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2Tf)e 1975 Satrtan 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 

* , ' ' i 

Q%e 1975 Mvian 

125th Anniversary Edition 
The Medical College of Pennsylvania 

iatrian. (i-at'-re-an) [Gr. iatrikos] pertaining to medicine or to a physician. 




1848- McCormick's 1859 1861-65 1869 1876 1879 1888 1890 

Mechanical Reaper Oil is Civil War, Golden Spike Bell's Edison's Eastman's Wounded 

1 849 - Gold Rush Discovered Emancip. Proclam. Railroad Telephone Elec. Light Box Knee 

First Thanksg'vg Camera Slaughter 


1840's 1857 - Pasteur, 1867 - Lister and 1877 - Insects 1881 - Koch 1889 - Freud 1895 - Roentgen x-rays 

First Use Germ Theory Clean Surgery Transmit Bacterial Psychoanalysis, 1896- Babinski's sign 

of 1860 - Pediatrics 1869 Free tissue Disease Specificity 1890 - Von Behring 1899 - Boeck's sarcoid 

Anesthesia 1861 - Wired Patella transplants (Yellow Fever) Antitoxin 







■ - 

as /r APPfAurn Ar rue rinsr comm£NCem£ht in i8SO , iocatco at 229 loin 


(Female Medical College of Penna.) 

March 11, 1850 Chartered 

Contents of Tfte 1975 Iatrian 

History of The College 


Women in Medicine 


Basic Sciences 


Clinical Sciences 




Class of 1975 


Financial Support 


Editors' Page 












.903 1914-18 1920 1933 1939 194M5 1951 

Vright „ WORLD Woman's Right Depth of Computers WORLD Transconti- 

Jros. War to Vote, Babe Depression and War nental TV 

-light I Ruth, Prohibition Monopoly Game Nylon II 

is Invented 

1960 1969 

Man in Space, Viet Nam, 

Beatles, Inter- Moon-Land 

state Highways, Woodstock 
Electric Kitchen: 

1969 1974-76 

Viet Nam, Watergate, 

Moon-Landing Nixon Resigns, 
Woodstock Alaska Pipeline, 


11 -Pavlov 1920- Fleming and 1929 - intrinsicfactor 1948 - Kinscy Report, 1954 1960 -The Pill 1 964 - Epstein - Barr 1970's 

nditioning penicillin, pneumo- 1937 - sulfas MTX vs. Leukemia Salk Polio 1961 - Watson-Crick Virus and B. Lymph. Prosta- 

13- Schick test enceph, EEG, angio- 1943 Streptomycin 1950 - Steroids Vaccine; 6MP DN A - vinblastine 1966 - Rous sarcoma glandinsand 

riberi, IQ test graph, insulin 1940's - radioisotopes 1962 - cyclic - AMP virus Primary care 
















For American MedlCUie 1840 was a time of quacks, 
eclectics and homeopaths. Thousands of men were awarded M.D.s by 
the unapproved and unstandardized medical schools, many never having 
seen a single patient before their graduation. Most medical schools were 
proprietary ventures, not university or hospital affiliated, but 
state-chartered as private businesses. They were opened in rented 
rooms, had unsalaried lecturers paid by student tickets, were 
occasionally equipped with a manikin or microscope and eventually 
opened one-room dispensaries for Saturday morning clinics. 

The loosely approved system for medical education had been a 
seven-year apprenticeship program. By 1840 the system (used by our 
College for its first 19 years) was for med students to do a two-year 
physfcian apprenticeship after completing secondary school, then "sit 
the college courses" for one or two sessions, the second merely a 
duplication of the first. Completing their college's graduation require- 
ments, they were awarded M.D. degrees and usually went straight into 
practice. Wealthy male graduates of the most prestigious U.S. institu- 
tions filled the' few American teaching "internship" appointments or 
studied in Europe. There were no Board examinations or licensing 
procedures for physicians, although New York City midwives had 
permit requirements from as early as 1738 until the women were forced 
out of the field by male physicians about 100 years later! 

Philadelphia Medicine, the 1850 U.S. pinnacle, had begun 
its growth in 1732 when both the State House (future U.S. Capitol and 
now Independence Hall) and the Almshouse were built near Chestnut 
and Spruce Streets respectively. The Almshouse later moved across the 
Schuylkill to Blockley Village ("Blockley Almshouse, 1828") becoming 
the teaching hospital for the University and later "Philadelphia General 
Hospital." By 1751, Philadelphians Dr. Thomas Bond and Benjamin 
Franklin opened the first U.S. voluntary hospital, Pennsylvania Hos- 
pital, with floors for sick women, men and lunatics. This was a new 
concept for America: quality medical care in institutions for the sane, 
delivered by physicians to rich and poor alike! 

Then in 1765 a handful of European-educated Philadelphian phy- 
sicians modelled America's first medical school, the College of Phila- 
delphia, after the academic University of Edinburgh. The college had to 
close temporarily when three of its faculty members, Drs. Rush, Mor- 
gan and Shippen, were called into Washington's Revolutionary Army. 
Twenty-two years later Penn graduates formed the oldest U.S. institu- 
tion to promote quality, research and uniformity of medical practices, 
The College of Physicians of Philadelphia. Almost 200 years later the 
first woman physician was elected to preside over this body, Dr. 
Katharine Boucot Sturgis (WMC, 1942). 

In 1824 Philadelphia gained a second medical school, America her 
twelfth. Founded by Dr. McClellan, Thomas Jefferson University was 
an addition to Philadelphia medical education not welcomed by Penn, 
who sent a deputation to the legislature in Harrisburg protesting the 
granting of authority to Jefferson to award M.D. degrees, stating 
Jefferson was only a branch of an undergraduate college (now Washing- 
ton and Jefferson U.) and not of graduate caliber. Unruffled by Penn's 
claims, the legislature granted the charter, their only concern being 
whether Philadelphia could support two medical schools when neither 
Paris nor London nor New York (who had tried and failed) could. By 
1845, Jefferson had the largest enrollment in the country and together 
with Penn had graduated one- fourth of all M.D.s in the United States. 

Between 1840 and 1850 this Philadelphian two-college dynasty fell 
as seven more medical colleges were founded. Philadelphia was the 
undisputed medical leader, had more famous professors, the newest 
treatments, the first subspecialty hospital in the world (Wills Eye), and 
the sharpest public interest in medicine. In 1842 The Philadelphia 
College of Medicine (now defunct) was founded on Filbert Street; in 
1848 both the Philadelphia County Medical Society and the Homeo- 
pathic Medical College (now Hahnemann) were founded. 

By 1850 Homeopathic needed more space and moved to the Filbert 
Street address of the already-defunct Phila. Medical College. Their 
vacated Arch Street quarters were quickly subleased and remodelled by 
Dr. Mullen for the new Female Medical College. This sort of rapid 
turnover typified the era's proprietary school instability and helps 
explain why the older and established Penn and Jefferson had such 
condescending attitudes toward the fledgling institutions, especially the 
outrageous woman's college. 



r f] 

r*-i UI^^AK i^MMb 

Efje letting., America 
in tfje I800su„ 

For 1840 Homebound Women the only contacts with 

social feminism were public lectures and reading books and magazines. 
Sarah Josepha Hale's (1837) Godey's Lady's Book, published here in 
Philadelphia, was much like today's Ladies Home Journal and included 
stories, domestic tips, and editorial columns. Through the latter Miss 
Hale raised money to build the Washington Monument, established 
Thanksgiving as an official holiday, encouraged co-ed higher education, 
formed a Ladies Medical Missionary Society, and reported on the 
Humanitarian and Woman's Rights Movements, including the first 
Woman's Rights Convention in Seneca Falls, 1848. There leaders Eliza- 
beth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony, and Lucy Stone 
had advocated woman's rights (1) as a human being, (2) to own 
clothing, (3) to own money, (4) to suffrage as a citizen, (5) to higher 
education to better herself, and (6) to practice the higher professions of 
medicine, law and the ministry. Miss Hale elaborated, "Talk about this 
[medicine] being the appropriate sphere for man, and his alone! With 
tenfold more plausibility and reason, we say it is the appropriate sphere 
for woman and hers alone!" 

The demand for women doctresses and female medical colleges was 
growing. Sylvester Graham (of cracker fame) was spear-heading a cam- 
paign against medical quackery, advocating a return to "health and 
natural foods," sex hygiene, dress reform and physical education for 
women. Knowledgeable women were needed and wanted as teachers 
and as doctresses to care for "female problems." Since most male 
medical colleges refused to accept women, or made rare exceptions 
every few years to do so, there was a need for the guaranteed number 
of female positions offered by female medical colleges. The "first 
generation schools," typified by Dr. Gregory's College of Midwifery in 
Boston, offered only midwifery courses and were abandoned in favor 
of full-course M.D. training institutions like The Female Medical Col- 
lege of Pennsylvania (1850) and Boston (1852). 

Arguments against WOmen entering medicine were num- 
erous. First was the male belief in inherent male intellectual supre- 
macy. One journal stated dofctresses' "brains would not hold up and 
would get brain fever from studying medicine." An 1848 obstetrics 
textbook further explained, "She has a head almost too small for 
intellect but just big enough for love." 

Second were those arguments based on man's physical supremacy. 
Women were described as anemic, poorly resistant and menstruating 
with an "automatic necessity for one week's bedrest per month;" thus, 
it would be impossible for her to be as totally committed to medicine 
as a man. It was thought^that woman, innately unfitted for professional 
work, would only be successful by imitating man, being masculine and 
more subject to ridicule. 

Third was social inertia. Physicians in America had been male, so the 
idea of "doctresses" seemed laughable at first. Women belonged in the 
home, guarding the social morality and sacred family structure. By 
attempting both, they would compromise either their family or profes- 
sional aspirations. Conservative women spoke against the feminist 
movement; bitterly the First F.M.C. Announcement stated there were, 
"absurd arguments of those [women], the exercise of whose mental 
abilities seldom reach beyond the decorations of the boudoir and toilet, 
and we find that those who have been deaf to such idle protestations of 
delicate imbecility, have shed luster on Literature and Sciences . . ." 

Fourth, many male physicians, trained in proprietary schools by 
virtue of ability to pay and having only pecuniary interests, feared the 
feminine onslaught of economic competition. A war or physician 
shortage might have shaded these social prejudices in the cause of "the 
general interest." 

Fifth, some men expressed paternalistic concerns for the women s 
modesty. Acknowledging that some physicians were a boorish, licentious 
lot, several 1878 British physicians were quoted in the Richmond and 
Louisville Medical Journal stating they would rather follow their 
daughters to the grave than subject them to the vulgarity of the surgical 
benches or dissecting room or the mention, anatomic description or 
treatment of male genitals. One man's lamenting conclusion was that 
"the movement for removing English women from their true sphere, 
the sphere in which they are so strong, beautiful and all-powerful, to 
the sphere of the operating theatre and the disgusting, coarse, vulgar 
scenes of the dissecting room, where she is both uncrowned and 
unsexed, has succeeded. It will be the ruin of the University of London, 
and a source of disgust and regret to all the true friends and admirers of 

Finally, the entrance of women into medicine was perhaps heatedly 
fought here in America, as compared with the seemingly smoother 
transition in Continental Europe, because it was supported by a vocal 
feminist movement that roused equally vocal resistance in both men 
and women. Change, especially if bitterly and forcefully espoused like a 
distasteful medicine, will be resisted emotionally, instinctively and 

Mr. Mullen, first president of 
the College, purchased the 
unexpired lease of the 2 
rooms used by the young 
homeopathic college in the 
rear of 227 Arch Street. 
Here he delivered to the 8 
M.D. degree candidates and 
32 matriculants for higher 
learning the opening lecture 
on October 12, 1850. 


pratoe ^Beginnings!**. 

^•^ur College s beginnings were simple, proud and courag- 
eous. Few men were willing to weather the social and professional 
criticism to support the cause of women in medicine. One who was, 
William Mullen, the first president, had studied medicine himself at 
Philadelphia Medical College and worked in a dispensary for the 
poor. He said, "It occurred to me that woman, having received from 
her creator the same intellectual constitution as man, has the same 
right as man to culture and development . . . that if women were 
properly educated, some new avenues to useful and honorable 
employment, in entire harmony with the gentleness and modesty of 
her sex, might be opened to her." His educated wife agreed; she was 
one of the first 40 students in our College. 

Other early supporters included Thaddeus Stevens, abolitionist; 
Dr. Bartholomew Fussell, a village doctor in West Grove, Pa., who trained 
his older sister, niece and best friend's grand-daughter, Ann Preston; and 
Dr. Joseph S. Longshore, prominent and liberal Philadelphian physician. 
This earliest champion trained in his office his sister and three sister-in-laws 
and was the first college professor of obstetrics. The price he paid for 
helping women to enter medicine was persecution by and astracism from 
the Philadelphia Medical Society and all his hospital affiliations. 

The College advertised its 1850 Opening Session in the Philadelphia 
papers and an internationally circulated First Annual Announcement. This 
latter item recounted Frances Mitchell from England, the first foreign 
graduate. The Announcement stated the College's purpose and ended: "We 
desire to throw open to (females) those avenues of Sciences, from which 
they have so long been excluded, by representing in a full course of 
lectures the great and wonderful improvements of the age ... To accom- 
plish this no expense has been or will be spared." 

Ann Preston graduated in the first 
at the age of 38. She was a Dm 
County Ouakcr who ran the household 
for her invalid mother, aged father 
and six younger brothers. She loved 
learning, God, and medicine, espe- 
cially diagnosis. In 1853 she be- 
came the first woman professor in a 
medical school, and in 1866 the first 
woman dean. She built Woman's 
Hospital to provide bedside teaching. 
"Small and fragile of body, but with an 
indomitable little soul . . ." 

Hannah Myers Longshore, also in 
the first class, was sister-in-law of 
Dr. Joseph Longshore (cofounder 
of the College and its first 
Professor of Obstetrics). She had 
studied under him for 2 years 
prior to attending lectures. 
After graduation she was Dem- 
onstrator in Anatomy at the 
College, then studied at Penn 
Medical University. Her proud 
husband handwrote a history of the 

College and a biography of Hannah, 
the first woman physician to han: out 
her shingle in the practice of Mec , ine in 

'rnce the College had no cadavers or funds for supplies, Dr. 
Ellwood Harvey embarked on a brave adventure to get the first anatomy 
manikin. He had seen posted two rewards, a large one by the master and a 
smaller one by a New York abolitionist, for finding a young black slave girl 
who had escaped and was hiding in Washington. Determined to get the 
abolitionist's reward, he hired a horse and carriage in Baltimore, drove to 
Washington, found the girl, and planned to meet her, dressed as a boy, by 
the White House for their escape North. When they reached Philadelphia 
she was guided via the "Underground Railway" to Canada and freedom; 
Dr. Harvey received the $300 reward and bought the College's first mani- 
kin for anatomy classes. 


he announcement also described the student terms. They must 
have completed their ordinary education to begin; be 21 to graduate; study 
Medicine for at least 3 years, two under the supervision of a practitioner; 
attend two full courses of lectures, one of which was at FMC (note: the 
same lecture series was given for four months each year, beginning in 
October); pay fees [$10 to each professor (they had no salaries), a $5 
matriculation fee and a $15 graduation fee] ; write a thesis: pass the 
examinations; pass a vote of the faculty by means of black and white balls 
(more than 3 black balls required retaking the exam); and complete the 
courses of Anatomy and Physiology, Institutes of Medicine and Medical 
Jurisprudence, Theory and Practice of Medicine, Obstetrics and Diseases 
of Women and Children, Surgery, Materia Medica and Therapeutics, Chem- 
istry and Clinical Practice. 

President Wm. J. Mullen and the six faculty members of the 
Female Medical College of Pennsylvania, chartered by Act of 
Assembly in Pennsylvania, March 1 1, 1850. 

1 1851-1875 


he first Female Medical College graduation ceremonies were 
to take place December 30, 1851. The outrage of traditional Phila- 
delphian physicians over the granting of the M.D. degree to women 
was so great that hundreds of male medical students threatened to 
disrupt the ceremony, heckle President Mullen or perhaps even burn 
the hall! Fifty police reserves were stationed in the Hall to assist the 
regulars in maintaining order. In fact, policemen outnumbered the 
participants who were peered at and pelted with jeers and insults. 

Dr. C.N. Pierce, one of the College corporators, described the bitter 
difficulties: "With two noble exceptions, not an evangelical clergyman 
could be induced to sit on the platform on [College] occasions; not a 
medical journal in the land would publish our advertisement, or do 
other than grossly misrepresent the College; no hospital could admit 
our students for clinical advantages ... so intense was the feeling on 
the part of the profession against the men who were willing to accept 
professorships in the school or give instruction in medicine to women, 
that it was with difficulty that good teachers could be obtained . . . 
with the exception of a few donations from friends, there was not a 
dollar in the treasury for compensation of professors or illustrations 
of lectures." 

Despite the odds, the First eight women graduates had learned, had 
passed their exams and written their theses: 

Susanna Ellis: "Influence of the 

Nervous System on the functions of 

respiration and digestion." 

Angenette Hunt: "The True Physician" 

Anna Mary Longshore: "Electricity" 

Hannah E. Longshore: "Neuralgia" 

Frances G. Mitchell: "Chlorosis" 

Ann Preston: "General Diagnosis" 

Martha A. Sawin: "Anemia" 

Phoebe M. Way: "Wounds" 
A small group of friends, families and Quaker college supporters, 
including Woman's Rights leader Lucretia Mott, listened attentively to 
speaker Longshore and experienced first-hand with the graduates the 
excitement of their historic venture. The threatened violence had only 
heightened their sense of import. 

Dr. Longshore spoke honestly with the graduates, "We have all 
been engaged in a new but momentous enterprise. We have labored 
(hand in hand) against powerful opposing influences . . . This is the 
most eventful day in the history of your lives, in the history of 
women . . . society [now] assigns to women an exalted position, one 
never before conferred upon her by legislative action; it raises her 
from a state of comparative imbecility and helplessness, to one of 
personal identity and independence, from subservience to equality . . . 
They are all, all looking to you, and to your future conduct and 
success with feelings of the most intense interest . . . Forget that you 
are women but remember that you are physicians. . . Demonstrate 
your knowledge by your works." 

Dr. Fmeline Morton Cleveland (IMC, 1855) won five academic prizes 
from La Maternite, was the first U.S. woman ovariotomist, first Wom- 
an's Hospital Chief Resident. She served on both College and Hospital 
Hoards, as Dean (1872-74) after Ann Preston's death and as first 
Alumnae President (1875) before she died (1878). 

Musical Fund Hall was chosen as the site of the first 
graduation ceremonies. The Hall still stands today on 
East Locust Street and has a wealth of history. It 
served as host for numerous concerts, including two 
by Jenny Lind in 1850 netting $19,000, and for the 
campaign speeches of numerous Presidential candi- 
dates, including Abraham Lincoln. 

^■tVesistance to lady doctresses was Fiendishly intricate. Multi- 
ple lines of conservative defense formed one barrier which when 
leaped was replaced by another. If women could get into medical 
schools, then hospitals would close their clinical facilities to them; if 
these were opened, internships and residencies were unavailable; if 
these were obtained, then still there would be no referrals, consulta- 
tions or admission to medical societies. There were no professional 
courtesies or privileges for women. 

Women waited over 30 years for peaceful acceptance to hospital 
clinics in the City. President Mullen (1850) had founded a small 
Lying-in-Asylum in the lecture building and established a tiny adjoin- 
ing Dispensary for Wednesday and Saturday clinics, but more patients 
were needed. While Geneva med student Elizabeth Blackwell had been 
permitted an 1849 summer "clerkship" as a nurse at Blockley, even 
this opportunity was denied the 1850 FMC students. They would 
have to provide their own clinical resources. 

After her 1851 graduation, Ann Preston planned to build a Wom- 
an's Hospital. She became the first woman medical school department 
Chair (Physiology, 1853) and used her faculty-alumna status to cam- 
paign for funds. Her 1858 Hospital Board of Lady Managers (heresy ! 
lady management!) stated her goals: "A woman's hospital is about to 
be founded in conjunction with the College, which will supply a most 
needed charity and offer the students of the College opportunity for 
both clinical and bedside training, as well as give an opportunity for 
the training of nurses." Equally important, the Woman's Hospital 
would provide admitting privileges for the faculty and alumnae denied 
these privileges elsewhere in the City because of their FMC affilia- 

Ann Preston engineered every angle. She encouraged alumna Erne- 
line Cleveland (1855) to attend La Maternite in Paris and return to 
the new hospital as first Chief Resident and first female 
surgeon-ovariotomist in Philadelphia. While FMC and other colleges 
closed for the first year of the Civil War (faculty and students 
volunteered their services), Ann stumped the 
Philadelphia, Montgomery and Bucks County 
countrysides for funds. 

The new Hospital would be in the coun- 
try facing Girard College on North Col- 
lege Avenue. The first house was rented 
(Sept., 1861) for $300 and accommo- 
dated five beds for patients, who paid 
only for food and lodging. All care, 
medicines and operations were free. The 
hospital grew to three adjoining houses 
and finally to Woman's Hospital and 
Dispensary building. First floor rooms 
were rented to the College for teaching. 
Thus lectures for the 14 upperclassmen 
and 6 freshmen, patient care, and some 
student live-in quarters were all under one 
roof. In 1863, the Hospital became one of 
America's first three nursing schools when it 
rented nurses teaching space. 

hen the College was 15 years old, it gained two forceful 
women leaders and changed rapidly. In 1865, FMC friend Isaac- 
Barton drafted New York chemist Rachel Bodley to be the first 
woman to Chair Chemistry in America; the following year Ann 
Preston became the first woman Dean. During the 1867-68 aca- 
demic year, the College became The Woman's Medical College, 
graduated its first Black doctor, Rebecca Cole, gained its first 
woman Board of Corporators member and received a bequest from 
Isaac Barton to build a large College Building for teaching next to 
the Woman's Hospital. The 1868-69 academic year made WMC an 
innovative W.S. leader in medical education by requiring a pro- 
gressive three-year graded course of study rather than the old 
two- years-repeated scheme. 

Dean Preston pushed for more clinical experience. By 1869 WMC 
students were attending the clinics of Wills Eye Hospital, Ortho- 
pedic Hospital and Philadelphia Hospital at Blockley. On January 2, 
1869, distinguished physician Alfred Stille' (then president of the 
Phila. Medical Society) welcomed the first forty women students to 
attend the all-male Penn Blockley lectures: 

"Ladies and Gentlemen, I have pleasure in meeting you here 
today. It is the first time in my medical experience I have had the 
opportunity of addressing women among the audience of my pupils. 
We are sometimes shocked at what is novel . . . but in the present 
instance I must say that ... I not only have no objection to seeing 
ladies among a medical audience, but, on the other hand, I welcome 
them." That course continued its smooth success. 

Eleven months later things were not so smooth. Dean Preston 
received invitations from the Managers of Pennsylvania Hospital for 
WMC students to attend the Saturday morning general surgery 
clinics. She and several faculty members with thirty-odd WMC 
students were stunned by their reception. Senior Sarah Hall wrote, 
"Women students were given the privilege of attending clinics at 
Pennsylvania Hospital. It was thought [they] would be of great 
educational value, and [we] were advised that as many as possible 
should attend the first one open . . . We were allowed to enter by 
way of the back stairs and were greeted by the men students with 
hisses, [caterwaulings, mock applause, offensive remarks upon per- 
sonal appearances] and paper wads. The Professor of Surgery came 
in and bowed to the men only. More hisses. We retired the same way 
we entered and, on reaching the outer door, found men students 
[lining the way] and we, to get out, had to take to the road ... to 
the tune of "The Rogue's March'." Junior Elizabeth Keller added, 
"on leaving the hospital, we were actually stoned . . ." 

The Evening Bulletin, Nov. 8, 1869, reported that several hun- 
dred male students had participated, "It was an action which de- 
prived every man in that crowd of all claim to the title of gentle- 
man. If these women had given gross offense, if they had indulged in 
any unwomanly behavior, if they had intruded in violation of the 
rules, even then there would have been no excuse for such infamous 
conduct . . . but these ladies had absolute right there; they were 
admitted by precisely the same authority that admits men, and, 
more than this, it was right that they should accept the privileges 
offered them if they wished to do so. 

During the last hour missiles of paper, tinfoil, tobacco-quids, etc., 
were thrown upon the ladies, while some of these men defiled the 
dresses of the ladies with tobacco-juice." 

One week later, Penn and Jefferson physicians released a state- 
ment saying that they would no longer participate in the education 
of "admixed" student groups. Despite Dean Preston's public pro- 
tests that science should be impersonal and nonsexist, the Hospital 
Managers offered the old "separate but equal" saw. The male 
professor then resigned rather than have to teach women. In 
months, the quality of teaching and clinical material presented in 
the separate women's clinics fell from inferior to nil, and the women 
withdrew. Thirteen years ensued before their equal re-admittance to 
Pennsylvania Hospital in 1882. By then WMC students were wel- 
comed at the Bedford Street Mission (1872), Phila. College of 
Pharmacy (1875), Eye and Ear Dept. of the Phila. Dispensary 
(1877), private ward rounds at PGH (1878). Later, students rotated 
through the German Hospital (Lankenau, 1885) and the Children's 
Hospital Clinics (1887). 


hase One of "La Resistance," getting women into medical 
schools, had lasted 26 years. Midwestern male colleges led the way. 
[Geneva, 1848; U. of Rochester, 1851; Western Reserve, 1852; U. 
of Michigan (first state university), 1869], followed by women's 
colleges (Phila., 1850; Boston and N.Y., c. 1852), and finally by the 
traditional East Coast (Boston U. Homeopathic, 1874). Phase Two, 
getting student clinical experience, had lasted 34 years (see above). 
Phase Three, getting university residencies, laster 35 years. 

Early women did postgraduate training only as "nurses." Eliza- 
beth Blackwell, M.D., was a nurse at Blockley and La Maternite. 
Emily, her younger sister, later received fuller training at La Mater- 
nite* by dressing as a man. Elizabeth Shattuck (FMC, 1854), a 
woman of "rare gifts and graces," needed postgrad training to 
achieve her life's dream as missionary in Asia. After being rejected 
by Philadelphia hospitals for residency training she accepted the 
position of "Head Nurse" at Blockley. Tliree years later she was 
ready to embark, but her application for mission medicine was 
rejected because she was unmarried. Dejected, she continued as 
Head Nurse, caught typhus fever and died. 

Other doctresses had to re-enroll as medical students in "regular" 
medical schools to achieve their professional goals. Hannah Long- 
shore (FMC, 1851) spent her first postgrad year as IMC Anatomy 
Demonstrator, then became a student again at Penn Medical Uni- 
versity for more experience. By I860. Emetine Cleveland attended 
La Maternite as a student, no longer a nurse. Mary Putnam Jacobi 
(FMC, 1864), a genius, writer and teacher, was the first woman 
admitted to the tcole de Medecine. Graduating wiih highest honors 
(1871), she returned to the States and established the Post Graduate 
Medical School, New York. Alice Bennett (WMC, 1876) did aca- 
demic postgrad work at the U. of Penn.. becoming their first female 
Ph.D. recipient (1880) and later the first woman Superintendent of 
the Norristown State Hospital. 

Finally in 1883. the competitive board exams for Blockley resi- 
dencies were opened to women. Happily applicant Mary Pauline 
Root (WMC, 1883) clarified our College's stance as a truly competi- 
tive institution and not a women's preparatory school for other 
"regular" medical colleges. Placing sixth of 37 competitors, she 
became the first woman resident there. Her training enabled her to 
open the Woman's Hospital and Dispensary in Madres. India. Thus 
ended Penn and Jefferson undermining of WMC confidence with 
views that women lacked "intellectual preparation on the part of 
most candidates" and "clinical opportunities in [their] college cur- 


imitation of professional privileges and career choices was 
Phase Four of "La Resistance." Philadelphia medical 
societies finally admitted women after 38 years 
(see next page), but career choices today, 125 
year later, are still not fully open to women. 
The first woman to "hang out her sign" 
in Philadelphia (Hannah Longshore, FMC, 
1 851) had an ultimately lucrative practice. 
However, landlords didn't recognize her 
earning potential at the start and refused 
to rent her office space. Druggists re- 
fused to fill her prescriptions, one even 
ordering her home to "look after her 
house and darn her husband's stock- 
ings." Lady doctresses were risky curi- 
osities; street loungers would gather to 
watch their offices, but few would enter 
as patients. 

Military, missionary and academic 
medicine were all closed to women at 
first. Women M.D.s served in the Civil 
War as nurses setting up Army field hos- 
pitals (Chloe Bucket, FMC, 1858) or 
dressed as men (Mary Walker). Many 
women were discouraged by the obsta- 
cles and chose instead to teach high 
school hygiene or nursing. While this 
was rewarding for some, it was frustra- 
ting for many who wanted to practice 
what they had trained and hoped for. 

Rachel Bodley, Prof, of 
Chemistry at 34, was mem- 
ber of the N.Y. Academy of 
Sciences and Dean from 
1874-1888. Not an M.D., she 
stressed academics, substi- 
tuted prerequisite college 
preceptorships for doctor ap- 
prenticeships, lengthened the 
academic year to 8 months, 
broadened the College 
foreign scope and research 
emphases and studied the 
professional progress of the 

In 1875 the College celebrated its 25th Anniversary, laid a cornerstone of 
permanence, and founded its Alumnae Assn. The Hospital and new College 
buildings, including labs, a museum and classrooms, were side-by-side on N. 
College and 22nd Aves. The institution had come of age. 


. . j&enotoneb 

Maternity Bldg. (1878) dou- Clinic Hall (1883) contained Brinton Hall (1888) opened to 
bled the beds of the Main the first surgical amphitheatre house the YWCA and numerous 
Building (1874). and lecture hall for 300. students. 


-adies... prejudices are not amenable to reason. Your 
business is not to war with words but to make good your position 
"upon the bodies" of your patients by deeds of healings . . . The 
question of the success of women as physicians is not an open one. 
Her success is already a matter not of hope or prophecy but of 

This was the proud message Ann Preston gave the Class of 1858 
at their graduation. Sadly, the feelings of optimism were daunted by 
the archaic attitude of the Phila. County Medical Society who that 
same year passed a resolution of excommunication for anyone 
affiliated with the College. 

"[We] recommend the members of the regular profession to 
withhold from the faculties and graduates of the female medical 
college, all countenance and support, and that they cannot, con- 
sistently with sound medical ethics, consult or hold professional 
medical intercourse with their professors or alumnae." 

Because State Medical Society and A.M.A. rolls were open only 
to those with local memberships, this dictum prevented women 
from belonging to all societies. Montgomery and Lancaster County 
Societies (1858 and 1859) opposed the exclusion of women and 
sent appeals to the State asking for a repeal of the Phila. action. 
However, the State upheld the Phila. stance because FMC had 
"irregular" physicians (those not trained by one of the traditional 
"regular" medical schools) on their faculty. Professor Longshore, an 
"irregular" who had been a charter faculty member, graciously 
withdrew so he wouldn't jeopardize the recognition of the remain- 
ing faculty or alumnae as physicians. Loyally, his relative Hannah 
resigned her position as Anatomy Demonstrator. 

Seven years later (1866), when the confusion of the Civil War 
had cleared. Dean Preston again took up the fight. She petitioned 
the State for a re-evaluation of the obsolete objection about "irre- 
gulars." Unfortunately, the 1867 and 1868 Phila. responses re- 
mained: "resolved . . . members (may not) professionally consult 
with any professors or graduate of a female college." 

By May, 1870, sympathetic male physicians helped push harder. 
Two WMC faculty members, Drs. Hartshorne and Thomas attended 
the AMA convention but were refused seats because they repre- 
sented a Woman's College and were excluded nationally because of 
local exclusion. They appealed to the Ethics Committee who re- 
viewed the national constitution, finding no grounds for dismissal. 
They stayed. 

Philadelphian conservatism was reasserted when Dr. Hartshorne, 
a joint professor at WMC and U. of Pa., returned from the conven- 
tion to complete his lecture series on Hygiene. The Penn lecture 
hall, normally filled with 30 students, had only one. Dr. Hartshorne 
reminisced, " 'What's, the matter ?' I inquired. 'Those women,' he 
replied. 'Well, I shall deliver my lecture at all events.' Soon another 
and another (came in and sat down) until nine remained through the 
hour ... at my next lecture all came . . . For a medical man to be 
connected at that time with WMC required pluck, and, this time 
very clearly, pluck won." 

In 1870, the ice was broken. Dr. Hiram Corson, whose niece was 
a physician, led the Montgomery Co. Medical Society to initiate a 
woman, Anna Lukens (WMC, 1870). By 1871, the Pa. Society 
ordered Philadelphia to rescind their resolution. Unfortunately, the 
Phila. Society rejected women's applications for 17 more years 
before Mary Willetts was admitted in 1888. The national A.M.A. 
had selected their first woman from the Chicago area 12 years 

Subspecialty society memberships came later, partly because 
women entered those fields later. By 1877, Dr. Albert Smith pre- 
sented to the Phila. Obstetrics Society papers by two of our earliest 
subspecialists, Professors Emeline Cleveland and Anna Broomall. It 
took 1 5 years for them to get the three-fourths vote for membership 
in 1892. In 1884, women were admitted to the Neurology and 
Medical Jurisprudence Societies, and by 1900, after 50 years in 
practice, women physicians were recognized as professionals in most 

ABOVE: Clara Swian (WMC, 1869), first 
woman medical missionary. 

g RIGHT: Anna Kugler (WMC, 1879) 

founded the hospital receiving this pa- 
tient in Madras, India. 


urricular and physical growth between 1875 and 1900 
boosted the College's professional image. Dean Bodley added a Ma- 
ternity Building (1878), doubling the beds to 35! Then Physiology 
Professor Emily Frances White opened a pharmacologically-oriented 
physiology lab, an American innovation. Fulfilling the 1880 AMA 
recommendations for Class A institutions, WMC increased its faculty 
size, established a separate Chair of Gynaecology, and added an 
amphitheatre clinic. By 1882-83 Penn men received their first lectures 
at Blockley by a woman physician, Professor Clara Marshall. WMC 
built a new Clinic Hall which provided a 300-seat lecture hall and 
numerous small medical and surgical conference rooms. 

After Dean Bodley (honorary M.D., 1879) died, Professor Marshall 
(WMC, 1875) became Dean in 1888. She established a South Phila. 
Out-Obstetric Dept. that in 1896 became a maternity hospital, re- 
quired that senior students personally care for 8 obstetric cases prior 
to graduation, expanded teaching lab space, renovated the dissecting 
room (1894), added a Bacteriology lab (1896), and built a new 
Laboratory Building (1899). The latter housed physical education and 
therapy facilities and physiology, histology, embryology and path- 
ology lab space, freeing rooms in the College Bldg. for study, a 
lunchroom, and a hygiene lab and museum. 

The 1885 curriculum was a traditional 3-year program. Students 
described their first "memorization" year of Anatomy, Histology, and 
Clara Marshall's Materia Medica with long pages of pneumonia thera- 
pies, 20 drugs for various symptoms, large doses of universal whiskey 
and ipecac and no knowledge of bacterial specificity. Their second 
"learning to think" year was mostly Physiology. Their final third year 
they studied Medicine, Surgery, Practice, Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 
The latter two departments, taught by Anna Broomall and Hannah 
Croasdale, were perhaps the most progressive in the country between 
1880-90, pioneering in prenatal care. Anna taught, "nothing is so 
precious as a living baby and a perfectly healthy mother." 

Historian Kate Campbell Hurd-Mead (WMC, 1888) described the 
students then. For the non-Friend students, the prevailing style was a 
bustle and little bonnet. They rode the Reading R.R. monthly to the 
morgue, went by Fairmount Ave. horsecart to Blockley and Jefferson 
clinics, rode the first cable car in the city to Pennsylvania Hospital's 
surgical clinics, attended third year lectures at the German Hospital 
(Lankenau) and rounded at Bryn Mawr. 

In keeping with city and U.S. standards, entrance 
exams were established (1887), stiffer admission re- 
quirements enforced (cutting enrollment by 
2/3rds for 10 years, 1890-1900), medical li 
censing boards required (1892), and a 4 year 
curriculum instituted (1893) to provide more 
chemistry, physiology and bacteriology 
(1896) labwork. Encouraged by research- 
oriented Deans Bodley and Marshall, the fac- 
ulty and alumnae contributed 857 papers to 
the world's literature by 1900. 

Finally respected city-wide, WMC gradu- | 
ates found residencies in the Maternity Hos- 1 
pital, Phila. Lying-in Charity, and Sheltering l 
Arms of Phila. (all 1887); the Hospital Polyc- ^ 
linic and College for Graduates, German Hospital, 
Norrisiown Charity, and West Phila. Hospital for" 
Women (all 1890); Methodist Episcopal Hospital and 
German Children's Dispensary (1892); and Presby- 
terian - HUP (1893). 

Attending the 1885 tea in Dean Bodley's home were Anandibai 
Joshee, high caste Indian woman; Kei Okami, first Japanese woman; 
and Sabat M. Islambooly, from Damascus, Syria. 


n the second 25 years, WMC of Pa. became world-re- 
nowned. By 1869, Clara Swain, the first of more than 230 WMC 
medical missionaries, embarked. In India, she cleverly funded the 
first hospital for women in Asia. The Rajah of Khetri admired her 
work, asking her to be his palace physician for his women and giving 
her an elephant of good luck. She did not quit when the palace 
people considered her unclean or of lowly station; rather, she 
tactfully placed their medicines on the floor, avoiding personal 
contact. Through the Rajah she met rich Nawab of Rampore who 
donated funds for the first woman's hospital in her name (1874). 

News spread fast. That year Dean Bodley received many letters 
saying, "send us the educated doctresses." She encouraged many 
students to go abroad. By 1879, Anna Kugler (WMC, 1879) was 
establishing another hospital in India. 

The story of "the unusual college" appealed to many cultures. 
While FMC had welcomed foreign students since the beginning 
(Mitchell, 1851), there was now a greater surge of foreign exchange. 
In 1885, Dean Bodley entertained the foreign students in her home. 
In attendance were Ramabai, an Indian woman; Mrs. Kei Okami, the 
first woman to leave Japan and study; Susan La Flesch, an American 
Indian from the Great Plains; Sabot Islambooly, a Syrian from 
Damascus; and Mrs. Anandibai Joshee. 

Mrs. Joshee, the first high caste Mohammedan woman to study, 
came despite a town meeting called to stop her. She lived with Dean 
Bodley after losing weight supposedly "from being unaccustomed to 
cooking and cleaning for herself." Sadly, less than a year into her 
position as Physician-in-Chief of Females at Albert Edward Hospital, 
India, she died of the TB she had actually contracted in the USA. 
Still, more women continued to come trom their "less civilized" 
lands to study, including Gurubai Karmarkar (India, 1892) and Hu 
King Eng (China, 1894). 


he College at 30 years of age began to document its 
history and achievements. In 1881, Dean Bodley published a study 
of its graduates. Ann Preston's students ( 138 women) had graduated 
in the first 20 classes; the next ten classes doubled the number of 
graduates (276). Dean Bodley studied these 276 alumnae, receiving 
responses from 189 (68%). More than 60% had combined general 
and ob/gyn practices; only 3 (1.6%) were surgeons. More than half 
were successfully combining marriage and career, only 4% abandon- 

ing medicine for family reasons Their self-employed physician sta- 
tus had certain advantages over that ol their 1881 nurse and t( 
sisters, who were fired il they married. Most alumnae h\ed in 
northern cities and earned an average of $3,000 pel sear. One-third 
were accepted into medical societies. 

One student influenced by this historically-oriented era was Kate- 
Campbell Hurd-Mead (WMC, 1888). Over her lifetime she collected 
a complete library on the history of women in medicine, published 
A Short History of the Pioneer Medical Women oj A mem a and <>t a 
Few of Their' Colleagues in England (1933) and A History oj 
Women in Medicine ( 1938). and was official historian ol the Ameri- 
can Medical Women's Association (AMWA). 

Dean Marshall published the first historj ol the ( ollege (1897). 
In it she described the WMC alumnae triumphs of the first SO years, 
updating her statistics in 1900. lor example, in the 8 years since 
they were required in 1892. all WMC graduates had passed the Pa. 
State Medical Boards. Following Johns Hopkins standards. Dean 
Marshall had encouraged the 66 faculty members (half women) to 
publish; between 1890 and 1900 they produced 498 papers! 

By 1900, the 940 graduates lived in 43 states and territories and 
19 foreign countries. Dean Marshall listed fully their hospital affili- 
ations, scientific organizations (most were now members), stafl 
appointments and publications. Most graduates were now ob/gyn 
subspecialists; fewer were in general practice. They were earning as 
much as 510,000 to 20,000 a year, most earning more than the 
1900 schoolteachers (52,000 annually). 

Woman's Hospital published their statistics, too. Each year be- 
tween 1896 and 1900 they provided approximately 20 to 24,000 
patient clinic visits and an additional 4,000 home visits annually. 
There were over 200 hospital births, 100 home births, over 700 
in-house operations and about 200 minor operations performed in 
clinic each year. Thus, by their 50th anniversary the College, 
alumnae, and Hospital were enjoying documented recognition. 


'ighteen other female medical colleges were opened by 
1890. One by one they closed. Larger male medical schools in the 
same cities and states began to accept women in reasonable num- 
bers, making the relative impact of the small women's colleges 
smaller. The women's colleges hoped for the extra prestige, political 
clout and potential for reforming medical education that they 
thought university mergers would provide. Sadly, they gained noth- 
ing, instead losing either their individuality or whole existence "for 
financial reasons." For example, the Illinois Female Medical College 
had affiliated with a university which gave them no representation 
and simply decided one day that its students, faculty and alums no 
longer existed. The women faculty members discovered they were 
no longer employed when they read the morning paper, never 
having received notice. 

The Woman's Medical College of the New York Infirmary, found- 
ed by the Blackwells. was the second last to close (1899). Cornell 
University had refused to merge with them but had promised to 
accept women for the first time. Thus, the women's college seemed 

Our College, the only women's medical college in the western 
hemisphere for the succeeding 70 years, continued to exist for 
several reasons. First, the coed colleges did not provide truly equal 
education for women, who were often relegated to separate classes 
or sitting behind screens "for modesty." Even the 1895 pinnacle of 
medical education, Johns Hopkins, did not allow women students to 
examine men below the neck. 

Second, coed schools quickly levelled their number of female 
slots to a 5-109S quota, except during world wars when they ac- 
cepted women for lack of male applicants and in order to remain 

Finally, women needing junior faculty stepping stone positions 
to reach higher teaching, research or administrative levels found few- 
academic openings in coed institutions. WMC afforded women wider 
career options and opportunities to publish and do research. Proud- 
ly, in her first 50 years, WMC had become both the "first and only" 
school dedicated to educating women doctors (1850) and the "last 
and only" (1899 to 1969). 

Clara Marshall (WMC. 1875), was 
Professor of Materia Medica, Dean 
from 1888 to 1917, author of the 
first college history (1897). 

Kate Campbell Hurd-Mead 
(WMC. 1888). historian of wom- 
en in medicine, active in 



rW^-tter the dust of the 50th Anniversary celebration had 
settled, the College suffered an almost fatal blow. The cooperation 
between the neighboring College and Woman's Hospital was 
disintegrating at the same time the Carnegie Foundation and federal 
government were establishing standards for medical education. The 
Foundation had investigated colleges across the country noting with 
dismay "a large majority of all the institutions bearing the name 
college were really concerned with secondary education." 

Their studies of professional schools of law and medicine 
uncovered even more disarray. Proprietary schools with no 
standards, teaching by lecture only, no entrance requirements and 
faculty paid by students' fees had been given the name of, but were 
not the responsibility of parent universities. Johns Hopkins was the 
only medical school in the country which actually required a college 
degree for entrance. Most other schools, like WMC, had entrance 

Fortunately for WMC, two separate unrelated, but WMC-af fili- 
ated, hospitals had been erected in 1895. The larger one was the 
new adjacent main building of the Woman's Hospital (1861). Having 
separate charters and governing bodies, and having lost the unifying 
influence of founder Ann Preston (1872), the College and Hospital 
had diverged move each year. While in the beginning they had been 
under one roof, the College paying rent to the Hospital, they were 
now physically separated. The College was still paying annually for 
the students' "clinical advantages." In several instances, the Hospital 
Staff hadn't approved of faculty chairmanship choices, so they 
appointed their own; soon the Faculty and Staff had very few 
members in common. The "last straws" were the Hospital Staff 
reluctance to having their patients "subjected" to students, their 
refusal to admit male patients, and the dismissal of the last College 
Faculty member from the Staff in the middle of the 1903-04 school 
year. That was it. They split. 

The smaller hospital built in 1895 had been an inspiration of 
alumna Amy S. Barton (WMC, 1874) to give free care to South 
Philadelphia slum-dwellers and give WMC students experience 
in managing both male and female patients. Supported by 
alumnae contributions, it was chartered "The Hospital and 
Dispensary of the Alumnae of the WMC." After it was 
opened in a rented house at 1212 South Third Street it 
was nicknamed the "Barton Dispensary." When the split 
with Woman's Hospital occurred, the Dispensary was the 
only "College Hospital" the College had, and it was too 
small for a teaching hospital. 

Unfortunately the split occurred just before a 1904 Penna. 
law was passed requiring every medical school to have a 
teaching hospital under its direct control to maintain a Class A 
rating. The College was thus forced either to close as an 
unaccredited school (86 schools in lower categories eventually 
closed by 1929) or to immediately establish a new hospital and 
become accredited. 

There was a unanimous emergency vote of the Barton Dispensary 
managers (mostly alumnae) to make it the official "College 
Hospital;" the College was relieved to be within the letter of the law 
and continued its scramble to find teaching beds. There was an 
outpatient obstetric practice at 335 Washington Ave. which they 
expanded to a maternity hospital. They bought a building across the 
street (1904) and converted it to the "Pavilion Hospital," and 
continued to raise funds for a new College Hospital. 

By 1907, the basement and first three floors of the new College 
Hospital were erected under the charter of the Alumnae Hospital 
and Dispensary. As more funds were raised, they literally "raised the 
roof" story by story. In 1908 there was enough space to reorganize 
the nursing school. 

By the time of the Flexner Report visit to WMC in March, 1909, 
there were a total of 1 25 students in the 4 years using the very 
adequate College Main Building preclinical facilities, the completed 
floors of the new hospital, and a disarray of very few teaching beds. 

at * 


TOP: The new operating Amphitheatre. Picture 
circa 1910. 

ABOVE: The Maternity Ward. 1905-1911. 

LEFT: 1894 photo of Russell H. Con- 
well in the laboratory with students 
Dranga (1897), Moore (1889), Bowyer 
(1898), Brickett (1898) and Lathrop 

he Flexner Report, published in 1911, was a report of 
over 148 medical schools visited over 3 years. Actually, the number 
of schools had peaked in 1906 at 162, but the incipient 
classification system discouraged the shakiest 14. It included details 
of the facilities, resources and methods of instruction. Of the 7 
schools seen in Philadelphia, Penn ranked Number One. In 
summary, the WMC analysis stressed the financial instability but did 
state that during a 7-year period they had been using the Dispensary 
and Pavilion Hospitals while raising $200,000 for the new hospital, 
the final $25,000 of which had com from the Carnegie 

The description of the Laboratory facilities was complimentary: 
"simply, but intelligently equipped and conscientiously used 
laboratories are provided for physiology, bacteriology, and 
pathology, histology and embryology, chemistry, pharmacy and 
anatomy. There is striking evidence of a genuine effort to do the 
best possible with limited resources. There is a useful library and a 
good museum." 

Of clinical facilities they could not be so positive: "The school is 
now building a new hospital, part of which is already in use. This, 
with a temporary building, accommodates 27 beds. There is, 
besides, a maternity of 16 beds and an outpatient obstetrical service. 
Ward work, with assignment of individual cases, is regularly carried 
on. Supplementary opportunities are provided at several other 
institutions. There is a fair dispensary service." 

Fortunately, the Woman's Medical College was recommended for 
accreditation despite what seemed to be overwhelming odds. In the 
May 21, 1910, J. A.M. A. our College was in Class I academically, 
those schools having less than 10% of State Board exams failures. 
The Class of 1909 had no failures, which was not true of the 
Chicago College of Physicians, Rush Medical College, Johns 
Hopkins, Yale, Harvard, U. of Minnesota or the University of 
Pennsylvania that year. Humble facilities with top notch results. 

The Main College 

Building as it appeared 

1 inally, Helen Dobson Denniston (WMC, 1908) wrote from 
Phoenix, Arizona, that she had enjoyed her WMC years. She trained 
in Orthopedics at the Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, becoming 
the first woman physician on their staff, and founded their student 
health clinic. Again, we thank all these ladies. 


TOP: Bone boxes still used in 1975 bear the 
1896 Anatomy fees-for-lost-bones sheet. 

ABOVE: The Class of 1913 Basketball 
team pictured in The Scalpel, 1911. * 

RIGHT: Students Dunning, Blake, 
Stevens, Franco, Franco, Stevens, 
McKeon, and more from Classes of «rr 
1895 to 1898 in Anatomy Dissecting ^ 
Lab. * ; 


■n exciting portion of research 
for the History of our College was writing 
to ouroldest living alumnae (Classes 1901 to 
1908) and receiving their answers. We asked 
about class size, whether students were married or had 
children, where they lived, how they travelled and how they were 
able to finance their education. They described their courses, teachers 
and career goals. 

There were six responses from the 8 classes. The daughter of H. 
Frances Bartlett Tyson (WMC, 1901) wrote from New Jersey to say 
that her mother had passed away after many years as a general 
practitioner but had left many memories as well as wooden exam- 
ining tables, forceps used by Dr. Allen, handengraved beakers from 
1900, and a legacy as the great grand-daughter of the second signer 
of the Declaration of Independence and first governor of New 

Elizabeth Bausman Bricker (WMC, 1903) herself wrote an infor- 
mative note from Main Street, Lititz, Penna. Rena May Heilman 
Lindsay (WMC, 1904), still licensed in Pa. and active member of the 
Allegheny Co. Medical Society and AMA, wrote with much diff- 
iculty a long note, using a magnifying glass. She comes from a 
family of doctors who were written up in the State Medical Journal, 
has been both a GP and teacher of anatomy and physiology in 
parochial schools, took "enough postgrad courses to paper a room," 
and appeared in the 1969 International Who's Who. She proudly 
enumerated her 3 children, 2 adopted children and 10 great-grand- 
children. We thank both these ladies for their efforts and memories. 

Abbie Mabel O'Keefe (WMC, 1905), from Portsmouth, N.H., 
remembered many details of her WMC days and friends. She has 
been a Boston G.P. for 10 years, then the Smith Colleee physician 
until 1959. Esther Marr Weyl (WMC, 1906) sent details from Phila- 
delphia where she has worked in an office practice of Pediatrics, in 
the pedi clinic of the controversial turn-of-the-century Woman's 
Hospital, then in the Medical Clinic at the old Polyclinic Hospital, 
now a HUP affiliate, and then in the X-ray Clinic at the Old German 
Hospital, now Lankenau. All of these institutions have been dis- 
cussed earlier. 

Students on the stairway of the WMC on North 
College Ave. about 1904. 

lass size varied yearly from 29 to "the largest ever" of 44 
in 1904 and 1905. In all the classes there were married women, 
some with children, some already widows. On the whole, they were 
intelligent, capable women, one class having 6 graduates of Vassar 
and Barnard. There were no dorms at the time, most students 
boarding in homes in the North College, Ridge Ave. and 21st Street 
area and either walking or taking trolley cars to classes. 

Financing their education was an interesting problem, as always. 
Costs were about S2500 total for the 4 years, or S400 to S600 per 
year. Many borrowed funds; for younger classmates a greater propor- 
tion of fees were paid by parents. However, many of the students 
were older, having worked as nurses or teachers and saved. Some 
students received scholarships. Probably the most unusual form of 
income was that of one woman in the Class of 1906; she was 
married and had been doing illegal abortions prior to entering med 
school. Apparently she wanted an M.D. to aid her other work! 

Their 4-year curriculum was not much different from ours in 
1975. First year covered anatomy, physiology, embryology, his- 
tology, chemistry and toxicology. Second year dealt with pathology, 
materia medica (pharmacology), bacteriology and some diagnosis. 
Dr. Tyson (1901 ) vividly retold how her pharmacology professor, in 
a coed class conducted in a male institution addressed them all; 
"Gentlemen (holding up a glass of water), this is the greatest 
diuretic in the world." 

Third year was introduction to clinical medicine, surgery, 
ob/gyn and pediatrics. In each of these 3 years there was extensive 
dissection and "surgical anatomy" experience, but no true courses 
in neurology, psychiatry, dentistry, anesthesiology or other sub- 
specialty. The senior year included required clinical electives includ- 
ing numerous clinics, house calls and home deliveries, and office 
practice starting at 8 AM in South Phila. with Dr. A. A. Stern. On 
their diplomas were the signatures of the 10 Professors, 5 men 
and 5 women. Among the favorite teachers mentioned were 
Ella B. Everitt (Gynaecology), Anna Broomall, and Arthur 
Stevens (Materia Medica, "the quizzes which taught us the 

Extracurricular activities had been added each year, 
beginning in 1888 with Physical Education ("wearing felt 
bloomers, black stockings, and lawn tennis slippers"). The 
first yearbook, The Scalpel, 1911, included faculty and 
student pictures, a brief college history, student activities, 
prose and poetry, a class will and prophecy. Organizations 
included The Students' Assn., the Undergraduate Medical So- 
ciety, the Y.W.C.A., the student paper The Esculapian, Jeanne 
d'Arc Society, A.E.I. Fraternity, Zeta Phi Fraternity, and basket- 
ball teams. 

The graduates of theClasscs of 1901 to 1911 went into general 
practice, ob/gyn , mental health, industrial health, mission work (1 
to 3 per class), general surgery, and all the subspecialties. 

Interestingly, the Seniors of 1911 listed 4 reasons why they had 
purposefully selected WMC in preference to coed med schools: "(1) 
The thought of becoming a professional woman and still being a 
woman, (2) Because of the stimulation of working under women 
who have attained prominence in the medical world, (3) More 
attention given to the conditions which women physicians are most 
frequently called upon to treat, and (4) Because it was a woman's 
college and stood for the great cause of women. " 


Part of the 75th Anniversary celebration, alumnae (1. to r.) Sara Mu 
Jin Ching (1921), Miriam Bell (1922), Ruth Carpenter (1922), 
Rachel Sharp (1921), Alice Fasold (1920, kneeling) and Anna Ruth 
Winter (1923) re-enacted the bas relief in the 1925 Pageant. 

Bas relief entitled The Woman Physician, sculpted by Clara Hill, was given in 
1916 to the College, where it hangs in the hallway now, by Rosalie Slaughter- 
Morton (WMC, 1897), cofounder of a war relief organization. "Daughter of 
science, pioneer, thy tenderness hath banished fear, woman and leader in thee 
blend, physician, surgeon, student, friend." 

-orld War 1 shrank the College Faculty and student body. 
Nine teachers left for War service; those left behind doubled their 
duties and asked retirees to return and help. Students volunteered to 
serve as nurses. As in the Civil War, women M.D.s were still refused 
appointments in the Armed Forces, so they either became contract 
surgeons or formed war relief organizations. Rosalie Slaughter-Mor- 
ton's (WMC, 1897) American Women's Hospitals were active 
throughout the war and into peacetime in Europe under Caroline 
Purnell's (WMC, 1887) directorship. As the "American Friends 
Service Committee" it expanded to help near East refugees, Russian 
famines, Japanese rebuilding. In 1975, Alma Dea Morani (WMC, 
1931) became head of Women's Hospitals both abroad and in 
Appalachia. Founder Slaughter-Morton wrote a book describing her 
own work entitled A Woman Surgeon. 

At home the flu epidemics of 1918-19 hit hard. The College 
gymnasium was converted into an infirmary for the sick students, 
faculty and staff. Wartime venereal disease epidemics necessitated a 
V.D. ward manned jointly by WMC and Woman's Hospital. 


...Wars; anb 


r. Frieda Baumann (WMC, 1917), now 88, 
shared her student experiences with us. There were only 
17 students in her wartime class, one married and none 
with children; five did marry later while in practice. 
Classes were still conducted on the N. College Ave. 
campus by a now one-third female faculty. The 4-year 
curriculum was much like ours. Most of her classmates 
went into general practice, 1 into Social Medicine, 1 into 
surgery, 1 into mission work, and 3 stayed on as WMC 
Faculty members. She was an "interne" at the New York 
Infirmary, then a medical resident at Bellevue and later 
became Professor of Medicine at WMC. 

Her classmate, Maltha Logan Bailey (WMC, 1917), 
described her rural general practice in 1925. She stated 
that being a GP required "knowledge of (1) how to make 
afire to sterilize instruments in a stove with or without 
draughts, when fuel must be obtained from the great 
out-o-doors, (2) how to conduct a maternity case in the 
ABOVE: Irieda Bau- most scientific manner when the oil in the only lamp in 
mann (WMC, 1917) as the house gives out and the closest kerosene is at the 
a freshman in 1913. neighbor's house 2 or 3 miles away, and (3) plastic 
She later became surgery because the kick has not yet been taken out of 
WMC Prof of Medi- tne mu ' e " Obviously, Dr. Bailey's good sense of humor 
■ aided her practice. 

RIGHT: Prof. of 
Gynaec, Ella B. Ever- 
itt (WMC, 1891) lec- 
tures the classes of 
1915 through 1917. 

fter 29 years of bridging the old 
(she had been in the last class taught by 
Ann Preston) and the new (she had 
helped the College change and remain 
accredited), Dean Marshall retired in 
1917. Her successor was Martha 
Tracy (WMC, 1904), who had gradu- 
ated with honors from Bryn Mawr, 
gone to WMC, done graduate study 
and experimental path research at 
Cornell (she made Coleys fluid to in- 
ject into animals and humans with 
malignant sarcomas), then returned 
to WMC as Director of Labs. In 1 9 1 1 , 
she took a leave of absence (alumnae 
fellowship) to study physiological 
chemistry under Dr. Mendel at Yale. 
By 1913, she was Chairman of Phy- 
siological Chemistry at WMC, and in 
her evening "free time" she worked 
toward a degree in Public Health at 
the U. of Penn. Subsequently, she 
became the Chairman of Preventive 
Medicine and Dean also. By 1930 she 
had started the Student Health Clinic and a Preventive Medicine 
Course. Today the Martha Tracy outpatient wing houses both Pre- 
ventive Medicine and Student Health. 

In the early 1920s, Dean Tracy invited the brilliant European 
scientist Madame Curie, who with her husband had discovered 
radium in 1898, to receive an honorary M.D. from the College. It 
was an honor to have Madame visit the College while she was in the 

Dean Martha Tracy (WMC, 
1904) with Madame Curie on 
WMC College steps, early 

r. Jean Gowing (WMC, 1926) wrote to describe her stu- 
dent days and the crises which took place in the 1920s. Her 4 years 
were much like ours, with the exception that Embryology, Hygiene 
and Materia Medica have been dropped (see the freshman schedule, 
opposite page). Although the postwar classes were larger again 
(29 in her class), their numbers were trimmed by the 
TB outbreak and College turmoil. Several of her classmates boarded 
in Brinton Hall, the YWCA. One southern student who lived there 
contracted TB and became very ill. When she was sent home, her 
father, an M.D. in General Practice, stated she 
didn't have it and returned her to her course- 
work. Unfortunately, the whole class was 
exposed, and one student died. 

Jean Gowing (WMC, 1926) today 
reminisces about her years on the 
WMC Peadiatrics faculty. 

ABOVE: Clara Davis, Jean Gowing and 
Elsie Morris (all WMC, 1926) in the 
Anatomy Dissecting Lab. 

RIGHT: Freshman Year Schedule for 

Order of Lectures, Demonstrations, Laboratory Work and Quizzes. 




9 to 10 a.m. 

10 tO 11 A.M. 

11 to 12 a.m. 

Anatomy Sept. 29 Anstomy Sept. 30 Anatomy Od l Anatomy Lab. 

Anatomy Sept. 28 through April 27 through April 28 through April M through April 30 

nhSeaf ftXmv Chemistry Lab. ChcmUry Lab. Chemistry Lab. Chi [?««* ' «"•» 
Cntieal Anatomy ^.^ „ -^ 4 ^^ ,, Ma> . , ^-ction T Mty g Section 1, Ma) » ' J«« *' 

12 11. to 1 P.M. 

... „. . . Hygiene „. , , ,,. ,, Hjftoloc 1 
Histology Lecture Chemintry Leoture through April 7 11 iMology Lecture ( hemibtry yun UuoUatJai 

1 to 2 P.M. 


2 to 3 p.m. 

Cbemiistry Lab. 

Section I ChemiMrv i ■ 
• ChemiBtry Lab. through Jan. 20 

3 to 4 p.m. 

4 to 5 p.m. 

_. , , , Section I Sec. II Jan. 27. through , 

jean. *bj*s» "ear &%sa ^ss^ 

Jan. 26 through through Jan. 20 through Jan. 22 
Section I, Jan. 27 Section I. Jan. 29 
through April 28 

5 to 6 p.m. 

Materia Medioa and 
Pharmacy Lecture 

* Subject to chance. 


• oney was tight again. The panic-stricken Board urged 
WMC to merge with the University of Pennsylvania. Penn, however, 
answered that WMC would have to give up its identity, and they 
would give no consideration to current students, faculty or alumnae, 
or to the "cause of women in medicine." Outraged, the alumnae, 
faculty and friends unanimously refused and reorganized under the 
leadership of Chairman of the Board, Mrs. Sarah Logan Wister Starr. 
They laid plans for the move to Henry Ave., raised funds and 
applied for the College's first State Appropriation funds. 

Soon there was a big problem. All the Board executive 
committee members were lay business administrators. This was 
purposeful, based on the belief that all decisions "boiled down to 
dollars and cents," be they financial, academic or hospital internal 
affairs. Suddenly there was no more faculty input, even in 
intradepartmental matters formerly handled only by the indepen- 
dent chairpersons. 

Professor Alice Tallant (Johns Hopkins, 1902), voted "Most 
popular teacher" for several of her 18 years as Professor of 
Obstetrics, became the center of attention. Her morally and 
educationally, but not financially, sound policy was to admit 
patients for delivery regardless of ability to pay. In fact, pregnant 
State wards from Slayton Farms for Girls in Glen Mills, Pa., were 
delivered free at WMC. There are no records of what happened, but 
the lay Board dismissed her without a hearing, without stating their 
charges and without any professional or academic input. 

The war between Administration and Faculty was on! The 
Faculty found the lack of academic control unacceptable; 26 
faculty members, some heads of departments, resigned. The Board 
would not compromise. Students went on strike, meeting at the 
YWCA, Zeta Phi or AEI in protest; some transferred away from the 
"unstable" school. Several Corporators left because they had no 
patience for "misuse of funds and willed moneys for State ward free 

Somehow the Board, Faculty and students were reorganized. 
First Dr. Cahill, then Dr. Ann Gray Taylor (WMC, 1918), became 
Prof, of Obstetrics. Drs. Kitty Macfarlane and Esther Weyl remained 
loyal. The reorganization was approved by the Council on Medical 
Education, new faculty members hired, and the College bounced 
back to celebrate its 75th anniversary in 1925. 


he 25th year was celebrated with a new College building, 
the 50th with a new Laboratory Building, a new Hospital, an 
historical pamphlet and the first College History by Dean Marshall. 
Again, WMC celebrated with a book, The 75th Anniversary Volume. 
and a building, the groundwork for the East Falls College and 

The book began with "A Retrospect," a short history, by Dean 
Martha Tracy, the 1925 Commencement program, the 1925 Pageant 
program and articles by the two-thirds female faculty and alumnae. 
Dr. Maude Abbott, student of Sir William Osier and founder of 
Canada's McGill University pathology museum, was WMC Pathology 
Professor and published her 1924 article on congenital heart disease. 
Professors of Physiology (Sands, WMC, 1918), Medicine (Goepp), 
Surgery (Rodman on Mastectomy), Gynaecology (Macfarlane on 
UTI), Psychiatry (Johnson, WMC, 1905, on Prostitution), Ophtha- 
lmology (Buchanon, WMC, 1899), ENT (Butler, WMC, 1894) and 
other specialties contributed. Finally like Gisela von Poswick's 
(WMC, 1911) article on radiotherapy for TB, Hodgkins and Sar- 
coma, many alumnae shared their new found knowledge. 

The Woman's Medical College and Hospital 
new East Falls Site, 1930. 


Barton Dispensary and Clinic, Ridge Ave., 1920s. 

'ortunately, the new College land and funds were obtained 
before the 1929 Depression. That year the neighboring Queen Lane 
homes and reservoir were built. The ll'/i acre East Falls site had 
originally been selected by Alexander Hamilton to be the new 
Capitol if Philadelphia remained the capital city. However, in 1930, 
121 medical students enrolled in a new combined teaching and 
hospital facility. They walked from nearby homes on the muddy 
dirt roads. Indian Queen Lane had no buildings; it was just a foot 
path down the hill to Ridge Avenue, where the upperclassmen 
attended the Barton Dispensary. Miraculously, as it had done in the 
past, the College had recovered with new growth within 10 years of 
a near-fatal crisis. 



'n?ded; Cities 

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Important — Gasoline Rationing, May 12th and lit" 


• Imiarrt —— 

■xnb. World's Most Deadly, 
i Blasts Japan; New Era in Warfare [Japan Su 
Is Opened by U S. Secret Weapon 

' i 


1942 WMC Nursing 
School bus to the old 
nurses' residence near Old 
Market Square in Ger- 


'he politics of the business-oriented lay Board of Corpora- 
tors got the College in even bigger trouble. Their complete power, 
even over academic decisions, had caused mass resignations and 
student strikes in the 1920s; in 1935 they still only allowed "joint 
committees" and lost the college its accreditation. The Council of 
Medical Education (CME) of the American Assn. of Medical Col- 
leges (AAMC) had taken over the role of standardization and quality 
control from the Carnegie Commission, Flexner Report Commission 
and AMA. The first CME survey since the Flexner Report 24 years 
earlier placed WMC on "probation." 

The CME cited three areas in which the college was weak; they 
would need: (1) full-time faculty heads in basic sciences, (2) a 
full-time librarian, and (3) full faculty authority over academic 
affairs. Even a joint committee with lay Board members was unac- 
ceptable. The first two points entailed new funding and new man- 
power; the last item would require new politics. 

Mrs. Lucretia Longshore Blankenberg, daughter of Hannah 
(WMC, 1852), launched the fund drive for salaries. With the help of 
donations from the Federation of Women's Clubs, WMC hired four 
new department chairmen and a librarian. Dr. Ben King Harned 
would chair Pharmacology; Dr. Hartwig Kuhlenbeck, Anatomy; Dr. 
Marion Fay, Physiochemistry; and Dr. Esther Greisheimer, Physio- 
logy. Ida Draeger, the new librarian, combined all the departmental 
libraries, cataloging books and helping the college library grow for 
40 years before her retirement. 

With two of the three CME points resolved, and the third "in the 
works" on paper only (Board changes), the College was restored to 
its Class A rating within a year. 


-omen physicians made great strides in the 1930s and 40s. 
In 1930, 82 years after women entered medicine, the arch-conserva- 
tive College of Physicians of Philadelphia, the oldest medical acad- 
emy in America, accepted its First woman, Dr. Catharine (Kitty) 
Mac) Macfarlane (WMC, 1898). Two years later, there were 69 
women in the College of Surgeons, one of the first of whom had 
also been Kitty Mac. 

The amazing Catharine Macfarlane studied in the US, Germany 
and Austria. In 1922 she became the chairman of Gynaecology. By 
1938 she received a grant from the AMA Committee of Scientific 
Research to study the value of periodic pelvic examinations in the 
diagnosis of, earlier detection and curability of cancer of the uterus. 
More than 1200 women volunteered for her study and were fol- 
lowed for ten years. The project was an enormous success, a 
similar N.Y. City study concurring with her results. Early 


..Jleabemtc Jfreebom 

detectioh and treatment did markedly alter the course of the di- 

This pioneering concept in cancer research had never been 
proved; it has now been generalized to other cancers and is widely 
accepted. Her clinic was a model for over 250 cancer detection 
clinics across the country, her name becoming a household word to 
thousands of women. In addition to being the first woman in 
both the College of Surgeons and College of Physicians of Phila., she 
was President of AMWA and member of the Penna. Medical Society 
Cancer Commission. 

Katharine Boucat Sturgis (WMC, 1942) was another pioneer of 
this era. She contributed to environmental and industrial health 
concepts, anti-pollution reforms and x-ray screening methods for TB 
and lung cancer. She has done research on toxic and carcinogenic 
industrial chemicals, including the vinyl chlorides and their role in 
hepatic neoplasia. 


*CJn 1940, Dean Martha Tracy, the pacesetter in Physiology, 
Preventive Medicine and Public Health who had inspired Dr. Sturgis 
and others, resigned. The wartime emergency of World War II had 
called her to serve as Asst. Director of Public Health of Philadelphia. 
After one of her exhausting nightly civil defense meetings, she 
developed pneumonia and died at WMC. 

The new Dean in 1940 was a brilliant, though controversial, 
gynaecologist from Johns Hopkins, Margaret Craighill. This forceful 
woman set up residencies at WMC, appointed a full-time financial 
officer to compartmentalize financial concerns, and played politics 
par excellence to force the lay Board out of its stranglehold of 
absolute power. She purposely requested the AAMC Council of 
Medical Education to re-examine WMC. As expected, the college 
was placed on probation a second time because of lay influence on 
academic affairs. This showdown forced the resignations of Mrs. 
Starr (chairman) and other Board members. 

Dr. Ellen Potter (WMC, 1903), former Director of Medicine in 
New Jersey State Institutions, became the new College President 
under the reorganization. She helped to build a Board dedicated to 
faculty control and academic freedom. The college was immedi- 
ately, and so far permanently, returned to Class A standing. 


'mencan involve- 
ment in World War II began in 
1941. Two years later, women 
physicians were impatiently 
pushing for appointments in 
the Armed Forces denied 
them since the Civil War. Fi- 
nally, AMWA persuaded the 
President to sign a bill on 
April 17, 1943, commissioning 
women doctors in the Army. 
Only 3 days later, politically 
active Dean Craighill was com- 
missioned a Major in the Medi- 
cal Corps, the first woman to 
be accepted, and was named 
Director of the Women's Unit. 
Within hours she had packed 
and left, not resigning, but 
leaving Marion Fay, Ph.D., 
Acting Dean. 

Wondering what effect WW 
II would have on WMC enroll- 
ment, Acting Dean Fay pre- 
dicted a drop due to increased 
acceptance of women 

in financially-impaired male 
schools. Instead, because of a 
tremendous rise in the total 

LEFT: Catharine Macfarlane ABOVE: Margaret Craighill 

(WMC, 1898), Chairman of Gynae- 
cology and prominent cancer re- 
searcher. In 1948, she laid the cor- 
nerstone for Institute for Cancer 
Research, Jeanes Hospital. 

(Johns Hopkins) became Dean in 
1940. By 1943 she was the first 
woman physician commissioned 
in the Army. 

number of women wanting to enter medicine, there was a three-fold 
increase in WMC applicants. The wartime demand tor physicians 
stepped-up program production everywhere; the WMC curriculum 
was accelerated to 3'/2 years, omitting senior vacations, and others 
(including Penn) condensed to 3 years. In addition, Dean Fay began 
innovative evening refresher courses to encourage physicians to 
re-enter practice. She urged the Nursing School to join the Student 
Nursing Corps, which greatly increased the class size. 


These 1947 International News Photos for a Philadelphia Inquirer 
article picture freshmen in Anatomy Lab (left) and sophomores 
actually compounding their prescriptions for pharmacology (right). 

tudents of the war years, Selma Kramer (1944), Mary 
Dratman (1945) and E. Cooper Bell (1947), responded to our 
inquiries about College life. Their classes varied in size from 21 to 
44 depending on illnesses and wartime circumstances. Dr. Kramer 
stated, "Our class started with 44, but only 12 of the original 44 
were in the total of 21 at graduation. Tuberculosis took a dreadful 
toll. A third of the original class contracted TB; two classmates died. 
We caught it by doing (not watching) the required sophomore 
autopsies at PGH. Our class morale was very low and our hostility 
very high." Fortunately, the class of 1947 reported that although 
they still had Saturday morning PGH autopsy experience, they were 
not expected to remain when there was a question of TB exposure. 

About 10 percent of the students were married and few had 
children because one student stated she was asked to leave when she 
became pregnant. One member of the class of 1945 was a grand- 
mother, and a woman in the class of 1947 had several stepchildren. 

The first two years of their curriculum were similar to today's; 
the third year looked the same on paper but was actually quite 
different. Their third year was classroom lecture material in the 
clinical specialties, analogous to our abbreviated lecture series com- 
bined with sophomore ICLM. Their junior practical experience was 
more dissection, the surgical anatomy course. Fourth year, they had 
clinical courses in medical subspecialties, outpatient clinic work and 
rotations to PGH, Roxborough, WMC Infirmary and Dispensary 
(now extinct) and Woman's Hospital of W. Phila. for deliveries. The 
latter hospital had split from WMC in 1903, moved to W. Phila., first 
admitted male patients around 1930, and "merged" with HUP 
(Penn). Sadly, this merger went the way of all others: Woman's 
Hospital quickly became a plaque on the HUP wall. 

All three doctors agreed that most students lived in nearby 
homes, apartments or sorority houses (Zeta Phi or AEI). A few lived 
in the suburbs and commuted by public transportation or carpools. 
Their professors were mostly women since the young male faculty 
had been drafted. Tuition, running somewhere near $700 a year, 
was paid by family funds, odd jobs, scholarships and post-war loans. 

Most of the wartime graduates went into private practice in 
general practice, internal medicine or ob/gyn. Dr. Kramer, who 
trained in both adult and child psychiatry and psycho-analysis, is 
combining her career as Head of Section of Child Psychiatry at 
E. P.P.I, with marriage and family. She pointed out that fewer of the 
1940's graduates went into mission work and more into sub- 
specialties (eg. 2 into psychiatry in her class). Dr. Dratman is 
another example of the trend to subspecialization. Along with her 
family interests she pursues a career in academic endocrinology, 
research and teaching. 

Dr. Cooper Bell, who practices internal medicine and is on the 
MCPH staff, was one of 6 interns, all women and 4 from WMC, at 
WMCH in 1947-48. She had no salary but free room and board, $10 
per month for "uniform fee," and duty every other night. Interns 
and nurses resided on the fifth floor of the College Building (now 
5-North); the residents slept on the third floor "across from the old 
library" (where the Pharmacology Office is now), earned small 
salaries and were seven in number: 1 in medicine, 2 in surgery, 3 in 
ob/gyn and 1 in pediatrics. Today, the housestaff is over 15 times 
as large (about 200). 

A student lounge was given to the 
students in 1949 by Parents Assn. 
funds and Alumnae Assistance. It was 
in the College building until 1973. 

tjlitically aggressive Dean Craighill shocked the College in 
1946. While she was away at war, a few board members had secretly 
communicated to her their fears that the student body was shrink- 
ing and the College in dire financial trouble (neither of which were 
fact). Dr. Craighill then secretly arranged for WMC to merge with 
Jefferson Medical College. Board Chairman Judge Goodrich helped 
with the plans and, upon her return from war, they called a special 
April 7, 1946, Board meeting to announce their plans. 

The reaction was instantaneous and angry. The uninformed Act- 
ing Dean, Hospital Administration and majority of Board members 
concurred with the Philadelphia Bulletin article stating the move 
was unfair and being handled very poorly. 

The faculty, led by Dr. Griscom; alumnae, led by President Jean 
Gowing; and students unanimously opposed the merger, demanding 
an open meeting with the Board of Corporators at the Phila. College 
of Physicians. There on April 10, 1946, Dean Craighill read her 
merger proposal, stating the College was on the verge of bankruptcy. 
Board member Margaret Kelly knew the Dean had been out of 
contact with all college documents on Acting Dean Fay's desk for 
three years. Dean Craighill was repeatedly challenged by Mrs. Kelly 
to prove the financial crisis existed. She could not. 

Mrs. Kelly moved that WMC continue with separate College plans 
and growth. Despite a split vote of the Board, the resolution carried. 
Dean Craighill and Chairman Goodrich resigned immediately. 

With new solidarity of purpose, the new College Dean Marion 
Fay, College President Potter, Board Chairman Kelly, and Chairmen 
of Gynaecology and Surgery (Pettit and Ferguson, respectively) 
formed a 1946 Board Centennial Celebration Committee for the 
forthcoming 1950 event. 

The November 13, 1948, Saturday 
Evening Post featured an article "Do 
Women Make Good Doctors?", all the 
pictures taken at WMC. ABOVE: 
Dean Fay and Board member George 
Austin distribute copies to students 
Pritt, Lohrman, and Weber. AT 
RIGHT: are selected FNT, Pediatrics 
and Surgery photos. 

In 1948 the auditorium was remod- 
elled and named for Mary Dern 
Goodrich; today it has been remod- 
elled again as the Louise B. Kaiser 
Aud. In 1948 it had modern visual 
aids provided by Board member 
Goldman (of theatre fame) and was a 
lunchroom for students and staff. 



AT LEFT: President Louise 
Pearce in 1950 stands beside 
portrait of 1850 President Wil- 
liam Mullen. AT RIGHT: 
Dean Marion Fay is presented 
a Centennial flag to fly above 
the college during the festivi- 

This display in the Lobby showed highlights of College his- 
tory during the "Pennsylvania Week celebration," October, 
1948. Included were newspaper articles and both Life Maga- 
zine and Newsweek College stories. 

WOM \\ !)<>< TOK: Hun ami \,n, 


'n 1950, culminating four years of planning, the College 
celebrated its Centennial with publications and building. Displays 
about WMC history were placed throughout the College; articles 
were written about women in medicine, featuring the College; 
Gulielma Fell Alsop (WMC, 1908) published The History of the 
Woman's Medical College, 1850 to 1950; and the College was 
building and growing in the post-war economy. 

The kick-off Centennial Celebration Dinner excitingly typified 
the times. America was paranoid about Communism; Senator Mc- 
Carthy stirred the nation with his lists and anti-Communist exposes. 
The College had selected as speaker for the dinner a prominent 
woman professional, Judge Dorothy Kenyon. To everyone's shock 
and dismay, Judge Kenyon's name appeared on one of Senator 
McCarthy's lists as a Communist sympathizer only two days before 
the dinner. 

There were mixed reactions. Social-conscious College supporters 
threatened to withdraw funds if the "Justice Department suspect" 
was permitted to speak at the College. On the other hand, Public 
Relations seized the opportunity for publicity and asked McCarthy 
to come and debate with the Judge. He refused, but to the College's 
credit, they did welcome Judge Kenyon to speak. Later, the errone- 
ous charges were cleared from her record in Washington. 

The second one hundred years of the College were off to quite a 
controversial start! 


The Philadelphia Inquirer Magazine printed a tribute (above) to the 
100-year-old College in June, 1950. It featured details about senior 
students Sullivan, Stavola, Croyle, Kerner and Sved, famous graduates 
Catharine Macfarlane and Hannah Longshore and details about admis- 
sions and curricular standards. It cited statistics that the 1200 actively 
practicing WMC graduates of at 2100 total in 100 years comprised at 
least one-sixth of all U.S. women physicians in 1950. There had been 7 
applicants for each woman accepted in the Class of 1950. 


'he college was under new leadership. Dr. Fay was still 
Dean, but the new President was Dr. Louise Pearce (Johns Hopkins, 
1912), former Rockefeller Institute Fellow and tropical diseases re- 
searcher. She served until 1951 when the college found its first 
full-time President, Dr. Burgess Gordon, Professor of Medicine at 
Jefferson. Later in the 1950s he retired, leaving Dr. 1 ay temporarily 
both Dean and President. Lor all but one year when she was U 1 and 
had Dr. Jean Cowing (WMC, 1926) fill in. Dr. Eva Fox (WMC, 
1943) was hospital Medical Director. 

These leaders planned wisely for the growth of both the medical 
and nursing schools, and they enlarged the scope of the College by 
instituting the Master of Science (M.S.) and Doctor of Science 
(D.Sc.) programs in basic sciences which were approved in 1952. 
One of the earliest D.Sc. recipients was Dr. Beasley, who is today on 
the Anatomy faculty and an Assistant Dean. 

There was federal pressure to alleviate the doctor crisis by in- 
creasing class size beyond 50. This necessitated an extension of the 
old chemistry lab space beyond its physical limitation for 48. With 
the help of a federal research grant funding Dr. Phyllis Bott- Richa- 
rd's Kidney Research lab on glomerular fluid analysis, the new 
Research Wing was built by 1960, the top floor including Biochem- 
istry lab space. 

Two years later the larger 1950-51 freshman class entered the 
clinical years. Clinical facilities already in use were those of the 
WMCH and Clinics, the Woman's Hospital in W. Phila., Ro.xborough 
and P.G.H., but more teaching beds were needed. Dr. Fay ap- 
proached the Dean's Committee (city-wide association for the five 
medical schools) for help. Temple Medical School was brand new, 
and they were most desperate for teaching space, so the deans 
decided to split EPPI, across the expressway from WMC, between 
the Temple and WMC faculties. Groundbreaking was in 1953. 

HUP (Penn) attempted to "pull a fast one." Without going 
through the approved Dean's Committee, they secretly agreed with 
PGH managers to take over completely the facilities which all 5 
medical schools had shared. The irate Dean's Committee adjourned 
to City Hall, where Mayor Tate had ultimate power over PGH 
allocations, since it had been the City's almshouse since 1732. He 
flattened Dr. Ravdin's arguments (aggressive HUP Vice Pres. for 
Medical Affairs) and kept PGH split evenly five ways. 

To increase their private outpatient facilities, WMC raised the 
Martha Tracy Wing in 1954. It also housed the Dept. of Preventive 
Medicine, founded by Martha Tracy (WMC, 1904) and chaired by 
Katharine Boucot Sturgis (WMC, 1942). 

I I I I. BELOW: Grace Kelly and Cary Grant attended fund-raising 
events and a nursmg school celebration during the 19511s RIGII'l. 
BELOW: Nursing instructors and teachers watch building progress 
on the new Ann Preston Hall in 1951-52. 


"t seemed the Nursing School was always a little orphan 
tagging along behind the College and Hospital. After the College 
moved to East Falls in 1930, the nurses lived on the fifth floor of 
the College (now 5 -North) and attended classes in College rooms 
not scheduled full of medical students. In World War II, to increase 
patient bedspace, the nurses were forced out to a Germantown 
residence and had to take a bus back and forth. 

Dean Fay launched a fund-raising campaign to build Ann Preston 
Hall, named for the member of the first WMC medical class (1852) 
who founded the WMC Nursing School. In 1952, ninety years after 
the Nursing School was founded as one of the first three in the 
country, the nurses moved into Ann Preston Hall. It served as a 
residence for nurses, interns and some medical students and pro- 
vided teaching space for the historic WMC Nursing School. 

The 1954 photo, AT RIGHT 
shows the Zeta Phi Sorority 
house, home for many medical 
students, at 3613 Fox St. BELOW 
RIGHT: new lab space being 
added to the Research Wing, early 


> Li*!* 



I'illl \l»l I I'lM ■■ 

April, 1950, Article appeared 
in Independent Woman, the 
publication of the Nat'l Fed- 
eration of Business and Pro- 
fessional Women's Clubs. 

New York Herald Tribune article 
June, 1952, stated that discrimina- 
tion was not yet conquered, that 
only 76 of the 87 U.S. medical 
schools accepted women, usually at a 
5% "quota." WMC graduated one- 
sixth of all women MDs each year. 

Charm Magazine, September 1953, spot- 
lighted the 84,700 Philadelphian working 
women, doing an in-depth article on Dr. 
Anne Pike (WMC, 1946). gynecologist and 
WMC faculty member. 





FROM TOP TO BOTTOM AT LEFT: Academic Procession at EPPI, 
Oct. 14, 1960, to dedicate the WMC Research Wing; 1960s reconstruc- 
tion of the second floor corridor to the new Commonwealth Bldg. to 
provide Medicine Dept. office space and conference rooms; V.A. Hos- 
pital is a new affiliate; view of the WMC Building Facade taken from 
the new Research Wing. 

he 1960s were years of renewed social awareness and a reassessment of the 
College purpose. By 1963, WMC had a new full-time President, Dr. Leymaster, 
former member of the Council on Medical Education and Hospitals of the AAMC. His 
orientation was to modernize, to expand numbers and scope and depth. He enlarged 
the faculty, increased the number of students, residency positions and full-time 
clinical chairmen, and expanded the clinical and research facilities, including pioneer- 
ing work in fetal heart monitoring (1965). In 1963, WMC was approved to grant 
Ph.D. degrees. Through the City Dean's Committee they traded their one-fifth of 
PGH beds for one-half of the new Veterans Hospital beds. Pursuing out-of-town 
educational programs, WMC surveyed the Allentown-Bethlehem hospitals and signed 
a new agreement to affiliate with St. Luke's Hospital in Bethlehem. 

Taking a giant leap forward into the "Modern Era", the College launched an $11.7 
million building program and in 1966 conducted cornerstone ceremonies for the 
Commonwealth Building. This southern extension of the hospital now houses out- 
patient clinics, operating rooms, cafeteria, radiology and most patient beds (increased 
from 244 to 400). The up-to-date College and Hospital now had greater clinical depth 
to offer the community. The Emergency Room (ER) became the third busiest in the 
City behind PGH and Temple; outpatient services more than doubled; medical 
admissions increased 17-fold; and the growth is continuing. Consider the following 
statistics for pre-and post-commonwealth years: 

Fiscal Year 1965 1973 

267 336 

35 148 

27,000 57,000 

14,000 28,000 

300 5,200 

Expansion of clinical opportunities permitted broadened training programs. Medi- 
cal and nursing school classes enlarged; laboratory and x-ray technician programs 
were added. In 1968, WMC became the first medical school to retrain inactive 
physicians in peacetime. 

Women's Medical College of Pa. had been the first and last medical college for 
women in the western hemisphere. The list of "firsts" of WMC graduates was 
lengthy: first woman medical missionary (Clara Swain, WMC, 1869), first Canadian, 
Filipino, Indian Brahman and American Indian women physicians, first cancer 
detection clinic and use of radium for cervical cancer (Catharine Macfarlane, WMC, 
1898), first woman doctor in the Regular U.S. Army (Fae Adams, WMC, 1951), first 
woman M.D. U.S. Navy captain (Gioconda Saraniero, WMC, 1935), first woman 
Army commanding officer in Viet Nam (Anna Brady, WMC, 1951), first woman mem- 
ber in 1888 (Mary Willets, WMC, 1881) and president in 1968 (Katharine Boucot 
Sturgis, WMC, 1942) of the Phila. Co. Medical Society, first woman member of the 
American College of Surgeons (Caroline Purnell, WMC, 1887), and many, many more. 

No. of Faculty 
No. of House Staff 
O.P. Clinic Visits 
ER Visits 
Medical Admissions 


- as a strictly woman's medical college still necessary? This question had been 
raised and studied before. In 1851, when FMC of Penna. was one year old, it was the 
only one of 52 medical schools for women only. That year there were only two other 
medical schools (Geneva and Rochester in N.Y.) accepting one woman student each. 
Thus, of the 40,755 U.S. physicians, ten (0.02%) were women. Eight of the women 
(80%) were FMC graduates. 

Thirty years later, in 1880, there were 100 medical schools, 18 for women. There 
were now 82,000 U.S. physicians, 3.5% of whom were women, most graduates of the 
"female" schools, of the nearly 2400 women doctors, 244 (10%) were living WMC 
alumnae. In 1881, Dean Rachel Bodley studied the WMC grads to see whether they 
were happy in their careers and able to combine medicine and marriage, "I remark 
that the song of domestic life as I have listened with ear attent, has been sung in no 
minor key. In the melody are a few discordant notes (1 unfavorable influence of 
medicine on family, 45 favorable), but these are such as a master might throw in to 
enhance the harmonies of his strain ." Although 18 other women s colleges had 
existed, several folded with financial problems, and male schools were still reluctant 
to become coed. WMC was still needed. By 1900, almost 5% of all physicians were 
women, and over 15% of all women had graduated from the more stable WMC. 

In 1927, Dean Martha Tracy sent questionnaires to two groups of women 
physicians who \eceived degrees, those between 1905 and 1910 and those between 
1912 and 1921. She discovered that 25% of those graduating between 1905 and 1910 
received their degrees from three women's medical schools - in Baltimore, New York 
and Philadelphia - and 75% in the 160 coed schools whose average quotas for 
women peaked in 1911 at about 10%. At that time the percentage of women 
physicians peaked nationally at 6% (6000 of 100,000). Eleven hundred of the women 
(19%) were WMC alumnae. 

The years between 1912 and 1943, when the number of approved schools had 
fallen to 76 and WMC was the only women's college, the total number of women 
physicians settled back to a 5.0 to 5.2% of the total yearly. While the coed schools 
had resumed unspoken but consistent 5% female quotas, WMC steadily produced 
between 20 and 25% of each year's woman graduates. 

During World War II, many of the all male schools became coed to avoid 
bankruptcy. The relative contribution of WMC to annual new women physician 
production fell to 15%. By postwar 1953, the 76 of 82 U.S. medical schools who did 
admit women again lowered their quotas to 5% "with a sense of noblesse oblige" 
(New York Herald Tribune). Consequently, WMC assumed greater relative impact 
once again on female education, producing 15-25% of all women doctors. That year 
WMC had nine applicants for each of its spaces; nationally there were 2 applicants for 
each class space. 

By 1963, each of the 87 medical schools finally admitted women, and the 
acceptance rates were levelling off for men and women. The 1000 annual women 
applicants grew quickly to 2000 annually by 1969. That year WMC accepted about 
1 7% of their women applicants and graduated 1 7% of all new women MDs. Its overall 
contribution to living female doctors was now falling to 10%. 

The Woman's Medical College Of Pennsylvania 
graduates 3 times as many women physicians 
as any other college or university, public or 
private, in the United States of America. 

When Women 
Fought ior Equal 
(Medical) Rights 


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'oncern about reverse discrimination against men in admissions policies 
and Federal and State funding regulations forced the College to re-evaluate its 
commitment to educating only women doctors. While WMC had been educating 
men in graduate programs and as residents for years, the Board of Corporators felt 
it was time for the undergraduate medical school to open its doors to men. Some 
of the newer faculty members argued that increased acceptance rates for women 
at other Pennsylvania schools would increase WMC competition for best-qualified 
women students. Since there was a smaller pool of women than men applicants, it 
would lower WMC standards unless they accepted men. These two arguments, 
qualifying for State Aid by serving more Pa. residents (men) and maintaining high 
quality, were the force to change. 

Needless to say, students, alumnae and conservative faculty members fought 
the move to coeducation vigorously. They believed that the College had a 
uniquely famous and historic mission, publicized frequently in newspapers and 
magazines, to provide training opportunities for women in medicine. They feared 
that coeducation would eventually infringe on the number of positions open to 
women and would compromise the commitment to women. 

All levels of the WMC community contributed to the endless debates over 
details in the new "Mission Statement," which was designed to appease and unite 
all the warring camps. The College voted to accept men, but retained the motto: 
"19th century pioneer . . . 20th century pacesetter in medical education for 

TOP LEFT: This Week Magazine of the Boston Sunday Herald, March 
10, 1963, article was "Women MD's Can Help the Doctor Crisis," by 
WMC Dean Marion Fay. It stated statistics about admission to medical 
school and clarified myths about women not being able to combine 
medicine with marriage, stating that about 25% of each WMC class 
students were married, another 50% of these being mothers, and 91% 
all MD mothers active professionals. 

TOP RIGHT: In 1967 Time Magazine encouraged colleges and uni- 
versities to advertise free of charge. This was the WMC ad on March 3, 

MIDDLE LEFT: The Sunday Bulletin Magazine Sept. 27, 1964, article 
"When Women Fought for Equal (Medical) Rights" stated that discrim- 
ination against women applicants was a thing of the past. 
BOTTOM LEFT: Today, The Philadelphia Inquirer Magazine, Feb. 26, 
1967, "Once Women Doctors were as Popular as Measles, Now We're 
Clamoring for More of Them," article dealt with the changing attitudes 
toward women physicians. 

BOTTOM RIGHT: The entire issue of the August, 1969, International 
Surgery Bulletin was devoted to the WMC contribution to educating 
women physicians, currently enrolling 17% of all U.S. women medical 
students. Soon after this article was published, WMC accepted its first 
male medical students. 

BELOW TOP LEFT: View out of the back of the new Common- 
wealth Building overlooking the Roosevelt Expressway and 
Schuylkill Valley. 

BELOW RIGHT: Intern Elizabeth Labovitz (WMC, 1963) appears 
in the 1 964 latrian. 

BELOW MIDDLE: Radiologist Eva Fox (WMC, 1943) was a popu- 
lar faculty member for the Class of 1964. 

BELOW BOTTOM: Student Health Service, 1964, included Dr. 
Alice Anderson (WMC, 1946), Dr. Marion Boyd, Elizabeth Lucas 
and Alice Devlin, RN. 

1970. The College changes its name to The Medical 
College of Pennsylvania. 

Dr. Bernard Sigel, former Professor of Surgery, 
becomes Dean. 

Dr. Marion Fay becomes Acting President. 
MCP has the first medical school emergency 
heliport in Philadelphia. 

1971. MCP has the first A.M.A.-approved residency 
in Acute Care Medicine in the U.S. 

1972. MCP graduates her first four male M.D.s. 
MCP enters the open heart surgery arena: first 
with Dr. Nichols and then Dr. Sariel Ablaza. 
Dean Sigel and Assoc. Dean Escovitz expedite 
new hospital affiliations: St. Luke's Hospital in 
Bethlehem, Lehigh University (6 year pro- 
gram), Univ. of Penn. School of Dental Medi- 
cine, and Frankford Hospital. 

MCP establishes innovative programs: 

The Learning Center (child care, pedi- 

Swarthmore Family Practice Rotation 
The Covenant House (community health 
Phase One of Expansion: Louise B. Kaiser Au- 

Florence A. Moore Library 1972 
plans, 1973 construction and 1974 

1911. Anatomy 

ABOVE. 1972. New affiliations: 
BELOW. 1972. First four men receive 
mel and Sorkin. 

in Orthopedics 

Dissecting Room 

St. Luke's Hospital, Bethlehem. 

M.D. degrees: Drs. Ripka, Rose, Schim- 

1973. Phase Two of Expansion: New Florence A. 

Moore Library and Teaching renovations 
in Ann Preston Hall (SI. 3 million) 

Alma Dea Morani Lab of Surgical lmmuno- 
biology opens. 

MCP graduates her first three male nurses. 

More new MCP programs: 

Pediatric Nurse Associates in MCP clinic 

and East Falls Housing Satellite 
HAT (Health Advocate Training) for day 
care at T.LC. 

Part-Time Residency Program is funded 
Alcoholism Counselling Training Center 
Research Librarian and Computer Term- 
inal for the Medline System 

MCP houses the New Center for Women in 
Medicine, Nina B. Woodside, director. 

MCP's last Vital Signs (student newspaper) is 

Dr. Sbarbaro becomes new Chief of Ortho- 

Ida Draeger, librarian, retires. 

1974. MCP affiliates with the Phila. Psychiatric 

MCP new subspecialty: Hand Service of 

Orthopedics, Dr. Didizian 
MCP has a new organization: "Wives of MCP 

Medical Students" 
New President Robert Slater, Canadian M.D., 

and former Dean of Univ. of Vt. College 

of Med. 
MCP has 88 freshmen: 66 women; 17 

provisional acceptances for the Class of 

1980 from Lehigh; selected from 5099 

Phase Three of Expansion: $1.5 million 

renovations in Main Building: new 

research and teaching labs; faculty 

offices in the old library. 

1975. MCP is 125 years old; has graduated 3437 MDs, 

928 nurses. 
President Slater is inaugurated 
MCP affiliates with West Park Hospital 
Dean Sutnick begins at MCP 
MCP selects 93 freshmen: 60 women 
Phase Four of Expansion is pending: a 4-story 
roof top extension of the animal 
research building for education and 
Alumnae, students and faculty are concerned 
about MCP's commitment to women. Is 
a former motto true? 
"19th Century Pioneer . . . 20th Century 
Pacesetter in Medical Education for Women." 
History section respectfully 

Susan Carleton 
Benes (MCP, 

Inauguration of the New Presi- 
dent, Robert James Slater, Janu- 
ary, 1975, at the Bellevue Strat- 

Tlie Doctor, 1920 

Dr. Agnes Hockaday, W.M.C. 

The Most Am ent Known Pictorial Record <>f k Woman 


■ " " ■ '"' ' ■• uting >'• < f"t» "I 

:. I /.. /''.. I -on ><"' Ifi'l pofwmyWtfw I-,- ,-„,,■ bl'wi at 

■ ■■■ 91 '*■• ' I "■'>■■ '■■•■■I I* ■< 

Egyptian Woman Doctor, 3000 B.C., from 
A History of Women in Medicine, Kate 
Campbell Hurd-Mead, M.D., The Haddam 
Press, 1938. 

A Medicine Man Curing a Pa- 
tient, Christian Schussele, 1851. 

OTomen in 

The idea that women belong in medicine is not new. In fact, 
women were the first doctors in primitive societies; the nuturers, 
planters and healers, the obstetricians, bone-setters and gathers of 
medicinal herbs. As priestresses of the gods they were revered, and 
men were only called upon (see left) for their louder noises, greater 
strength or their "placebo" effect (incantation of a priest over the 
dead or dying when the end appears inevitable.) As early as 4000, 
B.C. the Samaritans carved images of their priestess-physicians carry- 
ing the dove of charity in one hand and the torch of midwifery in the 
other. Fifteen hundred years later the profession had changed 
drastically; men now ran medicine, demanding exorbitant fees for 
their services and necessitating spiteful laws, including the Code of 
Hammurabi which required stiff penalties to the physician (loss of 
corresponding parts of the body, his life or the lives of his wife and 
children) for malpractice or unsuccessful outcomes. 

By 3000 B.C. in Egypt women dominated society as rulers and 
physicans (see left) while the men cooked, did weaving or were sent 

off to fight. There was extensive medical and surgical knowledge in the numerous papyri and medical 
schools, including the one which later trained Moses and his wife. The woman physicians were salaried, 
ran free dispensaries, and with the help of prayers to Isis, the goddess of health, they treated everything 
from abdominal problems to eye and urine disorders, infectious diseases, epilepsy, burns, dropsy, 
obstetrics or sterility. The current test for sterility was to eat a mixture of watermelon and human milk. If 
the patient vomited she would bear a child; if only flatus resulted she was pronounced sterile and treated 
with animal gland extracts and special exercises. 

In ancient Greece, Zeus fathered Apollo, the God of Healing, who fathered Asclepius, the Great 
Physician who carried a caduceus and was deified after his death as God of Medicine. Asclepius had 
several children, all of whom became doctors. His sons were mentioned only briefly by Homer as healers 
of battle wounds at Troy, whereas his daughters' names, Hygeia (goddess of health) and Panacea (healer of 
all ills), remain common words today. In this Pre-Hippocratic era many women physicians were associated 
with the temples of the cult of Asclepius near mineral waters which 
served as sanitoria for "days of incubation". 

The Doctor. 1891 
Sir Luke Fildes 



In Hippocratic times there were learned women who 
studied medicine (Pythagorus' daughters, Aristotle's wife and 
co-author with him of an encyclopedia of botany, biology 
and physiology), but by now most women had been relegated 
to midwifery. .One woman physician of this "Golden Era (for 
men?)" was Agnodice. She found it necessary to dress as a 
man to continue to practice among the Greek women un- 
bothered. She was caught, however, and forced to stand trial 
for "false pretenses". When the women of Athens heard, they 
rushed to the tribunal, demanding the judges release her, 
saying, "You are not our husbands but our enemies if you 
condemn our Agnodice, who saves our lives". The judges Asclepius, Mortal made God of Medi- 
released her, granting her permission to dress at will. dne - Son of Apollo, God of the Healing 

The reasons why women physicians were pushed into 
oblivion at this time are abscure: perhaps the male-dominated 

Golden Era dictated it as they did the non-citizen and non-represented status for most women. We do 
know that by the time Corinth fell (146 B.C.) to the Romans, the only difference between the Greek 
women, all being auctioned as slaves, was that those with medical knowledge brought a higher price and 
were asked to share their knowledge with the medically-ignorant Romans. 

Sadly, it was 1900 years before women re-entered medicine in meaningful numbers. It took another 
100 years for them to be secure in a self-image distinct from the traditional male role (see Agnes 
Hockaday above in 1920). 

Hygeia, Healer and Goddess of Health, 
Daughter of Asclepius, Sister of Panacea. 
From the Milton Horn Sculpture above the 
door of MCP's College Bldg. 

&aint €u)abetf) of Hungary 
I3ti) Century 

Elizabeth was born to Hungarian royalty in a palace in 1207. It is said 
that even as a baby her touch "healed the blind." According to custom, she 
was betrothed at age 7, wrapped in silk and silver and gold and laid in a 
golden bed next to the King-to-Be, Louis, aged 11. They lived together in 
his castle and became friends as they were educated in religion, philosophy, 
and enough medicine "to treat every kind of distress." 

At age 20, after the birth of her fourth child in four years, Elizabeth 
was left alone while Louis left for the Crusades in the Holy Lands and died 
in 1227 on his way home. Her little family was confined for awhile in 
mourning, but eagerly they returned to their castle to continue their work 
of healing the sick and poor. For her four remaining years of life, Elizabeth 
and her children daily and devotedly carried dressing, medicines, food and 
flowers down the long castle hill to her dispensary. The people loved her 
image, and even after her death at age 24 her body was believed to work 

For centuries, royal women like Elizabeth had carried on the tradition 
of medicine in Europe. Their love and charity made their hospitals so 
popular that people would feign leprosy by scarifying and infecting 
themselves to gain entrance. The enthusiasm for the good work spread to 
women of all classes, and by the 14th century their leper asylums and 
dispensaries ringed the world. 

JHaria ©elle Bonne 
IStfj Century $f)P$ieian 

Born in 1778 in a poor hill-town near Bologna, Italy, 
gifted Maria learned quickly, becoming fluent in Latin 
and Greek and a superb musician. Her uncle 
recognized her brilliance and arranged for a priest and 
philosopher to educate her in her strongest subjects: 
science and medicine. She excelled at comparative 
anatomy, physiology and experimental physics and 
wanted to specialize in these; but her tutors and both 
a famous physicist and pathologist knew of her 
poverty and suggested she ask for a degree in medicine 
and surgery, thereby earning a living through her 
lifeswork. What a challenge! The degree had never 
before been granted to a woman. 

Her public examination began August 1, 1799, in a 
Bologna church before a great assembly of learned and 
lay persons. She was self-possessed, wore a modest 
black gown and veil, and successfully answered 

J^urse Jftorence jStgfjttngale 

The usual impression of Florence is that of a saintlike creature whose 
devotion to the troops in Crimea brought her personal fame and 
established the value of women in nursing once and for all. But, in fact, she 
was brilliant, temperamental, powerful over Army and Government leaders 
and bordered on psychotic several times in her life. 

Her parents were part of the 1820 European rich "jet set" social circle, 
intelligent and close to England's great thinkers and politicians. Her mother 
spent each of her pregnancies in a different city, naming Florence for hers, 
and constantly pushed Flo to become a great lady, marry well and be a 
social splash. Flo was slender, delicately beautiful, had rich thick chestnut 
hair, but she was obsessed with her differentness, her inability to be 
normal. Fortunately her father enjoyed her intellectual companionship 
because no governess was able to withstand her demanding intellect. 

At age 16 she received one of 4 "calls from God," wrote of her passion 
to escape the ineffectual social drudgery and take a vocation. A full 16 
years later she had the ego strength to overcome her mother and enter the 
"degraded" profession of nursing, her old enthusiasm now hammered into 
a resolute genius to administer nursing and teach the skills. 

In 1854, having read of the abominable conditions of the thousands of 
sick and wounded in Crimea, she wrote to the Secretary of War offering 
her services, his letter of request crossing hers in the mail. She set out with 
38 nurses to care for over 10,000 men, made solitary night rounds with her 
lamp, stood by the men through surgery and angrily cut through enough 
red tape to reduce the death rate in her hospitals from 42% to 2% in 6 

A great London celebration in adoration of her was planned, but she 
characteristically avoided it by sneaking off into the countryside. She 
insisted her success was for her alone, not some pioneering venture for 
womanhood: "I am brutally indifferent to the wrongs or the rights of my 
sex. I have great horror of (my Crimean project) being made use of after 
my death by "Womens Missionaries" and those kinds of people." 

A compulsive and analytic writer, she continued to contribute to the 
hospital administration, sanitation and public health literature, to Indian 
medical missionaries and to the development of nursing institutions until 
her death. 

questions so difficult that her teachers were lost. She spoke 
perfect Latin, developed her theses in such an organized and 
brilliant fashion that on the third day she was asked to give her 
views on subjects which were still problems to her examiners. 
She was crowned with laurels and granted the degree amid great 
enthusiasm, showered with gifts and awarded the university 
professorship in obstetrics by Napoleon himself. She was rated a 
member of the French Academy of Sciences, always kept high 
academic standards for her obstetrics and midwifery students, 
rich or poor, and was affectionately remembered as the famous 
"dottoressa. " 



Born in 1821 to a well-to-do family in England, Elizabeth learned from her 8 
siblings reconciliation and patience and from her governesses and masters a 
passion for reading, discussion, metaphysical and religious thought. Even as a 
child she had a reverence for all men; in 1830 she and her sibs attended 
antislavery meetings and gave up sugar as a "slave product." Threatened by 
cholera outbreaks and sentiments against liberal thinkers, her family emigrated to 
the U.S. in 1832. After 6 years in Jersey City they set out by canal and 
stagecoach for Ohio. Months later her businessman father died of bilious fever, so 
the three eldest children established a day and boarding school for young ladies to 
support the educations of the younger six. 

Elizabeth loved teaching; alone she went to take charge of a girls' school 
district in western Kentucky. She resigned after only one term, tired of the 
incessant staring at her white teeth and cultured ways (Ky. was a tobacco state) 
and upset by the injustices of slavery. 

In Ohio she studied music, German and metaphysics, listened to the womens 
reform ideas (Lucy Stone was her sister-in-law, Harriet Beecher a friend) and to 
the thoughts of her mother's friend who was dying of a female cancer: "You are 
fond of study, have health and leisure; why not study medicine? If I could have 
been treated by a lady doctor, my worst sufferings would have been spared me." 
In her diary, Elizabeth confessed that this impetus plus her disappointments in 
love, her repulsion for the only current use of the term "woman physician" 
(abortionist), and her need for an all-encompassing dedication and passion for 
some moral cause all made her decision to enter medicine. 

She travelled to North Carolina to study the medical books of a minister and 
former physician there. She performed her first dissection - a squished bug held 
with a hairpin and cut with a mother-of-pearl handled penknife. Her diary states: 
"I was pushed onward by an unknown force against my strongest inclinations." 

She was rejected by 8 medical colleges before Geneva accepted her in 1847 "as 
an experiment." The University of Penn. had told her there were already too 
many men competitors in the field: "one cupping, one blistering, the third giving 
calomel. There are simply not enough patients to go around, nor new, fashionable 

PlacbtoeU, itt.O. 

Geneva Medical College. Geneva, New 
York, 1849. College which granted an 
M.U. to Elizabeth Blackwell (right). 
the first American woman doctor. 

and utterly notorious treatments with which to inveigle them. 
The profession has small need of women physicians to add to 
their woes." 

Happily she dressed in a conservative black dress and white 
gloves on her graduation day in 1849. Shyly she and her 
brother slipped in the side door of the church rather than 
march in the procession before the hundreds of curious on- 
lookers gathered to see the first "lady doctress." Her class- 
mates were proud and considerate; one had re-written the 
Latin diploma in the feminine gender for her. When her name 
Domina Blackwell was called out, she bowed, accepted the 
diploma saying, "Sir, I thank you. By the help of the Most 
High it shall be the effort of my life to shed honor upon your 

She did just that. Because there was no post-graduate 
training for women in the U.S., she went to LaMaternite in 
Paris (they failed to honor her diploma) for further training in 
midwifery and surgery. Tragically she was blinded in one eye 
with ophthalmia, losing her surgical aspirations but not her 
conviction to teach and practice. She helped open the New 
York Infirmary (1854), was the first woman physician on the 
British Medical Register (1859), established a practice in Lon- 
don (1869), formed the National Health Society for Preventive 
Medicine (1871), chaired gynaecology in the new Hospital and 
London School of Medicine for Women (1875), and wrote 
several small books, one of which, Counsel to Parents on the 
Moral Education of their Children - in Relation to Sex (1878), 
was so popular it went into 8 printings by 1913. 

Her thinking was termed liberal, even sinful, but she replied 
to a friend: "I think (my ideas) belong to the year 1998 of the 
future. I feel encouraged in this unique work which is given me 
to do. Have faith, dear friend; God is ruling, and will not let us 
be drowned in sin . . ." 

fern /P\ 


\ t 


m f ' 


jUaric Hatotosfea, jfllJB. 

The descendent of a gypsy queen. Marie was born in Prussia in 1829. 
She dreamed of becoming a doctor and sailed for America with this in 
mind. Fortunately, at the age of 18 she was accepted into the first class 
with women students at Western Reserve Medical School in 1847. She 
graduated shortly after Elizabeth Blackwell and met with both Elizabeth 
and her younger sister Emily in the New York slums to build the New 
York Infirmary for Women and Children. Soon they added a nurses' 
training school, and by 1868. after fund-raising bazaars, lectures and 
concerts, the Women's Medical College of the New York Infirmary was 
established and left to the management of Emily. The Infirmary still serves 
New York and is staffed by women physicians. 

By 1856 Marie had moved on to Boston where she met her immigrant 
sister. They supported themselves and raised enough money to found the 
Female Medical College and Infirmary in Boston by knitting! They per- 
severed and then demanded clinic space from Harvard and Tufts for stu- 
dents to learn in. Marie became a professor there and her name is still 
remembered by the men and women students enrolled in what are today 
known as the Boston University Medical School and Nursing School. 

Mane was truly a humanitarian; she never forgot her poorer days. One 
of her many projects was the establishment of an "eight-cent luncheon" 
room which was "clean, wholesome and safe for the young ladies" (shop 
sirls) who worked in Boston. 


1869: Woman logicians 


Clva A S-a'.n, M 


Dr. Clara Swain, class of 1869, first woman medical missionary 
in the world. 

The rare pictures below of Mohammedan Purdah women 
(never seen by other than their husbands' eyes) in Zenana 
missions were in the personal belongings of Dr. Elizabeth 
Reifsnyder, WMC 1881, given to the Woman's Medical College 

Our college has the distinction of having contributed the first, as well as 
the greatest number of, woman medical missionaries to the world. Dr. 
Marion Fay, Dean Emeritus, has researched the lives of our more than 230 
mission alumnae and hopes to share some of her findings in a book in the 
near future. 

The 1850s and 60s were Victorian times. While it was assumed that any 
respectable woman in the civilized world would remain at home and 
properly swoon at the mention of any delicate subject, the conditions for 
women in the uncivilized countries did not permit such frivolous notions. 
Their barbaric and dangerous surroundings fortunately rattled the social- 
consciousness of even the most proper ladies in the U.S. and Britain. 

For example, the purdah Mohammedan women of India were never 
permitted outside their homes, lived behind windowless walls, and were 
never seen by men (after their betrothal at 9 years) other than their 
husbands and sons. This was particularly tragic at times of illness or 
childbirth, as they could only be seen and assisted by other women, all of 
whom were untrained lay midwife-dais. When these conditions were 
made known to the Queen she encouraged trained nurses, after the 
example of Florence Nightingale in Crimea in 1854, to become mission- 
aries to India. These nurses, in turn, recognized the need for women 
doctors and sent back word to England and America. 

Simultaneously, these years were marked by growing unrest among the 
liberal American women who felt pressured by their stifling home-bound 
non-citizen status, by the need and desire for self-help, health and sani- 
tation education for women and by the growing communication of social- 
consciousness and enthusiastic organized reform activities (eg. 1848, 
Elizabeth Cady Stanton). By 1851, Sarah Josepha Hale, editor of the 
influential new Godey's Lady's Book (1850 version of Ladies Home 
Journal), had helped to form the Ladies Medical Missionary Society of 
Philadelphia. This group eventually had the funds (from her editorial 
column drives) to send "lady doctresses" to India and other countries. 

In 1869, Clara Swain (WMC, 1869) became the first fully qualified 
woman physician missionary in the world. She went to India where she 
founded hospitals and nursing schools and trained orphan girls and dais in 
the skills of nursing, medicine and the compounding of medicines. By 
1873 her first group of students were examined by a board of three male 
doctors and pronounced competent. Dr. Swain, like the other early missio- 

Dr. Susan LaFlesche Picotte 

(Omaha) First American Indian wom- 
an physician. 

pecome Jflebtcal JH&siionarteg 

naries, was protected at all times, regarded as more precious than gold, and recognized as an 
essentially irreplaceable source of information and aid. 

In the 1870s and 80s each of the American and British churches sent their first lady 
doctresses, first to India, then elsewhere. Dr. Lucy Combs-Strattmatter, WMC 1873, was the 
first woman M.D. to go to China; there she established a hospital for women and children which 
later bacame the Women's Christian Medical College in Shanghai and was deaned by Dr. 
Josephine Lawney, WMC 1916. In 1874, Jennie Trout became the first woman physician in 
Canada and helped establish the Medical School for Women at Kingston, Ontario. Dr. Rosetta 
Sherwood-Hall, WMC 1889, founded a medical school in Seoul, Korea, and was honored by the 
Korean emporer for her services there. 

The 1870s also found WMC students who had been raised in areas sorely needing women 
doctors; they came to WMC to study in order to return as medical missionaries to their homes. 
Mary Ellis Shipp (WMC, 1878) returned to her Mormon people in the Utah territory, practiced 
there over 50 years and established a school for nurse midwifery. In 1886 Anandibai Joshie 

became the first Indian Brahmin woman to receive the M.D. anywhere in the world. Three years later, Keiko Okami (1889), 
the first Japanese student (male or female) ever to study abroad, received her M.D. Two American Indain women served their 
tribes in the 1800s: Susan LaFlesche Picotte, WMC 1 889, served the Omaha tribe and was the first womafi Indian M.D. ; Lillie 
Rosa Minoka-Hill, 1899, practiced among her native Mohawks until her death in 1952. 

Closer looks at the life-styles of the missionaries are fascinating. Jessica Royce Carleton, WMC 1886, was born into ;i 
medical missionary family in the Punjab of India in 1862. Her father, in addition to preaching, teaching and healing the 
Indian people there, was innovative in his approach to mission work. He recognized the need for simplicity and to adapt to 
native ways in order to be accepted, so he and his family (including little Jessica) lived like their followers as nomads on the 
plains. The family lived on oxcarts and shigsams pulled by slow bullocks and surrounded by the cows, sheep and goats they 
hoped to build into a preserve. They slept under the stars, cooked by campfires, and in the daylight the children taught the 
mission children the art of crop cultivation. Jessica returned to the states for her education, went back to India, aged 24. with 
her M.D. to help establish mission hospitals, medical schools and leper colonies with her brother (also an M.D.). For these 
works they were each awarded the Kaiser-i-Hind Award. In Balfour and Young's The Work of Medical Women in India { 19 2')) 
Jessica was quoted: "She writes amusingly of the early days — 'old women would come in and sit down and say to one 
another, "She looks but sixteen years of age, how can I tell her of my symptoms?' - an experience still often met with by the 
young Indian or English doctors." 

Today there are almost 30 women known from WMC and MCP serving as medical missionaries all over the world. Several 
of us were fortunate to meet Maybel Bruce, 1952, on furlough from her Pakistani Zenana Mission, finishing an obstetrics 
residency at MCP. We will certainly meet or know more of these dedicated alumnae as they go and return to re-fuel their 
minds for their great work. 

, 0l UM HAS UT,^ S C. __ 

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tfie*' *■!***. iniMMM 

I . ■ - 

Old Latin Diploma ofW.M.C. (1886) 

Signed by the Professors, including: 
Rachel Bodley, M.D.. Chemistry and 

Clara Marshall. M.D.. Materia Medica 

and Therapeutics 
Frances Emily White. M.D., Physiology 

and Hygiene 
Anna Broomall, M.D., Obstetrics 
James Walker, M.D., Ph.D.. Practice of Med 
Neannato Llewasdale, M.D., Gynaecology 

and Dis. of Child 
William Parrish, M.D., Anatomy 
William Keen. M.D., Surgery 

Rules For Woman Professionals- 1915 

The Westwood Hills California Christian Church 
bulletin published this contract signed by the 
women teachers of 1915. The teachers prom- 

1. Not to get married. 

2. Not to keep company with men. 

3. To be home between the hours of 8 P.M. 
and 6 A.M. unless in attendance at a school 

4. Not to loiter downtown in ice cream stores. 

5. Not to leave town at any time without 
permission of the chairman of the board. 

6. Not to smoke cigarettes. 

7. Not to get in a carriage or automobile with 
any man, except her father or brother. 

8. Not to dress in bright colors. 

9. Not to dye her hair. 

10. To wear at least two petticoats. 

11. Not to wear dresses more than two inches 
above her ankle. 

12. To keep the school room neat and clean: (a) 
sweep the floor at least once daily; (b) scrub 
the floor at least once weekly with hot 
water and soap; (c) clean the blackboards at 
least once daily; (d) start the fire at 7 A.M. 
so the room will be warm by 8 A.M. 

the new phusicicjn 




a doctor m ** 









U.S. Education for Women 

Self-education or tutoring at home 
lor girls; boys have town schools. 
Catherine Beecher establishes the first 
school for higher education for girls, 
Hartford, Conn. 

Conviction that a democracy requires 
a literate electorate. The estab- 
lishment of the free-school system. 
Oberlin College, Ohio, the first coed 
college, grants the first B.A. to a 

The Female Medical College of Penna. 
opens, first all-female college to grant 

Vassar College opens, first all-female 
college to grant B.A. 
8 State universities open their doors 
to women. One-ninth college students 
are female. 
Smith College opens. 
Radcliffe College opens. 
Bryn Mawr College opens. 
Women get the vote! 

love is... 

'. . . being proud 
that she's both a 
good mother 
and a good 'stu- 
dent. • 
t . 

Vws 58 ^ W'^J* silB^ 

GdoMW Wrto+ fksdicaJI sfruljA 0* "iinkd Car 


lH£ Woman Ph^ician 

Monday Jamuajpj 11 

tn-tU. Boa-nA £kw>i. )3<f 

£li<4h«u*!s S'.'S 
IWI 5:«te 

<SpflY«0nxJ tw - &.(*/-•£*- {Jdmju, (n K/diCvU. 
J ' t*.7t»t 

Midwives' Law- 1738 
Doctors (all male) had no laws, licensure or 
tests; it was 10 years before any men dared to 
enter obstetrics; A New York law "Regulating 
Midwives within the City of New York" re- 

(1) Applicants must take the Oath of a Mid- 

(2) professional conduct, 

(3) Licensure be held before and conducted 
by high authorities, 

(4) esteem for "Midwives and expert wom- 
en in that Faculty," 

(5) swear not to "open any mystery apper- 
taining to your office, in the presence of 
any Man, unless Necessity . . . constrain 
You to do so!" 



5 H 7 V T T 5 


A P*t4<fLeo£*Dn On Tht Hcitoiit Oi Tht Tvut 

And Fa* Mm* Than * CcrtfuM Tht Only Woman' t 
Utii-uU Cotltgt "> Tht VutcAn Mm't,, 1 -.. 


Ujt.or Foif, Pti.T 

Dean E«tAxto 


An Evurf In Recognition Cj Tht Itith AwUvvuom/ oi 
Tht UtdcvU CeLLtQt t>i PtXHiylviutfA 


Wednesday. ApUl », UTS • S:IS PM 


Tht MtdiaU. Cotttgt oi Ptnnii/tvania 
SSQO Htiwy Avenue 

Ait InioJuat fcknt 1 Cfce*** Ctt-rogUhM WiU P*ee*tft 

The PwtACUion 

We look FoomAd To Seri«g you TfitAe.' 
Sting Vpu* Spotut anrf Ftiend!*.' 



Center Jfor OTomen 
in Jflebtctne 

The threefold goals of CWIM, organized in the 
early 1970s and headed by Dr. Nina Woodside are 
outlined below and are consistent with the intent 
of The Medical College of Pennsylvania: "to con- 
tinue its commitment to the education of women 
physicians and to develop and maintain programs 
which will expand the opportunities for women in 
the medical profession." 

American Medical 
Women's Association 
Collection at the 
Florence A. Moore 
Library of Medicine 
of the 

Medical College 
of Pennsylvania, 


To encourage women to 
enter the profession: 

1. Summer premedical programs 
for women for various female 
and coed colleges (since 1972). 

2. Recruit in high schools. 

3. Recruit at college level. 

4. Educate counselors about op- 

5. Provide role models and infor- 

To help women stay in medicine: 
1. non-sexist teaching material. 
2. affirmative action at the student, house staff, faculty and 

administration levels. 
3. role models. 

4. wide variety of child care options. 
5. flexible schooling, residencies, hours of practice. 
6. supportive counseling. 

7. reducing medical school time, adding evening classes. 
8. information on practice opportunities, quality residencies. 
9. research. 

10. data-base on women-in-medicinc: Archives, History, Li- 
brary, Museum, to enhance self-image and pride. 

To help women get 
back into medicine: 

1. OHRO grant to study retraining 
methods, desirability, efficacy. 

2. MCP retraining programs since 

3. Counseling on all options at left. 

4. Expediting re-entry to clinical, 
pre-clinical, public health, re- 
search, pharmaceutical posi- 
tions. S.C.B. 




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J'^'W • 

W.M.C, 1895 
Anatomy Lab 

Z./ r#W <kii Vrtv «u* • 

Lei i-nuetMtrrt mummies. 
Lts Am\ reuw. 
Le< .!eit\ volts IftnvtifUt- 
Lei iiuxtftftnafneuUk^us 
Lj f'rmhenl \e ;cu et 
i'aaltre ■■' vmt ft .neit 

W.M.C, 1949 


W.M.C, 1945 
Anatomy Lab 

tEJje Paste Sciences! 

ABOVE: is one of the 
earliest known represen- 
tations of dissection (early 
14th century). The opera- 
tor, who has opened the 
body of a woman, is being 
admonished by both a phy- 
sician and a monk. Medi- 
cine at the time was very 
Hippocratic and dogmatic. 

#ros& ^natomp 

With the fall of Constantinople in 
1453 came the Renaissance and the 
dissemination of both Greek scholars 
and their knowledge of the original 
dogmatic Greek medical precepts. 
Fortunately the related sciences of 
anatomy and physiology, the foun- 
dation of true modern medicine, 
blossomed in a new approach to 
learning. Direct observation of dis- 
sections was accepted. 

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) 
was the first modern anatomist; he 
dissected, discovered the maxillary 
sinus and brain ventricles and made 
masterful precise anatomical draw- 
ings which were not published until 
rediscovery in recent years. 

The famous groundwork of anato- 
my was then laid by Andreas Vesalius 

in 1543 when he published his anato- 
mical works and drawings De humani 
corporis fabrica, based on dissections. 
He was the professor of surgery and 
anatomy at Padua and overthrew 
many of Galen's misconceptions. 

By the close of the Renaissance 
(early 1600s) Columbus and Servetus 
had described pulmonary circulation; 
Fallopius the semi-circular canals, 
several cranial nerves, the facial 
canals, and the oviducts; and Eusta- 
chio had described the thoracic duct, 
the kidneys, the larynx and the 
Eustachian tube. Physiologic correla- 
tions, however, did not develop until 
after 1628 when Harvey's doctrine of 
circulation rattled the traditional 
medical world. 

Andreas Vesalius, 1542 by 
Jan Stephan von Calgar. 


Anatomy Stu- 
W.M.C. 1903. 

W.M.C., 1895, Bone Box Lids in 1895 
bore this schedule of fees for missing 
bones or keys. Each two students re- 
ceived one box for study after paying a 
ten dollar deposit. 

1973. Dr. Beasley gave his intro- 
ductory speech about cadavers and 
bone boxes to the class of 1977 in 
the new laboratory facilities. 

Starting in 1972 Drs. Beasley and 
Barnes began lectures in the new Kai- 
ser Auditorium. 

May, 1973. The class of 1976 se- 
lected Dr. Barnes for the Golden 
Apple. Drs. Mobini and Levine con- 
gratulate her. 

JJeuroanatomp anb 

Although Herophilus distinguished between motor and sensory fibres as 
early as 300 B.C., neuroanatomy didn't grow until the 1600 stimulus to 
observe anatomy through dissection and utilize the new microscope. Then 
from the great medical centers at Leiden and Padua came descriptions of the 
brain's fissures and chemical physiology (Sylvius) and specific knowledge of 
tongue innervation and the cortical composition of single cells (Malphighi). 
The 1800s brought the advent of experimentation and the subsequent growth 
of basic neurophysiologic concepts. For example, in 1823 the French physio- 
logist Marie Flourens demonstrated that removing a pigeon's cerebellum 
caused loss of coordination and cerebral ablation allowed reflexes to persist, 
but not thoughts. 

The same year that the Female Medical College opened its doors, 1850, 
the English physiologist Waller demonstrated that nerve degeneration fol- 
lowed sectioning of the nerve and phrased his Law of Degeneration, "a nerve 
fibre can only survive when it maintains continuity with its cell body." Also 
1850 was the year of the description of a neurologic syndrome following 
hemisection of the cord (Braun-Sequard). Modern neurophysiology began in 
the 1920s when nerve conduction was postulated to involve both chemical 
mediators and electrical currents. 

Dr. Pubols explains conduction theo- 
ry in a freshman conference. 

W.M.C. 1916. The medical students studied CNS models (center) and prepared slides in 
the Neuroanatomy laboratory space of the new College Ave. Building. 




Dr. Levine and Dr. Ross help 1974 Fresh- 
men in microanatomy lab. 

Drs. Kulangara and Elfin 

Freshmen in 1973 and 1974 use their 
new microscopes in the new laboratory 
facilities under the direction of Dr. Ross 
(Chairman of Anatomy) and embry- 
ologist Dr. DiBerardino. 

Freshmen in 1961 (facing 
camera: Inez Jones, Charlotte 
Blyn, Barbara Nemesh; backs: 
Hajjar, Brooks, Nassry) study 
microanatomy with Drs. Bhat- 
ti (fellow), Knowlton and 

Dr. Ira Gabrielson, a scholarly approach as 
Chairman of the Dept. 

Dr. Judith Mausner, co- 
author with W.M.C. grad 
Anita Bahn of a text on 
Epidemiology used by 
MCP students. 

W.M.C. 1945-46. This senior class in Public Health Administration picture appeared in a 
Look Magazine article about W.M.C. Dr.Morns observes senior O'Connor using U.S. Trea- 
sury Dept. posters on hookworms in her dicussion. 

Community anb ^rcbenntje jHebtcme 

Man's interest in death and disease is timeless. Each early civilization had both a handful of careful observers 
who postulated a contagious nature of disease and those who invoked superstitious or supernatural forces. Thus, 
eventhough the ancient Hebrews viewed pestilences as punishments visited by the Lord, the Mosaic code also 
contained public health regulations, including the isolation of lepers, the disposal of unclean materials, and the 
avoidance of shellfish and pork as foods. In 1546 Fracastorius presented impressively the theory of direct or 
indirect spread by seminaria (seeds) of certain diseases, including plague and syphilis, but the 1600s were a time of 
return to superstition. The time-honored ethical views of Hippocrates and Galen that epidemics were caused by 
miasmas (poisonous vapors) prevailed among physicians, and the lay population believed that the Royal Touch 
was the sovereign remedy for scrofula ("King's Evil"). 

Semmelweis of Vienna and Oliver Wendell Holmes of Boston used epidemiologic thinking about the trans- 
mission of disease when they shockingly (for 1840) asserted that obstetricians were responsible for the high 
incidence of deadly puerpetal sepsis on their wards. Apparently in the charity wards, where women were delivered 
by midwives and medical students who, unlike the attending obstetricians, moved with washed hands from one 
patient to the next, there was only a fraction of the incidence of puerperal fever. This assertion was denounced of 
course, but more detailed evidence for indirect communicability came in 
1854 from John Snow of London. He traced a localized epidemic of 
cholera to the now famous Broad Street pump and deduced the fecal-oral 
route of infection via the water supply. 

More exciting pages of Preventive Medicine history tell the stories of 
Edward Jenner and the smallpox vaccine (1796). Joseph Lister and the 
precepts of antisepsis in medicine and surgery (1860s), Jonas Salk and the 
polio vaccine (1954). and the story of the conquest of malaria, killer of 
millions and manv civilizations. Although the discovery of quinine had 
motivated its ravages, the threat was not prevented. Finally in 1880, 
Laveran discovered the parasite in human blood and in 1897 Sir Ronald 
Ross its carrier, the Anopheles mosquito. 1 hus the disease could be 
controlled by systematic destruction of the carrier larvae. 

Since 1900 Public Health has been concerned with more than just 
sanitation and infectious diseases; environmental and industrial health, 
cancer and cardiovascular disease epidemiology, immunology, mental 
health and socially-affected diseases all help to fill out the challenge in this 


Alfred Rethel 
Death the Destroyer, 


Dr. DeMartinis 
Acting Chairman 

Dr. Scorpio lectures in the new hall about protein molecular struc- Dr. Pennock 

ture. Biophysics 

Dr. Masoro 
Former Chairman 

Chemistry was one of the original seven 
medical school courses at our F.M.C. in 
1850. It was taught by Professor Challoner 
and required 3 books: Turner's Elements, 
Frowne's U.S. Dispensatory, and Christison 
on Poisons. Obviously, the course was 
slanted in the direction toxicology and drug 
therapeutics. It wasn't until the 1880s that 
Pasteur noted that there were different 
"pathways" or types of fermentation with 
either alcohol or lactic acid as end-products. 

Biochemistry then became a study of sub- 
cellular physiology and blossomed in the 
1930s. Then complex molecular structures 
were first described and now the field en- 
compasses enzymatic degradation and syn- 
thesis, concepts of mediators and inhibitors, 
nuclear and ribonucleic transmission of ge- 
netic information which may be modified, 
and membrane physiochemistry and kinet- 

While the 1950s were the years of the 
steroids, the 1960s boasted DNA and cyclic- 
AMP, and the 1970s are stretching into pros- 
taglandins and other polypeptide chemis- 

(1.) W.M.C. Freshman class 1932-33 pose 
with beakers, funnels and condensation 
tubes in the Chemistry Lab. This lab area 
was in use until the 1973-74 year. 

(r.) The Saturday Evening Post article about 
W.M.C. in the late 1940s featured Drs. Batt 
and Marion Fay, the medical students and 
their Bio-Chemistry experiments. 

Physiology class now includes dog labs, inducers, spectrophotometers, etc. 



Dr. Berg 

Dr. Goldman 
Membrane Chemistry 

Dr. Zimmerman, Neurochemistry and Physics 
Dr. Bertrand, Biochemistry 

Dr. Chacko 

Physical Chemistry 


The 1850 FMC Physiology course was a 
strange combination of hygiene and patholo- 
gy and promised: "Professor Gleason will 
illustrate the developments and healthy 
structure of the various organs as well as the 
changes produced by diseases, illustrated by 
paintings, drawings, etc. . . ." The 1846 Act 
of Incorporation hinted at an even deeper 
role for Physiology at the College: 

"Our object is not merely to qualify fe- 
males as Practitioners of Medicine, but to 
teach 'woman to know herself to under- 
stand her organism, and by the knowledge 
thus obtained, the important relations of 
wife and mother." 

In 1628, when William Harvey published 
his epochal book, De motu cordis et san- 
guinis, the world was not ready to hear his 
"blasphemous" physiologic discovery: that 
there was a circulatory system which he had 
been able to observe and draw. It was not 
until 200 years later that Johannes Muller 
established physiology as a separate medical 
discipline. He was able to correlate organ 
and tissue structure (with the help of a mi- 
croscope) with function. 


This 1828 London paper 
cartoon depicts the social 
outrage over the recent 
magnifying glass discovery 
of microorganisms in the 
Thames: "monster soup 
(commonly called Thames 
Water) being a correct rep- 
resentation of that pre- 
cious stuff doled out to 

Thames Water (Monster Soup), 1828, William 

Pasteu- in His Laboratory, 1925, 
Timoth> Cole 

We can be proud that in 1900, when there were 150 largely proprietary medical schools in the U.S. requiring 
only 4 to 6 months of lectures in each of two academic years prior to apprenticeship, our college on N. 
College Ave. required that much laboratory time be spent at the microscopes above to supplement lecture 

Pasteur's experiments used "swan-neck" flasks to disprove the theory of spontaneous generation, to 
prove in 1857 that different kinds of microbes were the cause rather than a product of alcoholic or lactic 
fermentation, and to conclude that forms of life not dependent on oxygen exist. In an 1864Sorbonne 
lecture he stated: 

"I have taken my drop of water from the immensity of creation, and I have taken it full of the 
elements appropriate to the development of microscopic organisms. And 1 wait, I watch, I question it! — 
begging it to recommence for me the beautiful spectacle of the first creation. But it is dumb, dumb since 
these experiments were begun several years ago; it is dumb because 1 have kept it sheltered from the only 
thing man does not know how to produce; from the germs which float in the air, from Life, for Life is a 
germ and a germ is Life. Never will the doctrine of spontaneous generation recover from the mortal blow 
of this simple experiment!" 

Dr. Paucker, 
Virology, Interferon 

Dr. Zajac, 

Senior students in 1949 
prepared wet mounts and 
gram stains on their own 

To account for the rather obvious spread of certain diseases from one 
person to another, thoughtful men since ancient times postulated the exis- 
tence of invisible, transmissable agents of infection. In his prescient and 
rationalistic poem De Rerum Natura Lucretius (96-55 B.C.) intuitively recog- 
nized both the atomistic nature of matter and the existence of "seeds"of 

The epidemiologic evidence for the germ theory of disease was strongly 
espoused in the 1 546 book De Contagione by Fracastorius who had analyzed 
the modes of spread of the plague and syphilis. Unfortunately medicine 
remained largely dogmatic for yet another 300 years as official bodies such as 
the Paris faculty prohibited the teachings of such doctrines. Instead they 
exhibited pompous quackery and defended the views of Hippocrates and 
Galen, who ascribed epidemics to miasmas, i.e., poisonous vapors, created by 
the influence of planetary conjunctions or earthly disturbances. 

Koch developed a powerful methodology and set of criteria for distin- 
guishing a pathogenic from an adventitious microbe. He had introduced the 
"Golden Era" of microbiology and between 1879 and 1889 several German 
school members had isolated the tubercle bacillus, cholera vibrio, typhoid 
bacillus, diphtheria bacillus, pneumo-, strepto-. staphylo-, meningo-, and 
gonococci, and the tetanus bacillus. 

The science of microbiology actually be- 
gan with Antony van Leeuwenholk's letters 
in the 1677 Philosophical Transactions of 
the Royal Society of London. Although this 
humble cloth merchant from Delft. Holland, 
never met these Society members he spent 
his hobby time grinding lenses and made a 
total of 200 microscopes as well as many 
drawings of the bacteria which he was first 
to see. The following observations on a de- 
cayed tooth emphasize the only 1680 criteri- 
on for life: motility: 

"I took this stuff out of the hollows in the 
roots and mixed it with clean rainwater, and 
set it before the magnifying glass so as to see 
if there were as many living creatures in it as 
I had aforetime discovered in such material: 
and I must confess that the whole stuff 
seemed to me to be alive. But notwithstand- 
ing the number of these animalcules was so 
extra-ordinarily great (though they were so 
little withal, that 'twould take a thousand 
million of some of 'em to make up the bulk 
of a coarse sand-grain, and though several 
thousands were a-swimming in a quantity of 
water that was no bigger than a coarse sand- 
grain is), yet their number appeared even 
greater than it really was: because the ani- 
malcules, with their strong swimming 
through the water, put many little particles 
which had no life in them into a like motion, 
so that many people might well have taken 
these particles for living creatures, too." 


The science of pathological anatomy began in 
1761 when Giovanni Battista Morgagni produced 
his masterpiece De sedibus et causis morborwn per 
anatomiam indagatis (On the Seats and Causes of 
Diseases Investigated by Anatomy). The volume 
contained the careful observations and analyses of 
700 cases, uniting anatomy, pathology and clinical 
medicine, and introduced the concept in disease 
theory that a "pathological lesion" could be asso- 
ciated with and cause clinical symptoms. 

Nearly a century later in the 1830s and 40s 
M'ullei classified tumors by their microscopic ap- 
pearance and Schwann and Schleidin introduced 
cytology, the science of cellular structures. Finally 
as 1900 grew near Rudolf Virchow became "The 
Father of Modern Pathology" by identifying the 
cell as the center of all pathologic processes. 

By 1893 WMC had expanded the curriculum to 
4 years as both physiology and pathology were 
now parts of the foundation of therapeutics. 

Dr. Leighton, chairman of Pathol- 
ogy and Dr. Sawhill, clinical path- 
ologist; Dr. Ralph Knight, clinical 
pathology; Dr. Dubin in the new 

1949. Two junior students stand looking into the 
pathology museum, now gone. 

1940 s Cancer cytology research 
project. Drs. Pietroluongo, Bur- 
gess L. Gordon, I.N. Dubin. Miss 
Vaskelis (cytology technician) 
and Dr. Sophie A. Brenner (WMC, 

Dr. Mansukhani and guest pathologist teach sophomores 
in 1972; Dr. Yu; Bill White, Diener; Pathology Residents. 

1973 Skit Nite Faculty Skit in- 
cluded an incense smoked 
seance with Drs. Sawhill, Dunn, 
Yu, Knight, Mansukhani, Abaza, 
and others. 


Please circle the correct answer; do not square it - the computer cannot 
guess the root of squared answers. Some questions may have no all correct 
answers, some may have all no correct answers. Each is worth only 1 x 
10-19 of your final grade; the slope of the curve will not be too steep. You 
have 15.5748 hours to finish. Good Luck! 

1. Inflammatory cells are: 

a. small leftist organizations mostly penetrated by the C.I.A. 

b. the results of the work of a prison arsonist. 

c. are occasions after a store fire upon which damaged merchandise is 
sold at discount. 

2. Cloudy swelling: 

a. is important for pilots to observe on radar. 

b. when it occurs intracellulaily, has a prognosis for extracellular rain. 

c. is important to weathermen. 

3. The best way to escape pathology is via a: 

a. mucous raft 

b. blood vessel 

c. clinical clerk-ship 

4. The first lady of immunology was: 

a. Anna Phylaxis 

b. Polly Peptide 

c. Auntie Jen 

d. Grandma Globulin 

5. The Eaton Agent 

a. is a British school boy turned actors' representative 

b. refers to a cannibalized spy 

c. refers to anything recently ingested. 

6. Canonization is an occasional clinical sign of: 

a. St. Anthony's Fire 

b. St. Vitus Dance 

c. St. Louis encephalitis 

7. A drumstick represents: 

a. something to eat 

b. something to beat 

c. something to treat 

8. Councilman Bodies in Philadelphia: 

a. have yellow fever 

b. are related to Crooke's Bodies 

c. are also known as howly-jowly bodies 

9. Female (F-) bacteria include: 

a. Candida 

b. Bordit-Ella 

c. Hemo-Phyllis 

10. Trousseau Syndrome: 

a. is expensive to treat 

b. is highest in incidence in June 

c. is a hysterical phenomenon observed among admirers of the Prime 
Minister of Canada 

11. Factors involved in cellular fertility are: 

a. The Pill 

b. Pilli 

c. Pillows 

12. Included in the Torah are: 

a. Patho-Genesis 

b. Exudate 

c. Deuteromycetes 

Sophomore pathology students are in- 
structed by Drs. Shuman and Mark (this 
page) and Dr. Abaza (facing). 


The following are true or false questions: some may be both. Please 
triangulate the correct answer. This section will be graded separately from 
the above: circles will be counted as wrong answers, squares may or may 
not be counted as triangles, depending on your artistic ability. Your 
abstract artistic ability will be tested separately later, on the lab practical. 
By this time you probably have no more than 45 seconds, 3.8 degrees lei I 
before this exam ends. Use your time well. 

1. Staph resistance is a normal evolutionary process in student-faculty 

2. A person with an immune complex is one with a phobia about 

3. Pennsylvania's vigilante groups are sometimes called the host versus 


4. Reagin is the readily diffusable, non-compliment fixing governor of a 
large western state. 

5. TB or not TB, that is congestion. 

6. When a southerner swells up in anger, he is exhibiting dysplasia. 

7. Varicose veins refers to a condition in which veins axe very tightly 
jammed together. 

8. An infarct refers to a condition in which flatus progresses retro- 

9. Pompe's disease is characterized by Vesuvial eruptions. 

10. Lancing a bleb is also known as shooting the bullae. 

1 1. Platelet aggregation is what occurs in the kitchen sink. 

12. The best way to core erysipelas is strep by strep. 

13. Lipofuscin refers to fellatio. 

14. While most bacteria are grown on culture plates, saprophytes are grown 
on vulture plates. 

15. Imitators of Mrs. Lisa's smile are pseudo-Monas. 

16. "Russel Fuchs Bodies" is an example of an atypical graffiti. 

17. Polymyxin refers to the mating of parrots. 

18. A locale without gonnococcus is a Neisseria to live in. 

19. Abnormal sounds heard during the expirations of TB patients are 
known as Ghon with the Wind. 

20. A Cuttysarkoma is a condition peculiar to Scots. 

21. Lesions in the tunica intima are also known as holes in one's unmen- 

22. Porphyria is a distrust of the impoverished. 

23. Tart cells are usually found in borditellas. 

24. An example of political mudslinging is the accusation that spirochetes. 

25. Cleavage in a "zoftig" Madame is also known as a cholesterol cleft. 

26. A lymphoblast is a party for lymphomaniacs. 


St. Cosmos and St. Damicn 
Johannes Wechtlin 

jijp&E | if fou 


Gr. pharmakon a god or higher being with magic powers of herbs, infusions, 
and vapors + logos reasonable discussion. 

Pharmacology is one of the subjects whose origins go back thousands of 
years. Highly organized compilations of drugs and drug preparations, discov- 
ered empiricly at first, are called pharmacopeias, the first of which was the 
Egyptian papyri of Ebers (1550 B.C.). In this and later papyri sophisticated 
drugs and therapeutic interactions were described. The identification and 
preparation of crude drugs from natural sources (pharmacognosy) still grows 
and was assisted by the botanical systematization of Theophrastus (300 B.C.). 
Finally, by the first century A.D., Dioscorides was able to classify his materia 
medica by substances rather than by disease syndromes. 

The first U.S. pharmacopeia was published December 15, 1820, printed in 
both Latin and English, and its 272 pages included 217 drugs which were 
"worthy of recognition". This book was undoubtedly a well-used source for 
the 1850 F.M.C. students who had only six courses, one of which was 
"Materia Medica and Therapeutics". 

An Apothecary 's Shop 
A Doctor Selecting Drugs, 1497 
German School Late XV Century 

Pharmacology Laboratory 
Woman 's Medical College, 1 903. 

That course was always a "watered-down com- 
pote" of the ancient empiric observations and a 
mortar-and-pestle form of pharmacy. In the 1850 
college catalog the total course description was: 
"Professor Dickeson will make use of drawings and 
specimens illustrative of this course with such in- 
structions in Botany as the time will permit." 

Academic pharmacology began in 1891 with 
the appointment of John Jacob Abel as the first 
"Giair of Pharmacology" in the U.S. (University 
of Michigan). However, most medical schools 
stayed with the time-honored materia medica 
through the 1920's. By the 1930's chemotherapy 
was growing wildly. In 1922 thiamine deficiency 
was linked to a clinical state; in 1923 the first 
ancient medicinal-morphine- had an exact bio- 
chemical structure; in 1928 Fleming discovered 
penicillin; and by 1937 the antibiotic era was 
opened with the sulfas. Since then thousands of 
chemicals have been studied, and the knowledge of 
this disciplined science is essential for every physi- 
cian. The body of knowledge encompasses phar- 
macodynamics, drug metabolism, theories of drug 
actions, and practical and toxicologic aspects of 

In 1947, VV.M.C. was written about in a Philadelphia Inquirer article. This 
picture and that in the introduction to Clinical Medicine both show the Sopho- 
more Pharmacology course. The captions read, "Women's Medical College is 
among the few medical schools where students are required to take training in 
the compounding of prescriptions. The students work directly under the super- 
vision of the College Hospital Pharmacist." In the picture above, sophomores 
Friedenthal, Vrakl, Levine, Gaciz and Cohen study the effect of streptomycin on 
isolated tissues in pharmacology laboratory. 

Faculty members Drs. Weiss, Vincent, Kel- 
lilier and Gabriel. 




Freshmen wear crisp new white jack- 
ets as they learn the essentials of his- 

1946. Juniors stand in gallery to observe Drs. Chloe 0. 
Fry and assistant Helen K. Grace in surgery. Junior 
Margaret Densmore administers anesthesia under Dr. 
Julia Hardin's direction. 

Drs. Frank!, Chirife, and 
Bostrom teach cardiac 
physical exam to Sopho- 

American Ward Rounds, 1945 
Robert Riggs 

The Consultation, 1516 
Italian School 

3/12/75 3 A.M. ICU 

Pt: 64 yo BF, married, 4 children, housewife. 


HPI: This pt presents for her 10th MCPH adm. c a 
long hx of RHD, ASCVD c CAD and RCA, 
LAD and 1st circumflex AC bypasses 4 years 
ago, DM controlled by NPH and Reg insulin od, 
HBP x 2 yrs., and now progressive CRF with 
chronic CHF and edema. 
During the wk PTA the pt experienced DOE (3 
steps), SOB c eating, PND x 2 nights, cough 
productive of white sputum, fevers, and 
dysuria. On the night of adm. the pt. was acute- 
ly SOB c wheezes, pink frothy sputum produc- 
tion and prostration. She was brought to the 
ER by fam. 

meds: HCTZ 50 od, dig 0.25 od, aldomet 500 qid, 
catapres 0.1 TID, inderal 80 qid, isordil 2.5 SL 
q4h WA, NPH 45 and Reg 15 in AM, NTG prn. 

allergies: PNC (rash), ASA (G6PD def. anemia) 

PMH: +UDOC, SF,T+A, appdx, 3-vessel bypass, 
BKLLE amput, TAH/BSO. 

ROS: +HA, blurred vision, asthma as child, UTI, 

G 6 P 4 


Stage 1 cervical CA c no recur- 
rence, PVD, periph. neuropathy. 

FH: M HBP, CRF, CVA 2 sibs + DM, HBP 
F Ml 

SH: + smokes Vh ppd x 35 yrs. 
+EtoH x 2 oz. od 
Phila, hswfe, 6th grade 

Physical: acute distress, 210/110 - 120-44-98, 
pale, NVD at 90°, bilat wheezes, bibas dullness, 
rales all fields tachy 120, reg, PMI 6 LICS 
antaxline, 5 3 , 3/6 SEM LSB +NJR, liver 16 cm, 
+ fluid wave, + 4 bilat edema to knee. 

Professor Mary Curcio (WMC, '33) examines a patient on rounds 
in this 1947 Saturday Evening Post article with resident 
Katheryn O'Connor (WMC, '46) and senior Emilie Loeffler 
(WMC, '48). 


internal Jflebtctne 

Hippocrates (460-357 B.C.) has been called the "Father of Medicine" and has been 
credited with writing at least 13 treatises comprising the Corpus Hippocraticum. This 
body of knowledge formed a turning point in medicine. On Air, Water, and Places is 
the first work on physiotherapy; On the Prognostics describes the new science of 
prognostics, uses the observation of urine, feces, etc., as helpful clues, and enumerates 
the symptoms of approaching death which are still called "fades Hippocratica." 
Epidemics relates 42 clinical case-histories, mentions the mortality rate of 60%, and 
states his radical refusal to regard epilepsy as a sacred disease. Although his theory of 
"imbalariced humors" has not survived the years, the terms sanguine, phlegmatic, 
choleric and melancholic have. 

In his 1872 History of Medicine, Dunglison states of Hippocrates: "The revolution 
which he caused in practical medicine, semeiology, pathology, and dietetics, (differed) 
from the plans before him by the Asclepiadae and the philosophic sects - He taught 
physicians that their first duty is to observe attentively the progress of nature (vis 
medicatrix naturae, the healing power of nature)." Hippocratic pharmacopeia included 
mild purgatives, emetics, astringents and narcotics. He knew little anatomy or physiol- 

The Hippocratic Oath and his treatise The Physician, his Precepts, and Aphorisms 
present a formulation of medical ethics serving as a Western standard of medical 
conduct. "Above all, do no harm." 

L'Infirmerie de L'Hospital de la Charite de Paris ward Medicine in the Renais- 

5^^ WMC ward rounds with the young Dr. Gottlieb 20 
1L years ago. 

In 1956 seniors Jeanne Gifford and Mary Rando 
presented a difficult pulmonary patient to WMC 
President Burgess L. Gordon. 

In 1962 Senior Seana Quinton (Hirschfeld) presented her weekly 
case to the three professors (note Dr. Bassett) conducting a special 
oncology (tumor) conference. Today Tumor Boards attended by 
physicians from many different fields (radiology, medicine, surgery, 
hematology-oncology, pathology, nuclear medicine) are required 
for hospital accreditation. At MCP they are well-attended and often 
the focus for lively debates (Bassett, Parker, Jepson, and Shuman). 


As early as 1600 Sydenham recognized 
that neurologic and psychiatric diseases were 
distinct (eg. hysteria vs. chorea). However, the 
neurologic subspecialty didn't exist meaning- 
fully until the late 1800s. By then the body 
of knowledge of neuroanatomy (Henle's 
sheath, 1871), neurophysiology (wallerian 
degeneration, 1850; Claude Bernard's paral- 
ysis with curare, 1857; Broca's localization of 
cerebral functions, 1 860) and neuropa- 
thology (Nissl bodies, 1892) was adequate to 
explain clinical observations (Kernig's sign, 
1882). In the 1920s the roles of acetylcholine 
and electrical impulses were identified in 
nerve conduction, and by 1936 Walter was 
using the EEC to localize brain tumors. In 
1934 the American Board of Psychiatry and 
Neurology was established. 


As early as 100 A.D. Aretaeus the Cappadocian described 
diabetes in his book on chronic diseases. By 1674 Willis could 
distinguish between mellitus and insipidus by the sweetness of the 
urine, and in 1776 Dobsen evaporated urine, demonstrating that 
it contained a sugar. Finally in 1788 the anatomic-physiologic 
relationships of endocrinology became evident when Cawley 
linked diabetes to pancreatic dys function. The father of endocri- 
nology, Claude Bernard, in 1848 used research techniques to 
demonstrate that digestion continued within the intestine with 
the aid of pancreatic enzymes, that the liver manufactured and 
stored glycogen and that the body used vasomotor mechanisms 
and internal secretion (endocrine) functions daily. Between 1900 
and 1940 parathyroid and calcium were linked, carotid sinus 
respiratory and pressor responses discovered, pituitary functions 
(including Cushing's syndrome, 1932) described and the interre- 
lationships of the hypothalamus and pituitary (1939) demon- 
strated. Since Cori and Cori's 1947 Nobel Prize-winning glyco- 
gen-cycle-chemistry, modern endocrinology and biochemistry 
have been intertwined at the subcellular level. 

The Bartuskas arid Dr. Gottlieb represent Endocrinology at Presi- 
dent Slater's inauguration, January, 1975. 



[• B. HERBST, M.D. * 

Door of Dr. Rosalie Burns, Chrmn.; Drs. Dhopesh and Dunn "cut up" at 
Neuropath Conference; Clinic Drs. Dhopesh and Sanders; the neurologist's 
dream (or nightmare?). 


The pulmonary sciences grew out of the 1800s descriptions of 
TB, "consumption", and pneumonia, "the old man's friend". By 
1819 Laennec had described the more sophisticated entity of 
bronchiectasis; later, spirometric studies became as common as 
culture techniques, and by 1898 the more invasive diagnostic 
procedure of bronchoscopy was first performed by Killian. In the 

New Pulmonary Chief Dr. Morrissey teaches x-ray findings; Dr. 
Siegel supervises the newer spirometry apparatus (1972) which 
replaced that used by Resident Bartuska in 1957. 

early 1900s surgical approaches to bronchiectasis (lobectomy, 
1908) and TB (collapsing lungs and decortications) were insti- 
tuted. But modern pulmonary care didn't begin until the anti- 
biotic era of the 1940's removed the patients from sanitoriums 
and returned them to society and the realm of general hospital 





Before America was discovered, in 1476 de Saliceto of Italy noted 
that "renal dropsy was caused by contracted kidneys". Then in 1 588 
Dia/ published the first treatise on kidney, bladder and urethral di- 
seases. As early as 1666 the complex anatomy of the kidney was 
appreciated as Malphigi described the tuft of blood vessels surrounded 
by the expanded primary part of the uriniferous tubule. 

By 1874 renology was more oriented toward (unci ion and phy- 
siology. Heidenhain added a secretory theory to the strict filtration 
concept, and in 1898 extracts of kidney were found to have a pressor 
substance "renin"; this added an endocrine function under certain 
circumstances, including the hypertensive arteriolar nephrosclerosis 
described in 1914. In 1925. the resorptive function was recognized. 

In 1 908 the French surgeon Carrel performed the first renal trans- 
plant from one animal to a second, but it was not until 1950 that the 
first human homotransplant was achieved. In 1944, the first artificial 
kidney, a dialyzer with an extensive surface for exchange, was intro- 
duced by Kolff, and modern renology had begun. 

Dr. Labovitz, m 
browses through 

edical history buff and superb renal-electrolyte teacher, 
the Archives. 

Dr. Matthew Levison 

This 1720 plague protection 
costume was worn by Mar- 
seilles doctors; it was made of 
fine leather, had crystal lenses 
closing the eyeholes and a long 
nose filled with aromatic gums 
to filter out "foul odours". 

(1.) Dr. Katz demonstrates 
endoscopy with Gl fellow 
Jules Lacavaro as patient, 
(below) Dr. Rubin leads a Gl 
CPC which includes x-ray 
and ex-patient testimony! 

Meettous Diseases 

Through the ages millions of people have died of 
infections or in epidemics the plague of the Middle 
Ages, the acute fulminating syphilis which ended the 
Renaissance in 1495 (Naples), and the steady killer 
smallpox which killed 60 million people in the 18th 
century alone. A now nameless milkmaid was the 
heroine in the smallpox story for she was overheard to 
say by Edward Jenner in 1796 that she could not catch 
smallpox because she'd already contracted cowpox. He 
tested the theory on an 8 year old boy using the pus 
from a cowpox pustule and eight weeks later the boy 
failed to develop any symptoms when inoculated with 
regular smallpox. 

The 1800s then saw the development of the 1 germ: 
1 disease selectivity theory, the observation that yeasts, 
bacteria and protozoans could cause disease in humans 
and that filtrable viruses (Latin: poisons) causes disease 
in plants (TMV, 1892), animals (foot-and-mouth disease, 
1898) and humans (yellow fever, 1900, Walter Reed and 
the Army Commission). Finally in 1937 we had sulfa 
drugs and in 1943 the giants penicillin and streptomycin. 
By the 1950s man's greatest killers became non-infect- 
ious in nature. 


When the centers of medical thinking in the 1600s and 1700s 
were in Padua, then Leiden and Scotland, gastroenterology began. 
In 1700 Spullanzani of Italy demonstrated the digestive power o\ 
gastric juice, and the liver's role in the body's "humors" and 
"bilious fevers" was legendary. By 1844 Schwann had worked on 
artificial biliary fistulas in dogs and noted that bile assisted in 
digestion. Four years later Bernard noted that pancreatic enzymes 
were necessary and prevented malabsorption. A diarrheal state 
similar to or identical to sprue was described in 1888 by Gee. an 
English pediatrician. 

More specific biochemical concepts emerged in the 1920s. 
First the extrinsic factor B| j was found in liver extracts which 
were used therapeutically for pernicious anemia patients: soon 
afterward a lack of either this extrinsic, or an "intrinsic", factor 
was found to be causative in PA. "Gl" was becoming biochemi- 
cally sophisticated and by 1932 the American College of Gastro- 
enterology was formed. 

It would be im- 
possible to consider 
the dept. of medi- 
cine, 1975, without 
mentioning Dr. 

Kaye. He has been 
controversial since 
Day One, but has 
built an academical- 
ly competitive and 
research-oriented de- 
partment which, 
though it intimi- 
dates, well-prepares 
MCP's students to 
seek and successfully 
complete residencies 
across the USA and 

Dr. Klinghoffer and her psychiatrist 
husband, Dr. Wenger, walk down 
the second floor Medical Dept. of- 
fices area. Dr. Klinghoffer orga- 
nized our junior rotation and inter- 
mittently represents Medicine at 
the Curriculum Committee. 




Skit Night 1974 staged a Medical Faculty and House 
staff skit. Dr. Kaye began reviewing the case pre- 
sentation and felt it necessary to seek the advice of 
various consultants. He tired while waiting for some 
consultants' decisions (above left) and even had Dr. 
Bartuska carried off the stajje in the middle of her 
tap dance and song, "J can do anything you can do 
better, Dr. Kaye!" The housestaff threw pies in the ex- 
citement (LaPorte, Serrano, Mary Garran), and the 
Cardiologists fall smoking) added their opinion. 

Resident John Contino 
after a long night on call; 
Intern Doris Bartuska 
taking an electrocardio- 
gram in 1954; Residents 
line up for all the official 
paper work; 1974-75 
Housestaff Paula Fischer, 
Mary K. Stom, Carole 
Eisen, Joyce Kay, Linda 
Pape, Lloyd Garren and 
Neil Friedman enjoy one 
of the many Eisen-culi- 
nary treats. 

Senior Nancy Kerr calls 
for old records for a cardi- 
ology patient; Senior Shelley 
Cross and Resident Jim Joye work 
in a nurse's station; a junior and a 
resident prepare for Professor's 



Residents Andy Hanavvay, Steve La 
Porte, and Herb Caskey in the Li- 
brary; Residents Roger Koerner and 

Paula Fischer at the 
V.A.H.; Resident Cindy 
Berg counsels a patient; 
Chief Resident Hardy 
Sorkin contemplating. 






Resident Carole I iscn 
in the 2nd floor con- 
ference room; Residents 
Paul Danier, Norma 
Wenger, Harvey Silverman 
and John Contino in the 
R.R.; Resident Barbara 
Livermorc reviews her I.C.U 
patient's chart. 


I ndo- 
Bartuska re- 
ceives the 1974 
Lindback Award for 
Distinguished Teaching; 
Dr. Manlovc converses with 
Resident Stellmachcr in clinic; 
Endocrinologist Gottlieb shyly 
looks on while Resident Schim- 
mel examines an amused pa- 
tient; Dr. Larry Browne. 


%?t L - a ip ) 

Residents Jonas and Roth; 
new residents °. ipley , Car- 
rideo, Sherm ' Stom. 

In July. 1970, Dr. Kaye was new 
to MCP and met with department 
members; Dr. Rubin on rounds 
with some o\' his first MCP stu- 
dents; the 1970 attending staff in- 
cluded Drs. Kovnat, Boots Cooper 
and others who have since left 
MCP; the new Kaiser Auditorium 
was barely ready for the academic 
year to start in September. 1972. 
Here a bearded Dr. Kaye opens the 
first medical grand rounds in it. 

1947, Sophomores Carol Vorraux 
and Margaret Schlegel practiced a 
new test, electrocardiography, in 
Physiology under Dr. Roberta 
Hafkesbring's supervision. 

or v. - i ^n Interface 

(LarOlOlOgP between Medicine . . . 

Cardiology has probably changed more in 
the last 30 years, since the first wide-spread 
use of electrocardiograms and pacemakers, 
than in the prior 300 years. In 1733, 
Stephen Hales first recorded arterial blood 
pressure as he placed a clear pipe into a 
horse's carotid artery and measured the 
height of the column. Through the 1800s the 
use of the stethoscope and the art of auscul- 
tation grew, exemplified by the clinicopath- 
ological observations of Sr. William Osier. 

At the turn of the century cardiovascular 
surgery was developing. In 1897 John Ben- 
jamin Murphy introduced the end-to-end 
suture of blood vessels and Ludwig Rehn 
first successfully sutured a stab wound of 
the heart in man. When in 1901 Karl Land- 
steiner delineated blood groups in Vienna, 
the way was paved for safe blood transfu- 
sions and all the pump innovations which led 
to open-heart and bypass surgery. 

The cardiac catheterization lab was so swamped 
with referrals they had to build a second one! 
Dr. Toby Engle is teaching Cardiac Fellow Chris 
Bostrom, WMC. 


Fellows and faculty fully enjoyed the consulta- 
tion spoof in Skit Nite (patient was Richard 
Nixon, Jim Joye). 

Dr. Frankl, chairman of cardiology, explains heart 
sounds simulator to student Jerry Williamson; Form- 
er ICU nurse; Dr. Meister, cup of coffee, and bi- 
weekly cath conference; Cardiologists Lawrence 
(V.A.), Uricchio, Urbach, Frankl, and Chirife; Dr. 
Meister; Dr. Bentivoglio in his bloody tennis shoes; 
Dr. Kraus and his teletaped stethophoned cardiac 

. and Surgery 

Drs. Uricchio and Ablaza discuss a patient's 
pre-surgical cath results. 

The Open Heart Surgical Team has been working (and playing) hard since 1972-73. 
Dr. Ablaza is quick and accurate and "makes it all look easy." 

370 B.C. Celsus: "In a wound of the heart there is great hemorrhage; the vessels are collapsed, the complexion pale; there are cold dew-like 
sweats, of a disagreeable odor; and the extremities becoming cold, death soon follows." 


Surgery was originally in 
the hands of the "Barber- 
Surgeons", quacks, or any 
townspeople with sharp 
enough instruments (see be- 
low). Prior to the advent of 
anesthesia (c. 1850), many 
patients preferred death to 
surgery (left). 

The Village Surgeon 
Cornelius Dusart 

Surgical Instruments, 1517; German School 
Early XVI Century 

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Studies of human remains show that surgical 
techniques had become competent in some 
hands from prehistoric times until the mid- 
1 700's. In general, surgery was not "quality -con- 
trolled" or "licensed" and was considered an 
inferior branch of medicine. There were four 
reasons why surgery did not develop: ignorance 
of anatomy; inability to control hemorrhage; 
lack of anesthesia; and ignorance of antiseptic 

Surgery has always been a male-dominated 
field in America. In the 1850's, F.M.C gradu- 
ates were not admitted into the clinical training 
"interneships" of the university hospitals. 
Hence, they were forced to be apprentices to 
sympathetic private practicianers, nurses in hos- 
pitals and asylums, or to travel abroad. Emeline 
Horton Cleveland, graduate in 1855, aspired to 
be a surgeon. She travelled to the famous resi- 
dency of La Maternite in Paris, became a skilled 
"ovariotomist," and returned to Philadelphia to 
be the first resident in the newly founded Wom- 
an's Hospital, seen at right. She remained there 
and as a faculty member trained scores of 
young physicians in surgery. 

Dr. Donald Cooper 
Chairman of Surgery 




■ ■- Y' 

Operating Room Ampitheater at the Woman's Hospital of Philadel- 
phia, North College Avenue. Picture 1890. 

Dr. Bassett, Surgery and Tumor Board. 

1973. Dr. Alma D. Morani, famous alumna surgeon, pre- 
sents her gift, establishing an immunobiology lab, to Drs. 
Donald Cooper and Subhash Bansal. 

O.R. Supervisor. Norma 



Our junior surgical rotation was 9 weeks long, including 6 
weeks of general surgery (either at the V.A. or at M.C.P. on Blue 
or Yellow Service) and time in the subspecialities of urology, 
orthopedics, anesthesiology and neurosurgery. We did work-ups, 
started IV's, learned to scrub, hold retractors, suture, and cast 
extremities. The first 2 days were always the worst, getting used to 
being on our feet for hours on end for several sets of rounds, 
running errands and assisting. Junior Frank Cavoto's stance re- 
flects the frustration of inefficient communications while Judy 
Bronstein's reflects the excitement and concentration we all ex- 
pereinced while assisting. 


300 B.C.: Hippocrates favored the "dry" treatment of wounds with, at most, the application of wine as a dressing. 

Early 1800s: The Masai North American Indians enucleated eyes and with great skill amputated limbs with hopelessly 
complicated fractures. They even had prostheses. The Carrier, Mescalero, Dakota, and Winnebago Indians sutured with 
sinews; the Masai and Akamba sutured with thorns; they also practiced wound drainage. 

1851 : The ophthalmoscope was invented by Helmholtz. 

1866: Lister began using carbolic acid in an attempt to prevent infection. 

1878: J.M. Sims undertook the first cholecystectomy. 

1881 : Theodor Billroth performed the first successful removal of a portion of the stomach for carcinoma of the pylorus. 

1879: "The observer . . . saw the operation (caesarean section) performed upon a 20 year-old woman in Kahura in Uganda. 
Banana wine served as anesthetic and disinfectant. Haemorrhage was checked with a red hot iron. The incision was made in 
the midline, between symphysis and umbilicus, and closed with iron nails. The temperature never rose above 101° F. in the 
postoperative stage, and the wound was closed on the eleventh day." 

1932: Sixty-nine (69) women were in the College of Surgeons. 

1956. Surgery at W.M.C. featured the revered Dr. "Kitty Mac," 
Macfarlane (right). Above she is showing "zoom life," a new oper- 
ating room fixture to Drs. Marion Fay and Burgess Gordon. 

1959. Surgical experience for both junior and senior students has 
included instruction in trauma management in the E.R. surgical 

Surgical resident Ellen Anderson as a freshman; the great Resident 
Kusminsky; Dr. Cooper: O.R. personnel; Senior McGowan and Resi- 
dent Pena Guera; at the V.A.H. Dr. Felix demonstrates his Doppler 
Flow study for Dr. Boland (1971); Dr. James Bassett; and one of 
Norma's able O.R. assistants. 



Hans von Gersdorff 
Trephination, 1517 

Through the centuries trephination (right) was used to free evil spirits 
and cure headaches, but without anesthesia or antisepsis the results were 
poor. In 300 B.C., Hippocrates said about injuries of the head, "You 
should make inquiry as to these particulars ( for they are symptoms of 
greater or lesser injury) whether the wounded persons was stunned, and 
whether darkness was diffused over his eyes, and whether he had vertigo 
and fell to the ground." In the late 1800s Victor Horsley started operating 
on tumors of the brain and spinal cord. Then between 1918 and 1929 the 
diagnostic aids of pneumoencephalography, myelography , EEC's and arteri- 
ograms ushered in the modern era. Recent refinements are the brain scan 
and flow studies and the EMI, ACTA, Delta scanners. 

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The first successful human kidney removal 
recorded was in 1869 by Gustav Simon. Urolo- 
gy, too, has grown and changed in the past 100 
years and includes the diagnostic entities of the 
IVP, cystoscopy, selective ureteral catheteriza- 
tion and cystometries and Management ot im- 
potence to tumors. 


Hans inn Gersdorf) 
Treobination. 1517 

Drs. Karafin (pictured) and Kendall are urologists at 
MCP and Temple. 

The Egyptians developed reparative surgery as early as 3400 
B.C., utilized sutures, adhesive tape, lint dressings and ointments 
by 2500 B.C., and employed forehead tissue flaps in nose recon- 
structions as well as free gluteal skin grafts by 600 B.C. Unfor- 
tunately, 1000 yrs. of Dark Age stagnation later, Tagliacozzi in 
1597 was left to revive the reconstructions. And it was not until 
WMC was 19 years old, in 1869, that free skingrafting was revived 
(Reverdin). Several world wars then necessitated techniques for 
healing difficult wounds, and now the field encompasses pedicle 
grafts to cosmetic procedures. 

plastic ^urgerp 

These pictures from The Saturday Evening Post article about WMC, 1949, 
show Dr. Alma Dea Morani operating while the junior medical students 
observe from the gallery. Right below: Two young surgeons preview films 
against a window viewbox! 


Dr. Sbarbaro (left), inventor of sever- 
al orthopedic surgery devices, is head 
of orthopedics and super at all the 
macro-surgery. On the other hand, 
Dr. Didizian (right) is a wizard with 
the micro field of the Board Certified 
subspecialty of Hand Surgery. 

Repositioning a dislocated backbone 
by means of traction and ladder like 
extensions, from a ninth-century 
commentary on Hippocrates' treatise 
on fractures. 

1975 Senior Mib Matejczyk scrubs 
with Ortho Resident Palmaccio in 
preparation for a knee case. 

In this 1959 WMC Orthopedic Clinic photo, senior students are in- 
structed by Dr. Anna M. Brady. 

Egypt, 2730 B.C.: Several varieties of 
SPLINTS were employed; the mid-rib of the 
date palm leaf, spongy strips of wood, bark 
of the acacia tree or bundles of straw from 
coarse grass . . . more than 2 splints might be 
used to form a protective casing ... the re- 
sults of FRACTURE TREATMENT were re- 
markably good, but cases of malunion and 
non-union have been found. No healed frac- 
ture of the spine was encountered whereas 
sternal and rib fratures showed good union. 
All pelvic fractures healed, sometimes with 
malunion. Fractures of the bones of the up- 
per limb gave variable results. Whereas those 
of a single bone of the forearm were fairly 
good, synostosis and deformities sometimes 
followed fractures of both bones of the fore- 

Greeks, 400 B.C.: The Greeks treated 
CLUB FEET by stretching and wrapping 
feet firmly with bandages impregnated with 
some white of egg solution in glycerine, 
which, when hardened, tended to serve the 
same purpose as the modern plaster of paris 
cast. In this way the feet were slowly 
stretched into a straight position and held 

1580 A.D.: AMPUTATIONS of legs and 

arms have been performed since prehistoric 

times. However, they were always quite 

brutal, being guillotine types of amputations 

with boiling oil cauterizations. Finally in 1580 Am- 

broise Pare introduced the use of a tourniquet to 

numb the limb, control hemorrhage, and pull back 

the muscles for eventual padding and covering of the 


1775: The first recorded attempt at internal fixa- 
tion using wires to fix bones in place was by 
Lapuyade and Sicre. Unfortunately they were ac- 
cused by another French surgeon, Icart, of causing 
the death oi' the patient in two days. 

1861: E.S. Cooper oi' San Francisco successful) 
wired together a bone (the patella) without subse- 
quent infection. 

Late 1800s: The American surgeons finally "came 
of age" and had enough depth that they could train 
here in the U.S.A. without needing to rely on the 
traditional European sophistication. 

E.N.T. clinic hasn't really changed 
that much over the years! 

E.N.T. is no longer just TONSILS! An- 
other of the oldest subspecialties, this one 
has come a long way, again because of mi- 
crosurgery and instruments. Otolaryngolo- 
gists define their field differently, but they 
all agree that it has variety. 



Dr. Marlowe, E.N.T., hypnosis, plastics, macro. Dr. Wolfson, E.N.T., labyrinthitis, ear microsur- Dr. Anne Pike, 1947 intern (now uses larger 

gery. speculae). 

7 HI 

Dr. Golshan, E.N.T. resident, uses 
operating microscope like those used 
for ear and eye surgery. Note the 
teaching head. 

Today E.N.T. includes audiology, ear sur- 
gery, prosthetic TM's and ossicles, head and 
neck trauma management, radical neck dis- 
sections, sinus diseases, plastic surgery of 
nose, head and neck, lacrimal duct diseases, 
bronchoscopy and mediastinoscopy, trache- 
ostomies . . . and tonsils! 



^...) ~. 


The mechanics of the eye 
are diagrammed and ex- 
plained in this drawing by 
Leonardo da Vinci 
(1452-1519). Lacking de- 
tailed knowledge of the optic 
nerve and striations, he asso- 
ciated the eye with the pineal 
gland. Interestingly, the refer- 
ence to the pineal as "the 
third eye" persisted in the 
physiologic literature well 
into the 1960's, and studies 
have shown the gland has a 
role in setting diurnal 
rhythms with the sun despite 
its lack of light receptors. 


Tremendous technical advances have 
allowed Ophthalmology, the first board- 
certified medical subspecialty, to evolve 
into the highly specialized field it is to- 
day. In "the old days" patients were cov- 
ered with sandbags after eye surgery be- 
cause there were no small enough sutures, 
needles, etc. to close the large incisions of 
the macrosurgical instruments. 

Today ophthalmologists may remain 
generalists or subspecialize in retina, cor- 
nea, glaucoma, neurophthalmology, 
muscle diseases, external diseases, medical 
ophthalmology, etc. Microsurgery has 
vastly changed the field; so have fluore- 
scein angiography, indirect ophthalmo- 
scopes, transilluminating and vitrectomy 
instruments, and sialastic implants. Even 
the usefulness of the 20 year old laser has 
changed dramatically. 

Dr. Forster, left, has given his time and enthusiasm to many MCP 
students. He offers a joint elective with E.N.T. for seniors which includes 
clinic (office) ophthalmology, surgical and trauma (Wills Eye Emergency 
Room) experience, and views of an exquisite slide collection narrated in 
his brilliant style. Assisting him with a cataract above is Dr. Tillman. Dr. 
Nachod (WMC, 1943) assists in clinic. 

Drs. Emilic Loefflei (WMC. 1948) 
examines the eyes of classmate 
Margaret Gray (Wood), now presi- 
dent of the Alumnae Association, 
in 1948 Ophthalmology Clinic. 


Ether as an anesthetic was first demonstrated publicly in the ampitheater of Mass. Gen. Hospital, 

Oince the dawn of medicine, men and healers 
have tried to control pain. Plant extracts includ- 
ing opium, mandrake, wine and cannabis (hash- 
ish and marijuana) had been recognized as 
pain-killers for centuries, but countless numbers 
of physician-pharmacists in Europe had inadver- 
tantly become addicted to them as they made 
and tested the chemical alterations. Carl Koller, 
a colleague of Sigmund Freud's, had noted the 
local anesthetic properties of cocaine in 1884. 
Freud had obtained cocaine from the USA in 
an attempt to treat a friend addicted to mor- 
phine, only to find he had transferred addic- 
tions. However, he had inadvertantly noted that 
his patient experienced insensitivity and numb- 
ness of the tongue and mouth after the inges- 
tion. Koller went on to test cocaine in the eye 
and found it equally useful for corneal proce- 
dures. However, because of its toxicity and 
addictive potential, cocaine had limited useful- 
ness, and the search for a related substance was 
on. Finally in 1905 Einhorn synthesized the 
prototype "caine" procaine. 

These substances, alcohol, local nerve com- 
pression, cold therapy, bullet-biting, etc. were 
never of great value for the acute pain and 









Inscription on the wall of the old operating ampitheater, M.G.H., Boston, describing the event. 

Artist's conception of the physicians particpating 
in the demonstration. At the head of the patient is 
Dr. Morton, the dentist who administered the et- 
her. At his right is the surgeon, Dr. John C. Warren. 



Mojitos First Sponge from Which Ether »i« tmuuo. 

"Thai Pain was ho longer the master bit the servant op the boot." 
"wllks the fiercest extremity of suffering was steei'eu in the waters of foroetfilse>s. asp 

Tin: DEEPEST FURROW in the kNOTTEIi BROW 0? ACOK1 WAS SMOOTHED a» n rORBVER,"— Qlivtt IIY'i.irfi Holm-. 


subsequent horrors of surgery. It was not until the 
birth of general anesthesia in the 1840's that surgery 
could progress. 

In 1799 Humphrey Davy, a pulmonologist, had 
discovered nitrous oxide and constructed a machine 
for its administration. In 1800 he had even suggested 
its use as an anesthetic, but the medical world was 
apparently not ready for this news. Instead, for the 
next 44 years it was best known for its excitement 
properties and appeared in carnival acts. Dr. Horace 
Wells, a Hartford, Connecticut dentist, used the gas 
on himself first successfully but provided only a par- 
tially successful demonstration of its anesthetic 
properties when he took it to "the big city Boston" 
in December, 1844. 

It was another dentist, Dr. William Morton, who 
on October 16, 1846, achieved the acclaim for his 
successful demonstration of diethyl ether in Boston. 
This was written up in the Boston Medical and Surgi- 
cal Journal by the eminent surgeons Bigelow and 
Warren. Of course, he wasn't the. first to have thought 
of its use (Michael Faraday, student of Davy, 1818) 
or to have successfully used diethyl ether (Crawford 
Long, 1842), but he was the first to have successfully 
demonstrated it publicly. 

On November 21, 1846, just 4 years before the 
founding of W.M.C. in Philadelphia, Oliver Wendell 
Holmes wrote to Morton, emphasized the importance 
of his discovery in changing the course of surgery and 
medicine, and proposed the term "Anesthesia". 

S.C. Benes 

The implements of anesthesia have progressed 
from the simple sponges and vials of 1846 (left) 
to porous metal inhalers to the masks seen 
(below) in obstetric used 20 years ago to the 
modified masks and intubation equipment seen 
in use with Dr. Doris Gallagher (right). 

Dr. Jacobi, chairman of the department, delivers one of her 
spirited Scottish lectures. 

Ideally anesthesia should encompass pre-induction assessment and education of the 
patient, sedation, induction, intubation (if necessary), intra-operative medical care, 
and post-op monitoring in the recovery room. 



lost \ "■ ". 

( trt* 

Childbirth, 1580, by Jost Amman 
Note that women attend the 
parturient while men dis- 
cretely gaze at the stars. 


The history of Obstetrics fascinates me on many levels, 
and each new source material I find opens up another point 
of view. When I First began my search, I knew that as a 
woman, mother and advocate of informed childbirth, I 
would find much in the literature about women throughout 
history acting as Obstetricans, although not designated as 

By necessity, there is always one woman present at every 
delivery. It has been impossible to keep us out of the 
delivery room. It is also evident that every woman who 
carries a developing child, for whatever period of time is 
"recapitulating phylogeny" and subject to a plethora of 
history, myth, fears that recall an earlier time when child- 
birth was less safe than it is now and when less was known 
about human development and genetics. 

What I did not realize, however, was how inextricably 


Obstetrics in the 12th Century. 
Note the woman doctor and nurse. 

the history of obstetrics is tied to the history of women in 
medicine and to the history of our institution. 

From earliest times, women have helped other women 
deliver their children. The nature of human development 
presents certain research questions and necessitates certain 
operative maneuvers. What can be done with a fetal head 
too large to pass through a pelvis modified for upright 
posture? What is the best way to deliver abnormal presenta- 
tions? How can we diagnose fetal death or anomalies in 
utero? There are many more, of course, but this short list 
will show that the questions have not changed. The answers 
were theorized from very early (Neolithic) times as re- 
corded in the Ebers Papyrus. Unfortunately, the proper 
tools were not available for use. It was at this time too 
that we see evidence for some operative techniques in 
use— tying cloth strips about the limbs of a fetus to aid 
inversion; possible use of forceps (?) or some similar instru- 
ment used as a vaginal speculum, and the presence of 
women as surgeons aiding the parturient. 

Women and men continued to be important figures in 
Obstetrics through the civilizations of ancient Greece, 

The 1918 WMC Hospital Christmastime babies 
are cared for by Dr. Florence Weaver (1911). 

Rome and Byzantium. It was during the Dark Ages that the 
role of the surgeon began to pale in comparison to the 
internist and the role of women as physicians began to 
disappear. The care of laboring women was left to midwives 
whose only gratification might be a stable home life and the 
payment of a license fee. If surgery was needed, this task 
fell to sar-gelders or barber-surgeons. An occasional Caesari- 
an delivery was performed by such a person on a living 
woman with survival of mother and child, although mosx 
times this was only done on a dead woman to save the 

A dichotomy continued to develop with women mid- 
wives doing most routine deliveries while male physicians 
began to return to learning more surgical and operative 
procedures. Men were called in as consultants when needed. 
As modesty, chastity and obedience became more impor- 
tant than the practice of medicine, it became increasingly 
difficult to handle problem deliveries as the male operator 
or "accoucheur" was not allowed to view the generative 
organs of women and had to perform his maneuvers be- 
neath a drape. 


It was as late as the Eighteenth Century when forceps 
reappeared to be used routinely in delivery while the Caesari- 
an operation still could not serve as a lifesaving procedure 
for both mother and child. Podalic version was known but 
not widely used even with forceps to aid in delivery of the 
after-coming head. 

Not until 1847 was anaesthesia introduced for obstetri- 
cal use and in 1882 a method of suturing the uterine wound 
was described to prevent uncontrolled bleeding. Recall 
now, that our college was founded in 1850! The current 
treatment for eclampsia at that time was "bleeding from 
the saphenous vein, a cathartic, spirits of harts-horn, pow- 
der of pearls and crabs eyes, a potion of snails, worms, black 
cherries," etc., etc. AD NAUSEUM. 

The first woman Obstetrician associated with our school 
and co-founder of the Woman's Hospital with Ann Preston 
was Emeline Horton Cleveland, who had studied at .the 
School of Obstetrics and LA MATERNITE in Paris. It is 
interesting to note that this first woman resident at M.C.P. 
began her first day with her baby son on her shoulder. 

In 1888, the Out-Patient Department for Prenatal Care 
was founded by Dr. Anna E. Broomal. Prenatal care was a 
new idea then and many women viewed childbirth as the 
greatest danger in their lives because of morbidity and 
mortality from eclampsia, sepsis and puerperal insanity. Dr. 
Broomal 's assistant, Dr. Catherine MacFarlane, went on to 
become a pioneer in cancer research and prevention along 
with Margaret C. Sturgis and Faith Fetterman. The list of 
notable women in obstetrics continues to grow with such 
women as chiefs Ann Gray Taylor from 1930-59, Mary De 
Witt Pettit 1958-67 and our present chairwoman, Elsie Reid 
Carrington who assumed the post in 1967. 

The practice of Obstetrics has been the province of 
women by our species heritage. We have made great prog- 
ress since the founding of our school; in prenatal care, 
operative techniques, anaesthesia and analgesia in child- 
birth and for post-partum care, the use of antibiotics in care 
of the mother and infant and the total management of the 
high-risk obstetric patient. Yet, there are many questions 
left to be answered in our life times and many for genera- 
tions to follow. A fine tradition at the Medical College of 
Pennsylvania gives new physicians the impetus to continue 
in this direction. 

Respectfully sumbitted, 

Evelyn Levenson Weissman, M.D. 

Drs. Carrington; Sladowsky and Barbo; Sladowsky, 
Titon, Gabrielson and Cox; Clifford; Pike; Eskin; 
Loveland; Batzer; Cox; Weinblatt; Turner and LaHom; 
Luna and Songkoon Tongprasert. 


^SSLfl, 1 

Dr. Cox orients the juniors in the 
basic delivery techniques; Dr. 
Gabriclson explains family plan- 
ning alternatives; Chairwoman 
Carrington and Neonatologists 
Blackburn and Pleasure conduct 
High Risk Pregnancy Seminars. 

Patients for Gynecology Clinic 
were seen by students, house- 
staff and attendings at the Bar- 
ton Dispensary in I 942. 

". . .the goal: to deliver a good baby to a healthy 
mother. . ." 

Our objectives were "to become conversant with OB- 
GYN vocabulary; to understand the endocrinology of men- 
struation, reproduction and menopause; to know the physi- 
ology of normal pregnancy as well as how to diagnose 
and treat complications of pregnancy, labor, delivery and 
postpartum; to know the indications and alternative meth- 
ods for family planning; to learn to take a history and 
perform a pelvic exam; to understand the treatment of and 
the diagnostic skills needed to detect infections and cancer; 
to demonstrate knowledge of and ability to perform a 
normal delivery. . ." 

Juniors assist in surgery and 
experience the excitement of 
their first deliveries. . . 


Dr. Doris A. Howell, former Chairman of Pediatrics, having watched 
a sunset with a child in the old building. 

In 1850 a civilized man, while contemplating 
the status of children in society, could look 
back with satisfaction over the progress that 
had been made since ancient times when in- 
fanticide, child mutilation and child sacrifice 
were often the rule. 

Yet the child born in 1850 still had dreadful 
enemies to face. If he had the misfortune to be 
born in the wrong neighborhood of many large 
American cities such as Boston, he still had 
only a 50-50 chance of living to the age of 10. 
A walk through an old cemetery will convince 
the skeptic that the situation was grim. Chil- 
dren often fell victim to pneumonia, tubercu- 
lous, meningitis, poliomyelitis, intestinal 
hemorrhage of the newborn, typhoid, cholera 
and "summer complaint," a nearly always fatal 
infantile diarrhea that was contracted from un- 
sterilized milk. Poor nutrition contributed to 
the prevalance of the above diseases, and also 
directly caused much scurvy, pellagra, rickets 
and "nutritional edema." 

In March, 1931, the East Falls Hospital of the Woman's Medical 
College of Pa. was opened, including this cheerful children's 

Dr. Waldo Nelson, author of the famous book, leaves one of his weekly MCP seminars. 
Dr. Jean Gowing in 1962 explains baby care to a new mother. Drs. Harriet Arey, Jerold 
Aronson and Hammond in conference. 


If a baby managed to survive his infancy and early childhood, he might 
then enter the labor force and be among many children who into the 
1920's could be found working long and hard hours in "sweat shops" for 
meager wages. 

As a specialty, pediatrics was a late-developer. By the mid-Nineteenth 
Century the study of diseases unique to children was well underway in 
Europe. In 1855, the first children's Hospital was opened in the United 
States, in Philadelphia. Progress in the study of sick children was impeded 
by the fact that young children cannot communicate verbally, and prior to 
the development of present-day laboratory, radiographic and mechanical 
means of probing the workings of the body, physicians relied heavily on 
questioning the patient. Therefore, many children died of "unknown 


The Junior Pediatrics rotation is 6 weeks long and includes in-patient care with 
night call, clinic time, emergency room care and a week in neonatology in the 
nursery. Here junior Angela Stupi examines a young asthmatic. 

Besides the characterizing of children's dis- 
eases with a new emphasis on correlating patho- 
logy with symptoms, early "pediatrists" were 
concerned with dispelling myriads of myths and 
opposing such commonly prevalent practices as 
"swaddling," drinking unsterile milk, and exces- 
sive cradle-rocking. 

The 1870's saw the formation of The Society 
for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, and 
the establishment by the A.M. A. of a section for 
the diseases of children. It was not until the end 
of the Nineteenth Century that Pediatrics was a 
recognized specialty in the U.S.A. 

In 1893 "clean milk stations" for the distribu- 
tion of sterile milk for babies began to be estab- 
lished. These were the predecessors of "well baby 
clinics," typified by the VV.M.C. Clinic in the 
Barton Dispensary on Ridge Avenue. Around 
1900, the inspection of school children for signs 
of infectious diseases began. This was the begin- 
ning of school health systems. 

Nineteen-twelve saw the establishment by 
Congress of The United States Children's Bureau, 
whose job it was to report to Congress on condi- 
tions affecting children. In 1921 this bureau 
began giving grants-in-aid, and set the precedent 
for grants to programs relating to maternal and 
child health such as aid to handicapped and re- 
tarded children, and to child welfare agencies. 
This program has mushroomed into the present 
system of M.I.C. programs (maternal and infant 
care) in our Ob-Gyn. and Pediatrics clinics and 
into the Pennsylvania D.P.A. (welfare) and P.G.S. 

Drs. Gold, Schrom and Steg. Pediatrics Dr. Rita Scott explains developmental Dr. Phyllis Marciano busy in Resident Rahimian in hall- 
resident Sheth with a young patient, problems. clinic. way. 


In recent years the problems facing 
Pediatricians have reflected the progress 
made in fighting children's diseases. 
Death rates for the first year of life have 
plummetted downward since 1900 when 
one of five children died before 12 
months of age, to 1975 when many fami- 
lies have never experienced the death of a 
child or known it to occur in their circle 
of friends. Thus, preventive and outpa- 
tient well-child care have assumed a major 
role in pediatrics. 

Unfortunately, the plunge in the death 
rates for the first 7 days of life has not 
been as impressive as that for the first 
year of life. This challenge has been part 
of the impetus for the study of neonato- 
logy. Many of the neonate's problems 
such as congenital malformations and 
immaturity originate before birth. They 
require a deep understanding of the 
physiology and pathology of both mother 
and fetus and their interaction with dis- 
ease, the environment, toxic substances, 
and nutrition. 

In spite of these continuing challenges 
to the Pediatrician, one can look at the 
newborn child of 1975 and honestly say, 
"You've come a long way, Baby!" 

Respectfully submitted, 
Priscilla Benner, M.D. 

The oldest and time-honored 
form of outpatient pediatrics has 
been the "house call" depicted 
in this 1840 sketch "The Coun- 
try Doctor". For Dr. Hill 
(W.M.C.) in 1949 in Oneida, Wis ; 
consin, a kitchen examining room 
provided a personal approach. 

The clean milk centers of the 1 890's be- 
came the well-baby clinics of the 1900's. At 
left we see the 1916 World War I Baby Clinic 
of W.M.C. located near the College on North 
College Avenue. Note the costumes as well 
as the "Victory Garden" poster on the wall 
appealing to the mothers. 

After the College itself had moved in 
1931 to East Falls, the Barton Dispensary 
was opened at 4253 Ridge Avenue (across 
from the Fire Station) for pediatric and 
obstetric care. The 1942 picture above 
shows two medical students examining babies 
under the supervision of Dr. Lee Winston. 

<&ut-$attent $ebiatric£ 

ABOVE: Many of the East Falls P.G.S. Satellite Clinic's young participants wave outside 

its location in the East Falls Project school building. This program has been run under 

the guidance of Dr. J. Aronson and serves infants as well as older children. 

LEFT: The M.C.P. Clinic is a busy place! Here we see Drs. Vera Malisoff, Estelle Gold. 

and Jean Gowing examining young children. Their "special interests" are allergy. 

dermatology, and adolescent medicine, respectively. 

BELOW: A young doctor examines a surprised little lady in the P.G.S. Clinic. 

Thousands of youngsters are cared for by MCP's P.G.S. 
(pediatrics group services) federally-assisted program. This 
includes the M.C.P. Clinic as well as three satellites: The 
East Falls Project, Abbotts Ford Project and The Learning 
Center. They are unique in that they involve many mem- 
bers of the health care team: nurses, students, pediatric 
nurse practitioners, physicians, and specialists of all types. 

Probably the thing we students best remember is the 
green-covered problem-oriented (modified Weed) record with 
the yellow tick-off sheet for routine screening, testing and 
immunizations and the ever-present Denver Development 



Drs. Blackburn and Pleasure (not pic- 
tured) lead the way to sophisticated 
neonatology at MCP. Their arrangements 
have included ambulance and helicop- 
ter transportation for high-risk nursery 
cases from outlying hospitals. 

The above picture was entitled "New Life Gets a Good Start" in 
1942. This was a way of quieting the babies (or the nurses' nerves?) 
in the "Sound Proof Nursery." In the '70's, Japanese studies have 
suggested that playing a heart-beat record in a nursery quiets the 

Resident Claire Cifaloglio explains the neonatal examina- 
tion to a nurse and students Pam Scott and Laila Alidina. 

The smaller the head — the bigger the dream 

Austin O' Mai ley 


In one of the units are the 
children of med students 
Evelyn Weissman, Stuart 
Genser, and Sue Benes. 



VJmily /Imd Alhionl /umilhingl T " f - Sl w YOKK TIMKS. FRIDAY . JA NUARY 14, ins 

When a Price Soars, 
Oil Is Often Reason 


The supermarket shopper Ihn miinih *.»* fir r .e— r r i 
paid SI 25 for laundry detergent, 63 
.rmi for dishwasher detergent and 78 
t-tntl for t hox of plutic garbagr hagi, 
Six months ago. the same aire, of the 
tame brand, at the tame tupermarket. 
was 20 to 2'i per <ent cheaper 

Almost all prices have gnne up (the 
consumer pmc index rote hy 12 2 per 
Mil for all Of 1<174). but why the 
somewhat phenomenal increase in the 
prtrea of certain producia? 

There isn't one tingle reason, hut 
chance* are. when the rue hai been sub- 
stantial, thai tome of trie rnnor Ingre- 
dlenta or the producli are bated on 

About fi\e pei- cent of the natlon'a 
crude oi!. and 10 per cent of it, natural 
gat, go into the manufacture of pr- 

trachenlcili The patreefannleili tfati 

irt produced— ethylene, propylene, ben. 
aene, naphthalene, ammonia, metnanol 
and acetylene— are, largely unknown to 
eoniumen. but they art the baste for 
man-mode material!. 

"From the t:me we get up in tha 
morning and bruth our teeth with a 
plattic toothbruth, and wash our facet 
with a man-made detergent, until we go 
to bed at night and pull up our per- 
manent-prees sheets and synthetic blan- 
ken. we are surrounded by petrochemi- 
call," said Richard C Perry, an execu- 
tive of Union Carbide Corporation. 

"Sit down and look at th« thlngi 
around you," said Boy Glaur of the 
Stanford Research Institute in Menlo 
Park. Calif, 

Things lied Every Day 

Mr. Glaut, who was Interviewed by 
telephone In his office, listed tome of 
the plastic items surrounding him. 

"The telephone set, my slide rule, my 
calculator, my eyeglass frames . . . and 
I could go on and on," he said. 

1 a spokes. 

en down to 

ry low level, and there wat not 

enough money to undertake expansion 

That was the period used for hate price; 

control and we were loclwd into it " 

"The dati of , hi lp pi .«: ' 
mlcal prodin is are over " -* ' 
man for an asaorlaUoi 
ly on pctm. ■ 

"We agree wiih the Shah of Iran that 
petroleum is 100 nobtfl a resour. e to he 
nurned tor fuel," ufa] a represent alive, 
of the Petroihrmkal Inrif 
group of companies in the Endirslry He 
noted that tompaniet manufacturing 
man made materials gtll more tlun , :<\ 
■ '■■ of pradui is M< h vetr and 
employ more than .11 \ 000 people 

"Man-made materials are essential to 
modern life," he added 

The belief that man -made materials 
are. indeed, essential to modern life hat 
been frequently questioned Some 
people ure in favor of. or see nothing 

aamtt, returning to the natural r 
t in us. ' " 
the norm 

But. according to Mr Perry of Union 
Carbide, "natural products are in ex- 
tremely short supply and getting shorter 
all the Ume. 

"There are too many people in the 
world today to be supported by natural 
products." he said "There are not 
enough trees, we cannot raise enough 
sheep and there wouldn't be enough ani- 
mal fat for soap. Wood products, paper, 
metals and other natural product indui- 
tries already are hard pressed just try- 
ing to keep up with the demands of the'lr 
own customers, let alone Irving to take 
over those needs now filled by man- 
made materials. Furthermore, prices of 
natural producti are rising at a much 
faster clip than those of the petrochemi- 
cat industry.** 

• before synthetics appeared c 


Titer of the institute, 
in oil pricei or tai 

Federal Government figures Indicate 

Glauz, who is with the Chemical that the price of cardboard containers 

went up 41 per cent last year; tin and 

aluminum i ans in t reased by 37 per cent, 

glass containers by 16 per cent). 

The Fnenda of the tarth, a 27.000- 
member national conservation group 
based in Washington, dispute at least 
some of Mr. Peiry's premise. 

"We could increase the utilization of 
our trees" said ClJU Green a rsvent 

that any 

would have much wider ramificat 
for consumers than merely higher costs 
for gasoline and heating fuels. 

• Most people don't realize how tied up 
we are with the chemical industry," he 
said. 'The plastic the carrots art 
wrapped in. the plasiic coating on milk 

Doujlaa Sauber, Eleanor Rainey are "Care-jivera" for Amy Tomlinton, I months; Ray Brabhan. 2. Kevm Boyer. |; Tayon Wynder 


Day Care Center That Tries to Be Like a FamU 


the continuing dissolution of 
the family from extended to 
nuclear — with even that 1 
atom frequently split into the 
amaller, single-parent umi — 
most people still cling to the 
belief that the family is the 
best child-rearing institution 
we ha\ e. That belief per- 
vades an unusual day care 
center here. 

The Learning Center of the 
Medical College of Pennsyl- 
vania has three day care 
classes, each set up to resem- 
ble a family — not to replace 
it but to supply a kind of nur- 

classes ha* an age range that 
most other day care centers 
would not begin to consider. 
even though children natural- 
tv grow up in families with 
aiblings of widely different 
ages Each class at this cen- 
ter contains two infants, two 
children who are from I to 2 
yean old and six who are 
from 3 to 4 years old. And 
each class is headed by a 
man and a woman 

It's hard to know just 
what effect that latter fact 
has on the children. Marlene 
Weinstein. who directs the 
center, says that the children 
"don't »eem to act anv differ- 
ently when the care-giver i* a 

especially from the point of 
view ol a child who crimes 
from a fatherless home or 
one in which the parents 
have little ume for rum (half 
the children are from the 
low-income community 

around the vihool and half 
are from the middle -class 
backgrounds of students at 
the medical college ) 

Miss Weinstein said the 
range in the clas*e, srfsjssj the 
children the sense that "they 
were babies om e. they're not 
now and will tv like Lhe old- 
er children somrds'- Mir 
said it also allow-* the chil- 
dren to form groups accord- 
ing to their desetopmen'al 

love there is occasional sib- 
ling rivalry, which develops 
e\en among children who 
aren't related, tt happens, for 
instance, when a new infant 
is brought into a group, and 
another child, onor the 
youngest, bow must move up 
the Udder a bit 

There's some hitting r >,n f 
on and some adjusting to do. 
Mus U>etnstnn said, "just 
as when a child gets a rse«- 
brother or sister " The most 
intense attention is necessar- 
ily gisen to the infants, 
some of whom arme at the 
center when tries are only a 
few weeks old One adult is 
designated at primary carr- 

tbe floor, of cnsj'»<- fa .' 
the thought that i 
One problem i 
peeled nrcer dM I 
They thought it would be 
essary to orgarw r* 
when children could 
only wtt others ' 
age It turns out that a 
the youngsters war- 
that. they « 

The teachers sav tSe\ 
not think of the 
substitute parr- • r> 
Sauber. a 2* vear-old for 
<arpenter. hax<- 
ptsc-hology sluJeni w*s I 
on that point 

He **' sp'assled Out ,»n 

ABOVE: An article about T.L.C. appeared in The New York Times on Friday, 
January 24, 1975. 

LEFT: Susan Aronson, M.D., the P.G.S. physician and co-founder of T.L.C. reviews a 
child's record in "The Muscle Room", basement gross-motor play area. 

Sponsored by MCP departments of Pediatrics and Preventive 
Medicine and funded by donations and government matching funds, 
T.L.C. is one of the most forward-looking aspects of the MCP 
community. The children there are from the immediate neighbor- 
hood as well as the community of MCP students and employees; 
they range in age from 4 weeks to 4 years. The racial, economic and 
life-style mix has been exciting for everyone involved. Activities 
include field trips, reading, playing, routine health care, parent and 
staff education sessions. The 40 children are in "units" of mixed 
ages and sex, each with a man and woman child-care-giver. TLC also 
has a full-time "head teacher, 11 director, social-worker, pediatric 
nurse practitioner and physician team, and many part-time services. 


20 years ago the medical students (above) observed radiology 
and fluoroscopy with lead aprons just as we do today. At right 
Seniors Joye and Levy study films in the residents' room; Senior 
Gail Kaufman discusses abdominal films on the rotating viewbox 
and Juniors make afternoon rounds on their patients, seeing the 
U.G.I, done that morning. 

JXabtologtc anb ; 

The mysteries of electromagnetic radiation excited the world 
as W.M.C. approached her 50th birthday. In 1895 Roentgen had 
discovered x-rays; in 1896 Becquerel described the concepts of 
ray emission and fluorescence; and in 1898 Madame and Pierre 
Curie discovered radium as they were studying pitchblende to 
find out why it gave off 4 times more "Becquerel rays" than 
could be accounted for by its uranium content. With her genius 
Madame went on to obtain the free element by 1910. By 1933, 
Marie's daughter Irene Joliot was using cyclotron-accelerated 
alpha particles (Rutherford, 1899) to bombard nuclei, and she 
discovered that these nuclear transmutants could themselves be 
radioactive . . . the beginning of the radioisotope era! 

The medical world quickly grasped these concepts to assist 
with anatomic correlations. Becquerel's photographic plates bore 
beautiful images of his hands in the uranium salts. Soon fluoro- 
scopy was possible, then pneumoencephalography (1918), myelo- 
graphy (1922), and angiography (1927). Diagnostic radiology 
grew quickly, and by the mid-1 950's W.M.C. was participating in 
the growth. A W.M.C. alumna of 1940, Lucy Frank Squire, has 
written a book used by countless students of radiology across the 

One spin-off of the terrifying scientific atomic advances of 
World War II was the addition of radioisotopes to the physician's 
armamentarium. These were initially used only for thyroid, bone 
and blood volume studies. Now the technique for labelling is 
applicable to more than just the original heavy metals and differ- 

The equipment at M.C.P. in 1955 (left) 
probably delivered more radiation to the 
patient and technician than the more 
shielded equipment of today. Note the 
protective goggles and gloves and the 
lack of the A.E.C. monitoring tags now 

Dr. Eva Fox, chairman of radiology, 
leads a department deemed by most stu- 
dents as excellent-educationally, tech- 
nically, and in terms of "keeping up". 
Under her guidance countless changes 
have been instituted. BELOW, we see her 
in her 1950 role as hospital medical di- 
rector with former director Dr. Ellen 


Nuclear Jflebicme 

it-sized molecules may be tagged to yield information specific 
) organ functions. For example, some substances are specific for 
omerular filtration, some for tubular secretion or reabsorption, 
>me for liver reticuloendothelial activity and some for hepatocel- 
lar function. The final sophistication, seen at M.C.P. since 1971, 
is been the addition of flow and time studies, with computer 

Finally, radiotherapy (in use since the 1950's) has also prog- 
ssed from its original "skin-deep" 5 mm. orthovoltage days. 
ow megavoltage sources, accelerated nuclear particles and com- 
iterized rotational fields provide deeper, more specific therapy 
ith fewer side-effects. 

And-proudly- we can say M.C.P. has kept up with all of this 
id more. 

S. C. Benes 

An outstanding feature of the radiology department is the dedica- 
tion to teaching seen at both the faculty and resident levels. Special 
studies and arteriography are Dr. George Popky's forte; he has even 
devised closed-circuit TV methods of teaching them. Residents Barb 
Schlager and Maria Ross are also creative teachers. 

Combining the genius of Physicist Dr. George (below, far left) and that of Dr. 
Janet Parker (below, right) has produced a busy, successful, and research- 
oriented joint division of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine. In terms of 
instrumental sophistication alone, this is probably one of the most advanced 
areas of M.C.P. The oft-feared computer has become one of their most 
powerful medical tools, assisting them with designing personalized and rotat- 
ing portals for radiotherapy as well as analyzing more functional spatial-den- 
sity-time change relationships for the originally anatomic nuclear scans. 


&cute Care 


This tiny 1875 handbook described 
treatments for asphyxiation from 
"sulphureted hydrogen in privies," 
poisonings (stomach-pump and mus- 
tard emetics), drownings (Sylvester's 
Ready Method), and many other 

A system of emergency health care and transportation 
(including ambulances) began in warfare. Primitive two- 
wheeled carts first carried victims to doctors, medics or 
nurses in field-hospitals. As more information was accrued 
physicians educated lay persons at home in the general 
concepts of "first aid"; this form of care was not intended 
to be definitive but only to temporize while either transpor- 
tation to or the arrival of more sophisticated help occurred. 
By 1915 U.S. "ambulances" were modified milk carts or 
hearses (see above) lighted inside by oil lamps. This emer- 
gency call victim was accompanied to the Barton Dispen- 
sary of W.M.C. on Washington Avenue by a nurse (left) and 
woman intern (right with the hat) around 1915. 

1 to r: Drs. Miriam Bell, Marcia Smith, and Mary Brown (c. 
1920) portray the female "contract surgeons" who in WWI 
provided emergency care on the battlefields. 


Acute care residents like Gretchen and Harvey 
Silverman, Bill Garrett, and Jeff Sullivan 
(above) actively participate in cardiopulmonary 
resuscitation efforts. Dr. Wagner is seen (lower 
right) teaching casting techniques. 

Resident Cathy McCoy was on the front page for 
her role in saving one of our numerous police- 
man casualties. 


^ I'li 

The Emergency Care program at MCP 
has received much publicity. It was de- 
scribed in The New Physician as a first in the 
new kind of residency program geared toward 
excellence in primary care. The nationwide 
emergency services advances of the late 1960's 
brought the cardiac technology and equipment 
of the medical centers to the "out-house" com- 
ponent of the system - the ambulance vehicles. 
With this greater lay-worker sophistication it is es- 
sential to have physicians whose main roles are to 
coordinate the in and out-patient emergency services. 
Dr. Wagner has tailored our program to prepare physi- 
cians for that role. The residents spend time in the 
Emergency Room, cardiology, the Intensive Care Unit, 
Pediatrics, Orthopedics, Surgery, the Wills Eye Emergency 
Room, etc. and are encouraged to take "chief resident" 
responsibilities for organizational experience. Now similar 
programs are appearing across the U.S.A. 



Robert Riggs (American) 
Psychopathic Ward, 1945 

The word Psychiatry is from the Greek psyche (mind) and iatreia 
(healing). There is a tale in Greek mythology about Psyche, a 
beautiful maiden who represented the personification of the human 
soul. Because of her beauty the goddess Venus was jealous and sent 
Cupid (Eros, or love) to make Psyche fall in love with an ugly 
mortal. Instead, Cupid fell in love with Psyche, she was able to 
accomplish the super human tasks enforced by Venus, and Cupid 
and Psyche became immortal and dwelt in heaven together. 

The history of psychiatry is not so beautiful; it is filled with 
centuries of drama, passions, fanatic prejudice and fear and cruel 
prosecutions. People suffering from mental illness were not recog- 
nized as sick people but were feared and accused of associations 
with devils and demons. They were persecuted without mercy or 
burned at the stake as recently as the 1700's. At that time a French 
man painted "Le Medecin Guarillant Phantafie" depicting the physi- 
cian's role in purging all fantasies by administering boiling oral 
cathartics, performing trephination or sliding a "patient" head-first 
into a heated oven to force out the memories and follies in the heat. 
A 1798 painting by George M. Woodward depicted a physician as 

less a hero but rather a prostitute to his drinking friends, a skeleton 
(or death) and the devil (insanity). 

Even in the United States the mentally ill were degraded. In the 
1700's we burned and dunked our witches. Later we were more 
"sophisticated" and merely locked them up in prison-like inhu- 
man conditions. It is interesting to note that by 1852 in Philadel- 
phia the mental asylum patients were still such lowly second-class 
non-citizens that most male physicians would not waste their time 
treating them. In that year the first woman M.D.'s from our college 
unsuccessfully sought internships in the male-predominated teaching 
hospitals and were counselled to "attend the mentally ill if you 
desire experience". This was one of the reasons why several of the 
early woman M.D.'s did postgraduate work in Europe and why a 
hospital was added next to our own shcool in the 1860's. 

It was not until 1893 when Joseph Breuer and Sigmund Freud 
observed that a forgotten or repressed emotional experience could 
cause mental illness that the mentally ill became dignified as "sick 
persons". Modern psychiatry had begun. 

S. Benes 


Drs. Snow; Madow, Baum, Snow and 
Kramer; Leaff and O'Brien; Baum lec- 
turing; Wenger; 1949 student studying 
neuroanatomical relations; Dr. Feld- 
man; Dr. Bulette; and outdoor Psy- 
chiatry Conference in the 1960's. 


Dr. Pat Bell and her patient in the halls of the V.A. Hospital; Drs. Myerson 
and Boland; Dr. Williams in Radiology. 

Mrs. and President Slater; Mrs. Bruger, Chairman of Board; Dr. Segal, former President; Drs. Ries, Shemonsky, Jordan, Cranston. 

Associate Dean Dr. Hartman; Assistant Dr. Beasley; Office for Student Affairs Marlene and Lorna. 

W$t $otoers 


Dr. Lambert, Medical Director; Mrs. Loser, Registrar; Dr. Weinberg, Associate Dean. 
Anne Insinger, Director Public Relations; Dr. Nina Woodside, Director C.W.I.M.; Mr. Biddle, Financial Aid; Page Operator! 






During intermission refreshments were served in the lobby of the 
Pickett School Auditorium on Chelten Avenue. The Junior tribute to Dr. 
Lee Winston and faculty skit by Dr. Dubin were yet to come, while the 
second place sophomore parodies of Drs. Mansukhani and bubbly Bartuska 
were fresh in our minds. 


Skit Nitcs past appear to have been as tongue-in-cheek as ours 
have been. Twenty years ago Juniors felt they were treated too 
much like school children and not allowed to be individuals. That 
year Seniors must not have attended CPC's too regularly, either! 

Traditionally first-place. Seniors of 1975 
commented on the disjointed and sometimes 
conflicting consultant roundsmanship approach 
to the patient, on the various extremes neces- 
sary to "Get It If You Really Want It", on the 
reasons why many of our women classmates 
waited til they were older to enter medicine, on 
the influx of American foreign medical students 
into our class "team", and on the need "To 
have Friends" to make it through medical 
school and life. 



WMC IN THE NEWS: 1967 - Philadelphia Inquirer; 1964 - The Sunday Bulletin; 1969 - International 
Surgery Bulletin; 1962 - The New York Times; 1963 - Boston Herald; 1967 - National Business 
Woman; 1948 - Saturday Evening Post; 1967 - Time; 1950 - Independent Woman; 1953 - New York 
Herald Tribune; 1953 - Charm Magazine; 1928 - The Saturday Evening Post; 1967 - Good Housekeep- 
ing; 1950 - The Philadelphia Inquirer. 

Medical College 



» m 

[ft ___ • 

Today the college 
has many faces . . . 


SA 1 77? 



Preparation for the U.S. 
Bicentennial celebration . . . 
crew teams on the Schuylkill 
continue to be popular while 
hockey grows in popularity 
and the Flyers win a second 
Stanley cup . . . 

i 7 

. . . one president resigns because of govern- pjj,$ ^V&' ~\ 
mental scandals .. . his successor takes over the 'Q&* _-***V)V 

battles against inflation, unemployment, crime 
and dwindling oil supplies . . . people wait in 
mile-long lines to get gasoline on their assigned 
days . . . 



. . . South Viet Nam collapses and there is new dissention on the 
homefront about whether to accept Vietnamese refugees . . . MCP's 
Learning Center is portrayed in a New York Times article . . . and 
Medicine enters a new era of paranoia about lawsuits and expensive 
defensive medicine; housestaffs strike over long hours; and practicing 
physicians stage strikes and slow-downs protesting malpractice in- 
surance premium increases as great as 700Tf in one year. 

,»'*y :**. 

Remember . . . 
Dr. Hartman getting the Golden Apple 
and telling us at orientation that "not 
ALL of your memories of these four 
years will be unhappy" and giving us 
the class profile . . . former teachers, 
engineers, nurses, nuns, administrators, pharmacists, house- 
wives, students, Ph.D.s, researchers, physical therapists, belly 
dancers . . . bone boxes ... Dr. Beasley assuring us that more 
men had fainted in gross lab than women and inviting us to the 
memorial service . . . when more than half the class failed the 
first biochem exam ... Dr. Barnes and the quilt ... Dr. 
Masoro falling into the wastebasket ... Dr. Goldman and 
membrane potentials ... Dr. Pennock explaining EKG's and 
getting the Rookie Award . . . chi square tests ... Dr. Snow 
. . . Fred as Rhea . . . Frank telling "The Tale of Polypep- 
tide" . . . tuition was S2300 . . . 

Gross Anatomy 










Preventive Medicine 

Clinical Electives 

Basic Science Electives 

Tuition increased to $2,750 . . . standing room only for all lectures on the 
old second floor of the College Building . . . cultures, microscopes, rabbits, 
and interferon . . . Headstart II . . . public health projects and visits . . . hall- 
way coffee pot amidst the specimens . . . quizzes, quizzes, quizzes . . . Homo- 
genus competing with Dr. Dub in for clever quips . . . studying in the old 
library . . . autopsies . . . Pharmacology's reign of terror and televised "experi- 
ments" . . . dog labs . . . interviewing patients for the first time in very bright 
white coats . . . examining one another first . . . E.P.P.I. . . . Kathy Handal 
and others helping to organize the last Talent Nite and Art Show ... the 
new Auditorium . . . painting cubbies for the new Learning Center . . . Skit 
Night and turbans with Mansukhani and incense . . . Golden Apple to Dr. 
Norma Vincent as she resigns . . . curriculum change controversies and our 
first unanimous vote (no) . . . the Junior Lottery . . . Part One of the National 
Boards . . . anxiety and frustration . . . sitting . . . 

Sophomore Year 










-= %t 

Tuition passes $3,000 ... 21 transfer students join 
our class from American 2-year, foreign, and osteo- 
pathic medical schools . . . our class becomes one- 
third male . . . only one-half day of lectures per week 
. . . the V.A.H. . . . introducing ourselves as "doctor" 
with ease . . . attending rounds, starting IV's and 
drawing blood, night call, EKG's, work-ups, present- 
ing and following "our patients" to Dr. Kaye and 
tutors . . . learning to scrub, to suture, to deliver 
babies . . . problem-oriented records in clinic . . . oral 
exams . . . National Boards Part 
II . . . Skit Night includes a fac- 
ulty-housestaff skit ... a Golden 
Apple to Dr. Finnegan . . . 


Medicine 9 weeks 
Surgery 9 weeks 
Ob/Gyn 6 weeks 
Pediatrics 6 weeks 
Psychiatry 6 weeks 
Lectures in all 
Medical and Surgical 
and in Nuclear Medicine 

Match Day 

The end of the world ... the begin- 
ning of a new life. Tension, anxiety and 
excitement are reflected in the faces of 
this year's Seniors as they receive the 
computer read -outs from Dr. Hartman de- 
termining whether they will be residents 
in one of their top choice programs. 

Orthopedics and 
dreams come true for 
Kathy McHale. 

— '••* 

The Pre-Prohibition celebration of students in class of 1898 
(Rachel Robbins), 1900 (Edith Cadwallader) and 1899 
(Eloise Meek) was not too different from ours at Pete's Cafe. 

Joe Romano opens his envelope and shares the news of his Internal Medicine 
residency while Maureen Lynch is ecstatic about going to Boston Children's. 





good food, good 
drink, good 
music & dancing, 
good friends . . . 




Oh you've got to have friends 
The feeling's oh so strong 
You've got to have friends 
To make that day last long . . . 

Had some friends but they're gone . . 
Something came and took them away 
And from the dusk til the dawn 
here's where I will stay. 

Standing at the end of the road, boys 
Waiting for my new friends to come . 
I don't care if I'm hungry or cold 
I gotta get me some. 

Cause you've got to have friends . . . 

... A welcome from 
President Malisoff . . . 
Achievement Awards to 
Drs. Gowing and Bar- 
tuska ... Dr. Dub in 
and a poem . . . "selling 
our charms" . . . the 
first event of gradua- 
tion for the Class of 


President Slater and Associate Dean Bartuska preside . . . 
awards in Leadership, Internal Medicine, Obstetrics and 
Gynecology, Endocrinology, Wisdom in Leadership, Sur- 
gery, Outstanding Contribution to the School, General Ex- 
cellence, Radiology, Pediatrics, and Outstanding Senior 
Year Achievement . . . 






* £ jS^^t^p^ 


At this time, may I pledge myself to put into 
practice that for which I have been trained . . . the 
maintenance and protection of life. May I never be 
motivated by other than concern for the health of my 
patient and to this end, may I always strive to in- 
crease my knowledge and technical skills. 

However, may I also be wary of my own humanity 
and strive to practice my profession with honesty and 
dignity. May my own shortcomings not be reflected 
in the care or interest I take in my patients and may 
bias and frustration not be a part of our relationship. 
In essence, may all patients regardless of race, poli- 
tics, or social standing be regarded by me as a fellow 
brother in pain, for whom I will do as much as my 
training and knowledge allows. 

Above all, may I do no harm. 


Commencement 1975 

MAY 24, 1975 

. . . happy, proud families . . . Elisabeth Kubler- 
Ross speaking about the dying patient and how each 
of us can contribute in our lifetime . . . sweltering 
heat and long robes . . . messages from deans and 
presidents . . . faculty smiles . . . degrees and honors 
to alumnae, faculty, graduate and medical program 
graduates . . . pictures . . . Pomp and Circumstance . . . 
a moment of silence ... an awe-inspiring OATH and 
new responsibility ... a last time to be with some of 
our friends . . . 

| J " 1 1 

WestPittston, Pa. 

Janet A. Amico, M.D. 

College Misericordia, B.S. 

Presbyterian-University Hospital 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Internal Medicine 

Frank J. Barch, M.D. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Swarthmore College, B.A. 


Hospital of The Medical College 
of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Internal Medicine 

Phoenix, Ariz. 

Patricia A. Bell, M.D. 

Arizona State University, B.S. 
Universidad Autonoma de 
Guadalajara Escuela de 

University of California, Davis 


Susan Carleton Benes, M.D. 

Chagrin Falls, Ohio 

University of Michigan, B.S. 

Lankenau Hospital 

University of Keele, 

(Medical Internship) 

Staffordshire, England 

Will's Eye Hospital 


Teaching Certificate 

(Ophthalmology Residency) 

[•inland, Pa. 

Priscilla J. Benner, M.D. 

Southern Connecticut State College Allentown Hospital, Allentown, Pa. 

Internal Medicine 


Philadelphia, Pa. 

Jane Borish, M.D. 

Lock Haven State College, B.A. 
North Carolina State University 


St. Luke's Hospital, 
Bethlehem, Pa. 
Flexible Medical 




Frederic Brownstein, M.D. 

Philadelphia, Pa. Temple University, A. B. 

New York University Graduate 
School, M.S. 10g 

Wesson Women's Hospital, 
Springfield, Ma. 

C. Angela Taylor Cesar, M.D. 

Norristown, Pa. 


England, L.D.S.R.C.S. 
RoyaJ Dental Hospital 
School of Dental Surgery of 
the University of London, B.D.S. 

Case Western Reserve University 


Hospitals, Cleveland, Ohio 


Valley Stream, N.Y. 

Edward M. Cohn, M.D. 

City College of C.U.N.Y., B.S. 

Lankenau Hospital, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Internal Medicine 



K * H! 



, - ^ 


. j^k W. _^fl 

L *v^3 


'Jm \ Jf 




, 4 


^ --M 

Francis W. Conn, M.D. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Loyola College, A.B. 
University of Pittsburgh 
Graduate School, Ph.D. 

Walter Reed Army Medical Center, 

Washington, D.C. 


Philadelphia, Pa. 

Donna J. Cotzen, M.D 

Temple University, A.B. 

Lankenau Hospital, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
1 1 2 Internal Medicine 

Russell D. Cranston, M.D. 

Walton, N.Y. 

Albany College of Pharmacy, B.S. 


Geisinger Medical Center. 
Danville. Pa., Internal Medicine 
Detroit Ophthalmology 

Shelley A. Cross, M.D. 

Pittsfield, Mass. 

Wellesley College, B.S. 


Montreal General Hospital, 

Montreal, Quebec, 


Internal Medicine 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Stephen J. DeArmond, M.D. 


University of Utah, B.S. 
University of Michigan, M.S. 
The Medical College of 
Pennsylvania, Ph.D. 

Stanford University Affiliated 


Stanford, Calif. 



Sudbury, Mass. 

Leigh Grossman Donowitz, M.D. 

Brandeis University, A.B. 
The Medical College of 
Pennsylvania Graduate 
School, M.S. 


University of Virginia Hospital, 
Charlottesville, Va. 

Paul J. Donrovich, M.D. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Pennsylvania State 
University, B.S. 


Bryn Mawr Hospital, 
Bryn Mawr, Pa. 
Family Practice 

Scranton, Pa. 

Elizabeth H. Edmunds, M.D. 

College Misericordia, B.S. 
University of Scranton Graduate 
School, M.S. 


Good Samaritan Hospital, 
Dayton, Ohio 
Family Practice 

Peter M. Gaffney, M.D. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Boston University 


Kaiser Foundation Hospitals, 
Sacramento, Calif. 

Ligonier, Pa. 

John J.Gallo, M.D. 

Grove City College, B.S. 

University of California, Davis 
Affiliated Hospitals 
1 20 Davis, Calif. 

Thomas A. Giangrasso, M.D. 

Trenton, N.J. 

University of Pennsylvania, B.A. 
Facolta di Medicina e Chirurga 
121 delTUniversitadi 

Hospital of the Medical College 
of Pennsylvania 

Lorraine M. Giordano, M.D. 

Jamaica, N.Y. 

Queens College of C.U.N.Y., B.S. 

Hospital of The Medical College 
of Pennsylvania 
1 22 Emergency Medicine 


Philadelphia, Pa. 


Pinkus Goldberg, M.D. 

Temple University, A.B. 
College of Osteopathic Medicine 
and Surgery, Des Moines, 

Creighton University Affiliated 
Hospitals, Omaha, 
Internal Medicine 

Shirley Alpern Greene, M.D. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Temple University, A.B. 

Philadelphia General Hospital, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
124 Internal Medicine 

Judith B. Greenstone, M.D. 

Huntington Station, N.Y. Vassar College, A.B. 


Wilmington Medical Center, 
Wilmington, Delaware 

Kathleen A. Handal, M.D. 

Brooklyn, N.Y. 

St. Peter's College, B.S. 

Hospital of The Medical College 
of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
126 Emergency Medicine 

Jessica Lois Harvey, M.D. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Brooklyn College, B.S. 
C.U.N.Y. Graduate School 


Presbyterian-University Hospital, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Internal Medicine 

Therese F. Herford, M.D. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Ohio State University, B.S. 

The Ohio State University 
Hospital, Columbus, Ohio 
128 Obstetrics-Gynecology 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Christina Lee Herring, M.D. 

Oberlin College, A.B. 

Hospital of The Medical College 
of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Cedar Grove, N.J. 

Susan Hilton, M.D. 

University of Pennsylvania, B.A. 

Montefiore Hospital and Medical 
Center, New York, 
130 N.Y. 

Internal Medicine 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Janaleigh Hoffman, M.D. 

San Francisco State College 


Highland General Hospital, 

Oakland .Calif. 


G. Lee-Wen Huang, M.D. 

Salt Lake City, Utah 

University of Utah, B.S., M.S. 

Kansas City General Hospital and 
Medical Center, 
1 32 Kansas City, Kansas 
Internal Medicine 

Minot, North Dakota 

Michael P. Hurly, M.D. 

St. John's University, B.A. 
University of North Dakota, 
133 B.S. Medicine 

University of Kansas Medical 
Center, Kansas City, 

Nancy Ree Whiteside Joye, M.D. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

University of California, 
Berkeley, A.B. 
University of California, 
Davis, M.A. 

Sacramento Medical Center, 
University of 
134 California at Davis 
Flexible (Internship) 
Family Practice (Residency) 

Halesite, N.Y. 

Gail H. Kaufman, M.D. 

Brandeis University, A.B. 


Jewish Hospital, Cincinnati. Ohio 
Internal Medicine 

North Woodmere, N.Y. 

Jeffrey H. Kerner, M.D. 

Cornell University, B.S. 
Universidad Autonoma de 
Guadalajara Escuela de 

Lenox Hill Hospital, 
New York, N.Y. 
136 Orthopedics 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Nancy L. Kerr, M.D. 

Carleton College, B. A. 


University of New Mexico 
Affiliated Hospitals, 
Albuquerque, New Mexico 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Barbara L. Klein, M.D. 

University of Pennsylvania, B.A. 


Bryn Mawr Hospital, 
Bryn Mawr, Pa. 
Internal Medicine 

AUentown, Pa. 

Constance Dougherty Kohn, M.D. 

Skidmore College, B.S. 

Hospital of The Medical College 
of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Emergency Medicine 

Michele Saunders Koppelman, M.D. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

University of Pennsylvania, B.A. 

Hospital of The Medical College 
of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Internal Medicine 


Rosann LaBrunda Schwartz, M.D. 

New York, New York 

Upsala College, B.S. 

New York Medical College 
Metropolitan Hospital Center 
New York, N.Y. 
Internal Medicine 



- ' 

Donna Testa Laws, M.D. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Indiana University of 
Pennsylvania, B.S. 

Albert Einstein Medical Center, 
142 Philadelphia, Pa. 

Joseph B. Levin, M.D. 

Melrose Park, Pa. 


Temple University, A.B. 
Universidad Autonoma de 
Guadalajara Escuela de 

Hospital of The Medical College 
of Pennsylvania 
Internal Medicine 

Fair Lawn, N.J. 

Mark A. Levy, M.D. 

University of Maryland, B.S. 
Universidad Autonoma de 
Guadalajara Escuela de 144 


Fitzgerald Mercy Division 
Hospital, Darby, Pa. 
Psychiatry - Medicine 

Fredrick S. Lieberman, M.D. 

Huntingdon Valley, Pa. 

Pennsylvania State 
University, B.S. 


Albert Einstein Medical Center. 

Philadelphia. Pa. 


John R. Lindermuth, M.D. 

Harrisburg, Pa. 

Drexel University, B.S. 
University of Iowa Graduate 
School, M.B.A. 
Universidad Autonoma de 
Guadalajara Escuela de 

Hospital of The Medical College 
of Pennsylvania 


Laura C. Lippman, M.D. 

Seattle, Washington 

Bryn Mawr College, B.S. 


Group Health Medical Center, 
Seattle, Washington 
Family Practice 

Jersey City, N.J. 

Maureen M. Lynch, M.D. 

Caldwell College for Women, B.A. 
New York University Graduate 
School, M.S. 148 

Children's Hospital Medical 
Center, Harvard University, 
Boston, Mass. 

Francine L. Marcus, M.D. 

Stony Brook, N.Y. 

Vassar College, A.B. 


Institute of the Pennsylvania 
Hospital. Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mary-Blair Matejczyk, M.D 

Cambridge Springs, Pa. Allegheny College, B.S. 


Cleveland Clinic Hospital, 
Cleveland, Ohio 

Pittsfield, Mass. 

Margo Ann McGowan, M.D. 

University of Massachusetts, B.S. 


Cleveland Clinic Hospital, 
Cleveland, Ohio 
Rotating (Internship) 

Kathleen McHale, M.D. 

Reading, Pa. 

Villanova University, B.S. 


Georgetown University Hospital, 

Washington, D.C. 


Sherman Oaks, Calif. 


Victoria Millet, M.D. 

University of California. 
Los Angeles. B.A. 
University of Southern Calif. 
Graduate School, M.S. 

University of California. 
San Diego Hospital, 
San Diego. Calif. 


Madeline Simon Mitchell, M.D. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

College of William & Mary, 

of Pa. Hospital 
. r . Philadelphia, Pa. 
Internal Medicine 


Linda Morgan, M.D. 

Hialeah, Florida 

Mercer University. B.S. 


William Shands Hospital, 
Gainesville, Florida 
Obstetrics-Gy necrology 

Margot B. Morse-Cseley, M.D. 

Saratoga Springs, N.Y. 

The American College 
in Paris, A. A. 
Skidmore College, B.A. 


Sunnybrook Medical Center, 
Toronto, Ontario, Canada 
Internal Medicine 

Barbara T. Murphy, M.D. 

State College, Pa. 

Ohio State University, B.S. 


Geisinger Medical Center, 
Danville, Pa. 

Internal Medicine 

Judith Heyer Murphy, M.D. 

Wellesley Hills, Mass. 

Smith College, A.B. 


Boston City Hospital, 
Boston, Mass. 
Internal Medicine 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Phyllis G. Murr, M.D. 

Boston University, A.B. 


Reading Hospital, Reading, Pa. 
Family Practice 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mary Slotsky Muscato, M.D. 

University of Pennsylvania, B.A. 


University of Missouri Medical 
Center, Columbia, Mo. 
Internal Medicine 

Barbara Garrett Nelson, M.D. 

Glen Ellyn, III. 

Wellesley College, B.A. 


University of Minnesota 
Hospitals. Minneapolis. Minn. 

Richmond Hill, N.Y. 

John M. Pepe, M.D. 

St. Francis College, B.S. 
Facolta di Medicina e Chirurga 
dell' Universita di 


Coney Island Hospital, 
Brooklyn, N.Y. 
Internal Medicine 

Deborah A. Perlstein, M.D. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Carnegie-Mellon University, B.A. 


Hahnemann Medical College and 
Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Gerald R. Phelan, M.D. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

La Salle College, B.A. 


Abington Memorial Hospital, 
Abington, Pa. 
Internal Medicine 

Mercer. Pa. 

George A. Poporad, M.D. 


Denison University, B.A. 
Universidad Autonoma de 
Guadalajara Escuela de 

Case Western Reserve 
Affiliated Hospitals 
Cleveland, Ohio 
Anesthesiology (Residency) 

Asta Siebmanns Potter, M.D. 

Philadelphia, Pa. University of California, 

Los Angeles, B.A. 

Bridgeport Hospital, 
Bridgeport, Conn. 
Internal Medicine 


Jackson Heights, N.Y. 


David M. Reingold, M.D. 

Queens College of C.U.N.Y., B.A. 
The Faculty of Medicine and 
Pharmacy of the Free 
University of Brussels 

Miriam Hospital. 
Providence, Rhode Island 
Internal Medicine 

Michael B. Roach, M.D. 

Columbus, Ohio 

University of Notre Dame, B.A. 
Universidad Autonoma 
de Guadalajara Escuela 
de Medicina 

Hospital of The Medical College 
of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 



Rita Jones Robinson, M.D. 

Camden, S. C. 

Voorhees College, B.S. 

Akron City Hospital. Akron. Ohio 
Internal Medicine 


Elizabeth D. Rock, M.D. 

Myersdale, Pa. 

University of Pittsburgh, B.S. 

Temple University Hospital, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Internal Medicine 


Joseph M. Romano, M.D. 

Roseta, Pa. 

St. Joseph's College. li.S. 
Facultad de Medieina 
de la Universidad de 

Allentown Hospital, Allentown. Pa. 
Internal Medicine 

John N. Roseberg, M.D. 

Fargo, North Dakota 

North Dakota State University 
of Agriculture and 
Applied Science, B.A. 
University of North Dakota, 
B.S., Medicine 

University of Iowa Hospitals, 
Iowa City, Iowa 
Family Practice 


Frances L. Rosenblum, M.D. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

University of Delaware, B.A. 

Children's Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pa. 


Deborah Schnall, M.D. 

Bronx, N. Y. 

Simmons College, B.S. 


University of New Mexico 
Affiliated Hospitals, 
Albuquerque, New Mexico 


Marvin F. Shienbaum, M.D. 

Des Moines, Iowa 

Temple University, A.B. 
College of Osteopathic Medicine 
and Surgery, Des Moines 

Maricopa County General Hospital, 

Phoenix, Arizona 



Mary Anne Simmonds, M.D. 

New Cumberland, Pa. 

Smith College, A.B. 

Geisinger Medical Center 
Hospital, Danville, Pa. 
Internal Medicine 


Irina Skokandic, M.D. 

Los Angeles, Calif. University of Southern California. 

Los Angeles, 
D. Pharm. 

University of Hawaii 
1 ?7 School of Medicine 

University of Southern 
California Medical Center. 
Los Angeles, Los Angeles, Calif. 
Internal Medicine 

Michael H. Sperling, M.D. 

North Plainfield, N. J. 

University of North Carolina, B.S. 
Universidad Autonoma de 
Guadalajara Escuela de Medicina 
Internal Medicine 

Hospital of The Medical College 
of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Internal Medicine 

Mark S. Sperry, M.D. 

Rugby, North Dakota 

Minot State College, B.S.- 
University of North Dakota, 
B.S., Medicine 


Ohio State University 
Columbus, Ohio 

Cheryl A. Stewart, M.D. 

Havertown, Pa. 

Ursinus College, B.S. 

Indiana University Medical Center, 

Indianapolis, Ind. 



Daniel P. Tinman, M.D. 

Cleveland Heights, Ohio 

Case Western Reserve 
University, B.A. 


Hospital of The Medical College 
of Pennsylvania. 
Philadelphia. Pa. 

Frederic M. Tobis, M.D. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Pennsylvania State University, B.S. 

Hospital of The Medical College 
of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Internal Medicine 

\i 1 1. m 

Oak Park, 111. 

Joan A. Traver, M.D. 

Alverno College, B.S. 


McGaw Medical Center of 
Northwestern University Hospital. 

Chicago. 111. 
Internal Medicine 

Thomas B. Walden, M.D. 

Manchester, Conn. 

University of Connecticut, B.A. 
Universidad Autonoma de 
Guadalajara Escuela 
de Medicina 

Hartford Hospital, 
Hartford, Conn. 
Urology (Residency) 


Gloria A. Weinstein, M.D. 

Baldwin, N.Y. 

University of Rochester, B.A. 

Long Island Jewish Hospital 
New Hyde Park, N.Y. 


Philadelphia, Pa. 

Evelyn Levenson Weissman, M.D. 

Brooklyn College, B.S. 
University of Pittsburgh 

Hospital of The Medical College 
of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

186 Sur g er V 

East Norriton, Pa. 

Linda Perlman Wexler, M.D. 

Douglass College, A.B. 

New York University Graduate 

School, M.A. 


Bryn Mawr Hospital, Bryn Mawr. Pa. 
Internal Medicine 




jg l f II 1 

[* ^3 

to c 




■ • 

"'■ «2 



< *> 


"_ y 

Norristown, Pa. 

Elaine Goodale Whitbeck, M.D. 

Smith College, A.B., A.M. 
Stanford University 
Graduate School, Ph.D. 

Hospital of The Medical College 
of Pennsylvania 
Philadelphia, Pa. 


Mary A. Willard, M.D. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Temple University, A.B. 

Monmouth Medical Center 
Long Beach, New Jersey 
Family Practice 


Flushing, N.Y. 

Jerry Williamson, M.D. 

Queens College of C.U.N.Y., B.A. 
Columbia University Dental School 

University of Michigan 
Affiliated Hospitals 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 

Moundsville, W.Va. 


Judity Ann Wolfe, M.D. 

South Texas Junior College, A. A. 
University of Houston, B.S. 
Universidad Autonoma de 
Guadalajara Escuela 
de Medicina 

The Bryn Mawr Hospital 
Bryn Mawr, Pa. 
Internal Medicine 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mary K. Zee, M.D. 

University of Southern 
California, Los Angeles, B.A. 
Tufts University Graduate 192 

School, Ph.D. 

Crozier -Chester Medical Center, 
Chester, Pa. 
Flexible (Internship) 

Marc S. Zimmerman, M.D. 

Philadelphia, Pa. Ursinus College, B.S. 

College of Osteopathic Medicine 
193 and Surgery, Des Moines 

Abington Memorial Hospital, 

Abington, Pa. 


Poetic License Class of 1975 


M is for the manias and depressions of this schooling. 

E is for my Ego that they're usually overrulling. 

D is for the darn depressions of a loused up quiz. 

I is for the Id rewards that 1 sorely miss. 

C is for compulsiveness that got me here this far. 

A is for anxiety that makes me study more. 

L is for the libido this cloistered life removes. 

S is for the superego that this work approves. 

T is for the transference that helps me here survive. 

U is for unconscious drive that's kicking and alive. 

D is for defenses, that I'm always mending. 

E is for the energy, that I'm always spending. 

N is for neuroses that med school's proudly making. 

T is for the thorazine that I'm finally taking. 

Put them all together, they spell a true amazement 

That students here can make it through, without a type of crazement. 

Put it all together, despite this med school's processes. 

We'll all be doctors bye-n-bye, without any psychosises. 

Homo Genus 


The most serious effect on the composition of a 
sophomore class is necrosis, which may be of the 
body as a whole (passing to Junior year) or of 
certain students (not passing). Necrosis is recogniz- 
able by the changes that passed students undergo 
after ceasing Sophomoreship. The earliest change 
seen grossly appears as the white coat. Most inves- 
tigators have, however, also identified ultrastruc- 
tural alterations such as the appearance of stetho- 
scope and percussion hammer. Whether or not de 
novo release of new enzymes in the brain is re- 
sponsible for initiating the studental changes lead- 
ing to juniorship is not settled. 
With no apologies to Baby Anderson, Homo genus 


by Hugh Know Who . . . 
Oh valiant turkey, we owe thee Thanksgiving, 

for through your brave efforts in peace we are living. 
You defended our land in so many wars, 

and now you seek homage at our V.A. doors. 
You come in with complaints of all sorts of diseases 

like one day's constipation and paroxysms of sneezes. 
You are writhing in pain as if in sickle cell crisis, 

when all you have is a bunion and onycholysis. 
And so to all you D.T.'s malingerers, and occasional crocks, 

to you losers, and boozers, and heroin De-tox, 
All we ask is that you prostrate and crawl, 

to the nearest exit so we don't see you bawl, 
'Cause you ain't getting admitted, oh turkey, that's all! 

Mother Loose Rhymes 

What are teachers made of, made of? 

What are teachers made of? 

Some notes and a slide 

A good bit of pride 

And that's what teachers are made of. 

What are med students made of, made of? 

What are med students made of? 

A memory, some knowledge 

A degree from some college 

And that's what med students are made of. 


Polly Peptide gazed somberly at her mirror image. "What an enantiomorph", she exclaimed. "With this globular configuration, I'll never get coupled!" 
Thus catalyzed, young Polly actively transported herself to the local fraction of reduction reactants. There, through a complex series of reactions, involving 
intensive dehydrogenation, and daily rotations of anomeric carbons, Polly finally modified her active sites achieving esterific mutarotation. What a 

As the newly synthesized Polly was trypsin home, she speculated on the primary sequence of events likely to unfold now that she was so symetrical. Being 
thus precipitated, Polly failed to code for a steep electrochemical gradient, and plunged amino-end first into a nucleotide pool. A super-saturated Polly 
emerged from the gel-like matrix, diffused through and through. Observing her state of entropy, she decided to de-oxidize behind a cluster of cytochromes, 
in order to let her elementary particles dehydrate. Removing one residue at a time, she proceeded toward her minimal free energy state. ALAS! Poor young 
Polly was not aware that her entire reduction was being scrutinized by none other than pH - a demented enzyme who was known to be a very base character. 
His ions devoured her ultra-structure passing from her macromolecules to her inner compartment, as he concentrated on her kinetics. 

Hearing a vulgar hypothesis behind her, Polly turned and saw pH approaching with his uncoupling agent extrapolated. She could see at once that he was a 
denatured sort and suspected he was under the influence of a non-competitive inhibitor. "Oh, sir' , Polly pleaded, "Keep away from me, for I am but a young 
protein and still birefringent"; her attempts at repression, however, were to no avail for pH was preceding towards her with maximal velocity, determined to 
break her linkages. Poor Polly was inert against his mechanism of action. Her birefringence soon would be gone forever. 

What a degredation! pH metabolized her in catabolic sequences, rupturing her miniscus, and leaving her a multiply conjugated protein. 

When Polly arrived home that evening, she spontaneously induced an isotopic tracer to isolate pH. The cunning villian, however, had dynamically escaped 
the steady state, rapidly reaching a new equilibrium. 

After missing a Krebs cycle, Polly knew she was to be a precursor. Seeking to avoid detection, she migrated to a closed system where she could undergo 
her transformation in virto. Ultimately, Polly generated a tiny, but aliphatic peptide, whom she passively shunted to the Golgj complex never to see again. 

The moral of this tragic tale is: beware - for a rise in pH can be a titrating experience. 


The 1975 Iatrian Extends Thanks . . . 

Thanks to the following Alumnae 
for contributing historical data: 
*Class of 1886: Jessica Royce Carleton 
*Class of 1901 : Frances Bartlett Tyson 
Class of 1903: Elizabeth Bausman Bricker 
Class of 1904: Rena May Heilman Lindsay 
Class of 1905: Abbie Mabel O'Keefe 
Class of 1906: Esther Marr Weyl 
Class of 1908: Helen Dobson Denniston 
Class of 1917: Frieda Baumann 
Class of 1926: Jean Gowing 
Class of 1944: Selma Kramer 
Class of 1945: Mary Bagan Dratman 
Class of 1947: E. Cooper Bell 
Class of 1973: Darlene J. Goldstein 
Past President: Marion S. Fay 

*Via their children 

Many thanks to these people 

for all their support: 

Dagmara Bastiks — Photography 

Dr. Beasley - Fresh. Yr. Advisor 

Pat Bell - Bookkeeping 

Jim Benes — Photography 

Sue Benes - Editor, Finances, History, Photography 

Priscilla Benner — Mailing, History, Pediatrics 

Jane Borish - Typing 

Judy Cranston - CWIM 

Bunny DeArmond - Mailing 

Steve DeArmond — Editor, Senior Photographer 

Liz Edmunds — Mailing 

Dr. Hartman - General Support 

Fran Houston — Public Relations 

Anne Insinger — Public Relations 

Nancy Joye — History 

Nancy Kerr - Mailing, History, Surgery 

Dr. Klinghoffer — Jr. and Sr. Yr. Advisor 

Dr. Mansukhani - Soph. Yr. Advisor 

Mib Matejczyk — Dark Room 

Kathy McHale — Editor, Senior Ed., Photography 

Steven Nagy 

George Poporad - Photography 

Liz Rock — Data 

Dennis Saver — Photography 

June Shreiner — Plating 

Joan Traver — Bookkeeping 

Evelyn Weissman - History, Obstetrics, Gyne. 

Nina Woodside, M.D. - CWIM 

Three A.M. Soul 

In front of the hospital's midnight face 
A figure shuffles with lonely grace, 
And only a fraction of cloudy light 
Catches the outline of coat of white. 

Away from the corridor's kernel of light, 
Away from the dying, and pain's sore blight, 
The figure slowly fades in the night. 
It seems to have so far to go. 

Face with caring, and not with years, worn 
From comforting dying, and welcoming born; 
A far too short respite in wee of the morn. 
It may be someone you know. 

It heads to an old house where cold lights still burn, 
For there is still more, still much more to learn 
Before back to duty it must return 
And try to battle Disease's mystery; 

And face up to losses and hope for the gain, 
The healing, the helping the sick and the lame, 
The dreading, the fighting the sternal pain, 
It's the lonely, the student M.D. 

Guard her, Oh stars; defend her please 
From nights haunting dangers that lurk behind trees. 
Give her the strong heart to handle the caring 
For the old, the hurting, the child-bearing. 


Maria Alio 

Marilyn Maiorca 

Gail Bobal 

Carole Rutner 

Maria Dennison 

Merrill Silton 

Perry Faithorn 

Diana Trusky 

Dee Hansen 

Gwen Wagner 

Brenda Hoffman 

Mary Wolak 














Joanne Jepson, M.D.C.M. 
Elizabeth Labovitz, M.D. 
Walter Rubin, M.D. 
June Klingh offer, M.D. 


was founded in 1902 by 
William Webster Root and five other 
medical students in Chicago. Medical 
education in the United States at that 
time was inconsistent; the faculties 
and facilities of the 150 schools were 
variously sponsored and uncontrolled. 
Of the nearly 25,000 medical students 
not more than 15% held baccalaureate 
degrees, the remainder only holding 
high school diplomas or broadly in- 
terpreted "equivalents" for matricu- 
lation. The medical school curricula 
were mostly 3-year lecture courses 
with some schools providing occa- 
sional supplemental bedside and lab 

The six founding students organized 
with no faculty consultation to protest 
against "a condition which associated 
the name 'medical student' with row- 
dyism, boorishness, immorality and 
low education ideals," to foster hon- 
esty and formulate higher ideals for 
scholastic achievement. An item about 
the new fraternity in J. A.M. A., Sep- 

CLASS OF 1975: 

JUNIOR: Michele Koppelman 

Barbara Murphy 

SENIOR: Janet Amico 
Frank Barch 
Susan Benes 
Leigh Donowitz 
Mib Matejczyk 
Madeline Mitchell 
Judith Murphy 
Mary Simmonds 
Cheryl Stewart 

FACULTY: Mary Ellen Hartman 

tember 27, 1902, compared it with Phi 
Beta Kappa of undergraduate schools. 
The Society quickly grew in esteem 
and now includes about 100 active 
chapters in the United States and 

"Although scholastic excellence is re- 
quired for membership, the qualities 
of integrity, capacity for leadership, 
compassion and fairness in dealing 
with one's colleagues are reckoned to 
be of equal significance." In addition 
to selecting student members, each 
chapter may elect to membership one 
faculty member annually. The aims of 
the Society are to promote scholarship 
and research, to encourage high stan- 
dards and conduct and to recognize 
high attainment in medical science, 
practice and related fields. 

Our M.C.P. chapter carries out these 
goals by sponsoring a research paper 
contest each spring for students in all 
4 years and by sponsoring a speaker of 
general interest. Winners of the 1975 
contest were Michael Cummings, II 
(The Role of Neurotransmitters in 
Hepatic Coma), Edward Cohen, IV 
(Taurine Changes with Age in the 
Eye), Alan Schindler, II (A Conceptual 
Background for the Application of 
General Systems Theory to Psychi- 
atry), Sue Benes, IV (Effect of Radi- 
ation on the Eye) and Marsha Jack- 
steit, II (Chromaffin Vesicles in Al- 
tered Thyroid States of the Rat). The 
A.O.A. Lecturer was Donald Louria, 
M.D., who spoke on "The Potential 
for Mind Control in American Soci- 
ety," a stimulating philosophical and 
ethical issue in 1975. 

MOTTO: To be worthy to serve the suffering 


GTfje Slumnae Sfestoctatton 

of ttje 

Woman's iWebtcal College 

of $emt£pfoama 

Warmly Welcomes You 

The 123rd Graduating Class 

Into Active Membership 

on the 125th Anniversary of the College 

Best Wishes to Each of You 


W\)t 1975 Satrtan g>tatt ftfjankg tfje blunts . . . 

Rosalie Reardon Albers, M.D. 
Norma R. Allen, M.D. 
Josephine Aronica, M.D. 
Cathy Jean Artis, M.D. 
Lenore Bajda, M.D. 
Grace Baldwin, M.D. 
Jeanne L. Ballard, M.D. 
Anna M. Baranauskas, M.D. 
Delphine Bartosik, M.D. 
Ricarda Baum, M.D. 
Frieda Baumann, M.D. 
M. Louise Benefield, M.D. 
Cynthia J. Berg, M.D. 
Ruth Bleier, M.D. 
LeatriceG. Berefsky, M.D. 
Evelyn S. Bouden, M.D. 
Anna M. Brady, M.D. 
Susan H. Bray, M.D. 
Anita Uhl Brothers, M.D. 
Linda T. Cahill, M.D. 
Dorothy L. Carlson, M.D. 
Barbara Carson, M.D. 
Eileen Catterson, M.D. 
Mary M. Cavasina, M.D. 
M. E. Christenson, M.D. 
Claire M.Cifaloglio, M.D. 
Sally Emerine Close, M.D. 
Elaine H. Cohen, M.D. 
Marcia L. Collins, M.D. 
Marie A. Connors, M.D. 
Dorothy R. Conzelman, M.D. 
Dora G.Cook, M.D. 
Antonia Carro de Correa, M.D. 
Barbara S. Costin, M.D. 
Mary Holderman Creamer, M.D. 
Barbara E. Curran, M.D. 
Nancy Stiles Curry, M.D. 
Louise M. Dantuono, M.D. 
Harriet J. Davis, M.D. 
Marie A. Druoin, M.D. 
Fran DuRocher, M.D. 
Vera D. Easling, M.D. 
Dorothy Ann Ehmke, M.D. 
Lois Estok, M.D. 
Nancy J. Evans, M.D. 
Judith Feldman, M.D. 
Ruth Ann Fitzpatrick, M.D. 
Joan Fluri, M.D. 
Judith Folkema, M.D. 
Lorna M. Forbes, M.D. 
Gertrude J. Frishmuth, M.D. 
Loraine H. Frost, M.D. 
Helen P. Gaffney, M.D. 
Jean Gifford, M.D. 
Darlene J. Goldstein, M.D. 
Betty L. Gorman, M.D. 
Esterann M. Grace, M.D. 
B. Jean Gretsch, M.D. 
Martha M. Grout, M.D. 
Dillie Grunauer, M.D. 
Rachel Klonymus Guth, M.D. 
Helen E. Halbert, M.D. 

Sophy Hess Hardy, M.D. 

Gene F. Haring, M.D. 

Virginia B. Hartridge, M.D. 

Kathleen Heidelberger, M.D. 

Pauline K. Hellrigel, M.D. 

Diane Hochlerin, M.D. 

Ester Hottenstein, M.D. 

Mary H. Hudson, M.D. 

Zdenka A. Hurianek, M.D. 

Carol G. Jacob, M.D. 

Shirley Joe, M.D. 

Dorothy E. Johnson, M.D. 

Susan K. Jonas, M.D. 

Sharon Garner Kawai, M.D. 

Natalie Kechijian, M.D. 

Shirley Thompson Khalouf, M.D. 

Charleen G. Kirkpatrick, M.D. 

Elizabeth Knapper, M.D. 

Edith Lind Kristeller, M.D. 

Lila Stern Kroser, M.D. 

Margaret Lai (Won), M.D 

Mary E. Lane, M.D. 

Geosette A. Longenheim, M.D. 

Lucienne T. Lanson, M.D. 

Constance K. LaPointe, M.D. 

Virginia D. Lauzun, M.D. 

Cheryl L. Leddy, M.D. 

Cora C. Lenox, M.D. 

Ruth E. Lesh, M.D. 

Florence Carol Levin, M.D. 

Sandra D. Mann, M.D. 

Sheila Margolis, M.D. 

Josefina Villafane Martinez, M.D. 

Elizabeth J. McBride, M.D. 

Joyce A. McCaffrey, M.D. 

JuanitaS. McLaughlin, M.D. 

Annetta Murphy McSweeney, M.D. 

Joan M. Brennan Meyer, M.D. 

Judith L. Meyer, M.D. 

JudithS. Michared, M.D. 

Marilyn Miller, M.D. 

Dixie Arakaki Miyahira, M.D. 

Phyllis C. Moeller, M.D. 

D. Marie Monte, M.D. 

Drs. Herbert & Teruko Neuwalder 

Joann Y. Nevyas, M.D. 

MaryS. Oda, M.D. 

Helen C.Oels, M.D. 

Frances Olsen, M.D. 

Barbara L. O'Pray, M.D. 

R. B. O'Sullivan, M.D. 

Doris J. Palazzo, M.D. 

Beatrice Pearlstine, M.D. 

Joanna Pecman, M.D. 

Johanna F. Perlmutter, M.D. 

Margaret P. Peters, M.D. 

Anastasia Petrides, M.D. 

Gillian R. Pincus, M.D. 

Anna D. Poporad, M.D. 

Cristine A. Quinn, M.D. 

Judy Ramsdell, M.D. 

Deloris Rissling, M.D. 

David D. Roberts, M.D. 

Linda Palone Roberts, M.D. 

Mildred Rogers, M.D. 

Margarette Rogler, M.D. 

Victoria J. Romero, M.D. 

Sandra H. Roth, M.D. 

Eleanor Roverud, M.D. 

Claire Schehr-Ryan, M.D. 

Peggy-Jeanne St. Claire, M.D. 

Elissa J. Santoro, M.D. 

Nina E. Scarito, M.D. 

Mollie S. Schildkrout, M.D. 

Elmerinda C. Scialabba, M.D. 

IdaB. S.Scudder, M.D. 

Lillian Paula Seitsive, M.D. 

Shirley J. Stern Sheinkopf, M.D. 

Frances E. Shields, M.D. 

Charlotte Silverman, M.D. 

Charlotte A. Skibbs, M.D. 

Aldona J. Skripkus, M.D. 

Hardy L. Sorkin, M.D. 

Roslyn C. Souser, M.D. 

Ann Louise Steele-Buck, M.D. 

Francis E. Stein, M.D. 

Ursula W. Steinberg, M.D. 

Mary S. Strang, M.D. 

Patricia J. Stuff, M.D. 

Charles R. Swaine, M.D. 

Janice S. Sydell, M.D. 

Loring Sylvester, M.D. 

Irene G. Tamagna, M.D. 

Marjorie O. Tepper, M.D. 

Mary E. Tessier, M.D. 

Carmen C. Thomas, M.D. 

Frances M. Triboletti, M.D. 

Mary Rose Truter, M.D. 

Mary A. Tummillo, M.D. 

Juliet Vilinskas, M.D. 

Nelsa Lee Wade-Evans, M.D. 

Ann Wadstrom, M.D. 

Melissa A. Warfield, M.D. 

Marie C. Wasileska, M.D. 

Bessie G. Weisstein, M.D. 

Jacqueline Wertsch, M.D. 

Esther M. Weyl, M.D. 

Marilyn and Gene Witherup 

Margaret Gray Wood, M.D. 

MirielLeeWu, M.D. 

Barbara-Jean Stibler Wynkoop, M.D. 

Irene J. Zalewski, M.D. 

Sariel G. G. Ablaza, M.D. 
Fae M. Adams, M.D. 
Harriet M. Arey, M.D. 
Selma A. Balaban, M.D. 
S. C.Bansal, M.D. 
Dorothy M. Barbo, M.D. 
Anne U. Barnes, M.D. 
Dr. & Mrs. James G. Bassett 
O. Eugene Baum, M.D. 
E.Cooper Bell, M.D. 


. . . anb Jfacultp, J^ousestatf, parents anb Jfrtenbs 

Martha L. Biemuller, M.D. 

Dr. & Mrs. Michael Blackburn 

Elsie R. Carrington, M.D. 

Donald R. Cooper, M.D. 

Paul M. Dainer, M.D. 

Dr. & Mrs. Charles D'AIessio 

Dr. Frederick D. DeMartinis 

Mary B. Dratman, M.D. 

Toby R. Engel, M.D. 

Gerald Escovitz, M.D. 

Marion Fay, Ph.D. 

Herbert Fischer, M.D. 

Eva F. Fox, M.D. 

Dr. & Mrs. William Frankl 

Abraham Frumin, M.D. 

Karl L. Gabriel 

Drs. Mary & Ira Gabrielson 

Albert L. Gaskins, M.D. 

Harry Gottlieb, M.D. 

Jean Gowing, M.D. 

Mrs. Stephen Haas 

Lois Hammond, M.D. 

Bernadette Herbst, M.D. 

Athole J. McNeil Jacobi, M.D. 

J. H. Jepson, M.D. 

Dr. George Kaldor 

Lester Karafin, M.D. 

Dr. & Mrs. Julian Katz 

Donald Kaye, M.D. 

June F. Klinghoffer, M.D. 

Muriel Kowlessar, M.D. 

Theodore Lawrence, M.D. 

Joseph Leighton, M.D. 

Jane Marshall Liebfried, M.D. 

Leo Madow, M.D. 

S. Mansukhani, M.D. 

Raymond Mark, M.D. 

F. I. Marlowe, M.D. 

Judith S. Mausner, M.D. 

Susan L. Menichetti 

Dr. & Mrs. Carl J. Minitti 

Alma Dea Morani, M.D. 

Dr. & Mrs. William L. Morrissey 

Grace R. Nachod, M.D. 

Mrs. Gladys Nigro, B.A., M.S. 

Jo Anne Overleese, M.D. 

Pharmacy Department 

Anne H. Pike, M.D. 

Dr. & Mrs. Howard Pollack 

Dr. & Mrs. George L. Popky 

Leonard L. Ross 

Dr. Rubin 

Robert E. Schmidt, M.D. 

Dr. & Mrs. Albrecht Schmitt 

RitaE. Scott, M.D. 

PaulD. Seigel, M.D. 

Dr. & Mrs. William B. Sembrot 

Maurice Sones, M.D. 

John H. Sorenson 

Ann Gray Taylor, M.D. 

Harry L. Thomas, M.D. 

William R. Thompson, M.D. 

Michael J. Tullman, D.D.S. 
John R. Urbach, M.D. 
Joseph F. Uricchio, M.D. 
Dr. & Mrs. Carl H.Victor 
James D. Weinstein, M.D. 
Lee Winston, M.D. 
R. J. Wolfson, M.D. 
Nina Woodside, M.D. 
Pouran Zekavat, M.D. 

S.J. Aita, II 

Mr. & Mrs. Joseph G. Amico 

Mr. & Mrs. William T. Anderson 

Dr. Edward Bastiks 

Mr. & Mrs. George W. Benes 

Mr. & Mrs. Allen J. Brumbaugh 

Mrs. E. F. Carleton 

Dr. & Mrs. R.J.Carroll 

Mr. & Mrs. Lawrence I Chase 

Mr. & Mrs. James Clinton Cunningham 

Dr. D.Walter Cohen 

Mr. & Mrs. Nathan Cohen 

Stella P. Cotzen 

Mr. & Mrs. A. J. Cross 

John J.Curry, D.D.S. 

Mr. & Mrs. Anthony D'Amelio 

Mr. & Mrs. Francesco DeNovellis 

John J. Domanski 

Mrs. George D. Edmunds 

Mr. & Mrs. John E. Gallo 

Mr. & Mrs. John W. Garrett 

Joseph A. Gian-Grasso, M.D. 

Mr. & Mrs. Joseph J. Giordano 

Aaron & Ruth Greenberg 

Mr. & Mrs. Frank M. Gutowicz, Jr. 

Dr. & Mrs. Edward A. Hackie 

Mrs. Evelyn Handal 

Mr. & Mrs. Wilbert O. Hunsaker 

Mr. & Mrs. John D. Isaacs 

Mr. & Mrs. Martin S. Kaufman 

Mr. & Mrs. William Joseph Keenan 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert Kerr 

Mr. & Mrs. Bernard Kerner 

Mr. & Mrs. Joseph Klein 

Mr. & Mrs. Martin Levy 

Dr. & Mrs. M. L. Levy 

Mr. & Mrs. A. Robert Lieberman 

Marion S. Lucy 

Arnold Marcus 

Mr. & Mrs. Blair Matejczyk 

William P. McHale 

Richard C. Meo, M.D. 

Mrs. Virginia Nebel 

Mr. Boris Ordovsky 

Mr. & Mrs. Al Pepe 

James Petrini 

Mrs. Richard F. Phelan 

Mr. & Mrs. Paul A. Remaly 

Mr. & Mrs. Joseph A. Schindler 

Mr. & Mrs. Jerry A. Selvaggi 

Samuel C. Sheiman, M.D. 

Mr. & Mrs. Vicko Skokandic 

Myrtle & Maurice L. Albertson 

Mr. & Mrs. Henry Ash 

Virginia H. Baker 

Mr. & Mrs. Ernest Beier, Jr. 

Mrs. Karl Beyer 

Mr. & Mrs. Alvin Birkner 

C. W. Bower 

Mrs. William F. Buckley 

Mrs. Eleanor R. Burns 

Mr. & Mrs. Delbert L.Cole 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert B. Connolh 

Mr. & Mrs. John DiAngi 

Regis F. Dougherty 

Mr. & Mrs. John B. Erb 

Mr. & Mrs. David Feldhamer 

Samuel Fenster, D.D.S. 

Kathleen L. Fielder 

Mr. & Mrs. Murray Glassberg 

Dr. Jerome A. Gold 

Adeline Goldberg 

Mrs. Marcus Sheldon Goldman 

Mildred Gordon. Ph.D. 

Norma R. Green 

Dr. & Mrs. Jesse J. Greenberg 

Mr. & Mrs. Charles Grossfeld 
Joyce A. Harlin 

Richard B. Herman 
Susan M. Hogg 

Margaret M. Kelly 

William E. Kelly, M.D. 

Fred H.Kilmer, Jr. 

Dr. & Mrs. George P. Kochis 

Mr. & Mrs. J. Ronald Koffel 

Col. & Mrs. Arthur Kramer 

Mr. & Mrs. John E. Krout 

Mrs. John J. Ladden 

Mr. & Mrs. Charles W. Lamden 

Dr. & Mrs. Phil T. Launer 

Dr. & Mrs. John T. Larkin 

Joyce C. Lashof 

Si-ji Li 

Agnes Romanek Lindstrom 

Mr. & Mrs. J. Graham Michael 

Ruth E. Miller, Ph.D. 

Morris J. Naiditch, M.D. 

Dr. & Mrs. Albert A. Order 

Mr. & Mrs. Edmund Paczkowski 

John B. Prizer 

Mrs. A. Profy 

Mr. & Mrs. Roland Rodrock Randall 

Katherine & Theodore L. Reed 

Delilah Riemer Rubenstein 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert Robertson, Jr. 

Dolores Rodriquez, M.D. 

Mr. & Mrs. Lucio Rossetti 

Meredith Bennet Russell 

Florence B. Seibert 

Dr. Morton Seltman 

Samuel C. Sheiman, M.D. 

Ms. Sarah Ann Stauffer 

Ann C. Vogel 


A beautifully produced volume, which should prove 
very use'ul to all students ol the CNS -David Bod<a - 
Johns Hopkins University School o' Medicine 

Structure of the Human Brain 

A Photographic Atlas 

MAYNARDM DEWEY." High quality photographs 

Editors' Thoughts 

We hope you find between the lines of this volume our pride, 
loyalty, and gratitude to our college. We are proud of her con- 
tinuing tradition of preparing women for the practice of medi- 
cine, of her willingness to listen to members of her community in 
a democratic way rarely found within "the Establishment of 
Academic Medicine," and of her ability to make wide policy 
changes while respecting her original missions. 

We will always feel a warm loyalty to those who helped us to 
achieve our personal goals and to enjoy our years here together. 

And we are grateful for the opportunity this college has 
afforded us to study in a small, personally-oriented setting that 
respects high standards and enables us to be successfully competi- 
tive members of the profession when we leave. 

We are sad about our college's short comings. These include a 
strange inbred paralyzing paranoia and lack of positive self-image 
which pervades faculty, students and alums and prevents them 
from communicating effectively with one another, from growing 
and changing, from seeking leadership positions or high caliber 
training programs and from enhancing the reputation of the 

Second, we believe that the college "commitment to women" 
is half-hearted. It is true that a certain number of reserved spots 
for women guarantees a certain amount of opportunity for them. 
However, unless there is guaranteed financial and legally-respon- 
sible underwriting of supportive student services by both the 
college and the alums jointly, there will not be a significant 
cross-section of women from different walks of life in the ranks 
of the confident and successful graduates. These services are in 
the areas of flexible programming, financial aid, child care, safety, 
housing, parking, psychological and psychiatric support, and 
activities. The argument that support for four years is comparable 
to a lifetime of "handouts" is not valid. Students should be able 
to expend more energy on study and less on fretting. Satisfaction 
with the status quo won't help. Aggressive action, personal in- 
volvement and money will. 

Loyally yours, 
Sue Benes 
Steve DeArmond 
Kathy McHale 





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Satrian 1975