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Full text of "The Hypocreales of North America"

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THE HYPOCREALES OF 
NORTH AMERICA 



By 
FRED JAY SEAVER 



A THESIS 



SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE GRADUATE COLLEGE OF THE STATE 

UNIVERSITY OF IOWA IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS 

FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY 



NEW YORK 
1912 



THE HYPOCREALES OF 
NORTH AMERICA 



By 

FRED JAY SEAVER 



LIBRARY 



A THESIS 

SUBMITTED TO THE FACl'LTY OF THE GRADUATE COLLEGE OF THE STATE 

UNTVERSITV OF IOWA IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS 

FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY 



NEW YORK 
I9I2 



m 



3<, 



PREFACE 

The work of this monograph was begun during the autumn of 
1906. its object being to give a better understanding of the North 
American species of the order treated. 

The work is based largely on the collections of fungi in the New 
York Botanical Garden, including the extensive Ellis collections. 
Other herbaria which have been visited for the purpose of study 
during the course of the work are the Schweinitz collection in 
Philadelphia, the collections of Dr. C. H. Peck in the State Museum 
at Albany, and those of the United States Department of Agricul- 
ture, Washington, D. C. In addition to these, I have been 
permitted to examine the fungi of this group from the herbarium 
of the late A. P. Morgan, of Ohio, which collection is now in the 
State University of Iowa, and have also examined numerous 
tyi^es from the Royal Gardens, Kew, England. 

In the preparation of this work, I wish to acknowledge my 
indebtedness to Dr. N. L. Britton, Dr. W. A. Murrill, and other 
members of the staff of the New York Botanical Garden, also to 
Professor T. H. Macbride of the State University of Iowa and 
to the late Professor L. M. Underwood, of Columbia University. 
The names of other persons who have contributed to the com- 
l^letion of the work ai)])ear on the following pages. 



[Reprinted from Mycologia, Vol. I., No. 2, March, 1909.] 



THE HYPOCREALES OF NORTH 
AMERICA— I 

Fred J. Seaver 
(With Plates 4 and 5, Containing 33 Figures) 

The Hypocreales might be briefly defined as the bright-colored 
sphaeriaceous fungi, the bright color being the most conspicuous 
character of this order, the early described members of which 
were included in the genus Sphaeria. In addition to color, the 
plants of the order are characterized by membranaceous peri- 
thecia and fleshy stromata, when the latter are present, as opposed 
to the carbonaceous perithecia and stromata and, usually, the 
black color of the true pyrenomycetes. While no one of these 
characters is sufficient in itself, taken together they are quite 
definitive of the order, which appears to be a well-marked natural 
group. 

The plants of this order exhibit in their life-histories two 
phases, the conidial and ascigerous, the so-called imperfect fungi 
representing the conidial phase of many of the species. In no 
group of fungi is there more need of a close and critical study 
of the life-histories of its individual members than in the one now 
under consideration. In a few cases this has been done, with the 
result that some of the species have been found to be of extreme 
economic importance in their relation to plant diseases, and doubt- 
less the same fact will be discovered with reference to other 
species when critical work of this kind is extended to those forms. 
While the conidial phase in a part of the order is obscure, in 
others it is often profuse, forming a distinct fleshy or cottony 
stroma, on which are produced first conidiophores and conidia, 
and later perithecia, the latter containing the asci and spores. 
The characters of the conidiophores and conidia are very variable 
"2i and will furnish much valuable information as to the natural rela- 

tionship of the various members when the life-histories of the 
species are better known. In one group, which is here treated as 
a tribe, the stromata develop from a sclerotium, the latter term 

41 



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42 Mycologia 

being used in its broader sense to include any fungous growth 
which produces its ascigerous stage only after a period of rest. 

The order contains approximately two hundred species in the 
region covered in the present work, which are distributed through- 
out temperate and tropical America. While many species occur 
throughout North America, others are found only in the tropics. 

The classification of the order is a question concerning which 
there are many different views. A single family is usually rec- 
ognized, and this is divided by Lindau* into six subfamilies. The 
system adopted in the present monograph corresponds in many 
respects with that proposed by Lindau, but diff'ers in that peri- 
thecial and stromatic characters are considered of primary impor- 
tance in the separation of the order into families and tribes, while 
spore characters (color, form, septation, etc.) are retained as of 
generic or specific importance only. 

The genus Nectria as commonly considered includes both stro- 
matic and non-stromatic species. This difference was recognized 
by Fries, and has continued to be recognized as a sectional or 
subgeneric character up to the present time. Dr. M. C. Cooke 
went a step further and raised Saccardo's subgenus Dialonectria 
to generic rank, although this is not commonly so recognized. 
The separation of this genus on the presence or absence of a 
stroma is here maintained, but since the type of the genus Nectria 
falls among the non-stromatic species, the name Nectria is retained 
for those forms, while a new name is proposed for the stromatic 
species. In recent times, other genera, such as Ophionectria with 
filiform spores and C alone ctria with many-septate spores, have 
been segregated from the old genus and a separation of Nectria 
on the presence or absence of a stroma necessitates a similar sepa- 
ration of other genera in which stromatic and non-stromatic 
species have been associated. The free (non-stromatic) forms of 
nectriaceous plants are here brought together in the tribe Nec- 
trieae. 

With the stromatic and perithecial characters as a basis, the 
order consists of two well-defined groups, which are here treated 
as families, each of which is in turn divided into two tribes. The 
details of this classification are contained in the synopsis given 
below. 

* E. & P. Nat. Pfl. i': 346. 1897. 



Seaver: Hypocreales of North America 43 

Order HYPOCREALES 

Perithecia globose, ovate, conical, cylindrical, fusoid, or flask- 
shaped, free on the substratum (occasionally subepidermal) or 
united by a common matrix, varying from a cottony subiculum to 
a distinct fleshy stroma, bright-colored, white, yellow, red, brown, 
violet, but never entirely black, except in extreme age, opening 
by an ostiolum; perithecial wall membranaceous or submembra- 
naceous, never carbonaceous ; stroma when present bright-colored 
and soft, fleshy or cottony, and varying in size from 1-2 mm. to 
several cm. in diameter, patellate or effused, with the perithecia 
entirely superficial or partially to entirely immersed; asci cylin- 
drical, clavate, or subovoid, mostly 4-8-spored but often becom- 
ing i6-spored by the separation of each original spore into 2 
globose or subglobose cells; spores simple or compound, hyaline 
or colored, globose to filiform. 

Conidiophores and conidia very variable. 

Stroma wanting, or when present, with the perithecia entirely 

superficial, usually in cespitose clusters. i. Nectkiaceae. 

Stroma or stromatic base always present and forming a con- 
spicuous matrix in which the perithecia are partially to 
entirely immersed, rarely subsuperficial especially in aged 
specimens. 2. Hypocreaceae. 

Family i. NECTRIACEAE 

Perithecia entirely free on the substratum (occasionally sub- 
epidermal), or seated on a fleshy or tubercular stroma, but when 
the latter is present, perithecia always superficial, usually in cespi- 
tose clusters ; stroma often obscured at maturity by the perithecia 
and occasionally becoming obsolete in aged specimens, but in such 
cases its presence is indicated by the densely cespitose clusters of 
perithecia. 

Stroma and stromatic base entirely wanting ; perithecia free 
on the substratum, scattered or crowded, occasionally 
subepidermal. i. Nectkieae, 

Stroma or stromatic base always present ; but often obscured 
at maturity by the perithecia and occasionally disappearing 
in weathered specimens but its presence indicated by the 
densely cespitose clusters of perithecia. 2. Creo.vectrieae. 



44 Mycologia 

Tribe i. Nectrieae 

Perithecia free (without stroma) and occurring singly but 
often gregarious and occasionally more or less crowded on the 
surface of the substratum, or formed beneath the epidermis and 
becoming erumpent-superficial, smooth, verrucosa, or clothed with 
deciduous mycelial threads or well-developed hairs ; asci cylin- 
drical to clavate or subovoid, 4-8-spored; spores simple or com- 
pound, globose to filiform, hyaline or colored; conidial phase 
never forming a stroma. 

Spores h3^aline. 

Perithecia subepidermal, becoming erumpent-super- 
ficial. 
Spores simple. i. Hyponectria. 

Spores septate. 2. Nectriella. 

Perithecia superficial on the substratum. 
Spores simple. 

Spores appendiculate ; perithecia beaked. 3. Eleuthromyces. 
Spores without appendages ; perithecia not 

beaked, 4. Pseudonectria. 

Spores compound, i-many-septate. 

Spores I -septate. 5. Nectria. 

Spores more than i -septate. 

Perithecia light-colored, yellow or red. 

Spores elliptical to fusiform. 6. Calonectria. 

Spores filiform or subfiliform. 7. Ophionectria. 

Perithecia dark-colored, blue. 8. Gibberella.* 

Spores dark-colored, brown or blackish. 
Spores simple. 

Spores subglobose, rough ; perithecia subglobose. 9. Neocosmospora. 
Spores elliptical, smooth ; perithecia flask-shaped. 10. Melanospora. 
Spores compound, i -septate. 11. Letendraea. 

I. Hyponectria Sacc. Michelia i : 250. 1878 

Perithecia globose or subglobose, subepidermal, often becoming 
erumpent ; asci 8-spored ; spores elliptical or subelliptical, hyaline, 
simple. ]3istinguis]ied from Nectriella by the simple spores. 

Type species : Sphaeria Buxi DC. 

Spores s-6 X 1.5-2 mic, on stems of Opnntia sp. i. //. Cacti. 

Spores 10 X 2-2. 5 mic, on herbaceous stems. 2. H. dakotensis. 

* See Creonectrieae. 



Seaver: Hypocreales of North America 45 

I. Hyponectria Cacti (Ellis & Everh.) Seaver, 
ATycologia i : 20. 1909 

Nectriella Cacti Ellis & Everh. Jour. Myc. 8 : 66. 1902. 

Perithecia minute, scattered, subepidermal, globose or subglo- 
bose, expanded above the epidermis into a disc-like ostiolum ; peri- 
thecia red, with the ostiolum lighter, whitish (in preserved speci- 
mens), about 200 mic. in diameter; asci cylindrical or clavate, 
8-spored, 40-50 X 3-4 mic. ; spores 2-seriate, simple, hyaline, 
straight or curved, 5-6 X 1-5-2 mic. 

On stems of Opuntia sp. 

Type locality: Alabama. 

Distribution : Known only from type locality. 

Specimens examined: Alabama, Carver ^84 (type). 

2. Hyponectria dakotensis Seaver, 
Mycologia i : 20. 1909 

Perithecia scattered or occasionally 2 or more in close contact, 
subepidermal, becoming more or less erumpent, long covered by 
the thin, whitish epidermis of the host, scattered over whitish 
patches on the substratum but with no apparent superficial my- 
celial growth ; ostiolum forming a disc-like expansion above the 
surface of the epidermis with a distinct perforation in the 
center, slightly hairy, especially near the margin of the disc 
where the hairs appear as a delicate fringe ; perithecia 200 mic. 
in diameter ; asci clavate, 8-spored, 30-45 X 5 rnic. ; spores mostly 
2-seriate above, often i-seriate below, fusoid, with usually 2 
large oil-drops, and 1-2 smaller ones toward either end, 10 X 
2-2.5 mic.; paraphyses present, delicate (/>/. 4. f. 5). 

On herbaceous stems {Ambrosia trifida?). 

Type locality : Fargo, N. Dakota. 

Distribution : Known only from type locality. 

Illustrations : IMycologia i : pi. 2. f. 1-4. 

2. Nectriella Fuckel, Symb. Myc. 175. 1869 

Charonectria Sacc; Michelia 2: 72. 1880. 

Perithecia globose or subglobose, entirely subepidermal or 
erumpent-superficial ; asci 8-spored ; spores hyaline, i-septate. 

Type species: Nectriella Fuckelii Nitsch. 

Distinguished from Hyponectria by the compound spores. 

Perithecia large, 400 mic. in diameter, pale red. i. N. Pedicular is. 

Perithecia small, 175-200 mic. in diameter, scarlet, 2. N. peponum. 



46 Mycologia 

I. Nectriella Pedicularis (Tracy & Earle) 

Charonectria Pedicularis Tracy & Earle, Plantae Bakeriannae i : 

26. 1901. 

Scattered or gregarious, perithecia prominent but long covered 
by the thin epidermis, orbicular, at length subdepressed, bright- 
coral-red, smooth, soft, perforated by an obscure ostiolum, 400 
mic. in diameter ; asci numerous, cylindrical, with a stem-like 
base, 100 X 8 mic. ; spores obliquely i-seriate, hyaline, minutely 
granular within, i-septate, subelliptical, ends acutish, 17X4 mic. 

On dead stems of Pedicularis crcnulata. 

Type locality: Colorado. 

Distribution : Known only from type locality. 

Specimens examined: Colorado, Baker & Earle 2^0 (type). 

The species is distinct in the large perithecia and spores. 

2. Nectriella peponum (Berk. & Curt.) 

Nectria peponum Berk. & Curt. Grevillea 4: 16. 1875. 

Nectria perpusilla Berk. & Curt.; Ravenel, Fungi Car. Exsicc. 

51- 

Perithecia scattered or gregarious, at first covered by the thin 
epidermis, becoming subsuperficial, but nestling in minute cavi- 
ties in the substratum; ovoid, with a prominent, obtuse ostiolum, 
175 X 200 mic, bright red, nearly scarlet, component cells of the 
perithecial wall distinct, 5 mic. in diameter ; asci clavate, 35-40 
X 5-6 mic, 8-spored; spores i-septate, fusoid, hyaline, 10 X 4 
mic. 

On dead gourds. 

Type locality: South Carolina. 

Distribution : North Carolina, South Carolina. 

ExsiccATi : Ravenel, Fungi Am. Exsicc. jj5 and Fungi Car. 
Exsicc. 57. 

The species very closely resembles Nectria sanguinea (Bolton) 
Fries, but differs in its habitat and subhypodermal character, as 
well r\s in the color of the perithecia. 

Doubtful Species 

Nectria Galii Plow. & Hark. Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. i : 26. 1884. 

" Perithecia scattered, immersed then crumpent, obtuse, pale 
red ; asci cylindrical, very delicate, mic. 60 X 5-8, sporidia eight, 
uniseriate, pale straw-colored, oblong-oval, with bluntly-pointed 
ends, mic. 10 X 5 on Galium trifolium." 



Seaver: Hypocreales of North America 47 

" ]\Ir. Phillips figures the sporidia as being uniseptate. I was 
unable to make out any septum, but the specimens examined may 
have been less mature than Mr. Phillips'." 

The erumpent character of the perithecia of the above species 
and' the i-septate spores would place it in the genus Nectriella. 
No specimen of this species has been examined by the writer. 

3. Eleuthromyces Fuckel, Symb. ]\ryc. 183. 1869 

Perithecia free on the substratum, globose or subglobose, con- 
tinued into a long neck, brownish or amber ; substance soft ; asci 
cylindrical, 4-8-spored ; spores simple, fusiform, continued into 
a more or less bristle-like apex at either end. 

Type species : Eleuthromyces suhulatus Fuckel. 
Distinguished from Psetidonectria by the flask-shaped peri- 
thecia and the appendiculate spores. 

Perithecia large, 500 mic.-i mm. high. i. E. subiilafus. 

Perithecia small, 150-180 mic. high. 2. E. Geoglossi. 

I. Eleuthromyces subulatus Fuckel, 
Symb. Myc. 183. 1869 

fClavaria hrackiata Batsch, Elench. Fung. Cont. i : 234. 1786. 

Sphaeria siibidata Tode, Fungi Meckl. 2: 44. 1791. 

Isaria hrachiata Schum. PI. Saell. 2 : 443. 1803. 
Sphaeronema stibulatnm Fries, Syst. Myc. 2 : 536. 1822. 

Perithecia scattered or gregarious, subglobose below, tapering 
into a long neck, smooth or nearly so, yellowish or amber, 200- 
300 mic. in diameter at the base and 500 mic.-i mm. high ; asci 
cylindrical, fusoid, 8-spored, about 50 X 2-3 mic. ; spores simple, 
elongated, averaging 4X2 mic, tapering into a bristle-like ap- 
pendage of variable length at either end (pi. 4. f. 12, Jj). 

On partially decayed fungi. 

Type locality: Europe. 

Distribution : Ontario. 

Illustrations: Batsch, Elench. Fung. Cont. i: pi. 28. f. 163; 
Tode, Fungi Meckl. 2. pi. 13. f. 117; E. & P. Nat. Pfl. i^: /. 238, 
D-E; Nees, Syst. pi. 43. f. 345, B; Winter; Rab. Krypt. Fl. i^: 
84. /. 1-4. 

Specimens examined: Ontario (no name). 

Recognized by the very large perithecia. 



48 Mycologia 

2. Eleuthromyces Geoglossi (Ellis & Everh.) 
Hypomyces Geoglossi Ellis & Everh. Jour. Myc. 2 : 73. 1886. 
Peckiella Geoglossi Sacc. Syll. Fung. 9: 944. 1891. 

Perithecia superficial, closely gregarious, when fresh of a dirty 
greenish-yellow, when dry yellowish to amber, more or less fur- 
furaceous, nearly globose, tapering into a rather long neck, 150 
mic. in diameter at the base and 180 mic. high ; asci slender, 
50-75X4-5 mic, 8-spored; spores mostly i-seriate, with the 
ends overlapping, hyaline, simple, tapering into an appendage-like 
extremity at either end, 10-12 X Z~A "lic. {pi. 4. f. 10, 11). 

On Geoglossum sp. 

Type locality: New Jersey. 

Distribution: New Jersey and New York. 

Specimens examined: New Jersey, Ellis (type) ; New York, 
Seaver. 

Distinguished from the preceding by the much smaller peri- 
thecia as well as by the habitat. 

The material collected by the writer in New York corresponds 
exactly with the type in spore characters but there is some differ- 
ence in the color of the perithecia, those of the type being nearly 
black while those of our own collection are, with transmitted 
light, amber. As there are no notes on the color of the type 
specimen that difference might be due to drying. 

This species was placed in the genus Hypomyces by Mr. Ellis 
but differs from the plants of this genus in the entire absence of 
stroma. Both the perithecial and spore characters strongly sug- 
gest the above genus. 

4. Pseudonectria nom. nov. 

Nectriella Sacc. Michelia i: 51. 1877. 

Perithecia freg on the substratum, globose to ovoid, bright 
colored, yellow, red, etc., smooth or minutely rough, soft, mem- 
branaceous ; asci cylindrical, 8-spored ; spores elliptical or sub- 
elliptical, simple, hyaline. 

Type species : Nectria Rousseliana Montag, 
Distinguished from Nectria by the simple spores. 

I. Pseudonectria sulphurata (Ellis & Everh.) 
Nectria sulphurata Ellis & Everh. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 
1890: 248. 1 891. 



Seaver: Hypocreales of North America 49 

Perithecia small, about 200 mic. in diameter, at first globose 
finally collapsing, sulphur-yellow-pruinose, becoming green with 
age ; asci cylindrical, 50-60 X 5-6 mic, 8-spored ; spores more 
or less crowded in the ascus, becoming partially 2-seriate, hyaline, 
allantoid, elongated, with ends obtuse, 7-12 X 2-2.5 ^'^^• 

On dead wood of Populus tremuloides. 

Type locality: Sand Coulee, Montana. 

Distribution : Known only from type locality. 

Specimens examined: Sand Coulee, Montana, Anderson 
(type). 

Ellis states in the description of this species : " Perithecia . . . 
covered with a sulphur-yellow granulose-pruinose coat which 
finally disappears and leaves the perithecia black." The type 
specimens from which our description is drawn shows the peri- 
thecia to be of a beautiful aeruginous-green color. This fact 
not being mentioned in the original description, it is probable 
that this change of color comes about with age. 

The specimen in the herbarium of Mr. Ellis was first referred 
to the genus Nectriella Sacc. and afterwards described as a 
Nectria. While in very small spores it is often difficult to deter- 
mine the presence or absence of the septum this seems to be a 
non-septate form and is therefore placed in the genus to which 
it would properly belong. 

This species is entirely different from Nectria sidphurea Ellis 
& Calk., which occurs on old fungi. 

Doubtful Species 

Nectria mycetophila Peck, Ann. Rep. N. Y. St. Mus. 26: 
85. 1874. Nectriella mycetophila (Peck) Sacc. Syll. Fung. 2: 
449. 1883. 

" Perithecia crowded or scattered, minute, smooth, subglobose, 
pale yellow when young, then pinkish-ochre. Ostiola minute, 
papillate, distinct, darker colored. Asci subclavate. Sporidia 
oblong, simple, 12-13 X 4 mic." 

On decaying fungi. 

Type locality: New York. 

Distribution : Known only from type locality. 

The above description is quoted from Mr. Peck as no material 

is available for examination. 



50 Mycologia 

Hypocrea perpusilla Montag. Hist. Phys. Polit, et Nat. I'ile 
de Cuba. PI. Cell. 335. 1838. Nectriella perpusilla (Montag.) 
Sacc, Michelia 1:51. 1877. 

5. Nectria Fries, Summa Veg. Scand. 

387 (in part). 1849 

Nectria Fries, Syst. Orbs. Veg. 105 (as possible genus). 1825. 
Dialonectria Sacc. (as subgenus) Syll. Fung. 2: 490. 1883. 
Dialonectria (Sacc.) Cooke, Grevillea 12: yy. 1884. 

Plants parasitic or saprophytic; perithecia superficial, entirely 
free, scattered or occasionally crowded, without stroma or com- 
mon subiculum but individual perithecia often surrounded near 
the base by a scant mycelial growth, globose, ovate or conical in 
form ; perithecial wall composed of distinct coarse cells or cell 
structure obscure, smooth, pruinose, furfuraceous, clothed with 
deciduous or well-developed, flexuose or bristly hairs ; ostiola 
papilliform, obtuse, or obscure; color from whitish to yel- 
low, orange or blood-red to reddish-purple, varying much in a 
given species according to age and conditions ; asci cylindrical or 
clavate, mostly 8-spored; spores hyaline, i -septate, elliptical, 
fusoid or fusiform, constricted or non-constricted at the septum; 
paraphyses often present but delicate and indistinct. 

Type species : Sphaeria Peziza Tode. 

The genus as treated here is used in its restricted sense to 
include only those forms in which stroma and a common subicu- 
lum are entirely wanting. 

Perithecia pale, ranging in color from orange to 
sulphur-yellow or whitish. 
Perithecia large, 250-300 mic. in diameter 
(mostly 300). 
Naked or nearly so (occasionally clothed 
with deciduous mycelial threads). 
Saprophytic on various substrata. 

Perithecia smooth or nearly so ; 

spores elliptical. i, A'^. Peziza. 

Perithecia covered with coarse 

granules ; spores fusoid. 2. A^. tremelloides. 

Parasitic on foliaceous lichens. 3. N. diplocarpa. 

Clothed with a dense covering of sulphur- 
yellow hairs. 4. .V. fiavociiwra 
Perithecia small, 100-150 mic. in diameter 
(mostly less than 200). 
Densely clothed with hyaline hairs (white 
to the naked eye). 



Seaver: Hypocreales of North America 



51 



Spores broad-elliptical. 
Spores very slender, allantoic! (1-2 mic. 
broad). 
Spores 5X2 mic. 
Spores 6-7 X 1.5-2 mic. 
Naked and smooth or only minutely rough. 
Spores large, 15-22 mic. long. 

Spores allantoid ; plants parasitic 

on lichens. 

Spores fusoid or fusiform, nearly 

straight ; plants saprophytic 

Spores broad-fusoid, 7 or more 

mic. broad. 

On foliage of dead cedar ; 

spores 15 X 7 mic. 
On bark; spores 18-22 
X 7-10 mic. 
Spores narrow-fusoid (4 mic. 
broad) or fusiform. 
Spores narrow-fusoid, 18- 

22 X 4-5 mic. 
Spores fusiform, 18-22 
X 5-6 mic. 
Spores small, less than 14 mic. long 
(mostly 7-10). 
Perithecia sulphur-yellow-pruinose ; 

substratum yellow. 
Perithecia not sulphur-yellow-prui- 
nose. 
Perithecia pale, almost white, 

becoming subtruncate. 
Perithecia orange, fading to 
pale yellow, not truncate. 
Perithecia deep red, ranging in color from scarlet 
or blood-red to reddish-purple. 
Perithecia with a few bristly hairs ; plants on 

herbaceous stems. 
Perithecia naked (with no well-developed hairs). 
Perithecia conical or subconical in form. 
Spores large, 15-17 X 5-6 mic. 
Spores small, lo-ii X 3-4 mic. 
Perithecia ovate ; ostiolum very obtuse. 
Spores narrow-fusoid ; on wood. 
Spores broad-fusoid ; on sphaeriaceous 
fungi. 



S. A^. lactea. 



6. N. Rexiana. 

7, A', squainulosa. 



8. A^ rnbefacieiis. 



9. N. thujana. 

10. N. dispersa. 

11. A'', Eucalypt' 

12. N. Apocyni. 

13. A'', sulphurea. 

14. N. truncata. 

15. A', conigena. 

16. N. consors. 



17. A^. Papilionaceariim. 

1 8. A'^. Brassicae. 

19. A^ saiigiiinea. 

20. A', epispliaeria. 



52 Mycologia 

I. Nectria Peziza (Tode) Fries, Summa 
Veg. Scand. 288. 1849 

Sphaeria Peziza Tode, Fungi Meckl. 2: 46. 1791. 

f Peziza hydrophora Bull. Hist. Champ. 243. 1809. 

Peziza (Dasyscypha) vulpina Cooke, Hedwigia 14: 82. 1875. 

Dialonectria vulpina Cooke, Grevillea 12 : 83. 1883. 

Nectria rimincola Cooke, Grevillea 11: 108. 1883. 

f Nectria lasioderma Ellis, Am. Nat. 17: 194. 1883. 

Nectria UmbeUuIariae Plow. & Hark. Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. i : 26. 

1884. 
Nectria vtdpina Ellis & Everh. N. Am. Pyrenom. 103. 1887. 
Nectria betulina Relim. Ann. Myc. 3: 519. 1905. 

Perithecia superficial, scattered, gregarious or occasionally 
crowded, globose or subglobose, usually collapsing from the top 
becoming pezizoid, at first clothed with a scant covering of deli- 
cate, white mycelial threads (no true hairs) which disappear with 
age leaving the perithecia smooth or in very old specimens slightly 
rough and furfuraceous, 250-500 mic. in diameter (mostly 300), 
varying in color from deep-orange to pale-yellow, color darker in 
dried specimens but fading in weathered specimens ; ostiolum 
minute in young specimens, just visible and in older forms de- 
pressed and inconspicuous ; asci cylindrical or clavate, 8-spored, 
50-75 X 5-6 mic. ; spores broadly elliptical, obliquely i-seriate or 
crowded, becoming partially 2-seriate, thick-walled, i -septate, not 
constricted, with i large, conspicuous oil-drop in each cell, 
10-14 X 4-6 mic. (mostly 10 X 5 mic.) ; paraphyses short, 
branched, not conspicuous {pi. 4. f. 5; pi. 5. /. j). 

On decaying, decorticated wood ; more rarely on bark, fungi 
and old hemp cloth. 

Type locality : Mecklenburg, Germany. 

Distribution : New York to Ontario, North Dakota and 
Louisiana. 

Illustrations : Tode, Fungi Meckl. 2 : pi. 75. /. 122; Bulliard, 
Herb. France, pi. 410. f. 2; Currey, Trans. Linn. Soc. 22. pi. 57. 
/. 44; Berkeley, Outl. Brit. Fung. pi. 24. f. 6; Grevillea, Crypt. 
Fl. 4. pi 186. f. 2. 

ExsiccATi: Ravenel, Fungi Am. Exsicc. 644; Ellis, N. Am. 
Fungi y/ii Wilson & Seaver, Ascom. & Lower Fungi, 16. Other 
specimens examined : California, Harkness; Iowa, Arthur, 
Seaver; Louisiana, Langlois; Maine, Harvey; New York, Atkin- 



Seaver: Hypocreales of North America 53 

son^ Brown, Seaver; North Dakota, Seaver (various collec- 
tions) ; New Jersey, Ellis (various collections) ; Ohio, Hazvkins, 
Morgan; Ontario, Canada, Dearness, Macoun. 

Distinguished by the large, pale, globose-pezizoid perithecia 
and the broad-elliptical, non-constricted spores. 

A more complete account of this species is being published in 
the Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 

2. Nectria tremelloides ElHs & Everh. Jour. 
Myc. 2: 121. 1886 

Perithecia gregarious, subglobose, coarsely furfuraceous, 

orange, fading to pale yellow, about 300 mic. in diameter, with a 

, scant, dirty whitish mycelial growth near the base ; asci clavate, 

50 X 7 mic. ; spores i-seriate or partially 2-seriate above, hyaline, 

i-septate, fusoid, very slightly constricted, 9-13 X 3-4 rnic. 

On bark of dead willow. 

Type locality: Louisiana. 

Distribution : Known only from type locality. 

Specimens examined: Louisiana, Langlois ^p2 (type). 

Distinguished by the large coarsely furfuraceous perithecia. 

This species has been reported but once and the type speci- 
men seems to be quite distinct in the presence of the bran-like 
granules with which the perithecia are covered but whether this 
character is constant must be decided from a study of fresh 
material. 

3. Nectria diplocarpa Ellis & Everh. Proc. Phil. 
Acad. Sci. 1890: 244. 1891 

Perithecia gregarious or scattered, occasionally several closely 
crowded, superficial, subglobose, 250 mic. in diameter, nearly 
smooth, collapsing when dry and becoming pezizoid, flesh-colored ; 
asci clavate, 40-50 X 8-12 mic. ; spores elliptical, 8-12 X 4-5 
mic, i-septate, hyaline ; in addition to the ordinary ascospores 
there are other large, hyaline, i-septate, spore-like bodies 30-45 
X 18-25 mic. present in the perithecia (pi. 5. /. 2). 

On thallus of foliaceous lichens (Parmeliaf). 
Type locality: New York. 
Distribution : New York to Missouri. 
Specimens examined: New York, Brozvn (type). 



54 Mycologia 

As to the nature of the large bodies present in the perithecia, 
which are truly spore-like, it is difficult to determine. Mr. Ellis 
was of the opinion that, they represent mature ascospores while 
the smaller spores present in the ascus are immature. This seems 
doubtful to us since the large bodies could not be found within 
an ascus. 

The species very closely resembles Nectria Pesiza (Tode) 
Fries, both in perithecial and spore characters, but is distinguished 
by its parasitic habitat as well as by the presence of the large 
spore-like bodies which accompany the asci within the perithecia. 

4. Nectria flavociliata nom. no v. 
Nectria hicolor Ellis & Everh. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 1893 : 

443. 1893. Not Nectria bicolor Berk. & Br. 

Perithecia thickly gregarious, large, 250-300 mic. in diameter, 
subglobose with a papilliform ostiolum, clothed, except a space 
around the ostiolum, with obtuse, septate, clavate hairs which are 
hyaline near the base but golden-sulphur-yellow near the apices ; 
asci clavate, 35-40X7-8 mic, 8-spored ; spores 2-seriate, 
crowded, fusoid, i-septate, hyaline, 8-12 X 2.5-3 ^^- (P^- 5- 
f. II). 

On dead twigs of Carya. 

Type locality: Wilmington, Delaware. 

Distribution : Known only from type locality. 

Specimens examined: Delaware, Commons (type). 

Distinguished by the large, golden-yellow-ciliate perithecia. 

" The yellow color of the hairy coat is the same as in Nectria 
sulphurea Ellis & Calk., but there is no subiculum, and in that 
species the perithecia are not hairy but simply pruinose. 
Fusarium episphaericum Cooke & Ellis* appears to be the coni- 
dial stage." 

The hairs in this species are well developed and prominent. 
The name suggested by Ellis & Everh. is a homonym. f 

5. Nectria lactea Ellis & Morgan; Ellis & Everh. 
N. Am. Pyrenom. no. 1892 

Perithecia minute, 125-200 mic. in diameter, nearly globose, 
gregarious or crowded, yellowish, at first clothed with a dense 

* Grevillea 5: 50. 1876. 

t Jour. Linn. Soc. 14: 116. 1875. 



Seaver: Hypocreales of North America 55 

covering of delicate, white hairs so that the whole cluster of 
plants has a whitish appearance, except the ostiolum which is 
bare, becoming yellowish with age; hairs about 2 mic. in 
diameter, usually roughened externally with minute granules 
but occasionally smooth ; asci cylindrical, 8-spored, 40-50 X 5 
mic; spores i-seriate, broad-elliptical, hyaline, i-septate, with i 
oil-drop in each cell, 5-8 X 3-4 mic (pi 5. f. 5)- 

On old fungi, Polyporus, Stereum, and also on rotten wood. 

Type locality: Ohio. 

Distribution : New York to Ohio, Florida and Louisiana. 

Specimens examined: Florida, Calkins; New York, Seaver; 
Louisiana, Langlois 1213; Ohio, Morgan (type). 

Distinguished by the broadly elliptical spores. 

Two collections of fresh material of this species were made by 
the writer in the vicinity of New York City, during the autumn 
of 1906. The specimens collected were on old wood and corre- 
spond well with the type material of this species. In external 
appearance the species closely resembles Nectria Rexiana Ellis 
or Nectria squamulosa Ellis but spore characters are very differ- 
ent. The spores are similar in form and arrangement to those 
of Nectria Pezisa (Tode) Fries but are much smaller. 

6. Nectria Rexiana Ellis, Am. Nat. 17: 194. 1883 

Perithecia nearly globose, yellowish, clothed with a dense 
covering of long, fiexuose, hyaline (white to the naked eye), 
septate, rough hairs, perithecia 150-200 mic. in diameter; asci 
cylindrical, 30-40X4-5 mic, 8-spored; spores mostly i-seriate 
or partially 2-seriate above, minute, cylindrical or allantoid, hya- 
line, faintly i-septate, 5X2 mic. {pi. 5. /. 6). 

Parasitic on Chondrioderma. 

Type locality: New York. 

Distribution : Maine to New York. 

Specimens examined: New York, Rex (type); Maine, 
Harvey. 

Distinguished by the comparatively large perithecia and small 
size of the spores. 

7. Nectria squamulosa Ellis, Bull. Torrey 
Club 9: 20. 1882 

Perithecia gregarious, minute, 100-125 rn^c. in diameter, light 
colored (when dry nearly white) with a prominent ostiolum which 



56 Mycologia 

is darker, clothed externally, except the ostiolum, with a dense 
covering of delicate, hyaline hairs which are 2 mic. in diameter 
and 10-20 mic. long; asci narrowed above and below, 20-25 X 
5-6 mic, 8-spored; spores mostly 2-seriate, minute, 6-7 X 1-5-2 
mic, i-septate, sometimes very slightly constricted {pi. 5. /. 7). 

On rotten wood. 

Type locality: New Jersey. 

Distribution : Known only from type locality. 

Specimens examined: New Jersey, Ellis (type). 

Distinguished from the preceding by the smaller perithecia and 
slightly larger spores. 

This and the preceding species very closely resemble each other 
both in external and internal characters, however there seems to 
be a slight difference so the two are here allowed to remain as 
distinct. 

8. Nectria rubefaciens Ellis & Everh. Jour. 
Myc 3: 116. 1887 

Perithecia scattered or gregarious, superficial, subglobose, 80 
mic. in diameter, smooth or with a few poorly developed hair- 
like outgrowths, at first pale, becoming orange ; asci broad- 
clavate, 35-40 X 12 mic, 8-spored; spores irregularly crowded, 
cylindrical-allantoid, hyaline or subhyaline, i-septate, scarcely 
constricted at the septum, 14-18 X 2-3 mic {pi. 5. /. 8). 

Parasitic on the thallus of some lichen, on dead limbs. 

Type locality : Newfield, New Jersey. 

Distribution : New Jersey. 

Specimens examined: New Jersey, Ellis (type). 

Distinguished by the allantoid spores. 

In the original description of this species Mr. Ellis states: 
" The species has been observed now for the past eight years and 
seems to be quite distinct from any of the other lichenicolous 
species." He also stated that the thallus of the lichen Parinelia 
tiliacca {?) turns dull red (bright red within). The spores in 
the specimens examined by the writer are pale reddish but Mr. 
Ellis describes them in the fresh material as being hyaline. 

9. Nectria thujana Rehm; Sacc Michelia i: 295. 1878 

Perithecia scattered, or gregarious, pale orange, nearly globose, 
becoming <lcpressed and more or less pezizoid ; asci clavate. 



Seaver: Hypocreales of North America 57 

60-80 X 13 niic, 8-spored ; spores partially 2-seriate, broad- 
fusoid, i-septate, very slightly constricted, 17-18X7 mic, hya 
line {pi 5-f- 9)- 

On dead foliage of Cnpressus. 

Type locality : Newfield, New Jersey. 

Distribution : Known only from type locality. 

ExsiccATi : Ellis, North Am. Fungi, /jo. Other specimens 
examined: New Jersey, Ellis (cotype). 

Drstinguished by the size of the broad-fusoid spores as well 
as by the habitat. 

Our own examination shows the spores to be larger than indi- 
cated by Mr. Ellis in previous descriptions. The perithecia 
except for the smaller size somewhat resemble those of Nectria 
Peziza (Tode) Fries but the species is readily distinguished by 
the difference in the form and size of the spores. 

10. Nectria dispersa Cooke & Ellis, Grevillea 5: 33. 1876 

? Nectria poliosa Ellis & Everh. Jour. Myc. 2: 39. 1886. 

? Lasionectria poliosa Ellis & Everh. Jour. Myc. 3: i. 1887. 

Perithecia >;cattered, globose, with a minute ostiolum, orange, 
nearly smooth, collapsing; asci cylindrical, 70-80X10-12 mic. 
8-spored ; spores i-seriate with the ends overlapping, subfusoid, 
a little constricted at the septum, often slightly unsymmetrical, 
with several oil-drops, hyaline, 18-22 X 7-10 mic. 

On bark and old fungi. 

Distinguished by the size of the spores. 

Type locality: Maine. 

Distribution: Maine to (Florida ?). 

Illustrations : Grevillea 5 : pi. 75. f. 14. 

Specimens examined: Maine, Blake (cotype): Florida, Cal- 
kins 1^8. 

A note is enclosed with the type of this species in the 
Ellis collection stating that the last mature perithecium had been 
used in writing the description for the Journal of Mycology so 
that the writer has little to draw from in the present work except 
the description by Mr. Ellis. Accepting the spore measurements 
given by ^Ir. Ellis this character is sufficient to distinguish the 
species from any of the others listed in this paper. 

Nectria poliosa Ellis & Everh. corresponds with the above in 



58 Mycologia 

spore measurements, but from the description apparently differs 
in possessing perithecia which are clothed with hairs ; the type 
here again is too meager to permit of a fair examination. This 
latter character is one which is very uncertain in the present 
genus, the perithecia of many of the species which are usually 
considered smooth being clothed when young with mycelial 
threads which often fall off later. This character seems to be 
very variable depending upon age and other conditions. In only 
a few cases in the present genus are the perithecia found to be 
clothed with well-developed hairs. 

II. Nectria Eucalypti (Cooke & Hark.) Sacc. 

Syll. Fung. 9: 969. 1891 

Dialonectria Eucalypti Cooke & Hark.; Cooke, Grevillea 12: 82. 

1884. 
Dialonectria depallens Cooke & Hark. Grevillea 12 : 82. 1884. 
Nectria depallens (Cooke & Hark.) Sacc. Syll. Fung. 9: 962. 

1891. 

Perithecia scattered, superficial, nearly globose, with a papilli- 
form ostiolum, smooth, pale red to yellowish, entire or often col- 
lapsing, 200-250 mic. in diameter ; asci clavate, 8-spored, 50- 
55 X 7-8 mic. ; spores crowded, 18-22 X 4-5 mic, i-septate, 2- 
seriate (/>/. 5. /. 10, 11). 

On Eucalyptus and stems of Lupinus. 

Type locality: California. 

Distribution : Known only from type locality. 

Specimens examined: California, Harkness (probably co- 
type) . 

Distinguished by the pale perithecia and large fusoid spores. 

Dr. Cooke in Grevillea (1. c.) distinguishes Nectria depallens 
(Cooke & Hark.) Sacc. from the above by a difference in the 
color of the perithecia the one being ochraceous and the other 
testaceous-red and by the larger size of the spores, those of 
Nectria Eucalypti being 16-18 X 4 niic. and Nectria depallens 
(Cooke & Hark.) Sacc. 22-24 X 4-4-5 niic. In the specimen ex- 
amined by the writer of each of these species, both of which were 
collected in California by Harkness and are evidently cotype al- 
though not marked, the difference in the color of the perithecia is 
too slight and tlic character too variable to be considered. While 



Seaver: Hypocreales of North America 59 

the difference in the size of the spores seems from the descrip- 
tion to be quite marked, camera lucida drawings of the spores 
of the two specimens mentioned above which drawings accom- 
pany this paper show no marked difference either in form or 
size. I am unable to discover any character by which the two 
supposed species can be separated notwithstanding the fact that 
Saccardo (I. c.) has placed the two species in different subgenera. 

12. Nectria Apocyni Peck, Ann. Rep. N. Y. 
St. Mus. 26: 84. 1874 

Perithecia scattered or crowded in small clusters, subglobose, 
more or less collapsed when dry, slightly rough, dull red ; osti- 
olum minute; asci clavate, 8-spored, 60-65X12 mic. ; spores 
2-seriate and often irregularly crowded, oblique, fusiform with 
ends acute, almost sharp, i -septate, a little constricted at the 
septvmi, granular within, 18-22 X 5-6 mic. (pi. 5. /. 12). 

On the lower part of the stems of Indian hemp, Apocynmn 
cannahinum. 

Type locality: North Greenbush, New York. 

Distribution : Known only from type locality. 

Specimens examined: New York, Peck (cotype). 

The species is distinct in the large size and fusiform character 
of its spores. 

The above description of the microscopic characters are taken 
from a part of the type collection which was received by the 
kindness of Mr. Peck. Other characters are recorded from his 
notes as the specimens are discolored with age and too small to 
draw conclusions as to the general appearance of the perithecia 
except that of the size. The species is easily distinguished from 
any of the other forms listed here by its fusiform spores' which 
approach those of the genus Hypomyces. 

Mr. Peck states (in letter) that he has seen this species but 
once. He has described the conidia as " subhemispherical or 
irregular, small, pale red; spores fusiform, straight, .0005-0006 
in. long." This description would seem to indicate the presence 
of a stroma although I have been unable to detect one. Until 
the species has been collected and studied from fresh material, 
it is difficult to decide this point. 



60 Mycologia 

13. Nectria sulphurea (Ellis & Calk.) Sacc. 
Syll. Fung. 9 : 966. 1891 

Dialonectria sulphurea Ellis & Calk. ; Ellis & Everh. Jour. Myc. 

4:57. 1888. 

Perithecia scattered, sulphur-yellow-pruinose and seated on a 
sulphur-yellow-pruinose base i or more cm. in diameter, often 
becoming reddish-brown with age, 200 mic. in diameter ; asci 
evanescent ; spores small, fusoid with the ends obtusely pointed, 
I -septate and constricted at the septum, often with an oil-drop in 
each cell, '7-12 X 3-4 mic. {pi. 5. /. 75). 

Parasitic on old fungi, Stereum. 

Type locality : Jacksonville, Florida. 

Distribution : Ohio to Florida. 

ExsiccATi : Ellis & Everhart, N. Am. Fungi, ip4y. Other 
specimens examined : Florida, Calkins (type) ; Ohio, Morgan. 

Distinguished by the sulphur-yellow-pruinose perithecia and 
the sulphur-yellow-pruinose base, as well as by the habitat. 

While the perithecia are seated on the yellow base this does 
not resemble a stroma but the substratum seems to be stained 
being of the same color as the perithecia themselves. In both 
specimens examined it has been impossible to make out an ascus 
but the arrangement of the spores seems to indicate its presence. 

14. Nectria truncata Ellis, Am. Nat. 17: 194. 1883 

Perithecia minute, 125-150 mic. in diameter, gregarious, yel- 
lowish (dried specimens almost white), slightly collapsing, be- 
coming subtruncate, or with the ostiolum still more depressed so 
as to appear umbilicate; asci when young tapering into a rather 
pointed apex, finally clavate, 8-spored, 35-40 X 5 niic. ; spores 
crowded, fusoid, i-septate, slightly constricted, 12 X 2-3 mic. 
(pl.5-f.14). 

On the inside of white cedar bark which has been stripped from 
the tree. 

Type locality : Newfield, New Jersey. 

Distribution : Known only from type locality. 

ExsiccATi : Ellis, N. Am. Fungi, 1332. Other specimens ex- 
amined : Newfield, New Jersey, Ellis (type). 

Distinguished b\- the small, pale perithecia and minute spores. 



Seaver: Hypocreales of North America 61 

15. Nectria conigena Ellis & Everh. Bull Torrey 
Club 10: yy. 1883 
Dialonectrxa filicina Cooke & Hark. Grevillea 12: loi. 1884. 
Nectria filicina Sacc. Syll. Fung. 9: 963. 1891. 

Perithecia scattered or gregarious, often subcespitose, nearly 
globose with a minute ostiolum, smooth, orange, becoming pale 
yellow with age, entire or collapsing with age ; asci clavate, 8- 
spored ; spores partially 2-seriate or irregularly crowded, fusoid, 
i-septate, slightly constricted, granular within, 8-10 X 3-4 mic 
(pi. 4.f. 8; pi. j.f. 13, 16). 

On hard materials, stipe of tree fern, cone of Magnolia, shell of 
buckeye. 

Type locality: Newfield, New Jersey. 

Distribution : New Jersey to Ohio and California. 

Specimens examined: New Jersey, Ellis (type) ; Ohio, Mor- 
gan; California Harkness (probably cotype of Nectria filicina 
Cooke & Hark.) Sacc. 

Distinguished by the pale perithecia and small spores. 

Aside from some comparatively slight variations in perithecia 
I can discover no character by which to distinguish Nectria fili- 
cina (Cooke & Hark.) Sacc. from Nectria conigena Ellis & 
Everh., although there seems to be a wide difference in the habitat 
of the two species. In the former the perithecia are mostly 
entire while in the latter they are partly collapsed. This dififer- 
ence however might be due to age since in both cases they show 
some tendency to collapse. The spores of the two forms are 
identical, as is shown from the accompanying drawing which was 
made with the aid of the camera lucida. 

16. Nectria consors (Ellis & Everh.) 

Dialonectria consors Ellis & Everh. Jour. Myc. 4: 122. 1888. 

Nectriella consors Sacc. Syll. Fung. 9: 941. 1891, 

Perithecia subconical, tapering above into an acute ostiolum, 
scarlet, minute, 125-150 mic. in diameter, clothed with bristle- 
like, obtusely pointed, septate, reddish hairs, except the ostiolum ; 
asci clavate, 8-spored, 50 X 6-7 mic. ; spores 2-seriate, fusoid, 
hyaline, i -septate, 7-10 X 2-3 mic. 

On dead stems of Polygonum. 

Type locality : St. Alartinsville, La. 



62 Mycologia 

Distribution : Known only from type locality. 

Specimens examined: Louisiana, Langlois (type). 

Distinguished by the conical form of the perithecia and the 
bristle-like hairs. 

The spores of this species were originally described as simple 
but our examination shows them distinctly i-septate. Nothing 
is known of this species except from the type collection. In color 
the perithecia resemble those of Nectria Brassicae Ellis & Sacc. 
but differ from that species in the hairy perithecia. The species 
would seem to be very distinct in the presence of well-developed, 
bristle-like hairs which are colored slightly reddish. It is to be 
regretted that the type material of this species is so scant that 
it is impossible to make as careful study of the species as 
would otherwise. 

17. Nectria Papilionacearum sp. no v. 

Plants hypophyllous, scattered or gregarious, accompanying 
other sphaeriaceous fungi (Pardiella) , surrounded at the base by 
a few white mycelial threads ; perithecia subconical, bright red, 
nearly scarlet, 150-175 X 175-200 mic, walls coarsely cellular; 
cells very variable but averaging 8-10 mic. in diameter ; asci 
clavate, 8-spored, 75 X 10 mic. ; spores 2-seriate above, often 
i-seriate below, fusoid, i-septate, constricted art the septum, with 
I or more oil-drops in each cell, 15-17 X 5-6 mic. (pi. 4. f. /; 
pJ.S.f.ig). 

On leaves of papilionaceous plants, Lespedcza and Rhynchosia, 
accompanying other sphaeriaceous fungi (Parodiella). 

Type locality: Missouri, 

Distribution : Missouri to S. Carolina. 

Exsiccati : Ravenel, Fungi Am. Ex. 64/. Other specimens 
examined : Missouri, Kellermann, 1002, looj. 

The specimens in Ravenel's exsiccati were distributed as 
Nectria Peziza Fries from which they are very different both in 
gross and microscopic characters. 

The specimens collected by W. A. Kellermann in Missouri, 
from which this description is drawn, were first referred to 
Nectria erubescens Desm., from which they also differ in both 
external and spore characters. They were later referred to 
Nectria episphaeria (Tode) Fries, which they quite closely 



Seaver: Hypocreales of North America 63 

resemble. The form of the perithecia, size of the spores and 
phyllogenous habitat are sufficient to set it apart as distinct from 
that species. 

As to whether these plants occur on the living leaves no state- 
ment is made by the collectors, but the leaves appear to have 
been collected in the living condition and since the fungi which 
they accompany are reported to be parasitic it is likely that the 
Nectria also occurs on the leaves while living. Although accom- 
panying Parodiella the plants do not seem to be parasitic on the 
fungus, but since in the three specimens examined the Nectria 
accompanies the Parodiella there may be a close relationship be- 
tween the two fungi as well as between the fungi and the 
leguminose host on which they occur. 

i8. Nectria Brassicae Ellis & Sacc. 
jMicheha 2: 374. 1881 

Perithecia scattered or gregarious, subconical, entire or bilater- 
ally-collapsing, blood-red, 120-150 mic. in diameter; perithecial 
wall composed of coarse cells, variable in form and size, 5-8 mic. 
in diameter ; asci clavate, 60 X 7-8 mic, 8-spored ; spores mostly 
2-seriate, fusoid or subclavate, i-septate, hyahne, lo-ii X 3-4 
mic. (pi 5. /. 20). 

On herbaceous stems of various kinds, Brassica, Solanum. 
Ipomoea, etc. 

Type locality: New Jersey. 

Distribution : New Jersey to Louisiana. 

Exsiccati: Ellis, N. Am. Fungi 57^, 572b; Ellis & Ever- 
hart's Fungi Columb. 1747. Other specimens examined: New 
Jersey, Ellis (cotype) ; Louisiana, Langlois 1208, 1775, 1804. 

Closely related to Nectria sanguinea (Bolton) Fries, but dis- 
tinguished by a difference in the form and size of the perithecia 
as well as by a slight difference in the size and arrangement of 
the spores. The perithecia resemble in form, Nectria Pnpiliona- 
ceariim Seaver, but the spores are very different. 

19. Nectria sanguinea Fries, Summa Veg. 
Scand. 388. 1845 
Sphaeria sanguinea Bolton, Fungi Halifax 3: 121. 1789. 
fHypoxylon phoeniceum Bull. Herb. France, pi. 487. f. 5. 1790. 



64 Mycologia 

Nectria athroa Ellis & Everh. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 1890: 

247. 1 89 1. 
Nectria viticola Berk. & Curt. Grevillea 4: 45. 1875. 

Perithecia gregarious or scattered, superficial, ovoid, mostly 
entire, but often collapsing when prematurely dried, smooth, 
blood-red, shining, about 200-275 X 250-300 mic. when mature ; 
ostiolum obtuse but very prominent ; asci cylindrical, 60-75 X 6-7 
mic, 8-spored ; spores obliquely arranged in the ascus, i-seriate 
below, partially 2-seriate, above, narrow fusoid or subelliptical, 
slightly constricted, 10-12 X 4-5 mic, granular within (pi. 4. f 6; 
pi 5. f. 17). 

Type locality: Nova Scotia. 

Distribution : Nova Scotia to New Jersey, Ohio and Kansas. 

Illustrations: Bolton, Fungi Halifax, 3: pi. 121. f. i; Bul- 
liard. Herb. France pi. 487. f. 5. 

Specimens examined: Alabama, Peters 522^ (cotype of A''. 
viticola Berk. & Curt.) ; New Jersey, Ellis; New York, Seaver; 
Ohio, Morgan; Kansas, Kellerman & Swingle 1325. 

Distinguished by the blood-red, ovoid, mostly entire perithecia 
and their habitat on rotten wood. 

This species is usually attributed to Sibthorp,* although Bol- 
ton's description quoted above antedates that of Sibthorp by 
five years. No type specimen of this species has been seen and it 
is doubtful if such exists but the species is so well defined that 
Bolton's description and accompanying illustrations leave httle 
chance for doubt as to its identity. The species is fairly well 
marked by the ovoid, blood-red perithecia which occur on rotten 
wood entirely destitute of stroma. The following is the note 
accompanying the original description. 

" This Sphaeria grows on putrid wood ; great numbers grow 
in close neighborhood but do not in any wise adhere to one 
another. They are oval or egg-shaped ; the base broader than 
the top. Each has a perforation in the top, and is about the size 
of a poppy seed, as in the lower figure; the other figures shew 
them as they appear when magnified and cut both perpendicu- 
larly and horizontally. The colour on the outside is deep, bright 
bloody hue ; the surface shining with a gloss like polished coral ; 
the inside and seeds are white." 

* Sibth. Fl. Oxoniensis 404. 1794. 



Seaver: Hypocreales of North America 65 

The perithecia and spores of Nectria athroa Ellis & Everh. are 
a little smaller than the average of this species but this may be 
due to immature specimens. In other respects this is a typical 
specimen of the above species. 

20. Nectria episphaeria (Tode) Fries, Summa 
Veg. Scand. 388. 1845 

Sphaeria episphaeria Tode, Fungi Meckl. 2: 21. 1791. 

Perithecia gregarious or scattered, superficial, subovoid, for the 
most part bilaterally collapsing when dry, smooth, blood-red, 
perithecial wall composed of rather coarse cells, perithecia vari- 
able but ranging from 150-250 mic. in diameter; asci cylindrical, 
60X5 mic, 8-spored; spores obliquely i-seriate, broad-fusoid, 
4-6 X 9-12 mic. (mostly 5 X 10), i-septate, hyahne {pi. 4. f. i, 
2;pl.5.f.i8). 

On old fungi of various kinds, especially sphaeriaceous fungi. 

Type locality : Mecklenburg, Germany. 

Distribution: New York to California and Canada to Nica- 
ragua. 

Illustration : Tode, Fungi Meckl. 2 : pi. 11. f. 8p. 

ExsiccATi: Ellis, N. Am. Fungi 46P, 46^ (b) ; Ravenel, Fungi 
Am. Exsicc. j^o; Smith, Central Am. Fungi 4. Other specimens 
examined: Alabama, Carver ^0^, Earle; California, Harkness; 
Connecticut, Thaxter; Kansas, Kellerman & Swingle; Louisiana, 
Langlois; Maine, White; New Hampshire, Farloiv; New Jersey, 
Ellis, Brown, Small; New York, Peck; North Dakota, Seaver 
(various collections) ; Nicaragua, C. Am., Smith; S. Carolina 
Ravenel 5^1. 

Distinguished by the broad-fusoid spores as well as by the 
habitat and manner of collapsing. 

This species very closely resembles the preceding and is con- 
sidered by most writers as scarcely distinct. The habitat and 
manner of collapsing are usually given as the distinguishing char- 
acters. From our own studies the species would seem to differ 
in the spore characters as well. In the present species the spores 
are broad-fusoid and approximately twice as long as broad, 
while in the preceding, Nectria sanguinea (Bolton) Fries, they 
are narrow-fusoid or approximately three times as long as broad. 
This difference is shown in the camera lucida drawing of the two 



66 Mycologia 

species which accompanies this paper, which drawings are made 
from material which is typical of the two species. A careful 
study of material from widely different localities is necessary in 
order to determine whether or not this character is constant. 

Doubtful Species 

Dialonectria gibberelloides Ellis & Everh. Jour. Myc. 4: 122. 
1888. Nectria gibberelloides (Ellis & Everh.) Sacc. Syll. Fung. 
9:963. 1891. 

Perithecia scattered, nearly black (quite black in dried mate- 
rial), 150-200 mic. in diameter, contracted into a stem-like base 
below, finally collapsing; asci clavate, 8-spored, 35X5-6 mic; 
spores partially 2-seriate, fusoid, i-septate, straight or slightly 
curved, hyaline, 12-15 X 2.5-3 ™c- 

On dead stalks of Zea Mays. 

Type locality: Louisiana. 

Distribution : Known only from type locality. 

Specimens examined: Louisiana, Langlois 145'/ (type). 

As would be inferred by the specific name, this species resem- 
bles a Gibberella but differs in the absence of blue color from the 
perithecia, the i-septate spores and a difference in the form of 
the perithecia. The spores resemble those of the genus Nectria 
but it is doubtful from the general appearance of the plants if 
they should be included with this genus. If color be regarded 
strictly as a characteristic of the order Hypocreales this species 
could scarcely be included with the order. 

Nectria (Lasionectria) setosa Ferd. & Winge, Bot. Tidsskrift 

29: II. 1908. 

Perithecia superficial, scattered or slightly gregarious, at first 
globose, then plane when dry pezizoid-collapsing, 250-500 mic. in 
diameter, flesh-colored or orange, hairs scattered, of the same 
color, rigid, thickened below, above slightly attenuate and finely 
divided (conidiophorous) as long as 100 mic, principally near the 
base ; asci when young, lanceolate-subfusoid, when mature cylin- 
drical-clavate, 50-70 mic. (p. sporif.) X 8-10.5 mic, narrowed 
into stem as long as 20 mic. ; 8-spored ; spores above 2 seriate, 
below i-seriate oblong-elliptical, ends rotundate, not at all or 
scarcely constricted at the septum, 12-14.5 X 5-6 mic, hyaline. 

On decayed dried sheaths of Musa sp. 

Type locality: St. Thomas, W. Indies. 



Seaver: Hvpocreales of North America 67 

Distribution : St. Thomas to St. John. 

Illustrations: Bot. Tidsskrift 29: pi. i. f. 4. 

No type specimen of this species has been seen, but a specimen 
collected on decaying leaves of Miisa in Jamaica by Dr. W. A. 
]\Iurrill corresponds well with the above description. The speci- 
mens examined differ from Nectria Peziza (Tode) Fries, which 
they quite closely resemble in general appearance, in the nature 
of the fairly well developed hairs which clothe the perithecia, and 
also* in the spores, which are longer and proportionately narrower 
than in that species. Also, the perithecia are of a deeper red 
color. 

6. Calonectria de Not. Comm. Critt. Ital. 2 : 477. 1867 

Perithecia free, often closely gregarious, or scattered, with no 
true stroma but perithecia often surrounded with radiating white 
mycelia which give to some of the species a stromate appear- 
ance ; perithecia globose to ovate, red or yellow ; asci elongated, 
8-spored ; spores elongated, more than i-septate. 

Type species : Calonectria Daldiniana de Not. 

Distinguished from Nectria by the many-septate spores. The 
genus as treated here is used in its restricted sense including only 
the non-stromatic species. The three species described here occur 
on the remains of other fungi so that the substratum with the 
white mycelium which surrounds each perithecium gives the 
stromatic appearance but close examination will show the peri- 
thecia to be entirely free, not connected by a stroma or stromatic 
base. 

Spores small, not exceeding 15 mic. in length. i. C. erubcscens. 

Spores large, 25-35 mic. in length. 

Spores subelliptical ; plants occurring on fungi on dead 

branches. 2. C. diminufa. 

Spores fusiform ; plants on leaves. 3. C. melioUodes. 

I. Calonectria erubescens (Rob.) Sacc. 
Michelia i : 309. 1878. 

Sphaeria erubescens Rob. ; Desm. Ann. Sci. Nat. III. 6 : y2. 1846. 
Perithecia minute, gregarious in clusters or scattered, sur- 
rounded by a scant growth of radiating mycelial threads, at first 
pale red, fading to pale yellow, subglobose, with a minute ostio- 
lum. often collapsing when dry, becoming pezizoid ; asci clavate, 



68 Mycologia 

35-40X6 mic, 8-spored; spores crowded, small, elliptical to 
fusoid, 1-3-septate, 10-12 X 2-3 mic. 

On living leaves of various kinds, usually on the remains of 
Meliola. - 

Type locality: France. 

Distribution : Florida. 

ExsiccATi: Desm. PI. Crypt, de France 1^66 (cotype). Other 
specimens examined : Florida, Nash ip53, Calkins 66, and Martin. 

In the original description of this species no mention is made 
of its occurrence on Meliola but aside from this fact the American 
material examined conforms well with that from Europe. 

2. Calonectria diminuta (Berk.) Berl. & Vogl. ; 

Sacc. Syll. Fung. 9: 985. 1891 

Nectria diploa diminuta Berk. Grevillea 4: 46. 1875. 
Dialonectria diminuta Cooke, Grevillea 12 : 83. 1884. 
? Calonectria Dearnessii Ellis & Everh. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phil. 1890: 245. 1891. 

Perithecia minute, 150-175 mic. in diameter, scattered or more 
or less crowded on the substratum surrounded by radiating 
mycelium giving somewhat the appearance of a stroma while no 
true stroma is present, orange, partially collapsing; asci cylindrical 
or clavate, 8-spored; spores irregularly crowded, variable in size 
and form, elliptical, clavate or subfusoid, usually 3-septate, hya- 
line, 25-35 X 6-7 mic. 

On sphaeriaceous fungi, Massaria, etc. 

Distribution: S. Carolina to Canada (?). 

ExsiccATi: Ellis & Everh. N. Am. Fungi 2§48. Other speci- 
mens examined : London, Ontario, Dearness 1346 (type of 
C. Dearnessii Ellis & Everh.). 

3. Calonectria melioloides Speg. Anal. Soc. Ci. 

Argent. 19: 41. 1886 

Calonectria guarapiensis Speg. Anal. Soc. Ci. Argent. 19: 41. 

1886. 

Plants gregarious and surrounded by an evanescent, white 
mycelial growth consisting of delicate radiating hyphae ; peri- 
thecia subglobose to ovate, 200-250 mic. in diameter with the wall 
composed of irregular cells 5-8 mm. in diameter, clothed with a 



Seaver: Hvpocreales of North America 69 

few rigid, hyaline, many-septate hairs with a bulbose base; hairs 
7-8 mic. in diameter and 200-400 mic. long ; asci clavate, 8-spored, 
80-100X12-15 mic; spores 2-seriate or irregularly crowded, 
fusiform, 3-septate, hyaline, 30-35 X 7-8 mic. 

On the mycelium of Meliola on living leaves. 

Type locality: Brazil. 

Distribution : Louisiana. 

ExsiccATi : Roumeguere, Fungi Sel. Exsicc. 4141 (cotype) ; 
Roumebuere, Fungi Gall. Exsicc. 404^ (cotype of C. guarapiensis 
Speg.) ; Louisiana, Langlois 2224. 

This species resembles in external appearance as well as in 
habitat the various specimens of Calonectria erubescens (Rob.) 
Sacc, but are easily distinguished by the difference in form and 
much larger spores. Also in some of the specimens examined 
the two species seem to occur together, some of the perithecia 
containing the large spores and others the small spores which are 
characteristic of the two species respectively. 

Doubtful Species 
Calonectria Curtisii (Berk.) Sacc. Michelia i: 316. 1878. 

7. Ophionectria Sacc. Michelia i : 323. 1878 

Perithecia scattered or gregarious, globose or pyriform, super- 
ficial, light-colored, yellow or brownish ; asci cylindrical to cla- 
vate, 8-spored ; spores very much elongated, approaching filiform, 
at least 10 times as long as broad, many-septate. 

Type species : Nectria trichospora Berk. & Br. 

The genus is distinguished from Calonectria by the spores, 
which are much longer, approaching or entirely filiform. Only 
the non-stromatic forms are treated here. 

Perithecia globose or subglobose, spores 35-50 mic. long, 

on fungi. i. O. cerea. 

Perithecia elongated, substipitate, spores 60-75 rnic 2. O. cylindrothecia, 

I. Ophionectria cerea (Berk. & Curt.) Ellis & Everh. 
N. Am. Pyrenom. 118. 1892 
Sphaeria cerea Berk & Curt. Grevillea 4: 108. 1876. 
Calonectria cerea Sacc. Syll. Fung. 2: 551. 1883. 



70 Mycologia 

Nectria (Calonectria) fulvida Ellis & Everh. Jour. Myc. i: 140. 

1885. 
Dialonectria fulvida Ellis & Everh. Jour. Myc. 2 : 136. 1886. 
Ophionectria Evcrhartii Ellis & Galw. Jour. Myc. 6: 32. 1890. 

Perithecia gregarious, nearly globose, dull yellow becoming 
darker with age, more or less rough and furfuraceous externally, 
or with a few hair-like outgrowths, with a papilliform ostiolum, 
150-175 mic. in diameter; asci cylindrical, 8-spored, 65-80 X 
8-12 mic. ; spores varying from fusiform to cylindrical or clavate, 
straight or curved, with the ends usually acute, hyaline or very 
pale yellow, 7-10-septate, 35-50 X 3-3-5 mic ; paraphyses short, 
indistinct. 

On old fungi, especially Diatrype. 

Type locality : S. Carolina. 

Distribution : Newfoundland and Ontario to S. Carolina. 

Illustration : Ellis & Everh. N. Am. Pyrenom. pL i^. f. i-j. 

Specimens examined: Newfoundland, Waghorne y^j; 
Ontario, Dearness 220)2; New Jersey, Ellis (type of D. fulvida 
and 0. Everhartii). 

Distinguished by the globose, slightly furfuraceous perithecia 
and by the habitat. 

2. Ophionectria cylindrothecia sp. nov. 

Perithecia gregarious or scattered, cylindrical to clavate or 
fusoid, tapering below into a stem-like base, also tapering above, 
yellowish, translucent, nearly smooth, rather hard when dry, 
often with a few septate, hair-like mycelial strands near the base, 
naked above, 125-150 X 275-300 mic. ; asci cylindrical or clavate, 
8-spored, 100-125 X 12-15 mic; spores apparently enclosed in a 
separate membrane within the ascus. so that the outer wall of the 
ascus stretches 10-20 mic. beyond the apex of the spore cluster; 
individual spores tapering toward either end, hyaline or verv 
slightly yellowish, 7-12-septate, 60-75X5 mic; paraphyses 
present, indistinct (pi. 7. /. //). 

On old corn stalks, Zea Mays. 
Type locality : Ohio. 

Distribution : Known only from type locality. 
Ohio, Morgan 1007 (type). 

Distinguished by the elongated perithecia and the large size 
of the asci and spores as well as by the habitat. 



Seaver: Hypocreai.Es of North America 71 

This specimen in the Ellis collection and also in the material 
received from Mr. Morgan, which is a part of the type collection, 
is labeled Ophionectria cerea (Berk. & Curtis) Ellis & Everh., 
but examination of this material shows it to be entirely different 
from other specimens of Ophionectria cerea (Berk. & Curtis) 
ElHs & Everh. in external as well as in microscopic details. Its 
habitat is also entirely different from that species. 

9 Neocosmospora Smith, U. S. Dept. Agric. Div. Veg. 
Phys. Path. Bull. 17: 7-59. pi. i-io. 1899 

Perithecia as in Nectria (bright red in the known species) ; asci 
numerous; ascospores in one row, brown, globose or short-ellip- 
tical, continuous, with a distinct, wrinkled exospore (the latter 
sometimes wanting in smaller spores) ; paraphyses present, in- 
conspicuous, broad, loosely jointed, unbranched, consisting of 
about 5 cells. 

Three conidial stages, Cephalosporium, Fusarium and Oidium. 

1. Microconidia (Cephalosporium stage). Spores colorless, 
oval to narrow-elliptical, straight or slightly curved, simple, 4-25 
X 2-6 mic, borne singly on the ends of short branches of a 
mycelium which fills the water ducts and interior parts of the 
living stems of melon and cowpea, conidia often 1-2-septate in 
cultures. 

2. Macroconidia (Fusarium stage). Spores lunulate. 3-5-sep- 
tate, 30-40 X 4-6 mic, borne on the surface of dead stems in 
immense numbers on innumerable, small, oval or hemispherical 
conidial beds ; conidiophores compact, irregularly branched, single 
spores colorless, in mass pink to deep salmon-color. 

3. On the surface of the dead stems of watermelon and in old 
cultures of the melon fungus on horse dung, globose, thin-walled. 
smooth, terminal or intercalary bodies are formed, in mass brick- 
red, individuals 10-12 mic. in diameter, extreme limits, 7-15 mic. 

Type species : Fusarium vasinfectum Atk. 

The position of this genus is uncertain. 

I. Neocosmospora vasinfecta (Atk.) Smith, U. S. Dept. Agric. 

Div. Veg. Phys. Path. Bull. 17: 7-50. pi. i-io. 1899 

Fusarium vasinfectum Atk. Ala. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 41 : 28. 

1892. 

Perithecia gregarious, often closely crowded, bright red. 
smooth, with a very prominent, obtuse ostiolum, becoming per- 



72 Mycologia 

forate; perithecial wall composed of large cells, 12-15 i^iic. in 
diameter ; perithecia 200-225 X 250-275 mic. ; asci nearly cylin 
drical, 8-spored, 85-90 X 12-15 mic; spores i-seriate or often 
irregularly crowded, globose or subglobose, at first hyaline and 
surrounded with a transparent exospore, becoming brown, with 
several large oil-drops within, at maturity outer surface becoming 
wrinkled and rough, mostly 10 Xio mic. in diameter; paraphyses 
present, inconspicuous, simple, septate. 

Parasitic on cotton and okra, Gossypium herhaceum, G. Bar- 
badense and Hibiscus esculentus. 

Type locality: Alabama. 

Distribution : S. Carolina to Virginia and Arkansas. 

ExsiccATi : Ellis & Everhart's Fungi Columbiana 1434. Other 
specimens examined: Alabama, Earle (for perithecial characters). 

Neocosmospora vasinfecta tracheiphila Smith, 1. c. 
Nectriella tracheiphila Smith, Proc. A. A. A. Sci. 44: 190. 

1895 (hyponym), 

Perithecia as above, spores mostly 12 X 12 mic. Parasitic on 
cowpea, Vigna sinensis. 

Neocosmospora vasinfecta nivea Smith, 1. c. 

Fusarium nivenm Smith, Proc. Am. Ass. Adv. Sci. 43 : 289. 

1894 (hyponym). 

Perithecia as above ; spores globose or elliptical, wrinkled or 
smooth generally smaller than in the preceding and more often 
elliptical. Parasitic on watermelon. 

10. Melanospora Corda, Ic. Fung, i : 24. 1837. 

Perithecia superficial, without stroma, globose-pyriform, with 
a long neck, usually clothed at the tip with a fringe of hairs and 
perithecia often hairy; asci broad-clavate, 4-8-spored; spores 
simple, colored, brown or brownish-black. 

Type species : Melanospora Zamiae Corda. 

The genus Melanospora is distinguished from Ceratostoma 
mainly by the lighter color and less decidedly carbonaceous peri- 
thecia. The two genera grade so closely into each other that 
it becomes difficult to draw a fast line between them although 
some of the species show undoubted relationship with the 
Hypocreales. 

Of the three species recorded for North America one un- 
doubtedly belongs to this genus while the other two are here 
included doubtfullv. 



Seaver: Hypocreales of North America 73 

I. Melanospor-a. chionea (Fries) Corda, Ic. 
Fung. 1 : 24. 1837 

Ceratostoma chioiieurn Fries, Obs. Myc. 2: 340. 1818. 
Sphaeria chionea Fries, Syst, Myc. 2 : 446. 1822. 

Perithecia gregarious or scattered, globose, clothed with a 
dense covering of white hairs, with a light colored beak up to 
I mm. long and 100 mic. in diameter, clothed with a few hairs at 
the apex; hairs which clothe the perithecia, 3 mic. in diameter, 
septate, long and flexuose ; asci evanescent, obovate-clavate, stipi- 
tate, 8-spored, 35-40 X 13-16 mic; spores 2-seriate or irregu- 
larlv crowded, globose-elliptical, brown, 10-12 X 9-10 mic. {pi. 

4- I 9)- 

On decaying pine leaves and more rarely on leaves of deciduous 

trees. 

Type locality : Europe. 

Distribution : Ontario. 

Illustrations : Fries, Obs. Myc. 2 : pi. 7. /. 2; Corda, Ic. Fung. 
I : pi. 7. /. 2pj B; Ellis & Everh. N. Am. Pyrenom. pi. 14. f. 1-5. 
Winter, Rabenh. Krypt. Fl. i-: 85. /. 1-3. 

Specimens examined: Ontario, Dearness 1370. 

The American material of this species corresponds very closely 
with European specimens examined except in the matter of habi- 
tat. A specimen of the species from the herbarium of Fries is 
contained in the collection of the New York Botanical Garden 
but unfortunately it shows no perithecia, these having doubtless 
been removed by those who have previously studied the speci- 
men. Other European specimens have been studied with which 
our material is identical. 

Doubtful Species 

Melanospora parasitica Tul. & Tul. Sel. Fung. Carp. 3 : 10. 
1865. Sphaeronema parasitica Tul. Ann. Sci. Nat. IV. 8: 40. 
(Note 2). Ceratostoma hiparasiticum Ellis & Everh. Bull. Tor- 
rey Club 24: 127. 1897. 

Perithecia scattered, enveloped in a growth of white, septate, 
mycelial threads about 3 mic. thick, black, at least when mature, 
ovate, 100-175 mic. in diameter, with a long, slender, naked beak, 
about I mm. in length and 30-40 mic. in diameter ; asci clavate, 
8-spored, 20 X 6 mic. ; spores elongated, cylindrical, with the 
ends rounded, pale brownish, 6-7 X 2 mic. 



74 Mycologia 

Parasitic on stems of Isaria farinosa. 

Type locality: Europe. 

Distribution : Ohio to New York. 

Illustrations: Tul. & Tul. Sel. Fung. Carp. 3 : pi. 5. /. 11-14; 
Grevillea 11 : pi. 158. f. j. 

Specimens examined: Ohio, Lloyd; New York, Wilson, 
Seaver. 

Sphaeria lagenaria Pers. Syn. Fung. 58. 1801. Ceratostoma 
lagenarium Fries, Summa Veg. Scand. 396. 1849. Aiiers- 
waldia lagenaria Rabenh. Hedwigia i: 116. 1856. Melano- 
spora lagenaria (Pers.) Fuckel, Symb. Myc. i : 126. 1869. 

Perithecia scattered or gregarious, nearly globose, sparingly 
clothed with pale brown hairs, 400-500 mic. in diameter, with a 
beak, 1-2 mm. long and 100 mic. in diameter, tip of beak clothed 
with hyaline hairs, entire perithecium at maturity black ; asci 
broad-clavate, 35-40X12-15 mic; spores elliptical or fusoid, 
at first hyaline, becoming dark brown, 12-16 X lo-ii mic. 

On old fungi (Polyporus). 

Type locality : Europe. 

Distribution : New York. 

Specimens examined: New York, Clinton. 

In this and the preceding species the perithecia are entirely 
black (at least in mature specimens). From general appearance it 
would seem doubtful to the writer if they should be included with 
this genus. 

II. Letendraea Sacc. Michelia 2: 73. 1880. 

Perithecia superficial, gregarious, globose or ovate, with a 
papilliform ostiolum ; asci 8-spored, cylindrical or clavate ; spores 
elliptical or fusoid, 1 -septate, brown. 

Type species : Letendraea eurotioides Sacc. 
Distinguished from subgenus Phaeonectria Sacc. by the absence 
of stroma. 

I. Letendraea luteola Ellis & Everh. Proc. Phil. 
Acad. Sci. 1895: 415. 1895 

Perithecia gregarious, 250-300 mic. in diameter, brown, becom- 
ing black with extreme age, with a prominent ostiolum, entire or 
occasionally collapsing; asci cylindrical, 75X5 mic; spores 
mostly I -seriate or jxirlially 2-seriatc above, elliptical, straight 



Mycologia 



Plate IV 




\AKIA11(JNS IN rilK FORM OF PERITHECIA 



Seaver: Hypocreales of North America ~ 75 

or slightly curved, becoming brown, i-septate, scarcely constricted 
at the septum, with an oil-drop in each cell, 10-12 X 4-5 mic. , 
paraphyses present, delicate. 

On rotten wood. 

Type locality: Ohio. 

Distribution : Known only from type locality. 

Specimens examined: Ohio, Morgan nop (type). 

In the specimens examined the perithecia are gregarious but 
with no apparent stroma. The large brown perithecia and the 
brown septate spores are sufficient characters by which the species 
may be recognized. 



Explanation of Plate IV. 

1. Nectria episphaeria (Tode) Fries. The perithecia as they appear when 

moist, X 85. 

2. Nectria episphaeria (Tode) Fries. One o£ the bilaterally collapsing peri- 

thecia as they appear when dry, X 85. 

3. Nectria Peziza (Tode) Fries. Perithecia subglobose, pezizoid-collapsing, 

X 30. 

4. Ophionectria cylindrothecia Seaver. Perithecia subcylindrical, X 85. 

5. Hyponectria dakotensis Seaver. Perithecia subepidermal, X 100. 

6. Nectria sanguinea (Bolton) Fries. Perithecia ovate, entire, X 85. 

7. Nectria Papilionacearum Seaver. Perithecia subconical, X 85. 

8. Nectria conigena Ellis & Everh. Perithecia entire or pezizoid-colapsing, 

X 8s. 

9. Melanospora chionea (Fries) Corda. Perithecia flask-shaped, hairy, X 85. 

10. Eleuthromyces Geoglossi (Ellis & Everh.) Seaver. Perithecia subflask- 

shaped, X 85. 

11. Eleuthromyces Geoglossi (Ellis & Everh.) Seaver. Subappendiculate 

spores, X 1,000. 

12. Eleuthromyces subidatus Fuckel. Perithecia subflask-shaped, X 85. 

13. Eleuthromyces subulatus Fuckel. Appendiculate spores, X 1,000. 



76 Mycologia 



Explanation of Plate V. 

The spores on this plate were drawn with the camera lucida, the object 
being to show the comparative size and form of the spores in the different 
species of the genus Nectria. The drawings are from type material where 
such is available. In a few cases the type specimens were too scant to permit 
of such drawings. 

1. Nectria Peziza (Tode) Fries. Drawn from material collected by the writer. 

2. Nectria diplocarpa Ellis & Everh. Drawn from type material. 

3. Nectria tremelloides Ellis & Everh. Drawn from type material, 

4. Nectria ftavociliata Seaver. Drawn from type material. 
Nectria bicolor Ellis & Everhart. Drawn from type material. 

5. Nectria lactea Ellis & Morgan. Drawn from type material. 

6. Nectria Rexiana Ellis. Drawn from type material. 

7. Nectria squamulosa Ellis, Drawn from type material. 

8. Nectria rubefaciens Ellis & Everh. Drawn from type material. 

9. Nectria thujatw Rehm. Drawn from Ellis, N. Am, Fungi 160, This 

material was collected in the type locality and identified by Mr, Ellis, 
who collected the type material, Cotype material has been examined, 
but the perithecia are so scarce that it was impossible to find any in 
good condition, 

10. Nectria Eucalypti Cooke & Harkness, Drawn from material collected by 

Harkness in the type locality. Probably cotype. 

11. Nectria depallens Cooke & Harkness. Drawn from material collected by 

Harkness. Probably cotype. 

12. Nectria Apocyni Peck, Drawn from cotype material. 

13. Nectria sulphur ea Ellis & Calkins, Drawn from type material, 

14. Nectria truncata Ellis. Drawn from type material, in which it was diffi- 

cult to find mature spores. 

15. Nectria conigena Ellis & Everh. Drawn from type material. 

16. Niectria filicina Cooke & Harkness. Drawn from material collected by 

Harkness, Probably cotype. 

17. Nectria sanguinea (Bolton) Fries. Drawn from Rehm's Ascomyceten 1771. 

18. Nectria episphaeria (Tode) Fries, Drawn from material collected in 

Ohio on Diatrype sp. 

19. Nectria Papilionacearum Seaver, Drawn from type material, 

20. Nectria Bra^sicae Ellis & Sacc, Drawn from N, Am, Fungi 572, Prob- 

ably cotype. 



Mycologia 



Plate V 



1 i- 



% ^ 






5 Q 






7 



/ 






10 





11 




12 




13 



^ "^ 



14 CD 



15 



^ 



16 



17 




18 




19 



c^ 



20 



SPORES OF SPECIES OF NECTRIA 



[Reprinted from Mycolooia, Vol. I., No. 5, September, 1909.] 



THE HYPOCREALES OF NORTH AMERICA— II 

Fred J. Seaver 
(With Plate 13, Containing 15 Figures) 

Tribe II. Creonectrieae 



Conidial phase profuse, giving rise to a stroma producing at 
first conidiophores and conidia, later perithecia; stroma fleshy, 
depressed, tubercular or stalked, conidia variable : perithecia 
seated on or surrounding the stroma ; usually in dense cespitose 
clusters or occasionally scattered but always entirely superficial ; 
perithecia and spores as in Nectrieae. 



Stroma upright, stalked, surrounded at the base by 
the cespitose perithecia. 
Spores I -septate. 
Spores muriform. 
Stroma depressed or tubercular, often concealed at 
maturity by the perithecia. 
Spores simple. 

Spores hyaline. 
Spores brown. 
Spores compound. 
Spores I -septate. 
Spores hyaline. 
Spores brown. 
Spores more than i -septate. 

Perithecia dark blue (black to naked eye). 18. Gibberella. 
Perithecia bright colored, red, yellow, 
etc. 
Perithecia cespitose on a depressed 

stroma. 19. Scoleconectria. 

[Mycologia for July, 1909 (i : 131-176), was issued 22 July 1909.] 

177 



12. Sphaerostilbe. 

13. Megalonectria. 



14. Allantonectria. 

1 5. Simiakrodermatella. 



16. Creonectria. 

17. MaCBRI BELLA. 



178 ]\Iycologia 

Perithecia echinulately arranged on 

a subglobose stroma. 20. Echinodothis. 

Spores muriform. 

Spores hyaline. 21. Thyronectria. 

Spores brown. 22. Thyronectroidea. 

12. Sphaerostilbe Tul. Fung. Carp, i: 130 (in note). 1861 

Stroma {Stilhum, Atracthmi, Microcera) consisting of a 
slender stalk with a subglobose head or conical in form ; peri- 
thecia bright colored, membranaceous, globose, subglobose or 
ovate ; asci cylindrical or subcylindrical, 8-spored ; spores hyaline, 
i-septate, elliptical or subelliptical. 

Type species : Stilhum aiirantiacum Babingt. 

Stroma consisting of a slender stalk with a clavate or 
subglobose head. 

Spores small, 10-14 X 4-6 mic. i. 5". gracilipes. 

Spores large, 22-26 X 7 mic. 2. S. cinnabarina. 

Stroma conical in form. 

On bark. 3. 5". flammea. 

On scale insects. 4. S. coccophila. 

I. Sphaerostilbe gracilipes Tul. Fung. Carp, i: 130. 1861 

Strilhum gracilipes Tul. Ann. Sci. Nat. IV. 5: 114. 1856, 
Stilbum corynoides Ellis & Everh. Jour, Myc. i: 153. 1885. 

Stroma consisting of a slender stalk 2-3 mm. high of a 
grayish color with a globose, orange head .5-1 mm. in diameter; 
conidia elliptical, hyaline, 5-6 X 2 mic. ; perithecia in dense 
cespitose clusters 1-2 mm. in diameter at the base of the stalked 
stroma, 15-30 in each cluster, reddish, becoming pale (in dried 
specimens often pale yellow), 250-300 mic. in diameter, nearly 
globose, partially collapsing or entire, slightly roughened ; asci 
cylindrical, 75-80X7-8 mic; 8-spored; spores mostly i-seriate, 
elliptical to subfusoid, hyaline, i -septate, 10-14 X 6 mic, usually 
not constricted. 

On bark of various trees and shrubs, Gary a, Citrus, Hibiscus, 
Platanus. 

Type locality : Europe, 

Distribution : S. Carolina to Florida and Louisiana. 

Illustrations: Ellis & Everh. N. Am. Pyrenom. pi 12, f. 1-4. 

ExsiccATi: Ellis & Everh. N. Am. Fungi, 21^1, 2132; Ravenel, 
Fungi Am. Exsicc. 28 f); Other specimens examined : Florida, 
Nash. 



Seaver: The Hypocreales of North America 179 

2. Sphaerostilbe cinnabarina (Mont.) Tul. Fung. Carp. 

1 : 130. 1861 

Stilbiiiii {Atractunn) ciiniabariinnit Mont. Ann. Sci. Nat. II. 8: 
360. 1837. 

Stroma with a slender stalk 1-2 mm. long and a globose or 
clavate, red head ; conidia nearly elliptical, straight or a little 
curved, 3-5 X 2 mic, granular within ; perithecia few, surround- 
ing the base of the stalked stroma, sessile, globose, smooth, 
orange, finally partially collapsed ; asci clavate, about 80 X 13-16 
mic. ; spores 2-seriate, ovate, 22-26 X 7 mic, filled with numerous 
oil-drops. 

On bark of trees and shrubs. 

Type locality: Cuba. 

Distribution: S. Carolina to ^Mexico and Cuba. 

ExsiccATi: ElHs & Everh. N. Am. Fungi .?/jj. Other speci- 
mens examined : Cuba, Wright; Louisiana, Langlois 168, 2iyg. 

The specimens examined did not show mature perithecia and 
measurements of asci and spores are from Saccardo. The 
conidial phase scarcely differs from Sphaerostilbe gracilipes Tul. 

3. Sphaerostilbe flammea (Berk. & Rav.) Tul. Fung. 

Carp. 1 : 130. 1861 

Atractiinn flaiiiiiicuut Berk. & Rav.; Berk. & Broome, Ann. Mag. 

Nat. Hist. 13: 461. 1854. 

Stilbum flammeum Tul. Ann. Sci. Nat. IV. 5 : 114 ( No. 757) . 1856. 

Stroma conical in form with the top finally becoming flattened ; 
conidia fusiform, a little curved, 5-8-septate, about 60-75 X 5-7 
mic. ; perithecia nearly globose, bright red, smooth or only 
minutely rough, crowded on or near the base of the stroma ; asci 
cylindrical, about 75-80 X 8-10 mic, 8-spored ; spores i-septate, 
elliptical to subfusoid, i-septate, hyaline, 15 X 6-7 mic 

On bark of trees, Acer, Crataegus, Sali.v. 

Type locality: Europe. 

Distribution : Ontario to Louisiana and S. Carolina. 

Illustrations : Tul. Fung. Carp. 3 : pi. 75, /. io~i^. 

Exsiccati : Ellis & Everh. N. Am. Fungi, 331 1. Other speci- 
mens examined : Louisiana, Langlois 22Q0; N. Jersey, Ellis; On- 
tario, Canada, Dearness. 



IcSO AIVCQLOGIA 

4. Sphaerostilbe coccophila (Desm.) Tul. Fung. Carp. 

3: 105. 1865 

Microcera coccophila Desm. Ann. Sci. Nat. III. 10: 359. 1848. 
? Nectria aurantiicola Berk. & Br. Jour. Linn. Soc. 14: 117. 

1875. 
? Nectria aglaeothele Berk. & Curtis, Grevillea 4: 45. 1875. 
Nectria subcoccinea Sacc. & Ellis, Michelia 2 : 570. 1882. 

Stroma consisting of a short, stout stalk with an orange head; 
conidia straight or more often curved, long, fusiform, 3-7- 
septate, 50-90 X 5-6 mic, occasionally shorter ; perithecia more 
or less cespitose, bright orange, with a prominent, rather acute 
ostiolum; asci cylindrical, 75X8-10 mic, 8-spored; spores 
i-seriate, elliptical or subelliptical, 12-18 X 7-9 niic. 

On dead scale insects on bark, etc. 

TvPE locality: France. 

Distribution : Florida to Alabama, Pennsylvania and the West 
Indies. 

Illustrations: Fawcett, Bull. Fl. Agric. Exp. Sta. 94: /. 2-3. 

ExsiccATi : Ellis, N. Am. Fungi, ijjj; Ravenel, Fungi Car. 
Exsicc. ^y. Other specimens examined : Florida, Hume jp. 

The exsiccati cited are distributed under other names but 
both show the characteristic conidia and perithecia of the above 
species. Also both occur on scale insects. 

13. Megalonectria Speg. An. Soc. Ci. Argent. 12: 82. 1881 

Stroma consisting of a slender stalk with a globose head ; peri- 
thecia globose or subglobose, bright colored, red or reddish, entire 
or collapsing, borne in cespitose clusters on or surrounding the 
base of the stroma ; asci clavate, 8-spored ; spores elliptical, many- 
septate, becoming muriform, hyaline. 

Tyi)e species : Sphaeria pseudotrichia Schw. 

Distinguished from Sphaerostilbe by the muriform spores. 

I. ]\Iegal(jnectki.\ psKUDoTKiciiiA (Schw.) Spcg. An. Soc. Ci. 

Argent. 12 : 82. 1881 
Sphaeria pseudotrichia Schw.; Berk. & Curtis, Jour. Acad. Nat. 

Sci. Phil. IT. 2: 289. 1853. 
Nectria pseudotrichia Berk. & Curt. Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 

IT. 2: 289. 1853. 



Seaver: The Hypocreales of North America 181 

Sphaerostihle pscudotrichia Berk. & Broome, Jour. Linn. Soc. 14: 

114. 1875. 

Stroma consisting of a slender stalk with a subglobose, reddish 
head ; conidia 3-5 X 2 mic, hyaline ; perithecia nearly globose, 
subcespitose, usually in or surrounding the base of the stroma, 
red, minutely rough, finally collapsing; asci clavate, very broad, 
8-spored, 60-75 X 20-22 mic. ; spores 2-seriate or irregularly 
crowded, large, 7-9-septate and muriform, yellowish-hyaline, 
25-35 X 7-8 mic. (pi. 13, f. 1-2). 

On bark, wood, etc. 

Type locality: Surinam, S. America. 

Distribution : West Indies. 

Illustrations: Berk. & Curtis, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 2: 
pi. 25, f. 9. 

Specimens examined: Cuba, Murrill ij6; Jamaica, Cockerel! 
57; Porto Rico, Heller 'jj^, 275'> S. America, ex. Herb. 
Schxveinitz. 

Doubtful Species 

Megalonectria caespitosa Speg. Bol. Acad. Nat. Cien. Corb. 11: 

541. 1889. 

This species has been distinguished by the larger spores which 
range from 30-45 X 10-12. The only specimen examined is 
from the herbarium of Prof. Bessey and according to the label 
was found on wood supporting a south Mexican orchid in the 
greenhouse at Lincoln, Nebraska. 

14. Allantonectria Earle ; Greene, Plantae Bakerianae 2 : 

II. 1901 

Nectriella Sacc. (in part). 

Perithecia bright colored, red, occurring in cespitose clusters on 
a stroma as in Creoncctria; asci cylindrical to clavate, 8-spored; 
spores allantoid, simple, hyaline. 

Type species: Allantonectria Yiiccae Earle. 

Distinguished from Creonectria by the simple spores which in 

the type species are allantoid in form. 

I. Allantonectria Yuccae Earle 1. c. 

Perithecia densely cespitose in clusters of 12-20, seated on a 
stroma ; perithecial clusters erumpent, thickly scattered or sub- 



182 Mycologia 

confluent, averaging about i mm. in diameter; perithecia bright 
red becoming dull red with age, subglobose, smooth, or minutely 
roughened, partially collapsing when dry, 100-125 mic. in di- 
ameter ; asci clavate or cylindrical, 8-spored ; spores 2-seriate or 
irregularly crowded, allantoid, 4-5 X i I'nic. 

On dead leaves of Yucca sp. 

Type locality: Hermosa, Colorado. 

Distribution : Known only from type locality. 

Specimens examined: Colorado, Baker (type). 

This species scarcely differs from Roumeguere's Fungi Sel. 
Exsicc, 6860 and Saccardo's Mycotheca Ital. 866 so far as we can 
see, both of which are labeled Nectriella miltina (Mont.) Sacc. 
The species however is probably distinct from that species, in 
which the spores are described as ovoid. 

15. Sphaerodermatella gen. nov. 

Stroma erumpent, fleshy; perithecia in dense cespitose clusters 
seated on the stroma which is entirely obscured at maturity, more 
or less rough and furfuraceous ; asci broad-clavate to ovoid, 4-8- 
spored; spores simple becoming dark colored and opaque. 

Distinguished from Sphaerodcrma by the absence of effuse 
stroma and the cespitose arrangement of the perithecia. 

I. Sphaerodermatella Helleri (Earle) 

Melanospora {?) Helleri Earle, Muhlenbergia i: 13. 1901. 

Sphaeroderma Helleri Sacc. & Sacc. Syll. Fung. 17: 781. 1905. 

Stroma erumpent ; perithecia superficial, densely cespitose, 3 or 
4-20 on an indistinct basal stroma, large, .5-1 mm. in diameter, 
deeply collapsing, grayish externally from irregular, flat, finally 
deciduous, wart-like projections apparently formed by the crack- 
ing of the hard outer layer; substance of the perithecial wall of 
a dark brown color, soft, composed of small-celled parenchyma; 
ostiolum slightly prominent when young, perforation obscure 
when collapsed; asci oblong, about 100X30 mic, soon evanes- 
cent; 4-8-spored; spores 2-seriate, elliptical, simple, at first 
hyaline, finally opaque and black, surrounded with a more or less 
distinct hyaline coating about 25-28 X 12-20 mic; expelled and 
blackening the matrix when mature ; paraphyses indistinct. 

On bark of tree. 

Type locality : Porto Rico. 

Distribution : Known only from type locality. 

Specimens examined: Porto Rico, Heller (type). 



Seaver: The Hypocreales of North America 183 

i6. Creonectria gen. nov. 

Nectria Fries, Summa Yeg. Scand. 387 (in part). 1849. 

Stroma fleshy or subfleshy, tubercular or depressed, red, yellow, 
brown, or occasionally black (at least with age) ; perithecia 
globose or subglobose with the ostiolum often depressed with 
age, smooth, verrucose or furfuraceous, superficial on or sur- 
rounding the stroma; asci cylindrical, or clavate, 8-spored, with 
the spores occasionally accompanied by numerous other minute 
spore-like bodies in the ascus; spores 1-2-seriate or irregularly 
crowded, elliptical to fusoid, straight or curved, i-septate, hyaline; 
paraphyses present or not evident. 

Type species: Tremella purpurea L. 

Distinguished from Nectria by the presence of a stroma. 
Conidial phase represented by Tubercularia, Verticillium, etc. 

Perithecia some shade of red, scarlet, brick-red 
or brownish-black. 
Perithecia dull brick-red becoming brown or 
black with age. 
Ascospores not accompanied by spore-like 
bodies in the ascus. 
Perithecia verrucose, covered with 
coarse granules. 
Stroma tubercular, prominent. i. C. purpurea. 

Stroma concave, not rising above 

the surface of the substratum. 2. C. verrucosa. 

Perithecia smooth or only minutely 

rough, becoming black with age. 3. C. atrofusca. 

Ascospores accompanied by minute spore- 
like bodies in the ascus. 4. C. Coryli. 
Perithecia scarlet or blood-red, becoming red- 
dish-purple with age. 
Spores elliptical or subelliptical with ends 
obtuse. 
Perithecia collapsing with age. 

Becoming truncate. 5. C. pithoides. 

Becoming pezizoid when col- 
lapsed. 6. C. rubicarpa. 
Perithecia entire ; ostiolum very 

prominent. 7. C. mammoidea. 

Spores fusoid with ends acute or sub- 
acute. 
Spores narrow-fusoid, 3 times as 

long as broad. 8. C. coccinea. 

Spores broad-fusoid, 2 times as long 
as broad. 



184 



MVCOLOGIA 



Comparatively small, not more 
than 1 6 mic. long. 
Perithecia vertically col- 
lapsing, on Diatrypella. 
Perithecia mostly entire, on 
coniferous wood. 
Comparatively large, 20-25 mic. 
long. 
Perithecia pale rose-colored or some shade of 
yellow or yellowish-white. 
Perithecia in cespitose clusters on the stroma. 
Spores 10-14 X 3-3-5 "lie. 

Conidial phase profuse on decaying 

seeds. 
Conidial phase consisting of iso- 
lated tubercular stromata. 
Spores 12-14 X 5 mic. 
Perithecia scattered over the surface of a 
tubercular stroma. 



9. C. 7iipigo>ie>tsis. 

10. C. Cucurbitula, 

11. C. diploa. 



12. C. seminicola. 

13. C. ochroleuca. 

14. C. gramnicospora. 

15. C. tiibercitlariforniis. 



T. Creonectria purpurea (L.) 

TrcuicUa purpurea L. Sp. PI. 2: 1158. 1753. 
Sphaeria ircmelloides Weigel. Obs. Bot. 46. 1772. 
Tnbercnlaria z'ulgaris Tode, Fungi Meckl. i : 18. 1790. 
Sphaeria cinnaharina Tode, Fungi Meckl. 2: 9. 1791. 
Cucurhitaria cinuabarina Greville, Scot. Fl. Crypt. 3: 136. 1825, 
Nectria cinnaharina Fries, Summa Veg. Scand. 388. 1849. 
Nectria Sanibuci Ellis & Everh. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 1890: 

246. 1 89 1. 
Nectria Meliae Earle, Bull. Torrey Club 25: 364. 1898. 
Nectria Russellii Berk. & Broome, Grevillea 4: 45. 
Nectria offuscata Berk. & Curtis, Grevillea 4: 45. 
Nectria nigrescens Cooke, Grevillea 7 : 50. 
Sphaeria dematiosa Schw. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. II. 4: 205. 

1832. 
Sphaeria Celastri Schw.; Fries, El. Fung. 2: 81. 1827. 
Nectria purpurea (L.) Wilson & Seaver, Jour. Alyc. 13: 51. 

1907. 

Stroma crumpenl, tu1)ercular, at first pinkish or yellowish-red 
becoming darker with age, often brownish and occasionally quite 
black, 1-2 mm. in diameter and 1-2 mm. high; conidiophores 
50-100 mic. long with short lateral branches on which the conidia 
are borne; conidia 4-6X2 mic, elliptical, hyaline; perithecia 



Seaver: The Hypocreales of North America 185 

springing at first from the base of the stroma which at maturity 
is concealed by the cespitose clusters of perithecia ; individual 
perithecia nearly globose with the ostiolum rather prominent, be- 
coming slightly collapsed, at first bright, cinnabar-red, becoming 
darker with age, often brown and occasionally black (when 
weathered) ; roughened externally with coarse granules 375-400 
mic. in diameter; asci clavate, 8-spored, 50-90X7-12 mic. ; 
spores mostly 2-seriate, elliptical, elongated, about 3 times as long 
as broad with the ends obtuse, i -septate, hyaline, mostly a little 
curved, 12-20 X 4-6 mic. ; paraphyses very delicate. 

On bark of various kinds of deciduous trees and shrubs; Acer, 
Atnorpha, Ampclopsis, Berbcris, Carya, Calycanthus, Celastrus, 
Comics, Euonymus, Melia, Moms, Populus, Prunus, Pyrus, 
Quercus, Rhus, Ribes, Robinia, Rubiis, Sambucus, Tilia, Ulmus. 

Type locality : Europe. 

Distribution: ]\Iaine to California and from Ontario to S. 
Carolina, probably common throughout N. America. 

Illustrations : Tode, Fungi Meckl. pi. g, f. 68; Tulasne, Fung. 
Carp. 3 : pi 12; E. & P. Xat. Pfl. Fam. i^ : /. 239, A-D. ; Winter, 
Rabenh. Krypt. Fl. 1= : 87. /. 1-3. 

ExsiccATi : Ellis, Fungi Xova Caesareenses, 68 ; Ellis, X. Am. 
Fungi, 468; Ellis & Everhart, Fungi Columbiani, 11^; Bartholo- 
mew, Fungi Columbiani, 2334, 284/ ; Ravenel, Fungi Am. Exsicc. 

339> 4119- 

Other specimens examined : Types or cotypes of the following 
synonyms have been examined : Nectria Sambuci Ellis & Everh., 
Nectria Meliae Earle, Nectria Russellii Berk. & Broome, Nectria 
offuscata Berk. & Curtis, Nectria nigrescens Cooke, Sphaeria 
dematiosa Schw., and Sphaeria Celastri Schw. 

This is probably the most common and widely distributed spe- 
cies of the entire order and since it is very variable has been many 
times redescribed. 

2. Creonectria verrucosa (Schw\) 

Sphaeria verrucosa Schw. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. II. 4: 204. 

1832. 

Nectria verrucosa Sacc. Syll. Fung. 2 : 509. 1883. 

Stroma fleshy, concave or convex, scarcely rising above the 
surface of the substratum ; perithecia cespitose in clusters 1-2 
mm. in diameter, erumpent through the outer bark ; individual 



186 Mycologia 

perithecia nearly globose, dull red. very rough externally with 
coarse granules, 250-300 mic. in diameter; asci cylindrical to 
clavate, 8-spored, 50-65 X 5-6 mic. ; spores 2-seriate, i -septate, 
elliptical, with ends obtuse, straight or a little curved, usually 
not constricted, 12-16 X 4 mic. 

On dead branches of Morus, Sassafras and Melia. 

Type locality: Pennsylvania. 

Distribution : Delaware to N, Dakota and Alabama. 

Illustrations : Ellis & Everh. N. Am. Pyrenom. pi. 12, f. 

13-19- 

Exsiccati : Ellis & Everhart, N. Am. Fungi, 2^yi. Other 
specimens examined : Alabama, Little; Connecticut, Thaxter; 
Delaware, Commons; N. Jersey, Ellis; N. Dakota, Seaver; Penn- 
sylvania, Schweinitz (type) ; S. Carolina, Ravenel. 

Distinguished from C. purpurea (L.) Seaver only by the de- 
pressed stroma. 

3. Creonectria atrofusca (Schw.) 

Sphaeria atrofusca Schw. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. II. 4: 206. 1832. 
Nectria atrofusca Ellis & Everh. Jour. Myc. i : 140. 1885. 

Stroma fleshy or subfleshy, rather dark colored, erumpent but 
not rising much above the surface of the bark; perithecia in 
cespitose clusters on the stroma, clusters variable in size, aver- 
aging 1-2 mm., dark colored, nearly black in dried specimens, 
brownish-black with transmitted light, small mostly less than 200 
mic. in diameter, subglobose with a prominent papilliform ostio- 
lum, mostly collapsing when dry ; asci subcylindrical, 45-50 X 7 
mic, 8-spored; spores partially 2-seriate above, i-seriate below, 
hyaline, i-septate, slightly constricted at the septum, subfusoid 
with the ends slightly narrowed. 

On dead branches of Staphylea trifolia. 

Type locality : Pennsylvania. 

Distribution : Pennsylvania. 

Exsiccati : Ellis, N. Am. Fungi, 1547. Other specimens ex- 
amined : Pennsylvania, Schweinitz (type). 

The species is distinguished by its host as well as the very dark 
colored perithecia. 

4. Creonectria Coryli (Fuckel) 
Nectria Coryli Fuckel, Symb. Myc. 180. 1869. 
Chilonectria Coryli Ellis & Everh. N. Am. Pyrenom. 116. 1892. 



Seaver: The Hypocreales of North America 187 

Perithecia cespitose on an erumpent stroma, globose, smooth, at 
first bright red becoming blackish, entirely black in weathered 
specimens, collapsing becoming pezizoid ; asci clavate, 85-100 
X 10-12 mic, 8-spored but with spores often obscured by numer- 
ous, allantoid spore-like bodies which are present in the ascus ; 
spores fusoid, i-septate, with a short curved appendage at each 
end, 10-15 X 2.5-3 niic- 

On branches of deciduous trees and shrubs ; Betula, Coryhis, 
Crataegus, Lonicera, Popiilus, Rhus, Salix, Symphoricarpus. 

Type locality: Europe. 

Distribution : New Jersey to Ontario and N. Dakota. 

ExsiccATi : Ellis, N. Am. Fungi, ijp. Other specimens ex- 
amined : Delaware, Commons; New Jersey, Ellis; N. Dakota, 
Brenckle; Ontario, Canada, Dearness. 

The species is very distinct in its spore characters. 

5. Creonectria pithoides (Ellis & Everh.) 

Nectria pithoides Ellis & Everh. Proc. Acad, Nat. Sci. Phil. 1890 : 

247. 1 89 1. 

Stroma erumpent, yellowish; perithecia seated on the stroma 
in dense clusters 1.5-2.5 mm. in diameter, individual perithecia 
bright red, collapsing so as to become truncate, resembling the 
head of a barrel with the ostiolum appearing as a light trans- 
lucent dot in the center, 200-250 mic. in diameter; asci cylin- 
drival, 70-80 X 5 mic, 8-spored; spores elliptical, i-septate, with 
an oil-drop in each cell, hyaline, 6-10 X 3-4 mic. {pi. Jj, /. 3-4). 

On bark of dead alders. 

Type locality: British Columbia. 

Distribution : Known only from type locality. 

Exsiccati: Ellis & Everh. N. Am. Fungi, By^o (cotype). 

Distinguished by the bright red perithecia which are decidedly 
barrel-shaped when dry. 

6, Creonectria rubicarpa (Cooke) 

Nectria rubicarpa Cooke, Grevillea 7: 50. 1878. 

Perithecia cespitose in small, dense clusters, 1-2 mm. in di- 
ameter, minutely roughened, bright red becoming darker with age, 
collapsing and becoming deeply pezizoid; asci cylindrical to 
clavate, 55-60X6 mic, 8-spored; spores i-seriate or partially 
2-seriate above, elliptical, hyaline, i-septate, 10-13X4-4-5 niic 
scarcely constricted (pi. ij, /. 11-12). 



1 88 Mycologia 

On dead limbs of Gclscinium and stems of Ilex. 

Type locality: South Carolina. 

Distribution : New Jersey to Alabama. 

ExsiccATi : Ellis, N. Am. Fungi, 80; Ravenel, Fungi Am. 
Exsicc. j^7. Other specimens examined: Alabama, Earle; New 
Jersey, Ellis. 

The species is distinguished by the dense clusters of collapsing 
perithecia and the small size of the spores. 

7. Creonectria mammoidea (Phil. ^ Plow.) 

Nectria mammoidea Phil. & Plow. Grevillea 3: 126. 1875. 

Perithecia cespitose in clusters 1-3 mm. in diameter or more or 
less scattered, surrounding a brownish stroma, very large, averag- 
ing about 500 mic. in diameter, ovate, tapering above into a large, 
obtuse ostiolum, bright red with ostiolum often darker, shining, 
entire ; asci cylindrical or slightly clavate, 100 X 7-8 mic, 8- 
spored; spores i -seriate or partially 2-seriate above, oblique, sub- 
fusoid, i-septate, usually slightly unequal-sided, 18-20 X 6-7 mic. 

On wood and bark. 
Type locality: England. 
Distribution : New Jersey to Ontario. 
Illustrations : Grevillea 3 : pi. 42, f. 5. 

Specimens examined: New Jersey, Ellis; Ontario, Macoun; 
also specimens from the herbarium of Plowright. 

8. Creonectria coccinea (Pers.) 

? Sphaeria decidua Tode, Fungi Meckl. 2 : 31. 1791. 
Sphaeria coccinea Pers. Ic. et Descr. 2 : 47. 1800. 
Nectria coccinea Fries, Summa Veg. Scand. 388. 1849. 

Stroma yellowish, springing from the crevices of bark in 
irregular patches ; perithecia cespitose in dense irregular clusters 
often several mm. in diameter, or occasionally scattered around 
the stroma ; individual perithecia ovate with a prominent ostiolum, 
bright red, almost scarlet, color somewhat variable, smooth or 
very minutely roughened, mostly entire, about 300 mic. in di- 
ameter; asci cylindrical or clavate, 8-spored, 80-90X8-10 mic; 
spores i-seriate, fusoid, 12-16 X 4-5 mic. 

On bark or more rarely on decorticated wood, Acer, Fagus, 
Fra.vinus, Magnolia, Melia, Ulmus, etc. 

Type locality: Europe. 



Seaver: The Hypocreales of Xorth America 189 

Distribution : Vermont to N. Dakota and W. Virginia, prob- 
ably extending over a much wider range. 

Illustrations : Pers. Ic. & Descr., pi. 12, f. 2. 

ExsiccATi: Ellis, N. Am. Fmigi, 161; Ellis & Everh. N. Am. 
Fungi, 618; E. Barholomevv, Fungi Columbiani, -?o^j, 22^8. 
Other specimens examined: New York, Clinton, Seaver; N. 
Dakota, Seaver; N. Jersey, Ellis; Ontario, Canada, Dearness; 
Vermont, Burt, Ortoii; W. Virginia, ^(irfan. 

So far as we can see the species scarcely differs from Nectria 
ditissima Tul. If the two species are distinct, the characters 
are so poorly understood that they have been badly confused. 
The specimens examined which have been referred to these two 
names are identical. 

9. Creonectria nipigonensis (Ellis & Everh.) 
Nectria nipigonensis Ellis & Everh. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 

1893: 129. 1893. 

Stroma depressed, yellowish, about .5 mm. in diameter ; conidia 
minute, allantoid, 3-4 X i mic. ; perithecia cespitose, nearly 
globose, about 250 mic. in diameter, reddish becoming darker 
with age, finally collapsing at the apex, smooth ; asci cylindrical, 
8-spored, 50-55 X 6-7 mic. ; spores i-seriate, fusoid or occasion- 
ally subelliptical, i -septate, usually not constricted at the septum. 

On the erumpent disc of Diatrypella. 

Type locality : Lake Nipigon, Canada. 

Distribution : Known only from type locality. 

Specimens examined: Canada, Macoun (type). 

Distinguished by the pezizoid perithecia and broad- fusoid 

spores. 

10. Creonectria Cucurbitula (Sacc.) 

Nectria Cucurbitula Sacc. Michelia i : 409. 1878. Not N. Cu- 
curbitula (Tode) Fr. 

Perithecial clusters erumpent and often very irregular in form, 
1-2 mm. in diameter, consisting of numerous densely cespitose 
perithecia ; individual perithecia bright red later becoming red- 
dish-purple, ovate with a prominent rather obtuse ostiolum, entire 
or very rarely collapsing; asci cylindrical or clavate, 75-100 X 
6-8 mic, 8-spored ; spores at first crowded and partially 2-seriate, 
finally becoming i-seriate, obliquely arranged with ends over- 



190 Mycologia 

lapping, broad-fusoid, rarely subelliptical, i-septate and not con- 
stricted at the septum, hyaline, 14-16 X S~7 "lie. (mostly 15X7 
mic). 

On bark of Pinus, Abies and Larix. 

Type locality : Europe. 

Distribution: Newfoundland to New York and Ontario. 

Specimens examined: Newfoundland, Waghorne; New 
York, Peck; Ontario, Canada, Macoim. 

The species is distinct both in external and internal characters. 

II. Creonectria diploa (Berk. & Curtis) 

Ncctria diploa Berk. & Curtis, Jour. Linn. Soc. 10: 378. 1869. 

Perithecia in dense erumpent clusters about .5 mm. in diameter, 
individual perithecia minute, ovate, nearly smooth, bright red, 
finally collapsing ; asci cylindrical, 8-spored ; spores vertically 2- 
seriate, very large, fusoid, i -septate, hyaline, with 2-4 oil-drops, 
20-25 X 7-10 mic. 

On bark of Alnus sp. 

Type locality: S. Carolina. 

Distribution : Known only from type locality. 

ExsiccATi : Ravenel, Fungi Car. Exsicc. ^5. 

Individual perithecia resemble those of Nectria episphaeria 
(Tode) Fries but dififer in the very large size of the spores. The 
dense clusters of perithecia seem to indicate the presence of a 
stroma although the specimens are too old to show any definite 
stroma. 

12. Creonectria ochroleuca (Schw.) 
Sphaeria ochroleuca Schw. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. II. 4: 204. 

1832. 
Nectria ochroleuca Berk. Grevillea 4: 16. 1875. 
Nectria aureofulva Cooke & Ellis, Grevillea 7: 8. 1878. 
Nectria depauperata Cooke, Grevillea 7: 50. 1878. 
Nectria vulgaris Speg. Anal. Soc. Ci. Arg. 12 : 75. 1881. 
Verticillium tubercularioide Speg. Anal. Soc. Ci. Arg. 12: 125. 

1881. 
? Nectria rhisogena Grevillea 11: 108. 1883. 
Nectria pallida Ellis & Everh. Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci. 1894: 

325- 1894. 



Seaver: The Hypocreales of Xorth America 191 

Stromata small, tubercular. 1-2 mm. in diameter, whitish to 
pink or flesh-colored, often floccose with the erect verticillate 
conidiophores ; branches of the conidiophores ascending perpen- 
dicularly and each bearing at its summit a single conidium; 
conidia elliptical, hyaline, 5-8 X 3 mic. often granular within ; 
perithecia occurring in dense clusters ranging from 3-5 to many 
perithecia. clusters very variable in form ; individual perithecia 
small, nearly globose with the prominent papilliform ostiolum, 
smooth or only minutely rough, at first flesh-colored, when dry 
becoming pale yellow or almost white, 200-300 mic. in diameter, 
entire or occasionally collapsing becoming pezizoid ; asci clavate, 
8-spored, 50X5-7 mic; spores 2-seriate above, i-seriate below 
or often irregularly crowded, fusoid with ends acute, a little con- 
stricted at the septum, hyaline. 8-12 X 3-4 mic. 

On bark of various kinds of trees, Andromeda, Betula, Car- 
pinus, Carya, Clethra, Citrus, Laurus, Magnolia, Platanus, Salix, 
also on Yucca and old stump of Musa. 

Type locality : Pennsylvania. 

Distribution : New York to Missouri and Louisiana. 

ExsiccATi : Ellis, N. Am. Fungi, (5//, f)'i4. Ravenel, Fungi 
Am. Exsicc. 64^. Other specimens examined : Delaware, Com- 
mons; Missouri, Demetrio (type of iV. pallida Ellis & Everh.) ; 
New York, Seaver, Shear; Pennsylvania, Schzveinitz (type of 
Sphaeria ochroleuca Schw.) ; also cotype of A'', aureofulva Cooke 
& Ellis, specimens of A^. depauperata determined by M. C. Cooke, 
and specimens of A^ vulgaris Speg. and Verticillium tubercula- 
rioide Speg. both from the herbarium of Spegazzini. 

The species seems to be very common in the east and south 
and has been collected by the writer on several kinds of trees 
and shrubs about New York City. The perithecial clusters are 
quite variable in size and form and the perithecia themselves 
variable in color but the species may usually be recognized by the 
pale perithecia and small, fusoid spores. 

13. Creonectria seminicola CSeaver") 

Ncctria seminicola Seaver, Mycologia i: 21. 1909. 

Conidial phase consisting of white mycelial growth covering the 
substratum, finally heaping up at various points forming pinkish 
stromata ; conidiophores erect, much branched with branches 
ascending perpendicularly, each bearing at its summit a single 
elliptical, hyaline, conidium; conidia 5-7 X 2-3 mic, with 1-2 oil- 



192 . ]\Iycologia 

drops ; perithecia cespitose in dense clusters with the clusters 
often becoming confluent and covering the most of the exposed 
surface of the substratum ; individual perithecia nearly globose 
with a minute papilliform ostiolum, smooth or nearly so, 250 
mic. in diameter, at first flesh-colored to orange, fading in drying 
to pale yellow or whitish ; asci clavate, 40-50 mic. long, 8-spored ; 
spores mostly 2-seriate or irregularly crowded, hyaline, i-septate, a 
little constricted at the septum, 10-14X3-3-5 mic {pi I3>f- 5-7)- 

On partially decayed seeds of skunk cabbage, Spathyema 
foetida and also on seeds of cultivated beans which are partially 
decayed. 

Type locality : New York City. 

Distribution : Known only from type locality. 

Illustrations : Mycologia i : pi 2, f. f,-Q. 

Specimens examined: New York, Seaver (type). 

The perithecial and spore characters of this species are identical 
with those of the preceding with which specimens were carefully 
compared before describing the species originally. Since de- 
scribing the present species other information gained in the field 
has suggested that possibly the two are identical. Attempts to 
prove the identity of the two species by culture have failed. 

14. Creonectria gramnicospora (Ferd. & Wge.) 
Nectria grauunicospora Ferd. & Wge. Bot. Tidsskrift 29: 11. 

1908. 

Stromata pulvinate, erumpent ; perithecia cespitose, clusters 
variable in size ; individual perithecia subglobose, 300-350 X 
200-250 mic. in diameter, fleshy-membranaceous, pallid-ochrace- 
ous, slightly white furfuraceous near the base ; asci clavate, above 
truncate, subsessile, 35-60X8.5-10 mic, 8-spored; spores 2- 
seriate above, i-seriate below, ellipsoid, slightly unequal-sided, 
12-14 X 5 "lie. 

On bark of branches. 

Type locality : Island of St. Thomas. 

Distribution : Known only from type locality. 

Illustrations : Bot. Tidssk. 29 : pi. i, f. 5. 

Specimens examined: St. Thomas, Raunkicr ^los (cotype). 

Similar in general appearance to the two preceding species but 
spores larger with some differences in size of perithecia and other 
gross characters. 



Seaver: The Hypocreales of North America 193 

15. Creonectria tuberculariformis (Rehm) 

Hypocrca tubercularifonnis Rehm, Ber. Xaturh. \'er. Augsburg 

26: 106. 1881. 
Nectria tuberculariforuiis Winter; Rabenh. Krypt. Fl. i- : 118. 

1887. 
Hypocreopsis tuberculariformis Sacc. Syll. Fung. 9: 981. 1891. 

Stroma tubercular, rounded or more often elongated, nearly 
smooth or in dried specimens often longitudinally striated, pinkish 
or rose-colored becoming dull red with age ; perithecia superficial, 
solitary or more or less crowded, small, averaging about 200 mic. 
in diameter, smooth or nearly so, globose with a rather promi- 
nent papilliform ostiolum becoming slightly collapsed from above 
when dry ; asci clavate, 8-spored, 40-50 X 6-7 mic. ; spores 1-2- 
seriate, mostly 2-seriate above and i -seriate below, usually a little 
broader above, fusoid, i-septate and a little constricted at the 
septum, with small oil-drops in each cell, 8-1 1 X 3-4 mic. {pi. 
13, f. 8-10). 

On dead stems of Urtica sp., more rarely on old branches and 
dung. 

Type locality : Germanv. 

Distribution : X. Dakota. 

Specimens examined: N. Dakota, Seaver (various collec- 
tions) ; also Rehm, Ascomycetes, 455, 6/p (including cotype). 

The conidial phase of this fungus was collected commonly in 
North Dakota but the mature perithecia were less common. The 
species is very different in the arrangement of the perithecia from 
any of the other species of the genus. 

Doubtful Species 

Nectria muscivora (Berk. & Br.) Cooke, Handbk. Brit. Fungi 

2:786. 1871. 
Sphaeria muscivora Berk. & Br. Ann. ^Nlag. Nat. Hist. 6: 188. 

1851. Calonectria muscivora Sacc. Michelia i : 315. 1878. 

" Mycelium forming white, lanose patches 2 inches or more in 
diameter and rapidly destroying the moss on which it grows. 
Perithecia collected in little groups more or less connate, half 
immersed in the mycelium, bright orange, ovate, sometimes col- 
lapsing laterally, orifice papillaeform. Asci clavate; sporidia 
elliptical, pointed at either end, with a central septum, and the 
endochrome in either articulation bipartite, so that they are prob- 
ably three-septate when the sporidia are quite mature." 



194 Mycologia 

Specimens distributed in Ravenel's Fungi Car Exsic. 57 and 
Ellis' N. Am. Fungi 1333, both of which have been incorrectly 
referred to this name, are apparently good specimens of Sphacro- 
stilhe coccophUa (Desm.) Tul. The type of the present species 
has not been seen. 

Nectria infiisaria Cooke & Hark. Grevillea 12: loi. 1884. 

Stroma (Fnsarium) pulvinate, pale red; conidia curved, 3- 
septate, hyaline, 30-40 X 2.5 mic. ; perithecia cespitose, erumpent, 
pallid-red, few in number, soft-membranaceous, subconfluent, 
smooth, 5-10 on a stroma; asci cylindrical, 8-spored ; spores i- 
seriate, elliptical, i-septate, not constricted, hyaline, 10 X 4-5 niic. 

On Acacia twigs, California. No specimen has been seen. 

Nectria Ipomoeae Halst. Rep. N. Jersey Agric. Exp. Sta. 12: 

281. 1891. 

Conidial phase consisting of a Fnsarium; perithecia cespitose, 
globose-conical, verrucose-squamulose, red ; asci clavate, 8-spored ; 
spores elliptical, i-septate, slightly constricted, hyaline. 

On roots and stems of eggplant. 

A note from Mr. Halsted states that the type of this species 
was probably destroyed. The species seems to be well character- 
ized although no specimens in good condition have been available 
for examination. 

Nectria Bainii Massee, Bull. Royal Gardens Kew 1899: 5. 1901. 
Perithecia gregarious, seated on a yellowish-red or orange- 
colored mycelium, globose, red, hairy, finally naked above, 300- 
350 mic. in diameter ; asci clavate-cylindrical, shortly stipitate, 
8-spored, 80-90X7-9 mic; spores partially 2-seriate, oblong- 
elliptical or subacute, i -septate, 10-12 X 5 mic, hyaline. 

Parasitic on cacao pods, Trinidad. 

A cotype specimen of this species from Kew is too minute to 
permit fair examination. 

Nectria ditissima Tul. Fung. Carp. 3 : 73. 1865. 

American specimens referred to this name do not differ so far 
as we can see from Nectria coccinca (Pers.) Fries. 

Nectria citisporina Ellis & Everh. Erythca i : 197. 1893. 

Nectria microspora Cooke & Ellis, Grevillea 5: 53. 1876. 



Seaver: The Hypocreales of North America 195 

17. Macbridella gen. nov. 

Perithecia in dense ccspitose clusters seated on a stroma, briglit 
colored, reddish or yellowish, becoming darker with age, globose 
to siibcylindrical, collapsing or entire; asci cylindrical-clavate, 
8-spored ; spores elliptical or fnsoid, i-septate, at first hyaline, 
becoming smoky-brown to brownish-black. 

Type species : Nectria chaetostroma Ellis & Macbr. 

Distinguished from Crconcctria by the colored spores. The 
subgeneric name PJiacoiicctria was proposed by Saccardo and 
based on one of the species here described. Since both of the 
North American species included in this genus were collected on 
a botanical expedition sent out from the State University of Iowa, 
both were originally described in the Bulletin of the Laboratories 
of Natural History of that Institution, and the type of the genus 
bears the name of Professor T. H. IMacbride as its coauthor, it 
seems appropriate that the genus should be named in his honor. 

Spores small. 18-20 X 7-8.5 mic. ; perithecia sur- 
rounded with hairs. i. M. chaetostroma. 

Spores large, 35-48 X 10-12 mic. ; perithecia not 

surrounded with hairs. 2. M. striispora 

I. Macbridella chaetostroma (Ellis & Macbr.) 

Nectria chaetostroma Ellis & Macbr. ; Ellis & Everh. ; Bull. Lab. 

Nat. Hist. St. Univ. Iowa 4: 70. 1896. 

Perithecia in dense irregular clusters 1-5 mm. in diameter, 
clusters often elongated ; individual perithecia globose or sub- 
globose, dark reddish-brown, becoming brownish-black, slightly 
collapsing becoming pezizoid, surrounded at the base with a 
growth of brown, crooked, septate hairs, 100-200 mic. long and 
3-4 mic. thick ; asci clavate, 75-80 X 10 mic, 8-spored ; spores 
2-seriate or rather irregularly crowded in the ascus, elliptical, 
straight or curved, i-septate, slightly constricted, with a distinct 
oil-drop in each cell, pale brown, 18-20 X 7-8.5 mic; paraphyses 
filiform. 

On bark of undetermined tree or shrub. 

Type locality: Central America. 

Distribution : Known only from type locality. 

Exsicc.vn: C. L. Smith, Nicaragua Fungi, 206 (cotype). 

"The first appearance is a tuft of dark brown hairs, which are 
finally hidden and almost obliterated by the densely crowded 
perithecia 10-40 in number in a compact group 1-4 mm. across." 



196 Mycologia 

2. Macbridella striispora (Ellis & Everh.) 

Nectria striispora, Ellis & Everh. Bull. Lab. Nat. Hist. St. Univ. 

Iowa 2 : 398. 1893. 

Perithecia in irregular, dense, cespitose clusters as large as 5 
mm. in diameter, consisting of 20-100 perithecia each; individual 
perithecia subcylindrical, tapering above into an obtuse ostiolum 
which in mature specimens is quite prominent, at first covered 
with a yellowish furfuraceous coat, finally amber ; asci clavate, 
tapering above, about 100 X 15 mic, 8-spored; spores crowded in 
the ascus, large, fusoid, straight or curved, i-septate, with several 
large oil-drops in each cell, slightly constricted at the septum, pale 
brown, becoming striated, 35-48X10-12 mic; paraphyses in- 
distinct. 

On bark and rotten wood. 

Type locality : Central America. 

Distribution : Known only from type locality. 

ExsiccATi : C. L. Smith, Central Am. Fungi, 6. 

The spores in this species resemble in size and color the teleuto- 
spores in some of the common rusts. The striations are quite 
prominent but do not appear to roughen the outer surface but to 
be due to some internal markings or contents. 

18. GiBBERELLA Sacc. Michclia 1 : 43 (in note). 1879 

Stromata (Fusariuui) tubercular or more or less efifuse; peri- 
thecia cespitose or occasionally scattered on or surrounding the 
stromata ; asci clavate, 8-spored, spores fusoid ; 3-many-septate, 
hyaline. 

Type species : Sphaeria pulicaris Fries. 

I. GiBBERELLA PULICARIS (Fries) ; Sacc. Michelia i : 43 (in note). 

1879 
Sphaeria pulicaris Fries ; Kunze & Schm. Myk. Hefte 2 : 37. 

1823. 
Gibbera pulicaris Fries, Summa Veg. Scand. 402. 1849. 
Botryosphacria pulicaris Ces. & Not. Comm. Soc. Critt. It. i : 212. 

1863. 

Perithecia in cespitose clusters .5-1 mm. in diameter, seated on 
a stroma or occasionally more or less scattered around it, ovate 
with a rather prominent ostiolum, minutely rough, finally collaps- 
ing, black to the unaided eye, blue with transmitted light; asci 



Seaver: The Hypocreales of North America 197 

clavate, tapering above, 8-spored, 50-55 X 10 mic. ; spores 
crowded in the ascus, fusiform, straight or curved, 3-septate, 
hyahne or sHghtly yellowish, 18-20 X 5-6 mic. 

On corn stalks, herbaceous stems and bark of trees and shrubs. 

Type locality': Europe. 

Distribution : New Jersey to N. Dakota, Kansas and W. 
Mrginia. 

Illustrations: Ellis & Everh. N. Am. Pyrenom. pi. jj, /. 1-6; 
E. & P. Nat. Pfl. Fam. /. 240, G-J. 

Exsiccati : Ellis, N. Am. Fungi, 81; Wilson & Seaver, Ascom. 
& Lower Fungi, 5^. Other specimens examined: N. Jersey,- 
Ellis, Commons; W. Virginia. XiiffaU; Iowa, Seaver; N. Dakota, 
Seaver. 

Doubtful Species 

Gibberella Sanbinctii (Durien & Mont.) Sacc. ]\Iichelia i: 513. 

Sphaeria Saitbinetii Durien & Mont. ; Durien ; U. Alger. Crypt. 

i: 479. 1846? Gihbcra Saubinetii Mont. Syll. Crypt. 252. 

1856. 
Gibberella ficini (Cooke & Hark.) Ellis & Everh. N. Am. 

Pyrenom. 120. 1892. 

19. Scoleconectria gen. nov. 
Ophionectria Sacc. (in part). 

Stroma subglobose, tubercular or depressed; perithecia super- 
ficial on or surrounding the stroma, in dense clusters or more 
or less evenly scattered; asci 2-8-spored, cylindrical to clavate; 
spores 3-many-septate, fusoid to subfiliform, hyaline, or sub- 
hyaline. 

Type species : Ophionectria scolecospora Bref . 

Distinguished from Creonectria by the many-septate spores 
and from Ophionectria by the presence of a stroma. Character- 
ized by its worm-like spores. 

Spores filiform or subfiliform, very long. 

On dead branches of Pinus ; spores 40-50 X 2.5-3 

^^^^- I. 5". scolecospora. 

On scale insects ; spores clavate, 100-120 X 6-7 mic. 2. S. coccicola. 

Spores fusoid or subelliptical, comparatively short. 

Stroma prominent, tubercular, 1-2 mm. high. 3. .S". canadensis. 

Stroma depressed, inconspicuous. 

Spores subelliptical, curved. , 4. S. polythalama. 



198 Mycologia 

Spores fusiform or subfusiform. 

Perithecia red ; ascospores accompanied by 

smaller spore-like bodies. 5. 5". balsamea. 

Perithecia yellowish to lirownish ; spore- 
like bodies absent. 6. 5". Atkinsonii. 

I. Scoleconectria scolecospora (Bref.) 

? Nectria cylindrospora Sollm. Bot. Zeit. 22 : 265. 1864. 
Ophionectria scolecospora Bref. Unters. Myk. 10: 178. 1891. 
Chilonectria Cucurbitida Ellis & Everh. N. Am. Pyrenom. 116. 

1892. 

Perithecial clusters quite regular, rounded, composed of numer- 
ous, densely cespitose perithecia ; individual perithecia dull red 
at first slightly furfuraceous, becoming quite smooth, nearly 
globose, finally collapsing becoming pezizoid ; asci clavate to cylin- 
drical, 60-75 X 8-10 mic, filled with numerous spore-like bodies, 
often obscuring the long cylindrical spores; spores usually more 
or less curved, many-septate with the septa transverse or extend- 
ing irregularly, delicate, 40-50 X 2.5-3 ™ic. 

On branches of different species of Pinus. 

Type locality : Germany. 

Distribution : New Jersey. 

Illustrations: Brefeld, Unters. Myk. 10: pi. 5, /. 45; Ellis 
& Everh. N. Am. Pyrenom. pi. 12, f. p-12; E. & P. Nat. Pfl. Fam. 
x':f. 241, D. 

ExsiccATi : Ellis & Everh. N. Am. Fungi, 1551. 

Distinguished by the long cylindrical spores with the accom- 
panying minute spore-like bodies. The species cannot be dis- 
tinguished on gross characters. 

No type specimen of this species has been examined but the 
description and illustration by Brefeld leave little doubt as to its 
identity. The species has been confused with other species 
occurring on the same habitat and with similar gross characters. 

2. Scoleconectria coccicola (Ellis & Everh.) 

Nectria coccicola Ellis & Everh. Jour. Myc. 2 : 39. 1886. 
Dialonectria coccicola Ellis & Everh. Jour. Myc. 2 : 137. 1886. 
Ophionectria coccicola Berl. & Vog.; Sacc. Syll. Add. 4: 218. 
1886. 



Seaver: The Hypocreales of North America 199 

Stroma rounded, more or less prominent, whitish; conidia 
borne in chisters of 3-5, large, broad at the base, tapering into 
a bristle-like apex, 15-20-septate, 100-150 X 7-7-5 mic. with a 
distinct stem-like base; perithecia in cespitose clusters, nearly 
globose or a little longer than broad, reddish becoming dark 
brownish, minutely roughened, at first clothed with a few hyaline 
hairs, then naked, 300-500 mic. in diameter; asci cylindrical, 
tapering below into a stem-like base, 150-200X20 mic; spores 
clavate or subcylindrical, 100-120 X 6-7 mic. at the base, 15-20- 
septate, hyaline. 

On dead scale insects on the bark of living orange trees. 

Type locality : Florida. 

Distribution : Florida and Cuba. 

Illustrations: Bull. Fl. Agric. Exp. Sta. 94: 12, /. 8-14. 

Specimens examined: Florida, Soiithzvorth (type;. 

The conidia of this species resemble very closely both in size 
and form the ascospores but are much more acutely pointed and 
may also be distinguished by the manner in which they are borne. 

3. Scoleconectria canadensis (ElHs & Everh.) 
Nectria canadensis Ellis & Everh. Bull. Torrey Club 11: 74. 

1884. 
Calonectria canadensis Berl. & Vog. ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. Add. 212. 

1886. 

Stroma (Tubercularia) 1-2 mm. high, with an orange head 
and dull red base ; conidia minute, elliptical, hyaline, about 5X2 
mic. ; perithecia springing in dense clusters from the base of the 
stroma, finally surrounding and often covering it ; individual peri- 
thecia nearlv globose, brick-red, 250-300 mic. in diameter, at first 
tubercular and rough finally becoming more or less smooth and 
shghtly collapsing; asci clavate, 75-100X12-15 mic, 8-spored; 
spores crowded, elliptical, straight or curved, hyaline, 3-septate, 
18-20 X 7 mic. (pl- I2> /■ 12-14)- 

On the bark of Ulmus sp. 

Type locality : Ontario, Canada. 

Distribution : Reported only from type locality. 

Illustrations : Ellis & Everh. N. Am. Pyrenom. pi. jj, /. 
r-14. 

ExsiccATi : Ellis & Everh. N. Am. Fungi, ^34^; Ellis & Everh. 
Fungi Columbiani, 226. Other specimens examined : Ontario, 
Canada, Dcarness, various collections. 

The species is distinct in its prominent stroma. 



200 MVCOLOGIA 

4. Scoleconectria polythalama (Berk.) 
Nectria polythalama Berk. ; Hooker's Fl. N. Zealand 2 : 203. 

1853. 
Nectria auriger Berk. & Rav. Grevillea 4: 46. 1875. 
Calonectria polythalama Sacc. Michelia i : 308. 1878. 

Perithecia erumpent in dense clusters 1-2 mm. long and about 
I mm. broad ; seated on a yellowish stroma ; individual perithecia 
subglobose, at first covered with a yellowish-green coat of 
powdery material which finally disappears leaving the perithecia 
of a dull red color, finally collapsing; asci cylindrical or clavate, 
50-60 X 12-15 "lie., 8-spored; spores crowded, elliptical, curved, 
yellowish-hyaline, 7-septate (mostly), 18-22X5 "i^c. 

On Chionanthus, Fraxiniis and Liquidamhar. 

Type locality : New Zealand. 

Distribution: Virginia to Alabama. 

Illustrations: Brekeley, Hooker's Fl. N. Zealand 2: pi. 116, 

/• 15. 

ExsiccATi : Ellis, Fungi Nova Caesareenses, 6g; Ellis, N. Am. 
Fungi, /Q; Ravenel, Fungi Car. Exsicc. 54, 60. Other specimens 
examined : Virginia, Commons. 

The perithecia are greenish in some specimens and reddish in 
others, the dififcrence in color being due to the presence or absence 
of the greenish powdery material with which the perithecia are 
clothed. This difference in color seems to have been the dis- 
tinguishing character of the two species, A'', polythalama Berk, 
and N. auriger Berk. & Rav. 

5. Scoleconectria balsamea (Cooke & Peck) 
Nectria balsamea Cooke & Peck, Ann. Rep. N. Y. State Mus. 26 : 

84. 1874. Grevillea 12: 81. 1884. 
? Calonectria Cucurbitula Sacc. Michelia i: 312. 1878. 
Calonectria balsamea Sacc. Syll. Fung. 9: 986. 1891. 

Perithecia! clusters small, 1-2 mm. in diameter, erumpent 
through the outer bark ; individual perithecia nearly globose 
smooth or only minutely rough, red ; in dried specimens dull 
brick-red, entirely collapsing, becoming pezizoid ; asci cylindrical 
to clavate, at first filled with numerous minute, spore-like bodies 
about 2X1 mic. among which are several (2-4) true spores; 
spores fusiform, 5-6-septate, granular within, 15-25X4-5 mic 



Seaver: The Hypocreales of North America 201 

On the branches of Abies balsamea. 

Type locality: North Elba, New York. 

Distribution: New York to Minnesota and Newfoundland. 

Specimens examined: ^linnesota, Arthur, Bailey & Hohvay; 
Newfoundland, Waghornc ; New York, Peck. 

Distinguished by the fusiform, many-septate spores. 

On gross characters the species cannot be distinguished from 
Scoleconectria scolecospora (Bref.) Seaver, however the habitat 
of the two species is different and this so far as our observations 
have gone is constant. The spore characters of the two species 
are very different. 

From the presence of the minute spore-like bodies which often 
obscure the true ascospores this species is also likely to be con- 
fused with Nectria Coryli Fuckel. 

Chilonectria Rosellinii (Carest.) Sacc. may also be identical 
with this species but in the absence of specimens it is impossible 
to determine. 

6. Scoleconectria Atkinsonii (Rehm) 
Calonectria Atkinsonii Rehm, Ann. ]\Iyc. 2 : 178. 1904. 

Perithecia erumpent in dense clusters 1-2 mm. in diameter; 
individual perithecia subconical, tapering into a prominent obtuse 
ostiolum, at first densely yellow-furfuraceous with the ostiolum 
bare and darker-colored, finally becoming bare and dark brownish- 
black; asci clavate with a subtruncate apex and slender stem-like 
base, 90-100X15-17 mic, 8-spored ; spores fusoid or subfusi- 
form, at first i-septate becoming 3-septate and constricted at the 
middle septum, mostly curved, hyaline or subhyaline, 27-33 X 
8-9 mic. ; paraphyses filiform, 3 mic. in diameter. 

On dead branches of Acer, Crataegus, Tilia, etc. 

Type locality: New York. 

Distribution : New York to Ontario, Canada. 

ExsiccATi: Ellis & Everh. Fungi Columbiani, 2006 (as Calo- 
nectria chlorinella (Cooke) Ellis & Everh.). Other specimens 
examined: New York, Atkinson 5240 (cotype), Cooke; Ontario, 
Canada, Dcarness. 

The species was described by Ellis & Everh. N. Am. Pyrenom. 
7/5 as Calonectria chlorinella (Cooke) Ellis & Everh., with which 
species it has often been confused. 



202 Mycologia 

20. EcHiNODOTHis Atk. ; Bull. Torrey Club 21: 224. 1894 

Stroma subfleshy or corky, light colored, pulvinate to sub- 
globose or irregular in form, often constricted at the base, some- 
times entirely surrovmding the host, consisting or several layers 
of different consistency; perithecia superficial, scattered, sub- 
cylindrical, sessile, giving an echinulate appearance to the stroma ; 
asci cylindrical, 8-spored ; spores linear, septate, at length sepa- 
rating at the septa into short segments. 

Type species: Hypocrea tuberiformis Berk. & Rav. 

I. EcHiNODOTHis TUBERIFORMIS (Berk. & Rav.) Atk. Bull. Torrey 

Club 21 : 224. 1894 

Hypocrea tuberiformis Berk. & Rav. Grev. 4: 13. 1875. 
Dussiclla tuberiformis Patouillard, Soc. Myc. France 6: 107 (in 

part). 1890. 
Hypocrella tuberiformis Atkinson, Bot. Gaz. 16: 282. 1891. 

Stroma subglobose, i cm. or more in diameter, entire, lobed 
or divided, seated upon the reed or upon the leaf sheath and 
fastened by a whitish mycelium consisting of radiating threads 
which are sometimes tinged yellowish brown ; substance leathery 
or corky, consisting of three layers, an inner layer white to 
pinkish, an intermediate layer light ochre and an outer layer 
cinnamon ; stroma externally dark brownish becoming black ; coni- 
diophores needle-shaped ; conidia oval to fusoid, 3-4 X 7-10 mic. ; 
perithecia entirely superficial in small clusters or evenly dis- 
tributed over the exposed surface of the stroma ; subconical in 
form, giving the whole stroma a spiny appearance ; clothed except 
the apex with a dense covering of minute threads which are at 
first whitish becoming cinnamon-colored, the naked apex becom- 
ing black, about .3X1 mm. ; asci 8-spored cylindrical, with a 
swelling at the apex, very large, 475-750 X 14-20 mic. ; spores 
nearly as long as the ascus, hyaline or slightly yellowish, many- 
septate, joints 15 X 4-5 ""^^- iP^- I3> /• 15)- 

On stems of Arundinaria. 

Type locality: South Carolina. 

Distribution : South Carolina to Alabama. 

Illustrations: Atkinson, Bot. Gaz. 16: pi. 25. 

ExsiccATi : Ravenel, Fungi Am. Exsicc. y^^. Other sj^eci- 
mens examined: Alabama, Atkinson 2218; South Carolina, 
Ravenel 6ip. 

The first description of this species was evidently drawn from 



Seaver: The Hvpocreales of North America 203 

sterile specimens which probably accounts for its having been 
placed in the genus Hypocrea. A note from Kew made from 
examination of Berkeley and Ravenel's specimen Xo. 1220 states 
" no spores visible." Small cavities beneath the surface of the 
stroma were evidently mistaken for the perithecia. This is the 
number from which the description was drawn in Grevillea 

4: 13- 

Other specimens examined from the Ravenel collection show 

mature perithecia. The spore characters suggest Hypocrella or 

Epichloc but the superficial position of the perithecia bar it from 

either of those genera in both of which the perithecia are entirely 

immersed or with the necks slightly protruding. 

21. Thyronectria Sacc. Grevillea 4: 21. 1875 

Pleoncctria Sacc. Xuov. Giorn. Bot. It. 8: 178. 1876. 

Stroma erumpent-superficial or subimmersed with the peri- 
thecia in dense cespitose clusters ; individual perithecia subglobose, 
smooth or rough or often clothed with a yellowish-green, fur- 
furaceous coat which sometimes disappears with age leaving the 
perithecia dark colored, red to brownish, collapsing or entire ; 
asci 8-spored, cylindrical to clavate ; spores hyaline, when mature 
many-septate and muriform, often accompanied by minute spore- 
like bodies which are much smaller in size. 

Type species : Thyronectria Patavina Sacc. 
Distinguished by the muriform, hyaline spores. 

Spores elliptical, 2 times as long as broad. 

Perithecia subimmersed, greenish. i. T. pyrrhoclilora. 

Perithecia erumpent-superficial, not green. 

Perithecia dark brownish ; spores small, 

10-15 X 7-9 niic. 
Perithecia reddish ; spores large, 16-30 mic. long. 
Spores 20-30 X 10-12 mic, on bark of 

Carya. 
Spores 16-20 X 7-8 mic, on Ribes. 
Spores subelliptical, accompanied by minute spore-like 
bodies. 

I. Thyronectria pyrrhochlora (Auers.) Sacc. Michelia 

i: 325. 1878 

Nectria pyrrhochlora Auers. Hedwigia 8 : 88. 1869. 

Valsa Xanthoxyli Peck, Ann. Rep. X. Y. St. Mus. 31 : 49. 1879. 



2. 


T. 


denigrata. 


3- 


T. 


missouriensis 


4- 


T. 


berolineiisis. 


5- 


T. 


sphaerospora. 



204 ■ Mycologia 

Pseudovalia xanthoxyli Sacc. Syll. Fung. 2: 137. 1883. 
FenesteUa Xanthoxyli Sacc. Syll. Fung. 2: 332. 1883. 
Pleoncctria pyrrhochlora Winter; Rabenh. Krypt. Fl. i-: 108. 

1887. 
Thyroncctria virens Hark. ; Ellis & Everh. N. Am. Pyrenom. 92. 

1892, 
Thyroncctria Xanthoxyli Ellis & Everh. N. Am. Pyrenom. 92. 

1892. 

Perithecia cespitose in rounded or elongated clusters, seated on 
the inner bark, finally bursting through the epidermis, becoming 
more or less superficial, often so densely cespitose that the peri- 
thecia appear to be united, at first covered with a thin olive-green 
tomentum, or powdery material, with the ostiolum protruding and 
bare, the entire perithecium becoming more or less bare with age, 
about 300 mic. in diameter; asci clavate, 100-125 mic. long, 8- 
spored ; spores crowded, elliptical, straight or curved, hyaline or 
slightly yellowish, many-septate and muriform, 18-24 X 7-8 mic. 

On branches of Acer, Fraxinus and Xanthoxylum. 

Type locality: Europe. 

Distribution : New York to Ontario and Ohio. 

ExsiccATi : Ellis & Everh. N. Am. Fungi, 2546, 3310. Other 

specimens examined: Ohio, Morgan; Ontario, Dearness 1484. 

2. Thyroncctria denigrata (Winter) 

Pleonectria denigrata Winter, Bull. Torrey Club 10: 49. 1883. 

Perithecia erumpent in very dense, large, rounded clusters 2-5 
mm. in diameter, seated on a brownish stroma; individual peri- 
thecia nearly globose, minutely roughened, dark brownish with 
a prominent, black, shining ostiolum finally becoming black, 350- 
450 mic. in diameter ; asci cylindrical, 50-70 X 8-10 mic, 8- 
spored ; spores i-seriate or crowded, short elliptical, hyaline or 
slightly yellowish, 3-5-septate, becoming muriform, often a little 
constricted, 10-15 X 7-9 niic. 

On branches of Gleditschia triacanthos. 

Type locality: Lexington, Kentucky. 

DiS'ORiBUTiON : Delaware to Kansas and Kentucky. 

Exsiccati : Ellis, N. Am. Fungi, 1334; Ellis & Everh. N. Am. 
Fungi, 23^2. Other specimens examined : Delaware, Commotis; 
Kansas, Bartholomezv; Kentucky, Kellerman; Missouri, Webber; 
Ohio, Morgan. 



Seaver: The Hypocreales of North America 205 

3. Thyronectria missouriensis (Ellis & Everh.) 
Nectria missouriensis Ellis & Everh. Jour. Myc. 4: 57. 1888. 
Pleonectria missouriensis Sacc. Syll. Fung. 9: 990. 1891. 
Paronectria missouriensis Rabenhorst-Winter, Fungi Europaei, 

3748. 1891. 

Peri!hecia cespitose on the stroma in clusters of 6-20, dull red, 
nearly globose, smooth or minutely rough, with a prominent 
ostiolum, usually not collapsing, 250-300 mic. in diameter; asci 
clavate, 100-120 X 12-15 mic, 8-spored ; spores crowded irregu- 
larly in the ascus, large, elliptical, straight or a little curved, 
hyaline or very slightly yellowish, 6-7-septate, with several longi- 
tudinal septa, dividing the spore into numerous small cells, 20-30 
X 10-12 mic. 

On bark of Carya. 

Type locality : Concordia, AUssouri. 

Distribution : Delaware to Missouri. 

Specimens examined : ^Missouri, Demetrio 2j6. 

Distinguished from T. berolinensis (Sacc.) Seaver by the 
larger size of the spores as well as by the difference in host and 
a slight variation in perithecial characters. 

4. Thyronectria berolinensis (Sacc.) 
Nectria Ribis Niessl, Verb. Nat. Ver. Brumm 2 : 114 (homonym). 

1865. 
Pleonectria berolinensis Sacc. !Michelia i : 123. 1878. 
Pleonectria Ribis Karst. ]\Iedd. Soc. Fauna Fl. Fenn. 5 : 42. 

1879. 

Perithecia erumpent in large cespitose clusters 1-3 mm. in di- 
ameter on a stroma which becomes indistinct in aged specimens ; 
individual perithecia dull brick-red becoming darker with age 
and often quite black, smooth or nearly so, entirely collapsing 
becoming pezizoid with age, 250-300 mic. in diameter ; asci cylin- 
drical-clavate, 8-spored; spores i-seriate, elliptical, 5-9-septate 
and muriform, hyaline or very slightly yellowish, 16-20 X 7-8 
mic. 

On dead branches of Ribes (wild and cultivated). 

Type locality: Germany. 

Distribution: Massachusetts to Montana. 

Illustrations: Ellis & Everh. N. Am. Pyrenom. pi. 12, f. 7-8. 

ExsiccATi : Ellis, N. Am. Fungi, 470; Ellis & Everh. Fungi 



206 Mycologia 

Columbiani, 26, 4/0. Other specimens examined : Montana, 
Anderson 5P<5; Iowa, Hohvay; Massachusetts, Farlow; N. 
Dakota, Scaver (various collections). 

5. Thyronectria sphaerospora (Ellis & Everh.) 
Nectria sphaerospora Ellis & Everh. ; Bessey & Webber, Ann. 

Rep. Neb. St. Board Agric. 1889: 193. 1890. 
Chilonectria crinigera Ellis & Everh. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 

1890: 246. 1891. 

Perithecia cespitose on a tubercular stroma in small clusters of 
3-12 each ; individual perithecia subglobose, papillate, minutely 
rough, at first covered with a brownish furfuraceous coat, finally 
bare and nearly black, slightly collapsing or entire, about 300-400 
mic. in diameter; asci clavate, about 50-70 X 12-15 mic. at first 
filled with numerous minute spore-like bodies 2-3 X i mic, among 
which are the true spores, 8 in each ascus ; ascospores subglobose, 
mostly i-seriate, becoming about 3-septate and muriform, 5-8 
mic. in diameter, surrounded by numerous spore-like bodies which 
appear like minute appendages. 

On bark of Fraxiniis and Gleditschia. 
Type locality: Lincoln, Nebraska. 
Distribution : Known only from type locality. 
Specimens examined: Nebraska, Webber (type). 

22. Thyronectroidea gen. nov. 

Perithecia cespitose in erumpcnt clusters as in Thyronectria; 
asci clavate-cylindrical, 8-sporcd ; spores elliptical, many-septate, 
becoming muriform, at first hyaline, becoming dark brown. 

Type species : Thyronectria chrysogramma Ellis & Everh. 
Distinguished from Thyronectria by the colored spores. 

I. Thyronectroidea chrysogramma (Ellis & Everh.) 
Thyronectria chrysogramma Ellis & Everh. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Phil. 1890: 245. 1891. 
Mattirolia chrysogramma Sacc. Syll. Fung. 9: 993. 1891. 

Perithecia springing from below the epidermis in dense cespi- 
tose clusters of 3-6 perithecia each ; individual perithecia ovate, 
.25-.5 mm. in diameter, clothed with a greenish-yellow coat with 
the ostiolum bare and black; asci clavate-cylindrical, 150-175 X 
14-18 mic, 8-spored; spores 2-seriate, elliptical, mostly a little 



MVCOI.OGIA 



Plate XIII 




CREONECTRIEAE 



Seaver: The Hypocreales of North America 207 

curved, 7-10-septate, with very faint, interrupted, longitudinal 
septa, at first hyaline, becoming quite dark brown, 25-35 X 10-12 
mic. ; paraphyses abundant. 

On bark of Ulmus aincricana. 

Type locality: Manhattan, Kansas. 

Distribution : Kansas to Ontario and New York, 

Specimens examined : Ohio, Morgan; Ontario, Canada, Dear- 

ness. 

New York Botanical Garden. 

Explanation of Plate XIII. 

1. Megaloncctria pscitdotrichia (Schw.) Speg., X 25. 

2. Megaloncctria psendotrichia (Schw.) Speg., asci and spores, X 400. 

3. Creonectria pitlioides (Ellis & Everh.) Seaver, natural size. 

4. Creonectria pithoides (Ellis & Everh.) Seaver, X 25. 

5. Creonectria scmiiticola Seaver, two thirds natural size. 

6. Creonectria seniinicola Seaver, X 25. 

7. Creonectria seniinicola Seaver, conidiophores, X 400. 

8. Creonectria tuberculariformis (Rehm) Seaver, natural size. 

9. Creonectria tubcrcitlariformis (Rehm) Seaver, X 10. 

10. Creonectria tuberculariformis (Rehm) Seaver, conidiophores, X 400. 

11. Creonectria rubicarpa (Cooke) Seaver, natural size. 

12. Creonectria rubicarpa (Cooke) Seaver, X 25. 

13. Scoleconectria canadensis (Ellis & Everh.) Seaver, X 25. 

14. Scoleconectria canadensis (Ellis & Everh.) Seaver, asci and spores, X 400. 

15. Echinodothis tuberiforinis (Berk. & Rav.) Atk., X 2, 



THE HYPOCREALES OF NORTH AMERICA 

III. 

FRED J. SEAVER 



[Reprinted from Mycologia, Vol II., No. 2, March, 1910.] 



THE HYPOCREALES OF NORTH AMERICA— 

in. 

Fred J. Seaver 
(With Plates 20 and 21, Containing 37 Figures) 

Family II. HYPOCREACEAE 

Stromata conspicuous, seated directly on the substratum or 
springing from a sclerotium in the bodies of insects, fungi, or the 
ovaries and stems of plants, effused without definite margin, 
patellate, substipitate or erect; perithecia partially to entirely im- 
mersed in the stroma, rarely subsuperficial (especially in aged 
specimens) ; asci cylindrical or clavate, 8-i6-spored; spores sub- 
globose to filiform, simple or compound, hyaline or colored. 

Stroma seated directly on the substratum, usually patellate or 

effused, rarely clavate and erect ; spores rarely filiform. Hypocreae. 

Stroma springing from a sclerotium, usually erect and clavate, 

rarely depressed; spores filiform. Cordycepteae. 

Tribe III. Hypocreae 

Stromata patellate or effused, rarely clavate and erect, not 
springing from a sclerotium; perithecia partially to entirely im- 
mersed, papillate, with the neck often protruding; asci cylindrical 
or clavate, 8-i6-spored; spores subglobose, elliptical, fusiform or 
filiform, simple or compound, hyaline or simple. 

Asci i6-spored (by the separation of each original spore 
into two subglobose cells). 
Stroma patellate or effused. 

Spores hyaline. 23. Hypocrea. 

Spores becoming greenish or brownish. 24. Chromocrea. 

Stroma clavate and vertical. 25. Podostroma. 

Asci 8-spored ; spores elliptical, fusiform or filiform. 

Stroma with stilbum-like outgrowths. 26. Stilbocrea. 

Stroma without stilbum-like outgrowths. 
Spores elliptical to fusiform. 

Spores simple or doubtfully septate. 

Spores colored. 27. Chromocreopsis. 

Spores hyaline. 

48 



Seaver: Hypocreales of North America 49 

Stroma very scant; perithecia 

subsuperficial. 28. Byssonectria. 

Stroma profuse ; perithecia im- 
mersed. 29. Peckiella. 
Spores i-septate, fusiform or subfusiform. 
Stroma cottony or subfleshy ; spores 

fusiform. 30. Hvpomyces. 

Stroma fleshy; spores elliptical. 31- Hypocreopsis. 

Spores filiform. 

Perithecia enclosed in a membranaceous 

wall. 32. Oomyces. 

Perithecia not enclosed in a membrana- 
ceous wall. 
Stroma very scant, cottony, white. 33- Barya. 

Stroma subfleshy, of variable color. 
Stroma sheathing, on stems of 

grasses. 34- Typhodium. 

Stroma patellate or subpatellate. 35. Hypocrella. 

Doubtful Genera 
Glaziella. Fruit unknown. 

23. Hypocrea Fries, Syst. Orbis Veg. 104. 1825 

Stroma snbglobose to patellate, fleshy or subfleshy, usually with 
an abrupt margin which in older specimens is more or less free, 
or irregular in outline and effused without definite margin ; peri- 
thecia entirely immersed, subglobose or ovate with the necks 
slightly protruding ; asci cylindrical originally with 8 spores, each 
of which separates into 2 subglobose or slightly cuboid cells, at 
maturity i6-spored; spores subglobose or cuboid, hyaline. 

Type species : Sphaeria rufa Pers. 

Distinguished by the i6-spored asci and hyaline spores. There 
is so little variation in the spores of the species of this genus that 
we must depend almost entirely upon gross characters for diag- 
noses of species. 

Stromata patellate, with definite outline, for the most 
part on wood and bark. 
Stromata dark colored, dark red, brown or purplish- 
black. 
Stromata red or brown. 

Stromata reddish-brown or dark brown. i. H.rufa. 
Stromata wine-colored or dark red. 2. H. scutellaeformis. 

Stromata purplish-black or olive. 

Stromata purplish, large, .5-1 cm. in 

diameter. 3. H. lenta. 



50 Mycologia 

Stromata olivaceous, small, 1—2 mm. in 

diameter. 4. H. minima. 

Stromata bright colored, whitish or bright yellow. 

Stromata whitish. 5. H. chionea. 

Stromata bright yellow. 6. H. patella. 

Stromata effused, spreading irregularly, with no definite 
outline. 
Occurring on wood and bark. 

Stromata very dark olivaceous. 7. H. olivacea. 

Stromata bright lemon-yellow. 8. H. sulphurea. 

Occurring on fungi. 

Stroma bright colored. 

Stroma orange, on Tyromyces. 9. H. anrantiaca. 

Stroma lemon-yellow, often fading. 10. H.citrina. 

Stroma dull pallid or whitish. 

On Tyromyces and related plants. 11. H. pallida. 

Forming rings on cups of Cyathus. 12. H.latizonata. 



I. Hypocrea rufa (Pers.) Fries, Summa Veg. Scand. 383. 1849 

Sphaeria rufa Pers. Obs. Myc. i : 20. 1796. 

Stromata gregarious, subhemispherical to patellate, occasionally 
confluent and more or less irregular but normally quite regular in 
form, 2 mm. to i cm. in diameter (mostly 2-5 mm.), externally 
brick-red, the margin in young specimens white, later becoming 
brown and in old specimens often free, becoming darker with 
age, surface of the stroma roughened by the necks of the peri- 
thecia which protrude slightly; perithecia nearly globose, 175-200 
mic. in diameter ; asci cylindrical, becoming i6-spored, 75-100 X 
5 mic. (spore-bearing part 60-75 mic.) ; spores nearly globose, 
hyaline with a central oil-drop {pi. 20, f. 6-8). 

On wood and bark of various kinds and occasionally on old 
fungi. 

Type locality : Europe. 

Distribution : Maine to N. Dakota and S. Carolina. Prob- 
ably occurs throughout N. America. 

Illustrations: Winter; Rabenh. Krypt. Fl. pi. Sg, f. j-j; 
Lindau, E. & P. Nat. Pfl. /. 243, A-D. 

ExsiccATi : Ellis, N. Am. Fungi, 757; Ellis & Everh. N. Am. 
Fungi, 1552; Ravenel, Fungi Car. Exsicc. 55. Other specimens 
examined: Maine, Miss. White; N. Jersey, Ellis 608; New 
York, Zabriskie; N. Dakota, Seaver; Ohio, Morgan pj6, g.jo. 



Seaver: Hypocreales of North America 51 

2. Hypocrea scutellaeformis Berk. & Rav. (nomen nudum) ; 

Ellis & Everh. N. Am. Pyrenom. 80. 1892. 

Stromata gregarious, patellate or subhemispherical, .5-1 mm. 
in diameter, with the margin free and sHghtly undulated, rough- 
ened slightly by the protruding necks of the perithecia, externally 
beautifully wine-colored, becoming darker with age, occasionally 
blackish, internally white. 

On the bark of Acer rubrtini. 

Type locality: Carolina. 

Distribution : Known only from type locality. 

ExsiccATi : Ravenel, Fungi Car. Exsicc. ji. 

The species appears distinct in its color and gross characters. 
Although the stromata externally seem to indicate the presence 
of perithecia no asci or spores could be seen. 

3. Hypocrea lenta (Tode) Berk. & Br. Jour. Linn. Soc. 14: 112. 

1875 
Sphaeria lenta Tode, Fungi Meckl. 2: 30. 1791. 
Sphaeria ScJnveinitzii Fr. Elench. Fung. 2 : 60. 1828. 
Sphaeria contorta Schw. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. 11. 4: 194. 1832. 
Sphaeria rigeiis Fr. Elench. Fung. 2: 61. 1828. 
Hypocrea Schzveinitsii Sacc. Syll. Fung. 2 : 522. 1883. 
Hypocrea contorta Berk. & Curtis; Berk. Grevillea 4: 14. 1875. 
Hypocrea rigens Sacc. ]\Iichelia i: 301. 1878. 

Stromata gregarious, 2 mm.-i cm. in diameter, lens-shaped, 
margin free, often becoming undulated, dark colored externally 
becoming almost black with a shade of olive-green, white within, 
fleshy becoming hard when dry; surface roughened by the necks 
of the slightly protruding perithecia; perithecia subglobose, 150- 
175 mic. in diameter; asci cylindrical, becoming i6-spored, 
60-75 X 4-5 mic. ; spores subglobose with i large oil-drop, about 
4 mic. in diameter. 

On wood and bark of various kinds. 

Type locality : Mecklenburg, Germany. 

Distribution: New Jersey to Ontario, California, and Lou- 
isiana. 

Illustrations: Tode, Fungi Alcckl. pi. 12, f. 102. 

ExsiccATi: Ravenel, Fungi Am. Exsicc. 642; Ellis, N. Am, 
Fungi 1^6. Other specimens examined : Kansas, Stvingle, Cra- 



52 Mycologia 

gin; Louisiana, Langlois; N. Jersey, Ellis; Ontario, Canada, 
Harkncss; S. Carolina, Ravenel. 

4. Hypocrea minima Sacc. & Ellis, Michelia 2 : 570. 1882 

Stromata scattered, superficial, patellate or subpatellate, disc 
orbicular, very dark, almost black, scarcely i mm. in diameter; 
surface roughened by the slightly protruding necks of the peri- 
thecia ; asci C3dindrical, becoming i6-spored, 60-75X4 mic. ; 
spores subglobose, hyaline, with i large oil-drop, about 4 mic. in 
diameter. 

On bark of Magnolia. 
Type locality : Newfield, N. Jersey. 
Distribution : Known only from type locality. 
Specimens examined: N. Jersey, Ellis (cotype). 
In color the species resembles H. lenta but is distinguished by 
its very small size, 

5. Hypocrea chionea Ellis & Everh. N. Am. Pyrenom. 79. 1892 

Stromata gregarious, subhemispherical becoming patellate or 
subpatellate,_ fleshy, 1-2 mm. in diameter, white or very light yel- 
lowish, surface roughened by the slightly protruding necks of the 
perithecia ; necks of the perithecia darker in color than the sur- 
rounding surface of the stroma, giving it a punctate appearance; 
asci cylindrical, 50-60X4 mic, becoming i6-spored; spores 
subglobose, with i central oil-drop, about 4 mic. in diameter. 

On decaying wood on the under side of a log to which may be 

due its white color. 

Type locality : Ontario, Canada. 
Distribution : Known only from type locality. 
Specimens examined: Canada, Dearness (type). 

6. Hypocrea patella Cooke & Peck, Ann. Rep. N. Y. State Mus. 

29: 57. 1878 

Stromata gregarious, patellate and regular is form, consisting 
of a whitish mycelium with a yellow center, becoming entirely 
bright yellow, inclined to ochraceous, 1-2 mm. in diameter, mar- 
gin free, surface punctate with the necks of the perithecia which 
protrude slightly, somewhat wrinkled when dry ; asci cylindrical, 
60-75 X 4-5 mic, at first 8-spored, becoming i6-spored by the 
separation of each original spore into 2 subglobose cells; spores 
subglobose, hyaline. 



Seaver : Hypocreales of North America 53 

On dead wood especially on or surrounding other old sphaeri- 
aceous fungi. 

Type locality : Buffalo, N. York. 

Distribution : New York to Louisiana. 

Specimens examined: New York, Seaver (various collec- 
tions) ; Louisiana, Langlois 218 1 ; West Virginia, Nuttall 75. 

The description of this species is drawn from material identi- 
fied by Mr. Peck. The species has been frequently collected by 
the writer about New York City. 

7. Hypocrea olivacea Cooke & Ellis, Grevillea 6: 92. 1878 

Hypocrea melaleuca Ellis & Everh. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 

1890: 245. 1891. 

Stromata scattered, effused and irregular in form, consisting 
at first of a patch of thin, white tomentum .5-1 cm. in diameter, 
becoming fleshy and of an olive shade, gradually becoming 
darker, at length nearly black and punctate from the slightly 
protruding necks of the perithecia ; asci cylindrical, 65-75 X 3-4 
mic. becoming i6-spored; spores hyaline, subglobose, 3 mic. in 
diameter. 

On pine boards, bark of Sassafras, and oak chips. 

Type locality: N. Jersey. 

Distribution : Known only from type locality. 

Illustrations: Grevillea 6: pi. 10, f. 2j. 

Specimens examined: N. Jersey, Ellis 2826 (cotype). 

The species forms irregular dark colored patches which on 
drying break up into a number of smaller parts of variable size 
and number. 

Mr. Ellis seems to have been uncertain as to whether H. 
melaleuca was distinct from H. olivacea, the stroma of the former 
having been described as whitish. When examined during the 
present season the type of H. melaleuca shows the stroma to be 
decidedly greenish and conforms exactly to H. olivacea. 

8. Hypocrea sulphurea (Schw.) Sacc. Syll. Fung. 2: 535. 1883 
Sphaeria sulphurea Schw. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. IL 4: 193. 1832. 

Stroma broadly effused, forming irregular patches often several 
cm. in diameter, at first consisting of small tufts of white my- 
celium, the central part soon assuming a lemon-yellow color, at 



54 Mycologia 

maturity consisting of a bright lemon-yellow stroma with a pale, 
whitish margin, color in dried specimens fairly constant, rarely 
slightly faded ; perithecia entirely immersed and appearing as 
minute glands, slightly darker than the stroma; asci cylindrical, 
becoming i6-spored by the separation of each original spore into 
2 subglobose cells, 80-1 lo mic. in length; spores about 4X5 
mic, subglobose or commonly subcubical from mutual pressure, 
granular within. 

On bark of various kinds of trees and shrubs, Acer, Alnus, 
Salix, Tilia, etc., often on Exidia glandiilosa. 

Type locality: Pennsylvania. 

Distribution: Connecticut to N. Dakota, Alabama and S. 
Carolina. 

ExsiccATi : Ravenel, Fungi Am. Exsicc. 641, Fungi Car. 
Exsicc. 52; Wilson & Seaver, Ascom. & Lower Fungi, ^y. 
Other specimens examined : Alabama, Earle, Underwood; Can- 
ada, Macoun; Connecticut, Thaxter; Delaware (no name) ; 
Florida, Calkins; Iowa, Holway ; Louisiana, Seymour; N. Dakota, 
Seaver; N. Jersey, Ellis; N. York, Seaver; Ohio, Morgan, Lloyd; 
Pennsylvania, Haines, Everhart & Jefferis, and Schzveinits 
(type). 

This species has been commonly known in this country under 
the name of Hypocrea citrina (Pers.) Fries, to which species it 
is quite similar. Its habitat on bark often where there is no 
trace of other fungi, its bright color and very large asci and 
spores seem to be sufficient characters by which it can be dis- 
tinguished. 

In N. Dakota this species has been collected commonly by the 
writer on dead branches of basswood but was not found in that 
locality on dead branches of other trees. In other localities it 
has been commonly reported on other trees and shrubs. Thaxter 
reports it as occurring in Connecticut only on branches of alders. 
The species has also been reported by Montague in Cuba on the 
bark of trees. 

9. Hypocrea aurantiaca Peck, Ann. Rep. N. Y. State Mus. 51^ : 

295. 1898 

Stroma effused, overspreading and entirely covering the hy- 
menium of the host, cottony but giving rise to a continuous stroma 



Seaver: Hypocreales of North America 55 

equal in extent to that of the hymenium of the host, deep orange, 
paler near the margin, staining the host of a similar color; peri- 
thecia orange, thickly scattered or often crowded near the center 
of the stroma where the color is much darker, partially immersed 
in the substratum; asci cylindrical, becoming i6-spored by the 
separation of each original spore into 2 subglobose cells; spores 
subglobose or subcubical, 3-4 mic. in diameter. 

On Tyromyces chioneiis. 

Type locality: New York. 

Distribution : New York. 

Specimens examined: New York, Peck (type). 

Distinguished from H. pallida Ellis & Everh. only by its orange 
color. 



10. Hypocrea citrina (Pers.) Fries, Summa Veg. Scand. 383. 

1849 

Sphaeria citrina Pers. Obs. Myc. i : 68. 1796. 
? Hypocrea Karsteniana Niessl. ; Rehm, Hedwigia 22: 53. 1883. 
? Hypocrea fimgicola Karsten; Winter, Rabenh. Krypt. Fl. i- : 
141. 1887. 

Stroma effused, spreading irregularly often . for several cm. 
occasionally interrupted, subfleshy, at first whitish, at length 
lemon-yellow with the margin cottony and lighter colored, within 
whitish, whole stroma becoming more or less faded with age 
often subpallid ; perithecia immersed, numerous, ovoid, yellowish ; 
asci cylindrical, 62-75 mic. long, becoming i6-spored by the 
separation of each original sport into 2 subglobose cells with the 
lower slightly longer ; individual spores 3-4 mic. in diameter. 

On soil, old fungi, etc. 

Type locality: Europe. 

Distribution: Connecticut to N. York. 

ExsiccATi: Shear, N. York Fungi, jdj. Other specimens ex- 
amined : Connecticut, Thaxter, Wisconsin. 

This species seems to be less common in America than in 
Europe, although through its confusion with the species H. sul- 
phurea (Schw.) Sacc. it has been commonly reported. The spe- 
cies was originally described as terrestrial and an attempt has 
been made to separate the terrestrial form from that occurring 
on old fungi. It is doubtful if the two are distinct. 



56 iMvCOLOGIA 

11. Hypocrea pallida Ellis & Everh. Jour. Myc. 2: 65. 1886 

Stroma effused, overspreading and entirely covering the hy- 
menium of the host, cottony but giving rise to an even stratum 
equal in diameter to that of the host, at first pallid or pale yellow 
or often with a slight tinge of rust-red, paler near the margin; 
perithecia thickly scattered and partially immersed in the sub- 
stratum with the ostiola projecting, amber, darker than the sub- 
stratum; asci cylindrical, 50-75X4-5 mic. becoming i6-spored 
by the separation of each original spore into 2 subglobose cells; 
spores 3-4 mic. in diameter, subglobose or slightly cubical. 

On the hymenium of species of Tyromyces. 

Type locality : N. Jersey. 

Distribution : N. Jersey to Canada. 

Specimens examined: Connecticut (no name); N. Jersey, 
Ellis (various collections) ; Prince Edward's Island, Canada, 
Macoun. 

Hypocrea aurantiaca Peck agrees with this species in habitat 
and general morphological characters but seems to differ in 
possessing a decidedly orange color. The various specimens ex- 
amined would seem to indicate that the dift'erence in color is due 
to a difference in age as some of the present species examined 
show a trace of rust-red approaching that of H. aurantiaca, and 
one specimen in the Ellis collection is labeled in the handwriting 
of Mr. Ellis, H, pallida var. aurea. Field observation is necessary 
in order to determine whether the two species are identical but 
for the present they are allowed to stand. 

12. Hypocrea latizonata Peck; Ellis & Everh, N. Am. Py- 

renom. 79. 1892 

Stroma consisting of a white subiculum which forms a band 5 
mm. in diameter, entirely surrounding the outside of the cups of 
the host ; perithecia thickly gregarious, immersed, with the ostiola 
protruding, darker colored, brownish-black; asci cylindrical, 60- 
75 mic. long, becoming i6-spored by the separation of each 
original spore into 2 subglobose cells ; individual spores 3-4 mic. 
in diameter, the lower of each pair slightly longer (pi. 20, 
f.9-10). 

On the outside of the cups of Cyatlius striatus. 

Type locality: Ohio. 

Distribution : Known only from the type locality. 



Seaver: Hypocreales of North America 57 

Specimens examined: Ohio, Morgan (type). 
Distinguished by its habitat and the pecuHar ring-Hke forma- 
tions of the stroma. 

Doubtful Species 

Hypocrea cerznna Berk. & Curtis, Jour. Linn. Soc. lo : 376. 1869. 

" Stromate irregulari piano, margine obtuso Hbero cervino sub- 
tomentoso, intus subconcolori ; peritheciis superficialibus, ostiolis 
quandoque elongatis cyhndricis ; sporidiis subglobosis octonis." 

On dead wood. Sporidia .00014 inch in diameter. Stroma 2 
lines across. 

Hypocrea laetior Berk. & Curtis; Berk. Jour. Linn. Soc. 10: 

376. 1869. 

"Stromate orbiculari sublobato adnato laete cervino; peri- 
theciis immersis, ostiolis prominulis nigris; sporidiis subglobosis 
16." 

" On dead wood. Sporidia .0002 inch in diameter, sixteen in 
each ascus. Stroma 1-1.5 line across. Closely alHed to the 
last" {H. cervina Berk. & Curtis). 

Hypocrea maculae formis Berk. & Curtis ; Berk. Jour. Linn. Soc. 
10: 376. 1869. 

"Tenuis, umbrina, irregularis, ostiolis brunneolis notata; peri- 
theciis elongatis immersis." 

" On a hard lemon-coloured, fleshy Polyporus, which is prob- 
ably much altered by the parasite. Forming thin map-like spots. 
Sporidia .0004 inch long." 
Hypocrea ochroleuca Berk. & Rav. ; Berk. Grevillea 4: 14. 1875. 

" Effused, thin, ochro-leucous, seated on a pale mycelium, with 
a barren border, often cracked when old." 

Hypocrea polyporoidea Berk. & Curtis, Grevillea 4: 15. 1875. 

" Fawn-coloured ; perithecia free, tomentose, with a naked 
ostiolum seated on a pale crust, here and there elevated, which is 
thin towards the margin. A very curious species." 

On beech, Alabama. 

Hypocrea armeniaca Berk. & Curtis, Hypocrea insignis Berk. 
& Curtis, Hypocrea saccharina Berk. & Curtis and Hypocrea 
parasitans were described from imperfect material. 



58 Mycologia 

Excluded Species 
Hypocrea submridis Berk. & Curtis. 
Hypocrea Richardsoni Berk. & Mont. 



24. Chromocrea gen. nov. 

Stromata patellate or subpatellate, whitish, yellowish or reddish 
to greenish-black, more or less variable in a given species, fleshy; 
perithecia entirely immersed with necks only slightly prominent; 
asci cylindrical, becoming i6-spored by the separation of each 
original spore into 2 subglobose cells ; spores colored, greenish or 
brownish. 

Type species : Sphaeria gelatinosa Tode. 

Distinguished from Hypocrea by the colored spores. 

Stromata yellowish to greenish-black. 

Stromata sessile, yellowish to green, then greenish-black i. C. gelatinosa. 

Stromata substipitate, yellow, not becoming green. 2. C. substipitata. 

Stromata brick-red, entirely sessile. 3. C. ceramica. 



I. Chromocrea gelatinosa (Tode) 
Sphaeria gelatinosa Tode, Fungi Meckl. 2: 48. 1791. 
Hypocrea gelatnosa Fries, Summa Veg. Scand. 383. 1849. 
? Hypocrea chlorospora Berk. & Curtis, Grevillea 4: 14. 1875. 
? Hypocrea chromosperma Cooke & Peck, Ann. Rep. N. Y. State 

Mus. 29: 57. 1878. 
Hypocrea viridis Peck, Ann. Rep. N. Y. State Mus. 31 : 49. 1879. 

Stromata patellate or subpatellate, fleshy, soft, becoming con- 
tracted and wrinkled when dry, at first bright lemon-yellow or 
yellowish-white becoming punctate with greenish dots, the necks 
of the perithecia filled with dark colored spores, the entire stroma 
becoming darker with age, finally greenish or greenish-black 1-4 
mm. in diameter; perithecia entirely immersed with the necks 
slightly protruding and becoming rather prominent in dried speci- 
mens; asci cylindrical, becoming i6-spored by the separation of 
each original spore into 2 subglobose cells ; spores at first green, 
becoming brown, 5 mic. in diameter {pi. 20, f. ii-i^). 

On decaying wood of various kinds. 
Type locality: Mecklenburg, Germany. 
Distribution : Maine to New Jersey and Iowa. 
Illustrations : Tode, Fungi Meckl. pi. 16, f. 123. 



Seaver: Hypocreales of North America 59 

Specimens examined : Connecticut, Thaxter; Indiana, Under- 
wood; Iowa, Seaver, Holway; Maine, Harvey; New Jersey, 
Ellis; Pennsylvania, Haines. 

The British specimens referred to this name show the surface 
of the stroma in old specimens to be greenish-black while the 
base is of a translucent red. The American specimens are more 
often of a yellowish color with the surface becoming greenish- 
black. The color in the species is very variable. 

2. Chromocrea substipitata sp. nov. 

Stromata gregarious or occasionally crowded, seated on a 
sulphur-yellow subiculum, discoid, fleshy, with the margin ele- 
vated from the substratum, young plants substipitate ; stem short, 
about I mm. thick and 1-2 mm. high, gradually expanding 
upwards into the subpatellate stroma; stroma plane to a little 
concave or convex, dull yellow, slightly punctate with the darker 
ostiola 1-4 mm. in diameter; asci cylindrical, becoming i6-spored 
by the separation of each original spore into two subglobose cells ; 
spores becoming smoky-brown, 4X5 mic. in diameter. 

On bark. 

Type locality : Nicaragua. 

Distribution : Known only from type locality. 

Specimens examined: Nicaragua, C. L. Smith (type). 

The specimen described under this name was included in the 
Ellis collection under the name Hypocrea cubispora Ellis & Holw. 
from which species it differs in several points the chief of which 
is that the asci in the present species become i6-spored while 
those in Hypocrea cubispora Ellis & Holw. are 8-spored. There 
are other gross characters which are also sufficient to mark this 
species as distinct from the one to which it had been referred 
by Mr. Ellis. 

The young specimens resemble very closely Helotium citrinuin 
(Hedw.) Fries in form but the color is not so bright. 

3. Chromocrea ceramica (Ellis & Everh.) 
Hypocrea ceramica Ellis & Everh. N. Am. Pyrenom. 85. 1892. 

Stromata appearing first as a speck of white tomentum, with a 
brick-red spot appearing in the center, finally becoming fleshy, 
rather thick and entirely brick-red without, and white within, 



60 Mycologia 

subpatellate, convex, becoming wrinkled when dry, punctate with 
the necks of the sHghtly protruding perithecia finally dusted over 
with the greenish spores; asci cylindrical, becoming i6-spored by 
the breaking of each original spore into 2 subglobose cells ; spores 
about 4 mic. in diameter, the lower of each pair a little larger 
than the upper. 

On bark of decaying limb of Juniperiis. 

Type locality: Connecticut. 

Distribution : Known only from type locahty. 

Specimens examined: Connecticut, Thaxter (type). 

The stromata resemble in form and color Hypocrea rufa 
(Pers.) Fries, but the species is distinguished by its colored 
spores. 

25. Podostroma Karsten, Hedwigia 31: 294. 1892 
Podocrea (Sacc.) Lindau, E. & P. Nat. Pfl. i^: 364. 1897. 

Stromata stipitate, clavate, erect, fleshy, light colored ; peri- 
thecia immersed in the stroma; asci cyhndrical, i6-spored; spores 
globose or subglobose, hyaline. 

Type species : Podostroma leucopiis Karsten. 

The type of the present genus as has been observed by 
Professor Atkinson is similar in every way to Podostroma 
alutacea (Pers.) Atkinson except that it is reported as occurring 
on dead insects resembling in this the genus Cordyceps. Profes- 
sor Atkinson is of the opinion that this report may simply indi- 
cate an extension of the range of decaying organic matter on 
which Podostroma alutacea may grow and that the two species 
may be identical. 

Stroma clavate, yellow. i. P.alutaceum. 

Stroma agariciform, brown. 2. P. brevipes. 

I. Podostroma alutaceum (Pers.) Atk. Bot. Gaz. 40: 416. 

1905 
Sphaeria alutacea Pers. Obs. Myc. 2 : 66. 1797. 
Sphaeria clavata Sow. Eng. Fungi, pi. 759. 1799. 
Cordyceps alutacea Link, Handbk. 4: 347. 1833. 
Hypocrea alutacea Tul. Fung. Carp, i : 62 (in note). 1861. 
? Podostroma leucopus Karsten, Hedwigia 31 : 294. 1892. 
Podocrea alutacea Lindau, E. & P. Nat. Pfl. i^ : 364. 1897. 



Seaver: Hypocreales of North America 61 

Hypocrea Lloydii Bresadola; Lloyd, Myc. Notes i: 87. 1905. 

Stroma vertical, consisting of a sterile stem and fertile, clavate 
or more or less irregular head ; stem stout or slender and of 
variable length, entire plant averaging 2-4 cm. high above the 
substratum, length below the substratum variable, pale yellow, 
whitish or tan-colored, fertile head slightly darker; perithecia 
entirely immersed in the stroma or with their necks slightly pro- 
truding ; asci cylindrical or slightly clavate, 50-60 X 4 mic, be- 
coming i6-spored by the separation of each original spore into 2 
segments ; spores subglobose or cuboid, about 4X3 mic. the lower 
of each pair of segments a little longer (pi. 20, f. 16). 

On wood, decaying organic materials on the ground and (dead 
insects?). 

Type locality: Europe. 

Distribution : N. York to W. Virginia and N. Carolina. 

Illustrations : Atkinson, Bot. Gaz. 40 : pi. 14-16; Berkeley, 
Outl. Brit. Fungi, pi. 23, f. 6; E. & P. Nat. Pfl. /. 24s, F-H ; 
Lloyd, Myc. Notes i : /. 5^; Sow., Engl. Fungi 2 : pi. 59; Tul. 
Fung. Carp. 3 : pi. 4, f. 1-6. 

Specimens examined: New Jersey, Ellis; New York Stevens. 

2. Podostroma brevipes (Mont.) 

Cordyceps brevipes Mont. Syll. 201. 1856. 

? Hypocrea Petersii Berk. & Curt. Grevillea 4: 13. 1875. 

Hypocrea brevipes Sacc. Michelia i : 304. 1878. 

Stroma stipitate or substipitate, 1-2 cm. diameter, convex or 
often irregularly convolute, brown externally, whitish within, 
papillate with the necks of the slightly protruding perithecia, 
often dusted over with a yellowish powder, consisting of the 
exuded spores ; stem .5-1 cm. high and 4-5 mm. thick, rugose, 
darker than the stroma often blackish, expanding above into the 
agariciform stroma; perithecia covering the upper surface of the 
stroma, immersed, with the necks slightly protruding, subglobose ; 
asci cylindrical, 75 X 5 mic. becoming i6-spored by the separation 
of each original spore into 2 subglobose cells with the lower of 
each pair longer, 4-5 mic. in diameter. 

On old wood. 

Type locality: S. America. 
Distribution: Ohio to (Alabama?). 
Specimens examined: Ohio-, Morgan 28, 55. 



62 AIycologia 

From the description Hypocrea Petersii Berk. & Curtis seems 
scarcely to differ. It is described as follows: " Agariciformis; 
stipite rngoso; peritheciis periphericis ; ascis linearibus; sporidiis 
globosis." 

26. Stilbocrea Pat. Bull. Soc. Myc. France 16: 186. 1900 

Stromata consisting of a fleshy hypocreoid base and several 
erect stilbum-like outgrowths, fleshy, bright colored ; perithecia 
globose or ovate, immersed or with the necks slightly protruding ; 
asci 8-spored; spores hyaline or subhyaline, i -septate, smooth 
or rough. 

Type species : Stilbocrea Dussii Pat. 

Distinguished from Sphaerostilhe by the immersed perithecia. 

Spores 10-12 X 7 mic. i. S. hypocreoides. 

Spores 10.5 -12.5 X 4.5-5-5 mic 2. S. intermedia. 

I. Stilbocrea hypocreoides (Kalch. & Cooke) 
Sphacrostilbe hypocreoides Kalch. & Cooke, Grevillea 9 : 26. 
1880. 

Stroma subpatellate or eft'used, 2-5 mm. in diameter with stil- 
bum-like outgrowths ; conidiophores clavate, shortly stipitate ; 
conidia elliptical, 5X2 mic. ; perithecia immersed in the stroma 
or with the necks slightly prominent ; asci cylindrical, 8-spored ; 
spores elliptical, i-septate, hyaline, 10-12 X 7 mic, becoming 
slightly roughened externally. 

On naked bark. 

Type locality: S. Africa. 

Distribution : Louisiana. 

Illustrations : Grevillea 9 : pi. 136, f. 25. 

Specimens examined: Louisiana, Langlois. 

In the specimens examined it is difficult to find mature asci 
and spores so that the measurements given above are from the 
original description. 

2. Stilbocrea intermedia (Ferd. & Winge) 
? Stilbocrea Dussii Pat. Bull. Soc. Myc. France 16: 186. 1900. 
Sphacrostilbe intermedia Ferd. & Winge, Bot. Tidssk. 29 : 12. 

1908. 

Stroma fleshy, patellate or subpatellate, adnate to the sub- 



Seaver: Hypocreales of North America 63 

stratum or with the margin free and with several stilbum-like out- 
growths consisting of a stalk i mm. high and a subglobose head 
400-600 mic. in diameter, when dry pale flesh-colored or yellow- 
ish-white ; perithecia immersed but prominent, orange, ovoid or 
subglobose, 170-200 mic. in diameter ; asci cylindrical, 70-85 X 
5.5-7.5 mic, 8-spored ; spores i-seriate, elliptical, slightly un- 
equal-sided, minutely roughened, i -septate, scarcely constricted 
at the septum, 10.5-12.5 X 4-5-5-5 mic. (/>/. 30, f. 19-20). 

On bark of trees. 

Type locality : Island of St. Thomas, W. Indies. 

Distribution : Known only from type locality. 

Illustrations : Ferd. & Winge, Bot. Tidssk. 29 : pi. i, f. 5. 

Specimens examined: Raukisr, Island of St. Thomas (co- 
type). 

This and the preceding species appear to be very close together. 

No specimen of StUhocrea Dussii Pat. has been seen but there 
seems to be nothing in the description of the present species to 
distinguish it from the former in which the spores are de- 
scribed as 12X5 niic. 

27. Chromocreopsis gen. nov. 

Stromata gregarious or scattered, tubercular and prominent 
or depressed, from 2 mm. to i cm. in diameter, bright colored or 
dark approaching black, fleshy or subfleshy, surface slightly 
roughened and dotted with the slightly protruding necks of the 
perithecia filled with dark colored spores ; asci cylindrical to 
clavate, 8-spored ; spores elliptical to subcuboid, simple or sep- 
tation indistinct, colored brownish. 

Type species : Hypocrea ciibispora Ellis & Holw. 
Distinguished from Chromocrea by the 8-spored asci. 

Stromata tubercular, large, bright colored, yellow. i. C. cubispora. 
Stromata depressed, dark colored, brown or blackish. 

Stromata clothed below with hairs. 2. C. hirsuta. 

Stromata naked, blackish. 3. C. bicolor. 

I. Chromocreopsis cubispora C Ellis & Holw.) 

Hypocrea cubispora Ellis & Holw. Jour. Myc. i : 4. 1885. 

Stromata scattered, tubercular, margin free, more or less con- 
tracted at the base often becoming substipitate, .5-1 cm. in 
diameter and the same in height, at first very bright lemon- 



64 AIycologia 

yellow and appearing pruinose, color often changing in dried 
specimens, surface scarcely wrinkled when dry, punctate with 
the slightly protruding necks of the perithecia filled with dark 
colored spores ; asci cylindrical, 8-spored ; spores subelliptical or 
cubical, smoky-brown, with 1-2 oil-drops, 5-7 X 4-5 mic. simple 
or occasionally obscurely i-septate (pi. 20, f. 14-1^). 

On decaying wood and bark. 

Type locality : Iowa. 

Distribution : Iowa and Jamaica. 

Specimens examined: Iowa, Holway (type) ; Jamaica, Mur- 
rill 636, 736. 



2. Chromocreopsis hirsuta (Ellis & Everh.) 
Hypocrca hirsuta Ellis & Everh. ; Smith, Bull. Lab. Nat. Hist. 

St. Univ. Iowa 2 : 397. 1893. 

Stromata gregarious or crowded, subhemisplierical, coriaceous- 
carnose, 2-3 mm. in diameter, discoid, obsoletely margined, 
brown, yellowish-white inside, contracted below, centrally at- 
tached, clothed with brown, bristle-like, septate hairs 100-200 X 
4 mic, convex or plane above and slightly roughened by the 
necks of the perithecia ; perithecia buried in the stroma, ovate, 
about 5 mm. high ; asci clavate-cylindrical, swollen at the tip, 
100 X 10 mic. ; spores navicular-oblong or unequally elliptical, 
brown, 7-8 X 3-3-5 mic. 

On bark. 

Type locality: Central America. 

Distribution : Known only from type locality. 

Specimens examined: Nicaragua, B. Shimek 80. 

3. Chromocreopsis bicolor (Ellis & Everh.) 
Hypocrea bicolor Ellis & Everh. Jour. Myc. 4: 58. 1888. 

Stromata gregarious or closely crowded, subpatellate or ir- 
regular from mutual pressure, slightly convex, 1-3 mm. in di- 
ameter, cinereous, becoming dull brownish-black, white within, 
margin free, upper surface wrinkled when dry and punctate with 
the necks of the perithecia ; perithecia subglobose, about .5 mm. 
in diameter; asci cylindrical, 70X5 mic, 8-spored; spores i- 
seriate, elliptical, with 2 oil-drops, smoky-brown, 5 X 2-3 mic. 

On decaying wood. 

Type locality: Manhattan, Kansas. 



Seaver: Hypocreales of North America 65 

Distribution : Kansas and Missouri to Louisiana and Central 
America. 

Specimens examined: Kansas, Kellerman & Swingle (type) ; 
Louisiana, Langlois; Missouri (no name); Nicaragua, Central 
America, Shimek. 

Doubtful Species 
Hypocrca aurantio-cervina Ellis & Everh. Bull. Torrey Club 24 : 

458. 1897. 

This appears to be a Hypoxylon. 
Hypocrea-viridi-rufa Berk. & Rav. ; Berk. Grevillea 4: 14. 1875. 

A note from Kew indicates that this is probably a Hypoxylon. 

28. Byssonectria Karst. Medd. Soc. Fauna Fl. Fenn. 6: 6. 1881 

Perithecia seated in a scant, cottony stroma, subglobose or 
ovoid, vertically collapsing; asci cylindrical, 8-spored; spores i- 
seriate, often overlapping, elliptical, simple or occasionally pseu- 
doseptate. 

Type species : Byssonectria ahdiicens Karst. 

This genus is intermediate between Ncctria and Hypomyces. 
The perithecia and spores are very similar to those of Nectria 
while the trace of a cottony stroma suggests Hypomyces. 

Stroma white ; perithecia violaceous. i. B. violacea. 

Stroma yellow ; perithecia yellowish-brown. 2. B. chrysocoma. 

I. Byssonectria violacea (Schmidt) 

Sphaeria violacea Schmidt; Fries, Syst. Myc. 2: 441. 1822. 
Hypomyces violaceus (Schftiidt) Tul. Ann. Sci. Nat. IV. 13: 14. 

i860. 

Stroma consisting of a thin, white mycelial growth overspread- 
ing the substratum ; perithecia thickly scattered, globose or sub- 
globose, smooth or only minutely roughened, vertically collapsing, 
violaceous; asci cylindrical, 8-spored; spores i-scriate or with the 
ends slightly overlapping, elliptical, simple, granular within, 
6-7 X 2-3 mic. 

On Ftiligo septica. 

Type locality: Europe. 

Distribution : Maine. 

Specimens examined: Maine, Harvey. 



66 Mycologia 

The material here referred to this name corresponds well 
with the description of the species named above except that the 
spores are not septate, although they sometimes have a pseudo- 
septate appearance. 

2. Byssonectria chrysocoma Cooke & Hark. Grevillea 12: loi. 

1884 

Stroma effused, byssoid, golden-yellow ; perithecia minute, 
gregarious, obovate, yellowish-brown, partially immersed in the 
stroma ; asci clavate, 8-spored ; spores 2-seriate, narrowly ellip- 
tical, simple or doubtfully septate, 10-13 X 3 mic. 

On wood of Eucalyptus. 

Type locality: Cahfornia. 

Distribution : Known only from type locality. 

No specimen of this species has been seen, however in notes 
sent from Kew the spore measurements are given and the spe- 
cies seems to have good characters. 

Doubtful Species 

Byssonectria rosella Cooke & Hark. ; Cooke, Grevillea 12 : loi, 

1884. Described from imperfect material. 

Byssonectria fimeti (Cooke) Sacc. Syll Fung. 2: 457. 1883. 
The species was described from material collected by Ravenel. 
This material has been examined by the writer and the only 
ascomycete found was a discomycete. Whether this was mis- 
taken for a Nectria it is difficult to state. 

Hypomyces exiguus Pat. Bull. Soc. Myc. France 18: 180. 1902. 

Stroma byssoid, white ; perithecia globose, extruded, scattered, 
small, 130-160 mic. in diameter, white or slightly yellowish; asci 
numerous, without paraphyses, cylindrical, 30-35 X 3-4 mic, 
8-spored ; spores i-seriate, hyaline, ovoid, smooth, simple, small, 
3-4 X 2 mic. 

On the fructification of Stcmonitis. 

According to the author of the species this is closely related 
to H. violaceus (Schmidt) Tul. No specimen has been seen. 

29. Peckiella Sacc. Syll. Fung. 9: 944. 1891 
PeckieUa Sacc. (as subgenus) Syll. Fung. 2 : 472. 1883. 

Stroma consisting of an effused cottony subiculum, usually 
parasitic on other fungi ; perithecia immersed or partially im- 



1. 


P. viridis. 


2. 

3- 


P. camphorati. 
P. lateritia. 


4- 
5- 
6. 


P. transformans. 
P. Banningiae. 
P. hymenii. 



Seaver: Hypocreales of North America 67 

mersed in the subicnlnm ; asci cylindrical or clavate, 8-spored ; 
spores fusiform, simple, smooth or externally roughened. 

Type species : Sphaeria viridis Albert. & Schw. 

Distinguished from Hypomyces by the simple spores. 

Stroma dirty greenish. 
Stroma not greenish. 

Spores comparatively small, 15-20 mic. long. 
Stroma lemon-yellow. 

Stroma white, becoming pallid or latericeous. 
Spores comparatively large, 30 mic. or more long. 
Spores broad fusiform, rough, apiculate. 
Stroma dull orange ; on Cantharellus. 
Stroma pallid. 
Spores narrow fusiform, smooth, non-apiculate. 

I. Peckiella viridis (Albert. & Schw.) Sacc. Syll. Fung. 9: 

944. 1 89 1 

Sphaeria viridis Albert. & Schw. Conspect. Fung. 8. 1805. 
Hypomyces viridis Berk. & Broome, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 15: 
22. 1865. 

Stroma effused, covering the hymenium and stem of the host, 
dirty greenish or greenish-black; perithecia thickly gregarious 
and immersed or partially immersed in the subiculum ; asci 
cylindrical or slightly clavate, 8-spored, 175-180 X 5-6 mic; 
spores i-seriate or partially 2-seriate above, fusiform with a long 
apiculus at each end, 25-35 X 5 mic becoming delicately verru- 
cose, simple but occasionally appearing obscurely and irregularly 
septate {pi. 21, f. i). 

On the hymenium and stem of agarics, Lactaria and Russula. 

Type locality : Europe. 

Distribution : New England to N. Carolina. 

Illustrations: Albert. & Schw. Conspect. Fung. pi. 6, f. 8; 
Phill. & Plow. Grevillea 8: pi. 130, f. i; Plow. Grevillca 11: 
pi. 152, f. 2. 

Specimens examined: Pennsylvania, Everhart; (Vermont?), 
Burlingham. 

The species is distinguished externally by its dark greenish 
color and internally by the very large, rough, simple spores. 



68 Mycologia 

2. Peckiella camphorati (Peck) 
Hypomyccs camphorati Peck, Bull. N. Y. State Mus. 105: 23. 
1906. 

Stroma consisting of a thin effused subiculuni overspreading 
the hymenium of the host and obliterating the gills, forming an 
even layer, bright lemon-yellow sometimes slightly fading; peri- 
thecia numerous, small, immersed in the subiculum or with the 
ostiola slightly protruding, darker than the subiculum, pale 
brownish; asci cylindrical, 8-spored ; spores i-seriate, fusiform 
with a short apiculus at each end, occasionally blunt at both 
ends, smooth or very minutely rough, 15-20X4 mic. simple 
oozing out and forming a white powder over the surface of the 
stroma {pi. 21, f. 6). 

On the hymenium of Lactaria camphorata. 

Type locality : New York. 

Distribution : New York. 

Specimens examined: New York, Peck (type), Murrill 2678. 

The spores of this species are similar in size and general ap- 
pearance to those of Peckiella lateritia but the species is easily 
distinguished by its bright lemon-yellow stroma. 

3. Peckiella lateritia (Fries) Maire, Ann. Myc. 4: 331. 1906 
Sphaeria lateritia Fries; Kunze, Myc. Heft. 2: 42. 1823. 
Hypomyces lateritius Tul. Ann. Sci. Nat. IV. 13: 11. i860. 
Hypocrea lateritia Fries, Summa Veg. Scand. 383. 1849. 
Hypomyces VuiUeminiamis Maire, Bull. Herb. Boissier 7: 138. 

1899. 
Hypomyces volemi Peck, Bull. Torrey Club 27 : 20. 1900. 
Peckiella V nil I e mini an a Sacc. & Sydow, Syll. Fung. 16: 560. 

1902. 
Peckiella hymenioides Peck, Bull. Torrey Club 34: 102. 1907. 

Stroma effused, more or less cottony, forming an even layer 
on the hymenium and more rarely on the stem of the host, en- 
tirely obliterating the gills, at first white becoming pale yellow or 
yellowish-brown; perithecia thickly scattered, immersed or with 
the necks of the ostiola more or less prominent, darker than the 
subiculum, yellowish or brownish, ovate; asci cylindrical, 8- 
spored, of variable length often attaining a length of 200 mic. ; 
spores fusiform, usually with a distinct apiculus at each end, 
unequal sided, at first smooth, becoming delicately verrucose, 



Seaver: Hypocreales of North America 69 

hyaline or subhyaline, granular within, nucleate or pseudoseptate, 
15-25 X4-5 mic. (mostly 15-20 X 4-5 mic.) {pi. 21, f. 5). 

On different species of gill fungi, especially Lactariae. 

Type locality : Europe. 

Distribution : Vermont to Alabama. 

Illustrations : Tul. Fung. Carp. 2 : pi. 50, /. 5. 

Specimens examined: Alabama, Earle; Connecticut, Earle, 
Tha.vter; N. Jersey, Ellis; Pennsylvania, Everhart; Vermont, 
Bnrlingham. 

While this species is usually described as having i-septate 
spores, there seems to be much dift"erence of opinion on this 
point. Maire* states that he had described Hypomyces Vuille- 
minianus believing it to differ from Hypomyces lateritius in the 
absence of the septum of the spores. Having later collected the 
species commonly and finding the spores to be always non-septate, 
he began to suspect that the description of Hypomyces lateritius 
by Tulasnef was incorrect. This suspicion was later confirmed 
by the examination of the original specimen sent from the 
Museum of Paris. He therefore reunites Hypomyces Vuille- 
minianus Maire and Hypomyces lateritiiis (Fries) Tulasne and 
states that the spores are verrucose and non-septate. The differ- 
ence of opinion as to the presence of the septum in the spores 
of this species seems to be due to the fact that the spore contents 
often separates toward either end giving a septate appearance. 

Hypomyces zwlemi was described by Dr. Peck on Lactaria 
volema and the spores indicated as fusiform, 12-15 X 4 mic, 
and commonly 2-nucleate. I have examined the type of this 
species and can discover no character on which to separate it. 

Peckiella hymenioides was described by the same author on 
Lactaria uvida and the spores described as simple, subfusiform, 
pointed or acute at each end, 12-15 X 4-5 mic. Cotype material 
of this species in good condition has been studied and I find that 
it conforms in every detail with European material which has 
been distributed under the name of Hypomyces lateritius (Fries) 
Tul. 

Since making the above notes I have been permitted to examine 

* Ann. Myc. 4: 331. 1906. 
t Fung. Carp. 3: 63. 1865. 



70 Mycologia 

a specimen of Sphaeria lateritia Fries from the herbarium of 
Fries and this examination has confirmed the observations of 
Maire that the spores of this species are simple. 

4. Peckiella transformans (Peck) Sacc. Syll. Fung. 9: 945. 

1 891 
? Hypomyces insignis Berk. & Curtis ; Berk. Jour. Linn. Soc. 9 : 

424. 1867. 
Hypomyces transformans Peck, Ann. Rep. N. Y. State Mus. 29 : 

57. 1878. 

Subicuhun effused, variable in color, dull orange, ochraceous 
or brick-red ; perithecia numerous, thickly scattered, subglobose, 
partially buried in the subiculum, with a prominent ostiolum, 
amber or orange; asci cylindrical, 8-spored; spores fusiform 
with an apiculus at each end, becoming somewhat rough, simple 
or with the endochrome obscurely divided, hyaline, 32-37 mic. 
long {pi 21, f. 4). 

On Cantharellus ciharius, which it transforms into an irregular 
mass. 

Type locality: Sandlake, N. York. 

Distribution : New York to Massachusetts and Pennsylvania. 

Specimens examined: New York, Peck (cotype) ; Massachu- 
setts, Harkness; Pennsylvania, Everhart. 

The species quite closely resembles Hypomyces Lactifluorum 
(Schw.) Tul. 

5. Peckiella Banningiae (Peck) Sacc. Syll. Fung. 9: 945. 

1891 

Hypomyces Banningii Peck, Bot. Gaz. 4: 139. 1879. 

Stroma white, then sordid, transforming the hymenium of the 
host; perithecia crowded, ovate, with a papilliform ostiolum, 
pale amber or dull yellow ; asci cylindrical, slender, 8-spored ; 
spores i-seriate, fusiform, hyaline, white in mass, 30-35 X 5-6 
mic. becoming delicately roughened externally, with a distinct 
apiculus at each end, simple {pi. 21, f. 2). 

On decaying fungi apparently some Lactaria. 
Type locality: Baltimore, Maryland. 
Distribution : Known only from type locality. 
Specimens examined: Baltimore, Miss Banning (type). 



Seaver: Hypocreales of North America 71 

Specimens from Pennsylvania referred to this name by Mr. 
Ellis are Pcckiella hymenii Peck. 

6. Peckiella hymenii Peck, Bull. N. Y. State Mus. ii6: 28. 

1907 

Subiculum white, overrunning the hymenium of the host and 
obliterating the gills, sometimes interrupted, becoming yellowish 
with age; perithecia minute, ovate, immersed with the ostiola 
protruding, numerous, pale yellow, becoming darker with age ; 
asci cylindrical, 8-spored ; spores i-seriate with ends overlapping, 
fusiform but not apiculate, straight or a little curved or double 
curved, simple, slender, 35-40 X 5 mic, oozing from the peri- 
thecia forming minute whitish masses upon them (/>/. 21, f. 4). 

On the hymenium of species of Lactaria. 

Type locality: New York. 

Distribution : New York to Pennsylvania. 

Specimens examined: New York, Peck (type) ; Pennsylvania, 
Everhart. 

The species is quite distinct in the slender, fusiform, non- 
apiculate spores. 

30. Hypomyces (Fries) Tul. Ann. Sci. Nat. IV. 13: 11. i860 
Hypomyces Fries, Syst. Orbis Veg. 105 (as possible genus). 

1825. 
Nectria Fries, Syst. Orbis Veg. 105 (as possible genus) in part. 

1825. 
Clintoniella (Sacc.) Rehm, Hedwigia 39: 223. 1900. 

Stroma consisting of an effused, cottony subiculum often of 
considerable extent (rarely subpatcllate and subfleshy), occurring 
as a parasite on fleshy fungi or more rarely on old wood, rotten 
leaf mould and other substrata where there is no trace of other 
fungi ; conidial phase variable, represented by species of Sepc- 
doniiDU, Verticillium (Asterophoraf), etc.; perithecia numerous 
usually thickly scattered and immersed in the subiculum, rarely 
subsuperficial or with the necks more or less protruding; asci 
cylindrical, 8-spored; spores fusoid or fusiform, usually with 
an apiculus at each end or ends blunt, i-septate, hyaline, smooth 
or rough. 

Type species: Sphacria Lactifluoriim Schw. 



72 



Mycologta 



Stromata orange, purple or rose-colored. 

Some shade of orange, occasionally purple with age. 
Entirely covering and transforming the hy- 
menium of Laciariae; perithecia entirely 
immersed. 
Forming interrupted patches on wood and fungi 
of various kinds. 
Stromata bright orange, fading with age ; 
perithecia entirely immersed, occurring 
on wood, decaying leaves, etc. 
Stromata dull orange or rust-colored, cot- 
tony ; perithecia subsuperficial, on fungi 
of various kinds. 
Stroma delicately rose-colored, on wood, etc. 
Stromata bright lemon-yellow, amber or pallid. 
Stroma bright lemon-yellow. 

Stroma yellow, cottony ; perithecia reddish, im- 
mersed, on Boleti. 
Stroma and perithecia both lemon-yellow ; 
perithecia subsuperficial. 
Stroma dull yellow or pallid. 

Spores comparatively small, not over 20 mic. 
long. 
Spores unequally septate, rough. 
Spores equally septate, smooth. 

On Coriolus versicolor ; perithecia 

amber. 
On wood and fungi of various kinds ; 
spores showing a tendency to 
separate at the septum. 
Spores large, 18-20 mic. long; 

stroma subpatellate. 
Spores small, 10 mic. long; 
stroma effused, papery. 
Spores very large, 35 mic. long, rough. 



I. H. Lactifluorum. 



2. H. apiculatiis. 



3. H. aiirantius. 

4. H. rosellus. 



S- H. chrysospermiis. 

6. H. aureo-nitens. 

7. H. hyalinus. 

8. H. polyporiniis. 



9. H. citrinellus. 

10. H.papyraceus. 
II H. macrosporns. 



I. Hypomyces Lactifluorum (Schw.) Tul. Ann. Sci. Nat. IV. 

13: II. i860 

Sphaeria Lactifluorum Schw. Schr. Nat. Ges. Leipzig i: 31. 

1822. 
Hypomyces purpureus Peck, Bull. Torrey Club 25: 327. 1898. 

Subiculum thin, effused, covering the hymenium and stem of 
the host and entirely obliterating the gills, bright orange, color 
changing to bright purple as the host decays; perithecia thickly 
scattered, immersed or with the necks slightly protruding, a 
litfle darker than the subiculum ; asci very long, cylindrical, 8- 



Seaver : Hypocreales of North America 73 

spored; spores i-seriate with the ends overlapping, fusiform with 
an apicukis at each end, for the most part shghtly curved or un- 
equal sided, septate, with the septum in the center, hyaline and 
strongly roughened at maturity, 35-40 X 7-8 m\c., oozing from 
the perithecia and forming a white powder over the surface of the 
stroma (pi. 20, f. 5-5, and pi. 21, f. 7). 
♦ Parasitic on species of Lactaria. 

Type locality: N. Carolina. 

Distribution : Maine to N. Dakota and Alabama. 

Illustrations: Ellis & Everhart, N. Am. Pyrenom. pi. 11, f. 
12-14; Bull. N. Y. State Mus. 105 : pi. 103. 

ExsiccATi: Bartholomew; Ellis & Everhart, Fungi Colum- 
biani 1734; Ellis, N. Am. Fungi 46/, 643; Shear, N. Y. Fungi 
89; Wilson & Seaver Ascom. and Lower Fungi 34. Other 
Specimens Examined: Alabama, Earle; Maine, Murrill, 1854, 
2040; N. York, Peck (type of H. purpureus) ; N. Dakota, Sea- 
ver; N. Jersey, Ellis; Ohio, Kelsey; Pennsylvania, Haines, Ever- 
hart & Wood; S. Carolina, Ravenel, Schweinitz (type) ; Tennes- 
see, Murrill. 

Easily distinguished by its bright orange subiculum which en- 
tirely discolors the host. The change of color from orange to 
purple is a noteworthy feature. 



2. Hypomyces apiculatus (Peck) 

Hypocrea apicidata Peck, Ann. Rep. N. Y. State Mus. 29 : 57. 

1878. 
? Hypomyces xylophilus Peck, Bull. Torrey Club 11 : 28. 1884. 
Clintoniella apiculata Sacc. Syll. Fung. 16: 588. 1902, 

Subiculum effused, soft, subfleshy, occurring in irregular 
patches, at first bright orange with the margin sterile and lighter, 
color very variable in dried specimens fading to pale orange, dull 
yellow and finally dirty whitish especially when exposed to the 
light ; perithecia thickly scattered, immersed with the necks pro- 
truding, darker than the subiculum ; asci cylindrical, 8-spored ; 
spores i-seriate with the ends overlapping, fusiform with an 
apiculus at each end, usually a little curved, i-septate and 
slightly constricted, hyaline, 25-35 X 7-8 mic. becoming a little 
rough at maturity (pi. 21, f. 8). 

On decaying leaves, wood, etc. 



74 Mycologia 

Type locality : Catskill Mts., New York. 

Distribution : New York to Virginia. 

Specimens examined: New York, Peck (cotype), Seaver 
(various collections) ; Virginia, Murrill, 4^6, 4^7, 438, 439. 

The present species was not originally described as a Hypo- 
inyces since the plants do not occur on other fungi as is usually 
the case. Dr. Peck (1. c.) sfates : "The spores of Hypocrea 
apiculata resemble those of this {Hyponiyces transformans) and 
other species of Hypomyces but the plant is not parasitic on 
fungi an essential character in the genus Hypomyces as at pres- 
ent defined." After examination of specimens collected by the 
writer and determined by Dr. Peck it was concluded that this 
species was a typical Hypomyces and a note from the same man 
later sustained me in this conclusion. 

The genus Clint oniella (Sacc.) Rehm was based on this species 
and was distinguished from Hypocrea by the fusiform spores. 
The latter genus is therefore not well founded. 

A specimen of Hypomyces xylophilus Peck, collected in Ohio 
by Morgan and which is apparently cotype has been studied. 
This appears to be a faded and rather poor specimen of the above 
species, which often occurs on wood and rubbish of various 
kinds. 

3. Hypomyces aurantius (Pers.) Tul. Ann. Sci. Nat. IV. 

13: 12. i860 
Sphaeria aurantia Pers. Ic. et Descr. 2 : 45. 1800. 
Nectria aurantia Fries, Summa Veg. Scand. 388. 1849. 
? Diplocladiuni minor Bon. Handbk. All. Myk. 98. 1851. 

Subiculum effused, at first whitish, becoming orange or rust- 
colored, often covering an area of 5-8 cm. or in smaller, inter- 
rupted patches ; perithecia thickly gregarious or crowded, orange, 
darker than the subiculum; subconical, with the ostiola strongly 
protruding, occasionally with the subiculum almost wanting in 
weathered specimens ; asci cylindrical, 8-spored, with the spores 
slightly overlapping; spores fusiform, usually a little curved, with 
a medial septum and a short apiculus at each end, becoming 
strongly verrucose at maturity (pi. 21, f. p). 

On decaying fungi of various kinds. 

Type locality: Europe. 



Seaver: Hypocreales of North America 75 

Distribution : Connecticut to Colorado and Cuba. 

Illustrations : Pers. Ic. et Descr. 2 : pi. 11, f. 4-^. 

Specimens examined: Colorado, Cockercll; Connecticut, 
Thaxtcr; Cuba, Earle and MnrrUl joo; Iowa, Scav'er; N. Da- 
kota, Seaver. 

4. Hypomyces rosellus (Albert. & Schw.) Tul. Ann. Sci. Nat. 

IV. 13 : 12. i860 

? Sphaeria rosea Pers. Syn. Fung. 18. 1801. 

Sphaeria rosella Albert. & Schw. Conspect. Fung. 35. 1805. 

Nectria Alhertini Berk. & Broome, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 7 : 14. 

1861. 
Nectria rosella Fries, Summa \tg. Scand. 388. 1849. 
Hypomyces roseus Fuckel, Symb. Myc. 182. 1869. 

Conidial phase (species of Trichothccium and Dactylium) 
forming an effused subiculum often covering an area of 3-8 
cm., cottony, at first whitish becoming rose-colored, lighter near 
the sterile margin; conidia elliptical, hyaline, becoming 1-3-sep- 
tate ; perithecia thickly scattered, darker than the subiculum, 
nearly blood-red, partially immersed in the subiculum, with the 
protruding ostiolum acute or more or less obtuse, often collaps- 
ing; asci cylindrical, 8-spored; spores i-seriate with the ends 
overlapping in the ascus, with an apiculus at each end, i-septate, 
septum medial, hyaline becoming slightly rough at maturity, 
20-30 X 5 mic. (pi. 21, f. 10). 

On fungi, old wood and rubbish probably growing on the 
remains of decaying fleshy fungi. 

Type locality: Germany. 

Distribution : Delaware to N. Dakota, Florida, Louisiana and 
the W. Indies. 

Illustrations: Albert. & Schw. Conspect. Fung. pi. y, f. 5; 
Tul. Fung. Carp. 2 : pi. ^0, f. 6-p. 

Specimens examined: Delaware, Commons; Florida, Martin; 
Louisiana, Langlois 2i'j6; Minnesota, Holway ; N. Dakota, Sea- 
ver; Porto Rico, Goll. 

The species is very distinct in its rose-colored subiculum and 
fusiform spores. 



76 Mycologia 

5. Hypomyces chrysospermus (Bull.) Tul. Ann. Sci. Nat. IV. 

13: 16. 1855 
Reticularia chrysosperma Bull. Herb. France pi. 476, f. 4. 1789. 
Mucor chrysospermus Bull. Hist. Champ, i : 99. 1809. 
Uredo mycophila Pers. Obs. Myc. 16. 1796. 
Sepedonium chrysospermuni Fries, Syst. Myc. 3: 438. 1829. 
Hypomyces holetinus Peck, Bull. N. Y. State Mus. 75: 15. 1905. 

Conidial phase consisting of a golden or lemon-yellow powdery 
mass which covers the substratum often for several cm.; conidia 
globose, golden-yellow, beautifully but delicately echinulate, 
15-18 mic. in diameter; perithecia gregarious or thickly crowded, 
nestling in the yellow subiculum, reddish or reddish-brown; 
asci cylindrical, 8-spored ; spores i-seriate with the ends over- 
lapping in the ascus, fusiform, mostly curved, and becoming when 
mature slightly rough, i-septate, with the septum near one end, 
dividing the spore into two unequal cells with the short cell 
toward the base, 12-15 X 4 mic. {pi. 21, f. 16). 

On species of Boletus. 

Type locality: France. 

Distribution : New York to Connecticut and Virginia. 

Illustrations: Bull. Herb. France pi. 4/6, f. 4; Tul. Fung. 
Carp. 3 : pi 8, f. 1-13. 

Specimens examined: Connecticut, Biirlingham; New York, 
Peck (type of H. boletinus) , Seaver, Galloway; Virginia, Murrill. 

Species very distinct with its bright yellow conidia and dark 
reddish perithecia. The spores in American forms examined are 
smaller than usually indicated for European specimens, however, 
as the spores are quite variable in size and other characters con- 
form well it is likely that the American and European specimens 
are identical. 

6. Hypomyces aureo-nitens Tul. Fung. Carp. 3 : 64. 1865 

Stroma effused, thin, bright golden or lemon-yellow over- 
spreading the host often for a distance of 2 cm. ; perithecia 
seated in the stroma, very much exscrted or subsuperficial, 
thickly gregarious, often crowded, darker in color than the 
subiculum, ovate; asci cylindrical, 8-spored; spores i-seriate with 
the ends overlapping, fusiform with the ends sharply pointed, 
i-septate, with the septum medial, slightly constricted, 15-18 X 4 
mic. (pi. 21, f. 19). 



Seaver: Hypocreales of North America 77 

On old fungi, Polyporiis, Stereum. 

Type locality : Europe. 

Distribution : Ohio. 

Illustrations: Plowright, Grevillea ii: pi. 156. 

Specimens examined: Ohio, Morgan iq, 2J, 57. Also speci- 
mens from the herbarium of Plozvright. 

The spores are a little larger than indicated for the European 
specimens but otherwise they conform well. 

7. Hypomyces hyalinus (Schw.) Tul. Ann. Sci. Nat. IV. 13: 

II. i860 
Sphaeria hyalina Schw. Schr. Nat. Ges. Leipzig i : 30. 1822. 
? Hypomyces V an-Bruntianus Gerard, Bull. Torrey Club 4: 64. 

1873- 
Hypomyces inaequalis Peck, Bull. Torrey Club 25: 328. 1898. 

Peckiella hyalina Sacc. Syll. Fung. 9: 945. 1891. 

Subiculum effused, almost entirely covering the host which is 
often undeveloped, white, palhd or with a tinge of pink or brown- 
ish ; perithecia thickly scattered, immersed or partially immersed 
in the subiculum or with the necks slightly protruding, darker 
than the subiculum, brownish or reddish-brown; asci cylindrical, 
8-spored; spores i-seriate with the ends overlapping, usually 
with a minute apiculus above, or occasionally obtuse, gradually 
tapering below, often slightly constricted and septate near the 
base, at first smooth, becoming strongly verrucose, septation less 
distinct in mature spores on account of the wart-like markings on 
the surface, constriction usually evident, 15-20 X 5-7 mic, hya- 
line or very faintly yellowish (pi. 21, f. 12). 

Type on Russnla foetens, also reported on various other 
agarics which are usually deformed and not easily determined. 

Type locality : N. Carolina. 

Distribution : N. Carolina to Maine. 

Specimens examined: Maine, Fox (type of H. inaequalis) ; 
Massachusetts, Stiirgis; N. Carolina, Schweinits (type), Murrill 
& House. 

The species is well distinguished by the spore characters. 
The above description was drawn from the type in the Schweinitz 
collection at Philadelphia. 

In the herbarium of the N. Y. Botanical Garden is a letter 



78 Mycologia 

dated Sept. 5, 1893, and addressed to Mr. J. B. Ellis by Dr. W. 
C. Sturgis which reads as follows: "I enclose a specimen of 
what I take to be Hypomyces hyalintts Schw. on a species of 
Agaricus collected at Manchester, Mass. There would be no 
doubt about it were it not for the peculiarity in the spores. 
When mature they seem to be unequally uniseptate as in the 
genus Stigmatea. I thought I could distinguish the septum but 
it may be merely due to the absence of the warted surface plainly 
visible on the greater part of the spore surface. I would like 
your opinion on it." 

This peculiarity I had already noticed and described in the 
spores of the type of Hypomyces hyaliniis (Schw.) Tub, before 
finding the above note by Dr. Sturgis. I later compared the 
spores of the specimen collected by Sturgis with Schweinitz's 
type and find them identical. 

Dr. C. H. Peck later described Hypomyces inaequalis and in 
a note stated : " The species is peculiar in having the septum of 
the spores near the base as in the spores of Plowrightia morbosa. 
This divides the spore into two unequal parts and suggests the 
specific name." In the type of this latter species the spores are 
not quite so strongly verrucose but show a tendency to become 
rough and there is no doubt of its identity. 

The spores of Hypomyces Van-Bruntianns Gerard were de- 
scribed as follows : " Spores hyaline, oblong, shortly apiculate at 
the broad end and obtusish at the other, .0006 X .0002' " (15X5 
mic). I have examined a specimen of this species from the 
herbarium of Gerard but was unable to find spores in good con- 
dition for study. The general description of the spores indicate 
that it is a synonym of the above. 

8. Hypomyces polyporinus Peck, Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci. 

i: 71. 1874 
Peckiella polyporina Sacc. Syll. Fung. 9: 945. 1891. 

Subiculum effused, covering the hymenium of the host, en- 
tirely obliterating the pores, whitish or pale yellowish ; perithecia 
numerous, thickly scattered or closely crowded, partially im- 
mersed in the subiculum, amber ; asci cylindrical, 8-sporcd ; spores 
i-seriate with the ends overlapping, fusiform, mostly a little 
curved, smooth, i-septate, 15-20X4-4-5 niic. {pi. 21, f. 77). 



Seaver: Hypocreales of North America 79 

On the hymenium of Coriohis versicolor. 

Type locality : New York. 

Distribution : N. York to N. Jersey and N. Dakota. 

ExsiccATi: Ellis & Everh., N. Am. Fungi 1946; N. Dakota 
Fungi 8; Wilson & Seaver, Ascom. & Lower Fungi jj. Other 
specimens examined : Canada, Macoim; N. Dakota, Seaver (va- 
rious collections) ; N. York, Peck (type) ; N. Jersey, Ellis. 

9. Hypomyces citrinellus (Ellis) 

Hypocrea citrinella Ellis, Bull. Torrey Club 6: 108. 1876. 

Stromata subpatellate, gregarious or scattered, small, 1-2 mm. 
in diameter, fleshy or subfleshy, pale lemon-yellow, upper surface 
punctate with the protruding necks of the perithecia, becoming 
wrinkled in drying; asci cylindrical, 8-spored; spores i-seriate, 
strongly overlapping, fusiform with the ends acute, i-septate, 
strongly constricted at the septum, 18-20 X 4 mic, showing a 
tendency to become disjuncted at the septum, especially when 
removed from the ascus {pi. 21, f. 14). 

On dead bark of Vaccinium. 

Type locality : N. Jersey. 

Distribution : Known only from type locality. 

Illustrations: Ellis & Everh. N. Am. Pyrenom. pi. 11, f. 

4, 5- 

Specimens examined: N. Jersey, Ellis (type). 

The stromata of this species are subpatellate and resemble very 
closely those of some of the common species of Hypocrea. This 
together with the fact that the spores sometimes break apart at 
the septum doubtless explains the reason for the species having 
been placed in the genus Hypocrea by Mr. Ellis. The spores are 
exactly those of a Hypomyces and since the stromata in this 
genus vary from cottony to fleshy we can scarcely do otherwise 
than to include the species with this genus. Mr. Ellis in a later 
description states v'^ " In the original description, the true charac- 
ter of the sporidia was overlooked, the specimens first found being 
rather old and the cells of the sporidia separated." He does not 
however remove it from the genus in which it was originally 
placed. 

* Ellis & Everh. N. Am. Pyrenom. 87. 1892. 



80 AIycologia 

The occasional breaking apart of the two cells of the spores 
is also shown by another species, Hypocrea papyracea Ellis & 
Holw. but in the latter species the stroma is papery and effused. 
The tendency of the spores to separate at the septum seems to 
suggest a Hypocrea while the form of the spores is that of a 
Hypomyces, and the stromatic characters of the two species par- 
takes as much of the one genus as the other. To me it seems 
best to place both species in the genus Hypomyces since the 
form of the spores would suggest a close relationship with the 
other species of this genus. 

10. Hypomyces papyraceus (Ellis & Holw.) 
Hypocrea papyracea Ellis & Holw. Jour. Myc. 2 : 66. 1886. 

Stroma efTused, consisting of a thin, membranaceous mycelial 
growth easily separable from the substratum, of a papery con- 
sistency, very pale yellow or whitish, 2-3 cm. in diameter; peri- 
thecia very minute, about 150 mic. in diameter, subsuperficial, 
reddish and appearing like minute specks on the surface of the 
stroma; asci cylindrical, 8-spored; spores i-seriate with the ends 
overlapping, fusiform, i -septate, strongly constricted at the sep- 
tum and often disjuncted and the cells easily separating, espe- 
cially when removed from the ascus, 10 X 2-3 mic. {pi. 21, f. 75). 

On decaying wood and fungi. 

Type locality : Iowa. 

Distribution : Iowa to Ohio. 

Specimens examined: Iowa, Holway (type); Ohio, Morgan 
(two collections). 

A specimen received from Mr. Morgan of Ohio before his 
death as Hypomyces sp. nov. conforms well with the type of the 
above species. The species is well characterized by the paper- 
like consistence of the stroma as well as by the very small peri- 
thecia and the tendency exhibited by the spores to separate at 
the septum. 

Hypomyces macrosporus sp. nov. 

Stroma consisting of an efifused subiculum entirely covering the 
hymenium of the host and obliterating the gills, pallid or pale 
ochraceous (in dried specimens), covered over with a pale yel- 
low powder (spores) ; perithecia numerous and thickly scattered, 



Seaver: Hypocreales of North America 81 

entirely immersed or with the ostiola shghtly protruding, darker 
than the stroma; asci cyHndrical, 8-spored; spores i-seriate, 
strongly overlapping, fusiform, with an apiculus at each end, 
i-septate, not constricted or constriction so slight as to be scarcely 
noticeable, strongly verrucose, hyaline or very pale yellowish, 
35-40 X 8-9 mic. 

On some gill fungus. 

Type locality: Alabama. 

Distribution : Known only from type locality. 

Epecimens examined : Alabama, Earle & Baker. 

From various descriptions this was at first thought to be 
Hypomyces ochraceus (Pers.) Tul. A note from Leiden how- 
ever states that there is no material of SpJiacria ochracea Pers. 
to be found in Persoon's herbarium. This species was originally 
reported as terrestrial while our specimens are parasitic on gill 
fungi. In the absence of type material it is impossible to state 
what Persoon's specimens really were but the descriptions usu- 
ally represent them as having large, smooth, strongly constricted 
spores. The spores of the present species conform well in size 
but differ in being unconstricted and strongly verrucose. This 
together with its parasitic habits would seem to distinguish our 
species from Persoon's. 

Doubtful Species 
Hypomyces sepulcralis Pat. Bull. Soc. Myc. France 18: 179. 1902. 

Stroma crustaceous, irregular, white to pale ochraceous, thin; 
perithecia subglobose, partially immersed, brown, closely gre- 
garious, ostiola conical, protruding; asci cylindrical, narrow, 120- 
150X5-6 mic, 8-spored; spores i-seriate, fusoid, hyaline, not 
appendiculate, smooth or a little rough, i-septate, and not con- 
stricted at the septum, 10-14 X 4-5 mic. 

On the ground in a cemetery. 

According to the author of the species similar to H. terrestris 
Plow. & Boud. 

Hypocrea viridans Berk. & Curtis; Berk. Jour. Linn. Soc. 10: 

376. 1869. 

Scarcely a line across, composed of thick cylindrical, branched, 
gelatinous threads; spores 2-seriate, fusiform, narrow, .00057 
inch long. 



82 Mycologia 

On leaves of Gesneria. No specimen seen. 

Hypomyces asterophorus Tu\. Fung. Carp. 3: 55. 1865. Perfect 
fruit not known from N. America. 

Sphaeria holeticola Schw. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. II. 4: 210. 1832. 

No specimen could be found in the Schweinitz collection at 

Philadelphia. 
Hypomyces ochraceus (Pers.) Tul. Ann. Sci. Nat. IV. 13: 12. 

The specimens of this species reported from N. America do 

not conform with the original description. No specimen of 

the type could be found at Leiden. 

Hypomyces apiosporus Cooke, Grevillea 12 : 80. 1884. No 
specimen at Kew. Description suggests Hypomyces hyalinus 
(Schw.) Tul. 

Hypomyces tegillum Berk. & Curtis, Grevillea 4: 15. 1875. De- 
scribed from immature material. 

31. Hypocreopsis Karsten, Myc. Fenn. 2: 251. 1873 
Dozya Karsten, Myc. Fenn. 2: 28. 1873 (homonym). 

Stroma tubercular, fleshy, effused, lobate or stellate, superficial ; 
perithecia immersed; asci 8-spored; spores elliptical, usually i- 
septate, hyaline, cells not separating. 

Type species : Sphaeria riccioidia Bolton. 

Distinguished from Hypocrca by the 8-spored asci. 

Stroma stellately lobed or branched. i. H. lichenoides. 
Stroma not stellately branched or lobed. 

Stroma effused, on Tremella. 2. H. tremellicola. 

Stroma patellate, on dead wood. 3. H. consimilis. 

I. Hypocreopsis lichenoides (Tode) 
Acrospermum lichenoides Tode, Fung. Meckl. i : 9. 1790. 
Sphaeria riccioidia Bolton, Fungi Halifax 4: 182. 1791. 
Sphaeria parmelioides Mont. Ann. Sci. Nat. II. 6: 333. 1836. 
Hypocrea parmelioides Mont. Syll. 210. 1856. 
Hypocrca riccioidea Berk. Outl. Brit. Fungi 383. i860. 
Dozya riccioidea Karst. Myc. Fenn. 2: 221. 1873. 
Hypocreopsis riccioidea Karst. Myc. Fenn. 2 : 251. 1873. 
Hypocrea digitata Ellis & Everh. Jour. Myc. i : 42. 1885. 

Stroma radiating from a common center and consisting of 
several much-divided branches or lol)es which extend entirely 



Seaver: Hypocreales of North America 83 

around the substratum ; lobes 2-3 mm. in diameter and sub- 
cylindrical, closely appressed and covering the substratum for a 
distance of 5 cm., color yellowish, becoming brown or brownish- 
black with age, upper surface roughened by the slightly pro- 
truding necks of the perithecia ; perithecia immersed ; asci cylin- 
drical or slightly clavate, 8-spored, 80-90 X 12 mic. ; spores ellip- 
tical, ends obtuse, a little curved, i-septate, not constricted, hy- 
aline, 25 X 10 mic. (pi. 20, f. i~2). 

On partially decayed branches. 

Type locality: Mecklenburg, Germany. 

Distribution : N. Hampshire. 

Illustrations: Bolton, Fungi Halifax 4: pi. 182; Ellis & 
Everh. N. Am. Pyrenom. pi. 11, f. 1-3; E. & P. Nat. Pfl. i^: /. 
244 A.; Tode, Fungi Meckl. pi. 2, f. 15. 

Specimens examined : N. Hampshire, Miss Minns. 

The species is very distinct in the finger-like branching of the 
stroma. 

2. Hypocreopsis tremellicola (Ellis & Everh.) 

Hypocrea tremellicola Ellis & Everh. N. Am. Pyrenom. 85. 1892. 

Stroma effused, more or less cottony, covering the host; peri- 
thecia numerous, immersed with the ostiola slightly protruding, 
darker than the subiculum ; asci cylindrical, 8-spored, 60-75 
mic. long; spores i -seriate, elliptical, slightly smaller toward the 
base, hyaline, i-septate, 7-8 X 3 mic. 

On Tremella albida. 

Type locality : Ohio. 

Distribution : Known only from type locaHty. 

Specimens examined: Ohio, Morgan (type). 

In color and general appearance of the stroma this species 
resembles Hypocrea latizonata Peck but differs in that the asci 
are 8-spored instead of i6-spored. 

3. Hypocreopsis consimilis (Ellis) 
Hypocrea consimilis Ellis, N. Am. Fungi 1^,8. 

Stroma orbicular or elliptical, convex, 2-3 mm. in diameter, 
brick-red, wrinkled, fleshy ; asci clavate to cylindrical, 60-70 X 
3.5-4 mic; spores i-seriate, hyaline, 10-12 X 3-5-4 mic. 

On dead Azalea viscosa. 



84 



Mycologia 



Type locality : N. Jersey. 

Distribution : Known only from type locality. 

Illustrations: Ellis & Everh. N. Am. Pyrenom. pi. ii, f. 

8-9. 

Exsiccati : Ellis, N. Am. Fungi i^8. 

32. Oomyces Berk. & Broome, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 7 : 185. 1851 

Coscinaria Ellis & Everh. Jour. Myc. 2: 88. 1886. 

Perithecia few, vertical, contained in a membranaceous sac- 
like structure; asci cylindrical, 8-spored; spores filiform, continu- 
ous, hyaline, as long as the ascus. 

Type species : Sphaeria cameo-alba Libert. 

I. Oomyces Langloisii Ellis & Everh. Jour. Myc. 2: 88. 1886 
Coscinaria Langloisii Ellis & Everh. N. Am. Pyrenom. 69. 1892. 

Stroma tuberculiform, erumpent, fleshy, .3-5 mm. in diameter, 
pale carneus or horn-colored when fresh, becoming nearly black 
when dry, of a rather close membranaceous texture on the sur- 
face, softer within, surrounded by the ruptured epidermis, con- 
vex above ; perithecia ovate, minute, with thin, transparent walls, 
250-300X150-200 mic. ; asci cylindrical, 150-200X5 mic. ; 
spores filiform, as long as the ascus, hyaline, continuous, i mic. 
thick. 

On dead stems of Viyna luteola. 

Type locality: Louisiana. 

Distribution : Known only from type locality. 

Illustrations : Ellis & Everh. N. Am. Pyrenom. pi. j/, f. 5-p. 

Specimens examined: Louisiana, Langlois (type). 



33. Barya Fuckel, Symb. Myc. 93. 1869 

Perithecia fleshy, becoming hard in drying, seated in a loose 
cottony conidia bearing mycelium; conidia oblong, obscurely i- 
septate, obtuse at the ends ; asci elongated, lanceolate, tapering 
above and bdow, with a globose apex; spores filiform, simple, 
about as long as the ascus, hyaline. 

Type species : Barya parasitica Fuckel. 

Barya parasitica Fuckel. Symb. Myc. 93. 1869 

Perithecia gregarious almost crowded yellowish-white, sur- 
rounded at the base with a white mycelial growtli giving the 



Seaver: Hypocreales of North America 85 

whole cluster which is about 3 or 4 mm. in diameter a decidedly 
whitish appearance ; perithecia ovoid, tapering into a rather long 
neck, almost flask-shaped, rough, 200 X 325 mic. ; asci at first 
very slender tapering above, with a knob-like structure at the 
apex, becoming broader as they mature, about 200 X 5-6 mic. ; 
8-spored; spores filiform, nearly as long as the ascus, simple. 

On Bertia moriforms on wood and (decaying material?) on the 
ground. 

Type locality : Europe. 

Distribution : New York. 

Illustrations: Fuckel. Symb. Myc. pi. 4, f. 18; Peck, Ann. 
Rep. N. Y. State j\Ius. 43 : pi. 4, f. /j to 17; Winter, Rabenh. 
Krypt. Fl. i-: 84, /. 1-4. 

Specimens examined: New York City, Seaver. 

The above description is from a specimen collected by the 
author on Sept. 24, 1906, in a swampy place in New York City. 
The specimen when collected, looked decidedly white to the 
unaided eye and consisted of a rather dense cluster of perithecia 
about 3 or 4 mm. in diameter, each perithecium surrounded by a 
white mycelial growth and the whole cluster growing on some 
kind of decaying material on the ground. The specimen differs 
a little from Fuckel's description in that the. perithecia are of a 
dirty yellowish-white instead of yellowish-green and in the habi- 
tat. But since it was impossible to determine from the specimen 
collected, the kind of material on which the plants were growing 
and as they conform very well in other characters they are 
referred to this name. 

Our specimen is evidently the same as Mr. Peck's variety 
cespitosa.'^ The asci are very long and are characterized by the 
knob-like structure at the apex. Fuckel describes the knob as 
being at the base of the ascus but Mr. Peck states that the knob 
is at the apex as it is also in our specimen. This mistake could 
easily occur however since when the asci are removed from the 
perithecia it is difficult to determine which is the apex and which 
the base. The asci in Fuckel's specimens are described as being 
146 by 8 mic. The asci are variable in length but the measure- 
ments taken here show them to be as long as 200 mic. but the 

* Peck, Ann. Rep. N. Y. State Mus. 43: 79. 1890. 



86 Mycologia 

immature asci are very much smaller. The spores are long and 
very slender and no septa could be distinguished. It is difficult 
to determine the number of spores when enclosed in the ascus 
but occasionally an ascus may be found broken with the thread- 
like spores protruding and in this case they may be easily counted. 
This species is probably rare, 

34. Typhodium Link, Abhandl. Akad. Wissensch. Berl. 1824: 

175. 1826 

Epichloe (Fries) Tul. Fung. Carp. 3: 24. 1865. 

Stroma effused, subfleshy, at first pale becoming bright orange, 
forming rings or sheaths about the stems of grasses; perithecia 
immersed or with the ostiola protruding; asci cylindrical, 8- 
spored ; spores filiform, many-septate. 

Type species : Sphaeria typliina Pers. 

I. Typhodium typhinum (Pers.) 
Sphaeria typhina Pers. Ic. et Descr. i: 21. 1798. 
Sphaeria spiculifera Sow. Engl. Fungi, pi. 2/4. 1803. 
Dothidea typhina Fries, Syst. Myc. 2 : 553. 1822. 
S tro mat sphaeria typhina Greville, Scot. Fl. 4: pi. 204. 1826. 
Cordyceps typhina Fries, Summa Veg. Scand. 381. 1849. 
Epichloe typhina Tul. Ann. Sci. Nat. IV. 13 : 18. i860. 

Stroma effused, subfleshy, at first pale, becoming bright orange, 
forming sheaths 2-5 cm. in length, about the stems of various 
grasses ; conidia elliptical, hyaline, 4-5 X 3 mic. ; perithecia 
thickly scattered, partially to entirely immersed, soft, mem- 
branaceous, sinu'lar in color to the stroma, with a rather promi- 
nent ostiolum; asci cylindrical, very long, 8-sporcd; spores nearly 
as long as the ascus, in a close fascicle, about 2 mic. in diameter, 
many-septate {pi. 20, f. 1/-1S). 

On living grasses : Agropyron diver gens, Agropyron occiden- 
tale, Calaniagrostis canadensis, Dactylis glomerata, Elymus vir- 
ginicus, Ilystrix hystrix, Koeleria cristata, Panicularia nervata 
and Stipa sp. 

Type locality : Europe. 

Distribution : N. York to Washington and Mexico. 

Illustrations: Greville, Scot. Crypt. Fl. pi. 204; Pers. Ic. et 
Descr. i : pi. 7, /. /; Sow. Engl. Fungi pi 2/4. 



Seaver: Hypocreales of North America 87 

. ExsiccATi : Ellis & Everh. N. Am. Fungi i8j; Griffiths, W. 
Am. Fungi, IQ, i8^; Wilson & Seaver, Ascom. & Lower Fungi, 
80. Other specimens examined : Delaware, Commons; Florida, 
Tracy; Iowa, Holway; Missouri, Gallozvay; N. York, Clintons- 
Mexico, (Hokvayf) ; Ohio, Morgan; S. Dakota, Griffiths, Wash- 
ington, Piper; Wisconsin, Davis. 

The hosts cited above are given on the authority of the col- 
lectors as the specimens in most cases are not sufficient for deter- 
mination of the host. Mr. Peck also reports the species on 
Care.v sp. 

Hypocrella Sacc. Michelia i : 322. 1878 
Stromata patellate or effused, bright colored, often becoming 
darker with age, fleshy ; perithecia immersed or with the ostiola 
slightly protruding; asci cylindrical, 8-spored ; spores filiform, 
often many-septate and occasionally separating into segments. 

Type species: Hypocrca discoidca Berk. & Broome. :»owv Iwin. 

Hypocrella Tamoneae Earle sp. nov. 

Stromata scattered, hypophyllous, 1-1.5 mm. in diameter, black 
(at least in aged specimens), suborbicular, crust-like, superficial; 
perithecia crowded, prominent, finally collapsing, 200-250 mic. in 
diameter; ostiola perforate, large, somewhat irregular; asci cy- 
lindrical, short-stipitate, 80-100 X 7-8 mic. ; spores thread-like, 
very slender, equalling in length the ascus, spirally coiled, about 
80 X -75 mic. ; paraphyses numerous. 

On living leaves of Tamonea sp. 

Type locality : Porto Rico. 

Distribution : Known only from type locality. 

Specimens examined: Porto Rico, Underwood & Griggs 
(type). 

Doubtful Species 

Hypocrella Sloaneae Pat. Duss. Enum. Champ. Guadel & Mart. 
80. 1903. 

Stromata ochraceous, whitish, hemispherical, 2-5 mm. in di- 
ameter, covered with the perithecia ; perithecia exserted, ovoid 
of the same color with the ostiola brownish ; asci elongated, 12-15 
mic. in diameter; spores filiform, soon breaking into fusoid seg- 
ments ; segments hyaline, 9-12 X 2-3 mic. 

On the under surface of leaves of a Sloanea. 



>oc. 



88 Mycologia 

Hypocrella phyllogena (Mont.) Speg., Duss. Enum. Champ. 
Guadel. & Mart. 80. 1903. 

Pulvinate, hemispherical, base constricted, orange; perithecia 
peripheral, erect, ovate, ostiola punctiform, bright purple, nesthng 
in a stroma of similar color; spores filiform, breaking into 
segments. 

On leaves of Myrcia octopleura. 

A specimen of this species from the herbarium of Patouillard 
is sterile. 

Excluded Species 
Hypocrella atramentosa (Berk. & Curt.) Sacc. 
Hypocrella Hyphoxylon (Peck) Sacc. 

Doubtful Genera 
Glaziella Berk. Vidensk. Medd. Nat. For. Kjoben. 1879-80: 31 

" Stroma subglobosum laeticolor ; perithecia pallida, gelatina 
repleta." 

Type species : Glaziella vesiculosa Berk. 

Glaziella aurantiaca (Berk. & Curt.) Sacc. Syll. Fung. 2: 

582. 1883 
Xylaria aurantiaca Berk. & Curtis, Jour. Linn. Soc. 10 : 382. 

1868. 

" Subglobosa, inflata, aurantiaca, polita, subtus pallidior, ostiolis 
impressis." 

" On the ground in woods without apparent attachment. The 
specimens are unfortunately not mature, but the species belongs 
to the same category as X. compuncta." 

The species is bright orange in color the dried specimens be- 
coming much faded. The structure resembles the thin skin of 
some fruit and is filled with glands which have been described 
as perithecia. 

A specimen of this species was first referred to the writer by 
Prof. L. M. Underwood having been collected by him as a 
fungus. Owing to the absence of fruit it was impossible to de- 
termine the species and, in fact, we were not entirely convinced 
that it was a fungus although sections seemed to show mycelial 
structure. 



Seaver: Hypocreales of North America 89 

In the winter of 1908 other specimens of the same species were 
collected in Jamaica by Dr. W. A. Mtirrill. During the winter of 
1909 in working over the Hypocreales in the collections of the 
N. Y. Botanical Garden a specimen was found in the Ellis col- 
lection {Cockerel} No. 4p) labeled Hypomyces alholuteus Ellis & 
Everh. To this packet was attached a note stating that it was 
typical Glaziella auranfiaca Berk. & Curtis according to Massee. 
Although somewhat faded in color the specimen is identical with 
specimens collected in the West Indies by Prof. L. M. Under- 
wood and Dr. W. A. Murrill. This species has also been re- 
cently collected in Santo Domingo by Mr. Norman Taylor. 



90 



Mycolckjia 



Explanation of Plate 20 



1-2. Hypocreopsis lichenoides (Tode) Seaver. i, gross characters, natural 

size; 2, portion of ascus with spores, X 350. 
3-5. Hypomyces Lactifiuorum (Schw.) Tul, 3, a gill fungus infected with the 
parasite, natural size ; 4, section through the stroma showing peri- 
thecia, partially diagrammatic ; 5, ascus with spores, X 350- 
6-8. Hypocrea rufa (Pers.) Fries. 6, plants natural size ; 7, section through 

the stroma showing perithecia ; 8, ascus with spores, X 350. 
9—10. Hypocrea latizonata Peck. 9, two plants of Cyathus striatus infected 
with the parasite, natural size; 10, ascus with spores, X 350. 
11-13. Chromocrea gelatinosa (Tode) Seaver. 11, several plants natural size; 

12, ascus with spores, X 350; 13, a single plant enlarged. 
14—15. Chrotnocreopsis cubispora (Ellis & Holw.) Seaver. 14, several plants 
natural size; 15, ascus with spores, X 350. 
16. Podostroma alutaceiim (Pers.) Atk. Two plants natural size. 
17-18. Typhodimn typhinum (Pers.) Seaver. 17, stem of grass infected with 

the parasite; 18, portion of ascus with spores, X 350. 
19-20. Stilbocrea intennedia (Ferd. & Winge) Seaver. 19, plant enlarged ; 20, 
portion of ascus with spores, X 350. 



Mycoukma 



Pi, Ml.. XX 








rt^lM 







iivi'<j(ki:ai-: 



92 



Mycologia 



Explanation of Plate 21 



The spores on this plate were drawn with the aid of the camera kicida, the 
object being to show the comparative size and form of the spores of the 
different species of Hypomyces and Peckiella, X Soo. The drawings are from 
type material where such material is available. In a few cases this could not 
be obtained. 

1. Peckiella viridis (Albert. & Schw.) Sacc. 

2. Peckiella Banningiae (Peck) Sacc. Drawn from type material. 

3. Peckiella transformans (Peck) Sacc. Drawn from cotype. 

4. Peckiella hymenii Peck. Drawn from type material. 

5. Peckiella lateritia (Fries) Maire. Drawn from material obtained from the 

herbarium of Fries and doubtless determined by him. 

6. Peckiella camphorati (Peck) Seaver. Drawn from type material. 

7. Hypomyces Lactiftuorum (Schw.) Tul. Drawn from type material. 

8. Hypomyces apiculatus Peck. From fresh material determined by Dr. Peck. 

9. Hypomyces aurantius (Pers.) Tul. From herbarium material. 

10. Hypomyces rosellus (Albert. & Schw.) Tul. From herbarium material. 

11. Hypomyces macrosporus Seaver. From type material. 

12. Hypomyces hyalinns (Schw.) Tul. Drawn from type material. 

13. Hypomyces aureo-nitens Tul. Drawn from Ohio material. 

14. Hypomyces citrinellus (Ellis) Seaver. Drawn from type material. 

15. Hypomyces papyraceus (Ellis & Holw.) Seaver. From type. 

16. Hypomyces chrysospermus (Bull.) Tul. From herbarium material. 

17. Hypomyces polyporinns Peck. Drawn from cotype material. 



Mycoi.ogia 



Platk XXI 











6 




12 



13 




14 



<:i. 



16 



^ 








Sl'r)RF.S Ol' I'Ki KIKI.I.A AM) IINI'OMYCKS 



(Reprinted from Mycologia, Vol. III., No. 5, September, 191 1.; 



THE HYPOCREALES OF NORTH 
AMERICA— IV 

Tribe IV. Cordycipiteae 

Fred J. Seaver 

(With Plates 53 and 54, Containing 26 Figures) 

Sclerotia formed in the bodies of insects or in the stems of 
plants, consisting of a more or less well-developed, often compact 
and hard mycelial tissue; stromata developing from the sclerotia 
usually after a period of rest, erect and clavate or rarely pulvi- 
nate ; perithecia immersed or subsuperficial (especially in aged 
specimens); asci cylindric ; spores filiform or subfiliform, simple 
or many-septate, often breaking into numerous segments, hyaline. 

Sclerotia formed in the bodies of insects or fruiting organs 

of fungi. 36. CORDYCEPS. 

Sclerotia formed in the tissues of vascular plants. 

Sclerotia originating in the ovaries of plants ; stromata 

long-stipitate. Z7- Spermoedia. 

Sclerotia formed in the stems or fruiting axes of plants ; 

stromata short-stipitate or sessile. 38- Balansia. 

36. CoRDYCEPS (Fries) Link, Handb. 3: 347. x'^n 
Sph-aeria ^Cordyceps Fries, Syst. Myc. 2: 323. 1823. 
Torriibia Lev.; Tul. Fung. Carp. 3: 5. 1865. 

Stromata springing from the sclerotium or resting stage of the 
fungus composed usually of compact mycelial tissue within the 
bodies of insects or more rarely in other fungi, simple or branched, 

207 



208 



Mycologia 



I. C. in Hi tar is. 



2. C. palustris. 



at first (Isaria stage) often delicate, producing conidia, later 
usually clavate, producing perithecia, which are more or less im- 
mersed or more rarely subsuperficial, collected into a globose, 
clavate, or agariciform head supported by a sterile stem, or some- 
times surmounted by a sterile apex ; asci cylindric, 8-spored ; 
spores filiform or subfiliform, many-septate and often breaking 
into segments in the ascus, or more rarely simple and entire. 

Type species, Clavaria iiiilitaris L. 

Sclerotia formed in the bodies of insects or larvae. 

Perithecia collected into a definite, enlarged head, 
usually immersed. 
Stromata large, several cm. high. 
Occurring on larvae or pupae. 
Head fertile to the tip. 
Head clavate. 

Stromata bright-orange ; on 

pupae. 
Stromata brownish ; on larvae. 
Spore segments short, 1.5 

mic. in length. 
Spore segments long, 3-5 
mic. in length. 
Plants stout ; spore 
segments 4-5 mic. 
in length. 
Plants slender ; spore 
segments 3.5 mic. 
in length. 
Head globose or subglobose. 
Plants purplish. 
Plants yellowish. 

Spore segments 4 mic. in 

length. 
Spore segments 6-8 mic. 
in length. 
Head with a sterile apex. 

Plants stout, yellowish ; on white 

grubs. 
Plants slender, brownish ; on 
larvae. 
Occurring on adult insects (wasps). 
Stromata small, less than i cm. high. 

Spores much shorter than the ascus, fusoid ; 

on scale-insects. 
Spores nearly as long as the ascus, filiform ; 
not on scale-insects. 
Plants 3 mm. high, reddish-purple. 12. C.Langloisii. 

Plants 5-9 mm. high, yellowish. 13. C.armeniaca. 



3. C. Raven elii. 

4. C. acicitlaris. 

5. C. insignis. 

6. C. flavella. 

7. C. entoniorrhiza. 

8. C. herculea. 

9. C. stylophora. 
10. C. sphecocephala. 

IT. C. clavulata. 



Seaver: The Hypocreales of North America 209 

Perithecia scattered, becoming subsuperficial. 

Stromata very long and slender, 5 cm. high. 14. C. Sphingum. 

Stromata i cm. or less high. 

Stromata effuse or erect ; perithecia be- 
coming spathulate when dry. 15. C. Cockerellii. 
Stromata erect; perithecia flask-shaped. 16. C.isarioides. 
Sclerotia formed in fungi. 

Stromata agariciform. i7- C. agaricifonnia. 

Stromata clavate. 18. C. parasitica. 



I. CoRDYCEPS MiLiTAKis (L.) Link, Haiidbk. 3: 347. 1833 

Clavaria niiUiaris L. Sp. PI. 1182. 1753. 

Ramaria farinosa Holmsk. Danske Vid-Selsk. Skr. II. i : 299. 

1781. 
Clavaria granulosa Bull. Herb. Fr. pi. 496, f. i. 1790. 
Clavaria farinosa Dicks. PI. Crypt. Brit. 2 : 25. 1790. 
Isaria farinosa Fries, Syst. Myc. 3: 271. 1832. 
Kentrosporium r.iilitare Wallr. Beitr. Bot. 166. 1844. 
Torrubia militaris Tul. Fung. Carp. 3: 6. 1865. 

Sclerotia formed in the pupae of insects, compact, white ; co- 
nidial stage (Isaria) rising from the sclerotium, consisting of a 
slender stalk, and a white, floccose, feather-like head ; stromata at 
maturity consisting of a sterile stem and fertile, clavate head, 
usually simple but more rarely forked or branched, the whole often 
attaining a height of 4-5 cm., but often much shorter, bright- 
orange ; perithecia thickly scattered or crowded, for the most 
part immersed with the necks protruding, or superficial (espe- 
cially in weathered specimens) ; asci cylindric ; spores filiform, 
nearly as long as the ascus, many-septate, breaking apart at the 
septa, giving rise to numerous subellipsoid segments 2-3 mic. long 
(pl- 53 > /• ^o, 11). 

On pupae buried or partially buried in the ground. 

Type locality : Europe. 

Distribution : Massachusetts to North Dakota and Virginia ; 
also in Europe. 

Illustrations: Bull. Herb. Fr. pi. 4<)6, f. i; Fl. Dan. pi. 
6^7, /. 1; Sow. Engl. Fungi pi. 60; pi. 308. 

Specimens examined: Connecticut, Earle; Iowa, Scavcr; 
Massachusetts, Morris; North Dakota, Seaver (Isaria stage 
only) ; New York, Murrill, Seaver; New Jersey, Ellis; Pennsyl- 
vania, Small; Vermont, Burlincjham ; Virginia, Murrill. 



210 Mycologia 

2. CoRDYCEPS PALUSTRis Berk & Br.; Berk. Jour. Linn. 

Soc. i: 159. 1857 

Stromata 1-3 cm. high ; stem 3-4 mm. thick, simple or divided 
into 2-4 short branchlets, even, smooth, brown ; head 1-2 cm. 
long, thicker than the stem, cylindic-ovoid, dull brownish-purple 
or flesh-colored, minutely rough with the slightly protruding 
necks of the perithecia; asci elongate, narrowly cylindric, capitate, 
tapering below into a long, slender pedicel ; spores arranged in a 
parallel fasicle, slightly curved, filiform, hyaline, becoming many 
septate, 100-120 X i niic, the segments 1.5 mic. long {pi- 54, f. 5). 

On moist rotten logs, growing from the larvae of some coleop- 
terous insect. 

Type locality : South Carolina. 

Distribution : Known only from the type locality. 

Illustration : Jour. Linn. Soc. i : pi. i. 

Berkeley in his original description of this species savs : " The 
extremely minute articulations or sporidiola, wathout any other 
character, separate this curious species which has moreover a 
peculiar habit." 

3. CoRDYCEPS Ravenelii Berk. & Curt. ; Berk. Jour. Linn. Soc. 

i: 159. 1857 

Stromata usually solitary, 3-8 cm. high, consisting of a sterile 
stem and fertile head ; stem 2-5 cm. long, grooved or furrowed, 
brownish, becoming nearly black on drying, about 2-3 mm. in 
diameter ; fertile head terminal or more rarely with a sterile apex 
or with the perithecia in patches, with bare, sterile spaces be- 
tween ; perithecia partially immersed, becoming almost entirely 
superficial, giving the fertile portions a very rough appearance, 
similar in color to the stem ; asci very long, cylindric ; spores fili- 
form, nearly as long as the ascus, breaking into segments 4-5 mic. 
long {pi. 54, f. 10). 

Springing from the larvae of coleopterous insects. 

Type locality : South Carolina. 

Distribution: South Carolina to Pennsylvania (and Iowa?). 

ExsiccATi : Rav. Fungi Car. 4: 28. Other specimens ex- 
amined: Pennsylvania, Evcrhart. 

According to Massee, this species has been collected in Texas 
by Wright, also in California by Harkness and is known in the 
western states as the "white grub fungus." While the species 



Seaver: The Hypocreales of North America 211 

seems to have been frequently collected but few specimens are 
available for examination. 

4. CoRDYCEPS AcicuLARis Rav. ; Berk. Jour. Linn. Soc. i: 158. 

1857 
? Tornibia Mclolonthae Tul. Fung Carp. 3: 12. 1865. 
? Tornibia snpcrficiaJis Peck, Ann. Rep. X. Y. State Mus. 28 : 70. 

1857- 
? Cordyccps Mclolonthae Sacc. ]\Iichelia i : 320. 1878. 

Stem simple, elongate, slender, cylindric, often flexuous, 
brownish, minutely velvety at the base, smooth above, 5-8 cm. 
high and 1.5 mm. thick; head cylindric, about 1.5 cm. long and 
3 mm. thick ; perithecia blackish, large, ovoid, subsuperficial ; asci 
subcylindric, capitate at the apex, with a short pedicel below ; 
spores arranged in a parallel fascicle in the ascus, hyaline, filiform, 
straight or curved, many-septate, 130X2.5 mic. ; segments 3.5 
mic. long (pi. 54, f. p). 

On larvae buried in the ground. 

Type locality : South Carolina. 

Distribution*: South Carolina (and Xew York?). 

Illustrations: Jour. Linn. Soc. i: pi. i; Ann. Bot. 9: pi. 2, 

f. 27, 28. ■ 

Exsiccati: Rav. Fungi Car. 4: 2g (as Cordyccps caroliucnsis 

Berk. & Rav.). 

Berkeley says: "This species is closely allied to C. Ravenelii 
but the habit is very different. I can find no essential difference 
in the fruit." 

Massee also regards C. Ravenelii as scarcely more than a 
variety of the present species. 

Mr. Peck (1. c.) states that T. snpcrficialis is "related to and 
intermediate between T. Ravenelii and T. carolincnsis." It is 
not unlikely that a more extended study will show the three 
species to be identical. 

5. Cordyceps insigxis Cooke & Rav.; Cooke, Grevillea 12: 38. 

1883 

Stromata 4-6 cm. long, purple; stem 7-8 mm. thick, equal, 
pallid, sulcate (when dry), very minutely velvety at the base ; head 
broadly ovoid. 1.5 cm. in length, very slightly roughened by the 



2 1 2 Mycologia 

necks of the slightly protruding perithecia; asci narrowly cylin- 
dric, slightly constricted below the capitate apex, narrowed below 
into a slender stem-like base ; spores arranged in a parallel f aside, 
slightly twisted, hyaline, filiform, many-septate, wavy when free, 
170-180 X 15 mic, separating readily into segments in the ascus ; 
segments 6-7 mic. long. 

On larvae on the ground. 

Type locality : South Carolina. 

Distribution : Known only from the type localitv. 

6. CoRDYCEPS FLAVELLA Berk. & Curt. ; Berk. Jour. Linn. Soc. 

10: 375. 1868 

Stromata gregarious, 3-5 springing from nearly the same point ; 
stem 2.5-3 cm. long, about i mm. thick, straight or more or less 
curved or fiexuous, even and smooth ; head globose, roughened 
by the necks of the protruding perithecia, 2 mm. in diameter, sim- 
ilar in color to the stem ; asci elongate, narrowly cylindric, capitate 
at the apex, narrowed below into a slender pedicel ; spores 
arranged in a fascicle, filiform, many-septate, 80 X i niic. ; com- 
ponent cells about 4 mic. long. 

Growing from a caterpillar. 

Type locality: Cuba. 

Distribution : Cuba. 

Illustrations : Ann. Bot. 9 : pi. 2, f. 'j-io. 

7. CoRDYCEPS entomorrhiza (Dicks.) Link, Handbk. 3: 347. 

1833 
Sphaeria entomorrhiza Dicks. PI. Crypt. Brit, i : 22. 1785. 
Xylaria gracilis Grev. Scot. Crypt. Fl. pi. 86. 1823. 
Torriibia entomorrhiza Tul. Fung. Carp. 3 : 14. 1865. 
Cordyceps Menesteridis Muell. & Berk. ; Berk. Gard. Chron. IL 

10: 791. 1878. 

Stromata consisting of a sterile stem and a subglobose fertile 
head; stem very slender, 2-8 cm. long, yellowish; head 5-8X4 
mm., golden-yellow, darker with age, roughened by the prominent 
necks of the perithecia ; perithecia ovoid, immersed or partially 
immersed ; asci cylindric, 6.5-7 "lie. thick ; spores filiform, many- 
scptatc, hyaline, finally separating into segments 6-8 mic. long 

i.pl-53>f-7)- 
On larvae of insects. 



Seaver: The Hypocreales of North America 213 

Type locality : Europe. 

Distribution : South Carolina ; also in Europe, Asia, Africa, 
and Australia. 

Illustrations : Dicks. PI. Crypt. Brit. pi. 5, /. 5; Card. Chron. 
II. 10: 791, /. 130; Tul. Fung. Carp. 3: pi i, f. 12-14; Grev. 
Scot. Crypt. Fl. pi. 86. 

8. CoRDYCEPS herculea (Scliw.) Sacc. Syll. Fung. 2: 577. 1883. 

Sphacria herculea Schw. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. II. 4: 188. 1832. 

Stromata large, attaining a height of 5-7 cm. ; stem yellowish or 
tan-colored; head enlarged and more than i cul thick, with the 
fertile portion often interrupted, leaving bare patches and in 
the specimens examined terminated by a short, obtuse apex ; fer- 
tile portion roughened by the slightly prominent necks of the peri- 
thecia; asci cylindric, as long as 200-225 mic. ; spores filiform, 
nearly as long as the ascus, many-septate, separating into joints 
6-8 mic. (pi 33, f. 6). 

On larvae (white grubs). 

Type locality: Salem, North Carolina. 

Distribution : Connecticut to Ohio and North Carolina. 

Specimens examined: Ohio, Morgan; Georgetown, D. C, 
Billings. 

9. CoRDYCEPS STYLOPHORA Berk. & Br. ; Berk. Jour. Linn. Soc. 

i: 158. 1857 

Stromata solitary, dull-brownish, consisting of a sterile stem 
and fertile head, with a long sterile apiculus, the entire plant 2-3 
cm. high ; stem straight or fiexuous, more or less velvety, lon- 
gitudinally wrinkled when dry ; fertile head slightly roughened by 
the protruding perithecia ; sterile apiculus i cm. or more long. 
asci cylindric or slightly constricted below the capitate apex ; 
spores arranged in a fascicle, filiform, curved when free, many- 
septate, 125-135 X I mic; segments 3.5 mic. long {pi. 34, f. i). 

On larvae in rotten logs. 

Type locality : South Carolina. 

Distribution : Michigan and South Carolina. 

Illustrations: Jour. Linn. Soc. i: pi. i; Ann. Bot. 9: pi. 2, 

f. 40-42. 

Exsiccati : Rav. Fungi Car. 5 : 49. 



214 Mycologia 

10. CoRDYCEPS SPHECOCEPHALA (Klotzsch) Masscc, Anil. Bot. 

9: 13. 189s 

SpJiacria sphccoccphala Klotzsch ; Berk. Loud. Jour. Bot. 2 : 206. 

1843. 
Torruhia sphecocephala Tul. Fung. Carp. 3: 18. 1865. 
Cordyccps sphccophila Berk. & Curt. ; Berk. Jour. Linn. Soc. 10 : 

376. 1868. 

Stromata 2-5 cm. high, consisting of a slender, sterile stem and 
a fertile head ; stem pale-yellow, fibrous, often slightly twisted, 
0.5-1 mm. thick ; head enlarged, clavate, 5-8 mm. in length and 
1.5-2 mm. in thickness, roughened by the slightly protruding necks 
of the perithecia ; perithecia immersed, scattered, prominent ; asci 
very long, c}lindric ; spores nearly as long as the ascus, breaking 
into fusoid segments 9-10 mic. long (pi. 5_/, /. 5--/). 

Springing from the bodies of wasps. 

Type locality : Jamaica. 

Distribution : West Indies. 

Illustrations: Tul. Fung. Carp. 3: pi. i, f. 5-p. 

Specimens examined: Cuba (specimen given by Mel. T. 

Cook) ; also collected by A'. L. Briitou and Percy Wilson. 

II. CoRDYCEPS CLAVULATA Schw. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. II. 

4: 188. 1832 

Cordyceps pistillariaeformis Berk. & Br. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 

III. 7: 451- 1 861. 

Tornibia pistiUariaeformis Cooke, Handbk. Brit. Fungi 771. 

1871. 
Torruhia clavulata Peck, Ann. Rep. N. Y. State Mus. 28: 70. 

1876. 

.Sclerotia formed in the bodies of dead scale-insects ; stromata 
slender, clavate, at first sterile, at maturity with an enlarged, cla- 
vate, fertile head and a slender, sterile stem, the whole 3-4 mm. 
high, 3-8 springing from a single sclerotium ; stem slender, 1-2 
mm. long, grayish or cinereous; head thicker, darker in color and 
strongly roughened b}- the protruding necks of the perithecia ; asci 
clavate, broader near the middle, 80-100 X 8-10 mic. ; spores 
much elongate, subfiliform, broader near the base and tapering 
toward either end, 7-8-septate about 50-80 mic. long, 3 mic. thick 
at the broadest point, hyaline (pi. 55, /. 1-3). 

On dead scale-insects on the branches of various kinds of trees 

and shrubs. 



Seaver: The Hypocreales of North America 215 

Type locality : Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. 

Distribution : New York and Xew Jersey to North Dakota. 

Illustrations: Ann. ^lag. Nat. Hist. III. 7: pi 16, f. a-c; 
Ellis & Everh. N. Am. Pyrenom. pi. ij, f. 11-13. 

ExsiccATi : Ellis & Everh. N. Am. Fungi 2814. Other speci- 
mens examined: Delaware, Commons; New York, Peck; North 
Dakota, Seaver; Ontario, Deanicss. 

12. Cordyceps Langloisii Ellis & Everh. N. Am. Pyrenom. 62. 

1892 

Stromata solitary, simple, consisting of a sterile stem and a sub- 
globose head, the entire plant about 3 mm. high ; stem i mm. thick, 
cylindric or subcompressed ; head capitate, at first white, becoming 
reddish-purple, the upper convex surface fertile ; perithecia tough- 
membranaceous, ovoid-conic, 100-150X200-300 mic, partially 
immersed in the stroma ; asci very long, subcylindric ; spores fili- 
form, interwoven, nearly as long as the ascus, less than 0.5 mic. 
thick. 

On dead larvae of the mason wasp. 

Type locality : St. ^^lartinsville, Louisiana. 

Distribution : Known only from the type locality. 

Specimens examined: Louisiana, Langlois (type). 

13. Cordyceps armeniaca Berk. & Curt. ; Berk. Jour. Linn. Soc. 

i: 158. 1857 

Stromata solitary or 2 or 3 springing from nearly the same 
point, 5-9 mm. high, consisting of a sterile stem and a fertile 
head ; stem about i mm. thick, often flexuous and twisted, pale 
orange with a tinge of pink ; head subglobose, 2-t, mm. in 
diameter, apricot-colored, roughened by the slightly protruding 
necks of the perithecia ; asci long, cylindric-clavate, capitate, with 
a slender pedicel below ; spores in a fascicle, slightly curved when 
free, filiform, becoming many-septate, 80-85 X i mic, breaking 
into segments 3 mic. long (pi. 57, /. 2). 

On the excrement of birds (probably containing insect 
remains). 

Type locality : South Carolina. 

Distribution : South Carolina. 

Illustrations: Jour. Linn. Soc. i: pi. i, f. i; Ann. Bot. 9: 
pi. 2, f. 18. 



216 Mycologia 

14. CoRDYCEPS Sphixgum (Schw.) Berk. & Curt.; Berk. Jour. 

Linu. Soc. 10: 375. 1868 

Isaria Sphingnin Schw. Schr. Xat. Ges. Leipzig i : 126. 1822. 

Torriihia Sphitiguui Tul. Fung. Carp. 3: 12. 1865. 

Stromata numerous, as many as thirty often springing from a 
single sclerotium, very slender and thread-like, about 5 cm. high 
and I mm. in thickness, cinereous, smooth or slightly pruinose, 
enlarged at the base, more or less bent above ; perithecia subsuper- 
ficial, subconic, 125-150 X 200-225 mic. brownish; asci elongate, 
cvlindric ; spores filiform, as long as the ascus, about 2 mic. thick 

(>/. 5-/. f- II)- 
On dead larvae in cocoon. 

Type locality : North Carolina. 

Distribution : New Jersey to North Carolina. 

Illustrations: Ellis & Everh. N. Am. Pyrenom. pi. 13, f. 4-7; 

Tul. Fung. Carp 3 : pi. i, f. i, 2. 

Specimens examined: New Jersey, Ellis. 

15. CoRDYCEPS CocKERELLii (ElHs & Everh.) Ellis; Cockerell, 

Jour. Inst. Jamaica i : 180. 1893 
Ophioucctria Cockerellii Ellis & Everh. ; Ellis, Jour. Inst. Jamaica 
1 : 141. 1892. 

Stromata efifuse, spreading over and almost covering the sub- 
stratum, or erect and 1-2 mm. high, yellow ; perithecia occurring 
in cespitose rounded or irregular clusters, or scattered, subsuper- 
ficial or nestling in the substratum ; individual perithecia elongate, 
flask-shaped or cylindric, about i mm. high and 0.5 mm. in 
diameter, reddish-brown or slightly translucent, smooth, at ma- 
turity collapsing laterally, becoming spathulate in form ; asci very 
slender, about i mic. thick, breaking up into short segments 
(pl.34,f-6-S). 

On the l)ody of a sphingid moth. 

Type locality : Jamaica. 

Distribution : Jamaica. 

Specimens examined: Bath, Jamaica, Mrs. Sivaiiisoii (Type). 

This species, which is said by Professor Cockerell to occur on 
a sphingid moth, is similar in perithecial and spore characters to 
C. Sphiiu/itiii. The stromata in this species, however, are effuse 
or very short while in C. Spliiiigiiiii they are very long and 
slender. This mav be onh- a variation of the former species. 



Seaver: The Hypocreales of North America 217 

i6. Cordyceps isarioides M. A. Curtis.; Massee, Ann. Bot. 9: 

36. 1895 

Stromata gregarious, springing from a dense, white mycelium 
which ahnost entirely covers the host, 4-8 mm. high, about 1.5 
mm. thick, cylindric, almost smooth, even, ochraceous (when 
drv), sometimes slightly curved; fertile portion 3-6 mm. long, 
cyiindric, obtuse, axial portion not thicker than the stem ; peri- 
thecia subsuperficial, large, flask-shaped, with elongate necks, 
ochraceous, crowded, spreading on all sides at right angles to the 
axis ; asci narrowly cylindric slightly capitate, the base narrowed 
into a slender pedicel; spores filiform, continuous, flexuous when 
free, hyaline, 125-135 X i-5 mic, arranged in a parallel fascicle 
in the ascus (/>/. 34, f. 12). 

Growing from the remains of a moth. 

Type locality : United States. 

Distribution : Known only from the type locality. 

Illustrations: Ann. Bot. 9: pi. 2, f. 36-sp. 

17. Cordyceps agariciformia (Bolt.) Seaver, N. Am. Fl. 3: 

53- 19T0 
Sphacria agariciformia Bolt. Hist. Fung. 130. 1789. 
Clavaria capitata Holmsk. Topsv. 38. 1790. 
Cordyceps capitata Link, Handbk. 3 : 347. 1833. 
Torntbia capitata Tul. Fung. Carp. 3: 22. 1865. 
Cordyceps canadensis Ellis. & Everh. Bull. Torrey Club 25: 501. 

1898. 
Cordyceps nigriccps Peck, Bull. Torrey Club 27: 21. 1900. 

Stromata occurring singly or in clusters of several each, 3-8 cu. 
high, consisting of a sterile stem and an ovoid or capitate, fertile 
head; stem uniform in thickness or a little thicker below, fibrous, 
yellowish, becoming nearly black (in dried specimens), smooth; 
head ovoid or agariciform, about i cm. in diameter, reddish- 
brown, becoming nearly black, roughened by the slightly pro- 
truding necks of the perithccia ; pcrithecia immersed, but promi- 
nent ; asci very long, cylindric, about 15 mic. thick; spores fili- 
form, nearly as long as the ascus, finally breaking into segments, 
subhyaline, fusoid or oblong-ellipsoid, with the ends rounded, 
20-40 X 4-5 mic. 

V2iV2iS\\.\c on Sclerodcrnia (?) and Elaphoniyccs. 

Type locality : England. 

Distribution : Maine to Ontario and Florida. 



218 Mycologia 

Illustrations: Bolt. Hist. Fung. />/. /50; Tul. Fung. Carp. 
3 : pi. 2, f. JO-ij); Pers. ]\l}c. Eur. i : pi. 10, f. /-?. 

ExsiccATi : Rav. Fungi Am. 56"/ ; Rav. Fungi Car. 5 : 48. 
Other specimen.s examined: Delaware, Commons; Florida, Cal- 
kins; Maine, Miss White; Massachusetts, Britten; New Jersey.. 
Ellis. 

18. CoRDYCEPS PARASITICA (Willd.) Scavcr, N. Am. Fl. 3: 

53- 1910 
Clavaria parasitica \\^illd. Fl. Berol. 405. 1787. 
Clavaria radicosa Bull. Herb. Fr. pi. ./ fo. f. 2. 1789. 
Sphaeria ophioglossoidcs Ehrh. ; Pers. in Holmsk. Coryph. 144. 

1797. 
Sphaeria radicosa DC. Fl. Fr. 2: 283. 1805. 
Cordyceps ophioglossoidcs Link. Handb. 3: 347. 1833. 
Tornihia ophioglossoidcs Tul. Fung. Carp. 3: 20. 1865. 

Stromata solitary or very rarely cespitose, consisting of a 
slender, sterile stem and an enlarged, clavate, fertile head ; stem 
olivaceous, longitudinally striate, becoming very dark colored in 
dried specimens, sending out numerous branching root-like fibers 
which surround the substratum and extend for some distance into 
the surrounding soil ; head clavate, much enlarged, tapering often 
both above and below, dark-brown, becoming nearly black on 
drying and roughtened by the protruding perithecia ; perithecia 
thickly scattered, immersed or slightly protruding; asci very lom^, 
often 300 mic, and 8-10 mic. in diameter; spores filiform, nearly 
as long as the ascus, many-septate and often breaking into seg- 
ments ; segments short, a little longer than broad, about 3-4 X 2-3 
mic. [pi. s^?. /. 12-1^ ). 

On species of Elaphomyccs. 

Type locality : Europe. 

Distribution : Ontario to Rhode Lsland and Virginia ; also in 
Europe. 

Illustrations: Willd. Fl. Berul. pJ. 7, /. i"^; Bull. Herb. Fr. 
pi. 440, f. 2. 

Specimens examined: Maine, Uavvcy; New Jersey. Ellis; 
New York, Undcrzcood ; Ontario, Dcarncss: l^ennsylvania, 
Haines, E7'crhort & Jcffcrics; Rhode Island, Farloiv; Virginia, 
Miirrill. 



Seaver: The Hypocreales of North America 219 

Doubtful Species 

Cordycc^s alhcJla ]\Iassee, Ann. Bot. 9: 39. 1895. The 
species was based on imperfectly developed material. 

Cordyceps albida Berk. & Curt.; Cooke, Grevillea 12: 78. 
1884. On crickets in Cuba. ^Iv. Cooke states : " Too imperfectly 
developed for description." 

Cordyceps caloceroidcs Berk. & Curt. ; Berk. Jour. Linn. Soc. 
10: 375. 1868. 

Cordyceps Cicadae (!Miq.) Massee, Ann, Bot. 9: 38. 1895. 
Isaria Cicadae ^Hq. Bull. Sci. Phys. Nat. Neerl. 1838: 85. 1838. 
Torrubia Miquelii Tul. Fung. Carp. 3: 11. 1865. Cordyceps 
Miqiielii Sacc. ]\Iichelia i : 320. 1878. This species, which 
occurs on the larvae of Cicada, has been reported as occurring in 
the United States. 

Cordyceps sobolifcra (Hill.) Sacc. Michelia i: 321. 1878. 
Clavaria sobolifera Hill.; W. Wats. Phil. Trans. 53: 271. 1764. 
Torrubia sobolifera Tul. Fung. Carp. 3 : 10. 1865. Sphaeria 
sobolifera Berk. Lond. Jour. Bot. 2: 207. 1843. On larvae of 
Cicada. ^Massee reports this species as occurring in the West 
Indies {pi. 54, f. 13). 

37. Speraioedia Fries, Syst. Myc. 2 : 268. 1822 

Sphacelia Lev. Mem. Soc. Linn. Paris 5 : 578. 1827. 
Kentrosporium Wallr. Beitr. Bot. 163. 1844. 
Claviceps L. Tul. Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris 33: 646. 185 1. 
Sclerotia formed in the inflorescence of various grasses and 
sedges, at first consisted of a soft mass of mycelium which pro- 
duces conidia often accompanied with a saccharine fluid, at 
maturity hard, subglobose subcylindric or horn-shaped, purplish- 
black externally, white within ; stromata developing from scler- 
otium after a period of rest, consisting of a sterile stem and 
fertile head ; head ,3ubglobose, grayish, reddish-brown, or yellowish 
margin often partially free ; perithecia flask-shaped, immersed in 
the stroma or with the necks slightly protruding; asci cylindric, 
usually capitate, 8-spored; spores filiform, nearly as long as the 
ascus simple, hyaline. 

Type species : Sclerotimn Clavus DC. 

Little is known of the species of this genus. The following is 
a list of those which have been recognized for North America. 



220 Mycologia 

Sclerotia subcylindric, horn-shaped, or clavate. 
Sclerotia in the inflorescence of grasses. 
Sclerotia purplish-black. 

Sclerotia large, 1-2 cm. long. i. 5. Clavus. 

Sclerotia small, not more than 5 mm. long. 2. S. microcephala. 

Sclerotia cinereous. 3. S. cinerea. 

Sclerotia formed in the inflorescence of sedges. 4. 5". nigricans, 

Sclerotia subglobose, or conical. 
Occurring on Paspalum. 

Perithecia 340 X 119 mic. 5. S.Stevcnsii. 

Perithecia 816 X 225 mic. 6. S.Rolfsii. 

Occurring on Tripsacum dactyloides. 7. 5". Tripsaci. 



I. Spermoedia Clavus (DC.) Fries, Syst. Myc. 2: 268. 1822 

Sclerotium Clavus DC. Fl. Fr. 6: 115. 1815. 

Sphaeria purpurea Fries, Syst. Myc. 2 ; 325. 1823. 

Sphacelia Segetum Lev. Mem. Soc. Linn. Paris 5 : 578. 1827. 

Claznceps purpurea L. Tul. Ann. Sci. Nat. IIL 20: 45. 1853. 

Sclerotia formed in the young ovaries of various species of 
grasses, at first soft and viscid, at maturity hard, purplish-black 
externally, whitish within, 1-2 cm. long; stromata often as many 
as 20-30 from a single sclerotium ; stem very slender, flexuous or 
spirally twisted and of a dark-brownish color; head subglobose 
with the margin partially free, about 1-2 mm. in diameter, red- 
dish-brown in color and roughened by the slightly protruding 
necks of the perithecia ; perithecia entirely immersed or very 
slightly protruding, flask-shaped, 150-175X200-250 mic; asci 
very long, cylindric, 100-125 X 4 mic 

In the inflorescence of rye, and of other wild and cultivated 
grasses. 

Type locality : France. 

Distribution : New York to Montana and Utah, and probably 
throughout North America ; also in Europe. 

Illustrations: Ann. Sci. Nat. III. 20: pi. i, 2, 5; Rab. Krypt. 
Fl. i2 : /. i-y, E. & P. Nat. Pfl. i^ : /. 24J, B-L. 

Exsiccati : Ellis & Everh. Fungi Columb. 1614, 1816, 2216, 
132^; D. Griff. W. Am. Fungi 42; Brenckle, Fungi Dak. 4. 
Other specimens examined : Colorado, Tracy; Kansas, Bartholo- 
mew'; Montana, Anderson, Kclsey; Ohio, Craig; Wisconsin, 
Davis, Panuncl, T. .1. JJ'illiams. 



Seaver: The Hypocreales of North America 221 

2. Spermoedia microcephala (\Vallr.~) Seaver, N. Am. Fl. 3: 

55- 1910 
Kentrosporium microccphahim Wallr. Beitr. Bot. 164. 1844. 
Sphaeria microcephala Wallr. Beitr. Bot. 164, as syn. 1844. 
Claviceps microcephala L. Tul. Ann. Sci.Nat. III. 20: 49. 1853 
Sclerotia not exceeding 5 mm. in length ; apparently differing 
from the preceding species only in the smaller size of the sclerotia 
and stromata. 

In the inflorescence of various grasses ; American specimens on 
Calamagrostis seem to conform with descriptions of this species. 

Type locality: Europe. 

Distribution : North Dakota ; also in Europe. 

Illustrations : Wallr. Beitr. Bot. pi. j, /. 10-16; Ann. Sci. 
Nat. III. 20 : pi. 4, f. i-ii. 

Exsiccati : Brenckle, Fungi Dak. 4. 

3. Spermoedia cinerea (D. Griff.) Seaver, N, Am. Fl. 3: 55. 

1910 

Claviceps cincrciiin D. Grift". Bull. Torrey Club 28: 240. 1901. 
Sclerotia clavate, gradually tapering upwards, straight, curved, 
twisted, or contorted, 1.5-3 cm. long and 1.75-2.5 mm. thick at 
the base, very viscid while developing, the base permanently in- 
vested by the flowering glumes of the host, dark-gray at the base, 
gradually fading to very light-gray or almost white at the apex ; 
stromata erect, erumpent; stem cylindric or slightly fusiform, 
short, stout, almost white ; head slightly flattened below and 
overlapping the upper end of the stalk, 2-3 mm. in diameter, 
light-gray, almost smooth, viscid, covered w-ith small, darker 
points indicating the position of the perithecia ; perithecia im- 
mersed, ovoid or subovoid, 190-225 X 60-90 mic. ; asci narrowly 
cylindric, slightly narrowed below into a rather long, stout pedicel 
and slightly enlarged at the point of attachment, 135-150 X 4-5 
mic. 

Growing on the inflorescence of species of Hilaria. 
Type locality: Cochise, Arizona. 
Distribution : Known only from the type locality. 
Illustrations : Bull. Torrey Club 28 : 238, /. 1-2. 
Exsiccati : D. Griff. W. Am. Fungi p/. 



222 Mycologia 

4. Spermoedia nigricans (Tul.) Seaver, N. Am. Fl. 3: 

55- 1910 
Claviceps nigricans Tul. Ann. Sci. Nat. III. 20: 51, 1853. 

Sclerotia formed in the inflorescence of the host, 3-5 in a 
single spikelet, subcylindric or curved, often slightly flattened, 
brownish to purplish-black externally, white within, longitudinally 
striate ; stromata not seen in American specimens. 

On species of spike-rush (Elcocharis). 

Type locality : Europe. 

Distribution : North Dakota and South Dakota ; also in 
Europe. 

Illustrations: Ann. Sci. Nat. III. 20: pL 4, f. 15-22. 

ExsiccATi : D. Griff. W. Am. Fungi 10. Other specimens 
examined: North Dakota, Brenckle. 

5. Spermoedia Stevensii nom. no v. 

? Sclcrotiiun Paspali Schw. Schr. Nat. Ges. Leipzig i : 268. 1822. 
? Spermoedia Paspali Fries, Syst. Alyc. 2: 268. 1822. 
Claviceps Paspali Stevens & Hall, Bot. Gaz. 50 : 462. 1910. 

Sclerotia yellowish to gray, globose, roughened when mature, 
about 3 mm. in diameter ; head dull yellow ; stipe short to medium 
usually not more than i cm. long ; perithecia completely covering 
the head, numerous, ovoid, 340X119 mic. ; asci cylindric, 174 
mic. long; spores filiform, loi X 0.5-I mic. 

On species of Paspahnn. 

Type locality: North Carolina. 

Distribution : Known only from the type locality. 

Illustrations : Bot. Gaz. 50 : 460, /. i, and 461, /. 2, j, 5. 

6. Spermoedia Rolfsii (Stevens & Hall) 

Claviceps Rolfsii Stevens & Hall, Bot. Gaz. 50 : 462. 1910. 

Sclerotia yellowish to gray, globose, roughened when mature, 
about 3 mm. in diameter; head dull yellow; stipe filiform, 1-1.5 
cm. long; perithecia few in head and mostly upon extreme distal 
portion, cylindric-ovate, 816X225 mic; asci cylindric, 375X3 
mic. ; spores filiform, 260-275 X 0.5-1 mic. 

On species of Pa-spalnni. 

Type locality: North Carolina. 

Distribution : Known only from the type locality. 

Illustr.\tions : Bot. Gaz. 50: 461, /. 5, 4. 



Seaver: The Hypocreales of North America 223 

7. Spermoedia Tripsaci (Stevens & Hall) 

Claviccps Tripsaci Stevens & Hall, Bot. Gaz. 50 : 463. 1910. 

Sclerotia smooth, white to dark brown or black, nearly conical, 
4-5 mm. in diameter at the base ; heads gray to grayish-white ; 
stipe thick, white to purplish-white, 1-1.5 cm. long; perithecia 
numerous, ellipsoid in longitudinal section, with a short beak 
toward the surface of the head, 390 X 153-187 mic. ; asci cylin- 
dric, 145-175 X 2-3 mic; spores filiform 130 mic. long; conidia 
hyaline, continuous, fusoid to lunulate, 17.4-37.7 X 2.9-8.7 mic. 

On gama grass, Tripsacum dactyloides L. 

Type locality : North Carolina, 

Distribution : Known only from the type locality. 

Illustrations: Bot. Gaz. 50: 462, /. 6. 

Doubtful Speoes 

Claviceps ? caricina D. Griff. Bull. Torrey Club 29 : 300. 1902. 
This is said to be Sclerotium sulcatum Desm. (See ]\Iycologia 
3: 38. 1911.) 

38. Balansia Speg. Anal. Soc. Ci. Argent. 19: 45. 1885. 

? Ephelis Fries, Summa Veg. Scand. 370. 1849 • 
? Ophiodothis Sacc. Syll. Fung. 2 : 652. 1883. 
Dothichloe Atk. Bull. Torrey Club 21 : 223. 1894. 

Sclerotia consisting of a more or less compact fungous tissue 
formed in the stems or inflorescence of plants ; stromata arising 
from the sclerotium, stipitate and capitate or sessile, separated 
from the sclerotium by a constriction ; perithecia immersed in the 
stroma; asci 8-spored ; spores filiform, nearly as long as the ascus. 

Type species: Balansia claviceps Speg. 

I. Balansia Hypoxylon (Peck) Atk. Jour. Alyc. 11: 254. 

1905 

? Ephelis mexicana Fries; Berk. Jour. Linn. Soc. 10: 353. 1868. 
Epichloe Hypoxylon Peck, Ann. Rep. N. Y. State Mus. 27: 108. 

1875. 
Hypocrella Hypoxylon Sacc. Syll. Fung. 2: 581. 1883. 

? Ephelis horealis Ellis & Ev. Jour. Myc. i : 86. 1885. 

Dothichloe Hypoxylon Atk. Bull. Torrey Club 21: 223. 1894. 

Sclerotia formed in the fruiting axes of the host, curved and 



« 



224 Mycologia 

irregular, i cm. or more in length, grayish or blackish ; stromata 
black, prominent, pulvinate or subhemispheric, 1-5 mm. in 
diameter, several springing from the same sclerotium, minutely 
roughened by the slightly protruding perithecia; perithecia im- 
mersed ; asci cylindric, with a pedicel at the base, as much as 20 
mic. in length; spores i mic. thick, at maturity breaking into 
segments 3-4 mic. long. 

On Danthonia spicata (L.) Beauv., and other grasses. 

Type locality: Sandlake, New York. 

Distribution : Maine to South Carolina, Texas and Iowa. 

Illustrations: Jour. Myc. 11: pi 81, 82, ^8. 

ExsiccATi : Ellis & Everh. N. Am. Fungi ^J/J. Barth, Fungi. 
Columb. joi"/. Other specimens examined: Connecticut, Shel- 
don; Iowa, Buchanan; Nova Scotia, Dearness. 

Doubtful Species 

BaJansia discoidea P. Henn. Hedwigia Beibl. 39: yy. 1900. 
Doubtfully reported from North America. 

Doubtful Genus 

UsTiLAGiNOiDEA Bref . Unters. Gesammt. Myk. 12 : 194. 1895. 

The imperfect stage of this fungus resembles a smut and the 
perfect stage is said to be similar to Spermoedia; the genus has 
been placed in the Hypocreales by Lindau. Ustilaginoidea 
Oryzae (Pat.) Bref. loc cit., commonly known as the green 
smut of rice, is reported as occurring in Louisiana. No speci- 
mens have been seen. 

New York Botanical Garden. 



EXPLANATON OF PlATE S3 

Figs. 1-5. Cordyccps claviilafa Schw. Figs. 1-3 after Berkeley and Curtis. 

Fig. I. Two plants on scale-insect, natural size. 

Fig. 2. Scale-insect with a number of sterile plants. 

Fig. 3. Scale-insect with mature plants. 

Fig. 4. Ascus with spores. 

Fig. 5. One spore removed from ascus. 

Fig. 6. Cordyceps herculea (Schw.) Sacc. Copied from photograph in 
herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden, about natural size. 

Fig. 7. Cordyceps cntomorrhiza (Dicks.) Link. Copied from the original 
drawing. 

Figs. 8—9. Cordyceps agariciformia (Bolton) Seaver. 



Mycoi.ogia 



Pl.ATK 1.111 







COKDVCKPS 



1 



I'l.ATlC LI\ 




^nR^^'f■I^ps 



1 



Sea\i£k: The Hypocreales of North America 225 

Fig. 8. Two plants copied from the original drawing. 
Fig. 9. Portion of ascus and spore segments. 
Figs. lo-ii. Cordyceps militaris (L.) Link. 
Fig. 10. Two plants on cocoon, about natural size. 
Fig. II. Ascus and spores. 

Figs. 12-13. Cordyceps parasitica (Willd.) Seaver. Copied from original 
drawing, about natural size. 

Explanation of Plate 54 

Fig. I. Cordyceps stylophora Berk. & Br. Copied from original drawing. 
Fig. 2. Cordyceps anneniaca Berk. & Curt. Copied from original drawing. 
Figs. 3-4. Cordyceps sphecocephala (Klotzsch) Massee. 
Fig. 3. Two plants copied from Tulasne. 
Fig. 4. Portion of ascus with spores. 

Fig. 5. Cordyceps palustris Berk. & Br. Copied from original drawing. 
Figs. 6-8. Cordyceps Cockerellii (Ellis & Everh.) Ellis. Drawn from 
original material. 

Fig. 6. Remains of insect showing clusters of perithecia. 

Fig. 7. Portion of erect stroma with perithecial clusters. 

Fig. 8. Cluster of perithecia. 

Fig. 9. Cordyceps acicularis Rav. Copied from original drawing. 

Fig. 10. Cordyceps Ravenelii Berk. & Curt. Copied from original drawing. 

Fig. II. Cordyceps Sphingum (Schw.) Berk. Copied from Tulasne, 

Fig. 12. Cordyceps isarioides M. A. Curtis. Copied from Massee. 

Fig. 13. Ccrdyccps sobolifera (Hill.) Sacc. Copied from Tulasne. 



INDEX 

The following is the index to the species in the Hypocreales of North 
America — I (Mycologia i: 41-76. 1909); — IT (Mycologia i: 177-207. 1909); 
— Ill (Mycologia 2: 48-92. 1910) and — ■!¥ CMycologia 3: 207-225. 191 1). 



ACROSPERMUM 

lichenoides III, 82 
Allantonectria 

Yuccae II. 181 
asterophora iii, 7 1 
Atractium 

fiameiim II. 179 

AUERSVVALDIA 

lagenaria I, 74 

Balansia 

claviceps IV. 223 
discoidea IV, 224 
Hypoxylon IV, 223 

Barya 

parasitica III, 84 

BOTRYOSPHAERIA 

pulicaris II, 196 
Byssonectria 

abducens III. 65 
chrysocoma III, 66 
fimeti III, 66 



Byssonectria^cr;;/ ;i»r(f 
rosclla III. 66 
violacea III. 65 

Calonectria 

Atkinsonii II, 201 
balsamea II. 200 
canadensis II, 199 
cerea I, 69 
chlorinella II, 201 
Ciicurbilula II, 200 
Curtisii I, 69 
Daldiniana I, 67 
Dearnessii I, 68 
diminuta I, 68 
erubescens I, 67 
guarapiensis I, 68 
melioloides I. 68 
initscivora II, 193 
polytlialania II. 200 

Cephalosporitm I. 71 



226 



Mycologia 



Ceratostoma 

biparasiticHiii I, 73 
cliio7ieum I. 75 
lagenarium I, 74 

Charonectria 

Pedicniaris I, 46 

Chilonectria 

Coryli II, 186 
crinigera II, 206 
Cucitrbitula II, 198 
Rosclliiiii II, 201 

Chromociea 

ceramica III, 59 
gelatinosa III, 58 
substipitata III, 59 

Chromocreopsis 

bicolor III, 64 
cubispora III, 63 
hirsuta III. 64 

Clavaria 

capitata IV, 217 
farinosa IV, 209 
granulosa IV, 209 
militaris IV, 208 
parasitica, IV, 218 
radicosa IV, 218 
soholifera IV, 219 

Claviceps 

cariciiia IV, 223 
cinereum IV, 221 
luicrocephala IV, 221 
nigricans IV, 222 
Paspali IV, 222 
purpurea IV, 220 
Rolfsii IV, 222 
Tripsaci IV, 223 

Clinton I ELLA 

apiculata III, 73 

Cordyceps 

acicularis IV, 211 
agariciformia IV, 217 
albella IV, 219 
albida IV. 219 
alnfacea III. 60 
armeniaca IV, 215 
brevipes III, 61 
caloceroides IV, 219 
canadensis IV, 217 
carolincnsis IV, 211 
Cicadae IV. 219 
clavulata IV. 214 
Cockerellii IV, 216 
entomorrhiza IV, 212 
flavella IV. 212 
herculea IV, 213 
isarioides IV. 217 
Langloisii IV, 215 
Melolonthae IV, 211 
Menestcridis IV, 212 
militaris IV, 209 
Miqnclii IV. 219 
niericeps IV. 217 
ophioglossoides IV, 218 



palustris IV, 210 

parasitica IV, 218 

pistillariacforniis IV, 214 

Ravenelii, 210 

radicosa IV, 218 

soliolifera IV, 219 

sphecocephala IV. 214 

sphecopliila IV, 214 

Sphingtim IV, 216 

stylophora IV, 213 

typhina, III, 86 
Coscinaria 

Langioisii III, 84 
Creonectria 

atrofusca II, 186 

coccinea II, 18S 

Coryli II, 186 

Cucurbitula II, 189 

diploa II, 190 

gramnicospora II, 192 

mammoidea II, 188 

nipigonensis II, 189 

ochroleuca II, 190 

pithoides II, 187 

purpurea II. 184 

rubicarpa II. 187 

seminicola II, 191 

tuberculariformis II. 193 

verrucosa II, 185 
Cucurbitaria 

ciiinabarina II, 184 
Dialonectria 

coccicola II, 198 

consors I, 61 

dcpatlcns I, 58 

diniinuta I, 68 

Eucalypti I, 58 

filicina I, 61 

fuh'ida I, 70 

gibberellioidcs I, 66 

snlphuvea I, 60 

vulpina I, 52 

DiPLOCLADIUM 

minor III, 74 

DOTIIICHLOE 

Hypoxylon IV. 222 
Doth IDEA 

typhina IT I. 86 
DozvA 

riccioidea III, 82 

Du SSI ELLA 

tubcriformis II. 202 
Echinodothis 

tuberiforniis II, 202 
E'euthrciryces 

Geoglossi I, 48 

subulatus I, 47 
Ephelis 

borealis IV. 223 

me.vicana IV, 223 
Epic ••lok 

Hypo, yloii I\'. 223 



i 

i 



Seaver: The Hypocreales of North America 227 



Epichloe — continued 

typhina III, 86 
Fenestella 

Xantlio.vyli II, 204 

FUSARIUM 

episphacricuni I, 54 
nivcum I, 72 
vasinfcctum I, 71 

GiBBERA 

pulicaris II. 196 
Saiihinctii II, 197 

Gibberella 

ficini II, 197 
pulicaris II, 196 
Saubinetii II, 197 

Glaziella 

aurantiaca III, 88 

Hypocrea 

alutacca III, 60 
apiculata III, 73 
armeniaca III, 57 
aurantiaca III, 56 
aurantio-ceriina III, 65 
bicolor III. 64 
brevipes III, 61 
ceramica III, 59 
cervina III. 57 
chionea III, 52 
chlorospora III, 58 
chromosperma III, 58 
citrina III. 55 
citrinella III. 79 
consiniilis III, 83 
contorta III. 51 
cnbispora III, 63 
digitata III, 82 
fungicola III, 55 
gelatinosa III, 58 
hirsiita III. 64 
insignis III, 57 
Karsteniana III, 55 
laetior III. 57 
lateritia III. 68 
latizonata III, 56 
lenta III. 51 
L/o.vrf/i III. 61 
maculaeformis III. 57 
inelaleuca III. 53 
minima III. 52 
ochroleuca III, 57 
olivacea III. 53 
pallida III. 56 
papyracea III. 80 
parasitans III, 57 
parmelioides III. 82 
patella III, 52 
perpusilla I, 50 
Petersii III. 6t 
polyporoidea III. 57 
Richardsoni III, 58 
rigens III. 51 
rufa III, 50 
saccharina III. 57 



Schiveinitzii III. 51 
scutellaeformis III, 51 
snbviridis III, 58 
sulphurea III, 53 
treniellicola III. 83 
tiibcrcularifornus II. 193 
tubcriformis II, 202 
viridans III, 81 
viridi-rufa III, 65 
viridis III, 58 

Hypocrella 

atraiucntosa III, 88 
Hypo.vylon IV, 223 
phyllogena III, 88 
Sloaneae III, 87 
Tamoneae III. 87 
titberifovmis II. 202 

Hypocreopsis 

consiniilis III. 83 
lichenoides III, 82 
riccioidea III, 82 
tremellicola III, 83 
tubcrcularifoniiis II, 193 

Hypomyces 

albolutcus III, 89 
apiculatus III. y^ 
apiosporus III. 82 
asterophorus III, 82 
aurantivis III, 74 
aureo-nitens III, 76 
Banningii III, 70 
boletinus III, 76 
caniphorati III, 68 
chrysospermus III, 76 
citrinellus III, 79 
exiguus III, 66 
Geoglossi I, 48 
hyalinus III, yy 
inaequalis III, yy 
insignis III, 70 
Lactifluorum III, 72 
lateritius III, 68 
macrosporus III. 80 
ochraceus III. 81, 82 
papyraceus III, 80 
polyporinus III, 78 
piirpureiis III, y2 
rosellus III, 75 
roseits III, 75 
sepulcralis III, 81 
tegillum III, 82 
terrestris III, 81 
transformans III, 70 
Van-Bruntianus III. yy 
violaceus III, 65 
viridis III. 67 
volemi III, 68 
Vuilleminianus III. 68 
xylophilus III. 73 

Hyponectria 
Cacti I, 45 
dakotensis I. 45 



228 



Mycologia 



HyPOXYLON 

phoeniceitm I, 63 

ISARIA 

brachiata I, 47 

Cicadae IV, 219 

farinosa IV, 209 

Sphingum IV, 216 
Kextrosporium 

microccphalum IV, 221 

militare IV, 209 
Lasionectria 

poliosa I, 57 
Letendraea 

eurotioides I, 74 

luteola I, 74 
Macbridella 

chaetostroma II, 195 

striispora II, 196 
Mattirolia 

chrysograinma II, 206 
Megalonectria 

caespitosa II, 181 

pseudotrichia II, 180 
Melanospora 

chionea I. 73 

Helleri II, 182 

lagenaria I, 74 

parasitica I, 73 

Zamiae I, 72 
Microcera 

coccophila II, 180 
MucoR 

chrysospennus III, y6 
Nectria 

aglaeothele II, 180 

Albertini III, 75 

Apocyni I, 59 

athroa I, 64 

atrofusca II, 186 

auranlia III, 74 

aiirantiicola II, 180 

aiireofulva II, 190 

aiiriger II, 200 

Bainii II, 194 

balsamea II, 200 

betnUna I, 52 

bicolor I, 54 

Brassicae I, 62, 63 

canadensis II, 199 

chaetostroma II, 195 

cinnabarina II, 184 

coccicola II, 198 

coccinea II, 188 

conigena I, 61 

censors I, 61 

Cory/ II, 186 

cylindrospora II, 198 

cytisporina II, 194 

Cucurbitula II, 189 

depallcns I. 58 

dcpaupcrala II, 190 

diiiitiinfa I, 68 



Nectria — co; / ui ((.^rf 
diploa II, 190 
diplocarpa I, 53 
dispersa I, 57 
ditissima II, 194 
episphaeria I, 65 
erubescens I, 62 
Eucalypti I, 58 
filicina I, 61 
flavociliata I, 54 
fulvida I, 70 
Galii I, 46 
gibbcrelloides I, 66 
gramnicospora II, 192 
infusaria II, 194 
Ipomoeae II, 194 
lactea I, 54 
lasiodenna I, 52 
mainnwidca II, 188 
Meliae II. 184 
microspora II, 194 
missouriensis II, 205 
muscivora II, 193 
mycetophila I, 49 
nigrescens II, 184 
nipigonensis II, 189 
ochroleuca II, 190 
offuscota II, 184 
pallida II, 190 
Papilionacearum I, 62 
peponum I, 46 
perpnsilla I, 46 
Peziza I, 52 
pithoides II, 187 
poliosa I. 57 
polythalaiiia II, 200 
pseudotrichia II, 180 
purpurea II, 184 
pyrrhochlora II, 203 
Rexiana I, 55 
rhizogena II, 190 
Ribis II, 205 
riinincola I, 52 
ro sella III, 75 
Rousseliana I, 48 
rubefaciens I, 56 
rubicarpa II, 187 
Russell a II, 184 
Saiiibuci II, 184 
sanguinea I, 63 
scminicola II, 191 
setosa I, 66 
sphaerospora II, 206 
squamulosa I, 55 
striispora II. ir6 
subcoccinea II, 180 
sulphrata I, 48 
sulphurea I. 60 
thiijana I, 56 
trachciphila I, 72 
tremelloides I, 53 
fricliospora I, 60 



Seaver: The Hvpocreales of Xorth America 229 



Nectria — continued 

truncata I, 60 

tubercularifonnis II, 193 

U mbellitlariae I, 52 

verrucosa II, 185 

viticola I, 64 

vulgaris II, 190 

vulpina I, 52 
Nectriella I, 48 
Nectriella 

censors I, 6i 

Fuckelii I, 45 

miltina II, 182 

mycetophila I, 49 

Pedicularis I, 46 

peponum I, 46 

pcrpusilla I, 50 
Neocosmospora 

vasinfecta I, 71 
OlDIUM I, 71 

Oomyces 

Langloisii III, 84 
Ophionectria 

cerea I, 69 

coccicola II, 198 

Cockerellii IV, 216 

cylindrothecia I, 70 

Everhartii I, 70 

scolecospora II, 198 
Paeonectria 

missouriensis II, 205 
Peckiella 

Banningiae III, 70 

camphorati III, 68 

Geoglossi 1, 48 

hyalina III, 77 

Hymenii III, 71 

hyiuenioides III, 68 

lateritia III, 68 

polyporina III, 78 

transformans III, 70 

viridis III. 67 

Vuilleminiana III, 68 
Peziza 

hydrophora I, 52 

vulpina I, 52 
P1.EONECTRIA 

berolinensis II, 205 

denigrata II, 204 

missouriensis II, 205 

pyrrhochlora II, 204 

Ribis II, 205 
Podostroma 

alutaceum III, 60 

brevipes III, 61 

leucopus III, 60 

PODOCREA 

alutacea III, 60 
Pseudonectria 

sulphurata I, 48 

PSEUDOVALSA 

Xanthoxyli II. 204 



Ramaria 

farinosa IV, 209 
Reticularia 

chrysosperma III, 76 

SCLEROTIUM 

Clavus IV, 220 
Paspali IV, 222 
sulcatum IV, 223 
Scoleconectria 

Atkinsonii II, 201 
balsamea II, 200 
canadensis II, 199 
coccicola II, 198 
polythalama II, 200 
scolecospora II, 198 
Sepedonium 

chrysospermum III, yS 
Spermoedia 

cinerea IV, 221 
Clavus IV, 220 
microcephala IV, 221 
nigricans IV, 222 
Paspali IV, 222 
Rolfsii IV, 222 
Stevensii IV, 222 
Tripsaci IV, 223 
Sphacelia 

Segetum IV, 220 
Sphaeria 

agariciformia IV, 217 
alutacea III, 60 

atrofusca II, 186 

aurantia III. 74 

boleticola III, 82 

Buxi I, 44 

Celastri II, 184 

cerea I, 69 

chionea I, y-^ 

cinnabarina II, 184 

citrina III, 55 

clavata III, 60 

coccinea II. 188 

contorta III, 51 

decidua II, 188 

dematiosa II, 184 

entomorrhica IV, 212 

episphaeria I, 6$ 

erubcscens I, 67 

gclatinosa III, 58 

herculea IV, 213 

hyalina III, 77 

Lactifluorum III, 71 

lagenaria I, 74 

lateritia III, 68 

/<?«/a III, SI 

microcephala IV, 221 

muscivora II, 193 

ochracea III, 81 

ochroleuca II. 190 

ophioglossoides IV, 218 

purmclioides III, 82 

Peziza I. 50 



230 



Mycologia 



Sp H AERi A — con t ill ucd 

pseudotrichia II, i8o 
pulicaris II, 196 
purpurea IV, 220 
radicosa IV, 218 
riccioidca III, 82 
rigeiis III, 51 
rosea III, 75 
r OS el la III, "5 
nt/a III, 49 
sangninea I, 63 
Saubinetii II, 197 
Schivcinitzii III, 51 
soholifera IV, 219 
sphecocephala IV, 213 
spiculifera III, 86 
subulata I, 47 
siilphurea III, 53 
tremelloides II, 184 
typhina III, 86 
verrucosa II, 185 
viridis III, 67 

Spuaeroderma 

//c//c)-i II, 182 

Sphaerodermatella 
Helleri II, 182 

Sphaeronema 

parasitica I, 73 
subnldtuin I, 47 

Sphaerostilbe 

cinnaliarina II, i79 
coccophila II, 180 
gracilipes II, 178 
hypocrcoides III, 62 
intermedia III, 62 
pseudotrichia II, 181 

Stilbocrea 

Dussii III, 62 
hypocrcoides III, 62 
intermedia III, 62 

Stilbum 

aurantiacum II, 178 
cinnabariiiwn II, 179 
corynoides II, 178 



Stilbum — continued 

flamnicum II, 179 

gracilipes II, 178 
Strom ATosPHAERiA 

typhina III, 86 
Thyronectiia 

licrolinensis II, 205 

chrysogranuna II, 206 

denigrata II, 204 

missouriensis II, 205 

pyrrhochlora II, 203 

sphaerospora II, 206 

virens II, 204 

Xantho.vyli II, 204 
Thyronectrioidea 

chrysogramma II, 206 

TORRUBIA 

capitata IV, 217 

clavulata IV. 214 

entoniorrhiza IV, 212 

Melolonthae IV, 211 

viilitaris IV, 209 

Miquelii IV, 219 

opiiioglossoides IV, 218 

pisfillariacforniis IV, 214 

sobolifera IV, 219 

sphecocephala IV, 214 

Sphingnm IV, 215 

superficialis IV, 211 
Tremella 

purpurea II, 184 
Tubercularia 

vulgaris II, 184 
Typhodium 

typhiiium III, 86 
Uredo 

mycophila III, 76 
Ustilaginoidea 

Oryzae IV, 224 
Valsa 

Xanthoxylii II, 203 
Verticillium 

tubercularioide II. 190; III, 71 
Xylarta 

aurantiaca III, 88 

gracilis IV, 212 



New York Botanical Garden Library 

QK623.P9 S4 ,,..,. 5^" 

Seaver, Fred Jav/The Hypocreales of Nort 




3 5185 00065 0448 




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