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Full text of "Iberus : revista de la Sociedad Española de Malacología"

40( 



Iberus 



Vol. 18(1) 



REVISTA DE LA 

SOCIEDAD ESPAÑOLA 
DE MALACOLOGÍA 




Oviedo, junio 2000 



Iberus 

Revista de la 

Sociedad Española de Malacología 



Comité de Redacción 
Editor 

Ángel Guerra Sierra 

Editores Adjuntos 

Eugenio M- Martínez Cueto-Felgueroso 
Francisco Javier Rocha Voldés 
Gonzalo Rodríguez Casero 

Comité Editorial 

Kepa Altonaga Sustacha 

Eduardo Ángulo Pinedo 

Rafael Arau¡o Armero 

Thierry Backeljau 

Rüdiger Bieler 

Sigurd v. Boletzky 

José Castillejo Murillo 

Kad Ediinger 

Antonio M. de Frias Martins 

José Carlos García Gómez 

Edmund Gittenberger 

Serge Gofas 

Gerhard Haszprunar 

Yuri I. Kantor 

Ángel Antonio Luque del Villar 

María Yolanda Mango González 

Jordi Martinell Callico 

Ron K. O'Dor 



Marco Oliverio 
Pablo E. Pencliaszadeh 
Winston F. Ponder 
Carlos Enrique Prieto Sierm 
Ms de los Ángeles Ramos Sánchez 
Paul G. Rodhouse 
Joondoménec Ros i Aragonés 
María Carmen Solas Casanovas 
Gerhard Steiner 
José Templado González 
Victoriano Urgorri Corrasco 
Anders Worén 



Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas, CSIC, Vigo, España 

Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, España 

Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas, CSIC, Vigo, España 

Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, España 



Universidad del País Vasco, Bilbao, España 

Universidad del País Vasco, Bilbao, España 

Museo Nocional de Ciencias Naturales, Modrid, España 

Institut Royal des Sciences Noturelles de Belgique, Bruselas, Bélgica 

The Field Museum, Chicago, Estados Unidos 

Loboratoire Arago, Bonyuls-sur-Mer, Francia 

Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Sontíogo de Compostelo, España 

Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Vieno, Austrio 

Universidade dos Acores, Acores, Portugal 

Universidod de Sevilla, Sevilla, España 

National Natuurhistorisch Museum, Leiden, Holanda 

Universidad de Málaga, España 

Zoologische Staotssammlung München, München, Alemania 

A.N. Severtzov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Moscú, Rusia 

Universidod Autónoma de Modrid, Madrid, España 

Estación Agrícola Experimental, CSIC, León, España 

Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelono, España 

Dolhousie University, Halifox, Conada 

Nihon University, Fujisawa City, Japón 

Universitá di Romo "Lo Sapienzo", Romo, Italia 

Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavio", Buenos Aires, Argentina 

Australion Museum, Sydney, Australia 

Universidad del País Vosco, Bilbao, España 

Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Modrid, España 

British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, Reino Unido 

Universidod de Barcelona, Barcelona, España 

Universidad de Málaga, Málaga, España 

Institut für Zoologie der Universitdt Wien, Viena, Austria 

Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Madrid, España 

Universidad de Santíago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, España 

Swedish Museum of Natural History, Estocolmo, Suecio 



Portada de Iberus 

Iberus gualterianus (Linnaeus, 1758), una especie emblemática de la península Ibérica, que da 
nombre a la revista. Dibujo realizado por José Luis González Rebollar "Toza". 



Iberus 



REVISTA DE LA 

SOCIEDAD ESPAÑOLA 
DE MALACOLOGÍA 




Vol. 18(1) 



Oviedo, junio 2000 



Iberus 

Revista de la 
Sociedad Española de Malacología 



Iberus publica trabajos que traten sobre cualquier aspecto relacionado con la Malacología. Se 
admiten también notas breves. Iberus edita un volumen anual que se compone de dos o más números. 



Instrucciones para los autores 

Los manuscritos deben remitirse a: Dr. Ángel Guerra Sierra, Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas 
(CSIC), c/ Eduardo Cabello 6, 36208 Vigo, España. 

Los trabajos se entregarán por triplicado (original y dos copias). Se recomienda a los autores leer 
cuidadosamente las normas de publicación que se incluyen en cada número de la revista. 

SUBCRIPCIONES 

Iberus puede recibirse siendo socio de la Sociedad Española de Malacología, en cualquiera de sus 
formas, o mediante intercambio. Aquellos socios que deseen adquirir números atrasados deberán diri- 
girse al bibliotecario. 

Los no socios deberán ponerse en contacto con BACKHUYS PUBLISHERS, P.O. Box 321, 
2300 AH Leiden, The Netherlands. Tel.: +31-71-51 70 208, Fax: +31-71-51 71 856, Correo Elec- 
trónico: backhuys@euronet.nl 



Los resúmenes de los artículos editados en esta revista se publican en Aquatic Science 
and Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA) y en el Zoological Records, BIOSIS. 

Contents list published in Aquatic Science and Fisheries Abstracts and Zoological Records, 
BIOSIS. 



Dep. Leg. B-43072-81 

ISSN 0212-3010 

Diseño y maquetación: Gonzalo Rodríguez 

Impresión: LOREDO, S. L. - Gijón 



© Sociedad Española de Malacologta Iberus,\, ^1): 1-14, 2000 

Contribución al conocimiento de los Moluscos Opistabran- 
quios de la costa de Granada (sureste de la Península Ibérica) 

Contribution to the knowledge of the Opisthobranch Molluscs from 
the coast of Granada (southeastern Spain) 

Luis SÁNCHEZ-TOCINO*, Amelia OCAÑA*, Francisco J. GARCÍA** 
Recibido el 26-IV-1999. Aceptado el ll-VIII-1999 

RESUMEN 

En un estudio realizado en el litoral granadino durante los años 1994-1999 se identificaron 
84 especies de opistobranquios, siendo la distribución de especies por órdenes la siguiente: 
Cephalaspidea, 4; Thecosomata, 1 ; Anaspidea, 3; Sacoglossa, 5; Notaspidea, 6 y Nudi- 
branchia, 65. En el presente artículo se aportan datos sobre abundancia de las especies, 
rangos de variación en la profundidad, distribución temporal y características del substrato 
donde fueron observadas cada una de ellas. Del total de especies encontradas, 55 son nue- 
vas citas para la costa granadina. Polycera faeroensis y Pruvotfolia pselliotes son nuevas ci- 
tas para el Mar Mediterráneo, Geitodoris planata para el Mediterráneo ibérico y Hermaea 
paucicirra lo es para el litoral Mediterráneo andaluz. La especie Tambja marbellensis es ci- 
tada por primera vez desde su descripción. 

ABSTRACT 

In a study conducted on tfie coast of Granada (S. Spain) from 1994 to 1999, 84 opistho- 
branchs species were identified. The distribution of the species by orders was: Cephalaspi- 
dea, 4; Thecosomata, 1; Anaspidea, 3; Sacoglossa, 5; Notaspidea, 6 and 
Nudibranchia, 65. Data are presented for species abundance, depth-variation ranges, 
temporal distribution, and characteristics of the substrate were each species v/as found. Of 
the species found, 55 are nev/ citations for the Granada coast. Polycera faeroensis and 
Pruvotfolia pselliotes are new citations for the Mediterranean Sea, Geitodoris planata for 
the Iberian Mediterranean and Hermaea paucicirra for Andalusian Mediterranean. The 
species Tambja marbellensis is collected for the first time since its description. 



PALABRAS CLAVE: Mollusca, Opisthobranchia, Mediterráneo, Costa de Granada. 
KEY WORDS: Mollusca, Opisthobranchia, Mediterranean, Coast of Granada 



INTRODUCCIÓN 

Pocos son los estudios malacológicos Granada. LuQUE (1983, 1986) estudió los 
realizados hasta la fecha en la costa de gasterópodos de las costas de Málaga y 



* Departamento de Biología Animal y Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada 
(Spain); e-mail: lstocino@retemail.es; amelia@goliat.ugr.es 

** Departamento de Fisiología y Biología Animal, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Sevilla; Avda. Reina 
Mercedes, 6; Apdo. 1095; 41080 Sevilla (Spain); e-mail: f)garcia@cica. es 

1 



Ibems, 18 (1), 2000 



Tabla I. Coordenadas geográficas (GTM), de las distintas estaciones de muestreo. 
Table I. Geographical coordinates (GTM) for the dijferent sampling stations. 



Estaciones de muestreo 



Coordenadas GTM 



I . La Rábita 

2. Peñón de San Patricio 

3. Castell de Ferro 

4. La Rijana 

5. Calahonda 

6. Peñón de Salobreña 

7. Barranco del Cambrón 

8. Bahía de Velilla 

9. Peñones de Almuñecar 

1 0. Punta de San José 

I I . Punta de la Mona 
12. Cerro Gordo 



36° 45,4' N; 03° 10,5' O 

36° 45,5' N; 03° 15,1' O 

36° 44,2' N; 03° 20,5' O 

36° 42,5' N; 03° 23,5' O 

36° 41,5' N; 03° 25,1' O 

36° 44,1' N; 03° 35,6' O 

36° 44,5' N; 03° 37,4' O 
36° 44,8' N; 03° 39, 1 ' O - 36° 44,5' N; 03° 39,9' O 

36° 43,6' N; 03° 41.5' O 

3ó° 43,9' N; 03° 42,6' O 
36° 43,5' N; 03° 43,7' O - 36° 43,6' N; 03° 44,4' O 
36° 44,3' N; 03° 45,7' O- 36° 44,7' N; 03° 46, 6' O 



Granada, centrándose principalmente 
en la primera de las dos provincias, ya 
que sólo una de las 15 estaciones de 
muestreo establecidas, la de La Herra- 
dura, pertenece al litoral granadino. Del 
mismo modo. Templado, Luque y Mo- 
reno (1988) eligieron La Herradura co- 
mo única estación de muestreo en la 
costa de Granada. Posteriormente, como 
consecuencia de la la campaña oceanó- 
grafica "Fauna I", TEMPLADO, GUERRA, 

Bedoya, Moreno, Remón, Maldonado 

Y Ramos (1993) encontraron varias espe- 
cies de opistobranquios en el circalitoral 
frente a las costas granadinas. Moreno 

Y Templado (1998) completan los estu- 
dios anteriores en las provincias de Al- 
mería y Granada, seleccionando, en esta 
última, sólo 4 puntos, de los 23 muestre- 
ados. 

Con el presente estudio se pretende 
ampliar el inventario de la fauna de 
opistobranquios del litoral de la provin- 
cia de Granada. Además, se aportan 
datos sobre el número de ejemplares, 
periodo de avistamiento a lo largo de 
los años de muestreo, profundidad y 
tipo de substrato donde se encontraron 
cada una de las especies, así como las 
citas de otros autores que han encon- 
trado las especies relacionadas en el pre- 
sente trabajo, en las distintas provincias 
del litoral andaluz. 



MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS 

Se han seleccionado en total trece 
estaciones de muestreo, doce en el 
litoral granadino y una treceava que 
corresponde a las muestras recolectadas 
en barcos de arrastre. La selección de 
dichas estaciones queda justificada por 
la variabilidad de substratos y por tanto 
de hábitats diferentes que se encuentran 
en ellas, ya que es frecuente la combina- 
ción, en varias de las mismas, de fondos 
de cascajo, arena, fango, praderas de 
fanerógamas o rocosos que en algunas 
ocasiones, como es el caso de la Punta 
de la Mona, alcanzan grandes profundi- 
dades. 

El área de estudio comprende una 
linea litoral de unos 60 Km, desde el 
límite con la provincia de Málaga por el 
Oeste, hasta La Rábita por el Este. El 
nombre de cada una de las doce estacio- 
nes de muestreo aparecen en la Tabla I 
acompañadas de las correspondientes 
coordenadas geográficas, G. T M. Las 
estaciones 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9 y 10 son 
puntuales, mientras que las 8, 11 y 12 
quedan definidas por la línea de costa 
comprendida entre las dos coordenadas 
geográficas que se citan en la Tabla I. De 
la estación 13 se recogen muestras 
mediante barcos de arrastre que faenan 
frente a la costa de Motril a profundida- 



Sánchez-Tocino ETAL.-. Opistobranquios de la costa de G añada 




Figura 1 . Mapa ilustrando las situación geográfica de las diferentes zonas de muestreo. 
Figure 1. Illustrated map showing the geographic situation ofthe different sampling bcalities. 



des comprendidas entre 50 y 150 m. En 
la Figura 1 se muestra la ubicación de 
las distintas estaciones de muestreo. 

Se realizaron una serie de muéstreos 
preliminares desde Enero de 1994 hasta 
Diciembre de 1995, que han servido 
para seleccionar aquellas estaciones con 
una mayor diversidad de opistobran- 
quios, que correspondieron con la 8, 11 
y 12, y en las que se centraron los mués- 
treos durante los años 1996, 1997, 1998 y 
hasta Marzo de 1999. 

El material examinado, a excepción 
del recogido mediante arrastres, fué 
obtenido en inmersiones con escafandra 
autónoma, entre la zona mediolitoral y 
40 m. de profundidad. 

Para la recogida de datos se realiza- 
ron en cada estación de muestreo tran- 
sectos de longitud variable. En la esta- 
ción 8, se utilizó también un segundo 
método que consistió en colgar de una 
boya, a 3 m de profundidad, una tela 
mosquitera enrollada de 1,5 m de longi- 
tud. El crecimiento de algas e hidroideos 
fue bastante rápido, por lo que al cabo 
de unos dos meses se pudieron recolec- 
tar opistobranquios. 



Los opistobranquios que ofrecían 
alguna duda para su identificación 
fueron colectados, fotografiados y gra- 
bados en vídeo. Posteriormente los 
ejemplares capturados se anestesiaron 
mediante congelación en agua de mar o 
añadiendo lentamente alcohol. Se fijaron 
con formol al 4% y se conservaron en 
alcohol al 70%. 



RESULTADOS 

En la Tabla II se aportan, para cada 
una de las especies identificadas, los 
siguientes datos: número que define la 
zona de muestreo, mes /es de observa- 
ción, año/s, abundancia, longitud (en 
milímetros), tipo de substrato y profun- 
didad (en metros). La abundancia es 
referida con el siguiente criterio: E, 
especie escasa de la que sólo se han 
observado, en todo el periodo de 
estudio, entre 1 y 10 ejemplares; PA, 
especie poco abundante de la que se han 
observado entre 10 y 50 individuos; A, 
especie abundante de la que se han 
observado entre 50 y 100 ejemplares; 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



Tabla II. Especies observadas en la provincia de Granada acompañadas del número que define la 
estación de muestreo donde aparecen cada una de ellas, mes/es de avistamiento, año/s, abundancia 
relativa (E: entre 1 y 10 ejemplares; PA: entre 10 y 50 ejemplares; A: entre 50 y 100 individuos; 
MA: más de 100 individuos observados en toda la campaña de muestreo), longitud (mm), tipo de 
sustrato (A: algas; B: fondos blandos; BP: bajo piedra; BR: briozoos; C: cuevas, CA: cascajo; E: 
esponjas; G: gorgonáceos; H: hidroideos; R: rocoso; S: flotando en superficie) y profiandidad (m). 
Table II. Species observed in the province of Granada, accompanied by the number that identifies the 
sampling station where each specimen was observed, together with month/s, year/s, relative abundance 
(E: between I and 10 specimens; PA: between 10 and 50 specimens; A: between 50 and 100 specimens; 
A4A: more than 100 specimens observed over the entire sampling campaign), length (mm), type ofsubs- 
trate (A: algas; soft sediments; BP: low rock; BR: briozoa; C: caves; CA: gravel; E: sponges; G: gorgona- 
cea; H: hydroids; R: rock; S: floating on surface) and depth (m). 





Estación 


Mes 


Año 


Abun. 


Long. 


Subs. 


Prof. 


Orden CEPHAlASPIOEAP.Fischer, 1883 
















Fomilia Bullidae Lomarck, 1801. 
















Bük striota Bruguiére, 1 792 


8 


10 


95 


E 


15 


B 


5 


Familia Aglapdae Pilsbry, 1895 
















AglaJQ trkolorata Renier, 1 804 


6 


7,8 


97 


E 


10-12 


B 


5-8 


Philinopsis depicta (Renier, 1 807) 


8 


8 


95 


E 


25 


B 


5 


Familio Cylichnidae Adams H.&A., 1854 
















Scophander lignoríus (Linnaeus, 1758) 


13 


6 


97 


E 


40 


B 


50-150 


Orden IHECOSOMATABIainville, 1824 
















Familia Cymbuliidae Gray, 1 840 
















f /mWo perom; Lamarck, 1819 


8 


4,9 


94 


E 


30 


S 





Orden ANASPIDEAP.Fischer, 1883 
















Aplysiafasciata?m\, 1789 


8,11,12 


7,10,12 


94,96 


MA 


200-300 


B,R 


5-12 


ylp//5;o po/vu/o Guilding in Morch, 1863 


8,11 


4,8 


95,97 


E 


10-15 


A,BP 


3-5 


Aplysia punctata (Cuvier, 1 803) 


8,11 


9-10 


94,96 


E 


60-80 


B,BP 


3-5 


Orden NOTASPIDEAP.Fischer, 1883 
















Familia Umbraculidae Dalí, 1889 
















Umbroculum umbraculum (Lighfoot, 1786) 


12 


1 


97,98 


E 


120-150 


C,R 


5-9 


Familia Pleurobranchidae Férussac, 1822 
















Pleuwbmchus testudmius íanMne, 1835 


11 


4,10,11 


97 


E 


130-150 


CA 


5-20 


Beéello ocellato (Delle-Chiaie, 1828) 


12 


2,7 


96 


E 


30-35 


C 


10-13 


Berthella plumulo (Montagu, 1 803) 


5,11,12 


1,3,5,9-11 


94,95,97-99 


E 


15-25 


BP 


5-12 


fierf/)e//oste/ko(Risso, 1826) 


3,5,12 


1,11 


96,99 


E 


15 


BP 


■3-7 


Pleurobronchaea mecM; Blainville, 1825 


8,11,12 


2-5,8,10 


95,96 


MA 


10-100 


B,BP 


3-9 


Orden SACOGLOSSAVonIhering, 1876 
















Familia Placobranchidae Rang, 1829 
















Jhurídillo bopei (Vérany, 1 853) 


5,11,12 


1,3,5-11 


95-99 


PA 


10-20 


A,R 


5-15 


Elysia viridis (Montagu, 1 804) 


12 


11,12 


98 


PA 


2-3 


A 


3-5 


Familia Hermaeidae H. Adams y A. Adams, 1854 
















Hermaea pauciára Pruvot-Fol, 1 953 


1 


1 


99 


E 


1-2 


A 


5 


Familia Polybranchiidae O'Donoghue, 1929 
















íoWphykmeditemneok Costa, 1867 


5 


1 


99 


E 


5-7 


A 


3 


Familia Limopontiidae Gray, 1847 
















Placido verticillataOúea, 1981 


11,12 


2,7,11 


98,99 


A 


1-3 


A 


5-10 


Orden NUDIBRANCHIABIainville, 1814 
















Suborden DORIDACEAOdhner, 1934 
















Familia Aegiretidae P. Fischer, 1883 
















Aegiresleuckarli^émni 1853 


11 


1 


99 


E 


3 


R 


10 


Familia Goniodorididae Adams H.y A., 1854 
















Jwpania bispalensis Cemera y García-Gómez, 1 989 


2,4,11,12 


1-7,9-11 


95-99 


PA 


8-15 


E 


7-15 


Twponio lineota Haefelfinger, 1 960 


1,12 


1,6-8,10,11 


97,98 


E 


8-15 


BP,E 


6-8 


Twpania mculata Haefelfinger, 1 960 


11,12 


1,3,5-7,9-12 


95-98 


PA 


8-20 


E,R 


6-15 



Sánchez-Tocino ETAL.-. Opistobranquios de la costa de C '-añada 



Tabla II. Continuación. 
Table II. Continuation 





Estación 


Mes 


Año 


Abun. 


Long. 


Subs. 


Prof. 


Familia Onchidorididae Alder y Hancock, 1 845 
















Diophorodoris luteocindo (Sors M., 1 870) 


11,12 


1,2,4,8 


96, 97-99 


PA 


10-20 


R 


10-15 


Diaphofodorís popillata Portmonn y Sandmeier, 1 960 11,12 


1-5,8,9-11 


96-99 


PA 


5-10 


BP, E, R 


3-15 


Familia Triophidae Odhner in Frene, 1 968 
















Crímoro papillato Alder y Hancock, 1 862 


5,11,12 


1,3,4 


97-99 


E 


10-15 


BP,R 


6-20 


Familia Aldisidae Odhner, 1 933 
















ñldisa banyulensis Pruvot-Fol, 1 951 


8,11,12 


8,10 


96, 97, 98 


E 


15-20 


BP,R 


5-9 


Familia Chromodorididae Bergh,1891 
















Chromodorís britoi Ortea y Pérez, 1 983 


2,11,12 


1,2,7,8,11,12 


96, 98, 99 


PA 


5-15 


BP,R 


8-10 


íhwmoáom krohni (Vérany, 1 846) 


10,11,12 


1-12 


95-99 


A 


3-30 


BP,R 


5-20 


Chromodorís luteoroseo (Ropp, 1827) 


11,12 


2,4,9,11,12 


96-98 


E 


10-25 


R 


7-20 


Chromodorís purpureo (Risso in Guérin, 1 831 ) 


11,12 


1-3,5-7,9-12 


95-99 


A 


3-30 


BP,R 


5-20 


Cadlina pellucida (Risso, 1826) 


11,12 


6,11,12 


95-98 


E 


8-12 


BP 


3-6 


Hypselodorís bbeata (Pruvot-fol, 1953) 


11,12 


1-5,7,8,10,12 


95-99 


A 


9-30 


BP, E, R 


6-15 


Hypselodorís cantábrica Bouchet y Ortea, 1 980 


11 


3 


98 


E 


15-30 


R 


5-9 


Hypselodorís fontandraui (Pruvot-Fol, 1 951 ) 


11,12 


1,3-6,11,12 


96-99 


A 


10-35 


R 


6-25 


Hypselodorís picta (Schuitz in Philippi, 1836) 


1,4,5,7,8,9,11,12 


1-12 


95-99 


MA 


30-150 


R,E 


6-28 


Hypselodorís midatlantica Gosliner, 1 990 


4,11,12 


1-8,10,11 


95-99 


MA 


8-30 


BP, E, R 


5-20 


Hypselodorís villafranca (Risso, 1818) 


4,5,7,11,12 


1-5,8,10-12 


95-99 


PA 


6-20 


BP, E, R 


5-12 


Familia Discodorididae Bergh, 1891 
















Discodoris atromaculata (Bergh, 1880) 


4,11,12 


1,3-8,11 


94,96-99 


PA 


30-80 


BP, C, E, R 7-28 


Discodorís tragilis (Alder y Hancock, 1 864) 


12 


8 


97 


E 


50 


BP 


10 


Discodoris rosi Qúea, 1979 


11,12 


3,10 


96,97 


E 


15-25 


BP,E 


7-10 


Geitodoris portmanni (Schmekel, 1 972) 


9,11 


8,9 


96,97 


E 


5-10 


BP 


5-9 


Geitodoris planata (Alder y Hancock, 1846b) 


12 


11 


97 


E 


25 


BP,E 


7 


Familia Kentrodorididae Bergh, 1892 
















Jorunna oriubensis Cervera, García-Gómez y García, 1 986 12 


12 


96 


E 


30 


R 


6 


Familia Platydorididae Bergh, 1891 
















Platydoris orgo {Imeo, 1767) 


11,12 


1-8,10,11 


95-99 


PA 


30-90 


BP, E, R 


5-20 


Familio Rostangidae Pruvot-Fol, 1951 
















Rostanga rubra {^\sso, 1818) 


11 


11 


97 


E 


25 


E 


7 


Familia Polyceridae Alder y Hancock, 1 845 
















Polycera aurantiomarginata García-Gómez y Bobo, 1 984 12 


1-3,11,12 


96-99 


MA 


2-5 


BP 


3-7 


Polycera faeroensis Lemche, 1 929 


11 


5,8 


95,97 


E 


10-25 


R 


25-30 


Polycera quadrilineata (O.F. Müller, 1 776) 


8,11,12 


1,3,6,7,12 


96-98 


PA 


10-20 


R,H 


1-10 


Limada clavigera (O.F. Müller, 1776) 


10,11,12 


1-4,10-12 


96,99 


PA 


3-20 


BP, E, R 


4-10 


Roboastra europea García-Gómez, 1 985 


11 


1,7 


95,97 


E 


30-50 


R 


5-36 


lambía ceutae García-Gómez y Ortea, 1 988 


12 


10,11 


96 


E 


5-20 


BP, BR, R 


7-8 


Jambja marbellensis Schick y Cervera, 1 998 


12 


1-4 


98 


PA 


3-10 


BP,BR 


5-7 


Familia Dendrodorididae O'Donoghue, 1924 
















Dendrodoris limbata (Cuvier, 1 804) 


11,12 


3-5,7-11 


95-97 


PA 


10-65 


BP,CA, R 


6-15 


Doriopsilla areolata Bergh, 1 880 


2,8,11,12 


2-6,8,10,12 


94, 95, 97-99 


PA 


10-30 


BP, E, R 


3-25 


Suborden OENDRONOIACEA Odhner, 1934 
















Familia Ootoidae Gray, 1853 
















floto toneder; Lemche, 1976 


2,11,12 


1,2,10 


99 


PA 


5-8 


H 


7-15 


Familia Hancockiidae Pruvot-Fol, 1954 
















Hancockia uncinata (Hesse, 1 872) 


8 


8,10 


96,97 


PA 


8-10 


H 


1-3 


Fomilio lethyidoe Alder y Hancock, 1 855 
















Tediys fimbria Linné, 1 767 


13 


5,6 


96,97 


E 


130,150 


B 


50-150 


Familia Iritoniidae Lamarck, 1 809 
















Tritonia manicata Deshoyes, 1853 


11 


3,5 


97,98 


E 


10 


H 


6-14 


Tritonia nilsodhnerí Mcus Ev., 1983 


10,11,12 


2, 3, 5, 7 


95, 97-99 


E 


10-15 


G 


5-8 


Tritonia striata Haefelfinger, 1 963 


11 


1,3,6-8,10 


96-99 


PA 


8-10 


BP 


5-6 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



Tabla II. Continuación. 
Table II. Continuation 





Estación 


Mes 


Año 


Abun. 


Long. 


Subs. 


Prof. 


Moñona bloimilleo (Risso, 1818) 


10,11,12 


1-3,5,10,11 


95-99 


PA 


10-40 


BP, G, R 


5-10 


Suborden ARMINACEAOdhner, 1934 
















Familia Arminidae Pruvot-Fol, 1927 
















Amina maculata Rafinesque, 1814 


13 


5,6 


96,97 


PA 


70-90 


B 


50-150 


Familia Zephyrinidae Iredale y O'Donoghue, 1923 
















Janolus crístatus (Delle Chiaje, 1841) 


1,3,4,11,12 


1,4,7,12 


95, 97-99 


E 


20-55 


R 


6-7 


Suborden AEOLIDACEAOdhner, 1934 
















Familia Aeolidiidae d'Orbigny, 1 834 
















Aeolidielta soemmeringi (Leuckort, 1 828) 


4,11 


2,4,9-12 


94-96, 99 


E 


15-20 


BP 


4-12 


Berghio coewlescens Laurillard, 1 830 


11 


2-8,10,11 


95, 97-99 


PA 


20-30 


BP 


5-15 


Berghia mmmnis (A. Costa, 1867) 


8 


9,10 


95,97 


E 


20-25 


H 


1-3 


Spurilla neapolitana (Delle-Chioie, 1841) 


3,8,11 


1,2,6-11 


97-98 


PA 


3-25 


H,BP 


1-5 


Familia Eubranchidae Odhner, 1934 
















Eubronclius farrani (Alder y Hancock, 1 844) 


6,8,11,12 


1,2,5,9,10,12 


96-99 


PA 


8-10 


A, H, BP 


1-3 


Familia Focelinidoe Bergh in Carus, 1 889 
















facelina onnulicornisiíhmm y Heysenhardt,1821 


) 8,11 


1-3,6,9,10,12 


96-98 


A 


10-20 


H,BP 


1-6 


Faceíma coronata (Forbes y Goodsir, 1839) 


8,11 


1-4,6-8,10,12 


96-98 


A 


10-25 


H,CA 


1-9 


Facelina wbmitatto (A. Costa, 1866) 


11 


4,9,10 


97,98 


PA 


10-15 


H 


7-10 


Caloría elegans (Alder y Hancock, 1 845) 


4,5,11,12 


1-12 


95-99 


A 


5-15 


BP, H, R 


5-15 


Cratena peregrína (Gmelin, 1791) 


4,11,12 


1-11 


95-99 


MA 


10-30 


H 


7-20 


PruvotfoÜa pselliotes (Labbé, 1923) 


2 


2 


99 


E 


15 


BP 


4 


fl/fofoocí/)/)enSchmekel, 1967 


11 


4 


98 


E 


3 


CA,H 


9 


Dondice banyulensis Portmann y Sandmeier,l 960 


4,11,12 


2-5,7,9-11 


95-99 


PA 


15-35 


R,H 


15-20 


Familia Flabellinidoe Bergh, 1889 
















Flabellina affinis (Gmelin, 1 791 ) 4,5,7, 8, 9,1 0,1 1 , 


12 1-12 


95-99 


MA 


5-30 


H,R 


2-25 


Flabellina iscbitana Himno y Thompson, 1 990 


11,12 


1,2,5,8,12 


94-99 


A 


10-20 


H,R 


5-25 


f/oM/no ¿060/ Schmekel, 1972 


11 


3,4,8,10 


94, 97, 98 


PA 


10-60 


CA,R 


9-16 


Flabellina pedata (Montagu, 1815) 


2,4,11,12 


1,2,4-11 


95-99 


MA 


5-25 


H 


6-15 


Calmella cavolini (Vérony, 1 846) 


11,12 


1,2,9-11 


98,99 


PA 


8-15 


H 


7-10 


Familia Piseinotecidoe Edmunds, 1970 
















Piseinotecus gabinierí (Vicente, 1 975) 


11,12 


2-10 


95-99 


A 


15-30 


H,R 


9-15 


Familia Tergipedidae Bergh, 1 889 
















Cuthono genovae (O'Donoghue, 1929) 


8 


5 


98 


E 


6 


H 


1 



MA, especie muy abundante de la que 
se han observado más de 100 individuos 
durante todo el estudio. Los tipos de 
substratos vienen indicados con las 
abreviaturas: A (algas), B (fondos 
blandos), BP (bajo piedra), BR (brio- 
zoos), C (cuevas), CA (cascajo), E 
(esponjas), G (gorgonáceos), H (hidroi- 
deos), R (rocoso, cubierto fundamen- 
talmente de algas fotófilas e hidroideos) 
y S (especie encontrada flotando en 
superficie). 

En el litoral granadino se han identi- 
ficado 84 especies de opistobranquios 
distribuidas, en órdenes y subórdenes. 



de la siguiente manera: Cephalaspidea, 4; 
Thecosomata, 1; Anaspidea, 3; Notaspidea, 
6; Sacoglossa, 5 y Nudibranchia, 65, repar- 
tidos en Doridacea, 36; Dendronotacea, 7; 
Arminacea, 2 y Aeolidacea, 20. 

Como se desprende de la Tabla II, 
existen una serie de especies que han 
aparecido en tres o más estaciones de 
muestreo, prácticamente a lo largo de 
todo el año y a lo largo de toda la 
campaña de muestreo, aunque en oca- 
siones de forma escasa o poco frecuente. 
Éstas son: Berthella plumula, Chromodoris 
britoi, C. krohni, Hypselodoris pida, H. 
villafranca, Doriopsilla areolata, Mariana 



SAnchez-Tocino ETAL.: Opistobranquios de la costa de G añada 



hlainvillea, Eubranchus farrani, Caloría 
elegans, Dondice banyulensis, Flabellina 
affinis y F. pedata. Dichas especies las 
podemos considerar como las más cons- 
tantes del litoral granadino. 

Por el contrario otras especies desta- 
can por haber aparecido en una sola 
estación de muestreo y únicamente en 
una o dos ocasiones, siendo éste el caso 
de: Umbraculum umbraculum, Berthella 
ocellata, Elysia viridis, Hermaea pucicirra, 
Caliphylla mediterránea, Aegires leuckarti, 
Hypselodoris cantábrica, Discodoris fragilis, 
Geitodoris planata, Jorunna onubenis, Ros- 
tanga rubra, Polycera faeroensis, Roboastra 
europea, Tambja ceutae, Hancockia unci- 
nata, Tritonia manicata, Berghia verrucicor- 
nis, Pruvotfolia pselliotes. Dicata odhneri y 
Cuthona genovae. Dichas especies 
pueden considerarse raras o de presen- 
cia accidental en nuestras costas. No 
hemos tenido en cuenta, en este caso, los 
Cefalaspideos pues de las cuatro esta- 
ciones en las que se intensificaron los 
muéstreos una sola correspondía a 
fondos blandos, por lo que el número de 
inmersiones ha sido menor en este tipo 
de fondos, que es donde preferente- 
mente se encuentran las especies de 
dicho grupo. Tampoco hemos tenido en 
cuenta las especies procedentes de 
arrastreros. 

Es igualmente destacable que las tres 
especies de Trapania: T. hispalensis, T. 
lineata y T. maculata se han encontrado 
durante los mismos meses del año, en 
las mismas estaciones de muestreo y 
sobre el mismo tipo de substrato. Este 
hecho justificaría un estudio taxonómico 
y ecológico de las especies del género en 
el Mediterráneo. 

La mayor abundancia de opistobran- 
quios se ha observado en la zona com- 
prendida entre 5 y 15 m de profundi- 
dad, durante los meses de octubre, 
noviembre, enero, febrero y marzo, que 
corresponden con otoño e invierno. 

En la estación de muestreo 11 es 
donde aparecen un mayor número de 
especies, dado que en ella se alcanza una 
mayor profundidad, por lo que la varie- 
dad de substratos y por tanto de habitats 
diferentes es mayor. Sin embargo las 
especies Tambja ceutae, T. marbellensis y 



Polycera aurantiomarginata se recolecta- 
ron exclusivamente como j ti eniles en la 
cercana estación 12 y debajo de piedras, 
sobre el briozoo Sessibugula barrosoi, del 
que hemos comprobado se alimentan, al 
menos durante la etapa juvenil. Sólo el 
ejemplar de T. ceutae de mayor tamaño, 
unos 20 mm de longitud, fué encontrado 
directamente sobre una pared a plomo, 
en un substrato diferente, suponiendo 
que en una fase juvenil más avanzada 
dicha especie cambia de hábitos alimen- 
ticios. En general la mayor parte de las 
especies fueron observadas sobre epi- 
biontes de substratos rocosos y como 
infralapidícolas. 

Respecto a la distribución de las 
especies que se han encontrado en la 
costa granadina y en base a la Tabla III, 
de las especies citadas, 53 son nuevas 
citas para las costas de Granada. Poly- 
cera faeroensis y Pruvotfolia pselliotes son 
primeras citas para el Mediterráneo. 
Geitodoris planata es nueva cita para el 
Mediterráneo ibérico y Hermaea paucici- 
rra lo es para el Mediterráneo andaluz. 

Polycera faeroensis ha sido citada 
antes de ahora en el litoral gallego por 
Ortea y Urgorri (1981) y Urgorri y 
Besteiro (1983) y en el Estrecho de 
Gibraltar por García- Gómez (1983; 
1984). 

Por su parte Pruvotfolia pselliotes ha 
sido citada con anterioridad en el litoral 
atlántico de la Península Ibérica desde 
Galicia hasta el Estrecho de Gibraltar y 
en las Islas Canarias (Cervera, Tem- 
plado, García-Gómez, ballesteros, 

ORTEA, garcía, ROS Y LUQUE, 1988). 

Debido a la confusión que ha habido 
entre las especies Geitodoris planata y Dis- 
codoris stellifera (Cervera, García- 
Gómez Y García., 1985; Cervera et al., 
1988) resulta difícil establecer las áreas de 
distribución de ambas, siendo necesario, 
como señalan estos últimos la revisión de 
las diferentes citas de las dos especies. 
Aunque G. planata no ha sido citada en 
las costas mediterráneas ibéricas, desde 
hace una década, es relativamente fre- 
cuente en diferentes localidades de la 
costa catalana (Ballesteros, com. pers.). 
Los ejemplares observados en las: costas 
catalanas junto con los observados en la 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



Tabla 111. Artículos donde se citan, en cada una de las provincias andaluzas, la presencia de las diferen- 
tes especies observadas en la costa de Granada. Simbolos empleados: * especie citada por primera vez en 
la provincia de Granada; - especie citada por primera vez en el litoral mediterráneo andaluz; = especie citada 
por primera vez en el litoral mediterráneo ibérico, + especie citada por primera vez en el Mediterráneo. 
Abreviaturas y números: C: Cervera; HU: Huelva; CA: Cádiz; MA: Málaga; GR: Granada; AL: Almería; 
1: Aartsen, Menkhorst y Gittenberger (1984); 2: Ballesteros (1980); 3: Ballesteros, 
Barrajón, Luque, Moreno,TalaverayTemplado (1986); 4: Ballesteros yTemplado (1987); 
5: Bobo (1998); 6: Cervera (1988); 7: Cervera y García-Gómez (1986); 8: Cervera y García- 
Gómez (1988); 9: Cervera, García-Gómez y García (1985); 10: García-Gómez y Cervera 
(1985); 11: Cervera, García-Gómez y García (1986); 12: Cervera, García-Gómez y Ortea 
(1988); 13: Cervera, López GonzAlezyGarcía-Gómez (1998); 14: Cervera, MedinayGarcía 
(1986); 15: Cervera £Tv4z. (1988); 16: García, García-Gómez y Cervera (1986); 17: García- 
Gómez (1982); 18: García-Gómez (1983); 19: García-Gómez (1984); 20: García-Gómez (1985); 
21: García-Gómez (1986); 22: García-Gómez (1987); 23: García-Gómez y Bobo (1984); 24: 
García-Gómez Y Ortea ( 1988); 25: García Raso, Luque, Templado, Salas, Hergueta, Moreno 
Y Calvo (1992); 26: Hergueta (1985); 27: Hergueta y Salas (1987); 28: Hidalgo (1916); 29: 
Hidalgo (1917); 30: Luque (1983); 31: Luque (1986); 32: García-Gómez y García (1984); 
33: Martínez etal (1993); 34: Moreno y Templado (1998); 35: Nobre (1932); 40: Rampal 
(1968); 41: Ros (1975); 42: Salas Y Hergueta (1986); 43: Salas y Luque (1986); 44: Schicky 
Cervera (1998); 45: Sierra, García y Lloris (1978); 46: Templado, LuqueyMoreno (1988); 
47: Templado etal. (1993); 49: Vayssiere (1913); 50: Vives, Santamaría y Trepart (1975). 

Table III. Articles citing, for each Andalusian province, the presence ofthe dijferent species observed on the 
coast ofthe province of Granada. Symbols used: * species citedfor thefirst time in the province of Granada; 
- species citedforthefirst time on the Mediterranean coast ofAndalusia; = species citedfor thefirst time on 
the Mediterranean coast ofthe Iberian Peninsula; + species citedfor thefirst time in the Mediterranean sea. 
Abbreviations and numbers: C: Cervera; HU: Huelva; CA: Cádiz; MA: Málaga; GR: Granada; AL: 
Almería; 1: AaRTSEN, MeNKHORST AND GiTTENBERGER (1984); 2: BALLESTEROS (1980); 3: 

Ballesteros, Barrajón, Luque, Moreno, Talayera y Templado (1986); 4: Ballesteros and 
Templado (1987); 5: Bobo (1998); 6: Cervera (1988); 7: Cervera and García-Gómez (1986); 8: 
Cervera and García-Gómez (1988); 9: Cervera, García-Gómez and García (1985); 10: Garclí- 
Gómez and Cervera (1985); 11: Cervera, García-Gómez and García (1986); 12: Cervera, 
García-Gómez AND Ortea (1988); 13: Cervera, López González and García-Gómez (1998); 
14: Cervera, Medlnaand García (1986); 15: Cervera etal. (1988); 16: García, García-Gómez 
AND Cervera (1986); 17: García-Gómez (1982); 18: García-Gómez (1983); 19: García-Gómez 
(1984); 20: García-Gómez (1985); 21: García-Gómez (1986); 22: García-Gómez (1987); 23: 
García-Gómez and Bobo (1984); 24: García-Gómez and Ortea ( 1988); 25: García Raso, 
Luque, Templado, Salas, Hergueta, Moreno y Calvo (1992); 26: Hergueta (1985); 27: 
Hergueta and Salas (1987); 28: Hidalgo (1916); 29: Hldalgo (1917); 30: Luque (1983); 31: 
Luque (1986); 32: García-Gómez and García (1984); 33: Martínez et al. (1993); 34: Moreno 
and Templado (1998); 35: Nobre (1932); 40: Rampal (1968); 41: Ros (1975); 42: Salas and 
Hergueta (1986); 43: Salas and Luque (1986); 44: Schickand Cervera (1998); 45: Slerra, 
García and Llorls (1978); 46: Templado, Luqüeand Moreno (1988); 47: Templado et al. 
(1993); 49: Vayssiere (1913); 50: Vtves, Santamaría and Trepare (1975). 

ESPECIE HU CA MA GR AL IKita 

Bulla striota 
Aglaja tricolorata 
Philinopsis depicta 
Scophander lignaríus 
Cymbutio peronii 
Aplysia fosciota 
Aplysio párvula 
Aplysia punctata 
Umbraculum umbraculum 



29,17 


29,17,1 


29,30,31 




3,45 


33 


33 
47 




34 


34 
34 


29 


29,1,47 


29 
40,50 




25 


jbs. pers.) 


17 


30,31 




3,25 




47 


4 




25 


7 


17,47 


30,31,3,43 




3,25 


29 


29 


29,30,31 




29 



Sánchez-Tocino ETAL.-. Opistobranquios de la costa de C -añada 



Tabla III. Continuación. 
Table III. Continuation 



ESPECIE 



GR 



lUita 



Pleurobronchus teshjdinaríus 
Bertbella ocellato 
Berthella plumula 
Beéella stellata 
Pkmhmáaeo meáelii 
Thurídilla bopei 
Elysia viridis 
Hemaea pouciáw 
Caliphylla mediterráneo 
Pkida vertiallato 
Aegires leuáarti 
Trapanio hispalensis 
Jrapanio ¡ineato 
Trapania maculota 
Diaphorodoris luteocincta 
Oiophorodoris papillota 
Crímoro popillota 
Aldisa banyulensis 
Chromodorís britoi 
Chromodoris ¡(.rohni 
Ckomodoris luteorosea 
Chromodoris purpureo 
Codlina pellucido 
Hypselodoris bilineata 
Hypselodoris cantobrica 
Hypselodoris fontondraui 
Hypselodoris picto 
Hypselodoris midatlantico 
Hypselodoris villafranca 
Discodoris atromaculata 
Discodoris frogilis 
Discodoris rosi 
Geitodoris portmonr)i 
Geitodoris plar^ota 
Jorunna onubensis 
Platydoris argo 
Rostanga rubra 
Polycero aurantiomarginata 
Polycera faeroensis 
Polycero quadrilineata 
Limada clavigera 
Roboastra europea 
Jambja ceutae 
Tambjo marbellerjsis 
Dendrodoris limbata 
Doriopsilla oreolata 
Doto koenneckeri 
Hancockia uncinata 
Tetbys fimbria 
Tritonio manicata 
Jritonia nilsodbneri 
Manió striata 
Morlona blainvillea 





47 




34 


34 




22,47 








14 


7 






3,25 


14 


7,11,22 






3,25 


8,5 


47 


30,31,47 


47,34 


34 




17,19,7 


30,31 


30,31 


3,25 


6 


17,19 


3 




3 


7,12 


19,22 
8 


30,31 




3 

25 
3,25 


19 


19,8 






3,25 




18,19 


30,31 


30,31 


3,25 




18,19 


30,31 




46,25 




18,19 
17,19,16 




46 


25 




22 




31 


3,25 




17,19,7 


26,31,42 


31 


3,25 




18,19,7 






25 




18,19,7 


30,31 


46 


3,25 
34 




18,19,7 




30,31 






18,19 


30,31 


30,31 






18,19 


30,31 


30,31 






17,18,19 


41,30,31 


30,31 


3 




18,19 




31 


3 




19,7 


30,31 




25 




18,19 




31 


3 



18,19 



9 










11,5 


7 




46 






41,18,19,47 


30,31 


30,31 


3,25 


6,5 


17,19,21 






46,25 


25,19,5 


7 






46 


5 


18,19 








17,19,5 


19 
18,19 
19,20 

24 

44 


30,31 


34 


46,25 
34 


17,19 


17,19,7 


30,31 




3,25 


19,5 


17,19,7,47 


30,31,47,42 


31 


25 

46,25 

34 




47 


30,31,47 


47 






18,19,7 


30,31 


46 


46 




18,19 






46 


49,28,35 


17,19 


47 


47 


3 



Tabla III. Continuación. 
Table III. Continuation 



Iberus, 18 (I), 2000 



ESPECIE 



MA 



GR 



^Cita 



kmm moculota 
Janolus crístatvs 
Aeolidiella soemmeríngi 
Berghio coewlescens 
Berghia verwcicornis 
Spurílla neapolitono 
Eubranchus formi 
Facelino onnukornis 
Facelino coronóte 
Focelina rubmitafía 
Caloría elegans 
Cratena peregrina 
PruvoMa pselliotes 
Dicota oáhnerí 
Donéice banyulensis 
Flabeílina affinis 
Flabelíino ischitana 
Flabeílina babai 
Flabeílina peáota 
Colmella cavolini 
Piseinotecus gobinierí 
Cutbono genovae 





17 


30,31 






19 


18,19,7 


30,31 




46,25 


19 


17,19,7 










18,19 


26,42,27 


34 




19 


18,19,7 






3,25 


19,10,5 


18,19,10,7 


30,31 




3,25 




7 




46 


46,25 




18 




46 






18,7 




46 


25 




7 


30,31 




3 




18,19 






3,25 


19 


19,7 

19,7,22 

19 






3,25 
34 




17,32,47 




30,31 


46,25 


19 


17,18,19,21,7 


30,31 


30,31 


3,25 


5 


13 






25 




19,21 


31 




25 


19 


17,19,7 


30,31 


46 
46 


3 
3,25 



18,19,7 



3,25 



costa granadina constituyen la primera 
cita para el Mediterráneo. 

Hermaea paucicirra ha sido encon- 
trada con anterioridad en el litoral astu- 
riano (Ortea, 1977a, b), en el litoral 
gallego (Urgorri y Besteiro, 1983), en 
las costas de Alicante y Murcia (Marín 

Y Ros, 1988), en el litoral catalán 
(Ballesteros, 1980) así como, en las 
costas de Cádiz (Cervera y García- 
Gómez, 1986; Cervera, García-Gómez 

Y Ortea, 1988). Por tanto el hallazgo de 
esta especie en la costa de Granada 
supone su primera cita para el litoral 
mediterráneo andaluz. 



Resulta de interés el haber obser- 
vado en una franja costera tan reducida 
los dos tipos de coloraciones que se dan 
en el Mediterráneo español, para Hypse- 
lodoris villafranca, según Ortea, Valdés 
Y García-Gómez (1996): la que se da en 
las costas catalanas y la propia del sur 
de la Península, siendo más frecuente 
ésta última. 

Por otro lado, el género Tambja es el 
que ha proporcionado los resultados 
taxonómicos más interesantes, al encon- 
trarse en la costa granadina todas las 
especies del género citadas por ahora en 
las costas europeas. Tambja marbellensis se 



(Página derecha) Figura 2. A: Geitodoris planata, ejemplar de 25 mm; B: Pruvotfolia pselliotes, ejem- 
plar de 15 mm; C: Polycera faeroensis, ejemplar de 25 mm; D: Hermaea paucicirra, ejemplar de 2 
mm; E.- Caliphylla mediterránea, ejemplar de 5 mm; F: Tambja marbellensis, ejemplar de 12 mm; 
G: Polycera aurantiomarginata, ejemplar de 3 mm: H: Placida verticillata, ejemplar de 2 mm. 
(Right page) Figure 2. A: Geitodoris planata, specimen of25 mm; B: Pruvotfolia pselliotes, specime of 
15 mm; C: Polycera faeroensis, specimen of 25 mm; D: Hermaea paucicirra, specimen of 2 mm: E: 
Caliphylla mediterránea, specimen of 5 mm: F: Tambja marbellensis, specimen of 12 mm; G; Poly- 
cera aurantiomarginata, specimen of3 mm; H: Placida verticillata, specimen of2 mm. 



10 



Sánchez-Tocino ETAL.-. Opistobranquios de la costa de G añada 




11 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



cita por primera vez tras su descripción 
original por ScHiCK Y Cervera (1998) 

Respecto a las veces que han sido 
citadas las especies contempladas en el 
presente trabajo, en las distintas provin- 
cias del litoral andaluz (ver Tabla III) 
resulta resaltable, en primer lugar, que 
éstas no han sido homogéneas, lo que 
está motivado por la peculiaridad de la 
orografía del litoral de cada una de ellas 
y por la prohisión de los muéstreos, más 
intensa en unas que en otras. En cual- 
quier caso es destacable que en las pro- 
vincias andaluzas más estudiadas 
(Cádiz y Almería) determinadas espe- 
cies son repetidamente citadas por más 
de un autor. Así, en la costa gaditana. 
Bulla striata, Scaphander lignarius, Berthe- 
lla stellata, Thuridilla hopei, Aldisa banyu- 
lensis, Chromodoris krohni, C. luteorosea, C. 
purpurea, Hypselodoris bilineata, H. pida, 
Platidoris argo, Rostanga rubra, Dendrodo- 
ris limbata, Doriopsilla areolata, Tritonia 
manicata, Janolus cristatus, Aeolidiella 
soemmeringi, Bergia verrucicornis, Spurilla 
neapolitana, Pruvotfolia pselliotes, Dondice 
banyulensis, Flabellina affinis, Flabellina 
pedata, y Cuthona genovae, son las espe- 
cies más frecuentes. De la misma forma, 
en la costa almeriense, Aplysia fasciata, 
Aplysia punctata, Berthella plumula, B. ste- 
llata, Thuridilla hopei, Trapania lineata, T. 
macúlala, Diaphorodoris luteocincta, D. 
papillata, Chromodoris britoi, C. krohni, C. 



purpurea, Platydoris argo, Rostanga rubra, 
Polycera quadrilineata, Dendrodoris 
limbata. Doto koenneckeri, Janolus crista- 
tus, Berghia verrucicornis, Spurilla neapoli- 
tana, Eubranchus farrani. Caloría elegans, 
Cratena peregrina, Dondice banyulensis, 
Flabellina affinis, Calmella cavolini y 
Cuthona genovae, presentan una mayor 
frecuencia. Teniendo en cuenta los datos 
de todas las provincias, las especies: 
Bulla striata, Aglaja tricolorata, Aplysia fas- 
ciata, A. punctata, Umbraculum umbracu- 
lum, Pleurobranchaea meckelii, Elysia 
viridis, Chromodoris purpurea, Hypselodo- 
ris picta, H. villafranca, Polycera quadrili- 
neata, Dendrodoris limbata, Doriopsilla are- 
olata, Mariana blainvillea, Janolus cristatus, 
Spurilla neapolitana, Flabellina affinis y F. 
pedata han sido citadas en todo el litoral 
andaluz. 



AGRADECIMIENTOS 

Nuestro más sincero agradecimiento 
al Dr. José Templado por su ayuda en la 
identificación de algunos ejemplares, así 
como a Ángel Gaytan y Antonio de la 
Linde por acompañarnos en muchas de 
las inmersiones. Este trabajo queda englo- 
bado dentro del Proyecto "Fauna Ibérica 
IV" (DGICYT PB95-0235), subproyecto de 
Moluscos Gasterópodos Opistobranquios, 
y en el proyecto CICYT PB98-1121. 



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14 



© Sociedad Española de Malacologia 



Iberus, 18 1): 15-19,2000 



\m-' 



Onoba oliverioi n. sp. (Prosobranchia, Rissoidae), a new 
gastropod from the Mediterranean 

Onoba oliverioi xv. sp. (Prosobranchia, Rissoidae), un nuevo gasteró- 
podo para el Mediterráneo 

Cario SMRIGLIO* and Paolo MARIOTTINI** 

Recibido ell-IX-1999. Aceptado el l-X-1999 

ABSTRACT 

Onoba oliverioi n. sp. (Prosobranchia, Rissoidae) is here described from material collected 
on muddy bathyal bottoms surrounding a deep-sea coral bank located off-shore Latium (Cen- 
tral Tyrrhenian Sea). The new species is known from shells only and it has been placed in the 
genus Onoba H. and A. Adams, 1 852. Onoba oliverioi n. sp. is compared to Onoba gianni- 
nii (Nordsieck, 1974) (deep-shelf), Onoba dimassai AmaW and Nofroni, 1991 (shallow 
water) and Alvania wareni (Templado and Rolan, 1 986) (deep-shelf), which it resembles. A 
list of mollusc species found associated with the new taxon is also given. 

RESUMEN 

En el presente trabajo se describe, en base exclusivamente a caracteres de la concha, una 
nueva especie de Onoba, a partir de material recogido en un fondo batial de arena y 
fango, en las proximidades de una comunidad de corales blancos, localizada a lo largo de 
las costas del Lazio. El nuevo taxon, denominado Onoba oliverioi n. sp., se compara con 
las especies similares del género Onoba, O. gianninii y O. dimassai Amati y Nofroni, 
1 991 , y Alvania wareni (Templado y Rolan, 1 986). Se incluye la lista de las especies que 
se han encontrado en el mismo muestreo. 



KEY WORDS: Onoba, new species, Mediterranean Sea. 
PALABRAS CLAVE: Onoba, nueva especie, Mediterráneo. 



INTRODUCTION 

The genus Onoba H. and A. Adams, 
1852 includes small size cylindrical 
species which share certain shell featu- 
res with members of Alvania Risso, 1826 
s. /. and Crisilla Monterosato, 1917 s. L, 
regarded as a genus, according to 
BouCHET AND Warén (1993). Anatómi- 
ca! differences have been found between 



some representative taxa of the two 
genera Onoba and Rissoa, leading to the 
idea that is an interesting case of shell 
morphological convergence (Ponder, 
1985; Oliverio, 1988; Bouchet and 
Warén, 1993). The Mediterranean 
species of Onoba, well illustrated by 
GiANNUZzi- Savelli, Pusateri, Palmeri 



* Via di Valle Aurelia 134, 00167 Roma, Italy. 

** Dipartimento di Biología, Universitá degli Studi Roma Tre, Viale Marconi 446, 00146 Roma, Italy. 
Corresponding author: Paolo Mariottini, Dipartimento di Biología, Universitá degli Studi Roma Tre, Viale 
Marconi 446, 00146 Roma, Italy. E-mail: mariotpa@bio. uniroma3. it 



15 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



AND Ebreo (1996), consist of mainly 
shallow-water shells. In fact, the only 
deep-water taxon is Onoba gianninii 
(Nordsieck R, 1974), figured by SEM 
photographs by Amati and Nofroni 
(1991), who also desígnate the lectotype, 
and BoucHET and Warén (1993). In this 
paper we describe, on the base of shell 
morphology, a new species of Onoba 
from material dredged on some muddy 
bathyal bottoms surrounding a deep-sea 
coral bank located off Latium coast and 
currently under investigation (Smriglio 
and Mariottini, 1999). The new species 



is compared to the similar O. gianninii 
and Onoba dimassai Amati and Nofroni, 
1991. A list of mollusc species found in 
the same material is also given. 

Abbreviations: 

MZB: Museo di Zoología dell'Uni ver sita 

di Bologna, Italy. 
MZR: Reparto Malacologico del Museo 

Civico di Zoología di Roma, Italy. 
CS: C. Smriglio prívate collection. 
MO: M. Oliverio prívate collection. 
PM: R Mariottini prívate collection. 



RESULTS 

Family Rissoidae Gray J. E., 1847 
Genus Onoba H. and A. Adams, 1852 

Onoba oliverioi n. sp. (Figs. 1-6) 

Type material: Holotype (MZB 14000), 1 sh., dredged, june 1987. Paratype D (MZR), 1 sh., type 

locality, june 1987. Paratypes A, B, C, E, F, G, H, I and L (CS), 9 sh., type locality, june 1987. Paratype 

M (MO), 1 sh., type locality, may 1990. Paratype N (PM), 1 sh., type locality, may 1990. 

Type locality: Central Tyrrhenian Sea (41° 51' N, 11° 28' E), off coast of Latium, on muddy bottom 

in a deep-sea coral biocoenosis, [biocoenosis VB and CB sensu PÉRÉs and Picaro (1964) ], at a depth 

of 350-600 m. 

Material examined: O. oliverioi n. sp., type locality, 32 sh. (CS). 

Derivatio nominis: This species is named in honour of Dr Marco Oliveiro, expert malacologist and 

good friend of the authors, who has contributed a great deal to the knowledge of the Mediterra- 

nean malacofauna. 



Description: Shell small (from 1.61 to 
2.32 mm in height), conical-ovate, with a 
large aperture, blunt apex. Protoconch 
dome-shaped consisting of about 1.5 
whorls, with a diameter of 400-440 ^m, 
sculptured with 6-8 fine and irregular spi- 
ral cordlets. Among them, several other 
interrupted fine furrows créate a sort of mi- 
cro-tuberculated sculpture. Teleoconch of 
about 3.0 rounded convex whorls, the last 
one is about ^/s of the entire length, ave- 
rage ratio H / W = 1 .55, average ratio H / Ha 
= 1.99. Suture pronounced and shallowly 
channelled, axial growing lines evident, 
spiral sculpture consisting of about 27 
evenly spaced ribs, with about 2-3 much 
smaller furrows in the inter-spaces. Aper- 
ture ovoid, umbilical crevice slightly visi- 
ble. Colour mílky-white or yellowish trans- 
lucent. Operculum and animal unknown. 



Remarks: O. oliverioi (Figs. 1-6) is con- 
chologically very similar to O. gianninii 
(Figs. 7, 8), resulting in the new taxon ha- 
ving been already recorded in the past by 
BouCHET AND Warén (1993: fig. 1520, p. 
663), but misidentified as O. gianninii. M. 
Oliverio already mentioned the possibi- 
lity to face a complex of species when de- 
aling with O. gianninii: ' Studying the spe- 
cimens usually dassified as gianninii it re- 
sulted that more than one species could be 
involved" Oliverio (1988). Indeed, O. oli- 
verioi can be separated from the last spe- 
cies on the ground of some protoconch 
and teleoconch features. In particular, the 
protoconchs differ in the two species, being 
the one of O. oliverioi much flatter, more 
sculptured and slightly smaller. The tele- 
oconch outline of O. oliverioi differs from 
the one of O. gianninii being less slender 



16 



Smriglio and Mariottini: Onoba oliverioi n. sp., a new Mediterra nean Rissoidae 




Figures 1-6. Onoba oliverioi. 1: holotype. 2.0 x 1.3 mm, (MZB 14000); 2: paratype D, 1.8 x 1.2 
mm, (MZR); 3: paratype C, 1.8 x 1.2 mm, (CS); 4: paratype E, 2.2 x 1.3 mm, (CS); 5: paratype 
A; 6: protoconch, paratype A, 2.2 x 1.4 mm, (CS). Figures 7, 8. O. gianninii. 7: lectotype; 8: pro- 
toconch,lectotype, 2.2 x 1.2 mm, (MZR). Strait of Bonifacio, off Capo Comino (200-220 m). 
Lectotype figure after Amati AND NOFRONI (1991). Scale bars, shells: 1 mm; protoconchs: 200 
mm. 

Figuras 1-6. Onoba oliverioi. 1: holotipo. 2,0 x 1,3 mm, (MZB 14000); 2: paratipo D, 1,8 x 1,2 
mm, (MZR); 3: paratipo C, 1,8 x 1,2 mm, (CS); 4: paratipo E, 2,2 x 1,3 mm, (CS); 5: paratipo A; 6: 
protoconcha, paratipo A, 2,2 x 1,4 mm, (CS). Figuras 7, 8. O. gianninii. 7: lectotipo; 8: protoconcha 
del lectotipo, 2,2 x 1,2 mm, (MZR), Estrecho de Bonifacio, Capo Comino (200-220 m). Lectotipo 
figura original de Amati y Nofroni (1991). Escalas, conchas: 1 mm; protoconchas: 200 mm. 



17 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



(H/W = 1.55 versus H/W = 1.75, respec- 
tively), having a smaller average number 
of whorls (about 2.5-3 versus 3.5-4, res- 
pectively ) and a bigger aperture (H / Ha = 
1.99 versus H/ Ha = 2.40, respectively). On 
the contrary, the sculpture of the teleo- 
conch in the two species results very si- 
milar, consisting in rounded spiral ribs of 
equal bread th and number (26-31). O. oli- 
verioi also differs from Alvania wareni (Tem- 
plado and Rolan, 1986), a species closely 
related to O. gianninü, as stressed by Bou- 
CHET AND Warén (1993: 663): "They may 
prove to be conspecific, when material beco- 
mes known from the intermedíate área". The 
differences outlined between the new spe- 
cies and O. gianninü, hold when compa- 
ring the new species to A. wareni as well. 
Furthermore, the shell of A. wareni has an 
additional and diagnostic sculpture fea- 
ture at the protoconch-teleoconch demar- 



cation (BoucHET and Warén, 1993: 646; 
fig. 1462); in fact, the last part of the pro- 
toconch whorl shows about 20 fine cord- 
lets irregularly interrupted, which are not 
present in O. oliverioi ñor in O. gianninü. 
The new taxon is distinguishable from O. 
dimassai too, a shallow water species which 
has a similar shell shape. O. dimassai has 
a smooth protoconch with no evident mi- 
crosculpture, of about 1.20-1.25 whorls 
and a diameter of about 300-380 ^m. Its 
teleoconch sculpture shows 24-30 major 
spiral ribs which present 4-5 fine furrows, 
together with the 3-4 furrows at the inter- 
spaces, the shell surface appears to be more 
tightly covered by these spiral ribs; furt- 
hermore, the last whorl does not show any 
umbilical crevice (Amati and Nofroni, 
1991). These shell features pointed out 
allow an easy separation of O. dimassai 
from O. oliverioi. 



DISCUSSION 



The shell features observed in the 
specimens of O. oliverioi from the Central 
Tyrrhenian Sea, summarised in Table 1, 
are clearly visible in the individual figu- 
red by Bouchet and Warén (1993), 
which is from the Strait of Bonifacio (off 
Capo Comino, 200-300 m). So, it seems 
that the morphological characters shown 
by O. oliverioi are very constant regard- 
less the collecting spot. Since shells of 
both O. gianninü and O. oliverioi have 
been coUected together in that área (Bou- 
chet AND Warén, 1993), the two species 
could be sympatric in the Strait of Bonifa- 
cio, corroborating the idea that are in- 
deed two different taxa and not just two 
extreme forms of the same species. The 
shells of O. oliverioi from the Central Tyrr- 
henian Sea were dredged on a bathyal 
bottom, at a depth of 350-600 m, resulting 
in a deeper record than the ones of the 
specimen from Capo Comino and of O. 
gianninü (Amati and Nofroni, 1991). 
The new taxon probably belongs to the 
biocoenosis VB sensu Pérés and Picard 
(1964), the other moUusc species found in 
the same dredged material seem to sup- 
port this assumption. The identified spe- 
cies occurring with O. oliverioi are: Propi- 



lidium exiguum Thompson, 1843, Lepetella 
cf. laterocompressa (De Rayneval and 
Ponzi, 1854), Emarginula teñera Locard, 
1892, Clelandella miliaris (Brocchi, 1814), 
Danilia otaviana (Cantraine, 1835), Putzey- 
sia wiseri (Calcara, 1842), Alvania cimicoi- 
des (Forbes, 1844), Alvania subsoluta (Ara- 
das, 1847), Orbitestella dariae (Liuzzi and 
Stolfa Zucchi, 1979), Trophon muricatus 
var. barvicensis (Johnston, 1825), Nassarius 
lima (Dillwin, 1817), Amphissa acuteo- 
costata (Philippi, 1844), Granulina gofasi 
Smriglio and Mariottini, 1996, Gymnobela 
abyssorum (Locard, 1897), Microdrillia lo- 
prestiana (Calcara, 1841), Pleurotomella dé- 
mosla (Dautzenberg and Fischer P, 1896), 
Pleurotomella gibbera Bouchet and Warén, 
1980 ex Jeffreys ms., Teretia teres (Reeve, 
1844), Conopleura aliena Smriglio, Mariot- 
tini and Calascibetta, 1999, Heliacus alleryi 
(Seguenza C, 1876), Mathilda cochlaefor- 
mis Brugnone, 1873, Japonacteon pusillus 
(McGillivray, 1843), Asperarca nodulosa 
(Müller, 1776), Chlamys bruei (Payrau- 
deau, 1826) and Cadulus subfusiformis 
(Sars M., 1865). At the present time, the 
distribution of O. oliverioi is limited to the 
Tyrrhenian Sea: off Latium and Sardinia 
(Strait of Bonifacio) coasts. 



18 



SmriGLIO and MariOTTINI: Onoba oliverioi n. sp., a new Mediterr; nean Rissoidae 



Table I. Shell morphological measurements of Onoba oliverioi type material. A: reviations. H: 
height in mm; W: width in mm; Ha: height aperture in mm; Pd: protoconch diamecer in [iin; Sr: 
spiral ribs of the last whod; ND: not determined. 

Tabla I. Medidas morfológicas de la concha del material tipo de Onoba oliverioi. Abreviaciones. H: 
altura en mm; W: ancho en mm; Ha: altura de la boca en mm; Pd: diámetro de la protoconch a en ¡im; 
Sr: estrias espirales en la ultima vuelta; ND: no determinado. 



Specímen 


H 


W 


Ha 


H/W 


H/Ha 


Pd 


Sr 


Holotype 


1.85 


1.20 


0.97 


1.54 


1.91 


440 


26 


Paratype A 


2.17 


1.38 


1.08 


1.57 


2.00 


400 


31 


Paratype B 


2.26 


1.47 


1.08 


1.53 


2.09 


420 


27 


Paratype C 


2.05 


1.26 


0.94 


1.62 


2.18 


440 


28 


Paratype D 


1.79 


1.17 


0.88 


1.53 


2.03 


400 


28 


Paratype E 


2.23 


1.35 


1.05 


1.65 


2.12 


440 


26 


Paratype F 


1.91 


1.29 


1.00 


1.48 


1.91 


440 


26 


Paratype G 


1.79 


1.20 


0.94 


1.49 


1.90 


440 


26 


Paratype H 


1.79 


1.20 


0.94 


1.49 


1.90 


440 


28 


Paratype 1 


2.17 


1.41 


1.11 


1.54 


1.95 


400 


ND 


Paratype L 


1.73 


1.20 


0.94 


1.44 


1.84 


420 


26 


Paratype M 


1.61 


1.08 


0.85 


1.49 


1.89 


400 


23 


Paratype N 


2.32 


1.47 


1.11 


1.57 


2.09 


400 


29 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

We would like to express our grati- 
tude to Dr Marco Oliverio (Dipartimento 
di Biologia, Universitá di Roma "La Sa- 
pienza", Italy) for providing SEM photo- 
graphs and for critical comments and ad- 
vice on the present paper. Sincere thanks 
are due to Dr Antonio Bonfitto (Museo di 
Zoologia deirUniversitá di Bologna^ 
Italy) and to Dr Vincenzo Vomero (Mu- 



seo Civico di Zoologia di Roma, Italy) for 
the examination of material kept in MZB 
and MZR collections related to O. olive- 
rioi. We are really grateful to the revie- 
wers Dr Anders Warén (Department of 
Invertebrate Zoology, Swedish Museum 
of Natural History Stockholm, Sweden) 
and Dr ítalo Nofroni (University of Rome 
"La Sapienza", Rome, Italy) for their cri- 
tical comments and suggestiohs in im- 
proving the manuscript. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Amati, B. and Nofroni, I., 199L Designazione 
del lectotipo di "Setia" gianninüV. Nordiesck, 
1974 e descrizione di Onoba dimassai nuova 
specie (Prosobrañchia: Rissoidae). Notiziario 
C.LS.M.A., 13: 30-37. 

BoucHET, P. AND Warén, A., 1993. Revisión of 
the Northeast Atlantic Bathyal and Abyssal 
Mesogastropoda. Bollettino Malacologico, 
suppl. 3: 579-849. 

Giannuzzi-Savelli, R., Pus aterí, F., Palmeri, 
A. and Ebreo, C, 1996. Atlante delle Conchi- 
glie Marine del Mediterráneo. Vol. 2. "La Con- 
chiglia", Roma, 258 pp. 

Oliverio, M., 1988. On the systematics of "Se- 
tia" gianninii (Gastropoda: Prosobrandiia). Bo- 
llettino Malacologico, 24 (5-8): 112-114. 



Pérés, J. M. and Picard, J., 1964. Nouveau Ma- 
nuel de Bionomie Benthique de la Mer Mé- 
diterranée. Recuil des Travaux de la Station 
Marine d'Endoume, 31 (47): 1-137. 

PONDER, W. F., 1985. A reviewf of the genera of 
the Rissoidae (Mollusca: Mesogastropoda: 
Rissoacea). Records ofthe Australian Museum, 
suppl. 4: 1-221. 

Smrjglio, C. and Mariottini, P., 1999. Mo- 
lluschi del Mar Tirreno Céntrale. Contributo 
XII. Segnalazione di due rari Epitoniidae ba- 
tiali per le coste laziali (Gastropoda, Pteno- 
glossa). Bollettino Malacologico, 39 (9-12): 137- 
140. 



19 



© Sociedad Española de Malacología Iberus, Vo 1): 21-94, 2000 



The subfamily Rissoininae (MoUusca: Gastropoda: Rissoi- 
dae) in the Cape Verde Archipelago (West África) 

La subfamilia Rissoininae (Moilusca: Gastropoda: Rissoidae) en el 
archipiélago de Cabo Verde (África Occidental) 

Emilio ROLAN* and Ángel A. LUQUE** 

Recibido el29-IX-1999. Aceptado el26-X-1999 

ABSTRACT 
The subfamily Rissoininae (Gastropoda, Rissoidae) is studied in the Cape Verde Archipel- 
ago. Twenty-nine species belonging to three genera have been found: Rissoina (Rissoina) 
punctostriata (Talavera, 1 975), a species with planktotrophic development widely distrib- 
uted along West África, and currently confused with the also planktotrophic Caribbean 
species Rissoina (Rissoina) decussata (Montagu, 1803); one new species of Rissoina 
(Ailinzebina); 26 new species of Schwartziella (Schwartziella), and one new species of 
Zebina (Zebina). The paucispiral protoconch of all the new species indicates a non-plank- 
totrophic development and strongly suggest all them are endemic of the Cape Verde Archi- 
pelago. The new species are compared among them and with other related West African 
species. The high level of endemism, the geogrophical distribution of all the species in the 
Archipelago and the possible relationships of the Cope Verde Rissoininae are also com- 
mented. 

RESUMEN 
Se estudia la subfamilia Rissoininae en el Archipiélago de Cabo Verde. Se han encon- 
trado 29 especies pertenecientes a tres géneros: Rissoina (Rissoina) punctostriata (Tala- 
vera, 1975), una especie con desarrollo larvario planctotrófico ampliamente distribuida a 
lo largo de la costa occidental africana y hasta ahora confundida con la especie caribeña 
Rissoina (Rissoina) decussata (Montagu, 1803), también de desarrollo planctotrófico; una 
nueva especie de Rissoina (Ailinzebina); 26 especies nuevas de Schwartziella (Schwart- 
ziella), y una especie nueva de Zebina (Zebina). La protoconcha paucispiral de todas las 
especies nuevas indica un desarrollo larvario no planctotrófico y sugiere que todas ellas 
son endémicas del archipiélago. Se comparan las nuevas especies descritas con otras del 
África occidental con las que están relacionadas, y entre sí. Se comentan el alto grado de 
endemismo, la distribución geográfica de todas las especies en el archipiélago y las posi- 
bles relaciones de los Rissoininae de Cabo Verde. 



KEY WORDS: Rissoininae, Rissoina, Zebina, Schwartziella, new species, Cape Verde Islands, West África. 
PALABRAS CLAVE: Rissoininae, Rissoina, Zebina, Schwartziella, nuevas especies. Islas de Cabo Verde, África 
Occidental. 



* Cánovas del Castillo, 22, 36202 Vigo, Spain. 

** Laboratorio de Biología Marina, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 

Madrid, Spain. 



21 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



INTRODUCTION 



Though many papers dealing with 
the marine gastropods of the Cape 
Verde Archipelago have been 
published during the last years (see 
BURNAY AND COSEL, 1987; Fernandes 
AND Rolan, 1991, arid Rolan and 
Rubio, 1999 for a list), several groups 
are still awaiting study. One of them is 
the subfamily Rissoininae (Rissoidae), 
revised at the generic level by Ponder 
(1985) and studied in other parts of 
the world (Leal and Moore, 1989; 
Sleurs, 1989, 1991, 1993, 1994, 1996; 
Faber, 1990; Sleurs and Preece, 1994; 
Rolan, 1998). However, there are only 
a few papers dealing with Rissoininae 
from West África and neighbouring 
islands. Watson (1873) described 
Eulima paivensis from the Selvagens 
Islands, which turned out to be the 
common species recorded from the 
Canary Islands as Zebma browniana 
(d'Orbigny, 1842) or Z. vitrea (C. B. 
Adams, 1850) by Odhner (1932), 
NoRDSiECK (1972) and García-Tala- 
VERA (1983) (see Gofas, 1999). Smith 
(1890) described five new species from 
St. Helena and erroneously recorded 
Rissoina brx/erea (Montagu, 1803), a 
Caribbean species. Dautzenberg 
(1913) and Talayera (1975), described 
two new species: Rissoina africana from 
Senegal, and Zebina punctostriata from 
Mauritania, respectively. Gofas (1999) 
studied Rissoina punctostriata, Schzvart- 
ziella africana and described a new 
species of Zebina. Rolan and Ryall 
(1999) recorded Rissoina punctostriata 
(Talayera, 1975) from Angola. A few 
probably erroneous records are sparse 
in different papers: Rissoina elegantula 
(Angas, 1880) from Sao Tomé (Tomlin 
AND Shackleford, 1914), Rissoina calia 
Bartsch, 1915, from Senegal (Nicklés, 
1947), Zebina vitrea (A. Adams, 1854) 
from Sahara, Mauritania (Altimira, 
1978) and the Canary Islands (Alti- 
mira, 1978; NoRDSiECK, 1982). 
Fernandes and Rolan (1994) rec- 
orded six amphiatlantic species of Ris- 
soininae which actually have not been 
accepted. 



The first record of a Rissoininae 
from the Cape Verde Islands is that of 
Dautzenberg and Fischer (1906) {Ris- 
soina decussata (Montagu, 1803), see 
below under remarks of R. punc- 
tostriata). Marche-Marchad (1958) 
and Saunders (1977) recorded Rissoina 
africana (Dautzenberg, 1913). García- 
Talavera and Bacallado (1978) 
recorded Rissoina bryerea (Montagu, 
1803), but this is a misidentification of a 
Caribbean species. Cosel (1982a, b, c) 
recorded R. decussata (Montagu, 1803), 
R. africana Dautzenberg, 1913, Zebina cf. 
punctostriata (Talayera, 1975) and other 
2-3 probably undescribed species of Ris- 
soina. 

A preliminary revisión of the subfa- 
mily Rissoininae from the Cape Verde 
Archipelago was presented by Moran, 
Rolan and Luque (1989) to the 5th 
Symposium Fauna and Flora of the 
Cape Verde Islands (Leiden), and an 
updated checklist of the marine gastro- 
pods by Rolan, Fernandes, Luque, 
Ortea and Templado (1993) to the First 
Symposium Fauna and Flora of the 
Atlantic Islands (Madeira). In both ab- 
stracts was referred the existence of 
seven or more undescribed species of 
Rissoininae. During recent years, a tho- 
rough revisión of the material from dif- 
ferent expeditions to the Cape Verde 
Islands has shown that the number of 
Rissoininae species in this archipelago 
has been greatly underestimated. A total 
of 29 species of three genera, 28 of 
which are new for the science, are de- 
scribed in the present paper. 



MATERIAL AND METHODS 

About 2300 shells and specimens 
have been studied from almost all the 
Cape Verde Archipelago (Fig. 157). A 
part of this material was collected by the 
"I Expedición Científica Ibérica al Archi- 
piélago de Cabo Verde" (1985), as well 
as in several trips of Spanish and Portu- 
guese malacologists between 1978 and 
1988, most of them with the partic- 



22 



Rolan and LuqUE: The subfamily Rissoininae in the Cape Verde Archipelago 



ipation of the first author. A small part 
of the material was collected by dredg- 
ing down to 100 m of depth, or by 
SCUBA diving down to 30 m, but most 
of the material was collected by skin 
diving down to 15 m. Additional mate- 
rial collected by the CANCAP Expedi- 
tions of the National Museum of 
Natural History of Leiden has been 
included in the present study, so as 
some new material collected in 1997 by 
the first author during the expedition 
"Macaronesia 2" of Las Palmas Univer- 
sity. Some types housed in The Natural 
History Museum of London and the 
Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle 
of Paris ha ve been also studied. 

Specimens are illustrated using SEM 
micrographs; the views of microsculp- 
ture were made at the middle part of the 
body whofl. 



Abbreviations: 

AMNH: American Museum of Natural 
History, New York. 

BMNH: The Natural History Museum, 
London. 

DBUA: Departamento de Biología, Uni- 
versidad Autónoma, Madrid. 

MNCN: Museo Nacional de Ciencias 
Naturales, Madrid. 

MNHN: Muséum National d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Paris. 

NNM: Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Mus- 
eum, Leiden. 

CER: CoUection of E. Rolan, Vigo. 

The material with no indication of 
collection is from CER. 

sp: live collected specimen. 

s: empty shell. 

j: juvenile shell. 

f: fragment of shell. 



RESULTS 

Family Rissoidae J. E. Gray, 1847 

Subfamily Rissoininae Stimpson, 1865 

Genus Rissoina d'Orbigny, 1840 

Subgenus Rissoina s. s. 

Type species: Rissoina inca d'Orbigny, 1840, by original designation. 
Diagnosis: Ponder (1985, p. 78) and Sleurs (1993, p. 74). 

Rissoina (Rissoina) punctostriata (Talavera, 1975) (Figs. 1-3, 6-8) 

Zebina punctostriata Talavera, 1975. Bol. Inst. Esp. Oceanog., 192: 3, pl. 1, fig. 1, pl. 4, fig. 7. [Type 
locality: SAHMAS-1, st. EO-8, Mauritania]. 

Material studied: Cape Verde Archipelago: Sal: 2 s, Palmeira; 2 sp, 8 s, Regona,l-3 m; 1 sp, 5 s. 
Rabo de Junco, 3 m; 1 s, 3 f, Mordeira, 5 m; 3 f, off Palmeira, CANCAP Sta. 7.109, 16° 45' N, 22° 
59' W, 31 m (31-VIII-86) (NNM); 2 j, 1 f, Santa Maria Bay, CANCAP Sta. 7.093, 16° 34' N, 22° 54' 
W, 42 m (29-VIII-1986) (NNM); 3 j, 1 f, Santa Maria Bay, CANCAP Sta. 7.094, 16° 34' N, 22° 54' 
W, 24 m (NNM). Brava: 8 f, 8 s, Furna, 8 m. Boa Vista: 15 s, 3 f. Sal Rei, 3-7 m; 2 s, Baia Teodora, 
5 m; 4 s. Rife de Chaves, 12 m; 10 j, CANCAP Sta. 6.056, 15° 59' N, 22° 47' W, 25 m (12-VI-1982) 
(NNM); 6 s, 6 f, CANCAP Sta. 6.064, 15° 58' N, 22° 47' W, 29-32 m (12-VI-82) (NNM); 12 s, 1 j, 
Ilhéu Calheta do Velho, CANCAP Sta. 7.064, 16° 11' N, 22° 58' W, 25 m (NNM); 2 j, Ilhéu 
Calheta do Velho, CANCAP Sta. 7.068, 16° 11' N, 22° 59' W, (27-VIII-1986) (NNM); 1 s, 5 j, 2 f, 
CANCAP Sta. 7.075, 16° 08' N, 22° 58' W, 33 m (NNM); 1 j, 5 f, CANCAP Sta. 7.079, Ilhéu de Sal 
Rei, 16° 10' N, 23° 00' W, 60 m (28-VIII-1986) (NNM). Maio: 1 j, CANCAP Sta. 7.042, Ponta 
Inglez/Ponta Preta, 15° 07' N, 23° 14' W, 76 m (25-VIII-1986) (NNM). Santiago: 1 s, Praia Baixa, 
5 m; 1 s, Cidade Velha, 4 m; 1 s, CANCAP Sta. 6.005, 14° 54' N, 23° 30' W, 75-68 m (5-VI-1982) 
(NNM); 1 s, 2 j, CANCAP Sta. 6.007, 14° 54' N, 23° 30' W, 70-88 m (5-VI-1982) (NNM); 2 j, 
CANCAP Sta. 6.015, 14° 53' N, 23° 30' W, 150 m (5-VI-1982) (NNM); 1 j, CANCAP Sta. 6.024, 
15° 00' N, 23° 44' W, 540 m (7-VI-1982) (NNM); 1 s, CANCAP Sta. 6.054, 14° 54' N, 23° 30' W, 



23 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



29-33 m (ll-VI-1982) (NNM); 1 s, 1 j, CANCAP Sta. 7.120, 16° 36' N, 24° 37' W, 208 m (1-IX- 
1986) (NNM). Sao Vicente: 2 sp, Calhau, 3 m; 1 sp, 2 s, Matiota, 5-7 m; 1 s. Porto Mindelo, 12 m; 
1 j, CANCAP Sta. 6.162, 16° 54' N, 25° 01' W, 38-45 m (21-VI-1982) (NNM). Santa Luzia: 1 s, 
Praia Francisca, 2 m. Ilhéu Razo: 1 s, 1 j, CANCAP Sta. 7.116, 16° 36' N, 24° 36' W, 75 m (1-IX- 
1986) (NNM). Sao Nicolau: 2 j, CANCAP Sta. 6086, 16° 34' N, 24° 22' W, 35 m (15-VI-1982) 
(NNM). Santo Antáo: 1 s, W of Tarrafal, CANCAP Sta. 6.108, 16° 58' N, 25° 20' W, 10 m (6-VI- 
1982) (NNM). Mauritania: 3 s, Baie de l'Etoile, Nouadhibou, 3 m; 1 s, off Bank d'Arguin, 20° 01' 
N, 17° 32' W, 53 m (14-VI-1988) (NNM). Ghana: 7 s, 6 f, 3 j, Mianmia, 25-35 m; 2 s, Busua, 6 m; 
3 s, 4 f, Takoradi, 1-4 m. Senegal: 4 s. Almadies, 30 m; 2 s, N'Gor, Dakar, 5 m; 2 s, Madeleines, 
Dakar. Sao Tomé and Principe: 1 s, EsprairLha,_ 3 m; 1 s, Lagoa Azul, 4 m; 7 s, Praia Mutamba, 5 
m; 2 s, 3 f, Sao Tomé city, 4 m. Angola: 4 sp, 18 s, Corimba, Luanda, 20 m; 2 s, Cacuaco, 7 m; 5 
s, 10 f, off Luanda, 50 m; 5 s, 4 j, 4 f, Palmeirinhas, 30 m; 1 sp, 2 s, 3 j. Buraco, near Palmeirinhas, 
prov. Bengo; 3 s, Santa Maria, 15 m. 



Description: See Talayera (1975). 
Shell (Figs. 1, 2) length 5-10 mm, width 
2.5-3.5 mm, not solid, elongate-conical. 

Protoconch (Fig. 3) of three spiral 
smooth whorls and about 400 ¡ira oí di- 
ameter of last whorl, of planktotrophic 
type. A spiral cord in the middle of the 
last quarter of the last whorl reaches the 
lower margin of the deep sinusigera 
notch. 

Teleoconch of 6-7 whorls; adapical 3- 
4 spire whorls angulated; subsequent 
whorls gradually convex; last whorls 
convex. Suture shallow, with a subsutu- 
ral depression gradually better marked 
which gives a slightly undulated profile 
to the last whorls. Colour white. 

Axial sculpture of adapical whorls 
consisting of somewhat prominent, 
rounded, narrow, closely spaced, 
slightly curved, opisthocline ribs, 
becoming gradually less prominent and 
more numerous (up to 30 weakly promi- 
nent ribs on the last whorl) (Figs. 1, 2). 
Spiral sculpture of about 8-10 prominent 
spiral cords on adapical whorls, up to 
more than 60 on the last whorl, those of 
the base more prominent; interspaces a 
little wider or of similar width. Micro- 
sculpture (Fig. 8) of fine spiral threads, 



with interspaces of the same width or 
wider. Aperture D-shaped, large; inner 
lip thin, slightly concave; anterior 
channel short, shallow; outer lip with 
thin external varix, slightly opisthocline 
in profile. 

Operculum (Fig. 7) yellowish, thick, 
pyriform, with a prominent and long 
inner peg. 

Radula (Fig. 6): central tooth with 
two pairs of basal denticles, and a pro- 
minent central cusp with 3-4 small cusps 
at each edge; lateral teeth with 6-7 cusps 
on the inner and outer edge; inner mar- 
ginal teeth with cusps on about distal 
one third of the outer edge; outer margi- 
nal teeth with cusps on about distal one 
third of the inner and outer edge. 

Habitat: Living specimens were 
collected at the base of rocks on sandy 
bottom. 

Distribution: R. punctostriata is 
known from Mauritania (Talayera, 
1975), Senegal, Ivory Coast, Sao Tomé, 
Gabon, Cameroun (Gofas, 1999), 
Angola (Gofas, 1999; Rolan and 
Ryall, 1999), and Ghana and the Cape 
Verde Archipelago (pers. obs.). 

Retnarks: García-Talayera (1983) 
considered this species a júnior synonym 



(Right page) Figures 1-3. Rissoina (Rissoina) punctostriata (Talavera, 1975). 1: shell from Corimba, 
Luanda, Angola; 2: shell from Sal Rei, Boa Vista, Cape Verde Archipelago; 3: protoconch of a shell 
from Regona, Sal. Figures 4-5: Rissoina decussata (Montagu, 1803), 4: shell from Los Canarreos 
Archipelago, Cuba; 5: protoconch of the same shell. 

(Página derecha) Figuras 1-3. Rissoina punctostriata (Talavera, 1975). 1: concha de Corimba, 
Luanda, Angola; 2: concha de Sal Rei, Boa Vista, Archipiélago de Cabo Verde; 3: protoconcha de una 
concha de Regona, Sal. Figuras 4-5: Rissoina decussata (Montagu, 1803), 4: concha del Archipiélago 
de Los Canarreos, Cuba; 5: protoconcha de la misma concha. 



24 



Rolan and LuQUE: The subfamily Rissoininae in the Cape Verde Archipelago 




25 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



of Rissoina decussata (Montagu, 1803) 
from the Caribbean, probably due to the 
shell similarity and the protoconch of 
planktotrophic type. But the compara- 
tive study of the shells and protoconchs 
(Figs. 1-5 and 8-9) of R. decussata from 
Cuba and R. punctostriata has showed 
enough differences to consider both 
them different species (Table I, see page 
86). So, R. decussata is not an amphiatlan- 
tic species, and all the previous West 
African records of this species (Senegal, 
Gabon, Ivory Coast, Sao Tomé, Came- 
roun and Angola) should be attributed 
to R. punctostriata. The record of Rissoina 
elegantula (Angas, 1880), a similar species 
described from S Australia, from Sao 



Tomé (ToMLiN AND Shackleford, 1914), 
must be also referred to R. punctostriata. 

CosEL (1982a, c) recorded this 
species (as Zebina cf. punctostriata) from 
the Cape Verde Islands. The previous 
records of Rissoina decussata from Santa 
Luzia and Boa Vista (Dautzenberg and 
FiscHER, 1906), and the more recent of 
CosEL (1982b), who cited the previous 
authors, should be attributed to R. punc- 
tostriata. 

The study of the best preservad of 
two syntypes of each R. decussata 
(BMNH, no. 4239) and R. striatocostata 
(d'Orbigny, 1842) (BMNH 1854.10.4.209) 
has proved that the last ñame is a júnior 
synonym of R. decussata. 



Subgenus Ailinzebina Ladd, 1966 

Type species: Zebina {Ailinzebina) abrardi Ladd, 1966, by original designation. 
Diagnosis: Sleurs (1993, p. 112). 

Rissoina (Ailinzebina) onobiformis n. sp. (Figs. 10-14, 158) 

Type material: Holotype (Fig. 11) 1 s of 3.1 x 1.2 mm and 2 paratypes, 2 s, from Rabo de Junco, Sal 
Island, Cape Verde Archipelago, 6 m (MNCN 15.05/31713). Other paratypes: 4 s (Fig. 10, broken 
during the study), 3 f, from the type locality, 2 m (CER); 1 s, Derrubado, Boa Vista, 3 m (CER); 1 s, 
Pedrinha, Brava, 6 m (CER); 2 s, 2 £, 1 j. Fuma, Brava, 20-30 m (CER); 1 s. Fuma, Brava, 30 m (AMNH); 
1 s. Sal Rei, Boa Vista, 6 m (NNM 58020); 1 s, South of Santiago, CANCAP Sta. 6.015, 14° 53' N, 23° 
30' W, 50 m (5-VI-1982) (NNM 59417); 1 s, 5 m, Derrubado, Boa Vista (MNHN); 1 s, Cidade Velha, 
Santiago, 5 m (DBUA). 

Other material studied: Boa Vista: 2 s. Morro de Areia, 1 m; 1 f, Baijos de Joáo Valente, 20 m; 3 j, 
Baia Teodora, 4 m. Santiago: 1 f, Cidade Velha, 4 m; 1 f, South of Santiago, CANCAP Sta. 6.015, 14° 
53' N, 23° 30' W, 50 m (5-VI-1982) (NNM). Brava: 2 s, Furna, 30 m; 6 s. Porto do Anciáo, 6 m. 
Etymology: The specific ñame alludes to the resemblance of the shell with that of the genus Onoba. 



Description: Shell (Figs. 10, 11) length 
up to 3.5 mm, máximum width 1.4 mm, 
not solid, elongate, subcylindrical, with 
pupoid apex. 

Protoconch (Figs. 12, 13) of a little 
more than one whorl and 360 /^m of 



máximum diameter, of non-planktotro- 
phic type; transition to teleoconch 
abrupt; surface smooth with some rather 
elevated marks like an Arable writing. 

Teleoconch of 4 V2 whorls in holo- 
type, but usually 4, weakly convex, not 



(Right page) Figures 6-8. Rissoina punctostriata (Talayera, 1975). 6: radula of a specimen of Mor- 
deira, Sai, Cape Verde Archipelago; 7: operculum of the same specimen; 8: teleoconch microsculp- 
ture of the shell of Figure 2. Figure 9. Rissoina decussata (Montagu, 1803), teleoconch microsculp- 
ture of the shell of Figure 4. 

(Página derecha) Figuras 6-8. Rissoina punctostriata (Talayera, 1975). 6: rádula de un ejemplar de 
Mordeira, Sal, Archipiélago de Cabo Verde; 7: opérenlo del mismo ejemplar; 8: microescultura de la 
teloconcha del ejemplar de la Figura 2. Figura 9. Rissoina decussata (Montagu, 1803), microescultura 
de la teloconcha del ejemplar de la Figura 4. 



26 



Rolan and LuqUE: The subfamily Rissoininae in the Cape Verde Archipelago 




27 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



angulated below suture, but with a 
small angulation near the base; last 
whorl weakly convex; suture shallow. 
Colour cream-whitish. 

Axial sculpture consisting of very 
weak, narrow, slightly opisthocline, dis- 
tantly spaced axial ribs, gradually more 
closely spaced, 30-37 in the last whorl, a 
little prominent on the suture. Spiral 
sculpture very fine, appreciable at low 
magnification. Microsculpture (Fig. 14) 
formed by bands of 6-10 very fine 
threads between two irregular fine 
spiral cords. 

Aperture D-shaped, relatively large, 
with an acute angulation on its upper 
part; inner lip thick; columellar side 
weakly concave; anterior channel 
almost absent; outer lip with a weak 
external varix; peristome wide and fíat 
when well developed, with an infernal 
and an external sharp rims; inner part 
with two small depressions, one on the 
anterior channel and other on the part 
corresponding to the anal sinus. 

Habitat: Shells from sand sediments 
between 2 and 50 m. 

Distribidion: Sal, Boa Vista, Santiago, 
Brava (Fig. 158). This species probably 
will be found in all the islands of the 
Cape Verde Archipelago. 



Remarks: Ponder (1985) considered 
Ailinzebina a synonym of Rissoina s. s., but 
Sleurs (1993) considered the r adular and 
head-foot characters of Rissoina (Ailinze- 
bina) elegantissima enough different from 
those of Rissoina s. s. to warrant a subge- 
neric status for Ailinzebina. Sleurs (1993) 
included in this subgenus four Pacific 
species and Rissoina (Ailinzebina) elegan- 
tissima d'Orbigny, 1842, from the Carib- 
bean. Considering the distinctive shell 
features (and also the known anatomical 
ones, see Sleurs, 1993) of the species of 
this subgenus and its wide distribution, 
we think that Ailinzebina may be elevated 
to the generic level, but we prefer to do 
not any taxonomical change waiting for 
further anatomical Information. 

Rissoina (Ailinzebina) elegantissima is 
the only other known Atlantic species of 
this subgenus and it differs from R. (A.) 
onobiformis n. sp. by the planktotrophic 
type of protoconch (see Leal and 
MooRE, 1989, fig. 9, and Sleurs, 1993, 
fig. 41), the rather solid shell with 
strongly convex whorls, the more pro- 
minent and opisthocline axial ribs and 
the more densely spaced spiral cords. 
Moreover, the sculpture of the proto- 
conch of R. onobiformis is different from 
any other known species of Rissoina. 



Genus Schwartziella Nevill, 1881 
Subgenus Schwartziella s. s. 

Type species: Rissoina orientalis Nevill, 1881 (= Rissoina tritícea Pease, 1861), by original designation. 
Diagnosis: Ponder (1985, p. 98-99). 

Schwartziella (Schwartziella) robusta n. sp. (Figs. 15-19, 144, 148, 159) 

Type material: Holotype (Fig. 15) 1 s of 3.7 x 1.9 mm, and 1 paratype, 1 s, Fiura, Sal Island, Cape 
Verde Archipelago (MNCN 15.05/31718). Other paratypes: 3 s. Regona, 10 m, and 3 s. Punta Preta 



(Right page) Figures 10-14: Rissoina (Ailinzebina) onobiformis n. sp. 10: paratype (broken during 
study), Rabo de Junco, Sal (CER); 11: holotype, Rabo de Junco, Sal (MNCN 15.05/31713); 12- 
13: protoconchs of paratypes. Rabo de Junco, Sal (CER); 14: teleoconch microsculpture of a 
paratype, Furna, Brava (CER). 

(Página derecha) Figuras 10-14: Rissoina (Ailinzebina) onobiformis spec. nov. 10: paratipo (roto 
durante su estudio), Rabo de Junco, Sal (CER); 11: holotipo. Rabo de Junco, Sal (MNCN 
15.05/31713); 12-13: protoconchas de paratipos, Rabo de Junco, Sal (CER); 14: microescultura de la 
teloconcha de un paratipo, Furna, Brava (CER). 



28 



Rolan and LuquE: The subfamily Rissoininae in the Cape Verde Archipelago 




29 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



(DBUA); 1 s. Rabo do Junco, 4 m (AMNH); 1 s. Rabo do Junco, 3 m (NNM 58028); 4 s. Regona, 2-3 
m, and 6 s, 1 f, Mordeira Bay, 5 m (CER); 1 s. Regona, 2 m (MNHN). AU the type material from Sal. 
Other material studied: Sal: 2 sp, Mordeira Bay, 4 m (broken for radular study); 2 s, Regona. Boa 
Vista: 3 s. Sal Rei, 8 m; 8 s. Porto da Cruz, 4 m. 
Etymology: The specific ñame alludes to the very solid shell. 



Description: Shell (Figs. 15, 16) length 
up to 4.3 mm, máximum width 2.0 mm, 
very solid, elongate-conic. 

Protoconch (Fig. 17) of 1 whorl and 
400 Jim of máximum diameter, of non- 
planktotrophic type, with a spiral cord 
and a slight angulation below; transition 
to teleoconch abrupt. Microsculpture 
(Fig. 18) formed by numerous small pits. 

Teleoconch of 5 whorls; two adapical 
spire whorls convex below sutures, sub- 
sequent spire whorls becoming grad- 
ually angulate only in subsutural part; 
suture evident; last whorl strongly 
convex. Colour whitish. 

Axial sculpture consisting of promi- 
nent, strongly convex, rounded, almost 
orthocline, widely spaced axial ribs, 
slightly shouldered in their subsutural 
part, between 10-12 in the last whorl. 
Spiral sculpture inconspicuous. Micro- 
sculpture (Fig. 19) formed by very 
numerous fine spiral threads, with a 
wider one between each 5-13 fine 
threads, sometimes more evident in the 
subsutural región. 

Aperture D-shaped, relatively small; 
inner lip thick; columellar side weakly 
concave; anterior channel shallow; outer 
lip opisthocline, with strong varix with 
several concentric Unes towards the 
inner part of the aperture. 

Operculum (Fig. 148) translucent, 
thin, paucispiral, with a very eccentric 
nucleus, and without any peg on inner 
side; the insertion área is elongate and 
cióse to the edge. 



Radula (Fig. 144): central tooth with 1 
pair of basal denticles, and a prominent 
central cusp with 3-4 small cusps at each 
side; inner marginal teeth finely denticu- 
late; outer marginal teeth without any 
denticles on the external margin. 

Habitat: Sandy sediments in shallow 
water. 

Distribution: Only known from Sal 
and Boa Vista Islands (Fig. 159). 

Remarks: The holotype of Schwartzie- 
lla africana (Dautzenberg, 1913) (MNHN) 
from "Pointe de Bel- Air (baie de Hann)", 
Dakar (Senegal) lacks protoconch, but it 
is smaller (2.9x1.2 mm) than S. robusta n. 
sp., the whorls are not angulate, the axial 
ribs are 4-5 times narrower than inter- 
spaces and there are fine growth lines 
more evident at the subsutural región 
and very fine spiral threads more 
evident at the middle of the whorls. The 
solé specimen of Rissoina africana var. 
crassior (Dautzenberg, 1913), from the 
same locality (MNHN), is very different 
of the holotype in having an undulate 
suture between the penultimate and the 
last whorls (almost straight in the 
holotype), axial ribs only a little nar- 
rower than interspaces, and apparently 
no microsculpture. The protoconch is 
paucispiral (one whorl) and apparently 
smooth. It is also smaller (2.9x1.4 mm) 
than S. robusta n. sp. 

The specimens described and illus- 
trated by Gofas (1999) under the ñame 
of Schwartziella africana from Senegal are 
also different from S. robusta n. sp.: they 



(Right page) Figures 15-19: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) robusta n. sp. 15: holotype, Fiura, Sal 
(MNCN 15.05/31718); 16: paratype, Fiura, Sal (MNCN 15.05/31718); 17: protoconch of a 
paratype. Regona, Sal (CER); 18: protoconch microsculpture of the same paratype; 19: teleoconch 
microsculpture of the same paratype. 

(Página derecha) Figuras 15-19: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) robusta spec. nov. 15: holotipo, Fiura, 
Sal (MNCN 15.05/31718); 16: paratipo, Fiura, Sal (MNCN 15.05/31718); 17: protoconcha de un 
paratipo. Regona, Sal (CER); 18: microescultura de la protoconcha del mismo paratipo; 19: microescul- 
tura de la teloconcha del mismo paratipo. 



30 



Rolan and Luque: The subfamily Rissoininae in the Cape Verde Archipelago 




31 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



are larger (up to 5.25x2.15 mm), with the 
whorls not angulate but convex, and the 
protoconch has no spiral cords but 
rounded spots. According to Gofas 
(1999), S. africana is only known with 
certainty from a small stretch of coast- 
line around Dakar, Senegal. The only 
shell recorded from Maio island (Cape 



Verde Archipelago) must be regarded as 
an erroneous record, since no specimens 
of this species were found in the large 
material examined in this paper. 

The differences of S. robusta with the 
other new species of Schwartziella descri- 
bed below are given in the remarks of 
each species. 



Schwartziella (Schwartziella) obesa n. sp. (Figs. 20-24, 160) 

Type material: Holotype (Fig. 20) 1 s of 5.5 x 2.4 mm from Furna Bay, Brava Island, Cape Verde 
Archipelago, 15-20 m (MNCN 15.05/31712). Paratypes: 3 s (DBUA); 2 s (CER); 1 s (AMNH); 1 s 
(NNM 58019); 1 s (MNHN), all from the type locality. 

Other material studied: Brava: 2 f. Fuma, 30 m; 2 s, Pedrinha, 4 m; 1 s. Porto do Anciáo, 30 m. San- 
tiago: 1 s, Praia, 5 m; 1 sp, 5 s (Fig. 16), 4 f, Tarrafal, 3 m; 2 s, Cidade Velha, 5 m; 2 f, CANCAP Sta. 
6.015, S of Santiago, 14° 53' N, 23° 30' W, 150 m (5-VI-1982) (NNM); 2 j, 1 f, CANCAP Sta. 6.024, 15° 
00' N, 23° 44' W, 540 m (7-VI-1982) (NNM); 2 j, CANCAP Sta. 6.054, 14° 54' N, 23° 30' W, 29-33 m 
(ll-VI-1982) (NNM); 1 j, CANCAP Sta. 7.008, 14° 54' N, 23° 38' W, 320 m (20-VI1I-1986) (NNM). 
Fogo: 1 j, CANCAP Sta. 6.052, 14° 53' N, 24° 31' W, 85 m (lO-VI-1982) (NNM). Sao Vicente: 1 s, 
Calhau, 4 m. Maio: 2 f, CANCAP Sta. 7.050, 15° 06' N, 23° 14' W, 380 m (25-VIII-1986) (NNM). 
Etymology: The specific ñame alludes to the wide shell. 



Description: Shell (Figs. 20, 21) length 
up to 7.0 mm, máximum width 2.8 mm, 
solid, elongate-conic, strongly scalari- 
form. 

Protoconch (Fig. 22) of 1 whorl and 
about 300 lim of máximum diameter, of 
non-planktotrophic type, with a spiral 
cord in its upper part; transition to 
teleoconch abrupt. Microsculpture 
formed by very small pits. 

Teleoconch of 5-6 whorls; spire 
strongly scalariform, whorls with a 
prominent subsutural shoulder and 
rapidly enlarging; suture shallow but 
clearly visible. Colour whitish. 

Axial sculpture consisting of promi- 
nent, sharp, narrow and widely spaced 
axial ribs, which are aligned across 
several whorls, slightly opisthocline on 
the first whorls and almost orthocline in 



the body whorl, on where there are 
about 14-15 ribs, clearly arched to the 
base. Spiral sculpture formed by very 
fine cords. Microsculpture (Figs. 23, 24): 
all the surface of the shell is covered by 
very fine threads, both on the spiral 
cords and the interspaces. 

Aperture D-shaped, small; inner lip 
thick; columellar side strong, weakly 
concave; anterior channel shallow; outer 
lip opisthocline, with thick external 
varix, with about eight parallel lines 
towards the inner part of the aperture. 

Habitat: Sandy sediments from 3 to 
600 m. 

Distribution: Known from the group 
of Brava-Santiago-Fogo Islands, but 
some fragments from Maio and one 
shell from Sao Vicente seem to be this 
species (Fig. 160). 



(Right page) Figures 20-24: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) obesa n. sp. 20: holotype, Furna, Brava 
(MNCN 15.05/31712); 21: shell from Tarrafal, Santiago (CER); 22: protoconch of a shell from 
Tarrafal, Santiago (CER); 23: teleoconch microsculpture of the holotype; 24: teleoconch micro- 
sculpture of a shell from Tarrafal (CER). 

(Página derecha) Figuras 20-24: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) obesa spec. nov. 20: holotipo, Furna, 
Brava (MNCN 15.05/31712); 21: concha de Tarrafal, Santiago (CER); 22: protoconcha de una 
concha de Tarrafal, Santiago (CER); 23: microescultura de la teloconcha del holotipo; 24: microescul- 
tura de la teloconcha de una concha de Tarrafal (CER). 



32 



Rolan and LuqUE: The subfamily Rissoininae in the Cape Verde Archipelago 




33 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



Remarks: The shells of SchwartzieUa 
obesa n. sp. from Brava seem to be a little 
different from those of Santiago and Sao 
Vicente: the latter are a little smaller, the 
axial ribs are a little closer, the subsutu- 
ral angle is slightly more elévate and the 
spiral threads are more depressed (see 
Figs. 18, 19). AU these differences seem 
to be not relevant in order to consider 
both populations to be not conspecific, 
and probably they are the expression of 
a difficult genetic flow between popula- 
tions of different islands, but only more 
detailed studies on living specimens 
will clarify this matter. 

S. robusta n. sp. also has a thick shell, 
but it lacks the subsutural angulation 
and the scalariform profile of S. obesa, the 
axial ribs are less numerous, sharper and 
more arched in its subsutural part and to 



the base. The spiral threads of the subsu- 
tural part are more evident in S. robusta, 
whereas in S. obesa are more attenuated. 
S. africana (Dautzenberg, 1913) and 
S. africana var. crassior (Dautzenberg, 
1913) are smaller, their whorls a,re not 
angulate, and the axial ribs and the 
spiral sculpture and microsculpture are 
different. The protoconch of S. africana 
var. crassior is apparently smooth, 
without any spiral cord (see under 
remarks of S. robusta). The specimens of 
SchwartzieUa africana described and illus- 
trated by Gofas (1999) from Senegal are 
also different: they are smaller, the 
whorls are not angulate, have a lower 
number of ribs on the body whorl (ca. 
12), the protoconch has no spiral cords 
and its microsculpture consists of 
rounded spots. 



SchwartzieUa (SchwartzieUa) corrugata n. sp. (Figs. 25-29, 161) 

Type material: Holotype (Fig. 25) 1 s of 5.6 x 2.1 mm from Furna, Brava Island, Cape Verde Archi- 

pelago, 30 m (MNCN 15.05/31703). Paratypes: 1 s (MNHN) and 3 s (CER) (Fig. 26), all from the 

type locality. 

Other material studied: Brava: 2 s, 1 f, 2 j (1 broken), Pedrinha, 10 m; 1 s, 2 f. Porto do Anciáo, 3 m; 

1 s, Ilhéus do Rombo, 3 m. 

Etymology: The specifíc ñame alindes to the sutural undulation formed by the axial ribs of the shell. 



Description: Shell (Fig. 25) length up 
to 5.6 mm, máximum width 2.1 mm, 
very solid, elongate-conic. 

Protoconch (Fig. 26) of 1 whorl and 
360 ^m of máximum diameter, of non- 
planktotrophic type, with one spiral 
cord in its upper part and an angulation 
below; transition to teleoconch abrupt. 
Microsculpture (Fig. 29) formed by very 
small pits. 

Teleoconch of 5 whorls, weakly 
convex, slightly angulated below su- 



tures; last whorl weakly convex; suture 
(Figs. 26, 27) well marked and undulous 
due to the axial ribs. Colour whitish. 

Axial sculpture consisting of promi- 
nent, rounded, spaced axial ribs, which 
are almost orthocline in the body whorl 
and opisthocline in previous whorls, 
curved subsuturally, and about 12 in last 
whorl. Near the base, the interspace 
between ribs is deep. Spiral sculpture 
formed by fine cords, visible at low 
magnification, and more evident in the 



(Right page) Figures 25-29: SchwartzieUa (SchwartzieUa) corrugata n. sp. 25: holotype, Furna, 
Brava (MNCN 15.05/31703); 26: protoconch of a paratype, Furna, Brava (CER); 27: detail of the 
suture of a paratype, Furna, Brava (CER); 28: teleoconch microsculpture of a paratype, Furna, 
Brava (CER); 29: protoconch microsculpture of a paratype, Furna, Brava (CER). 
(Página derecha) Figuras 25-29: SchwartzieUa (SchwartzieUa) corrugata spec. nov. 25: holotipo, 
Furna, Brava (MNCN 15.05/31703); 26: protoconcha de un paratipo, Furna, Brava (CER); 27: 
detaüe de la sutura de un paratipo, Furna, Brava (CER); 28: microescuhura de la teloconcha de un 
paratipo, Furna, Brava (CER); 29: microescuhura de la protoconcha de un paratipo, Furna, Brava 
(CER). 



34 



Rolan and LuquE: The subfaxnily Rissoininae in the Cape Verde Archipelago 




35 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



subsutural zone. Microsculpture (Fig. 
28) formed by many irregular threads 
between and on the spiral cords. 

Aperture D-shaped, relatively small; 
inner lip thick; columellar side weakly 
concave; anterior channel shallow; outer 
lip thick with external varix with about 
seven parallel lines towards the inner 
part of the aperture. 

Habitat: The material studied was 
obtained from sand sediments between 
a few meter s and 30 m deep. 

Distribution: S. corrugata n. sp. is only 
known from Brava Island and llhéus do 
Rombo (Fig. 161). 

Remarks: S. corrugata n. sp. has a shell 
as solid as the precedent ones (S. robusta 
and S. obesa), but it can be differentiated 
by its very undulous sutural line due to 
the stronger and elevated axial ribs and it 
lacks of the subsutural depression. S. 
corrugata and S. robusta have similar pro- 



toconch and teleoconch microsculpture, 
and the allopatric distribution of both 
species point out to be different morphs 
(or subspecies) of an unique species dis- 
tributed in different islands. Nevertheless, 
no intermedíate forms between the 
marked undulous suture of S. corrugata 
and the linear suture of S. robusta were 
found in other islands, so we consider 
them as different species. S. corrugata is 
sympatric with S. obesa in Brava. 

Schwartziella africana (Dautzenberg, 
1913) is smaller, the whorls are not 
angulate, and the suture, axial and 
spiral sculpture and microsculpture are 
also different (see under remarks of S. 
robusta). 

S. africana var. crassior (Dautzenberg, 
1913) has an undulate suture, but it is 
also smaller, its axial ribs are wider, and 
apparently has no microsculpture both 
in protoconch and teleoconch. 



Schwartziella (Schwartziella) sanmartini n. sp. (Figs. 30-34, 146, 149-151, 156, 162) 

Type material: Holotype (Fig. 30) 1 s of 4.8 x 2.0 mm, and paratypes, 2 s, from Mordeira Bay, Sal 
Island, Cape Verde Archipelago, 4 m (MNCN 15.05/31719). Paratypes: Paratypes: 3 s, Mordeira 
Bay, Sal, 5 m (CER); 4 sp, 6 s. Rabo de Junco, Sal, 4 m (CER); 2 sp, 1 s, Mordeira, Sal (DBUA); 2 s. 
Regona, Sal, 4 m (MNHN); 1 s, Mordeira, Sal, 4 m (AMNH); 1 s, Mordeira, Sal, 4 m (NNM 58029). 
Other material studied: Sal: 1 s, 6 j, Palmeira, 6 m; 6 s, 1 f, Mordeira, 5 m; 1 s. Rabo de Junco, 2 m; 
1 s, Algodoeiro, 4 m. Boa Vista: 5 s. Sal Rei, 4 m; 2 sp, 2 s, Ilhéu de Sal Rei, 5 m; 1 s. Porto Ferreira, 
5 m; 3 s. Porto da Cruz, 4 m; 2 s, 4 j. Bala Teodora, 5 m; 3 s, Derrubado, 5 m. Malo: 1 s. Navio Que- 
brado, 3 m. 

Etymology: The specific ñame is dedicated to the zoologist Guillermo San Martín, companion of 
some research trips. 



Description: Shell (Fig. 30) length up 
to 5.0 mm, máximum width 2.1 mm, 
relatively solid, elongate-conic. 

Protoconch (Fig. 31) of 1 whorl and 
360 jivn of máximum diameter, of non- 
planktotrophic type, no spiral sculpture 



except by a very slight angulation in its 
upper part. Microsculpture (Fig. 34) 
formed by very small pits. 

Teleoconch of about 5 whorls weakly 
convex, slightly angulated below sutures; 
last whorl large, weakly convex, repre- 



(Right page) Figures 30-34: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) sanmartini n. sp. 30: holotype, Mordeira, 
Sal (MNCN 15.05/31719); 31: protoconch of the holotype; 32: detail of the suture of a paratype, 
Mordeira (CER); 33: teleoconch microsculpture of the same paratype; 34: protoconch microsculp- 
ture of the same paratype. 

(Página derecha) Figuras 30-34: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) sanmartini spec. nov. 25: holotipo, 
Mordeira, Sal (MNCN 15.05/31719); 26: protoconcha del holotipo; 27: detalle de la sutura de un 
paratipo, Mordeira (CER); 28: microescultura de la teloconcha del mismo paratipo; 34: microescultura 
de la protoconcha del mismo paratipo.. 



36 



RolAn and LuquE: The subfamily Rissoininae in the Cape Verde Archipelago 




37 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



senting more than a half of the shell; 
suture shallow, slightly undulate due to 
the axial sculpture. Colour whitish. 

Axial sculpture consisting of depres- 
sed, rounded, narrow, almost orthocline 
in last whorl and opisthocline in pre- 
vious whorls, distantly spaced axial ribs, 
about 14 in last whorl. Spiral sculpture 
almost not appreciable at low magnifica- 
tion. Microsculpture (Figs. 32, 33) 
formed by very fine threads axially inter- 
rupted and modified by growth Unes. 

Aperture D-shaped, small; inner lip 
thick; columellar side weakly concave; 
anterior channel almost absent; outer lip 
with ampie external varix with several 
parallel lines towards the inner of the 
aperture. 

Operculum (Figs. 149-151) translu- 
cent, thin, paucispiral with the nucleus 
very eccentric and without any promi- 
nent peg on inner side. 

Radula (Fig. 146): central tooth with 
one pair of basal denticles, a slightly 
prominent central cusp, and 3-4 smaller 
cusps at each side, the more basal ones 
very small; lateral teeth with 6-8 cusps 
on the inner edge and 4-5 on the outer 
edge; inner marginal teeth with many 
small denticles on both edges (serrated); 
outer marginal teeth without any denti- 
cle on the outer edge. 



The animal (Fig. 156) examined in 
alcohol is apparently white. The penis 
has a cylindrical base; in the middle part 
it is curved ahead, and flattened and 
enlarged at its distal end; the margin of 
both sides of this terminal widening are 
denticulate and also two denticulate 
fringes appear cióse to the tip, with a 
short and sharp appendix towards the 
right part. 

Habitat: The material studied was ob- 
tained in sand sediments between 3-6 m. 

Distribution: Only known from Sal, 
Boa Vista and Maio (Fig. 162). 

Remarks: Schwartziella sanmartini n. 
sp. has a thinner shell than S. robusta, S. 
obesa and S. corrugata, and its axial ribs 
are more depressed and rounded and 
less elévate. Also it differs from S. ro- 
busta n. sp. by having more axial ribs, 
from S. obesa n. sp. by lacking of any 
subsutural angulation, and from S. co- 
rrugata by the slightly undulate suture. 

S. africana y S. africana var. crassior are 
smaller; the first species has narrower 
ribs, fine growth lines more evident at 
the subsutural región and very fine 
spiral threads more evident at the 
middle of the whorls. S. africana var. cras- 
sior has an undulate suture, axial ribs 
only a little narrower than interspaces, 
and apparently no microsculpture. 



Schwartziella (Schwartziella) similitern. sp. (Figs. 35-40, 147, 152, 163) 

Type material: Holotype (Fig. 35) 1 s of 5.6 x 2.1 mm and 5 paratypes, 5 s, Furna, Brava Island, Cape 
Verde Archipelago, 8-20 m (MNCN 15.05/31721). Other paratypes: 2 s from the type locality in 
each of MNHN, AMNH, DBUA, NNM (58031), and 42 s in CER. 

Other material studied: Brava: 3 sp, 115 s, 41 f, 2 j, Furna, 8-20 m; 5 s, 8 j, Pedrinha, 4 m; 3 sp, 23 s, 
14 j, 3 f. Porto do Anciáo, 3 m; 6 s, 4 j, Ilhéus do Rombo, 3-5 m. Santiago: 31 s, 5 j, 6 f, Praia, Ilhéu 
de Santa María, 6 m; 8 s, 5 j, 1 f, Prainha, 5 m; 4 s, Cidade Velha, 4 m; 29 s, 2 j, Tarrafal, 4 m; 1 s, 1 j, 
1 f, CANCAP Sta. 6024, 15° 00' N, 23° 44' W, 540 m (7-VI-1982) (NNM). Sao Vicente: 13 s, Calhau, 
3 m; 1 s. Porto Mindelo, 15 m; 4 s. Salamanca. Santa Luzia: 2 sp, 1 s, Praia Francisca, 3 m. 



(Right page) Figures 35-40: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) similiter n. sp. 35: holotype, Furna, Brava 
(MNCN 15.05/31721); 36: shell from Tarrafal, Santiago (CER); 37: protoconch of a paratype, 
Furna (CER); 38: protoconch microsculpture of the same paratype; 39-40: teleoconch microsculp- 
ture of a shell from Furna. 

(Página derecha) Figuras 35-40: Schv^rartziella (Schwartziella) similiter spec. nov. 35: holotipo, Furna, 
Brava (MNCN 15.05/31721); 36: concha de Tarrafal, Santiago (CER); 37: protoconcha de un para- 
tipo, Furna (CER); 38: microescultura de la protoconcha del mismo paratipo; 39-40: microescultura de 
la teloconcha de un ejemplar de Furna. 



38 



Rolan and LuquE: The subfamily Rissoininae in the Cape Verde Archipelago 




39 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



Etymology: The specific ñame alludes to the similarity of the shell of this species with other species 
of Cape Verde Schwartziella. 



Description: Shell (Figs. 35, 36) length 
up to 6.0 mm, máximum width 2.1 mm, 
relatively solid, elongate conic. 

Protoconch (Fig. 37) of 1 whorl and 
about 300 jWm of máximum diameter, of 
non-planktotrophic type, with a spiral 
cord running along a keel on its upper 
part; transition to teleoconch abrupt. 
Microsculpture (Fig. 38) formed by very 
small pits. 

Teleoconch of 5 whorls, regularly 
convex, not angulated below sutures, last 
whorl weakly convex; suture shallow, 
slightly undulate. Colour whitish. 

Axial sculpture consisting of slightly 
prominent, rounded, narrow, almost or- 
thocltne in the last whorl and opisthocline 
in previous, distantly spaced axial ribs not 
regularly continued from whorl to whorl. 
Spiral sculpture appreciable with diffi- 
culty at small magnification. Microsculp- 
ture (Figs. 39, 40) consisting in very cióse 
relatively thick spiral threads interrupted 
by axial growth lines, with 2-5 thinner 
threads between each two of them which 
are interrupted in some places. 

Aperture D-shaped, small; inner lip 
thick; columellar side weakly concave; 
anterior channel almost absent; outer lip 
with a thick varix; with about 5 parallel 
lines. 

Operculum (Fig. 152) translucent, 
thin, paucispiral, with a very eccentric 



nucleus and without any prominent peg 
on the inner side. 

Radula (Fig. 147): central tooth with 
one pair of basal denticles, a few promi- 
nent central cusp and 3-4 small cusps at 
each side, those of the extremes very 
small; lateral teeth with 7-8 cusps on the 
inner edge and 4-5 on the outer edge 
inner marginal teeth with many small 
denticles; outer marginal teeth without 
denticles on the external edge. 

Habitat: The material studied was 
obtained in sand sediments from 4 to 20 
m. One sample was coUected at 540 m. 

Distribution: Santiago, Brava, Sao 
Vicente and Santa Luzia (Fig. 163). 

Remarks: The shells from the north- 
ern (Santa Luzia and Sao Vicente) and 
the Southern (Brava and Santiago) 
islands are very similar, with only small 
differences in size, and we consider 
them conspecific though both groups of 
islands are quite far for this species with 
non-planktotrophic development. 

S. similiter n. sp. is similar to S. san- 
martini n. sp., and the differences with 
other species mentioned in its remarks are 
not repeated here. S. sanmartini n. sp. is 
wider than S. similiter n. sp., has more axial 
ribs and these are more depressed; also, it 
has different microsculpture, with less 
marked and interrupted spiral threads, 
and a slightly smaller protoconch. 



Schwartziella (Schwartziella) ty pica n. sp. (Figs. 41-45, 142, 143, 145, 164) 

Type material: Holotype (Fig. 41) 1 s of 3.8 x 1.6 mm and one paratype, 1 s, Palmeira, Sal Island, 
Cape Verde Archipelago, 6 m (MNCN 15.05/31705). Paratypes: 1 s from Monte Leste, Sal, in each of 
MNHN, AMNH, DBUA, NNM (58006), and 1 s, from Guincho do Ninho, 4 m; 2 s, from Palmeira, 6 
m; 1 s, from Punta Preta, 3 m; 16 s, from Rabo de Junco, 6 m, and 4 s, from Regona, 10 m, all in CER. 
Other material studied: Sal: 5 s, Palhona, 1 m; 1 sp (broken for radular study), 3 s, 6 f. Monte Leste, 
1 m; 4 s, Algodoeiro, 4 m; 4 s, Palmeira, 8 m; 4 s. Regona, 3 m; 3 s, 1 j, Mordeira, 5 m; 7 s, 3 j, 3 f. 



(Right page) Figures 41-45: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) typica n. sp. 41: holotype, Palmeira, Sal 
(MNCN 15.05/31705); 42: protoconch of a paratype, Palmeira (CER); 43: protoconch micro- 
sculpture of the same paratype; 44-45: teleoconch microsculpture of the same paratype. 
(Página derecha) Figuras 41-45: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) typica spec. nov. 41: holotipo, Pal- 
meira, Sal (MNCN 15.05/31705); 42: protoconcha de un paratipo, Palmeira (CER); 43: microescul- 
tura de la protoconcha del mismo paratipo; 44-45: microescultura de la teloconcha del mismo paratipo. 



40 



Rolan and Luque: The subfamily Rissoininae in the Cape Verde Archipelago 




41 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



CANCAP Sta. 7.100, off Palmeira, 16° 45' N, 23° 01' W, 354 m (30-VIII-1986) (NNM); 2 j, off Pal- 
meira, CANCAP Sta. 7.109, 16° 45' N, 22° 59' W, 31 m (31-VIII-1986) (NNM). Boa Vista: 6 s, 2 j. Sal 
Rei. Sao Nicolau: 17 s, 6 j, 6 f, Sao Jorge Bay, CANCAP Sta. 7.129, 16° 33' N, 24° 16' W, 405 m (2-IX- 
1986) (NNM); 13 s, 8 f, CANCAP Sta. 7.128, 16° 33' N, 24° 17' W, 400 m (2-IX-1986) (NNM). 
Etymology: The specific ñame alludes to the typical aspect of the shell for the genus. 



Description: Shell (Fig. 41) length up 
to 4.5 mm, máximum width 1.8 mm, 
solid, elongate-conic. 

Protoconch (Fig. 42) of 1 whorl and 
about 290 ^m of máximum diameter, of 
non-planktotrophic type, with a depres- 
sed spiral cord running along a keel in 
its upper part; transition to teleoconch 
abrupt. Microsculpture (Fig. 43) formed 
by fíat prominences with irregular 
edges on an undulated surface. 

Teleoconch of about 5 whorls, strongly 
convex, not angulated below sutures; last 
whorl convex; suture shallow, but evident. 
Colour white. 

Axial sculpture consisting of promi- 
nent, relatively rounded, narrow, almost 
orthocline in last whorl and opisthocline 
in previous ones, distantly spaced axial 
ribs; the ribs are slightly curved in most 
of spire, but less in the last whorl. Spiral 
sculpture not appreciable at low magnifi- 
cation. Microsculpture (Figs. 44, 45) 
formed by bands of 4-6 closely packed, 
very fine spiral threads with minute pits 
between each two of them and 1-3 fine 
threads between each two of these bands. 

Aperture D-shaped, small; inner lip 
thick; columellar side weakly concave; 
anterior channel almost absent; outer lip 
with thick and ampie varix, almost or- 
thocline; with 5-6 Unes towards the 
inner part of the aperture. 



Operculum translucent, with very 
eccentric nucleus and without any 
prominent peg on the inner side. 

Radula (Fig. 145): central tooth with 
one pair of basal denticles, a slightly 
prominent central cusp, and 3-4 cusps at 
each side, those of extremes very small; 
lateral teeth with 6-8 cusps on the inner 
edge and 4-6 on the outer edge; inner 
marginal teeth with many small denti- 
cles on both edges, outer marginal teeth 
without denticles on external edge. 

Habitat: The material studied was 
obtained in sand sediments from 1 to 
400 m. 

Distribution: Sal, Boa Vista and Sao 
Nicolau Islands (Fig. 164). 

Remarks: S. typica n. sp. is similar to 
S. sanmartini n. sp. and S. similiter n. sp., 
but it is smaller than S. sanmartini and S. 
similiter, has more elevated axial ribs, 
less evident spiral sculpture and differ- 
ent teleoconch and protoconch micros- 
culpture. S. africana has a similar proto- 
conch microsculpture (Gofas, 1999), but 
differs by its oblique axial ribs. 

One shell (Figs. 142, 143) found in 
Calhau, Sao Vicente, is similar to this 
species and has the same microsculp- 
ture, but has a more evident spiral 
sculpture; we provisionally consider it 
conspecific awaiting for further mate- 
rial. 



Schwartziella (Schwartziella) angularis n. sp. (Figs. 46-50, 159) 

Type material: Holotype (Fig. 46) 1 s of 2.9 x 1.3 mm from Rabo de Junco, Sal Island, Cape Verde 
Archipelago, 4 m (MNCN 15.05/31701). Paratypes: 1 s from the type locality in each of MNHN, 



(Right page) Figures 46-50: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) angularis n. sp. 46: holotype, Rabo de 
Junco, Sal (MNCN 15.05/31701); 47: paratype. Rabo de Junco, Sal (CER); 48: protoconch of a 
paratype, Rabo de Junco (CER); 49-50: teleoconch microsculpture of the same paratype. 
(Página derecha) Figuras 46-50: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) angularis spec. nov. 46: holotipo. Rabo 
de Junco, Sal (MNCN 15.05/31701); 47: paratipo, Rabo de Junco, Sal (CER); 48: protoconcha de un 
paratipo. Rabo de Junco (CER); 49-50: microescultura de la teloconcha del mismo paratipo. 



42 



RolAn and Luque: The subfamily Rissoininae in the Cape Verde Archipelago 




43 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



AMNH, DBUA, NNM (58000); further paratypes in CER: 3 s. Rabo de Junco, 4 m; 2 s, Pesqueiro do 

Aire, 1 m, and 2 s. Regona, 2 m. 

Other material studied: Sal: 1 s. Rabo de Junco, 4 m; 2 f, CANCAP Sta. 7.110, 16° 46' N, 23° 02' W, 

85 m (31-VIII-1986) (NNM). Boa Vista: 1 f. Sal Rei, 3 m. 

Etymology: The specific ñame alindes the angulated subsutural shoulder of the shell. 



Description: Shell (Figs. 46, 47) length 
up to 3.0 mm, máximum width 1.5 mm, 
relatively solid, elongate-conic, strongly 
scalariform. 

Protoconch (Fig. 48) of 1 whorl and 
about 400 ^m of máximum diameter, of 
non-planktotrophic type, with only a 
faint spiral angulation on its upper part; 
transition to teleoconch abrupt. 

Teleoconch of about 5 whorls, which 
are strongly scalaroid, with a prominent 
subsutural shoulder and rapid develop- 
ment. Suture shallow, but evident. 
Colour whitish. 

Axial sculpture consisting of promi- 
nent, straight, sharp, narrow and spaced 
axial ribs, regularly continued from 
whorl to whorl, orthocline or slightly 
opisthocline in first whorls, and about 
12 orthocline ribs in the last whorl. 
Spiral sculpture formed by very fine 
cords. Microsculpture (Figs. 49, 50) 



formed by thick spiral threads with 
sparse very small pits, with 5-10 very 
thin threads between each two thick 
ones. The microsculpture almost disap- 
pears on the ribs. 

Aperture D-shaped, small; inner lip 
thick; columellar side weakly concave; 
anterior channel very shallow; outer lip 
thick, strongly opisthocline, with wide 
external varix, with 5-6 parallel lines on 
the inner part. 

Habitat: The material studied was 
obtained in sand sediments from 1 to 85 
m of depth. 

Distribution: Only known from Sal 
and Boa Vista Islands (Fig. 159). 

Remarks: S. angularis n. sp. has a sca- 
lariform profile like S. obesa n. sp. and S. 
gradata n. sp. (see below), but S. obesa is 
larger, wider and more solid, and S. 
gradata is more slender and has a differ- 
ent protoconch sculpture. 



Schwartziella (Schwartziella) luisi n. sp. (Figs. 51-55, 153-155, 159) 

Type material: Holotype (Fig. 51 ) 1 s of 2.0 x 1 .0 mm and 2 paratypes, 2 s, from Derrubado, Boa 
Vista Island, Cape Verde Archipelago, 2-4 m (MNCN 15.05 / 31722). Paratypes: 1 s in each of MNHN, 
AMNH, DBUA, NNM (58032), and 29 s in CER, all from the type locality. 

Other material studied: Sal: 1 s, Praia do Cascalho, 1 m; 1 s, 3 j, Palmeira, 8 m; 3 s, Mordeira, 4 
m; 1 j, CANCAP Sta. 7.100, off Palmeira, 16° 45' N, 23° 01 W, 354 m (30-VI1I-1986) (NNM); 1 sp, 
12 s, 2 f. Rabo do Junco, 2-5 m; 1 sp, 34 s. Regona, 2-10 m; 1 s, Palhona, 1 m; 1 sp, 8 s, 3 j, Mor- 
deira, 4 m. Boa Vista: 18 s, 35 j, 16 f, Derrubado, 4 m; 2 sp, 4 s, Baia Teodora, 6 m; 1 sp, 7 s, Ilhéu 
de Sal Rei, 5 m; 52 s, 18 j, 8 f. Porto da Cruz, 6 m; 35 s, 7 f, 1 j. Sal Rei, 8 m; 9 s. Porto Ferreira, 6 
m; 3 s, 2 j. Rife de Chaves, 6 m; 34 s, 2 j, 2 £, Morro de Areia, 4 m; 5 s, 1 j, Baijos de Joáo Valente, 
23 m. 

Etymology: The specific ñame is dedicated to Luis Murillo, malacologist and Secretary of the Socie- 
dad Española de Malacología, by his contribution to the development of Malacology in Spain. 



(Right page) Figures 51-55: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) luisi n. sp. 51: holotype, Derrubado, 
Boa Vista (MNCN 15.05/31722); 52: protoconch of a paratype, Derrubado (CER); 53: proto- 
conch microsculpture of the same paratype; 54-55: teleoconch microsculpture of the same 
paratype. 

(Página derecha) Figuras 51-55: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) luisi spec. nov. 51: holotipo, Derru- 
bado, Boa Vista (MNCN 15.05131722); 52: protoconcha de un paratipo, Derrubado (CER); 53: 
microescultura de la protoconcha del mismo paratipo; 54-55: microescultura de la teloconcha del mismo 
paratipo. 



AA 



Rolan and LuquE: The subfamily Rissoininae in the Cape Verde Archipelago 




45 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



Description: Shell (Fig. 51) length up 
to 3.0 mm, máximum width 1.3 mm, not 
very solid, elongate-conic. 

Protoconch (Fig. 52) of a little more 
than 1 whorl and about 280 ^wm of 
máximum diameter, of non-planktotro- 
phic type, with two spiral angulations, 
one on the upper part and other a little 
below; transition to teleoconch abrupt. 
Microsculpture (Fig. 53) formed by very 
small and irregular pits. 

Teleoconch of 4 strongly convex 
whorls, not angulated below sutures; 
last whorl strongly convex; suture 
shallow but evident. Colour whitish. 

Axial sculpture consisting of promi- 
nent, sharp, narrow, slightly curved, 
weakly opisthocline spaced axial ribs, 
which are continued from whorl to 
whorl. Spiral sculpture formed by 
prominent, widely spaced, very fine 
cords, visible under low magnification. 
Microsculpture (Figs. 54, 55) formed by 
small pits on the spiral cords, and 15-20 
very fine threads between two cords. 



Aperture D-shaped, médium sized; 
inner lip thick; columellar side weakly 
concave; anterior channel almost 
absent; outer lip opisthocline, with 
thick external varix; with several par- 
allel Unes towards the inner part of the 
aperture. 

Operculum (Figs. 153-155) translu- 
cent, thin, paucispiral with the nucleus 
very eccentric and without any promi- 
nent peg on the inner side. 

Habitat: The material studied was 
obtained in sand sediments between 2- 
10 m and at 354 m depth. 

Distribution: Only known from Sal 
and Boa Vista Islands (Fig. 159). 

Remarks: S. luisi n. sp. is smaller 
than any of the previously described 
species. Among the smallest of those, S. 
angularis n. sp. differs by having a 
subsutural angulation, and S. typica n. 
sp. has a different protoconch and tele- 
oconch microsculpture. The differences 
with the other small species are discus- 
sed below. 



Schwartziella (Schwartziella) minima n. sp. (Figs. 56-60, 139, 159) 

Type material: Holotype (Fig. 56) 1 s of 2.2 x 1.0 mm and 1 paratype, 1 s, from Regona, Sal Island, 

Cape Verde Archipelago, 2-4 m (MNCN 15.05/31711). Paratypes: 1 s in each of MNHN, AMNH, 

DBUA, NNM (58018), and 30 s in CER, all them from the type locality. 

Other material studied: Sal: 5 s, 1 f, Palhona, 1 m; 1 s. Punta do Cascalbo, 2 m; 2 sp, 2 s. Rabo de 

Junco, 5 m; 8 s, Palmeira, 5 m; 4 s, Pesqueiro do Aire, 1 m; 3 s, 2 f, Mordeira, 4 m; 3 s, CANCAP Sta. 

7.100, off Palmeira, 16° 45' N, 23° 01' W, 354 m (30-VIII-1986) (NNM); 1 s, CANCAP Sta. 7.109, off 

Palmeira, 16° 46' N, 22° 59' W, 31 m (31-VIII-1986) (NNM). Boa Vista: 1 s, Ilhéu de Sal Rei; 2 f, Derru- 

bado, 4 m. 

Etymology: The specific ñame alludes to the small size of the shell. 



Description: Shell (Fig. 56) length up 
to 2.8 mm, máximum width 1.3 mm, 
relatively solid, elongate-conic. 

Protoconch (Fig. 57) of 1 whorl and 
320 ^m of máximum diameter, of non- 
planktotrophic type, without spiral 



sculpture. Microsculpture (Fig. 58) 
formed by irregular fíat prominences 
with some circular pits on an undulate 
sur face. 

Teleoconch of about 4 strongly con- 
vex whorls, not angulated below sutures. 



(Right page) Figures 56-60: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) minima n. sp. 56: holotype, Regona, Sal 
(MNCN 15.05/31711); 57: protoconch of a shell from Regona, Sal; 58: protoconch microsculp- 
ture of a paratype. Regona (CER); 59-60: teleoconch microsculpture of the same paratype. 
(Página derecha) Figuras 56-60: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) minima spec. nov. 56: holotipo. 
Regona, Sal (MNCN 15.05/31711); 57: protoconcha de una concha de Regona, Sal; 58: microescul- 
tura de la protoconcha de un paratipo. Regona (CER); 59-60: microéstultura de la teloconcha del 
mismo paratipo. 



46 



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47 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



last whorl convex; suture shallow, but 
evident. Colour whitish. 

Axial sculpture consisting of promi- 
nent, rounded, narrow, distantly spaced 
axial ribs, almost orthocline in last 
whorl and opisthocline in previous 
ones. Spiral sculpture formed by very 
fine cords. Microsculpture (Figs. 59, 60) 
formed by very fine and irregular spiral 
threads. 

Aperture D-shaped, médium sized, 
inner lip thick; columellar side weakly 
concave; anterior channel almost 
absent; outer lip strongly opisthocline 
with thick varix; with about five para- 
llel lines towards the inner part of the 
aperture. 

Habitat: The material studied was 
obtained in sand sediments between 1 
and 354 m. 



Distribution: Only known from Sal 
and Boa Vista Islands (Fig. 159). 

Remarks: S. minima n. sp. is smaller 
than any of the previously described 
species. Among the small species, S. 
typica n. sp. has a larger shell, different 
spiral microsculpture, and the irregular 
fíat prominences which form the 
microsculpture of the protoconch of 
smaller size and without pits; S. angula- 
ris n. sp. has a subsutural angulation; S. 
luisi n. sp. has a different teleoconch and 
protoconch microsculpture. 

One shell (Fig. 139) found in Calhau, 
Sao Vicente, is similar in size to this 
species, but it has more curved axial ribs, 
a slightly different teleoconch micros- 
culpture and spiral sculpture in the pro- 
toconch. We prefer not to describe it as 
new awaiting further material. 



Schwartziella (Schwartziella) fulgida n. sp. (Figs. 61-65, 165) 

Type material: Holotype (Fig. 61) 1 s of 2.4 x 1.1 mm, from Furna, Brava Island, Cape Verde Archi- 
pelago, 30 m (MNCN 15.05/31706). Paratypes: 1 s ineach of MNHN, AMNH, DBUA, NNM (58007), 
and 6 s in CER, all from the type locality. 

Other material studied: Brava: 4 f, Furna, 30 m; 2 s, 1 j, 1 f, Pedrinha, 6 m; 5 s, Ilhéus do Rombo, 6 
m; 18 c, 1 f. Porto do Anciáo, 3 m. Santiago; 1 s, 6 j, 5 f, Prainha, 5 m; 7 s, 1 f, Tarrafal, 4 m; 2 f, 
CANCAR Sta. 6.004, 14° 54' N, 23° 30' W, 58-63 m (5-VI-1982) (NNM); 4 s, CANCAR Sta. 6.010, 14° 
52' N, 23° 30' W, 310 m (5-VI-1982) (NNM); 4 s, 1 f, CANCAR Sta. 6.015, S of the island, 14° 53' N, 
23° 30' W, 150 m (5-VI-1982) (NNM); 1 s, CANCAR Sta. 6.024, 15° 00' N, 23° 44' W, 540 m (7-VI- 
1982) (NNM); 2 s, 3 f, CANCAR Sta. 7.008, Ronta Grande da Cidade, 14° 54' N, 23° 38' W, 700 m 
(20-VIII-1986) (NNM); 1 s, 2 j, 3 f, Cidade Velha, 6 m. Fogo: 2 s, CANCAR Sta. 6.040, 14° 55' N, 24° 
31' W, 38-55 m (9-VI-1982) (NNM); 1 s, CANCAR Sta. 6.041. W of the island, 14° 55' N, 24° 31' W, 
60 m (9-VI-82) (NNM). 
Etymology: The specific ñame alindes to the apparently smooth shell, which gives it a shining appe- 



Description: Shell (Fig. 61) length up 
to 2.8 mm, máximum width 1.3 mm, 
solid, elongate-conic, shining. 

Protoconch (Fig. 62) of 1 whorl and 
300 ¡im oí máximum diameter, of non- 
planktotrophic type, with only a very 
slight angulation at the upper part; tran- 



sition to teleoconch abrupt. Microsculp- 
ture (Fig. 63) shows irregular fíat promi- 
nences with some circular pits on an 
undulate surface, but the studied proto- 
conchs were poorly preserved. 

Teleoconch of about 4 whorls, regu- 
larly convex, not angulated below 



(Right page) Figures 61-65: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) julgida n. sp. 61: holotype, Furna, Brava 
(MNCN 15.05/31706); 62: protoconch of the holotype; 63: protoconch microsculpture of the 
holotype; 64-65: teleoconch microsculpture of the holotype. 

(Página derecha) Figuras 61-65: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) fulgida spec. nov. 61: holotipo, Furna, 
Brava (MNCN 15.05/31706); 62: protoconcha del holotipo; 63: microescultura de la protoconcha del 
holotipo; 64-65: microescultura de la teloconcha del holotipo. 



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Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



sutures; sutures shallow but evident. 
Colour whitish. 

Axial sculpture consisting of pronii- 
nent, rounded, wide, spaced axial ribs, 
slightly opisthoclirie in last whorl and a 
little more on previous ones; about 14 in 
last whorl. At low magnification, appar- 
ently there is no spiral sculpture, but there 
is a fine microsculpture (Figs. 64, 65) of 
very fine threads on the interspaces be- 
tween ribs, which disappears on the ribs. 

Aperture D-shaped, médium sized; 
inner lip thick; columellar side weakly 
concave; anterior channel almost absent; 
outer lip opisthocline with a thick exter- 
nal varix. Peristome prominent in large 
specimens, with several parallel Unes 
towards the inner part of the aperture. 



Habitat: Sand sediments between 4 
and 700 m. 

Distribution: Only known from Fogo, 
Brava and Santiago (Fig. 165). 

Remarks: S. fulgida n. sp. differs from 
the other small species of Schwartziella 
previously described: S. minima n. sp. is 
smaller, with smaller and less numerous 
axial ribs and it has more evident spiral 
sculpture; S. luisi n. sp. also has a more 
evident spiral sculpture and the proto- 
conch microsculpture formed by very 
small pits; S. angularis n. sp. has a 
subsutural angulation; S. typica n. sp. 
has a larger shell, and a fairly evident 
and different spiral microsculpture, 
uniform in S. fulgida and with two diffe- 
rent altérnate zones in S. typica. 



Schwartziella (Schwartziella) depressa n. sp. (Figs. 66-70, 164) 

Type material: Holotype (Fig. 66) 1 s of 3.6 x 1.5 mm and 2 paratypes, 2 s, from Mordeira Bay, Sal 

Island, Cape Verde Archipelago, 4 m (MNCN 15.05/31704). Paratypes: 1 s in each of MNHN, 

AMNH, DBUA, NNM (58003), and 15 s, 2 f in CER, all from the type localifry. 

Other material studied: Sal: 1 s, Mordeira, 4 m; 24 s, 4 f, Palmeira, 8 m; 12 s. Regona, 1-3 m; 1 s, 

Algodoeiro, 4 m; 10 s. Rabo do Junco, 2 m; Boa Vista: 1 sp, 14 s, 3 f. Sal Rei, 5 m; 2 s, 1 f, llhéu de 

Sal Rei, 3 m; 10 s, 7 f. Porto da Cruz, 6 m; 9 s, 3 j, 9 f, Derrubado, 4 m; 5 s. Rife de Chaves, 8 m; 1 s, 

Baijos de Joáo Valente, 23 m. Sao Nicolau: 13 s, 7 f, CANCAR Sta. 7.128, 16° 33' N, 24° 17' W, 400 

m (2-1X-1986) (NNM); 21 s, 11 f, Sao Jorge Bay, CANCAR Sta. 7.129, 16° 33' N, 24° 16' W, 405 m (2- 

lX-1986) (NNM). 

Etymology: The specific ñame alludes to the unusual subsutural depression of the shell. 



Description: Shell (Fig. 66) length up 
to 4.0 mm, máximum width 1.6 mm, 
relatively solid, elongate-conic. 

Protoconch (Fig. 67) of 1 whorl and 
about 300 ^m of máximum diameter, of 
non-planktotrophic type, with a promi- 
nent spiral cord on its upper part; tran- 
sition to teleoconch abrupt. Microsculp- 
ture (Fig. 68) formed by irregular fíat 
prominences with small pits on an 
undulous surface. 



Teleoconch of 5 whorls, strongly 
convex, last whorl weakly convex; 
suture shallow, with a slight subsutural 
depression. Colour whitish. 

Axial sculpture consisting of promi- 
nent, rounded, wide, slightly opistho- 
cline axial ribs, with interspaces of 
similar size, a little reduced in the 
subsutural depression specially in the 
last two whorls; about ten axial ribs in 
last whorl. At low magnification, appa- 



(Right page) Figures 66-70: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) depressa n. sp. 66: holorype, Mordeira, Sal 
(MNCN 15.05/31704); 67: protoconch of the holotype; 68: protoconch microsculpture of the 
holotype; 69: teleoconch microsculpture of the holotype; 70: teleoconch microsculpture of a shell 
from Mordeira, Sal. 

(Página derecha) Figuras 66-67: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) depressa spec. nov. 66: holotipo, Mor- 
deira, Sal (MNCN 15.05/31704); 67: protoconcha del holotipo; 68: microescultura de la protoconcha 
del holotipo; 69: microescultura de la teloconcha del holotipo; 70: microescultura de la teloconcha de 
una concha de Mordeira, Sal. 



50 



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51 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



rently there is no spiral sculpture, but 
there is a fine microsculpture of bands 
with small pits and 1-3 fine and irregu- 
lar threads between each two bands on 
the interspaces between ribs, which 
disappear on the ribs (Figs. 69, 70). 

Aperture D-shaped, relatively small; 
inner lip thick; columellar side weakly 
concave; anterior channel shallow; outer 
lip with thick external varix; with about 
6 Unes towards the inner part of the 
aperture. 

Habitat: The material studied was 
obtained from sand sediments between 
1-8 and to 400-405 m. 

Distribution: Only known from Sal, 
Boa Vista and Sao Nicolau Islands (Fig. 
164). 



Remarks: The shells from deep water 
off Sao Nicolau are similar in size and 
sculpture to those from shallow waters 
of Sal and Boa Vista, but the subsutural 
depression is less evident. 

S. depressa n. sp. differs from S. simi- 
liter n. sp. by its smaller shell, less mar- 
ked spiral sculpture, narrower interspa- 
ces between axial ribs, and different mi- 
crosculpture of the protoconch and 
teleoconch. S. typica n. sp. has a wider 
shell, lacking subsutural depression. S. 
angularis and S. luisi have more evident 
spiral sculpture. S. minima and S. fulgida 
n. sp. have smaller shells without subsu- 
tural depression; S. minima also has a 
more evident spiral sculpture and lacks 
spiral sculpture on the protoconch. 



Schwartziella (Schwartziella) gr adata n. sp. (Figs. 71-75, 161) 

Type material: Holotype (Fig. 71) 1 s of 3.1 x 1.3 mm and 1 paratype, 1 s, Furna, Brava Island, Cape 
Verde Archipelago, 30 m (MNCN 15.05/31708); 1 paratype in NNM (58010) from the type locality. 
Other material studied: Brava: 2 s, 3 j, Pedrinha, 5 m. 
Etymology: The specific ñame alindes to the scalariform profile of the shell. 



Description: Shell (Figs. 71, 72) length 
up to 3.1 mm, máximum width 1.3 mm, 
slightly solid, elongate-conic and rela- 
tively narrow. 

Protoconch (Fig. 73, 74) of 1 whorl 
and 270 jaux of máximum diameter, of 
non-planktotrophic type, with an apical 
spiral cord and two narrower cords at 
both sides, and small and irregular axial 
threads on the interspaces between 
cords; transition to teleoconch abrupt. 
The rest of the surface of the protoconch 
have irregular fíat prominences with 
small pits on a smooth surface. 

Teleoconch of about 5 whorls weakly 
convex, with a strong subsutural angu- 
lation. Colour whitish. 



Axial sculpture consisting of promi- 
nent, sharp, narrow, slightly opisthocline, 
distantly spaced axial ribs, about 12 in last 
whorl. Spiral sculpture formed by very 
fine cords. Microsculpture (Fig. 75) for- 
med by very numerous spiral threads, 
which disappear on the cords and contin- 
ué on the ribs. 

Aperture D-shaped, small; inner lip 
thick; columellar side weakly concave; 
anterior channel absent, with a depression 
in the zone; outer lip opisthocline with 
thick external varix, with 5-6 parallel lines 
towards the inner part of the aperture. 

Habitat: The material studied was 
obtained from sand sediments between 
5 and 30 m. 



(Right page) Figures 71-75: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) gradata n. sp. 71: holotype, Furna, Brava 
(MNCN 15.05/31708); 72: paratype, Furna, Brava (NNM 58010); 73: protoconch of a paratype, 
Furna (CER); 74: detall of the protoconch of the same paratype: 75: teleoconch microsculpture of 
the same paratype. 

(Página derecha) Figuras 71-75: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) gradata spec. nov. 71: holotipo, Furna, 
Brava (MNCN 15.05/31708;,- 72: paratipo, Furna, Brava (NNM 58010); 73: protoconcha de un 
paratipo, Furna (CER); 74: detalle de la protoconcha del mismo paratipo: 75: microescultura de la telo- 
concha del mismo paratipo. 



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Rolan and Luque: The subfamily Rissoininae in the Cape Verde Archipelago 




53 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



Distribution: Only known from Brava 
Island (Fig. 161). 

Remarks: S. grádala n. sp. differs from 
any other species of Schwartziella oí the 
Cape Verde Islands by the protoconch 
sculpture. From other species with 
subsutural angulation, the sympatric S. 



obesa n. sp. is larger, and S. angularis is 
smaller and relatively wider 
(length/width ratio 2.12-2.23, and 2,32- 
2,44 in S. grádala), with only a spiral an- 
gulation in the upper part of the proto- 
conch, instead of three spiral cords and 
irregular axial threads in S. grádala. 



Schwartziella (Schwartziella) pavita n. sp. (Figs. 76-79, 162) 

Type material: Holotype (Fig. 76) 1 s of 3.3 x 1.3 mm and 1 paratype, 1 s, from Sal Rei, Boa Vista 
Island, Cape Verde Archipelago, 5 m (MNCN 15.05/31714). Other paratypes: 1 s (NNM 58022), 1 
s (MNHN) and 1 s (CER), all from the type locality; lis from Porto da Cruz, north of Sal Rei (CER). 
Other material studied: (in poor condition) Boa Vista: 2 s, 1 f, Ilhéu de Sal Rei, 6 m; 1 s. Sal Rei, 6 
m; 1 s, Baia Teodora, 4 m; 1 s, Derrubado, 4 m. Sal: 1 s, Mordeira, 4 m. Maio: 1 s, Pau Seco, 5 m. 
Etymology: The specific ñame derives from the Latin verb pavio which means "to level" by the 
depressed axial ribs of the shell. 



Descriplion: Shell (Fig. 76) length up 
to 3.3 mm, máximum width 1.3 mm, 
relatively solid, elongate-conic. 

Protoconch (Fig. 77) oí 1 whorl, 
about 300 }im oí máximum diameter, in 
poor condition in all the material 
studied, of non-planktotrophic type, 
apparently without spiral sculpture. 

Teleoconch of about 5 whorls, almost 
flat-sided; last whorl weakly convex; 
suture shallow. Colour whitish. 

Axial sculpture consisting of 
rounded, not prominent, wide, slightly 
opisthocline, distantly spaced axial ribs, 
about 12 in last whorl. Spiral sculpture 
of fine spiral cords densely spaced. 
Microsculpture (Figs. 78, 79) formed by 
one or two very fine irregular spiral 
threads between each cord. 

Aperture D-shaped, small, inner lip 
thick; columellar side weakly concave; 
anterior channel almost absent; outer lip 
opisthocline with thick external varix, 
with about 3-4 parallel lines. 



Habilal: The material studied was 
obtained from sand sediments between 
4 and 6 m. 

Dislribulion: Only known from 
Sal, Boa Vista and Maio Islands (Fig. 
162). 

Remarks: S. pavita n. sp. differs from 
other Cape Verde species of Schwartzie- 
lla by the very depressed axial ribs and 
the microsculpture with densely 
spaced spiral cords and only one-two 
threads between cords. The sympatric 
S. sanmartini n. sp. also has non-promi- 
nent axial ribs, but it has a larger and 
wider shell, with a teleoconch micro- 
sculpture formed only by very fine 
threads. S. simililer n. sp. and S. lypica 
n. sp. have the axial ribs more promi- 
nent and a different teleoconch micro- 
sculpture. S. minitna n. sp. and S. 
fulgida n. sp. are smaller and both have 
more prominent axial ribs and micros- 
culpture formed almost exclusively by 
very fine threads. 



(Right page) Figures 76-79: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) pavita n. sp. 76: holotype, Sai Rei, 
Boa Vista (MNCN 15.05/31714); 77: protoconch of a shell from Sal Rei, Boavista; 78: teleo- 
conch microsculpture of a shell from Sal Rei, Boavista; 79: teleoconch microsculpture of the 
holotype. 

(Página derecha) Figuras 76-79: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) pavita spec. nov. 76: holotipo, Sal Rei, 
Boa Vista (MNCN 15.05/31714); 77: protoconcha de una concha de Sal Rei, Boavista; 78, microes- 
cultura de la teloconcha de una concha de Sal Rei, Boavista; 79: microescultura de la teloconcha del 
holotipo. 



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Rolan and LuqUE: The subfamily Rissoininae in the Cape Verde Archipelago 




55 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



Schwartziella (Schwartziella) cancapae n. sp. (Figs. 80-84, 165) 

Type material: Holotype (Fig. 80) 1 s of 3.8 x 1.5 mm (NNM 58001) and 6 paratypes (5 f), CANCAP 
Sta. 6.009, S of Santiago, Cape Verde Archipelago, 14° 54' N, 23° 30' W, 175 m (5-VI-1982) (NNM 
58002). Other paratypes: 1 s (MNCN 15.05/31702) and 1 s (CER), Praia, Santiago, 10 m; 9 s, CANCAP 
Sta. 6.006, S of Santiago, 14° 54' N, 23° 30' W, 150 m (5-VI-1982) (NNM 59409). 
Other material studied: Santiago: 1 s, 1 f, CANCAP Sta. 6.005, S of the island, 14° 54' N, 23° 30' W, 
175 m (5-VI-1982) (NNM); 3 f, CANCAP Sta. 6.010, 14° 52' N, 23° 30' W, 310 m (5-VI-1982) (NNM); 
2 s, 18 f, CANCAP Sta. 6.015, S of the island, 14° 53' N, 23° 30' W, 150 m (5-VI-1982) (NNM); 1 s, 3 
j, CANCAP Sta. 6.024, 15° 00' N, 23° 44' W, 540 m (7-VI-1982) (NNM); 1 s, 4 f, CANCAP Sta. 7.004, 
14° 54' N, 23° 38' W, 320 m (21-VIII-1986) (NNM); 1 s, CANCAP Sta. 7.005, 14° 54' N, 23° 38' W, 
235 m (21-VIII-1986) (NNM); 3 s, 5 f, CANCAP Sta. 7.007, 14° 54' N, 23° 38' W, 420 m (20-VI-1986) 
(NNM); 1 s, 7 j, CANCAP Sta. 7.008, 14° 54' N, 23° 38' W, 700 m (20-VIII-1986) (NNM); 1 s, 7 j, 
CANCAP Sta. 7.014, Ponta Grande da Cidade, 14° 54' N, 23° 38' W, 450-600 m (21-Vin-1986) (NNM). 
Fogo: 1 j, Sao Felipe, 20 m. Brava: 2 s, 1 f , Furna, 30 m. 

Etymology: The specific ñame alindes to the CANCAP expeditions in which has been collected 
most of the material of this species and part of the material studied in this paper. 



Description: Shell (Fig. 80) length up 
to 4.0 mm, máximum width 1.6 mm, not 
solid, elongate-conic. 

Protoconch (Fig. 81) of 1 whorl and 
400 jWm of máximum diameter, of non- 
planktotrophic type, without spiral 
sculpture; transition to teleoconch 
abrupt. Microsculpture (Fig. 82) formed 
by a rough surface with many small 
pits. 

Teleoconch of about 5 whorls, 
weakly convex; last whorl weakly 
convex; suture shallow but evident. 
Colour whitish. 

Axial sculpture consisting of promi- 
nent, rounded, narrow, slightly opistho- 
cline, distantly spaced axial ribs, 13 in 
last whorl; the ribs are continued from 
whorl to whorl, except in first whorls. 
Spiral sculpture appreciable with diffi- 
culty at low magnification. Microsculp- 
ture (Figs. 83, 84) of threads with a few 
parallel Unes of minute pits, and more 
separated, sometimes paired irregularly 
interrupted striae. 

Aperture D-shaped, medium-small, 
inner lip thick; columellar side weakly 
concave; anterior channel almost absent; 



outer lip opisthocline with thick exter- 
nal varix, peristome narrow with a few 
parallel Unes. 

Habitat: Some shells of this species 
were collected in relatively shallow 
water (20-30 m), but most of material 
comes from 60-200 m in depth in sand 
and shell gravel bottom. 

Distribution: Only known from San- 
tiago, Fogo and Brava (Fig. 165). 

Remarks: S. cancapae n. sp. differs 
from most of the species described 
before by its protoconch lacking spiral 
sculpture and larger than most of Cape 
Verde Schwartziella species. The more 
similar species are: S. depressa n. sp., 
with a more evident subsutural depres- 
sion, and an evident spiral cord and dif- 
ferent microsculpture in the protoconch; 
S. fulgida n. sp. is smaller, almost 
smooth, with different microsculpture in 
the teleoconch and protoconch; S. typica 
n. sp. is smaller and has different proto- 
conch microsculpture, and S. similiter n. 
sp. is larger, wider, and with more 
evident spiral sculpture. S. cancapae is 
quite similar to S. africana, but the latter 
species has strongly opisthocline axial 



(Right page) Figures 80-84: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) cancapae n. sp. 80: holotype, Santiago 
(NNM 58001); 81: protoconch of the holotype; 82: protoconch microsculpture of the holotype; 
83-84: teleoconch microsculpture of the holotype. 

(Página derecha) Figuras 80-84: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) cancapae spec. nov. 80: holotipo, San- 
tiago (NNM 58001); 81: protoconcha del holotipo; 82: microescultura de la protoconcha del holotipo; 
83-84: microescultura de la teloconcha del holotipo. 



56 



RolAn and Luque: The subfamily Rissoininae in the Cape Verde Archipelago 




b7 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



ribs, different protoconch and teleo- 
conch microsculpture (see Gofas, 1999). 
Previous records or S. africana from the 



Cape Verde Islands (Marche-Mar- 
CHAD, 1958; Saunders, 1977) could be 
referred to this species. 



Schwartziella (Schwartziella) puncticulata n. sp. (Figs. 85-87, 140-141, 166) 

Type material: Holotype (Fig. 85, NNM 58023) 1 s of 4.0 x 1.6 mm and 2 paratypes (NNM 58024), 
2 f, CANCAP Sta. 7.119, S of Ilhéu Razo, 16° 36' N, 24° 36' W, Cape Verde Archipelago, 140-160 m 
(l-IX-1986). Paratypes: 1 s (MNCN 15.05/31715) and 1 s (CER), both from the type locality; 7 s, 11 
f, CANCAP Sta. 7.028, Ilhéu de Cima, 14° 57' N, 24° 39' W, 225 m (23-VIII-1986) (NNM 59414). 
Other material studied: Sal: 6 f, CANCAP Sta. 7.100, off Palmeira, 16° 45' N, 23° 01' W, 354 m (30- 
VIII-1986) (NNM). Maio: 6 f, CANCAP Sta. 7.050, 15° 06' N, 23° 14' W, 380 m (25-VIII-1986) (NNM). 
Santiago: 1 s, 12 j, Cidade Velha, 6 m; 10 j, Prainha, 5 m; 6 s, 3 f, CANCAP Sta. 6.095, 16° 35' N, 24° 
37' W, 930 m (15-VI-1982) (NNM). Fogo: 9 s, 6 f, CANCAP Sta. 6.041, W of the island, 14° 55' N, 24° 
31' W, 60 m (9-VI-82) (NNM). Brava: 12 j, Pedrinha, 6 m; 7 j, Furna, 30 m. Ilhéu de Cima: 2 s, 5 f, 
CANCAP Sta. 7.037, 14° 57' N, 24° 38' W, 350-385 m (24-VIII-1986) (NNM); 1 s, 2j, CANCAP Sta. 
7.038, 14° 57' N, 24° 38' W, 410-460 m (24-VIII-1986) (NNM); 1 s, 6 j, CANCAP Sta. 7.031, 14° 57' N, 
24° 38' W, 75 m (23-VIII-1986) (NNM); 2 s, CANCAP Sta. 7.037, 14° 57' N, 24° 38' W, 385-350 m (24- 
VIII-1986) (NNM). Sao Vicente: 1 s, CANCAP Sta. 6.147, 16° 48' N, 25° 06' W, 99 m (20-VI-1982) 
(NNM); 4 s, 1 j, 4 f, CANCAP Sta. 6.149, 16° 47' N, 25° 06' W, 293 m (20-VI-1982) (NNM). Ilhéu Razo: 
1 s, 5 j, CANCAP Sta. 6.093, 16° 36' N, 24° 37' W, 400-430 m (15-VI-1982) (NNM); 3 s, 10 j, 9 f, 
CANCAP Sta. 7.119, S of Ilhéu Razo, 16° 36' N, 24° 36' W; 140-160 m (l-IX-1986); 7 s, 21 f, CANCAP 
Sta. 7.121, 16° 36' N, 24° 37' W, 200-230 m (l-IX-1986) (NNM). Santa Luzia: 9 f, CANCAP Sta. 6.103, 
16° 43' N, 24° 46' W, 102 m (16-VI-1982) (NNM); 1 s, 6 f, CANCAP Sta. 6.105, SSW of the island, 16° 
43' N, 24° 47' W, 204 m (16-VI-1982) (NNM). Sao Nicolau: 1 s, 3 j, CANCAP Sta. 6.085, 16° 34' N, 
24° 22' W, 100 m (14-VI-1982) (NNM). 

Etymology: The specific ñame alludes to the microsculpture of this species, formed by undulated 
rows of small pits. 



Description: Shell (Fig. 85) length up 
to 4.5 mm, máximum width 1.7 mm, 
relatively solid, elongate-conic. 

Protoconch (Fig. 86) of 1 whorl and 360 
/^m of máximum diameter, of non- plank- 
totrophic type; no spiral sculpture; tran- 
sition to teleoconch abrupt. Microsculp- 
ture formed by irregular flat prominences 
on a smooth surface, with some pits. 

Teleoconch of 4-5 whorls, strongly 
convex, and more convex in the subsu- 
tural part of the ribs; last whorl regu- 
larly convex; suture a little deep. Colour 
whitish. 

Axial sculpture consisting of promi- 
nent, rounded, narrow, a little opistho- 
cline distantly spaced axial ribs, which 
are continued from whorl to whorl. 
Spiral sculpture not visible at low mag- 
nification. Microsculpture (Fig. 87) 
formed by very fine, densely packed 
undulated threads with intermedíate 
rows of small pits. 

Aperture D-shaped, small; inner lip 
thick; columellar side weakly concave; 



anterior channel shallow; outer lip 
strongly opisthocline with a very thick 
external varix, peristome with a promi- 
nent edge and some parallel Unes 
towards the inner part. 

Habitat: Sand sediments, between 6 
and 930 m. 

Distribution: Sal, Maio, Santiago, 
Fogo, Brava, Ilhéu de Cima, Sao Vicente, 
Santa Luzia, Ilhéu Razo and Sao 
Nicolau (Fig. 166). Probably this species 
is present in all the archipelago, but it is 
frequent in some islands and uncom- 
mon in others. 

Remarks: S. puncticulata n. sp. differs 
from the following similar species: S. 
similiter n. sp. has no subsutural shoul- 
der and a different protoconch and 
teleoconch microsculpture; S. typica n. 
sp. is smaller, less elongate, uniformly 
convex and with different teleoconch 
microsculpture; S. fulgida n. sp. is also 
smaller, with the whorls less convex, 
and the teleoconch microsculpture more 
lineal; S. depressa n. sp. is smaller, with a 



58 



Rolan and LuquE: The subfamily Rissoininae in the Cape Verde Archipelago 




Figures 85-87: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) puncticulata n. sp. 85: holotype, Ilhéu Razo (NNM 
58023); 86: protoconch of a paratype, Ilhéu Razo (NNM 58024); 87: teleoconch microsculpture 
of the holotype. 

Figuras 85-87: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) puncticulata spec. nov. 85: holotipo, Ilhéu Razo (NNM 
58023); 86: protoconcha de un paratipo, Ilhéu Razo (NNM 58024); 87: microescultum de la telocon- 
cha del holotipo. 



59 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



spiral cord on the protoconch and a 
subsutural depression on the teleo- 
conch; S. cancapae n. sp. has a more 
regular curvature of the whorls, a larger 
protoconch, and a different protoconch 
and teleoconch microsculpture. 



One shell (Figs. 140, 141) found in 
Sao Vicente, CANCAP Sta. 6.145, 16° 48' 
N, 25° 06' W) is smaller, stouter and the 
axial ribs are less convex, but we provi- 
sionally consider it conspecific since it 
has identical microsculpture. 



Schwartziella (SchwartzieUa)hoenselaari n. sp. (Figs. 88-92, 167) 

Type material: Holotype (Fig. 88) 1 s of 2.3 x 1.1 mm (NNM 58011) and 26 paratypes (NNM 58012), 
26 s, S of Santiago, CANCAP Sta. 6.001, 14° 54' N, 23° 30' W, 15-20 m (4-VI-1982). Other paratypes: 
13 s, CANCAP Sta. 6.014, 14° 54' N, 23° 29' W, 18 m (5-VI-1982) (NNM 59415); 1 s (MNCN 15.05/31709) 
and 1 s (CER), both from the type locality; 1 s, Prainha, 5 m (CER). 

Other material studied: Santiago: 16 s, 2 j, Tarrafal, 4 m; 4 s, CANCAP Sta. 6.003, 14° 54' N, 23° 30' 
W, 15-21 m (5-VI-1982) (NNM); 3 s, CANCAP Sta. 6.004, 14° 54' N, 23° 30' W, 58-63 m (5-VI-1982) 
(NNM); 2 f, CANCAP Sta. 6.006, S of the island, 14° 54' N, 23° 30' W, 150 m (5-VI-1982) (NNM); 3 
s, 2 j CANCAP Sta. 6.007, 14° 54' N, 23° 30' W, 70-88 m (5-VI-1982) (NNM); 1 s, CANCAP Sta. 6.008, 
14° 54' N, 23° 30' W, 120 m (5-VI-1982) (NNM); 6 s, 1 f, CANCAP Sta. 6.010, 14° 52' N, 23° 30' W, 
310 m (5-VI-1982) (NNM); 6 s, 3j, CANCAP Sta. 6.015, S of the island, 14° 53' N, 23° 30' W, 150 m 
(5-VI-1982) (NNM); 4 s, 1 f, CANCAP Sta. 6.024, 15° 00' N, 23° 44' W, 540 m (7-VI-1982) (NNM); 1 
s, 1 j, CANCAP Sta. 6.025, 15° 00' N, 23° 45' W, 728 m (7-VI-1982) (NNM); 2 s, CANCAP Sta. 7.005, 
14° 54' N, 23° 38' W, 235 m (21-VIII-1986) (NNM); 2 f, CANCAP Sta. 7.007, 14° 54' N, 23° 38' W, 420 
m (20-VI-1986) (NNM); 3 s, 2 f, Ponta Grande da Cidade, CANCAP Sta. 7.015, 14° 54' N, 23° 38' W, 
450-600 m (21-VIII-1986) (NNM); 2 f, CANCAP Sta. 7.020, 14° 45' N, 23° 29 W, 0-2200 m (21-22-VIII- 
1986). Fogo: 2 s, 1 f, in front of Sao Felipe, 20 m; 6 s, 3 j, CANCAP Sta. 6.040, 14° 55' N, 24° 31' W, 
38-55 m (9-VI-1982) (NNM). Ilhéu de Cima: 2 s, CANCAP Sta. 7.028, 14° 57' N, 24° 39' W, 225 m 
(23-VIII-1986) (NNM); 1 s, CANCAP Sta. 7.037, 14° 57' N, 24° 38' W, 350-385 m (24-Vin-1986) (NNM). 
Santa Luzia: 1 s, 1 f, CANCAP Sta. 6.103, 16° 43' N, 24° 46' W, 102 m (16-VI-1982) (NNM); 2 s, 
CANCAP Sta. 6.107, 16° 44' N, 24° 46' W, 50 m (16-VI-1982) (NNM). Ilhéu Razo: 1 s, CANCAP Sta. 
7.120, 16° 36' N, 24° 37' W, 208 m (l-IX-1986); 1 s, CANCAP Sta. 7.121, 16° 36' N, 24° 37' W, 200-230 
(l-IX-1986) (NNM). Sao Nicolau: 2 s, 6 f, CANCAP Sta. 7.128, Sao Jorge Bay, 16° 33' N, 24° 17' W, 
400 m (2-IX-1986) (NNM); 6 s, 3 f, Sao Jorge Bay, CANCAP Sta. 7.129, 16° 33' N, 24° 16' W, 405 m 
(2-IX-1986) (NNM). Sal: 2 s, Palhona, 2 m. 

Etymology: The specific ñame is dedicated to Hink J. Hoenselaar, Dutch malacologist who begun 
the study of the Rissoininae material from the CANCAP Expeditions. 



Description: Shell (Figs. 88, 89) length 
up to 3.0 mm, máximum width 1.4 mm, 
relatively solid, elongate-conic. 

Protoconch (Fig. 90) of 1 whorl and 
about 300 ^m of máximum diameter, of 
non-planktotrophic type, with no spiral 
sculpture; transition to teleoconch abrupt. 
Microsculpture (Fig. 92) formed by ir- 



regular flat prominences with some pits 
on an undulate surface. 

Teleoconch of 4-5 whorls, clearly 
convex, not angulated below suture; last 
whorl convex; suture shallow, but 
evident. Colour whitish. 

Axial sculpture consisting of promi- 
nent, rounded, narrow, almost orthocline 



(Right page) Figures 88-92: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) hoenselaari n. sp. 88: holotype, Santiago 
(NNM 58011); 89: paratype, Santiago (NNM 58012); 90: protoconch of a paratype, Santiago 
(NNM 58012); 91: teleoconch microsculpture of a paratype, Santiago (NNM 58012); 92: proto- 
conch microsculpture of a paratype, Santiago (NNM 58012). 

(Página derecha) Figuras 88-92: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) hoenselaari spec. nov. 88: holotipo, San- 
tiago (NNM 58011); 89: paratipo, Santiago (NNM 58012); 90: protoconcha del paratipo, Santiago 
(NNM 58012); 91: microescultura de la teloconcha del paratipo, Santiago (NNM 58012); 92: micro- 
escultura de la protoconcha del paratipo, Santiago (NNM 58012). 



60 



Rolan and LuqUE: The subfamily Rissoininae in the Cape Verde Archipelago 




61 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



(slightly opisthocline on first whorls), 
very distantly spaced axial ribs; being 9- 
11 in the last whorl. Spiral sculpture 
almost unappreciable at low magnifica- 
tíon. Microsculpture (Fig. 91) with zones 
with 2-3 fine threads irregularly distrib- 
uted, alternating with wider threads 
with spiral rows of small pits. 

Aperture D-shaped, small-medium 
sized; inner lip thick; columellar side 
weakly concave; anterior channel 
absent; outer lip strongly opisthocline 
with a very thick external varix; peris- 
tome narrow with about 5 parallel Unes 
towards the inner part of the aperture. 

Habitat: The material studied was 
coUected from 2 to 728 m of depth. 

Distribution: Sal, Santiago, Fogo, 
llhéu de Cima, Santa Luzia, llhéu Razo, 
Sao Nicolau (Fig. 167). 



Remarks: Schwartziella hoenselaari n. 
sp. differs from most of the Cape Verde 
species of the genus by having less axial 
ribs. It differs from the following species 
with similar shape and protoconch 
lacking spiral sculpture: S. puncticulata 
n. sp. has a larger protoconch, a subsu- 
tural curvature of the whorls, and the 
teleoconch microsculpture lacks con- 
tinuous threads; S. cancapae n. sp. has a 
smaller protoconch, a more pointed 
shell, with different protoconch and 
teleoconch microsculpture; S. depressa n. 
sp. and S. typica n. sp. have a similar 
shape, but the protoconch of both 
species has spiral sculpture and the 
microsculpture of the teleoconch is dif- 
ferent. Differences with the similar S. 
paucicostata n. sp. are discussed under 
remarks of this species. 



Schwartziella (Schwartziella) paucicostata n. sp. (Figs. 93-96, 168) 

Type material: Holotype (Fig. 93) Is of 3.1 x 1.3 mm (NNM 58004), and 2 paratypes, 2 s (NNM 
58005), CANCAP Sta. 7.105, off Palmeira, 16° 45' N, 23° 01' W, 123-142 m. Other paratypes: 1 f, 
CANCAP Sta. 7.093, llhéu Razo, 16° 34' N, 33° 54' W, 42 m (29-VIII-1986) (NNM 59410); 1 s, 1 j, 
CANCAP Sta. 7.095, llhéu Razo, 16° 34' N, 22° 53' W, 30-50 m (29-VIII-1986) (NNM 59411); Is, 1 j 
(MNCN 15.05/34277), 3 s, 1 j (CER) Pau Seco, Malo, 30 m. 

Other material studied: Sal: 1 s, CANCAP Sta. 7.088, Ponta do Leme Velho, 16° 34' N, 22° 54' W, 
59 m (29-VIII-1986) (NNM). Maio: 2 s, 1 f, CANCAP Sta. 7.050, 15° 06' N, 23° 14' W, 380 m (25-VIII- 
1986) (NNM). Santiago: 1 s, CANCAP Sta. 6.017, 14° 53' N, 23° 30' W, 380 m (5-VI-1982). 
Etymology: The specific ñame alludes to the low number of axial ribs of the shell. 



Description: Shell (Fig. 93) length up 
to 3.3 mm, máximum width 1.4 mm, 
relatively solid, elongate-conic. 

Protoconch (Fig. 94) of 1 whorl and 
270 ^m of máximum diameter, of non- 
planktotrophic type, without spiral 
sculpture, smooth. 

Teleoconch of about 5 whorls, 
strongly convex; last whorl a little less 
convex; suture shallow. Colour whitish. 

Axial sculpture consisting of promi- 
nent, sharp, very distantly spaced (4 
times narrower than the interspaces) 
axial ribs, almost orthocline in last 
whorl and opisthocline in previous 
whorls; only 6-7 axial ribs in last whorl. 
Spiral sculpture almost unappreciable at 
low magnification. Microsculpture (Figs. 
95, 96) formed by bands of interrupted 
and irregularly disposed fine spiral 



threads and wider threads without 
sculpture. 

Aperture D-shaped, small; inner lip 
thick; columellar side weakly concave; 
anterior channel almost absent; outer lip 
with thick external varix; peristome 
narrow with several parallel lines 
towards the inner part of the aperture. 

Habitat: The material studied was 
coUected in sand bottom between 30 
and 380 m. 

Distribution: Sal, Maio, Santiago and 
llhéu Razo (Fig. 168). 

Remarks: S. paucicostata n. sp. differs 
from any other of the previously described 
species of Cape Verde Schwartziella by its 
smooth protoconch and the few and dis- 
tant axial ribs. The similar S. hoenselaari n. 
sp. has a wider protoconch with micro- 
sculpture, and more numerous axial ribs. 



62 



Rolan and LuqUE: The subfamily Rissoininae in the Cape Verde Archipelago 




Figures 93-96: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) paucicostata n. sp. 93: holotype. Sal (NNM 58004); 
94: protoconch of the holotype; 95-96: teleoconch microsculpture of the holotype. 
Figuras 93-96: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) paucicostata spec. nov. 93: holotipo. Sal (NNM 58004); 
94: protoconcha del holotipo; 95-96: microescultura de la teloconcha del holotipo. 



63 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



Schwartziella (Schwartziella) sulcostriata n. sp. (Figs. 97-101, 169) 

Type material: Holotype (Fig. 91) 1 s of 3.1 x 1.2 mm (NNM 58033), and 3 paratypes, 3 s (NNM 
58034), CANCAP Sta. 7.100, off Palmeira, 16° 45' N, 23° 01' W, 354 m (30-VIII-1986). Other paraty- 
pes: 1 s, CANCAP Sta. 7.101, off Palmeira, Sal, 16° 45' N, 23° 01' W, 262-280 m (30-Vin-1986) (NNM 
59421); 2 s, 2 f, CANCAP Sta. 7.120, 16° 36' N, 24° 37' W, Ilhéu Razo, 208 m (l-IX-1986) (NNM 59422). 
Other material studied: Sal: 2 f, CANCAP Sta. 7.110, 16° 46' N, 23° 02' W, 85 m (31-Vni-1986) 
(NNM). Sao Nicolau: 2 s, Sao Jorge Bay, CANCAP Sta. 7.129, 16° 33' N, 24° 16' W, 405 m (2-IX-1986) 
(NNM); 1 s, CANCAP Sta. 7.128, Sao Jorge Bay, 16° 33' N, 24°17' W, 400 m (2-IX-1986) (NNM). 
Etymology: The specific ñame alludes to the microsculpture of the teleoconch. 



Description: Shell (Fig. 97) length up 
to 3.1 mm, máximum width 1.2 mm, not 
very solid, strongly elongate-conic. 

Protoconch (Fig. 98) of 1 whorl and 
340 ^m of máximum diameter, of non- 
planktotrophic type, no spiral sculpture; 
transition to teleoconch not very abrupt. 
Microsculpture (Fig. 101) formed by 
irregular fíat prominences with some 
pits on a smooth surface. 

Teleoconch of 5 whorls, weakly 
convex, not angulated below suture but 
a little on suture; suture shallow, slightly 
undulate. Colour whitish. 

Axial sculpture consisting of not 
prominent, rounded, narrow, slightly 
opisthocline, distantly spaced axial ribs, 
not always coincident from whorl to 
whorl. Spiral sculpture appreciable with 
difficulty at low magnification. Micro- 
sculpture (Figs. 99, 100) only observable 
among the spiral ribs and formed by 
smooth spiral bands separated by 
furrows with 2-3 spiral striae. 

Aperture D-shaped, small; inner lip 
thick; columellar side weakly concave; 



anterior channel almost absent; outer lip 
with thick external varix, peristoma 
narrow and with a few parallel Unes 
towards the inner part of the aperture. 

Habitat: Collected in sand sediments 
between 85 and 405 m. 

Distribution: Known from Sal, Ilhéu 
Razo and Sao Nicolau (Fig. 169). Prob- 
ably it is present in all the islands of the 
northern group. 

Remarks: S. sulcostriata n. sp. is more 
elongated than most of the previously 
described species and it also differs 
from any other by the spiral sculpture of 
the teleoconch, formed by altérnate 
smooth bands and striated furrows. S. 
similiter n. sp. has a spiral cord on the 
top of the protoconch, rectilinear profile 
and a different microsculpture of the 
protoconch. S. pavita n. sp. has more 
depressed axial ribs. S. depressa n. sp. 
has a spiral cord on the top of the proto- 
conch and a subsutural depression; S. 
cancapae n. sp. has stronger axial ribs 
and a wider protoconch with different 
microsculpture. 



Schwartziella (Schwartziella) gibher a n. sp. (Figs. 102-106, 170) 

Type material: Holotype (Fig. 102) 1 s of 3.7 x 1.3 mm (NNM 58008), and 3 paratypes, 3 s (NNM 
58009), CANCAP Sta. 7.079, W of Ilhéu de Sal Rei, Boa Vista, Cape Verde Archipelago, 16° 10' N, 
23° 00' W, 60 m (28-VIII-1986). Other paratypes: 5 j, Ilhéu de Sal Rei, CANCAP Sta. 7.080, 16° 10' 
N, 23° 01' W, 74 m (28-VIII-1986) (NNM 59412); 2 s (Fig. 103), 4 j, off Palmeira, Sal, CANCAP Sta. 



(Right page) Figures 97-101: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) sulcostriata n. sp. 97: holotype, Pal- 
meira, Sal (NNM 58033); 98: protoconch of the holotype; 99: detall of the spire of the holotype; 
100: teleoconch microsculpture of the holotype; 101: protoconch microsculpture of the holotype. 
(Página derecha) Figuras 97-101: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) sulcostriata spec. nov. 97: holotipo, 
Palmeira, Sal (NNM 58033); 98: protoconcha del holotipo; 99: detalle de la espira del holotipo; 100: 
microescultura de la teloconcha del holotipo; 101: microescultura de la protoconcha del holotipo. 



64 



Rolan and Luque: The subfamily Rissoininae in the Cape Verde Archipelago 




65 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



7.101, 16° 45' N, 23° OIW, 262-280 m (30-Vni-1986) (NNM 59413); 1 j, (MNCN 15.05/31707) and 1 

j, both from Boa Vista (CER). 

Other material studied: Boa Vista: 43 j, 25 i, CANCAP Sta. 6.066, 15° 53' N, 23° 00' W, 53 m (13- VI- 

1982) (NNM). Sal: 2 j, off Palmeira, 16°46' N, 23° 01' W, 165 m (30-Vni-1986) (NNM). Santiago: 1 f, 

4 m, Tarrafal; 1 s, 5 f, CANCAP Sta. 6.008, 14° 54' N, 23° 30' W, 120 m (5-VI-1982) (NNM); 11 s, 6 f, 

CANCAP Sta. 6.010, 14° 52' N, 23° 30' W, 310 m (5-VI-1982) (NNM). 

Etymology: The specific ñame alludes to the subsutural hump on the axial ribs of the shell. 



Description: Shell (Figs. 102, 103) 
length up to 3.7 mm, máximum width 
1.3 mm, relatively solld, strongly elon- 
gate-conic. 

Protoconch (Fig. 104) of 1 whorl and 
about 325 pim oí máximum diameter, of 
non-planktotrophic type, without spiral 
sculpture. Microsculpture formed by 
irregular fíat prominences with some 
pits on a smooth surface. 

Teleoconch of about 6 strongly 
convex whorls; there is a short depres- 
sed space below suture, followed by an 
evident shoulder on the axial ribs; last 
whorl strongly convex; suture shallow, 
but evident. Colour whitish. 

Axial sculpture consisting of promi- 
nent, sharp, narrow, scarcely opistho- 
cline, distantly spaced axial ribs, about 
12 in last whorl. Spiral sculpture almost 
unappreciable at low magnification. 
Microsculpture (Figs. 105, 106) shows 
groups of 6-9 threads, interrupted by the 



growth lines, alternating with bands 
with only pits. 

Aperture D-shaped, relatively small; 
inner lip thick; columellar side weakly 
concave; anterior channel almost absent; 
outer lip opisthocline with thick exter- 
nal varix; peristome with 4-5 parallel 
lines towards the inner part of the aper- 
ture. 

Habitat: In sandy and muddy 
bottom, between 53 and 310 m. 

Distribution: Known from Sal, Boa 
Vista and Santiago Islands (Fig. 170). 

Remarks: Schwartziella gibbera n. sp. 
differs from the previously described 
species by its elongate shell and subsu- 
tural hump. S. puncticulata n. sp. also 
has a subsutural shoulder, but it has a 
smaller and not so elongate shell and 
different teleoconch microsculpture. S. 
sulcostriata n. sp. is also elongate, but it 
lacks subsutural hump and has a differ- 
ent teleoconch microsculpture. 



Schwartziella (Schwartziella) irregularis n. sp. (Figs. 107-109, 171) 

Type material: Holotype (Fig. 107) 1 s of 3.8 (1.4 mm, CANCAP Sta. 7.042, Ponta Inglez/Ponta 
Preta, SW of Malo, 15° 07' N, 23° 14' W, 76 m (25-VIII-1986) (NNM 58014). Paratypes: 1 s, CANCAP 
Sta. 7.050, SW of Maio, 15° 06' N, 23° 14' W, 380 m (25-VIII-1986) (NNM 58015); 1 s, CANCAP Sta. 
7.101, off Palmeira, Sal, 16° 45' N, 23° 01' W, 262-280 m (30-VIII-1986) (NNM 59416). 
Etymology: The specific ñame alludes to the irregular distribution of the axial ribs on the shell. 



Description: Shell (Fig. 107) length up 
to 3.8 mm, máximum width 1.4 mm, not 
solid, narrowly elongate-conic. 



Protoconch (Fig. 108) of 1 whorl and 
about 175 /^m of máximum diameter, of 
non-planktotrophic type, smooth. 



(Right page) Figures 102-106: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) gibbera n. sp. 102: holotype, Ilhéu de 
Sal Rei, Boa Vista (NNM 58008); 103: paratype, off Palmeira, Sal (NNM 59413); 104: proto- 
conch of a paratype, Sal Rei, Boavista (NNM 58009); 105-106: teleoconch microsculpture of the 
holotype. 

(Página derecha) Figuras 102-106: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) gibbera spec. nov. 102: holotipo, 
Ilhéu de Sal Rei, Boa Vista (NNM 58008); 103: paratipo, Palmeira, Sal (NNM 59413); 104: pr oto- 
concha de un paratipo. Sal Rei, Boavista (NNM 58009); 105-106: microescultura de la teloconcha del 
holotipo. 



66 



Rolan and LuquE: The subfamily Rissoininae in the Cape Verde Archipelago 




67 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 




Figures 107-109: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) irregularis n. sp. 107: holotype, Ponta Ingiez/Ponta Preta, 
Maio (NNM 58014); 108: protoconch of the holotype; 109: teleoconch microsculpture of the holotype. 
Figuras 107-109: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) irregularis spec. nov. 107: holotipo, Ponta InglezJPonta Preta, 
Maio (NNM 58014); 108: protoconcha del holotipo; 109: microescultura de la teloconcha del holotipo. 



68 



Rolan and Luque: The subfamily Rissoininae in the Cape Verde Archipelago 




Figures 110-113: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) abundata n. sp. 110: holotype, off Palmeira, Sal 

(NNM 57998); 111: protoconch of the holotype; 112-113: teleoconch microsculpture of the 

holotype. 

Figuras 110-113: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) abundata spec. nov. 110: holotipo, Palmeira, Sal 

(NNM 57998); 1 1 1 : protoconcha del holotipo; 112-113: microescultura de la teloconcha del holotipo. 



69 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 




Figures 114-115: Schwartziella (Schivartziella) rectilínea n. sp. 114: holotype, Ilhéu Razo (NNM 
58026); 115: protoconch of a paratype from type locality (NNM 58027). 

Figuras 114-115: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) rectilínea spec. nov. 114: holotipo, Ilhéu Razo (NNM 
58026); 1 15: protoconcha de un paratipo de la localidad tipo (NNM 58027). 



Teleoconch of 5 whorls, weakly 
convex, not angulated below sutures, 
last whorl weakly convex; suture 
shallow. Colour whitish. 

Axial sculpture consisting of few prom- 
inent, sharp, narrow, slightly opisthocline, 
distantly spaced axial ribs, 10 in last whorl, 
which have not a regular correspondence 
from whorl to whorl. Spiral sculpture not 



visible at low magnification. Microsculp- 
ture (Fig. 109) only formed by irregular 
spiral rows of small pits. 

Aperture D-shaped, small sized; 
inner lip thin; columellar side weakly 
concave; anterior channel almost absent; 
outer lip opisthocline with thick exter- 
nal varix; peristoma simple with a 
second elevation in the inner part. 



(Right page) Figures 116-120: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) rarilineata n. sp. 116: holotype, Rabo 
de Junco, Sal (MNCN 15.05/31716); 117: protoconch of a paratype; 118: protoconch of the 
holotype; 119-120: teleoconch microsculpture of a paratype. Rabo de Junco (CER). 
(Página derecha) Figuras 116-120: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) rarilineata spec. nov. 116: holotipo. 
Rabo de Junco, Sal (MNCN 15.05/31716); 117: protoconcha del paratipo; 118: protoconcha del holo- 
tipo; 119-120: microescultura de la teloconcha de un paratipo, Rabo de Junco (CER). 



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Rolan and LuquE: The subfamily Rissoininae in the Cape Verde Archipelago 




71 



Ibems, 18 (1), 2000 



Habitat: CoUected in sandy sedi- 
ments between 76 and 380 m. 

Distribution: Only known from Sal 
and Maio (Fig. 171). 

Remarks: S. irregularis n. sp. differs 
from the previously described species of 
Schzvartziella by the narrow and elon- 
gated shell, small protoconch, axial ribs 
irregularly disposed and the very faint 



microsculpture with only small perfora- 
tions. By its elongate shape it is similar 
to S. gibbera n. sp., but this species has a 
larger protoconch, a subsutural hump, 
axial ribs continued over adjacent 
whorls and a more marked microsculp- 
ture. S. sulcostriata n. sp. also has a 
larger protoconch and different proto- 
conch and teleoconch microsculpture. 



Schwartziella (Schwartziella) abundata n. sp. (Figs. 110-113, 171) 

Type material: Holotype (Fig. 110) 1 s of 2.9 x 1.4 mm (NNM 57998) and 2 paratypes, 2 s (NNM 
57999), CANCAP Sta. 7.100, off Palmeira, Sal, 16° 45' N, 23° 01' W, 262-280 m (30-VIII-1986). 
Other material studied: Maio: 4 j, 1 f, CANCAP Sta. 7.050, 15° 06' N, 23° 14' W, 380 m (25- VIII- 
1986) (NNM). 

Etymology: The specific ñame is derived of the Latin abundo (to surpass), alluding to the nume- 
rous axial ribs of this species, more than in any other Cape Verde Schwartziella. 



Description: Shell (Fig. 110) length up 
to 2.9 mm, máximum width 1.4 mm, not 
solid, elongate-conical. 

Protoconch (Fig. 111) of 1 whorl and 
420 ^m of máximum diameter, of non- 
planktotrophic type, without spiral 
sculpture; transition to teleoconch 
abrupt. Microsculpture formed by irreg- 
ular flat prominences with some perfo- 
rations on a smooth sur face. 

Teleoconch of 4 strongly convex 
whorls, not angulated below suture; last 
whorl strongly convex; suture shallow. 
Colour whitish. 

Axial sculpture consisting of scarcely 
prominent, narrow, opisthocline, distantly 
spaced axial ribs, absent just below the 
suture; about very curved 15-16 ribs on 



the last whorl. Spiral sculpture not visible 
at low magnification. Microsculpture 
(Figs. 112, 113) formed by fine threads 
separated by rows of small pits. 

Aperture D-shaped, relatively large; 
inner lip thick; columellar side weakly 
concave; anterior channel shallow; outer 
lip opisthocline with thick external 
varix; peristome sharp. 

Habitat: Muddy bottom between 260 
and 380 m. 

Distribution: Only known from Sal 
and Maio (Fig. 171). 

Remarks: S. abundata n. sp. has a larger 
protoconch than any other of the Cape 
Verde species of Schwartziella, and also 
more numerous and curved axial ribs, and 
a subsutural área without axial sculpture. 



Schwartziella (Schwartziella) rectilinea n. sp. (Figs. 114, 115, 172) 

Type material: Holotype (Fig. 114) 1 s of 3.8 x 1.4 mm (NNM 58026), and 16 paratypes, 16 j (NNM 
58027), CANCAP Sta. 7.121, Ilhéu Razo, 16° 36' N, 24° 37' W, 200-230 m (l-IX-1986). Other paraty- 



(Right page) Figures 121-125: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) inscripta n. sp. 121: holotype, Pal- 
meira, Sal (MNCN 15.05/31710); 122: shell from Maio (broken during the study); 123, proto- 
conch of a paratype, Rabo de Junco, Sal (CER); 124: protoconch of a shell from Palmeira, Sal; 
125: detail of the suture in last whorl of the same shell. 

(Página derecha) Figuras 121-125: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) inscripta spec. nov. 121: holotipo, 
Palmeira, Sal (MNCN 15-05/31710); 122: concha de Maio (rota durante su estudio); 123, protoconch 
of a paratype. Rabo de Junco, Sal; 124: protoconcha de una concha de Palmeira, Sal; 125: detalle de la 
sutura en la última vuelta de la misma concha. 



72 



Rolan and LuqUE: The subfamily Rissoininae in the Cape Verde Archipelago 




73 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



pes: 1 j (MNCN 15.05/31717) and 1 s (CER), both from the type locality; 19 j, CANCAP Sta. 7.119, 

S of Ilhéu Razo, 16° 36' N, 24° 36' W, 140-160 m (l-IX-1986) (NNM 59418); 1 s, CANCAP Sta. 6.095, 

S of Ilhéu Razo, 16° 35' N, 24° 37' W, 930 m (15-VI-1982) (NNM 59419); 1 s, CANCAP Sta. 7.120, S 

of Ilhéu Razo, 16° 36' N, 24° 36' W, 208 m (l-IX-1986) (NNM 59420). 

Other material studied: Sao Nicolau: 25 j, 1 f, Sao Jorge Bay, CANCAP Sta. 7.129, 16° 33' N, 24° 16' 

W, 405 m (2-IX-1986) (NNM). 

Etymology: The specific ñame alludes to the right profile of the whorls of the shell. 



Description: Shell (Fig. 114) length up 
to 3.8 mm, máximum width 1.4 mm, 
relatively solid, elongate-conical. 

Protoconch (Fig. 115) of 1 whorl and 
380 }im of máximum diameter, of non- 
planktotrophic type, without spiral 
sculpture, transition to teleoconch at- 
tenuated. 

Teleoconch of 7 whorls, almost flat- 
sided, specially the first ones; last whorl 
weakly convex; suture shallow. Colour 
cream-whitish. 

Axial sculpture consisting of promi- 
nent, narrow, scarcely opisthocline, dis- 
tantly spaced axial ribs; the ribs are con- 
tinued from whorl to whorl. Spiral 
sculpture unappreciable at low magnifi- 
cation. Microsculpture formed by spiral 
rows of very small pits on the first 
whorls. Due to poor condition of the 
adult shells no microsculpture could be 



observed on the last whorl except for 
growth lines. 

Aperture D-shaped, relatively small; 
inner lip thick; columellar side weakly 
concave; anterior channel absent; outer 
lip opisthocline with thick external varix. 

Habitat: Found in muddy and calca- 
reous sand between 140 and 930 m. 

Distribution: Ilhéu Razo and Sao 
Nicolau (Fig. 172). 

Remarks: S. rectilínea n. sp. is very 
elongate, and it differs from the fol- 
lowing similar species with elongate 
shell: S. irregularis n. sp. has more 
convex spire whorls and smaller proto- 
conch; S. gibbera n. sp. has very promi- 
nent axial ribs and a subsutural hump; 
S. sulcostriata n. sp. has a smaller proto- 
conch, a more curved profile of the 
spiral whorls, and a more marked teleo- 
conch microsculpture. 



Schwartziella (Schwartziella) rarilineata n. sp. (Figs. 116-120, 173) 

Type material: Holotype (Fig. 116) 1 s of 2.3 (1.0 mm. Rabo de Junco, Sal, Cape Verde Archipelago, 
6 m (MNCN 15.05/31716). Paratypes: 1 s, Palmeira, Sal, 8 m (MNHN); 1 s. Regona, Sal, 2 m (NNM 
58025); 1 s, Sao Vicente, CANCAP Sta. 7.161, 16° 54' N, 24° 54' W, 95 m (NNM 59428); 2 s, 2 f. Rabo 
de Junco, Sal, 6 m (CER); 1 j, Baia Teodora, Boa Vista, 4 m (CER); 1 s. Sal Rei, Boa Vista, 4 m (AMNH). 
Other material studied: Sal: 2 s, 1 j, 1 f, Palmeira, 8 m; 4 s. Regona, 10 m; 2 s (eroded), 1 j. Rabo de 
Junco, 4 m. Sao Nicolau: 1 s (eroded), Sao Jorge Bay, CANCAP Sta. 7.129, 16° 33' N, 24° 16' W, 405 
m (2-IX-1986) (NNM). 
Etymology: The specific ñame alludes to the teleoconch microsculpture formed by a few lines. 



Description: Shell (Fig. 116) length 
up to 2.5 mm, máximum width 1.1 mm, 
shining, relatively solid, elongate- 



conic. 



Protoconch (Figs. 117, 118) of 1 whorl 
and about 320 f/m of máximum diame- 
ter, of non-planktotrophic type, smooth, 
transition to teleoconch not abrupt. 



(Right page) Figures 126-129: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) sculpturata n. sp. 126: holotype, Pal- 
meira, Sal (MNCN 15.05/31720); 127-128: protoconchs of two paratypes, Rabo de Junco, Sal 
(CER); 129: teleoconch microsculpture of the holotype. 

(Página derecha) Figuras 126-129: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) sculpturata spec. nov. 126: holotipo, 
Palmeira, Sal (MNCN 15.05/31720); 127-128: protoconchas de dos paratipos, Rabo de Junco, Sal 
(CER); 129: microescultura de la teloconcha del holotipo. 



7A 



Rolan and LuquE: The subfamily Rissoininae in the Cape Verde Archipelago 




7S 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



Teleoconch of 4 whorls, almost flat- 
sided, last whorl weakly convex; suture 
shallow. Colour translucent white. 

No axial sculpture. Spiral sculpture 
(Fig. 116, 119) formed only by few spiral 
bands, composed by groups of 2-3 very 
fine threads with intermedíate striae on 
subsutural áreas (Fig. 120). 

Aperture D-shaped, relatively large; 
inner lip thin; columellar side weakly 
concave; anterior channel almost absent; 
outer lip slightly opisthocline with thin 
external varix; peristome narrow, 
rounded. 

Habitat: Sand sediments, in shallow 
water (2-6 m), except for two shells 



dredged from 95 and 405 m, respecti- 
vely. 

Distribution: Sal, Boa Vista, Sao 
Nicolau and Sao Vicente (Fig. 173). 

Remarks: Schwartziella rarilineata n. 
sp. differs from any of the previously 
known Eastern Atlantic species of the 
genus by its teleoconch without axial 
ribs, almost smooth and shining, like a 
Zebina. Nevertheless, we include it in 
the genus Schwartziella because it lacks 
of tubercles inside of the outer lip, 
unlike other Atlantic species of Zebina 
(Z. paivensis, Z. browniana, Z. robustior, 
see Gofas, 1999, and below under 
Zebina villenai). 



Schwartziella (Schwartziella) inscripta n. sp. (Figs. 121-125, 174) 

Type material: Holotype (Fig. 121) 1 s of 3.4 x 1.4 mm, Palmeira Bay, Sal Island, Cape Verde Archi- 

pelago, 6 m (MNCN 15.05/31710). Paratypes: 1 s, Matiota, Sao Vicente, 4 m (NNM 58013); 1 s, Pau 

Seco, Maio (AMNH); 1 s. Rabo de Junco, Sal (MNHN); 1 s. Rabo de Junco, Sal (CER); 1 s, 2 f, Ilhéu 

de Sal Rei, Boa Vista (CER); 1 s, 1 f. Porto da Cruz, Boa Vista, 4 m (CER). 

Other material studied: Sal: 2 s (1 destroyed during study), 2 j, 1 f, Palmeira, 8 m; Boa Vista: 1 f. 

Sal Rei, 5 m; Maio: 1 s (Fig. 121, destroyed during study), Pau Seco; Sao Vicente: 1 f. Porto 

Mindelo, 15 m. 

Etymology: The specific ñame alindes the presence of striae on the first whorl of the shell. 



Description: Shell (Figs. 121, 122) 
length up to 3.5 mm, máximum width 
1.5 mm, relatively solid, shining, elon- 
gate-conic. 

Protoconch (Figs. 123, 124) of 1 
whorl and about 310 ^m of máximum 
diameter, of non-planktotrophic type, 
smooth; transition to teleoconch not 
conspicuous. 

Teleoconch of 5 whorls, weakly 
convex; suture very shallow. Colour 
translucent whitish. Axial sculpture 
absent. Spiral sculpture only present on 
the first whorl of the teleoconch (Fig. 



123), formed by 4-5 spiral striae, which 
disappear immediately (Fig. 125). 

Aperture D-shaped, relatively large; 
inner lip thin; columellar side weakly 
concave; anterior channel almost absent; 
outer lip opisthocline, with thick exter- 
nal varix; peristome simple, rounded. 

Habitat: Sand sediments from 
shallow water (4-15 m). 

Distribution: Sal, Boa Vista, Maio, Sao 
Vicente (Fig. 174). 

Remarks: S. inscripta n. sp. has a larger 
shell than S. rarilineata n. sp., and the spiral 
striae only appear on the first whorl. 



Schwartziella (Schwartziella) sculptur ata n. sp. (Figs. 126-129, 175) 

Type material: Holotype (Fig. 126) 1 s of 2.1 x 1.0 mm, Palmeiras, Sal Island, Cape Verde Archi- 

pelago, 10 m (MNCN 15.05/31720). Paratypes: 1 s (NNM 58030), 1 s (MNHN), 3 s (CER), all from 

the type locality; 2 s, 2 f. Sal Rei, Boa Vista (CER); 3 s. Rabo de Junco, Sal, 4 m (CER). 

Other material studied: Sal: 2 s (1 broken during the study), 2 f. Rabo de Junco, 4 m; 2 s, Palmeira, 

10 m; 6 s, 1 f. Regona, 10 m. Santiago: 1 s, Cidade Velha, 4 m; 1 s, Praia, 5 m. Brava: 1 s, Fuma, 30 

m; 1 s. Porto do Anciáo, 3 m. Sao Vicente: 1 s. Porto Mindelo, 15 m. 

Etymology: The specific ñame alludes to the presence of axial and spiral sculpture. 



76 



Rolan and LuqUE: The subfamily Rissoininae in the Cape Verde Archipelago 




Figures 130-132: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) paradoxa n. sp. 130: holotype, Sao Vicente (NNM 
58021); 131: protoconch of the holotype; 132: teleoconch microsculpture of the holotype. 
Figuras 130-132: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) paradoxa spec. nov. 130: holotipo, Sao Vicente (NNM 
58021); 131: protoconcha del holotipo; 132: microescultura de la teloconcha del holotipo. 



77 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



Description: Shell (Fig. 126) length up 
to 2.1 mm, máximum width 1.0 mm, not 
solid, elongate-conic. 

Protoconch (Figs. 127, 128) of 1 
whorl and 270 ^wm of máximum diame- 
ter, of non-planlctotrophic type, without 
spiral sculpture; transition to teleoconch 
abrupt. Microsculpture (Fig. 128) shows 
a rough surface formed by small depres- 
sions with many irregular threads. 

Teleoconch of 4 whorls, weakly 
convex; suture shallow. Colour cream- 
whitish. 

Axial sculpture consisting of weakly 
prominent, narrow, aknost orthocline, dis- 
tantly spaced axial ribs, only on the first 
2-3 whorls of teleoconch, disappearing on 
the last whorl. Spiral sculpture very 
regular, formed by fine spiral cords, about 
15 on penultimate and 35 on last whorl. 



Microsculpture (Fig. 129) formed by spiral 
bands of 4-5 threads alternating with 
furrows. 

Aperture D-shaped, médium sized; 
inner lip thin; columellar side weakly 
concave; anterior channel absent; outer 
lip opisthocline with a thin external 
varix; peristome simple with a pair of 
parallel lines towards the inner part of 
the aperture. 

Habitat: Sandy sediments from 
shallow water (3-30 m). 

Distribution: Known from Sal, Boa 
Vista, Santiago, Brava, Sao Vicente (fig. 
175). Probably it can be found in the 
entire archipelago. 

Remarks: S. sculpturata n. sp. differs 
from S. rarilineata n. sp. and S. inscripta 
n. sp. by its evident teleoconch and pro- 
toconch sculpture. 



Schwartziella (Schwartziella) pamdoxa n. sp. (Figs. 130-132, 137, 138, 176) 

Type material: Holotype (Fig. 130) 1 s of 2.7 x 1.1 mm. Bala das Gatas, Sao Vicente, CANCAP Sta. 
7.161, 16° 54' N, 24° 54' W, 95 m (NNM 58021). 

Etymology: The specific ñame alludes to the shell characters intermedíate between Schwartziella 
and Zebina. 



Description: Shell (Fig. 130) length 2.7 
mm, width 1.1 mm, not solid, elongate- 
conic. 

Protoconch (Fig. 131) of 1 whorl and 
320 ^m of máximum diameter, of non- 
planktotrophic type, without spiral 
sculpture and smooth; transition to 
teleoconch not abrupt. 

Teleoconch of 4 whorls, weakly 
convex; suture shallow. Colour whitish. 

Axial sculpture of adapical spire 
whorls consisting of few prominent, 
sharp, narrow, opisthocline, slightly 
undulate and distantly spaced axial ribs, 
which begin on the suture and disappear 
a little below the middle of the whorl; 



axial ribs absent on the last whorl. Spiral 
sculpture visible at low magnification in 
all the whorls, except on the inferior part 
of the last whorl. Microsculpture (Fig. 
132) formed by groups of few spiral 
threads separated by wider rough spaces. 

Aperture D-shaped, relatively large; 
inner lip thin; columellar side weakly 
concave; anterior channel absent; outer 
lip opisthocline with a not too thick 
external varix; peristome simple with 
some parallel lines towards the inner 
part of the aperture. 

Habitat: Muddy bottom, at 95 m. 

Distribution: Only known from the 
type locality (Fig. 176). 



(Right page) Figures 133-136: Zebina (Zebina) villenai n. sp. 133: holotype, S of llhéu Razo 
(NNM 58016); 134: protoconch of the holotype; 135: shell of smaller size, S of Ilhéu Razo 
(NNM 58017); 136: protoconch of the same shell. 

(Página derecha) Figuras 133-136: Zebina (Zebina) villenai spec. nov. 133: holotipo, Sur de Ilhéu 
Razo (NNM 58016); 134: protoconcha del holotipo; 135: concha de pequeño tamaño, Sur de Ilhéu 
Razo (NNM 58017); 136: protoconcha de la misma concha. 



78 



Rolan and LuquE: The subfamily Rissoininae in the Cape Verde Archipelago 




79 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 




Figures 137, 138: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) cf. paradoxa. 137: shell from Rabo de Junco, Sal 
(CER); 138: teleoconch microsculpture. 

Figures 137, 138: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) cí. paradoxa. 1. 137: concha de Rabo de Junco, Sal 
(CER); 138: microescultura de la teloconcha. 



Retnarks: Schwartziella paradoxa n. sp. 
differs from any other species of Cape 
Verde Schwartziella by having prominent 
axial ribs on first whorls of teleoconch, 
which are absent on last whorl. S. sculptu- 
rata n. sp., which also has weak axial ribs 
on the first 2-3 whorls, is less elongate, 
has more evident spiral sculpture and a 
different protoconch microsculpture. 



One shell (Figs. 137, 138) of 3.0 x 1.0 
mm, found in Rabo de Junco, Sal, is 
similar to that of Schwartziella paradoxa 
n. sp. but it lacks totally of axial ribs 
and has more spiral sculpture in the last 
whorl. We think that it is probably a 
different species, but we prefer do not 
describe it awaiting for further mate- 
rial. 



Genus Zebina H. and A. Adams, 1854 
Subgenus Zebina s. s. 

Type species: Rissoina semiglabrata A. Adams, 1854, by subsequent designation (Rehder, 1980). 
Diagnosis: Ponder (1985, p. 85). 

Zebina (Zebina) villenai n. sp. (Figs. 133-136, 172) 

Type material: Holotype (Fig. 133) 1 s of 4.2 (1.8 mm (NNM 58016) and 1 paratype, 1 s (NNM 
58017), CANCAP Sta. 7.119, S of Ilhéu Razo, 16° 36' N, 24° 36' W, 140-160 m (l-IX-1986). Other 
paratypes: 1 s, CANCAP Sta. 7.122, S of Ilhéu Razo, 16° 36' N, 24° 35' W, 100 m (l-IX-1986) (NNM 
59423); 1 s, CANCAP Sta. 6.093, SW of Ilhéu Razo, 16° 36' N, 24° 37' W, 400-430 m (15-VI-1982) 



80 



RolAn and Luque: The subfamily Rissoininae in the Cape Verde Archipelago 




Figures 139-143: Shells of dubious species oí Schwartziella (Schwartziella) from the Cape Verde 
Islands. 139: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) cf. minima, Calhau, Sao Vicente. 140, l4l: 5. (S.) á.punc- 
ticulata. 140: shell, CANCAP Sta. 6145, Sao Vicente; l4l: microsculpture of the same shell. 142, 
143: 5. (S.) cf. typica; 142: shell from Calhau, Sao Vicente; 143: microsculpture of the same shell. 
Figuras 139-143: Conchas de especies dudosas de Schwartziella (Schwartziella) de Cabo Verde. 139: 
Schwartziella (Schwartziella) cf minima, Calhau, Sao Vicente. 140, l4l: S. (S.) cf. puncticulata. 
140: concha, CANCAP Sta. 6145, Sao Vicente; 141: microescultura de la misma concha; 142, 143: S. 
(S.) cf typica; 142: concha de Calhau, Sao Vicente; 143: microescultura de la misma concha. 



81 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



(NNM 59424); 1 s, 1 j, CANCAP Sta. 7.128, Sao Jorge Bay, Sao Nicolau, 16° 33' N, 24° 17' W, 400 m 

(2-IX-1986) (NNM 59425). 

Other material studied: Ilhéu Razo: 2 s (Fig. 134), CANCAP Sta. 7.116, S of Ilhéu Razo, 16° 36' N, 

24° 36' W, 75 m (l-IX-1986) (NNM). 

Etymology: The specific ñame is dedicated to Miguel Villena, who manages the type collection of 

molluscs at the MNCN, for his kind cooperation. 



Description: Shell (Figs. 133, 135) 
length up to 4.2 mm, máximum width 
1.8 mm, very solid, elongate-conic. 

Protoconch (Figs. 134, 136) of 1 
whorl and about 430 }im of máximum 
diameter, of non-planktotrophic type, 
without spiral sculpture; transition to 
teleoconch appreciable with difficulty. 

Teleoconch of about 5 flat-sided 
whorls; last whorl strongly convex at 
the lower part; suture shallow. Colour 
whitish. Axial and spiral sculpture 
lacking. Surface smooth and shining. 

Aperture D-shaped, relatively small; 
inner lip thin; columellar side weakly 
concave; anterior channel almost absent; 
peristome simple, with some parallel 
lines towards the inner part of the aper- 
ture; two tubercles not always evident 
on an interior elevation of the aperture. 

Habitat: Coarse calcareous sand, 
gravel and stones, between 75 and 430 m. 



Distrihution: Ilhéu Razo and Sao Ni- 
colau (Fig. 172). 

Remarks: Zebina villenai n. sp. is 
similar to Z. paivensis (Watson, 1873) 
from the Canary and Selvagens Islands, 
a species confused with the Caribbean 
species Z. browniana (d'Orbigny, 1842) or 
Z. vitrea (C. B. Adams, 1850) by authors 
(Odhner, 1932; Nordsieck, 1972; 
García-Talayera, 1983; see Gofas, 
1999), but Z. paivensis has a smaller pro- 
toconch (340 }im) and more convex 
whorls. Z. browniana and Z. vitrea have 
protoconchs of planktotrophic type. Z. 
robustior Gofas, 1999, from Southern 
Morocco to Senegal is larger than Z. ville- 
nai (up to 5.3 mm) and its protoconch is 
smaller (about 350 }im, measurements 
from figure 80 of Gofas, 1999). 

A few shells from Ilhéu Razo are of 
small size (Fig. 135), but the protoconch 
(Fig. 136) shows no differences. 



CONCLUSIONS 



Twenty-nine species of the subfam- 
ily Rissoininae belonging to three 
genera and four subgenera have been 
found in the Cape Verde Archipelago. 
Only one of them, the solé species with 
a protoconch of planktotrophic type 
{Rissoina (Rissoina) punctostriata) has a 
wide distribution along the West 
African coast, whereas the other 28 
species, 1 belonging to the genus Ris- 



soina (Ailinzebina), 26 to Schwartziella 
(Schwartziella), and 1 to Zebina (Zebina) 
should be considered endemic of the 
archipelago on the basis of their non- 
planktotrophic type of protoconch and 
the absence of records from the neigh- 
bouring continental coasts (Senegal). 

The high percentage of endemism of 
the Cape Verde Rissoininae (96,5%) is 
comparable to that of other Cape Verde 



(Right page) Figures 144-147: Radulae of Schwartziella (Schwartziella) from the Cape Verde 
Islands. 144: radula of Schwartziella (Schwartziella) robusta n. sp., Sal; 145: radula of 5. (S.) typica 
n. sp., Sal; 146: radula of 5. (S.) sanmartini n. sp.. Boa Vista; 147: radula of 5. (S.) similiter n. sp., 
Brava. 

(Página derecha) Figures 144-147: Rddulas de Schwartziella (Schwartziella) de las islas de Cabo 
Verde. 144: radula de Schwartziella (Schwartziella) robusta spec. nov.. Sal; 145: radula de S. (S.) 
typica spec. nov.. Sal; 146: radula de S. (S.) sanmartini spec. nov.. Boa Vista; 147: radula de S. (S.) 
similiter spec. nov.. Brava. 



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Rolan and LuqUE: The subfamily Rissoininae in the Cape Verde Archipelago 




83 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



rissoideans, like Alvania (16 endemic 
species from a total of 19, viz. 84,2%; 

MOOLENBEEK AND ROLÁN, 1988, HOEN- 

SELAAR AND GouD, 1998), Manzofíia (7 of 
7, 100%; Rolan, 1987a), Crisilla (6 of 6, 
100%; Templado and Rolan, 1994), 
Barleeia (3, 100%; Gofas, 1995). Similar 
high percentages of endemic rissoids 
were found in other Macaronesian Is- 
lands: Alvania (Canary Islands, 14 of 20, 
70%; Madeira, 10 of 14, 71,4%; Hoense- 
LAAR AND GouD, 1998), and Manzonia 
(Canary Islands, 9 of 10, 90%; Madeira, 6 
of 7, 85,7%; Moolenbeek and Faber, 
1987a, b, c). Other gastropod genera also 
show high percentages of endemic spe- 
cies in the Cape Verde Islands, like Eato- 
nina (2, 100%, Moolenbeek, 1985-86; 
Rolan and Templado, 1993), Ammoni- 
cera (7 species, 100%, Rolan, 1992), 
Euthria (7, 100%; Cosel, 1982d; Cosel 
and Burnay, 1983; Rolan, 1985, 1987b), 
Comis (45 of 48, 93,7%) (Rolan, 1990, 
1991) and Volvarina (9 of 9, 100%) (Mo- 
reno AND Burnay, 1999). From our own 
preliminary data, which will be discus- 
sed in a forthcoming paper, the number 
of endemic species of Cape Verde ma- 
rine gastropods reachs 193, from a total 
of 588 identified species, i. e., a general 
percentage of 32,8% of endemism. This 
high percentage of endemic species is 
comparable with other even more isola- 
ted oceanic islands (Galápagos, Easter 
Is., Hawaii), and requires special rese- 
arch and conservation efforts. Conside- 
ring only data referring to Rissoininae, 
Pitcairn Islands, which are 390 km from 
the nearest islands, have 12 species, 
with a máximum of three endemic ones, 
all them with non-planktotrophic proto- 



conch (Sleurs and Preece, 1994). Only 
four species of Rissoininae are reported 
from the Galápagos Islands, which are 
1000 km off the nearest continental 
mainland, two of which are probably 
endemic; the Galápagos Rissoininae 
fauna is very impoverished compared to 
the rather rich tropical eastern Pacific 
(Sleurs, 1989). In contrast, there are four 
species, three of them endemic in Gua- 
dalupe Island which is only 260 km off 
the coast of northern Baja California 
(Sleurs, 1989). 

The occurrence of the studied species 
in each one of the islands of the archipel- 
ago is showed in Figures 158-176 and 
Table II. The currently available irvforma- 
tion is insufficient to know the actual 
geographical patterns of distribution of 
all the species in the archipelago. We 
have studied only a few samples from 
deep water from Santo Antáo and Ilhéus 
do Rombo, and from shallow water from 
Fogo, Ilhéu Branco, Ilhéu Razo, Santa 
Luzia and Sao Nicolau. Moreover, it is 
also possible that the original distribution 
of the species could have been altered by 
the accidental introduction of species in 
some islands due to the human activities. 
Anyway, we can be sure that some 
species are not uniformly distributed 
along the archipelago but they are only 
present in some islands, because we com- 
monly found them in one or two islands 
and not at all in the rest. Nothing can be 
said in species in which little material has 
been studied, like Schwartziella paradoxa. 
In these cases, we are not sure of its pre- 
sence in other islands. Sal and Boa Vista 
are the islands with a higher number of 
species (20 and 14, respectively), and this 



Figures 148-155: Opercula oí Schwartziella (Schwartziella) from the Cape Verde Islands. 148: 5. 
(S.) robusta. Sal, inner part; 149: 5. (S.) sanmartini. Sal, inner part; 150: S. (S.) sanmartini. Boa 
Vista, outer part; 151: S. (S.) sanmartini. Sal, inner part; 152: S. (S.) similiter, Brava, inner part; 
153: S. (S.) luisi, Palhona, Sal, inner part; 154: 5. (S.) luisi, Palhona, Sal, outer part; 155: S. (S.) cf. 
luisi, Calhau, Sao Vicente. 

Figures 148-155: Opérculos de Schwartziella (Schwartziella) de las islas de Cabo Verde. 148: S. (S.) 
robusta. Sal, parte interna; 149: S. (S.) sanmartini, Sal, parte interna; 150: S. (S.) sanmartini. Boa 
Vista, parte externa; 151: S. (S.) sanmartini, Sal, parte interna; 152: S. (S.) similiter, Brava, parte 
interna; 153: S. (S.) luisi, Palhona, Sal, parte interna; 154: S. (S.) luisi, Palhona, Sal, parte externa; 
155: S. (S.) cf. luisi, Calhau, Sao Vicente. 



84 



Rolan and LuqUE: The subfamily Rissoininae in the Cape Verde Archipelago 




85 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



Table I. Differences between Rissoina (Rissoina) punctostriata and R. (R.) decussata. 
Tabla I. Diferencias entre Rissoina (Rissoina) punctostriata jy R. (R.) decussata. 





Rissoina punctostrioto 


Rissoino decussato 


size 


up to 1 mm 


usually up to 7 mm 


profile 


slightly undulated in the last 
whorls by the subsutural depression 


almost rectilineal 


adapical whorls of teleoconch 


angulated 


not angulated 


axial ribs 


opisthocline and slightly curved; 
weakly prominent on the last whod 


almost orthocline; rectilineal; 
prominent on the last whorl 


subsufural part of last whorls 


depressed; axial ribs almost disoppear 


not depressed; axial ribs well morked 


protoconch 


3 whorls, diameter increases rapidly 


2 y2 whorls, diameter increases slowly 


sinusigera notch 


deep 


absent 



could be related with its older origin as 
Rolan (1991) pointed for the species of 
the genus Conus, but also with the fact 
that these islands were the most sampled, 
as well as Santiago (11 species), Sao 
Vicente (8) and Brava (9). Some species 
have been found in several cióse islands 
of a group and not in the rest. Probably 
these species are restricted to this group 
of islands, which is compatible with their 
non-planktotrophic development and the 
isolation of islands, as was mentioned by 
Rolan (1991) in the Cape Verde species 



of Conus with non-planktotrophic deve- 
lopment. More than a half of Schwartziella 
species (15) apparently have a wide 
bathymetric distribution, since they were 
found between shallow water and 
bathyal depths. Nevertheless, only shells 
were coUected of most of species or were 
found at deep water, and they are pro- 
bably transported from shallow to deeper 
bottoms along the abrupt shelf of the 
islands. Only S. cancapae are mainly 
represented by shells collected below 60 
m, and S. irregularis, S. abundata, S. rectili- 




Figure 156: Drawing of the anterior part of a male o( Schwartziella (Schwartziella) sanmartini, 
showing the penis. 

Figura 156: Esquema de la parte anterior de un macho de Schwartziella (Schwartziella) sanmartini, 
mostrando el pene. 



86 



Rolan and LuquE: The subfamily Rissoininae in the Cape Verde Axchipelago 



Table II. Distribution of the species in the archipelago. Abbreviations: S, Sal; Bv, Boavista; M, 
Maio; ST, Santiago; F, Fogo; B, Brava; IR, Ilhéus do Rombo ou Secos; C, Ilhéu de Cima; SA, 
Santo Antáo; SV, Sao Vicente; SL, Santa Luzia; R, Ilhéu Razo; SN, Sao Nicolau. 
Tabla II. Distribución de las especies en el archipiélago. Abreviaturas: S, Sal; BV Boavista; M, Maio; 
ST, Santiago; F, Fogo; B, Brava; IR, Ilhéus do Rombo ou Secos; C, Ilhéu de Cima; SA, Santo Antáo; SV, 
Sao Vicente; SL, Santa Luzia; R, Ilhéu Razo; SN, Sao Nicolau. 



BV M ST 



B IR 



SA SV SL R SN 



R. punctostriata 
R. onobiformis 
S. robusta 
S. obesa 
S. corrugata 
S. sanmartini 
S. similiter 
S. typica 
S. angularis 
S. luisi 
S. minima 
S. fulgida 
S. depressa 
S. gradata 
S. pavita 
S. cancapae 
S. puncticulata 
S. hoenselaari 
S. paucicostata 
S. sulcostriata 
S. gibbera 
S. irregularis 
S. abundata 
S. rectilínea 
S. rañlineata 
S. inscripta 
S. sculpturata 
S. paradoxa 
Z. villenai 



+ + + + 



+ + + 

+ 



+ + + + + 



+ + + 

+ + + 

+ 

+ + 



nea, S. paradoxa and Zebina villenai are 
exclusively represented by shells collec- 
ted below 75 m of depth. Since only a 
small part of the studied material was 
collected alive and the sampling effort 
was quite different on different islands 
and depths, a lot of work remains to be 
done for knowing the basic ecological 
information of almost all the species 
(actual habitat, relative abundance, etc.) 

The solé species with planktotrophic 
type of protoconch (Rissoina punctostriata) 
was found in all the islands. Eight species 



of Schwartziella were only known from 
the North-east group of islands: two of 
them from Sal, Boa Vista and Maio (S. 
sanmartini and S. pavita, Fig. 162), four 
only from Sal and Boavista (S. robusta, S. 
angularis, S. luisi and S. minima, Fig. 159), 
and two other only from Sal and Maio (S. 
irregularis and S. abundata, Fig. 169). Th- 
ree species were known only from the 
North-west group: two from Sao Nico- 
lau, Ilhéu Razo and Ilhéu de Cima (S. rec- 
tilinea and Zebina villenai, Fig. 172), and 
one only from Sao Vicente (S. paradoxa. 



87 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



Santo Antáo 



Sao Vicente 
^^ ^Santa Luzia 
Ilhéu Branco -«>. ^ ^^^^^ 

Ilhéu Raso'' ^Sáo Nicolau 



17' 



í|Sal 
Boavista J^k 



16' 



Ilhéus 
Ilhéu de Cima --. 

,25° 



Ihéus do Rombo ^^. 
Brava 



Maio 



15° N 



lA" 



Santiago 

.23°W 157 




159 




% 



<s) 



• ^* 



1Ó1 






164 



165 



Figure 157. Map of the Cape Verde Archipelago. Figures 158-165: Distribution áreas. 158: Ris- 
soina (Ailinzebina) onobiformis; 159: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) robusta, S. (S.) angularis, S. (S.) 
luisi and 5. (S.) minima; 160: S. (S.) obesa; 161: 5. (S.) corrugata and 5. (S.) gradata (only Brava); 
162: S. (S.) sanmartini and S. (S.) pavita; 163: S. (S.) similiter; 164: S. (S.) typica and 5. (S.) 
depressa; 165: 5. (S.) fulgida and S. (S.) cancapae. 

Figura 157. Mapa del Archipiélago de Cabo Verde. Figuras 158-165. Áreas de distribución. 158: Ris- 
soina (Ailinzebina) onobiformis; 159: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) robusta, S. (S.) angularis, S. 
(S.) luisi j S. (S.) minima; 160: S. (S.) obesa; 161: S. (S.) corrugata j S. (S.) gradata (sólo Brava); 
162: S. (S.) sanmartini j S. (S.) pavita; 163: S. (S.) similiter; 164: S. (S.) typica j/ S. (S.) depressa; 
165: S. (S.) fulgida j S. (S.) cancapae. 



Fig. 176). Four species v^exe known only 
from the South-west group of islands: 
two {S. fulgida and S. cancapae, Fig. 165) 



from Santiago, Fogo and Brava, and tw^o 
(S. corrugata and S. gradata, Fig. 161) only 
from Brava. Finally, five species {Schwart- 



88 



Rolan and LuQUE: The subfamily Rissoininae in the Cape Verde Archipelago 




166 






• ^* 



169 




• i^* 



• ^^, 








• ^* 



172 



• ^' 



173 





■^^ 



176 



Figures 166-176. Distribution áreas. 166: S. (S.) puncticulata; 167: S. (S.) hoenselaari; 168: S. (S.) 
paucicostata; 169: Schivartziella (Schwartziella) sulcostriata; 170: S. (S.) gibbera; 171: S. (S.) irregu- 
laris and S. (S.) abundata; 172: S. (S.) rectilínea and Zebina (Zebina) villenai; 173: 5. (S.) rariline- 
ata; 17 A: S. (S.) inscripta; 175: 5. (S.) sculpturata; 176: S. (S.) paradoxa. 

Figuras 166-176. Áreas de distribución. 166: S. (S.) puncticulata; 167: S. (S.) hoenselaari; 168: S. 
(S.) paucicostata; 169: Schwartziella (Schwartziella) sulcostriata; 170: S. (S.) gibbera; 171: S. (S.) 
irregularisj)/ S. (S.) abundara; 172: S. (S.) rectilínea^ Zebina (Zebina) villenai; 173: S. (S.) rariline- 
ata; 174: S. (S.) inscripta; 175: S. (S.) sculpturata; 176: S. (S.) paradoxa. 



ziella obesa, S. puncticulata, S. hoenselaari, S. 
paucicostata and S. sculpturata) were 
found in the three groups of islands, ot- 
her five in the NE and NW groups (S. ty- 
pica, S. depressa, S. sulcostriata, S. rariline- 



ata and S. inscripta), and three other in the 
NW and SW groups (S. similiter, S. gibbera 
and Rissoina (Ailinzebina) onobiformis). 

Since Rissoininae species do not 
differ markedly in anatomical features. 



89 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



except for the morphology of the penis, 
species identification is usually based on 
shell characters only (Ponder, 1985; 
Sleurs, 1993, 1994). However, shell cha- 
racters seem to be strongly subject to 
parallelism, and this makes identifi- 
cation of the apomorphic conditions 
extremely difficult (Sleurs, 1994). Only a 
thorough revisión of the genera of Ris- 
soininae, including teleoconch micros- 
culpture, protoconch morphology, 
anatomy (and especially the penial cha- 
racters) and the fossil record, may give 
US an accurate idea of the phylogenetic 
relationships of the species. Neverthe- 
less, in the absence of sufficient systema- 
tic and distributional data, we point out 
in the following lines some considera- 
tions about the Cape Verde species of 
Rissoininae that will need further rese- 
arch. 

Rissoina punctostriata seems to form 
with R. decussata from the Caribbean and 
R. elegantula (Angas, 1880) from South 
Australia a group of closely related 
species. The holotype of R. elegantula 
(BMNH 1881.4.29.4, Aldinga Bay) has 
similar shell size (6.6 x 2.8 mm), shape 
and sculpture to the two Atlantic species, 
and it also has a protoconch of plankto- 
trophic type with sinusigerous disconti- 
nuity. As we will say below, this is not the 
only group of species with an apparently 
disjunct Atlantic-Pacific distribution. 

The subgenus Rissoina {Ailinzehina) 
comprises at least five Recent species, of 
which four are apparently distributed 
only in the Western Pacific, and one (R. 
(A.) elegantissima) has a tropical western 
Atlantic distribution (Sleurs, 1993). The 
second Atlantic species described here, 
Rissoina (Ailinzebina) onobiformis n. sp., se- 
ems to be more closely related by its size, 
subcylindrical and thin shell, axial and 
spiral sculpture and non-planktotrophic 
type or protoconch to the western Pacific 
species R. (A.) abrardi (Ladd, 1966). The 
shell of the western Atlantic R. (A.) ele- 
gantissima is also similar in size, shape 
and sculpture, but it is rather solid and 
the protoconch is of planktotrophic larval 
type. The remaining three Pacific species 
of this subgenus clearly differ from the 
precedent "group" of species in shell 



shape or size and sculpture (see Sleurs, 
1993). It should be considered a vicariant 
origin of the two non-planktotrophic spe- 
cies of this "group" from a widely distri- 
buted Tethyan planktotrophic ancestor 
(may be R. (A.) elegantissima?), a hypothe- 
sis proposed by Leal and Moore (1989) 
for two other related species of Rissoina 
{Rissoina indiscreta Leal and Moore, 1989, 
from Brazil, and R. turricula Pease, 1861, 
from the Indo-Pacific). Nevertheless, spe- 
cies of the subgenus Ailinzebina are rather 
uncommon, and therefore more biogeo- 
graphical and anatomical information is 
needed to establish reliable relationships. 
The oldest known fossils of this subgenus 
date from the Early Tertiary of France 
and the Lower Miocene of Bikini (Sleurs, 
1993), and this supports such hypothesis. 
These matter deserves further detailed 
research, since similar groups of closely 
related species distributed in one (or 
both) sides of the Atlantic and the Indo- 
Pacific were recorded in several families, 
viz. the genus Luria (Cypraeidae), with a 
pair of related species {Luria lurida from 
the Eastern Atlantic and L. pulchra from 
the Red Sea, Gulf of Omán and Persian 
Gulf) (Alvarado and Álvarez, 1964), 
the Conus venulatus group from the Cape 
Verde Islands and Conus suturatus from 
Central Indo- West Pacific and Australia 
(Rolan, 1991), and the genus Volvarina 
(Marginellidae), with Western and East- 
ern Atlantic and Red Sea related species 
(Moreno and Burnay, 1999). 

The high number of species of Cape 
Verde Schwartziella is surprising, since 
only one species of this genus (S. afri- 
cana) has been recorded from the neigh- 
bouring West African coast, and as far 
as we know, there are no endemic 
species of this genus in the islands of 
Sao Tomé and Principe and the Canary 
Islands. The five species of Schwartziella 
from St. Helena Island described by 
Smith (1890) also have paucispiral pro- 
toconch and seem to be endemic. The 
loss of a planktotrophic larval stage and 
the isolation of Cape Verde islands seem 
to be the main factors of speciation, but 
there is yet much work to do on the iso- 
lation mechanisms within the archipel- 
ago that has led to such a high specia- 



90 



Rolan and Luque: The subfamily Rissoininae in the Cape Verde Archipelago 



tion. The present knowledge does not 
allow to stablish if such a radiation is 
dued to one or more colonizations of the 
archipelago, followed by isolation and 
speciation. The scarce information on 
Atlantic Schwartziella, especially regard- 
ing protoconch characters, teleoconch 
microsculpture and penial anatomy, 
makes very difficult to establish rela- 
tionships based solely on the available 



data. It is possible that the non-plankto- 
trophic Atlantic Schwartziella derived 
from a widespread Atlantic species with 
planktotrophic development, but only a 
revisión of the Atlantic recent and fossil 
species could give solid cues about the 
speciation of the genus. 

On the basis of the shell characters used 
in the descriptions we present a key for 
the Cape Verde species of Schwartziella. 



1. - Shell with axial sculpture on all whorls 2 

- Shell without axial sculpture or with weak axial sculpture not present on all 
whorls 23 

2. - Shell with a strong subsutural angulation 3 

- Shell lacking strong subsutural angulation 5 

3. - Shell longer than 3 mm S. obesa 

- Shell length up to 3 mm 4 

4. - Shell relatively wide (1/w ratio 2.12-2.20); protoconch with only a spiral angula- 
tion in its upper part S. angularis 

- Shell relatively narrow (1/w ratio 2.32-2.44); protoconch with three spiral cords 
and irregular axial threads S. gradata 

5. - Suture markedly undulous due to the axial ribs S. corrugata 

- Suture rectilinear or slightly undulous 6 

6. - Shell very solid and strong S. robusta 

- Shell not so solid 7 

7. - Shell showing aperture with 8 axial ribs visible in last whorl 8 

- Shell showing aperture with less than 8 axial ribs visible in last whorl 9 

8. - Adult shells longer than 3 mm; protoconch diameter about 360 /^m . S. sanmartini 

- Adult shells length up to 3 mm; protoconch diameter about 420 ^m . S. abundata 

9. - Shell showing aperture with less than 6 axial ribs visible in last whorl 10 

- Shell showing aperture with 6 or more axial ribs visible in last whorl 11 

10. - Shell showing aperture with 5 axial ribs visible in last whorl; protoconch with 
sculpture, of about 300 ^m of diameter S. hoenselaari 

- Shell showing aperture with 4 axial ribs visible in last whorl; protoconch smooth, 
of about 270 ^m of diameter S. paucicostata 

11. -Axial ribs more convexin the subsutural part 12 

- Axial ribs not more convex in subsutural part 13 

12. - Teleoconch microsculpture formed by undulated rows of punctae . S. puncticulata 

- Teleoconch microsculpture formed by groups of 6-9 spiral threads interrupted by the 
growth Irnes, altemating with bands with only pits S. gibbera 

13. - Spiral sculpture of the teleoconch visible at low magnification 14 

- Spiral sculpture of the teleoconch not visible at low magnification 19 

14. - Shell length up to 3 mm 15 

- Shell longer than 3 mm 16 



91 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



15. - Shell with evident and sepárate spiral threads S. luisi 

- Shell with finer and closer spiral threads S. minima 

16. - Shell with not prominent axial ribs S. pavita 

- Shell with prominent axial ribs 17 

17. - Protoconch with a spiral cord S. similiter 

- Protoconch lacking spiral sculpture 18 

18. - Axial ribs not very prominent; protoconch diameter about 400 ^m . S. sulcostriata 

- Axial ribs prominent; protoconch diameter about 340 j^m S. cancapae 

19. - Shell with rectilinear profile, specially in first whorls S. rectilínea 

- Shell with convex whorls 20 

20. - Axial ribs not regularly disposed; protoconch diameter < 200 ^m . . S. irregularis 

- Shell with regular ribs; protoconch diameter > 200 ^m 21 

21. - Shell shining S. fulgida 

- Shell not shining 22 

22. - Shell with a slight subsutural depression S. depressa 

- Shell lacking subsutural depression S. typica 

23. - Shell with spiral sculpture only 24 

- Shell with spiral and axial sculpture 25 

24. - Shell with spiral striae on first whorl only S. inscripta 

- Shell with spiral sculpture on all whorls S. rarilineata 

25. - Shell with uniform spiral sculpture in all the shell S. sculpturata 

- Shell without spiral sculpture at the base S. paradoxa 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 



This work would not have been pos- 
sible without the help of the following 
people and institutions: "Dirección 
General de Cooperación Técnica y Cien- 
tífica del Ministerio de Asuntos Exterio- 
res" (Spain), which provided finantial 
support for the "Primera Expedición 
Científica Ibérica al Archipiélago de 
Cabo Verde"; "Secretaria de Estado das 
Pescas" and the Governn\ent of the 
Republic of Cape Verde, which gave the 
facilities for undertaking this expedi- 
tion; we also acknowledge to our com- 
panions in this expedition the help with 
field sampling; the late Francisco Fer- 
nandes also helped us collecting sedi- 
ments; "Consejería Territorial y de 
Medio Ambiente del Gobierno de Cana- 
rias", which provided finantial support 
within the cooperation program "Cana- 
rias-Cabo Verde" to the project "Evalua- 



ción de los recursos naturales litorales 
de la República de Cabo Verde", in 
which was included the "Macaronesia 
2" expedition; Margarita Mosquera, 
sorted a lot of sediments; Jesús Méndez 
(CACTI, Centro de Apoyo Científico y 
Tecnológico a la Investigación, Universi- 
dad de Vigo) made most of the SEM 
photographs, and José Bedoya (Museo 
Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Ma- 
drid) made some ones at the beginning 
of this study; Edmund Gittenberger 
(NNM) loaned the material from 
CANCAP expeditions; Virginie Heros 
(MNHN) loaned the type material of 
Rissoina africana; Kathie M. Way 
(BMNH) loaned the type material of R. 
decussata, R. striatocostata, Rissoina ele- 
gantula and the five species described by 
Smith (1890). We specially acknowledge 
the kind cooperation of Rosario Moran, 



92 



Rolan and Luque: The subfamily Rissoininae in the Cape Verde Archipelago 



who begun this study with the material 
from the "Primera Expedición Científica 
Ibérica" and Hink L. Hoenselaar, who 



did the same with the CAJ ICAP mate- 
rial, and the useful comments of Serge 
Gofas and José Templado. 



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Al VARADO, R. AND Álvarez, J., 1964. Resul- 
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94 



© Sociedad Española de Malacología Iberus, 18 V\ 95-123, 2000 



A moUuscan community from coastal bioclastic bottoms in 
the Strait of Gibraltar área 

La comunidad de moluscos de un fondo bioclástico costero del 
Estrecho de Gibraltar 

José RUEDA*!, Carmen SALAS* and Serge GOFAS* 

Recibido el lO-IX-1999. Aceptado el 17-XI-1999 

ABSTRACT 

The molluscan community of o soft bottom of bioclastic gravéis and sand has been studied 
monthly over two yeors in four stations of the boy of Barbote, SW Spain at the Atlantic 
entrance of the Strait of Gibraltar, between 1 8 and 29 m depth. Species richness, domi- 
nance and frequency over the two years are recorded. Micromolluscs, less than 1 mm in 
size, were also recorded from the somple of April 1 994. 

Over the tv/o yeors, 203 species of macromolluscs were found, of which 174 species 
(1 15.104 individuáis) were collected olive and quantified. A total of 25 species of micro- 
molluscs were determined, some of which usuolly considered os rare species. Most species 
richness valúes range between 20 to 40 species per sample, which is comparable with, or 
higher than, the valúes reported in other studies from soft bottom communities of molluscs. 
The quolitative anolysis bosed on Joccord's and Boroni-Urboni and Buser's Índices show 
that three stations are significantly similar (p < 0.01), whereas the lowest similority wos 
found between the stotion cióse to the horbour of Borbote and the other ones. The quanti- 
totive anolysis based on the Broy and Curtis índex is biosed by the high number of indivi- 
duáis of Chamelea sthatula but consistent with the quolitative Índices when thís species is 
not token ínto account. 

The main community is similar to "Biocénose des fonds meubles instables (MI)" and "Bio- 
cénose des fonds detritique du large (DL)" of PÉRÉS AND Picaro (1964), but occurs shallo- 
wer than in the Mediterronean. The concurrence of species from the Lusitonian, Mediterro- 
nean and Mauritanian regions results in an increment of the total number of species. 

RESUMEN 

Se ha estudiado la comunidad de Moluscos de fondos de grava bioclástico y areno 
durante dos años en la bahía de Borbote, SW de España cerco del Estrecho de Gibraltar. 
Se han elegido cuatro estaciones entre 1 8 y 29 metros de profundidad. Se ho determi- 
nado lo riqueza especifica, la dominancia y lo frecuencia o lo largo de los dos años. Los 
micromoluscos, de menos de 1 mm de tollo, se han estudiado sólo poro lo muestra de 
Abril de 1994. 

Se han colectado un total de 203 especies de macromoluscos o lo largo de los dos años, 
de los cuales 174 especies (1 15.104 individuos) se cogieron vivos y se cuontificoron. Se 
han determinado también 25 especies de micromoluscos, algunos de los cuales conside- 

* Depto. Biología Animal, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga, Campus de Teatinos s/n, E-29071- 

Málaga 

' Present address: Rijksinstituut voor visserijonderzoek (RIVO-DLO), (Centrum voor Schelpdieronderzoek), 

Korringaweg, 5, Postbus 77, 4400 AB Yerseke, The Netherlands. 

95 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



radas habitualmente como especies raras. La mayoría de los valores de la riqueza especi- 
fica oscilan entre 20 y 40 especies por muestra, lo que es comparable o incluso mayor 
que los valores reseñados en otros estudios para comunidades de moluscos de fondos 
blandos. 

Los análisis cualitativos de afinidad basados en los índices de Jaccard y de Baroni-Urbani 
y Buser muestran que tres estaciones son significativamente similares (p < 0,01), mientras 
que la menor afinidad se encontró entre la estación próxima al puerto de Barbote y las 
otras. El análisis cuantitativo de afinidad basado en el índice de Bray y Curtís esta ses- 
gado por el gran número de individuos de Chamelea striatula, pero si no consideramos 
dicha especie los resultados son similares a los obtenidos por índices cualitativos. 
La comunidad es similar a la "Biocénose des fonds meubles instables (MI)" y "Biocénose 
des fonds detritique du large (DL)" de PÉRÉS Y PlCARD (1964), pero aparece o menor pro- 
fundidad que en el Mediterráneo. La comunidad de la estación próxima al puerto pre- 
senta caracteres intermedios con la "Biocénose des sables fins bien calibres (SFBC)" de 
PÉRÉS Y PlCARD (1964). Lo coexistencia de especies procedentes de las tres regiones Lusitó- 
nica. Mediterránea y Mauritánica supone un incremento de la riqueza específica. 



KEY WORDS: Molluscan communities, Strait of Gibraltar, Species richness, 
PALABRAS CLAVE: Comunidades de moluscos. Estrecho de Gibraltar, riqueza específica. 



INTRODUCTION 



The Strait of Gibraltar is an interes- 
ting área for the study of the marine 
fauna, including molluscs, due to the 
confluence of Atlantic and Mediterra- 
nean waters. According to Ekman 
(1953), it is the meeting point of three 
biogeographic regions: Lusitanian, Mau- 
ritanian and Mediterranean. As a result 
of this, the species richness in this área 
is possibly the highest of the European 
coasts. In addition, there is a clear pre- 
sence of North African fauna in this 
zone, and there also occur some 
endemic mollusc species (Gofas, 1999). 

Some XIX century expeditions, such 
as "Lightning" and "Porcupine", "Cha- 
llenger" "Travailleur" and "Talismán" 
reported on the marine molluscs from 
the Ibero-Moroccan Gulf (see review in 
Salas, 1996) but were mostly concerned 
with the bathyal fauna. Recently a 
French expedition "Balgim" (1984) and 
a Spanish survey "Fauna 1" (1989) 
added more Information about the 
malacofauna, particularly bivalves 
(Salas, 1996). 

There are relatively few studies 
regarding the fauna from the Strait of 
Gibraltar. Some of them reported only 



faunistic lists (Fischer-Piette, 1959; 
Thorson, 1965; García-Gomez, 1983a; 
VAN Aartsen, Menkhorst and Gilten- 
BERGER, 1984; Cervera, Templado, 
García-Gómez, Ballesleros, Ortea, 
García, Ros and Luque, 1988) and 
others added Information about mollus- 
can communities (García-Gómez, 
1983b; Templado, Guerra, Bedoya, 
Moreno, Remon, Maldonado and 
Ramos, 1993, Gofas, 1999) or other 
invertebrate groups (Carballo, 
Naranjo and García-Gómez, 1997; 
López de la Cuadra and García- 
Gomez, 1993; Medel-Soteras, García 
AND García-Gómez, 1991). Some 
general studies have been carried out in 
the inner Bay of Cádiz (Arias, 1976; 
LÓPEZ DE LA Rosa, 1997; Drake, Arias 
AND CoNRADL 1997), but these were not 
directed to molluscan communities. A 
review of the decapods from expedi- 
tions carried out off the southern Iberian 
península and the northern coast of 
Morocco is given by García Raso 
(1996), and new records were added by 
LÓPEZ DE LA Rosa, García Raso and 
Rodríguez Martín (1998). The decapod 
crustacean community from Barbate 



96 



Rueda ET al.: Molluscan community from bioclastic bottoms in the Strait of Gibraltar 



Table I. Physical characteristics of the sampling stations in bay of Barbate. 
Tabla I. Características fisicas de las estaciones de muestreo en la bahía de Barbate. 



Reh'n 12 



Retín 16 



Barra 16 



Barra 10 



Depth 

Type of sediment 

Organic matter content 



21-22m 


28-29 m 


28-29 m 


18m 


coarse sand 


coarse sand 


médium sand 


fine sand 


with bioclasts 


with bioclasts 


with bioclasts 


with bioclasts 


0.35-0.40% 


0.40-0.60% 


0.70-0.80% 


0.80-1.10% 



was studied by Manjón-Cabeza and 
García Raso (1998a), and the popula- 
tion structure and growth of the hermit 
crab Diogenes pugilator from the same 
área by Manjón-Cabeza and García 
Raso (1998b). None of these previous 
studies contained data on molluscan 
communities from infralittoral bottoms 
and their changes through the year. 

The present paper was aimed to a 
better knowledge of molluscan commu- 
nities from bioclastic infralittoral 
bottoms in the Strait of Gibraltar, and of 
the influence they receive from the diffe- 
rent water masses. The results have 
been obtained from monthly samples 
over two years of survey. These mollus- 
can communities are poorly documen- 
ted in the Spanish coasts, although some 
information from other European sta- 
tions is available in the literature 
(Cabioch, 1968; Pérés and Picard, 
1964; Glémarec, 1969; Templado et al., 
1993). 



ÁREA OF STUDY 

Samples were coUected in the bay of 
Barbate (36° 8' N- 5° 56' W), on the 
Atlantic side of the Strait of Gibraltar 
(Fig. 1). Four sample stations were selec- 
ted and sampled monthly throughout 
two years. Sample stations were placed 
on two transects, R (Retín) and B 
(Barra), at different distances from the 
estuary and harbour of Barbate. The 
main characteristics of sampling stations 
are Usted in Table I. 

The station BIO is the nearest to the 
harbour and the estuary of Barbate 
river, with high level of sedimentation 



(fine particles) and a higher valué of 
percentage of organic matter in the sedi- 
ment than in the other stations. Hard 
bottoms are present in the bay as flags- 
tones between the station R12 and the 
beach (Fig. 1). 

The Bay of Barbate is mainly 
influenced by water masses from the 
Atlantic Ocean. Most of the flow comes 
from South Portugal, but due to the pro- 
ximity of North África there are also 
currents of Southern origin (Rey, 1983). 
Atlantic water currents flow in this bay 
in direction to the Mediterranean Sea, 
while Mediterranean water currents 
flow below 200-250 meters deep in the 
opposite direction (Vives, Santamaría 
and Trepat, 1975) and do not affect the 
bay. Tidal currents can change the direc- 
tion of the dominant currents, produ- 
cing local gyres. Water temperature 
varíes from 21° C (Summer months) to 
14° C (Winter months). Water salinity 
valúes (around 34 %o) can change due to 
the influence of the river Barbate and 
some other fresh water reservoirs (EsTA- 
blier and Margalef, 1964; Seoane- 
Camba, 1965). 

The mixed sediment (shell frag- 
ments and sand) is a habitat for some 
benthic algae, which were reported on 
by Flores-Moya, Soto, Sánchez, Alta- 
mirano and Conde (1995a, b) and by 
Conde, Flores-Moya, Soto, Altami- 
rano and Sánchez (1996). 



MATERIAL AND METHODS 

Samples were collected from 
October 1993 to September 1995 with a 
small fishing boat, by towing a rectan- 



97 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 




Figure 1 . Location of the sampling points in Bay of Barbate. The dashed Une represents rocky 

bottoms. 

Figura 1. Localización de los puntos de muestreo dentro de los fondos de la bahía. La linea discontinua 

indica la presencia de lajas de roca. 



guiar dredge (42 cm width x 22 cm 
height), with a 0.5 mm mesh inner 
holding bag, for 15 minutes at a speed 
of 1 knot. The dredged área for each 
sample was approximately 150 m^. 

Biológica! samples were sieved on 
different mesh sizes (10, 5, 3, and 1 mm) 
in order to split into different size frac- 
tions and sort them. The smaller frac- 
tions were sorted under a stereomicros- 
cope. MoUuscs were separated from the 
rest of macrobenthos and fixed in for- 
maldehyde 10 % and subsequently pre- 
served in neutralized alcohol 70%. 

The fraction above 1 mm shell size, 
representing the macrofauna, was sor- 
ted quantitatively for every sample over 
the two years. Both living and dead spe- 
cimens were identified, although only li- 
ving specimens were quantified. The ta- 
xonómica! ordination is according to Sa- 

BELLI, GiANNUZZI-SaVELLI AND BEDULLI 

(1990) and current CLEMAM catalogue 
(www.mnhn.fr / base / malaco.html). 

Species richness and dominance 
(percentage of individuáis to the total, 
for a particular species) were calculated 
in order to describe the community. We 
also calculated the frequency or percen- 



tage of the samples in which the species 
is present over the two years. Three 
Índices of affinity were calculated to 
classify the molluscan composition from 
the four stations, in order to check the 
different communities present in our 
study área. Two of them are qualitative 
(Jaccard, 1908; Baroni-Urbani and 
BuSER, 1976), the other one quantitative 
(Bray and Curtís, 1957). The quanti- 
tative dissimilarity index (I) of Bray 
AND Curtís (1957) was transformed as 
(l-I) so as to use it as a quantitative 
similarity index. The qualitative Índices 
were chosen in view of the possibility to 
test the significance, following Real 
and Vargas (1996) for the Jaccard index 
and Baroni-Urbani and Buser tables 

(BARONr-URBANI AND BuSER, 1976) for 

their own index. The affinity between 
stations was represented for each index 
by a dendrogram, using the UPGMA 
algorithm. 

Micromolluscs, mostly species 
which have a shell size smaller than the 
bulk of the sediment grain, need special 
processing to be recovered efficiently 
and this was done mainly on the sample 
of April 1994. The fraction not retained 



98 



Rueda ETAL.-. Molluscan community from bioclastic bottoms in the Strait of Gibraltar 



by the 1 mm sieve was sieved on the 0.5 
and 0.3 mm sieves. Then, each of these 
fractions was winnowed in sea water, so 
that the water movement will carry 
away the Hghter fraction including 
molluscs. The water outflow was collec- 
ted on the 0.3 mm sieve, examined for 
Hving micromoUuscs, and dried. The 
micromolluscs were sorted in this dry 
residue under the stereomicroscope, 
using a Strattman micropaleontological 
tray and a fine wet brush to manipúlate 
them. Micromollusc data were studied 
apart due to an incomplete cuantifi- 
cation, only in the sample of April 1994. 
Sediment samples were collected 
and analysed for granulometry and per- 
centage of organic matter (% OM). The 
grain size distribution of the sediment 
was determined by sieving. The mud 
fraction was separated by wet sieving in 
a 80/^m sieve, and finally the dried sand 
fraction was sieved over a stacked set of 
grade sieves. Granulometric parameters 
were calculated according to the method 
of BuCHANAN (1984). Sediment for 
determination of % OM was stored in 
formaldehyde 10% just after collection. 
A fraction was dried at 100° C for 24 
hours and weighted for obtaining dry 
weight. Later on it was burnt to ashes 
for 2 h at 525° C and finally weighted 
again. Difference of dry weight and dry 
weight after ignition determined %OM 
in the sediment. 



RESULTS 

Analysis of the taxocoenosis of 
molluscs 

A: Macromolluscs composition and 
species richness: Over the two years, a 
total of 203 species of macromolluscs 
were found. Of these, 174 species (115. 
104 individuáis) were collected alive 
(Tables II, III). Some individuáis were 
only identified to genus level, either 
because diagnostic characters are seen 
only on living animáis and could not be 
observed (e. g. Triphoridae, many Opist- 
hobranchs), or because they belong to 
groups where taxonomic problems are 
not solved (see remarks below). 



Number and percentage of species 
by class collected were similar in R12, 
R16 and B16. In BIO, the number of 
species by class was lower, although the 
percentages of abundance were similar 
to those in the other stations (Table III). 
The families Trochidae (12 sp., Fig. 2), 
Nassariidae (9 sp., Fig. 3) and Muricidae 
(7 sp.) were the best represented among 
the gastropods; the Veneridae (13 sp.) 
and Cardiidae (10 sp.) among the bival- 
ves. 

Mean valúes for species richness per 
month were lower in BIO (between 12 to 
36) than in the other sampling points: 
R12 (17-45 species); R16 (20-49 species); 
B16 (21-51 species). 

The number of species of gastropods 
and their abundance were higher in R16 
and B16, where the sediments were cha- 
racterised by a mixture of bioclasts and 
of coarse and médium sand, respecti- 
vely. Total abundances of bivalves were 
high in R16 and BIO due to a strong set- 
tlement of the bivalve Chamelea striatula, 
but richness for bivalves was higher in 
the stations with mixed sediments 
(gravéis and fine sand) than in the most 
homogeneous one (BIO). In global 
terms, bivalves were more abundant 
than gastropods mainly due to their gre- 
garious occurrence in soft bottoms. The 
dredge was not adequate for the collec- 
tion of cephalopods so that a low 
number of them were registered and 
always small individuáis (2-3 cm). 

The base of the ascidian Phallusia 
mammillata (Cuvier, 1815) clusters shells 
and small stones which provide a micro- 
habitat for some species of molluscs 
such as Chauvetia procerula and Ocine- 
brina edwardsii which were abundant 
inside the holes and crevices from these 
structures. We also noted the presence 
of small individuáis of the bivalves 
Chlamys varia and Striarca láctea both 
attached by byssal thread. 

Some associations of molluscs with 
others organisms were found. The bi- 
valve Digitaria digitaria usually suppor- 
ted colonies of the hydrozoan Monobra- 
chium parasitum Meresckowsky, 1877 lo- 
cated on the posterior part of the umbo. 
Colonies of another non determined hy- 



99 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



Table II. Species of macromolluscs collected in the survey. Ab: Abundance, Fr: Frequency, tt: Dead 
specimen, #: Non quantitative data."Totar' is (Retín 12 + Retín 16 + Barra 16), excluding Barra 10. 
Tabla II Especies de macromoluscos recolectadas en los muéstreos. Ab: Abundancia, Fr: Frecuencia, ff: Indi- 
viduo muerto, #: Datos no cuantitativos. "Total" es (Retín 12 + Retín 16 + Barra 16), excluyendo Barra 10. 



Retín 12 


Retín 16 


Borro 16 


Borro 10 


Totol 


Ab Fr 


Ab Fr 


Ab Fr 


Ab Fr 


Ab Fr 



CIASSIS POLYPIACOPHORA GrayJ. E., 1821 

Family LEPTOCHITONIDAE DalU889 
iep/or/i/tonom/co/üíej (Monterosato, 1879) 36 20.83 86 20.83 78 54.17 200 66.67 

Family ISCHNOCHITONIDAE DalU889 

Lepidochitona cinérea (Linné, 1767) 1 4.17 1 4.35 1 4.17 

Lepidocbitona conugata (Reeve, 1848) 2 4.17 2 4.17 

Family ACANTHOCHITONIDAE Pilsbry, 1893 

Acantbocb¡tonafascicular¡s[Umé,Mb7) 8 16.66 5 16.66 65 58.33 78 75.00 

Acanthochitona sp. 1 4.35 

CWSSISGASTROPODA Cuvier, 1797 
Family ACMAEIDAE Carpenter, 1 857 

Acwaea virgínea (Müller 0. F., 1776) 1 4.17 5 8.33 3 8.33 9 20.83 

Family FISSURELLIDAE Fleming, 1822 

Diodora gibberula (Lamorck, 1822) 1 4.17 1 4.17 

Diodora graeca (Linné, 1758) 2 8.33 1 4.17 3 8.33 

Family SCISSURELLIDAE GrayJ. E., 1847 

Scissurella costata D'Orbigny, 1824 2 8.33 2 8.33 

Family TROCHIDAE Rafinesque, 1815 

Calliostoma zizypbinum (Linné, 1 758) 

Calliostoma sp. 1 

Calliostoma sp. 2 

Gibbulamagus (Linné, 1758) 

Gibbula fanulum (Gmelin, 1791) 

Gibbula guttadauri (Philippi, 1836) 

Gibbula cineraria (Linné, 1 758) 

Jujubinus dispar Curini-Galletti, 1 982 

Jujubinus exaspéralos (Pennant, 1777) 

Jujubinus montagui (WoodW., 1828) 

Jujubinus striatus (Linné, 1758) 

Clanculus cruciatus (Linné, 1758) tt 
Family TRICOLIIDAE Robertson, 1985 

Tricolia pullus (Linné, 1758) 1 4.17 1 4.17 

Family TURBINIDAE Rafinesque, 1815 

Bolma rugosa (Linné, 1767) 5 12.50 5 12.50 

Family CERITHIIDAE Férussac, 1819 

Binium reticulatum (Da Costa, 1778) 1 4.17 1 4.17 

Í/Wüm sü¿mom///o/í/m (De Royneval a Ponzi, 1854) 619 62.50 134 20.83 73 37.50 826 75.00 

ftWüms/mp/ex (Jeffreys, 1867) tt 1 — 

CerUbium vulgatum Bruguiére, 1792 tt 1 — 

Family TURRITELLIDAE Lovén, 1847 

Mesalia varia (Kiener, 1887) 

Turriiella communis Risso, 1826 

Turritella turbona Monterosato, 1 877 
Family RISSOIDAE GrayJ. E., 1847 

Rissoa guerinii Récluz, 1843 

Rissoa inconspicua (Alder, 1844) 











8 


12.50 






8 


12.50 


28 


45.83 


48 


66.67 


120 


95.83 


7 


21.74 


196 


95.83 


1 


4.17 






3 


12.50 






4 


16.67 


39 


41.67 


279 


70.83 


264 


79.17 


16 


30.43 


582 


87.50 


3 


12.50 


1 


4.17 


4 


8.33 






8 


25.00 


167 
1 


70.83 
4.17 


14 

1 


25.00 
4.17 


11 


20.83 


13 


21.74 


192 
2 


75.00 
8.33 










40 


58.33 


3 


8.70 


40 


58.33 


2 


8.33 














2 


8.33 


12 

1 


20.83 
4.17 


55 

1 


50.00 
4.17 


68 


58.33 






135 
2 


79.17 
8.33 


# 


— 



















149 


79.17 


201 


91.67 


495 


100 


113 


86.96 


845 100 


246 


50.00 


993 


95.83 


525 


75.00 


45 


26.09 


1764 95.83 


250 
1 


50.00 
4.17 


403 

2 
1 


41.67 

8.33 
4.17 


61 

1 


29.17 
4.17 






714 75.00 

3 12.50 
2 8.33 



100 



Rueda ETAL.: Molluscan community from bioclastic bottoms in the Strait of Gibraltar 



Table II. Continuation. 
Tabla II Continuación. 



Retín 12 
Ab Fr 


Retín 16 
Ab Fr 


Barro 16 
Ab Fr 


Barra 10 
Ab Fr 


Totol 

áb Fr 



Alvonia cimex (Linné, 1758) tt 

Alvania discors {Alian, 1818) tt 
Family APORRHAIIDAE Gray J. E., 1 850 

Aporrbais pespelecani {Linné, 1758) 
Family CALYPTRAEIDAE Lamorck, 1809 

Calyptraea cbinensis {Linné, 1758) 
Family LAMELLARIIDAE D'Orbigny, 1841 

Lamellaría sp. 
Family TRIVIIDAE Troschel, 1863 

Trívia árctica {Pulteney, 1789) 
Family NATICIDAE Forbes,1838 

Natka hebraea (Martyn, 1784) 

Polinices alderi {Forbes, 1838) 

Polinices guillemini (Payraudeau, 1826) 

Polinices macilenta {Philippi, 1844) 
Family CASSIDAE Latreille, 1 825 

Pbalium saburon {Bruguiére, 1792) tt 

Pbalium undulatum (Gmelin, 1791) tt 
Family RANELLIDAE GrayJ.E., 1854 

Cymatium corrugatum {Lamarck, 1816) 

Ranella olearia {Linné, 1758) tt 

Cbaronia lampas (Linné, 1758) tt 
Family TRIPHORIDAE Gray J. E., 1847 

Not determined 
Family CERITHIOPSIDAE Adams H. & A., 1853 

Ceritbiopsis scalaris Locard, 1 892 

Ceritbiopsis tubercularis (Montagu, 1803) 
Family EPITONIIDAE BerryS.S., 1910 

Epitonium commune {Lamarck, 1822) 

Epitonium pulcbellum {BivonaAnt., 1832) 

Epitonium ¡olyi {Monterosoto, 1878) 

Cirsotrema cocblea {Sowerby G. B. II, 1844) 
Family EULIMIDAE AdamsH.& A., 1853 

Eulima glabra {Da Costa, 1778) 

Melanella alba {Da Costa, 1778) 

Melanella sp. 
Family MURICIDAE Rafinesque, 1815 

Bolinas brandaris {Linné, 1758) 

Hexaplex trúncalos (Linné, 1758) 

Muricopsis cristata (Brocchi, 1814) 

Ocenebra erinaceus (Linné, 1758) 

Ocinebrina aciculata (Lamarck, 1822) 

Ocinebrina edwardsii (Payraudeau, 1 826) 

Tropbon muricatus (Montagu, 1803) 

Buccinulum corneum (Linné, 1758) 

Cbauvetia procerula Monterosoto, 1 889 

Chauvetia brunnea (Montagu, 1803) tt 

Cbauvetia sp. tt 

Fusinus pulcbellus (Philippi, 1844) 

Fusinus rostratas (Olivi, 1792) 



1 — 

# — 

104 79.17 113 58.33 61 50.00 278 83.33 

450 70.83 1297 91.67 645 87.50 104 56.52 2392 95.83 



1 


4.17 


1 


4.17 


1 


4.17 






1 
1 


4.17 
4.17 


2 


8.33 










22 


52.17 


2 


8.33 


8 


20.83 


9 


16.67 


13 


37.50 






30 


62.50 


6 


20.83 






11 


25.00 


3 


13.04 


17 


33.33 


11 


29.17 


5 
# 


12.50 


10 

# 
# 


20.83 


19 


56.52 


26 


54.17 






1 


4.17 


2 


8.33 






3 


12.50 






# 


— 


# 


— 














# 


— 


# 


— 










1 


4.17 


3 


12.50 










4 


12.50 






2 

1 


8.33 
4.17 


1 


4.17 






3 
1 


12.50 
4.17 


3 


12.50 


9 
2 
1 

1 
1 


20.83 
8.33 
4.17 

4.17 
4.17 


1 

1 


4.17 
4.17 


1 

1 
1 


4.35 

4.35 
4.35 


13 
2 

1 

1 
1 

1 


33.33 
8.33 
4.17 

4.17 
4.17 
4.17 


61 


75.00 


88 


79.17 


78 


70.83 


38 


65.22 


227 


95.83 


19 
1 


37.50 
4.17 






4 


12.50 


4 


17.39 


23 
1 


37.50 
4.17 


2 


8.33 


23 


58.33 


72 


87.50 






97 


95.83 






2 


8.33 


1 


4.17 






3 


12.50 


48 


58.33 


32 


58.33 


154 


79.17 






234 


91.67 


17 
1 


33.33 
4.17 


44 


62.50 


49 


54.17 






110 

1 


87.50 
4.17 






27 


37.50 


62 


45.83 






89 


58.33 


# 


— 


# 
















9 


12.50 


14 


29.17 


46 


75.00 






69 


79.17 






2 


8.33 


1 


4.17 






3 


12.50 



101 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



Table II. Continuadon. 
Tabla II Continuación. 



Retín 12 Retiñió Bárralo Barro 10 Total 

Ab Fr Ab Fr Ab Fr Ab Fr Ab Fr 



Nassarius elafus (Gould, 1845) 










13 


25.00 


202100 


13 


25.00 


Nassarius heynemanni (VonMaItzan, 1884) 


9 


12.50 


1 


4.17 








10 


16.67 


Nassarius vaucheri (Pallary, 1906) 


3 


4.17 










17 39.13 


3 


4.17 


Nassarius incrassatus (Strom, 1768) 


3 


12.50 






5 


16.67 


1 4.35 


8 


29.17 


Nassarius pygmaeus (Lamorck, 1822) 


51 


50.00 


69 


79.17 


86 


62.50 


59 65.22 


206 


95.83 


Nassarius refículatus (Linné, 1758) 


8 


16.67 






13 


33.33 


276100 


21 


41.67 


Nassarius mulabilis (Linné, 1758) 










7 


8.33 


243 100 


7 


8.33 


Nassarius granum (Lamartk, 1822) ft 














# — 






Cyclope donovania Risso, 1 826 ff 














1 — 






Family COLUMBELLIDAE Swainson, 1840 




















Mitrella minar (Scacchi, 1 836) 






3 


12.50 


10 


29.17 




13 


33.33 


Mitrella bruggeni van Aartsen, Menkh. & Gittenb., 1984 tt # 


— 
















Columbella rustica (Linné, 1758) tt 










# 


— 








Family COSTELLARIIDAE Me Donoid, 1860 




















l^ex;7/üm tricolor (Gmelin, 1791) tt 


# 


— 
















FamílyCYSTISCIDAEStimpson,1865 




















Gibberula epigrus (Reeve, 1865) 


29 


45.83 






13 


16.67 


44 65.22 


42 


58.33 


Gibberula miliaria (Linné, 1758) 














1 4.35 






Family VOLUTIDAE Rafinesque, 1815 




















Cymbium olla (Linné, 1758) tt 






# 


— 


# 


— 








Family CANCELLARIDAE Gray J. E., 1 853 




















Cancellaria cancellata (Linné, 1758) tt 














# — 






Family CONIDAE Rafinesque, 1815 




















Conus mediterraneus Hwassin Bruguiére, 1792 tt 


# 


— 
















Family TURRIDAE Swainson, 1 840 




















Bela laevigata (Philippi, 1836) 


81 


54.17 


143 


83.33 


111 


70.83 


118 65.22 


335 


95.83 


Bela striolata (Risso, 1826) 


9 


12.50 


16 


33.33 


16 


33.33 


9 21.74 


41 


50.00 


Bela sp. 1 


3 


12.50 










2 8.70 


3 


12.50 


Bela sp. 2 


2 


8.33 


1 


4.17 








3 


12.50 


Mangelia attenuata (Montagu, 1 803) 


33 


45.83 


19 


45.83 


14 


41.67 


13 34.78 


66 


79.17 


Haedropleura septangularis (Montagu, 1803) 










1 


4.17 


1 4.35 


1 


4.17 


Crassopleura maravignae (Bivona, 1838) 


2 


8.33 






1 


4.17 




3 


12.50 


Rapbifoma aequalis (Jeffreys, 1867) 






2 


8.33 








2 


8.33 


Comarmondia gracilis (Montagu, 1803) 


4 


16.67 


10 


33.33 


13 


29.17 


1 4.35 


27 


58.33 


Family PYRAMIDELLIDAE Gray J. E., 1 840 




















Cbrysallida terebellum (Phillippi, 1844) 






2 


4.17 








2 


4.17 


Eulimella acicala (Phillippi, 1836) 










2 


8.33 




2 


8.33 


Eulimella scillae (Scacchi, 1835) 










1 


4.17 




1 


4.17 


Odostomia acuta Jeffreys, 1848 






1 


4.17 








1 


4.17 


Odostomia conoidea (Brocchi, 1814) 






1 


4.17 








1 


4.17 


Bracbystomia eulimoides (Hanley, 1844) 


1 


4.17 












1 


4.17 


Turbonilla fulvocincta (Thompson, 1840) 


25 


45.83 


14 


20.83 


17 


37.50 


9 26.09 


56 


70.83 


Turbonilla rufa (Phillippi, 1836) 






19 


37.50 


20 


37.50 




39 


62.50 


Turbonilla rufescens (Forbes, ) 


1 


4.17 










7 13.04 


1 


4.17 


Turbonilla striatula (Linné, 1758) tt 


# 


— 
















FomiIyACTEONIDAE D'Orbigny, 1835 




















Acteon tornatilis (Linné, 1758) 


1 


4.17 


2 


8.33 






1 4.34 


3 


8.33 


Family RETUSIDAE Thiele, 1931 




















Retusa íruncatula (Bruguiére, 1792) 


2 


4.17 












2 


4.17 


Retusa mamillata (Philippi, 1836) 


3 


8.33 


2 


8.33 








5 


16.67 



102 



Rueda ETAL.-. MoUuscan community from bioclastic bottoms in the Strait of Gibraltar 



Table II. Continuation. 
Tabla II Continuación. 



Retín 12 Retiñió Barrólo Barra 10 Total 

Ab Fr Ab Fr Ab Fr Ab Fr Ab Fr 



Family RINGKULIDAE Philippi, 1853 

Ringicula auriculata (Menard, 1811) 
Family BULLIDAE Lamarck, 1801 

Bulla striafa Bruguiére, 1792 tt 
Family HAMINOEIDAE Pilsbry,1895 

Haminoea sp. 
Family PHILINIDAE GrayJ. E., 1850 

Pbiline apella (Linné, 1767) 

Pbiline sp. 
Family CYLICHNIDAE Adams H. & A., 1 854 

Scaphander lignarias (Linné, 1758) 
Family PLEUROBRANCHIDAE Férussac, 1822 

Berlhella sp. 
Family APLYSIIDAE Lamarck, 1809 

Aplysia fasciala Poiret, 1789 
Family ARCHIDORIDIDAE Bergh, 1 892 

Archidoris tuberculata (Cuvier, 1804) 

Archidoris sp. 
Family DENDRODORIDIDAE O'Donoghue, 1924 

Doriopsilla sp. 

CLASSIS SCAPHOPODA Bronn,1862 
Family DENTALIIDAE Linné, 1758 

Dentalium inaequicostatum Dautzenberg, 1891 

Denfolium vulgare Da Costa, 1778 

CU\SSIS BIVALVIA Linné, 1758 
Family NUCULIDAE GrayJ. E., 1824 

Nucula banleyi (Winckworth, 1931) 
Family NUCULANIDAE Adams H. & A., 1858 

Nuculana pella (Linné, 1767) 
Family ARCIDAE Lamarck, 1818 

Ananoae Linné, 1758 

Anadarapolii (Mayer, 1868) 
Family NOETIDAE Stewart, 1930 

Striarca ladea (Linné, 1758) 
Family GLYaHAERIDIDAE Newton, 1922 

Glycymeris glycymeris (Linné, 1758) 
Family MYTILIDAE Rofinesque, 1815 

Modiolarca subpicta (Cantraine, 1835) 

Modiolus barbatus (Linné, 1758) 

Modiolus adríaficus (Lamarck, 1819) 

Amygdalum agglufinans (Cantraine, 1835) 
Family PINNIDAE Leoch, 1819 

Atrina fragilis (Pennant, 1777) 
Family PTERIIDAE GrayJ. E., 1847 

Pieria hitando (Linné, 1758) 
Family PEaiNIDAE Rofinesque, 1815 

Pectén maximus (Linné, 1758) 



17 20.83 20 41.67 19 37.50 27 43.48 56 70.83 



1 4.17 



3 8.33 







1 


4.17 






10 


29.17 


2 


8.33 


2 


8.33 


8 


29.17 


5 


16.67 


2 


8.33 


6 


16.67 



1 4.17 



22 


8.33 






4 4.35 


22 


8.33 


2 


8.33 


1 
1 


4.17 
4.17 




2 

1 
1 


8.33 
4.17 
4.17 






12 


8.33 




12 


8.33 


1 


4.17 








1 


4.17 


2 


4.17 


1 


4.17 




3 


8.33 



3 8.33 



12 12.50 16 33.33 21 29.17 35 56.52 49 70.83 
4 8.33 6 16.67 1 4.35 10 20.83 



52 70.83 41 33.33 9 20.83 102 87.50 

147 91.67 314 95.83 219 95.83 387100 680 100 



9 25.0 



2 8.33 



1 4.17 

4 8.33 

326 62.50 289 75.00 154 66.67 107 47.83 769 91.67 

16 37.50 12 33.33 28 66.67 



1 


4.17 


19 


54.17 


4 


12.50 


15 


45.83 


9 


25.00 


4 


8.33 



1 4.17 
11 12.50 8 25.00 



1 4.17 



9 25.0 



1 4.17 

1 4.17 

7 17.39 28 41.67 



103 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



Table II. Continuation. 
Tabla II Continuación. 



Retín 12 Retiñió 
Ab Fr Ab Fr 



Barrólo Barra 10 Total 

Ab Fr Ab Fr Ab Fr 



Aequipecten opercularís (Línné, 1758) 
Aequipecfen commuiatus (Monterosato, 1815) 
Cblamys varía (Linné, 1758) 
Flexopecfen flexuosus (Poli, 1795) 

Family ANOMIIDAE Rafinesque, 1815 
Anemia ephippium Linné, 1758 

Family LIMIDAE Rafinesque, 1815 
Umatula subaurículala (Montogu, 1 808) 
Lima lima (Linné, 1758) tt 

Family LUCINIDAE Fleming, 1828 
Qena decussafo (Costa O.G., 1829) tt 

Family UNGULINIDAE Adams H. & A., 1857 
Diplodonfa rofundata (Montagu, 1803) 

Family KELLIIDAE Forbes & Honley, 1 848 
Kellia suborbicularís (Montagu, 1 803) 

Family ASTARTIDAE D'Orbigny, 1844 
Digifaría digitaría (Linné, 1758) 
Goodallía tríangularís (Montagu, 1803) 

Family CARDIIDAE Lamarck, 1819 
Acanthocardia aculeata (Línné, 1758) 
Acantbocardia echinaía (Linné,1758) 
Acantbocardia mucronata (Poli, 1795) 
Acantbocardia tuberculata (Linné, 1758) 
Acantbocardia spinosa (Solonder, 1786) tt 
Parvicardium scabrum (Philippi, 1844) 
Piagiocardium papillosum (Poli, 1795) 
Laevicardium crassum (Gmelin, 1791) 
Laevicardium oblongum (Gmelin, 1791) 
Cerastoderma glaucum (Poiret, 1789) tt 

Family MAGRIDAE Lamarck, 1809 
Mactra stuliorum ( Linné, 1 758 ) 
Spisula subtruncata (Do Costa, 1 778) 
Spisula elliptica (Locard, 1890} 
Lutraria angustiar Philippi, 1 844 tt 

Family PHARIDAE Adams H. & A., 1 858 
Ensisensis (Linné, 1758) 
Ensis sp. 
Pbaxas pellucidus (Pennant, 1777) 

Family TELLINIDAE Bloínville, 1814 
Arcopagia balaustina Linné, 1758 
Tollina incarnata (Linné, 1758) 
Tellina distorta (Poli, 1791) 
Tollina pygmaea Lovén, 1846 
Tellina donacina Linné, 1758 tt 

Family DONACIDAE Fleming, 1828 
Donax venustas Poli, 1795 
Capsella variegata (Gray J. E., 1 851 ) 

Family PSAMMOBIIDAE Fleming, 1828 
Garífervensis (Gmelin, 1791) 



5 16.67 5 16.67 10 29.17 

7 12.50 7 12.50 

20 29.17 63 66.67 34 54.17 117 87.50 

73 58.33 133 62.50 51 58.33 19 21.74 259 87.50 

39 37.50 162 66.67 140 62.50 15 13.04 341 87.50 

11 12.50 11 12.50 











1 


4.17 




1 4.17 


1 


4.17 


1 


4.17 


1 


4.17 




3 12.50 


597 


91.67 


1188 


100 


1067 


95.83 1272 91.30 


2852 100 














2 8.70 




4 


12.50 


2 


8.33 


2 
2 


8.33 
8.33 


1 4.35 


8 20.83 
2 8.33 


2 


8.33 












2 8.33 


40 


41.67 


2 


4.17 


4 

# 


12.50 


280 100 


46 41.67 


72 


58.33 


57 


62.50 


20 


25.00 


3 13.04 


149 87.50 


4 


12.50 


21 


50.00 


8 


25.00 




33 62.50 



404 100 



90 58.33 115 79.17 255 78.26 609 100 



1 4.17 



# — 



1 4.17 



29 


29.17 






5 


4.17 3 


13.04 


34 


29.17 


88 


79.17 


241 


75.00 


182 


91.67 1013100 


811 


100 


12 


8.33 


2 

# 


4.17 


# 


— 




14 


12.50 


4 
1 

1 


16.67 
4.17 

4.17 


1 


4.17 


1 


10 

1 

1 
2 
4.17 


17.39 

4.35 

4.35 
8.70 


4 

1 
1 

1 
1 


16.67 
4.17 
4.17 

4.17 
4.17 


# 


— 
















6 


20.83 








124 


73.91 


6 


20.83 


30 


54.17 






2 


4.17 




32 


54.17 






3 


12.50 


2 


8.33 




5 


16.67 



104 



Retín 12 
Ab Fr 


Retín 16 
Ab Fr 


Borro 16 
Ab Fr 


Borro 10 
Ab Fr 


Totol 
Ab Fr 


1 4.17 
51 62.50 


1 4.17 
12 16.67 


5 8.33 


4 8.70 
6 4.35 


1 4.17 

1 4.17 

68 66.67 



Rueda ETAL.-. MoUuscan community from bioclastic bottoms in the Strait of Gibraltar 



Table II. Continuation. 
Tabla II Continuación. 



Garí depressa ( Pennant, 1 777 ) 

Garí costulafa Turton, 1822 

Garí pseudoweinkauffi Cosel, 1990 
Family SCROBICULARIIDAE Adoms H. & A., 1856 

Scrobkularía plano {Da Costa, 1778) tt # — 

Family SEMELIDAE Stoliczka, 1870 

Ervilio castanea (Montogu, 1803) 10 20.83 10 20.83 

Family SOLECURTIDAE D'Orbigny, 1846 

Solecurtus scopula (Turton, 1 822) tt # — # — 

Azorínus cbamasolen (Da Costa, 1778) tt # — 

Family VENERIDAE Rafinesque, 1815 

Venus verrucosa Linné, 1 758 

Venus casino Linné, 1758 

Globivenus effossa (Philippiex Bivonams., 1836) tt 

Chomelea gallina (Linné, 1758) 

Chomeleo sfríotula (Da Costa, 1778) 

Clausinella fascioto (Do Costa, 1778) 

Timocleoovafa (Pennant, 1777) 

Gouldia minima (Montagu, 1803) 

Dosinia lupinos (Linné, 1758) 

Pitar ruáis (Poli, 1795) 

Callista chione (Linné, 1758) 

Tapes rbomboides (Pennant, 1777) 

Tapes decussotus (Linné, 1758) tt 
Family CORBULIDAE Lamorck, 1818 

Corbulagibba (Olivi, 1792) 
Family GASTROCHAENOIDEA Gray J. E., 1 840 

Gostrocbaena dobio (Pennant, 1777) 3 8.33 1 4.17 4 8.33 

Family HIATELÜDAE Gray J. E., 1824 

Hiatella árctica (Unné, 1767) 1 4.17 19 25.00 8 25.00 28 50.00 

Ponopea glycymeris (Von Born, 1778) tt # — # — 

Family THRACIIDAE Stoliczka, 1870 

Tbracia sp. tt # — 

Family PANDORIDAE Rafinesque, 1815 

Pandora inaequivalvis (Unné, 1758) 

Pandora pinna (Montagu, 1803) 
Family LYONSIIDAE Fischer P., 1887 

Lyonsia norwegica (Gmelin, 1791) 5 20.83 11 33.33 10 33.33 7 26.09 26 62.50 

CLiiSSIS CEPHALOPODA Cuvier,1798 
Family SEPIIDAE Leach,1817 

Sepia ofíicinalis Unneo, 1758 1 4.17 1 4.17 

Family SEPiOLIDAE Leach, 1817 

Sep/e/fooiven/ono (D'Orbigny, 1840) 1 4.17 

Family OCTOPODIDAE D'Orbigny, 1840 

Octopusvulgaris Cuvier, 1798 1 4.17 1 4.17 3 12.50 5 20.83 



105 





2 


4.17 


3 


8.33 




5 16.67 


1 


4.17 




# 


— 


9 17.39 


1 4.17 


12582 


75.0026169 


79.17 


7028 


91.6726052 73.91 


45779 100 


152 


91.67 55 


70.83 


85 


66.67 


15 26.09 


292 100 


1 


4.17 9 


33.33 


2 


8.33 




12 37.50 


1074 


87.50 1941 


100 


1142 


83.33 


299 56.52 


4157 100 


4 


12.50 1 


4.17 








5 16.67 


12 


20.83 55 


66.67 


42 


75.00 




109 87.50 


72 


87.50 19 


41.67 


55 


62.50 


64 69.57 


146 100 


81 


50.00 704 


75.00 


195 


75.00 


31 21.74 

i — 


980 91.67 


4715 


87.50 3886 


100 


4076 


100 


1115 78.26 


12677 100 



140 45.83 132 62.50 


107 58.33 322 69.57 


379 91.67 


17 29.17 116 62.50 


83 50.00 8 17.39 


216 79.17 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



Table III. Species richness and abundance (in brackets) per sampling station, and percentages of 
each moUuscan class. 

Tabla III. Riqueza específica y abundancia (entre paréntesis) para cada estación de muestreo y porcenta- 
ges por clase de moluscos. 



CIASS 


RETÍN 12 


RETÍN 16 


BARRA 10 


BARRA 16 


TOTAL 


% 


POLYPIACOPHORA 


4(47) 


2(91) 


2(2) 


2(143) 


5 (283) 


ZS7 [QM 


GASTROPODA 


58 (2.580) 


60(4.165) 


35(1.423) 


58(3.261) 


99(11.429) 


S6,89{9,92) 


BIVALVIA 


44(21.205) 


44 (35.806) 


30(31.434) 


44(14.905) 


65(103.350) 


37,35 (89,74) 


SCAPHOPODA 


2(16) 


1(16) 


2(36) 


2(27) 


2(95) 


1,14(0.082) 


CEPHALOPODA 


2(2) 


1(1) 


1(1) 


1(3) 


3(7) 


1,72 (0.006) 


TOTAL 


110(23.850) 


108 (40.079) 


70 (32.896) 


107(18.339) 


174(115.164) 


100 (100) 



drozoan were found in some indivi- 
duáis of Corbula gibba and were mainly 
located on the posterior part of the shell. 

The high abundance and frequency 
of the shells of Panopea glycymeris, Sole- 
curtus scopula and Lutraria angustiar 
indicates their possible presence in these 
communities. These species Uve deeply 
buried in the sediment (25-40 cm), 
making difficult their coUection with the 
dredge. The large valves are a substrate 
for Calyptraea chinensis, and a shelter for 
many other species. 

Some other species such as Cerasto- 
derma glaucum and Scrobicularia plana 
were transported from the estuary of 
Barbate which is cióse to BIO where they 
were found. 

B: Micromolluscs list: A total of 25 
species of micromolluscs (Table IV) were 
determined in the sample from April 
1994. A few species (e. g. Gibbula magus, 
Chamelea striatula, Tapes rhomboides) are 
the juveniles of species otherwise Usted 
in the macrofauna, but most of them are 
species of which the adult size is small, 
and which would be totally missed in 
the 1 mm sieve. 

A few species, some of which are 
illustrated on Figure 4, are very abun- 
dant, and these belong to species which 
are usually deemed to be rare because 
they are found preferently on this kind 
of bottom, where micromolluscs are not 
easy to collect. The best represented 
families of microgastropods were Pyra- 
midellidae (5 sp.), Skeneidae (3 sp) and 



Caecidae (3 sp.). The best represented 
family of microbivalves was Montacuti- 
dae (3 sp.). As for the number of indivi- 
duáis, the larger numbers correspond to 
the supposedly rare chiton Leptochiton 
cimicoides, the gastropods Dikoleps nitens, 
Pusillina inconspicua and Retusa mami- 
llata, and to the bivalve Limatula subauri- 
culata. The small cerithiid Bittium subma- 
millatum, also found in the fraction over 
1 mm, was quite abundant. 

In addition to these species which 
are dominant in their size class, we 
found several species which are noto- 
riously rare elsewhere and could be 
recovered here in modérate numbers, 
henee are not so rare on this kind of 
substrate. The gastropod Retrotortina 
fuscata was found alive for the first time 
in our study and reported on by Gofas 
AND Warén (1998). The recently descri- 
bed bivalve Notolimea clandestina, descri- 
bed from a few specimens only, is well 
represented in our samples and could be 
observed with brooded juveniles inside. 

The highest overall abundance and 
species richness of micromolluscs was 
registered in the samples from R12, with 
the lowest percentage of organic mater, 
and the lowest in BIO, with the greatest 
percentage of organic matter (Table I). 

Analysis of the Community 

A: Dominance and Trequency: In spite 
of the high number of collected species, 
the molluscan taxocoenosis is domina- 
ted by few species. The main dominant 
species were quite similar among the 4 



06 



Rueda ETAL.: Molluscan community from bioclastic bottoms in the Strait of Gibraltar 




Figure 2. Species of the family Trochidae from Bay of Barbare. A: Calliostoma sp. 1, 8.5 mm; B: 
Calliostoma sp. 2., 7.0 mm; C: Gibbula guttadauri, 5.5 mm; D: Jujubinus dispar, 3.8 mm; E: Juju- 
binus dispar, 6.3 mm. Dimensions are for shell height. 

Figura 2. Especies de la familia Trochidae presentes en la bahía de Barbate. A: Calliostoma sp. 1, 8,5 
mm; B: Calliostoma sp. 2., 7,0 mm; C: Gibbula guttadauri, 5,5 mm; D: Jujubinus dispar, 3,8 mm; 
E: Jujubinus dispar, 6,3 mm. Las medidas indicadas corresponden a la altura. 



sampled stations. There were 8 to 13 
species with dominance valúes higher 
than 1 % in R12, R16 and B16, but only 5 
species had dominance valúes higher 
than 1 % in the station BIO (Table V). 
Chamelea striatula was the most domi- 
nant species in all sample stations: in 
some months it reached abundance of 
5000 to 13000 individuáis per sample. 
The strong settlement of juveniles of this 
species occurred during Spring months 
of the first year of survey (1994), then it 
persisted as a dominant species for a 
limited time in R16, and until the end of 
the studied period in BIO. The higher 



amount of mud and percentage of the 
organic matter in the sediment from this 
latter station could have favoured the 
development of this species. 

If we take into account the 20 first 
dominant species, it is possible to find 
some differences between stations. The 
most different composition of dominant 
species occurs in BIO, w^here 5 species 
{Acanthocardia tuberculata, Nassarius reti- 
culatus, Nassarius mutabilis, Nassarius ela- 
tus and Donax venustus) are typical of 
shallow sand bottom communities. 
Their dominant presence in comparison 
with the other stations indicates simila- 



107 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



rity with communities of well sorted 
fine sand (Pérés and Picaro, 1964; Glé- 
MAREC, 1969; García Raso, Luque, 
Templado, Salas, Hergueta, Moreno 
AND Calvo, 1992). This is further sup- 
ported by the constant occurrence of 
high numbers of Ophiura texturata La- 
marck, 1816 and of some individuáis of 
Echinocardium cordatum (Pennant, 1777). 
In R12 some species with affinities for 
coarse sand bottoms are listed in the 
first 20 dominant species: Bittium subma- 
millatum, Laevicardium crassum (with the 
highest abundance in the 4 stations), 
Turñtella turbona, Gibbula guttadauri. 
Some other animáis collected frequently 
in this station, such as Branchiostoma lan- 
ceolatum (Pallas, 1766) and Echinocx/amus 
pusillus (MüUer, 1776), are common in 
coarse sand bottom communities (Ford, 
1923; Cabioch, 1968; Glémarec, 1969). 

The species occurring in a high fre- 
quency throughout the 2 years in BIO 
were different from those of the other 
three stations (Table VI), and were 
mainly the species with affinity for fine 
and shallow sandy bottoms listed with 
the dominance data. Species of nassa- 
rids (Nassarhis reticulatus, N. mutabilis 
and N. elatus) and some bivalves such as 
Spisula subtruncata, Nuculana pella and 
Acanthocardia tuber culata were recorded 
in all monthly samples during two 
years. Nevertheless, other species recor- 
ded with a high frequency in the other 
stations, such as Mesalia varia, Corbula 
gibba, Digitaria digitaria and Laevicardium 
crassum, were also important for the 
community structure of BIO. 

Aplysia fasciata Poiret, 1789 was 
recorded in spring and summer months 
from the first year and not in samples 



from the second year, probably due to a 
decrease on the production of algae in 
the bay. 

B; Faunal affinity between sampling 
points: The valúes of qualitative and 
quantitative similarity Índices between 
sampling stations are shown in Table 
Vil and Figure 5. A single dendrogram 
was found for each index with the 
UPGMA reconstructions. From the qua- 
litative viewpoint, according to Jac- 
card's as well as to Baroni-Urbani and 
Buser's Índices, the points Retín 12, Re- 
tín 16 and Barra 16 are sígnifícantly si- 
milar (p < 0.01). The lowest similarity in 
qualitative terms was found between 
the station BIO and the other stations, 
whereas a higher similarity is found bet- 
ween the two deeper stations R16 and 
B16. The quantitative analysis according 
to Bray and Curtís (1957) also showed 
high similarity between R16 and B16, 
where a high number of individuáis of 
Chamelea striatula were collected. Assu- 
ming the invasive character of the settle- 
ment of this species in this kind of com- 
munities, the same index was computed 
also without the data for this species. 
The influence of the flood of Chamelea 
brings a bias so as to increase the simila- 
rity between Barra 10 and other stations 
(Fig. 5C), whereas the quantitative data 
without Chamelea are consistent with the 
qualitative Índices (Fig. 5D). 



DISCUSSION 

Taxonomic remarks: The species of 
the genus Calliostoma (Fig. 2) are proble- 
matic in the área of transition between 



(Right page) Figure 3. Species of the family Nassariidae from Bay of Barbate. A: Nassarius pygmaeus, 
1 1 mm; B: Nassarius vaucheri, 13 mm; C: Nassarius reticulatus, juvenile, 13 mm; D: Nassarius incras- 
satus, 1 1 mm; E: Nassarius tingitanus, 9 mm (specimen collected in Tarifa); F: Nassarius heynemanni, 
1 3 mm; G: Nassarius mutabilis, 1 2 mm; H: Nassarius elatus, 1 4 mm. Dimensions are for shell height. 
(Página derecha) Figura 3. Especies de la familia Nassaridae presentes en la bahía de Barbate. A: Nassa- 
rius pygmaeus, 1 1 mm; B: Nassarius vaucheri, 13 mm; C: Nassarius reticulatus, juvenil, 13 mm; D: 
Nassarius incrassatus, 11 mm; E: Nassarius tingitanus, 9 mm (ejemplar recolectado en Tarifa); F: Nas- 
sarius heynemanni, 13 mm; G: Nassarius mutabilis, 12 mm; H: Nassarius elatus, 14 mm. Las medidas 
corresponden a la altura. 



108 



Rueda ETAL.-. Molluscan community from bioclastic bottoms in the Strait of Gibraltar 




109 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



Table IV. Species of micromolluscs collected in the survey, mainly in the samples of april 1994. 
Numbers in brackets denote specimens collected only in thanatocenosis, >100 denotes abundant 
species with more than 1 00 live-collected specimens in the sample. 

Tabla IV. Especies de micromoluscos recolectadas en los muéstreos, principalmente en abril de 1994. Los 
números entre paréntesis denotan ejemplares encontrados sólo en tanatocenosis, >100 indica especies 
abundantes con más de 100 ejemplares colectados en las muestras. 



Retín 12 Retín 16 Barra 10 Barra 16 



POLYPLACOPHORA 
Leptochitonidae 
Leptochiton cimicoides (Monterosato, 1879). 



>100 



GASTROPODA 
Scissurellidae 

Scissurella cosfata d'Orbigny, 1 824 
Skeneidae 

Skenea serpuloides (Montagu, 1 808) 

Dikoleps nitens (Philippi, 1 844) 

Dikoleps pruinosa (Chaster, 1 896) 
Trochidae 

Gibbula magus (Linné, 1758) 
Rissoidae 

Pusillina ¡nconspicua (Alder, 1 844) 

Obtusella intersecta (Wood, 1 857) 
Caecidae 

Caecum trachea (Montagu, 1 808) 

Caecum cuspidatum Chaster, 1 896 

Caecum clarkii Carpenter, 1 858 
Vanikoridae 

Macromphalina disciformis (Grancta Grillo, 1 877) 
Cerithiidae 

Bittium pusillum (de Rayneval & Ponzi, 1 854) 
Turritellidae 

Turritella turbona Monterosato, 1 877 

Tumtella communis Risso, 1 826 

Mesalia varia (Kiener, 1 887) 
Eulimidae 

Vitreolina sp. 
Fasciolariidae 

Fusinus pulchellus (Philippi, 1 844) 
Pyramidellidae 

Evalea divisa \). Adams, 1797) 

Odostomia conspicua Alder, 1 850 

Odostomia unidentata (Montagu, 1 803) 

Brachystomia eulimoides (Hanley, 1 844) 

Brachystomia sp. 
Omalogyridae 

Retrotortina fuscata Chaster, 1 896 
Ebalidae 

Ebala pointeli (de Folin, 1 868) 



10 

•100 

53 



100 



12 
2 



80 



(2) 



(5) 
(2) 

12 
2 

20 

3+(10) 



(2) 
(2) 



110 



Rueda ETAL.-. MoUuscan community from bioclastic bottoms in the Strait of Gibraltar 



Table IV. Continuación. 
Tabla IV. Continuation. 



Retín 12 Retín 16 Barra 10 Barra 16 



Retusidae 

Reiusa mamillafa (Philippi, 1 836) 
Cylichnidae 

Cy//c/ino crosse/ B.D.D., 1886 
Oxynoidae 

Lobiger sp. 

BIVALVIA 
Nuculidae 

Nucula recóndita Gofas & Salas, 1 996 
Glycymeridae 

Glycymeris glycymeris (Linné, 1758) 
Pectinidae 

Chlamys sp. 
Anomiidae 

Anom'ia ephippium (Linné, 1758) 
Limidae 

Limatula subauriculaía (Montagu, 1 808) 

Notolimea clandestina Salas, 1 994 
Leptonidae 

l-lemilepton nitidum (Turton, 1 822) 
Kelliidaee 

Kellia suborbicularis (Montagu, 1 803) 
Montacutidae 

A^yse//a bidentata (Montagu, 1 803) 

Teílimya ferruginosa (Montagu, 1 808) 

Montacuta goudi van Aartsen, 1 996 
Astartidae 

Goodalia triangularis (Montagu, 1 803) 

Digitaria digitaria (Linné, 1 758) 
Cardiidae 

Parvicardium scabrum (Philippi, 1 844) 
Matridae 

Spisula subtruncata (da Costa, 1 778) 
Tellinidae 

Tellina pusilla Lovén, 1 846 
Semelidae 

Ervilia castanea (Montagu, 1 803) 
Veneridae 

Tapes rhomboides (Pennant, 1 777] 

Gouldia minima (Montagu, 1 803) 

Chamelea striatula (da Costa, 1 778) 
Corbulidae 

Corbula gibba (Olivi, 1 792) 
Thraciidae 

Thracia sp. 



>100 
(2) 
(1) 

ni 

(2) (1) 

9 

5 

>100 
25 



5+(4) 


- 


(1) 


- 


(1) 


(1) 


2+(3) 


. 


47 


3 



(1) 



(1) 



2 

70 - - 

>100 - - >100 

28 - - 2 

>100 38 4 9 

4 22 - 2 

5 (+ V.) 1 2 



111 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean. 
Atlantic forms usually have a heavier 
sculpture of spiral cords than Mediterra- 
nean ones, and this variation in sculp- 
ture obscures the delimitation of the 
species. Calliostoma zizyphinum was 
easily recognized by its broader and less 
conical shape, although some variability 
occurs between individuáis. Calliostoma 
sp. 1 is cióse to the Mediterranean 
species Calliostoma conulus (Linné, 1758), 
from which it differs by the presence of 
heavier ribs. Calliostoma sp. 2 resembles 
Calliostoma laugieri (Payraudeau, 1826), 
but a detailed comparison of proto- 
conchs shows a higher number of gra- 
nulated whorls in Calliostoma sp. 2. 

The genus Chauvetia is well repre- 
sented in the área nearby Strait of 
Gibraltar with 10 to 15 species, and its 
taxonomy is difficult. Chauvetia sp. from 
our study has a white band in the shell 
and resembles Chauvetia crassior Odhner, 
1923. However, the latter was described 
from the Canary Islands and has direct 
development, so that it is doubtful 
whether the same species is present in 
the Strait of Gibraltar. Other species like 
Chauvetia decorata Monterosato, 1889, 
described from Morocco, also show 
white bands, and this character may 
even not be constant within a single 
species. 

Some other taxonomical or nomen- 
clatura! problems are related with the 
Bela species, which are in need of revi- 
sión. In our samples some of them were 



named as Bela sp. 1 and sp. 2. Nomen- 
clatural problems were found for the 
species known in the literature as Bela 
striolata Risso, 1826, a usage which is not 
correct considering that the type speci- 
men belongs to the genus Rissoina d'Or- 
bigny, 1840. The next available ñame 
could be Bela smithi Forbes, 1844, but the 
description is not clear and the type 
material is lost. We have followed the 
incorrect usage, as revising this question 
is beyond the scope of . the paper. 

According to Oliver and Cosel 
(1993), Anadara polii (Mayer, 1868) is not 
the same species than the Miocene Arca 
diluvii Lamarck, 1805: the Recent species 
has a lower number of ribs (24-28) and a 
less median umbo. All individuáis of 
Aequipecten opercularis were smaller and 
more elongate than the usual Atlantic 
form, and can be grouped in the form 
audouinii. Although A. audouinii (Pay- 
raudeau, 1826) is currently regarded as a 
a synonym of A. opercularis, a reevalua- 
tion of their relationships is needed in 
order to clarify if this form is a different 
species. Chamelea striatula (more Atlan- 
tic) and C. gallina (more Mediterranean) 
are two closely related species which 
live sympatrically in the Southern part 
of Iberian península. Backeljau, 
BoucHET, Gofas and De Bruyn (1994) 
justified the separation of the two 
species using allozyme electrophoresis. 
C. gallina is common in shallow and 
sandy bottoms in our latitudes, but C. 
striatula prefers muddy and deeper 



(Right page) Figure 4. Micromolluscs from the soft bottom in Bay of Barbare. A: Bittium subma- 
millatum, height 3.8 mm; B: detall of the mlcrosculpture of Bittium submamillatum; C: proto- 
conch oí Bittium submamillatum; D: Pusillina inconspicua, height 1.6 mm; E: Caecum cuspidatum, 
length 2.15 mm; F: detall of the mlcrosculpture of Caecum cuspidatum; G: Retusa mamillata, 
height 1.85 mm; H: Leptochiton cimicoides, dorsal view, length 2.0 mm; I: Leptochiton cimicoides, 
lateral vlew, length 1.65 mm; J: detall of the girdle oí Leptochiton cimicoides., showlng the two types 
of spicules. Scale bars 100 pm. 

(Página derecha) Figura 4. Micromoluscos de los substratos blandos de la bahía de Barbate. A: Bittium 
submamillatum, altura 3, 8 mm; B: detalle de la microescultura de Bittium submamillatum; C: proto- 
concha de Bittium submamillatum; D: Pusillina inconspicua, altura 1,6 mm; E: Caecum cuspida- 
tum, longitud 2, 15 mm; F: detalle de la microescultura de Caecum cuspidatum; G: Retusa 
mamillata, altura 1,85 mm; H: Leptochiton cimicoides, vista dorsal, longitud 2,0 mm; I: Lepto- 
chiton cimicoides, vista lateral, longitud 1, 65 mm; J: detalle del cinturón de Leptochiton cimicoides 
mostrando los dos tipos de espiculas. Escalas 100 fim. 



112 



Rueda ETAL.-. MoUuscan community from bioclastic bottoms in the Strait of Gibraltar 




113 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



Table V. The 20 most dominant species in each of the sampled stations. 
Tabla V. Las 20 especies con mayor índice de dominancia en cada estación. 



Retín 12 



% 



Retí'nló 



% 



Barra 1 6 



/o 



Bárralo 



% 



Chameleastriotula 52.47 

Coéulogibbo 19.77 

Gouldia mínimo 4.50 

Bittium submomillotum 2.59 

Digitoriü digitaria 2.50 

Calyptwea chinensis 1.88 

Laevkordium cmssum 1.69 

Spisulo subtruncoto 1.62 

Modiolus odríoticus 1.36 

/üffiYe/Zo /i/f6o/)o 1 .05 

rt/mye/Zo communis 1 .03 

Gibbula guttodauri 0.70 

Clausinella foscioto 0.63 

Meso//o wf/fl 0.62 

Nuculana pella 0.61 

Pandow inaequivolvis 0.59 

Aporrhais pespekoni 0.44 

Tapes rbomboides 0.34 

fie/o /oei^igoto 0.34 

Flexopecten flexuosus 0.31 



Cbamelea striatulo 65.29 

Corbulagibba 9.69 

fou/í//o mm/mo 4.84 

Calyptraea chinensis 3.23 

%Mo (//j/torá 2.96 

TümMo communis 2.47 

Tapes rbomboides 1.76 

rumMo ft/f6ora 1 .00 

Nuculana pello 0.78 

Modiolus odriaticus 0.72 

Gibbula magus 0.69 

Spisulo subtruncoto 0.60 

yMe5o/;o rano 0.50 

^nom/o ephippium 0.40 

6e/o /oei'igoío 0.36 

flexopecten flexuosus 0.34 

fi/tt/ü/n submomillatum 0.33 

/'onc/ora inaequivolvis 0.33 

Pandow pinna 0.29 

Aporrhais pespelicani 0.28 



Chameleastriotula 47.14 

Corbulagibba 27.34 

Gouldia mínima 7.66 

Digitaria digitaria 7.15 

Calyptraea chinensis 4.33 

ri/mte//o communis 3.52 

Mesolio varia 1.77 

Gibbula magus 1.47 

Nuculana pella 1.31 

Topes rbomboides 1.31 

Sp/sü/o subtruncoto 1 .22 

Modiolus odriaticus 1 .03 

Ocinebrina edwardsi 1 .03 

^nom/o ephippium 0.94 

Calliostomasp.l 0.80 

Loevicordium crossum 0.77 

Bela loevigata 0.74 

Pandora inaequivolvis 0.72 

Nassarius pygmaeus 0.58 

Pandora pinna 0.56 



Chameleastriotula 79.19 

%/torá (//g;Mo 3.86 

foféu/o g/6¿o 3.38 

Sp/sü/o subtruncoto 3.07 

Nuculana pella 1.17 

Foncíora inaequivolvis 0.98 

Gouldia mínimo 0.91 
Aconthocardia tuberculoto 0.85 

Nossorius reticulatus 0.84 

Loevicordium crassum 0.77 

Wossor/üs müfoi/fe 0.74 

Nossorius elatus 0.61 

flono;í reníysto 0.38 

fie/o /oewgoto 0.36 

/Me5o/;fl rará 0.34 

Modiolus odriaticus 0.32 

Calyptraea chinensis 0.31 

Callista chione 0.19 

Nossorius pygmaeus 0.18 



rurnte/Zo communis 



0.14 



Table VI. Species with a frequency of more than 75% in each of the sampled stations. 
7^¿¿z V7. Especies con frecuencia superior a los 75% en cada una de las estaciones. 



Retín 12 


% 


Retí'nló 


% 


Barra 1 6 


% 


Bárralo 


% 


Loevicordium crassum 


100% 


Corbulagibba 


100% 


fof6ü/o g/Mo 


100% 


Spisulo subtruncoto 


100% 


Digitaria digitaria 


> 90% 


Gouldia mínimo 


100% 


/Meso/rá vario 


100% 


Nuculana pella 


100% 


Clausinella fasciata 


>90% 


Digitaria digitaria 


100% 


Digitaria digitaria 


> 95% 


Aconthocardia tuberculoto 


100% 


Nuculana pella 


> 90% 


Turritello communis 


>95% 


Nuculana pella 


>95% 


Nossorius reticulatus 


100% 


Corbulo gibba 


> 85% 


Nuculana pella 


>95% 


Calliostomo sp 1 


>95% 


Nasarius mutabilis 


100% 


Gouldia mínima 


>85% 


Calyptraea chinensis 


> 90% 


Chameleastriotula 


> 90% 


Nossorius elahjs 


100% 


Callista chione 


> 85% 


Mesalia vario 


>90% 


Spisulo subtruncoto 


>90% 


Digitaria digitaria 


>90% 


Aporrhais pespelecani 


>75% 


Bela loevigata 


> 80% 


Calyptraea chinensis 


> 85% 


Mesalia vario 


> 85% 


Spisula subtruncoto 


> 75% 


Chameleo striatulo 


>75% 


Ocenebra erinoceo 


>85% 


Corbulo gibba 


>75% 


Mesolio varia 


>75% 


Bolinus brandaris 


> 75% 


Gouldia mínimo 


>80% 


Loevicordium crassum 


> 75% 


Cbamelea striatulo 


> 75% 


Tapes rbomboides 


>75% 


Gibbula magus 


>75% 






Bolinus brandaris 


> 75% 


Nodiolus odriaticus 


> 75% 


Ocinebrina edwardsi 


> 75% 










Spisulo subtruncoto 


>75% 


Loevicordium crossum 
Turritello communis 
Topes rbomboides 
Pitar rudis 
Fusinus pulchellus 


>75% 

> 75% 
>75% 

> 75% 
>75% 







114 



Rueda ETAL.-. Molluscan community from bioclastic bottoms in the Strait of Gibraltar 



Table VII. Valúes of affinity indexes between sampling stations, qualitative (Jaccaid and Baroni- 
Urbani and Buser) and quantitative (Bray and Curtís, with and without Chamelea striatuld). 
Tabla VIL Valores de los índices de de afinidad entre estaciones de muéstreos, cualitativos (Jaccard y 
Baroni-Urbani y Buser) y cuantitativo (Bray y Curtis, con o sin los datos para Chamelea striatuiaj. 



Jaccard 


R12 


R16 


B10 


B16 


R12 


1.000 


0.496 


0.432 


0.510 


R16 




1.000 


0.296 


0.536 


B10 






1 .000 


0.393 


B16 








1.000 


Baroní-Urbani and Buser 


R12 


R16 


B10 


B16 


R12 


1.000 


0.617 


0.595 


0.629 


R16 




1.000 


0.447 


0.659 


B10 






1.000 


0.557 


B16 








1.000 


Bray and Curtis 


R12 


R16 


B10 


B16 


R12 


1.000 


0,667 


0.579 


0.742 


R16 




1.000 


0.839 


0.593 


B10 






1.000 


0.433 


B16 








1.000 


Bray and Curtis (Sin C.s.) 


R12 


RIÓ 


BIO 


B16 


R12 


1.000 


0.701 


0.434 


0.760 


R16 




1.000 


0.414 


0.823 


B10 






1 .000 


0.449 


B16 








1.000 



bottoms with a higher amount of 
orgardc matter. 

Species richness: Valúes of species 
richness in the Bay of Barbate are com- 
parable with those obtained in other 
studies from soft bottom communities 
of molluscs, although sometimes higher. 
No Information about species richness 
per month from detritical bottoms com- 
munities of molluscs have been found in 
the literature, but some Information for 
communities for other soft bottoms is 
available. Species richness of Molluscs 
in soft bottoms from the North Sea Is 
low (10 to 15 sp.) (Eleftheriou and 
Basford, 1989; Künitzer, 1990), but 
there is an Increase in the English 
Channel (Cabioch, Gentil Glacon 
AND Retiére, 1977). In Northern Spain, 
species richness valúes from 15 to 25 



have been recorded in soft bottom com- 
munities of molluscs (Sánchez Mata, 
Mora, Garmendia, and Lastra, 1993; 
Garmendia, Sánchez Mata and 
Mora, 1996). In Mediterranean coasts 
Salas (1984) registered valúes for species 
richness of molluscs from 20 to 30 in dif- 
ferent kinds of soft bottoms of Málaga 
bay (Alboran Sea). The highest valúes of 
species richness were recorded (around 
40 species per sample) in fine sand 
bottoms with low percentage organic 
matter. Aparici Seguer and García- 
Carrascosa (1996) recorded valúes of 
species richness between 4 to 11 per 
sample in the soft bottoms of Chafarines 
islands (cióse to the Mediterranean área 
of Morocco), but such low valúes pro- 
bably reflect incomplete sampling. 
Aparici Seguer, Rowland, Taylor and 
García Carrascosa (1996) found 10-20 



115 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



species per sample in the soft bottoms 
(fine sand) from the gulf of Valencia at 
depths of 15 meters. Valúes of species 
richness per month comparable to those 
found in this study have been registered 
in communities from hard bottoms 
(Troncoso, Urgorri and Olabarría, 
1996), from sea grass beds (Hergueta, 
1996; Ledoyer, 1966 a, b) or the calcare- 
ous algae Mesophyllum lichenoides 
(Lemoine) (Hergueta, 1996). 

Characterisation of the community: 

The species living sympatrically in the 
Bay of Barbate form communities with 
more components than in other áreas. In 
the Mediterranean Sea similar commu- 
nities were referred to as "Biocénose des 
fonds meubles instables (MI) " and 
"Biocénose des fonds detritique du large 
(DL) " (PÉRÉs AND Picaro, 1964). These 
have a similar faunistic compositions, 
although species richness is higher in 
Barbate bay. In our study these commu- 
nities occurred in the infralittoral level 
(25 m), whereas in the Mediterranean 
they occur in the circalittoral, deeper 
than in the Atlantic. 

The community from BIO is also 
similar to the "Biocénose des sables fins 
bien calibres (SFBC) " (Peres and 
Picaro, 1964), but there is a high 
influence of faunistic components from 
the previously mentioned communities. 
In R12 some similarities with the "Biocé- 
nose des sables grossiers et des fins gra- 
viers (SGFG) " (Peres and Picaro, 
1964) are found, although the instability 
of the bottoms due to strong currents 
changes the composition of the commu- 
nity through the year. 

Cabioch (1968) found similar and 
comparable communities in the English 
channel, named as "Peuplements des 
sédiments fins a Abra alba et Corbula 
gibba" and "Biocoenose du Maerl". In 
these communities a mixture of in- and 
epifauna occurred over a heterogeneous 
sediment. The depth in which these 
communities occurred was similar to 
those from Barbate, within the infralito- 
ral. However, the biogeographical diffe- 
rences result in that some species have 
been replaced in the Strait of Gibraltar. 



We could not trace in the literature any 
reference to communities in the Mauri- 
tanian región, so that a comparison was 
not possible. 

Structure of the community. Domi- 
nance and Frequency: High valúes of 
dominance were more common among 
bivalves than among gastropod species. 
This reflects their high abundance in 
soft bottoms, conforming large popula- 
tions. Gastropods are less numerous 
than bivalves in soft bottoms samples. 
In order to correct this bias, we also took 
into account the frequency of the species 
in the samples. It is important to take 
into account both figures, because some 
species with a marked seasonality may 
show high abundance during a short 
period of time, and thus have a low fre- 
quency although they are important ele- 
ments of the community. 

The highest dominance was for the 
species Chamelea striatula, although it 
showed lower percentages of presence 
than other species. This was caused by a 
massive and successful recruitment of 
this species in these bottoms in the first 
sampling year, although no recruitment 
occurred in the second year. Such strong 
settlement has been registered for the 
same species along the Scottish coasts 
by Ansell (1961). At the beginning of 
this study Chamelea striatula was found 
in some samples with low abundance. 
After spring 1994 this species was domi- 
nant in the four sample stations, alt- 
hough the population decreased in 
some stations during 1995. At the end of 
the sampled period, large population of 
Chamelea striatula was only present in 
BIO which is cióse to the harbour and 
the estuary. This species is common in 
fine sand bottoms from shallow coasts 
(3-20 m) in the North Sea (Muus, 1973; 
DuiNEVELO ANO Belgers, 1994). In the 
Strait of Gibraltar área, Chamelea striatula 
is found living sympatrically with Cha- 
melea gallina which is very common in 
fine sand bottoms from shallow shores 
(2-15 m) in the Mediterranean Sea. C 
striatula is usually found in mud 
bottoms with high percentages of 
organic matter in southern Spanish 



116 



Rueda ETAL.-. Molluscan community from bioclastic bottoms in the Strait of Gibraltar 



Jaccard's Índex 



Baroni-Urbani 
& Buser Índex 



0.6 
0.5 
0.4 
0.3 



Bray-Curtis Index 
wíth C. striatula 



wiíhout C. striatula 



R16 B16 R12 B10 



R16 B16 R12 B10 



R16 B10 R12 B16 



R16 B16 R12 B10 



Figure 5. Dendrograms representing affinity of sampling points, according to the qualitative 
Índices (above) and quantitative (below). Algorithm is UPGMA. 

Figura 5. - Dendrogramas de afinidad de los puntos muestreados en base a los valores de los índices cua- 
litativos (Superior) y cuantitativos (Inferior). Algoritmo de aglomeración UPGMA. 



coasts and never reaches high domi- 
nance in near-shore sandy bottoms. The 
persistence of this species may have 
been favoured by the cleaning and dred- 
ging of the channel in the harbour of 
Barbate during our sampUng period, 
which turned more muddy the sedi- 
menta nearby. 

Other molluscs of these detritic 
bottom communities showed high fre- 
quencies and dominance. Large popula- 
tions of Corbula gibba were coUected, but 
this is a rather ubiquitous species, com- 
monly found together with Turritella 
communities on fine sandy bottoms 
with large pieces of graves and pebbles 
(Hrs-Brenko, 1981). 

Digitaria digitaria is a typical species 
of coastal detritic bottoms from North 
Spanish coasts (Ortea, 1977; Besteiro, 
Troncoso, Parapar, Salvini-Plawen 
AND Urgorri, 1990). Among the gastro- 
pods, some of the most typical species 
for detritic bottoms are turritellids. In 
this location Mesalia varia is an impor- 
tant component of the community from 
Barbate and also one of the West Áfrican 
representatives . 

In station BIO, a mixed community 
occurs. Species from detritic bottom 
communities {Digitaria digitaria, Mesalia 
varia, Corbula gibba) have a high fre- 
quency and dominance but some 



species from communities of well sorted 
fine sand {Nassarius species, Acanthocar- 
dia tuberculata, Spisula subtruncata) 
showed also high dominances and the 
highest frequencies. The community 
from this latter sample station seems to 
be a transition between both. Communi- 
ties of well sorted fine sands are known 
in other points from European coasts: in 
the North Sea (Ford, 1923; Cabioch, 
1968), in the Mediterr anean Sea (Spada, 
Sabelli and Morandi, 1973; Salas, 
1984; García Raso et al., 1992). In 
Barbate bay this community shows a 
higher species richness than other com- 
munities from European coasts. Three 
species of Nassariidae {Nassarius reticu- 
latus, Nassarius mutabilis and Nassarius 
elatus) were found in BIO with high fre- 
quency, while Nassarius pygmaeus and 
Nassarius vaucheri occurred with low fre- 
quency. This kind of community in the 
Mediterranean Sea holds usually only 
two species of Nassariids (N. mutabilis 
and N. reticulatus) and in the North Sea 
N. reticulatus and N. -pygmaeus. Other 
species like Mactra stultorum and Chame- 
lea gallina were not found as main com- 
ponents in this sample point but they 
show high abundance in similar com- 
munities from the Mediterranean Sea 
(Spada et al., 1973; Salas, 1984; García 
Raso et al., 1992). 



117 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



Zoogeographical notes: The área of 
the Strait of Gibraltar has been said to 
act as a barrier for many marine species 
including molluscs (Ekman, 1953). For 
some Mediterranean species {Gibbula 
guttadauri, Nassarius mutabilis, Naticarius 
hebraeus) there is a barrier which makes 
them less common or absent in the 
Atlantic waters even nearby the Strait of 
Gibraltar. Conversely, a few common 
species of the North Atlantic waters 
such as Spisida elliptica are not found, or 
rarely found, in Mediterranean waters. 

On the other hand, the área of the 
Strait can also be regarded as one where 
species of quite different zoogeographi- 
cal affinity will concur (Pallary, 1907; 
Spada and Maldonado, 1974; Rueda 
AND Salas, 1998). The fauna from tro- 
pical and températe West African áreas 
is represented in Barbate by Mesalia 
varia, Epitonium jolyi, Nassarius elatus, 
Nassarius heynemanni, Nassarius vaucheri 
and Gari pseudoweinkauffi, among 
others. These species share a northern 
limit along the coasts of South Portugal 
(to the North) and in the Alboran Sea 
(in the Mediterranean). Most Mediterra- 
nean species do occur in the Ibero- 
Moroccan gulf, at least to Cape St. 
Vincent and sometimes further north. 
This results in an increase of the 
number of species from the different 
biogeographical regions, and Barbate is 
a locality where their distribution 
ranges overlap. This trend is well illus- 
trated by the distribution patterns of 
the seven species of Nassariids (Fig. 6) 
which were collected sympatrically in 
this bay. 

The fauna of molluscs found in this 
study includes mostly species which are 
widespread in the Northeast Atlantic 
and Mediterranean. Among 27 species 
with a distribution restricted to one of 
Ekman's (1953) three regions, there is a 
high percentage of similarity (48%) with 
typical Mediterranean fauna as found 
along the Italian coast. Nine species are 
shared with the so-called Mauritanian 
región (mostly Morocco), according to 
the Information of Pasteur-Humbert 
(1962 a, b) and of Nicklés (1950, 1955) 
This represents a high similarity (33%). 



This percentage of similarity could be 
higher if the Information available about 
molluscs from North- West África were 
more complete. Five species with a 
mainly North Atlantic distribution are 
present in Barbate bay, which represents 
18%. This percentage resulted as a com- 
parison with the British fauna (Tebble, 
1966; Graham, 1988) and indicates less 
affinity than the other two regions. 

It is important from a biogeographic 
viewpoint to point out the presence of 
endemic molluscan species in the Strait 
of Gibraltar área. Recently, several 
species of endemic gastropods have 
been described from this área and the 
data have been summarized by Gofas 
(1999). Nevertheless, most of the 
endemic component are linked to rocky 
shore in intertidal of very shallow envi- 
ronments. It is interesting to note the 
presence of Nassarius tingitanus (Pallary, 
1901) on hard bottoms very near the 
sampling área, but closer to the shore. 
This species (Fig. 3) shows a typical 
endemic distribution restricted to the 
Strait of Gibraltar. 

In our samples, we found large 
numbers of the endemic gastropod Juju- 
binus dispar, which occurs in a restricted 
área from Tangier to Ceuta (North 
África) and was only cited in European 
coasts by Van Aartsen et al. (1984) in 
Algeciras Bay (South Spain). Another 
rather well documented endemic com- 
ponent is the skeneid Dikoleps pruinosa, 
originally described from Tangier, 
where it is now very rare due to the 
extensión of the harbour. 

Other species which occur in the 
Barbate samples have once been 
thought to be endemic of the Gibraltar 
área but are now known to occur on 
other subtidal current-swept gravel 
bottoms. The small bivalve Notolimea 
clandestina Salas, 1994 (Salas, 1994), 
which is common on the bottoms of 
Barbate is also known to occur near 
Lampedusa, in Sicily Channel (Italy). 
The same pattern is found for the rare 
skeneid Parviturbo fenestratus, originally 
described from Tangiers, and now 
reported from Adventure Bank, Sicily 
Channel (WarÉn, 1992). 



118 



Rueda ETAL.-. MoUuscan community from bioclastic bottoms in the Strait of Gibraltar 



N. incrassatus 
N. pygmaeus 
N. reticulatus 






Figure 6. Range of the difFerent species of Nassariidae found in Bay of Barbare. 

Figura 6. - Distribución geográfica de las diferentes especies de Nasáridos presentes en la bahía de 

Barbate. 



To summarize, the results of this 
study show that the bay of Barbate sup- 
ports a rich soft bottom fauna of 
molluscs, which is basically the same in 
three of the sampled stations. The high 
species richness recorded in these 
bottoms may be influenced by three 
kinds of factors: 



(1) Environmental factors. The bottom 
contains a mixture of hard and soft com- 
ponents in the sediments. The deeper 
stations (25 m) ha ve more large bioclas- 
tic material (fragments of shells) deposi- 
ted over a fine sand bottom. This hetero- 
geneity of the substrates induces a 
diversification of the micro-habitats 



119 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



(Frontier and Pichod-Viale, 1991; 
Dewarumez, Davoult, Sanvicente 
Anorve and Frontier 1992), and con- 
sequently a diversification of the fauna. 
The occurrence of large-size particles 
favours the settling and development of 
sessile epifaunal molluscs such as 
Anomia ephippium, Modiolus adriaticus, 
Calyptraea chinensis, and some mobile 
pectinids as Flexopecten flexuosus, 
Chlamys varia and Aequipecten species. In 
BIO with a lower amount of bioclastic 
material there was a decrease in the 
abundance of these species but an incre- 
ase of others. The mixture of these with 
fine sand favours well established popu- 
lations of infaunal molluscs, mainly 
bivalves as Gouldia minima, Digitaria 
digitaria or Spisula subtruncata. 

(2) The sampling method. The survey 
spanned a longer period of time than in 
other reviewed researchs. This allowed 
to record changes in the composition of 
the community such as occurred with C. 



striatula, and to collect species with occa- 
sional patterns of occurrence {Aplysiafas- 
ciata and Philine species), or locally rare 
{Cymatium corrugatum, Atrinafragilis, Pie- 
ria hirundo, Spisula elliptica), as well as ju- 
veniles in the recruitment season. 

(3) The macrogeographic pattern. The 
confluence of species from different bio- 
geographical áreas has been discussed 
above, and accounts for much of the 
species richness in the área. 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

This study was made within the 
project DGICYT PB92-0415 supported 
by the Spanish Government. We are 
grateful to Dr. Raimundo Real for his 
useful comments on the Índices of af- 
finity; and the use of the computer 
program for the significance test of Jac- 
card's index. Ana S. López is thanked 
for help in the laboratory. 



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© Sociedad Española de Malacología 



Iberus, 18 (1): 125-131, 2000 



Rhopahmenia agUopheniae {KomÚQ\s\;^YyÍ3Úon, 1887) (Mollusca, 
Solenogastres, Rhopalomeniidae), presente en la costa norte de la 
Península Ibérica ^ 

Rhopalomenia aglaopheniae (Kowalevsky and Marión, 1887) 
(Mollusca, Solenogastres, Rhopalomeniidae), present in the north 
coast of Iberian Peninsula 

Osear GARCÍA-ALVAREZ*, Victoriano URGORRI* y Feo. Javier CRISTOBO** 

Recibido ell5-IX-1999. Aceptado el24-XI-1999 

RESUMEN 

En la actualidad, dentro del proyecto FAUNA IBÉRICA, se está realizando el estudio de 
los solenogastros de las costas ibéricas. En este trabajo se describe una especie casi des- 
conocida para las aguas ibéricas, Rhopalomenia aglaopheniae (Kowalevsky y Marión, 
1 887), que solo había sido mencionada para aguas peninsulares en el Cap de Creus por 
Pruvoten 1891. 

ABSTRACT 

A study on the solenogastres of the Iberian coast is currently underway within the project 
FAUNA IBÉRICA. This paper offers a description of a species which is practically unknown 
in Iberian waters, Rhopalomenia aglaopheniae (Kowalevsky and Marión, 1 887), and 
which has only been cited in the waters of the Iberian Peninsula on the Cap de Creus by 
Pruvotin 1891. 



PALABRAS CLAVE: Rhopalomenia algaopheniae, Mollusca, Solenogastres, Península Ibérica. 
KEY WORDS: Rhopalomenia algaopheniae, Mollusca, Solenogastres, Iberian Peninsula. 



INTRODUCCIÓN 

Aunque los Moluscos Solenogastros 
no constituyen un grupo zoológico raro, 
ya que su presencia se extiende por 
todos los fondos marinos, desde la costa 
hasta las grandes profundidades, sí son 
una clase poco conocida. Las informa- 
ciones sobre su biología son escasas y 



los datos sobre su diversidad y biogeo- 
grafía son aún pobres y sobre todo desi- 
guales. Esto se pone de manifiesto en las 
aguas europeas, donde las costas de la 
Península Ibérica muestran un vacío 
muy notable en el conocimiento de esta 
fauna (Salvini-Plawen, 1997). 



* Laboratorio de Zooloxía Marina. Departamento de Bioloxía Animal. Facultade de Bioloxía. Universidade de 

Santiago de Compostela. 1 5706 Santiago de Compostela. baoscar@usc.es / bavituco@usc.es 

** Laboratorio de Biodiversidade e Recursos Marinos. Instituto de Acuicultura. Universidade de Santiago de 

Compostela. 15706 Santiago de Compostela. España. baf)cris@usc.es 

' Contribución científica del Instituto de Acuicultura n° 006/99 

125 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 




Figura 1 . Localización de la estación de recolección. 
Figure 1. Map showing the location ofthe sampling station. 



Fruto de las investigaciones, que, 
dentro del proyecto Fauna Ibérica, se 
vienen realizando en el Atlántico y 
Mediterráneo peninsulares, se recogió 
en las costas cantábricas españolas el 
solenogastro Rhopalomenia aglaopheniae 
(Kowalevsky y Marión, 1887). Esta es 
una especie ampliamente distribuida 
tanto en el Mediterráneo, donde se 
conoce del Sur de Grecia, Golfo de 
Ñapóles y Golfo de León (Kowalevsky 
Y Marión, 1887; Maluquer, 1917; 
NiERSTRASZ Y Stork, 1940; Pruvot, 
1891; Salvini-Plawen, 1972, 1997), 
como en el Atlántico, donde existen 
varias citas en las costas británica e 
irlandesa, así como de Roscoff (Gars- 
tang, 1896; Jones, 1956; Jones y Baxter, 
1987; Salvini-Plawen, 1997; Seaward, 
1992). En cambio, a excepción de la 
única cita de Pruvot (1891) en Cap de 
Creus, la Península Ibérica es una 
laguna de conocimiento en cuanto a la 
distribución europea de esta especie. 

Por todo ello, nos parece de interés 
acompañar esta nueva localización de 
Rhopalomenia aglaopheniae, con una des- 
cripción de los principales caracteres 
anatómicos de la especie, a los que se 
acompaña la reconstrucción de su orga- 



nización interna anterior y posterior, así 
como de fotografías y dibujos del 
animal, de algunos cortes y de sus tipos 
espiculares. 



MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS 

El ejemplar estudiado procede de la 
Estación 165-A de la campaña de mues- 
treo Fauna II, realizada en junio de 
1991, a profundidades entre 30 y 1000 
m., en las costas del N y NW de la 
Península Ibérica, desde la zona orien- 
tal de Guipúzcoa hasta las Islas Cíes, 
incluyendo el Banco de Galicia. La Esta- 
ción 165-A se localiza al oeste del Cabo 
Peñas, norte de España (Fig. 1) (43° 43' 
18" N - 43° 43' 46" N; 05° 55' 51" O - 05° 
56' 37" O) en un fondo de roca y pie- 
dras a una profundidad de 122-124 m. 
El ejemplar tenía unas dimensiones de 
12,2 mm de largo por 1,1 mm de ancho 
y se conserva seccionado en cortes 
seriados. 

El ejemplar fue fijado y conservado 
en alcohol al 70%. Se separaron peque- 
ños trozos de cutícula de la parte media 
del cuerpo y del surco ventral, para 
obtener una representación de los dis- 



126 



GarcíA-Álvarez ETAL.: Rhopalomenia aglaopheniae en el norte de la Península Ibérica 





100 pm 



Figura 2. A: fotografía de Rhopalomenia aglaopheniae (Kowalevsky y Marión, 1887); B: microfoto- 
grafía de una espíenla acicular; C: espíenlas aciculares; D: espíenla del surco pedio. 
Figure 2. A: photograph o/^Rhopalomenia aglaopheniae (Kowalevsky and Marión, 1887); B: microp- 
hotograph of acicular spicules; C: acicular spicules; D: spicules alongside the pedal groove. 



tintos tipos espiculares. Estas piezas se 
trataron con hipoclorito sódico al 5% 
durante 12 horas para el aislamiento de 
las espículas; posteriormente se lavaron 
en agua destilada, se secaron en una 
estufa a 40 °C y se montaron con resina 
sintética. Para el estudio anatómico, los 



ejemplares fueron descalcificados en 
una solución de EDTA durante 12 horas, 
se cortaron en parafina en series trans- 
versales de 10 ^m de sección. Se tiñó en 
Azan de Heidenhain y se realizó la 
reconstrucción anatómica a partir de los 
cortes seriados. 



RESULTADOS 

Orden Cavibelonia Salvini-Plav^en, 1978 

Familia Rhopalomeniidae Salvini-Plawen, 1978 

Género Rhopalomenia Simroth, 1893 

Rhopalomenia aglaopheniae (Kowalevsky y Marión, 1887) 

Proneomenia aglaopheniae Kowalevsky y Marión, 1887 (denominación original), Rhopalomenia eisigi 
Thiele, 1894. 



Descripción 

Habitus: Animal muy enrollado 
sobre sí mismo, con el cuerpo liso, sin 
abultamientos (Fig. 2 A). Surco ventral 
bien visible. Color en alcohol amarillo. 



Manto: Cutícula de 100 a 140 /^m de 
grosor, con papilas pedunculadas y con 
el extremo distal grueso. Las espículas 
se disponen en varias capas estrecha- 
mente entrelazadas. Son huecas, de 



127 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 





Figura 3. Organización esquemática de la parte anterior del cuerpo de Rhapalomenia aglaopheniae 
(Kowalevsky y Marión, 1887). At: órgano sensitivo atrial; Bg: ganglio bucal; Cg: ganglio cerebral; 
De: ciego dorsal; Ma: manto; Mg: intestino; Ph: faringe; Pp: foseta pedia; Rs: saco radular; Vfg: 
órgano glandular ventral de la faringe; Vg: ganglio ventral; A, B: cortes en sección correspondien- 
tes a las líneas A, B. 

Figure 3. Schematic organizaltion ofthe anterior body <?/"Rhopalomenia aglaopheniae (Kowalevsky 
and Marión, 1887). At: atrial sense organ; Bg: buccal ganglion; Cg: cerebral ganglion; De: dorsal 
caecum; Ma: mantle; Mg: midgut; Ph: pharynx; Pp: pedal pit; Rs: radular sac; Vfg: ventral foregut 
glandular organ; Vg: ventral ganglion; A, B: cross-section corresponding to Unes A, B. 



forma acicular, de hasta 150 ^m de lon- 
gitud, levemente arqueadas, más anchas 
en su parte central y con los extremos 
romos (Fig. 2B, C). En el surco ventral se 
sitúan escamas con forma de hoja de 
cuchillo de hasta 75 }ím de longitud 
(Fig. 2D). 

Surco pedio: Comienza en una foseta 
ciliada (Fig. 3), situada debajo de la 
faringe, que se comunica con el exterior 
por una estrecha abertura. En el surco 
pedio se encuentra un pliegue ciliado 
que entra en la cavidad paleal. 

Cavidad paleal: La cavidad paleal es 
pequeña, no tiene pliegues respiratorios 
y se comunica con el exterior por una 
pequeña abertura ventro-terminal. El 
conducto de desove desemboca, a través 
de un orificio genital impar, en la parte 
rostro-central de la cavidad paleal. Dor- 



salmente al mismo se sitúa el ano. No 
presenta ni espículas abdominales, ni 
espículas copulatrices (Fig. 4). 

Órganos de los sentidos: El atrio pre- 
senta en sus paredes frontal y laterales 
numerosas papilas pequeñas e indivi- 
dualizadas (Fig. 3). Dorsalmente tiene 
dos pliegues ciliados que continúan 
hasta la parte posterior del atrio. Posee 
un solo órgano dorsoterminal, situado 
en posición terminal, en el extremo pos- 
terior del cuerpo (Fig. 4). 

Aparato digestivo: La cavidad bucal 
está separada del atrio por un pliegue, 
continuándose en una faringe estrecha y 
larga, que presenta ventralmente un 
saco radular. No tiene rádula. En el saco 
radular (Fig. 3) desemboca lateralmente 
el par de órganos glandulares de la 
faringe. Estos órganos glandulares, en 



128 



GarcÍA-Álvarez ETAL.: Rhopalomenia aglaopheniae en el norte de la Península Ibérica 



250 nm 








Dso 




Figura 4. Organización esquemática de la parte posterior del cuerpo de Rhopalomenia aglaopheniae 
(Kowalevsky y Marión, 1887). Dso: órgano sensitivo dorsoterminal; Es: espermatozoides; Ht: 
corazón; ; Ma: manto; Mg: intestino; Ov: óvulos; Pe: cavidad paleal; Pd: pericardioducto; Pr: peri- 
cardio; Re: recto; Se: comisura suprarrectal; Sd: conducto de desove; Sr: receptáculo seminal; A, B: 
cortes en sección correspondientes a las líneas A, B. 

Figure 4. Schematic organization of the posterior body o/^Rhopalomenia aglaopheniae (Kowalevsky 
and Marión, 1887). Dso: dorsoterminal sense organ; Es: sperm; Ht: heart; Ma: mantle; Mg: midgut; 
Ov: eggs; Pe: pallial cavity; Pd: pericardioduct; Pr: pericardium; Re: rectum; Se: supra-rectal commis- 
sure; Sd: spawning duct; Sr: seminal receptacle; A, B: cross-section corresponding to Unes A, B. 



SU parte posterior, pertenecen al tipo A 
(Salvini-Plawen, 1978), ya que están 
formados por un conducto muy largo en 
el que se abren los folículos glandulares 
subepiteliales, discurriendo ventral- 
mente al intestino medio hasta la mitad 
del cuerpo (Fig. 3, 3B); mientras que en 
la parte anterior, cada órgano glandular 
de la faringe, es del tipo C (Salvini- 
Plawen, 1978) con forma de una 
burbuja de gran tamaño (Fig. 3, 3A). 
Este par de burbujas se sitúan ventral- 
mente al ciego rostral del intestino 
medio y latero-dorsalmente a la faringe. 
La faringe continúa durante un trecho 
hasta desembocar por su parte dorsal en 
el intestino medio. En esta misma zona 
del intestino medio, parte rostralmente 
un ciego dorsal, que llega hasta la parte 
anterior del cuerpo (Fig. 3, 3A). El intes- 



tino medio presenta en toda su longitud 
numerosos constricciones seriadas en 
sus paredes laterales y ventral. El recto 
discurre bajo el pericardio (Fig. 4B) y se 
abre en el ano, que desemboca dorsal- 
mente en la parte rostral de la cavidad 
paleal (Fig. 4). 

Sistema nervioso: El ganglio cerebral es 
aplanado dorso-ventralmente, estando 
situado ventralmente al ciego rostral del 
intestino medio y dorsalmente a la 
cavidad bucal (Fig. 3). El par de ganglios 
ventrales se encuentran dorsalmente a la 
foseta pedia, y a ambos lados del saco 
radular están el par de ganglios bucales 
(Fig. 3). En la parte terminal del cuerpo, 
cerca del ano, está la comisura suprarrec- 
tal (150 /^m de longitud) (Fig. 4). 

Aparato circulatorio: El corazón, 
situado en la pared dorsal del pericar- 



129 



Iberus, 18 (1), 2000 



dio, tiene forma tubular (Fig. 3). Las 
células sanguíneas son de dos tipos: gra- 
nulocitos redondeados con un diámetro 
de 7,5 ^m, y eritrocitos alargados y sin 
granulos de hasta 20 ¡im de longitud. 

Aparato re-productor: El par de 
gónadas se extienden sobre el intestino 
medio. El ejemplar examinado las pre- 
sentaba llenas de óvulos y espermatozoi- 
des (Fig. 4A). Las gónadas se unen con el 
pericardio a través de un par de gonope- 
ricardioductos. El pericardio es volumi- 
noso (Fig. 4B), posteriormente se conti- 
núa en dos pericardioductos, que se 
curvan y se dirigen anteriormente hasta 
unirse con los conductos de desove (Fig. 
4). Posee un par de receptáculos semina- 
les situados dorsalmente a los conductos 
de desove (Fig. 4, 4B), que se encontra- 
ban llenos de espermatozoides. Estos 
receptáculos no parecen ser órganos par- 
ticulares, sino que cada uno es solamente 
una parte encorvada del conducto de 
desove (Salvini-Plawen, 1972). Los dos 
conductos de desove tienen las paredes 
glandulares (Fig. 4B) y se fusionan en un 
único conducto, que desemboca impar, 
ventralmente en la pared rostral de la 
cavidad paleal (Fig. 4). 

Distribución: Sur del Peloponeso 
(fuera del cabo Matapan/Tainaron) 
(Grecia) (Salvini-Plawen, 1972, 1997); 



Golfo de Ñapóles (Italia), asociada al 
hidroideo Lytocarpia myriophyllum, a 50- 
60 m de profundidad (Nierstrasz y 
Stork, 1940); Marsella (Francia), en 
fondos rocosos, asociada al hidroideo 
Lytocarpia myriophyllum, a 50-60 m de 
profundidad (Kowalevsky y Marión, 
1887); Banyuls (Francia), en fondos 
limosos, asociada al hidroideo Lytocarpia 
myriophyllum, a 60-80 m de profundidad 
(Pruvot, 1891); costa del Rosellón 
(Francia), sobre Lytocarpia myriophyllum, 
a 60-80 m de profundidad (Maluquer, 
1917); Isla Pórtalo (Cap de Creus, 
España), sobre Lytocarpia myriophyllum, 
a 80 m de profundidad (Pruvot, 1891); 
Roscoff (Francia) (Salvini-Plawen, 
1997); Plymouth (Gran Bretaña), aso- 
ciada al hidroideo Lytocarpia myriophy- 
llum, a 47-57 m de profundidad (Gars- 
TANG, 1896); Isla de Man (Gran Bretaña), 
en fondos de arena fangosa, a 58-71 m 
de profundidad (Jones, 1956); costas 
este y oeste de Gran Bretaña, asociada al 
hidroideo Lytocarpia (Theocarpus) 
myriophyllum, a 50 m o más de profundi- 
dad (Jones y Baxter, 1987); costas este y 
oeste de Gran Bretaña, Mar de Irlanda y 
costas norte y sur de Irlanda (Seaward, 
1992); Liberia (África), a 70 m de pro- 
fundidad (Thiele, 1906), aunque es una 
cita que necesita un nuevo examen y 
confirmación (Salvini-Plawen, 1997). 



DISCUSIÓN 



El ejemplar estudiado pertenece al or- 
den Cavibelonia por sus espículas acicu- 
lares huecas, dispuestas en varias capas 
dentro de una cutícula gruesa con papilas 
epidérmicas. Se clasifica dentro de la fa- 
milia Rhopalomeniidae, por sus órganos 
glandulares ventrales de la faringe sube- 
piteliales de tipo A, ausencia de rádula y 
de pliegues respiratorios en la cavidad 
paleal. Las características genéricas que 
lo sitúan dentro de Rhopalomenia están 
bien definidas en este ejemplar: la cavi- 
dad bucal está separada del atrio, la de- 
sembocadura del conducto de desove es 
impar, presenta un órgano sensitivo dor- 
soterminal y carece de espículas cópula- 
trices (Salvini-Plawen, 1967, 1978). 



Esta especie, además de su descrip- 
ción original de Kowalevsky y Marión 
(1887), fue redescrita por Nierstrasz y 
Stork (1940) y posteriormente Salvini- 
Plawen (1978) ofrece, en una tabla com- 
parativa con las especies antarticas del 
género, el conjunto de caracteres especí- 
ficos más significativos. En nuestro 
ejemplar se pueden observar todos los 
rasgos que lo identifican como Rhopalo- 
menia aglaopheniae (Kowalevsky y 
Marión, 1887), únicamente no hemos 
encontrado el botón sensitivo anterior 
descrito por Kowalevsky y Marión 
(1887). 

Rhopalomenia aglaopheniae (Kowa- 
levsky y Marión, 1887), presenta una 



130 



GarcíA-Álvarez ETAL.: Rhopalomenia aglaopheniae en el norte de la Península Ibérica 



distribución, que va desde el Mediterrá- 
neo oriental hasta las costas atlánticas 
europeas, asociada al hidroideo Lytocar- 
pia myriophyllum, a una profundidad de 
47-137 m (Salvini-Plawen, 1990, 1997). 
El ejemplar aquí estudiado fue recogido 
al oeste del Cabo Peñas (Golfo de 
Vizcaya, norte de España) a una profun- 
didad de 122-124 m. Esta especie sólo 
había sido señalada anteriormente en 
aguas de la Península Ibérica en las 
costas españolas mediterráneas en el 
Cap de Creus (Pruvot, 1891), por lo que 
esta cita representa la primera en las 
costas atlánticas ibéricas. 

Del género Rhopalomenia Simroth, 
1893, además de Rhopalomenia aglaophe- 
niae, se conocen en la actualidad otras 6 
especies. Cinco de ellas son antarticas y 
con un conjunto de caracteres específi- 
cos bien diferenciados de Rhopalomenia 
aglaopheniae (Tabla 4, pág. 159 en 
Salvini-Plawen, 1978). La úrúca especie 
del género, próxima al entorno biogeo- 



gráfico de Rhopalomenia aglopheniae, es 
Rhopalomenia atlántica (Leloup, 1948). 
Fue recogida en aguas de Tenerife (Islas 
Canarias), a una profundidad de 540 m, 
asociada a hidroideos de la Familia 
Lafoeidae. Se diferencia de Rhopalomenia 
aglaopheniae fundamentalmente porque 
tiene los órganos glandulares de la 
faringe muy cortos y sólo de tipo A, no 
presenta saco radular y la faringe es 
muy corta (Leloup, 1948; Salvini- 
Plawen, 1972, 1978). 



AGRADECIMIENTOS 

Al Prof. Dr. Luitfried v. Salvini- 
Plawen de la Universidad de Viena por 
su inestimable ayuda. Este trabajo se 
realizó dentro de los proyectos de inves- 
tigación: Fauna Ibérica III (PB92-0121); y 
las Acciones Integradas de Cooperación 
Hispano-Austríaca (HU1995-0002; 

HU1996-0002; HU1997-0002). 



BIBLIOGRAFÍA 



Garstang, W., 1896. On the Aplacophorous 
Amphineura of the British Isles. Proc. Mala- 
col. Soc. hondón, 2: 123-125. 

KowALEVSKY, A. Y Marion, A., 1887. Contri- 
butions á l'histoire des solénogastres ou apla- 
cophores. Ann. Mus. Hist. nat. Marseille, ZooL, 
3 (1): 1-77. 

Jones, N.S., 1956. The fauna and biomass of 
muddy sand deposit off port Erin, Isle of 
Man. /. Anim. Ecol, 25: 217-252. 

Jones, A.M. y Baxter, J.M., 1987. Mollusca: Cau- 
dofoveata, Solenogastros, Polyplacophora and 
Scaphopoda. Synopses of the British Fauna, 37: 
1-37 

Leloup, E., 1948. Un nouveau solénogastre pro- 
néoméniidae, Entonomenia atlántica g. nov., sp. 
nov. Bull. Mus. Roy. Hist. Natur. Belgique, 24 
(37): 1-11. 

Maluquer, J., 1917. Notes para l'estudi deis So- 
lenogastros (Mollusca anfineures) de Cata- 
lunya. Treballs Inst. catal. Hist. nat. (Barce- 
lona), 3: 9-53. 

Nierstrasz, H.F. y Stork, H.A., 1940. Mono- 
graphie der Solenogastren des Golfes von 
Neapel. Zoológica (Stuttgart), 99: 1-92. 

Pruvot, G., 1891. Sur rorganisation de quelques 
néomeniens des cotes de France. Arch. Zool. 
Exptl. Gen., sr. 2, 9: 699-810. 



Salvini-Plawen, L.v., 1967. Kritische Bemer- 
kungen zum System der Solénogastres (Mo- 
llusca, Aculifera). Zeitschr. zool. Syst. Evolut.- 
forsch., 5 (4): 398-444. 

Salvini-Plawen, L.v., 1972. Revisión der mo- 
negassischen Solenosgastres (Mollusca, Acu- 
lifera). Zeitschr. zool. Syst. Evolut.-forsch., 10 (3): 
215-250. 

Salvini-Plawen, L.v., 1978. Antarktische und 
subantarktische Solénogastres. Eine Mono- 
graphie: 1898-1974. Zoológica (Stuttgart), 128: 
1-315. 

Salvini-Plawen, L.v., 1990. The status of the 
Caudofoveata and the Solénogastres in the 
Mediterranean Sea. Lavori S.I.M. Napoli, 23: 
5-30. 

Salvini-Plawen, L.v., 1997. Fragmented know- 
ledge on West-European and Iberian Cau- 
dofoveata and Solenogastros. Iberus, 15 (2): 
35-50. 

Seaward, D.R., 1992. Distribution ofthe marine 
molluscs of north west Europe. Nature Con- 
servancy Council, Peterborough, 1-105. 

Thiele, ]., 1906. Archaeomenia prisca n. g. n. sp. 
Wissensch Ergebnisse Dtsch. Tiefsee Exped. Val- 
divia, 1898/99, 9: 317-324. 



131 



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las direcciones completas de los mismos, y un resumen del trabajo y su traducción al inglés. Dicho resumen deberá 
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sión de 100 a 200 palabras. El resumen deberá estar seguido de una lista de palabras clave, también con su versión 
inglesa para su inclusión en los bancos de datos internacionales. 

Páginas siguientes. Incluirán el resto del artículo, que debe dividirse en secciones precedidas por breves encabeza- 
mientos. Siempre que sea posible, se recomienda seguir el siguiente esquema: Introducción, Material y métodos. 
Resultados, Discusión, Conclusiones, Agradecimientos y Bibliografía. Si se emplean abreviaturas no habituales en 
el texto, deberán indicarse tras el apartado de Material y Métodos. 

• Las notas breves deberán presentarse de la misma forma, pero sin resumen. 

• Deberán evitarse notas a pie de página y referencias cruzadas. Deberán respetarse estrictamente los Códigos 
Internacionales de Nomenclatura Zoológica y Botánica (últimas ediciones). Cuando un táxon aparezca por primera 
vez deberá citarse su autor y fecha de su descripción. En el caso de artículos sistemáticos, cuando se den las sinonimias 
de los táxones, éstas deberán citarse COMPLETAS, incluyendo en forma abreviada la publicación donde fueron des- 
critas, y la localidad tipo si es conocida entre corchetes, según el siguiente esquema (préstese especial cuidado a la pun- 
tuación): 

Dendrodoris limbata (Cuvier, 1804) 

Sinonimias 

Doris limbata Cuvier, 1804, Ann. Mus. H. N. París, 4 (24): 468-469 [Locahdad tipo: Marsella]. 

Doris nigricans Otto, 1823, Nov. Act. Ac. Caes. Leop. Car., 10: 275. 

Dichas referencias no deberán incluirse en la lista de Bibliografía si es la única vez que se nombran en el texto. 
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ma (sin incluir en Bibliografía las referencias que no se mencionen en otro lugar del texto). 

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ir en cursiva. En ningún caso deberá escribirse una palabra totalmente en letras mayúsculas, ni siquiera el Título. Las 
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NUNCA por un punto (.) o coma superior ('). 

• Las referencias bibliográficas irán en el texto con minúsculas o versalitas: Fretter y Graham (1962) o Fretter Y 
Graham (1962). Si son más de dos autores se deberán citar todos la primera vez que aparecen en el texto [Smith, 
Jones y Brown (1970)] empleándose et al. las siguientes veces [Smith et ai (1970)]. Si un autor ha publicado más de 
un trabajo en un año se citarán con letras: (Davis, 1989a; Davis, 1989b). No deberá emplearse op. cit. La lista de 
referencias deberá incluir todas las citas del texto y sólo éstas, ordenadas alfabéticamente. Se citarán los nombres de 
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minúsculas o VERSALITAS. No deberán incluirse referencias a autores cuando éstos aparezcan en el texto exclusiva- 



mente como autoridades de un taxon. Los nombres de las publicaciones periódicas deberán aparecer COMPLETOS, 
no abreviados. Cuando se citen libros, dése el título, editor, lugar de publicación, n'' de edición si no es la primera y 
número total de páginas. Deberán evitarse referencias a Tesis Doctorales u otros documentos inéditos de difícil con- 
sulta. Síganse los siguientes ejemplos (préstese atención a la puntuación): 

Fretter, V. y Graham, A., 1962. British Prosobranch Molluscs. Ray Society, London, 765 pp. 

Ponder, W. F., 1988. The Truncatelloidean (= Rissoacean) radiation - a preliminary phylogeny. En Ponder, W. F. 

(Ed.): Prosobranch Phylogeny, Malacological Review, suppl. 4: 129-166. 
Ros, J., 1976. Catálogo provisional de los Opistobranquios (Gastropoda: Euthyneura) de las costas ibéricas. 

Miscelánea Zoolgica, 3 (5): 21-51. 

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INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS 

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• Manuscripts may be written in any modern language. 

• When a paper exceeds 20 pages, extra pages will be charged to the author(s) at full cost. 

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authorship, one author must accept responsability for all correspondence. 

• Papers should conform the following layout: 

First page. This must include a concise but informative title, with mention of family of higher taxon when appropriatte, 
and its Spanish translation. It will be foUowed by all authors' ñames and surnames, their fiíU adress(es), an abstraer (and 
its Spanish translation) not exceeding 200 words which summarizes not only contents but results and conclusions, and 
a list of Key Words (and their Spanish translation) under which the article should be indexed. 

Following pages. These should content the rest of the paper, divided into sections under short headings. Whenever pos- 
sible the text should be arranged as foUows: Introduction, Material and methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions, 
Acknowledgements and References. Unusual abbreviations used in the text must be grouped in one alphabetic sequence 
after the Material and methods section. 

• Notes should foUow the same layout, without the abstraer. 

• Footnotes and cross-references must be avoided. The International Codes of Zoological and Botanical Nomencla- 
ture must be strictly foUowed. The first mention in the text of any taxon must be followed by its authority including 
the year. In systematic papers, when synonyms of a taxon are given, they must be cited IN FULL, including the perio- 
dical, in an abbreviate form, where they were described, and the type localities in square brackets when known. Follow 
this example (please note the punctuation): 

Dendrodoris limbata (Cuvier, 1804) 

Synonyms 

Doris limbata Cuvier, 1804, Ann. Mm. H. N. París, 4 (24): 468-469 [Type locality: Marseille]. 

Doris nigricans Otto, 1823, Nov. Act. Ac. Caes. Leop. Car., 10: 275. 

These references must not be included in the Bibliography list, except if referred to elsewhere in the text. If a full list 
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Prosobranch Phylogeny, Malacological Review, suppl. 4: 129-166. 

Ros, J., 1976. Catálogo provisional de los Gpistobranquios (Gastropoda: Euthyneura) de las costas ibéricas. Miscelá- 
nea Zoológica, 3 (5): 21-51. 



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Iberus 



18 (1) 2000 



Sánchez-Tocino, L., OcaÑa, A. y García, F. J. Contribución al conocimiento de los Moluscos 
Opistobranquios de la costa de Granada (sureste de la Península Ibérica) 
Contribution to the knowledge ofthe Opisthobranch Molluscs from the coast of Granada (sout- 
heastern Spain) 1-14 

Smriglio, C. and MariOTTINI, P. Onoba oliverioi n. sp. (Prosobranctiia, Rissoidae), a new gas- 
tropod from the Mediterranean 

Onoba oliverioi n. sp. (Prosobranchia, Rissoidae), un nuevo gasterópodo para el Mediterrá- 
neo 15-19 

Rolan, E. and Luque, A. A. The subfamily Rissoininae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Rissoidae) in 
the Cape Verde Archipelago (West África) 

La subfamilia Rissoininae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Rissoidae) en el archipiélago de Cabo Verde 
(África Occidental) 21-94 

Rueda, J., Salas, C. and Gofas, S. A molluscan community from coastal bioclastic bottoms in 
the Strait of Gibraltar área 
La comunidad de moluscos de un fondo bioclástico costero del Estrecho de Gibraltar . . 95-123 

García-Álvarez, o., Urgorri, V. y Cristobo, F. J. Rhopalomenia aglaopheniae (Kowalevsky y 
Marión, 1887) (Mollusca, Solenogastres, Rhopalomeniidae), presente en la costa norte de la Penín- 
sula Ibérica 

Rhopalomenia aglaopheniae (Kowalevsky and Marión, 1887) (Mollusca, Solenogastres, Rho- 
palomeniidae), present in the north coast ofLberian Peninsula 125-131 



ISSN 0212-3010 



01 

O/y 



Iberus 



Vol. 1 8 (2) 



REVISTA DE LA 

SOCIEDAD ESPAÑOLA 
DE MALACOLOGÍA 




Oviedo, diciembre 2000 



Iberus 



Revista de la 

Sociedad Española de Malacología 



Comité de Redacción 
Editor 

Ángel Guerra Sierra 

Editores Adjuntos 

Eugenia M- Martínez Cueto-Felgueroso 
Francisco Javier Rocha Valdés 
Gonzalo Rodríguez Casero 

Comité Editorial 

Kepa Altonaga Sustacha 

Eduardo Ángulo Pinedo 

Rafael Araujo Armero 

Thierry Backeljau 

Rüdiger Bieler 

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M3 de los Ángeles Romos Sánchez 

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Gerhard Steiner 

José Templado González 

Victoriano Urgorri Cormsco 

Anders W/arén 



Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas, CSIC, Vigo, España 

Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, España 

Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas, CSIC, Vigo, España 

Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, España 



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Institut Royol des Sciences Noturelles de Belgique, Bruselas, Bélgica 

The Field Museum, Chicago, Estados Unidos 

Labomtoire Arago, Banyuls-sur-Mer, Fmncio 

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Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Viena, Austria 

Universidode dos Acores, Acores, Portugal 

Universidad de Sevilla, Sevillo, España 

National Notuurhistorisch Museum, Leiden, Holanda 

Universidad de Málogo, España 

Zoologische Staatssammiung München, München, Alemania 

A.N. Severtzov Instituto of Ecology and Evolution, Moscú, Rusia 

Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, España 

Estación Agrícola Experimental, CSIC, León, España 

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Universitá di Roma "Lo Sopienzo", Roma, Italia 

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Austrolian Museum, Sydney, Austmlio 

Universidad del País Vasco, Bilbao, España 

Museo Nacional de Ciencias Natumles, CSIC, Madrid, España 

British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, Reino Unido 

Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona, España 

Universidad de Málaga, Málaga, España 

Institut für Zoologie der UniversitOt Wien, Viena, Austria 

Museo Nocional de Ciencias Natumles, CSIC, Madrid, España 

Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, España 

Swedish Museum of Natural History, Estocolmo, Suecia 



Portada de Iberus 

Iberus gualterianus (Linnaeus, 1758), una especie emblemática de la península Ibérica, que da 
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Iberus 



REVISTA DE LA 

SOCIEDAD ESPAÑOLA 
DE MALACOLOGÍA 





Vol. 1 8 (2) 



Oviedo, diciembre 2000 



Iberus 

Revista de la 
Sociedad Española de Malacología 



Iberus publica trabajos que traten sobre cualquier aspecto relacionado con la Malacología. Se 
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Los resúmenes de los artículos editados en esta revista se publican en Aquatic Science 
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Contents list published in Aquatic Science and Fisheries Abstracts and Zoological Records, 
BIOSIS. 



Dep. Leg. B-43072-81 

ISSN 0212-3010 

Diseño Y maquetación: Gonzalo Rodríguez 

Impresión: LOREDO, S. L. - Gijón 



© Sociedad Española de Malacología Iberus, 18 (2): 1-15, 2000 



Nuevos datos anatómicos y taxonómicos del género Chiton 
Linnaeus, 1758 (MoUusca, Polyplacophora) en la Península 
Ibérica 

New anatomical and taxonomical data on the Genus Chiton 
Linnaeus, 1758 (MoUusca, Polyplacophora) from the Iberian 
Peninsula 

Pilar CARMONA ZALVIDE*, Francisco J. GARCÍA* y Victoriano URGORRI ** 
Recibido el8-VI-1999. Aceptado el22-XI-1999 

RESUMEN 

Se presentan aspectos relacionados con la morfología y taxonomía de los especies 
del género Chiton Linnaeus, 1758 en la Península Ibérica. Para coda una de las espe- 
cies estudiadas, Ch. oliváceas Spengler, 1797, Ch. corallinus (Risso, 1826) y Ch. 
phaseolinus Monterosato, 1 879, se aportan datos sobre la concha, perinoto y rádula. 
Finalmente se realiza una discusión sobre la sistemática de este género y otros rela- 
cionados con él, y se acepta que Rhyssoplax Thiele, 1 893 constituye un subgénero 
de Chiton. 

ABSTRACT 

Aspects related to the morphology and taxonomy of the species belonging to the genus 
Chiton Linnaeus, 1758 in Iberian Peninsula are presented. Anatomical data of the shell, 
perinotum and radula of Ch. oliváceas Spengler, 1 797, Ch. corallinus (Risso, 1 826) and 
Ch. phaseolinus Monterosato, 1879 are included. A systematic discussion on the genus 
Chiton and other related genera is included. Rhyssoplax Thiele, 1893 is proposed as a 
subgenus of Chiton. 



Palabras Claves: MoUusca, Polyplacophora, Taxonomía, Anatomía, Chiton (Rhyssoplax) olivaceus, Chiton 
(Rhyssoplax) corallinus, Chiton (Rhyssoplax) phaseolinus. 

Key WordS: MoUusca, Polyplacophora, Taxonomy, Anatomy, Chiton (Rhyssoplax) olivaceus, Chiton 
(Rhyssoplax) corallinus, Chiton (Rhyssoplax) phaseolinus 



INTRODUCCIÓN 

El género Chiton Linnaeus, 1758 ha las posiciones subgenéricas y las 
ocasionado controversias taxonómicas admiten como géneros. No obstante 
debido a que ciertos autores no aceptan desde su descripción, se han establecido 

* Departamento de Fisiología y Biología Animal, Facultad de Biología, Univ. Sevilla; Avda. Reina Mercedes, 6; 
Apdo. 1095, 41080 Sevilla. (Spain). E-mail: fjgarcia 

** Departamento Biología Animal. Facultad de Biología. Univ. Santiago de Compostela. 1 5706 Santiago de 
Compostela (Spain). E-mail: bavituco@usc. es 

1 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 



diferentes subgéneros en éste. Pilsbry 
(1892) consideró en el género Chitan las 
secciones Chitan s. s., Radsia Gray, 1847 y 
Sderochiton Carpenter 1873. 

Thiele (1893), asimismo, describe 
nuevos subgéneros y secciones para 
Chitan: Amaurochitan, Chandraplax, Sy- 
pharochitan, Trilaplax, y Anthochiton. 
Iredale y Hull (1926) no admiten los 
subgéneros para Chitan y consideran 
que las diferencias que presentan los 
distintos grupos justificarían su posición 
como géneros independientes e incluso 
aportan los siguientes géneros nuevos: 
Delicatoplax, Tegulaplax, Mucraquasma, a 
la vez que mantienen a los géneros 
Rhyssaplax Thiele, 1893, Clavarizona 
Hull, 1923, Amaurochitan, Sypharachiton, 
Lialaphura Pilsbry, 1892, Amphitamura 
Pilsbry, 1892, Acantopleura Guilding, 
1829, Onithachitan Gray, 1847, Lucilina 
Dalí, 1882 y Schizochiton Gray 1847. 

Posteriormente, Thiele (1929) desa- 
rrolla una nueva clasificación, en la que 
admite subgéneros y secciones, de 
manera que en el género Chitan esta- 
blece los subgéneros: Chitan y Rhyssa- 
plax. En el primero incluye las secciones: 
Chitan s. s., Amaurachiton, Diachitan, 
Chandraplax, Radsia y Sypharachiton; y en 
Rhyssaplax las secciones: Anthochiton, 
Delicatoplax, Tegulaplax, Rhyssaplax s. s. y 
Mucrocjuasma. 

En el presente trabajo se ha reali- 
zado un estudio anatómico de las espe- 
cies de Chitan (Rhyssaplax) que se distri- 



buyen en la Península Ibérica, Chitan 
(Rhyssaplax) alivaceus Spengler, 1797, 
Chitan (Rhyssaplax) corallinus (Risso, 
1826) y Chitan (Rhyssaplax) phasealinus 
Monterosato, 1879. Así mismo, se ha 
discutido la categoría taxonómica de 
Rhyssaplax. 



MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS 

Los ejemplares estudiados se han 
recolectado desde Lisboa (Portugal) 
hasta Punta Europa (Gibraltar) y, a su 
vez, se han estudiado los ejemplares del 
Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales 
de Madrid (MNCN). En el apartado de 
material estudiado, se especifica la loca- 
lidad, número de ejemplares, tamaño 
máximo de éstos, la fecha de la recolec- 
ción y la profundidad. 

El material se ha capturado de forma 
directa tanto en la zona mediolitoral 
como infralitoral, utilizándose en esta 
última equipos de inmersión autóno- 
mos. Los ejemplares se relajaron con 
cristales de mentol y se fijaron entre dos 
portas con etanol absoluto, conserván- 
dose posteriormente en alcohol 70%. 

Para el estudio de las partes duras se 
introdujeron los ejemplares en KOH 
10%, separándose las placas, escamas y 
espíenlas del perinoto y la rádula. La 
estructura de las diferentes partes se 
observó mediante microscopía electró- 
nica de barrido (Philips XL-20). 



RESULTADOS 



Chiton (Rhyssaplax) olivaceus Spengler, 1797 



Chitan olivaceus Spengler, 1797, Skrivt. Naturh. Selsk., 4: 73, pl 6 f 8a-c. [Localidad tipo: Mar Medi- 
terráneo]. 
Chiton squamosus Poli 1791 no Linneo 1764, Test. Utr. Sicil., 1: 8, pl 3 figs. 21, 22 [Localidad tipo: 

Sicilia] 
Chiton sulcatus Risso 1826, Hist. Nat, Eur. Mérd., 4: 268 [Localidad tipo: Niza] 
Chiton siculus Gray 1828, Spicil. Zool., 1: 5 [Localidad tipo: Mar Mediterráneo] 
Chiton polii Deshayes 1833, Exp. Sci. Morée, 3 Molí.: 132 [Localidad tipo: Peloponeso] 
Chiton subdivisus Renier en Monterosato 1879, G. Sci. nat. Econ. Palermo, 14: 7 
Chiton striatus Chierghini MS, en Nardo, 1847, Ipsa Chieregh. Conch.: 44 [Localidad tipo: Laguna 

de Venecia] 
Chiton estuarii Chiereghini MS, en Nardo, 1847, Ipsa Chieregh. Conch.: 4A [Localidad tipo: Venecia] 
Chiton squammulosus Doilfus 1883, Feuille. ]eun. Nat.: 3. [Localidad tipo: Palavas, Hérault, Francia] 



Carmona Zalvide ETAL.: Nuevos datos del género Chiton en la Península Ibérica 




Figura 1. Chiton (R.) olivaceus. A: valva I; B: valva IV; C: valva VIII; D: articulamento de valva 
intermedia; E: dientes pectinados del articulamento; F: ornamentación del tegmento; G: costillas 
de la zona jugal; H: costillas de la zona pleural; I: disposición de las megaloestetas y microestetas. 
Figure 1. Chiton (R.) olivaceus. A: valve I; B: valve IV; C: vahe VIII; D: articulamentum ofan inter- 
mediate valve; E: pectinated teeth from articulamentum; F: ornamentation of tegmentum; G: jugal 
área; H: pleural área; I: disposition of megalaesthetes and micraesthetes. 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 



Material estudiado: El total de ejemplares estudiados ha sido de 275. Portinho de Arrabida, Por- 
tugal: 1 ej., 24 X 12 mm, IX/95 (10 m). Porto Covo, Portugal: 1 ej., 14 x 8 mm, Vni/94 (8 m). Praia 
do Lagos, Portugal: 2 ej., 14,5 x 6,8 mm, VIII/93 (17 m). Praia da Marinha, Portugal: 6 ej., 22,4 x 11,2 
mm, VIH/ 88 (Intermareal). Almagao de Pera, Portugal: 2 ej., 16, 2 x 9 mm, VIH/ 93 (22 m). El Arre- 
cifillo, Conil, Cádiz: 2 ej., 17 x 10 mm. Vil/ 92 (12 m). Isla del Tajo, Cádiz: 1 ej., 19 x 11 mm. Vil/ 92 
(8 m). Playa del Chorro, Cádiz: 5 ej., 28, 5 x 15 mm. Vil/ 92 (Intermareal). Isla de Tarifa, Cádiz: 7 ej., 
16 X 8 mm, III/91; 2 ej., 27 x 11 mm, VII/91 (Intermareal). Isla de las Palomas, Cádiz: 1 ej., 18 x 11 
mm, VII/91; 1 ej., 21 x 12 mm, VIII/91; 5 ej., 25,5 x 16 mm, IX/92 (3-12m). Punta Carnero, Cádiz: 1 
ej., 30 X 17 mm, V/91; 3 ej., 18 x 11 mm, VIII/91 (Intermareal). La Ballenera, Cádiz: 10 ej., 21 x 13 
mm, IV/91; 1 ej., 14 x 7 mm, VII/91; 1 ej., 16,5 x 10,5 mm, VII/91; 5 ej., 19 x 10 mm, VIII/91; 8 ej., 
12 X 8,2 mm, IV/92 (12 m). Punta de San García, Cádiz: 1 ej., 16 x 9 mm, VII/90; 1 ej., 10,5 x 6 mm, 
VII/91; 2 ej., 8x5 mm, VII/91; 3 ej., 16 x 8,5 mm, IX/92; 12 ej., 21 x 13 mm, IX/92 (12 m). Ensenada 
de Cucareo, Cádiz: 11 ej., 28,5 x 15 mm, IX/92; 10 ej., 18 x 9, 5 mm, 1/93). Puerto de Algeciras, Cádiz: 
2 ej., 18 x 11 mm, VII/91; 3 ej., 24 x 12 mm, VII/91; 21 ej., 18 x 11 mm, VIII/91; 2 ej., 16 x 9 mm. 
Vil/ 92 (10 m). Punta de Paredones, Cádiz: 3 ej., 8x6 mm. Vil/ 90; 12 ej., 22 x 13 mm. Vil/ 91; 1 ej., 
8x4 mm, VIII/91 (16 m). El Rinconcillo, Cádiz: 1 ej., 15 x 9 mm, VII/90; 3 ej., 12,5 x 8 mm, VII/91 
(25 m). Punta del Gallo del Mirador, Cádiz: 5 ej., 9 x 4,5 mm, 1/93 (3-6 m). Campamento, Cádiz: 1 
ej., 17 X 10 mm, VII / 90; 8 ej., 17 x 9 mm, 111/ 91 (Intermareal). Crinavis, Cádiz: 1 ej., 15 x 9 mm, VII / 90; 
1 ej., 19 X 11 mm, III/91; 1 ej., 18 x 11 mm, VI/91; 5 ej., 19 x 11 mm, VII/91; 3 ej., 22 x 11 mm, VIII/91; 

I ej., 24 X 14 mm, 11/92; 53 ej., 21 x 12 mm, IX/93 (33 m). San Felipe, Cádiz: 3 ej., 25 x 12 mm, VII/91; 

II ej., 17 X 11 mm, VIII/91; 1 ej., 10 6 mm, X/91 (17 m). Punta Europa, Gibraltar: 2 ej., 22 x 10 mm, 
VII/92 (20-25 m). MNCN: N° 1503/138: 1 ej., 11 x 5. 5 mm, (Cabrera, Baleares) (Colección: Hidalgo). 
1503/230: 1 ej., 24 x 12 mm, 12/08/84 (La Herradura, Granada) (A. Luque). 1503/356: 1 ej., 21 x 11 
mm, (Cádiz) (Colección: Hidalgo). 1503/364: 3 ej., 26 x 13 mm, (Valencia) (Colección: Hidalgo). 
1503/424: 5 ej., 35 x 18 mm, (Mahón, Menorca) (Colección: Hidalgo). 1503/425: 1 ej., 22 x 11 mm, 
(Palma) (Colección: Hidalgo). 1503/433: 2 ej., 22 x 15 mm, (Pto. Pollensa, Mallorca). 1503/434: 5 ej., 
27 X 10 mm, (Mahón, Menorca) (Colección: Azpeiria, 1408). 1503/435: 5 ej., 37 x 20 mm, (Tarifa, Cádiz) 
(Colección: Azpeitia, 1408). 1503/436: 2 ej., 24 x 13 mm, (Valencia) (Colección: Azpeitia, 1408). 



Descripción: (Figs. 1 y 2). El tamaño 
de los ejemplares ha variado entre 3x2 
y 28,5 X 15 mm. El animal es ovalado, 
carenado y con las valvas gruesas y con- 
sistentes. Las valvas terminales y áreas 
laterales ofrecen una estriación radial. 
En la zona pleural presentan una serie 
de costillas longitudinales muy marca- 
das que disminuyen en longitud hacia la 
zona jugal. El tegmento de las placas 
está finamente granulado debido a la 
presencia de pequeños tubérculos, 
donde se sitúan las estetas. Estas se dis- 
ponen en líneas longitudinales en el 
área central de las placas intermedias, 
aunque algo distorsionadas en la zona 
pleural debido a la presencia de las cos- 
tillas. En el área lateral y valvas termina- 
les, las líneas se disponen radialmente. 
Las megaloestetas, se puede considerar 
que se ordenan en quincunce entre las 
microestetas, aunque se encuentran 
insertas en las mismas líneas. El diáme- 
tro medio de luz de las megaloestetas y 
microestetas es de 9,92 mm (o: 1,2) y 
7,08 mm (a: 1,2) respectivamente. En 



una misma fila se encuentran con una 
separación media de 10 mm (a: 0,84) y 
entre filas de 11, 8 mm (o: 1,81). 

Los aleros del articulamento ofrecen 
un aspecto sólido, aunque son algo 
esponjosos. Los robustos dientes se 
encuentran pectinados en el margen. 
Sobre el ápice se distingue el reborde del 
tegmento. El seno jugal es pectinado. 
Las láminas suturales son lisas, su 
aspecto varía desde triangular en las 
valvas II a IV, rectangular en las valvas 
V a VII y trapezoidal, aunque con los 
bordes redondeados, en la valva VIII. La 
fórmula de las ranuras de las líneas de 
inserción oscila entre 8-10/1-2/10-11. La 
situación más frecuente es la presencia 
de una sola hendidura en cada lado de 
las placas intermedias, aunque se han 
encontrado ejemplares que presentan 
dos, pero sólo en un lado. 

El perinoto es ancho y está consti- 
tuido por escamas que ofrecen un 
aspecto de piel de serpiente. Las escamas 
presentan a su vez finas y leves estriacio- 
nes en el borde anterior. El tamaño de las 



Carmona Zalvide ETAL: Nuevos datos del género Chiton en la Península Ibérica 




Figura 2. Chiton (R.) olivaceus. A: rádula; B: dientes raquídeo y primer lateral; C: placa uncinada 
del diente mayor lateral; D: diente espatulado; E: perinoto; F: disposición de las escamas dorsales; 
G: disposición de las escamas ventrales; H: escamas dorsales; I: espíenla marginal. 
Figure 2. Chiton (R.) olivaceus. A: radula; B: rachidian andfirst lateral teeth; C: uncinal píate ofthe 
major lateral tooth; D: spatulate tooth; E: perinotum; F: disposition of dorsal scales; G: ventral scales; 
H: dorsal scales; I: marginal spicules. 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 



Tabla 1. Caracteres taxonómicos de las especies de Chitan de la Península Ibérica 
Table I. Taxonomical features o^Chiton species in the Iberian Península 





Ch. oliváceas 


Ch. corallinus 


Ch. phaseolinus 


Tamaño máximo (mm) 


28,5x15 


16x10,2 


7,3x4,1 


Color 


Variable 


Variable 


Rosados, Verdosos 


Diámetro medio Megaloestetc (a) 


9,92 |jm (1,2) 


8, 17 fjm (0,51) 


7,7 |jm (0,89) 


Diámetro medio microestetos (a) 


7,08 pm (1,2) 


8, 17 pm (0,51) 


7,7 pm (0,89) 


Fórmula de líneas de inserción 


8-10/1-2/10-11 


8-10/1-2/10-12 


8-10/1/9-12 


Longitud máxima de escamas dorsales 


475 fjm 


280 |jm 


210pm 


Longitud máxima de escamas ventrales 


120[jm 


80|jm 


57,5 |jm 


Longitud máxima de espículas marginales 


125 fjm 


112,5[jm 


70 pm 


N- de Costillas en el área pleural 


4-11 


3-8 


2-3 



escamas es variable según la región del 
perinoto. Próximas a las placas se locali- 
zan las de tamaño medio, aumentan 
hacia la zona media del perinoto, y pró- 
ximas a la zona marginal se encuentran 
las más pequeñas. En un mismo ejem- 
plar (de 14 mm), varía desde la zona 
dorsal, media y próxima a la marginal 
entre 105, 433 y 210 /^m respectivamente. 
El tamaño máximo de escama encon- 
trado entre los ejemplares estudiados, ha 
sido de 475 finx de ancho y 230 //m de 
altura. Las escamas ventrales son más 
pequeñas que las dorsales, generalmente 
presentan forma rectangular, aunque 
existen variaciones, de modo que 
pueden aparecer algo curvadas, con un 
extremo más estrecho, con bordes muy 
redondeados, etc. El tamaño oscila entre 
63 X 20 y 120 x 25 }im en los distintos 
individuos observados. En un mismo 



ejemplar el rango de variación es menor, 
aproximadamente entre 10 y 15 /^m. En 
la zona marginal presenta espículas 
cónicas curvadas. El tamaño oscila en los 
distintos individuos entre 65 x 25 ^m y 
125 X 30 ^m. En un mismo ejemplar la 
máxima diferencia de tamaño que se ha 
encontrado ha sido de 20 ^wm. 

El diente central de la rádula es alar- 
gado y bastante estrecho con el borde 
flexible muy marcado, de manera que 
ofrece forma de "bastón". El primer 
lateral, algo más ancho y largo que el 
central, presenta una prominencia 
redondeada en la parte terminal del 
diente. El diente mayor marginal, exhibe 
una protuberancia con forma de aleta en 
la base de la placa uncinada. Ésta se 
caracteriza, por no presentar cúspide. 

En la Tabla 1 se especifican las carac- 
terísticas de la especie. 



Chitan (Rhyssoplax) corallinus (Risso, 1826) 

Lepidopleurus corallinus Risso, 1826, Hist. Nat. Eur. Mérid., 4: 268. [Localidad tipo: Nizza] 

Chitan rubicundus Costa 1829, Cat. Sist. Test. Sicil.: i, iii, pl 1 f . 3 [Localidad tipo: Sicilia] 

Chiton pulchellus Philippi 1844 no Gray 1828, Enum. Molí. Sicil. 2: 83, pl 19 f. 14 [Localidad tipo: 

Ñapóles] 
? Chiton scytodesma Scacchi 1836, Cat. Conch. Icón. R. Neapol: 9 [Localidad tipo: Ñapóles] 
? Chiton freelandi Forbes 1844, Rep. Br. Ass. Advmt Sai.: 188 [Localidad tipo: Mar Egeo] 
Chiton philippi Issel 1870, Bull. Malac. Ital. 3: 5 [Localidad tipo: Genova] 
Chiton rubellus Carpenter MS in Pilsbry, 1893, no Nardo, 1847, Man. Conch. 14: 182. 

Material estudiado: Se han estudiado 90 ejemplares. Isla de Tarifa, Cádiz: 1 ej., 6x3 mm, III/91; 2 
ej., 13,5 X 8 mm, IV/92 (Intermareal). Isla de las Palomas, Cádiz: 1 ej., 6 x 3, 5 mm, VIII/91; 3 ej., 16 
X 10,2 mm, IX/92 (3-12 m); 2 ej., 13,2 x 8,7 mm, XI/93 (9 m). La Ballenera, Cádiz: 3 ej., 13 x 9 mm. 



Carmona Zalvide ETAL.: Nuevos datos del género Chiton en la Península Ibérica 




Figura 3. Chiton (R.) corallinus. A: valva I; B: valva IV; C: valva VIII; D: ornamentación del teg- 
mento de la valva I; E: ornamentación del tegmento del área central; F: disposición de las megalo- 
estetas y microestetas. 

Figure 3. Chiton (R.) corallinus. A: valve I; B: valve IV; C: valve VIII; D: tegmentum ofvalve I; E: 
tegmentum of central área; F: disposition ofmegalaesthetes and micraesthetes. 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 



IV/92 (12 m). Punta de San García, Cádiz: 1 ej., 8 x 4,5 mm, Vn/91; 1 ej., 7,5 x 5 mm, IX/92; 3 ej., 
10,5 X 5 mm, IX/92; 1 ej., 5x 3 mm, III/93; 1 ej., 10 x 5, 5 mm, VI/93; 2 ej., 16 x 10 mm, VII/93; 1 ej., 
15,2 x 9,2 mm, VIII/93; 4 ej., 15 x 9 mm, IX/93 (12 m); 5 ej., 16 x 9 mm, XII/93 (8 m); 1 ej., 12,5 x 7 
mm, 1/94 (5 m); 4 ej., 12,3 x 6,2 mm, 11/94 (5 m). Ensenada de Cucareo, Cádiz: 2 ej., 10,5 x 7,5 mm, 
1/93 (12 m); 1 ej., 12,5 x 7 mm, XI/93 (5 m); 2 ej., 16 x 13 mm, XII/93 (6 m); 2 ej., 14 x 8 mm, 1/94 (5 
m); 1 ej., 12 x 6,5 mm, 11/94 (5 m). Puerto de Algeciras, Cádiz: 4 ej., 7x4 mm, VIH/ 91; 1 ej., 6 x 3,5 
mm, IX/91 (10 m). Punta de Paredones, Cádiz: 3 ej., 8,5 x 5 mm, VII/91; 1 ej., 3x2 mm, VIII/91 (16 
m). Punta del Gallo del Mirador, Cádiz: 3 ej., 6x4 mm, VIII/91 (3-6 m). Campamento, Cádiz: 6 ej., 
10 X 5,5 mm, III/91 (Intermareal). Crinavis, Cádiz: 2 ej., 8,5 x 5,5 mm, VII/90 (33 m); 1 ej., 7 x 3,5 
mm, V/93 (9 m); 4 ej., 7x3 mm, VII/93 (9 m); 1 ej., 7x5 mm, IX/93 (10 m); 1 ej., 6,5 x 3,8 mm, 11/94 
(8 m). San Felipe, Cádiz: 2 ej., 5x3 mm, VI/91; 4 ej., 7,5 x 4 mm, VIII/91; 1 ej., 14,5 x 9 mm, V/93; 
5 ej., 6 X 3,5 mm. Vil/ 93; 1 ej., 11 x 5,8 mm, X/93 (17 m). Punta Europa, Gibraltar: 1 ej., 6x3 mm. 
Vil/ 93 (14 m). MCNM: 1503/72: 1 ej., 14 x 8 mm, (Canarias) (Colección: Hidalgo). 1503/234: 1 ej., 
10,5 X 6 mm, (Águilas, Murcia) (Colección: Azpeitia, 3227). 1503/401: 1 ej., 16 x 8,5 mm, (España) 
(hidalgo). 1503/402: 1 ej., 8,5 x 4,5 mm, (Mahón, Menorca) (Colección: Hidalgo). 1503/403: 2 ej., 10 
X 6 mm, (Águilas, Murcia) (Colección: Hidalgo). Sin numerar: 5 ej., 11x7 mm, (Cabo Menorca) 
(Colección: Hidalgo). 



Descripción: (Figs. 3 y 4). El tamaño 
de los ejemplares recolectados ha 
variado entre 3,3 x 2,1 mm y 16 x 10,2 
mm. El aspecto es ovalado, aunque algo 
más estrecho en la parte caudal, con 
conchas consistentes. Se encuentran 
ornamentados con costillas longitudina- 
les en el área central. En el tegmento se 
detecta una granulación fina ocasionada 
por las estetas, que se disponen en 
líneas. No se puede distinguir entre 
megalo y microestetas, ya que todas 
ofrecen un diámetro similar con una 
media de luz de 8,17 /^m (o: 0,51). Las 
filas que tienden a formar varían, de 
manera que en la placa oral, áreas late- 
rales y zona postmucral se disponen 
radialmente, mientras que en el área 
central y zona anteromucral son de 
forma longitudinal, aunque pueden 
estar algo distorsionadas por la presen- 
cia de las costillas. La distancia media 
entre dos estetas en una misma fila y la 
paralela es de 12,6 //m (a: 5,91) y 10,05 
jWm (a: 5,36) respectivamente. 

El borde de las láminas de inserción 
del articulamento se encuentra pectinado 
en todas las valvas, al igual que los 
dientes de las placas terminales. Las apó- 
fisis son lisas y están separadas por el 
seno jugal. En éste se aprecia la presencia 
de 4 a 6 láminas ligeramente dentadas en 
el margen. La forma de las apófisis varía 
de rectangular, en las valvas II y III, a tra- 
pezoidal, de la IV a VIÜ, aunque en todas 
los márgenes aparecen redondeados. La 
fórmula de hendiduras de las láminas de 



inserción es 8-10/1-2/10-12. Las valvas 
intermedias exhiben, generalmente, una 
sola hendidura; en el caso de que pre- 
sente dos, es sólo en uno de los lados. 

El perinoto está constituido por 
escamas romboides imbricadas, que 
ofrecen un aspecto de piel de serpiente. 
Las escamas se encuentran ornamenta- 
das por unas finas y leves estriaciones. 
El tamaño varía en un mismo ejemplar, 
encontrándose las mayores en la zona 
media del perinoto. Las dimensiones 
varían desde 60 x 25 jim a 250 x 100 jim 
de anchura y altura en el mismo ejem- 
plar. El tamaño máximo encontrado ha 
sido de 280 fim de ancho por 130 ¡dxn de 
alto. Las escamas ventrales son rectan- 
gular, aunque pueden tener ligeras 
variaciones. El tamaño ha oscilado en 
los diferentes ejemplares entre 60 x 13 
jdm y 80 x 15 pim, con variación máxima 
de 5 pim en la longitud de las escamas 
en un mismo individuo. Las espíenlas 
marginales, de forma cilindrica con el 
extremo terminal apuntado, tienen 
estrías longitudinales. El tamaño varía, 
en distintos ejemplares, entre 62,5 x 21 
^m y 112,5 x 22,5 jWm. 

El diente central de la rádula es alar- 
gado y bastante estrecho, con una longi- 
tud máxima de 59,8 fim. El primer 
lateral es ligeramente más ancho, sobre- 
pasa o iguala al central, a pesar de ser 
más largo. La placa uncinada del diente 
mayor lateral no presenta cúspides. 

En la Tabla I se especifican las carac- 
terística de la especie. 



Carmona Zalvide ETAL.: Nuevos datos del género Chitan en la Península Ibérica 




Figura 4. Chiton (R.) comllinus. A: rádula, B: dientes raquídeo y primer lateral; C, D: placa unci- 
nada del diente mayor lateral y diente plumoso; E: cintura; F: disposición de las escamas dorsales. 
Figure 4. Chiton (R.) corallinus. A: radule; B: rachidian andfirst lateral teeth; C, D: uncinal píate of 
major lateral tooth and spatulate tooth; E: perinotum, F: disposition of dorsal scales. 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 



Chitan (Rhyssoplax) phaseolinus Di Monterosato, 1879 

Chitan (Rhyssoplax) phaseolinus Di Monterosato, 1879, G. Sci. Nat. Econ. Palermo, 14: 8. [Localidad 
tipo: Ñapóles, Palermo]. 

Material estudiado: El total de ejemplares estudiados ha sido de 59. Isla de Tarifa, Cádiz: 2 ej., 5 
X 3 mm. Vil/ 90; 1 ej., 5 x 2, 5 mm, 11/91; 1 ej., 5x3 mm. Vil/ 91 (Intermareal). Punta Carnero, 
Cádiz: 1 ej., 7x4 mm, V/91; 2 ej., 6x3 mm, VIII/91 (Intermareal). La Ballenera, Cádiz: 1 ej., 3x2 
mm, VIII/91 (12 m). Punta de San García, Cádiz: 3 ej., 6,5 x 3 mm, VII/91; 1 ej., 5x3 mm, IX/92; 
3 ej., 7x3 mm, VI/93; 1 ej., 8 x 3,5 mm, VII/93 (10 m); 6 ej., 6, 5 x 4 mm, VIII/93; 1 ej., 5, 5 x 3,2 
mm, X/93 (12 m); 1 ej., 6x3 mm, 11/94 (5 m). Ensenada de Cucareo, Cádiz: 2 ej., 3 x 1,5 mm, 
XI/91 (5 m); 2 ej., 5 x 2,5 mm, 1/93; 1 ej., 7x4 mm, IX/93 (12 m); 2 ej., 7,5 x 4 mm, X/93 (5 m); 2 
ej., 9 X 3,2 mm, XI/93 (5 m); 1 ej., 9x4 mm, XII/93 (5 m). Puerto de Algeciras, Cádiz: 19 ej., 7x3 
mm, VII/93; 2 ej., 3,2 x 2 mm, X/93 (10 m). Punta de Paredones, Cádiz: 1 ej., 5x3 mm, VIII/91 
(16 m). MCNM: 1503/426: 2 ej., 12 x 6,5 mm, (Tarifa, Cádiz) (H. L. Strack). Sin numeración: 1 ej., 
10, 2 X 6,5 mm, (Tánger) (Colección: Azpeitia, 5362). 



Descripción: Los ejemplares son de 
tamaño medio, varían entre 3,1 x 2,2 m y 
7,3 X 4,1 mm. El animal es ovalado, no 
carenado, redondeado, con conchas no 
muy consistentes. Presenta un aspecto 
granulado fino, con 2-3 costillas no muy 
marcadas en las áreas pleurales. El teg- 
mento ofrece un aspecto granuloso deri- 
vado de las estetas. El diámetro medio de 
éstas es de 7,7 ¡ivs\ (a: 0,89). Las estetas se 
sitúan de manera que forman líneas, que 
varían de disposición, en la valva cefá- 
lica, áreas laterales de las intermedias y 
zona postmucral, donde constituyen 
líneas radiales, mientras que el área 
central y anteromucral tienden a consti- 
tuir líneas longitudinales, aunque se 
encuentran algo perturbadas en la zona 
pleural, donde aparecen las costillas. La 
distancia media de las estetas en una 
misma fila es de 5,6 ^m (o: 1,81) y de 7,9 
^m (a: 2,6) entre las filas paralelas. 

Los aleros del articulamento son 
esponjosos. Los dientes de la valvas cau- 
dales y el borde de las láminas de inser- 
ción se encuentran dentados. En el seno 
jugal también se aprecian láminas algo 
pectinadas, aunque no tan finamente 
como en las láminas laterales de inser- 
ción. Por el contrario, las apófisis son 
lisas, con una forma triangular en las 
valvas II, III y IV, que varían a trapezoi- 
dal en las placas siguientes hasta la 
caudal. La fórmula de ranuras de las 
líneas de inserción es 8-10/ 1 /9-12. 

El perinoto está constituido por 
espíenlas romboidales imbricadas. 



Pueden presentar leves estriaciones 
longitudinales, aunque no se encuen- 
tran en todas las escamas. En la zona 
basal presentan una perforación, lugar 
por donde probablemente se insertan 
en el perinoto. En un mismo ejemplar 
aparecen de diferentes tamaños y la 
variación puede ser desde 63 //m de 
ancho y 20 /^m de alto, las más 
pequeñas, a 200 x 40 ^m las mayores. 
El tamaño máximo observado ha sido 
de 210 jWm de anchura por 53 ¡iia de 
altura. Las escamas ventrales son 
blancas y rectangulares, se disponen en 
filas longitudinales. El tamaño es 
menor que el de las dorsales, y éste 
varió de 40 a 57,5 }im de longitud y de 
9 a 14,4 jWm de ancho en los distintos 
ejemplares estudiados. En la zona mar- 
ginal aparecen espíenlas de forma có- 
nica, aplastadas, ligeramente cóncavas 
y con el borde terminal redondeado y 
más estrecho que el basal. Estas espí- 
enlas se encuentran adornadas con 
estrías por la cara dorsal, que surgen en 
la mitad de ella, dispuestas paralela- 
mente e inclinadas con respecto al eje 
longitudinal. El tamaño varía en los 
distintos ejemplares entre 52,5 x 17,5 
¡im y 70 x 20 /im de longitud y base. 

El diente raquídeo de la rádula es 
muy estrecho y alargado, con una 
pequeña protuberancia redondeada en 
la zona terminal. El primer diente lateral 
es más ancho y sobrepasa al central. El 
diente mayor lateral presenta una apófi- 
sis en la zona basal de la placa con 



10 



Carmona Zalvide etal.: Nuevos datos del género Chitan en la Península Ibérica 



A ^^^^^^HÉ^ 




Hr-^ ^■■./^ 'M 


^^^^^H "t^ ^^^R^^^^^^^l 










■ 1 ^ ^ 








^*5(^5^ 






^^B':;''/ -"W!^^^^H 


^^ '"^ 


^K'' ''"' ' " •'' -^^^^^^B 


^^v^ "«^~^ 




ifcí-4;>^^ÉP^^^l 


■ 








^^^ 


^^'" ?#^Stt;-' ■ ■-/■■■"■ 


D ^;:t^ .-^ ' 


% 


^^^^^^^^^y^^f^^¡MBfflr%j^''^ ■ -?i^iPM 






^ 200 lam p 


^^^^1^^^^^^^ 




G H 


^^^^^^^^^r^ ' x^lHI^HpHI^H 


■j;f:;'*j^^ 


^^^^ 


1^;;\^B 


H 


„jii*t*^^^ 


^^^"^^^■^■■^ 


500 |im 


50 i-im 50 i-im 



Figura 5. Chitan (R.) phaseolinus. A: valva I; B: valva II; C: valva IV; D: valva VIII; E: ornamenta- 
ción del área central; F: ornamentación del área lateral; G, H: disposición de las megaloestetas y 
microestetas; I: articulamento. 

Figure 5. Chiton (R.) phaseolinus. A: vahe I; B: valve II; C: valve IV; D: valve VIII; E: omamenta- 
tion of central área. Figure 6: omamentation of lateral área. Figures 7 and 8: disposition of megalaest- 
hetes and micraesthetes. Figure 9: articulamentum. 



11 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 



aspecto de cilindro hueco, con un 
reborde, en forma de lengüeta, en la 
parte superior, que está dirigido hacia 
atrás. 



En la Tabla I se especifican los carac- 
teres taxonómicos de las especies de 
Chitan (Rhyssoplax) de la Península 
Ibérica. 



DISCUSIÓN 



Dall (1879) incluyó en el género 
Chitan la sección Radsia Gray (1847). 
PiLSBRY (1892) a su vez consideró en el 
género Chitan las secciones Chitan s. s. 
(especie tipo: Ch. tubercnlatus Linneo, 
1758), Radsia (especie tipo: Ch. barnesii 
Gray, 1847) y Sclerachiton Carpenter, 
1873 (sin mencionar especie tipo dicho 
autor). Kaas y Van Belle (1980) consi- 
deran a Sclerachitan sinónimo del género 
Squamopleura Nierstrasz (1906), clasifi- 
cado en la subfamilia Acanthopleurinae. 

Thiele (1893) describe nuevos sub- 
géneros y secciones para Chitan: Aniau- 
rachitan (especie tipo: Ch. magnificiis 
Deshayes, 1827 = Ch. striatus Barnes, 
1824), Chandroplax (especie tipo: Ch. gra- 
nosus Frembly, 1827), Diachitan (especie 
tipo: Ch. albalineatus Broderip y 
Sowerby, 1829), Poecilaplax (especie tipo: 
Ch. quoi/i Deshayes, 1836 = Ch. glaucus 
Gray, 1828), Sypharachiton (especie tipo: 
Ch. pellisserpentis Quoy y Gaimard, 
1835), Triloplax (especie tipo: Ch. scabri- 
culus Quoy y Gaimard, 1832 = Ch. pellis- 
serpentis Quoy y Gaimard, 1835), 
Geargus (especie tipo: Ch. mauritianus 
Quoy y Gaimard, 1835), Rhyssaplax 
(especie tipo: Ch. affinis Issel, 1869), 
Clathrapleura (especie tipo: Ch. siculus 
Gray, 1828 = Ch. alivaceus Spengler) y 
Anthachitan (especie tipo: Ch. tulipa 
Quoy y Gaimard, 1835). 

No obstante, actualmente sólo se 
consideran válidos a Chitan y Rhyssaplax 
ya que tal como señalaron Kaas y Van 
Belle (1980) se consideran simples sinó- 
nimos de Chitan a Amaurochiton, Chan- 
draplax, Diachitan, Paecilaplax, Syphara- 
chiton, Trilaplax, Geargus y Anthachitan, y 
de Rhyssaplax a Clathrapleura. 

Nierstrasz (1906), que sigue la clasi- 
ficación de PiLSBRY (1892), incluye en el 
género Chitan los taxones subgenéricos 
Chitan s. s., Radsia y Sclerachiton y 
propone un nuevo género, Squamo- 



pleura, considerado actualmente por 
Kaas y Van Belle (1980) como válido 
en vez de Sclerachiton. 

Posteriormente, Thiele (1909) 
admite únicamente dos géneros: Chitan 
y Sclerachitan. En el primero encuadra la 
sección Radsia y el subgénero Clathra- 
pleura, y obvia al resto de los géneros 
que había descrito anteriormente 
(Thiele, 1893). 

Bergenhayn (1914) sigue los crite- 
rios de PiLSBRY (1892), de manera que 
acepta los subgéneros. Sin embargo, 
Iredale y Hull (1926) no los admiten y 
consideran que las diferencias que pre- 
sentan los distintos grupos justifican su 
separación como géneros independien- 
tes e incluso consideran los siguientes 
nuevos: Delicatoplax, Tegulaplax, Mucra- 
quasma, a la vez que mantienen Rhyssa- 
plax, Clavarizana Hull (1923), Amaurochi- 
ton, Sypharachiton, Squamopleura, Liolop- 
hura Pilsbry (1892), Amphitamura Pilsbry 
(1892), Acantapleura Guilding (1829), 
Onithachiton Gray (1847), Lucilina Dall 
(1882) y Schizachitan Gray (1847). Kaas Y 
Van Belle (1980), de los géneros nuevos 
propuestos por tales autores, admiten 
como válidos a Tegulaplax y Mucro- 
quasma, consideran a Delicatoplax sinó- 
nimo de Chitan, y aceptan a Squamo- 
pleura, Liolaphura, Acantapleura y Clavari- 
zana como géneros y subgéneros de la 
subfamilia Acantopleurinae, y a Onitha- 
chiton y Lucilina de Toniciinae. El resto 
se encuentran sinonimizados, como 
hemos comentado anteriormente. 

Thiele (1929) desarrolla una nueva 
clasificación, en la que admite subgéne- 
ros y secciones, de manera que en la 
subfamilia Chitoninae incluye los sub- 
géneros: Chitan y Rhyssoplax. En el 
primero considera las secciones: Chitan 
s. s., Amaurachitan, Diachitan, Chandro- 
plax, Radsia y Sypharachiton; y en Rhyssa- 
plax las secciones: Anthachitan, Delicata- 



Carmona Zalvide ETAL.: Nuevos datos del género Chitan en la Península Ibérica 




Figura 6. Chitan (R.) phaseolimis. A: rádula; B: placa uncinada del diente mayor lateral y diente 
plumoso; C: dientes raquídeo y primer lateral; D: disposición de las escamas ventrales; E: disposi- 
ción de las escamas dorsales; F: escamas ventrales, vista dorsal; G: escama dorsal, vista ventral; H: 
escama dorsal, vista lateral; I: espícula marginal; J: escamas ventrales. 

Figure 6. Chiton (R.) phaseolinus. A: radula; B: uncinal píate ofmajor lateral tooth and spatulate 
tooth; C: rachidian andfirst lateral tooth; D: disposition of ventral scales; E: disposition of dorsal scales; 
F: dorsal view of ventral scales; G: ventral view of dorsal scales; H: lateral view of dorsal scales; I: margi- 
nal spicules; J: ventral scales. 



13 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 



plax, Tegulaplax, Rhyssoplax s. s. y Mucro- 
quasma. 

Como se ha visto hasta ahora, puede 
decirse que se han desarrollado dos 
líneas en la clasificación de todos estos 
taxones, en una se admiten los subgéne- 
ros de Chitan, y en la otra se consideran 
con valor genérico propio. La primera 
opción es seguida, entre otros, por 
AsHBY (1931), que admite el subgénero 
Sypharochiton (considerado sinónimo de 
Chiton por Kaas y Van Belle, 1980); 
FiscHER-PiETTE Y Franc (en Grassé, 
1960), que citan como subgénero a 
Amaurochiton; Smith y Ferreira (1977), 
que admiten a Radsia como subgénero 
de Chiton; Van Belle (1978), que consi- 
dera como subgéneros de Chiton a 
Chiton s. s., Radsia, Rhyssoplax y Mucros- 
quama; Kaas y Van Belle (1980) añaden 
al listado de Van Belle (1978) el subgé- 
nero Tegulaplax, aunque Van Belle 
(1983) lo considera como sinónimo de 
Chiton. Por último, Sabelli et al (1990) y 
Dell' Angelo et al (1990) admiten a 
Rhyssoplax como subgénero. 

BuLLOCK (1988) también sigue esta 
línea, pero admite como subgéneros de 
Chiton a Amaurochiton, Diochiton, Chon- 
droplax y Chiton s. s. Por otro lado, 
separa del género Chiton a Radsia, Sypha- 
rochiton y Rhyssoplax, considerados con 
el mismo rango taxonómico, y en el 
último incluye como subgéneros a Deli- 
catoplax y Mucrosquama. Por último, a 
Typhlolochiton lo sinonimiza con Chaeto- 
pleura. 

En la otra línea, podemos a su vez, 
considerar dos tendencias. En la 
primera, los autores incluyen todas las 



especies en el género Chiton (Bergen- 
hayn, 1931, Leloup y Volz, 1938; 
Sabelli, 1974; Laghi, 1977; Barash y 
Danin, 1977; Baluk, 1984; MiFSUD et al, 
1990; Sabelli et al, 1990), y en la 
segunda denominan a la especie con el 
género que otros han considerado como 
subgéneros (Taki, 1962; Ferreira, 1983; 
Zeiler y Gowlet, 1985; Scott et al, 
1990). 

En el presente trabajo se admite a 
Rhyssoplax como subgénero de Chiton al 
igual que lo hacen Van Belle (1978; 
1983), Kaas y Van Belle (1980), Sabelli 
et al. (1990), pues desde que se realiza- 
ron las primeras clasificaciones se 
encuadraba en este género, a pesar de 
que ciertos autores no utilizan la catego- 
ría de subgénero para denominar a las 
especies que se encuentran en la Penín- 
sula Ibérica (Bergenhayn, 1931; Leloup 
Y Volz, 1938; Sabelli, 1974; Laghi, 
1977; Barash y Danin, 1977; Baluk, 
1984; MiFSUD et al, 1990; Sabelli et al, 
1990). 

Van Belle (1983) indica la siguiente 
diagnosis para el subgénero Rhyssoplax: 
El tamaño varía de pequeño a grande, 
forma de oval a oval alargado. Valvas 
carenadas, áreas distinguibles; la pleural 
siempre provista de costillas más o 
menos marcadas, la escultura del área 
lateral y de las valvas terminales varía 
de microgranular a radialmente 
estriada. Fórmula de líneas de inserción: 
8-9/1/10-12. Perinoto tapizado de 
escamas. Las tres especies estudiadas 
presentan estos caracteres, por lo que se 
les ha denominado Ch. (R.) olivaceus, Ch. 
(R.) corallinus y Ch. (R.) phaseolinus. 



bibliografía 



AsHBY, E., 1931. Monograph of the South Afri- 
can Polyplacophora (chitons). Annals South 
África Museum, 30 (1): 1-59. 

Baluk, W., 1984. Additional data on Chitons 
and cuttlefish from the Korytnica Clays 
(Middle Miocene; Holy Cross Mountains, 
Central Poland). Acta Geológica Polónica, 34 (3- 
4): 281-297. 

Barash, A. y Danin, Z., 1977. Polyplacophora 
(MoUusca) from the Eastem Mediterranean. 
Journal de Conchyliologie, 64 (1-2): 3- 27. 



Bergenhayn, J. R. M., 1914. Die Loricaten Yon 
Prof . Dr. Sixten Bocks expedition Nac Japan 
und den Bonin-Inseln 1914. Kungl Svenska Ve- 
tenskapsakademiens Handlingar, 12 (1- 4): 4-57. 

Bergenhayn, J. R. M., 1930. Die Loricaten Yon 
Prof. Dr. Sixten Bocks Pazifik Expedition 
1917-1918, mit spezieller Berhcksichtigung 
der Perinotumbildungen und der chalens- 
truktur. K. Svenska Vetensk, 9 (3): 1-54. 



14 



Carmona Zalvide ETAL.: Nuevos datos del género Chitan en la Península Ibérica 



Bergenhayn, J. R. M., 1931- Beitruge zur Ma- 
lakozoologie der Kanarischen Inseln. Arkiv 
for zoologl. 23 (13): 1-28. 

BuLLOCK, R. C. 1988., The genus Chitan in the 
New World (Polyplacophora: Chitonidae). 
Veliger, 31 (3-4): 141-191. 

Dall, W. H., 1882. On the genus Chiton. Proce- 
edings of United States National Museum. 279- 
291. 

Dell' Angelo, B., S. Hong y Van Belle, R. A., 
1990. The chiton fauna (Mollusca: Polypla- 
cophora) of Korea Part I: Suborder. Korean 
Journal systematic Zoology, 6 (I): 29-56. 

Ferreira, a. J., 1983. Researches on the coast 
of Somalia. The Chiton fauna (Mollusca Poly- 
placophora). Monitore Zoológico Italiano, suppl 
18 (9): 249-297. 

FiscHER-PiETTE, E. Y Franc, A., 1960. Classe 
des Polyplacophores. In: P. Grassé, (Ed.) 
Traite de Zoologie. Paris. 1701-1728. 

IREDALE, T. Y HuLL, A. F. B., 1926. A mono- 
graph of the Australian Loricates, I- VIII. Aus- 
tralia Zoology, 339-359. 

Kaas, P. y Van Belle, R. A., 1980. Cataloge of 
living chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora). Dr. W. 
Publisher. Rotterdam. 144 pp. 

Laghi, G. F., 1977. Polyplacophora (Mollusca) 
neogenici dell'Appennino Settentrionale. Bo- 
lletino della Paleontológica Italiana, 16 (1): 87- 
115. 

Leloup, E. y Volz, P., 1938. Die Chitonen (Poly- 
placophoren) der Adria. Thalassia. 2 (10): 1- 
63. 

MiFSUD, C, Cachia, C. y Sammut, P. M., 1990. 
Note sui Poliplacofori delle isole Maltesi. La 
Conchiglia, 256: 52-61. 

NiERSTRASZ, H. F. 1906. Remarks on the Chito- 
nidae. Tijdschrift der nederlandsche. Dierkunde 
Vereeiging, (2) 10: 141-172. 

PiLSBRY, H. A., 1892-1894. Monograph of the 
Polyplacophora. En: Tryon, G. W.: Manual of 
Conchology. Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia. 331 pp. 



Sabelli, B. a., 1974. Origine e distribuzione 
dei Poliplacophora viventi in Mediterráneo. 
- Quaderni civico Staz. Idrobiologi Milano, 5: 
71-78. 

Sabelll B., Giannnuzzi-Savelll R. y Bedulli, 
D., 1990. Catalogo annotato dei Molluschi ma- 
rini del Mediterráneo. Ed. Librería Naturalís- 
tica Bolognese, Boloña, vol. 1, 348 pp. 

ScoTT, P. H., F. G. Hochberg y Roth, B., 1990. 
Cataloge of recent and fossil molluscan ty- 
pes in the Santa Barbara Museum of Natu- 
ral Hístory. I. Caudofoveata, Polyplacop- 
hora, Bívalvia, Scaphopoda and Cephalo- 
poda. Veliger 33, Suppl. 1: 1-27. 

Smith, a. G., y Ferreira, A. J. 1977., Chiton 
fauna of the Galápagos Islands. Veliger 20 
(2): 82-97. 

Taki, L, 1962. A List of the Polyplacophora 
from Japanese Islands and Vicinity. Japan 
Journal Malacology, 22 (1): 29-53. 

Thiele, J., 1893. Poliplacophora, Lepidoglossa, 
Schupenzüngler. En: Troschel, F. H.: Das ge- 
gebiss der Schnnecken, 2: 325-336. 

Thiele, ]., 1909-1910. Revisión des Systems der Chi- 
tonen. Zoológica Stuttg. 22: 1-132. 

Thiele, ]., 1929. Handbuch der systematischen 
Weichtierkunde. Classís Loricata. Smithsonían 
Institution Librarles and The National Science 
Foundation. Washington. 1992. 1-22. 

Van Belle, R. A., 1975-1978. Sur la classifica- 
tion des Polyplacophora. I- VIL Informations 
de la Société belge de Malacologia, 4 (5): 121-131 . 
4 (6): 135-145. 5 (2): 15-42. 6 (1): 3-28. 6 (2): 35- 
44. 6 (3): 65-82. 

Van Belle, R. A., 1983. The systematic classí- 
ficatíon of the chitons (Mollusca: Polypla- 
cophora). Informations de la Société belge de 
Malacologia. 11 (1-3): 1-178. 

Zeidler, W. y Gowlett, K. L., 1985. MoUusc 
Type-Spedmens in the South Australian Mu- 
seum. 3. Polyplacophora. Australia Museum, 
19 (8): 97-115. 



15 



© Sociedad Española de Malacología 



Iberus, 18 (2): 17-30,2000 



El género Lepidochitona Gray, 1921 (MoUusca, Polypla- 
cophora) en el litoral Atlántico de la Península Ibérica 

The genus Lepidochitona Gray, 1921 (MoUusca, Polyplacophora) in 
the Atlantic littoral of Iberian Peninsula 

Pilar CARMONA ZALVIDE* y Francisco J. GARCÍA GARCÍA* 
Recibido el 14- VI- 1999. Aceptado el 2-III-2000 

RESUMEN 

En el presente trabajo se citan las especies del Género Lepidochitona Gray, 1921 (Poly- 
placophora) del litoral atlántico de la Península Ibérica con indicación de la distribución 
de cada especie. Se describen además dos especies nuevas de dicho género. 

ABSTRACT 
The species of Lepidochitona Gray, 1 92 1 (Polyplacophora) from the Atlantic littoral of Ibe- 
rian Peninsula are cited. For each species the geographical distribution in this orea is 
included. Two new species are described. 



PALABRAS CLAVES: MoUusca, Polyplacohora, Taxonomía, Anatomía, Lepidochitona cinérea, L. corrugata, L. 
canariensis, L. simrothi, L. monterosatoi, L. ibérica, L. kaasi sp. nov. y L. severianoi sp. nov.. Península Ibérica. 
KEY WORDS: MoUusca, Polyplacohora, Taxonomy, Anatomy, Lepidochitona cinérea, L. corrugata, L. cana- 
riensis, L. simrothi, L. monterosatoi, L. ibérica, L. kaasi sp. nov., L. severianoi sp nov., Iberian Peninsula. 



INTRODUCCIÓN 

El género Lepidochitona Gray, 1821 ha 
sido ampliamente discutido desde el 
punto de vista taxonómico. La contro- 
versia mantenida ha estado motivada 
por la clasificación de las especies en 
diferentes géneros y familias. Amplios 
estudios de diferentes autores han sino- 
nimizado con Lepidochitona a los siguien- 
tes taxones: Trachydermon Carpenter, 
1864 (Berry, 1918; Winckworth, 1932; 
Kaas y Van Belle 1981; 1985; Ferreira, 
1982), Craspedochilus Sars, 1878 (Pilsbry 
1892; IREDALE, 1914; Thiele, 1929; Kaas 
Y Van Belle, 1981), Middendoffia Dalí, 
1882 (ex Carpenter MS) (Kaas y Van 



Belle, 1981; Ferreira, 1982), Cyanoplax 
Pilsbry, 1892 (Thiele, 1929; Van Belle, 
1977; Kaas y Van Belle, 1981; 1985; 
Ferreira, 1982), Adriella Thiele, 1893 
(Thiele, 1929), Mopaliopsis Thiele, 1893 
(Thiele, 1929; Kaas y Van Belle, 1981; 
Ferreira, 1982), Mopaliella Thiele, 1909 
(Kaas y Van Belle, 1981; Ferreira, 
1982), Basiliochiton Berry 1918 (Ferreira, 
1982), Plotochiton Berry 1926 (Van Belle, 
1977; Ferreira, 1982). 

En el presente trabajo se enumeran 
un total de 8 especies: Lepidochitona 
cinérea (Linneo, 1767), L. corrugata 
(Reeve, 1848), L. simrothi (Thiele, 1902), L. 



* Departamento Fisiología y Biología Animal, Facultad de Biología, Univ. Sevilla. Apdo. 1095, 41080 Sevilla. 
(Spain). 



17 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 



canariensis (Thiele, 1909), L. monterosatoi 
Kaas y Van Belle, 1981, L. ibérica Kaas y 
Van Belle, 1981, L. kaasi sp. nov y L. seve- 
rianoi sp nov., todas ellas pertenecientes 
al dominio litoral del Atlántico Ibérico. 

Se describen como especies nuevas 
para la ciencia a Lepidochitona kaasi y 
Lepidochitona severianoi. 



MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS 

Se han estudiado los ejemplares de 
las colecciones del Departamento de 



Bioloxía Animal de la Universidade de 
Santiago de Compostela, del Departa- 
mento de Biología Animal de la Univer- 
sidad de Sevilla y del Museo Nacional 
de Ciencias Naturales de Madrid 
(MNCN de Madrid). 

Determinados ejemplares de L. 
kaasi y L. severianoi se trataron con 
KOH 20% al objeto de separar las 
valvas, elementos del perinoto y la rá- 
dula. El estudio de las partes duras se 
ha realizado mediante el uso de mi- 
croscopía electrónica de barrido (Phi- 
lips XL-20). 



RESULTADOS 



Lepidochitona cinérea (Linneo, 1767) 



Chitan cinereus Linneo, 1767, Syst. Nat., ed. 12: 1107. 

Chitan marginatus Pennant, 1777, Brit. Zoal. 4: 71. [Localidad tipo: England]. 

Chitan cimex Gmelin, 1791, Syst. Nat., ed. 13: 3206. [Localidad tipo: Norway] 

Chitan cimicinus Spengler, 1797, Skkrivt. Naturh. Selsk. 4: 79. [Localidad tipo: Norway]. 

Chitan quinqiúvalvis Brown, 1823, Brit. Ennc. (Edinb.) 6 th ed., 6 (2): 402. [Localidad tipo: Wales]. 

Chitan fuscatus Brown, 1827, III. Candí. Gr. Brit. Irel. Pl 35 f 17. 

Chitan variegatiis Philippi, 1836, Enum. Molí. Sicil. 1: 107 [Localidad tipo: Sicilia] 

Lqjidopleurns carinatus Leach, 1852, Syn. Molí. Gr. Brit.: 228 [Localidad tipo: Ireland] 

(Non: Fleming, 1828; Brown, 1823; 1827; Sowerby, 1841 = Chitan asellus Gmelin, 1791). 

Material estudiado: Se ha estudiado un total de 1. 087 ejemplares. Praia de Altar, Benquerencia: 
3 ej., 6 X 5,2 mm IX/83 (intermareal). Praia da Área Longa, Foz: 16 ej., 6, 3 x 4, 1 mm 11/84 (inter- 
mareal). Área de San Román, Ría de Viveiro: 4 ej., 10 x 6 mm VIH/ 83 (intermareal). Vicedo, Ría 
do Barqueiro: 22 ej., 10 x 6 mm IV/76 (intermareal). San Isidro, Ría de Cedeira: 6 ej., 8,2 x 6,1 mm 
IV/76 (intermareal). Canal da ría. Ría de Ferrol: 2 ej., 2,5 x 1,5 mm V/87 (10-25 m). Enseada de 
Laxe, Ría de Ferrol: 1 ej., 9,5 x 4,8 mm V/76; 3 ej., 6 x 4,4 mm Vil/ 87 (16 m). Enseada de Leuseda, 
Ría de Ferrol: 1 ej. 5,7 x 4,7 mm VI/ 87 (12 m). Faro da Palma, Ría de Ferrol: 2 ej., 4,4 x 4,5 mm 
VIII / 91 (14 m). Punta da Redonda, Ría de Ferrol: 1 ej., 3,2 x 2,1 mm IX/87; 20 ej., 6,8 x 4,3 mm 
XII/90; 1 ej., 7,9 x 5,7 mm VII/91; 1 ej., 4,7 x 3,5 mm VII/91; 10 ej., 9,8 x 5,7 mm VIII/91 (20 m). 
Punta Piteira, Ría de Ferrol: 1 ej., 6,5 x 4,7 mm Vil/ 91 (16 m). Enseada da Malata, Ría de Ferrol: 
10 ej., 11,5 X 7,5 mm 1/75); 24 ej., 17 x 12,4 mm IX/76; 11 ej., 13 x 8 mm V/84; 1 ej., 7,9 x 6 mm 
111/ 85; 1 ej., 7 X 4,3 mm 11/87 (intermareal-5 m). Enseada da Barca, Ría de Ferrol: 2 ej., 4,6 x 3,5 
mm Vil/ 87 intermareal). O Seixo, Ría de Ferrol: 5 ej., 6, 6 x 6 mm X/87 (intermareal). Maniños, 
Ría de Ferrol: 4 ej., 8,2 x 5,9 mm X/87 (intermareal). O Montón, Ría de Ferrol: 1 ej., 3,8 x 3,3 mm 
III/87 (5 m). As Pías, Ría de Ferrol: 12 ej., 5,9 x 3,8 mm III/87; 1 ej., 6,3 x 4,1 mm III/87 (5 m). A 
Faísca, Ría de Ferrol: 5 ej., 4,6 x 4,7 mm VIII/87 (intermareal). O Couto, Ría de Ferrol: 105 ej., 10 x 
5,1 mm VIH/ 87; 1 ej., 5,9 x 4,1 mm X/87 (intermareal). O Puntal, Ría de Ferrol: 1 ej., 3,5 x 4,3 mm 
111/ 87 (intermareal). Illas Mirandas, Ría de Ares: 1 ej., 5x3 mm IV/87 (13-16 m). Enseada de 
Ares, Ría de Ares: 1 ej., 8x5 mm 11/86; 4 ej., 8x5 mm VIH/ 86; 9 ej., 10 x 6 mm 1/87; 2 ej., 10 x 6,5 
mm IV/87 (8 m). Seno de Pontedeume, Ría de Ares: 6 ej., 15 x 9 mm IV/76; 2 ej., 8x5 mm III/87 
(5 m). Punta de San Pedro, Ría de Ares: 1 ej., seco IV/83; 5 ej., 11x7 mm 11/87 (intermareal). 
Punta dos Curbeiros de Miño, Ría de Ares: 3 ej., 7,3 x 6,2 mm IV/83; 2 ej., 9 x 5, 5 mm 1/87 (inter- 
mareal). Sada, Ría de Ares: 8 ej., 7,5 x 4,9 mm 111/ 76; 13 ej., 6,5 x 5,7 mm 111/ 78; 11 ej., 5,6 x 6,1 
mm IV/83; 1 ej., 4,8 x 3,2 mm IV/87 (intermareal). Camoedo, Ría de Ares: 18 ej., 17,4 x 8,5 mm 
11/76; 1 ej., 10 x 5 mm IV/87 (intermareal). Lorbé, Ría de Ares: 3 ej., 6,5 x 3,9 mm XI/85 (interma- 



18 



Carmona y García: Especies atlánticas de Lepidochitona en la Península Ibérica 



real). Santa Cruz, Ría da Coruña: 5 ej., 10,6 x 6,1 mm 11/76. Punta do Cabo, Suevos: 1 ej., 3,1 x 2,8 
mm IV/78 (intermareal). Praia das Cunchas, Ría de Corme e Laxe: 9 ej., 7,9 x 5,8 mm VIII/80 
(intermareal). Baixo do Placer do Cabezo de Laxe: 1 ej., 6,7 x 5,7 mm Vni/80 (42 m). Punta Cabo 
da Área, Ría de Corme e Laxe: 1 ej., 8,3 x 4,9 mm VIH/ 80 (intermareal). Fraga de Abaixo, Ría de 
Camarinas: 14 ej., 8,7 x 5,4 mm 111/ 76 (intermareal). Punta dos Corvos, Ría de Camarinas: 1 ej., 
3,3 X 3,5 mm XII/83 (intermareal). Estorde, Ría de Corcubión: 4 ej., 9 x 6,8 mm 11/76 (interma- 
real). Punta da Ameixenda, Ría de Corcubión: 2 ej., 11 x 7,1 mm 11/76 (intermareal). O Pindó, Ría 
de Corcubión: 12 ej., 7,5 x 6,2 mm Vil/ 84 (intermareal). Punta das Pedras, Ría de Muros e Noia: 7 
ej., 8 x 5,7 mm 1/84 (intermareal). Punta Aguieira, Ría de Muros e Noia: 5 ej., 12 x 7 mm III/76 
(intermareal). Punta Cabeiro, Ría de Muros e Noia: 63 ej., 11, 4 x 7 mm V/76 (intermareal). Punta 
Sagrada, Porto do Son, Ría de Muros e Noia: 13 ej., 9,8 x 5,6 mm 111/ 76 (intermareal). Punta do 
Castro, Baroña, Ría de Muros e Noia: 3 ej., 7,7 x 8,9 mm 111/ 76; 14 ej., 11,4 x 6,8 mm 111/ 76; 4 ej., 

3.8 X 2,5 mm III/84. Aguiño, Ría de Arousa: 9 ej., 9,5 x 6,4 mm III/76; 1 ej., 1,6 x 1,5 mm IV/76; 4 
ej., 10, 5 X 7 mm VÍ/81; 1 ej., 7 x 3,4 mm Vil/ 82; 3 ej., 4,2 x 3,5 mm 111/ 92 (intermareal); 29 ej., 8,6 
X 5,2 mm. VI/ 94 (intermareal). As Insuas, Ribeiriña, Ría de Arousa: 2 ej., 13 x 7,6 mm V/76; 28 
ej., 11 X 7,3 mm VI/76 (intermareal). Vilagarcia, Ría de Arousa: 5 ej., 8,2 x 5,5 mm V/76 (interma- 
real). Cámbelo da Área, Ría de Arousa: 8 ej., 5,7 x 5,3 mm 11/82 (10-15 m). Cambados, Ría de 
Arousa: 18 ej., 11, 7 x 8,6 mm VI/ 76 (intermareal). Marisma da Revolta, Ría de Arousa: 2 ej., 8,7 x 
6,6 mm 11/76 (intermareal). Punta de A Lanzada, O Grove: 2 ej., 8,5 x 3,7 mm VIII/76 (22 m). 
Praia de Bascuas, Ría de Pontevedra: 2 ej., 7,8 x 4,7 mm VIII/76 (intermareal). Portonovo, Ría de 
Pontevedra: 13 ej., 10,5 x 7 mm VIH/ 76 (intermareal). Sanxenxo, Ría de Pontevedra: 3 ej., 8,3 x 5,5 
mm VIII/76 (intermareal). Punta de Campelo, Ría de Pontevedra: 17 ej., 15 x 11 mm IV/76 
(intermareal). Illa de San Clemente, Ría de Pontevedra: 4 ej., 9 x 5,8 mm IV/76; 2 ej., 3,7 x 2,2 mm 
111/ 78; 1 ej., 3,7 x 2,4 mm. Praia Ancora, Portugal: 4 ej., 6,2 x 3 mm. IX/93 (intermareal). Praia S. 
Bartolomeu do Mar, Portugal: 5 ej., 4,5 x 2,5 mm IX/93 (intermareal). sposende, Portugal: 3 ej., 

3.9 X 2,8 mm. IX/93 (intermareal). Vila do Conde, Portugal: 5 ej., 4,2 x 2 mm. IX/93 (intermareal). 
Aveiro, Portugal: 3 ej., 5,5 x 3,2 mm IX/93 (intermareal). Portinho de Arrabida, Portugal: 5 ej., 5,5 
x 3,9 mm. X/96 (intermareal). Troia, Portugal: 1 ej., 9 x 5,5 mm V/88 (intermareal). Porto Covo, 
Portugal: 1 ej., 7x4 mm. VIH/ 93 (8 m) Arrifana, Portugal: 1 ej., 4 x 2,6 mm (Vil/ 94 (5 m). Praia 
Mareta, Portugal: 10 ej., 5,5 x 3,6 mm. VII/94 (8 m). Praia do Burgao, Portugal: 6 ej., 12 x 7, 8 mm. 
VIII/93 (7 m). Praia do Lagos, Portuga): 1 ej., 3,1 x 2 mm. VIII/93 (17 m). Praia da Marinha, Por- 
tugal: 1 ej., 5,8 X 3,2 mm. IV/88 (intermareal); 4 ej., 8,3 x 4,7 mm. VIH/ 88 (intermareal). Praia do 
HoUos, Portugal: 10 ej., 6,2 x 3 mm. VIII/93 (intermareal). Mirador, Río Piedras: 1 ej., 3x2 mm. 
V/88 (intermareal). Aguas del Pino, Río Piedras: 1 ej., 6,3 x 3,8 mm VII/87 (intermareal); 4 ej., 10 
X 5,5 mm. V/92 (intermareal); 6 ej., 12 x 7 mm. III/93 (intermareal). El Portil, Río Piedras: 3 ej., 13 
x 8 mm. IV/91 (intermareal). Bahía de Cádiz: 1 ej., 6,5 x 4 mm. XI/90 (intermareal). 1 ej., 7x5 
mm. VI/ 92 (intermareal). Cabo de Trafalgar, Cádiz: 1 ej., 8,2 x 3,3 mm. IX/95 (intermareal). 
Caños de Meca, Cádiz: 1 ej., 9x6 mm rV/94 (intermareal). Isla del Tajo, Cádiz: 2 ej., 5x4 mm. 
VII/92 (5 - 6 m). Playa del Chorro, Cádiz: 26 ej., 11 x 6 mm. VII/92 (intermareal). Isla de Tarifa, 
Cádiz: 1 ej., 3x2 mm. 11/91 (3 m); 2 ej., 7,5 x 5 mm. 1/93 (intermareal). La Ballenera, Cádiz: 4 ej., 
15 X 9 mm. V/91 (intermareal). Campamento, Cádiz: 5 ej., 8x4 mm. 111/ 91 (intermareal); 9 ej., 9 
x 6 mm. VIH/ 91 (intermareal). MNCN: N° 1503/223: 10 ej., 19 x 10,5 mm. (La Coruña) (Colec- 
ción: Azpeitia, 3184). N° 1503/225: 2 ej., 12 x 8 mm. (Tarifa, Cádiz) (Colección: Azpeitia, 3184). N° 
1503/236: 4 ej., 12 x 7,5 mm. (Sangenjo, Pontevedra) (Colección: Azpeitia, 3184). N° 1503/287: 2 
ej., 11 x 7 mm. (Cádiz) (Colección: Hidalgo). N° 1503/290: 5 ej., 13,5 x 7,5 mm. (Cascaes, Portugal) 
(Colección: Hidalgo). N° 1503/291: 3 ej., 9x5 mm. (Foz, Lugo) (Colección: Hidalgo). N° 
1503/295: 4 ej., 13,5 x 7 mm. (Murgados, Coruña) (Colección: Hidalgo). N° 1503/298: 2 ej., 11 x 6 
mm. (Setúbal, Portugal) (Colección: Hidalgo). N° 1503/299: 1 ej., 9x5 mm. (Vigo) (Colección: 
Hidalgo). N° 1503/301: 1 ej., 10 x 7,5 mm. (Bayona, Pontevedra) (Colección: Hidalgo). N° 
1503/408: 1 ej., 11 x 7,5 mm. (Cascaes, Portugal) (Colección: Hidalgo). Sin N°: 3 ej.,. 19 x 11 mm. 
(España) (Colección: Hidalgo). Sin N°: 2 ej., 13,5 x 8 mm. (Inglaterra) (Colección: Azpeitia, 3184). 
Sin N°: 19 ej., 12 x 8 mm. (Isla la Toja, Pontevedra) (Colección: Azpeitia, 3184). 

Referencias bibliográficas: Vigo, gal (Forbes y Hanley, 1853; BucQUOY, 
Coruña, sur de Portugal (Mac Andrew, Dautzenberg y Dolfus, 1882; Nobre y 
1849; 1850); Vigo, (PiLSBRY, 1892); Portu- Braga, 1942; Piani, 1980); Algeciras 



19 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 



(Capellini, 1859); Baiona (Hidalgo, 
1867); Vigo, Portugal (Jeffreys, 1865; 
1880; 1882); Gibraltar y Algeciras (Mon- 
teros ato, 1888); Vigo (PlLSBRY, 1892; 
Maluquer, 1915); Algorta, Baiona, 
Coruña, Mugardos, San Sebastián, San- 
tander, Santurce, Vigo, Zumaya, 
Cascáis, Foz, Lisboa, Lega, Setúbal, 
Algarve, Cádiz y Algeciras (Hidalgo, 
1917); Berlengas, Cascáis, Balieira, Ría 
de Faro, y Olhao, (NOBRE, 1932; 1938- 
1940); costas Atlánticas de la Península 
Ibérica (Malatesta, 1962; Sabelli, 
1974); Costas Asturianas (Anadón, 
1979); Galicia, Minho, Baixo Alentejo y 
Algarve (Kaas y Van Belle, 1981); costa 



vasca (BORJA, 1983); Algarve (Reís y 
MoNTEiRO, 1984); Algeciras (Aartsen et 
al, 1984); Galicia, Portugal y Andalucía 
(Kaas y Van Belle, 1985b); Berlenga 
(PiSANí, 1986); Illas Sisargas (Otero y 
Trigo, 1986); Ría de Arousa (Otero y 
Trigo, 1987); Illas Cíes, (Rolan et al, 
1985); Ría de Pontevedra, Islas de Ons 
(Trigo y Otero, 1987); Ría de Muros 
(Otero y Trigo, 1989); Lourizán, Ría de 
Pontevedra (Planas y Mora, 1989); Ría 
de Vigo (Rolan et al., 1989); Ría de 
Ares y Betanzos (Troncoso y Urrgo- 
RRi, 1991); Río Piedras (Estacio et al., 
1992); Enseado do Baño (Olabarría et 
al., 1997). 



Lepidochitona corrúgala (Reeve, 1847) 

Chitan corrugatus Reeve, 1847, Conch. Icón. 4. [Localidad tipo: Mediterráneo]. 

Chitan cinereus Poli, 1791, Test. Utr. Sicil. 1: 4. [Localidad tipo: Sicilia]. 

Lophyrus melphinctensis Poli, 1791, Test. Utr. Sicil. 1: 4. [Localida4 tipo: Sicilia]. 

Chitan crenulatus Risso, 1826, Hist. Nat. Eur. Mérid. 4: 267. [Localidad tipo: Nizza]. 

Chitan caprearum Scacchi, 1836 (fide Monterosato, 1879), Cat. Conch. Regn. Napoli., 9. [Localidad 

tipo: Napoli]. 
Chitan polii Philippi, 1836, Enum. Malí. Sicil, 1: 106. [Localidad tipo: Sicilia]. 
Chitan decipiens Tiberi, 1877, Boíl. Malac. Ital., 3: 14 
Nuttallina (Middendarffia) cinérea var. pseudarissai Carpenter (en Pilsbry, 1893), Man. Conch. 14: 

285. [Localidad tipo: Malta]. 
Chiton {Nuttallina) (sicl) caprearum, Scacchi, 1836 var. majar Pallary, 1900, /. Candi. Paris, 48: 366 
Non: Chitan cinereus Linneo, 1767 = Lepidochitona (L.) cinérea (Linneo, 1767) 
Non: Chiton palii Deshayes, 1833=C/7ífon (Rln/ssoplax) alivaceus Spengler 1797 

Material estudiado: El total de ejemplares recolectados ha sido de 69. Bahía de Cádiz: 10 ej., 14 x 
9 mm VI/ 92 (intermareal); 8 ej., 14 x 9 mm, 111/ 94 (intermareal). Isla de Tarifa, Cádiz: 2 ej., 3x1, 
5mm, V/91 (intermareal); 1 ej., 3 x 1, 5 mm VI/ 91 (intermareal). Punta Carnero, Cádiz: 8 ej., 4 x 
2, 5 mm. V/91 (intermareal). La Ballenera, Cádiz: 1 ej., 6 x 3, 7 mm. V/91 (intermareal). Puerto 
de Algeciras, Cádiz: 4 ej., 5, 5 x 4 mm, VIII / 91 (6 m). Campamento, Cádiz: 1 ej., 10 x 7 mm. 
VIII/91 (intermareal). Crinavis, Cádiz: 2 ej., 8 x 4, 5 mm, VI/93 (10 m); 1 ej., 10, 5 x 6, 2 mm. 
Vil/ 93 (10 m). MNCN: N° 1503/94: 1 ej., 18, 2 x 12 mm. (Mahón, Menorca, Baleares) (Colección: 
Hidalgo). N° 1503/227: 5 ej., 16 x 11 mm. (Alicante) (Colección: Azpeitia). N° 1503/228: 5 ej., 15. 5 
x 9 mm. (Cartagena, Murcia) (Colección: Azpeitia, 413). N° 1503/464: 2 ej., 14 x 10 mm. (B. 
Columbreta) (Colección: Hidalgo). N° 1503/465: 4 ej., 14. 5 x 8. 5 mm. (Cartagena, Murcia) 
(Colección: Hidalgo). N° 1503/466: 4 ej., 13 x 8. 5 mm. (Valencia) (Colección: Hidalgo). N° 
1503/467: 2 ej., 11x8 mm. (Barcelona) (Colección: Hidalgo). Sin N°: 4 ej., 13 x 8, 2 mm. (Valencia) 
(Colección: Azpeitia, 413). Sin N°: 4 ej., 11x7 mm. (Málaga) (Colección: Hidalgo). 



Referencias bibliográficas: Portugal, 
(Capellini, 1858; Bucqouy, Dautzen- 
berg y Dolfus, 1882; Locard, 1886); 
Lagos, Ría de Faro y Olhao, Cádiz 
(Pilsbry, 1892); Cádiz (Maluquer, 1915); 
Océano Atlántico Ibérico (Thiele, 1929); 
Lagos, Ría de Faro, Olhao (Nobre, 1938 - 



1940); costas suratlánticas de la Península 
Ibérica, (Malatesta, 1962); Costas meri- 
dionales Atlánticas españolas, (Sabelli, 
1974); Algarve y Golfo de Cádiz, (Kaas y 
Van Belle, 1981; 1985b); Algarve (Reís y 
MoNTEiRO, 1984); Algeciras (Aartsen et 
AL. 1984); Berlenga (PlSANl, 1986). 



20 



Carmona y García: Especies atlánticas de Lepidochitona en la Península Ibérica 




Figura 1. Lepidochitona kaasi. A: valva I; B: valva II; C: valva IV; D: valva VIII; E: disposición de 
los tubérculos en la valva I; F: disposición de las estetas en los tubérculos en la valva I; G: disposi- 
ción de los tubéfculos en la zona pleural; H: disposición de las megaloestetas y microestetas. 
Figure 1. Lepidochitona kaasi. A: valve I; B: valve II; C: valve TV; D: vahe VIII; E: arrangement of 
the tubercles on valve I; F: arrangement ofaesthetes on valve I; G: arrangement oftubercles on pleural 
área; H: arrangement of megaloaesthetes and microaesthetes. 



21 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 
Lepidochitona simrothi (Thiele, 1902) 

Nutallina (Middendorjfia) simrothi Thiele, 1902, Z. Wiss. Zool. 72: 287. [Localidad tipo: Azores]. 

Material estudiado: Se ha estudiado un total de 6 ejemplares. Praia da Marinha (Portugal): 6 ej., 9, 
8 X 7, 7 mm, IV/88 (intermareal). 

Lepidochitona canariensis (Thiele, 1909) 

Trachydermon canariensis Thiele, 1909, Zoológica Stuttg. 22: 15. [Localidad tipo: Tenerife]. 

Material estudiado: Se ha estudiado un total de 21 ejemplares. Arrifana, Portugal: 1 ej., 3, 7 x 2, 2 
mm. Vil/ 94 (intermareal). Praia Mareta (Sagres, Portugal): 6 ej., 4, 2 x 2, 9 mm. Vil/ 94 (8 m). Isla 
Tarifa, Cádiz: 4 ej., 4, 8x3, 2 mm, Vl/91 (intermareal). La Ballenera, Cádiz: 2 ej., 6, 5x4 mm, V/91 
(intermareal); 1 ej., 7, 2 x 4 mm, IX/91 (12 m). Puerto de Algeciras, Cádiz: 1 ej., 3, 8 x 2, 2 mm, 
Vlll/91 (6 m). Crinavis, Cádiz: 3 ej., 6, 1 x 4, 1 mm, III/93 (10 m); 1 ej., 4, 5 x 3 mm, V/93 (10 m); 1 
ej., 4 X 2, 5 mm, Vl/93 (10 m); 1 ej., 4x2 mm, lX/93 (10 m). 

Lepidochitona monterosatoi Kaas y Van Belle, 1981 

Lepidochitona (Mopaliella) sp. Van Belle, 1977, Inf. Soc. belg. Malac. 5 (2): 15-42. 

Material estudiado: Se han estudiado un total de 50 ejemplares: Praia da Área Longa, Foz: 4 
ej., 4, 2x2, 5 mm, 11/84 (intermareal). Portocelo, Viveiro: 2 ej., 3, 5x2, 7 mm, VIH/ 83 (inter- 
mareal). Santa Cruz, Ría da Coruña: 1 ej., 4, 6x3, 4 mm, 1/84 (intermareal). Punta do Cabo, 
Suevos: 1 ej., 4x2 mm, lV/78 (intermareal). Punta Chan, Malpica: 2 ej., 4, 5x3 mm, Xl/83 
(intermareal). Praia das Cunchas, Ría de Corme e Laxe: 1 ej., 4, 2x2, 8 mm, VIH/ 80 (interma- 
real). Punta dos Corvos, Ría de Camarinas: 1 ej., 4x2, 5 mm, 11/83 (intermareal). Illa da Creba, 
Ría de Muros e Noia: 4 ej., 4, 4x2, 7 mm, XI/74 (1-4 m). Punta Aguieira, Ría de Muros e Noia: 

1 ej., 3, 7x2, 1 mm, Xll/74 (intermareal). Punta Sagrada, Ría de Muros e Noia: 6 ej., 5x3 mm, 
111/76 (intermareal). Aguiño, Ría de Arousa: 1 ej., 6x4 mm, 111/92 (intermareal); lej., 2, 8x1, 5 
mm, Xll/83 (intermareal); 4 ej., 4, 5x2, 3 mm, VI/94 (intermareal). Marisma da Revolta, Ría 
de Arousa: 1 ej., 4x2, 5 mm, 111/76 (intermareal). Praia Mexiloeira, Ría de Arousa: 2 ej., 3, 5x2, 
5 mm, X/76 (2 m). Illa de San Clemente, Ría de Pontevedra: 1 ej., 4, 2x2, 6 mm, lV/76 (inter- 
mareal). Monteagudo, Illas Cíes: 1 ej., 4, 5x3, 4 mm, 111/83 (intermareal). Enseada do Lago, 
Illas Cíes: 4 ej., 5x3 mm, 111/ 83 (intermareal). Faro, Illas Cíes: 1 ej., 7x5 mm V/84 (interma- 
real). Cánido, Ría de Vigo: 1 ej., 1, 7x1, 1 mm, XII / 74; (intermareal); 3 ej., 7, 5x5, 5 mm, lX/76 
(intermareal); 1 ej., 5x3 mm, IV/84 (intermareal). Praia Mareta, Portugal: 1 ej., 3, 8x2 mm. 
Vil/ 94 (5 m). Isla Tarifa, Cádiz: 1 ej., 4, 8x3 mm, VI/ 91 (intermareal). La Ballenera, Cádiz: 2 
ej., 5, 5x4 mm, V/91 (intermareal). Puerto de Algeciras, Cádiz: 3 ej., 7x5 mm, VIII/90 (6 m). 
El Rinconcillo, Cádiz: 1 ej., 3, 5x2 mm, VIl/90 (3m). Crinavis, Cádiz: 1 ej., 6x3, 5 mm, IV/93 
(11 m). 

Lepidochitona ibérica Kaas y Van Belle, 1981 

Material estudiado: Se han estudiado dos ejemplares. SW da Illa da Arousa, Ría de Arousa: 1 ej., 

2 X 1,5 mm, 111/82 (8-28 m). Museum Leiden-Mollusca (paratipo) NI 5538512 (Ría de Arousa, 
Vil/ 1962, 2,5 X 1 mm; 15 m). 

Referencias bibliográficas: Ría de Galicia (Rolan, 1989; Otero y Trigo, 
Arousa (Kaas y Van Belle, 1981); 1989). 



22 



Carmona y García: Especies atlánticas de Lepidochitona en la Península Ibérica 




Figure 2. Lepidochitona kaasi. A: rádula; B: dientes raquídeo y primer lateral; C: placa uncinada del 
diente mayor lateral; D: diente plumoso; E: corpúsculos dorsales; F: espíenla marginal, vista 
ventral; G: espíenla marginal, vista dorsal; H: escama ventral. 

Figure 2. Lepidochitona kaasi. A: radula; B: rachidian andfirst lateral teeth; C: uncinal píate ofthe 
major lateral tooth; D: spatulate tooth; E: dorsal corpuscles; F: ventral view ofthe marginal spicules; G: 
dorsal view ofthe marginal spicules; H: ventral scales. 



23 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 



Lepidochitona kaasi spec. nov. 

Material estudiado: Se ha estudiado un total de 25 ejemplares: Isla Tarifa, Cádiz: 22 ej., 3,5 x 2 mm, 
VI/91 (intermareal); 3 ej., 2,9 x 1,7 mm, VlI/95 (intermareal). 

Se ha designado como holotipo el ejemplar de 3,0 x 1,5 mm, procedente de la Isla las Palomas de 
Tarifa (localidad tipo, 36° 01' 8" N; 05° 36' 22" O), que ha sido depositado en el Museo Nacional de 
Ciencias Naturales de Madrid con número de registro MNCN 15.03/486 y los restantes constitu- 
yen la serie paratípica, que se encuentra en la colección de del Departamento de Fisiología y Bio- 
logía Animal de la Universidad de Sevilla. 

Derivatio nominis: La especie ha sido denominada como Lepidochitona kaasi, dedicada al Doctor 
Piet Kaas, recientemente fallecido, y que dedicó la mayor parte de su vida al estudio de los poli- 
placóforos de todo el mundo. 



Diagnosis: Ejemplares de hasta 3,5 x 2 
mm. La coloración es parda, a veces con 
manchas blancas. El aspecto es ovalado, 
las valvas son redondeadas y no carena- 
das con el ápice muy marcado. La orna- 
mentación está constituida por granulos 
toscos redondeados. El perinoto es estre- 
cho, con bandas alternas claras y oscuras. 

Descripción (Figs. 1, 2): La valva cefá- 
lica muestra el borde anterior semicircu- 
lar y el posterior triangular, con un 
ángulo muy obtuso (Fig. lA). La pen- 
diente de la valva tiende a ser convexa. 
El tegmento ofrece leves surcos radiales 
que recorren la valva hasta el margen. 
Las valvas intermedias son triangulares, 
en forma de V, con el borde anterior 
cóncavo (Fig. IC) a excepción de la valva 
II (Fig. IB) que tiende a ser recto, los late- 
rales son ligeramente redondeados, y los 
márgenes posteriores concurren de 
forma casi recta en el ápice. Las áreas 
laterales sobresalen ligeramente de la 
central. La valva caudal (Fig. ID) es de 
menor tamaño que la cefálica, el margen 
anterior tiende a ser recto y el posterior 
semicircular. El muero, poco marcado, se 
encuentra en disposición central con una 
pendiente ligeramente convexa. Todas 
las valvas se caracterizan por presentar 
un reborde muy marcado del tegmento 
en la zona posterior de la cara ventral. 

El tegmento ofrece una ornamenta- 
ción constituida por toscos granulos dis- 
puestos en quincunce, con alguna varia- 
ción en las distintas áreas de las valvas. 
En la valva cefálica, zona postmucral de 
la caudal y áreas laterales de las interme- 
dias tienden a formar cadenas semicircu- 
lares concéntricas (Figs. lE, F), mientras 
que en las áreas centrales y anteromucral 



se disponen en líneas que forman V con- 
céntricas (Fig. 1 G). En los granulos se 
dispone una megaloesteta central de 5 
jWm (a: 0,38) de diámetro y en círculo 
concéntrico las microestetas de 1,3 ^m. 
{o: 0,23) de diámetro (Fig. IH). Entre los 
granulos también se disponen de forma 
azarosa estas microestetas. 

El articulamento es blanco aunque 
puede variar a pardo en la zona jugal. Los 
aleros son muy esponjosos y los dientes 
algo ondulados. Las apófisis son lisas, de 
forma triangular con los bordes algo 
redondeados en las valvas intermedias. 
Presenta entre 8 y 10 líneas de inserción 
en la valva cefálica, una en las interme- 
dias y ninguna en la caudal, ofreciendo 8 
ó 9 dientes dirigidos hacia delante. 

El perinoto se caracteriza por la 
alternancia de bandas blancas y pardas. 
Está constituido por corpúsculos no 
imbricados, cilindrocónicos curvados, 
con una serie de costillas en ambas 
caras, que se disponen desde la mitad 
del corpúsculo hasta el borde apical. Su 
número varía entre 4 y 6 (Fig. 2E). El 
tamaño oscila entre 52 y 65 fim de altura 
y 20 y 30 ^m de base. Las escamas ven- 
trales ofrecen una forma cónica de 28 
mm de altura y 10 mm de diámetro (Fig. 
2H). El fleco marginal está formado por 
espíenlas cilindricas con el borde termi- 
nal afilado, de un tamaño de 105 /^m de 
longitud y 25 /^m de diámetro. Se carac- 
terizan por presentar estrías longitudi- 
nales en la cara dorsal (Fig. 2G) de la 
espíenla y lisa por los laterales y la cara 
ventral (Fig. 2H). 

Las branquias se clasifican como 
holobranquia abánales. Se han contabili- 
zado hasta 14 branquias. 



24 



Carmona y García: Especies atlánticas de Lepidochitona en la Península Ibérica 




Figure 3. Lepidochitona severianoi. A: valva B; 2 valva II; C: valva IV; D: valva V; E: valva VIII; F: 
disposición de los tubérculos en la valva I; G: disposición de los tubérculos en la zona jugal; W: dis- 
posición de los tubérculos en la zona pleural; I: disposición de las megaestetas y microestetas. 
Figure 3. Lepidochitona severianoi. A: vahe I; B: valve II; C: valve IV; D: vahe V; E: vahe VIII; F: 
arrangement ofthe tubercles on vahe I; G: arrangement ofthe tubercles on the jugal área; H: arrange- 
ment ofthe tubercles on the pleural área; I: arrangement ofmegaesthetes and microesthetes. 



25 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 



El diente radular raquídeo es alar- 
gado, con un borde terminal flexible. El 
primer lateral es más estrecho y de una 
longitud similar al central, aunque no lo 
sobrepasa por encontrarse insertado a 
un nivel más bajo (Figs. 2A, B). El diente 
mayor lateral presenta tres puntas de 
tamaños prácticamente iguales, aunque 



sobresale ligeramente la central (Fig. 
2C). El diente plumoso que sobrepasa al 
diente mayor lateral, presenta el borde 
pectinado (Fig. 2D). 

Biología: Solamente se han recolec- 
tado ejemplares en pozas de roquedos 
de la zona intermareal de la Isla de 
Tarifa. 



Lepidochitona severianoi spec. nov. 

Material estudiado: Se ha estudiado un total de 8 ejemplares: Caños de Meca, Cádiz: 1 ej. 9 x 5,2 
mm, IX/93 (Intermareal). Islas de las Palomas, Cádiz: 1 ej., 8x5 mm, IX/92 (12 m). Punta Camero, 
Cádiz: 1 ej. 4 X 2, 4 mm, V/91 (Intermareal). La Ballenera, Cádiz: 1 ej., 4 x 2,5 mm, V/91 (Interma- 
real). 1 ej., 7, 8 x 4 mm, IX/91 (12 m). Crinavis, Cádiz: 1 ej., 8x5 mm, V/93 (10 m); 1 ej. 4,6 x 2,5 
mm, VI/93 (10 m); 1 ej. 5,5 x 3,5, X/93 (10 m). 

Se ha designado como holotipo al ejemplar de 7,8 x 4 mm recolectado en la bahía de Algeciras (loca- 
lidad tipo) que ha sido depositado en el Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Madrid con número de 
registro MNCN 15.03/487 y los restantes constituyen la serie paratípica que se encuentra en la 
colección de del Departamento de Biología Animal de la Universidad de Sevilla. 
Derivatio nominis: La especie ha sido denominada como Lepidochitona severianoi dedicada a D. 
Severiano Carmona Cuñales. 



Diagnosis: Ejemplares de talla media, 
de hasta 9 mm de longitud y 5,2 mm de 
anchura. La coloración es rosada con 
matices anaranjados muy pálidos y 
manchas pardas en la zona central de 
las valvas. La forma es ovalada, con las 
valvas redondeadas y las áreas laterales 
son patentes y elevadas, aunque nor- 
malmente se encuentran muy erosiona- 
das. La ornamentación la forman granu- 
los redondeados de aspecto tosco, dis- 
puestos en quincunce. Puede ofrecer de 
3 a 4 costillas longitudinales en las áreas 
pleurales. Presenta 8 ó 9 surcos radiales 
en la valva cefálica y hasta 3 en las áreas 
laterales. La valva caudal es de menor 
tamaño. El aspecto del perinoto es gra- 
nulado, constituido por corpúsculos no 
imbricados y lisos, entre los cuales 
sobresalen espíenlas aisladas o en pena- 
chos de dos o tres. El fleco marginal es 
poco patente. 

Descripción (Figs. 3, 4): La valva cefá- 
lica ofrece el borde anterior en forma de 
un tercio de círculo (Fig. 3A). El margen 
posterior es triangular. La pendiente ori- 
ginada es fuertemente convexa. Se 
observan de 8 a 9 surcos radiales muy 
marcados, dispuestos desde el ápice 
hasta el margen anterior. La valva 



segunda es triangular (Fig. 3B). El resto 
de las valvas intermedias son rectangu- 
lar, con el margen anterior ligeramente 
convexo, los laterales curvados y el pos- 
terior tiende a ser recto pues el ápice 
generalmente está erosionado (Figs. 3C, 
D). Las áreas laterales están fuertemente 
elevadas con respecto al área central y 
presentan surcos radiales obsoletos, en 
número de 2 a 3. En las áreas pleurales, 
pueden presentar hasta 4 costillas longi- 
tudinales patentes, aunque no en todas 
las valvas. La valva caudal, de menor 
tamaño que la cefálica, presenta el borde 
anterior algo convexo y el posterior 
semicircular (Fig. 3E). El muero se posi- 
ciona de forma anterocentral y es poco 
prominente. La pendiente que origina el 
muero es convexa. 

La ornamentación de las valvas está 
constituida por toscos tubérculos redon- 
deados dispuestos en quincunce en la 
zona jugal (Fig. 3G) y con tendencia a 
formar cadenas convergentes hacia el 
margen anterior en la zona pleural (Fig. 
3H), perdiendo de esta forma la identi- 
dad de tubérculo redondeado. En las 
áreas laterales y valvas terminales se 
observa una tendencia a constituir 
cadenas concéntricas (Fig. 3F). 



26 



Carmona y García: Especies atlánticas de Lepidochitona en la Península Ibérica 




Figura 4. Lepidochitona severianoi. A, B: rádula; C: placa uncinada del diente mayor lateral y diente 
plumoso; D: dientes raquídeo y primer lateral; E: disposición de los corpúsculos dorsales; F: dispo- 
sición de las escamas ventrales; G: espíenlas dorsales; H: corpúsculos dorsales; I: espículas margina- 
les; J: escama ventral. 

Figure 4. Lepidochitona severianoi. A, B: radula; C: uncinal píate ofmajor lateral tooth and spatulate 
tooth; D: rachidian and ftrst lateral teeth; E: arrangement of dorsal corpuscles; F: arrangement of 
ventral spicules; G: dorsal spicules; H: dorsal corpuscles; L marginal spicules; J: ventral scales. 



27 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 



El diámetro de los granulos es de 
86,99 }im (a: 5,92). En el centro se sitúa 
una megaloesteta de 9,3 ¡im (a: 0,5) de 
diámetro. Las microestetas se disponen 
en círculos concéntricos alrededor de la 
megaloesteta, con un diámetro medio 
de 3,4 nm (o: 0,83) (Fig. 31). 

El articulamento es de color blanco. 
Los aleros son esponjosos y los dientes 
fuertes y ligeramente ondulados, dirigi- 
dos hacia el centro en la valva caudal. 
En las valvas intermedias y cefálica se 
observa el reborde del tegmento de la 
zona del ápice sobre la articulamento. 
La forma de las apófisis varía desde 
triangulares en las valvas más anteriores 
a trapezoidal en las posteriores. Las 
líneas de inserción son patentes en todas 
las valvas, la fórmula es 8/1/9. 

El perinoto ofrece bandas alternas de 
tonos claros y pardo anaranjado. Está 
constituido por corpúsculos lisos con 
forma de "almohadillas", con los bordes 
proximal y terminal redondeados y los 
laterales rectos, aunque pueden estar 
algo curvadas en posición convexa 
(Figs. 4E, H). El diámetro oscila entre 15 
y 20 ^m y la longitud de 25 a 50 ^wm. 
Entre ellas, se encuentran penachos de 
espíenlas dorsales curvadas y lisas, que 
pueden alcanzar tamaños de 200 f<m 
(Fig. 4G). Las escamas ventrales son de 



aspecto triangular y lisas (Figs. 4F, J). Su 
tamaño varía entre 27 y 40 ¡ira de altura 
y de 12 a 15 ¡im de ancho. El fleco mar- 
ginal es poco patente, estando formado 
por espíenlas cilindricas con el borde 
terminal agudo y estriadas dorsalmente 
por 5 costillas longitudinales. El rango 
de longitud es de 80 a 85 }ivs\. 

Las branquias se clasifican como 
merobranquia abanal. El numero de 
branquias en cada lado ha oscilado entre 
10 y 14. 

El diente radular raquídeo presenta 
forma rectangular, con una lengüeta fle- 
xible terminal estrecha (Figs. 4A, B). El 
primer lateral (Fig. 4D), a pesar de no 
sobrepasar al diente central, ofrece una 
mayor longitud, y es más estrecho que 
el diente raquídeo. El diente mayor 
lateral es tricúspide; la punta central 
sobresale en los dientes de nueva forma- 
ción, mientras que en los más antiguos 
se encuentran al mismo nivel. El diente 
plumoso exhibe el borde terminal pecti- 
nado (Fig. 4C). 

Biología: Se ha recolectado en zonas 
rocosas con abundancia de algas calcá- 
reas. Algunos ejemplares se han encon- 
trado cubiertos, casi en su totalidad, por 
este tipo de algas. Su distribución bati- 
métrica se extiende desde la zona inter- 
mareal hasta 10 m de profundidad. 



DISCUSIÓN 



A las dos especies, Lepidochitona kaasi 
y lepidochitona seveñanoi se les ha clasi- 
fica dentro del género Lepidochitona por 
manifestar las características propias 
que definen Kaas y Van Belle (1981), 
distinguiéndose de Dendrochiton y Spon- 
gioradsia por no presentar los apéndices 
córneos ramificados en el perinoto. 

Al comparar a Lepidochitona kaasi con 
otras especies de Lepidochitona del Atlán- 
tico Oeste, Sur África, Noroeste y 
Noreste del Pacífico, se comprueba que 
ninguna presenta las valvas intermedias 
en forma de V, característica marcada de 
los ejemplares de esta especie. 

Con respecto a las especies del 
Atlántico Oriental, por su aspecto 
externo se puede confundir en un prin- 



cipio con L. corrúgala, L monterosatoi, L. 
simrothi y L. ibérica, descartándose de L. 
cinérea, L. canariensis, L. furtiva, L. stroni- 
felti y L. severianoi porque éstas presen- 
tan las valvas intermedias claramente 
rectangulares. Al estudiar los corpúscu- 
los calcáreos dorsales del perinoto, se 
determina que por la forma son diferen- 
tes a los de L. piceola. De igual manera, 
se puede distinguir de L. simrothi, ya 
que la especie en cuestión no presenta 
espíenlas calcáreas entre los corpúsculos 
del perinoto y el tamaño de las espíenlas 
marginales y escamas ventrales es 
menor. 

Al desmontar las valvas, se observa 
que no presenta líneas de inserción en la 
valva VIH, lo que la diferencia de L. 



28 



Carmona y García: Especies atlánticas de Lepidochitona en la Península Ibérica 



ibérica y L. monterosatoi. Comparándola 
con L. corrúgala, a pesar de ser diferente 
la forma de las valvas intermedias, se 
distingue por el número de costillas de 
los corpúsculos dorsales del perinoto y 
el tamaño de éstos, por el nivel de inser- 
ción de las branquias y disposición y 
tamaños de los dientes raquídeos y 
primer lateral de la rádula. 

Comparando Lepidochitona severianoi 
con las especies de Lepidochitona del 
Atlántico Oeste, Sur África y Noroeste y 
Noreste del Pacífico, se diferencia 
porque las que presentan costillas en la 
zona pleural también presentan estria- 
dos los corpúsculos del perinoto. 

Con respecto a las especies del 
Atlántico Oriental, partimos de la base 
que ninguna de ellas presenta costillas 
en la zona pleural y los corpúsculos del 
perinoto son estriados en todas. No obs- 
tante por su aspecto externo tosco se 



puede confundir en un principio con L. 
corrugata, L monterosatoi, L. piceola, L. 
simrothi, L. ibérica y L. kaasi, descartán- 
dose del resto de las especies que son de 
apariencia más finas. Sin embargo por la 
forma de las valvas, que la presentan en 
V, se excluye L. piceola, L. simrothi, L. 
ibérica y L. kaasi. 

En relación con el articulamento, L. 
corrugata no ofrece las líneas de inser- 
ción de la valva caudal, por lo que se 
diferencia de L. severianoi. Y con res- 
pecto a L. monterosatoi se distingue 
porque esta especie no presenta las 
áreas laterales tan elevadas, ni costillas 
en la zona pleural y los corpúsculos del 
perinoto se encuentran estriados en el 
tercio terminal. 

Estas diferencias de L. kaasi y L. seve- 
rianoi con el resto de las especies de este 
género, es lo que nos lleva a proponerlas 
como nuevas especies para la ciencia. 



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Otero, J. J. y Trigo, J. E., 1989. Moluscos de la 
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Pilsbry, H. a., 1892-1893. Monograph of the 
Polyplacophora. In: Tryon, G. W.: Manual of 
Conchology, 1. Academy of Natural Sciences, 
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Reís, C. A. y Montero, A. J., 1984. Aspectos eco- 
lógicos dos polyplacophora (Mollusca) da 
costa portuguesa. Actas do IV Simposio Ibérico 
de Estudos do Benthos Marinhos. I: 219-227. 

Rolan, E., Trigo, J., Otero-Schmitt, J. y Ro- 
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Rolan, E., Otero, J. y Rolán-Álvarez, E., 
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Sabelli, B. a., 1974. Origine e distribuzione 
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30 



© Sociedad Española de Malacologta Iberus, 18 (2): 31-39, 2000 

Descripción de Trochoidea (Xerocrassa) roblesi spec. nov. 
(Mollusca, Gastropoda, Hygromiidae) de la Comunidad 
Valenciana (España) 

Description of Trochoidea (Xerocrassa) roblesi spec. nov. (Mollusca, 
Gastropoda, Hygromiidae) from "Comunidad Valenciana" (Spain) 

Alberto MARTÍNEZ-ORTÍ* 

Recibido el 23-XII-1999. Aceptado el 20-IX-2000 

RESUMEN 

Se describe una nueva especie de Hygromiidae, Trochoidea (Xerocrassa) roblesi spec. 
nov., endemismo valenciano que se ha recolectado en varias localidades de la Sierra Cal- 
derona, en lo provincia de Valencia. Se caracteriza por su concha pequeña, parduzca con 
flamuiaciones blanquecinas y abundante pilosidad. Genitalia con la porción masculina y el 
conducto de la bolsa copulatriz de gran longitud. Se compara con otras especies de la 
misma familia como Trochoidea (Xerocrassa) penchinati (Bourguignat, 1868), T (X.) ripa- 
curcica (Bofill, 1 886), T. (X.) salvanae (Fagot, 1 886) y Microxeromagna armillata (Lowe, 
1 852), con las que guarda alguna similitud conquiológica o de la genitalia. 

ABSTRACT 

A new species from Hygromiidae, Trochoidea (Xerocrassa) roblesi spec. nov., is descri- 
bed, a Valencian endemism which has been collected in various localities of the Sierra 
Calderona, in Valencia (Spain). It is characterised by its small, brown shell with white stre- 
aks and abundant hair. Genitalia with the masculine section and copulatrix bursa's duct in 
great length. The Trochoidea (X.) roblesi spec. nov. is compared to other species of the 
same family such as, Trochoidea (X.) penchinati (Bourguignat, 1 868), T. (X.) ripacurcica 
(Bofill, 1886), T (X.) salvanae (Fagot, 1886) and Microxeromagna armillata (Lowe, 
1 852), with those which have some conquiological or genitalial similarity. 



PALABRAS CLAVE: Mollusca, Hygromiidae, Trochoidea roblesu especie nueva. Comunidad Valenciana, España. 
KEY WORDS: Molluscs, Hygromiidae, Trochoidea roblesi, new species, "Comunidad Valenciana", Spain. 



INTRODUCCIÓN 

Durante los últimos 10 años el autor en el este de la Península Ibérica. Uno 

ha realizado un intensivo muestreo por de los resultados obtenidos destacables 

toda la Comunidad Valenciana, con el ha sido el hallazgo de una nueva 

propósito de estudiar la malacofauna especie, perteneciente al género Trochoi- 

terrestre presente en esta región, situada dea Brown, 1827 (Martínez-Ortí, 1999). 



* Museu Valencia d'História Natural. Passeig de la Petxina, 15. E-46008 Valencia. Comunidad Valenciana 
(España). E-mail: alberto.martinez@uv.es 

31 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 



Este género se caracteriza por presen- 
tar una variabilidad conquiológica tan 
acusada que no permite realizar una des- 
cripción a nivel genérico satisfactoria. En 
su genitalia destaca la presencia de un 
aparato estimulador constituido por dos 
sacos sin dardos, dispuestos a ambos lados 
de la vagina, con sus bases contiguas o 
alejadas, incluyendo todas las posiciones 
intermedias, y dos a cuatro glándulas 
mucosas simples o bifurcadas dispuestas 
alrededor de la vagina (Puente, 1994). 

En la Comunidad Valenciana se han 
hallado 12 especies atribuidas al género 



Trochoidea, tres del subgénero Trochoidea 
s. str. y nueve de Xerocrassa Montero- 
sato, 1892 (Martínez-Ortí y Robles, 
1998) siguiendo los criterios de Forcart 
(1976). Así, el nuevo taxon se asigna a 
Xerocrassa por la ausencia de apéndice 
atrial. 

Dado el número elevado de espe- 
cies del subgénero Xerocrassa presentes 
en la Comunidad Valenciana, el nuevo 
taxon se ha comparado con las especies 
que presentan características conquioló- 
gicas o del aparato reproductor simi- 
lares. 



SISTEMÁTICA 

Género Trochoidea Brown, 1827 
Subgénero Xerocrassa Monterosato, 1892 

Trochoidea (Xerocrassa) rohlesi spec. nov. 

Localidad tipo: Naquera: La Fonteta, (263V), 30SYJ2292, 260 m, 25 ejemplares y 19 conchas. 
Material tipo: Holotipo depositado en el Museu Valencia d 'Historia Natural (MVHN) de Valen- 
cia con N" 401-A; 36 paratipos depositados en el MVHN (20 ejemplares y 16 conchas), N° 401-B; 2 
paratipos (ejemplares) en el Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales de Madrid con N° 15.05 / 32055; 

3 paratipos (2 ejemplares y una concha) en el Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum de Leiden 
(Holanda) con N° 59157; 2 paratipos (conchas) en el Museo de Geología de la Universitat de Valen- 
cia con N° 5751. Todos ellos proceden de la misma localidad que el holotipo. 

Otras localidades: Olocau: Barranco de Olocau (258V), 30SYJ1197, 260 m, 1 concha; Naquera: Fuente 
del Salt (271V), 30SYJ2293, 280 m, 1 ejemplar y 2 conchas. Serra: Fuente del Berro (262V), 30SYJ1698, 

4 conchas. 

Etimología: Especie dedicada al Doctor Fernando Robles Cuenca por su larga trayectoria en el 
estudio de los moluscos valencianos y por sus consejos y ayuda para llevar a cabo mi proyecto de 
Tesis doctoral. 



Diagnosis: Concha pequeña, de 
coloración parduzca con pequeñas fla- 
mulaciones blanquecinas y recubierta 
por una pilosidad diminuta y abun- 
dante. La genitalia está caracterizada 
por una gran longitud del conjunto 
pene, epifalo y flagelo, y del conducto 
de la bolsa copulatriz. 

Descripción: 

Concha (Figs. 1-4): dextrógira, sub- 
globosa cónica de pequeño tamaño, con 
4 a 5 vueltas de espira, de crecimiento 
regular, con una ligera quilla en la 
última vuelta. Protoconcha formada por 
1 V4 vueltas, con flamulaciones y pre- 
sencia de una diminuta pilosidad menos 
abundante que en la teloconcha. 



Abertura oval, con el peristoma 
interrumpido, simple, cortante y sin re- 
borde interno. Ombligo pequeño, entre 
1,20 y 1,50 mm de diámetro, parcial- 
mente oculto por la reflexión del peris- 
toma, que posee una anchura máxima 
de 1 mm, dejando ver el interior del 
ombligo. 

La superficie de la teloconcha posee 
una ligera y fina costulación. Coloración 
parduzca con numerosas flamulaciones 
blanquecinas de pequeño tamaño, sobre 
todo en la zona más próxima al ápice y 
que forman bandas a lo largo de toda la 
concha en ambas caras, si bien en la 
umbilical se forma un reticulado. Pre- 
senta una abundante pilosidad consti- 
tuida por pelos cortos, curvados en su 



32 



MtVRTÍNEZ-Ortí: Trochoidea roblesi spec. nov. de la Comunidad Valenciana (España) 




1 mm 



Figuras 1-6. Holoripo de Trochoidea (Xerocrassa) roblesi sipec. nov. la-c: Concha (4,77 mm h; 7,52 
mm 0); 2: protoconcha; 3: teloconcha; 4a-c: dibujo de la concha; 5: aparato genital; 6: papila penial. 
Figures 1-6. Holotype o/Trochoidea (Xerocrassa) roblesi spec. nov. la-c: Shell (4.77 mm h; 7.52 mm 
0); 2: protoconch; 3: teloconch; 4a-c: drawing ofthe shell; 5: genital system; 6: penial papilla. 



33 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 





10 



JkMk. 



Figuras 7-10. Rádula del Holotipo de Trochoidea (Xerocmssa) roblesi sptc. nov. (M.E.B.) 7: dientes 
central y laterales; 8: diente central; 9: dientes marginales; 10: diente marginal. 
Figures 7-10. Holotype radula o/"Trochoidea (Xerocrassa) roblesi spec. nov. (S.E.M). 7: central and 
lateral teeth; 8: central tooth; 9: marginal teeth; 10: marginal tooth. 



extremo más distal, que se presentan ali- 
neados siguiendo las estrías colabrales. 

Las dimensiones oscilan entre 3,73 y 
4,89 mm de altura y 6,66 y 7,84 mm de 
diámetro. Holotipo, 4,77 mm de altura y 
7,52 mm de diámetro. 

Aparato genital (Figs. 5, 6): El esquema 
general de la genitalia, cuyo estudio ana- 
tómico se ha realizado sobre siete ejem- 
plares, es similar al de las restantes espe- 
cies de Trochoidea (Xerocrassa) (Fig. 5). 

En el atrio, corto, aparece vm ensan- 
chamiento de la pared en la zona 
enfrentada al pene, que se presenta en 
algunas otras especies del género Tro- 
choidea y que posiblemente pueda estar 
relacionado con la eversión del pene, ya 
que únicamente se ha observado en 
ejemplares que ya han copulado. 

Vagina desde 2,2 hasta 3,05 mm de 
longitud, en cuya zona media o en la 
más próxima a la inserción con el con- 
ducto de la bolsa copulatriz se insertan 
los dos sacos del dardo, a ambos lados 



relativamente distanciados, curvados, 
rudimentarios, de 1,35 mm de longitud 
máxima, con un engrosamiento basal y 
carentes de dardo. El oviducto libre es 
corto, curvado, de 1 a 1,2 mm, formando 
un fuerte pliegue. 

Las glándulas mucosas, que se pre- 
sentan insertadas en la vagina, se 
reúnen en cuatro troncos independien- 
tes. Se han encontrado seis glándulas, 
dos de ellas bifurcadas y con una longi- 
tud máxima de 2,9 mm. 

El conjunto pene, epifalo y flagelo 
tiene una longitud considerable. El pene 
proporcionalmente pequeño, tiene una 
longitud entre 2,65 y 3,55 mm. En su 
interior se presenta una papila penial 
corta, cónica, en ocasiones curvada, de 
1,25 mm de longitud y con la abertura 
subapical (Fig. 6). El epifalo presenta 
una longitud comprendida entre 6,25 y 
10,5 mm y el flagelo varía entre 5,5 y 
10,05 mm. El conducto deferente pre- 
senta una longitud entre 7,60 y 10,75 



34 



MartÍNEZ-OrtÍ: Trochoidea roblesi spec. nov. de la Comunidad Valenciana (España) 





■y 




11a 



11c 



12 



13a 



13b 





14b 



14a 




15a 




14c 




16*^>- '•■ 

Figuras 11-16. Conchas. 1 la-c: Trochoidea (Xerocrassa) penchinati (3,09 mm h; 6,19 mm 0), Tibi, Les 
Casetes, N° 89A; 12: teloconcha de T. (X.) penchinati (M.E.B., N° 89A); 13a-c: T. (X.) ripacurcica (5,7 
mm h; 10,6 mm &), Fredes, Barranco del Salt, N° 205C; I4a-c: T. (X.) salvanae (4,54 mm h; 6,88 mm 
0), Utiel, ermita Virgen del Remedio, N° 299V; 15a-c: M. armillata (2,7 mm h; 5,16 mm 0), Ayora, 
Meca, N° 169V; 16: teloconcha de M. armillata (M.E.B., N° 169V), colección Martínez-Ortí. 
Figures 11-16. Shells. lla-c: Trochoidea (Xerocrassa) penchinati (3.09 mm h; 6.19 mm 0), Tibi, 
Les Casetes, N" 89A; 12: teloconch ofY. (X.) penchinati (S.E.M., N" 89A); 13a-c: T. (X.) ripacurcica 
(5.7 mm h; 10.6 mm 0), Fredes, Bco. del Salt, N" 205C; l4a-c: T. (X.) salvanae (4.54 mm h; 6.88 
mm 0), Utiel ermita Virgen del Remedio, N" 299V; 15a-c: M. armillata (2.7 mm h; 5.16 mm 0), 
Ayora, Meca, N" 169V; 16: teloconch ofM. armillata (S.E.M.), Martínez-Ortí collection. 



35 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 




Figuras 17-23. Aparato genital de: 17. Trochoidea (Xerocrassa) penchinati. Tibi: Cabezo de la 
Alcocha, N° 202. 18. Papila penial de T. (X.) penchinati, N° 202. 19. T. (X.) ripacurcica. Fredes: 
Barranco del Salt, N° 205C. 20. Papila penial de T. (X.) ripacurcica. 21. T. (X.) salvanae. Aras de 
Alpuente: ermita Santa Catalina, N° 267V. 22. Papila penial de T. (X.) salvanae, N° 267V. 23. M. 
armillata. La Loberuela: entrada, N° 189V. (e= 1 mm). 

Figures 17-23. Genital system of: 17. Trochoidea (Xerocrassa) penchinati. Tibi. Cabezo de la Alcocha, 
N" 202. 18. Penial papilla ofT. (X.) penchinati, N" 202. 19. T. (X.) ripacurcica. Fredes: Barranco del 
Salt, N° 205C. 20. Penial papilla ofT. (X.) ripacurcica. 21. T. (X.) salvanae. Aras de Alpuente: ermita 
Santa Catalina, N° 267V. 22. Penial papilla ofT. (X.) salvanae, N° 267V. 23. M. armillata. La Lobe- 
ruela: entry, N° 189V (b= 1 mm). 



mm. Músculo retractor del pene corto, 
inferior a 2 mm de longitud. 

El conducto de la bolsa copulatriz 
presenta una gran longitud, llegando a 
alcanzar entre 11,4 y 15,25 mm. La bolsa 
copulatriz, sin espermatóforo en su inte- 
rior, es de aspecto redondeado y pre- 



senta unas dimensiones de 1,60 mm de 
ancho por 2,05 mm de alto. Sin embargo, 
con espermatóforo presente ésta puede 
deformarse hasta alcanzar 2,35 mm de 
ancho y 2,50 mm de longitud. 

Otros caracteres: El cuerpo es de color 
blanquecino sin pigmentación aparente. 



36 



MartÍNEZ-OrTÍ: Trochoidea roblesi spec. nov. de la Comunidad Valenciana (España) 





Figuras 24, 25. Localización geográfica de 24í* Trochoidea (Xerocrassa) roblesi spec. nov. (puntos), T. 
pe.) ripacurcica (circulo vacío), T. (X.) penchinati (aspas), T. (X.) salvanae (triángulos); 25: M. armi- 
llata. (círculos llenos: nuevas localidades; círculos vacíos: localidades citadas; círculos semivacíos: ambas). 
Figures 24, 25. Geographiclocation in the "Cormmidad Valenciana" of 24 .-Trochoidea (Xerocrassa) roblesi 
spec. nov. (points), T. (X.) ripacurcica (empty circle), T. (X.) penchinati (crosses), T. (X.) salvanae (man- 
gles); 25: M. armillata (fUll circles: new localities; empty áreles: cited localities; half-empty: both). 



Pie de tipo holópoda. Presenta el músculo 
retractor del ommatóforo derecho inde- 
pendiente del aparato genital. 

La mandíbula del holotipo es de tipo 
odontognato, con 0,50 mm de anchura, 
arqueada y con once costillas. 

La rádula del holotipo presenta 1,70 
mm de longitud y 0,50 mm de anchura 
(Figs. 7-10) con la siguiente fórmula ra- 
dular: 13M+12L+C+15L+16M. Como se 
puede observar la fórmula radular del ho- 
lotipo es asimétrica. La hemirrádula de- 
recha está constituida por 25 dientes de los 
cuales 12 corresponden a dientes laterales 



y 13 a marginales. La fila 15 presenta dien- 
tes de morfología anómala. La hemirrádula 
izquierda está constituida por 31 dientes 
de los cuales 15 corresponden a los late- 
rales y 16 a los marginales. La fila 27 pre- 
senta dientes de morfología anómala. 

Distribución geográfica y habitat: 

Trochoidea (Xerocrassa) roblesi spec. nov. 
es un endemismo valenciano que vive 
en la Sierra Calderona, comarca de El 
Camp de Túria (provincia de Valencia), 
donde se ha recogido en varias localida- 
des próximas entre sí (Fig. 24). 



37 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 



Vive en ambientes xerófilos, como 
pinadas y matorral mediterráneo, y en 
una ocasión se recogió una concha en un 
barranco con curso de agua, junto al 
municipio de Olocau, probablemente 
arrastrada. Los ejemplares vivos se cap- 
turaron semienterrados entre la pinocha 
(hojarasca) y debajo de pequeñas pie- 
dras, a altitudes desde los 260 hasta los 
560 m. Se ha encontrado conviviendo 
con Trochoidea (Xerocrassa) murcica (Gui- 
rao in Rossmassler, 1854). 

Ninguna de las especies con las que 
se podría confundir conquiológica o 
anatómicamente se ha recolectado junto 
a T. (X.) roblesi spec. nov., siendo M. 
armillata la especie más extendida por la 
región, mientras que las otras tres apare- 
cen en áreas más concretas y reducidas 
(Martínez-OrtÍ, 1999) (Figs. 24-25). 

Conservación: Trochoidea (Xerocrassa) 
roblesi spec. nov. es una especie poco 
común en la Comunidad Valenciana que 
se extiende por un área muy reducida 
de su territorio, la Sierra Calderona. Se 
conoce viva en pocas localidades, por lo 
que es recomendable realizar un mayor 
número de prospecciones para intentar 
encontrar nuevas poblaciones. Las prin- 
cipales amenazas para esta especie son 
el auge urbanístico en la zona, los incen- 
dios, vertederos, carreteras y canteras. 
Por todo ello, T. (X.) roblesi spec. nov. 
debe considerarse como especie vulne- 
rable, según la IUCN-1994, y el autor 
pretende realizar las gestiones oportu- 
nas para incluirla en el catálogo de espe- 
cies amenazadas de España. 

Discusión: Desde el punto de vista 
conquiológico, las especies más parecidas 
a T. (X.) roblesi spec. nov. son Trochoidea 
(Xerocrassa) penchinati (Bourguignat, 
1868) (Fig. 11) y Microxeromagna armillata 
(Lowe, 1852) (Fig. 15), ya que ambas pre- 
sentan una pilosidad diminuta y abun- 
dante por toda la concha (Figs. 12 y 16), y 
unas dimensiones que entran en el rango 
de variabilidad de T. (X.) roblesi spec. nov. 
De ellas difiere principalmente por las 
numerosas flamulaciones blanquecinas 
que presenta por toda la concha, el 
menor aquillamiento de la última vuelta 
y el ombligo más reflejado. Las genitalias 



de estas dos especies, son claramente dis- 
tintas de T. (X.) roblesi spec. nov.; T. (X.) 
■penchinati presenta una menor longitud 
de los conductos de la parte masculina y 
del conducto de la bolsa copulatriz (Fig. 
17) y una papila penial con morfología 
distinta (Fig. 18), mientras que M. armi- 
llata presenta un aparato estimulador 
constituido por un saco del dardo, con un 
dardo en su interior, y un saco accesorio a 
un lado de la vagina, y dos glándulas 
mucosas bifurcadas que se insertan en el 
mismo lado que los sacos (Manganelli 
Y GiusTi, 1988; Puente, 1994; Puente y 
Altonaga, 1995) (Fig. 23). 

En cuanto al aparato genital, Trochoi- 
dea (Xerocrassa) ripacurcica (Bofill, 1886), 
Trochoidea (Xerocrassa) salvanae (Fagot, 
1886) y T. (X.) roblesi spec. nov. presentan 
un esquema general similar (Figs. 5, 19, 
21). Las principales diferencias halladas 
entre las tres especies se basan en las dife- 
rentes medidas obtenidas del pene, 
epifalo, flagelo y la bolsa copulatriz y su 
relación entre ellas. El flagelo es largo en 
todas ellas. El epifalo es de mayor longi- 
tud en T. (X.) roblesi spec. nov. y T. (X.) 
ripacurcica que en T (X.) salvanae, mien- 
tras que el conducto de la bolsa copula- 
triz es de mayor longitud en T. (X.) roblesi 
spec. nov. que en las otras dos especies. 
Además, las papilas pernales de las tres 
especies presentan distinta morfología 
(Figs. 6, 20, 22). Por otra parte, las caracte- 
rísticas morfológicas de la concha de 
estas especies permiten diferenciarlas cla- 
ramente (Figs. 1-4, 13 y 14). Las dimen- 
siones máximas de los ejemplares valen- 
cianos de T. (X). ripacurcica son 5,97 mm 
de altura y 10,08 mm diámetro, mayores 
que las de las otras dos especies. Las 
medidas obtenidas por Faci (1991) para 
esta especie en Aragón son 7,0 mm de 
altura y 12,25 mm de diámetro. Las 
dimensiones máximas encontradas para 
T. (X.) salvanae en la Comunidad Valen- 
ciana son de 6,0 mm de altura y 8,60 mm 
de diámetro, mientras que para T. (X.) 
roblesi spec. nov. son 4,89 mm de altura y 
7,84 mm de diámetro. Además, la presen- 
cia de pilosidad en la concha y una colo- 
ración característica permiten que T. (X.) 
roblesi spec. nov. pueda ser fácilmente 
diferenciada de las otras dos especies. 



38 



MartÍNEZ-OrtÍ: Trochoidea roblesi spec. nov. de la Comunidad Valenciana (España) 



AGRADECIMIENTOS 



Al Dr. E. Gittenberger (Nationaal Na- 
tuurhistorisch Museum, Leiden), Chus 
del Valle y Eulalia García (Museu de Zo- 
ología de Barcelona) y al Dr. Óscar So- 
ríano y Miguel Villena (Museo Nacional 
de Ciencias Naturales de Madrid) por la 
cesión de algunas muestras de las especies 
tratadas en este trabajo. También agrade- 



cer al Dr. Gittenberger, a la Dra. M" Teresa 
Aparicio (Museo Nacional de Ciencias 
Naturales de Madrid) y al Dr. Benjamín 
Gómez (Universidad del País Vasco) por 
sus observaciones sobre esta nueva espe- 
cie. Asimismo, al Dr. Agustín Tato por su 
ayuda en la realización de las imágenes en 
el microscopio electrónico de barrido. 



BIBLIOGRAFÍA 



Fací, G., 1991. Contribución al conocimiento de di- 
versos moluscos terrestres y su distribución en la 
Comunidad Autónoma Aragonesa. Tesis Doc- 
toral (inédita). Universidad de Zaragoza. 787 
pp. 

FORCART, L., 1976. Die Cochlicellinae und He- 
licellinae von Palástina und Sinai. Archivfür 
Molluskenkunde, 106 (4-6): 123-189. 

Manganelli, G. y Giusti, F., 1988. A new Hy- 
gromiidae from the italian Apennines and no- 
tes on the genus Cernuella and related taxa 
(Pulmonata: Helicoidea). Bolletino Malacolo- 
gico, 23 (11-12): 327-380. 

Martínez-Ortí, a., 1999. Moluscos terrestres 
testáceos de la Comunidad Valenciana. Tesis 
doctoral (inédita). Univ. Valencia. 743 pp. 

Martínez-Ortí, A. y Robles, F., 1998. El Sub- 
género Xerocrassa Monterossato, 1892 (Gas- 
tropoda, Pulmonata, Hygromiidae) en la Co- 
munidad Valenciana. XII Congreso Nacional 
de Malacología. Málaga. C. Salas Ed.: págs. 24- 
25. 



Puente, A. I., 1994. Estudio taxonómico y bioge- 
ográfico de la superfamilia Helicoidea Rafines- 
que, 1815 (Gastropoda:Pulmonata:Stylomma- 
tophora) de la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares. 
Tesis Doctoral (inédita). Universidad del País 
Vasco. 1.037 pp. 

Puente, A. I. y Altonaga, K., 1995. Estudio 
morfológico y corológico de dos especies 
conquiológicamente similares, Helicella cons- 
purcata (Drapamaud, 1801) y Microxeromagna 
armillata (Lowe, 1852), en la Península Ibérica 
e Islas Baleares (Pulmonata: Helicoidea: Hy- 
gromiidae). Zoológica baetica, 6: 121-148. 



39 



© Sociedad Española de Malaco logia Iberus, 18 (2): 41-50, 2000 

Plaxiphora mercatoris Leloup, 1936 (Polyplacophora: 
Mopaliidae) de Isla de Pascua, Chile 

Plaxiphora mercatoris Leloup, 1936 (Polyplacophora: Mopaliidae) 
from Easter Island, Chile 

Cecilia OSORIO RUIZ^, María E. RAMÍREZ CASALP, Ana M. MORA 
TAPIA2 y Marco VEGA PETOKVICi 

Recibido el 6-IV-2000. Aceptado el 13-X-2000 

RESUMEN 
Se analizaron 588 ejemplares de P. mercatoris por tallas y sexos, entre 6 y 57 mm. de longi- 
tud total. P. mercatoris presenta sexos separados, sin diferencias sexuales externas. No se 
observaron hermafroditas. La proporción entre machos y hembras fue de 1,04: 0,89. Los 
machos se diferenciaron sexualmente a los 1 5,6 mm y las hembras a los 1 8,2 mm de longi- 
tud; las tallas máximas registradas para ambos sexos fueron de 53 y 57 mm respectiva- 
mente, P. mercatoris es una especie endémica y exclusiva de isla de Pascua, que se distri- 
buye verticalmente en el intermareal medio al inferior de los sistemas rocosos de la isla. P. 
mercatoris se presenta con densidades entre 1 y 8 individuos/m^. La flora acompañante de 
este guitón presentó una dominancia de las algas calcáreas Mesophyllum siamense, Amphi- 
roa yendoi y otras Corallinaceae. La fauna acompañante está constituida por las especies 
Chthamalus beiyiaevi, Cypraea caputdraconis, Ecbinometra insularis, Nodilittorina pyrami- 
dalis pascua, Nerita morio, Polychaeta, Cnidaria (Antozoa), Briozoa y otros. 

ABSTRACT 

A total 588 specimens of Plaxiphora mercatoris were analyzed, in terms of sizes and sex, 
registering sizes between ó and 57 mm. P mercatoris presents sepárate sexes, with no 
externa! sexual differences; no hermaphrodites were observed. The proportion of males 
versus femóles v/as 1.04: 0.89. Males differentiate sexually at 15.6 mm and femóles at 
1 8.2 mm, and the máximum sizes registered were 53 mm and 57 mm respectively. P mer- 
catoris is distributed only along the perimeter of the island. Its vertical distribution in the 
rocky system is from mid to low intertidal v/ith densities between 1 and 8 individuals/m^. 
The accomponying flora of this chiton presented some olgae, colcareous aigoe being 
dominant: Mesophyllum siamense, Amphiroa yendoi and other Corallinaceae. The accom- 
ponying fauna is made by following species Chtamalus beiyiaevi, Cypraea 
caputdraconis, Echinometra insularis, Nodilittorina pyramidalis pascua and Nerita morio. 



PALABRAS CLAVES: Plaxiphora mercatoris, Polyplacophora, población, distribución, densidades, fauna y flora 
asociada. Isla de Pascua, Océano Pacífico. 

KEY WORDS: Plaxiphora mercatoris, Polyplacophora, population, distribution, densities, fauna and flora asso- 
ciated Easter Island, Pacific Ocean. 



' Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago. E-mail: cosorio@uchile.cl 
^ Laboratorio de Botánica, Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Casilla 787, Santiago Chile. E-mail: mrami- 
rez@mnhn.cl 

41 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 



INTRODUCCIÓN 



Los poliplacóforos constituyen un 
grupo de invertebrados marinos que ha- 
bitan especialmente las zonas rocosas 
intermareales de gran parte de las costas 
del mundo (Van Belle, 1983). Por su 
abundancia y hábitos alimentarios, estas 
especies son estructuradoras y /o modi- 
ficadoras de las comunidades de algas 
del sistema intermareal (Piercy, 1987; 
Glynn, 1970; Otaíza y Santelices, 
1985; Peña, Zuñiga y Rodríguez, 1987), 
forman parte de la dieta de peces, aves y 
estrellas de mar (Otway, 1994); y tam- 
bién han constituido históricamente un 
recurso alimenticio para el hombre. 
Existen antecedentes de su consumo 
por los habitantes en la Isla de Pascua, 
en la Polinesia, en Oriente, en las costas 
de Chile Continental y en Cape Banks, 
Australia (OsoRio, Atria y Mann, 1979; 
Otway, 1994). Poca importancia se ha 
dado al conocimiento de la biología y 
ecología de este grupo pese a su relativa 
importancia en algunos ecosistemas. 

El conocimiento científico de la 
única especie registrada para la Isla de 
Pascua (o Rapa Nui), Plaxiphora mercato- 
ris Leloup, 1936 está limitado sólo su 
taxonomía. Se ha recolectado en las loca- 
lidades de Hanga Piko, Haka Ea, Hotu 
Iti, Otuu, Hanga Pukura, Ovahe, y 
Anakena (Redher, 1980). 

Al igual que Isla de Pascua, en Sa- 
moa. Marquesas, Tahití y Mangareva, 
los poliplacóforos se conocen con el 
nombre común de "mama" cuyo signi- 
ficado en lengua pascuense es "bostezo" 
(Atan, com. pers). En Rapa Nui, los gru- 
pos de isleños más tradicionales creen 
que estos moluscos son un alimento 
muy nutritivo para los niños. Por otra 
parte, su extracción es parte de la trans- 
ferencia de conocimientos entre padres e 
hijos. Esta actividad es una práctica co- 
mún, donde participa la familia en la ex- 
tracción de organismos marinos, para 
alimentarse y obtener materia prima 
para su artesanía, permitiendo además 
la enseñanza del medio marino. Los 
"mamas" son preferidos como alimento 
a otros moluscos, por ser grandes y más 
fáciles de comer que los caracoles Ne- 



rita morio (Sowerby, 1833) y Nerita lire- 
llata Redher (1980). Se comen crudos o 
cocidos en agua. Los análisis químicos 
ratifican que son una buena fuente de 
proteína (14,3%) y de minerales (3,6%), 
con un bajo contenido graso (2,6%) una 
humedad de 77,1% y un 2,4% de extrac- 
tivo no nitrogenado (hidratos de car- 
bono y otros) (Masson com. pers). 

Los escasos antecedentes biológicos 
sobre representantes del Género Plaxip- 
hora en el mundo, se limitan a los trabajos 
de Brandani, Faedo y Penchazadeh 
(1974), quienes estudian la estructura por 
tallas y sexo, densidad específica y la epi- 
biosis de P. aiirata del intermareal de Mar 
del Plata, Argentina. En la ultima década 
sólo conocemos los trabajos de Calvez 
(1991) sobre la hipomería en P fernandezi; 
de Otway (1994) quien describe la ecolo- 
gía poblacional de Plaxiphora albida (Blain- 
ville, 1825) en Australia y LÓPEZ Y 
Tablado (1997) quiénes estudian aspec- 
tos del crecimiento y producción en P. 
aurata en Quequen, Argentina. 

Las características especiales de ais- 
lamiento geográfico, de este único y 
endémico representante de la Clase 
Polyplacophora en Isla de Pascua, y el 
uso que los isleños hacen de ella, hicie- 
ron particularmente interesante este 
estudio, cuyos objetivos son caracterizar 
la especie basados en aspectos biológi- 
cos como la morfogravimetría, la estruc- 
tura poblacional y la sexualidad, ade- 
más de caracterizar su habitat y distri- 
bución en el intermareal. 

El conocimiento de la fauna de Isla 
de Pascua es muy escaso, debido princi- 
palmente a su lejanía y a la dificultad 
para trabajar en sus costas, por lo cual la 
información de este trabajo es valiosa y 
amerita ser conocida por la comunidad 
científica, datos que serán útiles en 
futuras investigaciones. 



MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS 

El estudio fue realizado en Isla de 
Pascua (27°10'S, 109°20'O). Las mues- 
tras proceden de diferentes localidades 



42 



OSORIO ETAL.: Plaxiphora mercatoris en Isla de Pascua, Chile 



lOS-ZS' 


1 1— ■ 

109°20' 109°15' 


N 


4 Km 


i ,,,^-^ 


ANAKENA 




ES^L \ PAPA ITI 


il^ 


%SsÁ^VAHE 


^ 


■'^ LA PEROUSE ^^°''^' " 


/ 


TEPITO ''^'''''''''^¡'fS^J^g-JjOT^ ARIKI 


TAHAI *?' 


..../ 


~~Í 


^^^HANGANUI 


^^HANGA ROA 


j^í**^ ^^5^í»*n ONETEA 


£nga «apu r*'* 


^r"^ PRAIA-O^ °™" 


K ^y / 'VAIHU 
\5¡^. ^Jl HANGA POUKURA 


' AKAHAWGA 27°10'- 








, .- %. 


&- ^^'^¡s^*''^ 




OCÉANO 




J 


PACIFICO 




ISLA DE •• j| 
PASCUA 










i ^ 







Figura 1 . Mapa de Isla de Pascua y su locaiización en el océano Pacífico. Las localidades señaladas 
con un circulo corresponden a lugares de recolección de muestras de Plaxiphora mercatoris. 
Figure 1. Eastern Island in the Pacific Ocean. Sampling stations of Plaxiphora mercatoris are indicated 
by an open circle. 



del intermareal rocoso (Fig. 1), y fueron 
recolectadas durante los períodos de 
marea baja, en distintas fechas desde 
1991 a 1994 (Tabla I). El muestreo consi- 
deró una muestra de un mínimo de 50 
ejemplares, número que en algunas 
oportunidades no se alcanzó. Estos 
ejemplares se mantuvieron extendidos y 
congelados sobre una base de madera 
por algunas horas, finalmente fueron 
fijados en formol al 10% diluido en agua 
de mar y trasladados al laboratorio en 
Santiago para su análisis. 

El análisis poblacional para determi- 
nar la estructura de talla y la sexualidad 
de la especie se hizo sobre un total de 
588 ejemplares, que incluían los anterio- 
res. La determinación de sexos se realizó 
después de la disección, basado en la 
observación de frotis gonádico y / o por 
observación del color de las gónadas, 
verde para hembras y rojo para machos. 

En un total de 278 ejemplares, de los 
588 recolectados, se midió a cada ejem- 



plar la longitud y ancho máximos consi- 
derando el cinturón, con un calibre 0,01 
mm precisión. También se registró el 
peso total de cada ejemplar con una 
balanza Sartorius de 0,02 g de precisión. 

La cobertura de algas y la densidad 
de las especies, se cuantificó en terreno 
mediante dos transectos extendidos 
desde un punto máximo superior hasta 
el mínimo de marea, el día 20 de Sep- 
tiembre de 1993. Se cuantificó la densi- 
dad y cobertura usando cuadrantes reti- 
culados de 0,25 m^ y de 0,50 m^. La des- 
cripción del habitat se hizo basándose 
en la identificación de muestras de la 
flora y fauna acompañante, recolectadas 
en los transectos indicados. 

Para describir la morfometría de ma- 
chos y hembras se usaron diagramas de 
dispersión y un análisis de regresión sim- 
ple. En los cálculos se utilizó el programa 
Microsof Excel para Windows 95 para 
describir las relaciones longitud - ancho y 
longitud - peso. La selección del modelo 



43 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 



Tabla I. Plaxiphora mercatoris de Isla de Pascua. Localidad de recolección, fecha, número de indivi- 
duos por sexo y tipo de análisis realizado. Q: químico; M: morfométrico; G: gravimétrico; Med*: 
medidos in situ. 

Table I. Plaxiphora mercatoris ofEaster Island. Sampling station, date, number of individual, sex and 
type ofanalysis. Q: chemical; M: morphometric; G: gravimetric; Med. *: measuredm situ. 



Localidad 


Fecha 




Número de individuos 




Tipo análisis 




Total 


Machos 


Hembras Indeterminados 




Prai Ahure 


13.03.91 


53 


28 


19 


6 


M, G 


Prai Ahure 


23.06.91 


43 


19 


24 




M, G 


Prai Ahure 


22.09.91 


15 


8 


7 




M, G 


Prai Ahure 


10.10.91 


23 


14 


8 


1 


M, G 


Motu Ariki 


19.05.92 


55 


32 


23 




M, G 


One Tea 


21.11.92 


35 


23 


12 




M, G 


Tahai 


22.09.93 


58 


24 


28 


6 


M, G 


Lo Perouse 


22.09.93 


90 








M, Q 


Papo Iti 


19.09.93 


57 








Med* 


Vaihu 


19.02.94 


9 


5 


3 


1 


M, G 


Vaihu 


18.03.94 


44 


23 


21 




M, G 


Vaihu 


27.04.94 


54 


28 


26 




M, G 


Vaihu 


09.05.94 


52 


25 


27 




M, G 


Total 




588 


229 


198 


14 





de regresión se basó en el coeficiente de 
determinación r^ para los modelos lineal, 
exponencial y potencial (Canavos, 1996). 
Además se compararon las relaciones 
longitud - ancho y longitud - peso entre 
machos y hembras, a través de la prueba 
de Chow (GujARATi, 1997). 

Para describir la estructura de la 
población, se usó el método tradicional 
de Petersen del análisis de frecuencias 
de tallas (Miranda, 1967). Para describir 
la distribución por sexos se utilizaron 
frecuencias acumuladas expresadas en 
porcentajes de machos y hembra y pro- 
porción sexual (Hernández, Fernán- 
dez Y Baptista, 1996). 



RESULTADOS 

A. Parámetros Morfológicos: Las 

relaciones entre la longitud total (LT) 
con el ancho total (AT) y el peso total 
(PT) fueron estudiadas en 278 ejempla- 
res (142 machos y 136 hembras). 

Dado que no se encontró diferencias 
significativas entre sexos (FAT v/s LT: 



2,66; gl=2.274; p< 0,05 y F PT v/s LT: 
0,52; gl=2.274; p< 0,05), machos y 
hembras fueron analizados conjunta- 
mente para cada relación. La relación 
potencial en ambos casos fue la que 
mejor se ajusta a los datos (Figs. 2 y 3): 
AT = 2,426 * LT 0,6286, r^: 0,4861 
PT = 0,0013 * LT 2,3916, r^: 0,7582 

B. Análisis de la población: Plaxip- 
hora mercatoris presenta sexos separados, 
sin diferencias sexuales externas. De los 
435 ejemplares analizados (Tabla 1), 192 
correspondieron a hembras (44,1%) y 
229 fueron machos (52,6%) y en 14 ejem- 
plares (3,2%) no se pudo determinar el 
sexo por presentar gónadas incoloras, 
pese a realizarse frotis. La proporción 
entre machos y hembras, fue 1,04: 0,89. 
La talla mínima a la cual se reconoció el 
sexo fue de 15,6 mm en machos y 18,2 
mm en hembras. La talla máxima obser- 
vada en machos fue de 53 mm, mientras 
que las hembras alcanzan tallas de hasta 
57 mm. Los individuos indeterminados 
presentaron tallas entre 12 mm y 47 mm. 
De 11 muéstreos, en ocho oportunidades 



44 



40 j 
35 -- 



O 20 -- 

y 15- 

< 

10 -- 
5 -- 



15 



OSORIO ET AL.: Plaxiphora mercatoris en Isla de Pascua, Chile 



LONGITUD (mm) 




LONGITUD (mm) 



Figuras 2, 3. Relación longitud - ancho (2) y longitud total y peso total (3) en Plaxiphora mercato- 
ris de Isla de Pascua. 

Figures 2, 3. Length - width (2)and total length vs total weight (3) relationship o/Plaxiphora mercato- 
ris from Easter Island. 



predominaron los machos, y en tres las 
hembras (Tabla I). 

El rango de tallas estudiado osciló 
entre 13 y 57 mm a excepción de 3 indi- 
viduos del área de Papa Iti (19/09/93) 
que registraron tallas inferiores a 13 
mm. Aún cuando existe una gran dife- 
rencia en el número de individuos por 
muestra (9 a 90), el promedio de las 
tallas tiene poca variación, (Fig. 4). Los 
promedios de tallas variaron entre 30 y 
44 mm y solo la muestra 3 (22/09/91) 
tiene un promedio bajo (23,35mm). Se 
observó una tendencia a la disminución 
de tallas en junio 1991 (muestra 2), sep- 
tiembre 1991 (muestra 3) y septiembre 
de 1993 (muestra 9). 

En las localidades de Prai Ahure 
(1991) y Vaihu (1994), se realizó un 
muestreo continuo de cuatro meses de 
duración, donde se observó una distri- 
bución normal de tallas de la población. 
En Prai Ahure (Fig 5A), el rango de 
tallas estuvo entre 11 y 57 mm de longi- 
tud total. En cada uno de los meses se 
encontró una moda principal y otras 
secundarias. La moda principal parece 
desplazarse hacia tallas menores al 
pasar el tiempo y sólo en el último mes 
aumenta con relación al anterior. En 
Vaihu (Fig. 5B), las tallas de la población 
estuvieron entre 15 y 55 mm de longitud 
total. Se encontró una moda principal en 
cada uno de los meses casi sin desplaza- 
miento de moda, registrándose una talla 
media, de 35 mm entre febrero y mayo 
de 1994. 



C. Descripción del habitat: Los 

ejemplares de P. mercatoris se encontra- 
ron adheridos a grandes rocas en áreas 
semi expuestas con suaves a pronuncia- 
das pendientes y en pozas del interma- 
real. Su distribución se observa desde el 
intermareal medio al intermareal infe- 
rior. Se adhieren por medio de su pie al 
sustrato, de superficies casi lisas o algo 
rugosas, en grietas o fisuras estrechas, 
ajustados a su talla; en paredes vertica- 
les, laterales u horizontales al oleaje. 

La flora acompañante de este Poli- 
placóforo consistió principalmente en 
algas calcáreas como {Mesophyllum sia- 
mense (Foslie) Adey, Amphiroa yendoi 
Borgesen y otras Corallinaceae). Tam- 
bién se encontraron otras algas como 
Hypnea cenomyce J. Ag., Ulva sp, Entero- 
morpha sp., Lobophora variegata (Lamour) 
Wom., Hincksia mitchelliae (Harv.) Silva, 
Colpomenia sinuosa (Roth) Derb. y Sol., 
Hydrodathrus clathratus (Bory) Howe y 
Cladophora socialis Kuetz., representadas 
escasamente en cobertura, cuya distri- 
bución vertical y abundancia en porcen- 
taje se indican en la Tabla IL 

La fauna acompañante a P. mercato- 
ris está constituida preferentemente por 
un conjunto de organismos como Chtha- 
maliis belyiaevi Zevina y Kurshakova, 
1973; Cypraea caputdraconis Melvill, 
1888; Echinometra insularis Clark, 1972; 
Nodilittorina pyramidalis pascua Rosewa- 
ter, 1970; Nerita morio (Sowerby,1833), 
Polychaeta, Cnidaria (Antozoa), Brio- 
zoa y otros. 



45 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 






Figura 4. Promedio de tallas y desviación estándar por muestra en Plaxiphom mercatoris. Isla de 
Pascua. En el recuadro se indica el número de individuos controlados por muestra. 
Figure 4. Mean length and standard deviation per saniple in Plaxiphora mercatoris of Easter Island. 
boxes: number of individuáis in each sample. 



D. Distribución vertical y abundan- 
cia de P. mercatoris: En Tahai, en un 
frente semiexpuesto se ubicaron los 
transectos realizados (Fig. 1, Tabla 11). 
En el muestreo, realizado el 20/09/93, 
se observó la presencia de P. mercatoris 
desde los 32 cm del máximo de altura 
de las mareas, hacia el intermareal infe- 
rior. Los ejemplares se encuentran por 
lo general aislados, con una densidad de 
1 ind/m^, ocasionalmente se observa- 
ron 3 o más ejemplares juntos. También 
tenemos constancia de la presencia de 4 
ejemplares, de pequeña talla (<2 cm) en 
el interior de marmitas (orificios cónca- 
vos) marinas, bajo el erizo Echinometra 
insularis y junto a turbelarios. Como 
resultado de este análisis es posible 
reconocer que PlaxipJwra mercatoris tiene 
densidades entre 1 ind/m^ (20/09/93 
Tahai) a 8 ind/m^ (22/09/91 Prai 
Ahure). 

E. Cobertura: Se midió la cobertura 
de los organismos dominantes en la 
localidad de Tahai (20/09/93), en una 
extensión de superficie de playa de 9,25 
m2 y desde el punto de marea máxima, 
denominado Estación O (Tabla 11). Entre 
las Estaciones O y 1, que equivalen a un 
desplazamiento de 3,75 m horizontales 
y 0,77 m de altura intermareal, las dos 
especies dominantes son Nodilittorina 
pi/ramidalis pascua (12%) y Chthamalus 
belyiaevi (22%). 



Entre la Estación 1 y la Estación 2, 
que equivale a un desplazamiento de 3,0 
m horizontales hacia el mar y 0,12 m de 
altura de marea, los organismos domi- 
nantes son Chthamalus belyiaevi (41% en 
el cuadrante 21), las algas Ulva sp (60% 
cuadrante 25) e Hypnea cenomyce (45% 
cuadrante 24). En las áreas inferiores, 
entre las Estaciones 2 a 3, aumenta la 
cobertura de otras algas como Lobophora 
variegata (40% cuadrante 33), Hincksia 
mitchelliae (58% cuadrante 35) y en el 
cuadrante 36, las algas H. mitchelliae 
(19%) y Amphiroa yendoi (14%). 



DISCUSIÓN 

La talla máxima registrada en P. mer- 
catoris (57 mm de longitud) es seme- 
jante a lo indicado por Redher (1980), 
quien da una longitud máxima de 60 
mm, medida estimada para un ejemplar 
parcialmente doblado (USNM 756279), 
y superior a lo señalado por Leloup 
(1936), quien dio una longitud máxima 
de 31 mm, basado en cuatro ejemplares. 

La estructura de la población de P 
mercatoris en Isla de Pascua mostró tres 
grupos modales, semejantes a lo regis- 
trado por LÓPEZ Y Tablado (1997) en 
Plaxiphora aurata para las costas de 
Argentina. Similar observación realiza 
Glynn (1970) para tres especies de poli- 
placóforos tropicales donde existirían 



46 



OSORIO ET AL: Plaxiphora mercatoris en Isla de Pascua, Chile 



Tabla II. Distribución vertical de Plaxiphora mercatoris en el intermareal de Isla de Pascua. Cober- 
tura de algas y presencia de fauna asociada en la localidad de Tahai (20/09/93, 10:50 a 15:30 h). 
Anp: Anphiroa yendoni Borgesen; Cía: Cladophora socialis Kutzing; Cirr: Chthamalus belyiaevi 
Zevina y Kurshakova, 1973; Col: Colpomenia í/«MOí<z(Roth)Derb. y Sol.; Cor: Coralinaceae; Ech: 
Echinometra insularis Clírck, 1972; Ent: Enteromorpha sp.; Hin: Hincksia miícheliiae (Hírv.) Silva; 
Hyd: Hydroclathrus clathratus (Bory) Howe; Hyp: Hypnea cenomyce Agíidh; Lob: Lobophora varie- 
gata (Lamour) Wom.; Mes: Mesophyllum siamense (Foslie) Adey; Nod: Nodilittorina pyramidalis 
pascua Rosewater, 1970; Pía: Plaxiphora mercatoris Leloup,1936; Ulv: Ulva sp. X: presencia de P 
mercatoris en áreas paralelas. Cuadrantes de 25 cm^. 

Table II. Vertical distribution o/Plaxiphora mercatoris on the rocky intertidal ofEaster Island. Algal cove- 
rage and presence of associated fauna in Tahai, (20/09/93, 10:50 to 15:30 h). Anp: Anphiroa yendoni 
Borgesen; CZí.- Cladophora socialis Kutzing; CzVr.- Chthamalus belyiaevi Zevina and Kurshakova, 1973; Col: 
Colpomenia sinuosa (Roth) Derb. and Sol; Cor: Com/míZc^íZí"; ^c/;.- Echinometra insularis Clarck, 1972; 
Ent: Enteromorpha sp.; Hin: Hincksia mitchelliae (Harv.) Silva; Hyd: Hydroclathrus clathratus (Bory) 
Howe; Hyp: Hypnea cenomyce Agardh; Lob: Lobophora variegata (Lamour) Wom.; Mes: Mesophyllum 
siamense (Foslie) Adey; Nod: Nodilittorina pyramidalis pascua Rosewater, 1970; Pía: Plaxiphora merca- 
toris Leloup, 1936; Ulv: Ulva sp. X: presence ofP. mercatoris in adjacent áreas. Squares has 25 crri. 



Cuadrante Estación 












1 


ESPECIES 
















W 


N° 


Nod 


Cirr 


Hyp 


Cor 


Ulv 


Ent 


Pía 


Lob 


Mes 


Hin 


Col 


Anp 


Ech 


Hyd 


Cía 






N^ 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


N^ 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


N^ 


% 


% 



1 o 1 

2 ó 

3 3 

4 12 

5 O 
ó 1 

7 O 

8 O 

9 2 

10 O 

11 O 

12 1 8 

13 3 

14 10 

15 1 22 

16 1 30 

17 10 

18 14 3 1 

19 3 
20 

21 41 21 

22 12 

23 12 

24 21 45 
25 

26 3 18 

27 17 

28 2 20 

29 3 
30 

31 

32 8 

33 

34 

35 3 

36 



16 



















8 














4 
















10 


43 


1 












33 




X 












50 




X 












60 




X 












23 




X 


1 










8 




X 












19 




X 




32 








3 




X 
X 
X 






24 






10 




X 


14 




50 


4 


4 


5 




X 


40 




7 






4 




X 


ó 




30 







1 




X 
X 






58 
19 


4 


7 
14 



47 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 



Intervalo de Talla 
(mm) 




09-may 



1 8-mar 

Fecha de muestreo 



Intervalo de Talla 
(mm) 



Figura 5. Distribución de tallas de la población de Plaxiphora mercatoris de Isla de Pascua, durante 
cuatro muéstreos realizados en 1994 en dos localidades diferentes. A. Prai Ahure; B. Vaihu. 
Figure 5. Size distribution ofthe Plaxiphora mercatoris population found in two dijferent sampling 
stations ofEaster Island during a period offour month, 1994. A. Prai Ahure; B. Vaihu. 



tres grupos de edades, compuestos por 
animales jóvenes, o menores a 2 años, 
con un rápido reemplazo de los ejem- 
plares, esto explicaría que las poblacio- 
nes se mantienen en el tiempo con tallas 
mas o menos constantes. 

La población de chitones de Prai 
Ahure muestra un desplazamiento de 
las modas con reducción de sus tallas 
entre marzo, junio y septiembre. Esto 
indicaría reclutamiento a la población y 
ausencia de individuos de mayor 
tamaño. En octubre nuevamente desa- 
parecen los juveniles y aumenta el 
número de ejemplares de tallas mayores 
(Fig. 5A). 

El bajo número de ejemplares supe- 
riores a 40 mm en Isla de Pascua, 
(octubre, septiembre y junio 1991; sep- 



tiembre 1993; marzo y abril de 1994), 
podría estar relacionado con la extrac- 
ción de este recurso en tallas superiores 
a 40 mm, (Obs. per.; González, com. 
pers.). 

En Plaxiphora mercatoris predominan 
los machos, lo que coincide con otras 
especies del grupo, Glynn (1970) indica 
que la relación machos:hembras en 
Chiton stokesi Broderip, 1832, es de 
1,46:1,0, en Acanthozostera gemmata 
(Blainville, 1825), es de 1,52:1,0 y en 
Chiton marmoratus Gmelin, 1791, es de 
1,1:1,0. Otway (1994) encontró una rela- 
ción de 2:1 para Onithochiton quercinus 
(Gould, 1846), mientras que en Plaxi- 
phora alinda el mismo autor encontró una 
proporción (1,0:0,99) entre ambos sexos 
que no difiere significativamente. Por 



48 



OSORIO ET AL.: Plaxiphora mercatoris en Isla de Pascua, Chile 



otra parte Brandani et al. (1974) 
indican para P. aurata, un 48% de 
machos y un 52% de hembras. 

Microscópicamente la diferenciación 
de sexos en P. mercatoris ocurre tempra- 
namente en ambos sexos, a partir de los 
15,6 mm de longitud en machos y a los 
18,2 mm en hembras, en el primer año 
de vida. Brandani et al. (1974) indica 
para P. aurata una talla de 12 mm de lon- 
gitud. También Glynn (1970), encuentra 
que la madurez sexual se logra en el 
primer año, en las tres especies de poli- 
placóforos tropicales que ha estudiado. 

Los estudios que describen el habitat 
de otras especies de Plaxiphora son coin- 
cidentes con lo encontrado para P. mer- 
catoris. Saito y Okutani (1991) mencio- 
nan que Plaxiphora integra (Taki, 1954) y 
Plaxiphora kamehamehae Ferreira y 
Bertsch, 1979, viven en áreas con gran 
cantidad de algas; López y Tablado 
(1997) indican que Plaxiphora aurata vive 
en paredes verticales sombreadas del 
intermareal sin embargo mencionan que 
faltan completamente sobre sustratos 
horizontales. 

La densidad de P. mercatoris (1 a 8 
individuos /m^), fue ligeramente inferior 
a los datos publicados para otros poli- 
placóforos. López y Tablado (1997) 
indican para Plaxiphora aurata, densida- 
des de 7,3 y 11,8 indiv/m^ y un prome- 
dio de 9,5 indiv/m^ en Quequen, Argen- 
tina. Para la misma especie, Brandani 
ET AL. (1974) registran valores entre 5 a 
20 indiv/m-, en Mar del Plata. Glynn 
(1970) indica para Achantopleura sp. 1 a 8 
indiv/m-, y para Chitan sp. 1 a 22 
indiv/m-^. 

En contraste a lo que ocurre general- 
mente en los sistemas intermareales, P. 
mercatoris no es abundante en Isla de 
Pascua. Entre los factores que pueden 
causar esto, cabe destacar la acción 
antrópica ya que, continuamente son 
recolectados por los isleños (González, 
com. per.). Por otra parte, la acción de 
fenómenos naturales ocasionales, 
también colabora a disminuir la densi- 
dad de P. mercatoris. Por ejemplo 
semanas antes del muestreo de septiem- 
bre de 1993, ocurrieron mareas diurnas 
extremadamente bajas (Tabla de mareas 



de la Costa de Chile, 1993) que coinci- 
dieron con altas temperaturas, lo que 
ocasionó una elevada mortalidad en la 
especie; los "mamas" se desprendían 
fácilmente con una pequeña presión de 
los dedos, y durante los días posteriores 
al fenómeno se observaron muchos 
ejemplares muertos en las rocas (Paka- 
rati, com. per.). El efecto de la deshidra- 
tación es probablemente importante; 
BoYLE (1970), describe que en Sypharo- 
chiton pelliserpentis Quoy y Gaimard, 
1835, la deshidratación es un factor 
importante que afecta la densidad de la 
población. El autor determinó que la 
especie tolera pérdidas del 75% del con- 
tenido de agua, antes de ocurrir una 
mortalidad del 50% de la población. 
Glynn (1970) observó mortalidades 
naturales como resultado de una pro- 
longada exposición a bajas mareas 
diurnas, desprendimiento por impacto 
del oleaje, abrasión y probablemente 
depredación de aves y peces. 

Así, P. mercatoris constituye actual- 
mente un recurso explotado por los 
isleños, cuya población parece mante- 
nerse sin llegar a estar sobre-explotada 
ya que no se registra una disminución 
en la talla media de la población. 
Aunque su densidad se mantiene baja, 
tanto por la mortalidad natural como 
por la antrópica, la población se man- 
tendría estable gracias a un rápido 
recambio de individuos. 



AGRADECIMIENTOS 

Los autores agradecen la ayuda reci- 
bida en las diferentes etapas del trabajo 
a las siguientes personas: Sras: G. 
Acosta, M. Bustos , E. Elgueta, Sres. H. 
Atan y F. Rocha . A la antropóloga L. 
González por informaciones sobre las 
costumbres de isleños. A la Dra. L. 
Masson por los datos del análisis 
químico. A los Sres. O Gálvez, Dr. J. 
López Gappa y Dr. P. Penchazadeh, por 
el material bibliográfico. Este estudio 
fue financiado por el proyecto N°3638- 
9312, del Departamento de Investiga- 
ción y Desarrollo de la Universidad de 
Chile. 



49 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 



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Leloup, E., 1936. Chitons recoltés au cours de 
la croisiére (1934-1935) du navire ecole belge 
Mercator. Bulletin du Musée Royal d'Histoire 
naturelle de Belgique, 12 (6): 1-6. 

López, G. J. y Tablado, A., 1997. Growth and 
Production of an Intertidal Population of the 
Chiton Plaxiphora aurata (Spalowki, 1795). 
The Veliger, 40 (3): 263-270. 



Miranda, O., 1967. Edad y grupos modales en 
Thais chocolata, una descripción de los méto- 
dos usados. Apuntes Oceanológicos, 3: 1-25. 

OsoRio, C, Atria , J. Y Mann, S., 1979. Moluscos 
marinos de importancia económica en Chile. 
Biología Pesquera, 11:3-47. 

Otaiza, R. D. y Santelices, B., 1985. Vertical 
Distribution of Chitons ( Mollusca: Polypla- 
cophora) in the rocky Intertidal Zone of Cen- 
tral Chile. Journal of Experimental Marine Bio- 
logy and Ecology, 86:229-240. 

Otway, N. M., 1994. Population ecology of the 
low-shore chitons Onithochiton quercinus and 
Plaxiphora albida. Marine Biology, 121: 105- 
116. 

Peña, R., Zuñiga, O. y Rodríguez, L., 1987. Va- 
riación estacional del índice gonadosomá- 
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(Mollusca: Polyplacophora). Estudios Ocea- 
nológicos, 6: 59-65. 

Redher, H. a., 1980. The marine mollusks of 
Easter Island and Sala y Gómez. Smithsonian 
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Saito, H. y Okutani, T., 1991. Taxonomy of Ja- 
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Van Belle, R. A., 1983. The systematic classi- 
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cologie. Serie 11 (1-3): 1-178, 13 pls. 



50 



© Sociedad Española de Malacología Iberus, 18 (2): 51-76, 2000 



The shallow-water Rissoidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) of the 
Azores and some aspects of their ecology 

Los Rissoidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) de las Azores y algunos aspec- 
tos de su ecología 

Sergio P. ÁVILA* 

Recibido el 11 -VI 1-2000. Aceptado el 16-X-2000 

ABSTRACT 

A critical review of the distribution of tfie Rissoidae on tfie islonds of the Azorean Archipe- 
lago is mode, on the basis of bibliographic doto os well os newly-collected scmples. 
Twenty three toxo of Rissoidae are given to the Azores: tweive endemic species, three res- 
tricted to the Azores and Madeira/Selvogens archipelogo and two with wider distribution. 
Of the remaining taxa, one is an unidentified species of Sef'ia and five are records not 
confirmed by this study. The assemblage of Rissoidae ossocioted with heterogeneous 
algae on a rocky shore on the northern coast of Sao Miguel Island, Azores, is also descri- 
bed. Aspects of community structure (species composition, abundance and zonation) were 
studied and a multispecies analysis conducted using clustering techniques. Some com- 
ments are also made regarding the Rissoidae speciation that has occurred in the Azores 
and its relation to the main sea-surfoce circulation in this área of the Atlantic Ocean. 

RESUMEN 
Se realiza una revisión critica de la distribución de los Rissoidae de las Azores, en base a 
datos bibliográficos y a muestras recientes. Se han encontrado 23 tóxones de Rissoidae: 
1 2 especies endémicas, 3 restringidas a las Azores y a Madeira/Salvajes y otras dos con 
una distribución mayor. De las especies restantes, una es una especie sin identificar de 
Seña y otras 5 son citas no confirmadas en el presente estudio. Se describe también la 
asociación de Rissoidae con algas en una costa rocosa del norte de Sao Miguel (Azores). 
Se incluyen datos sobre la estructura de la comunidad (composición específica, abundan- 
cia y zonación), asi como un análisis multiespecífico empleando técnicas de cluster. Se 
comenta también la especiación que ha tenido lugar en las Azores con la famila Rissoi- 
dae y su relación con los principales corrientes superficiales en esta zona del Atlántico. 



KEY WORDS: Rissoidae, Azores, taxonomy, ecology, geographic range. 
PALABRAS CLAVE: Rissoidae, Azores, taxonomía, ecología, distribución geográfica. 



INTRODUCTION 

The marine Rissoidae of the Azores zenberg (1889) and Nobre (1924; 1930), 
were studied by Drouet (1858), Daut- who provided annotated check-Hsts. 

* Sec^áo de Biología Marinha and CIRN. Departamento de Biología, Universidade dos A9ores. Rúa da Máe de 
Deus, 9500 Ponta Delgada. Azores - Portugal avila@alf.uac.pt 

51 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 



During the scientific expeditions made 
by the Prince of Monaco to the Azores, 
25 species of Rissoidae were described 
from deep-water samples, most of them 
Alvania (11 species) (Dautzenberg, 
1889). Using SEM techniques, two new 
species were described by Aartsen 
(1982a; 1982b; 1982c; 1982d) and Amati 
(1987), from material coUected by the 
Prince of Monaco. With the same metho- 
dology (SEM photos of the protoconch 
and of the microsculpture of the body 
whorl), MooLENBEEK AND Faber (1987) 
revised the genus Manzonia in the Maca- 
ronesian islands, identifying a single 
species from the Azorean archipelago 
{Manzonia unifasciata Dautzenberg, 
1889). 

As a result of the scientific expedi- 
tions organized by the Department of 
Biology of the University of the Azores 
to some of the islands (e.g.: "Gra- 
ciosa/88", "Flores/ 89", "Santa Maria e 
Formigas 1990" and "Pico/ 1991") and 
also the scientific expedition "Azores 
89", organized by the Department of 
Oceanography and Fisheries (DOP/UA) 
of the University of the Azores, severa! 
check-lists (some of them not yet publis- 
hed) have allowed preliminary reports 
on the geographical distribution of Ris- 
soidae species on the islands of the 
Azores (Azevedo and Martins, 1989; 
Azevedo, 1990; Azevedo and Gofas, 
1990; Ávila and Azevedo, 1996; Ávila 
and Azevedo, 1997; Ávila, 1998; 
Ávila, Azevedo, Goncalves, Fontes 
AND Cardigos, 1998; Ávila, Azevedo, 
GoNCALVES, Fontes and Cardigos, in 
press). 

During the "I International Works- 
hop of Malacology" held at Vila Franca 
do Campo (Sao Miguel island). Gofas 
(1989; 1990) refers to 11 species of Ris- 
soidae from the Azorean littoral (Alvanin 
angioyi Van Aartsen, 1982, A. cancellata 
(Da Costa, 1778), A. mediolittoralis Gofas, 
1989, A. poucheti Dautzenberg, 1889, A. 
sleursi (Amati, 1987), Botryphallus ovum- 
muscae (Gofas, 1990), Cingula trifasciata 
(Adams, 1798), Crisilla postrema (Gofas, 
1990), Manzonia unifasciata (Dautzen- 
berg, 1889), Rissoa guernei Dautzenberg, 
1889 and Setia subvaricosa Gofas, 1990) to 



which we must add Alvania formicarum 
Gofas 1989, a species endemic to Formi- 
gas and Santa Maria (Gofas, 1989; 
1990). 

Samples taken by the author from 
several locations in the Azores revealed 
another species at Sao Miguel island 
that was formerly reported by Gofas 
(1990) to be restricted to the islands of 
the central and western groups i.e., 
Onoba moreleti Dautzenberg, 1889. 
Azevedo and Gofas (1990) recorded a 
species of Setia from Flores. This species 
was later found by Ávila et al. (1998) 
at Pico and Sao Miguel. A new species 
of Alvania, described by Fioenselaar and 
Goud (1998) as A. internodula, was also 
coUected from Formigas by Ávila and 
Azevedo (1997). The revisión of the 
material of the CANCAR expeditions 
(1976-1986) has confirmed some species 
and described a few others to the Azores 
(Hoenselaar and Goud, 1998). 

The Rissoidae is one of the best 
represented families of shallow-water 
marine molluscs in the Azores, with 8 
genera and 18 confirmed taxa, of which 
12 species are considered as endemic 

(MOOLENBEEK AND FaBER, 1987; GOFAS, 

1989; 1990; Knudsen, 1995; Hoense- 
laar AND Goud, 1998). 

This study had three main objecti- 
ves: to undertake a taxonomic revisión 
of Rissoidae in the Azores, to identify 
any island to island endemisms, that is 
species restricted to some of the islands 
and to describe the zonation of the Ris- 
soidae on the Azorean shores. 



MATERIAL AND METHODS 

A bibliographic analysis was made, 
in order to compile published Informa- 
tion about the shallow-water Rissoidae 
of the Azores (intertidal to a depth of 
about 50m). The synonymy and the dis- 
tribution of the species, by islands, was 
also annotated. Á table with the distri- 
bution of the Rissoidae species, by 
islands, was constructed and multiva- 
riate analysis was performed on the 
data obtained (Bray-Curtis similarity 
Índex /UPGMA as well as MDS). The 



52 



ÁVILA: The shallow-water Rissoidae of the Azores and some aspects of their ecology 



Corvo 



WESTERN 
GROUP 



Faial 



CENTRAL 
Graciosa - 



Pico 



3rw 



30° W 



29° W 



Figure 1 . Map of the Azores Archipelago. 
Figura 1. Mapa del archipiélago de las Azores. 



GROUP 



Terceira 



Sao Jorge 



Sao Miguel 



EASTERN 
GROUP 



Santa Maria 

f ^ 37° N 



40° N 



39° N 



38° N 



Formigas 
islets 



28° W 



27° W 



26° W 



25° W 



gastropod classification follows Ponder 
AND LiNDBERG (1997). CLEMAM (Check 
List of European Marine Mollusca) data- 
base classification was quite useful for 
synonymy. 

Protoconchs of almost all the 
Azorean Rissoidae were photographed 
with a SEM, as well as other detailed 
structures of the shells {e.^. microsculp- 
ture of the last whorl and protoconch, 
shell aperture and the whole shell). 

The zonation of the Rissoidae was 
examined for Sao Miguel, which is 
located in the eastern group of islands of 
the archipelago (Fig. 1). Several dives 
were performed in July 1996 at Porto da 
Baleia, a former whaling ramp boat, 
located at Sao Vicente (Cápelas) on the 
north coast of Sao Miguel (Fig. 2). In the 
selected zone, a 400m long transect was 
done, from the intertidal zone to a depth 
of 30m (Fig. 3). Quadrates of 50x50 cm, 
placed on algae covering the rocky subs- 
tratum were scrapped, and the material 
collected put into labeled cotton draws- 
tring bags. Three replicates were obtai- 
ned from eight chosen depths, x.e., 3.5m, 
5.1m, 8m, 12m, 13. 6m, 16. 3m, 22m and 
26. 8m. In the laboratory, each of the 
replicates was washed several times and 
the animáis removed from the algae by 



pouring the washing water through a 
sieve tower with decreasing mesh sizes 
(Imm, 0.5mm and 0.25mm). Samples 
were then labeled and preserved in 70% 
ethanol. The molluscs from the Imm 
mesh were sorted and the Rissoidae 
identified and counted. 

Multispecies analysis between all the 
samples were conducted using ordina- 
tion techniques. Prior to the multivariate 
analysis, the absolute valúes of the 
counts were transformed, in order to 
standardize the data and ensure that the 
multivariate ordination would not be 
determined by the most abundant 
species (Clarke and Ainsworth, 1993). 
Absolute counts were transformed by 
double square root transformation, 
which weights the abundant species and 
is advisable when a Bray-Curtis 
measure is used as a similarity coeffi- 
cient in further steps (Field, Clarke 
and Warwick, 1982). 

Triangular matrices of similarities 
between every pair of samples were 
then computed from transformed data 
of absolute counts, using the Bray- 
Curtis coefficient (Field et al., 1982; 
Clarke and Ainsworth, 1993). The 
similarity matrices were subjected to 
clustering by an hierarchical agglomera- 



53 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 




Figure 2. Sao Miguel island. SVC - Sao Vicente. 
Figura 2. Isla de Sao Miguel. SVC - Sao Vicente. 



tive method employing group-average 
linking (UPGMA). 

Data analysis were undertaken 
using the PRIMER (Plymouth Routines 
in Multivariate Ecological Research) set 
of programs developed and tested by 
Plymouth Marine Laboratory 

All the material is deposited at the 
reference collection of the Department 
of Biology of the University of the 
Azores (DBUA), unless otherwise 
stated. 



Abbreviations used in text: 

DBUA: marine molluscs reference col- 
lection of the Department of Biology 
of the University of the Azores. 

MCM(HN): Musen Carlos Machado 
/Historia Natural, Ponta Delgada, 
Azores. 

MNHN: Muséum National d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Paris (Malacologie). 

NNM: Nationaal Natuurhistorisch 
Museum, Leiden. 



RESULTS 

Phylum MoLLUSCA 

Class Gastropoda 

Subclass Orthogastropoda 

Superorder Caenogastropoda 

Order Sorbeoconcha 

Suborder Hypsogastropoda 

Superfamily RisSOOiDEA 

Family RissoiDAE 

Alvania Risso, 1826 

Alvania abstersa Van der Linden and Van Aartsen, 1994 

References to the Azores: 

Alvania obsoleta Van der Linden, 1993: 79-82. 

Alvania abstersa Van der Linden and Van Aartsen, 1994: 2; Hoenselaar and Goud, 1998:71. 



Occurrence: Pico(Laies do Pico), Ter- 
ceira (Porto Martins), Sao Jorge (Faja da 
Caldeira), Sao Miguel (Lagoa and Mos- 
teiros), Santa Maria (Van der Linden, 
1993: 80). Azores (CANCAR expeditions) 

(FlOENSELAAR AND GOUD, 1998: 71). 

DBUA 726. 



Comments: although more common 
just below the intertidal, it may appear 
to a depth of 35m. 

Dimensions: up to 3.3 mm long, 
1.7mm wide. 

Geographic distribution: endemic to 
the Azores. 



54 



ÁVILA: The shallow-water Rissoidae of the Azores and some aspects of their ecology 



Transect (m) 
200 250 

■+- 




Figure 3. Transect performed at Porto da Baleia (Sao Vicente, Cápelas), north coast of Sao Miguel 
island, Azores. 

Figura 3. Transecto realizado en Porto da Baleia (Sao Vicente, Cápelas), costa N de la isla de Sao 
Miguel, Azores. 



Alvania angioyi Van Aartsen, 1982 

References to the Azores: 

Alvania (Alvinia) watsoni Schwartz, in Watson, 1873: Dautzenberg, 1889: 51. 

Alvania watsoni (Schwartz MS) Watson, 1873: Bullock, Turner and Fralick, 1990: 45. 

Alvania angioyi Van Aartsen, 1982: Azevedo and Martins, 1989: 69; Gofas, 1990: 112; Azevedo and 

Gofas, 1990: 85; Ávila, 1996: 27; Ávila and Azevedo, 1996: 106; Ávila and Azevedo, 1997: 326; 

Bullock, 1995: 16; Knudsen, 1995: 140; Hoenselaar and Goud, 1998: 72. 
Alvania angioyi Van Aartsen, 1982d: Azevedo 1991b: 44. 



Occurrence: Sao Miguel, Faial (Bay of 
Horta, -15 to -20 m, Stn. 103, "Hironde- 
lle", 1887), Pico (-1287 m) (Dautzen- 
berg, 1889: 51), Graciosa (Azevedo and 
Martins, 1989: 69), Flores (Santa Cruz, - 
20m) (Azevedo and Gofas, 1990: 85), 
Sao Miguel (Bullock et al., 1990: 45); 
Sao Miguel (Vila Franca (-24m) and 
Morro das Cápelas ("Biagores" 1971 
expedition); Lagoa (-10 to -22m); Fetei- 
ras (-15 to -22m); Ponta da Galera (inter- 
tidal and -13 to -18m); Ponta Delgada; 
Cápelas (intertidal); Ilhéu de Vila 
Franca; Ponta da Pirámide (-13m)), Faial 
(Horta, -3m; -7m; Monte da Guia, -20m, 
"Biagores" 1971), Terceira (Pedra 
Furada, Angra do Heroísmo; Praia da 
Vitoria), Flores ('Tr. AHce" st. 703, 1896; 
Santa Cruz, -20m) and Formigas (west 
coast, -16m, "Biagores" 1971) (Gofas, 
1990: 112), Sao Miguel (Caloura and 
Ribeirinha) (Azevedo, 1991a: 22), Santa 
Maria (Vila do Porto, Ponta do Marvao) 
(Azevedo, 1991b: 44), Sao Miguel (Ilhéu 
de Vila Franca) (Bullock, 1995: 16; 
Knudsen, 1995: 140), Pico (intertidal) 



(ÁVILA, 1996: 27), Pico (Avila and 
Azevedo, 1996: 106), Formigas islets 
(Ávila and Azevedo, 1997: 326) and 
Azores (CANCAP expeditions) (Hoen- 
selaar and Goud, 1998: 72). 

DBUA 119, 173, 188, 227, 274, 277, 
281, 335, 340, 343, 350, 352, 353, 355, 372, 
374, 379, 394, 398, 400, 407, 410, 412, 462, 
493, 496, 499, 556, 560, 564, 568, 571, 574, 
579, 666, 675, 715, 719. 

MCM(HN) 7, 9. 

Comments: this species is closely 
related to specimens from Madeira and 
is also similar to Alvania oranica (Pallary, 
1900) from Ceuta (Gofas, 1990). It 
occurs to a depth of 35m, but is commo- 
nest in the first lOm. Although Gofas 
raises the hypothesis of its existence at 
Madeira archipelago, its presence was 
not confirmed in the samples from the 
CANCAP expeditions (Hoenselaar 
AND Goud, 1998: 72). 

Dimensions: 1.8mm long, 1.1 mm 
w^ide. 

Geographic distribution: endemic to 
the Azores. 



55 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 



Alvania beani (Hanley in Thorpe, 1844) 

References to the Azores: 

Rissoa calathus Forbes and Hanley, 1858: Mac Andrew, 1856: 121. 

Alvania (Turhona) reticulata (Montagu, 1803): Simroth, 1888. 



Occurrence: Azores (-10 to -90m) 
(Mac Andrew, 1856: 121). Sao Miguel 
(Ponta Delgada) (Simroth, 1888). 

Comrnents: this record needs to be 
confirmed. Its occurrence in the Azores 
is possible and, if so, it Uves predomi- 
nantly at depths >50m and I have only 
a few samples collected by scuba 
diving at these depths. However, in the 
significant amount of samples 



collected at the Azores by the 
CANCAP expeditions, not a single 
specimen was found (Hoenselaar 
AND GOUD, 1998). 

Dimensions: 3.5mm long, 2.0mm 
wide (Fretter and Graham, 1978). 

Geographic distribution: Norway to 
the Mediterranean, Azores (?) and 
Canary Islands (Fretter and Graham, 
1978; RolAn, 1984). 



Alvania cancellata (Da Costa, 1778) 

References to the Azores: 

Rissoa crenulata Michaud, 1832: Mac Andrew, 1856: 148. 

Rissoa (Alvania) cancellata Da Costa: Watson, 1886: 592. 

Alvania laxa Dautzenberg and Fischer, 1896: 62-63, pl. 19, figs. 10,11. 

Alvania cancellata Da Costa: Dautzenberg, 1889: 49. 

Alvania cancellata (Da Costa, 1778): Nobre, 1924: 80; 1930: 57; Morton, 1967: 36; Azevedo, 1990: 59; 

Gofas, 1990: 104; Azevedo and Gofas, 1990: 85; Azevedo, 1991a: 21; 1991b: 44; Ávila, 1996: 27; 

Ávila and Azevedo, 1997: 326; Hoenselaar and Goud, 1998: 73. 



Occurrence: Azores (Mac Andrew, 
1856: 148); Faial (-823 to -914m) 
(Watson, 1886: 592), Faial (Horta, -15 to 
-20m, Stn. 103, "Hirondelle", 1887), Pico 
(-1287m) and Sao Miguel (Dautzen- 
berg, 1889: 49), Azores (Nobre, 1924: 80; 
1930: 57), Sao Jorge (Velas) (Morton, 
1967: 36), Pico (Baía de Sao Pedro, Lajes 
do Pico) (Azevedo, 1990: 59), Flores 
(Santa Cruz) (Azevedo and Gofas, 
1990: 85), Sao Miguel (Ponta Delgada; 
Vila Franca do Campo, -lOm, -24m; 
Morro das Cápelas ("Bia^ores" 1971 
expedition); Feteiras, -15 to -22m; Ponta 
da Galera, -13 to -18m, -20m; Lagoa, -10 
to -22m; Ponta da Pirámide, -13m), For- 
migas (east coast, -16m), Terceira (Ponta 
de Sao Diogo, Pedra Furada - Angra do 
Heroísmo), Flores (Santa Cruz, -20m) 
and Pico (-1287m) (Gofas, 1990: 104), 
Sao Miguel (infralittoral of Ribeirinha) 
(Azevedo, 1991a: 21), Santa Maria (Vila 
do Porto, Ilhéu da Vila) (Azevedo, 
1991b: 44), Sao Miguel (Ilhéu de Vila 
Franca) (Knudsen, 1995: 141), Pico (sub- 



tidal) (Avila, 1996: 27), Formigas islets 
(Ávila and Azevedo, 1997: 326) and 
Azores (CANCAP expeditions) (Hoen- 
selaar AND Goud, 1998: 73). 

DBUA 127, 168, 173, 176, 197, 240, 
274, 281, 341, 350, 379, 394, 395, 405, 408, 
410, 411, 415, 421, 422, 438, 441, 446, 448, 
459, 489, 493, 496, 499, 500, 555, 558, 561, 
569, 570, 574, 579, 605, 608, 609, 614, 658, 
659, 660, 661, 662, 665, 666, 667, 670, 672, 
675, 677, 719. 

Comrnents: it occurs from low tide le- 
vel to a depth of 45m (Saldanha, 1995), 
but its presence at low depths is rare 
(Graham, 1988; Gofas, 1990). It is detri- 
tivorous (Graham, 1988). The popula- 
tions in the Azores are conspecific with 
those on European mainland, their pro- 
toconchs matching exactly (Knudsen, 
1995). Gofas (1990) also states their 
conspecificity with the populations of 
Madeira and the Canary Islands, be- 
cause of external similarities and the 
existence of a multispiral protoconch, 
denoting a planktotrophic development. 



56 



ÁVILA: The shallow-water Rissoidae of the Azores and some aspects of their ecology 



Dimensions: 3.7 mm long, 2.4 mm 
wide. 

Geographic distribution: Atlantic, 
Azores, English Channel and North Sea 
(Campbell, 1994), Madeira (Nobre, 



1889, 1937; Gofas, 1990), British isles, 
Mediterranean, Canary islands and 
Cape Vert Islands (Knudsen, 1995). Sao 
Tomé island (Fernandes and Rolan, 
1993). 



Alvania cimex (Linnaeus, 1758) 



References to the Azores: 

Rissoa granulata Philippi, 1836: Mac Andrew, 1856: 121. 



Occurrence: Azores from shores 
(dead) (Mac Andrew, 1856: 121). 

Comments: Dautzenberg (1889), 
raised doubts about the specific status 



of the specimen(s) identified by Mac 
Andrew. I agree with him and 
consider that this record needs to be 
confirmed. 



Alvania formicarum Gofas, 1989 

References to the Azores: 

Alvania formicarum Gofas, 1989: 40-41; Hoenselaar and Goud, 1998: 72. 



Occurrence: Formigas and Ilhéu de 
Sao Lourengo (Santa María) (Gofas, 
1989:40-41). 

DBUA 332, 335, 338, 340, 341, 342, 
343, 345, 348, 350, 352, 353, 355, 359. 

Comments: the zonation of this 
species is not known. However, living 



specimens have been collected from 15 
to 43m depth. 

Dimensions: 2.4mm long, 1.4mm 
wide. 

Geographic distribution: restricted to 
Formigas islets and Santa Maria 
island. 



Alvania internodula Hoenselaar and Goud, 1998 



References to the Azores: 

Alvania sp.: Ávila and Azevedo, 1997: 326. 

Alvania internodula Hoenselaar and Goud, 1998: 83. 

Occurrence: Formigas (Ávila and 
Azevedo, 1997: 326). Azores (CANCAP 
expeditions: Sta. 5033, 35m/l specimen; 
Sta. 5039, 43m/2; Sta. 5040, 41-47m/25; 
Sta. 5091, 33m/7; Sta. 5098, 40m/l; Sta. 
5113, 45m/12; Sta. AZO.022, at shore/1) 
(Hoenselaar and Goud, 1998: 83). 

DBUA 336, 338. 

Comments: in their check-list of the 
shallow-water marine molluscs of Formi- 
gas, Ávila and Azevedo (1997) indica- 
ted the presence of a new species of Alva- 
nia in 6 lots of the DBUA collection: 
DBUA 332, 335, 336, 338, 350, 355. Later 
work at the SEM level revealed the exis- 
tence of a species already described as A. 



internodula Hoenselaar and Goud, 1998. 
Also, only the specimens in the DBUA 
336 and 338 lots were correctly assigned 
to this new species, all other specimens 
being Alvania angioyi Van Aartsen, 1982d. 
The shells of the young specimens of Al- 
vania internodula resemble Alvania angioyi 
Van Aartsen, 1982d, but the adults are 
quite different, with stronger knobs in the 
whorls and with deeper sutures. 

Additional description: Protoconch sculp- 
tured with 5-6 marked spiral ribs, the in- 
terstices covered with numerous very 
small nodules, not aligned. In the second 
whorl of the teleoconch, the intermedíate 
3 ribs are more prominent than the others. 



57 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 



the same happening in the body whorl. 
The crossings of spiral ribs and costae pro- 
duce nodules, that are stronger in the in- 
termedíate 3 ribs. The ribs located in the 
anterior part of the body whorl are quite 



smooth. Inside the outer lip there are 8-9 
faint denticles (Fig. 8: A-J). 

D¿míns/ons:2.3mmlong, 1.3mmwide. 

Geographic distribution: restricted to 
the Formigas islets, Azores. 



Alvania mediolittoralis Gofas, 1989 

References to the Azores: 

Alvania mariae (D'Orbigny): Dautzenberg, 1889: 49. 

Rissoa (Alvania) reticnlata Montagu var. mariae D'Orbigny: Nobre, 1924: 81. 

Alvania (Tiirhona) reticulata (Montagu, 1803): Martins, 1980: 17 (misidentification, A.M.F. Martins, 

pers. comm). 
Alvania mediolittoralis Gofas, 1989: Gofas, 1989: 39; Azevedo and Martins, 1989: 69; Azevedo, 

1990: 59; Azevedo and Gofas 1990: 85; Gofas, 1990: 110-112; Azevedo, 1991a: 21; 1991b: 44; 

Ávila, 1996:27; Hoenselaar and Goud, 1998: 91. 



Occurrence: Sao Miguel and Pico (- 
1287m) (Dautzenberg, 1889: 49), Sao 
Miguel (Ponta Delgada; Praia do Rosto 
do Cao), Terceira, Pico and Graciosa 
(Nobre, 1924: 81; 1930: 57), Sao Miguel 
(Atalhada, Lagoa) (Martins, 1980: 17), 
Graciosa (mediolittoral of Porto Afonso 
and Santa Cruz; infralittoral of Baía da 
Folga) (Azevedo and Martins, 1989: 
69), Flores (Santa Cruz) (Azevedo and 
Gofas, 1990: 85), Pico (Baía de Sao 
Pedro, Lajes do Pico) (Azevedo, 1990: 
59), Sao Miguel (Caloura, -4m; Vila 
Franca, -9m, -24m "Biagores" 1971 expe- 
dition; Ponta da Galera, íntertidal; 
Cápelas, intertidal; Agua d'Alto, interti- 
dal; Calheta - Ponta Delgada, íntertidal), 
Faial (Horta, -7m), Terceira (Praia da 
Vitoria; Cais da Silveira; Pedra Furada - 
Angra do Heroísmo); Flores (Santa Cruz) 
(Gofas, 1989: 39; 1990: 110), Sao Miguel 
(mediolittoral of Caloura; infralittoral of 
Caloura and Ribeirinha) (Azevedo, 
1991a: 21), Santa María (Vila do Porto, 
Ponta do Marváo) (Azevedo, 1991b: 44), 
Ilhéu de Vila Franca (Bullock, 1995: 16), 
Pico (mediolittoral) (Ávila, 1996: 27) and 



Azores (CANCAP expeditions) (Hoen- 
selaar and Goud, 1998: 91). 

DBUA 124, 188, 193, 197, 229, 240, 
274, 442, 444, 445, 446, 448, 449, 450, 451, 
452, 453, 455, 456, 457, 458, 459, 460, 461, 
462, 471, 473, 474, 475, 476, 483, 486, 489, 
490, 492, 493, 496, 499, 500, 551, 553, 558, 
560, 561, 564, 565, 566, 568, 570, 571, 574, 
579, 614, 632, 659, 661, 662, 663, 665, 666, 
667, 715, 719. 

Comments: common in sheltered 
places, especially under rocks. Sometimes 
present in large numbers in the intertidal 
zone, together with Fossarus ambiguus (Lin- 
naeus, 1758) and Cingula trifasciata 
(Adams, 1798) (GOFAS, 1990). It is similar 
to Alvania manzonia (Nordsieck, 1972) from 
the Canary Islands and Selvagens, and 
resembles also Alvania leacocki (Watson, 
1873), from Madeira (Gofas, 1989). 

Dimensions: up to 2.7 mm long, 1.5 
mm wide. 

Geographic distribution: Azores and Ma- 
deira archipelago (CANCAP expeditions, 
Sta. 1.D48, 0-22m/l specimen; Sta.l.K14, 
at shore/ 1 and Sta. 1.K16, at shore/2) (Ho- 
enselaar and Goud, 1998: 91). 



Alvania poucheti Dautzenberg, 1889 

References to the Azores: 

Alvania poucheti Dautzenberg, 1889: 49-50; Bullock et al, 1990: 45; Gofas, 1990: 108; Morton and 
Britton, 1995: 70; Knudsen, 1995: 141; Ávila, 1996: 27; Ávila and Azevedo, 1996: 106; Ávila and 
Azevedo, 1997: 326; Ávila et al, 1998: 497; Hoenselaar and Goud, 1998: 99. 

Alvania poucheti var. cingulifera Dautzenberg, 1889: 50. 



58 



ÁVILA: The shallow-water Rissoidae of the Azores and some aspects of their ecology 



Occurrence: Sao Miguel (Dautzen- 
BERG, 1889: 49-50), Sao Miguel (Ponta da 
Galera; Queimada, Agua d'Alto; Mostei- 
ros; Ilhéu de Vila Franca) (Bullock et al., 
1990: 45), Sao Miguel (Cápelas, -24m 
("Biagores" 1971 expedition); Feteiras, -15 
to -22m; Ponta Delgada, -10 to -20m; 
Lagoa; Ilhéu de Vila Franca, -Im; Ponta 
da Pirámide, -13m; Calheta, Ponta 
Delgada; Ponta da Galera, -13 to -18m), 
Faial (Horta, -17 and -20m), Terceira (Praia 
da Vitoria; Angra do Heroísmo, Pedra 
Furada) (Gofas, 1990: 108), Sao Miguel 
(off Vila Franca do Campo) (Morton and 
Britton, 1995: 70), Sao Miguel (Ilhéu de 
Vila Franca) (Knudsen, 1995: 141), Pico 



(intertidal) (Ávila, 1996: 27), Pico (Ávila 
AND AzEVEDO, 1996: 106), Formigas islets 
(Ávila AND Azevedo, 1997: 326), Flores 
(Ávila et al., 1998: 497) and Azores 
(CANCAP expeditions) (Hoenselaar 
AND Goud, 1998: 99). 

DBUA 119, 173, 240, 350, 352, 353, 355, 
447, 465, 493, 499, 500, 556, 563, 570, 631, 666. 

MCM(HN) 3, 11, 107, 108. 

Comments: usually associated with 
brown algae. It may occur at 20m depth, 
but is commonest in the first lOm. 

Dimensions: up to 2.2mm long, 
1.3mm wide. 

Geographic distribution: endemic to 
the Azores. 



Alvania sleursi (Amati, 1987) 



References to the Azores: 

(?) Rissoa (Alvania) hispidula Monterosato: Watson, 1886: 593 (misidentification). 
Alvania hiña Monterosato: Dautzenberg and Fischer, 1896: 456 (misidentification). 
Manzonia sleursi Amati, 1987: 25-30. 

Alvania sleursi (Amati, 1987): Gofas, 1990: 107; Knudsen, 1995: 142; Ávila, 1996: 27; Ávila and 
Azevedo, 1996: 106; Ávila and Azevedo, 1997: 326. 



Occurrence: Faial (-823 to -914 m) 
(Watson, 1886: 593), Banco Princesa 
Alice (st. 46, -1385 m) (Dautzenberg 
AND Fischer, 1896: 456), Sao Miguel 
(Ponta da Galera, -7 to -8m, -13 to -18m 
and -20m; Vila Franca, -24m; Morro das 
Cápelas, -15 to -20m; Lagoa, -10 to -22m; 
Feteiras, -15 to -22m; Ponta da Pirámide, 
-13m; Ilhéu de Vila Franca, -Im), Pico (- 
1287m), Terceira (Angra do Heroísmo, 
Pedra Furada; Praia da Vitoria), Flores 
(Santa Cruz, -40m) (Gofas, 1990: 107), Il- 
héu de Vila Franca (Knudsen, 1995: 142), 
Pico (intertidal) (Ávila, 1996: 27), Pico 
(Ávila and Azevedo, 1996: 106) and 
Formigas islets (Ávila and Azevedo, 
1997: 326). 



DBUA 173, 335, 340, 341, 342, 343, 
350, 352, 353, 355, 446, 448, 458, 459, 493, 
496, 499, 500, 666, 667, 719. 

MCM(HN) 40. 

Comments: occurs from the intertidal 
to 45m depth, being more abundant on 
rocky shores, between -10 to -20m. Hoen- 
selaar and Goud (1998) reported this spe- 
cies to Selvagens archipelago (CANCAP 
expeditions, Sta. 3070, 645m depth / 8 speci- 
mens; Sta. 3072, 830m / 3; Sta. 3087, 322m / 8, 
with all specimens strongly eroded). 

Dimensions: up to 2.5 mm long, 1.6 mm 
wide. 

Geographic distribution: Azores and Sel- 
vagens archipelago (Hoenselaar and 
Goud, 1998: 103). 



Alvania tarsodes (V^atson, 1886) 



References to the Azores: 

Rissoa (Alvania) tarsodes Watson, 1886: 595, pl. XLIV, fig. 2. 

Alvania tarsodes (Watson, 1886): Bouchet and Warén, 1993: 642; Hoenselaar and Goud, 1998: 106. 



Occurrence: Azores, from 35m depth to 
620m (Hoenselaar AND Goud, 1998: 106). 



Comments: although first reported to 
be a bathyal species (480-1385m depth. 



59 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 



BOUCHET AND WARÉN, 1993), HOENSE- 

LAAR AND GouD (1998) have found spe- 
cimens in some shallow samples of the 
CANCAP expeditions (Sta. 5033, 35m/3 
specimens; Sta. 5039, 43m/8; Sta. 5040, 
41-47m/8; Sta. 5050, 55m/3; Sta. 5096, 



52m/4; Sta. 5100, 55m/l and Sta. 5113, 
45m/l). 

Dimensions: 2.2mm long, 1.3mm 
wide (Watson, 1886). 

Geographic distrihution: restricted to 
the Azores. 



Botryphaílus Ponder, 1990 
Botryphallus ovummuscae (Gofas, 1990) 

References to the Azores: 

Permgiella nítida Brusina: Dautzenberg, 1889: 53. 

Cingula (Peringiella) nítida (Brusina) Monterosato: Martins, 1980: 5. 

"Peringiella" sp.: Azevedo and Gofas, 1990: 85. 

"Peringiella" ovummuscae (Gofas, 1990): Gofas, 1990: 119-121, fig. 11. 

Botryphallus ovummuscae (Gofas, 1990): Ávila, 1996: 27; 1998: 466; Ávila and Azevedo, 1996: 106. 



Occurrence: Faial (-15 to -20m) and Sao 
Miguel (Dautzenberg, 1889, p. 53), Ter- 
ceira (Poga dos Frades, Silveira; Caminho 
de Baixo, Sao Mateus) e Sao Miguel (Agua 
d'Alto; Pópulo; Atalhada, Lagoa) (Mar- 
tins, 1980, pp. 9-16), Flores (Santa Cruz, 
mediolittoral) (Azevedo and Gofas, 1990: 
85), Sao Miguel (Ponta da Galera, interti- 
dal; Calheta, Ponta Delgada), Terceira 
(Porto Martins), Flores (Santa Cruz, up- 
per intertidal zone), (Gofas, 1990, p. 120), 
Pico (intertidal) (Ávila, 1996: 27; 1998: 466) 
and Pico (Ávila and Azevedo, 1996: 106). 



DBUA 209, 493, 499, 500, 659, 661, 
662, 665, 666, 715. 

Comments: according to Gofas 
(1990), there are related species in the 
Straits of Gibraltar (Peringiella epidaurica 
Brusina, 1886), at Madeira and also on 
the Canary Islands (in this last archipe- 
lago there are two species similar to the 
Azorean one). 

Dimensions: up to 1.3 mm long, 0.7 
mm wide. 

Geographic distrihution: endemic to 
the Azores. 



Cingula Fleming, 1828 
Cingula ordinaria Smith 



References to the Azores: 

Cingula ordinaria Smith: Chapman, 1955: 803. 

Occurrence: Faial (Feteira, mid-tide) 
(Chapman, 1955: 803). 

Comments: this species was pro- 
bably misidentified. Most probably, it 



represents Cingula trifasciata (J. Adams, 
1800), the only representative of this 
genus that lives at the Azores Archipe- 
lago. 



Cingula trifasciata (J. Adams, 1800) 

References to the Azores: 

Rissoa (Cingula) cingillus Montagu, 1803: Mac Andrew, 1856: 148. 

Cingula cingillus Montagu, 1803: Dautzenberg, 1889: 52; Knudsen, 1995: 143. 

Rissoa (Cingula) cingillus Montagu, 1803: Nobre, 1924: 80; 1930: 57. 

Cingula (Cingula) cingillus (Montagu, 1803): Martins, 1980: 5; Lemos and Viegas, 1987: 65. 

Cingula trifasciata (Adams, 1798): Azevedo and Gofas, 1990: 85. 



60 



Ávila: The shallow-water Rissoidae of the Azores and some aspects of their ecology 



Cingida trifasciata, (Adams, 1800): Gofas, 1990: 97-134; Bullock, 1995: 9-55; Ávila, 1996: 27 Ávila 
and Azevedo, 1997:326. 



Occiirrence: Azores, at shore (Mac 
Andrew, 1856: 122, 148), Sao Miguel 
(Dautzenberg, 1889: 52), Sao Miguel 
(Ponta Delgada), Faial (Horta), Terceira 
(Angra do Heroísmo), Graciosa, Pico and 
Sao Jorge (Calheta; Velas) (Nobre, 1924: 80; 
1930: 57), Sao Jorge (Velas) (Morton, 1967: 
36), Terceira (Poga dos Frades, Silveira; 
Fanal, Sao Pedro, Angra do Heroísmo; 
Caminho de Baixo, Sao Mateus) and Sao 
Miguel (Agua d'Alto; Calheta, Ponta 
Delgada; Pópulo; Atalhada, Lagoa) 
(Martins, 1980: 9-17), Sao Miguel (Vila 
Franca do Campo: intertidal) (Lemos and 
ViEGAS, 1987: 65), Flores (mediolittoral of 
Santa Cruz) (Azevedo and Gofas, 1990: 
85), Sao Miguel (Ponta da Galera, ínter ti- 
dal; Agua d'Alto, intertidal) (Gofas, 1990: 
119), Sao Miguel (Ilhéu de Vila Franca) 
(Bullock, 1995: 9-55), Pico (intertídal) 
(Ávila, 1996: 27) and Formigas islets 
(ÁVILA and Azevedo, 1997: 326). 

DBUA 128, 205, 240, 352, 442, 445, 
448, 449, 457, 460, 461, 470, 474, 475, 489, 
490, 496, 499, 500, 659, 632, 660, 661, 662, 
663, 665, 666, 667. 



Comments: Nobre (1924; 1930) states 
that this species ís common in littoral 
debris. It is extremely common in shelte- 
red places, especially under rocks 
(Ávila and Azevedo, 1997). This 
species is detritivorous and usually 
occurs from the upper limit of barnacles 
{Chthamalus stellatus) to a few meter's 
depth (Graham, 1988). It has non- 
planktotrophic development (Knudsen, 
1995) and because of this. Gofas (1990) 
has some doubts about its conspecíficity 
with populations in Europe. The speci- 
mens collected by the author at Lajes do 
Pico, have a w^ide range of external 
color, from almost black to light-brown 
(pers. obs.). 

Dimensions: 3.9 mm long, 2.1 mm 
w^ide. 

Geographic distribution: Bay of Biscay 
to the West coast of Norw^ay, the English 
Channel, Azores (Graham, 1988; Poppe 
AND Goto, 1991; Hayward, Wigham 
AND YoNOVv, 1995; Knudsen, 1995), 
Madeira (Nobre, 1937), Berlenga (Portu- 
gal) (BURNAY, 1986). 



Crisüla Monterosato, 1917 
Crisilla postrema (Gofas, 1990) 

Refer enees to the Azores: 

Setia abjecta (Watson, 1873): Dautzenberg, 1889: 52. 
Setia pida (Jeffreys, 1867): Dautzenberg, 1889: 53. 
Alvania (Crisilla) sp.: Azevedo and Gofas, 1990: 85. 
Alvania (Crisilla) postrema Gofas, 1990: 114. 

Alvania postrema Gofas, 1990. Azevedo, 1991b: 44; Ávila and Azevedo, 1997: 326; Hoenselaar and 
Goud, 1998: 99. 



Occurrence: Azores (colee. G. Doll- 
fus), Sao Miguel and Faial (-15 to -20 m) 
(Dautzenberg, 1889: 53), Flores (Santa 
Cruz) (Azevedo and Gofas, 1990: 85), 
Sao Miguel (Cápelas, -12m; Ilhéu dos 
Mosteiros, -3 to -5m; Morro das Cápelas, 
intertidal and at -29m ("Biagores" 1971 
expedition); Ponta da Galera, intertídal 
and from -13 to -18m; Ponta Delgada, - 
10 to -20m, Ilhéu de Vila Franca; Ponta 
da Pirámide, -13m; Calheta, Ponta Del- 
gada), Faial (Horta, -3m, -7m and -17m), 



Terceira (Praía da Vitoria; Angra do He- 
roísmo, Pedra Turada), Flores (Santa 
Cruz, intertidal pool), Formigas (-16m) 
(Gofas, 1990: 114-115), Caloura and Ri- 
beirinha (Azevedo, 1991a: 22), Santa 
María (Vila do Porto, Ilhéu da Vila, 
Ponta do Marvao) (Azevedo, 1991b: 44), 
Sao Miguel (Ilhéu de Vila Franca) (Bu- 
llock, 1995: 16), Pico (intertidal) 
(ÁVILA, 1996: 27), Pico (Ávila and Aze- 
vedo, 1996: 106) and Formigas islets 
(Ávila and Azevedo, 1997: 326). 



61 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 



DBUA 121, 173, 188, 198, 274, 277, 
340, 350, 351, 352, 353, 355, 359, 447, 462, 
465, 470, 472, 492, 496, 499, 500, 545, 564, 
632, 670. 

Comments: this is an uncommon 
species. It occurs from the low-tide level 
to a depth of 20m. Two specimens were 



recently found at Madeira (CANCAP 
expeditions, Sta. 4.K27, at shore) (HoEN- 
SELAAR AND GouD, 1998: 99). 

Dimensions: 1.5mm long, 0.9mm wide. 

Geographic distribution: Azores and 
Madeira (Hoenselaar and Goud, 1998: 
99). 



Manzonia Brusina, 1870 
Manzonia unifasciata Dautzenberg, 1889 

References to the Azores: 

Manzonia costata J. Adams, 1797 var. ex coloure: unifasciata: Dautzenberg, 1889: 51, pl. III, fig.lO. 

Manzonia costata J. Adams var. ex coloure: bifasciata: Dautzenberg, 1889: 51, pl. III, fig. 9. 

Manzonia costata J. Adams var. ex coloure: ¡ideóla: Dautzenberg, 1889: 51. 

Manzonia aurantiaca (Watson, 1873): Dautzenberg, 1889: 52. 

Manzonia costata (Adams, 1797). Pico (Nobre, 1924: 80; 1930: 56). 

Alvania (Manzonia) crassa (Kanmacher, 1798): Morton, 1967: 36. 

Manzonia aurantiaca (Watson, 1873): Nordsieck, 1972: 176, pl. R VI, fig. 2. 

Alvania (Manzonia) costata (Adams): Martins, 1980: 5, 16. 

Manzonia unifasciata Dautzenberg, 1889: Moolenbeek and Faber,1987, p.26, fig. 42; Azevedo and 

Martins, 1989: 69; Azevedo, 1990: 59; Azevedo and Gofas, 1990: 85; Gofas, 1990: 116, figs. 9; 59- 

64; Azevedo, 1991a: 22; Ávila, 1996: 27; Ávila and Azevedo, 1997: 326. 
Manzonia crassa (Kanmacher, 1798) (misidentification?): Bullock et al, 1990: 45. 
Manzonia unifasciata (Dautzenberg, 1889): Azevedo, 1991b: 44. 
Alvania crassa (Kanmacher, 1798) (misidentification?). Knudsen, 1995: 141. 



Occurrence: Sao Miguel (Ponta Del- 
gada), Faial (Horta), Pico, Graciosa and 
Terceira (Angra do Heroísmo) (Daut- 
zenberg, 1889: 51-52), Sao Miguel 
(Ponta Delgada), Faial (Horta), Pico, 
Graciosa and Terceira (Angra do Hero- 
ísmo) (NOBRE, 1924: 80; 1930: 56) Sao 
Jorge (Velas) (Morton, 1967: 36), Pico (- 
1276m) and Sao Miguel (Nordsieck, 
1972: 176), Sao Miguel (Brejela, Atal- 
hada, Lagoa) (Martins, 1980: 5, 16), 
Graciosa (mediolittoral of Ponte da 
Arela, Porto Alonso and Santa Cruz. In- 
fralittoral of Baía da Folga and Carapa- 
cho) (Azevedo and Martins, 1989: 69), 
Faial (Monte da Guia) (Azevedo, 1990: 
59), Flores (Santa Cruz) (Azevedo and 
Gofas, 1990: 85), Sao Miguel (Ponta da 
Galera; Queimada, Agua d'Alto; Mostei- 
ros; Calheta, Ponta Delgada; llhéu de 
Vila Franca) (Bullock et al., 1990: 43, 
45), Sao Miguel (Caloura, -4m; Vila 
Franca do Campo, -24m; llhéu de Vila 
Franca do Campo; Morro das Cápelas, - 
29m ("Biagores" 1971 expedition); Cape- 



las, intertidal; Lagoa, intertidal; Calheta, 
Ponta Delgada, O to -Im; Ponta da Ga- 
lera, -13 to -18m), Faial (Horta, -3m, - 
20m), Terceira (Porto Martins; Praia da 
Vitoria; Pedra Furada-Angra do Hero- 
ísmo); Flores (Santa Cruz, intertidal) 
(Gofas, 1990: 116), Sao Miguel (medio- 
littoral of Caloura. Infralittoral of Ca- 
loura and Ribeirinha) (Azevedo, 1991a: 
22), Santa María (Vila do Porto, llhéu da 
Vila, Ponta do Marvao) (Azevedo, 
1991b: 44), Sao Miguel (llhéu de Vila 
Franca) (Bullock, 1995: 16; Knudsen, 
1995: 142), Pico (intertidal) (Ávila, 1996: 
27) and Formigas islets (Ávila and Aze- 
vedo, 1997: 326). 

DBUA 173, 188, 266, 273, 274, 281, 
332, 338, 340, 341, 346, 350, 352, 353, 
355442, 443, 445, 446, 449, 451, 452, 462, 
470, 471, 475, 476, 486, 492, 493, 496, 499, 
500, 556, 571, 574, 579, 657, 660,661, 662, 
665, 666, 667, 670, 715, 719. 

MCM(HN) 1, 75. 

Comments: from low-tide level to - 
20m. This species has a quite variable 



62 



ÁVILA: The shallow-water Rissoidae of the Azores and some aspects of their ecology 



color pattern (pers. obs.). The diameter 
of the protoconch (340 /^m, Knudsen, 
1995: 142, fig. 3B), seems to indícate that 
M unifasciata has non-planktotrophic 
development (Knudsen, 1995). Manzo- 
nia crassa, a species that exists on the 
Portuguese mainland {e.g.: Berlenga, see 
BuRNAY, 1986: 27; Bullock et al., 1990), 
Rissoa costata, reported from the Canary 
Islands (Mac Andrew, 1852: 5) and 
Alvania costata, reported from Madeira 



by NoBRE (1937: 45) have also been 
reported from the Azores. I believe that 
all of them were misidentified with 
Manzonia unifasciata, which is endemic 
to the Azores and is the only representa- 
tive of this genus in the Azorean Archi- 
pelago. 

Dimensions: 2.5 mm long, 1.2 mm 
wide. 

Geographic distribution: endemic to 
the Azores. 



Onoha Adams H. and A., 1854 
Onoba moreleti Dautzenberg, 1889 

References to the Azores: 

Onoba moreleti Dautzenberg, 1889: 52; Moolenbeek and Hoenselaar, 1987: 154; Ávila et al, in press. 



Occurrence: Pico, Faial and Flores 
(ÁVILA ET AL., 1998: 498), Faial, Horta 
bay (Stn. 193) (-20m) (Moolenbeek and 
Hoenselaar, 1987: 154), Sao Miguel 
(Ávila et al., in press). 

DBUA 181, 410, 411, 500, 556, 666, 
748. 

Comments: this is a rare species of the 
Azorean littoral. Aartsen, Menkhorst 
AND Gittenberger (1984) were surpri- 
sed to find specimens of Onoba moreleti 
at the Bay of Algeciras (Southern Spain), 
but this species was later described as 
Onoba josae by Moolenbeek and Hoen- 
selaar (1987). Its presence was also 
reported from Graciosa, Canary Islands 
(collection M. C. Fehr-de Wal) by 



Aartsen et al. (1984) but, once again, it 
was a different species, described as 
Onoba manzoniana by Rolan (1987). 
According to Moolenbeek and Faber 
(1987) this species is Manzonia manzo- 
niana (Rolan, 1987). Formerly thought to 
be restricted to the western and central 
groups of islands of the Azores, recent 
sorting of material collected at Sao 
Miguel island (DBUA 748 - Cápelas, 
north coast, 14m depth) has revealed 
that O. moreleti also occur in the eastern 
group. 

Dimensions: 2.6mm long, 1.3mm 
wide. 

Geographic distribution: endemic to 
the Azores. 



Rissoa (Fréminville, ms.) Desmarest, 1814 
Rissoa guerini Récluz, 1843 



References to the Azores: 

Cingula costulata Alder, 1844: Chapman, 1955: 803. 

Occurrence: Faial (Feteira, mid tide) 
(Chapman, 1955: 803). 

Comments: a dubious record. This 
species has not since been cite from the 
Azores yet, although its distribution 
ranges from the British isles to the Caña- 
rles (Fretter and Graham, 1978; Poppe 
AND Goto, 1991). Probably, Chapman 



misidentified specimens of Rissoa guer- 
nei Dautzenberg, 1889 for his species 
Cingula costulata. 

Dimensions: 6.0 rhm long, 3.0 mm 
wide (Fretter and Graham, 1978). 

Geographic distribution: British isles to 
Portugal and the Cañarles (Fretter and 
Graham, 1978; Poppe and Goto, 1991). 



63 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 



Rissoa guernei Dautzenberg, 1889 

References to the Azores: 

Rissoa guernei Dautzenberg, 1889: 47-48, pl. 3, figs. la, b; Azevedo and Gofas, 1990: 85; Bullock 

et al, 1990: 45; Gofas, 1990: 100; Azevedo, 1991a: 21; 1991b: 44; Bullock, 1995: 16; Knudsen, 

1995: 140; Ávila, 1996: 27; Ávila and Azevedo, 1996: 106. 
Rissoa obesula Dautzenberg, 1889: 48, pl. 3, figs. 2a, b. 

Rissoa jousseaumei Dautzenberg and Fischer, 1896: 60-61, pl. 19, fig. 9fide Gofas, 1990, p. 99. 
Moniziella moniziana azorica Nordsieck, 1972: 173, pl. R V, fig. 28. 



Occurrence: Sao Miguel and Faial (-15 
to -20 m) (Dautzenberg, 1889: 47-48), Pico 
(-1287m) (Dautzenberg, 1889: 48, pl. 3, 
figs. 2a, b), Sao Miguel (-1385m) (Daut- 
zenberg AND Fischer, 1896: 60-61, pl. 19, 
fig. 9), Sao Miguel (Ponta Delgada) (Nord- 
sieck, 1972: 173, pl. R V, fig. 28), Graciosa 
(mediolittoral of Porto Alonso; infralitto- 
ral of Baía da Folga) (Azevedo and Mar- 
TINS, 1989: 69), Pico (Lajes do Pico) (Aze- 
vedo, 1990: 59), Flores (Faja Grande; Santa 
Cruz) (Azevedo and Gofas, 1990: 85), Sao 
Miguel (Ponta da Galera; Queimada, Agua 
d' Alto; Mosteiros; Calheta, Ponta Delgada; 
Ilhéu de Vila Franca; Porto do llhéu, Vila 
Franca do Campo) (Bullock et al.,1990: 
43, 45), Flores (infralittoral of Faja Grande 
and Piscina of Ponta Delgada) (Neto and 
Azevedo, 1990: 96, 98), Sao Miguel (Vila 
Franca ("Biagores" 1971 expedition); Ponta 
Delgada; (-10 to -20m); Ponta da Galera 
(intertidal); Cápelas (intertídal); Vila Franca 
(O to -5 m); Ilhéu de Vila Franca (O to -1 
m); Calheta, Ponta Delgada (intertidal); 
Ponta da Pirámide (-13m) (Gofas, 1990: 
100), Sao Miguel (mediolittoral of Caloura; 
infralittoral of Caloura and Ribeirinha) 
(Azevedo, 1991a: 21), Santa Maria (Vila 
do Porto, Ponta da Malbusca, llhéu da Vila, 



Ponta do Marvao) (AZEVEDO, 1991b: 44), 
Sao Miguel (llhéu de Vila Franca) (Bu- 
llock, 1995: 16; Knudsen, 1995: 140), Pico 
(intertidal) (Ávila, 1996: 27) and Pico 
(Ávila and Azevedo, 1996: 106). 

DBUA 188, 190, 193, 195, 220, 240, 274, 
281, 442, 443, 448, 451, 452, 459, 460, 462, 
468, 470, 471, 472, 473, 475, 492, 493, 496, 
499, 500, 551, 554, 556, 565, 566, 568, 570, 
571, 574, 579, 632, 661, 662, 666, 667, 719. 

Comments: feeds on detritus and on 
epiphytics algae (Graham, 1988). Accor- 
ding to Gofas (1990) this species is 
sexual dimorphic. It occurs from the 
low-tide leve! to -8m. Ponder (1985) 
States that the genus Rissoa has pelagic 
larvae, being restricted to the Mediterra- 
nean and north-eastern Atlantic. Rissoa 
guernei however, is a direct development 
species and one may hypothesize that 
the ancestral of this species probably 
lost its planktotrophic veliger larvae 
after colonizing the Azores. 

Dimensions: up to 2.3 mm long, 1.3 
mm wide. 

Geographic distribution: endemic to the 
Azores, even though it is closely related 
to Macaronesian/European species 
(Gofas, 1990). 



Setia H and A. Adams, 1852 
Setia sp. 

References to the Azores: 

Setia sp. Azevedo and Gofas, 1990: 85; Ávila et ai, 1998: 496. 



Occurrence: Flores (Santa Cruz, -20m) 
(Azevedo and Gofas, 1990: 85), Pico 
and Flores (Ávila et al., 1998: 496). 

DBUA 274, 276, 277, 281, 446, 449, 
478, 496, 499, 662. 

Comments: the small dimensions of 
this species has probably led to its being 



overlook in samples. The sorting of 
samples with a mesh size of 0.5mm will 
help to clarify its zonation and its geo- 
graphical distribution. 

Dimensions: l.Omm long, 0.8mm wide. 

Geographic distribution: Flores, Pico 
and Sao Miguel. 



64 



ÁVILA: The shallow-water Rissoidae of the Azores and some aspects of their ecology 



Setia pulcherrima (Jeffreys, 1848) 

References to the Azores: 

Cingula pulcherrima (Jeffreys, 1848): Bullock et al, 1990: 45; Knudsen, 1995: 143-144. 



Occurrence: Sao Miguel (Ponta da 
Galera; Queimada, Agua d'Alto; Mostei- 
ros; Calheta, Ponta Delgada; Ilhéu de Vila 
Franca; Porto do Ilhéu, Vila Franca) (Bul- 
lock ET AL., 1990: 45), Sao Miguel (Ilhéu 
de Vila Franca) (Knudsen, 1995: 143-144). 

Comments: this record needs to be 
confirmed. This species is reported to 
live on rocky shores, among fine weeds 
at the low tide (Fretter and Graham, 



1978). However in all the samples 
collected from such places in the Azores, 
I have never found this species. It might 
be a misidentification for Setia subvari- 
cosa Gofas, 1990. 

Dimensions: 1.2 mm long, 0.8 mm 
wide (Fretter and Graham, 1978). 

Geographic distribution: Azores (?). 
North to the Channel islands (Fretter 
AND Graham, 1978). 



Setia quisquiliarum Watson, 1886 

References to the Azores: 

Setia quisquiliarum Watson, 1886: Dautzenberg, 1889: 53. 

"Rissoa" quisquiliarum Watson, 1886: Gofas, 1990: 103. 



Occurrence: Sao Miguel (Dautzen- 
berg, 1889: 53). Off Faial (38° 38' N, 28° 
28' 30" W, in 730-910 m), Terceira 
(Gofas, 1990). 

Comments: Gofas (1990) states that 
this species is restricted to the central 



group of islands, but Dautzenberg 
(1889) quotes it from Sao Miguel, in the 
eastern group. 

Dimensions: 1.4mm long, 0.9mm wide. 

Geographic distribution: Faial, Terceira 
and Sao Miguel. 



Setia subvaricosa Gofas, 1989 

References to the Azores: 

Setia abjecta Watson, 1873: Dautzenberg, 1889: 52. 

Setia subvaricosa Gofas, 1989: Azevedo, 1990: 58; Gofas, 1990: 102-104; Ávila, 1996: 27; Ávila and 
Azevedo, 1996: 106; Ávila and Azevedo, 1997: 326; Ávila et al, 1998: 496. 



Occurrence: Faial (-15 a -20 m) 
(Dautzenberg, 1889: 52), Faial (Monte 
da Guia) (Azevedo, 1990: 58), Sao 
Miguel (Ilhéu de Vila Franca, intertidal; 
Cápelas, intertidal; Feteiras, -15 m; 
Lagoa, -10 to -22 m; Ponta da Galera, 
intertidal; Ponta da Pirámide, -13 m; 
Calheta, Ponta Delgada, intertidal), Ter- 
ceira (Praia da Vitoria, Pedra Furada - 
Angra do Heroísmo), Flores (Santa 
Cruz, -20 m) (Gofas, 1990: 102-103), Pico 
(intertidal) (Ávila, 1996: 27), Pico 
(Ávila and Azevedo, 1996: 106), Formi- 
gas islets (Ávila and Azevedo, 1997: 
326), Flores (Ávila et al., 1998: 496). 



DBUA 176, 188, 193, 195, 223, 274, 
281, 332, 335, 336, 338, 343, 345, 350, 352, 
355, 447, 451, 462, 465, 467, 471, 481, 496, 
499, 500, 545, 557, 564, 571, 574, 660, 662, 
666. 

Comments: this is an uncommon 
species. The outer lip of the adult shell 
of S. subvaricosa is thicker than that in 
the other species of Setia from the 
Mediterranean and the Atlantic 
(Gofas, 1990). 

Dimensions: up to 1.4 mm long, 0.8 
mm wide. 

Geographic distribution: endemic to 
the Azores. 



65 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 



Table I. Distribution of the Rissoidae on the islands and islets of the Azorean Archipelago. 
Tabla I. Distribución de los Rissoidae en las islas e islotes del archipiélago de las Azores. 

western group central group eastern group 

Flores Pico Sao Jorge Faial Gracioso Terceira Sao Miguel Santa Mario Formigos 

Alvania absfersa 1 1 1 

Alvania angioyi 1 1 111 

Alvania cancellata 1 11111 

Alvania formicarum 
Alvania internodula 

Alvania mediolittoralis 1 1 111 

Alvania poucheti 11 1 1 

Alvania sieursi 11 1 1 

Botrypballus ovummuscae 11 1 1 

Cingula irifasciata 1 11111 

Crisilla postrema 11 1 1 

Manzonia unifasciata 1 1 1 11 1 

Onoba moreleti 1 1 1 

Rissoaguernei 11 11 

Setia quisquiliarum 1 1 

Setia subvaricosa 11 1 1 

Se//o sp. 1 1 



Total number of toxo 



14 



13 6 



15 



Table II. Morphometry of the Rissoidae of the Azores. #Wp: number of protoconch whorls; #Wt 
number of teleoconch whorls; Di p: diameter of the protoconch; I protoconch 1; 11: protoconch 2 
L: total length of the shell; W: total breadth of the shell (based on own data; Watson, 1886 
Gofas, 1990; Knudsen, 1995; Hoenselaar and Goud, 1998). 

Tabla II. Morfometría de los Rissoidae de las Azores. #Wp: número de vueltas de la protoconcha; #Wt: 
número de vueltas de la teleoconcha; Di p: diámetro de la protoconcha; I protoconcha 1; II: protoconcha 
2; L: longitud total de la concha; W: anchura total de la concha (basado en datos propios; Watson, 
1886; Gofas, 1990; Knudsen, 1995; Hoenselaar and Goud, 1998). 



RISSOIDAE 


#Wp 


#Wt 


Di p (m) 


L(nim) 


W(nim) 


Alvania abstersa Van der Linden and Van Aartsen, 1 994 


1.5 


3.5 


300-400 


2.3-3.3 


1.5-1.7 


Alvania ong/oy/ Van Aartsen, 1982 


1.5 


3.25 - 3.75 


283.3 - 292.3 


1.2-1.8 


0.7-1.1 


Alvania cancellata [Ha Costa, 1778) 


1:1 
11:1.5 


3.5 


1:120.0-175.0 
11:375.0-440.0 


2.7 - 3.7 


1.8-2.4 


Alvania formicarum Gofos, 1 989 


1.25 


3 


366.7 


2.4 


1.4 


Alvania internodula Hoenselaar ond Goud, 1998 


1.25 


3.5 


310.0-333.3 


2.0 - 2.3 


1.1-1.3 


Alvania mediolittoralis Gofos, 1 989 


1.25 


3.25-3.75 


294.1 - 304.0 


2.2 - 2.7 


1.3-1.5 


Alvania poucheti Dautzenberg, 1 889 


1.25 


3.25 


363.4 - 383.4 


1.8-2.2 


1.0-1.3 


Alvania sieursi ( Amati, 1 987 ) 


1.25 


3.75 - 4 


358.3-400.0 


2.2 - 2.5 


1.5-1.6 


Alvania tarsodes (Watson, 1 886) 


? 


? 


? 


2.2 


1.3 


Botrypballus ovummuscae (Gofas, 1 990) 


1.25 


3 


222.2 


1.1-1.3 


0.6-0.7 


Cingula trifasciata [Mams, 1798) 


2.0 - 2.5 


4 


500.0 


3.2 - 3.9 


1.8-2.1 


Crisilla postrema (Go\as, 1990) 


1.25 


3 


? 


1.4-1.5 


0.8 - 0.9 


Manzonia unifasciata (Dautzenberg, 1 889j 


1.25 


4 


304.3 - 347.8 


2.0 - 2.5 


1.0-1.2 


Ono6o more/eí; Dautzenberg, 1889 


1.25 


3 


322.7 - 333.3 


1.9-2.6 


0.9-1.3 


Rissoa guernei Dautzenberg, 1 889 


1.25 


4 


258.8-281.3 


1.9-2.3 


1.1-1.3 


Setia sp. 


0.6 


2.0-2.5 


200.0-213.0 


0.8-1.0 


0.6 - 0.8 


Setia quisquiliarum Vl/atson, 1 886 


? 


3 


? 


1.4 


0. 


Setia subvaricosa Gofos, 1 990 


1.25 


3 


238.5 


1.1-1.4 


0.7 - 0.8 



óó 



Ávila: The shallow-water Rissoidae of the Azores and some aspects of their ecology 



Formigas 

Faial 

Flores 

Pico 

Sao Miguel 

Terceira 

Graciosa 

Santa Maria 



Sao Jorge 



40 



50 60 



70 



80 



90 loo 



Figure 4. Bray-Curtis/non transformed presence/absence data / UPGMA for the Rissoidae of the 

Azores. 

Figura 4. Análisis Bray-Curtis/no transformado de presencia/ausencia data I UPGMA de los Rissoidae 

de las Azores. 



RESULTS 

At the present status of our know- 
ledge, 23 taxa of Rissoidae are given to 
the Azores: 12 are endemic species, three 
are restricted to the Azores and 
Madeira/Selvagens archipelago, two 
have a wider distribution, one is an uni- 
dentified species of Setia and there are 
five records that were not confirmed by 
this study. The presence / absence of Ris- 
soidae species on the islands of the 
Azores, based on the Hterature and new 
data, is shown in Table I. Classification 
techniques used for this table, resulted in 
Figure 4. Sao Miguel, Pico and Flores, 
clustered at more than the 95% similarity 
level, form a consistent group, to which 
Faial (92%) and Terceira (85%) are also 
joined. Formigas, clustered at 65%, 
seems to be different from the first group 
of islands in terms of the Rissoidae 
species. Sao Jorge is the last island to 
cluster, at only the 44% similarity level. 

Morphometry: The largest Rissoidae 
present on Azorean littoral are Alvania 
cancellata (3.7 x 2.4 mm) and Cingula tri- 
fasciata (3.9 x 2.1 mm), whereas the sma- 



llest are Setia sp. (1.0 x 0.8 mm), Botryp- 
hallus ovummuscae (1.3 x 0.7 mm) and 
Setia subvaricosa (1.4 x 0.8 mm). Almost 
all protoconchs have 1 ^ / i whorls, 
Alvania cancellata being the exception 
with 2 V2 whorls. The smallest proto- 
conchs belong to Setia sp. and S. subvari- 
cosa (200 to 238,5 iim). Alvania cancellata, 
with a multispiral protoconch, has the 
largest (protoconch 1= 120 /^m; proto- 
conch 11= 440 jWm). The number of the 
teleoconch whorls range from 3 to 4 in 
all rissoids (Table II). 

Zonation: Nine species of Rissoidae 
were found at Sao Vicente, Cápelas, on 
the north coast of Sao Miguel, Azores. A 
total of 1,564 specimens were counted, 
on the 24 coUected quadrates of 50 x 50 
cm, Manzonia unifasciata Dautzenberg, 
1889 being the most abundant with a 
total of 631 individuáis, whilst Setia sp. 
and S. subvaricosa Gofas, 1990 uncom- 
mon species, (11 and 13 specimens, res- 
pectively) (Table III). 

The zonation of the Rissoidae at Sao 
Vicente, Cápelas, seems to indicate the 



67 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 



Table III. Rissoidae collected in July 1996 at Sao Vicente-Cápelas, north coast of Sao Miguel (all 
specimens larger than Imm). 

Tabla III. Rissoidae recogidos en julio de 1996 en Sao Vicente-Cápelas, costa norte de Sao Miguel (todos 
los especimenes mayores de Imm). 



Depth (m) 


3.5 


3.5 


3.5 


5.1 


5.1 


5.1 


8 


8 


8 


12 


12 


12 


A. angioyi 


6 


6 


27 


27 


24 


4 


6 


15 


16 





1 


9 


A. cancellata 


1 





1 


1 





1 


8 


6 


1 


1 


3 


4 


A. poucheti 


2 


4 


3 


3 


2 








2 


3 





1 


1 


A. síeursi 


16 


19 


28 


18 


30 


23 


11 


15 


20 


6 


5 


11 


C. postrema 








8 





1 











4 











M. uniíasciata 


10 


11 


28 


87 


116 


16 


51 


138 


89 





5 


13 


R. guernei 


16 


14 


41 


16 


19 


11 


8 


7 


9 








1 


S. subvaricosa 


1 





2 


2 


3 








2 











2 


Setia sp. 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2 











1 





1 


2 


TOTAL 


53 


55 


139 


156 


197 


55 


84 


185 


143 


7 


16 


43 



existence of common species at shallow 
depths (from low tide level to -10 m), 
such as Rissoa guernei, Manzonia iinifas- 
ciata and Alvania angioyi, and species 
more abundant from 15 m down, such 
as Alvania slenrsi, A. cancellata and A. 
poucheti (Figs. 5 and 6). 

By clustering the stations, at the 60% 
similarity level, two groups appear. The 
first one, with the highest number of sta- 
tions and with the exception of replicates 
20 and 21 (22 m depth), contains stations 
in shallow /médium depths. The second 
group, with the exception of stations 10 
(12 m depth) and 14 (13.6 m depth) are 
all médium /high depths (Fig. 7). 



DISCUSSION 

It seems evident that there is some 
island to island endemism, as suspected 
by Gofas (1990), Alvania formicarum and 
A. internodula being restricted to the eastem 
group of islands (Sao Miguel, Santa Maria 
and Formigas islets). Pico, Faial, Flores 
and Sao Miguel, the best studied islands, 
are almost identical in the composition of 
the Rissoidae, with the exceptions of Setia 
quisquiliarum (not found yet at Flores and 
Pico), Alvania abstersa (not found at Flores 
and Faial) and Setia sp. (not found at Faial). 
There is a clear distinction between the 
Rissoidae of Formigas islets and the remai- 



ning islands of the Azores. In fact, A. inter- 
nodula is restricted to these islets and A. 
mediolittoralis and Rissoa guernei, common 
species in the other islands, do not occur 
at Formigas. The importance of the For- 
migas islets as a Nature Reserve is there- 
fore reinforced by the results of this study. 

Santa Maria, Sao Jorge and Graciosa 
must be considered as outsiders in this 
biogeographic puzzle, as long as the 
number of samples and the quality of 
them is not increased (Table I and Fig. 
4). As for Setia sp., it may have been 
overlooked in some samples because of 
its small size. 

The abundance of the Rissoidae in 
the littoral of the Azores seems to be 
variable. Azevedo (1991) found that Cri- 
silla postrema (= Alvania postrema) (medio- 
littoral) and Rissoa guernei (infralittoral) 
were the most abundant species associa- 
ted with macroalgae in two sites at Sao 
Miguel island (Caloura/south coast and 
Ribeirinha / north coast). At Lajes do Pico 
(rocky intertidal conditions), the most 
abundant species is Cingula trifasciata, 
which may reach densities of 32,500 spe- 
cimens /m^ (Ávila, 1998). In this study, 
Manzonia unifasciata and Alvania sleursi 
are revealed to be the most abundant 
species, both in the infralittoral. Only 
long term and seasonal studies will 
answer this apparent discrepancy 
between mine and Azevedo' s data. 



68 



ÁVILA: The shallow-water Rissoidae of the Azores and some aspects of their ecology 



Table 


III. Continuación 






















Tabla III. Continuation. 






















13.6 


13.6 


13.6 


16.3 


16.3 


16.3 


22 


22 


22 


26.8 


26.8 


26.8 


TOTAL 





1 





4 





• 8 





3 











3 


160 


4 


2 


2 


3 





2 


2 


19 


6 


2 


1 


1 


71 


2 


1 





2 





11 


3 


16 


2 





1 





59 


20 


47 


8 


16 


6 


11 


11 


106 


13 


4 


4 


7 


455 

















5 




















18 


18 


8 


3 


14 


2 


2 





19 


3 








1 


631 











1 


























143 











1 


























13 






































11 


44 


59 


13 


41 


8 


39 


16 


163 


24 


6 


6 


12 


1,564 



With the solé exception of Alvania 
cancellata none of the other species of 
Rissoidae in the Azores has a long plank- 
totrophic larval development, because 
their protoconchs are bigger than about 
200 ^m (Verduin, 1982; 1985) (Table II). 
However, studies on other marine Proso- 
branchs {e.g. Turridae) have demonstra- 
ted that a paucispiral protoconch (as 
seen in the majority of the Azorean Ris- 
soidae) must not be interpreted as evi- 
dence for lacking a planktonic phase 
(Shimek, 1986; Bouchet, 1990). Nevert- 
heless, if there is a planktonic phase, it 
must be of small duration, but of high 
importance to the dispersal of the 
species within the archipelago. 

The similarity between the shells of 
Alvania cancellata and A. sleursi was 
pointed out by Gofas (1990), who 
thought the latter species could have 
speciated from the former, by losing the 
planktotrophic phase. On the óther 
hand, Alvania abstersa, A.formicarum and 
A. mediolittoralis are so similar in their 
protoconchs as well as in their teleo- 
conchs, that we may hypothesize their 
relation with a common ancestor. 

Mac Andrew (1854: 49), stated that 
the marine molluscs of the Azores, 
Madeira and Canary Islands were 
«closely related to that of the oíd conti- 
nent, notwithstanding that the prevai- 
ling set of currents is from America». 



The surface currents in the Northern 
Atlantic, especially the Gulf Stream, 
have been studied in detail during this 
century (Iselin, 1936; GouLD, 1985; 
FiALHO AND Barros, 1988; Kleine and 
SiEDLER, 1989; Alves, 1990; 1992;). All 
studies indícate that the surface currents 
are mainly from West to the East, that is, 
from America to Europe. 

The larvae oí Alvania formicarum pro- 
bably did not reach the islands of the 
central and western groups because of the 
main direction of surface currents in the 
Azores. The same may be true for A. inter- 
nodula, but the scarcity of data on this last 
species, does not allow for a stronger con- 
clusión. Additional samples must be taken 
at Formigas, in order to determine the 
zonation of A. internodula. If it becomes 
apparent that it usually occurs at depths 
of about 45 m (as is the case at Formigas 
islets), this species may be common on the 
other islands of the Azores, but not found 
yet, because no representative samples 
have been collected by me at depths 
greater than 30m. However, this species 
was not found in any of the CANCAP 
samples (ranging from 33 to 47 m depth), 
so we have some evidence that it may be 
restricted to Formigas. 

A non-planktotrophic species may 
be distributed over a large área if there 
is another plausible means of transport. 
It is likely that those species of Rissoidae 



69 



n 150 



50 



30 



20 



10 



3.5 



3.5 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 





O 


O 


Manzonia unifasciata 








D 


. 




D 

i 


D 

1 


1 


\ 2 o 


o 


-H a \ LJ 1 ñ 


□ 1 — — @ 1 



5.1 



12 13.6 16.3 

Rissoa guernei 



22 26.8 Depth (m) 




16.3 22 26.8 Depth (m) 



O 


O 




Alvania angioyi 










^^ 


O 










D 


D 


D 
1 


O 

1 ^^^-8^ 


O 
— H ' 


^~^° 


o 


1 ñ 


1 & 1 



5.1 



12 



13.6 



16.3 



22 26.8 Depth (m) 



Figure 5. Common Rissoidae species collected at shallow depths (from low tide level to -lOm) 
coUected at Sao Vicente, Cápelas, Sao Miguel, Azores (O: máximum; •: average; □: minimum 
valúes) . 

Figura 5. Especies de Rissoidae comunes en aguas someras (del nivel de bajamar hasta -lOm) recogidas 
en Sao Vicente, Cápelas, Sao Miguel, Azores (O: máximo; •.• media; □.■ mínimo). 



living in the first few meters of water 
{e.g. Alvania angioyi, Manzonia unifasciata 
and Rissoa guernei) may drift from island 
to island on "rafts" of algae provided by 
heavy seas breaking into the shore. 

There are 231 confirmed species of 
shallow-water molluscs on the littoral of 
the Azores (Ávila, 2000). Only 16 spe- 
cies (6.9%) are amphi-Atlantic species, in 
contrast to the 181 species (78.4%) shared 
with the western Mediterranean, or the 



147 species (63.6%) shared with Madeira 
(with the Desertas and Selvagens). Main- 
land Portugal and Canary Islands, share 
144 (62,3%) and 137 species (59,3%), res- 
pectively with the Azores, whereas Saint 
Helena (5,2%) and Ascensión island 
(5,6%) share only a small number of spe- 
cies. A total of 112 species (48,5%) occurs 
simultaneously in the Azores, Madeira 
and the Canary Islands, and 53 species 
(22,9%) occur in all the Macaronesian Ar- 



70 



ÁVILA: The shallow-water Rissoidae of the Azores and some aspects of their ecology 



n 150 




8 Depth (m) 



20 -r 

15 

10 



3.5 5.1 8 12 13.6 16.3 22 26.8 Depth (m) 

Alvania poucheti 




26.8 Depth (m) 



Figure 6. Common Rissoidae species coUected at high depths (-15 to -30m) collected at Sao 
Vicente, Cápelas, Sao Miguel, Azores (O: máximum; •: average; Q: minimum valúes). 
Figura 6. Especies de Rissoidae comunes en aguas profundas(- 15 a -30 m) recogidas en Sao Vicente, 
Cápelas, Sao Miguel, Azores (O: máximo; •.• media; □; mínimo). 



chipelagos (Ávila, 2000). Of the 231 re- 
ported species, 19 are endemic (8,2%) 
and of these, 13 (5,6%) are endemic Ris- 
soidae (Ávila, 2000). The dominance of 
the Rissoidae in the littoral fauna of the 
Azores, is one piece of evidence that 
supports its higher similarity with that 
of Europe (Gofas, 1990). 

An understanding of the coloniza- 
tion and subsequent speciation that has 
occurred in the molluscan fauna of the 
Azores, with special emphasis on the 



Rissoidae, clearly merits further rese- 
arch. Samples of plankton should be 
taken in the three groups of islands, in 
order to evalúate the dispersa! capabili- 
ties of the endemic Rissoidae, especially 
the most problematic species {Alvania 
formicarum, A. internodula, Onoba moreleti 
and the undescribed Setia). Deeper 
samples should also be collected in 
order to respond to the questions raised 
by the so far apparent restricted range of 
Alvania internodula. 



71 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 









H 








1 — 1 




■ 






1 — 1 



40 



50 



60 



70 



80 



90 



100 



7 






2 






5 






3 






9 






1 






4 






8 






1?, 






16 

1 8 


Depth (m) 


Quadrats 


?,0 


3.5 


1-3 


11 


5.1 


4-6 


14 


8.0 


7-9 


13 


12.0 


10-12 


21 


13.6 


13-15 


10 
22 
19 


16.3 
22.0 


16-18 
19-21 


23 


26.8 


22-24 


17 






15 






24 







Figure 7. Rissoidae at Sao Vicente, Cápelas, Sao Miguel, Azores. Double Square Root/Bray- 

Curtis/UPGMA. 

Figura 7. Rissoidae de Sao Vicente, Cápelas, Sao Miguel, Azores. Doble Raíz/Bray-Curtis/UPGMA. 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

I am grateful to Frías Martins (Uni- 
versity of the Azores) for the support 
given during the last three years and to 
Brian Morton (University of Hong 
Kong), whose comments have greatly 
improved a first draft of this paper. I am 
also indebted to Jorge Medeiros (Uni- 
versity of the Azores) for his assistance 



with the SEM photos and to Robert 
Moolenbeek, by the generous help with 
bibliography and comments on the 
manuscript. I specially acknowledge the 
useful comments of Winston Ponder 
and an anonymous referee. 

This study was supported by grants 
PRAXIS XXI BM/ 20521/ 99, PRAXIS 
XXI /BIC/ 2788/ 96 and PRAXIS/ 2/ 2.1/ 
BIA/169/94. 



(Right page) Figure 8. Alvania internodula Hoenselaar and Goud, 1998. A: shell (DBUA 338/19- 
3) 2.3 X 1.3 mm; B, C: protoconch (lateral and frontal view); D: microsculpture of protoconch; E: 
microsculpture of P' post-larval whorl; F: microsculpture of body whorl; G: aperture of the sheil; 
H: shell (DBUA 338/19-4), 2.0 x 1.1 mm; I: sheli (DBUA 338/31-4), 1.6 x 0.9mm; J: shell of 
juvenile (DBUA 338/31-2), 1.1 x 0.9 mm. 

(Página derecha) Figura 8. Alvania internodula Hoenselaar y Goud, 1998. A: concha (DBUA 
338/19-3) 2,3 x 1,3 mm; B, C: protoconcha (vistas lateral y frontal); D: microescidtura de la protocon- 
cha; E: microescultura de la primera vuelta postlarvaria; F: microesculptura de la vuelta del cuerpo; G: 
apertura de la concha; H: shell (DBUA 338/19-4), 2,0 x l,lmm; I: concha (DBUA 338/31-4), 1,6 x 
0,9mm; J: concha de juvenil (DBUA 338/31-2), 1,1 x 0,9mm. 



71 



ÁVILA: The shallow-water Rissoidae of the Azores and some aspects of their ecology 




73 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 



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© Sociedad Española de Mataco logia Iberus, 18 (2): 77-97, 2000 



A peculiar high-tidal moUuscan assemblage from a 
Madeiran boulder beach 

Una peculiar comunidad de moluscos del nivel superior de la marea 
en una playa de cantos rodados de Madeira 

Emilio ROLAN* and José TEMPLADO** 

Recibido el 7-VI 11-2000. Aceptado el23-X-2000 

ABSTRACT 

The molluscs living at the higher intertidal level in a protected área of boulders in Madeira 
are described. Fourteen species of molluscs were found in this peculiar habitat, the gastro- 
pods Littorína striata, Melaraphe neritoides, Assiminea cf. grayana, Paludinella littorína, Caecum 
armoricum, Caecum clarkü, Truncatella subcylindrica, Botryphallus epidauricus, Odostomia 
microeques (parasitizing the former species), Ovatella aequalis, Auriculinella bidentata, 
Pedipes pedipes, Pseudomelampus exiguus, and the bivalve Lasaea rubra. Their abundance 
and distribution assemblages in this habitat are noted and they are compared with the molluscs 
found in similar habitats in other áreas of the Northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean. 

RESUMEN 
Se describen los moluscos hallados en el nivel superior de la marea en una zona de bloques 
y cantos rodados de la isla de Madeira. Se hallaron catorce especies de moluscos en este 
habitat tan peculiar, los gasterópodos Uttorina striata, Melaraphe neritoides, Assiminea cf. 
grayana, Paludinella littorina, Caecum armoricum, Caecum clarkii, Truncatella subcylin- 
drica, Botryphallus epidauricus, Odostomia microeques (parasitando la especie anterior), 
Ovatella aequalis, Auriculinella bidentata, Pedipes pedipes, Pseudomelampus exiguus y el 
bivalvo ¿Gsaea rubra. Se aportan datos sobre la abundancia de todas estas especies y su 
distribución dentro de este habitat. Por último, se compara esta comunidad de moluscos con 
las halladas en hóbitats similares en otras zonas del Atlántico nordeste y del Mediterráneo. 



KEYWORDS: Madeira, boulder beach, high-tidal molluscan assemblage, Littorinidae, Assimineidae, Caecidae, 
Truncatellidae, Rissoidae, Pyramidellidae, EUobiidae, Kelliidae. 

PALABRAS CLAVE: Madeira, playa de cantos rodados, comunidad de moluscos supralitoral, Littorinidae, 
Assimineidae, Caecidae, Truncatellidae, Rossoidae, Pyramidellidae, EUobiidae, Kelliidae. 



INTRODUCTION 

Faunas associated with boulder tidal level in such places form a distinc- 

beachs were described by Morton tive ecological grouping. These mollus- 

(1975) in New Zealand. He pointed out can communities are characterised by 

that the molluscs that lives at the high- species of both marine and terrestrial 

* Cánovas del Castillo 22, 36202 Vigo, Spain 

** Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC), José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid, Spain 

77 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 




25 cm 



Figure 1. Schematic representation of the sampling site. 1: the upper level formed by cobbles of 
about 15-25 cm, occasionally receiving sunlight; 2: among and under them, there was another layer 
of scarcely smaller stones of about 9-15 cm, never exposed to sunlight; 3: other small stones without 
any contact with sand; 4: smaller ones mixed with some coarse sand formed a layer of about 6-8 cm 
thick; 5: bed of gravel and coarse sand mixed with very small stones; A: high tide level. 
Figura 1. Esquema del lugar de muestreo. 1: nivel superior formado por cantos rodados de unos 15-25 
cm, que reciben ocasionalmente la luz del sol; 2: entre ellos y por debajo hay otro nivel con piedras lige- 
ramente más pequeñas (9-15 cm), que nunca están expuestas a la luz del sol; 3: otras piedras más peque- 
ñas sin contacto alguno con arena; 4: otras piedras pequeñas mezcladas con arena compacta formando 
un estrato de unos 6-8 cm de espesor; 5: nivel de grava y arena compactada con pequeñas piedras; A: 
nivel de la marea alta. 



groups, which form a mixed assem- 
blage. According to this author espe- 
cially common here are species of the 
caenogastropods families Assimineidae 
and Caecidae, and primitive pulmona- 
tes of the family EUobiidae. Ponder 
(1990) studied a cióse related habitat in 
the Strait of Gibraltar, but in a some- 
what lower level. He pointed out that 
"these habitats, long neglected by bio- 
logist, clearly deserve much closer 
attention". 

During a short visit to Madeira 
Island in Octuber of 1993 we had the 
opportunity to find a surprisingly 
diverse molluscan assemblage, quite 
similar to that described by MoRfpN 
(1975), in such seemingly inhospitable 
habitat. These molluscs and their abun- 
dance and distribution within this 
habitat are here described. 

The small molluscs of Madeira were 
firstly studied by Manzoni (1868a, 
1968b), Watson (1873, 1891, 1898), and 
in more recent times by Nordsieck and 



García-Talayera (1979), Verduin 

(1984, 1988), MOOLENBEEK AND FaBER 

(1987), Palazzi (1988) and Moolenbeek 
AND Hoenselaar (1989, 1998), among 
others. AU these publications are mairily 
lists, inventories or description of new 
species, and most of them are based on 
dead material. In the other hand, the 
Ellobids from Madeira were studied 
firsly by Wollaston (1878) and in 
recent times by Martins (1995, 1996, 
1999). 



MATERIAL AND METHODS 

The Madeiran coast is very steep, 
and exposed to an intense wave action. 
In most part of its coast only boulder 
beachs are found. In October of 1993 a 
small área of about 2 x 2 m was sampled 
in Funchal, near the Club Naval. The 
sampling site was located at the córner 
of a small bay, where wave-rounded 
boulders and large cobbles were over a 



78 



Rolan and Templado: High-tidal moUuscan assemblage from a Madeiran boulder beach 



Table I. Species found in Madeira and their abundance and habitat where they predominated. 1: 
upper part of big boulders; 2: amongst and under boulders; 3: under cobbles without any contact 
with the sand layer. ; 4: amongst and under small stones in contact with the sand layen ; 5: in the 
sand under cobbles; +: 1 - 10 specimens; ++: 11-50 specimens; +++: 51-150 specimens; ++++: 
more than 150 specimens. 

Tabla I. Especies encontradas en Madeira, su abundancia y nivel en el que eran predominantes. 1: 
parte superior de bloques grandes; 2: entre y bajo bloques; 3: bajo guijarros sin ningún contacto 
con la capa de arena; 4: entre y bajo pequeñas piedras en contacto con la arena; 5: en la arena bajo 
guijarros; +: 1 - 10 especímenes; ++: 11-50 especímenes; +++: 51-150 especímenes; ++++: más de 
150 especímenes. 

Species 12 3 4 5 



L. sthata 

M. neritoides 

A. cf. grayana 
P. littorina 

C. clarka 
C. armoricum 
T. subcylindhca 

B. epidauricus 
O. microeques 
O. aequalis 
A. bidentata 

P. pedipes 
P exiguas 
L. rubra 





+++ 


+ 






+ 


+++ 


+ 
++ 






+ 


++ 






+ 


++++ 
++ 


+ 


++++ 


+ 






+ 


++ 




+ 








+ 









coarse sand and gravel layer, among 
rocks (Fig. 1). It was a moderately 
stable, shady place, protected against 
the direct impact of the waves. The sea- 
water was received slowly braked by its 
filtration through the gravel. Thus, the 
main ecological factors of the small área 
sampled were the high humidity, and 
permanently low levéis of light and 
temperature. Some decaying algal 
wrack and plant debris can be found 
under stones, which constitute the food 
for most of the ardmals inhabiting there. 
No macroscopic seaweeds were observ- 
ed in this habitat. 

Material was coUected in the high 
tide spring level by direct observation 
with frontal lens. Also, some cobbles 
were cleaned in a box with sea-water, 
and samples of the coarse sand and 
gravel placed under boulders and 
stones were taken in order to be studied 
later under magnification. 



The samples obtained cannot be 
treated as a valid quantitative estimates. 
Therefore, the number of specimens 
given might be interpreted as a general 
picture of abundance and distribution of 
each species. 

In order to make comparisons, a 
very similar habitat and level was 
sampled in other localities, two located 
in the Atlantic coast of NW Spain (Cíes 
Islands, Ría de Vigo, June, 1997, and 
Ribadeo, Lugo, June, 1998), and another 
in the Mediterranean (Los Escullos, 
Almería, SE Spain, September 1996). 
Some specimens from the Muséum 
Nationale d'Histoire Naturelle of Paris 
(MNHN) (loaned by Serge Gofas), 
coming from Ceuta, Azores and Canary 
Islands were used for comparison. 
Voucher material of all the species 
recorded has been deposited in the 
Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales 
of Madrid. 



79 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 



Table II. Species found in similar habitat in Madeira and in several localities of the Spanish coasts 
(Ribadeo, Cies Islands, in NW Spain, and Los Esculles, SE Spain). 

Tabla II. Especies presentes en hábitats similares en Madeira y varias localidades del litoral español 
(Ribadeo, Islas Cíes, en el NO de España, y Los Escullos, SE de España). 



Genera 


Species in MADEIRA 


Species in NW SPAIN 


Species in SE SPAIN 


Uttorina 


L. striata 


L. saxatilis 




Melaraphe 


M. neritoides 




M. neritoides 


Assiminea 


A. cf. grayana 






Paludinella 


P. littoñna 


P. littorina 


P. littorina 


Caecum 


C. armoricum 
C. clarkii 




C. armoricum 


Cingula 




C. trifasciata 




Truncatella 


T. subcylindrica 


T. subcylindrica 


T. subcylindrica 


Botryphalus 


6. epidauricus 




B. epidauricus 


Odostomia 


O. microeques 






Ovatella 


O. aequalis 






Myosotella 




M. myosotis 


M. myosotis 


Auriculinella 


A. bidentata 


A. bidentata 


A. bidentata 


Pedipes 


P. pedipes 






Pseudomelampus 


P. exiguus 


P. exiguus 


P exiguus 


Lasaea 


L rubra 


L. rubra 





RESULTS 

Description of the habitat: We consid- 
ered the following levéis in the sampling 
site (Fig. 1), with independence of the big 
stones which were around the place: 

1- the upper level was formed by 
cobbles of about 15-25 cm, occasionally 
receiving sunlight; 

2- among and under them* there was 
another layer of scarcely smaller stones of 
about 9-15 cm, never exposed to sunlight; 
some algal debris were deposited here; 

3- under these, other small stones 
without any contact with sand; 

4- amongst and under small stones, 
smaller ones mixed with some coarse sand 
formed a layer of about 6-8 cm thick. 

5- under this layer there was a bed of 
gravel and coarse sand mixed with very 
small stones. 



All these levéis were at the higher 
intertidal level. Probably, the sea-water 
could reach the upper cobbles when the 
sea was strong, but normally the waves 
arrived to this place very attenuated. 
The cobbles and stones under boulders 
were always humid and they were not 
hardly heated by the sun. 

The molluscan species found in this 
habitat lived very cióse one to another 
but occupied different levéis or niches. 
Most of them were found very cióse 
because there were only about 25 cm 
from the higher to the lower level. 

Species found: The species found in 
Madeira and its relative abundance and 
location within this habitat are shown in 
Table I. The Table II shows the species 
found in similar habitat in Madeira, NW 
Spain, and SE Spain. 



(Right page) Figures 2-8. Assiminea cf. grayana, Madeira. 2: shell; 3-5: protoconch; 6: detail of the 
suture; 7-8: radula. 

(Página derecha) Figuras 2-8. Assiminea cf. grayana, Madeira. 2: concha; 3-5: protoconcha; 6: detalle 
de la sutura; 7-8: rádula. 



80 



Rolan and Templado: High-tidal moUuscan assembkge from a Madeiran boulder beach 




81 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 



Family Littorinidae Gray, 1840 
Littorina striata King and Broderip, 1832 



Material studied: 8 specimens from Madeira. 

Habitat: Found in the upper level 
amongst big boulders. 

Remarks: This species is known from 
Azores, Madeira, Canarias, Cabo Verde 
and Sao Tomé islands. Our specimens 
were found in the upper part of the 
studied área, on the rocks. Most of them 
were not adults. Some of them had 
tubercles in the upper part of the first 



whorls, even in one specimen the tuber- 
cles reached the last whorl. This pattern 
is frequent in the same species in Cape 
Verde Islands. No other differences were 
appreciated between Madeiran and 
Cañarían populations of this species. A 
detailed study on patterns of shell varia- 
tion in this species along Macaronesia 
was done by De Wolf et al. (1998). 



Melaraphe neritoides (Linné, 1758) 

Material studied: 7 specimens from Madeira, 20 specimens from Almería. 



Habitat: Found in the upper level on 
the surface of big boulders. 

Remarks: The species ranges from 
Scandinavia to the Mediterranean. The 



shells from Madeira had the same 
characteristics that the ones found in 
the European mainland coasts popula- 
tions. 



Family Assimineidae H. and A. Adams, 1856 
Assiminea cf. gray ana Fleming, 1828 (Figs. 2-8, 30) 



Material studied: 104 specimens from Madeira. 

Description: Shell (Fig. 2) small, solid, 
globose-conical, with spire scarcely 
pointed. Surface smooth, only with 
growth lines and a subsutural spiral 
groove (Fig. 6), not clearly appreciated 
in first whorls. Suture slowly depressed. 
Protoconch (Figs. 3-5) smooth, with 
somewhat more than one spiral whorl. 
Its nucleus measured 130 ^m in diame- 
ter 

Animal white, with short and con- 
tractile cephalic tentacles, showing the 
eyes cióse to their tip. The anterior part 
of the foot is rounded and bilobulated 



(Fig. 30). Black pigmentation was very 
constant in the external apical part of 
the tentacles. A black or grey spots in 
the head, between the tentacles, can be 
also present. In some specimens a quite 
dark first whorls can be observed by 
transparence. 

Radula (Figs. 7-8) with a narrow and 
elongate rachidian tooth, which presents 
a prominent central cusp, with one or 
two at each side. There are also three 
small cusps near its base at each side, 
being less prominent the more basal. 
The lateral teeth have a spoon-like form. 



(Right page) Figures 9-12. Paludinella littorina, Madeira. 9: shell; 10-11: protoconch; 12: micros- 
culpture of the protoconch. Figure 13. Caecum armoricum, apex (Madeira). Figure 14. Caecum 
clarki, apex (Madeira). 

(Página derecha) Figuras 9-12. Paludinella littorina, Madeira. 9: concha; 10-11: protoconch a; 12: 
microescultura de la protoconcha. Figura 13. Caecum armoricum, ápice (Madeira). Figura 14. 
Caecum clarki, ápice (Madeira). 



82 



Rolan and Templado: High- tidal moUuscan assemblage from a Madeiran boulder beach 





Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 



with some cusps at their margin. The 
marginal internal are very similar to the 
lateral, being also spoon-like, somewhat 
wider, with smaller and more numerous 
cusps. 

Habitat: Found living under boulders 
in humid parts, without contact with the 
sand, but very near to this layer. 

Remarks: In a first glance we identi- 
fied this species as A. grayana Fleming, 
1828. But after a most detailed study we 
had some doubts because Fretter and 
Graham (1978) noted spiral Unes in the 
protoconch of this taxon, which are not 
present in our shells. They referred also 
a protoconch of two whorls, but our 
shells have only somewhat more than 
one (using the method of Verduin, 



1984). We have tried to examine the pro- 
toconch of specimens of populations of 
this species recorded in the Ría de Arosa 
by Cadée (1968) and Rolan (1987), but 
all the shells had the protoconch eroded. 
A. grayana ranges from the Atlantic 
coast of Europe to the Mediterranean 
Sea. Other forms of the genus Assiminea 
has been observed in some áreas of West 
África down to Angola. Ávila (1998, 
2000) used the ñame Assiminea eliae 
Paladilhe, 1875 for the specimens of the 
Azores. Until a detalied review of all 
these forms is done, we prefer to keep 
the specimens from Madeira under the 
current ñame A. grayana, following the 
nomenclature proposed by the 
CLEMAN checklist. 



Paludmella littorina (delle Chiaje, 1828) (Figs. 9-12, 29) 

Material studied: 62 specimens from Madeira; 30 from Almería; 35 from Cíes Islands; 15 from 
Ribadeo. 



Description: Shell (Fig. 9) small, 
globose, glossy, semitransparent. Proto- 
conch (Figs. 10-12) with a huge nucleus 
and one whorl and little more; its 
surface is covered by a fine microsculp- 
ture of irregular granulations. There is a 
distinc boundary with the teleoconch. 
Animal milky-white, with cephalic ten- 
tacles very short, fíat, semitriangular, 
with subapical eyes (Fig. 29). A pinkish 
área can be observed by transparence 
between the tentacles. 

Habitat: P. littorina was living under 
boulders near or in contact with the 
sand layer. 

Remarks: Fretter and Graham 
(1978) noted that P. littorina has a 
protoconch of 1 3/4 smooth whorls. 
The photograph presented by them 
(Fretter and Graham, 1978, fig. 130) 
show a protoconch that seems to have 
less than one whorl. In fact, in our 



material there is only a little more than 
1/2 whorl after a wide nucleus (using 
the method of Verduin, 1984). The 
surface of the protoconch of our mate- 
rial is covered by irregular fine sculp- 
ture and was never smooth, as in the 
protoconch showed by Fretter and 
Graham (1978, p. 149, fig. 130). 
Perhaps, the shells studied by these 
authors had eroded protoconchs or 
they were not studied at enough 
magnification. We have compared the 
Madeiran shells with those from SE 
Spain, and their microsculpture (Fig. 
12) is similar in both populations. Thus 
we consider to be the same species 
both Madeiran and Mediterranean 
specimens. 

This species occurs throughout the 
Mediterranean Sea and along the 
Eastern Atlantic coast, from Madeira to 
the Southern coast of the British Isles. 



(Right page) Figures 15-16. Truncatella subcylindrica, protoconch, Madeira. Figures 17-20. Botryp- 
hallus epidanricus., Madeira. 17: shell; 18: protoconch; 19-20: radula. 

(Página derecha) Figuras 15-16. Truncatella subcylindrica, protoconcha, Madeira. Figuras 17-20. 
Botryphallus epidauricus., Madeira. 17: concha; 18: protoconcha; 19-20: rádula. 



84 



Rolan and Templado: High-tidal moUuscan assemblage from a Madeiran boulder beach 




85 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 



Family Caecidae Gray, 1850 
Caecum armoricum de Folin, 1869 (Fig. 13) 

Caecum incomptum (Monterosato, 1884). 

Material studied: 22 specimens from Madeira; 9 specimens from Almería. 



Description: A complete description 
of the shell of this species can be seen in 
the papers of Van Aartsen and Hoen- 
SELAAR (1984) and Hoeksema and 
Segers (1993). The specimens studied 
did not differ from these descriptions. 
Animal white. 

Habitat: Found buried in the sand, 
under boulders and stones. 

Remarks: Ponder (1990) pointed out 
that this species (as C. incomptum) is 



very abundant in the intertidal gravel 
habitat in the Strait of Gibraltar. Our 
specimens are quite similar to those 
mentioned by this author. Caecum armo- 
ricum occurs throughout the Mediterra- 
nean Sea and along the Eastern Atlantic 
coast, from Canary Island to Azores and 
Northern France. Its distribution and 
systematic had been discused by 
Aartsen and Hoenselaar (1984) and 
Hoeksema AND Segers (1993). 



Caecum clarkii Carpenter, 1858 (Fig. 14) 



Material studied: 1 living specimen from Madeira. 

Habitat: Buried in sand under cobbles. 

Remarks: C. clarkii was originally 

described from Canary Islands and 



widespread throughout the European 
Atlantic coasts and the Mediteranean 
Sea. 



Family Truncatellidae Gray, 1840 
Truncatella subcylindrica (L., 1767) (Figs. 15-16, 28) 

Material studied: 39 specimens from Madeira; 109 from Almería; 12 from Vigo; 45 from Ribadeo. 



Description: Shells of Madeiran speci- 
mens were very similar to those from 
the Mediterranean populations, with 
numerous axial ribs, but some speci- 
mens were smooth. Protoconch smooth 
(Figs. 15-16). Animal white. Anterior 
end of the foot with two fíat enlarge- 



ments. Tentacles not very long, cylindri- 
cal with the eyes at their bases (Fig. 28). 

Habitat: Amongst vegetal debris and 
cobbles. 

Remarks: The characteristics of the 
habitat and shells are quite similar to 
those of the European populations. 



Family Rissoidae Gray 1847 
Botryphallus epidauricus (Brusina, 1866) (Figs. 17-27) 

Material studied: 570 specimens from Madeira; 409 from Almería, more than 500 from Canary 
Islands (MNHN), and more than 500 from Ceuta (MNHN). 



Description: Shell (Fig. 17) minute, 
tall-spired, almost cylindrical, smooth, 
whitish, with a dome-shaped apex. 
Aperture pyriform, slightly widening, 



peristome continuous and outer lip 
smooth. Protoconch (Fig. 18) with about 
1 smooth whorl. Teleoconch with about 
3 whorls. 



86 



Rolan and Templado: High-tidal moUuscan assemblage from a Madeiran boulder beach 




Figures 21-27. Botryphallus epidauricus, Madeira. 21: sketch of one specimen showing by transpa- 
rence part of the intestinal tract; 22, 23: details of the head-foot; 24-27: penis of several males. 
Figure 28. Sketch of the head-foot of Truncatella subcylindrica, Madeira. Figure 29. Sketch of the 
head-foot oí Paludinella littorina, Madeira. Figure 30. Sketch of the head-foot oí Assiminea cf. 
grayana, Madeira. Figure 3 1 . Sketch of the head-foot of Pseudomelampus exiguus, Madeira. Figure 
32. Sketch of the head-foot of Pedipes pedipes, Madeira. Figure 33. Sketch of the head-foot of 
Odostomia microeques, Madeira. Figure 34. Live position of Odostomia microeques on its host, 
Botryphallus epidauricus, Madeira. 

Figuras 21-27. Botryphallus epidauricus, Madeira. 21: esquema de un ejemplar mostrando por trans- 
parencia parte del tracto intestinal; 22, 23: detalles de la parte anterior del animal; 24-27: penes de 
algunos ejemplares. Figura 28. Esquema de la parte anterior del animal de Truncatella subcylindrica, 
Madeira. Figura 29. Esquema de la parte anterior del animal de Paludinella littorina, Madeira. 
Figura 30. Esquema de la parte anterior del animal de Assiminea cf grayana, Madeira. Figura 31. 
Esquema de la parte anterior del animal de Pseudomelampus exiguus, Madeira. Figura 32. Esquema 
de la parte anterior del animal de Pedipes pedipes, Madeira. Figura 33. Esquema de la parte anterior 
del animal de Odostomia microeques, Madeira. Figura 34. Posición habitual de Odostomia microe- 
ques sobre su hospedador, Botryphallus epidauricus, Madeira. 



87 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 




Figures 35-37. Shells of Odostomia microeques, Madeira. 35: Holotype (MNCN); 36-37: paratypes 

(CERandMNHN). 

Figuras 35-37. Conchas de Odostomia microeques, Madeira. 35: holotipo (MNCN); 36-37: parati- 

pos(CERyMNHN). 



Animal (Figs. 22, 23) translucent 
white, with cephalic tentacles thin and 
elongated. The eyes lie at their bases. Pro- 
podium with a conspicuous, triangular, 
and opaque-white pedal gland. Snout 
with two pronounced dista) lobes. Intes- 
tine visible by transparence throughout 
the last whorl of the shell, with a slight 
curvature (Fig. 21). Males with a large 
and flower-like penis (Figs. 24-27), also 
visible by transparence, bearing several 
(from 11 to 16) digitiform appendages 
(apocrine glands, sensu Ponder, 1990). 
Operculum thin, translucent, paucispiral 
with a eccentric nucleus. 

Radula (Figs. 19-20) taenioglossan, 
with a raquidian tooth having the cutting 
edge with 9 cusps (the central more 
elongated and the others smaller towards 
the periphery). Lateral teeth with 9 cusps 
also, one of the central more prominent 
and the others decreasing in size at both 
sides. Marginal teeth with many small 
cusps of the same size in their distal edge. 

Habitat Some specimens were found 
under cobbles and stones that were per- 
manently humid and in contact with the 



sand, but most of them were buried in 
the sand. 

Remarks: At first we suspected that 
our specimens belonged to an undescri- 
bed species, due its short protoconch 
(meaning a direct development) and the 
long distance between Madeira and the 
Mediterranean Sea. Besides, the 
drawing of the penis of B. epidauricus 
showed by Ponder (1990, fig. 8C) upon 
material from the Strait of Gibraltar 
appeared to be rather different from our 
drawings. But later, we had the oppor- 
tunity to study samples of a population 
of B. epidauricus from Los Escullos 
(Almería, SE Spain) and we found that 
the shell and the male genitalia in speci- 
mens of this population were identical 
to those from Madeira, and therefore 
belong to the same species. Perhaps the 
differences between our observations 
and the Ponder drawings are due to the 
fact that we have studied alcohol preser- 
ved material and he probably examinad 
living specimens. 

We have also studied two similar 
forms from the Canary Islands (MNHN) 



88 



Rolan and Templado: High-tidal molluscan assemblage from a Madeiran boulder beach 




Figures 38-4 L Ovatella aequalis, Madeira. 38: shell; 39-40: protoconch; 41: radula. 
Figuras 38-41. Ovatella aequalis, Madeira. 38: concha; 39-40: protoconcha; 41: rádula. 



OÍ different size, about 1. 5 mm hight the 
larger one, and about 1. O the smaller. 
The bigger form is almost identical with 
the Madeiran specimens and probably is 
the species named by Manzoni (1868a) 



Rissoa balteata, as Verduin (1988) and 
Gofas (1990) suspected. The smaller 
form from the Canary Island, has a shell 
quite similar, but the males lack the 
characteristic penis of the genus Botryp- 



89 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 



hallus and it might be an undescribed 
species of the genus Peringiella. 

Two similar species have been descri- 
bed in recent years: B. ovummuscae 
(Gofas, 1990) from Azores and B. tuber 
(Rolan, 1991) from Cape Verde islands. 



both described under the genus Peringie- 
lla. According to the results of this study, 
the type species of this genus, B. epidauri- 
cus, occurs along the Mediterranean Sea, 
Atlantic coast of Spain and Portugal, and 
Madeira and Canary Islands. 



Family Pyramidellidae Gray, 1840 
Odostomia microeques Rolan and Templado, 1999 (Figs. 33-37) 



Material studied: 22 specimens from Madeira. 

Description: Shell (Figs. 35-37) 
minute, oval-cylindrical, very fragüe. 
Spire from 2 to 3 spiral whorls, slightly 
rounded, with suture impressed, and 
very evident prosoclines growth lines. 
Apex blunt, dome-shaped, with the pro- 
toconch of type C of 206 /^m, emerging 
and showing less than one spiral whorl. 
Aperture oval and somewhat pyriform. 
Columela slightly curved. Peristoma 
continuous. Umbilicus absent. Columel- 
ar lip not showing any fold externaly, 
but a slight fold begin somewhat inner 
and continúes internally well developed. 

Animal translucent white, with short 
and divergent cephalic tentacles, 
slightly tapering distally but the distal 
end is expanded into a spheric tip (Fig. 
33). Eyes small and placed very cióse 
behind the base of the tentacles. Ópercu- 
lum with a perpendicular line to the 
columela. 

Habitat: Found just with its host, 
Botryphallus epidauricus, in the sand 
under stones. 



Remarks: O. microeques is the smallest 
pyramidellid gastropod known. It was 
not observed during the first time in the 
collecting site due its very small size. 
Some samples of the sand taken under 
the cobbles was carried to the laboratory 
for examination under magnification. 
During this study the presence of some 
tiny shells, smaller than those of Botryp- 
hallus epidauricus, were observed, which 
was abundant in the sample. Curiously, 
it was observed that these specimens 
were placed on the shell of B. epidauricus 
(Fig. 34). Many times, we took off the 
specimens of O. microeques from the 
shells of B. epidauricus, but immediately 
they looked for another specimen to go 
up it again. In oposition, they rejected 
the shells of other species that lived in 
the same habitat. This convinced us that 
O. microeques parasites B. epidauricus. 

The closest species to O. microeques is 
Odostomia megerlei (Locard, 1886), but 
the latter is clearly bigger (see com- 
ments in Peñas and Rolan, 1999). 



Family Ellobiidae Pfeiffer, 1854 
Ovatella aequalis (Low^e, 1832) (Figs. 38-41) 



Material studied: 260 specimens from Madeira. 



(Right page) Figures 42-47. Protoconchs of some European species of Ellobiidae. 42: Áuriculinella 
bidentata. Cíes Islands; 43: A. bidentata, Almería; 44-45: Myosotella myosotis, Cies Islands; 46: M. 
myosotis, Almería; 47: Ovatella firminii-, Cies Islands. 

(Página derecha) Figuras 42-47. Protoconchas de algunas especies europeas de Ellobiidae. 42: Áuriculi- 
nella bidentata. Islas Cies; 43: A. bidentata, Almería; 44-45: Myosotella myosotis. Islas Cies; 46: M. 
myosotis, Almería; 47: Ovatella firminii. Islas Cies. 



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Rolan and Templado: High-tidal molluscan assemblage from a Madeiran boulder beach 




91 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 



Description: Shell (Fig. 38) oval-conic, 
elongated, somewhat solid, brown. Pro- 
toconch (Figs. 39-40) smooth, with about 
one whorl. Teleoconch of about 6 whorls. 
Body whorl about 70% of the total 
height. First whorls with fine spiral stria- 
tion and narrow and spaced prosocline 
axial ribs. There is a deep subsutural 
furrow in which sharp periostracal hairs 
inserted at each axial rib. Suture not 
depressed. Aperture oval-elongated with 
two columelar folds and two prominent 
parietal teeth. Animal whitish to pale- 
yellowish. Radula (Fig. 41) with many 
teeth, all quite similar, disposed in rows. 

Habitat: Below and under cobbles of 
middle size, in humid places, not cióse 
to the sand layer. 



Remarks: Martins (1995, 1999) has 
compared the Agorean O. vulcani 
(Morelet, 1860) with the Mediterranean 
O. firminii (Payraudeau, 1826) and the 
Madeiran O. aequalis, concluding for the 
recognition all of them as valid species, 
often previously considered as 
synonyms. According to this author, the 
sculpture of the protoconch and the first 
whorls of the teloconch seems to be very 
important as specific characters in this 
group. To show the differences with 
other cióse European species we present 
the protoconchs of Myosotella myosotis 
(Draparnaud, 1801) (Figs. 44-46) from 
Cies Islands and Almería, and Ovatella 
firminii (Payraudeau, 1826) (Fig. 47) 
from the Cies islands. 



Auriculinella bidentata (Montagu, 1808) (Figs. 42, 43, 48-50) 

Material studied: 39 specimens from Madeira; 21 from Almería; 12 from Ribadeo; 15 from Cies 
Islands. 



Description: Shell (Fig. 48) oval-conic 
elongated, smooth, withish, with blunt 
apex, very similar to the European popu- 
lations studied. Protoconch (Figs. 42, 43, 
49, 50) smooth with about half whorl. 
The teleoconch begins with axial proso- 
cline striation which cross fine spiral 
threads. This sculpture almost desappe- 
ars in subsequent whorls. Aperture oval, 
elongated with a prominent parietal 
tooth and a curved columelar fold below. 

Animal white, sometimes with small 
dark áreas at the tip of the cephedic tentacles. 



Habitat: Found amongst and under 
cobbles of middle size, in humid 
places. 

Remarks: The specimens from Ma- 
deira are almost identical to the Euro- 
pean populations examined, showing 
the specimens from Almería the typical 
sculpture of the first whorl of the teleo- 
conch (Figs. 49-50), and being less evi- 
dent in the shells of the Cies Islands 
(Fig. 42). This species widespread from 
the British Isles to the Mediterrnean, 
Azores and Madeira. 



Pedipes pedipes (Bruguiére, 1789) (Figs. 32, 51-54) 

Pedipes afer (Gmelin, 1791) 



Material studied: 5 specimens from Madeira. 

Description: Shell (Fig. 51) globose, 
solid, brown, with low spire and very 
large body whorl, that averaging near the 
90% of shell length. Protoconch (Figs. 52- 
54) very small, with less than one whorl. 
The teleoconch begins with spiral and pro- 
socline axial sculpture, the later desap- 
pearrng in the foUowing whorls. Aperture 



ovate, widely rounded at base, about 70% 
of the length of body whorl. There are two 
strong columellar teeth, and one strongest 
parietal tooth very elongated. 

Animal (Fig. 32) white with grey 
pigmentation towards the tip of the cep- 
halic tentacles. Anterior part of the foot 
bilobulated by a central incisión. Snout 



92 



Rolan and Templado: High-tidal moUuscan assemblage from a Madeiran boulder beach 




Figures 48-50: Auriculinella bidentata, Madeira. 48: shell; 49-50: protoconch. 
Figuras 48-50: Auriculinella bidentata, Madeira. 48: concha; 49-50: protoconcha. 



short and cephalic tentacles contractile, 
somewhat elongated when extended. 

Habitat: Found amongst boulders in 
the upper level of the collecting site. 



Remarks: This species is known from 
Azores, Madeira, Canary, Cape Verde 
and Sao Tomé Islands (Fernandes and 
Rolan, 1993; Ávila, 2000). 



Pseudomelampus exiguus (Lowe, 1832) (Figs. 31, 55-57) 

Material studied: 2 specimens from Madeira; 12 from Almería; 20 from Ribadeo. 



Description: Shell (Fig. 55) ovoid, 
solid, pinkish-brown, body whorl more 
than 90% of total shell hight. Protoconch 
(Fig. 56) smooth, heterostrophic, with its 
spiral axis perpendicular to the axis of 
the shell, and partly covered with first 
whorl of teleoconch. Microsculpture of 
irregular spiral striae (Fig. 57). Aperture 
elongate with one columellar tooth and 



two parietal theeth. Animal (Fig. 31) 
whitish, foot bilobulated anteriorly, cep- 
halic tentacles short, somewhat flattened, 
with the eyes in the middle of their bases. 

Habitat: Found amongst big stones in 
the upper part of the bottom. 

Remarks: The lectotype of this species 
was figured by Martins (1996, fig. 180), 
being Madeira the type locality. 



93 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 



Family Kelliidae Forbes and Hanley, 1848 
Lasaea rubra (Montagu, 1803) 

Material studied: 2 specimens from Madeira; more than 200 specimens in Cies Islands. 



Remarks: L. rubra is an extremely 
common species, frequently associated 
with some of the previously mentioned 



species in other áreas, sometimes in 
high number. In the studied community 
its presence was scarce. 



DISCUSSION 

The under-boulder molluscs assem- 
blage studied in a protected place of the 
upper level of the tide and its distribu- 
tion in different levéis in Madeira has 
some resemblance with that described 
by MORTON (1975) in New Zealand 
(dominated by species of Ellobiidae, 
Assimineidae and Caecidae). Four of the 
fourteen species we found clearly domi- 
nated in this habitat in Madeira. Botryp- 
hallus epidauricus in the lowest level, on 
the sand under rocks, Paludinella litto- 
rina in a somewhat higher layer, 
amongst small stones in contact with 
sand. Ovatella aequalis and Assiminea cf. 
grayana dominated in an upper level, 
under boulders without contact with 
sand. Other species frequent in this 
habitat were Caeciim armoriciim, Trunca- 
tella suhcylindrica and Odostomia microe- 
ques in the same layer that B. epidauricus, 
and Auriculinella bidentata, living togeth- 
er with Paludinella littorina. The other 
species found were scarce. The ellobids 
Pedipes pedipes and Pseudomelampus 
exiguus, and the littorinids Littorina 
striata and Melaraphe neritoides are 
typical supralittoral species, which 
sometimes can be found in the highest 
level of the habitat studied. Lasaea rubra 
is very common in tufts of coralline 
algae and lichens {Lichina sp.) high in 
the intertidal zone and only isolated 
specimens can be found in boulder 
beach (Bullock et al., 1990). Last, 



Caecum clarkii prefer lower shore (mid- 
littoral or sublittoral) but is capable of 
penetrating the upper levéis when con- 
ditions are favourable (Ponder, 1990). 

Only two of the species found are 
apparently endemic of Madeira: Ovatella 
aequalis and Odostomia microeques. The 
latter might be present in other áreas 
where its host occurs, but it might be 
over looked due its minute size (smaller 
than 1 mm). Ovatella aequalis is replaced 
by its related species Myosotella myosotis 
(Draparnaud, 1801) in the European 
coasts and by O. vulcani (Morelet, 1860) 
in Azores. All the other species, but Lit- 
torina striata and Pedipes pedipes, are also 
present in the European mainland, both 
in the Atlantic and Mediterranean 
coasts. Ten of the species found in 
Madeira occurs also in Azores and eight 
in Canary Islands. 

The most abundant species, Botryp- 
hallus epidauricus, widespreads along the 
Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts of 
Europe and also in Canary Islands. It is 
replaced in Azores (northward) and in 
Cabo Verde Island (southward) by the 
related species B. ovummuscae and B. 
tuber, respectively 

Ponder (1990) studied a similar ha- 
bitat in the Strait of Gibraltar, but in a so- 
mewhat lower level. He studied an inter- 
tidal gravel beach at Ceuta, and its up- 
per level coincides with the lowest one 
studied by us. In both localities (Funchal 



(Right page) Figures 51-54. Pedipes pedipes, Madeira. 51: shell; 52-54: protoconch. Figures 55-57: 
Pseudomelampus exiguus, Madeira. 55: shell; 56: protoconch; 57: microsculpture. 
(Página derecha) Figuras 51-54. Pedipes pedipes, Madeira. 51: concha; 52-54: protoconcha. Figuras 
55-57: Pseudomelampus exiguus, Madeira. 55: concha; 56: protoconcha; 57: microescultura. 



94 



Rolan and Templado: High-tidal molluscan assembkge from a Madeiran boulder beach 




95 



Iberus, 18 (2), 2000 



in Madeira, and Ceuta in the Strait of Gi- 
braltar) this level is dominated by the 
same species: Botryphallus epidauricus. 

The small molluscs found in this 
peculiar habitat in Madeira seem to 
form a distinctive ecological grouping 
which have cióse parallels in Euro- 
pean/ North African mainland and in 
other Macaronesian Islands. Some 
species of this grouping are present in 
this habitat in all áreas of the températe 
NE Atlantic, and other are replaced by 
cióse related species according to the 
geographical área. 

The species found in this habitat in 
Madeira and in some localities of the 
Spanish coasts (Ribadeo and Cies 
Islands, NW Spain, and Los EscuUos, SE 
Spain) are included in Table 11. Four 
species have been found in this habitat 
in all localities sampled: P. littorina, T. 
siibcylindrica, A. bidentata and P. exigíais. 
In Madeira this molluscan assemblage is 
particularly diverse. Six of the species 
found here, including the two endemic 
of Madeira, were not found in the other 
localities sampled. Some of them are 
present in these localities, but they did 
not find in this habitat. The more remar- 
kable peculiarity of this molluscan 
assemblage in Madeira is the presence 
of an parasitic pyramidellid gastropod 
(O. microeques). In contrast, only two of 
the species collected in this habitat in 



the Spanish coasts were not found in 
Madeira: Littorina saxatilis (Olivi, 1792) 
and Cingula trifasciata (J. Adams, 1800). 
The former is not typical of this habitat 
but it can be found sometimes in the 
upper part of big boulders in the Atlan- 
tic European mainland. C. trifasciata is 
quite common beneath large boulders in 
shaded, stable places in other áreas 
(PoNDER, 1990), including Azores 
Islands (Ávila, 1998), but it was not 
present in the samples taken in Madeira. 



AKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

The SEM photographs presented in 
this work were done by Josefo Bedoya, 
Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales 
of Madrid, and by Jesús Méndez, 
CACTl-Universidad de Vigo. Marta 
Calvo, Gonzalo Rodríguez Casero and 
Chefy Alvarez accompanied us during 
the collecting trip. We are also indebted 
to Antonio Frias Martins by his helpful 
comments on the manuscript and by his 
help in the Identification of the species 
of Ellobiidae, and to Serge Gofas for 
loaned material for comparisons from 
Ceuta, Azores and Canary Islands. 

This work has been partially sponso- 
red by the projects of the Xunta de Gali- 
cia PGIDTOOPXI30121PTR and Fauna 
Ibérica IV (PB950235). 



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97 



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(Ed.): Prosobranch Phylogeny, Malacological Review, suppl. 4: 129-166. 
Ros, J., 1976. Catálogo provisional de los Opistobranquios (Gastropoda: Euthyneura) de las costas ibéricas. 

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Figura 1. Neodoris carvi. A: animal desplazándose; B: detalle de un rinóforo; C: branquia. 

Las abreviaturas empleadas en las ilustraciones deberán incluirse en la hoja de pies de figura. 

Los autores interesados en incluir láminas en color deberán abonarlas a precio de coste (30.000 ptas por página). Por 
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INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS 

• Iberus puhlishes research papers, notes and monographs devoted to the various aspects of Malacology. Papers are manus- 
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this example (please note the punctuation): 

Dendrodoris limhata (Cuvier, 1804) 

Synonyms 

Doris limbata Cuvier, 1804, Ann. Mus. H. N. París, 4 (24): 468-469 [Type locality: Marseille]. 

Dorís nigricans Otto, 1823, Nov. Act. Ac. Caes. Leop. Car., 10: 275. 

These references must not be included in the Bibliography list, except if referred to elsewhere in the text. If a fuU list 
of references of the taxon is to be given immediately below it, the same layout should be followed (also excluding those 
nowhere else cited from the Bibliography list). 

Only Latin words and ñames of genera and species should be underlined once or be given in italics. No word must 
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[Smith, Jones & Brown (1970)], thereafter use et ai [Smith et ai (1970)]. If an author has published more than one 
paper per year, refer to them with letters: (Davis, 1989a; Davis, 1989b). Avoid op. cit. 

The references in the reference list should be in alphabetical order and include all the publications cited in the text but 
only these. ALL the authors of a paper must be included. These should be written in small letters or Small CAPITALS. 
The references need not be cited when the author and date are given only as authority for a taxonomic ñame. Titles of 
periodicals must be given IN FULL, not abbreviated. For books, give the title, ñame of publisher, place of publication, 
indication of edition if not the first and total number of pages. Keep references to doctoral theses or any other unpu- 
blished documents to an absolute mínimum. See the following examples (please note the punctuation): 

Fretter, V. and Graham, A., 1962. British Prosabranch Molluscs. Ray Society, London, 765 pp. 

Ponder, W. F., 1988. The Truncatelloidean (= Rissoacean) radiation - a preliminary phylogeny. In Ponder, W. F. (Ed.): 
Prosobranch Phylogeny, Malacological Review, suppl. 4: 129-166. 

Ros, J., 1976. Catálogo provisional de los Opistobranquios (Gastropoda: Euthyneura) de las costas ibéricas. Miscelá- 
nea Zoológica, 3 (5): 21-51. 



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Figure 1. Neodoris carvi. A: animal crawling; B: rinophore; C: gills. 

If abbreviations are to be used in illustrations, group them alphabetically after the Legends for Figures section. 
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• Manuscripts that do not conform to these instructions will be returned for correction befóte reviewing. 

• Authors submitting manuscripts will receive an acknowledgement of receipt, including receipt date, and the date the 
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La Sociedad Española de Malacología 



Junta directiva desde el 18 de octubre de 1996 



Presidente 
Vicepresidente 
Secretario 
Tesorero 

Editor de Publicaciones 

Bibliotecario 

Vocales 



Emilio Rolan Mosquera 

Diego Moreno Lampreave 

Luis Murillo Guillen 

Jorge J. Otero Schmitt 

Avda. de las Ciencias s/n, Campus Universitario, 15706 Santiago 

de Compostela, España 

Ángel Guerra Sierra 

Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas, d Eduardo Cabello 6, 36208 

Vigo, España 

Rafael Araujo Armero 

Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, c/ José Gutiérrez 

Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid, España 

Eugenia María Martínez Cueto-Felgueroso 
María de los Angeles Ramos Sánchez 
Francisco Javier Rocha Valdés 
Gonzalo Rodríguez Casero 
Jesús Souza Troncoso 
José Templado González 



La Sociedad Española de Malacología se fundó el 21 de agosto de 1980. La sociedad se registró como una aso- 
ciación sin ánimo de lucro en Madrid (Registro N° 4053) con unos estatutos que fueron aprobados el 12 de 
diciembre de 1980. Esta sociedad se constituye con el fin de fomentar y difundir los estudios malacológicos 
mediante reuniones y publicaciones. A esta sociedad puede pertenecer cualquier persona o institución interesada 
en el estudio de los moluscos. 

Sede social: Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, d José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid, España. 



Cuotas para 2000: 

Socio numerario 

Socio estudiante 

Socio Familiar: 
Socio Protector: 
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(en España): 
(en extranjero): 
(en España): 
(en extranjero): 



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(en extranjero): 



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7.000 ptas. (= 42,07 euros) 
8.000 ptas (= 48,08 euros) 



Inscripción: 1.000 ptas. (= 6,01 euros) además de la cuota correspondiente. 

A los socios residentes en España se les aconseja domiciliar su cuota. Todos los abonos deberán enviarse al 
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sociedad y en favor de la Sociedad Española de Malacología y no de ninguna persona de la junta directiva. Aque- 
llos socios que no abonen su cuota anual dejarán de recibir las publicaciones de la Sociedad. Los bonos de ins- 
cripción se enviarán junto con el abono de una cuota anual al Tesorero. 

Members living in foreing countries can deduce 6 euros if paid before 1 5 April. 

Cada socio tiene derecho a recibir anualmente los números de Iberus, Reseñas Malacológicas y Noticiarios que 
se publiquen. 



Índice 



Iberus 



18 (2) 2000 



Carmona Zaln-IDE, R, García, F. J. y Urgorri, V. Nuevos datos anatómicos y taxonómicos del 
género C/'zíom Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) en la Península Ibérica 
New anatomical and taxonomical data on the Genus C\{ix.on Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca, Poly- 
placophora) from the Iberian Peninsida 1-15 

Carmona Zalvide, P. y García García, F. J. El género Lepidochitona Gray, 1921 (Mollusca, 
Polyplacophora) en el litoral Atlántico de la Península Ibérica 

The genus Lepidochitona Gray, 1921 (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) in the Atlantic littoral of 
Iberian Peninsula 1 7-30 

MartÍNEZ-Ortí, a. Descripción de Trochoidea (Xerocrassa) roblesi spec. nov. (Mollusca, Gastro- 
poda, Hygromiidae) de la Comunidad Valenciana (España) 

Description o/^Trochoidea (Xerocrassa) roblesi spec. nov. (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Hygromii- 
dae) from "Comunidad Valenciana" (Spain) 31-39 

OsoRio Ruiz, C, Ramírez Casali, M^ E., Mora Tapia, A. N. y Vega Petokvic, M. Plaxip- 
hora mercatoris Le\oup, 1936 (Polyplacophora: Mopaliidae) de Isla de Pascua, Chile 
Plaxiphora mercatoris Leloup, 1936 (Polyplacophora: Mopaliidae) from Easter Island, 
Chile 41-50 

Ávila, S. P. The shallow-water Rissoidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) of the Azores and some aspects 
of their ecology 
Los Rissotdae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) de las Azores y algunos aspectos de su ecología . . 51-76 

ROLÁN, E. AND Templado, J. A peculiar high-tidal molluscan assemblage from a Madeiran 
boulder beach 

Una peculiar comunidad de moluscos del nivel superior de la marea en una playa de cantos 
rodados de Madeira 77-97 



ISSN 0212-3010 



40Í 



Iberus 



Vol. 19(1) I 



REVISTA DE LA 

SOCIEDAD ESPAÑOLA 
DE MALACOLOGÍA 




Oviedo, junio 2001 



Iberus 

Revista de la 
Sociedad Española de Malacología 



Comité de Redacción (Board of Editors) 

Editor de Publicaciones (Editor-in-Chief) 

Gonzalo Rodríguez Cosero Universidod de Oviedo, Oviedo, Españo 

Editora Ejecutiva (Managing Editor) 

Eugenia M" Martínez Cueto-Felgueroso Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, España 

Editores Adjuntos (Associate iditors) 

Benjamín Gómez Moliner Universidad del País Vosco, Bilbao, España 

Ángel Antonio tuque del Villar Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Espafio 

Emilio Rolan Mosquera Universidad de Vigo, Vigo, Españo 

José Templado González Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSiC, Madrid, España 

Jesús S. Troncóse Universidad de Vigo, Vigo, España 



Comité Editorial (Board of Reviewers) 



Kepo Altonaga Sustacho 

Eduardo Ángulo Pinedo 

Rafael Araujo Armero 

Thierry Bockeljau 

Rüdiger Bieler 

Sigurd v. Boletzky 

José Castillejo Murillo 

Karl Ediinger 

Antonio M. de Fñas Martins 

José Carlos García Gómez 

Edmund Gittenberger 

Serge Gofas 

Gerhord ffaszprunor 

Yuri I. Kantor 

Moría Yolanda Manga González 

Jordi Maríinell Callico 

Ron K. O'Dor 

Takoshi Okutoni 

Marco Oliverio 

Pablo E. Penchaszodeh 

Winsfon F. Pender 

Carlos Enrique Prieto Sierro 

M^ de los Ángeles Ramos Sánchez 

Paul G. Rodhouse 

Joandoménec Ros i Aragonés 

María Carmen Solas Cosanovas 

Gerfiord Steiner 

Victoriano Urgorri Carrasco 

Anders Warén 



Universidad del País Vasco, Bilboo, España 

Universidad del Poís Vosco, Bilboo, España 

Museo Nacional de Ciencios Noturoles, Modñd, España 

instituí Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Bruselas, Bélgica 

The Field Museum, Chicago, Estados Unidos 

Labororoire Arago, Bonyuls-sur-Mer, Froncia 

Universidod de Santiago de Composteio, Santiago de Compostela, España 

Noturhistorisches Museum Wien, Vieno, Austria 

Universidode dos Acores, Acores, Porfugoi 

Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, España 

National Notuurhistorisch Museum, Leiden, fJolonda 

Universidod de Málaga, España 

Zooiogische Stoolssammlung München, München, Alemonia 

A.N. Severtzov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Moscú, Rusia 

Estación Agrícola Experimentol, CSIC, Eeón, España 

Universidod de Barcelona, Borcelono, Españo 

Dalhousie Universitv, ffolifax, Canadá 

Nihon Universitv, Fujisawo City, Jopón 

Universitá di Romo "Lo Sopienzo", Romo, Italia 

Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernordino Rivodovio", Buenos Aires, Argentino 

Austrolian Museum, Sydney, Australia 

Universidad del País Vosco, Bilbao, España 

Museo Nocional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Modñd, España 

Bñfish Anforctic Survey, Combñdge, Reino Unido 

Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona, España 

Universidad de Mólago, Mólogo, España 

Institut für Zoologie der Universitot Wien, Viene, Austria 

Universidad de Sontiogo de Compostela, Santiago de Composteio, Españo 

Svi/edish Museum of Natural History, Estocolmo, Suecio 



Portada de Iberus 

Iberus giialteriariiis (Linnaeus, 1758), una especie emblemática de la península Ibérica, que da 
nombre a la revista. Dibujo realizado por José Luis González Rebollar "Toza". 



Iberus 




REVISTA DE LA 

SOCIEDAD ESPAÑOLA 
DE MALACOLOGÍA 




Este volumen ha sido subvenciorto5if|B^ por los ayudas para 

Organización de Congresos del ^i^geijectorado de Investigación de la 
Universidad de Vigo. ^DO^ 



UNIVERSIDADE DE VIGO 



Vol. 19(1) 



Oviedo, junio 2001 



Iberus 

Revista de la 
Sociedad Española de Malacología 



Iberus publica trabajos que traten sobre cualquier aspecto relacionado con la Malacología. Se 
admiten también notas breves. Iberus edita un volumen anual que se compone de dos o más números. 



Instrucciones para los autores 

Los manuscritos deben remitirse a: D. Gonzalo Rodríguez, Apartado 156, 33600 Mieres del 
Camino, Asturias, España. 

Los trabajos se entregarán por triplicado (original y dos copias). Se recomienda a los autores leer 
cuidadosamente las normas de publicación que se incluyen en cada número de la revista. 

Suscripciones 

Iberus puede recibirse siendo socio de la Sociedad Española de Malacología, en cualquiera de sus 
formas, o mediante intercambio. Aquellos socios que deseen adquirir números atrasados deberán diri- 
girse al bibliotecario. 

Los no socios deberán ponerse en contacto con BACKHUYS PUBLISHERS, P.O. Box 321, 
2300 AH Leiden, The Netherlands. Tel.: +31-71-51 70 208, Fax: +31-71-51 71 856, Correo Elec- 
trónico: backhuys@euronet.nl 



Los resúmenes de los artículos editados en esta revista se publican en Aquatic Science 
and Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA) y en el Zoological Records, BIOSIS. 

Contents list published in Aquatic Science and Fisheries Abstracts and Zoological Records, 
BIOSIS. 



Dep. Leg. B-43072-81 

ISSN 0212-3010 

Diseño y maquetación: Gonzalo Rodríguez 

Impresión: LOREDO, S. L. - Gijón 



© Sociedad Española de Malacología Iberus, 19 (1): 1-5, 2001 

Toxicity of Alphamethrin, Dimethoate and Carbaryl pesti- 
cides to the freshwater snails Lymnaea acuminata and 
Indoplanorbis exustus 

Toxicidad de los pesticidas Alfametrín, Dimetoato y Carbaril sobre los 
caracoles dulceacuícolas Lymnaea acuminata y Indoplanorbis exustus 

Vijay Kumas SRIVASTAVA* and Ajay SINGH*' 

Recibido el 14-III-2000. Aceptado el 12-VI-2000 

ABSTRACT 

To use the snails as bio-indicator of pesticidal pollution, different doses of a pyretfiroid (Alp- 
hamethrin), an organophosphate (OP) (Dimethoate) and a carbamate (Carbaryl) were 
administrated for 24 to 96 hours to the snails lymnaea acuminata and Indoplanorbis 
exustus. Both species were susceptible to the three pesticides at concentrations in the range 
of 0.008 mg/l to 16.92 mg/l. The order of toxicity was pyrethroid > organophosphate 
(OP) > and carbamate. The toxicity of all the pesticides was both time and dose dependent 
as expected. Variation in water temperature influenced the toxicity of pyrethroid signifi- 
cantly, however, OP and carbamate were not influenced significantiy. At low temperature 
pyrethroid became 3 to 4 times more toxic. Similar results are also reported in the case of 
fish. Thus, the susceptibility of snails may be directed in the field of pollution monitoring. 

RESUMEN 

Con el fin de usar caracoles como bioindicadores de la polución por pesticidas, se administraron 
distintas dosis de un piretroide (Alfametrín), un organofosfato (OP) (Dimetoato) y un carba- 
mato (Carbaril), entre 24 y 96 horas a las especies Lymnaea acuminata y Indoplanorbis exus- 
tus. Ambas respondieron a los tres a concentraciones de 0,008 mg/l hasta 16,92 mg/l. El orden 
de toxicidad fue piretroide > organofosfato > carbamato. La toxicidad se comporto de acuerdo 
con lo esperado en cuanto a dosis y periodos de exposición. La variación en la temperatura del 
agua afecto significativamente a la toxicidad del piretroide, pero no a las de los otros. A baja 
temperatura el piretroide es de 3 a 4 veces más tóxico. Se obtuvieron resultados similares en 
el caso de peces. Así pues, se pueden usar estas especies en el estudio la polución. 



KEY WORDS: Pesticides, Lymnaea acuminata, Indoplanorbis exustus, toxicity. 
PALABRAS CLAVE: Pesticidas, Lymnaea acuminata, Indoplanorbis exustus, toxicidad. 



INTRODUCTION 

It has been reported that both snails (Singh and Agarwal, 1981; 1990; 1991). 
are susceptible to most of the synthetic Singh and Agarwal (1990) reported that 
pesticides entering the freshwater bodies the pyrethroids permethrin, cypermeth- 

* Department of Zoology, D.D.U. Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur - 273 009 (U.P.) India. 
' Corresponding author 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



Table I. Experimental conditions of tap water at different temperature, determined by methods of 
APHA/WPCF (1985). 

Tabla I. Condiciones experimentales del agua del grifo a diferentes temperaturas, determinadas según los 
métodos de APHA/WPCF (1985). 



Water temperature, °C 


18 


28 


pH 


6.70-7.05 


7.20-7.40 


Dissolved oxygen, mg/L 


6.5-7.2 


6.8-7.40 


Free carbón dioxide, mg/L 


4.5-6.5 


4.3-6.2 


Bicarbonate alkalinity, mg/L 


105-109 


106-109 



rin and fenvalerate are highly toxic to 
snail Lymnaea acuminata. Fishes are also 
very sensitive to pyrethroids (CoATS and 
DoNNELL-jEFFERY, 1979; Haya, 1989). 

Currently raost of the works concer- 
ning these snails are in the direction of 
their control by using synthetic pestici- 
des, as they are the intermedíate host of 
Fasciola species, causing endemic fascio- 
liasis in the cattle and livestocks. But, 
considering the fact if snails are sensi- 
tive to these pesticides, their population 
may not remain unaffected by pesticidal 
pollution. We are also interested to 
assess the effect of the water tempera- 
ture, which varies with season, on the 
toxicity of pesticides. 



MATERIALS AND METHODS 

Snails Lymnaea acuminata (1.8 ± 0.1 cm 
in shell height) and Indoplanorbis exustus 
(0.8 ±1.1 cm in shell height) were collec- 
ted locally and used as test animáis. Toxi- 
city experiments were performed using 
the method of Singh and Agarwal 
(1990). Commercial grade pesticides, Stop 
(Synthetic pyrethroid alphamethrin), 
Rogohit (Organophosphate, Dimethoate) 
and Sevin, (Carbaryl Carbamate) were 
purchased from local market. Adult 
animáis were kept in glass aquaria, con- 
taining 3 L of dechlorinated tap water. The 
aquaria contained 20 snails. Test animáis 
were exposed to five different concentra- 
tions of the three pesticides for 24, 48, 72 
or 96 hours. Concentrations of alpha- 
methrin, dimethoate and Sevin used for 
both snails were 0.001, 0.005, 0.009, 0.03 
and 0.07 mg /I; 11, 14, 17, 20 and 23 mg/1; 



and 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 mg/1, respecti- 
vely Pesticides doses were given as the 
final concentration (w/ v) of active ingre- 
dient in the test aquaria. Control groups 
were kept in dechlorinated tap water 
without any treatment. Each set of expe- 
riments was replicated six times. 

Mortality was recorded every 24 hours 
during the observation period ojf 96 hours. 
The LC50 valúes, lower (LCL) and upper 
(UCL) confidence limit, slope valúes, 't' 
ratio and heterogeneity were calculated 
by the computer POLO programme 

(RUSSELL, ROBERTSON AND SaVIN, 1977). 

The product momentum correlation coef- 
ficient was determined between exposure 
time and different valúes of LC50 (Sokal 
AND ROHLF, 1973). 

Some toxicological experiments were 
performed first in the month of January 
(water temperature 18 °C) and then, in 
May (water temperature 28 °C) to assess 
the effects of water temperature on the 
toxicity of pesticides. 



RESULTS 

LC50 valúes of the three pesticides for 
periods ranging from 24h to 96h at 18 °C 
and 28 °C water temperature are shown 
in Tables II and III, respectively. The three 
pesticides had the following order of 
toxicity, Alphamethrin (pyrethroid) > 
Dimethoate (OP) > Sevin (carbamate). 
The toxicity was time dependent, as there 
was a significant negative correlation 
between LC50 and exposure times. Thus, 
with increase in exposure time, LC50 of 
alphamethrin for Lymnaea acuminata 
decreased from 0.008 mg/L (24h) to 0.002 



SrivaSTAVA and SinGH: Toxicity of three pesticides to freshwater snails 



Table II. Toxicity data (LC50; mg/1) for difFerent exposure periods of the three difFerent pesticides 
against the snails Lymnaea acuminata and Indoplanorbis exustus at 1 8°C water temperature. LCL: 
lower confidence iimit; UCL: upper confidence Hmit; SF: slope function. 

Tabla II. Datos de toxicidad (LC50; mgll) de diferentes periodos de exposición a 3 pesticidas distintos de 
las especies Lymnaea acuminata y Indoplanorbis exustus a 18 °C de temperatura del agua. LCL: 
limite inferior de confianza; UCL: límite superior de confianza; SF: fiinción de ajuste. 













Exposure 


period 








Pesticides 






L acuminata 






/. exustus 








24h 


48h 


72h 


96h 


24h 


48h 


72h 


96h 




LCso 


0.008 


0.006 


0.003 


0.002 


0.005 


0.004 


0.002 


0.001 


Alphamethrin 


LCL 


0.005 


0.004 


0.001 


0.001 


0.003 


0.002 


0.000 


0.000 


(Pyrethroid) 


UCL 


0.018 


0.010 


0.008 


0.004 


0.012 


0.009 


0.005 


0.004 




SF 


1.48 


1.39 


1.37 


1.32 


1.73 


1.49 


1.45 


1.24 




LCso 


14.31 


12.69 


11.78 


11.24 


13.09 


11.65 


11.57 


10.03 


Diamethoate 


LCL 


13.06 


10.79 


10.19 


10.02 


9.02 


8.21 


8.01 


7.32 


(OP) 


UCL 


16.07 


13.88 


12.71 


12.01 


17.42 


15.91 


14.81 


14.06 




SF 


4.35 


4.15 


5.46 


4.72 


3.78 


3.21 


4.59 


4.78 




LC50 


16.92 


14.74 


13.68 


12.99 


15.42 


13.90 


11.57 


10.02 


Sevin 


LCL 


15.16 


12.65 


11.47 


11.12 


11.16 


10.23 


8.43 


7.51 


(Carbamate) 


UCL 


18.28 


16.00 


14.79 


14.00 


26.25 


21.33 


15.76 


14.73 




SF 


4.91 


4.53 


5.26 


6.58 


3.36 


3.56 


4.21 


4.32 



Table III. Toxicity data (LC50; mg/1) for dififerent exposure periods of the three difFerent pesticides 
against the snails Lymnaea acuminata and Indoplanorbis exustus at 28°C water temperature. LCL: 
lower confidence Iimit; UCL: upper confidence Iimit; SF: slope fiínction. 

Tabla III. Datos de toxicidad (LC50; mgll) de diferentes periodos de exposición a 3 pesticidas distintos 
de las especies Lymnaea acuminata y Indoplanorbis exustus a 28 °C de temperatura del agua. LCL: 
limite inferior de confianza; UCL: limite superior de confianza; SF: función de ajuste. 













Exposure period 








Pesticides 






L awmmata 






/. exustus 








24h 


48h 


72h 


96h 


24h 


48h 


72h 


96h 




LC50 


0.020 


0.012 


0.009 


0.005 


0.018 


0.120 


0.008 


0.003 


Alphamethrin 


LCL 


0.015 


0.009 


0.006 


0.003 


0.012 


0.008 


0.004 


0.001 


(Pyrethroid) 


UCL 


0.036 


0.017 


0.011 


0.007 


0.030 


0.021 


0.017 


0.011 




SF 


1.47 


1.29 


1.83 


1.82 


1.82 


1.36 


1.21 


1.96 




LCso 


19.65 


18.13 


15.26 


10.81 


16.23 


14.26 


11.96 


9.41 


Diamethoate 


LCL 


17.50 


15.73 


13.75 


7.43 


13.14 


11.29 


9.43 


6.43 


(OP) 


UCL 


29.66 


35.02 


19.43 


17.68 


27.56 


23.92 


17.52 


14.26 




SF 


4.10 


3.35 


2.97 


2.62 


3.21 


3.15 


3.16 


4.21 




LCso 


20.05 


17.37 


15.84 


14.19 


18.43 


15.32 


13.26 


12.53 


Sevin 


LCL 


18.51 


16.38 


14.69 


12.18 


14.42 


11.46 


9.65 


8.12 


(Carbamate) 


UCL 


24.50 


19.07 


17.08 


15.30 


27.51 


21.51 


18.39 


17.91 




SF 


6.57 


6.56 


5.61 


5.11 


6.21 


6.26 


5.41 


4.53 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



mg/L (96h) at 18 °C and for Indoplanorbis 
exustus it decreased from 0.005 mg/L 
(24h) to 0.001 mg/L (96h). In case of 
Dimethoate, at 18 °C this decrease was 
14.31 mg/L (24h) to 11.24 mg/L (96h) 
and 3.09 mg/L (24h) to 10.12 mg/L (96h) 
for Lymnaea acuminata and Indoplanorbis 
exustus, respectively. With Sevin, at 18 °C 
it decreased from 16.92 mg/L (24h) to 
12.99 mg/L (96h) and 15.42 mg/L (24h) 
to 10.02 mg/L (96h) for Lymnaea acumi- 
nata and Indoplanorbis exustus respecti- 
vely, (Table II). Same trend was also 
observed at 28 °C water temperature 
(Table III). The lower and upper limits 
were within 95% confidence limit and the 
slope valúes were steep (Tables II, III). 



DISCUSSION 

It is clear from the data given above 
that both the snails are highly sensitive 
to all the three tested pesticides. Of the 
three, alphamethrin (pyrethroid) was 
found to cause snail mortality at very 
low doses. The synthetic pyrethroids are 
mainly absorbed through the dermal, 
oral and respiratory routes. Their meta- 
bolic degradation occurs at numerous 
sites (MiYAMOTO, 1976). Due to their 
lipophylic nature, they undergo rapid 
absorption and are distributed in all the 
tissues of the body. Their concentrations 
vary according to the lipophilicity of the 
tissue. Higher concentrations have been 
reported in skin, fat, liver, kidney and 
brain tissue (Ruzo, Eugel and Casida, 



1979; Richard and Bpodie, 1985). 
Pyrethroids are well known to change 
the Na+ and K+ permeability of nerve 
membrane resulting in repetitive dis- 
charges at the synapse and neuromus- 
cular junction (Singh and Agarwal, 
1986; WiLKiNSON, 1976; Narahashi, 
1983). Singh and Agarwal (1986, 1991) 
reported that pyrethroids also cause 
inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase and 
reduction of Cytochrome oxidase and 
lactic dehydrogenase and increase ness 
in the Succinic dehydrogenase level. 
This multifarious mode of action rapid 
absorption of pyrethroid might explain 
its extreme toxicity to snails. 

The LC50 of all the three pesticides 
showed a significan! (P< 0.05) negative 
correlation with exposure times. It 
demonstrates that detoxification of pes- 
ticides in the snail body might be slow. 
This result also justifies the effectiveness 
of three pesticides up to at least 96 
hours. Both the snails are very sensitive 
to pesticides. Thus, their mortality or 
decreasing population in water body 
result of pesticidal pollution. Finally, it 
may be concluded that the snails may be 
taken as bio indicator with bioassay spp. 
of water (pesticidal) pollution monito- 
ring. 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

One of the authors (V.K. Srivastava) 
is thankful to C.S.T. (U.R) for providing 
financial support for this work. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



APHA/WPCF, 1985. Standard method for the 
examination of water and waste water. 16 ed. 
APHA, Washington. 1080 pp. 

CoATS. J. R. AND O'Donnell-Jeffery, N. L., 
1979. Toxicity of four synthetic pyrethroid in- 
secticides to Rainbow Trout. Bulletin ofEn- 
vironmental Contamination and Toxicology, 23: 
250-255. 

Haya, K., 1989. Toxicity of pyrethroid insecti- 
cides to fish, Environmental Toxicology and 
Chem.istry, 8: 381-391. 



MiYAMOTO, J., 1976. Degradation, metabolism 
and toxicity of synthetic pyrethroids. Envi- 
ronmental Health Perspectives, 14: 15-28. 

Narahashi, T., 1983. Neurophysiological study of 
pyrethroids: Molecular and Membrane Mecha- 
nism of Action. (Edited by J. Miyamoto, P.C. 
Keamey). Pesticide Chemistry, Human Wel- 
fare and Environment, Oxford, Pergamon 
Press. 365 pp. 



Srivastava and SingH: Toxicity of three pesticides to freshwater snails 



Richard, J. and Brodie, M. E., 1985. Correla- 
tíon of blood and brain levéis of the neuro- 
toxic pyrethroid deltamethrin with the onset 
of symptoms in rats. Pesticide Biochemistry 
and Physiology, 23: 143-156. 

RUSSELL, R. M., ROBERTSON, J. L. AND SaVIN, N. 

E., 1977. POLO: A new computer prograimne 
for probit analysis. Bulletin ofthe Entomological 
Soc iety of America, 23: 209-213. 

RUZO, L. O., EUGEL, J. L. AND CASIDA, J. E., 

1979. Cecamethrin metabolites from oxida- 
tive, hydrolytic and conjugative reactions in 
mice. Journal ofAgriculture and Food Chem.istry, 
27: 725-731. 
SiNGH, A AND ACARWAL, R. A. 1990. MoUusci- 
cidal properties of synthetic pyrethroids. 
Journal ofMed icol and Applied Malacology, 2: 
141-144. 



SlNGH, D. K. AND Agarwal, R. A., 1986. Pi- 
pronyl butoxide synergism with two syn- 
thetic pyrethroids against Lymnaea acumi- 
nata. Chemosphere, 15: 493-498. 

SiNGH, D. K. AND Agarwal, R. A., 1991. Action 
sites of cypermethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid 
in the Lymnaea acuminata. Acta Hydrochemica 
et Hydrobiologica, 4: 411-516. 

SOKAL, R. R. AND RoHLF, F. J., 1973. lutroduc- 
tion to biostatistic. San Franciosco, W.H. Free- 
man. 386 pp. 

WiLKiNSON, C. F., 1976. Insecticide biochemistry 
and physiology. Plenum Publcorp, New York. 
768 pp. 



© Sociedad Española de Malacologia 



Iberus, 19,.ÍI)kZ-24, 2001 



Eulimid gastropods (Caenogastropoda: Eulimidae) of the 
Canary Islands. Part I. Species parasiting sea urchins 

Eulímidos (Caenogastropoda: Eulimidae) de las Islas Canarias. Parte 
I. Especies parásitas de erizos de mar 

Myriam RODRÍGUEZ, Jacinto BARQUÍN and Gustavo PÉREZ-DIONIS* 

Recibido el ll-VII-2000. Aceptado el 22-XI-2000 

ABSTRACT 

The present paper deals with 4 species of eulimid gastropods parasitic on sea urchins: Echi- 
neulima leucophaes parasite of Diadema antillarum; Vitreolina philippi parasite of Arbacia li- 
xula, Paracentrotus lividus and Sphaerechinus granularis; and Nanobalcis nana and Sabina- 
lia bonifaceae both parasites of the sea urchin Cidaris cidaris. A complete description of shell 
and soft parts of these species along wiht data on lifestyle and infestation rotes is provided. 

RESUMEN 
Este trabajo versa sobre 4 especies de eulímidos parásitos de erizos de mar: Echineulima 
leucophaes parásita de Diadema antillarum; Vitreolina philippi parásita de Arbacia lixula, 
Paracentrotus lividus y Sphaerechinus granularis; y Nanobalcis nana y Sabinella bonifa- 
ceae ambas parásitas del erizo Cidaris cidaris. Se incluyen descripciones de concha y 
partes blandas, así como datos sobre su ecología y tasas de infección. 



KEY WORDS: Mollusca, Gastropoda, Eulimidae, Echineulima leucophaes, Vitreolina philippi, Nanobalcis nana, 
Sabinella bonifaciae, Tenerife, Canary Islands, NE Atlantic. 

PALABRAS CLAVE: Mollusca, Gastropoda, Eulimidae, Echineulima leucophaes, Vitreolina philippi, Nanobalcis 
nana, Sabinella bonifaciae, Tenerife, Islas Canarias, Atlántico NE. 



INTRODUCTION 

The Eulimidae is a large family of 
parasitic gastropods. Almost all species 
are parasites on echinoderms and typi- 
cally have small, glossy, white shells. 
Many are free-living, able to move from 
one host to another, but some are per- 
manently attachet to their host, or have 
become endoparasites. There are pro- 
bably thousand species worldwide, 
many of them undescribed. According 
to Warén (1984), there have been des- 
cribed about 850 hving species, of which 



about 150 from North Atlantic, but few 
of them are known from their host. 
Nevertheless, the species of eulimids are 
almost impossible to place in genera if 
the host is unknown, and often difficult 
to determine. In many species there is a 
pronounced sexual dimorfism and to 
some extent the development of the 
shell depends on sex of the animal or on 
the presence or absence of additional 
individuáis of the same species, which 
in some of them determine the sex of 



* Departamento de Biología Animal (Ciencias Marinas), Facultad de Biología, Universidad de La Laguna, C\ 
Astrofísico Francisco Sánchez s/n. 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain. 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



Pea. dei Hidalgo 
La Barranquera^ 




Playa Paraíso 



El Palli 
Pta. la Rasca 
Pta. Salema 



Figure 1. Sampling localities. 
Figura 1. Localidades de muestreo. 



newly settle larvae (Warén, 1984). This 
complicates specific classification. A 
complete review of the biology and sys- 
tematic of the family can be seen in the 
above mentioned work (Warén, 1984). 

The eulimids from the Canary 
Islands are poorly known. Nordsieck 
AND García-Talavera (1979) included 
eighteen species of Eulimidae in their 
book on marine molluscs of Madeira and 
Canary Islands, mainly based upon the 
work of Watson (1897). The status of 
most of these nominal species must be 
questioned in light of recent work. 
BouCHET AND Warén (1986) in their 
revisión of the northeast Atlantic bathyal 
and abyssal molluscs described six new 
species of Eulimidae near the Canary 
Island, between 500 and 850 m in depth. 
In recent year Engl (1997a, 1997b, 1998) 
has described three new species of euli- 
mids in circalittoral bottoms of Puerto 
del Carmen, Lanzarote. All these des- 
criptions were based upon dead shells. 
An additional paper was published by 
Engl (1999) on "Eulima" fuscozonata 
Bouchet and Warén, 1986. 

In recent years we have carried out 
an exhaustive searching for species of 
Eulimidae, mainly in Tenerife Island. In 
a former paper the first author (Rodrí- 
guez, 2000) described the new species 
Melanella lútea, which parasites the sea 
cucumber Holothuria sanctori Delle 
Chiaje. Here we deal with four species 
found parasiting sea urchins. In another 
paper in this volume we focus our atten- 



tion on two species found parasiting the 
crinoids Antedon bifida (Pennant), and a 
next work will deal whith the species 
found in sediments. 



MATERIAL AND METHODS 

The specimens of eulimids studied 
in this paper come from samples of the 
more common littoral species of sea 
urchins in the Canary Islands: Paracen- 
trotus lividus (Lamark), Arbacia lixula 
(L.), Sphaerechinus granularis (Lamark) 
and Diadema antillarum (Philippi). 
Twenty eight samples were taken by 
scuba diving in eighteen localities of 
Tenerife Island (see Figure 1) between 5 
and 35 m in depth. Besides, some 
samples of the circalittoral sea urchin 
Cidaris cidaris (L.) coming from fishing 
nets were studied. These samples were 
caught from some localities of Tenerife, 
Gran Canaria and Fuerteventura (see 
Table VIII). 

In the laboratory each specimen of 
sea urchin was carafully examined 
under a binocular microscope. The living 
specimens of eulimids found in each one 
were recorded and measured. Some spe- 
cimens were photographied alive an 
others were selected to be observed at 
scanning electrón microscopy. 

Voucher material of all the species 
studied was deposited in the Depart- 
ment of Animal Biology, La Laguna Uni- 
versity, Tenerife. 



Rodríguez ETAL.-. Eulimids parasiting sea urchins in the Canary Islands 



RESULTS 

Family Eulimidae Philippi, 1853 
Genus Echineulima Lützen and Nielsen, 1975 

Echineulima leucophaes (Tomlin and Shackleford, 1913) (Figs. 2, 4-9) 

Mucronalia leucophaes Tomlin, J. R, le B. and Shackleford, L. J. "Descriptions of new species of 
Marginella and Mucronalia from Sao Thomé. The Journal ofConchology,24: 1913-1915. 

Type locality: Sao Thomé 

Material estudied: The number of specimens studied and the localities where they were coUected 

are specify in Table I and Figure 1. 



Description: Shell solid, white, glossy, 
translucent, rather globular, sharpened 
apically and last whorl inflated occup- 
ying ^¡3 of the shell. Spire straight 
without curvature. Whorls clearly 
convex. Suture very evident because of 
the whorl convexity. Below the suture a 
narrow whitish band is appreciated 
which corresponds to the false suture. 

Surface smooth with only growing 
scars, strongly marked in some shells. 

Protoconch clearly differentiated, 
since the larval whorls have a very 
reduced diameter, meanwhile the teleo- 
conch diameter increases rapidly. It con- 
sists of three whorls and lacks ornamen- 
tation or colour that differentiates from 
the rest of the shell. Male and female 
shells have been studied with scanning 
electrón microscopy and no significant 
differences with respect to their morp- 
hology were observed (Fig. 2). 

Protoconch smooth, increasing 
slightly its diameter between one whorl 
and the next. These larval whorls easily 
differentiate from those of the teleo- 
conch, the diameter of the latter increase 
more rapidly, are clearly more convex 
and have fine grooves that cross the 
whorl perpendicularly with respect to 
the suture. These grooves appear on the 
shell of both sexes, although in males 
they are more marked. The growing 
scars are very clear. 

Aperture rounded and large in 
males, and slightly more quadrangular 
in females. Outer lip fine, no terminal 
swelling. In profile almost straight, first 
third part projected faintly and with- 
draws ending at the base, further 



behind than the apical unión with the 
suture. Inner lip slightly swelled 
forming a small columelar callosity. 

Size: The specimens studied had a 
range of 4 to 9 whorls. The measure- 
ments were carried out separating pre- 
viously the males from the females, 
because of the great difference in size. A 
male of a determínate number of whorls 
presents a much smaller size with 
respect to a female with the same 
number of whorls. Terefore, males have 
less whorls inflated and smaller diame- 
ter (Figs. 5, 6). 

In the 54 specimens measured the 
ratio (width/length) ranged from 
2.44/1.73 mm in a male of 4 whorls to 
13.45/7.15 mm in a female of 9 whorls 
(Tables II and III). 

Soft parts: Soft parts white and 
similar in both sexes. Neither spots ñor 
coloured marks are normally apprecia- 
ted in the head-foot or mantle. In some 
specimens small dark spots are seen by 
transparency in the suture zone and 
áreas slightly yellowish that correspond 
to the infernal organs. 

Tentacles long, fine, sharpened at the 
tip, strong yellow in colour with some 
whitish spots on the surface. Tip and 
ventral zone white. Some animáis with 
lighter coloured tentacles were obser- 
ved, sometimes almost white. 

Eyes small, black, located at the base 
of the tentacles, with a yellow border. 
Vision through the shell. 

Once the animal is in the parasite 
position on the host the different parts 
of the foot are observed, partially cove- 
ring the base of the shell. When it is 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



Table I. Material studied of Diadema antillarum and Echineulima leucophaes, and infestation rates. 
Tabla I. Material estudiado de Diadema antillarum y Echineulima leucophaes, y porcentajes de infección. 





N- of specimens 


N= of specimens 






N^of 




of D. antillarum 


of D. antillarum 






specimens of 


Locality 


studied 


porasited 


Infestation rotes (%) 


£. leucophaes 


Abades 


100 


4 




4.0 


7 


Agua Dulce 


180 


7 




3.9 


13 


Alcalá 


115 


1 




0.9 


1 


El Palm-mar 


61 


1 




1.6 


2 


El Tablado 


80 


2 




2.5 


3 


La Barranquera 


100 







0.0 





Las Aguas 


30 







0.0 





Las Caletillas 


290 


11 




3.8 


21 


Las Eras 


258 


5 




1.9 


10 


Playa Paraíso 


200 


4 




2.0 


11 


Pta. Salema 


125 


2 




1.6 


2 


Pta. La Rasca 


166 


2 




1.2 


4 


Punta del Hidalgo 


6 







0.0 





Tajao 


200 


2 




1.0 


3 


Total 


1.911 


41 


X: 


= 2.1 


77 



repeatedly disturbad it withdraws 
partly in the shell, unable to completely 
introduce itself, leaving part of the foot 
covering the base of the shell. 

Snout elongated, thick, cylindrical, 
used to hold on to the host, slightly 
swelled at the centre, with an apical disk 
to adhere on to the host. The proboscis, 
used to suck food, penetrates this disk 
and outer tissue of the host, and it 
inserts itself inside (Fig. 7). 

According to Lützen and Nielsen 
(1975) the species of this genus present 
an operculum oval and transparent, not 
observed in our specimens. 

Radula absent. 

Data on Ufe history: Echineulima leu- 
cophaes seems to be an exclusive parasite 
of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum 
(Philippi, 1845). It is a permanent para- 
site, once adhered to the host it is unable 
to free itself. The apical disk of the snout 
fuses with the host's tissue, wich in res- 
ponse creates a callosity or fibroid gall 
leaving the snail's snout firmly adhered 
(Fig. 4). 

Proboscis very long, sometimes 
duplicating the length of the shell com- 



pletely stretched out. Several specimens 
had the proboscis evaginated after the 
fixative procedure. A female presented a 
shell of 11.7 mm and a proboscis of 22.3 
mm; another had a shell of 11.4 mm and 
a proboscis of 25.1 mm (Fig. 7). The 
snail, using this appendix, can reach any 
interna! organ of the sea urchin to feed 
on. The proboscis has a slight swelling 
at the apical end where the suction 
pump is located. According to Lützen 
and Nielsen (1975), the gonadal tissues 
of the sea urchins are the food source of 
this species. 

Inside the sea urchin fixation zone of 
the parasite is clearly appreciated as a 
necrotic spot, darker and black rimmed, 
surrounding the proboscis. In this zone, 
the shell of the sea urchin is soft and 
brakes easily. If several parasites are 
located next to each other the necrotic 
zone is shared by all, although the same 
number of spots as parasites are appre- 
ciated (Fig. 9). 

The insertion zone of the parasite is 
variable. £. leucophaes was observed 
adhered to the oral side, to the sides or 
on the aboral zone of the sea urchin. 



10 



Rodríguez ETAL.-. Eulimids parasiting sea urchins in the Canary Islands 




Figure 2. Echineulima leucophaes, female (A-D), male (E-K). A: ventral view of the shell; B: apex in 
ventral view; C: shell in dorsal position; D: apex in dorsal position; E: ventral view of the shell; F: 
apex in ventral view; G: shell in lateral view; H: apex in shell profile; I: shell in dorsal position; J: 
apex with shell in dorsal position; K: upper view of the protoconch. 

Figure 2. Echineulima leucophaes, hembra (A-D), macho (E-K). A: vistra ventral de la concha; B: 
ápice en vista ventral; C: concha en posición dorsal; D: ápice en posición dorsal; E: vista ventral de la 
concha; F: ápice en vista ventral; G: concha en vista lateral ; H: ápice en el perfil de la concha; I: 
concha en posición dorsal; J: ápice con la concha en posición doral; K: vista superior de la protoconcha. 



11 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



Table II. Number of whorls and mean size of the male specimens oí Echtneultma leucophaes stuáicá. 
Tabla II. Número de vueltas y talla media de los machos de Echineuiima leucophaes. 



N^ whorls 



N- of specimens 



width/ length (mm) 



7 
6 
5 
4 

TOTAL 



4 
17 
10 

1 

32 



6.06/3.47 
4.98/3.08 
3.41/2.24 
2.44/1.73 

X = 4.22/2.63 



Table III. Number of whorls and mean size of the female specimens oí Echineuiima leucophaes studied. 
Tabla III. Número de vueltas y talla media^ de las hembras de Echineuiima leucophaes. 



N^ whorls 



N- of spedmens 



width/ length (mm) 



7 
6 

TOTAL 



6 
5 

7 
4 

22 



12.29/6.86 
10.84/6.64 
8.85/5.38 
6.23/3.83 

X = 9.55/5.67 



Several specimens were also seen 
adhered to the same sea urchin, forming 
clearly differentiated groups. The 
groups can be made up of one or more 
specimens, and each group has a solé 
female and one or several males. The 
high grade of aggregation examined in 
the individuáis of £. leucophaes assumes 
the existence of some type of chemical 
attraction among them. 

Internally, the insertion área is also 
variable. Parasites were seen on the 
ambulacralia or interambulacralia 
plates. Occasionally some specimens 
were observed adhered to the peri- 
buccal soft área. 

The experiments conducted to deter- 
mine the ability of the species to free 
themselves from the host indícate that 
the fixation is definitive and irreversible. 
The parasites released artificially lost 
the locomotor capacity. 

This species is protandric hermaph- 
rodite with environmental sex determi- 
nation (ESD). The first individual, once 
settled on the host, spends a short phase 
as a male and continúes to grow as a 
female. The foUowing specimens that 



settle next to her develop as males and 
remain like this until the female disap- 
pears, then one of them reverses and 
becomes a female. There also exists a 
marked sexual dimorphism, males are 
much smaller than the females, there- 
fore very easy to differentiate. Fre- 
quently there is one or several groups of 
individuáis on a same host, each with 
only one female along with one or more 
males (Fig. 8). 

The infestation rate of E. leucophaes 
on D. antillarum is very low, never 
higher than 4.0% (see Table 1). 

Distribution: This species seems to be 
restricted to the tropical and subtropical 
Eastern Atlantic. It is only known from 
Sao Thomé Island, Guf of Guinea, and 
Canary Islands. 

Remarks: This species was described 
for the first time as Mucronalia leucophaes 
in Sao Thomé Island by Tomlin and 
Shackleford (1913). This description 
did not provide any data on soft parts or 
host. 

LüTZEN AND NiELSEN (1975) descri- 
bed the new genus Echineuiima to 
include some species parasitic on sea 



12 



Rodríguez ETAL.-. Eulimids parasiting sea urchins in the Canary Islands 



urchins of the families Diadematidae 
and Echinometridae. These authors 
synonymized M. leucophaes with the 
type species (by original designation) of 
Echineulima, E. mittrei, that is wides- 
pread throughout the tropical Indo- 
Pacific. They recorded it also from the 
Gulf of Guinea and Tenerife Island. 
Warén (1980) revised the genus Echi- 
neulima and considered E. mittrei and £. 
leucophaes as different species, being the 
former of Indo-Pacific distribution and 
the latter Atlantic. Although the shell 
appearance is quite similar in both 



species, we follow the opinión of Warén 
due the big gap in disribution between 
them from the Gulf of Guinea (West 
África) to Mozambique (East África). 
Nevertheless, the divergence of these 
species must be confirmed by mean of 
genetic or DNA studies. 

According to Warén (1980) the 
species of this genus presents plankto- 
trophic larval development, since the 
egg diameter ranges from 65 to 70 jAm 
and the height of the protoconch is 300 
pim or more, evidencing the presence of 
protoconch 1 and II. 



Genus Vüreolina Monterosato, 1884. 
Vitreolina philippi (Rayneval, Hecke and Ponzi, 1854) (Figs. 3, 10-12) 

EuUma philippi Rayneval, Hecke and Ponzi, 1854. "Catalogue des fossiles du Monte Mario (prés 
Rome), recueillis par M. le Cte de Rayneval, Mgr Van den Hecke et M. le professeur Ponzi, 
1854." Versailles Beaujeune: 20 + 6 pp. 

Type locality: Monte Mario, Roma, fossil 

Material studied: The number of specimens studied and the localities where they were coUected 

are specify in Tables IV, V and VI, and Figure 1. 



Description: Shell conical, slender, 
sharpened, slightly curved, generally 
towards the right, more clear in larger 
individuáis (Fig. 10), glossy, completely 
transparent, without any colouration 
and fragüe in appearance; ornamenta- 
tion absent. 

True suture hard to observe in live 
specimens, forming a fine and tenuous 
groove along the whorls causing a dis- 
continuity in the shell's brilliance. False 
suture very evident, appreciated as a 
more opaque line. Both sutures are para- 
llel, false under true. The space betw^een 
them is quite narro w, approximately Vs 
of the height of the whorls. 

On the shell surface the sutures and 
growth scars are observed. Most shells 
have scars located dorsally on the right 
side, each one ahead of the one before, 
indicating that the animal has grow^n 
more than one whorl in each grov^th 
period. One scar per whorl is observed. 
The study of the shells with scanning 
electrón microscopy confirms the 
absence of ornamentation or micro- 



sculpture on the shell's surface, only the 
sutures and growth scars are apprecia- 
ted (Fig. 3). Whorls of teleoconch fíat, 
and those of the protoconch slightly 
convex. On some áreas of the surface 
deteriorated zones appeared, probably 
due to chemical disintegration by 
immersion in preservative fluids or by 
erosión caused by friction with the subs- 
tratum when the animal was alive. 

Protoconch of four whorl, with 
pointed apex, smooth, transparent and 
without sculpture or colour. 

Aperture ovated, small, with apical 
zone faintly sharpened. Outer lip not 
swelled, withdrawn at the suture 
forming a sinus, very marked at the 
centre. Inner lip straight, swelled at the 
base forming a patent callus at the base 
of the columella. 

Size: The sizes (length/ width) of the 
specimens studied ranged from 
3.73/1.32 mm, in an specimen of 8 
whorls, and 0.52/0.17 mm in the sma- 
Uest specimens of 2 whorls. The average 
sizes obtained are shown in Table VIL 



13 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



Table IV. Material studied of Vitreolina philippi parasiting Arbacia lixula and infestation rates. 
Table IV Material estudiado de Vitreolina philippi parasitando Arbacia VoMla. y porcentajes de infección. 





N'of 


N- of sea 


N^of 


Max n- of 






specimens of 


urchins with 


specimens of 


specimens of 


Infestation 


Locality 


A. \\xu\a 


porosites 


V. philippi 


V. philippi /sea urchin 


rotes 


Abades 


5 


1 


1 


1 


20.0 


Aguadulce 


10 


8 


38 


12 


80.0 


Alcalá 


7 


2 


2 


1 


28.6 


El Médano 


3 











0.0 


El Palm-mar 


2 


1 


5 


5 


50.0 


Garachico 


4 


4 


16 


7 


100.0 


La Barranquera 


25 


7 


16 


6 


28.0 


Las Aguas 


7 


5 


17 


7 


71.4 


Las Caletillas 


11 


8 


26 


8 


72.7 


Las Eras 


15 


13 


53 


6 


86.7 


Las Teresitas 


3 


1 


3 


3 


33.3 


Playa Paraíso 


10 


5 


6 


2 


50.0 


Porís de Abona 


24 


19 


118 


27 


79.2 


Pta. Hidalgo 


13 








- 


0.0 


TOTAL 


139 


74 


301 


X = ó.5 


X = 49.9 



Table V. Material studied of Vitreolina philippi pa.Tzs'iún^ Patacentrotus lividus a.nd infestation rates. 
Table V Material estudiado de Vitreolina philippi parasitando Patacentrotus lividus y porcentajes de 
infección. 





N^of 


N' of sea 


N'of 


Max n- of 






specimens of 


urchins with 


specimens of 


specimens of 


Infestation 


Locality 


P. liviáus 


parasites 


V. philippi 


V. philippi /sea urchin 


rotes 


Abades 


31 


8 


12 


3 


25.8 


Aguadulce 


1 








- 


0.0 


Alcalá 


27 


6 


7 


2 


22.2 


El Médano 


25 


4 


5 


2 


16.0 


El Palm-mar 


2 


1 


29 


29 


50.0 


Garachico 


29 


29 


187 


18 


100.0 


La Barranquera 


15 


4 


10 


4 


26.7 


Las Aguas 


34 


31 


148 


12 


91.2 


Las Caletillas 


19 


19 


131 


19 


100.0 


Las Eras 


1 


1 


2 


2 


100.0 


Las Teresitas 


10 


5 


8 


3 


50.0 


Playa Paraíso 











- 


- 


Porís de Abono 


9 


8 


90 


30 


88.9 


Pta. Hidalgo 


25 


5 


6 


2 


20.0 


TOTAL 


228 


121 


635 


X= 10.5 


X = 53.1 



14 



Rodríguez ETAL: Eulimids parasiting sea urchins in the Canary Islands 




Figure 3. A-H: Vitreolina philippii. A: ventral view of the shell; B: apex in ventral view; C: detall of 
aperture and operculum; D: profile of shell; E: apex in lateral view; F: upper view of the proto- 
conch; G: shell in dorsal position; H: apex in dorsal position. I-N: Nanobalcis nana. I: ventral view 
of the shell; J: apex in ventral view; K: profile of shell; L: apex in lateral view; M: apex in dorsal 
position; N: shell in dorsal position. O-U: Sabinella bonifaciae. O: ventral view of the shell; P: 
apex in ventral view; Q: detall of aperture and growth scar of the last whorl; R: profile of shell; S: 
apex in lateral view; T: shell in dorsal position; U: apex in dorsal position. 

Figura 3. A-H: Vitreolina philippii, A: vista ventral de la concha; B: ápice en vista ventral; C: detalle 
de la apertura y el opérenlo; D: perfil de la concha; E: ápice en vista lateral; F: vista superior de la pro- 
tochocha; G: concha en posisicón dorsal; H: ápice en posición dorsal I-N: Nanobalcis nana, /.■ vista 
ventral de la concha ; ]: ápice en vista ventra; K: perfil de la concha; L: ápice en vista lateral; M: ápice 
en posición dorsal; N: concha en posición dorsal O- U: Sabinella bonifaciae. O: vista ventral de la 
concha; P: ápice en vista ventral; Q; detalle de la apertura y marca de crecimiento de la última vuelta; 
R: perfil de la concha; S: ápice en vista lateral; T: concha en posición dorsal; U: ápice en posición dorsal 



15 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



Soft parts: The soft parts are perfectly 
observed by transparency. The first 
whorls are plain yellow and the last 
ones have a series of orange and yellow- 
whitish spots on the head and foot. The 
disposition of these spots is variable but 
there are two patterns that repeat fre- 
quently. 

In the first pattern when observed 
from the side of the aperture, the first 
four whorls are yellowish, the fifth and 
sixth have orange dots arranged 
forming lines perpendicular to the 
sutures, the seventh whorl has disperse 
punctuation and the last one presents 
scattered orange and yellow-whitish 
dots. These orange dots are mainly dis- 
posed around the eyes and sides of the 
head and the most whitish áreas are 
placed at the top of the head. In dorsal 
view the same colour pattern of the 
whorls is appreciated, but in the last one 
a series of orange dots aligned parallel 
to the suture are observed, along with 
orange and whitish dots dispersed 
around the head (Fig. 11). The two black 
eyes are very patent in this position 
with an orange dot under each one. 

The second pattern differs from the 
previous in the third, fourth and fifth 
whorls, which have three reddish lines 
per whorl. These lines are wide in the 
upper suture and they get narrower 
until disappear at the lower one. The 
sixth whorl has a very patent red dot. 

Cephalic tentacles long and slender, 
translucent, with a row of small bright 
yellow dots on its dorsal surface. At the 
base of each one a small orange dot is 
observed besides the large and black 
eyes, located in faint protuberances at 
the sides of the head. The visión is by 
transparency through the shell. 

Foot dorsally yellow with bright 
orange and yellow scattered dots at its 
base. 

Operculum paucispiral, transparent, 
slightly yellowish. Fine growth lines are 
observed that emerge from one point 
within the inner margin and head 
towards the outer one gradually fading 
before reaching the edge of the opercu- 
lum (Fig. 3). 

Radula absent. 



After short fixative periods in pre- 
servative fluids, the pattern of colora- 
tion disappears and the colour becomes 
uniform from white to yellow-orange. 

Data on Ufe history: Vitreolina philippi 
was found parasiting the sea urchins 
Arbacia lixula, Sphaerechinus granularis 
and Paracentrotus lividus. It is a sporadic 
parasite, associates with sea urchins to 
feed, but capable of freeing himself and 
crawl around looking for another host. 
The adherence to the sea urchin is weak, 
freeing himself very easily once distur- 
bed and therefore occasionally seen on 
rocks or substratum. 

In the specimens of A. lixula studied 
in Tenerife, V. philippi was parasite 
always on the oral zone (Fig. 12). In P. 
lividus and S. granularis the position of 
this parasite is more difficult to specify, 
since these sea urchins adhere algae, 
stones or other objects on their surface, 
being very difficult lócate the eulimids. 

Most of the specimens of V. philippi 
freed themselves from the host during 
the trip to the laboratory, appearing free 
in the bags. The ones remaining on the 
host were adhered to the soft parts at 
the base of the ambulacralia feet in the 
peri-buccal zone. 

A total of 502 sea urchins were stu- 
died, collected in 14 localities of the co- 
ast of Tenerife, in a depth range of 5-20 
m (Tables IV, V and VI). V. philippi para- 
sites preferably on Sphaerechinus granu- 
laris, and 80% of the specimens of this 
sea urchin had parasited. The infestation 
rate on Arbacia lixula and Paracentrotus 
lividus is quite similar and somewhat 
greater than 50%. The máximum num- 
ber of specimens of V. philippi found on 
a single host (P. lividus) was 30. 

Distribution: It is known from north 
to Norway to the Canary Islands, inclu- 
ding the Mediterranean Sea. 

Remarks: Despite the high specificity 
of host cholee that characterises most of 
the genera of Eulimidae, the species of 
the genus Vitreolina present a wide 
variety of hosts, Ophiuroidea (WaréN, 
1984) and several genera of sea urchins 
(Warén, Burch and Burch, 1984). 
Fretter and Graham (1982) indicated 
that they have appeared also on holot- 



16 



Rodríguez etal.-. Eulimids parasiting sea urchins in the Canary Islands 



Table VI. Material studied of Vttreolina philippi paxasiúng Sphaerechinus granularis and infestation rates. 
Table VI. Material estudiado de Vitreolina philippi parasitando Sphaerechinus granularis y porcenta- 
jes de infección. 





N^of 


N^ of sea 


N^of 


Max n^ of 






specimens of 


urchins with 


specimens of 


specimens of 


Infestation 


Locality 


S. granularis 


porasites 


V. philippi 


V. philippi /sea urchin 


rotes 


Abades 


6 








- 


0.0 


Aguadulce 


16 


16 


125 


20 


100.0 


Alcalá 


7 


5 


21 


11 


71.4 


El Médano 


4 








- 


0.0 


El Palm-mar 


27 


18 


83 


16 


66.6 


Garachico 











- 


- 


La Barranquera 


1 








- 


0.0 


Las Aguas 











- 


- 


Las Caletillas 


6 


5 


31 


21 


83.3 


Las Eras 


25 


22 


113 


14 


88.0 


Las Teresitas 


12 


11 


64 


12 


91.7 


Playa Paraíso 


20 


12 


27 


5 


60.0 


Porís de Abona 


9 


9 


78 


18 


100.0 


Pta. Hidalgo 


2 


1 


1 


1 


50.0 


TOTAL 


135 


99 


543 


X= 13.1 


X = 59.2 



Table VII. Number of whods and mean size of 48 specimens of Vitreolina philippi. 
Table VIL Número de vueltas y talla media de 48 ejemplares ¿/é" Vitreolina philippi. 



N- whorls 

8 
7 
6 
5 
4 
3 
2 

TOTAL 



N- of specimens 


width/ length (mm] 


4 


3.50/1.26 


6 


2.87/1.15 


10 


2.38 /0.95 


7 


1 .90 /0.64 


6 


1 .46 /0.47 


9 


1.13/0.29 


6 


0.60/0.19 


48 


X= 1.97/0.71 



hurians and crinoids, if all available 
data are correct. 

Several works record V. philippi in 
the Mediterranean. MiFSUD (1990a) 
point out that it is common on P. lividus, 
but very rare on A. lixula in Malta, but 
RiNALDi (1994) found it very common 
on both species of sea urchins in Sardi- 
nia. Oliverio, Buzzurro and Villa 



(1994) add S. granularis, Centrostephanus 
longispinus (Philippi) and Psammechinus 
microtuberculatus (Blainville) to their 
host list in the Eastern Mediterranean. 
Fretter and Graham (1982) recorded 
V. philippi in the Atlantic coasts of 
Europe and lastly, NoRDSiECK and 
Talayera (1979) in Madeira and Tene- 
rife. 



17 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



Genus Nanobalcis Warén and Mifsud, 1990. 
Nanobalcis nana (Monterosato, 1878) (Figs. 3, 13 -15) 

Eulima nana Monterosato, 1878. "Note sur quelques coquilles draguées dans les eaux de Palerme, 
par le Marquis de Monterosato". Journal de Conchyliologie, 26: 143-160. 

Type locality: Palermo, Sicily, 50-90 m deep. 

Material studied: The number of specimens studied and the localities where they were collected 

are specify in Table VIII. 



Description: Shell cortical, almost 
straight in profile, small, completely 
transparent, without ornamentation or 
coloured zones (Fig. 13). The transpa- 
rency fades with the fixation, although it 
is maintained in those preserved dried. 
In these, the sutures and growth scars 
are well observed. 

Teleoconch whorls fíat and slightly 
convex at the protoconch. Last whorl 
quite high, occupying almost half of the 
height of the shell. 

In the dry specimens, the suture and 
false suture are clearly distinct. Both are 
parallel, the space between them quite 
narrow and more opaque in appearance 
than the rest of the shell. 

The growth scars are not aligned, lo- 
cated at a different place in each whorl. 
There are growth periods in which the 
animal almost form a complete whorl, 
while in others only a half whorl is for- 
med. The scars appearing irregularly. 
The SEM photographs show the surface 
of the shell totally smooth, without any 
kind of micro-sculpture, except the su- 
tures and growth scars (Fig. 3). These 
scars are strongly marked and located 
irregularly in the different whorls. 

Apex slightly sharpened. Protoconch 
with 2 whorls faintly convex, transpa- 
rent, whitout ornamentation or colour 
that differentiates it from the teloconch. 
There is no mark indicating the exis- 
tence of protoconch II, and therefore this 
species might lack a planktotrophic 
larval phase. No micro-sculpture is 
appreciated in the protoconch (Fig. 3). 

Aperture wide, round and slightly 
sharpened at its upper margin. It is 
quite low and faintly surpasses the edge 
of the lower part of the shell. In lateral 
view, the inner lip presents the first 



section straight coinciding with the zone 
between the sutures; then projected 
forming a sinus, very marked at the 
centre. Inner lip with columelar callus 
very patent, located at the lower margin 
of the aperture, coinciding with the base 
of the columella. 

Size: The size (length/width) of the 
specimens from Tenerife ranged from 
0.45/0.31 mm in an specimen with one 
whorl to 1.85/0.79 mm in other of 6 
whorls. 

The average size of the specimens 
studied are shown in Table IX. 

Soft parts: Soft parts orange-brown, 
clearly observed by shell transparency. 

Several yellowish spots are observed 
in the gonad-visceral zone and other 
reddish stand out on an orange back- 
ground. These spots do not seem to 
follow a constant colour pattern. 

In the suture of the last whorl a 
reddish spot is appreciated, diffused 
and edges scarcely defined. At the sides 
of the head there are also small reddish 
zones. 

Cephalic tentacles very long, 
slender, sharpened and almost transpa- 
rent, with faint yellow highlights on the 
surface, mainly on the apical zone. 

Eyes black and large, placed quite 
cióse and slightly behind with respect to 
the tentacles. At the base of each eye a 
more intense orange spot is observed. 
Vision by transparency through the shell 
(Fig. 14). Foot also orange. 

Operculum very thin, transparent, 
oval, with faint growth lines. Animal 
capable of complete retraction inside the 
shell. 

Radula absent. 

After fixation the soft parts loóse 
their pigmentation becoming palé 



18 



Rodríguez ET al.-. Eulimids parasiting sea urchins in the Canary Islands 




Figures 4-9. Echineulima leucophaes. 4: group of one female and two males; 5: males; 6: females; 7: 
female with snout and proboscis evaginated; 8: male and female, in parasitíc posición on Diadema 
antillarum; 9: inner face of Diadema antillarum where three necrotic marks, the proboscis of a 
female (centre) and two males of E. leucophaes are observed. 

Figuras 4-9. Echineulima leucophaes. 4: grupo de una hembra y dos machos; 5: machos; 6: hembras; 
7: hembra con el morro y probóscide evaginados; 8: macho y hembra, parasitando un ejemplar de 
Diadema antillarum; 9: cara interna de Diadema antillarum con tres marcas necróticas correspondien- 
tes a la probóscide de una hembra (centro) y dos machos de E. leucophaes. 



yellow, almost white or even hyaline in 
smaller specimens. Some individuáis, 
after fixation, present faint dark spots in 
the last whorl of the suture and on the 
cephalic zone. 



Date on Ufe history: Nanobalcis nana 
was found on the sea urchin Cidaris 
cidaris (L., 1758). It is an sporadic para- 
site, capable of freeing itself when distur- 
bed. The insertion zone of the parasite 



19 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



on the host is at the base of the largest 
spines (MiFSUD, 1990b), although most of 
the specimens from Tenerife was found 
free in the transportation bag, crawling, 
floating or moving on the surface of the 
sea urchin (Fig. 15). Therefore the inser- 
tion zone was not determined. 

The sea urchins were captured using 
fishing nets, suffering an intense mani- 
pulation to untangle and free them. It is 
possible that during this process some 
parasites freed themselves. The sea 
urchins were introduced together in a 
container with sea water, many parasi- 
tes were liberated, making it difficult to 
determine the number of eulimid para- 
siting each sea urchin. 

The localities studied and the 
number of hosts and parasites are 
shown in Table VIII. 

Distribution: It was only known from 
Malta, Sicily and Gulf of Naples. We 
recorded it here for the first time in the 
Atlantic ocean. Engl (com. pers.) has 
found this species in sediments coming 
from the CANCAP expeditions, and 
Templado (com. pers.) has found a quite 



similar species (probably the same) in 
Cape Verde Islands parasiting the 
Cidarid Eucidaris tribuloides. 

Remarks: Monterosato (1875) 
named for the first time this species as 
Eulima nana, collected in Palermo at a 
depth of 90 m. There is not more data on 
the species in this work. Later Monte- 
rosato (1878) presented the first formal 
description of the shell of this species. 
This description was based on speci- 
mens from sediment dredged and no 
data on soft parts of the animal or possi- 
ble hosts were done. 

MiFSUD (1990) found several speci- 
mens of this species (cited as Eulima 
nana) adhered to the largest spines of 
the sea urchin Cidaris cidaris. The same 
year, Warén and Mifsud (1990) erected 
the new genus Nanobalcis to embrace a 
group of small eulimids parasitic on 
cidaroid sea urchins, and designed E. 
nana as type species of this genus. They 
recorded this species from Malta and 
the Gulf of Naples. Until now this 
species has not been recorded outside of 
the Mediter ranean Sea. 



Genus Sahinella Monterosato, 1890 
Sabinella bonifaciae Nordsieck, 1974 (Figs. 3, 16) 

Eulima (Sabinella) bonifaciae Nordsieck, 1974. "Molluscs from the continental shelf bottom betwen 
Corsica and Sardinia (Bocche di Bonifacio, station Kl)". La Conchiglia, 61: 11-14. 



Tj^e locality: off Capo Comino, between Sardinia and Corsica, 200-220 m deep. 

Material studied: The number of specimens studied and the localities where they were collected 

are specify in Table VIII. 



Description: Shell conical, small, 
quite translucent but not totally trans- 
parent, apex slightly sharpened and 
aperture very large. Ornamentation or 
colour absent (Fig. 16). Shells in preser- 
vative fluids become white and opaque. 
Profile straight, whorls convex, the last 
one very high, occupying ^/s of the 
shell height. Sutures clearly distinct by 
whorl convexity. The false suture is 
very evident as a fine opaque line 
located under the true suture. Both 
sutures are parallel and the space 
between them is very narrow. The 



growth scars are strongly marked. Nor- 
mally there are two per whorl, located 
irregularly because the snail grows 
more than half a whorl each growth 
period. These scars are the only marks 
appreciated on the surface of the shell. 
The shells lack micro-sculpture in the 
teleoconch and protoconch (Fig. 3). 
Some shells present the first whorls 
deeply eroded, probably due to chemi- 
cal attack of the preservative fluids, 
indicating a greater debility of the 
larval shell with respect to the teleo- 
conch. 



20 



Rodríguez ET al.-. Eulimids parasiting sea urchins in the Canary Islands 




Figure 10. Some specimens of Vitreolina philippi. Figure 11. Vitreolina philippi cx.2sn\ví\.<^ on the substratum 
after freeing himself from the host; the most common colour pattern of soft parts can be observed. 
Figure 12. Oral zone oí Arbacia LixulaWiúi 6 specimens of Vitreolina philippi. Figure 13. Some speci- 
mens oí Nanobalcis nana. Figure 14. Common colour pattern oí Nanobalcis nana. Figure 15. Three 
specimens oí Nanobalcis nana on Cidaris cidaris. Figure 16. Some specimens of Sabinella bonifaciae. 
Figura 10. Varios ejemplares í/i? Vitreolina philippi. Figura 11. Vitreolina philippi arrastrándose sobre el 
sustrato tras alimentarse del hospedador; se puede observar el patrón de color más común de las partes blan- 
das. Figura 12. Zona oral de hxh-ícxsL Lixula con 6 ejemplares ¿/i? Vitreolina philippi. Figura 13. Varios 
ejemplares ií¿f Nanobalcis nana. Figura 14. Patrón de color habitual de^dcaohdXcis nana. Figura 15. Tres 
ejemplares de Nanobalcis nana sobre Cidaris cidaris. Figura 16. Varios ejemplares de Sabinella bonifaciae. 



21 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



Table Vlll. Material studied of Cidaris cidaris and its parasites Nanobalcis nana and Sabinella bonifaciae. 
Table VIII. Material estuciado de Cidaris cidaris y sus parásitos Nanobalcis nana j/ Sabinella bonifaciae. 



Locality 


Islond 


Dote 


Depth (m) 


N'of 
C. ci'cfarís 


specimens 
N. nana 


studied 
S. imnliacme 


Mogón 


Gran Canario 


22-11-94 


100 


32 


12 


10 


Ptito. de Güímar 


Tenerife 


13-11-96 




1 


28 





28° 29,38 N, 16° 09,15 W 


Tenerife 


5-12-96 


293 


70 


437 





28° 22,80 N, 16° 20,23 W 


Tenerife 


6-1 2-96 


253 


2 


13 


1 


Los Gigantes 


Tenerife 


4-12-97 


135 


2 


2 





28° 10,56 N, 14° 22,32 W 


Fuerteventura 


1-10-97 


232 


68 


280 


5 


Pto. de la Cruz 


Tenerife 


28-2-98 


198 


1 


3 






Table IX. Number of whorl and mean size of 47 specimens oí Nanobalcis nana. 
Table IX. Número de vueltas y talla media de 47 ejemplares de Nanobalcis nana. 



N^ whorls 

ó 
5 
4 
3 
2 
1 

TOTAL 



N- of specimens 


width/ lengríi (mm 


1 


1.85/0.79 


13 


1 .57 / 0.70 


12 


1.27/0.59 


8 


0.93 / 0.47 


11 


0.67/0.35 


2 


0.47/0.31 


47 


X= 1.13/0.53 



Table X. Number of whorl and mean size of 9 specimens oí Sabinella bonifaciae. 
Table X. Número de vueltas y talla media de 9 ejemplares de Sabinella bonifaciae. 



N^ whorls 



N- of specimens 



width/ length (mm) 



4 
3 
2 

TOTAL 



1.27/0.72 
0.93/0.53 
0.81 /0.45 

X= 1.00/0.56 



Mucronata protoconch of 2.5 whorls, 
without coloration or ornamentation 
that differentiates it from the teloconch. 

Aperture large, oval, slightly sharpe- 
ned at it upper part and rounded at the 
base. Outer lip faintly swelled at the tip 
of the aperture, surpassing largely the 
edge of the shell. In profile, the lip in the 
sutural zone is withdrawn and then pro- 
jected forming a very marked sinus. 



Inner lip swelled forming a notable 
columelar callus. 

Size: The specimens obtained in the 
Canary Islands (Tenerife, Gran Canaria 
and Fuerteventura) had from 2 to 4 
whorls. The average sizes are shown in 
Table X. 

Soft parts: The study of S. bonifaceae 
was done with specimens kept in fixa- 
tive fluids, therefore we have not photos 



22 



Rodríguez ET al.-. Eulimids parasiting sea urchins in the Canary Islands 



of living animáis ñor description of 
colour patterns were obtained. The pre- 
servad animáis presented a uniform 
whitish coloration in the cephalic zone, 
and only big black eyes stood out. The 
gonad-visceral zone presents the same 
colour as the cephalic área, although 
some individuáis were reddish brown. 

Operculum very thin, yellowish and 
transparent. 

Date on Ufe history: Sabinella bonifaciae 
was found living on the sea urchin 
Cidaris cidaris (L., 1758). The specimens 
observad in the Canary Islands were 
found crawling freely on the sea urchin, 
indicating that they are sporadic para- 
site, capable of freeing themselves from 
the host. 

S. bonifaciae is parasite of C. cidaris 
jointly with the eulimid above mentio- 
ned, Nanobalcis nana. In specimens of C. 
cidaris from Tenerife the latter was much 
more abundant than the former. 

The localities studied and the 
number of hosts and parasites are 
shown in Table VIII. 

The intense manipulation suffered 
by the sea urchins using the fishing nets, 
as with Nanobalcis nana, could have 
made caused the parasites to free them- 
selves from the host. 

Distribution: It was known from the 
Western Mediterranean and Sicilian 
Chanel, and from Bay of Biscay to the 
Ibero-Moroccan Gulf . Here recordad for 
the first in the Canary Islands. 

Remarks: Monterosato (1875) des- 
cribed this species for the first time as 
Eulima piriformis Brugnone, in Palermo. 
Later, Monterosato (1890) created the 
new genus Sabinella, were S. piriformis 
was included. 

NORDSIECK (1975) described the new 
species Eulima (Sabinella) bonifaciae, for 



the área between Corsica and Sardinia. 
The description was obtanied from 
shells of sediments, therefore lacks data 
on possible hosts. van Aartsen (1978) 
and Gaglini (1990) considered Sabinella 
bonifaciae as synonum of S. piriformis 
Brugnone, 1873, but Warén (1984) and 
BouCHET AND Warén (1986) discusses 
on the taxonomy of these taxa and con- 
sidered the former as a valid species. 

According to Bouchet and Warén 
(1986) the females of this species are 
larger than the males and are perma- 
nently adhered to the host, meanwhile 
the males may crawl freely. This species 
has tentacles smooth, wide and short, 
with eyes located at the base of each 
one. The foot is well developed and 
functional and, after comparing the 
shell's size of the veliger larva with the 
postlarval specimens, concluded that 
the size difference indicated a plankto- 
trophic development. 

Warén and Mifsud (1990) found 
some specimens of S. bonifaciae on C. 
cidaris in Malta and provided new addi- 
tional data on sof parts and life-style. 
They noted that the insertion zone of 
this eulimid on its host is at the base of 
the primary spines, originating a distinc 
thickening. When the specimens had a 
size of 1-2 mm they attached perma- 
nently to the host with a mucous collar, 
covering the base of the proboscis, 
which remained in the sea urchin once 
the parasite was separated from the 
host. The small size of the specimens 
found in Canaries and the fact that they 
were observed free on C. cidaris may 
indícate that they were juveniles or 
males. Although the spines of this sea 
urchin were carefully examined, none 
specimen of S. bonifaciae was found atta- 
ched to them. 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 



Our gratitude to Dr. Anders Warén 
(Swedish Museum of Natural History) 
and to Mr. Mifsud, for the interesting 
comments and corroboration of the spe- 
cimens determinations. To Leopoldo 



Moro, author of the photo n° 15, for his 
generous contribution. To José Tem- 
plado (Museo Nacional de Ciencias 
Naturales, Madrid) for the revisión of 
the manuscript. 



23 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Aartsen, J. J. van, 1978. Eulima (Sabinella) bo- 
nifaciae Nordsieck, 1974 a synonym of E. 
(Sab.) piriformis Brugnone, 1873. Conchiglie, 14 
(11-12): 219-220. 

BouCHET, P. AND Warén, A., 1986. Revisión of 
the northeast Atlantic Bathyal and Abyssal 
Aclididae, Eulimidae, Epitoniidae (Mollusca, 
Gastropoda). Bollettiiio Malacologico, Sup- 
plemento 2: 300-576. 

Engl, W., 1997a. New species of the family Eu- 
limidae from the Canary Islands. Part I: Des- 
cription of Sticteiilima richteri n. sp. La Con- 
chiglia, 283: 44-47. 

Engl, W., 1997b. New species of the family Eu- 
limidae from the Canary Islands. Part II: Des- 
cription of Sticteulima wareni n. sp. La Con- 
chiglia, 285: 43-45. 

Engl, W., 1998. New species of the family Eu- 
limidae from the Canary Islands. Part 3: Des- 
cription of Fusceulhua boscheineni n. sp. La 
Conchiglia, 289: n-U,60. 

Engl, W., 1999. New or pourly known species 
of the family Eulimidae from the Eastern 
Atlantic and Mediterranean. Part 4: "Eulivia" 
fuscozonata Bouchet and Warén, 1986. La Con- 
chiglia, 292: 45-46. 

Fretter, V. and Graham, A., 1982. The pro- 
sobranch Molluscs of Britain and Denmark. 
Part 7- "Heterogastropoda" (Cerithiopsacea, 
Triforacea, Epitoniacea, Eulimacea). The Jour- 
nal ofMolluscan Studies, Supplement 11. 360- 
435. 

Gaglini, a., 1990. Sulla valitá del taxon Sabi- 
nella piriformis Brugnone, 1873 (Eulimidae). 
Notiziario CISMA, 12: 29-31. 

Le Renard, J., 2000. CLEMAN (Check Ust of Eu- 
ropean Marine Mollusca). Muséum National 
d'Histoire Naturelle. www.mnhn.fr/base/ 
malaco.html 

Lützen, J. and Nielsen, K., 1975. Contribu- 
tions to the anatomy and biology of Echi- 
neulima n.g. (Prosobranchia: Eulimidae), pa- 
rasitic on sea urchins. Videnskablige Meddelelser 
Danske Naturhhistoriske Forening, 138: 171- 
199. 

MiFSUD, C, 1990a. Vitreolina philippi (Ponzi, De 
Rayneval and Van Den Heck, 1854) (Euli- 
midae) found living on the echinoid Para- 
centrotus lividus (Lamark) rn infralittoral Mal- 
tese Waters. Bollettino Malacologico, 26 (10- 
12): 165-168. 

MiFSUD, C, 1990b. Due specie di Eulimidi pa- 
rassiti deír echinoide Cidaris cidaris (L., 1758). 
La Conchiglia, 258: 30-31. 

Monterosato, M., 1875. Nuova rivista delle 
conchiglie Mediterranee. Atti delV Accademia 
di scienze, Lettere ed Arti, Palermo Vol V, ser. 
2: 1-50. 



Monterosato, M., 1878. Note sur quelques 
coquilles draguées dans les eaux de Palerme. 
Journal de Conchyliologie, Paris 26: 143-160. 

Monterosato, M., 1890. Conchiglie della pro- 
fonditá del mare di Palermo. // Naturalista Si- 
ciliano, 9 (7): 157-66. 

Nordsieck, F., 1974. Molluscs from the conti- 
nental shelf bottom between Corsica and Sar- 
dinia (Bocche di Bonifacio, station Kl). La 
Conchiglia, 61:11-14. 

Nordsieck, F. and García-Tala vera, F., 1979. 
Moluscos marinos de Canarias y Madera (Gas- 
tropoda). Aula de Cultura de Tenerife, 208 
pp. 

Oliverio, M., Buzzurro, G. and Villa, R., 
1994. A new Eulimid Gastropod from the 
eastern Mediterranean sea (Caenogastro- 
poda, Ptenoglossa). BollettÍ7io Malacologico, 
30 (5-9): 211-215. 

Rayneval, L. M. A. G. de, Hecke, M. van den, 
AND Ponzi, M,. 1854. Catalogue desfossiles du 
Monte Mario (pre's Rome), recueillis par M. le Cte 
de Rayneval, Mgr Van den Hecke et M. le pro- 
fesseur Ponzi. Versailles Beaujeune: 20-1-6 pp. 

Rinaldi, a. C, 1994. Frecuenza e distribuzione 
di Vitreolina Philippi (De Rayneval and Ponzi, 
1854) (Prosobranchia, Eulimidae) su due spe- 
cie di Echinoidei regolari lungo le coste me- 
ridionali della Sardegna. Bollettino Malacolo- 
gico, 30 (1-4): 29-32. 

Rodríguez, M., 2000. Description of a new Eu- 
limid (Mollusca: Gastropoda) off the Canary 
Islands. Melanella lútea n. sp. La Conchiglia, 
294-295: 82- 86. 

ToMLiN, B. and Shackleford, L. J., 1913. Des- 
criptions of new species of Marginella and 
Mucronalia from Sao Thomé. The Journal of 
Conchology, vol. XIV (1913-1915): 43- 44. 

Warén, A., 1980. Revisión of the genera Thyca, 
Stilifer, Scalenostoma, Mucronalia and Echi- 
neulima (Mollusca, Prosobranchia, Eulimi- 
dae). Zoológica Scripta, 9: 187-210. 

Warén, A., 1984. A generic revisión of the Fa- 
mily Eulimidae. The Journal ofMolluscan Stu- 
dies, supplement 13: 96 pp. 

Warén, A., Burch, B. L. and Burch, T. A., 
1984. Description of five new species of Ha- 
waiian Eulimidae. The Veliger, 26 (3): 170- 
178. 

Warén, A. and Mifsud, C, 1990. Nanobalcis a 
new Eulimid genus (Prosobranchia) parasi- 
tic on Cidaroid sea urchins, with two new 
species, and comments on Sabinella bonifa- 
ciae (Nordsieck). Bollettino Malacologico, 26 
(1-4): 37-46. 

Watson, R. B., 1897. Marine Mollusca of Ma- 
deira. Journal ofthe Linnean Society ofLondon, 
26: 233-239. 



24 



© Sociedad Española de Malacología 



Iberus, 19 (1): 25-35, 2001 



Eulimid gastropods (Caenogastropoda: Eulimidae) of the 
Canary Islands. Part II. Species parasiting the crinoid 
Antedon bifida 

Eulímidos (Caenogastropoda: Eulimidae) de las Islas Canarias. Parte 
II. Especies parásitas del crinoideo Antedon bifida 

Myriam RODRÍGUEZ, Gustavo PEREZ-DIONIS and Jacinto BARQUÍN* 

Recibido el ll-VII-2000. Aceptado el 18-XII-2000 

ABSTRACT 

The present work deals with two species of eulimids, Curveulima dautzenbergi and Cri- 
nophtheiros collinsi, found parasiting the crinoid Antedon bifida in Tenerife, Canary 
Islands. Data on shell, soft parts, lifestyle and infestatión rotes ore provided. 

RESUMEN 

El presente trabajo verso sobre dos especies de eulímidos, Curveulima dautzenbergi y Cri- 
nophtheiros collinsi, que porasiton al crinoideo Antedon bifida en la Isla de Tenerife 
(Canarios). Se aportan datos sobre la concha, partes blondos, ecología y tosas de infec- 
ción. 



KEY WORDS: MoUusca, Gastropoda, Eulimidae, Curveulima dautzenbergi, Crinophtheiros collinsi, Crinoidea, 
Antedon bifida, Tenerife, Canary Islands. 

PALABRAS CLAVE: MoUusca, Gastropoda, Eulimidae, Curveulima dautzenbergi, Crinophtheiros collinsi, 
Crinoidea, Antedon bifida, Tenerife, Islas Canarias. 



INTRODUCTION 

We foUow the serie of works dealing 
with the eulimids gastropods of the 
Canary Islands. We dedicated a former 
paper in this same volume to the species 
parasiting sea urchins, and we deal here 
with those found on the crinoid Antedon 
bifida (Pennant), very common in littoral 
waters of this Archipiélago. In a pre- 
vious paper. Rodríguez (2000) descri- 
bed the new species Melanella lútea, 
which parasites the sea cucumber Holot- 
huria sanctori Delle Chiaje. In the other 



hand, in recent year Engl (1997a, 1997b, 
1998) has described some new species of 
eulimids in circalittoral bottoms of 
Puerto del Carmen, Lanzarote, based 
upon dead shells. 



MATERIAL AND METHODS 

The material studied comes from 
samples of the crinoid Antedon bifida 
taken from the infralittoral zone of Tene- 



(*) Departamento de Biología Animal (Ciencias Marinas), Facultad de Biología, Universidad de La Laguna, C/ 
Astrofísico Francisco Sánchez s/n. 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain. 

25 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 




3 6 Antedon bifida 

fo C. daiitzenbergi parasites 
without parasites 



Figure 1 . Sampling localities. 
Figura 1. Localidades de muestreo. 



rife in 16 di ves, between 5 and 35 m in 
depth, in several localities throughout 
this island (see Table I and Figure 1). 
Some additional samples were taken in 
other islands (Fuerteventura, el Fiierro y 
La Palma). 



The crinoids captured (294 speci- 
mens) along with the eulimid parasites 
were preserved in ethanol 70% and 
voucher material was deposited at the 
Animal Biology Department of the Uni- 
versity of La Laguna. 



RESULTS 

Family Eulimid ae Philippi, 1853 
Genus Curveulima Laseron, 1955 

Curveulima daiitzenbergi (Pallary, 1900) (Figs. 2, 4-10) 

Eulima (Vitreolina) dautzenbergi Pallary, 1900 "Coquilles marines du littoral du département 
D'Oran." Journal de Conchyliologie, 48: 211-422. 

Type locality: Roseville (Oran). 

Material studied: The material studied in Tenerife Island is detailed in Table I and Figure 1, as well 
as the infestation rate for each locality (Table II). A total of 181 specimens of this eulimid were found 
in the 294 specimens of Antedon bifida collected. Additional specimens were obtained in most of the 
samples of A. bifida from Fuerteventura, El Hierro and La Palma islands. 



Shell: Live specimens with transpa- 
rent shell, smooth, glossy, clearly curved 
and delicate aspect (Figs. 4, 5). The cur- 
vature of the axis of the shell varíes in 
the specimens studied and it is very 
obvious in the larger. In big specimens 
the shell is clearly curved towards the 
right. Sometimes a slight dorsal curva- 
ture of the apex with respect to the aper- 
ture is observed. 



Whorls slightly convex. Suture 
slightly marked, like a thin line along 
the whorl. False suture very evident, 
parallel and below the true suture. The 
space between the sutures is approxima- 
tely one third of the height of the 
whorls. 

Surface of the shell without orna- 
mentation. A fine line is observed 
marking the suture and the scars left by 



26 



Rodríguez ETAL.-. Eulimids parasiting the crinoid Antedon bifida in the Canary Islands 




Figure 2. Curveulima dautzenbergi. A: ventral view of the shell; B: apex in ventral view; C: apex in 
lateral view; D: shell in lateral view; E: shell in dorsal position; F: apex in dorsal view; G: upper 
view of the protoconch. 

Figura 2. Curveulima dautzenbergi. A: vista ventral de la concha; B: ápice en vista ventral; C: ápice 
en vista lateral; D: concha en vista lateral; E: concha en posición dorsal; F: ápice en vista dorsal; G: 
vista superior de la protoconcha. 



the previous position of the inner lip 
during the periods when the animal 
growth stopped. These scars are mainly 
on the right margin, although the posi- 
tion varied in the specimens studied. 
There were shells with scars clearly 
lined up that presented a very marked 
curvature; others had a scar ahead or 
behind with respect to the previous one. 
The study of the shells with SEM con- 
firms the absence of ornamentation or 
micro-sculpture on the surface of the 
shell, only the sutures and growth scars 
are appreciated. In spite of the live 
shells studied, a high degree of abrasión 
was observed (Fig. 2). 

Protoconch smooth, transparent, 
without ornamentation or colour. The 
presence of individuáis with one whorl 
adhered to the host seems to indícate 
the absence of a planktotrophic larval 
phase. This would be corroborated by 
the lack of marks on the shell that indi- 
cate the presence of protoconch II. 

Aperture oval, drop-shaped, tall, 
quite sharp adapically and rounded at 



the base. The lower margin of the aper- 
ture exceeds the shell edge. Outer lip 
not swelled, projected at the centre 
forming a sinus. The infernal margin of 
the aperture swelled. This callus is 
appreciable in younger specimens and 
very marked in larger shells. 

Size: The number of whorls of the 
specimens studied ranged from one to 
nine. The average size was 4.90/1.56 
mm (width/length) in specimens of 
nine whorls (Table III). 

Soft parts: Can be perfectly observed 
by transparency in living specimens, 
held to the host or crawling once they 
are free (Fig. 6). Two zones are clearly 
differentiated: 

1. Gonad-visceral zone yellow- 
orange in colour. Reddish tones may be 
present in larger specimens. Juveniles 
paler, almost hyaline in smaller indivi- 
duáis. A series of small reddish dots, 
located in all the whorls and without 
any pattern, are visible in this zone. In 
larger specimens the reddish dots are 
more numerous and intense. 



27 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



Table I. Sampling localities in Tenerife Island. 
Table I. Localidades de muestreo en Tenerife. 



N^ 


N- samples 


Latitude 


Longitude 


Locality 


1 


3 


3153502 


383734 


Las Teresitas 


2 


2 


3142338 


369506 


Radazul 


3 




3139345 


366594 


Las Caletillas 


4 




3130701 


365361 


Ptito. Güímar 


5 




3118638 


359865 


Las Eras 


6 


2 


3116209 


359468 


Porís de Abona 


7 




3101415 


344499 


Agua Dulce 


8 




3098165 


334277 


Pta. La Rasca 


9 




3112015 


325169 


Playa Paraíso 


10 




3120183 


320729 


Alcalá 


11 




3139814 


326886 


Garachico 


12 




3155267 


360932 


La Barranquera 



2. Cephalic zone orange with nume- 
rous reddish dots, whose position varíes 
according with the size of the specimens: 

a) In smaller specimens the dots had 
not an apparent pattern on the dorsal 
view and they are slightly aligned para- 
llel to the suture on the ventral one. In 
some médium or large specimens this 
same pattern was observed. 

b) In larger specimens the colour of 
the dots is much more intense, in some 
áreas they join forming a red band, and 
the lines starting at the suture of the 
shell progress towards the centre of the 
last whorl where they fragment forming 
a transverse band with clearly defined 
dots. The red lines beginning at the 
suture alternates with orange zones and 
glassy yellow highlights are observed. 

On the head, a dorsal zone, whitish 
with yellow highlights, is appreciated, 
flanked at both sides by small pale- 
orange dots (Fig. 7). Cephalic tentacles 
thin, long and blunt. The edge is hyaline 
and the mid-line yellow. An orange spot 
is observed at the base of the tentacles. 

Eyes black, immediately behind the 
orange cephalic spot, very obvious and 
always inside the shell. The visión is 
through the shell whether the animal is 
crawling or adhered to the host. 

Foot hyaline with small orange and 
yellow dots (Fig. 8). 



Operculum slender, paucispiral, 
transparent, slightly yellowish with 
tenuous growth lines. 

Radula absent. 

Data on Ufe history: Curveulima daut- 
zenbergi parasites the crinoid Antedon 
bifida (Fig. 9). It is a sporadic parasite, 
which if disturbed looses itself from the 
host and crawl freely around the subs- 
tratum without suffering any damage. 

The position of the parasite on the 
host is variable. Specimens of C. daut- 
zenbergi were observed adhered to the 
finials, arms or central disk in both 
dorsal and ventral sides of crinoids (Fig. 
10). Those adhered to the central disk 
were always large specimens and juve- 
niles were never seen in this zone. Para- 
sites of different sizes were observed in 
arms and finials. 

The máximum number of parasites 
per crinoid was 19, all small sized, on a 
specimen of A. bifida. 

A total of 181 specimens of C. daut- 
zenbergi were found in 294 specimens of 
A. bifida. The results obtained in the 
samples are detailed in Tables I, II and 
Figure 1, as well as the infestation rates 
for each locality and total. 

In all the samples taken in the 
islands of Fuerteventura, El Hierro and 
La Palma this species was observed, 
which confirms that it is a common 



28 



Rodríguez ETAL.-. Eulimids parasiting the crinoid Antedon bifida in the Canary Islands 




Figure 3. Crinophtheiros collinsi. A: ventral view of the shell; B: apex in ventral view; C: apex in 
lateral view; D: shell in lateral view; E: shell in dorsal position; F: apex in dorsal view. 
Figura 3. Crinophtheiros collinsi. A: vista ventral de la concha; B: ápice en vista ventral; C: ápice en 
vista lateral; D: concha en vista lateral; E: concha en posición dorsal; F: ápice en vista dorsal 



species all around the Cañarían Archi- 
pelago. 

Distribution: Until now it was only 
known from the western Mediterranean 
Sea. We extend here its geographical 



range of distribution to the Canary 
islands. 

Remarks: The specimens studied has 
been identified as C. dautzenbergi by Dr. 
Warén (com. pers.). Pallary (1900) des- 



Table II. Number of specimens studied o( Antedon bifida, Curveulima dautzenbergi and Crinopht- 
heiros collinsi in each locality. 

Table II. Número de ejemplares de Antedon bifida, Curveulima dautzenbergi y Crinophtheiros 
collinsi estudiados en cada localidad. 







N=of 


% C. dautzenbergi 


N^of 


% C. collinsi 


Locality 


N- of crinoids 


C. áoDiienherqi 


parosited 


C. collinsi 


parosited 


1 


93 


14 


15.1 


3 


3.2 


2 


36 


17 


42.2 


2 


5.5 


3 


46 


36 


78.3 


5 


10.9 


4 


24 


3 


12.5 


2 


8.3 


5 


19 


11 


57.9 


3 


15.8 


6 


39 


23 


59.0 


1 


2.5 


7 


6 


4 


66.6 


1 


16.6 


8 


1 


5 


100.0 








9 


4 


64 


100.0 


3 


75.0 


10 


8 


2 


25.0 








11 


14 


1 


7.1 








12 


4 


1 


25.0 








TOTAL 


294 


181 


X = 49.1 


20 


X = 6.8 



29 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 




Figure^ 4-10. Curveulima dautzenbergi. 4: living specimen; 5: severa! specimens; 6-8: common 
colour pattern; 9: an specimen adhered to the finial oí Antedon bifida; 10: another specimen 
adhered to the central disk oí A. bifida. 

Figuras 4-10. Curveulima dautzenbergi. 4: ejemplar vivo; 5: conchas; 6-8: patrones de coloración; 9: 
ejemplar fijado a un brazo ¿/í- Antedon bifida; 10: otro ejemplar fijado al disco central de K. bifida. 



cribed this species under the genus 
Vitreolina, due great similarity with 
others species of this genus. Later, 
Laseron (1955) erected the genus Cur- 
veulima to embrace a group of Austra- 
lian and Antarctic species. 



In the book of Nordsieck and Tala- 
vera (1979) on marine molluscs from 
Madeira and Canary Island, some 
species of eulimids with curved shell 
were included, but none fit well with C. 
dautzenbergi. Only the species cited by 



30 



Rodríguez ETAL.-. Eulimids parasiting the crinoid Antedon bifida in the Canary Islands 




Figures 11-15. Crinophtheiros collinsi. 11: living specimen; 12: several specimens; 13: common 
coloration; the proboscis of the parasite is observed adhered to the finial of the crinoid; 14: pinna 
scar oi Antedon bifida; 15: an specimen parasiting ^4. bifida. 

Figuras 11-15. Crinophtheiros collinsi. 11: ejemplar vivo; 12: conchas; 13: coloraciones; se ve la pro- 
bóscide del parásito sujeta al brazo del crinoideo; 14: cicatriz en la pinna ¿/é' Antedon bifida; 15: un 
ejemplar parasitando A. bifida. 



31 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



Table III. Number of whorls and mean sizes of 48 specimens of Curveulima dautzenbergi. 
Table III. Número de vueltas y talla media de 48 especímenes de Curveulima dautzenbergi. 



N^ whorls 



N- of specimens 


width/ length (mm] 


2 


4.85/ 1.55 


15 


3.62/ 1.40 


5 


3.11 / 1.18 


8 


2.28/0.85 


9 


1.92/0.58 


5 


1.38/0.49 


4 


1.07/0.39 


48 


X = 2.ól /0.92 



9 
8 

7 
6 
5 
4 
3 

TOTAL 



these authors as Eulima (vitreolina) cf. 
spiridioni Dautzenberg and Fischer, 1896, 
could refer to C. dautzenbergi, although 
they described the shell as white in deep 
water of Azores, Porto Santo and Tene- 
rife, without any mention to the depth 
or Information concerning soft parts and 
lifestyle of the animal. The illustrations 
slightly resemble this species, although 
the aperture is clearly different. 

Warén (1984), in his revisión of the 
eulimids genera, included in Curveulima 
some species from Japan and Cuba, 



pointing out the similarities between 
Curveulima and Vitreolina. Bouchet and 
Warén (1986), in their revisión of 
bathyal and abyssal eulimids of the 
northeastern Atlantic, included w^ithin 
the genus Curveulima two deep waters 
species found near the Canary Islands: 
C. macrophtalmica (Warén, 1972), and C. 
eschara described as new. 

We record C. dautzenbergi for the first 
time in the Canary Islands, and no other 
species parasiting Antedon bifida has 
been previously mentioned in this área. 



Genus Crinophtheiros Bouchet and Warén, 1986 

Crinophtheiros collinsi (Sykes, 1903) (Figs. 3, 11-15) 

Eulima collinsi Sykes, 1903. Notes on some British Eulimidae. Proceedings of the Malacological 
Society of hondón, 5: 348-353. 

Type locality: Guernsey (British Islands), in 10 fathoms. 

Material studied: The material studied in Tenerife Island is detailed in Table I and Figure 1, as well 
as the infestation rate for each locality (Table II). A total of 20 specimens of this eulimid were found 
in the 294 specimens of Antedon bifida coUected. Additional specimens were obtained in samples 
of A. bifida from El Hierro and La Palma islands. 



Shell: Shell completely transparent, 
glossy, thin, very deUcate, extremely fragile 
and perfectly smooth, without any orna- 
mentation or colour (Fig. 11). Teleoconch 
straight and protoconch generally slightly 
curved with respect to the shell axis, but 
some specimens may have a straight shell 
(Fig. 12). Last whorl very high. 

Suture very faint, hardly noticeable 
under magnifying glass. False suture 



evident and clear, even if the animal is 
completely or halfway inside the shell. 
Faint scars on the surface of the pre- 
vious position of the outer lip, irregu- 
larly arranged since the animal growths 
more than one whorl each growth 
period. The study of the shells with 
SEM confirms the absence of ornamen- 
tation or micro-sculpture on the surface 
of the shell, and only the sutures and 



32 



Rodríguez ETAL.-. Eulimids parasiting the crinoid Antedon bifida in the Canary Islands 



growth scars are appreciated (Fig. 3). 
Some shells present an eroded surface, 
this may be caused by erosión or chemi- 
cal attack due to preservative fluids. 
Teleoconch whorls smooth, those of the 
protoconch slightly convex and width 
not constant originating a faint curva- 
ture of the larval shell. 

Apex round. Protoconch transparent, 
smooth, without ornamentation or 
colour. Distinguished from the teloconch 
by a slight curvature of the shell and by 
the convex whorls. According to Fretter 
AND Graham (1982) the protoconch has 
four whorls, but in the specimens 
studied by us only three larval whorls 
are visible. There is no trace in the proto- 
conch indicating the presence of proto- 
conch II, therefore this species probably 
lacks planktotrophic larval phase. 

Aperture extremely fragile. Only 
five specimens coUected in Tenerife pre- 
sented the aperture entire. Parasites 
alive on the host had the aperture 
broken or broke it when released. It is 
tall, narrow and slightly rectangular in 
the central zone. Upper part sharpened. 
Outer lip thin, not swelled terminally 
and almost straight in the middle. Base 
rounded and surpassing the edge of the 
shell, making it elongated. 

Size: The specimens coUected in 
Tenerife presented a range of 3-7 
whorls. The dimensions (length/ width) 
of the shells with intact aperture were: 
3.56/1.20 mm and 4.06 mm/1.33 mm in 
two specimens with 7 whorls; 2.91/1.04 
mm in one specimen with 6 whorls; and 
2.18/0.49 mm and 2.49/0.97 mm in two 
specimens with 5 whorls. 

Soft parts: Perfectly visible by shell 
transparency. The gonad-visceral zone 
varies in colour from orange, red, brow- 
nish-gray-greenish to clearly greenish. 
In all cases intense red dots are obser- 
ved in this área. These dots are clearly 
defined as small rounded spots with 
diffuse edges. In the last three whorls of 
some specimens small yellow spots are 
observed cióse each other and forming 
lines starting at the suture and almost 
reaching the next one (Fig. 13). 

Last whorl with many red dots 
arranged without an apparent order. 



The centre of the spots has a more 
intense colour and the edges much more 
diffuse. In many specimens these spots 
are very cióse and look like an unique 
crimson red coloured área. Glose to the 
suture the dots are arranged in order, 
forming wide lines alternating with 
bright yellow spotted áreas. 

Upper part of the head yellow. On 
the sides, red dots are observed from the 
red spot of the last whorl to the tentacles. 
Eyes big, black, rounded and very evi- 
dent, located at the centre of this dotted 
line. The animal can see by shell transpa- 
rency either when held to the host or 
crawling freely on the substratum. 

Tentacles long, blunt, divergent, 
hyaline, with yellow highlights on the 
surface and red base. Foot whitish, with 
red dots at the posterior end and middle 
part, with hyaline margins. 

Proboscis whitish, without coloured 
área, strongly fixed to the host. Once the 
eulimid is detached from its host a 
marked scar left (Fig. 14). 

Operculum yellowish, paucispiral, 
very thin and transparent, henee two 
orange spots on the foot can be obser- 
ved, one on the apex and another on the 
base of the aperture. The study of the 
operculum with SEM shows that it pre- 
sents faint growth lines in the inner basal 
zone and the rest is completely smooth. 

Radula absent. 

Data on Ufe history. Crinophtheiros 
collinsi Uves parasite on the crinoid 
Antedon bifida (Fig. 15). It is sporadic 
parasite, able of releases from the host 
and crawls over substratum. 

All the specimens coUected in Tene- 
rife remained adhered to the host 
during the study. In the laboratory they 
were only freed after persisten disturba- 
tion. This fact, along with the absence of 
specimens in the scraped stones, 
washed seaweeds or free in the sedi- 
ment, presumes that in spite of the 
ability of freeing themselves from the 
host, this occurs infrequently in nature. 

The insertion zone of the eulimid on 
the host is variable. Specimens have 
been found in the arms or finials of the 
crinoid, but never near the central disk. 
In all the cases one only specimen of C. 



33 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



collinsi was found on the crinoid, alt- 
hough they frequently had simultane- 
ously one specimen of C. collinsi and one 
or several of Curveulima dautzenbergi. 

In the samplings conducted in Tene- 
rife a total of 294 crinoids were studied, 
obtaining 20 specimens of C. collinsi. In 
all the cases there was only one parasite 
per host, and the infestation rate of C. 
collinsi was 6.8% (Table II). 

Distribution: It was known from the 
northeastern Atlantic. 

Remarks: Sykes (1903) described this 
species as Eulima collinsi in British waters, 
without providing any data regarding 
soft parts of the animal or lifestyle. 

Fretter (1955) make a detallad des- 
cription of the anatomy and way of Ufe 
of an eulimid gastropod (identified as 
Balcis devians) parasite of Antedon bifida. 
According to Bouchet and Warén 
(1986) and judging from the figure of 
Fretter and Graham (1962, fig. 139), 
this species should probably be referred 



to C. collinsi. Subsequently, the same 
authors (Fretter and Graham, 1982) 
included a complete description of Vitre- 
olina collinsi within their serie on the 
prosobranch molluscs of Britain and 
Denmark. This description of V. collinsi 
fits well with the specimens found in 
Tenerife, except for some details regar- 
ding colour pattern, although this minor 
differences could be caused by the fixa- 
tive process. 

Bouchet and Warén (1986) erected 
the new genus Crinophtheiros to include 
some species of eulimids parasite of cri- 
noids. Up to date this genus includes C. 
comatulicola (Graff, 1875), parasite of 
Antedon mediterránea (Lamark) and C. 
giustii Gaglini, 1991, probable parasite of 
Leptopmetra phalangium (Müller) (see 
Gaglini, 1991), in the Mediterranean, and 
C. collinsi, parasite of Antedon bifida and C. 
junii, in the northeastern Atlantic, the last 
one only known from deep water of the 
Azores área (J. Templado com. per.). 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 



Our gratitude to Dr. Anders Warén 
(Swedish Museum of Natural History ) for 
his interesting comments and Identifica- 
tion of the specimens. To Dr. José Tem- 



plado (Museo Nacional de Ciencias Natu- 
rales) for the revisión of the manuscript. 
To Leopoldo Moro, author of the photo n° 
15, for his generous contribution. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Bouchet, P. and Warén, A., 1986. Revisión of 
the northeast Atlantic Bathyal and Abyssal 
Aclididae, Eulimidae, Epitonüdae (Mollusca, 
Gastropoda). Bollettino Malacologico, Supple- 
mento 2. 300-576. 

Engl, W., 1997a. New species of the family Eu- 
limidae from the Canary Islands. Part I: Des- 
cription of Sticteulima richteri n. sp. La Con- 
chiglia, 283: 44-47. 

Engl, W., 1997b. New species of the family Eu- 
limidae from the Canary Islands. Part II: Des- 
cription of Sticteulima wareni n. sp. La Con- 
chiglia, 285: 43-45. 

Engl, W., 1998. New species of the family Eu- 
limidae from the Canary Islands. Part 3: Des- 
cription of Fusceulima boscheineni n. sp. La 
Conchiglia, 289: 11-14,60. 

Fretter, V., 1955. Observations on Balcis de- 
vians (Monterosato) and Balcis alba (Da Costa). 
Proceeding ofthe Malacological Society ofLon- 
don, 31: 137-144. 



Fretter, V. and Graham, A., 1962. British Pro- 
sobranch Molluscs. Ray Society, London, 755 
pp. 

Fretter, V. and Graham, A., 1982. The pro- 
sobranch Mollusc of Britain and Denmark. 
Part 7- "Heterogastropoda" (Cerithiopsacea, 
Triforacea, Epitoniacea, Eulimacea). fhe Jour- 
nal of Molluscan Studies, Supplement 11: 360- 
435. 

Gaglini, A., 1991. Melanellide del Mediterrá- 
neo, III: II genere Crinophtheiros, C. comatuli- 
cola Graff, 1875 e C. giustii n. sp. Notiz. CISMA, 
13: 23-29. 

Lanseron, C. F., 1955 . Revisión of the New 
South Wales Eulimoid shells. The Australian 
Zoologist, 12, part 2: 83-107 

NORDSIECK, F. and GaRCÍA-T ALA VERA, F., 1979. 

Moluscos marinos de Canarias y Madera (Gas- 
tropoda). Aula de Cultura de Tenerife, 208 
pp. 



34 



Rodríguez ETAL.-. Eulimids parasiting the crinoid Antedon bifida in the Canary Islands 



Pallary, P., 1900. Coquilles Marines du litto- Sykes, E. R., 1903. Notes on some British Euli- 

ral du département d'Oran. Journal de Conchy- midae. Proceedings ofthe Malacological Society 

liologie, 48: 211-422. of hondón, 5:348-353. 

Rodríguez, M., 2000. Description of a new Eu- Warén, A., 1984. A generic revisión of the Fa- 

limid (Mollusca: Gastropoda) off the Canary mily Eulimidae. The Journal ofMolluscan Stu- 

Islands. Melanella lútea n. sp. La Conchiglia, dies, supplement 13: 96 pp. 

294-295: 82- 86. 

Rodríguez, M., Barquín, J. and Pérez-Dionis, 
G., 2001. Eulimid gastropods (Caenogastro- 
poda: Eulimidae) of the Canary Islands. Part 
I. Spedes parasiting sea urchins. Iberus, 19 (1): 
7-24. 



35 



© Sociedad Española de Malacología — : /¿^rwí, 19 (1): 37-48, 2001 



Updated and annotated checklist of the opisthobranch 
molluscs (excluding Thecosomata and Gymnosomata) from 
the Azores archipelago (North Adantic Ocean, Portugal)^ 

Lista comentada y actualizada de los moluscos opistobranquios 
(excepto los Thecosomata y Gymnosomata) del archipiélago de las 
Azores (Océano Adántico Norte, Portugal)^ 

Manuel Antonio Encarna^ao MALAQUIAS* 

Recibido el 15-IX-2000. Aceptado el 18-1-2001 

ABSTRACT 

The literature available on the opisthobranch molluscs of the Azores archipelago is revie- 
wed in this study. A critical discussion is done on some of the most recent papers concer- 
ning this subject. A summary of the opisthobranch species from the Azores is presented. 
The opisthobranch fauna (excluding the planctonic Thecosomata and Gymnosomata) com- 
prises 107 identified species distributed among six orders, Cephalaspidea s./.: 50, Anas- 
pidea: 5, Tylodinoidea: 2, Pleurobranchoidea: ó, Sacoglossa: 4 and Nudibranchio: 40. 

RESUMEN 

En el presente trabajo se ha hecho una revisión de la literatura existente sobre los molus- 
cos opistobranquios del archipiélago de las Azores. Son discutidos los trabajos más 
recientes en relación con esta materia. Se incluye una sinopsis de las especies de opisto- 
branquios de las Islas Azores . La fauna identificada (excluyendo las especies de los gru- 
pos plantónicos Thecosomata y Gymnosomata) comprende 107 especies que se distribu- 
yen en seis órdenes, Cephalaspidea s./.: 50, Anaspidea: 5, Tylodinoidea: 2, 
Pleurobranchoidea: 6, Sacoglossa: 4 and Nudibranchio: 40. 



KEY WORDS: Mollusca, Opisthobranchia, Azores, Atlantic Ocean, Portugal 
PALABRAS CLAVE: Mollusca, Opisthobranchia, Azores, Océano Atlántico, Portugal 



INTRODUCTION 

The first works concerning the zenberg and Fischer (1896), Locard 

Azorean opisthobranch molluscs are (1897) and Bergh (1899), based particu- 

those by Drouet (1858), Watson (1883; larly on material collected during some 

1886), Simroth (1888), Dautzenberg scientific expeditions carried out during 

(1889), RuSH (1891), Bergh (1892), the last century, 'Challenger', 'Princesse 

PiLSBRY (1895), Vayssiére (1896), Daut- Alice', 'L'Hirondelle' and 'Talismán'. 

' Contribution of the Instituto Portugués de Malacologia 

* Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Faculdade de Ciencias do Mar e do Ambiente, Universidade do Algarve, Campus 

de Gambetas, 8000 - 810 Faro, Portugal, tel. +351-289 800 900 (ext.7031), fax +351-289 818 353, email 

mmalaqui@ualg.pt 

37 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



Besides the description of new species, 
based on specimens captured in Azores, 
those studies given an important contri- 
bution to testacean opisthobranch taxo- 
nomy (Cephalaspidea s.l.) as well as to 
that of non-testacean forms of the orders 
Pleurobranchoidea and Nudibranchia 
from the archipelago. 

During the twentieth century, espe- 
cially in the second half, many works 
have contributed considerably to the 
knowledge of opisthobranch molluscs 
from Azores (Sykes, 1904; Nobre, 1924; 
Odhner, 1931; Eales, 1957, 1960; 
Marcus, 1967, 1970; Nordsieck, 1972; 
BoucHET, 1975; 1977; Nordsieck and 
Garcí a-Tal avera, 1979; Garcí a-Tal a- 
VERA, 1983; GOSLINER, 1990; 1994; 
Azevedo and Gofas, 1990; Azevedo, 
1991; Menezes, 1991; WiRTZ, 1992; 1995; 
1999; WiRTZ and Martins, 1993; 
Linden, 1994; 1995; Ortea, Valdés and 
Espinosa, 1994; Picton and Morro w, 
1994; Jensen, 1995; Moro, Ortea, B aca- 
llado, Valdés and Pérez-Sánchez, 
1995; Ortea, Valdés and García- 
Gómez, 1996a; Ortea, B acallado, 
Pérez-Sánchez and Valles, 1996b; 
Valdés and Ortea, 1996; Valdés, 
Ortea, Ávila and Ballesteros, 1996; 
Ávila and Azevedo, 1996; 1997; Ávila, 
Azevedo, Goncalves, Fontes and 
Cardigos, 1998; Morton, Britton and 
Martins, 1998; Ortea and Moro, 1999 
and Ávila, 2000). 

Very recently, the opisthobranch 
molluscs of the Azores were the goal of 
MiKKELSEN (1995) and Wirtz (1998). 
MiKKELSEN (1995) given the account of 
cephalaspidean species of the archipe- 
lago and reported the occurrence of 
forty-six species. This author described 
shells and provided anatomical details 
for several species, possible synonymies 
and misidentifications, and also discus- 
sed zoogeographical affinities. Wirtz 
(1998) presented an updated summary 
of the opisthobranch gastropods (except 
the Cephalaspidea s.l.), with a record of 
sixteen new species. 

The detailed analysis of these recent 
contributions shows that several species 
previously recorded from the Azores 
were not considered in Mikkelsen 



(1995) and Wirtz (1998). The Hst of 
opisthobranch molluscs occurring in the 
Azores archipelago is completed in the 
present study by means of a comprehen- 
sive literature review. 



RESULTS 

Based on the analysis of the known 
literature, it can be noted that two 
species, Philine rugulosa Dautzenberg 
and Fischer, 1896 and Philine intricata 
Monterosato, 1884 were excluded from 
Mikkelsen's inventory of the azorean 
cephalaspids and twenty-two species 
previously mentioned for the coasts of 
the Azores islands, were not included in 
Wirtz (1998): four Pleurobranchoidea, 
one Sacoglossa and seventeen Nudi- 
branchia (see species with an asterisk in 
the appendix). Four species previously 
mentioned, were referred to by Wirtz as 
first references for the archipelago. A 
complete taxonomic list of the opistho- 
branch species from the Azores is pre- 
sented in an appendix. 



DISCUSSION 

Previous studies (Bergh, 1892, 1899; 
Bouchet, 1977; Azevedo and Gofas, 
1990; Azevedo, 1991; Linden, 1994; 
Ortea et al. 1996a; Valdés and Ortea, 
1996; Ávila and Azevedo, 1997 and 
Morton et al. 1998), mentioned opist- 
hobranch species for the Azores not 
included in Wirtz (1998) account. Even 
one genus {Thorybopus) and five species 
(P. morosus, K. atlanticus, H. goslineri, P. 
stomasciita, and T. lophatus) for which the 
Azores is the type-locality were not con- 
sidered. 

On the the contrary Wirtz (1998) 
claimed first records of species already 
mentioned in the literature. This was the 
case of Fionna pinnata, cited by Bergh 
(1892: 6) as Piona marina, Geitodoris 
planata, recorded by Azevedo and 
Gofas (1990: 86), Flabellina pedata, cited 
by GosLiNER (1994) and Marionia blainvi- 
llea, recorded by the author himself 
(Wirtz, 1995: 182). 



38 



MalaquiaS: Checklist of the opisthobranch moUuscs from the Azores 



Among the species of opistho- 
branchs recorded from the Azores, eight 
have not been identified at species level. 
GOSLINER (1990) mentioned the occu- 
rrence of Runcina sp. noting that, with 
the exception of the body coloration, the 
specimens are anatomically similar to 
the species R. coronata, which leads the 
author to the hypothesis that the 
studied specimens may be conspecific 
with this species. However, given the 
present lack of a revisión of this group 
showing the intra-specifíc and inter-spe- 
cific variation among different geograp- 
hic regions, the author decided not to 
attribute the specimens to any particular 
species. Although the anterior situation 
has not yet been altered, Ortea and 
Moro (1999) describe the species 
Runcina hidalgoensis based on specimens 
which were collected in the Cañarles 
and Azores, similar to those studied by 
GOSLINER (1990). 

BouCHET (1977) refered to an unde- 
termined species of the genus Platydoris 
externally similar to Platydoris stomas- 
cuta, but with marked differences in the 
digestive and genital organs and also to 
other two specimens of the family Dori- 
didae. After the anatomical study of 
these two dorids, the author concludes 
that Identification is difficult considering 
the fact that these are the only speci- 
mens, collected at great depth (more 
than 1000 m) and that the external morp- 
hological characteristics may have suffe- 
red damage along the sampling proce- 
dures (Bouchet 1977: 42-43 and 46-48). 

WiRTZ (1998) based solely on the 
external morphology, distinguished four 
undetermined species from the Azores 



(one sacoglossan and three nudi- 
branchs). However, the assumption that 
specimens with small external morpho- 
logical differences belong to different 
species can lead to misconsiderations, 
once the biological species concept 
admits the existence of intra-specific 
variability. E.g. specimens of the genus 
Tambja were regarded as two different 
species: Tambja sp. (Wirtz 1998: pl. 5, 
fig.6, p. 14) and Tambja ceutae (Wirtz 
1998: pl. 5, fig.5, pag.l4). Despite the 
chromatic differences between speci- 
mens observed by Wirtz (1998) a more 
detailed study of the morphology and 
coloration of the mantle tubercles and 
radula (Cervera and Malaquias, unpu- 
blished data), revealed the existence of 
two distinct chromatic forms for Tambja 
ceutae and not two different species as 
suggested by Wirtz. 

The opisthobranch molluscs of the 
Azores (excluding the planctonic Theco- 
somata and Gymnosomata) comprise a 
total of 107 identified species distribu- 
ted as follows: Cephalaspidea s.l.: 50, 
Anaspidea: 5, Tylodinoidea: 2, Pleuro- 
branchoidea: 6, Sacoglossa: 4 and Nudi- 
branchia: 40. 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

I wish to thank my friends and coUe- 
agues Alexandra Marques, Jeff Wallace, 
Eduardo Esteves and Anxo Conde (Uni- 
versidade do Algarve), Ilidio Félix- 
Alves (Instituto Portugués de Malacolo- 
gia) and Sergio Ávila (Universidade dos 
Agores), for their su 
improved this paper. 



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39 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



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41 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 

Appendix - Synopsis of the opisthobranch moUuscs from the Azores 
Apéndice — Sinopsis de los moluscos opistobranquios de las Azores 

Order CEPHALASPIDEA s./. Fischer, 1 883 
Family Ringiculidae Meeck, 1 862 

Ringicula blanchardi Dautzenberg and Fischer, 1 896 

DaUTZENBERG AND FlSCHER (1896, 1897), MlKKELSEN (1995). 

Ringicula semistriata Orbigny, 1 853 

NORDSIECK (1972), MlKKELSEN (1995). 
Family Acteonidae D'Orbigny, 1 835 

Acteon incisus Dalí, 1881 

Dautzenberg and Fisher (1 896), Mikkelsen (1 995). 

Acteon monterosatoi Dautzenberg, 1 889 

Dautzenberg (1889), Dautzenberg and Fisher (1896, 1897), Nordsieck 
[1972 as Acteon {Metacteon)], MlKKELSEN (1995). 

Acteonina amabilis (Watson, 1 883) 

Watson (1883, 1886 in both works as Acteon], Dautzenberg (1889 as 
Acteon], Dautzenberg and Fisher (1897 as Acteon], Nordsieck [1972 as 
Callostracon [Ovacteonina]], MlKKELSEN (1995). 

Acteonina chariis (Watson, 1883) 

Watson (1883, 1886 in both works as Acteon), Dautzenberg (1889 as 
Acteon], Dautzenberg and Fisher (1897 as Acteon [Acteonina]], Nordsieck 
[1972 as Callostracon [Ovacteonina]], MlKKElsen (1995). 

Crenilabium exilis (Jeffreys, 1 870) 

Dautzenberg (1 889 as Acteon], Dautzenberg and Fisher (1 896, 1 897 in both 
works as Acteon [Lisacteon]], Watson (1 886 as Acteon], Nordsieck (1972 as 
Crenilabrum], MlKKELSEN (1995). 

Inopinodon azoricus (Locard, 1 897) 

Locard (1897), BoucHET (1975), Mikkelsen (1995). 

^Japonacteon pusillus (Forbes, 1 843) 

Bouchet (1975), Mikkelsen (1995). 

Liocarenus ^globulinus (Forbes, 1 843) 

Watson (1 886 as Acteon]. The identification made by Watson was based on 
a shell fragment collected at 1828 m, Dautzenberg (1889 as Acteon], Nord- 
sieck (1972), Mikkelsen (1995). 

Mysouffa turritus (Watson, 1 886) 

Bouchet (1975), Dautzenberg and Fisher (1896 as Acteon grimaldii], Mikkel- 
sen (1995). 

Ovulactaeon meeki Dalí, 1 889 

Nordsieck (1972), Mikkelsen (1995). 
Family Hydatinidae Pilsbry, 1 893 

Hydatina physis (Gmelin, 1 794) 
WiRTZ(1999) 

Micromelo undatus (Bruguiére, 1792) 

Nordsieck (1972), García-Talavera (1983), Mikkelsen (1995). 
Family Diaphanidae Odhner, 1914 ' 

Diaphana seguenzae (Watson, 1 886) 

Watson (1886), Dautzenberg (1889 as Amphisphyra], Nordsieck (1972 as 
Toledonia seguenzae], Mikkelsen (1995). 
Family Retusidae Thiele, 1926 

Pyrunculus ovatus (Jeffreys, 1 870) 

Bouchet (1975), Mikkelsen (1995). 



42 



MaLAQUIAS: Checklist of the opisthobranch moUuscs from the Azores 



Relichna simplex (Locard, 1 897) 

BOUCHET (1975), MlKKELSEN (1995). 
Retusa leuca (Watson, 1883) 

Watson (1883, 1886 in both works as Utriculus leucus), Dautzenberg (1889 

as Tornatina], NORDSIECK (1972), MlKKELSEN (1995). 
Retusa truncatula (Bruguiére, 1 792) 

Dautzenberg (1889 as Tornatina truncatula and also as Tornatina mariei 

n.sp.), NORDSIECK [1972 as Retusa (Coleophysis) mariei], NORDSIECK AND 

GarcíA-Taiavera (1979 as Retusa mariae], MlKKELSEN (1995), MORTON ET AL. 

(1998), ÁVILA £7 AL (1998), ÁvilA (2000). 
Retusa multiquadrata Oberling, 1 970 

MlKKELSEN (1995), MORTON ET AL. (1998), ÁviLA ET AL. (1998). 
Cylichnina umbilicata (Montagu, 1 803) 

ÁVILA AND AZEVEDO (1 996), ÁviLA ET AL. (1 998,), ÁviLA (2000). 
Family Cylichnidae Rudman, 1978 

Acteocina protracta (Dautzenberg, 1 889) 

Dautzenberg (1889 as Tornatina), Dautzenberg and Fischer (1896, 1897 

both works as Tornatina), MlKKELSEN (1995). 
"Bulla" semilaevis Seguenza, 1 879 

Watson (1886 as Bulla), Dautzenberg (1889 as Bulla guernei and also as 

Bulla semilaevis), DAUTZENBERG AND FlSCHER (1896, 1897 both works as Bulla 

guernei), NORDSIECK [1972 as Bulla (Leucophysena)], MlKKELSEN (1995). 
Cylichna alba (Brown, 1 827) 

Watson (1886), Sykes (1904), Nordsieck (1972), Mikkelsen (1995), Ávila 

ETAL. (1998). 
Cylichna chevreuxi Dautenberg, 1 889 

Dautzenberg (1889), Dautzenberg and Fischer (1896, 1897), Nordsieck 

(1972), MlKKELSEN (1995). 

Cylichna cylindracea (Pennant, 1 777) 

Pilsbry (1895), Sykes (1904), Nordsieck (1972), Mikkelsen (1995), Ávila et 
AL. (1998), ÁVILA (2000). 

Cylichna oliviformis (Watson, 1 883) 

Watson (1 883, 1 886 ¡n both works os Utriculus), Dautzenberg (1 889 as Tor- 
natina), Dautzenberg and Fischer (1896, 1897 ¡n both works as Utriculus), 
Nordsieck (1972 as Cylichnium), Mikkelsen (1995). 

Cy//c/ina ovata Jeffreys, 1871 

Watson (1886), Dautzenberg (1889), Dautzenberg and Fischer (1896, 
1897), Locard (1897), Mikkelsen (1995). 

Cylichna piettei Dautzenberg and Fisher, 1 896 

Dautzenberg and Fischer (1 896, 1 897), Mikkelsen (1995). 

Mamillocylichna richardi Dautzenberg, 1 889 

Dautzenberg (1 889 as Cylichna hchardí), Dautzenberg and Fischer (1 897 as 
Cylichna), NoRDSiECK (1972), Mikkelsen (1995). 

Meloscaphander imperceptus Bouchet, 1 975 
BoucHET (1975), Mikkelsen (1995). 

Roxania monterosatoi Dautzenberg and Fischer, 1 896 

Dautzenberg AND Fischer (1896, 1897), Mikkelsen (1995). 

Scaphander gracilis Watson, 1883 

Watson (1883, 1886), Dautzenberg (1889), Dautzenberg and Fischer 
(1896, 1897), Locard (1897), Nordsieck (1972), Bouchet (1975), Mikkel- 
sen (1995). 



43 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



Scaphander nobilis Verrill, 1 884 

BOUCHET (1975), MlKKELSEN (1995). 
Scaphander punctostriatus (Migheis, 1 841 ) 

Watson (1886), Dautzenberg (1889), Dautzenberg and Fischer (1896, 

1897), LocARD (1897), Nordsieck (1972), Bouchet (1975), Mikkelsen 

(1995). 
Family Philinidae Gray, 1 850 

Philine approximans Dautzenberg and Fischer, 1 896 

Dautzenberg AND Fischer (1896, 1897), Bouchet (1975), Mikkelsen (1995). 
Philine azorica Bouchet, 1 975 

Bouchet (1975), Mikkelsen (1995). 
Philine ?lima Brown, 1 827 

Dautzenberg (1889), Nordsieck (1972), Mikkelsen (1995). 
Philine monilifera Bouchet, 1 975 

Bouchet (1975), Mikkelsen (1995), Linden (1995 as P. cf. monilifera). 
Philine quadrafa (S. Wood, 1 839) 

Watson (1886), Dautzenberg (1889), Nordsieck [1972 as ¿aona (Ossia- 

nia]], Mikkelsen (1995); Linden (1995), Ávila etal. (1998), Áviia (2000). 
Philine rugulosa Dautzenberg and Fischer, 1 896 

Dautzenberg and Fischer (1 896). 
Philine intricata Monterosato, 1 884 

Linden (1994; 1995). 
Philine calva Linden, 1 995 

Linden (1995) 
Philine condensa Linden, 1 995 

Linden (1995) 
Family Runcinidae H. and Adams, 1 854 
Runcina adhatica Thompson, 1 980 

Gosuner (1990), Mikkelsen (1995), Ávila (2000). 
Runcina coronata (Quatrefages, 1 844) 

Gosuner (1990), Mikkelsen (1995), Ávila (2000). All this authors refer to this 

species as R. aurata García, López, Luque and Cervera, 1986 that is a júnior 

synonym of R. coronata. For a discussion of this subject see Cervera ET al. 

(1991: 200-201). 
Runcina hidalgoensis Ortea and Moro, 1 999 

Gosuner (1990), Mikkelsen (1995), Ávila (2000) ai! this authors as Runcina 

sp.. Ortea and Moro (1999: 67), Sao Miguel, Azores. 
Family Bullidae Lamarck, 1801 

Bulla pinguicula Watson, 1 886 

Watson (1886), Dautzenberg (1889), Nordsieck (1972 as Roxania], Mikkel- 
sen (1995). 
6u//a striata Bruguiére, 1 792 

Drouét (1858), Dautzenberg (1889), Rush (1891), Nordsieck (1972), 

García-Talavera (1983), Mikkelsen (1995), Ávila etal. (1998), Ávi^ (2000). 
Family Haminoeidae Pilsbry, 1895 

Afys macandrewii E. A. Smith, 1 872 

Marcus (1970), Nordsieck [1972 as Atys [Limulatys]], García-Talavera 
(1983), Mikkelsen (1995), Ávila (2000). 
Haminoea hydatis (Linné, 1758) 

García-Talavera (1983), Mikkelsen (1995), Ávila et al. (1998 as H. cf 
/lyc/of/s), Ávila (2000). 



44 



MalaQUIAS: Checklist of the opisthobranch molluscs from the Azores 



Haminoea orteai Talavera, Murillo and Templado, 1 987 

MlKKELSEN (1995), MORTON ET AL. (1998), ÁviLA ET AL. (1998), ÁviLA (2000). 

Order ANASPIDEA Fischer, 1 883 
Family Akeridae Pilsbry, 1 893 
Akera bullata Müller, 1 776 

NoBRE (1924), ÁVILA (2000). 
Family Aplysiidae, Lamarck, 1 809 

Aplysia párvula Guilding in Mórch, 1 863 

Eales (1960), WiRTZ (1998), Ávila etal. (1998). 
Aplysia depilans Gmelin, 1 791 

AzEVEDO AND GoFAS (1990 OS Aplysia sp), WiRTZ (1998), Ávila etal. (1998), 
ÁVILA (2000). 
Aplysia fasciata Poiret, 1 789 

WiRTZ AND Martins (1993), Ávila and Azevedo (1997), Wirtz (1998), Ávila 
(2000). 
Aplysia punctata Cuvier, 1 803 

Simroth (1888), Ávila and Azevedo (1997), Wirtz (1998), Morton et al. 
(1998), Ávila etal. (1998), Ávila (2000). 
Order TYLODINOIDEA Gray, 1 847 
Family Tylodinidae Gray, 1 847 

Tylodina perversa (Gmelin, 1 791 ) 

Dautzenberg (1889 as Tylodina citrina), WlRTZ (1998), ÁviLA ET AL. (1998), 
ÁVILA (2000). 
Family Umbraculidoe Dalí, 1 889 

Umbraculum umbraculum (Lightfoot, 1 876) 

Menezes (1991), ÁVILA ETAL. (1998), ÁVILA (2000). 
Order PLEUROBRANCHOIDEA Férussoc, 1 822 
Family Pleurobranchidae Férussoc, 1 822 

Pleurobranchus testudinarius Controine, 1 836 

Wirtz and Martins (1993), Wirtz (1992, 1998), Ávila et al (1998), Ávila 
(2000). 
*Pleurobranchaea morosa (Bergh, 1 892) 

Bergh (1892: 28 os Pleurobranchillus morosus). Type-locality chonnel Pico- 
Foiol, 130 m depth. 
*Pleurobranchaea meckelli Bloinville, 1 825 

Bergh (1899: 26). NeorTerceiro islond, 599m depth. 
*Berthella plumula (Montogu, 1 803) 

Bergh (1892: 19, 1899: 27 os Pleurobranchus plumula). Channel Pico-Foiol, 
1 30 m depth. 
*Berthella aurantiaca (Risso, 1818) 

Bergh (1892: 26 os Pleurobranchus aurantiacus). Channel Pico-Foiol, 130 m 
depth. 
Berthellina edwardsi (Voyssiére, 1 896) 

Vayssiére (1896: 1902), Azevedo and Gofas (1990 as Berthellina sp.), 
Wirtz (1998), Ávila etal. (1998), Ávi^ (2000). 
Order SACOGLOSSA Ihering, 1 876 

Family Plokobronchidoe Groy, 1 840 
Elysia ornato (Swoinson, 1 840) 

WlRTZ (1995, 1998), Ávila etal. (1998), Áviia (2000). 
* Elysia viridis (Montogu, 1 804) 

Azevedo (1991 : 27), Ávila (2000). Sonto Morio island. 



45 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



Family Hermaeidae H. and A. Adams, 1854 
Aplysiopsis formosa Pruvot-Fol, 1953 

JENSEN (1995), WiRTZ (1998); Ortea, et al. (1998), Ávila (2000). 
Family Limapontiidae Gray, 1 847 
Placida verticillata Ortea, 1 981 

ÁVILA (2000). 
Placida sp. 

(seeWiRTZ, 1998: 3), Ávila El A¿. (1998). 
Order NUDIBRANCHIA Blainville, 1814 

Family Onchidorididae Alder and Hancock, 1 845 
Diaphorodons luteocincta (M. Sars, 1 870) 

WiRTZ AND Martins (1993), WiRTZ (1998), Ávila El AL (1998), Ávila (2000). 
Family Triophidae Odhner, 1941 

Kaloplocamus ramosus (Cantraine, 1 835) 

Wirtz (1998), ÁVILA ETAL. (1998), ÁVILA (2000). 
*Kaloplocamus atlánticas (Bergh, 1 892) 

Bergh (1892: 12, 1899: 19 as Euplocamus atlánticas), Nordsieck (1972 as 

Kaloplocamus ramosus f. atlanticus). Type-locality channel Pico-Faial, 130 m 

depth. 
Family Polyceridae Alder and Hancock, 1 845 

Tambja ceutae García-Gómez and Ortea, 1 988 

WiRTZ AND Martins (1993), Ortea et al. (199ób), Wirtz (1995 as Tambja 

ceutae and also as Roboastra europea), Wirtz (1998 as Tambja ceutae and 

as Tambja sp.), ÁviLA ET AL. (1998) and Ávila (2000) as Tambja ceutae and as 

Tambja sp.. 
Limada clavigera (Müller, 1 776) 

Wirtz (1998), Ortea ETAL (199ób), Ávila et al (1998), Ávila (2000). 
Polycera elegans (Bergh, 1 894) 

Wirtz and Martins (1993), V/irtz (1998), Ortea et al (199ób), Ávila et al. 

(1998), Ávila (2000). 
Polycera quadrilineata (Müller, 1 776) 

Wirtz (1998), Ortea et al. (1996b), Morton et al (1998), Ávila et al. 

(1998), Ávi^ (2000). 
Polyceratidae indet. 

(see Wirtz, 1998: 13). 
Family Chromodorididae Bergh, 1 891 

Chromodoris br/to; Ortea and Pérez, 1983 

(see GosuNER, 1990 [as C. clenchi]: 148, Ortea et al., 1994 and Wirtz, 

1998: 8 for a discussion on this species), WiRTZ (1994; 1995), Ávila et al. 

(1998), Ávi^ (1999). 
Chromodoris purpurea (Risso in Guérin, 1 83 1 ) 

GosLiNER (1990), Wirtz (1994; 1995; 1998), Morton et al. (1998), Ávi^ et 

al. (1998), Ávila (2000). 
Chromodoris krohni (Vérany, 1 846) 

Ávila etal (1998), Ávila (2000). 
*Chromodoris goslineri Ortea and Valdés, 1 996 

Ortea etal (199óa: 143). Type-locality Santa Mario island. 
Hypselodoris picta (Schuitz in Philippi, 1836). 

This species was recorded for the first time from Azores by Bergh (1 899: 7) as 

Chromodoris cantrainei. GosuNER (1990: 155) recorded to it as H. webbi and 

Ortea et al. (199óa: 56 as H. picta azorica) and WlRTZ (1994 os H. webbi; 

1998: 8 as H. picta azorica). Ávila etal (1998), Ávila (2000). 



46 



MalaQUIAS: Checklist of the opisthobranch molluscs from the Azores 



Hypselodoris fontandraui (Pruvot-Fol, 1951) 

WiRTZ (1995, 1998), Ávila EiAt. (1998), Ávila (2000). 
Hypselodoris midatlantica Gos\\ner, 1990 

(see GOSLINER, 1990: 152), Ortea et AL, 1996a: 32 and WlRTZ, 1998: 9 for 

a discussion on this species). Ávila et al (1998: 504), Ávila (2000). This 

species is usually mentioned under the ñame H. tricolor. 
Glossodoris edmundsi Cervera, García-Gómez and Ortea, 1 989 

GosLiNER (1990), WiRTZ (1995, 1998), Áviu et al (1998), Ávila (2000). 
Family Aldisidae Odhner, 1 939 

* Aldisa zetlandica (Alder and Hancock, 1 854) 

Bergh (1899: 8), Nordsieck (1972), Picton and Morrow (1994). Azores 

38° 30' 30" N-38° 31' N and 29° 09' 30" W-29° 10' 30" W, 845 m depth. 
Aldisa smaragdina Ortea, Pérez and Llera, 1 982 

WiRTZ (1998), Ávila et al (1998: 504), Ávila (2000). S. Ávila, cited this 

species as A. binotata according to the synonymy proposed by Millen and 

Gosliner (1985). 
Family Dorididae Rafinesque, 1815 
*Doris ocelligera (Bergh, 1881) 

Azevedo and Gofas (1990: 86), Ávila et al (1998: 504), Ávila (2000). 

Azores, Flores island. 
*Thorybopus lophatus Bouchet, 1 977 

BouCHET (1977: 43). Azores type-locality 37° 37' N-25° 32' W, 395-465 m 

depth. 
*Dorididae sp.l 

Bouchet (1977). See Bouchet (1977: 46) for a discussion on this species. 

Azores 37° 57' N-25° 33' W, 1 070-1 235 m depth. 
*Dorididae sp.2 

Bouchet (1977). See Bouchet (1977: 47) for a discussion on this species. 

Azores 37° 57' N-25° 33' W, 330 m depth. 
Family Discodorididae Bergh, 1891 

Discodoris atromaculata (Bergh, 1 880) 

WlRTZ AND Martins (1993), Wirtz (1994; 1995, 1998), Morton et al (1998 

as Peltodoris atron)aculata) , ÁviLA ET AL (1998), ÁviLA (2000). 
*Discodoris tristis Bergh, 1 892 

Bergh (1899: 1 1). Ponto Delgada, Sao Miguel island, 98 m depth. 
*Discodoris cf. millegrana (Alder and Hancock, 1 854) 

Ávila and Azevedo (1997: 328), Ávila (2000: appendix), Azores, Formigas 

Islets. According to Ávila (personal communication) this was a misidentification 

with an unknown species. 
Geitodoris planata (Alder and Hancock, 1 846) 

Azevedo and Gofas (1990 as Geitodoris cf. planata], Wirtz (1998), Ávila et 

A¿ (1998), ÁVILA (2000). 
Family Kentrodorididae Bergh, 1 892 

*Jorunna tomentosa (Cuvier, 1 804) 

Morton etal (1998: 151). 
Family Platydorididae Bergh, 1891 
Platydoris argo (Linné, 1767) 

Bergh (1899), Wirtz and Martins (1993), Wirtz (1994; 1998), Ávila et al 

(1998), ÁVILA (2000). 
*Platydoris stomascuta Bouchet, 1 977 

Bouchet (1977: 35). Azores 37° 43' N-29° 04' W, 370-450 m depth. 



47 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



*Platydoris sp. 

BouCHET (1977). See Bouchet (1977: 42) for a discussion on this species. 
Azores 37° 39' N-25° 35' W, 330 m depth. 
Taringa sp. 

(seeWiRTZ, 1998: 12). 
Family Phyllidiidae Rafinesque, 1815 

*Phyll¡diopsis berghi Vayssiére, 1 902 

Bouchet [1977: 48 cited this species as P. gynenopla but according to ValdÉS 
AND Ortea (1996: 3), it is a synonym of P. berghi], Valdés AND Ortea (1996). 
Azores 38° 22' -28° 48W, 525-600 m depth. 
*Ret¡cul¡dia gofasi Valdés and Ortea, 1 996 

Valdés and Ortea (1996: 7). Azores 38° 30' 00' N-27° 14' 05" W, 75-106 
m depth. 
Family Dendrodorididae O'Donoghue, 1924 
*Dendrodoris limbata (Cuvier, 1 804) 

Bergh (1892: 16 as Doriopsis limbata). Channel Pico-Faial, 130 m depth. 
Dendrodoris herytra Valdés and Ortea, 1 996 

Odhner (1931 as D. grandiflora], Valdés et al (1996), Wirtz (1995 as Den- 
drodoris n.sp., 1998), Ávila et al (1998), Ávila (2000). 
Family Tritoniidae Lamarck, 1 809 

*Tritonia (Tritonidoxaj griegi Odhner, 1922 

Bouchet (1977: 53). Azores 47° 46' N - 8° 04' W, 820-940 m depth. 
Marionia blainvillea (Risso, 1818) 

Wirtz (1995, 1998), Ávila et al (1998), Ávila (2000). 
Family Scyllaeidae Fischer, 1 883 
Scyllaea pelágica Linné, 1 758 

Simroth (1888), Morton et al (1998), Ávila et al (1998), Ávila (2000). 
Family Phylliroidae Férussac, 1 821 

Phylliroe cf. atlántica Bergh, 1 871 
Wirtz (1998). 
Family Dotoidae Gray, 1 853 

Doto floridicola Simroth, 1888 

Simroth (1888), Wirtz (1998), Ávi^ et al (1998), Ávila (2000). 
Family Flabellinidae Bergh, 1 889 

Flabellina pedata (Montagu, 1815) 

Gosliner (1994), Wirtz (1998), Ávila et al (1998), Ávila (2000). 
Family Facelinidae Bergh, 1889 

Caloría elegans (Alder and Hancock, 1 845) 

Moro et al (1995), Wirtz (1998), Ávila et al (1998), Ávila (2000). 
Family Aeolidiidae D'Orbigny, 1 834 

* Aeolidiella sanguínea (Norman, 1 877) 

Morton etal (1998: 79), Ávila (2000). 
Spurilla neapolitana Delle Chiaje, 1 823 

Simroth (1888) and Wirtz (1998). Cited by both authors as S. sargassicola. 
Family Glaucidae Menke, 1828 

Glaucus atlánticas Forster, 1 777 

Simroth (1888), Bergh (1899), Wirtz (1998). 
Family Fionidae Alder and Hancock, 1 855 
Fiona pinnata Eschscholtz, 1 83 1 

Bergh (1892 as Fiona rriañna], Wirtz (1998), Morton etal (1998), Ávila et 
al (1998), Ávi^ (2000). 



48 



© Sociedad Española de Malacología 



Iberus, 19 (1): 49-52, 2001 



A new species of Alvania (MoUusca, Rissoidae) from 
Annobón (Gulf of Guinea, West África) 

Una nueva especie de Alvania (MoUusca, Rissoidae) de Annobón 
(Golfo de Guinea, África occidental) 



Emilio ROLÁN^ 



Recibido el 21-XII-2000. Aceptado ¿8-11-2001 



ABSTRACT 

Alvania gascoignei spec. nov. from Annobón is described as new for science. It is compa- 
red with other species of this genus in eastern Atlantic. 

RESUMEN 

Se describe una especie nueva para la ciencia, Alvania gascoignei spec. nov., proce- 
dente de Annobón y se compara con otras del mismo género del Atlántico oriental. 



KEY WORDS: Alvania, Rissoidae, new species, Annobón, Guinea Equatorial. 
PALABRAS CLAVE: Alvania, Rissoidae, nueva especia, Annobón, Guinea Ecuatorial. 



INTRODUCTION 

The genus Alvania Risso, 1826 is one 
of most numerous in species within the 
Rissoidae of the Eastern Atlantic. So, 
descriptions of species of this genus are 
present in a high number of publica- 
tions. Gofas and Warén (1982) showed 
the genus in the Iberian and Moroccan 
coast. In the Mediterranean, this genus 
has been mainly studied by Italian 
malacologist and a compendium of 
colour photographs of all of them can be 
seen in Gianuzzi-Savelli, Pusateri, 
Palmeri and Ebreo (1996). A recent 
revisión of the West African species of 
Alvania was included in Gofas (1999). In 
the other hand, Moolenbeek and 
HoENSELAAR (1989) and Hoenselaar 
AND GouD (1998) dealt the genus in the 
eastern Atlantic archipelagos, and 
BoucHET AND Warén (1993) studied the 



bathyal and abyssal species of the nort- 
hern Atlantic. 

Annobón is the most southestern 
island in the Gulf of Guinea, about 200 
kms at Southwest of Sao Tomé. The 
marine molluscan fauna of Sao Tomé 
and Principe has been studied by Fer- 
NANDES AND RolAn (1993). Few Infor- 
mation exists on the Annobón molluscan 
fauna (Alvarado and Alvarez, 1964). 

An unknown species of this genus 
was found in sediment obtained during 
the Annobón 2000 Expedition and is 
described in the present work. 

Abbreviations: 
MNCN Museo Nacional de Ciencias 

Naturales, Madrid 
MNHN Muséum National d'Histoire 

Naturelle, Paris 



C/Cánovas del Castillo 22, 36202 Vigo, Spain E-mail: emiliorolan@inicia.es 



49 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



RESULTS 



Family Rissoidae Gray, 1847 
Genus Alvania Risso, 1826 

Alvania gascoignei spec. nov. 

Type material: Holotype (Fig. 1) and 1 paratype in the MNCN; one paratype (Fig. 2) in MNHN; 

six more in CER. All from type locality. 

Other material examined: 1 shell, 4 juveniles and 16 fragments. 

Etymology: The specific ñame is after Angus Gascoigne, an English naturalist living in Sao Tomé, 

who participated and played an important role in the organization of the Annobón 2000 Expedition. 

Type locality: San Antonio de Palé, Annobón, Guinea Equatorial. Obtained in sediment from 10- 

15 m depth. 



Description: Shell (Figs. 1, 2) modera- 
tely solid, ovate-conical, dirty white in 
colour. Protoconch (Fig. 3) somewhat 
raore that 1 convex whorl, sculptured by 
seven irregularly undulating fine spiral 
threads. Teleoconch of about 4 convex 
whorls, sculptured with axial ribs and 
narrower spiral cords and a well defined 
suture. Axial ribs almost ortocline, sepa- 
rated by wider interspaces, which are 
more evident subsuturally and almost 
disappear on the suture. Five spiral cords 
on the first whorl, 9-10 on the penulti- 
mate and about 18 on the last one, with 
approximately equal interspaces. Aper- 
ture ovoid with a continuous peristome 
lacking any infernal tooth. The externa! 
border of the aperture is undulating due 
the end of the spiral cords. The micros- 
culpture can be observed with high mag- 
nification (Figs. 4-5), showing a great 
quantity of small pits on the spiral cords 
and 4-7 spiral nodulous fillets in the 
interspaces. Umbilicus absent. 

Dhnensions: the holotype is 2.7 x 1.5 
mm. 

Distribution: Only known from the 
type locality. 

Discussion: Alvania gascoignei spec. nov. 
is different from most of the European and 
West Af rican species because of its nume- 



rous spiral cords. Related species with 
similar profile and a protoconch with a 
similar sculpture are, for example, A. sub- 
soluta (Aradas, 1847), A. párvula (Jeffreys, 
1884), A. testae (Aradas and Maggiore, 
1844), A. tomentosa (Pallary in Montero- 
sato, 1920) and A. imperspicua (Pallary in 
Monterosato, 1920) (in the Mediterranean) 
and A. africana Gofas, 1999, A. coseli Gofas, 
1999, (in West África). Other species of the 
genus have a quite similar number of spiral 
cords, but are different in profile and pro- 
toconch, as A. beanii (Hanley in Thorpe, 
1844), A. láctea (Michaud, 1832), A. punc- 
tura (Montagu, 1803), A. regina Gofas, 1999, 
or A. zylensis Gofas and Warén, 1982. 

Due to its high number of spiral cords, 
A. gascoignei spec. nov. shows affinity to 
some species of the genus Onoba H. and 
A. Adams, 1852, but its sculpture is more 
prominent and the external enlargement 
of the aperture is different from that of 
most of the species of this genus. In the 
other hand, this species shows affinity with 
the genus Manzonia Brusina, 1870 in some 
characters (shape and microsculpture). 

This species has not been found in 
the many samples made by several 
collectors on the island of Sao Tomé. 
Thus, it can provisionally be considered 
to be endemic to the island of Annobón. 



(Right page) Figures 1-5. Alvania gascoignei spec. nov. 1: holotype, 2.7 mm, San Antonio de Palé, 
Annobón (MNCN); 2: paratype, 2.7 mm, Annobón (MNHN); 3: protoconch, paratype 
(MNCN); 4, 5: microsculpture of the holotype. 

(Página derecha) Figuras 1-5. Alvania gascoignei spec. nov. 1: holotipo, 2,7 mm, San Antonio de Palé, 
Annobón (MNCN); 2: paratipo, 2,7 mm, Annobón (MNHN); 3: protoconcha, paratipo (MNCN); 4, 
5: microescultura del holotipo. 



50 



ROLÁN: A new species o( Alvania from Annobón (West África) 




51 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 



Thanks are due to Carlos Principe, 
Concejal de Cultura del Concello de 
Vigo for his help in supporting the 
Annobon 2000 Expedition, and to the 
friends who accompanied me during 
the fieldwork (Angus Gascoigne, Patxi 
Heras, Marta Infante, Crisantos Obama, 
Jaime Pérez del Val, Jon Segurado and 



Ita). To Arturo Nenas, Delegado de 
Pesca y Medio Ambiente oí Annobón, 
who helped me in the collecting. The 
authorities oí Sao Tomé and Annobón 
who collaborated in our trip. 

This work was partially supported 
by the project of the XUNTA DE 
GALICIA PGIDT00PXI30121PR. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Alv ARADO, R. AND Alvarez, ]., 1964. Resulta- 
dos de la expedición Peris- Alvarez a la isla 
de Annobón. VIII. Algunos invertebrados 
marinos. Boletín de la Real Sociedad Española 
de Historia Natural (Biología), 62: 265-282. 

BoucHET, P. AND Warén, A., 1993. Revisión of 
the Northeast Atlantic bathyal and abyssal 
Mesogastropoda. Bollettiiio Malacologico, supl. 
3: 579-840. 

Fernandes, F. and Rolan, E., 1993. Moluscos 
marinos de Sao Tomé y Principe: actualiza- 
ción bibliográfica y nuevas aportaciones. Ibe- 
rus, 11 (1): 31-47. 

Giannuzzi-Savelli, R., Pusateri, F., Palmeri, 
A. and Ebreo, C, 1996. Atlante delle conchi- 
glie marine del Mediterráneo. La Conchiglia, 
Roma. 259 pp. 



Gofas, S., 1999. The West African Rissoidae 
(Gastropoda: Rissooidea) and their similari- 
ties to some European species. The Nautilus, 
113 (3): 78-101. 

Gofas, S. and Warén, A., 1982. Taxonomie de 
quelques especes du genre Alvania (Mollusca, 
Gastropoda) des cotes ibériques et marocai- 
nes. Bollettino Malacologico, 18 (1-4): 1-16. 

Hoenselaar, H. J. and Goud, J., 1998. The Ris- 
soidae of the CANCAP expeditions,l: the 
genus Alvania Risso, 1826 (Gastropoda Pro- 
sobranchia). Basteria, 62 (1-2): 69-115. 

MOOLENBEEK, R. G. AND HOENSELAAR, H. J., 

1989. The genus Alvania on the Canary Islands 
and Madeira (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Part I. 
Bulletin Zoologisk Museum, Amsterdam, 11 (27): 
215-230. 



52 



© Sociedad Española de Malacología 



Iberus, 19 (1): 53-63, 2001 



La superfamilia Pyramidelloidea Gray, 1840 (MoUusca, 
Gastropoda, Heterostropha) en África Occidental. 8. Los 
géneros Bacteridium y Anisocycla 

The superfamily Pyramidelloidea Gray, 1840 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, 
Heterostropha) in West África. 8. The genera Bacteridium and 
Anisocycla 

Anselmo PEÑAS* y Emilio ROLAN** 

Recibido el 13-XI-2000. Aceptado el 16-11-2001 

RESUMEN 

Se revisan las especies de África Occidental de los géneros Bacteridium y Anisocycla. En 
total se estudian 1 taxon en Bacteridium y 5 en Anisocycla, de los que uno de ellos es 
descrito como nuevo para la ciencia. 

ABSTRACT 

The West África species of tfie genera Bacteridium and Anisocycla are studied. In total 1 
taxon in Bacteridium and 5 in Anisocycla are in the study, one of the latter being descri- 
bed as new. 



PALABRAS CLAVE: Pyramidelloidea, Bacteridium, Anisocycla, África Occidental, nuevas especies 
KEY WORDS: Pyramidelloidea, Bacteridium, Anisocycla, West África, new species. 



INTRODUCCIÓN 

Las más pequeñas, frágiles y alarga- 
das especies de piramidélidos, han sido 
objeto reciente de numerosas disquisi- 
ciones en cuanto a su posición taxonó- 
mica y ubicación genérica. 

De los numerosos taxones que han 
sido utilizados a nivel genérico para 
estas pequeñas conchas, el más antiguo 
es Ehala Leach in Gray, 1847 que, según 
Wenz (1938) tiene como especie tipo a 
Turho nitidissimus Montagu, 1803. 

GOUGEROT Y Feki (1980) hacen una 
revisión del género Anisocycla y GouGE- 



ROT (1991) completa la misma con las 
especies fósiles de este género. En esos 
trabajos se justifica el uso Anisocycla en 
vez de Ebala. 

Sin embargo Warén (1994) no opina 
así y cree que el nombre a usar debería 
ser Ehala, explicando sus razones y 
creando la familia Ebalidae para incluir 
las especies de algunos géneros que 
poseen aparato masticador, como Ehala 
Gray, 1847, Henrya Bartsch, 1947 y Mur- 
chisionella Mórch, 1875. En la misma 
publicación Aartsen (1994) presenta 



Carrer Olérdola, 39,5°C, 08800 Vilanova i la Geltrú (Barcelona) 
* Cánovas del Castillo, 22, 36202 Vigo (Pontevedra) 



53 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



una opción diferente. En la actualidad, 
aparece como Ehala en la lista existente 
en Internet (CLEMAM: Gofas y Renard 
(eds.), http://www.mnhn.fr/base/ 
malaco/html). 

Poco después, Aartsen (1995) 
muestra de nuevo una opinión contraria 
al uso de Ehala y repasa los comentarios 
sobre las publicaciones que Warén 

(1994) había hecho en su trabajo y, en 
relación a los trabajos en los que es utili- 
zado por primera vez este nombre, 
afirma lo que sigue: "The «october»- 
paper gives Ehala elegantissima 
(Montagu) as a synonym of Turritella and 
both Warén and I do agree that the ñame 
Ehala Leach in Gray, Oct. 1847 has Turbo- 
nilla elegantissima (Montagu, 1803) as its 
type-species by monotypy". De esta 
forma, esta especie debería ser conside- 
rada la especie tipo ya que, aunque pos- 
teriormente Gray utiliza Tiirho nitidissi- 
mus Montagu, 1803 "como especie tipo 
del género", esto no cambia la designa- 
ción inicial. Este problema taxonómico, 
comentado y enfatizado por Aartsen 

(1995) y no contestado por otros autores, 
parece nos debe hacer considerar por 
tanto que Ehala es un sinónimo de Turho- 
nilla Risso, 1826. 

Según Aartsen (1995) el nombre a 
utilizar para estas especies sería Anisocy- 
cla Monterosato, 1880, nombre introdu- 
cido para sustituir el previamente 
ocupado Aciculina Deshayes, 1861 non 
H. y A. Adams, 1853, cuya especie tipo, 
Aciculina scalarina Deshayes 1861, define 
este género. Faber (1995) señala, no obs- 
tante, que esta designación de especie 
tipo fue hecha por primera vez por 
Dall y Bartsch (1909). 

Otros taxones posteriores, como 
Careliopsis Mórch, 1895, Ehalina Thiele, 
1929, Bermndaclis Bartsch, 1947 y Pando- 
relia Laseron, 1951 (non Conrad, 1863) 
han sido considerados sinónimos por 
otros autores (Warén, 1994). 

Según Aartsen (1995) el nombre de 
familia Ebalidae Warén, 1994, sería 
substituido por el de Anisocyclidae 
Aartsen, 1995. 

El presente trabajo es el octavo de 
una serie dedicada al estudio de los 



Pyramidelloidea de las costas de África 
occidental. En los dos trabajos anteriores 
(Peñas y Rolan, 1999b, 2000) se hace 
referencia a los diversos géneros previa- 
mente estudiados. 

En este trabajo presentamos juntos 
los géneros Bacteridium Thiele, 1929 y 
Anisocycla Monterosato, 1880 por la 
similitud morfológica de sus conchas, 
con independencia de que ambos 
puedan estar situados en familias dife- 
rentes. 



MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS 

En este apartado remitimos al lector 
al trabajo de Peñas y Rolan (1999a). 

Las abreviaturas empleadas son las 
siguientes: 

BMNH The Natural History Museum, 
Londres 

MMF Museo Municipal de Funchal, 
Madeira. 

MNCN Museo Nacional de Ciencias 
Naturales, Madrid. 

CAP colección Anselmo Peñas, Vilanova 
i la Geltrú, Barcelona. 

eco colección Cristina Ortiz, Santa 
Cruz de Tenerife, Canarias. 

CER colección Emilio Rolan, Vigo. 

CFR colección Federico Rubio, Valen- 
cia. 

CFS colección Frank Swinnen, Lommel, 
Bélgica. 

CJP colección Jacques Pelorce, Le Grau 
du Roí, Francia. 

CPD colección Gustavo Pérez-Dionis, 
Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canarias. 

CPS colección José Luis Pérez Sixto, 
Alcalá de Henares, Madrid. 

CWE colección Winfried Engl, Dussel- 
dorf, Alemania. 

c concha 

j juvenil 

f fragmento 

ex ejemplar con partes blandas 

El material sin indicación de perte- 
nencia a una colección se encuentra en 
la del segundo autor (CER). 



54 



Peñas y RoláN: Bacteridium y Anisocycla (Pyramidelloidea) en África Occidental 




Figuras 1, 2. Bacteridium carinatum; 1: concha, 1,5 mm, Sahara (CFR); 2: detalle de la última 

vuelta. Figuras 3-6. Anisocycla pointeti; 3: concha, 2,9 mm, Banc d'Arguin, Mauritania; 4: concha, 

1,8 mm, Baia de l'Etoile, Mauritania; 5: concha, 1,8 mm, Miamia, Ghana; 6: protoconcha, Banc 

d'Arguin. 

Figures 1, 2. Bacteridium carinatum; 1: shell, 1.5 mm, Sahara (CFR); 2: detail ofthe last whorl. 

Figures 3-6. Anisocycla pointeli; 3: shell, 2.9 mm, Banc d'Arguin, Mauritania; 4: shell, 1.8 mm, Baia 

de l'Etoile, Mauritania; 5: shell, 1.8 mm, Miamia, Ghana; 6: protoconch, Banc d'Arguin. 



55 



PARTE SISTEMÁTICA 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



Familia Turbonillidae 

Subfamilia Eulimellinae 

Género Bacteridium Thiele, 1929 



Especie tipo: Eulimella praeclara Thiele, 1925. 

Concha pequeña, muy delgada, alar- 
gada, lisa o con fina microescultura. Sin 
diente ni pliegue columelar, ni ombligo. 
Protoconcha planispiral. 

Las especies pertenecientes a este 
género apenas se diferencian de las del 
género Anisocycla por la morfología de 



la concha. Sin embargo, el animal tiene 
el estilete característico de los Pyramide- 
llidae, mientras que las pertenecientes al 
género Anisocycla tienen un aparato 
masticador. Schander (1994) incluyen 
este género en la familia Turbonillidae 
(Eulimellinae). 



Bacteridium carinatum (De Folin, 1870) (Figs 1, 2) 

Eulimella carinata De Folin, 1870. Les fonds de la Mer, 1, pág. 209, lám. 28, fig. 8 [Localidad tipo: 
Cagnabac, Senegal]. 

Material tipo: no examinado. 

Material examinado: Península Ibérica: Mediterráneo, ver Peñas et al. (1996). Sahara: 1 c, en Solea 
sp. (CFR). Senegal: 1 c, Sec de Thouriba, Cap Vert, 30 m (CJP). Ghana: 15 c, Miamia, 12-35 m. Angola: 
1 c, Luanda, 50 m. 



Descripción: Descripción en Peñas, 
Templado y Martínez (1996: 73-74, fig. 
81). Ilustración en Schander (1994, figs. 
le, 9e, f) y en Aartsen, Gittenberger y 
GouD. (2000, fig. 20) como Anisocycla cf. 
carinata. Concha (Fig. 1) diminuta, 
delgada, subcilíndrica, lisa, blanquecina. 
Protoconcha planispiral, del tipo B. 
Vueltas escalonadas, con un claro 
hombro subsutural. Sutura muy 
marcada. Líneas de crecimiento flexuo- 



sas, opistoclinas bajo la sutura (Fig. 2). 
Abertura semicircular, sin pliegue colu- 
melar ni ombligo, peristoma continuo. 

Distribución: Mediterráneo español, 
Túnez, Israel (BoGí Y Bella, 1997). 
África Occidental hasta Angola. Infrali- 
toral y circalitoral. 

Comentarios: Schander (1994) 
incluye por primera vez esta especie en 
el género Bacteridium, basándose en que 
no posee aparato masticador. 



Familia Anisocyclidae 
Género Anisocycla Monterosato, 1880 



Especie tipo: Aciculina scalarina Deshayes, 1861. 

Concha pequeña, delgada, alargada, 
lisa o con microescultura, sin diente ni 
pliegue columelar, ni ombligo. Proto- 
concha planispiral, con la espira total- 
mente visible y un ángulo de su eje con 
el de la teleoconcha superior a 130° (tipo 
B de van Aartsen). El animal tiene un 



sistema mandibular complejo ("aparato 
masticador"). 

Este género fue revisado por Gouge- 
rot y Feki (1979, 1980) y posteriormente 
por Aartsen (1994). Warén (1994) crea 
la familia Ebalidae y defiende la validez 
del nombre Ehala Gray, 1847 frente a 



56 



Peñas y RoláN: Bacteridium y Anisocycla (Pyramidelloidea) en África Occidental 




Figura 7. Anisocycla gradata, concha 2,3 mm, Cabo Verde. Figuras 8-16. Anisocycla nitidissima. 8: 
concha, 2,2 mm, Dakar, Senegal; 9: concha, 2,1 mm, Porto Mindelo, Sao Vicente, Cabo Verde; 
10: concha, 2,2 mm, Luanda, Angola; 11: detalle de la espira, Cabo Verde; 12: protoconcha, 
Angola; 13: protoconcha, Vigo, España; 14: detalle de la microescultura, Senegal; 15: microescul- 
tura, España; 16: microescultura, Angola. 

Figure 7. Anisocycla gradata, shell 2.3 mm. Cape Verde. Figures 8-16. Anisocycla nitidissima. 8: 
shell, 2.2 mm, Dakar, Senegal; 9: shell, 2.1 mm, Porto Mindelo, Sao Vicente, Cape Verde; 10: shell, 2.2 
mm, Luanda, Angola; 11: detail ofthe spire. Cape Verde; 12: protoconch, Angola; 13: protoconch, Vigo, 
Spain; 14: detail ofthe microsculpture, Senegal; 15: microsculpture, Spain; 16: microsculpture, Angola. 



57 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



Anisocycla. Aartsen (1995) sigue la dis- 
cusión y defiende Anisocycla, conclu- 
yendo que Ehala es un sinónimo de Tur- 



bonilla Risso, 1826, tesis que comparten 
ScHANDER ET AL. (1999) y que nosotros 
aceptamos. 



Anisocycla pointeli (De Folin, 1868) (Figs. 3-6) 

Turbonilla pointeli De Folin, 1868. Les fonds de la Mer, 1, pág. 100, lám. 11, fig. 4. [Localidad tipo: 
isla de Syra, Grecia]. 

Material tipo: No encontrado. 

Material examinado: Península Ibérica: Mediterráneo, ver Peñas etal. (1996). Atlántico: 1 c, Bahía 
de Cádiz, 30 m; 1 c, Lagos, Portugal. Islas Canarias: Tenerife: 40 c, 27 m (CPD); 35 c, 27 m, (CCO); 
2 c, Fañabé, 25 m. Lanzarote: 6 c, Playa del Reducto (CFS); 3 c. Puerto del Carmen, 45-50 m (CWE). 
Gran Canaria: 1 c. Playa Sardina (CFS). Madeira: 3 c, Funchal, 50-75 m (CFS); 2 c, Funchal, 50-75 m 
(CWE); 1 c, Cabo Guirado, 75-100 m (CWE). Sahara: 9 c, Cabo Loven, 35-50 m (CFR). Mauritania: 
10 c, Banc d'Arguin, litoral. Ghana: 8 c, Miamia, 35 m. Archipiélago de Cabo Verde : 1 c. Porto da 
Cruz, Boavista, litoral; 5 c, Tarrafal, Santiago, 15 m. 



Descripción: En Peñas etal. (1996: 74, 
figs: 82-83, 85)). Concha (Figs. 3-5) peque- 
ña, alargada, lisa, blanca vitrea, semi- 
transparente. Protoconcha (Fig. 6) planis- 
piral, típica del género. Espira muy ele- 
vada con las vueltas bien convexas, redon- 
deadas; sutura profunda; líneas de creci- 
miento prosoclinas; abertura circular; sin 
diente ni pliegue columelar, ni ombligo. 



Distribución: Mediterráneo y Atlán- 
tico europeo próximo. Atlántico africano 
desde el Sahara hasta Ghana; archipiéla- 
gos de Canarias, Madeira y Cabo Verde. 
Infralitoral y circalitoral. 

Comentarios: Se trata de una especie 
muy polimorfa, que se diferencia de E. 
nitidissima en la ausencia de escultura 
espiral. 



Anisocycla grádala Monterosato, 1878 (Fig. 7) 

Odostomia pointeli var. gradata Monterosato, 1878. Enum. e sinoii. conch. med.: 95. [ Localidad tipo: 

Joly, Argel]. Nomen nudum. 
Odostomia (Eulimella) pointeli Folin, var. gradata Monterosato, 1878. ]our. Conchy. 26: 458. 
¿Eulimella trigonostoma De Folin, 1870. Les fonds de la Mer, 1, pág. 260, lám. 31, fig. 11. [Localidad 

tipo: Canal de Suez]. 

Material tipo: El tipo de A. gradata, supuestamente en el Museo Civico de Roma, no ha sido encon- 
trado hasta el momento, debido a que se está realizando la organización de la colección, aunque 
su búsqueda continua. 

Material examinado: Península Ibérica: Mediterráneo, ver Peñas etal. (1996); Atlántico: 1 c. Tarifa, 
litoral. Marruecos: 3 c, Agadir, litoral (CFS). Islas Canarias: Tenerife: 2 c, dragado a 10-27 m (CCO); 
2 c, dragado a 10-27 m (CPD). Gran Canaria: 1 c. Las Canteras (CPS). La Palma: 1 c, Los Cancajos 
(CWE). Fuerteventura: 1 c. Puerto del Rosario (CWE). Madeira: 1 c, dragado 12-35 m (CFS); 1 c, 
Funchal (CFS). Archipiélago de Cabo Verde: 1 c, Pau Seco, Maio, 30 m. 



Descripción: En Peñas et al. (1996: 
75, fig. 86). Concha (Fig. 7) pequeña, 
alargada, delgada, lisa, blanca vitrea, 
semitransparente. Protoconcha planispi- 
ral típica del género; vueltas casi planas, 
escalonadas, con una repisa subsutural; 
sutura profunda, muy inclinada: líneas 
de crecimiento ortoclinas. Abertura 



semicircular, sin pliegue columelar ni 
ombligo. 

Distribución: Mediterráneo y Atlán- 
tico europeo y marroquí. Archipiélagos 
de Canarias, Madeira y Cabo Verde. 
Infralitoral y circalitoral. 

Comentarios: Gougerot y Feki (1980) 
constataron que en el tubo de los tipos 



58 



Peñas y RoláN: Bacteridium y Anisocycla (Pyramidelloidea) en África Occidental 




Figuras 17, 18. Anisocycla striatula; 17: concha, 1,8 mm, Banc d'Arguin, Mauritania. Figuras 19- 
24. "Amsocycla" micalü spec. nov. 19: holotipo, 1,6 mm, Banc d'Arguin (MNCN); 20: concha, 1,0 
mm, Guinea Conakry (CFR); 21: protoconcha del holotipo; 22: protoconcha, Guinea Conakry; 
23: microescultura del holotipo; 24: microescultura, Guinea Conakry. 

Figures 17, 18. Anisocycla striatula; 17: shell, 1.8 mm, Banc dArguin, Mauritania. Figures 19-24. 
"Anisocycla" micalii spec. nov. 19: holotype, 1.6 mm, Banc dArguin (MNCN); 20: shell, 1.0 mm, 
Guinea Conakry (CFR); 21: protoconch ofthe holotype; 22: protoconch, Guinea Conakry; 23: micros- 
culpture or the holotype; 24: microsculpture, Guinea Conakry. 



59 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



de A. trigonostoma había dos conchas 
que no eran de esa familia, pero la 
tercera coincidía con la descripción de 
De Folin y por tanto, según estos 
autores, sería el holotipo, opinando que 
A. pointeli var. gradata de Nordsieck, 
1972 era un sinónimo de A. trigonostoma. 
No obstante, siendo la localidad tipo de 



esta última especie el Canal de Suez y el 
ejemplar existente en el lote de los sinti- 
pos de muy pequeño tamaño, podría 
tratarse de una especie de origen Indo- 
Pacífico, por lo que preferimos utilizar 
el nombre de Monterosato y dejar en 
posición de dudas para un futuro 
estudio a la especie de De Folin. 



Anisocycla nitidissima (Montagu, 1803) (Figs. 8-16) 

Turbo nitidissimus Montagu, 1803. Testacea Britannica, pág. 299, lám. 12, fig. 1. [Localidad tipo: 
puerto de Falmouth, Islas Británicas]. 

Material tipo: No examinado. 

Material examinado: Península Ibérica: Mediterráneo, ver Peñas et al. (1996). Atlántico: 6 c. Ría 
de Vigo, Pontevedra; 15 c, Panxon, Pontevedra; 5 c. Tarifa. Marruecos: 6 c, Agadir, litoral (CFS); 6 
c, Agadir, litoral (CWE). Sahara: 2 c, Cabo Loven, 40-50 m (CFR). Islas Canarias: Lanzarote: 7 c. 
Puerto del Carmen (CWE). La Gomera: 1 c. Playa Santiago, 58 m. Tenerife: 41 c, (CCO). Gran Canaria: 
1 c. Las Canteras (CPS). Madeira: 1 c, Santa Cruz (MMF); 5 c, dragado 27-100 m (CFS); 2 c, Cabo 
Guirado, 75-100 m (CFS). Archipiélago de Cabo Verde: 2 c, Pau Seco, Maio, 30 m; 3 c, Tarrafal, San- 
tiago, 15 m. Mauritania: 103 c, Banc d'Arguin, litoral; 21 c, Bahía de la Estrella, 3 m. Senegal: 25 c, 
Sec de Thouriba, Cap Vert, 30-33 m. Angola: 4 c, Corimba, 20 m; 1 c, Luanda, 50 m. 



Descripción: Ver Penas et al. (1996: 
74-75, figs. 87-88, 92). Concha (Figs. 8- 
10) pequeña, delgada, muy alargada, 
blanca amarillenta, semitransparente. 
Protoconcha (Figs. 11-13) planispiral, 
típica del género. Vueltas bien convexas, 
con la sutura profunda. Líneas de creci- 
miento flexuosas, opistoclinas bajo la 
sutura. Microescultura (Figs. 14-16) 



formada por estrías espirales; con gran 
aumento pueden verse microescavacio- 
nes. Abertural oval, sin pliegue colume- 
lar ni ombligo. 

Distribución: Mediterráneo y Atlán- 
tico europeo. Atlántico africano hasta 
Angola y los archipiélagos de Canarias, 
Madeira y Cabo Verde. Infralitoral y cir- 
calitoral. 



Anisocycla striatula (Jeffreys, 1856) (Figs. 17, 18) 

Eulimella striatula Jeffreys, 1856. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. Ser. 2, 17: 186, lám. 2, figs. 14-15. [Localidad 
tipo: La Spezia, Italia, 10 brazas]. 

Eulimella folini P. Fischer in De Folin, 1869. Les fonds de la Mer, 1: 149-150, lám. 22, fig. 8. [Locali- 
dad tipo: Golfo de Gascogne]. 

Odostomia hxjalina Jeffreys, 1870. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. ser.4, 5: 79. Nuevo nombre para Eulimella 
striatula Jeffreys, 1856 non Odostomia striatula (L., 1758). Reemplazamiento innecesario. 

Material tipo: De E. striatula: Originalmente en el BMNH, registrado 1856.2.18.9, desaparecido. 
Dos fragmentos de sintipos, reg. n° 196470, imposibles de determinar, pero en los que no hemos 
apreciado escultura espiral. De E. folini: no encontrado. 

Material examinado: Península Ibérica: 2 c, L' Ampolla, Tarragona (CAP); 10 c, San Carlos de la 
Rápita, Tarragona, 4 m (CAP); 1 c, Tarifa, litoral. Mauritania: 4 c, Banc d'Arguin, litoral. 



Descripción: En Aartsen (1994: 95, 
fig. 14). Concha (Fig. 17) pequeña, delga- 
da, alargada, blanca vitrea, semitraspa- 



rente. Protoconcha planispiral, típica del 
género. Vueltas ligeramente convexas, 
escalonadas, que crecen relativamente 



ÓO 



Peñas y RoláN: Bacteridium y Anisocycla (Pyramidelloidea) en África Occidental 




Figuras 25-27. Mathilda epicharis, sintipos, 2-3 mm, Pointe de Pitre, Guadalupe, Caribe 

(MNHN). 

Figures 25-27. Mathilda epicharis, syntypes, 2-3 mm, Pointe de Pitre, Guadalupe, Caribbean (MNHN). 



deprisa, con una clara repisa subsutural; 
sutura profunda, inclinada; líneas de cre- 
cimiento algo flexuosas, opistoclinas ba- 
jo la sutura; numerosas estrias espirales 
(Fig. 18), las cuales en su cruce con las lí- 
neas de crecimiento forman una especie 
de retículo. Abertura estrecha, oval; sin 
pliegue columelar ni ombligo. 



Distribución: Mediterráneo y Atlán- 
tico europeo. Mauritania. Infralitoral. 

Comentarios: Los holotipos de A. 
striatula y A. folini no son utilizables 
para la diagnosis de la especie. Por 
tanto, nuestra determinación es tenta- 
tiva, basada exclusivamente en la des- 
cripción de los autores. 



"Anisocycla" micalii spec. nov. (Figs. 19-24) 

Material tipo: Holotipo (Fig. 19) en el MNCN (15.05/43726), en sedimentos de la playa. 

Otro material examinado: Mauritania: 1 c, Banc d'Arguin (CAP). Senegal: 1 c. Cap Vert, 15-34 m 

(CJP) (destruida durante el estudio). Guinea Conakry: 1 c, en el estómago del pez Solea sp. (CFR). 

Localidad tipo: Banc d'Arguin, Mauritania. 

Etimología: El nombre de la especie se dedica a Pasquale Micali, de Fano, Italia, por su constante 

ayuda en nuestros trabajos. 



Descripción: Concha (Figs. 19, 20) 
diminuta, pupoide, blanca vitrea, semi- 
transparente. Protoconcha (Figs. 21, 22) 
planispiral, del tipo B, con la espira 
visible, y con un diámetro de 170-190 
}im. Teleoconcha de espira corta, con las 
vueltas bien convexas, las cuales crecen 
muy deprisa. Sutura inclinada y muy 
profunda, de forma que la última vuelta 
no queda soldada a la anterior, dando la 
impresión de que se trata de una concha 
umbilicada. Escultura espiral (Figs. 23, 
24) formada por 5-7 cordoncillos, espa- 
ciados, casi equidistantes, bien conspi- 



cuos. Escultura axial formada por las 
líneas de crecimiento prosoclinas, muy 
marcadas, formando una especie de retí- 
culo con los cordones espirales. Aber- 
tura oval, grande, sin diente ni pliegue 
columelar. Peristoma continuo. 

Dimensiones. El holotipo tiene una 
dimensión máxima de 1,6 mm; las otras 
conchas examinadas medían entre 1,0 y 
1,2 mm. 

Distribución: Solamente conocida 
entre Mauritania y Guinea Conakry. 

Discusión: "A." micalii spec. nov. tiene 
un cierto parecido con la especie Mat- 



61 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



hilda epicharis de Folin, 1870 (Figs. 25-27). 
Sin embargo, esta última especie tiene la 
espira con las vueltas más próximas, la 
protoconcha está menos separada de la 
primera vuelta de la teleoconcha y, final- 
mente, la escultura está formada por cor- 
dones espirales y costillas axiales, ambas 
de un tamaño similar y que forman un 
reticulado muy evidente. 

Aunque, a primera vista, esta especie 
no se parece a ninguna de las Anisocycla 
conocidas en el área de estudio y próxi- 
mas, hemos preferido su ubicación en 
este género como más próximo por el 



tipo de protoconcha, por la delgadez de 
la concha, por la ausencia de ombligo y 
por la ausencia de pliegue columelar. 

Las conchas procedentes de Senegal 
y Guinea Conakry son proporcional- 
mente más anchas y con un crecimiento 
de las vueltas más lento que las de Mau- 
ritania, tienen más cordones espirales y 
una protoconcha con un diámetro algo 
menor. Sin embargo, la escasez de ejem- 
plares en este estudio no nos ha permi- 
tido conocer su verdadera variabilidad, 
y por tanto preferimos considerarlas 
como conespecíficas. 



COMENTARIO FINAL 



Se estudian 6 especies que presentan 
una morfología bastante similar (excepto 
una de ellas) y que se consideran perte- 
necientes a los géneros Bacteridium y Ani- 
socycla. "Anisocycla" micalii spec. nov. es 
incluidas tentativamente en uno de estos 
géneros, ya que no se conoce su anatomía. 

Algunas de las especies estudiadas 
en este trabajo tienen un área de distri- 
bución relativamente amplia, como Bac- 
teridium carinatum y Anisocycla nitidis- 
sima, presentes ambas en Europa en su 
límite septentrional, la primera en en 
Mediterráneo y la segunda en el Atlán- 
tico norte, extendiéndose por el sur hasta 
en un país tan distante como Angola. No 
obstante, existiendo una cierta variabili- 
dad morfológica y con escasez del mate- 
rial en estudio, no puede excluirse que 
dentro de estos taxones pudiese existir 
más de una especie. 

Anisocycla pointeli y A. grádala son 
conocidas desde el Mediterráneo hasta 
Ghana, incluyendo los archipiélagos de 
Canarias y Cabo Verde. 

A. striatula se conoce desde el Medi- 
terráneo hasta Mauritania. Finalmente, 
"Anisocycla" micalii, se ha encontrado 



desde Mauritania hasta Guinea 
Conakry, presentando por tanto un área 
de dispersión reducida, aunque es pro- 
bable que, dada su pequenez y lo difícil 
de su recolección, en el futuro se pueda 
encontrar en otras localidades. 



AGRADECIMIENTOS 

Los autores agradecen la cesión de 
material de las especies estudiadas a las 
siguientes personas: a Winfried Engl, de 
Dusseldorf, Alemania; a Cristina Ortiz y 
a Gustavo Pérez-Dionis, de Santa Cruz de 
Tenerife, Canarias; a Jacques Pelorce, de 
Le Grau du Roí, Francia; a José Luis Pérez 
Sixto, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid; a Fede- 
rico Rubio, de Valencia; a Frank Swinnen, 
de Lommel, Bélgica. A Virgine Héros del 
MNHN por el préstamo de material tipo. 
Las fotografías al MEB fueron realizadas 
por Jesús Méndez, del CACTI de la Uni- 
versidad de Vigo. También a los revisores 
P. Micali e I. Nofroni por sus correcciones. 

Este trabajo ha sido parcialmente 
subvencionado por el proyecto 
PGIDT00PXI30121PR. 



BIBLIOGRAFÍA 



Aartsen, J. J. van, 1994. European Pyramide- 
llidae: IV. The genera Eulimella, Anisocycla, 
Syrnola, Cingulina, Oscilla and Careliopsis. Bo- 
líettino Malacologico, 30 (5-9): 85-110. 



Aartsen, J. J. van, 1995. Anisocycla Montero- 
sato, 1880 or Ebala in Gray, 1847: that is the 
question. Bollettino Malacologico, 31 (1-4): 65- 



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Peñas y RoláN: Bacteridium y Anisocycla (Pyramidelloidea) en África Occidental 



Aartsen, J. J. van, Gittenberger, E. y Goud, 
J., 2000. Pyramidellidae (Mollusca, Gastro- 
poda, Heterobranchia) collected during the 
Dutch CANCAP and MAURITANIA expe- 
ditions in the south-eastem part of the North 
Atlantic Ocean (part 2). Zoologische Med. Lei- 
den, 74. 

BoGí, C. Y Bella, G. S., 1997. Discoveries along 
the Israel! coast. La Conchiglia, 29 (284): 42-45. 

Dall, W. H. y Bartsch, P., 1909. A monograph 
of west American pyramidellid MoUusks. 
Bulletin U. S. N. M., 68: 1-258. 

Faber, M. J., 1995. On the type species of the ge- 
nus Anisocycla Monterosato, 1880. De Kreu- 
kel, 31 (5): 70-72. 

Gougerot, L., 1991. Les espéces á' Anisocycla 
Monterosato du Paléocéne et de l'Eocéne 
franjáis (Gastropoda, Pyramidellidae). 
Cahiers des Naturalístes, 47 (1): 1-25. 

Gougerot, L. y Feki, M., 1979. Contribution a 
la revisión du genre Anisocycla Monterosato 
(1884) (Gastropoda, Pyramidellidae). Bulle- 
tin Societé de Sciences Naturelles, Tunisia, 13: 
87-96. 

Gougerot, L. y Feki, M., 1980. Etude critique 
des especes d' Anisocycla Monterosato d'ap- 
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tuellment. Bulletin Societé de Sciences Nature- 
lles, Tunisia, 15: 25-50. 

Peñas, A. y Rolan, E., 1999a. La familia Pyra- 
midellidae en África Occidental. 4. Los gé- 
neros Megastomia, Odostomia, Ondina, Noe- 
miamea y Syrnola. Iberus, suplemento 5: 1- 
150. 



Peñas, A. y Rolan, E., 1999b. La familia Pyra- 
midellidae Gray, 1840 (Mollusca, Gastro- 
poda, Heterostropha) en África Occidental. 
6. El género Pseudoscilla Boettger, 1901. Ibe- 
rus, 17 (2): 11-22. 

Peñas, A. y Rolan, E., 2000. The family Pyra- 
midellidae Gray, 1840 (Mollusca, Gastro- 
poda, Heterostropha) in West África. 7. Ad- 
denda to the genera Eulimella and Turbonilla, 
with a list of the east Atlantic species and sy- 
nonyms. Argonauta, 13 (2): 59-80. 

Peñas, A., Templado, J. y Martínez, J. L., 1996. 
Contribución al conocimiento de los Pyra- 
midelloidea (Gastropoda: Heterostropha) 
del Mediterráneo español. Iberus, 14 (1): 1-82. 

Schander, C., 1994 (1993). Twenty-eight new 
species of Pyramidellidae (Gastropoda, He- 
terobranchia) from West África. Notiziario 
CISMA, 15: 11-78. 

Schander, C., Aartsen, J. J. van y Corgan, J. 
X., 1999. Famillies and genera of the Pyra- 
midelloidea (Mollusca, Gastropoda). Bollet- 
tino Malacologico, 34 (9-12): 145-166. 

Warén, a., 1994. Systematic position and va- 
lidity of Ebala Gray, 1847 (Ebalidae Fam. N., 
Pyramidelloidea, Heterobranchia). Bollettino 
Malacologico, 30 (5-9): 203-210. 

Wenz, W., 1938. Handbuch der Palaozoologie I. 
Bomtraeger, Berlin, 948 pp. 



63 



© Sociedad Española de Malacología Iberus, 19 (1): 65-73, 2001 

Environmentally safe moUuscicides from two common eu- 
phorbiales 

Molusquicidas no perjudiciales para el medioambiente obtenidos a 
partir de dos euforbiáceas 

Ram P. YADAV* and Ajay SINGH*' 

Recibido el 15-V-2000. Aceptado el 14-1 I 1-2001 

ABSTRACT 

Aqueous extracts of látex and stem bark of Codiaeum variegatum and Crotón tiglium (Eup- 
horbiaceae) have a high molluscicidal activity. It was observed that the molluscicidal acti- 
vity of extracts of both the plants against two harmful fresfiwater snails Lymnaea acuminata 
and Indoplanorbis exustus was time as well as dose dependent. There was a significant 
negative correlation between LC50 valúes and exposure periods thus increase in exposure 
time, the LC50 of Crotón tiglium and Codiaeum variegatum lotices were decreased from 
O.OóO mg DW/L (24h)> to 0.014 mg DW/L (9óh) and 0.381 mg DW/L (24h)> to 
0.159 mg DW/L (96h), respectively ogoinst Lymnaea acuminata and 0.034 mg DW/L 
(24h)> to 0.009 mg DW/L (96h) and 0.246 mg DW/L (24h)> to 0.030 mg DW/L (96h), 
respectively against Indoplanorbis exustus. 

These plant part extracts at higher doses were olso lethol to freshwoter fish Channa punc- 
tatus, which shores the habitat with these snails, but the doses LC90, (24h) of snails are 
safe for fish. 

RESUMEN 

Los extractos acuosos de látex y corteza del tallo de Codiaeum variegatum y Crotón 
tiglium (Euphorbioceae) tienen una alta actividad molusquicida. Esto actividad, frente a 
dos caracoles de aguo dulce dañinos, Lymnaea acuminata y Indoplanorbis exustus , 
depende tanto del tiempo como de la dosis. Hoy uno correlación negativa significativa 
entre los valores LC50 y los periodos de exposición según se aumentan éstos, el LC50 de 
los látex de Crotón tiglium y Codiaeum variegatum fueron decrecientes 0.060 mg DW/L 
(24h)> hasta 0.014 mg DW/L (96h) y 0.381 mg DW/L (24h)> hasta 0.159 mg DW/L 
(9óh), respectivamente contra Lymnaea acuminata y 0.034 mg DW/L (24h)> hasta 
0.009 mg DW/L (96h) y 0.246 mg DW/L (24h)> desde 0.030 mg DW/L (96h), respec- 
tivamente contra Indoplanorbis exustus. 

Estos extractos de partes de plantos o dosis mayores fueron también letales para el pez 
de agua dulce Channa punctatus, que comparte habitat con estos dos caracoles, pero la 
dosis LC90, (24h) ero inocua para los peces. 



KEY WORDS: Molluscicide, Codiaeum variegatum. Crotón tiglium, Lymnaea acuminata, Indoplanorbis exustus, 

Euphorbiaceae. 

PALABRAS CLAVE: Molusquicida, Codiaeum variegatum. Crotón tiglium, Lymnaea acuminata, Indoplanorbis 

exustus, Euphorbiaceae. 

* Department of Zoology, D.D.U. Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur-273009 U.P. INDIA 
' Author to whom correspondence shouid be made. 

65 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



INTRODUCTION 



Recent studies have indicated that 
there are a number of medicinal plants 
which may be useful for control of snail 
population and henee control transmis- 
sion of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis 
(Medina and Ritchi, 1980; Marston 
AND Hostettman, 1987; Gopalsamy, 

GUEHO, JULIEN, OWADALLY AND HOS- 
TETTMAN, 1990; SlNGH, SlNGH AND 
SlNGH, 1996; SlNGH AND SlNGH, 1997; 

SuKUMARAN, Prashar AND Rao, 1994; 
Marston, Dudan, Gupta, Salís, 
Correa AND Hostettman, 1996; Geerts, 
Alard, Belot and Sidhom, 1992; 
Amusan, Msothi and Makhuba, 1997 
and Laurens, Fournean, Hoaqnemi- 
ller, Care, Bories and Loiseau, 1997). 

Molluscicides derived from plants 
that can be grown in endemic áreas of 
fascioliasis transmission may provide a 
relatively low cost means for controUing 
snail intermedíate hosts, since expenses 
of synthesis, marketing and transporta- 
tion are reduced or eliminated. But, the 
use of plant products as molluscicides 
would be justified only, if it can be 
demonstrated that the effect of the dose 
needed as molluscicide is non-toxic to 
other aquatic animáis, especially fish. 

The present study reports the 
molluscicidal effect of the two euphor- 
bious plants i.e. Codiaeum variegatum and 
Crotón tiglium (which is a commonly cul- 
tivated as an ornamental plant in 
gardens, and is usually called a Crotón) 
against the harmful snails Lymnaea acu- 
minata and Indoplanorbis exustus. These 
snails are vectors of liver fluke, Fasciola 
hepática and Fasciola gigantica, which 
causes endemic fascioliasis in Eastern 
Uttar Pradesh (SlNGH and Agarwal, 
1981). Toxicity experiments have also 
carried out on freshwater fish Channa 
punctatus (which shares the habitat with 
snails) for environmental toxicity, if any. 



MATERIALS AND METHODS 

Látex and stem bark of both the eup- 
horbiales were collected from the Bota- 
nical garden of D.D.U. Gorakhpur Uni- 



versity, Gorakhpur and identified by 
Prof. S.K. Singh (taxonomist), Botany 
Department, D.D.U. Gorakhpur Univer- 
sity, Gorakhpur. 

Preparation of aqueous extracts of 
Stem bark and Látex 

Stem bark: The fresh stem bark 
(50mg/5ml) were minced with distilled 
water homogenized for 5 min and cen- 
trifuged at 1000 g for 10 min The super- 
natant was used as a water extract for 
the molluscicidal activity. 

Látex: The white látex from these 
plants was drained in glass tubes by 
cutting their stem ápices, this látex was 
lyophilized at - 40 °C and lyophilized 
powder was stored for further use. The 
freeze-dried powder was mixed with 
appropriate volume of distilled water to 
obtain the desired concentrations. The 
wet weight of volume of 1 mi látex of 
Codiaeum variegatum and Crotón tiglium 
was 810 mg and 800 mg respectively 
and dry weight was 305 mg and 300 mg 
respectively. 

Lymnaea acuminata (2.6±0.3 cm in 
shell height), Indoplanorbis exustus 
(0.87±0.035 cm in shell height) and 
Channa punctatus (10.5±0.9 cm in total 
length) were collected from Ramgarh 
Lake of Gorakhpur district, and used as 
test animáis. Toxicity experiments were 
performed using the method of Singh 
and Agarwal (1988). Ten experimental 
animáis were kept in glass aquaria, con- 
taining 3L of dechlorinated tap water for 
both the snails. The experimental ani- 
máis were exposed continuously for 96h 
to four different concentrations. Control 
animáis were kept under similar condi- 
tions without any treatment. 

Toxic effect of aqueous extracts of 
látex and stem bark of both the plants 
was also studied in mixed populations 
of fish and snails. In these experiments, 
a group of 10 snails Lymnaea acuminata 
and 10 fish Channa punctatus were put 
together in 6L dechlorinated tap water. 
These mixed populations were exposed 
to previously determined LC90 (24h) of 
snails for 24h. 



66 



Yadav and SinGH: Environmentally safe molluscicides from two common euphorbiales 



Table I. Toxicity (LCIO, 50, 90) of aqueous freeze-dried látex extracts of Crotón tiglium (Family 
Euphorbiaceae) against Lymnaea acuminata at different time intervals. Batches of ten snails were 
exposed to four different concentrations of aqueous extracts of látex of Crotón tiglium. Concentra- 
tions (Dry weight of látex) given are the final concentrations W/V in aquarium water. Regression 
coefiPicient showed that there was significant (P<0.05) negative regression between exposure time 
and different LC valúes. LCL: lower confidence limit. UCL: upper confidence limit. There was no 
mortality in control groups. 

Tabla I. Toxicidad de extractos acuosos liofilizados de látex (LCIO, 50, 90) de Crotón tiglium (Familia 
Euphorbiaceae) frente a Lymnaea acuminata en diferentes intervalos de tiempo. Grupos de 10 caracoles 
fueron expuestos a 4 diferentes concentraciones de extractos acuosos de látex de Crotón tiglium. Las con- 
centraciones indicadas (peso seco de látex) son concentraciones finales P/V en el agua del acuario. Los 
coeficienes de regresión muestran que hay regresiones negativas significativas (P<0.05) entre el tiempo de 
exposición y diferentes valores de LC. LCL: limite inferior de confianza. UCL: limite superior de con- 
fianza. No hubo mortalidad en los grupos de control 



Exposure 
periods 



Effecfive 
dose (W/V) 
(mg DW/L) 



Limit 

(mg DW/L) 

LCL UCL 



Slope valué '\' ratio 'g' valué Heterogeneify 



24h 



48h 



72h 



96h 



LCl 0=0.015 


0.011 


0.017 




LC50=0.06 


0.03 


0.07 


3.98+0.78 


LC90=0.19 


0.14 


0.42 




LC10=0.0n 


0.005 


0.013 




LC50=0.04 


0.03 


0.06 


2.17±0.56 


LC90=0.15 


0.07 


0.31 




LCl 0=0.007 


0.004 


0.01 




LC50=0.02 


0.017 


0.025 


2.69±0.50 


LC90=0.0ól 


0.043 


0.13 




LCl 0=0.04 


0.002 


0.006 




LC50=0.014 


0.012 


0.017 


2.38±0.47 


LC90=0.05 


0.036 


0.106 





5.05 



3.86 



5.36 



4.99 



0.15 



0.57 



0.13 



0.15 



0.22 



0.22 



0.77 



0.30 



Mortality was recorded at 24h inter- 
vals up to 96h. Lethal concentrations 
(LCIO, 50, 90) valúes, Upper and Lower 
confidence limits (UCL, LCL) and slope 
valúes were calculated by the Probit log 
method using POLO computer pro- 
gramme of Russell et al. (1977). The 
regression coefficient was determined 
between exposure time and different 
valúes of LC50 (SoKAL and Rohlf, 1973). 



RESULTS 

Experimental conditions of water 
determined by the method of 
APHA/WPCF (1980). Atmospheric and 
water temperature was ranging from 



30.5 - 31.5 °C and 27.0 - 28.0 °C, respec- 
tively. pH of water was 7.3 - 7.5, while 
dissolved oxygen, free carbón dioxide 
and bicarbonate alkalinity were ranging 
from 6.8 - 7.6, 4.4 - 6.5 and 105.0 - 109.0 
mg/L, respectively for whole experi- 
ments. 

(A) Effects on Behavioural changas 
and Poisoning Symptoms 

Exposure to the aqueous extracts of 
látex and stem bark of Codiaeum variega- 
tum and Crotón tiglium caused signifi- 
cant behavioural changes in the fresh- 
water snails Lymnaea acuminata and 
Indoplanorbis exustus. Behavioural 
changes appear with 5 to 10 min of 
exposure. The initial 30 - 45 min was a 



67 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



Table 11. Toxicity (LCIO, 50, 90) of aqueous freeze-dried látex extracts of Crotón tiglium (Family 
Euphorbiaceae) against Indoplanorbis exustus at different time intervals. Other details are as given 
in Table 1 . 

Tabla II. Toxicidad de extractos acuosos liofilizados de látex (ICIO, 50, 90) de Crotón tiglium 
(Familia Euphorbiaceae) frente a Indoplanorbis exustus en diferentes intervalos de tiempo. Resto de 
detalles como en la Tabla I 

Effective Limit 

Exposure dose (W/V) (mg DW/L) Slope valué 'M ratio 'g' valué Heterogeneity 

periods (mg DW/L) LCL UCL 



24h 



48h 



72h 



96h 



LCl 0=0.009 


0.006 


0.018 




LC50=0.034 


0.026 


0.063 


2.36+0.53 


LC90=0.117 


0.063 


0.549 




LCl 0=0.005 


0.003 


0.008 




LC50=0.02 


0.017 


0.025 


2.36±0.42 


LC90=0.068 


0.044 


0.161 




LCl 0=0.004 


0.002 


0.006 




LC50=0.015 


0.012 


0.017 


2.42±0.40 


LC90=0.050 


0.035 


0.095 




LCl 0=0.03 


0.002 


0.004 




LC50=0.009 


0.008 


0.011 


2.96±0.41 


LC90=0.026 


0.021 


0.037 





4.50 0.18 0.28 



5.56 0.12 0.18 



6.04 0.10 0.26 



7.22 0.48 0.74 



Table III. Toxicity (LCl O, 50, 90) of aqueous freeze-dried látex extracts of Codiaeum variegatum 
(Family; Euphorbiaceae) against lymnaea acuminata at different time intervals. Other details are as 
given in Table 1 . 

Tabla III. Toxicidad de extractos acuosos liofilizados de látex (ICIO, 50, 90) de Codiaeum variegatum 
(Familia Euphorbiaceae) frente a Lymnaea acuminata en diferentes intervalos de tiempo. Resto de deta- 
lles como en la Tabla I. 

Effective Limit 

Exposure dose (W/V) (mg DW/L) Slope valué 't' ratio 'g' valué Heterogeneity 



periods (mg DW/L) LCL UCL 



24h 



48h 



72h 



96h 



LCl 0=0.159 


0.108 


0.189 




LC50=0.381 


0.321 


0.546 


3.41 ±0.77 


LC90=0.906 


0.600 


2.589 




LC10= 0.120 


0.081 


0.147 




LC50=0.258 


0.023 


0.291 


3.92±0.69 


LC90=0.546 


0.432 


0.870 




LCl 0=0.099 


0.066 


0.120 




LC50=0.195 


0.171 


0.213 


4.37±0.69 


LC90=0.381 


0.330 


0.501 




LCl 0=0.090 


0.060 


0.117 




LC50=0.159 


0.141 


0.171 


6.60±0.93 


LC90=0.246 


0.228 


0.279 





4.42 0.19 0.39 



5.62 0.12 0.15 



6.26 0.98 0.20 



7.08 0.07 0.69 



68 



Yadav and Singh: Environmentally safe moUuscicides from two common euphorbiales 



Table IV. Toxicity (LCIO, 50, 90) of aqueous freeze-dried látex extracts of Codiaeum variegatum 
(Family Euphorbiaceae) against Indoplanorbis exustus at different time intervals. Other details are 
as given in Table 1 . 

Tabla IV. Toxicidad de extractos acuosos liofilizados de látex (LClO, 50, 90) de Codiaeum variegatum 
(Familia Euphorbiaceae) frente a Indoplanorbis exustus en diferentes intervalos de tiempo. Resto de 
detalles como en la Tabla I. 



Effective Limit 

Exposure dose (W/V) (mg DW/L) Slope valué 't' ratio 'g' vaiue Heterogeneity 

periods (mg DW/L) LCL UCL 



24h 



48h 



72h 



96h 



LCl 0=0.045 
LC50=0.246 
LC90=1.29 

LC10= 0.018 
LC50=0.093 
LC90=0.471 

LCl 0=0.009 
LC50=0.048 
LC90=0.222 

LCl 0=0.006 
LC50=0.030 
LC90=0.117 



0.024 0.063 

0.183 0.417 

0.651 5.793 

0.006 0.027 

0.075 0.117 

0.318 0.996 

0.003 0.018 

0.036 0.060 

0.165 0.248 

0.003 0.012 

0.018 0.039 

0.093 0.168 



1.78±0.3 5.11 



1.82±0.28 6.42 



1.98±0.28 6.42 



2.16±0.32 6.60 



0.09 



0.09 



0.08 



0.27 



0.28 



0.92 



0.98 



period of hyperactivity during which 
slugish snails moved rapidly in the 
aquarium water. After some time they 
started crawling on each other. As the 
poison enters in the snail's body, a mus- 
cular twitching and the snails become 
spirally twisted, which resulted ataxia, 
convulsión, paralysis and finally death 
of snails. Prior to death, there was com- 
plete withdrawal of the body inside the 
shell that indicates nerve poisoning. 

(B) Dose-mortality response 

LC valúes (LCIO, 50, 90) of aqueous 
extracts of látex and stem bark of Crotón 
tiglium and Codiaeum variegatum for 
period ranging from 24h to 96h for the 
snails, Lymnaea acuminata and Indopla- 
norbis exustus ha ve been given in (Tables 
I-IV and Figure 1). In case of both the 
snails toxicity was time as well as dose 
dependent. There was a significant 
negative correlation between LC50 
valúes and exposure time (Tables I-IV 



and Figure 1). Thus increase in exposure 
time the LC50 of Crotón tiglium látex 
decreased from 0.06 mg DW/L (24h);> 
0.04 mg DW/L (48h);> 0.02 mg DW/L 
(72h);> to 0.014 mg DW/L (96h) and 
0.034 mg DW/L (24h);> 0.02 mg DW/L 
(48h); 0.015 mg DW/L (72h);> to 0.009 
mg DW/L (96h) in case of Lymnaea acu- 
minata and Indoplanorbis exustus, respec- 
tively (Tables I, II). Same trend of toxi- 
city was observed in case of stem bark 
extracts of Crotón tiglium and Codiaeum 
variegatum against both the snails at all 
the exposure periods (Fig. 1). 

Laboratory experiments also indica- 
tes that the látex and stem bark extracts 
of both the plants were more toxic 
against Indoplanorbis exustus than 
Lymnaea acuminata at all the exposure 
periods. 

At higher dose, active moiety of 
plants, which were effective against the 
snails, would also cause death amongst 
the fish. Consequently, a mixed popula- 



69 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



Table V. Per cent mortality (mean ±SE) of Lymnaea acuminata and Channa punctatus caused by 
aqueous extracts of látex and stem bark (i.e. 24h LC90 of snail) of Codiaeum variegatum and 
Crotón tiglium after 24h exposure period. Each aquarium contained ten fish {Channa punctatus) 
and ten snails {Lymnaea acuminata) in 6L dechlorinated tap water. There was no mortality in case 
of control group. 

Table V. Porcentaje de mortalidad (media ±SE) de Lymnaea acuminata y Channa punctatus produ- 
cida por extractos acuosos de látex y corteza de tallos (i.e. 24h LC90 de caracoles) de Codiaeum variega- 
tum y Crotón tiglium después de 24 horas de exposición. Cada acuario contenia 10 peces (Channa 
punctatus^ j 10 caracoles (Lymnaea acuminata^ en 6 1 de agua de grifo desclorada. No hubo mortali- 
dad en el grupo de control 



Plants Plant Parts 


Experimental 
animáis 


Concentration 
(mg DW/L) (w/v) 


% Mortality 


Codiaeum variegatum Látex 


L. acuminata 


0.906 (LC90) 


91.6±2.31 


Stem bark 


C. punctatus 
L. acuminata 


50.14 (LC90) 


Zero 
93.3±1.15 


Crotón tiglium Látex 


C. punctatus 
L. acuminata 


0.19 (LC90) 


Zero 
100 


Stem bark 


C. punctatus 
L. acuminata 


35.52 (LC90) 


Zero 
95.0±2.45 




C. punctatus 


- 


Zero 



tions of 10 snails {Lymnaea acuminata) 
and 10 fish {Channa punctatus) were 
treated with the 24h, LC90 of látex and 
stem bark of Crotón tiglium and Codia- 
eum variegatum, up to the LC90 doses for 
snail Lymnaea acuminata there was no 
mortality amongst fish (Table V). 

The slope valúes given in toxicity 
tables (I - IV) were steep and heteroge- 
neity factor was less than 1.0 indicates 
the result found to be within the 95% 
confidence limits of LC valúes. The 
regression test ('t' ratio) was greater 
than 1.96 and the potency estimation 
test Cg' valué) was less than 0.5 at all 
probability levéis. 



DISCUSSION 

Data of present study shows that the 
extracts of both the plants caused signi- 
ficant behavioural changes in both the 
freshwater snails. The most obvious 
sign of distress in the treated snails were 
muscular twitching and spiral twisting 
of the body, followed by crawling on 
each other. The nature and rapid onset 



of these behavioural responses indicates 
that, the látex perhaps contains some 
neurotoxins, which amongst other 
think, might be active at the neuromus- 
cular system of the exposed animáis. 
Similar behavioural responses were also 
observed Singh and Agarwal (1990), 
in their study on acute toxicity of latices 
of Euphorbia royleana, Euphorbia antisyph- 
liatica and ]atropha gossypifolia on snail 
Lymnaea acuminata. The behavioural 
changes are indeed reminiscent to the 
response of snails to organophosphorus 
and carbamate pesticides (Singh and 
Agarwal, 1981). 

No such behavioural symptoms and 
death occurred in control groups indica- 
ting that no factor other than plant 
moieties was responsible for altered 
behaviour and mortality. 

Mortality caused by the plant parts 
preparation showed a clear significant 
positive correlation between dose and 
mortality. For example, for látex of 
Crotón tiglium present mortality of snail 
Lymnaea acuminata after 24h was 10% at 
0.015 mg DW/L which increased up to 
90% at 0.004 mg DW/L (Table I) which 



70 



Yadav and SinGH: Environmentally safe molluscicides from two common euphorbiales 



3,5-, 

3- 
2,5 

2 
1,5 H 

1 
0,5- 




1 
0,8 
0,6- 
0,4- 
0,2- 



" Crotón tiglium 

[ Codiaeum variegatum 



n 



48h 



96h 



Figure 1. Bar diagram showing the toxicity (LC50; ml/1) of aqueous stem bark extraer of Crotón 
tiglium and Codiaeum variegatum against Lymnaea acuminata (A) and Indoplanorbis exustus (B) at 
difFerent time intervals. Batches of 10 snails were exposed to four different dilutions of aqueous 
extract of bark of C tiglium and C. variegatum. Doses are expressed as final concentration (V/V) of 
stem bark in aquarium. There was no mortality in control group. 

Figura 1. Diagrama de barras que muestra la toxicidad (LC50) de extractos acuosos de corteza de tallos 
de Crotón tiglium y Codiaeum variegatum frente a Lymnaea acuminata (A) y Indoplanorbis 
exustus (B) a diferentes intervalos de tiempo. Se expusieron grupos de 10 caracoles a 4 concentraciones 
distintas de extractos de corteza de C. tiglium y C. variegatum. Las dosis se expresan como concentracio- 
nes finales (V/V) de corteza en el acuarion. No hubo mortalidad en el grupo de control 



in case of Codiaeum variegatum mortality 
it increased from 10% to 90%, when 
doses increased from 0.159 mg DW/L to 
0.090 mg DW/L (Table III). Same trend 
was also observed in case of stem bark 
of both the plants at all the exposure 
periods. 

The positive correlation between 
dose and mortality in all cases was 
noted because increase concentration of 
pesticides in aquarium water resulted in 
more intake or entry of pesticides in the 
body of animáis. This trend is also inde- 
pendent upon several factors such as, 
rate of penetration, nature of slope, 
variability and maximal effects of active 
moieties. 

Aqueous preparation of all the plant 
parts showed a significant negative 
correlation between LC valué and expo- 
sure periods e. g LC50 of látex extracts 
of Crotón tiglium were decreased from 
0.06 mg DW/L (24h); > 0.04 mg DW/L 
(48h); > 0.02 mg DW/L (72h); > 0.014 
mg DW/L (96h) and 0.034 mg DW/L 
(24h); > 0.02 mg DW/L (48h); > 0.015 
mg DW/L (72h); > to 0.009 mg DW/L 



(96h) in the case of Lymnaea acuminata 
and Indoplanorbis exustus respectively 
(Tables I, II). 

Increased in mortality with increa- 
sed in exposure periods could be affec- 
ted by several factors, which may be 
acting separately or conjointly. For 
example, uptake of active moiety is time 
dependent, which leads progressive 
increase the entrance of the drug and its 
effects in the snail body (SiNGH and 
Agarwal, 1988; 1993a; 1993b). Stability 
(life span) of active moiety of pesticides 
in environment and the rate of their 
detoxification in animal body also alter 
the mortality and exposure periods, 
relationships (Mitra, Sud and Mitra, 
1978; Koundinya and Ramammurthy 
1979; Matsumura, 1985). This possibi- 
lity cannot be ruled out in case of plant 
origin pesticides also. 

More important is the fact that the 
látex of these plants is much more toxic 
than synthetic pesticides. The present 
study demonstrates that the látex of 
Crotón tiglium and Codiaeum variegatum 
have higher molluscicidal activity than 



71 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



any of the prevalent synthetic pyreth- 
roids. Thus, the 24h LC50 of mexacarba- 
mate (3.5 ppm), aldicarb (30.00 ppm), 
farmothion (27.00 ppm), Cypermethrin 
(2.5 ppm), permethrin (0.82 ppm) and 
fenavalerate (2.5 ppm) against the 
Lymnaea acuminata (Singh and 
Agarwal 1981; Singh and Agarwal 
1986; 1987; 1988 and 1991; Sahay, Singh 
AND Agarwal, 1991) is higher than that 
of the Crotón tiglium (0.06 ppm) which is 
about 196 times stronger the standard 
molluscicides niclosamide (LC50 11.8 
ppm) (Singh and Agarwal, 1984). 

Statistical analysis of the data on 
toxicity brings out several important 
points. The x^ test for goodness of fit 
(Heterogeneity) demonstrated that the 
mortality counts were not found to be 
significantly heterogeneous and other 
variables, e.g. resistance etc. do not sig- 
nificantly affect the LC50 valúes, as 
these were found to lie within the 95% 
confidence limits. The dose mortality 
graphs exhibit steep slope valúes. The 
steepness of the slope line indicates that 
there is a large increase in the mortality 
of snails with relatively small increase in 
the concentration of the toxicant. The 
slope is, thus an index of the susceptibi- 
lity of the target animal to the pesticides 
used. A steep slope is also indicative of 



rapid absorption and onset of effects. 
Even though the slope alone is not a 
very reliable indicator of toxicological 
mechanism, yet it is a useful parameter 
(Rand and Petrocelli, 1988) for such a 
study. Since the LC50 of the latices of 
different euphorbiales lay within the 
95% confidence limits, it is obvious that 
in replícate test of random samples, the 
concentration response Unes would fall 
in the same range (Rand and Petroce- 
lli, 1988). 

The doses, that can be, used for 
killing the snails are safe for fish. This is 
supported by our observations on a 
mixed population of snails and fish. 

In conclusión, it is believed that the 
extracts of above plants may be used as 
potent source of molluscicides, because 
plant products are less expensive, easily 
available, easily soluble in water and 
less hazardous to the non-target animáis 
than the synthetic molluscicides. 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

One of the authors (Ram R Yadav) is 
thankful to Department of Environment 
and Forest Govt. of India (Sanction No.F- 
14/35/96/MAB-RE dated 9.11.1999) for 
financial assistance. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Amusan, o. o. G., Msothi, J. D. and Mak- 
HUBA, L. P., 1997. MoUuscicidal actlvity of Ur- 
ginia epigea. Fitoterapia, 68: 185-186. 

APHA/AWWA/WPCF, 1985. Standard met- 
hodsfor the examination of water and zvastes wa- 
ter. 16* edition, American Public Health As- 
sociation, New York, U.S.A. 1080 pp. 

Geerts, S., Alard, F., Belot, J. and Sidhom, M., 
1992. The toxicity of Ambrosia marítima to 
snails and non-target organisms. In Symo- 
ens, J. ]., Geerts, S. and Terriest, L. (Eds.): Vec- 
tors control of schistosomiasis using Native 
Airican plants. Seminar Brnssels Royal Academy 
ofOverseas Sciences (Brussels): 89-100. 

Gopalsamy, N., Gueho, J., Julien, H. R., Owa- 
dally, a. W. and Hostettman, K., 1990. 
MoUuscicidal saponins of Polyscias dichroos- 
tachya. Phytochemistry, 29: 793-795. 



Koundinya, R. P. and Ramammurthy, R., 
1979. Effect of sumithion (Fentothion) on 
some selected enzymes system in the fish, Ti- 
lapia mossambica (Reters). Indian Journal of Ex- 
perimental Biology, 16: 808-811. 

Laurens, a., Fournean, C, Hoaqnemiller, R., 
Care, a., Bories, C. and Loiseau, P.M., 1997. 
Antivectorial acfivities of casheunut shell ex- 
tracts from Anacardium occidentale. L. Phy- 
totherapy Research, 11: 145-146. 

Marston, a. and Hostettman, K., 1987. An- 
tifungal molluscicidal and cytotoxic com- 
pounds from plants used in traditional me- 
dicine. In Hostettman, K. and Lea, P. J. (Eds.): 
Biologically Active Natural Products. Oxford 
Science Publications, Clarendon Press Ox- 
ford pp. 65-85. 



72 



Yadav and SingH: Environmentally safe molluscicides from two common euphorbiales 



Marston, a.. Dudan, G., Gupta, M. F., Salís, 
P. N., Correa, M. D. and Hostettman, K., 
1996. Screening of Panamanian plants for 
moUuscicidal activity. International Journal of 
Pharmacognosy, 34: 15-18. 

Matsumura, F., 1985. Toxicity of Insecticides. 
2nd g¿^ pienum Press, New York. pp. 47, 74, 
78-80, 163-165, 446. 

Medina, F. R. and Ritchi, L. S., 1980. MoUus- 
cicidal activity of the Pureto Rican weed So- 
lanum nodiflorum against snail host of Fas- 
ciola hepática. Economic Botany, 34: 368-375. 

Mitra, P. K., Sud S. C. and Mitra, H. C, 1978. 
Acute oral toxicity of metasystoxin in buffalo 
calves. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 
16: 813-815. 

Rand, G. M. and Petrocelli, S. R., 1988. Fun- 
damentáis ofaquatic toxicology. Rand, G. M. and 
Petrocelli, S. R. (Eds.) Hemisphere Publis- 
hing Corporation, New York. 415 pp. 

RUSSELL, R. M., ROBERTSON, J. L. AND SeVIN, N. 
E-, 1977. POLO: A new computer prograinme 
for probit analysis. Bulletin ofthe Entomolol- 
gical Society ofAm.erica, 23: 209-213. 

Sahay, N., Singh, D. K. AND Agarwal, R. a., 
1991. Synergistic effect of piperonyl buto- 
xide the toxicity of synthetic pyrethroids in 
the snail Lymnaea acuminata. Journal of Medi- 
cal and Applied Malacology, 3: 107-111. 

SiNGH, A. AND Agarwal, R. A., 1988. Possibi- 
lity of using látex of euphorbiales for snail 
control. The Science of the total Environment, 
77: 231-267. 

SiNGH, A. AND Agarwal, R. A., 1990. MoUus- 
dcidal properties of synthetic pyrethroids. Jo- 
runal of Medical and Applied Malacology, 2: 
141-144. 

Singh, A. and Agarwal, R. A., 1993a. Toxicity 
of the synthetic pyrethroid fenvalerate, on 
enzymes of the target snail Lymnaea acumi- 
nata and the non-target fish Channa striatus. 
Journal of Medical and Applied Malacology, 5: 
87-91. 



Singh, A. and Agarwal, R. A., 1993b. Effect 
of Cypermethrin on lactate Succinic dehy- 
drogenase and Cytochrome oxidases of snail 
and fish. Bulletin of Environmental contami- 
nation and Toxicology, 51: 445-452. 

Singh, K., Singh, A. and Singh D. K., 1996. Mo- 
Uuscicidal activity of neem {Azadirachta indica 
A. Jus). Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 52: 35- 
40. 

Singh, D. K. and Agarwal, R. A., 1984. Co- 
rrelation of the anticholinesterase and mo- 
Uuscicidal activity of the látex of Euphorbia roy- 
leana Bloss. on Lymnaea acuminata. Journal of 
Natural Products, 47: 702-705. 

Singh, D. K. and Agarwal, R. A., 1986. Toxi- 
city of pesticides to fecundity, hatchability 
and survival of young snail Lymnaea acumi- 
nata. Acta Hydrochimica et Hydrobiologica, 14: 
191-194. 

Singh, D. K. and Agarwal, R. A., 1987. Effect 
of the synthetic pyrethroids permethrin on 
the snail Lymnaea acuminata. The Science of 
the total Environment, 67: 263-267. 

Singh, D. K. and Agarwal, R. A., 1991. Action 
sites of Cypermethrin a synthetic pyreth- 
roids in the snail Lymnaea acuminata. Acta 
Hydrochimica et Hydrobiologica, 19: 425-430. 

Singh, O. and Agarwal, R. A., 1981. Toxicity 
of certain pesticides to two economic species 
of snails in northem India. Journal of Econo- 
mic Entomology, 74: 568-571. 

Singh, S., Singh, V. K. and Singh D. K., 1997. 
MoUuscicidal activity of some common spi- 
ces plants. Biological Agriculture and Horti- 
culture, 14: 237-249. 

SOKAL, R. R. and Rohlf F. J., 1973. Introduction 
to Biostatics. Fremon, W. H. San Francisco. 365 
pp. 

Sukumaran, D., Prashar, B. D. and Rao, K. 
M., 1994. MoUuscicidal properties of Agave 
americana and Balaenities aegyptica. Interna- 
tional Journal of Pharmacognosy, 31: 232-238. 



73 



© Sociedad Española de Malacología Iberus, 19 (1): 75-82, 2001 

The Opisthobranch MoUuscs from Porto Santo Island 
(Madeira Archipelago, Northeastern Atlantic)^ 

Moluscos Opistobranquios de la Isla de Porto Santo (Archipiélago de 
Madeira, Atlántico Nordeste)^ 

Manuel Antonio E. MALAQUIAS*, Juan Lucas CERVERA**, Antonio D. 
ABREU*** and Pablo J. LÓPEZ-GONZÁLEZ^ 



^*^*:4; 



Recibido el 24-XI-2000. Aceptado ¿27-111-2001 

ABSTRACT 

New data on the opisthobranch fauna from Porto Santo island (Madeira Archipelago) are 
presented. A list of the previously recorded sixteen species and their relatives references, 
together the first record of tweive additional species, is supplied. 

RESUMEN 

En este trabajo se presentan nuevos datos sobre la fauna de moluscos opistobranquios de 
la isla de Porto Santo (Archipiélago de Madeira). Se confecciona una lista de las dieciseis 
especies previamente citadas en esta isla, junto a sus correspondientes referencias, la cual 
se ve incrementada con otras doce especies adicionales citadas por primera vez en esta 
contribución. 



KEY WORDS: Mollusca, Opisthobranchia, Porto Santo, Madeira, Portugal. 
PALABRAS CLAVE: Mollusca, Opisthobranchia, Porto Santo, Madeira, Portugal. 



INTRODUCTION 

Among the islands of Madeira sieck, 1972; Nordsieck and García- 

Archipelago, Porto Santo is one of the Talayera, 1979; Wirtz, 1994; Fonseca, 

less known with respect to the opistho- Guerreiro and Gil, 1995; Wirtz, 1999). 
branchs. Only seven papers are known Porto Santo is the second largest 

to US referring the presence of 16 species island of Madeira archipelago and is 

of opisthobranchs in Porto Santo situated 21 miles on the Northeast of 

(Watson, 1897; Nobre, 1937; NORD- Madeira island. It lies between 33° 07' N 



' Contribution of the Instituto Portugués de Malacologia 

* Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Faculdade de Ciencias do Mar e do Ambiente, Universidade do Algarve, Campus 

de Cámbelas, 8000 - 810 Faro, Portugal, mmalaqui@ualg.pt 

** Departamento de Biología Animal, Vegetal y Ecologia, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad de Cádiz, 

Apartado 40 - 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz, España, lucas.cervera@uca.es 

*** Estagáo de Biología Marinha do Funchal, Cais do Carváo, Promenade da Orla Marítima do Funchal, 

Gorgulho, 9000 - 107 Funchal, Portugal, antonio.d.abreu@maíl.cm-funchal.pt 

**** Laboratorio de Biología Marina, Departamento de Fisiología y Biología Animal, Facultad de Biología, 

Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes 7, Apdo. 1095, 41080 Sevilla, España, jlopez@cica.es 

7S 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 






Porto Santo 



Porto Santo 



'.¿P- 




Madeira 



, Ilhéu Chao 

N Deserta Grande 
' 

i Bugio 



O 10 20 30 km 



& 




Figure 1 . (A) Madeira archipelago and (B) Porto Santo Island with sampling localities. 1 Ilhéu de 
Ferro; 2: Porto de Abrigo; 3: Pedras Altas; 4: Ilhéu do Farol; 5: Ponta da Galé; 6: Porto dos Frades; 
7: Pontinha. 

Figura 1. (A) Archipiélago de Madeira y (B) Localidades de muestreo en la Isla de Porto Santo: 1: Ilhéu 
de Ferro; 2: Porto de Abrigo; 3: Pedras Altas; 4: Ilhéu do Farol; 5: Ponta da Galé; 6: Porto dos Frades; 
7: Pontinha. 



- 33° 00' N and 16° 25' W - 16° 17' W and 
has an approximate área of 41 Km^ with a 
Coastal line of 38 Km. It is surrounded by 
seven islets, three of them with conside- 
rable dimensions. The littoral of Porto 
Santo is quite different from that of 
Madeira, mostly due to the presence of 
calcareous rocks and a large sandy beach. 
Whether these features are responsible or 
not for any particular faunistical compo- 
sition of Porto Santo's littoral ecosystems 
is not yet known, by lacking of available 
ecological Information. 

As part of the research Programme 
OpisthoMadeira, launched in 1994 by 
the Museu Municipal do Funchal (His- 
toria Natural), several field sampling 
were carried on Porto Santo island, 
which results are reported here together 
with a compilation of the previous 
bibliographical records. 



MATERIAL AND METHODS 

During the period of 18 to 23 Septem- 
ber 2000, opisthobranch molluscs were 



collected in eight different localities in a 
total of ten sampling efforts, covering both 
the intertidal and the subtidal áreas down 
to 20 meters depth. On the subtidal áreas 
the specimens were collected by SCUBA 
diving, using a suction device and by 
manual coUecting after direct observation. 
Substratum covered with seaweeds, 
sponges, bryozoans and hydrozoans colo- 
nies were particularly searched. 

After sieving, the specimens were 
studied with stereomicroscopes, photo- 
graphed, fixed in formalin 4% and pre- 
served in ethanol 70%. 

The specimens were kept in the 
collections of the Museu Municipal do 
Funchal (Historia Natural) (designated 
as MMF). 



RESULTS 

Fourteen species were collected and 
identified during the present Campaign 
(1 Cephalaspidea, 1 Anaspidea, 1 Saco- 
glossa, 2 Tylodinoidea, 1 Pleurobran- 
choidea, and 8 Nudibranchia) and 



76 



Malaquias ETAL.: Opisthobranch molluscs from Porto Santo Island 



Table I. Opisthobranch molluscs from Porto Santo island. 
Tabla I. Moluscos Opistobranquios de Lt Isla de Porto Santo. 



Cephalaspidea Fischer, 1 863 [senm Mikkelsen, 1 996) 

Chelidonura africana Pruvot-Fol, 1 953 Present account. Porto de Abrigo, 1 8th September 2000, 

one specimen with 3 mm in length. 22nd September 2000, 

one specimen (MMF31629) with 3mm in length, collected 

ot night time under o flooting ¡etty. 

NORDSIECK (1972: 15), NoRDSiECK AND García-Taiavera (1979: 170) 

Watson (1897: 234), Nobre (1937: 15) 

Nordsieck (1972: 22 as PhÜingwynia monterosatl], 
NoRDSiECK AND GarcIa-Talavera (1979: 171) 

Watson (1897: 236), Nobre (1937: 17) and 
Nordsieck and GarcIa-Taiavera (1979: 172) 

Watson (1997: 326 as Utriculus truncatulus], Nordsieck 
(1972: 34 as Retusa mar/e/), NoBRE (1937: 14 as Tornatina truncatula] 

Nordsieck and GarcIa-Talavera (1979: 177 as 
Reiusa (Mamiiioretusaj mamilíata] 

Nordsieck and GarcÍA-Taiavera (1979: 176 as Retvsa leptoleynema) 

Nordsieck (1972: 36 as Semiretusa tomata], Nordsieck and 
GarcÍA-Taiavera (1979: 177 as Semiretusa tomata] 

Scapbar)cier (W.) diapbana Aradas and Maggiore, 1 839 Watson (1 897: 3 1 5), Nobre (1 937: 1 4) 



Cylichna cy/mdraceo (Pennant, 1767) 
Pyrunculus spretus (Watson, 1 897) 
Philine rDonterosatoi (Vayssiére, 1 885) 

Philine desmoUs Watson, 1 897 

Retusa trur)caiula (Bruguiére, 1 792) 

Retusa mamilíata (Brusina, 1 865) 

Retusa leptoleinema (Brusina, 1 865) 
Retusa torr^ata (Watson, 1 883) 



Anaspidea Fischer, 1 883 

Aplysia párvula Guilding in Morch, 1 863 



Sacoglossa Iheríng, 1 876 

Ascobulla fragilis Peffreys, 1 856) 

£/ys/o flavo Verril, 1901 



Pleurobranchoidea Ferussac, 1822 

Bertbellina edwardsi (Vayssiére, 1 896) 



Tylodinoidea Gray, 1 847 

Tylodirta perversa (Gmelin in L., 1791) 



Umbraculum umbraculum (Lightfoot, 1 796) 



Present account. Porto de Abrigo, 20th September 2000, 

one specimen (MMF31626) with 20 mm in length. 22nd September, 

three specimens (MMF31631) with 2,5, 3 and 4 mm in length, 

collected during night time under o floating ¡etty. 



Watson (1897: 284) and Nobre (1937: 16) 

Present account. Pontinho, 22nd September 2000, one specimen 
(AAMF31636) with 9 mm in length, collected under a stone ot 10 m depfh. 



Present account. Ilhéu de Ferro (Southeost shore), 19th September, 

one specimen (MMF31637) with 13 mm in length, 

collected under a stone at 10 m depth. 



WlRTZ (1999: 6), Present account. Ilhéu de Ferro (Southeost shore), 

19th September 2000, one specimen with 4 mm of shell length, 

collected neor the sponge Aplysir)a aeropboba ot 1 m depth. Pedros 

Altas, 20th September 2000, two specimens with 5 mm of shell length, 

collected neor the sponge Aplysma aerophoba ot 3 m depth. Ilhéu 

do Farol (Southeost shore), 21st September 2000, one 

specimen with 7 mm in length. 

Present account. Pontinha, 22nd September 2000, 

one specimen (MMF31634) with 50 mm of shell length, 

collected crawling on o woll at 10 m depth. 



77 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



Table 1. Continuation. 
Tabla I. Continuación. 



Nudíbranchia Blainville, 1814 

Aeglres sublaevis Odhner, 1 93 1 



Aldisa smaragdina Ortea, Pérez and Llera, 1 982 



Chromodoris purpurea (Laurillard, 1 831 



Discodoris atromaculata (Bergh, 1 884) 

Discodoris confusa Ballesteros, Llera and Ortea, 1 984 

Hypselodoris bilineata (Pruvot-Fol, 1953) 

Hypselodoris pida (d'Orbigny, 1 839) 

1 

Tambja ceutae Garcia-Gómez and Ortea, 1 988 



Taringa cf. fanabensis Ortea and Martínez, 1 992 
Platydoris argo (Linné, 1 767) 



Plocamopherus maderae (Lowe, 1 842) 
Pseudovermis sp. 



Present account. Porto dos Frades, 21st September 2000, 
one specimen (MMF31624) with 3,5 mm in length, 
collected bellow algae between O and 1 m depth. 

Present account. Ilhéu de Ferro (Southeast shore), 
19th September 2000, five specimens (MMF3 1641) with 10, 
12, 14, 16 and 20 mm in length, under stones covered by a 

red sponge at approximately 10 m depth. Pedros Altas, 
20th September 2000, one specimen with 23 mm in length, 

collected at 3 m depth, under a stone with red sponges. 

Present account. Porto de Abrigo, 20th September 2000, 
one specimen (MMF31632) with 7 mm in length, collected under a 
stone at 4 m depth. Porto de Abrigo (out part of the west harbour 
protection near the beach), 23rd September 2000, one specimen 

(MMF3164) with 10 mm in length, collected under a stone 
between 4 to 5 m depth. 

WiRTZ(1994: 169; 1999:7) 

WiRTZ (1999: 8), Present account. Ponto da Galé, 

1 8th September 2000, one specimen with 40 mm 

in length, collected under o stone ot 6 meters depth. 

WlRTz(1999:7) 

Present account. Ilhéu de Ferro (Southeast shore), 

19th September 2000, one specimen (MMF31623) with 50 mm 

in length, collected under a stone at 9 m depth 

Present account. Porto de Abrigo, 22nd September 2000, 

five specimens (MMF31627) with 4, 16, 20, 26 and 27 mm in 

length, collected at night time under o floating ¡etty on 

colonies of the bryozoan Bugula dentata. 

WlRTZ(1999:9) 

Present account. Ilhéu de Ferro (Southeast shore), 19th September 2000, 

two specimens (MMF31625) with 18 and 28 mm length, collected under 

stones ot obout 10 m depth. Pontinha, 22nd September 2000, two 

specimens (MMF31642) with 10 and 12 mm in length, collected 

under stones at about 10 m depth. 

Present account. Pontinha, 22nd September 2000, one specimen 
(MMF3 1 622) with 20 mm in length, collected under o stone at 1 m depth. 

FoNSECAfr/\í. (1995:243) 



(Right page) Figure 2. A: Chelidonura africana (10 mm; specimen collected at Porto Santo, 24th June 
1999); B: Aplysia párvula (20 mm); C: Tylodina perversa (7 mm); D: Umbraculum umbraculum (50 
mm of shell length); E: Elysia flava (9 mm); F: Berthellina edwardsi (13 mm); G: Aegires sublaevis (7 mm; 
the illustrated specimen is from the southern coast of Madeira Island); H: Tambja ceutae (20 mm). 
(Página derecha) Figura 2. A: Chelidonura africana (10 mm; ejemplar capturado en Porto Santo el 24 Junio 
1999); B: Aplysia párvula (20 mm); C: Tylodina perversa (7 mm); D: Umbraculum umbraculum (50 
mm de longitud de la concha); E: Elysia flava (9 mm); F: Berthellina edwardsi (13 mm); G; Aegires sublae- 
vis (7 mm; el ejemplar ilustrado proviene de la costa sur de la Isla de Madeira); H: Tambja ceutae (20 mm). 



78 



Malaquias ETAL.: Opisthobranch moUuscs from Porto Santo Island 




79 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



twelve of them are new records for 
Porto Santo island. Table I shows this 
news records and all the explicit histori- 
cal and recently references for opistho- 
branch molluscs on Porto Santo island. 



DISCUSSION 

Despite tbe ne\y\records for Porto 
Santo, it>must be pointed out that all the 
species were already known for 
Madeira Islaíid. Our- recofd of Elysia 
flava is a confirmation of the hypotheti- 
cal occurrence of this species in the 
archipelago since Ortea, Moro and Espi- 
nosa (1997) have quoted this sacoglos- 
san species for Madeira without provi- 
ding any Information about the location 
of those spe€imens. However, the geo- 
graphical distribution given by Ortea, 
Moro, Bacallado and Espinosa (1998) for 
this species does not include Madeira. 

Four apparently undescribed species, 
two of them belonging to the cephalaspi- 
dean genus Runcina and the remaining 
to the nudibranch genera Geitodoris and 
Cratena, were also collected and are 
currently under study. 

Taking in account the present results 
(excluding the unidentified species) and 
the bibliographical data, we can say that 
the known opisthobranch fauna in Porto 
Santo island comprises a total of 28 species, 
10 belonging to the Cephalaspidea, 1 to 
the Anaspidea, 2 to the Sacoglossa, 2 to 
the Tylodinoidea, 1 to the Pleurobran- 
choidea and 12 to the Nudibranchia. 

Some remarks can be commented 
taking into consideration the geographic 
distribution of the species collected in 
Porto Santo Island. Most of the species 
(65.2%) are considered NE Atlantic 
Mediterranean species. About half of 
these (34 % of the total) are restricted 



mainly to the Lusitanic + Mauritanic + 
Mediterranean área, being the températe 
carácter (Mauritanic + Mediterranean) 
represented by the 17.4% of the total. 

Those opisthobranch species only 
collected in the central Macaronesian 
archipelagos (Madeira islands and 
Canary islands) are here considered 
endemic of this área, and reach the 13% 
of the total {Discodoris confusa, Pyruncu- 
lus spretus dnd Philine desmotis). 

The presence of widely distributed 
species (circuntropical, 8.7%; amphia- 
tlantic, 4.4%), as well as, températe or 
subtropical NE Atlantic species is not 
very significant (8.7%). 

In conclusión. Porto Santo possesses 
an intermedíate position between the 
European and African faunae. The 
South European and North African 
species are the most important compo- 
nents, being moderately low the partici- 
pation of widely distributed species and 
central Macaronesian endemism. Addi- 
tional data from future campaigns will 
surely improve our knowledge about 
the biogeographical relationships of the 
different Macaronesian archipelagos. 
Another interesting aspect is the evalua- 
tion of the importance of these islands 
as intermedíate steps in the dispersión 
of temperate-subtropical species, as well 
as, the possible gradient of endemic 
species from Azores throughout 
Madeira and Canary up to Cape Verde, 
following the Eastern Gulf Stream 
branch and Canary current influence. 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

Thanks are due to the Clube Naval do 
Porto Santo, the Administragáo de Portos 
da Regiáo Autónoma da Madeira, the 
crew of the vessel Ponte da Arela and to 



(Right page) Figure 3. A: Plocamopherus maderae (20mm); B: Chromodoris purpurea (7mm); C: 
Hypselodoris picta (50mm); D: Aldisa smaragdina (12mm); E: Discodoris confusa (40mm); F: Platy- 
doris argo (28mm); G: Aldisa smaragdina (23mm). 

(Página derecha) Figura 3. A: Plocamopherus maderae (20mm); B: Chromodoris purpurea (7mm); 
C: Hypselodoris picta (50mm); D: Aldisa smaragdina (12mm); E: Discodoris confusa (40mm); F: 
Platydoris argo (28mm); G: Aldisa smaragdina (23mm). 



80 



Malaquias ETAL.: Opisthobranch molluscs from Porto Santo Island 







81 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



the Directive Staff of the Escola B+S Pro- 
fessor Dr. Francisco de Freitas Branco 
(Porto Santo) for all the logistic support 
and facilitles supplied during our stay in 
Porto Santo island. 

This work was partially sponsored by 
the CRUP-Conselho de Reitores das Uni- 



versidades Portuguesas, ac^oes integra- 
das Luso-Espanholas E91 / 00 and Subdi- 
rección General de Formación y Promo- 
ción del Conocimiento, Ministerio de 
Educación y Cultura "HP1999-0093" and 
by the Scientific Affairs División from 
NATO, reference action CRG.970607. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



FONSECA, L. C, GUERREIRO, J. AND GiL, ]., 
1995. Note on the macrozoobenthos of the 
upper level sediments of Porto Santo Is- 
land (Madeira, Portugal). Boletim do Museu 
Municiipal do Puncha!, Suplemento 4: 233- 
252. 

MiKKELSEN, P. M., 1996. The evolutionary re- 
lationships of Cephalaspidea s. 1. (Gastro- 
poda: Opisthobranchia): a phylogenetic 
analysis. Malacologia, 37 (2): 375-442. 

NOBRE, A., 1937. Moluscos Testáceos Marin- 
hos do Arquipélago da Madeira. Memorias e 
Estudos do Museu Zoológico da Universidade 
de Coimbra, lOlp. 

NORDSIECK, F., 1972. Die europdischen Mee- 
resschnecken (Opisthobranchia mit Pyramidelli- 
dae; Rissoacea) vom Eismeer bis Kap Verden, 
Mittelmeer und Schwarzes Meer. Gustav Fischer 
Verlag, 327p. 

NoRDSiECK, F. AND García-Talavera, F., 1979. 
Moluscos marinos de Canarias y Madera (Gas- 
tropoda). Aula de Cultura de Tenerife, 208p., 
pls. I-XLVI. 



Ortea, J., Moro, L., and Espinosa, ]., 1997. 
Nuevos datos sobre el género Elysia Risso, 
1818 (Opisthobranchia: Sacoglossa) en el 
Atlántico. Revista de la Academia Canaria de 
Ciencias, 9 (número 2, 3 y 4): 141-155. 

Ortea, ]., Moro, L., Bacallado, J. J. and Es- 
pinosa, J., 1998. Catálogo abreviado de las es- 
pecies del orden Sacoglossa (=Ascoglossa, 
Mollusca: Opisthobranchia) de las islas Ca- 
narias y de Cabo Verde. Revista de la Acade- 
mia Canaria de Ciencias, 10 (número 4): 85-96. 

Watson, R. B., 1897. On the Marine Mollusca 
from Madeira; with Descriptions of Thirty- 
five new Species, and an Index-List of all the 
know Sea-dwelling Species of that Island. 
Linnean Society's Journal - Zoology, 26: 18-320. 

WlRTZ, P., 1994. Three shrimps, five nudi- 
branchs, and two tunicates new for the ma- 
rine fauna of Madeira. Boletim do Museu Mu- 
nicipal do Funchal, 46 (257): 167-172. 

WiRTZ, P., 1999. Opisthobranch Molluscs from 
the archipelago of Madeira. Vita Marina, 46 
(1-2): 1-18. 



82 



© Sociedad Española de Malacología Iberus, 19 (1): 83-1 14, 2001 



Contribution to the marine moUuscan fauna of Kerguelen 
Islands, South Indian Ocean 

Contribución a la fauna de moluscos marinos de las Islas Kerguelen, 
Sur del Océano Indico 

NicolásTRONCOSO*, JackieL. VAN GOETHEM** and Jesús S. TRONCOSO* 

Recibido el l-XII-2000. Aceptado el 27-111-2001 

ABSTRACT 
The present work contributes to the knowledge of the mollusc fauna of the Kerguelen Is., 
on the basis of a collection of the Institut Royol des Sciences naturelles de Belgique. This 
collection include 32 species of gastropods and 1 2 of bivalves collected in shallow waters 
of the Morbihan Boy, among the gastropods Margantes cf. porcellana and Peñssodonta 
mirabilis are the most abundant, whereas among the bivalves the commonest species are 
Gaimardia trapesina and Laternula elliptica. Most of the species in this collection have a 
wide distribution, although some species are endemics of Kerguelen Is. or of the Kergue- 
len-Heard platform and another species circumantartic. 

RESUMEN 
El presente trabajo es una contribución al conocimiento de la fauna de moluscos de las 
Islas Kerguelen, basada en una colección del Institut Royal des Sciences naturelles de Bel- 
gique. Esta colección incluye 32 especies de gasterópodos y 1 2 de bivalvos recolectadas 
en aguas someras de la Bahía de Morbihan, entre los gasterópodos Margantes cf. porce- 
llana y Perissodonta mirabilis son las especies más abundantes, mientras que entre los 
bivalvos las especies más comunes son Gaimardia trapesina y Laternula elliptica. La 
mayoría de las especies de esta colección tienen una amplia distribución, aunque algunas 
de ellas son endémicas de las Islas Kerguelen o de la plataforma Kerguelen-Heard y otras 
son de distribución circumantartica. 



KEY WORDS: Molluscs, Gastropods, Bivalves, Taxonomy, Kerguelen Is., Subantarcdc región. 
PALABRAS CLAVE: Moluscos, Gasterópodos, Bivalvos, Taxonomía, Islas Kerguelen, Región Subantartica. 



INTRODUCTION 

During the second half of the 19th fauna is well known, due to the number 

century and during the 20th, there were of coUections that have been made and 

many expeditions to the Southern reported since the original report of 

Ocean, resulting in a great number of Smith (Powell, 1957). The benthic 

taxonomic and ecological studies on fauna of the Kerguelen Is. was first 

molluscs. The Kerguelen archipelago studied by Studer in 1889 (Arnaud, 

* Dpto. Ecoloxía e Bioloxía Animal, Facultade de Ciencias, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, Universidade de Vigo, 

E-36200, Vigo, Spain. 

** Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Rué Vautier 29, B-1000, Bruxelles, Belgium. 

83 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



1974) and later a few works about Ker- 
guelen were published, among them 
one may emphasise the works made by 
PowELL (1957), Arnaud (1974) and 
Cantera and Arnaud (1985). Follo- 
wing the work published by Cantera 
and Arnaud (1985), the Kerguelen and 
Crozet gastropods are well known, but 
our work provides taxonomic remarks 
to make's easy the identification of the 
Kerguelen fauna. 

Kerguelen Is. are located at about 
2000 km from the Antarctic continent, 
on the Kerguelen-Heard platform in the 
subantarctic waters and is composed of 
about 300 islands and islets (Arnaud 
1974). They are placed between the sub- 
tropical and the antarctic convergence 
and have a volcanic origin (Cantera 
and Arnaud, 1985). Most of the speci- 
mens were collected in the Morbihan 
Bay, in the oriental part of the archipe- 
lago. This work is a revisión of the fauna 
collected by a Belgian expedition, giving 
taxonomic remarks of some species. 

The present collection comprises 44 
species of moUuscs. A number of species 
are impossible to identify without access 
to the type material; for this reason 
these species are recorded with doubts. 
We follow the nomenclature of Dell 
(1990) and that of Cantera and 



Arnaud (1985) for the species absent 
from Dell's work. 



MATERIAL AND METHODS 

The present material was collected 
by C. De Broyer during January and 
February of 1982 during the mission 
Ker-82 of the Instituí Royal des Sciences 
naturelles de Belgique (l.G. 26.482 
l.R.Sc.N.B.-K.B.I.N.). Sample stations in 
the Morbihan Bay are represented in 
Figure 1 and stations situation and cha- 
racteristics are included in Table I. 

In the record of the material, "sp." 
denotes live collected material, "shell" 
refers to empty gastropod shells, and 
"valve" refers to dead bivalve shells. 

Anatomical descriptions are based 
on preserved material and the radulae 
were removed by dissection and drawn 
with the aid of a camera lucida connec- 
ted to an Olympus BX 40 microscope. 

Photographs were obtained using a 
digital camera Olympus DPIO and pro- 
cessed using Microimage analysis soft- 
ware. Shells measurements were obtai- 
ned with a electronic digital caliper, 
measuring the minor axis first. The 
major and minor specimens are separa- 
ted by a dash. 



SYSTEMATICS 

Class Gastropoda 

Family Fissurellidae Fleming, 1822 

Genus Puncturella Lowe, 1827 

Puncturella cónica (Orbigny, 1841) (Fig. 2) 

Rimula cónica Orbigny, 1841. 

Puncturella noachina (non Linn.) Watson, 1886: 42; Strebel, 1908: 79; Thiele, 1912: 234. 
Puncturella cónica: Powell, 1951: 86; Powell, 1957: 125; Powell, 1960:127; Arnaud, 1972: 113; 
Cantera and Arnaud, 1985: 32; Branch et al, 1991: 55. 



Material: 1 broken shell (7.5 x 3.5 x 3.6 mm), D9; 1 shell (8.13 x 5.60 x 4.05 mm), D37. 



Remarks: Only two empty shells 
were collected agreeing in size and shell 
characteristics with Puncturella cónica, 
which appears in Branch et al. (1991). 
Arnaud (1972) records P. spirigera 



Thiele, 1912 as a synonym of P. cónica 
Orbigny, 1841 and says that it only 
differs in the apex position, imputing it 
to small size of the type material of spiri- 



84 



Troncoso ETAL.: Marine molluscan fauna of Kerguelen Islands, South Indian ocean 




Figure 1. Sample stations in the Morbihan Bay, Kerguelen Is. 
Figura 1. Estaciones de muestreo en Morbihan Bay, islas Kerguelen. 



Distribution: Type localities of this 
species are Falkland Is. {cónica and fal- 
klandica) and Kerguelen Is. (P. análoga). 
Watson (1886 as noachina) finds this 
species at Marión, Prince Edward and 
Kerguelen Is. and in the Strait of Mage- 
llan. Strebel (1908) records P. noachina 
in Berkeley Sound. Powell (1951) 
records cónica in South Georgia, Cla- 
rence, South Shetlands and Falkland Is. 
Later he finds this species in open sea 



near Kerguelen Is. (Powell, 1957). The 
distribution range given by Powell 
(1960) includes Strait of Magellan, Fal- 
kland, South Georgia, South Shetland 
and Kerguelen Is. Arnaud (1972) finds 
one specimen in Adelie Land and 
Cantera and Arnaud (1985) records 
this species in Crozet and Kerguelen Is. 
Branch et al. (1991) record this species 
in Marión and Prince Edward Is., 5-355 



85 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



Family Trochidae Rafinesque, 1815 
GenxxsMargarites Gray, 1847 

Margantes cf. porcellana Powell, 1951 (Figs. 3, 43) 

Margarella porcellana Powell, 1951: 98, pl. 5, fig. 2; Branch et al, 1991: 56. 

Material: 1 shell (10.0 x 11.0 mm), D2; 1 sp. (4.98 x 5.21 mm), D3-D4; 1 sp. (7.69 x 9.05 mm), D5; 1 
sp. (5.72 X 6.44 mm), D6; 21 shells (7.25 x 9.18 mm - 4.14 x 4.90 mm), D9; 8 sp. (9.42 x 10.88 mm - 
5.94 x 6.68 mm), DIO; 9 sp. (12.35 x 13.96 mm - 10.98 x 13.61 mm) and 10 broken shells, D18; 1 shell 
(9.37 X 10.01 mm), D19-21; 10 sp. (8.45 x 9.7 mm - 3.1 x 3.5 mm) and 1 shell (9.51 x 10.13 mm), D25- 
D29; 18 sp. (8.75 x 10.36 mm - 2.5 x 3.0 mm), D35. 



Remarks: Deambrosi (1969 in Dell 
1990) was the first author who separated 
the genus Margarella and Margantes on the 
basis of the first lateral tooth, including in 
Margarella the species with the first lateral 
tooth large. This author shows that the 
first lateral tooth of other species is rudi- 
mentary and takes this character to sepá- 
rate the genus Margarites and Margarella. 
Later, Dell (1990) remarks that Margarella 
Thiele, 1893 and Margarites Gray, 1847 
must be considered synonyms, on the 
basis of the expansa radula, the type 
species of Margarella, which belongs to the 
first group, with a first lateral teeth large. 
Individuáis of this species found in this 
collection have a radula with the first 
lateral tooth well developed (see fig. 43), 
belonging to this genus. On the basis of 
shell characters we think that these indi- 
viduáis belong to the species M. porcellana. 
These individuáis have a uniformly white 
shell with a white columelar callus, four 
and half whorls and the suture adpressed, 
these characters agree with the descrip- 



tion of the species given by Powell (1951). 
On the other hand the shell measurements 
are larger in our individuáis than in the 
type material. In this collection we found 
individuáis that reach 12.35 mm x 13.96 
mm while the individuáis described by 
Powell (1951) were 8.0 mm x 7.0 mm. 
Moreover the columelar callus of the Ker- 
guelen individuáis do not reach the outer 
lip as in the type material. These two dif- 
ferences make us record this species with 
doubts. Unf ortunately the radula of Mar- 
garella porcellana is not known and because 
of that it is not possible to compare with 
our radula. 

Distribution: The type locality is off 
Marión I. Powell (1951) describes this 
species with material found in three sta- 
tions off Marión I. in a bathymetric 
range of 97-113 m, Branch et al. (1991) 
record this species from Marión and 
Prince Edward Is. at depths of 10-151 m, 
as rare to abundant. A total of 48 indivi- 
duáis were found in mud ,sand and 
algae from depths of 10-50 m. 



Margantes violácea (King and Broderip, 1831) (Figs. 4, 44) 

Margarita violácea (King and Broderip, 1831) 
Photinula (Margarella) violácea: Strebel, 1908: 72. 

Margarella violácea: Powell, 1951: 96; Powell, 1957: 125; Powell, 1960: 131; Cantera and Arnaud, 
1985: 37. 



Material: 1 shell (9.20 x 9.94 mm), D5; 2 sp. (8.47 x 10.19 mm; 6.01 x 6.66), D6; 2 sp. (8.95 x 10.18 
mm; 4.16 x 4.92 mm), D8; 1 sp. (10.55 x 11.40 mm), D12-D14; 1 shell (8.54 x 9.55 mm), D16-D17; 1 
sp. (10.52 X 11.96 mm), D19-D21; 7 sp. (9.37 x 8.81 mm - 3.39 x 3.73 mm), D25-D29; 2 sp. (7.29 x 8.68 
mm; 5.98 x 7.90 mm) and 1 deteriorated sp., D31-D32; 7 sp. (6.53 x 7.55 mm - 5.27 x 6.36 mm), D35. 



Remarks: We follow Dell's nomencla- 
ture, which considers Margarella Thiele, 
1893 and Margarites Gray, 1847 sy- 



nonyms. Deambrosi (1969 in Dell, 
1990) showed that the first lateral tooth 
of violácea was large, including this spe- 



86 



TrONCOSO ET al.: Marine molluscan fauna of Kerguelen Islands, South Indian ocean 



Table I. Place, date and characteristics of the sample stations. 
Tabla I. Lugar, fecha y características de las estaciones de muestreo. 



Station 



Place 



Date 



Depth (m) 



Bottom 



Sample device 



D2 

D3-D4 

D5 

D6 

D7 

D8 

D9 

DIO 

D12-D14 

D16-D17 

D18 

D19-D21 
D25-D29 
D31-D32 
D35 

D36 

D37 
D38-D39 

M14 

Pl 

TI 



Passe de Buenos-Aires, 

NW. Glénan I. 

Passe de Buenos-aires. 

Passe de Buenos-Aires, 

NW. Glénan I. 

S. Suhm I. 

NW. Boyle I. 

N. Boyle I. 

Por! aux Francais-Chonner I. 

Pointe Quite 

Passe Royale 

N. Antarés I. 

Anse du Halage-Port 

Jeanne d'Arc 

SW. Suhm I. 

S. Suhm I. 

N. Antarés I. 

SW. Suhm I. 

Fosse de l'Hrographie. Between 

Suhm I. and Port Douziéme 

Plateu du Four. 

Passe de Buenos-Aires. 

Anse du Halage-Port 

Jeanne d'Arc 

In front Biomar laboratory 

Port aux Francais, in the shore 

of Pointe des Cormorans 



19/01/1982 


23 


Mud 


Dredge 


19/01/1982 


42 


Mud, spicles and serpulids tubes 


Dredge 


19/01/1982 


23 


Mud, spicles and Macrocystis 


Dredge 


19/01/1982 


40 


Mud and spicles 


Dredge 


19/01/1982 


65 


Mud 


Dredge 


19/01/1982 


48 


Mud 


Dredge 


28/01/1982 


30 


Mud 


Dredge 


28/01/1982 


30 


Mud, sand and Macrocystis 


Dredge 


28/01/1982 


30 


Mud, sand and Macrocystis 


Dredge 


28/01/1982 


50 


- 


Dredge 


29/01/1982 


10 


Mud 


Dredge 


29/01/1982 


40-50 


- 


Dredge 


10/02/1982 


30-50 


Mud and Rhodophyces 


Dredge 


23/02/1982 


50 


Mud 


Dredge 


23/02/1982 


25 


Macrocystis and Rhodophyces 


Dredge 


23/02/1982 


90 


Mud 


Dredge 


23/02/1982 


25 


Sand, Pebble and grovel 


Dredge 


1/03/1982 


35 


- 


Dredge 


10/02/1982 


0,1-0,4 


Sand 


Hand net 


18/01/1982 


- 


Over Macrocystis 


Hand net diving 


17/02/198218/02/1982 


15 


Stomachic contens 


Baited trap 



cies in the genus Margarella that later 
Dell (1990) considers synonym of Mar- 
garites. There are two species of Margare- 
lla-Margarites recorded in the Kerguelen 
Is.; expansa with a ligth olivaceus colora- 
tion and a máximum size of 20 mm and 
violácea that it is cióse to expansa but dif- 
fers in a more elevated spire, honey co- 
lour and a minor size (max. 12 mm). 
Dell (1990) points out that expansa, the 
type species of Margarella, has the first 
lateral tooth rudimentary, whereas viola- 
cea has the first lateral tooth large. Our 
specimens is honey-coloured with a 
white callus and its radula have the first 



lateral tooth large (see fig. 44), for these 
reasons we have included them in viola- 
cea. 

Distribution: The type locality is 
Strait of Magellan. Strebel (1908) 
records this species in the magellanic 
región. Powell (1951) found violácea in 
the magellanic región and Falkland Is. 
and láter records this species with 
doubts in Kerguelen Is. (Powell, 1957). 
Cantera and Arnaud (1985) found 
death shells of M.violacea in Crozet. In 
this collection there are 23 individuáis 
found in mud, sand and algae from 
depths of 23-50 m. 



87 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



Family Patellidae Rafinesque, 1815 
Genus Nacella Schumacher, 1817 

Nacella cf. mytilina (Helbling, 1779) (Fig. 5) 

Patella mytilina Helbling, 1779 

Nacella mytilina Powell, 1951: 80; Powell, 1957: 126; Poweil, 1960: 128. 



Material: 1 sp. (12.50 x 8.99 x 4.0 mm), Pl. 

Remarks: Only one thin individual 
with brown ovate shell and anterior 
central apex has been found. It has fine 
concentric grown lines. Powell (1951) 
restricted the genus to "the thin, ovate 
shells with anterior apex". Moreover 
this individual has the gilí cordón conti- 
nuous and the foot encircled by a scallo- 
ped epipodial ridge, exactly like the 
genus description made by Powell 
(1951). Our material presents these shell 
characteristics, although we cannot 



access to the description and figures of 
this species. 

Distribution: The type locality is 
Strait of Magellan and its distribution 
includes Falkland and Kerguelen Is. 
Powell (1951) points out that "Nacella 
seems to be restricted to the subantarctic 
from the Magellan región to the Kergue- 
len". Thiele (1912) records this species 
in Observatory Bay in Kerguelen. Our 
specimens was found in Macrocystis 
from Morbihan Bay in Kerguelen. 



Nacella (Patinigera) edgari (Pow^ell, 1957) (Fig. 6) 

Patinigera {Patinella)fuegiensis Smith, 1877 (non Reeve, 1855), 180, pl. 19, figs. 14, 14a. 
Nacella (Patinigera) fuegiensis: Thiele, 1912: 234. 

Patinigera fuegiensis edgari Powell, 1957: 127, pl. 2, fig. 5 and text figs. B; Powell, 1960: 129. 
Nacella (Patinigera) edgari: Cantera and Arnaud, 1985: 35. 



(Right page) Figure 2: Puncturella cónica, 8.1 x 5.6 mm. Figure 3: Margarites cf. porcellana, 8.9 x 
10.8 mm. Figure 4: Margarites expansa, 6.1 x 7.1 mm. Figure 5: Nacella cf. mytilina, 12.50 x 8.99 
x 4.0 mm. Figure 6: Nacella (Patinigera) edgari, 12.5 x 9.0 x 3.5 mm. Figure 7: Nacella (Patinigera) 
delicatissima, 12.90 x 9.15 x 3.6 mm. Figure 8: lothia cf. coppingeri, 7.0 x 4.0 x 2.5 mm. Figure 9 
Pellilitorina setosa, 10.2 x 6.8 mm. Figure 10: Eatoniella k. kerguelenensis, 2.8 x 1.7 mm. Figure 1 1 
Banzarecolpus austrina, 11.5 x 4.1 mm. Figure 12: Eumetula ornata, 15.6 x 5.7 mm. Figure 13 
Perissodonta mirabilis, 23.81 x 36.05 mm. Figure 14: Kerguelenatica bioperculata, 9.5 x 10.1 mm. 
Figure 15: Falsilunatia cí. delicatula, 13.6 x 15.2 mm. Figure 16: Falsilunatia cí. xantha, 11.79 x 
12.86 mm. Figure 17: Sinuber sculpta, 20.0 x 17.0 mm. Figure 18: Marseniopsis cí. pacifica, 14.0 x 
11.0 mm. Figure 19: Neobuccinum eatoni, 23.5 x 15.6 mm. 

(Página derecha) Figura 2: Puncturella cónica, 8,1 x 5,6 mm. Figura 3: Margarites cf. porcellana, 
8,9 X 10,8 mm. Fz^wra ^.- Margarites expansa, 6,1 x7,l mm. /7]g^Mra 5.' Nacella ¿/T mytilina, 12,50 x 
8,99 X 4,0 mm. Figure 6: Nacella (Patinigera) edgari, 12,5 x 9,0 x 3,5 mm. Figura 7: Nacella (Pati- 
nigera) delicatissima, 12,90 x 9,15 x 3,6 mm. Figura 8: lothia cf. coppingeri, 7,0 x 4,0 x 2,5 mm. 
Figura 9: Pellilitorina setosa, 10,2 x 6,8 mm. Figura 10: Eatoniella k. kerguelenensis, 2,8 x 1,7 mm. 
Figura 11: Banzarecolpus austrina, 11,5 x 4,1 mm. Figura 12: Eumetula ornata, 15,6 x 5,7 mm. 
Figura 13: Perissodonta mirabilis, 23,81 x 36,05 mm. Figura 14: Kerguelenatica bioperculata, 9,5 
x 10,1 mm. Figura 15: Falsilunatia c^ delicatula, 13,6 x 15,2 mm. Figura 16: Falsilunatia f^ xantha, 
11,79 X 12,86 mm. Figura 17: Sinuber sculpta, 20,0 x 17,0 mm. Figura 18: Marseniopsis <r^ paci- 
fica, 14,0 X 11,0 mm. Figura ií'.- Neobuccinum eatoni, 23,5 x 15,6 mm. 



88 



TrONCOSO ETAL.: Marine moUuscan fauna of Kerguelen Islands, South Indian ocean 




89 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



Material examined: 2 broken shells, D5; 1 sp. (12.5 x 9.0 x 3.5 mm) and 2 broken shells, D7; Isp. 
(30.08 x 21.20 X 9.5 mm) and 3 shells (38.58 x 29.01 x 8.8 mm - 11.93 x 9.13 x 5.0 mm), D9; 3 broken 
shells, D18; 8 sp. (43.28 x 32.45 x 13.1 mm - 19.90 x 13.82 x 4.91 mm) and 1 shell (29.5 x 21.6 x 7.0 
mm), D25-D29; 3 sp. (42.50 x 31.8 x 17.9 mm - 13.2 x 8.9 x 4.2 mm), Pl. 



Remarks: Southern limpets are very 
difficult to identify, Powell (1951) 
records Patinigera as a genus in which 
the species fuegiensis edgari is included. 
He points out that Nacella and Patinigera 
"have the gilí cordón continuous and 
the foot encircled by a scalloped epipo- 
dial ridge" and characterized Nacella by 
the "thin, ovate shells with anterior 
apex", while the "shell in Patinigera has 
a subcentral apex and is of normal 
shape and solidity". However here, we 
follow the nomenclature of Cantera 
and Arnaud (1985) considering that 
Patinigera is only a subgenus of Nacella. 
Our individuáis agree with description 
of P. fuegiensis edgari given by Powell 



(1957), who revised a large series of Ker- 
guelen specimens. 

Distribution: The type locality is 
Royal Sound in Kerguelen Is. Powell 
(1957) records this species in several 
BANZARE localities and also from Port 
Jeanne d'Arc, Cantera and Arnaud 
(1985) point out that this species is very 
abundant in the Morbüían Bay and find 
dead shells in Crozet Is. This species is 
known only from Kerguelen in a depth 
range of 8 to 67 m, although it is more 
abundant in 8 to 30 m (Cantera and 
Arnaud, 1985). In the present coUection 
there are specimens collected in muddy 
bottoms and algae in Kerguelen from 
depths of 10-65 m. 



Nacella (Patinigera) delicatissima (Strebel, 1907) (Fig. 7) 

Patinella delicatissima Strebel, 1907; Strebel, 1908: 80, pl. 1, figs. 75-75a. 
Patinigera delicatissima Powell, 1951: 82; Powell, 1960: 129. 
Nacella (Patinigera) delicatissima Cantera and Arnaud, 1985: 34. 

Material: 1 sp. (19.30 x 14.92 x 3.1 mm) and 1 shell (12.90 x 9.15 x 3.6 mm), D12-D14. 



Remarks: This small species of Nacella 
has a bronze coloured shell with brown 
spots externally and a nacreous interior. 
It is a thin species with delicately squa- 
mose ribs (Powell, 1951). Our specimens 
reach 19 mm of length and have a low 
profile (3.1 mm) as Powell remarks in his 
work (Powell, 1951). Cantera and 
Arnaud (1985) give for this species a 
máximum length of 23 mm and record it 
in Morbihan Bay. 



Distribution: The type locality is Strait 
of Magellan. Since Strebel' s description, 
the same author records this species from 
Falkland Is. (Strebel, 1908). Afterwards 
Powell (1951) records it in many Falkland 
localities and Cantera and Arnaud (1985) 
find delicatissima in Kerguelen and Crozet 
Is., a new record for this species. Our mate- 
rial come from Morbihan Bay in Kergue- 
len and was dredged in mud and sand 
with Macrocystis from a depth of 30 m. 



Family Lepetidae Dalí, 1869 
Genus lothia Gray, 1857 

lothia cf. coppingeri (Smith, 1881) (Fig. 8) 

Tectura (Pilidium) coppingeri Smith, 1881: 35, pl. 4, figs 12, 12a. 
Pilidium coppingeri: Strebel, 1908: 83. 

Lepeta coppingeri: Thiele, 1912: 183, 233, 257; Hedley, 1916: 41; Powell, 1951: 84; Powell, 1957: 128; 
Powell, 1960: 129; Arnaud, 1972: 114, fig. 1 (radula); Cantera and Arnaud, 1985: 35; Linse, 1997: 27. 
lothia coppingeri: Egorova, 1982: 12, figs. 73,74; Dell, 1990: 105, figs. 185, 186; Linse, 1998: 883. 



90 



TrONCOSO ETAL.: Marine molluscan fauna of Kerguelen Islands, South Indian ocean 



Material: 1 deteriorated shell (7.0 x 4.0 x 2.5 mm), D5. 



Remarks: Our specimen is refered to 
I. coppingeri according to its radial sculp- 
ture and shell profile, but its scales have 
disappeared, probably due to the 
erosión. 

Distribution: The type locality is 
Sandy point, Patagonia. /. coppingeri is a 
widely distributed species, with circu- 
mantarctic distribution (Dell 1990). It is 
recorded from Falkland Is. (Strebel, 
1908; PowELL, 1951), Gauss Station 
(Thiele, 1912), Commonwealth Bay 



(Hedley, 1916), Ross Sea (Powell, 1951; 
Dell, 1990; Cattaneo-Vietti et al., 
2000), Kerguelen and Crozet Is. 
(Powell, 1957; Cantera and Arnaud, 
1985), Commonwealth Bay and Enderby 
Land (Powell, 1958), Adelie Land 
(Arnaud, 1972), Davis Sea (Egorova, 
1982) and Beagle Channel (Linse, 1997; 
LiNSE and Brandt, 1998). Our shell was 
dredged in mud with organogenic com- 
ponents (spicles and Macrocystis) from 
23 m depth. 



Family Littorinidae Gray, 1840 
Genus Pellüitorina Pfeffer, 1886 

Pellüitorina setosa (Smith, 1875) (Fig. 9) 

Littorina setosa Smith, 1875: 69. 

Pellitorina setosa: Strebel, 1908: 50. 

Pellilitorina setosa: Thiele, 1912: 235; Powell, 1951: 109; Powell, 1960: 135; Arnaud and Bandel, 

1979: 218, fig. 5, pl. 2, figs. 4,6-8, pl. 3, figs. 7-10, pl. 4, figs. 6-10; Cantera and Arnaud, 1985: 41; 

Dell, 1990: 108, fig. 181. 

Material: 16 shells (7.26 x 10.75 mm - 4.24 x 5.84 mm), D9; 1 shell (5.0 x 7.0 mm), DIO; 2 sp. (4.5 x 
5.5 mm; 2.5 x 3.2 mm), D35. 



Remarks: The genus Pellilitorina has a 
typical radula, different of the others 
members of the family. Powell (1951) 
described Pellilitorina^ s radula "with a 
broad, shallow-based central tooth bea- 
ring five cusps, the middle one stron- 
gest, laterals with three strong cusps, 
marginal foliated and with several den- 
ticles". This radula corresponds with 
large, globose shells with only a narrow 
umbilical perforation and an epidermis 
covered with hair-like processes (Po- 
well 1951). Later Arnaud and Bandee 
(1978) point out that the Powell's defini- 
tion differs from the original definition 
in that the outer marginal tooth of this 
genus shows three cusps and show that 
the greatest diference of the Pellilitorina 
radula is the central tooth without late- 
ral wings. Our specimens have a radula 
with a central tooth with five cusps, two 
laterals teeth with three cusps and a la- 
teral one foliated, and can be placed ea- 
sily in the genus Pellilitorina. Two spe- 



cies of Pellilitorina were recorded in Ker- 
guelen Is.; P. setosa and P. pellita. Shell 
and radular characteristics place our 
specimens in Pellilitorina setosa but since 
they are juvenile their shell characteris- 
tics are least reliable. Arnaud and 
Blandee (1978) show a figure of a juve- 
nile shell that agree with our specimens 
in shells characteristics. 

Distribution: The type locality is 
Swain's Bay, Kerguelen Is. Strebel 
(1908) records in Cumberlahd Bay and 
later Thiele (1912) records it in Observa- 
tory Bay. A study of the radula of the 
Southern Littorinidae was made by 
Powell (1951). This author showed the 
radula of P. setosa and records it in South 
Georgia and off Bouvet I. Cantera and 
Arnaud (1985) collect this species in 
Crozet and Kerguelen Is. and included 
within the distribution range Heard and 
South Orkneys. Dell (1990) points out 
that it is a common species in South 
Georgia, South Orkneys, Heard and 



91 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



Kerguelen Is. and suggests that its res- 
tricted range around the continent is 
probably due to the lack of stable 



shallow-water habitats. We found this 
species in mud, sand and algae at Mor- 
bihan Bay, from depths of 25-30 m. 



Family Eatoniellidae Ponder,1965 
Genus Eatoniella Dalí, 1876 

Eatoniella kerguelenensis kerguelenensis (Smith, 1875) (Figs. 10, 43) 

Eatonia kerguelenensis Smith, 1875: 70. 

Eatoniella kerguelenensis: Thiele, 1912: 235, pl. 14, fig. 26, pl. 16, fig. 1 (radula); Hedley, 1916: 46; 

Powell, 1957: 129; Arnaud, 1972: 118, fig. 9, 12. 
Eatoniella kerguelenensis kerguelenensis: Powell, 1960: 138; Ponder, 1983: 11, figs. 2a, 7 e-f; Cantera 

and Arnaud, 1985: 42. 



Material: 24 sp. (1.98 x 3.2 mm - 0.5 x 0.5 mm), D35. 

Remarks: Ponder (1983) points out 
the need for the presence of operculum 
and radula to assure the Identification of 
this species. Cantera and Arnaud 
(1985) point out a máximum length of 
4.5 mm in specimens found in Kergue- 
len and 4.0 mm in Crozet. Our speci- 
mens do not exceed 3.2 mm, have a palé 
yellowish operculum that it is very cióse 
to the figure 12 of Arnaud (1972). The 
radula is the typical of genus, it has a 
central tooth with five small cusps, two 
lateral teeth, the first with five cusps 
and the second with two, and one mar- 
ginal tooth with several denticles. These 
radular characteristics agree with the 
radula of E. kerguelenensis kerguelenensis 
as figured by other authors (Thiele, 
1912; Arnaud, 1972; Ponder, 1983). 

Distribution: The type locality is 
Royal Sound, Kerguelen Is. There are 



four subspecies of Eatoniella kerguelenen- 
sis. E. k. regularis and E. k. contusa have a 
western Antarctic distribution, E. k. chil- 
toni from New Zealand and the New 
Zealand subantarctic Is., and E. k ker- 
guelenensis is confined to Kerguelen Is. 
(Ponder, 1983). E. k. kerguelenensis has 
been recorded from Observatory Bay 
(Thiele, 1912), Commonwealth Bay 
(Hedley, 1916), in BANZARE localities 
at Kerguelen Is. (Powell, 1957) and 
Pointe Geologie archipelago (Arnaud, 
1972). AU these authors recorded it as E. 
kerguelenensis. Ponder (1983) renames 
the species E. kerguelenensis kerguelenen- 
sis and Cantera and Arnaud (1985) 
found this species in some stations of 
Kerguelen and Crozet Is. Our specimens 
come from Morbihan Bay in Kerguelen 
and was collected in algae from 25 m 
depth. 



Family Turritellidae Woodward, 1851 
Genus Banzarecolpus Powell, 1957 

Banzarecolpus austrina (Watson, 1881) (Fig. 11) 



Turritella austrina Watson, 1881: 224; Watson, 1886: 470, pl. 29, fig. 2; Thiele, 1912: 240. 
Banzarecolpus austrina: Powell, 1957: 131; Powell, 1960: 141; Cantera and Arnaud, 1985. 48; Branch 
et ai, 1991: 57. 

Material: 1 shell (3.5 x 8.2 mm), D8; 5 sp. (4.47 x 11.61 mm - 2.98 x 8.22 mm) and 16 shells (5.2 x 
13.5 mm - 2.5 X 7.1 mm), D9; 1 shell (5.0 x 15.0 mm), DIO; 2 shells (4.07 x 10.35 mm; 2.56 x 6.86 mm), 
D16-D17; 3 shells (4.0 x 10.0 mm - 3.0 x 8.0 mm), D31-D32. 



92 



Troncoso ET al.: Marine molluscan fauna of Kerguelen Islán ds, South Indian ocean 



Remarks: Two species of Banzarecol- 
pus are known in Kerguelen Is., B. aus- 
trina with a máximum length of 21 mm 
and B. frígida with a máximum length of 
6.0 mm (Cantera and Arnaud, 1985). 
Our specimens have a typical austrina 
shell sculpture and round apertu're, 
white colour and a length never shorter 
than 8.0 mm. 

Distribution: Type locality is Kergue- 
len Is. Watson (1886) finds this species 
off Marión I., Prince Edward I. and in 
the Royal Sound (Kerguelen). Thiele 



(1912) records it in Kerguelen and des- 
cribed a new species Banzarecolpus 
frígida from Kerguelen too. Powell 
(1957) records B. austrina from a series of 
BANZARE localities in Kerguelen. 
Cantera and Arnaud (1985) record it 
in Crozet and Kerguelen Is. in depths of 
2 to 1390 m. Branch et al. (1991) record 
this species in Marión and Prince 
Edward Is. between 85 and 228 m. In 
this collection the only Uve specimens 
are from Port aux Frangais and was 
collected in mud at 30 m. 



Family Cerithiidae Fleming, 1822 
Genus Eumetula Thiele, 1912 

Eumetula ornata Thiele, 1912 (Fig. 12) 

Eumeta ornata Thiele, 1912: 242, pl. 15, fig 14. 

Eumetula ornata: Powell, 1957: 129; Powell, 1960: 140; Cantera and Arnaud, 1985: 53. 



Material: 1 sp. (5.79 x 15.69 mm), D16-D17; 1 sp. (2.78 x 7.54 mm), D 35. 



Remarks: This species was described 
by Thiele (1912) from specimens found 
in Observatory Bay. The original speci- 
men have 4.25 mm of length and seven 
and half body whorls. Later Cantera 
and Arnaud (1985) record two species 
of Eumetula based on dead shells: one 
has 12.0 mm of length and a máximum 
length of 7.0 mm for Eumetula ornata. We 
have found a specimen of 16 mm of 
length and ten and half body whorls 
and other with 7.8 mm of length and 
eight and half body whorls. We consider 



these specimens found in the shallow 
waters of Kerguelen Is. as Eumetula 
ornata specimens. 

Distribution: Type locality Thiele 
(1912) is Observatory Bay, Kerguelen Is. 
Powell (1957) finds it in BANZARE 
localities in Kerguelen Is. and Cantera 
and Arnaud (1985) records it in Crozet 
and Kerguelen Is., in depths of 15 to 22 
m in Kerguelen, where they found Uve 
specimens. Our specimens come from 
Morbihan Bay and was collected in 
algae from depths of 25-50 m. 



Family Struthiolariidae Gabb, 1868 
Genus Perissodonta Martens, 1878 

Perissodonta mirabüis (Smith, 1875) (Fig. 13) 

Struthiolaria mirabilis Smith, 1875. 

Perissodonta mirabilis var. georgiana Strebel, 1908: 46, pl. 3, figs. 33a, b, c. 

Perissodonta mirabilis georgiana: Powell, 1951: 129, pl. 8, figs. 40-42. 

Perissodonta mirabilis: Powell, 1957: 131; Powell, 1960: 144; Cantera and Arnaud, 1985: 57. 

Material: 2 sp. (25.89 x 41.98 mm; 24.44 x 41.18 mm) and 2 shells (28.22 x 43.38 mm - 20.02 x 35.13 
mm), D6; 2 sp. (25.53 x 38.48 mm; 23.81 x 34.44 mm) and 2 broken shells, D7; 11 sp. (26.04 x 43.64 
mm - 23.27 x 34.02 mm) and 1 broken shell, D9; 2 sp. (22.31 x 34.07 mm - 21.01 x 32.98 mm) and 2 
broken shells, DIO; 2 sp. (22.77 x 35.95 mm; 20.79 x 32.16 mm) and 2 shells (25.77 x 39.97 mm; 23.43 



93 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



X 34.86 mm), D12-D14; 4 shells (24.51 x 35.87 mm - 23.81 x 36.05 mm), D16-D17; 7 sp. (26.78 x 41.97 
mm- 21.99 x 32.50 mm) and 3 shell (27.55 x 39.88 mm - 18.62 x 31.52 mm), D19-21; 9 sp. (27.10 x 
41.02 mm - 13.72 x 22.63 mm) and 2 shells (25.38 x 39.0 mm - 23.01 x 42.61 mm), D25-D29; 4 sp. 
(24.20 X 38.79 mm; 23.86 x 28.97 mm) and 1 shell (23.27 x 36.08 mm), D31-D32; 1 sp. (22.34 x 32.98 
mm), D36. 



Remarks: This family is restricted to 
Southern waters and only one species of 
the genus is living in Antarctic waters; 
Perissodonta mirabilis. Strebel (1908) 
records a variety or subspecies called P. 
mirabilis georgiana from material found 
in Seymour I. and Powell (1951) main- 
tains this variety based on the opercular 
variation. Later Powell (1957) considers 
that differences between Kerguelen and 
Georgia populations were unsufficient 
for maintaining the validity of Strebel' s 
variety. 

Distribution: Type localities are 
Swain's Bay, Kerguelen (P. m. mirabilis) 
and Cumberland Bay, South Georgia (P. 



m. georgiana). Strebel (1908 as P. m. 
georgiana) finds this species in Seymour 
I., Powell (1951 as P. m. georgiana) 
records this species in South Georgia 
and later in different BANZARE locali- 
ties in Kerguelen (PowELL 1957). 
Cantera and Arnaud (1985) record it 
in Kerguelen and Crozet Is. They find P. 
mirabais specimens alive in depths of 15 
to 3025 m in Kerguelen and point out 
that it is particularly abundant between 
15 and 150 m. In this coUection P. mirabi- 
lis is the most abundant gastropod and 
was found in muddy and sandy 
bottoms with Macrocystis from depths of 
30 to 90 m. 



Family Naticidae Forbes, 1838 
Genus Kerguelenatica Powell, 1951 

Kerguelenatica bioperculata Dell, 1990 (Fig. 14) 

Natica grísea Martens, 1878; Watson, 1886: 432, pl. 28, fig. 5; Stcebel 1908: 61. 

Fraginatica grísea: Hedley, 1916: 52. 

Amauropsís {Kerguelenatica) grísea: Powell, 1951: 118; Powell, 1957: 130; Powell, 1958: 190; Powell, 

1960: 144; Arnaud, 1972: 125, fig. 16; Egorova, 1982: 29. 
Kerguelenatica bioperculata, n. n. Dell, 1990: 145, figs. 252, 253, 264. 

Material: 1 sp. (10.29 x 11.01 mm), D9; 1 sp. (8.51 x 9.23 mm), D19-D21; 1 sp. (8.34 x 8.43 mm), D25-D29; 
2 sp. (9.75 X 9.81 mm - 7.65 x 8.34 mm), D31-D32; 3 shells (7.63 x 8.35 mm - 6.58 x 6.75 mm), D37. 



Remarks: The first author to place 
this species in a different subgenus was 
Powell (1951), who considered Kergue- 
lenatica as a subgenus of Amauropsis. The 
same author points out that it is easily 
recognised by the composite nature of 
the operculum and points that it is pos- 
sible that more that one species is repre- 
sented here. Dell (1990) suggests that it 
is treated as a genus and renames the 
species as Kerguelenatica bioperculata. 
This species could be easily confused 
with a species of the genus Falsilunatia, 
Dell (1990) points out that some publis- 
hed records of bioperculata may have 
been based on Falsilunatia delicatula. Our 
specimens have a horny operculum 



with an outer calcareous covering, cha- 
racteristics that included them in the 
genus Kerguelenatica (Dell 1990), it has a 
máximum length of 11.0 mm although 
usually the length is about 8.0 mm, it 
has a palé brown to yellowish epidermis 
and a chink shaped umbilicus. These 
characteristics fits the description of the 
shell gives by Dell (1990). 

Distribution: The type locality is Ker- 
guelen. Watson (1886 as Natica grisea) 
finds this species in Kerguelen within 
"Challenger" material. Strebel (1908 
under Natica grisea) and Hedley (1916 
under Fraginatica grisea) record it, the la- 
ter one in Commonwealth Bay and 
Shackleton Ice-shelf. Later Powell 



94 



TronCOSO ETAL.: Marine molluscan fauna of Kerguelen Islands, South Indian ocean 



(1951), Arnaud (1972) and Egorova 
(1982) record this species as a subgenus 
of Amauropsis in South Shetlands, Bou- 
vet I., Ross Sea and Adelie Land. Some 
records of bioperculata may be based on 
delicatula specimens. For this reason the 
distribution of Kerguelenatica bioperculata 
is still uncertain (Dell 1990), although 



this author points out that its distribu- 
tion range is around the Antarctic conti- 
nent from 49° E to 140° E and records a 
long series of places from the Ross Sea 
to South Georgia and Kerguelen (Dell 
1990). Specimens of this collection was 
collected in mud, sand, pebble and gra- 
vel from depths of 25-50 m. 



Family Naticidae Forbes, 1838 
Genus Falsüunatia Powell, 1951 

Falsüunatia cf. delicatula (Smith, 1902) (Figs. 15, 46) 

Natica delicatula Smith, 1902; Thiele, 1912: 199, pl. 12, figs. 16, 17. 
Falsilunatia delicatula: Dell, 1990: 148, figs. 237, 256, 257, 269. 

Material: 1 sp. (13.65 x 15.21 mm), D19-D21; 1 shell (9.86 x 10.68 mm), D36. 



Remarks: The shell characteristics of 
our single specimen are very cióse to 
Kerguelenatica bioperculata. The shell is 
thin, with a palé brown epidermis, open 
umbilicus and has a horny operculum 
without a outer calcareous covering. Its 
radula is of the Falsilunatia type, with a 
central tooth with a central cusp and a 
pair of peg-like basal cusps, lateral teeth 
with a single cusp and a small subsi- 
diary cusp near the upper and marginal 
teeth simple. These radular characteris- 
tics included it in the genus Falsilunatia, 
and the characteristics of the shell oper- 



culum poin to F. delicatula. Dell (1990) 
gives a good description of delicatula, 
with shell measurements and figures, 
which fit our specimens. 

Distribution: Dell (1990) remarks 
that it is impossible to analyse the range 
of delicatula adequately. This is due to 
the uncertainly of previous identifica- 
tions and records it in the Ross Sea 
between 47-1890 m. Our specimen was 
collected in muddy bottoms from off 
Suhm I. in 45-50 m and a dead shell was 
found from Fosse de THydrographie in 
a depth of 90 m. 



Falsilunatia cf. xantha (Watson, 1881) (Figs. 16, 47) 

Natica xantha Watson, 1881; Watson, 1886: 445, pl. 27, fig. 8. 

Amauropsis xantha: Powell, 1958: 189; Powell, 1960: 144; Arnaud, 1972: 125; Cantera and Arnaud, 

1985: 58; Cantera and Arnaud, 1985: 58. 
Falsilunatia cf. xantha: Dell, 1990: 152, figs. 232, 272. 

Material: 2 sp. (4.5 x 4.9 mm), D6; 1 sp. (6.5 x 7.3 mm) and 2 shells (7.0 x 7.0 mm), DIO; 2 sp. (10.3 
X 11.50 mm; 6.01 x 6.90 mm) and 2 shells (10.50 x 11.68 mm; 6.14 x 9.48 mm), D19-D21; 2 sp. 
(11.89 X 13.68 mm; 5.63 x 7.21 mm), D25-D29; 1 sp. (11.79 x 12.86 mm) and 1 shell (12.51 x 12.62 
mm), D31-D32. 



Remarks: A series of specimens found 
in this collection are very cióse to xantha. 
These Kerguelen specimens have a globose 
shell with a thin yellowish to palé brown 
epidermis and a white columellar callus, 
the umbilicus is a slight chink. They have 



a spiral sculpture of fine threads and a 
horny operculum. The radula is of the Fal- 
silunatia type, and very cióse to delicatu- 
la' s radula, but the central tooth is wider. 
These characteristics agree with the des- 
cription of Dell's specimens, which con- 



95 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



sidered them referable to Falsilunatia cf. 
xantha (Dell 1990). He points out that the 
topotypic material of xantha must be exa- 
mined to settle the generic placing (Dell 
1990: 153). The specimens in our collec- 
tion cannot be identified with certainty 
with xantha for the same reason. 

Distribution: Type locality Watson 
(1886) between Kerguelen and Heard Is. 
Powell (1958) records it off Enderby Land, 



Arnaud (1972) in Adelie Land, and 
Cantera and Arnaud (1985) record Uve 
specimens in Kerguelen in a depth of 17 
to 650 m and death shells in Crozet. Dell 
(1990) remarks that due to the difficulties 
of Identification the range of xantha cannot 
be stated and records it in the Ross Sea 
between 348 and 549 m. Specimens of this 
collection were found in mud, sand and 
algae irT Kerguelen betweesi 30 to 50 m. 



Family Naticidae Forbes, 1838 
Genus Sinuber Powell, 1951 

Sinuber sculpta Martens, 1878 (Fig. 17) 

Natica perscalpta Martens, 1878; Watson, 1886: 454, pl. 28, fig. 4. 
Sinuber perscalpta: Powell, 1957: 130; Powell, 1960: 145; 
Sinuber sculpta: Cantera and Arnaud, 1985: 60. 

Material: 2 shells (17.02 x 20.01 mm; 16.15 x 19.98 mm), D18. 



Remarks: These thin shells are of great 
size (about 20 mm), with an inconspicuous 
periostracum, sculpture of grooves and a 
chink-like umbilicus. It is easy to sepárate 
from S. sculptum by its great size and its 
chink-Hke umbilicus, aknost closed by the 
columellar callus. The Watson's figure 
shows a thin globose shell with fine linear 
grooves (Watson 1886). Our spedmens are 
very cióse to it but the spires are more 
acute and the aperture is a little larger. 



Distribution: The type locality is 
Royal Sound, Kerguelen Is. Watson 
(1886) records this species in Kerguelen 
Is. and Powell (1957) finds it in two 
BANZARE localitíes at Kerguelen. Later 
Cantera and Arnaud (1985) record it 
in Kerguelen and Crozet with a 
máximum size of 40 mm in Kerguelen 
and 8 mm in Crozet. Shells of this collec- 
tion were found in muddy bottoms at 10 
m. 



Naticidae indet. 



Material: 2 shells, D5; 2 broken shells and 2 shells, D8; 2 broken shells, D9; 1 broken shell and 1 
shell, D12-D14; 4 broken shells, D19-21. 



Remarks: Here we include badly pre- 
served shells of the family found in dif- 



ferent localities. All were impossible to 
identify. 



Family Lamellariidae Orbigny, 1841 
Genus Marseniopsis Bergh, 1886 

Marseniopsis cf. pacifica Bergh, 1886 (Fig. 18) 

Marseniopsis pacifica Bergh, 1886; Thiele, 1912: 200, pl. 12, fig. 18; Powell, 1951: 123; Marcus, 1959: 8, figs. 
1-8; PoweU, 1960: 146; Cantera and Arnaud, 1985: 62; DeU, 1990: 165; Cattaneo-Viettí et al, 2000: 176. 

Material: 1 sp. (11.0 x 14.0 mm), D38-D39. 



96 



TroncOSO ETAL.: Marine moUuscan fauna of Kerguelen Islands, South Indian ocean 



Remarks: There are three species of 
Marseniopsis described from Antárctica, 
but only one is representad in Kerguelen 
Is., M. pacifica. The external aspect of our 
single specimen agrees with the Mar- 
cus' s figure (Marcus, 1959) and makes 
US suppose that it is a specimen of M. 
pacifica, but its anatomy and radular 
characteristics must be checked. 

Distribution: The type locality is 
Kerguelen Is. Powell (1951) records 



pacifica in South Georgia, South 
Orkneys and Palmer Archipelago. 
Marcus (1959) records this species on 
the coast of Chile and Cantera and 
Arnaud (1985) find it in Kerguelen and 
Crozet Is. Dell (1990) gives the range of 
Marseniopsis pacifica as including Mage- 
llan strait and Antarctic Península, and 
Cattaneo-Vietti et al. (2000) record 
this species in Terra Nova Bay, Ross 
Sea. 



Family Buccinidae Rafinesque, 1815 
Genus Neobuccinum Smith, 1877 

Neobuccinum eatoni (Smith, 1875) (Fig. 19) 

Buccinopsis eatoni Smith, 1875 

Neobuccinum eatoni Watson, 1886: 216; Thiele, 1912, 211; Hedley, 1916:59 pl. 9, fig. 97; Powell, 
1951: 143; Powell, 1957: 132; Powell, 1958: 193; Powell,1960: 150; Arnaud, 1972: 128; Egorova, 
1982: 41, figs. 172-176; Cantera and Arnaud, 1985: 70; Dell, 1990: 165, figs. 280-282; Cattaneo- 
Vietti et al, 2000: 175. 

Neobuccinum praeclarum Strebel, 1908:31, pl. 3, fig. 38. 

Material: 2 sp. (15.64 x 23.51 mm; 14.18 x 22.27 mm), TI. 



Remarks: Our two specimens ha ve a 
deciduous straw coloured epidernüs pro- 
duced in fine spiral lines and only persis- 
ting on the last whorl. The operculum is 
homy with a subterminal nucleus and fine 
grow lines, it agrees with the Egorova' s 
figure (Egorova 1982). Dell (1990) points 
that the variation of the shell proportíon 
with size and the variation in the shell 
outline may be the indication that more 
than one species could be represented. 

Distribution: The type locality is 
Royal Sound, Kerguelen (N. eatoni) and 
Graham Land (N. praeclarum). Some 
authors consider this species with a cir- 



cumantarctíc distribution (Powell 1958, 
1960) or circumantarctic and subantarc- 
tic (Arnaud 1972) and it is one of the 
most widely distributed molluscs in the 
Antarctic (Powell 1957). This species 
does not appear to reach South Georgia 
and it is not represented in the Magella- 
nic región (Dell, 1990). Cattaneo- 
Vietti ET AL. (2000) record this species in 
Terra Nova Bay, Ross Sea and point out 
that it is the most common buccinid gas- 
tropod. Our specimens were collected in 
stomachic contens from Morbihan Bay 
in Kerguelen Is., which seems to be its 
northern limit (Powell 1957). 



Family Buccinidae Rafinesque, 1815 
Genus Pareuthria Strebel, 1905 

Pareuthria chlorotica (Martens, 1878) (Fig. 20) 

Euthria chlorotica Martens, 1878. 

Fusus Euthria chloroticus: Watson, 1886: 209, pl. 18, fig. 8. 

Pareuthria chlorotica: Thiele, 1912 (in faunal list); Powell, 1957: 132; Powell, 1960: 147; Cantera and 
Arnaud, 1985: 66. 



97 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



Material: 4 sp. (10.15 x 16.34 mm - 6.97 x 10.81 mm) and 3 damaged shells (11.0 x 16.11 mm - 10.69 
X 14.09 mm), D7; 1 sp. (10.89 x 19.25 mm) and 2 shells (8.4 x 12.8 mm), D8; 2 sp. (13.0 x 19.17 mm; 
6.46 X 10.60 mm), D16-D17; 1 shell (11.38 x 17.66 mm), D19-21; 3 sp. (12.33 x 18.35 mm - 8.62 x 12.16 
mm) and 1 damaged shell (5.9 x 9.09 mm), D31-D32; 2 sp. (9.75 x 15.75 mm; 7.88 x 13.13 mm) and 
2 shells (11.91 X 18.0 mm; 12.12 x 17.71 mm), D36. 



Remarks: Shell ovate, of modérate 
size (about 20 mm) with a palé brown 
deciduous epidermis in juvenile speci- 
mens, which is brown in dead and 
eroded shells. The surface is covered 
with a spiral sculpture of close-set 
threads and in the last whorl, near the 
canal, it has a sculpture of fine lines. The 
operculum is leaf-shaped with a subter- 
minal nucleus and the aperture is semi- 
circular, ending in a curved canal. Our 
specimens agree in shell features and 



measurements with the Watson's figure 
(Watson 1886). 

Distribution: The type locality is Ker- 
guelen Is. Watson (1886) records this 
species from Kerguelen Is. Thiele (1912) 
records in a faunal list and Powell 
(1957) finds it in a DANZARE localities 
at Kerguelen. Cantera and Arnaud 
(1985) find chlorotica in Kerguelen and 
Crozet Is., being the later a new record. 
Our specimens were coUected in muddy 
bottoms from depths of 48-90 m. 



Pareuthria regulus (Watson, 1882) (Fig. 21) 

Fusus (Sipho) regulus Watson, 1882. 
Fusus (Neptúnea) regulus: Watson, 1886: 204, pl. 12, fig. 7. 

Pareuthria regulus: Powell, 1957: 132; Powell, 1960: 148; Cantera and Arnaud, 1985: 66; Branch et 
al, 1991: 59. 

Material: 1 sp. (3.0 x 6.5 mm), D6. 



(Right page) Figure 20: Pareuthria chlorotica, 19.2 x 10.8 mm. Figure 21: Pareuthria regulus, 6.5 x 
3.0 mm. Figure 22: Falsimohnia albozonata, 4.0 x 8.5 mm. Figure 23: Prosipho propinquus, 5.0 x 
2.5 mm. Figure 24: Trophon albolabratus, 12.8 x 7.5 mm. Figure 25: Trophon septus, 22.5 x 10.1 
mm. Figure 26: Admete carinata, 1 1.5 x 8.0 mm. Figure 27: Admete specularis, 10.4 x 6.7 mm. 
Figure 28: Parádmete fragilíima, 12.1 x 6.1 mm. Figure 29: Spirotropis studeriana, 8.0 x 4.1 mm. 
Figure 30: Typhlodaphne translúcida, 10.1 x 5.4 mm. Figure 31: Toledonia elata, 4.3 x 2.2 mm. 
Figure 32: Yoldia {Aeqviyoldia) isonota, 18.2 x 10.9 mm. Figure 33: Yoldia [Aeqviyoldid) eightsi, 

19.0 x 12.9 mm. Figure 34: Pseudokellya cardiformis, 4.6 x 4.5 mm. Figure 35: Gaimardia t. trape- 
sina, 16.6 x 12.2 mm. Figure 36: Neolepton umbonatum, 4.5 x 5.5 mm. Figure 37: Limatula 
(Antarctolima) pygmaea, 11.2 x 8.5 mm. Figure 38: Cyclocardia astartoides, \AA x 18.1 mm. 
Figures 39, 40: Hiatella antárctica, 19.0 x 8.2 mm. Figure 41: Laternula elliptica, 20.5 x 12.4 mm. 
Figure 42: Thracia meridionalis, 20.5 x 14.3 mm. 

(Página derecha) Figura 20: Pareuthria chlorotica, 19,2 x 10,8 mm. Figura 21: Pareuthria regulus, 
6,5 X 3,0 mm. Figura 22: Falsimohnia albozonata, 4,0 x 8,5 mm. Figura 23: Prosipho propinquus, 
5,0 X 2,5 mm. Figura 24: Trophon albolabratus, 12,8 x 7,5 mm. Figura 25: Trophon septus, 22,5 x 

10.1 mm. Figura 26: Admete carinata, 11,5 x 8,0 mm. Figura 27: Admete specularis, 10,4 x 6,7 
mm. Figura 28: Parádmete fragilíima, 12, 1 x 6,1 mm. Figura 29: Spirotropis studeriana, 8,0 x 4,1 
mm. Figura 30: Typhlodaphne translúcida, 10,1 x 5,4 mm. Figura 31: Toledonia elata, 4,3 x 2,2 
mm. Figura 32: Yoldia (Aeqviyoldia) isonota, 18,2 x 10,9 mm. Figura 33: Yoldia (Aeqviyoldia) 
eightsi, 19,0 X 12,9 mm. Figura 34: Pseudokellya cardiformis, 4,6 x 4,5 mm. Figura 35: Gaimardia 
t. trapesina, 16,6 x. 12,2 mm. Figura 36: Neolepton umbonatum, 4,5 x 5,5 mm. Figura 37: Lima- 
tula (Antarctolima) pygmaea, 11,2 x 8,5 mm. Figura 38: Cyclocardia astartoides, 14,4 x 18,1 mm. 
Figuras 39, 40: Hiatella antárctica, 19,0 x 8,2 mm. Figura 41: Laternula elliptica, 20,5 x 12,4 mm. 
Figura 42.- Thracia meridionalis, 20,5 x l4,3 mm. 



98 



TrONCOSO ETAL.: Marine moUuscan fauna of Kerguelen Islands, South Indian ocean 




99 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



Remarks: Our specimens ha ve a fusi- 
form shell with axial ribs present in the 
body whorl and an ovate operculum 
with a terminal nucleus. These features 
included this species in the subfamily 
Cominellinae and together with its 
small size, anterior canal and opercular 
characteristics lócate it in the genus 
Pareuthria. Cantera and Arnaud 
(1985) include Fusus (Sipho) edwardiensis 
in the synomy of P. regulus, but edwar- 
diensis have not axial ribs in the last 
whorl. For lack of type material to 
compare with, we think that our speci- 
men is a Pareuthria regulus. Branch et 
AL. (1991) recorded P. regulus but 
refered it to Watson (1883). However 



Branch's figure agrees in shell features 
with our specimen. 

Distribution: The type locality is Royal 
Sound, Kerguelen Is. Watson (1886) 
records two species of Fusus (Neptúnea): 
regulus from Kerguelen and edwardiensis 
from between Marión 1. and Prince 
Edward I. PowELL (1957) records Pareuth- 
ria regulus in a BANZARE locality at Ker- 
guelen, later in a summary records two 
species refereed to f. regulus in the Ker- 
guelen. Cantera and Arnaud (1985) 
record Pareuthria regulus in Kerguelen and 
Crozet Is. and Branch et al. (1991) in 
Marión and Prince Edward Is. between O 
and 527 m. Specimen of this collection was 
collectec in mud with spicles at 40 m. 



Family Buccinidae Rafinesque, 1815 
Genus Falsimohnia Powell, 1951 

Falsimohnia albozonata (Watson, 1882) (Fig. 22) 

Buccínum albozonatum Watson, 1882; Watson, 1886: 212, pl. 13, fig. 7. 

Falsimohnia albozonata: Powell, 1951: 138; Powell, 1957: 133; Powell, 1960: 149; Cantera and 
Arnaud, 1985: 67. 

Material: 3 sp. (4.0 x 8.5 mm - 3.0 x 6.0 mm), D6; 1 shell (2.5 x 4.5 mm), D35. 



Remarks: The shell is easy to recog- 
nise by its brown colour with a white 
band in each whorl and in the pillar. It 
has a small and very thin shell with a 
tall spire and a spiral sculpture of fine 
threads. Our specimens reach 8.0 mm 
long but Cantera and Arnaud (1985) 
give a máximum size of 12.0 mm from 
specimens coUected in Kerguelen. 



Distribution: The type locality is Royal 
Sound, Kerguelen Is. Later Powell records 
F. albozonata from South Georgia (Powell, 
1951) and Kerguelen (Powell, 1957). More 
recently Cantera and Arnaud (1985) 
find this species in Kerguelen and Crozet 
Is., being the second locality a new record 
for this species. Our specimens were 
coUected in mud with spicles at 40 m. 



Family Buccinidae Rafinesque, 1815 
Genus Prosipho Thiele, 1912 

Prosipho propinquus Thiele, 1912 (Fig. 23) 

Prosipho propinquus Thiele, 1912: 245, pl. 13, fig. 11; Powell, 1957: 133; Powell, 1960: 152; Cantera 
and Arnaud, 1985: 73. 



Material: 1 sp. (2.5 x 5.0 mm), D35. 

Remarks: This species has a small (4.8 
x 2.5 mm) brown shell with radial ribs, 3 
whorls and a protoconch of one and half 



whorls and a D-shaped aperture. The 
shell colour is white in the canal and 
external lip. In the first and second 



100 



Troncoso ETAL.: Marine molluscan fauna of Kerguelen Islands, South Indian ocean 



whorl it has two radial ribs and over six 
in the body whorl. 

Distribution: The type locality is Ob- 
servatory Bay, Kerguelen Is. It has been 
recorded in Kerguelen. Powell (1957) re- 



cord this species in Bras Bolinder but 
Cantera and Arnaud (1985) did not 
find it in their samples from Kerguelen. 
Our specimen was coUected in algae co- 
Uected in Morbihan Bay at depth of 25 m. 



Family Buccinidae Rafinesque, 1815 
Genus Bathydomus Thiele, 1912 

Bathydomus sp. 

Material: 1 damaged shell, D7; 1 sp., D9; 1 sp. and 1 shell, DIO; 1 sp., D12-D14; 1 sp. and 2 shells, 
D25-D29. 

Remarks: Not assigned to any Distribution: The specimens were 

species. found in Kerguelen Is. 



Family Muricidae Rafinesque, 1815 
Genus Trophon Montfort, 1810 

Trophon albolabratus Smith, 1875 (Fig. 24) 

Trophon albolabratus Smith, 1875; Strebel, 1908: 42; Powell, 1957: 134; Powell, 1960: 153; Cantera 
and Arnaud, 1985: 63. 

Material: 1 broken shell (9.44 x 24.73 mm), D8; 1 shell (10.95 x 20.61 mm), D9; 1 sp. (4.43 x 8.24 mm) 
and 2 shells (11.40 x 20.71 mm; 8.66 x 16.59 mm), DIO; 1 shell (8.79 x 17.55 mm), D12-D14; 1 shell 
(10.76 X 19.13 mm), D16-D17; 1 shell (16.2 x 22.8 mm) and 3 broken shells, D19-21; 3 sp. (14.92 x 
26.87 mm - 7.56 x 13.22 mm) and 1 shell (8.7 x 16.1 mm), D25-D29; 2 sp. (7.29 x 13.18 mm; 7.25 x 
12.61 mm), D35. 



Remarks: This species is easy to 
recognise by the reticulation formed by 
axial lamellae and spiral cords. In Ker- 
guelen specimens this reticulation pro- 
duced usually interspaces higher than 
wide. Powell (1957) points out that the 
Macquarie shells, recorded erroneously 
by Hedley (1916) produce interspaces 
two or three times wider than high and 
in T. albolabratus the reticulation have 
rectilinear interspaces. 

Distribution: The type localities are 
Swain's Bay and Roy al Sound, Kergue- 



len. This species has been recorded from 
Kerguelen by Strebel (1908). Powell 
(1957) finds this species in a series of 
BANZARE localities at Kerguelen and 
later extends its range to South Georgia 
and South Orkneys (Powell, 1960). A 
more complete distribution range was 
given by Cantera and Arnaud (1985), 
including Falkland Is. Our material 
comes from mud, sand and algae collec- 
ted in Morbihan Bay, where Cantera 
and Arnaud (1985) recorded it as a 
common on a variety of bottoms. 



Trophon septus Watson, 1882 (Fig. 25) 

Trophotí septus Watson, 1882; Watson, 1886: 170, pl. 10, fig. 11; Powell, 1957: 134; Powell, 1960: 
154; Cantera and Arnaud, 1985: 65; Branch et al, 1991: 59. 

Material: 1 sp. (6.03 x 10.66 mm), D7; 2 sp. (10.29 x 22.75 mm; 10.36 x 22.62 mm), D8; 1 sp. (6.46 x 
14.64 mm) and 1 shell (7.62 x 16.65 mm), D31-D32. 



101 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



Remarks: This species is easy to 
recognise by the angulose shoulder, 
where are placed prominent tubercles 
and it has a long, narrow canal. The 
shell is porcelaneus white with 5 or 6 
whorls, paucispiral protoconch and a 
horny, ovate operculum with a terminal 
nucleus. Our specimens agree in shell 
features with the Watson's figure 
(Watson, 1886). However the specimen 
represented by Branch et al. (1991) has 
a more globose shell, the tubercles are 
less prominent than in Watson's figure 
and has a short canal. 



Distribution: The type locality is 
Royal Sound, Kerguelen. Later Powell 
(1957) finds this species in DANZARE 
localities from Kerguelen. Cantera and 
Arnaud (1985) record T. septus in Ker- 
guelen and Crozet, pointing out that is a 
species living in a great variety of 
bottoms and with a bathymetric range 
of 30 to 620 m in the Kerguelen Is. 
Branch et al. (1991) record it from 
Marión and Prince Edward Is. in depths 
of 140 to 200m. Our specimens were 
collected in mud from depths of 48-65 



Family Cancellariidae Forbes and Hanley, 1853 
Genus Admete Kroyer, 1842 

Admete carinata (Watson, 1883) (Fig. 26) 

Cancellaria {Admete) carinata Watson, 1883; Watson, 1886: 275, pl. 18, fig 9. 
Admete carinata: Powell, 1960: 157; Cantera and Arnaud, 1985: 76. 



Material: 1 sp. (8.02 x 11.53 mm), D7. 

Remarks: The systematics of the an- 
tarctic forms of Admete present a num- 
ber of problems. This genus contains a 
few species of southern latitudes and 
some species which have been placed 
here but actually belong to other groups 
(BouCHET and Warén 1985). The shell is 
white with a yellowish epidermis and it 
has two collumelar teeth and it lacks of 
operculum. This species of Admete dif- 
fers from A. specularis in the stronger 
shelter and the fine spiral threads below 
the shelter, besides A. carinata has 5 
whorls and the spire is short while A. 



specularis has 5 V2 whorls and its spire 
is larger. Cantera and Arnaud (1985) 
give a máximum size of 20 mm for cari- 
nata and 13 mm for specularis. Our speci- 
men has 12.5 mm of length and agree in 
shell features with the Watson's descrip- 
tion and figure (Watson 1886). 

Distribution: The type locality is 
Royal Sound, Kerguelen Is. Powell 
(1960) records this species in Falkland 
Is. and Tierra del Fuego. Cantera and 
Arnaud (1985) find it in Kerguelen 
between 71 and 195 m. Our single speci- 
men was collected in mud at 65 m. 



Admete s-pecularis (Watson, 1882) (Fig. 27) 

Cancellaria {Admete) specularis Watson, 1882; Watson, 1886: 274, pl. 18, fig. 9. 

Admete specularis: Powell, 1957: 134; Powell, 1960: 15,8; Cantera and Arnaud, 1985: 76; Branch et 
al, 1991: 59. 



Material: 2 sp. (6.71 x 10.16 mm - 4.92 x 7.47 mm) and 5 shells (6.42 x 9.70 mm - 5.62 x 8.6 mm), 
D9; 4 shells (6.0 x 10.0 mm - 6.0 x 9.5 mm), DIO; 1 broken shell, D31-D32. 



Remarks: This shell is white with a 
yellowish epidermis, below the shelter 
that is only marked by an angulation it 



has a sculpture of spiral lines on the 
whole shell surface and it has two collu- 
melar teeth. This shell is shorter than ca- 



102 



TronCOSO ETAL.: Marine moUuscan fauna of Kerguelen Islands, South Indian ocean 



rinata but its spire is longer because the 
body whorl of specularis is shorter than 
the body whorl of carinata. The mouth is 
semicircular and differs from carinata 
where the mouth is wide, angulated and 
reaches half the size of the shell. 

Distribution: The type locality is near 
Roy al Sound, Kerguelen Is. Watson 
(1886) found it also off Heard Is. 



PowELL (1957) records it in the 
BANZARE material collected in Kergue- 
len, Cantera and Arnaud (1985) from 
Kerguelen and Crozet Is. and Branch 
ET AL. (1991) from Marión and Prince 
Edward Is. between 49 and 228 m. Spe- 
cimens of this collection were collected 
in mud and sand with Macrocystis from 
depths of 30-50 m. 



Family Volutomitridae Gray, 1845 
Genus Parádmete Strebel, 1908 

Parádmete fragillima (Watson, 1882) (Fig. 28) 

Volutomitra fragillima Watson, 1882; Watson, 1886: 263, pl.l4, fig. 7: Thiele, 1912: 264; Cantera and 

Arnaud, 1985: 75. 
Parádmete fragillima: Powell, 1951: 165, Powell, 1957: 134; Powell, 1958: 198; Powell, 1960: 157; 

Egorova, 1982: 37, fig. 166; Dell, 1990: 222, fig. 390. 
Parádmete typica Strebel, 1908: 22, pl. 3, figs. 35 a-f. 

Material: 1 broken shell, D2; 1 sp. (6.02 x 12.2 mm) and 2 shells (7.22 x 14.11 mm; 6.59 x 13.8 mm), 
D9; 2 shells (7.58 x 15.1 mm; 6.92 x 13.97 mm), D16-D17; 1 sp. (6.62 x 12.44 mm), D31-D32; 2 shells 
(3.86 X 8.83 mm; 3.36 x 5.81 mm), D37. 



Remarks: P. fragillima has white shell, 
smooth with four oblique teeth in the 
columella. Sculpture of fine longitudinal 
grown lines with a fine yellowish epi- 
dermis. It reaches a maximun size of 23 
mm in Kerguelen and it is more abun- 
dant in the bays (Cantera and Arnaud 
1985). Only two live specimens were 
collected in the Morbihan Bay between 
30-50 m, reaching 14 mm of length and 
6.4 mm of wid. 

Distribution: The type localities are 
Royal Sound, Kerguelen Is. (P. 
fragillima), South Georgia (P. typica). 
Powell (1951) collected it in South 



Georgia and Palmer archipelago and 
later the same author found it in 
BANZARE localities at Kerguelen Is. 
(Powell, 1957) and in the Victoria - 
Ross Quadrant's (Powell, 1958). 
Cantera and Arnaud (1985) collected 
this species in a many stations at Ker- 
guelen and Crozet, between 37 and 315 
m of depth. Dell (1990) gives a com- 
plete description of the range distribu- 
tion of P. fragillima and the bathymetric 
range where this species was found. 
This species was collectec in a great 
variety of bottoms from depths of 23-50 
m. 



Family TuRRiDAE Swainson, 1840 
Genus Spirotropis G. O. Sars, 1878 

Spirotropis studeriana (Martens, 1878) (Fig. 29) 

Pleurotoma (Spirotropis) studeriana Martens, 1878; Watson, 1886: 322, pl. 25, fig. 7. 
Spirotropis studeriana: Powell, 1957: 135; Powell, 1960: 160; Powell, 1966: 75; Cantera and Arnaud, 
1985: 78; Branch et al, 1991: 59. 

Material: 2 sp. (5.99 x 14.47 mm; 5.03 x 11.51 mm) and 1 shell (4.71 x 11.12 mm), D7; 1 sp. (4.07 x 
7.95 mm), D8; 5 sp. (6.02 x 13.61 mm - 3.61 x 7.63 mm) and 1 shell (5.61 x 12.89 mm), D31-D32. 



103 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



Remarks: This shell is characterised by 
its tall spire, angulated whorls and a sub- 
sutural sinus. The apertura is pyriform, 
ending in a short and straight canal, it has 
a sculpture of wavy axial ribs and white 
colour. The protoconch is smooth, 
rounded and has 1 V 2 whorls, we could 
not see the operculum because the animal 
was retracted in all the specimens that we 
found, but the typical Spirotropis opercu- 
lum is leaf- shaped with a terminal 
nucleus (Powell 1966). Our specimens 
reach a máximum of 14 mm of length, but 
in adult specimens the máximum size is 



26 mm (Cantera and Arnaud, 1985). 
Branch et al. (1991) give a size of 15 mm 
from specimens coUected in Marión and 
Prince Edward Is. 

Distribution: The type locality is Ker- 
guelen Is. Powell (1957) find it in the 
material coUected in Kerguelen belonging 
to the BANZARE Expedition. Cantera 
and Arnaud (1985) find this species in 
Kerguelen and give a new record to 
Crozet. Branch et al. (1991) collect it in 
Marión and Prince Edward Is., between 
140 and 204 m. Our specimens were 
coUected in mud from depths of 48-65 m. 



Family TuRRiDAE Swainson, 1840 
Genus Typhlodaphne Powell, 1951 

Typhlodaphne translúcida (Watson, 1881) (Fig. 30) 

Pleurotoma (Thesbia) translúcida Watson, 1881; Watson, 1886: 330, pl. 25, fig. 11. 
Thesbia translúcida: Thiele, 1912: 248, pl. 15, fig. 15. 

Typhlodaphne translúcida: Powell, 1951: 175; Powell, 1957: 136; Powell, 1958: 204; Powell, 1960: 
160; Powell, 1966: 129; Cantera and Arnaud, 1985: 80; Dell, 1990: 239; Branch et al, 1991: 59. 

Material: 2 sp. (5.46 x 10.08 mm; 4.5 x 8.5 mm) and 1 shell (6.52 x 12.49 mm), D25-D29; 1 shell (2.0 
X 5.0 mm), D31-D32. 



Remarks: The shell is oval, white in 
colour and smooth, it has not opercu- 
lum and presents a sculpture of fine 
Unes of growth. Cantera and Arnaud 
(1985) give a máximum size of 14 mm 
for Kerguelen specimens, our two speci- 
mens measured 11 mm in length. 

Distribution: The type locality is 
halfway between Marión I. and Prince 
Edward I. Typhlodaphne translúcida has 
been also recorded in material of a 
BANZARE expedition from Kerguelen 



(Powell 1957) and Victoria - Ross Qua- 
drant's (Powell 1958). Cantera and 
Arnaud (1985) collect this species from 
Kerguelen and Crozet, being the later a 
new record. Dell (1990) gives a range 
distribution of T. translúcida that inclu- 
ded the antarctic continent between 49° 
E-53° E and Branch et al. (1991) coUec- 
ted it from Marión and Prince Edward 
Is. between 210 and 355 m. Our speci- 
mens were coUected in mud with Rho- 
dophyces from depths of 30-50 m. 



Family Diaphanidae Odhner, 1914 
Genus Toledonia Dalí, 1902 

Toledonia elata Thiele, 1912 (Fig. 31) 

Toledonia elata Thiele, 1912: 249, pl. 14, fíg. 22; Powell, 1957: 137; Powell, 1958: 206; Powell, 1960: 
161; Dell, 1990: 256, figs. 471, 472. 

Material: 1 sp. (2.26 x 4.33 mm), D16-D17. 

Remarks: Among the species of Tole- points out that T. punctata is distinguis- 
donia endemic of Kerguelen Dell (1990) hable by "the sculpture of the proto- 



104 



TronCOSO ETAL.: Marine molluscan fauna of Kerguelen Islands, South Indian ocean 



conch, the strongly developed spiral 
sculpture and the relatively straight- 
sided whorl outUnes", while T. elata 
have smooth protoconch and a polished 
shell surface. Our specimen has a 
smooth protoconch and a poHshed 
white shell surface with very fine spiral 
lines, this spiral sculpture is only notica- 
ble with a great magnification. Its mea- 
surements are 4.6 x 2.5 with a D/H ratio 
of 54. We think it is a T elata specimen 
relying on the smooth protoconch and 



the absence of a strongly spiral sculp- 
ture. 

Distribution: The type locality is 
Observatory Bay, Kerguelen Is. Powell 
records this species in material from 
BANZARE expedition collected in Ker- 
guelen (Powell 1957) and in the Victo- 
ria - Ross Quadrant (Powell 1958). 
Powell (1960) points out that it has 
been also recorded from Enderby Land 
and Dell (1990) found T. elata in the 
Ross Sea between 238 and 351 m. 



Family Philinidae Gray, 1850 
Genus Philine Ascanius, 1772 

Philine cf. amoena Thiele, 1925 

Material: 1 broken shell, D5; 1 shell (6.0 x 7.0 nim), D8; 2 sp. (4.1 x 7.5 mm; 4.1 x 8.0 mm), D25-D29. 



Remarks: This species seems to be 
amoena, but without access to type mate- 
rial, we only suspect that it is this 
species. The shell characteristics agree 
with this species of Philine, although its 
identity may be confirmed. 



Distribution: The type locality is 
Gazelle Bay, Kerguelen Is. This specie 
was recorded by Powell (1957) from 
two stations of the BANZARE expedi- 
tion at Kerguelen Is. of which the 
species is endemic. 



Class BrvALViA 

Family Sareptidae A. Adams, 1860 

Genus Yo/dzfl Móller, 1842 

Subgenus Aeqviyoldia Scoot-Ryen, 1951 

Yoldia (Aeqviyoldia) isonota Martens, 1881 (Fig. 32) 

Yoldia isonota Smith, 1885: 242, pl. 20, figs. 5-5b. 

Yoldia (Aeqviyoldia) isonota Powell, 1957: 115; Powell, 1960: 170. 

Material: 3 valves (8.56 x 15.15 mm - 8.10 x 12.44 mm), D2; 11 valves (10.8 x 19.2 mm - 7.9 x 12.8 
mm), D3-D4; 2 sp. (15.15 x 26.98 mm; 10.52 x 15.83 umi) and 6 valves (14.5 x 25.0 mm - 9.5 x 15.2 
mm), D5; 1 sp. (11.36 x 18.94 mm) and 6 valves (12.42 x 20.23 mm - 9.20 x 14.50 mm), D7; 2 valves 
(8.83 X 16.58 mm), D16-D17; 2 sp. (10.98 x 18.19 mm; 8.56 x 14.44 mm), D31-D32; 1 sp. (8.59 x 14.01 
mm), D36. 



Remarks: This species was recorded 
by Smith (1885) in Kerguelen Is. He 
pointed out that it is not comparable 
with any other species. 

Distribution: The type locality is 
Kerguelen Is., from where it was also 
recorded by the BANZARE expedition 
(Powell, 1957). It appears to be 



endemic of Kerguelen, but Arnaud 
(1979) records it at Kerguelen Is. and 
includes this species in a group with 
subantartic distribution. In this collec- 
tion appear three individuáis alive in 
muddy bottoms from 50-90 m, being 
the remaining material only empty 
valves. 



105 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



Yoldia {Aeqviyoldia) eightsi (Couthouy, in Jay, 1839) (Fig. 33) 

Nucula eightsii Couthouy, in Jay, 1839. 

Yoldia (Aequiyoldia) eightsi: Dell, 1990: 10, figs. 2, 5; Cattaneo-Vietti et al. 2000: 176. 

Yoldia subaequilateralis Smith, 1885: 243. 

Yodia {Aequiyoldia) subaequilateralis: Powell, 1957: 114; Powell, 1960: 170. 

Material: 1 sp. (19.27 x 32.11 mm) and 3 valves (17.65 x 25.91 mm - 16.22 x 26.59 mm), D5; 1 valve 
(18.24 X 28.17 mm), D8; 3 sp. (10.93 x 16.81 mm - 8.22 x 12.64 mm) and 5 valves (13.53 x 20.67 mm 
- 10.57 X 15.76 mm) D9; 1 sp. (14.71 x 22.18 mm) and 4 valves (15.2 x 22.3 mm - 13.2 x 19.5 mm), 
DIO; Isp. (9.16 X 13.85 mm) and 1 valve (13.59 x 20.81 mm), D12-D14; 1 sp. (15.32 x 22.43 mm) and 
1 valve (13.42 x 20.26 mm), D19-21; 2 sp. (12.94 x 19.04 mm; 11.66 x 16.91 mm) and 1 valve (9.02 x 
12.84 mm), D25-D29. 



Remarks: This is one of the commo- 
nest bivalves in antarctic shallow v^^aters 
(Dell, 1990; Cattaneo-Vietti et al., 
2000). y. eightsi was found in the Ross 
Sea with densities of 70-80 ind./m2 
(Cattaneo-Vietti et al., 2000). 

Distribution: The type locality is 
Swain's Bay, Kerguelen Is. This species 
with circumantarctic distribution (Dell, 
1990) extends to the South Shetlands, 
South Orkneys, South Sandwich Is., 
South Georgia, Falkland Is., Tierra del 
Fuego, Southern Chile and to Kerguelen 



Is. Although its known range is 4-824 m, 
Dell (1990) remarks that this species is 
much commoner at depth shallower than 
at 100 metres. Cattaneo-Vietti et al. 
(2000) find this species in Terra Nova Bay 
Ross Sea with a máximum size of 30 mm 
and between depths of 36 and 380 m. Ar- 
NAUD (1979) found Y. isonota in Kergue- 
len Is. in coarse sand with a detritic and 
organogenic components. In the present 
collection Y. eightsi was found in muddy 
and sandy bottoms with an organogenic 
components (spicles) from 23 to 50 m. 



Family Malletiidae Adams and Adams, 1858 
Genus Malletia Desmoulins, 1832 

Malletia gigantea (Smith, 1875) 

Solenella gigantea Smith, 1875. 

Malletia gigantea: Thiele, 1912: 254; Powell, 1957: 115; Powell, 1960: 171. 

Material: 1 sp. (24.63 x 44.06 mm) and 13 valves (31.0 x 57.2 mm - 25.0 x 47.0 mm), D18; 3 valves, 
D31-D32. 



Remarks: It is the largest bivalve 
found in this collection and its measure- 
ments are 44.06 mm x 24.63 mm. Smith's 
type is the largest known with 62 mm x 
32 mm (Powell, 1957). 

Distribution: The type locality is Roy al 
Sound, Kerguelen Is. This species was also 
recorded in Kerguelen Is. by Thiele (1912) 
in Observatory Bay and by Powell (1957) 



in a BANZARE localities between 4 and 
150 m. Arnaud (1979) records it from Ker- 
guelen Is. and points out that is another 
species with subantarctic distribution. 
Shells and the individual of this collection 
come from muddy bottoms, agreeing with 
Arnaud (1979), who found this species in 
muddy bottoms and included it in the 
deposit-feeders. 



Family Mytilidae Rafinesque, 1815 
Genus Aulacomya Moerch, 1853 

Aulacomya ater regia Powell, 1957 



06 



TroncosO etal.: Marine moUuscan fauna of Kerguelen Islands, South Indian ocean 



Mytilus magellanicus Thiele, 1912: 253. 

Aulacomya ater regia Powell, 1957: 120, pl. 2, figs. 1-2; Powell, 1960: 174. 

Material: 2 sp. (49.0 x 98.0 mm; 8.0 x 18.0 mm), DIO; 6 sp. (50.98 x 112.31 mm - 12.72 x 26.83 mm), 
D12-D14; 1 sp. (46.06 x 105.42 mm) and 1 valve (30.51 x 56.82 mm), D16-D17; 3 sp. (50.57 x 106.85 
mm - 47.74 x 115.64 mm), D19-21; 1 sp. (41.63 x 85.51 mm), D29-25; 1 sp. (1.4 x 2.2 mm), D35. 



Remarks: This species has the same 
shape as Aulacomya ater ater, but it is dis- 
tinguishable by the number of ribs in the 
umbonal área (Powell, 1957). In our Ker- 
guelen individuáis the number of ribs 
reaches a range of 9-14, while the range 
known for this subspecies is 10-13 
(Powell, 1957). This author described the 
Kerguelen population as a new subspe- 
cies upon the umbonal rib count (Powell, 
1957). The greater individual found in this 



work was 115.6 mm x 47.7 mm with 14 
ribs in the umbonal área and golden brown 
coloration, features that agree with the 
subspecies described by Powell. Arnaud 
(1974 and 1979) do not maintain this subes- 
pecies for Kerguelen populations. 

Distribution: The type locality is Bras 
BoHnder, Kerguelen Is. Thiele (1912) 
records this species in Observatory Bay, 
Kerguelen Is. and Powell (1957) in 
some BANZARE stations at Kerguelen. 



Family Kelliidae Forbes and Hanley, 1958 
Genus Pseudokellia Pelseneer, 1903 

Pseudokellia cardiformis (Smith, 1885) (Fig. 34) 

Kellia cardiformis Smith, 1885: 202, pl. 11, figs. 6-66. 

Pseudokellia stillwelli Hedley, 1916: 31, pl. 3, figs. 38, 39; Powell, 1960: 178; Egorova: 1982: 72, figs. 

326, 327. 
Pseudokellia cardiformis: Powell, 1957: 122; Powell, 1960: 178; Dell, 1990: 40, figs 66, 67. 

Material: 3 valves (4.5 x 4.6 mm), D8; 1 sp. (2.5 x 3.0 mm), D25-29. 



Remarks: Only one young individual 
was found alive in this collection. It is a 
whitish, circular and very thin shell. In 
the empty shells we can see the hinge com- 
posed of two cardinal teeth in the left valve 
and only one in the right, ligament is inter- 
nal and it is situated just below the umbo. 

Distribution: The type locality is Royal 
Sound in Kerguelen Is. Hedley (1916) 
records P. cardiformis in Adelie Land and 
Davis Sea, Powell (1957) found it in 
BANZARE localities and Egorova (1982) 
records this species in the Results of the 



Soviet Antartic Expedition. According to 
Dell (1990) this species has a probably 
circumantarctic distribution. Antarctic 
Península, South Sethlands, South Sand- 
wich Is., South Georgia, Shag Rocks, off 
the Falkland Is., Kerguelen Is. and Ross 
Sea. This author records P. cardiformis in 
the Ross Sea at 51-377 m. Cattaneo- 
Vietti et al. (2000) record P. cardiformis in 
Terra Nova Bay, Ross Sea between 49 and 
544 m. Our specimen was collected in 
muddy bottom with Rhodophyces from 
depths of 30-50 m. 



Family Gaimardiidae Hedley, 1916 
Genus Gaimardia Gould, 1852 

Gaimardia trapesina trapesina (Lamarck, 1819) (Fig. 35) 

Gaimardia trapesina Hedley, 1916: 25, with the following synonyms: Modiolarca crassa, cannellieri, 
lephayi, savatieri, fuegiensis and hahni, all of Rochebrune and Mabille, 1889: 120-123; Powell, 
1957: 122; Branch et al, 1991: 47, 52, 61, 63. 



107 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



Gaimardia trapesina trapesina: Powell, 1960: 179 

Material: 79 sp. (15.56 x 22.39 mm - 5.5 x 8.8 mm), D5; 1 valve (0.6 x 0.8 mm), D9; 1 broken valve, 
D19-21; 54 sp. (16.52 x 22.56 mm - 96.54 x 10.39 mm), D25-D29. 



Remarks: According to Branch et al. 
(1991) this species can reach up to 25 
mm of length. The largest individual 
found by us in Kerguelen Is. was 23 mm 
length. G. trapesina has a fragüe shell, 
with a coloration palé buff to brown and 
the typical rostrum of trapesina, we 
found most of the samples associated to 
the kelp. Samples found by Powell 
(1957) in Kerguelen Is. are shorter than 
10 mm, while the largest Macquarie I. 
samples that were found by Hedley are 
19 mm (Hedley 1916). This author 
remarks that Lamarck's type is 22 mm 
and Branch et al. (1991) point out that 
this species is usually attached to the 
blades of the kelp Macrocystis pyrifera, 
and records this bivalve in sand with 
depth range of 5-200 m. 



Distribution: The type locality of G. 
trapesina appears to be unknown, pro- 
bably Magellan province (Powell 1960). 
Hedley (1916) records the coccinea 
variety in Macquarie I. This species has 
almost a subantarctic distribution foUo- 
wing the Macrocystis pyrifera distribution 
(Arnaud, 1979; Hareau and Arnaud, 
1984). It has been recorded in the Mage- 
Uanic province, including Falkland Is., 
Kerguelen Is. and Crozets (Powell 
1960). Branch et al. (1991) records this 
species from Marión and Prince Edward 
Is. between 5 and 200 m. Our samples 
come from Port aux Frangais, Channer I., 
Suhm I., Glénan Is. and Passe de Buenos 
Aires and were collected in muddy bott- 
tons whit spicles and Marocystis from 
depths of 23-50 m. 



Family Neoleptonidae Thiele, 1934 
Genus Neolepton Monterosato, 1875 

Neolepton umbonatum (Smith, 1885) (Fig. ?6) 

Davila (?) umbonata Smith, 1885: 82, pl. 6, figs 1, Ib. 

Notolepton umbonatum: Powell, 1955: 37; Powell, 1957: 123; Powell, 1960: 180. 

Neolepton umbonatum: Branch et ai, 1991: 54; Linse, 1997: 57; Linse and Brandt, 1998: 884, 887. 

Material: 2 valves (2.0 x 2.0 mm; 1.5 x 2.0 mm), D5; 1 sp. (3.5 x 5.0 mm), D6; 1 sp. (3.0 x 4.0 mm), 
D7; 5 valves (4.5 x 5.5 mm - 3.0 x 4.0 mm), D8. 



Remarks: Smith (1885) described this 
species from individuáis found in 
Balfour Bay and Royal Sound in Ker- 
guelen Is. and places it in the genus 
Davila, although he points out that it did 
not correspond in the hinge with the 
typical Davila. Later this species has 
been recorded under different genera. 
Dell (1964a in Dell 1990) places a spe- 
cimen of Lepton parasiticum from Ker- 
guelen in the genus Neolepton and consi- 
ders this one as a synonymy of Notolep- 
ton. Branch et al. (1991) describe the 
shell of N. umbonatum as more longer 
than high, a little inflated and with a 



prominet umbo, these shell features 
agree with our individuáis. 

Distribution: The type localities of 
this species are Balfour Bay and Royal 
Sound in Kerguelen Is. Powell (1955) 
records it in Auckland Is. and later 
records this species in BANZARE mate- 
rial Powell (1957). Branch et al. 
(1991) records it in Marión and Prince 
Edward Is., 10 to 750 m. Linse (1997) 
found this species in the Beagle 
Channel, 25 to 271 m. Our specimens 
were collected in muddy bottoms with 
an organogenic components (spicles) 
from depths of 23-65 m. 



108 



TroncoSO ETAL.: Marine molluscan fauna of Kerguelen Islands, South Indian ocean 



Family Limidae Rafinesque, 1815 
Genus Limatula Searles-Wood, 1839 

Limatula cf. pygmaea (Philippi, 1845) (Fig. 37) 

Lima pygmaea Philippi, 1945; Thiele, 1912: 251, pl. 17, figs. 6-8. 

Limatula pygmaea: Powell, 1955: 27; Powell, 1957: 116; Powell, 1960: 176; Branch et al, 1991: 50; 

Linse, 1997: 52; Linse and Brandt, 1998: 884. 
Limatula cf. pygmaea: Amaud, 1979: 222; Hareau and Amaud, 1984: 466. 
Limatula (Antarctolima) pygmaea: Dell, 1990: 55. 

Material: 3 sp. (8.51 x 11.26 mm - 5.54 x 7.22 mm), D3-D4; 1 broken valve, D5; Isp. (8.55 x 11.26 
mm) and 11 valves (11.0 x 14.28 mm - 4.84 x 6.11 mm), D8; 1 valve (9.31 x 12.37 mm), D9; 12 valves 
(11.33 X 14.49 mm - 10.16 x 14.06 mm), DIO; 2 sp. (11.30 x 14.85 mm; 7.39 x 9.59 mm), D19-21; 29 sp. 
(12.67 X 16.42 mm - 6.89 x 8.76 mm) and 2 valves (12.5 x 16.1 mm; 10.5 x 12.8 mm), D25-D29. 



Remarks: The greatest specimen of this 
collection reaches 16.5 mm, is a white bro- 
adly oval shell vvrith radial ridges and 
grow^th rings. Powell (1957) points out 
that it is better to maintain the ñame pyg- 
maea for the Kerguelen shells until com- 
parative material can be examined. Ar- 
NAUD (1979) and Hareau and Arnaud 
(1984) point out that Stuardo (1968) con- 
cluded that the Kerguelen specimens of 
L. pygmaea defered of L. pygmaea (Philippi, 
1845) but the new^ ñame could not be em- 
ployed because remains unpublished. 
Dell (1990) explains that "the relations- 
hip of L. pygmaea and L. ovalis w^ill be bet- 
ter understood v^hen more material of eas- 
tem Antárctica can be critically compared 
with material of the full range of L. pyg- 
maea". We consider that our specimens are 
very cióse to L. pygmaea (Philippi, 1845) in 



measurements and shell characteristics 
but we agree with Amaud's nomenclature 
and consider this species as cf . 

Distribution: It has a wide distribution 
range and has been recorded from Sout- 
hern Chile and the Magellanic región to 
Kerguelen and Macquarie Is. in depths of 
6 to 598 m (Dell 1990). Branch et al. 
records this species from Marión and 
Prince Edward I. between 38 and 240 m 
and recently it has been collected in the 
Beagle Channel by Linse (1997) and Linse 
AND Brandt (1998), 5 to 665 m. Hareau 
and Arnaud ([1984) included, in the dis- 
tribution range of Stuardo's species, 
Crozet and Kerguelen Is. and pointed out 
that some of L. pygmaea (Philippi, 1845) 
records could be about Stuardo's species. 
We found this species in muddy and 
sandy bottoms from depths of 23-50 m. 



Family Carditidae Fleming, 1828 
Genus Cydocardia Conrad, 1867 

Cyclocardia astartoides (Martens, 1878) (Fig. 38) 

Cardita astartoides: Smith, 1885: 212, pl. 5, figs. 2-2a; Thiele, 1912: 230, pl. 18, fig. 10. 

Venericardia astartoides: Hedley, 1916: 30, pl. 3, figs. 33, 34. 

Cyclocardia astartoides: Powell, 1957: 121; PoweU, 1958: 177; Powell, 1960: 177; Egorova, 1982: 72, 

figs. 328, 329; Dell, 1990: 59, figs. 98, 99; Cattaneo-Vietti et al, 2000: 176. 
Cyclocardia antárctica: Powell, 1960: 177. 

Material: 4 sp. (23.93 x 30.04 mm - 8.0 x 9.5 mm) and 5 valves (34.2 x 43.5 mm - 8.8 x 11.5 mm), D3- 
D4; 1 sp. (4.5 x 5.2 mm) and 9 valves (14.44 x 18.15 mm - 6.42 x 6.74 mm), D5; 1 sp. (30.70 x 36.54 
mm), D8; 1 valve (26.07 x 29.43 mm), DIO; 52 valves (29.0 x 37.2 mm - 18.5 x 22.2 mm), D12-D14; 1 
sp. (23.51 X 27.16 mm) and 2 valves (14.45 x 16.78 mm), D16-D17; 8 sp. (31.02 x 36.34 mm - 17.34 x 
20.03 mm) and 12 valves (31.44 x 39.17 mm - 11.25 x 13.31 mm), D19-21; 5 sp. (23.0 x 27.7 mm - 9.42 
X 10.61 mm) and 5 valves (27.21 x 32.19 mm - 8.28 x 9.95 mm), D25-D29. 



109 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



Remarks: Powell (1960) records 
three types of Cyclocardia in Antarctic 
waters: antárctica, astartoides and interme- 
dia that later Dell (1964a in Dell, 1990) 
suggests as the variants of the widely 
distributed C. astartoides. Afterwards 
NicoL (1966 in Dell, 1990) reiterates the 
differences between the type antárctica 
and typical form astartoides and gives 
the ratio of length to height of this 
types. Dell (1990) revises the ratios and 
other characteristics of a series of speci- 
mens belonging to astartoides and con- 
cludes that until a better evidence is 
found, antárctica is based on a single 
aberrant specimen of astartoides. 

Distribution: The type locality is Ker- 
guelen Is. C. Astartoides has been recor- 



ded from Kerguelen and between Ker- 
guelen and Heard Is. ( Smith, 1885; 
Thiele, 1912; Powell, 1957), Davis Sea 
and Shackleton Ice-shelf (Hedley, 1916), 
Enderby Land and Adelie Land 
(Powell 1958) and Terra Nova Bay, 
Ross Sea (Cattaneo-Vietti et al., 2000). 
Moreover it has been recorded from 
South Shetlands, South Orkneys, South 
Sandwich Is., South Georgia, Bouvet I., 
Ross Sea and Kerguelen (see Dell 1990). 
This author points out that it is a 
common species in the Ross Sea, 18-1674 
m. In this collection it is one of the cha- 
racteristic bivalves, appearing in muddy 
and sandy bottoms with organogenic 
components and algae from depths of 
30-50 m. 



Family Hiatellidae Gray, 1824 
Genus Hiatella Daudin, 1801 

Hiatella cf. antárctica (Philippi, 1845) (Figs. 39, 40) 

Saxicava antárctica Hedley, 1916: 33. 

Hiatella cf. antárctica: Powell, 1955: 44. 

Hiatella antárctica: Powell, 1957: 124; Powell, 1960: 183. 



Material: 1 sp. (19 mm x 8.2 mm), D3-D4. 

Remarks: This species has a very va- 
riable shape and Powell (1957) ascribes 
all irregular Subantarctic and Antarctic 
Hiatella to antárctica. Hareau and Ar- 
NAUD (1984) point out that determina- 
tion of South hemisphere Hiatella is un- 
certain and consider the similarity bet- 
ween this species and H. árctica (Linné, 
1767). This collection ha ve only one in- 
dividual, found in Passe de Buenos Ai- 
res. It is elongate (19 mm x 8.2 mm), 
slightly gaping with concentric growth 
rings and two rows of little spines only 



visible in the anterior dorsal margin. 
This shell is white with palé brown deci- 
duous periostracum, ligament external 
and one cardinal tooth in the right 
valve. We have not enougth data on 
which to base a judgement and for this 
reason we consider this species as cf . 

Distribution: The distribution range 
can not be critically established with the 
specific discusions existing. In this 
collection there is one specimen collec- 
ted in muddy bottoms with organogenic 
components from a depth of 42 m. 



Family Laternulidae Hedley, 1918 
Genus Laternula Roding, 1798 

Laternula elliptica (King and Broderip, 1831) (Fig. 41) 

Anatina elliptica: Smith, 1885: 76; Thiele, 1912: 256. 

Laternula elliptica: Hedley, 1916: 27; Powell, 1957: 120; Powell, 1960: 185; Egorova, 1982: 68, figs. 
197-299; Dell, 1990: 62, fig. 106; Branch et al, 1991: 51; Cattaneo-Vietti et al, 2000: 176. 



110 



TrONCOSO ETAL.: Marine molluscan fauna of Kerguelen Islands, South Indian ocean 




Figure 43: Eatoniella k. kerguelenensis, radula. Figure 44: Margantes cf. porcellana, radula. Figure 
45: Margantes violácea, radula. Figure 46: Falsilunatia cf. dalicatula, radula. Figure 47: Falsilunatia 
cf xantha, radula. Scale bars, 43: 25 [im, 44-47: 100 |jm 

Figura 43: Eatoniella k. kerguelenensis, radula. Figura 44: Margarites cf porcellana, radula. Figura 
45: Margarites violácea, radula. Figura 46: Falsilunatia cf dalicatula, radula. Figura 47: Falsilunatia 
cf xantha, radula. Escalas, 43: 25 fim, 44-47: 100 fím. 



Material: 1 broken valve, D7; 1 sp. (12.42 x 22.07 mm), D9; 2 sp. (28.0 x 45.0 mm; 9.77 x 16.67 
mm) and 1 valve (33.61 x 60.80 mm), D16-D17; 2 valves (28.27 x 50.05 mm; 21.82 x 37.91 mm), 
D18; 2 sp. (13.85 x 27.37 mm; 9.43 x 22.15 mm), D19-21; 5 sp. (21.88 x 37.86 mm - 8.5 x 17.5 
mm), D25-D29; 3 sp. (12.41 x 20.53 mm - 10.8 x 17.5 mm), D31-D32; 1 valve (19.65 x 36.59 
mm), M14. 



Remarks: This species of bivalve is 
easy to recognize by its shell and the big 
siphon. L. elliptica is an abundant 
shallow waters species, Dell (1990) 
remarks this species as probably com- 
moner in depths shallow^er than 20 m. 
Cattaneo-Vietti et al. (2000) found in 
the Terra Nova Bay a specimen w^ith a 
máximum size of 83 mm, whereas in 
this collection the máximum size is 60.8 
mm. 

Distribution: The type locality is 
South Shetlands. L. elliptica has been 
recorded from Betsy Cove and Royal 
Sound (Smith, 1885), Observatory Bay 
(Thiele, 1912) and Commonwealth Bay 



(Hedley, 1916) all in Kerguelen. Powell 
(1957) also records this species in a 
series of BANZARE localities at Kergue- 
len Is. L. elliptica has a completely circu- 
mantarctic distribution, being know^n 
from Antarctic Península, South She- 
tlands, South Orkneys and South Sand- 
wich Is., South Georgia and Kerguelen 
(Dell, 1990). Branch et al. (1991) find 
this species in Marión and Prince 
Edward Is. Cattaneo-Vietti et al. 
(2000) record this specie in Terra Nova 
Bay, Ross Sea. Individuáis of this collec- 
tion have been collected in muddy and 
sandy bottoms with Rhodophyces from 
depths of 0,1-65 m. 



111 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



Family Thraciidae Stoliczka, 1870 
Genus Thracia Sowerby, 1823 

Thracia meridionalis Smith, 1885 (Fig. 42) 

Thracia meridionalis Smith, 1885: 68, pl. 6, figs. 4-4b; Hedley 1916: 29; Powell, 1958: 178; Powell, 
1960: 184; Egorova, 1982: 69, figs. 304-306; Dell, 1990: 63, figs. 109, 110, 111; Branch et al, 1991: 
51; Linse, 1997: 61; Linse and Brandt, 1998: 884; Cattaneo-Vietti et al, 2000: 176. 

Mysella trúncala Thiele, 1912: 230, pl. 18, fig. 18. 

Mysella frígida Thiele, 1912: 231, pl. 18, fig. 19. 

Material: 1 valve, D9; 3 valves (15.7 x 20.8 mm - 14.3 x 20.5 mm), D25-D29. 



Remarks: This characteristic bivalve 
is easy to recognize, besides its shell fea- 
tures, by its pallial sinus and its muscle 
scars. Although this species is a 
common antarctic bivalve, in this collec- 
tion T. meridionalis is only represented 
by empty valves. Cattaneo-Vietti et 
AL. (2000) found, in Terra Nova Bay, 
Ross Sea, a specimen with a length of 25 
mm. 

Distribution: The type locality is 
Royal Sound in Kerguelen Is. Dell 
(1990) points out that it is another 
species with probably circumantarctic 
distribution and records it in the Antarc- 
tic Peninsula, South Shetland, South 



Orkneys, South Sandwich Is., South 
Georgia, Magellanic región, Falkland Is., 
Kerguelen, Marión and Prince Edward 
Is. and in the Ross Sea with a bathyme- 
tric range of 5-752 m. This author 
remarks that it is more common in rela- 
tively shallow depths. Branch et al. 
(1991) collect this species from Marión 
and Prince Edward Is., 15-120 m. LlNSE 
(1997) records this species in the Beagle 
Channel. Cattaneo-Vietti et al. (2000) 
record T. meridionalis in Terra Nova Bay, 
Ross Sea, 30-123 m. In this collection 
there are two shells collected in mud 
with Rhodophyces from depths of 30-50 



CONCLUSIONS 

A total of 843 individuáis was identi- 
fied belonging to 44 species of molluscs. 
Twelve of these species are bivalves 
with a total of 434 individuáis and 
thirty-two species are gastropods with a 
total of 409 individuáis. AIl the species 
are characteristics of shallow waters, 
being the samples collected in a 
máximum depth of 90 m. 

Among the bivalves, the most abun- 
dant species are Gaimardia t. trapesina with 
132 individuáis and Limatula cf. pygmaea 
with 35 individuáis and 27 valves. 
Whereas among the gastropods the most 
abundant species are Margarites cf . porce- 
llana with 48 individuáis and 34 shells and 
Perissodonta mirabilis with 40 individuáis 
and 19 shells. Only one species of bivalve, 
Thracia meridionalis, is represented by 
empty valves whereas three species of gas- 
tropods, Puncturella cónica, lothia coppin- 



geri and Sinuber sculpta, are represented 
by empty shells. The small size of most of 
the species of this collection must be emp- 
hasized. There are a few exceptions like 
the limpets Nacella (Patinigera) edgari and 
N. delicaíissima or Perissodonta mirabilis and 
among the bivalves Aulacomya ater regia 
and Laternula elliptica. 

In this collection, there are one spe- 
cies of bivalve and two of gastropods 
that are endemics of the Kerguelen Is., 
the bivalve Aulacomya ater regia, and the 
gastropods Nacella (Patinigera) edgari and 
Prosipho propinquus. This latter species 
have not been recorded after Powell 
(1957) and Cantera and Arnaud (1985) 
included it in the faunal list. There are 
four species of bivalves that Arnaud 
(1979) and Hareau and Arnaud (1984) 
pointed out that have a subantarctic dis- 
tribution, these species are: Yoldia {Aeqvi- 



112 



Troncoso ETAL.: Marine molluscan fauna of Kerguelen Islands, South Indian ocean 



yoldia) isonota, Malletia gigantea, Gaimar- 
dia t. trapesina and Limatula cf. pygmaea. 

Most of the species formerly conside- 
rad as endemic of Kerguelen Is., have 
been recordad from Crozet Is. by 
Cantera and Arnaud (1985): Eatoniella 
k. kerguelenensis, Eumetula ornata, Pareuth- 
ria chlorotica, Spirotropis studeriana, 
Trophon septus and Admete specularis. 
There are only one species of gastropod 
{lothia coppingeri) with a circumantarctic 
distribution whereas there are four 
species of bivalves with this distribution: 
Yoldia (Aeqviyoldia) eightsi, Laternula ellip- 
tica, Thracia meridionalis and Pseudokellya 
cardiformis. The two latter species are 
recorded by Dell (1990) as with a proba- 
ble's circumantarctic distribution. 

If the specific identity of Margantes 
cf. porcellana, one of the most abundant 
gastropod is confirmed, it would be a 
new record for the Kerguelen Is., since 
its the type locality is off Marión I. and 
its recent records Marión and Prince 
Edward Is. (Branch et al., 1991). 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The present molluscan material was 
collected at Kerguelen Is. with the 
support of IFRTP, Brest and TAAF, Paris. 
We are very grateful to Dr. C. De Broyer 
(K.B.I.N.) for provide the stations list of 
the mission Ker-82 and the Morbihan 
chart. We wish to express our thanks to 
Dr. Thierry Backeljau and the techni- 
cians of the K.B.I.N. for providing the 
necessary working facilities.We are 
extremely grateful to Dr. Patrick Arnaud 
(Station Marine d'Endoume), who pro- 
vides us with a lot of useful biblio- 
graphy and for his helpful comments on 
the manuscript. We also thanks to J. 
Moreira and Dr. Emilio Rolan for their 
assistance at various stages of manus- 
cript preparation, especially with the 
making of the plates. Digital photo- 
graphy was supported by Infraestruc- 
tura Científica of the Secretaría Xeral de 
Investigación e Desenvolvemento and 
the proyect PGIDT 00PXI30119PR. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Arnaud, P. M., 1972. Invertébrés marins des 
Xlléme et XVéme Expéditions Antarcti- 
ques Frangaises en Terre Adélie. 8. Gasté- 
ropodes prosobranches. Tethys, Supplé- 
ment 4: 105-134. 

Arnaud, P. M., 1974. Contribution á la biono- 
mie marine benthique des régions antarcti- 
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Arnaud, P. M., 1979. Ecologie, biogéographie 
et caracteres biologiques des pélécypodos 
macrobentiques du Plateau des íles Kergue- 
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Histoire Naturelle, 43: 221-233. París. 

Arnaud, P. M. and Bandel, K., 1978. Comment 
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Branch, M. L.; Arnaud, P. M.; Cantera, J. and 
GiANAKOURAS, D., 1991. The benthic Mo- 
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rión and Prince Edward I.: 1) Ilustrated keys 
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can Journal of Antarctic Research, 21, 1: 45-64. 

BoucHET, P. AND Warén, A., 1985. Revisión of 
the Northeast Atlantic bathyal and abyssal 
Neogastropoda excluding Turridae (Mo- 
Uusca, Gastropoda). Bollettino Malacologico, 
Supplemento 1: 121-296. 



Cantera, J. and Arnaud, P. M., 1985. Les gas- 
téropodes prosobranches des liles Kerguelen 
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FRA (Comité' National Frangais des Recherches 
Antar etiques), 56: 1-169. 

Cattaneo-Vietti, R.; Chiantore, M.; Schia- 
PARELLi, S. AND Albertelli, G., 2000. ShaUow- 
and deep-water mollusc distribution at Te- 
rra Nova Bay (Ross Sea, Antárctica). Polar 
Biology, 23: 173-182. 

Dell, R. K., 1990. Antarctic Mollusca. Bulletin 
ofthe Royal Society ofNeiv Zealand, 27: 1-311. 

Egorova, E. N., 1982. Biological results of the 
Soviet Antarctic expéditions, 7. Mollusca of 
the Davis Sea. Explorations ofthe faunas ofthe 
Sea, 26 (34): 1-142 [in Russian]. 

Hareau, a. and Arnaud, P. M., 1984. Macro- 
pelecipodos de las IslasCrozet (Indico Sur). 
1. Composición faunística y zoogeografía. 
Revista de la Facultad de Humanidades y Cien- 
cias, Serie Ciencias Biológicas, Volumen 1, 28: 
457-476. 

Hedley, C, 1916. Mollusca. Australasian An- 
tarctic Expedition 1911-1914, Scientifics Re- 
ports, C- Zoology and Botany, 4 (1): 1-80. 



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Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



LlNSE, K., 1997. Die Verbreitung epibenthis- 
cher Mollusken im chilenischen Beagle-Ka- 
nal. Berichte zur Polarforschiing, 228, 1-131 [in 
Germán]. 

LiNSE, K. AND Brandt, A., 1998. Distribution of 
epibenthic mollusca on a transect through the 
Beagle channel (Southern Chile). Journal ofthe 
Marine Biological Association ofthe United King- 
dom , 78, 875-889. 

Marcus, E., 1959. Reports of the Lund Uni- 
versity Chile Expedition 1948-49. 36. Lame- 
llariacea und Opisthobranchia. Lunds Uni- 
versitets Arsskrift. N.F. (2), 55 (9): 1-137. 

PONDER, W. F., 1983. Rissoaform gastropods 
from the Antarctic and Subantarctic. British 
Antarctic Survey Scientific Reports, 108: 1-96. 

PowELL, A. W. B., 1951. Antarctic and Suban- 
tarctic Mollusca: Pelecypoda and Castro- 
poda. Discovery Reports, 26: 47-196. 

PowELL, A. W. B., 1955. Mollusca of the Sout- 
hern Islands of New Zealand. Cape Expedition 
Series Bulletiyxs, 15: 1-151. 

PowELL, A. W. B., 1957. Mollusca of the Ker- 
guelen and Macquarie Islands. B.A.N.Z. An- 
tarctic Research Expedition 1929-1931 Reports 
B, 6: 107-149. 



PowELL, A. W. B., 1958. Mollusca from the Vic- 
toria-Ross quadrants of Antárctica. B.A.N.Z. 
Antarctic Research Expedition 1929-1931 Re- 
ports B, 6: 165-215. 

PoWELL, A. W. B., 1960. Antarctic and Suban- 
tarctic Mollusca. Records ofthe Auckland /ns- 
titute and Museum, 5: 117-193. 

PowELL, A. W. B., 1966. The molluscan families 
Speightüdae and Turridae. BuUetin ofthe Auc- 
kland Institute and Museum, 5: 1-184. 

Smith, E. a., 1885. Report on the Lamellibran- 
chiata collected by H.M.S. Challenger du- 
ring the years 1873-766. Report on the Scien- 
tific Results ofthe Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger. 
Zoology, 13: 1-341. 

Strebel, H., 1908. Die Gastropoden. Wissens- 
chaftliche Ergehnisse der schwedischen Südpolar 
Expedition. 1901-1903, 6 (1): 1-112. 

Thiele, J., 1912. Die Antarktischen und Sch- 
necken und Muscheln. Deutsche Südpolar-Ex- 
pedition 1901-1903, 13: 183-285. 

Watson, R.B., 1886. Report on the Scaphopoda 
and Gastropoda collected by H.M.S. Cha- 
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114 



© Sociedad Española de Malacología 



Iberus, 19 (1): 115-128,2001 



The genus Mitrolumna (Gastropoda, Turridae) in West África 
El género Mitrolumna (Gastropoda, Turridae) en África Occidental 

Emilio ROLAN* and Franck BOYER** 

Recibido el 10-11-2001. Aceptado el30-III-2001 

ABSTRACT 

Five species of Mitrolumna Bucquoy, Dautzenberg and Dollfus, 1883, are identified from 
West África, mostly from recent unpublished findings. Three species from Senegal, already 
known, are revised: M. monodi (Knudsen, 1956), M. cf crenipicta Dautzenberg, 1889 
and M. smithi (Dautzenberg and Fischer, 1896). Two species are described as new for 
science: Mitrolumna senegalensis spec. nov. from Senegal and Mitrolumna saotomensis 
spec. nov. from Sao Tomé, Príncipe and Annobón. 

RESUMEN 
Cinco especies del género Mitrolumna Bucquoy, Dautzenberg y Dollfus, 1883, han sido 
encontradas en África occidental, la mayoría de ellas de hallazgos recientes no publica- 
dos. Tres especies ya conocidas de Senegal: M. monodi (Knudsen, 1956), M. cf creni- 
picta Dautzenberg, 1889 and M. smithi (Dautzenberg and Fischer, 1896). Dos especies 
más se describen como nuevas para la ciencia: Mitrolumna senegalensis spec. nov. de 
Senegal y Mitrolumna saotomensis spec. nov. de Sao Tomé, Príncipe y Annobón. 



KEY WORDS: Mitrolumna, Lusitanian Province, West África, variability, distribution, new species. 
PALABRAS CLAVE: Mitrolumna, Provincia Lusitanica, África Occidental, variabilidad, distribución, especies 



INTRODUCTION 

The genus Mitrolumna was described 
by Bucquoy, Dautzenberg and Dollfus 
(1883), and several species are known in 
the Lusitanian Province. 

M. olivoidea (Cantraine, 1835), type 
species of the genus, is known as a 
common and somewhat variable 
species, ranging at infralittoral and cir- 
calittoral levéis throughout the western 
basin of the Mediterranean and the 
neighbouring Atlantic. M. crenipicta 
Dautzenberg, 1889, described from one 
beached shell collected in the Agores 



Islands, has been recognized by several 
authors as ranging throughout the 
Southwest Mediterranean, the adjacent 
Atlantic and the Cañarían Archipelago. 

Two more species have been descri- 
bed in the last century from deep levéis 
off the Agores Islands: M. dalli (Dautzen- 
berg and Fischer, 1896) and M. smithi 
(Dautzenberg and Fischer, 1896). More 
recently, two other species have been 
described: M. wilheminae van Aartsen, 
Menkhorst and Gittenberger, 1984, from 
a subtidal level in the Strait of Gibraltar, 



* C/Cánovas del Castillo, 22, 36202 Vigo, Spain, E-mail:emiliorolan@inicia.es 
** 110, Chemin du Marais du Souci, 93270 Sevran, France 



15 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



and M. melitensis Mifsud, 1993 from cir- 
calittoral levéis off Malta. 

Many published taxa {clandestina, 
columhellaria, columbellaris, granulosa, greci, 
leontocroma, major, oliviformis, striarella, etc.) 
are presently considered synonyms or 
forms of these species. However, all the 
taxa of Mitrolumna from the Lusitanian 
Province deserve a complete revisión, 
including the study of intraspecific varia- 
bility, the range of geographic and bathy- 
metric distribution of the species, and the 
possible description of new taxa based on 
phenae recently discovered off the Agores 
Islands, Canary Islands (Figs. 22, 49) and 
Western Sahara (Figs. 9-11). Such a revisión 
is under study by C. Mifsud (pers. com.) 

Little is known about Mitrolumna in 
West African waters. Records of only 
two species ascribable to Mitrolumna are 
to be found in the literature: one species 
described on the basis of four shells by 
Knudsen (1956) from Gorée Islands 
(Dakar, Senegal) as Mitra monodi, and 
another species designated in the same 
paper as Mitromorpha olivoidea (Can- 
traine) from a single shell collected at a 
bathyal level off the Cap Vert Península, 
Dakar, Senegal. 



The área of West África included in 
our study is that extending from Capo 
Blanco, Ñorth of Mauritania to the nort- 
hérn border of Namibia. 

Investigations by both authors 
demonstrated the occurrence of several 
different phenae in Senegal waters, and 
also some others from the islands off the 
Guiñean Gulf. These phenae are presen- 
ted in this work and they are provisio- 
nally ascribed to appropriate taxa. 

Abbreviations 

MNHN Muséum National d'Histoire 

Naturelle, Paris 
MNCN Museo Nacional de Ciencias 

Naturales, Madrid 
MOM Museo Oceanographique, 

Monaco 
CAP collection A. Peñas, Vilanova i la 

Geltrú 
CER collection E. Rolan, Vigo 
CFB collection F. Boyer, Sevran 
CJP collection J. Pelorce, Le Grau du Roi 
sp. Uve collected specimen 
s, empty shell 
f, fragment 
j, juvenile 



RESULTS 



Family Turridae Swainson, 1840 

Subfamily Mitromorphinae Casey, 1904 

Genus Mitrolumna Bucquoy, Dautzenberg and Dollfus, 1883 

Type species by original designa tion. Mitra olivoidea Cantraine, 1835 

Mitrolumna monodi (Knudsen, 1956) (Figs. 1-8) 

Mitra monodi Knudsen, 1956: 519, pl. 1, fig. 1. [Type locality: Baie de Gorée, Dakar, 15 m]. 

Type material: Holotype in MNHN (5.9 x 2.8 mm). 

Other material studied: Senegal: 1 sp, 2 s, diving, 1-2 m. Cap Vert Península (CJP); 22 s, 13-15 m, 
Tacoma, Gorée (CJP); 2 s, 3 j, 25 m Groupe Teni Mbot (CJP); 7 sp, 40 m, Grand Thiouriba (CJP); 10 
s, 3 j, 0-1 m, Anse Bernard, Dakar (CFB); 1 sp, 1 s, 32 m, Epopal (CFB); 29 s, beached. Almadies 
(CFB); 4 sp, Petite Comiche, Dakar (CER); 6 sp, 13 m, Tacoma (CFB); 1 sp. Cap Vert Peninsule (CJP); 
3 s, Petit Thiouriba, 30 m, Dakar (CER); 1 s, 250 m, Mboro (CFB). 



Description: See Knudsen (1956). 
Knudsen gave an accurate drawing of a 
subadult biconical shell with a granular 



sculpture. The upper part is whitish, the 
lower part is dark. The species was 
founded on a lot of 4 shells. The outline 



lió 



Rolan and Boyer: The genus Mitrolumna (Gastropoda, Turridae) in West África 




Figures 1-8. Mitrolumna monodi. 1: 4.4 mm, Peninsule of Cap Vert (CJP); 2: 7.0 mm, Anse 
Bernard (CFB); 3: 5.0 mm, Petit Thouriba, Dakar, Senegal (CFB); 4: 5.1 mm, Tacoma, Gorée I., 
Dakar (CFB); 5: 4.2 mm, Tacoma (CJP); 6: 3.8 mm, Epopal (CFB); 7: 4.0 mm, Tacoma (CJP); 8: 
3.8 mm, Tacoma (CJP). Figures 9-11. Mitrolumna sp. 9: 5.3 mm, Dahkla, Western Sahara (CER); 
10, 1 1: 5.7 mm, 5.3 mm, Dahkla, Western Sahara (CFB). 

Figuras 1-8. Mitrolumna monodi. /.■ 4,4 mm, península de Cap Vert (CJP); 2: 7,0 mm, Anse 
Bernard (CFB); 3: 5,0 mm, Petit Thouriba, Dakar, Senegal (CFB); 4: 5,1 mm, Tacoma, Gorée I., 
Dakar (CFB); 5: 4,2 mm, Tacoma (CJP); 6: 3,8 mm, Epopal (CFB); 7: 4,0 mm, Tacoma (CJP); 8: 
3,8 mm, Tacoma (CJP). Figuras 9-11. Mitrolumna sp. 9: 5,3 mm, Dahkla, Sahara occidental (CER); 
10, 11: 5,7 mm, 5,3 mm, Dahkla, Sahara occidental (CFB). 



117 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



and the decoration of the holotype 
matches the shell pictured in Figure 5. 
The protoconch is totally white. 

The adult shell has a length of 4.2 to 
7.2 mm. 

The animal is uniformly white, with 
no operculum. 

Radula (Fig. 46): The radula is toxo- 
glossan with marginal teeth only. Their 
number is about 134. The position of the 
teeth seems similar to that of Conus with 
the greater part aligned in a radular sac 
and a small group in a different direction 
in a radular caecum. Each tooth has a 
wider and more compact base and a lig- 
ament connected to it. There is a slight 
enlargement in the upper third of the 
radular tooth. For a shell of 4.2 mm, the 
size of the radular tooth was 0.08 mm. 

Habitat: M. monodi has been coUected 
on hard bottoms, in short algae, from 
low tide level to 40 m. Numerous sam- 
plings on soft bottoms made in Baie de 
Gorée (5-20 m) and on Petite Cote 
(Pointe Saréne, 3-8 m) have not yielded 
any specimen of the species, which 
seems to indícate that it is restricted to 
hard bottoms. 

Distribution: M. monodi is distributed 
in small colonies around the Península 
of Cap Vert. The species is apparently 
the best represented of the micro-turrids 
from hard bottoms at infralittoral levéis 
in the área. 

The shell trawled at Mboro (North 
Senegal, 250 m) may have been trans- 
ported, due to the steep slopes and 
strong currents at this locality. However, 
its good State of preservation suggests 
that transport had been recent and that 
the species may also occupy bottoms 
from the lowest circalittoral levéis and 
range at least along the whole North 
Senegal coast. 



Discussion: Knudsen (1956) descri- 
bed the present species in the genus 
Mitra, deceived by the immature condi- 
tion of the anterior part of the shell. 
Nevertheless, its belonging to the Mitro- 
morphinae is well testified by the pres- 
ence of the two faint columellar plaits. 

The adult shell of M. monodi is very 
variable (Figs. 1-8). Outline suboval 
(Figs. 1-4) to sharp biconical (Fig. 5). 
Extreme colourations are from dark 
brown (Figs. 1-3) to puré white (Fig. 8). 
The general pattern is bicoloured, with a 
médium tendency to a whitish upper 
part and honey brown lower part. 

The shell may have a sculpture of 
coarse nodules on strong spiral cords 
(Fig. 3) or dominant axial ribs (Fig. 4). 
Some shells are almost smooth. The 
external lip can be regularly arched (Fig. 
7) or deeply inflexed (Fig. 5). 

Such differences in shell features 
could suggest the occurrence of sibling 
species. In fact, all morphological and 
chromatic intergrades were observed in 
shells of Uve collected material, and the 
occurrence of a single variable species is 
corroborated by constant features of the 
animal, the protoconch and of the 
habitat. 

Large, slender suboval and dark 
shells seem to be restricted to shallow 
water on the southern side of the Cap 
Vert Península (Anse Bernard, 0-1 m, 
and Tacoma wreck, 7-13 m). 

The dark forms of M. monodi may be 
differentiated from M. olivoidea by their 
subsutural light colour and the white 
protoconch. The shells with white and 
brown colour can be differentiated from 
M. wilhelminae (Fig. 23), which is wider, 
with more numerous spiral cords, no 
axial sculpture in the last whorls and, 
frequently, with spiral darker bands. 



Mitrolumna cf crenipicta Dautzenberg, 1889 

Mitrolumna olivoidea Cantraine var. crenipicta nov. var. Dautzenberg, 1889: 31, pl. 2, figs. 6a-6c. 

[Type locality: San Miguel, Agores, on the beach]. 
Mitromorpha olivoidea (Cantraine) Knudsen, 1956: 525, pl. 2, fig. 12. 

Type material: Holotype of M. crenipicta in MOM (5 mm), figured in Van Aartsen et al. (1984, 
fig. 205a). 



118 



Rolan and BoyeR: The genus Mitrolumna (Gastropoda, Turridae) in West África 




Figures 12-15. Mitrolumna senegalensis s^ec. nov., ofFLompoul, Senegal. 12, 13: Holotype, 7.95 
mm, (MNHN); 14: paratype (MNCN); 15: protoconch of the holotype. Figures 16-19. Mitro- 
lumna smithi, off St. Louis, Senegal. 16: adult, 8.5 mm (CFB); 17: aduk, 7.4 mm (CER); 18: 
juvenile, 6.7 mm (CER); 19: juvenile, 5.9 mm (CFB). 

Figuras 12-15. Mitrolumna senegalensis spec. nov., frente a Lompoul, Senegal 12, 13: holotipo, 7,95 
mm, (MNHN); 14: paratipo (MNCN); 15: protoconcha del holotipo. Figuras 16-19. Mitrolunma 
smiúñ, frente a St. Louis, Senegal 16: adulto, 8,5 mm (CFB); 17: adulto, 7,4 mm (CER); 18: juvenil, 
6,7 mm (CER); 19: juvenil, 5,9 mm (CFB). 



119 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



Description: See Dautzenberg 
(1889). A shell collected at 200-600 m off 
Cap Vert Península, Dakar, Senegal, is 
figured by Knudsen (1956, pl. 1, fig. 12) 
as Mitromorpha olivoidea (Cantraine). A 
shell from the Mediterranean (Alboran 
Island) is pictured in Mifsud (1993: 16). 
The protoconch of the holotype of M. 
crenipicta is in poor condition and not 
adequate for a diagnosis. 

The size of the shell from Senegal is 
not given by Knudsen. 

Habitat: Unknown. 

Distribution: Azores, shallow water. 
Some specimens recorded from shallow 
or deep waters in the Mediterranean 
and the Canary Islands are referred to 
this species. The figure of Knudsen 
(1956) appears to extend the range of 
this species up to Senegal. 

Discussion: The shell pictured by 
Knudsen (1956, fig. 12) as M. olivoidea 
closely resembles the original figure of 



M. crenipicta, both in the general outline 
of the shell and the pattern of the deco- 
ration. The shape of the holotype, as 
figured in Van Aartsen et al. (1984), is 
however somewhat different. 

It might fall within the general range 
of variability of M. monodi, but it also 
corresponds to the range of the outline 
of the original figure of M. crenipicta 
from the Agores. When M. monodi shows 
a bicoloured pattern, the lighter part is 
always the upper one, and the dark part 
is the lower one; but the pattern presen- 
ted by the shell of Knudsen is in verted. 

M. wilheminae Aartsen, Menkhorst 
and Gittenberger, 1984 (Fig. 23) presents 
similarity to the shell of Knudsen. The 
geographic range of M. wilheminae 
needs checked, because the species does 
not seem to be restricted to the Strait of 
Gibraltar. We have examined shells from 
Alborán (CAP) and from Algeria (CER) 
that appear to be this species. 



Mitrolumna senegalensis spec. nov. (Figs. 12-15) 

Type material: Holotype (Figs. 12, 13), 7.95 x 3.7 mm, in MNHN. Paratype 1 (Fig. 14), 8.85 x 4.0 

mm, in MNCN (15.05/43738); paratype 2, 8.15 x 4.0, in CER; paratypes 3-9, 7.5 x 3.9, 8.9 x 4.15, 9.0 

X 4.2, 8.25 X 4.0, 8.25 x 3.8, 7.25 x 4.0 and 7.6 x 3.5 mm, in CFB, all from the type locality, trawled by 

Research Vessel, Marcel Pin, March 1991. 

Etymology: From the type locality, situated off the northern coast of Senegal. 

Type locality: Off Lompoul (Northern coast of Senegal, 150 m). 



Description: Shell (Figs. 12-14) small, 
solid and fusiform, almost biconical. Pro- 
toconch smooth and shining, 1.5 whorls, 
somewhat produced, chesnut colored 
(Fig. 15). Teleoconch usually with 4-5 
whorls, bearing a coarse sculpture of 
raised spiral cords, 4-5 per whorl on 
spire, the body whorl with 26-28 cords. 
Intervals between the cords on the body 
whorl decrease towards the base. Faint 
axial ribs are visible on the early whorls 
of the teleoconch, but absent on the two 
last whorls. Aperture somewhat narrow, 
representing 45-50 % of the total length. 
Outer lip straight. The columella bears 2 
strong plaits; 6 to 8 wide spiral pleats 
inside the labrum, somewhat distant 
from the edge. The second upper pleat is 
the largest one and forms a small denti- 
cle. Colour whitish to tan. 



Adult shells length, 7.5 to 9.0 mm, 
width 3.8 to 4.15 mm. 

The animal and radula are unknown. 

Habitat: Unknown. 

Distribution: Only known from the 
type locality. 

Discussion: The new species presents 
very distinctive features compared with 
other species known from the eastern 
Atlantic. The most comparable species is 
Mitrolumna dalli (Dautzenberg and Fischer, 
1896), known from a single shell dredged 
at bathyal depths (1300 m) off the Agores 
Islands. The description and the figure of 
this holotype (see Dautzenberg and 
Fischer, 1896: 431-432, pl. 15, fig. 18 and 
Bouchet and Warén, 1980: 77, fig. 160) 
show a shell large for the genus (14 x 6 
mm), with a slender suboval outline. The 
whorls are somewhat convex and bear 



120 



Rolan and BoyeR: The genus Mitrolumna (Gastropoda, Turridae) in West África 




Figures 20, 21. Mitrolumna olivoidea. 20: shell, 5.9 mm, Getares, Algeciras (CFB); 21: shell, 8.3 mm, 
Vilassar del Mar (CAP). Figure 22. Mitrolumna sp., 6Á mm, Arguineguin, Gran Canary (CFB). 
Figure 23. Mitrolumna wilhelminae, shell, 6.7 mm, Alborán (CAP). Figures 24, 25. Mitrolumna sao- 
tomensis spec. nov. 24: holotype, 5.0 mm (MNCN); 25: paratype, 5.3 mm (MNHN), Esprainha, Sao 
Tomé. Figures 26, 27. Mitrolumna saotomensis morpho 1, 4.2 mm, 4.4 mm, Tortuga I., Annobón. 
Figures 28, 29. Mitrolumna saotomensis morpho 2, 4.0 mm, 4.6 mm. Tortuga I., Annobón. 
Figuras 20, 21. Mitrolumna olivoidea. 20: concha, 5,9 mm, Getares, Algeciras (CFB); 21: concha, 8.3 
mm, Vilassar del Mar (CAP). Figura 22. Mitrolumna í/>., 6,4 mm, Arguineguin, Gran Canaria (CFB). 
Figura 23. Mitrolumna wilhelminae, concha, 6,7 mm, Alborán (CAP). Figures 24, 25. Mitrolumna 
saotomensis spec. nov. 24: holotipo, 5,0 mm (MNCN); 25: paratipo, 5,3 mm (MNHN), Esprainha, 
Sao Tomé. Figuras 26, 27. Mitrolumna saotomensis morpho 1, 4,2 mm, 4,4 mm. Tortuga I., Annobón. 
Figures 28, 29. Mitrolumna saotomensis morpho 2, 4,0 mm, 4,6 mm. Tortuga I., Annobón. 



121 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



thick wavy cords (about 5 on teleoconch 
whorls and 20 on the body whorl) crossed 
by well spaced strong axial ribs. Intervals 
between the cords on the body whorl 



widen towards the anterior end. Because 
of these differences, the conjecture rela- 
tionship between these species is probably 
not very cióse. 



Mitrolumna smithi (Dautzenberg and Fischer, 1896) (Figs. 16-19) 

Mitromorpha smithi Dautzenberg and Fischer, 1896: 432-433, pl. 15, fig. 19. [Type locality: Agotes 
Islands, 800 m, Hirondelle Vessel, Stn. 34]. 

Type material: Holotype in MOM (6x3 mm). 

Other material examined: Senegal: off Saint-Louis, 500 m, Research Vessel, M. Pin, 31 March 1987: 

5 s, 1 j (CFB), 1 s, 1 j (CER). 



Description: See Dautzenberg and 
Fischer (1896). The description is based 
on a single shell. Another shell was 
collected during Campaign Biacores off 
Azores Islands (390-620 m) and is recor- 
ded by Bouchet and Warén (1980: 78). 
However, no comment ñor figure is 
given of this shell, and the variability of 
M. smithi in its type locality remains 
unknown. The holotype was described 
as having a decoration of spiral dull 
yellow bands on a white glossy back- 
ground, correctly illustrated in the type 
figure. This decoration is now comple- 
tely faded and the shell is whitish, 
faintly shining, as illustrated by an 
enlarged picture in Bouchet and 
Warén (1980, fig. 161). The material 
studied is white. 

Animal and radula unknown (collec- 
ted material consist only of empty 
shells). 

Habitat: Unknown. 

Distribution: The species was known 
only from the type locality. The disco- 
very of a population from Senegal, pro- 
posed here as conspecific, allow us to 
extend the distribution of the species to 
northern Senegal. It can be observed 
that the bathymetric range is rather ho- 
mogeneous (Agores: 800 and 390-620 m; 
Senegal: 500 m). On the basis of these 
data, it is assumed that the species is 
distributed in the medium-bathyal zo- 
ne, possibly off most of northwest Áfri- 
ca. This last point remains however to 
be verified by further sampling, as a 
discontinuous distribution is also possi- 
ble. 



Discussion: The shells discovered in 
northern Senegal (Figs. 16-19) show very 
similar features to M. smithi as in the 
original description and figure. The simi- 
larity is well-correlated for shell size (6.9 
to 8.5 mm in Senegal versus 6 mm for 
the holotype), proportions and outline; 
pattern of spiral levelled cords and the 
tendency to a smooth central body 
whorl; shape of the aperture and labrum; 
5 to 6 pleats inside the labrum, the upper 
one forming a strong denticle; slightly 
sigmoid columella bearing 2 médium 
sized plaits. The protoconch is similar in 
the holotype (with a máximum diameter 
of 0.5 mm) and in the shells from 
Senegal (average width of 0.48 mm). 

The solé differences may lie in 
details of the sculpture, principally in 
the fact that the spiral cords seem to be 
wider and less numerous in the 
holotype than in the shells from 
Senegal. However, it is observed that in 
shells from Senegal, the axial ribs and 
spiral cords are respectively more or less 
dominant on the teleoconch and on the 
last whorl, the smooth central zone of 
the body whorl and the smooth lower 
zone of the penultimate whorl are more 
or less wide, and width and number of 
spiral cords are somewhat variable 
depending on the individual. The 
holotype of M. smithi can be considered 
to belong to the same range of variabi- 
lity as the shells from Senegal. Our 
single reservation concerns the fact that 
there is no record of such a phena in the 
interval between the Agores Islands and 
Senegal. 



22 



Rolan and Boyer: The genus Mitrolumna (Gastropoda, Turridae) in West África 




Figures 30-33. Mitrolumna saotomensis. 30, 31: paratypes, 5.3 mm and 5.4 mm, Esprainha, Sao 
Tomé (CER); 32, 33: shells, 4.2 mm and 3.8 mm, Baia das Agulhas, Príncipe I. (CER); 34: detail 
of the aperture of a paratype (CER); 35: detail of the subsutural cord, Esprainha (CER); 36: proto- 
conch of paratype (CER). Figure 37. Mitrolumna olivoidea, detail of the subsutural cord, La Herra- 
dura (CAP). Figure 38. Protoconch of Af. melitensis. Murcia (CVG). Figures 39, 40. Protoconchs 
of Af. olivoidea. La Herradura, Málaga (CAP). 

Figuras 30-33. Mitrolumna saotomensis. 30, 31: paratipos, 5,3 mm y 5,4 mm, Esprainha, Sao Tomé 
(CER); 32, 33: conchas, 4.2 mm y 3.8 mm, Baia das Agulhas, Principe I. (CER); 34: detalle de la 
abertura de un paratipo (CER); 35: detalle de la cuerda subsutural, Esprainha (CER); 36: protoconcha 
de un paratipo (CER). Figura 37. Mitrolumna olivoidea, detalle de la cuerda subsutura. La Herra- 
dura (CAP). Figura 38. Protoconcha de M. melitensis. Murcia (CVG). Figures 39, 40. Protoconchas 
de M. olivoidea. La Herradura, Málaga (CAP). 



123 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



Mitrolumna saotomensis. spec. nov. (Figs. 24-36, 41-45) 



Type material: Holotype (Fig. 24), 5.0 x 2.2 mm, in MNCN (15.05/43739). Paratype 1 (Fig. 25): 5.3 

X 2.6 mm, in MNHN; paratypes 2-4: 5.5 x 2.3 mm, 4.7 x 2.1 mm, 4.4 x 2.0 mm, in CFB, and 22 paraty- 

pes more in CER. All from type locality. 

Other material examined: Sao Tomé: 4 sp, 6 s, 3-4 m, Lagoa Azul (CER); 6 j, 8 m, Sant'Ana (CER); 

10 s, 3 j, 1 f, 2-6 m, Praia Mutamba (CER); 13 s, 6 j, 4 m, Sao Tomé city (CER); 2 sp (destroyed for 

radular studies), 2 s, 7 j, 8 f, 4-9 m, Esprainha (CER). Príncipe: 3 sp, 8 m, Baia das Agulhas (CER). 

Armobón: morph 1: 15 s, 9 f, 8 m. Isla Tortuga (CER); 2 s, 10 m, Santo Antonio (CER); morph 2: 49 

s, 20 f, 8 m. Isla Tortuga (CER); 4 s, 10 m, Santo Antonio (CER). 

Etymology: The specific ñame refers to the island where the species was first collected. 

Type locality: Esprainha, Sao Tomé, República de Sao Tomé and Príncipe. 



Description: Shell (Figs. 24-25, 30-33) 
small, fusiform and solid. Protoconch 
(Fig. 36) with 1 and ^/i whorls, and 
about 450 ^m máximum diameter; its 
surface is covered with fine granulations 
and is uniformly brown. Teleoconch of 
about 5 whorls with axial ribs crossed 
by spiral cords forming small nodules. 
The spiral cords number 3-4 on the spire 
whorls; on the last whorl there are a to- 
tal of 17-20 cords, with 4-5 to the perip- 
hery. The subsutural cord (Fig. 35) is wi- 
der than the rest. The axial ribs are na- 
rrower than the interspaces. Last whorl 
is nearly ^/s the total length of the shell. 
In the latter middle part of the last 
whorl the ribs and cords are attenuated. 
The aperture (Fig. 34) is elongate and 
narrow. The outer lip has an anal notch 
at its upper part. There is an enlarge- 
ment on the external lip but a little pre- 
vious to the edge. The columella is obli- 
que and presents 2 folds placed deeply 
near its middle part. The inner part of 
the outer lip has a large denticle at its 
upper third, 3 smaller above it and 5-8 
below, all forming folds. The colour of 
the shell is brown, usually with a lighter 
subsutural band of varying width. 

Dimensions: Larger specimens reach 
6 mm. Shells from Príncipe (Figs. 32-33) 
are smaller, usually 4.5 mm in 
máximum size. 

Animal: In specimens from Sao 
Tomé, the animal is whitish with nume- 
rous milky-white spots. 

Radula (Fig. 47): The radular teeth 
are similar to that described for M. 
monodi being slightly wider. They 
number are about 130. For a shell of 4.0 
mm, the size of the radular tooth is 0.08 



mm and for a shell of 3.7 mm the tooth 
is 0.075 mm. 

Habitat: Collected under rocks 
bearing short algae in 3-8 m. 

Distribution: The new species has been 
recorded from Sao Tomé as M. olivoidea 
(Cantraine, 1835) by tomlin and Shac- 
KLEFORD, 1914; this record was cited later 
by Knudsen (1956) aríd Fern andes and 
Rolan (1993). The original range of M. oli- 
voidea is the Mediterranean Sea and it is 
extended to Casablanca (Pasteur- 
HuMBERT, 1962). M. saotomensis is known 
from Sao Tomé, Príncipe and Annobón. 

Discussion: Specific variability: we 
are including in the taxon M. 
saotomensis, shells from Sao Tomé, Prín- 
cipe and two morphs from Annobón. 

The shells from Príncipe Island agree 
with those from Sao Tomé and are con- 
specific, being smaller in size. 

The shells from Annobón Island 
(situated 200 Kms South of Sao Tomé) 
show sculptural differences, as follows, 
but appear to be conspecific. Two 
morphs of Mitrolumna are found here in 
the same samples. One of these morphs 
(Figs. 26-27) presents a very coarsely 
sculptured shell with a reduced number 
of axial ribs and thick, produced 
nodules, whereas the other morph (Figs. 
28-29) has a finer sculpture with numer- 
ous axial ribs and small nodules. The 
ground colour is also different, the first 
being dark brownish orange, whereas 
the second is lighter. 

In fact, these morphs could be 
extreme variations of M. saotomensis. 
The issue is about three points: 

- the variability observed in the 
population from Sao Tomé and Príncipe 



124 



Rolan and BoyeR: The genus Mitrolumna (Gastropoda, Turridae) in West África 




Figures A\-A5. Mitrolumna saotomensis. 41: morpho 1, Tortuga I., Annobón (CER); 42: morph 2., 
Tortuga I., Annobón (CER); 43, 44: protoconch of morph 1, Tortuga I. (CER); 45: protoconch of 
morph 2, Tortuga I. 

Figuras 41-45. Mitrolumna saotomensis. 41: morfo 1, Tortuga /., Annobón (CER); 42: morfo 2., 
Tortuga I., Annobón (CER); 43-44: protoconcha de morfo 1, Tortuga I. (CER); 45: protoconcha de 
morfo 2, Tortuga I. 



is far less than the variability observed 
in Annobón. 

- we have not found clearly intergra- 
ding specimens between the two 
morphs in our material from Annobón, 
the most median form being represen- 
ted by one single shell, as Fig. 42. 

- one of the variant characters 
observed in the morphs from Annobón 
(the number of axial ribs) could be of 
specific valué. We note that, in the other 
species studied, the number of axial 
ribs, as well as the number of spiral 
cords, is not very variable (cf . the varia- 
bility displayed in M. monodi, Figs. 1-8) 



Although the variations could be of 
specific valué it is more likely that they 
represent geographic or ecological 
variants. The axial and spiral structural 
variations are of degree only rather than 
kind. It is probable that further intergra- 
des will be discovered with more material. 

Comparison with other species: The 
new species shows affinity with M. olivoi- 
dea for shell features that species usually 
being larger, wider, more uniform in 
colour, with more spiral cords, and less 
evident axial sculpture on the last whorl. 

As noted by van Aartsen et al. (1984) 
there are some doubts about the true iden- 



125 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 







Figures 46-49. Radular teeth of Mitrolumna species. 46: M. monodi, specimen of 4.2 mm, Petite 
Corniche, Dakar; 47: M. saotomensis, specimen of4.0 mm, Esprainha, Sao Tomé; 48: M. olivoidea, 
specimen of 6.1 mm, Getares, South Spain; 49: Mitrolumna sp., specimen of 6.8 mm, Arguine- 
guin, Canary. 

Figuras 46-49. Dientes radulares de las especies de Mitrolumna. 46: M. monodi, ejemplar de 4,2 mm, 
Petite Corniche, Dakar; 47: M. saotomensis, ejemplar de 4,0 mm, Esprainha, Sao Tomé; 48: M. oli- 
voidea, ejemplar de 6,1 mm, Getares, South Spain; 49: Mitrolumna sp., ejemplar de 6,8 mm, Argui- 
neguin, Canarias. 



tity of the taxon M. olivoidea. The original 
description of this species by Cantraine 
(1835) is superficial and the lectotype illus- 
trated by Cernohorsky (1975, figs. 55-56) 
does not resolve by itself the questions 
created by the great variability of the 
forms attributed to M. olivoidea in the 
Mediterranean. The bathyal range of M. 
olivoidea is recorded from intertidal down 
to 70-90 m, at Marbella by F. Gubbioli 
(pers. com.) and 90 m at Elba Island in 
Ardovini and Cossignani (1999). A com- 
plete revisión of this species, including its 
morphologic variability, will allow us to 
fully determine the specific status of M. 
olivoidea and to verify the possible occur- 
rence of sibling species in the Mediterra- 
nean and adjacent Atlantic. 

Except for the dubious mention from 
Senegal by Knudsen (1956), there are no 



records of M. olivoidea south of Casa- 
blanca (Morocco). Intensive coUecting at 
infralittoral levéis around the Peninsula 
of Cape Vert during the last fifty years 
on hard and soft bottoms (Marche- 
Marchad, Pin, Pelorce and Boyer, the 
two last collectors specializing in micro- 
gastropods during the last decade) leads 
US to conclude that M. olivoidea is absent 
in this área. The same can be said of 
Ghana, extensely sampled in recent 
years by Peter Ryall (pers. com.). The 
populations found in Sao Tomé, Prín- 
cipe and Annobón Islands must be con- 
sidered as geographically separated 
from M. olivoidea by wide gaps. 

The animal of M. saotomensis spec. 
nov. is white spotted on a whitish 
ground, whereas that of M. olivoidea 
(specimens from Getares, Algeciras) is 



126 



Rolan and Boyer: The genus Mitrolumna (Gastropoda, Turridae) in "West África 



uniformly light sulphur yellow. This 
point is of importance for determination 
at the specific level, as the chromatism 
of the soft parts is very constant within 
each species of Mitrolumna examined for 
this character: M. olivoidea in Algeciras; 
M. sp, Gran Canaria (Fig. 22); M. monodi, 
in Dakar, Senegal. 

The protoconchs of both species are 
similar (Figs. 36, 39-40) but are sUghtly 
larger in M. olivoidea (about 520-540 }iva, 
whereas M. saotomensis is about 450 jWm). 

The radular teeth are similar, the 
teeth of M. olivoidea being more slender 
(Fig. 48) and with a higher number (184 
teeth) in the specimen studied. 

Another species with brown ground 
colour and with spiral sculpture is M. 
melitensis Mifsud, 1993; this can be dis- 
tinguished by its more uniform ground 
colour, and by its larger size (usually re- 
aching 9 mm). Furthermore, the 2-3 sub- 



sutural cords are separated by deeper 
interspaces, the last whorl may have up 
to 30 spiral cords (about 16-21 in M. sao- 
tomensis spec. nov.) and the penultimate 
whorl has 6-9 (instead of 3-4 of M. saoto- 
mensis). M. melitensis also lacks the axial 
sculpture on the last whorl. Its proto- 
conch (Fig. 38) is similar to that of M. 
olivoidea, presenting also fine granula- 
tions (usually absent in adult shells) but 
being wider (usually about 550 ^m) and 
having a further ^/i whorl. 

M. saotomensis can be differentiated 
from the dark forms of M. monodi by 
several shell features: the first species 
has a dark protoconch instead of a 
whitish one, axial ribs "extending all 
along the shell instead of disappearing 
towards the base, uniform brown 
ground colour on spire whorls lacking 
lighter nodules, and an enlargement on 
the external lip instead of an simple one. 



CONCLUSIONS 



Five species of the genus Mitrolumna 
from West África have been studied: 
three of them were previously known 
(M. monodi, M. smithi and M. cf 
crenipicta) and two are described as new 
(M. senegalensis and M. saotomensis). 

The new species seem to have a res- 
trict geographic range: M. senegalensis 
was only coUected north of Senegal and 
M. saotomensis in the islands south of the 
Gulf of Guinea. M. monodi is also only 
known from Senegal. The other two 
species reported here are attributed to 
known taxa described from the Agores 
Islands, an oceanic archipelago situated 
at a much further distance on the north- 
west border of the Lusitanian Province. 

Some of the studied species (M. 
smithi, M. senegalensis and M. cf creni- 
picta) appear to have low variability of 
shell morphology. The other two species 
(M. monodi and M. saotomensis) are 
variable in colour, shape and sculpture. 

The radular teeth are very similar 
providing few useful characters for 
comparison althought those of M. saoto- 
mensis are broader. The protoconch is 
very similar in most of the species. 



however, this was not studied with SEM 
in some of them because erosión made 
this impractical. 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

To Franco Gubbioli, José Verdejo 
Guirao, Jacques Pelorce, and Anselmo 
Peñas, for loan of material of Mitrolumna 
from their collections. To Jesús Méndez 
of CACTI of the University of Vigo for 
the SEM photographs. To Jesús S. Tron- 
coso for the optical photographs made 
in the Departamento de Biología. To D. 
Tippet and R. N. Kilburn, referees of the 
manuscript for their help. 

This work has been partially suppor- 
ted by the project of the XUNTA DE 
GALICIA PGIDTOOPXI30121PR. 



ADDENDUM 

While the present paper was in press, 
Mifsud (April, 2001) published a work 
entitled "The genus Mitromorpha Carpen- 
ter, 1865 (Neogastropoda: Turridae) and 



127 



Iberus, 19 (1), 2001 



its subgenera with notes on the European 
species". In this paper, the author 
employs Mitromorpha Bucquoy, Dautzen- 
berg and Dollfus, 1883 as a subgenus for 
the European species. Obviously, the 
shells of the types of Mitromorpha (M. 
filosa Carpentier, 1864) and Mitrolumna 
{Mitra olivoidea Cantraine, 1835) have 
some similarities in shell and radula, but 



also differences, firstly in the columellar 
pleats and, probably, in the intemal thic- 
kening of the outern lip. At present, we 
have not enough Information on the 
anatomy of the soft parts, for which a 
comparison has not been made. For this 
reason, we prefer to keep the ñame Mitro- 
lumna as a genus-name for the West 
African species in this paper. 



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Ardovini, R. and Cossignani, T., 1999. Atlante 
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Dautzenberg, P. and Fischer, H., 1896. Dra- 
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Fernandes, F. and RolAn, E., 1993. Moluscos 
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Knudsen, ]., 1956. Remarks on a coUection of 
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Mifsud, C., 1993. Two new gastropod species 
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Pasteur-Humbert, C, 1962. Les mollusques 
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ToMLiN, J. R. le B. and Shackleford, L. ]., 
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128 



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espacio (incluyendo referencias, pies de figura y tablas), con al menos 3 centímetros de margen por cada lado. Los tra- 
bajos se entregarán por triplicado (original y dos copias). En caso de autoría compartida, uno de los autores deberá 
hacerse responsable de toda la correspondencia. 

• Junto con el trabajo debe incluirse una lista de al menos 4 posibles revisores del mismo, sin perjuicio de los que el 
propio Editor considere oportunos. 

• Los manuscritos se presentarán de acuerdo al siguiente esquema: 

Primera página. Deberá incluir un título conciso, pero sugerente del contenido del trabajo, así como una traducción 
al inglés del mismo (si el artículo no está escrito en inglés). Cuando sea preciso, deberá incluir referencia a familia o 
táxones superiores. A continuación figurarán, por este orden, el nombre y apellidos completos del autor o autores, 
las direcciones completas de los mismos, y un resumen del trabajo y su traducción al inglés. Dicho resumen deberá 
sintetizar, en conjunción con el título, tanto los resultados como las conclusiones del artículo; se sugiere una exten- 
sión de 100 a 200 palabras. El resumen deberá estar seguido de una lista de palabras clave, también con su versión 
inglesa para su inclusión en los bancos de datos internacionales. 

Pá^nas siguientes. Incluirán el resto del artículo, que debe dividirse en secciones precedidas por breves encabeza- 
mientos. Siempre que sea posible, se recomienda seguir el siguiente esquema: Introducción, Material y métodos. 
Resultados, Discusión, Conclusiones, Agradecimientos y Bibliografía. Si se emplean abreviaturas no habituales en 
el texto, deberán indicarse tras el apartado de Material y Métodos. 

• Las notas breves deberán presentarse de la misma forma, pero sin resumen. 

• Deberán evitarse notas a pie de página y referencias cruzadas. Deberán respetarse estrictamente los Códigos 
Internacionales de Nomenclatura Zoológica y Botánica (últimas ediciones). Cuando un táxon aparezca por primera 
vez deberá citarse su autor y fecha de su descripción. En el caso de artículos sistemáticos, cuando se den las sinonimias 
de los táxones, éstas deberán citarse COMPLETAS, incluyendo en forma abreviada la publicación donde fueron des- 
critas, y la localidad tipo si es conocida entre corchetes, según el siguiente esquema (préstese especial cuidado a la pun- 
tuación): 

Dendrodoris limbata (Cuvier, 1804) 

Sinonimias 

Doris limbata Cmicr, 1804, Ann. Mus. H. N. Paris, 4 (24): 468-469 [Localidad dpo: Marsella]. 

Doris nigricans Otzo, 1823, Nov. Act. Ac. Caes. Leop. Car., 10: 275. 

Dichas referencias no deberán incluirse en la lista de Bibliografía si es la única vez que se nombran en el texto. 
Si se incluyen una lista completa de referencias de un taxon inmediatamente tras éste, deberá seguirse el mismo esque- 
ma (sin incluir en Bibliografía las referencias que no se mencionen en otro lugar del texto). 

• Sólo los nombres en latín y los de táxones genéricos y específicos deberán llevar subrayado sencillo o preferentemente 
ir en cursiva. En ningún caso deberá escribirse una palabra totalmente en letras mayúsculas, ni siquiera el Título. Las 
unidades a utilizar deberán pertenecer al Sistema Métrico Decimal, junto con sus correctas abreviaturas. En artículos 
escritos en castellano, en los números decimales sepárese la parte entera de la decimal por una coma inferior (,), 
NUNCA por un punto (.) o coma superior ('). 

• Las referencias bibliográficas irán en el texto con minúsculas o versalitas: Fretter y Graham (1962) o pRETTER Y 
Graham (1962). Si son más de dos autores se deberán citar todos la primera vez que aparecen en el texto [Smith, 
Jones y Brov^^n (1970)] empleándose et al. las siguientes veces [Smith et al (1970)]. Si un autor ha publicado más de 
un trabajo en un año se citarán con letras: (Davis, 1989a; Davis, 1989b). No deberá emplearse op. cit. La lista de refe- 
rencias deberá incluir todas las citas del texto y sólo éstas, ordenadas alfabéticamente. Se citarán los nombres de todos 
los autores de cada referencia, sea cual sea su número. Los nombres de los autores deberán escribirse, en letras minús- 



culas o Versalitas. No deberán incluirse referencias a autores cuando éstos aparezcan en el texto exclusivamente 
como autoridades de un taxon. Los nombres de las publicaciones periódicas deberán aparecer COMPLETOS, no 
abreviados. Cuando se citen libros, dése el título, editor, lugar de publicación, n- de edición si no es la primera y 
número total de páginas. Deberán evitarse referencias a Tesis Doctorales u otros documentos inéditos de difícil con- 
sulta. Síganse los siguientes ejemplos (préstese atención a la puntuación): 

Fretter, V. y Graham, A., 1962. British Prosobranch Molluscs. Ray Society, London, 765 pp. 

Ponder, W. F., 1988. The Truncatelloidean (= Rissoacean) radiation - a preliminary phylogeny. En Ponder, W. F. 

(Ed.): Prosobranch Phylogeny, Malacological Review, suppl. 4: 129-166. 
Ros, J., 1976. Catálogo provisional de los Opistobranquios (Gastropoda: Euthyneura) de las costas ibéricas. 

Miscelánea Zoolgica, 3 (5): 21-51. 

• Las gráficas e ilustraciones deberán ser originales y presentarse sobre papel vegetal o similar, con tinta china negra y 
ajustadas al formato de caja de la revista o proporcional a éste. Este formato es de 57 mm (una columna) o 121 mm 
(dos) de anchura y hasta 1 96 mm de altura, si bien se recomienda utilizar el formato a dos columnas. En caso de pre- 
parar figuras para que ocupen el total de una página, se ruega ajustar su tamaño para que puedan caber los pies de 
figura bajo ella. Si han de incluirse gráficas de ordenador, deberán imprimirse con impresora láser sobre papel de 
buena calidad. Las fotografías, bien contrastadas y sin retocar, deberán ajustarse siempre a los tamaños mencionados. 
Al componer fotografías sobre una hoja, procúrese que los espacios entre ellas sean regulares y que estén debidamente 
alineadas. Téngase en cuenta que incluir fotografías de distinto contraste en una misma página conlleva una pobre 
reproducción final. Las escalas de dibujos y fotografías deberán ser gráficas, y las unidades que se utilicen del sistema 
métrico decimal. Considérese la reducción que será necesaria a la hora de decidir el tamaño de las escalas o letras en 
las figuras, que no deberán bajar de los 2 mm. En figuras compuestas, cada parte deberá etiquetarse con letras mayús- 
culas, el resto de las letras deberán ser minúsculas. No deberán hacerse referencias a los aumentos de una determi- 
nada ilustración, ya que éstos cambian con la reducción, por lo que debe emplearse una escala gráfica. En su caso, se 
recomienda la utilización de mapas con proyección UTM. Cada figura, gráfica o ilustración deberá presentarse en 
hojas separadas y con numeración arábiga (1, 2, 3,...), sin separar "Figuras" y "Láminas". Los pies de figura, en una 
hoja aparte, deberán acompañarse de su traducción al inglés (o español si el inglés es la lengua del trabajo). Utilícese 
el esquema siguiente: 

Figura 1. Neodoris carvi. A: animal desplazándose; B: detalle de un rinóforo; C: branquia. 

Las abreviaturas empleadas en las ilustraciones deberán incluirse en la hoja de pies de figura. 

Los autores interesados en incluir láminas en color deberán abonarlas a precio de coste (30.000 ptas por página). Por 

lo demás, deberán ajustarse a los mismos requisitos que los indicados para las figuras. 

Si se pretende enviar gráficas o ilustraciones en formato digital es IMPRESCINDIBLE contactar previamente con el 

Editor 

• Las Tablas se presentarán en hojas separadas, siempre con numeración romana (I, II, III,...). Las leyendas se inclui- 
rán en una hoja aparte acompañándose de una traducción al inglés. Deberán evitarse las tablas particularmente com- 
plejas. Se recomienda reducir el número y extensión de ilustraciones, láminas o tablas al mínimo necesario. 

• Los artículos que no se ajusten a las normas de publicación serán devueltos al autor con las indicaciones de los cam- 
bios necesarios. 

• El Comité Editorial comunicará al autor responsable del trabajo la fecha de recepción del trabajo y la fecha de envío 
a revisión. Cada original recibido será sometido a revisión por al menos dos investigadores. El Comité Editorial, a la 
vista de los informes de los revisores decidirá sobre la aceptación o no de cada manuscrito. El autor recibirá en cada 
caso copia de los comentarios de los revisores sobre su artículo. En caso de aceptación, el mismo Comité Editorial, si 
lo considera conveniente, podrá solicitar a los autores otras modificaciones que considere oportunas. Si el trabajo es 
aceptado, el autor deberá enviar una copia impresa del mismo corregida, acompañada por una versión en disco flexi- 
ble (diskette), utilizando procesadores de texto en sus versiones de DOS o Macintosh. La fecha de aceptación figura- 
rá en el artículo publicado. 

• Las pruebas de imprenta serán enviadas al autor responsable, EXCLUSIVAMENTE para la corrección de erratas, y 
deberán ser devueltas en un plazo máximo de 1 5 días. Se recomienda prestar especial atención en la corrección de las 
pruebas. 

• De cada trabajo se entregarán gratuitamente 50 separatas. Aquellos autores que deseen un número mayor, deberán 
hacerlo constar al devolver las pruebas de imprenta, y NUNCA POSTERIORMENTE. El coste de las separatas adi- 
cionales será cargado al autor. 



INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS 

• Iberus pnblishes research papers, notes and monographs devoted to the various aspects of MaJacology. Papers are manus- 
cripts of more than 5 typed pages, including figures and rabies. Ñores are shorrer papers. Monographs should exceed 
50 pages of rhe final periodical, and will be published as Supplemenrs. Authors wishing ro publish monographs should 
contact the Editor. Manuscripts are considered on the understanding that their contents have not appeared or will not 
appeared, elsewhere in substantially the same or any abbreviated form. 

• Manuscripts and correspondence regarding editorial matters must be sent to: D. Gonzalo Rodríguez Casero, Editor 
de Publicaciones, Apartado 1 56, 33600 Mieres, Asturias, Spain. 

• Manuscripts may be written in any modern language. 

• When a paper exceeds 20 pages, extra pages will be charged to the author(s) at ful! cost. 

• Manuscripts must be typed double spaced (including the references, figure captions and tables) on one side on A-4 
(297x210 mm) with margins of at least 3 cm. An original and rwo copies must be submitted. When a paper has joint 
authorship, one author must accept responsability for all correspondence. 

• The authors must include a list of at least 4 possible referees; the Editor can choose any others if appropriate. 

• Papers should conform the following layout: 

First page. This must include a concise but informative title, with mention of family of higher taxon when appropriatfe, 
and its Spanish translation. It will be followed by all authors' ñames and surnames, their full adress(es), an abstraer (and 
its Spanish translation) not exceeding 200 words which summarizes not only contents but results and conclusions, and 
a list of Key Words (and their Spanish translation) under which the arricie should be indexed. 

Following pages. These should content the test of the paper, divided into sections under short headings. Whenever pos- 
sible the text should be arranged as follows: Introduction, Material and methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions, 
Acknowledgements and References. Unusual abbreviations used in the text must be grouped in one alphabetic sequence 
after the Material and methods section. 

• Notes should foilow the same layout, without the abstraer. 

• Footnotes and cross-references must be avoided. The International Codes of Zoológica] and Botanical Nomencla- 
ture must be strictly followed. The first mention in the text of any taxon must be followed by its authoriry including 
the year. In systematic papers, when synonyms of a taxon are given, they must be cited IN FULL, including the perio- 
dical, in an abbreviate form, where they were described, and the type localities in square brackets when known. FoUow 
this example (picase note the punctuation): 

Dendrodoris limbata (Cuvier, 1804) 

Synonyms 

Doris limbata C\xv\ti, 1804, Ann. Mus. H. N. Paris, 4 (24): 468-469 [Type locality: Marseille]. 

Doris nigricans Otto, 1823, Nov. Act. Ac. Caes. Leop. Car., 10: 275. 

These references musr not be included in the Bibliography list, except if referred to elsewhere in the text. If a fijll list 
of references of the taxon is to be given immediately below it, the same layout should be followed (also excluding those 
nowhere else cited from the Bibliography list). 

Only Latin words and ñames of genera and species should be underlined once or be given in italics. No word must 
be written in UPPER CASE LETTERS. SI units are to be used, together with their appropriate symbols. In Spanish 
manuscripts, decimal numbers must be separated with a comma (,), NEVER with a point (.) or upper comma ('). 

• References in the text should be written in small letters or SN4ALL CAPITALS: Fretter & Graham (1962) or Fretter 
& Graham (1962). The first mention in the text of a paper with more than two authors must include all of them 
[Smith, Jones & Brown (1970)], thereafter use et ai [Smith et ai (1970)]. If an author has published more than one 
paper per year, refer to them with letters: (Davis, 1989a; Davis, 1989b). Avoid op. cit. 

The references in rhe reference list should be in alphabetical order and include all the publications cited in the text but 
only these. ALL the authors of a paper musr be included. These should be written in small letters or Small CAPITALS. 
The references need not be cited when the author and date are given only as authoriry for a taxonomic ñame. Titles of 
periodicals must be given IN FULL, not abbreviated. For books, give the title, ñame of publisher, place of publication, 
indication of edition if not the first and total number of pages. Keep references to doctoral theses or any other unpu- 
blished documents to an absolute minimum. See the following examples (please note the punctuation): 

Fretter, V. and Graham, A., 1962. British Prosohranch Molluscs. Ray Society, London, 765 pp. 

Ponder, W. F., 1 988. The Truncatelloidean (= Rissoacean) radiation - a preliminary phylogeny. In Ponder, W. F. (Ed.): 
Prosobranch Phylogeny, Malacological Review, suppl. 4: 129-166. 

Ros, J., 1976. Carálogo provisional de los Opistobranquios (Gastropoda: Euthyneura) de las costas ibéricas. Miscelá- 
nea Zoológica, i (5): 2\-5\. 



• Figures must be original, in Indian ink on draughtsman's tracing paper. Keep in mind page format and column size 
when designing figures. These should be one column (57 mm) or two columns (121 mm) wide and up 196 mm high, 
or be proportional to these sizes. Two columns format is recomended. It is desirable to print figures with their legend 
below, so authors are asked to take this into account when preparing fiíU page figures. If computer generated graphics 
are to be included, they must be printed on high quality white paper with a láser printer. Photographs must be of good 
contrast, and should be submitted in the final size. When mounting photographs in a block, ensure spacers are of uni- 
form width. Remember that grouping photographs of varied contrast results in poor reproduction. Take account of 
necessary reduction in lettering drawings; final lettering must be at least 2 mm high. In composite drawings, each figure 
should be given a capital letter; additional lettering should be in lower-case letters. A scale line is recomended to indi- 
cate size, magnification ratio must be avoided as it may be changed during printing. UTM maps are to be used if neces- 
sary. Figures must be submitted on sepárate sheets, and numbered with consecutive Arabic numbers (1, 2, 3,. . .), without 
separating 'Plates' and 'Figures'. Legends fot Figures must be typed in numérica! order on a sepárate sheet, and an Spa- 
nish translation must be included. FoUow this example (please note the punctuation): 

Figure 1 . Neodoris carvi. A: animal crawling; B: rinophore; C: gills. 

If abbreviations are to be used in illustrations, group them alphabetically after the Legends for Figures section. 

Authors wishing to publish illustrations in colour will be charged with additional costs (30,000 ptas, 180 euros per 
page). They should be submitted in the same way that black and white prints. 

If the authors want to send Figures in digital format, CONTACT the Editor first. 

• Tables must be numbered with Román numbers (I, II, III,...) and each ryped on a sepárate sheet. Headings should 
be typed on a sepárate sheet, together with their English translation. Complex tables should be avoided. As a general 
rule, keep the number and extensión of illustrations and tables as reduced as possible. 

• Manuscripts that do not conform to these instructions will be returned for correction before reviewing. 

• Authors submitting manuscripts will receive an acknowledgement of receipt, including receipt date, and the date the 
manuscript was sent for reviewing. Each manuscript will be critically evaluated by at least two referees. Based of these 
evaluations, the Editorial Board will decide on acceptance or rejection. Anyway, authors will receive a copy of the refe- 
rees' comments. If a manuscript is accepted, the Editorial Board may indicate additional changes if desirable. Accep- 
table manuscripts will be returned to the author for consideration of comments and criticism; a finalized manuscript 
must then be returned to the Editor, together with a floppy disk containing the arricie written with a DOS or Macin- 
tosh word processor. Dates of reception and acceptance of the manuscript will appear in all published arricies. 

• Proofs will be sent to the author for correcting errors. At this stage no stylistic changes will be accepted. Pay special 
attention to references and their dates in the text and the Bibliography section, and also to numbers of Figures and 
Tables appearing in the text. 

• Fifty reprints per arricie will be supphed free of charge. Additional reprints must be ordered when the page proofs are 
returned, and will be charged at cost. NO LATER orders will be accepted. 



La Sociedad Española de Malacología 



Junta Directiva desde el 14 de noviembre de 2000 



Presidente 
Vicepresidente 
Secretario 
Tesorero 

Editor de Publicaciones 
Bibliotecario 

Vocales 



Emilio Rolan Mosquera 

Diego Moreno Lampreave 

Luis Murillo Guillen 

Jorge J. Otero Schmitt 

Avda. de las Ciencias s/n, Campus Universitario, 1 5706 Santiago 

de Compostela, España 

Gonzalo Rodríguez Casero 

Apartado 156, 33600, Mieres del Camino, Asturias, España 

Rafael Araujo Armero 

Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, d José Gutiérrez 

Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid, España 

Ramón M. Alvarez Halcón 

Benjamín Gómez Moliner 

Eugenia María Martínez Cueto-Felgueroso 

Jesús Souza Troncoso 

José Templado González 



La Sociedad Española de Malacología se fundó el 2 1 de agosto de 1 980. La sociedad se registró como una aso- 
ciación sin ánimo de lucro en Madrid (Registro N" 4053) con unos estatutos que fueron aprobados el 12 de 
diciembre de 1980. Esta sociedad se constituye con el fin de fomentar y difundir los estudios malacológicos 
mediante reuniones y publicaciones. A esta sociedad puede pertenecer cualquier persona o institución interesada 
en el estudio de los moluscos. 

Sede social: Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, c/ José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid, España. 



Cuotas para 2001: 

Socio numerario 



Socio estudiante 



Socio Familiar: 
Socio Protector: 
Socio Corporativo 



(en España): 

(en Europa) 

(fuera de Europa): 

(en España): 

(en el extranjero): 

(sin recepción de revista) 

(mínimo) 

(en Europa): 

(fuera de Europa): 



5.500 ptas. (= 33,06 euros) 
6.000 ptas. (= 36,06 euros) 
7.000 ptas (= 42,07 euros) 
3000 ptas. (= 18,03 euros) 
4000 ptas (= 24,04 euros) 
500 ptas. (= 3 euros) 
7.000 ptas. (= 42,07 euros) 
7.000 ptas. (= 42,07 euros) 
8.000 ptas (= 48,08 euros) 



Inscripción: 1.000 ptas. (= 6,01 euros) además de la cuota correspondiente. 

A los socios residentes en España se les aconseja domiciliar su cuota. Todos los abonos deberán enviarse al 
Tesorero (dirección reseñada anteriormente) el 1 de enero de cada año. Los abonos se harán sin recargos para la 
sociedad y en favor de la Sociedad Española de Malacología y no de ninguna persona de la junta directiva. Aque- 
llos socios que no abonen su cuota anual dejarán de recibir las publicaciones de la Sociedad. Los bonos de ins- 
cripción se enviarán junto con el abono de una cuota anual al Tesorero. 

Members living in foreing countries can deduce 6 euros if paid before 15 April. 

Cada socio tiene derecho a recibir anualmente los números de Iberus, Reseñas Malacológicas y Noticiarios que 
se publiquen. 



Índice 

Ibcr us 




SrivaSTAVA, V. K. AND SlNGH, A.Toxicity of Alphamethrin, Dimethoate and Carbaryl pesticides 
to the freshwater snails Lymnaea acuminata and Indoplanorbis exustus 
Toxki¿üi¿idehspesticí¿üisAlfamenín,DímetoatoyCarharilsohrebscaracolesdulceacuícolasLYmnsiea. 
acuminata j Indoplanorbis exustus 1-5 

Rodríguez, M, Barquín, J. and Pérez-Dionis, G. Eulimid gastropods (Caenogastropoda: 
Eulimidae) of the Canary Islands. Part I. Species parasiting sea urchins 
Eulimidos (Caenogastropoda: Eulimidae) de las Islas Canarias. Parte I. Especies parásitas de 
erizas de mar 7-24 

Rodríguez, M., Perez-Dionis, G. and Barquín, J. Eulimid gastropods (Caenogastropoda: 
Eulimidae) of the Canary Islands. Part II. Species parasiting the crinoid Antedon bifida 
Eulimidos (Caenogastropoda: Eulimidae) de las Islas Canarias. Parte II. Especies parásitas del 
crinoideo Antedon bifida 25-35 

Malaquias, M. a. E. Updated and annotated checldist of the opisthobranch molluscs (exduding 
Thecosomata and Gymnosomata) from the Azores archipelago (North Atlantic Ocean, 
Portugal) 

Lista comentada y actualizada de los moluscos opistobranquios (excepto los Thecosomata y Gym- 
nosomata) del archipiélago de las Azores (Océano Atlántico Norte, Portugal) 37-48 

RolAn, E. a new species of Alvania (Mollusca, Rissoidae) from Annobón (Gulf of Guinea, West 
África) 

Una nuei'ít especie de Aivinia. (Mollusca, Rissoidae) de Annobón (Golfo de Guinea, África occi- 
dental) 49-52 

Peñas, A. y Rolain, h. i.a superfamilia Pyramidelloidea Gray, 1840 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Hete- 
rostropha) en África Occidental. 8. Lx)S géneros Bacteridium y Anisocycla 
The superfamily Pyramidelloidea Gray, 1840 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Heterostropha) in West 
África. 8. The genera ^2iCteúáium <í«¿/ Anisocycla 53-63 

Yadav, R. P. and Singh, A. Environmentally safe molluscicides from two common euphorbiales 
Molusquicidas no perjudiciales para el medioamhipntr nhtenidos a partir de dos euforbiá- 
ceas 65-73 

Malaquias, M. A. E., Cervera, J. L., Abreu, A. D. anu Loi-ez-González, P J. The Opistho- 
branch Molluscs from Porto Santo Island (Madeira Archipelago, Northeastern Atlantic) 
Moluscos Opistobranquios de la Isla de Porto Santo (Archipiélago de Madeira, Atlántico Nor- 
deste) 75-82 

Troncoso, N., Van Goethem, J. L. and Troncoso, J. S. Contribution to the marine mollus- 
can fauna of Kerguelen Islands, South Indian ocean 

Contribución a la fauna de moluscos marinos de las Islas Kerguelen, Sur del Océano 
índico 83-114 

Rolan, E. and Boyer, F. The genus Mitrolumna (Gastropoda, Turridae) in West África 

El género Mitrolumm (Gastropoda, Turri¿Iae) en África Occidental 115-128 



^^ 



ISSN 0212-3010 



oi 



Iberus 



Vol. 1 9 (2) 



REVISTA DE LA 

SOCIEDAD ESPAÑOLA 
DE MALACOLOGÍA 




Oviedo, diciembre 2001 



Iberus 

Revista de la 
Sociedad Española de Malacología 



Comité de Redacción (Board of Editors) 

Editor de Publicaciones (Editor-in-Chief) 

Gonzalo Rodríguez Casero Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, España 

Editora Ejecutiva (Managing Editor) 

Eugenia M- Martínez Cueto-Felgueroso Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, España 

Editores Adjuntos (Associate editors) 

Benjamín Gómez Moliner Universidad del País Vasco, Bilbao, España 

Ángel Antonio Luque del Villar Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, España 

Emilio Rolan Mosquera Universidad de Vigo, Vigo, España 

José Templado González Museo nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Madrid, España 

Jesús S. Trancóse Universidad de Vigo, Vigo, España 



Comité Editorial (Board of Reviewers) 



Kepa Altonaga Sustacha 

Eduardo Ángulo Pinedo 

Rafael Araujo Armera 

Thierry Backeljau 

Rüdiger Bieler 

Sigurd v. Boletzky 

José Castillejo Murillo 

Kad Ediinger 

Antonio M. de Frías Martins 

José Carlos García Gómez 

Edmund Gittenberger 

Serge Gofas 

Ángel Guerra Sierra 

Gerhard Haszprunar 

Yuri I. Kantor 

María Yolanda Manga González 

Jordi Martinell Callico 

Ron K. O'Dor 



Marco Oliverio 
Pablo E. Penchaszadeh 
Winston F. Pender 
Carlos Enrique Prieto Sierra 
M^ de los Ángeles Ramos Sánchez 
Francisco Javier Rocha Valdés 
Paul G. Rodhouse 
Joandoménec Ros i Aragonés 
María Carmen Salas Casanovas 
Gerhard Steiner 
Victoriano Urgorn Carrasco 
Anders Warén 



Universidad del País Vasco, Bilbao, España 

Universidad del País Vasco, Bilbao, España 

Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid, España 

Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Bruselas, Bélgica 

The Field Museum, Chicago, Estados Unidos 

Laboratoire Arago, Banyuls-sur-Mer, Francia 

Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, España 

Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Viena, Austria 

Universidade dos Acores, Acores, Portugal 

Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, España 

National Natuurhistorisch Museum, Leiden, Holanda 

Universidad de Málaga, España 

Instituto de Investigaciones Marinos, CSIC, Vigo, España 

Zoologische Staotssammlung München, München, Alemania 

A.N. Severtzov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Moscú, Rusia 

Estación Agrícola Experimental, CSIC, León, España 

Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona, España 

Dalhousie University, Holifax, Cañado 

Nihon University, Fujisowa City, Jopón 

Universitó di Roma "Lo Sopienzo", Roma, Italia 

Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bemardino Rivadavia", Buenos Aires, Argentina 

Australian Museum, Sydney, Australia 

Universidad del País Vasco, Bilbao, España 

Museo Nocional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Madrid, España 

Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas, CSIC, Vigo, España 

British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, Reino Unido 

Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona, Espoño 

Universidad de Málaga, Málaga, España 

Instituí für Zoologie der Universitat Wien, Viena, Austria 

Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, España 

Svi/edish Museum of Natural History, Estocolmo, Suecia 



Portada de Iberm 

Iberus gualterianus (Linnaeus, 1758), una especie emblemática de la península Ibérica, que da 
nombre a la revista. Dibujo realizado por José Luis González Rebollar "Toza". 



Iberus 



REVISTA DE LA 

SOCIEDAD ESPAÑOLA 
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Vol. 19 (2) Oviedo, diciembre 2001 



Iberus 

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© Sociedad Española de Malacología 



Iberus, 19 (2): 1-7, 2001 



Ischnochiton (Stenosemus) gallaecus spec. nov. (MoUusca, 
Polyplacophora), an Atlantic species from the Iberian Penín- 
sula 

Ischnochiton (Stenosemus) gallaecus spec. nov. (Mollusca, 
Polyplacophora), nueva especie para el atlántico ibérico 

Pilar CARMONA-ZALVIDE*, Victoriano URGORRI** and Francisco 
Javier GARCÍA* 

Recibido el 26-VII-2000. Aceptado el 20-XII-2000 

ABSTRACT 

A new species of the genus Ischnochiton, subgenus Stenosemus (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) 
from the Eastern Atlantic is described. The species has been named Ischnochiton (S.) gallae- 
cus in honour of Galicia, a región located in the Northwest of the Iberian Peninsula. It was 
collected in A Quiniela (Galicia) (43° 1 7' 22" - 52"N; 9° 36' 38" - 45"W). 

RESUMEN 

Se describe una especie nueva del género Ischnochiton y subgénero Stenosemus (Mollusca 
Polyplacophora), del Atlántico Ibérico, denominada, Ischnochiton (Stenosemus) gallaecus. La espe- 
cie está dedicada a Galicia, situada geográficamente en el Noroeste de la Península Ibérica. 
La localidad tipo es A Quiniela (Galicia) (43° 1 7' 22" - 52 "N; 09° 36' 38" - 45" O). 



KEYWORDS: Polyplacophora, Ischnochiton (Stenosemus) gallaecus, new species, description, taxonomy, Iberian 
Peninsula. 

PALABRAS CLAVE: Polyplacophora, Ischnochiton (Stenosemus) gallaecus, especie nueva, descripción, taxono- 
mía. Península Ibérica. 



INTRODUCTION 

The specimen was collected during 
the "Cangrexo I" campaign in A Qui- 
niela (Galicia, NW Spain) at depths 
ranging from 753 to 880 m. The expedi- 
tion was organised by the Animal 
Biology Department at the University of 
Santiago de Compostela. The specimen 
was found on bottoms having ferroman- 



ganesic nodules with calcareous 
plaques, coal slag and small stones. 

After reviewing the monographic 
studies by Kaas and van Belle (1985; 
1987; 1990; 1994), who have compiled all 
the species described belonging to the 
genus Ischnochiton Gray, 1847, it was 
found that the specimen collected pre- 



* Departamento de Fisiología y Biología Animal, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Sevilla. Apdo. 1095 
41080 Sevilla (Spain) e-mail: fjgarcia@cica.es 

** Laboratorio de Zooloxía Mariña,Departamento de Bioloxía Animal, Universidade de Santiago de 
Compostela. 15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain) e-mail: bavituco@usc.es 



Iberus, 19 (2), 2001 



sented taxonomical features that are 
very different from the species descri- 
bed in previous papers. Therefore, in 
this article we describe what we consi- 
der to be a new species, Ischnochiton 
(Stenosemus) gallaecus. 

This work has been partially suppor- 
ted by the project "FAUNA IBÉRICA 
IV" DGICYT/ PB95-0235). 



MATERIAL AND METHODS 

The specimen was coUected in A 
Quiniela (43° 17' 22"-52" N; 09° 36' 38"- 



45" W) (Vil/ 1991) at 753 m depth during 
the Cangrexo I campaign. Samples were 
caught with traps used for the royal 
crab {Chacean affinis). The specimen was 
separated using sieves of 5, 2, and 0.5 
mm mesh. 

The material collected was preser- 
ved in 70% alcohol. The structure of this 
species was studied by placing it in 10% 
KOH, which allowed for the separation 
of the shell valves, corpuscles scales and 
spicules of the girdle and the radula. 
The structures of the different parts 
were examined under the scanning elec- 
tronic microscope (Philips XL-20). 



RESULTS 

Class PoLYPLACOPHORA Gray, 1821 

Order Neoloricata Bergenhayn, 1955 

Suborder IscHNOCHiTONiNA Bergenhayn, 1930 

Family Ischnochitonidae Dalí, 1889 

Ischnochiton (Stenosemus) gallaecus spec. nov. 

Type material: The only specimen collected is the holotype. Four valves and the radula were meta- 
llized as required by the methodology used to examine it with a scamiing electronic microscope, 
and the rest of the specimen has been preservad in 70% alcohol. It is stored at the Museo de Cien- 
cias Naturales de Madrid with code number MNCN 15.03/485. The type locality is A Quiniela 
(Galicia) (43° 17' 22"-52" N; 09° 36' 38"-45" W). 

Derivatio nominis: This species is dedicated to Galicia, a región located in the Northwest of the 
Iberian Península. 



Diagnosis: The specimen is 2.5 mm 
long and 1.8 mm wide. It is oval-shaped 
with the cephalic área being flatter than 
the caudal área. The shell is strongly 
carinated at valves II, III and IV with 
well marked ápices on the same valves. 
The ornamentation consists of rounded 
granules, which are more noticeable on 
the sides. These áreas are slightly higher 
than the central área. The perinotum is 
made up of oval-shaped, imbricated 
scales with stems, having a smooth 
appearance, although they are slightly 
striated. The marginal fringe is not 
highly visible; among its spicules, we 
can clearly see several cylincirical spicu- 
les with stems. The uncinal píate of the 
major lateral tooth of the radula is tri- 
cuspid, with the central cusp being 
much longer than the lateral ones, al- 



though there are three cusps, similar in 
size in the older área of the radula. 

Description: Tegmentum. The speci- 
men under study is white. The head 
valve is larger in size than the tail valve 
and has a semicircular anterior border 
and a triangular posterior border, with a 
considerably sharp apex (Fig. 1). The 
strong slope that originales at the valve 
tends to be convex. The intermedíate 
valves decrease in size from the second 
to the seventh (Figs. 2-5). Despite being 
strongly carinated, they are rectangular 
shaped, with the exception of valve II. 
This valve has a convex anterior border, 
rounded sides, and at the apex the pos- 
terior borders converge forming a 
concave shape. The remaining interme- 
díate piafes have an almost straight 
anterior border, with a certain tendency 



Carmona-Zalvide: Ischnochiton gallaecus spec. nov. from the Iberian Península 



' ♦ ^ 


• \ 




'•> '^ 








Figures 1-10. Ischnochiton (Stenosemus) gallaecus srpec. nov. 1: valve I; 2: valve II; 3: valve IV; 4: 
valve V; 5: valve VIII; 6: articulamentum of valve VII; 7: ornamentation of the jugal zone; 8: orna- 
mentation of the pleural zone; 9: ornamentation of the lateral área; 10: arrangement of aesthetes. 
Figuras 1-10. Ischnochiton (Stenosemus) gallaecus spec. nov. 1: valva I; 2: valva II; 3: valva IV; 4: 
valva V; 5: valva VIII; 6: articulamentum de la valva VII; 7: ornamentación de la zona jugal; 8: orna- 
mentación de la zona pleural; 9: ornamentación del área lateral; 10: disposición de las estetas. 



Iberus, 19 (2), 2001 



to be concave at the jugal sinus. The 
lateral borders are rounded and the pos- 
terior is straight with an apex that is not 
well-defined. The lateral áreas protrude 
from the central área. The anterior 
border of the tail valve tends to be 
straight, although we can see that it has 
a slight tendency to become convex. 
One third of the posterior border is 
semicircular. The muero is located in an 
anterocentral position and is not highly 
prominent, so that the slope that it 
creates is modérate and straight (Fig. 5). 

The ornamentation is comprised of 
granules arranged quincuncially on the 
head valve, lateral áreas of the interme- 
díate valves (Fig. 9), and the postmucro- 
nal zone of the tail valve. The arrange- 
ment varies in the middle área, and they 
are less pronounced in the jugal área, 
although it is possible to see a tendency 
to form longitudinal chains without the 
granules actually touching each other 
(Fig. 7). In the pleural zone, however, 
where the granules are more visible, 
they are seen to overlap and the chains 
tend to come together (Fig. 8). 

The aesthetes are arranged over the 
entire tegmentum and have a tendency 
to form straight lines, which vary in 
layout from longitudinal in the jugal 
zone of the central área to radial in the 
head valve, lateral áreas, pleural zone 
and postmucronal zone. The mean dia- 
meter of the aesthetes is 4.96 ¡im (o: 
0.97), mean length between aesthetes in 
the same row is 21.21 ¡ira (a: 2,5) and 
the average separation between aesthe- 
tes in parallel rows is 14.96 ¡ivsx (a: 4,30) 
(Fig. 10). 

Articulamentum (Fig. 6). White in 
color with a weak consistency. The 
teeth, which are slightly uneven, tend to 
protrude from the tail valve. The 



apophyses of valve II to IV tend to be 
triangular, while valve V to VII become 
trapezoidal in shape. The insertion line 
formuláis 11/1/11. 

Girdle. The perinotum is similar in 
color to the tegmentum. It consists of 
imbricated, oval-shaped scales that have 
a small stem in the basal área, with 4 
orífices (Figs. 15-17). In the dorsal área 
of the corpuscle, there are three slight 
striations (Fig. 16). They range in size 
from 50 to 90 //m on the largest axis. The 
mean stem diameter is 23.33 fira (o : 
1.36). If we observe the corpuscle side- 
ways, it appears to have the shape of a 
boot, as the stem is located at one end. 
The ventral scales are arranged in over- 
lapping lines. They are rectangular- 
shaped and feature two protuberances 
in the apical área of the scale (Fig. 18). 
They range between 30 and 40 /.¿m in 
length and between 20 and 25 }im at the 
base. The marginal fringe is made up of 
cylindrical spicules with ribs that start 
at the base and come together at the 
sharp end of the spicule (Figs. 19, 20). 
Length is between 51 and 72 ¡iva. 
Among these spicules, we observed 
another type of spicules, which are 
smaller in number and larger in size. 
They are arranged on a narrow and 
elongated appendix, which makes them 
protrude even farther out from the mar- 
ginal fringe. The spicules are lanceolate 
with three ribs that run parallel over the 
spicule. Length varies from 80 to' 100 
}ira. 

Gills. They are classified as mero- 
branchial adanal with interspace. They 
start at the level of valves VI-VII and 
extend to the anus. They gradually 
increase in size and decrease at the last 
two valves. The number of gills on each 
side is 8. 



(Right page) Figures 11-20. Ischnochiton (Stenosemus) gallaecus n. sp. 11, 2: radula; 13: uncinal 
píate of the major lateral tooth; 14: central tooth of the radula and first lateral tooth; 15: arrange- 
ment of the dorsal corpuscles on the perinotum; 16: dorsal corpuscles, dorsal view; 17: dorsal cor- 
puscle, ventral view; 18: ventral scales, dorsal view; 19, 20: marginal spicules. 

(Página derecha) Figuras 11-20. Ischnochiton (Stenosemus) gallaecus n. sp. 11, 2: radula; 13: placa 
uncinada del diente lateral mayor; 14: dientes central y primer lateral; 15: disposición de los corpúsculos 
dorsales del perinoto; 16: corpúscidos dorsales, vista dorsal; 17: corpúsculo dorsal, vista ventral; 18: 
escamas ventrales, vista dorsal; 19, 20: espiadas marginales. 



CaRMONA-ZalvidE: Ischnochiton gallaecus spec. nov. from the Iberian Península 




Iberus, 19 (2), 2001 



Radula (Fig. 11). The central tooth of 
the radula is rectangular-shaped with a 
pronounced flexible border (Fig. 12, 13). 
The máximum length observed was 25 
¡ivs\. The first lateral tooth, is longer, rea- 
ching up to 30 j^m. in length. The uncinal 
píate of the major lateral tooth is tricus- 
pid, with the central cusp much longer 
than in the lateral teeth, although in the 
most utilized zone of the radula, the 
three cusps are similar in size (Fig. 13). 
The plumose tooth is small and does not 



reach the uncinal píate of the major 
lateral tooth, The two small interme- 
díate teeth, infernal and external, as well 
as the last three, have the typical scale 
form (Fig. 11). 

Biology: The only specimen of Ischno- 
chiton (Stenosemus) gallaecus was collec- 
ted at a depth of 752 m in strong 
currents. The animal was attached to a 
stone on bottoms with ferromanganesic 
nodules, calcareous plaques and c