is by great heat and violence coagulated and 
coagmentated ; and therefore the Hebrew word 
for it nXDPI Hamae is derived from nDH Hame 
the Sun or (o\ir heat, from whence alfo this fame 
Jupiter takes one of his names, Hammon or 
Ainmon. The Son of the Virgin was to eat of this 
milk and this butter, thus prepared by fire and 
violence : Out of himfelf alfo, the true Rocky 
he eat the fpiritual honey. See Deut. xxxii. 13. 
and Pfal. Ixxxi. 16. Hence he fays of him- 
felf, " I have eaten my honey-comb with my 
honey. I have drunk my wine, with my 
milk." Song of Solomon v. i. and of his fpoufe 
the Church, " Thy lips, oh my fpoufe, drop 
as the honey-comb ; honey and milk are under 
thy tongue : iv. ii- And as thefe were found 
in his fpoufe, the church, fo were they pro- 
mifed to the Ifraelites in their Canaan, a land 
flowing with milk and honey. Thefe fed and 
nourifhed die Son himfelf, thefe muft feed and 
nourifh every believer, every member of that 
church, every feeker after that heavenly Canaan 
where they richly flow and abound, if they would 
like their matter, " encreafe in wifdom and 
ftature, and in favour with God and man." 

Ver. 78. Hence fame, &c.] The fable that 
Jupiter was fed by bees, and that they there- 
fore were particularly protected by him, was 
very univerfal : Virgil, who has done them and 
himfelf fo much honour, fpeaks thus in his 
4th G E o R G I c. 

Proceed my mufe the wond'roustalentsfhew. 
Which grateful JoveA\di on the bees beftow: 
Since they by Cretan fwains, and cymbals led. 
In Dide's cave heaven's infant monarch fed. 

L\UDERDALE. 

" Nay the cave itfelf where Jupiter was thus 
fed by the bees, was afterwards made facred 
to them, and fo facred, that as the fable goes, 
fome who difregarded the religion of the place, 
covered all over with armour entered into it, 
and ftole honey ; for which prefumption Jupiter 
turned them into birds." Thus Antonin. Libe- 
ralis. And in the fame place he. tells us, '^ That 

thefe 



THE HYMN TO JUPITER. 

HiGH-rais'd their brazen fhields, around thee (land, 
Great God, the Corybantes, folemn band ! 
Their clanging armour thund'ring they advance, 
To the harfh found refponds the myftic dance : 
Loud, rough and rude tumultuous clamours rife. 
To mock old Saturn's ears, and quell thy cries. 

Swift was thy growth, and thus divinely train'd 
Mature the dawn of manhood was attain'd : 



II 



80 



85 



Yet 



thefebees the nurfes of Jupiter kept and guard- 
ed that cave. Diodorus reports, " that thefe 
bees were by yupiter, as an everlafting me- 
morial of his love to them, changed from 
their then natural into a fine golden or brazen 

colour, XaTMu )(^^v<roHoei •na(atT?\Kaii>t. And 

JElian tells us, " that in his time there were 
to be found on Ida < f Crete, lees yjxhKOH^&t 
of a brazen colour " The author calls the bee 
Panacrian, •aeaax^iSoi; tfyu ^f^^lo■o•>l?, and imme- 
diately fubj ins the reafon, as fome imagine, 
becaufe that mountain or a particular part of it, 
was called taatoMfa., which Stephens fuppofes to 
have arifen from its height, ©«» being here aug- 
mentative, as it frequently is when prefixed. And 
Diodorus obferves upon this place, " that tho' 
it be extremely high and much expofed to the 
winds and ftorms, yet the bees feel no incon- 
venience at all from thence." 1 am apt to ima- 
gine, that this place was called tsmcutfu, from the 
bee, not the bee 'cr«v«xpi5 Irom it : roajaxfif is a 
dillinL'uifhingand particuar epithet of ihc bee: — 
ut qui florum fafligia pervolat. — Tht-y, 

In fummers heat on tops of lillies feed, 

as Dryden exprefles it — and a"-ain — 

They Jkim the floods, and//) the purple flowers. 

The learned reader muft have obfervcd fome 
things in this part of the hymn impoflible to ap- 
pear in a poetical tranflalion — particularly 
Ver. 44. be. 



Ver. 79. Higb-rais^d, &c.] This whole paf- 
fage is much bell illuflrated by fome of thofe 
antient medals, of which we have many copies 
in books of antiquity, where are piflured to us 
the infant God, and the fierce Corybantes hold- 
ing aloft their fhields and clanging them around 
him : The word 'a(v>.ty in the original, is a 
Pyrrhic, or martial kind of dancing. — Span- 
heim favours the fcholiafts explanation of the 
word O-jTm, which he renders falutariter, as the 
fcholiaft vymvu';, — which he fays, " is a very 
appofite word, becaufe 'Jupiter was preferved by 
this very dancing around him." This furely is 
too mean for iuch a poet as Callimachus : It 
rather feems to exprefs the vehemence of their 
motion, and the ilrenuous beating of their ar- 
mour ; and indeed the author always ufes it in 
that fenfe (the left prefumptlou which can be 
that he does (o here.) 

Valdejlrepebant, we read in the hymn to Diana, 
ver. 247. where it is ufed only to exprefs vehe- 
mence : Stephens, very juftly in the above line 
alters yi to o-i — ci irift u^x"'"^^''' ^^''' 5^' 
Ver. 85. Sivft, &C.J The o.iginal is, 

Ka>a it.ij lil'fj x»'« yiTjafff, e(am Ziv, 
oft) S u.rtZ-ncai —— 



C 2 



The 



12 THE HYMN TO JUPITER. 

Yet ev'n, dread ruler of the Gods, when /oung, 
Thy mind was perfed: and thy fenfe was ftrong: 
' Twas hence thy brother's, though the lirft in birth, 
Nobly avowing thy fuperior worth, 
And fcorning envy, own'd it right, when giv'n 
To Jove the empire of themfelves and heav'n. 

Vain bards of old to iidion that incline. 
Fabling relate, that heaven by lot was thine : 
In equal things the urns dark chance we try; 
But how bears hell proportion to the fky ? 
The difference who but madmen have not feen. 
Wide as the diftance either realm between! 



9^ 



9^ 



Did 



This paffage appears to me in a fenfe fome- 
thing different from that which the commenta- 
tors in general give it ; they imagining the en- 
creafe was of his »iiniJ only, not of his body. " I 
don't take the words 0|i/ ^'a»>iS>io-a;, fays Stephens, 
as if they meant, 'Jupiter foon grew up inf.ature, 
but that he was ripe or adult in wifdom before 
the ufual time, and even in his childhood (for 
the poet Subjoins a^iX'trt roai^os tm) left any one 
fhould imagine him in mind and judgment a 
child." '1 he fenfe of the paffage feems literally 
this: " Swift was your encreafe or growth, 
great 'Jove, for (Js is frequently ufed for yaj) 
for excellent was the method of your education: 
Swift you grew up to manhood, and the foft 
down rofc early on your chin ; though during 
the fhorc feafon you continued a child, your fool 
was in its full perfeftion,and yourthoughts great, 
ripe, and worthy of God. For which reafon, 
becaufe your thoughts were always great,, i^c. 
your brothers envied you not, as being far 
their f iperior in worth, the empire of the hea- 
vens, isff." This fenfe is'much different from 
that wherein the paffage is commonly tiken, but 
I think, conveys a loftier idea of his God, jnd 



pays him a nobler complement ; which muff 
always determine us in fuch cafes. Though the 
word ijaiJiiot fignifies fomething more of puberty 
than raai; (■ajaiJfo; being as Hcfychiuj explains itj, 
one qui exteffit e pueris, what the Attics call 
cevTiTTaij) yet by the poets it is often ufed in the 
fame fenfe as ■raai;. So Homsr 

where E/iatheiis obferves — wuihix; Is for 'nutu;. 
It is faid of our Bleffed Saviour that " the Child 
grew and waxed ftrong in fpirit, filled with 
wifdom, and the Grace of God was upon him;" 
and alfo " Jefus encreafed in wifdom and fta- 
ture, and in favour with God and man." See. 
note 75 at the end. 

The reader of Mr. Prior's tranflation muft 
obferve, that part of it here is abfolutely unin- 
telligible 

— Inventive wit., 
Andperfeft judgment crov/n'd thy yottthful alti 

His next lines are truly noble, worthy the &M-. 
thur and tranflator. 



THE HYMN TO JUPITER. 

Did I form fables, like thofe bards of old, 
With jOKew of truth my ftories fhould be told r. 
Yet would I fcorn to vilify my fong, 
With iidions to amufe the vulgar throng. 

Let me avow, that not by chance was given, 
But by thine own right hand the throne of heav'n : 



13 



100 



Dread 



Ver. 99. Did /, Sec] Mr. PnVand Mr. Pitt, 
after him, have omitted a line in this place, 
which, to me, gives the original a very grand 
and admirable turn. After he has convifted the 
old poets, the author, preparing to give (what 
he calls) the true account, feizes upon the 
reader's attention in this line. 

In the true meaning of which the commentators 
are divided, which might occafion the omiffion 
in thefe gentlemen ; the fcale feems to incline 
to Stephens's fide, his appearing the moft natural 
and eafy fenfe of the pafTage. He tranflates it — 
Mentlrer qua: perfiiaderi pojjint aiiribus ejus qui 
ea aud'nct. — After the author has told us, that 
what the old poets related thus of the divifions 
between the three brethren, i^c. was a mere 
fable ; he goes on, I wonder, they fhould relate 
fuch glaring falflioods, which manifeflly con- 
tradift common fenfe and reafon : As to myfdf, 
was I inclined to tell fabulous ftories, I would 
do it with more caution : 4-et)Joif4iiv, &c. 1 would 
at lead fo manage my fables and fidllons, as to 
draw credit from my hearer, and if not ftriflly 
true, yet they fhould wear the face of probabi- 
lity." '* Pejfune vertunt, fays the younger Dr. 
Bentley ; thus I tranflate it : Si r?'.eniiri velim, ea 
mendacia dicam, qua: fint ■verifimilia, iS ques au- 
ditoicm inditcant, ad credendian. Pacta, lays 
Plautus, facit illud verlfimile, quod mendaciitm 
eji. As to that interpretation of Gronovius, 
which Gravius approves, it is itiexpHcabIe,JIi':pid, 
unmeaning. — " The docftor himfelf is indebted 
to Stephens for this explication, which he gives 
ashis own J and therefore might as well have 



fpared that dogmatical afTertion at the end : For 
certainly there is great beauty in the interpreta- 
tion of Groww'w, and it was no difficilt matter 
for an interrogation to have dropt from the 
end of a line, as Gronovius imagines ; nay, we 
know the origiar.I MSS have no ffops at all : — 
Mentirerne <'^«, qtite placerent auribus ejus, qui 
ea audiret ? The poet having told you the ab- 
furdity of the fables related upon this occafion 
by the former poets, gives his own performance 
tile air of truih : " Thefe, fays he, are fak'es, 
with which mankind has been amufed and de- 
ceived : For ray own part (in matters of fuch 
moment) I would not relate untruths to gain the 
approbation of everv he;irer." Wou'd I — great 
yupiter — or cou'd I do this ? — No, in order to 
expofe their folly, I rehearfe their Hflions — but, 
as thy poet and prophet, in this facred hymn to 
thy honour and fervice, I deliver only what is 
the religious truth, and my particular creed." 
There appears nothing in this fo /lupid a.nd in- 
explicable ; nothing works upon any reader or 
hearer, fo much as an appearance of llridl attach- 
ment to truth in an oration or work ; and we find, 
that it was no uncommon method with the old 
poets (and why fhould we not believe them fin- 
cere.?) to a flu me this appearance, and thereby, a 
fuperiority over other poets: Euripides intwiiiicn 
his Hercules refuting the fcandalous tales of the 
former bards, concerning the amours of tlx- 
Gods, and faying, 

Thefe are the wretched tales of fabling bards. 

The reader immediately by this artifice imagines 
tlae fpeaker about to del.ver the whc-le. truth. 

Iluvc 



14 THE HYMN TO JUPITER. 

Dread Power and Strength their mutual aid fupply'd, 
And hence were feated near their fovereign's fide. 
Then too, great king the eagle was afTign'd, 
To man the favorite augur of thy mind : 



105 



I have endeavoured to exprefs both fenfes in the 
tranflation, as the original will bear both ; and 
fubjoin a paraphrafe by Stephens^ as a juftifica- 
tion of my own. 

Haud menthi lllos votes tarn abfurda decebat, 
Ufque adeo nulla veri fucata colore ; 
Ponderet ut reSlo ft forte examine quifquam, 
Deridenda queant mage quam credenda videri. 
Solvere ft libeat yiojlramad mendacia linguam. 
Saltern verba loquar, penitus non abjona veris, 
Non mdigna fide mea diSla ut judictt auris. 

Ver. 105. Power, &C.] Bm and Kapro; were 
fuppofed by the antients to be twoperfo: ages at- 
tendant on Jupiter ; they are introduced by the 
poet Oefch)lus as the fatellites pf Jupiter, whom 
Pulcati addrelTes thus — 

KfKTo? Blare o-^atv fill evtoX)) Aioj 
E;^;; TiXoj Js xai tiv i^TiroSm en. 

And when Ovid in his Fajii, tells us, that honor 
and reverence beiat nuije/iy, by whofe fide azve 
and dread placed themfclves, and being defend- 
ed by Jupiter never fince left the heavens, he 
fpeaks in the fame manner with onr author: 

Honor, p'acidoque de.ens revcrentia vultu 

Corpora legitiniis impojucre torts : 
Hi nc fata majcftas : hos ejl dea cenfa parcnta ; 

^<aque die pa'ta cj] edit a, magna fuit. 
Kec mora confedit medio fublimis olympo, 

Aiirca purpureo conjpicienda finti : 
Confedere finr.l Pudar W Metus ; omne videres 

Nv.incn ad hanc cultus cmpofuijje fuos. 

Then arofe the Titans when 



To 



Fulnlna de cceli jaculaius Jupiter crce 
Vertit in aiiSlores pond; ra vajhi fu s : 

His bene majeftas iirwis dcfcvja Diorum, 
Re/tat et ex illo iempre firma nianet : 

AJfidet ilia Jovi, Jovis ejl fidiffinia cujlos, 
Etprajiatfine vifceptra trc;ucnda Jovisy^c, 



It is fcarce neceflary to put the reader in mind 
of the many paflages in Scripture, the Pfalms 
particularly, to which our author is remarkably 
fimilar : Wiih his own right hand, and with his 
holy arm hath htgotten himfelf the viftory. Pfalm 
xcviii. I. Hooked and there was none to help, 
and I wondered that there was none to uphold ; 
therefore mine own arm (Gith Jehovah our Re- ■ 
deemer) brought falvation unto me, and my 
fury it upheld me. Ifaiah Ixiii. 5. compare alfo 
lix. 16. Thou haft a mighty arm, Jirong is thy 
hand 3nd high is thv > ight hand: Jtt/lice and 
judgment are the habiation [marg. ejlablijhnient'] 
of thy throne : Mercy and truth fhall go before 
thy face. Pfalm Ixxxix. 13.com. xcvii.2. Chrifl 
is called the power of God, and the wiflom of 
God. I Cor. i. 24. Tind honur zwA I ower \_K.fmof\ 
are by St. Paul afcribed to him. 1 Tim. vi. 16. 

It will be necefTary to remind the reader of 
a ftrange iriflake, which Mr. Prior hath made 
here in his tranflation, inifled by a bad Latin pa- 
raphrafe of our author — which renders Aiipfov, 
currum, z chariot, though it here fignifies /i'^t??/;, 
a feat, the throne <^f Jupiter : The reader will, 
by confulting Mr. Prior, foon fee the error. 

Ver. lor. Theeagle &c ] Callitnachus caWs it — 
OiwKiv ftey' viret^oxo' — the bird far mofl excellent 
ofaiothes. Agreeably to our au;hor Horace 
(peaks thus in the beginning of one of his 
bcil odei — 

^ualem miniftrum fulminis alitcm 
Cui rex T>eoru)n regnum in aves vagas 
Pc mifit — 

As the majcftic bird of tow'ring kind, 
Who bears the thunder thro' the etherial 'pace, 
To whom the monarch of the Gods afTign'd, 
Dominion o'er the vagrant feather'd rac& — 



DuNKit^. 

And as thus being Joveh thunder-bearer, the 

eagle 



THE HYMN TO JUPITER. 

To me and mine oh I may he ever prove 
The happy omen of thy care and love ! 

Thyself fupreme ; as thou haft well aflign'd, 
The Gods fubordinate command mankind : 



15 



110 



The 



eag!e was particularly afllgned to him, and in 
his favour. 

— qucs fulmina curvis 
Ferrefolet pedibus — Diviim gratijfima regi. 

The caufe why the eagle was fo particularly 
appropriated to 'Jupiter and called his thunder- 
hearery has greatly perplexed and puzzled the 
mythologifts, who have given a number of rea- 
fons, no lefsabfurd than improbaBle; Servius fets 
down very gravely to account for this matter, 
and tells us a couple of ftrange ftories concern- 
ing Jupiter's being carried away when an infant 
by an eagle, and of his being in love with a boy 
named AtTo;, the Greek word for an eagle Such 
ftories want only to be mentioned, to refute 
themfelves. It appears very plain, why the 
heathens ufed this fymbol, if we refer to the 
Scripture, and nothing elfe can give us any 
plaufible folution of the matter. We niav firft 
refieiS, what it is, that really bean the thunder, 
is the vehicle, by which it is carried, and that 
we all know to be the air, from whence we 
reafonably conclude that the eagle was a fymbol 
of the air: This is confirmed by the whole 
voice of antiquity, by which we are clearly affur- 
ed that the eagle was worfhipped as a fymbol of 
the air. But how came it fo to be ? for this we 
mufl have recourfe to the figure of the Cherubim, 
fet up at the gates of Paradije, and in the Holy 
of Holies, oi if,h\ch Ezekiel hns given us fo full 
a defcription in his ift and loth chapters. This" 
figure of the cherubim was a compound figure 
of four faces joined to one body — the faces were 
thofe of % bull, an eagle,, a lion, and a man, 
and was a fymbolical reprefentation of the Tri- 
nity in Unity, with the great myftery of the 
Incarnation — the bull, being a type of God the 



father, as alfo of fire ; the eagle, of God the 
Holy Ghoft, as alfo of air ; and the lion of 
God the Son, as alfo of light ; and the man, of 
human nature taken into the eflence and joined 
to the lion, God the Son, The eagle was thus 
made an emblem of the Holy Spirit, and alfo 
of air, which, with the addition of Holy, is 
the name of the Third Perfon — aynv nmvp.a, 
the Holy Ghoft, Jpirit, air : And being thus 
in the very original of things confecrated to that 
purpofe, was aftei-wards, by idolaters, mifapplied, 
and mifunderftood ; remaining ftill amongft 
them a type or fymbol of the air, though they 
had forgotten the next ftep, namely, that the 
air was iticlf but a type : Fn m this figure of the 
Cherubim moft ot the abufes and furprifing 
conjunclions in the heathen mythology arofe ; 
but as it would be too long to fpeak fully of 
it here (or at leaft as its importance demands) 
1 will fubjoin a fhort account of it in the ap- 
pendx ; Jn the mean time, we may remember 
that the Greek name of the eagle Afro?, confirms 
what hath been advanced, that the bird is a 
fymbol of the air : For the etymol. magnum, de- 
rives It from aiccti) ; Aeto?, ira^ot t» aisiru, to offjiv,- 
to njh on ox forwards, to move round ivith im- 
petuofity, theverycharaSleriJlicoftheair, which 
rufhes in every where, and moves round in 
circulation from the center of the univerfe 
to the circumference. The Almighty in the 
Pfahns is faid to ride upon a cherub,, and to 
fy ; and then what that cherub is, we are in- 
formed, " He came flying upon the w/»^x of the 
xf/W.-" xviii. lo.i. ^.upon the wings of the eagle,- 
the cherub, and fymbol of the wind, air, or 
fpirit, agreeable to which tlie R'?nans defcribc 
their Jupiter Oly?npitis, riding upon an cag!'-) 
as you may fee in any of the mj thologills. 



i6 THE HYMN TO JUPITER. 

The merchant, poet, and the man of war> 
Each to his guardian power prefers his prayer : 
While mighty kings (whofe univerfal fway 115 

The foldier, merchant and the bard obey) 
Their grateful offerings to the altar bring 
Of Jove, their fovereign, Jove of kings the king. 
^The footy fmiths to Vulcan's temple move, 
And hunters glory in Diana's love : 120 

Mars reigns defpotic o'er the warrior throng, 
And gentle Phoebus claims the fons of fong : 
But monarchs bend at thy eternal fhrine. 
By Jove ordain'd, defended, and divine. 

They rule from thee : while from thy towers on high ^125 
Ahke extends thy providential eye >- 

O'er kings, their nation's fcourge, or kings, their nation's joy. j 
To thefe of glory thou the means haft giv'n. 



Such as befuits the deleg:ates of heav'n : 



i=> 



Thine 



Ver. 124.- By fove, &c.1 This fentiment „ i.- j •>,.>,„•, „,, 

that all the power and authority of kinrs was d • v/- • >, ■ a ^-j „°. 

oerivfd from the lupreme, and lo, confe- '' u c j j 

qaently ^mw, is by no means peculiar to our So in the Provirl's of Soiowon, JV'tfdoin h\%, 

author : there is fcarce any of the poets that By me kings reign, and princes decree juf- 

do not herein agree with him : we have it in //a- tice, ^c. viii. 15. The reader cannot but ob- 

msr^ Hefiodt Theocritus, Mofchus, Pindar, Ho- ferve, that this paflage bears analogy to that of 

race, Virgil, &c. indeed Hefiod and Virgil ufe St. Paul's in his epiftle to the Romans xiii. ir. 

the fame words with our author — Ex ^£ AiojBa- " Let every foul befubjcclto (he higher powers, 

e-Ajii! — fays the former ; and ab Jovc'/unt rrgcs. For there is no power but of God : the powers 

the latter ; and Horace beautifully, that be *rc ordained of God, i^V, See alfo 

I Pet. 



THE HYMN TO JUPITER. 

Their fplendid pomp thy hand alone beftovvs : 
But not on all a like profufion flows, 
A like profulion of thy gifts divine : 
As plain we note, great Ptolemy, from thine ; 
Whofe plenteous bleflings from almighty Jove, 
At once thy power, and his protedion prove. 
To all the morn within thy breaft conceives 
Mature perfedion the glad evening gives : 
Thy greateft purpofes fhort days fulfil. 
Thy fmaller, inftantaneous as the will. 



17 



^3S 



But 



1 pet. 15. 13. St. Paul's word (irda!ned{'m the ori- 
ginal Tir»yix.tiai) I have ufed in the tranflation, 
as moll expreffiveof the author's meaning in the 
words, 

the fc! oliaft reads ru^iv, for xa^tn, which I judge to 
be the true reading, and St- Paul's word TfT«7(Awai 
confirms me in this opinion. — The poet places 
theGod A«(!)); » irT«Ai£i7<riv, intht citadels, orivatch- 
toivcrs: And thathys Gravins, becaule citadels 
•were facred to Jupiter, as Jrijlides in his hymn 
witneffeth. Hence amongft the Romans Jupiter 
Capitoljnus, 

Ver. 133. y/f, &c.] The complement, which 
the poet here pays his great prince and patron 
Ptolemy, has been juftly admired as a mafter- 
picce in this hymn ; and 1 cannot conceive, by 
what means it happened, that Mr. Prior fliould 
totally overlook it, and fo widely miftake the 
author in his tranilation ; robbing him of that, 



which has ever been efteemed a ftiining and 
peculiar beauty. The poet places his hero in 
the very next rank to Jupiter, whofe preroga- 
tive, as a God, it is to fpeak and perform, in 
every the moft arduous matter to human con- 
ceptions ; which though Ptolemy could not 
attain to, yet we find in fmaller matters, his 
thoughts were immediately perfected, and in 
the greateft, a day fufficed to mature his dcfigns. 
I fhall have occafion to fpeak more of this paf- 
fa2;e in the encomium of Ptolemy by Theocritus^ 

and therefore omit to do fo here : ■ 1 cannot 

help remarking, that the Centurion who came to 
our Lord in full acknowledgment of his divine 
power, reafoned in this manner, favv and knew, 
that Jefus as a God muft be able infirantly to 
perform his almighty pleafure, and confidering 
his own fmall authority over his foldiers, con- 
cluded juftly of our Mafter's power over all 
nature, his workmanfliip, and every being, his 
creature and fervant. See St. Matth. viii. 5, b'c. 



D 



i8 THE HYMN TO JUPITER. 

Their councils blafted fome for ever mourn, 
Years follow.years, and days on days return ; 
While flill difpers'd and fcatter'd with the wind 
Each purpofe fails, their guardian God unkind. 

Hail Saturn's fon, dread fovereign of the fkies, 
Supreme difpofer of all earthly joys : 
What man his numbers to thy gifts could raife, — 
What man hath fang, or e'er fhall fing thy praife ? 



i^o 



145 



The 



Vsr. 140. Bui feme, &c.] " The author in 
this paflage, fays Spanhe'tm, beautifully fatyri- 
zes dilatory procralHnating princes, to whom, 

according to Homer 'B^aa-irm te mo;, ^.orTri it T£ 

ffiTK." This feems to be rather an over-ftretched 
meaning, and what the words don't at all con- 
vey. The author in the former part told us, 
" That the favour of the God was unequally 
diftributed amongft his vicegerents, to fome 
more, fome lefs : t^-^t Ptolemy was an illuftrious 
proof of his fuperior and diftinguifhing regard ; 
while others, though protefted and regarded by 
him, were fo in a lefs degree, and though 
powerful, had not the eminence wherewith his 
particular fivorite was bleft." Neverthelefs I 
fhould be glad to find the fenfe of this ingenious 
commentator approved, as it gives his author no 
fmall credit ; and would be willing to impute it 
to myfelf, that I cannot fee this beauty, rather 
than deprive CaUimachus of an honour Spanbeim 

thinks worthy of him 'I'he fame excellent 

pcrfon obfcrves moreover ; that in the laft line 
of this pafiage,the poet nobly hints to us the 
inftability and weaknefs of even the greateft 
monarchs wlihout the afiiftance of the Gods, 
and the vanity of tvery purpofe, without their 
aid, from whom defcends all power and glory» 
We have numerous exprcffions in fcripture to the 
fame cfFeft : where we are told, that the Lord 
fciingeth to nought the couiiiil of the heathen, 



and maketh the decrees of the people of none 
efFe£l, Pfal. xxxiii. 10. The reader, upon a 
diligent perufal of this Pfalm, will find many 
things in it fimilar to what hath gone before in 
CaUimachus, particularly ver. ) 3. where we 
read — The Lord looketh from heaven, he hehold- 
eth all the fons of men. From die place of his 
habitation, he looketh upon all the inhabitants 
of the earth. See line 125. — Again, ver. 18. 
Behold the eye of the Lord is upon them that 
fear him, upon them that hope in his mercy. — 
Ver. 22. Let thy mercy, O Lord, be upon us 
as we hope in thee. See line 151, ^c. — Many 
other paffagcs, no lefs flriking, will, I doubt 
not, occur to the attentive reader. 

Ver. 146. J Vh at man, &c.] The very learned 
Mr. Dawes in his Mijcellanea Critica, is too fcvere 
upon our author, where he confiders the prefent 
pafTage ; and he mufl: pardon me, if I think his 
alteration renders the paflage, as he expreffes it, 
resWy jejune and idle. To fct his criticifm in a 
true light I find it necefTary to give you his own 
words, which, though long, I doubt not the 
reader will \'ery readily excufe, as coming from 
a man fo juftly eminent. 

" Tea S i^y^dTo, tk ^f** *Sio«» ; 

Ovyim' bJ' £{«(■ Ti! X.H Aio; tfyfxar a.^O'St ; 

This pafTage all the commentators, except 
Stephens, have part by unrfgarded. He obferves, 

'« That 



THE HYMN TO JUPITER. 

The bard is yet, and ftill iliall be unborn : 
Who can a Jove with worthy ftrains adorn ? 



19 



Hail, 



'< That CaUlmachits probably wrote «fi^«, as in 
the preceding verfe. The particle xn is certainly 
improperly joined with an indicative mood ; and 
therefore I {hould chofe either a^Xi or amcri. But 
aiKToi (which fome one perhaps may be for 
reading) I entirely difapprove." Whether you 
read t'! *" aturii, n; xvi asicrji, or T15 X6» ttuffot, you 

read a folecifm. The firft expreifion the learn- 
ed commentator obferves is faulty, on account 
of «t» being joined vvirh .^.n indicative niood. But 
not accurately enough ; for the fault dos not lie 
in that it is joined with ..n indicative mood, but 
that it is joined with z future indicative; fmce 
the pall tenfes of that mood, as well imperfeft 
as perfeiH: , as alfo both aorifts often h .\-e that 
particle joined with them. That the fecond ex- 
preffion is abfoLt;ly contrary to the ?enius of 
th^Greek language — nos frimi monemus. — The 
third 5/i-/i?»<'w entirely difapproves, but is filent, 
for what reafons. We niuft obferve (what, 
indeed, fcems to have mifled many very learned 
men) that verbs of that form (of which is ainrai) 
are never ufed in an optative fenfe, or joined 
with the particle xa or m ; but ufed in the part 
tenfes in a future hgnihcation. * Arljiophanes, 

Eyw >»p ui fc:if«ixtoir HIIEIAHS 'on 

MoJBs Bai^oium. And again, 

t YnEinOYXHS Sot. 

Ei; la-Ti-ifdt "HEOIMI — Again, 

X 'HKHKOEIS yaf fiSAQH jaioi ■etotj 
AIKAZOIEN ETTi rai; oi*iawi Tat ^ixa; 
Kayroi? ■!zrfo9i;f<!i; atinKoi'jft,rii7it [I, ANOIKOAO- 
MHSOSj was av)!f.— 

And now having eftjbliflied, as the very learned 
perfon conjedured, the asiJoi in the place of the 
other, let us confider the fentence. In the La- 
th tranflations we find it thus. Tua vera opera 
quis celebret ? Nan fuit : Hon erit : quis Jovis 
opera celebret ? Where firft, that expreffion mn 
fuit : non erit, is (o elliptical, that an example 



like it can fcarce be found. They mufl ne- 
ceflarily fill it up thus : " Non fuit quifquam 
qui celebrare potuijfet, non erit qui celebrare fo- 
terit." We are not fo diflicult, as to condemn 
this : Permit it then : But fince by this, a molt 
full anfwer is given to the queftion — no. i' tfl^al* 
Ti; xtv anSoi — tua vera opera quifnam celebret ? 
Who can endure a repetition of the fame quef- 
tion immediately after it has been anfwered ? 
for my part I never met with any thing foyf/M«^, 
abfurd and idle. That of Ovid concerning Cal- 
limachus every one knows. 

Battiades ioto femper cantahitur orhe 
^uamvis ingenio non valet, arte valet. 

What induced Ovid to write this, I leave to the 
difcretinn of others. But be that as it will, one 
thing I know, that CalUmachus never would have 
wrote this pafTage, if he had not wanted art as 
well as genius. Lucretius has a paflage much 
of the fame kind. 

^'is potts eji diSium pollenti peifore carmen 
Condere pro rerum maje/iate, hifque repertis ? 
^uis ve valet verbis tantuni, qui fundere laudes 
Pro merit!! ejus poffit, qui talia nobis 
PeSlore parta Juo, quafttaq; pramia liquii ? 
Nemo ut opinsr erit mortaft corpore crcius. 

This indeed is elliptical, but nothing like Cal- 
limachus. If you fill up this — Nemo erit, qui 
dignum carmen condere pofftt, is'c. you fufficicntly 
r.nfvver the queftions found in the foregoing 
lines; But if immediately after the 6th you was 
to repeat the 5th foregoing, I need not fay how 
abfurd and ridiculous you would render the paf- 
fage. But this very abfurdity, except that the 
words repeated are fewer, is the very fame in 
Callimachus. — " Will you then attempt to re- 
ftore fo embarafled and incurable a pailage." — 
Yes — and that I think may be done without 
great difficulty. Thus I would underfland it. 

Tia. J'" c^yfiarx T15 X£» oieuox 
Ov yivir, «»' era' ti;, okh Aio; s^fjMT cmSct, 



* Plut. L. 88. 



t L. 



OqS. 

D 



X Veff. 796. 



Tua 



20 T H E H Y M N TO JUPITER. 

Hail, father — ! tho' above all praifes, hear ; 
Grant wealth and virtue to thy fervant's prayer : 



150 



Wealth 



Tua vera opera quis tandem c.kbraverit ? non 
natus £/?, non erit qu'ifquam, qui Jovis opera cele- 
brare foterit." — I believe the criticifm, fevere 
as it feems, to an impartial enquirer, is almoft 
its own arifwer. As to the ellipticalnefs of the 
exprefiion, few in every part of ftudy and of 
life, but meet with many of the fame kind. — 
For how is it poffibie for the author to have ex- 
prefl himfelf otherwife ? How jejune indeed 
would it have been had he faid, Who could 
fing thy praife, there never was a man ivho 
c:uld, there never v/ili be a man ivhs can., kc. 
How much more noble — Who can Cing thy 
praife ? The man is not born nor ever will, 
for what man can ever fing the praife of Jupiter? 
There I imagine the flrefs and emphafis is to be 
layed on AI02 e^-yftara, which Adr. Daiues 
fcems not aware ofj when he fays the very fame 
quejlion is repeated. There is peculiar IJeauty 
m that noble repetition. For who can fing the 
praife of a Jupiter? and had the ingenious 
critic been much converfant in the works of an- 
tient and modern poets, he would have found 
emphatica! repetitions of this kind extremely 
frequent. The poet in the firfi: queftion is fpeak- 
ing to the God rsa 1^^1.0.10. •■ raptured as it were, 
he elegantly and very propeily huifls out into 
the great impoflibility of worthily piaifing his 
fupreme. " There never was nor ever will 
be a man born fufBcient to praife him ;" for, 
recolledting and fpeaking to himfelf, perhaps, 
or elfe to the hearers he cries out, " How 
is it poffibie they fhould ? for, wlio can fing 
the praife of Ji'piter, the great fon of Sutuin, 
the fupreme and fovereign of a!! theGods? whom 
he had juft honoured with the moft exalted 
epithet 'aa.ivin^a.ri exfuperantijjime ." 

Ver. 151. Virtue., wealth.^ CalUmachus here 
proves himfelf a very excellent moralif]-, and 
plainly hints at the principle of the Stoics, who 
maintained that virtue was aurafKn;, entirely (uf- 
ficient to a happy life : He knew better, and 
found each one, virtue and riches, abfolutely 
neccfiiiry for the obfaining true happinefs. Virtue 



without fome fupport needlefs, poor, dcfpifed, 
and in rags is unequal to the fhock — 

* Few can bear the whips and fcorns of time, 
Th' oppreiTor's wrong, the proud man con- 
tumely. 
The infolence of office, and the fpurns 
That patient merit of th' unworthy takes : 

'Without finking beneath the burden ; but if 
vv>.alth and power is united with virtue, what a 
field is there to aiSt in, to difFufe good and hap- 
pinefs to ourfelves and all mankind? There never 
was a more wife petition from a heathen. Riches 
without virtue are a firebrand in the hand of a 
mad-man ; given only, as a great writer ex- 
prefil-s himfelf, " As a confpicuous proof and 
example of how fmall eftimation exorbitant 
'wealth is in the fight of God, when he beflows 
it on the moft worthlefs of mankind." The 
celebrated prayer of the wife Jgur is nearly of 
the fame import with this of our poets : *' Give 
me neither poverty nor riches, feed me 
with food convenient for me ; left I be full, 
and deny thee, and fay, who is the Lord ? 
or, lefl: I be poor and fteal, and take the name 
of my God in vain." Proverbs xxx. 8. But 
in the 7th chatter of Eccle/iaj?es, ver. 11. we 
have the immediate obfervation — " Wifdom is 
good with an inheritance, and by it there is 
profit to them that fee the Sun. For wifdom is a 
defence, and money is a defence : but the excel- 
lency of knowledge is, that wifdom giveth life 
to them that have it." The conclufion of this 
hymn is mofl noble ; the elegance and fweef- 
ntfs of the poetry, joined with the intrinfic 
grandeur and beauty of the thought, prefent 
us with the mod elevated ideas. — 1 muft 
obferve. Homer concludes two of his fhort 
hymns with the fame petition a* our poet, 
1 hat to Vulcan — with 



• HamUt, 



That 



THE HYM]^ TO JUPITER. 

Wealth without virtue but enhances fhame, 
And virtue without wealth becomes a name : 
Send wealth, fend virtue then : forjoin'd they prove 
The blifs of mortals, and the gift of Jove. 



21 



^SS 



That to Herculus, with 

whence it is obvious to remark, that this was a 
very favorite petition amongfl: the heathens. 

Horace has a very good fentiment to the fame 
purpofe with our author — 

Et genus et virtus, n'tfi cum re v'lllor alga. 
and for this reafon, fays Menander, 

Theocritus having before celebrated Ptolemy's 
wealth and power, of which he could not even 
wifti encreafe, they were fo large, concludes his 
hymn with 

A(tTw yt fiit EX A>o; cattv. 

as if he never could have too large an encreafe 
of virtue' though eminently renowned for it. — 
There are, who have imagined the poet here 
makes a kind of genteel petition to his king, and 
infinuates, that his fongs and genius were not 
fufHcient to make him happy, v/ithout the other 



great and material ingredient, (met fame and 
merit alone are not able to feed a man : 

So prayfcn babes the peacock's fpotted traine 
And wondren at hn^i Jrgus blazing eye ; 
hut who rewards him ere the more for thy.? 
Orfeedes him once the fuller by a graine ? 
Sike praife is fmoke, that Iheddeth in the fkye, 
Sike wordes beene winde and waften foon in 
vaine, 
Spenser's Calendar, lothEcioGUE. 

They have, I fay, conceived his cafe fome- 
thing like this of poor complaining Spcnfer's, 
who felt too truly, what he hath fo beautifully 
expreft : but with regard to Callimachus it may 
be hard to fay any thing certain of this matter, 
as v.'e arc ignorant of his fituation with refpeiSl 
to his great benefador at die time of writing 
this hymn ; but flnce it is moft probable that he 
was then high in favour, and in the mufisum, he 
had certainly no occafion to hint any thing of 
this kind. Such far-fetched and over-ftraincd 
conjeftures fhould not be mdulged, when the 
whole tenor of an author's thoughts fcems too 
nobly elevated to be capable of mean infinua- 
tions like thefe. 



End of the Hymn to Jupiter. 



GENERAL REMARK. 

* Hymn to Apollo.] " The tafk you injoincd me (obferves an ingenious friend) of taking a 
clofer and more accurate view of this hymn, has brought its own reward with it. I talce it to 
be one of the mofl valuable remnants of antiquity ; becaufe it informs us, in fome meafure, how^ 
general and deep an imprefiion the tradition of a Redeemer had made on the minds of men. And 
I think, we need not at all fcruple to lay, that in this poem we may fee fome of the great out- 
Jines of HIS character, though corrupted with foreign mixtures and attributed to a wrong 
objeft. But even thefe very miftakes, will not appear furprizing upon the then received prin- 
ciples of mankind, and may fo eafily be accounted for from Divine Revelation, as to ferve in fome 
degree to confirm the truth of it. — When the heathens had once fallen into that grand apoftacy 
of fetting up the heavens for their God, and worfhipping it as a felf-exiflent independent being, it 
is no wonder they attributed to their arch-idol^ what was only due, and what was originally ac- 
knowledged to belong to the True God. Nay, I cannot think it at all wonderful, even upon a 
fuperficial view (and the more clearly we examine this matter, the more thoroughly, I am per- 
fuadcdjWe fhallbe convinced) that they afligned diflinft offices to their trinity (fire, light and fpirit) 
in the fame manner nearly as the true believers did to theirs (Father, Son and Holy Ghoji, of 
whom thefe material agents arc the emblems or reprefentatives.) Of this numberlefs inftances 
might be given. But as the following hymn will fhew us, how they attributed the fame offices to 
the material Sun, which were only due, and which throughout the Old Teftament are claimed 
for, or foretold of, t'le Sun of rlghteottfiiefs, that true light, which llghteth every man, that 
Cometh into the world, — I fhall at prefent confine myfelf to that; but here I muft beg leave 
to remind you of an obfervation, which in this fort of enquiries ought never to flip out of our 
memories ; namely, that before the revelation of literal writing, men had no other way of 
preferving the knowledge they had, and of conveying it to pofterity, fo certain and 'infallible, 
as taking fome tf«/wrt/ or /;vf, that did, in fome refpc£i , refemble the material or fpiritual objedt 
they would defcribe ; and making it the reprefentatlve or fymbol of that objedt ; or, as it has 
fmce betn called, making fuch fymbol (whether tree or animal) [acred to that objecfl. And it 
requires no great fkill in antiquity to prove, that this method of communicating knowledge, efpe- 
cially in religious matters, was continued long after the ufe of letters was firfl difcovered to man- 
kind." The reader is defired to bear thefe remarks in mind, during the courfe of the notes 
on the following hymn. 




^•y.y,y7f';t*' ^latm 



THE 



Second Hymn of Callimachus. 

* To Apollo. 

E E, how the laurels hallovv'd branches 

wave ; 
Hark, founds tumultuous fhake the trembling 

cave ! 

Fary 




— Tremeri tinnia vifa rcpente, ^r. 



Ver. I. Laurels branches ."l It was ufual not 
only to adorn every part of the temple of Apollo 
with laurel branches, the p^fts of the doors, the 
innermoft parts of the temple, the altar, tri- 
pods, i^c. but the prieftefles themfelves alfo 
delivered their oracles, holding laurel branches in 
their hands : whence our poet fpeaks not of a 
tree ( as Mr. Prior tranflates it) but of the 
branches (Jaipnto? o§'!r>;J) thus adorning the temple : And, 

It hath efc.iped the t.bfervation of no critic, how — Procul hinc prccul ejle pre/ani, ^c, 

cxailly Virgil hath herein imitated our author jx-n e 1 D . 6 



Scarce had I faid, he fijook the holy ground, 
The laurels and the lofty hills around 
And from the tripods rufh a beilowi 

found. 

Drvden 



inaj 



rij 



24 THE HYMN TO APOLLO. 

Far, ye profane, far off ! with beauteous feet 
Bright Phoebus comes, and thunders at the gate ; 



See 



Fly ye profane, oh fly, and far remove 
(Exclaims the prieftefs) from the hallow'd 
grove. Pitt. 

There are many other pafTages in the claflics 
greatly fimilar hereto, particularly in the 5th 
book of Lucan's PharfaUa. All the Gods had 
fome tree facred to them. 

Populus Alc'ida: gratijftma, vitis laccho, 
Formofa vcneri wyrtus, fua laurea Pha'bo, 

fays FirgH. " But why the laurel fliould be 
affigned and dedicated to Apollo, rather than any 
other tree, I muft confefs, never to have met 
with a fatisfaftory reafon. As to what they tell 
us (wherein all the commentators reft) that 
it was Sil emblem of prophecy, and from its 
crackling or not, when thrown into the fire, 
predicted good or ill fortune, we are yet as 
much in the dark, and as much to feek, how 
it came to be fo ufed, as at firfl:. The reader 
doubtlefs has herein been as unfortunate as my- 
fclf, and therefore I fliall venture to give him 
my own thoughts on this fubjefl. It is well 
known that Apollo in the Grecian mythology is 
the fame as the Sun, and that he was geneially 
reprefcntfd amongft his worfhippcrs hy a, young 
Vi&n Uiith a glory of conical rays about his head, 
not very unlike the crowns we may obfcrve in 
the piflures of our old kings. If we examine 
the leaf of the Roman laurel, as we have it in the 
bufts or pi(£lures of the heroes or poets of former 
Eges, or as it is ftill to be feen in many gardens 
in our own country, we fhall find no leaf fo 
nearly refembles tlie conical rays abovementioned 
as this, and therefore no tree was fo proper to 
be confecrated to Apo/lo or the Sun ; or in other 
V/oids, fo aptly reprcfniied that light, which he 
■is continually fending frth, enlightening and 
fnlivening our lower world." We may add 
alfo, tl"at thelauiel, as an ever-green reprefented 
the perpetual youth o( /Ipollo, for he is defcribcd 
iis aiw.uis young, and unieard-'d. See this hymn 
Ver. j6 orig. Ever-greens in Scripture are made 
the.fvmbols of the Divinity of Chri/}, whofe leaf 



nevtr withers, and at the time of his birth, to 
teftify our belief of his immortality we adorn all 
our churches with ever-greens. The material Sun 
therefore had that affigned to him by his wor- 
Ihippers, which is reclaimed for, and belongs 
truly to the Sun of righteoufnefs . 

Ver. 3. With beauteous feet, &c.] It is ob- 
ferveable, that we meet in the heathen poeti 
with the mention of Apollo"^ prefence, in his 
temple much more frequently than with that of 
Jupiter, or any other of the Gods : might not 
this arife from tlie very general and antient tra- 
dition of the Lord, Jehovah, who was to come 
in theflefli, pitch his tabernacle (vncmoKrai) among 
us, and inhabit the temple of a human body F See 
St. John ii. ig. If you compare Aialachi iii. 
I-, 2, 3. you will eafily obferve a remarkable 
refemblance between the prophet and the poet. 
The Lord fhall fuddenly come to his temple : 
even the melTenger of the covenant whom you 

delight in : t« Sv^n^a KAAil isoil ^oi/So; a^uirast — 

who may abide the day of his coming, and who 
fhall {land when he appeareth — ? sxa;, exa(, 
era aAilp©-. The exprefTion of Apollo's knocking 
at the gate xuXutroSi with a beautiful foot, is par- 
ticularly remarkable. Our Saviour's coining to 
preach the gofpcl of peace, and fo his minifters 
alfo (as appointed by him) is thus defcribed : 
How beautiful upon the fiiountains, are the feet 
of him, that bringcth good tidings, that pub- 
liflieth peace, &c Ifaluh Iii. 7. and fo in the 
prophet A'rti/.'W i. 15. Behold upon the moun- 
tains, the ket of Him, that bringeth good tid- 
ings, ^c. — The coming of the Sun of righ- 
teoufnefs thus to bring peace, is compared to 
the rifing of the material Sun : the Sun of 
righteoufnefs fliall arife, with healing in his 
wings, Mai: iv. 2. and his feet is faid to be 
beautiful upon the mountains, becaufe the Sun 
firft arlfeth, or at lealf, appears from, and 
upon them. See Cant. ii. ver. 17. A.nd as 
Chri/l's entry into the kingdom of grace is thus 
figured, fo Apollo's entry into his temple is ex- 
prcflcd in the fame manner, by ihe rifing of the 
Sun, unbarring the g..ics of light, and with his 

jlnnir.g 



THE HYMN TO APOLLO. 

See the glad fign the Dellan palm hath giv'n ; 
Sudden it bends : and hovering in the heav'n, 
Soft fings the fwan with melody divine : 
Burft ope, ye bars, ye gates, your heads decline; 
Decline your heads, ye facred doors, expand : 
He comes, the God of light, the God's at hand ! 



25 
5 



10 

Begin 



Jhlnhig feet hmcking at the golden portal of day, 
according to the accuftomed language of the 
poets. In the xixth Pfalm the office of the 
divine light is nobly fet forth to us under the 
fame image. " In them (namely, the heavens) 
hath he fet a tabernacle for the fun [Sherncjh, 
the folar light) which is as a bridegroom coming 
out of his chamber, and rejoiceth as a Jirong 
man to run a race. His going forth is from the 
end of heaven, and his circuit unto the ends of 
it, and there is nothing hid from the heat 
thereof" — See alfo Ifaiah vi. r, 2, 3. 

Ver. 5. TJje Delian palm.] See the hymn to 
Deles — orig. 1. 209. The palm-tree, it is 
univerfally known, was facred to the fecond 
perfon of the true Trinity ; fo that the corrup- 
tion of tradition is fufficient to account for the 
heathens dedicating it to the /econd perfon of 
their trinity. It is obfervable, that on the walls 
of the 'Jenx.ujh temple were defcribed palm-irces 
and cherubims alternately ; the cherubims were 
only coupled ones, confifting of two faces, a lion's 
and a ?nan's, exprefiing the divinity (of which 
the lion of the tribe of fudah. Rev. v, 5. was 
a fymbol) joined to the humanity, reprefented 
by the human face. " The palm-tree was ufed 
as an emblem oijirength, fupport, ability to Jland 
upright under any prejfure ; as it is faid the pro- 
perty of that tree is." {Aul.Gell.No£l. I.3. c. 7.) 
Hence it was ufed among the heathens as an 
emblem of victory ; and by believers as a type 
oi Jalvation wrought through Chrifi-. On this 
account, when our Saviour made his regal en- 
trance into ferufaUi"., " much people took 
branches of palm- trees, and went forth to meet 
him and cried, Hofanna \_jave us~\ blefled is the 



king of Ifrael, that cometh in the name of the 
Lord, John xii. 1 2. And the faints as repre- 
fented in their triumphal ftate, in the Revelations 
vii. 9. " hold thefe branches in their hands, and 
cry with a loud voice faying, falvaticn to our 
God, which fitteth on the throne, and unto the 
Lamb." I may here likewife obferve, that at 
the feafl of tabernacles, which were made of 
boughs, each of which was alfo a type of fome 
property in Chrift, the people were ordered to 
carry thefe branches, and by this means afcribe 
viBory to their all-conquering king the Mefliah, 
This figure then was an emblem of Chrifl, as 
Conqueror : the humanity (through the a/Hftance 
of the lion, the divine perfon, who was united 
to him) was to ha\e Jlability, flrength, and 
pcwtr to fupport himfelf under the weight of all 
he was to do and fufFer for and in the ffead 
of man ; and after he had acquired the victory 
for himfelf, he was alfo to communicate the 
efFefts of it to his followers, i. e. He was to 
^I'^e fuppoit, ability to thofe who ftiould accept 
him as their Saviour, to ftand here againft all 
the affaults of their enemies, and the preffure of 
temptations, and to place them hereafter in a 
Jlableflate oi ^ory, beyond a poffibilit)- of /i?//- 
ing or being removed from it." — See the fcrmons 
of the late learned Mr. Catcot, p 306. 

Ver. 9. Decline, ficc.) The reader cannot but 
obferve the remarkable refemblance of this paf- 
fage to the following verfes from the xxivth 
Pfalm — Lift up your heads, O ye gates, and be 
ye lift up, ye everlafting doors, and the king of 
Glory fhall come in. Who is tliis king of glory .' 
the Lord ftrong and mighty, the Lord mighty 
in battle. Lift up your heads, O ye sates, and 
E 'be 



26 THE HYMN TO APOLLO, 

Begin the fong, and tread the facred ground 
In myftic dance fymplionious to the found, 
Begin young men : Apollo's eyes endure 
None but the good, the perfed: and the pure : 



Who 



be ye lift up ye everlafting doors, and the king 
of glory fhall come in. Who is this king of 
glory ? the Lord of hofls he is the king of glory. 
tjelah. So too as Spanhelm obfervts, after that 
divinely emphatical defcription of the feraphims 
and their hymn in Jfaiah chap. vi. — " Holy, 
holy, holy is the Lord of hofls, the whole 
earth is full of his glory," — We fnd, " that 
the ports of the door moved, at the voice of 
him that cried, and the houfe was filled with 
fmoke." 

Ver. II. Begin the fong, &c.] The original is 

Ad cantandum isf ad faltandum acdngamtni, 
fays Dr. Bentley. The Greeks were particularly 
careful to teach their children mufic, and tor 
this reafon, as we are told, " that they might 
at the feftivals of their gods join in finging the 
hymns and fongs to their praife, while the 
chorus danced round the altar in concert with 
their mufic : This Mr. Prior has very happily 
expreft in his tranflation of our author, 

— And let the dance 
In myflic numbers trod explain the mufic. 

See Pfalm cxlix. 3. " The antient heathens 
had, I believe, a true knowledge of the folar 
fyjiem, and of the agents by which the great 
motions of it are performed. If therefore the 
Sun or light derived from it, be, as they 
thought, the great fpring by which the earth, 
moon, and planets move, it feems highly pro- 
bable that in thefe dances, performed to the 
honour of Jpollo, they run round a ring or 
circle to reprefent the annual motion of the 
planets in their orbits, and at the fame time 
turned round, as it were upon their own axes 
(which is ufual in all dancing) to reprefent their 
diurnal moiion. Thismay appear whimfical; but 



can a better account of their dances be given ? 
Have not we fome velHges of this old idolatry (till 
remaining among us ? When the Eiin approaches 
our northern regions, do not the country-people 
in England keep up the fame foiC of cuftom, 
dancing in the manner above defcribed, round a 
may-pole, which, without doubt is of very an- 
tient (landing, and derived from our old idola- 
trous a"ceftors : — Kut a paffage of Proclus iit 
Chrejlomathia (cited VnJJii de orig. W prog, ido- 
latr. lib. 2. p. 368 — 9.) will ftrve tD fhew that 
the rites performed by the antient heathens, 
were not without a meaning, and at the fame 
time confirm the remark above made : " No- 
thing, fays VoJJius, does fo clearly prove Jpolla 
to be the Sun, as the apollinarian rites : But 
they were fo different in diff"erent places, that 
to infift upon them would exceed the bounds of 
my prefent defign, I fhall therefore only men- 
tion the rites of Apollo Ifmenius and Galaxius, 
which are thus dtfcribed by Proclus: — " They 
crown with laurels and various Jlowers a block 
of the oiivp-tree, on the top of which is placed 
a brazen fphere, from which they hang feveral 
fmaller fpheres, and about the middle of the 
block they fatten purple crowns, fmaller than 
that on the top ; and the bottom of the block 
they cover with a faftKin, or perhaps flame-co- 
loured garment; thur upper fphere denotes the 
the Sun, by which they mean Jpollo ; the next 
under it the moon, the appcndent fpheres, the 
Ifars and planets, and die crowns, which are 
365 in number, their annual courfe." — This is 
a literal tranflation of the paffage, which ap- 
pears to me a very curious one, and upon which- 
I fhall leave the reader to make his own re- 
marks. 

Ver. 13. Apollo'r eyes. &c.] There are many 
paflages in fcrlpture relating to the fecond per- 
fin, which nearly refemble thf^fe in Calinnachus ; 
We are told, that " he is of purer eyes than to 

behold 



THE HYMN TO APOLLO. 
Who view the God, are great ; but abjedl they 
From whom he turns his favouring eyes away : 
All-piercing God, in every place confefl, 
We will prepare, behold thee, and be bleft. 

He comes, young men ; nor filent fhou'd ye Hand, 
With harp or feet when Phoebus is at hand : 



27 
15 



20 
If 



behold evil, and cannot look on iniquity." We 
are informed by this divine perfon himfelf, that 
" BlefTed are the pure in heart, for they fhall 
fee God." And one of his apoftles exhorts us 
" to follov/ after holhiefs, without which no man 
fhall fee the Lord and Saviour." It is ohferv- 
able, that in the original, vcr. 11. the author 
ufes the epithet Ex-atfyt — whicft is a manifeft at- 
tribute of the /i^ht. perfi^rming its work at a dif- 
tance, and impelling all things with its rays ; 
which will hold whether we derive it from 
£««{ and Bfya arceo, ■mpello, or £x«; and t(yov, or 
t[ya.^oi^ai — Opus, or opus facio. 

Ver. 20. if^ith harp, &c.] The word here 
ufedby the author is xi5«p>i», and in the 27th line 
what I have rendered lute is xeXu? ; I believe the 
precife difference of thefe mufical inflruments 
cannot now be afcertained : Many mufical in- 
ftruments are alfo mestioned in SS. particularly 
in the Pfalms ^fee Pfal. cl.) but as I pretend 
not to underftand clearly the diftinfl forts ot 
them, and as the inveftigation thereof would be 
too long for this place, I {hall only obferve, 
that as the fecond perfon appears from the Pfalm 
juH quoted, and feveral other paffages of fcrip- 
ture to have been particularly honoured with 
mufical inftruments by the true believers, fo it 
is not improbable, that the heathens derived 
from them their praiStice of performing the fame 
fort of honours to their Apolh. See Rev. xiv. 
I, 2, 3. where the Lamb is reprefented land- 
ing on mount &ion, and the voice of harpers 
heard^ haypi'ig with their harps — xiDaf u Jwn xiOaf*» - 

^oyluy » recti xtOafan avcm. 

Ver. 20. IFhen Phoebus is at hand. &c.] T« 
♦«i& e7rJi)(/))<r»^o{. — The fcaft now celebrat- 



ing we learn from hence was the EmJ^jftta of 
Phosbus, his entrance into this temple — or in 
other words, the return of the Sun on this feafoii 
to that part of the world. Virgil, in his 4th 
/Eneid, has a fine defcription of ihis E7rioti;^i« 
of Jpollo. 

As when froin Lycia, bound in wintry frojl. 
Where Xanthus llreams enrich the fmiling 

coaft, 
The beauteous Phxbus in high pomp retires. 
And hears in Delos the triumpha t choirs ; 
The Cretan crowds and Dryopes advance. 
And painted Scythians round hisaH rs d.ance :• 
Fair wreaths of vivid rays his he:.! iniold, 
Kis locks bound backward and adorn'd with 

gold: 
The God majeflic moves o'er Cynthus browsj 
His golden quiver ratling as he goes. 

Pitt. • 

The obfervations before made, will both gain 
light from, and give it in return to this paf- 
fage from I'irgil. Mr. Dryden has a peculiar 
line in his tranflation, which Items very expref- 
five of his own fentiments, 

Himfelf, on Cynthus walkino-, fees below 
The merry madnefs of the facred Jlioiv. 

Spanbeim is of opinion, that " this cuftom of 
ullicring in their God with mufic, hymns, and 
dancing, was borrowed with many other of the 
heathen ceremonies from the Jctvs ; and in par- 
ticular from what we find related in I Kings viii. 
concerning the dedication of Solorno?2'$ tcmpie, 
and the bringing in of the ark with all manner 
of joy: Of whkhlfofephus gives this remark- 
E 2 able 



28 THE HYMN TO APOLLO. 

If e'er ye wifh in happy youth to lead 

The lovely female to the nuptial bed : 

Or grace with iilver locks the hoary head : 

If e'er ye wifh your cities to fecure 

On old foundations, profperous, firm, and fure. 



25 

My 



able account : " The king hlmfelf, and all the 
people and Levites went before rendring the 
ground moift with facrifices and drink-offerings, 
and the blood of a great number of oblations ; 
and burning an immenfe quantity of incenfe ; and 
this till the very air itfelf every where round 
about was fo full of thefe odours, that it met in 
a moll agreeable manner perfons at a great dif- 
tance, -and was an indication of God's prefence, 
and, as men's opinions were, ot his habitation 
with them in this newly built and confecrated 
place : For they did not grow weary either of 
finging hymns or of dancing till they came to 

the temple." The reader, by referring to 

note 3. will obferve, that the coming of Cbriji 
to his temple, of the 7nejfenger of the covenant, 
was foretold by the prophet, and under the 
image of the rifmg of the natural fun, with 
healing in his wings ; fo that this prefence ef the 
divine perfon, this glory of th'^ Lord in the ttm- 
ph of Solomon, 1 Kings viii. 11. was typical of 
his coming in the flcfh, pitching his tabcrjiacle 
amongft us, and inhab.ting the temple of a hu- 
man body. See St. John \\. 19. The attentive 
reader will cafily enlarge on thefe hints, which 
he will rind leading to a copious Held of inftruc- 
tion and comfort. 

Ver. 24. If e'er, &c.] The original is, — 

In the true fenfe and meaning of which critics 
and commentators are greatly divided: Dr. Bent- 
ley's has appeared to mc the heft interpretation, 
and therefore I have followed it in the tranfla- 



tion. " T« reix^i, fays the Doctor, is the nomina- 
tive cafe ; « TO TBixoi {ni'K'Kn] tril^f. For I can- 
not agree with them who interpret irriieivjiatuere: 
Without any example or authority of the an- 
tients. And in truth if ir>!|«» \% Jlatuere, it had 
been idle in CaUimachuj to fay antient founda- 
tions rather than new ; for it would be rather to 
be wifhed that the city fliould receive encreafe, 
and be furrounded with a new and more exten- 
five wall. But to foretcl any one, that he 
fhould raife a wall upon antient foundations, is 
the fame as to forebode, that the old fhould be 
firft deflroyed by the enemy ; which is a dread- 
ful declaration. So that Ern^sm fliould be inter- 
preted in the fame manner as urixEi* in Homer, 
not Jlatucre, hut J/are. " If you defire your 
walls to ftand upon their old foundations : If 
the wall is to ftand hereafter," fo far the doctor. 
There is, I conceive, no need to make tuxoj the 
nominative, nor to underftand f*£AA«i, as ft,i>j^iTt in 
the former verfe completes the fenfe — ei ftjAXscri to 
TfiX"! (or rather n Tttxof, according to Faher.) 
The author offers, as an mcentive to their piety, 
three temporal bleffings to the young men, 
whom he exhorts, neither to have a filent harp, 
or a.'i'otpiit i^vot — an unfounding ftep, z. filent foot, 
if they delire, iff. to obtam happy nuptials. 
2diy. Long life, and 3diy. Peace and profperity 
to their fta-.e and country. " If ^vy defire their 

wall to ftand upon its old foundations." 

Mr. Prior, and Mr. Pitt who treads clofe in 
his fteps, have given another fenfe to the paf- 
fage, which appears very wide of the author's 



THE HYMN TO APOLLO. 

My foul with rapture and delight furveys, 
The youthful choir unwearied in their praife, 
Ceafelefs their lutes refounding ; let the throng 
With awful filence mark the folemn fong : 
Even roaring feas a glad attention bring, 
Hufh'd, while their own Apollo poets fing : 
Nor Thetis felf, unhappy mother, more 
Her lov'd and loft Achilles dare deplore, 



29 



30 



While 



Ver. 26. My foul, &c.] To enter fully here 
into the beauty of the author, we muft imagine 
a folemn paufe to enfue, after he has propofed 
rewards to the youth for celebrating the God : 
When the mufic and divine fongs break through 
the awful filence, then the author enraptured, 
on a fudden breaks out into this line, expreffive 
of his wonder and approbation : 

and thus the verfe has great propriety and ele- 
gance : Mr. Prior and Mr. Pitt have totally 
difregarded it : Madam Dacier, according to 
her ufual accuracy, obferves, that " as this M- 
tival of Jpollo was celebrated at tiie beginning of 
the fpring ; for that reafon the fea is faid to be 
ftill and filent, as then, according to Piopertiits. 

Ponit et in Jicco molUter unda minas. 

This confirms the general tenour of the remarks, 
that this feftival was in honour of the fun, 
returning in fpring, to this part of the world, 
where thefe rites were payed to him. 

Ver. 32. Thetis — ] Frifchlinui thinks, that 
"Thetis and Niobe may be underftood of any 
perfons, diftrefs d wi-h grief and forrow, whole 
anguifh ihe powers of mufic difpel and afTuage ; 
agreeable to that beautiful paflage in Mr. Pope's 
ode on St. Cecilia's Day ; 

By mufic minds an equal temper know 
Nor fwell too high, jior fink too low : 



If in the breaft tumultuous joys arife, 
Mufic her foft afiuafive voice applies : 
Or when the foul is preft with cares 
Exalts her in enlivening airs : 
Warriors fhe fires with animated founds. 
Pours balm into the bleeding lovers wounds : 
Melancholy lifts her head, 
Morpheus rifes from his bed : 
Sloth unfolds her arms and wakes, 
Liftning Envy drops her fnakes : 
Inteftine war no more our paflions wage, 
Even giddy factions bear away their rage. 

I cannot help obfervinghow happy an improve- 
ment thefe lines of Mr. Pope are of a paffage in 
Hefiod; where fpeaking of the power of the 
Mufcs, he fays. 

El ya,^ Ti? xai rostOs; tyj^'' »fi>«»Jti Suva) 

T(Ain<T>i yaxa^cii ts OiU'; 01 OhvjATrct iy(yui,», 
A* \]/ eye doc^lp^onuv eT*?^>,9ETai, «^£ t* KyiOiUt 

QBoyovix. ver. 98. 

But, whatever Frifchlinus may imagine, I can- 
not be entirely of his opinion, lli.cc there ap- 
pears particular beauty and emphafis in our au- 
thor's chufing thefe two examples of Tletis and 
Niohe, whofe forrows both proceeded from 
Jpollo, the power of whofe fongs and 7o's 
niuit be amazing indeed, if they could caufe 
thefe two mifcrable mothers to ceafe their la- 
menting. 



30 THE HYMN TO APOLLO, 

While lo, lo Psean rings around : 
Nay even fad Niobe reveres the found : 
Her tears the while, expreflive of her woe, 
No longer thro' the Phrygian marble flow : 
Which ftands a lafting monument to prove, 
How vain each conteft with the powers above. 



35 



Iq 



mentings. Mr. Prior has beautifully inferted 
this as a reafon, For PhKbus was bis foe, fays 
he oiAckilUs; and oi Niobe 

— Haplefs mother ! 
Whofe fondnefs cou'd compare her mortal 

oftsprirtg, 
With that which fair Latoiia bore to Jove. 

Callimachus (zys nothing of this, but I conceive, 
the context will juflify fuch a paraphrafe : as, I 
doubt not, this is the author's true meaning. 

Ver. 34. lo, lo Paan.^ "in nai»o>, *lii naiw. 
orig. Dr. Robertfon, in his true and antient 
manner of reading Hebreiv, &c. has the fol- 
lowing curious remark on the Hibreiv word 
mn' which he would pronounce — Te-u-e. 
" The word (fays he) thus pronounced in three 
fyllableS) and the middle one accented is not 
greatly different from the fofter Latin found of 
"Jehovah ; 1 mean Ye-ho-wa ; not the harfh 
found Dze-ho-vah, ufed in Englijh, The 
Greeks aimed at exprcffing the found of '"\TV 
by different combinations of charafters, fuited 
perhaps to the variations made in it by thejiivs 
(after they had loft the knowledge both of tlie 
meaning, and the pronunciation of the language 
of their forefathers) in the feveral ages in which 
the Greeks were acquainted with them, namely, 
U.vui, \a.av, iccu, is, luQi. So the facred name 
n' y^ or ye was written on the great door of 
the antient temple of i^pollo (more antiently of 
Bacchus) at Delphos, at Hrft in the eaftern way 
of writinc, from right to left 3i, and on re- 
pairing it in their own way, EI, only turning 



the letters to face the way then in ufe, but not 
putting the I before the E, as they would have 
done, if they had known the meaning of the 
word, as their forefathers did, who lirfi: wrote 
it there. And fo they exprefTed the found of the 
Hebrew n' I^^H Hallelvia, or (as I read) Ele- 
lu ye., by JxAsti ;« or 6^EA£^ id' — for, lays Eiijia- 

thiuS TO SxtjAonov »?IE1)1/ »l|lBli £ITIpwm»T£J 'in, 'Itl, 

when they begged God to be merciful to them, 
they cried out Te, ?^(or Je, jfe.) Now Te, or (as 
we now write) Jab, is the name peculiarly of 
the Son of God, th^ Mediator and Saviour. But 
there would be no end if I {l)ould launch out into 
this ocean, to flrew the deduftion of the moft 
antient and now almoft ohfolete Greek words 
from the Hebrew, for which fuch abfurd etymo- 
logies are afligned by the Grj?^.^ grammarians from 
their own language, and to countenance thofe 
of the words relating to religion, fuch childifh 
flories of their Gods, and their mammas when 
they were children." Thus far Dr. Robertfon. 
Though I do not think myfelf obliged to de- 
fend ever thing here advanced by him, yet I 
think his account fufficient to fliew us feveral 
particulars relating to thefe extraordinary words 
In, la, &c. for inftance : how they came to be 
ufed iiy the latter Greeks and Romans, when in 
grief and diftrefs (as Is, In l'uri«, &c.) as well as 
for expreflions of their joy and fatisfacfiion as 
In, In ■oanjn', lo, Jo, iriumphe. The antients, 
no doubt, prayed to God for deliverance from 
their diftrefs and calamities, as well as returned 
him thanks for their fuccefs and profperity. 
Bcfides, this fenfe alone of the words can give 
us any reafonable foluuon of their marvellbus 

efFcd, 



THE H Y iM N T O A P O L L O. 

lo again triumphant lo ling ; 
Who ftrives with heav'n, muft ftrive with Egypt's king 
Who dare illuftrous Ptolemy defy, 
Muft challenge Phoebus, and the avenging fky. 

Immortal honours wait the happy throng, 
Who grateful to the God refound the fong : 



3 1 
40 



45 
And 



efFeiH:, and the great (ruft and confidence the 
people had in them, It is very obfervabie that 
n'" ^'^"^ — Allelnjab — properly llgnifies, af- 
cribe the irradiation to the ejjence, Jah ; for 
'p'^jT fignifies to Jhine as light docs, every way, 
to irradiate, whicn irradiation of light is the 
proper and fcripture emblem of God the Son — 
and the word Hallelujah exprelTes as much, 
as — Do thou oh fecond divine perfon in the 
fpiritual world, and work, fo fliine forth and 
manifeft thy glory, as the light, in the material 
world (hines forth, irradiates, fupports, and gives 
glory to all created things." Now the word 
li) in the Greek, it is manifeft, comes from the 
Hebrew T ' Je or J ah — and «rat»io> from «rai« to 
flrike, dart, or emit, and is immediately ap- 
plicable to the rays fent forth from the Sun, 
thofe darts of Apollo which fent forth from him, 
flew the Python (of which I fhall have occafion 
to fpeak hereafter) and during his conteft with 
the ferpent, Latona is faid to have made ufe of 
thofe words — (SaX^t ^mat — immitte feriendo, 
fays Macrobius, " qua voce ferunt Latonam 
ufam cum Apollinem hortaretur impetwn Pythonis 
inceffere fagittis." This interpretation of lo 
Pisan gives us the very idea of Hallelujah — 
emit thy darts or rays lo ; fiine forth, irra- 
diate Oh Jah : It is worth obferving, that 
the EI mentioned above over the door of 
the temple of Jpollo, in the Greek is nearly of 
the fame import with n» in the Hebrew, EI 
being thou art, and il' alfo the uncreated effence, 
the name of him who alone can be faid to BE. 

Ver. 41. Who Jlrives, &c.] See hymn to 
"Jupiter, ver. 124, U feq. I do not know of 



any part of Callimachus fuperior in beauty to 
this : The poetry is moft harmonioufly Cwcet, 
the didtion elegantly concife beyond any I have 
ever met with, and the complement to his prince 
the moft delicate and refined : I have by no 
means done him juftice in the tranfiation, but 
Mr. Prior has abi'olutely dropt his author. I 
fliall give you a comment upon this pafiige from- 
the ingenious Mr. Blaciwall on the facred clajfics. 
" There are in the Greek and Roman chifiics of 
the firft rank and merit, many elegant paftages 
of high devotion to their deities, noble panegy- 
rics upon their princes and patrons, and the 
moft endearing expreflions of rcfpecSt and tender- 
nefs to their friends and favourite acquaintance. 
The polite poet Ca///V«tff/i2/f has numerous places 
of this nature, one of which I will prefent to the 
reader, which, I think, in a few fmooth and 
truly poetical lines, contains a noble and juft ac- 
knowledgment of the divine inftitution of go- 
vernment, and authority of crowned heads, and 
the fineft exprefficns of loyalty and duty to his 
own fovereign king Ptolemy. Befides, we find 
fome of the fublimeft morals and myfteries of 
religion beautifully expreft, and with the pureft 
propriety of language, fet forth in this compre- 
henfive and ftrong piece of eloquence : 

— Kaxov ftaxafi<r<r(y tfi^t"'" 
Tov p^opoK ui 7ro^Aa;l', OTt o* xccrx Oy^ov ctuan 

Here are fome doctrines advanced in language 
near to the myfteries and expreflions of our au- 

guft 



32 THE HYMN TO APOLLO. 

And honours well Apollo can command 
For high in power he fits at Jove's right hand. 



But 



guft Chrifiriaii writers : xukcv KaKUftcciv ipi^o 
(ver. 39. in the trandation) is a found dictaie of 
good fenfe and natural reafon ; agreeable to the 
meaning, hut inferior to the compacftnefs and 
ftrength of fcripture phrafe : fxri Bioj^xx'^l^" — f*''" 
woT£ x«i 6cDu.axoi EfffOijTt. A£ls xxili. q, v. 39. The 
notion of the more refined wi iters and wife men 
of the Pagan world, that Jpo'k, the favourite 
fon of their Jupiter, father of gods and men, 
fat at the right hand of his father (and by that 
was implied that he was inverted with fovereign 
honour and power to reward his devout depen- 
dents and worfliippers) is mighty agreeable to 
the Chriftian article of dodrine and belief, that 
Jefus, the eternal [and beloved j Son of the true 
God, fits at the right hand of his blefled Fa- 
ther, enthroned in heavenly majefly, and in- 
verted as God-man, the divine Mediator of the 
New Covenant, with full powers to diftribute 
his royal bounty, and moft precious favours to 
his diicipks and fcrvants, whom he delights to 
honour. In what noble grandeur of eloquence 
and majeftic plainnefs is this awful article ex- 
preffed by our Chrirtian infpircd writers ! (See 
the author for proofs, he goes on — ) This au- 
guft myftery of the feffion of the Son of God's 
love and bofom, at his Father's right hand, as 
it is much more important, venerably and iii- 
finitely better fupported than any of the arti- 
cles of Pagan belief, or myfleries of the Pagan 
religion ; fo the doctrine itfclf with all its ma- 
jeftic circumftances and happy confequences, is 
delivered in a language far exalted above all the 
flights of Pagan eloquence, and all reach and 
powers of human art. Aii ^f|io! tifon, is beau- 
tiful and pure ; but nothing at all to thefe grand 
Infiances of fcripture eloquence and fublimity. 
/f'ho is at the right hand of God, being gone 
into heaven, angels and authorities and powers 
(all the heavenly hierarchy, all ranks and orders 
of rational beings) being fubjeffed to him, by 
the decree and command of the Eternal : Let all 
the angtls (f G-d ivorllip kirn now as mediator, 
to whom they owed a natural allegiance as the 
Son of God and I eir of all things : who being 



the effulgence of his father' s glory, and the exprejs 
image of his perfon, and fupporting all things by 
the word of his might, after he had by himfelf 
purged our ftns, fate down at the right hand of 
the maje/ly in hirh places: or, in the words of 
the fame author, is ft on the right hand of the 
throne of the infinite majejly in the heavens. 
Chriji being raifed from the dead is at the right 
hand of God \ ever lives to make interceffion for 
us ; and his interceffion can never fail, but he 
is willing and able to fave to the uttermojl all that 
come to the Father in his name : and honour and 
pleafe the Father, by honouring and pleafing 
his beloved Son. I conclude with that lofty paf- 
fagc above criticifm and praife in Ephef. i. i -, 
18, 19, 20, ad fin. fome of which have been 
formerly quoted without the prefumption of 
attempting a tranfiation. J hat part which re- 
lates to our prefent fubjeift, the auguft feffion 
of our Saviour at the right hand of Power, the 
majcfty of his all-powerful Father, I fhall 
tranfcribe and prefent to the reader in all the 
beauties of the divine original. 

a^^a kJ £» tu f/,s^^o»Tl. See Sacred Clafftcs, vol, 2. 
p, 59. edit. 8vo. 1737. 

Ver. 47. For high, ^c.j Mr. Prior in his 
tranllation makes Jpollo's fitting at the right 
hand of Jupiter, one of the topics for praife, 
and with this begins the roll of his glories. Bat 
the author neither means nor exprelfes any fuch 
thing : He tells the company and affembly ga- 
thered together on this feftival, but particularly 
the chorus, that fuch as fincerely worfJTip him, 
paying him the due praifes, thefe the God will 
honour ; for he has power fo to do, and why ? 
for this reafon, fays Callimachus, una A.l' h^iof 
nra.!, becaufe he fetteth at the right hand of 
Jupiter." The reafon, rife and origin of this 
cxpreffion to imply all power, hath been largely 
difcourfed of by fome ; The reader will find a 
long detail upon the fubjc(5l in the learned bifhop 
Pearfon's explication of that article of our creed. 

1 flwil 



THE HYMN TO APOLLO. 

But in the God fuch beaming glories blend, 
The day unequal to his praife will end : 
His praife, who cannot with delight refound, 
Where fuch eternal theme for fong is found ? 
A golden robe invefts the glorious God, 
His fhining feet with golden fandals (hod : 



33 



50 



Gold 



I fhall fubjoin the obfen'ation of an ingenious 
friend. 

" The cherubim were fet up at the expulfion 
of Adam from paradife, to keep the way to the 
tree of lives, or living ones. Gen. iii. 24. not 
to keep man from it, but (viam munire) to en- 
able him to come to it, and io obtain happinefs 
in another ftate, which by his difobedience he 
had forfeited in this. Many learned men are of 
opinion, that thefe figures fet up by God him- 
felf {Gen. iii. 24.) and by his exprefs onier 
(Exod.xxv. 18.) and infpiration [Exod. xxxi. 3.) 
afterwards, were no other than a reprefcntation 
of the iacred three, with the man united to the 
fecond perfon, and that the mercy- feat, the ark, 
the table of Jhew-bready he. were parts of an 
hieroglyphical defcription of the Chriftian cove- 
nant. Indeed, the facred writers feem fully to 
prove this to us ; and the further we look back 
into Pagan antiquity, the clearer traces we find of 
fuch an exhibition. In the account given by our 
Univerfiil HiJJory (vol. I. p. 32 — Z^oif. edit.) of 
the Orphic theology, there are fome very ftrong 
veftiges of the cherubim ; Orpkcus taught, that 
the great God, Creator, is'c. was Phancs (a name 
taken, I fuppofe, from ""H' 'JO Peni yeue, 
faces of Jehovah, frequently mentioned in fcrip- 
ture, and which is only another name for the 
cherubim.) See Orpheus^ hymn n^uTiy. This 
(jod, according to his doiSrine, was to be repre- 
fcnted by a figure with three heads, that of an ox, 
a dog, and a lion. Thefe are fo very like the che- 
rubic heads (vid. E'zck. i. and x. chap, and hymn 
xo'Jnpiter., note 107.) and at the fame time fo dif- 
ferent from iheidoL, the Greeks afterwards wor- 



fliipped, that a man mufi have the faith of an in- 
fidel to believe either that he invented fuch an 
image of his God, out of his own head, or that he 
did not take it from the cherubim : with which he. 
could not be unacquainted if he had been \njuda:a 
or Jerufalem, as we are told, he was, and had 
feen there the tabernacle or temple. See i Knigs 
vi. 29. — Perhaps you may be flill at a lofs to 
know what I am driving at, and how any 
thing I have faid will tend to explain the AiV 
Ai|io; of our author. To keep you therefore no 
longer in fufpence, we find Ezeiiel i. 10. that 
the united faces of the lion and the m.an (the 
reprefentative of the fecond perfon, God and man) 
were on the right-ftde of the cherubic figure. 
Hence the fecond perlbn incarnate (or perhaps 
the humanity) is called the man of God's right 
hand, Pfalm Ixxx. 17. Hence in the creed, 
■who fitteth on the right hand of God, and A£ls. vii. 
55. — As heathenifm then was only a corrupt, on 
or the true religion, I had almoft faid of Chrii- 
tianitv, and it is plain from the above quotation, 
that fome of the heathen teachers, were not 
unacquainted with the cherubic figures, it does 
not fecm at all improbable, that from hence 
they fliouid place the yf(rfl«c//>i'/y«;/ in their tri- 
nity in the fame fituation that the true believers 
did ihe. fe.ond perfon of theirs." 

Ver. 52. y^ golden robe, &c.] The author 
informs us, that every thing which belonged to 
JpoUo was of gold, wherein there can be no 
doubt that he alludes to the Sun. The epithet 
;<;po-oxofio;, golden-haired, is frequently given to 
Jpollo ; and " that, fays Macrohius, a fulgore 
radi'jrum quas -vacant aureas comas folis — from 

F the 



34 THE HYMN TO APOLLO. 

Gold are his harp, his quiver and his bow : 

Round him bright riches in profuiion flow : 

His delphic fane illuflrious proof fupplies. 

Where wealth immenfe fatigues the wondering eyes. 

On his foft cheeks no tender down hath fprung, 

A God, for ever fair, for ever young : 



55 



His 



the brightnefs of the rays, which they call the 
golden hair of the Sun." JJnde ^ a!::scr%x.<>,Ari^ — 
continues he, " becaufe the rays can never be 
disjoined [a'jelli) from the fountain of light." 
p. 239 ; and therefore the whole body ot the 
Sun, the fountain of the rays, may with equal 
propriety be called golden ; and as thtfe rays are 
every where difperfed, and the caufe of the 
encreafe of all things, whatever belongs to Apollo 
may very aptly be faid to be of gold, wo^t(x?y<705 

yag AffoXA»»-><^ te wohvKTtavoi;. If you COniult 

1 Kings vi. you will find that gold was made veiy 
great ufe of in the furniture ot the temple : be- 
caufe of all material fubftances it is the befl: rc- 
prefentative of the light, and fo of its antitype. 
As gold was an emblem of the folar light, and 
that light of Chrifl, the fecond perfon, the tritt 
light (See St. fohn i. 9.) hence gold was made 
an emblem of the divine nature of the Son of 
God : which divine nature is always fignified 
to us by the light ; wherever Chrift is fpoken of 
as the light, the Sun, &c. he is always fpoken 
of as God the Son, or the fecond divine Perfon in 
the true Trinity, as the light is the fecond con- 
dition, the ruler in the material Trinity. It is 
obfcrvable, that gold hath been always an em- 
blem of majefty ; and from its purenefs, radiant 
brightnefs and value, efteemed the royal metal, 
the enfign of kingly power. " A crown of this 
metal (i. e. a circle with pointed rays ifTuing 
from around it) was worn by the kings of Ifrael ; 
and was an emblem of light irradiating in open- 
ing rays ; and light was the fign by, and in 
which the fecond perfon ufed to exhibit bimfelf, 
nay, he alTumed for his diftinguifhing tide, that of 
ths irradiator, thz light, the iing of glory." Hence 



a bright circle of rays are pointed always round 
our Saviour's head, to fliew his divinity, which 
is called the glory ; and which confifts oijlraight 
and crooked rays when properly painted and de- 
fcribed, the one to (hew the eiBux of the light 
iiradiating from the fun, the other the influx 
of the fpirit rufhing into it. 

Ver. 56. His delphic, he ] Concerning this 
temple and its immenfe wealth. See the Abbe 
Banier's Mythology, book 3. chap. 5. p. 229. 
Macrohius tells us, that the name Delphian 
given to Apollo come avonra SnXo) afnvn, " from his 
maniftfiing things befcre unfeen," becaufe the 
Sun manifejls by the brightnefs of his light thofe 
things that are obfcure, quod qua ohfcura furtt 
claritudine lucis ojiendit." Satur. p. 242. and 
we may here too ohfcrve, that *oi0o{, Phccbus, 
fignifies, as anadje6five, pure, unpolluted, fplen- 
did, bright, and therefore the Sun is called 
Phosbus, from its purenefs and brightnefs, a 
fpecie iff nitore Phoebum, ;'. e. xaSaje* >^ haftTrqon, 
diSlum putant, fiys Macrobius. 

Ver. 59. A God, &c.J Callimachus charadle- 
rifes Jupiter (Hymn i. ver. 6..) as ever great, 
and ever king, Apdio as ever fair, and ever 
young , which is agreeable to the manner where- 
in he is defcribed to us by the antient artifts : the 
reader may remember, I obferved this in a note 
foregoing, n. I. ad fin. Frijchlinus fays, " that the 
poets defcribe Apollo as beardlcfs, and ever young, 
becaufe the Sun always retains the fame vigour^ 
nor ever grcivs old" An emblem of the per- 
petual vigour, and immortality of th;; true Sun ; 
the light not only of this, but of the future world. 
See Rev. xxi. 23. and xxii. 5. 



THE HYMN TO APOLLO. 

His fragrant locks diflil ambrofial dews, 

Drop gladnefs down, and blooming health diffufe : 



35 
60 

Where- 



ver. 60. His fragrant, &c ] Milton feems 
to have had his eye upon our author, when he 
thus fpeaks of the angel Gabriel: 

■His dewy locks 



Diftill'd ambrofia. 

Pard. Lost. B. 5. ver. 56. 

Mr. Prior has, in return, beautifully imitated 
him ; and he feems alfo to have had his eye upon 
that elegant paflage of ^:7/a«, " imagined, as 
his great critic Mr. Addifon, exprefles himfelf, 
with all the ftrength of fancy," where de- 
fcribing Raphael, with all his heavenly plumage, 
alighted on earth, he adds. 

Like Maia\ fon he flood 
And fhook his plumes, that heavenly fra- 
grance fill'd 
The circuit wide. B. 5. ver. 285. 

Tajfo hath given a defcription, little inferior to 
this, of the angel Gabriel, 

On Lebanon at firft his foot he fet, 
And ftijok his wings with roary yk'iTv-dews wet. 
Fairfax's Tasso. B, i. St. 14. 

But we obferve, that Callimachus afcribes thefe 
ambrofial unguents, thefe fructifying dews to the 
locks, the hair of ^/>(;./i9 ; for wliich, perhaps, it 
may not be impoffible to affign a reafon ; if 
we conlider what was obferved in a preceding 
note, that the hair of Apollo, fignifies no thing 
more than the rap of the Sun, thofe golden and 
ambrofial locks, which are the true caufe of all 
health and gladnefs, and the inftiument o.f fruit- 
fulncfs, and encreafe throughout all nature ; a 
pallage from the 65th Pfabn will both give and 
receive light from hence ; we read in the 1 1 
verfe, " Thy paths drop fatnejs : they drop 
upon the paftures of the wildernefs ; and the 
little hills rejoice on every fide : the paftures 
arc clothed with flocks ; the valleys alfo are 
covered over with corn, they Oiout for joy, they 



alfo fing." Here the facred poet afcribes the 
fame efteiSls of fruitfulnefs, health, and joy to 
the fatncfs dropped down from or by the paths 
(as we read) of 'Jehovah, which Callimachus doth 
to the Panacea or unguents which dropt from the 
hairs of Apollo. The queftion then is, what can 
be meant by this word, which we render paths 
in the Bible tranflation, and in the other clouds, 
fomething nearer the truth .? The original word is 
:"]'7'yO which comes from 73V. round, circular, 
orbicular, a wagson-wheel, &c. and the word 
with the Q prefixed, fignifies thofe which are 
the injlrutiients of this circulation, the circulators, 
namely, the light and fpirit, which are the 
caufe of all fertility and fecundity, and which, 
by their motion and adtion, c.iufe thaifatnefs to 
drop down, which enriches the wildernefs^ 
caufes the Utile hills to rejoice, (Jc. i^c. I for- 
bear applyingthe fpiriiual meaning,and obferving 
that as this light and fpirit by their fatnefs and 
dews enrich the wildernefs, fo the true ii^ht and 
fpirit by their grace and divine nourifliment 
caufe the barren heart to abound in fruitfulnefs, 
to ftiout and fing for joy. " The wildernefs 
and the folitary place, fhall be glad for them, and 
the defert fli:.ll rejoice and bloflbm as a rr'fe. 
It fliall bloflbm abundantly, and rejoice even 
with joy and finging ; the glory of Lebanon fhall 
be gi\'en unto it, the excellency of Carmcl and 
Sharon : they fhall fee the glory of the Lord, and 
the excellency of our God, Ifa. xxv. i, 2. Lis 
obfervable, that the excellency of cur God, even 
Chriji fefus, is called the rofe of Sharon, See 
Cant. ii. I. and in this book we find ointment and 
odours conflantly given to thiSpoiife, the divine 
light; Becaufe oi the {ixyouv of thy good ointment, 
thy name is as ointment poured forth, therefcre 
do the virgins love thee, chap. i. 3. How much 
better is thy love than wine, and the fmell of 
thine ointments than all fpices ! chap, iv." 10. and 
it is faid by the Spoufe, my head is filled with 
dtw, and my locks with the drops of the night, 
chap. V. 2. Sec alfo ver.. 5. 



F ?. 



36 THEHYMN TO APOLLO. 

"Where'er the genial Panacea falls, 

Health crowns the ftate, and fafety guards the walls. 

To powerful Phoebus numerous arts belong; 
He firings the lyre and tunes the poet's fong : 
Guides from the twanging bow the feather'd darts, 
And truths prophetic to the feer imparts : 
Taught by his fkill divine, phylicians learn 
Death to delay and mock the greedy urrL. 



6s 



Since 



Ver, 62. Panacea.] I refer the reader to tlie 
judicious Spanheim for a full comment on the 
original in this place, which would here take up 
too much room ; we may jufl obferve, that the 
prophet Malachi fpeaks of the Sun of righteouf- 
tiefs as thus difpenfing health and univerfal me- 
dicine to mankind. The Sun of rlghteoufnefs 
fhall arife vi\th healing in his wings, MaL iv. 2. 
See jicts iv. 22- and 30. Apollo from thus ^\^- 
penfing Prtwacirff , medicine ?ini health, was called 
znTHP, the Saviour, as we fee on many antient 
coins. See alfo ver. 148. of this hymn. And it is 
fomewhat remarkable, that the defcriptive name, 
by which our Saxon ancellors called Chrijl, was 
all-hael, i. e. all-health, the dire£l import ot 
Panacea. 

Ver. 64. To poiverfuL] Hence Apollo was called 
«ro>,i;ww/io;, of many names, as thus abounding in 
many excellencies : Diana afks of her father, 
that fhe might not be herein exceeded by her 
brother, 

See hymn to Diana (tranfl. ver. 9.) 

Ovid has imitated Callimachus in that celebra- 
ted pafiage, where Apollo enumerates to the un- 
kind Daphne his many and great perfeftions. 

Perhaps thou knowft not my fiipcrior ftat?, 
And from that ignorance proceeds thy hate : 
Me Clares, Delphss, Tencdos ohcy, 
Thefe hands the Patareian fceptre fway ; 
The king of Gods begot me ; what (hall be, 
Or If, or ever was in fate, I fee. 



nples-j 
now, f 

V. J 



Mine is th' invention of the charming lyre, 
Sweet notes, and heavenly numbers I infpire : 
Sure is my bow, unerring is my dart ; 
But ah, more deadly his who pierc'd my heart • 
Med'cine is mine ; what herbs and fimples . 

grow 
In fields and forefts, all their pow'rs I knc 
And am the great phyfician call'd below. 
Alas, that fields and forefls can afi-'ord. 
No remedies to heal their love-fick lord .' 
To cure the pains of love no plant avails,. 
And his own phyfic the phyfician fails. 

See Ovid's Met. B. i. by Dr yden. 

Ver. 68. Taught.] Nothing can exceed the 
excellence of the original in this place, fo re- 
markably exprcffive and concife ; if the tranfla- 
tion retains any of its merit, it is wholly owing 
to Mr. Prior, v/ho hath here done great juftice 
to Callimachus. 

Taught by thy art divine the fage phyfician 
Eludss the urn, and chains or exiles death. 

" Paufanias tells us (as Spanheim has ob- 
ferved) that he once talked with a Sidonian, who 
aflerted, that according to the theology of the 
Phwnicians, ^fcidapitis was nothing more than 
the AIR : from whence comes ryi^a, health ; 
and that for this reafon Apollo, wlio is the fame 
with the Sun, was juftly called the father of 
/Ej'culapius (or the AIR) -drni Paufai.ias adds, 
that herein the GracLins perfedfly agreed with 
the Phanicians. See lib. 7. p. 443. 



THE HYMN TO APOLLO. 

Since by the love of young Admetus led, 
His flock Apollo by Amphryfus fed : 
The Nomian God, great fliepherd we addrefs 
Our paftures to enrich, and flocks to blefs ; 
And fertile flocks and paftures needs muft prove,. 
On which Apollo fhines with fruitful love : 



%1 



70 



75 
No 



Ver. 70. ^ince^ &c.] CalUmachus afligns a 
reafon, fomething different from other poets and 
mythologifts, why Apollo defcended from heaven 
to feed the flock of Admetus, namely, his love 
for that prince ; which I would not underftand 
a criminal love, as one can never furely fuppofe 
the heathen blindnefs fo grofs, as to place fuch 
an odious paflion in the roll of their Gods praifes. 
The common ftory is, that Apollo, having killed 
the Cyclopes, or forgers of Jupiter's thunder- 
bolts, in order to fave from death and deftruc- 
tion his fon MJculapius ; he, though the favourite 
fon of Jupiter, was expelled from heaven, de- 
prived, as a mythologift (Galtruchius) exprefles it, 
of the privileges of his divinity for a time, and thus 
exiled, he became the /hepherd of Admetus ; which 
account of the matter Orpheus gives in his Argo- 
riautics, ver. 173. It is faid moreover of this 
Admetus, that by Apollo's means he obtained, 
that when the time of his death fliould come, if 
any other would die for him, he himfelf fliould 
efcape death : to which the fable adds, that he 
found none who would take his turn, fave his wife 
Alceftis ; whom, becaufe fhe was fo pious, Pro- 
ferpine reftored to life again. There appears in 
this whole fable a dark, yet obferveable reference 
to the occafion of our JJupherd's dcfccnding from 
heaven to feed his flock : he was induced by love 
to Adam [Admetus} man ; he, to fa.vehis ownfms 
from death did really difaryn his father of his ven- 
geance and the wrath due to their ofFtnces, and 
for this rclinquifhed heaven, was exiled from 
thence, was deprived for a time of the privileges 
of his divinity, and became a ftranger and a fo- 
journer, and yet ayo^/i/.'t'rY/ here upon earth ; and 
moreover he procured for Adam, that he fliould 
efcape death, and be delivered from it by the death 
of anotiier for him ; which, when no one would 



or could underfake, he himfelf condefcended to 
become h\s fub/litute, and to die, that he might 
redeem him from death. Plain, however it is, that 
Chri/f, in the New Teftamcnt, is pleafed to ex- 
prefs his care of believers by the figure of a fliep- 
herd tending his flock. See John x. i — 16. 
xxvi. 29. Nor was this beautiful and afFefling 
fimilitude of the Redeemer unknown to the 
prophets, Give ear, O Jliepherd of Ifrael, thou 
that leadefl Jofeph like a flock, Pfal. Ixxx. 1. 
Hefliall feed his flock like a Jliepherd; he fli;;!l 
gather the lambs with his arm, and carry tJiem. 
in his bofom, and flia!l gently lead thofe that 
are with young, Ifaiah x\. 11 . comp. xlix, 10. 
In the prophet Ezekigl, we have the very idea 
which CalUmachus gives in the hymn, whofe 
fjepherd, Apollo, he tells us, fed his flock by the 
river Amphryfus ; and in the prophet the true 
fl)epherddcc\3.Tes, that he will feed his flock upon' 
the mountains of Ifrael by the rivers. See Ezc- 
kiel xxxiv. i 3, £sff . It is not improbable, that 
the defignation of Jliepherd was ufed by be!i.;vcrs 
for the Redeemer in all ages. And it feems as if 
when the heathen dtfeited and determined to 
give the attributes of the facred three to their 
material trinity, they knew not what to make 
of this reprefentation of the fecond perfon, and 
fo were reduced to the miferable (hift of de- 
gr.iding their Apollo to a real fhcpherd ; and 
couching the true reafon of the true ftiepherd's- 
taking that cflice upon him, in this daik fable,, 
which tradition had imperfectly related to- 
them. 

Ver. 74. And, isc] There is a manifcft 
allufion in this paflage, as well as in the hymn 
to Diana, ver. 178. to the conclufion of the 
1 44th Pfalm, to which, being quoted there, I 
refer the reader. The fpouje in the Canticles, 

comparing 



38 THE HYMN TO APOLLO. 

No barren womb or udder there is found. 
But every dam-twins Iportive play around. 

By Phoebus honour'd and condudted, man 
Of future cities forms the glorious plan : 
The God himfelf the ftrong foundation lays, 
On which their walls fuccefsful builders raife. 



80 



In 



comparing the fpiritual increafe of his bride the 
Church, under the care and Iceeping of him- 
felf the true fliepherd (fee chap. i. ver. 7, 8.) 
fays of thefe (heep, Every one beareth twins, 
and none is barren among them, chap. iv. 2. with 
a remarkable fimilitude to our author. It is to be 
obferved and remembered, that Macrobius avers, 
Apollo was called Nomian, not becaufe he fed 
the cattle of Jdmetus, but becaufe the Sun feeds 
all things, quia Sol pafcit omnia qua terra pro- 
generat, p. 239. This is true with reference to 
Apollo, but we muft note here, that Caltimachus 
affigns him this name oi Nomian ox Jliepherd ex- 
prefsly becaufe he Jt'd the Jiick of Admetus. I 
ihall Ci:nclude the obfervatioiis on this point with 
a paflage from Theocritus, very fimilar to this of 
our author, which, I doubt not, like his, was 
drawn from the facred fountain, and where it is 
to be obferved, that he makes the great increafe 
of king Aiigias his herds to arife from the gift 
and influence of the Sun, his father. 

Wihiiit, u riaid*, T« i^o'/j:^ U7ca,{ji Aiy^ov, &^C. 

See Idyll. 25. ver. 118. 

But this was a peculiar favour fnewn, 

A hifffv.g fciit hy Phoebus on his Son : 

His cattle flill muft thrive, his herds be bleft, 

And heaven fecur'J, whate'er the king pofllf!: ; 

His cow. nc'i.'r c.ift thtir calves, and no difcafe, 

The herdfmiin plague, was there ailovv'd to 

fieze : 
From year to year the numerous herds increas'd ; 
M(.w calves were rear'd and ilill the lafl were 

bcft.. 

Creech. 



Moreover twelve bulls milk white were here fed 
and kept dedicated to the Sun— ••£501 HsAix — I am 
forry we have no better a tranflation of this fine 
poet, to do him that juflice which he merits. 

Ver. 78. By, &c.] OoiCy ^' lerwo/i^ot, in the 
original, is well explained by Virgil's, Phcsbique 
Oracla fecuti. Spanheim relates, " that the 
builders of cities or leaders of colonies amongil 
the Greeks ufed firfi: to confult the Delphic oracle, 
under whofe aufpices the affair was to be done. 
They confulted not only about a proper place, 
but alfo whether it might eafily be obtained, and 
then under whofe conduft, quo duce : as alfo 
with what facred rites and laws the future 
city was to be furnifhed. This opinion fo far 
prevailed, that cities were thought never to be 
fuccefsful, if they were built without the infor- 
mation and direcftion of this oracle. A remark- 
able d;.'c]aration oiCeifus to this purpofe is found ' 
in Origen, 1. 8. 407. " Our whole life is full of 
examples to prove how many cities have been 
built from oracles ; how many difeafes and fa- 
mines a\'oided ; how many, negleflful or for- 
getful of thefe oracles, have terribly perifhed ; 
how many colonies have been led out, and re- 
warded with great happinefs, who have not ne- 
g'efted the commands of the oracles." Hence 
then the expreflion iir7ro,ai»oi <l>oiCia, is plain, 
to which Jujiin alludes, when he fays, Imme- 
■mores piorfus quod ILLO DUCE, tot hclla viilores 
inierant, tot urbes aufpicato condiderant , lib. 8. 
The other part of the line in the author cc-ia^ 
^iiM^cr\aana, Fir gil very well again explains to 
us, 

Vrhem defignat aratro 
Sortiturijue domos. 



THE HYMN TO APOLLO. 

In lovely Delos^ for his birth renowri'd, 
An infant yet, the noble art he found : 
Each day Diana furnifh'd from her toils 
The horns of Cynthian goats, her fylvan fpoils ; 
Thefe did the God with vvon'drous art difpofe, 
And from his forming hands an altar rofe : 
With horns the flrong foundations clofely laid. 
And round with horns the perfect ftrudlure made : 
Thus from his paftime, and his /port, wiien young, 
The future ftrength of favour'd nations fprung. 



39 



^5 



90 

Battus 



Ver. 85. The horns, &:c.] The altar, which 
Apollo built of thefc horns, was efteemed one of 
the wonders of the world : what was the origin 
of this ftory, I cannot pretend to guefs. But 
we may obferve, that among all nations horned 
animals were facrificed to him. Horn. 111. «. &c. 

EtTTOTI TOl ;Uaoi£rT' £W1 ZSilltt, fl>Jf* tX)l« 

TAYPflN 71 J' AirnN & inf. 

Et Ka wui APNiiN jtmrffij? AimN ti TiXetat 

Virgil /En. 3. 

Taurum Neptuno, Taurum lib! pulcher Apollo. 

Mn. 4. 
Mallant USlas de more Bidentes, 
Legiferts Cereri Phoeboque. 

White goats were facrificed to Apollo by the 
Romans. See Livy, 1. 25. See alfo ver. jg. orig. 
of this hymn. The learned reader will eafily 
recolle£t many paiTages to the fame purpofe. 
The reafon of this very general pradice is, I 
think, plain and obvious. The antient heathens 
thought that the heavenly bodies were moved, 
not by an originally imprefTed projeftive force, 
continually regulated by a tendency to the Sun, 
but by external pufhes on their furfaces, occa- 
fioned by a perpetual efflux of light from, 
and inflax of fpirit (or condenfed air) lo the Sun. 



As this was the moft ftupendous and important 
inflance of the power of their God, :t is no 
wonder, that in all their emblems, facred animals, 
i^c. they had a principal eye to it ; and fup- 
pojing their philofophy right, how could they 
better exprefs their belief, than by facrificing to 
him thofe animals, whofe amazing ftrength re- 
ading in their horns, did mod properly reprc ■ 
fent that prodigious force of the heavens, which 
kept the immenfe planetary orbs in a conftant 
circumvolution ? The horn is often ufed in the 
S. S. as the defcriptive name of power Jlrength, 
is'c. See Pfalm xviii. 3. Ixxv. 5, 6, 11. Ixxxix. 
17, 24, ^c. isfc. The abufe of it as an emblem 
feems very ancient, and the reclaiming it, pro- 
bably was one reafon of the command given to 
Mofes, Exod. xxvii. 2. thou fhalt make the horns 
of it (the altar) upon the four corners thereof." 
Which has fome refemblance with the poets 
«(fa«5 Si tjt^il t;fr£j3aAArro toij^?. In confirmation 
of this, it is obferved [Athan Kirch. Ob. pamp. 
p. 221.) " That they put ^cr«j to him (namely, 
Jupiter or Pan, as Bccatius teftifies) to ilgtii fy 
the rays of the fun, moon, and other ftars : his 
red and fiery face denotes the etherialfre." It is 
obfervable, that the Hebrew word ^p CARN, a 
horn, fignifies alfo a ray, flendor, a crown. See 
note 52. towards the end, zniiMarius deCalaJio, 
or Leigh's Critica facra on the word. 



40 THE HYMN TO APOLLO. 

Bat T us, illuftrious chief, the truth can prove 
To Lybia guided hy Apollo's love : 
The crow, aufpicious leader, flew before, 
And to the people mark'd the deflin'd fhore, 
Where future kings fliou'd reign in glorious flate ; 
Thus fwore Apollo — and his oath is fate. 



95 



Thee 



Ver. 92. Battiis, tec] The tranfition of the 
author here to the fuunderof his own city is very 
beautiful, and argues great piety. The fcholiaft 
tells us of this Buttus, " that being dumb, he 
went to Jpollo's temple, to confult the God 
about his voice: concerning which he anfwer- 
ed him nothing, but gave him fome diredlions 
in regard to a colony ; which Battus obeying, 
went into Africa^ where there are faid to be 
great numbers of lions. As he was travelling, 
he unexpecftly beheld a lion, and by the great 
violence of his fear, and endeavour to cry out, 
broke the firing of his tongue, and fo recovered 
his fpeech, and built ihe city Cyrcnc, of which 
was Callimachus." Herodotus reports the fame of 
a fon of Crccfus. 

Ver. 94. TheCroiu, &c. ] It is fomewhat very 
obfervablc, that the fwan, remarkable for its 
■whitenefs and purity ; and the crow, remarkable 
for its blacknefs and darknefs, fhould both be 
•dedicated to Jpollo. See this hymn, ver. 6. 
Vulcanius, an able commentator on our author 
■fays, " Porro cygnus ApolUnl iribuitur, ut per 
cum (lies fignifuetur, quern nobis Solis prafentia 
tjjicit, Jicuti abfcntia r.o6lem cori'o fimilem 
jcirit." Aloreover thefwoii is dedicated to Apollo, 
that thereby may be fignificd the day, which the 
pyffence of the i:im caufeth, as his ahfence cz.\\{i{\\ 
the n ght, like to the crow." There is no quality 
in the fivnn more llrikina; and obvious th.in 
the unc. mnicn degree of its purity and white- 
nef, in which, I believe, it exceeds all birds 
and .inimals whitfocvcr. Wherefore it might, 
hf the hcTthens, be thought the moft proper 
icprefeiitative of the irightitcfs and purity of the 
Jolar light: aiid fcS that fame Light is the caufe 



of darknefs alfo, by its irradiation occafioning 
the earth to turn round, and fo producing the 
viciflitude of day and night, therefore the croiu, 
an emblem of darknefs, was dedicated to the 
Su7i. 1 he original word in the tiebrew for 
evening ^li', fignifies arrow; and the original 
word for morning "^pll, fignifies feeking^ 
enquiring, fuch as is ufed in religious exercifes, 
and fo divining, for which reafon, as pofTefTed 
of the power of divination, the fwan, as 
as well as the crow was cunfjcraied to Apollo : 
" The croiv, the raven, and ihe fwan (were 
confecratcd to Apollo) becauft thefe fowls were 
reckoned to have by inftincl a faculty of pre- 
didfion," fays Bonier, This may give us fome 
rcafonable account of this flrange, yet univerfal 
opinion. 

Ver. 97. Apollo fwore, &c.] The poet tells 
us, that Apollo is «« luofxoi, always irrevocable 
in his oath, he ever is fleadfaft and unalterable 
when he fwears. I have tranflated it, his oato 
is fate, bccaufe as the poetical reader cannot 
want to be inf irmed, the oath of the Gods was 
efleemed fo binding by the heathens, that thev 
themfelves could not revoke it ; no, not even 
Jupiter, when he had fworn by S.yx, to whom 
we mav remember the Fates in the Heathen 
Mythology are always fuperior. Swearing by 
Apollo, amongft the aniients, was looked upon 
as the firmeii bond, and ftritflefl obligatiou 
pofTible : and his oracles were of all others 
efleemed the moft true and facrcd, infomuch 
that Euripides fays, Phcebus alone ought to give 
oracles. <!><!i/3<i» a»9pw7roK f**'*' Xp" ^'^'''"'^="- One 
cannot be at a lofs to .Tccount for that frequent 
njciuiun of the cath of the Gcds in the heathen 

poets 



THE HYMN TO APOLLO. 

Thee Boedroraian fome, dread power, addrefs, 
And fome implore the Clarian God to blefs : 



41 



(For 



poets, when we recolIe6l that the promifes of 
God to man from the beginning of time, have 
flood immediately confirmed hy an oath. See 
Hebrews vi. 17. nay, and we ihall ftill lefs ad- 
mire, if as many learned men alledge, and feem 
to prove, the original name of the deity D'H^N 
Aleim, be derived from a root expreflive of that 
cath, whereby the fecond divine perfon was 
bound to become a curfe for man, as the other 
two blefled perfons, the federators and fureties, 
the joint covenanters with him, the joint affors 
in this divine covenant of grace. And as this 
oath was principally to and for the fecond 
divine perfon — to whom the Lord fiuare and 
will not repent, Pfalm ex. 4. we (hall be at 
no lofs to account for the veneration given to 
the oath of Jpollo, the fecond perfon in the 
heathen or material trinity. Leigh on the word 
D*n^J< in his Critica facra fays, that it may be 
derived from ^"^^alah, to adjure; " the noun fig- 
nifieth an oath with execration ov curfing, for curf- 
ing was added to an oath to confirm it the more, 
becaufe of the covenant, oath and execration., 
whereby we are bound to God ;" yea rather 
whereby God of his infinite mercy, is bound to 
us, who hath fworn to redeem us ; nay and more, 
according to his oath hath redeemed us from the 
turfe beii'.g made a urfe for us. Gal. iii. 13. 

Ver. 08. B'/edromian, &c. ] Apollo was called 
Bo'idromian, or the ajjijiant, from a feflival ce- 
lebrated to his honour amongft the Athenians : 
the month of Auguft^ in which ihis feftival was 
celebrated, wis alfo cilled Bo'edromian. Dif- 
ferent accounts are giv -n of the origin of this 
name, whicli the etymologifls tell us, is clerived 
from Bii) arjd l^mu, and is of the fame import 
with BoiiDfoi, to ajftj}, to run to any one's help 
with />5«;j and clamour : which the Jthen'ans 
were once advifed to do by the oracle of Apollo, 
fay fome, they obeying, and fo gaining a 
viiSlory inilituted this feftival to his honour. 
Plutarch reports, that it was obferved in memory 



of a viiStory obtained by Thefeus over the Ama- 
zons. Others fay, it was inftituted in memory 
of lo, who afTifted the Athenians in the reign of 
Ere£iheiis. But none of thefe reafons feem per- 
feftly to explain theufeof the word, or to fhew 
us, why the month was called Bcedromian, 
which, I think it is plain, gave rife to this ap- 
pellation of Apollo, according to the mytholo- 
gifts. I am apt to conceive the name is only an 
attribute of the light, which in the month of 
Augujl is violent, and if we may fa fay, runs 
with a fwift and vehement progrefs, according 
to the exadl meaning of BaJjo/x^v, whence I con- 
ceive BoijJfjfiwf, which is accelerare, curfu incitato 

ferri : So that according to this Apollo was called 
Bocdromian from the violent and intenfe power 
and motion of his rays, i.e. thefolar heat, and tlie 
month was fo named from him. He was called 
Clarian, we are told, from a town of Ionia, 
named Claras near Colophon, where was a moft 
celebrated oracle of his : fo that probably he was 
fo named from KXufcj, fors, a lot, as being the 
God of augury and divination, &c. as making 
all things bright and clear : and it fecms probable, 
that the oracles of Apollo were thence the moft 
famous and celebrated, as the light ox fun is that 
which bringeth all things to view, and manifejls 
things that are fecret, agreeable to many ftcries 
in the heathen mythology ; particularly that of 
Venus and Mars, whofe amours Phabus faw and 
mrnifefted. The Latin word clarus (clear, 
bright) is very near in Tiund, and I imagine in 
fenfe to this name Ctar: :n ; whether it is ufed 
in the fenfe before mentioned, or comes from 
K^£o;, as fome funpofe, is no: for me to deter- 
mine : but I ftrongly believe both are derived 
from fyiEo;, glory, brightnejs. See Littleton's 
dictionary on thv- word Clarus : " x^eo;, gloria 

faff urn ir.uft. KAsEfo;, xXsifo,-, Clarus" So that 
according to this, Apollo vids called Clarian from 
the brightnefs and clcarnef> of the folar lighf* 
which manifcfts all things. 
G 



42 THE HYMN TO APOLLO. 

(For to thy merit various names belong : 

But none like lov'd Carnean glads my fong : 

For fo my country celebrates the God, 

Who, thrice remov'd, here fix'd his firm abode. 

From Sparta firfl:, where firfl: the name was fung 

Carnean, Theras led the chofen throng : 

Great Theras, from a race of antient heroes fprung : 

Recover' d Battus then from Thera's fhore, 

Thee and thy colony, bright Phoebus, bore ; 

In Lybia rais'd a temple to thy name. 

And rites eftablifh'd to record thy fame. 



100 



I 

I 

105 ^ 

J. 



110 

Which 



Ver. loi. Carnean, &c.J The poet tells us, 
that of all the names wherewith Apollo was dig- 
nified, none pleafed himfo well as that wheietsy 
he was peculiarly adored, and known in his 
own country ; of whofe honour he Qiews him- 
felf always very jealous, omitting no opportunity, 
like a found patriot, to celebrate either its 
praife, or that of his prince. Apollo^ we are told, 
v/as called Carnean from the feaft celebrated to 
his honour, firft at Sparta, and then at Cyrene ; 
which was held in fo great veneration, that 
children born on that day, were called Car- 
neadis. Many reafons are given for the naine 
(which fee in PoiViv't a7itiquitics, vol. I. p. 408) 
but none fatisfacflory. Macrobius too appears 
to have ftrained the matter, when he tells us, 
that /Apollo was called Ka^vsio;, m xaioftEjoj cf«Ti;» 
*fo5, vel qitod, cum omnia ardentla confumaiitur, 
hicfua calore candens femper tiovus conjiat-, p- 240. 
The true derivation is given by Hurt, in his 
Dcmonjira. Ev.n.'^ellca, who obfervcs, that " the 
v/ord lCa5»«o» is derived from the Hebrew ^~ip> 
KaRN, a horn. The reader will immediately 
recoiled: what was faid concerning Aun/y, ver. 85. 
and the obfervation at the end, which this of 
M, Huct confirms i and it is obfervable that 



CalUmachus, immediately after the defcription- 
and account of the altar of boms compofed by 
Apollo, celebrates the founder of his city BaituSy 
who under the aufpices of this God, founded Cy- 
rene, and inflituted the rites of Carnean Apollo, 
who, as the light, performed all the works of 
nature, and to whom therefore^oiwr^, ike. were 
prefented. See line 1 1 3. 

Ver. 104.] The author here gives us an hif- 
torical detail of the removal of the colony, under 
the aujpices oi Apo'lo, which firft was fettled at 
Sparta, thence iranfplanted by Theras (who he 
tells us was the feventh from Oedipus) to Thera 
or Theraa, aii ifl^nd of the JEgean fea, which 
had its name from this hero Theras, according 
to Hercd^tus. And 3dly, by Battus condu(5ltd to 
Lybia, who built the city Cyrene, &c. as men- 
tioned in the text. The author calls him Apro- 
rO.ni, which we are informed was his original 
name, that of Battus having been given him by 
the or.xle, when he conl'ulted it (as obferved 
note. 92.) he calls him cu^oj, recovered, in allu- 
fion to what is recorded in that note, of his re- 
gaining or recovering his fpeech. Concerning 
the bulls, horned beafts offered to Apollo, See 
note 85. 



THE HYMN TO APOLLO. 

Which annual in his city are renew'd. 

When bulls innumeious ftain thy flirines with blood, 

lo, Carnean, all-ador'd, we bring 
The choicefl: beauties of- the painted Spring, 
Now gentle Zephyr breaths the genial dew, 
That gives each flower its variegated hue : 
But on thy altars, when jftern winter comes, 
The fragrant faffron breaths its rich perfumes. 



43 



Sf5 



To 



Ver. 115. Noiv gentle. &c.J The author's 
exprtflionis here remarkably fvveetand poetical. 

Zi^v^U w»«o»T<>! !!^<rr,>. 

Zephyro infpiraiUt rorem. Flowers in t'le Tpring 
Ave rind were jfFered to Apollo^ a juft tribu'e to 
the Sun^ which brings them forth, and gives 
them their beautiis. Moft flowers reprefent to 
us the trradi tion a light, and in fome all the 
bell Jloivers j the cetonomy is much to be ob- 
fervea ; for in cverv fingie flower wc fhall find 
fix leaves, with an » radiation in the midfl ; and 
in fome more diftindtly, that which enclofes the 
feed, divided into three parts in one, as may be 
feen, particularly in the lilly : than which no 
emblem can better point out to us, the fix 
planets coving around the fun, acted upon by 
his irradiation and power, or by the three agents 
fire, light, and fpi'it, which though thiee in 
condition are \ ct one i'" fubfi:a;ice. 

It is to bt remembred, that great ufe of 
powers was made in the 'Jciv'Jli cereir.oiiies, the 
hmo\i? candhjlick, a repr;fentative of the fyjlcni, 
amongfl other things had foxvers to fhew the 
irradiation of light, Exod. xxv. 31. See alfo 
7.Chron iv. 5. and on the forehead of the /i/V/j- 
piiefi, that well-»known type of the gre.it Irra- 
diator, the light of the tuorld, was placed Tifower 
o( gold (for fo the original word fignifies i'i a 
flower) nay, that pivine Light himfelf tells us, 
that he is the roj'e of Sharon ar.d the lilly of the 



valley, Cr.nt. ii. i. See note 60. ad fin. So that 
upon this view, it is no wonder that what was 
afcribed to the true Light, in emblem, was by 
idolaters afligned to thtir God, th materiul 
light 

Ver. 118. SaJ'ron.] I rather tranflate the 
word Kpoxon in ihis ]^\ice. faffron, than crocus (as 
Mr. Jr'rtor hath done' becaufe the crocus Uith 
us may rather be called zjpring, than a winter 
flower ; nav, indeed it is the very firfl: of the 
fpring flowers The faffron is pr.pcrly the 
auiwnnal crocus, which floucifhes in Oifcber^ 
about which time the teftiv;! of Carnean Apollo 
was celebrated. It was dedicated to Apollo for 
the fame reafon that flowers in general were, 
as juft now obfervcd, and indeed the crocui is 
particularly remarkable in the refiiedt niciitioned 
in the former note. The gardeners diflinguifh. 
it thus ; " It hath a flower confifting ot one 
leaf, which is fliaped like a lilly, fiftulous under- 
neath, the tube widened \n\.o fix fegmenis, and 
reliing on the firft ftalk ; the pointal rifes out 
of the bottom of the flower, and is divided into 
three headed and crefted capillaments ; but the 
empalement afterwards turns to an oblong trian- 
gular point, divided into three cells, and is full 
of rtddifh fceJs." Sf^^Millaron Ihe 'word crocus. 
Thefe arj the characters, which, without the 
terms of art, I obferved belonged to hellfioiva;., 
emblems of the fix planets, fupported by the 
three agents, in which the light, or Irradiation 

G 2 i> 



44 T H E H Y M N TO APOLLO. 

To thee eternal fires inceffant rife, 

And on thy flirine the living coal ne'er dies. 



120 

When 



is the ruler : and of this the crocus too was in 
its colour an emblem, which is a fecond reafon 
why it was facred to the God of light. Homer 
alm( ft always defcribes the morning as clad in 
■AJaffron robe ; nay, and calls her particularly, 

"The faffron morn, with early blufhes fpread. 
See ///. xi. , ver. i. 

and Virgil follows his fteps clofelj', raifimg his 
Jtirora from tlie croceum cubile, the faffron bed 
of Tithorius. By all which is meant no more 
than the fine colour which adorns the mornings 
and of which the faffron was a reprefentative, as 
an old poet, quoted by Spanheim, exprefly in- 
forms us, 

See Excerpta a Grotio, p. 846. 

The flower of the faffron, which inwove 
Refembles the bright rays of Sol. 



Ruiilum foils jubar imitatur. 



Grotius. 



And as it was thus in its colour an emblem of 
the bright folar light in irradiation, hence I pre- 
fume its name, which the excellent Spanheim 
hath well obferved is doubtlefs of /A-i^rao' origin, 
comin<' from [liD'^D CReCM, which we find in 
the Cant. iv. 14. and which is indifputably de- 
rived of 'I'^D CReC, to roll round, to move round 
as in a circle, which the irradiation caufes the 
orbs to do, and whence comes ^D"13 CReCB, 
an orbit, circle, compafs, as it is rendered Exod. 
xxvii. 5. Moreover as crocus is evide^itly derived 
from hence, fo I doubt not is ci/cus, circulus, a 
circle, orbit, for CReC, crocus, and circus are 
very near in found, and letters, and mutually 
explain and confirm cacii other. Littleton fays, 
thut circus )S denved a Chald. i"]"!^. CReC, cir- 
cundire, to compafs about. I'nuj we have a 
fatisfaiflory account of the name, which explains 
tiiC meaning of its colcur, and appropriation to 
\.\\c folar light, and which if, at leaft, more near 
the matter, than the derivation given by the 



fcholiaft, who tells us, that it was called Kfoxof, 
capa TO it xfVH GaA^ein. which feems very far Irom 
the fenfe or found of the word. I obferved, 
that it was mentioned in the Canticles, at one 
ofthofe aromatic fweets, thofe divine and hea- 
venly graces, which are in the church the fpoufe 
of Chrift. In Chrift himfelf the true light, is 
a garden of fweets, his merits, prayers and in- 
terceflions are as the incenfe made of all manner 
of perfumes and fpices afer the art of the apo- 
thecary. See Exod. xxx. 35. And therefore 
amongft the reft faffron was burnt and oflFered 
to him in the incenfe, as the Hebrew Rabbis 
and writers inform us : Hence the idolaters might 
ufe it amongft the other perfumes, which com- 
pofed their incenfe to Apollo. And at Cyrene 
particularly, the faffrom was remarkable for its 
fragrancy and odour ; as Theophraflus informs 
us. Etioi7(xoTa T« h rm it KYPHNH Poi"*, &c. « 

A.a^jjo^lwj h H T8 KPOKOY. " l^he rofes at Cy- 
rene are very fragrant, whence the ointment 
of rofes is moft fweet : nay, even the odour of the 
violets and other flowers there, is excellent and 
divine: but more efpecially t\\at o( the faffron." 
I have, I fear, already enlarged too much on this 
matter, but not fo much as the fubje£t requires, 
wherefore to make up for the many particulars 
obfervable of this plant, I muft refer the reader 
to the learned Spanheim' s note on this place, and 
alfo to the ingenious Mr. Merrick on Tryphio- 
dorus, note 448. We may juft obferve, by the 
bye, that the bhi/hes of the rofe are given to the 
morning, as well as the golden vejlure of the crocus. 

The faffron morn with rofy bluflies fpread, i^c. 

And 

Aurora now fair daughter of the dawn 
Sprinkled with rojy light the dewy morn. 

Home r. 

Ver. 120. yind, &C.] OuJi von x^'i"' '""f^ocr- 
xt'at atO^axa Tff^i. Neqne unquam hejhrnum ab- 
funiit carbonem cinis, fays the author; from 
whence we learn, that this perpetual fire was not 
hke fome, a lamp only burning and fed with 

oi). 



THE HYMN TO APOLLO. 

When the glad hours bring round the folemn day, 
On which Carnean rites his people pay, 
With joy the God beholds the choir advance, 
Brown Lybian dames, and warriors, to the dance. 



45 



Not 



oil, but a- fire fed with coals upon the altar : 
his expreflion is remarlcable and cannot well be 
exprefled in our language, the cinder never feeds 
or confumes the yejierday'i coal; for it is obferv- 
able, that the cinders or afhes do as it were feed 
upon and eat away the fire. Why a perpetual 
fire was kept up in the temple of the God of light, 
we cannot be at a lofs to under/land ; nor fhall 
we wonder at this univerfal cuftcm amongft all 
nations, Perfians, Greeks, Romans, Indians, &c. 
when we confider its origin, and that more- 
over, it was reclaimed to hlmfelf by the true 
light, and ordered to be kept in his temple. 
" The y?r^ (hall ever be burning upon the altar : 
it (hall never go out." Levit. vi. 13. Eufebius 
informs us, from Theophrajlus, " that the rite 
of burning perpetual fire to the Gods, had been 
in their worfhip from time immemorial." A- 
mongft the Perftaus, if at any time the facred 
fire went out, they fliewed fuch a regard to it, 
that they would not rekindle it but with flame 
lighted up by the Sun-beams, This circumftance 
in Apollo's worfhip, which is not often men- 
tioned, will very well explain a piece of hiflory, 
which at firfl: fight feems a little unaccountable, 
viz. " that when Dates the Per fan burnt and 
deffroyed without mercy, fo many of the X^re- 
cian temples, he fpared thofe in Deles, where 
Apollo and Diana were principally worfhipped." 
It is generally agreed, that Apollo is the fame with 
the Perfan's Mithras. And the pafTage before 
us proves, that what with the Perfians was the 
grand point of his worfhip, the cryj a.%ita.m, the 
perpetual fire, was obfirved by the Greeks as well 
as themfclves. The Perfians lenity in this In- 
ftance then is not -Turprizing, fince he himfL-If 
not only worfhipped the jame God, but in the 
fame manner. For Mithras, Ap-^lk, and the 
folar light were all ore and the fame. I fhall 
fubjoin a curious account of the mttt.od of pre- 
ferving the cverlafting fire near Baku, from the 
travels of a modern (Mr. Hanvuaf no lefs 
efleemed for his accuracy, than his ingenuity, 
humanity, and excellence of heart.. 



" Thefe opinions, with a few alterations, 
are flill maintained by fome of the pofterity of 
the Indians and Perfans, who are called Gebcrrs 
or Gaurs, and are very zealous in prefei ving the 
religion of their anceflors, particularly in regard 
to their veneration for the element of fire. What 
they call the everlafiing fire near Baku, before 
which theie people offer their fupplications, is a 
phasnomenon of a very extraorduiary nature, in 
fome meafure peculiar to this countiy, and there- 
fore deferving a particular defcription. The objeiT; 
of devotion to the Geberrs, lies about 1 o Engiijh 
miles N. E. by E. from the city o'iBuku, on diy 
rocky land . There are feveral antient temples built 
with flone, fuppofed to have been all dedicated 
to fire, mofl of them are arched vaults, not 
above 10 to 15 feet high. Among others there 
is a little temple in which the Indians now wor- 
fhip : near the altar about three feet high is a 
large hollow cane, from the end of which illucs 
a blue flame, in colour and gentlenefs not un- 
like a lamp that burns with fpirits, but feim- 
ingly more pure. The Indians affirm, that this 
flame has continued ever fince the flood, and 
they believe it will laft to the end of the world; 
that if it was refilled, or fupprefled in that place, 
it would rife in fome other. Here are generally 
forty or fifty of thefe poor devotees, who come 
on a pilgrimage from their own country, and 
fubfifl upon wild cellcry, and a kind of feru- 
falem artichokes, which are very good food, 
with other herbs and roots found a little to the 
northward. Their bufinefs is to make expia- 
tion, not for their own fins only, but for thofe 
of others, and they continue the longer time, 
in props riion to the number of perfons for whom 
they have engaged to pray. They mark their 
foreheads with faffron, and have a great vene- 
ration for a red cow ; they wear very little 
cloathing, and thofe who are of the moft di- 
ftinguifhed piety, put one of their arms upon 
their heads, or feme other part of their body, 
in a fixed pofition, and keep it unalterably in- 
that attitude." 



46 THE HYMN TO APOLLO. 

Not yet the Dorian colony poffeft 

The plenteous foil, by fruitful Cyrne bleft, 



125 



But 



Ver. 125. Not yet, he] The Mthor in the 
foregoing lines has informed us, that the colony, 
which now conftituted his country, was thrice 
tranfplanted : and here he tells us, that they 
had not yet arrived at the place, which was 
watered by the fountain Cjre or Cyme, that is, 
where the city Cyrene now ftands, but wandered 
in the defart places of Azilis, a part of Lybia, 
when Jpolio ftanding on the top of Myrtiifa, a 
mountain in Lybia, fhewed them to his bride 
Cyrene, the daughter of Hypfeus (whence he 
calls her Hypfch) who was more particularly 
famous for her conqueft ever the lion, which 
laid wafte the country of Eurypylus. and which 
fhe flew on this very mountain Myrtufa. Mr. 
Prior tranflates the paflage thus, 

— Nor had yet thy votaries 
From Greece tranfplanted touch'd Cyrene's 

banks. 
And lands determin'd for their laft abodes; 
But wander'd thro' Jzi/is, horrid foreft, 
Difpcrs'd ; when from Afyrtiifei's craggy brow 
J'ond of the maid aufpicious to the city, 
Which muft hereafter bear herfavour'd name, 
Thou gracious deign'ft to let the fair one view 
Her ty'ie people : thou with pleafure taught'it 
!ier, is'c. 

'lilt: iw.Jcr will eafsly fee Mr. Prior's error, 
which ykx ' the beauty of his poetry will atone 
for:. his following lines are built wholly on a 
iniRalce, and therefore I uniit them : and ab I 
know not of any better C' mmentary on this 
paflage, I haVe fubjoin'jd a' tranfl.ition of the 
f;th Pythian ode oi Pinlar, where is a full ac- 
count of Cjre7ie''s exploits and Apollo'-i amour. 

Strophe i. 

Qlowing bright with fhield of brafs, 
Victorious in the Pytivan race. 
Great Te/ejicrates his praife 
Mv foul delights to found in nobleft lays. 
Ye Graces aid your poet's fong, 
''And l^oidJy bear the drain along, 
Spread, fpread the blifs, the glorv wide 
Of brave Cyrene': garland and her pride. 



From Pelion's mount where winds perpetual 

roar, 
Bright-hair'd Afollo fair Cyrene bore. 
To thofe bleft realms where flocks in thou- 
fands ftray. 
And fulled plenty crowns the fmiling plain : 
In golden car he bore the nymph awa)'. 
And gave her o'er the world's third part to 
reign. 

Antijlrophe i. 

Briglit Venus, goddefs of the fair. 

Who hoi Is her courts and revels there. 

Smiling rcceiv''d her Delian guefi, 
Aiid. brea^ii'd'fsft 1o\'c thrc" each enaniour'd 

' ■■ ^^)-e'ai!-.' 

'^^'^h!!e' itiod'e'fty f.veef.-uiuini 'g fpread 
: he h'ap^ytevc-expe£ting bed, 

\\"'u 1,' .\':j 'Ap'blh'i gloX'i'ing arms. 
Might claTp Hypjaus' blooming daughter's 

charms. ' 
Frcni OL'>i?«*s' m'ofiarch 'v/ds Hfpffctis fprung, 
King c>f the Lapith/r, a warlike throng ; ' 

Peneus the G()d's, Hypjttus Peneui' fon : 

M-^ho d.tliance fond with {'mv Creufa held 
In Piiidus' vale, where he the virgin won, 

And with Cyrene's godlike father fill'd. 

Epode I. 

That father, with induftrious care. 
Each female virtue taught the fair : 
Tut fhe — a nobler tafk approving, 

Scorn'd the loom's enervate toys : 
Far from female trains removing. 

Talking banquets, l<izy joys : 
With the bow, the qui\er arming. 

To the field triumphant flew, 
Where the favage race alarming, 

Thefe her darts unerring flew. 
O'er the hills Aurora rif ng. 

E'er equ'pp'd ttie maid beheld, 
Sleeps emollient blifs defpifing, 

Early haft'ning to the field : 
No hoitile hearts her father's realms annoy'd^ 
She purg'd each forcft, and each foe deftro)\l. 

Str$phe 



THE HYMN TO A P O L L O. 

But thro' Azilis' gloomy forefts ftray'd : 
When Phoebus from Myrtufa's brow lurvey"d, 
And to his lovely bride (v^^hcfe faving hand 
From the fierce lion free'd the ravaged land) 
With pleafing favour fhew'd the typic race. 
Gift of his love and objed: of her grace. 



'47 



130 



Phoebus 



Strophe 2. 

Once without help of dart or fpear 
Miiintaining an unequal war, 
Phcebus on Pelion's top furvey'd 
Engag'd with lion fierce the lovely maid ! 

Strait Chiron call'd he from his cave, 

" Phytlirides thy bower leave. 

Forth, forth, dread Centaur from thy bow'r. 
To view the triumphs of a female power. 
View with what courage fhe maintains the 

fight, 
While her great fpirit foars beyond her might : 
She knows not fear : — relate her happy fire. 

What root its birth to branch fo glorious 



gave ? 



What mortal to the honour may afpire. 
Of daughter fo undaunted, great, and brave? 

Ant'tf.rophe 2. 

On the virgin, Chiron, fay, 
. May we fofc compulfion lay. 

Gently force her to our arms, 
Ajid crop her virgin flower, and full-blown 
charms ?" 

Soften'd to fmiles his features grave. 

This anfwer fober Chiron gave ; 

" Who love's purer flames v/ou'd fiiare 
By fwect perfuafion fleal upr.n the fair, 
And with fond elegance of pafTion move. 
The yielding fair one to a vutuous love : 
In modeft hints firft fighing out their flame, 

And delicate alike, tho' bolder grown : 
For Gods and men hate thofe who know not 
fliame, 

But (hock tlie ear withribbald lewdnefs tone, 



Epode 2. 

But thou, of truth great deity, 

Whofe proving touch all falfhoods fly : 

Gentle complaifance iafpiring. 

Thus alone to fpeak hath led : 
Art thou gracious thou enquiring-, ■ 

Whence defcends the royal maid ' 
Thou who all events art knowing. 
Every path that mortals tread ; 
Wlience their feveral fates are flowing, 

Where their feveral aftions lead : 
Whofe is wifdom paft exprefling, 

Knowledge paft our power to tell : , 
Sooner count we earth's cncreafing 
When her pregnant bowels fwell : 
Sooner when waves roll rough and tempefts 

roar, 
Number the fands,that raging crowd the (hore; 

Strophe 3. 

All things are open to thy eyes, 
Both where they flow, and wlience they rife: 
Yet if with one fo wife and great, 
'Tis granted me, dread king, myfclf to meet: 
Hear what the Centaur hath to tell : 
Deftin'd the maid's, you fought this vale: 
Hither thou c^im'ft her love to fliare. 
And {ojove'i gardens o'er the feas fhall bear : 
Thither thy * people from their f illefhall tend. 
And to the vale-furrounded hill afcend, 
\\ here rule from thee Cyrcne fhall receive; 

Now for thy fake glad Lybia to the fair 
In golden domes reception waits to give. 
And yield her of her fpacious empire (hare. 



Tie Spartans, 



■\ Tnera, 



Antijirophe 



48 THE HYMN TO APOLLO. 

Phoebus no choir, Cyrene, more divine, 

Nor ftate more favour'd, e'er beholds than thine : 

Mindful for ever of the ravifh'd dame 

Whofe v^ond'rous charms infpir'd and bleft his flame : 

And hence fuperior honours are beftow'd 

By grateful fons of Battus on their God. 

Sing Io Paean, flng the facred found ; 
The Delphian people to thy honour found : 
What time thy golden arrows plenteous flew. 
And the fell Python, dreadful ferpent, flew:- 



^35 



140 



Swift 



jintijirophe 3. 

There fhall they rule, their laws the fame, 
And joint command and empire claim, 
O'er realms for noblefl: beafls renown'd. 
O'er fields with fruitsand fulleftplenty crown'd. 
There with a fon fliall fhe be bleft, 
^^'hom carried from his m:!ther's breaft. 
The golden-throned hours fhall join 
With mother earth tonurfe, and m^ilce divine: 
Hermes to them fhall bf ar Jpollo's race, 
And on their laps the fmil,ing infant p'acc : 
His rofylips thewell pleas'dnymphs ihallblcfs. 

With ne(Star and ambrofia heavenly f od : 
Which to his fire's and grandfire's place fhall 
raife. 
And make of men's delight the man, aGod: 

Epodc 3. 

The fields and flocks, his care fliall cLiim, 
AnA Arijlaus be his name." 
Speaking thus to confiimmation, 

(.'hiron ii ftigates the goj ; 
Swift is each immortal aiflion. 

Swift their fliu.ht and llort the road : 
Saw that day the deed unended ? 

Lybla ftrait received the pair : 
B;it'i xht golden bed afcendLiI, 

Bleft, and both immortal there : 



There her beauteous city guarding. 

Fair Cyrene ever fmiles, 
Hex Carncan's (Hll rewarding 
In tjie Pythlan'% facred ti.ils : 
Thrice bleft Carnean *, whofe renown can 

give 
Fame to thofe realms, whence all their fame 
receive, i^c. 

Ver. 142. /^nd the fell Python, &c.] The 
afcribing this exploit to Apollo feems evioently to 
have ar.fcn from a corrupt tradition of what tiie 
Redeemer was to do, a ir;idi ion founded on the 
promife of God, that " the feed of the woman 
fhould bruife the ferpenfs head." " ' e 1 e (is 
was before remarked, note 34.) that this, ui- 
umphant found of Io Pdan, took its oru'inal 
from this viftory of tht God ovzr the ferpent, 
which confirms the agreement noted above be- 
tween it and Hallelt<jah, which is an acclama- 
tion of vi(5fory and triumph : as here the people 
are introduced finging this fong of joy to their 
j^pollo -far the deliverance wrought by him, fo 
in the Revelation xii. 9. we read, that when 
the great dragon was caft out, that old fet pent 
calkd the devil and fatan, — when he was caft out 

into 

* Telejtcrates. 



THE HYMN TO APOLLO. 

Swift from thy bow they pierc'd the monfter's heart, 

While ftill the people cry'd, " Elance the dart:" 

Each {haft with acclamations they attend, 

" lo, fend forth, another arrow fend : 

" Thee thy bleft mother bore, and pleas'd aiTign'd 

" The willing: Saviour of diftreft mankind." 



49 



145 



Envy 



into the earth and fubdued, a loud voice was 
heard in heaven, faying, " Now is come fal- 
vation Hind^rengt/}, and the kingdom of ourGod, 
and the power of his Chrift, iSc. See vcr. 13. 
and XX. 2, 3. It is obferveable, that CaU'ima- 
chus only explains the name in, and X.nzX.o'i emit- 
f/wj-, wliich norhing affefts the explanation given 
in the before mentioned note : for n«u!o», Pa:au, 
muit indifputably come from •siaia, percutio, ferio, 
to Jirlke, emit, fendforth ; and Scapula immediate- 
ly fays, " Jpollo was called Paan, wotfaTo vuim, 
dferiendo, quod a fagitth Pythonemferpentcm confo- 
derit." And we muff remember, that In (how- 
ever deduced) is finally derived from Eif/.i, to be, 
which comes from Ew, and whence is derived 
I»!/ixi. See Stephens's Thefaurus, and Scapula's Lex- 
icon. So that In, Je', or reverfed EJ imme- 
diately cxprefles the ejfmce, thou art : and muft 
be appropriated to the divinity, as before proved. 
The connexion between ew, e/fti, i«j!*i, &c. are 
well worth the notice of the critical and karned 
etymologift. I fhall have occifion to fpeak more 
of Python in the hymn to DAos. 

Ver. 147. TTiiv, &c.] The people in their 
acclamation- to their triumphant deity do not 
barely fay, that he was born, the Saviour, &c. 
or that his father begat him a Saviour, i^c, 
but that his /neither bore hii.'i, 

E.ffly a-i MHTHP 

r;irar' A02£HTHPA. 

for we miifl remark, that according to the pro- 
mife, it was the SEED of the 7y02UN that 
was to bruile the frpeni's head. I know not 
of any one word in the EngUJh language, which 
fully exprcfTes »<i(7ffnT',^a, in the original ; the ety- 



mologifts explain it by EovjOanTa avToi/.a-ru< anu 
o<rani; «at xXi^ovo;, one that lends his affiftance 
entirely of his own accord, without being called 
upon, or demanded, (Jc. nor can I tel! of any 
better method of expreffing it, than " a willing, 
voluntary Saviour and deliverer," and I know 
not of any thing which can give us an idea of 
the word fave his gracious name and mercy^ 
ivho loved us and gave hiftijeiffor us, Ephef. v. 2. 
a ranfom for all, 1 Tim. ii. 6. who put away fin 
by t\\e facrifice oi himfelf, Heb. ix. 26. and of his 
OWN U ILL begat us with the word of his 
truth, James \. 18. A learned friend obfcrves, 
" That the true interpretation of CVw. iii. 20. 
will throw conliderable light on this expref- 
fion. The words are, Adam called his wife's 
name Eve, becaufe iTie was the mother of all 
living. On merely reading uur tranflation, 
there are few perfons but take living for a word 
of the plural number, whereas it is really fin- 
gular, and may be interpreted either living or 
life lyivens or vita). The le-;rncd Dr. Hodges 
{Elihu, p. 252, 3. 4to edit.) has the following 
remarks on this verfe. " The wo;ds, fays he, 
I ihi:.k ought to be rendered, Adam ^upon the 
promilb being given) called his wife's name 
CHaVaPI, becaufe fi)e was to be (futura ejfet, fays 
a comm.entator cited by Poole) the mother of 
all or univcrfal life, as the original may, I had 
almofl faid, muft be rendred. — Eve'% name is 
undoubtedly derived fiom the verb CHaVaH, 
as our tranflitors inform us in the margin, which 
begins with a Clleth ~, whofe expofition, ac- 
cording to jMarius, is to ma.':e manifejl, ^lew- 
forth, declare, dcmonflrate, exhibit, &c. and 
is ufed in Daniel for a particular exhibition and 
declaration, of thole eventual realities, which 
H "were 



50 THE HYMN TO APOLLO. 

Envy, grown pale with felf-confiiming cares, 
Thus £hed her poifon in Apollo's ears : 

I hate the bard, who cannot pour his fong, 
Full as the Sea, and as the torrent ftrong," 
The fiend Apollo fcorning, fpurn'd afide 
With angry foot indignant, and repHed : 
" Fleadlong defcends the deep Aflyrian flood, 
*' But with pollution fouFdj and black with mud ; 



(( 



cc 



.150 



(( 



^55 



While 



V/ere adumbrated and enigmatically reprefentcd 
in Nebuchadnezzar's dream. It is evident, I 
think, tiiat the words when firfl delivered were 
iinderftood by Eve in * this fenfe from what flie 
fays upon the birth of Cain, I have gotten the 
man, the Jehovah, as the words are rendred by 
very learned men. See Glajjlus, Poole, Hutchin- 
Jon, &c. Had Eve attended to every particular 
of this prophecy, fhe would have looked farther 
for the completion of it. A mother only being 
mentioned as being to have the fole honour and 
blefling of producing this universal life (who 
was properly fo called, as he was the author 
and giver of life) (he might have inferred, that 
Cain could not be the promifed feed, fmce he 
was conceived by Adam's knowing her. A fu- 
ture Eve was therefore pointed out, who fliould 
produce a man without the afTiilance of man, 
and fo be a mother in an exclufive fenfe. This 
man, or produftion was likewife to be all, or 



Ver. ,149. Envy, &c.] It has beenimagined 
by many commentators, that this was- a fecret 
infinuation of the attempts made by fome envious 
perfon to depreciate CalUmaihus in the eye of 
his patron and Apollo, Ptolemy, and of the fruit- 
lefTnefs of the attempt ; and this opinion is con- 
firmed by what Caliimachus fays of hinifelf, that 
he fung x.(iurcrmcL ^aa-Kcmni- His enemies took the 
handle from the minutenefs of our author's ge- 
nius, and the fmallnefs of his performances : 
he always profcft himfelf a great admirer of 
concifenefs, the |3fax'"^,o7i*, and is faid to have had 
conftantlv in his mouth inya. jSiSaiw, fi.tya. xaxor, 
a great hook, a great evil. It is moreover 
conjectured, that the author in the words of 
envy alludes to fome poem well known in hia 
times, probably the Argonautic of his cotempo- 
rary Apcllonius Rhodiiis, between whom and Cal- 
iimachus there appears to have been great jea- 
loiil'y ; whofe Argonautics he might well cha- 



univerfal life, the fountain of 'life, or reflorer of rafterife by the title of cr«>TO{, as their fubjeft is 



principally the fA-^tY////ij« in the Euxine fea, and. 
as that poet begins them thus, 

— Ac;^o;t£i'Of ff!o tpoi^Sf Sec 
M»)iTCf*ai ot nONTOI O xara ro,<«. ^'C- 



immortality." 

Hath not the poet preferved the tradition 
with remarkable exactnefs ? He does not fay, 
ivBv tyms uaadrityif, thou zva/l Lorn tbcSaviour, i^c. 
but ttiSt/ crt fiHTiip ya'ai:' dicamryifot, thy mother bore 
thee a Saviour, &c. 

* And I leave it to the reflexion of every confiderate reader," whether tiie fenfe here propofed be not 
much more pertincrt to tiio then ilate of man, than th.%t in which they are, I doubt, commonly under- 

ilood. J. P. „., 

•^ 7 he 



THE HYMN TO APOLLO. 

*' While the MeHflje facred waters bring, 
*' Not from each llream, but from the purefl: Ipring, 
" From whofe fmall urn the Hmpid current rills 
*' In clear perfe6lion down the gladden'd hills." 

Hail king, once more thy conquering arm extend, 
To final ruin rancorous Envy fend ! 



5' 



i6o 



The fcholiaft informs us, that Calllmachiis was 
abfolutely compelled by thefe reproaches of 
his enemies, to write a long poem, which he 
called Hccale. The Meiijfa: were the prieft:efres 
of Ceres. Mr. Prior has wandered very v.idely 
from his author in the conclufion of this hymn : 
nay, and indeed in the beginning of this fpeecli 
of Envy's to ApoUs, whom ihc poet introduces, 
as infinuating privately into the ears of the God 
her bitter venom; in a manner beautifully de- 
fcribed by Mr. Pope ; 

Willing to wound, and yet afraid toftrike, 
Juft hint a fault and hefitate diflike. 

Mr. PnVthus renders the pafiage, 

Envy thy latent foe fuggefted thus, 

Like thee I am a power immortal : therefore 

To thee dare fpeak : how canft thou favour 

partial 
Thofe poets, bfc 

And the lafl: line. 



Xaigf anal' o ii Mu^i-oq, u o ipSofo; S'j^x Koira. 

he thus enlarges upon, which, for the beauty 
of tlje poetry, I fubjoin, though it is by no 
means a trandatioii of Callimachus. 

lo Jpollo, mighty king : let envy 
Ill-judging and verbofe, from Z^//^^'s lake 
Draw tuns unmeafurable, while thy favour 
Adminifiersto my ambitious thirft 
The wholcfome draught from Aganippe's 

fpring, 
Genuine, and with foftmurmurc gently riiling, 
A down the mountains where thy daughters 
hauEt. i^(j 

Thus I have gone through this celebrated and 
excellent hymn, in which are found many re- 
makable pafl'ages, fuch as I fear, are not to be 
parallelled in thofe which follow : if from any of 
them, the leaft light is thrown on any part of 
fcripture, however fmall, I fhall rejoice, and 
think my labours not wholly in vain. 



Efid of the Hymn to Apollo. 




THE 



Third Hymn of Callimachus. 

* 7i Diana, 

O D D E S S, delighting in the fylvan chace, 
The bow, the quiver, dance and mountain fports, 
Goddefs of woods, Diana, theeweiing; 
Woe to the bard whofe fongs forget thy praile 1^ 
Thee will we Ung, and hence begin the fong ; 5 

How, 




• Hynm to DiAf^ A.J The poet having fung 
the praifes oi Apollo, proceeds next to fpeak of his 
fifter Diana, whom lie makes it a point of reli- 
gion to celebrate, and a duty incumbent upon the 
poetical fons of Apollo, not to forget the fifter 
of their God : fo greatly efteemed as (he was 
amongft mankind ; nay, and e\ en honoured with 
the title of Swreifa, as that of "Zufn^, Saviour, 
was given to her brother. S;e hymn to Apollo, 
vcr. 62, and 147. By Diana, in the heathen 
fyflem, it is well known, is meant the moon, 



whom with the/iv/ zni J}ars we are affured, 
from infallible truth, the antient idolaters wor- 
fhipped. " And left thou lift up thine eyes unto 
heaven, and when thou fceft the ^L''A^, and the 
MOON, and the STARS, even all the ho/? 0/ 
hr.Tnen, fliouldft be driven iowor/l/ip them, ^c, 
Deut. iv. 19. comp. Job xxxi. 26. The reader 
muft not expeft to find fo many beautiful allu- 
fionsto revelation in this hymn as in the former,, 
which abounds wi;h fable, and as being prin- 
cipally narrative, is of necclfity not fo inflruclive 

in 



THE HYMN TO DIANA. 
How, when a prattler on the thunderer's lap, 
The little Goddefs thus addreft her fire : 
— <* Be vow'd virginity thy daughter's lot, 



53 



cr 



She 



in religious truths : yet it wants not beauties, 
and has been always juftly efteemed as an in- 
Gojnparabls piece of pcerry. The word which 
I have rendred fylvan chace in the firft line is, 
in the original >.a.y!o0ohixi, wretchedly tranflated 
£.(tia in the Latin verfion : the proper fenfe of 
the v/ord is hunting of hares, but according to no 
uncommon cuflom, it is applied from that ipe- 
cies of it, to hunting in general, as EXap)i|3o^ia, 
which though commonly ufed for hunting in ge- 
neral, fignihes in p3nicu\zTjfag-hu!!ting. 

DiANy^'s fpeech J Frifchlinus is ingenious 
enough in his annotation on the following fpeech : 
The poet, fays he, puts a fpeech into the mouth 
of the Goddefs entirely becoming her : her peti- 
tions are all fuch as Diana might aft: ; and more, 
I think they may all be underftood of the moon, 
^tia quidem omnia de luna aptijjime inteliigi 
pojfunt : hac enim femper virgo eji, ifc. 

«' She is always a virgin, becaufe {he always 
retains the fame vigour of age, and never grows 
old : for the heavenly bodies do not experience 
that mutation and metamorphofis, which other 
frail and palling things, fubject to many cor- 
ruptions, experience. She is faid to emit her 
darts or arrows, and to hunt wild beafl:s, be- 
caufe, with her rays fent forth and difperfed in 
the night, {he enlightens thefe lower regions, 
and fupplies them with moifture, and the proper 
power of encreafe and vegetation. She is mofl 
patient and enduring of labours in her courfe, 
becaufe the moon in her period, which {he per- 
forms with admirable fwiftnefs, is never wearied : 
file is accompanied with many nymphs and atten- 
dants ; becaufe when (he {hines in the night, 
{lie is on all fides furrounded with flars ; fhe is 
in fine, nuntium cujlos, nemorumque I'irgo, the 
gftardian of the mountains, and virgin Goddefs of 
the groves ; becaufe, when fhe arifes fhe feems 
to us to arife from the mountains, when fhe fets, 
to defcend down into them." Of the power of 
the moon in vegetation we are informed from the 
fcriptures, where we are told of the precious things 
put forth by the moon, Deut. xxxiii, 14. and 



P/.'/7)- remarks, that crcfente luna frumenta gran- 
dejcunt. 

Ver. 8. Virginity 1 Her fir{l petition is for 
perpetual virginity, which Ovid tells, was after« 
wards a reque{t of Daphne's, 

Da mihi perpetud, genitor charijfime, dixit, 
Vii ginitate frui — dedit hoc pater ante Dianesi 

Then cafling round his neck her tender arms 
Sooths him with blandifhment, and lilial 

charms : 
Give me, my lord, {he faid, to li\'e and die, 
A fpotlefs maid, without the nuptial tve : 
'Tis but a fmall requeft ; I beg no more 
Than what Diana's father gave before. 

Dr VDEN, 

Paul Voet, is a little fevere upon the ladies in 
liis note on this place : " For, he fays, women 
arechafle, not thro' choice and good will (being 
very frail in their own natures) but by neceiTity j 
and therefore Diana begs to be chafte, while 
it was fcarce poffible for her to be fo." And in- 
deed, " vows of virginity ihould well be 
weighed :" fmce e\en this challeff of chafte ones, 
this Diana herfelf has been taxed of cancel lino- 
her vow with Endymicn ! however, mytholo- 
gifls have endeavoured to clear her from all 
afperfions, by {hewing us the meaning of this 
allegory; and amongft the reft the moft ingenious 
lord Bacon, whom fee in his Sapientia Vetcrum, 
under Endymion five gratiofus. See alfo Bonier' s 
mythology, vol. i. p. 45 and 77. where this 
matter is accounted for rather nearer the truth 
than lord Bacon's, Homer h«s a p.fTage in his 
hymn to Venus, fimilar to this of our author; 

But bright Diana Venus ne'er cou'd move, 
To taflrethe fweets and own the pow'r of love : 
The virgin Goddefs flill unconquer'd roves, 
And with her lays of freedom charms the 

groves : 
The chace, the choir, the dance engage her 

foul, 
And ftates where virtue and religion rule. 



54 THE HYMN TO DIANA. 

" She cry'd, my father : and for numerous names 

With thy Diana let not Phoejbus vie. 

Be mine the bow, the quiver : not from thee 

Thofe arms I afk : permit but the requeft, 

The fwarthy Cyclops fliall perform the tafk, 

Point the wifli'd fliafts and ftring the flexile bow : 

Let me bear light : and chace the flying game 

Down to the knee in welted tunic clad. 

Of Ocean's daughters, flxty lovely nymphs, 

Who yet have feen, but thrice three fummers bloom. 



10 



15 



Young 



Ver. 9. For numerous names. 1 Amongft the 
fcveral caufes that have introduced (o much 
confufion in the lieathen fyftcni of religion, 
there are few have been more prejudicial than 
this beforeus, namely, The great variety of names, 
whereby they addrell their Gods, From hence 
it is, thiit fuch a mob of nominal deities have pro- 
ceeded : for thofe names, which were only ufed 
as epithets and charafterifiics of the feveral pro- 
perties, aftions, and benefits of the fame god, 
afterwards were thought to denote different 
deities, and by that means multitudes of un- 
heard of beings were introduced. We may 
remember, th;it Callimachus affigns this honour 
to y//f//(3 of having many names. See ver. 100. 
of the hymn to Apollo. 

" This is that ■^^o^tl^!l}'l», tr.uch fpeaiing, and 
vain repetition, izysGravius, which Chrift con- 
demns in the prr.yers of the heathens, Matt. vi. 
7. for the heathens particularly affefted this, and 
not only the Greeks, but alfo all the eaflern na- 
tions. Hence Selden de Diis Syriis hath ob- 
ferved, that amongft the Arabians their hymns 
■to God v/ere fluffed with names only, apper- 
taining to the deity, infomuch that above an 
hundred names were gathered together, without 
any fingleexprcflion, except thefe of invocation. 
Ste more concerning this iro\vuvvf/.itt. in Selden," 



We need not go fo far as the Syrians, fmce 
every reader of the hymns of Orpheus mufl: ne- 
ceflarily obferve, that they confifl of nothing 
befide thefe names and appellations of the deities 
to whom they are addreft, and whofe attributes 
they record. 

Ver. 15. Let me hear light. '\ This petition of 
Diana's is doubtlefs applicable to the moon: and 
beft explained by the antient remains we meet 
with, where fhe is reprefcntcd with a moon, 
and two torches, whence flie had the name of 
"AaoBX't, torch-hearer, as well as ipwo-pojo;, light- 
hearer ; which laft was often given to Minerva, 
becaufe, as Proclus explains it, flie, as it were, 
lights in the fouj the fire of underftanding ; but 
to Diana, becaufe file brings to light the hidden 
fecrets of nature. To explain thefe attrihutes, 
vejlments, &c. of Diana, I have given the 
antient coins, as the bcfl commentary on the 
autlior. 

Ver. 17. Oztzvi % daughters ."] Hefiod rec]!ions 
up 3 goodly company of thefe daughters of 
Oceanus and Tethys ; and adds, that they were 
in number three thoufand. 

— — no^?.ai 7s fJAt f.o-i xai aX^ai 

See Hefiod, Qteyona, ver. 364. and Banier's My- 
thology, 



THE HYMNTO DIANA. 55 

Young and unfpotted all, to join the dance 
My lov'd compeers appoint : and from the banks 20 

Of Amnifus a train inferior fend 
In number and degree, attendants meet 
My bufkins to provide, or careful tend 
My faithful dogs, when, wearied from the chace, 
Their miftrefs lays her ufelefs quiver by. 25 

Each mountain be my dow'r : and, wherefoe'er 
Thou wilt, allot one city to my charge : 
Midft mountains my abode, rare fhall the din 
Of populous cities grate my peaceful ear : 
Then only, mixing with the mortal croud 30 

When 

thology, vol. I. p. 114. ofthefe, according to going to lofe their virginity. Hence in the G/w.f 

our poet, Diana difires fixty for her companions, poets they are often called n«f6iHxai /*it^i, and 

and Gratius, who fays, in Latin, Zona virginees. Medea, meaning to 

Ajr -a •, r t • J- f^y flie was ftill a virgin, fpeaks thus in Apolh- 

MJctvere tuo comttes Jub nomine divis ■' o 7 r - r 

Centum emnes nemoriim, centum ds Jontibus ' 

ornnes. My zone ftill unpolluted and unhoi'd 

Naides Still pure, as in my father's houfe, remains. 

is nearly confonant to him ; for fhe had twenty So that thefe Oceanime are not called Aft.Tjai, 
of the Amnifian nymphs, fo that all together becaufe they had loft their zones and virginity, 
make up almoft the hundred. but becaufe they had not yet received the virgin 

Vcr. 19. Young and unfpotted.] The original is Zonf» being yet too young for marriage." 

Ver. 20. The banks of Amnifus.'] Amnifus -Wis 
TlaT-at tiviTtat, •Kuaa<; eti TraiJa,- «fiiT§a;. the name of a city, as well as a river ot Crete, 

the nymphs belonging to whichwere called Am- 
where Spanheim obferves, that the zones or ni/iades ; twenty of whom Diana here defires for 
fiAT^at, were given only to thofe virgins who her maids, for that is the meaning of Aaifi«-o?ia4, 
were marriageable, Firo matura ; and taken in the original, as their office confirms. Diana 
from them, or according to the known expref- was faid to have been begotten in this city, and 
fion, faid to be loofed (folvi) when they were frequently to bath in the river. 



56 THE HYMN TO DIANA. 

Wlien women torn with child-bed's throbbing throws 

Di ana's aid implore : to me this lot 

Immediate on my birth, the Fates afTign'd, 

For that, without a mother's pangs brought forth, 

Who in my birth or bearing ne'er knew woe !" 

— She fpake and to confirm her words uprais'd 

Her little hand, attempting fond to ftroke, 

With adulation fweet, her father's beard : 



Z^ 



Oft 



Ver. 31. IVljen wonicn^ &c.] Dianam autem 
et lunam eandemejfe putant, i^c. luna, a lucendo 
nominata fit : eadem eji eiiim lucina. Itaqiie ut 
apud Gracos Dianam atqiie luciferam fie apud 
nos 'Jimonem luclnam in pariendo invocant ; quis 
eadem Diana omnivaga dicitur, non a venando, 
fied quod in feptem numeratuy tanquam vaganti- 
bus : Diana di^a quia no£iu qiiafii diem efipceret. 
Adhibetur autem ad partus, quod fc maturefcunt 
aut feptem nonnunquam aut plerumque novem 
lUna_ curfihui : qui, quia mtnh fpa:ia ccnficiunt, 
.menfes tiominantur. Cicero de Nat. Deorum. 
c. 27. lib 1. We learn from this paflage of C/<,Yr«, 
whjit hath been before advanced, note i. that 
Diana and the Mion are one ; and that the names 
Luna, Lucina\ ^c. are derived from fliining. 
That file is called omnivaga, or faid to tuander 
every when, not from hunting, but becaufe flie 
is numbred amongft the fcven wandring or er- 
ratic liars or planets. That file is called Diana, 
becaufe fhe makes a kind of day in tlie night ; 
and particularly, that fhe was invoked to the 
affiffance of child-bearing women, becaufe births 
are perfefted in feven, or at the moft, in nine 
of her courfes, i^c." There might poflibly be 
many other reafons given for this fable of the 
Moon's or Diana's afTiftance to travailing wo- 
men -, whofe influence upon their bodi.s did 
not efcape the antieiits, and whofe months are 
ilill their ftated reckonings, ^c. "_ The Fates 
are very properly mentiimcd by Callimachus (as 
lipnnheim obCerves) with Diana Lucifera : EiA«- 
6aia ■ax^to^oi fMi^av, is an exprcfiion of Pii:dar's 
in his yih Nemean Ode (the firll line) and again, 
/p.-aking oi'Evadne's bringing forth, he fays. 



Jpollo caufed the Fates and Lucina to be prefent 
at it; 

Lucina and the Fates confenting 

To Apollo's fond requeft , 
All the mother's pangs preventing 

With the darling offspring bleft. 

Olympic the 6th. 

AnA Anton. Liheral. in his metamorphofes,fpeak- 
ihg of Alcmena, fays, Moijai xai £;A£t9i;ia CTpoj 

And this obfervation will (by the way) throw 
light on that paffjge m Horace, where after in- 
voking Iliihyia, he fpeakes of the Fates — Vofique 
veraces cecinijfe paras."— .-See the fiecular poem. 
Ver. 35. ff^jo, &c.] In the hymn to Jupiter, 
he fpeaks of the birth of that deity by jn-iyaXut 
awsfiuxaTo KtiKirm, and here, of Diana's by (pihait 
a^riSiixaTO x.i'hitai ; and that a.fA.ayTirtj without any 
pangs of labor : for, fays V\AA&m Dacier, He- 
roina fine dolor e pariunt : "■ Heroins bring forth 
without labour." But furely, that learned lady 
did not confider the cafe oi Latona, fully men- 
tioned in the next hymn, when Ihe brought 
forth Apollo, as well as that of /^/a«i'«(?'s liinted 
at in the laft note. It may be neciflary jail: to 
obferve (that the reader may enter the better 
into the meaning of the fubfequent lines) that 
that there was none fo great a mark of blan- 
dlfhment and afFediion amongft the antients, 
as ftroking ihe beard : as on the contrary, none 
fo wreat an affront as plucking it : numbcrlefs 
inftances of each abound in the claffics. Firgil 
gives us a defcription of Jupiter's fmile, not un- 
like this of our author. Uli fubridens. .^neid. i. 
ver. 258. 



THE HYMN TO DIANA. 

Oft fruitlefs : when a foft parental fmile 
His brows o'erfpreading, thus he anfwer'd bland : 
" When heaven's immortal beauties crown my joys, 
" With fuch a progeny — proud queen of heav'n, 
" Welcome thy jealous ire ! — enjoy, fweet maid, 
Thy every fond requeft : nor thine alone. 
Still more and greater will thy father add ! 
Of ways and ports infpedrefs thou fhalt view 
*' Innumerous ftatues to thy honour rais'd : 
" To thy protection and thy care aflign'd, 
" Sole tutelary guardian of thofe ftates, 
*' Be thrice ten cities — thefe thy name fhall bear, 



57 



40 



(( 



(C 



(C 



45 



50 

" Mark 



To whom the father of th' immortal race, 
Smiling with that ferene, indulgent face, 
With which he drives the clouds, and clears 

the fkies, 
Firft gave a holy kifs, and thus replies. 

DrYDE N. 

Ver. 41. lVhen,&cc.] The whole heathen my- 
tholog)' abounds wiih tales of y who's jealoufy; and 
indeed, fht feems to have had good caiife, from 
the multitude of amours and gallantries of her 
hulhaiid. The God here exults o\er her, and 
triumphs in his debaucheries, the produce of 
which was fo amiable a daughter as the chafte 
lUaiia. To make their fupreme thus prone to 
kift, however mythologifts may attempt to ac- 
count for it, is doubtltfs highly blameable in the 
snticnts, but to Ihevv him exulting in the fin, 
admits of no e>:cufe. I am perfuadsd, or at 
jeafl:, fo I would perfuade myfelf, that CW/Z/na- 
crUis meant the pafTage as a fatyrical farcafm ; 
taken in that fcnfe, it is reully admirible ; an I 



the words, well confidered, feem to convey fome 
thing of that fort : triough Frifchlinus imagines 
it expreilive of the gieatefl: dfleilion and ten- 
dtrnefs. Plena affeSius patsrni ac fumtnx bene- 
volently r.Jponfw, ^c. 

Ver. 46. Oj rorts, &c.] I have made bold 
to tranfpufe tiie order of the lines here, for rea- 
fons which will eafily ilrike an Englijh reader, 
and I doubt not v, i'l be fatisfaftory. " Jupiter 
too, as the learned Spai.heim obfervss, was ciilied 
AiftjjofTxovro?, as well as Venus pi/opinis-st^a ; ic tliat 
this was no mean appellation. H ,- rhinki Diana's 
title may be referred to the moon, who is l.id 
to rife from, .nd fet in the fea, by the poets ; 
fo Valerius FL.ccus — Diva foporiferas qua: nunc 
trahis icquore higas — or to that power att .^uted 
to her over all fublunary thin:?s, as w-il eartii is 
fca." But it fcems rather, that fh i was faid 
to prefidc QVCT ports on account of her influence 
over the tides, of which it is too well kncwn 
to fay any thing here that the moon is the prin- 
cipal eaufe, 

I 



58 THEHYMNTODIANA, 

" Mark of diftinguifli'd flivour — nor alone 

** In thefe be lionor'd : various more remain 

" On ille and continent where thou fhalt fliare 

*' In common with heaven's fynod, holy rites, 

" And reverence due of altars, fanes, and groves." 55 

Speaking his awful head the thunderer bow'd, 

And ratified his promile with the nod» 

Swift to Di6lynna's mount the Goddefs flies,. 

To Ocean thence, her lovely choir to choufe. 

Young and unfpotted all, a virgin train, 60 

"Who yet had feen but thrice three fummers bloom. 

In murmuring joy Caeratus' ftream roll'd on. 

And o'er his urn old Tethys fmiling hung. 

When 

Ver. 55. Altars and groves.] The poet places Ver. 58. DiSlynna.] It may be afked, why 

^«/xot, altars, before AA^-ea, groves, theconfecra- went fhe to this mountain firfl: ? 'Why not to 

tion of which is generally thought to have been the ocean immediately? Probably it might be 

antecedent to that of temples and altars : thefe to take poflefiion (if we may fo fay) of her new 

dark and venerable retreats caft a folemn awe dominions, and particularly of this favorite 

over the minds of the worfhippers, and their mountain: but more probably, as this mountain 

gloomy filence added much to the folemnity of was near the fea, to the weft of Crete, the 

the Pagan ceremonies. It was an univcrfal poet only tells us, the part of the fca flie went 

cuftom to have thefe groves round the temples, to. 
and fo diiiinguifliing a part of the heathen idola- 

ti-y, that the worihippers of the the true God Ver. 62. Caratus.] Was not only the name 

were particularly forbidden, the ufe of them, of a river in Crete, but alfo the noble city Cnof- 

See Deut, xv'i. 21. Exod. xxxiv.i 2- Deut. -kVu yi/;, near which it flowed, was thence called Ci*- 

2 Kings xxiii. 6. Sec alfo the ingenious Abbe ratus. CaUhnackus \exy artlully mentions fuch 

Banter's curious chapter of the facred Groves, pLices as particularly worshipped ly'iann ; fuch 

b. 3. c. 7. vol. I. was Cnojfus ; otherwife, why fliould he not 

1 (hall have occafion to fpeak more of the have mentioned any other city, river or mountain 

facred groves hereafter in the hvmn to drcs, than that he has done ? Arte valet, was Ovid's 

where we have an account of her facred grove character of him, and there is undoubtedly pe- 

cut down, and polluted by Er\fi(hthon. Sec ths culiar elegance and nicety in this method, 
hymn, ver. 33, bV. 



THE HYMN TO DIANA. 

Whenas they view'd their favor'd race advance, 
And bright Diana lead the nymphs along. 
Hence to the Cyclops pafling, thofe {he found 
In Lipara's ifle (then Meligunis nam'd, 
Now Lipara) crowding round a trough immenfe 
That huge vulcanian anvils groaning bore : 



59 



65 



Enormous 



■1 



Ver. 68 A trough. "[ noTir§D», cquarlum, a 
trough for water, as woTirijuiii is traiiflated from the 
LXX in our Bible, Gen. xxiv. 20,30, 38. Vir- 
gil has a fine fimile in his 4th Georgic, which he 
has in a great meafure repeated in the 8th jEneid, 
concerning the Cyclops, and which, as illultrating 
Callimachus, I {hall produce : 

Infula ficanium juxta latus asoliamque 
Erigitur Liparen, &c. iEn. viii. 416. 

Amid th' Hefpcrian and Sicilian flood 

All black with fmoke, a rocky illand flood, 

The dark vulcanian land, the region of the 

God. 

Here the grim Cyclops ply, in vaults profound. 
The hu^c Molian forge, that thunders round : 
Th' eternal anvils ring, the dungeon o'er; 
From fide to fide the fiery caverns roar : 
Loud groans the mafs, beneath their pond'rous 

blows, 
Fierce burnt the flame, and the full furnace 

glows : 
To this dark region from the bright abode 
With fpeed impetuous flew the fiery God. 
Th' alternate blows the brawny brethren deal. 
Thick burft the fparkles from the tortur'd ffcel. 
Huge flrokes rough Sieropcs and Brontes gave. 
And flrcng Pyracmon fliook the gloomy cave. 

Swift as the word (his orders to purfue) 
To the black labours of the forge they flew, 
Vafl heaps of llcel in the deep furnace roll'd. 
And bubbling ftreams of brafs, and floods of 

melted gold. 
The brethren firft a glorious fhield prepare, 
Capacious of the whole rutulian war : 



Some orb in orb the blazing buckler frame, 
Some with huge bellows rouze the roaring 

flame : 
Some in the ftreamthehifllng metals drown'd, -J 
From vault to vault the thund'ring ftrokcs \ 

rebound, f 

And the deep caves rebellow to the found. J 
Exadt in timeeach ponderous hammer plays, "i 
In time their arms the giant brethren raife, > 
And turn the glowing, mafs a thoufand ways. 3 

Pitt. 

Homer, in h\s Odyfiy, book g. hath given us 
a large account of the Cyclops : of the monfter 

Polypheme, he fays, 

A form enormous ! far unlike the race 
Of human birth, in feature or in face ; 
As fome lone mountains monftrou;. growth he 

flood, 
Crown'd with rough thickets, and a nodding 

wood. 

Pope. 

So Callimachus compares each one of them to 
mount Ojpi. Hefiod informs us, they were called 
Cyclops, Kt'x^u7r=■;, from having their one eye in 
their forehead : 

And Virgil'm his 3d Mneid, ver. 635. compares 
thefe eyes to a Ji)ield, &c. 

I 2 Then— 



6o T H E H Y M N TO DIANA. 

Enormous work ! which Neptune thy commands 70 

Urg'd to performance—— wond'rous was the toil ! 

Sight fo deform, dread monfters huge in bulk 
As Offa's cloud-capt hills (from whofe fierce front 
One blazing eye, broad as a fourfold fhield, 
Horribly flern, fhot terror) every nymph 75 

Aftonied views ; but breathing; difcord harfh 
when the loud bellows, as the north-winds roar 
Tempeftuous, ecchoed to the deep-fetch'd groan 
Of every Cyclops, laboring to the blow ; 

Reverberating hoarfe, with horrid din 80 

From loud refounding anvils, as the weight 
Of ponderous hammers with alternate force 
Defcended thundering on the tortur'd brafs : 
^tna re-echoed, tho' Trinacria's realms, 



T 



DC 



Then — Italy : fro;n thence it paflls to Corfua, and 

Plunge the (harp weapon in his monftrous eye : fhakes the whole ifland to its cenue. Clau- 

His eye, that midft his frowning forehead (hone, dlcin, fpeakiiip oF P/;v^ff's firiking the rocks of 

Like a broad buckler, or the blazing fun. Tnnaci'ia with his fccptre, has fomething like 

Pitt. our author, 

Argolici Clypei, out Phahea: lampadh tnjiar, Saxa ferit fceptro : ficula: tonuere cnverna 

,, . r/- •; 11 1 • lurbatnr Lipare, jiupmt fornacf rel'iSio 

Soon after /-/rp-z/ calls him, ., , ., tL , Jj : ■ ■, r i ■ r i *, 

* ' Mulabcr^ t? trepiaus dejecit jwmina Cyclops. 

^ ' ■> J •> & J3^,t- [.-, this paflage Llaudian is grca. ly interior 

Ver. 84. Mtna^ &c.] It is worth obferving, to CaUimachus : as he defcends from the greatc-r 

how beautifully the author rifes upon us : /Ei?in to iiifcridr circumflrances, and limits the imagi- 

firft receives the (h'ick, which extends itfclf nation : for though there is particular beauty in 

through all Sicily, then reaches the (hores of Lis Jlupuit fornace reliilo Mulcibcr, & trepiduj 

dcjccit 



THE HYMN TO DIANA. 

The noife refponfive rung, loud thunder'd back 
From fair Italia's coafts, till bellowing round 
To Corfica it reach'd, and fhook the ijfle. 
No wonder then, feiz'd with uncommon dread 
The nvmphs unable to fuftain the iliock, 
Stood trembling and aghaft : for not in heav'n 
The daughters of the deities behold 
The monfters unappafd : but when her child 
Wayward the mother views — the Cyclops ftrait, 
Arges or Steropes £he calls : whofe forms 
Befooted Hermes takes : the frighted babe 



6f 

85 



90 



95 

Its 



dejecit fulmina Cychps ; yet here we are at a 
ftop ; all is quiet ; we can go no further : 
Whereas, when our a'jthor fo ni>b!y encreafes 
upon us, we know not where he will hurry us, 
. nor where the wonderful clamour will end ; — 
it ecchoes round to Sicily, to Italy, to CorfiCT, 
and we may even conceive the whole world put 
in agitation by the warmth of the poet's fancy — 
all earth to fiake to its very center. 

^'er. 90. Far not, lic.'\ Spanheim obferves, 
that this is the only example he ever met wih of 
the cuftom of m^jthers frightening their children 
with the name of the Cyclops : Our author tells 
ij';, that the daughters of the Gcds, when re- 
fraft jrious, were filcnced by calling the Cyclops 
to them ; and becaufe 'fays Mad. Dacicr) the 
Cyclops had no habitation in heaven, Aler 
cury ?ppears from a fecret place ^af/ian(i(; 
fK fivxarcio, with his face all befmeared snd bc- 
froted [ffTToJiJi Kixr.i^t'of «i6ii) to terrify them. 
The name of king Richard, our hiftorians tell 
us, was equally terrible, and ferved to the fame 
purpofe. It may be fufjiecled that this pafTage 
is ruber low, and bordering upon the infantine : 
and in truth, contidered merely in its plain fenfe, 
I cannot well relilh it ; what can be the origin, 



or foundation of it, I know not ; nor can pre- 
tend to offer the leaft dillait ccnj'.-cture : a'l 
the commentators here leave Callim<ichiis at the 
mercy of the reader ; I mi.ft nectffarily do lb 
too, remindmg him, that poflibly under this 
veil fonie thing inftrutting is hid, more is meant 
than meets the ear ; and in judging of fuch paf- 
fages candor fh.uld eipecijlly guide us. See 
Mr. Locke, book 3. c. 9. Kixfiy-^n is for 
*£Xf*.^"*?' ffTi^'ftsKi!, ohjitus i£ for didatus full gine, 
as Hefychius explains it : fo t.hat it is very well 
adapted to the feiife of the author, and in very 
proper words, which ought to filtnce all the 
emendations of critics, when in reality there 
wants none of them. The Manducus and Lupus, 
as is well known, were words ufed to fright 
children with hv the antients. See Dor.atus 
upon Terence's Lupus in Fahida, and Theocritus 
ld)ll. 15. vcr. 40. where the motlier, to keep 
her ch.ld at home fays, 

OvK a^i} T5 Tsmif Mcpnai, ^etxm nr^o?. 

Dear chuck, you muil not go, my deardelight, 
For there are bug- bears, and the horfes bite. 

Creech. 



62 THE HYMN TO DIANA. 

Its head hides trembHng in its mother's lap. 

But thou Diana, fcarce three fummers old, 

(What time Latonia bore thee in her arms 

To Lipara's lile, that Brontes might beftow 

The profFer'd natal gifts) he on his knees 1 00 

Smiling receiv'd thee — when from his rough breaft 

The hair thou dauntlefs pluckedft : there the fkin 

Produc'd no future harveft, ftill defpoil'd. 

As by the wafting Alopecia's power. 

Now too thus undifmay'd, was urg'd thy fuit, j 05 

While o'er the cooling brafs the monfter's gaz'd. 

Cyclops, hafte, form me a Cydonian bow, 

Shafts, and a founding quiver ; for I claim 
" No lefs than Pheobus, my defcent from Jove. 

And 

Ver. 100. Natal gifts.] Ojrriifia, natale donum, rukaiis bread : OXo^xi Jf ^nifi : the word uX^'^ui 

which it was the cuftom amonglt the antients conveys the found : I know not of any to an- 

to give fpcSlandl causa. They are fometimes fwer it better than that in the text. 

the fame with a»«K«Af5rT»g4a, the gifts which were Ver. 104. Alapecia.'\ A>w^»j|, fo the author 

given the bride when fhe was unveiled, the third calls that difeafe, which makes the hair fall off 

day after marriage. Fj/lcanius. So Nonnus the head. See Pliny's Natural Hiftory, I. 28. 

H?«.r« ro<pov eevo., oTT^f zui^ Hv^^^y^mr,, c. II. There are two reafons given for this 

To|«uT«e«{ Ep*^"S '"^"« oTrrv^io ««. ' name : the firft, guod (AAott^I) Fulpes fmih af- 

.„, , 1 • 1 rr 7 c \. ■ \ ^TT- c >j peSlul fnaxlmc obnoxla ell — the fecond (and that 

The work which /^i</t^)7forbrig;htA'fKKjform d '^ 1 . .1 r i-^i- n, - 1 > t 

A ; . /• J r .\. f i l"i ' mentioned by the icholiait) is, becaide where- 

A ;7«/i7//)mf«!; tor the God oMove. c k\ .u . 1 u u 

'■ ■' ever a tox Itales, that place becomes barren. 

Brontes, i.e. /^'i//r(7« : and we find from this p.if- Frifehllnus, as Spanhelm obferves, is miflaken 

fage in our author, tliat this was a name of when lie fays, AAwwijI is by analogy for ATujTrtxtx : 

Vulcan, '["he original of the load verfe is very fince the difeafe is by Hippocrates called Aj,uT!t)^. 

«xpreflivc of the \iolent pulling the hair from Libro ■n'l^i ■ar-Out. Sefl. 9. 



<( 



cc 



THE HYMN TO DIANA. 

And if perchance fome favage huge and vaft 

A victim to my fhafts hereafter fall, 
" That vidim fhall be yours : the glorious prey 
*' Shall glut the Cyclops with a rich repaft." 
She fpoke, 'twas done ; commanded, and was arm'd. 

Forthwith th' Arcadian Gods retreat fhe fought: 
Nor fought in vain : for'midft his bellowing dogs 



n 



a 



63 

IIO 



115 



Ver. 114. She fpuke.'j 'Ennrti;, 01 y creXicrat' 

a(paf y uTrXiaa-ao Aaifioii. The line before us is 
beautiful and excellent : That famous pafTage 
which Longinus quotes from Mofes bears great 
fimilitude to this, in the celerity of the perfor- 
mance. Let there be light, fays God, and there 
was light : though, as Mr. Smith obferves, there 
is peculiar beauty in the manner Longinus quotes 
it. " God faid — What? Let there be light, 
bfc. — That interrogation between the narrative 
part and the words of the Almighty himfelf, 
carries with it an air of reverence and venera- 
tion. It feems defigned to awaken the reader, 
and raife his awful attention to the voice of the 
great Creator." There is a palTage of almoft 
equal excellence in the Pfalms — " for he fpake, 
and it was done ; he commanded, and it flood 
faft." CaUimachus wants nothing but the gran- 
deur of the fubjeft to render his pafTage as truly 
fublime. However, it is a ftriking inftance of our 
author's diftinguifhing excellence and charac- 
teriftic concifenefs. Elegans & presclarus om- 
nino hie verfus, quo una, imperata a Diana Cy- 
clopibus Tela : eadem ah sis continuo fahrefa6la : 
iifque induita jam dea in uitur. Cujus plane in- 
figms veloci'ates, feu tarn muita paucis adeo verbis 
compleSientis hie poette nojlri locus, meruijfet ufi- 
que at a Longino, aliifque fuhlimis maxime didii- 
enis magijlris non fuijj'et pratermijpts. So Span^ 
heim. 

Ver. 1 1 6. For^midjl, &c,] The following 
lines from Gratius, will cafl fome light on this 
aukward employment of the God Pan ; 



Ergo ubi plena fuo rediit viSloria fine 
In partem prisd.e veniat comes, i^ fua norit 
Piamia : flc operi juvent injerviffe henigno. 

L. I. ver. 246. 

And thefe again from Grotius, will iilaftrate 
our author here too, 

Hie et femiferam thoum de [anguine prolan 
Finxit. Non alio major (fub) peiicre virtus : 
Seu norit voces, feu nudi ad pignora mart is, 
Thoes commijfos {clariffima fama) leones 
Et fubire aftu, to" par vis domuere lacertis. 
Nam genus exiguum, et pudeat quam informi 

fateri 
Vulpindfpecie, tamen hue exaBa voluntas. 

L. I. ver. 253. 
We fliall very little doubt of the fpirit and 
fiercenels of thefe little beafts, who daily fee fui.h 
inflances of it : Sir. R. Blackmore's Fujiian, may 
be almoft excufed, when fpeaking of them, he 
fays, 

Rais'd to the clouds the fprawling maftifFs fly, 
And add new monfters to the frighted fky : 
Some ftretch'd out in the field lie dead j and 

fome 
Dragging their entrails on, run howling home. 

M'hat 1 tranflate Spartan dogs, are cjlled in 
the author Kavoffa^iJa?, which the fcholiafl tells 
us, vsere fo c.lled from a place of the fame 
name, Cynofuris in Laconia ; they were half 
dog, half fox. The excellence of the Spartan 
dogs isfpokenof by all the cl ffics : many paf- 

fages 



64- THE HYMN TO DIANA. 

A lynx's flejQi dividing, him flie found : 

Pleas'd from the pack, or ere the boon fhe afks 

Seledling, he prefents two hounds half white, 

Three hung with ears that fweep the morning dew, 

And one with various fpots diverfify'd : 

All ftaunch the rous'd up Hon fierce to feize 

Blood-happy 3 and indignant to the ftall 

The growling monarch drag ; feven more he gave 

Of Spartan breed (all fleeter than the wind :) 

To fcent the flying fawn, the fleeplefs hare, 

The branching flag, the fretful porcupine. 

Or trace the footfleps of the bounding roe. 



120 



125 



And 



fages from which may be found in the ift chap- 
ter of the 3d book of Meurjius's Mifcellanea La- 
comca, where he treats of the Fpartan dogs, veiy 
fully ; and to which the reader, defirous of in- 
fori(^a;ion on thefe fubjeSis^ is referred. 

Vcr. J 25. The jleeplefs hure.^^ Oiii/.votTa \xyuo> 
is tJie original : where the autlior aJiudL-s to the 
common notion, that hares fleep with their eyes 
<'p-'n: OculiS patentibus donniunt hpores, fays 
PUny : ;inJ (as Fi ijchlinus obfervt's) /Elian tells 
us " it is natural to this animal to fleep with 
its eyes cpcr, :" v/hence by NicancLr it is called 
Jff*£t/»>i{ (I'K^fi aperth Oiul.'s /hrmlens.) Arid 
Opplanm h.\s,Cynegetics atinhutuis ay fvr.nai, Infom- 
niam to them. 

At/Totp EfiyXwoi %a|;o7ro» rpawri'civ avunon 

and again he fays 

■ aiTOTi ya€ ovi 

Ywioii STi /3" t^a^oieiip uvc^fi iavrii; iXowo. 



From this notion arofe the proverb of lepus dor- 
miens, which, according to Erafmus, may be 
applied to thofe who pretend to one thing at the 
fame time that they do another : quadrat in eu?n, 
qui quod non facit, id facer e fe ajfimulat : aut quod 
facit Id fe facile dljjimulat. He adds, veque per- 
peram, oplnor, dlcetur et in tlmldos : and indeed 
this feems to me the bell: and moft: natunl mean- 
ing of the proverb ; taken in which fenfe 1 know 
none To good an explanation of it, as the inimi- 
txh\c Skiiefpear's chdt ati er of Fa l/lii^ in the 9th 
and loth fcenes of the lafl: aft of the firft: part of 
king Henry IV. If I remember right, Cham- 
bers., in his diftionary, informs us, that " the 
eye of an hare is too big and round for the lid 
to cover it, even when aileep, fo that the crea- 
ture flceps as it were on the watch :" and he 
adds, " there is a difeafe called lagoptkalrnia, 
which arifes from a contraifion of tne upper 
eye-lid, which prevents its being able to cover 
its part of the eye : fo that the patient is obliged 
to fleep with the eye half open, after the man- 
ner of hares." See his Dicliunary. 



THE HYMN TO DIANA. 

And now equipt to high Parrhafia's mount 
The Goddefs leads : where, wond'rous fight ! behold 
Proud o'er the fummit five tall flags advance, 
Immenfe as bulls : their beamy antlers fhone 
With gold refulgent : rich Anaurus banks 
Ere fed the lordly beafts : fight fo augufh 
With pleafing admiration, as flie view'd, 
Raptur'd the Goddefs cries : " A prey like this 
Well merits our acceptance, well deferves 
•f Diana's firft gift- offering to be made." 
Light o'er the unbending turf the Goddefs flies, 
Five was the fum : and four fhe quickly caught 
To whirl her flying charriot ; but the fifth, 



65 



130 



^35 



140 



A future 



Ver. 134. Their heamy antlers, &e.] Horned 
animals were confecrated to the Jnoon, we find 
as well as the fun. See Hymn to Apollo, ver. 85. 

Ver. 135. IVith pleafing admiration.'] Era^s? 
is properly tranflated by mirata es, sSatftao-a?, ol^- 
Jhipuijli; immifijli, in theLatin tranflation is ab- 
furd : the text once was i-na/pc; ; the objlupuitvifu 
JEneas, iijiupet — obtutuque haret defixus in una, 
of ^'Vr^/V explain the fenfe of the author. 

Ver. i^i . To whirl her flying chariot. ] When 
Spanheim imagined that Callimachus differed 



but it by no means follows from thence, that 
they were all of them to be employed at once. 
1 the rather take notice of this, becaufe ali the 
old remains, we meet with, reprefent Diana, 
drawn by a pair only ; and the authors who 
mention either the chariot of Diana, or any 
other deity, feldom mention any more than two 
hearts or whatever elfe were employed. Cervi 
currurn fubiere jugaks, fays Claudian : Cybcle is 
ever feen and fpoken of as drawn by two lions ; 
renus, junSiis oloribus : Ceres by two ferpents. 



from the antient remains, which we have of Bacchus by two tvgers, or fome beads of that 

Z).'<7?w in her chariot drawn by flag?, he did not kind. " Spanheim obferves, that Itags were 

co.ifider the original with his ufual excellent facred to Diana, not only for their fwiftncfs 

accuracy : for the author no where fays, that her but alfo for their longevity: and thence were 

chariot was drawn bv four flags ; but that fhe effeemed a fymbol of etcrnit)', which tie an- 

caught four — i»a Oot^tvafi^u (piruai — to whirl her tients reprefcnted as well by xhcmoon as they««." 

flying chariot; — " that they might do it." Sit Hymn to Apollo, note 59, 

■\ 'auMcuntfauccti, vol. i. p 109. 
K 



66 T H E H Y M N T O D I A N A. 

A future labour for Alcmena's fon 

By heaven's dread emprefs deftin'd, fords the flood 

Of rapid Celadon : and, breathlefs half. 



Securely 



142. ^ future labour, "l The original is 

which they trandate, Certamen HercuU ultimMii 
ut ejjft. — Non ultimum tamen, ut hoc loco, inter 
duodccim HercuUs certamina cerva hac Xjutroxs^u;, 
cb eo domiia, fed tertium recenfetur ab Euripide^ 
fays "panheim : and fo Grcsv'ius — Non ultimum 
fuijp' certamen HercuUs, fed tertium Apollodorm 
tradit : itoqite Icgendum vri^m, i. e. pojha, pcftei 
te pore. But both thefe learned men, by fome 
inadvei iency, miltook the fenfe of the author, 
anJ were nufled by the error of the tranflator. 
For Callimachus never intended to fay that this 
was the ultimum, the laft labour of Hercules : 
vfarcit in the author muft be taken adverbially, 
for pij/irrmum, py.'modum, which fignification rt 
very frequently bears ; and in which the author 
plainly ufes it, Ilymn to Dclos, ver. 171. 

YraTov ■ 

i. e. commune quoddam nobis veniet bellum pojl- 
modum ; and again in the fragments colledled by 
Dr. Bentley, 

A\ 6' o^s^£5 ^cuiitKi, 15 vfocTov c^x^acta-S'^t, i e. 

Vtinam morcreris, autnunc \}oi\r<im\xm faltares. 

So that the author is no ways difconfonant with 
the reft who mention thefe labours, and there 
is no need of alteration, fmce he in plain words 
fays no more, " than that Juno prcferv'd this 
flag to become herecfter one of the labours of 
Hercules." 

Ver. 143. Fords the flood."] tmi^ voruft-^K, 
(pvyaaai, — fo the author. The prepofition uTrsp 
does not fignify here art but ultra, as Spanheim 
obferves, though it has been taken in ihe for- 
mer fcnfc by the editors of this author, and 
Vulcanius tranflates it, 

— ^'^ Junonis ope ad Cdadonta reftigit. 



but the true meaning is what is exprefled in the 
tranflation. This kind of animal is remarkable 
for taking the water, when pi eft, as well as for 
its own pleafure ; of which various authors 
fpeak : Thomfon, in his beautiful feafons defcrib- 
ing the flag chace, .tells us, 

Oft in the full dcfcending flood he tries 

To lofe the fccnt, and lave his burning fides : 

And Sir fohn Denham, after defcribing the 
chace, i^c. — adds, 

Then to the ftream, v/hen neither friends, nor 

force, 
Norfpeed, nor art avails, he fhapcs his courfe-: 
Thinks not their rage fo defperate to eflay 
An element more mercilefs than they ; 
But fearlefs they purfue, nor can the flood 
Qiiench their dire thirft ; alas, they thirft for 

blood ! 

To him Vaniere, in his Pradium Rujiicum, feems- 
to have been indebted, when fpeaking of the 
fame thing. 

In cchri cum nulla fuper fducia curfu ; 
Nulla fuga, fpcs nulla doli : qua Jola falutis 
Occur! t via, pracipite?n fe cervus in a I turn 
Flumen agit : prono nantem rapit alvcus amni^ 
iSc. 

In another part of the fame charming work, he 
mentions this remarkable particular of the flags. 

Nee tua pracingcs duSlis vivaria lymphis : 
Scilicet Dppofitus ceivos remorabitur amnis, 
Horrida, qui timidum quanquam pccus, nequora 

tranant : 
Lata pctant Cypriis ut trans 7nare pafcua terris. 
A.it^ in aherius tergo capita aha reponunt : 
4tterr.ar.tqui vices, isf qui prior agmen agebat 
Pojlremus fuhit, (s dorfo fulcitur amico. 
Nor sculls terram, noto Jed odorc feqwvitur ; 
A- dua p. ,' In-' bus icclo Jiant cornua tells, 
Remorumque loco pedibus vada falfn propulfant. 



THE HYMN TO DIANA. 

Securely pants on Cerynea's brow. 
Girt with thy golden zone, with arms of gold 
Richly caparifon'd, I fee thee mount, 
Parthenia, virgin queen (from whofe dread arm 
Deftrudlion lighten'd on earth's giant fons) 
I fee thee mount thy chariot, flafhing gold : 
While the flags proudly champ the golden bit. 

But whither bore thee firft thy rapid wheels ? 
To Thracian Hsemus : whence the north-winds blafts 
Thro' loop'd and window'd raggednefs infeft 
The houfelefs habitants : — but whence the torch 
Light-fhedding didft thou hew ? Whence (hot the flame 



67 

145 



t^o 



^55 



That 



Ver. 146. Golden, &c.] The drefs and orna- 
ments, ^c. of Diana we find were golden alfo, 
as well as thofe of Apol.'o. See Hymn to Jpol/o, 
note 52. 

Ver. 153. Tf^ence the north-iv'mds, &c. j The 
original is, 

EfX^Tai, ax^aifois-i ^uaxia. xjv/xon aysax. 
The latter part of which they tranflate — nudis 
hominibus gravi frigore iifejians, which, befide 
the mifunderftanding of the word a'x^ami<J^, is 
not Latin ; and therefore, as Dr. T. Bentley, in 
his edition, corre>;ted the one, he ought to have 
corre£led the other error ; which he has not : 
tranflating it — Kudos homines frigore infejians — 
although he knew cty^Mmai, was the fame as 
^vry^-vumc-i.-, vdi, attrito, levi '^miiiu indutis : filo 
r.on jatis crnjjo^ac proinilc, fays lie, arcendo fri- 

gori Tbracio omnino impart That this is the 

true fenfe of the word, Spanheim fufficienciy 
proves. — In the foregoing lines Diana is faid to 



have gone to Thracian Hamus, but why to this 
mountain rather than any other ? "Either, fays 
Spanham, becaufc it was a very commodious 
place for hunting ; or becaufe this deity, under 
various names, was peculiarly worfliipped irt 
Ihrace." 

Ver. 155. But whence the torch, kc] Having 
now equipped the Goddefs with all ht-r aitributes 
confidered as a huntrcfs, or Diana Ay^ors^a, hav- 
ing given us an account of the origin oi her bow, 
her dogs, her attendants, her bcafts that draw 
her chariot, and the like : he next proceeds to a 
very particular attribute of hers (confidered as 
Diana Lticifera) which is the torch wherewith 
we always find her, in that charadler, repre- 
fented ; and of which we fpoke vcr. 15 of this 
hymn. Whence fhe firft procurtd this torch 
(from which fhe had the n.ime AaJa^"?' or torch- 
bearer, and fVr which fhe petitions Ju iterm the 
place above-mentioned) is the fub'fdi of the fol- 
lowing lines ; anJ taken in that fenK , the mean- 
ing, oiherwifevery obfcure, is extremely plain. 

K 2 ' The 



68 THE HYMN TO DIANA. 

That gave the kindling touch ? Olympus mount 
The firft fupplied : the imextinguifh'd blaze 
Of Jove's blue lightning, flalhing gave the laft. 

Goddess, how oft you bent the lilver bow 
Sportful exploring ? From the twanging cord 
The firfl fhaft quivers in an elm's tough hide : 
An oak receives the fecond : and the third 
A panting favage in the wounded heart 



160. 



Feels 



The pafTage fhouldbe read with two interoga- 
tions. 

the anfwer to which is in the next line^ 
andj 

the anfwer to which is again in the line following, 

It is obfervable, that this torch, or whatever 
name you pleafe to give it, was, according to 
our author taken from the pine-tree, whofe 
pitchy fubltance renders it moft proper for this 
ufe. 

Ver. 158. The unfxtinguijb'' d Haze.] Since 
Diana, in this charadcr oi Lucifer a muft be 
confidered as the 7no(m, it feems highly probable 
that the author in this paiFage alludes to her 
ftiining with harrowed 'uftre: and it will be ftill 
more probable, if we recolkft, that Jupiter, 
may be underftood taken for the fun, the filar 
fire, or orl) of the fun, as Jpotlc for the folar 
light ; whence Jupiter is called Jmmon, as was 
obferved, Hymn to Jupiter, note 75. The 
word aa^i^H, unextingu'jijed, may very properly 
be applied to the/^v, who is never like the 



moon, extinguijhed, but always fhines with a 
full orb. Spanheim hints, that it is \'ery proba- 
ble the author's fpeaking of th\s fame defending 
from Jupiter to light Diana's torch, might pro- 
ceed from fome knowledge Callimachus had of 
the fire fent down by God from heaven to con- 
fume Aaron's burnt-offering, Leviticus ix. 24. 
" And there came a fire out from the Lord, 
and confumed the altar with the burnt offering, 
and the fat ; which when all the people faw, 
they fliouted and fell on their face." But I- 
think, it feems plain, there is very little fimili- 
tude in any one circumftance (nay not in the 
very aftiOn of fending down fire) between this 
of our author and that of the fcripture, and, 
therefore (to ufe lord Baton's words) Nos omncm 
in hoc gencre Ucentiam nobis ipfs inlerdicamus, ne 
forte igne extraneo ad altare Domini utarnur. 
The reafon given above very well and fully ex- 
plains the matter, fo that we have no occafion 
to feek further. The epithet filver give)) to 
Diana's bow, ver. 160. may be applied to the 
moon, no lefs than gold to her other accoutre- 
ments. Her rays, i. e. her hoiu are of a fiver 
appearance : Frijchlinus fays, Habitum y cur- 
runi Diana defcribit, ut majefiutcm ds" divinam 
ejus potentiam adumb: et, qua non impertinevtur 
(sfe aureo luntt colore, £3" velocitate curfus inteUigi ^ 
pojfunt." Thus both gold ajid filver arc, wc, 
fee, affigned to the 7noon. 



THE HYMN TO DIANA. 

Feels trembling ! To far nobler game the fourth 

Than trees or fa v ages, direds its way : 

I fee it fly — dread hifling thro' the air, 

Wing'd with deftrudion to thofc impious ftates, 

Where hofpitable virtue dies contemn d,. 

And juftice lives a name ! How wretched they 

Whofe crimes incur thy vengeance ? Flocks and herds 

Of rot and peftilence wide-wafting die : 

Hail levels all their labours, herb, fruit, grain : 

Their blooming offspring gray-hair'd fires lament ; 



69 

i6s 



170 



Th( 



Ver. 170. Wretched they, &c.] Thefe lines 
of our author, where he denounces curfes 
and bleflinss on the unrighteous and righteous 
ftates are moft remarkably excellent : every 
word is expreflive through the whole : the curfes 
the moft fevere, the bleffings the moft elevated. 
Peftilence, war, famine and defolatioHj are op»- 
pofed to plenty, riches, health, long-life and 
peace : but there is one thing which above 
aJl, adds to their beauty, and that is, the 
great agreement ahd fimilitute we find in 
them to feveral of the fineft paflages in fcrip- 
ture : every one of which it would be too te- 
dious and unneceflary for me to point out. I 
fhai! therefore only give you fome of the moft 
ftriking that occur to me, and whoevr will 
give himfelf the trouble to fearch for more will 
find his labour well imployed. So for the firft 
par;^, in the Pfalms we find, " He deftroyed 
their vir.es with hail-ftones : he fmote their cattle 
alfo with hail-ftones : he gave up their cattle 
alfo to the hail and their flocks to hot thun- 
derbolts : he gave their life over to the pefti- 
lence." Or according to the Hebreto-, " their 
beads to the murrain :" P/lxxviii. Again '\\\Deu- 
teronomy, " 1 he Lord fhall make the peftilence 



cleave to thee, until he have confumed thee off 

the land, whether thou goeft to poftefs it ." 

xxviii. 21. See this whole chapter, where are 
recorded the bleflings for obedience, and the 
curfes for difobedience. 

Ver. 174. 'I heir blooming, &c.] In the orf- 
ginal xetqonat hhytfovTH £ip' viua-tt — that is (are not 
killed, trucidantur) but tondentur, are Jhavedfor 
than, becaufe it was the cuftom to fhave the 
beard upon the death of friends, as a token of 
grief: fo Ovid, 

Non mihi te licuit lachrymis perf under e juj} is, 
In tua nee tonizs ferre fepukra comas. 

And again Statins, 

At genitor, fceptrique decus cultufque tonantis 
Injicit ipfe rogis : tergcque iff peiiore fuiam 
Cxdnem ferro minuit. 

A misfortune feverer than this cannot fure be- 
fal mortals, an evil fo contrary to the courfe of 
nature, is old Cato, fpeaking of the death of 
his fon, tenderly obfervcs — Ct/jus a me ccrpus 
crcmatum ejl, quod contra decuit ab illo mcum, 
F: i/chlinti:, upon the pafl'age in our author, 
tells us, BcHicas clades figno dmunciat : ficut 

crajfw. 



70 THEHYMNTODIANA. 

The wretched women or in child-beds pangs 
Midft poignant tortures perifh ; or refign 
Far from their native chmes th' unwelcome birth, 
But born to perifh, and brought forth to die. 
But whom thy genial fmiles protediing view, 



17 



75 



« Oh 



Cr.rjfus Cyro refpondh, in pace parentes a liberh,in 
hello llberos a parentihus fepcliru I am rather 
apt to imagine the author meant net to denote 
the calamities of a war, as this misfortune then, 
though great, is not wholly unexpected, where- 
as he introduces it as the immediate effe£t of 
xefentment ; and fuch calamities unexpefted ap- 
pear much more dreadful. The paflages I fhall 
go on to bring you from fcripture will beft ex- 
plahi my meaning. In Exodus, it is faid," The 
JLord fmote all the firli- born in £g)ft :" and 
" There was a great cry in /Egypt, for there 
was not a houfe where there was not one dead." 
Exod. xii. 29, 30. And Job fpealcing of the 
wicked man fays, " If his children be multiplied 
it is for the fword : and thofe that remain of 
him fhall be buried in death." xxvii. 14, 15. 
^' Ephraim fliall bring forth his children to the 
murderer," fays the prophet //ff/^« ix, 13. See 
too ver. 16. 

Ver. 175. The wretched women 1 Barrennefs, 
we find from many pafTages in fcripture was 
looked upon as the greateft misfortune: hence 
we find it denounced as a curfe — Give them, 
O Lord — what wilt thou give ? (where the 
ptophet feem.s to recollect fomething of the 
molt ftvere nature) by that folcmn qucftion 
and awful paufe — give them; he proceeds — a 
}r.ifcarrying womb and dry hreajls, Hof. ix. 14. 
but in Callimachus fomething more mifcrable 
j^et is threatned. The women with their 
births were to be deflroyed, to die amidfl their 
f ansjs, or if they did bring forth, they were to 
10 bring forth a race quickly to perifh in foreign 
(Countries. Our Saviour pities the women, that at 
his coming fhould be with child. " Woe to them 
that are with child, and totliem that give fuck in 
ihofc davs." Matt. xxiv. 19. And in Deuteronomy 
xxvlii. quoted above, wc find a moll tlegaiit 



and pathetic paflage, where fpeaking of the 
mifcries of a fiege, it is faid, " The tender and 
delicate woman among you, who would not 
adventure to fet the fole of her foot upon the 
ground for delicatencfs and tendernefs, her eye 
fhall be evil towards her young one that cometh 
out from between her legs, and toward her 
children which fhe fhall bear : for fhe fliall eat 
them for want of all things fecretly in the fiege 
and flraitnefs wherewith thine enemy fhall di- 
ftrefs thee in thy gates — ." And this we find 
to have really happened iri that mod fhocking 
fiege of Jerufalem, of which the yrw///; hiftorian 
gives us fo terrible an account. 

Ver. 179. But whom, &c.] We come now 
to a more pleafing view : to a fight of the blef- 
fings which crown the virtuous after we have 
feen the terrible ilh that await the wicked and 
impious. The i28ih PJalm begins moft beau- 
tifully thus — " BlelTed are all they tliat fear the 
Lord, a:id walk in his ways. For thou fhalt 
eat the labour o: thine hands : O well is thee, 
and happy fi alt thou be : (for ufing whicii in my 
tranflation, I hope, there needs no apology) 
Thy wife fliall be as the fruitful vine upon the 
walls of thy houfe, thy chddren like olive- 
branches round about thy table, bfc. — again — 
" That our garners may be full and plenteous, 
that our flieep may bring forth thoufands and 
ten thoufands in our ftreet : that our oxen may 
be ftrong to labour, that there be no decay, no 
leading into captivity, and no complaining in 
cur ftreets. — Happy are th.e pecple that arc in 
fuch a cafe, yea, bleffed are the people who 
have the Lord for their God.'' P/al. c-xYw. ad 
fin. And a^ain — " Thou crowneft the \ ear with 
thy gnodnefs, and the clouds drop fatnefs : they 
flialfdrop upon the dwellings of the wildernefs, 
and the little hills fhall rejoice on every fide. 
* The 



T H E H Y M N T O D I A N A. 71- 

" Oh well are they — and happy fliall they be !" i8o 

Diftinguifh'd plenty crowns the laughing fields, 

The cattle bring forth thoufands : hand in hand 

Fair peace and plenteoufnefs around them rove : 

Nor death approaches there, till ripe with age 

Gradual they drop contented to the grave : 185 

Difcord, that oft embittering focial joys 

Amidft the wifeft comes, comes never there : 

Union and harmony triumphant reign. 

And every houfe is concord, peace and love ! 

Grant Goddefs, grant my faithful friends may prove 190; 
Of that bleft number : Oh afUgn thy bard, 
Amidft that number place ! So fhall my foul^ 
The future hymn chaunt raptur'd-^ — theme divine, 
Sacred to fair Latona, and her race.. 

Apollo 



c 



The folds fhall be fo full offlieep, the vallies x. 27: The conclufion is like that in the 

fhall ftand fo thick with com, that they fhall Pfalms. — "Peace be within thy walls, and 

laugh and(ing."P/fl/. Ixv. 11. Andln Deuteronomy, plenteoufnefs within thy dwellings." Pfal. cxxii. 

" BlefTed fhall be the fruit of thy ground, the 7. I have forborn fweiling my notes with 

fruit of thy cattle, the increafe of thy kine, and paflages from antient authors, becaufc we (hall 

the flocks of thy fheep." chap, xxviii. See certainly find none equal to thefe from the fcrip- 

Hymn to Jpolio note 74. and 60. ture, and becaufe the reader, if he thinks pro- 

Ver. 184. A/iri/ffl/^, &c.] Long life is every per, may find many already gathered to his 

where in fcripture promifed as the reward of hands by the very learned Spanheim. 

obedience. — " Tjiou fhalt come to thy grave Ver. rgo. Grant, &c.] CalUmachus always 

in a full age, as a fhock of corn cometh in its fhews the excellence and generofity of his fen- 

feafon." 'Job v. 26. and in Proverbs, we find. — timents, by recommending his friends to the 

*' The fear of the Lord prolongeth days, but regard and protection of his deities. See Hymn 

the years of the wicked fhall befhortned," chap, to Jupiter, ver. 109. 



72 THE HYMN TO DIANA. 

Apollo and Diana ; — facred chief 
To thee chaft queen, and thy immortal deeds : 
Thy every attribute fhall there be fung, 
Thy dogs, thy bow, thy quiver and the car 
That whirls thee brightly gleaming thro' the fky, 
When to Jove's court repairing : thy approach 
At heaven's eternal portals Phoebus waits 



I9S 



200 



With 



Ver. 199. That, Sec] Heit Diana appears 
.in a new character : entring the celcftial regions 
in all her pomp and glory : we fee the fuperior 
dignity and eminence of the Goddefb : all the 
denies rife to her, 

-The heavenly guefts 



All graceful rife — and by JpoUs's fide 
, Her feat Ihe takes fweet-fmiling 

The word O-iitvib in the original, which I have 
rendred by brightly gleaming, refers to her as 
the moon, and confcquently juftifies that tranf- 
iation : and in that character /Efchylus calls 
Diana Nrxms o(p9«^|t^o;, the eye of the night ; and 
" Phornutus (fays Spanheim) tells us Diana was 
called Diaynna (f;e ver. 270.) by the Greeks 
Im to ^iK«t feu i3«Wv«i' raj KXTwa;, from darting 
forth rays." 

Ver. 200. Thy approach, &c.J JpoUo and 
Mercury are faid to meet Diana at her entrance 
into heaven, becaufe they both were worfliipped 
by the Greeki at the entrance, or in the courts 
before houfes ; and there called wfoTri'Aajoi. So 
the fcholia on Arijlaphanes, eGo? fi;i(;w Ejf<,>j» iJjuojIe? 
ipia im fifffci'. " Becaufe he was the God of 
jthicves, and therefore was fet before the doors 
to ruard the houfes." So in ihe Elci^ra of So- 
fhocie. 't'ot^e, 7rfor«T«!fi£, ot< irfo tw &ufuv iJ^t/rai, and, 
" in Adacrohita., it is faid, apud Graces Apollo co- 
litur qui ©ugaio; vacatur : cjufque aras ante fores 
fuMi celebrant, ipfum exitus iS introitus demon- 
Amntis poientem. Idem Jpollo apud illos et AyvMv^ 

3 



nuncupatur •, quaft vils prapofitus urhanis : illi 
enim vias, ques intra pomaria funt Ayt/ia? appel- 
lant. Befides, another reaf^n may be given for 
Mercury meeting Diana, or Luna oricns, becaufe 
that conjlellation, like the moon, rifes at the 
evening, and fets in the morning. So that 
thus a two- fold reafoii may be found for thefe 
two, rather than any other, meeting Diana : the 
one, from the religion of the Heathens, the 
other phyfical, or hum aftrcinomy. Spanheim, 

Thefe obfervations of Spanheim confirm the 
general tenour of tiie rem.aks, that thefe fables 
in the Heathen Alythology havt- a conltant refer- 
ence to natural things . Apollo, or the Sun 
was, without all doubt, worfhipped as 0uf«t»s, 
placed before their doors, iSc. to (hew him, as 
Macrobius exprefTes it, potentem exitus is in- 
troitus ; and in reference to the works of the 
material light it is faij in the Pfalms, — " Thou 
makefi: the outgoings of the morning and evening 
to rejoice." Pfal. Ixv. 8. Upon this view, all 
the mythology and every name relative to this 
fubjedi may be fully underftood. The name 
ax«xiio-io5 given to Hermes feems defigned to ob- 
viate the dif^race commonly thrown on him as 
the God of thieves, Ji^V. for we are tolJ, it comes 
from words implying his doing no evil, fcu^t/o? 
KUKu ■crajjaiTiof uv, fays the fcholiall : a good epi- 
thet ot the planet Mercwj. For my own part, 
I don't fee how «xaxi<r>05 can come from aKaxoi;. 
I fhould rather imagine it.came from ax>i &: xaim. 
[iKYix) inarfit adurit.) which would give an apt 
meaning to the word, as applied to the planet. 

It 



THE HYMN TO DIANA. 

With Acacefian Hermes : This thy arms 
And that the produce of thy fports to take : 
Such erft Apollo's tafk, or ere at heav'n's 
Bleft banquets gread Alcides found a place, 
Whofe is that duty now : the rich repaft 
With thee approaching, at the gates of heav'n 
He waits unwearied. Him mean time the Gods, 
But chief his envious ftepdame, ceafelefs fcofF 
In pleafant vein, when from the car he bears 
A bull's vafl weight, or by its hind-leg drags. 



73 



205 



210 



Impatient 



It is no wonder the author fliould place Her- 
cules in this fituation, as we find him lb much 
renowned for his good ftomach, fo famous for 
his voracioufnefs and excefs as well in eating as 
drinking. Hence he had the name of Addepha- 
gus and Paniphagus. See ver. 226. The drun- 
ken Hercules is a well known remain : and Her- 
cules his goblet is fcarce lefs famous than him- 
felf. Herculcm fiSioi es veieres nonfme caufa cum 
poculo fecerunt, fed et nonnunquam cafahundum et 
ehrium : non folum quod is hcros bibax fiiiffe per- 
hibetur : fed etiam quod antiqua hyioria cfi, 
Henulem poculo tanquam nav'igio ventis immenfa 
mar'ui tranfiffe. Ego tamen arhitror non poculo 
Herculcm muria iranfvectum jed navigio cut fcypho 
nonien fult : Ita ut Jupra cantharu/n iff carche- 
fium y a cymbis derivatlva cymbia, omnia l.\rc 
ajferuimus ejfe navigiorum vocabula. iVIacrobius 
Saturn. 1. 5. c. 21. There are, who have look- 
ed upini this ftory of Hcrcu'es his failing in a 
cup to the delivery oi Prometheus or man, as an 
allegory of our Saviour, coming in the Jle/1) — in 
•came tanquam fragili vafculo ad reiicmptionem 
htimani generis — as lord Bacon exprefles it. 
There feems a manifeil alluiion in the fable : 
our mortal bodies are called earthen veffels in 
fcripture. See 2 Cor. iv. y. and in many other 



refpefls Hercules feems darkly to figure out the 
Redeemer. See note 216. 

Ver. 209. Scoff.'] See Mr. Pope's Homer, 
b. 5. V. 517. and note. 

Ver. 211. J bull's, kc] I have endeavoured 
to give fome expreflion to the pafTagc by mak- 
ing the found imitate the fenfe, though not in 
the fame manner with the author, 

Ka^r^os OCTifffitJioio (pt^oi ■roc/Jo? a<r7Tai^i:TX 

there cannot be a more happy line, nor a word 
fo proper as oTriaGiJiom, expreffive entirely of the 
fpurning of the bead's leg as Hercules drags it 
along : and the fpondee in the da6lyl's place at 
the end of the verfe, is judicioufly introduced to 
exprefs the toil and labour; which I have st- 
tempted to do in the tranflat on, by all monofvl- 
lables and the hiatus. — The word "aitvaxa in the 
next line, which is rendred alloquitur, the fcholia 
explain hy'^u'p^tn^^ — /Efchylus nfes it, — Um^Kir 
£t)^o70II7l »a9£Ti!ftao-i» where tsuua-y-ns is explained by 
iTVHri^ire and cu(p^Qti^iTc, ir.ielligcntem ac moderatuin 
rcddite." So that the proper fenfe of the word 
is moneo, fapere vel rcftpere facto — and in the 
author it is ufcd in this fi.-nfe ironically — " He 
advifed vou in this crafty and farcallic manner." 



74 THEHYxMN TO DIANA. 

Impatient fpurning, a wild boar's huge bulk 
Slow up heav'n's fteep — while thee in crafty guife 
Goddefs he thus befpeaks : *' On noxious beafls 
" Employ thy darts : that mortals may beftow 
" Alcides the preferver's name on thee ! 



(C 



215 



Suffer 



Ver. 214. Hercules' $ fpeech.'] Nothing can be 
more in character than the fpeech which Calli- 
machus hath put into the mouth of Hercules ; 
how well do the Itrength and fliortnefs of the 
f^^ntences fpeak the bluntnefs and choler of the 
fpeaker i" The firft line is admirable ; without 
any fort of ceremony, he tells his mind ; and 
very properly touches upon his own merits. But 
the concluding ftrolcc has fomething in it inimi- 
table ; Ba^A' fjj-i xa» xa;. The fcholiaft makes 
a moft: curious remark upon his bidding Diana 
deftroy the larger beafls. Ai«t>i» A^r,(pa.yfxs ra- 

fUi^u Tan Za'iiy xt\ivH avr^t ayftvem ! He wanted 

them to fatiate his hunger ! Alas poor Hercules — 
and miferable heaven ! 

-Ver. 216. Alcides the pre/crver, Sic] The 
original is, 

which doubtlefs, according to Huetius, fhould 
be read ©mrot a-s jSoiOon — ut homines ie auxilia- 
iricem, tanquam me, invocent. Chryfoftom tells 
tis, he was called " AKi^txaxos and Zwriip, not for 
the reafons here hinted at by our poet, nor for 
ridding the earth of deftrudlive animals and the 
like, but for punifhing and defl:roying tyrants 
and wicked men." In the ifland of Thafos the 
people looked upon him as their fi/vloi/r : " And 
we are told by Rave/in (fays Banier) that tliere 
are coins whereon this title is given him. If 
father Tournem'ine fliall ever make good his afler- 
tion, that moil of the heroes of antiquity were 
only Pagan copies of the AleJJlah known to all 
nations by a remamdcr of the traditions which 
they had diftorted, doubtlefs he will not omit 
to make mention of Hacules the faviour, wor- 
Ciipped by a people whom Panfauias and He- 



rodrAus make to have been originally from Tyrt 
in Ph^nlcla, a country fo near to that where 
the prophets lived, who have faid fo much of 
the MeJJlah. No doubt he will alfo trace the 
refemblance which Seneca finds between them, 
and it muft be owned, that either the tragic poet 
had borrowed the pompous ideas wherewith he 
embellilbes the flory of that hero's death upon 
mount Oetai from the accounts delivered at 
Rome under the reign oi Tiberius, of the faviour' s 
death upon mount Calvary, or, it will not be 
eafy to find out what could fo exalt his imagina- 
tion." See Earner's Mythology, vol. 4. b. 3. 
c. 6. the reader is defired particularly to remark 
this palTage ; which will greatly confirm the 
before-mentioned obfervations : we may remem- 
ber that Hercules was the fon of vlGoiI, begotten 
on2.mortalM.o\.her,i^c. There is fomething very 
peculiar in an expreflion of the author's in the 
159th line yjioi, DtwOws quoad membra in deum 
mutatus which I have tranflated. 

His corruptible part immortalized : and which 
feems to borrow light from the paflage quoted 
above, as well as from the following out of 
the Hercules Oetaus of Seneca. 

Hercules. 

Non me gemetitis Jlagna cocyti tenent, 1963 
Non puppis umbras fnrva tranfvcxit rneas : 
Jam parce, mater, c[usR\hui. AfanesCemel 1965 
Umhrafque vidi : quidquid in nobis tui 
Mortale/i'i.'-'a/, ignis eveSfus tulit. 
P.iterna cetlo pars data ejl, flammis tua. 1968 
Proinde plandf us pone, quos gnat? paret 
Genitrix inert i : luSlus in turp s cat. 1970 

f^irtus in ajlra tcndit, in mortem tin. or. 
Prafens ab ajiris. matei, Alcides cano : 
P^nas cruentusjam tihi Euryjieus dabit : 
Curru fuperbum veiia tranjccndes caput. 

Me 



THE HYMN TO DIANA, 

*» Suffer the harmlefs goat, the timid hair 

" Secure to range ; ought injure they mankind ? 

*' Poor is the triumph there : the wild boars wafle, 

" The wild bulls level all the blooming year : 

" Thefe are man's foes : pour all thy rage on thefe." 

Thus fpeaking, all indignant he bears ofF 
His burden, labouring : tho' on Phrygia's mount 
Beneath the facred oak, immortaliz'd 



75 



220 



His 



Me jam decet fubirc caleftem plagam 
Inferna vixi rurfus Alcides loca. 



1975 



I have quoted the whole paflage to let the rea- 
der fee how fimilar it is to feveral parts of 
fcripture : and firft, ver. 1963. " Thou wilt 
not leave my foul in hell," &c. Pfal. xvi. 10. 
St. Peter explaining this prophecy of Chrift, 
[JHs :i, 24.) fays, " Whom God hath raifed 
up having loofed the pains of death, becaufe it 
it was not poflible that he (hould be holden of it. 
1965. " Daughters of y«7/yrt/tfw weep not for 
me, l£c." Luke xxiii. 28. Chrift being dead 
dieth no more^ death hath no more dominion over 
him. For in that he died, he died unto fm 
mce^ but in that he liveth, he iiveth unto Ood^ 
Rom vi. 10. 

1970. Let not your heart be troubled, &c. — 
In my father's houfe, iSc. — I go to prepare a 
place for you, is'c. — See St. John xiv. i, 2, fa* 
fcq. what Hercules fays to his mother of her fu 
ture triumph over Euryfleus, 1972. feems to 
have great reference to what Chrift promifed his 
difciples, thofe that believed on him. See Matt. 
xii. 53. concerning their viiilory over, and tread- 
ing upon the head of they^r/iifw/ind all his devices. 
" In my name they (hall caft out devils; they 
fliall fpeak with new tongues, they (hall take up 
ftrpents, and if they drink any deadly thing it 
fhall not hurt them ; they fliall lay hands on the 
fick, and they fhall recover. So fpeaking he was 
received up into heaven." See St. Mark xvi. 17. 



This was a revenge indeed upon Euryjihc~ 
us, this was riding triumphantly over his 
proud head. 1975- " I leave the world,, and 
go to the father, John xvi. 28, and / come t» 
ihee—xvii. 11. SeeJcTsi. 9, 10, 11. 

J 976. Through death, he might de/lroy him 
that had the power of death. Heb. ii. 14. So 
" when this corruptible fhall have put on in- 
corruption, and this mortal fhall have put on 
immortality, then fliall he brought to pafs the; 
faying that is vVritten, death is fwallowed up in 
viftory — O death, £5V." See i Cor. xv. 54. He 
will dcflioy death for ever. Ifai. xxv. 8. on fuch 
the fecond death hath no power. Rev. xx. 6. See 
alfo ver. 14. and to him that overcome-h, faith 
Chrift, will I give to fit with me on my throne., 
even as I overcame and fit with my Father in his 
throne, chap. iii. 2i.xxi. 4. 

Ver. 224. Beneath the facred oak, &c.] It 
dcferves atter.tion, that our poet fnould fix the 
place of Hercules his immortalizing, his fliaklng 
ofF the human, and afluming the divine nature, 
vm A^vV, under the oai, the facred and emble- 
matical tree ; of which the fcriptures make fo 
much mention, and which v/as doubtlefs a/acred 
emblem of the divine covenant entered into by 
the eternal trinity for the redemption of man : 
The word for oak in the Hebretu, is the fame 
with that which fignifics an oath, ri^i^, whence 
comes J.'eim a'pi^N* as was before remarked. 
Hymn to Jpsllo, note 97, which fee. Hence 
that veneration paid to it at firlF by true bc- 
L 2 h<:\'ui : 



76 THEHYMNTODIANA. 

His corruptible part, he rofe a God ; 

Not yet his hunger ceas'd ; infatiate flill. 
As when in evil hour Dryopia's king 
Theiodamasj he met, and madly flew. 

The nymphs Aranifian from the golden yoke 
Let loofe the panting flags, and careful bring, 
Rich provender from Juno's meadows reap'd, 
Swift-fpringing trefoil : the immortal food 



225 



230 



Of 



lievers : {Abraham dwelt in or among the oaks 
of Mamre ('.■j'i'7»\;iy an.l there too the Lord ap- 
peared to hiin. Gen. xiii. 8. xviii. i, i^c. and 
hence too that f jine veneration paid to it by 
idolaters, who, when they had deferted the true 
vjorfhin, retained the Jign, but forgot the thing 
fignificd. It was peculiarly f.icred to yapiter — 
Sacra 'Jovi quercus, fays Ovid, and it is no im- 
probable reafon of this tradition, that Hercules 
was tranflated under the facred oak, " that the 
oath of God was principally to the Son. See Pfal. 
ex. 4. that whereby he was upheld and fupport- 
ed, and that whereby every believer alfo obtains 
Jirong confolatiiK.'icz Heb.\\. 18. forwefuppofe 
Hercules, in this refpeift, an imperfeiR: figureol" the 
fecond perfon, as obferved in the foregoing note ; 
and in the hymn to Apollo, note 97, this particu- 
lar alfo of the oath tnade to the Son is remarked. 
The Druids were particular in their high venera- 
tion (or the oak, and its excrefcence, ihc MiJJeltoe, 
which, above all other things, gives us the idea 
vi the branch, the righteous branch, foretold by 
the prophet Zechar. iii. 8. for Mijfeltoeb 2. branch 
only, having no trunk or body to fupport it ;. 
•and it grows peculiarly out of the oak, as the 
true branch from the caih of God. The 
Druids had their name from the oak Afu5, 
and feem to have been of all others the molt 
pure idolaters, retaining the facred emblems in 
the greatefl exaflnefs, and with the leaft mix- 
ture. A modern print by Mr. Hapian will 



give the curious many agreeable reflections upon 
this fubjeift: : it is called the Converfion of the 
Britons to Chrijlianity, and one of thofe which- 
were intended to give a general hiflory of Eng- 
land by cuts : whether that gentleman took the 
hint from any old copy, I know not, but it is 
very obferveable, that he introduces the crofs, 
and its preachers, jufi: when the Druid has fever- 
ed the Mijfcltoe, the branch from the oak, and 
the refl are preparing x.o facrifice. 

Ver. 228. Dryopia^s king.'\ It is reported that 
Hercules, having paft over Dryopia, and being 
preft with extreme hunger, happened to meet 
with k\ngTl:eiodamas, who v/as tilling the ground 
with oxen, and begged of him to give him ibme- 
thing to fatisfy his hunger : which the king re- 
fufing to do, Hercules enraged immediately flew 
him, fnatched up one of the oxen, and devoured 
it fo varacioufly that he left not fo much as the 
bones. And hence he had the name of Bsp^fo?,. 
as is mentioned in the fortieth epigram of the 
Anthologia. 

Frischlinus. 

Ver. 231. Rich provender, &c.] This partis 
wholly allegorical, and can with no appearance 
of reafon be otherwife applied : Juno, in the- 
Heathen fyftcm is the air; her msadovus feed not 
only the courfers of tiie moon, thofe which 
carry and fupport her, but alfo Ji<pitcr's too,, 

f0£ 



THE HYMN TO DIANA. 

Of Jove's immortal courfcrs ; and fupply 
In golden buckets cool refrefliing draughts 
Of heaven's pure water ; to her father's court 
When moves the Goddefs : all the heavenly guefts 
At her approach rife graceful : while her feat 
She takes fweet-fmiling by Apollo's fide. 

That hallow'd day when on Inopus' banks 
The Goddefs leads the choir, when reign her fports 



77 



235 



240 
At 



few tbe air is the _fine qua ficn, the paiuh<rn, 
food, pillar, fupport, and nourifhfnent of all 
things. Callimachus fpeaks in this manner, favs 
Spanheim, quod abacus temperie, is'c. " becaufe 
on the temperature of the air, as the produce 
and fertility of all fruits and feeds, fo alfo of all 
pabulum, of all food and pafturage depends." 
From whence Anaxagoras (as Tbecphrajlus in- 
forms us) affirmed, that the air had the feed of 
all things in it, from which, mixed with water, 
he held that all plants arofe. Add to this the 
words of Claudian concerning thefe flags of 
Diana. 

Cervi curruin fubiere ju^^aks, 
^los dec us ejfe Dees primi fub luminc casli, 
Rofcida fcecundii concepit Luna cav^rnis. 

and Petronius, Luna innumerabilibus comitate) ft - 
ekrihus ctiam feras ducit ad pabulum, i^c. See 
Spanheim & note. 

Vcr. 236. All the heavenly guejls, &c.] We 
rnay have a beautiful idea of this approach of 
Diana into her father's court, when we behold 
the moon afcending from the hills, and all the 
Hoji of Heaven, all the flars ariiing with her, 
faluting her on her entrance into their courts ; 
while turning to her brother the fun^ her face is 
enlightnad, and conlfantly direiflcd to,, and re- 
ceiving light from him, flic ivalketh along in 
majefty and hrightnefs through the Jl'ies, See 
Job xxxi. 26. 

Ver. 239. T/xit halloiv'd day, &c.] Here the 
poet begins another part of the hymn : " Having 



thus treated of the majefly and divine authority 
of the celcftial Diana, he now proceeds (fays 
Frifchlinus) to thofe feafts and anniverfary rites, 
which were celebrated to her honour amongft 
all nations : but firil he exhorts his country- 
men and hearers to a religious obfervance of hec 
worfliip ; ad\'ifmg them, by fetting before tliem 
an example in himfelf to reft from their labours,, 
and to celebrate her honour, denouncing punifh- 
ments on fuch as negleifl them." 

Luce facrd reqtiiefcat humus, requicfcat araior, 
Et grave fujpenfo votiiere ccjjit opus. 

T'lBULLUS. 

This dbubtlefs was the rcafon why our pious 
poet would not fufFcr his oxen to work, and 
herein perhaps he may rife up in judgment 
ag.iinfl: many a ChriPiian, who during that hol- 
lowed fabbath, that divine day of reji, when 
the praifes of their God are fung in the great 
Congregation, arc far differently employed ; and 
without mercv to themfelves or their bca/ls, are 
wearied in a bufv toil of pleafurg. (Jur nation 
too loudly witnefles this truth, and what will 
be theconfequencecf fbuniuerfal a breach of the 
fibbath, I dare not even hint in this pif.ce. That, 
great man Sir UiHiam Temple hath fully declared' 
it, and a much greater than he, hath denounced 
a certain deftrmStion upon every land, where his- 
fabbath is thus profaned ! May we be more 
wife than to run v/ith our eyes open into lu..!x 
ruin. 



fS THE HYMN TO DIANA. 

At Pitane or Limna ; when the groves 

Of Alas Araphenides rejoice 

From Scythian Taurus to receive their queen : 

That day my oxen fhall from labours ceafe : 

For tho' Tymphasan, and of ftouteft breed 245 

To turn the mellow foil, needs muft they drag 

Their limbs o'erlabour'd, weary to the ftall, 

When Sol himfelf ftands ftill : and from his car 

Hangs fmiling to behold the lovely choirs, 

Gives time a paufe, and lengthens out the day. 250 

Say Goddefs; (for from thee my foul receives 
The heavenly infpiration, which to men 
Lefs favour'd it reports — ) fay, what blefk ifle, 
What city, mountain, port and nymph obtains 

Thy 

248. men, kc] " This fays FnfchUnus, And the Sun flood ftill, fsf^r." ?,Qe Jojhua -x.. 12. 

is to be underftood of the fun, who, after the iiow fatisfaftorily this miracle is explained to us, 

vernal equinox ('or at that time, as appears when we confider that the word for Swi C'-tt' 

from Dionyfius, thefe feafts were celebrated at Skeme/liy is very different from that ufed for th§ 

De'os) continues longer above the horizon : body of the Sun. and fignifies only the folar 

wiience the days are lengthened, and the further light, by the motion and a(£lion of which in 

he recedes from the fouth towards Dtva;, the /Vrar/za^ow, the pi.'.netary oibs are all movedand 

longer they continue to be, till the folfticc." all perform their feveral revolutions — this light 

This feems highly reafonable, and the paflage in w_s commanded to be filent dl, dutn, to 

this view has all the graces of poetry : but 1 am ceafe to aSt, and to exert no more its power ; 

apt to imagine with fome able commentators, which once //c«/ and ceafing all muft neceflarily 

that we have hcie an imperfect tradition of the Jlandjiill, and no revolution be performed, till it 

great miracle recorded in "Jojlua, and which fhould again begin to ail, and to ufe its influ- 

riiuil have been well known to the whole world, ence. And this confideration will explain every 

" Sun, Jl and thou Jlill [be filent, marg ] upon thing of the like fort in the Sacred Scripture. 
Gibeon, and thou Moon in the valley of Jjalon. 



THE HYMN TO DIANA. 

Thy love's pre-eminence ? What fairs divine 
Of birth immortal triumph in thy choir ? 

Hail Doliche of ifles, of cities chief 
Hail Perga — Hail of mounts Taygetus : 
Of ports Boeotian Euripus ! But how 
To Cretan Britomartis fhall I fpeak 
Thy boundlefs love, unerring huntrefs, fhe ? 
With whofe bright beauties fir'd, nine tedious months, 
O'er Greta's mountains royal Minos rov'd, 
Raging with wild defire : From whom fhe fled, 



79 

2.55 



260 



And 



Ver. 258. Perga.'] From this metropolis of 
Pamphilia, whtre Diana was particularly wor- 
ftipped, and which as our author tells us was 
her mod favoured city, fhe had the name of 
Pergaia ; many coins are extant with the in- 
fcription ot riepyaia? ApT£fitl'c; upon them. 

Ver. 263. Minos.'] It has been a circumflance 
of all others moft perplexing in the more an- 
ticnt hiftory, that the actions of different men 
with the fame names, have been all either ap- 
plied to one, or wrongly transferred from one 
to the other. Of this there are numberlefs in- 
ftances ; among which this of Minos is not the 
leaft ftriking ; for there were two princes of that 
name, entirely different in charafttr, the one a 
wife prince, and a great lawgiver, infomiich 
that he was feigned to have been one of the 
judges of hell : the other, which is the perfon 
meant by our author, a warrior, and an inhuman 
tyrant. Even Plato and Socrates C)nfound the 
two Minos' s, afcribing to the firft what Homer 
fays of the fecond : — " Meurftus ?nd Mar- 
Jham (fa.s the ingenious A'.'e Banier) and 
feveral others are of opinion that Minos the fe- 
cond, was the lawjiiver and judge of hell; two 
titles which I have taken from him and afligncd 
to his granJfuher — " and he goes on — " It is 
no wonder that the anticnts fell into this miftake 
3 



fmce almofl; all of them have confounded the 
two princes I have fpoken of, as alfo their ad- 
ventures. As they knew but one Minos., they 
were obliged to make him judge of hell and Ic- 
giflator, and the fubje(Sl of the fables of the Mi- 
notijur." — Hence came all the inconfiftences in 
the hiftory of Alinos, and thus the deeds of the 
tyrant were charged upon the pious legiflator : 
hence he was called by Honier 07M(pfut ; inju/ius 
rex., by Catu/.'us ; and by Philcjiratus faid to 
have exceeded all men in cruelty : things in- 
compatible with a chara>3er fo elevated as that 
of the infernal judge, and wife lawgi\ er — The 
whole matter is elegantly and judiaoufly fct 
right by Banier in the 3d vol. 2d book, and 
8th chapter of his AJythology of the Antients. — 
Virgil in his Ciris mentions this ftory : 

Ntinquam tarn obtiixe ftigicns Minois antorcs 
Praceps aereis fpecula cle inontibiis ijj'es : 
UnJc aiii fugijj'c ferunt : et riumina Phocte 
Virginis ajfignant : alii quo not i or ejjes 
Diiiynnam ciixeretuo de nomine iunam. ver. 305 

See ver. 272. following. — We find Diana very 
frequently called by the mme oi DiSi^nna : fhe 
had a feflival at LacirdemoncViWcu Aixnma 3$ well 
as at Crete. See Meurjius Gracice feriata: lib. 2. 

Brite- 



8o THE HYMN TO DIANA. 

And in receffes fecret mock'd his chacc : 

Or precipcies rough, o'er rugged rocks 

Nine tedious months he rang'd ; nor ceas'd purfuit, 

Till on a mountain's fummit, ready now 

To fcize his prey — She fprung from off its brow, 

Down to the ocean plunging : Friendly nets 

Of fifhers caught, and fav'd the panting nymph ; 

Hence call'd Dic^ynna : and the mountain hence 

Di6la?an : where in memory of the deed 

Due rites Cydonians pay : thy chaplets wove 

With, or the pine-tree's, or the maftic's boughs, 



265 



270 



Unhallow'd 



Britomarus is properly fpeaking, no more than 
a common compound fignifying Virgo dulcis, 
from BfiTu;, dulcis, and luapn;. virgo ; words of 
Cretan extraction : the latter of which, as the 
excellent 5(7c/'rtr/ has obferved, ftems derived 
from the Arabick riK"l?J, niarath — fo that the 
author never means to fay, that Diana was 
called Britomartis from the nymph (as fome 
have thought) but Diiiynna. See Banter's My- 
thology, note 2- book i. chap. 15. 

Ver. 273. Difiaan, &c.] Callinwchus is ge- 
nerally thought guilty of a miftake in his ac- 
count of thefe mountains ; Difle and DiSiynna 
being two, at different parts of the ifland of Crete, 
from the firft of which the Cydonians are very 
far remote. To clear up the difficulty fome have 
imagined that KtiJwn;, Cydonians in the author, 
means ail the Cretans in general, becaufe Cydo- 
nia was the metropolis of that ifle. So Cydonia 
Ida are ufed for Cretan elarts. The reading, 
fay they, fhould be AixTuvaiov not Aixraioir. Dic- 
tynarus is not Difiaus, fays Ccllarius, after 
Strabo. The n-,ountain Diiiymia was indeed 
iacred to Diana., but Di£fe to Jupiter. 



Pro qua mcnede canores 

Curetum jonitus crepitantiaque aera fecuta 
Di(Staeo cceli regcm pavere fub antra. 

Virgil. 

See Hymn to "Jupiter, ver. 5. — Virgil, on the 
fame fubjedl in his Ciris commits the fame 
miftake, 

Gnoflla ncu Partho contendem fpicula cantu 
Didf asas ageres ad gramina nota capellas. 

It is plain in both places it fhould be Dic- 
iynnaan, as well in our author as in Virgil, and 
indeed the analogy, as has been obferved, be- 
tween AixTta, the nets, AiKTuva, and Aixrwaioj, 
is much more exaft than between Aixtj; and 
Aixxaio*. Some derive the name of Diiiyn- 
na from the rays which the moon cafts forth, 
or becaufe her power pervades all things — a 
^ixH» pro /3a^.^fl», jacere vel jaculare for the 
firft — and from ^i«x»«a9«», permeare, for the 
latter. 



THE HYMN TO DIANA. 

Unhallow'd myrtle there : The flying nymph 
Its branches caught, and hence incurr'd her hate. 
Thee too, fair Upis, light-difpenfmg queen, 
Didlynna, from the nymph the Cretans call. 



8i 



Nor 



Ver. 276- Myrtle.] They did not, I fuppofe, 
fays Madam Dacier, make ufe of the Myrtle in 
thefe rites, becaufe it was facred to Venus. 
A good reafon why a profeft virgin fliould dil- 
dain to touch it : and this explanation feems to 
be favoured by the plants which they ufed for 
their chaplets at this feaft. 1 he pine was par- 
ticularly appropriated to the virgins, as Spanheim 
has proved by many quotations : Chloe in the 
paftorals of Longus, is adorned with a pinea 
corona, as an emblem of virginity, ■arirt/oj ertpa- 
mro xAaJoi;, ■w\{\c\\ Da phnis takes froii^ her, and 
puts on his own head. So Virgil. Pronuba nee 
cylos acccndit Pinus odores ; and in .'Achilles Ta- 
tius, the virgins are faid to come forth with their 
heads crowned •ejitot? xo/^aij. Ovid, in his fafti, 
calls the pine, pura arbor, and one of his com- 
mentators remarks : Jd conciiiandam eaflitatem 
Tbefmophoria2,ufa hujus /oliis cubitus Jibi Jferne- 
bant. " The MafHc or Lentifk is properly 
ufed in thefe ceremonies facred to Di£iyntta, or 
to Diana the Moon, t» avivtrriiruna xai tfitpna-ri, 
as (he encrcafes and nourijlics all things ; who, 
according to Ca'.ullus, 

Ru/lica agricola bonis 
Te£ia frugibus explet. 

And as was obferved in a former note (note i. 
ad fin.) the moon's power in vegetition is clear 
irom Jcripture. Horace alh I'jcr 

Prcfperam frvgum. Od. 6. I. 4- 

And this tree, the majiic, is of all others moft 
fruitful. 

Lentifcus tr'plci folita ejl grandefccre f<itu, 
Ter frugcsfundens,tria tempera tnonjirat arandi, 

fays Aratus. in Cicero's tranflation of him." See 
Spanhiiw's note. 

Ver. 278 Upis.l The fcholiafl obferves here, 

Oi;Tif, Ewi9iT0» AfTE/xioo; — ei'her aTTOTB (Uri^sffSai 

T«s TixT«a-«; — from her following or attending 



women in child-bed, or from her nurfe fo 
called, or from one of the three Hyperborean 
vir^Mns (inentiuned in the next hymn; Upis, 
Loxo and Hecaerge. From the firft of which (be 
took her name, as Apollo thofe of Ao|.a« and 
Exasfyo?, from the other two." — Virgil mentions 
Opis as one of the Attendants on Diana, 

Opim 

TJnam ex virginibus fociis 

Cicero in the 3d book of his Nature of the Gods^ 
tells us, there was a third Diana, whofe fjther 
was called Upis, and her mother Glauce, and that 
Graci f'tpe Upim paterno nomine appellant. All 
hymns to Diana were called OuinyUi by the 

Trazenians ,ti/.tof as Ar,iir,T(a IB^!J;, «; Ot/Tri'/Isi Trapa 

Tfoi^ijuoi; eti AfTf(*i». Though indeed all hymriS 
to her were alterwarils fo called, yet it appears 
probable, they firft had the nameUpingi amonglt 
the Trazenians, where poflibly tnis Diana, 
daughter of Upis was born. It is fomething 
ver)^ aftonifliing, that the fcholiaft (hould not 
have perceived, that Callimachus h'nifelf gives 
us the dcrixation and import of the word U/.s, 
farther than which, furcly we have no cccufton 
to fcek ! 

where we plainly fee that Oi;7ri; comes from c^-r, 
in the genitive wsk, a face or countenance, and 
as w^^ comes from oTrroftai, to fee, the prett. ?ned. 
oi which is i^'rra, therefore Diana has the epi- 
thet i^aio-pofr, oi-arer and difpenjer of light. So 
that (he was called Upis, fiom her beautiful or 
blight fhiiiing: countenance, that fplendid/nrc of 
the moon, which fliints with beautiful ludre; and 
no epithet could better fuit the moon. Macrcbius 
quotes an old Greek poet, where the fairie folu- 
ticn of the matter is given — ww /3Ar,Tiiparoi-i'r, 
Upis darting \\tx fiver rays, from her bright 
countenance. 
M 



82 THEHYMN TO DIANA. 

Nor was Cyrene, fecond in thy love : 
To her thy favor gave the vidlor dogs 
Wherewith th' Hypfaean virgin, at the tomb 
Of fam'd lolcian PeHas, o'er the plain 
Lay'd the proud favage proftrate. Procris too 
Was of thy lov'd affociates : But of all, 
Fair Anticlea claim'd thy prime regard 
More lov'd than each, and dearer than thy eyes. 
Thefe were the firft who on their flioulders bore 
The founding quiver and the twanging bow : 
While the fair flioulder and th' exerted breaft, 
Were naked, in their native whitenefs rich, 
lalian Atalanta, fam'd for fpeed, 



280 



285 



290 



Admitted 



Ver. 282. IVhereivlth, &c.] There is fome- 
thing peculiar in the expreffion toi? tn, in the 
author, cum qtiihtis or quorum opera : which is 
(as Spanhcim obferves) pretty much the fame 
■way of fpeaking with that of the Jtiics, when 

tliey ufe jxeO' Jjftj^ai/, for i> ■nj/.i^a, -^ awootoftat fteO' 

rtLit^cct, fpolior interdiu, fays Arijiophana ; or £x 
for ft£Ta, poji ; fo JEfchylus, 

After a ftorm to fee the loveiieft day. 

lolcos was a city of Magnefia in Thejfaly at 
the bottom of mount Pelius, where was a tomb 
of Pelias king of hlcos. Here it was Cyrene 
gained her victory over the lion, of which you 
have a long account in the gth Pythian ode of 
Pindar. See Hymn X.o Apollo, ver. 125. Pin- 
dar''s account of the difpofition of Cyrene has 
been exa<5tly copied by Firgil, v/ho fays of 
Camilla^ 



Belliitrix — non ilia colo Calathifve Minervcs 
Famincas ajfueta manus, fed pralia virgo 
Dura pat!, curfuque pedum prevertere ventos. 

• A warrior dame : 

Unbred to fpinning in the loom unfkill'd. 
She chofe the nobler Pallas of the field : 
Mix'd with the firft, the fierce virago fought, 
Suftain'd the toils of arms — the danger fought, 

^c. Dryden, b. 7. ver. 1095. 

Ver. 288. Tljefe, &c.] The beft commen- 
tary on thefe lines are the ancient remains, 
where we find the huntrefles picSlured to us with 
their right fliouldtr and breaft naked, their bow 
and quiver, isV. See Montfaucon's Amiquitiesy 
plate 44. fig. 5. 

Ver. 292. la/ian Atalanta, &c.] Concern- 
ing the hunting of Catydon, and the whole ftory 
of Atalanta, See Banicr's Mythology, vol. 4. 
b. 4. c. I. This Atalanta is fometimes con- 
founded with another the daughter oiSchaneus ; 

and 



THEHYMN TO DIANA. 83 

Admitted of thy choir, was taught by thee 
T' elance the dart unerring : From her arm 
Light'ning, behold, it trembles in the heart 295 

Of Calydonia's monfter : Nor the deed 
Shall the brave hunters envy ; while thy realms, 
Arcadia, boaft the trophies, the fharp tufks 
Of the wide-wafting boar : Nor can I deem 
The vengeful Centaurs with fuch fury fraught, 300 

Rh^ecus and mad Hylaeus (by her arm 
Tho' level'd bleeding on Msenalion's top) 
As to purfue the huntrels with their hate 
In Pluto's realms : Yet will their wounds not lie, 
But fpeak the truth and teftify their fhame. 305 

Hail 

and I believe, there is fome confufion in our fides will not lie, (for Xayo^; does not here 

author. I have given the beft interpretation I iignify vifcera, but latera) i. e. they have ftill 

was able of the laft two lines in this ftory, left the marks of the wounds file gave them in 

. their fides when flie killed them. For the aa- 

i;yap s-ipm ajo.E!, . tients thought that whatever wounds were r^- 

which all the commentators have pafled over, ceivcd here their marks ftill continued when peo- 

and which do indeed feem, in a great meafure, pie were in the (hades below." T. E. 
unintelligible, fo that it is only a leap in the 

dark. A learned friend writes thus upon it. — Ou<7^i> ^ayow; avnini^niauiscn. 
" This is one of the pafTages, which I could 

make nothingof ; and the only fenfe I can draw nor'Jlia or vifcera — cum //>/?i mentientur — "i.e. 

from it, which I am afraid you will think a bad I guefs, they themfelves will falfly accufe Ata- 

one, is this ; the poet fays, " nor do I think that Inita., but their xvonnds (or whatever it is) will 

even Hylaus, or the prefumptuous Rhacus not fpeak falfly ivith them, they will fpeak the 

(for he attempted to debauch Atalatita) can truth. Whoever can give us a better interpreta- 

find fault with Jtalanta, with regard to her tion, I fliould be glad, confcfling my own inabi- 

knowledge in archery. For fays the poet, their hty fo to do. 



M 



2 



84 THE HYMN TO DIANA. 

Hail great Chitone, venerable queen, 
For numerous flirines in numerous ftates renown'd ; 
Hail Guardian of Mileteus ; led by thee, 
Cecropian Neleus touch'd thofe happy fhores ! 
Chelias, Imbrafia, mighty Cabir, hail ; 
Sacred to thee great Agamemnon plac'd 



310 
His 



Ver. 306. Chitone.] The fcholiaft, on the 
77th line of the hymn to Jupiter, gives us two 
reafons for this name, the one from a people of 
Attica fo called, the other, on rixti>i/.am rm 
Bf£(pu> ansTiGtcran ta If^aria TH ApTtfuA — " Upon 
which Madam Dacier, with her ufual delicacy, 
obferves — Hoc idem hodii Jit — cum tnater pueros, 
Jfatim atque ipi^u» airtSiixaTo Kfikitm, fan£lo cuidam 
ut Frantijco vel alii vovet, is i/ litis vel'.ibtis in- 
duit. — " So that here we fee fome agreement 
of the Roman Catholic with the Pagan cere- 
monies. 

Ver. 308. Hail guardian^ &c.] It was under 
the aufpices of Diana that Neleus led this colony 
from Jtbeiis to Miletus ; (he was the A^x^ynii;, 
the conducting deity : and confcquently moft 
particularly worfniped there ; fo that I take it, 
MiXsTu) iffiJufce, in the original, refers to her, con- 
ftant refidence at, and protection of that ftate. 
See Hymn to Apollo ver. 20. 

Ver. 308, Miletus.] " P//Hy mentions the old 
and new Aliletus : the former he calls Lelegeis, 
Pithyufa, and Anaftoria : and Strabo tells us, 
that it was built by the inhabitants of Crete. 
The latter was founded according to Strabo by 
Neleus the fon of Codrus king of Athens, when 
he firft fettled in that part of Aftn. This great 
city ftood on the fouth fide of the river Maan- 
der, near the fea-coaft : The inh.ibitants applied 
themfelves very early to navigation, having 
founded, according to Pliny, eighty, according 
to Seneca, three hundred and eighty colonies in 
diftcrent parts of the world. The city itftif 
was no lefs famous for a tt mple and oracle of 
Atiollo, furnamed Didymaus, than for the 
wealth and rwmber of its citizens." Univerfal 
3 



Hijiory, vol. 7. p. 421. Nor was the worfliip 
of Diana lefs regarded by the Milefians than that 
of her brother Apollo : She was fuppofed to have 
been the conductor of this colony. — For as was 
obferved (Hymn io Apollo ver. 78.) the ancients 
thought that fome of the gods not only favour- 
ed the leading of the colony, but themfelves 
became the condu£lors : and that under the 
fhape of different animals, as a crow, a fwan, 
a bee, iDc. So when another fon of Codrus 

led a colony to Ephefus Philojiratus tells us, 

Mif^rai »ys»To ra vavTtxti i» «Jfi MeAit/wv. whence it 
is that bees are frequently feen on the coins of 
the Epheftans. As Diana was thus the leader 
of the Colony, a feftlval was celebrated to her 
honour called NnXui; by tht Milefians. See Ale- 
urfus GrieciiT feriata, 1. 5. where he mentions 
the prodigious veneration that was pjid to this 
fefl.val. It is remarked by Stephen le Moyne 
(f.ns Spanheim) that Aliletus is derived from the 
Hebrew n^ (milt t) liberare, and the "Id name of 
it AnaSloria from amxof, or from falute or jer- 
vatore. 

Ver. 310. Chefias, Imbrafia.] The two divi- 
nities, Juno and Diana feem to be one, from 
thefc two appellations, which are equally pecu- 
liar and applied to both — the firft was taken 
from a promontory of Samos, called Chefium, 
the other from a river o{ Samos, called Imbrafus, 
and Juno's regard for Samos is well known ; 
However, if Juno wjs worfhipped by the 5a- 
mians^ Diana was fo too — as by other proofs 
might be fhewn, but as heft appe.irs from t>vo 
Coins which you will find in Spanhsim's anno.a- 
tion? upon this pafTagc, with the infcription 
ol Za/.iii'v, one of which reprefents Juno, the 

otl.er 



THE HYMN TO DIANA. 

His veflel's helm : What time by thy command 
At AuHs adverfe winds detain'd his fleet 
Big with deftrudlion, breathing fix'd revenge 
On iHum, for Rhamnuflan Helen's rape 



85 



315 
To 



other Diana, who were moft probably the 
fame deity, worfliipped under JifFercnt appel- 
lations, and in a different charadler. Servius'i 
remark on the 5th line of die ift Georgia of 
Virgil, will throw much light on this interpre- 
tation. " Stoici uicunt non ejp nifi unum Deum, 
^ unam eandemque ejfe potejiaton, qua pro rations 
officiorum nojlroi uin variii nommibus appellatur : 
XJnde eundem folem, eundem liherum, eundem Apol- 
linem vacant : Item Lunam, eandem Dianem, 
eandem Cererem, eandem Junonem, eandem Pro- 
ferpinam vacant. 1 his we may obfcrve is the 
opinion of Macrobius, and perhaps not far from 
the truth. 

Ver. 310. Cabir.] What I have tranflated 
Cabir, is in the original -aipaiToSfovt, Deus prima 
fedis : One of the Dii confentes, or majarum 
gentium : " Which were the Gods worfliipped 
by the /Egyptians (fays the learned author of the 
letters on mythology) jijfyriam, Grecians, Sic — 
as the latter, dii minorum gentium, were Gods 
adopted fr' m obfcure people, among whom 
their worfliip had taken its rife : Thefe 
the philofophers and wifer of the priefts would 
not allow to be Gods, fuch as the Tbeban Her- 
cules, E/culnpius, Cajior and t'ollux, becaufe 
they had once been men. The others wtre 
the Cabeirim or mighty Gods of the Eajierns, 
and the Confentes, the unanimous or co-operat- 
ing Gods of the Romans, woi (hipped over all the 
world ; but whofe lites and myfteries were par- 
ticularly famous in the il1an s Samothrace and 
Lemnos, and at Eleufis. T'hey were originally 
but two, heaven and theyi^w, the only Gods of 
the jEthiopians, from whom /Egypt itfelf is faid 
to have drawn both its religion and learning ; 
Thcfe were worfhippcd in Samothrace and the 
/Egyptians made them firft fix, and long after- 



wards twelve, at which number the Dii Cabiri 
diifi, Gods called Cabirs, or mighty, refted ia 
moft nations." See more of them page 278. 
of the letters on mythology. Old Ennius com- 
prifes them in thefe two lines, 

Juno, Vejia, Minerva.^ Ceres, Diana, Venus, 

Mars, 
Mercurius, Javis, Neptunus, Vukanus, Apollo 

Bochart fays, that the Cabiri were the Gods of 
the Phanicians, and that their name is derived 
from TiD Cabir, which both in the Hebrew 
and Arabic tongues fignifies Potens or Magnus, 
great, fo that Cabiri or Cabirim *"1'33 fignifies 
the gieat or mighty Ones. They were two 
only at firft, as our author above obferves, 
the Heaven and the Sun, or rather thofe three 
great agents the fre, light, and fpirit, into 
which all the deities of the heathtns may be 
refolved, and which are the material emblems of 
the true Cabiri, the three living ^r^a/ and mighty 
Ones. 

Ver. 315. Rhamiiufian.l Helen was fo called 
from Rhamnuj a town of Attica ; where, as the 
fch liaft tells us, Jupiter lay with Nrmfis, who 
brought forth an egg : and Leda finding it, 
hatched it, the produce of which was Helen and 
the Dlofcuri. Kemefs was particularly wor- 
fliipped ai Rhamnus ; " where, we are told, flie 
had a f!atue ten cubits high, of a fingle ftoiie, 
and fo exquilitcly be^mtifut, that it was nothing 
fhort of Phidiai's finefl Works." See Batiier 
vol. 3. b. 4. c. 15. Apollcdorus, fays Neniefis, 
to fhun the embraces of fupiier, turned herfelf 
into a goofe, and ypiter to erjoy her, imme- 
diately btv'ame a f^'an ; the effefls of biscom- 
prefTing her in this fhape, was the egg above- 
mentioned. 



86 T H E H Y M N T O D I A N A., 

To A^rtemis Corefia Proems rais'd 
Grateful, his firft remembrancer : For tliat 
By thee refl:or'd, his madding daughters ceas'd 
Lowing to wander o'er Azenia's hills : 
The fecond fane to Hcmerefia rofe, 
When of thy favor more the monarch prov'd, 
Their fury vanifh'd, and their fenfe return'd. 



320 



Beneath 



Ver. 316. I0 Artemis^ &c. ] Pratus was a 
king of the Arglves, and his daughters names, 
we are told, were Lyfippe, Ipponoe, and Cyria- 
najja. Comparing themfelves in beauty with 
Juno ; or, as others will, converting the gold 
of her garments (as they were her prieftefles) 
to their own ufe : flie in vengeance caufed fuch 
a madnefs to feize their minds, that imagining 
themfelves transformed into heifers, they run 
through the fields to hinder their beina; yoked 
in the plough, and made them re-eccho with 
their lowings : fo Virgil. 

Pratides implerunt falfts mugitlbus agros. 

" It is thought that they actually became de- 
lirious, and that their madnefs conlifted in fancy- 
ing themfelves heifers," Melampus the fon of 
Amythao-ri bargaining to have Cyrianajfa to wife, 
and part of the kingdom, by appeafing y7<«u, 
and infetfting the fountain where ihey ufed to 
drink with fome certain medicine, cured and 
reftored them to their right fcnfes. See Ser- 
vius on the place above quoted from Virgil, 
Our author tells us, their cure was owing to 
Diana, and that in return their father built two 
temples to her, one to Diana Corefia, the other 
to Diana Hcmerefia ; and that fays the fcholiaft, 
JtoTt Tag Ksfa; nftefui7£i/. " It is probable (fays 
Banier) this madnefs was the efFedl of fome 



diftemper where the imagination was much 
effected, as we fee in hypochondriac people, who 
fancy they rcfemble feveral forts of animals. 
Accordingly Melampus employed in their cure 
black hellebore, fmce called from his name 
Melampodion" — " According to Paufanias they 
were not the only perfons feizcd with this di- 
Itemper : that author afllgns it to other women 
of Argos ; and this madnefs of theirs confifted 
in running up and down the field. See vol. 3. 
b. 2. c. 5. The reader will obferve in the 315th 
line I read Azenia, though the word in the 
author is A*««a, which they tranflate inhofpita' 
tie : but the fchnliafl: explains the word by fay- 
ing it is Ojoc A^xaSiaf, a mountain of Arcadia, 
which Azenia was, and near the fountain where 
Melampus cured the Pratides ; of which Ovid 
fpeaks 

Clitorio quicunque fitem cle fonte levarit 
Vina fugit ; gaudetque meris ahjlemius undis. 
Seu vis ejl in aqua calido contraria vino 
Sive, quod indigents memorant, Amythaone natus, 
Pratidas attonitas pojiquam per carmen & 

herbas 
Eripuit furiis : purgamina mentis in illas 

Mifit aquas ; odiumque meri permanftt in undis. 
See Metam, J, 15. 



THE HYMN TO DIANA. 

Beneath a beach the war-affe6ling race 
Of Amazons, to thee a flatue rais'd. 
Where Ephefus' proud towers overlook the main : 
Otrera firft perform'd the holy rites, 
While round in faliar dance they clang'd their arms, 
Hoarfe to the hymn refounding ; till the choir 
At length they form'd and meafur'd o'er the ground 
Refpondent to the fhrill fife's feeble ftrains. 
Not yet Minerva, to the flags a foe, 



S7 



325 



330 
Drew 



Ver. 323. Beneath, &c.] The poet in the 
following lines gives us an hiftory of the firft 
rife and progrefs of Diana's celebrated temple 
at Ephefus., which he allures us, the Amazons 
were the firft occafion ot, by the little ft.itue 
they raifed under a beach, or (as Dionyfius has 
it) in the niche of an elm, a ftriking inltance of 
the fimplicity of the firft ages. The grandeur 
of that temple in after-times, and the particular 
veneration wherein DflWi? was held there, is too 
well known to require any thing from me on 
that head. " Grent is Diana of the Ephejians," 
was the cry of her blind adorers ; and that 
Diana, was a (mall flatue, as we are told, of 
ebony, made by one Canitla, which the Ephc- 
fians called Aiottetss, or one tliat fell down from 
Jupiter. There were two temples, the firft 
not fo grand as the fecond : Erojiratus, to make 
himfelf famous, burnt the firft, \\'h\Q\\ /llc.xander 
oft'er d to rebuild at his own expencc, if the 
Ephejans would put his name on the front : 
but they rejected it, by telling him, " it was 
not fit one God fhould build to another." The 
fecond, and the more fumptuous Edifice, is fup- 
pofcd to have been burnt in the time of 
ConJIantine. There are fome ruins, and a few 
broken pillars of this ftruclure ftill remaining — 
an accuuiit of which may be (i:in in Spon's 
voyaa,e. See Montfaucon's antiquities, b. 2. 
p. I. c. II. plate 6. fig. 24, 25. Otrera or 
Hippo, it feems, was the firft prieftefs, and 

3 



lAiaruv Auatfin^uy, one of the Amazonians, as the 
fcholiaft informs us. 

Ver. 331. 'Not yet, &c.] From this palTage 
in the author, we may gather two things : — 
that the Tikite of the antients were of the 
(Os-ta) bones of deer, and that their inventrefs 
was Minerva : 

Prima terehrato per rara foramina luxo, 
Ut daret cffeci Tibia longa fonos : 

Vox placuit : Uquidamfaciem rcferentibus undisy 
Vidi, virgineas intumuife genas : 

Ars mihi non tanti cji, valcas mea tibia, dixi, 
Excipit abjeiiam cefpite ripa fue, 

fays Minerva in Ovid's fnjlorum lib. 6. \'er. 
697. And in Arijhphanes, a Eaotian fays, 

T015 ortVOI? (pUff-yiTi Toil TT^UKTOV KltOi. 

where the fcholialt obferves he ufcs oj-uci?, be- 
caufe formerl)' pipes were made awo Tut t\a(peiui> 
orBut, from the bones of ftags. 7 hey were 
fonietimes made of afles bones : one would won- 
der, fays Plutarch, that an afs, « Tuxmaioi, *a» 
BfteiTUTaTo; u\i -rahXa, an animal fo hejvy and 
averfe to inufic fhould afford ortov ^t^•T(STaTo» xat 
fiso-ixwrart/v, the moft ftirill toned and mufical 
bones. Whoever thinks it worth his while to 
read more about the pipes, is'c. of t^ e antients, 
may find an account of them in Monifiuccn, 
part the 2d of the 3d vol. b. 5. c. 2. 



88 THE HYMN TO DIANA. 

Drew from the hoUow'd bones the flutes ripe found. 

Fair Sardis heard, the Berecynthian realms 

The diflbnant rout re-ecchoed, as the dance 

With warhke din attending, rough the twang 335 

Of rattling quivers from their fhoulders rung. 

Around the ftatue foon a temple rofe, 

Divineft edifice — whofe ftately height 

And rich magnificence, the fumptuous eaft 

Unrivall'd boafts, not by the Pythian dome 340 

In all its glories equal'd ! — Touch'd with pride 

Contemptuous, and with madding fury feiz'd, 

A crowd of ftout Cimmerians, like the fand 

For numbers, from Inachian Bolphorus, 

To pour deftrudion on thofe facred walls 345 

Stern Lygdamis led on : Miftaken prince, 

Alas how loft ! nor thou, nor one of thofe 

Whofe chariots crowded o'er Cayfter's mead 

Thick as autumnal leaves ; fhall hence return 

Or 

Ver. 341. Touched, &c. ] Lygdamis and the for he fubjoins, mijialcen prince, he tells us 

Cimmerians in the reign oi Ardyes king uf Ly- he erred from his defign oaoniAirtv! He perifli- 

dia, invaJed and ovL-r-ran all Afta minor, as ed in Ciliiiti, according lo Strata. The Cim- 

Strabo tells us. They took Sardis, the metro- rnerians were the defc ndants of Gomer. :.nd the 

polis of Zj'^^/tf, hut could never win the caftle. hme v.'kh the Gauls of Jjia minor. Pliny fpiixk- 

As Strabo and Herodotus are filent upon that ing of them favs, Cimmerei populi feptentriona- 

head, I imagine what Hefychius fays, namely. Us jwit, ad Bofporum pcuti tuxinl fretum 

" That Lygdamis burnt the temple of Diana," hahitantes : cujus era curvatur in maotim, Scy- 

is not true; and Callimachus particularly fays, thice Paludem, See Univerfal Hjjhry, vol. I. 

*' He did not lay it wafte, he only threatned p. 275. 
and led on his Cimmerians fo to do, aAa7r»^!f*!> : 



THE HYMN TO DIANA. 89 

Or view their country more 1 Diana's arms, 350 

Bleft Ephefus, thy fortrefs, thy defence ! 

Goddess of ports, divine Munychia hail! 
Let none contemn Diana ; Oeneus felt 
Her heavy hand avenging: Let none dare 
To rival in her arts the huntrefs queen : ^K'i 

For with no trivial mulct the proud prefumption 
Of Atreus' fon fhe fin'd — Nor to their bed 
Let any court the virgin : Wretched joys 
Crown'd Otus and Orion's bold addrefs; 

Let none decline the folemn choir to join, 360 

Not even Otrera's favour'd-felf refus'd 
Unpunifh'd, unafflided : Goddefs hail, 
Great queen, and be propitious to the fong ! 

Ver. 352. G-dde/s, &c.] See the remarks on his daughter. Mia-fiw, in the original is ufed for 

verfe 46 abi)ve. She was called Munychia from pcena, or rather, as 1 have rendered it, a mtilii : 

Munych'.a at Athens, which the fcholiaft tells us Donatus obferves, Pretiump ojiultitia ejl peena^ 

tri f*£fot ra w«§a(a;. The ftory of 0^«f ttJ is well prctium pro iiirtute lucrum. Andrta Act :;. S. 5. 

known, that he negledted Diana in the fa- Ver. 359- Orion^ Or Oarion, as he is fre- 

cred rites, which he pail to all the deities, for quently called amoii;jft the poetE, is faid to have 

which (lie incited his neighbours to raife a war attempted to ravilh Diana. 

againil: him, and befides _ . 

" — Et Integra 

On Oencus fields flie fent a monftrous boar, Tentator Orion Diana, 

That levell'd h. averts and whole forefts tore, Virgined domitus fagittd, 

according to Homer. /Agamemnon & offence. Die- fays Horace. See an ingenious hiflory oi Orion in 

tys Cretenfis tells us, was the Jhooting a goat in Banier's Mythology, vol. 4. b. ^. c. 7. Otus was 

the grove o( Diana, a place held very facred. oneof the famous /^/o/i/w, who were flain, accord- 

Tlie price of which offence was no lefs than ing tofome, byDw;/ainA'«A-w, forOw^'scrimei 

End of the Hymn to Diana, 

N 




THE 



Fourth Hymn of Callimachus. 

To Delos. 

F facred Delos, great Apollo's nurfe, 
When, when, my foul, or ever wilt thou fing ? 
Moft facred, all the Cyclades might well 
Jiach furnifh theme divine : But Delos firft 

Fiom every Mufe demands the tribute lay, c 

For that fhe firjft their infant God receiv'd. 

And 




Hymn to Delos.] Hymns upon thefe popular 
occafions were a kind of prize poems ; which 
moil of the p<ets wrote, if not through a prin- 
ciple of religion, at leaft through a defire of ac- 
quiring that charafter : the fure confequenee of 
■which was the particular efteem of the people. 
At the time of the T/ieoria or Delian feftival 
fume celebrated poet always compofed the hymn. 



amongfl which doubtlefs was this of CuUima- 
chus. Pindar, we are told, was requefted by 
the people of the ifland Cos to write a hymn 
upon Delos, and he plainly tells us he will do 
fo, in his firft Pythian, and begs pard< n of that 
ifle and Apollo, for delaying their praifis till he 
has fung thofe of his own countiy ; 



££>! 



THE HYMN TO DELOS. 

And firft triumphant hail'd the Deity. 

Not with lefs hate the nine purfue the bard 

Forgetful of Pimplea, than Apollo 

Him who forgets his Delos : — Be my ftrains 

Turn'd then to Delos : That th' approving God 

At once may favour and infpire the fong. 

Tho' to tempeftuous feas and ftorms expos'd, 
Its firm foundations rooted in the deep, 
Unfhaken flands the ifle ; round whofe rough fhores 



91 



10 



15 

(More 



ZtV 0£O»5 ^iU^U Tt\oq, 

Philo makes it clear, that Pindar performed his 
defign, when he fays, A'a ««» Ilivoafoj ivv thj 
All^ou ^tjo-i, X*'?' " fleoTifiTE, &c. Nothing can 
begin more nobly than the prefent hymn, the 
double intei rogation of ti»i» Xf"""* ^^^ ■am, 
roufes the attention — and the addrefs to his foul, 
Sliunt, is elegantly poetical. ^lAomrop, \s Pindar's 
frequent addrefs, and &ufAt, he liicewife ufes. 
There is no appearance of a tautology in thefe 
two interrogations, as has been imagined, the 
one means at what particular time, when ? tlie 
other, will you ever — ? 

Ver. 3. Moji facrcd, &c,] As thefe iflands 
had their name from furrounding Delos (Cyila- 
das fie appeilatas, quod omnes arnbiunt Delum.) 
It feems probable they bad thence alio their title 
of li^wToIai, or mo^ facred) as Delos was a part 
of thele Cyclades, and looked upon itlelf the 
moHfacred place in the world. Utherwife why 
a parcel of poor wretched iflands famed for no- 
thing but the mife-^y and hirmr wherewith they 
threatned the offending Roiko's, 

{SpretiS Myconos, humilifque Seriphos ) 

why they fliould be fo highly honoured, I know 



not : Spanheim's firft conje<5lure, that they pro- 
bably were once in betier cafe, feems quite 
groundlefs : and his fecond, though more reafon- 
able is yet, I think, not fatisfa(Sory : he fays, 
they were called u^una-rat, on account of the 
great veneration they paid to Delos : it is true, 
they are known fo to have done ; but were not 
other places equally religious in the worfhip 
they payed to that ifland .? — a town has been 
celebrated and efteemed venerable for having 
had a great man in it, a country for a particular 
city or temple, and why not a number of iflands 
for having one of themfelves fo eminently re- 
nowned ? The reader muft judge. 

Ver. 13. 7ho', Sec] This is a very difficult 
palTage in the original : I have endeavoured to 
give it as poetical a fenfe, as I am able : 1 had 
once rendered it more paraphraftically, thus : 

About its defert coafts tho' rough winds blow 
Howling, as round I'ome billow-beaten rock, 
To fmiling Ceres and the generous fteed 
Ungrateful tho' its foil, fit place of reft 
For cormorants that wing the mid- way air : 
Tho' thus jnmov'd it braves th' Jcarian waves 
That proudly o'er its cliffs their curling foam 
Triumphant dafh : tho' once its barren fhores 
None but the wandring race of fifhers knew : 
Yet when to Ocean's and huTethys' court, i3c. 
N 2 The 



92 THE HYMN TO D E L O S. 

(More pervious to the cormorant than horfe j 

Where whilom lonely fifhers made abode :) 

Th' Icarian waves their white foam roaring dafh ; 

Yet to old Ocean's and his Tethys' court 

When move the iflands, murmuring none beholds 20 

Majcllic Delos graceful lead the train 

Claiming prime honour : Corfica demands 

The fecond place : Eubaea next appears, 

Her follows fweet Sardinia, and the ille, 

Which happily recciv'd the queen of love, 25 

When from the waves emerging ; for reward, 

Its fhores her kind protection ever fhare. 

Thefe 

The learned reader will, by confidering the Ver. 19. Yet to, &c.] The foregoing lines 

v/ords in the original, find ihis^ I hope, expref- are a kind of apology for this fuperior honour, 

five of them. Firgil fays of Delos. That which, the poet tells us, was given to DtloSf 

/Ibollo though in itfelf an ifland of fo fmall eftimation, 

' ,. , ,. <rj yet for the favours done to Latona, thusfincru- 

Immotamque coh dedit, <3 contemner e ventos. <^, rewarded. 

— Gave it to be unmov'd, Ver. %\. Majeftic^ &c.] This priiKipality 

With firm foundations, and defy the winds. attributed to the ifland Delos has nothing in it 

Trapp. PE^n. iii. 102. more than one would expcd:, from the fingular 

. ,./ijrn/-r veneration that was payed to it, and the great 

Some have imagined, that this fteadfaftnefs af- j.^,. j^^ j^ ^^^ ^^jj j^ ^^ ^]j j,^g ^^^,^_ -^-^^^ 

figncd by our poet to Delos, refers to its bemg ^^^^^^^.^ j^ ^^^ ^^ obferved often fpeaks f ndeed 

unftiaken by carth-quak^, and they build ^^^ frequently) of the ifle as a perfonage: a 

their conjeaure upon a pafTage from Thticydidei ^^^^^^ jj jj ^^gjl known, ufed by all countries 

the hiftorian, who fpeaking of an earth-quake -^^ ^^ ^^^^ 

that fhook /Jf/M, adds, \\\:\t it was vever jhaken Ver'^2';. Which kz-l 

before. I irgil fpeaking of a rod, fays, that it 

\vas apricis Jiatio gratijfima Mergis. JEa. V. — H» tvivr,^a.ro xtiw^if 

A ft?tion fit The prefent pafllige by means of the periphrafis. 



For cormorants, when pruning in the fun. which the author ufes for the ifland, is difficult 



Tk-app. 



of 



THE HYMN TO DELOS. 

Thefe boaft for their defence ftrong walls and towers. 
But Delos her Apollo — and what tower 
Impregnable as he ? For towers and walls 
Strymonian Boreas levels with the ground : 
But ever unremov'd firm ftands the God ; 
Thy guardian, happy Delos, thy defence. 

Since various theme for fong thy worth fuppHes, 
Say of the holy legends which beft pleas'd, 
Which doft thou hear moft joyful ? fhall I fing 
How with his threefold trident, work immenfe 
Of labouring Telchins, Neptune clave the rocks, 



93 



^^ 



35 



Dilparting 



of conftruftion : the literal fenfe is, " And Cy- 
prus, to which Fenus firfl of all fwam from the 
waves J and now preferves as a reward for that 
landing it afforded her. Ajt' im0a6(ut, has given 
the commentators much trouble : Servat illam 
pro proptignaculo^ fays Madam Daciet\ but 
doubtlel's wrong: Dr. Bintlcy has given us the 
true fenfe of the palTage : Verte, fays he, edit 
(J tutatur earn pro Naulo feu nm'ccde." Venus 
jam mari nata is' ata^vojxdri, cum ad Cyprunt pri- 
mum adpuiijpt, Es* earn Tellurem veluti Navitn 
eonfcendijfet, banc el gratlam quaft Naulum re- 
feriiilt, ut in tutelam fuam veniret. Hefych. 

Ver. 28. Thefe, &c ] The fentiments in thefe 
lines are noble and pure, the poetry grand and 
excellent. *' Thefe other iflands put their trufl 
in walls and towers, but Delos boafts of better 
bulwark, hers is Apollo : then comes the noble 
interrogation — fk Je rt^«§*Tif«» igxof j all mortal 
Worlcs, 

The cloud-clapt towers, the gorgeous palaces, 
The folemn temples, the great globe iifelf 



And all which It inhabit fhall diflblve; 

but ©eo; »H arfipE^KtTOf, the God forever ftands 
unmov'd — and he, happy iu.ind, he it is who 
defends and guards thee, he it is, who is thy 
rock and caffle of defence." There are innumer- 
able paffages in fcripture to the fame purpofe, 
" Put not thy ti ufl: in princes nor in any child 
of man, is'c. — Some trufl in chariots and fome 
in horfes, but we will remember the name of 
the Lord our God. — Woe to them that go 
down to Egypt for help, iSc. — and look not 
unto the Holy One of Ifracl, neither feek the 
Lord. The Egyptians are men and not God, 
and their horfes flefh and not fpirit, is'c. — but 
it would be endlefs to quote half the paflagcs to 
this effed in the Scriptures. God is often called 
a wall of fire round his church in lachary : and 
in the Song of Solomon, the lieavenly bride fays, 
I am the wall, and my brealls like towers. 

Ver. 38. Telchines.] The reader may find 
fiamething agreeable to him, perhaps, on this 
fubjeft in the Life ef homer, p. 196, i^ ff. 
edit. 8vo. 1736. 



94- THE HYMN TO DELOS. 

Difparting wide — and gave to iflands birth : 
The maily fragments to the Tea defcending, 
Precipitate downward roll : fixt, firm fixt, 
On fure foundations 'midfl th' encircling waves. 

But thee no fuch necefTity conftrain'd, 
Licens'd to range o'er Neptune's wide domains, 
Afteria calFd, for that the thunderers arms 
Eluding like a ftar thou fhot'ft from heav'n 
Down to the deep abyfs ; and fuch thy name 
Till bright Latona dignified thy cliffs. 



40 



45 



Oft 



Ver. 43. But thee, &c.] The common ftory 
of this ifland's moving upon the waters is too 
well known to need inllfting upon here : The 
ifland had other names before this of Delos, 
amongfl which was Afteria (the original of 
which the author, in the following lines, gives 
us :) and Ortygia ; the firft, becaufe, fays Calli- 
machtts, this daughter of Cceus ftiot from the 
embraces of Juptter, uTt^i urii, like a ftar (tho' 
Pindar fays the Ifland was called Afteria, be- 
caufe it flione arifi nrv, among the Cyclades :) 
the lattor name Ortygia had its original from the 
fame report, that AJieria fleJ thither in the fhape 
of OgTuyoj) a quail. Nonnus in his Dionyfiacs 
fpeaks of this fable. 

AraTov iVTrtvaactf aftoijSaJi <ni»Ofo/iov avfTi 
Kf^KCiv aft/ ^AiXTOk £»£ffi^w(7£» AttoMw*. 

And this difference of the names gave occafion 
to the miftdke, that Apollo and Diana were born 
in Ortygia, not in De/os ; nay, and fome my- 
thologifts have faid, that Diana was born in 



Ortygia, Apollo in Delos, amongfl: thefe is Ov' 
pheus ; who, in his hymn to Latona, fays, 

Vcr. 46. Like a Jiar.] Theocritus has aline 
very apt to oui purpolc, 

and Virgil fpeaks very beautifully, as he does of 
every thing he touches upon, of this fhooting of 
flars: 

Sape etiamjlellas, vento impendente, videbls 
Pracipiies coelo labi, noilijque per iimhram, 
Flammarum tongos a tergo alhefcere traSius. 

And oft before tempeftuous winds arife. 
The feeming flars fall headlong from the fkies : 
And fhootmgthro' the darknefs gild tiie nuht. 
With fweeping glories, and long trails of light. 
Dryden's ift Geprgic. 

Where, who can help admiring the grave-fac'd 
dulnefs of Servius, when he obferves on this 
pafTat^e, — Sequitur viilgi opinionem ; notl enim 
omnia prudent er a poet a dicendafunt ! 



THE HYMN TO DELOS. 

Oft bound from Lycian Xanthus to the coaft 
Of Ephyra, floating i'th' Saronic gulf 
The mariner faw thee, joyous : but his courfe 
As homeward plying, fought thee there in vain : 
Now thro' the rapid flraits of Euripus, 
Now o'er thofe waves rejeded, failing fwift 
To Sunium, Chios, or the virgin ifle, 
From whofe white bofom hofpitably pour'd 
The neighbouring Mycaleflan nymphs, to hail 
With gratulation fweet thy lov'd approach. 
But when fupplying to Latona's fon 
A happy natal place, pleas'd in return 
Delos, the failors nam'd the favourite ille: 



95 



50 



55 



60 
Since 



Ver. 55. Or the virgin ijle, &c.] The origi- 
nal is Maro» riafGEHii,-, where I make no doubt 
the author ufed the word Maron, in allufion to 
nafOsuJis, the name of the ifle ; Samos, as Strata 
inorms us, was really fituated on a rifir.g hill, 
prominent like a breajl : I have endca\'oured in 
the tranflation, in fome fort, to keep up the 
allufion i mount Mycale, from whence the 
nymphs were called Alycalefian, is jufl oppofite 
the ifland Sa'i-.os ; and thence too, they were 
faid to b; neignbours to Samos or Ancaus, king 

• of Samas ; who Co called the ifland (formerly 
named Parthenla, according to our author) 
from a ion ot his, whofe name was Samos. 

Vt-r. 61. Delos, the £3"^.] Such, according 
to Calllmachus, was the origin of this name 
of the ifland ; fo c.illed becaufe it was noinnger 
oJiiAo?, not wanifej}^ no longer floating uncer- 
tainly over the occ.in. Various other etymolo- 

■ gies are given of the narhe, but as this is per- 
haps, as raaonal as any, and given by our author. 



we have no bufinefs to feek further. Never- 
thelefs Bechart thinks it far from the truth (and 
indeed his is more likely to approach nearer to 
it) and therefore he gives a very diflerent deri- 
vation from a Syriac word of the fame found, 
fignifying Gorl, fo that it was called, according 
to him, Dehs., as being the ifland of the God 
Jpollo : we might not unreafonably with the 
dcfcription givc;n of it b) Calllmachus, ver. 15 
above, deri\e it from the Hebrew "^T- ''''■4 poor., 
mean^ exhaujfcd, fo barren, rocky and unfruit- 
ful. See Bochart's Chanaan, lib. I. C. 14. — 
Sollnus fays, that Dcfos was fo railed, becaufe 
after the deluge it was fit ft illuminaiej by the 
rays of the Sun. lileminifj'e hoc loco, par eji, 
pofl primum diluvium, Ogy^ii iemporibus notatum, 
quum novem ilf a'.plius menfilus diem cont:v.ua 
nox inumbraJJ'et, Deion ante omnes terras, radiis 
foils illuminatur, frtitanique e.v eo nofriCK, quii^ 
prima reddita foret vifibus. 



()b THE HYMN TO DELOSr 

Since rooted in th' >Egean waves, no more 
Uncertain and unfeen it rang'd the main. 

Thee not refentful Juno's vengeance mov'dj 
The fury of whofe wrath impetuous burft 65 

On all the concubines of Jove : But chief 
On bright Latona : From whofe loins a fon 
Was deftin'd to be born, that fhou'd eclipfe 
And rival in Jove's love her darling Mars. 

Big with the thought and brooding dire revenge yo 

From heav'ns high tow'rs, follicitous fhe kept 
Obfervant watch : And, with the pangs of birth, 
Detain'd Latona, lab'ring : Earth to guard 
Two faithful centinels fhe fix'd : Dread Mars 
On Thracian Hiemus furious fhone in arms, y ^ 

The continent with ftern regard beholding : Whilft 
His courfes Boreas' feven-fold cave receiv'd. 

With £xt attention, o'er the fcatter'd ifles 
Thaumantian Iris, plac'd on Mimas' brow, 
Hung fedulous furveying : Thefe, what itates S6 

So e'er Latona in her anguifh fought, 
Inftant, dire menacing, approach'd : And dafh'd 

Ver. 8x. Injiant, &c.] Though this whole beginning of things, as may perhaps hereafter 
ftory has a plain philofophical refer enct to the firft be more fully fliewn (J una being the uir, La- 
tona 



THE HYMN TO DELOS, 

Each riling hope of hofpitable reft.* 

Arcadia heard their mandates, heard and fied : 
Hoary Phenseus, facred Auge's mount, 
All Pelops ifle, Egiale except 

And Argos : (There, where Juno reign'd fupreme, 
'Twere vain to hope admittance ;) thefe as climes 
Forbid, Latona fought not : But her courfe 



97 



85 



Shap'd 



tona the firfl rude chaotic mafs, without form 
and void, for fhe is called Anru, from A>j6w, to lie 
hid in oblivion, and that darknefs, which was over 
the face of the firjl deep, and from hence comes 
the Latin word Lateo ; each of which words are 
primari!/ derived from the Hehveiu rj^^;' LAT, 
to lie hid, Sec. whence, according to Leigh, 
comes our word lot, becaufe a lot is of obfcure 
and doubtful things. This Latona being impreg- 
nated by Jupiter, the ethei ial fire, was detained 
by the Jlruggling of the air from bringing forth 
Apollo and Diana, the Sun and Moon, &c.) 
though, I fay, this fable has thus plainly in its 
original a reference to tiature, yet doth it fecm 
7,!fo to have fome dark analogy to the tradition 
fully recorded in the 12th chapter of the Rive- 
lation. "• There pppeared a great wonder in hea- 
ven : a ivoman clothed with the Sun, and the 
Moon under her feet : and upon her head a 
crown of twelve ftars. And file being with chi.d, 
cried, travelling in birth, and pained to be de- 
livered. And there appeared another wonder 
in heaven : and behold a great red dragon, 
having feven heads and ten horns and feven 
crowns upan his head. And his tail drew the 
third part of the ftars of heaven, and did cail 
them to the earth : and the red dragon flood be- 
fore the woman, which was ready to be de- 
livered to devour her child, as foon as it was 
born. And fhe brought forth a man child, 
who was to rule all nations with a rod of iron : 
and the child wa-- caught up to God, and to his 
tlirone, and when the dragon faw that he was caft 
»o ttie earth, he perfecutcd the woman, which 



brought forth the man child," i^c. fee the whole 
chapter. It is obferveable, that as this/o« of the 
woman flew this great dragon — fo theyi^ of La- 
tona, according to the fable, flew the Python, as 
you will read m the fequel of this hymn. 

Ver. 86. All Pelop's ijle.] This peninfula was 
not known by the name oi Pe'op's ifle or Pelopon- 
nefus, at the time when Latona is faid by the 
mythologifts to have brought forth Diana and 
Apollo : for Pelops was not then born : it was 
called Pclafgia, /Egialea, Apia, and according 
to Hefyckius n«na : and afterwards got the name 
of Peloponnefus, upon Pelops his arrival into 
Greece from Lydia or Phrygia. But it is well 
known to be no uncommon thing with the an- 
tient poets, more particularly the tragic ones, 
not to call the country where the matter, they 
are relating, happened, by its antient, but then 
modern n;'.me, fuch as was ufed in their own 
times. Spanheim. And this remark of Span- 
heiins will ferve to clear up, not only many of 
the antitnts, but alfo many of our own poets, 
from the objections of this fort, which feveral 
lit'le critics too lulWy'throw out againfl them. 
Pkenaus or Peneus is, according to the fcholia, 
«ro^i; .AfxaJiiif apaia, which Spanheim fijppofts 
to be the reafon why the author dei'cribes him 
as an old man yt^uv ip«aio; : but Gravius thinks 
the author has rcfpcift to the lake clofe by the 
cty of the fame name, and calls him yiftna, 
becaufe the aiitients wi-.cn they would rcprcfint 
fhe f^a, rivers, lakes, Is'c. alwa\s painted the 
figure of an old man. 

O 



98 T H E H Y M N T O D E L O S, 

Shap'd towards Aonia : All Aonia flew, go 

Dirce and Strophie : While their hands fupport 

Their fire Ifmenus' fteps : And far behind 

Lag'd, by Jove's thunder marr'd, labVing his way 

With footing flow, Afopus : While diftreft 

Each wood-nymph, Oread or Dryad fatCj 95 

Viewing their oaks coeval, on the top 

Of moving Helicon nod their wavy brows 

Loud groaning to the fall : Ye Mufes fay 

If ought on oaks the Dryads fate depends, 

Or with them born or dying ? 100 

When the gay trees, in beauteous verdure clad. 

Their blooming honours flKew, the nymphs, like them 

In fulleft charms all blithfome trip the plain : 

And 

Ver. gi. Dtrceaml Strophie'l Were two four- anticnt times it was ufuai to intermix fable with 

tains and//>w«z/iariverofT'/;i'/'M, accordingto the hiftory, thofe who wrote this, faid, the river 

fcholiaft : Afopus was faid to be thunder-ilruck Jfopus had with his ftrcams made war upon 

by Jupter, who ravifli'd liis daughter Mgtna, 'Jupiter ; and that he, by transforming himfelf 

for vomiting out his waters againll: him : into tire, had tliunder ftruclc him : a phyfical 

XT r . ■■ TT • 1 J- circumftance founded upon the fituation of that 

Jyattique ferunt raptam patrits ylLztna)2 abunais i- i n • l i i 

/I J I . -n- 4 ■ r ■. /I ■ '-> /in ■ Hvcr, which flows m a country that abounds 

yiinp'exu latuille fovis : twit /Irnnis, o A tin -irii >)c r> • i / n 

T I r , 11 1 c - With fulphur. See Earner^ vol. 4. p. 268. 

liifen us bcltaye parat, tsc. ■,, "^ if 1 ^1 i 1 -ri e 

■' ■' •' - t . T.I 95" '^**«- ".>■''"/''•' ) &C.J I heio were 

' ' ' call'id Dryads, or Hamadryads from tlie coni- 

" Afopus was a king of Rceotia, and con- mon tradition, which. C a llimachiis here mentioiK^ 

founded with a river, whence he was faid to be of their li\'in<r and dying ajM. T»if A^k^-i, together 

the fon of the Ocean. That prince, to avenge with the oaks: much is fpoken of tiiem every 

the infult which Jupiter, that is, a icing of Ar- where, fo that I need not dwell upon the fubje>ff : 

cadla, who bore that name, had done t) his The reader will be agreeably eiitert.ilned by 

daughter, raif<-'d againft him a powerful army referring to the 8th vol. of the 5^<-'t7r-;/5'-, No. 589. 

and gave him battle; wherein he was routed, where he will find an account of thcle //«//;«- 

as we learn from Tlnodontius ■. and bccaufe in dr.yads. 



THE HYMN TO DELOS. 

And when deform'd by furly winter's blafts, 
The fympathetic nymphs lamenting mourn. 
Apollo yet unborn dread rage conceiv'd 
'Gainft thefe inhofpitable realms : and thus 
Denounc'd, oh Thebes, th' irrevocable curfe : 
" Oh miferable Thebes, why, why too foon 
" Draw on thy certain fate ? Compel me not 
*' Unwilling to foretel thy deftiny ! 
*' What tho' no Pythian tripod feels the God, 
" What tho' not yet the ferpent — ^from the banks 



99 



105 



no 



Of 



Ver. 107. ^Gainjl thefe, &C.] Tat; ft.-n en- 
AiraTAuv x^^'-'^"' -^'-f igtur ApoUo graviter iratus 
fuit, at thefe Jlatei, namely, who refufcd his 
mother admiffion ; the fcholiafi fays, t«i! (*»! 
A,-|«i/.£fBi; onAaJij TDV A,)t«, BlliI 3 et fpite of tliis 
the Latin trajifl.itor hath foifted into his text — . 
HU quercubus, a mifbie, which the reader 
fliould be apprifed of. Tlu; umuilUngnefs, which 
Jpcllo fpeali:; of, to deliver- the oracle — aiKiintc 
pfx^io — is befl explained by the oracle deliver- 
ed by the Pythian prlcrtefs in the 6th Mnad of 
Vifgil : and like that, all oracles were fuppofed 
to be delivered in a compolfive way. 

/ft Phwbi nondum pati^ns, immanis in antr$ 
Bacchiitur votes, magrium fi pe£iere pojftt, 
Excujfijji Deiim, isc. Ver. 77. 

Concerning the laurel, fee Hymn to Apollo note i. 
v.-bere it is remarked, that the Tripods were a- 
ttorncd with laurel. Concerning the woman, 
Kiobc, mentioned, 1. 121. See the Hymn to 
Apollo]. 35, and for the laft line of the Ipeech, 
fee the 1 3th line and note of tlie lame hymn. 

Ver. 112- What tho', 5:c.] It is remarkable 
this threefold divifion of things found in the 
Hcat.hi'L A§ythd:gy : the world is divided be- 



tween the three brothers, yiipiter, Neptune, and 
Pluto ; Jupiter has his three forked lightning, 
Neptune his trident, or three- fold fceptre, as Pluta 
likewife at whofe gates is placed the triple- 
headed dogCeiberus : and the oracles of Apollo arc 
delivered from a Tripod, a feat with three feet — 
This divifion cannot but ftrike an attentive ob- 
ferver. It has greatly perplext the mythologifis 
to find out whence this cuftom came ot' Apollo's 
oracles being delivered from a Tripod, and very 
numerous as well as abfurd are their foKitions 
of tile matter. Spanheim has a long diffcrtatioil 
upon it in his note on this place, at the end ot 
which he feems to have perfectly futislied him- 
felf, and is plcafed, he tells us, to find his opi- 
nion countenanced by a learned author, who 
with liirn, agrees in the fimilitude of thefe things 
in the v.'orfhip of Apollo, to the ceremonies 
in the Jeivijh temple: whence he doubts not 
fuch iniperfeiit traditions were taken. His word* 
are — Cni tamen ultimaiii, nee iniportunam, uti 
opinor, addeinus Coronda, nempe eo Apollinls, Jett 
Mi.Tbados, in templi Delphici adyto, fuprei tri- 
podan fedentis, refponfaque inde, Dei idius ora- 
culum coafulentibus, edentis fn£to, adumbrari « 
(rentlhbus pridem nobis vifum, id quod legilur, 
Nume. vii. 1J9. JMofem, qu:tici itigredcretur ta-' 
O 2 berfiacnlunr . 



loo THE HYMN TO DELOS. 

" Of Pliftus rolling his nine-folds immenfe, 

" And now around Parnaffus, fnovv-capt mount, 



115 

'' Their 



beniaculum, iit conf'jleret oraculum (prout hie 
vetus interpris) audlvijje vocem ad fe loquentis-, e 
frop'initor'io, gti'jd eriit/nper arcam (feu ejus oper- 
culum) iiiler duos Che\uh[m. ^ua: baud d'iffiteor 
jam acute adtigi(j'e eruditum auiiorem Ubri memo- 
rati Delphi Phnenizintes, quamquam pojtea de- 
mum ecUtl ac fei'ius a nobis iiifii iS" cui catero- 
quin viro doffa ad tahernaculum cum area ad fchi- 
Itintem fub "Jofua (Jof. xviii. \.)fixu>n^ totam 
hnnc Hebriiici ritus in Delphici Tripcdis bf ora- 
culi conjiitutione originem ac fimulacrum referre 
placuit, is'c." I would advife the reader, cu- 
rious in thefe matters to confult the note itfelf. 
There feems, no doubt, luit that this cuftom of 
delivering theorac/esofjpollo from z tripod phced 
in the more retired and Jacred part of the temple 
proceeded from whence Spanheim fuppofes : the 
Holy of Holies was itfelf called the oracle, and 
the judicious in the original language want not 
to be informed of the reafon of that tranflation 
which Spanheim produces, and which it would 
be too long for me to explain here : In the ift 
book of Kings viii. 6. we read — " And the 
prieft brought in the ark of the covenant of the 
Lord unto his place, into the oracle of the houfe, 
to the mofl holy place, even under the wings of 
the cherubim." Where the word oracle in the 
original is "^'II"', DeBIR, and in the LXX tranf- 
lation Aa|9i§, and in the text from Numbers, 
Mofes is faid to go in "^JIT', LDeBeR, to 
fpeak to him, to confult the oracle. But herein 
is the principal point remark,'.blc, that x.\\\s oracle 
was delivered from C'ft' the mercy-feat, from be- 
tween the cherubim, concerning which I have 
iuft fpcken in general in the hymn to Jupiter, 
note 107. — Thefe cherubim were placed in this 
moft holy place, where none but the high prieft 
was permitted to enter, and be but once a year, 
and then not without blood and incenfe — in this 
fo facred a place w^re thefe cherubim fituated, 
which were emblems or reprefentatives of the di- 
vine and Holy "Jhree, as may be proved by innu- 
merable arguments : upon which I cannot flay 
row, intending only jufl: to hint to the curious 
reader, how exaftly the devil aped this moft hal- 
lowed part of divine worfliip hy hh orachs, de- 
livered from a tripc.f, a tbrct-ftoi^d feut, fituated 



in the inner and moft facred part of his temple. 
And the particular of the ?ff/7i7//«'! of the /')'/g//'(y}, 
her being fwelled and infpired by the air, will 
ftdl, to the attentive reader, more confirm this 
folution of the matter, when he confiders, that 
all true oracles and prophecies proceed from the 
injpiration of the Holy Ghoji tunvf/.a. aytot, the- 
hoi" air or fpirit. This the very learned and 
ingenious Spanheim delivers as his opinion of the 
oiia,in of this cuftom ; and another thing which 
he informs us (nay, and of which he hath given 
us fome coins) is no lefs obferveable, that there 
were frequently tripods amongd theantients, with 
a ferpent rolled round them : fo that there he was 
worfhipped in his genuine form : and in confirma- 
tion of this we may obferve, that Apollo, the God 
of the temple himfelf was called Python ; nay, and 
moreover, as he tells us in this place, he had no 
tripod before this exploit of killing the ferpent 
Python ; whence we may obferve in return, that 
there was no oracle or cherubim before the 
promife to bruife the ferpent's head, which 
yet were immediately fet up, foon as that was 
neceflary to be done. See Gen. iii. 15, and 24. 
And concerning this analogy I have fpoken in 
the ]42d note of the hymn to Jpollo : in fur- 
ther proof of what was advanced there it may 
be neceflary here to add, that the name 
Python is diredly Hebrew from |nD, PeTHeNy 
an afp or ferpent, and a text where the word oc- 
curs, is by this Python himfelf applied to our Sa- 
viour. See Matt. iv. 6. which refers to Pfalm xci. 
where we read in the 13th verfe. " Thou flialt 
tread upon the lion and |rD Python, the adder or 
ferpent ;'" which hath an obvious and dired: ap- 
plication to this Heathen ftory of JpolWs deftroy- 
irtg the Pythcn. The word occurs in the fame 
fenfe in many other texts, as you may fee in 
any Hebrew concordance. Leigh, in his Critica 
Sacra upon the word, explains it, " an afpe^ 
Cockatrice, or the ferpent Python, called in He- 
brew Pethen ; which name noteth (by the con- 
trary) the unperfuadednefs which this Pfalm. 
(the 58th) fhevveth to be naturally in that beaft. 
And fo the wicked have the title of a/TreiSei;, un- 
pcrfwadtd or difobedient. Tit. i. 16." Vndt 
wnSw!', (adds an atubor quoted by Leigh) quippe 

qui 



THEHYMNTODELOS. loi 

" Their flimy length involving) tho' not yet 

" My darts have pierc'd the monfler : Hallow'd truths 

" Nathlefs, as from the Delphic laurel fure, 

" Unerring hear me fpeak : Far off, far off: — 

" Quick jQiall I find thee: Quick my arrows wafli 120 

" In Theban blood : Thine is the impious race 

** Of that tongue-doughty woman ! Hence not thou 

*' Profane, not thy Cithseron fhall the birth 

*' Of Phoebus hallow: Righteous is the God, 

" And on the righteous only fhines his favour.'* 125 

He fpoke : And thence Latona wand'ring turn'd, 
Sad fighing to Theffalia : (Since in vain 
At Elice or Bura, and at all 
Achaia's ftates inhofpitable, fought 

The burden'd mother entrance :) There alike 130 

Unfortunate ihe rov'd : Anaurus fled 
With great Lariffa, and fam'd Pelion's mount : 
Even Peneus too his difregarding waves 

Roll'd 

qw ferpens fiv} afph facer ejfet JpoIUni, & per in thefe things will beft underftand, and moft 

quem divirMtiones oUm injlituerentw. There is, readily excufe the imperfedtion of my account, 

I think, no doubt but the Greek verb 'ssn^u, to which is fcarcely any thing more than bare hints 

perfwade, comes from ]riD. PeTHeN, the great to raife the attention, and promote an enquiry 

original ev\\ perfivader or Jeducer. into fuch fubjefts amongft men far more able 

Thus as it {hould feem, we have a complete and much more at Icifure for them than my- 

and reafonablc account of this tradition concern- I'clf. I liave forbore enlarging on the phyfical 

ing Jpolh's killin;i the Python^ and delivering his folution which mythologifts give of this exploit 

oracles in the moft /acred part of his temple, o( Jpolis's l^WVmg the Python, becaufe itisfo unii- 

ivom 3. tripod. They who are iijoft converlant veilally mejitiwned,, fy well and juitly applied. 



102 THEHYMNTODELOS. 

Roll'd rapidly away thro' Tempe's vale. 

Nor touch'd compaflion thy relentlefs heart 
Steadfaft in hate, dread Juno ; when her hands 
In fupplicating fort extending wide, 
Latona thus befought the pitying nymphs : 
" Intreat, ye daughters of the flood, fair nymphs 
«' Of Theffaly, try every blandifliment, 
«' From Peneus, from your father to procure 
<' \ birth-place for Jove's offspring : Beg him flay 
*' His mighty flood ! — -Ah Peneus, wherefore ftrive 
" Swift to outfl;rip the winged winds ? No race, 
*• No contcft claims this fpeed : Move ever thus 
«* Thy feet, the ground light-leaving? or now flrft 
*' Do terror and Latona bear thee on, 



^35 



140 



145 



(C 



And 



Ver. 139. Intreat, &:c.] This whole fpeech 
of Latona to the nymphs is truly beautiful : the 
elerance of the expreffions arxl the admirable 
breaks in tlie fentences greatly coaim-entl the 
author's judgment and genius. The lall line 
in the original, 

isp:cu!iar: the word wp.oToxa; refers to a com- 
monly received opinion amongft the antients (of 
which you may read in Pluiy and other natu- 
ralifts) that the lionefs never brings forth but 
once, the parts jiccefTary to generation being 
always torn away through the violence rf her 
agonies in bringing forth : as their opinion feems 
not founded in truth, I have ul'ed in the tranf- 
lation, a word, which will either ferve that 
fenfe, or the general one, if this be not as re- 



ported : the author ufes the word nJ««?, for the 
produce of the birth, an<l I have eiideavoiire<l 
to retain his manner of expreflion ; it is faid in 
the 39th chapter of Job ver. 3. of the wiW- 
goats of the 7'ock, " that they br'nirr forth their 
young ones, they caft out their Jorrows — and I 
obfcrve, in the Sepiuagntt; the very fame word, 
■ which we have in CalUmachui, is ufed — nAlNAS 
5"£ atiTii» i^ciiroriT^ni;, — nay, it is ufed three times 
in the compafs of three verfes : the mode of ex- 
prefRon being f<> fimilar, would incline one to 
believe that Callimachui borrowed it from the 
LXX tranflation, with which we muft remem- 
ber, he could not but be acquainted. Spanhiim 
obfcrves judicioudy from Bochart, that this 
opinion of a lionefles never bringing forth but 
once i^ fufficiently refuted by thefacrcd Scriptures, 
particularly the igrh chapter of Ezckiel, and the 
2d chapter and ver. 12. of Nahuin. 



T H E H Y M N T O D E L O S. 1 03 

*' And to thy flight add wings ? — He hears me not, 

" Too abjedl for regard ! Ah me, my load, 

" Where fhall I bear thee? — For my flacken'd nerfes 150 

" And yielding finews to the. birth give place ! 

*' Oh Pelion, happy Philyra's retreat, 

'' Stop thou thy courfe : oh ftop : — Thou not receive 

*' Jove's offspring, — when amidfl thy mountainous /hades 

" The famifli'd lionefs torn in labour finds 155 

" Safe £helter to caft forth her dolorous birth !" 

The piteous river-god uprear'd his head, 
Bqdew'd with tears, and tenderly replied : 
" Heaven witnefs, oh Latona, I thy pangs 
** Behold not unregarding : But what power 160 

" Than dire Necefhty more ftrong ? Thefe waves 

" Thou 

Ver. i6r. Necejfity, &c.] The antients had He has well obferved too, that in the laft line 
univerfally this opinion of Nccejfity, that flic of this (peech there feems a contradidlion ; for 
was the ftrongeft of the deities, nay, and even how fhould Latona implore the affiftance of 
fuperior to y«w : of whom Or/)/j^w fays, Lucina, when as yet, flie was not born, fmce 

Diana and Lucina, as is univerfally agreed, were 
A«„ yap A^^y^r^ ^«r« *farw«. ^.^^ ^^^^ _p ^.j^j^ diiEculty is folvcd by Pan/a- 

Dreadful Nccejfity connnands and governs all. nias, wlio tells us, that there was:) nother Lucina, 

_ .^,,. ^ ., Ik/- 1. ■ u- difFerent from Diana, the d.U2;hter of Juno: 

Fri/chiinus riTetuy enouoh oblerves, that in this , . ,- ^\ zj ^ i „ , „/rrt/) /^ 

/, ■ , D , r a- > who coming; from tlie Hyperboreans allifteu La- 

refolution of feneus, rather to iufter every evil . , ° , i tj „ l- u„„,„ ,„ 

, . .^ li /»io .1 L ri I ,- tona in her labour: Homer, in hi;, tiymn to 

when luno could afriiit, than bafciy to defert a i c^ e ^ r ■ i.» ;„»,J i,,. '^.,.,/> 

,-./., n J L r i ,r Apodo, " reprefents Lucina as detained by Juno 
a friend in the utmolt diitrefs and neccTity, we ' \ '• , . „ n„^„ ,.,,. ^X, rp 
, , .,. ,- J 1 , from iuccommf!, Latoftff. Diana, we m<iy re- 
have the pidture of a good man, who, by no . /• "^ . n- ^■. \ ,^-,i-,.c fl,;« 
' ., 1 /- /r u- ,- !<• ■' I member (iiymu to Diana ver. ^i.i makes tins 
men- CCS, evils, or aangrers fufters rumfc r to be , r . . /t. /u i i .ir.n- ™,^- 
, ,' 1 ■ n 1 ° r c -u ,\ J petition to her father, that fhe Ihould aflift wo- 
moved from his Iteady purpofe of ho;iuity and • , -i j -i. ,„ u„,.f,.if .,,^^ r,;A 
' ' ' -^ men in travail : nay, and Juno heilelt was i iia 

^"^'"^ ■ fo to do. — Juno Lucina, fer ofcm, we read in 

Ei fraSJus ill .hattir orhls, Terence. But the antient fables are ftrangcly 

Impavidumfeyientruints, mixed. £ec hymn to D/'fl/;;?, note^io. 



104 THE HYMN TO DELOS. 

" Thou know'ft to other births have oft fuppHed 

*' Ablution grateful : But who dare defy 

" The thund'ring threats of heav'ns avenging queen ? 

" View from yon mount how dread a centinel 165 

" Frowns, menacing deftrudion, who with eafe 

" Cou'd totally fubvert my deep foundation? 

" What wilt thou then ? — Say, can it pleafe thy foul 

" That wretched Peneus perifh ? Be it fo : 

" Let come what will come: Gladly for thy fake 170 

" Even I will fuffer : Tho' of ftreams moft mean, 

** I fteal along contemn'd, or quite forgot 

" My weed -grown channel mourn for ever dry. 

" Come then — what more remains? Invoke Lucina." 

Speakingr, he ftop'd his rapid current. Mars 175 

Pluck'd from its roots Pangasus, and uplifts 

The 

Ver. 175. Mart, &c.] I {hould pay an ill An excellent criticifm on which the reader will 

compliment to the reader's judgment to obfcrve find in Mr. Jddifon's papers on Milton. — It 

the poetical and obvious beauties of this pafTage : maybe neceflary to remark in explanation o/ the 

I fhall only produce a few lines from Milton^ aflion mentioned by our author, that ftriking 

which I have had an eye to in the tranfiation, the fliicld wiih the fpear amongft the foldiers 

the excellence and fublimity of which dcferve was formerly a mark of anger : which is well 

all praife : illuftrated by thek words of jfwm. Marcel/inus, 

— 1 • r . • 7 /• • . ,- Militates omna horrendo frasore fcuto penibus 

t lom their foundzuons loo fentnir to ana fro, ■„■ , . j a ^ r^ ■. ■ r ■ ti 

—,, , , , r II -ii -1 11 . ■ 1 1 tlitdentes, quod e/t properitas tndictum plenum, 

They plucktthe/^tf/(?ii? hills, withal! their load ' ^ u /i- i ■ r ■ <. t 

n / ■' , 1 L L /7 font coiitra cum Haitis cjypei feriuntur, Irje 

Jiocis, waters, woods, and by the //,'tf£?y top , , /j t^ j i • J m r 

UpUftmg bore them in their hands. "^ 

Par. Lost, b, i. ver. 643. 

"Jucundaqut' 



THE HYMN TO D E L O S. 

The mighty mountain by its fliaggy top, 

About t' o'erwhehn the flood : Yet firft his voice 

Horribly ftem loud thunder'd from aloft ; 

And ftruck with pond'rous lance, his brazen fhield 

Rung with rough clangor jarring : Ofla's mount 

With the Cranonian fields, and Pindus' dales 

Refounded trembling : All Theflalia 

Aftoniih'd at the noife tumultuous jQiook. 

As when the giant fhifts his weary fide, 

Briareus, troubled Etna's groaning mount 

(His torturing load) diflurb'd in each recefs 

Roars to its fiery center : All o'erturn'd. 



105 



180 



185 



Vul- 



Jucundnqiie Martis 
Cernimtis, infonuit cum verbere Jigna magijier : 
Mutatofque eAunt parher tot prSora niotus. 
In latus i.dlifis Ciypeis, aut rtirfus in ahum 
Vibratis ; grav<: parma fonat Mucronis acutum 
Murmur. 

where, as Spanhcim well obferves, the Martis 
adilfis Ciypeis, and Mucronis acutum murmur, 
are excellent explanations of the Greek poet. 

Ver. i8g. As when. Sec.] The beft commen- 
tary upon this paflage that I can think of, is the 
following defcription fi'om the 3d Mneid of 
Firgil. 1. 571. 

Horrificis juxta tonat Mina rtiinis, ice. 

But £tna roars with dreadful ruins nigh, •» 
Now hurls a burfting cloud of cinders high, J. 
Involv'd in fmo.iky whirlwinds to the (ky : J 
With loud difplofion to the ftarry frame, 
Shoots fiery globes, and furious floods of tlame: 
Now from her bellowing caverns burlt away 
Vaft piles of melted rocks in open day. 



Her fhatter'd entrails wide the mountain 

throws. 
And deep as hell her burning center glows. 
On vaft Ehceladus this pond'rous load 
Was thrown in vengeance by tlie thund'ring 

God: 
Who pants beneath the mountain and expires 
Through openings huge the fierce tempeftuous 

fires : 
Oft as hsjbifts his fide, the caverns roar. 
With fmoke and flame the iTcies are coverN 



o er. 



1 

e. J 



And all Trinacria (hakes from fliorc to fliore 

Pitt- 

The critical reader will find an excellent de- 
fence of this palTagc in Dr. Trapp'i notes. And 
I fuppofc his criticifm upon mutat is pei fei:l:iy 
eftablifhed by Colli machus his — fi« trefw t7r<«fti.-|» 
Ki»y;n.£ircij. — which js cxa^itiv A /r^'V's /•]['"'" l"-'"-^ 
mutat latus : of Vulcan's works in ;iiouni Aitna, 
the overturning of which our poet mentions, 
Firgil ngA\n, in his 8th y£n. ipeaks, as quoted » 
hymn to Diana vcr, 68. 
■ P 



io6 THE HYMN TO DELOS. 

Vulcanian forges, Tripods, mafiy works 

HarfK clafli together falling : From the God's 1 90 

Terrific Shield like difcord rung. Nought mov'd 

Firm to his purpofe Peneus flood refolv'd, 

And ftop'd his rapid current ; when the God 

In grateful fort Latona thus addreft : 

" Reft fafe, kind Peneus ; deem not, ought of ill 195 

" That thou for me ftialt fuffer : Nor fhall thus 

*• With ruin thy compaffion be repay'd : 

<' Reft fafe ; thy merit fhall not want reward." 

So faying, various toils mean time endur'd, 

The fea-girt iftes ftie fought, fuccefslefs ftill ; 200 

Not even Corcyra's hofpitable fhores, 

Nor fam'd for friendly ports th' Echinades 

Dare give the wanderer entrance : From the brow 

Of lofty Mimas Iris pour'd her threats, 

And every iHand trembling heard and fled. 205 

And now prepar'd Chalciope's retreat 

Old Meropeian Cos, to feek : thus fpoke 

Her fon's command prohibiting : " Not here 

"My 

Ver 208. Not here, &c.] We rnay admire hymns to 7?/^//er and yf/>o//» ; yet we cannot but 
the addrefs and elegance of the poet in thefe de- ftand amazed at the grofs abfurdity of the hea- 
licate and refined compliments, which we fee thens, woriiiippiiig, addreffing and adormg thefe 
he takes every opportunity to pay his prince. See poor periAipg kings as Gods— e^o; «Mo«— nay,. 

to 



THE HYMNTO DELOS. 107 

" My mother, muft thy fon be born : thefe climes 

" Tho' I nor difapprove, as amply crown'd 210 

" With golden plenty : nor envy the renown 

" Of thy Apollo's birth. But from the Fates 

" To thefe bleft realms another God is due, 

" Of the great Soter race the brighteft ftar, 

" Immortal Philadelphus ; at whofe throne 215 

*' Shall either continent and every ifle, 

*' (Far as from w^hence up the high fteep of heav'n 

" The fiery courfers bear the Sun's bright car, 

" To where i' th' weftern world their journey ends) 

" Nought murmur to bow down, and nought refufe 2 2» 

" To own that Macedonian's fway, whofe foul 

" Shall bright refled his godhke father's virtues. 

" Hereafter fhall a common contefc claim 

" Our force united : when from th', utmoft weft 

'* Another race of Titans fliall fpring forth, 225 

«' In multitude like fleaks of falling fnow, 

<' Or 

to thefe Ptolemies, we are informed, divine r^.^uy, by Soter, tlian Saviour. When CaMi- 
worftiip was paid, and flatteries beyond imagi- niachui fpeuks of either continent, ver. 2i6. 
nation fulfome. 1 liave, for a very obvious rea- «ft;poT£§ii Msa-cyaa, he fpealcs agreeable to the 
■fon given in the 214th line, to the original feiitiments of the antients, who divided the 

world into two parts Afia and Europe. Con- 
SAOTHPfiN .^«T« 7.KC. ^^^^^;^^g j^;^ p^;^^^, ^ ^^^ ^^^j^^ wi!l hcat Hiore 

the turn of a proper naTie or appellation, chuftng in the Encomium of Theocritia, which I have 
rather, and I think more juflly, to render £««- given purpofely to explain thefe palTages. 

P 2. 



loS THE HYMN TO D E L O S. 

' Or as the ftars that in the JEther feed 

' Innumerable — flafhing dire o'er Grecia's realms 

' The fword barbarian ; and the Celtic Mars 

* In all his fury roufing ! loud laments, 2 jO 

* From Delphic towers, and Locrian battlements, 
' From fields Criffiean, and each ftate alarm'd, 

' Shall eccho round : the neighbour fwains fhall view 

' Th' adjoining harvefts blaze — and fcarcely view 

' Ere the devouring fire fliall feize their own. 235 

' Now fhall they fee, with horrible difmay, 

' The hoftile phalanx round my temples marfhall'd : 

' Now, midft my holy tripods, helms and fhields 

' And all the bloody implements of war, 

' Unhallow'd and abominable ! Caufe 240 

' Of future defolation to the throng. 



(( 



Mad 



Ver. 226. Or as, &c.] The original is, that the ftars were fed and fupported by the 

air, and the feveral moiftures exhaled from 

H iaci^i^jA.oi the earth and fea. See hyn^n to Diana, note 231. 

T«5£criir, ijiixa 'STA«r« ««t' jjtga Botxo?i£o»T»i. where we find that notion applied even to the 

Moon. Lucretius confirms this, by faying. 

Where, as Madam Dacier has well obferved, U„de Mthzr fidera pafcit. Concerning the re- 

the word BouxoX£<j»t«» is well explained by Firgil. markable hiftorical event, fo elegantly intro- 

r. 1 J r.j /• •» duced by our author, and fo much to the 

VoMS dum Jtdera micxt. . ^ r ,■ in- 

■' '^ jp honour or his prmce, hiitonans are copious, 

fo that it would be fuperlluous to fpeak of it 

in which fhe obferves, it is certo ccrtius., that here : the reader rnay confult either 'Jujiin or 

Virgil had his eye on this pafTage of Ccllima- Paufanias amongfl: the antients, or amongft the 

thus. We muft remember in explanation of moderns, our late excellent Univerfal Hijlory^ 

both authors, that the antients were of opinion, where he will be fully fatisfied. 



THE HYMN TO D E L O S. 109 

" Mad to profane Apollo's facred feat 

" And wage vain war with heaven ! Of thofe arms 

*' Part for my prize I claim : and part, great king, 

*' Thy labours {hall reward : all thofe that flrew 245 

*' The bloody banks of Nile, fall'n from the hands 

*' Of vanquifh'd owners, breathing out their fouls 

*' In fire and wild confufion ! thefe fliall be 

" The meed of thy illuftrious toils ! fuch truths 

" Prophetic I pronounce : in after times, 250 

" Thou, Ptolemy, fhalt grateful honours pay : 

" And blefs the unborn augur of thy fame. 

'' Thou too, oh mother, aid the facred purpofe : 

" O'er the rough waves a well-known ifland roams , 

" Yet unconfin'd, like flower of Afphodel 255 

" That yeilds to every blaft, it wanders wide, 

" As winds and waves diredt its doubtful courfe, 

*' Boreas 

Ver. 254. OVr, &c.] Madam .D^^/Vr, in her Homer's Odyffey, fufficiently explain the de- 
notes, gives us the following antient epigram fcription and account given of the ifland by 
upon D,:los : Callimachus. 

Delos jam ftabili revinSfa terroy „ ii>ji-n ir-. lu 

m- 1 / • , i ^ So roll d the float, and lo its texture held, 

(Jlim purpurea man natabat . , , ,■ 1 , , , , 

77. . f • L- f-e ■ J J And now the outh, and now ilie north bear- 
ish moto tevis nine <3 inde venta _ ' 

Ibat fluiilbus ttiquieta futnmis : a 1 ' ^ ', n , r n 1 1 

Ma/lllam geminh Deis cotenh ^nd now the eaft the foamy floods obey, 

Hac aha Gyaro ligavlt, Ulac ^nd now the weft-wuid vvhnis it o er the I 

Conlianti Myeones dedit tenendam. n , 

■' ^ Pope b. 5. ver. 420. 

This epigram, with the following lines from 



no THEHYMN TO DELOS. 

«' Boreas or Aufter, or th' uncertain flood. 
*' Thither thy burden bear : the wiUing ifle 
" Shall to Latona gladly grant admittance." 
He Taid : the ides retiring fought their place 
Obedient to his word , Afteria then, 
Of hymns divine regardful, to behold 
The facred choir of Cyclades, came down 
In happy hour from fair Eubaea's coafts, 
Encumber'd in her courfe with burdening weeds 
From rough Geraeflus gather'd : in the midft 
She flood : and with a generous pity touch'd 
At fair Latona's forrows, quick confum'd 



260 



265 



270 
The 



Ver. 263. 4fteria, &c.J The original is,' 

Er>:5 o til fi,i(Tar,at' xa-roiKim^aaa St A»tw 

of which I have given the bcft tranflation I was 
able : though I am by no means clear in the 
fenfe of this moft difficult and perplext paf- 
lage : it has been too hard for all the commen- 
tators, who cannot tell what to make of the 
nCPlfCAIEO nyPI, ks burning roumi with fire, 
■which confumed this fea-weed, *i;xo5 a.-rca.v xaraipTii- 
iai. Spanbeim has given fome of the bed hints 
tov/ards its explication, which I will extratl from 
him, and then we fhall be the better enabled 
to judge ; " A learned Man thinks, fays he, 
that this is fpoken in allufion to the barrennefs 
and badnefs of the foil in Dclos, &c. But that 
this cannot be the meaning of the words fufH- 
ciently appears from the reafon (which is imme- 
tiiiiiel)' addedj of this zvccd's being burnt up by 

3 



Delos ; namely, becaufe the ifland burnt all 
around with fire, beholding the pangs of Latona, 
Sec. iTTii ■aipxxiio TOi^fi, &c. In that therefore, from 
CalUmachus himfelf it is plain, the whole reafon 
of the thing is placed: Delos amon^'fl its antient 
names, fuch as A/ieria, Ortygia, Sic. (of which 
we have fpoken before) was formerly called 
a!fo Pyrpoles or Pyrpiles, fire being firji invented 
or found out there according to Pliny, and fo 
Solinus fays, that it was called Pyrpole., quon'am 
U ignltabula ill tff ignis inventa funt. To 
which antient name of Delos, and this account 
of its original, CalUmachus undoubtedly refers in 
this place ; where he fays, that all t\\e fca iveed 
brought with AJieria or Delos from Ger/rjius, a 
promontory of Eubcra., was burnt up by it, be- 
caufe OTE^ixaiio wupi, quandoquide7n igne Jlagraret 
circumquaquc, iSc. and not referring to this 
account ot PUny\ and of Solinus, has been the 
reafon why fo many learned njen have been 
unable to clear up the pafTage." So far Span- 
beim; the reader may remember that in a former 
note (note 61.} it was obferved from Solini^s, 

" that 



THE HYMN TO D E L O S. ur 

The weeds impeding : for indignant flames 

Burnt round her fhores, the fuffering pangs to view 

Of female anguiih : " Wreak, dread queen, flie cried, 

" Oh Juno, wreak on me, what vengeance beft 

" Shall fuit thy foul : thy threats fhall not difarm 275 

" My honefl purpofe : come, Latona, come : 

" Afteria, waits thee gladly." Thus her toils 

The wifli'd for end obtain'd : befide the banks 

Of deep Inopus (whofe proud current wells 

Moft rapid, when from ^Ethiopia's rocks 280 

The Nile defcending deluges the land :) 

Her wearied limbs £he lay'd, the crowded zone 

Unloofing ; while againft the facred palm's 

Sup- 

" that Delos, after the great deluge, wasfirftof real fire (prung /fpo/lo znd Diana; as the reader 
all the places of the earth illmninatedhy the rays of will hnd at large in the conclufion of this hymn : 
the Sun, and thence had the name £)^/w." Now and a note in the appendix on this paflagc will 
it is not impoflible that in this intricate pafTage, perhaps fet it in a clearer light. 
there. 1% (ome phy/ical allufion to fomething of Ver. 283. Palms, &c.J Concerning this 
this fort ; for as £)^/w was the birth place of the palm-tree at Delos, (o famed for its antiquity. 
Sun, Apollo, it may properly enough be faid to you may read in almofl every claffic writer : why 
hum around xvlth fire : and as the folar fire it was peculiarly dedicated to Apollo was ob- 
purges and deftroys all corruptible and noxi- ferved In the hymn to that deitv, note 5. and it 
ous principles, and promotes vegetation, there deferves particular attention in confirmation of 
may poflihly be fome allufion hereto in its what was faid there, that the mother of the God 
burning up and cnnfuming the fea-iveed. And of light (hould recline againjl this tree, and be 
we may remember De'os, though barren before htifeK fupported hy that which is the en)blem of 
/Ipcllo was born in it, afterwards became re- fupport. Some have faid, that Apollo was 
markably plentiful and fruitful. I obferved, brought forth between an olive-tree :iiid a palm, 
that in this whole aSiiW o{ Latona's perfecution, a tradition remarkable enough: Ovid men- 
Sec, there was a manifeft allufion to natural lions it. 

things ( note 81 ) Phurnutus conhrms that jnu incumbens cum PJLLADIS ARBORE 

opmion, who makes /-«/««« to iignify the night P/ITM/P 

ov dz.vk Chaos, itQmyihom by Jupiter \hQ atht- rj-i:--j.' • r ,,-,,.„»„^.4 

' ' J J r —Edidit Dicita gemnm Latona mven,!. 



112 THE HYMN TO D E L O S. 

Supporting trunk reclin'd, with bittereft pangs 
She groan'd diftreft ; and big cold drops diflill'd 
Adovvn her fainting body to the ground. 
Breathlefs amidfl: her throes, " My Ton, £he cried, 
" With intermitted fervency, ah why 
*' Thus grieve thy tortur'd mother ? when to thee 
" A kindly iHe the wifli'd reception grants : 
" Be born, be born, and eafe thy mother's pangs." 

But long the deed from Juno to conceal 
'Twere vain to hope : for trembling with the tale 
Her watchful Iris fled, and while her breaft 
Big pants with confcious fear, " Oh queen, flie cried, 



285 



290 



295 
Oft 



We fee there is no mention made of Diana, 
who according to her own account (Hymn to 
Diana ver. 34.) was brought forth without any 
pain to her mother : the difficulty was to bring 
forth the Sun, the Moon lives but from him, if 
we may fo fay. The dcfcription of this labour 
of Latona has juftly obtained univerfal praifes. 

Ver. 295. Oh queen, &c.] The excellence of 
CalUmachus in keeping up the charafters of his 
feveral perfonages is much to be admired, and 
it will appear by no means in a better light, 
than by comparing the conduit oi Mars on the 
reception which Pencus was about to give to 
Latona, and this of Iris, on AJleria's re- 
ceiving her: the fpeech of Iris is very excel- 
lent, and the art of her addrefs much to be 
commended. We may juft obferve our au- 
thor's pliilofophical accuracy in thus appropri- 
ating IRIS or the Rainbow to Juno or the Air : 
Homer, in his hymns, makes Iris a friend of 
Lqionn's, as does Lucian in his dialogues. But 
" CalUmachus, fays Frifchlinus, refpefts the 
i\\<i nature of the air^ in which the Rainbow, 



Iris is reprefented : for by yuno nothing elfe is 
underftood than the AIR, as the name in the 
Greek proves, for HPA (Juno) by Mctathejis, 
is AHP, the Air." But we may obferve, that 
Homer is not far from the philofophical truth, 
fmce we all know, that tlie rainhciv is produced 
by the affiftance of the Sun, and therefore, in 
his hymn, he might properly enough make Iris, 
the rainbovj, a friend to the mother of the Sun, 
Concerning this phasnomenon the writings of 
all the philofophers are full ; and divines too 
are not wanting, who explain to us this 
fymbol of grace given to Noah, and glorioufly 
difplayed around the head of the Redeemer. See 
Ezek. i. 28. and Rev. iv. 3. 

The fimile which the reader finds after this 
fpeech of Iris, deferves particular attention. 
The Jtiicdt auribus of I'irgil, in his famed dc- 
fcription of the horfe, feems borrowed from this 
paflage of CalUmachus, 

■ OvccTa o ecVTT}^ 

* The 



THE HYMN T O D E L O S. 113 

" Majeftic, all-ador'd, whofe pow'r fupreme 
*' Not I alone, but all confefs : of Iieav'u 
** Dread emprefs thou, fifter and fpoufe of Jove ; 
" Nor fear we ought from other ferrialc hand 1 
" Yet for thy rage hear caufe : Latona's birth 300 

*' A little ifle prefumptuous dares admit 1 
" The reft all fled : but this, of all leaft worth, 
** Afteria fweeping refufe of the main, 
" Even this invited, this received thy foe ! 
" Thou know'ft the reft : but pafs not unreveng'd 305 

" Their Quarrel, who o'er earth thy mandates bear," 
Speaking ftie fate beneath the golden throne : 
And as a faithful dog, when from the chace 
Diana refts, fits watchful at her feet, 

While ftill eredl its fharp ears lift'ning ftand, 310 

And wait each whifper of her voice : fo fate 
Thaumantian Iris : nor when fleep itfelf 
Spreads o'er her weary lids his downy wings. 
Her duty ought foregoing : by the throne 
Her head fhe leans reclining, and thus laid 315 

Obhque, 

The poets generally aflijn ivin^s to fieep as of Somnus J/atus, the God of fleep with wings, 

here, ver. 313. but wherefore, is not fo which is extremely curious, and well explains 

generally underflood : by referring to Span- the expreffion of winged. See alfo Sp^nu's Po- 

kc'uri'i note on the place, you will find a fine image lymetis, PI. 36. Fig. 2. 



114 THEHYMNTODELOS. 

Oblique, iliort flumber and difturb'd fhe fliares ; 

Her circling zone not daring to unbrace, '* 

Nor loofe the winged fandals from her feet, 

Left fudden Juno's word fliou'd claim her fpeed. 

But, warm refentment riling in her breaft, 320 

Thus Juno vents her ire : " In fort like this 
*' Ye vile reproaches of licentious Jove, 
*' May ye in fearful fecrecy conceive 
** And thus in fecret fhame produce your births \ 
*' Nor find a fhelter to conceal your pangs, 325 

*' Bafe as receives the verieft abjeft wretch 
*' Of human race, birth-tortur'd ; but on rocks 
*' And defart cliffs unpity'd, unreliev'd, 
" Thus like the monftrous Phocoe yean your brood. 



(( 



And 



Ver: 321. In fort, &c.] I have been obliged irona, fed in diverticulis ^ lujln's edunt, iurpi^ 
to take a larger compafs than is quite proper to tudini fua latibula quaritantes. Cujus ret ex- 
explain clearly the author's meaning in this empla qui nulla habcnt, Juvcnalcm Satyr. 6. 
place, which is difficult to be come at, and as legant." The lines following, wherein Juno ad- 
it feems to me not perfedlly underftood by any drefles JJleria, clear the fenl'e, and fhew, that 
of tiic commentators : I underftand it in the it is an execration, which at firfl: flie vent-s 
fenfe of an cxtcration, and fo do not read the againfb all the concubines of Jove, wifhing 
paflage, as is generally done, with an interroga- them fuch a birth-place, as this wretched rocky 
tion ; and herein Stephens dire<^ed me the way. defolate ifland of Delos. I am not unaware, 

that the learned Spanheim anderftands thefs 

OuTw »i.'v, u Zntoi omhcc, xai yajxcoia-^t latter lines fomewhat difterently ; but I think it 

AaSjia, xai tixtoite tax^vj^uivcc. will appear to the judicious reader, that I have 

united, or rather comprehended both fenfes of 

Jta, OJovisopprobria—dandefWnainnptlt-see- the author in the tranflation; which yet if I 

hbretis, & in occulto pcniatis !' — Frifh.iiius have miftaken, info ohfcure and contefted a 

obferves, " Notat merltricum partm cltinde/Hnos, point, it cannot be wondered, and will readily be 

qiios illiv non in ccetufwminarum, ut honejhc ma- txcufed. 



THE HYMN T O D E L O S. 115 

" And fure Afteria's favour to my foe 330 

*' Cannot much roufe my vengeance : fince her fhores 

** Barren and defolate can but afford 

" A wretched hofpitaHty ! Yet prone 

" To fury tho' I were, this wou'd difarm 

" My fteadieft purpofe, that her virtue fcorn'd, 335 

'* Tho' courted, to afcend my facred bed, 

*' And to Jove's arms preferr'd the briny deep.'* 

She fpoke : when from Padolus' golden banks 

Apollo's tuneful fongfters, fnowy fwans, 

Steering their flight, feven times their circling courfe 340 

Wheel round the ifland, caroling mean time 

Soft melody, the favourites of the Nine, _ 

« 

Thus ufhering to birth with dulcet founds 
The God of harmony : and hence fev'n firings 
Hereafter to his golden lyre he gave : 345 

For 

Vcr. 339. Snowy fimns, &:c.] I hav« before of the nxivaher: feven, and we fliall fee the whole 

obferved, that fwans were dedicated to y^/x;//^, and myftery, remembring that the original Hebrew 

hinted at theonly probable reafon I can find for it. jitJ^ (xgnAcs perfe£iion znA fuliufs, as well as 

(See hymn to /^/)fl//ff, note g4.) and am pleafed to fcvcn. Apo\lo\ lyre confided oi feven firings: 

find that able mythologiftP/;ttr«2</z<j, confirm my Zp-" Apollinis chordarum feptein (fays Macro- 

opinion. Aia thto xai isf^-; auTu KYKNOS, Tu bins, (dt. 1. I. c. 19.) tot cceUjlium fphcvfarum 

HnriKotaiav, xm AEYKOTATON afca «»ai tio'» u^nut. tmtus praflat intcUigl, quibus folem modcratorem 

" For this rcafon is the fivan facred to Apollo, tiatura conjlituit. And as this lyre rcprefents 

bccaufc it is the moft mufical and mod white the feven fpheres, the harmony of which the 

of all birds.'" See c. 32. As to the other parts Sun regulates and conducts, hence we fee 

of this defciiption they arc fo clear, I fuppofe, plainly the original of the harmony o( the fpherci 

they need no cxi>!anation : we have only to re- fo much talked of. 

fer to the beginning of things, and the pe'feJl ion Q. 2 



ii6 THEHYMN TO DELOS. 

For ere the eighth foft concert was begun, 

He fprung to birth — -the Delian nymphs aloud >, 

All grateful to Lucina tun'd the hymn, 

The facred fong rejoicing ! ^ther hears 

And from his brazen vault returns the found 350 

Exulting ; perfect glory reign'd : and Jove 

Sooth'd even offended Juno, that no ire 

Might damp the gen'ral joy, when Sol was born. 

Then, Delos, thy foundations all became 

Of pureft gold ; the circling lake, the flood 355 

Of deep Inopus roll'd the fplendid ore 

Adown their glittering ftreams : and golden fruit 

On golden ftems thy favour'd olive bore. 

Thou too from off the golden foil uprais'd 

The new-born God, and fondling in thy breaft 360 

Thus fpoke • — " See thou, Oh earth, fo richly bleft, 

*' Thou fertile continent, and ye full ifles 

" Who boafi: fuch num'rous altars, fhrines, and ftates. 



(( 



I am 



Ver. 354. Then, 5cc.] //»/wr gives the fame Jpollo from the ground, the golden foil; upon 

account of this affair, and tells us, that all be- which Spanheim obferves, that it was always 

came golden at Delos upon the birth of the Sun ; ufual to lay infants, when firft born, upon the 

no dfficult matter to account for, efpeciiilly if we earth, by which they acknowledged it the w«- 

refer to 'he hymn to Apollo, vcr. 52, and note, mon parent and nourijher : after whicTi they were 

CalUmachui fays, that the ifland Delos took taken up and delivered to the parents. 



THE HYMiV TO D E L O S/ 117 

** I am that poor uncultivated ifle 

*' Defpis'd and barren ; yet obfervc, from me 365 

*' Delian Apollo fcorns not to receive' 

" An honour' d name : and hence no other clime 

" From any God fhall equal favour fhare : 

" Not Cenchris by her Neptune fo belov'd, 

" By Hermes nor Cyllene : nor by Jove 370 

" lUuftrious Crete : as Delos, happy ifle 

" By her Apollo: fteadfaft in his love 

*' Here will I fix, and wander hence no more." 

She fpoke j and to the God, her fnowy breaft 

Unfolding, gave fweet nurture : o'er the babe 375 

Enamour'd fmiling with paternal love : 

Hence, 

Ver. 374. Her fnowy hreajt, he."] Homer, who, according to Plutarch, averred that the 

in his hymn to Apollo, gives a very different ac- Sun was nourilhed and even kindled by the fca" 

count of this matter, informing us, that Apollo, So far Spanheim, in which he refers to that 

immediately after his birth, v^as not fed with curious treatife of P/utarJ/s, rtf^t ijiJos ««» 

milk like other infants ; but had nclar and O^ipJot, which is rendered iiuo Englifij by Dr. 

amhrofta, the meat and drink of tlie Gods, im- Squire, in whofe tranflation, p. 14. we read • 

mediately brought him by T/iemis : ~ " Nor can we fuppofe it their opinion, that the 

0»J af ATroTAuva xft/<raopa Stjo-aro M>iT»!p, ^""j hke a new-born infant, fpriiigs up every 

AMa 0£ 1! «xTap te xai afx.|9p<jo-ii;« sfccTctri) day afrelh out of the loius plant. ]t is true 

A9<xva.Tii:7i» XH"'" ^'^if^^ra' xaifE h Aijtu. indeed they do charadlcrife the rijing-lun in 

Nor milk to Pha^l>us with his golden locks '^'' !^'""''.; '^"^ '^' l'''^"". '''' '.^"^^ '^'^V "^^7 

Did fair Utona give : but Themis brought ^^'^^y ^'^J^'^l '° ".-^' „''^''f '^ '^ "'^'/^"''^ '° "^^''^ 

To Ids immortal hands the heav'nly fo^od ^^ "^ [^ \"""'"^ °^ '*''' '"'"'"^r^-" ^^ 

Ofdeities— ambrofiaandneaariioy f\ ^"^ ^«'""' the reader s while, defirous of 

Fill'd his glad mother. f"'''^^'' ^Pi-o^'ement in thefe fpeculatior^s, to read 

the whole treatife. And by the way we may 

" Becaufe, probably, the Sun or Apollo, as the obferve, that the word Ictus is derive,) from the 

producer and nourijher of all thing-, on earth, fame Hebrew word as Latotia, Lot, &c. — as 

cannot be fupported by earthly diment, but noted, ver. x8. of this hynm , a repark worth 

heavenly oniy. To fay nothing of the Stoics^ the reader's attention. 



ii8 THE HYMN TO D E L O S. 

Hence, holiefl of iflands, thou waft call'd 
The nurfe of Phoebus : privileg'd from death, 
From bloody Mars, and wild Bellona's wafte, 
Who ne'er deftrudive tread thy hallow'd plahis. 
But from the fubjed world primitial tenths 



5S 



380 



Are 



Ver. 378. Privileg'd from death, &c.] It 
was never permitted any perfon to die, or to 
bring forth, in Delos ; anil the great veneration 
paid to the ifland by the whole world preferved 
it from the danger of war. Whenever any 
were Tick they were carried into a little ifland 
jufl: by, CA\\e<\ Rbenca, where they buried. And 
to this our author alludes in the lines above. 
Frifchliiius remarks a faying of Paiifanias, the 
fon of Cleombrotui, to this purpofe : who replied 
to the Dclians upon a difpute between them and 
the Athenians, concerning the property of the 
iflc, when they obi'ervcd this particular that no 
women were delivered, nor dead buried, in 
their illc. — " How then can this be your 
country, in which no one of you hath been, nor 
•will hereafter be ?" In qua neque fuit quifquain 
vejirian, neque futurus eft ? 

Ver. 381. But primitial tenths, &c.] Calli- 
maclms here informs us of a very remarkable 
particular in the worfliip of Apollo, " the fend- 
ing him the firjl-fruits and tenths by every na- 
tion in the world, and from the inhabitants of 
every part of the globe," to each of which the 
influence of the 5«« extends, and from all of 
which at this birth-place of his he demanded, 
and obtained, an acknowledgment of his uni\'er- 
fal dominion. It appears impofliblc to give any 
tolerable folution of this cuftom, unlefs we re- 
fer to the Sf/», and his univerfal influence. The 
cuftom oi o^trrngfirji-frults is, without doubt, 
extremely anticnt, prior to Adofes, and as old as 
the fall : when Cain brouijht of the fruit of the 
ground, arid Abel of the firJlUngs of his flock : 
the one a bloody, and fo an acceptable facfifice ; 
the other only of the/r« t of the ground, curfed 
and not redeemed. And in reference to this 
Jjloody ofFirring, the learned commentators upon 
our author oblervc, fhat in the original there is 



mention of more than the fheaves, and therefore 
I have tranflated it (ver. 390.) 

The holy (heaves and myjiic offerings bear. 

In thefe facred handfuls, or bundles of corn, 
they aver, that the bloody offering was wrap- 
ped up to preferve it, which is confirmed by a 
pafTage from Herodotus, who fays, that the 

Delians fpeak of IPA EvJiJsftwa i» xaXaf/.») roufwy eI 

YTTf^/Sofsai/ (pi^iij.;iz, — facred things bound up in a 
fjcaf of wheat, brought by the Hyperboreans" 
upon which Spanheim adds, that IPA is com- 
monly ufed for victims that are offered in fa- 
crifice, or for parts of them [awafX'x-n' firji- 
fruits. The reader will find much to this pur- 
pofe in the notes of that learned commentator : 
the cuftom however feems from hence fufficiently 
plain, and, with a reference to the firjl -lings-, 
■dud fi^f-fruits mennoncd in fcripture, cafy to be 
refolved : fmce thefe were payed to the Sun, the 
emblem of the true Sun of Righteoufnefs, who 
Wis facrifced for the fins of the whole luorld, the 
frft-born of every creature, and the firji-fruits 
of the dead. In a work called Bibliotheca Bi- 
llica, printed at Oxford, many hints of this 
kind are fully explained ; the reader, amongft 
other parts, may confult vol. 3. p. 42. Span- 
heim obfervcs, that this uni\erfal regard and 
tribute, paid by all nations to Apollo or the Sun, at 
Delos, was fometiiing fimilar to the veneration 
paid to the the temple of the true Sun at Jenfalem 
by all the Jews, inhabiting every part of the globe. 
See his note. And when the light of the wo, Id 
was born, wife men from the .moft iliftjnt parts, 
kd by hhjlar, came to worJijipVym and to pre- 
fcnt their ^///j an!^ offerings, the firJi fruits of 
the acntiles. 



THE HYMN TO DELOS. 

Are fent to Delos : wliile each pious ftate 

Unites with facred joy to celebrate 

The gen'ral feaft ; ftates flowing from each clime 

Of the well-peopled globe, from eaft and v/eft, 

From Ardlic and Antardlic pole — where heav'n 

The virtue of the habitants rewards 

With length of days : thefe to the Delian God 

Begin the grand proceffion ; and in hand 

The holy fheaves and myftic offerings bear ; 

Which the Pelafgians, who the founding brafs 

On earth recumbent at Dodona guard, 



119 



385 



390 



Joyous 



Ver. 388. Thefe, &c.] The author here de- 
fcribes the proceffion of this holy offering, which 
he tells us comes firfl: from the dwellers at the 
antar£iic--pole, the Hyperboreans, and io is con- 
veyed through different hunds to Delos. Pau- 
fanias has a paffage which well explains our 
author — " In prafienfihus antem ( Attica; pago) 
Apollinis cj} temphim, quo HYPERBOREO- 
RUM primitias mitti tradunt; eas enitn Hyper- 
borci Arifmaj'p'is committunt, Arifmafpi Iffido- 
nibus ; ab its acceptas Scytha Sinopen : inde ad 
prafienfes Grreci deportant ; eas deindc Delon A- 
tlienitiifts Kittuni." lib. I. p. 59. 

Ver. 392. Dodona, &c.] This on^cle of Ju- 
piter's at Dodona was of a very fuigular kind, 
I'uppofed to be the mod antient of all the oracles 
of Greece, prior to the flood, butreftored by Deu- 
calion, according to the tradition, alter it. 
The fcholiaft upon the i6th Iliad, 233, ^c- 
gives this account of it — T15 It snv tb Au^rnxm 
Aio;?iovoc, &:c. What is the ffory of this Dodonean 
Jupiter, and wha: is the place from whence he 
received this n.sme ? To wliich he anfwcrs, from 
a very antient author, Thrafyhulus, that Deucalion 
afterthe flood, winch happened in his time,having 



got fafe upon the firm land of Epirus, preached 
or prophefied in or by an oak — i^oLmmto •» tf 
\\n — and by the admonition or counfcl of an 
oraculous Dove, having gathered together fuch 
as were faved from the flood, made them to 
inhabit together in a certain place or country, 
which, from Jupiter and Dodona, one ot the 
Oceanides, they called Dodona.'' Thus far 
the fcholiaft. The reader cannot but ob- 
ferve the remarkable references herein to the 
affairs of Noah, of which this doubtlefs is a plain 
heathen tradition. Concerning the oak, fee 
hymn to Diana, note 224. What the doie 
fi 'uifies we may underRand by Noah's dove fent 
from the ark ; the tradition is rem-.-.rkable, that 
this dove flew from the lap of Thebe, or, as 
others, from Thebes, the very name of the ark 
\\\ the Hebrew T\'2\.'r\ Thcbc, to Dcdona, whicil 
is a compound word from ml and *j~lN', Dod 
and Achnai, fo Dodonai, as will appear irom an 
author, who has fallen into my hands while I 
am writing this ; and whom I will produce at 
the end of the hymn, as not having room for 
him here. The Pelafgians, Uihoujy^u were the 
dcfccndcnts of, and had their name from Phuleg 



20 THE HYMN TO D E L O S. 

Joyous receive, and to the Melians care 

The hallovv'd gifts conlign : whence o'er the fields 

Lelantian pafs'd, to fair Euboea's fhores 

At length arriv'd, a ready paffage wafts 

The confecrated off 'ring to the fhrine 

Of DeUan Apollo. Oi the north, 



195 



Chill 



or Pelfg J"* 3. See StiUingflecfs Origines Sacr^. 
The tradition of tlie Do/iouean orac\e, that it was 
prior to the flood, but reftorcd by DeucaUon, is 
fimilar to wl'.at the Jt'ivs dehver, that the altar 
upon which Ncab facrificed after \.\\cf.ood, was 
the fame Vv-hicii Jihim had built after the fall, 
whereon Cain and Jhel offered their oblations — 
and whereon alfo Abraham offered, i^c. See 
BihUothcca Bihltca, vol. I. p. 227, is'c. 

In antient times, and at the beginning, the ora- 
cles were delivered by the murmuring noife 
of a fountain at the foot of an oak, and alfo 
from the oaks themfelves: but in after times 
they made ufe of the brazen kettle, of which 
Calltmachus fpeaks, the founding brafs, which, 
whethtr it were ufed in delivering oracles, is 
doubted by fome. We have two accounts given 
us of the reafon, why it was faid to be always 
founding:, ao-r/iToio, as CalUmachus calls it ; one, 
That niany of thefe brazen kettles were fo 
artificially placed about the temple, that by 
ftriking one of them the found was communi- 
cated to all the refl. The other, and the moft 
probable, account is, that there were two pillars 
before the temple, on one of which was placed 
a ketth, upon the other a boy holding in his 
hand a whip with lajltes of brafs, which being, 
by the violence of the w'nd, ftruck againft the 
kettle, caufed a continual found. Concerning 
this whole matter, fee Potter's Antiq. of Greece, 
vol. I. p. 265. and other writers on Mytho- 
logy. Thefe bra%en pillars, &c. feem to have 
fome reference to the two brazen pillars before 
the temple of Solomon, i Kings vii, 21. called 
Icin and Bo%, which were reprefentativcs of the 
fupporters of this fyftem, and reclaimed by God 
to liiBifelf from ihe heathen wovfhipers of thofe 



fupporters ; of whom it is faid, that they fend 
out thelv found ; th y, namely, the D'plt^— the 
athers, thejfn/gglers, light and air, Pfalm Ixxvii. ' 
17. of whom itis alfo faid, that their voice and 
found is gone out through the whole earth. 
Pfal. xix. So the brafs at Dodona lAwzys found- 
ed, and that by means of the air, as we ob- 
ferve ; where, if the brafs was an emblem 
of light (as was gold in the temple of God) 
we have the two agents. And to this the bells 
of gold on the high priefls vejlments joined with 
the pomegranates referred, which were always 
to fend forth their found when he entred into 
the oracle or Holy of Holies. See Exod. xxviii. 
34. As thefe have all a mutual connexion and 
application to the fame thing (which fcems to 
have been the heathen grand offence) a wor- 
Jhipping the created agents, which are the fup- 
porters of, and whofe found or power extends 
through all creation, and is continually aiilng ; 
it fcems very reafonabic to fuppofe, that thefe 
ever-founding kettles of brafs, with their feveral 
appendages, refer hither alfo : and the more 
attention we give to the remarkable columns 
before the temple of God, the clofer fimilitude, 
I am apt to believe, we fhall find : bearing in 
mind, that thefe brazen kettles were of modern in- 
vention, compared with the oracle, oak, dove, &c. 
Ver. 398. Of the north, &c.l Spanhciin pro- 
duces a paflage from Rudheckius to prove, that 
this worfhip of Apollo by the Hyperboreans, or 
fons of the north, was the fame with the ido- 
latry paid to Baa'-Stphon ; for the word Sephon 
in the Hebrew confeifcdiy is the no-th. Tnefe 
are his words: Hunc vero juxtii Gracos auSiores, 
cultum ah Hypcrboreis Apollinem, nm em ejje 
cum Baal-Scphon, Deo leu idolo, aijiis nientio, 

Exod 



THE HYMN TO DELOS. 

(Chill Boreas' climes, the Arimalpians feat,) 

The lovelieft daughters, Hecaerge blefl, 

Bright Upis, and fair Loxo, with a choir 

Of chofen youth accompany'd, firfl brought 

The grateful fheaves and hallow'd gifts to Phoebus : 

Thrice happy throng, ordain'd no more to fee 

Their native north, but ever flourifh fair 

In fame immortal, fervants of their God ! 

The Delian nymphs, whom to the nuptial bed 

Midft melting mulic Hymen gently leads 

Trembling with am'rous fear, their votive locks 

To thefe bright daughters of the north conlign t 

And to the fons the bridegrooms confecrate 

The virgin harvefl; of their downy chins. 



121 



400 



405 



410 



Thee 



Exod. XIV. I. conicndlt idem de quo patilo ante, 
v'lr ingerilofus ac indujirius Rudbeckius Atlant. 
p. 761. quod nempe Sephon ^^ Septentrione, feu 
aquilinari plaga, ab Hcbrxis did fit in confejfo : 
fitquc ita Baal feu Relum feptentrionalem, nihil 
tjfe aliud qiiam Apollinem Hyperboreum : Baal 
enim a Scaidis i^ in Eddn, omnium prajlantif- 
fimum denotare. Cui & illud fnffragari infupcr 
pojfet quod a Lhaldjeis "|13'i', Sephon, de extre- 
me ftptentrione idea dici adftrant veteres mrrgi- 
Jiri, quod Sol i! ic fit velut abCconditus, id autem 
de Hyperboreis tra .iderunt Mcla^ PUnius, (sc. 
eos per femijfem SoY\s luce carcre." Thus that 
learned and ingenious Commentstor ; and ihe 
names of thefe three Hyperborean virgins evi- 
dently (hew their connection with the Sun, in 
confirmation of what Spanheim has remarked ; 



each being an appellation of the Sun, who is 
c:;lled Hecaergus from emitting his rays, or 
darting them from afar^ Loxius, from the ob- 
lique eourfe, which he annually dtfcribes, which 
the worJ Aofo; fignifies, See Mac)-ol>ius, Phor- 
nutus, bfc Upis, for the fame reafon that Dinna 
was fo called, viz. from \.\\& fplcndor and brighti:-fs 
of I is face. See hvmn to Diana, ver. 278. Add 
to this, that ^lie Virgins and young men we { a to 
dedicate to thcii; virgins and their companions, 
tlieir Hair, when about to be manitd ; hereby 
acknowledging; tt.e Sun to be the caufe of a I 
fruitfitlnefs ixiiijirength, cf which tiie Hair, in 
reference to his rays, was the fymlol. See 
hymn to JpoUo, note 52, and 60. and alio the 
cafe of Samffon, whof i /ireng.'h lay in his feven 
/fff-f^, as mentioned. Judges \\\. i-j, i^c. 
R 



122 THE HYMN TODELOS, 

Thee bright Afteria (whofe rich altars breathe 
Divined fweets to heav'n) the cirding ifles 
Encompafs round, and form a beauteous choir 415 

Not lilent nor devoid of facred fong : 
But radiant vefper crown'd with golden locks. 
Still views thee hymn'd with grateful harmony. 
The youths, prophetic Olen, chaunt thy lays 
Delighted : while the maids the folid ground. 420 

Shake with their choral feet : and load with wreaths 
Fair Venus' facred ftatue^ which^ from Crete 
Returning with his peers, kind queen of love, 
Thefeus uprais'd to thee : who, when efcap'd 
The mazy labyrinth, death's fequefter'd feat, ^ 425 

And dread Pafiphae's offspring by thy aid. 
Grateful around thine altar led the choir 
With facred dances to the tuneful harp. 
And hence the fons of Cecrops annual fend 

The 



Ver. 414. The circUng ip^, &c.] Concern- writers on Mythology are coprous. Tl.ucydldes 

ing the Cyclades, fo called from furrounding and Plutarch alfo give an account of it, and the 

Delos, I fpoke, note 3. Olen was a Lyctan^ Englijh reader will be fatisfied by confulting 

and compofed hymns to the honour of Jlpollo at Potter's Antiquities of Greece, vol. I. p. 284. 

Delos. Concerning the ftatue of f^enus in Delos., where the archbifhop refers to this paflage in 

the honour paid to it by Thefeus, and the yearly Callimachus. 
ceremony performed by the Athenians^ all 



THE HYMN TO DELOS. 

The fam'd Theorian vefTel, that defies 
The pow'r of time, for ages ftill the fame. 

Thee, ever honour'd ifle, what veflel dares 
Sail hy regardlefs ? 'twere in vain to plead 



123 

430 



Strong 



Ver. 433. Thee, Sic] Here we have a re- 
markable inftance of the veneratioji paid to 
Delos, which was univerfal, and of which 
/Eneas fpeaks 

Hue feror : hrrc fejjbs tuto placidijfima portu 
Acdplt : egrejft veneramur ApoUinis urhem. 

/En. iii. 78. 

See too Cicero's Oration pro Lege Man'dia. Nos 
quoque, i^c But the ceremony, which CaUima- 
chus fpeaks of, is very peculiar : liic fchoiiaft fays, 
" That it was a cuftom in D^los to run round 
the altar of Apollo., and lo ftiike it with a whip, 
TW9rrnt(*^riy, and with their hands or arms bound 
behind them, to ■^Ite the oUv:." The firlt part 
of the ceremony is plain enough, and ea!y to be 
underflood by referring to th; hymn to Apollo,no\.e 
II. and I think die fecond p.,rticubr is of the ume 
nature with what we read in i Kings xviii. of 
the priefls of Baal, who leapt upon the altar 
they h.id made (which th<; LXX render JisTjfXw, 
run round, the exadt import of our author's 
phrafe :) and they cried aloud, and cut themfelvcs, 
after their manner, zuith knives and lancers, till 
the blood gujhed out upon them. The conteft 
here was, whether Baal, the light, or the opera- 
tion of the air could confiame the facrificeor not ; 
fo that the idol worfliipped v/as plainly the fame 
with Apdlo or the Sun, See note 408. The 
running round the altar imported the motion 
and ailion of thsfolar light ; the ftriking luith 
a tvhip the altar, or cutting themfehes with kni-ves, 
(a more cruel cuftom) mean while prayina; to 
their God, which they did (and they cried aloud 
iind cut thcmfelves, &:c.) was a f/.nbolical action, 
denoting their defire, that he v/ould by the 
aSiion of his rays, flri'ke, pervade, and cut (as it 
were) or fliew forth hi> power upon all nature in 
general, and l\\zi facrifice in particular now be- 
fore him : and to this, as was obfjrved, hymn to 
Apollo, note 34 and 142. refers the Exclamation 



lo Paan : Tlnocritus fpeaks of the like cuftom, 
which was ufed by the Arcadians, to their God 
Pan, who was the univerfal nature, and to be 
firuck, pervaded, and cut by ihck lajhes or darts 
O," the Sun : 

Kw /^i» Tai'S £pJoi{, W7ra» ^l^E, fjij ru t» oai^i; 
A^za&iKoi t7Xi\?^xiJhV V7T0 -zaXtv^xq te xui ufj-a^ 

TccnXSt fCar'O'^OlEl' 0T£ X^iU. TUtBcC ISU^SiVt, &C. 

See IdylUum 7. ver. 106. In the account of the 
Dodonean kettles there is mention of a whip of 
hrafs, which I fuppofe refers to the fame : and 
in the Orphic hymns, v/e read, in the hymn to 
the Sun, 

MA2Tiri aw >xiyv^yi tetjosojok affiec, Swxut, 

Oh charioteer 
With founding WHIP driving thy fplendid 

car 
Drawn by four horfcs. 

which feems fully to confirm what has been ad- 
vanced above : and having thus furrounded the 
altar of Apollo, and by this fymbolical action de- 
clared their belief in his univerfal power, they 
were to bend their own a<mj behind them, and 
fo to take the fared olive in their mouths , there- 
by declaring, that not from their own arm or 
power, which was bound, but from hi>, v/holealtar 
they furroanded, they expected to attain and lay 
h U of zhdt peace, whereof ibe olive was always a 
fvmbol, fee Gen. viii. 1 1. and which, though pe- 
culiarly the gift odhe true light, St. Johnxv. 27. 
was y.t iiy the heathens fupp .fed the gift of t':eu- 
material light : the arm is known always '<^ d - 
note power, as fcripture and profane writers fully 
prove, thus it appears, the heathens by this ce- 
remony cxprcffed their bcliefofobtainingjiftfi"^ and 
worldly fecuiity, by his power, vih-n pervad.ih 
all things and not by any t:rm orflrtnothff 
theirs. There arc fojnc pLin allufuns, to this 
R 2 abotr.i- 



124 THE HYMN TO D E L O S. 

Strong driving gales, or, ftronger ftill than they, 
Swift- wing'd neceflity : their fwelling fails 
Here mariners mufl: furl ; nor hence depart 
Till round thy altar, ftruck with many a blow, 
The maze they tread, and, backward bent their arms, 
The facred olive bite : for fuch the Iports, 
To pleafe thy infant fancy, and divert 
With youthful mirth, the Delian nymph devis'd. 
Hail Vefta of the illes, the middle place 



435 



440 



For 



abomination, in the S.S. particularly in the 
prophet Micah, who fays, 'I'hus faith the Lord 
concerning the prophets, that make my people 
err: that bite with their TEETH, and cry 
PEACE, chap. iii. 5. and in Zecharlah we read, 
And a baftard fhall dwell in ASHDOD (the 
beloved fire) and I will cut ofF the pride of the 
PhilifiiHes : and I will take away his blood out 
of his mouth, and his ABOMINATIONS from 
between hi, fEETH. chap. ix. 6, 7. Afidod 
here is rem.irkable, ~i-|"ltyN% for from 'Z'K, 
ejh, or li'J.% o/h, ihz folar fire, and 7-], to di aw 
silt, comes Delos ; as will appear more fully 
hereafter : and in the fourth verfe of the fame 
chapter of Zechariah, it is faid, (he fhall be eat 
up, b'2^r\, iomedetur, m fire ^''^ ; from which 
word we muft remember comes Eri«, Fejla, 
mentioned in the next note : who obtained the 
middle place, as there obferved from this folar 
ASH or orb, which fhe reprefented. 

Nee tu al'iud VEST AM, quam vivam credlto 
Flammam, 

fays Ovid, Fa ft. lib. 6. 291. and fo Delos, be- 
ing a fymbol of this living fire, is here called, 
the Vejia of the ifinnds. 

Ver. 441. HallVcJla, &c.] This expreflion 
alludes to the well-known cuftom of placing the 
Prytanea facred to Vefta in the middle of cities, 
as alfo her images in the middle of private houfes; 
as the Suns orb, which (lie reprefented, was 
placed in the midft of ihcjr/hm. I have tranf- 



lated the laft line of the hymn agreeable to the 
opinion of Spanhelm and many other learned 
commentators, who can never think that the 
poet would addrefs Diana (for fome have 
applied the words to her} after the clofe of 
a hymn, where (he has been fcarceiy mentioned. 
The learned and attentive reader cannot but have 
obferved, that this hymn, facred X.o the birth of 
the God oiW^t, refers immediately to ihe firjl 
production of things ; and though there are fome 
llrange fables interm.ixed, yet we muft look 
upon it in this light, if we would in any degree 
comprehend the author's defign ; and this I fug- 
gefted in a general note 81. Since the printing 
of which, a work of fmgular learning hath 
fallen into my hands called Originals by the re- 
verend Mr. Holloway, in the 34th page of whofe 
2d volume, where he is confidering the word 
t3lS, Lot, Myrrh, I w;'^ greatly pleafed to read. 
" From the Hebreiv \^-^, Lot, or OJ^^^, laat, to 
He lid, the heathens derived their Amu, Latona, 
the mother oi Apollo and Diana; that is, of the 
light in its mixed or confufed ftate, before the 
fourth day of creation, when it was fet up in the 
orbs of the Sun, Moon and Stars : and this tDl'?, 
Lot, myrrh, was facred for the ufe of a fumiga- 
tion to the idol Lat.na ; doubtlefs irom fome 
imagined refemblance betwixt the lurking virtue 
of the gum, and that concealed Jl ate of the God- 
defs, before (he was delivered of the Sun and 
Moon : and what might that be, but that, as 
the virtue of the gum is brought to H^ht cut of 

its 



THE HYMN TO DELOS, 

For thou obtain'ft well-ftation'd ; Delos hail. 



^25 
Hail 



its Jolution by water, fo the Sun and Moon were 
born of Latona, or fetched out of their difFufion 
through the watery chaos, in which they had 
before lain hid, &c." See the whole curious 
chapter. May not this concealnunt, &c. re- 
marked by iV]r. Holloway tend to explain what 
Juno fays of Latona' s fecret coition with 'Jupiter, 
and fecret bringing forth yaftioiaSt- AA©PIA xai 
T.KTom KEKPYMMENA, ver. 32 1 ? And in this 
folution of the matter there is nothing new, as 
the learned reader is well informed : Phurmitus 
hints the fame : E| OY (namely Jupiter) (lis Avo\- 

Pi4i» xcci AfTEfti; iymr,^yijat Six t))? Avirf? : Ajira yatf 
T»i» NYK.TA ivoiix^as-t xara (/.iTaGEair ra ^ainuq 6 «{ 
TO xiXon auTs T A)!6>! Ti; B<ra, chap. 2- where ob- 
serve, he gives the fame derivation of Latona as 
was siven note 81. and refetj to the original 
chaotic night and d.irknefs (for fo he muft be 
underftood) whence fprung the Sun and Aloon. 
And Macrohius, Sat. Hi. i. p. 240. fays diredtly 
the fame ; I fhall only give his explication of 
the fable: " ^iod ita intelUgendum naturalis 
ratio dcmonjirat : namque pojl Chaos uhi primum 
capit confufa deformitas in rerum foimas isf ele- 
menta nitefcere, terraque <7^/jz<f humida fubflan- 
tia molU atque inftabiliy^^<? mutaret convalefcente 
paulatim tstherio calore, atq'e inde feminibus in 
earn igneis dcfluentibus hac fidera edita tjfe cre- 
dtintur : fs" Solem quidem maxima vi Caloris in 
fuperna raptum, Luiiam vera hu?n diore (st veltit 
famineo fexu naturali quodam preffam tepore in- 
feriora tenuijje : tanquam ille ma^i: fuhjlantia 
PATRIS conjlaret, H£C MATRIS. Siqui- 
dem Latonam phy/ici vclunt t err am videre : cui 
dlu intervenit Juno, ne numi,a, qua: diximus, 
ederen'ur : hoc ej}, aer, qui tunc humidus aahuc 
gravifque obftabat astheri, ne fulgor li'minum per 
humofi aeris denf.t<item,tanquam e ctijufdam pai tus 
progrefftone, fulgeret." Whence we fee that 
Alaciooius explains the fable alfo in reference 
to the beginning of things: when the earth, in 
its firj? fluid, formlefi, and moift ft.ite — humida 
adhuc fuhftantia, as he calls it, was i:r,pregnated 
by the atherial heat, or Jupiter, and fo, thr^.)' 
the refijiance and objii u£t.on of the denfe, thick, 
and da k air broug'.t 'orth with muchjlruggling, 
the Sun and Moon. Nothing v/ill better explain 
this than the firil chapter of Genefis. It may be 
worth while to remark in confirmation of what 
is faid wicli regard to Juno, or the air^s rejifance 
and confiff with Latona, againft whom her ha- 



tred was principally on account of Apollo, or 
the light, according to the Fable, (See ver. 67. 
of this hymn) that D'pnC. the word ufed 
for the heavens, clouds, or files, properly fignifics 
the Jlrugglers, or the two great agents air and 
light in conftant confix zndjlruggle together. 

I now proceed according to my promife, note 
392. to give you an extradt from the Myt'.olo- 
gical notes of turner, whofe book was printed 
in J 687, is very rare to be met with, and a 
work of great erudition; it is dedicated to the 
lord high chancellor Jeffreys, and was dcfigned 
by the author as an introduction to a larger 
work, which whether he ever printed or not, 

1 am unacquainted : he produces the fcholiaft 
tranflated in my note, and makes thefe remarks 
upon him, page 69. " In thefe words are feveral 
things very remarkable : firft, if we admit a 
very imall anachronifm in the Greek ftory, then 
it is true of Noah, what Thrafybulus in this re- 
lation afcribes to Deucalion — if^aimtjno t» rr Afti, 
that he preached or prophefied, by or under an 
oak or tree, not after the flood, as this ftory 
would have it, but before it, for fo St. Peter 
exprefly calls him a preacher of righteouihefs. 

2 Pet. ii. 5. and in the firft epiftle iii. 19. fpeak- 
ing of the Ipirit of Chrift, he fays, " By which 
fpirit alfo he went and preached unto the fpirits 
in prifon, which fometime were difcbcdient, 
when once the long-fuffering of God %vai:ed in the 
days of Noah, luhcn the ark ivas preparing. — 
which words are to be underftood of Noah's 
preaching by the fpirit of Chrift, to the 
fpirits in prifon, that is, not which were fo 
then, but were fo for tlieir difobediciice when 
this epijlle v/.is written, and long before it, and 
continue (b ftiU, isfc. — Not that the prophetic 
fpirit of Noah is to be confined to the ti.mes be- 
fore the flood — for in Genefts ix. 24. we find 
him prophefying upon Cham's difrefpetiful treat- 
ment of him : fo that this is agreeable to the 
account of Deucalion given by Thrafylmlus. Se- 
condly, It is not faid in general of Deucalion, 
that he was a prophet, but that he did (xawtu- 
eo-9ai «T>i Afii, prophefy hy, or under feme oak 
or tall Ipreadir.g tree — for the text tells us, that 
this happened while Noah was in his tent, Gen. 
i.K. 20. Noah began to be an hujl.'indman, and he 
planted a vineyard, and he drank of the wij-.e and 
was drumen, and he was uncovered within his 
tent. But what is ftill .core to the purpofe, it 

is 



126 



THE HYMN TO D E L O S. 



Hail Phoebus ! and thou. Mother of the God. 



h Lid of Abraham, Gen. xiii. 18, that he re- 
moved Ills tent and came and dwelt iji the plain 
of Mamre (which is properly the oaks of Mnmre, 
as appears from the original Hebmv and the 
LXX. The Hehrczu Elon, an oak, is from El 
Deus, as much as to fay the tree, of God, as 
jilah which is rendred by exccratus efl, juravif, 
adjurovit, is from the fame root, i^c. Hence 
tiie oak amoniift the Greeks and Romans was 
arbor '"■fovt facra, dedicated and devoted to 
God, '(3c. — See the author. Thirdly, it is to 
be obferved, that Thrafybuius alfo takes notice of 
the dove or pigeon, which was fo remarkable a 
circumftance in the hiflory of the flood. Nouh 
jcnt ou! his dove. Gen. viii 7, &c. and her in- 
formation v;ell explains the or.ic'e of the dove, 
Xf^^fiov T»){ 'mnxetahi;, which inflrudled Deucalion. 
Fourthly, It is to be obferved, that Deucalion 
called this place where he and the refl: came cut 
of the ark, Dodor.a, which the fcholialt informs 
us was fo named aivu Ato? x«t Aw^wi/n; — from 
'Jupiter tlwCl Dodona : but why from fupfer, I 
pray ? Here we fee a manifeft inltance of the 
ignorance of the Greeks and their corrupting the 
traditions of the ea^l, for war.t of ui.derftanding 
tlie language in which they v/ere delivered : foi 
it is true, as the Greeks did flill retain a fmat- 
tering of the bufinefs, that Dodona was fo called 
aito TB Ami, not from the word but the perfon fo 
called, who is in Hebrew called Adonai, and by 
the Carthaginians or Pha^n-cians, Donai, and 
the name refers to God's promife to Noah of 
not curfing the ground again, Gm. ix. 21. and is 
plainly as much as Doddonai, beloved of God, 
and tha' place, above all oihers, might well de- 
ferve fo to be called, in which God accepted fo 
gracioufly the firft facrifice after the flood, and 
was reconciled to mankind upon it. Fifthly, As 
an indicarion that Dodona was, tx A 0?, as J have 
explained, and tiiat it was not a Greek but an 
exotic and eaftern name, I obferve, that the 
fcholiafl faith of the nymph Dodona, that fhe was 
f*ia Til* HKia.]i\iu», one of the 5'r«-nymphs or daugh- 
ters of the OfM?7, themeaning of which is, that the 
name travelled by y<vi \mo Greece, a; all things 
that came that way, before navigation was 
known, were faid to be born of the fea. Sec. 
bixthlv, Though Afuj fignifies fometimes any 
tiee, "Vet here the Afuf of Deucalion, or At^JanK, 
is thi: Hebrnu Alah or Elo>:, the tree of God, or 



the oak under which the mofi: antienl. of the 

patriarchs were ufed to pitch their tents, bfc 

The author mentions two more particulars of 
refemblance in Deucalion and Noah, the one 
the excellency of their characters — for the fcrip- 
tiire faith oi Noah, that he was a juji man and 
perfeSl, &c. and Ovid of Deucalion, 

Non illo melior quifquam, ncc amanticr aqui 
Vir fuit, aut illd reverentior uUa Deorum. 

The moft UPRIGHT of mortal men was he : 
The mofk ftncere and holy woman fhe ; i. e. 

Pyrrha his wife. 

The f,:cond is, that the floods that happened in 
their times are faid to have been fent as par- 
ticular judgments, for the fins and enormities of 
the age which fuflered by them. God faid,— 
The wickednefs of man is very great, 1 will de- 
fir oy him. Gen. vi. 5. and Ovid of Deucalion's 
times, 

Contigerat nofiras infamia te?npor!s aures, 
^lam iupiens falfam fumtifo detabor olympo, 
Et Dcus humand lujlro fub imagine terras : 
Longa ?nora ejf, quantum noxa fit ubique re- 

pertum 
Enumerate, minor fuit ipfa infamia vera. 

Met. I. 

The clamours of this vile degenerate age. 
The cries of orphans and th' oppreffor's rage, 
Had reach'd the fkies : I will defcend, faid I, 
In hope to prove this loud complaint a lye. 
Difguis'd in human fhape I travell'd round 
The world ; and more than what I heard, I 
found. Dryden. 

Thus I have given you a fhort exfrad of what 
this accurate author hath delivered upon the 
fubjed: : whoever wants proofs mull confult 
him, and he will Hnd it well worth his labour. 
It muft be remarked in confirmation of this 
compound derivation of Dodona^ that Span- 
heim thinks it a compound alfo, though he de- 
rives it from nil' "in Duda jona amahilis 
columba. May fuch refearches into the dark 
myfteries of antiquity, caufe us to rejoice in the 
glorious light of the Gofpel, and bring us to a 
due acknowledgement cf^ his praifes, who hath 
brought life and immortality through that gofpel 
to light ! 



End of the Hymn to Delos. 




®y!'5!!'^3^ -"^ 



THE 



Fifth Hymn of Callimachus. 

7i the * Bath of Pallas. 

OME forth, ye nymphs, whofe facred hands 

prepare 
The Bath for mighty Pallas : hafte, come forth. 
Even now I hear her hallow'd courfers nei^h : 
The Goddefs is at hand : hafte Argive nymphs, 

Crown'd 

"* Bath of Pallas.] The fubjea of the prefent always performed before day-break: whence 

poem is a very celebrated ceremony, which was Theocritus : 
performed annually at jirgos. " The Argive 

women, fays the fcholiaft, had a cuftom of A.<^9£» ^V("5 '"«,"■» ^f =<'''» 9foa. ..f^, &c. 

taking on an appointed day the image of Mi- Idvll. xv. 132. 

nerva and of Diomede, which they brought to the The Palladium hovtmi (which fell from heaven) 

river Jnacbus, and there zvaficd." And this was and was taken by Dio^ed at Troy, was reputed to 

* have 




128 THE HYMN TO THE 

Crown'd with the o-olden locks, Pelafo-ians hafle/ 

Her ample limbs Minerva never bathes 

In cooling ftreams, ere from her panting fteeds 



V/ith 



have been brought by him ?.nd kept ztArgos : for 
vhich reafon, as is generally thou^it, he had 
this honour paid to him. There was a cere- 
mony of this Icir.d performed at Athens, called 
wxiji-flupta, wlicre Minerva's ftatue zvas %vnjhed : 
vvhicri was efteemed a very inaufpicious day, 
as you may read in Plutarch' % Life of Alclbiacks, 
and in Potter's Antiquities, p. 425. vol. 1. And 
the like ceremony was performed at many other 
places, in honour of other deities, ^panham 
alTigns various reafons for tliLfe facred wajbi?igs, 
which were principally dcfigntd to indicate the 
internal purity which the Deities required ; and 
of which Pallas was efteemed peculiarly the 
Goddefs : Proereatrix omnium virtututn, as Pro- 
clus fays of her, the mother of all virtues ; and 
who was able to render life unpolluted and pure, 
up^ccciTOf zxi *a6a§o( ; of whom Arijlidei, in his 
liymn to her, faith: " The prophets and priefts 
call her r-a^y-ea-im, the purger or purifier, and 
ii.\c^txa-)ioii, the driver aiuay of einls, and the in- 
fpeEtrefs of the niifi perfcSf purifications ; tw„ 
•nUiwrct-rui, E<t>OPON KAQAPJIN. In all which, 
Spunheim adds, it is cafy to behold the traces of 
the Mo fate rites ; wherein it appears, that ex- 
ternal zuaJIAngs were prelcribed as a fign of in- 
ternal purification, from what is faid, to omit 
all other places, in Numb. viii. 7. and Ifaiah 
lii. II." The fathers generally taxed the gen- 
tile idolaters with thefe ceremonial wajhings of 
theirs when thev refufed to be baptized with the 
baptifm of Chrif}, of which all the indituted 
wafliings were typical; fo that theirs of con- 
fequence, as received from pofitivc injlitution 
origuially, led tj the true wnjhing, if they had 
iindcrfluod their own rites. Sec hymn to fu- 
piter, note 30, and 51. The particular /i?//-/;'^ 
of which the aniients riippofjd Pallas the ntuther, 
and Goddefs, as ubf;rved before, deferves atten- 
tion, and will cafily be aiccounted for, when we 
come to confiJcr what Pallas reprefented in the 
heathen fyitsm. 

Ver. 1. Come, &c.] This poem is written in 
the Doric diale(rt, as w^ might expciS, feeing it 

3 



is written for Dorians : Madam Dacier, upon 
what authority I know not, afferts, that Calli- 
machus, at the time of compofmg it, was at 
Argos : the word Aur^ox'"'*, fignih^ej pourers out 
of the xvaterfor the bathing of the Gcddcfs, which 
I have exprefl as clearly as a pottical tranflation 
would admit. Thefe Argive virgins ufed to 
confecrate their hair to Minerva, as the Dclinn 
to the Plyp rboreans, meinioned in the laft hymn, 
and for the fame reafon I fuppofe — Statius 
fpeaks thus of the cuilom in his ihcbais, 1. 2. 

-Jnnuptani lun.ine adibant 



PALL/IDA, munichiis cui non Argiua per 

urhes 
Pofihabita efi lj?i.r\K^jitgis ; hie more parentitm, 
lafldes, thalamis ubi cajla nd.hfceret estas 
Virgineas lihai e comas, primojque folcbant 
Excufare Toros, 

The reader cannot but obferve that there isfome 
fimilitude in the beginning of this hymn, to that 
of the hymn to Apolo ; and there may be good 
reafon to defcribe the approach of both deities 
to their temple in the fame manner, if, as I 
hope will fully appear in the fequel, Pallas is no 
other than The pure, unmixed foLir light. 

Ver. 7. Steeds, &c.J We fee Pallas is re- 
prefented drawn by horfes, as well as the Stm., 
Apollo, and for tiie fame reafon, namely, the 
impetuous, fiery na'ure of thofe creaiuies, their 
flrength, a^ well as their grc':^t fwiftnefs, where- 
by was reprefented the nature, and Jirength, as 
well as fvjiftnefs uf the folar light. Haji thou 
given the horfe flrength, haft thou cloathed his 
neck, with Thunder ? &c. fiays Gijd to j^ob 
xxxix. 19. fee the whole defcnption, as well as 
thd^t of Firgil's. Diana or the M.on was re- 
preiented as drawn hy Jlegs, fee hymn to D ana 
ver. 140. on account of the greui fwiftuefs of 
thofe animals, whereby was reprefented the 
fwifi and unwearied motion of the Moon, whence 
arofe the fable d Diana's inJefatigablentfs 
in hunting, hinted note on Diana's fpeech. 
jMr. Spence, in his Pclymetis, hath given us a 

very 



BATH OF PALL A^S. 
With careful hands the noble dufl is cleans'd ; 
Not tho' her arms with clotted gore defil'd 



129 



She 



very remarkable drawing from a Gem, plate 26. 
fi"-. I. in the outer circle whereof we have the 
feven phinets defcribed in their perfonal cha- 
racters, and drawn in a fort of chariots by the 
animals ufually confecrated to thefe deities : 
Saturn by Serpents ; Jupiter by Eagles ; Mars 
by two Horfes ; Sol by four ; Venus by Doves ; 
Mercury by Cocks, and Luna by Stags. In the 
next round we have the twelve figns of the 
Zodiac^ and in the center a perfon playing on two 
pipes, and fitting, which Mr. Spence hath not 
obferved, at the foot of either a palm or an olive- 
tree, as it fhould feem from the drawing ; tho* 
I cannot determine certainly from it. Here, I 
think, we have a full and plain pidure of the 
whole myflery and meaning of the heathen my- 
thology. And this antique tlie reader will find 
before the hymn to Apollo. 

Ver. g. Not tho\ &c.] Concerning the im- 
port of the phrafe Sons of the Earth, fee the 
hymn to Jupiter, note 3. The poet here al- 
ludes to one of the moft celebrated exploits of 
this Goddefs : of which Horace fpeaks in the 
4th Ode of his 3d book. 

^lid Rhrecus, evulftfque truncis 

Enceladus jaculator audax. 
Contra fonantem '-"aliadis segida 

Poff'ent ruentes ? 

And Phurnutus, pag. 189. informs us, that the 
Arijltia were given to Pallas in the battle 
againft the giants, (he defcrving befl-, and being 
the chief caufe of the victory ; whence flie had 
peculiarly the name of Gigantophantis, killer of 
the giants. The Abbe Banier, though, as at- 
tached to a fyftem, he was obliged to make all 
things fquare with it, could not help cojifef- 
fing thus much concerning this fable of the 
battle of the giants : " It is true, moft of the 
learned of the laft age are of opinion, that the 
enterprize of the tower of Babel, which may be 
conilrued a literal aflaulting of heaven, had 
given rife to the fable I am now explaining. 
Let us build, faid the authors of that mad pro- 
ject, a toivcr [that mav reach] to Heaven. Be- 
fides, add they, Nimrod, who headed that en- 



terprize, a Jlrong and mighty hunter before the 
Lord, muft, no doubt, have been accounted a 

kind of gi.mt ; thus nothing, they think, is 
wanting to compleat the refemblance, and they 
would have it not to be doubted, but that this 
is the explication of the fable." See vol. 2. 
p. 206. In further confirmation of which, I 
would defire the reader to recolleft what vv: s 
fhewn note 3. of the hymn to Jupiter, con- 
cerning thefe giants ; which the dcfertcrs of the 
true vjorfnp are called. Thek Ncphlim ov giatits 
were the defcendants of Cain, as obferved in 
that note ; and they, headed, as is probable, 
by ihMgreat and arch-rebel Ninirod,i(ter the fear- 
ful impreffions, which the deluge had caufed, 
were worn oft", undertook tliat piojccf, which 
Banier might well call mad, in the light he 
underftood, and men generally conceive it : for 
it was more mad than the fabulous ftory of the 
giants heaping mountain upon mountain to fcale 
tj hea\en, to begin building a tower, whofe 
top fliould reach to heaven in a remarkable lozu 
valley, as was that of Shinar, according to all geo- 
graphers. But the truth is very different ; and 
thefe giants, thefe deferters of the true worjhip, 
thefe rebels againjl God and his NAME, pro- 
ceeded rightly enough according to their own 
principles. Go to, faid they, let us build us a 
city and a tower, whofe top — may reach — unto 
heaven. The words, may reach, are read in 
Italics in our Bibles, a mark alw.;ys to the rea- 
der, that there are no fuch words in fhe origi- 
nal: D'^c'n r:\s-"i —urashu BcSH- 

MIAf, are the Hebrew words, literally, and its 
top or head to the heavens, their grand and 
arch-idol ; and their meaning was, " let us make 
us a city, and a tower tor a place of wor- 
fhlp and defence, and let us dedicate its icf, 
or CO fecrate it to the honour and fcrvice of our 
God, the heavens.'' And they add, let us make 
us a name, Oct", Shem, a NAME to u-or-ihip, 
in oppofition to him who is the true NAME, 
a name above every name, and after whom 
Shem the elder foil of Noah, in figure and type, 
was named. Upon this defign of ihtfe rebel 
worjljippers to deftroy the true Name, and to 
let up another in oppofition to it, the blef- 
S »"e'l 



I30 T HE H Y M N T O T H E 

She bears, the blood of earth's injurious fons. 
But from her golden chariot firft £he frees 
Their mighty necks, and with old Ocean's waves 
Wafhes away the painful filth of fweat : 
The foam expurging from their well-champt bits. 
Haste, Argive virgins, hafte j no unguents fweet 



10 



IS 

(I hear 



leJ Trinity in council determine to defeat their 
purpofe, and to blaft their devices : Go to, le: 
Its go down, faid the three divine perfons in one 
"Jehovah, and there confound their language, &c. 
So the Lord Jehovah frittered them abroad, 
isc." I cannot help remarking in proof of this 
Explanation of that grand event, that Herodotus 
reports, in his time, there was a chapel on the 
top of this toiuer, a golden table and a bed, for 
(hamelefs piirpofes ; and in a fhrine beneath a 
flatue of Jupiter : and Strabo confirms this ac- 
count. Now, that from this tranfaftion the 
■whole heathen faWe of the giants, Nephnm, de- 
ferters and rebels arofe, I fliould apprehend will 
fcarce admit of a doubt with any reafonable per- 
fon. But it may be aflccd, how does this con- 
cern the point you fet out with, the Arijieia 
given to Pallas for her valour and principal con- 
cernment in the victory over thefe giants ? That 
I have not forgotten, and, by what I have ad- 
vanced, propofe to lead you thereto : firit de- 
iiring you to remember, that in all the hLftories 
we have of this terrible war againft the Gods, 
Apollo, or theyi/^r light in general; Hercules, or 
the folar light in its glory undflreirgth; and Pal- 
las, or the folar light in its purity and 'unmixed 
Jlate, v/ere the chief adtors. And thefe three 
are only different names and attributes of the 
fame thing, namely t\\c folar light : the queflion 
then is, why thcie divinities, or rather, this 
divinity, fhould in this combat be fo diflinguifh- 
ed ? And this can be folved no otherwife than 
by having recourfe to the original : where we 
find, that the oppofttion was to the DC^, the 
NAME, the ficond divine perfon, whofc reli- 
gion they defertcd, and from whom they flew 



off, defpifmg his hlood and atonement, as their 
firft-father Cain did, offering no bloody facrifice, 
and fo not being accepted. Gen. iv. 3, 5. Thefe 
deferters defpifed the NAiliE Jehovah, and at- 
tempted to make a name to themfelves ; lb 
Jehovah the 7tame fcattered them. And as light,, 
ihe folar light, the Glory, the .S«« of Righteouf- 
nefs, is all through the Scriptures, and hath ever 
been the fymbol or emblem of this fecond per- 
fon, this divine Name, this Jehovah, whofe 
caufe was principally concerned, and in whofe 
caufe the other perfons of the Trinity united ; 
as, I fay, this divine light was chiefly oppofed,. 
and fo gained the vicftory, therefore the tradi- 
tion amongft the heathens preferved it fo far 
exacft, as to aflign it to thefe powers in the hea- 
vens, which were the fymbols of this AWmzSun, 
particularly to Pallas, the light., in its virgin, 
pure, and unmi.^ed nature ; of whom we Ihall 
Ihortly fee more in the prefent hymn : as alfo 
of her Mgis — fonantem agida, — againft which 
•Caz giants could not at all prevail. 

Ver. 15. No unguents, &c.] All mixed oint- 
vunts were hateful to Pallas, and that on ac- 
count of the pure uriconipound virgin nature, if 
I may fo fay, of that light, whereof ftie was the 
fymbol : as alfo becaufe of its perpetual verdure. 
See hymn to Apollo, note i. at the end, to 
whom, for the fame reafon, the laurel, an ever- 
green, alfo was confecrated : for the folar light 
is always in its glory, flourifhing, and ever- 
young, as the poet defcribes Apollo. And on 
account of the purity of the folar light Pallas is 
reprefented a virgin, and therefore unmixed oint- 
ments, pure and u icon.poundcd oil is grateful to, 
her. Phurnutia fays, p. 188. Ho' EA-iiA iufit 



BATH OF PALLAS. 

(I hear her rattling wheels refounding ring :) 

No unguents fvveet, in curious alabafter, 

For Pallas, nymphs, provide : the Goddefs fcorns 

All mixtures of her pure and iimple oil : 

Bring ye no glafs : beauty for ever fhines 

And graceful luftre in her beaming eye. 

She, when on Ida's mount the Phrygian youth 

Pafs'd witlefs judgment, carelefs of the ftrlfe, 



131 



20 



Nor 



tn, oia TO ?a^^e^^, xai Jia to rAAYKnilON Ti f%H»- 
xatt TO EAatoi' en avofjiVTov gfi «;* aX^« fy^^j aXAa Ka»* 

olive is the giti ot Minerva, btcaufe of its per- 
petual verdure, and he bluiijh (or ax,ure) caji 
Avhich it hatli : and «// cannot be adulterated by 
any other liquor, but always continues pure, 
unmixed, mjua finceritate, fo that it fcems \cry 
congruous to a virgin^ Phuniutus, in the 
lame chapter a little above, fays, that flie was 
reprefented with thtfe blue eyes, or azure-colour- 
ed, y>~avKwm<;, according to Ho/ner's epithet, be- 
caufe {he repiefcnted the rt/r, or ather, which 
hath this blue or azure appraraiice, Ji« to toi/ Asp* 
yy.x-jxdv £.iai — Now wc know, that this fine 
a%ure bluencfi is the peculiar cfFeft of the light. 
And Turner confirms this, who in page 197. 
of his book Hiys, " y'KxvxuTry; is 23 much as 
Cicfios or cieruleos cailos habens, which refers 
to the azure colour of the fky, or tsthcr \' — 
■whi h he confirms by fcvcral other attributes of 
heathen deities. And Dicdiriis Sicuhts, as quoted 
hy Dr. Clarke in his note en the 206 \'erfe of 
the ift Iliad oi Homer, has this icmark, that 
Pallas was not called y'/.avxumi from her really 

\\:s\lh\7. fuch eyes, a^iX airo tk to» AEPA rriti •ETfoo-- 

»v]/iv EX-n" ayKxvKtu {y>Mvxov, the Do£lor Would 
read] but from the air's having this blue or 
az,ure appearance." And as it is thus on all 
hands agreed, th;'.t this eclour, given by mytho- 
lo!iifts to the eves ci Pallas, refers to the beauti- 
ful a%ure of the hca\ ens ; fo I fuppofc, what 



Callimachus fays in the lines abovCj of the per- 

pitnal beauty of her eye. 

Act xkAo* Oft«a TO T>i»a;, 

refers in like manner to the continual beauty of 
the fo la r light, which wants no additions of art, 
but in and by itfelf is always ^/7j/;f and graceful. 
In the hymn to j^poHo, note 6>. I have referred 
the reader to Spanhcim for a comment on thJ 
original,- which is difficult : but upon retrofpec- 
tioii from this pafl'ige, it will appear perfeftly 
plain : for the author there fpcaking of the 
Panacea, the fragrant deivy oiniment diftilling 
from the locks of Apol.o, fays particularly, that 
thefe locks do not drop Aown fatnefs ; 

Of AiTO? WTTorst^ovaiv 
am' avrr.v riANAKEIAN. 

not fat, jnixed and compound unguents, fucli as 
Pallas diflikes, but pure Panacea : thofe rays 
which gather up, and Ihake down the enriching 
dew, dilHl not ihcfe compounds, but a f.mple 
fruiSlifying oil : and thus both paflages give light 
to each other. Of the \\{t. of an alabaf.cr box 
fir ointment, fee St. Alatt. xxvi. y. Mo^tniain- 
hrafs [a^nyjO-xa!,] and vjater were heretofore the 
only lookhig-glaffcs: luxury brought in fi!ver-ones 
afterwards; fome liave imagined that our au- 
thor delicately fatvrifes the luxury and effemi- 
nacy of his times, in thefe different and oppo- 
fite characters of Venus and Minerva. Concern- 
ing the 30th line, the reader may fully fatisfy 
himfelf by referring to Spanheinis lc;iri;cd note, 
or Potter's Antiq. vol. r. p. 4^-2. ' 
.S 2 



132 THE HYMN TO THE 

Nor in the mountain-brafs, nor lucid flream 
Of filver Simois look'd, to aid her charms ; 
Nor flie, nor Jove's fair confort : but the queen 
Of fmiHng love fond feiz'd the fhining brafs, 
Which pleas'd reflected every glowing charm, 
While oft £he plac'd and flili replac'd each hair ! 
But Pallas, each gymnaftic toil compleating, 
(Like the twin flars on fam'd Eurotas' banks) 
Rubb'd o'er her manly limbs with fimple oil 
Pure and unmixt, her garden's genuin growth. 

Behold, ye virgins, how the early morn, 
Like the pomegranate in vermilion dy'd, 



25 



30 



35 
Or 



Ver. 34. Behold, &c.] The fenfe, I have 
given to this paf'age, is that which the learned 
and in2;enious iVIadam Dacicr firft propofed, and 
which Spanhe'nn after her approves. For, as was 
obferved in tha firft note upon this hymn, the 
ceremony was performed always early in the 
morning, at day-break : fo that according to 
Madam Dacier, " Dicit poeta, O puella, tnatu- 
tinum rubor ccehun occupat ^ «ai m. ^laprcpter 
ilii mine, antequam fcUlcet matutinum tempus 
abeat, ferte oleum quo mares miguntur." And 
there fcems a very obvious reafon for this me- 
thod of expreffion in the poet, as well as for the 
cuftom itfelf, if Pallas be indeed ihe folar light, 
the firft appearance of which in the eaj} gives 
the fky that beautiful and bluihing luftre. See 
hymn 10 Jp.llo, note n8. at the end. And 
agreeable to this mterpretation our poet very 
remarkably, after faying, the rofy tnorn returns, 
(the reafon why the facred \irgins fhould be 
ready) adds almoft immediately, e|it' AeHN.-ilA, 

3 



Come forth, oh Minerva, The golden comb, 
wherewith her /Inning hair was to be fmoothed, 
has a like reference to the rays of the Sun, with 
what is mentioned hymn to Apollo, ver. 52. and 
this cuftom of carrying a golden comb was no 
unufual thing in the ceremonies of feme other 
deities, but in all referring to the fame. To {hew 
th :t this was no piece of luxury and delicacy in 
Minerva, fucli as that juft reprovf d in Venus, 
hear how, according to the inger.ions Mr. Glover, 
(who has immediate claflical authority for what 
he advances) the warlike Spartans employed 
themfelves. 

The Spartans (hen wereftation'd out on guard, 
Thefe in gymnaftic exercife employ'd, dS'c'. — 
While others calm beneath their polifh'd helms 
Drew down their hair, which hung in f^blc 

curls. 
And fpread their necks with terror. 

Ljeonid^s, b. 3. ver, 635. 



BATH OF PALLAS. 

Or damafk rofe with glowing blufhes fpread, 

Comes from the Eaft : hafte therefore and bring forth 

The manly oil alone, by Caftor us'd 

And great Alcides : bring a golden comb 

To fmooth the fhining beauties of her head. 

Come forth, bright Goddefs : lo, the grateful choir, 
The daughters of the noble Aceftorides, 
Wait thy approach ; bearing in holy hands 
The glitt'ring fhield of warlike Diomed : 
As erft the Argiv^es thy much favour'd prieft 
Eumedes taught ; he flying from the death 
By bloody hands deflgn'd, to Creon's mount. 



133 



40 



45 



Thy 



Ver. 43. Bearing, &c.] Diomed was pecu- 
liarly favoured by Pallai, and he with tllyJJ'es 
recovered the famous Palladium from Tray, 
which could never be taken while that image 
remained in it ; the ftory is well known, and 
fpoken of at Lrge by every writer on thefe fub- 
je£ls. We cannot have a better comment on 
our author, than the following lines from Ho- 
mer, in Mr. Pope's tranflation. 

But Pallas now Tydides' foul infpire5. 

Fills with her force, and warms with all her 

fires : 
Above the Greeks his deathlefs fame to raife. 
And crown her hero with diftipguifh'd praife. 
Hi-h on his helm celeflial lightnings play, 
His beamy fhield emits a living ray : 
Th' unwcary'd blaze incelFantftreams fupplies. 
Like the red ftar that fires th' autumnal flxies ; 
When fr.fli he rears his radiant orb to fight, 
And bath'd in Oceaa flioots a keener ligiu. 



Such glories Pallas on her chief beftow'd. 
Such from his arms the fierce effulgence flow'd. 

B. 5. ver. I. 

Such was the care of Pallas for Diomed, and 
fuch was his fhield : which was hung up in a 
temple of this Goddefs at Argos. Pindar tells 
us, that Pallas conferred immortality upon 
Diom-d ; and if fo, we have a very good reafon , 
why his fhield, as being that of a God alfo, 
fhould be thus honoured : 

S<u9>) •asati y'h.tt.vKuini i^i\x.i ©eov. 

and, accordingly, we read, that he was wor- 
{hipped as a God. I fliould be apt to conceive 
from hence, that here is fome firange mixture 
of fable : for the word AIOMHAHS fignifies ths 
care, or prudiuce, or counfei of Jupitir, whicli 
Pallas is faid to be ; and this Jhield one would 
imagine to be no other than her famous /Egis, 
ci v/hich I CtizW have occafion to fpeak more. 



13 



THE HYMN TO THE 
Thy facred image, which he bore away, 
Plac'd on the craggy rocks, which thence obtain'd 
The name, Paliatides, from thee, dread queen. 

Come forth, Minerva, whofe deftriK^ive frown 
Whole flates confumes j whofe golden hchnet darts 



50 



Terri- 



Ver. 51. Corns, &c.] We fee the Goddefs 
here in a new character, which is fomewhat 
extraordinary for the Goddefs of JVifchm, as we 
know Pallas is efteemed in the heathen fvflem. 
Jiut when we refer to what fhe reprefented, 
thefe contrary attributes will no longer appear 
jarring and diffonant. That (he fhould be 
efteemed the Goddefs of Wlfdorii is no marvel, 
iince the outward and fliining light of the Sun 
hath been ufed in euery age, and by every peo- 
ple, as a fymbol to exprefs the inward light and 
wifdom of the mind : and in this view no won- 
der the invention of fo many and excellent arts 
have been attributed to Pallas, infonmch that 
Orpheus calls her nx"'" /^i"? rooXyoxS;, the rich 
7nither of arts. And when we confider the 
burning and fiery quality of that light, confirming 
and dcjiroying all things with its fury and vio- 
lence, we have a very reafonable folution of this 
difficulty, why the Goddefs of Wifdom {hould 
alfo be the Goddefs of JVar. For it is the 
fame bright and fplendid light, which illumines, 
and which burns, rages and confumcs. In re- 
ference to the head and fountain of that I'.ght, 
the filar arb, Pallas is defcribed by the poets, 
and amongft the reft (as you read) by our au- 
thor, as adorned with a golden helmet, xp'-"^-"- 
■arihnt There is a very contrary epithet given 
to this Goddefs from that of a defrayer o{ /htes 
or cities, tat^aitrro^.H, namely e^firiirToXis. the />ri5 • 
teSior or defender of cities ; and how can thefe 
contrarieties be reconciled, unlefs we refer to 
the different qualitits of the f^me light, v/nere- 
by it conjunies, and wr.ereby alfo it defends, and 
faves, being the Hf and prefervation of all 
created things ? The fame qualities are afcribed 
10 Mars, of deftroyer, coufumer, Sic. whofe 
G ''•,'(: nune Apij;, as wJl as his Latin one 
MARS, is d.-.ived from the Ilebmu TtH, and 



1Mi;2, AUR and MAUR, tofiir:cas li^ht, and 
the receptacle oi light, a luminary, the t'un, ISc. 
See the Lexicons. By him it is univerlally granted 
thefolar heat is meant ; who, like Pallas, and for 
the fame reafon, is reprefented always in armour ; 
as file indeed was born, accordliig to the mytho- 
losifts, being always expedite, always equipped 
and ready, and always in asSlion. Mars hath 
onlv the confuming quality : Pallas, as being 
Goddefs of IVifdom as well as IVar, enlightens 
:^» well as burns : Mars only reprefenting the 
light in \ts fery and violent, Pallas the l.ght in 
its beneficent as well as dfilruSiive nature. i/»- 
7ner's celebrated defcription of Pallas preparing 
for war, will confirm what has been advanced. 

Now heav'n's dread arms her mighty limbs 

invert, 
fove's cuirafs blazes on her ample breaft : 
Deck'd in fad triumph for the mournful field, 
O'er her broad fhouldcrs hangs his horrid 

fiiield. 
Dire, black, tremendous ! round the marain 

roU'd, 
A fringe of ferpents hiffing guards the gold : 
Here all the terrors of grim war appear. 
Here rages force, here tiembles flight and fear: 
Here ftorm'd contention, andherc fury frown'd, 
And the dire orb portentous Gorgon crown'd. 
The m-di'y golden helm {he next affume?. 
That dieadtul nods with four o'crfliaJing 

plumes : 
So 7!afi, the bread ci'cumfercnce contains 
A huadred armies on an hundred plains. 
The Goddels thus th' imperial car afccnds. 
Shook by her arm the mighty jav'lin bends, 
Pond'rous and huge: that when her fury burns, 
Pround tyrants humbles and whole ftates o'er- 

turns.' Iliad 5. ver. 908. by Pope. 

Hrgil, 



BATH OF PALLAS. 

Terrific luftre : thou, whofe martial foul 

Proud neighing fteeds and clanging {hields delight. 

This facred day dip not your ample urns, 
Ye Argive maidens, in the running ftreams, 
But from the fountains draw ; this facred day 
Hafte to the fprings, or limpid Phyfadea, 



135 



55 



Or 



Virgil, the faithful imitator of Homer, thus 
defcribes the celebrated -^gis, of which the above 
lines are almoft a tranflation . 

Mgidaque horrificam, turbata Palladii arma, 
Certalim fqiiamii ferpentum auroque polibatUf 
Connexojque ungues, ipfamque in pcipore dives 
Gorgonn, dejecla vertentcm lumina collo. 

iEN. 8. 435. 

Tftis terrible ^gis none of the Gods could 
wield, but Pallas ; to whom Jupiter, as you 
will find at the end of this hymn, granted ■nrjt- 
Tfuia Trasra ^t^sa-Sai, t3 have, or carry all that 
belonged to her father : flie had the /■tavr and 
force, (he carried this Mgis ; by which is meant 
the orb of the Sun, as many writers agree, and 
amongft the reft Turner, who lays, " the fhield 
or target of Alinerva called Atyi;, or /Egis, is 
no other than a poetical defcriptioii and hiero- 
glyphic adumbration of the Sun." p. 178. But 
I fhall have occafion to fpeak at large of it by 
and by, as alio of the frpents whicli were 
about it. No common reader can miftake the 
meaning of the helmet, as defcribed by Homer, 
whofe broad and golden circumference can be 
referred to nothmg but what was hinted above, 
namely the broad and golden circumference of the 
folar orb. In the 43d chapter of Ecclrftcjlicus we 
have a mofl: beautiful defcrip;i(in of the Sun, 
white thefc properties, its brightncjs or purity, 
and its heat or fu:y, are finely explained. '• The 
pride of the height, the clear firmament, the 
beauty of heaven, with his glorious fliew ; the 
Sun when it appeareth, declaring at his rifing a 
marvellous inftrument, the work of the moft 
High. At noon it parcheth the country, and 
who can abide the burning heat thereof ? A maji 



blowing a furnace is in works of heat, but the 
Sun burneth the mountains three times more ; 
breathing out fiery vapours, and fending forth 
bright beams, it dimnieth the eyes, ^c. 

Ver. 58. Phyfadea and Amymme] Were two 
fountains at Argos, fo called, as it is faid, from 
two daughters of Danaus, of the fame name : 
the account which the author gives of Inachus 
confirms the general tenor of the remarks, that 
Pal.'as was Goddefs of the light, to whofe honour 
fi'jVjers and gold were peculiarly attributed. See 
hymn to .'//>ii//o, note 115, and 52. and hyma 
to Dtlos, note 354. Spanhcim is of opinion, that 
this notion, which was general amongft the 
anticnts concerning the inadvertent fight of the 
Deities, proceeded from the fcriptures originally, 
or at leaft from fome tradition of what happened 
at that time, when God ordered the people to 
beware left they fhoiild ga^ze at him and pcrijhy 
&c. And the Lord faid unto ALJes, Go doivn, 
charge the people, lejl they break through unto the 
Lord to GAZE, and many of them PERISH., 
Exod. xix. 21. as alfo from what happened to 
thofe who looked into the ark, — And the Lord 
fmote the men oi Beth foeniejhy bec^ul'ethey had 
looked Into the ark of the Lord, i Sam. vi. ig, 
is'c. And this great man alfo is of opinion, that 
the cuftom of letting none but the priefts be- 
hold the more facted images of their Deities, 
or enter into the more retired and fccret part of 
the ceremonies, proceeded from the veneration 
paid to the Ho.'y of Holies in the feimPi tem- 
ple, where none was permitted to enter but the 
high-prieft only, and th.!t but or.ce a year ; as 
obicrved, h', mn to Delos, note 112. You obferve 
hec.ills A//«^rT;(7, in the 66 Ywe, guardian offlates 
no?.nix.'"'i UiV epithet lim hr to that produced, n. 5 1. 



i^o THEHYMNTOTHE 

Or Amjmone : for his hallow'd flood, 

With gold and fiowrets mixt, from fertile hills 60 

Rolls rapid Inachus ; the beauteous bath 

For Pallas thus preparing. But beware, 

Beware, Pclafgian, left thy eyes behold 

With accidental flght the martial maid : 

Who in her naked charms Minerva views, 65 

Guardian of flates, ah haplefs that he is, 

Then laft fhall Argos view ! Come then, come forth, 

Minerva, all-ador'd : mean time the Mufe 

A tale renown' d fliall to the virgins flng. 

Great and unequall'd was the tender love 70 

Which to a Theban nymph Minerva bore. 
The mother of Tireflas : join'd in heart 
No time or place cou'd feparate the pair. 
Whether to Thefpians old, or Coronea, 

Where to her honour on the fertile banks 75 

Of pure Curalius altars ever blaze, 
And blooming groves their fragrant fweets difpenfe, 
Or whether to Boeotian Haliartus 
The Goddefs drove her courfers ; ftill was ken 

Charicio 



BATHOFPALLAS. 137 

Chariclo partner of the golden car : 80 

No converfe with the nymphs, nor fong, nor dance 

At all delight her foul, if not the choir 

Her lov'd Chariclo led ; yet fhe muft pay 

Her tribute to deep woe, ev'n fhe, tho' thus 

By Jove's great daughter favour'd and efleem'd. 85 

Their gilded clafps, their broider'd zones unloos'd. 
The naked pair in Hippocrene's fpring 
Securely bath'd, while mid-day filence reign'd 
Thro' Flelicon's retired mount : they bath'd 
Secure : 'twas ftillnefs all : and not a breath go 

Difturb'd the mid- day filence of the mount. 

Tires I AS then, whofe downy cheeks befpoke 
The dawning man, fought with his panting dogs 

The 

Ver. 88. ^#7;/7^, &c.] The repetitions ufed by as alfo what the prophet fpeaks tauntingly to 

the author here are very beautiful, and far fu- the worfhippers of Baal, i Kings xviii. 27. 

perinr in the original to any tranflation ; no- Cry aloud, for he is a G««/ ; either be is talking, 

thing can be fofter or more fweet than this line, or — peradventure, he Jlcepctb, and muji he 

_ ,^ V awaked. And, for this reafon, they held it un- 

^ lawful to enter the temples at mid-day, lelt 

The reader will be agreeably entertained with a they fliould difturb their Gods ! — A good 

defcription of «5a«-r//;( and its filence, by our ex- obfervation is drawn by feme of the com- 

cellent poet Thomfjn, in his Summer. The an- mentators from what is laid of Chariclo in the 

tients thought th:it their Gods, as Gravius re- 83d and following lines, " That the greateft 

marks, flept in the middle of the day : to favourites of heaven muft not exped to be ex- 

which opinion may be referred what the fhep- empt from calamities, which are the lot of 

herd fays oi Pan, in the firll IdylUum of Theo- mortals, and often the greateft evidences of the 

critus, love of God. Whom hs loves, he rebukes and 

Thro' fear of Pan / dare not pipe at men, &c. ^^"J^^"'" 

T 



138 THE HYMN. TO THE 

The facred place : urg'd by ftrong thirft he came 

For draughts refrefliing from the hmpid Tpring : 

Wretch that he was ! unwilhng he beheld, 

What, unpermitted, none of mortal race 

May fee unpuniih'd ! him Minerva thus, 

TJio' mov'd with ire, addreft : " Haplefs fon 

" Of Euerus, what lucklefs Deity 

" Guided thy footfteps to this ill-ftarr'd place, 

*' Whence thou no more flialt bear thy forfeit eyes ?" 

She fpoke : his eyes eternal night o'erfpread j 

Speechlefs he flood ; chill horror froze his limbs, 



95 



100 



Amaze- 



Ver. 96. Wretch that he was, &c.] The 
offence was, beholding the Deities without their 
permiffion, though it was accidental and unde- 
figned : we are told in the Heathen Mythology of 
many favoured mortils, who had thcFr eyes 
pur-ged and purified to behold the Gods. See 
ver. 129 following: hut Tirejias the poet tells 
us, 

OVK tOeAu* «Jt, TOt (/-» fisfuJs;. 

Invitus afpaxit quod baud fas erat afpicere. 

Which, as was obftrved from Spanheim^ feems 
plainly derived from the Hebrews. 'Thou canjl 
not Jee 7ny face., faid God : for there fliill no 
man SEE me an ! live, Exocl. xxxiii. 20. And 
hence the fear of Gideon, in 'Judges vi. 22. And 
when Gideon perceived., that he was an angel of 
the Lord (^A^^ "^I^^", the meffenger, or f;,nt 
Jehovah, that perfon in Jehovah. who was^ t® 
be fent, and to be incarnate) Gideon faid, ,0 
Lord God mn'' TiH (Jehovah Adonai, the 
peculiar name of Chrift) for becaufs I have 
fen an angel of the Lord (the Mclak Jehovah) 
face to face, Jnd the Lord faid unto him, (the 



Lord niri' Jehovah) peace' be unto thee, fear 
not, thou /halt not die. From whence it is 
pLin, that this perfon, who made himfclf vifible 
to Gideon in fome form, moft likely human, was 
known by him to be the very and true God, 
otherwife his fears were gronndlcfs ; and from 
thence it follows, that our Saviour is the very and 
true God, for he is the Jehovah Melak, God ma- 
nifeji \nt\\Qflefl>. I Tim. iii. 16. whom, otherwife 
than as fo manifeft, no man hath fen, nor can 
fee. I Tim. vi. 16. ^ss Spanheim, note loi. 

Ver. 104. Speechlefs, &c.j So in Milton we 
read, when Adam was ordered to remove from 
paradife, and thus to lofe fight of the divine 
Sun, which flione upon him there in full 
luftre, 

Adam, at the news, 

Hcart-ftruck with chilling gripe of forrow flood 
That all his fenfes bound. 

B. xi. ver. 263. 

How different is the beautiful complaint of 
Eve's following chefe lines, to the wild grief 
of Charicloy and her little reverence for this 

venerahlt 



BATHOFPALLAS. 139 

Amazement feal'd liis. tongue/- But ftraight the nymph 105 

Diftraaed cries, " Oh Goddcfs, what haft thou 

*' Inflidled on my fon? and are the pow'rs 

*' Of heav'n fuch friends ? Why, thou haft robb'd my child 

<* Of eye-fight, precious fenfe! Ah, wretched boy, 

" True, thou haft feen Minerva's naked charms, no 

" But thou fhalt fee the face of Sol no more ! 

" Thrice miferable mother — Flence adieu 

** Oh HeHcon, adieu once-pleafing mount : 

" A mighty tribute haft thou claim'd fevere, 

*' My fon's dear eyes, for thofe few flying goats, 11^ 

*' And tim'rous deer of thine, which he hath flain !" 

Then, her lov'd fon embracing, loud laments 
Mixt with fad tears fhe pour'd, like Philomel 
When forrow for her young fwells every note. 
The Goddefs mov'd with pity, to aftliage 120 

Her 

vowabh Deity Pallas ? Yet alas, there are not call)' complaining of his misfortune, defires to 

wanting, even in our better days, examples of be equalled h reno'tvn with Tirefias : he fpeaks'^ \ 

fuch wild extravagance, ?.nd paflionate upbraid- of no more feting 'the 6'?<tf, 
irgs, evtii of heaven itfelf, when its correfting 

hand falls heavv : how fiioukl fuch iiiftances of ^ Thee I revifit fafe, 

intempcr.ite and mad forrow teach us patience And fed thy fov'reign vital lamp ; but thou 

and fik-nt refignsticn to the divine will ? In the Revifit'ft not the fe eyes, that) oil in vain 

112th line the exprcfTion is fomewhat like that To fin"-I 'thy piercing ray, arid find lio daWn ; 

v.l-.:ch St. Paul ufes to Elymas the forcerer. So thick a di'op'felene hatlh. quencifd their 

AUs xiii. II. Thou fiialt be blind, ^t^ir.at orbs, 

To» HAiot a^s' «a'fa, xai wa^axfrftar nn-niai^ im Or dim fuffuflOH Veil'd. ' •'"'•. ■' . - 

atT-j» ax>^i-'i xai cr«oT05- AiUtcii, wlicn patheti- B. iii vcr. 19. See alfo vcr. 36. 

T 2 



I40 THEHYMNTOTHE 

Her grief, thus fpoke foft comfort to her foul : 

*' Oh noble fair, recall each hafty word 

*' Which blind refentment utter'd : 'tis not I, 

" Who o'er his eye-lids fpread eternal night : 

*' What joys it me poor mortals to deprive 

" Of that bleft fenfe ? But thus old Saturn's laws 

" Firmly decree ; ** Whoever fhall behold 

" Any of heav'n's high habitants, unlefs 

" By grace peculiar favour'd with the fight, 

** Dread penalties await the fatal view !" 

** 'Tis paft, irrevocably paft : and thus 

" The Parcze fpun th' unalterable doom 

" Or ere thy fon was born : thou then receive, 

*' Oh Euerides, this thy deftiny ! 



125 



130 



(( 



How 



Ver. 125- TVhatjoys, &c.] This, hys Span- 
helm, feemed very contrary to this Goddefs, 
who was called Oonr^ioposi Lucifera, or light- 
bearer, according to Proclus, no lefs than Diana. 
See hymn to Diana, ver. 15. and to whom, under 
the title of Of8a.x,ai5, a temple was raifed near 
Sparta for preferving the eye of Lycurgus. Nay, 
(he was named naiwua and tyeta, and was 
faid alfo to be the inventrefs of medicine, as 
Porphyry witnefTes, laxfixnv btto t)i! aGuj*; nKat. 
Whence alfo fhe was called rwreipa." In all 
which the reader cannot but obferve the exa£l 
agreement between this Goddefs and Apollo. See 
note 165, and hymn to Apollo, note 62. 

Ver. 131. And thus, &c.] This was univer- 
lally the opinion of the antients, who imagined 



the Fates fuperior to all their Deities, as was 
inftanced in NeceJJity, hymn to Delos, ver. 160. 
The ffory of Aciaon, though fomewhat dif- 
ferently, is related at large by every mythologifl:. 
The reader will find a curious copy of a gem on 
this {\\\>\tSi\r\Spence''%Polymetis, plate 13. fio. 5. 
Mr. Spence has given the ftory at large from 
Ovid and Apuleius. This punifliment of Tire- 
ftas and Ailaon is fufficient to overthrow the 
obfervation made on the 194th line of the 16th 
book of Mr. Pope's tranflation of Homer's Odyf- 
fcy, where the annotator did not confider tlie 
circumftance, which CalUmachus always care- 
fully infifts upon, the involuntary fight, 

■ ■■ UK lGj7i«». 



BATHOFPALLAS. 141 

" How many vidlims wou'd Autonoe give, 135 

" How many Ariftaeus, to accept 

'' With lofs of iight their haplefs fon Adaeon ? 

*' Him, tho' co-partner in the fylvan chace 

" With great Diana, nor that chace, nor fports 

"In common fhar*d, fhall refcue from his fate : 140 

" When naked in the Bath his lucklefs eyes 

" Unwilling fhall behold the huntrefs queen : 

" But his own dogs blood-happy fhall devour 

" Their former lord : o'er woods and wilds fhall rove 

" His weeping mother to regain, fad lot! 145 

** His fcatter'd bones : and thee mean time fhall call 

** Thrice bleft, who from the woods thy fon, tho' blind, 

" Receiveft happy. Mourn not then, my friend, 

" Since greater gifts, for thy dear fake, from me 

" Await 

Ver. 149. Since greater, &c.] Ovid fays, that was blind — Vfe find — " ^ofdam etiam 

that Jupiter beftowed that gift upon him ; mundi philofophos, iit iotam cogitationem ad mentis 

T, , • J ,, coherent puritatcm, fibi oculos eruiffe." Epiji. 32. 

o •„ /- ^ J J-. ^ ' 1 -.7 ad Jhzaum; and in the next to this, Inewing 

bctrefutura deait, panamque Uvavit honore. , ,,•,/-« u . u a. „j „. „,;« ™ 

■' 1 1 t fj^^j bhndnejs Ihould not be elteemed as arihng 

The annotators upon our author have in gene- from any immediate fin in the perfon bhnd : 

ral applied this to the mental faculties, which he adds, '♦ Referes crimen in Jacob, cujtis call- 

are obferved for the moft part to be more ftrong gaverat acies, & cum interiorihtis oculis isf 

in perfons blind ; who, all outward objedls be- fpirituprophttali longe poji futura profpiceret, l^ 

ing removed, attend more clofely and earncftly Chrijium cerneret de jiirpe regia ejje venturum, 

to the things of the mind : numberlefs in- Ephraim tsf Manajj'm videre non poterat.'^ — 

ftances might be produced. In a paflage It muft be remembred that Tirefias was always 

quoted by Spanheim from one of St. Jerem's led about by his daughter, and from her or 

£pijfles, which he wrote to comfoi-t a perfon fome other attendant was doubtlcfs informed 

3 ^ 



142 THEHYMNTOTHE 

" Await thy fon : him henceforth will I make ; 

" A prophet, of all others moll renown'd, 

" As far moft excellent : he fhall difcern 

" Of birds the lucky or unlucky flight, 

** With all their winged augury : and hence 

" To Cadmus, and the fam'd LabdacidaB, 

" And to Boeotians fhall his foul reveal 

" Many high oracles : a mighty ftaff 

" To guide his footfteps will I aifo give j 

" And crown him with a plenteous length of days. 



150 



^5i 



a 



And 



of the particular flight of the birds, whence the 
aujurv was taken, and Co delivered his oracles : 
the reader will find this whole matter of divi- 
nation hy bixdi in a full and leai ned manner ex- 
plained by Spanheim in his notes on this pallage. 
I {hall only juft hint, that it has feemed to 
many ingenious writers, that the cuftom of di- 
vining by the flights of birds took its original 
from feme traditions of Noah's raven and dove : 
which Spanheim confirms by many clear proofs 
and arguments ; and we muft remember, that 
Dei/ca/ion,a.mong(i the heathens, had his^^walfo. 
Ver. 152. ^ mighty Jiaff, &C.] Mtya ^aiCT^ai, 
Apollodorus tells us, that this flaff was of fuch 
wonderful power, that it fcrved him entirely in 
the ftead of eyes. All the augurs had their 
Lituus, their augural {faff, or rod, clarijjtmnm 
infigne auguratus, incurvum & leviter a ftimnw 
irHexum bacillum, ?.s Cicero in his book de Divi- 
nationc defcribes it. Thcfe were of mighty 
ufe in their dl\'inations ; and to thefe, the moft 
learned Spanheim well obferves, the prophet 
Hifea iv. 12. ni'ift probably alludes- — " Mv 
people d(k counfel at thtixjlocks, and their ftaff 
ileclarcth unto them." He fubjoins, " Vnde 
infuper aliis, qu e tanqnnm inter Ahf:n ac Tire- 
jiam communia coll git vir magnus in demonjlra- 



tiane ev'engdica, addi opportune illiid pojfet, de 
vdtieiniis aut miraculis Mofis Baculo feu Viiga 
in £gypto editis." That the flaifs or rods ufed 
by the augurs, and fo this of Tirefias alfo, pro- 
ceeded originally from the traditions concern- 
ing the rod of Mofes, can never be doubted : 
Homer calls the ikz^ oi Tit cjias xpf^^™ c7KrnrTfo>, 
a golden jceptre, fee next note. And it feems pro- 
bable that all the floriesof xhefceptres^Jfaffs, club!, 
caducei, &c. of the heathen Deities were derived 
from the fame fountain oi Mofes his rod: con- 
cerning which the 'Jeivijh rabbis have many 
wonderful and aflonifhing ftories to relate : a£, 
of its growth in Jethro's garden, Mofes his 
plucking it up, and performing all hisi miracles 
by means of the ineffable name fehivah, which 
was upon it, (s'c. Thefe are their dreams, which 
arc to be found in any of their writings. The 
C duceus of Mercury had a ferpent rolled round 
it, which, that it arofe from the (lory oi Mofes 
his 7-od becoming a ferpent, JVIonfieur Huet 
affirms, as.undouotedly certiin ; fuch too was . 
the r«(f of C/nv. The reader maybe inftruoted 
in' ibis particular by reltrring to B:bH6;heca.. 
BihHa,_ V. 2. p. 88, ^c. Sceptres were a, kind of 
ft-dffs among the antients. See the accouut of' 
Achilles his fceptre, in the ift Iliad. 



BATH OF PALLAS. 

<* And when his long-fpun thread the Fates fliall cut, 
" He only midft the fhades fhall hve infpir'd, 
*' And fliare dread Pluto's favour." Thus fhe fpoke, 
And fpeaking gave the nod : her nod is fate : 
Since Jove of all his daughters this high gift 



H3 

i6o 



To 



Ver. 1 60. yfnd when, &c.] Nothing will be 
a better comment on this place than feme lines 
from Homer concerning Tirefias : upon which, 
I doubt not, CaUimachus had his eye : 

There feek'the Thehan bard, depriv'd of fight. 
Within * irradiate with prophetic light : 
To whom Pcrfephone, intire and whole. 
Gave to retain th' unfeparated foul. 

Odyff. by Pope, B. x. 582. 
And 

When lo, the mighty Thehan I behold : 
To gtude his Jleps he bore a JJaff of gold : 
Awful he trod, majeftic was his iook. 
And from his holy lips thefc accents broke. 

Odyff. xi. 112. 

* \I^^^X.O}^ fpeallng of himfelf fays. 

So much the rather thou celejiial I'ght 
Shine inivard, andthemindthro' all her povSrs 
Irradiate^ there' plant eyes. 

Mr. Pope obferves on the firft lines above, 
That Tirefias was to be confulted by Ulyffes 
rather than any other ghoft, becaufe, according 
to Horner^ 

This expreffion is fully explained, and the no- 
tion of [he foul after deith, wj-.ich prevailed 
anongft the antients, is fet in a clear light, 
\er. q2. and 122 of the 23d Iliad. But whence 
had Tirefias this privilege above the reft of the 
dead \ CaUimachus afcribes it to Minerva. 

Andvjhen-, &c. as in the text. v. 160. 

7i(//y motions ths pre-eminence of TiV^ij^ in 
his firlt book of Divination., &:c. But I ought 
not to fupprels what Diodorus Siciilus relates 



concerning Tirefias, Biblioth. 4. he tells us, 
that he had a daughter named Daphne., a prieft- 
efs at Delphi : " from whom it is faid, that 
the poet Homer received many (of the Sybils) 
verfes,- and adorned his own poetry with them." 
If this be true, there lay a debt of gratitude 
upon Homer, and he pays it honourably by this 
diftinguifhing charafter, which he gives to the 
Father," bSc. See the note. 

Ver. 164. Since Jove, &c.] Hence flic is 
faid to fit at the right hand of fupiter, as well 
as Apollo. See hymn to Apollo, notes 41, 47. 
Whence Ariftides, in his hymn to her, fays, 
nikJapo; J'ao ^utri, &c. But Pindar fays, " that 
file, fitting at the right hand of the Father, re- 
ceives his commands which are to be carried to 
the other Go'ds." And again, " For fhe is 
greater than the angels ; and delivers to them the 
different commands which (he receives from 
her father." Which words Spanheim obferves 
are very like what we find in the SS. concern- 
ing the divine and only begotten Son " being 
made fo much better than th; angels, &c. Heb. i. 4. 
He is alfo of opinion, that thefc opinions were 
taken by CaUimachus from the LXX tranflation 
of the Old Teftament. See his note on hymn 
to Apollo, ver. 29. One would rather imagine, 
that thiife g;eneral notions o^ Apolo'% znd AJi- 
neyva\ fefFion at the right h.Tnd of their father, 
prcc^eded from far more anticnt tradition con- 
cerning the divine niyftery of the glory of the 
i^(7f'Yr and of t\\c Son : fmce we find it men- 
tioned long before the dzys of CaUimachus. Pin- 
dar, as you have fccn above, from Arijlidcs 
fpoke cf t'le fame thing : and Homer fpeaks of 
the joint p nver of Jupiter and Minerva in 
Odyir n. \cr. 264. Sophocles addreffis her as 
tlie lirit in power. 



144- THEHYMNTOTHE 

To Pallas only granted, that his pow'r. 
Even all her father's glories fhe might bear. 
No mother bore the Goddefs : but the head 



165 



Of 



npnxA <?•£ «£*xo/x£»(i?, &c. 

Oed. Tyr. ver. 163. 

And Horace fpeaks of this as a well known ar- 
ticle in the heathen creed, 

Proximos ill'i tamen occupavlt 
Pallas hanores. 

Lib. I. Odk 12. 

And Apollo and Minerva both (harcd the fame 
honours, and were both equal in glory, becaufe 
they were both reprefentatives of the fame thing, 
the filar light ; which, as has been often ob- 
fervcd, being the emblem of the divine Son of 
God, the heathens affigned his honours to thefe 
natural emblems : and having fome traditions of 
the true and divine light, forgot him, while 
they applied their traditions to the material 
light. The expreflion which Callimachus ufes, 
Xlcitfuiu. ■aa.rta (peficBat, to bear all her father's 
honours, is remarkably fcriptural : all things that 
the Father hath are mine, fays the Son of God, 
John xvi. 15. And as the poet fays, that Ju- 
piter Auxit A&anx-ia, gave to Alinerva carpwia 
taancc, fo the Son of God fays, " for as the Father 
hath life In himfelf, fo hath he given to the Son 
to have life in himfelf, and hath given him au- 
thority to execute judgment alfo, becaufe he is 
the Son of man, John v. 26. and, all mine are 
thine, and thint: are mine, and I am glorified in 
them, John xvii. ic." agreeable to which Jrif- 
t'des {ajs of Adineri-a, ••' So alfo Ihe is venera- 
ble in the fight of the father, and made partaker 
of all things 'w\\\\ him, 'Tsana x.ixonaxvin.'" And 
the fatne antient writer tells us, that fhe was 
called the Aufay-i; t» Aiof, the power of Jupiter ; 
and that the works of Jupiter were faid, Kon* 
^■a A>o5 etmi Kctt tk AOjjja;, to be the common 
works oUJupiter and Minerva ; which, as Span- 
helm conceives, may be referred to the myftery 
in the New TiJlament, imperfedly known by 
antient traditions ; and when the true light was 
licfcrted by idolaters, thefe honours, peculiar to 



him, were impioufly transferred to the creature, 
the material light, which St. P<?«/afl"ures us was 
worfhipped more than the Creator, namely Chrifl, 
the true light, who is blefl'ed for ever and ever. 
Amen. Rom. i. 25. John i. 3. Spanbeim obferves in 
the conclufion of his note on this paflage, Mitto 
quod fiuit addudo paulo ante loco, Arijlides Mi- 
nervam Jovis parentis Ati»a/*ii/ vocat : ita ab im- 
pio Ario unigenitus Dei Filius ejus Afta^ij x«i 
Zc^ia, fed non oftoao-iof, fin eidem coeternus, Jia- 
tueretur, juxta Athanaftum." In i Cor. i. 24. 
Chrift is called the power of God, and the wif- 
dom of God : the Holy Ghoft is called alfo, the 
power of the Moft High, Luke i. 35. nay, and 
Chrift himfelf faith. Hereafter fhall ye fee the Son 
of Man fitting on the right hand of P0TVER,7ini. 
coming in the clouds of heaven." Matt. xxvi. 
64. where cannot be meant either Himfelf or 
the Holy Ghojl, but the Father, as it is faid 
elfewhere, Sit thou on my right hand, Pfalm ex. 
So that we fee each perfon in the Trinity is call- 
ed Au»a//.K, Poiver, wherefore we muft conclude 
againft Arius, and all his followers, that they are 
all equal in poiver : fince to all without any limi- 
tation the fame name is given. As to Chrift's 
coefl'entiality oyoaa-m, he declareth it in St. John 
as fully and clearly as words can do it, ^om- 

ytm? fioj, O UN £15 to» K<j\itm tu ■craTfo;. John \, 

18. And whofoever will confider the nature of the 
light which thefe heathen.s deified, and which 
is the fcripture emblem of Chrift the Potver 
and Glory of God, he will not longer doubt of 
his coeflentiality or coeternity with the Father. 
See profeflbr Francis Chriftus S. Scripturae nu- 
cleus, or Chri/i ihe f urn and fubjtance of all the 
holy Scriptures, ^c. rendered into Englijh, p. 
46, a book deferving the attention of every 
chriftian, and excellently calculated for the 
conviiSlion of every one, who doubts or difbe- 
lieves that fundamental article of Chriftianity, 
the true and effential divinity of Jefus Chrift, . 
Ver. 167. No mother, &c.] The pcet goes 
on to account for this peculiar honour which 

was 



BATH OF PALLAS. 
Of fov'reign Jove, oh virgins : to whate'er 
The head of Jove fhall give the awful nod, 
It ftands unalterably furc : and thus 
The nod of Pallas is the ftamp of fate; 

She comes, the Goddefs comes : ye Argive maids, 
To whom your country's beft concerns are dear, 
With gratulating fongs, with chearful vows. 



^45 



170 



And 



was paid to Aftnerva, and he affigns it to herbirth, 
obfervingthat fhe was born out of the head of 
Jupiter, and fo from thence obtained thefe di- 
ftinguilhing privileges. The nod of Jupiter is 
univerfally known, and the fine defcription of 
it in Homer admired by all : fo that I have no 
need to fpeak of it here. The {lory of Mi- 
fierva's birth, to which the poet alludes, has 
occafioned great enquiries amongft the mytho- 
logifts : and many learned men have been of 
opinion that it veiled the fublime myfteries of 
the divine word and light, whereby all things 
were created : but I am apt to conceive it had a 
philofophical reference, and that, all which is faid 
of Minerva crin only be applied to facred things 
through the veil of that material light, which 
fhe reprefentcd in the heathen fyftem, and 
which was the known and acknowledged em- 
blem of the true and fpiritual light. .Alacro- 
hius fays, p. 243. Minerva fobs virtus eft : 
ficut & Porphyriuj tcftatur Minervam effe virtu- 
tem folis, qua humanis mentibiis prudcntlam fuh- 
minijlrat : nam idea hue dea Jovis capite prog- 
7iata memoratur, id eji, de fumnia atheris parte 
edita, unde origo folis ejl. " Minerva is the virtue 
of the Sun : as alfo Porphyry witnefles, that 
Minerva is x.\\?it virtue of the i'«/; which minifiei's 
prudence to Imman minds ; tor therefore tliis 
Goddefs is faid to be born out of Jupiier's head, 
that is, ifluing forth from tlie highcit part of the 
tsiher, whence the origin of the Sun is." Hence 
Phurnutus fays, Ksftf » J; Qtm, kc. But the head 
of the Gods, according to Euripides, is xhc Jlyning 
tether which furrounds the e.n th." Dut what (hall 



we make of the peculiar circumftartce in this 
ftory concerning rulcan, who, with his axe cleft 
the fkull of Jupiter, whence leaped out this 
Pallas in compleat armour f T'^rw^r gives a full 
explanation of this matter, as you may read in 
his book, p. 233, ^'c. at large. Having proved 
that Vulcan and Prometheus (for Prometheus, 
by fome, is faid to have done this office for Ju- 
piter) were the fame, and no other than the 
Sun, he goes on, p. 237. — " Now the true 
explication of this fable in JpoUodorus, that 
Vulcan or Prometheus cleft the head of Jupiter, 
to make a more eafy pafTage for the birth of 
Pallas, is this : Jupiter in this cafe is the whole 
ather, whofe head is the body of the Bun, vvhofe 
rays are here compared to axes or hatchets, hv 
which the ather is pierced and cleft, as to our 
outward fenfe it feems to be : and that from 
this cleaving, Pallas was born, the meaning is 
no other than this, that the ^un or rays of the 
Sun do at leaft enliven and invigorate, if not 
create and caufe that agility and motion which 
is to be found in Pallas or Jupiter, or the wide 
fpacious ather, whofe parts all about, though 
they are of a finer confiftence, and more agil 
nature than thofe of which this earth and its 
atmofphere are compofed ; yet they themfclves, 
as they arc nearer to the Sun, or at a farther 
dillance from it, fo thcv partake more or lefs 
of that influence, that warmth, and heat, and 
brifknefs of activity and motion, which is com- 
municated and imparted by him j as may be 
feen bv that part of the ather, which, being 
mingled and intcrfperfcd witli this atmofphere 
U which 



146 T ft E H Y M N T O T H E, afc. 

And acclamations joyful, liafte, receive 

Th' approaching Goddefs : hail, Minerva, hail, 

Still let Inachian Argos claim thy care : 

Hail or retiring hence, or to our ftate 

Thy favour' d courfers guiding : and preferve 

In all profperity old Danaus' race. 



175 



180 



which we inhabit, is in the winter comparatively 
ftagnant, to what it is found by experience to 
be in the fummer ferifon, when the fun fliines 
upon us with a direfl influence, and with rays 
more piercing and vigorous than at other times." 
Thus we have a clear explication of this mat- 
ter, confiftent with all that is related of Pallas, 
who is no other than the folar light, giving 
light, and wifd'.m, and life, proceeding from 
the ather cleft by the Sun for the pafiage of 
this armed Goddefs of JVifclom and li'ar. And 
hence fiie had her n.ime Pallas, which is of 
Hebrew original from '^'^S, PALL, to fparate, 
divide, and to aH, as an agent, in an invifible 
manner ; and hence it is referred to the mind, 
knowing and judging, and fo to what exceeds all 
human knowledge and comprehenfion. And hence 
Chrift, Ifai. ix. 6. is called f^Ss, PaLA, won- 
derful, from the aiStion of b.is emblem the light, 
which aiSls in an hidden, high, and wonderful 
manner. See Leigh on the word. Her other 
Greek name A0HNH, Athene, which has pcr- 
plext all the Greek etymologifts, is alfo of He- 
brew origin, and comes primarily from DK or 
^^l^f, ATH or ATHE, come, approach, and 
fignifies the fire or light darting forth from the 
folar focus, where it had been before formed. 
So is the daughter of fupiier. Sic. Attis, or 
Atthis, ai9a;,, aiOiif, a^uii, (a mounta'ii often 
ftruck with lightning) are all doubtlefs deriva- 
tives of the fame Hebrew word. I have fome- 
times been apt to think, that A0HNH, was a 
compound word of HJ"} and ]ir, ATH and 
TheNeN, a ftiperit, dragon, i^c. fo Athene; 
for the ferpent is the kmwn and acknowledged 
emblem of the light in this condition, which it 
particularly reprefents in its darting motion j as 
alfo by its drawing in iifelfm its motion, it repre- 
fents the inl'ux of the fpirit, whereby the efflux or 
durtlng out of the light is continued. And hence 



Athene or Pallas is fcarcely ever reprefentcd 
•without ferpents, which are always found round 
her agis, as you may read in the defcription 
given of it, note 51. Nay, and iheCe ferpents, 
to fliew the degrees of heat and violence in the 
light, are fometimes defcribed as more, fome- 
times lefs fierce j and hence in the Orphic hymn 
to her, fhe is even called, 

Multiform dragonefs, or ferpent. 

See headpiece to this hymn. And Pallas, 
as being thus the unwearied, ey^x flowing light, 
is called arfuTwui, a common epithet in Homer, 
becaufe fhe is wearied out by no labour, ac- 
cording to Phurmitus, )i ui at/ arfvra ra AI0EPOS 
onoi, or becaufe the eether, "s^, ATH, is by 
no means worn out. Phurnutus informs us, 
that f!ie owl was dedicated to her principally on 
account of the hluenejs of its eyes, as obferved 
note 15. and we may a.'d alfo, becaufe of that 
peculiar property which it hath of feeing in the 
dark. In Phurnutus, and indeed in the whole 
hiftory of tiiis Goddefs, ihe phyfical ftory is fo 
blended with her other attributes, that it is 
difEcult to feparate them : however, attending 
to the leading charader which flie bears, the 
LIGHT, evtry thing C'^ncerning her ivifdim, 
war, virginity, Sec. vi'iil be more ei:fdy refolved. 
Many other proofs might be produced in 
confirmation of what I have advanced, v/here- 
in the reader will obferve, I hjve only fug- 
geded the fentiments of able and learned men ; 
but I have already gone beyond my author, and 
almoff forgot thati was wri'ing annotatioiu only, 
whde I had well nigh expatiated into a di';er- 
tation on this Goddsfs : but I mufl here flop, 
and refer the reader to the hymn of Orpheus 
following. 



End of the Hymn to Pallas. 




THE 



Sixth Hymn of Callimachus. 

To Ceres. 



%MMM3)^^ f^ E Calathus defcending, its approach 



w^ 



^^;^ Ye women, with the joyful chorus greet, 



(Ci'vtv;* 



»-S5^w " Hail Ceres, fertile mother, rich encreafe 



^^^^^Si^ " ^^^ all-fufficing plenty are thy gifts." 
The paffing pomp view only, ye profane, 



I. Tie Calathus, kc.} The fcholiaft 
us, that " Ptolemy Ph'tladelphia, in 



Ver. 
informs 

imitation of the Athenians , e'lhbliflied feme cer 
tiiin ceremonies at Alexandria^ in which was 
this of the facred hajhet or Calathus. For it was 
the cuftom ztJtbens, on a certain day, to carry 
upon a chariot a b(ij1;et to the honour oWeres." 
bo that this hymn of our poet's was not wriitcn. 



as feme have conjectured, at Jrgos, or for the 
ufe of the Eleufinui/i myfteiies as j;erformed in 
Greece, but c,-i account of a ceremony of the lilce 
nature eftabliflied by Ftolemy at Alexandria. 
Concerning this Calathus, which was brought 
forth on the 4di day in the Elcujlnlan myfleries, 
you may rejid a full account in Potter's /nt. 
vol. I. p. 392. Cunijhu-, Aixia, as our au hor 
U 2 calli 



148 THE HYMN TO CERES. 

Or virgin, youth, or matron, from the earth : 
Not on your houfes, rais'd aloft : nor dare 



Behold 



calls them, ver. 127. c;/g-, were alfo carried in ' that herein the Moon is greatly concerned, as 
this proceffion. Of each when we come to that hinted hymn to Diana p. 53 note, and Diana's 
part of the hymn, it will be more convenient fpeech, &c. note 276. and this doubtlefs is allud- 



to fay fomething. The chorus, which I fup- 
pofe was always fung upon this occafion, and 
which the author repeats at the latter end of 
of the hymn, ver. 120. fhews fufficiently who 
Ceres was, and what was the defign of this 
fokmn fcftival. By Ceres, in the heathen fy- 
ftem, is meant that power which caufes the 
feeds to fpring and grow out of the earth, {o 



ed to in that f.ne defcription of the p'.cnty and 
happinefs of the ftates regarded by Diana, ver. 
1 80, (3' feq. of that hymn. Macrobius, Sat. p. 
247, having proved that Liber or Bacchus is 
the fame with the Sun, advances upon the au- 
thority of Virgil, that Geres is the fame with 
the Afom. — Hinc is' Vi'gilius fciens Liberum pa- 
trem Solem ejje U Cererem Lunam, qui pariter 



gives fertility, nourijhment, encreafe, &c. and fcrtilitatibus glebes, & maturandis frugihus, vel 



no(5lurno temperamento vcl diurno colore mode- 
rantur. 



therefore thefe attributes in this chorus are af- 
figned her. Her Greek name A>;f.iiT>i5 is a com- 
pound of An or Mti, Die, as flie is called in 
Latin, which is her proper appellation, and 
MijTDg, which many etymologifts have fuppofed 
to be quaji rij«rT»i?, by a change of A for r — 
Mother-earth : others have fuppofeii A>iw derived 
from A>)«, a verb fignifying to feek, becaufe 
Ceres fought her daughter Projerpine : but it 
appears to me, as if the original of the name 
Dio muft be found amongft the Hebrews, and 
that it is a corruption of ''1 Di, fufficiency, and 
fo fignifies that power which gives ,\ fufficiency 
of all things which caufes fertility, encreafe, 
plenty, &c. From this word H. it is uni\erfally 
confefTed, come Divus, Deus ; the Arabic De, 
to poffefs ; AiJo)/*!, do, to give ; and various other where it is obvious, that Liber and alma Ceres 
names of the like found and import, as you are to be referred to clarijftma lurnina mundi. 



■ — VcJIro, ait, ft munere tellus 
Chaoniam pingui glandem mutavit arijla. 

where you obferve that Macrobius, upon the 
authority of Virgil, afcribes the fertility of the 
earth, and the ripening of its fruits as well to 
the nightly temperament of the Moon, as ro the 
diurnal heat of the Sun. The paffage in Virgil 
is very explicit. 

— Vos, clariflima mundi. 
Lumina, labentem Cailo qua ducitis annum. 
Liber I2 alma Ceres j vejlro, &c. 

GfiORG. I. ver. 5. 



will find in all the befl lexicographers. And 
from hence comes that great name of Gcd '1!^' 
SheDi, omnipotent, all fufficient, he who hath 
in and from himfelf all fufficiency and all abun- 
dance. From hence, I doubt not, Ceres had 
her name Ar,u, and was hence called Aa^aTSf, as 
by our author, the fertile mother, as agreeable to 
the import of the word I have tranflated it, or 
fhe who is fufficient to give nourifhment, en- 
creafe and plenty to the earth, «,according to 
Callimachus, mahm^utpi, ■sjaXofteJ'i^i'E. Some have 
imagined her to be no other than the Moon, and 
their opinion is founded on good authority. That 
(lie was fuppofed to be that pozver in the Mocn 
particularly which promotes _/>r/////;' and encreafe, 
\& liighly realbnable ; for we are to remember, 

3 



the Sun and Moon : and it is amazing fo good a 
critic as Dr. Trapp fliould have fo puzzled and 
confounded himfelf by fuppofmg the contrary. 
As thus Ceres was, in the heathen fyflem, that 
power, thztf/fficient fertile mother, which caufed 
the encreafe and fecundity of the earth, therefore 
this feaft was celebrated to her honour, as a 
grateful memorial of the fruits of the earth, 
received from her bounty. Very able writers 
have concluded, that all the feafts of this fort 
were derived from the Jewi/h feffivals of the 
like nature, when they offered to the true Giver of 
all encreafe the firjl-fruits of their harvcjl, &c. 
See Exod. xxiii. 16. and Bibli. Biblica ver. 2. 
p. 276. note 6. and ver. 3. 364. 

Ver. 5. The faffing, ^'c] All tlie prophane 

or 



THE HYMN TO CERES. 

Behold the facred bafket, ye whofe mouths 
With painful falling are parch'd up and dry. 
The bright-hair'd Vefper from a golden cloud 



149 



10 
Beholds 



or uninitiated, of what fex, age or ftate foever, 
were ordered to view this facred hafket onlyJ?and- 
ing on the earth, and that for a very obvious and 
plain reafon, becaufe the earth being facred to 
Ceres, as nourifhing, enriching and giving it 
fertility, it would have been an abomination not 
to have flood upon it, and fo confefTed the 
power of the Goddefs. Spanhcim gives the fame 
reafon. What I have tranflated virgin, is a xa- 
Ttx^aTo xa'Ta», ea quiv diffudlt Capillos, a para- 
phrafe for a virgin, who, amongit the Greeks 
and Romans ufed to have their hair loofe and un- 
bound, as Spanheim has, with a great labour of 
learning, proved in his note on this place. The 
original of the 8th and 9th line is very difEcult: 
commentators fay it alludes to the fafting oi Ceres 
mentioned in the fubfequent lines, of which 
the Goddefs was by no means to be reminded 
by any at this facred time, when more efpe- 
cially they honoured her as the giver of 
plenty. 

Ye.^. 10- TiJehright-hair'd Vefper, hc.'\ This 
is no more than to inform us of the time when 
this ceremony was begun, namely, at the even- 
ing, when Hefperiis or the evening-ftar appear- 
ed ; and the reafon of their beginning at this 
time, as thofe of Pallas in the morning, as 
mentioned in the former hymn, note 34. vvas, 
becaufe the Moon, whofe vegetative power Ceres 
reprefented (as obferved above) rifes at this 
time, fhcwing herfelf at the evening, when iW. 
Sun departs. What the poet fays conccrtiiiiT 
Hefperns or the evening perfuailing Cevci to 
drink. Sec. Spanheim is of opinion, alludes to 
the cuftom oS fajling on this lolemnity, which 
they ufually did till the evening ; in remembrsnce 
of the faft which Ceres kept till the evenin'^ 
when feeking her daughter. But it feems pro- 
bable fomething more is meant hereby, parti- 
cularly by the poet's exprciHon of driniing : he 
does not fay that Hefperus perfuadcd her to eat 
Knd drink, but only imui, to drink ; which pro- 
bably alludes to the notion they had of the 



Moon's being fupported by the Sea, as well as 
Air, which fupport, fhe might then be fuppofed 
to take when (he appeared, namely, at the 
evening. Confult hymn to Diana, note 231. 
However, be that as it will, this whole ftory of 
her feeking her daughter Proferpine has plainly 
and confelVedly a philojopliical meaning ; for 
Proferpine is no other than that power that hides 
?ii\d preferves, even in thi:'n Rdte of corrupt ion and 
dijjolution, the feeds under or in the earth, apud 
inferos, during the earth's recefs in the winter 
from the Sun. Hence fhe was feigned to have 
been the winter half of the year in the (hades 
below, in thtjiatc of death, with Pluto, and the 
fummer half of the year with her mother : and 
hence, in the antient remains, Ceres is found 
drawn by ferpents, with a torch in each hand, 
feeking her daughter, to (hew, that by the in- 
fluence of the light only, and its power in ve- 
getation, Proferpine can be recovered and brought 
up from the infernal kingdom. See the hymn 
to Diana for the meaning of the torches, note 
15. and to Pallas for the ferpents, note 168, ad 
fin. But fome lines from the Orphic hymn to 
Proferpine fet this matter in the cleareft light : 

<1)EP2;E<1)0NEI.'1- *EPEIS ya^a^t xai irarrx *0- 

NEYEIS- 
KXvOi, j/.uxcafu 8ia, xafw«,- S'avairfjA,v' avo yxtr^. 

Vernal, rejoicing in the gales that feed 
The fertile meads ; thy facred hoJy /having 
In the firlf germens o. the yet green fruit : 
Ravifh'd and carried to thy marriage bed 
After the autmnn : thou only li(e and death 
To mortals toiling and laborious ; thou 
Art Proferpine, for tliou 'ere he^reJlaW things. 
Yet all dejiroyefl and corruptifi all. 
Hear, Goddefs, and from fiA\t\\ fend far ih the 
Iruits. 

Nothing, 



I50 THE HYMN TO CERES. 

Beholds the grand proceflion : he alone 

The Goddefs cou'd perfuade to tafte the draught 

Refrefhing, when thro' many a clime unknown 

She fought her ravifh'd daughter : fay, dread pow'r, 

How the long journey cou'd thy tender feet 

Support enfeebled, to the diftant weft, 

The tawny jfEthiopians, and the climes 

Fam'd for the golden fruit ? All food mean time. 



15 



Or 



Nothing can be plainer, than what is meant by 
Proferpine, from thefe lines ; the derivation of 
whofe name, according to Orpheus, fliews her 
nature. The word afvayiiyixnc, which Orpheus 
ufes to exprefs the ravijinng of his natural Pro- 
ferpine, is the lame which CalUmachui ufes on 
the fame occafion, ver, g. Apwayifta; xwf«;. It 
is obfervable, that Orpheus in the fame hymn 
calls Proferpine <i>xiaipops, light-bearer, the epi- 
thet of Diana, which they who have confider- 
ed that triform figure of Diana, which repre- 
fents her in her threefold capacity, Diana, Lu- 
na, Hecate, powerful in heaven, on earth, and 
in hell, will not wonder at : for thefe are only 
references to the power of the Aloon, and fo of 
the light which proceeds from her, in the ge- 
nial work of nature : for this light afts in each 
of thefe ftates, as well below or upon the feeds 
and plants, when under the earth, and in a ftate 
of corruption, as when they are rifen up, and 
cloath the earth with their beauty. What an 
infinite number of inftruding and comfortable 
truths may be deduced from iience ? and how 
may we beautifully contemplate the refurreBion 
of our bodies from a flate of death and corrup- 
tion to a ftate of glory by the power of the di- 
vine light : for nothing is quickened except it 
die : and nothing is quickened but by the power 
01 light. See 1 Cor. xv. 36. 

H lloiuay, in his Originals, vol. i. p. 32. 
fpeakingof this/r//(?rw idol (which fee in the head- 
piece before the hymnto Diana) fays, " The fame 



idol (to exprefs what they principally underftood 
by it in phyfics) was furthermore called by the 
Greeks ^ucifopi fifa, light- bearing Goddefs, as 
alfo Aa^s^os. torch-hearer : whence again the 
Romans had their Facilina in the fame fenfe : 
which names though covered and difguifed 
with the mafk of the fable, muft have been 
taken from the phyfical agency principally un- 
derftood by thefe attributes and names, which 
was that of the li^ht and heat in generation : ac- 
cording to that definition in Cicero ; Luna a 
lucendo nominata efl, eadeni eji Lucina : the Moon 
has its name from illuminating or immittitig light 
into bodies ; the fame is alfo Lucina. Their 
whole meaning was, that the celejiial light con- 
jlituted the genial powers in nature, which they 
deified under thefe names Luna, Lucina, Hpa 
(which, according to our author, comes imme- 
diately from T^Tt Ere, to conceive, the name 
of Juno, the imagined female power in the 
air and earth, which matures and brings the 
foetus to its birth, iffc.) And that the attributes 
above given, (pua^ofoc, facilina, isfc. were phy- 
fically right, Holy Scripture hath informed us, 
Deut. xxxiii. 14. (as quoted -hymn to Diana 
adinit.) For the precious fruits brought forth 
by the Sun, and for the precious things put forth 
by the A^oon." — To do juflice to this learned 
writer I fhould quote him much more, but 
cannot deprive the reader of fo much pleafure 
and inftrudion, as a thorough peruftl of this 
work will give : to which 1 refer. 



THEHYMN TO CERES. 151 

Or meat or drink, and the reviving bath 

Difdaining ? Thrice the filver ftream you paft 20 

Of Achelous, and as oft each flood, 

That with eternal current ceafelefs flows : 

Thrice to the center of SiciHa's iQe, 

Fair Enna, urg'd your courfe : and thrice diftrefl: 

Beflde CalUchorus on earth lay down 25 

With hunger faint, and parch'd with thirfl: : for meat 

Or drink, or genial bath, to thy fad foul 

Gave nor fupporting fl:rength, nor kind relief. 

But ceafe, nor let th' ill-omen'd tongue relate 

What caus'd the Goddefs woe : far better tell 30 

How flie with wholfome laws fupplied mankind : 

Far better tell, her favourite how £he taught, 

Tripto- 

Ver. 32. Far letter, &c.] All words of ill the antient Hebrew writers the fcaft wt 0E2- 

omen were religioufly avoided in the facred ce- MO^OPiriN, of giviii<r the law, in memory of 

remonies of the antieiits ; all, which fecmed to tlie law given from mount Sinai.'" To which 

po:tend or even to call to mind any thing un- Spanheim adds, that the laws engraven on tablet 

fortunate and diftrefsful. Therefore Callimacbus ofirafs were hung up in the temple of Ceres : all 

checks himfirlf, and turns to the praiLs of the the Gentiles agreeing to r:;fer the benefit of the 

Goddefs ; who, from the particular mentioned gift of laws to a divine original." Thus hath 

in this line, was called 0£3-at,ipopo;, and her rites tliis moft accurate and learned commentator 

Qieru-j^opa, as alfo in Latin Legifera \ (o Firgil, pointed out to us the true origin of this appella- 

jKn. 4.. ver. 58- LegiferccCcreri. Which appel- tion, which was jiven to 6V«, o\ Legifera, or 

lationof /.-(tf-^C'-''v is gtncrally faid to he afiigned Lawgiver; whofc feaft, called ©so-fio^ocia, was 

her, becaufe, after the invention of corn by her for plainly an imitation of the Jewijh Pentecoft, or 

the ufc; of mortals, lands then firft began to be feajl of harveft, when thefirji-fruits of the har- 

dividcd, zndio laws of ntceSiiy took place. See vcft were offered to the Lord in commcmora- 

Macrobius, Servius, kc. Spanheim oWerves, tion of the //ry?-//-K//j of the £«zy as at that time 

" That it fhould not be omitted here, that the given fiom mount Sinai, and as figurative of 

feafl of Pentecojf, or lofru SEfw/zs feu ■av^ufArng, the Jir/l fruits oi the Spirit, siven alfo on ihe 

xhc feafi of harvejl or i^i zuheat-harvejl, Exod. day of P^n/t'^*/? from niount iVc?;. 
xxiii. 16. xxxiv. 22. was alfo iifually called by 



152 THE HYMN TO CERES. 

Triptolemus, bleft Agriculture's art, 
To reap the bladed crop, to bind the fheaves, 
And with unmuzzled ox to tread the corn. 
Far better (from fuch crimes to warn mankind,) 
Relate the wretchednefs, to which her rage 
Proud Eryfichthon thro' fierce hunger brought. 

Not yet, Theffalian Cnidia their abode. 
At facred Dotium the Pelafgians rais'd 



35 



40 
A 



Ver. 33. Triptolemus, &c.] Concerning Tr//)- 
tolemus Ovid fpeaks thus at the end of the 5th 
book of his Metamorphofes, 

— Ge minus Dea fertilis angues, &c. 

— Then Ceres takes 
Her golden car, and yokes her fiery fnakes : 
With a juft rein along mid-heaven flie flies, 
O'er earth and fcas, and cuts the yielding fkies : 
She halts at Athens dropping like a ttar. 
And to Triptolemus refigns her car. 
Parent of feed fhe gave him fruitful grain. 
And bad him teach to till and |)Iough the plain : 
The feed to fow. as well in fallow fields. 
As where the foil manur'd a richer harve/l 

yields. M A YN WARING. 

And from thus teaching agriculture, {be had 
her njme CERES, which is only the Hebrew 
wordli^~n, CeReSH, latinized; which figni- 
iies to plough, and is applied to works of agri- 
culture, &c. I am pleafed to find all the moft 
a.ble writers on thefe fubjecis agreed in what I 
have advanced note 10. concerning the phyfical 
import of this fable concerning Ceres and Prc- 
ferpine. Spanheim has thele words, " Untie 
etl:i?n Proferpines fub terras, qui iifdem Thcl- 
mophorlis, origitism dedijje Jaebatur, raptus, 
allegoricani SEMINIS in terra reconditi figni- 
■ficaticincin opud eofdem Graces hahuijje, tradit 
(In e'jdem fejlo agens Arnobiu.s, lib 5. p. i8j. 
9uud a Phwrnuto f:mHitcr mo diu/n in Ccrcre." 



Phurvutus, in the place referred to by Spanhei??/, 
is very clear, p. 209. Aa7ra3-«iJ '0 Ajr;;, &;c. But 
Pluto is fabled to have ftolen away the daugh- 
ter of Ceres : becaufe of the oceultation or difap- 
pearance of the yi-i'</j for a certain feafon, under 

the earth. Ai« to» yifoftwor iiti Xf"" T>»a ruD o-jrip- 
fjiajm Kara j/i;; a^amrfn'ii^ &C. See the author. 
And the Abbe Banier, (0 unluckily wedded, as 
he Wus, to his hiflorical fyftem, bears, this 
notwithfianding, the following full, though un- 
willing teflunony. " Notwithftanding all thele 
t jfilmonies, mojl mythologijls look upon the rape 
of ProfiT'ine to be only an allegory, which has 
an obvious relation to agriculture. Thus, ac- 
cording to them, the divifion which 'Jupiter 
makes of the tmie which this Goddefs was to 
ftay with her hufband and mother, means no 
more hut that the grain, after having lodged fix 
months, appears upon its furface, grows up and 
ripens." See b. 4. c. 8- p. 52. v. 3. ]s not 
this the facred body of Prcferfinc, as Orpheus 
calls it r I have quoted thefe autr.orities to fhew 
the reader, that the opinions I advance are by 
no means fingular : it would be eafy, did the 
compafs of thefe notes permit, to be more co- 
pious !n authorities, which I doubt not the can- 
did reader will excufe, the learned need them 
not, and there is no occafion to inform them, that 
all through this work I have advanced nothing 
wir.hout the fimction cf antiquity, fo that no 
charge of noNclty can arife, but from the un- 
learned and u»/k'lful. 



THE HYMN TO CERES. 

A beauteous grove to Ceres : fuch the lliade, 
The fwifteft arrow vain vvou'd ftrive for pafTage, 
Through branches clofe with branches interwove, 
Tall pines, luxuriant elms, the fertile pear, 
And apple glowing with its ruddy fruit. 
A cryftal river, bubbling from its fpring, 
Water'd the grove, which Ceres fondly lov'd 
With deep affedtion, more than Enna's vale, 
Triopium, or EleuHs. But, incens'd 
His better Genius, what dread counfels rofe 
Deftrudlive in proud Eryiichthon's breaft ? 
Behold with twice ten flaves he fallies forth, 



^53 



45 



50 



All 



Ver. 41. J beauteous grove, &c.] All the 
heathens had their facreJ groves, the great abo- 
mination of which is fufficiently clear, from the 
commands in Scripture to the people of God con- 
cernin£r them. Their original was doubtlefs 
from the tradition of paradife: and the great 
offence was, their making to themfelves thefe 
7nt)ck Edens, thefe paradifiacal gardens and 
groves, in contempt of the true Jehovah, with- 
out whom they pretended to arrive at the tree of 
Life. This grove of Ceres, you may obferve, was 
a very plain copy of paradife ; here was all beauty 
in it, all forts of pleafant and defirahle tree-, 
here was a river of water which ran through 
it, as the rivers in paradife watered the garden, 
and here was a tree, fuperior to the rell, the 
poplar, i^sya AevJ^eoi', aiS.-p xufot, to anfwer to the 
great tree in the midft of the paradife of God. 
The poplar was facred to Hercules, the folar 
light in its flrength ; fo it is plain, this grove 
Nfv-as confecrated to the light, and thence to 



Ceres or the Moon, who borrows her light from 
the Sun. And I need not obferve what many 
learned men have thought and written concern- 
ing the tree of tlie knowledge of goid and evil in 
paradife. It v.-as indeed my firft intention to 
have been pretty copious both upon thefe gar- 
dens or gro\'es in general, and the dedicated tree 
in particular; but finding this fubjciS handled ia 
fo full and mafter'y a manner by i\']r. Halkivay 
in his Originals, it would be prefumptuous in m-.: 
to take the fubjefl in hand after hun : and as 
any extrafl would not do him the julHce 
which a full perufal of his thoughts muft, I 
beg leave to refer the curious and learned rea- 
der to his enquiries on the words jj, and ]"!>*, 
garden, and Eden, in the ift vol. 79 ij^ Jcq. 
pag. of his Originals, and particularly page 15, 
(sfc. of the fame vol. 

Ver. 52. Behold, c^'c] There can be no 
doubt, but the exploit of Gidevi muft have 
greatly raifed tl'.e indignation and deteflation of 



X 



all 



154 THE HYMN TO CERES. 

All in full vigour, and as in attempt 
So in their ftrength gigantic : fraught with pow'r 
Whole Hates to overturn, each mighty arm 
Wielding a ponderous axe ; daring the Gods, . 



55 
Dauntlefs 



all the heathen idolaters ; and there appears to 
me fo ftrong a reference to it in this llory of 
Eryjlchtbsn, that I am apt to believe it took its rife 
'from what Gideon performed, who deftroyed 
the grove facred to Baai, the Lord of the hea- 
vens, the folar light, as Eryfuhthon this which 
was dedicated to the light, as obferved in the 
lall note. The hiilory m Judges vi. 25. is re- 
markably fimilar. " And it came to pafs the 
fame night, the Lord fiid unto him, take thy 
father's young bullock, even the fecond 
builock o{ feven years old ; and throw down the 
altai of BAAL which thy father hath, and cut 
down the GROVE that is by it : and build an 
altar up to the Lord thy God, upon the top of 
this rock, in the ordered place ; and take the 
(tcond bullock, and offer a burnt-facrifice with 
the wood of the grove, which thiiu flialt cut 
down. Then Gideon took TEN men of his 
SERVANTS, and did as the Lord had faid 
unto him : and fo it was, becaufe he feared his 
father's houfhold and the men of the city, that 
he could not do it by day, that he did it by 
night. And when the men of the city arofe 
early in the morning, beliold the altar of ^/fy^Z 
was cafl down, and the GROVE was cut 
down that was by it, and the fecond bullock 
was offered upon the altar, that was built, i^V." 
I refer the reader to the Bible, and leave him 
to make his own remarks. 

In a poem called Gideon or the Patriot, print- 
ed for Millar, 1749. the author of which I 
know not, book the iff. ft. 31. is a long de- 
fcription of this grove of Baal, in the centre of 
which iht poet (and perhaps not without reafon) 
places an oak : 

Flat like a tabled plain, the laft high flage 
Nourifh'd one to-airing oak, which Ifroiigly 
ffood. 
The time-fwoln growth of many a pcrifli'd 

age. 
And bore on one proud trunk a fpacious wood. 



Down, o'er the fhadow'd groves, about th' enor- 
mous branches hung. 
And form'd a fheltry arbour round the pole : 
Mov'd by the wind with murm'ring fv/eep 

they fwung. 
And blew cold horror over Gideon's, foul, (s'c. 

He fpeaks, ft. 33. of the ten fervants. 

Up rufh the fummon'd ten with glad confent. 
To ev'ry hand a Jinning axe he gave. 
Bad them be refolute and brave, fsff. 

Li the next, he feems almoff to have imitated 
what Callimachus fays in the 60th line. 

Speaking he clcav'd the image at a blow. 
On either fide the parted Godhead fell ; 

Winds o'er the groves flirill-fhrieking ecchoes 
blow. 

And all the demons of the place ^r«aH'<s^ help- 
k-fs from below. 

See alfo ftanza 37. 

Ovid, in his account of this affair of Eryfich- 
thon's, hath plac'd an oak in the midft, inftead 
of a poplar : his lines are a plain imitation of 
Callimachus. 

^tabat in his ingens annofo robore quercus, (^c. 
IAet. lib. 8. ver. 745* 

An antient oak in the dark center ftood. 
The covert's glory, and itfelf a wood : 
Garlands embrac'd its fhaft, and from the 

boughs 
Hung tablets, monuments of profp'rous vows. 
In the cool dufk its unpierc'd verdure fpread. 
The Dryads oft their hallow'd dances led, i^c. 

The reader may read the whole ffory as 
tranflated by Vernon in Garth's Ovid, vol. 2. 
p. 79. 



THE HYMN TO CERES. 

Dauntlefs they rufK into the hallow'd grove ! 

A poplar, mighty tree, that bore aloft 

Its towering head to heav'n (beneath whofe fhade 

The nymphs at mid-day fported) firft was ftriick, 

And fallino; proan'd forebodins; to the reft. 

The facrilegious fliock the Goddefs heard. 

And thus indignant fpoke ; " What impious wretch 

*' Dare wound my beauteous trees ?" Inftant fhe took 



155 



60 



Nicip- 



Vcr. 63. ffT^at impious, &c.] Ovid intro- 
duces a Dryad, fpeaking, on this occafion, 

When from ihe groaning trunk a voice was 

heard, 
A Dryad I, by Ceres' love preferr'd. 
Within the circle of this clafping rind. 
Coeval grew, and now in ruin join'd : 
But inftant vengeance fhall thy fin piirfue. 
And death is chear'd with this prophetic view. 

It is obfervable, that CaUlmachus calls thefe 
trees KAAA, beauteous and dcftrabL; as well as 
facred; fo the prophet fays, ye fhall be aflmmed 
of the oaks which ye have DESIRED, &c. 
Ifai. i, 29. As the hrft tree was pleafant to the 
eye, and a tree to be deftred to make one wife. 
Gen. iii. 6. And we may juft remark, that 
Ceres does not ipeak of the trees as all facred 
or dedicated to her, ver. 69, 70. Tas ©soio-iv 
wmii-itci A£>5f!a. Ceres was generally defcribed 
(and fo her pricffefs, who reprefented her) with 
a crown made of corn, and with poppies .- and 
that for very obvious rcafons ; for flie was the 
Goddefs of t-arK, amongfl which poppies zrc lA- 
Ways found : " To yuf ^foy)'y^o», &-C. The 
roundnefs and glohidar make of which, fays 
Phurnntus, reprefents the form of the earth, 
which is fpherical : the inequality of "the poppies 
(hews the vallies of the earth, and the tops of 
the mountains : the inner parts are like the 
trees, and caverns of the earth : and by the in- 
numerable feeds is figni,*i;d the great fertility of 



the earth, i^c." Various other reafons are 
moreover added by mythologifts. Some 
fay, that the prieltefs here is defcribed, with a 
key only as a badge of her office ; others make 
it a myftical emblem of the fecrecy of the Elett- 
finian myfleries ; but the true reafon niuft be 
drawn from that power which this Goddefs re- 
prefents in nature, which w,is the grand fccret 
in thefe fame Eteuff ian mylferics, namely, her 
locking up and opening again the womb of 
earth, whereby the work of vegetation is carried 
on, the feeds buried, and locked up in the earth 
for a feafon, and at the proper time brought 
forth; the my fiery of Proferpine's abode und^r 
a.nd above the earth, as (hewn at large before. 
And hence, in the firft Orphic hymn, to Ufn&u- 
^cmx., the Goddefs who prefided over all entran- 
ces, &c. whom he calls Afrs^.t,-, Ei>.«Sn2, (5cc. 
and fpeaks of as the Goddefs o{ child-births, and 
all the births of nature; hence, I fay, hegives her, 
as the open.r and Jhuiter, the epithet of 

KAEIAOYX' — Key-bearcr. 

which is reclaimed by God to himfc'f in the 
facred Scriptures . and he who alone hr.:h the 
power of the new birth, and the relunecrion 
from the dec:d, is faid " To have the key of 
the houfe of David laid upon his J})tiuldcrs ; fo he 
fhall open and none fhall ihut, and he (hall (liut 
and none fhall open. Comp. Ifaiah xxz. 22. wi'h 
Revel, iii.-. See, for a further account hereof, 
Holloivay'% Originals^ vol. I. p. 185 — 90. 
X 2 



156 T H E H Y M N T O C E R E S. 

Nicippa's form, lier prieftefs : and in hand 65 

The crown and poppies bore : the myftic key 

Hung from her fhoulders : and in fort hke this, 

She flrove to footh the vile offending mortal : 

" My fon, whofe lucklefs hands thus wound the trees, 

" That heav'ns high powr's hold facred — oh, defift : 70 

" Ev'n by thy parents tender love, I plead, 

" Defift, my fon : and fend thy fervants hence, 

" Left fhe, whofe grove thou injur'ft, be enrag'd, 

" Dread Ceres." — He, with looks more furious far 

Ey'd her afkance, than upon Tmarus mount 75 

The lionefs birth-tortur'd (from her eyes 

When anguifh flaflies fury) growling views 

Th' advent'rous hunter : " Hence, he cries, this axe 

" Left in that corfe thou feeleft : hence and know, 

<' For Eryfichthon this thy facred wood So 

" A fplendid dome fliall form : whofe jovial roof 

'* Shall with the banquets revels ceafclefs ring." 

He 

Ver. 65. Niiippa her priejlefs, &c.] Virg'tt With filver hairs her temples were o'erfp read, 
has imitated our author here. And wreaths and verdant olives crown'd her 

head : 

In vtthusfcfe transformat amies, i^c. Her wither'd face with wrinkles was imboft, 

And in the woman all the fiend was loft : 
,ffiN. 7. 416. She now appear'd a venerable dame, 

And to the couch like Juno's prieftefs came. 

Pitt. 



THE HYMN TO CERES. 
He fpoke infulting : Nemefis his words 
lU-omen'd, frowning mark'd : Ceres incens'd, 
Glow'd with refentment : inftant fhe afTum'd- 
The Deity : on earth flie ftood, her head 
Touched the heav'n : the jQaves, with horror ftruck, 
Rufli from the grove half-dead : and in the trunks 
Fall: fix'd their axes leave : unnoted thefe 
(As by their Lord's commanding pow'r conftrain'd) 



157 



85 



90 
She 



Ver. 86. On earthy &c.] Almoft all the 
poets have on fome occafion or other given a 
defcription of this kind : Homer led the way, 
where fpeaking of Difcord he fays, 

Difcord, dire fifter of the flaught'ring pow'r. 
Small at her birth, but rifing every hour : 
While fcarce the fkies her horrid head can 

bound, 
She llalks on earth, and fhakes the world 

around. Pope, 11. iv. 502. 

Virgil has followed him very clofe in his de- 
fcription of Fame : 

Firft fmall with fear, (he fwells to wond'rous 

fize, 
And ftalks on earth, and tow'rs above the fkies. 
Pitt, J£i\. iv. 263. 

and of Orion he fays, 

Ingredlturque folo, ijf caput inter nuhlla condit, 

iEN. x. 767. 

He walks on earth, his head within the clouds. 

The introduftion and grandeur of the perfonage 
in CaUimachus renders his defcription not in- 
ferior to either of thcfe great poets : upon each 
of which the reader may find a critiqvie by Lcn- 
ginus, as alfo by Scaliger, both of whom are 
mentioned and referred to in Mr. Pope's note on 
the paflage above from Homer, Our Mi.'tiin, 

3 



inferior to no poet in any refpect, hath, in my 
judgment, herein exceeded them all : fpeaking 
of Satan he fays, 

— On th' other fide Satan alarm 'd, 
Cdllefting all his might, dilated ftood, 
Like Teneriff ox Atlas unrcniov'J : 
His ftature reach'd the fky ; and on his creft 
Sat horror pluni'd. 

Parad. Lost, b. 4. ver. 985. 

But flrange it is, that while vi'e are admiring 
and applauding thefe high efforts of human ge- 
nius, we fhould forget that great fountain from 
whence they Row, and where fublimity reigns in 
every page. What are thefe defcriptioiis to thole 
magnificent words of the Omnipotent — Thus 
fiiith the Lord, the heaven is my throne, and the 
earth is my footftool : where is the houfe that 
ye build unto mc ; and vvhcie is the place of 
my reft? Ifni. Ix. i. Who hath meafured the 
waters in the hollow of his hand, and meted 
out heaven with the fpan, and comprehended 
the dufl of the earth in a meafure, and weighed 
the mountains in fcales, and the hills in a ab- 
lance ? xl. 12. But fuch paflages are innu- 
merable : I fhall only juft db'erve, that in tne 
book of IVifdom, we have the exact ima^e, 
whl;!i thefe poets have borrowed. — " And it 
TOUCHED the HEAVEN, but it STOOD 
upon the earth." xviii- 16. 



158 T H E H Y M N T O C E R E S. 

She fuffers to retire : while thus {he pafs'd 

On him the dreadful fentence : " Build, ay, build, 

*' Thou dog in heart, in fufF'ring, build the dome 

*' To fhare the jovial banquets : feafls indeed, 

'' And feafts inceffant are hereafter thine." 95 

She {poke : and Eryfichthon inftant felt 

Her heavy hand avenging : hunger keen. 

Horribly ftrong and burning with fierce rage, 

Dry'd up his bowels and confum'd his frame. 

Wretch that he was, enjoyment but increas'd 100 

Defire : his hunger was but fed by food ! 

Twice ten prepared him food, twelve flaves drew wine. 

For Bacchus was his foe : fince, who oiFends 

Dread Ceres, mufh offend the God of wine. 

From focial banquets or the friendly feaft 10^ 

His parents, ftill devifmg each pretext 

With 

Ver. 103. For Bacchus, &c.] Bacchus, by joined and connefled wilh the honour and vvor- 

Plndar called nafiJpoj, the a£e[jor of Ceres, fliip of the other. In the 123d verfc we have 

was worfliipped together with her ; to him as an inftance of the fimplicity of the primitive 

well as her the invention of agriculture has been ages, vihcn Kings fins ted their fathers flock, 

afiigned ; Ceres is called in the Orphic hymn to and the chief of the people were not averfe to 

her, Bfoftioii7t cmi-toi-. all which Spanheim has -pajiornl employments. But this I oiily hint, 

obferved, and which is cafily accounted for, numbers having already treated the ful jedl: {o 

upon the obfervation made in the lit note of fully. In the 90th lin^-, ^c. we have an ex- 

this hymn, that Liher and Ceres, according to ample of retorting punifhment, which feems to 

Firgil, are duo lamina mundi, the Sun and Moon, have been of general ufage ; to which allude 

affeflbrs, mutual operators in the produdlions of thefe lines in Siaiefpear's Lear, 
nature, and fo the honour of one is neceflarily 

The 



THEHYMNTOCERES. 159 

With palnfulnefs of care, detain'd their fon : 
Him to Itonian Pallas' facred games 
Th' Ormenidce invite : His mother cries, 

" To Cranon tribute to demand he went 110 

" From hence on yefterday." Polyxo came, 
Together with the lire to call the fon 
To her Adorion's nuptials : tears o'erflow'd 
The troubled mother's eyes, while thus confus'd : 
*' Thee Triopas fhall vifit ; but my fon, 1 1 5 

" Nine days has groan'd beneath a deadly wound 
" A boar's fell tufk on Pindus' mount infix'd." 
Unhappy tender parent ! what excufe 
Didft thou not feign ? to feafts did any call ? 
Abroad was Eryfichthon : — to the mirth 1 2Q 

Of fprightly nuptials ? — or the difc hath ftruck, 
Or from his horfe hath fall'n the lucklefs youth ; 

Or 

The Gods are juft, and of our plea/ant vices, cit proiride Theodoritus Qiijcft. lo. in Numercs^ 

Make inftruments to plague and punifti us. p. 146. t. i. ^t ui ya? n uiAafna, Sm tarm n t>- 

fA-wfta- per ques enim qui: peccat, per ea punitur. 

See the Beauties oi Shakefpear, vol. 2. p. 133. Aderumvero exemplutn ejl clulantis qu:tidie di- 

" C:ijufmodi, fays Spanheim fpeaking hereof, vitis, Luc. xvi. 27. ac in ea ctiam parte qua 

cbvia uiique in veteri ac novo fcedere exempla : plus deliquerat, itidem puiiiu, feu, ut de eo ait 

ficut {ut hac duo tantunt, hie magis opportuna, Chryfojlomus Serm. Ixiii. in Divitem iff Lazarum 

hue adducam) unum extat muUeris adulterte, p. 730. t. 5. tnt y} oKrirat xo^al^trai, ?i >!{ tw tjo. 

cujus uterus aquis makdiSiionis in peenamdijrum- (fv t}.aji0iftc. in lingua punitur, qua citos acce- 

pendus dicitur : Num. v. 21. £3' ad quern locum pirat." 



j6q the hymn T O CE res. 

Or numbers he his flocks in Othrys' dale. 

Mean time within, the glutton banqueter, 

Sequefter'd, fed his hunger : flill the more 125 

His greedy maw devour'd, the more demand 

His fwoln inlatiate bowels : where finks down 

Th' improfitable food, as rivers loft 

In the voracious ocean's deep abyfs. 

As waxen fhapes, or fnow on Mimas top 130 

Before the mid-day Sun, fo faft confum'd 
His miferable form : till on the nerves, 
The fibres and the bones were only found. 
The mother wept, the tender fifter plain'd. 
His nurfe, and each domeftic wail'd his hap, 131; 

Lamenting : his grey hairs in piteous fort 
While the old father tore, and thus pour'd forth 
To unregarding Neptune his fad foul : 
" Oh, falfely call'd my father — view this third, 
" This third fiom thee ! if from thyfelf indeed 140 

" And fair ^olian Canace I hold 
'* My high dcfcent : and yet this fon of mine 
" Is made thus wretched ! Oh, that ftruck by Phoebus 
" My hands had to him paid the lafh fad rites ! 

" But 



THE HYMN TO CERES. 

" But now fierce hunger, all- voracious, fits 

" On his funk eye-balls : father, or avert 

" This fell difeafe, or take him to thyfelf 

*' And feed the fufF'rer : for no more my board 

*' Its wonted hofpitality affords : 

" The widow'd fields, the ftill, deferted flails 

" Mourn their loft habitants : and ev'n the cars 

" Their very mules refign : a facrifice 



i6i 

145 



150 



<c 



His 



Ver. 145. But imv, &c. ] Nothing can ex- 
ceed the defcription which our poet gives of 
the miferies of this hunger to Eryfuhthon, and 
of the famine confequent upon it to his friends: 
this fpeech of his father's to N,ptune is very 
pathetic, and juftly admired. What a view it 
gives us of the heathen Deities, who were not 
able to proteft their immediate offspring from 
fuch horrors ! The circumftances feleiSted by 
Call'unachus are apt and great ; a particular, ac- 
cording to Lcnginus, of much art, and excel- 
lence, and highly ferviceable to the fublime : 
not only an ox, but one dedicated to Vefla, and 
long preparing for her ; not only a horfe, but one 
fam'd for war, and vi£i:or in the courfe, fall 
viflims to his hunger ; and thefe confumed, the 
moft difagreeable and oHenfive animals to the 
appetite are all devoured by him ! I muft jull 
obferve, that as the ox was always dedicated to, 
and a fymbol of the folar fire, fo this confirms 
what indeed wants little proof, that Vefla (as 
obferved hymn to Delos, n. 44 1 . ) is no other than 
the folar fn : zr\6. (o vice veruL Asa full com- 
ment on this famine, i^c. in Callimachus, I will 
give }ou Ov'd's defcription of the fame matter, 
borrowed from our author, without doubt, 
tho' beautifully heightned. 

The morning came, the night and flumbers 

paft. 
But ftill the furious pangs of hunger laft ; 



The cank'rous rage flill gnaws with griping 

pains. 
Stings in his throat, and in his bowels reigns. 
Strait he requires, impatient in demand, 
Provifions from the air, the feas, the land ; 
But tho' the land, air, feas, provifions grant. 
Starves at full tables, and complains of want. 
What to a people might in dole be paid. 
Or vidlual cities for a long blockade. 
Could not one wolfifh appetite alTuage ; 
For glutting nourifhment increas'd its rage. ' 
As riverg pour'd from ev'ry t! ftant fliore 
The fea infatiate drinks, nnc! thirfts for more ; 
Or, as the fire, which all materials burns. 
And wafted forefts into afh^ > turns. 
Grows more voracious, a ihc more it preys. 
Recruits dilate the fl.m;.;, r.nd fpread tlic 

blaze: 
So impious Eryjichthon's hu!;_cr raves. 
Receives refreftiments, and refrefhments 

craves. 
Food raifes a defire for food, nnd meat 
Is but a new provocative to eat. 
He grows more empty, as the more fupply'd. 
And endlefs cramming but extends the void. 

Vernon. 

Oviii tells us, in the fubfequcnt lines, that he 
off'ered alfo to proftitute his own daughter for 
fupport, as the reader will find by confulting the 
latter end of the bth book of ihc Melamorphofa. 



i62 THE HYMN TO CERES. 

" His pious mother had for Vefta fed, 

"^ The long well-pamper'd ox; the vi(ftor fteed, 

" Once glorious in the courfe and proud in war ; 155 

" And ev'n domeftic animals, become 

*' All viftims to his raging appetite." 

While ought the houfe of Triopas contain'd, 
His menial train alone the evil knew : 

But there exhaufted all^ when famine rag'd 160 

Thro' the deep defert palace, fad to view 
Beiide the public ways the fuppliant fate, 
A monarch's fon ! and ruefully intreats 
The fcraps and fordid refufe of each feaft ! 

Oh Ceres, ne'er be foe of thine my friend. 165 

Nor under roof with me ! th' unhallow'd wretch 

Thy 

Ver. 165. Oh Ceres, &c.] So in the facred Ja7ne roof, eating and drinking with publicans 

books we read, " An unjuft man is an abomi- ar\6/ifi?iers. 

nation to the juft, Prov. xxix. 27. And, Do Horace has a paflage in his 2d ode, 3d book, 

not I hate them, O Lord, that hate thee ? And immediately referring to tbefemyfteries of C^r«, 

am not I grieved with thofe that rife up againfl and the impiety of the man who profaned them 

thee ? I hate them with perfedl hatred : I count by divulging their inviolable fecrecy : 
them mine enemies, Pfal. cxxxix. 21. I had 

rather be a door-keeper in the houfe of my God, £/i i^ fidel'i, &c. 

than to dwell in the tents of w.ckednefs, Pfal. ^,^„^ treach'rous man, whofe fcoffing tongue 

Ixxxiv. 10, Innumerable pallages or the lame , ° ° 

fort are found in Scripture and from this fpring c.m''',ny.lerious rites and facred wavs, 

flowed all thofe notions of the ant.ents concern- ^^r^, hatred his loath'd prefence I'd Vefrain, 

mg the pollution ^c. ar.fmg Irom the prof.ne ^^^ ^^^^,^ ^^^ ,r ^^ j^- ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^ 

and enemies of the (jods : and hence the great j ■> 1 

indignation conceived againft our Lord by the 

formal pharifaical Jews, for being umUr the See the prophet Jonah chap. i. 



THE HYMN TO CERES. 

Thy hate incurring, juftly merits mine. 

Ye virgins fing, ye women join the fong, 

" Hail Ceres, fertile mother, rich encreafe, 

" And all-fufficing plenty are thy gifts." 

As to thy fhrine four milk-white courfers bear 

The facred Calathus, fo wheeling round 

Still favourable, Goddefs, lead along 

The varying feafons, fpring and fummer clad 

In milk-white robes, winter and autumn rich 



163 



170 



^75 
With 



Ver. f69. Hail, &c.] The reader will per- 
ceive that thefeare thefame with the lines ufed at 
thebeginn ngof the hymn, and make up part of 
the chorus fung hy the women, which ends at 
the 180th line. Some of the external ceremo- 
nies are here allegorifcd and explained to us, fo 
that we need fearch no further ; the facred my- 
fteries none were to divulge. The Ca'atbus 
was drawn by four milk-white courfers, bee :u''s 
white is the emblem of x\\s fclar as well as the 
lunar light : hence the fwan dedirated to Apollo, 
hy. to./f/)5//(j,n.g4..bence thefilver ho-w oi Diana, 
hy. to Diana, v. i6o. And becaufe the Sun and 
Moon moft t'xcrt their influence in the fpring and 
fui/.mer, therefore it is ohfervable, our author 
gives them, not autumn and winter, the epi- 
thet of Aeuxoj, zvhite. It is plain from Callima- 
chus, th?.t the cuftom of v/alking upon thi^ oc- 
cafion with their heads and feet bare and un- 
covered, was in atteftition of their full depsn- 
dance upon the deity they vvorfhipped for bodily 
proteiSion and defence. Some writers have fup- 
pofed, that this very general cuftom amongft 
the Crenti'e idolaters of wal'-.ing barefoot in their 
religious ferviccs, proceeded from Goers eom- 
mand to Mofes, Put off thy Jlioes from off thy 
feet, &c. ExocL iii. 5. " Hence the Da:mons, 
fays Jujlin Martyr, Apcl. a. p. 74. had their 
mimicry of requiring their priefts to enter their 



temples always barefoot : as the priefts obliged 
their people a!fo to do." But our learned 
countryman AJede fays, " I am prone to think, 
that thefe words unto Mofes gave not the firii 
beginnmg unto it, but were an admonition only 
of the divine prefence : thereby commanding 
the rite, then accuftomed in places fo hallowed : 
and that therefore it was rather as other reli- 
gious lites, derived unto the Gentiles by tradition 
from the Patriarchs before Mofes. See this 
learned writer's farther illuftrations on this 
cuftom, lib. 2. of hii works, § 3. p. 348. And 
certainly his opinion is confirmed by a great 
number of old prnfane authors, of whom it will be 
fufficient to inention only a few. According to 
famhlichus (de Fit. Pythag. c. iS.j it was a, 
rule in Pythagoras' i rubrick or precepts for di- 
vine vvorfhip, 0u.=:v Xf^ ANYnOAETON, ScC. Dif- 
calceate, c pull off ycur fljces before you approach 
the facred ordinances. And fo of Jpdlo'i prieft 
in FuUrius Flaccus, 

Delius hie long} candenti "vefte facerdos 

Ducit t5f adfluvios, & vincula folvcre monjirat 

Prima pedum. 

Silius Italicus fays of this, E lege parentt^m PES 
NUDUS, in the cafe of public calamity, i^c. 
See Bibliotheca Biblica, vol. 2. p. 30. 
V 2 



f64 THEHYMNTOCERES. 

With fruits ; and to the next preferve the year. 
As with uncover' d head and naked feet 
We trace the city, fo from harms fecure 
May we poffefs our bodies I Fill'd with gold 
As women bear the facred canifters, 
With the bright ore fo may our coffers fwell ! 
Far as the Prytaneum, let the pomp 
By women not admitted to the rites 
Moft fecret be attended : there receiv'd 
And uffier'd to the Goddefs, by thofe dames 
Moft venerable, who thrice twenty fprings 
Have feen returning : and let thofe oppreft 



i8o 



185 



By 



Ver. 179. FiWd with gold, &c.] It is plain 
from hence, that thefe facred Aix»a, or canifters, 
were filled with gold, as the Calathus or bafket 
was filled according to the poet, Spoliis agrejiibus, 
with the fpoils and fruits of the field : thefe con- 
fefledly contained the mylleries, and indeed we 
have different accounts of their contents : but 
from what our author fays, all here feems plain 
enough ; and, decyphered, thefe cercmanies fay 
no more than this, " That as Ceres was the 
giver of corn and encreafe, fo from thence pro- 
ceeded the riches and wealth of man." It is re- 
markable tiiai a AiKtot, a 'acred Cijia, Canifter, 
or whatever you chufc fo call it, was ufed alfo 
in the ceremonies of Bacchus, which was fur- 
rounded with ivy, and drawn by a ferpent, as is 
feen on fome antient coins : nav, this Cijia or 
Va'.nus was c mmon both to Bacchus and Ceres, 
Libera and Liberie, as Spa-heim obferves. A'lore- 
over, the fr th day of the f.Ieuftnian m)fteries 
was called Iaxx'5, lacchus or Bacchus, from 
lacchus the fon of Jupiter and 6V?w, who ac- 



companied the Goddefs in her fearch after Pro- 
ferptne, with a torch in his hand : whence his 
ftjtue always held a torch. How plain is all 
this myftery, when referred to nature, the Sun 
being ever the attendant of Ceres, the Moon, in 
her fearch after Profrpine, the vegetative part 
of nature? Archbifhop Potter, in confirmation 
of this, vol. I. p. 391. fiieuking of the officers 
uftd in the Eleuftnian mylteiies, fays, " The 
Hieraphantes had three affiftants, the firfl of 
which was called trom his oilice AaJs^^o;, i. e. 
torch hearer, and to him it was permitted to^ 
marry. '] he fecond wa> called K>!pt;|, of whofe 
office I have alrea !y given an' account. The 
third miniflred at the al-ar, and was for that 
reafon named O etti ru ^u^uu. Hierophantes is faid 
to have been a type of the great Creator of all 
things. AaJbx"?' o' 'he Sun. K>iff|, of Mer- 
cury ; and O ivt Tu ^ujUr of the AJoon.' — So 
that however juft this may be, which I dont 
undertake to defend, yet we plainly fee, they 
univerfally referred tliefe things to nature. 



THE HYMN TO CERES. 

By weight of years, by pregnancy or pangs 

Of foon-approaching child-birth, but attend 

Far as their feeble knees permit : on fuch 

Ceres as richly will her bleffings pour, 

As if they reach'd her temple ! Goddefs hail, 

In concord and profperity prefer ve 

This ftate : and from the fertile fields return 

Matureft plenty. Feed our flocks and herds ; 

Bring forth the corn, and happy harvefts give ; 

And peace, fair peace fupport, that the glad hand 

Who fow'd may reap his labour's happy fruit. 



165 



190 



195 



On 



Ver. 197. And peace, &c.] Ceres is no God- 
defs without peace, war levels all her produfti- 
ons, her gifts then are deftroyed, and flie ceafes 
to blefs mankind. So that no wonder the poet 
prays to fach a Goddefs for peace : It is ob- 
fervable that Bacchus too, or the Sun under this 
character, is applied to by the heathens for 
peace : nay, and is faid to love it. 

He loves wealth-giving Peace, a Goddefs the 
nourifher of men, fays Euripides : and on fomc 
antient coins we find Peace herfelt reprefented 
with the inftgnia of Ceres, with ears of corn 
round her head, in her bicalt, and hand : to 
whxh Tibullus doubtlefs alludes, when he fays, 

At nobis pax alma vcni, fpicamque teneto. 

Lib. I, El. 10. 

See Fpanheim's note. It hath been well ob- 
ferved, tliat the v^ords following in our author, 
that the glad hand, &c. are agreeable to Scrip- 
ture, and many profane writers. " They fliall 



build houfes and inhaBit them : and they fhall 
plant vineyards and eat the fruit of them, Ifai. 
Ixv. 2. Comp. Amos ix. 14. and Ezekiel xxxiv. 
26. 



Impius hac tamen culta, i^c. 

Says Virgil in his firft Eclogue. 

Did we for thefe barbarians plant and fow. 
On theie, on thefe our happy fields be- 

ftow? 
Good heav'n, what dire eftefts from civil 

difcord flow ! 

Dryden. 



1 



Here are the reafons why the poet begs the 
Goddefs to give peace ; 

Pace Ceres lata eji : l^ vos orate coloni 
Perpetuam paiCm, pacifcumque duccm. 

Ovid. Faft. lib. 4. 

Of this we fliail fee more in the Orphic hymn to 
Cens. 3 



i66 T H E H Y M N TO CERES. 

On me propitious fmile, queen thrice ador'd, 
Great emprefs, of all female pow'rs fupreme ! 



200 



Vcr. 199. On mi. Sec.) CtiUlnwchus con- 
cludes his hymns with a prayer to the Goildcls 
Ceres for hinifelf, l^aSi ftoi, be propitious to me ; 
have mercy on mc. lAaa-9>;T> f»oi, t ic words ot 
the publican's prayer in Luke xviii. 13. and this 
phrafe lAa9i /^oi, was very common with the 
heathens. The poet honours his Goddefs with 
very high appellations. 

Thrice adored^ great queen of the GoddelTes : 
Avhich expreilioii Spanhehn thinks means no more 
than great queen of the number of the Goddef- 
f.s : by a like manner of fpeaking wi;h Ai« yu- 
taiiwv, fanSla dearum, isV. and yet he produces a 
remarkable paffage from Euripides, where the 
poet calls her, ©<* attwi-xm aioLiraa,-, Goddefs the 
queen of all ; with remarkable fimilitude to our 
i iithor. Hence (he is always Mr.ro^, mother, 
Aiji; ■ar»//fiDT«f«, Ceres the inother of all, as in the 



Z)rphichyinn to her, to which I refer the reader; 
obfcrving lallly, that (he was called rpiXAirt, thrice 
adored, qucs ter vocata audis (fa\'s Horace) in 
reference to that threcfoldpowerof wliich I fpoke, 
note 10. Hence in ode 22. lib. 3. Horace ceWs 
her Diva triformis, and Virgil, 

Tergcminamque Hecaten, tria virginis ora 
Diancs. 

Hence the old epigram, 

I'crret, lujlrat, agit,Proferpina, Luna, Diana, 
Ima,fuprema,feras : fceptro, fulgore, fagittd.' 

No wonder CalUmachus, upon this view, calls 
her //.sya Kfetisaa. Qcccur, great queen of the Gpd- 
deffes ; fmce into this power, as it feems, well 
nigh all the other Goddefles may be rcfolved, 
who are only parts and attributes of this great 
triform Diana. 



End of the Hymns ^j/Callimachus. 



SELECT EPIGRAMS 



AND THE 



COMA BERENICES 



O F 



CALLIMACHUS. 



THE 



Encomium of Ptolemy by Theocritus, 



AND 



Six HYMNS of Orpheus 



T O 



JUPITER 

JUNO 

APOLLO 



DIANA 

PALLAS 

CERES. 



SELECT 



EPIGRAMS. 




I. 

O R counfel fage to Pittaciis the wife 
With doubts perplext an am'roiis youth appHes : 
**' Dread fire, two virgins covet my embrace, 
*' The hrft my equal both in wealth and race : 
" In each fuperior fhines the fecond fair : 
*' Which (hall I wed — where fix, oh tell me, where ?" 
He fpoke ; the fage, his footfteps faithful friend 
Uprearing, cry'd, " Lo thofe thy doubts will end, 



(( 



Fak 



c 



SeJeSi Epigrritns, &c.] I liave given the rea- 
der a few of our author's Epigrams, as they 
are excellent in their kind, and as afpecimen of 
the fimplicity of the Greek Epigram : which we 
are to remember in its lull original intent was 
no more than irr/fa^/fia, an infcriptiou, " De 
hijioria Epigrammatis £3' arigine turn rei turn voc's, 
heec accepimus, confuejje antiques Jiatiiis Deorum 
& heroum infcriptiones quafdam breves tnfcul- 
fere, qua: t-nrtyfafat iS nnyixiiiiaTa nominohantur, 
i^c." Thii5 Dr. Trrt//), in his Pra'u^. Poctica, 



Prcsl. \2ma ; where the reader will find a com- 
plate diflei tation on the fubjeiEl. The word 
Epigram, and the fpecies of poetry going under 
that name, rendered it neccflavv to obfcrve tlijs, 
at the entrance of thefe litt'e pocins of our au- 
thor, which moderns would r;aher call mijcella- 
77ec!is, than ctigramtnatictd. Tliere is a rexnuilc- 
abic pafiage quoted by Madam Ducier from the 
fcholiaft upon JEfchylus, which would almoil 
incline one to believe, that this firft Epigram of 
our author's was founded on a real flory. The 
Z reader 



lyo' SELECT EPIGRAMS. 

" Take their advice — " and pointed to the throng 

That urg'd the fpinning top with fmacking thong :. 

Attentive to their words the youth drew nigh 

And oft, " Take one, one equal," heard them cry : 

Whence warn'd he fled the loftier beauty's charms, 

And took the equal maiden to his arms. 

A choice like his in wifdom wou'd you make, 

So you, my friend, to wife an equal take. 

II. 

SA Y, honeft Timon, now efcap'd from light, 
Which do you moft abhor, or that or night ? 
" Man, I moft hate thefe gloomy fliades below, 
*' And that becaufe in them are more of you." 



III. 



reader will find it in the Variorum or Gravius's From ev'ry flroke flies humming o'er the 
edition of CalUmachus. Horace fpeaks of the ground, 

inequality of Telephiis to fecure his humbler And gr.ins new fpirit as the blows go round. 
P/;y//V to hmifelf, Pitt. 

JI/flr//i7/ has an Epigram (lib. 8. 12.) to the 
Telephum ^^^^ purpofe with our author : 

Nan tuae iortis juvencm, 

Od. II. 1. 4. You aflc, why I refufe to wed. 

Good friend, a very wea'thy maid ? 
Virgil has this elegant fimile on the boyifh Becaufe to my own wife, d'ye fee, 
/port mentioned in the Epigram : On no account I'd married be : 

For fure, unlefs inferior is the fair, 
Ceu quoficlam, Wf. The wife and hufband never equal are. 

C^,'//;«flf/jw feems to advife rather more wifely 
So the gay firiplings lafh in eager fport than Martial : fince, why men fhould marry 

Atop, in giddy circles, round a court: equally, is plain and reafjnable enough 1 but 

In rapid lings it wliirls and fpins aloud, why the wife fhould be inferior, is not eafy to 

Admir'd with rapture by the blooming crowd : determine. Sec the ChiUach oiErafmus, p. 1 1 46. 



SELECT EPIGRAMS. 



171 



III. 

A SHELL, bright Venus, wonder of the fea, 
-*• -^ Fair Selenasa dedicates to thee : 
And the firfl tribute, which the maid cou'd give, 
Me, little Nautilus, dread queen, receive : 
Who o'er the waves, when blew propitious gales, 
With my own cable ftretch'd my proper fails : 
" My legs as oars extending on each fide, 
*' Hence call'd a Polyp in my pearly pride :" 



The 



Epigram III.] For the trandation of this 
Epigram, and the remarks upon it, I am 
obliged to my worthy friend, that curious anti- 
quary, Maur'iceJohnfon,Y^{(\; " 0/>/i/fl«'s defcrip- 
tion of this fifli referred to by Mr. Pope in his 
EJJoy on Man-, 

• 

(Learn of the little Nautilus to fail. 
Spread the thin oar, and catch the dri\ing 
gale) 

may fomo what illuftrate this Epigram. 

Within a curious concave fhell conceal'd 
There lies a -fifh, whofe wond'rous form re- 

veal'd, 
The Polyp much refembleth ; rightly he's 
A failor call'd, by fuch as ufe the feas : 
Refiding on the (and at bottom there, 
"Si'et rifmg fometimes to the open air : 
Seeking the furface quick reverts his fliell, 
],efi: wat'iy weight his energy repel ; 
But foon as, Jwpbitrite, he can gain 
The wave fuperior in thy noify niain, 
Jnilaut he turns himfelf and fwims no more, 
l^it feems as failing wafted tow'rds the fhore : 
Stretches his limbs, like tackling fome applies, 
^Vith fome the ftr^ani like bufy oars he plies : 



Expands his membranes as a gath'ring fail, 
(So fpread our oars, and fo we catch the gale) 
The Sun thro' thinner medium views more fair. 
And for variety takes frefher air. 
But if o'er head the hov'ring ofprey fly. 
Or other danger threaten, e'er too nigh 
The wary nautil ftrait with prudent fpeed, 
Diav.'s in his tackle, weightier drops fucceed, 
And filling fave fecure tlie fubtile ilfli. 
Him finking downward to his deep abyfs : 
Hence were we told in hollow barks to fail, 
And learn to fpread the oars, and catch trie 
gale." 

Mr. John/on refers to Dr. Gniv, in his catalogue, 
of the Royal Society's Phfaunly and ' to Ai- 
drovayidu:, as nic.lt full of an.y author, on this 
molt curious article. 

The fubjjct of this Epigram, we are to ob- 
ferve, is the dtdication of a Nautilus taken in 
the ifland Cos hy Seknaa, daugJncr of 6T«w, 
a nobleman of Smyrna, to Fenas Zephyritis, that 
is, Jr/ince, the mother of Berenice, who^ had 
divine honours paid to her, and was ca'led l'er,iis, 
Zeplyritis, Cypris, &c. See Ci/;:a Berenices, at' d^y- 
Lncomium of ttoUniy, 
Z 2 



172 SELECT EPIGRAMS. 

The cabinet of Arlinoe to adorn 

I to the Coan coaft at length was borne. 

No more for me to fl:im the filent flood, 

O'er thy cahii offspring, gentle Halcyon, brood : 

But be that grace for Clinias' daughter found ; 

The maid is worthy, and from Smyrna bound. 

IV. 
A YOUTH, who thought his father's wife 
Had loft her malice with her life, 
Officious with a chaplet grac'd 
The ftatue on her tomb-ftone plac'd : 
When, fudden falling on his head, 
With the dire blow it ftruck him dead : 
Be warn'd from hence, each fofter-fon, 
Your ftep-dame's fepulchre to fhun. 

V. 

IN facred fleep here virtuous Saon lies ; 
'Tis ever wrong to fay a good man dies. 



VI. 



Epigram W.'\ For the tranflation of this Epi- ladies are much indebted for his poem, greatly 
gram I am obliged to my ingenious friend Mr. to their honour, of the Femincad. 
Dwufmbe of Bcnnet in Cambridge ; to whom the 



SELECT EPIGRAMS. 



^11 



VI. 

T X 7 H A T mortal of the morrow can be fure, 

So frail is man, and life fo infecure ? 
But yefterday we faw our living friend ; 
And on the morrow to the grave attend : 
A heavier lofs hath never parent known, 
For never parent had a better fon. 

VII. 
"IT T O U ' D God, no fliips had ever croft the fea, 

' ^ Then, Sopolis, we had not wept for thee : 
Then no wild waves had toft thy breathlefs frame, 
Nor we on empty tombs engrav'd thy name. 



VIII. 



Epigram VII. Would God, &c. ] Horace 
greatly admires the hardinefs of the man, who 
firft put out to fea : his lines may give life to 
oiirauthor : 



Illi rohur & aj triplex, isfc. 



Od. 



Sure he who fIrft the paflage try'd, 
In harden'd oak his heart did hide, 
And ribs of iron arm'd his fide. 
Or his at leaft, in hollow wood 
Who tempted firft the hriny flood ; 
Nor fear'd the winds contending roar, 
Nor billows beating on the fbore ; 



Nor Hyadis portending rain. 
Nor all the tyrants of the main. 
What form of death could him affright. 
Who unconcern'd, with fleadfaft fight, 
Cou'd view the fnrges mounting fteep. 
And monflers rolling in the deep : 
Oould thro' the ranks of ruin go, 
With ftorms above, and rocks below ? 
In' vain did nature's wife command 
Divide the waters from the land. 
If daring fhips and men prophane 
Invade th' inviolable main, 
Th' eternal fences overleap 
And pafs at will the boundlefs deep. 

Dryden. 



174 SE LE CT E PIG R A MS. 

VIII, 
"^"TTHOE'ER thou art, that to this tomb draw nigh, 

Know, here interr'd the fon and fire I lie 
Of a Callimachus : illuftrious name, 
By each ennobled, and renown'd in fame : 
The fire was glorious 'midft the warlike throng. 
The fon fuperior to all envy fung : 
Nor is it ftrange, for whom the Nine behold, 
When young with -favour, they regard when old. 

IX. 

H Sun, faid fam'd Cleombrotus, adieu, 
And from the rock himfelf triumphant threw : 
Not courting death, by burd'ning ills oppreft, "^ 

But reading Plato, his enlarged breaft '). 

Long'd to partake his fouFs immortal rePi. 

X. 

^T~^ O Violanta conftant love 

-^ Fond Callis-notus iio-hino; fwore : 

Pie vow'd that none his heart fliou'd move, 
riis heart, tiiat ne'er fhou'd vary more. 

Ep:gra?n Vlil.] See the account of the author's, life. 




J 



He 



SELECT EPIGRAMS, 175 

He fwore indeed : but oaths, they fay, 

Which languifhing young lovers fwear, 
To heav'n did never make their way, 

Cou'd never reach immortal ear ! 
For now he burns with other fires, 

And wretched Violanta fcorns, 
Who, while new love his heart infpires. 

Unnoted quite complains and mourns. 

XI. 

^^ H O R T was the time on thee, O earth, I fpent, 

^^-^ With little bleft, and yet with that content : 

Friend to no crimes, to no good man a foe, 

I come : nor you, ye pow'rs, that rule below. 

If fandlion ever to a crime I gave. 

Be juft ; nor, earth, lie light upon my grave. 

XII. 

P I C E D E S, defying frofts and fnows, 

Hunts o'er the mountains and his game purfues : 

But 

Epigram X. He fwore, &c. ] So Tihullus fays. The hunter does his eafe forego, 

Perjurla ridet amantum And lies abroad in frolt and fnow, 

Juppiter, y ventos irrita ferre jubet. Unmindful of his tender wiff, 

cv , u . 1 • • And all the foft delights of life, isV. 

Jove laughs at lovers perjuries, ° 

And ^ives them to the winds. c ur ^ /-\ i t i_ -.iin 

° oee Horace s Udcs, &c. by eminent hands, roets 

Epigram XII.] Horace, in his firfl Ode, and lovers all agree, that T/;c/; w/ /^^/ w;7//j// 

fpeaks of this particular ; without Jhaking, is by far too mellow. 

3 




"\ 



176 SELECT EPIGRAMS. 

But give him, what you will, already ilain, 
Tlie game he fcorns, and fends it back again : 
Such is my love : I court the fair that flies, 
Eiut eafy conquefts with proud fcorn defpife. 

XIII. 
•^ ALLIMACHUS takes up this part of earth, 
^-^ A man, much fam'd for poefy and mirth. 

XIV. 

^ I ^ H E Lydian warriour, Goddefs, gives to you 

His empty quiver and his ufelefs bow ; >■ 

His arrows he hath given to the foe ! j . 

XV. 

T" Tj" A L F of my life I yet pofTefs, 
The other half is flown : 
To love or death— I cannot guefs, 
But certainly, it's gone. 

Ah 

Epigram 15.] ^, Catn'us, an old Latin poet, 1 doubt not, but the EngUft) reader will readily 

hath elegantly imitated (I niiglit fay, irtfn/7a/^^_j pardon my appl) ing thtfe love ftoiies to the 

this little poem of our author's ; ladies, rather than boys, as in the original, in 

Jufugit mi animus ^credo^ ittfolet, adTheoiimum the love cf whom we furcly cm fee nothing but 

Devenit ; fic fjl ; perf- giumilludhabet. what is fliocking, dctL-ftable, diabolical: and 

^■■idft non interdixan ne Ilium fiigitiviim muft with forrow behold the grofs ftate of the 

Ailtieretadfe intro;fcdmagii ejiceret? heathens, who could thmk fuch a praftice fo 

Ihlmu' qwrfitum. Fa-umne ipji tem-amur honourable as to be reno-^ned in > .^ / 

Formido. ^I'd ago f Da yenu' confilium. 



SELECT EPIGRAMS. 177 

Ah me, I fear to that lov'd maid 

The fugitive draws nigh, 
From whom fo frequently I bade 

The flutt'ring fool to fly : 
For well alas — too well I know, 

What ufage there 'twill prove : 
In fcorn return'd, befet with woe, 

And murder'd half with love ! 

XVI. 
"^"T 7 H E N Archeftrata, beauteous fair, 

Firft rofe upon my fight ; 
I faw no mighty charms in her, 

And thought her beauty light : 
I faid — (and troth I thought it true. 

When Nemefis, quite raging, 
Obferv'd my words, and book'd them too) 

" She w^as not fo engaging." 
But quick in vengeance of my fcorn, 

A fudden change I prove : ... 

And as again I gaze, I burn. 
And all my foul is love ! 

A a Shall 




178 S E L E C V E P I G R A M S. f 

Shall I for this affront appeafe 

The maid or Deity ? 
Ah, fair one, thee cou'd I but pleafe, 

What's Nemefis to me ? 

XVII. 

On Berenice the wife of Ptolemy. 
OUR are the Graces, with the former three 
Another lately has obtain'd a place : 
In all things bleft, bright Berenice, thee. 

Without whofe charms the Graces have no grace. 

XVIII. 
^T 7 H O E ' E R thou art that on the defart fhores, 

Leontichus has found, he lays to reft 5 
While his own life of peril he deplores, 

With fweet repofe, oh never, never bleft : 
Condemn'd to travel o'er the watry plain, 
And, like the cormorant, rove about the main. 

COMA 

Epigram XVII.] There is an Epigram in the 
Anthologia, exadtly fimilar to this j Epigram XVIII.] For a pleafing commentary 

n on this, read the beautiful 28th Ode of the 

«► x«f^'5 Tf«! EiT.- ff w »» ^ta T*ij Tfiiri KMctn J j^ ^^qqJ, ^f ij^race. 



COMA BERENICES: 



O R, 



The Lock of Berenice. 



• The trejjes Mgypfs princefs wore. 

Which fweet Callimachus fo Jung before. 

Parnell. 



HE, who with curious and enlarged eye 
Survey'd the fplendid glories of the fky ; 
Who found how ftars to rife and fetting run, 
How {hades obfcure the brightnefs of the Sun : 
At certain times how certain ftars decay ; 
And how foft love from her aerial way 



Wheel 



s 



Coma Berenices, 5cc.] The original Greek of 
this poem is loft, and what v/e now have is only 
a tranflation of it in Latin by Catullus : it is 
generally efteemed very excellent, its politei:efs 
and elegancy being much admired. VcJJitis favs, 
f'ix elegaiitius carinenRon.ano ferrnonefcriptum. Dr. 
Bcntley has collecSled what remains of the Greek, 
which the learned reader will find, vol. i, p. 434. 
of Gravius his edition of our author. There 
are very many critical enquiries concerning the 
Latin verfion, which I do not think myfelf 
obliged to confider : as my intention is only to 
give the reader a tranflation, as near the fenfe 
as we can be fuppofed to come : Critics will 
fiiid room enou"h to exert their faculties and 



difplay their acumen by confulting Vcjfuis, 
who hath given an edition of Catullus : after 
confidering their feveral remarks, I have en- 
deavoured to exprei's what appeared to me the 
author's true meaning. 

\'cv. 6. From her aerial, 5.:c.] Gyro aerio — 
" We may learn from hence (fays a learned 
friend) that the antients, contrary to the opi- 
nion of modern philofophers, imagined that the • 
air was extended thro' the coclf-ftial region?, as 
far as, or perhaps beyond the hxL ftars. 1 hus 
Horace aerias tenlaJJ'e dorms, ts'c. See alfo Tully 
de Nat. Deorum, lib. 2. Perhaps this notion 
mi<Tht be founded v>n the orignal revelation. 
Vid Gen. i. 1 7. and Mar. ver. 6. 

A a 2 



i8o COMA BERENICES. 

Wheels gentle Trivia, in her nightly charms, 

To flolen pleafures and Endymion's arms : 

ME, that fame Conon, in the fkies furvey'd 

The ihining Lock from Berenice's head : lo 

Which fond fhe promis'd to the pow'rs above, ") 

What time, her hands uprais'd, with heav'n £he ftrove, )• 

For her dear king, juft happy in her love, J 

To battles hurried, and feverer fights, 

From fofter wars, and hymeneal rites. 15 

Is Venus, then, to other loves fo true, 

To virgins only, and to brides a foe : 

And feign' d or real are thofe fighs and tears. 

Which damp the parent's blifs with tender fears ? 

Which, when approaching to the nuptial bed, 20 

The blufhing virgins in abundance fhed ? 

In 

Ver. 12. Her hands uprais'd, &c.] Proten- hands, as an act of religious worfhip, which was 

dens brachia. — Upon which the fame ingenious generally performed (as in the pafTigs before 

friend remarks, " This part of religious wor- us) when they prayed for deliverance from dan- 

fliip, though fo often mentioned by the heathen ger or adverfity, they did by that emhlematicaJ 

writers, is generally quite overlooked by com- a£tion exprefs their belief that their Gods had 

mentators, or but lamely accounted for. The power to deliver them, or that they had no 

origin of it feems to be this. The hand is, no power to help themfelves but what was derived 

doubt, a very proper emblem of power in gene- from them. Thus JEneas in a florm is de- 

ral. Hence the hand in Scripture is frequently fcribed by VirgH, dupUcis tendens ad fidera pal- 

afcribed to God as well as the eye and ear ; 7nas. The reajon why they held their hands 

hence 'f?rix^f^<^> and fuch words derived from x^^, upwards rather than downwards, or in any other 

are ufed m Greek for all atten.pt^ bodily and particular pofture, was, becaufe the heathens 

mental, and hence t/tanus in Latin for power univerfally worfhipped either the heavens them,- 

and force of any fort. See Littleton s Diflionary. felves, or fame intelligencies refident therein. 
When therefore the heathens lifted up their 



COMA BERENICES. i8i 

In troth thofe tears by no means are fincere : 
And thofe foft fighs, the fighs of hope, not fear : 
So taught experience, when I heard my queen, 
True virgin-Hke, in tim'rous fort complain : 25 

When furious rufh'd the bridegroom to her arms, 
Love's war to wage, and fpoil her virgin charms. 

But you, whate'er your maiden fighs might fay, 
Sincerely wept your hufband torn away : 

And on your lonely pillow truly fhed 30 

A flood of forrow for your lover fled : 
What anxious fondnefs then your bofom prov'd, 
How much you languifl:i'd, and how much you lov'd ! 
Where then, my queen, was all that courage flown, 
Which Berenice from a child had fhown ? 35 

And quite forgot was that illuflrious deed. 
By which you mounted the imperial bed : 

Greater 

Ver. 22. In troth, &c.] Similar hereto is Ver. 36. that illujlriatis d.ird, &c.] The aifl 

what i)ur foft poet Rowe delivers in his Fair of courage, and the bonum facinm licrc alluded 

Penitent. to, is thus recorded by Hjginus, in Poctica 

rj^, ■ • V -J L r -^L J II r Aftronomico. c. 24. " There are other feven 

The virG;in bride who fwoons with deadly fear, // .-, 7.i- 1 i- »■ 1 

^ r \ jruu n, "ars at the tail of the lion, placed in a triangle, 

J o fee the end 01 all her wilhes near : ,u/> 1 •• c <> 1 

,,,, 11 n- c ^u /• L^ J Li- 1 which Go«a7, a mathematician of iiainos, ana 

When blulhino; from the light, and publick ,, „• ; . n i r ;. i- p ■ . 

° b y V tallunachus the poet call the Lock ot bcremce ; 

/T^ ^L ' , • J .. r ^1 • u»/v fl- for when Ptolemy married Bcrerice, h.s filler. 

To the kind covert of tne ni^rht (he flies : . 1 l r A 1 j f r i- 1 

•.Tr., I c . .LI, the daughter of P/«/(7/2y and /Ay/Wt, a tew da5-s 

With equal nretomeet thebr;de";room moves, ^ ,°. . , . ^ ,,-', • ^/ 

,,, 1. ■ u • I -.u 1 r n, 1 after their nuptials he was called to war in /yw. 

Melts in his arms and with a loofe Ihe loves. u u d ■ t .i,^, ;f k» Ai/mU 

upon which Beraucf vowed, that iJ he Ihould 

return 



i82 COM A BE RE N I C E S. 

Greater than which no female ever dar'd, 
As meed more happy never female fhar'd ? 

But when about to part, what words you fpoke, 40 

From your foft lips what love enamour'd broke ? 
How oft you fighing told your doubts and fears, 
And dew'd his hands with kilTes and with tears ? 
What God cou'd change you thus ? or was it hence, 
That with each other lovers ill difpenfe ? 45 

' Fwas then you made a folemn vow to heav'n, 
*' Shou'd to your arms your prince again be giv'n, 
** That I lov'd Lock, with blood of goats, fliou'd prove 
" A willing prefent to the pow'rs above." 

They heard your vow, and quickly to your arms j^o 

Reflor'd your hero with encreafe of charms, 
His cheeks frefh flufli'd with vidlory's bright glow. 
And Afia's laurels verdant on his brow ! 

For 

return vicSlorious, fhe would cut off this lock : Berenice was ufcd to breed horfe=;, and fend 
which happtning agreeable to her vow, ftie them to the Olympic games. They moreover 
placed the condemned lock in the temple of add, that Ptolemy., the i\\iher of Berenice, being 
Fenus Arftnoe Zephyritis : which the next day terrified by the multlmde of his enemies, fought 
was not to be found. Hereupon C'o;;o/' the ma- fafety by flight: upon which his daughter, as 
thema.ician dtfigning to get into the king's good flie was often ufcd, leap.rd upon an horfe, mar- 
graces, faid, that tlie loci was feen placed fluilled the forces, killed very many of the 
among the ftars, and accordingly fhewed thefe enemy, and put the reft to flight , for which 
feven ftars, which he pretended to be the lock, aftion Callimachus here calls her of ^W courage 
Some, v/ith CaUimachus, have faid, that this and magnanimity." 



COMA BERENICES. 183 

For this your vow difcharging, 'midft the hoft 

Of heav'n, I gain'd an honourable pofl; ! 55 

From your dear head unwilling I withdrew, 
Unwilling — fwear I by that head and you : 
Who fwears in vain fhall dreadful vengeance feel ;— 
But what, what's equal to all-conqu'ring fteel ! 
By that o'erthrown, the mightiefl mountain lay, 60 

O'er which bright Sol diredls his fiery way : 
By that great Athos felt the rufhing flood 
Bear thro' its parted fides the Perfian crowd : 
And when fharp fteel can fuch dread force fubdue, 
Ah, what can Lady's Locks defencelefs do ? 65 

Perifli, good God, dire fteel's deftrudive race; 
And him, who firft dare earth's dark bowels trace, 
So fell a mifchief from its feat to bring. 
And handle fuch a hard death-doing thing ! 

As 

Ver. 59. But 7vhat, &c.] Mr. Pope, in his Steel cou'd the works of mortal pride con- 

Rape of the Lock, has the following lines, Cant. iii. found, 

V. 171. And hew triumphal arches to the ground ! 

What wonder then, fair nymph, thy hairs 

What time wou'd fpare, from fteel receives ftiould feel 

its date, The conqu'ring force of unrefilled fteel ? 
And monuments like men fubmit to fate : 

Steel cou'd the labour of the Gods deftroy, In the 6ift line I follow Dr. Bciitley^s infer- 

And ftrilce to duft th' imperial tow'rs oiTroy, pretation, which appears jndifputably ri.lit. 



i84 COMA BERENICES. 

As my hard hap, from my companions torn, 70 

My fifler Locks in friendly forrow mourn, 

Flutt'ring his airy pinions thro' the fkies, 

Adown the gently -breathing Zephyr flies : 

(The gentle Zephyr from great Memnon fprings, 

And bears Ariinoe's mandates on his wings : 75 

He took and bore me thro' the realms of air, "| 

To the chafte bofom of that virtuous fair, j. 

Whom Venus liccns'd her own name to bear.- J 

For fuch was Zephyritis' kind intent. 

When thus her winged mefl'enger fhe fent, 80 

To thofc fweet fliores, where once delighted rov'd 

Her beauteous daughter with the nymphs fhe lov'd : 

That not amid ft the ftarry track alone 

Shou'd brightly glitter Ariadne's crown : 

But that we too, the heav'n-devoted hair, 85 

With o-olden luftre mio;ht adorn the air. 

From ocean wet, by her kind aid I rife 

To the great temple of the Gods, the fkies. 

And 

Vcr. 74. Arftnol\ &c.] See Epigram 3d. and Fields, or coeleftial manfions, were fuppofed to 

the Encomium of P/a'fOTj'. pafs through the ocean, {o CaHimachus feigns 

Ver. 86- From Ocean wet, &c.] As departed the Lock of Berenice to have been carried to the 

fouls before they could arrive at the Elyfsan heavens wet with the ocean's waters. Vojftus. 

3 



COMA BE R E NICE S. 185 

And by lier guidance to my place repair, 

Amidft the ftars to fhine a fellow ftar. 90 

Juft by the Virgin and the Lion plac'd 

I lead the flow Bootes to the weft, 

Who tardy rolls along his lab'ring wain, 

And fcarce, tho' late, flow flnks into the main. 

But tho' fuch honour and fuch place is mine, 95 

Tho' nightly preft; by Gods and feet divine : 
To hoary Tethys tho' with light reftor'd, 
Thefe — let me fpeak, — and truth defend the word : 
Thou too, Rhaninuflan virgin, pard'ning hear, ^ 

For I muft fpeak ; flnce neither force nor fear >ioo 

Can make me cover what I fo revere : J 

Not tho' enrag'd the pow'rs on high fhou'd rife, 
Revenging tear and hurl me from the fkies ! 
All thefe — bear no proportion to the pain 

Of fatal final abfence from my queen. 105 

With whom while yet an unexperienc'd maid, 
I fliar'd fuch unguents, on her lovely head ! 

Haste, happy maids, whom Hymen's bonds have join'd, 
To the dear choice and partner of your mind, 

B b In 



i86 COMA BERENICES. 

In box of alabafter grateful bear 1 1 o 

The pleafing gifts to Berenice's hair : 

Before your trembling hands withdraw the veft 

From the foft beauties of your throbbing breaft. 

Such gifts alone let charter matrons pay ; 

But be th'adultrefs and impure away : i r ^ 

Their impious prefents let the dufl receive, 

I fcorn the wretches, and each boon they give ! 

But you, ye virtuous, as with duteous care 

Your queen you honour, and her Lock revere, 

Concord and peace fhall ever fmile around, 120 

And all your days with faithful love be crown'd ! 

You too, my queen, when Venus {hall demand, 
On folemn feafls due off 'rings from your hand ; 
When, lifting up to heav'n your pious eyes, 
Bright on your view your once lov'd Lock fhall rife ; 1 25 

Then let fweet unguents your regard exprefs, 
And with large gifts, as you efteem me, blefs \ 
Ah, why, amidft the ftars muft I remain ? 
V/ou'd God, I grew on thy dear head again ! 

Take 



COMA BERENICES. 187 

Take heav'n who wou'd, were that wifh'd pleafure mine, 130 
Orion's felf might next Hydrochous fhine ! 



Ver. 131. Orion's, &c.] " I wifh, faith the 
Lock, I might be reftored again to the head, 
whence I was taken ; Orion then for me might 
be next Hydracbous, although now fo remote 
from each other ; and I cared not, if the whole 
order and fituation of the heavens were invert- 
ed, fo be I were reftored to my former place. 
Orion is joined with Hydrochous very properly, 
fince the one is cfteemcd no Icfs rainy than the 
other ; as much as to fay, that regarding not 
the heaven, this Lock could very readily permit, 
that the two moft watry conftellations fhould be 
joined together, that all things might again 
perifh in a deluge, if it could only be reunited 
to its beloved head. I'ojfius. 

I give Mr. Pope's conclufion of his Rape 
of the Lock, as an agreeable illuftration of our 
poet : 

Eut truft the Mufe, flie faw * it upwards 

rife, 
Tho' mark'd by none but quick poetic eyes : 
(So ^ew/s great founder to the heav'ns witli- 

drew. 
To Proculus alone confefs'd in view.) 
A fudden ftar it fhot thro' liquid air. 



And drew behind a radiant trail of hair. 
Not Berenice's Lock's firft rofe fo bright. 
The heav'ns befpangling with diflievell'd light. 
The Sylphs behold it kindling as it flies, 
And pleas'd purfue its progrefs thro' thefkies; 

This the Beau-?nonde (hall from the mall 
furvey. 
And hail with mufic its propitious ray : 
This the bieft lover ftalF for Venus take. 
And fend up vows from Rofamonda's lake : 
This Partridge foon (hall view in cloudlefs 

(kies. 
When next he looks thro' Galileeo's eyes : 
And hence th' egregious wizard fhall foredoom. 
The fate of Louis, and the fall of Rome. 
Then ceafe, bright nymph ! to mourn thy 

ravifh'd hair. 
Which adds new glory to the (hining fpherc ! 
Not all the trelTes that fair head can bjaft, 
Shall draw fuch envy as the Lock )'ou loll. 
For, after all the murders of vour eye. 
When, after millions flain, yourfelf fhall die ; 
When thofe fair Suns fhall fct, a? fetthey muil. 
And all thofe trefles fliall be laid in dufc. 
This Lock the Mufe fhall confecrate to fame-. 
And midft the ftars iiifcribe 5^//W(7's name. 



The L:ck. 



B b 



T H E 



( i88 ) 



T H E 



ENCOMIUM of Ptolemy, 



BEING THE 



XVII Idyllium of Theocritus. 



WI T H Jove begin, and end the fong with Jove^ 
Ye Mufes, wou'd ye of immortals fing 
The beft, the greateft ; if of mortals, firft. 
And midft, and laft, let Ptolemy adorn 
The facred fong \ for he of men is nobleft. 



The Encomium, &c.] The following piece is 
as remarkable an inftance, as can well be pro- 
duced, of the amazing lengths to which flattery 
and adulation may carry men. We fee the 
father, mother, and their fon alfo, by the ad- 
drefs of our poet, enrolled aniongft the Gods: 
but to fay the truth, the whole blame muft not 
be thrown upon Theocritus, fince this deifying of 
thefe venerable perjonages was a publick att : 
and as fuch, gives us as good a pidure of na- 
tural religion as can be defircd, {hewing in very 
(rlaring colours, what were ils effects and power 
even "amongft: the moft polite and civilized 
people ! 

Ver, 4. Him firjl, &c.] Milton, in his moll 



5 
Heroes, 



beautiful hymn, Par. LoJ?, b. 4. ver. 165, has 
imitated and greatly improved our poet : 

On earth join all the creatures to extol 
Him firft, him laft, him midft, and wiihaut 
end ! 

and I cannot but recommend the conclufion of 
that hymn ; a compjrifon of which, with all 
that ever heathen poet wrote in the fame way, 
will fhew the manifeft fuperiorfty of the Biitllh 
Bard : 

Hail univerfal Lord, be bounteous Itili, 
To give us only good : and if the night 
Have gathcr'd ought of evil, or conceaFd, 
Difperfc it, as now light difpels the dark. 



THE ENCOMIUM OF PTOLEMY. 189 

Heroes, of race immortal, erft obtain'd 

Wife bards, their glorious adlions to record : 

But thou, my Mufe, for well thou know'ft to fing, 

Shalt hymn illuftrious Ptolemy : and hymns 

Are of the Gods themfelves the honour'd meed. lO 

To Ida's top approach'd with forefts clad, 

Amidft fuch plenty hefitating looks 

The woodman round, where firft to fix the blow ; 

So, where fhall I begin ? Ten thoufand themes 

Of praife at hand to crowd th' applauding verle, 15 

Wherewith the Gods have crown'd the beft of kings, 

Ev'n from his anceftors ! Like Lagides, 

Thofe mighty plans, which other mind than his 

Cou'd ne'er have form'd, where other cou'd be found 

Nobly to execute? Him the fire of Gods :iTimi 20 

Hath equal'd with th' immortals, and in heav'n 

A golden dome beftow'd : near which the wife 

And 

Ver. II. To Ida's, &c.] Tn an elegy on the Ver. 22. The wife. Sec] I read in this place 

death of the Prince of fFci/es, 1 alluded to this aioXoftura?, with Heinfius and Cajaubon. Horace 

beautiful fimile, pnys the fame court and adulation to JuguJIus, 

1 , r c ruri r j whom he m.ikes an nfTe-JJor with the Gods, and 

In deep fulpcncc fuch lolemn icenes around , ^ , . . -'. -y, ,.,u;.-k TV,^. 

,o',^ rn. 1,1, r apartiikcrof their loial banquets; which i *(■:- 

1 (tand, w,iere nrlt to touch the lyre of woe: '. ,, , , ' f .kl, p> -,'„.,« ^c vu.-U 

. , - ,. , . 't ] i-r//w tells uf, Ins hero s lather r/5,wy, as wlU 

As leaning on his ax, where trees abound, , , ,, j, , ...„,„ 

The woodman doubts where fird to fix the ^^ ''^^' S""^^^ '^^^'"J'^'* ^^'"^''"^'"' ' ^'''' 

blow. H^^ 



I90 THE ENCOMIUM OF PTOLEMY. 

And dread deftroyer of the Perfian race 

Holds fecial habitation : oppofite 

Of firmeft adamant compadl, the dome < 25 

Of fam'd Alcides flands ; he, as he fliares 

With heav'n's bleft habitants the joyous banquet, 

Triumphs his great defcendants to behold 

From mortal coil fet free, by Jove's high gift 

Drawing aetherial air, and Gods Hke him: 30 

For from Alcides both defcend : and hence 

When fatiated with nedar's od'rous juice, 

Their father to fair Hebe's bed retires, 

This takes his bow and quiver ; that, his club, 

Ruaged with pointed knots ; and thefe they bear 35 

Before their fire, conduding Jove's great fon 

To his immortal v^^ife's ambrofial bed. 

How bright above the wifeft of her fex 
lUuftrious Berenice flione : the pride 

And glory of her parents! Venus' felf, 4^ 

With 

Hac arte iSc. B. 3. Od, 3. Where now Auguf.ui mix'd with heroes lies, 

' ' And to his lips the neiftar bowl applies : 

- Such were the godlike arts that led ^^m ruby lips the purple tincture Ihuw, 

Bright Pollux to the bleft abodes : ^^^ ^-^^ immortal ftains divinely glow ! 
Such did for great Jlcides plead, , »^-/- „ 

And gain'd a place among the Gods : Dry d e N s M,fcell. 

3 



THE ENCOMIUM OF PTOLEMY. 

With her own foft and rofy lingers fill'd 
Her odorif 'rous fnowy breafl: with love ! 
And hence 'tis faid, no woman ever pleas'd, 
Her raptur'd hufband, as this beauteous bride 
Her royal Ptolemy : and, bleft in love. 
With more than equal fondnefs {lie returns 
His tendered affed:ion : to his fons 
Plence in full confidence the prince refigns 
The weight of cares and kingdoms, and retires 
With love tranfported to her arms of love. 
Ere on forbidden joys rove the wild thoughts 
Of faithlefs wives, by no affedion bound : 
Num'rous their progeny, but none can fhew 
The face and features of the haplefs fire ! 



igi 



45 



5^* 



Fair 



Ver. 50. TVilh love, &c.] Let us hear Mil- 
toii's moft beautiful ucfcription of csujugal love, 
which may be perhaps the beft commentary on 
our author : 

Hail wedded love, myfterious law, true fource 
Of human ofFrpring, fole propriety 
In paradife, of all things common elfc. 
By thee aduU'rous luft was driv'n from man. 
Among the beftial herds to range : by thee 
Founded in reafon, loyal, juft and pure, 
Relations dear, and all the charities 
Of father, fon, and brother firft were known. 
Far bs't, that I fliou'd write thee fm or blame. 
Or think thee unbefitting holicft place, 
Perpetual fountain of domeftic fweets, 
Whofe bed is undefil'd and chafte pionouac'd, 



Prefent or paft as faints and patriarchs us'd ! 
Here love his golden fhafts employs, here lights 
Hiscon'laiitlamp, and waves his purple wings. 
Reigns here and revels : not in the bought fmile 
Of harlots, lovclcfs, jovlefs, unindear'd, 
Cafual fruition : nor in court amours, 
Mix'd dance, or wanton mafk or midnight 

ball. 
Or ferenade which the flarv'd lover fings 
To his proud hW, beft quitted with diidaiji. 
Thefe lull'd by nightingales embracing flept. 
And on their naked limbs the flovv'ry roof 
Sho'.v'r'd rofcs, which the mom repair'd. Sleep 

on, 
RIeft p^ir ! and oh, yet happieft, if ye feek 
No happier flute, and know to know no mere f 
PAR-LQ^f- b, 4- Yer,,j5,cu.^ 



192 THE ENCOMIUM OF PTOLEMY. 

Fair Venus, all-excelling, beauty's queen, 55 

She was thy care : and 'twas from thee alone, 

That Berenice pafs'd not o'er the flood 

Of baneful Acheron : her the Goddefs caught. 

Or ere fli' approach'd the ftream, where gloomy Hands 

The melancholy porter of the dead : 60 

And in her temple placing, to partake 

Her own high honours gave : to mortals kind. 

Hence breathes £Iie gentle loves, and pleafmg cares 

Thro' each glad votary's enamour'd breaft. 

To mighty Tydeus fair Deipale 65 

Great Diomed, dread thunderbolt of war, 
Brought forth : to Peleus beauteous Thetis gave 
Warlike Achilles : but to Ptolemy 
A Ptolemy, illuftrious as his fire. 

Fair Berenice bore : the new-born babe 70 

From his glad mother favour' d. Cos receiv'd : 
For there the queen Lucina's aid invok'd : 
Benign the Goddefs came, and o'er her limbs 
Diffus'd a foft infenlibility : 

And 

Vev. 71. Cos, he] For this whole pafTage, fee the hymn to Delis ^ vtr. 208, and follow- 
K.ig, and alfo ver. 359, i^ feqq. % 



THE ENCOMIUM OF PTOLEMY. 193 

And thus the Ton was born, fo like the fire. n r 

Cos faw, and all her cliffs with fongs of joy 

Refounded : in her arms flie held the babe, 

" Be born, bleft infant, fhe began, be born : 

*' Nor with lefs honour dignify my ille, 

" Than her Apollo, Delos ; let the mount 80 

" Of Triopus, and neighb 'ring Dorians, fhare 

" No lefs renown from thee, than from the God 

" Rhensa, neighb' ring to his native ifle." 

She fpoke : on high the eagle, bird of Jove, 

Thrice from the clouds refounding clapp'd his wings, 85 

Aufpicious omen of the thund'ring God : 

Kings are the care of Jove : and whom firft-born 

His eye indulgent views, pre-eminence 

Attends, with copious blifs : wide o'er the fea. 

And wide o'er earth unbounded roams his power ! 90 

On nations numberlefs great Jove pours down 
His fertile fhow'rs and full increafe : but none, 
iEgypt, can vie in plenteoufnefs with thee ; 
Thy rich glebe mellow'd by th' o'erflowing Nile • 

None 

Ver. 84. Eag!e, &c.] See hytnn to Jupiter, 124, i2'c. of the fjmc hymn j anJ alfo hymji to 
ver. 107, and ncte ; and for the next lines, ver. Jpollo, ver. 41, and note. 

C c 



194 THE ENCOMIUM OF PTOLEMY. 

None boafts fuch num'rous cities : and o'er all o e 

Sole monarch reigns great Ptolemy : his fway 
O'er the Phoenicians, Syria's, Lybia's fons, 
Arabia and the tawny ^thiop, 
Extends : Cilicia's war-delighting race, 

Pamphylians, Lydians, and the Carians owa loo 

His univerfal povv'r : the Cyclades 
Confefs the monarch : for the fpacious fea 
His warlike fleet commands ; the beft that fails 
Old Neptune's v/ide domain : to Ptolemy 
Sea, land, and barrier floods fubmiflive bow ! 105 

Around him troops of horfe and fpearmen crowd 
Clangino; their arms, a terror to the foe. 
In opulence all monarchs he exceeds, 
Such tributes daily to his heap immenfe, 

A boundlefs Ocean, flow : his people ply 110 

Secure 

Ver. 95. N'one, &c.] There is a moft auk- The fcholiaft adds, O^ ya( ■ssacat ai TOc?et;{ 

ward embarafled defcnption in the original, Tpcr/ifpiat, Tfi<rxi?^iai, rpiaxcwra Tf«?. 
which I will fubjoin, of the number of cities Ver. 102. For the fpecious Jea, &c.] Waller, 

in ^gypt ; but as I found it far exceeded my in his poem to the king on his navy, fays, 
poetical capacity to give it any tolerabla Englijh Where'er thy navy fpreads her canvas wings, 

drefs, I chofe to take the number m the giofs ; Homage to thee, and peace to all fhe brings,, 

and I doubt not of havmg the reader's free leave : rj,^^ p^^,^^]^ ^„j ^p„„ia,.^ ^hen thy flags ap- 

pear, 
Tp«5 f.£. 0. ■a.>,^m BKccroncch^ aJ^o/^r.xa. p^^^^j ^^gj^ hatred, and confent to fear, i^c. 

Aoiai ^e TfiaJes, (ttTK h cripicriv ivS'fitosJsf Tf«j. See the wholc poem. 



THE ENCOMIUM OF PTOLEMY. 195 

Secure their occupations : Nilus' banks 

No hoftile iootfteps tread ; nor warlike din 

Difturbs the peaceful village : on the fhore 

Ne'er from their veffels leap invading foes 

The flocks to plunder, and lay w^afte the plains. 115 

Such is the influence of a prince like thee, 

Such is the terror of thy warlike name, 

Oh Ptolemy 1 Thou all thy father's rights 

Art ftrenuous to afi'ert : (as well befeems 

Good kings ;) and not lefs zealous to acquire 120 

New glories of thy own. Not unemploy'd 

Lies in his fplendid dome the glitt'ring ore, 

Like that on India's plain by lab'ring ants 

Fruitlefs amafs'd : full royally he gives 

To the bright temples of the Gods, firfl fruits, 125 

And nobleft prefents numberlefs : to kings 

Lefs pow'rful and lefs opulent than he 

Much he beftows, and much to friendly flates ; 

And much, much more to his illuftrious friends. 

Is there a bard, well fkill'd in facred fong, 130 

Who unrewarded from our prince defcends, 

C c 2 And 



196 THE ENCOMIUM OF PTOLEMY. 

And meets not favours equal to his worth ? 

Munificence like this, great Ptolemy, 

Hath charm'd the xVIufes prophets to refound 

Thy fame in fong immortal : what reward 135 

Than this more excellent, for pow'r and wealth 

To gain the ftamp of worth, and honefl: fame 

Midft all mankind ? This, this th' Atridje have : 

When all the plunder of old Priam's houfe 

And all their mighty wealth is lofl in night, 140 

And buried in oblivion's greedy grave ! 

Of Ptolemy's fam'd anccftors, like him 
None in their father's footfteps trod fo clofe, 
And o'er them rofe fo nobly ; high he rear'd 
The fragrant temples to his parents honour : 14^ 

Where 



Ver. 142. Of Ptoknifs, &c.] I have given 'tTrifxna ^fn, I have JJepped over you, I am heyond 

what appears to me the true fenfe of this pail'age, you; to this Theocritus alludes when he fays, 

ai^reeable to the interpretation of //i?/»/;«i, who t\\^t Ptolemy trod clofe in his father's foot fiefs, 

feems to explain it very rightly ; the cultom to and rofe over them. "Lrafioy.mi Ka^vmf^i- what I 

which the poet alludes mufi be referred to, com. render clofe, is an flfff^a xohyi, yet warm in the 

pleatly to underftand his meaning; It was an ufual d:ij7, or yet nnu und juji made, like the foot- 

conteft ; wherein the antagonift ufed to place his fleps of the contending parties, as obferved be- 

right foot in the left footflep of the perfon with fore. For further information herein, if the 

whom he contended, and fo with his left foot reader defires it, he is referred to the rotes of 

touch the right footjlfp, which if he could Cafatibon and Heinfius, 
exceed, the ufual expreffion was, Zm^ijSvtx crH, 
3 



THE ENCOMIUM OF PTOLEMY. 197 

Where form'd of gold and ivory he plac'd 
The new divinities : henceforth invok'd 
The guardians and protestors of mankind. 
There on the hallow'd altars, red with blood 
Of vidlims, as the mighty months roll round, 150 

The fatted facrifice the monarch burns, 
He and his lov'd Arlinoe : than whom 
No fairer woman in a happier bed 
A greater fpoufe embraces : there improv'd 
The nat'ral tye, with double warmth fhe loves 155 

The brother and the hufband : fo the race 
Immortal of great Rhea hold above 
Their facred nuptials : where the blufhing maid, 
From whofe bright hands perfumes diftil their fweets, 
Ambrofial Iris decks one od'rous bed 160 

For Jove, and Jove's lov'd fifter and his wife ! 
Hail royal Ptolemy ! equal to the race 

Of 



Ver. 146. Of gold and ivory, &c.] See that makers, related in the 44th chapter cf Ijaiah 
fine account of the vanity of idols, and iilol- from ver. 9 to ver. 20. 



198 THE ENCOMIUM OF PTOLEMY, 

Of god-born heroes, thee the Mufe extols : 

And what {he iings^ if prefcient ought, fliall prove 

Not unacceptable to future times. 

Hail, and increafe of virtue afk of Jove ! 



165 



Ver. 163. Thee the Mufe, kc] Thefe old 
poets feldom entertained any flender opinions of 
themfelves; they were not wanting in pro- 
nouncing their own merits, and prophefying 
their own fame. Our poet gave us a fpecimen 
at the beginning, which I have put into as nio- 
deft terms as was allowable ; but this laft is a 
bolder ftrain, and you fee the poet was no falfe 
prophet. Ovid's boafJ- at the end of his Meta- 
morphofes is well known, as is that of his bro- 



ther Horace, both of which defied their G»<5? and 
all his malice, to deftroy their works, and the 
monuments more durable than brafs, which they 
erected to their own honour and immortality. 
Though this may give us no unfavourable idea of 
the excellence ofthofe works which have indeed 
fo defied the anger and power of their Jupiter ; 
nay, and even outlived him ; yet I am afraid it 
will never afford us any very favourable one of 
the humility of the authors. 



Six 



( 199 ) 



Six HYMNS of Orpheus 



JUPITER 

JUNO 

APOLLO 



T O 



DIANA 

PALLAS 

CERES. 



GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

THAT thefe hymns were written by the antieiu poet and lawgiver Orpheus, is beh'evei, 
I fuppofe, by no man of any reading : but, that they are extremely antient (if not the 
OT«y? antient remains of Gr^ff?^ is on the other hand doubted, I imagine, by no man 
of learning. They fhew us moft clearly, what the idolatry of the heathens was, and 
in the moft fatisfaftory manner, demonftrate that the Deities they worfhipped, were no other than 
the powers and parts of nature : I have fubjoined thefe fix, as corroborating evidences of the ge- 
neral remarks made in the foregoing notes : and thefe notes, together with a general key given, 
will be a fufficient explanation of them. I had prepared large remarks upon them for the prefs, 
but upon obfervation that mv work was already fwelled beyond the determined number of fheets, 
I found mvfelf obliged to withdraw them : It would give me no fmall fatisfadion to fee any man 
of learning and genius attempt a full explanation of thefe moft curious pieces, a woik v.'hich muft 
reflect honour upon the performer, though it would require no fmall abilities to accomplifli. I 
can recommend to the reader no better method of acquiring a complete underftanding of thefe 
hymns, which I have given, than to compare them with fome others of the fame author, particu- 
larly thofe to Protogcnus, or the firft-born, the Sun, Nature, Pan, Hercules, Proferpine, Bacchus, 
and Fulcan : which are each of them extremely curious : there are very large afliftances to be had 
from Macrobius, Vojftus, Bochart, he. but from none, more than from Turner and Phurnutus, 
the latter of which dcferves every fcholar's attenUoii, as he feems to have undcrftood and explained 
the heathen creed in the cleareft m?.nner. If the reader fhould refer to his 3d chapter concernhig 
'Juno, I cannot help remarking in juftice to the author, that tiva-mi (1. 7. Gale's edit.) fhould un- 
doubtedly be read aj-m,-. " And they are both, fays he, nnmely, f^fiter and Juno, produced 
from the fame y//^/tfH«. For the fubftance flowing into thinne'.s, ^ffio-* ya? «? AEirroTijTa rl Oi/s-ta. 
produces both the fire (the pure plafticy?;c, Jupiter) a"d the air, Juno." Many excellent and 
ufeful hints will aifo be found in the Letters on Mythology, the author of which, p. 409. fpcaks 
thus, " You have in the general p'an of mythology, firft the grand key, that tlie powers pro- 
ducing, and parts compofing the untvcrfe, were the greaie/l Gods." Nor mu(t I omit to adver- 
tife the reader, that as many hints towards a compleat underftanding of Orpheus are to be found 
in Halloivay's Originals, as in any of the before-mentioned writers. Concerning Orpheus himfelf 
and the editions of his works a full account will be fecund in the Bibliotheai Graca oi Fabriiius, 
vol. I. p. 117. The edition I have u'ld is thzt oi' Efche.ibach ; in which the hymns are tranflated 
into LatiK verfe by Scaliger, the work only of five days, as he tells us at the end ; a maik of 
prodigious and uncommon learning. As this is a work not for the many, where the gricts and 
beauties of diction and poetry are not to be fought, I would hope the lovers of truth will ufe it 
wi'h candor, and if pleafure or profit arife to any one from it in the leaft degree, let him be af- 
fured, that it hath anfwered the tranflator's deftan. 



TU 



( 200 ) 
I. 

The 14th HYMN of Orpheus. 

To J U P IT E R. 

JOVE, ever honour'd, everlafting king, 
Accept this vvitnefs of thy fervant's love. 
Due facrifice and praife. Great pow'r, thro' thee 
All things, that are, exifl : earth, mountains, fea, 
And all within the mighty fphere of heav'n. 5 

Saturnian Jove, dread monarch of the fky, 
In thunders loud and terrible defcending : 
All things producing, as of all the end 
So the beginning, author of encreafe, 

Omnipotent, pow'r creative, purifier, - 1 

Whofe arm rolls thunder, and the forky blaze 
Of lio-htnino; darts ! whofe glorious word can fliake 

t3 D CD 

Earth's deep foundation ' Oh accept my prayer. 

Multiform deity, and give us health. 

Fair peace, and riches with pure virtue crown'd. 15 

II. 



HYMNSOFORPHEUS. 201 



II. 



The 15th HYMN. 

To Juno. 

PL A C ' D in the azure bofom of the fky. 
Airy-form Juno, of Jove's heav'nly bed 
Happy partaker, thou with gentle gales 
Life-giving, quicken'ft all terreftrial things. 
Of clouds, of rain and winds the nourifher ; 5 

All things producing, for the breath of life 
Without thee nothing knows : fince thou, with all 
Thyfelf in wond'rous fort communicating. 
Art mix'd with all. Thou, fov'reign, too obtain'ft 
An univerfal empire, borne along 10 

In airy torrents with refounding murmurs. 
Goddefs, whofe names are num'rous, all-ador'd, 
Propitious come with lovely fmiling flice. 

D d ill. 



202 HYMNS OF ORPHEUS. 

III. 
The 33d H Y M N. 

To Apollo. 
TJ LEST Pffian come, Lycorian Phoebus, foe 
^^ Of daring Tityus, honour'd Memphian God, 
Giver of health, of riches : golden-Iyr'd ; 
From thee the feed, the field its rich encreafe 
Receives prolific, Grunian, Smynthian, bane 5 

Of deadly Python, hallow'd Delphian prophet, 
Rural, light-bearer, lovely noble youth : 
Head of the Mufes, leader of the choir, 
Far-darting God, with bow and quiver arm'd, 
Bacchian and twofold, whofe dread pow'r extends 10 

Afar, diffufed wide ; whofe courfe oblique 

Is fliap'd ; pure ; Delian king, whofe lucid eye 

Light-giving all things views : whofe locks are gold, 

Who oracles and words of omen good 

Revealeft. Hear me with benignant mind 15 

Entreating for the people : for thou view'ft 

This boundlefs aether all, this plenteous earth. 

And ev'n beneath thro' the dark womb of things, 

In night's ftill, gloomy regions, and beyond 

Th' 



HYMNSOF ORPHEUS. 203 

Th' impenetrable darknefs fet with ftars. 20 

The fix'd foundations thou haft lay'd beneath, 

And the whole world's extremities are thine. 

Thyfelf for ever flourifhing, to thee 

Of things the rife and the decay belong, 

The end and the beginning. With thy harp 25 

Of various modulation thou the whole 

Of nature harmonifeft : the loweft ftring 

Now fweetly touching, now in Dorian meafure 

Afcending to the higheft : nature's tribes, 

No lefs than nature, to thy harmony 30 

Owe the variety and pleafing change 

Of feafons ; mix'd by thee in equal parts. 

Summer and winter ; on the higheft ftring 

This modulated, that the loweft claims. 

While to a Dorian meafure the fweet prime 35 

Of lovely fpring advances : mortals hence 

Have caird thee royal Pan, two-horned God, 

The vivifying gales, thro' fyrinx fam'd 

Emitting : wherefore thou the marking feal 

Of the whole world poflefleft. Hear bleft pow'r, 40 

And with propitious voice thy myftics fave. 

Ver. 20.] Ytt' arifooniiamt 0(«p»)iir. This feems fyftem is bounded by a thick and outer darknefs, 
to countenance theii" opmions, who hold that the where arc the fixt ftars. 

D d 2 Ver. 22. J SesP/almxlx. 5, 6. 



204 HYMNS OF ORPHEUS. 



IV. 

The 35th HYMN. 

To Diana. 

T T EAR me, oh queen, Jove's daughter, various -nam'd, 
"*" ^ Bacchian and Titan, noble huntrefs queen, 
Shining on all, torch-bearer, bright Didynna, 
O'er births prefiding, and thy ready aid 

To all imparting in the pangs of birth, 5 

Tho' unexperienc'd of thofe pangs thyfelf ; 
Diffolver of the zone, foother of care. 
Fierce huntrefs in the courfe unweary'd ftill, 
Delighting in the bow and fylvan fports, 

Trav'ling by night, aufpicious and renown'd, 10 

Of manly form, ered and tow'ring, fwift 
T' aiTift, pure expiating pow'r, great nurfe 
Of mortals, earthly and celeftial, bleft 
And rich, the woody hills poffeffing, bane 
Of beafts, purfuer of the nimble flag. 15 

Dread 



HYMNSOFORPHEUS. 205 

Dread univerfal queen, who flourifh fair 
In youth perpetual, woods and dogs delight 
Thy foul, Cydonian, multiform. Oh come 
Benignant to thy myftics, faving pow'r, 

Aufpicious, fend from earth the beauteous fruits, 20 

Give us fair peace, and health with lovely locks, 
And to the mountains drive difeafe and pain. 



V. 

The 31ft H Y M N. 

To Pallas. 

JT^ N L Y-begotten, noble race of Jove, 

^^ Pallas, bleft Goddefs, warlike martial maid, 

Thou word ineffable, of mighty name, 

Inhabiting the ftars, o'er craggy rocks 

And £hady mountains pafling ; thou in groves 

Thy foul delighteft : with wild fury fixing 

The minds of mortals, joying in bright armour. 



Gymnaftic 



Ver. 3.] Affitr , itv f%Tn, DlHa indiifa. Sea- Ver. 4.] Aj-pofiaiTf, I read ; it is anepithet of 
Wgcr, —Hfrcuks too is called Apfw'. Pan alfo : fee the hymn to him. 



2o6 H Y M N S O F O R P H E U S, 

Gymnaflic maid, with fierce and furious foul : 

Virgin, dire Gorgon's bane, mother of arts, 

Impetuous, violent : vvifdom to the good, lO 

And to the evil, madnefs : parent of v^^ar, 

•And counfel: thou art male and female too : 

Multiform dragoncfs, fam'd enthufiafliic, 

O'er the Phlegraean giants with deftrudion 

Thy courfers driving : fprung from head of Jove. 15 

Purger of evils, all-vidorious queen ; 

Hear me, with fupplicating vows approaching 

Both nights and days, and ev'n in my laft hours : 

Give us rich peace, faturity and health, 

With profp'rous feafons, O thou blue-ey'd maid, 20 

Of arts inventrefs, much implored queen. 

Vcr. 12.] Aflive and paflive in nature. 



VI. 



HYMNSOF ORPHEUS. 207 

VI. 

The 39th HYMN. 

To Ceres. 

1 ^ I O, fam'd Goddefs, univerfal mother, 

■*-^ Giver of wealth, thou holy nurfing Ceres, 

Giver of riches, nouriflier of corn. 

Giver of all things, in the works of peace 

Joying : of feed, of harveft, threfliing, fruits 5 

Goddefs, inhabiting Eleufis' feats 

Holy, retir'd : delightful, lovely queen, 

Supporter of all mortals ; who firft joined 

The ploughing oxen to the yoke, and bleft 

Man with the plenteous means of happy life ; I o 

In verdure ftill encreafing, high in honour, 

AiTeflbr of great Bacchus : bearer of light 

Pure, bright : rejoicing in the reaper's lickles, 

Celeftial and terreftrial, kind to all. 

Fertile, thy daughter loving, holy nurfe j 15 

Thy pair of dragons yoking to thy car 

Around thy throne in circling courfe thou'rt driven. 

Singing the lacred orgies : only -begotten. 

Yet thou'rt of many mother, much rever'd. 

'I Thine 



208 



HYMNS OF ORPHEUS. 



Thine are the various forms of facred flow'rs, 
And fruits all beauteous in their native green. 
Bright Goddefs come, with fummer's rich encreafe 
Swelling and pregnant : bring with thee fmiling peace, 
Fair concord, riches, and imperial health. 

The reader may obferve, that in the liymn to 
Jpollo, ver. 37, that deity is called Pan, and in 
the Letters on Mythology, p. 65, finding the 
Orphic hymn to Pun tranflated, I here fubjoin 
it, as a good comment on that to Apollo. 

" Pan I invoke ; the mighty God, the uni- 
verfal nature, the heavens, the fea, the all- 
nouriftjing earth, and the eternal fire : for thefe 
are thy members, O mighty P A'N ! 

Come then happy fource of ever-wheeling 
motion, revolving with the circling feafons, au- 
thor of generation, divine enthufiafm, and foul- 
warming tranfport ! thou liveft amongft the ftars, 
[arpeJ'*'"] and leadeft in the fymphony of the 
univerfe by thy all-chearing fong: thou fcatter- 
eft vifions, and fudden terrors among mortals, 
delightefl: in the towring goat-fed rock, the 
fprings alfo and paftures of the earth ! of fight 
unerring, fearcher of all things, lover of the 
echo ofthyown eternal harmony ; all-begotten, 
and all begetting, god-invoked under a thoufand 
names, fupreme governor of the v/orld, growth- 
giving, fruitful, light-bringing power, co-ope- 
ng with moifture, inhabiting the recefies of 
es, dreadful in wrath, uwQtivo-hornedJove! 



20 



o 
rati 

caves, 



By thee earth's endlefs plain was firmly fix'd. 
To thee the fea's deep heaving furge gives 

way : 
And antient Ocean's waves obey thy voice. 
Who in his briny bofom laps the globe. 
Nor lefi the fleeting air, the vital draught 
That fans the food of every living thing ; 
And ev'n the high-enthron'd all fparklingeye 
Of ever-mounting fire : thefe all divine 
Tho' various lun the courfe which thou or- 

dain'il. 
And by thy wondrous providence exchange 
Their feveral jarring natures to provide 
Kood for mankind, all o'er the boundlefs earth. 

}5ut O bright fource of extafy divine. 
And dance enihufi.iftic, with our vows 



Inhale thefe facred * odours, and vouchfafe 
To us an happy exit of our lives, 
Scatt'ring thy panics to the world's end." 
* Concerning thefe odours, and the facred 

thiimiamii, or perfume, which you find mentioned 

before each of the Orphic hymns, confult Hol- 

hvjays Originals, vol. 2. p. 32. 

In the 39th verfe of the hymn to JpoUo the 

original is, 

Hales fignacula Ax'lAi.mundi, Scal; 

Of which a learned friend- fending me the fol- 
lowing ingenious explication, I caimot deprive 
the reader of it. 

" 'Job%xy.v\\\. 12 — 14. Haft thou command- 
ed the morning, fince thy days ? and caufed the 
day-fpring to know his place, that it might take 
hold of the ends (wings) of the earth, and the 
D'Vti^"! (the grains) fhall be fhaken from {by) 
it: it ftall conform itfclf ("IQnnn) as clay to 
the feal, and they (the wings or airs) (hall 
fland about it like a garment." 

Jpollo is called in Orpheus, Pan (i. e. xov 
ftoio TO o-wfi7r«») the tivo-horned God, /. e. who 
has both the light and the fpirit under his direc- 
tion, fending forth, putting in motion the breaths 
of the airs (niHl^) wherefore he hath the 
marking feal (TtnrwTr!» feems adive here) of the 
whole world, that feal wiiich gives to the whole 
world its form. If we take OTa»To; soo-jkb to 
fiffnify the whole body of the earth, or the earth 
and all its produce, he means, that the light 
znd fpirit communicate to each their forms, as 
zfeal doth to foft wax or clay. And in a ftiU 
more extenfive fenfe, the light and fpirit or 
expanfion at firft formed the planetary orbs. 
But in Job this is with a more firiift philofo- 
phical propriety confined to the earth." 

Vive & vale, amice leSior — -ft quid mvijli rec- 

tius i/lis, 
Candidus imperii, ft non, his utcre mecum. 

« APPENDIX. 



( 209 ) 



APPENDIX. 



Is U B J OI N here (agreeable to my pro- 
mife, hymn to Jupiter, ver. 107.) a £hort 
account of thofe glorious figures the Che- 
ruhim, which were placed ia the Holy of 
Holies of the Jeivijli temple. This account is 
extrafted from Dun.an Forbes (Lord Advocate 
of Scotland) his Thoughts on Natural and Re- 
vealed Religion, p. 99. 4th edit, the whole of 
which treatile will well repay the reader's cu- 
riofity, if he thinks proper to perufe it. 

" As the Cherubim are not fully defcribed in 
the hiftory of framing and building of the ta- 
bernacle or temple, and as the prielts who might 
have feen them in the San£ium SanSiorum, and 
the other perfons, who muft have feen them on 
the walls and doors of the temple, might have 
failed before the fecond temple was compleatly 
finifhed, which would have furnifhcd an excufe 
to the fucceeding Jcius for being without thofe 
emblems in the fecond temple, and for neglect- 
ing the knowledge thereby conveyed j it pleafed 
God to exhibit to one of his prophets, Ezeftiel, 
in vifion, at diiFerent times, the figure of thefe 
emblems, which he has in two fcveral places, 
chap, ifl and loth, carefully recorded. And it 
is not a little furprifing, that though the Jews 
unanimoufiy hold Ezekiel to be a prophet, and 
thefe pafTagcs to be infpired, yet they never 
thought fit to give the figures he defcribcs a 
place in their temple, or to guefs at the mean- 
ing of them, though they hold that thofe vifions 
contain the moft important myflerj'. 

The defcription of the creatures feen in this 
vihon by Ezeh'el, is fo full, and fo anxioufly 
and laborioufly given, that there is no miflaking 
fome of the great lines of it. Each Cherub had 
tour lieads, at leaft faces, and but one body ; 
each had hands of a man, and wings ; and the 
four faces were, firft, the face of a bulJ, which 
IS properiy called a cherub ; fecondiy, to the 
right of the bull, the face of a man ; thirdly, to 
the right of the man the face of a lion ; and 
4Jje face of -the man and lion are faid, chap. i. 



vcr. 10. to have been on the right fide, whereas 
the face of the bull is faid to haVe been on the 
left fide ; and, fourthly, the face of an eagle, 
without taking notice of any particular conjunc- 
tion between the face of the bull, and that of 
the eagle. ^ 

And the prophet takes fo much care to incul- 
cate, that the creatures, or figures thus repre- 
fented, were the Cherubim, and that the de- 
fcription in the firft and tenth chapter relate to 
the fame Cherubim, that there can be no doubt he 
defcribes the very Cherubim placed in the taber- 
nacle and temple ; unlefs it can be fuppofed that 
this defcription was given on fet purpofe to de- 
ceive and miflcad us. 

Knowing thus, horn Ezekiel, the form of the 
Cherubim, and knowing the ufage of the moft 
antient nations, particularly the Egyptians, of 
framing compounded figures of this kind, for 
hieroglypiiical or fymbolical purpofes, from the 
remains of tlx-ir antiquities ftill extant, we can 
entertain no doubt that this reprefentation was 
fignificati\e. He who cannot believe that the 
Cherubim was fet in the Hoh of HqUcs to repre- 
fent one animal, compounded of bull, man, 
lion and eagle, muft necefiarily admit, that the 
faces of thefe animals, fo joined, were intended 
to fignify feveral charafters, powers, or perfous 
united together in one. 

The Italian Janus was hifrons, fometimes 
qucdnfrons ; Diana was trifirmis ; many Egyp- 
tian monuments fhew two, fometimes three 
heads of different creatures to one body ; in 
vart numbers of gems, particularly thoie called 
Abraxa's, human bodies have the licads fome- 
times of dogs, fometimes of Worn, fometimes of 
eagles or hawks, iiSc. and no one can doubt 
that each of thofe reprefentations was fymbo- 
lical. 

In confidering this fubjetSl we muft. recolle^^t 
that, though the building of the tabernacle was 
not fo early as to give birth to thufc ftrange 
compofitions over the heathen Nvoild, yet this 

£ e ::g'jre 



210 



APPENDIX. 



figure was exhibited, immediately upon the ex- 
pulfion of man from paradife, and was fo well 
known when Ifrael left Egypt, that the work- 
man made the Cherubim, v/ithout any other 
direftioii than that of making them out of the 
gold t'.iat compofed the mercy-feat, and placing 
them on either end of it looking towards the 
mercy-feat, and ftretching their wings over it. 
So that the compound figures of the antients to 
reprefent their deities, had no other original but 
that at the eaft end of the garden of Edeti. 

However, the emblems or reprefentations of 
the heathen divinities may have been compli- 
cated of the forms of different animals originally ; 
yet we fee, with length of time, they feparated 
thofe fymbols, fuppofed the different figures to 
be different deities, and at laft worfliipped them 
apart. 

The Egyptian Apis, the bull, in imitation 
whereof the IfraeHtcs made their golden calf, 
and Jeroboam made his calves, was but one of 
thofe figures ; and the deity called Baal amongft 
the Syrians, which is alfo called the heifer 
Baal, was the fame, and yet was the reprefen- 
tation of the great God, the Lord of all. 

The Perfian Mithrlts was in all the devices 
of the fervants of that God pictured a lion, or 
with a lion's head ; and the Egyptian fphinx, 
which flood at the entry of their temples, had 
but two of the cherubical figures, joined in a 
itrange manner, the head of the man put on tlie 
body of the lion. 

The eagle was to the Greeks and Romans an 
emblem facred to Jupiter or 'Jovis their great 
God, whom they pictured like a man ; in the 
talon of this bird they put a thunderbolt, and 
this expreffion of thunder, proceeding from 
clouds, borne by the eagle, whofe way i.n the 
air is among the clouds, was the enfign of 
Ni!p£A)iysfiT>i! Ztt's' and we know from Sanchoni- 
athon, that the Tyrians had a pillar facred to 
wind, or air in motion, as well as they had to 
fire, built, as they faid, by TJjous the fon of 
Hypfouranias, which fire and wind they wor- 
fliipped as Gods. 

We knov/ from antient authors, and we fee 
in antient gems and other monuments, that the 
Egyptians were very much accuftomed to make 
the body of their image or reprefentation hu- 
man, fometimes with the head of a lion, fome- 
times with that of a hawk or eagle, and fome- 
times with that of a bull, a ram, or fome other 
horned creature. 



And as, from the original exhibition of the 
Cherubim renewed, and recalled to its proper 
ufe in the tabernacle and temple, we fee the 
antients had a pattern from Whence they might 
have taken thofe reprefentations, which they 
monftroufly abufed, we may reafonably con- 
clude that thefc reprefentations, which, na- 
turally, and without fome inftitution, would 
never have come into the heads of any men, 
flowed from an early practice, that bad a different 
intent from that, to which it was at lafl turned. 

And from the application made by the antient 
Pagans of each of the figures in the Cherubim, 
to fignify a different deity, we may with resfdn 
conclude, that they underllood that particular 
figure in the Cherubim, which they chofe for 
their proteflor or God, reprefented in the hie- 
roglyphical ufage of the early times, the power, 
the thing, or perfon, that they intended to ferve. 

Thus, for example, if the curled hairs and 
horns in the bull's head were in hieroglyphical 
writing, made the emblem of fire in general, or 
fire at the orb of the Sun, thofe who took ma- 
terial fire for their deity would fet up that em- 
blem, and worfhip it. 

If the lion's piercing eyes, or any other con- 
fideration, brought that animal to be the em- 
blem of light in general, or of light ilTuing 
from the body of the Sun, fuch as took light 
for their God, if any fuch were, would fet up 
the lion for their emblem. 

And if the eagle's foaring flight and com- 
merce thereby with the air, brought that bird to 
be the emblem of air, fuch as imagined a divinity 
in the air, in clouds, in winds, would take that 
bird to refemble their deity. 

And the human figure in the Cherubim, muft. 
one fhould think, be the mofl natural occafion of 
that univ'erfal miftake which all the heathens, 
at length, dropped into, of pifluring their Gods 
with human bodies, and the very earlieft gave 
fome countenance to injoining parts to the hu- 
man body to, almofl, all their reprefentations 
of their Gods. 

Now, lb it i?, that we do know from . innu- 
merable texts of Scripture, and from many paf- 
fages in heathen hiftorians and mythologills, 
that the objects of the earlieft pagan adoration, 
after lofing the idea of the true God, were the 
povi'ers in the heavens, that were fuppofed to 
maintain this fyftem ; the Sun, Moon and Stars, 
the hoft of heaven, the queen of heaven ; fire, 
v?hich was fuppofed to be one of the chief 



APPENDIX; 



211 



agents in fupporting the motion of the univerfal 
light ifluing from the fire ; and the air, clouds, 
winds, i^c. which had infinite force, and were 
i'uppofed to aft a very confiderable part in the go- 
vernment and prcfervation of the material world. 

In particular, we know that fire at the orb of 
the Sun was worfhipped by the antient i?^;'/)//^?"^, 
who made ufe of Jpis, the bull, for their em- 
blem ; and that the worfhippers of Baal the 
heifer, believed their God had the command of 
fijre. For, in the remarkable contention be- 
tween 'Jeho'-jah and Baal, managed on the one 
fide by Elijah, on the part of "Jehovah, and on 
the other by four hundred and fifty priefis on the 
part of Baal, the ted of all was, which of their 
dejtiis could command fire to come down from 
heaven to confume the fiicrifice, and the iflue 
difgraced BmI, and deitroyed all his priefts : and 
therefore, it is no ra(h conclufion, that the ox's 
or bull's head was the hieroglyhical emblem of 
fire, perhaps fire at the orb of the Sun. 

We know alfo, that many of the Egyptians, 
and of the neighbouring nations, wurlhipped 
light ; it was difficult to feparate the idea of 
lisiht from that of fire. Thofe that ferved the 
moon and planets had no fire for their obje£t. 
The Perf.ans, who worfhipped fire, and emi- 
nently the body of the Sun, had light nectlTarily 
in efteem as their beneficentprinciple. Oromaf- 
dei was light. Job talked of worlhipping light 
as idolatry. There were feveral temples in Egypt 
and in Canaan to the light of the fun : and in 
Egypt, as well as Pcrfia, the lion was a facred 
emblem : wherefore it feems highly probable the 
lion was ufed as the fymbol or emblem of light, 
as the bull was made ufe of as the emblem of fire. 

Wc know alfo, that the earlieft heathens took 
the air, wind, that which in the antient lan- 
guages is exprefled by a word fignifyins, pro- 
mifcuoufly, wind and fpirit, that invifible agent 
which we feel, and which performs fo many 
confiderable effedls in nature without being 
feen, for a deity ; that to it they afcribed in- 
fpiration ; their Sibyls, their deliverers of ora- 
cles were inflated ; futurities, the will of their 
God, was difcovercd by the countenance of 
clouds, and the flight of birds, which were re- 
ligioufly obferved by augurs, in the Hebrew 
cloud-mongers ; thundci was the voice of their 
God, which was portentous, and much obferved. 
Thunder was afcribed to the great Jove, the 
thunderer, and the eagle with the thunderbolt 
was his enfign ; whence we may, pretty fafely, 
conclude, that the eagle, to worfhippers of the 



air, reprefented, hieroglyphlcally, air, wind, 
fpirit. 

If the deity, to give fome idea of himfelf 
from a fenfible objcd, had made choice of -the 
heavens as the fenfible objefl, from which 
to take the imperfc<Sl: idea of his immenfity, 
perfonality, and manner of exiffence and opera- 
tion ; if, by the vafinefs and extent of them, 
his immenfity was to be reprefented ; if by fire, 
the firfl perfon, necefTarily and continually gene- 
rating and fending forth light, the fccond 
perfon, and conftantly and necefilirily fuppliei 
by air or fpirit, the third Perfon, the Trinity 
CO exifting and co-operating for fupport of the 
whole, and in aid of each other was to be re- 
prefented ; then, upon difcovering this to man- 
kind, the heavens would become the type of 
Jehovah, the Divine Eflence. Fire would be- 
come the type of the Firft Perfon, light of 
the Second, and air or fpirit of the Third ; and 
whatever emblems in hieroglyphic al writings 
were ufed to exprefs thefe, as ihe names of the 
one, would or might be ufed for the appella- 
tions or names of the other. 

So that, if this refemblance or reprefenta- 
tion were to be expreffed in flone, wood or 
metal, the emblems of fire, light, and air or 
fpirit, that is, from what has been faid, ihe bull, 
the lion and the eagle, ought to be conjoined to- 
gether into the form of one animal ; and every 
body, who underftood thL- hicroglyphical em- 
blems would immediately think on tlie heavens 
which they reprefented, and, from thence raife 
to himfelf the intended image of the Truiity in 
the Divine Lir,=nce." 

Hymn to Apollo^ note 34. p. 30. In a treatife 
called Delphi Phosi.icizantes (referred to by 
Spanheini, fee p. 100. and note 112.) written 
by our learned countryman Dickinfon, the reader 
will find pretty near the fame accou.t of TV and 
El, as given in this note by Dr. Robinfon, fee 
p. 94, iJc. There are in the fame treatise 
many other curious particulars deferving notice. 

Hymn to Diana, p. 54. ver. 12. Turner in 
his Alythological Notes, p. 168 — 173. proves, 
that by thefe Cyclops (ki^kawb-e;) were mt-ant no- 
thing more than the Sun, the one bright eye in 
the forehead of the heaven ; and if fo it is veiy 
plain, why Diana (or the Moon) fhould defire 
to have her how and quiver, &c. from them, 
that is, the Sun, from whcm all her light is 
borrowed. " The Cyclops therefore, fays he, 
that is, the eyes of the univerfe, arc the fame 
with the Sun, who is exprefsly fo called ; and 

E e 3 for 



212 



APPENDIX. 



for their different names, Brontes, Suropes,znd 
Pyraiinon, they are all but fo many partial con- 
fideratioiis of the f^mc Numen, confidered as 
employed in forming the thunder, the laft of 
them denoting the manual operation which was 
fuppofed to be performed upon a fabulous anvil, 
in the caverns of £tna, and other places of 
Sicily, and the two firft of them fignifying the 
two different effctfis, the one of noife or thun- 
der, the other of lightning cor.fequent upon the 
operation, i^c. Se"e p. 66. note 68. ad fin. — 
p. 76. ver. 226. Hence Hercules, in the Or- 
phic hymn to him, is called ■c^aftpayt, all devouring, 
an epithet of the folar light in its violence and 
Jlrength, burning up and confuming all things : 

Vulcan has the fame attribute, who is called 
axaiA.»To» ■avf, the unwearied flTC. — na//ipaye, c*'- 

3«(AaTw?, OTavuTTEpTaTE' nay, and alfo /Ether, 

Sun, Moon, Stars, and Light, all members or 

parts of him : 

AiSup, HXio?, arfa, (7t^>l»>l, <pui «ftiavTo»" 

Hymn to Delos, p. 1 1 1. note 263." When the 
Canaanites were expelled from Canaan, there is 
no doubt but, among other places, they took pof- 
feffion of the iflands in the Mgcan fea. This is 
evident from the nam«s of thofe illands, and 
alfo from the teftimony of Yhucydides, lib. i. 
who fays, that the iflands about Greece yicxc 
principally inhabited by Carians and Phcenicians. 
What the Phcenicians or Canaanitijh idols were 
we well know, and that it was their cuaom to 
give the names of their idols to the places of 
their habitation. So Delos (from ^1, to draw 
cut as ivater from a well, and ti'K or ^'^i^fire) 
nxhe fountain of fire, i. e. the >/flr er* ; and 
to perpetuate this attribute of their arch-idol, 
there was for many years a conjlant fire kept up 
in Delos. Hence in after times, by taking em- 
blems ox fithftitutes {^irrealities, ths ifiand Delos 
was taken for the real birth-place of JfOllo, who 
from being in truth the folar light, was now 
reprcfcnted as a man (from fome tradition of 
fV,e union of the True Light with the Man 
Chri/i Jefus) and his moi\\cr Lai una (the ItiTT, 
Gen. i. 2. the Heb. ^^b) as a v.-rman. The 
ii^ht could not naturally fpiing forth unlefs the 
grofsffirit furrounding the folar erb was fit on 
fire. And this the folar orb [z'V^'i) l^'^i"^ '^M 
did : and becaufe Delos the ifiand was furround- 
ed with a remarkable quantity of fea-wccd as 
thtt i'im wiih the grcf jpirit, 1 think we may 



hence explain the otherw'iCe tmintelligiile jargon, 
of the ifiand Delos burning up all thefea-weed 
round it, that Latona might bring forth Apollo, 
i. e. the central fire burnt up the furrounding 
fl'irit, that darknefs might produce light. The 
above account will, I think, both illuftrate and 
be confirmed by line 193. where Delos is re- 
prefemed as driven backwards and forwards by 
the north and fouth winds. I know not that 
there was the leaft foundation in falf for af- 
firming this of the ifiand, but if we refer it to 
its antitype the Sun, it is true, that has an ap- 
parent northern and fouthern declination, and 
that the real declination of the earth is effefled 



by the fpirit's ailing on its northern and fouth- 
ern regions. It is remarkable that Calliniachus 
does not fay that Delos was agitated by the eafi 
and wefi wind, but only by the north and fouth." 
The true reafon why Jipollo and Diana, Ju- 
piter, Venus, Sec. were all faid to be born in 
iflands, will be found in Turner, p. 224, k^c. 
and in the following pages he abundantly con- 
firms what is here advanced, namely, that 
Delos was no other than the -Sz^z itfelf. 

P. 125. note 441. The following paffage from 
the Letters on Mythology p. 174. may ferve to il- 
luftrate the obfervations made in this note. " Of 
the twelve great Gods, the greateft, according to 
the Egyptians, was Pan or the Univerfe, to 
whom the higheft honours were paid. Next to 
him Latona or Night : Vulcan was next in dig- 
nity ; and then Ifis and Ofiris, with Orus or 
Ivight, their fon. That is, in iveffern language, 
that the univerfe, comprehending nature and 
all her powers, lay overwhelmed in darknefs, 
until the igneous vivifying fpirit broke loofe, 
and difpelled the fhade that for eternal ages had 
been brooding over it : that then the Sun and 
Moon (hone forth, parents of light, prefiding 
over tha generation of animals, the vegetation 
of plants, and the government of the whole." 

This appears no improper ccnclufion of thefe 
annotations ; which, whether the world will 
approve or condemn — 1 cannot be allowed to 
<Tuefs : however, to ufe the celebrated Dr. 
Bent ley's words — I have written them " without 
any apprehenfion of grcu'ing legyier by cenfurer^ or 
plumper by commendations. Ja^a eji alca : and 
Non injujj'a cecini. 



-n«p tfidtyi xat a^^clf, 



Preface and notes to Milton. 
A G £- 



A 



GENERAL INDEX- 



N. B. The Letter p. fignifies the page, and n. the note. 



ABlutictij (of deities) what principally Intended 
to indicate, p, 128. n. i. 

Achilles, by whom nurfed, p. 8. n. 6t. 

Adam, the name of our firft parent, the original 
meaning of the term what, p. 3. n. 3. Its mani- 
feft affinity with the Hcireiu term HADMEH, 
fignifying the dud of the ground, iiid. Called 
his wife's name CHaV'aH, and why, Hid. 

^dJephagut, a name afcribed to Hircules, and why, 

p. 73. n. 200 
Admetus, his flory, p. 37. n. 70 

Adrajle, one oi Jufitcr% nurfes, p. 8. n. 61 

jEgincta (Paulus) his obfervations on various kinds 
of milk, p. 10. n. 75 

j^girm, ravifh'd by Jupiter, and why, p. 98. n. gi 
jEfculapius, the fon oi Apollo, and why, p. 36. n. 68 
jEthir, father of one of the Arcadian Jupiters, or 
king, according to Cicero, p. 2. n. 9. 1 he word 
whence derived, isfc. p. 146. n. 167 

JEttia, how defcribed by Virgil, p. 105. n. i8g 
Agamemiwn offends Diana, wherein, and how pa- 
niflied, p. 89. n, 352 

Agno, one of the nurfes of the Lycaan Jupiter, p. 8. 
n. 61. A fountain fo called from her, ibid. 

Air, of what the emblem, p. 15. n. 107. Its pe- 
culiar influence and power, p. 77. n. 231. How 
imagined by the antients to be extended, p. 179, 
n. I. That conjedlure on what grounded, ihU. 
How far extended, according to tiie opinion of 
the antients, p. 179. n. 6 

■ Alcejlis, Admetuii wife, dies for her hull and, and is 
reftored to life again by Prcferpine for that ex- 
preffion of her piety, p. 37. n. 70. 

Alexander offers to rebuild the temple of Diana at 
Ephe/us, and upon what terms ; i; refufed and 
why, p, 87. n. 323. 

Atexicahs, Hercules fo called by Chryfiflom, and 
why, p. 7<<.. n. 216 

AlUlu-Jah, its proper fignification what, p. 31. n. ; + 
All-hael, the Saxon name for Chrijt, and why, 

p. 36. n. t)2 

Alofecia, a particular difeafe, of what fort according 

to yiiny, and why io called, p 62. n. 104, 

Amalthaa, frum whence derivedj and the term ex- 



plained, p. 10. n. 75. Is one aijupiteri nurfes, 

ibid. 

Atnanth, its fignification, what, p. 10. n. 7; 

Amazons occafion* the firfl temple of Diana to be 

built at Efhefus, and by what means, p. 87. n.32} 

Amnijus, a name both of a ciry and river in Crete. 

p. 55. n. 20 

Aninipades, certain nymphs of Crete, and from 

whence fo called, ibid. 

Amymone, a fountain at Argcs, and why fo called, 

p. 13;. n.5S. 
AnaHoria, the famous city of Meletus, fo called by 
Pliny, and why, and by whom built, p. 84. n. 308 
Apollo, Callimachus''% hymn to him, p. 23, IS feq. 
His temple, l^c, how cuflomarily adorned, and 
with what, p. 23. n. i. His priefleffes, their 
particular ufe of laurel-branches, and when, ibid. 
Who, and how reprefented by the Grecians, p. 24. 
r. I. His prefence more frequent in his temple 
than any other God in theirs, and why, n. 2. 
This particular attendance from whence probablr 
arifing, ibid. His knocking at the gate of his 
temple with a beautiful foot iingularly remarkable, 
and why, p. 24. n. 2. His religious rites de- 
fcribed by Proclus, p. 26 n. 11. His eyes, fsV. 
fevcral palfages fimilar to this in Scripture, p. 26. 
n. 13. His mufical infiruments like thole men- 
tioned in Scripture, p. 27. n. 20. His Epdifnia, 
or entrance into his temple beautifully delcribed 
by Virgil, ^neidiw ibid." The ulheruig of him 
into his temple with mufic, hymns and dances, 
from whence borrowed, ibid. The important ad- 
vantages arifmg from the worfhip of him with 
mufic and dancing, p. 28. n. 24. His rites fo- 
lemnized in the fpring, and why, p. 29. n. 20. 
Is a foe to Achilles, and 'Niohe, and why, p. 30. 
n.32. The fignification of the inftription [F. IJ 
on his temple-door, what, p. 31. n. 34. There 
is a marifell affinity between that infcription and 
the //fir«at term f7«AJ P-3'- "■ 34- His lit- 
ti^ne at Joie'i right-hand, what it implies, p. 32. 
n.'4!. t!very tiling belonging to him of gold, 
and why, p 32. n. 52, His £ane, orteniph', 
called Dtlphian, and why, p. 34. n. 56. He 
hi'nfclf called Pottbu!, jr^a why, ibid. Is re 

prtfsttv*'. 



I N D 



picfented beardlefs, and ever young, and why, 
p. 34. n. 59. His fragrant locks how delcribed 
hy CaHim-.cbus, p. 35. n. 60. How imitated by 
Milton, in his defcription of the two angels Ga- 
biiel and Raphael, ibid Of what the emblem, 
ibid. Of what the true caufe and inlhument, ibid. 
His pcrfeflions enumerated both by CaUimachui 
sndOiiid, p. 36. n. 62. Why called the father 
of jE/culafius, p. 36. n. 64. His defcent from 
heaven for love of Admetih has a daik but ob- 
•fervable refexer.ce ta- our Saviour's advent, and, 
wherein, p. 37. n 70. Is called Nomian, and 
why, p. 38. 74. Has a manifeft reference to the 
conclufion of the cxliv PJahi, ibid. Gives cn- 
crcafe to his fon Augiass, herds, and by what 
means, ihid. That encreafe how defcribed by 
Ihtocritus, ibid. Is the founder of cities, and the 
proteftor of their founders when confulccd, p. 38. 
n. 7S, Erefls an altar (the wonder of the svorld) 
■where, and with what materials, p. 39 n. 85. 
Horned animals facrificed to him by all nations, 
and why, ibid. The crow, the raven, and the 
fwan dedicated to him, and why, p. 40. n. 94. 
His oath irrevocable, and why, ibid. Is called 
Boedromion, why and by whom, p. 41. n. 98. 
Is called Clarian, and why, ibid. Is called like- 
wife Caz-z^.TO, and why, p 42. n. 101. Various 
reafons given for his denomination of Cariiean by 
various authors.but the true one only by//H(7,p.4z. 
r. 1 01 . Has flowers offered to him in the fpring, 
and why, p. 43. n. 115. Has faffion offered to 
him in autumn, and why, p. 43. n. 118. Has 
perpetual fires kept up in honour to h-im, and 
why, p. 44. n I zo. His amour with Cyrene, de- 
{cnbcd hy Pindar, p. 46. n. 125. The famous 
extloit of his killing the monftrous CerpentPylljon, 
from whence it evidently arofe, p. 48. n. 142. 
Is faid to meet Diana accompanied by Mercury on 
her entrance into heaven, and why, p. 72. n. 200. 
By whom worftiipped, where placed, and why, 
ibid. The guardian God of Dclos, and faid to be 
her rock of defence, p. 93. n. 28. Similar ex- 
preffions in fcripture, ibid. His denunciation of 
a curfe tgd^in&ihebes, compulfive, and why, p. 99. 
n. 107. His oracles on what delivered, iLid. 
His ceremonies fimilar to thofe obferved in the 
'Jcwijh temple according to Spanlicim, ibid. Is 
called Python, and when, and wherein fimilar to 
Scripture, ibid. Is brought forth, 'tis faid, be- 
tween an olive-tree and a palm ; the tradition re- 
markable, and wherein, p. ill. n. 283. His 
lyre of what the reprefentation, p. 115. n- 339. 
Was laid on the ground of Detos, as foon as born, 
and why, p. 116. n. 3C4. Not fed with milk, 
bat with what, according to Horner, p. 1 1 7. n.374. 
Receives the firft-fruits and tenths of all nations, 
and the cuftom accounted for, p. 118. n. 381. 
The vvorlhip paid him by the Hyperboreans, the 
fame with the idolatry paid to Baalfephon, p 1 zo. 
n. 398. His thre; appellations ot Hecaergus, 
Lycius, and Ufi;, plainly accounted for, p. 121. 



n. 39S. Hymns compofed to his honour, and by 
whom, p. 122. n. 414. Orphic hymns to him, 
p. 102. The fame with Pan, ibid. Why called 
two-horned, p. 208. Is faid to have the mark- 
ing feal, ibid. The word explained, ibid. 

Alalloniui, his account of a miracle performed by the 
Goddefs Rhta at Cyxiiiim, p. 7. n. 5. 

Arabians, in what their hymns to their deities prin- 
cipally confifted, p. 54. n. 9 
Aratus, his defcription of the Majlic, or Lentijk, 

p. 81. n. 276 

Arcadia, csMtd Parrhajla, and why, p. 4. n. 21 

Arcadians, how called, and from whom defcended, 

p. 9. n. 69. Their difpute with the Cretans, 

p. 2. n. g 
ArSos, or Urfa Major, who, and why fo called, 

. p. 9, n. 69 

Argi've (virgins) confecrated their hair to Miner'va, 

and with what view, p. 128. n. i. 

Argos, a celebrated ceremony annually performed 

there, and what, by the female natives, p. 127. 

n. I 
Arijleia, given to Pallas, and why, p. 129. n. t 

Ark, of what the emblem in Scripture, p. 33. n.47. 
Arjino'e, the mother of Berenice, had divine honours 
paid to her, and her various appellations what, 
p. 1 71. n. on Epig. 3. 
A/olhiis, thunder»flruck by jo-ve, and why, p. 9S. 

n. 91 
AJleria, Delos once fo called, and why, p. 24. n. 43 
Is cuifed by Juno, and why, p. 114. n. 321 

Atalanta, the miracle of ilriking water out of a rock 
performed by her hunting- ftaff recorded by 
Paufanias, p. 7. 11. 3 I. Her llory beautifully re- 
lated by Bavicr, p. 82. n 292 
ATHette, ATTis, and ATho, Sec. whence derived, 

p. i4('. n. 167 
Augurs, have all their particular ftaffs, or ro is, ac- 
cording to Cicero, p. 142. n. 152. Their ftaffs, 
or rods defcribed, ibid. Are of great ufe in 
divination, and alluded to by one of the pro- 
phets, ibid. The ufe of their rods, or ftaffs, 
from whence ori^;inally derived, ibid. That of 
Tir,/:as, how calL=d by Homer, ibid. And thofe 
fcepters, ftaffs, clubs, caducei, (Jc. of '.he Gods 
all derived from the fame original, ibid, 

Atiguj}, called Boedromian, why, and by whom, 

p. 41. n. 98. 
Authority (of kings) from whom derived, p. 16. 

n. 124 
Aaenia, a mountain of Arcadia, for what particu- 
larly famous, p. 86. n. 316 
B. 
Baal-Sephon, the idolatry paid to him the fame with 
the worlhip paid to /Ipollo by the Hyperboreans, 
p I 20. n. 398. The term explained, ibid. 
Baal (priells of) their ceremony of running round 
their altars, to what fimilar, p. 123. n. 433 
B^al, his grove defcribed, and by whom, p. \ 54, 

r. 53 

Babel, the manner of the confufion there, and by 

whom 



INDEX. 



whom ejfplairted, p. 129. n. i. The remark- 
able text Let us build, &c. critically explained, 

ibid. 
Bacchus, from whom defcended, and to whom re- 
lated, p. 2. n. 9. His chariot drawn by two 
tygers only, and why, p. 65. n. 141. The af- 
feJlbr oi Ceres, and worlhipped with her, and why, 

p. 1 58. n. 103 
Baku, the manner obferved in preferving their ever- 
lading fire, p. 45- n. 120 

Banier, his account of the crow, raven, and fwan, 
being devoted to Apollo, and why, p. 40. n. 94 
His account of the facred groves belonging to the 
Pagans, p. 58. n, 55, Sets the ftory of Minos, 
which is confounded by moft antient hillorians, 
in a true light, p. 79. n. 263. His account oi Aia- 
lanta referred to, p. 82. n. 292. Attached to a 
fyllem, yet forced fometimes to fpeak cut, 

p. 129. n. g 

Barrennefs, looked upon by the female Tex amongll 

the 'Jei'js as a raoit dreadful calamity, and why, 

p 70. n. 1-,- 
Bath (of Pallas) CaUimachui'% hymn to it, and the 
fubjeftofit, what, p. 127. n. \ 

Battus, the founder of the city of Qreae, his re- 
markable ftory, beautifully and pioufly intro- 
duced by Callimachus in his hymn to Apollo, p. 40 
n. 92. Why fo called, and his original name, 
what, ibid. 

Beard, the ftroking it a mark of afFeftion amongft 
the antients, but plucking it an affront, p. 56 

n. 35 

Beards, the fhaving of them, amongll the antients, 

a token cf grief, according to Oii/V and Statius, 

p. 69. n. 174 
Bies^ fuppofed to have been Jupiter i nurfes in his 
infancy, and to have been protefted by him, 
p. 10. n. 78. Their golden colour accounted for 
by Diodunts, ibid. Are called by Callimachus 
Panacrian bees, and why, ibid. Defcriptions of 
them by yirgil, D:cdortts and Drydeii, ibid. 

Bcll-floiuers, of what the emblem, p. 43. n. 115, and 

118 

Bentley (Dr. jun.) miflaken in his ciiticifm, p. 8. 

n. 61. Afperfes Grono'vius irjudicioufly, p. 13 

n. 99 
Berenice {the confort of Pi'o/(?ai)') Callimachus'' ^ com- 
pliment on her, p. 178 ep. 17. Her lock de- 
fcribed, p. 179, izf Jeq. What called fo by Co - 
>:on and Callimachus, p. iSi. n. 36. The llory 
. of it at large, ibid. Why called magnanimouj, 
p. 182. n. 36. Her lock, why fuppoftd to be 
carried up to the heavens wet, according to 
Pcjjlus, p. 184. n. 86 

Bhickmore (Sir Riihardj his defcription of the Spnr- 
ton dogs, P' 63. n. 1 16 

Blo.ckivall, his chara£ler of the compliment paid by 
Callimachus to king Ptolemy, p. 31. n. 41. His 
• high encomium of a paffage of St. Paul, in his 
epiftle to the Epheji&ns, P- 32. n. xi 

S 



Blejfmgs that attend the virtuous beautifully de- 

fcribed, p. 70, i3 feq. n. 179, and 184 

Bochait, his charafler of goat's milk, p 9. n. 7; 

His etymology of the ifland Dehi, what, p. 9^. 

n. 61 

Boedromian, Apollo fo called, by wTiom, and why, 

p. 41. n. 9S. 7'he month of Augujl fo called by 

whom, and why, ibid. A feftival fo called by 

the Athenians, and why, ibij. 

Bride (a virgin one) how defcribed by Mr. Rc-j.e, 

p. I 8i . n. 22 

Britcmartis, the name of a nymph, from whence 

derived, and the fignification thereof, what, p. 79 

n. 263. Not aicribed by Callimachus to Diana, 

Hid. 
Brontes, who, and his gifts to Diana, w|iat, p. 62. 

n. 100 
Butter and Honey, the food of Chrift, p. 10. n. 75 



Cahir, D/Vra fo called, and why, p. 85. n 310 

Cabiri, or Cabirim, the term from whence derived, 
and its fignification, what, ibid. 

Caeratus, the city of Cncjfus, fo called, and why, 

p. 58. n. 62 

Cain, hisdefcendamshow diftinguiflied in Scripture, 

p 2. n 3 

Calathus, its ceremonies obferved by king Ptolemy 
ZX Alexandria, in honour of Ceres, p 14.7. n. i 
To be viewed only Handing on the ground, and 
why, p. 149. n. 5. Drawn by four raiik-whiti 
horfes, and why, p. 163. n. 161). With what 
filled, p. 164. n. 179. The canilfers how filled, 
ibid. The ceremony performed in the evenin?, 
and why, p. 149. n. To 

Callimachus, is proved by Spanheim to be acquainted 
with the Septuagint tranflation of the Bible, p. 2. 
n. 3. If not, he had a peifeft idea of the con- 
fufion at Babel, by tradition, ibid. His enco- 
mium on king P/o/</n)', p. 17. n. 133. Is juflly 
admired as a mafter-piece, ibid. Is overlooked 
and miftranflated by Mr. Prior, ibid. A beau- 
tiful paiTage of his, how applied ai.d improved 
by Spanheim, p. 1 8 n. 1 40. Is too fevercly 
criticifed on by iVIr. D.tvjs, and for what, p. 18. 
n 146. Is vindicated by 5/f/i/^,?/y, and how, ib. 
Js cenfured by Ovid, and for what, p. ig. n. 146 
Is vindicated by the tranflator and how, p. iO 
n. 146. Is an excellent moralift, and wherein, 
ibid. His prayer for wealth addeJ to virtue, a 
wife one, p. 20. n. 151. Is firailar to that of 
Agur, ibid. A pall'age of his juftly interpreted by 
])r. Beiitley, and followed by the trarflitor, and 
why, p. 28. n. 24. His introduftion tj the llory 
o\ Battus, founder ol Cyrene, his fairih place, an 
argument of his piety, p. 40. n. 92. Envied by 
his enemies, and why, p. 50 n. 140 Was a 
great lover of concifenefs, ib-d. V\as jealous of 
Apollonius Rkodius, ibid. A Faffage in his hymn 
to Diana peculiarly excellent and fublime, p. 63. 

a. I i<f 



INDEX. 



11. 114. Bears a fimilituik to that in Mo/es, Let 
there be light, &c. ibid. A fimilar pafi'age in the 
Pfalms, ibid. Spanheitni encomium on it, ibid. 
Remarkably excellent, where he denounces curfes 
On the unrighteous, and pronounces bleflings on 
the virtuous, and for what reafon, p. 69. n. 170 
Kis pra)xr, at the clofe of his hymn to Ceres, fi- 
milar to that of the publican in Scripture, p. 1 56 
1). 199. His epigrams, i^c. p. 169, & feq. 
His epigram on himfelf, p. 174.. ep. 8, Ano- 
ther, ep. 13. His compliment on Berenice, p 178 

ep. 17 

Ca/iJJi), from whom defcended, by whom ravifhed, 

and by whom transformed into a (he- bear, p. g, 

r. 69. Her ftory hiftorically explained, ibid. 

Carjif/a, the huntrefs, beautifully defcribed by 

firgil, p. 82. n. 282 

Carnean, who fo called, and why, p. 48. n. 142 

CniuUus, his character of Minos, what, p. 79. n.263 

(Centurion, his opinion of our Saviour referred to, 

p. 17. n. 124 
Ccrfs, Callimaehus'i hymn to her, p. 147, bf feq. 
Her chariot drawn by ferpents, the number only 
two, and why, p. 65. n. 141. Wh.it meant by 
the appellation, and what attributes afligned her, 
p. 148. n. I. Her nama in Greek what, and 
from whence derived, ibid. Is fuppofed to be 
the moon, and why, ibid. Her feliival, and all 
others of the like kind from whence derived, ibid. 
What meant by her feeking her daughter Pro- 
ferfine, p. 149. n. 10. Is reprefented by the 
■antients as drawn by ferpents, with a torch in 
her hand, and why, ibid. Her attribute of torch- 
bearerjisff. phyfically right according to Scripture, 
p. 150. n. 10. Is called Z,f^i/;;vf, or lawgiver, 
and why, p itji. n. 32. The feall of Pentecofi 
called the feaft of giving the law, ibid. Refigns her 
car to Triptolemus, p. ic;2. n. 33. Her name 
from whence derived, and its original fignification, 
what, ibid. Her grove defcribed, p. 153. n. 41 
The trees facred to her, p. 15J. n. 63. Is re- 
prefented with a crown of corn and poppies, and 
why, ibid. Key- bearer, its meaning, ibid. Had 
Bacchus for her afleflbr, and why, p. 15;. n. 63 
No Goddefs without peace, p. 165. n. 197. 
Called thrice adored, p. 166. n. lyg 

Ch.iriclo, a practical reflexion drawn from her ca- 
lamities, p. 137. n. 88. Her wild deportment 
under her affliftions, with a particular reflcftion 
on her ill conJuft, p. J 39. n. 96. 

C'AaViiH, E-ve, fo named by Adam, and why, p. 49. 
n. 142. The term explained, ibid. 

Chefias, Diana, fo called, as well as yuno, p. 84. 
n. 310. The name fiom whence derived, ibid. 
Cherubim, its compofition defcribed, p. 15. n. 107 
VVas a fymbolical reprefentation of the Trinity 
in Unity, and wherein, ibid. By idolaters how- 
ever mifapplied, and mifunderftood, ibid. Moll 
of tlie abufes in the heathen mythology arifing 
/roDi it, ibid. How defcribed on the walls of the 



JeiMiJh temple, p. 2 ;. n. J. Of what the emblem, 

ibid. Firft fet up at the expulfion of Adam from 

paradife, and why, p. 33. n.47. fully explained 

and decyphered, Appeiid. ■^. z\o 

ChriJ}, the fecond perfon in the facred Trinity, how 

defcribed, p. 33. n.47. Called by the Saxons 

AU-hael, and why, p. 36. n. 62. His Di'vinity 

proved, p. 144. n. 164, and p. 138. n. 96. 

Cicero, his account of three Jupiters, two of them 

Arcadian kings, and the other a Crete.n, p. 2. n. q 

His account of the Cretans, ibid.. 

Cimmerians, who, and their outrages, what, p. 83 

n. 341 

Circe, her rod, the power of it, and from whence 

arifing, p. 142. n. 192 

Cifta or Canifier, ufed in the ceremonies of Bacchus 

as well as Ceres, howfurrounded, and how drawn, 

p. 164 n. i7g 

Clarian, Apollo fo called, and why, p. 41- n. 98 

Ciilone, why fo called, p. 84. n. 306. Where 

worlhipped in particular, and on what account, 

p. 84. n. 308 
CnoJJians, favourites of Diana, and why, p. 58. n. 62 
CnoJJus, where fituate, p. t^ 

Coelus, father of one of the Arcadian Jupiters, or 
kings according to Cicero, p. 2. n. 9 

Corybante's, build a tomb for their Jupiters, and 
with what view, p. 4. n. 18. Their martial 
manner of dancing round y;//7Vrr, p. it. n. 79 
Contentment, exemplified, p. 175. ep. 11 

Cretans, their odious character on account of their 
/hewing Jupiter i tomb, p. 3. n. 15. Their 
charailers drawn by Lucnn and Cicero, ibid. A 
quotation from St. Paul from Epimcmdes, in re- 
lation to them, ibid. 
Crete, remarkable for the folemnization of Diana'i 
feflival there by its inhabitants, p. 79. n. 263 
Crocus, of what emblematical, and how defcribed by 
the gardeners, p. 43. n. 118. The term from 
whence derived, and its fignification what, p. 44. 

n. 1 18. 
Crciv, remarkable for its blacknefs, dedicated to 
Jlpolh, and why, p. 40. n. 94 

Cujiotm (religious) of the heathens, confirm the 
truth of Divine Revelation, p. 7. n. 51. Of 
ulhering in Apollowith mufic, hymns, and dancing, 
borrowed from the Je-i'-i/h ceremonies, p.iy n. 20 
Curfes that attend the wicked enumerated and de- 
fcribed, p. 69. n. 1 -4 
Cyclades (iflands) efteemed the moft facred in the 
world, and why, p. 91. «• i. Called circling 
ifles, and why, p. 122. n. 414 
Cyclops, the place of their abode, where, and their 
iflands how defcribed by Virgil, p. i^c). n. 68. 
An account of them, and of their inonfter Polf' 
pheir.e defcribed by Ho?ner, ibid. To what com- 
pared by Callimachvs, ibid. Wiiy fo called ac- 
cording to Hefiod, ibid. Their eyes to what com- 
pared by Virgil, ibid. The fame with the fun, 

append, p. 2i i 
Cjrent 



N D 



X. 



Cyene (the city) by whom built, p. 42. n. 104. 
Peculiarly remarkable for its fragrant rofcs and 
faffron, p. 4+. n. 118. (The wife oi Apollo) an 
account of his amour, and her exploits, p. 46. 
n. 1 25. Why called Hrpftis, ibid. His viftory 
over a lion, wheie gained, and related at large 
by Pindar, p 8z. n. 282 

Cjrianajh, one of the daughters of king Piatus, 
how puniflied by 'Juno, and for what, and how 
cured by ilWi;ff//H/, ox Diana, p. i^6 n. 316 

C)z:cum, a miracle pertormed there by the goJdefs 
Rhea, according 10 ApoUonius, p. 7. n. 5 i 

D. 

Vames (circi:lar) praftiled by the heathens round 
the altar of ^?«/''«, and why, p. 26. n. 11, for- 
merly imitated by the country people in England 
round a may-po'e, and wliy, ibid. 

Diiui, too fevcre in his cnticifm on Cal/imachus, 

p. iS, n. I s6 

Deitifs, the inadvertent fight of them fatal, p . 135, 
n ^8. The notion from wher.ce it proceeded, ;^/.A 

Delian palm, to whom dedicated by the heathens, 
and how to be accounted for, p. 25, n. 5 

Ddos efteemed the moll facred place in the world, 
and why, p. 90. n. i. Why faid to be fteadfaft and 
unfhaken, p. 92. n. 13. Her peculiar guardian, 
who, p. 93. n. 2S. Had various names, p. 04. 
n. 43. its various etymologies, p. 95. n. 55. 
An antient epigram upon it, p 109. n. 254. 
Formerly called pyrpoles, or pyrpiles, and why, 
p. 1 10. n. 263. Why call'd Deles, p. iii. n. 
263. All became golden there, when, and \\\iv, 
p. 116. n. 354. Its foil called golden by Cal- 
timachus, ibid How particularly privileg'd, p. 
ic8. n. 37S. The ftatue o{ T^.v/j there, how 
honoured hy Tlefctis, Sec. p. 122. n. 414 The 
veneration paid to it univerlal, p. 123. n. 433, 
The ceremony of running roi:nd the altar of 
Apcllo there, very fingular and particularly de- 
fcrib'd, ibid. Similar to the ceremony, obferv'd 
by the prieils of Bi:til, ibid. The import of that 
circular n^otion, what, ibid. A cuftom of the 
like nature obferv'd by the Arcadians, in honour 
of their god Pan, p. 1 33. n. 433. Is call'd the 
Ktyi-a of tlie iflands, and'why, p. 124. n. 433. 
Deucalion, his ftory fimilar to that of Aoff/-", p. 125. 
n. 441. Particulars wherein he refembles 
Noah, p- 125. n . 44 1 . 

Dir.na, her arrows how explain'd, p. 9. n. 6g. Is 
filler to .V/^/Zo, her title, and what fhe reprefents 
in the heathen Aftem, p. ^2 n. 1. Her fpeech 
as introduced by CaUimachus, entirely becoming 
her, and how her petitions are to be und' rftocd, 
p. 53. n. S. Is always a vi'gin, and why, ibid. 
\Vhv faid to emit her darts, and to hunt wild 
b;aft% :bi:. Why accompanied with many 
n.mihs, ibid. Why iaid to be the guardian of 
mounta:ns, and goddifs of the groves, /■'vV. 
Petitions lor perpeuai virginity, and w)iy, ibid. 
Her pttition to '.'ear light, to what applicable, 
p. 54, n. I 5. How reprelentcd, and the names 



given her, what, and why, ibid. Where faid to 
be begotten, and in what river to bathe, p. cj, 
n. 20. Said to be the fame with '.he moon, and 
by whom, p. 56, n. 31. Is call'd Orr.m-vaga, 
and w hy, tbid. Why call'd Dian.T, and why 
particularly invok'd to the affiliance of child- 
bearing women, ibid. Is faid to prefide over 
ports, and why, p. 57, n. 46. Her chariot 
drav'.n by tw^ ftags, and not [ZiSpanhiim fays) 
by four, p. 61;, n 141. S;ags facred to her, and 
why, ib:d. Her drefs and ornaments all golden 
as well as Apouo'%, p. 67, n. 146. Frequents 
mount Hanius, and why, p. 67, n. 153. By 
whom, and where particularly wordiipped ibid. 
Procures the attribute of torch-bearer, and from 
whence, p. 67, n. 155. Is fometimes call'd 
Ludfera, and why, p. 68, n. 158. 1 he manner 
of lighting her torch, and to what it alludes, 
ibid. Fler bow faid to be a filver one, and wh;', 
p. 68, n.iqS. Her entrance into the celeftial 
regions, beautifully dcfcnb'd, p. 72. n. 199. 
Is laid to be met by Apollo and Mercurv, in Hea- 
ven, and why, ibid. Is call'd the night's eye, 
and by whom. Hid. Is call'd likewife Difiynna, 
and by whom, ibid. The provender for her 
flags what, p. 76, n. 231. Is ail allegorical, 
and of what, ibid. Her approach to htr father's 
court, gives a lively idea of the moon and ftars 
rifing in all their glory, p 77, n. 236. The 
manner how her worlhippers obi'erv'd her folemn 
feftivals exphin'd, p. 77. n. 239. Her feftivals 
when and where lolemniz'd, p. 78, n. 248. The 
fun himfelf fiid to Hand Hill at them, ibid. How 
applicat'le to its Handing ftill at Gibeon, ibid. 
VVas particulaily worfhipp'd at /"/r^i?, and why, 
p. 70, n. 258. Is call'd Pa-gaia, ibid. Had 
a feflival at Laced. tn:on, and iv hat call'd, p. 79, 
n. 263. The pine-tree facred 10 her, and pecu- 
liarly appropriated to virgins by various authors, 
p. 81, n. 276. Was attended by Vpis, or_ Opis, 
2nd why, p. 81, n, 27 J. Her hymns all call'd 
Upingi, by the 'Trazenians, ibid. Was faid to 
be the proteftrefs of the famous city Miktui, p. 
84, n. 308. Is thought to be the fame with 
Juno. p. 2^, n. 310. Is call'd Chofta', as alfo 
Imbrap.a, ibid. Is thought to be the fame by 
Ser-vius, with Lu':a, Certs, "Juno, Proftrfine, &C. 
Hid. Is faid to cure the Pnr flues of their mad- 
refs, and ihe fa.our how gratefully acknowledged 
by the king their father, p. 86, n. 316. Her 
f.ril temple at £/■/'• /;<.', by whom founded, p. 07, 
n. 323. Her ftatue, of wha: made, and by whom, 
ibid. Her fetond temple more magnificent than 
lier firll, ibid. The firll when burnt, by whom, 
and with what vievv, Hid ) he fee. nd, when 
burnt, ibid, Is called Municlyn, ard why, p. 89. 
n. 352 Punifties Omeus, for what, and how, 
ibid. Pun (hes/Z^amrwisow, for what, and how, ibid. 
Punifhes Otus, and for what, p 89, n. 359. Is 
reprefented as drawn by ftagf, and why, 
128, n. 7. What intended thereby, ibid. 

f S Viae, 



N 



D E X. 



Di^e, to whom peculiarly I'acrcd, p So, n. 273. 
Di^snm, a faiourite mountain Qi' Dia/ia, firft re- 
ibrteJ to by her, and why, p. 58, n. 5S. To 
w!:om peculiarly facred, iiij. 

Da Coiife'ites, or Mujont/n Gentium, called Cabiri, 
and why, and by whom worfhipp'd,p. 85, n. 310. 
Miiiavum Gintium, from whom adopted, ibid. 
Thefe lafl not allow'd by the philofophers to be 
Godj and why, ibid. 

Diodortis, his account of the golden colour of bees, 
tjV. P 10, n. 78. 

Diomcd, how favoured by Pallns, p. 133, n. 43. 
His expedition with Ul\ffes fuccefsful, and by 
what means, /7:/./. !s rendered immortal, and by 
whom, according to Pindrr, ibid. His {hield 
where hung up , and why (o honour'd, ibid. Is 
worfliipp'd as a Gcd, ibid. The fignification of his 
name, what, ilid. 

Di^jfiu'i, from whom defcended, and to whom re- 
lated, p. 85, n. 315. 
Dine, a fountiin, and where fituate, p. 98, n. 91. 
Difcord, how defcrib'd by Hcw.vr, p. 1 57, n. 85, 
Divination, (by (he flight of birds) learnedly ex- 
plain'd, and by whom, p. 142, n. 149. The 
cullom from whence taken, ibid. 
Dodona, Jupiter i oracle there of a fmgular kind, 
and very antient, p. iig, n. 392. How reflor'd, 
and by whom, after the flood, ibid. Its ftory has 
a remarkable reference to the affairs of No«h, ibid. 
The term from whence deriv'd, ibid. Its brafs 
always found, and by what means, p. i zo, n. ^92. 
Its two brazen pillars feem at leail to refer to 
thofe before the temple of SoIokoii, ibid. Of 
what the reprefentatives, ibid. The place where 
Dutcalicn re^ei, and why fo call'd, p. 126, n. 
441. (A fea nymph) the fignification of ihe 
term, ibid. 
Dogs, (Spartan) what call'd by CalUmachus, and 
why, p. 63, n. 116. How defcrib'd by Sir 
RicharA Blackmnrr, P- 63, n.li6. 
Druids, why fo call d, and their great veneraiion 
for the oakexplain'd, P- 76, n. 224. 
Dryden, his defcription of the bees, p. 10, n. yi. 
Drycpie, the king thereof flaln by Hercules, and for 
what, p. 76, n. 228. 
E. 
Eegbe, the charafter of that bird, by Cjllijnachiis 
zr\d Horace, p. 14, n. 107. Is appropriated to 
Jupiter, and call'd his '.hunder bearer, p 1 5, n. 
107. The mythologies puzzled to account forit, 
ibid. Is to be no way folv'd but by fcripture, ibid. 
Was a fymbol of the air.and worfliipp'd by the an- 
cients as fuch, ibid. The veafon why it came to 
be fo, ibid. Spoken of at large, App. p. 210 
Earth, manform'dof the dud of it, p. 2, n. 3. Is 
cairdHADMiH in the //i^mu, to which the 
term Adam has a near afHnicy, ibid. 
Earth-born, who fo call'd, and wherefore, ibid. 
Et, a remarkable infcription on the door of At>r)llo\ 
ttmple, its affinity to the /ft^fw term, (Jah) p. 



31, n. 34. Its proper fignification, what, ibid. 
EI, ox IE, [its reverfej from whence deriv'd, and of 
wli2t BApreflive, P- 49> n. 142. 

EUufinian, [myfteiies] what, the fixth day of their 
folemnization, what call'd, and why, and the 
perfons that officiated theiein, how named, 

p. 164, n. 179. 

Ephefus, a colony led thither, and by whom, p. 84, 

n. 308 Bees frequently feen on the coin there, 

and why, ibid. 

Epidcmia, of Apollo, what, and how defcrib'd by 

Virgil, p. 27, n. 20. 

Epigram, [of CalUmachus'] feleft and excellent in 

their kind, p. 1 69, iif fcq. Their firft original 

inten:i;)n, what, ibid. A compleat diflertation on 

them where to be found, ilia. 

Epijrunida, his fatyrical charafter of r.\\Q Cretans, 

and why, p. 3. n i ^. Is call'd a prophet, and 

a divine man, and why, ibid. Is quoted by St. 

Paul, in regard to the charafler of the Gentiles, 

ibid. 

Erojlatus, fets the temple oi Diana at Ephefus on fire, 

and with what view, p. 87, n. 323. 

Eryfichtoit, his flory of deflroying Ctr.j's grove, from 

whence taken, p. n;4, n. 52. His llory told by 

Oind, Hid. His punifhment, and excefs of hunger 

defcrib'd, p. 158, y /fj. 

F. 

Fair, [fex] the flying one's moft purfu'd, and the too 

eafy commonly defpis'd, p. 175, n. on Ep. 12. 

Fan.e, how de'crib'd by /'»-^;/, p. 157, n. 86. 

Tales, deem'd by the antients fuperior to all their 

deities, p. 140, n. 131.- 

Firc, of the heathens, of what the emblem, 

p. 22, isc. 

Fires, [perpetual] kept up in honour of ripollo, and 

why, p. 45, n- 120. Kept up in like manner 

upon ihe Jt-ivip altars, ihid. 

-■ the ceremony of burning them perpetually, 

in honour of the Gods very antient, p. 45, n» 

I 20. Peculiarly regarded by the Fcrjians, ibid. 

A particular detail of the manner of preferving 

them at Baku, ibid. 

Firjhfruils, the cuftom of ofi"ering them prior to 

Mcfes, and as old as the fall, p. 118, n. 381. 

Their reference to fcripture, ibid. This tribute 

paid to Apollo, or theSa//, by all naions fimilar 

to the veneration paid to the temole at 'Jerufalem 

by all Jeivs in general, ib:d. The pioceflion of 

this holy offering to Delos defcrib'd, ibid. 

Flejh, all naturally unclean, p. j, n. 30. 

Flo-iuers, [moft of them] of what their emblem, p. 

43, n. 1 15. more particularly the bell flowerand 

thelilly, ibid. Great ule made of iheminthc 

Jeivi/ti ceremonies, and why, ibid. Of gold 

plac'd on the high prieil's forehead, and why, 

ibid. 

Fountains, and rivers fubjeil to decay, fee OwV/ 

Metam. 1. 3iv. p. 6, n, 33. 

Fraud's, Chrift, the fum of the holy fcnptures 

highly 



N D E X. 



highly recommendeJ, p. 144, n. 164. 

FrifJjlinus, an able commentator, hisanuotalion o\\ 
Z)i«;/ij's fpcech, ingenious, and why, p. 53. 

G. 

Gabriel, the angel, how dcfcrib'd by M//««, p. 35, 
n. 60. .And by laffo, ibid. 

Galen, liis opinion of goat's milk, p. 10, n. 75. 

Giants, how cal'ed in the llcbreiu, and the meaninj; 
of the term, p 2, n. 3. Who they were, and 
from whence they deriv'd their pedigree, ibiJ. 
How they became fo, ib.d. How the/ became 
fcatter d, ibid, (their battle) the fablt to what 
finiilnr, p 1 39, n. i. 

Gideon 'his (lory, p, 153, n 52. 

Gigantophantis, a name given to Pallas, and why, 

•J1. I2g, n. I. 

Goat, why p'ac'd among the ftars, and by whom, 

p. 10, n.75. 

Go Tt^s-milk, its peculiar virtues acco.-ding to Bocbnrt 
a.nd S'.lomofi, P- 9> "• 7v 

Gad, (the true) how beautifully defcrib'd in fcrip- 
ture, p. 1 1;7, n. 86. 

Gods, thought by the antients to be the condudors 
of colonies, under various fliapes, and whar, 

p. 84, n. 308. 

GJd, made very great ufe of in the furni'.ure of the 
temple, p. 34, n 52. Of wh^t the emblem, 
ib:d. A crown made of it for the ufe of the 
kings of Ifrai.l, ibid. " How furm'd, and of what 
the reprefentation, ilid. 

Giieks, their women conftantly wafli'd themfelves 
by way of purification, a'ter child-birth, p, 5, 
n. 30. The cuftom not to be accounted for, but 
by having recourfe to the original inftitution ef 
p'jrihcation by water, ibid. Peculiarly fond of 
teaching their children mufic, and why, p. 26, n. 
• I. ConfulteJ the De'phic oracle, and why, 

p. 3S, n. 78. 

Gronovius, vindicated from the aflertions of Dr. 

B em ley, p. 13, n 99. 

Cro'Vfs, (facred) cufl-omarily furrounded the /'fl^.'« 

temples ai d ahars and whv, p. 58, n. 55. The 

ufe of them toibidd.n by God to the Jews, ibid. 

That of f.'(:7-,.\f tiefcrib'd, p. 153, n 41. A'l in 

genera! facred to the heathen deities, ibid Were 

a great abomination 10 the people of God, and 

why, ibid. Their origin Ir.jm whence taken, r'-'V. 

By wi.om deftioy'd, p. 153, n. 52. That of £««/ 

defcrib'd, and by whom celtroy'd, p. i 54, n. 52. 

H. 

HADMeU,z !'eb:cn.<j term, its oiiginal meaning,what, 

p.2,n.3. It manifeft aiEnitywih ihe HebreiM term, 

HaUaM, or j^dam, the name of our firft parent, 

ibid. 

Hoemus, a favourite mountain of D/fl»<7,p, 67, n 153. 

Hair, the locks ot it to be dedicated at marriage, to 

whom, by whom, and for what purpofe, p. 121, 

n. 348. Of what 'he lymbol, ;o.v/. ■S'..7«;>/5'.''s leven 

locks, in which hi-: ftrength lay accounted (or,ib.d. 

UalUliijih, its proptrfignification, what, p. 31, n, 34, 



Hamadryads, fee Dryads, 

Hamlet, a quotation from that play of hhahfpiar, 

p. 20, n. 151. 

Hammond, {Dr,} his obfervaion on the proverb of 
E,.imtnedes, quoted by St. Paul, p 3, n. 15. 

Ha/,:., of what the emblem, p. 180, n. 12. Af- 
crib'd to God in Icripture, and wi.y, iad. When 
lifted up in r'-lig'ous worfhip of what expr* ffive. 
ibid. Why upwards rather than downwar'!s, 

ibid. 

Hare, faiJ to be fleeplefs, and why, p. 64, n. iz;. 
(Sleepin-J.) a proverb, and how applied by Erafmus, 
ibid. His eye defcrib'd, and how, hy Ch .ambers, 

ibid. 

Hayvian, the tranflator's remarks on one of his cuts, 
or print', intended for the hiftory of E>:glaiid, 
call'd the converfion of the Britons to chriilianity, 

p. 76, n. 224. 

Heathens, their miftakes in regard to their idolatrous 
worfhip, to be accounted for from divine revela- 
tion, p. 22. Their trinity, what, ?'^;V?. The di- 
ftinifl offices of their trinity, what, ibid. Their 
prajers condemn'd by our laviour, and for what 
in particular, p. 54, n. g. Inexcufable in not on- 
ly making their ^'i/;»-<:OTf i^e/()' prone to luft, but 
triumphing in his debaucheries, p 57, n 41. 

H.raergus, .ipdlo fo call'd, and why, p. t 2 1 , n. 398. 

Hecale, a long poem of Callimachui's, and on what 
account compoled, p. <i, n. 149. 

Hele», czWdi Rhamnu/ian, and why, p. 85, n 315. 
From whom del'cended, ibid. 

Hercules, from whom defcended, and how employ 'd 
hy Juno, p 66, n. I42. Where fituated by CW- 
/.•w.tfZ'«', and why, p. 73, n. zoo. His names 
of Addepbagus and Pnmphagus, from whence de- 
riv'd, i':id His goblet almoll as famous as him- 
felf, ibid. His failing in a cup, in order to lave 
Prometheus, how allegoriz'd by lord Bacon, ibid. 
His Ipecchmoft judicioufly penn'd,by Ca/Z/V/McAaj-, 
and exaft'y in charafter, p. 74, n. 214. Is call'd 
Alextkakos, and io'.er, by Chryfcfiom, and why, 
ibid. Is look'd upon as a faviour, and by whom, 
ibid. Is a pagan copy of the Mtjjiah, as moft of 
the heroes of antiquity were, according to 'ro«/-»f- 
7!:ine, ilid. T he account of his death by Av/fCi?, 
borrowed probably from the account deliver'd to 
Tiberius at Ro?ne, of our faviour's death upon 
mount C.'/x'flry, ibid. His corruptible part im- 
mortaliz'd, beautifully defcrib'd by Seneca, p. 74, 
n. 216. How fimllar this to icrip:ure, 7^/V/. His 
immortalizing or fhaking off liis human nature, 
and affuming the divine under the oak-tree very 
remarkable, p. 75, n. 224. Was an imperfetl 
figure of the fecond- perlbn in the trinity, p. 76, 
n. 224. Slays the kin^ of Dryojia, and why, p. 
76, n. 228 Was call'd afterwards Bouphagits, 
and why, ibid. 

Heroines, the manner of bi inging forth their oft. 
fpring according to madam Dacier, p. 56, n. 3-5. 

Hefiod, his fcntJments in regard to the power and 
'!•" f 2 authority 



N D 



X. 



authority of kings, p. if, n. 124. A beautiful 
palTage of his relating to the power of the Mufes, 

p. zg, n. 32. 
Hieroglyphics, the beft way of preferving knowledge, 
and conveying it to pofterity, before the revela- 
tion of literal writing, p. 22. 
Hcllj^jjay, (the Rev. ) his explication of the term 
Lit, ■p. 124, n. 441. His book entitled originals, 
commended, p. 153, n. 41. 
Hod^cs, (Dr.) his £//y!i« quoted, P- 49> n 147 
Homcr^ his fentiments in regard to the power and 
ajtiioriy of kings, p 16, n. 124. Concludes 
his hymn to Vulcan, with the fame petition as 
(.nlltmachus, p. 20, n. 151. As alio that to 
Hercules, ibid. His charadler of Minis, p. 79, 

n. 263. 

Honry, and milk, thfir fpiritual import, p. 9, n. 75. 

Horace, his character of the E s^le, p. 14, n. 107. 

His notion of ixieulth as necefl'ary to be join'd with 

Virtue, p. z\, n. 151. His fentiments in regard 

to the power and authority of kings, p. 1 6, n 1 24. 

Horned, (animals) to whom particularly confecrated, 

p. 6;, n. 132. 
Herns, an altar erefted by ApoHo with thofe materi- 
als, a d the wonder of the world, p. 39, n. 8,-. 
Of what the reprefentation according to the an- 
cient Heitthens. ibid. Of what the emblem in fcrip- 
ture, p. 39, n. 8c;. The abufe of them, as an 
emblem very anticnt, ibid. Their various figni- 
fications, what, ibid. 

Hunger, the miferies of it, how defcrib'd by O-vid, 

p. 161, n. 145. 
Hunter, (the) how defcrib'd by Horace, p. 175, 

n. on Ep. xii. 

HuntreJJes, howpiiftur'dby the antients, p. 8 :, n. 2S8. 

Hymns, a kind of prize poems, and why wrote, p. 

91, n. I . That to Dilos, why wrote by Callima- 

chus and Pindar, ibid. 

I. 

Ida, one of Jupiter s nurfes Jehovah, p. 8, n. 6i. 

p. 128, n. 96 

Jerom, (St.) his obfervations on blindnef?, by way of 

confolation, what, p. 141, n. 149. 

Jerufalem, the fatal efiefls of the fiege of it de- 

fcrib'd, p. 70, n. 175. 

Imbrajia, Diana fo ca'l'd as well as Junt}, p. 84, n. 

310. 
htconftancy, the ill confequences of it exemplified, 

p. 174, and Jiq. Ep. x. 

Infants, zs foon as born, laid down on the ground by 

the antients, and the cuilom accounted for, 

p.u6, n. 354. 
lo, loPtnan, ex^plain'd at large, p. 30, n, 34. 

lalcos, where fituate, and for what remaikable, 

p. 82, n 282. 
Jpponc'e, the daughter of king Frttin, how puni(h"d, 
and for what, and how cur'd either by hlclampus, 
or Diana, p. 86, n. 3 1 6. 

Iris, her fpeech very beautiful, and her manner of 
addrefs peculiarly artful, p. 112, n. zqt^.Callima- 
t}}uss accuracy viAble, in his appropriating Iris to 



Juno, ibid. The Phenomenon defcrib'd by all the 
philosophers, and by fcripture, p. i i2,n. 295. 

Ijmenus, a river, and vvhtre fituate, p. 98, n. 91. 

Ith'jme, one of Jupiter's nurfe-^, p. 8, n. 61. 

y«ao, turns Ca/li/lo into a Ihe-bear, and why, p, g, 
n. 69. Is caird the jealous i;oddefs, and why, p. 
57, n. 41. In the heathen fyllem, what, p. 76, 
n. 231. Her meadows ot what produdive, ibid. 
Puniihes the Pratidcs, how, and for what, p. 86, 
n. ^16. Her execration againil yljleria, or Delos, 
ar.d all the concubines of Jove, p. 114, n 321. 

Jupiter, Caltimachus's hymn to him, p. I , iff fej. 
Libations to be pad to him, p. i, n. i. His 
omnipotence defcrib'd, ibid. His attribute of 
fcatierer or difperfer of the giants, p. i, n. 3. 
How worihipp'd by his votaries, p. 2, n. g. His 
birthplace much difputed, and by whom, ibid. 
The conteft decided by Calhmachus, ibid. His 
education, where, and by whom nurs'd, ibid. 
the number of his nuifes according to Cicero, p. 
2, n. 9. The number of them according to 
Cnllimachus, p. 8, n. 6t. The number of them 
according to faufanias, ibid. Had feveral others, 
and who, ibid. One of the Arcadian king=, from 
whom defcended, and to whom related, ibid A 
Cretan king, from whom defcended and to whom 
related, ibid. His fepulchre ihewn in C'-ete, ibid. 
A tomb adlually built for him by the Corybantes, 
and with what viev/, p 4, n. 18. His food in his 
infancy, very remarkable, and why, p. to, n. 
75. i he notion of his being fed by bees, and 
being their proreftor, univerfal, p 10, n 78. 
The manner how the Corybantes ufed to dance 
round him, p. ii,n.7g. Ravilhes Ca////?ff, turns 
her into a conltellation, and why, p. 9, n 6g. 
Affumes the fhape of Diana, and proves fuccefs- 
ful in his amour, ibid. His fwift encreafe of 
growth defcrib'd, p. 12, n. 69. its affinity with 
that of our blefied Saviour, ibid. (Olympian) 
how defcrib'd by the i?oOT<2w, p. 15, n. 107. His 
two principal attendants, who, p. 14,11. 105. His 
thunder-bearer, wJio, p. i 5, n. 107. Why par- 
ticularly worfhipp'd by kings, p. 16, n, 124, 
Why plac'd in citadels, or watch-towers, bv Calli- 
machus, p. 17, n. 124. (Capitolinus) why fo 
cali'd by the Romans, ibid. Is fometimes to be 
taken for the Sun, is'c. from whence his attribute 
of /^mmsn u derivd, p. 68, n. i;8. The oak- 
tree facred to him, and why, p. 76, n. 2 :4, His 
ainour with Nemef.s, and the confequences of it, 
what, p. 85, n. 315. Turns himfelf into 3 
Swan, and why, ib.d. Ravilhes JEoina, the 
daughter of Afopus, and under what pretence, p. 
gS, n. 9 1 . His oracle at Dodona prior to the flood, 
l^c. See Dodona. By what animals drawn, p. 
129, n. I. Recompences Tirefias for the lofs of 
his fight, and how, p. 141, n. 149. His nod, 
finely defcrib'd by Homer, ar\d univerfally admired, 
p. 14-, n. 167. His flory of bringing forth A'rtZ/jjj 
out of his head, when Vulcan cleft his fkull, ac- 
curately explain'd, jbld 
3 K. Key. 



N D E 



K. 

Key-hearer, p. 155, n. 63. 

Kings, their power and authority, from whence de- 
riv'd in the opinion of the poets, p. 16, n. 124. 
From whom according to Holomon, ibid. 

L. 

Lacedamon, remarkable for the feftival call'd 
DiBynnia, (icred to Diana, p, 79, n 263. 

Lamb, a J^pe of the Son of God, and a proper offer- 
ing for women under the law, p. 5, n. 30. 

Latona, the term from whence deriv'd, p. 57, n. 81. 
The ftory of her fon flaying the Python, fimilar 
to a paiiage in the Rev. ch. xii, ibid. 

Laurel-tree, why particularly affign'd to Apollo, never 
rightly accounted for by the antients, p. 24, n. 1 . 
Of what emblematical, tbid Nothing more pro- 
per to be afcrib'd to /Apollo, and why, ibid. 

Leda, finds the egg that Kimefis had lain, and 
hatches it, p. 85, n. 315. Its extraordinary pro- 
duce, what, ibid. 

Lelcgtis, the famous city of hliletus, fo call'd by 
Ptiiy, and by whom built, p. 84, n 308. 

Lentijk, us'd in the ceremonies, facred to Diclynr.a, 
Diana, or the Moon, and why, p- 8 1 , n. 27b. Is 
the moft fruitful of trees, according to Horace and 
Aratus. ibid. 

Libation, (the great one) what, p. i. n. i. To 
whom to be paid, ibid. Callimachus'% true fenfe 
of the term, ibid. 

Life, (long) the rev.ard of obedience, p. 71, n. 184. 
The uncertainty of it, p 173, Ep. 6. 

Light (of the Heathens) of what the emblem, p. 22. 
Of what the emblem in Scripture, p. 31, n. 34. 
(Divine) cai'd the rofe of Sharon, and the Lill^ 
of \\m Valley, and why, p. 43, n. iij. De- 
fcrib'd, p. 72, n. 200. 

Light-barer, a title peculiar to Diana and Miner'va, 
and why, p. 54, n. 1 5. 

Lilly, of what the emblem, P'43) "■ ''S- 

Liin, of what the emblem, p. 15, n. 107. 

Lions, facred to Cybele, and draw her chariot, 

p. 65, n. 141. 

Lipara, the habi'a'ion of the Cjr/c/ir, beautifully de- 
fcrib'd by I'irf^il zx\ii Homer, p. 59, n. 68. 

Lock (of Bennice) what fo called by Ccncn and Cn/li- 
machus, p. 181, n. 36. The llory of it told at 
large, ;W. (The ^rt^; of it) a quotation from 
Mr. /V/c, p. I -.3, n. CO. 

Longusr, appropriates the pine-tree to virgiris, and 
why, p 81, n. 276. 

Looking-glajfes, what heretofore, p. 131, n. 15. Sil- 
ver ones brought in by what means, ibid. 

Lot, how explain'd, p. 124, n. 441. 

Lotus, the fin faid to rife from it, and why, p. 1 1 7, 
n. 374. The term from whence deriv'd, ihid. 

Low, (for boys) ihocking and deteftable, p. 176, 

n. on Ep. 1 1^. 

Lixius, Jpollo fo call'd, and why, p. izi. n 398. 

Luct,n, his charafter of the Cretans, p. 3. n. 15. 

Ltuifern, an attribute of Di^'na, and to what it al- 
lodes, p. 08. n. 158. 



Lucina, why {o call'd, according to Cicero, p. 56. 

n. 31. 

Luna, why fo call'd according to Cicerc, ibid. By 
what animal.'- drawn, p. iz;. 

Lupus, a term made ufe of to terrify children when 
refrailory, p. ti, n. 90. 

Lycaon, who, p. 9. 

Lycteus, a mountain, remarkable for the b'rth-place 
of the fupreme ^7"^''^''> ^fd he d in great vene- 
ration by the //r(-«</',»;,\(, on that account, p. 4 n 2 1. 

Lygdamis, who, and his devallations what, p. 83, n. 

341. 

Lyre, [oi Apollo) of what the figure, p. to;, n. 359. 

Lyftppe, (onj of the daughters of \i\ng Pr'art us) how 
punilh'd by Juno, and for what, and how cur'd by 
Melampus, or Diana, p. 86, n. 3 1 0. 

M. 

Macrobius, quoted, p. 124, n. \\\ ,i£ pajfm. 

hlanducus, a term made ufe of by the antients to 
terrify children when refraftory, p. 61, n. qo. 

Mars, his mighty atch;evemer,ts beautifully defcrib'd 
by Callimnchus, p. 104, n 17;. By what animals 
particularly drawn, and their number, p. i 29, n. i ; 

Mafiic, See Lentijk. 

Melah, its meaning, p. 13R, n. 96 > 

Mc'.ian (nymphs) who, and the place of their abode, 
where, p. 9, 

Melifa, her nameexplain'd, p. 10, n 75. Is one of 
Jupiter's nurfes, ibid. 

Mtlifjre, who, p. 51, n. 149. 

Menander, his notion of wealth necefTary to be join'd 
to virtue, " p. 21, n. i ci . 

Mercury, fometimes befmeard with fjot, and for 
what purpofe, p. 61, n. go Is faid to meet Dia- 
7ia, in company with Apollo, at her entrance into 
Heaven, and why, p. 72, n zoo By whom 
worfhipp'd and where plac'd, ib'd. Is called 

. Akckefios, and why, ihid. By what animals in 
particular drawn, p. 129, n. i. His Ca'.u(eus 
having a ferj^ent twilled round it, from wlience 
taken, p. 142, n. 152. 

Mcrcy-jeat, of what the emblem in Icripturc, p. 33, 

n. 47. 

Merit, and fame without wealth, not able to feed a 
man, p. 21, n. 151. 

M>'urJ:i,s, his account of tlie Spartan dogs wor;hy of 
notice, p. 63, n. 116. 

Mi.'c^s, the favourite rcfidence of Diane?, and why, 
p. 84, n. 308. (The old andnew) both menuon'd 
by PJinf, ibid. The former how calld, ibid. 
The latter by whom erefted, ibid. How fituate, 
p. 84, n. 308. The inhabitants remarkab'e for 
their early praflice of navigation, ibid. The 
number of colonies planted by them according to 
Pliny and Seneeet, ibid. The city for what par- 
ticularly famous, ibid. The inhabitants as re- 
markable for their veneration to Diana Ziio Aprils, 
ibid. A grand felb.val there celebrated to her 
honour, and how call'd, ibid. 'J he derivation 
and meaning of the term, ibid. 

Milk, what meant by. it fpiritually, p. 9, n.. 1 1;. 

MiJtont. 



N D E X. 



l\]iltt>i>, his description of the two angels Gabrii I and 

Raphael, from \\\v m i^utat^d. p. 35, n. 60. 

His pathetic compla'nt of his blindneis. and de- 

fire of being reno-vn d as 'Jiiejia!, p i 39, n. 104. 

Mincy-^'a, See PrJias. 

Minos, two prirces of that name, and entirely differ- 
ent in charaiter, hut flrangely confounded by an- 
tient hiftoriai-s, p q, n. 263. H w call d by 
Homer, Ctullits and Hrg^/, and t .e itory how i'et 
r'ght by B.imer. ib'd. 

M'ptae (the excrefcence of the osk) of what in par- 
ticular expreffiie, p. 76,n 2. '4. 

Moon, her power in vegetation, tt;keii notice of in 
Scripture, p 53, n. S. PrefiJc over ports, and 
why, p. 57,0.46. Her accoutrements faid ui be 
of iilver and gold, and why, p. t)8, n. 158. Her 
vegetation clear fiom fcripture, p, 81, n. 26. 
Morn, caird rofy, and why, p. 132, n. 34. Cah'd 
faffron by Homer and V"gil, ar.dwhy, p. 44, n. 

I 18. 
Mofchis, his fentiments in regard to the power and 
authority of kings, p. 16, n. 124. 

Moles, \hu rod) ailonilTiing ftorie? related of its mira- 
culo-is powers by the /^'■•"'{/'•'•'^''^^'f^) P- '42. "• '5^" 
Munychia, Diana (o calTd, and why, p. 89, n. 352. 
Muf.c. the Greeks particularly careful to teach their 
children that fcience, i3'c. why, p. 26, n. 11. 
The power of it beautifully defcnb'd by Mr. 
Pope, and Hcfaii, of which the former is an im- 
provement, p. 29, n. 32. 
M-irtle, never made ufe of in the folemnization of 
'Dianas rites, ai!d why, p. 81, n. 276. Sacred to 
Feinis, '■''"'/• 
Mythology, (of the Heathens I has a conftant reference 
to natural things, according to Sfanhcim,-^- 72, "• 
200. Its threefold divifiou of things very re- 
markable, p. QQ, n. 107. Its grand key, p. 
IQQ. Letters on it quoted, ibid. 
N. 
Uais, one of J/ipittrs mnks, p. 9, n. 71. O'viJ's 
account of her in his Lib. Fuji . ihid. 
J^'anns, the variety of them given to the heathen 
deities, very prejudicial to the fyftcm of the t'a- 
o-«H religion, and why, p. 54, n. 9. The hymns 
of t\\iAiabiaiis to their Gods Huff 'd with nothing 
elfe, l^/i''- 
hautilus, (a remarkable fifh) from whence call'a a 
Polyp, p. 171. A curious defcrip'ion of it,- ibid. 
n. onf/. 3. An account of one taken in the ifland 
of Cos, by whom, and to whom dedicated, ibid. 
}Jeda, one of Jupiter s nurfes, p. 8, n. 61. 
Neleiis, from whom defcended, and for what peculi- 
arly remarkable, P84, n. 308. 
NemefiS, her amour with Jupiter, and the confe- 
quence, what, p. 85, n. 31 5. By whom particj- 
larly worlhipp'd. Hid. Her ftatue erefted 
at i-rj mrm, its height and beauty peculiarly re- 
markable, ibid. Turns herfelf into a goofe, and 
why, 'b'd. 
l^e-PHLIM, an Hebreiv term, its original fignifica- 
tion what, p. 2, n. 3. How render'd by the 



Septuagint, ibid. (Or giants) fiora whom de- 
scended, p. izo, n. I. Their projeft more mad 
than that of the fabulous giants, and why, ihid. 
Nicippa, (prieltefs of Ceres,) how reprefented, 

p. 1^-6, n. 65. 
Nimrod, accounted a kind of giant, and why, p. 129, • 

n. I. 

Kibe, what perfon to be underllood by that name, 

p 29, n. 32. Hated by .^/o//o, and why, p 30.n. 32. 

Nomian, Apollo fo calTd, and why, p. 3S, n. 74. 

Kcondey, and its filence how defqrib'd by Mr. 

Thompfon, in his Summer, p. i 37, n. 88. De- 

votid to fleep by the Gods, according to the anti- 

e:its, ibid. To this notion may be referr'd what 

the prophet fays to the worfhippers of Baal, by 

way of derifion, ibid. 

O. 

Oak-tree, frequent mention made of it in fcripture, 

as facred and emblematical,' p. 75, n. 224. The 

Hehre--M term for it the lame with that for oath, 

ibid. Great veneration paid to it by true believers, 

ibid. As a!fo by idolaters, and why, p. 76, n. 

224. To whom peculiarly facred according to 

Or^:id, and why, ihid. 

Oaks, held in particular veneration by tie D'uids, as 

alfo its excrefcence, the mifletoe, ibid. Dedicated 

hyiheGreeksa.n<iRomans,to Jupitir, p. 1 26, n.441. 

Oath [oi .-^Jiollo) inevocable, and why, p. 40, n. 94. 

God's promife by !tGOnfirm\i,p 41, n Cj^.\OfGod) 

principally made to God the Son, p. 76, n. 224. 

Oee.m, the number of her daughters according to 

Hcfi'yct ax^A Baniir, p. 54, n. 17. 

Oeiieus, offends Diana, and how punifh'd, p. 8g, n. 

35 2- 

Oil, ufed in purifying, p. 5, n. 30. 

Ointment, (mixed) an abomination to Pall.is, and 

why, p. I }o, n. 15 {Box) of alabaftcr, the 

ufe made of it, and by whom, p. 131, n. i,. 

Olen, who, the author of feveral hymns, and to 

whom, p 1 22, V. 414, 

Olive, always the fymbol of peace, p. 123, n. 433. 

The gift of Mincr'va, and why, p. 13;, n. 15. 

Olympias, Jupiter how defcrib'd by the Rowans, p. 1 5, 

n. 107. 
Oracles, their various powers defcrib'd, p. 38, n. 78. 
All iuppofed to be delivered in a compulfive way, 
p. 99, n. 107. That of ^/o/A bed ex) lain'd by 
that of the Pythian priellefs in I'irgil, ibid. How 
delivered in the begin.iing, and how in after-ages 
defcrib'd, p. 12c, n 392. 

Ordained, a term of St. Paul's, whypreferv'd, p 17, 

n. 124. 
Orion, attempts to ravlfli Diana, and hew punifh'd, 
p. 89, n. 359. His hillory where told, ibid. 

Otphcus, his hymns, ot what they principally con- 
fifl, p. ;4, n. 9. Their ufe and antiquity, p. 159, 
Orphic, (Theology) whar, p. 3^, n. 57. 

Ortygin, Oils, cnce fo call'd, and why, p. 94, n. 43. 
Oius, flail) inNaxos, by Diana, and lor what, p. 8g, 

n. 339. 
Oi;d, 



INDEX. 



Ovid, an encomium on his Lih. fajlorum, p. 9, n. 
7 1 . His account therein of 'Nais, one of Jupiter % 
nurfes, ibid. C'cniui es Cdllimachns, and for what, 
p. 19, n. 146. His defcription oi /Ipollo^ various 
perfections, p. 36, n. 62. Dt^phnei rcquell for 
perpetual virginity, how defcrib'd by him, p. 53, 
n. 8. His account of Jhiving of beards, and the 
melancholy occafion of that cullom, p. 6g, n. 
174. Appropriates the pine-tree to chaility, and 
why, p. 81, n. 276. Makes 0//j one of i)/fl'/aV 
attendants, and why, p. 81, n. 278. 

P- - 

Pallas, from whom delcended and to whom re- 
lated, p. 2, n. g. Is diftinguifhed by the title of 
Light -learer, and why, p. 54, n. 15 Was the 
firft inventrefs of the Tihite of the antients, and 
the materials whereof (he compofed them, wiiat, 
p. 87. n. 331. The hymn to h<;r bath by Culli- 
tnachus, p. I 27. ^ feq. Her image carried by the 
Argiije women to the river Inachus annually in order 
to be walhed ; and that ceremony when per- 
formed, ibid. Her ftatue waflied likewife with 
great ceremony by the Athaiians, p. 128, n. i 
The day of its folemnization locked upon a* in- 
aufpic'ous, ibid. Is efteemcd the Goddcfs of in- 
ternal purity, ibid. Her other various charac- 
ters, what, ibid. The traces of the l^lojaic ab- 
lutions feen in the abovementioncd ceremonies, 
ibid. The hair of the Argi-ve women confecrated 
to her, and with what vie«', ibid. Is drawn by 
horfes as well as /Ipollo, and why, p. 128, n. 7. 
What fignified thereby, ibid. T\\& Arijlaa gwen 
to her, and why, ibid, is named Gigantofhantis, 
ar.d why, ibid. Abhors all mixed unguents, and 
why, p. 130, n. 15. Is reprelented as a virgin, 
and why pure oil only is gia;eful to her, ibid. 
Her gift the olive, and why, ibid. Is repre 
fented as having b!ue eyes, and why, did. 
And a rofy colour, p 132. n. 34. Her golden 
comb to what applicable, ibid Her indulgence 
to Z);'(?vW, beautifully decribed by Z/oOTf/-, p. 133 
n. 43. Is eftetmed the Goddefs of Wifdom, 
p. 134, n. 51. Is called the mother of arts, ibid. 
Is called likewife the Goodefs of War, ibid. 
Is called the deflroyer and defender of States, 
and thofe contrarieties accounted for, ibid. Why 
always reprefented in armonr, ibid. Her prepa- 
rations for war how deicribcd by Homer, ibid. 
^^^ Her A^^'s how defcribed by FirgH, p. i 3^, n. 51 

Could be carried by no other Deity than herfelf, 
and the meaning tiiereof, what, ibid. Is called 
Lucifera as well as Diana, p. 140, n. 12^. A 
temple is eroded in honour to her rear Sparta, 
and uhy, ibid. Her other names, what, ibid.' 
Is faid to be ihe inventrefs of m.edicine, and from 
thence called Sotim, ibid. Her exaft agreement 
with the God /Ipolio very plain and obvious, ibid. 
Is fuid to lit at the right-hand of her father Jo've, 
where fhe receives his commands, p. 143. n.164. 
And is faid hkewife to be greater than the angels, 
3 



ibid. This fimilar to the facrcd Scriptures, ibid. 
Has the fame honours as Apollo, and is equal to 
him in glory, and wh)-, p. 144, n. 164. Va. 
ricus expreffions concerning her in Callmach. s, 
fimilar to others in Scripture, ibid. Is bon out 
of the head of Jupiter, and from thence deiives 
her privileges, p. 145, n. 167. Her birth tl ought 
by fome to veil the fublimell myfieries, and 
what, ibid. Its philcfophical reference and ex- 
plication, ibid. Her name from whence der.vtd 
and the fignification of it, p. 146, n 167. Her 
name of At be kc from whence derived, and ex. 
plained, ibid. Is called multiform dragonefs, 
and why, ibid. The civl devoted to her, and 
why, ibid. 

Palm-tree, to whom facjcd, p 2, n. 5. Of what 
the emblem by the hei;thens, ibid. Of what the 
emblem by Chriftians, ibid. Its branches made 
ufe of by the people, i\hen our Saviour made his 
enlrance into Jeru/a/em, ibid. Its branches made 
ufe of by the faints, in the li/ou of St. Joh'!, 
p. 2!;, n. 5. IMaJe ufe of likewife by the Je-ivs 
at their feaft of tabernacles, and w by, ibid. 

Palm (at De/oj] for what particularly famous, p 11 1 

n. 2S3 

Pan, the univerfal nature, an orjikic hymn to him, 

p. 2-8 

Pamphagus, a title afcribed to Hercules, and why, 

p. 73, n. 200 

Pav.aeea of ApoUo'i hair, its good efFefts, p,36, n 62 

Parrhafia, Arcadia fo called, and why, p 4, n 21 

Parthenia, now called Sumos, and why. p. 95, n. 55 

Paths (a peculiar Scripture term) how explained, 

p. 35, n. 60 

Pa:// (St.) his quotation of f^/WWw in regard to 
the Gentiles, p. 3, n. 15. His opinion in regard to 
the power and authority of kings, p. 16, n. i 24 

Paufdnias, his account of Rh,as cave, p. 4. n. 22 
His opinion of the aridity and moiftiire of Arcadia, 
p. 6, n. 50. His account of a religious tuftoni 
cbfeived there in cafe of a drought, well worthy 
of attention, ibid. His account of Jupiter % 
nurfes, p. 8, n. 61 

Peace, how reprefented on fomeaniient coins, p. 165 
n. 197. Its good effefls how defcribed in Scrip- 
ture, ibid. 

Pearfbn, his explication of the phrafe Silting at 
God's right band, p. 32. n. 47 

Pelias, king of Ideas, where interred, p. 82, n. 278 

Pelcpoviefus, the idand, why fo called, and its other 
various names wha', P- 97- ". 86 

Penteccji (the feall ofl called the feaft of giving the 
law, and why, p. i^i, n. 32 

Perga, where fituate, and to whom peculiarly 
facred, p. 79, n. z^^ 

Perjians, their peculiar regard for their facred fires, 
and when accidentally extinguiOicd, how re- 
kindled, p. 45, n. 120 

Peter (St ) his opinion in regard to the power and 
authority of kings, p- 16, n. 124 

Phancf, 



N D E X. 



Thanes, of Orpheus, what, and how reprefented, 
p 33, n. 47. Very nearly refembling the che- 
rubic heads in fcripture,'^ ibid, 

Pl.'iloftratus, his charaftcr of Minos, what.p.jq, n. 263 

Pkilyre, one of y^/i/fr's nurfes bu not midwife to 
the Goddefs Rhea, his mother, p. 8, n. 61 
Was the mother to the ceita ir Chiron, by Saturn, 
ibid. Was nurfe likewife to Athilles, ibid. 

Phurnutus, highly recommended, p. 115, n. 339, 

and p, I 99 

Phyfadea, a fountain at Argos, and why fo called, 

p. 13;, n. 58 

Pigeon, a type of the Holy Spirit, and a proper ob- 
lation for womtn under tne law, p. 5, n. 30 

Pi'idar, his fentitnents in regajd to the power and 
authority ot kings, p, 16, n. 124. His h(|mn to 
Delos, vj\\tn wrote, and wich what view, p go, 
n I. His account of Cyn/ie's viflory over the 
lion, both long and curious, p. 82, n. 278. And 
copied by f^irgi/ in his charai'ter of Caniil'a, ibid. 

Pine-tree, facred to Diana, and for what ufe pe- 
culiarly remarkable, p. 68, n. 155. Sacred to 
Diana, and why, p. 81, n. 276. Of what the 
emblem, according to Longus, Virgil, Sec. ib.-d. 
How called by Oaiid, ibid. 

Pithyufa, the famous city o( Miletus, fo called by 
Plmy, and by whom built p. 8)., n. 308 

Planets, feven, how defctibed, and by whom, 

p. I rg, n. 7 

Plato, his difcrurfe on the immortality of the foul, a 
very latal temptation to one of his pupils, and 
wherein, p. 174. Ep. 9 

Poets, called prophets, and why, p. 3, n. 15. Their 
fentimcnts in regard to the power and authority 
of kings, p 16, n i 24 

Polyphcmf, the Cydopian monfter beautifully defcribed 
by Homer, p. i;g, n. 68 

Pope, a beautiful defcription of his improved from 
t'eftod rela'ing to the power of mufick,p 29, n.32 

Poplar, to whom facred, p. 153, n. 41 

Po^joer and Siringth, attendants dri "Jupiter, p. 14, 

n. 10^. How introduced by j^lihyhts, ibid. 

i he author's defcription iimilar to feveral palfages 

in Scripture, ibid A name of each perfon in 

the facrod Trinity, p. 14^, n. 164 

Pciver of kings, from whom derived. See Autharit)-. 

Prietus, who, and his daughter how punilhed for 
their pride by J'a/o, p. 86, n. 316, How cured, 
and by whom, ibid. 

Prccius, his defcription of the Apolltnarian rites, 

p. 26, n. 1 1 

Ptcfrpinc, what meant by her mother Crcsh (eck- 
iiig her, p. i4g, n. 10. Said to be ftolen from 
her mother by Pluto, and why, p. 152, n. 33 
Her rape Only an allegory, ibi.l 

Ptolemy, his charafler as drawn by Callimachus, 
p. 17, n. 133. Is julily admired as a mafler- 
piece, ibid. A peculiar beau y in i: overlouked, 
and miltaken by iVlr. Prior, ibid. A favourite of 
'Jo\e, and how dillinguifhed, p. 18, n, 140, 



All of that name how called, and in what man- 
ner wordiipped, p. 107, n. 208. His encomium 
by Theocritus, * p. 188 

Pyrpihs or Pyrpoks an antient name of Delos, and 
why fo called, p. 11 1, n. 263. 

Python, the fell dragon, flain by Apollo, and the 
lo Pecans thereupon, to what fimilar, p. 48. n. 142 
The ftory of his being flain by Apollo, fimilar to 
one in the 12th chapter of the Re'velations, p. 97 
n. 81. The meaning of the term, what, and 
from whence derived, and to whom applied in 
Scripture, p. 100, n. 112 

R. 

Rain-biiv, the phenomenon fully explained, not 
only by all the philofophers, but by Scripture 
likewife, p. 112, n. 295 

Raphael [the znge]) how defcrihed by M/Z/a//, p. 35 

n. 60 

Ra-ven, peculiarly remarkable for his blacknefs, 
dedicated to Apollo, and whv, p. 40, n. g4 

Rays (of light) always painted round our Saviour's 
head, and why, p. 34, n. 52 

Rebels againll God) w^ho, p. 2, n. 3. A plain 
ground for the tradition of the Titans, rebe's 
againft Joiie, ibid. 

Redeemer, the tradition of him how deeply imprefled 
on the minds of men, p. 22 

TJcZ/o/iw of nature, what, p. 2, n. g 

Revela'-ion, how confirmed, p. 1, n. 1 

Rhamniis, the town, where fituate, and for what 
peculiarly remarkable, p. 85, n. 315 

Rheri, is delivered of the fupreme Jupiter on the 
mountain Lycaus, which forever after was held 
in great veneration by the Afcadians, p. 4, n. 22 
Her cave, whei-e fituate according to Puufanias, 
ibid Was entered by none but her own prieftef- 
fes, ibid. The fatal confequences that attended 
all f'..ch as entered irto it cortemptujufly, ilnd. 
Eve's bower, mentioned by Milten, a good com- 
ment on this pafliige, ibid. Her purification, not 
only by wafhing, but anointing with oil, ac- 
cording to //;^.7:!/«j, p. 5, n. 30. She, and her 
fon likewife liood in need of purification, not 
only by water, but a river of water, called in Scrip- 
ture, a living and running water, ibid. The 
ufe of her fceptrc, borrowed hy Callimachus from 
the miraculous performances of Mojes with his 
rod, p. 7, n 51. This miracle where wrought, 
according to ApoUor.ius, ibid. A like miracle, 
recorded by Paufanias, wrought by Atahirta 
(when a-thirfl) with her hunting ftafF. ' ibid. 

Rhodius ( Apollonius) is fuppofed to fatyrize Callima- 
chus in his argonautics, and why, p. 50, n. iaq 

Ri'hiird 'ill. {k\ng o( E'lgfand) his name faid fre- 
quently to be maJe ufe o' by mothers to terrify 
ttieir children when crol- and refradlory, p. 61 

n. 90 

Riches, without virtue, their fatal confequences, 

p. 21, n. 151 
Rivers 



I N D 



X. 



Sahhaih, the danger of its ncglccl, p. 77, n. 259 

Spjfron, a winter flower, dedicated to /IpoHo, and vvliy, 
p. 4;, u. I 18. 1 lie morning. T. cali'd by llo'/ur 
and /'iig:/, and why, p. 49, n. iiS. Is d'ccd 
and burnt in the Jeijcip inctnl'i , amonglT: otlicr 
perfumes, ibid. 'ihat at Cyrem peculiarly 
iragrant, ibiJ. 

Samci, formeily call'd Parthciiia, or the virgin ifle, 
and why, . p. 95> n. 55. 

Sacn, hisepita;h, p. 172, ep. 5. 

Satati, how defcrib'd by Millon, p. l 57, n. 86. 

Saturn, father of the CV,/;.?; Jupilcr, whole fepul- 
chre was Ihewn in i'.nte, according to Ciccro, p. 
2, n. g. By what animals particularly drawn, 

p. 1 29, n. I . 

Sceptres, a kind of ftaffs among the antjents, p. 142, 
n. 152. An account of that of //c/j/V/Vj, in A/o^TOfr's 
fiift Iliad, remarkable, Hid. 

Seneca, his remarkable defcription of the death of 
Hercules, P- 74. n. 2i5. 

Serpents, facred to Ceres, and draw her chariot, 

p. 65, n. 142. 

Seth, his defcendants how diftinguifh'd in fcrip'.ure, 

p. S, n. 61. 

Se'ven, the number of perfeftions, and how explain" J 

p. 115. n- 339- 
Shptu-bread, of what the emblem in Scripture, 

p. 33, n.47. 
Siege {oi Jerufalem) themiferiesof it defcrib'd, p. 76, 

n. 175. 

Sleep, has wings aflign'd to him by moft poets, and 

why, p. 113, n. 295. 

Sol, by what animals particularly drau n, and how 

many, p. i 29, n. i . 

Solimis, his etymology of the ifland of Dehs, what, 

p. 95, n. 61. 
Solomon, his charafter of goats-miik, p. 9,n. 75. 
Sopci:s, his epitaph, p 173, ep 7. 

Soter, Hercu'es, fo called by Chryfofiom, and wliy, 

p. 74, n. 214. 

Spanheitn, his obfervation on a beautiful pafiage in 

C.allimathus, how applied and improv'd, p. \i, n. 

140. His obfervations quoted, pajy^m. 

Spencer, confirms the notion that merit and fame 

without wealth is not able to feed a man, p. 21, 

n. 151. 
Spheres, the harmony of them accounted for, p. 1 • 5. 

n. 339. 

Spirit, (of the Heathens) of what the emblem, p. 22. 

Stags, to whom facred, and why, and of what the 

fymbcl, p. 65,n. 141. Rcinaikdble when preft 

for taking the water, p. 66, n. 142. Their chace 

how defcrib'd by Mr. 'rhcinfin, ibid. 

St.irs, their (liooting beautifully defcrib'd by Firgil, 

p. 94, n. 46. How fed and fupported in the 

opinion of the antier.ts, p. ic8, n. 226. 

Slfphens, his criticifm on a paffage m CillJmachus, 

and how by him exp'.ain'd, p. 18, n. 146. 

Stoics, their notion of virtue falfe, and why, p. zo, 

2 n, 151. 



Strength, Sec Pctver, 

Atrophic, a fountain, and where fituate, p. 98, n. 9*. 

Styx, one of 'Jupidr'i nurfes, but not miJwife to the 
goddtfs Rhea, his mother, p. S, n. 6r. 

f««, caU'd Phallus, and why, p. 34, n. 36. Of 
what the emblem, ibid. His rays ho.v cle'ctib'd, 
and of what the caufe, p. 35, n. to. Said to be 
unextii-guilli'd and why, p. fS, n. 158. Said lo 
ftand fliil at the celebration of Diana's anniverfa- 
ry rites, and why, p 78, n. 248. How applica- 
ble to its Handing Hill at Cibcon, ibid, a beauti- 
ful defcription of it, p. 135, n. 51. 

Sivan, remarkable for its whitenefs, dedicated to 
Apollo, and why, p. 40, n. 94. 

divans, facred to l^enus and draw her chariot, p ^5. 
n. 141. Peculiarly devoted to Apollo, and whv, 

P IIS. n- 33V- 
T. 

Tnjfo, his defcription of the Angel Gabrid vety 
beautiful, p. 35. n. 6e. 

Tatius, appropriates the pine-tree to virgins, ai.d 
why, P' Si, n. 276. 

Thafcs, the inhabitants thereof look on Hercules as a 
faviour, p. 74, n 214, 

Theiodavias, King of Dryopia flain by Hercules, and 
why, p. 76, n. 228. 

Theocritus, his fentimci^fs in regard to the pow.;r 
and authority of kings, p. \6, n. 124. His de- 
fcription of the increafe of king Atcgias^s herd;-, 
and from whence it arofe, p. 38, n. 74. 

Tieras, who, and Irom whom defcended, p. 42, 

n. 104. 

Thetis, what perfon to be underftocd by that name, 

p, 29, n. 32. 

Thi/oa, one of Jupiter's nntks, p P, n.6i. 

Thruciam, worOiip Diana under various name?, and 
where in particular, p. 67, n. 153, 

Thrafybulus, his account of Deucalion, fimilar to that 
oi Noah, p. 12;, n. 441. Takes no:ice of the 
Do've, or pigeon, ibid. Similar to Neal/s ac- 
count, ''^■'■''• 

Tibi^, (of the antients) of what materials comj-os'd, 
and by whom firfl: invented, p 87, n. 331. 

Tire/us, llruck blind, and for what offence, p. 138, 
n. 96. The reference of this flory to the He- 
bre^cs, ibid. Stands fpeechlefs at his fudden af- 
fliflion, like Adam when tuin'd out of paradife, 
ibid. How recompens'd for the lofs of his fight, 
p. 141, n. 149. His ftafF, the miraculous power 
of it, p. 142, n. 152. Is call'd a golden fceptre 
by Homer, ibid. An account of him from Hcrur, 
p. 143, n. 160. Had the privilege of being con- 
fulted after he was dead, and by whom ccnfcned, 
ibid. Had a daughter a prieftefs at Delphi from 
whom Horner receiv'd the Sybilline verfes, and in- 
ferted them in his own, ibid. 

Titans, (a race of giants) earth-born, rebels iojoie. 
See Ne Phlim. 

Titnb (of Joie) the Scholiajl on Callimaehus endea- 
vouring to free the Cr,ians from the odmin of 
G g fticwing 



N D E X. 



iliewiflg it, and how, p. 4, n. i8. One aftually 
built for him by tlie Cotybantei, and why, ibij. 
A real tomb of a real JvpJtir, or king of Cicte, 
jvas no doubt adHially ercfled in that kingdom, 
and his body interred there, ihiJ. 

Torch-bearer, a peculiar title of Diatiaf, and why, 
p. 54, 15. 1 5. From whence procur'd, p. 67, 

n. i5v 

Icuraemiiie, his affertion that the heroes of antiquity 

were all Pagan copies of the MeJJiab referr'd to, 

p. 74, n. 216. 

Trazemans, all their hymns to Diana call'd U/,i:;gs, 

and why, p. 81, n. ?-S. 

Trees, diftinft ones, facred to particular deities, 

p. 24, n. I. 

Trinity in Unity, how hieroglyphically reprclented, 

p. I c, n. 107. Of the henihens, what, p. 22. 

The diftinft offices thereof what, ibid. 

Tripods, whar, and how generally adorn'd, p. gg, 

n. 107. The various conjefturcs of autiiors in 

regard to the cullom of Afollo'i Oracles being 

deliver'd upon them, and wherein fimilar to tho 

'JeTxiijh ceremonies in the temple, ibid. 

Triptolemui, how favour'd byCaes, and why, p. 15 2, 

n. 23. 

Turtiir, an extraft from his mythological notes, 

which are learned and curious, p. 125, n. 441. 

Tygers, facred to Bacchus and draw his chariot, 

p. 65, n. 141. 
V. and U. 
Venus, her cliariot how drawn, and by what crea- 
tures, p. 6;, n. 141. Her' ftatue of Delos, how 
honour'd by Thefeus, &c. p. 122, n. 414. By 
what aninidls in particular drawn, p. 129, n. i. 
Vcjla, one of the names of Dt/ffj, and why, p. 124, 

n- 433- 

■Virgil, his defcription of bees, p. 10, n. 78. His 

fentiments in regard to the power and authority 

of kings, p. 16, n. 124. His defcription of the 

cpidemia of Phoebus, ^neid iv, p. 27, n. 20. 



His account of the ftory of Minos, what, p. 79, 
n. 263. Appropriates the pine-tree to virgins, 
and why, p. 81, n. 276. His defcription of 
Camilla copied from Pindar, p. 82. n. 278. 

Virginity, the firft petition of Diana, and why, 
p. 53, n. 8. Afterwards the requeft of Daphne, 
according to O-vid. Hid. 

Virtue, the Stoics miftaken in their ntftion of it, 

p. 20, n. 191 . 
Unguents dropping from the hair of Jfollo, what, 

p. 35, n. 60, 
Voet (Paul) his fatyrical refleftions on the fair fex, 

p. 53, n. 8. 

Upis, one of Diana's attendants, and why fo call'd, 

p. 81, n. 278. JfoJlo Co caird, and why, p. 121, 

n. 398. 
Urfa Major, who, and why fo call'd, p. 9, n. 69. 
Vulcan, his habitation and workmen beautifully de- 
fcrib'd by Homer a.nd P'irg'l, p. 59, n. 68. 
W. 
Walking barefoot, and with heads uncoverM in fo- 
lemn proceffions by idolaters, cf what an affec- 
tation, p. 163, n. 169. Thecuftom from whence 
deriv'd, ibid. 

War, a very dreadful calamity, and why, p. 70, 

n. 174, 
Water, the great and appointed cleanfer, p. 5, n. 30. 
Water and Oil types of the holy fpirit, ibid. 

Wealth, without virtue, its fatal conlequences, p. 21, 

n. 151 
Women, purified by ivater and Oil, among the hea- 
thens, p. 5, n, 39. Chaff, and why according 
to Voet, P- S3> n- S. 

Z, 
Zodiac, its 1 2 figns how defcrib'd from Mr. Spence, 

p. I 29. n. I. 

Zones, to what virgins in particular given according 

X.0 Spanheim, p 55, n, ig. Their meaning and 

of what expreffive. ibid. 



A 



A TABLE of fucli Texts of Scripture as are either 
cited, or illuftrated in this Work. 



ihid. 
ibid, 
ibid. 



GENESIS. 

Chap. vi. vcr. z. p. 2. n- 3 

iii. 24. p- 33- "■ 47' 

ix. 2C, 24. p. 125. n. 441. 

^iii. 18. 'l'''d 

viii, 7, p. i?6, n.441, 

xi, 10, P- 2' "•, 3 
vi, 4, 
xi, 4. 
xi, 8, 9, 

xi, 8, 9, P- '. n- 3- 
xiii, 8, xviii, i, p 75- "• ='-4- 

iii, 6, p. 155, n. 63, 

viii, II, p- 123, n. 433. 

iii, 20, P- 9' "■ '42- 

EXODUS. 

Chap, xxiii, ver. 1 6, p. 1 48, n. » . 
xxiii, i6,&xxxiv,22,p.i5i, n.32, 
XXV, 18, XXXI, 3, p. 73' " 47- 
xix, and xxi, P-i35>" 5^- 

xxviii, 34, p. 12;, n. 392. 

xxiv, 31, p- 43> n 1' J- 

xxxiv, 13, ?• 58, n. 3;. 

xxvii, 2, p. 39> "• 85- 

xxiii. i6,xxxlv, 2 2, p. 151,11.197. 
xvii, 6, p. 7> n. 51. 

XXX, 35, p. 44> "• "^• 

xxiii, 20, p. 1 38) n- 9^- 

iii, 5. p. 163, n. 169. 

xii, 29, 30, and xxvii, 14, 15, 
p. 70, n. 174. 

LEVITICUS. 

Chap, vi, ver. 1 3, p. 45, n. i zo. 
xii, p.5,n. 30. 

ix, 24, p. 68, n. 158. 

xii, p. S, n. 30. 

xiv, 5, ibiti. 

xii, ibid. 

NUMBERS. 

Chap, xxviii, ver. 7, p. i, n. 1. 
■viii, 7, p. 128, n. I. 

XX, 9, 10, II, p. 7, n. 51. 

DEUTERONOMY. 

Chap, xxviii, ver. 2 1 , p.6g, n. 1 70. 
xxiii, 14, p. I 50, n. 10. 

xxviii, p. 69, n, 174. 



iv, ig, p. 52. n- '• 

xxxiii, 14, P 53' ^■'^■ 

xvi, 21, p. 53, n. 55. 

xii, ii>'^i- 

xxviii, p. 70, n. 17,'. 

xxxii, 13, p. 10, n. 75. 

xii, 27, p. I, n. I. 

xxxiii, 14, p. 53- 

xxviii, p. 76, n. 175- 

xxviii, p. 70, n. 174. 

JOSHUA. 
Chap. X, ver, 1 2, p. 78, n. 248. 

JUDGES. 

Chap. vi. ver. 25, p. 154, n. 52. 
xvi, 17, p. 121, n. 398. 

vi, 2Z, p. 138, 11.96. 

1. SAMUEL. 
Chap. vi. ver. 19, p. i 35, n. 58. 

1. KINGS. 

viii, n, p. 27, n. 20 

xviii, p. 1 23, n. 433 

vii, 21, p. 120, n. 392 

vi, p. 34,11.52 

xviii, 27, p. 137, n. 88 

vi, 29, p. 33, n. 47 

2. KINGS. 
Chap, xxiii. ver. 6, p. 58, n. 55. 

CHRONICLES. 
Chap, iv. ver. 5, p. 43, n. 1 1 5. 

J O B. 

xxxi, 26, p. 52, n. I. 

v, 26, p. 71, n. 184. 

xxxi, 26, p. 77, n. 236. 

xxxix, 19, p. 128, n. 7. 

PSALMS. 



XXIV, p. 25, n. g. 

Ixxviii, p. 6g, n. 170. 

xviii, 10, p. 15, n. 107. 

Ixxx, 17, p. 33, n. 47. 

Ixxviii. p. 69, n. 1 74. 

xxiv, p. 18, n. 146. 

cxiix, ^, p. 26, n. I I. 

p. 74, n. 216. 
ibid. 



xvi, 10, 
ii, 24, 



xviii, 3, Ixxv, ;, 6, lo ii, Ixxxix, 
17, 24, feV. p. 3g, n- 8 J. 

Ixxxi, 16, p. 10, n. 75. 

cxxii, p. 71, n. 184. 

Ixv, p. 72. n- 200. 

ex, 4, p. 4'. "• 94- 

ex, 4, p. 76, n. 224. 

ex, p. 144, n. 164. 

xcviii, I, Ixxxix, 13, xcvii, 2, 
p. 14, n. 103. 
xci, 13, p. 100, n. 112. 

xxxiii, 10, 13, 18, 22, p. 18, n.140. 
XV, II, p, 35' "» ^°' 

Ixxx, 10, p. 21, n. 151. 

PROVERBS. 

Chap. XXX, ver. 8, p. 20, n. 151. 
xxvii, 27, p. 9'"- 75- 

viii, 15, p. 16, n. 124. 

X. 27, p 71, n- '*4- 

xxix, 27, p. zi, n. 151- 

ECCLESIASTES. 
Chap, vii, ver. 1 1 , p. 20, n. 1 5 1 • 

The Song oi Solomon, or Canticles. 

ii, I, P- 43. "• "S- 

ii, J, 2, 3, iv, 10, V, 2, 5, p. 35, 

n. to. 

V, I, iv, 1 1, p. 10, n. 75. 

ISAIAH. 

Chap, xxii, ver. 2, p. 155, n. 63. 

iv, p 18, n. 146. 

Ix, I, xl, 12, p. 157. n- ^6. 

XV. 8, p. 75' n-2'6. 

vii, 15, p. 10, n. 75. 

i, 29, p. 155' n- ^3- 

Iii, II, p. 128, n. I. 

Lxiii, 5, lix, 16, p. 14, n. 105. 

XXV, I, 2, p. 35, n. 60. 

JEREMIAH. 

Chap, i, vei-. 18, p. 9, n. 142. 

E Z E K I E L. 

Chap, i, ver. 28, p 112, n. 295. 
xxxiv, 26, p. 165, n. 197. 

j, and X, p. 33, n. 47. 

H O S E A. 

Chap, ix, ver. 13, and 16, p. 70, 
n. 174, 

AMOS 



N D 



X. 



AMOS. 

Chap, ix, ver, 14, p. 165, n. 197. 

M I C A H. 
Chap. iij. ver. 5, p. 123,11.4.33. 

ZECHARIAH, 

Chap, iii, ver. 8, p. 76, n. 224. 
Ix, 6, 7, p, 123, n. 43.3. 

M A L A C H I. 
Chap, iv, ver. 2, p. 36, n. 62, 

WISDOM. 
Chap, xviii, ver, 16, p. 157, n. 86. 

ECCLESIASTICUS. 
xliii, p. 135, n. 51, 

MATTHEW. 

Chap, xiii, ver, 5, p. 17, n. 124 
vi, 7, p. 54, 11. g 

xii, 53, p. 74, n. 216 

xxvi, 7, p. 131, n. 15 

xxvi, 64, p. 144, n. 164 

iv, 6, p. 100, n. 1 12 



XXJV, 19, 



p. 70, n. 174 



LUKE. 

Chap, xviii, ver. I3,p.i66, n.199. 
xxiii, 28, P-74> n- 216. 

i> 35. p. 144, n. 164. 

51, 31 to 24, p. 5, n, 30. 



JOHN. 
Chap. xi. ver. 19, p. 27, n. 20. 

i, 9. P"34. n 52- 

xiv, 1,2, p. 74, n. 2 1(5. 

xvi, 28, xvii, II, p. 75, n. 216. 
XV, 27, p. 123, n. 43}. 

xvi, 5, V, 2b, xvii, 10, i, 18, i, 3, 
p. 144, n. 164. 
xii, 12, p. 2, I). 5, 

vii, 38, and 39. p. 5, n. 30. 

X, 12, p. 78, n. 248. 

ACTS. 

xiii, II, p. 139, n. 96. 

yii, 55, p. 33, n. 47. 

i, 9, 10, IT, p. 75, n. 2i6. 

iv, 22 and 30, p. 36, n. 62. 

ROMANS. 

Chap, vi, ver. 10, p. 74, n. 216. 
xiii, 2, p. 16, n. I 24. 

i, 25, p. 144, n. 164. 

1 CORINTHIANS. 

Chap. XV, ver. 54, p. 71;. n. 216. 
i, 24. p. 144, n. 164. 

i, 24, p. 14, n. 104. 

X, 4, p. 7, n. 51. 

2 CORINTHIANS. 
Chap, iv, ver. 7, p 73, n. 200, 

GALATIANS, 
Chap, iii, ver. 1 3, p. 41, n. 94, 

EPHESIANS. 
Chap. 5, ver. 2, p. 9, n, 142. 



I . TIMOTHY. 

Chap vi, ver. 16, p. 14, n 104, 
ii, 6, p. 9, n. 142. 

iii, 16, p. 138, n. 96. 



TITUS. 
Chap, i, ver. 16, p. 100, n. 112. 

HEBREWS. 

Chap, ii, ver. 14, p. 75, n. 216. 
vi, 17. p. 41, n. 94. 

yi, 18, p. 76, n, 224. 

>,. 4, p. 143, n 164, 

ix, 26, p. g, n. 142. 

ix, 1 3 and 16, [p. 70, n. 1 74, 

1 PETER, 

Chap, ii, ver. 13, p. 17,11. 124. 

2 PETER. 

Chap, xi, ver. 5, ii, 13, p. ,5, 
. "• '24. 

REVELATIONS. 

Chap, iii, ver. 7, p. 155, n. 63. 

XX, 6, and 14, ■ p. 75, n. 216. 
iii, 21, xxi, 4, iiiti, 
iv, 3, p. 112, n. 295. 
xii, p. 97, n. 81. 
vii, 9> P-25, n. 5. 

XXI, 23, xxii, 5, p. 34, n. 56,. 



FINIS. 



SOLOMON de MundiVanitate, 

LIBER S E C*J^^ Btt S, 

CUI TITULUS INSCRIBITUR 

VOLUPTAS, 

poeMa matth^i prior 

L AT INK TRADUCTUM; 

CUI ADJICITUR 

ALEXANDRI CONVIVIUM^ 
DRY DEN I in ^.Caciliam ODE, 

LINGUA EADEM DONATA 

A 

GEORGIO BALLT, Coll. Regal. Cant. Alumnv 




CAN rABRIGlM, 

TYPIS ACADEMICIS EXCUDEBAT J. BENTHAM. 

Vcneiint apud J. etR.Toxsov, P. Vaillant, et R.Dodslev, Londinr, 

Cos.N.et J.Crownfield, et Gul.Thurlbourn, Cantabrigice; 

J. Fletcher Oxonij, ctJ.PoTE EtoncE. 

MX>CC.XL1II. 



P R ^ F A T I O. 



PAUCA de Opufculo hoc, quod e Scrlnii 
(ubi forfan melius latuiflet) jam in Pub- 
licum evolavit Carcere, neceflarium mihi prae- 
mittere videtur. Qui enim in Campum Criti- 
corum Martium famse petitor defcendit, cum 
quibus conflidletur, compluria invenit mala. 
V eterani ifti, et jam Rude donati Poetica Scrip- 
tores, quse in Capite fuo pridem exaruit, Tiro- 
nibus Lauream fummo ftudio detrahere conan- 
tur. Eum Hoftem judicant infenfiffimum, Ei 
bellum derepente indicunt apertum, qui fub 
Apollinis vexillo militat. Ad Stili venuftatem 
quasi de induftria csecutiunt, et in Vitia, fi qu3e 
occurrant, veluti prasdam fibi deftinatam, non 
minus quam Aquilce in Cadaver, in volant. 
Optimus Quifque a PeiTimis hifce neutiquam 
tutus eft Obtreclatoribus, qui tunc fe Virtutem 
aliquam affecutos autumant, cum in Alio Cul- 
pas deprehenderint. Quid, ciim Celfiffimi in 

A z om.ni 



P R ^ F A T I O. 

omni Scriptionis genere (li ita loqul liceat) GI- 
gantes horum venenatis obnoxii fuerint Spi- 
culis. Ego Pygmseus faciam Homuncio ? Hoc 
autem psene defperanti adefl Solatium, quod, 
dum Clariffimos I Hi ao-grediuntur Au61ores, 
Me incokimem mea fortafse prasftabit Obfcu- 
ritas. Sin autem aliter evenerit, quicquid erit, 
sequo ferendum eft animo ; cumque opus pe- 
riculofx plenum Alex tra^taverim, Aleatoris 
mihi patienda funt Incommoda. A Quibufdam 
forfan Arrogantix inlimulabor, quod alienae 
Mefli faJcem immiferim. Fa(Sli hujufce Invi- 
diam a me prorfus amoliri velim. Quippe Pra- 
va neutiquam me incendit j:^mulatio ut cum 
Infigni Viro contenderem, quem in Poeticis fa- 
tis feliciter audere Omnes fatentur, quique 
Miltonum Orbi Literato Latinum, Anglicano 
propemodum parem, non temere, opinor, pol- 
licetur. Probam Illius Verfionem non nifi meo 
ad umbilicum ducSlo perlegi Opufculo : Quam 
fi prius legiffem, a meo duplici de caufa coepto 
deftitiflem : Imprimis quod de fucceflu, cum in 
€o tot confpicatus ellem veneres, timuiflem 

meo 



P R ^ F A T I O. 

meo, turn quod ab eo qusedam non pofTem non 
mutuari, cum Verficuli ejus etiam invitse fe 
obtruderent memorias. Paucula in meo quas- 
dam libello, quse ex ante di6i:o Poeta adum- 
brari videntur, unufque et alter eodem torna- 
tus modo verficulus, ita prorsus fe habebant, 
priufquam elegantem Illius Poelim confpexe- 
ram. Nondum enim (Diis habeo gratias) eo 
reda(9:us fum penurise, ut tenue Ingenii Furto 
augeam peculium. 

Ut Poetse Hujufce Anglican! quasdam lati- 
ne redderem Stili pasne Claflica impulit Mun- 
dities, quae in I Ho infigniter elucet. In prasf- 
tantiflimo Solomonis Poemate Romanum (Lin- 
guam folummodo excipias) Omnis fapit Pagina, 
A Secundo autem libro mei tentaminis duxi 
exordium, quoniam inibi pulchrarum delicias 
Imaginum, et Poeticum plenlus leporem ineile 
arbitrabar. Si itaque fuperindu(Sl:a Latinitate 
Anglicanas nitor Poefe6)s non obfcuretur, et 
fi Loquelas elegantis Flofculi in aliud quasi fo- 
lum tranflati quam minimam patiantur injuri- 
am, hafce Otii mei in publicum primitias nihil 

utique 



P R ^ F A T I O. 

utique me pigebit protulifle. Melius enim ce- 
leberrimum aliquod Poema non inficete in ali- 
um fermonem vertere exiftimo, quam, ut ple- 
rique folent Neoterici, de Cerebro telam, Ara- 
neae textura non magis durabilem, infoecundo 
elicere. 

De Ode Drydeni 7roAy0^i^MnV&), quam nefcio 
an feliciter audax latinitate donaverim, paucula, 
(fi vacet Le(£lori) pr^fari velim. Si a Stili 
granditate non prorsus defciverim, et fi Spiri- 
tum quodammodo aflecutus fuerim Pindaricum, 
caeteras fpero maculas, quibus operis me fecit 
difficultas obnoxium, Candidum excufaturum 
fore Judicem. His itaque de Opufculo meo 
.prsemiffis, Gratias I His quam maximas habeo, 
quorum mihi patrocinata eft Benignitas. Ho- 
rum in Clientelam huncce trado libellum. His 
Primitias utinam arrideant mese, ne Beneficri 
in Indi^num collati Eis inoriatur faftidium ! 

Vale. 



ERRATA fie corrigas; 

In prima Latinl Poematis pagina Lin. 17. pro varittligis&varia, Pag; i, 
Lin. 8. pro Than lege Tba(. Eadem pagina Lin. 9. pro Libia's corrigas Ijffa*si 
Pagina 47. Lin. 15. poft j«<^, dele comma. Ubicunque je pro oe irrepferit,' 
hunc Typographo fcriptionis meje non admodum perito errorem imputes, 



A LIST OF THE 



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HUGH ANDREWS, Efq; 
The Rev. Mr. Anjley. 
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B. 

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Mr. Septimius Plumptrce, A. B. 

Fell, of King's Coll. 
Chcftcr Pern, Efq; of Abington. 
Rujfel Phimtre, M.D. P.R. 
Richard Pinnel, Efq; 
Mr. Peter Pimel. A.B. ofTrin, 

College. 
Rev, Mr. Prime, B. D. Fellaw of 

St. John's Coll. 
Thomas Proby, Efq; of JefusCoIl^ 

R. 

His Grace the Duke of Rutland. 

Lord Rayinond. 

Mx. Henry Reade., A. B. of Queen's 

College. 
Mr. Reade, A. B. Fell, of King's 

College. 
Thomas Robin/on, Efq; Fell. Com. 

of Trinity College, 
Thomas Rider, Efq; 
Mr. John Reepe, Scholar of King's 

College. 

S. 

Lord John Sackville, 4 Books. 

Lord Robert Sutton. 

Mr. Erafmus Saimders, M. A. 

Fell, of Merton Coll. Oxford. 
Rev. Mr. Stephen Sleech, Fell, of 

Eton College. 
Edwin Sandys, Efq; 
John Scrope, Efq; 
Mr. Samuel Sawiders, Scholar of 

King's College. 
Mr. Sleech, Scholarof King's Coll 
Rev, Mr. Scurlock. 

William 



SUBSCRIBERS NAMES. 



William Sharp, Efq; 
Rev. Dr. Spateman. 
Mr. JoJ'epb Saunderfon. 
Rev. Mr. Gregory Sharpe. 



The Hon. I'homas l'o'wnJJ:e}id, Efq; 
The Hon. George 'fownpend^ Efq; 

6 Books. 
The Hon. CharIes7'o'WJ7fjend,E{cii 

4 Books. 
Mr. Irarit. 
Robert T'racy^ Efq; 
Mr. Chrijiopher Tiljon, A. B. of 

Trinity College. 
'Jattiei Thompfon, Efq; 6 Books. 



V. 

Mr. Vaillant, 



W. 

Hon. Lord Walpole, 4 Books. 
Edward Walpole, Efq; 4 Books. 
Horatio Walpole, Efq; Fell.-Com. 

of C. C. C. 
Horatio Walpole 'yirnov , Efq; 
Rev. Dr. Whalley, Mafter of Pe- 

ter-Houfe, S.T. P.R. 
Mr. James Worjley, of Clare-Hall. 
John Ward, Efq; 
Mr. yob?i Whaley, A. M. Fellow 

of King's College, 
Edward WatJ'o7t, Efq; 
Mr. Wijl. 

r. 

The Hon. Philip Tork, Efq; 
The Hon. Charles Tork, Efq; 
Mr. Charles Tatema?i, of Eman. 

College. 
Mr. Temans. 
Mr. ro/^;;^, Scholar of King's Coll. 



SOLOMON 

DE 

MUNDI VANITATE. 

CUI TITULUS INSCRIBITUR 

VOLUPTAS. 



Surgit amari aliquid, quod in ipjts Floribus angat, 

LUCRET. 

^idvetaty et nofmetf HOR. 



ARGUMENT. 

O L O M O N fe eking Happinefs^ enquires 
ifJVealth and Greatnefs can produce it: 
begins with the Magnificence of Gardens and 
Buildings^ the Luxury of MufickandFeafting\ 
and proceeds to the Hopes and Defres of Love, 
In two Epifodes are floewn the Follies and 
Troubles of i hat Paffion. Solomon Jiill dif- 
appointed, falls under the temptations of Li- 
ber tinifm and Liolatry\ recovers his thought, 
reafons aright, and concludes, that as to the 
pur fait ofPIeafare, and fenfual Delight, all 

IS VANITY AND VEXATION OF SPIRIT. 



ARGUMENTUM. 

SOLOMON Felicitatem anxie veftigans, 
utrum Opes et Dignitatis nitor vere Regius 
earn poflint fuggerere, cum fuo diiceptat pec- 
tore. Ex Hortorum ac ^dium magnificentia, 
e Mufices atque Epularum Luxuria tentaminis 
fui ducit exordium j et ad Spes ac Amoris pro- 
greditur Cupidines. In duohus' ETrua-oStoig affedtus 
illius ftultitia et incommoda ad vivum delineata 
exhibentur. Solomon adhuc animo deceptus in 
impiae morum licentias, et 'EiSodMhoLTf^sicig nefari3e 
illecebras incidit ; ad fanam poftea mentem re- 
dit, Rationis recftcC praeceptis obtemperat, ac 
re ferio examinata ftatuit, quae ad Voluptatis 
ftudium, pravaeque Libidinis delicias attinent, 

OMNIA VANITATEM ESSE ET PERTURBATiE 
MENTIS SOLLICITUDINEM. 



OF THE 

VANITY of PLEASURE, 

A POEM. 



TRY the?!.^ Man^ the moments to deceive^ 
'That from the womb attend thee to the g?'ave t 
For wearied Nature find fome apter fcheme : 
Health be thy hope^ and Pleafure be thy theme : 
From the perplexing and unequal waysj 
Where Study bri?igs thee ; from the e?idlefs mazey 
Which Doubt perfuades to rmij forewarn d recede^ 
To the gay feldi a?id flow ry path, that lead 
To jocund Mirth, foft Joy, a fid carelefs Eafe: 
Forfake what may inflruSl, for what may pleafe : 
Ejfay amuf?7g Art, and proud expence ; 
And make thy ReafonfubjeB to thy Se?ife. 

I co7nmund thus : the powr of Wealth I tryd. 

And all the various luxe of ccflly pride, 

Artifls 



DE 

VOLUPTATIS VANITATE 

CARMEN. 



SOLLICITOS age falle dies viteque labores, 
Cunarum comites, et ad ultima fata fequaces : 
Invenias nova Naturae folatia laflb, 
Spes tibi fola, Salus, fit et Unica Cura Voluptas : 
Praemonitus falebras obliqui avertere callis, 
Quo pallens ducit Studium ; via confita fpinis, 
Et Dubii vitetur inextricabilis Error. 
At Campos pete ridentes, qua femita floret 
Strata Rofis, Violifque et purpureo Narci fib ;. 
Otia quo peramzena vocant, ac nefcia ludlus 
Gaudia ; follicitae hie ducas oblivia vitas ; 
Quod placeat, cupide arripias, quod profit, omittasr 
Delicias Artis, fijmptum experiare fuperbum, 
Et fibi fiibjedla Senfus Ratione triumphent. 

Hasc tacito mecum fiifpendi verba labello ; 
Tentavi quid Opum miranda potentia pofiTet, 
Sedulus omnigenae vari^ inftrumenta paravi 
Luxurias : Artifices, et molis pi6la fijtura^ 

Fabrica: 



t 



6 PLEASURE. 

« 

Artijls and plans relievd myfolemn hours : 

I founded Palaces^ and pla?ited Bozvrs. 

Birdsj F/JheSf Bcajls of each exotic kind 

I to the limits of my Court confnd. 

To Trees transferred I gave a fecojtd birth\ 

And bid a foreign! fJjade grace JudaFs earth. 

Fifj-ponds were 7nade^ where former forrefls grew \ 

And hills were leveltd to exte7td the view. 

Rivers diverted from their ?iative courfe, 

A?id bound with chains of artificial forcey 

From large Caf cades in pleafng tumult roWd', 

Or rofe thro figurd flone^ or breathifig gold. 

Fro7}i furthefl Africa s tormeiited womb 

The Marble brought^ ereSis the fpacious dome^ 

Or forms the pillars long-extended rows. 

On which the planted Grove, and penfde Garden grows. 

The JVorkmen here obey the Maflers call. 
To gild the turret, and to pai?jt the wall'. 
To 7nark the pavetnent there with various flone : 
And 071 the fafper fleps to rear the Throne : 
The fpreading Cedar, that an age had flood, 

Supre77ie of Trees, and Miflrefs of the Wood, 

Cut 



VOLUPTAS. 7 

Fabrica lenibant curas, et fcria vitce : 
Arborea ardentem non admittentia folem 
Tedla mod 6 ftruxi ; modo cclfa Palatia coelo 
i^quabam ; fepfi Aulae intra confinia noftra;, 
Quicquid alit Pontus, vel Djedala Terra, vel Aer. 
Continuo Sylvas alienam agnofcere matrem 
Juffi tranfpofitas ; Judam peregrina ftupentem 
Ornarunt querceta, et non fua veftiit umbra. 
Antiquum Nemus exclufit Pifcina ; repente 
Decrefcunt celfi proftrato vertice colles, 
Extenfis acies ut latius imperet arvis. 
Ipfa oblita fuos flexerunt flumina curfiis, 
Compedibufque novis miram devinda per artem, 
Prascipiti gratum fremuere voluta tumultu ; 
Aut fpirans faluere per aurum, aut fculptile faxum. 
Quod Libye vexata gementi mittit ab alvo, 
Erigit effulgens, fpatiofa Palatia, marmor, 
Aut nitidas difponit in intervalla columnas, 
Queis Lucus viret innitens, ac penfilis Hortus. 

Artes in quafcunque voco, non tarda fequuntur 
Fabrorum manus: hie paries vita semulus ardet, 
Atque auro turris rutilanti obdudla fuperbit : 
Verficolore illic nitet area pidla lapillo, 
Et Solium gemmis fuffultum, et Jafpide furgit. 
Cedrus opaca, ingens, quas fera in fecula gentis 
Arborcas fleterat Regina, ac Gloria Sylv^e, 

Excila 



8 PLEASURE. 

Cut down and carvdy my JJjining roof ador?is \ 
Afid Lebanon his mind ho7iour mourns. 

A thoufatid Artijls Jhew their cunni72g powr, 
lo raife the TOJtders of the Ivry Towr. 
A thoifa7id Maidetis ply the purple loom^ 
*To weave the bedy and deck the regal roomi 
""Till Tyre confeffes her exhaufled florey 
Than 071 her coaji the Murcx is 770 more \ 
'Till frotn the Parian 7/Z?, a7id Libia s coafly 
The Motmtains grieve their hopes of marble lofl\ 
And India s Woods return their jufl co77iplainty 
Their brood decay dy and want of Elephant, 

My full defgn with vafl ex pence atchievdy 
I camey beheld, ad77iirdy refleSledy grievd. 
I chid the folly of jny thoughtlefs hafl : 
For, the work perfeSiedy the joy was pafl. 

To tny new courts fad Thought did fl ill repair \ 
A7id roimd 77iy gilded roofs hung hovring Care. 
In vain on flke7t beds I fought repofe ; 
And reflefs oft frojn purple couches rofe ; 
Vexatious Thought fill found ^ny flying tnind 
Nor bound hy li7nitSy tior to place confrid ; 



Haunted 



VOLUPTAS. 9 

Exclfa, aiiratum decorat nunc fculpta lacunar, 
Plorat et everfbs Lebanon viduatus honores. 

Mille hie Artifices certant expromere vires, 
Splendida ut exurgant miracula Turris Eburna;. 
Mille operi inftantes exercent penia Miniftrse, 
Ut Torus ardenti contextus fulgeat oftro, 
Rideat et pidlis decorata tapetibus Aula ; 
Donee jam exhauftas queritur Tyros indiga gazas, 
Et fruftra petitur nativo in littore Murex ; 
Donee jam focias Libya et Paros orba querelas 
Flebiliter mifcent, dum Ipes perit irrita fzec'li, 
Et Juga marmoreos cellant producere fstus ; 
Triftiaque emittunt Indorum murmura Sylvae, 
Amiflamque dolent fobolem, ca^fofque Elephantas. 

Cumque opus et fudor, fumptufque exegerat ingens, 
Adveniens vifu obftupui, reputanfque dolebam. 
Stultitiam increpui, feftinatofque labores ; 
Namque habuere parem cum cjepto gaudia finem. 

Infequitur vetus, atque novam Dolor obfldet aulam, 
Auratique volat circum laquearia tedi ; 
Necquicquam invitant bombycina ftrata foporem ; 
Exilii quoties farrano infomnis ab oftro ! 
Prenfavit vaga Cura animum, comes atra, fugacem, 
Omnia pervolitans late loca, limite nullo 
Contenta; hcec fomnos turbabat flebilis Umbra, 
Solis et ad nitidos non unquam evanuit ortus ; 

B Me 



IP PLEASURE. 

Haunted my nightSy a?td terrify d my days ; 
Stalk' d thro my garde^is, a?id purfii d my ways, 
Nor fjut from artfid bowr, 7ior loft in windifig maze. 

Tet take thy bent, 7ny Soid\ another fenfe 
Indulge ; add Mufic to Magnificence : 
Efjay, if harmojiy 7nay grief controU; 
Or powr of found prevail upon the foul 
Often our Seers and Poets have confefs'd. 
That Mufic s force can tajne the furious beafi; 
Can fnake the Wolf or foaming Boar refirain 
His rage ; the Lio?z drop his crefied jnain, 
JltteJitive to thefong-, the Lynx forget 
His wrath to 7nan, and lick the MinfireFs feet. 
Are we, alas I lefs favage yet than thefe; 
Elfe Mufic fure 7nay hu7nan cares appeafe. 

Ifpake my purpofe ; and the chearful Choir 
Parted their fijares of Harj7i07iy : the Lyre 
Softe/id the Ti7?ibrers 7ioife : the Trimipet s found 
ProvoKd the Doria?i Flute [both fweeter found 
When 7}iixd :) the Fife the Viot s 7iotes refind. 
And evry firength with evry grace was joi7i d. 

Each 



VOLUPTAS. II 

Me veniente die, me decedente premebat: 

Noftrum iter infcclata, ruit graflata per hortos, 

Nee viridi feclufa domo, arboreoque receflii, 

Nee labyrinthasas inter decepta latebras. 

Eja novas, Anima sgra, dapes, nova gaudia quasras, 

Magnificis Melicos, age, flimptibtis adde Lcporcs, 

Omnis et ex Oculis dulcedo migret ad Aurem : 

Experiare, utruni curas compefcere norint, 

Sollicitifque adhibere animis medicamina, Cantus. 

Saepe etenim fuavi Vates cecinere camiena, 

Et veteres dixere Sophi, mirabile pled:ri 

Eloquium domuiile Feras, rabiemque Luporum ; 

Et fpumantis Apri delenivifle furores: 

Quin implacati juba luxuriofa Leonis 

Procubuit mollita fbno : trucis immemor irs 

Lynx prolapfa dedit Citliarasdi bafia plantas. 

Mollior an nobis pertentat pe<£lora fenfiis ? 

Turn certe humanos vis mufica leniet sftus, 

Et medici curas pellent miracula pledlri. 

Edixi ; exultans animis Chorus ilicet omnis 
Partitur melos, et Prasludia Mufica tentat. 

Mitigat aufteros Siftri Lyra blanda fbnores : 

Claflica confpirant, et Dorica Tibia ; miftis 

Dulcior his quoniam fbnus, ac difcordia concoi-s. 

EmoUit Lituus Citharam, et nimis aipera levat, 

Et coeunt vis omnis, et omnis gratia cantus. 

B 2 Matuti- 



12 PLEASURE. 

Each mor7i they waKd me with afprightly lay : 

Of ope7ting Heavn theyfimg^ a7id gladfome Day. 

Each eve?ii?2g their repeated skill exprefs d 

Scenes of repofe, and images of reft : 

Yet fl ill in vain : for Miifc gather d thought : 

But how ti?iequal the effeSis it brought I 

The f oft Ideas of the cheat fid ?wte-, 

Lightly receivd^ were cafly forgot ; 

"The fole7?t7i viole7ice of the graver foimd 

K7iew toflrike deep^ and leave a lafling wound. 

A7id 710W refleEli7ig^ I with grief defciy 
The fickly Lufl of the fa7itaflic Eye; 
How the weak orga7i is with feeing cloydy 
Flying ere Nighty what it at Noo7i e7iJoyd. 
A7id 710W [tmhappy fearxh of thought .') I fou7id 
Jhefckle Ear foon glutted with the found-, 
Condemn d eternal Cha7iges to piafue^ 
Tird with thelafi^ a7id eager of the 7iew. 

I had the Firgins a7id the Touth adva7icey 
To temper Mufic with the fprightly Dance. 
In vain I too low the 7ni77iic-motio7is feein : 

What 



VOLUPTAS. 13 

Matutinvim alacrl ruperunt carmine fonmum 
In numeris patuit fulgentis regia Caeli, 
Solque orlens veneres, et lucida tela retexit. 
Hefperus ut nodi fplendorem induxit opacaj, 
Miiia Jyr^e folers placidas fimulachra quietis 
Artifici cantu, fomnique imitamina lufit. 
Necquicquam ! curae medio in modulamine furgunt, 
Quosque Aurem delenit, abeft a Mente voluptas ; 
Quod tulit, eripuit fubito melica aura, levamen. 
Feftivi Umbra foni, laetique jocola canoris 
Excepta heu 1 levitcr, leviter quoque fugit Imago. 
At gravis, aufteraeque potens violentia Mufaj 
Altum animo impreflit ftimulum, et durabile vulnus. 

Jam reputans Luxum efFrasnem petulantis Ocelli,, 
Deliciasque breves, et lubrica gaudia ploro. 
[am defefla patet fatiarier organa vifu, 
Vefpere dumprimo fugiunt, qua? luce petebant. 
Senfi etiam, (Ah miferum fcrutantem talia!) mollen, 
Mellifluo Auriculam faturatam aegrefcere cantu r 
i£ternas damnata Vices perferre canons, 
Ufque novis intenta, fonos exofa priores, 
In labyrinthseo concentu implexa fatifcit. 

Continue Pueros jufli, inuptafque Puellas 
Feftivas Melico Choreas fociare Lepori. 
Necquicquam ! infoliti lafcivia mimica geftus, 
Crebraque mobilitas, levia et ludicra videntur ; 

Conci- 



14 PLEASURE, 

what takes our hearty iiiifjl f/icrit our efleem. 
Nature-) I thought .^ perfor'/U d too mean a parf.^ 
Forming her movements to the rules of Art ; 
A77d vexd I found) that thz Muficians hand 
Had o'er the Daji^ei' s mbid too ?reat Co7nma)id. 

o 

/ drank \ I liKd it 7iot : 'twas rage ; 'twas noife ; 
Afi airyfceiie of tra?ifit07'y joys. 
hi vai7i I trujiedy that thefiowi7ig Bowl 
Jf^ould ha7iifjj forrowj a7id. e7ilarge the foul. 
To the late revel, and protraBedfeafi 
JVild dreams fucceedcdy a7id diforde7' d refl ; 
And as at dawn of 7nor7i fair Reafori s light 
Broke thro the fumes and pha7it07ns of the 7iight ; 
What had been f aid) I asK d 7ny foul, what dofte; 
How flow d our mirth) and whence the four ce begim? 
Perhaps the jefi that charm d the fprightly croud) 
A7id 77iade the jovial table laugh fo loud) 
'Tofo7ne falfe notion owd its poor prete7ice, 
To an ambiguous words perverted fe77fe) 
To a wild fo7inet) or a wanton air. 
Offence and torture to the fober ear. 
Per haps ) alas I the pleafmgfireajn was brought 
Fro7n this mans error, frQ7n a7iothers fatdt ; 

Fro77i 



V O L U P T A S. 15 

Conciliandus Amor prius, ac faftidia nolliis 
Ex animis vdlenda, capi quam pedlora pofliriC. 
Naturam partes dolui tradlare fecimdas, 
Artis ad arbitrium motus componere jufiani, 
Et dolui duro Harmonicas fubjed:a teneri 
Imperio Dextras, faltantis Corda caterv£e. 

Vina bibi, nee grata bibi; Furor inde Tumultufque ; 
Et fimul exhaufto fugientia gaudia poc'lo. 
Speravi incaffum, quod pleno flumine Crater 
Exundans, curam elueret, fevofque dolores, 
Ac bene porrigeret contradlae feria mentis. 
Sero etenim cyatho, ac produdae in lumina casnas- 
Succeffit turbata quies, fimulachraque fomni 
Triftia : cumque flios aurora retexerat ortus, 
Et nodtis difculT^ umbrae, ac lux reddita menti ; 
Quid fadlum, did;umve fuit, cum corde putabam^s 
Unde voluptatis noftrae profluxit origo. 
Forfitan ille jocus, qui turbae cepit ovantis 
Pedlora, et elicuit plaufum, rifufque folutos, 
Vilia de falfo conceptu exordia difxit, , 
Vocis ab ambiguo tortse crudeliter ufu ; 
Aut dedit huic ortus fpurci lafcivia cantus, 
Qux violat caftas, et acerb um vulnerat aures : 
forfitan heu! dulci manabant gaudia rivo, 
Quorum fons vitium fuit illius, illius error, 

Queis 



i6 PLEASURE. 

Fro7?t topics which Good-nature would foi'get^ 
A7td Prude7ice mention with the lajl 7'egret. 

Add yet tm7iu7nber d ills^ that lie U7ifee7t 
In the per7iicious draught ; the word obfce77ey 
Or harfl:)^ which once ela7ic d 77tuji ever fly 
Irrevocable ; the too pro77ipt reply-, 
Seed of fever e diftrufl-i a7id fierce debate \ 
What we fljould fnmt and what we ought to hate. 

Add too the blood i7npoverifij dy a7id the courfe 
Of Health fapprefs dy by Wines C07itinii d force. 

Unhappy Man I who7n forrow thus and rage 
To difl'rent ills alternately e7igage. 
Who drinks^ alas \ but to forget ; 7ior fees^ 
That 7mla7icholy Sloth, fevere Difeafe, 
Me77iry co7ifus d, a7id i7iterrupted Thought., 
Death's harbingers, lie late7it in the draught : 
And in the flow" rs, 'that wreath thefparkling Bowl, 
Fell Adders hifs, and poys^ious Se7-pents roll. 



Re77iains 



VOLUPTAS. 17 

Quels amat optatam prostexerc Candidus umbram, 
Et Sapiens meminiiTe horret, lu6i:uque refugit. 

His fuper accedit feries immenfa malorum, 
Quae miferos fallunt, hauftufque fequuntur amaros : 
Hie immunda latent, ignominiofaque dida, 
Quasquc emifla femel volat irrevocabilis, auri 
Vox durum morofa fonans ; nimis acre, citumque 
Refponfum, unde ferox ftirpem traxere nefandam 
Sufpicio, fa^vifque minax diicordia verbis ; 
Quseque petita nocent, et quse fugiffe decorum eft. 

Sanguis hebet, frigentque efFaetas in corpore vires ; 
Alma Talus etiam curfus oblita priores 
Degenerat, nimioque meri corrumpitur ufu. 

O nimium miferos Homines, fua fi mala norint ! 
Quos agit alternis dolor et dementia cscos, 
In peftefque rapit varias, perque afpera verfat. 
Secures ktices, et longa oblivia potant ; 
Scilicet ignorant inamcenum ignobilis Oti 
Torporem, in memori confufas pedlore rerum 
Effigies, fevoque timendos agmine Morbos, 
Conceptus interruptos, titubantia Verba, 
Nuntia venturae Mortis, latitare fub hauftu, 
Triftiaque in mediis pofuifle cubilia poc'lis : 
Inter et amplexas Isetum Cratera corollas, 
(Ufque adeo eft aliquid, quod in iplls iloribus angat) 
Volvi Hydros, Colubrofque tumeicere fibila colla. 

C Inten- 



i8 PLEASURE. 

Re?nains there ought untryd^ that may renwce 
Sicknefs of mind^ and heal the hofom P — Love^ 
Love yet remains : indulge his genial fire y 
CheriJJj fair Hope, folicit young Dejirey 
And boldly bid thy anxious fold explore 
'This lafl great remedy's myflerious powr. 

Why therefore heftates my doubtful breafl f 
Why ceafes it o?ie mome72t to be bleft j 
Flyfwifty my Friends ; 7ny Servant Sy fly ; imploy 
Tour infl ant pains to bri?ig your Mafler joy. 
Let all my Wives and Concubines be drefsd : 
Let the?n to-7iight attend the Royal Feafl ; 
All Ifraets Beauty y all the foreig?i Fairy 
The gifts of Pri7jcesy or thefpoils of War .- 
Before their Monarch they flj all f7igly pafsy 
And the ?nofl ^worthy fhall obtai7i the grace. 

If aid: the Feafl was fervd: the Bowl was cro'W7idy 

To the Ki7tgs pleafure went the mirthfid rou7id: 

The Wofne7i ca^ne : as cufloni willsy they pafl : 

On One [0 that difli7iguiflj d 07iel) I cafl 

The fav rite glance : 1 yet my mind retai7is ^ — 

That fond beginjiing of tny infant pai7is. 

Mature 



VOLUPTAS. 19 

Intentatum aliquid rcftat, quod leniat agrum 
Pectus, et accedat noflro medicina dolori ? 
Reftat Amor: Isetiis genialem pafce Calorem, 
Spefque fove teneras, ac molle Cupidinis OEftrum 
Sollicita, mentemque jube, quse fludluat zeftu 
Curarum, explorare novi medicaminis ufum. 

Cur igitur dubio jadlatur turbine pedtus ? 
Cur trahit ufque moras, ac felix effe recufat ? 
Vos Socii properate, (imul properate Miniftri, 
Qujerite Deliciafque novas, Luxumque recentem, 
Et Dominum veftro juvet empta labore Voluptas. 
Conjux ornatus, et Pellex induat omnis, 
Regiaque hdc hilares celebrent Convivia no6le ; 
Quas habet Ifrael veneres, peregrinaque tellus, 
Bellorum ipolia, aut magnorum munera Regum. 
Ordine quaeque fuo fub Principis ora verendi 
Prodeat, exortemque ferat digniflima palmam. 

Dixi ; epulas menfe apponunt, cratera coronant, 
L^etitiamque vovens Regi fcyphus adlus in orbem 
Feftivum redit, atque hilari fremit Aula tumultu. 
Continue Muliebris adeft de more vetufto, 
Inceditque Cohors : vifu perculfus in Unam, 
Egregiam ante alias Unam, jaculabar amorem. 
Multa animo heu ! Nymphs virtus, multufque recurfat 
Oris honos, et adhuc tener^e primordia flamm^e 
Agnofco, et noftri cunabula feva doloris. 

C 2 Jam 



20 PLEASURE, 

Mature the Virgbt was of Egypt's race : 

Grace JJjaf d her limbs ; and Beauty decKd her face : 

Eafy her motion feetti d-^ ferene her air : 

Full^ thd unzond^ her hofoni rofe : her hair 

Untydy and ignorant of artful aid^ 

Adown herfJjoulders loofely lay difplayd ; 

And in the jetty curls ten thoufand Cupids playd. 

Fixd on her charms^ and pleased that I could love-, 
Aid me my Friends^ co7itribute to improve 
Your Monarch's hlifs^ If aid ; frejh Rofes bring 
To jlrow ?ny Bed, "till the impov riJJj d Spring 
Confefs her want ; around my amrous head 

Be dropping Myrrhe, and liquid Amber fjedy 
^Till Arab has ?io more. Fro?n the f oft Lyre, 
Sweet Flute-i a?id ten-Jlringd injlrument^ requi?'e 
Sounds of delight : and thoUyfair Nymph ^ draw nigh; 



Th 



ou 






V O L U P T A S. 21 

Jam matura Viro, jam plcnis nubilis annis, 
-^gypti {qCc Virgo de gente ferebat : 
Fingebaiit artus Charites, Venus ora polibat. 
Ambiit banc furtim, quoquo veftigia flexit, 
Mollis honor, placidofque fecuta eft Gratia geftus. 
Non tereti ftrophio turgentes vin6la papillas, 
Exeriiit : nee pexa comam eft, religatave nodis, 
Quas propriis pollens opibus, nihil artis egena, 
Ex humeris, nitidoque undavit amabile collo : 
Crinibus intortum nigris lafciviit Agmen 
Aligerum, cirrifque Cupido fub omnibus hxfit. 
Dum ftupui, obtutuque hxCi defixus in uno, 
Dumque puellaris forms mirabar honores, 
Intus ovans, quod Amoris erat concefla facultas, 
Auxilium pra^fens, diledli, afferte, Sodales, 
Addite deliciis noftris, ac gaudia Regis 
Provehite in melius, dixi ; date Lilia plenis, 
Pubentefque Rofas calathis, et quicquid Odorum 
Halat; agris deftnt fua Florea fccula, nofter 
V Dum crefcit Torus, et colledo Vere fuperbit. 
Myrrha caput ftillans, et Succinus irrigct Imber, 
Aptaque Amatori fudent Opoballama crines, 
Donee plura negant Arabum felicia regna. 
Elicite imbelli modulamina dulcia Plc6lro, 
Jucundumque melos; do6lique laceflite pulfu 
Pollicis inftrumenta decern refonantia chordis: 
Tuque etiam accedas propius, pulcherrima Virgo, 

Tu, 



22 PLEASURE, 

T'hou^ in whofe graceful form') and potent eye 

Thy Mafler s joy long fought at leiigth is found \ 

And as tJjy brow^ let i?iy deftres be crown d ; 

O favrite Virgiii^ that hafl warnid the breaf, 

PFhofeJovreign diSlates fuhjiigate the Eafl I 
Ifaid; and fudden from the golde?i throne 

With afubmijfwe flep I hafied down. 

"The glowing garland from my hair I took, 

Love i?t my heart, obediejice i?t my look ; 

Prepare! to place it 07i her comely head : 

O favrite Virgin 1 (yet again Ifaid) 

Receive the ho7iors defli7zd to thy brow ; 

Aid above thy fellows happy Thou .' 

^ Their duty mujl thy fov reign word obey. 

Rife up, my Love \ my fair one, come away. 

What pajig, alas \ what ecflafy offnart 

Tore up my fejifes, a7id tra77sfixd my heart ; 

When Ode with modefi fcor7t the Wreath return d, 

Recliiid her beauteous 7ieck, and i7tward 7nour7id? 

Forcd by 7ny pride, T 77iy concer7t fupprefs d. 

Pretended drowfinefs, and wifj of refl ; 

And fu lien I foffook tlj i7nperfeB feafl : 

Orderin, 



'g 



VOLUPTAS. 23 

Tu, cujus nitido in vultu, formaque decenti, 
V Cujus et in rutilis, quos fulgur obarmat, ocellis, 
Inventa eft domini, longum qusfita, Voluptas : 
Ipfe meis votis, et tu potiare corona : 
O chara ante alias Virgo, quse fub juga vidum 
Mififti, late devifto Oriente tyrannum! 

Talia di6la dedi, ac folio feftinus ab aureo 
Exilii, vultu mque ferens, greffufque precantis. 
Eripui Ipfe meis ardentia ferta capillis, 
(Obfequium afpedus geffit, cor intus amorem) 
Illius et capiti Gemmatum Infigne decoro 
Impofiturus eram : rurfufque Hjec ore locutus, 
O chara ante alias Virgo, cape pra^mia fronti 
Debita, et O fociis falve pr^elata Puellis ! 
llljE omnes, fludiofa cohors, tua juffa fequentur. 
Eripe te, formofa, moras, mea, furge, Voluptas. 

Quam fsevus dolor heu ! quam non tolerabilis angor 
Concuflit labefadlum animum, perque ofia cucurrit , 
Refpuit oblatae cum munera Virgo Corollaj 
Saivitia facili, et vultu indignata modefto 
Interius doluit, tereti cervice reflexa ? 

Indecorem averfata fuperbia noftra repulfam 
Introrfum curas premere alta mente cocgit: 
Languidus expetii fimulato corde foporem, 
Atque epulas imperfedas, et plena reliqui 
Pocula difcedens, media inter gaudia triftis: 

Semi- 



24 PLEASURE. 

Ordering the Rtmtichs^ to whofe proper care 
Our Eajier?t grandeur gives tJj imprifottd Fair^ 
"To lead her forth to a dijiinguijjjd bowr^ 
And bid her drefs the bed^ and "wait the hour. 

Rejllefs I follow d this obdurate Maid 
[Swift are the fleps that Love and Anger tread) 
Approach' d her perfo?i-, courted her embrace^ 
Renew d 9nyfla?ney repeated my difgrace : 
By turns put on the Suppliant, and the Lord: 
Thrcatejid this moment, and the ?iext itnplord ; 
Offer d again the imaccepted Wreath, 
And choice of happy Love, or infla7tt Death. 

Averfe to all her avirous King dejird. 
Far as flje might, flje decently retird: 
And darting fcorn, andforrow from her eyes. 
What means, faid flje, Ki-ng Solomon the Wifef 

'This wretched Body trefnbles at your Powr: 
Thus far could Fortune: but fjje can no more. 
Free to her f elf my potent Mind remains ; 
Nor fears the ViSlor s Rage, nor feels his Chai?ts. 

'Tisfaid, that thou canfl plaufibly difpute. 

Supreme of Seers, of Angel, Man, and Brute ; 

Can^ 



VOLUPTAS. 25 

Semiviros jufli, quorum, iic pofcit Eoa 

Majeftas, fervat tutela innoxia Nymphas/ 

Arboreae exortes educcre iedis in umbras, 

Ledum ubi conftrueret, tempufque maneret amicum, 

Jrrequieto intus verfante cupfdine pedus, 

Difficilis duraeque comes veftigia prefli 

Virginis ; (ufque adeo curfiis Amor Iraque iioftros 

Pr^ecipitare folent, et plantis addere pennas) 

Accefll propior coram, amplexufque petivi ; 

-Et repetitus Amor, fuit et repetita repulfe 

Szepe mihi labes : in formas cereus omnes, 

Supplicis inque vices indutus, et ora Tyranni, 

Nunc terrere Minis, Prece nunc mollire parabam : 

Serta iterum rejedla tuli, juffique beat« 

Aut vidlam Flammae, aut certas fuccumbere Morti. 

At non Ilia preces tradlabilis audiit ullas, 
Sed quantum potuit, paflli regrefia decenti eft : 
Eque oculis mixtum ludu jaculata furorem, 
Quid Sapientis, ait, vult haec Infania Regis ? 

Te Dominum infelix agnofcit Corpus, et horret j 
Tantum Fortunas licuit : fed non datur ultra. 
Arrogat imperium iibi Mens, ac libera reftat, 
Vidlorifque minas, et inania vincula temnit. 

Tu potes occultos rerum penetrare recefllis, 
Divorumque fuper natura, Hominifque Fersque 
Diilerere, argutus Sophize, et non fordidus Audor. 

D Tu 



%6 PLEASURE. 

Ca7tjl plead withfubtil wit a7id fair difcourfet 

Of PaJJt072s folly, and of Reafoft s force. 

'That to the Tribes attentive Thou canfl pow^ 

Whence their misfortmies.-, or their blefftngs flow : 

That Thou in Science-, as in Powr art great ; 

And Truth and Honour on thy EdiSis wait. . 

Where is that Knowledge now, that Regal Thought, 

With jufi advice, and timely counf el fraught ? 

Where now, Judge of Ifrael, does it rove f — 

What in 07ie inoi7tent dofi thou offer f Love — 

hove f why ^tis "Joy or Sorrow, Peace or Strife ^ 

'Tis all the Color of remaini7ig life : 

And Hiwian Misry mufl begin or end. 

As He beco7nes a Tyra7it, or a Friend. 

Would David's So7t, religious, jufl, and gravey 

To the firfi bride-bed of the world receive 

A Foreigner, a Heathen, and a Slave f 

Or grant, thy paffon has thefe 7m77tes defiroy d ; 

That Love^ like Death, 7}iahs all difinSiion void'. 



Yet 



VOLUPTAS. 27 

Tu potcs, lit perhibent, miranti oftendere Turbas, 
Indole fubtili inftru6lus, piilchraque loquela, 
In quantum Affedus, animique effrsena Cupido 
Defipiint, quantum fapiat Rationis acumen. 
Attentas Te pofle Tribus it fama docere, 
Unde Boni dulcedo , Malive exurgat amaror. 
Nee Te Majeftas, quantum Sapientia, clarat; 
Et Tua caftus Honor, Verumque Edida fequuntur. 
Quo nunc ilia abiit Sapientia ? provida Regis 
Quo fanis adeo, ac maturis prjedita Corda 
Confiliis ? ubi nunc, Judex Solymae, vagantur ? 
Quod mihi nunc offers properanter munus ? Amorem ? 
Siccine mutatus Solomon infervit Amori ? 
Quid fit Amor, qu^eris ? Dolor eft, aut grata Voluptas, 
Aut cum Pace Quies, aut Nox cum lite Diefque ; 
Hinc et vita trahit, fupereft qu^cunque, Colorem. 
Principium Humane fumant, finemve necefle eft 
iErumnee, infefti hie faevit fi more Tyranni, 
Aut ft Fautor adeft, ac mitia pedora geftat. 
Siccine Davidides, triplici quem inftgnit honore 
Et pietas, et prifca fides, mentifque decorum 
Pondus, in amplexum Peregrins Virginis iret, 
Et Famulce conjux, et Nymphas Monftra colentis, 
Infignem triplici macularet crimine Ledum ? 
Nomina, cede etiam, quod Amanti base cafla putentur, 
Et quod Amor, Mortis ritu, difcrimina tollat : 
Dum tamen in pedus tibi dura hie efferus Hoftis 

D 2 Imperia 



28 PLEAS U R E. 

Yet in his empire oer thy abjeEi breajl. 
His flames and torments only are exprefl : 
His Rage can in my Smiles alone relent ; 
And all his Joys folicit fny Confent. 

Soft Love-, fpontaneous Iree^ its parted root 
Mufl from two Hearts with equal vigour fljoot : 
JVhilfl each delighted-, and delighting-, gives 
The pleafng ecflafy-, which each receives : 
Cherifljd with Hope, and fed with Joy it grows : 
Its chearful buds their opening bloom difclofe -, 
Afid roujjd the happy foil diffufive Odor flows. 
If angry Fate that mutual care denies \ "j 

The fading Plant bewails its due fupplies : > 

Wild with Defpair-, or fick with Grief it dies. j 

By force Beafls aB-, a?jd are by force reflraiiid : 
The Hu7?ian Mifid by gentle means is gai7i d. 
Thy tfelefs flre^igth-, miflaken King, employ : 
Sated with rage, and ignorant of joy-, 
Thou fljalt 7iot gai?i what I de7ty to yield \ 
Nor reap the Hai'veft, tho thoufpoiffl the Field. 

K7tOWy 



V O L U P T A S. 29 

Imperia exercet, fsevaque Tyrannide ludit, 

Per flammas folumj tormentaque, Numen Amoris 

Agnofcis, virefque, expertus tela, tremifcis. 

In Noftro folum, dum ridet amabile, Vultu 

Mollefcit Rabies, ftimulique hebetantur acuti ; 

Omniaque e Noftro pendent huic Gaudia Nutu. 

Arbor mollis. Amor, nullo cogente fub auras 
Sponte fua erigitur, gemino quin Corde necelle eft 
Partita exiliat radice, ac viribus asquis : 
Deledetque vicifTim, et deledetur Utrumque, 
Et dulces animi motus, quos Utraque prabent, 
Utraque percipiant, et amico foedere crefcant. 
Spe& fovet banc, almofque miniftrant Gaudia fuccos t 
Hinc trudit gemmas, et frondes explicat omnes j 
Et late Ambrofii circum jadantur Odores. 
Mutua fin crudele negarit pabula Fatum, 
Subfidio viduata fuo Planta arida marcetr 
Et vel mentis inops, moritur, vel viSm dolore. 

Vis regit ingenium Bruti, ac vis fola coercet: 
Blanditias, mollefque aditus Humana repofcunt. 
Nee nili tormento vincuntur Pedora leni. 
Infelix errore tuo, ac fpc captus inani 
EfFundas rabiem, Solomon, et inutile robur : 
Irarum fatur heu ! blandique ignarus Amoris, 
Quod prece vique obfcfla nego, non vidor habebis j. 
Nee, fpolies licet Arva, optata Mefie frucris. 

Agnolcas, 



30 PLEASURE, 

Know, Solomon^ thy poor extent offway ; 
■ContraEi thy browy and Ifrael p^all obey : 
But "wilful Love thou mujljwith Seniles appeafc. 
Approach his awful throne by jufl degrees ; 
And if thou wouldjl be happy y learn to pleafe. 

Not that thofe arts can here fuccefsful prove : 
For I a7n deflind to ajtothers love. 
Beyond the cruel bounds of thy Cofnmandy 
'To my dear Equals in ?ny native land-, 
My plighted vow I gave : I his receivd : 
Each fwore with truth : with pleafure each believd. 
The mutual C072traB was to Heavn convey d : 
In equal fcales the bufy A?tgels weighed 
Its folemn force, and clafd their wings, and fpread 
Ihe lafling Roll, recorditig what We f aid. 

Now in my heart behold thy poinard flaind: 

Take the fad life which I have lo7tg difdaind : 

End, in a dying Virgins wretched fate. 

Thy ill-flarrd Pajfion, and My fiedfafl Hate. 

For long as blood informs thefe circling veins ; 

Or fleeting breath its latefi powr retains ; 

Hear 



VOLUPTAS. 51 

Agnofcas angufta tui Pomaeria Rcgnf, 
Adde Supercilio nubem, parebit et omnis 
Ifrael : at Amor, cui ftat pro lege voluntas, 
Fronte tibi eft placida, ac Rlfu pacandus amico ; 
lUius ad folium vultu pafTuque modefto 
Leniter arrepas; ac fi cupis efle beatus, 
Suadelam edifcas mellitam, artemque placendi. 

Nil tamen hie poterunt pollens fuadela, vel artes :- 
Namque Ego fum pridem Alterius devota cubili. 
Imperii fines ultra, tuaque effera Rura, 
Compare cum fponfo Patriae in felicibus arvis 
Mutua pada fides, et mutua dextra coibat: 
Juravit verum, atque lubens credebat Uterque. 
Vota alternaDeum ventus referebat ad aures: 
Lancibus ^therii librarunt pondus in requis 
Indigenas, et lastum plaufere ftrepentibus alis ; 
Dumque manu late Sacrum explicuere Volumen, 
F^dera Perpetuis mandarunt mutua Faftis. 

In Mea nunc cernas immerfum Pedlora ferrum ;: 
Spumantemque cruore enfem, collapfaque membra ^ 
Quin animam eripias triftem, quam faucia curis 
Contempfi dudum ; ac miferanda in morte Puell^,, 
Laevus Amor tuus, et vivax mea concidat Ira. 
Namque Hx vitali faliunt dum fanguine Venn?, 
Extremufve aegros dum Spiritus hos regit artus ; 

JEgypth 



32 PLEA SU RE, 

Hear me to Egypt's vengeful Gods declare. 
Hate is my part : be thhie, King, Defpair. 

Now Jlrike, Jbe faid-i and open d bare her breajl -, 
Stand it in yudaFs Chronicles co?ifeJl, 
"That David's Son, by impious pajfion movd. 
Smote a She-Jlave, and murder d what he lovd. 

Apamd, confusd, I Jlarted frojji the bed; 
And to my Soul yet tmcolleSled faid : 
Into thyfelf, fond Solo7non, return ; 
RefleEi agaiti, and thou again fjalt jnourn. — ■ 
When I through number d years have Pleafure fought ; 
And in vain Hope the wanton Phantom caught ; 
To mock ?ny fenfe, and mortify my pride, 
""Tis in another s powr, and is de7iyd: 
Am I a King, great Heavn I does Life or Death 
Hang on the wrath, or mercy of my Breath ; 
While kneeling I my Servant s f miles implore ; 
And One mad Damfel dares difpute my Powr ? 

To ravip her I that thought was foon deprefsd. 

Which mufl debafe the Monarch to the Beafl. 

To fend her back \ whither, and to whomf 

To hands where Solo?non muf never come ; 

To 



V O L U P T A S. 33 

^gyptl Ultores Divos in vota vocantem 
Exaudij et Nemeft fundentem hcec verba feverag ; 
Ufque OdifTe meum eft; Tibi defperare fuperfit! 

Nunc ferias, ait, ac pedlus nudavit ad idlum ; 
In Judce vigeat Scelus indelebile Faftis ; 
Pofteritas legat, ut turpi cor percitus ira 
Davidides Famulam immiti percuflerit enle," 
Crudelifque Procus Nympham jugularit amatam. 

Turbidus introrfum, perfufus et ora pudore, 
Protinus invifo eripui mea membra Cubili; 
Atque Animo haec dixi turbato, cegrcque recepto ; 
In te defcendas, Solomon infane ; quid ultra 
Queeris ? quin itcrum reputes, iterumque dolebis. 
Cum jam Ego quaefivi per tosdia temporis Unam 
Longa Voluptatem, et jam fpe fallente Procacem 
Prasfumpfi, placida delufus Imagine, Praedam ; 
Ut Faftum contundat, et sgrum eludat Amorem, 
Poffidet banc, dulcefque negat mihi Fasmina fru6tus. 
Rex Ego fum, Superi ! vocem officiofa fequuntur 
Fata meam, pendentque meo Mortalia nutu ; 
Dum veneror Supplex curvato poplite Servam, 
Contemnitque meas Virgo temeraria Vires ? 

Vimne inferre velim ? hoc fubito de pedore ceilit 
Confilium, in Mentem quod Regia Corda Ferinam 
Turpiter indueret : patrias dimittere ad oras ? 
Quonam iret, Cui miffa, Anim^e pars altera Noftrce r 
Ad Terras, Solomoni aditus ubi Fata negarunt; 

E iEmuli 



34 PLEASURE, 

To that Lifidti?jg Rival's happy arms. 

For whom^ difdaming Me-^ She keeps her char?ns. 

Fantajlic Tyrant of the ajnrous Heart ; 
How hard Thy Yoke \ how cruel is Thy Dart I 
Thofe fcape thy anger ^ who refufe thy fway ; 
And thofe are punifjd mofl, who mofi obey. 
See yudaFs King revere thy greater Powr : 
What canfl thou covet., or how triumph more? 
Why the?if Love^ with an obdurate ear 
Does this proud Nymph rejcEi a Monarch's pray r f 
Why tofomefimple Shepherd docs p:)& rim, 
From the fond arms of David's fav rite Son? 
Why flies pe from the glories of a Court, 
Where wealth and pleafure i7iay thy reign fupp07't, 
Tofome poor cottage on the mountains brow, 
Now bleak with winds, and cover d 7iow withfiow : 
Where pinching Watit mufl curb her warm Defires, 
And Houpold Cares fupprefs thy ge?iial Fires f 



Too 



VOLUPTAS. 35 

yEmuli In amplexus iret petulantis, honores 
Cui Formas egregios, Me dedignata, refervat. 
Effere, et O Sola conflans levitate, Cupido, 
Qui fasvo heii nimium ludo diftringis Amantes I 
Quam non molle Jugum! quam non innoxia Telai 
Indociles tua juffa pati, et fubmittere duro 
Colla Jugo, fugiunt Iram, ultricefque Sagittas, 
Dive, tuas ; at Quifque magis quo paret Amator, 
Torquetur magis, et pa^na graviore laborat. 
Afpice, ut agnofcat vires, majoraque Sceptris 
Sceptra fuis, Judas: pollens ditione Tyrannus. 
Quid cupias majus, majorefve unde Triumphos 
Vidor ages ? cur ergo Superba base excipit aure 
Surda Virgo preces, et Regem fpernit Amantem ? 
Defugiens Charae cur Davidis ofcula Prolis, 
Nefcio quern properat Paftorem ample6lier ulnis, 
Qui, quas pafcit, Oves hebeti fors Indole vincit ? 
Cur Aulas eximium decus, ac fulgentia linqult 
Atria? ubi imperium tibi fuftentare, Cupido, 
Divitiffi poffint, et Luxuriofa Voluptas: 
Cur habitare Cafam pendentem in Vertice Montis 
Stramineam mavult, cundlis modo pervia ventis 
Qiis friget, canis nunc horret operta pruinis ; 
^ftum animi in duris urgens ubi rebus Egeftas 
Compefcet, frigufque, et penfa operofa Maritas 
Reftinguent Tadam, atque tuos, Amor alme, Calores? 

E 2 Ethnica 



36 PLEASURE, 

Too aptly the afiiEied Heathens prove 
The force-, while they ereSl the Jhri?jes of Love i 
His ?ny/lic form the Artizans of Greece 
In 'woimded ftone-, or molten gold exprefs : 
And Cyprus to his Godhead pays her vow : 
Fafl i?i his hand the Idol holds his Bow : 
A Quiver hy his fdefuflains a flore 
Of pointed Darts ; fad emble^ns of his powr : 
A pair of Wi7igs he has-, which he extends "j 

Now to he gone ; which now again he bends I 

Pro7te to returtiy as hefl jnayferve his wa?iton ends. j 
Entirely thus I find the Fiend pourtray d, 
Sificefirfit alas I I faw the beauteous Maid : 
I felt him fir ike •■, and now I fee himfiy: 
Cursd Dcemon I I for ever broken lie 
7hofe fatal fjaftSj hy which I i?tward bleed I 
01 can my wijhes yet oertah thy f peed \ 
Trrd 7?myfl thou pa?it., and hang thy flagging wi77g^ ~] 
Except thou tur7ifl thy cou7fe^ refolvd to bri7ig V 

The Da7nfel back., and fave the love-fick Ki77g. ] 

My foul thus ftruggli77g in the fatal Net-, 
Unable to e7ijoy., or to forget, 
I reafofid much-, alas \ but 7/wre I lovd ; 

Sent 



VOLUPTAS. '^j 

Ethnica Gens nimis apta Dei per figna fatetur 
Vim fibi funeftam, diim Fana educit Amori. 
Myftica Graiorum Manus ingeniofa Fabrorum 
Effingens limulachra, infligit Vulnera Saxo, 
Aut fcevum excudit liquefad:o Numen in Auro. 
Supplicibus Votis, et Thure hunc Cyprus adorat : 
Arcum Dextra tenet : Lateri lethalis adhasret 
Corytos, Jaculis horrendum fastus acutis, 
Masfta Poteftatis, durique Infignia Regni : 
Pennarum Duplex humeris innedlitur Ordo, 
Quas nunc extendit properans difcedere, quas nunc 
Contrahit in reditum pronus, mutabile femper 
Mentis ad arbitrium, utque procax Lafcivia fuadet. 
Sic nimis heu ! vere depidium Dasmona novi, 
Ex quo Pulchra meos Virgo praeftrinxit ocellos. 
Senfi idunij nunc cerno fugam : Tibi Spicula, Alaftor, 
-(Sternum jaceant lethalia fradla, medullam 
Quae mihi trajecere, interno tindla cruore f 
O pofiuntne tuos mea Vota ^equare volatus !" 
Torpida deficiat tibi Penna, et feffus anheles ; 
Ni curfum propere fleclas, Nymphamque reducas^ 
Et Rcgi Medicus fis idem, ut VuLneris Audlor. 

Dumque Anima in laqueo fie collu6Lata laborat 
Fatali, nee pofle frui. aut ex corde Puellam 
Oblito delere datur ; cum mente putabam 
Serius heu! multum tacita, at magis asger araavi; 

Et 



58 PLEASURE, 

ISe?it and recalfd , ordain d and difapprov d : 
'Till hopelejs piling d in an abyfs of griefs 
I from Necejfity receivd relief: 
Time gently aided to affwage my pain ; 
J^?id Wifdom took once more the flacken d rein. 

But how fhort my interval of woe I 
Our Griefs how fwift ; our Remedies hotv flow I 
A720ther Nymph [for fo did Heavn ordain^ 
To change the mafiner^ but renew the pain) 
Another Nymph^ amongfl the many Fair, 
That made my fofter hours their folemn care. 
Before the refl affe&ed flill to fland; 
And watcFd my eye, preventing my command. 
Ahra, Shefo was calTd, didfoonefl haft 
To grace my prefence ; Abra went the lafl : 
Abra was ready ere I calfd her name\ 
And thd I caird aiiother, Abra catne. 

Her Equals firfl obfervd her growing zeal; 
And laughing glofsd, that Abrafervdfo well 
To Me her aStions did unheeded die. 
Or were remark' d but with a common eye ; 
"Till more apprizd of what the Rumour faid. 



More 



V O L U P T A S. 39 

Et mifi, et revocavi ainens, jufli, atqiie vetavl : 
Donee jam Curarum cxfpes fubmcrfus in imdis, 
Aecepi tandem miferanda a Sorte levamen. 
Temporis hora meos lenibat fcra dolores, 
Et laxas iterum Sapientia fumpfit habenas. 

Heu breve folamen, miferos heu parva labores 
Excepit Requies ! curfli quam prcepete Ludlus 
Approperant ; pede quam claudo Medicina moratur I 
Altera Nympha, (Deo ftetit hasc fententia, paenas 
Mutata facie curas renovare priores) 
Altera Nympha, inter formofas mille Puellas, 
Mollia quje noftroe curabant Tempora Vitas 
Intentis ftiidiofae animis, operaque fideli^ 
Stare locis voluit primis, et prima videri 
Ante alias, Oculique loquacis figna notavit 
OfEciofa mei, celer antevenire jubenti. 
Abra, {hoc nomen erat Nymphze,) mihi fponte fub ora 
Objecit fe prima, noviflimaque exiit Abra: 
Abra parata fuit, nomen licet Ip{e tacerem ; 
Cumque vocarem Aliam, properavit et adfuit Abra. 

Glifcens Sedulitas, et daedala cura placendi 
Confervas primum baud latuit; dedit AbraCachinno, 
Materiamque Jocis, opera vehemente Miniflra. 
At male apud memorem flabat me Gratia Fadi^ 
Refpexive pigro Spedator lentus ocello ; 
Donee plus patulam pra;bens rumoribus aurem. 

Plus 



40 PLEASURE. 

More I obferv d pecidiar in the Maid. 

The Su7i declind had pot his wejiern ray ; 
JVhen tird with bufmefs of the Jolemn day^ 
I purposd to unbend the eveiiing hours, 
A?id bafiquet private in the TVojne7is bowrs. 
I caWd-, before I fat, to wafj my ha?ids : 
For fo the precept of the Law cojumands. 
Love had ordain d, that it was Abrd s turn 
To mix thefweets, a?id itiiitifler the ti7'n. 

With awful homage, a7id fubmiffive dread 
The Maid approach d, on 77jy declini7ig head 
To pour the oils : She tre77ibled as fhe pourdy 
With an imguarded look fie 7iow devour d 
My 7iearer face : and now recall d her eye, 
And heavd, a7id firove to hide a fudden figh. 
A7id whe7ice,faid /, ca7ifl thou have dread, or pain f 
What can thy i7nagry offorrow i7iean f 
Secluded fro7n the World, a7id all its Care, 
Hafl thou to grieve or joy, to hope or fear? 
For fur e, I added, fur e thy little heart 
Neer felt Loves anger, or receivd his dart. 

Abaft) dfje blufp d, a7id with diforder fpoke : 
Her rifmg ftoa77ie ador7i d the words it broke. 

If 



V O L U P T A S. 41 

Plus Nympham attentus, plus fingula fada notavi, 
Inque opere Ancills plusquam Ancillaria vidi. 

Jam Sol Helperio demcrfcrat i^quore Currus ; 
Cum jam ego pertasfus curas, et feria Lucis, 
Suaviter aufteros ftatui laxare labores 
Vefpere, fecretafque Fpulas celebrare Catervam 
Inter Fsmineam, viiidi reclinis in urgbra, 
Afferri manibus lympham jufli ante, parats 
Quam menfe accubui : fie Leges, Juraque pofcunt. 
Abraj blandus Amor mandarat munia, fontes 
Ut liquidos daret, ac fuaves mifceret odores. 

Acce/Tit Nympha obfequio pudibunda decentj, 
Ut prono redolens Capiti irroraret Olivum : 
Irrorans tremuit ; nunc caftum oblita pudorem, 
In Me avidos pavit vifus, arfitque tuendo : 
Nunc fuffiila rubore vagos revocavit ocellos, 
Et tacite eft conata tumenti in pedlore motus, 
Ac moefti premere introrfum Sufpiria Cordis. 
Unde t:ibi, dixi, manat timor, unde dolores ? 
Quid fibi Msroris velit hac lugubris Imago ? 
Semota a Mundi rebus, fejun^laque longe, 
Tun' Ludlum nutris, etGaudia, Spemque, Metumque? 
Nam certe, nunquam certe Tibi Pedlus, Amoris, 
Anguftum, aut Rabiem fenfit, Jaculumve recepit. 

Erubuit, fubitoque Animi confufa tumultu 
Singultim h^ec dixit : Pulcher Pudor ora loquentis 
Ornavit, pondufque dedit, venerefque Loquelie. 

F Si 



42 PLEASURE. 

If the great Majler will defcend to hear 
The humble feries of his Hand-maid' s care ; 
0\ while fje tells it, let him not put 07i 
The look-) that awes the Nations from the Throne: 
I let not Death fevere i7i glory lie 
In the King s frown, and terror of his eye. 

Mine to obey ; thy part is to ordain : 
And tho to mention, be to fuffer paiji; 
If the King f miles, whilji I my woe recite', "J 

If weepi7ig I f fid favor in his fight ; \. 

Flow f aft my tears, full rifiig his delight. J 

! witjiefs Earth beneath, ajul Heavn above ; 
For can I hide it P I am ftck of Lo-ve : 
If Madnefs may the naine of Paffion bear ; 
Or Love be caWd, what is i?ideed Defpair. 

Thou Sov reign Powr, whofe fecret will cojitrolls 
The inward be?2t and tnotion of our Souls I 
Why haft thou placdfuch infinite degrees 
Between the Caufe and Cure of my difeafe f 
The mighty ObjeSl of that raging fire. 
In which unpityd Abra 77mjl expire. 
Had he been bor7i fo7ne fii7tph Shepherd's heir. 
The lowing herd, or fieecy fijeep his care; 
At 7norn with him I o'er the hills had ru7i. 
Scornful of Wi7ite7-s frofl, a7id Su7n77ie7'' s fim. 

Still 



VOLUPTAS. 43 

Si potis eft animos adeo fubmittcre Princeps, 
Ut Famula; Curis patientem commodet aurem ; 
Singula dum narrat, procul exulet horrida Frontis 
Majeftas, Solio Gentes quaj terret ab alto. 
Ne Mors in Vultu lateat lugubre micanti, 
Eque oculo Regis vibret intolerabile Fulgur. 

Imperitare Tmim ; Mihi jufla capeffere tas eft : 
Sitque referre licet, fsvos renovare dolores ; 
Dum refero ludus, ft Rex arrideat ore 
Pacato; fequiturque meos ft Gratia fletus, 
Lachryma crebra fluat, fluat Illi plena Voluptas. 

Te teftor, Tellus, et confcia Sidera Cteli ; 
Pedus amore calet : Quis condere poftit Amorem ? 
Si Virgo malefana meretur nomen Amantis: 
Sive Amor eft, nullum fperare in Amore levamen. 

O Suprema,Hominum penetrans quae Corda, Poteftas, 
Aftedus regis, et czeca moderaris habena ! 
Infinitum adeo cur diftinet Intervallum 
Difpofttas, Caufamque Mel, Morbique Medelam ? 
Si, mea quce violens carpit prsecordia, flamm^e 
Nobilis Ille Audor, flamm^, qua moefta recedet 
Confumpta in Cineres, heu Nulli flebilis ! Abra, 
Si modo Paftoris, vel Proles hirta Bubulci, 
Aut niveos Ovium fastus, Armentave Iseta 
Curaflet ; Montes iviftem mane per altos, 
Nil metuens Brumae furias, Solifque calores, 

F 2 Ufque 



44 PLEASURE. 

Still askings iL'here he ifiade his flock to rsjl at noon. 

For him at 7iight^ the dear expected Gueflj 

I had with hafly joy prepard the Feafl ; 

And from the cottage^ o'er the diflant plain^ 

Se7it forth my longi?ig eye to meet the Swain ; 

Wav ri?tg^ impatie?2t.i tofsd by Hope and Fear', "j 

'7/7/ He and foy together fljotild appear ; \ 

A72d the lovd Dog declare his Mafler near. J 

0?t my declini^ig ?ieckj and open breafl^ 

I fhoidd have lulfd the lovely Youth to refl ; 

Arid fro7n beneath his head^ at daw7iing day^ 

IFithfoftefl care have fl oh 77iy arjn away. 

To rife J a7ul frofn the fold releafe the Sheep^ 

Fond of his Flock, i7idulge7it to his Sleep. 

Or if kind Heav7i propitious to 77iy fla7ne 
{For fure fro7n Heavn the faithful ardor ca/ne) 
Had blefl 7ny Life, and decKd tny natal Hour 
With height of Title, a?td exte72t of Powr: 

Without 



V O L U P T A S. 45 

Ulque rogans, medium cum Sol fuperarat Olympum, 
Quane Pecus requiem, et frigus captaret in Umbra. 
Hofpitis in chari adventum fub node paraflcm 
Feftinas gaudens cpulas, ct Ruris incmpta 
Fercula ; et angufti fpeculata e Culmine Tedi, 
Intendiflem avidos, paffim omne per asquor, ocellos, 
Sicubi Paftorem vifu deprendere poflem ; 
Inter Spemque Metumque incerto mobilis reftu, 
Impatienfque mora? ; donee venlente venirent 
Illo Delicite, et frontem explicitura Voluptas ; 
Et Canis adventus jam fignificaret Heriles, 
LenitcT attritas crebro finuamine Caudcs. 
Infufum Gremio Juvenem, Colloque retorto 
Foviflem amplexu perpulchrum, invaferat Artus 
Irrigui donee facilis Vide itia Somni. 
Molliter et Caniti rubdu:ere Brachia vellem, 
Cum Cxlo tenebras oriens Aurora fugarat ; 
Eximerem claufos furgens ut Ovilibus Agnos, 
Pulchri Temper anians Pecoris, Pecorifque Magiftri, 
Huic faciles Somnos, His Pabula l^eta miniftrans. 

Aut fi forte meo Deus afpiraflet Amori ; 
(Namque erit Illc mihi femper Deus, indidit ignem 
Qui tam ca^Ieftem cordi, qui Solis ad inflar 
Flagrat inextindlum, et parili fulgore corufcat) 
Si modo me titulis au6lam decoraiiet honeflis, 
Natalefque meos augufli Iniignia Sccptri 

(Lucinac 



46 PLEASURE, 

Without a crime 7ny Pajfi07i had afpird^ 

Found the lovd Pri?2cey and told what I defrd. 

T^hcn I had come-, prevejitiftg Shebd s ^^een-. 

To fee the comelieji of the Sons of Men ; 

To hear the charming Poets amrous Songy 

And gather honey f alii ?ig from his To?7gue\ 

To take the fragrant kijfes of his Mouth, 

Sweeter tha7t breezes of her native South ; 

Likening his Grace-, his P erf on, and his Alien 

To all that Great or Beauteous I had Jeen. 

Serene a?id bright his Eyes, asfolar bea^ns 

RcfleSling temper d light from cryjlal frea^ns ; 

Ruddy as Gold his Cheek ; his Bofofn fair 

As Silver ; the curfd ringlets of his Hair 

Black as the Raven s wing \ his Lip jnore red 

Tloan La ft em coral-, or the Scarlet thread'-, 

Even his Teeth, a?id white like a young Flock 

Coeval-, newly fjor7t, fro77i the clear Brook 

Recent., 



V O L U P T A S. 47 

(Lucina; favor, et nafcendi nobilis ordo) 
OrnalTent: creviiTet Amor mihi criminis cxpcrs; 
Turn molles ad Regem aditus mihi Fata dediflent, 
Et fari coram, dulcemque recludere flammam. 
Tunc Ego venifiem certans przevertere Shebae 
Reginam, ut veneres indutum mille viderem, 
Qui forma Natos Hominum fupereminet omnes. 
Ut Lyrici Charitas redolentia carmina Vatis 
Dulcifona audirem ; ut depafcerer aurea didla, 
Mellaque libarem, quaj Lingua Poetica fudit. 
Oris ut Ambrofii fragrantia Bafia fugens 
Exprimerem, fuaves fuperantia Veris odores, 
Cinnamcamque, oras Shebaj quas ventilat, auram. 
Egregias format Veneres, ac frontis honores 
Omnibus aflimilans, quas, Pulchra, autSplendida florent. 
Dulce micant Oculi, ceu lucida tela Diei, 
Refradum nitidi jaculantes lumen ab undis 
Chryftalli, et modico radiant fulgore fereni ; 
Interfula Genas diftinguit Purpura, et Auro 
Par Rubor ; Argenti candentia pedora vincunt 
Splendorem; torti per l^evia Colla Capilli 
Nigrefcunt, quales fparfaj per tergora pennse 
Cornicis ; plus Labra rubent, quam tindla colore 
Stamina Puniceo, Eoive Corallia Ponti ; 
^quali pulchre Dentes ftant ordine, et albi 
Grex veluti, cui forma cadem eft, eademque Juventas, 

Qui que 



48 PLEASURE. 

Recenty and blanching on the funny Rock. 

Ivry "With Saphirs interfpers'' d^ explams 

Hoiv ivhitc his Hands, how blue the majily Veins. 

Columns of poliJlSd Marble firmly fet 

On golden bafesy are his Legs and Feet. 

His Stature all Majeflic, all Diviiie^ 

Straight as the Palmt^-ee, frong as is the Pine. 

Saffron and Myrrhe are on his Garment: fijed : 

And everlafing Sweets bloom round his Head. 

What utter If where am If wretched Maid! 

Die, Abra, die: too plai?ily hafl Thou f aid 

Thy foufs defre to 7neet his high Embrace, 

And bleffings flamf d upon thy future Race', 

To bid attentive Nations blefs thy Wo7nb, 

With unborn Monarchs chargd, a7id Solomo7is to C077ie. 

Here o'er herfpeech her flowi77g eyes prevail. 
foolifij Maid I and, unhappy Tale I 
Myfuff'ring heart for ever fh all defy 
New wounds, and danger fro7n a future eye. 
\ yet 7ny tortur d fenfes deep retain 
The wretched 7neiriry of 7ny for77ier pain. 



Th 



oe 



V O L U P T A S. 49 

Qiilque recens tonfum liqiiido de fluminc Vcllus 
Purum a Sordc rcfcrt, ct nunc in Rupis aprico 
Vertice, Phsbco fervori obnoxius albct. 
Sapphiris veluti miftuni violaverit apte 
Si quis Ebur, Manus alba, et cjerula Vena colores 
Non alios jaftant : hiiic Crura pedefque Columnee 
Stant ut Marmore^e luper Aurea fulcra locate. 
Nobilis Ore nitet Majeftas ; Corpore Palmam 
Procero, validis et Pinum viribus ^quat. 
Myrrhani, fragrantefque Crocos exfpirat Amiclus, 
Perpetuumque Nemus circa caput halat Amomi. 
Quid loquor ? aut ubi fum ? qua^ me dementia cepit ? 
Iratis heu ! nata Deis, miferabilis Abra ! 
Quin morere, ut merita es, ferroque averte dolorem : 
Heu ! Claris nimium verbis, temeraria Virgo, 
Vulgafti angufto conceptum in pedtore Votum ; 
Te velle in thalamos Tanti confcendere Regis, 
Amplexuque frui ; feros honor unde Nepotes, 
Et derivati decorabit Gloria Regni ; : 
Ut fortunatam Gens omnis prasdicet Alvum, 
Sceptrigera fetam Sobole, et Solomone futuro. 

Hie Lachryms impediunt iter udum Vocis obort.-e, 
O Virgo male/ana, infauftaque Fabula ! pedlus 
Ufque meum taedamque novam, et nova Vulnera temnet, 
Spiculaque ex oculo fugiet vibrata futuro. 
Heu ! prifcus dolor in confoffis fenfibus hi^rens 

G S^vit 



50 PLEASURE, 

"The dire affront, and my Rgyptia?i chaht. 

As time, I /aid, may happily efface 
That cruel image of the King's difgrace ; 
Imperial Reafo7i ffjall refujne her feat ; 
Ajid Solomon 07iczfaUn, again be great. 
Betray d by Paffwit, as fubdu d ifi JVar, 
TVe wifely fljould exert a double care,' 
Nor ever ought afecond time to ej'r. 

This Abra then 

I faw Her \ 'twas Humanity : it gave 
So7ne refpite to thefo'rrows of my Slave. 
Her fofid cxcefs proclaiind her paffion true\ 
A?id generous Pity, to that Truth was due. 
Well I intreated her, who well defervd'y 
I calTd her often ; for fhe always fervd. 
life made her Perfon eafy to ?ny fight y 



And 



VOLUPTAS. 51 

Saevit adhiic; mc Vinc'la etiamnum TEgyptia vexant, 
Et vel adliuc memori manct alte in Mentc repoftuni 
Opprobriumqiic vetus, ipreta^que injuria flamm^. 

Poftcra cum forfan potis eft feliciter hora 
Saeva adeo delere mei monimenta Pudoris ; 
L^ta fuas Ratio fedes, et frxnn. refumet, 
Et lapfus Solomon iterum ad faftigia rerum 
Afcendet, folitofque fibi depofcet honores. 
Cum femel indigna tenuerunt compede mentem 
Affeclusj animofque lues interna fubegit, 
Marte velut domitos cautas intendere vires 
Hie labor, hoc opus eft, Pravique ambage relida, 
Erroris nunquam curfus iterare finiftros. 

Abra mihi impllcuit limilis contagia Alorbi. 
Hanc vifu dignatus eram ; fic pedlus amicum 
In Genus humanum fuaftt : folatia Lucius 
Hoc dedit Ancill^, paullumque emolliit sgram. 
Prodebat veros Labor officiofus amores ; 
Parque fuit veras Nymphas miferefcere curas, 
Et placido vultu tantos medicarier asftus. 
Praemia concefli Meritis, blandoque Puellam 
Lenibam alloquio ; et ledlam de millibus unam 
Saepius, egregio dignatus bonore, vocabam ; 
Semper enim partes implebat lasta Miniftrs. 
Hanc facilem vifu repetitus reddidit Ulus, 

G 2 Quseque 



52 PLEASURE, 

A72d Eafe i7ife?ifibly prodiic d Delight. 

TVJmie e?' I re^ielt d in the TVomeit s boivrs 
[For firjl 1 fought her but at loofer hours] 
The Apples JJse had gather dfmelt mojl fweet : 
The Cake Jlje hieaded was the faviy 77ieat : 
But Fruits their odor lojl^ and Meats their tajle-. 
If gejitle Ahra had 7Wt declid the Feafl. 
Difo7iord did the fparkli7ig Goblet Jland : 
XJnlefs receiv d from gentle Abrds ha77d : 
And when the Virgins for 771 d the eveni7ig choir ,. 
Raifing their voices to the Mafle7'-lyre ; 
Too flat I thought This voice, a7td That too frill \ 
One fowd too 7nuch, a7id 07ie too little skill : 
Nor could t7iy fotd approve the Mufcs tone ; 
'7/7/ all was hufjd, a7jd Abrafung alone. 
Fairer Shefee77id, dif}i7iguifj d frotn the reft ; 
And better Mien difclosd-, as better dreft. 



A 



V O L U P T A S. 53 

Quasqiie fuit facilis vifu, mox grata vidcndo 
Enituit, fubitaqiie animum dulcedine movit. 
Mollia cum fuavi fallebani tcnipora luxii, 
Inter Faemincas fedes, et am^na vireta, 
Delicias Veneris meditans, et totus in illis ; 
(Hanc etenim primo magnarum pondere reriim 
LafTatus quaerebam, hor^E folamen inertis ;) 
Huic decerpta manu dulciffima Poma ; faporcs 
Hac Epulis operante novos habuere Placenta : 
At Frudus odor, et periit fua gratia Caena?, 
Jucundufque fapor; nifi amabilis Abra decoro 
Ornaflet fumptu convivia : fpumea Vino 
Pocula deliciifque fuis, et honore carebant, 
Haec niii Pulchra manus porrexit amabilis Abras : 
Cumque clioros Jeda: cclebrarent Vefpere Nympha?, 
iEquarentque Lyras dominantis voce canores ; 
Hzec nimis aufterum, nimis ilia fonabat acutum, 
Huic nimis artis erat, Solertia defuit illi : 
Nee placuit Citharce fonus, et vis Mufica cordi, 
Donee tota Cohors tacuit, jamque edidit Abra 
Sola Melos, dulcique fonorc filentia rupit. 
Eminuit pulchras inter pulcherrima, forma 
Nobilis exorti, exortes dum duxit honores ; 
Quoque magis nitidos induta inceilit amicluSy 
Ore magis nitido, et geftu meliore refullit, 
Mille trahens varios radianti a Vefte decores ; 

Tureen* 



54 PLEASURE, 

A bright Tiara roimd her Forehead tyd, 

To jufler bounds conjin d its rifing pride : 

The blupjing Ruby o?i her f7iQ'wy Breaji^ 

Re7iderd its pa?2ti?7g ivhitencfs 7?iore C072fefs\l : 

Bracelets of Pearl gave j'oimdT^efs to her ylr?7i; 

A7id ev7y ge77i aug77je7Jted evry charfn. 

Her Se7ifes pleas d^ Her Beauty Jl ill i7nprovd\ 

Aftd She iTtore lovely grew^ as 77tore belovd. 

A77d 710W I could behold^ avow^ aTtd blatne 

The feveral follies of 77iy fortner flame ; 

WilliTig 77ty heart for recompe77ce to prove 

The certain "Joys that lie 771 proffrous Love. 

For what, faid /, fro7n Abra can I fear^ 

Too hu77ible to ififult, too foft to befevere ? 

The Da77tfeTsfole a7)jbition is to pleafe : 

With freedo7n I may likey and quit with eafe: 

She foot hs J but 7iever can enthral 7ny 7ni7td : 

Why may not Peace a7td Love for 07tce be joi7'idf 

Great Heavnl how frail thy creature Man is madel 

How 



VOLUPTAS. 55 

Turgens frontis honos, inclufus limite jufto, 
Detumuit modicum, rutilo impediente Tiara : 
Emicuit magis in ludanti pedlorc candor 
Confpicuusj rubri diftindlus luce Pyropi: 
Pulchra rotundarunt Armills brachia, baccis 
Infignes ; Gemmaque decor fuit audus ab omni. 
Dumque hilares mulfere perennia Gaudia fenfus, 
Laetitia crevit crefcente Superbia Formae ; 
Nymphaque amabilior, quo plus fe fenfit amatam. 
Prod lit, eque nieo veneres fibi duxit amore. 

Agnofco reputans, mcrito et jam crimine damno 
Errores fatuos, ac prifci dedecus ignis ; 
Speratum meritis ubi refpondere favorem 
Contingit, jam fjoonte volens fuccumbere Amori 
Felici, et certae flagrare cupidine Mefiis. 
Qu^nam etenim ex A-bra metuenda' pericula ? Virga 
Corda intus fummiila, illudere nelcia capto, 
Et manfueta gerit, fasvos cxola triumphos. 
Ut placeat gtudium conftans, et Tola Puellae 
Ambitio eft : Mentis datur exercere poteftas 
Arbitrium j vel amare, aut cum jam^ taedeP, amatatti' 
Linquere: me mira illedum dulcedine lenit, 
At nunquam indecori retinebit compede vindum. 
Cur non pofiit Amor femel, et Pax alma coire? 

Quam fragile eft Animal, quam caiTo robore pollet 
Mortalis, proh Summe Deus ! quam prodere fenfim 



56 P L E A S U R E, 

How by Hrmfelf mfe7ifihly betray d I 
In our oison Jire?igth unhappily fecure^ 
Too little cautious of the adverfe povcr ; 
And by the blaji of Self-opi?iion mov dy 
TVe wifj to charm, and feek to be belovd. 
Oit Pleafure's flowing brifik we idly fir ay y 
Mafiers as yet of our returning way : 
Seeing no danger, we difarm our mi7id\ 
And give our conduB to the waves and wind : 
Then in the fiowry Mead, or verdant Shade 
To wantoji Dalliance negligently laid, 
We weave the Chaplet, and we crown the Bowl, 
And f??iili7ig fee the nearer waters roll\ 
^Till the flrong gufls of ragifig PaJJton rife ; 
'7/7/ the dire Tempefi mingles Earth and Skies ; 
Andfwift into the houndlefs Ocean born. 
Our foolifD co?ifidence too late we mourn : 
Round our devoted Heads the Billows beat ; 



Afid 



VOLUPTAS. 57 

Se ftudetj exitiumque fibi molitur fneptus ! 

Nefcfa Mens Hominum fati, Sortifque futurae, 

Vi nimium confifa fua infelicitcr audet, 

Et nimis heu turget rebus fublata fecundis ! 

Noftraque dum Faftiis inflantur Carbafa vento, 

DivTriis petimus captivos ducere fenfus 

Illecebrls, cupidifque animis optamus amari. 

Laeta Voluptatis prope Flumina leniter aevum 

Ducimus, errantes extremo in Margine ripae, 

Dum vel adhuc faciles praebet Fortuna regreffus : 

Mens, ignara metus, fua projicit armaj peric'lum 

Dum latet, et Ventis tradit fecura protervis 

Confilium : tunc Deliciis, Venerique vacantes, 

Floriferis temere in Pratis, viridique fub umbra 

Proftrati, varia fragrantes arte Corollas 

Teximus, et Calices undanti implemus Jaccho ; 

Et labi propiore volumine cernimus eequor 

Ridentes; donee violento concitus jeftu 

Affedtus, faevitque animi malefana Cupido; 

Donee vi rapida Venti, velut agmine fadlo, 

Qua data porta, ruunt ; et Hyems jam turbida nimbis 

Et coelo terras, et terris mifcuit undas ; 

Cum nos in prseceps prono rapit asquore Vortex, 

Sero Stultitiamque, et fpes lugemus inanes : 

Devotum Morti caput undique pulfat aquarum 

H Impetus, 



58 PLEASURE. 

And from our troubled view the lejfend lands retreat. 

mighty Love I from thy unbounded powr 
How fall the human bofom ref fecunf 
How fall our thought avoid the various fnaref 
Or Wifdom to our caution d foul declare 
"The different f apes ^ Thou pleafef to imploy. 
When bent to hurt^ and certain to defray f 

The haughty Nymph i?t open Beauty drefy 
To-day encounters our unguarded breaf : 
She looks with Majefy^ a7id moves with State : "| 

Unbejit her fouU a?id in misfortu?ie greats > 

Shefcorns the Worlds and dares the rage of Fate. \ 

Here whilf we take fern Manhood for our guidey 

And guard our conduSi with becoming pride \ 

Charm' d with the courage in her aSiio7i fowny 

We praife her mind^ the Image of our own. 

She that can pleafe^ is certain to perfuade : 

To-day belovdy to-morrow is obey d. 

We thifik we fee thro Reafo7t s optics right ; 

Nor fndj how Beauty s rays elude our fght : 

Struck 



VOLUPTAS. 59 

Impetus, atque oculo Tellus fubduda dolentl 
Decrefcit vifu minor, et vanefcit in auras. 

O late pollens Amor ! O Suprema Poteftas ! 
Quels Humana tuas eludent Corda catenas 
Artibus ? aut varias Ratio qux provida fallet 
Infidias ? Quaenam doceat Prudentia mentem, 
Qux te transformas rerum in miracula, certus 
Laedere Mortales, et iniquo perdere leto ? 

Virgo tumens faftu, Veneris ditiflima donis 
Cor hodie oppugnat, tantis congreffibus impar: 
Fulget in incefTu Majeftas, fulget in ore : 
Libera dum curis, nulloque infrada dolore | 

Mens inter medios fpirat fublimia cafus, 
Ilia Hominum, et Fati furias irridet inanes. 

Hie dum feva fuis Virtus nos lledlit habenis, 
Et rigidos tutatur Honefta Superbia mores j 
Magnanims infolita capti virtute Puellse, 
Non indigna Viro laudamus pedora, Mentemque 
Excelfam, et fpeculo nobis blandimur in illo. 
Quae lenocinio devincit, docTta placendi 
Mille modos, fuadere potejR:, et corda gubernat 
Eloquio : ferpentem hodie per pedlora flammam 
Sentit Amans, fupplex Nymphas eras paret amats, 
Decipimur fpecie Redi, Rationis ocello 
Confili nimis ; ignari, quam Spicula Vultiis 
Formoii, radiique micantes Lumina fallant. 

H 2 Fulgura 



6o PLEASURE, 

Struck with her eye^ whiljl we applaud her mind ; 
A7jd wheii wefpeak her great j we wiJJj her kind. 

To-morrowy cruel Powry thou arttijl the Fair 
With Jiowiftg forroWy ajid dijljevefd hair : 
Sad her complaint^ and humble is her tale^ 
Her Jighs explaining where her accents fail. 
Here gen rous foftjiefs warms the honejl breajl : 
We raife thefady and fuccour the dijlrefsd : 
And whiljl our wijh prepares the kind relief; 
Whiljl pity mitigates her riftng grief: 
We ftcke7i fooTi from her contagious care; 
Grieve for her forrows^ groaji for her dejpai'fy 
And againjl Love too late thoje bojoms arniy 
Which tears can foften^ and which fghs can warm. 

Againjl this nearejl cruelejl offoes^ 
What fhall wit meditate^ or force oppoje P 
Whence, feeble Nature, fljall we Jummo?2 aid; 
If by our pity, and our pride betray d^ 
External remedy Jlmll we hope to find. 
When the cloje Fiend has gain d our treacF I'otis mi fid; 
Injulting there does Reajons powr deride ; 
And blind himjelf, conduSls the dazled guide i 

My 



VOLUPTAS. 6i 

Fulgura nos Oculi pneftiingunt lucida, mentcm 
Laudantes; et cum fortem, magnamque fatemur, 
MIrando ardemus, facilemque precamur aniorem. 

Improbe Amor, Nymphce eras triftia fuggeris arma, 
Rorantefque Genas lachrymis, paflbfque Capillos : 
Sermo humilis, quenilufque dolor; Sufpiria praeftant 
Crebra vicem, quoties nee Vox neque verba fequuntur, 
Concipiunt placidos generofa hinc Pedlora motus: 
Trifte levare genu, et fuccurrere difcimus aegras : 
Dumque inopi auxilium votis properamus amicis ; 
Dum pia crefcentes minuunt fblatia lu6lus : 
Tranfitione malum nocet, et contagia Moeror 
Diflipat ; adflemus flenti, adgemimuique gcmenti j. 
Serius armatum Cor fefe opponit Amori,. 
Qiiod gemitu calet, ac lacJirynils mollefcere novlt. 

Hujus in incurfus, domita qui Mente triumphos 
Intus agit, cun6lis truculentior hoflibus, artes 
Quas ftruet Ingenium, qux propugnacula vires 
Objicient ? aut unde tuo male fulta vigore, 
Natura, auxilium, fociafque arccflere turmas 
Fas erit, ingenium fi mite, auimique feroces 
Nos prodant Faftus ? num fpe ludemur inani, 
Externamque petemus opem, cum ob{ederit Hoflis- 
Vifcera, et infido fub Pedore Signa locarit ? 
Illic infultat Vidor Ratione fubada,, 
Illufeque Ducis regit orbus lumine grefius ? 

Nunc 



62 PLEASURE, 

My Conqueror noii^ my lovely Abra held 

My Freedom in her Chains : my Heart was Jilfd 

IFith Her^ with Her alone : in Her alone 

It fought its Peace and Joy : while She was gone^ 

Itjigljdj and grievdy impatient of her Jlay : "| 

Return' dj She chas d thofc Sighsy that Grief away : V 

Her abfence made the?tight : her prefe7ice brought the day. ^ 

The Ball^ the Play^ the Mask by turns fucceed. 
For her I make the Song : the Dance with her I lead. 
I court her various i?t each fljape and drefs, 
"That Luxury may form^ or Thought exprefs. 

To-day beneath the Palm-tree on the Plains 
In Deborah's arms and habit Abra reigns : 
The wreath denoting conquefi guides her brow : 
And low, like Barak, at her feet I bow. 
The mimic Chorus fmgs her profprous Ha7id\ 
As foe had fain the Foe, andfavd the Lafid. 

To-morrow f)e approves afofter Air\ 
Forfakes the pomp and pageantry of War ; 
The form of peaceful Abigail ajfumes ; 
And fro?n the Village with the Prefe?2t co?nes : 

The 



VOLUPTAS. 6^ 

Nunc vidum grata me vinxit amabilis Abra 
Compede : cor totum pofledit, et una replevit 
Dileda ante alias Virgo : fuit Ilia Voluptas, 
Sola fuit Requics : cum cefTerat Ilia, morarum 
Impatiens dolui, et fufpiria crebra profudi ; 
Ilia redux ludlum, et fulpiria moefta fugavit. 
Nox erat atra abfente, Dies praefente refulfit. 

Alternis fubeunt et Scenica Pompa, Chorique, 
Et Perfonati Lafcivia Comica Ludi. 
Huic pedibus plaudo choreas, Huic Carmina dice* 
Hanc fequor ornatus totidem formafque gerentem, 
Dasdala quot Luxus Solertia fingere novit. 

Abra hodie patulo Palmae Tub tegmine regnat, 
Cindla armis, habitus Deborah imitata viriles : 
Fefta triumphales exornant Serta capillos : 
Ipfe, Barachi inftar, proflrato corpore fupplex. 
Adv'olvor pedibus : celebrat Felicia Nymphje 
Coepta Chorus, fidlique canit miracula Belli ; 
Haud aliter quam fi patriis averterat oris 
Exitium Vindcx animofa, et ftraverat Ploflem. 

Cras placidi geflus magis, et tranquilla Venuftas 
Huic placet : exuit ora trucem referentia Martem, 
Et Pompam Armorum, Simulachraque fplendida ponit ; 
Paciferas induitur vultus, habitufque Abigalae ; 
Et Villa egrediens opulentos ruris honores 
Pleno lasta firiu portat : mirata Juventus 

Deligunt 



64 PLEASURE, 

The Tctithfiil ba7id depoje their glittring Arms ; 
Receive her Boimties, and recite her Charms ; 
Whiljl 1 ajftime my Father s Step and Mien, 
To meet with due Regard my future ^ueen. 

If hap'ly Abrds IVill he now inclind 
To rajige the Woods., or chace the flyijig Hind y 
Soo7t as the Sun awakes ^ thefprightly Court 
Leave their Repofe^ and haflen to tlje Sport. 
In lejfend Royalty, and humble State, 
Tljy Kifig, fei'iifaletn, defce?jds to wait, 
'Till Abra comes. She comes : a Milk-white Steed, 
Mixture of P erf as, and Arabia s Breed, 
Suflatjjs the Nymph : her Garments flying loofe 
{As the Sydo7iia7i Maids, or Thracia7t ufe) 
A7jd half her Knee, a7id half her Breafl appear. 
By Art, like Neglige7tce, difclosd, and bare. 
Her left Hand guides the htmting Courfers Flight : 
A Silver Bow She carries in her Right : 
And from the golden Quiver at her Side, 
Rujlles the Ebon Arrow s feather d Pride. 
Saphirs and Diamonds on her Front difplay 
An artificial Moons increafng Ray. 

Diana, 



VOLUPTAS. 65 

Defigunt tclliirc haftas, et Scuta reclinant ; 
Accipiunt dona, ac Veneres uno ore fatentur; 
Ipfe Patris grcfliim, et Frontis venerabilc pondus 
AfFedans, multa cum majeflate Futurae 
Reginae occurro, et celfa in Palatia duco. 

Sin denfis forte in Sylvis velit Abra vagari, 
Et Ccr\'os agitare leves, aut figere Damas ; 
Sole recens orto ftratis excita foporem 
Excutitj agreftique accingitur Aulica Ludo 
Exultans animis Pubes. Celeberrimus Ille, 
JRex Tuusj O Solyme, Sceptri gravitate relida, 
Et jam Rege minor, cundlantem fedulus Abrani 
Expedlat : tandem magna ftipante caterva, 
Progreditur: Nympham Sonipes candore nivali, 
Perfarum ducens Arabumque ab origine gentem 
Ambiguam, portat : Ventis ludibria veftes 
Difcindlje fluitant, (Tyriis fic ire Puellis, 
Sic mos Threiciis) apparent parte papillze 
Dimidia, nudumque genu ; nullumque fatetur, 
Sit licet Arte exculta, decens Incuria Cultum. 
Quadrupedem laeva regit, et veftigia firmat : 
Infignem argento manus altera fuftinet Arcum. 
Ex Aurea, lateri, Pharetra, quae penfilis hzeret, 
Tela fonant, Ebenufque corufcis perftrepit alis. 
Sapphirus, niveaque Adamas in fronte relucens 
Oftendunt fidae crefcentia Cornua Lunas. 

I Omnia 



66 PLEAS U R E. 

Dia?iay Huntrefs^ Mijirefs of the Groves^ 
The fav rite Abrafpeah^ and looks., a?id moves. 
Her, as the prefe?tt Goddefs, I obey : 
Be7ieath her Feet the captive Game I lay. 
'The vmigled Chorus fi7igs Dia?ias Fame : 
Clarions a?id Horns in louder Peals proclaim 
Her Myjlic Praife : the vocal Triumphs boujid 
Againjl the Hills : the Hills refleSl the Souitd. 

If tird this Evening with the htmted JVoods^ 
To the large Fijh-pools, or the glajjy Floods 
Her Mind To-morrow points ; a thoifa?td Hands 
To-night e^nployd, obey the Ki?ig's Commands. 
Upon the watry Beach an artful Pile 
Of Planks is join dy a?td forms a jnoving Ife. 
A goldeJt Chariot i?i the Midfl isfet , 
And fiver Cygnets feem to feel its Weight. 
Abra^ bright ^ueen-, afcends her gaudy Throne, 
Infemblance of the Grcecian Venus k?io'ivn : 
Trit07is and Sea-gree?i Naiads round her move j 
And fi72g in i7iovi7ig StraiTis the Force of Love : 
Whilfi as th' approachi7ig Pagemit does appear ; 

And 



V O L U P T A S. 67 

Omnia Dianje fimilis, voccmque, coloremque, 
Et GrefTum, Princeps nemorum nunc Abra movetur 
Venatrix. illam, pra^fcns ceu Numen, adoro : 
Illius ante pedes votivam ex ordine praedam 
Projicio. focio famani Chorus ore Dianae 
Concinit : jerifonam Lituufque et Buccina vocem 
Altiiis intendunt, et falfa Laude tumefcunt 
PJenius : Aerios certantia Murmura Colles 
Percutiunt : pulfi Colles clamore refultant, 
Et Nemorum affenfu vox ingeminata remugit. 

Vefpere ii fero capiant faftidia Nympham 
Venatus, Nemorumque, et eras pellucida malit 
Flumina, Pifcofofque Lacus invifere ; Fabrum 
Mille hac no(5le manus Regalia jufla capeffunt. 
Concrefcit tabulis compada in littore Moles, 
Inque Altum demiffa, Natatilis Infula prodit. 
In medio Currus radianti fulgidus auro 
Ponitur ; Argenteique videntur pondus Olores 
Sentire, ac Collo vix fuftentare gementi. 
Formola, alcendit Solium, Regina, corufcum 
Abra, et adoptivo Veneris cognomine crefcit : 
Plurimus banc Triton, et Naiades undique glaucas 
Agminibus ftipant deniis ; blandaque camoena 
Vim celebrant dulcem, pollenfque Cupidinis Oeftrum, 
Interea, propius dum Pompse accedit Imago 
Ludicra j fublatufque Virum jam Clamor, et Ora 

I 2 Pulfa 



68 PLEASURE, 

And echoing Crouds fpeak mighty Venus near ; 
/, her Adorer^ too devoutly Jla?id 
Fajl on the utmo/i Margi7t of the Land^ 
JVith Arms a?td Hopes extended., to receive 
The fancy d Goddefs rifng from the Wave. 

fubjeEi Rcajon I imperious Love I 
Whither yet further tvould my Folly rove'^ 
Is it e?toughy that Abra fjould be great 
In the walld Palace^ or the Rural Seat ? 
That maskiftg Habits., and a borrow d Name 
Contrive to hide my Plenitude of Shame f 
No, no : ferufaleifi combijid mufl fee 
My open Fault, a?id Regal Iff amy. 
Solemfi a Month is defli?id for the Feafi : 
Abra invites : the Nation is the Guefl. 
To have the Honor of each Day fuflai?i d. 
The Woods are traversd; and the Lakes are drain d : 
Arabia's Wilds, and Egypt's are exploj'd: 
Tlje Edible Creation decks the Board: 

Hardly the Phenix f capes ■ 

The Men their Lyres, the Maids their Voices raife. 
To ftng my Happinefs, and Abra s P raife. 
And favifj Bards our ?nutual Loves rehearfe 

In 



VOLUPTAS. 69 

Pulfa fono, Veiierem teftatur adefle potentem ; 
Ipfe plus nimiiim Cultor fervilia preefto 
Officia, extremoque pedes in Margine figo, 
Extendens cupidafque manus, et Pedlora, fidum. 
Ut capiam vitrcis emergens Numen ab Undis. 

O Ratio Alterius juffis obnoxia! Sceptro 
Efferus O trifti, et faeva ditione, Cupido ! 
Quonam me ulterius temerarius auferet Error? 
An fatis efl intra Muros, et Septa Palati, 
Aut fcenas inter virides, Nemorumque recefTus, 
Plufquam Regificos Abram exercere triumphos i^ 
An Larva fatis, ac fidto prajtexere Culpam 
Nomine, ct arte Nefas tantum celare modefta ? 
Non ita: fpedatum veniet Solymeia Tellus 
Principis Opprobrium, et manifefti Signa Pudoris- 
Lsetitis Menfis, feftoque facratur honori : 
Abra vocat : Judara epulas accita frcqucntat. 
Sufficere ut Luxu poflint alimenta diurno, 
Svlva exhaufta Feris viduatur, Pifcibus Unda: 
Quin Arabum fpoliantur, ct avia Tefqua Canopi: 
Undique collegium mcnfas Genus ornat Edule : 
Vix fugit Ipk Gulam, Volucris licet Unica, Phoenix. 
Jmpellunt Pueri vocalcs pollice Chordas, 
Innuptaj liquido refonant Melos ore Puellas, 
Felicemque canunt Solomona, Abramque venufEam. 
Quin et venales auro, Gens improba, Vates 

Mendaci 



70 PLEASURE. 

In lying Strains^ and ignominious Ve7'fe : 

While fro7?i the Ba?iquet leacii?7g forth the Bridcy 

Whom prudent Love from public Eyes fhould hide ; 

I fjow Her to the TVorld, co7ifefs\i a fid knowji 

^luezn of my Hearty and Partner of my 'Throne. 

And now her Friends and Flatt rers fill the Court : 

From Dan^ and fro7n Beeifoeba they refort : 

Ihey barter Places^ and difpofe of Grants^ 

Whole Provinces unequal to their Wants. 

"They teach Her to recede^ or to debate ; 

With Toys of Love to 7nix Affairs of State:, 

By praSlisd Rides her E77ipire to fecure \ 

And in ftiy Pleafure jnake jny Ruin fur e. 

They gave-, a7id She transferred the cursed Advice^ 

That Mo7iarchs pould their inward Soul difguife^ > 

Diffe7nble and C077277ia7idj be falfe arid wife ; 

By igno7ninious Arts for fervik Ends 

Should 



V O L U P T A S. 71 

Mendaci cithara, ac probrofo carmine amores 
Concelebrant, titulifque decoris Crimen inaurant. 
Poftqiiam exempta fames Epulis, Menfasque remote^ 
Egredior ducens media inter millia Sponfam, 
Quam Prudens celaret Amor; pofitoque pudore 
Spedlandam exhibeo Cundlis, Soliique, Torique 
Confortem, Cordifque mei, Sceptrique potentem. 

Nunc et Adulantiim plenis vomit jedibus undan:^ 
Aula frequens, quos Abra fuis adicripfit Amicis : 
Dan exhaufta caret, caret et Beerflieba Colonis. 
Sordida regifico tradant commercia tedo ; 
Proftat Honos Auro, proftant Infignia Regni, 
Et minor eft avidis Provincia plurima Votis. 
Cedere quando opus, aut noftris fe opponere diclis. 
Hi Nympham erudiunt ; et Amoris Ludicra Curis 
Imperii gravibus mifcere, ac Seria Nugis ; 
Per fixas ftabilem firmare Tyrannida Normas ; 
Deliciifque meis fatalem infundere Peftem. 
Confilium, Sceleris quod debuit Ilia Magiftris,. 
Succinit, et diro fallit mea corda veneno ; 
Regibus, hsec inquit, fas eft obducere fuco 
Pellaci fua verba, ac casca abfcondere node 
Internes animi fenfiis ; fimulare, jubere, 
Vulpinafquc agitare cato fub pedore fraudes ; 
Qiiin opus eft pravas didicifie hdeliter artes, 
Et, fua dum fpedant ftudiofi commoda, blandis 

Ilia- 



^ -^ 



PL E J SUR E. 

Should co7nplime?ii thei?' Foes, a?id pun their Friends. 

And now I leave the true and jujl Supports 

Of legal Priftces^ and of honefl Courts, 

Ba^'zillats, and the fierce BenaiaEs Heirs ; 

JFhofe Sires, great Partners i?z my Father s Cares, 

Saluted their you7ig King at Hebro/i crowjid. 

Great by their Toil, and glorious by their JFound. 

And 7WW, tmhappy Council, I prefer 

'Thofe whojn my Follies only 7nade t7ie fear. 

Old Corah" s Brood, and tau72ting Shi77iets Race ; "j 

Mifcrea7its who owd their Lives to David's Grace \ \ 

Tho they hadfpu7'7td his Rule, and cursd hi7n to his Face-} 

Still Abrds Pcw'r, my Scandal fill i7icreasd\ 

fufiice fubmitted to what Abra pleas d : 

fjer will alone could fettle or revoke ; 

And Law was fix d by what She Latefl fpoke. 

Ifrael negleBed, Abra was 7ny Care : 

I 



VOLUPTAS. 73 

Illaqueare doHs Inimicos, pellere Amicos, 
Quos Probitas cxornat, amorquc iiicodus Hoiicfli. 
Et jam fubduco iidas mihi fponte Columnas, 
Fulcraque contemno, quze Juftos optima Reges 
Suftentant, queis nixa viget, tollitque fub auras 
Lata caput, ftudlis florefcens Regia pulchris ; 
BarzilliE Hseredes, et fortia corda, Benaice 
Eelligeri Sobolem ; quorum, Gens inclyta, Patres 
Rite falutarunt Diadema Hebronis ad urbem 
Indutum, viridi cum jam pubefceret aevo, 
Jeffeiden, ducentem alieno e vulnere famara, 
Et Rerum fociis evedlum ad Culmina cutis. 
Nunc in deliciis habeo inconfultus et amens, 
Quos formidandos mea Noxa, ac devius error 
Reddidit, arguti metuendos Scommate Nafi ; 
Mordacis Shimei Catulos, Coraeque vetufti ; 
Queis animo David vidus clemente pepercit, 
Legibus obtritis licet, et moderamine Sceptri, 
Ipfius ante oculos diris petiere Tyrannum. 

Crevit adhuc Abras imperium, mihi dedecus una 
Crevit, et auda novas vires Infamia fumpfit ; 
Arbitrio Lances Abrse Themis Ipfa potentis 
Submifit labefada fuas : Jus hujus ab ore 
Pendebat ; fixit Leges Verbo, atque relixit. 

Pcfthabita Ifrael, mihi Publica et Unica Cura 
Abra fuit : parens huic foli munia Vit^ 

K Laeto 



74 PLEASURE. 

I only aBedj thought-, and livd for Her. 

I diirjl ?iot reafo?i with my izoimded Heart. 

Abra pojfefid ; She was its better Part. 

I had I now review" d the famous Caufe, 

JFhich gave 7?ty righteous Youth fo jufi Applatfe \ 

hi vain o?t the dijfembled Mother s lo?jgue 

Had cufining Art., a7id fy Pe?fuafon hung ; 

Afid real Care iti vain, and native Love 

In the true Parent s panting Breafl had Jl rove ; 

While both deceivd had fee7i the deflind Child 

Or fain, or favd, as Abra frowjid, orfmifd. 

Unhiowijig to command, proud to obey, 

A life-lefs Ki?2g, a Royal Shade I lay. 

Unheard the injur d Ofphans now complain : 

The Widow s Cries addrefs the Throne in vain. 

Caufes unjudgd difgrace the loaded File ; 



And 



VOLUPTAS. 75 

Lasto obil ftudio. Soli res fedulus egi, 
Huic foli tenues verllibam pc6lore curas, 
Huic totus vigui, Solique in commoda vixi. 
Heu ! non aufus eram trutina Rationis in. aequa 
Explorarc aliquid, vel Ixfo feria corde 
Volv^ere, et errores tantos proferre fub auras. 
Abra intus tenuit, Cordis Pars optima, Sedem. 
O ! fi nunc iterum peragi me Judice Caufani 
Vidiflem egregiam, meritos quze jufta locuto 
Afleruit Juveni plaufus, Ars callida Matris 
Fruftra infediflet fidae, Suadelaque labris 
Mellea ; et in Veras tumuiflent pedore fruftra 
Natura ftimulatus Amor, et confcia Prolis 
Cura fuae ; deceptae animi dum morte peremptum 
Spedlaflent Ambae Puerum, vel vefcier aura 
Permifllim stherea, litis prout Arbitra, frontem 
Obduxit nebula, vel rifu molliit, Abra. 
Imperii laxas moliri ignarus habenas, 
Servitium affedans, amplexatufque catenam, 
Truncus iners jacui, et Magni vix Principis Umbra. 
Fundit inauditas Orborum turba querelas 
Cuftodum vi laefa ; preces, ac flebile Murmur 
Incaflum mittunt Viduse, Soliumque fatigant. 
Judicii nondiim librat^ examine lites 
Praegrave dedecorant pendens e vertice Filum j 

K 2 Et 



76 PLEASURE, 

J And Jleeping Laws the Kings NeghEi revile. 
No more the Elders throTigd around my Throne, 
To hear my Maxims, and reform their owfj. 
No more the Totmg Nobility were taught. 
How Mofes gO'ver7jd, and how David fought. 
LiOofe and undifciplin d the Soldier lay ; 
Or loji in Drink and Game thefolid Day : 
Porches and Schools, deftgn d for public Good, 
Uncover d, and with Scafolds cu7nber d flood. 

Or nodded, threatning Ruin 

Half Pillars wanted their expeEied Height ; 
A?id Roofs imperfeSi prejudiced the Sight. 
The Artifls grieve ; the laboring People droop : 
My Father 5 Legacy, my Country's Hope, 

God's Temple lies unfjiif^d 

The Wife a?td Grave deplord their Monarch" s Fate, 
And future Mifchiefs of a ftnking State. 
Is this, the Serious f aid, is this the Ma?i, 
Whofe a&ive Soul thro'' evry Science ran f 

Whd 



V O L U P T A S. 77 

Et Leges (binno paritcr cum Rcge fepiiltce, 
Otia fecuri damnant ingloria Regis. 
Jam non ulteriiis Seniorum nobilis Ordo 
Confluit ad Solium, praecepta (alubria dod:i 
Hinc emendatis ut normam Moribus aptent. 
Jam non ulterius didicit Generofa Juventus, 
Quid Mofis potuit Sceptrum, quid Davidis Arma. 
Defuetus belli ftudiis fine more jacebat, 
Enervis luxu, et Solidi Spatia ampla Diei 
, Confumpfit lufus inter, vel Pocula Miles : 
Jamque Scholae, et longis le porred:ura per orbes 
Area Porticibus, quas olim in Publica fanus 
Commoda molibar, Tedi faftigia quserunt, 
Et Tabulatorum vidlae fub mole fatifcunt, 
Nutantve horrificis ex alto immane Ruinis. 
Culmina Dimidiae pofcunt Iperata Columnas ; 
Et lasdunt oculos Teda interrupta, minaeque 
Murorum ingentes, denormatique labores. 
Artifices lugent, Fabriliaque Agmina languent : 
A Patre legatum, Patrize Spcs maxima, Magni 
Templum, Auguftum, ingens, flat Numinis imperfedum, 
Cognatoque jacent aquanda Cacumina Cslo. 

Fata dolent Sapiens, aufteraque Turba, Tyranni; 
Et derivandas in Rcgna labantia clades. 
Hie Vir, Hie eft, inquit rigidus Servator Honefti, 
Cujus Mens agilis peregre fine corpore velox 
Notitis campos ruit expatiata per omnes ? 

Ingeniura 



78 PLEylSURE, 

IF ho bv ji(Ji Rule and elevated Skill 
PrefcriU d the dubious Bounds of Good and 111 f 
IVhoJe Golden Sayi?tgs^ and Immortal TVity 
On large PhylaSieries exprejftve writ, 
Were to the Forehead of the Rabbins tydy 
Our YoiitUs InflruBto7tt and our y^ges Pride f 
Could not the Wife his wild Defres refrain ^ 
Then was our Hearing, and his Preaching vain I 
What fro7n his Life a?id Letters were we taught. 
But that his Kiiowledge aggravates his Fault f 
In lighter Mood the Humorous and the Gay 
[As crown d with Rofes at their Feajls they lay) 
Sent the full Goblet, chargd with Abrds Nafne, 
And Charms fuperior to their Maflers Fame : 
Laughing fome praife the King, who let ^ em fee. 
How aptly Luxe and Efnpire 7night agree : 
Some glofsd, how Love and Wifdom were at Strife ', 
And brought my Proverbs to confront my Life. 
However, Friend, heris to the King, one cries : 



To 



VOLUPTAS. 79 

Ingenium cujus fubtile, ac Regula folers 
Ambiguos jufto fignavit limite fines, 
Qiios ultra Pra\'um, quos intra conftitit ^quiim ? 
Cujus Didia, facro mire diftindia lepore, 
Aurea, perpetua femper digniflima vita, 
Membranis infcripta amplis Rabbinica Turba 
Fronti annexa fliae, decus immortale gerebant ; 
Unde fibi praecepta Juventus commoda duxit, 
Et quibus exornata fuperbiit Ipfa Senedus ? 
Non potuit Sapiens cohibere Cupidinis asftus ? 
Tunc fruftra auditus, fruftra fuit lUe locutus ! 
Quidve aliud docuit nos Vita illius, et Artis 
Callida mens omnis, nifi quod tarn Nobilis ipfum 
Nobilitet fcelus, ingeminetque Scientia Culpam ? 

Indulfere jocis Hiiares Lepidique Sodales, 
(Ut Rofeis vindi redolentia tempora Sertis 
Accubuere epulis) Vinoque undantia Nobis 
Poc'la propinarunt, Abr^ teftantia nomen, 
Et Veneres, qucis Regis honos, et Gloria cellit. 
Indulgent Alii Rifa, laudantque Tyrannum, 
Qui Populo fpe(5rare dedit, quam Luxus, et apte 
Majeftas coeant, et in una lede morentur: 
Hi tacite advertunt, quanta Sapientia lite 
Difcordent et Amor ; Noftraeque facerrima certant 
Frontibus adverfis Praecepta opponere Vita^. 
Attamen, exclamat Quidam, Cratere falutem 

Hoc 



So PLEASURE, 

"To Him ivho was the King^ the Friend replies. 

'The Kijigi for Judah's, a?id for Wifdom s Curje^ 

To Abra yields : could /, or Thou do ivorfe f 

Our loofer Lives let Chaiice or Folly fleer : 

If thus the Prudent a7id Deter7ni?i d err. 

Let Di?iah hind u^ith Flowers her flowi7ig Hair : 

And touch the Lute, and found the want07t Air : 

Let us the Blifs without the Sting receive^ 

Free-i as we willy or to e^ijoy^ or leave. 

Pleafures on Levity s f?nooth S urface flow : 

Thought brings ths JVeight, that ffiks the Soul to TVoe. 

Now be this Maxim to the King C07tveydi 

And added to the Thoufa7id he has jnade. 

Sadly -^ Rea/on, is thy Pow'r exprefsd-. 

Thou gloomy Tyra7it of the frighted Breafl I 

And harflj the Rulesy which we f/-07n thee receive , 

If for our Wifdom we our Pleafure give ; 

And more to think be 07tly 7nore to grieve. 

If yudaBs Ki?ig at thy Tribunal trydy 

Forfakes his Joy, to vindicate his Pride ; 

And 



VOLUPTAS, 8i 

Hoc voveo Rcgi: — qui Rex fuit, increpat Alter. 
Dcdeciis heii ! Sophias, Juditque ingloria labcs, 
Rex Abrae fervit mifer, imperiumque fatctur. 
Numquid Ego hoc pejus, vel Tu deliiiquere poflis ? 
Luxuriae penitus, Venerique Htemus inerti, 
Sorfque regat noflras, vel grata Infania Vitas ; 
Qiiando ita, quos forti Sapientia peclore munit, 
Abripit in prEeceps animi temerarius error. 
Floribus impediat fluitantes Dina capillos ; 
Et Citharas volucri percurrens pollice chordas, 
Lafcivum melos eliciat, modulofque procaces : 
Libemus nullis armata Rofaria fpinis, 
Sumere dum Nobis, vel fumpta relinquere fas eft. 
Delicias placido Levitatis in aiquore ludunt : 
Addit Cura ingens, et non tolerabile pondus. 
Quod fundo Ludlus Animam fubmergit in imo. 
Nunc itaque H^ec noftro mandentur Did:a Tyranno, 
Pr^ceptumque fuis accedat Millibus Unum. 

Sasva tui eft, Ratio, et metuenda Potentia Sceptri, 
Indigena O Pavidi, et Dominatrix afpera Cordis ! 
Et Legum imponis crudelia foedera Vi(5lis, 
Si Sophia Dulcis fit permutanda Voluptas, 
Et quo Quifque magis reputet, magis ingruat Angor. 
Si Judte Rex ipfe tuum reus ante Tribunal, 
Aflerat ut tumidos, ponat fua Gaudia, Faftus ; 

L Impe- 



82 PLEASURE. 

Aitd changing Sorrows y I am only found 

Loos d from thz Chai?is ofLove^ in Thi?te morefiriBly bound. 

But do I call T'hee Tyrant^ or complain-^ 
Hois) hard thy Lavos, how abfolute thy Reicrn f 
While Thouy alas I art but ajt empty JVame, 
To no Two Men, who eer difcoursd-, the fame -.y 
The idle ProduSi of a troubled 'Thought, 
hi borrow d Shapes, and airy Colours wrought ; 
A fancy d Line, and a refleSied Shade ; "j 

A Chain which Man to fetter Man has made, y- 

By Artifice imposd, by Fear obeyd. j 

Tet, wretched Name, or Arbitrary Thing, 1 

Whence ever I thy cruel EJfe?ice bri?ig, y 

I own thy hifiucnce ; for I feel thy Sti?ig. j 

ReluBant I perceive thee in my Soul, 
Fornid to co?nmand, a?id deflind to controul. 
Tes'j thy infulting DiSlates Jhall be heard : 
Virtue for oncef:>allbe Her own Reward: 
Tes ; Rebel Ifrael, this unhappy Maid 
Shall be difmifsd: the Crowd f jail be obeyd: 
The King his Paffion, and his Rule f jail leavcy 

No 



V O L U P T A S. 83 

Impediarque Tuis, varia fub imagine Poena?, 
Ardius in Vinc'lis, Vinc'lis dum folvor Amoris, 

At Leges qucror immites, ac ferrea Jura, 
Teque colo dura horribilem ditione Tyrannum ? 
Dum vere nihil Ipfa aliud nisi Nomen inane es, 
Vifa Eadem Nullis de te certantibus olim ; 
Mentis opus vacuce, Prolefque incongrua Lucius ; 
Ornatu fplendens alieno, et Imagine falsa, 
Et tenui fuco depidla Volatilis Aura ; 
Umbra repercufla heu ! limulataque Linea ; Compes, 
Quam, meditans Homini fraudes Homo laedere folers 
Extudit, Arte mala nobis injeda, pufillum 
Dum Cor edomuit Timor, et parere coegit. 

Seu Res Imperiola audis, feu Nomen inane, 
Et faevos quacunque ortus ab origine duco. 
Jus tamen agnofco ; Tua enim lethalis Arundo 
Fixa haeret lateri, et ftimulos fub pedtore verfat. 
Ipfe tuos invitus in imo corde Triumphos 
Confiteor ; natamque ad fummi munia Regni 
Sentio, et internos mittentem fub Juga fenfus. 
Non nunc difcerpent Tua Jufla ferocia Venti ; 
Auribus accipiam placidis, et mente reponam : 
Jam femel Ipfa, fui Merces erit unica. Virtus. 
Pone tuos tandem, ludasa infenfa, furores ; 
Nympha eat infelix, (Turb^ parebitur] Exul, 
Et Thalamis avulfa meis procul xgva. recedat : 
Imperium limul, atque fuos Rex linquet Amores, 

L 2 Serviet 



84 PLEASURE. 

No lojiger Abrds^ but the Peoples Slave. 
My Coward Soul Jljall bear its wayward Fate : 
I willy alas I be wretched to be greats 
Ajid ftgh i?i Royalty^ a?jd grieve in State. 

I /aid : refolvd to plunge into my Grief 
At o7icefo far^ as to expeB Relief 

From my Defpair alone 

/ chofe to write the Thing I durfl 7iot fpeak^ 
To Her I lovd', to Her I mufl forfake. 
The harfi Epijlle labour d much to prove. 
How i?iconfJient Majejiy^ and Love. 
I always Jhouldj itfaidy efleem Her well'. 
But never fee her ?nore : it bid her feel 
No future Pain for Me ; but infta?tt wed 
A Lover more proportion d to her Bed; 
Aiid quiet dedicate her rem?jant Life 
To the jufi Duties qf an humble Wife. 

She read; and forth to Me fie wildly ran. 
To Me, the Eafe of all her former Pain. 
She kneeTd, ifitreated, ftruggled, threatened, cryd. 
And with alternate Pajfwn livd, and dyd : 
Till now denyd the Liberty to mourn. 

And 



VOLUPTAS. 85 

Serviet et Populo, qui niiper ferviit Abrae, 
Mens, ignava licet, fortem tolerabit iniquam : 
Magnus ut evadam, fruar atro turbine Fati 
Egregie miler, et Regales inter honores 
Saepe gemam, Soliique decoro Carcere leptus 
Conquerar Aurati Phalerata Infignia Ludliis. 

Dixi ; animo fixum ftetit indulgere dolori, 
Atque adeo in curas immergere pedus, ut eflet 
Sola Salus mifero nuUam fperare falutem. 
Scribere malebam, metuit quod Lingua profari, 
Diledse, fed quas fuit ableganda, Puellze. 
Scripta laborarunt duris evincere verbis, 
Quam male conveniant, et in una iede morentur 
Majeftas et Amor. Crudelis Epiftola dixit. 
Semper honoratam Regi fore, femper amico, 
Ut merita eft, recolendam animo ; fed Regis ituram 
Nunquam in confpedtus iterum: quin juflit amaris 
Noftri ergo nunquam laniari pedora curis. 
At thalamos humiles ambire, et commoda forti 
Connubia, et reliquum traducere leniter a^vum, 
Debita Plebeite tradantem munia Sponfc. 

Legit, et inlano Cordis concuila tumultu 
Ad me proliliit, prifci Solatia ludiis. 
Procubuit Supplex, Ludata minataque flevit, 
Et Vitam infelix alterna morte recepit. 
Donee non permifTa fuo dare fena dolori, 

Viquc 



S6 PLEASURE. 

A?id by ?'ude Fury froM my Frcfence torn.^ 

Ihis 072ly OhjeB of my red! Care^ 

Cut off f?'om Hope, ahando?! d to Defpair, 

hi fame few pojl'mg fatal Hours is hurfd 

From Wcalth-f from Poivr, froDi Lovey a7jdf?'0/n the 

\lVorld 

Here tell Me, if Thou darjl, jny confcious Sotd, 

TVhat different Sorrows did witlmi thee rollf 

What Pangs, what Fires, what Racks didfi thou fuf lain? 

What fad Viciffttudes of fmaf'ting Pain f 

How oft from Pomp and State did I remove. 

To feed Dcfpair, and cheriflD hopelefs Love P 

How oft, all Day, recalfd I Abrds Charms, 

Her Beauties prefs d, and panting in my Arfns P 

How oft, with Sighs, view' a every Female Face, 

Where mitnic Fa?tcy might her Likenefs trace f 

How oft deftrd to fly from Ifraets Throne, 

And live in Shades with Her and Love alone f 

How oft, all Night, purfu d her in my Dreams, 

O'er flowry Vallies, a?jd thro' Cryfial Streams ; 

And 



VOLUPTAS. Sy 

Vique meis avulfa oculis, haec fola Voluptas, 
Sola mei requies animi, et chariflima cura, 
Spe vidua, iratis Fortiina: obnoxia telis, 
Jam paucis JEvi volucris fatalibiis horis, 
Et Gazas, et opes, et Ainorem moefta relinquit, 
Et penitus toto detrufa recedit ab Orbe. 

Confcia Mens, mihi nunc ediffere vera roganti, 
Si memorare aufis, varios quam concita niotus 
Senferis, et Ludus quis Te ja6laverit iEftus ? 
Ignibus arfifti quibus, et quze feva tulifti 
Tormenta, ac ftimulos, alternantefque dolores? 
A Pompa quoties Solii in fecreta refugi, 
Ipfe meum cor edens, Hominum veftigia vitans, 
Ut fteriiem largo nutrirem fomite flammam ? 
Inque diem quoties animo fe ingeffit Imago 
Pulclira Abr^e, quoties inftaurans fingula, dulces 
Libavi Veneres, et anhelam ad peAora prefii ? 
Crebra ciens quoties fufpiria, fedulus omnes 
Luftravi facies. Species ubi mimica luiit, 
Inque aliis Abram Nymphis deceptus amavi ? 
A Solio quoties ad Amoris Transfuga partes 
Optabam fugere, Imperiumque relinquere JudiCy 
Ut cum illi viridi regnarem folus in Umbra? 
In fomnis quoties tota funi Nodle fugacem 
Per Vitreos Amnes, et Florea Prata fecutus ; 

Et 



S8 PLEylSURE. 

And wakings viewd 'with Grief the rijing Stin^ 
And fo7idly mourn d the dear Delufion gone f 

JVhen thus the gather d Storms of wretched Love, 
In my fwoln Bofom, with long War had ft rove ; 
At lejjgth they broke their Bounds : at le?igth their Fo^ce 
Bore down whatever met its fironger Couffe : 
Lay d all the civil Bonds of Manhood wafle ; 
And fcatte}'\l Ruin as the Torrent pafl. 

So from the Hills, whofe hollow Caves cojitain 
'The congregated Snow, a?id fwellijig Rain ; 
'Till the full Stores their antient Bounds difdain ; 
Precipitate the furious Torrent flows : 
In vain wotdd Speed avoid, or Stre7igth oppofe : 
Towns, Forefls, Herds, and Men promifcuous drown d,^ 
With one great Death deform the dreary Ground : 
The echod Woes from difiant Rocks refund. 

And now, what impious Ways my Wifhes took j 
How they the Monarch, and the Man forfook ; 
And how I follow d an abandon d Will, 
Thro crooked Paths, a?td fad Retreats of III; 
How yudaljs Daughters now, now foreign Slaves, 

By 



V O L U P T A S. 89 

Et fomno excitus pulfas a Sole tenebras, 
Et Gratas dolui fimul evanefccre Fraudes ? 

Cum jam ita Tempcftas feva infelicis Amoris 
Mifcuerat tumldo diuturnum in pedlore bellum, 
Et rabicm, varefque minax collegerat omnes j 
Aggeribus tandem ruptis obftantia curfii 
Proruit, ac valido disjecit turbine moles : 
Et Vallum Civile, et Fines ftravit Honefti ; 
Et qua fe rapido violens tulit impete Torrens, 
Obvia depopulavit, iter fignante Ruina. 

Haud fecus a Clivis, quorum conclufa Cavernis 
Nix glomerata jacet, Pluviaeque tumentis acervus 3 
Donee jam veteres uberrimus humor aquai 
Contemnit fines, indignaturque teneri ; 
Prscipites agitata volutant Flumina lapfus ; 
Nil agiles Plantte, nil fortia Brachia profunt : 
Clades Una Viros, et merlas obruit Urbes, 
Cum fhabulis armenta trahens, fylvafque fonantes, 
Et magno informes inceftat Funere Campos : 
A Scopulis Ludlus offenfa refultat Imago. 

Quales nunc iniit redi Mens devia calles ; 
Utquc Viri alternis, et Munia Regis omifi ; 
Utque Voluntatis fceleratae indudlus habenis, 
Obliquum inceffi per iter, Vitiique nefandas 
Evolvi Ambages ; ut nunc de Gente Puellas 
Judaea, Externas nunc Scorta infamia Terras 

M Omni- 



go PLEASURE, 

By tHr7is 7ny projiituted Bed receives : 

Thrd "Tribes of JVo7?ien how I loofely rmigd '. 

Impatient; UK d To-night^ To-morrow cha7tgdj 

And by the InJli^iB of capricious Liifl^ 

Enjoy df difdai7i d^ was grateful^ or imjuft : 

Oy be thefe Scenes frofn hufnan Eyes co?tceaTdy 

Li Clouds of dece7tt Silence jujily veifdl 

0, be the want07i Lnages co7iveyd 

To black Oblivion^ and eter7ial Shade I 

Or let their fad Epito7}ie alo7iey 

And outward Lines to future Age be know 71, 

Enough to propagate the fur e Belief 

That Vice e7igenders Sha7ne ; and Folly broods cr Grief 

Bury d i7i Sloth, a7id loji i7i Eafe I lay : 
TI3& Night I reveirdj a7id I fept the Dry. 
New Heaps of Fewel da77if d i7iy ki7idli7ig Fires ; 
A?id daily Cha77ge exti7iguifj d you7ig Defres, 
By its own Force deflroyd. Fruition ceas d. 
And always weary d, I was 7iever pleas d. 
No lo7tger 720W does 777y 77egleBed Mind 
Its wonted Stores, and old Ideas f7id. 
Fix d 'Judgei7ie77t there 770 lo7jger does abide^ 
To take the True, orfet the Falfe afde. 
No longer does fwift Me7nry trace the Cells, 

Where 



VOLUPTAS. 91 

Omnlgena excepit focdata libidine Sponda: 
Ut v'olui Nymphas Erro vagus ire per omnes 
Stare loco impatiens ; ut amata relinquere pernix 
Quos nodlu petii. eras fugi exofus Amores ; 
Et v^aria inconftans moderantc Libidine pe6tus, 
Nunc fcevus, nunc gratus eram, potiebar, et odi. 
Veientur tenebris ha^c Turpia Fa6la deeoris, 
Et merito Humanis procul amoveantur occllis ! 
Lurida Lafcivas fpecies Oblivia carpant, 
Perpetuceque tegant eireum Caliginis Umbra ! 
Vel Stec'lis pateant Compendia fola futuris, 
Et foedi emineant Veftigia tenuia fuci, 
Ut fatis hinc tellure fides dominetur in omni, 
Ludus Stultitiam, et Vitium generare Pudorem. 

Exanimem confumpfi inhonefta per Otia Vitam : 
No(5lurno indulfi Luxu, Somnoque Diurno. 
Qui prius ardcbant, Pomes Novais obruit Ignes ; 
Continu^eque Vices hebetare Cupidinis Oeftrum. 
Vi propria periit potiendi Copia j laffum 
Deliciis nunquam fubierunt Gaudia Pedlus. 
Mens obdudla fitu, lentoque fepulta v^terno 
Non folitas rimatur opes, Simulachraque rerum 
Prifca, nee Archetypas vocat in Profcenia Formas. 
Non Vegetum ulterius manet alta fede repoftum 
Judicium, Curvo folers dignofcere Re6tum. 
Non jam agilis penetrat Cellas, ca^cofque Recellus 

M 2 Mne- 



92 PLEASURE, 

Tf'^here fprhiging IVit^ o?' yoimg hivention dwells, 
Freque?2i Debauch to Habitude prevails : 
Patie72ce of Toil^ and Love of Virtue fails. 
By fad Degrees impaii'^d my Vigor dies ; 
'Till I Command no lo?iger ev?i in Vice. 

The Women on i?y Dotage build their Sway : 
They ask J I grant : They threaten \ I obey. 
In Regal Garments now I gravely Jlride^ 
Awd by the Ferfian DamfeFs haughty Pride. 
Now with the loofer Syrian dance y and fingy 
hi Robes tucKd upy opprobrious to the Ki?ig. 

Charm' d by their Eyes^ their Man?iers I acquire. 
And pape my Foolifjnefs to their Defre. 
Seducd a?id aw d by the Philifiine Dame, 
At Dag07i s Shrine I kiiidle impious Flame. 
With the Chaldearis Char 7ns her Rites prevail , 
A7id curli7ig Fra7ih77ce7ife afcends to Baal. 
To each 7tew Harlot 1 7iew Altars drefs ; 
Andfe/'ve her God^ whofe Pe7fon I carefs. 

Where, tny deluded Serfe, was Reafon flow7if 
Where the high Majefly of David's Throne f 
Where all the Maxi77is of Eter7ial T-uth, 
With which the Living God i7for77id 77iy Youth f 

When 



VOLUPTAS. 93 

Mnemoiyne, qua Vis primzevo flore Repertrix,, 
Ingeniumqiic Volucre fuas pofuere latebras. 
Crapula jam vires repetito fumit ab ufu: 
Vita operum patiens, et Honefto afllieta labafcit. 
Deficit Effoeto paulatim in Corpore Robiir, 
Ulterius donee peccandi ablata Poteftas. 

In dclirantis Senii fundamine regnuni 
Conftabilit Mulier, noflris evedla ruinis : 
Flagitat? baud renuo: minitatur ? jufTa capeflb: 
Nunc gravis incedo Regalem indutus amidum, 
Dum proprios mihi Virgo infpirat Perfica Faftus : 
Et nunc cum Syria, Trabeam fuccindlus, honoris 
Immemor et Regni, canto faltoque, Puella. 

Harum, inhians forma?, mores infulfus adopto, 
Artificique traho cundos fub PolJice vultus. 
Si^va Philiftinum nunc me Matrona gubernat; 
In fraudem allicior, flammafque ad Fana Dagonis 
Accendo inceftas. Decor et Chaldaea triumphos 
Relligio ducunt, ctjundo fcedere regnant; 
Hinc Baiili mittuntur odora volumina Thuris. 
Scorto cuique Novo Nova pono Altaria ; Numen 
Illius uique colens, quae me devinxit Amanteni. 

Quo fugit Ratio? quo me malus abftulit error ^ 
Inclyta Davidici quo cefiit Gloria Sceptri ? 
Quo Veri fugere perennia Dogmata, Menteni 
Queis Pater Omnipotens primis effinxitad amiis? 

Cum 



94 PLEASURE. 

JFhsn "With the lewd Egyptian I adore 
Vain Idols-) Deities that 7ieer before 
hi IfraeT s Land had fix d their dire Abodes-^ 
Beajlly Divinities., and Droves of Gods : 
Ofrisy ylpis, Pozvrs that chew the Ci/d, 
And Dog Anubis.) Flattrer for his Food : 
When in the Woody Hilfs forbiddc?i Shade 
I carvd the Marble, and iiivolid its Aid : 
When i?i the Fens to Snakes aiid Flies, with Zeal 
Unworthy human Thought-, I proflrate fell\ 
To Shrubs and Plants my vile Devotion paid , 
A?id fet the bearded Leek, to which I prayd : 
When to all Beings Sacred Rites were givn ; 
Forgot the Arbiter of Earth and Heavn. 

Thro" thefefad Shades, this Chaos in my Soul, 
Some Seeds of Light at le?7gth began to roll. 
The rifng Motion of an Infa7it Ray 
Shot glimmering thro' the Cloud, and projnis' d Day, 
And now one Moment able to refleSi, 
I found the Kiitg abandoii d to Negle8i, 
Seen without Awe, andfervd without RefpeB. 

I found 



n 



VOLUPTAS. 95 

Cum vidum illcccbris Pharia de gente Puella 
Me colere Effigies, Simulachraque bruta coegit, 
Moiiftra Deuni Omnigenumj quee non ludaea recepit 
Ora priuSj Stabulique obfcjena claufit in .^de j 
Divinafque Feras, et foeda Armenta Deorum : 
Mutum, ac turpe pecus, virides quod ruminat herbas, 
Te fimul, Api et Ofiri, et Te, Latrator Anubi, 
Qui captas avidis projedlam faucibus Offam. 
Cum Collis vetita fculptum Sylveftris in Umbra 
Expolii Marmor, quod mox in vota vocabam : 
Cum cultu indigno Mufcas veneratus et Angues, 
Limofas inter oroftravi Membra Paludes ; 
Impius et Plantas, et Numina nata per Hortos 
Cultor adoravi, ac Barbato munera Porro, 
Votaque fancla tuli, modo quod mea Dextera fevit: 
Cum colui quicquid Tellus foecunda cxearat, 
Redorem oblitus, Cceli Terr^eque potentem. 

Per Chaos hoc Animi, per opaca? Nubila No6lis, 
Emicuit demum teniiifTima Lucis Origo. 
Ambiguo tenebras rumpentia Lumine, primos 
Exphcuere ortus Subluftris Tela Diei. 
lamque agitans tacito cum peftore leria, Regem 
ContemptuKi vidi ; famuHs deferbuit ardor 
Obfequii, et nullos fanda formidine Vultus 
Perculitj elat^eque verendi frontis honores. 

Pada 



96 PLEJSURE. 

J found my S uhje&s a??iicahly join-, 
"To leffen their DefeFh by citing Mi?ie. 
The P?^iejl ivith Pity pray d for Davids Race ; 
And left his Text, to dwell on my Dif grace. 
The Father-, whilfl he war?id his erring Son, 
The fad Examples which he ought to fmn, 
DefcriU d, and 07tly 7ianzd not Solomon. 
Each Bard, each Sire did to his Pupil fmg, 
A wife Child better than a foolifj King. 

Into My f elf my Reafoii s Eye I turbid'. 
And as I much refleSied, much I mourfid, 
A mighty King I am, an Earthly God: 
Nations obey 7ny Word, ajid wait my Nod. 
I raife or fitk, imprifo7i orfet free; 
And Life or Death depe77ds 07i 7ny Decree. 
Fo7td the Idea, and the Thought is vain : 
O'er JudaFs Ki7ig ten thotfa7id Tyra7its reig7t, 
Legio7is of Lufl, a7id various Powrs of III 
Infult the Maflers Tributary Will: 
And He, fro7n who7n the Natio7is floould receive 
yuftice a7td Freedo7n, lies Himfelf a Slave, 



Tor- 



VOLUPTAS. 97 

Pada ]co;e Meos recitando Noftra notavi 
Crimina, fe Culpis, et foeda exfolvere Noxa. 
Multa piiis Praeful lapfa pro Gente precatus 
Davidis effudit, Sortem mi£Tatus acerbam, 
Pleniiis utque meam poflet perftringere Vitam, 
Contextus Seriem medio in fermone reliquit. 
Dum Pater a Vitii defledere tramite Natum 
Tcntabat monitis, et dira Exempla docebat, 
Quze fugere imprimis decuit, cognomine tantum 
Celato, Solomona ipfum fubjecit ocellis. 
Et Vates, Seniorque Omnis cantabat Alumno ; 
Prsliicet Stolido, fana Puer indole, Regi. 

In Me verti oculos, in Me Rationis Acumen ; 
Plufque Miler dolui, quo plus cum Mente putabam. 
Rex Ego fum pollens, Numen Terreftre : volentes 
Per Populos do jura, et Nutu Cun6la guberno ; 
Affligo, tolloquc, gravatos compede folvo ; 
Edidlumque meum vel Mors vel Vita fequuntur. 
Defipio, vanaque illufus imagine pafcor : 
Mille regunt, duraque premunt ditione Tyranni 
Regem ]u6.x Humilem ; v^ario flipata Libido 
Saeva Satellitio, Scelerumque Exercitus omnis 
Imperio Dominum cogunt parere minorem. 
ille etiam, Populis quem jura imponere fas eft, 
Servitiique Jugum Captivo demere Collo, 
Ipfe Aliis fervit niifer, agnofcitque Catenas ; 

N Dum 



98 PLEASURE, 

Torturd by cruel Change of wild Defires^ 

Lajljd by mad Rage^ andfcorch'd by brutal Fires. 

Reafon \ once again to Thee I call : 
Accept my Sorrow^ and retrieve my Fall. 
IVifdom-, Thou fay Jl J from Heavjt receivd her Birth -y 
Her Beams tranfmitted to thefubjeSi Earth. 
Yet this great Rjnprefs of the hu7na7i Soul 
Does only with imagin d Powr controul\ 
If refllefs Pajfton by rebellious Sway 
Compells the weak Ufurper to obey. 

troubled) weaky and Coward, as thou art I 
Without thy poor Advice the lab''ri7tg Heart 
To worfe Extre^nes with fwifter Steps would ru?ty 
Not favd by Virtue, yet by Vice imdo7ie. 

Oft have If aid , the Praife of doi7ig well 

Is to the Ear, as Oi72tment to the S7nell. 

Now iffo7ne Flies percha7jcey however fnall, 

hito the Alabafer Ur7i fjotc d fall ; 

The Odors of the Sweets inclos d, would die ; 

And Ste7tch corrupt [fad Cha7ige \ ) their Place fupply. 

So the leaf Faults, if 77tixd with fairefi Deed^ 

Of future III beco7?te the fatal Seed : 

Into 



VOLUPTAS. 99 

Dum Levis Iiunc cruciat Tormentis inille Cupido, 
Dum flimulat Rabies, Lafcivaquc Flamma perurit. 

Jam femel ecce iterum, Ratio, Te voce fatigo: 
Hunc capias ludlum, et pra^fcns fuccurre ruenti. 
Igiicus eft Sophias Vigor, et Coeleftis Origo, 
(Ut Tua dida ferunt) radiantia Semiiia Lucis 
Coelitus in Terraj gremium fluxere jacentis. 
HiEC tamen Humani Princeps ter Maxima Cordis, 
Ludicra Sceptra gerit, fid:oque fuperbit lionore ; 
Si Dominam imbellem fua frxna. audire Cupido 
Cogat, et inlimos in Pedlore mifceat seftus. 

Sis infirma licet, variisque agitata procellis : 
Conliliis tamen orba tuis, Palantia Corda, 
(Quamlibet exiguis) citius graviora fubirent ; 
Et licet his nullum Virtus daret alma levamen, 
Funditus occiderent, Vitii demerfa Barathro. 

Sspe mihi didum eft tali perfundere Laudem 
Aures Istitia, qualem dat olentis Amomi 
Copia, cum grato nares contingit odore. 
Sin forte accipiant Mufcas Alabaftra cadentes, 
Quamlibet exiles ; animas tunc protinus omnis 
Expirabit Odor dulces, fcetenfque tenebit 
Aura locum, faevamquc efflabit acerba Mephitim. 
Tenuia fic Pulchris interlita Crimina Fadlis, 
Semina Venturse fiunt lethalia Noxie. 

N 2 Suavia 



100 PLEASURE, 

hito the Balm of purejl Virtue caji, 
Annoy all Life with one contagious Blafl. 

Lofl Solo7?ton I purfue this 'Thought no more : 
Of thy pafi Errors recolhB the Store: 
And f lent weep^, that while the Deathlefs Mtfe 
Shall fng the fufl ; fall oer their Head diffufe 
Perfumes with lavifj Hand; She fall proclaim 
Thy Criines alone ; and to thy evil Fame 
Impartial, fatter Damps and Poifons on thy Name. 

Awaking therefore', as who long had dream d. 
Much of my Wojnen-, and their Gods afam'd. 
From this Abyfs of exemplafy Vice 
Refolvd, as Ti7ne might aid fny Thought, to rife ; 
Agaiji I hid the mournful Goddefs write 
The fo7id Purfuit of fugitive Delight : 
Bid her exalt her melancholy Wi?tg, 
And raisd from Earth, a7id fav d frojn Pafion fng 
Of human Hope by crofs Eve?it defroyd, 
Of ufelefs Wealth, and Greatnefs tmenjoyd, 
Of Lifi and Love, with their fa?itafic Train, 
Their JVifes, Smiles, and Looks deceitful, all a7id vain, 

THE END. 



> 



VOLUPTAS. loi 

Suavia h violent Virtutis Balfama Pur^, 
Dira per infedlam fpargunt contagia Vitam. 

Infelix Solomon ! mitte hanc de pedlore curam : 
Multiplices Culpas recole, Errorcfque vTtuftos : 
Et tacitus luge, quod dum pia nefcia leti 
Mufa canet Juftos ; dum prodiga fparget odores^ 
iEtherioque facros perfundet Aromate Crines ; 
Ore tuum pleno referet Scelus, et Tibi Nomen 
Tartareis maculabit aquls, et tabe Veneni. 

At pulfo, veluti poft Somnia longa, Sopore, 
Incuffere mihi Mala Scorta, Deique ruborem 
MonftroU ; puduit tam dira opprobria nobis 
Et dici potuifie, et non potuiile refelli. 
Ergo animo mccum flatuens, cum tempus amicum 
Se daret optanti, Vitii hoc emergere vafto 
GurgitCj Lugubrem rurfiis memorare Camoenam 
Gaudia fruftratos jufll fugicntia taftus : 
Mcerentem jufTi fuper JEthera tollere Pennam,, 
Ereptamque Cupidinibus, terraque madenti 
Spes Caffasj et Opes, queis non conceditur uti, 
Et cui Frudlus abeft, Luxus cantare nitorem 
Magnificij et Venerem, Stimulofque Libidinis acres, 
Et comites Rifus, et Vota, Ociilofque loquaces, 
Omnia fcsta dolls, et Magnum in rebus Inane.. 

FINIS. 



VIS MUSICS, 

S I V E 

ALEXANDRI CONFIVIUM, 
DRYDENI inS. C^CILIAM 






ODE, 



LATIN I TATE D O N ATA 

A 

GEO RGIO BALLY, Coll. Regal. Alumno. 



Mufa Lyra Sokrs 

"Juviit aid impellk ad iram. 



Aiit ad huynuin mcerore g7'avi deducit et angit. 

HoR. 



ALEXANDER'S FEAST. 

TWA S at the Royal Feaji^ for Perjia W(?;;, 
By Philip's TVarlike Son : 
Aloft iji awful State 
The God- 1 ike Hero fate 
On his hnperial Throne : 
His valiajtt Peers were plac d around; 
Their Brows with Rofes and with Myrtles bound. 

{So fjoud Defert ijt Arms be crow?id:) 
The Lovely Thais by hisfde. 
Sate like a bloo77ii7ig Kafler?i Bride 
In Flowr of Youth and Beauty s Pride. 
Happy^ happyt happy Pair I 
None but the Brave^ 
No?ie but the Brave-, 

None but the Brave deferves the Fair. 

II. 



ALEXANDRI CONVIVIUM. 

CU M jam Regifico inflrueret convivia luxu 
Proles Philippi Martia, 
Diemque feftis dcdicaret poculis, 
Vidla triiimphans Perfide: 
Heros par Superis fedit in aureo 
Evedus folio, Nobilis, et facro 
Undique circumfufus honore. 
Belligeri Satrap^e pofuere fedilia circum, 
Quorum intexta Rods redimibat tempora Myrtus. 
(Talibus cingi meruit Corollis 

Bellica Virtus :) 
Huic aflidebat Thais amabilis, 
Eoa qualis Sponfa, fuperbiens 
Mvo virenti, Gratiafque 
Purpureo jaculata Vultu. 
Felices ter et amplius, 
Quos dulce jungit Vinculum ! 
Formofa Nympha Fortibus, 
Formofa Nympha Fortibus, 
Formofa fclis Nympha detur Fortibus. 



o 



II 



io6 ALEXANDER'S FEAST 

II. 

Timothcus placd on high 

Amid the tuneful ^uire, 

TVith flying Fingers touched the Lyre : 

The tre?nbUng Notes afcend the Skjy 

A72d Heav7ily yoys infpire. 

The Song bega7i from fove ; 

Who left his blifsful Seats above., 

[Such is the Powr of mighty Love.) 

A Drago?is fe?y Form belyd the God : 

Sublime on Radiant Spires He rode., 

TFhen He to fair Olympia prefs'd : 

And while He fought herfiowy Breafl : 

T%e77y round her Jlender Waifl he curTd., [World. 

And fla77if d an hnage of hi7nfelf a Sovreigit of the 

The lifl'7ting Crowd ad77iire the lofty Soimd, 

A prefe7tt Deity., they floout around : 

A prefent Deity the vaulted Roofs rebound: 

With ravifSd Ears 

The Monarch hearsy 

AJfu7nes 



ALEXANDRI CONVIVIUM. 107 

II. 

Inter canorum Timothciis fcdens 
Sublimis Agmen, pollicis impulit 
Volantis idii fila, Mufainquc 
Elicuit cithara^ tacentem. 
Ad ccelum tremuli Modi feruntur ; 

Coeleftique tument Pedora Gaudio. 
Camcena duxit principium ab Jove ; 
Qui domos olim fuperas reliquit, 
(Tantum vis potuit feva Cupidiiiis.) 
Ignea Forma Deum texit mentita Draconis : 

Cum jam fublime corufcis 
Orbibus incumbens equitavit, et agmine certo 
Vaftum per Inane petivit 
Formofe niveum pedlus Olympice. 
Gracile tunc amore corpus ambiens plicatili, 
Venturam im pre flit propria fub Imagine Prolem, 
Quam tremeret Tellus, Dominumque agnofceret Orbis. 
Combibit altifonos avida Plebs aure canores : 

Regnare clamat Quifque Praefentem Deum ; 
Pra^fentemque Deum Laquearia pulfa retorquent. 
Extra fe rapitur fono 
Heros ; in Superas evehitur domos, 
Sublimique ferit Sidera vertice : 

o 2 Terras 



lo8 ALEXANDER'S FEAST. 

Ajjumes the God-, 
AffeBs to 7iodf 
Andfeeffts to JJjah the Spheres. 

III. 

The Praife of Bacchus then, thefweet Mujicianfung'y 
Of Bacchus ever Fair^ a?id ever Young: 
The jolly God in Triumph comes; 
Sound the Trumpets ; heat the Drums ; 
FlufSd with a purple Grace 
He fhews his honefi Face, 
Now give the Hautboys breath ; He comes. He comes. 
Bacchus, ever Fair ajtd Totmg, 

Drinking Joys did frfl ordain : 
Bacchus' Blejft7igs are a Treafure, " 
Drinking is the Soldiers Pleafure ; 
Rich the Treafure, 
Sweet the Pleafure-, 
Sweet is Pleafure after Pain. 



IV. 



ALEXANDRI CONVIVIUM. 

Terrae recedunt; induitur Deum; 
Manu rubenti fulmina defuper 
Trifulca vibrat ; jamque nutu 
^theream tremefecit Aulam. 
III. 
Plurlmus in Bacchi laudes mox fila Canorus 
Increpuit Fidicen Lyrze; 
Bacchi, quern Venus, et nitens Juventas 
Formae perpetuo beant decore. 
Jam ducens hilares venit triumphos 
Serto revindus Pampineo Deus, 

L^Etitias dator, et Jocorum. 
Infletur Tuba, Tympanumque pulfum 

Edat fonores Bellicos. 
Numen Purpureo fuas rubore 
Uv^as aflimilans, honefta prodit 

Ora renidens. 
Tibia multiforos fundat acuta fonos ; 
Vidlor Thyoneus ad venit, advenit. 
Bacchus, quern Venus, et nitens Juventas 
Forms perpetuo beant decore, 
Nobis deUcias dedit Bibendi. 

Gazam miniftrant Bacchica Muncra, 
Sunt et Vohiptas Pocula A'lilitis ; 
Optima Gaza, 
Grata Voluptas; 
Curam Voluptas grata fupervTnit. 



109 



IV. 



no ALEXANDER'S FEAST 

IV. 

SootFd with the Sound the King grew vain ; 

Fought all his Battles oer agai7t ; \_jlai?i. 

Aid thrice he routed all his Foes\ and thrice he Jlew the 

Ihe Majier faw the Madnefs rifej 

His glowi?ig Cheeks^ his ardent Eyes ; 

And while He Heavn and Earth defyd^ 

Chang d his Haiid^ a?td checKd his Pride. 

He chofe a Mour7iful Mufe 

Soft Pity to infufe : 

He Jung Darius Great and Goody 

By too fever e a Fate^ 

Falle?t, fallen J fallen^ fallen-, 

Fallen frojn his high Eflate, 

And weltrijjg in his Blood : 

Deferted at his utmofl Need, 

By thofe his former Bounty fed : 

On the bare Earth expos d He lies-. 

With not a Friend to clofe his Eyes, 

With 



ALEXANDRI CONVIVIUM. in 

IV. 

Harmonia captus faftu Rex turget iiiani, 
Et pugnata, iteriim praslia fortis obit. 
Ter ftravit ftratos, et fufa tcr agmina fudit. 
Vidit canendi Callidus Artifex 
Infanientes Pedtoris altius 
Tumere fludlus, et riibore 
Infolito radiare Vultus ; 
Vidit corufcis lumina vividuni 
Ardere flammis ; dumque minax Polo 
Orbique mifcet Bella ; verfb 
Pollice comminuit furores. 
Nunc queribundum 
Plenum triftitiae melos ciebat, 

Lenire folers Pedlora: 
Darium cecinit Bonum, Potentem, 
Sorte gravi nimis et fevera 
Lapfum repente, flebili lapfuni vice, 
Lapfum e priori Glorias faftigioj 

Inque fua ianie volutum : 
Quorum pr£ecipue nunc indiget, orbus Amicis> 
Priftina quos aluit menfa, beavit Amor ; 
Defundlo dum Nullus adeft, qui Lumina condat,, 
En ! jacet in Gelida, Trifte Cadaver, humo. 

Luguf- 



^'% 



112 ALEXANDER'S FEAST. 

With down cafi Looks the joylefs ViSior fatej 
Revolving ifi his alter d Soul 
The various Turns of Chance below ; 
Andy now and then-, a Sigh he Jlole \ 
A^id Tears began to flow. 
V. 
The Mighty Maflerfmifd^ to fee 
That Love was i7i the next Degree : 
'Twas but a kindred- Sound to ?nove ; 
For Pity melts the hTmd to Love. 
Softly fweet, in Lydian Meafures, 
Soon hefootldd his Soul to Pleafures. 
War^ hefungy is Toil and Trouble ; 
Honour but an empty Bubble. 

Never endings ft ill beginning. 
Fighting ft ill, and ft ill deftroying. 
If the World be worth thy Winning., 

Think 



ALEXANDRI CONVIVIUM. 113 

Liigiibris In terrain Vidor defigit ocellos, 

Corde mutato recolens dolofae 

Aleam Sortis, miferofque Cafus. 

Nunc furtim gemitus ciet, 

Nunc Humor tacitas labitur in genas. 

V. 

MelicJE Magifter Artis 

Placido renidet ore, 

Gradibus fciens fecundis 

Paphiam federe Divam i 

Similes movere Chordas, 

Modulofque confonantes 

Opus unicum ciere. 

Aliena quippe flentis 

Mala, protinus medullas 

Subit intimas Cupido. 

Suaviter lenes citharas canores 

Elicit, Lydxque modos Camoenae 

Sufcitans, Regis liquefadla corda 

Mollit amore. 

Sic Fila blandis increpuit fonis. 

Tumultuofe Beilum opus Aleae ; 

Turgens inani Bulla Vento 

Laus, & Amor Popularis Auraj : 

O Qui Laborum perpete volveris 

Gyro, Laborum fine carentium ; 

Et ufque pugnas, ufque caedis, 

Si meruit tibi Terra vinci, 

Difce 



11^ ALEXANDER'S FEAST, 

Thhiky thhikj it worth ejjjoyhig. 
Lovely Thais Jits befide thee^ 
Take the Good the Gods provide thee. 
The Majiy rend the Skies^ with loud Applaufe ; 
So Love was Crowrid-, but Mufick won the Caufe, 
Tlie Princey unable to co?iceal his Pain, 
Gazd on the Fair, 
Who cans d his Care, 
And JigFd and looKdy Jigl^d and looKdy 
Sigh'd a fid looJid^ and figB d agaiji : 
At lengthy with Love and Wine at once opprefsdy 
The vanquip^d ViEior fu7ik upon her breajl, 

VI. 

Now Jlrihe the Goldc?i Lyre again: 

A louder yet y and yet a louder Strai?i. 
Break his Bands of Sleep af under y 
And rouze hinty like a rattling Peal ofTlitmdcr. 
Harky harky the horrid Sound 
Has raisd up his Heady 
As awaE d from the Deady 
And amazdy he flares arou^-^. 



Re 



ALEXANDRI CONVIVIUM. u^ 

Difce frui, totoqiie triumphans utere Mundo. 
AfTidct Thais latcri decora, 
Dona praefentis rape laetus horse, 
Quas Venus ridens, Venerlfque Proles 

Nedlare tinxit. 
Infrcmuit Vulgus, pulfavit et iEthera plaufu ; 

Mudca fie vieit, praemia cepit Amor. 
Nefcius interea premcre alto pedore curas, 
Charam Rex inhlat ftupens Puellam, 
Caufam Rex inhiat ftupens doloris, 
Sufpirat ufque et ufque Vultus afpicit, 
Sufpirat iterum, et ufque Vultus afpicit, 
Et ufque fpedans, ufque dat fufpiria. 
Tandem plenus Amore, ac Numine plenus lacchi, 
Labitur in Pulchra: candentia pedlora Nymphae, 
Pendet et ambrofio Vidor devidus ab ore. 

VI. 
Pulfata rurfuni perftrepat Aurea 
Chelys ; fonores jam magis et magis 
Tollantur alti ; Vinc'la Somni 
Rumpite Fulmineo fragore. 
Sed Audin', Audin'; jam canor horridus 

Torpidum Regis caput excitavit ; 
Tanquam potentis carminibus Magi 

Inferna elicitus domo, 
Infanas acies undique conjicit. 

p 2 Ad 



Il6 ALEXANDER'S FEAST 

Revenge^ Revejige^ Timotheus cricsy 
See the Furies arife : 
See the Snakes that they rea?'. 
How they hifs in their Hair^ 
■ And the Sparkles that JlaJJj from their Eyes I 
Behold a ghajlly Bandy 
Each a Torch in his Hand I 
Thofe are Grecian Ghojls^ that in Battel were Jlaijiy 

And tmburyd re7nain 
Inglorious 07t the Plain. 
Give the Vei77eance due 
To the VaUa?it Crew. 
Behold how they tofs their Torches on high. 

How they point to the Perjiaft Abodes ^ 
And glittrifig Tetnphs of their Hojlile Gods ! 
The Princes applaud, with a furious jfoy ; 
And the Kingfeizd a Fiambeauy with Zeal to deflroy'y 
Thais led the Way, 
To light him to his Preyy 
And, like another Helen, fird a?tother Troy. 

VII. 



ALEXANDRI CONVIVIUM. uj 

Ad Ultionem Turge, Timotheils boat. 
Ad Ultionem furge, clamant Atria» 
En ut relida luridi 
Profunditate Ta^nari, 
Diras corufcant tortilcs 
Hydros inhorrentes comis ! 
Ut ora vibrant fibila, 
Luminibusque feris erumpit flammeus Ardor ! 
Informem alpice, flebilemque coetum, 
Armatum facibus manus! 
Ha;c,Graium, quam cernis, inops inhumataqiieTurba eft, 
Quos Martis ira perculit ; 
Nunc Umbrae vidu^e mortis honoribus 
Campos inults pervolant. 
Quin ultionem folve, folve debitam, 
Hoftefque cxCis inferias refer, 
Et clade clades expia. 
Viden' ut alte Lampadas circum rotant, 
i^defque verfus Perficas tendunt manus, 
Fulgidaque infenfis devota Sacraria Divis \ 
PlauRis ingeminant pe6lore turbiduni 
Lzetantes Satrapje ; Rex celer igneuin 
Funale, fpirans exilium, rapit; 
Dux aperit viam, 
Prsedasque Thiiis indicem 
Prjetendit arfura: facem, 
Accenditque Novas Trojas Nova Tyndaris Arces. 

vn. 



,i8 /JLEXJNDER's FEAST. 

VIL 

Thus long agOy 

Ere h2avi?ig Bellows leamd to blow^ 

While Orga?2syet were mute ; 
Timotheus, to his breathino; Flute 
And foMidivg Lyre, 
Cou d fwell the Soul to Rage, or kindle foft Defire. 
At lajl Divine Cecilia came, 
Invefitrefs of the Vocal Frame ; 
The J wee t E^ithujiajl, from her f acred Store, 
Enlarged the former ?iarrow Bounds, 
And added Length to folemn Soimds, 
With Nature s Mother-Wit, a7id Arts unbiown before. 
Let old limotheus yield the Prize, 

Or both divide the Cro\v?i ; 
Me rais d a Mortal to the Skies : 
She drew an Angel down. 



THE END. 



ALEXANDRI CONVIVIUM. ttq 

VII. 

Prioribus fie SjccuHs, 
Antequam flatu reboans anhelo 
Follis augiiftum Mclos cvocavitj 
Cum loqui nondum didicere facris 

^ Organa Tcmplis j 

Suavi Timotheiis flamine Tibize, 
Et Grandis fonitu Lyr^, 
Infudit rabiem, placidumve accendit Amorem. 
Caecilia tandem Pulchra vocalem tulit 
Demiffa cceIo Machinam ; 
Dives opum fandarum et Numine plena Jehov^, 
Luxuriem dedit, et Modulis immifit habenas ; 
Gravifque Mufas duxit in longum tonos> 
Ingenio pollens, ignotafque addidit Artes. 
Cedat Puellse Timotheiis minor, 
Parefve regnent ; Hie Hominem extulit 
Ad Aftra folers ; Haee ab Aftris 
^thereum rapuit Miniftrum. 



FINIS. 



• 



^■t< 



4 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY 

Los Angeles 

This book is DUE on the last date stamped below. 



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