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FORTHE PEOPLE 

FOR EDVCATION 

FOR SCIENCE 






LIBRARY 

OF 

THE AMERICAN MUSEUM 

OF 

NATURAL HISTORY 





THE IBIS, 

A MAGAZINE OF GENERAL ORNITHOLOGY. 



EDITED BY 

PHILIP LUTLEY S C LATER, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., 

FELLOW OF CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE, OXFORD; 

SECRETARY TO THE ZOOLOGICAIi SOCIETY OF LONDON ; 

FELLOW OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY ; HONORAEY MEMBER OF THE ACADEMY OF NATFEAL 

SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA, OF THE LYCEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY OF NEW YORK, 

AND OF THE GERMAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' SOCIETY ; ETC. 

VOL. HI. 1861. 




Ibimus indomiti venerantes Ibida sacram, 
Ibimus incolumes qua prior Ibis adest." 



LONDON: 
N. TEUBNER AND CO., PATERNOSTER ROW. 



Paris. 

Fr. Klincksieck, 

11, Rue de Lille. 



Leipzig. 
F. A. BpvOCkhaus. 

1861. 



New York. 
B. Westermann & Co., 
440, Broadway. 



PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



iir 



PREFACE. 



For a third time the members of the British Ornitho- 
logists' Union have the pleasing task of offering their 
sincere thanks for the assistance they have received 
from the public, as well as for the support rendered 
to them by more intimate friends. 

In conducting 'The Ibis,' the principal object has 
been to combme the labours of the two schools of 
Ornithologists, which, not many years ago, seemed to 
possess so little in common. It is hoped that this 
union has been promoted, if not effected, by blending 
in one periodical the records of observation in the field 
with those of study in the closet. 

Fully confident that the favours hitherto accorded to 
* The Ibis ' will be continued by the Ornithologists of 
other lands, its Editor invites the active cooperation of 
his fellow countrymen, and trusts that they will favour 
him with frequent contributions to its pages. 



11, Hanover Square, 
Oct. 1st, 1861. 



PHILIP LUTLEY SCLATER 

(Editor). 



LIST OF MEMBERS 

OP THE 

BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 

1861. 



EoBEET BiKKBECK, F.Z.S.; 65 Lombard Street, London. 

Henky Maitrice Drtjmmond-Hay, Lieutenant- Colonel, Eoyal Perth 
Rifles; Seggieden, Perthshii'e. 

Thomas Campbell Eyton, F.L.S., F.Z.S., F.G.S., &c. ; Eyton HaU, 
Salop. 

Frederick DuCane Godman, F.Z.S.; 55 Lowndes Square, London. 

Percy Sandox Godman, B.A., Corr. M.Z.S, ; Borregaard, Sarpsborg, 
Norway. 

John Henry Gurney, M.P., F.Z.S., &c. ; Catton Hall, Norfolk. 

Eev. William Hexry Haavker, M.A., F.Z.S.; Green Hook, Horn- 
dean, Hants. 

Arthur Edward Kjn'ox, M.A., F.L.S. ; Trotton, Sussex. 

Eight Hon. Thomas Lyttleton, Lord Lilford, F.Z.S. ; Lilford Hall, 
Northants. 

Edward Clotjgh Newcome ; FeltweU HaU, Norfolk. 

Alfred Newton, M.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c., FeUow of Magdalene 
College, Cambridge. 

Edward Newton, M.A., Corr, M.Z.S., Assistant Colonial Secretary, 
Maui'itius. 

John "William Poavlett-Orde, late Captain 42nd (Eoyal Highland) 
Eegiment ; Kilmorey, Ai'gyllshire. 

OsBERT Salvin, M.A., F.Z.S. ; 11 Hanover Terrace, Eegent's Park, 
London. 

Philip Ltjtley Sclater, M.A., Ph.D., F.E.S., Sec.Z.S., &c., FeUow of 
Corpus Christi College, Oxford ; 11 Hanover Square, London. 

Alfred Forbes Sealy, M.A., F.C.P.S., &c. ; Madras. 

Wilfred HrDDLESTON Simpson, M.A., F.Z.S.; 21 Gloucester Place, 

Portman Square, London. 
Eev. Edward Cavendish Taylor, M.A., F.Z.S. ; Oxford and Cam- 
bridge Club, PaU Mall, London. 
Egbert Fisher Tomes, Corr. M.Z.S. ; Welford HiU, Stratford-upon- 
Avon, Warwickshire. 
Eev. Henry Baker Tristram, M.A., F.L.S., Corr. M.Z.S., Master of 
Greatham Hospital, Durham. 



HONORARY MEMBERS 



OF THE 



BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 



Professor Spexcer F. Baikd, Assistant Secretary to the Smithsonian 

Institution, Washington. 
Doctor Eduard Baldamus, Pfarrer zu Osternienhurg bei Cothen, 

Sekretar der deutschen Omithologen-Gesellschaft. 
Edward Blyth, Curator to the Museum of the Royal Asiatic Society 

of Bengal, Calcutta. 
Doctor Jean Cabanis, Erster Gustos am Kdnigl. Museum der 

Eriedrich-Wilhelm's Universitat zu Berlin. 
John Cassln, Academy of Natiu'al Sciences, Philaclel_phia. 
Doctor GxJSTAv Hartlaub, Bremen. 

Leopold Edgar Layard, South African Museum, Capetoivn. 
Professor J. Relnhardt, Kongelige Naturhistoriske Museum, i Kj'6- 

henhavn. 
Jules Verreaux, Rue St. Louis au Marais, no. 17, a Paris. 
Alfred Russel Wallace, now travelling in the East Indies. 



CONTENTS OF VOL. III. (1861.) 



Number IX., Jamiary. 

Page 

I. List of the Birds hitherto observed in Greenland. By -'' 
Dr. J. Eeinhaebt, Professor at the Eoyal Museum of Copen- 
hagen, For. Memb. Z.S.L., &c. &c 1 

II. Note on Milvago carunculatus and its aUied species. 

By Philip Lutley Sclater. (Plate I.) 19 

III. Notes on the Ornithology of Hongkong, Macao, and 
Canton, made during the latter end of February, March, April, 
and the beginning of May, 1860. By Eobert Swinhoe, of 
H.B.M.'s Consular Service 23 

IV. Note on the Anatomy of Cephalopterus penduliger. By 

T. C. Eyton, P.Z.S 57 

y . On the Nesting of some Guatemalan Birds. By Eobeet 
Owen, C.M.Z.S. "With Eemarks by Osbeet Salvin, M.A., 
F.Z.S. (Plate II.) 58 

VI. On new or little-known Birds of North-Eastern Africa. 
ByHofrathTHEODORYONHEUGLiN. (Part II.) (Plate III.) 69 

VII. Notes on the Birds observed at Bodo during the 
Spring and Summer of 1857. By Feedeeick and Peect 
GODMAN 77 

VIII. Particulars of Mr. J. Wollet's Discovery of the 
Breeding of the Waxwing (Ampelis garruhis). By Aleeed 
Newton, M.A., F.L.S. (Plate IV.) , ... 92 



X CONTENTS. 

Page 

IX. Recent Ornithological Publications : — 

1. English Publications :— Bree's ' Birds of Europe ' . . 106 

2. French Publications : — Eevue de Zoologie : Des Murs 
and Verreaux on the Birds of New Caledonia : Coinde on a 
new Bombycilla 106 

3. German, Dutch, Scandinavian, and Hussian Publica- 
tions : — Archiv fiir Naturgeschichte : Lindermayer's Vogel 
Griechenlands : Museum Heineanum : De Philippi's Eeise 
durch die Andenwiiste Atacama : Schlegel and Westerman's 
Touracos : Sundeval's Svenska Foglarna : Nordmann's Birds 

of Finland and Lapland: v. Schrenck's Birds of Amoorland . 107 

4. American Publications: — Le Moine's Ornithologie du 
Canada Ill 

X. Letters, Extracts from Correspondence, Announce- 
ments, &c. : — 

Letters from Mr. Gould, Mr. J. W. P. Orde, and Mr. G. D. 
Eowley : Mr. A. Newton on the Orti/x of St. Thomas : Mr. E. 
Newton's Letters from the Mauritius : Mr. "Wallace's Collec- 
tions and last Letters : Mr. Eodd on the occurrence oiAquila 
ncevia in England : Birds of Norfolk Island : Note on Numida 
vulturina : Mr. Layard's proposed Synopsis of South- African 
Ornithology 1^2 



Number X., April. 

XL On new or little-known Birds of North- Eastern Africa. 
By Hofrath Theodor von Heuglin. (Part III. The Bar- 
bets, Capitonidce.) (Plate Y.) 121 

XII. On some additional Species of Birds received in 
Collections from Natal. By John Henry Gurnet, M.P., 
E.Z.S 128 

XIII. Notes on a living specimen of a singular Grallatorial 
Bird from New Caledonia. By Dr. G. Bennett, E.Z.S. . 136 

XIV. Quesal-s hooting in Vera Paz. By Osbert Salvin, 
M.A., F.Z.S.. 138 



CONTENTS. XI 

Page 

XV. Notes on the Birds of the Falkland Islands. By 
Capt. C. C. Abbott, late in commdind of Detachments in the 
Falkland Islands 149 

XVI. Narrative of a Shooting Excursion to the Mountains 
of the Richmond Eiver, New South Wales, in quest of Prince 
Albert's Lyre-bird. By A. A. Letcesteb 167 

XVII. Notice of the occurrence of the American Meadow- 
Starling {Sturnella ludoviciana) in England. By P. L. 
SCLATER 176 

XVIII. Ornithological Notes from Mauritius. ByEnwAED 
Newton, M.A., C.M.Z.S. No. I. A Visit to Round Island. 180 

XIX. On the American Barbets {Capitonidce) . By P. L. 
Sclater. (Plate VI.) 182 

XX. On the Possibility of taking an Ornithological Census. 

By Alfred Newton, M.A., E.L.S 190 

XXI. Recent Ornithological Publications: — 

1. English Publications : — Tristram's ' Grreat Sahara :' Ben- 
nett's ' Gratherings of a Naturalist :' Walker's Notes on Arctic 
Zoology 196 

2. German and Dutch Fuhlications : — Philippi's ' Desert of 
Atacama :' Journal fiir Ornithologie : Badeker's ' Eggs of 
European Birds :' Schlegel on Black Cockatoos and Paradise- 
birds 199 

3. Scandinavian and Russian Publications : — Victorin's 
S. African ' Zoological Notes :' v. Schrenck's Birds of Amoor- 
land 202 

4. American Publications : — Cassin's Birds of St. Thomas : 
Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York : 
Lawrence's Notes on Cuban Birds, &c. : Le Moine's List of 
the Birds of Quebec 208 

XXII. Letters, Extracts from Correspondence, Notices, 
&c. :— 

Letters from Mr. J. Cavafy, Mr. Beaven Rake, Mr. A. R. 
Wallace, and Mr. Blyth : English Singing-birds in Australia. 210 



Xll CONTENTS. 

Page 

Number XI., July. 

XXIII. Notes on Birds observed in Oudli and Kumaon. 

By Capt. L. Howaed Iebt, 90th Eegt. (Plate VII.) . . 217 

XXIV. Notes on the Birds observed about Talien Bay 
(North China), from June 21st to July 25th, 1860. By 
Egbert Swinhoe, of H.M.'s Consular Service 251 

XXV. Letter from Mr. Swinhoe on the Ornithology of 
Amoy and Foochow 262 

XXVI . Note on the Calcutta * Adjutant ' {Leptoptilus 
argala) . By Edward Bltth, Curator of the Asiatic Society's 
Museum, Calcutta 268 

XXVII. Ornithological Notes from the Mauritius. By 
Edward Newtok, M.A., C.M.Z.S.— No. II. A Ten Days' 
Sojourn at Savanne 270 

XXVIII. Eemarks on the Geographical Distribution of 
the Genus Turdus. By P. L. Sclater. (Plate VIII.) . . 277 

XXIX. On the Ornithology of Ceram and Waigiou. By 
Alfred E. AVallace. (Plate IX.) 283 

XXX. On the Diversity in the Estimate of the European 
Ornis, and its Causes. By Dr. J. H. Blasius 292 

XXXI. Eecent Ornithological Publications : — 

1. English Publications : — Eichardson's ' Polar Eegions ' : 

Du Chaillu's ' Equatorial Africa.' 302 

2. Frenclk Publications : — ' Eichesses Ornithologiques de 
Midi de la Erance' : Salle's and Parzudaki's Sale-Catalogues. 304 

3. Russian and Scandinavian FiMications : — v. Wright's 
Birds of Finland : Eeiuhardt's Ornithological Papers . . . 305 



XXXII. Letters, Extracts from Correspondence, Notices, 
&C. :— 

Letter from Mr. Beaven Eake : Extracts of Letters from 
Mr. J. J. Monteiro and Mr. A. E. "Wallace : Note on the 
Nomenclature of some Falkland-Island Bii'ds : A new 
Cassowary 307 



CONTENTS. XIU 

Page 

Number XII., October. 

XXXIII. On a rare Species of Hawk, of the Grenus 
Accipiter, from South America. By P, L. Sclatee. 
(Plate X.) 313 

XXXIV. On Birds collected and observed in the Interior of 
British North America. By Capt. Blakiston, E.A. (Parti.) 314 

XXXV. On a new Bird from Western Africa. By Dr. 

G. Haetlaub, F.M.Z.S. (Plate XI.) 321 

XXXVI. Notes on Ornithology taken between Takoo and 
Peking, in the neighbourhood of the Peiho Eiver, Province of 
Chelee, North China, from August to December, 1860 . . 323 

XXXVII. Note on the Hypotriorchis castanonotus of Dr. 
Heuglin. By P. L. Sclateb. (Plate XII.) 346 

XXXVIII. Notes on the Ornithology of Timor. By 
Alfred Eussel Wallace 347 

XXXIX. A List of Species to be added to the Orni- 
thology of Central America. By Osbert Salvin, M.A., 
F.Z.S 351 

XL. On a new African Species of the Genus Zosterops. 
By Hofrath Theodoe von Heuglin. (Plate XIII.) . , . 357 

XLI. A Fortnight in the Dobrudscha. By W. H. Simpson, 
M.A., P.Z.S 361 

XLII. Abstract of Mr. J. Wollet's Eesearches in Iceland 
respecting the Gare-fowl or Great Auk {Alca impennis, 
Linn.). By Alfred Newton, M.A., F.L.S 374 

XLIII. Eecent Ornithological Publications : — 

1. English Publications : — Atkinson's ' British Birds and 
Eggs.' 400 

2. French Publications : — Morelet's ' Natural History of 
the Azores.' 400 



XIV CONTENTS. 

Paga 

3. German Publications : — Hartlaub's ' Ornithology of 
Madagascar:' 'Museum Heineanum,' pt. iii. : Reichenbacli's 
' Handbucli der Speciellen Ornifchologie :' Journal fur Orni- 
thologie, 1861, pt. i 402 

4. American Puhlieations : — Annals of the Lyceum of 
Natural History of New York : Elliot's Monograph of Pitta : 

Le Moine's Ornithologie du Canada 406 

XLIV. Letters, Extracts from Correspondence, Announce- 
ments, &c. : — 

Dr. Hochstetter's Restoration of some Species of Dinornis : 
Extracts from Mr. Ely th' s Letters : Extracts from Mr. Swinhoe' s 
Letters : Letter from Mr. Swinhoe to Prof. Schlegel : Extract 
from a Letter of Mr. Tristram : Letter from Mr. Orde : Mr. 
Ellman's Remarks on the Extinct Birds of New Zealand: 
Departure from England of some Members of the B.O.U. . 407 

Lidex 417 



ERRATUM. 

Page 69, for Plate IV. in two places read Plate III. 



PLATES IN VOL. HI. 



Page 

I. Milvago carunculatus 22 

II. Eggs of Guatemalan Birds 58 

III. Tinnunculus alopex 69 

IV. Eggs of Ampelis garnilus 92 

V. Pogonorhynchus roUeti, P. leucocephalus, P. diadema- 

tus, Trachyphonus squamiceps 121 

VI. Tetragonops ramphastinus 184 

VII. Falco babylonicus 217 

VIII. Turdus fiilviventris 277 

IX. Basilornis corythaix and B. celebensis 283 

X. Accipiter pectoralis 313 

XI. Pseudochelidon eiirystomina 322 

XII. Hypotriorchis castanonotus 346 

XIII. Zosterops poliogastra 357 



THE IBIS, 



No. IX. JANUARY 1861. 



I. — List of the Birds hitherto observed in Greenland. By 
Dr. J. Reinhardt, Professor at the Royal Museum of Copen- 
hagen, Foreign Member Z. S. L., &c. &c. 

The following list proves of itself how much our knowledge of 
the Avifauna of Greenland has advanced during the last thirty 
years ; but I may be permitted to prefix a few remarks on the 
subject. In his celebrated ' Fauna Groenlandica/ Fabricius enu- 
merates fifty-four birds; two of them, however, are only the 
young ones of other species* ; and four (which he inserted with- 
out having seen them, imagining that he recognized them in the 
nai-ratives of the Eskimaux) are never met with in that country f- 
They had better therefore be erased from the list. Thus the 
actual number of Greenland birds with which ornithologists 
are acquainted through the labours of Fabricius amounts only 
to forty-eight. After the publication of the work of this most 
excellent observer, the Avifauna of Greenland received no ma- 
terial increase until 1818, when Captain (now General) Edward 
Sabine added three species to it, in his well-known " Memoir 
on the Birds of Greenland '' J. About the same time my late 

* Valco fuscus and Anas glaucion. 

t Parus bicolor, Mergus merganser, Larus cinerarius {ridibundus), and 
Pelecanus cristatus. 

X In the ' Transactions of the Linnean Society,' vol. xii. p. 527. The 
species added by him are, Tringa canutus, Larus leucopterus (enumerated 
as L. argentatus, var.), and Xema sabini. Uria bruennichii, described by 
him as a new species, was already, as shown by Faber (Prodr. der Island. 

VOL. III. B 



2 Prof. J. Reinhardt on the Birds 

father began to have birds collected in Greenland on a larger 
scale for the Uoyal Museum of Copenhagen, which was then 
under his care, and from this moment dates the great increase 
in our knowledge of the Avifauna of that country. In 1824 
he published a short paper — " Gronlands Fugle efter de nyeste 
Erfaringer " * — in which four species were added ; and fourteen 
years later, in the Introduction to his ' Ichthyologiske Bidrag 
til den Gronlandske Fauna ^fj he added not less than twenty- 
one, discovered in the meantime by the various collectors em- 
ployed by the Royal Museum, and chiefly by Captain Holboll and 
Dr. Vahl. In the following two or three years some more were 
received, and thus, in 18i2, Holboll was enabled to enumerate, 
in his ' Ornithologiske Bidrag ' J, eighty-eight species then ob- 
served in Greenland, — or rather eighty-six, as two of the birds 
included by him, Aquila ossifraga and Uria ringvia, have scarcely 
any claim to be accounted distinct species. Since HolbolFs 
memoir was written, even this considerable number has increased 
very much, about thirty species more having been added. For 
these additions science is indebted to various ornithologists, all 
duly mentioned in my list ; but by far the greater number is 
owing to the exertions of the late Carl Holboll and others of the 
indefatigable collectors of the Royal Museum §. 

In Dr. Walker's paper on the " Ornithology of the Voyage 
of the ' Fox,^ " which lately appeared in this Magazine {' Ibis,^ 

Ornith. p. 42) and my father, mentioned in the 'Fauna Groenlandica ' 
vmder the name of Alca pica, and accordingly cannot be considered a 
real addition to the list; and in the same way, Falco peregrinus, also added 
by Sabine, seems to have been enumerated by Fabricius as F. rusticolus. 

* In the ' Tidskrift for Naturvidenskaberne,' Kjobenhavn, 1824, vol. iii. 
pp. 52-80. 

t In the ' Vid. Sel. naturvid. og mathem. A.fh.' vii. pp. 85-228. 

X In Kroyer's ' N^turhistoriske Tidskrift,' 1843, vol. iv. pp. 361-457. 
A German translation of this paper has been published : " Oruithologischer 
Beitrag zur Fauna Gronlands von Carl Holboll. Uebersetzt und mit einem 
Anhange versehen von J. H. Paulsen." Leipzig, 1846. 

§ Many of these additions were recorded in the author's " Notitser til 
Gronlands Ornithologie," published in the ' Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra 
den naturhistoriske Forening i Kjobenhavn f. A. 1853,' p. 69, of which 
paper, a translation, by Dr. Gloger, appeared in Cabanis' ' Journal fiir Or- 
nithologie,' 1854, p. 423.— Ed. 



hitherto observed in Greenland. 3 

1860, pp. 165-168), two more species are mentioned, not hitherto 
recorded as being met with in Greenland. One of them, Tringa 
minuta, I have not included in the following list, as I learn from 
a private source that the specific name was substituted in error 
for that of T. maritima. The other, Fuligula cristata, I have 
admitted, though with much doubt, for the reason I have here- 
after stated. I am also disposed to question the learned Doctor's 
assertion that Motacilla alba breeds in Greenland, suggesting that 
the eggs of Saxicola cenanthe were mistaken by him for those of 
the former bird, since I am informed that the specimens brought 
home by him exactly resemble those of the latter species. 

A stricter examination of the great number of birds discovered 
in Greenland after the time of Fabricius will, however, show how 
highly creditable was the manner in which he investigated its 
Avifauna; for though the whole number of species has been 
more than doubled, by far the larger part of the additions is 
made up of birds which can only be considered as more or less 
accidental visitors to Greenland. The number of birds known to 
breed in the country is, since Fabricius, only augmented by 
eleven* ; and though probably some six or seven more may in 
future be found to breed thereto even then the whole number 
will not amount to more than half of all the species observed. 

As might be expected from its geographical position, the 
North-American character preponderates in the Avifauna of 
Greenland. When from the 118 species hitherto observed there, 
we deduct sixty-three which occur throughout the whole polar 
zone, and accordingly must be considered not to bear on this ques- 
tion (at least as far as they are constantly resident in Greenland), 
— of the remaining fifty-five there are thirty-five North-American 
species, nineteen European, and a single one (the Ptarmigan) 
possibly peculiar to Greenland. A still more marked North- 
American feature of the fauna results from an observation of 
Holboll's, that Greenland receives only four of its regular birds 

* Authus ludovicianus, Fringilla canescens, Zonotrichia leucophrys, 
Tringa canutus, T. schinzii (Bp.), Calidris arenaria, Thalassidroma 
leachii, Stercorarius pomarinus, S. buffoni, Larus leucopterus, and Xema 
sabini. 

f Gallinago media, Tringa cinclus, Numenius pheeopus, Podiceps cornu-- 
tus, Cygmis musicus, Beniicla leticopsis, and Anas acuta. 

b2 



4 Prof. J. Reinhardt on the Birds 

of passage from Europe* ; and should even this number prove 
to be too small, and some others (for instance, Gallinago media 
and Anser albifrons) be added, there will still be a great pre- 
ponderance of such birds migrating to Greenland from North 
America. But, on the other hand, Greenland is marked as being 
the most westerly, though regular, boundary of some strictly 
European species, — not only the birds of passage already men- 
tioned, but also others, such as Aquila albicilla. 

Greenland is divided into two " Inspektorater ": the southern 
(South Greenland) includes the settlements (" Kolonier ^^) of 
Julianehaab, Frederikshaab, Fiskensesset, Godthaab, Sukker- 
toppen, and Holsteenborg ; in the northern (North Greenland) 
are the settlements Godhavn, Egedesminde, Christianshaab, Ja- 
cobshavn, Ritenbenk, Omenak, and Upernivik. 

The names of the species which breed in Greenland are printed in small 
capitals ; those observed as yet in very few instances only, and the 
accidental stragglers, are marked with an asterisk ; the domestic birds 
are not numbered, but distinguished by a dagger. 

1. Haliaetus albicilla (Linn.). 

Very common : occurs in South Greenland all the year round ; 
in North Greenland only in summer. Besides this, the late 
Captain Holboll distinguished another larger Eagle with a longer 
tail, Haliaetus ossiffagus. The existence of such a second species 
I cannot decidedly deny; but all the Eagles which I have re- 
ceived from Greenland appeared to me to be most certainly of 
one species. 

2. Falco candicans, Grael. 

I am indeed inclined to believe that this species is a collective 
one, and that there can be distinguished, besides the true F. 
candicans, a F. islandicus ; but haying as yet succeeded only in 
distinguishing them when in the plumage of the old bird, I 
prefer not to separate them here. Both forms (be they varieties, 
races, or species) occur in Greenland; but that one of them 
(as it has been suggested) is confined to the northern, the 

* Falco peregrinus, Saxicola ananthe, Numenius phaopus, and Cygnus 
musicus. 



hitherto observed in Greenland. 5 

other to the southern part of that country, there is, I believe, 
no reason to suppose. 

3. Falco peregrinus, Linn. 

Not so common as the former. I think there is no difference 
between the Peregrine from Greenland and the European one ; 
but I am not competent to express an opinion as to the distinction 
between F. peregrinus and F. anatum. 

4. Nyctea nivea (Thunb.). 

Very common : in summer more numerous in the northern 
than in the southern part of Greenland. 

5. Otus brachyotus (Gmel.). 
A scarce bird in Greenland. 

6. ^Hirundo rufa, Bp. 

Nearly thirty years ago a specimen was obtained at Fiskensesset 
by the late botanist Dr. Vahl, and sent to the Royal Museum. 
A second was shot at Nenortalik and procured for the Royal 
Museum in 1856. As far as I am informed, these two speci- 
mens are the only ones ever met with in Greenland. 

7. ^Troglodytes palustris, Wils. 

Only one specimen has been obtained (in May 1823, at Godt- 
haab), and sent to the Royal Museum. 

8. ^Regulus calendula (Linn.). 

A very recent addition to the Avifauna of Greenland, a dried- 
up specimen in the flesh having been sent to the Royal Museum 
last year from Nenortalik. t 

9. Saxicola (ENANThe (Linn.). 

10. *Mniotilta coronata (Linn.). 

I know of three instances in which this bird has been ob- 
tained in South Greenland during the last twenty years. The 
specimens are in the Royal Museum. 

11. ^Mniotilta virens (Gmel.). 

A specimen sent from Julianehaab in 1853 to the late Mr. 
Steenberg, and presented by him to the Royal Museum, is the 
only one which has come under my notice. 



6 Prof. J. Reinhardt on the Bii-ds 

12. ^Mniotilta striata (Gmel.). 

The only specimen I have heard of is one sent in 1853 from 
Godthaab to the late Mr. Steenberg, who kindly forwarded it to 
me for determination. 

13. ^Mniotilta parus (Wils.) ? 

The only specimen ever obtained (a young bird shot October 
16, 1845j at Frederikshaab, and presented to the Royal Mu- 
seum by Holboll) is in so bad a state that I cannot be positive 
that I am right in referring it to this species. 

14. ^Mniotilta americana (Linn.). 

A specimen in a very bad state, but quite recognizable, was 
sent to the Royal Museum from South Greenland in 1857. 

15. ^Mniotilta ruhricapilla (Wils.). 

Twice obtained ; a specimen being procured more than twenty- 
five years back at Godthaab, and another at Fiskensesset on the 
31st of August, 1840. Both are in the Royal Museum. 

)6. ^Trichas Philadelphia (Wils.). 

A specimen was obtained at Fiskensesset in 1846, another at 
Julianehaab in 1853. Both are in the Royal Museum. 

17. ^Motacilla alba, Linn. 

An adult female in summer dress, sent from South Greenland 
to the Royal Museum in 1849, was, as far as I know, the only 
specimen ever obtained in Greenland until Dr. Walker had the 
good fortune to obtain another during his few days' stay at 
Godhavn in August 1857. 

18. Anthus ludovicianus (Gmel.). 

19. "^Anthus pratensis (Linn.). 

Dr. Paulsen, in Sleswick, received a single specimen from 
Greenland in 1845. I never saw it myself. 

20. ^Turdus iliacus, Linn. 

A specimen was sent to Dr. Paulsen in 1845 ; another was 
shot at Frederikshaab, October 20, 1845, and presented to the 
Royal Museum by Captain Holboll. 

21. ^Turdus minor, Gmel. 

I know of one specimen only, obtained in June 1845 at 



hitherto observed in Greenland, 7 

Amaraglik, near Godthaab, and presented to the Royal Museum 
by Holboll. 

22. ^Tyrannula pusilla, Sw. 

The late Mr. Steenberg received two specimens from Godthaab 
in 1853 ; they were both submitted to me for examination, and 
one of them was presented to the Royal Museum. 

23. ^Tyrannus cooperi, Nutt. 

A single specimen was shot the 29th of August, 1840, at 
Nenortalik, and sent to the Royal Museum. 

24. ^Vireosylva olivacea (Linn.). 

The Royal Museum received a single specimen from Green- 
land in 1844, without any further information ; but I have good 
reason to believe that it had been obtained in South Greenland. 

25. CoRVUs coRAX, Linn. 

Holboll considers the Greenland Raven to form a particular 
race, Corvus corax littoralis ; I confess that I cannot find any 
material difference between Greenland and European specimens. 

26. ^Sturnus vulgaris, Linn. 

A female, sent by Holboll to the Royal Museum in 1851, is 
the only specimen which has come under my notice as having 
been observed in Greenland. 

27. ^Agelaus perspicillatus (Licht,). 

A female was obtained September 2nd, 1820, at Nenortalik. 
In the Royal Museum. 

28. Fringilla linaria, Linn. 
Common and migratory. 

29. Fringilla canescens (Gould). 

The Linota hornemanni of Holboll. Constantly resident. 

30. ZoNOTRiCHiA LEUCOPHRYS (Gmel.). 

Not numerous; but certainly a breeding bird, although its 
nest has not been found as yet. 

31. Plectrophanes nivalis (Linn.). 

32. Plectrophanes lapponicus (Linn.). 



8 Prof. J. Reinhardt on the Birds 

33. ^Loxia leucoptera (Gruel.). 

An adult bird, probably a male, dried up in the flesh, was pro- 
cured nearly thirty years ago at Julianehaab from an Eskiraaux, 
who brought it with him from the east coast on a visit to that 
settlement (Ichth. Bidr. p. 10). In later years another adult 
male and three vouno; birds have been obtained in South Green- 
land. The specimens are in the Royal Museum. 

34. ^Otocorys alpestris (Linn.). 

A single specimen was shot at Godthaab in October 1835, and 
presented to the Royal Museum by Holboll. 

Quoting this bird as " alpestris," I certainly do not wish to 
suggest that it has been misguided to Greenland from " the far 
east.'' There can be, I think, no doubt that it is an American 
straggler ; but having no American specimens for comparison, 
I compared the Greenland specimen with a male of the true 0. 
alpestris shot in the neighbourhood of Dresden (Germany) and 
a female from Denmark, and I cannot find any material differ- 
ence either in colour or in size. I suppose, therefore, that the 
American 0. cornuta, which Bonaparte himself calls a species " a 
peine distincte de VO, alpestris," has been established without 
sufficient reason. 

35. ^Picus varius, Linn. 

I know of two instances in which this Woodpecker has been 
observed in Greenland. An adult female was found dead on the 
ground near Julianehaab in July 1845 (and, indeed, birds like 
Woodpeckers and Crossbills can hardly live more than a few 
days in a land without trees, such as Greenland). Another 
female was sent some two or three years ago from South Green- 
land, but I do not know exactly from what settlement. Both 
specimens are in the Royal Museum. 

36. ^Colaptes auratus (Linn.). 

My authority for this bird having been found in Greenland is 
a German ornithologist, the Pastor Moschler, who mentions that 
he has received a specimen from thence in 1852 (Cabanis' 
Journ. f. Ornith. 1856, p. 335). Unfortunately Mr. Moschler 
gives no particulars about this very curious occui'rence. 

fCoLUMBA DOiMESTICA. 



hitherto observed in Greenland. 9 

fGALLUS GALLORUM. 

37. Lagopus reinhardti, Biehm. 

Besides this, Pastor Brehm distinguishes a second Greenland 
Ptarmigan, Lagopus grcenlandicus (Vogelfang, p. 264, note), 
which, I think, there is no reason to admit. It may even be con- 
sidered questionable whether the L. reinhardti really differs from 
the Tetrao lagopus, Auct. 

38. Squaturola helvetica (Linn.). 
Occurs in very limited numbers. 

39. * Vanellus cristatus, Mey. 

An adult male was obtained January 7th, 1820, near Fisken- 
sesset, and sent to the Royal Museum. A second specimen was 
received in 1847 from Julianehaab. 

40. Charadrius virginicus, Bork. 

It is a most exact observation of the late Prince Bonapavtef, 
that the Plover found in Greenland is the American species, and 
not the European Golden Plover, for which it has been mistaken 
by nearly all former writers, myself not excepted. I have now 
before me two specimens sent by HolboU himself to the Royal 
Museum under the name of Charadrius pluvialis, and both prove 
to be the Virginian Plover with grey axillaries. The Golden 
Plover should consequently be erased from the list of Greenland 
birds. 

41. Charadrius hiaticula, Linn. 

42. CiNCLUS iNTERPREs (Linn.). 

43. ^Hcematopus ostralegus, Linn. 

I have seen three specimens of this bird from Greenland; one 
sent in 1847 from Julianehaab, another in 1851 from Godthaab 
(both in the Royal Museum) ; the third I saw in a collection of 
bird-skins sent last year from Nenortahk, and offered here for 
sale. 

44. ^Ardea cinerea, Linn. 

The Common Heron was admitted in the ' Fauna Groeu- 
landica^ upon the authority of the missionary Matthseus Stach, 
who said that he had seen such a bird the 27th of August, 
t Compt. Rend, xliii. p. lOlf). 



10 Prof. J. Reinhai'dt on the Birds 

1765t. Misunderstanding the words of Fabricius^ Holboll in 
his memoir erased the bird (never since observed) from the Green- 
land Avifauna. But in 1856 a young Heron was found dead near 
NenortaHk, and sent to the Royal Museum ; and this occurrence 
not only gives the species a claim to be enumerated here, but 
makes it not unlikely that the old missionary may have been right. 

45. Numenius phcEopus (Linn.). 

I have in the last years seen five or six specimens, sent from all 
parts of Greenland, and know that six others were formerly sent 
to my late father in the years 1831-35. Therefore, though 
Holboll doubts it, I should not be surprised if this Curlew in 
future proved to breed in Greenland. Prince Bonaparte has 
rather indicated than described J a Numenius melanorhynchus 
from Greenland (and Iceland), which he supposes has formerly 
been mistaken for the true N. phaeopus. Of course there can be 
scarcely any doubt that his new species is the same bird, which 
I still consider to be the European, and, with all due regard for 
the high authority, I cannot give up this opinion. 

46. ^Numenius hudsonicus, Lath. 

I myself have never seen more than one specimen of this bird 
from Greenland — a female sent from Godthaab by Holboll, and 
described and figured by my father (Ichth. Bidr. p. 19. pi. 2) ; 
but Holboll mentions that he obtained the bird twice, at Juliane- 
haab and Fiskensesset ; and a fourth specimen (a very bad 
one) was sent some thirty years back to the Royal Museum from 
Jacobshavn, but seems not to have been preserved. 

47. ^Numenius borealis, Lath. 

The Royal Museum possesses two specimens of this little 
Curlew, which indeed were not received directly from the 
Museum's own collectors, but bought at second-hand here in 
Copenhagen. I have, however, no dovibt about their Greenland 
origin, and they are, I believe, the only specimens ever obtained 
there. One of them was brought from Greenland in 1858, and 
is said to have been shot at Julianehaab; about the other I 
know no particulars. 

t David Cranz, Fortsetzung der Historic von Gronlaud, p. 214. Barbv 
und Leipzig, 1770. % Compt. Rend, xliii. p. 1021. 



hitherto observed in Greenland. 1 1 

48. ^Limosa cegocephala (Linn.). 

Fabricius mentions that he had seen a single specimen (Fn. 
Gr. p. 107) ; and after his time the bird is said to have been ob- 
tained once more, nearly forty years back, at Godthaab; the 
specimen was sent to the Royal Museum, but seems not to have 
been preserved ; at least, I have not been able to find it. 

49. Tringa canuta, Linn. 

50. Tringa maritima, Briinn. 

51. Tringa cinclus, Linn. 

Probably this species breeds in Greenland ; but, as far as I 
know, the nest has not yet been found. 

52. Tringa schinzii, Bp. 

53. * Tringa pectoi'alis, Bp. 

The Royal Museum received a specimen of this bird in 1851, 
the first, I think, ever captured in Greenland. Two more were 
sent in 1859 fi"om Nenortalik. 

54. * Totanus jiavipes, Lath. 

Pastor Moschler relates that he received a single specimen 
of this bird from " Greenland " in 1854 (Journ. f. Ornith. 1856, 
p. 335). I never saw it myself. 

55. Calidris arenaria (Linn.). 

A scarce bird in Greenland; breeds on Disco Island. 

56. Phalaropus fulicarius (Linn.). 

57. Phalaropus hyperboreus (Linn.). 

58. ^Macrorhamphus griseus (Gmel.). 

There is, I believe, only one well-established instance of this 
Snipe being observed in Greenland, namely at Fiskeneesset in 
1854 (Ichth. Bidr. p. 20). 

59. Gallinago media, Steph. 

This Snipe has been observed so often in Greenland, that it 
very likely may in future be found breeding there ; but as yet 
no eggs have been sent from Greenland, as far as I know. 

60. ^ Ortygometra crex (Linn.). 

I am aware of one case only in which this bird has been mis- 



12 Prof. J. Reinhardt on the Birds 

guided to Greenland. The specimen (an adult female) was ob- 
tained at Godthaab, and presented to the Royal Museum in 1851. 
Accordingly I have been somewhat surprised to see that Mr, 
Cassin supposes (Reports of Expl. &c. ix. p. 751) the bird to be 
a constant summer visitor to Greenland^ while it really does not 
even occur in Iceland as a regular visitor. 

61. ^Ortygnmeti-a porzana (Linn.). 

Besides one obtained the 28th of September, 1841, at Godt- 
haab, and already mentioned by Holboll, another has been cap- 
tured at Nenortalik, and sent to the Royal Museum in 1856. 

62. ^ Orttjgometra Carolina (Linn.). 

The specimen mentioned by my father (Ichth. Bidr. p. 20) to 
have been obtained at Sukkertoppen, October 3, 1823, is the 
only one ever observed in Greenland. Holboll, by a mistake, 
quotes the bird as obtained in 1822. 

63. Fulica americana, Gm. 

In the year 1854, a Coot was shot by Mr. Olrik, the Governor 
of North Greenland, in the harbour of Christianshaab, one of the 
settlements in Disco Bay, and another was obtained at Godthaab 
by Mr. Holboll in the same year. The first-mentioned example 
was presented to Mr. John Barrow, and is now in that gentle- 
man's collection. The other specimen, which I am told was very 
much injured by the shot, does not seem to have been preserved. 

64. Anser albifrons (Gm.). 

fAxSER CINEREUS DOMESTICUS. 

65. Anser hyperboreus, Pall. 

Only a few young birds hitherto observed. Certainly does not 
breed on that tract of the Greenland coast occupied by the Danish 
settlements, and probably not at all in that land. 

66. Bernicla brenta (Pall.). 

On the whole coast occupied by our settlements, this Goose 
appears only on the passage to and from its breeding-places in 
the very high latitudes to the north of the 73rd degree. 

67. Bernicla leucopsis (Bechst.). 

According to Holboll, this species, in autumn, regularly visits 



hitherto observed in Greenland. 13 

the southern part of Greenland ('' Julianehaabs-Distrikt "), but 
he doubts if it breeds anywhere in that land. These two state- 
ments do not seem to agree quite well together, and, in fact, I 
have been told that some few eggs of the Bernacle Goose have 
been sent from Greenland of late years, but I cannot warrant the 
truth of this information. 

68. CygnusfertLS, Ray. 

According to accounts received from theEskimaux, the Swan 
formerly bred on several places near Godthaab, but was long ago 
totally exterminated by persecution during the moulting-season 
(Holboll, Ornith. Bidr. &c. p. 432) . In the last fifteen years this 
bird has again made its appearance in Greenland ; some examples 
were (according to Holboll) observed at Julianehaab in 1846; I 
have myself seen two specimens, sent from South Greenland in 
1852; and in June 1859 a beautiful Swan was shot at Ata- 
mik, nearly ten (Danish) miles to the north of Godthaab. The 
Swan may therefore in future again breed in Greenland, if left 
undisturbed. 

69. Anas boschas, Linn. 

70. Anas acuta, Linn. 

Accidental, but not very rare ; in North Greenland, as well as 
in South Greenland. 

71. ^Anas carolinensis, Gmel. 

Four specimens have been obtained during the last twelve 
years in South Greenland (Julianehaab and Godthaab), and sent 
to the Royal Museum. 

72. *Anas crecca, Linn. 

According to the statements of ray father and Holboll, some 
few specimens have been shot at different places. 

73. ^Anas penelope, Linn. 

For the first evidence of this Wigeon having been met with in 
Greenland we are indebted to Holboll, who sent a young male 
to the Royal Museum in 1851 ; besides this, I have seen two 
other young birds, also obtained in South Greenland. 

74. ^Fuligula marila (Linn.). 

Two adult males and a female were sent from Nenortalik last 



14 Prof. J. Reinhardt on the Birds 

year, and were considered by me to be the very first specimens 
of this Duck ever obtained in Greenland, until I learned from 
' The Ibis ' (1860, p. 166) that Dr. Walker had already obtained 
it during his short stay at Godhavn in the beginning of August 

1857. 

75. ^FuUgula cristata, Ray. 

I insert this species upon the authority of Walker, who men- 
tions it amongst the birds obtained at Godhavn during the 
" Fox's " stay there in 1857 (' The Ibis,' /. c). The capture of 
this Duck in North Greenland must be considered a very extra- 
ordinary fact, as it does not inhabit North America, and as, in 
Europe, Iceland is not even included in its geographical range. 

76. Clangula islandica (Gmel.). 

Breeds in South Greenland only (Godthaab and Nenortalik). 

77. ^Clangula albeula (Linn.). 

The adult female obtained nearly thirty years ago at Godt- 
haab, and mentioned by my late father (Ichth. Bidr. p. 22), is 
still the only specimen ever observed. 

78. Clangula histrionica (Linn.). 

79. Harelda glacialis (Linn.). 

80. SOMATERIA MOLLISSIMA (Linn.). 

81. SoMATERIA SPECTABILIS (Linn.). 

82. ^(Edemia perspicillata (Linn.). 
Only very few specimens obtained. 

83. Mergus ^rrator, Linn. 

84. CoLYMBUS glacialis, Linn. 

An interesting variety of this Diver was received in 1859 from 
Nenortalik, thoroughly silver-grey ; the white spots on the back 
(of the regular plumage) are in this variety still perceivable in a 
certain light as marks somewhat diflFerently shaded. 

85. CoLYMBUS SEPTENTRIONALIS, Linn. 

86. *Podiceps holbcellii, Rhdt. 

Besides the two specimens (one of them in summer-, the other 
in winter-plumage) upon which I established this new species 



hitherto observed in Gi'eenland. 15 

in 1853, I have since received a third from Greenland in 1855, 
the examination of which has confirmed rae in considering the 
bird a distinct species. It is not only its much larger size 
which distinguishes the Greenland bird from its European rela- 
tive, but also the very sensible difference in the shape of the 
bill. In P. holboellii it is, comparatively to its length, not so 
high at the base as in P. griseigena, and of course much more 
gradually tapering towards the point. In my opinion P. hol- 
boellii indeed differs more from P. griseigena than many other 
North-American birds, now generally admitted as distinct, do 
from the allied European species, as, for instance, Anas caro- 
linensis from A. crecca, or Fuligula affinis from F. marila. 

87. ^Podiceps cornutus (Gmel.). 

Only a few young birds, obtained in the southern part of 
Greenland. 

88. Alca impennis, Linn. 

The " Geirfugl " now being nearly extinct, it would be in vain 
to hope to meet with it on the coast of Greenland; but even 
formerly, when the bird was still numerous at its breeding- 
places, it seems to have visited Greenland only in winter, and in 
limited numbers, chiefly of young birds. In the present century, 
a specimen is known to have been killed at Disco Island in 1821, 
and one more may perhaps have been captured some years 
earlier ; but the accounts of other instances in which the bird is 
said to have been obtained in Greenland are hardly to be con- 
fided in. 

89. Alca torda, Linn. 

90. Fratercula arctica (Linn.). 

91. ^Fratercula glacialis, Leach. 

All the Puffins which I have received from Greenland I con- 
sider to be of the common species. As Mr. Cassin, however, 
mentions (Rep. Expl. ix. p. 903) that he has seen specimens of 
the F. glacialis from thence, I do not hesitate to include this 
species also in the Greenland Avifauna ; but I think it must be 
considered an accidental visitor. 



16 Prof. J. Reiuhardt on the Birds 

92. ^Fratercula cirrata (Pallas). 

I insert this bird upon the authority of Pastor Moschler, who 
mentions that he had received a specimen "from Greenland" 
in 1846 (Journ. f. Ornith. 1856, p. 335). 

93. Uria brue.vnichii, Sab. 

9J^. Uria troile, Linn. 

The Uria ringvia, Briinn. [U. troile leucophthalmos, Fab.) is 
only a variety of the common U. troile, and very rare in Green- 
land. 

95. Uria grylle^ Linn. 

96. Arctica alle (Linn.). 

97. PuFFiNus major, Fab. 

98. ^Puffinus anglorum, Ray. 

99. Thalassidroma leachii (Temm.). 

100. Procellaria glacialis, Linn. 

In a former list (Vidensk. Meddel. 1853, p. 69 seq.) I ad- 
mitted as a second species the P. minor of Mr. KJEerbolling. 
A stricter examination has, however, convinced me that it has 
been established without sufficient reason. The pretended dif- 
ference in colour at least is not constant, if ever existing ; and 
the small Fulmars are not at all (as it has been stated) confined 
to North Greenland. The smallest I ever saw (smaller than 
that of which the measurements are given by Mr. Kjserbolling) 
was sent to the Royal Museum from South Greenland. On the 
other hand, I have received examples from North Greenland 
corresponding exactly in size with others from the Far Islands. 

101. Stercorarius catarrhactes (Linn.). 

102. Stercorarius pomarinus (Temm.). 

103. Stercorarius parasiticus (Linn.). 

104. Stercorarius buffonii (Boie). 

105. Larus marinus, Linn. 

106. Larus glaucus, Linn. 

I have not succeeded in distinguishing a Larus arcticus or 
L. glacialis from the true L. glaucus. It is quite true that some 



hitherto observed in Greenland. 1 7 

individuals are paler and much smaller than others ; but it ap- 
pears to me that no certain limits are to be found between these 
varieties or races. 

107. Larus leucopteruSj Fab. 

108. ? ^Larus chalcopterus, Licht. 

Dr. Bruch (J. f. Oru. 1855, p. 282) seems to recognize this 
species in a Gull which Holboll considers a variety of L. leuco- 
pterus, and of which he has obtained three specimens only. I 
myself never saw any of them. 

109. ^Larus argentatus, Briinn, 

I myself never saw more than one specimen of this species 
obtained (viz. an adult bird in winter plumage, shot at Godt- 
haab about ten years ago), and I have been told of only two or 
three more sent from thence, and offered here for sale. It is 
certainly a quite accidental and extremely rare bird in Green- 
land. Therefore I have been somewhat surprised to learn from 
Dr. Walker's paper that he had observed this Gull flying about 
in the harbour of Frederikshaab. I suspect that, in the paper 
quoted, Larus argentatus has been put down by mistake instead 
of L. leucopterus (next to L. tridactylus, the commonest Gull in 
Greenland), which is not mentioned by Dr. Walker, though it 
probably did not fail in the said harbour. 

110. ^Larus affinis, Rhdt., an sp. n.? 

When I described this Gull in 1853 (/. c. p. 78), I expressly 
observed that I did not hesitate to consider it as quite distinct 
from Larus argentatus (the mantle being many shades darker and 
the size smaller), but that, on the other hand, an immediate 
comparison with Audubon's L. occidentalis (a species known to 
me only by description) was necessary before deciding finally 
upon its claims to be considered a new species, and that I should 
even have referred it to the said Gull had it not been for the 
very superior size of the latter, as given by Audubon (Orn. Biogr. 
V. p. 320, and Syn B. N. Am. p. 328). I am still unable to solve 
the question ; but I may be permitted to observe, that it at all 
events appears to me a mistake, when the late Prince Bona- 
parte, in his ' Conspectus ' (pt. 2, p. 218), refers my L. affinis to 

VOL. III. C 



18 Prof. J. Reinhardt on the Birds observed in Greenland. 

L. argentatoides, Rich, (the only race of argentatus admitted by 
him as American)^ this doubtful species hem^ paler even than the 
L. argentatus proper, and consequently differing still more from 
my L. affinis. 

The specimen described in 1853, and still the only one which 

1 have seen of my L. affinis, is in the Royal Museum. 

111. RissA TRiDACTYLA (Linn.). 

112. Pagophila eburnea (Gmel.). 

113.? Pagophila brachytarsa (Holb,). 

Holboll established this Gull (which I have never seen) upon 
three specimens, obtained at different times, but unfortunately 
lost even before the publication of his memoir on the Avifauna 
of Greenland. Afterwards he seems to have failed in his endea- 
vours to get more examples, and I doubt whether any collection 
possesses an authentic or type specimen. This is much to be re- 
gretted. Different authors also do not quite agree in the characters 
which they ascribe to the supposed new species, and it seems to 
require further investigation before it can be finally admitted. 
Indeed, Holboll gives his Larus brachytarsus a tarsus 5 lines 
shorter than that of P. eburnea, while Brehm, who identifies 
Holboll^s Gull with his P. nivea, admits only a difference of 

2 lines in the length of the tarsus (Vogelfang, p. 344). Again, 
Bonaparte, who also adopts Brehm's name, and has examined a 
specimen in the Paris Museum brought from Spitzbergen by 
Gaimard, does not mention the length of the tarsus, but makes, 
in direct opposition to Holboll, Bruch, and Brehm, the new spe- 
cies larger than the true P. eburnea (Consp. ii. p. 230). 

Lastly, it may be observed here, that it is a slight error of 
Bruch (in which he has been followed by Bonaparte and Brehm) 
to confine the Pagophila brachytarsa to North Greenland (Ca- 
banis' Journ. 1854, p. 106; 1855, p. 287); indeed, Holboll 
says positively that he obtained one of his three specimens at 
Godthaab in South Greenland. 

114, ^Rhodostethia rosea (Macgill.). 

In my former lists this species is not admitted ; the reason it 
is so here is, that I have been told by a trustworthy person that 



Mr. P. L. Sclater on Milvago carunculatus. 19 

Holboll formerly possessed an example, probably obtained in 
Greenland during the latter years of his life. 

115. Xema sabini, J. Sab. 

Very i*are in the Danish settlements ; breeds only to the north 
of Upernavik. 

116. Sterna macroura, Naum. 

117. ^Sula hassana (Linn.). 
Accidental and rare. 

118. Graculus carbo (Linn.), 
Copenhagen, 31st July, 1860. 

II. — Note on Milvago carunculatus and its allied species. 
By Philip Lutley Sclater. 

(Plate I.) 

In my description of Accipiter collaris in last year's volume of 
* The Ibis ' (p. 147 et seq.), I spoke of Milvago carunculatus as 
another scarce Raptorial bird peculiar to New Granada, of which, 
at the time I was writing, I believed but one specimen was 
known to exist in scientific collections. M. O. Des Murs, having 
noticed this allusion, has most kindly sent to me the original 
description of Milvago carunculatus, as it was prepared for his 
' Iconographie Ornithologique ' in 1845. That work having (un- 
fortunately for science) been discontinued shortly afterwards, 
M. Des Murs' article was never published, and merely a short 
notice of this new species was subsequently given by him in the 
' Revue Zoologique ' for 1853 (p. 154). I now have the pleasure 
of giving M. Des Murs' full description, as follows : — 

PoLVBORUs [Milvago, Phalcobanus) carunculatus, Des Murs. 

Supra nigro-splendens ; remigibus primariis, secundariis et 
tectricum alarium majorum apicibus albis; rectricibus in 
toto nigris, albo late marginatis ; supracaudalibus albis : 
subtus niger, albo regulariter flammato seu squamato; 
abdomine inferiore, crisso, femoribus subcaudalibusque can- 
didis : carunculis ceraque aurantiis ; pedibus flavis. 

Cette belle espece de Polyborus a la plus grande ressemblance 
et I'affinite la plus intime avec le P. montanus de d'Orbigny. 

c2 



20 Mr. P. L. Sclater on Milvago carunculatus 



Ainsi, c'est, en-dessus, la meme coloration, le metne noir luisant 
recouvrant la tete, le derriere et les cotes du cou, les epaules, le 
dos, les scapulaires et les ailes ; c'est le meme blanc garnissant 
I'extremite des grandes et des moyennes remiges ; comme lui, 
il a les rectrices noires, bordees k leur extremite d'une large 
bande blanche, et les couvertures caudales superieures, de meme 
que celles inferieures et les cuisses egalement blanches ; comme 
chez le P. montanus enfiu sa tete est garnie de plumes crepues 
et comme frisees se retournant en avant, et formant une espece 
de toupet sur tout le sommet de la tete depuis la base du bee 
jusqu^a, la naissance de la nuque. 

Mais ce qui parait Ten difFerencier specifiquement d'une 
maniere particuliere, c'est la presence, a la base laterale de la 
mandibule superieure, d'une espece de caroncule charnue, pro- 
venant de la dilatation excessive, relativement a ses congeneres, 
de la partie denudee de cette region, — ddatation tellement pro- 
noncee qu'elle a meme resiste aux effets de la dessication de la 
depouille de I'oiseau, en dehors de tout procede artificiel ; I'in- 
dice de ce developpement caronculaire, chez cette espece, est 
d'autant plus frappant qu'il se retrouve sur toute la surface du 
menton, dont la peau, au lieu d'etre recouverte entierement d'un 
duvet plumeux d'un noir-brunatre ainsi que cela a lieu chez le 
P. montanus, est au contraire tout-a-fait nue et granuleuse, 
n'offrant que quelques poils fins, epars. 

Ce qui I'en distingue encore, sous le rapport de la coloration, 
c'est, d'abord, la presence, a l'exti*emite de chacune des grandes 
couvertures alaires, d'une large bande blanche; ce blanc, au 
surplus, est plus accuse a chacune des remiges, chez cette espece, 
que chez le P. montanus. C'est, ensuite, 1' aspect qu'ofFre tout le 
dessous du corps : le P. montanus, depuis le menton jusqu'au 
soramet de I'abdomen, est d'un noir intense uniforme ; le P. ca- 
runculatus, au contraire, a toute cette partie largement flam- 
mechee de blanc sur un fond noir, ou blanc ecaille de noir, — 
chaque plume etant reellement blanche dans tout son milieu, et 
regulierement eucadree de noir sur son contour ; de plus, cette 
coloration, au lieu de s'arreter au haut de I'abdomen, descend 
jusqu'entre les cuisses, et orne egalement les tlancs, qui sont 
blancs chez le P. montanus. 



and its allied species. 21 

Nous ajouterons, que le bee est sensiblement plus long, et 
d^une forme tout-k-fait distincte de celui du P. montanus : ce 
dernier, dans la convexite de 1' arete de la mandibule superieure, 
est comme ramasse, et conserve une hauteur assez prononcee; 
le P. carunculatus, au contraire, a le bee tres-peu arque, sa con- 
vexite, ou courbure, etant reduite a une inclinaison graduelle- 
ment continue depuis la naissance de la mandibule jusqu'a sa 
pointe ; ce bee, d^ailleurs, est beaucoup plus allonge que celui 
du P. montanus. 

Les ongles offrent egalement cette difference dans notre 
espece, qu'ils sont d^un noir uniforme, tandis que ceux des deux 
exemplaires de P. montanus rapportes par M. d^Orbigny au Mu- 
seum d^Histoire Naturelle de Paris, les ont du couleur de corne 
blanchatre, et ont, relativement, I'air d'etre tout-a-fait blancs. 

La peau du lorum, la cire et la base du bee, de meme que le 
mentou, et ses appendices caronculaires, sont d'un jaune orange ; 
les tarses simplement jaunes. 

Les dimensions sont les memes en general que celles du 
P. montanus, dont les ailes sont de 02 centimetres plus larges ; 
en voici le tableau comparatif : — 

P. carunculatus. P. montanus. 

Centim&tres. Centimetres. 

Longueur totale 52 .... 57 

„ des ailes 38 .... 41 

„ de la queue 20 .... 23 

„ des tarses 08^ .... O85 

„ du bee a partir de la commissure 05 04 

„ du bee a partir de la cire .... 03^ .... 02^ 

Ainsi, on le voit, le P. montanus est, en definitive, un peu plus 
grand que le P. carunculatus ; mais celui-ci offre un bee beaucoup 
plus developpe et de forme particuliere ; ce bee est de la meme 
couleur dans les deux especes — d'un corne bleuatre dans la 
premiere moitie de sa longueur, et blanchatre dans le reste; 
I'iris est brun fonce. Les narines sont infiniment plus larges 
chez notre espece. 

Get oiseau est unique dans la collection de M. Th. Wilson, de 
Philadelphie. C'est de Fobligeance de son frere, M. Edw. Wil- 
son, de Liverpool, que nous en devons la communication. II 



22 Mr. P. L. Sclater on Pvlilvago carunculatus. 

vient de la Nouvelle-Granade. Ceux de M. d'Orbigny venaient 
de la Bolivie. Ailes venant presque au niveau de la queue. 
1845. 0. Des Murs. 

To this I am enabled to add a few particulars under the fol- 
lowing circumstances : — Shortly after the publication of the 
article in last yearns ' Ibis/ I received a collection of birds, formed 
by Mr. Fraser on Pichincha and in other elevated localities in 
the neighbourhood of Quito, of which I have given a list in the 
Proceedings of the Zoological Society for the past year (P. Z. S. 
1860, p. 73). The Milvago, of which one example was in the 
collection, I then observed, was evidently of the species named 
by M. Des Murs carunculatus, and quite distinct from the 
Bolivian M. megalopterus {montanus, D'Orb.), to which I had 
previously referred similar examples collected by Mr. Fraser in 
Ecuador*, though not without remarking on their apparent dif- 
ference from the usual plumage of the latter species. The ex- 
amples of this Milvago collected by Mr. Fraser have been placed 
by Mr. J.H. Gurney in the Norwich Museum. They are all three 
in adult plumage, as is also the fine example represented in the 
accompanying illustration (Plate I.), for which I have to thank 
Mr. Gurney. The present specimen, which is destined to adorn 
the Museum of Bremen, was received by Mr. Gould with other 
birds from the Rio Napo, on the eastern slope of the Andes of 
Ecuador. 

The synonymy of Milvago carunculatus will now stand as 
follows : — 

Phalcobanus carunculatus, Des Murs, Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1853, 

p. 154. 
Milvago megalopterus, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 555 (err.). 
Milvago carunculatus, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1860, p. 81. 

Its habitat must be extended to the higher Andean ranges of 
the republic of Ecuador (alt. 14,000 feet), where Mr. Eraser's 
examples were procured. I have already given Mr, Eraser's 
remarks on the habits, colouring of the soft parts, &c., in full in 
the ' Proceedings ' (/. c.) ; but I have to thank him for the follow- 
ing additional note : — 



* See P. Z. S. 1858, p. 555. 






Ibis. 18 6! 




-Jejansns, iei et ii'ili 



MIL-VAGO GARLJNCULATUS . 



Mr. R. Swinhoe on the Ornithology of Hongkong, ^c. 23 

"The Spanish name should be spelt 'Curricinga/ nee Curri- 
cunga. 

" I was wrong in calling it ' the road to Guaqua Pichincha '; it 
is merely the track or tracks made by the ' snow-carriers/ who 
bring down that article daily, and supply the inhabitants of 
Quito with the luxuiy they please to name ' ice.' It requires con- 
siderable experience to follow these paths, in safety, through the 
'paja ' or long grass with which the Paramo is clothed. 

"All that I remember, beyond what is already published in 
the Proceedings of the Zoological Society, is having noticed for 
the first time a few pairs walking in the grass, amongst the cattle, 
on the table-lands to the south of Quito, when en route for 
Babahoyo in June 1859." 

There appear to be, therefore, three nearly allied species of 
Milvago, forming the subsection Phalcobcenus, and occupying 
different areas in South America. 

1. M. CARUNCULATUS. Pectore uigro, ttlbo guttato. Exmont. 
Novse Granadse et reipubl. Equatorialis. 

2. M. MEGALOPTERUS [Aquilci megalopteru, Meyen : Phal- 
cobcenus montanus, Lafr. et d'Orb.). Pectore nigro, imrnaculato. 
Ex mont. Peruvise et Bolivise. 

3. M. ALBOGULARis, Gould (Darw. Zool. Beagle, pi. 1. p. 18). 
Gutture et pectore albis. Ex Patagonia. 

III. — Notes on the Ornithology of Hongkong, Macao, and Canton, 
made during the latter end of February, March, April, and the 
beginning of May, 1860. By Bobert Swinhoe, of H. B. M.^s 
Consular Service. 

Hongkong is set down as distant 280 miles by sea from Amoy, 
and, being in latitude 22° 15', falls well within the tropics. We 
ought therefore naturally to expect more interesting feathered 
forms than appear in the subjoined list ; yet, if you exclude the 
Micronisus gabar (which may also occasionally be found at 
Amoy) and the large Ketvpa, no bird came within my observation 
about Hongkong and its neighbouring main which does not 
occur somewhere in the neighbourhood of Amoy. 

At Macao I fell in with two species I had not seen before ; 



24 Mr. R. Swinhoe on the Ornithology 

only one of these I procured, which I have marked Larvivora 
sp. ?. 

Canton, with its fine old trees towering everywhere through- 
out the town, and its well-wooded surrounding country, literally 
swarms with birds, and I can safely assert that no place on this 
coast equals it for the number and variety of its Avifauna. If 
I had spent a few months there instead of a week or two, 
I could have swelled my collection into colossal proportions. 
Canton is distant about ninty-eight miles by river from Hong- 
kong, and is in the same latitude as Calcutta. 

1. Pandion haliaetus (Linn,). Osprey. 

As we steamed out of Amoy, this bird was seen soaring over 
the bay, and at the entrance to Swatow it was seen again, 
seated on a fishing-stake. In Hongkong I have often watched the 
Ospreys gradually ascending into the air in large sweeping circles, 
when their rounded tails and peculiar upward inclination of the 
wings at once distinguish them from the Kites which abound 
in the harbour. Pigeons before alighting have this same pecu- 
liarity of inclining the wings upwards; and Swifts {Cypselus 
affinis, Gray) practise the same as they dart and gambol through 
the air before roosting, uttering the while a quick succession of 
sharp notes. When the Osprey is seen flying overland with slow 
heavy flaps, he has a very Buteonine aspect. 

1 was told that a large Sea-Eagle had been occasionally seen 
at Hongkong, but, from his wariness and inaccessibility, no one 
had succeeded in getting a shot at him. On one occasion, in 
Amoy, I saw a very large bird of prey sitting in a tree, which I 
took to be a Sea-Eagle. He was at least 200 yards off", yet took 
alarm at my appearance. 

2. Palco peregrinus, Linn. 1 Both observed near 

3. TiNNUNCULUs ALAUDARius (Briss.). j Hougkoug. 

4. BuTEO JAPONicus, Bp.* Japanese Buzzard. 

A pair frequented the Happy Valley, Hongkong. I have 
seen them early in the morning, pursuing each other with loud 
screams. 

* Perhaps rather paler than B. vulgaris, but hardly specifically distinct, 
according to Mr. Blyth (J. A. S. B. xxx. p. 95).— P. L. S. 



of Hongkong, Macao, and Canton. 25 

5. MiLVus GOViNDA, Sykcs*. Brahminy Kite. 
Common. 

6. MiCRONisus ?t. Small Blue Sparrow-Hawk. 

We were watching some Swallows [H. gutturalis) sporting 
over a pond, when suddealy a small short-winged Hawk ap- 
peared among them, and would certainly have caught one had 
not one of my comrades brought him down with a broken wing. 
The little fellow was much excited, and fought hard with his bill 
and claws for life. He was a much handsomer bird than M. 
badius, though about the same size ; blue-grey above ; beneath 
banded with dark undulating lines ; the flanks and belly deeply 
washed with buiF ochre. The bill was blue-black ; the cere, iris, 
and legs golden yellow, with black claws. The specimen was 
accidentally lost, being served up at table by the Chinese servant 
in mistake for a pigeon. 

This same species is by no means uncommon in the neigh- 
bourhood of Hongkong, and you often see them even over the 
streets of Victoria, poising with almost motionless wing, while 
the tail is continually opened and shut like a fan. The length of 
tail and shortness of wing at once distinguish this bird from 
the Wind-hover or Kestrel, which species, so common at Amoy, 
seldom fell under my notice here. At Canton, several of these 
small Hawks were nesting in a grove of pines. The nests were 
small and cup- shaped, and placed high up, near the tree top. I 
was unable to procure either the eggs or young, nor did I succeed 
in securing a second specimen of the mature bird. 

7. Athene ?J. 

A small brown Owl, with transverse yellowish bars and spots. 
This bird was brought to me alive by a Chinese at Canton, and 

* Mr. Blyth (J. A. S. B. xxx. p. 95) seems to consider the Chinese Kite, 
Milvus melanotis of the ' Fauna Japonica,' as distinct ; but Mr. Gurney in- 
forms me that his Chinese specimens are not different from M. govinda of 
India. — P. L. S. 

t This is probably Micronisus soloensis (Horsf.). — P. L. S. 

I This Athene seems to be Noctua cuculoides. Vigors (Gould's Cent, 
pi. 4), already recognized by Blyth (Cat. Mas. As. Soc. p. 39) as occurring 
in Chusan. — P. L. S. 



26 Mr. R. Swinhoe on the Ornithology 

is markedly smaller than birds similarly coloured received from 
Foochow. The native name is Ning-long-chay. I find that 
the bird procured, which I forward for Mr. Sclater's examination, 
is a mature specimen ; and it therefore appears that either this 
species has a second year's moult, when it loses all the yellowish 
bands and markings, or that I have confounded two species 
under one denomination. 

I extract the notes in my journal made on the fresh mature 
male above mentioned : — Bill greenish or dusky yellow. Iris clear 
golden king's yellow. Legs chrome-yellow, with stiff bristles ; 
claws pale yellowish at the base and brown towards the tips. 
Crura of furculum only ossified for about one-half of their length, 
and joined by a cartilaginous arch. Tibial tendons very rigid. 
Testicles not large, somewhat kidney-shaped, and yellowish. 
Proventriculus -§ in. across; gizzard round and flattened, flanked 
on each side with a strong radiating muscle, about If in. in 
diameter, and lined inside with a fixed rugose cuticle. Intestines 
16 inches long : cseca situate about ] \ in. from anus ; right caecum 
2f, left 3 in. in length, both enlarging at their ends into black, 
semitransparent bulbs. 

8. Otus brachyotus (Gm.). Cantonese, " Maou taou ying^' 
(Cat's-head Hawk). 

This tawny Owl, with black spots and well-defined facial disc, 
was also brought alive to me in Canton. It is a species I have 
never before met with in China. Length 14^ in. ; wing 18 in. from 
curvature ; tail 6. Bill black, with a pale tip. Iris bright golden 
yellow. Legs and feet covered with ochreous feathers, with the 
ends of the toes naked and of a pale blackish flesh-colour; claws 
sharp and blackish brown. Tibial tendons very rigid. Testicles 
like two small white eggs, placed with their ends pointiug in dif- 
ferent directions. Proventriculus 1 in. in length by ^ in breadth, 
granulated, and contracting somewhat at the mouth of the gizzard, 
which is roundish, about 1 in. in diameter, soft and flabby, lined 
with a fixed network-furrowed cuticle. The stomach contained a 
thick yellow juice and a few Jish-bones. Intestines 18| in. long : 
caeca about 1 in. from anus ; left caecum 2^, right 2| in. in length, 
the first bulging much more at the end than the second. 



of Hongkong, Macao, and Canton, 27 

9. Ketupa ceylonensis (Gm.)*. Crab Owl. 

This magnificent Horned Owl, so like Bubo maximus, but at 
once distinguishable from that bird by the naked tarsi, is a con- 
stant tenant of the dark rocky ravines of Hongkong. The Eu- 
ropean cemetery in the Happy Valley is separated from the race- 
course by a broad road, and bounded in the front by a high wall 
with a central gateway. At the rear of this enclosure, which 
abounds in graceful tombs and funereal trees, rises a high hill, 
well-wooded, and cleft by a ravine tangled over by most luxu- 
riant vegetation. In this lovely spot are found some of the 
choicest ferns and plants for which Hongkong is justly cele- 
brated. Happening to pass one day, after I had stood enjoying 
the glorious view, I rambled up a narrow path, gun in hand. A 
Bulbul flew past me, and then another ; and, as they perched 
within gunshot on a bush, I fired at them, when, to my astonish- 
ment, from under a gigantic black rock which rested on a 
smaller one, thus forming a natural cave, out flew a great Owl, 
and alighted on a branch close above me, with raised crest and 
ruffled feathers, evidently much bewildered and startled by the 
report of the gun. He was not, however, more astonished than 
myself, and by the time I had recovered myself he had also re- 
covered himself, and, seeing me standing near, made off to the 
other side of the hill. I saw him settle on a tree, and thinking that 
an Owl by day was an easy prey, I pursued. But his eyes were 
too good ; I could not get near him. I thereupon returned to his 
roost, and found, by the feathers and old casts, that the ledge 
underneath the rock must have been long tenanted. But what 
surprised me most was to find that the casts consisted chiefly of 
morsels of crab-shells and claws, together with a few bones of 
some small murine animals. Two days afterwards I again put the 
Owl out of the same haunt, but somehow managed to miss him. 

* Certainly this species, and not K.javanica, as supposed by Mr. Swinhoe. 
Mr. Swinhoe speaks of the iris of Ketupa ceylonensis as " orange." I am 
informed by Mr. J, H. Gm'ney, that, in a specimen which was in the Zoo- 
logical Society's Gardens some years since, the irides were of a veiy bi-ight 
clear and pm:e yellow, without any tint of orange. It would appear there- 
fore that the colouring of the irides in this species varies as it does in 
Bubo maximus, the very old individuals of which have much redder irides 
than the young ones. — P. L. S. 



28 Mr. R. Swinhoe on the Oi-nithology 

The shot alarmed him ; he never returned. Residents assure me 
that this bird is of frequent occurrence there, and that at night- 
time they may often be seen, seated on the tops of the houses 
facing the harbour. From the casts and excrement being fre- 
quently met with, I should certainly imagine that they were 
pretty abundant. 

On my return from Macao I was fortunate enough to procure 
the specimen that I send herewith. It was in this wise. Mr. 
Wilford (the botanist sent out by Sir WiUiam Hooker) was 
out with me for a ramble in the neighbourhood of Jardine, 
Matheson and Co.'s grounds, close to a ravine, where a lot 
of small Chinese boys had gathered round us to see our sport. 
They pointed to some Kites that were diving at one another 
some distance over our heads, and for the amusement of the 
small boys, I fired at them twice. The shot must have tickled 
them, for they dropped the bone of contention, a putrid duck's 
head. But the report of the discharges reverberating along the 
ravine startled a dozing Ketupa, and out he came from his roost, 
and settled on a rock a long way up the hill. He flew out so 
quietly that we should probably not have observed him had it 
not been for the Kites, who soon spied him, and kept hovering 
over him, and flying down at him. Not enjoying their indig- 
nities, and observing that all near was pretty safe, the Owl quietly 
dropped under cover, as he evidently fancied, unobserved by us. 
Upon this I rushed up the hill, and got a good position on a 
large rock above the spot where he had sunk to rest, and left my 
comrade and his noisy juvenile Celestials to follow. As these 
clambered up the hill, they chatted and laughed, and made a 
great noise. The Owl, finding them too near, bounced out, and 
flapped as hard as he could up the ravine, past the rock on which 
I was sitting, whence I got an easy shot at him, and tumbled 
him over. The little boys soon scrambled after him, and drew 
out the magnificent fellow. I was hitherto under the impression 
that he was Buho maximus, which I have met with at Amoy ; but 
imagine my joy, when, by the naked tarsus, I discovered a totally 
distinct bird. 

He measured 21| in. in length; wing from flexure 16 in.; 
expanse about 3 feet 9 inches. Tail 7g in., somewhat graduated 



of Hongkong, Macao, and Canton. 39 

and rounded, the outermost feathers being about 1 in. shorter 
than the central; the 4th and 5th remiges nearly equal, and 
longest in the wing. Eye about 1 in. in diameter; iris bright 
orange-yellow ; skin round the eye broad, and purplish brown. 
Bill pale dingy greenish yellow, blackish on the apical half of the 
upper mandible, but not so at the tip. Inside of mouth pale fleshy 
king's-yellow. Tongue broad, fleshy, and notched at the tip. 
Legs of a dusky yellow, covered with small hexagonal scales, and 
a few broad scutella at the end of the toes ; the soles rough, and 
covered with pointed asperities ; outer toe reversible ; claws bluish 
black, with pale yellowish bases, not much curved, and very blunt 
from use. Ear oval, ^ in. in length, exposing the internal aperture 
in the half farthest from the eye. Feathery horns not very large 
or prominent. 

The oesophagus starts from the glottis very wide, gradually 
narrowing to -| in., then for \~ in. becoming only J- in. in width. 
The proventriculus follows (length li in., largest diameter I) : 
gizzard 1^ in. long, somewhat conical, thick and hard; inside 
lining thick and yellow, with broad ruga; ; empty. Cseca situated 
2^ in. from anus; right caecum 4f, left 3f in. in length, both 
bulging at their extremities into large sacs. Intestine in toto 
44 inches long. 

10. Scops ?*. Cantonese, " /Se-cAee-yin^." 

This pretty Horned Owl was brought to me alive at Canton, 
and, fi'om the bareness of its breast and belly, had evidently been 
caught in the nest. It was very tame, and used to aflbrd amuse- 
ment to spectators by the odd way in which it lowered its head, 
swinging to and fro with expanded wing and ruffled feathers, 
while its disproportionately large dark eyes glared at the finger 
pointed towards it, and the bill continually snapped. In the day- 
time, when undisturbed, it remained in easy repose ; but at night 
it flapped about in its place of confinement, and vainly sought 
hard to force a passage through the bars. 

In the spring of 1859, my friend Mr. Holt, at Foochow, sent 
me two specimens of the same species from that place, but they 
appeared somewhat larger in size than the present one. 

* Probably Scops lempiji{}lorsi.), but rather dark in plumage. — P. L. S. 



80 Mr. R, Swinhoe on the Ornithology 

Length 8|-, wing 7, tail 3 « in. Bill pale flesh-grey, with a 
pale yellowish rim to the mandibles. Eyes very large, about ^ in. 
in diameter; iris golden burnt-sienna, but so narrow that this 
colour is seldom visible, the immense pupil filling neai'ly all the 
space between the lids. Skin round the eye madder-brown. Ear- 
conch very large and oval, nearly f in. in length by about f in 
width, the lunar-shaped orifice occupying about one-third of the 
oval on the part distant from the eye ; colour of the conch-rim 
yellowish, inside light blue-grey. Legs feathered to the end of 
tarsus. Toes naked, light brownish flesh-colour j claws light 
brownish grey, with blackish tips. 

There were numerous eggs in the ovary ; oviduct folded zig- 
zag, semitransparent, and about 4 inches in length, terminating 
in a distinct cloaca. Proventriculus granulated, somewhat en- 
larging towards the gizzard, which was flabby and oval, about 
\ in. in length by 1| in breadth, lined inside with a fixed rugose 
cuticle of a yellow colour. The cseca were long and bulging at 
their ends, the left longer than the right ; but unfortunately I 
have lost the measurements of these parts. 

11. Caprimulgus ? 

Probably the same species as that procured at Amoy. I did 
not obtain a specimen. I saw a pair in March, gamboling 
about the top of Monte Guya, in Macao, just after the sun had 
set. Mr. Bowring informed me that in the fall of the year they 
occurred abundantly in Hongkong, and might be seen in num- 
bers every evening hawking after insects in the valley. 

12. Caprimulgus ? 

Our second species, with naked tarsus*. One was shot at 
Stanley, Hongkong, which was shown to me. 

13. Cypselus affinis, J. E. Gray. 

I saw a small party of these one afternoon at Hongkong ; but 
they do not appear to be permanent residents at any of the three 
places, as at Amoy. 

14. HiRUNDO GUTTURALIS, Scop. 

A few arrived in February ; but in March they were to be 

* This will probably be a Lyncornis. L. cerviniceps, Gould, is said to 
be from China. — P. L. S. 



of Hongkong, Macao, and Canton. 31 

found everywhere, and soon commenced building-operations. It 
is the only and prevailing species. This bird has only one small 
cgecum. 

15. EuRYSTOMUs ORiENTALis (Linn.). Cantonese, "Z/eifA-X:o- 
tsoeyJ" 

I had the pleasure of meeting a pair of these birds at VVham- 
poa (the anchorage of Canton). While wandering under a group 
of lofty pines, I saw a bird sitting on a branch with head and 
body erect, while the tail and abdomen, from the shortness of 
its legs, seemed to lie along the branch. The red bill and bril- 
liant green and blue plumage soon showed me what it was, as it 
flitted with quick and smooth flight into the open. It was pre- 
sently joined by its mate, and they kept flying about, now rest- 
ing on a thick bough, now again on the wing, circling round 
the clump of trees. They uttered occasionally a note not un- 
like the " quack " of our Goatsucker, which bird it also often 
resembled in flight, and in its habit of sitting for the most part 
along a branch instead of across it. They were rather shy of 
approach ; so I had to take them on the wing, and was fortunate 
enough to secure the pair. 

The male was larger than the female, and perhaps a little 
more brilliant in tints. The gizzard was oval, 1^ in. long, Ig 
broad, and 1 thick, slightly muscular, lined with a flesh-yellow 
moveable cuticle much wrinkled with rugse, and containing 
insects — chiefly beetles and large bugs. Intestines somewhat 
fleshy, 19 in. long, and varying in thickness from | to ^ in. 
Caeca 1^ in, from anus; left 2|, right 1 in. in length, both 
bulging into black sacs at the apical third of their length. 

16. Halcyon smyrnensis (Linn.). Turquoise Kingfisher. 
Cantonese, " Fe-tsoey." 

Common. 

17. Alcedo bengalensis, Gmel. Cantonese, " Tow-gu- 
long." 

Common. 

18. Ceryle RUDis (Linn.). C&ntonese, " Pun-tin-teo." 
Common. 



All abundant, and evi- 
|:. dently spending the 
summer in the 
south. 



32 Mr. R. Swiuhoe on the Ornithology 

19. Orthotomus phyllokrapheus, Swinh. 
Abundant everywhere. 

20. Prinia sonitans. 

21. Drymoica extensicauda. 

22. cisticola tintinnabulans. 

23. acrocephalus magnirostris. 

24. lusciniopsis canturians. 

This interesting species of Warbler I first met with in For- 
mosa during March 1855, when I was much struck by the 
resemblance of its habits to those of the White-throat [Curruca 
cinerea) . I have since met with it at Amoy, but I think merely 
as a straggler. At Shanghai it was abundant, as also at Hong- 
kong and Macao. In the last two places nearly every hedge or 
cluster of bushes had its L. canturians, creeping about unseen, 
and trolling out its abrupt song. When approached from the 
midst of its leafy retreat, it gives its alarm-note, consisting of a 
harsh " charr"; and if hard-pressed, quietly slips out the other 
side of the bush and flits to a further cover. 

Bill wood-brown, with the edge of the upper mandible and 
the whole of the lower pale flesh-colour ; inside of mouth chrome- 
yellow. Iris hazel. Legs pale brownish flesh-colour; claws wood- 
brown, paling on the soles. 

25. LocusTELLA RUBEscENs, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv. p. 582 (?). 
A Grasshopper-Lark alighted on the deck of the "White 

Cloud " on our way down the Canton River. It hopped into 
the saloon close to my feet, and I had the full opportunity of 
determining its specieo. It was evidently the same as that once 
procured at Amoy. I tried to secure it, but there were too 
many open windows in the saloon. 

26. Phylloscopus fuscatus, Blyth. 

This little fellow I often observed, and feel sure that some at 
least nest near Canton. 

27. Rbguloides proregulus (Pall.). 

Very abundant in the fir-trees about Hongkong during Fe- 
bruary and March. 



of Hongkong, Macao, and Canton. 33 

28. Reguloides chloronotus, Hodgs. 

I watched for some time several of the former and one of 
this species of Reguloides pursuing a swarm of gnats in a small 
pine-plantation at Hongkong. The two birds resembled each 
other a good deal, and at a distance were not distinguishable ; 
but as they were much busied with their occupation, I approached 
within a few paces. In the midst of their pursuit they would 
frequently give utterance to the melancholy protracted note 
"sweet," somewhat sharply emitted. But the R. chloronotus at 
times stopped, and, ruffling his feathers, struck up a little musical 
ditty not unlike that of the Willow- Wren [Sylvia trochilus). I 
could observe no difference in the common note of the two birds. 
The abundance of food in this particular spot no doubt was the 
cause of the large numbers of these birds to be found there; 
for on ordinary occasions you rarely meet with more than one 
of the R. proregulus at a time, or a pair of the R. chloronotus. 

29. CoPSYCHUs SAULARis (Linn.). Cantonese, " C'/iMy-se-^i;G." 
Common at Canton and Macao. 

30. Pratincola ixdica, Blyth. 

Common. Seen in Hongkong as late as March. 

31. RUTICILLA AUROREA, Pall. 

A few seen. 

32. RuTiciLLA, sp. nov. ? 

I mentioned in my " Ornithology of Amoy" the fact of a second 
species of Ruticilla occurring at times in that place. In Hong- 
kong I had the good fortune to meet with several of them. For 
a few days in the lirst week of March they were pretty abundant 
in the hills around the valley ; but after that they were not seen, 
so that they were evidently on their migrations. I procm'ed two 
pairs, which I forward for Mr. Sclater^s examination*. 

In fresh examples the bill and legs were black in both sexes ; 
the iris deep blackish brown. The inside of the mouth was 
blackish flesh-colour in the male, and pale flesh-colour in the 
female. The tongue was ciliated at the end. 



'D^ 



* These specimens are scarcely distinguishable from Pratincola f err ea 
(Hodgs.) of Upper India. I do not consider them ditferent. — P. L. S. 
VOL. III. D 



34 Mr. R. Swinhoe on the OrnitJiology 

These birds were fond of perching on the tops of bushes, where 
they would stand in very upright positions, often darting into the 
air to seize an insect, or to take up some worm or beetle from 
the ground. Their actions were all quick, and almost instanta- 
neous. The tail was rarely moved, and then up and down slowly, 
or occasionally thrown up with Robin-like motion. This simple 
fact I think is sufficient to show that this species is not a typical 
Redstart, though it assimilates to that genus in the red tail and 
brown plumage of the female. The thick bill and grey plumage 
of the male, however, would perhaps show its tendency to the 
Saxicol(S. Its ordinary note is a subdued kind of rattling 
noise ; but I have heard one, that stood still for several minutes 
at a time, keep on emitting at intervals a loud sharp note ap- 
proaching to the syllable "pew.'' 

33. Larvivora ? * 

I send a wretched specimen of this bird, the only one I could 
procure. I have never met with it anywhere but at Macao, where 
it is not uncommon in wooded spots, hopping about on the ground 
amongst the undergrowth, and hence very difficult to shoot. 
When I first heard the note, I could scarcely believe it to be 
that of a bird, so like was it to the single chirp of the grasshopper; 
but, creeping on my hands and knees into the thicket, I got a 
view of the little fellow hopping about, and looking much like a 
Robin. He would sometimes shake his tail up and down ; at 
others he would throw it up, expanding and closing it. When 
two of them came together, the sibilant note was repeated more 
hurriedly and loudly, and then much resembled the chirrup of a 
shrew mouse. 

Bill leaden brown, paler on the edges. Inside of mouth pale 
flesh-yellow. Legs and claws pale flesh-colour. Iris deep brown. 

34. Parus minor, Temm. Cantonese, '' Pak-pay sheiv-low." 
Common everywhere ; but the individuals appear to be some- 
what larger than those at Amoy, and are in most cases quite grey 
on the back, a few only having a greenish-yellow tinge. I can 

* This specimen appears to me to be a young bird of Erythacus 
akaJiige (Temm.), Fauna Japon. j)!. 21 b ; and Mr. Gould is of the same 
opinion. — P. L. S. 



of Hongkong, Macao, and Canton. 35 

see no further difference to justify a separation ; but there seems 
a strong tendency towards Parus cinereus of Java. 

35. ZosTEROPS JAPONicus, Temm. Cantonese, "/S7zgor?^-5/^ee." 
An abundant resident at Hongkong, where it may constantly 

be seen, roaming from tree to tree along the roads in small parties. 
Its well-blended tints of yellow and green, and the snow-white 
ring that encircles its sharp black eyes, may be seen to advan- 
tage by the observer that stands under the tree whereon these 
sprightly little fellows are exploring the twigs and leaves for 
small insects. On the 2nd of April I had the good fortune to 
discover its nest at the end of a bough of a large-leaved tree. It 
was attached to several leaf-stalks about 8 feet from the ground, 
and might at first sight have been mistaken for some insect^s 
nest. It consisted of a small cup, composed of delicate grasses, 
spider's-web, and moss, and resembled much the nest of a 
Humming-bird. This pretty little structure contained two clear 
white eggs, one of which was slightly punctured. The nest and 
eggs I enclose to Mr. Sclater. 

36. MoTACiLLA BOARULA, Linn. 

I frequently saw this bird, and from meeting individuals with 
food in the mouth, I feel sure they breed in Hongkong. A male 
and female, procured in summer plumage, I transmit for com- 
parison with the European bird*. 

37. MOTACILLA LUZONIENSIS, Scop. 

This bird was pretty abundant in February ; and in March I 
witnessed the assembling of immense flocks on the tops of the 
houses, evidently preparing for migrating. A few weeks later 
they had all gone. 

38. MoTACiLLA OCULARIS, Swiuh. 

A resident species. I enclose a male in complete summer 
plumage for comparison with the Indian species of the Pied 
Wagtail group. It greatly resembles M. lugubris, but the grey 
back in summer is a sure distinction. 

* These examples do not anpear to differ from the European M. hoarula. 
—P. L. S. 

d2 



36 Mr. R. Swiuhoe on the Ornithology 

39. BUDYTES FLAVAj LillU. ? 

Several of these were feeding in some freshly- ploughed fields 
at Macao. I could only secure one, and am still in great doubt 
as to the exact species to which it belongs. 

40. Anthus thermophilus, Hodgs. 
Very abundant. 

41. Anthus agilis, Sykes. 

Numbers of this lively species are constantly to be met with 
among the grass and underwood beneath the small pine-trees at 
Hongkong. As you stroll through a plantation of these firs, the 
little fellows spring up with a note " see " (strongly sibilant), and 
with a curved flight alight on the branches above, on which 
they walk up and down, often uttering their note and shaking 
the tail. Each step you take puts up one at least, and as soon as 
you have passed, they drop quietly on to the ground behind you, 
and resume their pursuit of food. 

42. Anthus richardi, Vieill. 

A few spend the summer in the south. 

43. Myiophoxus c.eruleus (Scop.). 

In the solitudes of the rocky ravines at Hongkong this bird 
may often be seen. It is very shy, and loves to stand for hours 
in the cavernous retreats afforded by the large black rocks that 
lie in massive confusion along the gullies or water-courses on 
the hill-sides. If you wish to see the bird, you have only to go 
to some solitary part of the valley, and, seating yourself on a 
rock, keep quite still for a few minutes. You are sure soon to 
see a Cavern-bird make his appearance on a rock near you. He 
at once spies you, and, flying off to a safer distance, appears to 
advantage on a neighbouring boulder. See ! he runs up it; and, 
leaning his body forward on his long black legs, he keeps raising 
and depressing his tail, at the same time opening and shutting 
it in a shuffling manner. He then darts, with a single sharp 
note approaching a scream, among the leaves of a bush, the deep 
purple and blue of his plumage glistening in the sunlight. He 
has seized a caterpillar, and returns with it in his bill to the rock, 
whence he eyes the intruder on his solitude, while he beats and 



of Hongkong, Macao, and Canton. 37 

devours his capture. He is then lost to view beneath the bushes 
under which he has just flown to search for earth-grubs. You 
watch on. Presently you see him emerge some distance up the 
hill, and darting with a straight flight, and screaming along the 
rocks, he disappears among them, where 

" Speluncaeque tegunt, et saxea procubat umbra." 

44. Geocichla, n. sp. 

The only specimen of this bird met with was at Whampoa, on 
the 18th of April, It was feeding on the ground, and on being 
disturbed, flew up to a tree with undulating flight, looking much 
like a Camjoephaga. The bill and legs were black ; iris dark 
brown. General plumage smoke-grey, with a white belly and a 
distinct white eyebrow. I send the bird for Mr. Sclater's in- 
spection*. 

Gizzard heart-shaped, |- in. long byy^ deep, somewhat muscu- 
lar, with a moveable yellowish rugose epithelium, containing the 
remains of insects. Caeca \ in. from the anus ; right one 2 iu. long, 
left !^. 

45. TuRDUs DAULiAS, Temm. 

46. Turd us fallens, Pallas. 

47. TuRDUs CHRYsoLAus, Temm. 

48. TuRDUs CARDis, Tcmm. 

These four Thrushes were seen in February and March, and 
appeared to be merely passengers. 

49. TuRDUs ? 

A species of Iledwing, with grey-olive back in the male and 
orange-tinted flanks. Abundant, especially in Camoens Garden, 
Macao, where they were nesting. I have occasionally met with 
them at Amoy; but, unfortunately, during my ramble in the 
south I managed to procure only a female. I enclose the bird 
for Mr. Sclater's inspection f- 

* This bird is Tardus sibiricus, Gm., in nearly adult male plumage. — 
P.L. S. 

t Evidently the young of the preceding {Turdus cardis), in the stage 
figured in the ' Fauna Japonica,' tab. 30. It agrees in structure com- 



38 Mr. R. Svviuhoe on the Ornithology 

50. TuRDUS MANDARiNUS, Bp. Cantonese, " Woo-ymj." 

An abundant resident. Its sweet melody enlivens all the 
gardens. The male and female greatly assimilate, and in this 
respect differ much from the European Blackbird. Both sexes 
have yellow bills in the summer ; but the plumage of the female 
is browner than that of the male. It builds chiefly on the boughs 
of the Banyan {Ficus nitida), making a nest scarcely distinguish- 
able in aspect from that of the T. mei'ula. 

51. Petrocossyphus manillensis (Bodd.). 
Numerous about the rocky hills. 

52. Garrulax perspicillatus (Gmel.). Cantonese, '' Sampa- 
low." 

Frequents clumps of bamboos, where it chatters and makes a 
great noise, often bursting out into the loud notes " teo-teo,'' 
which appear to be the call from one to the other, and can be 
heard at a long distance. It is a great enemy to the eggs and 
young of small birds, and in habits approaches somewhat the 
Jays. 

53. Leucodioptron canorum (Linn.). 

This is the ''Hwa-mei " or Song-Thrush of the Chinese. Mr. 
Blyth tells me that the true Garrulax sinensis, Linn., is from the 
Ten asserim Provinces. A. iew " Hwa-meis " may constantly be 
heard singing among the bushes on the almost jjrecipitous sides 
of the lofty hills of Hongkong. 

54. Oriolus chinensis, Linn. {O.acrorhjnchus, Vig.) Can- 
tonese, " Woncj-gang." 

This Oriole occurred plenteously at Canton, and, from com- 
parison of specimens, I find that both sexes vary considerably in 
size, in the height of the culmen of the bill, and in the extent of 
the yellow and black on the wings and tail, hence affording satis- 
factory proof of the identity of the two speci.es, 0. sinensis and 
0. acrorhynchus. I send specimens of both the supposed species 
for comparison*. 

pletely with a male Tardus curdis in Mr. Gould's collection. It will be 
interesting to know if these birds really breed in this jjlumage. — P. L. S. 

* Mr. Swinhoe's ten specimens all appear to be referable to one species — 
without doubt the true O. chinensis. But it is still necessary to examine 



of Hongkong, Macao, and Canton. 39 

55. Pycnonotus occipitalis, Temm. Cantonese, " Pak- 
taou long J" 

An abundant resident. 

56. Pycnonotus chrysorrhoides (Lafr.). 

These are of a more roving disposition than the foregoing, and 
may often be met with in small parties on the hills, flying one 
after another from bush to bush. They have a loud chattering 
note, uttered while roving about ; but the male at times, seated 
quietly on a branch, gives vent to a succession of sweet notes, 
some of which are very rich and full. I observed numbers of 
these Bulbuls, as well as the preceding, on the Tallow-tree {Stil- 
lingia sebifera), feeding on its ripe berries. 

57. Pycnonotus jocosus (Linn.). 

This is evidently the same bird as that found in Bengal, and 
is described as Twdus sinensis in Shaw's ' Zoology,' from a 
Chinese drawing. It is not found in either Hongkong or Macao, 
but is very abundant in the neighbourhood of Canton, where 
numbers of them were to be seen in April, springing about over 
the large red flowers of the gigantic leafless Bombax malaba- 
ricum. They were at once to be distinguished by their peculiar 
voices ; but their lofty curled and pointed crests gave them a very 
marked appearance. 

58. Tchitrea principalis (Temm.). 

This bird I cannot help thinking is not T. principalis, but a 
distinct species *. A female that I sent home on a former 
occasion was pronounced by INIr. G. R. Gray to belong to the 
Japanese species, but the females in all the species I have seen 
assimilate in a most remarkable manner. The male I procured 
in Hongkong I enclose. This is the fourth male I have seen, 
all resembling one another, and difiering from the description in 
the ' Fauna Japonica.' The male in that work is thus described : — 
' Les plumes du ventre et les couvertures inferieures de ia queue 

examples from the Philippines, as the bird described as 0. acrorhynchus 
by Vigors (P.Z.S. 1831, p. 97) was from that locality.— P. L. S. 

* I consider this to be the true T. principalis, but I have no Japanese 
specimens for comparison. — P. L. S. 



40 Mr. R. Swinhoe on the Ornithology 

sont blanchatres, mais elles passent au noira,tre vers leiir base, 
Toutes les autres parties de I'oiseau sont d'un noir de velours 
profond k reflets bleuatres, et passant au noir-violet sur le dos 
et les ailes" — whereas the back of our bird is of a burnished 
pink- purple. 

Iris dark blackish brown. Eye-skin and bill fine cobalt-blue, 
the latter with black tip. Legs violet-blue, with blackish claws. 
Gizzard roundish and somewhat flattened, | in, in diameter, with 
a fixed rugose cuticle ; containing remains of diptera and coleo- 
ptera. Intestine 6| in. in length ; right csecum | in. from anus, 
the left yj) higher, both about ~ in. long and adnate, of an oval 
shape. 

It is a grand sight to see this bird sitting upright on a 
branch, with its two tail-streamers hanging down, and quivering 
with the slightest breeze ; but to see it spring on wing, and 
mark the whirling motion of the two long feathers, now coming 
together, now separating widely, and spinning in different direc- 
tions as the bird skirmishes in the air, is truly a magnificent 
sight. They seldom dart out far on the wing, but keep a good 
deal within the limits of a large tree's branches. I have watched 
a pair of females engaged in the capture of insects. They stood 
very upright on the branch, with the tail almost horizontal, and 
leaping a little way into the air, would catch the fly and skip 
with it to another branch, seldom returning to the one they 
started from. 

The yearling has the bill and legs brownish, the blue of the 
eye-skin being more or less sullied. I am told that white 
varieties occur near Canton. 

59. Hemichelidon latirostris (Raffles)*. 
Very common. 

60. Hemichelidon perruginea, Hodgson t- 

I only saw this once. I enclose the specimen for Mr. Sclater's 
examination. 

* This seems to be Musicapa cinereo-alba (Temm.) of the ' Fauna Ja- 
ponica.' — P. L, S. 

t Agrees well with Indian examples of this bird in Mr. Gould's col- 
lection. — P. L. S. 



of Hongkong, Macao, and Canton. 41 

61. Xanthopygia NARCissiNA (Tcmm.). Cantonese, "Tsoey 
fa c/iag." 

Common about Canton. They often fly down to the ground 
or skim along its surface in the pursuit of an insect. In the 
various evolutions of flight, the bright golden colour of the 
rump and throat shows to advantage. I procured a female for 
the first time, and was surprised to find how much it difi"ers 
from the male. 

As the male only is figured by Temminck, I here give a sketch 
of the female : — 

Bill, upper mandible black, lower bluish grey. Legs pale violet- 
grey. Iris dark. Inside of mouth pale yellowish flesh-colour. 
Upper parts obscure olive-green, with a blackish olive patch on 
each cheek. Wings and tail hair-brown, the former margined 
with paler. Some white feathers occur on the shoulder ; and the 
rump-feathers have whitish bases. Throat and indistinct eye- 
streak orange-yellow. Breast dingy olive-yellow. The remain- 
ing under-parts washed with ochreous. 

Length 5 in., expanse 7|, wing 2|, tail 2. 

62. NiLTAVA CYANOMEL/EXA, Temm. Cantonese, " Moeg fa 
tsoey." 

A few of these occurred in Hongkong in April, but in Canton 
for the first fortnight in that month they were remarkably abun- 
dant near the city walls. Almost every mound or grave-stone 
had its Blue Bird standing erect, on the look-out for the passing 
insect. I was much struck with the appearance of a brown bird, 
of similar habits and seen in similar positions. This I found to 
be the female of the blue, — the one I shot having an almost 
uniform olive-brown plumage. But a single blue feather on the 
crown of the head convinced me of the identity of the birds, 
before I had the opportunity of determining the sexes by dis- 
section. 

As the male only has been described in the ' Fauna Japonica,' 
I here extract from my journal the desci'iption of the female : — 

Bill blackish brown. Legs greyish brown. Iris dark brown. 
Inside of mouth yellowish flesh-colour. Upper parts olive- 
brown ; rump redder ; tail fringed with reddish brown. Wings 



42 Mr. R. Swinhoe on the Ornithology 

brown, margined with reddish olive. Throat buff. Breast and 
axillae olive, tinted with buff. Belly and vent white, touched 
with the same colour. 

Length 6 in., wing 3|, expanse 9, tail 2\. 

Testicles in the male small and black. Gizzard roundish, f in. 
in diameter, lined inside with a moveable rugose cuticle of an 
ochreous colour, and containing for the most part small beetles, 
most of which were unbroken. Intestines thick and fi-agile, 
with no cseca. 

63. Campephaga ? 

This bird is occasionally seen at Amoy. I first met with it 
at Macao on the 21st of March, where its loud notes, repeated 
at intervals, attracted my attention. It was singing in a bush, 
but on being disturbed flew up to the branch of a tree, whence 
it continued to pour forth its notes. At Canton it was not un- 
common . The immature bird is indistinctly barred on the under 
parts, the tints are much lighter, and a broad white bar occurs 
across the wing, visible when the bird flies. In this last charac- 
teristic of the immature dress this species approaches the Peri- 
crocoti, which in most cases have a white under-wing band. 

Mr. Blyth ignores the name which I have applied to it. I 
must therefore leave the identification of the species to Mr. 
Sclater; and I think it is very probable that it will prove 
new*. 

64 Pericrocotus cinereus (Lafr.). 

This bird visited Hongkong in small flocks during the first 
week in April, when I was enabled to procure a nice series of 
males. A little later in the same month I saw a small party of 
them at Canton ; but I am convinced that they were migrating, 
and merely passing over. 

65. Pericrocotus cantonensis, n. sp. 
A smaller species than the preceding, and evidently resident at 
Canton. I send a male and female for Mr. Sclater to examine 

* This bird is a close ally of Volvocivora luguhris (Sund.) of India and 
V.fimbriata (Temm.) of Java, which, I suspect, is distinct from the Indian 
bird. The single specimen sent appears to agree best with the description 
of V. melanoptera {Campephaga melanoptera, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xv. p. 307), 
from Arracan. 



of Hongkong, Macao, and Canton. 43 

and describe, and merely confine myself to the notes in my 
journal. • 

Length 7| in. ; wing 2\, tail 3f, expanse 9f . Bill and legs 
black. Inside of mouth flesh-colour. Eyes hazel. Gizzard 
roundish, musculai", and much flattened, lined with an adherent 
rugose cuticle of a brownish-yellow colour ; containing remains 
of caterpillars. Testicles white, and elongo-ovate, ^ in. long ; 
the left one longer than the right. Intestine rather thin ; caeca 
^ in. from the anus, about y^ in. long*. 

66. DiCRURUs MACROCERCus, Vieill. 

This bird occurs, but not abundantly. Formosa is the only 
place where I have seen it in any abundance. 

Q7. Lanius schach, Gm. (Sparrow King.) Cantonese, 
'' Ma chow wong." 

Very numerous everywhere. The bird in the south is smaller, 
and less rufous on the rump, than that at Amoy, and I dare say 
goes on decreasing in size towards the Straits, whence I have 
seen very diminutive varieties. 

68. Lanius lucionensis, Linn. 

Passing over, I observed two one morning at Hongkong. 

69. CoRvus pectoralis, Gould. 

Common. The black species which occurs at Swatow and 
Foochow, and which ]Mr. Blyth tells me is C. sinensis of Gould, 
I did not see once at Canton. 

70. Pica sericea, Gould. 
Common everywhere. 

71. Urocissa sinensis (Linn.). 

These handsome birds are often to be seen about the woods 
at Hongkong. You see a long-tailed form flying over the low 
trees with a direct flight, executed by short constant flaps, like 
that of a Magpie, the tail being held in nearly the same hori- 
zontal line as the body. The fii'st disappears, into a thick leafy 

* This is certainly distinct from P. cinereus; but I rather doubt Mr. 
Swinhoe's male bird being in full plumage. The female shows a distinct 
yellowish bar on the wing. This ought to be red in the male by analog)'^, 
but is white. I should like to examine further specimens before describing 
it.— P.L. S. 



44 Mr. R. Swinhoe on the Ornithology 

tree, and is followed by a second, then a third and fourth, and 
sometimes more. Presently one shows himself on an exposed 
branch above, stretching out his red-billed head and whisking 
impatiently his two white-tipped tail-streamers. He sees you 
watching him, and at once sets up a cry of " pink-jnnk-pink," 
followed by a loud chatter, in which his comrades join, and you 
catch glimpses of violet and blue as they hasten from one tree 
to another in a contrary direction, until the distant sound of the 
"pink-jnnk " note tells your ear that the Redlegs are far through 
the woods. 

72. AcRiDOTHEREs CRisTATELLUs (Liuu.). Cautonesc, "Lent 
ko." 

Very common. I dissected a female. Gizzard oval, about 
1 in. long, I broad, and | deep ; somewhat muscular, containing 
chiefly coleoptera ; the inside was lined with a moveable cuticle, 
longitudinally as well as transversely furrowed. Cseca : left /^^in., 
right j^ in. in length. Around the intestines occurred several 
tape-worms {Ttenia) , the longest 1^ inch, and about g in. broad ; 
whitish, and of nearly the same width to the end of the tail. The 
head was leech-like, and kept changing its form by its expansive 
and retractile power, at one time looking like a ball, then 
lengthening into a spatula, — then, the lip being drawn back, 
resembling a thistle-head. These curious little creatures lived 
some hours in water. 

73. Gracupica nigbicollis (Paykull). 
Somewhat rarer here than at Amoy. 

74. Temenuchus turdiformis (Wagler). Cantonese, "Fooerj 
gang.'' 

I first observed it in April, when large flocks of them arrived 
at Canton, and were to be seen on almost every tree. Is it 
found in summer also in Pegu ? It is abundant at Amoy in 
summer, but its migrations do not extend so far northward as 
Foochow. , 

75. Temenuchus sericeus (Lath.). 

76. Temenuchus cineraceus (Temm.). 

I observed flocks of both these on the main opposite Hong- 
kong during February. 



of Hungkong, Macao, and Canton. 45 

77. COCCOTHRAUSTES MELANURUS (Gmcl.). 

Very abundant about Canton ; evidently breeds there in great 
numbers. 

78. MuxiA MALACCA (Linn.). 

Flocks of these were observed at Macao and Whampoa. 

79. MuNiA MINIMA (Lath.). Cantonese, " Wo-kook." 
Very abundant. Most of the court-yards throughout the city 

of Canton have this bird nesting in their trees. The little 
fellows whisk about their pointed tails most vigorously, and utter 
their call-trill when you draw near their nesting site. The nest 
is a round domed construction of grasses and roots, not unlike 
that of a Wren, and generally contains three white eggs. 

80. MuNIA RUBRONIGRA (HodgS.). 

I almost doubt whether this is a Chinese bird, as I have never 
yet met with it in a wild state. It is occasionally to be seen in 
cages, but I think comes from the Straits. 

81. Muni A oryzivora (Linn.). 

Wild at Hongkong during the early spring. 

82. LiGURiNUs siNicus (Linn.). Cantonese, " Kum sheong 
shee." 

Abundant. 

83. Passer montanus (Linn.). 
Found everywhere. 

Several other Finches were ofifered for sale in the Canton 
bird-shops, all of which the dealers said came from Northern 
China ; and this is not improbable, when we consider that such 
birds as Loxia recurvirostra, Frintjilla montifringilla, and Passer 
russatus were among the number. They are brought down in 
numbers for sale by the Tien-tsin junks, that make half-yearly 
passages southwards. At all events, as I have never seen these 
birds in the open country, it is needless to swell my list with 
their names. 

84. Emberiza fucata. Pall. 1 

o- T^ m All more or less common, 

8o. Lmberiza personata, lemm. ^ i t i- i i 

I and, I think, resident. 

86. Euspiza aureola (Pall.). j 



46 Mr. R. Swinhoe un the Ornithology 

87. EuspiZA suLPHURATA (Tcmm.). 
Seen once at Hongkong. 

88. Melophus lath ami (Gray). The Macao Sparrow of 
Shawns 'Zoology.' 

In excessive numbers about Hongkong and Macao. The 
males are at least two years in completing their mature dress. 

89. Alauda ccelivox, Swinh. 

Common in all open country that abounds in corn or pasture 
land ; specially abundant near Macao. 

90. Picus MAJOR? Cantonese, " Shu-kai'^ (Tree-fowl). 

This male specimen, which looks very like the European spe- 
cies, was brought to me alive at Canton. On a previous occa- 
sion I received a pair from Mr. Holt at Foochow. The one now 
enclosed to Mr. Sclater measured, when fresh, 9f in. ; wing 5|, 
tail 3 1, expanse of wing 14^. Bill along culmen 1| in., from 
point to commissure 1^; of a deep lead-colour, lighter on the 
gonys and at the base. Inside of mouth flesh-coloured. Legs 
and claws deep leaden. Irides brownish carmine*. 

Testicles over iin. long, oval, and pure white; left one rather 
longer. Gizzard heart-shaped, not muscular, -^-^ in. long ; epithe- 
lium fixed, with close longitudinal rugae ; containing remains of 
beetles and minute pieces of rotten wood. Intestines 10 in. long, 
rather thick, with no «8eca. 

91. CucuLUS TENUiROSTRis, Gray. Cantonese, " Pun-Zow- 
shooeij." 

Very common and noisy in the city of Canton. 

92. EuDYNAMYs ORiENTALis (Liuu.). Coxiione^e," To-keun." 
A figure occurs in Shaw's 'Zoology,' 1815, vol.ix. pt.l. p. 103, 

under the term "Cuculus mindanensis," which is undoubtedly 
the female of the Canton bird ; but it is marked " male," and 

* This specimen agrees well with the bird figured by Mr. Gould in his 
' Birds of Asia' as Picus cabanisi. According to M. Malherbe, however, 
this species is not his P. cabanisi, but P. gouldi. See Monogr. Picid. 
pi. 17. p. 62 ; but the distinctions between P. cabanisi, P. mandarinus, and 
P. gouldi, as there given, seem rather fine. We certainly doubt the fact 
of three species so nearly allied occurring in one country.— P. L. S. 



of Hongkong, Macao, and Canton. 47 

its locality given as the Philippines, Cape, and Coromandel 
coast. 

The loud notes of this bird first drew my attention to it in 
the city of Canton. I was told that this noise-producer was 
called the " Summer Bird^' among the European residents, from 
its arriving at the commencement of the hot season. Its note 
maybe syllabled "co'-o'-a/i," pronounced loudly and with stress, 
which it keeps on repeating, the loudness and vigour increasing 
every time, until the sound suddenly stops. On hearing the 
call, you have only to look to some well-exposed tree or branch, 
and you are almost sure to see the bird ; but it seems to prefer 
the leafless top branches of the gigantic Bombax malabaricum, 
where its large black form is plainly visible, bending forwai'd 
and stretching its neck while the startling notes are emitted. 
If approached too near, the bird flies off with a straight flight, — 
looking, however, in form much like a Drongo Shrike. One 
that I was watching flew off to another large tree in which 
there was a MagnaPs nest, and close to the nest a brown bird 
much like himself in form. The brown bird turned out to be 
the female, and set up a chattering noise on the arrival of her 
mate. She very probably had dropped, or had come to drop, an 
egg into the nest ; for the Magnal {Gracupica nigricollis) soon 
returned to the tree, and seeing strangers so near his abode, 
charged them. The Magnal, however, was defeated and driven 
off, and the Cuckoos remained victorious. I was fortunate 
enough to procure a pair, which I enclose ; but the bird was by 
no means uncommon, for I have heard no less than three males 
calling within ear-shot of one another. 

Male. — Length 15^ in. ; wing 7| ; tail 7^, with ten feathers. 
Eill pale bluish grey, becoming pale yellowish towards the tip. 
Inside of mouth flesh-colour. Iris clear carmine. Legs lead- 
colour, greyish at the joints and on the soles. Whole plumage 
greenish black. 

Female. — Length 15 in. ; wing 7\, tail 7\, expanse 19^. Bill 
pale greenish ochre, varied with brown. Inside of mouth flesh- 
colour. Iris reddish brown. Legs leaden blue ; soles yellowish 
grey ; claws brownish grey. Tail a good deal worn and jagged 
at the ends and sides of the feathers, proving to a certain degree 



48 Mr. R. Swinhoe on the Ornithology 

that it is to the round domed nests of the Magnals {Gracupica 
nigricollis and Acridoiheres cristatellus) that this bird chiefly 
resorts to deposit her eggs. 

Tongue fleshy, sagittate, horn-edged and rounded at the tip ; 
basal half papillose, more conspicuously at the edge. Ear-conch 
moderate, nearly circular, with a lunate recess on the part furthest 
from the eye, — the inner edge of the ear and the outer angle of 
the eye being within the same plane. The eggs in the female 
were well developed, and some ready to drop ; the oviduct was 
large, measuring in length o\ in., and in diameter | in., formed 
of a thick white elastic membrane, folded zigzag, and enlarging 
into a distinct cloaca. 

The male had white oval testicles, about \ in. long. Proven- 
triculus granulated, and narrowing as it joins the gizzard, which 
is somewhat ovato-circular, 1| in. long, well flattened, flabby, and 
capable of much extension : its interior cuticle moveable, nearly 
smooth, and of a pinkish colour, containing wild figs. Intestine 
17 in. long, varying in thickness from f to |. Cseca given off 
2 inches from the anus, the one |, the other 1 in. in length, very 
thin, and of uniform size throughout. 

93. Centropus ? {C. lignator, nobis.) 

This small specie», in mature plumage, I first met with in 
Kelung, Formosa. One was afterwards shot at Amoy, in imma- 
ture plumage ; and in Hongkong I again fell in with the imma- 
ture bird. Its " hoo-hoo," with the sounds " kd-toch, katoch," 
that immediately succeed, may often be heard on the bush-clad 
hill-sides of Hongkong. I enclose all three specimens for Mr. 
Sclater's inspection, as it strikes me the species is probably 
new*. 

Here is a note on the one procured at Hongkong : — Bill 
pale yellowish brown, with a tinge of pink; culmen blackish 
brown. Inside of mouth pale flesh-colour. Iris ochreous, and 
eyelid pale ochreous. Naked skin round the eye bluish. Legs 
a violet lead-colour, with yellowish soles and edges to scutes. 
Proved to be a female on dissection. Gizzard lined with a move- 

* This small Centropus seems not different from C affinis, Horsf., of 
Java, Malacca, and India. — P. \j. S. 



of Hongkong, Macao, and Canton. 49 

able cuticle, containing several large hairy caterpillars of a spe- 
cies of brown moth. 

94, Centropus sinensis (Steph.). 

This large and handsome species, so common in Foochow, is 
also abundant in the south ; and one seldom visits the Happy 
Valley without being struck by its strange " hoo-hoo" resound- 
ing from the hills around. It is, however, a difficult bird to get 
a view of, being timid, and crouching in cover when approached. 
Like the foregoing small species, it is upwards of three years 
attaining to mature plumage, — during that time scarcely two 
specimens being found with the same markings. I procured a 
fine female in a wood on the other side of the island, near the 
village of Little Hongkong, on the 3rd of April. The eggs were 
largely developed, and evidently within a few days of being laid. 
Proven triculus If in. long, narrowing immediately before the 
gizzard, which is circular, somewhat flattened, flabby, and thin- 
skinned, lined with a thin, smooth, separable cuticle, and con- 
taining the remains of grasshoppers chiefly. Intestines 32 inches 
long ; right caecum 4 in., left 3|, both bulging at their extremi- 
ties. Oviduct long, and folded zigzag, being formed of a broad 
white elastic membrane terminating at the anus. 

Besides the ordinary note, this bird sometimes utters a loud 
chuckle somewhat like the sound produced by pouring water 
from a bottle. 

95. TURTUR ORIENTALIS (Lath.). 

On the way down to Hongkong, a party of friends left the 
steamer for an afternoon^s shooting at Swatow, and among the 
birds brought back was one of this species. I afterwards saw a 
pair early in March on the main near Hongkong. 

96. TuRTUR CHiNENsis (Scop.). Cautonesc, " Pfl?i-/:«OM." 
The prevailing species. T. humilis did not occur, which is 

strange, considering how abundant it is from Hongkong to 
Shanghai during the summer months. 

97. Phasianus torquatus (Gmel.). 

Found in the neighbourhood, and sometimes on the island of 



Hongkong itself. 



E 



60 Mr. R. Swinhoe on the Ornithology 

98. Francolinus perlatus (Gmel.). 

This bird is numerous in Hongkong, inhabiting the patches of 
bushes and fern that so frequently occur in nooks and depressions 
on the hill -sides, whence it is very difficult to flush it, even with 
a good dog. If you mark a bird down, you are by no means sure 
of putting it up again. It is a solitary bird, and does not 
associate in coveys. In the early mornings of April, and during 
the greater part of the day, if cloudy, you may hear them cry- 
ing to each other on the hills around that enclose the Happy 
Valley. One male starts the song " ke-kai, ke-kai, ka-karr," 
another on an adjoining hill defiantly repeats the notes ; a third, 
still further, is heard, and even a fourth, until the notes are lost 
as it were in a distant echo. The first bird then commences 
again, adding greater emphasis to the last note, and the other 
birds take up the song in succession as before. AVhen heard 
near, these notes sound harsh to the ear; but at a distance they 
have a pleasant, wild effect as they sweep over the sides of 
the towering hills. The flesh of this Francolin is white and 
insipid. 

99. CoTURNix DACTYLisoNANS, Tcmm. 

Common ; but, I think, merely as a winter visitant when corn 
takes the place of rice in the fields. Numbers are captured and 
brought to market in baskets ; the best males being first selected, 
and confined separately in straw bags, for pugilistic purposes. For 
the table, they sell at 45, or 5^. the dozen ; but the warlike indi- 
viduals fetch \s. or 25. apiece. 

100. CoTURNix cHiNENSis (Linn.). 

This diminutive and prettily-marked species is found in the 
neighbourhood of Canton, to which city it is carried singly or in 
pairs, and offered for sale in cages. It is by no means common, 
and is much esteemed as a cage-bird. 

101. TURNIX JOUDERA, HodgS. ? 

This a good deal resembles the bird figured in Gray's ' Genera 
of Birds ' with the above name, but is rather larger. You find it 
occasionally in the Hongkong markets mixed up with Quails, 
from which it is distinguished by Europeans by the name 



of Hongkong, Macao, and Canton. 51 

" Button/' or " Button-Quail." I have seen it occasionally in the 
possession of natives at Amoy. 

102. Squatarola helvetica (Gmel.). 

Occurred during February, but not afterwards. One kept in 
an aviary at Amoy appears to have undergone no change in 
plumage as late as the end of May. Is this merely attributable 
to the effect of confinement on the bird's constitution ; or is this 
race in any way separable from the European one ? 

103. Charadrius virginicus, Bork. Cantonese, " Mapaw- 
chuy." 

A common bird near Canton ; passes the summer there. The 
females do not appear to undergo so complete a moult as the 
males. 

104. .^GIALITES CANTIANUS (Lath.). 

Common during February. The majority migrate northwards. 

105. JilGIALITES PUSILLUS (Horsf.). 

Common about Hongkong in the rice-fields. Many stay to 
breed. 

106. iEoiALITES GEOFFROYII (Wagl.). 

A large species : shot once at Amoy. One was shown to me 
that had been procured from a flock on the main opposite Hong- 
kong. 

107. Ardea cinerea, Linn, 
Frequently seen. 

108. Herodias egretta ? Cantonese, ''Pah haw" (White 
Crane). 

These birds are found in the neighbourhood of Canton, and 
are brought alive to market, where they may often be seen stand- 
ing at some shop-door, the primary quills twisted together into 
a knot, and the eyes blindfolded by a feather passed through 
the underlid of each eye and tied over the head. They are 
called by Europeans " White Cranes." I procured a pair, which 
I send for Mr. Sclater's inspection*. 

* They seem to be H. intermedia (Wagler). See, for synonyms, Blyth's 
Catalogue, p. 279.— P. L. S. 

E 2 



52 Mr. R. Swinhoe on the Ornithologij 

Tip of bUl Naked 
Length. Wing. TaU. Bill, to eye-angle, tibia. Tarsus. Mid-toe: its claw, 
in. in. in. in. in. in. in. in. in. 

Male 37A 15 6 4^ 5^ 5 6f 4| f 

Female. ..35 13^ 3| 4 4| 3| 5^ 3t ^ 

Bill blackish brown ; base of culmen and gonys brownish yellow, 
gradually yielding to the bright chrome of the cere, which tends 
to greenish in the region of the eye. Iris king's-yellow. The 
tibia of the male is madder-brown on the highest part ; but this 
colour, as it descends, soon yields to the blackish brown which 
prevails throughout the remainder of the legs and claws. 

In the female the yellow on the face is paler, and the tibia 
pale flesh-brown with a green tinge, which extends as far as the 
upper portion of the tarsus. 

109. Herodias garzetta (Linn.). 
Common. 

no. BuPHUs coROMANBUs (Bodd.). 
Common. 

111. BuTORiDEs JAVANICA (Hoi'sf.). Cautonesc, " Shuy 
haou haw" 

Met with near Canton. A male specimen in fine plumage was 
brought to me by a Chinese. Its bill was black, with an ochreous 
gonys; lore yellowish green. Iris clear yellow. Legs yellowish 
sea-green on the upper surface, bright orange-ochre on the soles 
and under surface ; claws dark brown. 

112. Ardeola prasinosceles, Swinh. 

Of frequent occurrence. A male was brought to me at Canton, 
and I enclose it for Mr. Sclater's inspection, and for that gentle- 
man to pronounce if he does not really think it distinct from A. 
leucoptera and A. speciosa^. The bill of this specimen was beau- 
tifully tinted with yellow and blue. Legs a fleshy yellowish, 
yellower and tinted with greenish on the toes ; claws brownish. 

* I consider it to be A. speciosa (Horsf.). Mr. Blytli observes, in re- 
ference to this species, in a letter to Mr. Gurney, " It is curious that the 
Squacco Heron of Africa (chiefly), the A. leucoptera of India, and the A. 
speciosa of China, the Philippines, and Java, are so similar in winter dress 
as hardly (even if at all, with absolute certainty) to be distinguishable, yet in 
summer garb their colouring is most strikingly different." 



of Hongkong, Macao, and Canton. 53 

The gizzard was of moderate size, and shaped like a bottle, con- 
taining the remains of small Crustacea. The testicles were 
oblongo-ovate, and measured, one 1 inch, the other \ inch in long 
diameter. Curled in the intestines was a worm-like Ascaris, l\ in. 
long; and from off the skin under the feathers I picked a tick 
(Ixodes), about -^ in. in diameter, with very thin red-brown feet 
and white, berry-like body. 

113. Ardetta cinnamomea (Gmel.). CsLntonese," Fawhaw." 
Common. 

114. Ardetta sinensis (Gmel.). Cantonese, " Wong gaw- 
haw." 

Common. 

115. Nycticorax GRisEus (Linn.). Cantonese, "ilfoo/i-sAo'o 
haw." 

This is the sacred bird of the great Honam Temple, Canton. 
The court-yard in front of this temple contains some venerable 
banyans, as well as a few towering cotton-trees [Bombax mala- 
baricum). On the higher branches of the former the small flat 
wicker-nests of the Night-Heron may be seen in all directions, 
some only a foot or so from others ; and the croaking and flap- 
ping and fighting that goes on overhead bears some distant re- 
semblance to the crowded deck of an emigrant steamer on first 
encountering a turbid sea. The granite slabs that form the pave- 
ment beneath these trees are so bedaubed with the droppings of 
old and young, that permission to scrape them clean daily might 
prove a fine speculation for the guano-collector. The birds, from 
the protection afforded them, were remarkably tame, and we 
could stand beneath the trees and watch them without their 
evincing the slightest fear. This was in April. Some might be 
seen sitting on their nests, with their long legs bent under them, 
the weight of their bodies resting for the most part on the tarsal 
joint ; others standing on single leg close by, with shortened 
neck, the beak and head occasionally moving partially round as 
on a pivot ; others flapped to and fro, ruffling up their head-gear, 
and occasionally sparring together. In their various movements, 
the dark-green-black of the head and back, with the thin snow- 
white occipital streamers flowing and quivering over the latter. 



54 Mr. R. Swinhoe on the Ornithology 

gave a quaint^ though not ungainly, look to the birds. From 
some of the nests we heard a subdued chattering like the cry of 
young, and it was to feed these hungry mouths that the parents 
were constantly leaving the trees to seek for food at all times of 
the day, while others were returning with supplies. As the sun 
set, however, they became more active. While I sat watching 
them from a neighbouring roof-top in the evening, numbers of 
them emerged from the leafy darkness, and one by one settled 
on the stark bare outstanding arms of the cotton-tree. After 
resting for a little time like gaunt spectres on the tree top, off 
they went, one after the other, with a " kwa" — seldom more than 
two in the same direction. As darkness set in, many returned, 
and the noise and hubbub from the trees rose to a fearful pitch. 
Until night hid them from my view, 1 could see the old birds 
going and coming, and hear the clamour of the young. What kind 
of nocturnal slumbers the priests enjoyed in the temple below, I 
never took the trouble to inquire, though I have little doubt that 
from constant use the noise of these croakers has become quite 
essential to their good night's rest. 

Though these birds moved about very much during the day, 
yet it strikes me that twilight is the most active time with them, 
and that in most instances the departures during the day were to 
seek food for the newly-hatched young, which would require 
feeding oftener at first, and perhaps with more choice food. 

I sent my man up one of the trees, whence he brought down 
three nests, two of which contained eggs, and the third, two young 
birds and one egg. Judging from their size, one of these little 
birds must have been born at least three days before the other; 
and on opening the egg I found a live chick inside, which would 
have required at least two days before it could have ventured out. 
The varying stages of the embryos in the other six eggs con- 
firmed this idea. I should say the differences between them 
could not have been more than six days, and certainly not less 
than three; so that the Night- Heron must commence sitting on 
the first egg laid, and while engaged in its incubation, keep on 
laying, at fixed intervals, the other two, which form the comple- 
ment. 

In the smaller chick procured the eye was just opened, and of 



of Hongkong, Macao, and Canton. 55 

no determined colour. The bill and lore were of a yellowish 
llesh-colour^ very pale, and tinged with blue. The legs of a 
similar colour, with pale claws. The head and back were covered 
with a long blackish down, and the rest of the body with more 
or less whitish down, somewhat resembling sheep's wool. The 
black down on the head was drawn out into long white tufts, 
which stood out from the head like a crown of thick threads. 

In the larger chick, the eye was of a pale sea-green ; the lore 
and bill were tinged with yellowish green. The long down of the 
head had opened out into filamentous ends. The legs were bluish 
sea-green above, and sienna- yellow beneath. The bare skin of the 
round projecting belly was sea-green, as also the dorsal skin. The 
colour of the down was light purplish grey, tipped with white 
on the crown, and giving place to white on the flanks and belly. 
The cry it uttered was a weak imitation of the old bird's croak. 

The immature plumage of the yearling appears to undergo little 
change until the second winter, or until the bird is over two 
years old. One of the nests taken was covered by a bird in this 
first plumage, and the eggs were found to be narrower and of a 
darker blue than those of the mature bird. An individual in 
immature plumage was brought to me by a native, and the de- 
velopment of the testicles was proof positive that the bird in this 
plumage bred. It would be curious to inquire whether those in 
the mature plumage pair with those in the immature. I have 
certainly seen them together, but never ascertained whether two 
such owned the same nest. 

Immature bird, 6 . — Iris reddish yellow or bui-nt sienna. Lore 
pale yellowish green, bluish towards the bill. Upper mandible 
and apical third of lower black ; gonys, basal two-thirds of lower, 
and a line just above the edge of the upper mandible for two- 
thirds towards the base light yellowish green. Legs yellowish 
green, with pale brown claws. 

Mature bird, ? . — Lore bluish grey, with a slight tinge of 
yellow ; bill black. Legs bright sienna-yellow, with a mixture of 
ochre ; claws brownish black. Iris dark crimson. 

A number of Ascarides were found in and about the intes- 
tines of this individual. They were of a yellowish flesh-colour, 
pointed at both ends, the longest measuring 3^ inches. 



56 Mr. R. Swinhoe on the Ornithology of Hongkong, &c. 

Besides the colony of Night-Herons at Honam^ there is 
another at the Old Man's Home, where a large pond is enclosed 
by a hedge of tall bushes and shrubs^ and beyond this is a high 
wall all round. Among these bushes the Night-Herons muster in 
countless nuraberSj placing their nests on every suitable branch, 
though often only a few feet from the ground. They are held 
sacred by the priests in the adjoining temple^ and no one is 
allowed to kill or disturb them. 

116. ScoLOPAX RUSTicoLA, Linn. 
Abundant during winter. 

117. Gallinago uniclava, Hodgs. 

Perhaps commoner than the succeeding species in winter, but 
in summer nearly all retire. Among a number of Snipes shot in 
May, only one of this species occurred. 

118. Gallinago stenura (Temm.). Cantonese, " -S^a-c/my." 
Great numbers stay and breed in the neighbourhood of 

Canton. 

119. Gallinula chloropus (Linn.). 
Abounds in some places. 

120. Gallicrex cristata (Lath.). Cantonese, " Can-turn" 
A male specimen procured at Canton, which I forward for 

Mr. Sclater's examination *. Some years ago I procured one at 
Foochow. 

Length 14^ in., wing 8f, tail 3|. Bill 2^m., to angle 1|; 
bare tibia 1-^, tarsus 3 ; mid-toe 3g, its claw f . Bill greenish yel- 
low, gradually yielding to vermilion as it approaches the basal 
crest, which mounts high on the forehead, and is bounded by a 
flesh-coloured line. Legs lead-colour, with a yellowish tinge, 
especially on the tarsus; claws brown. Tail consisting of ten 
feathers. 

Gizzard oval, shaped like two shallow cups placed mouth to 
mouth, very muscular. If in. long, lined inside with a thick, 
broadly furrowed, moveable cuticle, and containing small shells, 
mussels. Helices, &c., many of which were in a pulverized state. 
Intestines 27 in. long : caeca situate 2| in. from anus ; right one 

* It is certainly Gallicrex cristata. — P. L. S. 



On the Anatomy of Cephalopterus penduliger. 57 

2\ in. long, and bulging at the end ; left one 2f in., and of uni- 
form size throughout. 

121. PoRZANA PHCENicuRA (Penn.). 

In a cage for sale at the city-gate. I was informed that it was 
caught in the neighbourhood of Canton. 

122. PoRZANA ERYTHROTHORAX (Tcmm.) : Faun. Japon. 
pi. 78. p. 121. Cantonese, "Long kai." 

The pretty female of this species that I forward home was 
procured at Canton. 

Length 8 in., wing 4}, expanse 1. Tail consisting of ten soft 
feathers nearly 2 in. long. Bill : along culmen ^, along edge of 
under mandible 1 in. ; of a leaden blue colour, blackish on the 
roof ; the angle of the mouth reddish. Eye-rim vermilion ; iris 
bright indian red. Tibia naked for |- in., tarsus Ifin.; mid-toe 
1|- in., its claw ^. Legs bright madder-pink ; soles pale dingy 
yellow, with sharp claws. 

Tibial tendons rigid. Gizzard roundish, about ^ in. in dia- 
meter, flattened, and somewhat muscular, lined with a moveable 
greenish cuticle set with broad rugse. Cseca situate 1-^ in. from 
anus ; left ^ long, right |, both of uniform size throughout. 

It would be needless to add here a list of the marine Scolopa- 
cid(B, AnseridcE, &c., because it is pretty certain that all these 
migratory sea-birds that are found at Amoy are also found at 
Hongkong, and thei'efore reference can easily be made to my 
Amoy list, if the reader should wish for a notice of them. I 
may, however, add to the list of Ducks the Shoveller, 

Rhynchaspis clypeata (Linn.), 
which was brought in great abundance to the Hongkong market 
amongst other Ducks. 

IV. — Note on the Anatomy of Cephalopterus penduliger. 
By T. C. Eyton, F.Z.S. 

I RECEIVED only the body of this bird, taken out of one of the 
specimens sent home by Mr. Eraser, and described, in the 'Pro- 
ceedings' of the Zoological Society, by Mr. Sclater (1860, p. Q7). 
The greater portion of the intestines was gone. 



58 Mr. R. Owen on the Nesting 

The tongue was pointed, horny at the tip, arrow-shaped ; the 
epiglottis fringed with bristles, their points directed backwards ; 
the trachea 0*4 (inch) in diameter in its upper poi'tion for one 
inch, thence gradually dilated into an oblong bulb, which be- 
comes 0"7 (inch) in diameter at its widest part near the centre. 
Immediately below the bulb the trachea is contracted to a 
width of 0*3 (inch), but again gradually increases in size to the 
bronchia, which are very large and increase in size to the sixth 
ring, afterwards rapidly decreasing. The sixth ring is very 
broad in comparison with the other bronchial rings attached 
to it. There are two large oval glands, one on the outer side 
and one on the inner side, between the branches of the bi'onchia. 
The trachea is furnished with the usual sterno-tracheal muscles, 
a few fibres decending from them to the sixth ring. The 
oesophagus is large in diameter, and swells out into a capacious 
crop, which was much damaged in the present specimen. It is 
contracted below the crop, but again becomes enlarged to the 
proventriculus, which is shghtly thickened, smooth internally, 
and lined at its lower extremity by the epithelium. 

The stomach, which was filled with hard seeds about the size of 
a small hazel-nut, is slightly muscular, 2 inches long by 1| inch 
in diameter; the epithelium is slightly hardened, and corrugated 
longitudinally. The liver is bilobed. 

V. — On the Nesting of some Guatemalan Birds. By Egbert 
Owen, C.M.Z.S. With Remarks by Osbert Salvin, M.A., 
F.Z.S. 

(Plate II.) 

When I left Guatemala in April last, Mr Owen kindly under- 
took to procure for me what eggs he could of the birds found 
about San Geronimo. By the mail of September I received a 
box containing the result of his labours, together with the notes 
relating to their capture. The collection altogether comprises 
102 specimens, the number of species being 23. Of these I had 
previously obtained six. Five of these have been already figured 
in this Journal, vol. i. pi. 5 ; and the sixth is the egg of Sialia 
ivilsoni, the well-known Blue Bird of North America. Amongst 



. 3. 





Ibis, 1861 FIE. 





1. 





EGGS OF GUATEMALAN BIRDS. 



"W C. Hewitsan, del et lith,1860 



Printed try Hxdbna^iAel ^Walton. 



of some Guatemalan Birds. 59 

the remaining 1 7 we have a most valuable addition to our know- 
ledge of neotropical birds in the egg of the Quezal [Pharomacrus 
paradiseus), as well as in those oi Eumomota superciliaris, Pachy- 
rhamplms aglaice, Geococcyx affinis, Urubitinga anthracina, and 
Asturina nitida, which, together with Mimus gracilis, Polioptila 
albiloris, Icterus gularis, I. mentalis, Centurus santacruzi, and 
CEdicnemus vocifer, I believe to be now described for the first time. 
The value of these eggs is very much enhanced by the exceedingly 
careful way in which they have been collected. In every case but 
one, that of Eumomota super ciliaris, where no mistake could 
have been made, one of the parent birds was procured. Each 
egg was written on in ink, and the bird ticketed with a cor- 
responding number. The nests, too, which I shall describe below, 
have in many cases been sent. To the name of each species I 
have added a short description and the measurements of the 
egg. The rest of the paper is from Mr. Ovven^s pen. — O.S. 

As any one who has travelled in this country will know, the 
drawbacks a collector has to contend with are not a few. Let 
these be my excuse for the smallness of my collection, which, I 
can assure my readers, is the result of some pretty hard work, 
and much exposure to a scorching sun. What disappointments 
the would-be naturalist has to suffer ! Nests found, but the 
wary birds not at home when called upon. Long and fruitless 
vigils to be kept, gun in hand, behind some bush, — safe, as 
one flatters oneself, from observation, and all the while a help- 
less victim to swarms of delighted mosquitoes, which vie with 
each other in their endeavours to improve the opportunity of 
tasting a little European blood. Then it would appear that the 
powers of the unseen work to one^s confusion. The other day 
I lost a very fine specimen of the ' Kolol ' ) Tinamus robicstus ?) 
from a "bruja" having cast upon it the evil eye. Such at least 
was its end according to the belief of a ''carbonero" who was 
bringing it to me from the mountain. He was coming along 
cheerfully enough with the bird under his arm, when he met a 
female of the " bruja" family; there was no time to cover it up 
before the mischief was done, and the victim struggling to 
death, all the while uttering most unusual cries. 



60 Mr. R. Owen on the Nesting 

The first showers of the rainy season appear to be the signal 
for nesting to begin ; but a few species seem to anticipate this, 
and commence operations with the rains which fall in April. 

1. TuRDus GRAYii. " Cien-sonte." San Geronimo. Bird and 
several eggs. 

The nest of this Thrush is described in * The Ibis/ vol. i. p. 6, 
and the egg figured on pi. 5. 

The nest of the " Cien-sonte " is usually to be found in the 
hedge-rows and stunted bushes. The bird though common, is 
very shy. 

2. MiMUS GRACILIS. " Cien-sonte mejicano." San Geronimo, 
May 30, 1860. Bird and several eggs. 

General colour of the egg (Plate II. fig. 2) pale greenish grey, 
blotched with spots of red-brown and two shades of faint lilac. 
Axis 1*05 in., diam. '7. 

I see in my note-book that at this date (May 30) the breed- 
ing-time of this species is very advanced, it being among the 
earliest to begin building. Most of the nests I have taken were 
in the Nopales or cochineal-plantations, the nests being placed in 
the cactus. They are also to be found in the hedge-rows and 
bushes of the plain, usually in somewhat exposed places, about 
5 or 6 feet from the ground. I have unfortunately neglected 
to send the nest, which is peculiar in having its rim or edge 
crowned with a circle of long thorns. The complement of eggs 
is three, and frequently two or three eggs of the " Tordito " 
{Molothrus ceneus). In one instance I found in the same nest 
two eggs of the Mock-bird and five of the " Tordito.^' 

The " Cien-sonte mejicano " is a shy bird, and does not easily 
fall a victim to the bird-catcher, by whom it is much persecuted 
for its unrivalled powers of song. I have known as much as 
six and even ten dollars refused for a good songster. 

3. SiALiA wiLSONi. " Azulejo." Bird and four eggs. 

The eggs of this bird are too well known to need description. 

Four eggs, without nest, which was destroyed, from the high 
coarse grass which grows in the uncultivated parts of the cane- 
field. 



of some Guatemalan Birds. 61 

4. PoLioPTiLA ALBiLORis. Choacus, May 15, 18G0. Female 
bird, nest, and four eggs. 

The nest is composed outwardly of dried stalks of grass and 
roots, with a coating of cobweb and other adhesive materials. 
The interior lining consists of the feathery parts of seeds, horse- 
hair, and fine grass, the whole forming a very neat, compact 
structure, measuring If inch across the inside, and 1^ inch in 
depth. 

The eggs (Plate 11. fig. 3) are white, spotted with red, prin- 
cipally of two shades, the spots increasing in number towards the 
obtuse end. They measure, axis "6, diam, '45 in. 

The nest was procured from Choacus, near the Rio Montagua, 
the same locality whence the male specimen was obtained from 
which the description in P.Z.S. 1860, p. 298, was taken. 

Female bird, nest, and four eggs advanced in incubation. 
The nest was taken in the " monte bajo " (low brushwood) grow- 
ing almost under the eaves of one of the ranchos. 

5. CoTYLE SERRiPENNis. " Golondrina." San Geronimo, May 
20, 1860. Bird, nest, and five eggs. 

The nest is composed of grass and fine roots, the inside being 
strewn with pieces of dead flag. 

The eggs are white, and measure, axis "7, diam. *5 in. 

The nest was dug out of the white sandy soil of a barranco in 
the Convent garden. The cave ran horizontally, and was about 
2 feet in length, terminating in a chamber of just sufficient di- 
mensions to allow the bird to turn round. 

6. Progne dominicensis. Female bird and four eggs. 
The eggs are white, and measure, axis, '85, diam. '63 in. 
Mr. Owen has sent no note with these eggs. 

7. MoLOTHRUs jEneus. " Tovdito." San Geronimo, June 2, 
1860. Several eggs. 

The eggs are pale greenish white, and measure, axis 1 inch, 
diam. To. 

A few eggs of the " Tordito," taken from the nests of the 
" Chorcha " [Icterus] and the " Cien-sonte mejicano" {Mimus gra- 
cilis). The Indians here all identify these eggs as those of the 
" Tordito." However, personally, I have never surprised the bird 



63 Mr. R. Owen on the Nesting 

on the nest of any other species. At the same time I may add 
that I have never seen it either building or occupied in any other 
domestic , occupation whatever, which somewhat confirms the 
statement aforesaid. The eggs are found most commonly in the 
nests of the "Chorcha" and the " Cien-sonte mejicano," and occa- 
sionally in that of the largest species of " Chatillo " [Pitangus 
derbianus). 

8. Icterus gularis. " Chorcha.^' San Geronimo, June 8, 
1860. Hen bird and one e.^^. 

The egg is a pale grey, blotched and streaked with very dark 
brown. It measures, axis 1 in., diam. "7. 

Mr. Owen describes the method of taking the nests of these 
Icteri in the note attached to the next species. 

9. Icterus mentalis. " Chorcha." San Geronimo, May 5, 
1860. Several birds' nests and eggs. 

The materials used by this bird for its nest — and doubtless 
the same applies to the foregoing species — vary considerably -, 
the structure, however, is the same in all. It is a compact and 
firmly woven nest, attached at the top to the ends of a bough, 
its length varying from 1 to 2 feet. In some, the materials 
used are fine dried creepers and twigs, with here and there a 
leaf; in others, fibrous roots and the stringy centres of the 
Maguey leaves ; while others are formed exclusively of a species 
of Tillandsia. All are spherical at the bottom, and have a long 
loophole at the top for the entrance. 

The eggs (Plate II. fig. 5) are like the last — a pale grey, spotted 
and streaked with very dark brown ; on some there are marks of 
faint lilac. They measure, axis, 1*05 in., diam. -7. 

The " Chorcha " generally nests in colonies of four or five ; I 
have never found more together : but it not unfrequently 
selects a completely isolated spot for its graceful, pendent nest. 
The breeding-place is mostly chosen on the banks of rivers or 
upon some tributary stream, over which the nest swings securely 
in the breeze. At first I experienced some difficulty in taking 
these nests, as they hang from the extreme points of the boughs, 
and, being rarely less than 18 feet from the ground, are inac- 
cessible to the climber. The only way to obtain them is to 



of some Guatemalan Birds. 63 

provide oneself with a long light cord with a running noose at 
the end, and a few wild canes lashed together, so as to make two 
rods of the required length. At the extremity of one a bush- 
knife must be tied firmly, so that when the rod is held up with 
the knife uppermost, it points to the ground, the edge facing 
the cane at a small angle. By means of the other rod the noose 
is slipped over the nest a little below the aperture through which 
the bird passes, and the other end left hanging down. When 
the bird returns to the nest the string is drawn tight, and 
nothing remains but to cut the twig by which the nest hangs, 
with the knife, first twisting the other rod into the top of the 
nest, so as to lower it gradually when free. The number of 
eggs laid by one bird is two. There are, however, often eggs of 
the " Tordito " in the nest. 

10. Cyanocitta melanocyanea. " Charra." San Gero- 
nimo, April 29, 1860. Bird and several eggs. 

The nest and egg of this species are described in ' The Ibis,' 
vol. i. p. 21, and the egg figured on pi. 5. 

The nest is invariably found in low thick bushes, about 6 feet 
from the ground. 

11. PiTANGus DERBiANus. " P echo amarUla." San Gero- 
nimo, April 10, 1860. Bird, two nests, and several eggs. 

The nest and eggs of this bird are described in ' The Ibis,' 
vol. i. p. 120, and the egg figured on pi. 5. 

Among the eggs sent, there is considerable variation in size 
and colouring. Three correspond with the figure ; the rest are 
much more distinctly spotted, with smaller and darker spots. 

One of the nests I send has two openings j one, however, 
seems to be the rule : they are usually built at the ends of 
boughs, at various elevations from the ground, but always ex- 
ceeding 8 feet. A favourite haunt is the Banana groves, where 
their nests may be found firmly wedged in among the golden 
clusters of the Banana fruit. 

12. Tyrannus melancholicus. " Pecho amarilla.'' San 
Geronimo, May 10, 1860. Hen bird, two nests, and several eggs. 

The nest and egg of this species are also described in * The 
Ibis,' vol. i. p. 121, and the egg figured on pi. 5. 

The nest of this bird is built upon the tops of low bushes or 



64 Mr. R. Owen on the Nesting 

hedges, 7 or 8 feet from the ground, the site chosen being free 
from overhanging branches. 

13. Myiozetetes texensis. San Geronimo, May 5, 1860. Male 
and female bird, nest, and several eggs. 

The nest and eggs of this species also are described in ' The 
Ibis,^ vol. i. p. 123, and the egg figured on pi. 5. 

14. Pachyrhamphus aglai^. Choacus, May 15, 1860. 
Female bird, nest, and two eggs. 

The nest is composed of tendrils, strips of bark, and grass, 
the interior and exterior being of the same materials, which are 
woven so as to form a hanging nest open at the top, 2 inches 
deep inside, and 2| inches in diameter. 

The egg (Plate II. fig. 4) is white, beautifully marked with 
pencillings of a pinkish red and occasional spots of the same 
colour. These markings are much blended and concentrated at 
the larger end. It measures, axis '95, diam. '6 in. 

These eggs were in an advanced stage of incubation. The 
nest was built between, and hanging from, the forked branch of 
a sapling at the foot of the mountain. The bird was very tame. 

15. Antrostomus ?*, Night Hawk. Mountain of Santa 

Barbara, April 20, 1860. Hen bird with two eggs. 

The eggs are white, and measure, axis 1*05 in., diam. '8. I do 
not quite understand these eggs being white, except by supposing 
them to be accidentally so. In other respects, i. e. in form and 
texture, they agree with the eggs of other species of Caprimulgida. 

These eggs, two in number, were found on the ground, at the 
foot of a large pine-tree. There was no nest. 

16. EuMOMOTA suPERCiLiARis. " Torovoz." San Geronimo, 
May 21, 1860. Several eggs. 

The nest is described below. 

The egg is glossy white, and measures, axis 1 in., diam. '8. 
The form of the egg is quite that of a Merops. 

This appears to be the height of the breeding-season with the 
" Torovoces.^' They are in full song, if their croaking note may 
be so termed, and are as noisy and busy now as they are mute 

* The species is nearly allied to (perhaps identical with) A, vociferus. — 
P. L. S. 



of some Guatemalan Birds. 65 

and toi-pid during the rest of the year. I do not know of any- 
sound that will convey a better idea of the note than that pro- 
duced by the laboured respiration occurring after each time the 
air is exhausted in the lungs by the spasms of the hooping-cough. 

The nest of the 'Torovoz^ is subterranean, and is usually found 
in the banks of rivers, or of water-courses which empty into 
them. The excavation is horizontal, and at a distance from the 
surface, varying with the depth of the barranco or bank in which 
it is situated. The size of the orifice is sufficient to allow the bare 
arm to be introduced, the shape being round and regular for 3, 
or at most 9 feet, where the shaft terminates in a circular chamber 
about 8 inches in diameter and 5 inches high. In this chamber the 
eggs, usually four in number, are deposited upon the bare soil. 
The banks of the river which winds through the plain of San 
Geronimo are full of excavations made by this bird, — that is to 
say, in such places where the soil is light and the bank chops 
down perpendicularly. It is a simple matter to hit upon those 
which are inhabited, as the entrance to the abandoned ones will 
be found perfectly smooth, whereas the mouth of those which 
contain eggs or young is ploughed up in two parallel furrows 
made by the old bird when passing in and out. The ' Torovoz ' 
is exceedingly tame, and, when startled from its nest, will, 
perched upon a bough a few yards distant, watch the demolition 
of its habitation with a degree of attention and fancied security 
more easily imagined than described. 

I am now never able to induce my " darky " Chus to plunge 
his arms into the holes to seek the eggs ; so I have either to do it 
myself, or to dig right up to the far end. At first he was ' muy 
valiente •' but it chanced one day, whilst hanging on to a root 
halfway down the bank of a river, with one arm buried in a 
* cueva/ that the tips of his fingers suddenly came in contact with 
the damp abdomen of a callow * Torovoz.' " Carraraba, Don 
Roberto \" screamed the poor fellow, looking as white as he 
could through his African skin, "me pico la culebra V There- 
upon he fell-to in good earnest, invoking the saints to save him, 
running over a long list of them, many of whose names I had 
never heard before. Not until after much digging (we had 
already cut a good piece of the bank down to enable him to reach 
VOL. HI. r 



66 Mr. 0. Salvin uv, the Nesting 

the nest), and a fair sight of the supposed reptile, would he be 
comforted, and then, with fervent maledictions on the genus in 
general, and this species in particular, he shouldered his gun and 
walked on in silence. 

17. Pharomacrus paradiseus. " Quezal." Mountains of 
Santa Cruz, June 11, 1860. Female bird and two eggs. 

The egg (Plate II. fig. 1) is a bluish green, without spots or 
markings, its form being like that of the egg of any other Fissi- 
rostral species. It measures, axis l'4iu., diam. 1*15 in. 

These eggs and the bird were exhibited at a Meeting of the 
Zoological Society, November 13, 1860. 

In an expedition to the mountain of Santa Cruz, one of our 
hunters told me that he knew of a Quezal's nest about a league 
from Chilasco, a place in the same range, and offered to shoot 
for me the female and bring me the eggs if I would send my 
servant to help him. This I accordingly did, and my man re- 
turned with the hen and two eggs. They stated that they found 
the nest in a hollow of a decayed forest-tree, about 26 feet from 
the gi'ound. There was but one orifice, not more than suffi- 
ciently large to allow the bird to enter, and the whole interior 
cavity was barely large enough to admit of the bird turning 
round. Inside there were no signs of a nest, beyond a layer of 
small particles of decayed wood upon which the eggs were de- 
posited. The mountaineers all say that the bird avails itself of 
the deserted hole of a Woodpecker for its nesting-place, probably 
founding the supposition on the evident inaptness of the bird's 
beak for boring into trees. — R. 0. 

I think that this satisfactory account at once sets at rest the 
disputed points regarding the breeding of the Quezal. My own 
belief is, and always has been, that the male bird never incubates 
the eggs, but leaves that duty entirely to the female. The origin 
of the story of the nest being placed in a hole passing through 
the tree has evidently arisen from the inability of supposing any 
other form of nest in the hollow of a tree which could dispose of 
the tail of the male bird. Imagination came to the rescue, and 
suggested the one hole for the bird to enter, and the other for it 
to pass out. That the story took its origin in Guatemala I have 



of some Guatemalan Birds. 67 

no doubt ; I have frequently had described to me such a nest, but 
never by one who had seen it. — 0. S. 

18. Geococcyx affinis. "Siguamonte" ov^Guardacamino." 
San Geronimo, April 3, 1860. Bird and four eggs. 

The egg is pure white with a smooth surface ; it measures, 
axis 1*45 in., diam. 1'05 in. 

This is a very common bird at San Geronimo. It builds its 
nest in the forks of trees, generally about 12 feet from the 
ground. The nest is a loose unfinished-looking structure, con- 
sisting of a few dried twigs lined with stalks of grass. 

19. Centurus SANTACRUZii. *' Carpentero." San Geronimo, 
June 2, 1860. Bird and four eggs. 

The eggs are pure white, but somewhat stained with spots of 
foreign matter; they measure, axis 1 in., diam. "75. 

These eggs were taken in one of the high trees w^hich are 
scattered all over the plain of San Geronimo. They were quite 
fresh. 

20. PoLYBORUs THARUS. " Quebranta-hueso^ San Gero- 
nimo, April 2, 1860. Two birds and four eggs. 

The egg, which is well known in North American collections, 
has a light-red ground colour, but is spotted and blotched all 
over with several shades of a darker red. It measures, axis 
2*15 in., diam. 1*6 in. 

One nest which I took was built on the very crown of a high 
tree in the plain of San Geronimo. It was made of small 
branches twisted together, and had a slight lining of coarse 
grass. It was shallow, and formed a mass of considerable size. 
I had some trouble in getting the eggs : the position of the nest 
and the thick branchless trunk of the tree were difficulties which 
the Indian whose services I had engaged pronounced insur- 
mountable. All my proposed expedients for facilitating his 
ascent were knocked on the head by that everlasting " Quien 
sabe. Patron V and it was only on the following conditions that 
my dusky friend allowed himself to be tied to one end of a 
lasso, the other end being thrown over the lowest branch and 
hauled through the air until he got into fair climbing. I was 
to pay him well if he went up and came down again safely ; but 

r2 



G8 Mr. 0. Salvin on the Nesting of some Guatemalan Birds. 

if on the other hand he made his descent head foremost and 
died from the effects of the fall, I was to marry his widow and 
be a kind father to his children. Thus promising, in the blind- 
est compliance, all obstacles were at once removed. 

21. Urubitinga ANTHRACiNA. " GavHan.'' San Geronimo, 
April 29, 1860. Bird and one egg. 

The egg is white, with an inner surface of sea-green, as in all 
eggs of the Buteonidce. The outer surface is beautifully mai'ked 
with blotches of lilac and spots of three shades of red. It mea- 
sures, axis 2*15 in., diam. 1*7 in. 

Taken, at San Geronimo, from a high tree at the foot of the 
mountain-range which bounds the plain. 

22. AsTURTNA NiTiDA. " GavHan." San Geronimo, April 3, 
1860. Three birds and three eggs. 

These eggs are all white, without natural colouring. The 
inner coating of the shell is sea-green. They strengthen the 
close connexion which exists between Asturina and Astur. 

The nest of this Hawk is usually found in the high trees 
which are scattered over the plain, and not unfrequently within- 
a few yards of the Indian ranches. Two eggs seem to be the 
complement laid by one bird. 

23. (Edicnemus bistriatus*. " A/caraban." Plain of San 
Geronimo, May 5, 1860. Bird and one egg. 

The egg is precisely like that of CE. crepitans, being of a 
pale ochreous brown spotted all over with several shades of dark 
brown. It measures, axis 2*3 in., diam. 1*45 in. 

I have only been able to obtain one egg of this bird. Their 
nesting-time must have been long past, judging from the size of 
the young birds which may be seen in the plain. The egg was 
stale, but the old birds still frequented the spot where it was 
found. The egg was deposited on the bare ground, the place 
chosen being slightly hollowed out, and at the foot of a straggling 
shrub which afforded a slight shade. 

* This Qidicnemus proves to be (E. bisiriatus (Wagl ) : CE. vocifer, 
L'lleim. Ma». de Zool. 1837, pi. 84.— Ed. 



Ibis. 1860, PI. m. 










xJ. JermeD.s,litli . 



M & N.HajJidirt^riap^" 



TINNUITCULUS ALOPEX 



Dr. Heuglin on some Birds of North-Eastern Africa. GD 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE IL 

Fig. L Egg of Pharomacrus paradiseus (p. 60). 
Fig. 2. Egg of Mimus gracilis (p. 60). 
Fig. 3. Egg of Polioptila albiloris (p. 61). 
Fig. 4. Egg of Pachyrhampkus aglaia (p. 64). 
Fig. 5. Egg of Icterus mentalis (p. 62). 



VI. — On new or little-known Birds of North-Eastern Africa. 
By Hofrath Theodor von Heuglin. (Part II.) 

[Continued from vol. ii. p. 414.] 

(Plate IV.) 

III. TiNNUNCULUS ALOPEx, Heuglin. (Plate IV.) {Falco 
alopex, Heugl. Uebers. der Vogel N.O. Afr. no. 51.) 

T. ferrugineus, subalaribus paulo pallidioribus, totus nigro stri- 
atus : caudffi fasciis xviii-xx jequalibus, transversis, nigri- 
cantibus : remigibus fusco-nigris rufescente variegatis et 
basin versus interne albis : long, tota (foem. adultse) 1*1, 
alse 10'6, caudse 7*0, tarsi 1-9 poll, et lin. Gall. 
Hab. In prov. Galabat et locis vicinis. 

The general colour of tbis bird is fox-red, witb well-defined 
blackisb spots along the shafts of the feathers. The tail is some- 
what darker superiorly, with from eighteen to twenty narrow 
inconspicuous cross-bands on the shafts of the rectrices. The 
last of these cross-bands is not conspicuously broader and better 
defined than the next to it, and there is no lighter edge at the 
extremity of the tail. The lower coverts of the wings are scarcely 
lighter than the body, and each feather has a dark spot on the 
shaft ; the inner barbs of the primaries and secondaries are 
whitish at the roots. The soft parts are greenish yellow ; the 
bill and claws are bluish, the base of the lower bill yellowish, the 
iris brown. 

I discovered this bird, which is easily distinguished from all the 
other species of Tinnunculus, during my sporting excursions into 
the countries on the Upper Nile. With regard to its proportions, 
it is intermediate between F. tinnunculus and F. rupicoloides, but 
is more slender and has the wings longer than either of them. 



70 Dr. Heusrlin on new or little-known Birds 



'O 



The bill is longer and not so strong : the toes and tarsi are some- 
what longer; the latter are shielded upwards to half their height. 
The species is to be recognized at a distance by its red colour, 
by the ferruginous lower coverts of the wings, and by the abs- 
ence of grey on the head and of any broad band on the tail. 
As far as I know, it is confined to very narrow limits, as I have 
only found it on the western frontier of the provinces of Wochni, 
Galabat, and Goara, and in the prairies of Eastern Sennaar, 
near Atbara, where it inhabits steep, isolated, volcanic, rocky 
mountains, sometimes in company with F. tinnunculus. It ap- 
pears to nest in clefts of the rocks in preference to high trees, 
and hunts for its prey, which consists chiefly of grasshoppers, 
Mantides, and Truchsalides, in the morning and evening. Like 
F. erythrojms and F. cesalon, it devours its prey (holding it in 
its claws) as it flies, after having previously picked off" the legs. 
I have never found birds or mammals in its stomach, but some- 
times large beetles (Copris and Ateuchus). Whenever the prairie 
takes fire at the time of the drought, this Kestrel hurries to the 
spot, often from a distance of several miles, and there joins the 
great flocks of other insectivorous birds which assemble to hunt 
after orthopterous and lepidopterous insects, snakes, and other 
animals that are attempting to escape from the flames. It is 
difficult to describe the impression made by so strange a spec- 
tacle. A sea of flame, fluctuating and roaring like thundei', 
spreads rapidly as lightning through the dry and high grass, 
and is overshadowed by a black smoke, which eclipses the day- 
light and reflects the shooting flashes of fire. Amid this 
uproar of the elements, the Bee-eater {Merops nuhicus, Gm.), 
the Parasitic Kite {Milvus parasiticus), the diffiei'ent species of 
Circus and Tinnunculus are franticly chasing and pursuing their 
prey, sometimes plunging into the midst of the smoke, and for 
the moment disappearing in it. It often happens that one 
of them singes its wings or tail. This infernal scene is followed 
by a flock of Storks [Sphenorhynchus ahdimii) , which, melancholy 
and grave, stride over the burnt and still glowing prairie, seizing 
the half-roasted grasshoppers with the never-missing thrust of 
their bills, or robbing of their prey the unfortunate Plovers 
{ChettusicB) which happen to come into too close proximity. 



of North-Eastern Africa. 7\ 

I have never found Tinmmculas alopex in the interior of Abys- 
sinia, in the prairies of Kordofan, or on the Blue and White 
Niles, but it probably occurs in the southern parts of the Pen- 
insula of Sennaar (near Djebel Rora and Djebel Gul) and in 
Taka. It is not more shy than the species most closely allied to 
it, and its voice is also the same. I add a more detailed de- 
scription. 

The ground-colour is fox-red, with the exception of the throat, 
which is dirty yellowish olive : there is a blackish spot before the 
eye, produced downwards into a sort of beard, and deep-coloured 
stripes on the shafts of the feathers of the upper part of the 
body, of the breast, belly, and of the sides; these stripes are 
brownish on the lower coverts of the tail and on the longest of 
the upper coverts. Wing-feathers brownish-black, with trans- 
verse, sometimes continuous, ferruginous spots on the inner 
barbs, which become gradually lighter and nearly white at the 
bases. The secondaries and tertiaries have a dirty yellowish- 
olive margin at the extremities, and the transverse spots extend 
also to the outer web, being interrupted by the shaft. The 
scapularies have the spots on the shafts broader and rounded at 
one end, and some of them have indistinct, dark, transverse 
marks, probably the remnants of an earlier stage of plumage. 
The tail is dark ferruginous superiorly, with the shafts some- 
what darker ; it is lighter inferiorly, with from eighteen to twenty 
narrow cross-bands, interrupted by the shafts, and gradually 
becoming broader and more deeply coloured at the extremity. 
The broad terminal band, however, which is found in most of the 
other species, and the light coloration of the extremity, are en- 
tirely absent. 

The lower coverts of the wings show the same coloration as 
the upper parts of the body, whilst they are light olive and 
black-spocted in F. tinnunculus, rupicola, &c., and uniform yel- 
lowish white in F. rupicoloides. 

The male is distinguished by a rather more intense coloration, 
the female by its somewhat larger size. The wings extend nearly 
to the end of the tail. 

I know nothing of the earlier plumage, the propagation, &c. 
of this Kestrel. 1 have found it from the month of December 
to May, always in the same localities. 



72 Dr. HeuKlin on new or little-known Birds 



*o 



Typical specimens have been sent to the collections of Berlin, 
Frankfort, Stuttgardt, Vienna, and to that of Pastor Brehm. The 
other species of Tinnunculus observed by me in North-Eastcrn 
Africa are the following : — 

1. Tinnunculus cenchris (Naum.). 

Very common during the spring in Lower Egypt, especially 
round Alexandria, breeding in the walls of the citadel. I shot 
it in the month of May near Cairo, and met with single speci- 
mens on the Nile, through the whole of Egypt and Nubia. We 
shot one specimen in the month of April (1853) in Galabat, on 
the western frontier of Abyssinia, lliippell appears to have 
found it also in Eastern and Central Abyssinia. 

2. Tinnunculus alaudarius, Briss. (7*. rufescens, Sw. ?) 
This is a stationary bird in Egypt, Arabia, and Nubia, and 

single specimens occur in Abyssinia, Kordofan, Sennaar, &c. 
It breeds as early as the month of March, in numerous pairs, 
near the Pyramids, in the tombs of Sagara, &c. 

3. Tinnunculus rupicola, Daud. 

I have not found it ; but Riippell says that it is frequent in 
the whole of North-Eastern Africa (Syst. Uebers. p. 11. no. 33). 

4. Tinnunculus vespertinus (Linn.). 

Often seen in numerous flocks, in every sort of plumage, in 
autumn and spring in Lower Egypt, near ditches, fences, and 
bushes. Single specimens occur in Upper Egypt, Nubia, and 
Sennaar. It does not regularly make its appearance, and some- 
times several years pass without a single specimen being met 
with. 

IV. Melierax metabates, sp. nov. 

71/. Melieraci polyzono affinis sed paulo minor, et differt pedibus 
et rostro robustioribus, illis flavis ; colore terg?ei obscuriore; 
plumis axillaribus dorso concoloribus, pogoniis externis 
rectricis primse sexties aut septies fasciatis : rectricum late- 
ralium apicibus albis multo angustioribus ; regionibus 
mystacali, ophthalmica et parotica vertice concoloribus : 
long, tota (maris adulti) vix 15'0, rostri a fronte 1'25, ab 
angulo oris 1'3, alt. rostri 8*5, alse ]2"0, caudse 7'5, digiti 
medii cum ungue 2*4, hall, cum ungue 1 '7, tarsi 3*2 poll, et 
lin. Gall. : ceromate et ix'idibus pallide flavis. 
Hah. In reg. Nili albi sup. 



of North- Eastern Africa. 73 

One of the natives killed a specimen of Melierax in the year 
1853-1854, on the upper Bahr el Abiad, between 6° and 7° 
N.lat. His attention had been directed to the bii'd by its habits 
being very different from those of M. polyzonus. Although its 
general form was extremely similar to that of the species named, 
and to that of M. musicus, a more accurate comparison appeared 
to be necessary, and considerable differences were soon disco- 
vered. Not venturing, however, to found a new species on my 
sole authority, I have sent the unique specimen to Dr. Hartlaub 
of Bremen, who declares it certainly to be a good and new 
species, and I therefore hasten to make it known. 

Comparing this bird with M. polyzonus and M. musicus, we 
observe that the head and ocular region are of the same colour, 
whilst the latter is black in the two other species ; the transverse 
streaks on the belly and on the upper and lower coverts of the 
tail are broader and more intense ; the upper and inner (not 
lower) surfaces of the fore-arm are not variegated with white ; 
there are more numerous and more intensely coloured transverse 
bands on the tail ; the pure white extremities of the rectrices are 
less broad ; there are four or five white, somewhat greyish- 
dotted cross-bands on the third rectrix, besides the white spot on 
the extremity. The hind-toe with nail is more than 2 lines 
longer than in M. polyzonus, male. The lateral upper coverts of 
the tail are not white as in F. musicus, but transversely striated 
as in M. polyzonus. The tarsus is 2 inches long, from the end 
of the feathers to the base of the toes. 

I am not able to give any details concerning the habits and 
distribution of this species. Perhaps it is not rare on the Bahr 
el Abiad, but generally confounded with M. polyzonus. 

Melierax polyzonus (a species very distinct from M. mu- 
sicus) lives in North-Eastern Africa, from 17° or 16° N. lat. 
southwards, in the southern parts of Nubia, in Kordofan, Taka, 
Sennaar, Abyssinia, and in the Somali country. It is by no 
means a rare bird (except in the higher mountainous parts), 
not shy, and easily tamed. I found an apparently new nest in 
February 1857, in the Bajada Desert, on a high, thickly-leaved 
Mimosa. It was necessary to make a great noise in order to 
induce the bird to leave the nest, and we had then no time to 



74 Dr. Heii2;liu on neiv or little-known Birds 



'O 



examine it. The natives assured me that the bird frequently 
breeds on palms round Chartum. 

The other species of Asturina found in North-Eastern Africa 
are: — 

1. ASTUR PALUMBARIUS, L. 

" Single, in Egypt/^ Riipp. Probably in winter only. 

2. AsTUR MELANOLEUCUs, Smith. Fazogloa, Paul von Wiir- 
temb. 

3. MiCRONisus MONOGRAMMicus (Tcmm.). 

Rare, in dense bushes in Western Abyssinia (Galabat), in 
Fazogloa, and along the Bahr el Abiad. This species is very shy, 
appears to migrate, and to breed in the month of May. The 
iris is very large and brown. 

4. MiCRONisus GABAR (Daud.). Var. nilotica, Sundev. 
The most northern point of its occurrence on the Nile is, 

according to my observations, m Middle Nubia, in the provinces 
of Dar-Mahas and Dar-Sukot. It is very frequent in Southern 
Nubia, somewhat rarer in Kordofan, Abyssinia, Sennaar, on the 
Bahr el Abiad and Bahr el Azrak. Lichtenstein, as long ago 
as in his ' Doubletten-Verzeichniss,' pointed out the differences 
between the eastern and western varieties : — " Specimina e Nubia 
et Africa australi Nisum magnitudine superant : mas 14", foem. 
15^" longa. Senegalensia autem multo minora : mas 10", foem. 
ll'Monga; sed vix specie diversa." Conf. Sundev. Oefvers. 1850, 
p. 132. 

5. MiCRONisus NIGER (Vieill.). 

Always met with singly in Western Abyssinia, Sennaar, and 
Kordofan. The most northern point at which I have found this 
species is Dabbeh, on the frontier between Dar-Dongola and 
Dar-Schaikieh. I doubt not that it is a good species, different 
from the preceding. Iris and feet pale yellow. 

6. AcciPiTER SPHENURUS (Riipp.). 

Rare in Kolla (Western Abyssinia) and on the Blue Nile ; pro- 
bably in Southern Kordofan. The bird described* by Strickland 
as a variety of this species probably belongs to A. minullus. A 

* Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 215. 



of North-Easteini Africa. 7o 

young bird, similar to Strickland's specimen (which came from 
Kordofan), shot by myself near Chartum in a Mimosa-forest, 
has been accurately compared with an old Abyssinian specimen 
of A. minullus, without any specific difference having been 
discovered. 

7. AcciPiTER MINULLUS (Daud.). 

Rare, in thick bushes on the Blue Nile, in Western Abyssinia, 
on the Mareb. East-African specimens appear to form a very 
constant variety. 

8. AcciPiTER PERSPiciLLARis (Rupp.) (probably identical with 

A. exilis, Temm.). 

Rare in iVbyssina and on the Blue Nile. 

9. AcciPiTER UNDULIVENTRIS (Riipp.). 

Single specimens occur in the valleys of Simen, in Abyssinia 
(Rupp.). 

10. AcciPiTER Nisus (Linn.). 

Frequent in Egypt during the winter, occasionally in Arabia, 
and along the Nile southwards to Kordofan and Sennaar. 

V. BuTEO MINOR, sp. nov. (?). 

B. Buteoni tachardo simillimus, sed differt rostro longiore et 

graciliore, pedibus longioribus : tibiarum partibus f aut A 
(in B. tachardo adulto |) nudis : remigum tertia (in B. 
tachardo quarta) longissima : dorso et tectricibus alarum 
chalybeo-nitentibus : long, tota (foemin. adult.) 15^, rostri 
ab angulo oris 1*4, rostri a fronte 1"0, tarsi 2'8, caud?e 7*0, 
alje 12. 
Hab. In Africa Bor. Orient, regione pluviosa. 

A species of Buteo, closely allied to B. tachardus, is found 
singly in the regions situated within the rainy zone of North- 
Eastern Africa. I have called it Buteo minor. The bill is longer 
and more slender than in B. tachardus ; the tarsi are several lines 
longer, one-fourth or one-fifth of their length being covered 
with feathers ; the third primary is the longest. The colours 
are subject to variations, as in B. tachardus and B. vulgar-is ; but 
the whole back and the covers of the wings in B. minor are di- 
stinguished by a very strong metallic violet-like splendour. It 
does not appear as if there were any other constant difierence in 
the coloration of the three species named. 



76 Dr. Heaglin on some Birds of North-Eastern Africa. 

I cannot decide the question whether B.tachardus from Smyrna 
and from Southern Russia ought to be referred to the present 
species, nor do I know whether B. minor is a stationary bird in 
the Sudan. 

The following are the other known species of the genus in 
North-Eastern Africa : — 

1, 2. BuTEO ANCEPs and B. eximius, Brehm (' Naumannia/ 
1854), are known to me only from the names. They are found 
on the Blue Nile. 

3. BuTEO RUFiPENNis, Suudcv. and Strickl.* has been erro- 
neously taken by myself for a species of Circus, and described 
and figured as Falco mulleri, nob. (' Naumannia/ iii. 1849), 
Sundevall has correctly classed it as a Poliornis, Kaup. It is 
frequently found in the months from June to November round 
Chartum, on the Bahr el Abiad, and in Kordofan ; its habits 
approach to those of Circus pallidus, but it is also frequently 
found sitting on trees. 

4. BuTEO RUFiNUS, Riipp., is, without doubt, identical with 
Buteo ferox, Gm., andButa'cfus leucurus, Naumann. I have found 
this beautiful bird from October to March, generally in pairs, along 
the Nile, in Upper Egypt and Nubia, and still more frequently 
in Eastern Sennaai-, and in the forests of the North-Western 
Kolla. The iris is dark brown ; bill bluish ; base of the mandible 
lead-grey ; angle of the mouth, cere and feet yellowish. Imma- 
ture specimens have the ground-colour of the tail light brownish- 
grey, with ferruginous shades. The wings extend to a distance 
of 8 inches from the end of the tail. The total length of the 
male is about 20 inches ; that of the female 22 or 23 inches. 

5. BuTEO AUGUR, Rupp. 

This is a beautiful bird, representing B.jacal of Southern 
Africa. It is frequently found southwards from Mareb, in 
Eastern and Central Abyssinia. 

6. BuTEO VULGARIS, Bcchst. 

Occasionally seen during the winter in Egypt. According to 
Riippell, " Everywhere in N. E. Africa." 

[To be continued.] 

* Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 214, pi. xxii. 



Messrs. F. and I*. Godnian on Birds observed at Bodo. 77 

VII. — Notes on the Birds observed at Bodo during the spring and 
summer o/18.57. By Frederick and Percy Godman. 

In 1857, being anxious to make an ornithological tour, we 
determined to visit Norway, and fixed upon Bodo as our head- 
quarters, in consequence of the success which had attended the 
Rev. H. B. Tristram in finding the Great Snipe breeding in 
that locality. 

The village of Bodo (for, though the capital of the province of 
Nordland, and consequently the residence of the Amtmand, 
judge, and magistrates, it cannot be called a town) contains 
about 300 inhabitants, and is situated on the west coast of 
Norway, in latitude 67" North, longitude 14° East, The trade, 
which is unimportant, consists chiefly in the export of dried cod- 
fish to Spain, Portugal, and the ports of the Mediterranean. 
The fish are caught during the winter off" the Loffoden Isles, 
about seventy or eighty miles distant, brought to Bodo, and 
<3ried during the summer on rocks in the neighbourhood. 

Immediately behind the village extends a large marsh, trian- 
gular in shape, with the Salten Fjord on the south and east, the 
sea on the west, and a range of mountains on the north, whicli 
gradually increase in height as they recede from the plain. The 
marsh is for the most part covered with grass and bog-plants, 
with small shrubs of Sallow and Dwarf Birch, which latter are 
more abundant towards the edges under the mountains. 

About five miles to the north-east of Bodo are situated two 
large lakes in the mountains, supplied by the melting of the 
snow from the neighbouring Fjelds. 

We stayed at Bodo till the end of July, working all the sur- 
rounding country for eggs and birds, and making several short 
excursions to the interior. We then proceeded northwards to 
Alten, and crossing the mountains thence to Haparanda, at the 
head of the Gulf of Bothnia, paid the late Mr. Wolley a hurried 
visit at his quarters at Muonioniska. From Haparanda we went 
to Stockholm, St. Petersburg, Moscow, Nijnei-Novgorod, and 
were then obliged to return in haste to England. 

Circumstances prevented our starting together — Percy arriving 
April 27th ; Frederick, May 26th. Nothing was done in oology 
before the end of May, and to the few notes made previous to 



78 Messrs. F. and P. Godman on the Birds observed at Bod'6 

this time we have thought it better to affix the date and initials, 
showing by whom the observations were made. . All observations 
subsequent to this date were made together. 

1. White-tailed Eagle. Falco alhicilla. 

The first day after my arrival, as I was walking across the 
marsh, a White-tailed Eagle soared by, high over my head, and, 
passing the village, flew towards the sea. While talking that 
evening to a Norwegian sailor who could understand a few 
words of English, I was told that a pair generally nested on an 
island called Hgert o (Heart Island), close to Bodo. I accord- 
ingly hired a boat for the following day, and starting directly after 
breakfast, soon reached the island. A fisherman and his family 
were living on it, and from them I learned that the birds bred 
there regularly, but that the young had already been hatched. 
Guided by the fisherman and his son, I walked along the shore 
to the clifi" where the nest occupied at the time was situated. 
The clifi' was a sheer precipice, about 90 to 100 feet high. The 
nest was on a ledge of the rock, about 20 feet from the top, and 
from the place where we stood looked merely like a few sticks 
left there accidentally. Further on we were able to climb the 
rock, when we reached a spot which overhung the nest in such a 
way, that, though impossible to see into it, we yet could hear the 
cry of the young birds. We stayed some time, but, having no 
ropes, were obliged to give up all hopes of being able to reach the 
nest. During the time we were there the old birds kept flying 
from rock to rock, and occasionally came quite near where we 
were lying, uttering all the time a harsh cry. As soon as we left 
the vicinity of the nest, I saw one of the old birds fly back and 
settle on it. The same day I saw three White-tailed Eagles on 
this island, two of which evidently belonged to the nest ; the 
third appeared to be an immature bird, the tail-feathers being of 
a dark-brown colour. About a week after my visit, one of the 
young birds, with its leg cut ofi", and too much decayed to pre- 
serve, was brought to me by the fisherman. He had pushed it 
out of the nest with a stick and killed it, in order to get the pre- 
mium (about half-a-crown) given by the Norwegian government 
for every eagle killed. — P. G. 



during the Spring and Summer 0/ 1857. 79 

This species was not uncommon along the neighbouring coast. 
During an excursion to an adjacent fjord we saw seven in one 
day, one of which was devouring a fish, and was so intently 
engaged, that it took no notice of our boat, though we passed 
close by the rock on which it was sitting. 

2. The Osprey. Falco halia'etus. 

One example only of this bird came under our notice when we 
were rowing up Kop Elo from the Ofoden Fjord towards Kop 
Vaud, about twenty miles north of Bodo. It flew directly over 
our heads, and we had a capital view of it. 

3. The Peregrine Falcon. Falco peregrinus. 

This Falcon I saw for the first time on the 7th of May. On 
the 16th of the same month I was watching a pair of Ravens, 
which I knew had a nest in a cliff on the side of the valley oppo- 
site to which I was lying, when I heard them making a great 
noise at the other end. I soon saw the cause of it : a pair of 
Peregrine Falcons had approached too near the nest, and were 
being chased by the Ravens. The Falcons were ultimately driven 
away. — P. G. 

No other example came under our notice. 

4. The Merlin. Falco asalon. 

Whilst watching the raven^s-nest mentioned in the last para- 
graph, a Merlin settled on a stone a short distance from me, and 
remained there some time arranging its feathers. — P. G. 

We subsequently saw one other bird of this species near the 
same locality. 

5. The Kestrel. Falco tinnunculus. 

One specimen only of this bird came under our notice, which 
had a nest in an inaccessible cliff on the edge of the marsh. 

6. The Rough-legged Buzzard {Falco lagopus) we saw but 
seldom near Bodo. During an excursion northward we found 
a nest, situated on the top of a Scotch-fir tree; it contained 
young. Our attention was attracted to it by the cries of the 
old birds, which kept flying round us as long as we were near 
the spot. 



80 Messrs. F. and P. Godman on the Birds observed at Bodo 

7. The Short-eared Owl. Striw brachyotus. 

On May 13th, some distance up the Salten Fjord, I first saw 
one of these Owls, as it flew up from amongst some stunted 
birch-shrubs. There was a great deal of snow on the ground at 
the time.— P. G. 

There was a pair in the marsh at the back of Bodo, which we 
felt convinced were breeding there ; but though we spent many 
evenings in watching one of them hunting, and saw it take food 
to the othei', we were unable to discover the uest. 

8. The Hawk Owl [Strix funerea) appeared to be not un- 
common about Kop Vaud. In one day's walk through these 
forests we came across three different broods of young, some of 
which we shot. We saw a great quantity of Lemmings in this 
quarter, which may have been the reason of this Owl being so 
common that season. We also saw the Hawk Owl, though rarely, 
in the neighbourhood of Bodo. It appears not to be at all 
inconvenienced by the light, as all we saw were flying about in 
broad daylight. 

9. The Pied Flycatcher [Muscicapa luctuosa) we first saw 
May 27th, some way up the mountains to the north of Bodo. 
A few days after we found their nest close to the spot where we 
had before observed them. It was situated in a hole of a leaning 
rotten birch-tree, but was not quite finished. On visiting it 
again a short time after, we discovered the nest had been de- 
stroyed by a mouse. The species was not common. 

10. The Dipper [Cinclus aquaticus) came under our notice 
in a few localities, being seen occasionally throughout the 
summer. 

11. The Missel Thrush. Turdus viscivorus. 

We found a nest and eggs of this bird at Kop Vaud, July 6th. 
The only one observed. 

12. The Fieldfare. Turdus pilaris. 

A plentiful bird about Bodo, breeding there in tolerable num- 
bers. We discovered two large colonies, from which we took 
many eggs. The nests were usually placed from 10 to 15 feet 
from the ground. The first colony we discovered May 20th. 



during the Sprinff and Summer 0/ 1857. 81 

On the 27th we took two nests, but as the greater number of 
them did not contain their full complement of eggs, we left 
them. On returning three or four days after, we found that 
the magpies and crows had forestalled us. This colony was 
situated among some willow and birch trees, on a hill in the 
marsh. The other colony, which we discovered some days later, 
was up the mountains. Besides these two colonies, we took 
several nests situated by themselves, and far aw^ay from what 
were apparently their head-quaiters. The latter we were careful 
to identify. Our attention was attracted to the second colony 
by the noise made by the old birds. 

13. The Redwing. Tardus iliacus. 

This bird also breeds in the neighbourhood. The first nest 
we found May 28th ; it was situated in a Juniper bush, almost 
on the ground. We saw the bird on this, as on every other 
nest of this species that we took. It was not unusual to find a 
pair breeding in the midst of a colony of Fieldfares ; the dif- 
ference, however, between the two nests made it easy to distin- 
guish at first sight to which species it belonged, that of the 
Fieldfare being larger, and composed of coarser materials. The 
Redwing is not nearly so shy as the Fieldfare when near its 
nest, often requiring to be touched before it would quit it. It 
does not seem to build so far from the ground as the last-men- 
tioned species. 

14. The Blackbird. Turdus merula. 

We saw but two examples of this bird during our stay at 
Bodo, both of them on June 30th, when we also found a nest. 

15. The Ring Ouzel. Turdus torquatus. 

Birds of this species were scattered over all the mountains in 
the neighbourhood, and were there when we first arrived. We 
found one nest, situated on the ground, and containing four 
eggs. This species was far more shy than either Fieldfare or 
Redwini 



»g- 



16. The Hedge-Sparrow. Accentor modularis. 
One pair only of these birds came under our notice. We 
found their nest on June 21st. 

VOL. III. G 



82 Messrs. F. and P, Godman o?i the Birds observed at Bodo 

17. The Blue-throated Warbler. Sylvia suecica. 

This bird seemed quite to take the place of our Robin in 
these latitudes : in almost evei'y farm-yard, and near every houscj 
a pair were to be found. They had one remarkable note that 
particularly attracted our attention. The bird would sit on the 
top of a bush, every now and then flying up in the air, and 
utter a note that is best described by saying it was much 
such a sound as is produced by striking a metal triangle. We 
first saw the bird May 28th, after which time they were plen- 
tiful throughout the lower districts. We found only one nest, 
owing probably to the excessively wet weather that prevailed 
during our stay. This was situated in the bank of a ditch, and 
well concealed. 

18. The Whinchat {Saxicola rubetra) appeared first May 
30th j and after this time a few were always to be seen in the 
marsh at the back of the town. 

19. The Wheatear. Saxicola cenanthe. 

Very common all over the mountains in the neighbourhood, 
as elsewhere in Norway. It first appeared May 16th. 

20. The Sedge Warbler [Sylvia phraffmitis) we first saw 
June 16th. Its haunts seem restricted to some of the warmest 
and most sheltered valleys. It is far from abundant. 

21. The Willow Wren {Sylvia trochilus) was common after 
May 30th, the date of its arrival. 

22. The Melodious Willow Warbler. Sylvia hippolais. 
One specimen of this bird was shot by us ; it was the only 

one that came under our observation during our stay. Its loud 
and clear note attracted our attention to the spot where it was. 

23. The Marsh Titmouse. Parus palustris. 

One example only of this bird was noticed by us, on June 30th. 

24. The White Wagtail. Motacilla alba. 

Common everywhere, and very tame. In habits and note, 
the exact counterpart of our English bird. 

25. The Grey-headed Wagtail {Motacilla flava) we first 
saw May 28th, when three or four flew over our heads. It was 



during the Spring and Summer of 1857. 83 

nowhere very common, though we often came across a pair in 
the vicinity of buildings. 

26. The Tree Pipit. Anthus arhoreus. 

We killed one individual of this species June 2nd, the first 
day we observed it. After this date their note was constantly to 
be heard in the marsh. 

27. The Meadow Pipit [Anthus pratensis) was common in 
the marsh at Bodo, being there at the end of April. 

28. The Rock Pipit [Anthus aquaticus) we also found in 
tolerable abundance on the sea-shore. 

29. The Sky-Lark. Alauda arvensis. 

Abundant in the marsh, and arrived before us. We found a 
nest May 2oth. 

30. The Snow Bunting. Emberiza nivalis. 

The snow had so far melted when first I arrived, that clear 
patches were here and there to be seen. A flock of Snow Bunt- 
ings and INIealy Redpolls were sure to be feeding in every bare 
place. They were extremely tame — probably from the cold, and 
not from hunger, as some specimens that I shot proved that they 
found no difficulty in procuring food, being in very good con- 
dition. Some were in full summer plumage, others had not 
yet thrown ofi" the dusky coat they usually wear in England. 
As the snow melted these birds became less common, and at 
last left the place altogether. — P. G. 

31. The Lapland Bunting. Emberiza calcarata. 

Only one individual of this species (a male in summer plu- 
mage) was noticed at Bodo, May 11th. This was in company 
with a flock of Snow Buntings and Mealy Redpolls. It was 
there only two days, so far as I could ascertain. — P. G. 

Whilst traversing the Fjeld between the Norwegian coast and 
the Gulf of Bothnia, we saw several pairs that were doubtless 
breeding there. 

32. The Black-headed Bunting [Emberiza schoeniclus) , of 
which we found several nests, was by no means rare. We re- 
marked that there appeai'cd to be two sizes of this Bunting. Of 

g2 



84 Messrs. P. and P. Godman on the Birds observed at Bodo 

the larger one^ which was about the size of our Black-headed 
Bunting, we only saw one or two examples, and unfortunately 
failed to get any. The other was a somewhat smaller though 
similarly marked bird and tolerably abundant. Of this latter 
we found one nest, and procured birds. 

33. The Yellow Bunting. Emberiza citrinella. 
Two pairs only seen. 

34. The Brambling, Fringilla montifrinyUla. 

This bird, which we found extremely local in the country that 
we explored, arrived on May 13th. There were two places, both 
on the side of a mountain running N.W. and S.E., with a lake 
at its foot, where they were not uncommon, and in these two 
localities we found several nests. The birds were extremely 
tame : in one instance we touched the hen with a gun before 
she left the nest. They often would not fly away till one 
of us was halfway up the tree where the nest was situated ; 
but when once off, they left the place altogether, uttering 
a note of distress. Every nest we found was in a birch-tree, and 
generally from 15 to 20 feet from the ground. In no instance 
did the Chaffinch come under our notice. 

35. The House Sparrows Fringilla domestica. 
A few pairs about the village of Bodo. 

36. The Mealy Redpoll. Fringilla borealis. 

Flocks of these birds were to be seen on the small patches of 
ground that were free from snow when we first arrived. During 
the latter part of June and beginning of July we found several 
of their nests. They were very neatly made, and situated gene- 
rally in a stunted birch or willow tree. The structure was of 
fibres and roots lined with the cotton-grass, Eriophorum angus- 
tifolium. 

37. The Twite. Fringilla montium. 

This bird we saw throughout the summer on an island a short 
distance from Bodo. We often watched them, but could never 
discover a nest, though we have little doubt that they were 
breeding there. We shot a female, in which the eggs in the 
ovary were considerably enlarged. 



during the Spring and Summer of 1857. 85 

38. The Starling. Sturnus vulgaris. 
Common about the houses. 

39. The Raven. Corvus corax. 

A pair of these birds had young on May 16th, in a cliff in the 
neighbourhood. — P. G. 

40. The Hooded Crow. Corvus comix. 

Some of these birds were always to be seen on the sea-shore 
and among the buildings of the village. There were several 
nests on the islands close to Bodo, but we only took one. I 
found a nest ready for eggs April 23rd. — P. G. 

41. The Magpie {Corvus pica) was by far the commonest 
bird in the neighbourhood. A nest might not unfrequently be 
seen on the top of a ladder, or a lot of poles, leaning against a 
house. We took some eggs from a nest which was not more 
than 3 feet from the ground. 

42. The Three-toed Woodpecker. Picus tridactylus. 
We shot one specimen near Kop Vaud, in immature plumage. 

The top of the head was yellow. 

43. The Cuckoo [Cuculus canorus) was first seen and heard 
May 28th, and afterwards was always to be heard among the 
bushes on the hills skirting the marsh. 

44. The Swallow {Hit-undo rustica) arrived June 1st. There 
were but few about the year we were there, probably owing to 
the weather, as we were told that in general they came in large 
flocks. 

45. The Capercaillie. Tetrao urogallus. 

A hen bird flew up from under our feet whilst walking in the 
forests near Kop Vaud. We looked for the nest, but could not 
find it. 

46. The Black Grouse {Tetrao tetrix) was sparingly scat- 
tered about the mountains near Bodo. The stunted juniper 
seemed to be their favourite resort. 

47. The Willow Grouse. Tetrao saliceti. 

Common early in the season among the willow and birch 
trees in the valleys on the edge of the marsh, but as the sum- 



86 Messrs. F. and P. Godman on the Birds observed at Bodo 

mer advanced they retired to the plateaux on the top of the 
mountains to breed. We found one nest under a juniper bush 
containing nine eggs. The old bird was so tame that we were 
obliged to push her off the nest. We afterwards came across 
three or four broods of young, some of which we caught. 

48. The Golden Plover {Charadrius pluvialis) first appeared 
May 1st, when I saw a small flock on the sea-shore in almost 
full summer plumage. It snowed the whole of the next day, and 
I saw none for ten days. After this date they were extremely 
plentiful in the marsh for a short time, when they again disap- 
peared. Throughout the summer a few birds were occasionally 
to be seen. They probably bred on some of the neighbouring 
mountains. 

49. The Dottrel. Charadrius morinellus. 

This bird made its appearance in flocks far later than the 
last-mentioned, May 25th being the earliest date we observed 
them. They stayed about a week, and then all left again. 
They were so tame, that, whilst walking one night, I was obliged 
to frighten them out of the road. 

50. The Ringed Plover [Charadrius Idaticula) was first seen ' 
on May 19th, and after this was always to be heard on the 
eastern shore of the marsh. 

51. The Turnstone. Strepsilas collaris. 

On June 3rd, whilst rowing amongst some islands, we first 
noticed this bird. We afterwards found five nests, being in every 
instance attracted to the islands on which they were situated by 
the cries and motions of the old birds, which they began long 
before we neared the place. All the nests were cunningly placed, 
showing no preference for any particular locality. One was on 
a ledge of a rock ; another on the open sand, close to an Oyster- 
catcher's ; two were in the grass ; and the fifth under a ledge of 
rock, well concealed by weeds and grass. 

53. The Oyster-catcher. Hcematopus ostralegus. 
In great abundance along the coast and on the islands; they 
were there when we arrived. 

53. The Curlew [Numenius arcuatus) was to be seen in the 



during the Spring and Summer q/" 1857. 87 

marsh throughout the summer^ doubtless breeding in the vicinity, 
though we never found a nest. 

54. The Whimbrel {Numenius phaopus), after the 16th of 
May, was quite as abundant as the last-mentioned species. We 
found one nest only, June 24th, in which were both young and 

eggs. 

55. The Redshank [Totanus calidris) arrived also May 16th. 
We took several nests. On June 13th, whilst exploring some 
islands off Bodo, we saw a bird that might have been either the 
Green or the Wood Sandpiper ; but we were not so fortunate as 
Mr. Tristram in finding the former breeding near Bodo, though 
we searched every likely-looking locality. 

56. The Common Sandpiper [Totanus hypoleucus) we first 
saw May 20th. It was plentiful round the mountain lakes. 

57. The Woodcock; Scolopax rusticola. 

We saw three birds late in the evening fly over our heads, 
when we were some distance up on the mountains. They were 
uttering the cry (something like the croaking of a frog) which they 
generally use during the breeding-season. 

58. The Great Snipe. Scolopax major. 

On walking across the open part of the marsh, on the 26th 
of May, we flushed the first Great Snipe. This bird had evidently 
only just arrived, and did not fly more than a few yards before it 
settled again. Whenever else we observed this species, it was 
amongst the brushwood on the borders of the marsh. A few 
days after, as we were returning from a long ramble in the 
mountains, on pushing our way over some swampy ground 
covered with birch-wood and dwarf-willow on the edge of the 
marsh, our attention was attracted by an unknown note of a bird 
on the ground, somewhat resembling the smack of the tongue 
repeated several times in succession. At first we thought it 
must be some animal ; but, on remaining still for a few seconds, 
we saw several Great Snipes walking about and feeding within a 
few yards of us. We watched them for some time, but they did 
not appear to take the smallest notice of us. 

About the 10th of June we began to search for their nests ; 



88 Messrs. F. and P. Godmaii on the Birds observed at Bod'6 

and though we could always find several birds, we did not 
succeed in finding any nests before June 24th, nearly a month 
after the birds arrived. About this time we found several places 
evidently scraped out by a bii'd as if for a nest, and as they 
were in a part of the marsh in which we observed no other bird 
except the Great Snipe which was likely to do this, although we 
were there almost daily for six weeks, and as they were invariably 
in exactly similar places to those in which we subsequently 
discovered the nests of the Great Snipe, we can attribute them to 
no other bird. Although we carefully looked at these scrapings 
several times subsequently, we never found any eggs in them ; 
but on one occasion we took a nest with four eggs about 6 yards 
from one of these places. 

The first nest we found contained four eggs, and was placed 
on the edge of a small hillock, quite open, though there were 
dwarf birch-trees growing all round, aad one on the very hillock 
on which the nest was situated. It consisted of nothing more 
than a hole scraped in the moss, in which the eggs were de- 
posited ; there were neither grass nor leaves in it. After a 
minute examination of it, and cai*efully marking the place, we 
went aw^ay to fetch our guns, the rain descending in such 
torrents that we were not carrying them that day. On our 
return in half an hour, the bird was again on the nest. We put 
it up and shot it. It proved to be a female. The eggs were 
very slightly incubated. The next day (June 25th) we found 
another nest within 200 yards of the former, containing only 
two eggs, and as we thought the bird would be sure to lay 
more, we marked the place and left it. It was situated on a 
small hillock, and much in the same sort of place as the former. 
We found another nest on the 27th of the same month. The 
bird fluttered off' and ran away, dragging its wings on the 
ground, and making a sort of drumming noise. After taking 
four eggs from this nest, we returned to look at that found on 
the 25th, w^iich contained two eggs. We walked directly to the 
spot, and what v.as our horror at seeing nothing in the place but 
some apparently disturbed moss ! Our first impression was that 
the eggs had been destroyed by the Magpies or Crows that were 
constantly hunting for such food, or perhaps taken and eaten by 



during the Spring and Surnmer of 1857. 89 

one of the many boys who wandered about the marsh tending 
cattle; but on our beginning to express our fears, the bird, 
doubtless frightened by our voices, flew up, leaving a hole in the 
moss through which we could see there were still only two eggs 
as before. Not doubting, however, that the bird would yet lay 
more, we again left it, and returned in a couple of days. On 
approaching the spot, we observed the nest was again covered 
with moss. This time we remained for a minute before the bird 
flew off, and on stooping down to examine it more closely, we 
could distinctly see the bird's back through the moss. Not 
liking this close inspection, it flew up, and we took the eggs, 
which proved to be only within a day or two of hatching. The 
bird had evidently, after it was comfortably seated on its nest, 
torn up, with its long beak, the moss within its reach, and 
drawn it over its back till it was completely covered in the way 
described : there was not the least appearance of any hole through 
which the bird could have crept into its nest. This circum- 
stance of the nest being covered is the more curious, as out of 
six we found, it was the only one thus carefully concealed. 
There were probably as many as ten or fifteen pairs of these birds 
in the marsh, which usually kept pretty close together, and were 
generally to be found in one particular spot. Could this have 
been a congregation of male birds, the mates of which were 
breeding in the vicinity ? 

Mr. Wolley obtained a nest with four eggs from this locality 
the same year, but unfortunately the eggs were much broken. 

We saw the bird occasionally on swamps in the mountains, 
but it would have been a hopeless task to have searched for its 
nest there, though we have little doubt it breeds in other 
localities in the neighbourhood. 

The do\\Ti of a young bird of Scolopax major which we prepared 
and brought home is not nearly so dark as that of S. gallinago. 

59. The Common Snipe. Scolopax gallinago. 

During a heavy snow-storm on May 5th, my attention was 
attracted by a note sounding like " ekke" repeated several times, 
and evidently proceeding from a bird on the ground. On shoot- 
ing it, I found it to be a Common Snipe. I frequently heard 



90 Messrs. F. and P. Godmau on the Birds observed at Bodo 

it uttering the same noise afterwards, and always on the ground. 
— P.G. 
We took one nest on May 26th. 

60. The Jack Snipe. Scolopax gallinula. 

While looking for Great Snipe on a very wet day in July, a 
Jack Snipe flew up from under our feet. We both saw the bird, 
and were convinced it belonged to this species ; but though we 
searched the same locality subsequently very closely, we could not 
again find it. 

61. Temminck's Stint. Tririga temminckii. 

A flock of this Stint passed Bodo, staying a few days, from 
which we obtained some specimens on May 15th. 

62. The Dunlin [Tringa variabilis) was first noticed May 
16th, and after this date was common in the marsh. 

I thought I saw a Sanderliug on the same day. — P. G. 

63. The Purple Sandpiper. Tringa maritima. 
I shot some examples May 4th. — P. G. 

The bird was to be seen on the islands in the neighbourhood 
throughout the summer. 

64. The Landrail. Gallinula crex. 

The note of this bird was constantly to be heard in the grass- 
lands bordering on the marsh. We killed one bird June 16th, 
the first day we heard it. 

65. The White-fronted Goose. Anser albifrons. 

On our first arrival we frequently saw small flocks of from 
seven to ten White-fronted Geese feeding in the pools and creeks 
of the marsh. These, however, all took their departure towards 
the end of May. On the neighbouring islands we found another 
species breeding, and obtained four eggs, which unfortunately we 
were not able to identify. The birds on these islands were strictly 
px'eserved for the sake of the eggs, and the eider-down collected on 
them ; and we were not allowed to shoot, nor could we obtain 
permission to leave the eggs and watch the bird on to the nest. 

66. The Common Shieldrake. Anas tadorna. 

On May 19th we saw a pair a short distance from Bodo, and 



during the Spring and Summer of 1857. 91 

subsequently found them breeding on some islands called Hel- 
ligvser, about eight miles out to sea. 

67. The Wild Duck. Anas boschas. 
But few seen : one nest taken. 

68. The Teal. Anas crecca. 

Some always in the marsh on our first arrival, but after the 
beginning of May they disappeared. We saw them at Helligvser, 
and the people who collected eggs told us they bred there. 

69. The Wigeon. Anaspenelope. 

Also seen at Helligvser, where we were informed they stayed 
during the summer. 

70. The Eider Duck. Anas mollissima. 

The commonest Duck about Bodo, where they are preserved 
for the sake of the down collected from their nests. We found 
some pairs breeding on a marsh by a freshwater lake, about 
seven miles from the seashore. 

71. The Common Scoter. Anas nigra. 

We saw some on the Salten Fjord soon after our arrival, but 
during the summer none came under our notice. 

72. The Tufted Duck. Anas fuligula. 
Two pairs seen on Kop Elo. 

73. The Long-tailed Duck. Anas glacialis. 

Very common on the sea when we first arrived. During July 
we saw a large flock of males only on the Kop Elo. 

74. The Golden-eye Duck. Anas clangula. 

Two pairs only of these Ducks came under our notice, which 
were on a lake sLx miles from Bodo. 

75. The Bed-breasted Merganser. Mergus sevj-ator. 
Common in the vicinity of Bodo, breeding on the islands. 

We took several nests. It was there on our arrival. 

76. The Goosander. Mergits merganser. 

A flock of five were seen flying over one of the islands. 

77. The Black-throated Diver. Colymbus ardicm. 
But few came under our notice. We took one nest on a small 

island close to the shore of an inland lake. 



92 Mr. A, Newton on Mr. J. WoUey^s Discovery 

78. The Red-throated Diver. Colymbus septentrionalis. 
Almost every lake had its pair of these birds, and we collected 

many eggs. 

79. The Guillemot. Uria troile. 
We observed one example only. 

80. The Black Guillemot [Uria grylle) was everywhere to 
be seen along the coast ; the eggs are considered a delicacy by 
the natives. This bird winters in these latitudes. 

81. The Common Cormorant [Carbo cormoranus) abounded 
on all the islands; and we found them breeding indiscriminately 
with the following species, 

82. The Shag. Carbo cristatus. 

83. The Arctic Tern. Sterna arctica. 

We shot some specimens of this bird, which breeds the whole 
way up the west coast of Norway. 

84. The Common Gull. Larus canus. 

85. The Lesser Black-backed Gull. Larus fuscus. 

86. The Herring Gull. Larus argentatus. 

87. The Greater Black-backed Gull. Larus marinus. 
There were large numbers of these four species on all the 

neighbouring islands. 

88. Richardson's Skua. Lestris rickardsonii. 

First seen May 16th ; afterwards abundant, breeding on 
many of the islands. A pair were also frequently observed on a 
small marsh near the lake where Eider Duck and Gulls were 
breeding. Among the many specimens that we preserved, we 
noticed that the variety of plumage was in no way dependent on 
the sexes of the birds. 



VIII. — Particulars of My. J. Wolley's Discovery of the Breeding 
of the Waxwing (Ampelis garrulus, Linn.). By Alfred 
Newton, M.A., F.L.S. 

(Plate IV.) 
It is well known to many of the supporters of ' The Ibis ' that 
it had been the intention of the late Mr. John Wolley to con- 



Ibis. 1861 PI IV. 






'f'M> 











EGGS OF AMPZLIS GARRULA. 



W CHewitson, Je. etlitK.lS&O 



Pn-nted Vj HuJJmandel StWalfxm 



of the Breeding of the Waxwing. 93 

tribute to its pages the particulars of his discovery of the breed- 
ing of the Waxwing (Ampelis garrulus, Linn,), and that in the 
spring of 1859 he had selected from his extensive series some 
specimens of its eggs, which he handed over to Mr. Hewitson, — 
that gentleman having kindly consented to execute a plate in 
illustration of the paper. Mr. Wolley's failing health prevented 
him from carrying out his design, and I have therefore thought 
it incumbent upon me, as the inheritor of his collection and 
papers, to supply the deficiency as far as I am able. I shall in 
a great measure tell the story in his own words, believing that 
in so doing I shall not only lessen the chance of erroi", but that 
thereby I shall best consult the wishes of my readers. 

It is unnecessary to repeat here the fabulous accounts given 
by former writers respecting the nidification of this bird. The 
very plain statement communicated by i\Ir. Wolley to the Zoo- 
logical Society, on the evening of the 24th of March, 1857, is 
sufficient to set them at rest for ever*. But still I may re- 
mark, that from the days of Linnaeus (who said of it, " nidus in 
rupium antrisf), downwards, nearly all the conjectures pub- 
lished seem to have been wide of the mark. In years gone by, 
one of the hardiest of our Arctic explorers, Sir John Richardson, 
had failed to ascertain anything connected with its breeding in 
the Fur-countries of the North-WestJ, and, more recently, the 
intrepid Siberian traveller. Dr. A. von MiddendorfF, was equally 
unsuccessful in the North-East §. Yet it may be safely said 
that there was no bird whose egg was so longed for by the oolo- 
gists of the whole world. Various were the plans they bethought 
them of for attaining this desideratissimum. Many tried to keep 

* Proceedings of the Zoological Society, 185/, p. 55. A notice of this 
paper is inserted in the Athenffium newspaper for April 4, 1857, no. 1536, 
p. 441, and also in Wiegmann's Archiv fiir Naturgeschichte, 1858, ii. 
p. 24 ; an abstract of it is printed in the Literary Gazette for April 4, 
1857, no. 2098, p. 334 ; and it is published almost entire in the Annals and 
Magazine of Natural History, 2nd ser. vol. xx., p. 308, and in the Zoologist 
for 1857, p. 5754. In the "Memoir" of Mr. Wolley, printed in ' The Ibis,' 
1860, p. 181, the date is erroneously given "March 26th." 

t Systema Naturae, ed. 13 {curd Gmel.), vol. i. pt. 2. p. 838. 

X Fauna Boreali-Americana, ii. p. 238. 

§ Sibirische Reise, II. ii. p. 157. 



94 Mr. A. Newton on Mr. J. Wolley's Discovery 

pairs of living birds^ in the hope of inducing them to breed in 
confinement. One enthusiastic egg-collector. Baron R. von 
Konig-Warthausen, we are told, even went to the trouble of 
caging a whole flock*. It is true that here and there an oolo- 
gist might be found, with whom the " wish was father to the 
thought," and who accordingly deluded himself into the belief 
that in some unusually large specimen of the egg of the allied 
species {Ampelis cedrorum), or in some queerly-coloured mon- 
strosity of a bird perhaps not at all connected, he recognized a 
genuine production of Ampelis garrulus; but such instances 
were certainly exceptional, and there can be little doubt that, 
prior to 1856, no one with any pretension to the title of natu- 
ralist had ever set eyes on a real egg or nest of the "VVaxwing, 
and that this privilege was reserved for one who of all men 
eminently merited it. It is due, however, to Scandinavian na- 
turalists to say, that several of them who had travelled in Lap- 
land had expressed themselves confident that the bird did some- 
times breed in that country; and though the reports of its 
nesting, which some of them brought home, have been shown 
by Mr. Wolley's discovery to have been probably incorrect, t yet 
it was, I think, reliance on the general fidelity of those gentle- 
men in matters of this kind which kept alive my friend's hopes 
of one day finding the long-sought treasure ; but hopes they 
were of a kind so remote, that when they were fulfilled he was 
justified in speaking of the discovery as " unexpected." 

The first intimation I received from Mr. Wolley that the dis- 
covery was accomplished was contained in a letter written by 
him on his way up the Baltic, and dated 2nd Sept. 1856. He 
says, " Let me tell you now, whilst I think of it, that I have 
some reason for believing that the Waxwing makes its nest in 
good-sized fir-trees in the month of June. I give you this hint 
in case I should not live to give you more certain information ; 

* Dr. E. Baldamus in ' Naumannia,' 1858, p. 131. 

t Compare J. W.Zetterstedt, Resa gen. Svv. oeli Norr. Lappm. i. p. 272. 
' Tidskrift f6r Jagare,' W. von Wright, p. 289 ; C. U. Ekstrom, p. 706 ; 
G. A. Bergenstrale and J. Holmstedt, p. 726 ; A. Wigart, p. 1087. L. Lloyd, 
Scand. Advent, ii. p. 312. H. D. J. Wallengren, in 'Naumannia,' 1854, 
p. 123. S. Nilsson, Skand. Faun. Foglarna, ed. 3. i. p. 242. 



of the Breeding of the Waxwing. 95 

but you remember that I am not to return home without a 
Waxwing's nest in my hand." He had, in fact, a few days be- 
fore, when at Stockhohn, received from his faithful Ludwig a 
letter telling him of the discovery, in which Ludwig had him- 
self assisted, and respecting the truth of which he said, his 
" Master must be quite sure — without doubt/' Mr. Wolley, 
howevei", forbore to allow his own or my expectations to be 
raised too highly, and in spite of his receiving confirmatory evi- 
dence on his arrival at Haparanda and on his way up the river, 
it was not until he had reached Muoniovara, and had satisfied 
himself by repeated investigation of the whole story, that he 
trusted himself to write to me positively. His letter, dated 
" Muoniovara, 14 Sept. 1856,^' after describing his own doings 
and those of the friends I had made the preceding year, telling 
me of the expected scarcity of food, and giving the general re- 
sults of the nesting season, goes on to say : — 

" I have still to tell you of Ludwig's expedition with Piko 
Heiki to Sardio, on the Kittila River. It was early in June, 
and he had to wade over Pallas-tunturi up to his middle in 
snow. Arrived at Sardio, he found the lads there all at home, 
deep in dirt and laziness. He soon extracted from them the in- 
formation that a pair of birds had been seen about, which they 
took to be Tuka rastas ; and Ludwig himself had seen such a 
bird, and this bird^s egg was entered in my list. * * * Ludwig 
immediately started off" into the forest, and sure enough he saw 
a bird which he thought was Sidensvans ; but he was not quite 
sure, for the end of its tail looked white in the sun instead of 
yellow as in your picture *: but the next day, or in the evening, 
it was cloudy, and Ludwig saw the yellow ; and now he had no 
longer any doubt. He said he would give all the lads day- 
money, and they must all search, even if it were for a week, till 
they found the nest. They sought all that night and the next 
day till about midday, [when] a lad called out that he had 
found the nest ; and there it was, with two eggs, about nine 
feet high, on the branch of a Spruce. * * * After five days 

* This picture was one of several coloured sketches of diiFerent birds 
sent to Mr. Wolley b)- Mr. Hewitson and myself, to assist him in making 
known his wants to the natives. 



96 Mr. A. Newton on Mr. J. Wolley's Discovery 

Ludwig snared the old bird — a beautiful cock ; and you may fancy 
with what pleasure I took it in my hand, and saw that there were 
no doubts remaining. Indeed, I had before been pretty con- 
fident about it : Ludwig had written that I might be quite 
satisfied that it was the right bird. Martin Pekka had the pic- 
ture with him at Sodankyla, and as soon as he came back Ludwig 
compared the bird with it, and made certainty doubly sure. The 
other picture went to Gellivara. * * * I do not expect Wax- 
wings in that quarter. You can fancy how eagerly I waited for 
Ludwig to produce the eggs. With a trembling hand he 
brought them out : but first the nest, beautifully preserved ; it is 
made principally of black 'tree-hair' (lichen), with dried Spruce 
twigs outside, partially lined with a little sheep's- grass and one 
or two feathers, — a large deep nest. The eggs — beautiful ! — 
magnificent ! ! — just the character of the American bird. An 
indescribable glow of colour about them ! Ludwig had made 
for them such a box, that even if a horse trod upon it it would 
not break. He tells me he happened to say that they were 
most like ' Sawi-rastas' (Common Thrush), and any one wishing 
to cheat should try that. The report seems to have spread, 
without the name of its originator being given ; for in a week or 
two after, the notorious Sallanki Johan brought a Korwa-rastas 
(Waxwing), ' shot from the nest,' with its eggs, — the eggs being, 
as Ludwig at once saw, Common Thrush's. The next incident 
was the arrival of Johau's brother, the still more notorious Niku, 
but this time with a couple of young birds scarcely able to fly, 
which he had caught, as he said, out of a brood of five, by Pal- 
las-tunturi. One of these Ludwig has stuiFed, and a rare little 
beauty it is ; the other was much knocked about, and Ludwig 
made nothing of it. Then a little girl, just ten days ago, 
brought three eggs from the other side of Nalima (about twenty- 
five miles from here), which she said were taken on a certain 
day in July, and were ' KukhainenJ They were undoubted Wax- 
wing, but are very badly blown by her as they were just hatch- 
ing. At midsummer, Sardio Michel brought in a small batch 
of Sidensvans, with the birds (four in number) to each nest. 
So now I have a series, though but a very short one, of this 7-ara 
avis in terris — this forerunner of famine, and of infinite value 



of the Breeding of the Waxwing. 97 

when one thinks of the uncertainty of getting it again. At the 
same time I should tell you the Sardio lads found a nest which 
they believed to have been a last yearns Korwa-rastas. On this 
river no one has seen the bird of late years, and very few know 
it at all. One old fellow, Nalio Aaron, says he saw one north 
of Nalima in 1853, and another in 1854. Martin Pekka showed 
the picture to many people in the Sodankyla and Kittila districts, 
but he could not make out that the bird was at all known, and 
in all his journey, when he kept a good look-out, he did not 
see one ; so that even this year it seems to have come very 
sparingly and locally — ^just in the district north, east, and south 
of Pallas-tunturi. In 1853 I told you of a boy, Sieppi's Johan, 
who described a nest of birds he had found some years ago, 
which, from my interpreter's version, I thought might be that 
of the Waxwing, This boy, on being shown a skin, said he had 
never before seen the bird. 

" It is a relief to think that I am not bound to go to Russia 
next spi'ing unless I like it, as I before felt that I was. I almost 
think I may leave the unbounded riches of the Nova Zembla 
coasts and of the north of Siberia — their Steller's Duck, Curlew 
Sandpiper, Little Stint, Knot, Sanderling, Grey Plover, Grey 
Phalarope — to younger adventurers. 

^ -^ ■^ ■^ ■^ ■^ 

" Almost every day (and it is now the sixth since that of my 
arrival here) Ludwig has 'told me the whole story of the Siden- 
svans' nest, and I am never tired of hearing it : — How the season 
was very backward; how, in their expedition, he and Piko 
Heiki were getting very much out of spirits at the little success 
they met with. How he saw this bird in the sunshine. How, 
when at last the nest was found, he could scarcely beheve his 
eyes ; how he went to it again and again, each time convinced 
when at the spot, but believing it all a dream as soon as he was 
at a distance. The rising and falling of the crest of the bird, its 
curious song or voice — all he is eager to tell over and over again; 
and I have the fullest version, with all the ' I said,^ ' Heiki said,' 
' Michel said,' ' Ole said,' &c. These Sardio lads, as you have 
heard me say formerly, have a good knowledge of the small bii'ds 
of their neighbourhood, but they are none of them sure whether 

A'OL. III. * H 



98 Mr. A. Newton on Mr. J. Wolley^s Discovery 

they have ever seen Sidensvaus before. As I have also told 
you, it seemed to be known to a very few wood's-men on that 
side of the country under the name of ' Korwa-rastas' or 'Korwa- 
lintu' (Ear-bird). It had occasionally attracted their attention^, 
as having feathers on its head standing up like squirrel's ears. 
It was not till the second year of my stay here that I ascertained 
this with certainty. The first summer I believed it to be 
' Harrhi,' a bird coming in bad seasons, and properly the Com- 
mon Jay ; but it seems that this name is also really sometimes 
given to Sidensvans, and therefore, as well as for other reasons, 
I am inclined to believe that the bird is only here very occa- 
sionally. * * * * 

* * * " The young Waxwing I should wish our old friend 
Yarrell to describe, for I think it would give him pleasure. He 
might exhibit a nest and eggs at the same time with a pair of 
the birds in breeding-plumage to the Zoological Society; but, 
for special reasons, I should wish the Waxwing not to be talked 
about till the spring." 

Mr. Yarrell' s death having prevented Mr. Wolley's wish from 
being carried out, the announcement of the discovery was com- 
municated to the Zoological Society, in the short though very 
comprehensive paper I have before alluded to, at their meeting 
on the 24th March, 1857, the specimens being exhibited by my 
brother Edward. They consisted of two nests — one of which (the 
original of the figure in the ' Illustrated Proceedings ^*) was 
afterwards deposited, with an egg, in the British Museum, while 
the other was presented (also with an egg) to the museum at 
Norwich, the authorities of which had for some time past taken a 
warm interest in Mr. Wolley's researches, — a pair of birds in their 
breeding-plumage, the nestling before mentioned (all three of which 
are now at Norwich), and some seven or eight examples of the 
egg. Of these latter, the two figured in the plate in the ' Pro- 
ceedings ' were subsequently sold at Mv. Stevens's rooms, and 
purchased by Sir William Milner, in whose collection they still 
remain. A third, sold at the same time, became the property of 
Mr. Henry Walter ; and specimens were given to Mr. Wilmot, 
Mr. W. H. Simpson, and myself. 

* Illust. Proc. Zool. Soc. 185/, Aves, pi. cxxii. 



of the Breeding of the Waxiving. 99 

In all, Mr. AYolley obtained twenty-nine eggs of the Waxwing 
in 1856, Later on in the autumn, an intelligent Lapp informed 
him that he remembered having seen a bird some twenty years 
before, and once or twice since had seen or heard another, but 
that was perhaps ten years previously. On the other hand, in 
1856 he had seen them some half-dozen times, and found a nest, 
from which, however, the young ones flew. This nest he sub- 
sequently brought very carefully, with the branch on which it was 
built, to Mr. Wolley, by whom it was sent the following year, by 
the hands of Dr. Edwin Nylander, to the museum of the Univer- 
sity of Helsingfors. The Lapp added that in the spring he had 
observed of the birds that " they flew up in the air, and came 
and sat in the same spot whence they had flown — he thought 
in play ; but perhaps they were catching insects,^' as Mr. AVolley 
himself suggested. 

In 1857, it seems that the Waxwing was still more rarely 
distributed in Lapland than it had been the preceding year. 
Mr. Wolley was of course exceedingly desirous of taking a nest 
with his own hands, and for this purpose devoted to the search 
much of his time befoi'e crossing the district hitherto unex- 
plored by him between the Muonio valley and the head-waters 
of the Tana. In this object he was only partially successful. 
He writes, " For myself, I could not, in spite of every exertion, 
get a living Waxwing within range of my pair of eyes. I took 
a nest which had been deserted a day or two before, and from 
which something had thrown the eggs, one after another, upon 
the ground as fast as they were laid ; of course, broken to bits. 
It was close to the house at Sardio. In vain I wandered through 
the woods, and scarcely shut my eyes at night. Many people 
were on the look-out ; but, after the nest of three eggs I told you 
of from Jerisjarvi, the only arrival has been a perfect nest of five 
eggs found by Piko Heiki, whom I desired to give up everything 
else, and work all the mountain-district for Waxwing." The 
nest thus taken by Mr. Wolley, and which I intend to retain in 
my possession, as being the only one taken by him, bears date 
"16th June, 1857." It was built in a Spruce, and agrees in 
most respects with those previously seen and described by him. 
The eight eggs just mentioned were the only ones obtained by 

h2 



100 Mr. A. Newton on Mr. J. WoUey's Discover^/ 

him that year; for, though another nest with five eggs was 
taken for him by one of his most trusty collectors on an island, 
Ajos-saari, in the Gulf of Bothnia, near Kemi-suu (the mouth of 
the Kemi River), the finder was induced to part with it to a 
Russian traveller for three silver rubles, " the doctor having 
represented that Mr. Wolley had already as many as he wanted,^* 
a statement certainly not in accordance with the facts ; for Mr. 
Wolley had, in giving him a nest, promised that, if he had them 
to spare the next year, he would transmit specimens of the eggs 
to the museum at Helsingfors. This same person, whose zeal 
might have been commendable had it been qualified by either 
gratitude or good faith, previously informed Mr. Wolley that a 
naturalist in the Finnish capital had for some time offered a 
reward of fifty rubles (about £9) for a nest of the Waxwing, 
and suggested that the Sardio lads were entitled to the prize : 
whereupon Mr. Wolley immediately divided that sum (in addi- 
tion to the some hundred dollars they had already received) 
among all who were engaged in the glorious affair of the 7th of 
June, 1856, and at the same time wrote to the University of 
Helsingfors to say that he could not allow its authorities to pay 
for his discovery. A brief notice of the booty acquired by Dr. 
E. Nylanderwill be found in the Appendix to the last edition of 
Professor Nilsson^s excellent work*, communicated to him by 
Professor Alexander von Nordmann, who also furnished a more 
detailed account to the ' Journal fiir Ornithologie ' for the fol- 
lowing year, illustrated with figures from the specimens thus 
obtained f. 

The summer of 1858, when Mr. Wolley was with me in 
Iceland, w^as " a great year for Waxwings." Not far from a 
hundred and fifty nests were found by persons in his employ- 
ment in Lapland, and some of them close to Muoniovara. It 
seems, as nearly as I have been able to ascertain, that no less 
than six hundred and sixty-six eggs were collected ; and more 
than twenty more w^ere obtained by Herr Keitel of Berlin, who 
happened, without I beheve any expectation of the luck that 
was in store for him, to be that year on the Muonio River. A 

* Skand. Faun. Foglania, ed. 3, i. p. 5/1. 

t Journal fur Ornithologie, 1858, p. 307; 1859, pi. 1. 



of the Breeding of the Waxwing. 101 

detailed account of Herr Keitel's success appeared some months 
after iu the ' Naumannia*/ from the pen of its editor, and the 
specimens of the eggs figured in that magazine were obtained 
through him. It is unnecessary for me to go into details re- 
specting the magnificent series of eggs which Mr. Wolley was 
thus enabled to add to his cabinet. The nests were built mostly 
in Spruce and Scotch-fir trees {Pinus abies and P. sylvestris) — 
chiefly, I think, the former. The usual complement of eggs is 
certainly five ; but six not uncommonly, and seven and four occa- 
sionally, were found. The second week of June seems to be the 
general time for the birds to have eggs ; but there are some 
which must have been laid in the last days of May, and others 
(perhaps second broods) a month laterf. Of the different varieties 
into which the egg runs, the accompanying illustration (PI. IV.), 
iu which Mr. Hev>'itsou^s able pencil has represented the half-dozen 
examples I before mentioned as selected by Mr. Wolley, will give 
a far better idea than anything I can say. I may, however, state 
that those depicted in figures 1 and 4 are considerably above the 
average size, and are characterized by a bolder style of blotching 
than usual. Fig. 2 is perhaps the most typical in appearance, 
and, except in size, almost exactly resembles an ordinary Cedar- 
bird's. Fig. 3 displays a somewhat rare variety, in which linear 
markings, such as are seen in the eggs of many of the Emberizince 
and Icterirue, more or less prevail. Fig. 5 represents a not unusual 
form with a dull-olive ground-colour, resembling in this respect 
curiously enough the egg of an Australian bird of the same 
family, PachycephalapectoralisX, of which there is a specimen now 
in Mr. 0. Salvin's collection. The example drawn in fig. 6 stands, 
to the best of my belief, for the variety to which Mr. Wolley in 
his paper before mentioned applied the term " salmon -colour," 
which appellation has been demurred to by other naturalists. 
The matter I think is explained by the fact, which I know from 
my own intimacy with him, that Mr. Wolle/s sight did not fully 

* « Naumannia,' 1858, p. 498. pi. 1. figs. 5-8. 

t The American species would seem sometimes to breed much later in 
the season. Dr. Brewer told me at Boston, August 31st, 1857, that on the 
preceding day he had seen a Cedar-bird's nest, with eggs still uuhatched. 

I Gould, Birds of Australia, ii. pi. 67. 



102 Mr. A. Newton on Mr. J. Wolley's Discovery 

appreciate the colour red, or clearly determine when red did or 
did not enter into the composition of another hue. I have now 
before me a sketch made by him of one of the eggs obtained the 
first year, in which he has painted the ground of a bright 
pinky-orange — decidedly salmon-colour ; but I have been unable 
to detect the original of this drawing in any of the eggs of that 
year, all of which I believe I have at some time or another seen ; 
and of the vast series now in my possession there is not a single 
specimen which, in my opinion, at all approaches " salmon- 
colour.^' I therefore, knowing how careful he always was in the 
choice of his words, can only attribute his making use of that 
term to this slight defect in his vision ; and that this defect 
existed I had proof more than once ; and, indeed, on one occasion 
he told me he had satisfied himself of this tendency to "colour- 
blindness " where anything like red was concerned. The original 
of fig. 6 is certainly of a warmer tint than is usually found ; but 
my series is not without several examples of it, I also possess 
some specimens of a pale and very beautiful variety, almost 
destitute of dark spots, but with large blotches of tender lilac. 
Excepting in the case of the American allied species, and the 
Australian bird before mentioned, I know of no eggs which can 
be said to bear any close resemblance to those of the Waxwing. 

This same year (1858) saw an Englishman, however, accomplish 
what Mr. Wolley only partially succeeded in doing. The in- 
teresting account of an independent discovery of the breeding of 
the Waxwing, with which the kindness of Mr. H. E. Dresser has 
furnished me, wilb I am sure, be read with pleasure, and I leave 
that gentleman to narrate his exploit in his own language : — 

" In 1858 I was a short time in Uleaborg, while on my way 
from Stockholm via Tornea to St. Petersburg, and having a 
Httle time on my hands, I spent it in company with Mr. John 
Granberg of Uleaborg, collecting in the neighbourhood of the 
town. We intended to pass a day or two amongst the small 
islands near the harbour, and determined to visit one called 
Sandou, about four Sw^edish (twenty-seven English) miles from 
Uleaborg. 

" We (that is, Granberg, a student by name Heikel, and myself) 
left the town on the evening of the 3rd of July, in a little boat. 



of the Breeding of the Waxwing. 103 

and sailed to Warjakka, an island outside the harbour, where we 
provisioned for our trip. We then started for Sandou ; but, 
there being but little wind, did not arrive off the island until 
about two o'clock in the morning. We grounded at some 
distance outside, and all three stripped for a swim, to find some 
deeper water ; but, not being able to get the boat much nearer, 
we made her fast and carried our traps on shore, getting almost 
devoured by mosquitoes in so doing. We had heard that there 
was a rough log-hut somewhere on the island, built by the Karlo 
peasants, who come annually to take away the marsh-grass, and 
accordingly set off in search of it. We were crossing a small open 
place when we started a bird, which Granberg, who was on first, 
said was a Waxwing {Ampelis garrulus), and having my gun 
loaded with dust-shot, I followed it up and succeeded in shooting 
it. It proved to be an adult female, and had evidently been in- 
cubating. We searched all the bushes and trees near, in hopes 
of finding a nest, but without any success ; and as the mosquitoes 
were very troublesome, we determined to find the hut, take a nap, 
and continue the search afterwards. We soon did find it, and 
after smoking out the mosquitoes and stopping up the smoke- 
hole, turned in on some marsh-grass, and did not awake until 
pretty late in the day. After breakfast we separated to explore 
the island ; and Heikel and myself, meeting soon after on the 
opposite side, went on in company, but had no success, only 
finding a few small birds. * * * 

" We had quite given up all hopes of finding the Waxwing's 
nest, when, as I was crossing a little barren to join Heikel, I 
saw, in a small pine-tree close to where he was standing, a nest 
with several young ones in it sitting bolt upright, just as Grebes 
sit. Going nearer, I instantly knew them to be Waxwings. 
We threw off our game-bags, and, while he stood below, I 
climbed up to the nest, which was in the fork between the main 
stem and the first branch, and not above nine or ten feet from the 
ground. The moment I touched it, the young ones (five in 
number) flew out. I jumped down, made a cut at the largest 
with my cap, and secured him; but Heikel did not get one. 
Directly the young one which I had caught began to cry out, 
several Waxwings flew from the neighbouring thicket, all how- 



104 Mr. A. Newton o?i Mr. J. Wolley's Discovery 

ever keeping out of gunshot except two, which came close round 
me, and both of which I shot. I then sat down and imitated, as 
well as I could, the call of the old birds. I was soon rewarded 
for my trouble by a young one coming out of a Blueberry bush 
close by and calling lustily. Heikel and I gave chase, and 
secured him. Granberg, who had heard my two shots, then 
coming up, we commenced a diligent search for the other three 
young ones, but had to give it up as hopeless, owing to the 
thickness of the under-scrub. I then climbed up again and 
took the nest away carefully, so as to preserve the shape, and ta 
my great delight found one egg in it. We hunted for several 
hours in the higher part of the island for another nest ; but, 
although we saw about nine old birds, we did not succeed in 
finding another nest. We did not shoot any more, hoping to 
find nests there at some future period. 

" We returned to Uleaborg the same evening, when I skinned 
my birds. We ought to have made an equal division of the 
spoil, but neither Granberg nor Heikel would hear of any division ; 
consequently! have still two old birds and two young ones, besides 
the nest and egg, in my possession. I regret to say I did not 
look to see what the young birds had been fed upon ; but when I 
took the nest, I found one or two of last year's dried cranberries 
in it. 

" I arranged with Mr. Granberg for him to go to Sandon in 
1859 (for we had kept it secret in the town as to where we had 
found the nest) to see if he could find another nest ; but he 
wrote to me that, the autumn after we had been there, the chief 
portion of the forest in Sandon had been consumed by fire, and 
that it was therefore useless to go there. ^' 

I myself had the pleasure of inspecting Mr. Dresser's speci- 
mens in 1859 at Mr. Leadbeater's, and I believe I am hardly 
divulging any confidence when I say they have formed the sub- 
ject of a beautiful picture, executed under Mr. Gould's superin- 
tendence, which I trust will before long be rendered more acces- 
sible to the public. 

In 1859 the Waxwing bred, but in no great numbers, in the 
Muonioniska and Kittila districts. Though much soi;ght for, not 
more than forty-six eggs were obtained by Mr. Wollcy's collectors. 



of the Breeding of the Waxwing. 105 

During the past summer it seems to have been rather more 
numerous. I am told of fifty-two eggs having been collected for 
me by the agents of my late friend, whom I keep in my own 
employment, but these specimens have not hitherto arrived. 
Early in the present year, Mons, C. F. Dubois described and 
figured the egg of the Waxwing in the ' Revue et Magasin de 
Zoologie *,' but without stating whether his example had been 
obtained from Mr. Wolley, or derived through another source. 
M. Dubois states that its egg " ressemble beaucoup a celui du 
Coccothraustes vulgaris et du Lanius ruficeps ; il peut facilement 
etre confondu avec les ceufs de ces derniers.^' In this latter 
assertion I do not agree with him. Out of the several hundred 
specimens which form the series I possess, there is not one, I 
think, which could be taken for that of either the Hawfinch or 
the Woodchat Shrike, though I freely admit there is a likeness 
to the eggs of bothf. 

Thus much have I to record of the particulars of this dis- 
covery, which, I think, had been looked forward to by collectors 
all over the world as by far the most interesting that could be 
made. It is indeed somewhat surprising that the nidification of 
a Passerine bird generally known throughout the greater part 
of three quarters of the globe, and which had been sought 
for even in its most inhospitable regions once and again by the 
most venturesome of voyagers, should so long have remained 
enveloped in mystery. But I also think that few of his brethren 
in science will grudge the original finder the honour he merits ; 
and writing these words as I do on the first anniversary of the 
day which saw his removal from amongst us, I do not hesitate to 
declare my belief that no one of the many earnest fellow-workers 
with whom it is my privilege to be associated better deserved a 

* Revue et Magasin de Zoologie, Fevrier 1860, p. 64. pi. 2. fig. 4 (mis- 
called on plate " Bombycilla cajrulea "). 

t Since the above was in type, I have seen No. 1, for 1860, of the 
' Bulletin de la Societe Imperiale des Naturalistes de Moscou,' which 
contains an interesting notice by Prof. Alex. v. Nordmann of the Birds 
of Finland, as observed by his son Arthur. It is therein mentioned 
(page 21) that the Helsingfors Museum contains five nests, with eggs, of 
the Waxwing, and that " Studiosus Malmgren " had brought its young 
from Kajana. 



106 Recent Ornithological Publications. 

distinction than did John Wolley that which this one discovery 
will always associate with his name. 
Elvedeu, 20th November, 1860. 



IX. — Recent Ornithological Publications. 

1. English Publications. 

The 30th number of Mr. Bree's work is just issued, and com- 
pletes the second-volume of ' The Birds of Europe not observed 
in the British Isles/ 

2. French Publications. 

We have received the ' Revue et Magasin de Zoologie ' up to 
No. 10 for 1860. Dr. Sacc's article " sur les Poules de Nankin 
dites de Cochinchine " (p. 339 et seq.) contains more economical 
than zoological information concerning this exaggerated variety 
of the Domestic Fowl, which seems to have originated in the 
warmer portions of the interior of China. Like the Chinese 
Sheep, its great value consists inits extreme prolificness. In 
1858, Dr. Sacc informs us, the number of eggs laid by five 
pairs of Cochinchinas amounted to no less than 732, or 146 
for each hen ! In their essay " on the Birds of New Caledonia," 
in Nos. 9 and 10, MM. Jules Verreaux and Des Murs have 
made an important contribution to our knowledge of geogra- 
phical distribution, and have also introduced us to the acquaint- 
ance of several novel and interesting forms. Their article is 
founded on materials furnished by a collection of the natural 
products of this new French coloujr, made under the superin- 
tendence of M. Saisset, commander of the French naval forces 
in the Pacific, which has been deposited in the " Exposition des 
produits des colonies," now on view in the Palais de I'ludustrie 
in the Champs Elysees at Paris. The series of birds there exhi- 
bited, taken in connexion with the species indicated by previous 
authorities on the subject*, give us the number of 76 species 
now ascertained as belonging to the Avifauna of New Caledonia; 
of which no less than 45 are, as far as is hitherto known, pecu- 

* Sclater in ' Ibis,' 1859, p. 27, and G. R. Gray in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1859, 
p. 160. 



Recent Ornithological Publications. 107 

liar to that island. The most noticeable types are Nymphicus 
[Psittacidce), Phcenorhina {Columbida) , and Rhinochetus* {Ar- 
deidce). The last of these (which MM. Verreaux and Des Murs 
now describe for the first time) is certainly very curious, .and ap- 
pears to be quite distinct from any known form. Although, as it 
is remarked, only 18 species of New Caledonian birds are iden- 
tical with those of Australia, we may observe that there is much 
of the Australian character in the presence of such genera as 
Trichoglossus, Pachycejihala, Artamus, Campephaga, Acanthiza, 
Glycfjphila, &c., and that we cannot therefore regard this 
island as belonging to a zoological region distinct from the main- 
land of Australia. With regard to Gazzola typica, we have al- 
ready shown that this bird is found in Celebesf, and there is no 
doubt that the habitat " New Caledonia " attributed to it in the 
Paris Museum is erroneous, as is well known to be the case with 
many other localities commonly assigned to objects brought back 
by the French exploring expeditions J. 

M. J. P. Coinde, who has already, as he reminds us, distin- 
guished himself by describing as new a '' Bomhy cilia" from 
*' Mexico and Yucatan," which we believe to be probably nothing 
more than Ampelis cedrorum, now gives us (p. 396) a "notice 
sur la Faune ornithologique de I'ile de Saint Paul," in the 
Northern Pacific. Among the nine species of birds, chiefly 
marine, here enumerated, is a supposed undescribed Gull — Larus 
warnecki, allied to Larus tridactylus, but possessing a hind-toe ! 

3. German, Dutch, Scandinavian, and Russian 
Publications. 

The first number of the 'Archiv fiir Naturgeschichte ' for 
1860 contains an ornithological paper by Dr. K. A. Philippi, 
the well-known Professor of Zoology and Botany at Santiago, in 
which he describes as new, two Ducks — Anas iopareia (scribe 
ioparia), allied to A. specularis and A. oxyura, and Erismatura 
vittata, and gives some remarks upon the synonymy of a spe- 
cies of C/u-ysomitris found in Chili. 



* Nee Rhynochefos ; the derivation being, piv nasiis, and oxeros canalis. 
t See ' Ibis/ vol. i. p. 113. + Confer Wallace in ' Ibis,' 1860, p. 1.98. 



lOS Recent Oi-nitholo(jical Publications. 

Dr. Linderoiayer's ' Vogel Griechenlands* ' is a useful sum- 
mary of the observations of this well-kuown naturalist upon the 
birds of the country in which he has so long resided, separately 
reprinted from the third Yearly Report of the Natural-History 
Union of Passau. It contains notices of 345 species of birds 
considered as belonging to the fauna of Greece. Falco arcadius, 
described originally in the ' Isis ' of 1843 (a name which has 
met with much bad treatment from naturalists), Dr. Lindermayer 
still maintains to be that of a good species, quite distinct from 
F. eleonora and F. concolor, the latter bird having been once only 
obtained by him in Greece, though Temminck says it is 'common ' 
there. No fresh examples of this rare Falcon have been obtained 
since it was first described ; but the younger Brehm is stated 
to have obtained specimens of it in Kordofan, so that it is, per- 
haps, a scarce occasional migrant to Europe. Dr. Lindermayer 
says nothing of Corvus monedula, var. collaris, which is, to say 
the least of it, a very noticeable climatal form of C. monedula, 
but considers MotaciUa melanocephala (which is a regular summer- 
visitant) as a good species. Larus cachinnans of Pallas (" a very 
common resident in Greece, breeding in numbers in the lagunes 
and desert islets ") is probably the bird referred to, in a previous 
Number of this Journalf, as a variety of Larus argentatus. 



We are indebted to the courtesy of Herr Ferdinand Heine for 
an early copy of the first portion of the third part of the list of his 
extensive ornithological collection, called ' Museum Heineanum %,' 
It contains an enumeration of the Humming-birds [Trochilidie) 
in the Heinean collection, numbering 183 species. Notes are 
likewise given concerning the other known species of each genus, 
among which we observe a fine new form from Veragua, desig- 
nated Panterpe insignis, of which we have had the pleasure of 
inspecting the types in the Berlin Museum. The careful elabo- 

* Die Vogel Grieclienlands. Ein Beitrag zur Fr uua dieses Landes von 
Dr. Ritter A. Lindermayer in Athen. Passau, 1860, 1 vol. 8vo, 188 pp. 

t ' Ibis,' 1860, p. 355. 

X Museum Heineanum. Verzeichniss der ornithologischen Sararalung 
des Oberamtmanns Ferdinand Heine, von Dr. Jean Cabanis und Ferdinand 
Heine, Stud. Phil., iii. Theil, die Schrillvogel enthaltend. Hulberstadt, 
1860. 



Recent Ornithological Publications. 109 

ration of synonyms will render this volume most valuable for 
reference, and useful to the student of this attractive but difficult 
family of birds. 

We have seen Dr. A. de Philippics ' Reise durch die Anden- 
wiiste Atacama' (Halle, 1860, 4to), and will give a further 
notice of it in our next Number. 



The Royal Zoological Society of Amsterdam have presented 
us with a copy of their magnificent work* upon the Touracos 
{Musojjhagidce) of Africa — a monograph carefully elaborated by 
MM. Schlegel and Westerman, and which leaves little wanting, 
either in the way of illustration or descripaon, so far as our 
knowledge of this beautiful family of birds has been at present 
advanced. The recognized species of the group are 1 7 in number, 
which are divisible into two very distinct sections, according to 
the form and covering of the nostrils. Every species is splen- 
didly and accurately figured of the size of life. The letter-press 
is in the national language of Holland, which, however much we 
may lament, we cannot reasonably complain of in a national work 
like the present ; but a Latin synopsis is also given, in which the 
species ai'e distinguished by full and accurate diagnoses. Alto- 
gether we must express our highest approbation of this work, 
which we consider as the very Prince of Monographs. 



We have received, through Professor SundevaPs kindness, 
the 6th, 7th, and 8th numbers of ' Svenska Foglarna,^ a well- 
executed popular work on the Birds of Sweden, with the text 
written by this talented naturalist. We have already noticed 
the previous parts of this book {' Ibis' 1859, p. 324). 



The first part of the Bulletin of the Imperial Society of Natu- 
ralists of Moscow for the present year contains a general article by 

* Die Toerako's afgebeeld en beschreven door H. Schlegel onder 
medewerking vaa G. F. Westerman. Ofgedragen aan Z. M. den Koning. 
Uitgegeven door het Koninklijk Zoologisch Genootschap Natura Artis 
Magistra. Amsterdam, 1860, 1 vol. fol., 26 pp., 17 col. plates. 



110 Recent Ornithological Publications. 

Arthur von Nordmann upon the Birds of Finland and Lapland*. 
During the absence of this young naturaHst upon one of the 
Russian expeditions to theAmoor^the hst of birds has been revised 
and edited, with some additional remarks, by his father, Alexander 
von Nordmann. The whole forms a concise review of the ornitho- 
logy of this country, and an acceptable contribution to our 
knowledge of geographical distribution. The previous authori- 
ties consulted by the writers are the following. We repeat the 
list, as several of them are not well known in this country, and 
give also a translation of H, von Nordmann's accompanying re- 
marks on some of them : — 

1. P. U. Sadelin. Fauna Finnica. Aboje, 1810 et 1819. 
[An antiquated list, and hardly of any value.] 

2. A. Th. V. Middendorf. Bericht iiber die ornithologischen 
Ergebnisse einer Reise in Lappland, 1840. In the 11th vol. of 
^Beitragen zur Kenntniss des russischen Eeiches.' 

3. T. Blasius. Reise im Europaischen Russland. Braun- 
schweig, 1844. 

4. M. V. Wright. Helsingfors Traktens Foglar. In the 
' Notizen der Societas pro Fauna et Flora Feunica.' 1848. 

5. W. Lilljeborg. Bericht iiber eine Reise in Russland und 
Norwegen (in Swedish). Kon. Svensk. Vetensk. Handl. 1850. 
[Very good.] 

6. W. Lilljeborg. Beitrag zur Ornithologie des nordlichen 
Russland und Norwegen. In ' Naumannia,' 1852, pt. ii. 

7. L. Schrader. Beobachtungen iiber die Vogel Lapplands, 
mitgetheilt von Pastor W. Passler. Cabanis^ Journal f. Orn. 
1853, pts. 4 & 5. [No other ornithologist has passed so long 
a time (eight years) in Lapland as Schrader; his contributions 
are of more importance than all that has been previously written 
upon the Avifauna of Lapland.] 

8. J. V. Wright. Kuopio Traktens Fogelfauna. 

9. M. V. Wright. Auteckningar un der en resa fran Kuopio 
till Avasaka 1856, &c. In 'Bidrag till Finlands Naturkanne- 
dom' for 1857, part ii. 

* Uebersiclit der bis jetzt in Finnland und Lappland vorgekommenen 
Vogelaiten, von Arthur von Nordmann. Durchgesehen und mitgetheilt 
von Alexander von Nordmann. Bull. Acad. Imp. Nat. Moscou, 1860, p. 1. 



Recent Ornithological Publications. Ill 

10. S. Nilsson. Skandinavisk Fauna, Foglarna, 1858. 

11. M. V. Wright. Finlands Foglar. Helsingfors, 1859 
[Just published] . 

Carpodacus erythrinus, the younger von Nordmann tells us, is 
now common in Southern Finland, although, as his father states, 
that was not the case thirty years ago. It nests every year in 
the Botanical Gardens (at Helsingfors), in the tops of the Maple 
and the Carangana sibirica. The nest consists of thin twigs 
loosely put together. The eggs are white, with a few blackish- 
red spots at the large end. The bird arrives in Helsingfors in 
the middle of May, and in 1857 had fledged young on the 25th 
of June. After having once heard the loud flute-like voice of 
this bird, there will be no difficulty in recognizing it a second 
time, as it conceals itself in the tree-tops. It has a finch-like 
call-cry resembling that of Fringilla chloris. 

The Anser albifrons, said (p. 43) to breed in Lapland, must be 
intended for Anser erythropus sive minutus^. 



Of the second part of the Report of the Russian exploring 
expedition in Amoorland, containing the Birds f, we have lately 
seen copies, and we hope to be able to give a notice of this im- 
portant work at some length in our next Number. 

4. American Publications. 

M. Le Moine's little book J "on the Ornithology of Canada" 
appears to have been written with the laudable wish to stimulate 
his fellow-countrymen to show more energy in the cause of 
Natural History, in which, as in material prosperity, their repub- 
lican neighbours seem to have left them far behind. 

* See 'Ibis,' 1860, p. 404. 

t Reisen imd Forschungen im Amurlande in den Jahren 1851-56, im 
Auftrage der Kaiserl. Academie der Wissenschaften zu St. Petersbiirg ; 
ausgefiihrt und in Verbindung mit mehreren Gelehrten herausgegeben von 
Dr. Leojjold von Schrenck. Band i. Zweite Lieferung, Vogel des Amur- 
landes. Mit 7 colorirten Tafeln. St. Petersburg, 1860. 

X Ornithologie du Canada. Quelqiies groupes d'apres la nomenclature 
du Smithsonian Institution de Washington. Par J. M. Lemoine. Quebec, 
1860, I part, 96 pp., 12mo. 



112 Letters, Extracts from Correspondence, Announcements, ^c. 

X. — Letters, Extracts from Correspondence, Announcements, ^c. 
We have received the following letters : — 

To the Editor of ' The Ibis.' 

26 Charlotte Street, Bedford Square, W.C. 

Sir, — In reference to the remark in ' The Ibis/ vol. i. p. 404, 
" we are pretty sure that if the Chiff-chaff occurs at all in the 
Scandinavian peninsula, it is only in the extreme south/' I beg 
to send you a copy of a note I made respecting this species on 
my return to London, after visiting Norway in the summer of 
1856 :~ 

" The ChifF-chafF [Phylloscopus rufus) was not so abundant in 
Norway as the common Willow-Wren (P. /roc/ii/ws), neither does 
it frequent the higher lands, at least I did not either hear or see 
it there. I did, however, hear it sing; and my companion, 
Mr. Wolf, shot one near the celebrated waterfalls at Trondheim. 
The legs of this specimen were dark olive-brown, the nails and 
toes the same ; the soles and back of the tarsi yellowish ; bill 
olive-brown ; under mandible and gonys yellowish ; eye nearly 
black." Yours, &c., John Gould. 

[Obs. We are much indebted to Mr. Gould for thus informing 
us with respect to the range of the Chiff-chaff in Norway, which 
certainly seems to be more northerly than we had supposed ; 
but our remarks, as regards Hei'r Schrader's assertion, are but 
little affected thereby, as Trondheim is still within the limits of 
the southern portion of the peninsula. — ' The Ibis ' Reviewer.'] 



To the Editor of ' The Ibis.' 

October 24, 1860. 
Sir, — I beg leave to forward to you such particulars as I have 
been able to obtain regarding a curious locality chosen for 
breeding by a pair of Golden Eagles [Aquila chrrjsaetos) in 
Perthshire during the past season. The nest was built in a 
large Scotch-fir tree — one of a wood on the southern bank of 
Glen Lyon, on the other side of the river, but not more than 
350 yards distance from Meggernie Castle, the present residence 
of Ronald Steuart Menzies of Culdares. Four eggs were laid, by 



Letters, Extracts from Correspondence, Announcements , 6^c. 113 

the hen bird, and two of them hatched. A bird which I saw last 
month was one of the produce : I should judge it, by its size, to 
have been a female. I do not remember any parallel instance of 
such disregard of the proximity of human habitations by these 
birds being noted in any work oil ornithology. The nest was of 
the Eagles^ own construction, and not a deserted nest of another 
bird, as I should rather have expected. 

Yours, &c., J. W. P. Orde. 



To the Editor of ' The Ibis.' 

5 Peel Terrace, Brighton, Nov. 10, 1860. 

Sir, — I send you one or two ornithological notes for the past 
year, which has been most disastrous for birds. In vain we have 
looked for the countless streams which usually pass down to the 
sea at the period of the autumn migration. 

It is the same with the Sussex bird-catchers : their success is 
unusually small. In the spring, the rain prevented many birds 
from breeding. I witnessed the efforts of a pair of Pious viridis 
to do so. Once they were driven out by Starlings ; twice, after 
cutting deep holes with great labour, the wet obtained an en- 
trance and filled the chamber ; at last they gave up in despair. 
The like fate was that of many other birds. 

In the Isle of Wight I saw a young Cuckoo ( Cuculus canorus) 
killed, September 18th ; it had not obtained all its tail-feathers. 

Near Southampton a fine cock Pastor roseus was obtained 
this summer. Some Starlings were feeding in a cherry-tree, and 
a man fired into the flock to protect his fruit, when he picked 
up this bird among the dead. 

A Sylvia iithys was caught alive at the back of my house on 
October 2Gth, and two more have been since shot on the sea- 
shore ; in fact, specimens are obtained every year here. 

The Serine Finch {Fringilla serinus ?) has been taken near 
Brighton; and I am quite convinced that this bird ought to be, 
and soon will be, included in our list of British birds, as I am 
told of three other instances of F. sei'inus having been caught 
by Brighton men, and cast aside from ignorance of its value, — it 
having been hitherto supposed to be a mule of some kind, escaped 
from confinement. 

VOL. ITT. I 



114 Letters, Extracts from Correspondence, Announcements, ^c. 

If attention be directed to the Serine Finch, others will pro- 
bably be observed and recorded. 

Hardly a Fringilla carduelis has been procured this autumn ; 
and several of the bird-catchers here have expressed to me their 
strong belief, founded on long practical experience, that within 
a few years the Goldfinch will become, in this part of England, 
a scarce bird. Multitudes of hens have been netted and slain 
annually, in a ruthless manner ; and consequently the numbers 
have been diminished to a very great degree. 

Yours, &c., George Dawson Rowley. 



To the Editor of ' The Ibis.' 

Elveden, December 1st, 1860. 

Sib, — I have received a letter from Professor Reinhardt, dated 
Oct. 9th, 1860, in which he refers to a communication of mine 
to 'The Ibis' for 1860 (p. 307), and I beg leave to extract from 
it what he says on the subject of a species of Quail found in the 
island of St. Thomas : — 

" From the last Number of ' The Ibis ' I see that you are in- 
formed of the occurrence of an Ortyx [sonninii] in St. Thomas, 
and that you are inclined to suppose it to be imported from the 
mainland of South America, in the same way that Ortyx virgini- 
anus has been introduced from the United States. It is cer- 
tainly a curious fact that the former bird is confined to St. 
Thomas, and not to be found in St. Croix ; but, on the other 
hand, the St. Thomas bird does not seem quite to agree with the 
nearest-allied Ortyx from the Spanish Main, the bill being de- 
cidedly stronger, and the throat brownish red, spotted along the 
middle with black — not uniform red. So far I find no difficulty, 
but much in every attempt to refer the West Indian bird to any 
of the well-known species. As far as I can judge at this moment, 
I am inclined to suppose : — 

" (1.) That the true Ortyx sonninii, Temm. PI. Col. 75, is not 
the Ortyx sonninii of Gould, which differs from the bird figured 
by Temminck in having the red throat separated from the breast 
by a black- and white-spotted band, of which there is no trace in 
Temminck's figure. 

" (2.) That the Ortyx sonninii, Gould (not Temminck), is also 
an inhabitant of the Spanish Main, whence I have a specimen. 



Letters, Extracts from Correspondence, Announcements, ^c. 115 

" (3.) That the Ortyx from the Virgin Islands may very 
hkely prove to be 0. affinis of Vigors, a species not admitted 
by Gould. 

" The species then would stand thus : — 

" 1. Ortyx sonninii, Temm. ; no band of spots separating the 
throat from the breast. 

" 2. Ortyx ? {sonninii, Gould) ; a small collar of spots 

between the throat and breast. 

" 3. Ortyx affinis. Vigors ; a collar as in the preceding species, 
and some black- and white-spotted feathers along the middle of 
the throat. 

" The true Ortyx sonninii, Temm., I never saw ; of the 
Venezuelan bird (Gould's 0. sonninii) I possess one example only; 
but of the West Indian bird I have compared several specimens. 
My opinion on the subject is not at all fixed ; but if Temminck's 
figure is only tolerably correct, I cannot understand how it can 
be the same bird as that represented by Gould." 

Unfortunately Mr. Riise has returned to St. Thomas, taking 
with him the only example which he submitted to my inspection ; 
the matter must therefore remain for the present undecided ; but 
I have thought it due to Professor Keinhardt to give his remarks 
publicity, hoping that other ornithologists may assist in deter- 
mining the point. The description of Mr. Vigors's O. affinis 
appears to be in the Proc. Com. Sc. and Corr. Z. S. 1830, p. 3. 
The locality of this supposed species is not given by Mr. Vigors. 

I may add that by accident I omitted to mention Hcematopus 
palliatus as included in Mr. Riise's collection, to which my 
former letter referred. 

Yours, &c., Alfred Newton. 



Since the publication of our last Number, another small col- 
lection of birds has been sent home from the Mauritius bv Mr. 
Edward Newton. In addition to the species already enumerated 
('Ibis,-" ii. p. 201), it contains examples of the following: — 

Palceornis eques. Peculiar to the island. 

Acindotheres tristis. Introduced from India. 

Munia punctularia (?). Introduced from Malacca (?). 

M. oryzivora. Introduced from Java. 

1 2 



116 Letters, Extracts fmra Correspondence, Announcements, S^c. 

Phedina horhonica. Peculiar to the island. 

Geopelia striata. Introduced from the East Indies. 

Coturnix argoonda. Introduced from India. 

Si/noecus sinensis. Introduced from Asia. 

Gallinula (?). Probably aboriginal, and possibly peculiar. 

Porphyrio mndagascariensis. Probably aboriginal. 

Pliaetonfluvirostris. Widely distributed over the Tropical seas. 

Puffinus assimilis. The southern representative of P. ohscurus, 
and perhaps hardly distinct from it. 

The Gallinula, of which one specimen only is included in the 
collection, is regarded by Mr. E. Newton as distinct from the 
common G. cliloropus, to which species Dr. Hartlaub (Journ. f. 
Ornith. I860, p. 173) refers the Water-hen found in Madagascar, 
Bourbon, and Mauritius, and to which species it undoubtedly 
has a very great general resemblance. The chief points of dif- 
ference are in the colour of the legs and of the under tail-coverts, 
which in Mr. E. Newton^s bird are bright yellmv and buff xe- 
spectively : but, in the absence of more specimens, it would not 
be desirable at present to characterize Mr. E. Newton's example 
as of a new species ; though, if it be, as he thinks, not identical 
with G. chloropus, it will probably prove to be so. In a later 
communication, that gentleman mentions that the call-note of 
the Mauritian bird differs decidedly from that of the European; 
and it will be remembered that the same peculiarity has been 
noticed {' Ibis,^ i. p. 260) with respect to the American species 
[G. galeata). 

The following are extracts from Mr. E. Newton's letters : — 

"Sept. 2, 1860. 

I hope, about the middle of the month, to get down to Sa- 

vaune, where I have no doubt I shall be able to get a good many 

more birds, and very likely some fresh species of land-birds, as 

1 fancy the country there is quite different from anything about 

here [Port Louis] . S is really off to ]\Iadagascar as soon 

as he can get a ship to take him. I wish to goodness I could 
go with him ! and he is just the fellow to suit me. The trip, 
however, will be rather expensive — ^£150 for a couple of months, 
which is about the time he means to be away, i. e. if he is 
allowed to go up to the capital. He has promised to collect ; 



Letters, Extracts from Correspondence, Announcements, ^c. 117 

and I think he will be as good as his word; but he does not 
know much about it. I have furnished him with the necessary 
materiel, and I hope he will be able to hire a man who can skin, 
and whose expenses I have agreed to pay. It would have been 
useless to have taken down a negro from this place, as they 
might probably keep him, which would be a bore. Altogether 

it is not without risk ; and it is quite on the cards that he (S ) 

may not be allowed to go up the country, or if he is, that he may 
be detained some time : the Queen is very anxious to have some 
white blood introduced among her subjects; and Englishmen 
are liable to be kept for that purpose. There is a brig-of-war 
just starting to visit some of the 'Dependencies^ of this place. 
There is a man going with her whom I hope to induce to make 
some skins ; but it is very doubtful if he will. He can skin very 
well, but does it more for the sake of what is commonly called 
'keeping curiosities ' than anything else : it is a great pity one 
cannot get people to think as oneself does on this subject. I 
have heard nothing from the Seychelles, but I still expect to get 
a few things thence.'^ 

" Oct. 22, 1860. 
" S — — has returned from Madagascar : he was not able to 
get to the capital. They wrote to him from there that it was 
the same as Tamatave, and, therefore, if he had seen Tamatave 
he had seen the capital. The Queen also was the same as the 
governor of Tamatave ; if therefore he had seen the governor 
of Tamatave, he had seen the Queen of Madagascar. He was 
three weeks at Tamatave, but was never allowed to go further 
than ten miles into the interior : the country was most rich in 
everything, and he was delighted with it. He only brought 
back two birds and the head of another: one, a Coua or Centrapus : 
the second, a Porphyrio — the same as the skin I sent from here : 

the head, I expect, is that of Scopus umhretta ; and S tells me 

it is tolerably common, and goes by the name of ' Faisan.^ He 
found a man at Tamatave, a half-Hova, who was educated in 
France, and who is willing to undertake a large expedition into 
the interior in search of specimens of natural history. His 
pretensions, however, are large, as he declares that he should 
require .^2000 to do it well, and this to be paid beforehaud. 



118 Letters, Extracts from Correspondence, Announcements, 8^'c. 

His time of collecting would extend from November to March 
or April. This is, of course, out of the question at present ; but 
in a few days I am going to send him cS^lOO, to see what he can 
get me for that : I do not expect much ; but, ' nothing venture, 
nothing have/ " 

"Nov. 2, 1860. 
" I am not despairing yet about Dodoes bones ; I saw some 

that were found in a cavern last week. The finder. Dr. Ayres, 
assures me that they are those of the Rodriguez bird, and not 
the Mauritian Dodo : he intends to give them to the British 
Museum. We are to have a regular search in the cavern the 
first opportunity. What is curious, is that with them he found 
Deers' teeth, as well as Reptiles^, and some other Bird's bones, 
which latter were so brittle he could not preserve them." 

In our next Number we hope to be able to give some notes of 
Mr. E. Newton's, relating to his short sojourn at Savanne. 



Mr. Wallace's collections from Amboyna and Ceram have 
arrived in England. The greatest novelty in them is a beautiful 
new Basilornis with an erect crest, making the second of the 
genus. Other species of interest are Lorius domicella, Eos rubra, 
Trichophorus flavicaudus, and Tamjsiptera dea (?). 

Mr. Wallace's latest letters, dated from Ceram, in June last, 
speak of the probability of his return to England being not long 
delayed. He had been much disappointed with the results of 
an expedition to the northern part of the island, and was then 
intending to go to Mysol, which was expected to prove a good 
locality. 

Mr. Edward Hearle Bodd informs us that a good male spe- 
cimen of the Spotted Eagle [Aquila ncevia), with the elliptical 
spots on the wing-coverts, and scapularies well marked, was shot 
on the 4th of December, in the parish of Northhill in the eastern 
part of Cornwall. The occurrence is also mentioned in the 
' Times ' of December 12th. This bird has only once, we believe, 
occurred previously in the British Islands, namely, in Ireland, in 
1845, as recorded in the first Supplement to Yarrell's British 
Birds (p. 11) and other publications. 



Letters, Extracts from Correspondence, Announcements, ^c. 119 

An article ' On Norfolk Island/ by Dr. C. T. Downing (in 
the lately published second part of the third volume of the 
Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania), 
contains the following paragraphs relating to the birds now 
found there. Among them may be recognized some of the spe- 
cies indicated by Herr von Pelzeln in his paper on the ornitho- 
logy of this island, of which we gave a resume in our last Number 
('Ibis,' 1860, p. 421). But there is Kttle doubt that Herr von 
Pelzeln's list does not embrace all the species of birds found in 
the island; for Dr. Downing mentions three kinds of Parrots as 
occurring there, and Herr von Pelzeln only gives one — the 
Nestor. It would be very desirable that a complete investiga- 
tion should be made of the Faunas of this and similar isolated 
spots of the world's surface, and their peculiar species registered, 
before the advancing tide of human civilization shall have com- 
pletely extirpated them, as has been already the case in some 
well-known instances. 

" A greater number and variety of the feathered tribes inhabit 
this lonely group, or visit it during the breeding-season. The 
Guinea-fowl (?) was observed by the early navigators, but has 
now become quite extinct. There are three kinds of Parrot 
on Norfolk Island : — the small crimson and blue Lory — Psit- 
tacus pennantii ; one green with a red ring round the base of 
the beak ; and another. These birds are easily entrapped. A 
dingy-plumaged Kingfisher, bold and fierce, is very common, 
and passes under the name of ' The Norfolker.' The domestic 
Pigeon has been naturalized, and breeds abundantly among the 
cliffs. Its numbers would be troublesome but for the ravages of 
the wild Cats. A large and handsome species of Pigeon, called 
the 'Wood Queest,' with bronzed head and breast, is met with 
occasionally round the base of Mount Pitt, but has hitherto 
resisted all efforts at domestication. In addition, there is a 
variety of the Blackbird (so called) or Robin, with a white head 
and scarlet breast, Guava birds, White-eyes, and Fautails. These 
last-named small birds are met with in the gullies, and are so 
tame as to perch upon the finger or a stick, if held towards 
them. One specimen of the Avocet, the Recui'virostra ruhri- 
collis, was shot upon the island about a year and a half since, 



120 Letters, Extracts from Correspondence, Announcements, ^c. 

and sent up to this Society by Dr. Hueston, as well as a male 
and female Spoonbill, the head and feet of which are now laid 
upon the table." 

" Ocean birds in great abundance surround the shore. For- 
merly, their head-quarters were at Mount Pitt ; but since Nor- 
folk Island has been inhabited they have removed to the smaller 
isles, Nepean swarms with Gannets and Mutton Birds, while 
Boatswain or Tropic-birds, and Sea-Swallows, inhabit the rocks 
to the north." 

The typical and only known specimen, in European collec- 
tions of the Vulturine Guinea-fowl {Numida vulturina, Hard- 
wicke; Gould, Icon. Av., pi. 8) has lately been purchased from 
the United Service Institution by the Trustees of the British 
Museum. With reference to the true locality of this bird (com- 
monly said to be West Africa), we are informed by Mr. E. 
Layard that he obtained living examples of it at Bojana-bay, on 
the north-west side of Madagascar, where it is the domesticated 
species. Hartlaub however, we may remark, gives Numida cris- 
tata as the only known species in Madagascar*. The latter, 
Mr. Layard informs us, he obtained alive at Zanzibar, 'where it 
is the species.' 

We have the pleasure of announcing that Mr. Edgar N. 
Layard, now resident in Cape Town as Curator of the South- 
African Museum, is preparing for communication to this Journal 
a series of articles upon the Birds of Africa south of the Tropic 
of Capricorn. Mr. Layard hopes to be able to give a short 
diagnosis of each species, with full details as to localities, range, 
nidification, &c. We propose to keep the different articles in 
type, and, on the completion of the series, to issue the whole 
(together with corrections and additions) in one volume, which 
may in this shape, we hope, form a useful Synopsis of South- 
African Ornithology. Those who desire to obtain copies of the 
Synopsis, or to assist Mr. Layard in his undertaking, are re- 
quested kindly to communicate with him (at the Museum, Cape 
Town), or with the Editor of 'The Ibis.' 

* Syst. Orn. W. Afr., p. 200, and " Syst. Ueb. Vog. Madagasc." in Cab. 
Jouru. 1860, p. 163. 



THE IBIS. 



No. X. APRIL 1861. 



XI. — On new or little-known Birds of North-Eastern Africa. 

By Hofrath Theodor von Heuglin. (Part III. The Barbets, 

Capitonidce^ .) 

[Continued from p. T&.'\ 

(Plate V.) 

The range of the birds belonging to the family of Barbets 
(Capitonidce) in North-Eastern Africa is confined to the tropical 
provinces which are subject to a periodical rainy season. North- 
wards of the boundary of the tropical rains not a single species is 
found, though the genera Pogonorhijnchus, BarbatuJa, and Tra- 
chyphonus are abundant in the low countries of the White and 
Blue Nile. The species which I have observed, generally prefer 
the plains and low grounds to the mountains, and especially 

* The full synonymy of the African Barbets, and a list of all the known 
species, are given by M. Jules Verreaux, in an article in the Zoological 
Society's ' Proceedings' for 1859 (p, 393). Dr. Hartlaub informs us, how- 
ever, that the Megalcema leucotis of Sundeval, from S. Africa, is not the 
same as Laimodon unidentatus, as is there stated, but a good and distinct 
species, and that the Southern Megalaima bilineata, Sundeval, although 
closely allied to, is not identical with the Western Barbatula leucoltema, 
Verreaux. Dr. Hartlaub acknowledges Trachyphonus squamiceps, Henglin, 
as here described, to be quite distinct from T. margaritatus. It also ajipears 
that M. Verreaux's Laimodon albiventris, of which a description and good 
figure are given in the paper above referred to, has been previously named 
by Dr. Petei-s (Bericht Akad. Berlin, 1854, p. 134) Pogonias melanopterus, 
and is from Mozambique, and not from Western Africa. — Ed. 

VOL. III. K 



122 Dr. Heuglin on new or little-known Birds 



*& 



frequent woodland districts. In tlie lower 'Deka'* appear 
P. saltii, P. vieillotii, and P. undatits. I have also myself observed 
a species of Barbatula in the Dallager valley in Abyssinia, at an 
elevation of from 5000 to 6000 feet above the level of the sea ; 
its appearance there, however, is very unusual. 

With the exception of the Traclujphoni, the CapitonidcB are 
not shy birds, though quiet and solitary, and always keeping to 
the high trees and bushes. The Trachyphoni are frequently 
seen in the plains, and although also shy, are of a much more 
lively and wandering nature than the Pogonorhynchi and Barba- 
tul(B. The note of the Trachyphoni is loud and very melodious ; 
they run (though in a different manner from Woodpeckers) up 
and down the trunks of trees, feeding upon insects, berries, and 
fruits, as they hop from branch to branch. Their flight is short, 
but rapid ; their course consisting of a series of numerous undu- 
lations. I never saw any of the species of this group on the 
ground. I am not acquainted with the mode of propagation of 
these birds, except that Trachyphonus margaritatus builds in holes 
of trees, and lays white eggs, usually from four to six in number. 
In the months of October and November I have often seen half- 
fledged young ones of this species clustering together, in the 
peculiar way that may be observed in some of the European 
genera [Parus, for instance), and sitting on the smooth side of 
the small branches, chirping as they await their parents. With 
raw flesh and hard and soft-boiled eggs I have kept some of 
them a long time in confinement. 

The Capitonidce of N.E. Africa are not exactly migratory, 
though they appear at the time when the Sycamores {Ficus 
sycomorus) are ripe in countries where they are not generally 
met with. 

I now give an account of the species known to me, and add 
descriptions and figures of some new ones. 

* The * Deka' in Abyssinia is the term which inchides the mountainous 
country from an elevation of GOOO feet upwards to the Snow-region. The 
vegetation of the ' Deka ' is distinguished from that of the low-lying 
' Kolla' by its evergreen foliage. The Kolla is the region of Bamboos and 
different sorts of forest-trees, whose leaves fall in the early spring, and are 
replaced at the beginning of the rainy season. 



of North-E astern Africa. 123 

Genus Pogonorhynchus *, Van der Hoeven. 

1. P. ROLLETi. Pogonias rolleti, De Filippi, Rev. Zool. 1853, 
p. 290. 

Not rare on the banks of the Bahr el Abiad, in 10° N.L. ; 
found on high trees near the rivers, and in the wooded districts 
of the Steppes to the south. This species, which I have 
known since 1851, was accidentally omitted in my " Systematic 
List of the Birds of N.E. Africaf." 

2. P. BIDENTATUS (Shaw). 

According to Dr. Riippell, common in Schoa. Rare on the 
Upper Bahr el Abiad. 

3. P. LEUCOCEPHALUS. Pogouias leucocephaluSf De Filippi, 
Rev. Zool. 1855, p. 291. 

Rather common on the banks of the Bahr el Abiad, south- 
wards from the confluence of the Sobat and the Bahr el Ghazal. 

4. P. sALTii (Stanley). 

Not rare in Abyssinia, except in the coast-region and high 
mountains, and also found in Sennaar and Kordofan, and along 
the northern course of the Bahr el Abiad. 

5. P. viEiLLOTi (Leach). 

The most common species in Kordofan, Abyssinia, and Sen- 
naar. The most northern limit of its range is between 14° and 
15° north latitude. 

6. P. UNDATUS (Riipp.). 

Not very rare in Abyssinia and Sennaar. 

7. P. BiFRENATUs (Hcmpr. & Ehrenb.). Pogonias melam^- 
cephalus, Riipp. 

Dr. Riippell, in his ^ System atische Uebersicht der Vogel 
Nord-Ost-Afrikas,' declares this little species to be frequent in 
Sennaar and Kordofan ; but this assertion is certainly not cor- 
rect. The only country in N.E. Africa where I have found 
this bird at all numerous is Eastern Abyssinia, especially in the 
valleys of Morat and Moreb and the Habab territory. Nearly 

* Handb. d. Zool. (1833) ii. p. 446. 
t Sitzungsb. d. Kais. Acad. Wien, vol. xix. p. 255. 

k2 



124 Dr. Heuglin on new or little- known Birds 

related, but much larger, is SundevaPs Megalcema leucotis, from 
Lower Caffraria (Ofvers. 1850, p. 109). 

8. P. DiADEMATUs, HcugUn. Poffunias diadematus, Heugl. 
Syst. Uebers. p. 47. no. 479. 

Only found iu the wide Steppes of the Kitsch-Negroes, be- 
tween 7° and 8° N.L. on the western bank of the Bahr el Abiad. 
It is common on high trees, especially on the colossal Syca- 
mores. This species resembles the nearly-related, but larger, 
and also more or less highly-coloured P. unidentatus (Licht.) 
from Kafferland, and P. duchallui, Cass. [Barbatula formosa, 
Verr.), from W. Africa. 

Genus Barbatula, Lesson. 

1. B. pusiLLA, Bp. Bucco barbatula, Temm. 

. In a collection of birds made on the Blue Nile, which I pre- 
sented to the Royal Natural History Cabinet at Stuttgard, I 
first found an apparent male of this species. It substantially 
agrees with the diagnosis given by Hartlaub (Syst. Orn. W. 
Afrik. p. 173), though slightly differing in dimensions, which in 
my examples are as follows : — Long, tota circ. 4*0, rostri a 
fronte 0-48, tarsi 06, alse 2*0, caudse 1*3 poll, et lin. Gall. 

2. B. CHRYSOCOMA (Tcmm.). Bucco chrysocomus, Temm. 
PI. Col. 536. fig. 2. 

I found specimens of this humble little bird concealed in 
thick foliage along the streams of Central and West Abyssinia, 
as well as on the Bahr el Abiad, and also more rarely on the 
main stream of the Nile between Khartoum and Berber. It may 
be abundant, but from its habits is very difficult to find. 

Genus Trachyphonus, Ranzani. 

1. T. margaritatus (RUpp.). Bucco margaritatus, Riipp. 
Atlas, t. 20. 

Common in the Bajuda-Steppes along the banks of the Nile, 
south of Berber (17° N.L.), in Kordofan, Sennaar, Abyssinia, 
Taka, and in the Abyssinian Avail and Somali coast-lands. Ap- 
parently confined to E.Africa, but very widely difi'used. The male 
is somewhat larger than the female. Iris violet. 



of North-Eastern Africa. 125 

2. T. SQUAiMiCEPs, Heugl. T. squamiceps, Heugl. Syst. Uebers. 
d. Vog. N.-O. Afrika, no. 482. p. 47. 

Rare in the Steppes of the Kitsch-Negroes, on the western 
shore of the Bahr el Abiad. It may be the same as T. marga- 
ritatus, but I have never met with this species in Kordofan. 

I now add descriptions of the newly-discovered species, which 
are represented in the accompanying Plate. 

1. POGONORHYNCHUS ROLLETI. (Plate V. fig. 1.) 

Coracino-niger, tergi macula, et hypochondriis pure albis, his 
ex parte nigro-striolatis : remigibus fuliginoso-nigricantibus, 
subtus, interne et basin versus pallidioribus, externe cora- 
cino-limbatis : subalaribus cinereis, flexuram versus cora- 
cinis : abdomine medio et crisso intense cinnabarinis : 
orbitis nudis, violaceis : rostro valido, pallide virescente, basi 
cserulesceute, maxilla bidentata, simpliciter sulcata, man- 
dibula non plicata : vibrissis rigidiusculis nigris : iride 
brunnea : pedibus plumbeo-fuscis : long, tota 10'3, rostri a 
fronte 1*4, ab angulo oris 1*5, alee 4'15, caudse 3'15 poll, 
et lin. Gall. 

This species is distinguishable from P. duhius (of Senegambia) 
by important characters, such as the absence of red on the head, 
and a different formation of the bill. The whole bird is nearly 
entirely of a shining blue-black, with the exception of a large 
white spot on the back, and the sides of the belly, which show 
a few fine black markings, and some flame-coloured streaks to- 
wards the breast. The middle and lower part of the belly is of 
a lively cinnabar-red on a white ground; the wings are smoky 
grey on the inner web, the feathers getting gradually lighter 
towards the base. The under wing-coverts are likewise smoky 
grey, becoming towai'ds the wing-margins bluish black. The 
upper beak has on each side a single deep furrow, within which 
the bristles are placed : the latter are about half the length of 
the beak ; the colour of the beak is light greenish yellow, bluish 
towards the base. The feet and nails ai-e greyish brown. 

The sexes are coloured alike, but the female is a trifle smaller 
in dimensions. This species is rather numerous on the Upper 
White Nile, particularly on the Sycamore trees, the fruit of 
which supplies a favourite food for all the species of Capitonida, 



126 Dr. Heuglin on new or little-hnown Birds 

2. POGOXORHYNCHUS LEUCOCEPHALUS. (Plate V. fig. 2.) 

Capite, pectore, uropygio, et tectricibus caudse superioribus et 
inferioribus albis : interscapulio, alis, ventre et remigibus 
alai'um macula apicali triangular! alba notatis : scapula- 
ribus et ventre longitudinaliter albo-striolatis, interscapulio 
fere immaculato : remigibus interne et basin versus distincte 
albido-marginatis : subalaribus cinereo-umbrinis, albido 
flammulatis : rostro vibrissis rigidiusculis albis circum- 
dato : orbitis nudis^ griseo-violaceis : iride brunnea : rostro 
et pedibus plumbeo-nigricantibus : long, tota 6"6, rostri a 
fronte 0*10, ab ang. oris 0'12, alee 3-4, caudse 2*2, tarsi 0*9 
poll, et lin. Gall, 

In this beautifully coloured and aberrant species, the head, 
throat, bi'east, belly, under and upper tail-coverts, as well as 
the chin, are white, with a slight tinge of yellow ; a band of 
bright brimstone-yellow passes from the forehead over the eye, 
which, however, the bird quickly loses after death. The rest of 
the bird is shining umber-brown, the wing-coverts being pointed 
with well-marked triangular white spots, and the scapularies and 
belly streaked with white lines along the shafts. The wing- 
feathers are greyish brown, with a white edging on the under- 
side near their bases ; the tail-feathers are rather darker than the 
wings ; the under wing-coverts are brownish grey, partly streaked 
with white. The irides are umber-brown, the naked space round 
the eye violet-grey. The beak and feet are blue-black. 

P. leucocephalus is as common as the preceding species, and 
is found in the same districts, particularly on the high trees with 
thick foliage. In its stomach we found berries, insects, and figs. 
With the fruit of the latter the face often becomes stained yellow. 

3. POGONORHYNCHUS DIADEMATUS. (Plate V. fig. 3.) 

Tergeeo et regione parotica nigris ; vertice et fronte nitide scar- 
latinis ; loris nigris ; superciliis, per colli latera decur- 
rentibus, autice nitide sulphureis, et nucham versus albis : 
nucha media et scapularibus externe albo limbatis : auche- 
nio, interscapulio et tectricibus alarum minoribus maculis 
longitudinalibus flavissimis ; tectricibus alarum majoribus 
extus flavescente limbatis : uropygio et tectricibus caudse 
superioribus fere totis vivideflavis : remigibus et rectricibus 
fuscis flavido-margiuatis, his interne, basin versus, albo- 
limbatis : gastrjeo albido, medio flavescente tincto : sub- 



of North-Eastern Africa. 127 

alaribus albidis : iride umbrina : rostro et pedibus plumbeo- 
nigricantibus : long, tota 4-10, rostri a fronte 07, alee 3-9, 
caudse 1*9, tarsi 0*7'3 poll, et lin. Gall. 

This variegated bird is the smallest of the species of Pogono- 
rhynchus in N.E. Africa. The forehead and top of the head are 
bright scarlet, the face round the ears, neck, and wing-coverts 
shining black. A band over the eye and along the head brim- 
stone-yellow in front and pure white behind. The middle of the 
neck is spotted with white. The rest of the upper surface is not 
of so bright a black as the neck. The scapularies generally on 
the outside are broadly bordered with white ; the back of the 
neck and upper wing-coverts are spotted with yellow ; the wings 
and tail are bordered on the outside with pale yellow ; the lower 
back and upper tail-coverts are deeply tinged with greenish 
yellow, so that the dark ground-colour is hardly perceptible. 
The wing-feathers below are edged with white, more broadly 
towards their bases : the lower side is brighter than the upper, 
as is likewise the case with the tail ; the under surface is whitish, 
tinged with yellow about the breast and belly. In young birds 
the under tail-coverts along the shafts are shaded with greyish 
black. 

While both the preceding species are spread from 10° N.L. 
southwards along the explored course of the White Nile, P. dia- 
dematus appears to have a more westerly range. The numerous 
examples that have passed through our hands wxre all collected 
westward of the Bahr el Abiad in the districts of Gog, Djak, 
Djar, &c., between 7° and 8° N.L., and on the river Bahr el 
Ghazal. The food of this species consists of insects, berries, and 
fruits. 

P. diadematus has, like P. hifrenatus, a loud and lively note, 
deep and melodious. 

4. Trachyphonus squamiceps. (Plate V. fig. 4.) 
T. margaritato affinis, sed differt, statura multo miuore, facie 
et vertice flavo-rufescentibus ; tectricibus caudse superi- 
oribus vivide flavis ; capite (mento excepto) collo et pectore 
chalybseo guttatis : nucha albida, nigricante variegata : iride 
brunnea : rostro cinerascente-carneo : pedibus plumbeis. 

This little species much resembles in size, structure, and 



128 Mr. J. H. Gurney on additional species uf Birds 

colouring Trachyphonus margaritatus, but is distinguishable by 
its plumage, particularly of the head, in which the elastic horn- 
like structure of the feathers is still more developed. The face is 
fiery yellow, and, with the exception of the chin, on the point of 
each feather is a shining steel-black metallic spot. The roots of 
the entire pileus and the centre of the throat are of the same 
colour ; the neck is whitish, having in general before the point 
of each feather a broad black speck. The scapularies and 
wings are speckled with white on a smoky-brown ground ; but 
these specks are not quite at the edge of the feathers, as in 
T. margaritatus ; they exist on the wings and greater wing- 
coverts, but are never found on the inner barbs ; the wings are 
spotted with bright yellow ; the back and tail-coverts are greyish 
green, with indistinct smoky-grey marks and small lanceolate 
spots. The under wing-coverts are whitish towards the roots, 
like the inner surface of the remiges. The under-side is bright 
greenish yellow, with little lanceolate black points to each feather ; 
the lower tail-coverts deep red. The tail is exactly like that of 
T. margaritatus, only the spots here are yellow. Also in this new 
species the cross-band which T. margaiitatus has on its breast is 
missina;. 

Length 6 in. ; beak from gape 10 lin. ; wings 2 in. 8 lin. ; 
tail 2 in. 10 lin. ; tarsus 106 lin. 

The breeding and food of this bird are the same as those of 
P. diadematus. In its habits it is as sociable as T. marqaritatus. 



XII. — On some additional Species of Birds received in Collections 
from Natal. By John Henry Gurney, M.P., F.Z.S. 

I BEG leave to communicate for insertion in * The Ibis ' a short 
additional list of Natal birds, numbered consecutively to those 
published in my last paper on this subject {' Ibis,^ 1860, 
pp. 203-221). 

The birds and the notes included in the present list were 
received by me from Mr. Thomas Ayres, of D'Urban, except 
where I have specified the contrary. The specimens not sent 
by Mr. Ayres have been selected from two collections received 
from Natal by Mr. S. Stevens, of Bloomsbury Street, London. 



from the colony of Natal. 129 

One of these was trausmitted to Mr. Stevens by Mr. Gueinzius, 
the other by Mr. HilUard. 

128. Aquila bellicosa (Daud.). Martial Eagle. 

Male. This Eagle was received from Mr. Gueinzius with the 
following ticket attached to it : — " Iris pale brownish (pale-ale 
colour) ; cere and toes lead-colour. Shot with a young goat in 
his talons.^^ 

129. SpizAiETUS coRONATUs (Linn.). Crowned Eagle. 
Female. Immature. Eye greyish brown ; bill black. This 

noble bird was shot in a very dense bush : it had killed a 
monkey considerably larger than itself, and when discovered 
did not appear at all shy, but on being disturbed merely flew 
up on to the branches of a tree just above the monkey it had 
killed, and there remained. 

Another Crowned Eagle subsequently visited our neighbour- 
hood, which from its size must also have been a female. This 
bird carried ofi" wdth ease one of my largest Cochin fowls, and 
attempted to take away a small pig ; but failing in the effort, 
proceeded to kill it on the spot, and would have done so in a 
few minutes, had not the cries of the pig brought a lad to its 
assistance, who with difficulty frightened the Eagle away. 

[This species is well figured in plates 40 and 41 of the 
volume " Aves" of Sir A. Smith's ' Illustrations of the Zoology 
of South Africa;' but plate no. 40, which is there stated to 
represent an adult bird, does, in fact, give the figure of an 
immature specimen, while plate no. 41, which is described as 
representing an immature bird, is, in reality, a correct deli- 
neation of the adult plumage. The sexes, which differ greatly 
in size, are alike in plumage, both when immature and when 
adult. The change from the earlier to the later state of 
plumage is accompanied by a contemporaneous change of colour 
in the iris, which passes from a pale brown to a clear yellow. 
I am able to speak with certainty as to these changes, having 
carefully observed them in two specimens in confinement. One 
of these was a male bird from Senegal, which is still living in my 
own collection ; the other a female from Sierra Leone, which died 
recently in the gardens of the Zoological Society of London. 



130 Mr. J. H. Gurney on additional species of Birds 

The latter specimen was presented to the Zoological Society 
by an officer who had been quartered at Sierra Leone, and by 
whom this Eagle had been captured in a singular manner, 
which it may be worth while here to mention : — 

This gentleman, whilst in a canoe upon one of the rivers (by 
which the colony is intersected), observed this bird struggling 
on the surface of the water, and succeeded in approaching it 
sufficiently close to throw a blanket over it, and thus to secure 
it. The breast and bill of the Eagle bore traces of the blood and 
hair of some animal which it appeared to have recently captured, 
and to have endeavoured unsuccessfully to carry across the river, 
falling itself into the water in its attempt to retain its booty. 
The circumstance of the specimen procured by Mr. Ayres having 
killed a monkey " larger than itself " tends to give increased 
probability to the idea of such having been the cause which led 
to the capture of the living example in the manner just related. 
—J. H. G.] 

130. CiRCAiiiTUs FASCIOLATUS, G. R. Gray, in Mus. Brit. 
Banded Harrier-Eagle. 

[Sent to Mr. Stevens by Mr. Gueinzius : ticket attached as 
follows : — " 2 • Iris pale yellow. Stuffed full with flying ants 
(Termites).— Octoher, 1858.^' 

The typical specimen of this bird in the British Museum 
(which was also sent from Natal) and the present example are 
the only two individuals of this species which have come under 
my notice. Both these specimens agree closely with each other, 
and the species appears to me to be a well-defined and good one, 
although (as stated in ' The Ibis,^ vol. ii. p. 414, foot-note) it is 
very nearly allied to the Circaetus zonurus, which Dr. Heuglin 
has so well described and figured (see ' Ibis,^ 1860, pi. 15). 

The Circaetus fasciolatus is, however, readily distinguished 
from Circaetus zonurus by the greater length of its tail, and by 
the five dark bands with which the tail is transversely marked, 
as well as by the anterior part of the inside of the wing adjacent 
to the carpal joint being transversely marked with brownish- 
grey bars, instead of being white as in Circaetus zonurus. 

I may take this opportunity of mentioning that, of the two 



from the colony of Natal. 131 

specimens of Circa'dtus zonurus fioux Bissao, preserved in the 
Norwich Museum, and referred to in the foot-note ah-cady 
quoted, one agrees very accurately with Dr. HeugUu's plate; 
but the other, though apparently not specifically distinct, differs 
in colour, — the throat and chest being white, the abdomen and 
thighs whitish brown, with no appearance of transverse bars, 
and the tail also of a pale dingy brown, showing no trace of the 
transverse bar across the middle, but only of that across the 
lower part. The plumage in this specimen is much faded and 
worn, apparently by the action of the sun and air. 

The Norwich Museum also contains two other Circaeti from 
Bissao, which a])pear to me to be examples of Circa'etus ijaUicus, 
though they differ from any other specimens of that species 
which I have seen in having the whole of the under parts of a 
rusty-brown colour, resembling, in that respect, some of the im- 
mature specimens of Circa'dtus thoracicus. — J. II. G.] 

131. Falco pehegkinus, Linn. Peregrine Falcon. 

[Sent to Mr. Stevens by Mr. Gueinzius : no ticket attached; 
but a{)parently a female bird in nearly adult plumage. This is 
the only specimen of the true Peregrine Falcon which has come 
into my hands from any locality south of the Equator. — J, II. G.] 

132. Falco minor, Bp. Rev. de Zool. 1850, p. 484. South 
African Peregrinoid Falcon. 

[This specimen was also sent to Mr. Stevens by Mr. Gueinzius. 
The following ticket was attached to it : — " $ . Irides dark." 

The plumage of this specimen bears considerable resemblance 
to that of the Falco melauoijeays, Gould, of Australia, especially 
in the narrowness of the spaces between the transverse abdo- 
minal bars. Its size is about that of the male Peregrine. As 
this Falcon is but little known to naturalists, I may, perhaps, 
be permitted to refer the readers of ' The Ibis ' to some interest- 
ing remarks respecting it, and especially as to the differences 
between this species and the small Falcon of North Africa 
[Falco tunetanus of Aldrovandus, F. peregrinoides of Temmiuck, 
PI. Col. 479, and F. burharus of Mr. Salvin, in ' The Ibis,' 1859, 
pi. 6), which are contained in pp. 29 and 30 of the ' Traitc de 
Fauconnerie' by Professor Schlegel, who has there called this 
bird Falco communis minor. — J. H. G.] 



132 Mr. J. H. Gurney on additional species of Birds 

133. Merops savignii, Swains, ex LeVaill. Savigny's Bee- 
eater. 

Male. Eye bright crimson ; legs and feet dark brown ; bill 
black. Its stomach was full of a small kind of wasp. These birds 
take their food on the wing, and their flight somewhat resembles 
that of the Swallows ; they frequently alight on the trees and 
bushes to rest ; during flight they utter a harsh grating note. 
I believe they only inhabit the coast-lands, and are migratory, 
appearing only in the summer months. 

134. BucoRAX ABYSSiNicus (Gmclin). Abyssinian Honi- 
biU. 

Eye very light brown ; legs, feet, and bill black ; skin of the 
neck and round the eye bright red. In the stomach of the male 
were snakes, beetles and other insects. These birds are grega- 
rious, and to be found here all the year round, but are not very 
plentiful, generally three or four, sometimes more together. They 
are very fond of hunting for their food on ground from which 
the grass has been burnt ; with their strong bills they peck up 
the hard ground, and turn over lumps in search of insects, 
making the dust fly again ; having found an insect or other food, 
they take it up, and giving their head a toss, the bill pointing 
upward, appear to let the food roll down their throat. They 
also kill large snakes in the following manner*. On discovering 
a snake, three or four of the birds advance sideways towards it, 
with their wings stretched out, and with their quills flap at and 
irritate the snake till he seizes them by the wing-feathers, when 
they immediately all close round and give him violent pecks 
with their long and sharp bills, quickly withdi*awing again 
when the snake leaves his hold. This they repeat till the snake 
is dead. If the reptile advances on them, they place both wings 
in front of them, completely covering their heads and most 
vulnerable parts. Their call, which consists of but one note 
repeated, a deep and sonorous coo-coo, may be heard at a great 

* The manner in which the Abyssinian Hornbill attacks the large 
snakes was first communicated to me by Mr. Ay res in 1858, and appeared 
in the ' Zoologist' for that year. Mr. A5res having confirmed the state- 
ment in his present paper, I have thought it worth while here to include 
it, although not now published for the first time. — J. H. G. 



from the colony of Natal. 133 

distance ; I have myself heard it, under favourable circumstances, 
at a distance of nearly two miles. The call of the female is ex- 
actly the same coo-coo, only pitched one note higher than that 
of the male. The male invariably calls first, the female imme- 
diately answers, and they continue this for perhaps five or ten 
minutes, every now and then, as they are feeding. Their flight 
is heavy, and when disturbed, although very shy, they seldom fly 
more than half a mile before they alight again. At a distance 
they would be easily mistaken for turkeys, their body being deep 
and rather compressed, similarly to those birds, with the wings 
carried well on the back. The little pouch on the throat they 
are able to fill with air at pleasure — the male bird now sent 
doing this before he died. 

I think their principal range of country is on the coast, and 
from twenty to thirty miles inland. They roost on trees at 
night, but always feed on the ground. 

[Neither of the specimens sent by Mr. Ayres exhibited the 
full development of the remarkable elevation on the upper part 
of the bill which distinguishes the old males of this species. — 
J. H. G.] 

135. BucERos BUCCINATOR, Temm. Trumpeter Hornbill. 

136. Toccus coRONATUs (Bodd.). Crowned Hornbill. 
[This species and the preceding one were both sent to Mr. 

Stevens by Mr. Gueinzius. The latter was ticketed, " $ . Irides 
yellow."— J. H. G.] 

137. Chera progne (Bodd.). Progne Widow-bird. 
Male. Eye nearly black. These beautiful birds are very 

plentiful in the inland parts of the colony and in the Free 
State and Trans- Vaal, but are seldom found within eight or ten 
miles of the coast. They are gregarious, there being perhaps one 
or two males to twenty or thirty females. In the months of 
December and January (the breeding season) the males assume 
their gaudy plumage (when their flight is in consequence heavy, 
but still, with or across the wind, they are able to sustain it a 
considerable distance), again shedding their tails in March. 
The females are brown, as are also the males, excepting in the 
months previously mentioned, the only distinguishing mark 



134 Mr. J. H. Gurney on additional species of Birds 

then being the red patch on the wing. They build in the reeds 
and long grass; their food consists entirely of grass seeds, and 
I have heard they do considerable damage to the Boers' crops of 
wheat and oats in the interior. 

138. CuRSORius CHALCOPTERUS (Temm.). Bronze-winged 
Courser. 

Male. Eye dark brown; legs pale. The stomach of this 
specimen was perfectly empty. Of the habits of this bird I 
know nothing, this being the only one I have seen. It is ex- 
cessively rare in this part of the country, though I believe plen- 
tiful in the interior. 

139. Tringoides hypoleucus (Linn.). British Common 
Sandpiper. 

[Sent to Mr. Stevens by Mr. Hilliard.— J. H. G.] 

140. Gallinago major (Gmelin.). British Great Snipe. 
Male. Eye very dark ; legs very light slate-colour ; bill 

brown. I know but little of the habits of these birds ; but they 
are migratory, appearing here in September and October, and 
leaving again in January or February. They are generally 
dispersed over the country, preferring the swamps on the flats 
to the hilly streams. They are usually found singly, but some- 
times, when plentiful, may be put up in flights. 

141. Platalea TENUiROSTRis, Tcmm. Slender-billed Spoon- 
bill. 

Male and female. The eye of a light bluish grey ; legs dark 
pink ; bill bluish pink ; skin round the eye red. The stomachs 
of these birds were crammed with shrimps. Of their habits I 
know but little ; they are gregarious, and are frequently to be 
found with the White Ibis and other waders. They are extremely 
shy ; I have not had an opportunity of seeing them feed. 
They generally fly in lines, or form the letter V. 

142. PcECiLONETTA ERYTHRORHYNCHA (Gmcl.). Red-billed 
Marbled Duck. 

143. Thalassornis LEUCONOTUS (Smith). Fasciated Duck. 



from the colony of Natal. 135 

144. Pelecanus mitratus, Licht. Mitred Pelican. 

[This species and the two preceding were sent to Mr. Stevens 
by Mr. Gueinzius. — J. H. G.] 

145. Pelecanus rufescens (Gmel.). Pink-backed Pelican. 
Male. Bill pale ; tip of the bill bright orange ; pouch, legs 

and feet greenish yellow. These birds frequent the bay and the 
mouths of the rivers on the coast ; their food, I believe, consists 
entirely of fish. They appear to feed in the evening and early in 
the morning, basking in the sun during the day. They are gre- 
garious, and may be seen in flights of from three to thirty, which 
occasionally come inland. In such cases, although I have seen 
them wheeling round and round close to the ground, I have not 
seem them alight, but have watched them until out of sight. 
In their flight they generally form the letter V, similarly to the 
Geese, &c. They are to be found here all the year round more 
or less, frequenting the most retired parts of the bay, and are 
exceedingly shy and wary. The bird now sent, when shot, was 
only pinioned, and falling into the water, gave me a long chase. 
It swam with such swiftness, that by the time I got into my 
boat it had three hundred yards' start. There being a strong 
head wind blowing at the time, I had the greatest difficulty in 
overtaking it, and rowed more than a mile before I was near 
enough to give the bird a second shot, which put an end to its 
existence. These Pelicans soar to an immense height, wheeling 
round and round, especially when coming from a distance. 
They appear to examine the waters well before they alight, and 
settle far out of gunshot of any cover there may be. 

I may, in conclusion, here insert the following additional 
note, which I have received from Mr, Ayres, on 

AsTUR melanoleucus (Smith). Black and White Goshawk. 

" A few days since, I shot a very fine immature specimen of 
Astur melanoleucus, which had carried away successively three of 
my full-grown hens, of the ordinary size, seven ducklings about 
one-third grown, four or five good-sized chickens, and one gos- 
ling as large as a full-grown fowl. Yet so cunning was this 
bird, that it committed all this havoc before I could get a single 



136 Dr. G. Bennett on a Grallatorial Bird 

chance of killing it. It would suddenly appear from amongst 
the trees, close to the ground^ and seizing its victim, retire to 
the bush, where the sportsman stands but a very poor chance of 
seeing the bird before being seen by it. 



XTII. — Notes on a living specimen of a singular Grallatorial Bird 
from New Caledonia. By Dr. George Bennett, F.Z.S.* 

I REACHED Sydney on the 12th of November, having left 
Southampton on the 20th of September. A few days after my 
arrival, I observed a bird in the aviary at the Botanic Gardens 
here, which appears to me to be new. This living specimen 
and another, now set up in the Sydney Museum, were received 
as presents from M. Des Planches, Surgeon of H.I. M.S. 
" Sibylle,'^ who brought them from New Caledonia. This bird 
is said to be plentiful there near the sea-coast, and is named by 
the natives Kagu. It has a large and handsome crest, which is 
always carried depressed, and which we could only get it to 
elevate by frightening it on placing a Hawk in the same com- 
partment with it. Upon this being done, after running about, 
the bird elevated its crest ; but I could not observe that it 
spread it out to any extent, although, on examining the stuffed 
specimen, the crest appears capable of being spread out as well as 
of being simply raised, as may be seen in the drawing sent here- 
with. The second drawing represents the crest in repose. The 
head and crest are of a light greyish colour, the longer feathers 
of the crest being of a lighter tint. The back, neck, and wing- 
coverts are of a dark penciled grey with brown markings, the 
latter varying according to age, and the long pinion feathers 
when spread are elegantly barred with reddish brown. On being 
chased the bird runs with great rapidity, never attempting to fly. 
On being caught it uttered a loud screaming noise, and it was 
only on such an occasion that it was ever heard to utter any 
sound. The form of the bird, together with the peculiar beak 
and Rail-like feet, are well displayed in the sketches, which have 
been kindly made for me by Mr. G. Krefft, the Assistant Curator 

* From a letter acldressecl by Dr. Bennett to the Editor, dated Sydney, 
November 21st, 1860. 



from New Caledonia. 137 

of the Sydney Museum. The bill, legs, and feet in the living 
specimen were of a reddish orange colour; in the stuffed specimen, 
in its recent state, they were of a bright scarlet colour, evidently 
varying from age or other causes. The irides are brown. The 
bird appears to be very hardy, and, as I have been informed, is 
not rare in its native country. Should it prove to be an acqui- 
sition, no doubt specimens could be procured and sent to the 
Zoological Gardens in the Regent's Park. It feeds upon insects, 
mice, birds, and raw meat, which it usually devours entire ; it is 
very ravenous for food, and often evinces some degree of pugnacity 
when meddled with. It runs with great rapidity, compressing 
the body and elongating the head and neck in a manner seen 
to obtain among the Rails. In the same compartment in the 
aviary is a living specimen of the New Zealand Rail, the Weha 
of the natives [Ocydromus australis, Sparrm.). The actions of 
these two birds are similar; and there is also a marked resem- 
blance between them in the structure of the toes. They are 
both fond of digging in the earth for worms and searching 
about the grass for insects, snails, &c. ; but the New Caledonian 
bird, when not disturbed, has a more stately walk than the Rails, 
and in that respect approaches the Herons or Cranes. It 
appears to me to form a link between the Gruida or Cranes and 
the Rallida or Rails, which, however, will be more easily de- 
cided when an opportunity occurs of examining its anatomy, 
and more especially its osteological structure. No doubt before 
long we shall be able to procure specimens for this purpose, -^hen 
I will communicate with you again on the subject*. 

* This bird is the Rhinochetus jubafus, Verr. et Des Murs, described 
and figured in the ' Revue et Magasin de Zoologie ' for last year (1860), 
p. 440. pi. 21, from a single example preserved in the "Exposition des 
produits des Colonies " at Paris. It has been referred by the describers 
(MM. J. Verreaux and Des Murs) to the Herons [Ardeidas), but is cer- 
tainly a strange and very interesting form, probably, as Dr. Bennett has 
suggested, connecting the Rails with the Herons. As no details have been 
given concerning its habits, Dr. Bennett's account of them is of great 
interest, and we sincerely trust that he may be able to cany out his inten- 
tion of sending living examples to England. At present the specimen in 
Paris is the only one known, so that skins and skeletons of this bird would 
be also much valued in this country. — Ed. 

VOL. III. L 



138 Mr. 0, Salvin's Qaesal-shooting in Vera Paz. 

XIV. — Quesal-shooting in Vera Paz. 
By OsBERT Salvin, M.A., F.Z.S. 

As the greater part of this account of the mode of collecting 
Quesals {Pharomacrus paradiseus), as pursued by the Coban 
hunters, was written at the time in the form of a diary, I have 
thought it best to preserve it in the same shape throughout. 

March 1. — Rain all day and every day is what one must ex- 
pect to encounter on visiting Coban. Such was the weather in 
November, and now, the month of March brings no signs of the 
dry season, when in Guatemala people have almost forgotten what 
rain is. When travelling from place to place, the fates have in 
general been propitious, and on coming here they did not desert 
me. Two fine days enabled me to reach Coban from San Geronimo 
with a dry skin, but the next day the usual driving, misty rain 
greeted us on rising, and morning after morning brings no 
change for the better. Luckily, I have found plenty of indoors 
work in arranging and labelling the collections made during my 
absence. Moreover, Coban has this advantage. A mere hint 
at what branch of natural history one has a leaning towards is 
sufficient to bring in specimens in an almost unbroken stream. 
Boy follows boy, till one hardly knows which way to turn to stow 
away the spoils in the shape of birds, snakes, lizards, toads, 
frogs, &c., and no small amount of time is occupied in paying 
these young rascals (for they all try to cheat) for their captures. 
Like everything else, my work appears to have an end. The 
birds are finished and packed, novelties are no longer brought 
in. The period of my stay being limited, idleness cannot be 
long endured, and I am determined, rain or no rain, to be off to 
the mountain-forests in search of Quesals, to see and shoot which 
has been a day-dream for me ever since I set foot in Central 
America. Having secured the services of Cipriano Prado, the 
most successful Quesal-hunter in Coban, and at the same time 
a bird-collector of no mean ability, and also of Filipe Sierra, 
another hunter of Coban, we are beginning to prepare for the 
journey. It is necessary to take provisions, and we are accord- 
ingly laying in a stock of salt meat, 'pixtones' (round maize cakes 
i of an inch thick), ' tamalis ' (maize puddings), and ' topopoxti ' 



Mr. 0. Salvin^s Quesal-shooting in Vera Paz. 139 

(thin maize cakes not unlike oat-cake), all of which have to be 
started the day previous to our own departure, on the backs of 
five Indians. Our proposed hunting-ground is distant three 
days' journey from Cohan, two of which lie along a road passable 
for mules. We therefore reckon on catching up our cargoes on 
the second day, and then proceeding on together. The road we 
intend to take is that between Cohan and Cajabon, which we 
follow as far as San Agustin Lanquin, and leaving our animals 
there to be sent back to Cohan, make for the ridge of mountains 
to the northward, and follow them in a westerly direction towards 
Coban. 

March 6. — The road over the Mico mountain near Yzabal, so 
graphically described by Stevens, is a tritie to that which we 
have just passed, — slippery clay, mud and stones combining to 
make progress difficult, and falling easy. In fact, it was just 
about as bad a road as one could pass mounted. Cipriano in 
descending a hill was stretched on his back. Though he com- 
plains a good deal of himself, his gun, I think, will prove to be 
the worst sufferer, as an old crack in the stock has opened and 
we have been obliged to tie it together with string, after the 
fashion of Gordon Cumming's riile. Mv mule was down on her 
knees several times, but we both managed to rise togetlier. Filipe 
fared no better. To-night we are to sleep under a rancho or 
' ermita,^ that is to say, a roof upon poles sheltering three crosses. 
Few of these roadside huts have any walls. Small as our lodging 
is, it affords shelter to some twenty-five souls; for besides ourselves, 
and an Indian to carry the hammocks and a change of clothes, 
some twenty Indians are congregated here for the night, some 
bound for Coban, some in the opposite direction, but all carrying 
their cargoes of onions, maize, &c., for sale or exchange. In my 
hammock I swing clear of everything except the smoke from the 
wood fire, the least objectionable of evils attendant upon a night 
spent in an Indian rancho. My blankets I had sewn into bags 
before leaving Coban, so that I am well provided against cold, 
which in the mountains is sometimes severe. This plan of sleep- 
ing in a bag is well adapted for a hammock, where covering below 
as well as above is necessary, as this desirable end is not so easily 
or so effectually arrived at by means of the ordinary blanket. 

l2 



140 Mr. 0. Salvin^s Quesal-shooting in Ve)'a Paz. 

March 7. — Soon after starting I shot a fine specimen of 
Accipiter erythrocnemis, and shortly afterwards one out of a pair 
of Ictinia plumbea. This last species seems to be particularly 
partial to patches of pine trees, which grow at intervals all 
through the Alta Vera Paz. The road was no improvement 
upon that of yesterday, and though we had not far to go, it was 
late in the afternoon when we reached Lanquin. Finding that 
Fray Domingo Lopez, the Padre Cura of Cajabon, was in the 
village, we went to the convent and there put up. 

March 8. — As it is necessary to take a ' practico ' or guide 
with us to the mountains, I had purposed spending a day in 
Lanquin to find one, and also two Indians, as two of those hired 
at Coban have to return with the mules and saddles. A guide is 
absolutely necessary, as my companions have never explored these 
districts; and a knowledge of those parts most frequented by the 
Quesals, as well as of the springs of water, is indispensable to the 
success of the expedition. Moreover we might lose ourselves 
in these forests for days, and the consequences would be serious. 
Most places have their ' lion,' and Lanquin is not an exception to 
the rule ; the ' lion ' in this case being a cave, out of which the 
river of Lanquin emerges. This stream helps to swell the river 
of Cajabon, and finally flows into the Polochic. The interior of 
the cave is said to be beautifully festooned with stalactites. It 
becoming known that we have resolved on an inspection of it, a 
number of Indians, boys and men, follow us from the village, and 
these, with two I have hired to carry pine for torches, swell our 
party to some twenty individuals. Each takes his bundle of 
chips, and all having fired their torches, we go in. These caves 
are always curious and interesting to see ; but the half-naked 
Indians, each with his lighted torch, scrambling about the rocks 
.in all directions and shouting to the echoes, enhance the 
strangeness of the scene. After winding in and out and climb- 
ing up and down among slippery stones, now stooping to pass 
a narrow opening, now gazing upwards into vacant blackness 
or downwards into similar obscurity, we reach the point where 
the river flows at the bottom of the cavern, not in an unbroken 
stream, but among large masses of rock, over which we scram- 
ble. Having satisfied curiosity, and the torches beginning to 



Mr. 0. Salvin's Quesal-shooting in Vera Paz. 141 

dwindle, I sound a retreat, as, had we been left in darkness, 
no amount of groping would bring us out. This cave would 
appear to be of great length ; the river that flows from it 
forms no mean stream. On leaving the cave I begin to collect 
ferns, many species of which are growing about the rocks and 
surrounding trees*. Whilst thus engaged, a shower of fruit 
from a neighbouring tree calls my attention, and looking up, I 
spy a 'Mico leon^ [Cei'coleptes caudivolvulus) regaling himself 
on a well-loaded bough. I immediately send a boy back for my 
gun, which I have left at the mouth of the cave, intending to 
return. Mico leon however makes off, but Cipriano and Filipe 
are soon on his track. The latter fires a shot, and I another, 
when the animal falls into the water and swims to the other side. 
Not being able to climb the bank, two Indians strip off their only 
garment, swim the river, despatch Mico leon, and bring him over 
between them. These Indians swim well and rapidly, striking 
out first with one arm and then the other, throwing each out of 
the water at every stroke. 

March 9. — A downpour of rain, misty, drizzling, continuous. 
However, Cipriano and I pay a visit to the cave, but the forest 
being too wet to shoot, and rain falling, I collect ferns and land- 
shells under the shelter of the overhanging rock. On returning 
to the convent I am for the rest of the day beset with Indians, 
men and boys, women and girls, bringing lizards, snakes, &c., 
showing the same excellent collecting qualities as the Coban 
Indians. 

March 10. — Still raining in the same incessant way,— not 
a thunderstorm and clear sky afterwards, as during the rainy 
season in the neighbourhood of Guatemala. At Coban and the 
Alta Vera Paz, it seems to rain at any hour and at any season. 

March 11. — Still in Lanquin, but the weather decidedly im- 
proving. During the afternoon we go out to shoot. Observing 
on a pine-tree about a dozen nests of Ocyalus wagleri, with which 
the old birds are busy, I send for an axe and have the tree cut 
down, but find neither eggs nor young in the nests. The birds 

* The collection I made during this expedition, as well as all that I 
obtained in other places, I have submitted to Sir W. Hooker, who has most 
kindly named the whole for me. Amongst the species are several novelties. 



142 Mr. 0. Salvin^s Quesal-shooting in Vera Paz. 

were only preparing: to breed. Besides this colony I see little 
of interest — a few Toucans (Ramphastos carinatics) and other 
common birds. 

March 12. — Off to the mountains at last, with a fine day and 
a fair prospect of success. The road after crossing the river strikes 
ofiP to the northward — a mountain track winding among the hills. 
Soon after entering the forest a river crosses the path — a foaming 
torrent — a fall into which gives no hope of escape. A felled tree, 
one of the largest of the forest, forms the bridge, over M'hich, 
slippery with moss and foam, we have to pass. For ourselves it 
is nothing ; but I must say I tremble for the Indians, each of 
whom carries his 75 lbs. of cargo. In the worst and most 
slippery part the foot-hold is somewhat improved by the tree 
being notched with a ' machete,' but still it is as dangerous a 
pass as I ever crossed. After half an hour's delay we reach the 
other bank. One ' mozo' only turned faint-hearted, and another 
carried his pack across. From the river the path becomes very 
precipitous, and we continue to climb till we reach the foot of a 
]-ock, where we find a deserted rancho and take possession. A 
fire having been made to heat the pixtones,we dine, and afterwards 
start for the forest close by to look for Quesals. On entering, 
the path takes the unpleasant form of a succession of felled trees, 
which are slippery from recent rains, and render progress slow. 
My companions are ahead, and I am just balancing myself along 
the last trunk, when Filipe comes running back to say that they 
have heard a Quesal. Of course, being especially anxious to 
watch, as well as to shoot one of these birds myself, I imme- 
diately hurry to the spot. I sit down upon my wide-awake in 
most approved style close to Cipriano, who is calling the bird, 
and wait, all eyes and ears, for the result. I have not to wait 
long. A distant clattering note indicates that the bird is on the 
wing. He settles — a splendid male — on a bough of. a tree not 
seventy yards from where we are hidden. Cipriano wants to 
creep up to within shot, but I keep him back, wishing to risk 
the chance of losing a specimen rather than miss such an oppor- 
tunity of seeing the bird in its living state and of watching its 
movements. It sits almost motionless on its perch, the body 
remaining in the same position, the head only moving slowly 



Mr. 0. Salvin^s Quesal-shooting in Vera Paz. 143 

from side to side. The tail does not hang quite perpendicularly, 
the angle between the true tail and the vertical being perhaps as 
much as 15 or 20 degrees. The tail is occasionally jerked open 
and closed again, and now §ind then slightly raised, causing the 
long tail-coverts to vibrate gracefully. I have not seen all. A 
ripe fruit catches the Quesal's eye, and he darts from his perch, 
hovers for a moment, plucks the berry, and returns to his former 
position. This is done with a degree of elegance that defies 
description. The remark has often been made by persons 
looking at stuffed Humming-birds, " What lovely little things 
these must look in life, when they are flying about !" But they 
do not. Place a Humming-bird twenty yards from you, and 
what do you see of its colours, except in the most favourable 
position and light ? This is not the case with the Quesal. 
The rich metallic green of the head, back, and tail-coverts 
reflects its colour in every position, whilst the deep scarlet of 
the breast and the white of the tail show vividly at a distance, 
and contrast with the principal colour of the body. The living 
Quesal strikes the eye by its colour at once. It stands un- 
equalled for splendour among birds of the New World, and is 
hardly surpassed among those of the Old. Such are my reflec- 
tions, when a low whistle from Cipriano calls the bird nearer, 
and a moment afterwards it is in my hand — the first Quesal I 
have seen and shot. 

This same evening we hear the cries of another pair of Quesals, 
but they refuse to listen to the voice of the charmer. A long 
chase after a pair of Pauhil (Crax globicera), which results in an 
ineff"ectual shot, now brings the day to a close, and, the path 
being neither very clear nor good, I think it best to return. 
On my way back I shoot a specimen of Sclerurus mexicanus, a 
bird I have never seen before. Its habits much resemble those 
of a Wren. I never saw either this individual, or others met with 
subsequently, climbing like a Dendrocolaptes, but usually hopping 
about the brushwood, and frequently on the ground, scratching 
among the dead leaves. The cry of the Sclerurus is shrill and 
may be heard at some distance. 

There is one bird in these forests which I became acquainted 
with, but was unable to procure. Nor could I obtain a more 



144 Mr. 0. Salvin's Quesal-shooting in Vera Paz. 

satisfactory account of its ajipearance than that it was coflfee- 
coloured; and abont the size of a small Thrush. Its song, which 
I heard frequently, is most peculiar, and comprises some of the 
highest notes I ever heard from any bird. It is clear and 
melodious, without having any great variation. The name 
commonly applied to it is the ' ruisefior' or Nightingale. I 
think it probable that the bird may be one of the numerous 
Wrens found in the country. 

The cries of the Quesal are various. They consist principally 
of a low double note, " whe-oo, tvhe-oo," which the bird repeats, 
whistling it softly at first, and then gradually swelling it into a 
loud but not unmelodious cry. This is often succeeded by a 
long note, which begins low, and after swelling dies away as it 
began. Both these notes can be easily imitated by the human 
voice. The bird's other cries are harsh and discordant. They 
are best imitated by doubling a pliant leaf over the first fingers, 
which must be held about two inches apart. The two edges of 
the leaf being then placed in the mouth and the breath drawn 
in, the required sound is produced. Cipriano was an adept at 
imitating these cries, but I failed in producing them for want 
of practice. When searching for Quesals the hunter whistles 
as he walks along, here and there sitting down and repeating 
the other notes. As soon as he hears a bird answering at a 
distance he stops, and imitates the bird^s cries until it has 
approached near enough to enable him either to shoot it from 
where he stands, or to creep up to within shot. The female 
generally flies up first and perches on a tree near the hunter, 
who takes no notice of her, but continues calling till the male, 
who usually quickly follows the female, appears. Should the 
male not show himself, the hunter will sometimes shoot the 
female. Thus it is that so large a proportion of males are shot. 
The flight of the Quesal is rapid and straight; the long tail- 
feathers, which never seem to be in his way, stream after him. 
The bird is never found except in forests composed of the 
highest trees, the lower branches of which [i. e. those at about 
two-thirds of the height of the tree from the ground) seem to 
be its favourite resort. Its food consists principally of fruit, but 
occasionally a caterpillar may be found in its stomach. The 



Mr. 0. Salvin's Quesal-shooting in Vera Paz. 145 

colouring of the soft parts is as follows : — Iris very dark hazel. 
Eyelid black. Bill yellow, with an olive tinge at the base, ex- 
tending over the nostril along one-third of the upper and two- 
thirds of the under mandible. Legs and toes olive; soles of 
the feet more yellow. Claws horny olive. 

The following morning, March 13, we make an early start 
for the same forests, intending to take a wide circuit and return 
to our camp under the rock the same evening. Five Quesals 
and a Pava [Penelope purpurascens) are the result of our day's 
work. 

March 14. — Having accomplished the great object of my 
expedition, viz. to see a Quesal myself, I find my time too 
valuable to bestow more attention on them, when so many other 
objects of interest lie within my reach. I accordingly leave 
Cipriano and Filipe to hunt up birds, whilst I confine my 
attention to the ferns, shells, &c. I have never visited these 
forests of Vera Paz before, and my impression is that they are 
almost the best worth seeing of anything in Guatemala. The 
forests of the coasts are rich in all the beauties which have been 
the theme of so many travellers, but they have their disadvan- 
tages. The excessive heat is always a drawback ; and if garra- 
patas abound, one's enjoyment is gone. In these mountain-forests 
it is otherwise ; no garrapatas, no mosquitos, and a climate that 
in the dry season might challenge any in the world. Most 
parts are ' montaha Umpia ' (forest free from brushwood), and 
one may ramble where one pleases, without being stopped by 
dense thickets. What strikes the eye most is the number of 
ferns, not only of plants, but species. Every tree is clasped and 
every stone clothed with them. Besides, there are many arbo- 
rescent species, and others of terrestrial habit. Palms of low 
growth and various form also are a marked characteristic of the 
forest. Few sounds are heard ; the low murmur of insects con- 
trasts strangely with the din of the coast forests. Birds are not 
often met with. An occasional Creeper {Dendrocolaptes) may be 
seen or its cry heard ; the peculiar thrilling notes of the Ruisenor, 
the distant call of a Trogon, the cooing of a Pigeon, the melan- 
choly wailing of the Pava [Penelope purpurascens), or the noisier 
call of the Colola [Tinamus), include nearly all the sounds one 



146 Mr. O. Salvin's Quesal-shooting in Vera Paz. 

hears from the feathered tribes. Should, however, a troop of 
Monos {Mycetes palliatus ?) be within hearing, every echo of the 
forest is awakened with their discordant bellowings, which it is 
no exaggeration to say may be heard at the distance of a league. 

March 15, — After some delay we start westward again, as, 
from what we can gather from the Indians, it seems evident 
that we have reached the limits of the Quesals in this direction, 
and the country between us and Co ban seems to offer the best 
prospect of success. The only mishap that overtakes us is the 
leakage of my large bottle full of reptiles. On examination the 
cork proves imperfect — a defect easily remedied, had not the 
Indian who carried it got it into his head that the rum having 
snakes in it would produce festernig sores wherever it touched 
him ! After a great deal of arguing on the subject, I induce 
one of the guides to take charge of the maligned bottle. That 
night we reach a large 'ermita,' where we sleep, and secure 
another guide for the next day to conduct us to the district of 
Rashchay, said to abound with Quesals. 

March 16.^ — On going out I perceive a pair of Ictinia plumbea 
preparing to build in a pine-tree close to the rancho we have 
been sleeping in. As there is no chance of procuring the 
eggs, I secure the birds for my collection. On entering the 
forest, a fine male Trogon massena falls to Cipriano's gun. This, 
thi-ee Quesals, and a few other birds, form the day's bag. A 
rancho half in ruins in a small clearing in the forest gives us 
shelter to-night. We prop up one corner, which has a deplorable 
tendency to droop for want of its coi-ner post, and patch up the 
most open places in the roof with the extra stock of 'suyacales' 
(mats made of reeds to cover an Indian's pack) we have brought 
from Lanquin. Filipe's hammock gives way on the first trial 
and lets him down with a run ; mine seems inclined to remain 
where it is. 

March 17. — A heavy rain tests our last night's repairs, and 
it requires no small amount of managing to place ourselves and 
our baggage out of the drops that fall in many places from the 
roof. The day clears up at 10 o'clock, and I send Cipriano 
and Filipe in diflferent directions with a guide apiece to shoot 
Quesals, whilst I and the third guide search for other things. 



Mr. 0. Salvin's Quesal-shooting in Vera Paz. 147 

My bag to-day consists of a Swift {Chahira vauxi). two speci- 
mens of a beautiful Tanager [Pyranga eryf/iTomelcEna), and a 
large addition to my collection of ferns. Cipriano and Filipe 
bring in seven Quesals between them, and one of the guides a 
single specimen of Vireolanius pulchellus. 

March 18. — As my time is limited, I have decided to remain in 
this spot, which seems likely to be productive, as long as I can, 
and then return straight to Coban. All to-day Cipriano and 
Filipe have been out ; I have been chiefly occupied in skinning 
the specimens which resulted from yesterday's excursion. I 
have taken no small amount of pains to secure good examples 
for my own collection, as I wish my Trogon-drawer to look as 
well as possible. To-day Cipriano and I have had a long chase 
after some Parrots, one of which we have at last secured*. It 
cost us many a fruitless shot, as the trees in which we find 
them are of great height, and a bird at the top of one of them 
is almost out of gun-shot. We had just secured this bird 
when a distant noise warned us of approaching heavy rain, and 
we had just time to reach our camp when a thunderstorm came 
on — a I'eal tropical storm. It is astonishing to notice the noise 
rain makes in the forest when striking the leaves of the trees. 
An approaching storm may be heard many minutes before the 
rain comes up, 

March 19. — All last night rain fell in torrents, accompanied 
by thunder and lightning. Rills of water we had stepped across 
yesterday are now small rivers, and the whole night long we 
could hear the crash of falling trees. My companions were 
seriously alarmed lest we should be swept away, I did not 
share their anxiety, as the limits to which watercourses rise are 
easily traced, and I knew that we were safe. The downfall of 
our rancho was a danger much more imminent. To-day we 
have a long journey before us, and I order an early break-up of 
the camp. On the road we shoot several Quesals, and I add 
matei'ially to my collection of ferns. The day is far advanced 
when I find that our guide has missed his way, and knows no 

* This bird proved to be an undescribed species. It now stands as 
Pionus hcematotis, Scl. et Salv., and a drawing of it will be found in the 
second volume of this Journal, plate lo. 



148 Mr. O.Salvin's Quesal-shooting in Vera Paz. 

more about the road or where he is than one of us. During 
the day I had not paid much attention to the course we were 
taking, except to know that we were going nearly in the right 
direction. My pocket compass now conies into requisition, and 
starting on the principle that a path must lead somewhere, we 
strike the most likely-looking route, which in time brings us to 
an uninhabited rancho in a clearing of Indian corn. In this 
we establish ourselves for the night. 

March 20. — As no one seems to have a very clear idea of the 
road, I, compass in hand, undertake the direction of aflfairs. 
Three hours' walk brings us into a part of the country known 
to Cipriano, and we presently strike a road which takes us over 
a high range of hills which we were skirting all yesterday. 
While ascending, I observe several Swallow-tailed Kites [Ela- 
noides furcatus) soaring above me. This bird has wonderful 
powers of flight : no eagle or vulture could sail more easily or 
gracefully in the air. Like Ictinia plumbea, I believe that this 
species breeds in the patches of pine trees which are found here 
and there throughout the forest. I gather this belief from 
common report. A little Indian village, by name Kohak, is our 
resting-place to-night. Here we are all billeted upon some 
Indians inhabiting a large long rancho with a family at each 
end. The inmates seem to have a decided turn for music, and 
we have not long established ourselves when Cipriano pitches 
upon a guitar and Filipe on a harp. They are now hard at 
work, accompanied by an Indian playing on a kind of drum, 
knocking out Indian tunes as fast as they can remember them. 
I have made myself comfortable for the night in my hammock, 
and am endeavouring to fancy myself in the act of being soothed 
to sleep by the dulcet strains that assail my ears. A long day's 
work is likely to be more effectual. 

March 31. — Nine leagues yet to walk before we reach Coban. 
I give out that I mean to finish our journey to-day ; the rest say 
no. Mountain fare has left me in capital training, and I feel 
confident of doing it if I can only get the Indians along. To 
lighten their loads I hire another Indian, so that they have no 
excuse for lagging. Four leagues brings us to the Lanquin 
road, and we eat the last of our 'toppoxti' at a place called 



Capt. C. C. Abbott on the Birds of the Falkland Islands. 149 

Kakiton. Here I cheer the Indians with some of their favourite 
drink, ' chicha,' which is neither more nor less than fermented 
hquor before it is distilled. I then walk on and reach Coban at 
half-past five o'clock. My companions and the Indians arrive 
at eight o'clock, and thus bring my last expedition in Guatemala 
to a conclusion. 



XV. — Notes on the Birds . of the Falkland Islands. By Captain 
C. C. Abbott, late in command of Detachments in the Falk- 
land Islands. 

These notes are the result of personal observations made during 
a residence of three years, from February 1858 to October 1860, 
at Stanley, the seat of government of the Falkland Islands, 
whilst I was in command of the detachments of troops stationed 
there. During this period I made frequent excursions into the 
interior of the island, both north and south, and lost no oppor- 
tunity of collecting specimens myself, and of obtaining informa- 
tion relating to the birds and other objects of natural history 
by every means in my power. I also sent home a large number 
of skins and eggs, which have now found their way into the 
different Museums of Europe. 

1. Cathartes aura (Linn.)*. (Turkey Buzzard.) 
Turkey Buzzards are very common in East Falkland, remain- 
ing the whole year round and breeding. They lay their eggs, 
two in number (but sometimes three), under a high bank 
amongst bushes, or on the top of a dead balsam log, without 
constructing any sort of nest. The time of their laying is 
about the first week in November. I have remarked that the 
young birds of the first year have the bare space on the head 
and neck of a bluish colour, as also the feet. In the mature 
bird these are both pink. These birds go in pairs the whole 
year round, though of course any dead carcase will bring many 
of them together. 

* The scientific names here given are those adopted by Mr. Sclater in 
his " Catalogue of the Birds of the Falkland Islands " (Proc. Zool. Soc. 
1860, p. 382, and 1861, Feb. 12th). The English names, added in paren- 
theses, are those employed by the colonists for the species known to them. 



150 Capt. C. C. Abbott on the Birds 

2. MiLVAGO AUSTRALis (Gmcl.). (Jolinn)' Rook.) 
This is one of the commonest birds in East Falkland. One 
or two of their nests are sure to be found near a Penguin- 
rookery. During an expedition which I made to the North 
Camp, in December 1860, I found at least fifteen nests along 
the cliffs of the north shore. All these had two young ones in 
them covered with down of a light-yellow colour. The nest is 
generally composed of the dead fibres of the Tussac-grass, and 
frequently has some sheep's wool in it. The eggs are laid in 
the first week in November, and are generally two, sometimes 
three, in number. In a nest that I once robbed of three eggs, 
on going to it again about a week later, I was surprised to find 
two more laid, one of which was a very light-coloured one. 
Mr. Darwin has well described the bold habits of this bird, 
though he appears to be in error in supposing that they only 
breed on the adjoining islets. I once had my cap knocked off 
by this bird while taking its eggs, and had it not been for a 
friendly piece of Tussac growing near, I should have fallen into 
the sea from the perpendicular cliff where the nest was situated. 
Another curious incident occurred to me with reference to this 
bird at Hope Place. On going to take the eggs out of a nest 
situated on a dead Tussac-root, I heard a rustling at my feet, 
and on looking down I saw a Loggerhead Duck {Micropterus 
cinereus) vacating her nest. This had evidently been formed 
out of the fallen particles of the previous year's nest of the 
Milvago leucurus. The Duck left five eggs and a young one in 
her nest, which seemed to me at the time to have been placed 
in a most singular situation ; but I afterwards recollected that 
the Loggerhead had chosen her position first (laying in Sep- 
tember), and could not have known at the time that she was 
likely to have such dangerous neighbours. The Milvago, although 
bold in some respects, is in others a great coward, and will 
never attack any other bird except the latter be wounded. I 
have seen the Black Oyster- catcher drive it away from its eggs. 
On one occasion I shot one of these birds for a specimen, and, 
while it was lying on the ground wounded, another came down 
and would have killed and eaten it before my eyes had I not 
interfered. The young birds of this species never get their full 



of the Falkland Islands. 151 

plumage till the second year : their beak and feet, which in the 
old birds are yellow, are of a slaty colour, and their feathers 
are also of a more sombre hue, and have no white about them. 

3. BUTEO ERYTHRONOTUS (King). 

It is not generally known that only the female of this bird 
has the deep-red back, whence Captain King chose his name 
for the species. The back of the male, which is considerably 
smaller than the female, is of a slaty blue. The young birds 
are of a mottled brown, with arrow-headed marks on the upper 
part of the breast. 

This Buzzard, which is common in East Falkland, lays two 
(though sometimes three) eggs. The nest, which is generally 
situated on a cliff near the shore, or high rocks in the camp, 
is composed of the dry sticks of the two Falkland-Island bushes, 
with generally a piece of dry grass on the top, and the nests 
appear to be built up higher every year. A singular nest, 
which I saw at Salvador Bay, was built in the open camp, on a 
small bush, and was, I should think, 5 feet high from the ground. 
The eggs are laid about the beginning of October, although I 
have taken a single egg in September. In those parts of the 
island where there are many wild rabbits these birds are much 
more plentiful than elsewhere, rabbits being their principal food. 

4. BuTEO POLiosoMA (Q. & G.) : B. varius, Gould. 

I have three times taken the nest of this bird, the young of 
which has been described as a new species by Mr. Gould. As 
neither the male nor the female, when adult, have any white on 
their breasts, and in this respect differ completely from Buteo 
erythronotus, there cannot be a doubt of its being a good species. 
This Buzzard also builds invariably on the sea-shore, laying two, 
and occasionally three eggs. Its nest is composed of sticks, and 
the time of laying is the beginning of October. I once had 
considerable difficulty in I'obbing the nest of this bird. I found 
a nest at Eagle Point, and not expecting to have any trouble in 
procuring the eggs, I shot the old bird. When I came to climb 
the cliff, I found the nest was situated in a precipitous place 
completely overhanging the sea, and about ten feet below me, so 
that, having no means of reaching it, I was obliged to return to 



152 Capt. C. C. Abbott on the Birds 

camp minus my eggs. On my return next day with an old tin 
pot, some string, and two ramrods belonging to my friends, I 
was glad to find the eggs still there, not having been eaten by 
the Johnny Rooks, as I had rather expected. I tied the three 
ramrods together and attached to them the tin pot. Thus I was 
able to reach the eggs ; but, unfortunately, after one or two 
attempts to fish them up, the bottom ramrod became disengaged 
and stuck in the nest, leaving me without any means of obtain- 
ing them. Being determined not to be beaten, I started off 
next time from the camp (three miles from the nest) with a 
large boathook, a tin pot, and a lasso, and this time, having a 
friend to assist me (for although I could lower the boathook 
into the nest, I could not see, from the position I was in, when 
I had an egg in the pot), I got all the three eggs, one after the 
other, and returned at last, pleased with my success. 

5. Circus cinereus, Vieill. 

I have never found the nest of this bird in East Falkland, but 
that they breed there is certain, as they occur the whole year 
round : they are, however, far from plentiful. I fancy they may 
breed on the contiguous islands. I have observed young birds 
of this species follow me out rabbit-hunting, and I have seen 
them swoop at a rabbit, but I never saw them kill one. One of 
these Harriers was shot near Stanley whilst endeavouring to 
carry away a fowl. They are bold for their size, and very swift 
in the air. The plumage of the young birds is of a mottled 
brown. 

6. Otus brachyotus (Gmel.) (Owl.) 

This is a scarce bird in East Falkland. It breeds in the 
long grass, as I have been informed, but I never found a nest. 
At Port Louis this species conies about near the houses at night 
in quest of mice, but I have never seen them near the town of 
Stanley. 

7. TuRDUs FALKLANDicus, Quoy et Gaim. (Common Thrush.) 
This bird is generally found among the rocks of the moun- 
tains, though sometimes frequenting the gardens in Stanley ni 
search of grubs. I have found a Thrush's nest as early as the 
19th of September. This was in a valley near Port Louis. The 



of the Falkland Islands. 153 

nest, which was neatly formed, was composed of dry grass, and 
contained two eggs. I have also found the nest of this bird 
amongst the rocks. I do not believe that it ever lays more 
than two eggs. 

8. CiSTOTHORUs PLATENSis (Gm,). (Wren.) 

How singular it is that this little bird should exist in such a 
place as the Falklands, where, if disturbed on a windy day, its 
power of flight is so weak that it is carried away by the wind ! 
Whenever I wanted a specimen of this bird, I always followed it 
and knocked it down with my cap as it was creeping through 
the grass like a mouse. I have never been able to find its nest. 
This Wren must have a game scent, as my dog has sometimes 
pointed to it when after Snipe. 

9. Anthus correndera, Vieill. (Titlark.) 

I suppose that this bird leaves East Falkland about the end 
of April, after having finished breeding ; at any rate I have never 
in all my wanderings seen one of them later than this period of 
the year. They return to the vicinity of Stanley about Sep- 
tember, and breed in the beginning of October, laying three 
eggs in an open cup-shaped nest at the root of the long grass. 

10. Sturnella militaris (Gm.). (Red-breasted Starling.) 
This Starling, which is very common in East Falkland, begins 

to breed in the first week in October. The nest is built amongst 
long grass or rushes. It is rather deep, but open at the top, and 
not domed over, and generally contains three eggs. This bird 
sits on a bush and sings very sweetly on a summer's morning. 

11. Phrygilus melanoderus (Q. et G.). (Sparrow.) 
This bird, which is called ' The Sparrow ' in East Falkland 

Island, is plentiful everywhere, summer and winter. It breeds 
in the latter end of September and beginning of October, laying- 
three eggs in a nest situated under the shelter of a tuft of grass. 
In the winter the plumage of the male loses all its rich colour 
and assimilates to that of the female. Of the second so-called 
species of this genus, Phrygilus xanthogrommus, I know nothing, 
and I do not believe it different from the former. 

VOL. III. M 



154 Capt. C. C. Abbott on the Birds 

12. Chrysomitris magellanicus (Gm.). 

One of these little birds was killed in a garden near Stanley, 
out of a flock of five, in August 1860. The example is now in 
Mr. Sclater's collection. This is the only instance I know of its 
occurrence in East Falkland, but it is said to be very common 
in Keppel Island. 

13. CiNCLODES ANTARCTICUS (Gam.). 

This bird is not found except on the coast, and the only place 
I have ever met with it is in Kidney Cove, on the island called 
Kidney Island. Here it is veiy abundant, and breeds among 
the Tussac, but I have never seen the eggs or obtained the 
nest. I do not believe that there is any second species of this 
genus found in East Falkland, although Mr. Darwin states that 
Cinclodes patachonicus is "common*" there. Nor have I ever 
seen or heard of any such bird as the Scytalopus magellanicus, 
also mentioned by Mr. Darwin. 

14. MuscisAxicoLA MACLOViANA (Gam.). (Wheatear.) 
This bird, which is not very common in East Falkland, is 

generally found near the shore. It is very much like a Wheat- 
ear [Saxicola) in its habits. During the breeding season it 
resorts to the stone-runs, or watercourses, where it breeds, no 
doubt, though I have never found its nest. 

15. Chionis alba, Forst. (Kelp Pigeon.) 

Of this curious bird one or two are generally to be found on 
the rocks of the south shore, but it is more plentiful near the 
Penguins' rookeries. Limpets and shell-fish seem to be its prin- 
cipal food, as far as my experience goes. In this respect its 
habits are very much like those of the Oyster-catcher. The 
sealers inform me that it breeds on New Island, near the 
Penguins, and lays white eggs. As I have seen these birds 
here all the year round, and never found their nests, I conclude 
that those that stay here during our summer are young birds. 

16. Attagis malouinus (Bodd.). 

I shot an Attagis, probably of this species, on the beach at 
Mare Harbour, in the beginning of October 1859. It was the 
only one I ever saw. 

* Zool. Voy. Beagle, iii. p. 66. 



of the Falkland Islands. 155 

17. HoPLOPTERUS CAYANUS (Lath.). Philomachus cayanus, 
Darwin, Zool. Voy. Beagle, iii. p. 127. 

I obtained a single specimen of this Plover in 1860, and sent 
it to England. It was shot near Stanley; and another was seen 
a short time afterwards. 

18. EuDROMiAS URViLLii (Gam.). (Dotterel.) 

It may safely be said that this is a migratory bird in East 
Falkland. The Dotterels first appear in the beginning of Sep- 
tember, when the dry peat-banks in all parts of the island are 
covered with them. Their breast-plumage is then of a beautiful 
red. They lay the first week in October (as appears from my 
note-book), placing their eggs, which are two in number, on the 
dry moss, without making any nest. The eggs are so nearly 
the colour of the surrounding ground that one almost treads on 
them before seeing them. I have sometimes, however, found 
their eggs placed under the shelter of a bush. After the breed- 
ing season the bright colour on the breast of these birds fades 
away. In the month of February they commence to gather in 
flocks along the coast, and by the end of April disappear en- 
tirely, and do not return until the end of August or beginning 
of September of the following year. I have observed that these 
birds always leave their eggs when any one approaches and 
walk away, calling all the time. Of an afternoon, however, I 
have disturbed them ofi" their nests : they appear then to sit 
more closely. 

19. ^GiALiTES FALKLANDicus (Lath.). (Double-ringed 
Plover.) 

This Plover is a spring visitor, arriving about the beginning 
of September, and breeding shortly afterwards, although I have 
also found a nest with fresh eggs in it in October. The eggs, 
three in number, are generally laid on a bank at a short distance 
from the beach, without any nest, being merely deposited iu a 
hole. 

20. HiEMATOPus ATER, Vicill. (Black Oyster-catcher.) 
The Black Oyster-catcher remains in East Falkland the whole 

year round, laying its eggs (two in number) in the beginning 
of Novembei', just one month later than our other Oyster- 

M 2 



1 56 Capt. C. C. Abbott on the Birds 

catcher {HcE-matopus hucopus). A hole, formed in the shingle 
just above high-water mark, generally on a point running out, 
is its favourite nesting-place. 

21. HiEMATOPUS LEUCOPUS, Garnot. (Black and White 
Oyster-catcher.) 

This Oyster-catcher is also common along the sea-coast, lay- 
ing its eggs in the beginning of October, sometimes on the sea- 
shore, but more frequently a little way inland, on a dry, sandy, 
soil. The eggs are two in number, as with the other species ; 
and there is no attempt at a- nest. 

22. LiMOSA HUDSONiCA (Lath.). (Godwit or Jack-Snipe.) 
Flocks of this bird were seen at Mare Harbour in the month 

of May 1860. I shot two of them at Port Louis on the 20th 
of that month. Both of these birds had the red-barred breast, 
and this would therefore appear to be their winter-plumage, as 
those shot in the summer are white on the breast. I have never 
observed these Godwits during the winter months, and, when 
they have been here in summer, I have never seen or heard of 
their eggs being fouud. They are wary, and difl&cult to obtain 
by gunshot. 

23. NUMENIUS BREVIROSTRIS (Licht.). 

This Curlew is a straggler from the coast, of which a speci- 
men has been once obtained by Captain Pack. I have never met 
with it. 

24. Gallinago magellanicus (King). (Snipe.) 

This Snipe generally appears in East Falkland about the 
middle of August, and lays very soon after arriving ; for I have 
had my dog point at them on the nest on the 1st of September, 
and I have taken two eggs on that day. In the nests of this 
bird I have never seen more than two eggs, although I have 
frequently found them, and I believe two is the complement. In 
March they mostly take their departure, although a few stragglers 
remain all the year round. They make their nests under a tuft 
of grass, of which material also the nest itself is composed. 

25. Tringa bonapartii, Schlegel. (Sandpiper.) 

This little Sandpiper appears in the summer, and breeds in 



of the Falkland Islands. ' 157 

East Falkland. I have seen the young ones, though I have 
never found the nest. 

26. Nycticorax gardeni (Jard.). (Night-Heron.) 
When I was at Hope Place, in December 1859, 1 went to see 

a breeding-place or rookery of these Herons. The places selected 
for laying were the tufts of grass near a freshwater pond, the 
whole of one side of which was covered with them. In some of 
the nests, which were composed of a few coarse sticks, were young 
ones half-grown ; in othei's, eggs (three in number), some hard 
sat upon, and some fresh. There could not have been less than 
a hundred pairs at this spot, and, as they seemed never to have 
been disturbed, they were very tame. Whether this bird re- 
mains with us during the winter I cannot say, never having 
been in the neighbourhoods which they frequent during that 
period of the year. 

27. Platalea ajaja, Linn. 

A specimen of the Spoonbill was shot in a pond near Kidney 
Cove in July 1860. The bird was in poor condition. I also 
found the remnants of another specimen in Whalebone Bay in 
the same year. 

28. FULICA CHLOROPOIDES, King? 

A Coot, probably of this species, was shot in Stanley Harbour 
and brought to me in the latter part of 1859. 

29. Chloephaga magellanica (Gm.). (Upland Goose.) 
This Goose is found abundantly everywhere in East Falkland. 

At Cow Bay, where the grass is short and sweet. Rabbits, Up- 
land Geese, and Jackass Penguins are so plentiful that the place 
is called " the Farm-yard." The Upland Goose is easily domes- 
ticated, and very readily takes to eating corn. It breeds all over 
the country, as well as on the adjoining islets, and on this point 
Mr. Darwin seems to have made a mistake, unless the disap- 
pearance of the Fox from East Falkland has caused a change in 
its habits in this respect. 

These Geese sometimes lay in the long grass, and at other 
times in the bushes on the banks of streams. The nest is rudely 
formed of grass till the laying is completed, when the bottom is 
lined with down. This is one way of telling whether the eggs 



158 Capt. C. C. Abbott on the Birds 

are sat upon or not. Owing to the gander generally stationing 
himself about one hundred yards from where the female is sit- 
ting, I used to think it was easy to find the nest ; but I have 
sometimes walked about for nearly an hour before I could come 
upon the female, who never moves until she is almost trodden 
upon. A curious peculiarity of this bird is that, when they leave 
their nest, after laying, they cover it up with straw, and when 
they leave it after the eggs are sat upon, they cover it up with 
down. No doubt, in the latter case, this is done to keep the 
warmth in the eggs, and in the former to prevent their destruc- 
tion by birds of prey. This peculiarity of covering up the eggs 
seems to be common to all the geese and ducks of the Falkland 
Islands. 

The Upland Goose lays generally in the first week in October. 
Sometimes I have found seven, sometimes eight eggs in a nest, 
the latter number being, I think, the maximum. The young 
birds nearly acquire their adult plumage the first year, and are 
only distinguishable by the mottled colour of their feet and 
their plumage being less bright. In the second year the young 
birds moult their wing-feathers, and are then found together in 
large flocks near the sea-coast, where, on being disturbed, they 
immediately run down to the salt water, being unable to fly in 
this condition. 

30. Chloephaga rubidiceps, Sclater. (Brent Goose.) 
This bird, which is called in East Falkland the " Brent Goose," 
is not so common as the other varieties, except in some places in 
the North Camp, where I have seen very large numbers, pro- 
bably a hundred, but always in pairs. The male is easily di- 
stinguished from the female by his larger size. The usual nest- 
ing-place of this bird is among dry bushes, — the male bird, while 
the female is sitting, usually being found on the edge of the 
nearest water (generally salt), which, however, is frequently not 
in sight of the nest. The eggs are generally five (sometimes, 
but rarely, six) in number. The young birds of the first year 
assimilate in plumage to the adults, except that the speculum of 
the wing is of a dull black instead of a glossy green. The time 
of laying of this Goose is the first week in October. 



of the Falkland Islands. 159 

31. Chloephaga poliocephala, G.R.Gray. 

This can hardly be called a Falkland-Island bird, although 
Mr. Gould has included it in his list given in the ' Proceedings 
of the Zoological Society *.^ During the three years I have 
been in East Falkland I have never seen but three, and these 
were met with singly, at different times, amongst flocks of the 
Upland Goose (C magellanica). Probably these birds were 
stragglers from the coast of Patagonia, where the species is said 
to be very common. 

32. Bernicla ANTARCTICA (Gm.). (Kelp Goose.) 

A very common bird along the coast. Its breeding-time is 
the same as that of the Upland Goose, and, as the nest is placed 
a few yards from the shore and quite exposed, I have frequently 
seen the female sitting from a distance. The male bird is gene- 
rally also stationed very close by, as is the case with the Upland 
Goose. The interior of the nest of this bird is covered with 
down, taken from the female only, as I have ascertained by 
the colour. The eggs are generally six or seven in number, 
and are carefully covered over with down when the bird is away 
at feed. 

33. Cygnus nigrtcollis (Gm.). (Black-necked Swan.) 
This Swan is found all the year round in East Falkland, but 

is rather scarce and very wild. In 1859 a number appeared 
in the River Murrel, and most of them moulted there. A pair 
of them which were caught did not survive long in captivity. 
The Black-necked Swan seems to breed principally on the ad- 
jacent islands, as I have never heard of more than one nest 
being found on the mainland. This was on the edge of a pond 
at Mare Harbour. 

34. Cygnus coscgroba (Mol.). (White Swan.) 

Mare Harbour is the only part of East Falkland where I have 
even seen or heard of this bird. At this spot there is generally 
a flock of eight or ten to be found. I have never seen the nest ; 
but on the 1st of May, 1860, three young ones about a month 
old were observed, which, no doubt, had been bred on some of 
the adjacent islands. 

* Proc. Zool. Soc. 1859, p. 96. 



160 Capt. C. C. Abbott on the Birds 

35. Mareca chiloensis (King). (Wigeon.) 

This is one of the wildest and scarcest birds in East Falkland. 
I have never found its nest; but it must breed late in the 
season, for young ones were seen in a pond near Port Louis in 
January. On being disturbed, the mother took them to the 
salt water, and the next day they had disappeared. On the 7th 
of April, I shot some Wigeons on the north shore with imperfect 
wing-feathers : were these young birds, or were they moulting ? 

36. PCECILONETTA BAHAMENSIS (Linn.). 

A straggler from the mainland, of which one specimen has 
been obtained by Capt. Pack. 

37. Dafila urophasianus (Vig.) ? (Pintail.) 

The Pintail Duck occurs rather sparingly in the interior of 
the island on the freshwater ponds, where it is resident all the 
year round. This Duck never utters any sound or note, either 
when rising or flying in the air — a singular exception to the 
general custom of the Duck-tribe. 

38. Anas cristata (Gm,). (Grey Duck.) 

This Duck is very common everywhere, and although some- 
times seen in freshwater ponds, generally frequents the vicinity 
of salt water. The old birds are always found in pairs in the 
same spot ; they live upon shell-fish, and have cei'tain boundaries 
of water along the coast, upon which they will not allow others 
of their species to encroach. They breed inland among the 
grass, and on the edges of ponds, laying five eggs in a beautifully 
made nest covered with down. The time of laying is the begin- 
ning of October, and frequently a month later. The crest on 
the back of the head of the male is larger than that of the 
female, but their plumage is otherwise similar. 



39. QuERQUEDULA CRECcoiDES. (Teal.) 

This Teal is more plentiful in the interior than in the neigh- 
bourhood of civilization. It is found in large flocks in some of 
the freshwater streams. I have taken the nest of this bird as 
early as the 18th of September, and I have been told that they 
lay in August. The nest is more difficult to find than that of 
any other bird that I know of. It is placed in the dry grass in 



of Hie Falkland Islands. 161 

some out-of-the-way valley that no one frequents ; and this is 
the more remarkable^ as the birds, when found in a stream or 
pond, are very tame. The complement of eggs is five. 

40. QuERQUEDULA VEiisicoLOR (Vieill.). (Pampas Duck.) 
This bird is not common in East Falkland, occurring in but 

few places, but where found is generally seen in numbers. I 
have never been successful in finding a nest of this Duck, though 
I have had the young birds brought to me, and have no doubt 
that it breeds in the island. 

41. QuERQUEDULA CYANOPTERA (Vieill.). (Ked Teal.) 

I am quite sure that a person might go out in East Falkland 
for a month, and not shoot — and even, perhaps, not see — a Red 
Teal, though at Mare Harbour I once, with a Gaucho, killed 
seven in one day. The bird is generally very wild, and far 
from common. I have never found its nest, but I have no doubt 
it breeds in the island, having seen it in pairs in the summer 
months. 

42. MiCROPTERUS ciNEREUs (Gm.). (Loggerhead Duck.) 
This Duck, which is called the ' Loggerhead ' in the Falkland 

Islands, frequents the salt water. The harbour of Stanley is full 
of them, as well as every other part of the coast. Like the Grey 
Duck, each pair has a certain district, where they take up their 
quarters, diving for shell-fish and whatever the tide throws up, 
and driving away any other of their species that may come 
within their bounds. Looking for the Loggerhead's eggs, which 
are esteemed a great delicacy, is a great amusement to all the 
boys in Stanley. The way they are found is this : — wherever a 
male bird is seen by himself on the water during the breeding- 
season, the female will be found sitting somewhere in a line per- 
pendicular to the shore opposite to him, and generally not very 
far off. My dog once found seven nests, all with the bird on, 
in a small grass valley a short way from the beach at Mare 
Harbour, pointing to them as steadily as he would to a Snipe. 
On being disturbed, it is quite amusing to see the old bird 
fluttering away towards the water ; for it is quite unable to fly. 

This Duck lays from the end of September to the end of 
November, making its nest either in the long grass or bush of 



162 Capt. C. C. Abbott on the Birds 

some kind. Seven is the usual number of eggs, though sometimes 
eight and nine are found. When the bird leaves the nest, she 
covers it up in the same manner with grass or down (according 
to whether she has finished laying or not) as I have stated is 
the case with the Upland Goose. 

43. MiCROPTERUS PATACHONicus, King. (Flying Logger- 
head.) 

The Flying Loggerhead is not uncommon in the Falkland 
Islands. It breeds in the same places as the Common Logger- 
head, but rather frequents the freshwater ponds near the sea, and 
is a difficult bird to approach from its wariness. I never shot 
but one example of it ; and this I had not an opportunity of 
comparing with the non-flying species. I observed, however, 
that it was a much smaller and lighter bird, and that the wings 
were more developed, although still small for the size of the 
body. I have seen the Flying Loggerhead take long flights. I 
once found a nest of this Duck with seven eggs in it. They 
were hard set. The bird flew out of the nest on my approach, 
high up in the air. The eggs were of the same size and colour 
as those of the common species. 

44. PoDicEPs CALiPAREUs, Lcss. (White Grebe.) 

This Grebe is found only in the interior of East-Falkland 
Island, on the small inland ponds. It never flies on being shot 
at ; and I have never seen it on the wing, though it must take 
long flights, as I have seen seven or eight of them in a pond 
one day, and next day they had all disappeared. I know 
nothing of their breeding, not having found a nest. I have, 
however, shot the young birds in their immature plumage. 

45. PoDiCEPS ROLLANDi, Q. ct G. (Black-crcstcd Grebe.) 
This Grebe is rather common, being found in both fresh and 

salt water, though more frequent on the freshwater streams. I 
have often hunted for their nests, but have never been successful 
in finding one. At Port Louis, in January 1859, 1 found a pair 
of Grebes in Fish Creek, and, wanting specimens, I fired at one, 
which I only succeeded in wounding. It went on to some stones, 
and on my approach took to the water. As it did so, two small 
dark objects fell from its back into the water and floated ashore. I 



of the Falkland Islands. 163 

found them to be young ones, both of which had been killed by 
my fii'st shot. I had not observed them previously, or I certainly 
should not have fired. 

46. PODICEPS ? 



I obtained, and sent to England, two specimens of a larger 
species of Grebe than either of the two former, in 1859. They 
were shot, I believe, near Fitzroy River, in East-Falkland Island. 

47. Aptenodytes pennantii. Gray. (King Penguin.) 

The King Penguin is an occasional visitor to the Falkland 
Islands, its true habitat being further south. I have never 
known it breed there ; but specimens of it are frequently met with 
amongst the flocks of the Gentoo Penguin {Pygosceles wagleri), 
with which it always seems to associate. 

48. Spheniscus MAGELLANicus (Forst.). (Jackass Penguin.) 
I have already described the habits of this bird, which is a 

constant resident in East Falkland, under the name Aptenodi/tes 
demersa (see ^Ibis,' 1860, p. 336). 

49. Pygosceles wagleri, Sclater. (Gentoo Penguin.) 

I have also spoken of this Penguin in last year's * Ibis * (1860, 
p. 337), as Eudijptes papua. 

50. EuDYPTES CHRYsoLOPHUs, Brandt. (Maccaroni Penguin.) 
This Penguin, which I likewise mentioned in my previous 

communication to ' The Ibis,' is always found in the rookeries of 
the Rock-hopper [Eudyptes nigrivestis), but is by no means 
common. 

51. Eudyptes diadematus, Gould, P. Z. S. 1860, p. 419. 
This new species of Penguin, which has been named by Mr. 

Gould Eudyptes diadematus, I singled out of a flock of Rock- 
hoppers in the beginning of September 1858, at Eagle Point 
Rookery. This was the only specimen I ever found of the kind. 
Capt. Smyley, an old resident in the Falklands, told me it was 
common in New Georgia, and called by the sailors the ' Tufted 
Penguin.' It has the largest crest of all the Penguins I have seen. 

52. Eudyptes nigrivestis, Gould, P. Z. S. 1860, p. 418. 
(Rock-hopper.) 

In the second volume of 'The Ibis' for 1860, p. 337, I 



164 Capt. C. C. Abbott on the Birds 

described the habits of this Penguin under the name Aptenodytes 
chrysocome. It now appears, however, that the Rock-hopper of 
the Falklands is a new species, which has been named by Mr. 
Gould, from specimens sent home by me, Eudj/ptes nigrivestis. 

53. EUDYPTES CHRYSOCOME (Forst.). 

I obtained a single Penguin (which Mr. Gould recognizes as 
being the true E. chrysocome) out of the Rock-hopper rookery in 
the North Camp in December 1859. It was the only example 
I ever met with of this variety. 

54. EuDYPTES ANTARCTICUS (Forst.). 

A specimen of a Penguin, which appears to be Eudypfes 
antarcticus, was brought to me one day, having been found in a 
bay by itself. It was evidently a stranger. On showing this 
bird also to Capt. Smyley, he informed me that it was a com- 
mon species on the islands further south, viz. Staten Laud and 
New Georgia. The example in question is now in Mr. Gould^s 
collection. 

55. Pelecanoides berardi (Q. et G.). 

This bird is not common, the only place I have seen it being 
Berkeley Soilud. It is said to breed there, in holes along the 
shores of the adjacent islands. 

56. Thalassidroma nereis (Q. et G.). 

I picked up a Petrel (dead) in March 1858, which proved to be 
of this species. 

57. Thalassidroma ? 

A nearly black species of Petrel, much resembling the 
Common Storm-Petrel {Thalassidroma wilsoni), also occurs in 
the Falkland Islands, and, I believe, breeds there. It is said to 
be always found on Long Island, in Berkeley Sound, and I have 
likewise seen several specimens picked up dead on the shores of 
East Falkland. 

58. Procellaria gigantea. (Stinkard.) 

This large Petrel is common along the shores of East Falkland, 
being generally seen on the wing, though I have occasionally 
observed them settled on the water. It breeds on many of the 
adjacent islets, and I have had many of their eggs brought to me. 



of the Falkland Islands. 165 

59. DiOMEDEA MELANOPHRYS, Temm. : Gouldj B, Austr. vii 
pi. 43. (Molly-mawk.) 

This Albatros is very seldom seen in East Falkland, but 
breeds in large numbers in the adjacent islands. The nests are 
described as being raised of mud to nearly a foot high from the 
ground, and are placed together in large communities. The eggs 
are two in number, and the birds very difficult to disturb from 
their nests, suffering the eggs, which are collected in large 
numbers and brought to Stanley for sale, to be almost taken 
from under them before moving. The eggs have been described 
by Mr. Gould from my specimens*. 

60. Lestris ANTARCTICA (Lcss.). (Skua Gull.) 

This Skua is a summer visitant, breeding in the beginning of 
December in communities, which are generally stationed near a 
Penguin rookery. They are always flying backwards and 
forwards, on the look-out to seize the Penguins' eggs. They 
make a kind of rude nest of a few sticks, and lay three eggs. 
In robbing these birds'-nests I always held a stick over my head, 
for they pounce upon one from so many directions at once, that 
it is necessary to guard one's eyes. The young birds are covered 
with a down of a yellowish colour. 

61. Larus dominicanus. (Saddle-backed Gull.) 

This Gull is a common resident, though I am inclined to 
think that many of them leave in the winter. In the beginning 
of December they commence breeding in large flocks, laying two 
eggs near the beach, or on a small island, without much attempt at 
a nest. The plumage of the young bird is grey, and continues 
so until the second year. In September these birds appear in 
large numbers, many of them immature. During the winter I 
have observed few, and these all old birds. 

62. Larus scoresbii, Trail. (Red-billed Gull.) 

This Gull breeds in December, frequently laying its two eggs 
in the communities of Larus dominicanus, but it has also separate 
breeding-places. The egg is exactly like that of Larus domini- 
canus, only smaller. The young birds have a dark hood, which 

* Proc. Zool. Soc. 185!), p. f)8. 



166 Capt. C. C. Abbott on the Birds of the Falkland Islands. 

led me at one time to think that they belonged to different 
species. 

63. Larus roseiventris (Gould). (Pink-breasted Gull.) 
This Gull is migratory, arriving in East-Falkland Harbour 

about July 25th, almost to a day, though occasional stragglers 
occur all the year round. It breeds in the beginning of December 
in separate communities on a point of the coast or adjacent 
island. The nests are placed very thickly together, and each 
contains two, or sometimes three eggs. 

I was once inclined to think the white-headed bird in the 
plumage originally described by Mr. Gould as Gavia roseiventris 
was of a different species, but I have now altered my opinion, 
and consider it to be merely the young of the Pink-breasted 
Gull in the first year's plumage. 

On the 24th of May I shot a Pink-breasted Gull, with a white 
head clouded with dusky, at Port Louis. The plumage of this 
bird was very perfect. On the 7th of July, however, I shot one 
of the same species ; the body plumage was perfect, but the head 
feathers were in a state of transition from white to black. Most 
of the black feathers being in the quill, and the specimen being 
imperfect, I did not preserve it. 

64. Sterna cassinii, Sclater. (Tern.) 

The Tern arrives in East Falkland at the end of July, very 
shortly after the Pink-breasted Gull. It breeds in communities 
on the sea-lbeach, but also occasionally inland, in pairs, laying two 
(sometimes three) eggs in each nest. It disappears about the end 
of March. 

65. Phalacrocorax carunculatus (Gm.). (King-Shag.) 
This Shag is common along the coast of the Falkland Islands 

all the year round. It breeds in the rookeries of the Rock- 
hopper Penguin [Eudyptes nigrivestis) , as I have already men- 
tioned in this Journal (Ibis, 1860, p. 338), The Cormorants' 
nests are not placed together, but here and there, all over tlie 
rookery, amongst the Penguins'. They are composed of sea-weed 
and mud, and are raised about 4 or 5 inches from the ground. 
The eggs are three in number, of a dirty white, with a strong tinge 
of green inside, and are deposited in the middle of November, 



Mr. A. A. Leycester on Prince Albert's Lyre-hird. 167 

a few days after the Rock-hoppers'. The young Shags attain 
their plumage about the same time as the young Rock-hoppers, 
that is, about the beginning of April. Then they all leave the 
breeding-ground, and the rookeiy is deserted until the next 
season. 

66. PnALACROcoRAX MAGELLANicus (Gm.). (Common Shag.) 

This Shag is very common along the coasts of the Falklands 
all the year round. It breeds on the cliffs in communities, 
making its nests, of mud and sea-weed, on the ledges of the rocks, 
and laying three eggs, which do not differ from those of the 
King-Shag in appearance. 

It appears to me probable that the thick limy coating which 
covers the eggs of this group of birds is given them in order to 
strengthen the shell. Shags, when disturbed from their nests, 
frequently, even with this additional protection, break their eggs 
with their feet, as I have myself witnessed on more occasions 
than one. 

The young of the Common Shag of the first year are uniform 
dark, nearly black in colouring ; whereas the young of the King- 
Shag attain their adult plumage the first year, before leaving the 
Penguins^ rookeries. 

XVI. — Narrative of an Excursion to the Mountains of the Rich- 
mond River, New South Wales, in quest of Prince Albert's 
Lyre-bird. By Augustus A. Leycester*. 

In order to ascertain the habits and economy of Menura alberti 
more correctly than I had hitherto done, towards the end of the 
month of April 1859, I made preparations for a shooting-cam- 
paign in the brushy mountains of the Richmond River. I first 
installed into my service two of my old favourite aborigines, Billy 
and Davy. The former was quite a young man, and had not 
yet taken to himself a wife ; the latter was about thirty years of 
age, and, being of noble family, indulged in the right of two 
wives, one of whom had two children, and the other none. We 

* Communicated to the Editor by John Gould, Esq., F.R.S., for insertion 
in ' The Ibis.' 



168 Mr. A. A. Leycester's Excursion 

agreed to take with us the unencumbered wife (whose name was 
" Polly '') to wait upon us in camp, to fetch wood and water, and 
to provide fish and vegetables for our repasts. With these 
articles she supplied us abundantly ; and though we seldom re- 
turned to camp till sunset, she generally had the fish and yams 
roasted, the tea made, and a sufficient supply of wood and water 
provided for the night ; and, being of a merry disposition, was 
usually found on our arrival singing some aboriginal song and 
beating time on two of her husband's boomerangs as she sat at 
the same time watching the pots. 

The morning of Wednesday, the 20th of April, was appointed 
for a start from my hut — a spot called by the blacks Durrigan, 
situated on the bank of Leycester's Creek, a tributary of the 
Richmond. I was aroused at grey dawn by the tinkling of my 
horse-bell, and by Davy knocking at the door and calling out at 
the top of his voice. Having, as he thought, impressed on my 
mind with his jargon the necessity of making haste, he put the 
horses in the yard, and came in for his breakfast with his two 
' gins ' and Billy. This being accomplished, I saddled Flour-boy, 
and packed Charcoal (our two horses) with about 2 cwt. of 
sundries, in the shape of tea, sugai', flour, tobacco, ammunition, 
blankets, a tent, and my apparatus for preserving skins, and 
other articles. Davy packed his wnfe at the same time with his 
own property, consisting of various "notions" too numerous to 
mention. Which of the two had the greatest load, my pack- 
horse or his ' gin,' would be difficult to say, but the latter bore it 
all cheerfully, and carried it without a word till the end of the 
day. Davy and Billy, taking each a double-bai'relled gun, a 
dirk-knife, and a tomahawk, started first to kill game on the 
road, in order to have a supply of meat for dinner and supper, 
as we did not take any with us. Polly followed next with her 
load. Having passed over ten miles of a very rough country, 
about mid-day we halted to get some dinner on a beautiful little 
streamlet covered over with a canopy of the choicest Creepers, 
which dipped in festoons into the rushing stream below. The 
rivulet meandered down the Durrigan Valley, its murmurs 
blending with the cooing of Doves, the screeching of Parrots, 
the croaking of Frogs, and the shrill cry of the Cicada. This 



in quest of Princf Albert's Lyre-bird. 169 

was one of Nature's wildest bowers. Here Polly cast off her 
load (knowing it to be a mid-day camping ground) and com- 
menced kindling a tire in her own way, disdaining any help. 
Billy and Davy soon came up, and set to work picking three 
Brush-turkeys {Talcgalla lathami) which they had shot on the 
way and preparing them for the spit. I employed myself in 
unpacking the horses and giving them water at the brook, 
having first to cut a road to it through the vines with my 
tomahawk. The horses having drunk stood by and looked on 
at us, there being no grass or anything they could eat. On 
turning round to see if the fire was in good order for roasting, 
I found Polly (the gin) had got a large Carpet-snake about 
nine feet long, curled up and in process of being cooked on a 
small fire she had made for herself. This snake she had killed 
on the road, and had packed it away in her " dillybag " without 
saying a word to any one, considering it her own private property. 
She had taken several large lumps out of the inside of the reptile, 
which was full of fat, and had laid them aside for the purpose 
of beautifying her delicate person. This operation she performed 
after dinner, heating the fat on the embers, and mixing it up in 
her hands with some powdered charcoal and a little saliva. With 
this composition she polished herself all over from head to foot, 
having first divested herself of her garments. These consisted 
merely of a short kilt made of the tails of opossums and squirrels, 
which formed a neat fringe ; and when the polish (which was equal 
to any of Day and Martin's best) was finished, she looked quite 
charming. But to return to the dinner : Polly went to work 
at the snake and despatched several coils of it, together with a 
lump of " damper " and a quart of tea, which satisfied her. She 
then began at her polish, which being completed, she smoked 
her pipe and fell asleep. Billy and Davy, having put away a 
turkey each, together with damper and tea, smoked their pipes 
and went to sleep also. 

It took me much longer to prepare and despatch my dinner, 
being rather more particular in my arrangements, and having to 
go to the stream to wash my turkey after having drawn and 
picked it — an operation considered by the blacks a wilful waste 
of the savoury parts of any game. The natives never make use 

VOL. III. N 



170 Mr. A. A. Leycester^s Excursion 

of water for culinary purposes of any kind ; nor do they em- 
ploy it in their toilet, but use instead the aforesaid mixture of 
charcoal and grease. This is generally the work of the evening, 
when they assist one another in polishing. When this is com- 
pleted they shine like a glass, and consider themselves dressed for 
their "opera/^ which consists of music, dancing, singing, and 
acting of various kinds. 

Having finished dinner, I ring the horse-bell as a signal to be 
moving. The blacks jump up and shoulder their guns, and 
start off with the dog in search of game. Polly packs herself 
and starts, not waiting for me, and anxious to get her journey 
over, I saddle and pack the horses and follow, first looking 
round the camp to see if any knives, pipes, or tomahawks are 
left behind. I start the pack-horse first : he knows the way 
and gives me no trouble, but does his best to get over the rugged 
road, knowing that plenty of grass is before him at the next 
camp. The road being very rocky and precipitous renders it 
impossible to go faster than a walk. About half an hour after 
leaving camp, I overtook the gin having a "spell" halfway up 
a steep ridge. Here I was also obliged to take a spell, and give 
the horses wind. After a few minutes we started again, and in 
about half an hour reached the top of the ridge, which was 
pretty high. Through a glade in the brush we saw at a distance 
Bald Hill, where our next camp was to be. 

This spot was an old camping- ground of mine (called by the 
blacks "Byangully"), and replete with every comfort a bush- 
camp in Australia can afford — that of grass, water, and game in 
abundance and of the best kind. It was a small prairie* on 
a bold hill, surrounded by a dense brush, twenty miles distant 
from the open country we had left behind. Whilst looking at 
our home that was to be for the night (distant about six miles), 
we suddenly heard a great shouting in a deep ravine about a 
mile below us. Polly thereupon became much frightened, and 
said the Tabbo blacks had come, and that they would murder 
her (Billy and Davy being at war with her tribe for stealing a 
young gin from them about two moons since). More shout- 
ing and two shots were heard, and then a general shout and 
* A grassy hill bare of trees is so called in Australia. 



in quest of Prince Albert's Lyre-bird. 171 

two more shots. Polly upon this threw down her load, and 
commenced howling and beating her head with a stone till the 
blood ran down her face. More shots were fired, and then a 
single shout, upon which Polly brightened up, and said that 
that was Davy^s shout, and that he had succeeded in driving his 
enemies off. We next heard a wail for the dead, and Polly 
struck up a song. I advised her to take up her pack and come 
on, but she took no notice of me, and continued howling. How- 
ever, when I rode on, she followed, singing all the time, and so 
continued for about two miles, when she suddenly screamed out, 
and, throwing down her pack, rushed up to my horse and seized 
hold of my stirrup-leather. At the same instant fifteen blacks 
stood before us and stopped our horses. They all knew me, and 
I knew some of them. They said they had come to take Davy's 
gin, and that they would have her. One of the party, more 
excited than the rest, raised his spear to kill her, but hesi- 
tated to throw it for fear of striking my horse. They told me 
that Davy had shot AVallumbin Charlie dead, and wounded an- 
other of their men, and that Billy had nearly killed a third. 
Two of them then rushed upon Polly to drag her away. I drew 
my revolver, upon which they let h«r go, and she came back to 
me and took hold of my leg. Upon this they left, saying that 
they would kill Davy and Billy, and all the tribe, when I had 
done with them shooting, but that they had no wish to ofi"end 
me, and would wait until I was gone to another country. [All 
the tribes round knew that I was going to leave the Richmond.] 
This adventure made it late before we reached the Byangully 
camp. It was nearly dark when we arrived, and we observed 
at some distance that Davy and Billy were there before us and 
had made a large fire. When we came to the camp, Davy re- 
lated the great battle they had fought, saying that they had 
fallen in with thirty Tabbo blacks, and, on hearing them at 
some distance ofi", had charged their guns with ball. [This I 
had given them in the morning for their protection, knowing 
the feud that had existed between the tribes for some time 
previous.] On their approach, Davy had fired and killed Wal- 
lumbiu (the chief), and Billy had mortally wounded another 
man ; the rest had fled away, some being wounded. Davy and 
Billy were in great glee at having gained the victory, and 

N 2 



173 Mr. A. A. Leycester's Excursion 

having shot plenty of game we had a good supper. The bag 
consisted of two Brush-turkeys, two Pademeleons {Halmaturus), 
and five Pigeons. Out of these I selected two Wonga-wonga 
Pigeons {Leucosarcia picata) for my portion, and the remainder 
was appropriated to the men's night's feeding. Having watered 
and hobbled and bedded the horses, we set to work cooking our 
suppers. Polly's former fright did not appear to have reduced 
her appetite. She commenced supper on the remains of the 
Snake, which she had put by from dinner. This seemed to re- 
fresh her appetite and to prepare her for half a Pademeleon 
which she received from her husband. This was thrown to her 
over his shoulder, that being the natives' fashion of presenting 
their wives with anything choice. The natives never allow their 
wives to cook for them any meat or game, this being business 
of too great importance ; and neither the women nor boys are 
allowed to touch the " Waukham " or Brush-turkey, there 
being some mystery attached to it. When supper was over, 
Davy suggested that all the guns should be loaded with ball 
cartridge, as he anticipated an attack on our camp during the 
night from the Tabbo blacks, and that a watch should be kept. 
Polly was set to keep the first watch till the moon rose, which 
would be about midnight ; and Billy and Davy were to take the 
subsequent portion, that being the most likely time for a rush 
at us. Polly was ordered to sing a death-song all her watch, as 
a sure plan of keeping her awake, and as further being supposed 
to produce the efiect of sending the soul of the dead black 
fellow to the right place, wherever that might be according to 
their belief. The monotonous tones of her voice and song soon 
sent me to sleep. Having received orders to wake me when 
the moon rose, she did so, as well as her husband and Billy. 
This was soon accomplished, as we all slept round one fire, not 
having erected my tent. When'all were aroused Davy proposed 
another supper (or rather breakfast), which I agreed to. They 
then finished off" all the game (with the exception of one pigeon 
which I kept for my breakfast), and in addition two opossums 
which had been added to the stock since our arrival in camp, 
having been killed whilst sporting among the branches of a tree 
close by. Polly and I then went to sleep, whilst Davy and 
Billy sung, and refreshed themselves with ^ame and tea till 



in quest of Prince Albert's Lyre-bird. 173 

morning, without an attack having been made. The dog, how- 
ever, rushed out once during the morning watch and got hold of a 
native Dingo, which he held until Davy with his " nulla nulla " 
despatched him. The tail of the dog being considered a trophy, 
it was not long before Davy had it off and skinned and tied it 
round his head. This acted as a band to keep his hair up, and 
added at the same time to his formidable appearance. 

Morning came, and with it a beautiful day, for the sun shone 
on the Bald Hill with all its glory; and the horses were feeding 
within sight of the camp, close to a little spring that gushed out 
of a small basin in the side of the hill. Breakfast being over 
we again prepared for the road, having only ten miles to do 
this day ; but it was a severe ten miles, the ranges being steeper 
than the day before. 

We expected to reach our camping-ground on the top of the 
Tanning Mountain by raid-day, but did not do so till past 2 p.m. 
The mountain had a table top covered with fine grass and 
studded over with a beautiful species of Palm-tree, called by the 
aborigines "Tanning." Its sides were covered with a dense 
brush, containing Cedars of gigantic size. Here we formed our 
permanent camp for our attack on the Calwin, or Menura alberti, 
close to a little torrent of water which ran down a rocky ravine 
on the west side of the mountain and lost itself in the dense 
jungle below. Having hobbled and bedded the horses, and 
stopped up the track by which we came up, to prevent them 
from straying homewards, we despatched Billy for a supply 
of game, and spent the remainder of the day in completing 
our camp. Davy made for himself a bark " gungah," and as 
it had the appearance of rain, we built a bark shed over our 
kitchen fire. By the time we had competed our arrangements 
Billy returned with a supply of game, consisting of three Brush- 
turkeys, a Pademeleon, and two pigeons, being an ample supply 
for supper and the morrow's breakfast. Before sunset we re- 
joiced to hear the cry of three Menuras in different directions, 
which proved to us that we were in the right spot for the de- 
struction of these most beautiful and curious birds. But to 
obtain their eggs and nest was the principal inducement to me 
for taking so nuich trouble, and it was only after nearly two 
months' hunting that I was rewarded by finding them. Day 



174 Mr. A. A. Leycester's Excursion 

after day passed away, and we could only discover two old nests 
and another being built. The male bird belonging to the latter 
we shot, not being aware at the time of the nest being close by. 
After having been out nearly six weeks, I began to despair of 
ever finding the eggs ; but about a week before my excursion 
must terminate (as I had business to attend to in Sydney), 
having been out all day, and returning to camp with Davy 
hungry and wet through, Davy suddenly cried out, and invited 
my attention to a hen of the Menura flying off from her nest. 
Davy made a rush to get up to it, but fell back, being in too 
great a hurry. The difficulty was how to reach the nest, it 
being situated on a ledge of a projecting rock thirty feet above 
us; but Davy, taking it coolly, managed with great skill to get 
up within twelve feet of it. He then directed me to cut him a 
pole fifteen feet long, which I did, and handed it up to him. 
The foot of this he stationed on the ledge he was standing upon, 
and having placed the other end against the rock where the 
nest was, in less than a minute was up to the nest, and to our 
great delight pulled out an egg. I directed him to replace it 
and come down, as I wanted to find out whether any more 
would be laid, and we then returned to camp, much delighted 
with our day's work. Having shot plenty of game, we had a 
good supper. Davy received a new blanket, a pound of to- 
bacco, and a bottle of grog (which was the reward promised to 
whoever discovered the egg first), and was in high glee all the 
evening. On the third day after this discovery we returned to 
the nest. The hen was on it, and I shot her as she flew ofl*. 
Davy ascended as before. There was still only one egg, which 
he lowered down in a small bag, making use of his opossum 
belt which he wore round his waist as a string to let it down. 
A short time afterwards the dog found the male bird and treed 
him, upon which Davy shot him. 

On blowing the egg, I found that it had been sat upon about 
a week. The old birds I stufi'ed, together with many others, 
which are now on their way to England along with the egg*. 
We remained a few days longer at the camp, and then returned to 

* This egg is now in Mr. Gould's collection, and will be figured, along 
with that of Menura superba (which it greatly resembles), in his forth- 
coming work on the Oology of Australia. — Ed. 



in qxiest of Prince Albert's Lyre-bird. 175 

Durrigaii, from which place shortly afterwards I left for Sydney. 
1 made the blacks a present of all the stores, which amounted to 
a considerable quantity of flour, tea, sugar, tobacco, pumpkins, 
and old clothes, and ordered a new gown to be made for Polly 
(Davy's gin). This she wore on the day of my leaving, making 
in some measure a better appearance than in her native polish 
of snakes'-fat and charcoal. 

The following is a short sunmiary of the result of my investi- 
gations into the habits of Menura alberti. 

This bird has been hitherto found only on the Richmond and 
Tweed Rivers, in the dense brushes which clothe the mountains 
in those districts. It is most remarkable that, although similar 
mountains and brushes exist on the rivers both to the north and 
to the south of the Richmond and Tweed, this Menura is not to 
be found in them. The range of the species appears to be 
limited to a patch of country not wider than eighty by sixty 
miles ; for though I have not been able to pi'ove this fact myself, 
for want of time, yet I fancy the information which I have ob- 
tained is pretty correct, coming, as it does, from sawyers and 
blacks who are frequently travelling from one river to another. 

The habits of Menura alberti are very similar to those of M. 
superba, as described by Mr. Gould. Having seen and watched 
both of these birds on their playgrounds, I find the M. alberti 
far superior in its powers of mocking and imitating the cries 
and songs of others of the feathered race to the M. superba ; and 
its own peculiar cry or song is diflFerent, being of a much louder 
and fuller tone. I once listened to one of these birds that had 
taken up its quarters within 200 yards of a sawyer's hut, and 
had made himself perfect with all the noises of the sawyer's 
homestead. He imitated the crowing of the cocks, the cackling 
of the hens, and the barking and howling of the dogs, and even 
the painful screeching of sharpening or filing the saw. I shot 
him in the act of crowing, I have heard some persons say that 
the Menura is polygamous, but I never saw more than a pair 
together. The cock bird commences to sing at the first dawn 
of day. Each of them appears to have its walk or boundary, 
never infringing on another's ground. I have heard them day 
after day in the same spots, seldom nearer than a quarter of a 



176 Mr. P. L. Sclater ua the occuri'ence 

mile from each other. Whilst singing, they spread their tails over 
their heads like a peacock, and droop their wings to the ground, 
at the same time scratching and pecking up the earth. They 
sing in the morning and evening, and more so in winter than at 
any other season. The young cocks do not sing until they get 
their full tails. This, I fancy, takes place in the fourth year, as 
I have shot them in full feather with the tail in four diflferent 
stages, the two centre curved feathers being the last to make 
their appearance. They live entirely upon small insects, prin- 
cipally beetles, and partake largely of sand, which accounts for 
their preferring sandy localities. Their flesh is not eatable, being 
dark, dry and tough, and quite unlike that of other birds. They 
breed in mid-winter, commencing to build their nests in May, 
laying in June, and having young in July. The nest is gene- 
rally placed on the side of some steep rock where there is suffi- 
cient room to form a lodgement, so that no animals or vermin can 
approach it. It is constructed of small sticks, interwoven with 
moss and fibres of roots. The inside is lined with the skeleton 
leaf of a parasitical tree-fern, which resembles horse-hair. The 
nest is covered over, having the entrance on the side. Only one 
egg is laid, of a very dark colour, appearing as if it had been 
blotched over with ink. The young bird for the first month is 
covered with a white down, and remains in the nest about six 
weeks before it takes its departure. It is four years before 
it arrives at maturity. The native name for this Menura is 
" Calwin.'^ 

Singleton, Dec. 9, 1859. 



XVII. — Notice of the occurrence of the American Meadow-Star- 
ling (Sturnella ludoviciana) in England. By Philip Lutley 
Sclater. 

A SHORT time ago, the Rev. Henry Temple Frere, of Burston 
Rectory, near Diss in Norfolk, forwarded for my inspection a 
specimen of the Meadow-Starling of North America {Sturnella 
ludoviciana), stated to have been killed in this country in the 
course of last year. Its plumage was in fine condition, and did 
not show the slightest traces of the bird having been in cap- 



of the American Meadow- Stnrling in England. 177 

tivity. Indeed, though living examples of this species have been 
occasionally brought to this country, the Meadow- Starling is 
certainly not an ordinary cage-bird. I may mention that the 
aviaries of the Zoological Society of London do not at present 
contain a specimen of it. 

Being convinced, therefore, that, if the bird had really been 
killed in England, it might be regarded as a fresh addition to 
the already numerous list of " accidental visitors " to these shores 
from the New World, I requested Mr. Frere kindly to ascertain 
all the particulars he could respecting the time and place of its 
occurrence. In reply, Mr. Frere informed me that the specimen 
in question was killed in March 1860 by Robert Baker, servant 
to the Rev. T. L. French. It was shot close to the railroad in a 
rough meadow at Thrandeston in Suffolk. At this time it was 
picking about among the knots of earth, and would not allow 
Baker to approach within thirty yards. Mr. Frere also told me 
that he had good grounds for supposing that this was not the 
only instance in which this species had been observed in England, 
his brother-in-law, Captain Jary, having on several occasions 
watched for some time a bird of similar appearance at Walsham 
in Norfolk in October 1854. Captain Jary, who, though not a 
scientific ornithologist, has a very good knowledge of English 
birds, in answer to inquiries on this subject writes as follows : — 
" Having referred to Sturnella ludoviciana in Audubon's plates, I 
am quite sure it is the bird that I saw at Walsham in the month 
of October 1854. I have it in my diary. I thought, when I 
first saw it, that it might be a Golden Oriole. The first time I 
observed it was in front of the house, near a plantation. I had 
no gun with me, or could have shot it. I watched it for some 
time on the soft ground, but heard no note. I saw it again next 
day in a field among some Larks ; it flew away with a quick and 
hurried flight. Two days afterwards I saw it a third time ; but 
I could not get a shot at it, as it flew away when I was about 
seventy yards ofi"." After a subsequent examination of Mr. Frcre's 
specimen. Captain Jary repeated his conviction of the bird ob- 
served by him having been of the same species. 

The American Meadow-Starling is a well-known bird in the 
United States of America and Canada, where it commonly goes 



178 Mr. P. L. Sclater on the occurrence 

by the name of the Meadow-Lark, from the strong resemblance 
of its habits and flight to the members of the genus Alauda. It 
haSj however, in reahty nothing to do with the Lark-family, 
being strictly a member of the American Icteridce, or Hang-nests. 
This group takes the place of the Starlings in the New World, 
and is closely allied to them in structure ; but, besides other dif- 
ferences, its members have only nine primaries in the wing, 
whereas in the Starlings {Sturnida;) of the Old World the tenth 
outer primary is always present. In their elaborate nest-wea- 
ving habits the IcteridcB show much resemblance to the Weavers 
{Ploceidce) of Africa and India, and in some of them (such as 
Dolichonyx) the general conformation is not very different. 

The genus Sturnella is an aberrant form amongst the Icteridce, 
its structure being modified to suit it to terrestrial habits, 
whereas the more typical members of the family are eminently 
arboreal. Accurate accounts of the present well-known species 
having been given by Wilson, Audubon, Baird *, and other 
American ornithologists, whose writings are easy of access, it 
will not be necessary to repeat them here. But it may not be 
out of place to add a few lines on the geographical distribution 
of this bird and its local varieties in the New World. 

The Sturnella, if we embrace under this name a series of forms 
nearly, if not quite, identical in structure, but slightly differing 
in dimensions and in plumage, occupies the whole continent of 
America from about the 50th parallel of north latitude f to the 
Savannahs of Venezuela in the southern portion of the New 
World, but presents certain variations in specimens brought 
from different localities, to which we may do well to attach 
different names, whether we regard them as species or as local 
varieties. 

1. Sturnella ludoviciana is the bird of the eastern parts of 

* See Wilson's American Ornithology, vol. iii. p. 20. pi. 19. fig. 2 (where 
the bird is called Alauda magna) : Jardine's edition of Wilson (1832), vol. i. 
p. 311 : Audubon's Ornithological Biography, ii. p. 216, and v. p. 4.92 
(Sturnus ludovicianus): Audubon's Synopsis of the Birds of North Ame- 
rica, p. 148 ; Bii-ds of America, pi. 136 : Baii-d's Birds of North America, 
p. 535. 

f It is a migratory species on the Saskatchewan, arriving about May 1st. 
See Richardson's Fauna Bor.-Amcr. ii. p. 282. 



of the American Meadow- Starling in England. 179 

North America, extending over the whole Atlantic watershed of 
the continent, to the high central plains. With this form, as 
might have been expected, the specimen killed in England 
agrees, and it is the bird noticed in the various references given 
in the note above. 

2. Sturnella negleda, And. (Baird, B. N. Amer. p. 537), re- 
places the Eastern form in Western America from the high cen- 
tral plains to the Pacific. Prof. Baird confesses that this bird, 
though decidedly paler in colouring, is so closely related to S. 
ludoviciana as to render it very difficult to distinguish the skins ; 
but all observers of the two living birds declare that there is a 
remarkable difference in their notes. 

3. Sturnella hippocrepis is a name founded by Wagler (' Isis,' 
1832, p. 281) upon examples of the Sturnella brought from 
Cuba. I have no very reliable Cuban specimens for comparison ; 
but Mr. Lawrence, in " Notes on Cuban Birds," read before the 
Lyceum of Natural History of New York, May 21st, 1860, has 
pointed out its differences from Sturnella ludoviciana, which con- 
sist chiefly in its narrow pectoral band and smaller size. 

4. Sturnella mexicana is the name I propose to apply to the 
Southern Mexican bird, which has the throat-band always quite 
narrow, and is in dimensions invariably much inferior to Northern 
specimens. M. de Oca's birds collected at Jalapa, M. Salle's at 
Cordova (P. Z. S. 1855, p. 301), and M. Botteri's from Orizaba, 
are all referable to this variety, which I have hitherto callt d " S. 
hippocrepis ? " Mr. Salvin's specimens from Guatemala (cf.' Ibis,' 
1859, p. 19) also belong here. 

5. Sturnella meridionalis may be the term applied to the New 
Granadian and Venezuelan variety of this widely diffused bird. 
It agrees with S. mexicana in the form of the neck-gorget, but 
is nearly of the size of the S. ludoviciana, and has the bill even 
longer. 

In concluding this summary notice of the geographical range 
of Sturnella ludoviciana and its allies, I may remark that there 
seems to be so much variation in specimens of this bird brought 
even from the same districts, that I cannot deny that much fuller 
evidence is necessary before we can consider these different forms 
(though eminently worthy of study and of record) as entitled to 



180 Mr. E. Newton's Ornithological Notes from Mauritius. 

the same rank in a natural arrangement as well-established 
species. 

XVIII. — Ornithological Notes from Mauritius. By Edward 
Newton, M.A., C.M.Z.S. No. I. A Visit to Round Island. 

Round Island lies about twenty-five or thirty miles north-east 
of Mauritius, and is about a mile and a half long by a mile wide. 
The land rises at once from the sea to about the height of a thou- 
sand feet, and is consequently very steep. Here the Red-tailed 
Tropic-bird (Phaeton rubricauda, Bodd.) breeds in very large 
numbers. They are the tamest birds I ever saw, and do not 
know what fear is. They never attempt to leave their single 
egg or nestling at one's approach, but merely stick out their 
feathers and scream, pecking at one's legs with their beaks. 
It is the fashion on the island for visitors to remove the old 
bird from its egg by a slight shove, and then placing the foot 
gently on its head, to draw out the long tail-feathers. It 
resents this insult by screaming and snapping, but never tries 
to escape by flying or shuffling along the ground ; in fact, 
like all birds which have their legs placed so far behind, they 
cannot rise ofi" a flat surface, but require a drop of a few feet to 
give them an impetus. One that had an unusually tight tail I 
lifted up and held in the air by that appendage, and it flapped 
in my hand until the feathers gave way, when it flew off", but 
having left a young one behind, returned almost to my feet in 
two minutes or so, as if nothing had happened. They do not 
appear at all particular in the choice of a place to deposit their 
single egg. They make no nest; but the shelter of an overhang- 
ing rock, or the protection of the arched roots of the Vacoa (a 
species oiPandanus), seems preferred. On one occasion I found 
an old lady asleep on her egg, and she was extremely indignant 
at being stirred up and having her tail stolen. It is curious that 
I did not see a single egg without its owner sitting on it, and 
perhaps one may hence presume that they feed at night. In some 
places their nests were excessively numerous, their eggs or young 
occurring every few yards. There were to be found about as marjy 
young as eggs, some of the former almost as large as their mothers, 
and nearly able to fly ; but I did not sec a single immature bird 



Mr. E. Newton's Omit hu logical Notes from Mauritius. 181 

that had started in Hfe on its own account, though I have no 
doubt many had ah-eady done so. Most of the eggs had been 
incubated some time ; in fact, on blowing fifty or so of them, I 
hardly think that I found half a dozen fresh, the majority being 
within a few days of hatching. I was rather short of baskets 
for carrying eggs, and consequently I did not get as many as I 
might have done. Certainly I had been told that the eggs 
might be picked up by the thousand, but I had not believed the 
statement. This species is much finer and larger than the Yel- 
low-billed one (P. flavirosiris, Brandt). Of this there were a few 
about the island ; but I did not find a single egg, or see a bird on 
the ground. When on the wing, the fine rosy colour suffused 
over the whole under surface of the Red-tailed species comes 
out very well. 

On the north-east of the island, where there is more of a cliff" 
than anywhere else, is a tolerably large colony of Petrels (perhaps 
the Puffinus chlororhynchus of Lesson), called ' Fous' — dark- 
brown birds about the size of Puffinus anglorum, with yellowish - 
white legs and feet. I dare say they are spread over the 
greater part of the island, but there are more at this one spot 
than any other. They are as tame as the Pailles-en-queue, but 
not so harmless. They breed under stones, and bite most 
awfully if they get a chance. The only way to get them out 
and take their single egg — for they, too, lay but one — is to 
contrive to turn them round so that one can grab their folded 
wings and tail. If dropped on the ground they will run about, 
and for some time will not try to fly ; but if thrown into the 
air, they will glide down gently towards the sea. On going 
near any rock where there may be a dozen or two, one bird 
seems to give the alarm, and a chorus of the most extraordinary 
sounds immediately proceeds from under ground. I hardly know 
what to compare it to, as there is nothing like it except, perhaps, 
the noise made by cats when they set up their backs and squall ; 
and though there may not be a thousand, as the imagina- 
tive boy in the story averred, yet " father's old Tom and the 
neighbour's dead 'un" could never make the row these few birds 
do. It is kept up for a minute or two, and increases when the 
individuals are hauled out in the manner above described. All 



182 Mr. P. L. Sclater on the American Barbets. 

the eggs 1 got (about twenty-five in number) were either fresh or 
nearly so. There are hardly any other birds in Round Island, 
and these two are probably the only species that breed there, with 
the exception of the small Turtle-Dove [Geopelia striata, Gray), 
of which I saw a pair — the only land-birds, indeed, I observed. 
Between Round Island and Mauritius I saw a few Frigate-birds 

[Tachypetes ?), another species of Shearwater [Procellaria 

assimilis of Gould, I think), and a few Noddy Terns {Anoiis 
stolidus, Leach). These latter are said to breed on Serpent Island, 
about two miles to the northward of Round Island, whence it 
looks as if covered with a slight snow-shower — an appearance 
said to be caused by the dung of the birds. It has only been 
once or twice visited, and we had not time to go there; be- 
sides, the landing there is always exceedingly difficult. Round 
Island for that matter is bad enough, and is only accessible two 
months in the year. On it there are still the remains of the 
cave and old stone wall which was built as a shelter by the late 
Colonel Lloyd when he was there some fifteen or sixteen years 
ago, and had to stay more than a week on account of a hurri- 
cane. The present Acting Surveyor-General, to whom the island 
belongs, and who accompanied me on my visit, was then one of 
the party. They were thought by all here to have been lost or 
starved, and a steamer was sent to their relief; but from the 
number of empty bottles that are left, they could not have done 
so badly in the drinking way. We were only away one night, 
that of November 3, and left again the following day at noon ; so 
we had not much time, and I suppose I shall not be able to get 
there again for another year. 



XIX, — On the American Barbets (Capitonidaj), 
By Philip Lutley Sclater. 

(Plate VI.) 

The true Barbets of the tropics of both hemispheres [Capitonidce) 
have been united by some systematists with the Woodpeckers 
(Picida), whilst others have mixed them up with the Fissirostral 
Bucconida or PuflF-birds — a group which cannotcertainly be placed 
far from the Kingfishers {Alcedinida). Though I agree with the 



Mr. P. L. Sclater on the American Barbets. 183 

former authorities in considering the Barbets as true Scausorials, 
I cannot join with Mr. G. R. Gray in arranging them as a sub- 
family of the Woodpeckers {Picida). They appear to me to 
have every claim to occupy a distinct station, and to be ranged 
as an independent family near the Toucans {Ramphastidce), to 
which latter group one of the genera {Tetrogonops) shows very 
considerable rapprochement. 

While the Woodpeckers are spi'ead throughout the New World 
and over the whole of the Old World, except the Australian 
region, the Barbets are strictly confined to the tropics of both 
hemispheres. In Asia, Africa, and America, however, they 
are represented by different genera ; and when their full history 
and peculiarities are better known, it is not improbable that 
the Barbets of the eastern and western hemispheres may be 
separable into two subfamilies. The known genera of the 
CapitoniddR, geographically arranged, are as follows : — 

America. Africa. Asia. 

Capita. Pogonorhijnchus^. Megalama. 

Tetragonops. Gymnohucco. Psilopogon. 

Barbutula. Megalorliijnchus. 

Trachyphonus. 

Of these three regions the Neotropical is the poorest in num- 
ber of species, though, in brilliancy of colouring and in singularity 
of form (looking to Tetragonops), the South- American Barbets 
are perhaps the most remarkable of the family. 

The Barbets occupy but a limited area in South America com- 
pared with many other of its peculiar families. Not one of them 
has yet been found to the north of the Isthmus of Panama, or 
south of the basin of the Amazon, and the species are chiefly 
confined to the countries traversed by the upper branches of this 
river, and to the mountain-valleys of New Granada, Ecuador, and 
Peru. We have few details recorded concerning their habits, 
but they are said to be seen generally in the fruit-trees, feeding on 
the fruit, and hopping from branch to branch like the Toucans f. 

* This term, proposed by Van der Hoeven in 1833 (Handb. d. Zool. ii. 
p. 446), has precedence over Leemodon, generally ado])ted for this genus, 
t Interesting particulars concerning the habits of the Asiatic CapitonidcE 



184 Mr. F. L. Sclater on the American Barbets. 

Genus I. Tetragonops. 

Tetragonops, Jard. Edinb. N. Phil. Journ. n. s.ii. p. 401 (1859). 

Rostro forti, ad basin quadrato, mandibulse apice bifuvcata et 
maxilla, supra banc leniter iucurvata, obtecta. 

Tetragonops ramphastinus. (Plate VI.) 
Tetragonops ramphastinus, Jard. Edinb. N. Phil. Journ. 1855, 
n. s. ii. p. 404, et iii. p. 92 (cum fig.). 

Pileo et nucha media cum cervice postica atris ; nucha utrinque 
laterali Candida ; dorse flavo-olivascenti-brunneo ; uropygio 
olivaceo-fiavo ; alis caudaque schistaceo-nigris, remigibus 
extus olivascentibus : gutture late schistaceo, ventre summo 
olivaceo-flavo, hoc medio et vittji pectorali coccineis ; ventre 
imo crissoque cum lateribus schistaceo-virentibus : rostro 
flavo, dimidio apicali schistaceo : long, tota 8'3, alse 4*0, 
caudte 3"25. 
Hab. in rep. iEquator. 
Mus. Gul. Jardine, Bar. 

Sir William Jardine received a specimen of this very curious 
and beautiful bird in September 1 859 from Professor Jameson 
of Quito, and described it in the ' Edinburgh New Philosophical 
Journal ' for that year, as noticed above. In the following volume 
some further details were given respecting it, and an uncoloured 
drawing of it, from the pencil of Mrs. H. E. Strickland. Sir 
William Jardine having kindly placed the stone with the drawing 
on it at my disposal, I thought that a coloured figure of this 
strange bird would be acceptable to the readers of ' The Ibis,' 
and I have to thank Mrs. Strickland for supplying me with a 
coloured copy of the plate for a pattern. 

Sir William Jardine has since received a second example of 
this bird from Professor Jameson. I particularly called the 
attention of Mr. Fraser, when he was in Ecuador, to this bird ; 
but though he visited the exact locality where Professor Jameson's 
specimens were obtained (Nanegal, on the Pacific slope of the 
western range of the Andes, as he was informed by Professor 
Jameson, and not Cayambe), he was unable to procure specimens ; 
so we must suppose the bird to be rare. 

will be found collected in Horsfield and Moore's ' Catalogue of the Birds 
in the East India Company's Museum ' (ii. p. 635 et seq.). 



Mr. P. L. Sclater on the American Barbels. 185 

The most noticeable points about the Tetragonops are the 
singular conformation of the bill (the lower mandible being 
distinctly bifurcated at its extremity, and the point of the upper 
fitting into the groove thus made), and the abnormal distri- 
bution of the colours, which strongly reminds one of some of 
the Toucans of the genus Andigena. 

Genus II. Capito. 

Capita, Vieill. Analyse, p. 27 (1816). 

Micropogon, Temm. Tabl. Meth. d. PI. Col. p. 55 (1838). 

Nyctades, Gloger, Obs. s. noms d'Ois. (1827). 

Rostro compresso, ad basin dilatato, culmine inter nares ele- 
vato : mandibula subrecta, apice acuto ; maxilla incurva, apice 
ultra mandibulam breviter protenso. 

Sectio a. Capito. 
Majores : robustiores. 

1. Capito erythrocephalus. 

Barhu de Cayenne, Buff. PI. Enl. 206. fig. 1, unde Bucco ery- 
throcephalus, Bodd., et B. cayennensis, Gm. S. N. i. p. 405 : 
Micropogon cayennensis, Temm.: Capito erythrocej)halus. Gray, 
Gen. ii. p. 430 (adult.). 

Barhu de S. Domingue, Buff. PI. Enl. 206. fig. 2, unde Bucco 
cayennensis, var., Gm. S. N. i. p. 405: Micropogon navius, Temm.: 
Capito navius, Gray, Gen. ii. p. 430 (juv.). 

Capito cayennensis, Schomb. Guian. iii. p. 720 : Le Barhu de 
la Guyane, Le Vail, Ois. de Par. ii. pis. 23, 24, 25. 

Niger, sulphureo variegatus : alis et cauda fuscis, extus virescen- 
tibus : pileo flavicante, fronte lato et gutture rubro-coccineis : 
abdomine pallide sulphureo : lateribus nigro obsolete macu- 
latis : pectore et lateribus totis in juvene nigro distincte gut- 
tatis: long, tota 6"5, alee 3*1, caudse 2'0. 

Hah. Guiana. 

Mus, Brit., P.L.S. 

There is no doubt now, we believe, that the Capito navius is 
merely the young of Capito erythrocephalus, and that the spots 
gradually disappear, in the manner pointed out by MM. Deville 
and Des Murs in their article upon the following species, leaving 
the abdomen pure and unspotted in the adult bird. 

VOL. III. o 



186 Mr. P. L. Sclater on the American Barbets. 

2. Capito amazonicus. 

Micropogon amazonicus, Deville et Des Murs, Rev. et Mag. de 
Zool. 1849, p. 174; Des Murs, Zool. Voy. Casteln, Ois. p. 28. 
pi. 3. fig. 2. 

Similis Capitoni peruviana, sed gutture rubro : long, tota 5*3, 
alse 2'3, caudse 2-1. 
Bab. Ega and Santa Maria, Upper Amazon {Deville). 
Mus. Brit. 

MM. Deville and Des Murs describe this bird as forming an 
intermediate variety between C enjthrocephalus and C.peruvianus. 
A skin in the British Museum, which seems to be referable to it, 
was obtained by Mr. Wallace at Ega, and is marked : " Iris 
orange ; tongue cartilaginous, flat, not fringed : in stomach 
seeds." It resembles Capito peimvianus except in its red throat, 
in which respect it is clearly intermediate between C. erythro- 
cephalus and its Amazonian representative. 

3. Capito peruvianus. 

Le Barbu orange de Perou, Le Vail. Ois. de Par. ii. pi. 27. p. 63. 

Bucco peruvianus, Cuv. Regne An. (1829) i. p. 458. 

Capito peruvianus, Gray's Gen. ii. p. 430 ; Deville et Des Murs, 
Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1849, p. 161. 

Capito punctatus, Less.Tr. d'Orn.p. 65; Gray's Gen. ii. p. 430 ; 
Des Murs, Icon. Orn. pi. 20. 

Capito aurifrons, Vig. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1832, p. 3; Gray's Gen. 
ii. p. 430. 

Eubucco aurifrons, Bp. Consp. p. 142. 

Micropogon flavicollis, Bp. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1837, p. 120. 

Capito flavicollis, Gray's Gen. ii. p. 430. 

Micropogon aureus, Temm. PI. Col. (sub tab. 490). 

Le Barbu de la Guyane, ii. var.,Le Vail. Ois. de Par. pi. 26. p. 63. 

Niger, sulphureo variegatus, pileo toto virescenti-sulphureo : 
gutture aurantio : abdomine flavo : pectore et lateribus in 
juvene nigro squamatis et guttatis : long, tota 7*0, alse 3'5, 
caudse 2*2. 
Hab. Interior of New Granada ; Rio Napo ; Upper branches of 
the Amazon ; Rio Javarri {Bates); Chamicurros {Hawxwell). 
Mus. Brit., P.L.S. 

This species is easily distinguished from its representative in 



Mr. P. L. Sclater on the American Barbets. 187 

Cayenne by the want of the bright-red front, and the throat being 
orange instead of red. The younger birds are more or less 
spotted below, as in Capito erythrocephalus, and have been de- 
scribed as different, under the name of Capito punctatus. The 
irides, as noted by Mr. Hawxwell, are red. 

4. Capito aurovirens. 

Le Barbu oranvei't, Le Vail. Prom. Suppl. pi. E. 
Bucco aurovirens, Cuv. Regn. An. (1829) i. p. 458. 
Micropogon aurovirens, Bp. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1837, p. 120; 
Bp. Consp. p. 142. 

Capito aurovirens, Gray's Gen. ii. p. 430. 

6 virescenti-fuscus : pectore late aureo : mento albescente : pileo 

coccineo : long, tota 7*5, alee 3'4, caudse 2*5. 
$ pileo concolore : mento albescente. 
Hab. Pemvian Amazon, Sarayacu on the Ucayali {Cast, et 

Deville, Hawxwell) ; Bio Napo. 
Mus. Brit. 

Examples of this beautiful species obtained by Mr. Hawxwell 
on the Ucayali, now in the British Museum, are marked " Irides 
red." Specimens have likewise been received by Sir William 
Jardine from the Rio Napo, through Professor Jameson. 

Sectio b. Eubucco. 
Minores : coloribus Isetioribus. 
5. Capito pictus. 

Barbu de Maynas, Buff. PI. Enl. 330, unde Bucco pictus, Bodd. 
Tabl. d. PL Enl. 

Capito maynanensis, Gray's Gen. ii. p. 430, ex Brisson. 
Bucco elegans, Gm. S. N. i. p. 406. 
Le Barbu elegant, Le Vail. Ois. de Par. ii. pi. 34. p. 76. 
Eubucco pictus, Sclat. P.Z. S. 1857, p. 268. 

Viridis : pileo et gutture medio coccineis : mystacibus latis et 
torque angusto cervicali undique glauco-cseruleis : pectore 
flavo : ventre flavo viridique fiammulato, macula magna 
mediali sanguinea : rostro flavo, basi plumbea : pedibus 
nigris : long, tota 6*0, alse 2*6, caudse 2-0. 

Hab. Bohvia (?). 

Mus. Derbiano. 

The only example I have ever seen of this Barbet is in the 

o 2 



188 Mr. P. L. Sclater on the American Barhets. 

Derby Museum at Liverpool. It was purchased from Mr. Cu- 
ming by the late Lord Derby in 1846, and is labelled "Bolivia;" 
but the skin has every appearance of being of the Bogotan make. 
This species may be easily distinguished from the following, with 
which it has been sometimes confounded, by the broad blue 
moustaches which descend on each side of the throat, and are 
united below the red chin by a narrow blue throat-band. In 
Capita tschudii, the sides of the face between the head and the 
throat are yellow. 

6. Capito tschudii. 

Capita erythrocephalus, Tsch. F. P. p. 260 (nee Bodd.). 
Euhucco erythrocephalus, Sclat. P. Z. S. 1857, p. 268. 

Viridis : nucha griseo-cserulea : pileo et oculorum ambitu cocci- 
neis : subtus flavus, gutture et pectore medio coccineis : 
margine subgutturali cseruleo, deinde aurantiaco : lateribus 
et crisso viridi flammulatis : crass, spec, prsec. 

Hab. Eastern Peru [Tschudi). 

Mus. Bremensi et Novo-Castellano. 

My characters are taken from a specimen in the Bremen col- 
lection received direct from Tschudi. 

7. Capito bourcieri. 

Micropogon bourcieri, Lafr. R. Z. 1845, p. 179, et Rev. et 
Mag. de Zool. 1849, p. 116. pi. 3. 

Capito bourcieri, Gray^s Gen. ii. p. 430. 

Eubucco bourcieri, Bp. Consp. p. 142 ; Sclater, P. Z. S. 1854, 
p. 115, 1857, p. 267, et 1860, pp. 95, 297. 

Viridis : vitta nuchali angusta cserulescenti-grisea : capite toto et 
gutture ad medium pectus coccineis : loris et mento nigris : 
ventre medio sulphurascente, lateribus flavo viridique flam- 
mulatis : rostro plumbeo, apice flava : pedibus nigris : long, 
tota 5'5, alee 3*2, caudae 1*9. 

Hab. Interior of New Granada ; Rio Napo ; Esmeraldas and 
Nanegal (Fraser). 

Mus. Brit., P.L.S. 

This bird was originally received in collections from Bogota. 
Examples of it were likewise contained in Mr. Gould's collection 
from the Ecuadorian province of Quixos on the Rio Napo, of 
which I gave a hst in Proc. Zool. Soc. for 1854 (p. 109). Mr. 
Fraser has more recently obtained specimens of it, of slightly 



Mr. P. L. Sclater on the American Barhets. 189 

larger dimensions, though apparently not otherwise different, at 
Esmeraldas and Nanegal, on the opposite side of the Andes. 

8. Capito richardsoni. 

Capita richardsoni, Gray^s Gen. ii. p. 430. pi. 106. 
Eubucco richardsoni, Bp. Consp. p. 142; Sclater, P.Z.S. 1857, 
p. 267. 

Capito sulphureus, Eyt. Cont. Orn. 1849, p. 130. 

Viridis : vitta cervicali postica cinerascenti-cserulea : capite toto 
cum macula nientali saturate sanguineo-coccineis : gutture 
pallide sulphureo : pectore sanguineo perfuso : ventre flavo 
viridique flammulato : long, tota 5*5, alse 2"5, caudse 1*75. 

Hab. Interior of New Granada. 

Mus. Brit, P.L.S. 

The dark-grey posterior neck-band is an easily distinguishing 
characteristic of this bird, as compared with the next species. 

9. Capito aurantiicollis. 

Eubucco aurantiicollis, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1857, p. 267. 

Viridis : vitta cervicali postica clare flavicanti-viridi : capite toto 
et macula mentali saturate sanguineo-coccineis: gutture au- 
rantiaco : pectore coccineo : ventre flavo viridique flammu- 
lato : long, tota 5*5, alse 2*7, caudse 1*8. 

Hab. Peruvian Amazon : Rio Javarri {Bates) : Ucayali 
[Hawxwell) . 

Mus. Brit., P.L.S. 

This species closely resembles the preceding, but may be di- 
stinguished by its light greenish-yellow (not grey) posterior neck- 
band, orange (not yellow) throat, and deeper scarlet breast. Mr. 
Hawxwell's examples are marked " Iris red."" 

10. Capito hartlaubi. 

Micropogon hartlaubi, Lafr. R. Z. 1845, p. 180, et Rev. et Mag. 
de Zool. 1849, p. 176. pi. 6. 

Capito hartlaubi, Gray's Gen. ii. p. 430. 

Capito capistratus, Eyt. Cont. Orn. 1849, p. 131. 

Megalaima capistratus, Eyt. Cont. Orn. 1850, p. 29. pi. 45. 

Eubucco hartlaubi, Sclater, P.Z.S. 1854, p. 115, et 1857, 

p. 268. 

Viridis : fronte, loris et meuto nigris : frontis margine postico, 
superciliis et capitis lateribus grisescenti-cseruleis : pileo au- 



190 Mr, A. Newton on the Possibility 

rescente : vitta lata cervicali antica aurantia : pectore pallide 
sulphureo : ventre flavo et viridi flammulato : long, tota 5'0, 
alse 2'7, caudse 1'8. 

Hab. Interior of New Granada and Rio Napo. 

Mus. Brit., P.L.S. 

11. Capito melanotis. 

" Eubucco hartlaubi, ? aut juv.," Sclater, P.Z.S. 1857, p. 267. 
Capito melanotis, Hartlaub, in Mus. Bremensi. 

Viridis : loris et regione auriculari nigris : superciliis post oculum 
aurescentibus : subtus viridis, gutture grisescente, mento 
albo : vitta cervicali antica sulpliurea : ventre flavo et viridi 
flammulato : crass, spec, prsec. 

Hab. New Granada, Rio Napo, and Peruvian Amazon ; Ucayali 
[Hawxwell) ; Rio Javarri {Bates) . 

Mus. Brit., Bremensi, P.L.S. 

I am still not cei-tain as to whether this bird is really distinct 
from C. hartlaubi. It difiers from that species in the green cap, 
which has, however, an aurescent tinge, in the black (not blue) 
sides of the head, which are bordered behind by a golden post- 
superciliary mark, and in the yellow (not orange) throat-band. I 
have not yet met with intermediate forms, and am rather disposed, 
at present, to agree with Dr. Hartlaub in making it specifically 
different. I should remark, however, that both Mr. HawxwelFs 
specimens in the British Museum are marked " female." 

12. Capito glaucogularis. 

Capito glaucogularis, Tsch. Av. Consp. inWiegm. Archiv, 1844, 
p. 301, et Faun. Per. p. 259. pi. 24. fig. 2. 

Eubucco glaucogularis, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1857, p. 268. 

Viridis : facie et gutture cseruleis : loris nigris : vitta antica cervi- 
cali ruberrima : abdomine viridi : ventre flavo et viridi flam- 
mulato : crass, spec, prsec. 

Hab. Eastern Peru {Tsch.). 

Mus. Bremensi. 

XX. — On the Possibility of taking an Ornithological Census. 

By Alfred Newton, M.A., F.L.S. 

To attempt the taking of an Ornithological Census of these islands 

was a favourite idea of Mr. John Wolley's ; so much so, indeed, 

that I believe he used to regard its accomplishment as the chief 



of taking an Oy-nithological Census. 191 

requirement of British ornithology. To this opinion I cannot 
entirely consent; but I nevertheless think that if some such 
approximate estimate could be made, it would be extremely ad- 
vantageous not only to English ornithologists, but to those of 
foreign countries ; and that, if more generally extended to other 
branches of natural history, it might furnish results of a very 
valuable, not to say unexpected, character. 

Just at this time, when we are on the eve of taking the human 
census of the British Empire, I think, then, it is not inappro- 
priate to bring a somewhat similar design as regards our Fauna 
to the notice of naturalists. With this view I am about to com- 
municate to the Linnean Society some remarks bearing upon 
the question of a general zoological census, while I here propose 
more especially to call the attention of ornithologists to the 
particular application of Mr. Wolley's project. 

I am not so sanguine as to hope that any immediate steps 
will ensue from this paper ; but if my brother-students will but 
lend the matter their consideration, perhaps, before the close of 
the existing generation, we — or, rather, our successors — may be 
in a position fairly to begin the work. Indeed, beyond stating my 
conviction that a census of our birds merely can only be taken 
by the co-operation of nearly all the ornithologists in the 
country, I am not at present prepared to offer any suggestions 
as to the method to be employed. But I wish to make a few 
observations on the subject. 

Now as to the probable utility of such a census, to which I 
imagine many will at the outset demur. It is unnecessary in 
these days, if it ever was otherwise, to show how much light has 
been thrown upon natural history by an understanding of the 
geographical distribution of species. Yet our acquaintance with 
this extensive field of research is very limited. The six great 
physical regions of the earth^s surface have been defined with 
more or less accuracy, but the details are far from being filled 
in. Meritorious efforts have been made to determine the summer 
range of the Nightingale and the lines of the Crane's simultaneous 
arrival. The progressive advance of the Republican Swallow in 
North America, of the Grey Partridge in Scandinavia, and of the 
House Sparrow in Siberia has been recorded. The respective 



192 Mr. A. Newton on the Possibility 

parallelism which obtains in certain families or genera inhabiting 
the Greater Antilles has been noticed, and a comparison made 
between the number of New-World and European species which 
find their way as stragglers to our shores. But little has been 
ascertained with respect to the distribution of British birds. 
However, I know that one of my friends, distinguished by his 
remarkable diligence, has now for some time been employed 
on this deeply interesting subject, and as I trust that before 
long he will have made sufficient progress to offer to the public, 
in these pages, some of his investigations, I will say no more on 
this head, but turn to what I conceive will prove to be the most 
important result of such an inquiry as I have indicated. 

Two of the expressions which have lately become very familiar 
to the ears of naturalists are the " Struggle for Life," and the 
" Preservation of Favoured Races " therein. Each of these 
points, as it seems to me, would be greatly elucidated by the 
carrying-out of Mr. Wolley's idea. Every one must admit our 
present knowledge respecting them to be very meagre, and 
I cannot help thinking that before we can assign any cause for 
the predominance of one species over another, we should strive 
to ascertain the measure of that predominance. I confess I 
hardly know yet, which is to be regarded as the dominant species 
of bird in a small and well-explored country like England, I 
believe there are many more naturalists who will confess the 
same. The different local lists that have been published scarcely 
enable us to form an opinion on the subject, excellent though for 
other purposes they may be. Seldom do we find in them more 
definite intelligence concerning a given species than that it is 
"common" or "rare" — expressions which often refer as much 
to the individual powers of and opportunities for observation 
possessed by the compiler, as to the peculiarity of the species ; 
and expressions which must always be vague, if not arbitrary. 
Still more difficult is it to say why in one part of England a 
species is abundant or scarce, compared with what it is in another. 
Of course there are some exceptions to this, which will imme- 
diately occur to the reader^s mind, as in the case of sea-birds 
not frequenting the interior, or mountain -birds not inhabiting 
the level country. But can any one say why, in Devonshire, the 



of taking an Ornithological Census. 193 

unvaried notes of the Chiff-chaff are as commonly heard as the 
joyous song of the Willow Wren^ while, in the parish in which 
I am writing, the latter bird outnumbers the former by many 
hundreds to one; or why, again, in some of the northei*n coun- 
ties the Wood Warbler is nearly as numerous as the Willow Wren, 
while here it is not more common than the Chiff-chaff? Of 
course the ready reply is, " Oh, it is owing to the difference 
in the habits of the species, and in the character of the locality." 
But this is really no answer ; for immediately I rejoin, what are 
those differences ? and, at present, I have no means of gratifying 
my curiosity on this point. Nor will, I suspect, a satisfactory an- 
swer be found until we have reliable information not only as to 
the approximate proportion which the species I have named bear 
to each other in different districts, but also as to the relative 
abundance of other species which influence their existence. This 
opens a wide region for inquiry, wherein not only the student of 
other branches of zoology, but also the botanist and the geolo- 
gist must help us ornithologists, and accordingly the object of 
my communication to the Linnean Society is to invite such 
assistance. 

I regret extremely that among Mr. Wolley's papers I can find 
few memorandums or suggestions bearing on the subject, and 
yet I know that towards the close of his life it occupied his 
thoughts not inconsiderably. He first acquainted me with his 
idea in a letter from Ormoga in (Eland, dated June 7, 1856, in 
which he stated, that at the meeting of Scandinavian naturalists, 
which he was then about to attend, he should like to "give 
some account of the British birds, of which so little is known 
on the Continent beyond the bare list." He wished to begin 
"by naming the birds which are commonest in England and 
most characteristic of our bird-fauna ;" above all, " to be able to 
represent by numbers the relative abundance of each species : 
throughout Great Britain put a Sparrow at 1,000,000, and an 
Osprey at 1, what will be the intermediate figures ? " As may 
be readily imagined, I was unable to supply him with any facts 
that he could use, and consequently his design was abandoned, 
but, as I trust, only to be taken up and completed some day by 
the numerous ornithologists of this country. However, I had 



194) Mr. A. Newton on the Possibility 

subsequently many opportunities of discussing the matter with 
him, and the considerations recorded in this essay are among the 
results of the consequent interchange of ideas between us. 

I have already stated my entire ignorance of what is the 
dominant species of bird in England generally. At first sight 
one might be almost inclined to suppose, as Mr. Wolley (in the 
passage I have just quoted) seems to have thought, that the 
House Sparrow is the most abundant of our birds. There is no 
question that it is one of the most characteristic ; for this is shown 
as well by a walk through the streets of London as by a ramble 
in the country. But on inquiry I think it will be found that 
there are numerous and extensive districts in which its pre- 
dominance cannot be admitted. Its habits incline it to the vici- 
nity of human civilization. Where it does occur, it of necessity 
obtains notice. In localities further removed from the haunts of 
men it is clearly outnumbered by the Sky Lark, the Yellow Ham- 
mer, and the Chaffinch, and these localities form the majority. 
Difficult therefore as it is to strike the balance, I am of opinion 
that its claims must be disallowed. 

After some reflection, I have come to the conclusion that the 
Grey Partridge in this particular district is the most abundant 
species we have. I do not now pretend to assign for the fact 
any causes beyond those which will immediately occur to the 
reader — the long-continued and systematic destruction of its 
especial enemies, and its still more ancient protection during 
the breeding-season by the law of the laud. In other counties I 
well know the fact is otherwise. In parts of Gloucestershire or 
Monmouthshire, one cannot find in a week as many as may be 
seen in an afternoon^s stroll in this neighbourhood ; and yet, as 
far as human aid goes. Partridges are as carefully preserved there 
as here. 

Still further, I am almost inclined to doubt if, in any exten- 
sive district in England, say a county of average size, any species 
is more numerous than the Grey Partridge is hereabouts. But I 
own freely that I am writing in comparative ignorance, and it 
may well be that I am mistaken. Let it therefore mei'cly rest 
as an assumption, insufficiently supported at present by evidence, 
for the sake of seeing what further inferences may be drawn from 



of taking an Ornithological Census. 195 

it. It is a pretty general belief among those who have to do with 
game, that there are few, if any, manors which, one year with 
another, will yield the gun a bird to the acre; on the other 
hand, in the majority of cases the proportion will not be anything 
like as large : so that, admitting the truth of each of these hypo- 
theses, their combination serves to show that in no one species of 
bird in England do the numbers reach one to an acre ; and thus, 
though on very unsatisfactory grounds, do we obtain a limit in 
one direction of the ornithological population of this country. 

As regards reducing to practice any of the suggestions I have 
here mooted, I also desire to speak with great diffidence. I may 
on a future occasion have to detail a method of recording obser- 
vations, which during some years has been followed by my brother 
and myself, and which, though not originally begun with any 
such design as that here advocated, still would undoubtedly 
furnish means of determining many points in connexion with an 
ornithological census. It seems to me, however, that materials 
for attaining the end I seek already exist, as regards at least one 
species, to a considerable extent. I allude to the " Game Books " 
which are now so commonly kept on different manors; and I think 
that nothing but a little ordinary care in applying the results to 
be obtained from a somewhat general inspection of these useful 
registers would furnish a sufficiently accurate return as far as 
relates to the Grey Partridge. No doubt many proprietors might 
evince a disinclination to submit such valuable records to be 
examined by a stranger ; but much of this might also be overcome 
by the tact of the ornithological statistician, who could with good 
reason urge that, by the comparison of local registers of this 
description, he would from them very possibly supply preservers 
of game with many deductions of a highly important nature. 
For from an extended examination of such books, or abstracts of 
books, it is not unreasonable to suppose that he would be enabled 
to tender many recommendations worthy of attention. He would 
be in a position to state, with authority in proportion to the 
amount of information communicated to him, in what districts 
it would be possible, and in what districts impossible to increase 
the stock ; and in the former case he would at least be able to 
give advice as to the means whereby the wished-for result might 



196 Recent Ornithological Publications. 

be attained. I therefore counsel any one desirous of giving effect 
to Mr. Wolley^s idea to begin by polling the Partridges. 

There is one other point on which I would say a few words 
before concluding these remarks, and that is, on the great caution 
requisite not only in making the observations themselves, but 
also in drawing inferences from them. Scarcely any one is aware, 
until he has tried for a long time, how hard a thing it is to 
observe correctly. I have taken no small pains in this matter for 
some years, and the chief result is that I have learned to doubt 
many of my earlier observations, and consequently not to place 
implicit confidence in my later ones. As to the inferences, it is 
an old saying that anything may be proved by statistics, and a 
true one, if the statistics be not collected and worked up with the 
utmost fairness. It seems to me that the mere arrival at what an 
ordinary observer may fancy to be an approximate enumeration of 
the individuals of a species is not so very difficult. The danger 
to be guarded against lies in the not making sufiicient allowance 
for the effects of causes, which I would call the disturbing forces, 
having an origin entirely independent of ornithology, such as 
unwonted abundance or dearth of food, — seasons, wet or dry, cold 
or hot, beyond the average. These must always exercise more 
or less influence on its numbers, while their continued variability 
makes their influence only to be duly appreciated by an observer 
of prolonged experience. With these considerations I leave the 
subject to the readers of ' The Ibis.' 
Elveclen, 4th March, 1861. 



XXI. — Recent Ornithological Publications. 
1. English Publications. 
We have little doubt that most of our readers are already well 
acquainted with ]\Ir. Tristram's work on the " Great Sahara*," 
which will indeed require no recommendation to those who have 
read that gentleman's lifelike sketches of a portion of his travels, 
and his interesting notes on the birds met with " south of the Atlas 
Mountains," already published in this Journal. As, however, 

* The Great Sahara : Wanderings South of the Atlas Mountains. By 
H. B. Tristram, M.A., F.L.S., &c. 1 vol. 8vo. London, 1860 (Murray). 



Recent Ornithological Publications. 197 

Mr. Tristram^s book, though not strictly an "ornithological 
publication," contains frequent references to the "feathered 
tribes," and moreover a zoological appendix, in which a full list 
of the birds of the Sahara is given, we feel bound to allude to it 
in our quarterly record of the events which relate to ornithology, 
and we take the opportunity of recommending its perusal to all 
(whether learned or unlearned in birds) as an instructive and 
amusing account of a region hitherto seldom penetrated by 
European travellers. We sincerely hope, also, that the success 
which, as we understand, the present work has already attained 
may induce Mr. Tristram to carry out his plan of giving us a 
second volume on the Regency of Tunis without further delay. 



Some apology is owing from us to Dr. George Bennett for 
not having before made mention of his ' Gatherings of a Natu- 
ralist in Australasia*,^ containing, as it does, many ornitholo- 
gical notices, the greater number of which, however, have already 
appeared in the 'Proceedings^ of the Zoological Society. The 
work is illustrated by several beautiful plates, two being of birds : 
the one by Mr. Angas, the well-known draughtsman at Sydney, of 
that rare species the Australian Jabiru [Mycteria australis); the 
other, from Mr. WolPs inimitable pencil, of the Mooruk(CV/sMarms 
bennetti), so often mentioned in these pages, and the discovery of 
which is due to the learned Doctor's zeal. It is indeed much to 
be wished that more of our brethren dwelling in the land of the 
Southern Cross would interest themselves in natural history, as 
the author of this work has done, and that speedily ; for the 
Australasian fauna is doubtless about to undergo considerable 
changes, owing to the efforts now being made to people the 
Antipodes with European species. 

A peculiar feature of Australian ornithology is the extraordi- 
narily sudden and hardly yet accountable appearance of birds, 
often in great numbers, in particular districts where they had not 
before been seen, and their equally strange and total disappear- 
ance after a period generally short, but occasionally of consider- 

* Gatherings of a Naturalist in Australasia, &c. By George Bennett, 
M.D., F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c. London: J. Van Voorst, 1860. 1 vol. 8vo, 
pp. 456. 



198 Recent Ornithological Publications. 

able duration. Dr. Bennett^ in terms quoted from the introduc- 
tion to Mr. Gould's well-known ' Birds of Australia/ cites several 
instances of this irregular migration, mentioning NympMcus 
nova-hollandice, Melopsittacus undulatus, Leucosarcia picata, Pe- 
ristera histrionica, Geronticus spinicollis, Threskiornis strictipennis, 
and, above all, Tribonyx ventralis, as especially subject to it. 

The author offers us (pp. 186, 187) a description of the egg of 
Menura superba, furnished him by Mr. Gould, of which that 
gentleman states, "up to the present moment (December 1859) 
no correct delineation or description has been given." We do 
not know whether this observation is meant to refer to the 
account foraierly published in the ' Birds of Australia,' or to 
that of Herr Ludwig Becker in the ' Journal fiir Ornithologie ' 
for 1856, where an egg, said to be of this species, is both de- 
lineated (pi. 2. fig. 18) and described (p. 133). Herr Becker's 
specimen seems not to differ from that of which the account is 
to be found in Dr. Bennett's pages, more than the eggs of the 
same species often do. 

Should the ' Gatherings of a Naturalist ' reach a second edi- 
tion, we hope the author will give us a clearer explanation of the 
diagram at p. 78, which, he says, will serve to illustrate the pecu- 
liar flight of the Albatros. At present it appears to be impossible 
to comprehend it. 

The ' Journal of the Royal Dublin Society' for July and Oc- 
tober 1860 contains some " Notes on the Zoology of the last 
Arctic Expedition under Captain Sir F. L. M'Clintock," by Dr. 
David Walker, the ornithological portion of which is an amplifi- 
cation of the paper already published by this gentleman in this 
Magazine {' Ibis,' 1860, p. 165). We observe that the author 
withdraws from his revised list the name of Anas fuligula, which 
was included by him, in the article just alluded to, and by so 
doing justifies the doubt since expressed on the subject by Pro- 
fessor Beinhardt in his paper on the Birds of Greenland pub- 
lished in our last Number ('Ibis,' 1861, p. 1). We think it 
a matter of regret that Dr. Walker should have quoted, so much 
as he has done, from Edwards, Richardson, and Temminck, with 
respect to the geographical distribution of species ; for many of 



Recent Ornithological Publications. 199 

their assertions, now repeated by him, have been shown by later 
investigations to have been founded in mistake, and several 
errors are thus perpetuated. 

2. German and Dutch Publications. 

Dr. R. A. Phihppi's * Journey through the Desert of Atacama,' 
of which we gave the title in our last Number (p. 109), contains 
a special chapter on the zoology of this singular and nearly 
rainless region of the Chilian republic, besides veiy many obser- 
vations on every branch of natural history scattered throughout 
the narrative of the expedition. The account given of the birds 
(p. 161) is short and not very satisfactory, owing to the specimens 
collected having been partly mislaid and lost. The species men- 
tioned as occurring within the limits of the desert are 33 in num- 
ber, the greater part of them belonging to well-known Chilian 
species. Polyborus montanus [i. e. Milvago megalopterus, vide antea, 
p. 19) is the commonest bird of prey in the desert, and in this 
part of Chili descends to the coast. Trochilus leucopleurus {i.e. 
Oreotrochilus leucopleurus), a bird belonging to a group of Tro- 
chilida generally supposed to be confined to the higher Cordilleras, 
also descends here nearly to the coast, having been met with near 
Hueso Parado, at an elevation of not more than 1000 feet above 
the sea-level. IJpucerthia atacamensis (p. 162, Zool. pi. 3) seems 
to be identical with Cinclodes bifasciatus, Sclater, described in 
the Zoological Society^s ' Proceedings' for 1858 (p. 448), from 
examples collected by Bridges in Bolivia. Totanus chilensis 
requires further examination and comparison. The new three- 
toed Flamingo, already described by Dr. Philippi in 1854*, is, 
perhaps, the most interesting bird of the Atacamian desert. We 
find the following notice of its habits (p. 57), as observed near 
Tilopozo : — 

" Two hundred yards from our well were six Flamingoes, of a 
new species without the hind-toe {Phoenicopterus andinus, mihi), 
which is only found in the high Cordilleras, but, as it appears, 
is not uncommon from Peru to Copiapo. It is wonderful that 
no naturalist seems to have seen it before. Garcilaso de la Vega 

* Annales de la Universidad de Chile, 1854, p. 164 : Gilliss's U. S. Nav. 
Astr. Exp. ii. p. 198 : Archiv f. Nat. xxi. p. 10. 



200 Recent Ornithological Publications. 

(the son of one of the companions of Pizarro and Ahnagro) was, 
however, acquainted with this hird, and says it is called Parri- 
huana. In the desert of Atacama it bears the abbreviated name 
Parrina, and is without doubt the " Red-breasted Flamingo " of 
which Mr. Bollaert speaks in his description of the province of 
Tarapaca. It breeds on the elevated lakes of the Andes, and its 
eggs are brought for sale to the market of Atacama in December. 
At this time (January 19th) the females were incubating.^' 



Of the ' Journal fiir Ornithologie ' we have received numbers 
3, 4, and 5 for the past year. Dr. Hartlaub's " Systematic 
Review of the Birds of Madagascar " is completed in the third 
number, and has been since issued in a separate form, which we 
shall notice in our next Number. The same number contains 
original articles by Dr. Cabanis on three African Thrushes, which 
he proposes to form into a group, to be called Psophocichla; 
and by Ferd. Heine on two new species of Alcedinida from the 
Pacific islands, and on a new Xiphocolajites, belonging to the 
typical section of the genus. 

In the 4th number of the same Journal is a very important 
article by Professor Burmeister, being a systematic list of the 
birds observed and collected by him during his recent expedition 
to South America. The three stations chosen by Professor 
Burmeister for his observations (at each of which he remained, 
we believe, for about a year) were Parana, IMendoza, and Tucuman, 
all in the Argentine Republic. Of these, the latter was in a 
district far less known to naturalists than the two former, and, as 
might have been expected, the most striking novelties in Professor 
Burmeister's list were met with in this locality. The total number 
of species enumerated in Professor Burmeister's list is 261, of 
which no less than 23 are considered to be new* to science. 

Although we believe Professor Burmeister is preparing to 
publish a work containing the results of his travels, and will, no 

* Falco punctipennis, however, is, we suspect, the bird already described 
by Dr. Kaup (P. Z. S. 1851, p. 43) as Harpagus circumcinctus ; and Conurus 
brunniceps, as we have ascertained by examination of a typical specimen 
received from Prof. Burmeister by Mr. Salvin, is Conurus aymara (d'Orb.), 
figured in Souance's unfinished work on Parrots, pi. 23. 



Recent Ornithological Publications. 201 

doubt, give in it full descriptions of these and other new species 
discovered in other branches of natural history, we must confess 
that we consider the diagnoses here given a little too meagre, 
and certainly rather calculated to deter one from describing any 
species at all resembling them than to lead to their identification. 
Some of his novelties, such as Geobeemon ri(fip€nnis, Coryphistera 
alaudina, Saltator multicolor, and the second species of Cariama, 
w^hich Dr. Hartlaub has with such propriety named after its 
learned and enterprising discoverer, must certainly be recognized 
as most interesting additions to the class of birds. 

In the 5th number of the same Journal Dr. Cabanis has com- 
menced a detailed account of the series of birds lately received 
by the Berlin Museum from Costa Rica, through the exertions 
of three Prussian travellers — Dr. von Frantzius,Dr. Hoffman, and 
Dr. EUendorf, of whom Dr. Hoffman has, unfortunately, lost his 
life in the country he was so energetically exploring. Of this 
communication, which contains much of interest, especially to 
those amongst us who have been working at the ordithology of 
Guatemala, we propose to give a more extended notice when the 
following portions are issued. 

When one of our good friends and colleagues published his 
Gallinula minor os, a "new species" in the same Journal (p. 341), 
he had surely forgotten all about ' The Ibis,^ and the Gallinnla 
pumila already described and figured in our first volume. We 
recommend him to write us a penitent letter asking pardon for 
his offence, and promising never to offend again in like manner ! 



Herr Badeker's ' Eier der Europaischen Vogel ' has reached 
its sixth part, and continues to exhibit much the same merits and 
failings as those on which we have before remarked ('Ibis,' i. 
p. 400). Thus, though not a few of the eggs of each species 
are well represented, we seldom are told on whose authority 
we may rely for the genuineness of the specimens figured. 
The writer of the letter-press, while regarding the Barn-Ovvl 
of North America [Strix pratincola) as identical with that of 
Europe {S. flammea), yet considers Lagopus montonus distinct 
from L. mutus, — the difference between these latter being, we 

VOL, III. P 



202 Recent Ornithological Publications. 

should imagine, quite inappreciable to any naturalist not belong- 
ing to the family of Pastor Brehm ! 



Professor Schlegel's contribution to the little annual published 
by the Society ' Natura Artis Magistra/ of Amsterdam, consists 
this year of " Some words on the Black Cockatoos and the Para- 
dise-birds," in which he gives a general review of the geogra- 
phical distribution of these groups of birds. We may remark 
that Professor Schlegel unites under one generic name in his 
present notice the Paradisea and Epimachi. As to these birds 
belonging to the same natural family, we think there can be little 
doubt ; but we suppose that even Professor Schlegel would not 
arrange them all under one generic name except in a popular 
publication like the present. The habitats of the Paradise-birds, 
as far as they are yet known, are stated with great precision. 

3. Scandinavian and Russian Publications. 

The second part of the second volume (new series) of the 
' Transactions ' of the Royal Swedish Academy (Kongliga Sven- 
ska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar), published last year, 
contains a valuable contribution to the ornithology of South 
Africa, in the shape of some "Zoological Notes of the late 
Johan Fredrik Victorin, compiled and arranged from his papers 
by J. W. Grill," communicated to the Academy on the 16th 
August, 1858. Victorin arrived at Cape-town in November 
1853, where he continued collecting until the end of February 
following, when he sailed to the eastward for Mossel Bay, and 
thence proceeded by George-town to Knysna — his " land of 
promise." There he remained until the next December, return- 
ing by a circuitous route through the Karroo to Geoi'ge-town. 
He finally left Cape-town in March 1855, having thus passed 
sixteen months in the southern districts of the colony, during 
which time he appears to have collected very diligently. The 
fruits of his expedition seem to have been nearly all presented 
to the Museum at Stockholm, and, we are informed, contained 
517 examples of birds of 153 species, and the eggs of 11, all 
stated to have been in first-rate condition. But far better than 
these seem to have been the careful notes which he affixed to his 



Recent Ornitholoyical Publications. 203 

specimens or entered in his Journals. From these, Herr Grill's 
paper has been drawn up, and in a manner well deserving of 
imitation, — Professor Sundevall supplying the diagnoses of the 
new species of birds, which are, Bradijpterus victorini and B. 
sylvaticus, both obtained at Knysna. 

Victorin himself unhappily died of consumption soon after his 
return to his native country, at the age of twenty-four years. 
Herr Grill very properly remarks, in his introductory note to 
this communication, that " the Bird-fauna of the Cape colony 
not having hitherto been separated from that of CafFre-land, and 
Le Vaillant in his '^Oiseaux d^Afrique' having still more con- 
fused our knowledge of the subject by mixing up a number of 
species from Australia, India, Madagascar, America, &c.*, eveiy 
collection, with accurately given localities, and notes made on 
the spot, is of the greatest weight." Such a collection was 
Victorin' s : it is stated to have been made "with extraordinary 
care and skill,'' — every specimen being not only beautiful and 
well prepared, but marked with the date, locality, sex, colour 
of the eyes and feet, dimensions, and other explanatory circum- 
stances. In addition to this, he kept, as has been before men- 
tioned, very compendious journals, chiefly written in English, 
partly under the name of " Zoological Notes," and partly under 
that of "Day Book." His early death is assuredly well described 
as a severe loss to science. 



Dr. L. von Schrenck's work on the Birds of Amoorland, of 
which we have given the title in our last Number (p. Ill), is a 
most valuable contribution to our knowledge of the geographical 
distribution of the species belonging to the Palsearctic Avifauna, 
and requires a few remarks from our pen. We must premise 
that Dr. v. Schrenck was placed in command of a scientific 
expedition for the exploration of the newly acquired Russian 
territory on the Amoor, sent out by the Imperial Academy of 
Sciences of St. Petersburg in 1854. The species treated of in 
this work are mainly such as came under Dr. v. Schrenck's 
personal observation during his two years' sojourn in that counti-y, 
with the addition of those collected by Herr Maack, who made 

* Kongl. Vet. Akad. Handl., Band ii. No. .3 (1857) : ' Ibis,' 1^5!), p. 324. 

]• 2 



204 Recent Ornithulugical Publications. 

an expedition from Transbaikalia to the Amoor and back in 
1855; and by Herr Maximowicz, a botanical collector in the 
employ of the Imperial Botanical Gardens of St. Petersburg, who 
was also travelling on the Amoor from 1854 to 1856. The whole 
number of species thus embraced in the body of the work is 190. 
At the end of the volume, however, before conclusions are drawn 
as to the general character of the ornithology of this country, 
extended lists are given of other species attributed to the same 
locality by different authorities, and of such as might have 
been expected to have been found there from their occurrence 
in localities not far distant, so that every endeavour has been 
made to render this volume a complete guide to the ornithology 
of this part of the world. 

With the general conclusion drawn by Dr. v. Schrenck from 
these elements, " that the prevailing character of the Avifauna 
of Amoorland is Eui'opao- Siberian" or, as we should prefer call- 
ing it, Pal^arctic, we fully agree ; but when we come to dis- 
cuss the foreign elements which are certainly present, though to 
a very limited degree, we must say a few words upon the method 
which our author has followed in treating of his species. On 
the difficult question where we are to draw the line between 
" species " and " local varieties," we have on one side the views 
of such naturalists as Mr. Wallace, who broadly state that it 
matters not how small the difference is between two represent- 
ative species provided it be constant, and on the other the prac- 
tice of many eminent zoologists, who are accustomed to class 
together a large number of species, usually considered as distinct, 
as merely local or climatic varieties of one typical form. Between 
these opposite views there is certainly ample room for every 
shade of opinion. Every naturalist, indeed, has his own ideas 
on this matter. The fact is, that the amount of difference 
requisite to establish specific distinctness between two sets of 
individuals is, as has been well maintained by an eminent writer, 
whose views are adverse to the real existence of species, "a 
matter of opinion," and we should therefore be very careful in 
blaming writers whose ideas on this point may be at variance 
with our own. But, nevertheless, this much is to be said upon 
the subject, the truth of which we presume few will venture to 



Reeent Ornithological Publications. 205 

deny. In the first place, every variation of form, however 
minute, w hether considered specific or not, is worthy of record ; 
and, secondly, perfect specific identity should not be predicated 
of any two sets of forms coming from widely distant regions 
without actual comparison of examples. When difierences are 
often so minute and yet so constant, it is not sufficient to draw 
conclusions as to specific identity from descriptions and figures, 
however excellent. Now against this last rule it appeai-s to us 
that Dr. v. Schrenck, no doubt owing mainly to the want of 
opportunity — certainly not from the wish to escape work — has 
in many instances ofi'euded ; and we shall proceed to notice a few 
of them, to some of which our attention has been particularly 
directed by Dr. Hartlaub. 

Acanthylis caudacuta (p. 250) is considered identical with 
the Australian bird. It may be so; but such a point can 
only be considered established after examination of a large series 
of examples from each locality. Had the Amoorian bird been 
united with the Himalayan form, Acanthylis nudipes [Hirundo 
nudipes, Hodgs. ; Cypselus leuconotus, Delessert), we should 
hardly have made the same objection. But we cannot allow 
that the same '^ species " of bird can exist in two widely sepa- 
rated localities without existing also in the intermediate space, 
and we have never heard that this Acanthylis has been met with 
in the Indian peninsula, Java, Sumatra, Borneo, or New Guinea. 
Dr. V. Schrenck's suggestion that the bird regularly migrates 
from the Amoor to New South Wales cannot surely be serious*. 

Alcedo ispida, var. bengalensis (p. 265). This "local variety 
of our Kingfisher," as Dr. v. Schrenck prefers to call it, is a 
much smaller bird than A. ispida, but has the beak remark- 
ably longer. In this case, however, an elaborate discussion is 

* The existence of this Swift in N.E. Asia will perhaps explain the 
occun-ence of the so-called " AustraUan Spine-tailed Swift " in the British 
Islands. We have little doubt that it was a wanderer from Eastern Asia 
that was recorded under this name (Zoologist, 1846, p. 1492) as having 
been captured in this covmtry, if the statements there given are to be 
relied upon. Such an occurrence would not be more unlikely than that of 
Anthus richardi, Turtur gelastes, Phylloscopus superciliosus sen reguloides, 
and other accidental visitors to Western Europe from the far East. 



206 Recent Ornitholugical Publications. 

entered into upon the variations, and a scries of measurements 
is given, and we have no complaint to make. 

Pica cyanea, Pallas (p. 318), of Siberia, is very unnecessarily 
united with the Spanish bird. Pica cooki, Bp. It may be- very 
true that in the Siberian bird the amount of white at the 
termination of the two medial rectrices varies a little ; but had 
Spanish examples been examined, it would have been seen at once 
that the white spot is here not present at all ! 

Coi'vus monedula ! (p. 324) . Even Professor Schlegel, who 
cannot be pronounced a species-maker, allows Corvus dauricus 
to be a distinct species from the European Jackdaw. Dr. v. 
Schrenck does not even consider it as a permanent local variety. 
It is very true that intermediate forms are found. In S.E. 
Europe we have Corvus collaris of Drummond, which may be 
so termed. But there are several, not to say many, well- 
known cases of intermediate forms between representative 
species. 

Cinclus pallasii (p. 331) is united with Cinclus mexicanus — 
a union, which such examples of these birds as have fallen under 
our inspection would certainly not justify. 

Oriolus cochinsinensis, var. indica ! (p. 346). The Black- 
naped Orioles are certainly separable into several well-marked 
local forms, which ought not to be confounded, whether they are 
called species or varieties. The true Philippine bird {Oriolus 
acrorhrjnchus of Vigors) is much larger than O. sinensis, to which 
race we suppose the Amoor specimens belong, and has no trace 
of the yellow speculum. If Dr. v. Schrenck had a series of 
examples from all the diflFerent localities before him, we have 
little doubt he would be able to distinguish them easily. 

Lusciola [Nemura] cyanura, Pallas (p. 361), is, we are informed, 
" without doubt " the same bird as that which Hodgson has 
described as Nemura rufilata from Nepal. That these two 
species are congeneric we well believe ; but that they are strictly 
identical could not be safely predicated without an accurate com- 
parison of specimens. Dr. v. Schrenck has not had the oppor- 
tunity of doing this, perhaps ; but even an examination of the 
figure of Nemura rufilata in the ' Contributions to Ornitho- 
logy^ might have niduced him to modify his assertion. The 



Recent Ornithological Publications. 207 

Nepalese bird has not even a trace of the large and conspicuous 
white ante-ocular spot. 

That Zosterops japonicus (p. 365) of N.E. Asia should be 
identical with Z. chloronotus, Gould*, of Western Australia, is, 
when we recollect that Z. chloronotus itself is only the West- 
Australian representative of Z. dorsalis, a statement so entirely 
contrary to the canons of geographical distribution, that we should 
hardly believe our eyes if it were proved to us by actual com- 
parison of specimens. But what can we say when this identity 
is established merely on an examination of Mr. Gould's figure 
of the Australian bird ? The two species are, in truth, conspi- 
cuously different, the Asiatic bird being much smaller, and 
having the abdomen very differently coloured. 

Tetrao canadensis (p. 399). It is now well known, we should 
have thought, to every European naturalist, that the Siberian 
Grouse, called by Middendorf by this name, is by no means 
identical with the American T. canadensis or T. franklinii, whether 
these^ be considered as two species or as one. Dr. Hartlaub 
pointed out the very marked and unmistakeable characters which 
separate the Asiatic Tetrao falcipennis from the American bird 
in 1855 (Cab. Journ. f. Orn. p. 39), and examples of the former 
with its singularly constructed wing are now found in most of 
the larger collections of Europe f- 

It would be easy to continue remarks of the same sort as the 
preceding ; but we rather return to Dr. v. Schrenck's general 
observations on the birds of Amoorland — a subject to which he 
has devoted some very interesting pages. Of the 190 species 
enumerated in the body of the work as appertaining to this por- 
tion of its fauna, he considers berths to be Europseo-Siberian 
and ^ths Siberian, the remaining y^th being intruders from 
Southern Asia and more distant localities. An examination of 
the eighteen species which are included in the latter category 
gives us but few belonging to really extraneous types. Peri- 
crocotus and Zosterops are the two most noticeable, if not the 
only such, of which the former is a pure Indian genus, and the 

* The true name of this bird is Z. gouldi, Bp. (Consp. p. 398), — Z. 
chloronotus being a Mauritian species. 

t We may particularize those of Paris, Bremen, and Brunswick. 



208 Recent Ornithological Publications. 

latter conimou to the Indian, Australian, and ^Ethiopian regions. 
The only species described by Dr. v. Schrenck as new to science 
is a small Sylvian — Salicaria [Calamodyta) maackii — nearly allied 
to Calamodyta phragmitis, C. cariceti, and C. aquatica, of which 
a figure is also given. We must also not fail to call attention to 
some of the notices of rarer Anatida in this volume. The true 
breeding-quarters of the Mandarin Duck {Aix galericulata) — a 
" very common bird" on the Amoor — were, we believe, previously 
quite unknown. And, in conclusion, we must again remind our 
readers of the great value of the whole work, even though excep- 
tion be taken to some of its details. We may, indeed, say that 
Dr. v. Schrenck's volume is absolutely essential to any one who 
wishes to attain a complete knowledge of the birds of Europe, or 
even of England, as giving details concerning the range of the 
greater part of our native species, and a fauna of a country 
whence many of our rarer stragglers have been derived. 

4. American Publications. 

The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia have issued 
their ' Proceedings ' up to the close of 1860. At p. 374 will be 
found a paper of much interest to those of our friends who have 
been working at the ornithology of the West Indies, being a 
Catalogue of Birds from the island of St. Thomas, collected and 
presented to the Academy by Mr. Robert Swift, with notes by 
Mr. Cassin. Twenty-seven species are enumerated, Tijrannula 
martinica is evidently the same bird as is described in Proc. 
Zool. Soc. 1860, p. 314, as Elainia riisii*. Before adopting for 
it the Linnean name employed by Mr. Cassin, we should like to 
see specimens from Martinique. Dendrceca petechia is rightly 
distinguished from D. cestiva of the continent t. The Humming- 
bird (No. 12) should be Eulampis chlorolcemus. The Eupsgcho?-- 
tyx, about which there has been some discussion in this Journal 
(antea, p. 114), is considered to be E. sonninii — "exactly the 
species figured by Mr. Gould under the name, and identical with 

* See also ' Ibis,' 1860, p. 30/. 

t Compare Dr. Cabanis's remarks on this section of the DendrceccE in 
' Jovn-n. f. Orn.' 1860, p. 327. His D. rujiceps, of which we have exa- 
mined many specimens, is the same as Mr. Cassin's D. vieilloti, Proc. 
Acad. Philad. 1860, p. 192. 



Recent Oj- nit ho logical Publications. 209 

specimens in the Academy's collection labelled * Venezuela ' 
and ' Cumana.' " 

Through Mr. Lawrence's kindness we have received copies of 
two papers published by him in the ' Annals ' of the Lyceum of 
Natural History of New York. His notes on Cuban birds contain 
the results of a comparison of some specimens from Dr. Gund- 
lach's and Mr. Forns's collections with their American repre- 
sentatives. Tinnunculus sparverioides of Vigors is considered to be 
distinct from T. sparverius. The Cuban bird^ representing Acci- 
piter cooperi oi Northern and A. pileatus of Southern America, 
is regarded as different from either, and named A. gundlachii. 
Accipiter fringilloides of Vigors is re-established as distinct from 
A. fuscus of the United States. Of Cymindis wilsoni of Cassin, 
specimens sent by !Mr. Forns agree very closely wdth the original 
description and figure in the Journal of the Philadelphian Aca- 
demy. We fear our figure in the first volume of this Journal 
has been somewhat in fault in inducing Mr. Lawrence to sepa- 
rate the Gymnoglaux into two species, the white spots being 
certainly present in the S. Croix bird. We do not believe that 
Gymnoglaux newtoni is diflferent from G. nudipes ; and Mr. Law- 
rence seems to have forgotten that the term nudipes was founded 
on specimens from Porto Rico. If there are two species, there- 
fore, examples from Porto Rico must be examined before it can 
be asserted that the Cuban bird is " assuredly the true nudipes" 
Another new species from Cuba is described as Antrostomus 
cubanensis, representing the continental A. vocife}"us. The Den- 
drceca called albicollis is, we suppose, the true D. petechia, as 
recently determined by Mr. Cassin in his paper on the birds of 
St. Thomas, referred to above. Other notes of interest are given, 
upon the specimens received, which belong in all to 27 species ; 
and the whole paper forms a very acceptable contribution to our 
knowledge of this peculiar Island-fauna. 

A second paper of Mr. Lawrence, read at the same date (May 
21, 1860), describes two new birds from the Isthmus of Panama, 
Myiarchus panamensis and Phlegopsis macleannani. 

Mr. Elliott's Eupsychortyx albifrenatus, also described in the 
'Annals' of the Lyceum of Natural History (April 1860), is 
evidently Ortyx leylandi, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1859, p. 62. 



210 Letters, Extracts from Correspondence, Notices, <Sfc. 

A printed sheet of four pages (forwarded to us by post) gives a 
list of the birds observed round Quebec, by J. Le Moine, Esq., 
drawn up " after the system of the Smithsonian Institution." 



XXII. — Letters, Extracts from Correspondence, Notices, ^c. 

We have received the following letters : — 

To the Editor of ' The Ibis.' 

26 Perabridge Gardens, Baysvvater, 
1st February, 1861. 

Sir, — During a stay in Egypt in the latter part of 1857, I 
shot near Kafr Dowar, a village on the Mahmoudieh Canal near 
Alexandria, a specimen of Budytes cinereocapillus. This was the 
only one that came under my notice. Heuglin, who is, I beheve, 
the latest authority, does not include this species in his ' Syst. 
Ueb. d. Vog. N. 0. Afrika's,' so I send you the above notice of 
its occurrence for publication in ^ The Ibis,' if you think it of 
sufficient interest. M. Loche gives it as an inhabitant of Algiers 
(Cat. Mamm. et Ois. de PAlgerie, p. 80), while B. rayi is the 
only species found in Western Africa (Hartlaub, System d. Orn. 
W. Afrika's, p. 72). I may add that I was fortunate enough to 
obtain a Chettusia leucura, which I saw exposed for sale in the 
market at Alexandria. It had been shot in the vicinity by an 
Arab gunner, but does not generally occur below the Cataracts. 

Yom-s, &c., John Cavafy. 



To the Editor of ' The Ibis.' 

Foi'dingbridge, February 12th, 1861. 

SiR^ — In your periodical for October last, I ventured to direct 
attention to the non-existence of a reliable list of British birds, 
and to express a hope that this want might soon be supplied by 
some of your able contributors. 

On referring to your interesting review of Herr Badeker's and 
Dr. Brewer's oological works in 'The Ibis' for October 1859, I 
have more than ever felt the difficulty under which I labour from 
not knowing what birds really ought to be considered British. 

I am quite prepared to accept your list of thirty-five British 
desiderata as perfectly authentic, although Mr. Hewitson figured 



Letters, Extracts from Correspondence, Notices, 3^'c. 211 

three of them (Snowy Owl, Great White HeroD, and Bewick's 
Swan) in his second work, and, so far as my memory serves me, 
omitted only one (the Great White Heron) in his third work ; 
but as I have only the second work within reach at present, I 
may be mistaken in this. 

Now although I believe there are thirty-five deficiencies in 
British oology, I am still at a loss to discover how many known 
species ought to be considered British, and I should feel deeply 
indebted to yourself, or any other member of the British Orni- 
thologists' Union, who would kindly inform me how I can obtain 
a reliable list of British birds, and still more indebted to any 
one who would publish such a list in the way suggested in my 
last letter. 

In common with many others who feel a real interest in the 
study of ornithology, I am too much engaged in professional 
avocations to admit of my devoting much time to the pursuit, 
and am obliged to confine my attention pretty much to British 
birds ; consequently I am desirous that my knowledge of these 
should be as exact as possible, and this, without an authentic list, 
is difficult to attain. 

Yours, &c., Beaven Rake. 



Mr. Samuel Stevens has just received a letter from Mr, A, R. 
Wallace, dated " Ternate, December 7th," in which he writes as 
follows : — " I returned to Ternate a few days after the last mail 
had left here, having had a most hazardous voyage from Ceram 
and Waigiou. My collections are immense, but very poor, when 
it is considered that they are the result of nine months' collecting 
by two persons in East and North Ceram, Mysol, and Waigiou. 
Ceram is a wretched country ; and the Papuan Islands, now that 
the cream is taken ofi" by Aru and Dorey, are really not worth 
visiting, except for the Birds of Paradise. 

" My beetles, I am sorry to say, are most miserable — smaller 
and more obscure species than at Dorey, and only a few of the 
good ones found there, and none in any quantity. 

" In birds there is absolutely nothing good but the Paradisea 
rubra, which is the only species that inhabits Waigiou, and is 
peculiar to that island. 



212 Letters, Extracts from Correspondence, Notices, ^-c. 

" I have been so busy with my mass of specimens (all wanting 
sorting and cleaning), and with my numerous letters and books (a 
whole year), that my mind has been too much unsettled to write. 
Next mail I shall write to all my entomological and ornithological 
friends who have been kind enough to send me communications. 

" I do not like the figure of Semioptera wallacii copied in ' The 
Ibis ' from Gould's : the neck-shields are not shown to advan- 
tage ; and the white plumes should be raised much higher or laid 
down lower — they are neither one thmg nor the other. 

" C. Allen starts in a week or two for N. Guinea — to the true 
locality for the rarer Birds of Paradise, and I trust he may be 
successful. The last voyage, with all its dangers and disappoint- 
ments, has nearly sickened me, and I think in one year I shall 
return. 

''I seem to have all your letters but one (April 16, I860)." 



The following extracts are from letters recently received by 

us from Mr. Edward Blyth : — 

" Calcutta, January 4tli. 

"I have just received 'The Ibis,' vol. ii. No. 8, and need I 
say that I am delighted with it ? My compliments especially 
to the Hon. T. L. Powys and to Mr. W. H. Simpson. I have 
also something like a compliment to send you on the part of 
my little Shdma {Kittacincla macroura), whose cage hangs about 
eight paces fi'om where I am now writing, and thoroughly enjoy- 
ing existence at the delicious temperature of 70° Fahrenheit. 
Turning to p. 410, opposite to which is a figure of Circaetus 
zonurus, and holding it up to look at it, little Shdma imme- 
diately became in a violent condition of excitement. No doubt 
at all about it, as I have proved a second and a third time. 
There is something about that spirited figure of Circaetus zo- 
nurus which Shdma less approves of than I do. We have all 
heard of the old Greek painter who deceived the birds. Here 
is a modern instance ; and, I cannot help thinking, a sufficiently 
remarkable one. Alexander von Humboldt, in his ' Personal 
Narrative,' if I remember rightly, relates that a small South- 
American monkey at once recognized the insects it had been 
accustomed to prey upon, though represented only in outline 



Letters, Extracts from Correspondence, Notices, &^c. 213 

or uncoloured. Contrast that with the n on -appreciation of a 
picture by Arabs or certain other races of human kind ! 

" Well, in your No. 8, p. 323, I demolished a luckless Mon- 
sieur Payen, who cheerfully fancied that he had made a grand 
discovery about the comestible birds'-nests. Now it comes to 
the turn of my good and exceedingly respected friend, Robert 
F. Tomes, Esq., who tells us (p. 318) that, as far as he knows, 
' the name of Professor Macgillivray stands alone in justification 
of the alleged Pringilline affinities^ of the so-called Bearded 
Titmouse. 

" Now, it does so happen that the very first ornithological 
essay I ever committed to writing in my life was about this 
very bird, which I called ' Bearded Reedling,' and not Tit, or 
Titmouse. This was in 1832, in the first number of Rennie's 
* Field-Naturalist's Magazine,^ wherein I made my debut as a 
scribbler in Natural-History matters. I have had much to 
answer for since then ! But, however that may be, it seems 
that I do not happen to have this particular number handy to 
refer to at this instant ; nevertheless I recommend those who 
possess the opportunity to revert to it, because they will find 
some sound and direct personal observations on the habits of 
the ' Bearded Reedlinff,' whose afiinities I at that time thought 
were Shrikish. By the way, this species is ' the Least Butcher- 
bird' of Goldsmith's ' Animated Nature,' in which I suppose 
that the agreeable author of ' The Traveller ' and the * Deserted 
Village ' copied BufFon as usual. 

" However, in that same ' Field-Naturalist's Magazine' for 
April 1833, p. 190 et seq., in returning to the charge, I would 
not listen to anything about affinity with Parus, and I think 
that it may be discerned that even then my notions were already 
approximating i'lncA- ward. 

"In 1838 I took a part in a new translation of Cuvier's 
' Regne Animal,' wherein, if you refer to p. 198, you will find 
that I assert of the Reedlings {Panurus seu Calamophilus) that 
* their anatomy is strictly that of a Finch ; and they are much 
more nearly related to the Waxbill-Finches than to the Tits, 
with which latter they have little in common. The gullet has 
an extremely long dilatation, or craw, and the gizzard is remark- 



214 Letters, Eoctracts from Correspondence, Notices, ^-c. 

ably muscular.' lu the same work (p. 180) I remarked of the 
Falcunculi, that ' they are nearly Tits, with a somewhat Shrike- 
like bill, and resemble our common Pari in their manners, 
notes, nidification, eggs, and plumage.' Others have since come 
over to the same opinion. 

"In my Catalogue of the specimens of Stuffed Birds in the 
Asiatic Society's Museum, Calcutta (1852), I placed Panurus 
at the tail of the FringilUdoi (p. 134), under the heading of 
' Incerta sedis.' 

" Permit me further to inform you that our late most sin- 
cerely lamented friend William Yarrell was about to perpe- 
trate, through his artist, a most thoroughly detestable figure 
of Panurus biar-micus, carefully and minutely copied from a 
villainously stuffed specimen, when I happened to call upon 
him just in the very nick of time, and gave him an off-hand 
sketch of about the genuine outline, which appears (in his third 
edition) in vol. i. p. 406 : only the tail is not quite long enough, 
nor the tarsi ; and that shadow of a shade of the moustache is, 
of course, a mistake, such as non-naturalist artists are so ex- 
tremely prone to indulge in. 

" Of course you know that the late Prince Bonaparte described 
a second race of the Panurus genus from Kamtschatka, in one of 
his papers in the ' Comptes Rendus' — about such a form as our 
friend Charles Darwin would designate an ' incipient ' species. 

" I observe in p. 353 that Mr. Powys remarks of the Gadwall 
Duck, that it is ' by far the best for the table of the European 
AnotidceJ I have digested several Gadwalls this season, and I 
don't think that he is very far from wrong ; but the best of all 
the Duck tribe, so far as my experience goes, is decidedly Fuli- 
gula rufina. Much, of course, depends upon the cookery : too 
often, as the poet tells us, ' cooks come from t'other place ! ' 
But a fine fleshy Red-crested Pochard, just done to a turn, and 
not overdone, must be equal to the finest ' Canvas-back ' that 
ever was roasted. To say the least, I cannot conceive the possi- 
bility of anything of the sort being finer ! I undoubtedly am a 
bit of an epicure in a quiet way, and have just been feasting off 
Glossy Ibis. Take my word for it, a roasted Falcinellus iyneiis 
is anything but contemptible fare. 



Letters, Extracts from Corresjjondence, N^utices, 6\C. 215 

" Some time ago, I met a stranger who had been travelling in 
the Middle Island of New Zealand (I wonder if he will ever read 
this). Of course I was curious about the Apteryx owenii; 
and I showed him Gould's figure of the bird, and tried to make 
him comprehend some notion of its value. ' Good/ said he, 
* I know it well : we ate four of them in one pie 1 ' Alas for 
Apteryx oivenii, as well as for the last surviving specimens of 
Dinornis or Palapteryx (if such there yet remain), to be put 
into a pie ! ' Gather your roses while you may,^ Mr. Editor, 
and collect your impennates before this pestilent civilization 
spoils and ruins everything !" 

" Calcutta, Janviary 19. 
" In my small garden near the entrance of my residence is a 
tolerably umbrageous tree, the branches of which are conve- 
nient for hanging up dendrophytic orchids, ferns, &c. Now, 
from the foliage of this tree I have several times lately heard a 
remarkably sweet, low, continuous warbling note, and could not 
imagine what bird it came from— supposing it, however, to be 
some delicate little Becfin. This morning I was determined to 
settle the question ; so I brought out my spy-glass, and, lo ! 
what should the songster prove to be but Lanius superciliosus 
(Indian variety, phoe7iicurus), which I had only known heretofore 
as an exceedingly harsh chatterer ? I have much pleasure there- 
fore in noting this redeeming point about this bird ; and it is not 
the only one: for, harsh as his ordinary chattering may be, either 
that chatter, or the brisk and smart apparition of the pretty little 
sprightly Pied Wagtail {Motacilla Juzoniensis) — one or the other 
— is annually, to us here who note and observe, the earliest 
familiar token of the most welcome approach of what we desig- 
nate by comparison the ' cold ' season. Moreover, I have never 
observed this Lanius to be murderous ; and, as regards other 
birds, I doubt if it ever is so." 

" January 22. 
'^Babu Rajendra Mallika has just got another fine batch of 
things, including seven Victoria Crown-Pigeons {Goura victoria), 
a superb male Mia'oglossus to match with his female (the 6 is 
considerably larger than the $ ), and one of those beautiful 
Ground-Pigeons [Caloenas cruenia vel luzonica). 



216 Letters, Extracts fi'om Correspondence, Notices, ^x. 

" I was about to take a short trip to Burmali ; but as our 

friend J is appointed to a station on the Sitang River, in 

Tenasserim, I start in a steamer in the course of a couple of 
days or so, and mean to accompany him at least as far as 
Maulmein/' 



The subjoined extract from the " Argus ^' of October 25th, 
1860, gives the most recent account of the progress of the 
experiment of the introduction of English Singing-birds into 
Australia, which has recently been undertaken at INIelbourne. 
It will be observed that the Httle immigrants have adopted the 
Australian seasons, and begun to nest in October ! : — 

" The English birds at the Botanic Gardens are now all in a 
bustle. They seem perfectly awake to the character of the 
season. The little Warblers are busy in nest-building, and per- 
forming all the other tender offices which mark their proceedings 
at spring time. The Larks are already multiplying, and the 
Thrushes have nests both in the aviary and in the open air. 
The Starlings and Blackbirds which were brought out by the 
' Lincolnshire ' and the ' Essex ' occupy a building in the Botanic 
Gardens' reserve, which ie usually devoted, in the winter, to the 
accommodation of the Alpacas and other quadrupeds. Here 
they will remain until their plumage — lost or disordered on the 
voyage — is restored, when they will be removed to the aviary, 
and thence to the open air. A similar house holds a number of 
Thrushes that are nest-building in the orange and Japanese 
spindle-trees which are placed there. In the aviary the same 
interesting process is going on. There the Goldfinch, the 
Linnet, and the Java Sparrow have nests, as well as the Thrush 
and the Quail — due care, however, being taken for the separa- 
tion of the peaceable from the pugnacious birds. The Pheasants 
are engaged in egg-laying, and for the work of incubation the 
assistance of some Bantam fowls has been secured. The whole 
of the arrangements for the preservation of the birds which 
have been sent from England, and the propagation here of the 
feathered tribes of the old country — thanks to the indefatigable 
Dr. Mueller — are as complete as can be desired." 



Ibis 1861. PI VIL 




J Wolf del.et hth. 



M.& N.Ha-nharL.Imp 



FALCO BABYLON! CUS 



THE IBIS. 



No. XI. JULY 1861. 



XXIII. — Notes on Birds observed in Oudh and Kumaon. 
By Captain L. Howard Irby, 90th Regt. 

(Plate VII.) 

The following notes were made in Oudh, from October 1857 
to August 1860, with the exception of about two months, from 
April 15th to June 15th, 1859, during which time I was in the 
British Himalayan province of Kumaon. During the first part 
of the time, in Oudh, the disadvantage of being in an enemy's 
country (for a long time without any kit) prevented my making 
notes; and many specimens which I obtained and skinned were 
lost or destroyed, either by insects or through being continually 
on the march. 

The province of Oudh is well situated for an ornithologist, 
containing every variety of soil ; and bordering on the Nepalese 
hills is the " Terai " forest — a part very little explored, except 
by tiger-shooting sportsmen. The intense heat in the hot and 
rainy season confines a European to his bungalow, except for a 
couple of hours in the morning and evening ; and even in the 
" cold season," from October to March inclusive, it is unplea- 
santly warm at mid-day ; so that, on the whole, the disadvantages 
preponderate. 

The names here employed are the same as those used by Mr. 
Blyth in his ' Catalogue of the Birds of the Asiatic Society's 
Museum ' ; and, unless otherwise stated, the notes apply to birds 
observed in Oudh. 

VOL. III. Q 



218 Capt. L. H. Irby on Birds 

1. Pal/eornis alexandri. 

Common, in large flocks, in the Terai jungle, at the foot of the 
hills, during the cold season. It is known to the natives as the 
Hill-Parroquet. 

2. Pal^ornis torquatus. 

Excessively abundant throughout the year; more particularly 
so at the middle and end of the rainy season. Breeds in the 
holes of trees. 

3. PaLtEORNIS cyanocephalus. 

Common in the cold season in jungly districts: probably re- 
sorts to the hills during the hot weather, as I did not then 
notice it in Oudb, and it was common in the valleys of Kumaon 
in May and June 1859. 

4. Falco JUGGER. (Male " Jugger," female '' Luggur".) 
Seen and killed at Alumbagh, in January 1858. I observed 

what I supposed to have been this Falcon upon many other 
occasions in the cold season. It is much used by the native 
falconers, but is rather deficient in pluck, as compared with the 
Peregrine Falcon. 

5. Falco babylonicus. (Plate VII.) 

A smglc specimen of this Falcon was obtained in October 1858, 
at Newabgunge Bara Bunki, Oudh, and is now in the Norwich 
Museum. Mr. Sclater has kindly supplied me with the follow- 
ing remarks upon this hitherto undescribed bird : — 

" Capt. Irby^s specimen seems to be referable to a new species 
or distinct variety of true Falcon, most nearly allied to Falco 
barbarus (of 'The Ibis,' 1859, p. 184, pi. 6; Falco peregrinoides 
of Temminck), for which Mr. Gurney proposes to use the name 
Falco babylonicus, the first specimen of it having been obtained 
in Babylonia by the Euphrates Exploring Expedition. 

" The coloration of F. babylonicus is nearly similar to that of 
F. barbaruSy but generally lighter, and rather more rufous on the 
front of the head : the size, however, is nearly one-third greater, 
being the same as that of F. lanarius of Schlegel. From the latter 
bird it may be distinguished — (1.) By the absence of the whitish 
frontal band, the rufous of the vertex extending forwards on to 



observed in Oudh and Kumaon. 219 

the cere, and being bordered behind by a broad band of dark 
slat)'- brown, which divides it from the rufous of the nape. (2.) 
By the feathers on the back of the neck below the nape being 
bordered with rufous of the same tinge as on the nape. This 
edging is sometimes present in F. baj-barus, but never to the same 
extent in F. hnarius. (3.) By the comparative absence of spots 
on the upper portion of the lower surface, in which character it 
nearly agrees with the Abyssinian form of F. lanarius, which I 
take to be strictly Lichtenstein's F. tanypterus. The middle 
claw of F. babylonicus is longer than that of F. lanarius, in which 
respect it also approaches to the structure of F. barbarus. 
Judging from the partial remains of the immature plumage in 
one specimen, it would appear that in this stage the bird most 
nearly resembles F. peregrinus, in which particular it also agrees 
with F. barbarus. 

"Besides Capt. Irby's specimen (No. 1), I am acquainted 
with the following individuals, referable to F. babylonicus : — 

" 2. An example in partially immature plumage, already al- 
luded to as procured by the Euphrates Exploring Expedition in 
Babylonia, and presented by Commander Jones to the IMuseum 
of the East India Company. This is one of the two specimens 
of ' F. peregrinator ' of Horsfield and Moore's Catalogue of the 
Birds of that Collection, entered as ' presented by Commander 
Jones ; ' the other of the two being apparently a young F. pere- 
grinus — certainly not F. peregrinator. 

" 3. An adult specimen in the Norwich Museum, procured 
from ]\I. Parzudaki of Paris, and said to be from Abyssinia. 

" 4. An adult specimen, also in the Norwich Museum, pro- 
cured from Mr. Warwick, of which the locality is not known. 

" I may remark that Mr. Blyth has lately (Journ. Asiat. Soc. 
Beng. xxviii. p. 281) distinguished the Indian variety of the Pere- 
grine from the European bird as F. calidus — the name being 
adopted from Latham, who, in his ' Index Oruithologicus ' (vol. i. 
p. 41), conferred that title upon the 'Bauri' Falcon of India. 
The present bird, however, does not belong to the group of true 
Peregrines, but rather to that containing F. lanarius, Schlegel, 
F. tanypterus, Licht., F. biarmicus, Temm., and F. barbarus, 
Salvin. 



q2 



220 Capt. L. H. Irby on Birds 

'^ I annex the dimensions of the first three specimens of F. hahij' 
lonicus, in inches and tenths :" — 



Spec 


Locality. 


Long. tota. 


alae. 


caudae. 


tarsi. 


dig. med. 


1. 


Oudh .. 


17-3 


13- 


70 


1-95 


2-05 


2. 


Babylon . 


17-0 


12-5 


G-6 


1-95 


1-95 


3. 


Abyssinia 


18-0 


12-8 


6-5 


2-00 


1-95 



6. Falco chicquera. 

A common resident ; usually seen in the wooded parts of the 
country. 

7. Hypotriorchis subbuteo. (Hobby.) 
Two seen in Oudh in September 1858. 

8. TiNNUNCULUs ALAUDARius. (Kcstrel.) 

Common throughout the cold season ; occasionally seen 
during the rains. 



'D 



9. TiNNUNCULiJs CENCHRis. (Lesscr Kestrel.) 
Seen in the cold season. 

10. Elanus melanopterus. (Black-winged Elanus.) 

Not uncommon in woody country during the cold season, 
especially in the jungles near Khyreegurh. 

11. Circaetus gallicus. 

Seen occasionally in the cold season. 

12. Circus ^ruginosus. (Marsh Harrier.) 

Most abundant during the cold season near all swamps and 
jheels : is very annoying to the wild-fowl shooter, driving up 
the ducks, but never seems to catch any but wounded ones. The 
adult birds are more frequently seen than the immature. 

13. Circus swainsonit. (Pallid Harrier.) 

Very common in the cold season in open cultivated country. 

14. Circus cinerascens. (Montagu's Harrier.) 

Found in the same localities as C. swainsonii, and is perhaps 
more numerous. 

15. Circus melanoleucos. (Pied Harrier.) 

Very abundant near the rivers Choka and Gogra, on the plains 



observed in Oudh and Kumaon. 221 

covered with thick grass about two feet high. I have never 
seen this Harrier far away from grass jungles, where it appears to 
replace the two preceding species, although they are now and 
then seen there also. 

16. PoLIORNIS TEESA. 

Very common on sandy plains; seldom seen among trees. 
This Hawk remains throughout the year; but I did not find its 
nest. When disturbed, it flies generally quite close to the ground, 
and utters a low plaintive cry, seldom going further than a 
hundred yards before settling again. It feeds on beetles and 
insects. The irides are of a light-red colour. 

17. AcciPiTER Nisus. (Sparrow-hawk.) 
Occurred at Alumbagh in January 1858. 

18. MiCRONISUS BADIUS. 

A specimen, killed at Newabgunge in September 1858, is in 
the Norwich Museum ; it is not an uncommon bird. 

19. Aquila N^vioiDES. (Tawuy Eagle.) 

Abundant on sandy plains, especially those frequented by the 
Antelope [Antilope ce7-vicapra) : and occasionally seen near can- 
tonments in company with the Neophron and Govinda Kite. 
I once saw it sharing some carrion with one of the Red-headed 
Vultures {Otofftjps calvus). Though this Eagle is resident, I could 
not obtain a nest. I imagine that it breeds during the hottest 
part of the year, when it is impossible to go bird-nesting. Owing 
to the strong habits of deceitfulness of the natives, no reliance 
can be placed upon them, if sent out to get eggs. They invariably 
try to deceive ; but their European brethren in trade are often 
nearly as bad ; so that the Asiatic must not come in for all the 
black paint. 

20. Aquila n^via. (Spotted Eagle.) 

Occasionally found in the same localities as the preceding 
species : only once observed in the spotted plumage, in February 
1859. 

21. IcTiNAETUS malayensis. (Black Eagle.) 

I killed a fine specimen of this bird on the 20th of April, 1859, 
near Ranigurh, between NyneeTal and Almorah, in Kumaon. I 



222 Capt. L. H. Irby on Birds 

noticed one other at an elevation of nearly 10,000 feet, about fifteen 
or twenty miles from Milum, one of the passes into Thibet. 
This Eagle cannot be a very common bird in Kumaon, as during 
two months there I only saw these two. The specimen which I 
obtained, which is now in the Norwich Museum, had the inside 
of the mouth and throat covered with small pieces of egg-shell, 
apparently that of the Cheer [Phasianus wallicJdi), or Chickore 
{Caccabis chukar) ; hence, of course, Jerdon's synonym ^' ovi- 
vorus." Is not this bird nearly allied to the Honey Buzzards ? 
The European species {Pernis apivora) has been known to feed, 
in a wild state, on Thrushes' eggs (Zool. p. 3707), and the Marsh 
Harrier {Circus aruffinosus) has also been found to do the same. 
The irides of the Black Eagle are yellow. 

22. BuTEO RUFiNUS. (Loug-leggcd Buzzard.) 

Common near wooded jungle. 1 took four large rats (swal- 
lowed whole) out of the stomach of one. Tiie irides of this 
Buzzard are golden-coloured. 

23. Pandion haliaetus. (Osprey.) 

Not observed in Oudh, but doubtless occurs there, as it is 
"common throughout India in all suitable localities" according 
to Mr. Blyth's Catalogue. I obtained it at Nynee Tal, at an 
elevation of about 5500 feet, in June 1859, when it was fre- 
quently seen there. The shikarees, or native hunters, told me 
that it nested at Bheem Tal, another mountain lake at a lower 
elevation, fifteen miles from Nynee Tal. 

24). HaliaIstus macei. (Mace's Sea Eagle.) 
Irides dark brown. This "Sea" Eagle is very common in 
Oudh in the cold season, and always seen in the vicinity of rivers 
and jheels ; it makes a very large nest of sticks, on tall trees 
close to water. I never obtained the eggs myself, though some 
men of my regiment took the eggs on the 19th of November, 
1859, but ate them on the spot, to my intense disgust. 

I repeatedly found the young in January and February. There 
were never more than two, and sometimes only one, in each 
nest ; hence I conclude the number of eggs to be usually two. I 
brought up three young birds, one of which (pinioned) lived for 
eighteen months. The other two used to sit on the top of my 



obset'ved in Oudh and Kumaun, 223 

tent and fly about the camp quite tamely, but they disappeared 
when the hot weather began to come on. The one ])inioned 
showed, at the time of its death, no signs of the adult plumage. 
This Eagle, when I have been out shooting, has often carried off 
ducks and snipes, &c. which I had shot. 

I have little doubt that this Eagle is identical with Pallas's 
Sea Eagle [H. leuconjphus), which I saw in the Crimea*. I 
brought home a sternum from that country, and also one from 
Oudh; these are in the Norwich Museum. At the request of 
Mr. Gurney, Mr. Alfred Newton has kindly examined them, and 
reports as follows : " I have received your note, and also the two 
sterna from the Norwich Museum, marked respectively 'Oudh* 
and ' Crimea,' which, according to your wish, I have examined 
attentively. 

" Presuming the Haliaetus macei and the H. leuconjphus are 
birds of the same size, I should suppose, from these specimens, 
that the Indian was that of a female, and the Crimean that of a 
male. Comparing them closely, I find that, notwithstanding the 
general i-esemblance, there exists a great difference in the pro- 
portions of the parts which make up the entire sternal apparatus. 

" This may be best shown in the following manner : — 

Oudh specimen. Crimean specimen, 
inches. inches. 

Entire length of sternal apparatus . 7*27 6' 79 

Extreme length of sternum proper . 5*15 4*76 

Extreme length of coracoid 2*24 3'05 

"Thus, while the ratio of the sternum proper in each is within 
•04 inch in direct proportion to the entire length of the sternal 
apparatus, the ratio of the coracoids differs by "6 inch in inverse 
proportion. 

" Such a discrepancy as this I have never yet found in the 
sterna of what I should consider to be examples of the same 
species ; and should the difference be constant, it would go far, 
in my mind, towards making me believe H. macei to be distinct 
from H. leucoryphus ; but I do not think one can judge suffi- 
ciently from the evidence at present before me. 

* Vide ' Zoologist,' vol. xv. p. 5353. 



224 Capt. L. H. Irby on Birds 

" I do not attach much importance to the fact that the pos- 
terior part of the Indian specimen shows two orifices which are 
wanting in the Crimean example, because I think that the 
absence of these holes in the Eagles generally indicates a degree 
of maturity perhaps seldom, though certainly sometimes arrived 
at. I may add, however, that it is usual for species of the re- 
stricted genus Aquila to possess these holes, while I never before 
saw them in any example of Halia'etus." 

This report is decidedly in favour of the species being distinct ; 
but I hope some one may soon procure a European specimen, 
which will decide the matter. 

25. Haliastur INDUS. (Brahminy Kite.) 

Abundant throughout the year, feeding almost entirely on 
fish and frogs. I did not obtain a nest. This species was 
common at the Island of Banca iu July 1857. 

26. MiLvus GoviNDA. (Goviuda Kite.) 

In the Catalogue of the Birds of the Asiatic Society's IMuseura 
this Kite is called M. ater — being perhaps confounded with M. 
migrans (the Black Kite), a species which, I believe, has not yet 
been noticed in India, 

The Govinda Kite is found in swarms near all cantonments, 
particularly those in which the carnivorous European troops are 
quartered. I have seen certainly more than a hundred on the 
wing at a time ; and the time of the men's meals could always 
be told by the Kites being in motion and on the qui vive for the 
scraps of meat and bones which are thrown away. They have 
been known to snatch meat ofi' a plate which a servant was 
carrying from the cook-house to the mess-room; occasionally 
they may be seen catching fish in company with the Brahminy 
Kite and the small Black-bellied Tern [Sterna javanica). They 
nest on tall trees in the cold season ; but I did not obtain the 
eggs — not thinking I should leave the country so suddenly. The 
Govinda Kite is common in the valleys of Kumaon and at 
Nynee Tal. 

27. Otogyps CALVUS. ("King Vulture" of European resi- 
dents.) 

Found throughout the year, and breeds on tall trees at the end 



observed in Oudh and Kumaon. 225 

of the cold season. An egg, obtained in February 1859, was 
rather rough on the surface, white in colour, with a few pale- 
bluish spots on the larger end. This Vulture does not collect 
in flocks like the two following species, seldom more than two or 
three being seen together : it was seen occasionally in Kumaon 
in May and June. I noticed another large Vulture in Kumaon, 
which I imagine to have been V. monachus, but I could not 
obtain one for examination. 

28. Gyps indicus. 

This species and the next are equally common throughout the 
year. One was captured in a rather curious way at Alumbagh : 
the Vulture had made a hole in a dead horse's belly, and poking 
his head in, was caught before he could extricate himself. 

29. Gyps BENGALENSIS. 

30. Neophron percnopterus. (Egyptian Neophron.) 
Found in great numbers near all towns and cantonments. 

Nests on trees in the cold season. Has the taste, in common 
with pigs and adjutants {Leptuptilus argala), to prefer human 
excrement to any other food. Was frequently seen in the valleys 
of Kumaon, and is common at Nynee Tal and Almorah. This 
Neophron is very seldom, if ever, seen at Calcutta; yet it is 
common at Aden and at St. Vincent's, one of the Cape de Verd 
Islands, both places being in a latitude south of Calcutta. 

31. Gypaetos barbatus. (Lammergeyer.) 

Common in Kumaon, especially near Almorah and Nynee Tal, 
where it appears to feed almost exclusively on carrion. All Eu- 
ropeans, not ornithologists, call it the " Golden Eagle," — pro- 
bably on account of the reddish tinge on the breast, which is very 
apparent when the bird is on the wing. 

The other species of Diurnal Raptores said to inhabit India 
are : — 

1. Falco sacer. Nepal. 

2. F.peregrinus', or, if the Indian species be distinct, F. calidus. 
India generally. 

3. F. ijeregrinator. India generally. 

4. Hypotriurchis severus. Bengal and Himalayas. 



226 Capt. L. H. Irby an Birds 

5. Hierax eutolmos. Nepal ; Darjeeling. 

6. Baza lophotes. India. 

7. Pernis cristata. India. 

8. P. apivora. Nepal ? 

9. Hamatornis cheela. India generally. 

10. Circus cyaneus. Nepal. 

11. Astur virgatus. India generally. Darjeeling. 

12. A. palumbarius. Nepal. 

13. A. trivirgatus. Hilly parts of India. 

14. Spizaetus nipalensis. Himalayas. 

15. S. limnaetus. India generally. 

16. S. kieneri. Himalayas. Central India. 

17. Eutulmcletus bonellii. Himalayas. 

18. Aquila chrysa'etos. Himalayas. 

19. A. imperialis. Himalayas. 

20. Hieraetus pennatus. 

21. Buteo vulgaris t Nilgiris and Himalayas. 

22. Pontoaetus ichthyaetus. Bengal, 

23. Blagrus leucogaster. India generally. 

24. Milvus ajffinis. India generally. 

25. Vultur monachus. Himalayas. 

26. Gypjs fulvus. Himalayas. 

32. Bubo bengalensis. 
Seen in February 1860. 

33. Asio BRACHYOTUs. (Short-cared Owl.) 

Very common in the cold season. I have flushed as many as 
ten at once, in long grass. 

34. Scops BAKKAMiENA. 
Occasionally seen in the cold season. 

35. Athene brama. 

Very common throughout the year; chiefly resorting to mango 
topes. 

36. Strix flammea. (White Owl.) 

Assuming the Indian and British species to be identical, this 
Owl is very common in Oudh ; its habits are the same as in 
England, the cry, or rather screech, being exactly similar. 



observed in Oudh and Kumaon. 227 

37. Glaux javanica. 

Obtained in the open country in the cold season. 

The other Nocturnal Raptores said to inhabit India, not in- 
cluding the Malay countries, are : — 

1. Bubu orientalis. Himalaya; S.India. 

2. B. maximus. Nepal. 

3. B. umhratus. India generally. 

4. Asio otus. Nepal ? 

5. Scops lempiji. Himalaya. 

6. Ketupa flavipes. Himalaya. 

7. K. ceylonensis. India generally. 

8. Ninox scutellatus. India generally. 

9. Athene cuculoides. Himalaya. 

10. A. noctua ? Himalaya. 

11. A. brodiei. Himalaya. 

12. Syrnium indranee. India generally. 

13. S. sinense. India generally. 

14. S. nivicolum. Himalaya. 

15. Phodilus badius. Himalaya. 

38. BUCEROS BIROSTRIS. 

Common in wood jungle during the cold season, especially in 
the Terai, near the foot of the Nepalese hills. 

39. Upupa epops. (Hoopoe.) 

Common throughout the year; nesting in roofs of houses and 
in chimneys dui'ing April and May. 

40. Halcyon gurial. 

I obtained a specimen, in December 1859, at a jheel in a 
thickly wooded country near Khyreegur; I never noticed it 
again. 

41. Halcyon smyrnensis. 

Exceedingly common throughout the year, frequenting jheels 
more than rivers. 

42. Ceryle guttatus. 

Frequently seen in Kumaon in May 1859, and was very 
difficult to approach. 



228 Capt. L. H. Irby on Birds 

43. Ceryle RUDis. ("Dobie Bird,'^) 

Very common in the cold season : is called the " Dobie Bird " 
from being so often observed near where the '' Dobies " or native 
washermen are at work. It is generally seen hovering in the 
air like a Kestrel, and^ pouncing down like a stone, will go quite 
under water. The cry of this bird is loud, shrill, and inces- 
santly repeated. 

44. Alcedo bengalensis. 

This beautiful miniature of our English Kingfisher is not 
seen nearly so often as the preceding species, or Halcyon smyr- 
nensis, and, unlike the latter, prefers running streams. The most 
splendidly coloured of the Indian Kingfishers, H. coromanda, 
did not come under my notice, and probably is not found in Oudh. 

45. CoRACiAs iNDiCA. (Indian Roller.) 

Called " Blue Jay '' by Europeans, and " Ned Kant" (Blue 
Crow) by the natives. Is seen in great numbers throughout the 
year, and breeds in roofs of houses and in holes of trees. 
They perform the same aerial antics as C. garrula, but are much 
more noisy, and very annoying during the breeding-season, in 
May and June. They make holes for their nests in the thatch 
of bungalows, and used to create such a disturbance, that I kept 
a gun ready-loaded for them ; but it was labour in vain — no 
sooner was one pair disposed of than others appeared. This 
species certainly interbreeds with the more southern and eastern 
C. affinis, as there are specimens in the Calcutta Museum, 
evidently hybrids. The European C. yarrula has been killed at 
Mooltan, and also in Aflfghanistan. 

46. Merops philippinus. 

Seen in the hot season, but not in any numbers. 

47. Merops viridis. (Green Bee-eater.) 

Excessively numerous throughout the year : ten or more may 
often be seen sitting on the same bush ; and on the telegraph 
wires on the Grand Trunk Road, I once saw, in the early morn- 
ing, upwards of fifty within twenty yards. In one habit this 
bird resembles our Spotted Flycatcher {Muscicapa gi-iseola) : it 
is incessantly Hying a few feet in chase of insects, and settling 



observed in Oudh and Kumaon. 229 

again on its former perch. When on the wing, its plumage 
glistening in the sun, it is seen much more to advantage than 
when at rest. Like theatrical scenery and Eastern cities, it looks 
best at a distance. 

48. Gecinus flavixuchus, 

I killed a specimen of this very handsome "Woodpecker on 
June 12, 1859, on one of the lower hills between Nynee Tal and 
Kaleedoughee, in Kumaon. 

49. Brachypternus aurantius. 

Common. There were other species of Woodpeckers which I 
did not identify. Not knowing that I should leave the country so 
soon, I neglected to keep the specimens obtained, hoping to get 
better ones. 

50. PiCUS HIMALAYANUS. 

Common in Kumaon. 

51. YuNX TORQUiLLA. (Wryucck.) 

A specimen of this bird was brought alive to me by a native 
birdcatcher in August 1858. 

52. Megal.ima virens. 

Frequently obsei-ved in Kumaon in April, May, and June. It 
is generally to be seen on the top of some tall tree, uttering its 
peculiar piercing whistle. 

53. Megal-ema philippensis. 

Noticed only once, near Newabgunge, in November 1858. 

54. CucuLUS CANORUS. (Commou Cuckoo.) 
Occasionally seen, or rather heard, in Oudh. I heard it in 

August, and shot an immature specimen in October 1859, and 
again heard it several times in June and July 1860, the ther- 
mometer at the time ranging from 95° to 105° in the shade, and 
a hot wind blowing. 

It is a very common bird in Kumaon in April, Ma}^, and 
June, and is known to the hill men under the name of 
'' Kupwah," which, like most native names of birds, is evidently 
derived from its cry. 



230 Capt. L. II. Irby on Birds 

55. EuDYNAMIS ORIENTALIS. 

Common; arriving in April, and frequenting mango topes. 
The note of tliis bird is very loud and peculiar ; it is often heard 
throughout the night. 

56. OXYLOPIIUS COROMANDUS. 

Seen in Kumaon in May 1859. 

57. Crntropus niiLipPENSis. 

Common in tliick jungle; particularly in the bamboo jungle 
round villages. 

A species of Cnprimulyus was eonunon in Oudh, and also in 
Kumaon ; but I did not identify it. IMiis was also the case with 
a species of Acanthijlis, and many other birds. 

58. CoRVUS CULMINATUS. 

Exceedingly common in Kumaon, where the next species is 
not seen. 

59. CoRVUS SPLENDENS. 

Exceedingly eonunon and impertinent, entering houses, steal- 
ing meat, &c., off the table, horridly noisy, and of generally 
disagreeable habits. 

GO. Dkndrocitta rufa. 

Common wherever there are any trees. The note of this bird 
is a very peculiar whistle, somewhat thus: Kook-koo-kool-n-lee. 

61. PSILORIIINUS OCCIPITALIS. 

'J'his handsome bird is very common in Kumaon. 

62. Garrulus oularis. 
Common in Kumaon. 

63. Garrulax leucolopiius. 

Frequently seen in the valleys of Kumaon, in small flocks of 
seven or (^ight, in May 1859 : is a conspicuous bird from its 
white head. 

64'. Garrulax albogularis. 
Found in Kumaon in May 1859. 

65. Gracula intermkdia. 
Seen in Kumaon in May. 



observed in Oudh and Kunmon. 231 

GQ. AcRiDOTHERES TRisTis. (The Comnioii Myiia of Oudli.) 
Found throughout the year. Nests during the rains in holes 
of trees and in the roofs of houses. The young become very 
tame, and will follow the person who feeds them. 

67. Sturnus contra. (Pied Myna.) 
Common throughout the year. 

G8. Sturnus vulgaris. (Starling.) 

Found in immense flocks in January and February ; generally 
seen in company with Pastor ruscus, amongst cattle. 

69. Sturnia pagodarum. 

Not so common as Sturnus contra, but fluctuates in number 
very much. 

70. Pastor roskus, (Rose-coloured Pastor.) 

Common in flocks in January and February. All the spe- 
cimens which I examined were of a much paler rose-colour than 
those which I have seen in the Crimea, where it was very common 
in May and June. 

71. Passer indicus. 

Common : resembling exactly in habits our P. domesficus. 
Nesting in May and June. The Indian species is lighter in 
colour than ours, as regards the females and inunature males; 
but I have seen English specimens quite as light. The adult 
male is redder on the back. 

72. Petronia flavicollis. 
Common in the rainy and cold seasons. 

73. Calandrella braciivdactvla. (Short-toed Jjark.) 
Exceedingly numerous : is caught in nets by the natives and 

sold to Europeans, to whom it is generally known by the name of 
" Ortolan." 

There were one or two species of Anthus which I did not 
identify. 

74. Galerida cristata. (Crested Lark.) 
Common. 

75. Motacilla maderaspatensis. 
Connnon during the cold season. 



232 Capt. L. H. Irby on Birds 

76. MoTACiLLA BOARULA. (Grey Wagtail.) 
Seen in the cold season. 

77. BUDYTES VIUIDIS. 

Very common in marshes during the cold season. 

78. Malacocercus bengalensts. 
Common throughout the year. 

79. Chrysomma hypoleucum. 

One specimen was brought to me alive in August 1858. 

80. Lanius lahtora. 
Occasionally noticed. 

81. Lanius hardwickii. 
Very common. 

82. Enicurus maculatus. 
Seen in Kumaon in April 1859. 

I also shot a species of Dipper^ probably Cincivs asiaticus ; 
but the skin was accidentally destroyed before I could identify it. 

83. Myiophonus temminckii. 

Common in Kumaon in May 1859, and rather solitary in 
its habits. 

84. TuRDUs viscivoRus. (Missel Thrush.) 

Common in Kumaon, though sometimes considered to be a 
distinct species (7^. hodgsonii). 

85. Merula boulboul. 

Common in Kumaon in May. I observed a flock of eight or 
ten in the Terai jungle near Khyreegur, Oudh, in December 
1859. 

86. Cyanecula SUECICA. (Indian Blue-throated Warbler.) 
Common in the hot season. I never saw the white-spotted 

species in India. 

87. BUTICILLA LEUCOCEPHALA. 

Extremely common in Kumaon. I never observed this bird 
except close to streams, and generally sitting on some stone in 
the midst of a torrent : 1 never saw it perch on a bush or tree. 



obseroed in Oudh and Kuinaon. 233 

Another species, probably R. rufiventris, was very common in 
Oudh throughout the year, frequenting bushy jungle. 

88. Stoparola melanops. (Blue Fly-catcher.) 
Common near Nynee Tal. Not seen in Oudh. 

89. Certhia himalayana. 
Seen in Kumaon. 



90. HiRUNDO RUSTICA. 

91. HlRUNDO URBICA. 

92. HlRUNDO SINENSIS. 



•Common in the cold season. 



93. TcHiTREA PARADisEA. (Paradise Fly-catcher.) 
Common in Kumaon in May 1859. Not observed in Oudh. 

94. Leucocirca albofrgntata. 

Common throughout the year : generally seen in mango topes. 
A species of Bulbul {Pycnonotus) was common both in Oudh and 
Kumaon, but I did not identify it. 

95. Oriolus kundoo. 

Common in the hot season, frequenting mango topes. I did 
not see 0. melanocephalus in Oudh, but I have seen a specimen 
from Allahabad. 

96. Treron chlorogaster. 
Common in Oudh throughout the year. 

97. Sphenocercus cantillans. 

Found in Kumaon wherever there were trees. Both this 
species and the preceding are excellent eating. 

98. Alsocomus hodgsonii. 

Frequently seen in Kumaon in April and May : at that time 
some nested in inaccessible cliffs near Moonsheyaree, about 70 
miles from Almorah. 

Two species of Columha are common in Oudh : one very much 
like the Stock Dove, Columba oenas, and the other resembling 
the Rock Dove, C. livia, except that it settles on trees. The 
latter is not found west of the rivers Gogra and Choka. I un- 
luckily did not identify these two species. 

VOL. III. * 



234 Capt. L. II. Iiby on Birds 

99. TURTUR RISORIUS. 

Common throughout the year in Oudh, and was equally nu- 
merous in the valleys of Kumaon in April, May, and June 1859. 

100. TURTUR SURATENSIS. 

Abundant throughout the year. A pair nested in my garden 
at Seetapore in May 1860. The nest and eggs reseu)bled those 
of our British T. auritus, only, of eoursc, being diminished in 
size. This species of Turtle Dove and the next are equally 
numerous in villages and wild unfrequented jungle; but T, 
risorius and T. orientalis are much less famiUar birds, never 
entering villages, and are much wilder. 

101. T. SENEGALENSIS. 

This beautiful little Dove is exceedingly common throughout 
the year. 

102. T. ORIENTALIS. 

Common during the cold season. 

103. Pavo cristatus. (Pea-fowl.) 

Found in numbers wherever there is any woody jungle : breeds 
during the rainy season. The male bird begins to lose his train 
in September, and does not fully regain it till March or April. 
The Pea-fowl remains during the heat of the day in the depths 
of the jungle, and goes to the fields at the edges to feed morning 
and evening : the cock bird in the breeding-time may be heard 
calling throughout the night. The number of Pea-fowl in the 
Terai jungles near Khyreegur is wonderful ; they are much tamer 
there than in any other part of Oudh. The young are very 
difficult to rear — at least I could not succeed ; they lived for six 
months, but then pined ofi". I saw some splendidly-coloured 
hybrids in Calcutta between this bird and the Malayan Pea-fowl, 
P. muticus. 

101. Ceriornis satyra. (Loonghee.) 

Found in Kumaon, on the lofty hills near the snows. 

105. Gallus ferrugineus. (Jungle- fowl.) 
Common in the Terai jungles; not observed in Central or 
Western Oudh. 



observed in Oudh and Kumaon, 235 

106. EuPLocoMus ALBOCRisTATUs. (KalHdge Pheasant.) 
Common in Kumaon in the lower hills and in valleys. 

107. PUCRASIA MACROLOPHA. (KokloSS.) 

Common in Kumaon, at a higher elevation than the Kallidge 
Pheasant, which is replaced in its turn by the Cheer at a still 
greater height. 

108. Phasianus wallichii. (Cheer.) 

Also called by Europeans the " Golden Pheasant." Common 
in Kumaon : nesting in May. 

109. LoPHOPHORUs impeyanus. (Monal.) 

Found in great numbers on the higher hills in Kumaon, and 
seems to keep just at the edge of the snow. It is at first a 
difficult bird to shoot, flying downhill, as all the Himalayan 
Pheasants do, at a most tremendous rate ; a little practice, how- 
ever, will soon enable one to kill them ; but at the time of year I 
saw them, I only shot two or three, as they were beginning to 
lay. The flesh of the Monal in May was not very good — nothing 
equal to our English pheasant ; but the time of year might have 
caused this. The best-flavoured Himalayan Pheasants are the 
Cheer and Kokloss, according to the judgment of confirmed 
epicures. The Monal, in England, is, I see, called the Impeyau : 
why not retain its native name of Monal, which is certainly 
shorter, and possibly less of a mouthful ? 

110. Pterocles arenarius. (Big Sand Grouse.) 

Two or three large flocks were seen near Hurdue in January 
1860, and many killed. Both the species of the Indian Sand 
Grouse which I have tasted are uneatable, and in this respect 
certainly tend to confirm what the natives say, " that they live 
upon sand." 

111. Pterocles exustus. (Common Sand Grouse.) 

Very common on sandy plains, from January to July inclusive. 
I found two eggs in June, both addled. There was no nest, the 
eggs being merely laid on the bare sand. They veiy closely 
resembled, in size, colour, and markings, the eggs of Caprimulgus 
europceus. There were no trees or bushes within two miles of 
the spot ; if there had been, I should have referred the eggs 

r2 



236 Capt. L. H. Irby on Birds 

to some species of Goatsucker, from their appearance. All the 
Indian Sand Grouse are indiscriminately called " Rock-Pigeons " 
by Europeans. 

112. Francolinus vulgaris. (Black Partridge.) 

This very handsome Partridge is found in great numbers in 
all grass jungle near water, and is particularly numerous on the 
banks of the Gogra, Choka, and other large rivers. Good sport 
is to be had with them in November, in the huldee or turmeric 
fields. This Partridge was common in Kumaon in April, May, 
and June; its call was to be heard wherever there was any 
cultivation. 

113. Caccabis chukar. (Chickore.) 

Common in Kumaon on bare and rocky hill-sides: is very 
common at a place called Jullut or Moonsheyaree, seven days^ 
march from Almorah. The flesh of the Chickore is considered 
good. The eggs, brought to me in May, resembled those of 
Perdix cinerea, not having any spots or markings like those of 
Caccabis rufa. 

114. Perdix ponticeriana. (Grey Partridge.) 
Common throughout the year : breeds in July and August : 

has acquired the unenviable name of " Dung-bird,'' probably 
from feeding on the beetles and insects which feed on the refuse 
of camps. Its flesh is dry and scarcely eatable, being a degree 
worse than that of the Black Partridge. Both the Grey and 
Black Partridge will settle on trees when flushed, though the 
latter very seldom does so. 

115. Arboricola torqueola. (Peurah.) 

Abundant in Kumaon, in the woody and more elevated ranges. 
Is easily decoyed within shot by imitating its whistle, which 
resembles somewhat the words "poor hoy " two or three times 
repeated. 

116. Perdicula asiatica. 

Common in jungle : rather difficult to flush. 

117. CoTURNix VULGARIS. (Common Quail.) 
Exceedingly numerous during the cold and first part of the 

hot season. 



observed in Oudh and Kumaoti. 237 

118. C. coROMANDELiCA. (Rain Quail.) 
Common during tlie rainy season. 

A species of Turnix is common in Oudh in the cold season, 
but I did not retain a specimen for identification. 

119. Sypiieotides BENGALENsis. (Florican of Bengal.) 
Exceedingly local, and then not numerous : never found but 

in grass jungle : to kill eight in a day in Oudh would be a good 
bag. This Florican well deserves the synonym " deliciosa" 

A large species of Bustard is sometimes seen in Oudh, parti- 
cularly at a place called .Tallalnugger, on the Goomtee ; I never 
could obtain a specimen, but think it must have been Eupodotis 
edwardsii. 

120. Sypheotides auritus. (Leek Florican.) 
Occurred near Seetapore in June 1860. 

121. Glareola orientalis. 

Seen at Alumbagh hi January 1858. 

122. CURSORIUS coromandelicus. 

Found throughout the year on sandy plains; generally in pairs. 

123. ESACUS recurvirostris. 

Found in small flocks on the large rivers during the cold season. 

124. QjIdicnemus crepitans. (Norfolk Plover.) 
Common throughout the year in thin, low, woody jungle. 

Nests in July. 

125. HOPLOPTERUS ventralis. 

Very common on the sandy banks and shores of the Gogra 
and Choka : is generally seen near the Crocodiles and Gavials 
which swarm in those rivers ; I have even seen it sitting on their 
backs. The notes of this Plover and the two next species are 
very loud, and closely resemble one another; when on the wing, 
in particular, they are very noisy. 

126. Sarciophorus bilobus. 

Found in small numbers throughout the year in open country. 

127. LOBIVANELLUS GOENSIS. 

Exceedingly numerous throughout the year ; nesting in June. 
I saw this bird in Kumaon, some fifty miles in the interior of 



238 Capt. L. H. Irby on Birds 

the hill-ranges, on the river Surgoo. From its noisy cry, this 
handsome Plover is nicknamed the " Didn't you-do-it " Plover 
by Europeans, its cry resembling somewhat those words. It is 
called Tyteree by the natives, a name also applied to the pre- 
ceding species. 

128. LOBIVANELLUS CINEREUS. 

Abundant in the cold season about swamps and jheels; seen 
generally in lots of seven or eight. 

129. Vanellus cristatus. (Peewit.) 
Common, in large flocks, during the cold season. 

130. Charadrius virginicus. (Long-legged Golden Plover.) 
Found in flocks on the banks of the Gogra and Choka, and 

occasionally on plains some distance from those rivers. Of the 
numerous representatives of the family of Charadriida found in 
Oudh, this is the only one worth eating, rivalling our C, pluvialis 
in its excellence. 

131. Chettusia GREGARiA. (Keptuscka Or Cawnporc Sand- 
piper.) 

Exceedingly common on open sandy plains in January, 
February, and March. Never seen alone, but in flocks of from 
six to upwards of fifty. When on the ground, at first sight they 
appear very like the Golden Plover ; but upon taking wing, they 
resemble Sarcwphorus hilobus or Lohivanellus cinereus, showing 
a great deal of white in the wings, but flying close to the 
ground, unlike the other Plovers. 

132. HiATicuLA CANTiANA. (Kcutish Plovcr.) 

Seen near the Choka in the cold season of 1858-59. Two 
other species of Hiaticula are common in Oudh, but I did not 
identify them. 

133. HiMANTOPFS CANDiDus. (Black-wiugcd Stilt.) 
Exceedingly common during the cold season ; arrives in small 

numbers in September; seen once or twice in August. Is 
generally observed in small flocks, wading about the edges of 
jheels, and picking in the water amongst the mud and weeds. 

134. ToTANUS GLOTTIS. (Grccnshank.) 

Seen singly and in flocks of up to thirty in number; is most 



observed in Oudh and Kumaon. 239 

numerous during the cold season, but is occasionally seen during 
every month throughout the year. 

135. ToTANUS STAGNATiLis. (Ycllow-legged Sandpiper.) 
Very common in the cold season. In habits resembles Actitis 

glareola, being more of a Marsh Sandpiper than A. ochropus or 
A. hypoleucos, both of which are found on the banks of rivers ; 
the Common Sandpiper being seldom seen on muddy marshes. 

136. ToTANUs Fuscus. (Dusky Redshank.) 

Frequently seen in small flocks during the cold season : not 
noticed in the summer plumage. 

137. ToTANUS CALiDRis. (Rcdshank.) 

Exceedingly numerous during the cold season. This bird has 
a curious way of feeding, which I often noticed : a flock of 
perhaps thirty or forty will form a sort of oblique line, each one 
a little in rear of the other, and advance across a shallow jheel, 
all with their heads down half under the water, moving them 
from right to left with great rapidity. The noise they make in 
the water is plainly audible. Probably they feed in this way in 
other countries, but in India they are so tame as to allow a very 
near approach without alarm. 

The j heels in Oudh, except in the Terai, are always very 
shallow, seldom more than two feet deep, and not often of that 
depth. In the Terai, however, they are very deep, and are there 
greatly inhabited by crocodiles {Crocodilus palmtris). When 
there in November and December, scarcely any waders were to 
be seen, except on the rivers, and very few Ducks. Whether the 
crocodiles have anything to do with this, I do not know ; but if 
ever one shot a duck or any bird that fell into the water, the 
natives disliked going in to retrieve them, and needed rather 
forcible persuasion to make them do so, though I do not think 
that the crocodiles would hurt them; certainly the " sharp-nosed " 
Gavial would not. The shallow jheels are filled by the rains, and 
become perfectly dry by February or IMarch, partly from evapo- 
ration, but more from irrigation. When a jheel is very nearly 
dry, there are more waders than when it is full : as a rule, the 
shallower the water is the better, as long as there is some. 
The fishes in these places must bury themselves in the mud, as 



240 Capt. L. H. Irby on Birds 

directly the rains begin to fill them, they appear, though there 
may have been no water for three or four mouths. 

138. AcTiTis GLAREOLA. (Wood Sandpiper.) 
Excessively common in the cold season. 

139. AcTiTis ocHROPUS. (Green Sandpiper.) 
Extremely common in the cold season ; rarely seen in May, 

June, July, and August : is by far the most common Sandpiper 
in Oudh ; the Wood Sandpiper ranking next in numbers. The 
Green Sandpiper is the only one I noticed in Kumaon, vs'here I 
twice saw and shot it in May, on a small stream near Almorah. 
In Oudh, every little puddle by the roadside, and every pond 
outside the villages, has one or more of these birds running at 
the edge, and they are so tame that you can walk within a yard 
of them. 

140. AcTiTis HYPOLEUCOS. (Common Sandpiper.) 
Very common in the cold season. 

141. LiMosA .aiGocEPHALA. (Black-tailcd Godwit.) 
Found in large flocks in the cold season. 

The Bar-tailed Godwit, L. lapponica, has, I believe, occurred 
in Nepal. Terekia cinerea is common in India ; but I never saw 
one, which is rather singular, as I paid more attention to the 
Grallatores than to any other order. 

142. NuMENius ARCUATUS. (Curlcw.) 

Found during the cold season in very large flocks on the 
sand-banks of the rivers Gogra and Choka. 

143. NuMENius pHjEopus. (Whimbrel.) 

Three seen at a half-dried jheel near Hurdui, in February 
1859 ; the only time that I noticed it. 

144. Tringa canutus. (Knot.) 
Seen near Cawnpore in September. 

145. Tringa subarquata. (Pigmy Curlew.) 
Observed occasionally in the cold season. 

146. Tringa cinclus, (Dunlin.) 

Seen in the cold season in company with the two next species, 
but was not common. 



observed in Oudh and Kumaon. 241 

147. Tringa minuta. (Little Stint.) ^ 

I during 1 



, ,o m /m Very common m flocks 

148. Tringa TEMMiNCKii. (Tern- r, . , ,, 
. -, , ^ . . I dunnp; the cold season. 



149. Philomachus pugnax. (Ruff.) 

Found in immense flocks in the cold season; I have seen 
some flocks of certainly not less than from three to four hundred 
on the rice-stubbles near Khyreegur ; those which I shot were 
full of rice, and were well worth shooting for the table. I never 
saw one with a ruff; but Mr. Blyth has kept them alive in Cal- 
cutta till the ruff appeared. 

150. ScoLOPAx RusTicoLA. (Woodcock.) 

Common in Kumaon, resorting to the lower hills and valleys in 
the cold season. In May, I have seen a Woodcock and ]\Ional on 
the wing at the same time, and suppose that they breed on the high 
ranges of the Himalayas. In December, I imagine that I flushed 
a Woodcock near Khyreegur, in Oudh ; but not being able to 
get a shot at him, or even mark him down, I cannot be certain 
that it was one. 

151. Gallinago nemoricola. 

I saw several couples of this fine Snipe at Moonsheyaree, in 
Kumaon, at an elevation of about 6000 or 7000 feet, in May 1859. 
The shikarees had no distinctive name for the bird, though they 
knew it well by sight. Those I found were in little rushy patches 
of bog on the sides of the hills, never on streams. 

152. Gallinago stenura. (Pin-tailed Snipe.) 
Common at the commencement of the cold season. 

153. Gallinago scolopacina. (Common Snipe.) 

Found in great numbers ; arriving in Oudh in October, and 
departing at the end of March. At Nimkar, on the Goomtee, on 
the 8th of November, I bagged thirty couples of Snipe in four 
hours, about five couples of which were Jacksnipes. Is called 
" Chahah " by the natives of Oudh. 

154. Gallinago gallinula. (Jacksnipe.) 

Found in the cold season wherever the Common Snipe is 
found, but not in such numbers. 



242 Capt. L. H. Irby o?i Birds 

155. Rhynchvea bengxVLEnsis. (Painted Snipe.) 

Found in small numbers throughout the year. Like the 
Jacksnipe, this bird will not rise till nearly trodden upon, and 
then only flies a few yards. 

156. Metopidius indicus. 

Very common in the rainy season; frequenting weedy, grassy 
jheels. 

157. Hydrophasianus chirurgus. 

Very common in the rainy season ; arrives in June, and last 
seen in September. When flying, which it does very strongly 
and fast, its screams may be heard a long way. This handsome 
Jacana is included in Mr. Gould's Century of Birds fi*om the 
Himalaya. It is certainly rare in Kumaon ; I never saw it there 
during the two hottest months in the year ; and there is no 
locality there adapted to its habits — not even the mountain lakes. 

158. Grus ANTIGONE. (Saras Crane.) 

Found in great numbers in the cold season, generally in pairs, 
though sometimes in flocks, whereas the Common and Demoiselle 
Cranes are always seen in flocks. Many Saras remain to 
breed in Oudh, forming an immense nest of grass and rushes 
in the centre of large jheels. The number of eggs, which are 
laid in June, is generally two : some eggs are pure white ; others 
white, spotted with red at the larger end. The young birds are 
easily reared by hand, and become very tame and attached to the 
person who feeds them, following him like a dog. They are 
veiy amusing birds, going through the most grotesque dances 
and antics, and are well worth keeping in captivity. One which 
I kept, when bread and milk was given to him, would take the 
bread out of the milk, and wash it in his pan of water before 
eating it. This bird, which was taken out of the King's Palace 
at Lucknow, was very fierce towards strangers and dogs, espe- 
cially if they were afraid of him : he was very noisy, the only 
bad habit he possessed. The natives say that if a Siras be killed, 
its mate will never pair again ; certainly I have heard the 
survivor calling all night for its mate, and since then I never 
would shoot them. 

The flesh somewhat resembles that of a Goose ; it makes capital 



observed in Oudh and Kumaon. 243 

soup, and the liver is considered rather a delicacy by some 
people. 

159. Grus leucogeranos. (White Crane.) 

Though I never succeeded in obtaining a specimen of this 
Crane, I saw it on four different occasions, at Sandee in February, 
and at Hilgee, on the river Choka, in December 1859. The 
first time there were three together, two white, and one dusky- 
coloured (the colour of an immature Hooper) — no doubt the two 
old birds and their young. I tried to get a shot at them in vain, 
they were so excessively wild, which is not the case with the 
Saras; though the Common and Demoiselle Cranes are in India 
very difficult to approach, the only way of shooting them being 
with a rifle. 

160. Grus cinerea. (Common Crane.) 

Large flocks of the Common Crane appear during the cold 
season, and are chiefly found near the rivers Choka and Kurnalli, 
feeding on the rice- stubbles. This and the next species are 
much prized by European sportsmen under the name of 
" Courlan." 

161. Anthropoides virgo. (Demoiselle Crane.) 

Occurs in immense flocks during the cold season, and are 
found in the same localities as Gi'us cinerea. At Sirsa Ghat, on 
the Choka, flocks of several hundreds may be seen on the wing 
at once ; their cry can be heard when they are out of sight. 

162. Falcinellus igneus. (Glossy Ibis.) " Kowari " of 
natives : " Black Curlew " of European sportsmen. 

Common during the cold season ; generally seen in flocks. I 
have repeatedly seen this and the next two species of Ibis settle 
on trees. 

163. Geronticus papillosus. ("King Curlew^' of Euro- 
peans.) 

Frequently seen in the cold season. 

164. Thr^scigrnis melanocephalus. ("White Curlew" 
of Europeans.) 

Common throughout the year. 



244 Capt. L. H. Irby on Birds 

165. Platalea leucorodia. (White Spoonbill.) 
Common in flocks at the end of the cold season. 

166. Anastomus oscitans. 

Common throughout the year. At a place named Kupser, on 
the river Kutna, a branch of the Goomtee, this bird breeds in a 
large colony on two or three tall trees growing on the banks of 
the river. The nests are immense stacks, or rather platforms of 
sticks, one above the other, several pairs nesting on each plat- 
form, without any apparent separation of the eggs, which, on the 
26th of June, were hard set on and of a chalky-white colour, 
smaller than, but about the same shape as the egg of Ardea 
cinerea. I left India shortly after finding this place, or I should 
have got some young birds to bring up. The immature bird is 
of an ashy-grey colour on those parts of the plumage which 
when adult are white. I have eaten the innnature bird, and 
found it tolerably good. 

167. Mycteria australis. (Green-headed Jabiru.) 
Frequently observed throughout the year. Generally they 

are solitary birds, more than three being seldom seen together, 
and very wary. Probably they breed in Oudh, but I never 
could find out where they nested. 

168. CicoNiA alba. (White Stork.) 

Common, especially in the cold season ; generally seen in flocks. 

169. CiCONIA LEUCOCEPHALA. 

Common in the cold season : is not so gregarious as the White 
Stork. 

170. Leptoptilus argala. (Adjutant.) 

Common throughout the year, though it is thought to be 
migratory. 

171. Ardea cinerea. (Common Heron.) 

Numerous during the cold season. That handsome Heron, 
A. goliath, is found in Bengal and Nepal, but I never observed 
it in Oudh. 

172. Ardea purpurea. (Purple Heron.) 

Exceedingly numerous during the cold season. This Heron 



observed in Oudh and Kumaon. 245 

has a good deal of the habits of the Bittern, skulking in rushes, &c. 
I have repeatedly seen it in India, at the Cape, and in the Crimea, 
but never saw it in the open, like Ardea cinerea, except when 
flushed out of rushes ; then it will sometimes settle on dry land, 
much in the manner of the Night Heron. 

173. Herodias alba. (Great Egret.) 

Common from August to March inclusive, and probably found 
throughout the year. Attempts have been made to distinguish 
the different species of Egret by the colour of the bill ; but the 
colour varies according to age and the time of year, and spe- 
cimens may be often obtained with the bill half black, half 
yellow : the only way of distinguishing them is by the crests, 
back and breast plumes, and by the size of the birds when not in 
the breeding plumage. 

174. Herodias IxXtermedia. 

More common than the preceding species, and observed 
throughout the year. 

175. Herodias garzetta. (Little Egret.) 

Common throughout the year. I kept one alive some time, 
feeding it on meat. 

176. Herodias melanopus. 

Common, and, like the preceding species, often seen among 
cattle. This Egret is the smallest of the four ; and the breast 
plumes in the breeding-plumage are few in number, but thick 
in texture, and scattered down the neck — not springing from one 
place as in H. garzetta. 

177. Herodias bubulcus. (Buff-backed Heron.) 
Excessively common during the rainy season ; always seen 

amongst cattle. I have seen a buffalo walking along with three 
or four of these birds or H. intermedia sitting on his back, 
reminding one of an itinerant vendor of plaster- of-Paris images. 

178. Ardeola leucoptera. (" Paddy Bird.'') 

A name also applied to the preceding five species, but espe- 
cially to this one, which is very common throughout the year. 

179. Nycticorax griseus. (Night Heron.) 

Seen in small numbers throughout the year, and is rather wary. 



246 Capt. L. H. Irby on Birds 

180. BoTAURUS STELLARis. (Commou Bittern.) 

. Common in the cold season on the large rushy jheels. 

181. PORPHYRIO POLIOCEPHALUS. 

Very common, especially on rushy jheels and those where 
bushes grow in the water. This bird can bite very sharply, as I 
know from personal experience. 

183. PORZANA PHCENICURA. 

Very common throughout the year ; frequenting small ponds 
and swamps near villages. 

183. PoRZANA MARUETTA. (Spotted Crake.) 
Common in rushy swamps during the cold season. 

184. Gallinula chloropus. (Waterhen.) 
Common. 

185. PuLiCA atra. (Common Coot.) 

Found in great numbers on the large jheels in the cold 
season. I saw one on the lake at Nynee Tal, Kumaon, about 
the 1st of June, 1859. 

186. Larus ridibundus. (Black-headed Gull.) 
Frequently seen in the cold season, but never in summer 

plumage. 

187. Larus miiNutus. (Little Gull.) 

I killed a specimen of this Gull in its winter dress in January 
1859, near Jehangirabad; it was exceedingly tame, allowing me 
to approach within two or three yards. 

188. Rhynchops albicollis. (" Scissors-bill.") 
Common in the cold season in the vicinity of the Gogra and 

Choka, on the sand-banks of which rivers large flocks are seen 
sitting in the daytime. I think this bird must feed at night, as 
I never saw it doing so till just towards dusk, when it was often 
to be seen skimming along close to the water, every now and then 
dipping in its curiously constructed beak. 

189. Hydrochelidon indica. (Whiskered Tern.) 
Common in the cold season. 

190. Sterna hirundo. (Common Tern.) 
Occasionally seen. 



observed in Oudh and Kumaon. 217 

191. S. JAVANICA. 

Very common. 

192. S. MiNUTA. (Lesser Tern.) 

Seen once or twice on the Gogra ; always (like all the Terns) 
in the cold season. 

193. Pelecanus javanicus. 

Very common on large jhccls and on rivers in the rainy 
seasons, and settles on trees. Most of those which I saw were 
in the immature plumage. 

194. GrACULUS PYGMyEUS. 

Extremely numerous on rivers, particularly during the cold 
season. 

195. Plotus melanogaster. (" Snake Bird "of Europeans.) 
So called from its appearance when swimming, the whole of 

the body being submerged, and only the snake-like head and 
neck being seen. This Darter is exceedingly common in some 
localities during the cold season, preferring rivers and deep 
jheels. In the Terai I have seen as many as twenty sitting on 
a dead tree, which was quite white from their dung. 

196. Anser cinereus. (Grey-lag Goose.) 

Arrives in November, and departs about the end of February ; 
is during that time very common, frequenting large jheels more 
than rivers, whereas the Barred Goose [Bernicla indica) resorts 
more to rivers, and is not nearly so good a bird for the table as 
the Grey-lag. 

A single specimen of some species of Goose, which, from the 
description given me, I imagine to have been a Grey-lag, was 
seen on Nynee Tal in Kumaon, about the beginning of May 
1859, probably en route from the plains to the cooler regions of 
the Thibetan lakes. 

197. Anser brachyrhynchus. (Pink-footed Goose.) 

I saw a specimen of this Goose, killed at Alumbagh in 
January 1858. According to Mr. Blyth, it has also occurred in 
the Punjab. 

198. Anser minutus, Naum. (Little White-fronted Goose.) 
On the 24th of October, 1859, near Seetapore, in Oudh, I 



248 Capt. L. H. Irby on Birds 

killed two birds of this species, and saw a third; these are the 
only ones I noticed. At the time I could not make out what 
Goose it was, and was unable to find out, till I saw some alive in 
the Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park. It is probably very rare 
in India. 

199. Bernicla indica. (Barred Goose.) 

Exceedingly numerous in the cold season on the large rivers, 
such as the Gogra, Choka, and Korialla; is seldom seen on 
jheels, and is scarcely worth shooting for the pot. 

200. Dendrocygna arcuata. {" Tree Duck,'' " Whistling 
Teal," and "Rain Teal" of Europeans.) 

Appears in great numbers at the commencement of the rainy 
season, and is then seen in pairs ; towards the middle of the cold 
season they are seen in flocks of eight or ten — probably the old 
birds and their young. This Duck, when on the wing, has a 
peculiar whistling cry. It flies very heavily, shows no sport, and 
its flesh is dry and tasteless. The large species of Rain Teal 
(Z). major) I did not observe in Oudh, but doubtless it occurs 
there. 

201. Sarcidiornis melanotus. 

This curious and handsomely-coloured Duck is not common 
in Oudh, and when observed was on jheels, not rivers. I saw 
it in May, June, and July; and once, in November, saw a small 
flock, all in the sombre plumage of immature males or females. 
The adult male, with the boss on the beak, I only observed four 
times. In all the family of Anatida there is probably no species 
in which there is such a difference in size between the male and 
female; the former is nearly double the weight of the latter; 
when on the wing this diff"erence is very apparent. The boss on 
the beak varies in size, probably according to the age of the 
bird; in the plate given in the ' PI. Enl.' 937, the boss is smaller 
than most which I have seen. The flesh of this Duck is, unlike 
that of other Tree Ducks, very good. 

202. Nettapus coromandelicus. 

Very common ; arriving about the same time as D. arcuata, 
but departing sooner. 



observedin Oudh and Kumaon. 249 

203. Casarca rutila. (" Ruddy Shieldrake.") " Braliminy 
Duck " of Europeans. " Chukwa " of natives ; probably so called 
from its cry. 

Very common in the cold season on the large rivers and lakes ; 
seldom seen on the small jheels, except in the vicinity of rivers. 
Immense flocks^ during the day^ rest on the sand-banks of rivers, 
and towards dusk these flocks break up into pairs and disperse 
in various directions. Should one bird be killed, its mate will 
not leave the spot, but continue flying round for some time, 
calling repeatedly. It is a shame to shoot them, as their flesh 
is proverbial for its dryness and other bad qualities. There is a 
strange Hindoo legend about the Chukwa, the pith of which is 
that any person who kills one is for ever after doomed to 
celibacy. 

204. Spatula clypeata. (Shoveller.) 

Very common on the shallow jheels in the cold season, pre- 
ferring those jheels in which the water is about four or five 
inches deep. 

205. Anas boschas. (Wild Duck.) 

Numerous in some localities during January and February. 

206. Anas pcecilgrhyncha. ("Big Duck" of European 
sportsmen.) 

Exceedingly common in the cold season ; occasionally noticed 
in June, July, and August ; generally seen in pairs, or in parties 
of from three to eight in number, and is more partial to rivers 
and deep jheels than the shallow muddy jheels. This Duck and 
the Shoveller are seldom seen on the same piece of water ; the 
latter alwayo seeking its food in very shallow water, as also do 
the Common Teal and the Pintail, both of which I have often 
killed at the same shot. With the exception of A. boschas and 
the next species, this Duck is the most wary of any, — Teal, 
Gadwall, and the Pochards being the tamest. There is scarcely 
any difference between the note of A. boschas and this Duck 
when alarmed. 

207. Anas caryophyllacea. (Pink-headed Duck.) 
Three times seen towards the end of the rainy season — twice 

VOL. III. S 



250 Capt. L. H. Irby on Birds observed in Oudh and Kumaon. 

in small flocks of seven or eight, and a single bird — and is, as fa 
as I have seen, excessively wary. The pink head is very ap- 
parent when on the wing, contrasting with the dark plumage of 
the body : immature specimens are not so pink on the head and 
neck as the adult. 

208. Dafila acuta. (Pintail.) 

Very common in the cold season in large flocks. 

209. Mareca PENELOPE. (Wigeon.) 

Seen in small numbers towards the end of the cold season. 

210. QuERQUEDULA CRECCA. (Teal.) 

Extremely numerous ; arriving about the end of September. 
I know an instance of twenty-three having been bagged out of 
a flock. Three barrels were fired, and a single one was killed 
with the fourth barrel. A great haul for the pot this, especially 
when one is hard up for good food. 

211. QuERQUEDULA ciRCiA. (Gargauey.) 

Frequently seen in the cold season; exceedingly common in 
February and March ; I caught some young, half-fledged, in the 
month of September. It is, I suppose, an unsolved problem 
where the wild-fowl, waders, &c., which resort to the plains of 
India in the cold season, go to breed : to the Lakes of Thibet, 
and the river Yaroo, perhaps. The only wild-fowl which I 
noticed in Kumaon, on Nynee Tal, were — a single Goose, some 
Gadwalls, Shovellers, Teals and Garganeys, and a solitary Coot 
{Fulica atra) ; I also once saw a large Grebe, probably Podi- 
ceps cristata. These birds only remained on the lake for a 
day or two ; indeed they could not live, the depth of the lake is 
so great that there can be little food for them, and there are not 
many weeds except close to the road. 

212. Branta rufina. (Red-crested Pochard.) 
Exceedingly common in the cold season. Why was the 

epithet " Whistling " ever applied to this bird ? I have seen 
hundreds, and never once heard a whistle from one. In habits 
they resemble our Common Pochard. 

213. FuLiGULA FERiNA. (Commou Pochard.) 
Occasionally seen in the cold season, but was not common. 



Mr. R. Swinhoe on the Birds observed about Talien Bay. 251 

214. FuLiGULA CRisTATA. (Tufted Pochard.) 

Seen on the large jheels, in small numbers, during the cold 
season. 

215. FuLiGULA XYROCA. (Whitc-eycd Pochard.) 
Extremely numerous in the cold season ; and is very good for 

the table. 

216. Mergus CASTOR. (Goosander.) 

Seen on Sandee jheel, near Hurdui, in February 1859. 

217. Mergus albellus. (Smew.) 

Occasionally seen, in January and February, in small flocks of 
from three to seven. 

218. PoDicEPs CRisTATUS. (Great-crcstcd Grebe.) 
Frequently seen on the jheel at Sandee and on other large 

jheels towards the end of the cold season. 

219. Podiceps philippensis. (Dabchick.) 

Very common throughout the year, and breeds during the 
rains. 



XXIV. — Notes on the Birds observed about Talien Bay {North 
China), from June 21 to July 25, 1860. By Robert Swinhoe, 
of H. M.^s Consular Service. 

Before giving my notes and observations on the few birds of 
the place, it will be necessary to give the reader a brief introduc- 
tion to the "natura loci." Talien Bay (the Chinese word, by 
some explanations meaning " girdle," and according to others, 
" united") is the name applied by the British to a bay in the 
extreme southerly peninsula of the Province of Leautung, where 
the expeditionary force rendezvoused previous to their campaign 
in the Gulf of Pecheli. Whence the name took its origin re- 
mains a mystery, as it was perfectly unknown to the natives of 
the place. The bay measures, from north to south, about 9 miles, 
and from east to west, about 13 miles. The S.E. and N.W. shores 
are steep and rocky, the cliffs in some parts rising up perpendi- 
cularly from the water. In the N.E. angle and on the W. the 
land gradually slopes towards the sea and forms a shelving 

s2 



252 Mr. R. Swinhoe on the Birds 

beach. The shores of the bay are very much indented, and 
form quite a number of subordinate bays. The bay is bovmded 
by two long peninsulas that stretch out like horns from the 
main land and converge towards the entrance of the harbour. 
The average breadth of each of these peninsulas may be 4 or 5 
miles. The centre of each is occupied by a range of rocky hills 
consisting of stratified limestone and clay, of what the geologists 
would call a ^' metamorphic formation." In these rocks large 
quantities of granite occur, and the scratches and broad lines 
on the slabs of softer limestone give plain indications of the 
grinding influence of giant glaciers during the long-past " glacial 
period." Water is scarce and chiefly procured from wells, but 
a few trickling streams may be discovered stealing down the 
depths of the chasms and ravines that wash the sides of the 
hills. The villages are mostly small and cluster in chosen spots 
round streams or wells, but scarce any bear the stamp of later 
date than 80 or 100 years, judging from the growth of the 
trees planted in their neighbourhood ; for, with the exception 
of such trees, sylvan vegetation is unknown there, though the 
hills are covered with verdure and off'er a rich gathering to the 
botanist. You would naturally expect to meet here Mantchu- 
rians, considering the province generally marked down as part 
of Mantchuria ; but not so, the natives (who are stout and 
brawny-looking fellows, though uncouth and boorish) report 
themselves as colonists from the Chinese provinces of Shantung 
and Shanse. They live in strongly-built huts composed of stone 
and mud, with thatched roofs ; but the internal economy of their 
dwellings is fearfully neglected and slovenly, and all kinds of 
vermin abound. It is a strange fact that these people do not 
drink tea, using instead a decoction of millet. Opium, on the 
contrary, has found its way among them ; and not a few have 
fallen victims to its ravages. Their language is a vulgar patois 
of the court dialect. Bearded corn, coarse millet, maize, beans, 
potatoes (the true English potatoe is eaten there, boiled as a deli- 
cacy with sugar), form the chief crops in summer. The climate 
even at this late season was never hot, a nice fresh breeze always 
blowing from the sea; and such delightful evenings ! Strange 
to say, birds were scarce ; for what particular reasons I could not 



observed about Talien Bay {N. China). 253 

ascertain, as insects and vegetable food were both abundant, and 
their enemies, in the shape of Hawks or beasts of prey, by no 
means common. 

1. MiLvus GOVTNDA, Sykcs. 

Even here this bird is met with, though in no great numbers, 
soaring about in the neighbourhood of villages and over junks in 
the harbour, ever prowling for its carrion prey. I shot a male, 
and found it answering in most respects to the southern bird, 
though the bill is stronger and thicker, and the legs more robust. 
The culmen of the cere, when the specimen was fresh, was yel- 
low, the rest bluish. Legs bluish, with black claws. Compared 
with some skins of the Indian bird sent me by Mr. Blyth, the 
Chinese race is much larger and stronger, with heavier legs and 
stouter claws, and a much darker tinge of plumage ; but I think 
there can be little doubt that they are the same species, the 
Chinese race being somewhat more ennobled in appearance by 
the cooler temperature in these parts. 

2. Erythropus vespertinus, Linn. 

This handsome little bird-slayer was not unfrequently met with 
flying along overhead or hovering poised in air. Judging from 
the contents of the stomachs of two I procured, I should say it 
committed considerable havoc among the Larks and other field- 
birds. It certainly caused considerable consternation wherever 
it appeared among them. I had an opportunity of observing 
the nest of this species twice; one was placed amongst the top- 
most boughs of a willow, the other in the leafy foliage of some 
umbrageous tree. The nests were large and round, and built 
of sticks, resembling somewhat those of the Magpie. When the 
old birds visited the nest, the young set up a chattering cry. 

Old male. Length 11 in., wing 9y\j, tail 5. Cere, skin round 
the eye, bright orange-red, with a tinge of yellow-orange running 
into the beak. Apical third of upper mandible bluish black, 
somewhat light in tint. Iris deep hazel. Legs bright orange, 
with yellowish claws. 

The young were balls of white down with bluish bills. The 
cere and skin round the eyes were of a pale yellow, as also were 
the legs and claws. The irides were brown. 



254 Mr. E. Swinlioe on the Birds 

3. Bubo maximus. 

I twice saw this fine Owl. Once we were on an expedition, 
when the whole party stopped to see one of this giant species sitting 
on a rock some way up a hill, and trying to ward off the attacks 
of a pair of Red-legged Falcons, who were hovering over and 
darting at him on each side. At last he flew to the other side 
of the hill to try and take refuge from his small assailants ; but 
they followed after and continued their persecution until he hid 
himself under a rock. At another time, when I was clambering 
over the hills that skirt the harbour between "Pearl Bay" and 
" Odin Bay," I suddenly turned a corner and came close in view of 
a very fine specimen, which at once rose respectfully and flapped 
over the valley out of view. These birds, I presume, banquet 
off the Hares {Lepus sinensis) that scantily people the surround- 
ing country. 

4. Cypselus vittatus, Jardine. 

This Swift has a long sweep of coast for his peregrinations. 
At Amoy we have his company in the spring, while the weather 
remains rainy and unsettled ; we found him in the commence- 
ment of June breeding on the Lam-yit islands; and later, 
towards the close of that month, we find him again, a thousand 
miles north, sporting about in the clear atmosphere of Salienwan. 
As the season advances and the incubatory duties are finally 
concluded, he betakes himself south again for the winter. 

5. HiRUNDO RUSTiCA, Linn. 

I think we must drop the gutturalis of Scopoli and call this 
bird by its old familiar name ; for it can certainly be no other 
than our English acquaintance, though somewhat smaller in 
size. It differs nothing in point of colouring, and in habits uo 
more than the change of situation would lead one to expect. 
This species was plentiful enough among the villages. 

6. Upupa epops, Linn. 

In a willow grove a party of these birds, probably consisting 
of a family group, had taken up their quarters, and fi'om this 
spot they used to make their little excursions into the neigh- 
bouring open land, skimming along with long undulating flight. 
Sometimes they would toy and gambol with one another in the 



observed about Talien Baij {N. China). 255 

air^ occasionally tumbling several feet downwards before they 
could recover themselves. The note they mostly uttered was a 
kind of hissing sound. 

7. Lanius lucionensis, Strickland. 

Male shot. Length 8 in., wing 3i, tail 3^. Bill black; legs 
and claws leaden blue. 

This bird apparently passes the summer in the north, as on 
our first arrival it was much more common than it subsequently 
became. Still later, in the plains of the Peiho we did not meet 
with them at all ; they had probably migrated southwards. 

8. MOTACILLA LUGUBRIS. 

A pied Wagtail, I should fancy of this species. 

9. Passer montanus, Linn. 

This is here the domestic Sparrow as in the south, and is found 
as numerous and as noisy as ever. 

10. Emberiza rustica, Pall. 

1 frequently met with this Bunting, which appeared to be the 
only species. Its choice habitats wei'e on the grass-covered 
sides of hills, where several together might be seen searching 
about on the ground for small seeds and insects. Occasionally 
flitting on the top 'of a rock, a male would continue to pour out 
a flow of rich notes, wild in their strain, but sweet and melodi- 
ous. Its twittering call-note is not unlike that of the Robin. 

Male. Upper mandible bluish black, lower pale bluish ; 
legs light clay colour, with blackish claws. 

1 send four individuals of this species. They are all adult, 
and answer in most respects to the description in the * Fauna 
Japonica;^ but mine have the top of the head deep reddish 
brown, instead of " noir tirant au brun-roux.^^ 

11. Alauda brachydactyla, Temminck. 

I have compared the northern skins with some from India, 
and can discover no tangible difiierence. It is a very common 
species among the fields of corn in the open part of the country. 
On the soft mouldy soil, when the corn was just springing, I 
have watched numbers of them. They chirp just like other 
Larks in their uncertain, hovering flight, and occasionally start 



256 Mr. R. Swinboe on the Birds 

up on wing, singing as they rise, and continue soaring till almost 
out of sight. It varies its flight sometimes to undulations, 
almost after the manner of Pipits. 

Male. Length 6 in., wing Sy^,, tail 2^. 

Female. Length 6 in., wing 3^, tail 2^^. 

Bill pale yellowish horn-colour, blackened on culmen, gonys, 
and tip. Legs clay colour, with blackish claws. 

12. Alauda leautungensis, n. sp. 

This is a short-bodied, robust Lark, with long crest and absurdly 
long bill. It had a heavy flight and never attained any height in 
soaring. Its song abounded in loud, though somewhat sweet, 
notes. After rising some twenty or thirty feet, while engaged in 
song, it would suddenly drop downwards, with closed wings, to 
within a few feet of the earth, and then flutter along with a lark- 
chirp to some convenient spot to drop upon. The song reminded 
me of the rambhng chant of A. mongolica, for which species I 
at first mistook it. 

Male. Length 7 in., wing 4^^, expanse ll-j^. Tail 2y?o, 
culmen of bill 6^^,, to gape ^, from forehead to end of crest 
1|. Tarsus fx), mid-toe, claw jV; hind-toe jo, its claw y|. 

Bill pale yellowish horn-colour. Inside of mouth yellow. 
Iris dark hazel. Ear oval, placed nearly on the same parallel 
with the eye. Legs and claws pale clay-colour. 

Female. Length 6y^^ ii^v wing S^V- Irides hght brown. Bill 
and legs very pale flesh-brow^n, the former with a darker culmen. 
Claws short and pale flesh-colour. 

The long, somewhat curved bill of this species, its crested 
head and short hind claws draw it very near to the Certhilauda. 

Streak over and round the eye pale ochreous. Crest consist- 
ing of blackish-brown feathers margined with yellowish brown. 
Upper parts lark- like, tinged strongly on the rump and across 
the wings with rust-brown. Axillje, flanks, and greater part of 
the basal half of each quill strongly washed with rust-colour. 
Under parts a dingy ochreous white, browner on the pectoral 
baud, where frequent blackish-brown spots occur, which ex- 
tend somewhat obscurely up to the lower mandible and towards 
the eye. 



observed about Talien Bay {N. China). 257 

The young have a strong wash of yellow over the predomina- 
ting brown. They are freckled on the wing and tail-coverts 
with yellowish white, and the back and rump in parts are ob- 
scurely striated with a darker hue. The brown spots that mark 
the centre of feathers in the older individuals are here very in- 
distinct, and the pectoral spots do not show themselves. The 
long crest is very apparent. 

Bill pale horn-colour, brown along the culmen; angle and 
inside of mouth yellow. Irides brown. Legs and claws very 
light flesh-ochre. 

This species is very distinct from the Alauda japonica, which 
occurs in abundance in the plains of the Peiho; and 1 have 
named it after the Province of Leautung into a peninsula of 
which the bay flows. 

13. Stuknus cineraceus, Schlegel. 

This bird occurred here in flocks feeding in the open coun- 
try, and roosting at night in the trees that grouped themselves 
about the hamlets. From the number of young birds in the 
flocks I infer that they spent the summer here for the purposes 
of nidification, and thence on the approach of winter betake 
themselves further south, and speed down the coast as far as 
Canton. 

Yearling. Bill liver-brown with a wash of blackish. Inside 
of mouth yellowish. Legs clay-colour. All the dark parts of 
the adult plumage are in the young yellowish or light liver- 
brown; some of the feathers, especially on the head, being 
margined paler. The top of the head, freckles on the cheek, 
quills, and tail-feathers of a darker brown. The throat is whitish. 
At the commencement of winter this plumage becomes darker, 
and then attains to what is called " la livree de passage " in the 
' Fauna Japonica,^ from which to the full summer garb is but a 
step. 

14, CoRvus (Monedula) dauricus, Pallas. 

At the bottom of Talien Bay there is a creek with a flat rock, 
some eighty feet high, standing at its mouth. The side of this rock 
that faces the main, and the main itself, are very precipitous, 
jagged all over with broken fragments of rock, and rent in 



258 Mr. R. Svvinhoe 07i the Birds 

various parts into chasms and crevices. In sucli a spot nature 
has offered to the Jackdaw a secure retreat, and the bird seems 
fully conscious of the blessing. Thousands of them all day long 
flock in and out with food for their young, who keep up a con- 
stant clamour within their secure strongholds. We landed on 
the island, and having clambered up on the other side, stood 
over the Jackdaw site. The birds soon observed the intruders, 
and contrived a good many dodges to go in and out of their nests 
unnoticed ; some would quietly steal round the rocks and sud- 
denly slip into their holes, others would dash by in parties and 
in an instant disappear in all directions on the rock face. 
Again, in flying out from their nests, instead of starting off 
direct, they flew first towards one side then towards the other, 
describing a series of angles until they tu)-ned the corner. But 
finding our intrusion at last irksome, they assembled in large 
flocks aloft, and kept hovering over our heads, uttering the pecu- 
liar cracked note of the Jackdaw. 1 managed, with the assist- 
ance of the boat's crew, to get down the rock some little way, 
and to examine one of the nests placed in a creviced ledge. The 
nest was a rude open construction of straw, grasses, and other 
materials hastily collected together, and lined profusely with 
feathers. It contained two newly-fledged young. The insides 
and angles of their mouths were bright yellow, their eyes greyish, 
and the light portion of their plumage was of a sullied grey. 
Their cry for food consisted of a strange yerking note. When 
the young birds are able to fly, their parents conduct them to 
the trees in the neighbourhood, where they roost, and whence 
they can easily explore the plains. The note of alarm employed 
by these birds consisted of nasal " caws," very diff"erent from 
the ordinary falsetto cries. The old birds were in bad plumage, 
so I did not procure any specimens ; but I shot two full-grown 
young, of which I subjoin a description. 

Yearling. Bill black, with a light-coloured tip. Legs black, 
with light soles. Eyes blackish brown. Inside of mouth pale 
yellowish. The general colour of the plumage is a dull black, 
enlivened somewhat on the head, quills^ and tail with a gloss of 
dark green, more vivid on the two latter ; the wing-coverts and 
tertiary quills have, on the other hand, a lively gloss of purple. 



observed about Talien Bay {N. China). 259 

A broad band encircling the lower neck, the lower part of the 
breast, and the belly, are of a smoke grey. The birds undergo 
an autumnal moult, in which black tints become much bright- 
ened and the grey approaches to the white of the adult. The 
authors of the ' Fauna Japonica ' have somewhat jumbled the de- 
scription of this bird with that of the following species. 

15. CoRvus (Monedula) neglectus, Schlegel. 

In most flocks of the pied species a few of these were to be 
seen, but they w^ere by no means common. 

16. CucuLUs STRiATUS, Drapicz. 

This Cuckoo is found all down the coast of China throughout 
summer, but in wdnter it leaves us. Mr. Blyth has identified 
the species. Our specimens are invariably larger, and have 
weaker bills than skins from India, but in other respects I can 
see no difference. The note of this bii'd has a wonderful simi- 
larity to that of Cuculns canorus. 

17. COLUMBA LEUCOZONUKA, n. Sp. 

This Hock-Pigeon, at once distinguishable from C. Jivia by its 
white tail-band, its purple breast, and the reversion of the re- 
splendent tints that adorn the neck, is found in immense num- 
bers in Talien Bay, where the precipitous rocks abounding in 
dark limestone caverns afford it a safe retreat and present it 
with cradles for the rearing of its young. The caverns these 
birds generally choose were dark and unwholesome-looking, with 
the damp trickling from the roof. In these places out of arm's 
reach the pigeons chose rocky ledges to place their stick-built 
nests on ; rude constructions they generally were. You never 
watched long before seeing some bird either going or returning 
with food. They mostly went on these excursions several toge- 
ther, and dashing by with rapid flight, made for the fields of 
newly-planted grain, into which they would drop and commence 
to search for food. On our first landing we found no difficulty 
in approaching to within a few yards ; but they very soon learnt 
to dread the gun. The ships of war that visited this bay during 
early spring, report these birds as wandering about the country, 
associated in immense flocks. One officer, I was informed^ 
brought down thirteen at one shot. 



260 Mr. R. Swinhoe on the Birds 

Adult male. Bill blackish brown, with the swollen membrane 
pale bluish white. Iris yellow round the pupil, with a broader 
outer circle of blood-red. The naked skin round the eye pale 
flesh-colour. Legs bright pink, with blackish claws. General 
plumage light greyish blue. Middle of the neck all round 
splendent with purple pink, its lower part with emerald green. 
Back, upper part of the sides, and lower wing-coverts pure white. 
Primaries brown on their outer webs and ends, the brown on 
some of the feathers being yellowish and light. Secondaries 
with their ends a rich dark brown. Two black bars half across 
the wing, one extending half across the secondai*y coverts, and 
the other over the inner secondaries. Head, rump, and tail 
bluish smoke-grey, the latter barred with a broad white band 1 \ 
inch in extent, and then by a terminal black bar 1 inch in depth. 
The white runs up the outer web of the outermost feather to its 
base. Breast reddish purple. Lower parts light bluish grey. 

18. COTURNIX DACTYLISONANS, Mcycr. 

Not common. 

19. CHARA.DRIUS PHILIPPINUS. 

This was the common species here to be met with all along 
the sandy beaches and gullies. You found them also in the 
ploughed fields and grassy meadows ; in fact, wherever the 
ground is flat. The bird runs with amazing velocity, carrying its 
head rather low and its tail uplifted. When on wing it flutters 
along, uttering its merry note " tew-tew." One morning I was 
passing along a sandy water-course looking out for terns, when a 
pair of small Plovers rose and flew round and round me in great 
agitation, whistling and quivering their wings with every sign 
of distress. The foolish birds ! if they had not alarmed them- 
selves, I should have passed without noticing what met my eyes 
when I examined the ground closely. Two wee downy things 
were creeping about amongst gravel, so much the colour of the 
ground that they were extremely hard to detect. They uttered 
a sharp cry not unlike that of a young chick, and offiered no 
resistance to my hand when I attempted to pick them up. The 
old birds grew bold and noisy, perching close to me, and then 
running ofi" to attract my attention, and flying round and round 



ohsei'ved about Talien Bay {N. China). 261 

again. I brouglit the two young ones home. They support 
themselves on the bases of their tarsi when walking. The down 
is short and fluffy. Forehead, neck, under parts and wing 
white. Upper parts and shoulder freckled with chestnut and 
white. A line round the crown and fringing the rest of the 
upper parts black. Down of tail long and black. Bill and eyes 
black. Legs pale flesh-colour, with a leaden tinge ; claws black. 
The adult male has the bill and eye blackish hazel ; the 
latter with a broad bright yellow skin round it. Legs orange- 
ochre, with blackish claws. 

20. Ibis ? 

I only once met with a party of these birds. They were feed- 
ing in a small stream left by the retiring tide. As we approached 
they rose and flew slowly to another spot. I could plainly see 
that they had dark heads with curlew-like bills, and that the 
rest of their plumage was entirely white. There were six of them 
together, and they all appeared similar*. 

21. HiEMATOPUS OSTRALEGUS, LiuU. 

I occasionally saw this bird flying across the water close to its 
surface with quick flaps of the wing. One perched in the mud 
and commenced raking about in it. This specimen I secured. 
It is in every respect similar to the European bird, and we have 
met with it year after year along the coast. From this bird 
being seen so frequently at Talien Bay during June, I have 
reason to believe it breeds there. 

Adult male. Bill and eye-rim bright orange-lead. Iris crimson. 
Legs fine pink, with pale brownish claws. 

22. Herodias egrettoides, Schleg. 

A large white Heron, I fancy the Japanese bird, seen in com- 
pany with the party of Ibis. 

23. Phalacrocorax carbo, Linn. 

A black Cormorant very like our southern species, frequently 
seen. I was unable to secure one. 

24. Larus melanurus, Schleg. 

All the Gulls seemed to be this species. They were very com- 
mon, though I could not discover their resting site. 

* Possibly Ibis nippon of the ' Fauna Japonica,' pi. 71. — Ed. 



262 Mr. R. Swinhoe on the Ornithology 

Adult male. Beak greenish yellow for over | of basal portion, 
apical portion black with vermilion tinge, bright on the culnien, 
near the tip, and on the lower mandible. Inside of mouth orange- 
red. Iris pale straw -yellow. Eye-rim vermilion. Legs bright 
yellow with a greenish tinge ; claws black. 



XXV. — Letter from Mr. Swinhoe on the Ornithology of Ainoy 

and Foochoiv. 

To the Editor of ' The Ibis.' 

Sir, — A few more words on the birds of this province 
(Fuh-keen) before I take my departure to the comparatively new 
field at Formosa. I have submitted a specimen of the Larvivora 
cyanea ? {marked " 7 " in ' Ibis/ 1860, p. 359) to Mr. Blyth, and 
that gentleman pronounces it perfectly distinct from Hodgson's 
species. I have therefore named it L. gracilis, and beg to offer a 
diagnosis of its characters. 

Larvivora gracilis, n. sp. 

Bill, upper mandible brown, lower ochreous, with yellow 
rictus. Legs and claws yellowish flesh-colour. Iris hazel. 
Top of the head dark olive-green, quickly blending into the 
cyanean blue of the upper parts. Wings and tail dark brown, 
tinged with bluish grey, and indistinctly edged with yellowish 
brown. Throat, breast, cheek, and region of the eye yellow 
ochre, the feathers being palely edged with olive brown. Belly 
and vent white. Axillae and flanks dark bluish-grey. 

Length 4^ in., wing 3, tail 1^. Bill \ in. Tarse 1 in.; hind- 
toe ^, its claw Y-(i' 

I twice procured this species in the autumn of 1859. It was 
perhaps a passing migrant, accidentally blown on the island. It 
is very elegant in its contour, and appeared very tame, allowing 
me to a])proach within a few yards of it. It kept a good deal on 
the ground, hopping and running with a quick ambling motion 
among the dried leaves, expanding and closing its tail with a slight 
vertical depression, and seemed to be searching for small chry- 
salides, and for the dipterous insects that had taken refuge 
among the fallen leaves to escape the rude blast that caused the 



of Amoy and Foochow. 263 

branches overhead to sway to and fro ; for such insects were found 
in its stomach. 

Our Cypselus affinis is more strictly Blyth's Malayan C. sub- 
furcattis; and the Querquedula multicolor \% the Anas falca7'ia, 
Pallas. 

No. 8^ Micronisus badius, Gmelin, I have already informed you, 
is, according to Blyth, Accipiter virgatus, Teniminck. 

No. 87, p. 358, Munia minima, Lath., I have received from 
Mr. Blyth, ticketed Munia acuticauda, Hodgson, Burmah; and 
another species was at the same time sent from Calcutta, bearing 
a similar form, but with blacker breast and cheeks, named Munia 
striata, Linn. Specimens in my present collection from Formosa 
are identical with that procured at Burmah, though a specimen 
from Shanghai appears to be different. 

Tchitrea caruleocepliala, Quoy et Gaim.? (No. 66 of my first 
paper) proves to be Myiagra azurea, Bodd. ; and to the Flycatcher 
list I must add another species, Stoparola melanops. Vigors. Both 
these birds Mr. Blyth tells me are common in Bengal. Of the 
former two females were procured here in the autumn of 1859, 
and one female of the latter. We cannot therefore look upon 
them but as rare stragglers to this island. 

No. 12. Circus, sp. ?, is closely affine to, if not identical with, 
Circus uliginosus of America. There is a specimen of this species 
in a cabinet at Hongkong procured from Manilla through 
Mr. Cuming. 

Of the two Caprimulgid(s , one affine to C. jotaka of Japan is 
described by Mr. Blyth as C. sicinhoei ; the other that gentleman 
tells me is a very near ally of C. monticola of Asia. 

The rest of the doubtful species of Amoy I have sent you with 
one or other of my late papers. 

There is one other bird that I jotted down without careful com- 
parison, and that is the Cormorant that winters in this harbour. 
I set it down in my list asPhalacrocorax carbo. Now I discover, on 
close comparison of my specimens with the bird in the ' Fauna Ja- 
ponica,'that our species is undoubtedly referable to P. filamentosus, 
Schlegel, of Japan. But I see, in the ' Fauna Japonica,^ P. carbo 
is also noted at Japan and at Kamtschatka, and Mr. Blyth tells 
me it is found in India. I have therefore every reason to suppose 
that it also favom-s this coast with its visits during winter. Can 



264 Mr. R. Swinhoe on the Ornithology 

the Editor inform us whether P. filamentosus, which Schlegel says 
" n'a ete observe jusqu^a pi-esent qu^au Japon," is the same bird 
as P. sinensis, Shaw, Nat. Misc. pi. 529 ?* If so, which name has 
the priority ? A young bird of this species was shot a few days 
ago in the harbour here, and so I have just had an excellent 
opportunity of comparing the bird in a fresh state with the 
different accounts. 

P. FILAMENTOSUS, Schlegel, juv. 

Bill yellowish horn-colour, with a blackish-brown culmen ; at 
the base of both mandibles yellow, and bright orange-yellow on 
the naked skin about the face. Inside of mouth yellowish 
flesh-colour. Iris yellow. Legs blackish brown, with a purplish 
tinge, and lighter claws. 

Length 31 in., wing 12, tail 5i. Bill, upper mandible 2^ in., 
lower ^^. Tarsus 2-j^^in. ; 1st toe ^-^y its claw^; 2nd toe 
2^, its claw h ; 3rd toe 2^, its claw ^ ; 4th toe \\, its claw ^. 

From the above it will be seen how much nearer the measure- 
ments of my bird agree with those of P. filamentosus in the 
' Fauna Japonica,^ than with those of P. carbo in Macgillivray. 
The most striking resemblance, however, is in the disposition of 
the naked skin, which Schlegel ably describes thus, " Peau nue du 
tour des yeux et de la region des freins descendant vers I'angle de 
la bouche, et se renuissant a la poche gutturale, sur la ligne me- 
diane de laquelle s'avancent les plumes de la gorge en couvrant un 
espace en forme d'un angle tres-aigu et long d'environ dix lignes." 

Foochow is the chief city of this province, situated in a well- 
watered picturesque valley more than half surrounded by woody 
hills, and some 30 miles from the sea. I visited the spot in 
June 1857, and then procured some species which I have never 
observed in Amoy ; and through the kind exertions of Mr. Holt 
of our Service, since stationed at that port, I have been enabled 
to add a few others to my collection. As I am of opinion that a 
list of these birds would prove of interest to the readers of * The 
Ibis,' I will make no excuse for submitting it here : — 

AcciPiTER viRGATus, Temm. 

One shot at Amoy. Several received from Mr. Holt. 

* Shaw's bird appears to be merely the Chinese variety of P. carbo, and 
not P. capillatus (i. e. filamentosus). — Ed. 



of Amoy and Foochow. 265 

Athene cuculoides, Jcrdon. 

Canton and Foochow. Very common during summer at the 
latter place. 

Scops le.aipiji^ Horsfield. 

Canton and Foochow. Mr. Blyth observes that specimens of 
both this and the last from China are rather larger than those of 
India. 

DicRURUS ciNERACEUSj Horsfield. 

Common in the vale of Foochow, but not found on the table- 
land or the hills, where D. macrocercus, Vieill., takes its place. 

CORYDALLA SINENSIS, Bp. ? 

Foochow hills. This is a smaller bird than C. richardi, with 
comparatively larger bill and legs, and I think is very likely to 
prove to be Bonaparte's species. The distribution of colours in 
the two specimens I have is similar to that in the cognate Lark, 
which latter, by the way, varies considerably in the tone of the 
ochreous tinge that washes the plumage. 

Enicurus speciosus, Horsfield. 

Pehling hills, Foochow. I never met but one, and that 
answers so completely to Horsfield's description in the 'Researches 
in Java,' that I have little doubt in assigning to my bird his 
specific name. 

POMATORHINUS STRIDULUS, n. sp. 

This small Wren-like species, which Mr. Blyth marks as new, 
is common on the Pehling hills, Foochow, where I have procured 
however but one individual. It possesses a long rattling note, 
which it utters when disturbed in its haunts, and perching close 
to the intruder, stoops its body to its feet, and throws up its tail 
at right angles, assuming at such times much the appearance of 
a Wren. 

Upper mandible of bill brown, lower yellowish. Legs brown, 
with pale claws. Iris hazel. Upper parts olive-brown with a 
rufous tinge; the brown on the wings and tail being darker 
on the inner webs of the feathers. A white streak runs over 
the eye, and a black one under it, from the nostrils to the ear, 
which it covers. Beyond these two streaks a chestnut nuchal 

VOL. III. T 



266 Mr. R. Swinhoe on the Ornithology 

patch occurs, which extends on either side, and meets semicircu- 
larly on the hind neck. Throat white. Breast reddish chestnut- 
brown, with most of the feathers broadly edged with white on 
their sides. Axillae rather paler than the breast. Belly, flanks, 
and under tail -coverts of the same tint as the back. 

Length 6^ in., wing 2^, tail 2^^. Bill along culmen ^ in., 
from rictus ^. Tarse 1 in.; hind-toe^, its clawfj; hind- 
toe 2, its claw Y^. 

Hypsipetes holtii, n. sp. 

This bird, which I procured from the Pehling hills near 
Foochow, is, as Mr. Blyth remarks, "barely separable from 
H. mackllandii of S. Himalaya, Assam, &c., but is of a duskier 
hue on the back, seapularies and shoulders, with less and weaker 
rufous on the breast." When closely compared, however, the 
two species present differences, in my opinion, quite justifying a 
separation. I have a male of both species before me. The bill of 
H. maclellandii is longer and more arched, with yellowish under- 
inandible. Ours has a somewhat straight blackish-brown bill. 
Legs and claws brown. Crown of head with pointed feathers of 
a deeper brown with paler streaks. Back and scapulars olive- 
brown with paler shafts. Gular feathers pointed, of a smoke- 
grey, with broad white medial streaks. Cheeks and fore neck pale 
rufous brown. Under parts with a rufous-brown wash. Vent 
yellow. Wings and tail as in H. maclellandii, but less xanthous. 
Our species is moreover larger, and has a longer tail. 

SPIZrXOS SEMITORQUES, n. sp. 

A common species on the Pehling plateau, where it frequents 
the bushes, and appears to be substituted for the Pijcnonotus occi- 
pitalis, Temm. {nee P. sinensis sive P.jocosus), of the plains below. 
Mr. Blyth considers it a typical Spizixos, and alludes to a figure 
resembling it of a bird brought from Assam. He says it differs 
from his Sp. canifrons "by its black forehead, want of crest, 
greater extent of black on throat, &c. ; but, except the head and 
neck, that there is hardly any difference." 

Length 7^ in., wing 2,^, tail 3^^^. Bill I in. Tarse ^^ in. 

Bill pale yellow. Legs and claws pale liver-brown. Iris 
brown. Head black, yielding to smoke-grey on the occiput and 



of Amoy and Foochow. 267 

hind ueck. A white patch occurs on each side of the forehead 
and at the base of the lower mandible. The cheeks are streaked 
with the same, which accumulates to a patch on each side of the 
nape, and advancing on the fore neck with a mixture of smoke- 
grey, forms a half-collar. Upper parts, breast and flanks olive- 
green. Inner webs and shafts of rectrices deep rich brown, rest 
of wing yellow olive-green. Tail also olive-green, with brown 
shafts and edges to inner webs, and a black band at its end. 
Edge of wing bright greenish yellow, as are also the remaining 
under parts. 

. Garrulus orxatus, G. R. Gray. 
Common at Foochow^ and Ningpo. 

Urocissa sinensis, Gould. 
Canton and Foochow. 

Chrysomitris spinus, Linn. 
Foochow. 

PoLOPHiLUS sinensis, Stcph- 
Canton and Foochow. 

PiCUS CABANISI. 

Identified by Mr. Blyth. Also procured at Canton. 

Brachypternus badius. Raffles. 

Rather larger than Malacca specimens. I procured this 
myself. It attracted my attention by its laughing note as it ran 
up the trunk of a tree. I have never seen but one from Foochow. 

Gecinus ? 

Smaller than G. viridis of Europe, but a good deal resembling 
it, except that the capital decoration of the male is confined to 
the forehead. I have unfortunately sent home the only male and 
two young ones that I procured from Foochow; I can there- 
fore give no further note of the bird. 

Gallicrex cristatus, Lath. 
Also procured at Canton. 

Rhynchops sinensis, Linn. 
At Canton also. 

Just as I am closing this letter ray hunters arrive with a fine 

t2 



268 Mr. E. Blytli on the Calcutta ' Adjutant.' 

speciraeu of Colymbus, but I find I cannot reconcile it with my 
description of C. glacialis. Here is a note of the bird they have 
shot in Amoy harbour : — 

Length 25 in., wing \l^. Bill along ridge 1^, along edge 
of lower mandible 3^. Tarse 3 in. ; 1st toe 2-j^ in., 2nd 2^, 
3rd 2|, 4th i. 

Tarsus on the inward surface, surface of the toes, and median 
line of webs pale bluish grey variegated with purplish black, 
which forms the pervading colour of the outward side of the 
tarse and the under surface of the feet. Bill flesh-colour with 
blackish-brown culmen. The upper head and neck are grey ; 
and the back and scapulars spotted with white on a greenish- 
black ground. All the under parts are jmre white. Now 
Schlegel, I find, puts down the Colymbus that winters at Japan 
as the C. ardicus ; but this assuredly does not answer that species. 
Is our bird the C. adamsii^, not long since described by 
G. R. Gray ? or is it a species with which the Editor of ' The 
Ibis ' is not acquainted ? 

Yours, &c., Robert Swinhoe. 

British Consulate, Amoy, February 20tli, 1861. 



XXVI. — Note on the Calcutta 'Adjutant' {Leptoptilus ai-gala). 

Bv Edward Blyth, Curator of the Asiatic Society's Museum, 

Calcutta. 
In ' Chambers's Journal ' for January of the current year, p. 40, 
I observe an article entitled "The Calcutta iVdjutaut, or Hur- 
ghila of the natives of Bengal," of which term its technical spe- 
cific appellation is of course a corruption. It contains a deal of 
nonsense, which I forthwith proceed to criticise and correct. 

We are told, in the fourth paragraph, that these gaunt birds 
*' have a long, straight, broad bill, much depressed, the uppei- man- 
dible flattened, and terminated by a very strong hook [!] ; the 
lower formed by two bony branches, which are flexible, and united 
at the tip ; from these branches are suspended a naked skin, in 

* C. udamsii is the Pacific form of C glacialis, and generally resembles 
the latter, except in its larger yellowish-white bill. See Mr. Gray's de- 
scription (P. Z. S. 1859, p. 167)- It is probable that Mr. Swinhoe's bird 
may be C. udamsii in immature plumage. — Ed. 



Mr. E. Blyth on the Calcutta ' Adjutant,' 269 

form of a pouch." Now tlie whole of what I have put into italics 
is utterly untrue, as I scarcely need inform the readers of 
'The Ibis/ Next, the row between the 'Adjutant' and the 
Crows, mentioned in the second column of p. 40, was (I have 
not the slightest doubt, from personal observation of a similar 
affray) the result of "the raw-headed old Adjutant'' having 
seized and gulped some unlucky juvenile member of the Crow 
community. Generally speaking, when an 'Adjutant' com- 
mits a misdemeanour of the kind, he carries his victim to the 
nearest tank, and soaks it thoroughly before engulfing it. But 
this, it would seem, did not happen in the instance witnessed 
by the author of the narrative in ' Chambers's Journal.' We are 
told that " the impertinent Crows had by far the best of this 
recluse. They attacked him principally about the head, which 
has at all times a bare and sore appearance. At last, driven to 
desperation, the Adjutant, by a manoeuvre, possibly more by 
accident than good management, succeeded in seizing one of his 
foes with his large and powerful bill. The hour of that bird's 
dissolution had arrived, and he was not to die as other Crows 
have died from time immemorial ! There were two or three 
efforts made on the part of the Adjutant, and, in a moment 
more, the Crow, body and limbs, was in the sienna-toned 'pouch of 
the greater avenger. He who writes it saw it done." Now 
there happens to be no connexion whatever between the pouch 
and the gullet ! The former is connected with the respiratory 
system of the bird, and analogous (in my opinion) to the air- 
bag attached to one being only — a Python or Boa, and, as in that 
case, no doubt, supplies oxygen to the lungs during protracted 
acts of deglutition. In the smaller Indian Adjutant [L.javanicus) 
there is no pouch ; but the latter is not (in its wild state at least) 
a feeder on garbage of all kinds, but subsists mainly on small 
aquatic animals, never venturing about human habitations like 
its big congener. About what is said of the size and plumage 
of the Calcutta Adjutant, the fact is simply this, that the males 
are larger than the females, and the grey birds with broad al- 
bescent wing-bands are the adults of either sex in nearly moulted 
plumage. 

" The Adjutant's cry very much resembles water flowing from 



270 Mr. E. Newtou's Oimithological Notes from Mauritius. 

a narrow-necked bottle ; and it invariably utters it when about 
to swallow a piece of offal/^ Decidedly not ! The bird happens 
to have no cry at all, and (like most other Storks) wants the 
sterno-tracheal tendinous muscles, and is therefore voiceless. 
The only noise it can produce is by clattering its mandibles to- 
gether, as may be likewise observed in the case of Ciconia alba. 
Calcutta, March 25th, 18G1. 



XXVII. — Ornithological Notes from Mauritius. By Edward 
Newton, M.A., C.M.Z.S.— No. II. A Ten Days' Sojourn at 
Savanne. 

I LEFT Port Louis on the 26th September, 1860, for St. Martin, 
an abandoned sugar-estate situated on the coast of Savanne, the 
southernmost district of Mauritius, where I was in hopes of find- 
ing a very different lot of birds from those which frequent the 
neighbourhood of the metropolis. Being the first holiday of any 
length I had taken since my arrival in the island, I determined to 
devote it to getting a better knowledge of its ornithology ; and, 
as may be supposed, I greatly enjoyed not merely the complete 
relaxation from all work thus afforded me, but also the being able 
to turn my attention more fully to my favourite pursuit. The only 
drawback was the short time that I could be away. Two of my 
friends had preceded me, and I found their tent pitched within 
twenty yards of high-water mark, under the shade of a line of 
Filao-trees — Madagascar Fir [Casuarina equisetifolia) . The 
ground all along the sea-shore was covered with short grass — 
almost down-like, and unencumbered by the large blocks of basalt 
which are found nearly everywhere else over the island. Alto- 
gether it was as pleasant a spot for a camp as ever was seen. Un- 
fortunately there was not, anywhere near, above three or four feet 
of water inside the reef (which lies about a mile and a half out) ; 
and the bottom was covered with long slug-like monsters which 
have very sharp feelers, and scratch uncommonly if you tread 
upon them j so there was not much bathing to be had, beyond 
sitting for half an hour or so in a place free from these brutes. 
In many parts of the tropics it would be impossible to encamp 
by the sea-shore on account of the sand-flies and mosquitoes. 



Mr. E. Newton's Ornithological Notes from Mauritius. 271 

but here there are none of the former and very few of the latter. 
My notes on the birds I met with are as follows : — 

TiNNUNCULUS PUNCTATUS. (Hartl. Orn. Beitr. p. 18.) Man- 
geur-des-poules. 

A few, but not so many as I have found elsewhere. From the 
appearance of a male that was shot^ I should think they must 
breed at this time of the year. 

CoLLOCALiA FRANCiCA. (Hartl. l.c. p. 27.) 

Not so numerous as in the neighbourhood of Port Louis. 

Phedina borbonica. (Hartl. I. c. p. 27.) 

This very local species is tolerably common. They seem fond 
of feeding over the sand at low water and sitting on it, after the 
manner of Sand Martins in England, uttering at the same time 
a most peculiar whistle for a Martin. When flying they have a 
note which very much resembles that of a Bee-eater, as far as 
my recollection goes of that bird's cry when passing through 
Egypt in 1859. These birds are also given to perching on trees; 
and I noticed three that were in the habit of taking up their 
position on the same bough every day at about the same hour, 
probably awaiting the falling of the tide. They are, I think, 
early breeders. In a small cavern on the western face of the 
east side of the Baie du Cap, I saw several, and, from their man- 
ner, I am certain that they either had nests or were about to 
build. I observed one which had its back of a dark ash-brown ; 
I had no gun with me at the time, and the individual never 
showed itself again. 

TcHiTREA BORBONICA. (Hartl. /. c. p. 46.) Coq-du-bois, Coq- 
marron. 

A few seen, but not as many as the nature of the country 
would have led me to expect. 

Hypsipetes olivacea. (Hartl. /. c. p. 44.) Merle. 

A few in the forests ; but I only saw them one day. They 
seem to be entirely arboreal and frugivorous. The gizzards of 
two that I examined contained berries. They are very stupid 
birds, and by simply squeaking, in the manner that one would 
to attract a Jay or a Magpie, one causes three or four to make 



272 Mr. E. Newton's Ornithological Notes from Mauritius. 

their appearance, settling on a bough, close above the intruder, 
holding their heads on one side, and giving their tails a curious 
lateral jerk, uttering at the same time an indescribable sort of 
''quok*' much like the croak of a Song Thrush when it has young. 
Besides this, they have, I know, a low whistle ; and I heard some 
bird singing, nearly in the same key, a low inward song, as Red- 
wings do in the spring before they leave England, which I think 
must have proceeded from a Merle, If it did not, it must have 
been the performance of some bird I do not yet know, as I can 
hardly expect Oxynotus ferrugineus to possess any great musical 
powers. 

ZosTEROPS CHLORoxoTUs. (Hartl. I.e. p. 41.) 
I saw a pair on the hills at St. Martin, and two more pairs 
very near Souillac. They therefore do not, as I once supposed, 
remain only on the very high land. The only note I have heard 
them utter is a short impatient "tic-tic." At Bourbon (Reunion) 
there is a bird called Tectec, probably the same as this. 

FouDiA MADAGASCARiENSis. (Hartl. /. c. p. 55.) Cardinal. 

As common at Savanne as in other parts of the island. The 
males appeared either to have completed their red plumage, or 
to be in a fair way of doing so. 

FoUDIA ERYTHROCEPHALA. (Hartl. /. C. p. 55.) 

Not so abundant at Savanne as the preceding species. The 
cocks had assumed the nuptial dress. Their note resembles that 
of Zosterops chloronotus, and both birds are, I believe, here called 
by the same name, Zozo (i. e. Oiseau) Banane, perhaps for this 
reason. 

EsTRELDA ASTRiLD. (Hartl. /. c. p. 56.) Bengali. 
Perhaps not so common as near Port Louis. 

Crithagra CHRYSOPYGA. (Hartl. /.c. p. 57.) Serin-du-pags. 

Very common along the shore, and wherever Filao-trees are 
to be found. The song is something between the Linnet's and 
a Siskin's. 

Crithagra canicollis. (Hartl. I. c. p. 57.) Serin-du-cap. 
At Jacote this bird is extremely abundant : at St. Martin it 
was comparatively scarce, and 1 only saw one or two flying over. 



Mr. E. Newtoii*s Ornithological Notes from Mauritius. 273 

At the former place, which belongs to Mr, Telfair (a relative 
of him of Dodo celebrity), the house is surrounded by a grove of 
Filao-trees, and a perpetual concert was kept up by these birds. 
The song is not unlike that of a tame Canary, but not so loud, 
and the notes are sweeter. They were just beginning to build 
as I saw one flying with a feather in its mouth, but 1 was unable 
to watch where it went. Mr, Telfair took me to see, as he said, 
10,000,000 birds of all sorts in one field ! Though this was a 
slight exaggeration, there were certainly a good few — perhaps as 
many as I ever before saw at once. The piece of land was in 
" plant-canes,^' and very foul with a species of Groundsel, then 
in seed, which was probably the cause of the multitude. The 
Serin-du-cap was perhaps the most numerous ; but there were 
thon&auds oi Serins-du-paj/s, Cardmnh, Bengalis, the Small Green 
Parrakeets, and Tourterelles, which were flying round on all sides 
as thickly as Sparrows, Finches, and Buntings in a farm-yard at 
home in winter-time. I wished I had had with me some of 
the people who say there are no birds in Mauritius ! 

AcRiDOTHERES TRisTis. (Hartl. /. c. pp. 54 & 87.) Martin. 

As plentiful there as elsewhere. Thousands roost in a grove 
of shrubby trees by the Mer St. Martin. They arrive soon after 
sunset from all parts, in parties of from one to three or four 
pairs, and commencing their chattering, screaming, and whistling, 
continue it till after dark. Then, too, they are not always 
quiet, as in the middle of the night one fellow would give the 
alarm and the row would become general ; perhaps they were 
frightened by a cat, a monkey, or some such beast. In the 
morning, at first break of day, the noise would begin again in 
real earnest, and continue till a few minutes before sunrise, when 
they would depart in small parties as they arrived. Altogether 
they make as much fuss about going to bed and getting up as 
any birds I ever heard. 

Agapornis cana. (Hartl. /. c. p. 59.) Peri'uche. 

I saw more in the cane-piece just mentioned than anywhere 
else. Round our camp there were several. They were usually 
flying about the Filaos, from one tree to another, chirping and 
whistling, and settling four or five together in a heap on the 



274 Mr. E. Newton^s Ornithological Notes from Mauritius. 

same bough, where they would begin to squabble and fight until 
one lost his hold, when they would all start off again to repeat 
the operation on another bough. They fly very fast and straight, 
I was unable to make out anything of their breeding time or 
locality, but from the appearance of two I dissected, the former 
could not be very far distant. 

Geopelia striata. (Hartl. I. c. p. 67.) Tourterelle. 

Of this little Tourterelle there are plenty in Savanue. On the 
5th of October I found a nest containing two eggs, on the top of 
a large tuft of grass which was laid by the wind. The nest was 
perhaps larger and more neatly put together than Doves' nests 
usually are. 

In Grande Savaune, both going and returning, I saw several 
Doves of what I supposed are called Tourterelles de Batavie. 
They are larger than the last species ; but I could not get one. 

Francolinus MADAGASCARiENSis. (Hartl. /.c. p. 69.) Pintade. 

These birds are tolerably common about St. Martin. Alto- 
gether I think we saw about nineteen brace, of which we killed 
fourteen. They lie very close, and in good covert will almost 
allow themselves to be trodden on before rising, but on bare 
ground they run for a considerable distance. They were gene- 
rally in pairs, though on two occasions we put up three together; 
but from their habits it is not always easy to find the second 
bird, when one has been flushed. They appear to keep in the 
bushes and canes during the heat of the day, and to come out 
night and morning to feed in the barren places and fallows. 
The call of the male is a regular crow — " Kercuck, kercuck, ker- 
kdrr." They seldom fly more than a couple of hundred yards, 
and with about the speed of a badly-grown Pheasant in Septem- 
ber, so that, if the nature of the ground will allow, they can be 
nearly always marked down. With a good brace of pointers, I 
think twenty brace might easily be killed in a day on that 
ground : we had only one old dog, and did not take much 
trouble about it ; but one day, in four hours' shooting (two in the 
morning and two in the afternoon), we killed six brace and a 
half. 



Mr. E. Newton's Ornithological Notes from Mauritius, 275 

Prancolinus ponticerianus. (Hartl. /. c. p. 69.) Perdrix 
rouge. 

Not nearly so common at St. Martin as the preceding. They 
seem to prefer the neighbourhood of cane-fields rather than grass 
and brush-wood. I only saw a pair, and had but one shot, 
killing the bird. On the wing they are a much stronger bird 
than the Pintade. The call of the male sounds like " Terra- 
cotta, terra-cotta." They are said to keep in coveys of five or 
six, to run very much before dogs, and to perch. 

Syncecus sinensis. (Hartl. I.e. p. 71.) 

Not very numerous ; they stick as close as possible under a 
dog's nose, and will allow you to pull away the grass and dis- 
cover perhaps four or five sitting all together before they rise. 
They seldom fly more than eighty or a hundred yards, and 
though marked down, it is very difficult to find them again. 

Gallinula pyrrhorrhoa, A.Newton*. (G. chloropus,HQ,vi\. 
I. c. p. 81.) Poule d'eau. 

I heard several birds in the rushes at Jacote, which I was told 
were Poules d'eau ; but the note was different from that of the 
European Water-hen ; in fact, I am quite sure that the example 
I sent home in the last lot was of a species distinct from G. 
chloropus. 

BuTORiDES atricapilla. (Hartl. /. c. p. 75.) Gasse. 

All along this coast this small Heron is very common. At 
St. Martin, by the side of the lake, there is a scrubby wood, 
consisting chiefly of high bushes, growing very like tall haw- 
thorns, with here and there a tree, but not exceeding thirty feet 
in altitude. Here is a great resort for this species, and five or six 
pairs perhaps seem to look upon it as their home. I found two 
nests — one with two young ones nearly ready to fly, the other 
with two eggs nearly ready to hatch. In habits, general ap- 
pearance, and note, particularly the latter, these birds greatly 
resemble the West Indian Butorides brunnescens (Gundlach), 

* This is the species mentioned in our January Number (' Ibis,' iii. 
p. 116), and since described by Mr. Alfred Newton at the Meeting of the 
Zoological Society, January 8, 1861 (P. Z. S. 1861, p.. 18), under the above 
name. — Ed. 



276 Mr. E. Newton's Ornithological Notes from Mauritius. 

excepting that I have not seen them feeding away from the 
water. The gizzards of two that I examined contained remains 
of mollusks. 

NuMENius pHjEOPUs. (Hartl. I. c. p. 77.) CorUjeu. 

As the tide ebbs, flocks of from five to twenty Whimbrels 
come and feed on the mud. They are very wild — so much so, 
that I only succeeded in getting one specimen. At high water 
they appear to retire inland ; and I put some off a piece of turned- 
out cane which had been eaten close by cattle. The bird I 
shot was in very fresh plumage, having apparently but very 
recently moulted — indeed its pen-feathers were not half-grown. 
I saw them at Flat Island in March, and in October I was told 
they had only just made their appearance at Savanne, and that 
they stayed but a short time. However, I found some at Can- 
noneer's Point, on the north-west of the island, the last week in 
January or first in February of this year (1861), and I heard of 
one having been killed on the 21st of April, and large flocks 
seen, so that at any rate they must remain here during the 
whole of our summer. 

TOTANUS (?). 

On the 27th of September, by the side of the Mer St. Martin, 
I saw a large Sandpiper, about the size of a Greenshank. It was 
very wild, and I could not get within a hundred yards of it. I 
saw it again two or three days after, and with no better success. 

Tringoides hypoleucus (?). (Hartl. I.e. p. 78.) 
The same day that 1 first saw the last-mentioned species, I 
had a shot at one of two birds, to my mind exactly our Common 
Sandpiper. This was at St. Martin. On the 7th of October, I 
saw one of a])parently the same species at Jacote, but I had no 
gun. I have also seen them in the vicinity of Port Louis. 

Phaeton flavirostris, (Hartl. /. c. p. 86.) Paille-en-queue. 

A few are to be seen about Savanne ; but there are hardly 
rocks enough to afibrd breeding-places for many. I think a good 
number breed in the woods about Curepipe, on the tops of the 
])arasitical ferns which grow on the trees : these great bunches 
of fern form one of the most characteristic features of a Mauri- 



Dr. Sclater on the Distribution of the Genus Turdus. 277 

tian forest. First of all, I suspect, the White Ants make a 
nest, then the seeds of the fern are deposited in it and grow, 
and afterwards this Tropic-bird takes possession of it. 

So much for the birds of Savanne. The absence there of two 
species which are elsewhere so common is curious — I mean 
Zosferops borbonica and Munia punctularia ; the first I never 
saw near the sea, the second nowhere at all in the district. I 
have heard of a fine Pigeon, which is said to occur in this part 
of the island, but it seems to be gradually getting scarcer, owing 
to the destruction of the forests, and I was not lucky enough to 
meet with it. I suspect it will turn out to be Alectrocenas niti- 
dissima. 



XXVIII. — Remai'ks on the Geographical Distribution of the Genus 
Turdus. By Philip Lutley Sclater. 

(Plate VIII.) 

The Thrushes proper, of the genus Turdus as now restricted, 
although hardly to be called cosmopolitan in their range, since 
this particular form is not known to occur in New Guinea, 
Australia, and the greater portion of the Pacific islands, are 
very widely distributed over the earth's surface. In company 
with a figure of Turdus fidviventris (a fine American species of 
this group, which has lately been described in the ' Proceedings* 
of the Zoological Society,^ and will be readily recognized by its 
distinct style of coloration), it may not be out of place to ofi'er 
some few remarks on the present state of our knowledge of the 
geographical distribution of the members of this genus. 

Beginning with the PAL^ARCTict region, which embraces the 
whole northern part of the Old World, the species of Thrush 
inhabiting its western portion are six in number — the well- 
known Turdi torquatus, merula, viscivorus, pilaris, musicus, and 
iliacus. Though Turdus migratoriv,s and one or more of the 
group of little Thrushes allied to T. wilsoni of the United States 
have occurred accidentally in Europe, they cannot be con- 
sidered to have any real claims to a place in its Avifauna. 

* See P.Z.S. 1857, p. 273, et 1859, p. 331. 

t Cf. Journ. Proc. Linn. Soe., ZooL, ii. p. 130 et seq. 



278 Dr. Sclater on the Geographical Distribution 

On the other hand, the wanderers from the East, such as Turdus 
naurnanni^, T. atrigularis, T. ruficoUis, T. pallens, and T. sibi- 
ricus, most of which have occurred several times in Europe, 
though more strictly belonging to the fauna of Central Asia, 
may be with propriety introduced into the European list as 
" accidental visitors/' Some of the European species (such as 
T. iliacus) extend likewise far into Central and North-eastern 
Asia; but when we arrive in Amoorland and approach the con- 
fines of China, we find that a total change in the species has 
taken place. Out of the seven Thrushes recorded by Dr. v. 
Schrenck as found in this country, not one is a truly European 
bird ; and in addition to the Siberian species already mentioned, 
we meet with T. daulias and T. chnjsolaus, both originally de- 
scribed from Japanese specimens. 

In Japan, Turdus cardis occurs, besides 2'urdi sibiricus, dau- 
lias, fuscatus, pallens, and chrysolaus, which have been already 
adverted to as likewise occurring more to the westward. In 
China, Mr. Swinhoe's researches f have already brought to light 
Turdi sibiricus, daulias, pallens, and chrysolaus, as being met 
with more or less regularly during the winter and spring migra- 
tions : Turdus mandarinus is a common resident, and represents 
our Blackbird : T. cardis occurs during migration, and was found 
nesting at Macao {antea, p. 37). I am not aware that the more 

* Dr. V. Schrenck, who does not usually err on the side of admitting 
too many species, records in his ' Amur-reise ' (i. p. 353) the occurrence in 
Amoorland of the true T. naumanni of Temminck (T. dubius, Naum., nee 
Bechst.), and states his decided ojnnion as to its distinctness from T. fus- 
catus of Pallas. The latter is figured as T. naumanni hy Mr. Gould in his 
'Birds of Europe' (vol. ii. pi. 7^)j as T. fuscatus in his 'Birds of Asia' 
(part iv.), and as T. eunomus hy Temminck (Pi. Col. 514). The former 
(T. naumanni, verus) is figured in Naumann's 'Nat. d. Vog. Deutschl.' 
pi. 68. fig. 1, and pi. 358. fig. 2. I am inclined to think that Mr. Gould 
has done wrong in uniting these two species. Turdus fuscatus is a well- 
known Japanese bird, and, as Dr. v. Schrenck informs us, tlie "commonest " 
of all the genus in Amoorland. Of T. naumanni, on the other hand, but one 
example was obtained in Amoorland, and it appears to be a more western 
bu-d, which occasionally straggles into Europe. See Homeyer's article in 
' Rhea,' ii. p. 155 et seq., and Naumann's own explanations on this subject 
in ' Naumaunia,' vol. i. pt. 3, p. 11, and pt. 4. p. 4. 

t See ' Ibis,' 1860, p. 56, et 1861, p. 23. 



of the Genus Turdus. 



279 



southern portion of the Palsearctic region furnishes any authen- 
ticated species besides those ah-eady enumerated, except the very 
singular hook-winged Blackbird, Turdus dachjlojiterus {Merula 
dactijloptera, Bp.), which is found in Asia Minor. We may 
therefore take the well-ascertained species of the genus belong- 
ing to the Palsearctic region as about sixteen in number, distri- 
buted somewhat as follows : — 



Europe. 


Asia Minor. 


Siberia. 


Amoorland. 


Japan. 


China. 


viscivorus. 


viscivorus. 










pilaris. 


pilaris. 














fuscatus. 


fuscatus. 


fuscatus. 








naumanni. 


naumanni 






musicus. 


musicus. 










iliacus. 


iliacus. 


Hiarus. 














daulias. 


daulias. 


daulias. 






pallens. 


pallens. 


pallens. 


pallens. 








c/irysolaus. 


chrysolaus. 


chrysolaus. 






ruficollis. 


ritficullis. 










afriguliiris. 












sibiricus. 


sibiricus. 


sibiricus. 


sibiricus. 








cardis. 


cardis. 


cardis. 


merula. 


merula. 
dactylopterus. 








mandarinus. 


torquatus. 













Let us next take a glance at the Thrushes of the Indian 
region. On the southern slopes of the Himalayas we find three 
species intruding from Northern Asia — Turdus fuscatus, T. 
atrigularis, and T. ruficollis, and besides these, Turdus hodgsoni 
(hardly distinct from our Missel-Thrush), T. albocinctus (repre- 
senting our T. torquatus), and Turdi casianeus, boulboul, wai'dii, 
dissimilis, pelodes, and unicolor. In the peninsula of India we 
meet with Turdi simillimus and nigropileus, whilst Turdus wardii 
also occurs there, and in the cold season T. dissimilis " is not 
rare in Lower Bengal*." The Ceylonese species of true Thrush 
appear to be T. wardii and T. kinnisii, the latter representing 
T. simillimus of India and our T. merula. 

In the Malayan portion of the Indian region Thrushes are 
much less numerous. Turdus rufulus [T. modestus, Eyt.) is 
the only Thrush I have ever noticed in collections from Malacca. 
This bird, which, according to Mr. Blyth, ascends the peninsula 
as high up as Arracan (Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xvi. p. 144), is 
* Blyth in Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xvi. p. 145. 



280 



Dr. Sclater on the Geograjihical Distribution 



said by Drapiez to occur also in Java, and certainly ranges as 
far as Labuan, where Mr. jMottley obtained specimens, now in 
Mr. L. L. Dillwyn^s collection. In Java also occur Temminck's 
Turdus mutabilis — a very close ally of T. sibiricus, but, according 
to Prince Bonaparte (Compt. Rend, xxxviii. p. 4), distinguish- 
able from it — and Horsfield's Tu7'dus javanicus, of which later 
synonyms appear to be Turdus fumidus, Miill., and T. hijpo- 
pijrrhus, Hartlaub (Verz. Brem. Samml. p. 43). A nearly allied 
representative of the latter bird inhabits Timor, if the specimens 
are accurately labelled in the Leyden collection, and may be 
called Tu7-dus schlegelii *, after the present eminent director of 
that establishment. Excluding therefore the three intruders 
from Northern Asia, the Indian Thrushes appear to be about 
fifteen in number, some of which (e. g. T. pelodes and dissimilis) 
require further comparison and examination. 



Himalayas. 


India. 


Ceylon. 


Malacca. 


Java. 


Labuan. 


Timor. 


hodgsoni. 


dissimilis. 




rufulus. 


rufulus. 
javanicus. 


rufulus. 


schlegelii. 


peliides. 
uiiicolor. 


unicolor. 












boulhoul. 














castaneus. 














albocincius. 


nigripileus. 
simillimtis. 


kinnisii. 










uiardii. 


wardii. 


wardii. 




mutabilis. 







In the ^Ethiopian region Thrushes are not so plentiful. 
There appear to be, at the present moment, only nine well-ascer- 
tained species known to occur in those portions of Africa and 
Asia which are within its boundaries j namely, — 

* Turdus schlegelii, sp. nov. 

Turdus fumidus, Temm. in Mus. Lixgdunens. (partim). 

Pallide chocolatino-brimueus, abdomine castaneo, crisso eodem colore 

vix tincto : rostro et pedibus fla\'is : crassitie Turdi javanici. 
Hah. In ins. Timor. 
Mus. Lugdunensi. 

Obs. Affinis T.javanico {sive fumido) et statura eadem, sed hie ventre 
imo albo, et crisso nigricante, albo striato differt. 



of the Genus Tiirdus. 



281 



N.E. Africa. 


W. Africa. 


S. Africa. 


S.E. Africa. 


simensis, Riipp. 
pelios, Bp. 

olivaeimts, Bp. 


shnensis, Riipp. 
pelios, Bp. 

olivaceu-fuscus, Hartl. 
apiculis, H. 


simensis, Rupp. 
libonyanus, Sm. 
olieucexis. 


guttatus, Vig. 

smithii {obscurus, Sm.). 



In the Australian region, as I have ah-eady stated, true 
Turdi are not at present known to occur in New Guinea or 
Australia. ]Mr. Gray has, however, lately described a Tardus 
erythropterus from Gilolof ; and a Blackbird occurs in the Sa- 
moan Islands, which is probably Turdus vanicorensis, Q. etG. 
In New Caledonia and some of the adjacent islands, a little 
group of Thrushes is found, which somewhat deviates in struc- 
ture from the ordinary type, and will probably be ultimately 
separated from true Turdus. The species of this section at pre- 
sent known are — Turdus xanthopus, Forster, from New Cale- 
donia, Turdus vinotinctus {Mei'ula vinitincta, Gould, P.Z.S. 1855, 
p. 165), from Lord Howe's Island, and T. nestor, Gould, from 
Norfolk Island. We have, therefore, only five Thrushes in the 
Australian region. 

In the New World, on the other hand, the genus Turdus is 
very fully represented. Upwards of forty species are distributed 
over the different parts of the Northern and Southern continents. 
In a paper read before the Zoological Society (see P. Z. S. 1859, 
p. 321 et seq.)y I have given some account of the whole of the 
members of the family Turdida in the New World, and it will 
be the less necessary for me to say much about the subject on 
the present occasion, except so far as is wanted to complete an 
outline of the general distribution of the genus. 

In the Nearctic region, forming the northern portion of 
the New World, the following may be taken as restricted to the 
Atlantic slope : — T.mustelinus,pallasi,fuscescens,swainsoni, and 
alicice. On the Pacific region opposite, we find T. pallasi re- 
placed by T. nanus, and T. fuscescens by T. ustulatus, while 
T. migratorius also occurs, and besides it the well-marked 
species T. ncevius. On the table-land of Mexico are found pro- 

t See P.Z.S. 1860, p. 350. 

VOL. III. U 



28.2 Dr. Sclater on the Distribution of the Genus Turdus, 

bably all or, at any rate, the greater part of these species (except, 
perhaps, T. ntevius) as winter migrants, and on the western 
coast T. fiavirostris, while T. pinicola inhabits the pine ridges of 
Southern Mexico. Three other species {T. infuscatus, grayii, and 
assimilis), which I have placed under the head of Mexico in my 
list in the ' Proceedings,^ belong, I believe, to the tierra caliente 
exclusively, and must be set down to the account of the Neo- 
tropical region. 

The Thrushes of the Nearctic region may therefore be esti- 
mated as twelve in number ; viz. — 



Eastern N. America. 


Western N. America. 


Table-land of Jlexico. 


migratorius. 


migratorius. 
Tuevius, 


migratorius. 
flavirostris. 


mustelimis. 




mustelinus. 


pallasi. 


nanus. 


silens. 


fuscescens. 


ustulatus. 




swamsont. 




swainsoni. 


alicia. 




pbticola. 



If we exclude from the Neotropical region Turdi migratorius, 
mustelinus, and swainsoni, which are really only intruders from 
the north, we shall find left about twenty-seven species, distri- 
buted somewhat as follows : — 



1. 


2. 


Southern 
Mexico. 


Guatemala 

and Central 

America, 


infuscatus. 


inftiseatus. 
nigrescens. 
rufitorques. 


grayii. 


plebeius. 
grayii. 


assimilis. 


leucauchen. 



3. 

Antilles. 



aurantiua. 



jamatcensts, 



New 
Granada. 



gtgas. 

ignobilis. 
phcEopygus. 

fulviventris 



5. 

Chili, Peru, 

and 

Arg. Republic. 



fuscaler. 
chiguanco. 

serranns. 



falklnndinis. 



6. 

South- 
eastern 
Brazil. 



flavipes. 



fiimigatus. 

crotopezus. 

albicollis. 

rufiventris. 



Guiana. 



[thahmts 
gymnoph- 
fumigatus. 

albiventris. 

phtEopygus. 



8. 

Venezuela, 

Trinidad, 

and Tobapro. 



xanthosceles. 
atrosericeus. 



olivater. 
gymniiph- 
[thalmus. 



phceopygus. 



The general distribution of the genus Turdus over the earth, 
therefore, taking Mr. Wallace's revised areas (cf. 'Ibis,' 1859, 



Ibis. 1661, Pl.IX. 




xT Wolf, del elliih. M &1 .Hanidrt.Imp' 

Fig . 1, BASIL 0RITI5 CORYTHAIX . Tig . 2 , B . CELEBEITSIS . 



Mr. A. R. Wallace on the Ornitholoyij ofCeram and Waigiou. 283 

p. 451), may be assumed to be nearly as follows, as far as we 
are at present acquainted with it : — 





Area in 
square miles. 


No. of species 
of Tiinliis. 


No. of sq. miles 
to each species. 


1. Palffiarctic 

2. Indian 

3. Jiithiopian 

4. Australian 

5. Nearctic 

6. Neotropical 


12,500,000 
3,100,000 
6,500,000 
2,600,000 
5,500,000 
5,600,000 


16 
15 
9 
5 
12 
27 


780,000 
200,000 
722,000 
520,000 
458,000 
207,000 


The whole earth . . 35,800,000 


84 


. 426,000 



Whence it plainly appears that the genus has attained its greatest 
degree of development in South America and India^ and that 
the Palsearctic and j3Ethiopian areas are comparatively very poor 
in their number of species. 



XXIX. — On the Ojmithology of Ceram and Waigiou. 
By Alfred R. Wallace. 

(Plate IX.) 

Ever since I arrived in the Moluccan seas (now four years ago), 
I have been repeatedly told, "if you want fine birds, go to Ceram/' 
and the same idea appears to prevail in Europe, for my corre- 
spondent writes me, "Mr. Gould and Mr. Gray both say the 
birds of Ceram are very fine." 

With such encouragement, it was with great expectations I 
started, in October 1859, for the south-western part of the island. 
What was my surprise to find one bird very plentiful that was 
not to be found in Amboyna, and only one, namely the Tropi- 
dorhynchus suhcornutus, Temm. ! There w^as absolutely nothing 
else ; and the best birds of Amboyna, as Tonysiptera dea and Lo- 
rius doniicella, were so scarce that I could not get a specimen of 
either of them. I changed my locality — I went into the very 
centre of the island ; but still nothing new, and birds in general 
scarcer and scarcer. At last, however, after great exertions, I did 
get two more species new to me, Eiidxjnamys ransomi and Corvus 
ciulaceus ; and one, I believe^ new to science, and very interesting 

u2 



284 Mr. A. R. Wallace on the Ornithology 

— a new species of Basilornis^, a genus hitherto containing only 
a single Celebes species, which that of Ceram closely resembles, 
but has the crest much elongated and recurved. Of this inter- 
esting bird, however, I only got a pair of specimens. And that 
was really all that three months' collecting produced in much- 
vaunted Ceram. 

It was, however, the eastern part of Ceram that I had heard 
most spoken of, and I determined to try again, and after nearly 
two months' delay, owing to illness in Amboyna, I started afresh. 
My first stopping-place was at Teluti, near the centre of the S. 
coast, which tempted me by its noble forests, lofty mountains, 
and rocky streams. 

Four days' search, however, convinced me that all was barren ; 
birds were scarcer than ever; and the natives were quite astonished 
at being asked about handsome birds, assuring me they knew of 
none in their country. 

I then went on to Kissa laut, near the east end of the island, 
where 1 stayed a month, and obtained literally not one species new 
to me, and, moreover, none of the few good things that I had 
met with, though rarely, in W. Ceram. The forests and thickets 
were here most wretchedly depopulated of bird-life. Some half- 
dozen species, mostly noisy ones, were to be seen and heard, in- 
deed, every day and everywhere, such as Cacatua moluccensis, the 
Trichoglossus versicolor {"i) , and Eos rubra (the only species of 

* Mr. G. R. Gray considers the Basilornis of Ceram to be the Pastor 
corythaix of Wagler. It must therefore stand as Basilornis corythaix ; 
while the species of Celebes will retain Temminck's name, Basilornis 
celehensis. Both species are figured in the accompanying illustration by 
Mr. Wolf (Plate IX.), and their differences, which are sufficiently obvious, 
are pointed out by Mr. Gray, as follows. The two birds " are easily di- 
stinguished from one another by the form of their crests. That of Celebes 
possesses a short, compressed, keel-like crest, which extends from the 
culmen to behind the head, and is composed entirely of scale-like and 
convex feathers ; whilst that of Ceram has an occipital, erect, and elongated 
crest, which, when viewed sideways, assumes somewhat of a subtriangular 
form, and is composed of truncated, rather broad and lax plumes. It also 
differs in having the nostrils exposed and a naked space round each eye. 
In the Celebes species the nostrils are covered by the frontal plumes, and 
there is scarcely any naked space round the eyes. — P. Z. S. April 23rd, 
IHCL— Ed. 



of Cerain and Waigiou. 285 

these genei-a found in all the great island of Ceram), and the 
Buceros ruficollis and Tropidorhynclius subcornutus. One may 
search for days, and literally see nothing else but these, with the 
Carpophaga i^erspicillata and C. luctuosa (?). Flycatchers, Edolii, 
Thrushes, Kingfishers, Warblers, Finches, are so scarce as to 
seem altogether absent. The few species that do occur are 
only seen singly, and at rare intervals. 

On my return from Goram I spent ten days on the N.E. coast, 
but found nothing. I afterwards met with a gentleman, in the 
employ of the Dutch government, who is an amateur in orni- 
thology, and has resided in Ceram more than a year, visiting the 
interior and the N. coast, with one or two hunters always engaged; 
but he seems to have met with scarcely anything more than 
myself. Pitfa seems altogether absent ; of Psittaci there is but 
one not found also in Amboyna, the Platycercus amboinensis ; of 
Ptilonopodes, the two Amboyna species only, P. viridis and P. 
superbus. Leaving out Psittaci, I have only found 24 Passeres in 
Ceram, after a more extensive and laborious exploration than I 
have given to any other island. 

The poverty in species and individuals of land birds exceeds 
anything I have hitherto met with, and seems very unaccount- 
able. I think it must be partly due to the very little cultivation 
in the island, the population subsisting almost wholly upon 
sago. 

Where there are and have long been extensive clearings of 
the forest, a different kind of vegetation is found, moi'e fruit- 
bearing trees and shrubs occur together, and insects are more 
plentiful. In such localities, if virgin forest is close at hand, 
birds are almost always more abundant. I believe, however, 
that though my collection of the birds of Ceram is no doubt 
very incomplete, the poverty it displays is real, and will not be 
materially affected by future discoveries; and its cause is, I 
think, to be traced to the general character and origin of the 
whole Moluccan fauna (contrary to what has generally been 
supposed, a remarkably poor one), and to the peculiar geogra- 
phical and geological antecedents of the island of Ceram. At 
some future time I hope more fully to enter into this subject. 

My intention was to have continued my voyage as far as Ke, 



286 Mr. A. R. Wallace on the Ornithology 

visiting all the small islands between it and Ceram, and I much 
regret that I was not enabled to do so ; but the delay and trouble 
in getting boats and men from the native Rajahs was so great, 
that the East monsoon set in and drove me back on the way there. 
I stayed, however, about a fortnight on the two Matabello Islands 
(and I believe I am the first European who has ever touched 
there), and spent also a month at Goram, and in both of them I 
found several of the Ke birds which I obtained on my voyage 
to Aru two years ago. 

The species of birds in these islands are very limited. A few 
New Guinea species occur {Cacatua triton and Eclectns linneei), 
probably escaped and naturalized. The Eos and Trichoglossus 
are the Ceram species. 

The Carpophiiga, both at Goram and Matabello, is the fine 
species found at Banda and Ke. I sent it from Aru ; but as it 
inhabits there only one small island nearest Ke, it has, no doubt, 
recently emigrated, and is not a true New Guinea bird. G. R. 
Gray identifies it with C chalybura, Bp. ; but this I doubt, as it 
certainly does not agree with the description in the ' Conspectus,' 
and the locality of C. chalybura (the Philippines) is much against 
its being the same. 

In Matabello, the only Ptilonopus seems to be the P.prasi7ior- 
rhous, Gray. In Goram the same species occurs, in company with 
the P.viridis of Ceram. The Dicrurus of Goram is a large species, 
very dift'erent from that of Ceram, and probably the D. megalor- 
nis of Ke. I am decidedly of opinion, therefore, that the Ke 
Islands do not belong to the New Guinea fauna, but, with Banda, 
Goram, and the intermediate islands, form a little subgroup of 
the Moluccas, perhaps also including Timor laut. None of 
them, as far as we know, contain a single true Papuan form, as 
Redes, Manucodia, or Cracticus, which are found even in the 
smaller islands of Aru. The species peculiar to them should 
therefore be erased from the list of New Guinea birds. 

The Cassowary occurs rather plentifully over the whole interior 
of Ceram, but I was never able to obtain or even see a specimen. 
In a native house I found an upper mandible and crest, which 
may perhaps show if it differs from the New Guinea species. A 
residence in the interior of Ceram with the indigenes might pro- 



of Ceram and Waigiou. 287 

(luce several novelties ; but the too palpable poverty of the coun- 
try would not permit me to bestow more time upon it, with the 
glorious Papuan region almost within sight. 

Leaving Goram, therefore, I intended to go to Mysol, to visit 
my assistant Mr. Allen, who had been there three months, and 
then go on myself to Waigiou, My Goram crew, however, ran 
away, and I was detained, first in E., and then in N. Ceram. I 
afterwards had an adventurous voyage, in my little native prahaw 
purchased at Goram, being driven to leeward of Mysol, and then, 
when at anchor off an uninhabited island, our anchor (a native 
wooden one) broke in the coral rocks, we drifted away, and our 
two best sailors were left on shore. We could not possibly get 
back, as wind and current were against us ; they alone knew the 
proper channels about Waigiou, and we were consequently eight 
days puzzling our way, in great peril, among the shoals and coral 
reefs. On reaching a village, we hired a boat and men to go to the 
island ; but bad weather came on, and the boat returned in a 
fortnight, without having reached it. Again we induced them to 
go back, and in a fortnight more they returned with the two 
sailors, who had lived a month, naked, and eating only leaves, 
roots, and shellfish, having luckily found water, though the 
island was only about a mile in diameter. 

I have written thus far in Waigiou. About the birds of 
Waigiou I will tell you when I have returned to Ternate. 

Judging from the birds said to have been obtained at Waigiou 
by the French naturalists, I had expected to find it a very pro- 
ductive locality. Epimackus magmis, Paradisea papuana, P. 
rubra, Diphyllodes magnifica, Cicinnurus regius, hophorina su- 
perba, Parotia aurea, and Sericuius aureus, are all mentioned as 
Waigiou birds. My disappointment may therefore be imagined 
when I discovered that the whole of these birds, with one ex- 
ception, had been brought from the mainland of New Guinea 
(whither many of the inhabitants make an annual voyage), and 
that the sole representative of these gems of the New Guinea 
fauna was the Paradisea rubra, which is absolutely restricted to 
the island, where it takes the place of the P. papuana of the 
mainland. 

I remained in Waigiou about four months, much hindered by 



288 Mr. A. R. Wallace on (he Ornitlwlugy 

excessive wet, and by having only a single gun good for any- 
thing. During the first two months, which I spent at Mukaon 
the S. coast of the island, I obtained only two males of P. rubra. 
I afterwards visited the district of Bessir, where there are a few 
natives who catch the birds and prepare the skins, and obtained 
a very fine series in this locality. 

The P. rub-a is obtained in quite a different manner from the 

allied species of Aru and New Guinea. It is always caught 

alive by snares placed on the trees it frequents, and to a branch 

of which is hung the large red fruit of a species of Arum, of 

which the bird is very fond. The noose is placed in such a 

position that the bird must perch on it to get at the fruit; and 

it is attached to the branch by an ingenious slip-knot, so that 

when the end of the cord which descends to the ground is 

pulled, the bird is caught by the leg and dragged down. It may 

be thought that, the speciniens being unwounded, and captured 

alive, I should obtain them in much finer condition than those 

that are shot ; but such was not the case, and I have never been 

so much troubled with any Birds-of-Paradise as I was here. At 

first they were brought to me alive, bundled up in a bag, and 

with the plumage and tail-cirrhi terribly rumpled and broken. I 

then showed them how to perch them on a stick, attached by the 

leg; but then they were often brought dreadfully dirty, having 

been allowed to get among ashes or sticky dammar-torches during 

the time they were kept in their houses. In vain I begged them 

to bring the birds to me directly they were caught ; in vain I 

begged them to kill them directly and hang them up. They 

would do neither, because it was a little more trouble. I had 

four or five men in my employ, who were paid in advance for a 

certain number of birds (the only way to get them). These men 

distributed themselves about the jungle, often a day^s journey 

from the village, in search of good localities to set their snares. 

Having got one bird, they did not like the trouble of bringing 

it home, but would wait as long as they could keep it alive; 

and thus they often came to me, after a week or ten days' 

absence, with one bird dead and almost stinking, another freshly 

dead, and a thii'd alive and just caught. Notwithstanding all 

my endeavours to alter this system, it continued in full force 



of Ceram, and IVaigiou. 289 

to the end. Luckily, however, the plumage of these birds is so 
firmly set that they are washed and cleaned more easily than any 
others, and thus a few hours' extra work was all their obstinacy 
cost me. 

Having these beautiful birds brought to me alive, I, of course, 
made many attempts to preserve them. With my own hands 
I constructed a large cage in which they could move about 
freely, and tried every kind of food I could procure. The proper 
fruits were, however, scattered widely over the forest on lofty 
trees, and could not be obtained enough ripened with sufficient 
regularity. Rice and grasshoppers they soon came to eat pretty 
eagerly, and I was then in hopes of success ; but on the second 
or third day they were invariably attacked by a kind of convul- 
sions, fell off their perch, and soon died. I tried altogether 
seven or eight individuals, ajiparently in perfect health, and in 
every case with the same result. Some were full-plumaged, 
others without lateral plumes ; but I could not obtain any very 
young birds, with which the attempt might probably have suc- 
ceeded better. 

The live birds were principally remarkable for their excessive 
activity and liveliness. They were in constant motion ; and the 
brilliantly contrasted colours of the head and neck, with the 
erected crests and swelling throat, formed a most beautiful pic- 
ture. I never saw the red lateral plumes fully expanded, and 
can therefore form no judgment as to their beauty. They were 
generally carried under the wing, rising a little over the back, 
with the white curved tips drooping over the end of the tail. 
The long flattened tail-cirrhi hang down in a graceful, spiral 
curve, which is produced by the general curved form of these 
feathei's (which lay naturally in a complete circle reaching round 
to the head of the bird) combined with the semicylindrical 
sectional figure. These plumes pass through a variety of sin- 
gular forms before they become fully developed. First they 
appear as simple cirrhi, like those of P. apoda and P.popuana : 
these have often a spatulate tip, as in Momotus and Tanysiptera. 
The rachis then becomes flattened out and slightly curved, 
and finally black, curved cylindrically, and entirely destitute of 
barb. In one singular example I possess, a single cirrhus has 



290 Mr. A. R. Wallace on the Ornithology 

a spatulate feather tip to the fully-developed black whaleboue- 
like rachis. 

The Paradisea rubra differs from its allies in the colour of the 
bill, which is a pretty clear gamboge- or ochre-yellow, with a 
very faint greenish tinge; the iris is of a blackish olive: the 
feet dark reddish or fleshy olive ; the claws horny. Its voice is 
very similar to that of its allies, but less shrill, and like them 
it seems to be very abundant in its native forests, though, 
from its activity and incessant motion, by no means easy to 
procure. I several times observed the adult males on low trees 
and among bushes only a few feet from the ground. They 
crept along the branches and up the nearly vertical trunks, ap- 
parently in search of insects, which, I believe, they only feed on 
when their favourite food, the " ivarmgin/' or Indian fig, is not 
to be obtained. At these times they utter a low clucking note, 
very different to their usual shrill call, which seems always to 
proceed from the summits of lofty trees. 

EpimachidiB are altogether absent from Waigiou. The nearest 
ally to the Paradisece is Manucodia, of which only one species 
is found. Of the rare Parrots imputed to Waigiou, Psittacodis 
stavorini and Chalcopsitta rubiginosa, I could see or hear nothing. 
In fact, I found no Psittaci that I had not previously obtained, 
and none but very common species. Of Pigeons I obtained many 
species, but few new. The most abundant Carpophaga was C. 
sundevalii, one of the hump-beaked group. The swelling seems 
equally large in both sexes. Three other New Guinea species 
occur, and also the Gilolo Cpet^spicillata. The Ptilonopus pra- 
sinorrhous of Ke and Goram occurred here also on the small 
islands, while on the mainland of Waigiou, P. sup)erbus and the 
lovely little P.]}ulchellus are the characteristic forms. There is, 
I think, a new species, of which I got a male in Gagie Island, and 
which also occurred in Mysol, marked only with a vinous patch 
on the breast. Of the splendid lanthocnas hahnaheira, Bp., or a 
closely allied species, I obtained a single specimen, and also one 
of a species of Eutrijgon. Of other birds I got scarcely anything 
new, besides one or two Redes and Myiolestes, a fine Podargus, 
and one or two small birds. My whole collection only amounted 
to 74 species, almost all common New Guinea birds ; and I un- 



of Ceram and Waigiou, 291 

hesitatingly pronounce Waigiou to be the very poorest island in 
the New Guinea zoological region. 

On my arrival in Ternate I found my assistant Mr. Allen, 
who had spent more than six months in Mysol, and it was with 
much anxiety I proceeded to examine his collection. I was much 
disappointed, however, in finding almost all ray own birds over 
again, with the addition of a few Dorey species and about 15-16 
new to me, mostly of the genera Campephaga, Rectes, Myiolestes, 
and a few Hawks, — a Rail, a Kingfisher, and the Eos atra. 

Owing to his having to return to Ceram for rice, and waiting 
there two months till it arrived from Amboyna, he missed the 
season for the Paradise-birds, obtaining only a single P.papuana, 
a few P. regia, and of the third species which inhabits the island, 
Diphyllodes magnifica, only a native skin. Successive visits of 
several months each to four distinct Papuan districts have only 
produced me four species of Paradise-birds, while the general 
run of the birds is so nearly identical in all as to make a fifth 
visit absolutely profitless, except by obtaining the remaining 
species of these beautiful creatures. I have, however, at length 
obtained very precise information as to where the greater part, 
if not all, of my desiderata in Paradisece and Epimachidce are to 
be obtained, and in a few days Mr. Allen starts for this locality 
with every requisite for a thorough exploration, in my own 
Goram prahaw, and accompanied by a lieutenant and two soldiers 
from the Sultan of Tidore to assist and protect him. If he does 
not succeed this time, I must give up the attempt in despair, 
lie touches for a few weeks at Guebe, and on his return goes for 
a month to the Xulla Islands, which contain the Babirusa, but 
of which the fauna is otherwise totally unknown. 

I myself leave by the next steamer for Timor Delli : on my 
return I spend two months at Bourn, where the Babirusa is also 
found ; but whether its fauna is of the Moluccan or of the 
Celebes type, we are yet ignorant. In September we are to 
meet again here, to pack up our collections, and shall then finally 
quit the district of the Moluccas and New Guinea. Please 
make allowance for these hasty notes, written amid the confusion 
and fatigue of packing. 
Ternate, Deo. 20tli, 1860. 



292 Dr. J. H. Blasius oa the Diversity in the Estimate 

XXX. — On the Diversity in the Estimate of the European Ornis, 
and its Causes. By Dr. J. H. Blasius*. 

It appears to me to be desirable that, from time to time, we 
should ascertain the point which we have attained by our 
joint endeavours. It is absolutely necessary that we should 
ascertain clearly what we are to regard as positively gained, and 
what we have to leave to the future as problems still to be 
solved. Our circumstances, our environments indicate to us as 
an important part of our endeavours the elucidation of European 
ornithology. 

No land on the face of the earth has been more repeatedly 
examined than Europe. AVe often hear, and, indeed, we might 
justly suppose, that the ornithology of Europe is quite settled; 
but every one who possesses an accurate knowledge of the sub- 
ject must declare this assertion to be a manifest error. In no 
branch of ornithology — neither in systematic division, nor in 
literary criticism, nor in the observation of modes of life, nor in 
oology — has complete agreement, certainty, or peace been arrived 
at. To refer to one only of these points, that of the systematic 
division and enumeration of species, — for nearly forty years, no 
single scientific investigation, perhaps, has led to such divergent 
results as this with regard to European ornithology. 

We find enumerated in— j^ t^e year Species. 

Brehm, ' Lehrbuch ' 1823 471 

Bonaparte, ' List,' &c 1838 503 

Temminck, ' Manuel,' 2ucl edit 1840 499 

Keyserling and Blasius, ' Wirbelthiere ' 1840 484 

Schlegel, ' Kritische Uebersieht ' 1844 489 

Thienemann, ' Rhea ' 1846 4/0 

Deglaml, ' Ornithologie ' 1849 507 

Bonaparte, ' Revue Critique ' 1850 539 

Brehm, ' Nauraannia ' 1855 950 

and with the subspecies Ifi28 

Brehm, ' Vogelfang' 18.55 1030 

and with the subspecies 1800 

Bonaparte, ' Catalogue Parzudaki ' 185(1 581 

De Selys-Longchamps, ' Revue de Zoologie' ... 1857 509 

Keitel, ' Vcrzeichniss,' &c 18.57 501 

Des Murs, ' Traite d'Oologie ' 1860 536 



* Tliis important pajjcr is translated from the Report of the Thirteenth 



of the European Ornis, and its Causes. 293 

This series of figures speaks for itself, but not much in favour 
of the healthy state of European ornithology. There must be 
something rotten in this " State of Denmark." A science which 
gathers such very different flowers from one and the same soil 
cannot twine itself a garland of them ; they would be frail and 
perishable decorations, without a single evergreen leaf. 

A variation from 470 to 1030, or even to 1800 ! — a fluctua- 
tion of double or quadruple ! — such a result appears to me to 
be something more than a joke. Every unprejudiced and un- 
initiated person must with justice ask how this can be possible ; 
he must see in the priests of the Ornis a repetition of the Roman 
Augurs who could not look at each other without laughing at 
their gods ! It seems to me that we are standing on the brink 
of the bitterest earnest, and that wherever we wander must be 
in false paths or on bogs. It is our serious duty to seek the 
cause of the evil, in order that we may not expose ourselves in 
the pilloiy to an unprejudiced public opinion any longer than is 
necessary either as deliberate deceivers, or as unconscious night- 
walkers, or as delirious fever-patients. 

Let us look at our question as objectively and with as little 
partisan-spirit as possible ! The statistical criterion shows us, in 
the numbers above given, two well-marked and irreconcileable 
opposite statements : — one group of numbers varies between 470 
and 581 ; the other between 950 and 1030. The numbers of 
each group differ amongst themselves in nearly the same pro- 
portion; but the second group is nearly double the first. It 
must be evident at once even to the most unlearned that the 
opposite statements of these different groups are founded upon 
quite different data, upon quite irreconcileable principles. On 
which side is the right ? or, in case both are in error, which 
side comes nearest to the truth ? 

The majority of ornithologists is on the side of the first, or 
smaller group : — all against one ! Even the arithmetical mean 
of all the statements, 578, is on the same side ! The judgment 
of those who decide objective probabilities by numbers cannot 
be a matter of question. 

Meeting of the German Ornithologists' Society held at Stuttgardt in 1860, 
of which we shall give further particulars in the next Number. — Ed. 



294 Dr. J. H. Blasius on the Diversity in t/ie Estimate 

On the side of the majority stands, besides all other ornitho- 
logists, Brehm's * Lehrbuch,' published in 1823 ; on the other 
side stands Brehm alone, in the ' Naumannia ' and the ' Vogel- 
fang' of the year 1855. So far as any conflict of principles is 
in question, therefore, we have to do with a struggle between 
the entire science of ornithology up to the present time, and the 
most recent views of Brehm. The contradictions depend essen- 
tially, although not entirely, upon this conflict of principles. 

The previous estimate of the European Ornis falls into two 
series of very different values — the species regularly inhabiting 
Europe, and those accidentally visiting that continent. The 
species not regularly belonging to Europe require merely a sort 
of police-notice, or domiciliation — we have simply to do with 
the question whether we shall give a place in our books and 
catalogues to the exotic species which may wander into Europe, 
or pass them by unnoticed. If they be left unnoticed, the ques- 
tion as to the estimation of the European Ornis becomes greatly 
simplified. 

If, as is almost universally the case, the stray immigrants arc 
to be noticed, their acceptance depends simply on the proof of 
their voluntary appearance in Europe, without importation. 
Imported birds, or exotic birds escaped from confinement, have 
no right to a place in our Ornis. The occurrence oi Spiza ciris, 
L., in England, of Parra jacana, L., in the south of France, of 
Nycterodius violaceus,L.,\n England, oi Pledropterus gambensis in 
France, of Erismatura ferruginea, Eyton, in Belgium, of Halieus 
sulcirostris, Brdt., and of many birds commonly kept in aviaries, 
may remain unnoticed without the least objection. 

The number of voluntary immigrants, the occurrence of which 
in Europe is positively ascertained, amounts at the present mo- 
ment to a little over 100 species. It has become greater nearly 
every year, and may be expected to continue increasing. 

These species are distributed as follows, according to their 
native countries and the various natural orders : — 



of the European Ornis, and its Causes. 



295 





Asia. 


N. Africa. 


N. America 


1 

Totals. 


Rantores 




1 

20 
1 
1 
5 


5 

8 


8 
10 


2 

3 

10 

1 



12 

16 


7 

4 

38 

2 

1 

25 

30 


Clamatores 


Osoines 


ColumbfK 


Galliiisr 


Grallffi 


Natatores 





Some few of these species occur both in the north-east of Africa 
and the south-west of Asia, or in the north of Asia as well as in 
North America, so as to render their origin not quite certain. 

Besides these, nearly 70 other exotic species have been re- 
ceived into the Eui'opean fauna by different ornithologists, with- 
out the least justification ; these must be omitted in our sum- 
maries. 

About 25 of them were introduced as European by Bonaparte 
and Brehm merely on supposition, on the ground of the possibility 
of their occurrence ; as, for example, 



Gyps hippellii, Br. 
Aquila brehniii, Br. 
Cotyle cahirica, Wurt., Br. 
Turdus libonyanus, Br. 
Otocorj's bicornis, Br. 
Carduelis orientalis, Br. 
Chrysomitris pistacina, Bp. 
Corvus umbrinus, Br, 
Podoces panderi, Bp. 



Zenaida carolinensis, Br. 
iEgialites indicus, Br. 
Ilj-ljsibates leucocephalus, Br. 
Totanus guttifer, Bp. 
Rhyncliaca variegata, Br. 
Halieus africanus, Br. 
Uriacarbo, Bp. 
Mormon corniculata, Bp. 
&c. 



Upon the arbitrary principle of such an augmentation of the 
European fauna there can only be one opinion — that it is not 
legitimate 1 Is not almost anything possible ? Let us wait, 
therefore, until it has actually taken place. 

A great many exotic species have been erroneously received 
into the fauna of Europe, either by mistaking one for another, 
or entirely without reason. Criticism has definitely decided 
upon most of them and excluded them, but we find them for 
the most part still carried on in the most recent catalogues, as 
if there were no doubt about their occurrence 
we reckon, — 



Amongst these 



296 Dr. J. H. Blasius on the Diversitij in the Estimate 

Falco peregrinoides, T. Troglodytes fumigatus, T. 

sparverius, L. Uragus sibiricus. Pall. 

Haliaetus leucocephalus, L. Corvus dauricus, Pall. 

Ulula nebulosa, Forst. ossifragus, fVils. 

Caprimulgus atrovirens. Laud. Peristera semitorquata. Gin. 

climacurus, Vieill. liigens, Riipp. (risoria, L.). 

virginicus, Briss. Eurynorhynchus pygmteus, L. 

Hirundo senegalensis, L. (ca- Ardea herodias, L. 

pensis, Gm.). Buphus russatus, T. 
Parus atricapillus, Gm, Pelecanus mitratus, Lieht. 
bicolor, L. Dysporus melanurus, T. &c. 

It would be a just requirement of tlie ornithological public 
from its writers, or of the latter from themselves, that they 
should only admit positively ascertained species into the fauna 
of Europe, and finally consign ascertained errors to oblivion. 
This certainly does not offend against any internal conviction, 
or against a principle carried out to its consequences. The 
question regards only a vacillation between a mere external 
scrupulous completeness in name, or simple, non-critical care- 
lessness, and positive adherence to fact. 

It is only when we remove the whole of the exotic species, or 
at least those which have been erroneously admitted, that we 
can see clearly how far the different numbers of the summary 
above given are caused by diversity of fundamental views, by 
mutually opposed principles or requirements. 

If we deduct the whole of the exotic species observed occa- 
sionally in Europe, there remain in 

Thienemann, ' Rhea ' 401 species 

Keyserling and Blasius, ' Wirbelth.' 424 ,, 

Schlegel, ' Krit. Uebersicht ' 430 

Brelim, ' Lehrbuch ' 450 „ 

Bonaparte, ' Revue Crit.' 463 „ 

Des Murs, •' Traite ' 466 

Bonaparte, ' Catalogue P.' 500 „ 

Brehm, ' Vogelfang ' 940 „ 

and with the subspecies 1700 „ 

as regular inhabitants of Europe. There is no essential change 
in the proportions above given ; the statements vary from double 
to quadruple the average number. Here also occurs again the 
same abrupt and irreconcileable opposition of the majority of 



of the European Ornis, and its Causes. 297 

ornithologists to Brehm's position since the year 1855 : between 
Thienemann and Bonaparte there is a difference of 100 ; between 
Thienemann and Brehm of 540 species. The gap between these 
numbers must have its origin in principles, or in a diversity of 
views as to the separation of species. 

If we examine the group of smaller numbers, we find that it 
contains essentially four different sections : — 

1. Thienemann, with 401 species as the minimum. 

2. KeyserUng, Blasius, Schlegel, and De Selys, with 424-430 species. 

3. Bonaparte, 1850, and Des Murs, with 463-466 species. 

4. Bonaparte, 1856, with 500 species. 

Amongst the species cited by Thienemann there are but few 
that are open to doubt, — such, for example, as Sitta uralensis, 
Licht.; Sylvia sarda, ^larm. ; Anthus cervinus, Pall.; Glareola 
melanoptera, Nordm.; Podiceps arcticus, Hoie ; and Uria hring- 
via, Briinnich, — in respect of the determination of the species, 
and Ixos obscurus, T., and Lanius tschagra, Vieill., with regard 
to the domicile. In the union of the Crossbills he goes very 
sharply to work, but not entirely without reason. In other 
unions he is decidedly wrong, — for example, in that of Circus 
cineraceus, Mont., and C. pallidus, Sykes. Numerous new dis- 
coveries since the year 1816 would have brought his list pretty 
accurately to the position of those under No. 2. This position 
is exceeded by the lists under No. 3 by about 40 species, and by 
that under No. 4 by about 80 species. 

Afier carefully comparing all known facts, I find that the 
European Oruis consists, in round numbers, of 425 indubitable 
species of birds breeding in Europe {Brdtvogeln), besides 60 
varieties or races, which are frequently regarded as species, and 
about 100 exotic species. These 60 varieties, which are some- 
what increased in Bonaparte's Catalogue, form the still doubtful 
specific element in the European fauna, if we follow the majority 
of ornithologists. They constitute almost exactly the eighth part 
of the total valuation. By the application of rigorous principles 
the number may be still greatly reduced. 

Up to the year 1820, and, with few exceptions, even up to 
the year 1840, ornithology, in its conception of species, was 
developed exactly in analogy with the rules followed in other 

VOL. III. X 



298 Dr. J. H. Blasius on the Diversity in the Estimate 

branches of zoology. The sph'it of Linne, Pallas^ and Cuvier 
ruled the entire domain of zoology. As soon as ornithology 
hastened forward with moi'e rapid strides, it began to emancipate 
itself from other branches of zoology, and struck, as regards 
the conception of species, into a totally different course. The 
majority of ornithologists of note troubled themselves but little, 
or not at all, with other departments of zoology ; they found no 
check upon their efforts in the stricter conception of the other 
classes of animals ; their conception of species became constantly 
more and more isolated and, in course of time, looser and less care- 
ful in comparison with the prevailing zoological procedure. 

For a long time Brehm was the only ornithologist who fol- 
lowed this bolder conception as a matter of principle. Towards 
the close of the year 1840, Bonaparte also gradually acquired 
the same taste ; but he never went so far as that he could have 
formed a bridge between Brehm and the other ornithologists. 
In his fundamental views he entirely belonged to the opposite 
school in ornithology, and vacillated only as to the signification of 
some local races differing in colour, but similar in form. Gloger, 
Schlegel, and Thieuemann still endeavoured to maintain the old 
classical zoological point of view. 

If we examine the ornithological species-question from this 
zoological point of view, the gap between the two extreme 
schools becomes still more distinctly marked. Of the above- 
mentioned 60 doubtful forms, which are regarded by most zoo- 
logists as varieties, by many ornithologists at different times as 
species, about 50 would decidedly have to be united with the 
allied forms. Scarcely ten of these forms would remain as still 
fluctuating zoologically. According to the views which have 
hitherto been followed practically by Schlegel, Gloger, and 
Thienemann, to which I may add my own, the European Ornis 
would consist of about 425 certain species, 10 doubtful forms, 
and 100 exotic immigrants. 

On the other hand, Brehm, in his " Vogelfang," cites, besides 
these 420 certain species, 520 others, of which the boldest orni- 
thologists of the opposite party mention 60 at the outside, and 
besides these again, nearly 1400 subspecies. The number of 
species not certainly well founded with Brehm is fifty times, 



of the European Ornis, audits Causes. 299 

and that of the subspecies one hundred and forty times, as great 
as with those ornithologists who form their opinions in accord- 
ance with strict zoological notions. 

Reichenbach and Brehm assert that the notion of the species 
is subjective : whoever requires a more convincing proof, over- 
leaps the bounds of discretion. 

Strictly speaking, the only objectively distinct forms presented 
by nature are the individuals. All further conceptions are sub- 
jective views — separations on account of differences observed or 
supposed to be observed. These differences belong objectively 
to animals ; their estimation and relative valuation is exclusively 
a subjective affair. It is a matter of subjective choice whether 
we separate the Ostrich -like birds from the other birds as a 
distinct class, or unite them with them ; it is a matter of sub- 
jective choice whether we separate the Herons as an order from 
the other Grall^e, and the Ducks from the other Natatores, or 
place them together; it is a matter of subjective choice whether 
we leave the Linnean genera Falco and Strix in their original 
condition, or break them up into many genera, and so forth. 
Lastly, it is a matter of subjective choice whether we separate 
individuals as species, which only differ from each other by a 
different state of plumage or a diffei'ent coloration, — e. g. Hali- 
aetus leucorypkus, Pall, [unicolor, Gray), and H. macei, Temm., 
or Larus heinei, Hom., and L. canus, L., or jEgialites homeyeri, 
Br., and yE. hiaticula, L. ; one of them may be converted into 
the other in time. It is a matter of subjective choice whether 
or no we separate Charadrius pardela, Pall., from C. hypome- 
lanus, Pall. In the case of living animals we need onlj'^ wait a 
few mouths to see how, in the same individual, the one bird 
becomes converted into the other. It is a matter of subjective 
choice to separate Alauda semitoi'quata, Br., from A. tartarica, 
Pall., as the one form agrees exactly with the female of the 
other. In the above-mentioned cases I believe it is possible to 
come to a perfectly concordant view, although at present this 
does not exist throughout. Nature presents conditions which 
may bi'ing about a common conception ; but she also presents 
objective differences, which in separate individuals have, in fact, 
caused the young, or the female, or the winter dress to be re- 

x2 



300 Dr. J. H. Blasius on the Diversity in the Estimate 

garded as specifically distinct. In these cases coloration is less 
decisive than the force of the conditions of life and develop- 
ment; where the latter are not known, it would be well to de- 
pend rather on the form than on the colour. Mergus merganser 
has been met with paired with Anas clangula ; it would be sub- 
jective and arbitrary, but possible, and therefore, from the sub- 
jective point of view, also justifiable, to regard the two as one 
species. In this case also we should have to depend rather on 
the form than on the isolated objective fact. 

Whoever regards the notion of the species as subjective is 
empirically right ; biit whoever thereby means to deny to the idea 
of species any objective foundation, is certainly in error. The 
dictum " the species is subjective'^ has therefore truly no signifi- 
cation at all. Any one may with equal right assert the opposite. 

The objective data for the practical application of the idea of 
species lie in the general nature of the animal — in the form, size, 
marking and coloration, in the manifestations of life, in the de- 
velopment and reproduction of the animal. We know that not 
a single one of these peculiarities in one and the same species is 
rigidly concluded at a single point, — we know that in all pro- 
perties variations may occur in one and the same species. For 
the idea of the species, it is, in fact, requisite that concordance 
should occur within the limits of such vacillations, which cannot 
be established a priori ; but that with respect to all other species, 
a sharply-defined boundary, free from all gradual transitions, 
must occur. When both these objective conditions are fulfilled, 
we are justified in ranging any totality of individuals under the 
same specific idea. 

The objective specific conditions may be fulfilled in very dif- 
ferent ways and in very different degrees. Whoever makes very 
small requirements, and judges from an isolated peculiarity 
which has acquired no significance in the totality of the organism 
(separating, for example, the young or the female from the old 
male, the small Sparrow-Hawk from the large one, the brown 
Screech-Ovvl from the grey, or the grey-capped House-Sparrow 
from the brown-headed one), is of course subjectively justified in 
making species ; but his species possess a less degree of objective 
justification than those established in accordance with more rigor- 



of the European Ornis, and its Causes. 301 

ous requirements. The principle of the separation of species is 
in all cases essentially the same ; in respect of its practical ap- 
plication, we can only hold different views as to the degree of 
requirement, and this diversity is purely subjective. 

The abrupt gap between the two schools is considerably en- 
larged, if we differ also in the principle and not merely in the 
degree of requirement. The dominant zoology universally assumes 
that different species must be actually different in their pro- 
perties — that is to say, separated by well-defined limits in their 
characters. This, however, is not theoretically the view of the 
freer unbridled ornithology. In this it stands as a theoretical 
principle that nature everywhere presents transitions between 
species, as between subspecies. With this therefore every kind 
of objective conception falls to the ground. The only means of 
comprehension that remains consists in the comparison of in- 
dividuals lying before the observer. The ornithology which pro- 
ceeds on the principle of allowing universal transition, and sets 
lax requirements on the species, runs the danger of becoming 
incapable of being checked by others, and thereby necessarily 
renouncing all further influence in favour of a deviation. It is 
throughout of a subjective nature, and therefore not com- 
municable. 

From this it follows, in my opinion, that it must remain with- 
out results, as, indeed, it has hitherto done, to dispute as to the 
boundaries of species in the two distinct ornithological schools. 
All that can be done towards an elucidation is to indicate the 
irreconcileable degree of the diversity in the two tendencies and 
to establish a synonymy for both views. 

Both the digressing sects do well when they avoid all disputes ; 
when they at the utmost confine themselves to ascertaining what 
objective matter of fact runs parallel to the two different sub- 
jective views. This is the only question on which unity can be 
attained on both sides, although not to the satisfaction of both 
parties. 

All that the ornithologists with more rigid requirements can 
do in this direction for the advancement of their science is that 
they should come to an understanding among themselves as to 
the way in which the so-called local races, about fifty in number, 



302 Recent Ornithological Publications. 

had better be regarded, — that they should bring together the 
material which is still necessary to enable them to come to a 
final judgment upon about ten still uncertain forms, — and that 
they should subject any exotic immigrants to be added to the 
fauna to a strict criticism. 

On these points it appears to me that a concordant judgment 
may be arrived at. 

XXXI. — Recent OrnitJwluyical Publications^. 

1. English Publications. 

Sir John Uichardson's volume on the Polar Regions f con- 
tains a notice of the birds met with in Spitzbergen (p. 210), and 
a short chapter devoted to the Zoology of the Arctic Circle ge- 
nerally. " Excluding merely the points where the woods cross 
the Arctic Circle," says the author, p. 278, " the polar region 
presents a uniformity in its native birds in all meridians. All 
the birds that frequent the high latitudes are natives, and, 
though their stay at the breeding-places does not exceed three 
months, they are to be considered as merely visitors in the 
southern regions, which they traverse in going and coming du- 
ring the remaining nine months of the year." This, we believe, 
is pretty nearly true, as far as it goes ; but a really good and 
succinct account of Arctic Zoology is still a desideratum, and 
would form a very acceptable addition to our knowledge of geo- 
graphical distribution. 

We do not propose here to enter into the general merits of 
Mr. Du Chaillu^s account of his travels in Equatorial AfricaJ. 
That his work has produced much hostile criticism our readers 
are well aware. But no ornithologist, who is acquainted with 
the progress of his favourite science during the past few years, 

* Want of space has compelled us to defer the notice of several works 
until the next Number. — Ed. 

■\ The Polar Regions. By Sir John Richardson. Edinburgh, 1861, 
1 vol. 8vo. 

X Explorations and Adventures in Equatorial Africa. By Paul B. Du 
Chaillu. London, 1861. 



Recent Ornithological Publications. 303 

can be ignorant that Mr. Du Chaillu has discovered some re- 
markable novelties in the order of Birds, whatever he may have 
done in Mammals. In this branch of his investigations, how- 
ever, he has had the advantage of the services of Mr. John Cas- 
sin, the well-known Ornithologist of the iicademy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia, who has thoroughly worked at his 
specimens, and has been able to discriminate between what was 
really new, and what were merely more perfect examples of 
already named species. Mr. Du Chaillu's narrative contains 
several notices concerning some of the more important species 
which he discovered, to which we must call our readers' at- 
tention. 

The new Guinea-fowl {Numida plumifera^) "is very shy, but 
marches in large flocks through the woods, where the traveller 
hears its loud voice. It utters a kind of ' quack,' hoarse and 
discordant, like the voices of other Guinea-fowls. It avoids the 
path left by travellers ; but its own tracks are met everywhere 
in the woods it frequents, as the flock scratch and tear up the 
ground wherever they stop. It is strong of wing, and sleeps by 
night on the tops of high trees, a flock generally roosting toge- 
ther on the same tree. When surprised by the hunter they do not 
fly in a body, but scatter in every direction. Thus it is a diffi- 
cult bird to get, and the natives do not often get a shot at it." 

Of the Phasidus niger, remarkable as being the nearest ap- 
proach in the iEthiopian fauna to anything like a true Gallus or 
Phasianus, Mr.DuChaillu tells us that when he met with it for the 
first time in the woods, he thought he saw before him a domestic 
fowl. " The natives have noticed the resemblance too, as their 
name for it shows — couba iga, signifying wild-fowl. Wild they 
are, and most difficult to approach ; and also rare even in the 
forests where they are at home. They are not found at all on 
the sea-coast, and do not appear until the traveller reaches the 

* For a good figure of this species and the Phasidus niger, see ' Journal 
of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia,' new series, vol. iv. 
pis. 2 & 3. In the same work (pi. 49) are also representations of two 
beautiful Meropidce discovered by Mr. Du Chaillu, Meropogon breweri 
and Meropiscus midleri ; aud in the following plate are figured some very 
remarkable species of Muscicapidee. 



304 Recent Ornithological Puhlications. 

range of fifty or sixty miles from the coast. Even there they are 
so rare that, though I looked out for them constantly, I killed 
but three in all my expeditions. They are not gregarious, like 
the Guinea-fowl, but wander through the woods — a male, and 
one, or, at most, two females in company. They are very watch- 
ful, and fly off to retreats in the woods at the slightest alarm.'' 

Another remarkable type, for the discovery of which we are 
indebted to Mr. Du Chaillu's exei'tions, is the Alethe castanea, 
belonging to the Ant-eating series of the Old World, whieh em- 
braces Lxos and its allies. Of this bird we find the following 
notice, p. 273 : — 

" Hunting in the rear of the village, on the 15th, I shot a 
curious bird, the Alethe castanea, a new species. It is said by 
the natives to have a devil in it — for what reason I could not 
discover; probably for none. But its habits make it singular. 
They fly in a small flock, and follow industriously the Bashikouay 
ants in their marches about the country. The bird is insecti- 
vorous ; and when the Bashikouay army routs before it the 
frightened grasshoppers and beetles, the bird, like a regular 
camp-follower, pounces on the prey, and carries it off. I think 
it does not eat the Bashikouay." 

Mr. Du Chaillu likewise confirms (p. 131) what Dr. Hartlaub 
has previously reported, on the authority of Pel, as to the habits 
of Gypohierax atigolensis, that they are those of the Fishing-Eagles 
{Halia'etus) . 

2. French Publications. 

We have seen the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th numbers of MM. 
Jaubert and Barthelemy La-Pommeraye's ' Richesscs Ornitholo- 
giques de Midi de la France,' of which we have already noticed 
the first part (' Ibis,' 1859, p. 201). They contain much useful 
information to the student of the European Avifauna. 



M. Salle has printed a carefully-prepared sale-list of his 
Mexican birds*, which we are sure he will willingly forward to 
any of our correspondents who may desire to consult it. M. 

* l>iste d'Oiseaux a vendre provenant dcs chasses faites en Amerique. 
Par M. A. Salle, 1.3 Rue Guv de la Brosse, ^ Paris. 



Recent Ornithological Publications. 305 

Emile Parzudaki^s ' Catalogue des Trochilides ' is another printed 
list of the same character, which those ornithologists who are 
studying the group of Humming-birds would do well to apply 
for. M. Parzudaki has a very large series of skins of this group 
of birds on sale. 

3. Russian and Scandinavian Publications. 

Herr Magnus von Wright's "■ Birds of Finland* " of which 
the title was mentioned in our January Number ('Ibis/ 1861, 
p. Ill), forms the fifth part of the 'Bidrag till Finlands Na- 
turkannedom, Etnografi och Statistik,' issued by the Finnisli 
Scientific Society, and, as far as it goes, — for the part published 
only comprehends the Land-Birds, — will be found a very useful 
account of the ornithology of that country. As might be ex- 
pected, the character of the Avifauna of each side of the Baltic 
is very much the same, and we think the author has done well 
in making such constant reference to Nilsson's well-known 
' Skandinavisk Fauna.' But, according to Herr von Wright, 
thirty-two species occur in Sweden or Norway which have not 
been met with in Finland, though further observation will no 
doubt tend to reduce this inequality, since several birds of 
Asiatic origin have never been obtained in the latter country, 
though they must probably have passed through it to reach the 
other shore of the Gulf of Bothnia. Among these we may 
instance the two species of Oreocincla, 0. aurea and O. heinei, 
Bp. (the latter erroneously called by our author Turdus lumdatus), 
Parus cyamis, Emberiza aureola and Turtur rupicola (Pall.), and 
Columba gelastes, Temm., the last of which may perhaps be ex- 
pected some day in England. Of birds of southern or western 
range which do not seem to reach Finland, the more noticeable 
are Faico milvus, F. rufus, Sti-ix noctua, S. aluco, and S. flammea, 
Sylvia luscinia, S. tithys, S. locustella, and S. arundinacea, Mota- 
cilla boarula, Saxicola rubicola, Regulus ignicapillus, Emberiza 
miliaria, Picus viridis and P. medius, Alcedo ispida, Merops 
apiaster, and Columba livia. 

* Finlauds Foglar, hufvudsakligen till deres diagter, bcskiifna af 
Magnus voii Wright. Forra Afdelningen. Helsingfors--, Finnska Littera- 
tui-siillskapets Tryckeri, 1859. 8vo, pp. 315. 



306 Recent Ornithological Publications. 

The only species included by our author, which he says has 
not been noticed either in Sweden or Norway, is Falco ater ; and 
this can scarcely be said to be a Finnish bird, though it occurs 
in tolerable plenty from the neighbourhood of Lake Onega 
northwards to Archangel. 

We notice with pleasure (page 97 et seq.) the acknowledg- 
ment willingly rendered to the services of our countrymen, the 
late Mr. Wolley, and Mr. H. Dresser (the latter in company with 
two Finnish gentlemen), in discovering the nidification of the 
Waxwing {Ampelis garndus, L.), of which the particulars have 
been given at length in this Journal. 

Herr von Wright thinks himself justified in considering the 
Titmouse of Scandinavia, usually known as Parus sibiricus, di- 
stinct from the Siberian bird to which that name was applied 
by Gmelin, and accordingly continues to the former (the Euro- 
pean one) Lundahl's appellation of P. lapponicus^. 

The work is written in Swedish, which is an additional re- 
commendation, as had it been in the Finnish language it must 
have remained almost a sealed book to naturalists, few of 
whom we should imagine have time to spend in mastering the 
grammar of a tongue in which the nouns have thirteen cases ! 



The volume of Scientific Communications published by the 
Natural- History Union of Copenhagen, for the past yearf, con- 
tains (page 306) a paper by Professor J. Reinhardt on the 
example of Syrrhaptes paradoxus which was shot in Jutland, 
as has before been mentioned in our pages (' Ibis,^ 1860, p. 109, 
7iote), and also (page 335) a notice of some recent additions to 
the ornithology of Greenland, all of which, however, are included 
in the valuable list of the birds of that country, with which that 
learned naturalist has enriched our present volume. 

* Sallsk. pro F. et Fl. Fenn. F5ihandl. 1848, p. 1. 

t Videnskabelige Meddelelser fia dea naturhistoriske Forening i Kjo- 
benhavn, for Aaret 1860. Udgivne af Selskabets Bestyrelse. Andet Aarties 
anden Aargang. Kjobenlia\Ti, 1861. 



Letters, Extracts from Cori'esjjondence, Notices, ^c. 307 

XXXII. — Letters, Extracts from Correspondence, Notices, Sfc. 
We have received the following letter : — 

To the Editor of ' The Ibis.' 

Foidingbridge, June 1st, 1861. 

SiRj — Since my letter to you in February, which appeared in 

the last Number of ' The Ibis/ I have had an opportunity of 

inspecting- the third edition of Mr. Hewitson^s work on the 

Eggs of British Birds, and now beg to offer a few remarks, 

which, I hope, may result in the acquisition of a reliable list of 

British birds, properly so called. 

Species. 

There are figured in the 3rd edition of He witson 286 

Enumerated in 'The Ibis ' List of Desiderata 35 

321 
But we must deduct the Snowy Owl and Bewick's Swan, as they 
are figured in Hewitson and also occur in ' The Ibis ' List of 
Desiderata 2 

319 
In the ' Zoologist' List, and not occurring in Hewitson, or 'The 

Ibis' List of Desiderata, there are 34 

In the 3rd edition of Yanell, but not in the above ' Ibis,' ' Zoolo- 
gist,' or Hewitson's Lists 5 

Noticed in ' The Ibis ' and in none of the above Lists 2 

Total number of Birds regarded as British by various authorities 360 

Now, there is no doubt that all Hewitson^s figures of eggs 
are those of British birds, and that all the birds in ' The Ibis ' 
List of Desiderata are really British. In order somewhat to nar- 
row the point at issue, I will now enumerate those species which 
occur in the ' Zoologist ' list, in the 3rd edition of ' Yarrell,' and 
in the last two Numbers of * The Ibis,^ but which are not men 
tioned in the 3rd edition of Hewitson, or in ' The Ibis ' List of 
Desiderata, as amongst these must be found those which, without 
sufficient reason, have obtained a place in the British list — some, 
perhaps, through mistake, some on slender evidence, and some 
in consequence of having been improperly regarded as distinct 
species. 

The following list must also of necessity contain those spe- 



308 Letters, Extracts from Correspondence, Notices, i§c. 

cies of British birds whose eggs have been discovered since the 
3rd edition of Hewitson was pubhshed ; and these were stated 
to be at least eight in number, in ' The Ibis ' for October 1859. 



List of Birds occurring in the ' 
in Hewitson' s Srd edition, or 

1. Greenland Falcon. 

2. Rufous Sedge Warbler. 

3. Bohemian Waxwing. 

4. American Cuckoo. 

5. Belted Kingfisher. 

6. Purple Martin. 

7. Passenger Pigeon. 

8. Sand Grouse. 

9. Barbar\' Partridge. 

10. Cream-coloured Courser. 

11. Andalusian Hemipode. 

12. Little Egret. 

13. Buff-backed Heron. 

14. Squacco Heron. 

15. American Bittern. 

16. Yellow-shanks Sandpiper. 
1 7. Bartram's Sandpiper. 

18. Sabine's Snipe. 

19. North American Stint. 

20. Mate Swan. 

21. Polish Swan. 

22. Bimaculated Duck. 

23. Surf Scoter. 



Zoologist ' List, but not mentioned 
The Ibis ' List of Desiderata. 

24. Red-crested Duck. 

25. Paget's Pochard. 

26. Smew. 

27. Hooded Merganser. 

28. Ringed Guillemot. 

29. Swift Tern. 

30. Sooty Tern. 

31. White-winged Black Tern. 

32. Masked Gull. 

33. Laughing Gull. 

34. Dusky Shearwater. 



Mr. Yarrell. 

35. American Mottled Owl. 

36. Red-winged Starhng. 

37. Great Spotted Cuckoo. 

38. Virginian Quail. 

39. American Scaup. 



In ' Ibis.' 

40. Serine Finch. 

41. American Meadow Starling. 



Now, Sir, if you, or any of your valued conti'ibutors, will 
inform me, in the next Number of * The Ibis,^ or in any other 
way, how many of the forty-one species enumerated above ought 
to be considered British, and at the same time how many of the 
forty-one species have had their eggs discovered since the 3rd 
edition of Hewitson was published, I shall feel greatly obliged. 

I may add, in conclusion, that I think * The Ibis ' List of 
Desiderata is capable of a little legitimate enlargement. Take, 
for instance, Sabine's Snipe, which certainly, as I believe, has 
undoubted claims to rank as a British bird, and, so far as I 
know, the egg of which has not yet been obtained. Neverthe- 
less this bird, which " does not seem to have fallen into the hands 



Letters, Extracts from Correspondencey Notices, S^-c. 309 

of any naturalist out of the British Islands */' finds no place in 
*The Ibis' List of Desiderata f. 

Yours, &c., Beaven Rake. 



A letter, addressed to the Editor by Mr. J. J. Monteiro, who 
has already done good service in Angolan J ornithology, is dated 
from the province of Cambambe, Angola, February 6th, 1861, 
and says, — 

*' I have only time to pen these few lines to inform you 
that I am well, and that, despite the rainy season (now at its 
thickest), I have already managed to preserve thirty skins of dif- 
ferent species of birds. Nearly the whole are different from those 
I collected and noticed before at Bembe. Amongst the skins 
are several which I think are new, and all are very beautiful. 
Amongst those I suppose new is a Great Kingfisher from the 
River Quanza (Coanza of English maps). None of the descrip- 
tions of Kingfishers in Swainson's ' Birds of Africa ' (the only 
work I have at present with me) accord with my specimen. 
Another good piece of news is, that ' Plantain Eaters,' and said 
to be of several species, abound within a few miles of my present 
locality, and so ' get-at-able ' that I have already purchased two 
live specimens of the Corythuix erxjthrolophus, of which one is 
in perfect health, and the other dead. As soon as the rainy 
season is over, I will obtain more skins, and very likely some 
new species. 

" Please send my kindest regards to Dr. Hartlaub, and tell 
him that it would do him and you good to come and spend a 
few months on the magnificent river Coanza — magnificent not 
so much in size or body of water, as in vegetation, scenery, and 
ornithology. 

" I am, unfortunately, removed from the vicinity of its finest 
part, which is as far as Cambambe (the fort and station of), 
though within a very few miles north of its unnavigable part. I 
am about thirty to forty miles west of Pungo Andongo." 

* Vide Yarrell's British Birds, 2ad edit. p. 42. 

t Sabine's Snipe is considered, we believe, by the best authorities to be 
merely a melanism of the Common Snipe. — Ed. 
+ Cf. P. Z. S. 1860, p. loy. 



310 Letters, Extracts from Correspondence, Notices, ifc. 

Mr. Wallace's letters from Ternate (of December 10th, 1800), 
enclosing the valuable paper already given [antea, p. 383), con- 
tain several passages which may interest our readers : — 

" I do not like the figure of Semioptera waU.acii : the shoulder- 
plumes are not sufficiently erected; neither is the contrast of 
colour between the pure whiteness and the dark silky ash of the 
back sufficiently marked." 

" The Dutch have just sent out a collector for the Leyden 
Museum to the Moluccas. He is now at Ternate, and goes to 
spend two years in Gilolo and Batchian, and then to N. Guinea. 
He will, of course (having four hunters constantly employed, 
and not being obliged to make his collecting pay expenses), do 
much more than I have been able to do ; but I think I have got 
the cream of it all. His name is Bernstein ; he has resided long 
in Java, as doctor at a Sanatorium, and tells me he has already 
sent large collections to Leyden, including the nests and eggs 
of more than a hundred species of birds ! Are these yet arranged 
and exhibited ? They must form a most interesting collection *. 

" Many thanks for your list of Parrots f. My collections 
already furnish many corrections of the localities. Allow me 
here to make a remark on the constant changes of specific 
names by yourself and Mr. Gray. It strikes me that, by forcing 
the law of priority to its extreme limits, you create a complicated 
synonymy, instead of settling it. Was not that law made to 
decide among several names already in use — not to introduce 
diversity where uniformity of nomenclature has hitherto existed ? 
What is gained by changing Eclectus linnm into E. cardinalis, 
and Paradisea superba into P. atra, when it is almost certain 
that such changes will not be generally adopted ? I believe the 
synonymy of Natural History will never be settled till a tribunal 
shall be appointed by general assent, from whose decrees there 
shall be no appeal. It matters absolutely nothing whether a 
bird has one name or another ; but it is of the utmost importance 
that it should not have two or three at once. A syuonyraical 
catalogue, which should be authoritative and final by the general 

* These have been described at length in two articles in Cabanis' 
'Journal fur Ornithologie,' which we have already noticed (' Ibis,' 1860, 
pp. 94 & 299). t See P. Z. S. 1860, p. 223. 



Letters, Extracts from Correspondence, Notices, ^c. 311 

consent of naturalists in congress assembled, would be a work 
worthy of the century. Let ornithologists be the first in the 
field, and the other -ologists will soon follow." 

" The Cockatoos puzzle me greatly. You make my Lombock 
sp. C. cequatorialis, which Temminck says is peculiar to N. Gilolo 
and N. Celebes. Do you make it a synonym of C. sulphurea, 
which you do not mention?* You will see small specimens of a 
Cockatoo from Mysol, which I thought were C. cequatorialis. I 
have just received a very small specimen from Gilolo, bearing the 
same relation to C. cristata that C. sulphurea does to C. triton. 
It will be, I suppose, quite new.^' 

" The larger and smaller specimens of Megapodius from Mysol 
are also curious. In colour they are exactly alike ; but the size 
of the bill and feet is so different that they must be distinct. 
Between the Ti-ichoglossus of Amboyna and Ceram and that of the 
Papuan Islands I can discover no difference, and I suspect that T. 
nigrigularis of G. R. Gray must be suppressed. You have left 
out Lorius domicella altogether from your list, giving L. tricolor 
to Amboyna in its place, which latter is wholly Papuan. Eos 
cyanostriata is a native of Timor-laut ; and of Eos reticulata and 
squamata I saw nothing in Amboyna and Cerara, and believe 
they do not exist there. Aprosmictus amboinensis is a species 
strictly confined to Ceram, which you have not given. It is 
quite distinct from the A. dorsalis of New Guinea. The Psitta- 
cidce of the Solomon Islands seem so exactly representative of 
those of New Guinea and the Moluccas, as to show that they 
must be included in the Papuan subregion, and (if true Lories 
are not found in New Caledonia) will mark its eastern limits. 
New Ireland and the eastern parts of New Guinea no doubt 
still contain many fine things in this group." 

The last letters received by Mr. S. Stevens from Mr. Wallace 
are dated Delli in Timor, February 6th, 1861, and state that he 
had been there a month, and intended waiting two moi-e. The 
country was barren, and, Australia-like, poor in insects ; but 
birds were tolerably abundant, though not of very fine species. 

* No. C. sulphurea is certainly separable, and it is probable that the 
Lombock bird belongs to this form ; the Timor species being, according to 
Temminck, the true C. sulphurea. — P. L. S. 



312 Letters, Extracts from Correspondence, Notices, ^'c. 

Mr. Gould informs us that the Night-Heron of the Falkland 
Islands, which we have hitherto termed N. gardeni^, and con- 
cerning which Capt. Abbott has written an interesting note in 
our last Number, is not the same as the North-American bird, as 
we had imagined from Mr. Gould himself having called it Nycti- 
corax americanus (see P. Z. S. 1859, p. 96), but belongs to the 
darker-coloured species found in the southern parts of South 
America, Nycticorax obscurus, Licht., Bp. Consp. ii. p. 141. 
With regard to the Larus roseiventris of the Falkland Islands 
(p. 1G6), we have endeavoured to solve the question of its specific 
validity by sending a specimen to the Berlin Museum, whence 
Dr. Cabanis has obligingly furnished us with the following note 
respecting the species : — 

" Lai-us roseiventris of Gould cannot be confounded with L. 
maculipennis of Lichtensteiu [Mouette blanche, Azar. ?j, because 
L. maculipennis has the greater part of the wings black, only 
spotted with white. 

" Larus albipennis, Licht., is identical with L. glaucotes, Meyen, 
the only diflference being that Meyen's original example is rather 
smaller. I can find no specific distinction. 

" Larus roseiventi-is, therefore, has only to be compared with 
L. glaucotes, Meyen. These two birds are very much alike, but 
may perhaps be considered separable, as forms belonging re- 
spectively to the eastern and western coasts. L. roseiventris 
diff'ers in its somewhat smaller size, in its remarkably smaller 
and shorter bill, shorter feet, and its underside not being pure 
white, but tinged with rose-colour.'' 



In part i. of the ' Journal fiir Ornithologie ' for this year, G. 
von Rosenberg of Amboyna announces the discovery of a new 
species of Cassowary in the island of Salawattie, which he pro- 
poses to call C. kaupi. It has no ivattles, and appears to be quite 
distinct from the several other species of this genus which have 
lately been described under the names C. bennettii, C. uniappen- 
diculatus, and C. bicarunculatus. 

* See P.Z. S. 1860, p. 387, and ' Ibis,' 1861, p. 15/. 



bj5.l861.P].7. 




J WolF del 
J Jennens.iiUi. 



M.&B.HanharUny. 



ACCIPITER PECTORAL! 5. 



THE IBIS. 



No. XII. OCTOBER 1861. 



XXXIII. — On a rare Species of Hawk, of the Genm Accipiter, 
from South America. By P. L. Sclater. 

{Plate X.) 
The accompanying illustration is a reduction from an original 
water-colour drawing by Mr. Wolf, belonging to Mr. J. H. 
Gurney's portfolio, and represents a little-known species of 
Hawk, of the genus Accipiter, which I propose to call Accipiter 
pectoralis. This scarce bird has never been properly described, 
but has been alluded to by Prince Bonaparte, in an article en- 
titled " Revue Generale de la Classe des Oiseaux," in the * Revue 
et Magasin de Zoologie^ for 1850 (p. 474 et seq.), in the fol- 
lowing terms: — 

" Mais la plus belle espece d'Accipitrien est sans contredit 
celle que nous venous de retrouver dans le Musee d'Anvers, 
sous le nom de F. pectoralis, Cuv. {Buteo pectoralis"^ Vieill.). 
Quoique indiquee comme venant de I'Inde, elle vient du Bresil, 
et rappelle, par son plumage, le Spizaetus ornatus. Sa taille est 
celle de mon Astur cooperi; le dessus de la tete et le dos sont 
noirs ; la gorge blanche; le haut du cou et la poitrine d'un roux 
pur ; le ventre blanc, barre de taches noires ; la queue cendree, 
traversee de quatre bandes noires.^' 

Besides the example in the Museum of Antwerp thus spoken 
of by Prince Bonaparte, the only specimens of this Hawk which, 
as far as I know, exist in European collections, are in the Derby 
Museum at Liverpool. From one of them Mr. WolPs figure 

VOL. III. Y 



314 Capt. Blakiston on Birds collected and observed 

was taken ; and from the same bird, which has been kindly sub- 
mitted to my examination by Mr. T. J. Moore, the Curator of 
this celebrated collection, I have drawn up the following short 
characters, which, when taken in conjunction with Mr. WolPs 
figure, will, I hope, be sufficient to render the species recognizable 
without much difficulty. 

ACCIPITER PECTORALIS. 

Falco pectoralis, in Mus. Antverpiauo. 

Supra niger, dorsi et scapularium tectricumque plumis albo mar- 
ginatis, pileo nigro immaculato : torque collari postico et 
capitis lateribus rufis : remigibus obscure fuscis : cauda 
nigra, albo quater fasciata : subtus albus, plaga rictali et 
striga mediali gutturis nigris ; pectore rufo, albo variegato : 
ventre toto albo nigroque transfasciato : rostro nigro, pedibus 
flavicantibus : long, tota 17, alse 10*2, tarsi 2"3, rostri a 
rictu I'l poll. Angl. et dec. 

Hab. (ut dicitur) in America meridionali. 

Mus. Antverp. et Derbiano. 

The two examples of this bird in the Derby Museum (No. 393 
and 393, a) were purchased by the late Lord Derby from 
Mr. Gould, in September 1841. They have no locality marked 
upon them. The species is very remarkable as being so nearly 
a miniature, as regards general appearance, of Spizaetus omatus, 
although certainly a true Accipitrine. The wings reach to about 
one-half of the length of the tail ; the third, fourth, and fifth 
primaries are nearly equal and longest. 

XXXIV. — On Birds collected and observed in the Interior of 
British North America. By Captain Blakiston, R.A. (Part I.) 

By the " Interior of British North America," I mean that portion 
of the continent lying to the north-west of Canada which may 
be said to be bounded by the western base of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, the 49th parallel of north latitude, Canada, Hudson^sBay, 
and the Arctic Sea, and which has hitherto usually gone by the 
somewhat indefinite appellation of the " Hudson's Bay Company's 
Territories " and the " Fur Countries." 

Rather than give localities which require some amount of 
geographical knowledge to make out, I have referred to the great 



in the Interior of British North America, 315 

physical features of this region in the following manner : — " Hud- 
son's Bay " means the coast of that bay ; " between Hudson's Bay 
and Lake Winipeg/' the densely wooded region to the east of 
that lake ; " Saskatchewan Plains," the high prairie-plains be- 
tween the north branch of that river and the international 
boundary ; " Lower Saskatchewan/' the country bordering that 
river below its forks ; and " Red River Settlement," the settle- 
ment on the river of the same name which flows into the 
south end of Lake Winipeg. 

The observations here do not extend beyond the western edge 
of the Rocky Mountains ; whence to the Pacific a distinct fauna 
and flora prevail, which cannot be included with the present. 
Most of the specimens I have collected are in the Royal Artil- 
lery Institution at Woolwich, where they can be inspected by any 
ornithologist. The nomenclature adopted is that given in Pro- 
fessor Baird's recent Report on the Birds of North America, un- 
less the contrary is stated. 

Order ACCIPITRES. 

L Falco ANATUM. 2 No. 48. A female, from Saskatchewan 
Plains, on Bow River, near Rocky Mountains, August 6th, 1858. 

Length 19 in., wing 14. Eye brown, feet yellow, bill blue 
horn-colour, cere yellow. 

This species, although extending from Greenland to Cuba, 
has not yet been found on the Pacific slope of North America ; 
and Professor Baird, of the Smithsonian Institution, considers 
that the locality of my specimen (longitude 115° W.) is the 
most westerly yet ascribed to this bird. F. nigriceps takes its 
place on the Pacific, but may probably be found in the district 
of Mackenzie River in the far north, where the Rocky Mountains 
do not appear to offer so great an impediment to the mingling 
of the fauna and flora of the two sides of the continent as is the 
ease to the southward. 

2. Falco columbarius. 6 No. 64. 2 No. 65. North branch 
Saskatchewan River, April 6th, 1858. Male: length 11| in., 
wing 7|, tail 5. Legs and feet yellow, claws black; bill horn- 
colour, greenish towards the base. 

X (NT 



316 Capt. Blakiston on Birds collected and observed 

Female: same date. Length 13^ in., wing 81, tail 5f. Legs 
and feet somewhat duller yellow than male, bill same colour as 
male, and cere greenish yellow. These two specimens had large 
intestinal worms, but were in very good condition. 

No. 117 S . Forks of the Saskatchewan, May 25th, 1858. 
Length 11^ in., wing 7|, tail 5. Feet, cere, and space round the 
eye bright yellow, bill bluish horn-colour. Female shot at the 
same nest : length 12| in., wing 8^, tail 5|. Feet, cere, and space 
round the eye bright yellow. The nest of these birds was placed 
ten feet from the ground in a clump of willows and aspen, and 
contained four eggs. 

The Pigeon Hawk appears to be as abundant and widely 
distributed in the northern as in the temperate regions of North 
America, where it is found to range from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific. Sir John Richardson mentions it as common on the 
coasts of Hudson's Bay, and I can bear testimony to the same 
fact in the interior. 

It is curious that in both pairs of birds mentioned above, which 
I examined carefully, long intestinal worms were found. 

In my collection are three eggs of this species, with the male 
bird belonging to the nest. M. Bourgeau, the indefatigable bo- 
tanist of Captain Palliser's late exploring expedition, obtained a 
female specimen and eggs. 

3. AsTUR ATRiCAPiLLUS, $ No. 89. Forks of Saskatchewan 
River, May 7th, 1858. Length 24 in., wing 13|, tail 11. Bill 
blue horn-colour, feet light dull yellow, cere light greenish yellow, 
eye reddish orange. Shot off the nest, which contained four eggs. 

No. 13 6 young. Saskatchewan River, October 14th, 1857. 
Length 22| in., wing 13. Eye bright yellow, feet and cere light 
dirty greenish yellow. 

My specimens of theAmei-ican Goshawk agree in measurements 
with the dimensions given by Professor Baird ; but the total 
lengths given in ' Fauna Bor.-Am.' are considerably greater, 
which leads me to think that they are measurements of the pre- 
served specimens. I take this opportunity of stating that all 
the measurements given by me, which can be influenced by the 
process of preparation, are from the specimens before skinning ; 
and that the colours of the different parts which change after 



in the Interior of British North America. 317 

death, unless otherwise stated, have been taken at the time of 
the bird being killed. Moreover, the sex, if inserted, has been 
ascertained by dissection. 

4. AcciPiTER cooPERii. $ No. 114. Forks of Saskatchewan 
River, May 21st, 1858. Length 19 in., wing 9|, tail 8|. Cere 
light yellowish green, feet yellow, bill blue horn-colour. 

The first notice of Cooper's Hawk from the interior of Bi'itish 
North America is here recorded ; it was obtained by M. Bour- 
geau, and belonged to a nest in a balsam poplar, from which he 
procured two eggs of a bluish-white colour, which measured 1'8 
to 1*9 in, by 1'4. The eyes were damaged by shot, but the irides 
appeared to have been orange. I have no other particulars of 
this species, which appears to be much commoner on the Atlantic 
coast of the United States. 

5. AcciPiTER Fuscus. $ No. 101. Forks of Saskatchewan 
River, May 15th, 1858. Length 13 in., wing 7|. Eye orange, 
feet and cere yellow. 

No. 165. Thirty miles south of Fort Edmonton, Sept. 27th, 
1858. Length 14^ in., wing 8^. 

6. BuTEO SWAINSONI. 6 No. 78. Forks of Saskatchewan 
River, May 5th, 1858. Length 21 in., wing 15|, tail 8. Feet 
yellow, cere hght yellow, bill bluish horn-colour. 

Another male, Saskatchewan Plains, May 4th, 1858. Length 
20 in., wing 15|. Eye chocolate-hazel, feet and cere light 
yellow, bill bluish black, colour of plumage same as No. 78. 

Another male, forks of Saskatchewan River, May 18th, 1858. 
Length 19| in., wing 15i. The rusty bars on the belly and femo- 
rals rather more distinct; hardly so much white on the throat; 
bars on upper part of tail not so dark as No, 78. 

Another male, forks of Saskatchewan River, May 25th, 1858. 
Length 19| in., wing 15, tail 8. Eye chocolate-brown, feet and 
cere yellow, bill dark-blue horn-colour, plumage same as No. 78. 

No. 108 $ . Forks of Saskatchewan River, May 18th, 1858. 
Length 21 1 in., wing 161, tail 9. Stomach contained three toads. 

This well-marked species is abundant in the neighbourhood of 
the Saskatchewan River ; and out of a number shot I have pre- 
served two fine, well-marked individuals. M. Bourgeau was also 



318 Capt. Blakiston on Birds collected and observed 

fortunate enough to procure eggs identified by specimens, which 
are white, more or less blotched with red. 

The white throat in conjunction with the dark breast is so 
marked a feature that this might well be called Swainson's White- 
throated Buzzard. 

7. BuTEo BUBEALis. ^ No. 153. Kootsnay Pass, Rocky 
Mountains, August 21st, 1858. Male and female, killed on the 
15th of May, 1858, at the forks of Saskatchewan : had red tails. 
This bird utters a peculiar squealing cry very frequently. 

At the time of my ascending to a nest of this bird (of which, 
unfortunately, I have only one of the two eggs then taken re- 
maining), my partner, although the birds made continual sweeps 
near me, failed in killing either. I have, however, very little 
hesitation in pronouncing the bird to be the Red-tailed Hawk, 
and the same as that of which I have the tail and feet, and of 
which I saw numbers at the Red River Settlement in the spring 
of 1859. The cry is very peculiar, and caused me to give the 
bird, for the time, when I had no books of reference, the name 
of the Squealing Buzzard. 

8. Archibuteo lagopus. Although I saw numbers of this 
patchwork-looking bird, I never obtained a specimen. 

9. Archibuteo sancti-johannis. Head, feet, and wings 
preserved, and three eggs obtained by M. Bourgeau : wing 18 in. 
long. Saskatchewan Plains, summer of 1858. The eggs are 
white, with slight blotches of red : rather more spherical than 
those of A. ferrugineus. 

10. Archibuteo ferrugineus. $ No. 86. Between north 
and south branches of Saskatchewan River, April 30th, 1858. 
Length 26| in., wing 18|, tail 9^. Eye brown-hazel, feet and 
cere yellow, bill dark horn-colour. Remains of Ground-Squirrel 
in stomach. 

The eggs taken from the nest of No. 86 were four in number. 
The nest, which was placed in an aspen tree, 20 feet from the 
ground, was composed of sticks, 2g feet across, and lined with 
buffalo wool. Those taken from another nest near the same 



in the Interior of British North America. 319 

locality were five in number. This nest was situated in a tree 
only 10 feet above a lake. 

A specimen and two eggs by M. Bourgeau, Saskatchewan 
Plainsj July 9th, 1858. Skin 25 in. long, wing 17. This is 
the first instance of the eggs of this bird having been collected ; 
they are of a white colour, plain, or blotched more or less with 
reddish brown. 

This bird feeds on the Ground- Squirrels so common on the 
prairies ; hence, I suppose, its name of " Californian Squirrel- 
Hawk.'^ 

It is a fine powerful bird, and, in distinction from other hawks, 
is known to the Cree Indians by the name of Sa-qua-ta-mov, of 
which word I can find no interpretation ; but they have shown 
their knowledge by classing the Black Hawk, last mentioned, 
along with this one, and calling it the black Sa-qua-ta-mov. 

The way in which birds adapt their habits to circumstances is 
strikingly shown on the prairie, where hawks and ravens will 
build even on low bushes ; and, again, along rivers where wolves 
are numerous, Canada Geese sometimes lay their eggs in the 
old nests of eagles. 

11. Circus hudsonius, Nos. 76, 92, 161. Saskatchewan 
Plains to Rocky Mountains, 1858. 

This bird is abundant throughout the interior ; the indivi- 
duals vary much in the colour and markings of their plumage. 
From the fact, I suppose, of its feeding on snakes, it is known 
among the Crees as the " Snake-hunter.^' I have, however, never 
found anything but the remains of mice in the stomachs of many 
of these birds which I have opened. 

In 1858 I observed it as early as April 1st near the forks of 
the Saskatchewan ; while the spring following I did not observe 
it before the 28th of that month at Red River Settlement. The 
progress of the seasons of these two years was, however, very 
difi'erent. 

12. Aquila canadensis. On Saskatchewan River till No- 
vember 18th, 1858. Tail-feathers highly prized by the Indians. 

13. Haliaetus leucocephalus. Head, wing, and feet of 
an example obtained by M. Bourgeau, Saskatchewan Plains, 



320 Capt. Blakiston on American Birds. 

summer, 1858. Wing 23 in. long. Common on Saskatchewan 
River, and thence to Hudson's Bay. It is sometimes seen in 
February, and remains until the rivers close in November. I 
was not fortunate enough to procure a specimen of either of these 
Eagles. 

As has been observed by Sir John Richardson, the Indians 
divide the year into moons, each of which is named after some 
natural occurrence. Among them are the Eagle and Goose 
Moons, at the times of the year when these birds first make their 
appearance after the winter. Now, although this lunar reckoning 
may be very well for intervals of time, it is far from satisfactory 
in fixing certain periods of the year ; for as the number of days 
in a year is not divisible by the number of days in a lunar month, 
so each year the same moon is about eleven days earlier, and in 
three years would take the place of the former one. 

14. Pandion carolinensis. I regret that I cannot give a 
single instance of the occurrence of the Fish-Hawk in the interior 
of British North America. It is, however, by no means an un- 
common bird, and was observed by myself from Hudson's Bay 
to the western base of the Rocky Mountains. It is rather early 
in going south in the fall of the year. 

15. Bubo virginianus. $ No. 38. Forks of the Saskatche- 
wan, January 29th, 1858. Length 23 in., wing 15. Eye bright 
yellow. 

16. Bubo arcticus. 6 No. 52. Forks of the Saskatchewan, 
March 25th, 1858. Length 22| in., wing 4^, tail 9^, 2nd, 3rd, 
and 4th quill-feathers nearly equal and longest. Eye very bright 
amber-yellow. Agrees with B. arcticus of the ' Fauna Bor.-Am.' 

17. Nyctea nivea. No. 186. Hudson's Bay, common 
throughout the north ; follows the Willow Grouse south in winter. 

18. Surnia ULULA. No. 21. Forks of the Saskatchewan, 
November 7th, 1857. 

No. 39 6 . Same locality, January 29th, 1858. 

[To be continued.] 



Dr. G. Hartlaub on a new Bird from W. Africa. 321 

XXXV. — On a New Bird from Western Africa. 
By Dr. G. Hartlaub*, F.M.Z.S. 

(Plate XI.) 

Equatorial Gaboon must undoubtedly be reckoned among 
those districts of Africa which are most rich in ornithology. 
DuChaillu, Franquet, Aubry-Lecomte, Fosse, Gujon, and others 
have collected species, up to the number of 400, in this some- 
what confined locality. Parinia, Phodidornis, Archimerops, 
Pa7-moptila, Alethe, Erythrocercus, Megabias, Artomyias, Ver- 
reauxia, Hetcerodes, Phasidus, are among the most remarkable 
forms of the African Avifauna, and have as yet been only met 
with in Gaboon. But still more remarkable than all these, and 
in our eyes, indeed, to be placed among the most interesting 
ornithological discoveries of the present time, is a new genus 
of bird of the order Fissirostres from this country, which, thanks 
to the friendly zeal of Jules Verreaux, has lately come into our 
hands, and which we wish to introduce into the system under 
the name Pseudochelidon. 

It is evident, at the first glance, that this form must be 
placed as a connecting link between the families of Hirundinidce 
and Coraciida, which have been so truly and rightly placed 
near one another by George llobert Grayf. A distinguished 
observer, to whom we showed the bird without allowing him to 
see the bill and feet, pronounced it at once to be a Swallow ; 
and, in fact, the size, colour, formation of the tail and wings 
(particularly of the latter) seem thoroughly Swallow-like ; while 

* Translated from part i. of the ' Journal fiir Ornithologie ' for the 
present year (p. 11). 

t We cannot agree with Mr. Gray and Dr. Hartlaub in considering the 
Coraciida and Hirundinidce to be at all nearly allied. The Swallows, 
though often confounded with the Swifts {Cypselidce), have, as has been 
repeatedly shown by those who have studied their anatomical and pteiy- 
lographical structure, nothmg to do with the true Fissirostres, but form a 
merely modified group of typical Oscines. Pseudochelidon, having, as Dr. 
Hartlaub has kindly informed us, ten primaries, should, in our opinion, 
have been compared with Cypselus ; and with all deference to Dr. Hart- 
laub's great authority, we venture to suggest that it will eventually 
be recognized as an aberrant form of the Cypselidce, perhaps leading oflF 
towards Eurystomus. — Ed. 



322 Dr. G, Hartlaub on a new Bird from W. Africa. 

the red bill and feet also, though in rather a less degree, remind 
one strongly of Eurystomus. 

Genus Pseudochelidon. 

Rostrum eurystominum, sed apicem versus conspicue attenuato- 
subcompressum, culinine minus rotundato, inter nares 
apertas subcarinato ; naribus in fossa subtriangulari positis, 
subrotundatis, conspicuis. 

Pedes niajusculi ; tarsi breves, digito interno et externo sequa- 
libus ; unguibus debilibus valde compressis, postico robus- 
tiore, majore. 

Alee cypselinse, longse, angustse, subfalcatse, caudse apicem longe 
superantes. 

Cauda brevis, sequalis, rectricibus apice subquadrato-dilatatis, 
in apicem tenuem desinentibus, sive submucronatis ; scapis 
mollibus ; supra- et infra-caudalibus longis, cypselinis. 

Ptilosis sericea, metallice nitida. 

Pseudochelidon eurystomina, nob. 

Tota nigra, nitore nonnullo metallico ; dorso conspicue seneo-vi- 
rescente, cauda et alis vix virescentibus ; subalaribus fuli- 
ginosis J pedibus flavo-rubentibus ; rostro corallino-rubro, 
apice pallidiore, fiavo ; unguibus pallidis. 
Long, tota 5" 3'"; alai4"4"'; cauda 1" 7'"; rostri a fronte 5'", 
a rictu 7'"; latit. rostri ad bas. 5'"; altit. rostri ad bas. 2^'"; 
long, tarsi 5i"'; dig. med. c. ung. 8'"; long. dig. ext. et int. 
c. ung. 6'", poll, et lin. Gall. 

The deep, half velvet-like, half dull metallic-like, glimmering 
green of the back seems rather sharply defined against the pure 
black of the head, and reminds one of the somewhat peculiar 
colouring of Hirundo thalassina. The under side is more of a 
dull black. The formation of the tail is abnormal, and worthy 
of remark. The soft shafts of the rectrices project, though not 
naked, beyond the barbed portions ; these latter being rather 
pointed towards them. This formation is carried to the furthest 
extent in the two middle feathers, but is apparent in all of them. 
The upper and under tail-coverts project in a wedge-like shape 
to nearly the end of the tail — a formation almost constant 
among the Hirundinidce, but which, on the other hand, is not 
found in Eurystomus, where the tail-coverts only just cover the 
base of the tail. The formation of the feet differs from that of 
Eurystomus, inasmuch as it is generally weaker, and the inner 



Ibis 1861, PI. XL. 




J .-Jury, lilli. 



M a:U.HanliaTl^lnip^ 



PSALIDOPROCNK CYPSELINA. 



Mr. R. Swinhoe's Notes on Chinese Ornithoioyy. 333 

and outer toes are of the same length (in Eurystomus the inner 
toe is considerably shortei*) ; also the claw of the short hinder 
toe seems considerably longer than in Eurystomus. The nos- 
trils, which in Eurystomus are covered, are bare in Pseudoche- 
lidon; and the very peculiar compression of the short broad 
beak towards the tip is not found in the former genus. 

The only example of this small, but, in spite of its appearance, 
very interesting bird is among the treasures of the Bremen col- 
lection. 



XXXVI. — Notes on Ornithology taken between Takoo and Peking, 
in the neighbourhood of the Peiho River, Province of Chelee, North 
China, from August to December, 1860. By Robert Swtn- 
HOE, Corr. Memb. Zool. Soc. Lond., Member of I. R. Zool. & 
Botan. Soc. of Vienna, C. M. of the R. As. Soc. of Bengal, &c. 

From Takoo to Tangkoo, a distance of some five miles, nothing 
but open flats of mud present themselves to the eye, relieved by 
ditches some 10 or 20 feet wide, which communicate with the sea, 
supplying the salt-pans with sea-water, and were used during the 
war as impediments to the passage to and from the forts. Pools 
of water also frequently abound, sprinkled here and there with 
rushes. About Tangkoo, on both sides of the river, the ground 
grows more firm and becomes covered with coarse grass and low 
vegetation, though abounding in marshes. Numerous grave- 
hillocks speckle the face of the flat plain, and, magnified by the 
mirage, assume the aspect, at a distance, of small villages or houses 
grouped together. These localities aff"ord ample shelter to the 
small Chinese Hare {Lepus sinensis), and are frequented by nu- 
merous species of birds. On leaving Tangkoo on the passage 
up the river, both banks are lined with flourishing gardens and 
orchards, abounding in great plenty in all the fruits and vege- 
tables of the north, though further inland the country still re- 
tains its marshy appearance, undrained and uncultivated ; and 
it is not until you reach Hunshuy-koo, some twenty-five miles 
up on the south bank, that cultivation springs into existence, 
and large fields of coarse millet [Sorghum] and maize wave their 
lofty stalks over your head and destroy your view. Villages 



324 Mr. R. Swinhoe's Notes on Ornithology 

begin to increase in number, though without many trees. Culti- 
vation increases as you advance to the walls of Tientsin, where 
a large open grassy plain to the east arrests your attention. I 
was the only interpreter with Sir Robert Napier, General of the 
2nd Division, on the march to Tientsin ; and as the divisional 
duties were so heavy, I had not much time to shoot, or to bestow 
on natural history. But fortunately, on the march to Peking, 
I was attached to the topographic department under Colonel 
Wolsely, and my duties being principally confined to making 
inquiries of, and getting information from, the natives, I had 
plenty of opportunities, in our numerous halts, of papng some 
little attention to my favourite study. The Grand Canal, the 
Ta-se and Seaou-se Rivers, with the main branch of the Peiho 
winding N.W., together with their numerous creeks and tribu- 
taries, all oflfer excellent feeding-ground to numberless water- 
birds. Tlie country consists of one vast alluvial plain of mixed 
sand and mud, gradually and almost imperceptibly ascending 
towards Peking. In the neighbourhood of Ho-se-woo, on the 
banks of the Peiho, a few sandy undulations break somewhat the 
flatness of the country. After leavingTientsin the numbers of trees 
about the villages begin to increase, and as you approach Peking, 
topes of lofty timber overshadowing the /w?n?</2 of departed great- 
ness give in many places quite a sylvan aspect to the scene. As 
we marched up in September the chief crops of sorghum, maize, 
cotton, three descriptions of small millet, pumpkins, beans, &c. 
were all ready for the harvest, and in some spots the reapers 
had already been busy. On our return in November the country 
presented a very barren face. All that was left of the waving 
maize and millet was merely the dry and hardened pegs, some 
foot and a half high, which covered acres of ground, and made 
digression from the road very unpleasant for the horses' legs. 
We were delayed some time on the banks of the Yunleang 
Canal, some seven miles from Peking, waiting for reinforce- 
ments. This canal is the chief water-communication between 
Tungchow, on the banks of a branch of the Peiho, and Peking. It 
runs close to the Peiho, but not into it ; thence westerly under 
the Pa-le (8 le) or stone bridge to the first weir, where the further 
portion of the canal is dammed and lies some 10 feet above. There 



between Takoo and Peking, North China. 325 

is a small custom- or toll-house here for the purpose of levying 
duties on goods reshipped from the lower on to the upper portion 
of the canal. The canal was reported to run through and round 
Peking ; but it was found to do nothing of the kind, it being 
again dammed on its approach to that city. The banks of this 
almost stagnant piece of water are densely clothed here and there 
with rushes and high grass, which afford skulking-places to many 
a freshwater-frequenting bird. 

On the north of Peking there is a large open space of gi'ound 
beyond the Russian cemetery, called the parade ground, where the 
Chinese troops were said to exercise. Beyond this, again, stood 
several Lama temples abounding in lofty trees, the haunts of many 
of the Crow- tribe: and the Imperial grounds inside of Peking, with 
their gardens densely planted with trees, were further favourite 
resorts. We cannot allude to the parks of the Summer Palace, 
with their lakes and fine groves of timber, wdthout making the soul 
of the naturalist long for a year's ramble at least in these lovely 
bird-frequented spots. But the follower of an army suffers under 
great disadvantages. He is at all times interdicted from shooting 
within the precincts of the camp, and as soldiers always choose 
sylvan spots for their encampment, if the camp be a large one, 
he finds every grove monopolized by the army, and unless he 
travels miles away in a dangerous country, has little prospect 
of procuring much. With such a treacherous race as the Chinese 
one never knew when it was peace, and so the constant sounds of 
guns miles from the camp were not at all unlikely to alarm the 
outposts. M. Zill, an amateur naturalist in the French camp, 
found the same difficulties there, and being dressed in private 
costume he was held in greater restraint by the French soldiery 
than one in uniform would have been. On our return march 
the cold presented many obstacles. I merely make the above 
remarks in case any one looking over the following list might 
object to my want of activity, forgetting the difficulties I had 
to contend with. I procured the skins of some fine Deer in the 
Summer Palace Park, which, together with a few other mammals 
and a few reptiles, have been forwarded to the Zoological Society 
of London for determination. The plants I collected I have pre- 
sented to Dr. IL T. Hance, H.M. Vicc-Consul at Whampoa, well 



326 Mr. R. Swinhoe's Notes on Ornithology 

known for his diligent researches in Chinese botany ; and the 
insects to J. C. Bowring, Esq., the best entomologist, perhaps, 
this side of the Cape. 

On our return to Tientsin we found the market well-stocked 
with wild fowl and other game at cheap rates ; but it was diffi- 
cult to make the natives understand that I wanted the birds for 
their skins merely, and preferred clean and perfect specimens to 
those partly plucked in order to show their plumpness. 

I am sending the skins procured from the above-mentioned 
localities as well as those from Talienwan for the inspection of 
the Editor of ' The Ibis,^ that he may correct or add to my re- 
marks in any way he chooses*. 

1. Brahminy Kite. Milvus govinda, Sykes. 

A somewhat larger and stronger species than the southern bird, 
and much larger than the Indian form. 

2. Japanese Buzzard. Buteo japomcus,^c\Ae^e\. 

3. Eagle Buzzard. Buteo ? 

The female of this bird was procured at Tientsin in November. 
It was hooded and carried about on the fist of a Chinaman, who 
said he was training it for hunting hares. I saw another, a good 
deal resembling it, with a blue back, which I took for the male. 
A Chinese had it on his arm ; but as we were on the march from 
Tientsin to Takoo, I was not able to purchase it. I never noticed 
it in a wild state. Cere yellow, legs pale yellow tinged with 
blue, claws black. 

4. Hen Harrier. Circus cyaneus (Linn.). 
Common about the marshes near Takoo in August. 

5. Pied Harrier. Circus ? 

This is the species numbered 12 in my notes in ' Ibis ' for 
1860, p. 359. I have not yet succeeded in identifying the 
species, but I think it may be Circus hudsonius of America. 
I noticed it occasionally about the Takoo marshes at the same 
period as the foregoing. 

* These skins have not yet reached us ; but we are unwilling to detain 
Mr. Swinhoe's paper any longer, and will therefore give any observations 
we may have to make on thera in a subsequent Number. — Ed. 



between Takoo and Peking, North China. 327 

6. Kestrel, Faico tinnunculus, L. 
Not common. 

7. Merlin. Falco cesalon, L. 

I was watching a small Hawk being chased by a Magpie. The 
Hawk was in great distress and screamed piteously as it flew 
round and round the woody graveyard in which I was standing, 
to try and elude its persecutor. Presently I heard the report of 
a gun outside, and running out found Colonel Dupont and M. 
Zill with the body of a female of this species expiring in their 
hands. 

8. Red-legged Falcon. Falco vespertimis, L. 
Occasionally seen. M. Zill assured me he had seen and shot 

it at Chefoo, the northernmost promontory of Shantung, where 
the French rendezvoused. 

9. Sparrow- Hawk. Accipitei' nisust 

I suppose this is the same as the South-Chinese species; but the 
female I procured has rust-tinted axillae as in the European bird, 
whereas those parts in the Amoy bird are white. I must say I 
took an unfair advantage of the individual of which I send the 
skin. It was very nearly dark one evening when I was standing 
in a pine plantation looking out for Blue Pies. I felt, rather than 
saw, something dark by me. It charged into a tree, and settled 
on a bough. I put up my gun and fired at guess, and to my delight 
picked up a bonny Sparrow- Hawk. This took place in Novem- 
ber on our return march^ the thermometer standing below 
freezing-point, 

9 a. Eagle-Owl. Bubo maximus. 

10. Tawny Owl. Otus brachyotus, L, ? 

When the army was advancing on the north wall of Peking, 
an owl was put up from its skulking-place in a field of dried 
maize-stalk. It flew round and round and again settled. It 
appeared to me to belong to this species. 

11. Goat-sucker. Caprimulgus jotaka, Schlegel. 

A male was caught alive in August soon after our landing at 
Pehtang. This species I take tobe the true C jotaka of the ' Fauna 
Japonica.' It seems to differ somewhat from our Amoy species. 



328 Mr. R. Swinhoe's Notes on Ornithology 

We did not see any more of them ; they had probably migrated, 
or this might have been a single individual blown ashore from 
its usual course of migration. We certainly did not observe the 
bird at Talienwan. 

12. Filleted Swift. Cypselus vittatus, Jardine. 
Not uncommon on our first arrival. 

13. Swallow. Hirundo rustica, L. 
A common summer resident. 

14. TIGER-SwALLOw^ Hirundo daiirica, Pallas. 
Flocks frequently seen in August and September. 

15. Sand-Martin. Cotrjle ripariaj 

I send two specimens of this pretty little Swallow. It was 
very common about the marshes at Takoo, often perching on the 
ground, apparently to take rest and preen itself. In the plain 
before Tientsin thousands of this species, in company with large 
parties of the two foregoing, swarmed the air during the warm 
days of September, engaged in catching the numerous flies that 
haunted the camp. We were delighted to see these active little 
fly-destroyers engaged so busily in the work of destruction, as we 
were literally inflicted with a plague of flies ; every tent was 
blackened towards the top with these small pests. 

In the flights of Swallows met up the river near Amoy, I ob- 
served a smaller and lighter species, which I conjectured at the 
time might be Sand Swallows ; but as I was unable to procure 
specimens, I let the matter pass. I cannot help thinking now 
that they were of this species. 

16. Kingfisher. Alcedo bengalensis, Latham. 
Sometimes seen, but not common. 

17. Hoopoe. Upupa epops, L. 

18. Warbler. Liisciniopsis canturians, mihi. 

This, or the closely allied species L. cantans of Schlegel, oc- 
curred in August, but I did not procure specimens. 

19. Grasshopper-Lark. Locustel/a ? 

Closely allied to L. rubescens, Blyth, but differs in many 
respects from a specimen of that bird kindly sent me by Mr. 



between Takoo and Peking, North China. 329 

Blyth. I observed this bird in August, but was not able to pro- 
cure specimens. I therefore enclose my only specimen from 
Amoy, that Mr. Sclater may inspect it, and, if he considers it 
new, describe it. 

20. Fantail Warbler. Cisticola cursitans. 

Not common. Probably resident ; one shot in October on the 
banks of the Yun-leang Canal. 

21. Spotwing Redstart. Ruticilla aurorea, Pallas. 
A few observed. Leaves early. 

22. Blue-throated Warbler. Cyanecula suecica (Linn.). 
One caged specimen observed at Tientsin. 

23. Red-throated Warbler. Calliope camtschatkensis {Gm.). 
This is a common bird in the neighbourhood of Peking, and, I 

think, is a permanent resident. I observed it as late as October 
skulking about amongst the long grass, like a Reed -Warbler, 
whence it was very difficult to drive it. Perched on a tree, it 
assumes many of the habits of the Redbreast, throwing the tail 
up and bobbing forward. It is a great favourite among the 
Chinese, who call it the Hung-po (Red-throat), and sometimes 
Chin-po (Golden- throat). The female has the red decoration on 
the throat like the male, but this is not the case in the young 
birds. I send three males and one female ; two of the males 
were taken from a Tartar camp. They were attached, by strings 
tied round the neck, to a long twig, on which they amused them- 
selves by hopping up and down. This is a common way of con- 
fining birds in the north. 

24. Blue-tail. lanthia rufilata, Hodgson. 
A summer resident only. 

25. Reed-bird. Acrocephalus magnirostris, mihi. 

I saw this bird frequently in August about the reeds on the 
banks of the Peiho. It migrated soon afterwards. 

26. Stone-chat. Pratincola indica, Blyth. 

The separation of this bird from the European P. ruhicola is 
usually very arbitrary. It appears, in my opinion, to be only a 
variety. I saw a few in September near Ho-see-woo, and secured 
a female, which I send. 

VOL. III. 2 



330 Mr. R. Swinhoe's Notes on Ornithology 

27. Ribbon-tailed Flycatcher. Tchitrea principalis (Tem- 
minck). 

I observed one in the garden round Sankolinsin's head-quar- 
ters at Takoo in the month of August. It was a female, and 
from its superior size I should take it to be the Japanese species 
rather than the Southern-Chinese bird, if these are different. 

28. Broad-billed Flycatcher. Hemichelidon latirostris 
(Raffles). 

Common in August. 

29. Grey-spotted Flycatcher. Hemichelidon griseisticta, 
n. sp. Wrongly referred to H. fuliginosa, 'Ibis/ I860, p. 57. 

This bird, which has occasionally been procured at Amoy, I 
met with in August in a garden near Takoo. I send the Editor 
an Amoy specimen for comparison. The species is closely allied 
to the last, but is larger, and is marked with oblong grey spots 
on the breast and flanks. Mr. Blyth has pronounced it new. 

30. Pied-tail Flycatcher. Erythrosterna mugimaki (Temm. 
&Schl.). 

Very common in August and September about orchards. 
Throws up and expands the tail, uttering a Robin-like running 
note. 

31. Dalmatian Gold-crest. Reguloides proregulus (Pallas). 
Very common among the trees near Tungchow in September. 

32. Yellow-rumped Gold-crest. Reguloides chloronotus, 
Hodgson. 

Common in the same spot and at the same date as the fore- 
going. 

33. Brown Wren. Phylloscopus fuscatus, Hodgson. 
Common in September. Col. Dupont shot specimens of this 

and the two last while a la chasse with M. Zill and myself. 

34. Crowned Wren. Phylloscopus coronatus {Temm. SkSchl.)? 
I frequently saw a species of Yellow Wren in the low scrub near 

Tangkoo in August, which I took to be this species. As, how- 
ever, I did not procure specimens, I mark the name with a query. 

35. Leaden-legged Wren. Phylloscopus plumbeitarsus,Ti.s^. 
I shot but one of this pretty species, and took it at first for 



between Takoo and Peking, North China. 331 

P. STjlvicultrix, mihi, so common at certain seasons at Amoy ; but 
on handling it, I at once observed the 1st primary, quite small 
in P. sylvicultrix, to be much larger in this species. The tarsus 
was furthermore, strange to say, of a leaden colour, as in the 
ParidiE, though the feet were quite phylloscopine. I extract my 
notes taken while the bird was fresh. 

d. Length 4^ in.; wing 2^, 1st primary 6-^; tail Ij^q-; 
tarsus ^. Bill : upper mandible brown, lower mandible and 
rictus clear ochre. Legs leaden grey, bases of toes and claws 
pale yellowish. This species resembles much P. sijlvicuUrix, 
but is distinguishable at once by its large 1st primary, the grey 
legs, and the ochreous under-mandible. In this last peculiarity 
it resembles P. coronatus ; but is a smaller species, and is totally 
destitute of the pale yellowish stripe, flanked by a brown one on 
each side, that crowns the head of the Japanese bird. 

36. Red-flanked White-eye. Zosterops japonicus,Ten-im. 
& Schl. 

I saw this bird only once, and that in a cage at Tientsin, and 
was surprised to find how completely it differed from the Southern- 
Chinese species, to which I had before ascribed the same name. 
Schlegel was quite right in the ' Fauna Japonica ' in stating that 
this species has no 1st primary, and that the feathers of the 
flanks are of a ruddy rust- colour, though in the colour of the 
legs and beak he was misinformed. These, as in the southern 
species, are leaden-coloured. The coloui'ed plate, which his son 
at Amoy has, misled me ; as the colours, somewhat carelessly put 
on, do not show in half-brilliant-enough tints the red patch on 
each side that marks the species. It will not do to call the other 
bird Z. sinensis, as it is only a Southern-Chinese form, being 
generally resident in the places where it is found. Let it stand, 
then, as Z. simplex. 

37. Marsh Tit. Parus palustris, L. 

It is surely remarkable that this European species should be 
the only common bird of the genus in the Peiho Plain. I have 
four skins, and I can discover no specific distinction ; perhaps 
Mr. Sclater may be more successful. Wherever trees abounded, 
the chirp of this species was sure to be heard. They were rather 

z 2 



332 Mr. R. Swinhoe's Notes on Ornithology 

knowing, and would seldom allow you to come under the tree 
in which they were sporting. 

38. Lesser Ox-eye. Parus minor, Temm. & Schl. 

I never met with this species wild here, and only once saw one 
in a cage. M. Zill assured me it was by no means rare at Chefoo. 
Perhaps the bird is migratory in these parts, and had departed 
southwards before our arrival. I do not think there is sufficient 
difference between this and Parus cinereus to sanction a specific 
separation. I have shot very grey-backed birds at Amoy ; and 
in Hongkong the specimens procured are certainly identical with 
a skin of P. cinereus lately received from Mr. Blyth. 

39. Pale Redwing. Turdus pallidus, Gmelin. 
A few of these birds were about in September. 

40. Red-tailed Fieldfare. Turdus ? 



This Thrush resembles somewhat T. naumanni; but a differ- 
ence is at once seen in the brownish-red side-feathers of the tail, 
which are conspicuously displayed when the bix*d flies. A few 
arrived about Peking in October, and frequented the leafless 
groves, where they would perch on the topmost boughs of the 
twigs three or four at a time. The note was a kind of chuckling 
chirp, and differed much from the ordinary sibilant "sit " uttered 
by all the other species found in China. The affinities of this 
Thrush are certainly with the Fieldfare. 

I may here state I have T. naurnanni from Amoy, shot here on 
several occasions, and identified by Mr. Blyth. A Thrush-like 
Geocincla has also been procured at Amoy on two occasions. This 
Mr. Blyth declares to be his Turdus dissimilis, once procured in 
Calcutta. But one of this last species, shot at Hongkong, and 
included among my birds from Hongkong, Macao, and Canton, 
forwarded to Mr. Sclater in June last, has been identified by 
him as the young of Turdus cordis. (See antea, p. 37.) 

41. MONTICOLA ? 



The specimen I enclose was the only one I ever saw of this 
interesting bird. I met with it on the 26th of September in a 
grove of pines. It was very lively, hopping about from branch 
to branch with its eye fixed upon me. It occasionally bobbed its 



between Takoo and Peking, North China. 333 

body and moved its tail with a depressed jerk, much ia the 
manner of Petrucossijphus manillensis. I think this is a new 
species, and, it strikes me, a very interesting one, as being some- 
what abundant. 

42. Golden Thrush. Oreocincla whitei (Eyton). 

The feathers of this species were picked up in a tomb-grove in 
September ; the body had probably been devoured by a Hawk. 

43. Pied Wagtail. Motacilla luguhris, Pallas. 
Frequent in September. 

44. Grey Wagtail. Motacilla boarula, L. 
In September. 

45. Yellow Quaketail. Budytes flava (L.). 
Also '■ September. 

46. \\ CD Wagtail. Nemoricola indica ? 

I watch 1 this or a cognate species for some time closely in an 
orchard in August. It looked very similar to the Indian skins, 
but unfortunately I was not able to get a specimen. 

47. Richard's Pipit. Anthus richardi, "1 Common in 
Steph. > September; not 

48. Tree Pipit. Anthus agilis, Sykes. J seen after. 

49. Japanese Pipit. Anthus japonicus, Temm. & Schl. 
I think resident. 

50. Short-toed Lark. Alauda brachydactyla, L. 
Observed this bird in a cage. 

51. Japanese Lark. Alauda japonica, Temm. & Schl. 

I think identical with the bird in the ' Fauna Japonica.' I 
send home two specimens. It was very common in the cultivated 
fields, roosting at night in the coarse grass and water plants that 
line the banks of the Peiho. Numbers of them were offered for 
sale in the Tientsin market all ready plucked and trussed. 

51 a. Mongolian Lark. Melanocorypha mongolica (Pall.), 
I never saw this bird wild; but, judging from the numbers 
brought to Tientsin for sale in November and December, I 
should say it must be common in the neighbourhood. 



334 Mr. R. Swinhoe's Notes on Ornithology 

52. Small Bunting. Emberiza pusilla, VaWas. 

Found in small flocks on the banks of canals and edges of 
water-pools. M. Zill had two specimens of this bird alive in a 
cage, which were more or less marked with white. 

53. Painted Bunting. Emberiza fucata, Pallas. 

54. Golden Bunting. Emberiza aureola, Pallas. 
Common about the reedy herbage of the Yun-leang Canal. 

55. Sulphured Bunting. Emberiza sulphurata,Temm.kSch\. 
Mr. Blyth assigns this to P. Bonaparte's genus Citrinella, but 

it is evidently the bird of the ' Fauna Japonica.' I send an Amoy 
specimen. I have also seen it at Hongkong. 

56. Masked Bunting. Emberiza personata, Pallas. 
Seen in August, but not afterwards. 

57. Frosted Bunting. Emberiza canescens, mihi. 
I send an Amoy specimen of the male. 

58. Red and Yellow Bunting. Emberiza rutila, Pallas. 
A fine specimen used to come down into my courtyard to feed 

at Peking. I loaded my gun with the smallest possible quantity 
of powder, and shot in order not to make a noise, and so missed 
him. This was the only one I saw of this handsome species. 

59. Ruddy Hammer. Emberiza ? 

The only specimen I saw and procured of this interesting 
Bunting, I enclose. It appears to me closely allied to E. citri- 
nella, L., and will very likely have been described by Pallas in his 
' Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat.,' a copy of which work I have not at hand. 

60. Lapland Lark-Bunting. Plectrophanes lapponicus. 
My first acquaintance with this bird was on the 12th of 

November. It was a bitterly cold morning, the thermometer 
much below freezing-point, wben I started at sunrise to explore 
the neighbouring country, and to return at eight before the camp 
broke up. We were within a day's march from Tientsin. My 
fingers were quite numbed, so that I could scarcely use them to 
pull the trigger, when I suddenly put up a brown lark-like bird 
from a tuft of dried cotton-plant. It flew a little way and then 
dropped again. I then observed that it had a peculiarly short 
beak, though it walked like a lark. My first shot missed it ; yet 



between Takoo and Peking, North China. 335 

the foolish bird only flew a little distance and settled again, 
looking at me while I reloaded. I then shot it, and imagine 
my delight when I picked up what appeared to me to be a new 
species of Lark-Bunting. It was a female. I beat the ground 
over and over again, refusing several shots at hares that started 
from almost under my feet, knowing that the birds of this genus 
are seldom found alone, but could flush no other. I was obliged 
to give up the chase, and returned to my tent, only just in time to 
pack up and march. When arrived at Tientsin I found thousands 
of this bird on sale, plucked and trussed like larks. I begged 
the market-men to bring some with feathers on, and one morning, 
to my surprise, found a basketful of very fair specimens. I at 
once bought two dozen, and set to work skinning them. They 
measured on an average 6^ in., wing 3^, tail 2^^. The 
natives called them Teay-cheo (Iron Bird), and explained to me 
that they were caught by the hand in springes baited with the 
small maggots found in decaying millet-stalks. My specimens 
correspond very nearly with the description of the Lapland Lark- 
Bunting found in Europe in ' M'Gillivray's British Birds,^ though 
I should think it could hardly be the same species, as its exist- 
ence is not noted, to my knowledge, in Siberia*. 

61. Red -Poll. Cannabina linaria (Linn.). 
Seen in cages. 

62. Mealy Red-Poll. Cannabina canescens (Gould). 
Apairwere found in a cage at Pehtang, where the troops landed. 

63. Siskin. Fringilla spinus, L. 

This species was frequently seen in cages. I have received it 
before from Foochow, in Fuh-keeu Province. 

64. Chinese Greenfinch. Fringilla sinica, L. 
Common both wild and in cages. 

65. Mountain Sparrow. Fringilla montana, L. 
Common. Takes the place of the domestic Sparrow. 

66. Mountain Finch. Fringilla montifringilla, L, 

Often offered for sale at Peking. I send a female procured there. 

* It is included in v. Schrenck's work on the Birds of Amoorland (vol. i. 
p. 2/6).— Ed. 



336 Mr. R. Swinhoe's Notes on Ornithology 

67. Hawfinch. Coccothraustes vulgaris, Selby. 
In cages. 

68. Crossbill. Loxia curvirostra, L. 
In cages. 

69. Chinese Magpie. Pica sericea, Gould. 

Veiy common : associating in the winter in large flocks. 

70. Blue Magpie. Cyanopica cyanea (Pall.). 

This shy and noisy bird occurred in large flocks among the 
thick groves of the pine. Imagine yourself in a dark grove of 
such ti-ees, walled all round. Several large tomb-mounds stand 
at the other end, side by side. They can contain nought but 
the dust of the departed ; for these trees were planted at the same 
time ; and see to what a height they have attained, their long 
arms twining fondly together, and throwing a dark gloom on the 
coarse grass and weeds below. You hear a rustle over your head, 
then another and another, and a loud nasal chattering commences. 
You look up quietly, and see leaping from bough to bough a 
party of long-tailed blue birds, displaying their pretty tints at 
each leap, and spreading their tails to balance themselves as they 
alight. This is the month of October, and still they are moulting. 
Presently one sees you, and gives the warning "cayr" pronounced 
nasally and gutturally, as much as to say " an intruder,^' and with 
notes sounding something like "cairn wit-wit twit-twit" ofi" he 
flies. All hands follow, each bird as he flies from his perch joining 
in the chorus " twit-twit." Thus in nearly single file they stream 
off to the next grove. In July 1858 I found these birds very 
common near Shanghai, where they were rearing their young in 
similar groves. Their nests were usually placed close to the top 
of the fir-trees, and were built exteriorly of sticks, and open at the 
top, much in the manner of the Jays. As far as habits are con- 
cerned, the Blue Pies certainly have far more in common with 
the long-tailed Jays, Urocissce, than with Magpies; and some 
of their actions are not unlike those of the large Chinese 
Garj'ulax, G. perspicillatus (Gm.). 

71. Book. Corvus pastinator, Gould. 

Hundreds of this bird frequented the large trees around the 



between Takoo and Peking, North China. 337 

Lama temples north of Peking. In the morning they might be 
seen strutting about the parade-ground and the neighbouring 
fields searching for food ; in the afternoon they would collect in 
large numbers, and toy and cuflF one another among the lofty 
branches, cawing vociferously. They soon learnt a natural dread 
of the fowling-piece. 

These birds are not uncommon near Shanghai, whence 
Mr. Gould probably obtained his specimens. 

72. Black Crow. Corvus japonicus, Schlegel. 

In close communion with the former I often saw these birds, 
but they were always distinguishable by their larger size and 
peculiar cry of " caw-caw ah-ah." They associated in flocks, 
though never of any great extent. 

73. ^Vhite-rixged Crow^. Corvus pectoralis, Gould. 

I occasionally saw this species, but it was by no means so 
common as the last. 

74. Pied Jackdaw. Corvus [Monedula) daiiricus, Pallas. 
Large flocks of these birds were to be found all day long in the 

fine trees above mentioned, clustering close together on the 
boughs, and having quiet talks among themselves. As the sun 
began to set, one would see flocks of thousands coming to Peking 
from the direction of the hills on the west. Their flight was 
always high, and their cries incessant. I should say some twenty 
or thirty of these immense flocks, sometimes mingled with rooks, 
but more often with individuals of the following species, would 
pass over of an evening; the majority settling for the night 
among the woods in the Imperial grounds inside the city, or in 
he trees of the temples of Heaven and Earth. The rooks would 
generally leave them and drop into the lama-trees, where they 
usually roosted. In the morning at day-dawn one would hear 
their cries again, even before discerning them in the hazy sky, 
though their flight was then usually much lower. 

75. Black Jackdaw. Corvus (Monedula) neglectus, Schlegel. 
This species was also very numerous, though not so numerous 

as the last, with which it often associated. Indeed, I seldom 
saw a flock of either without a few of the cognate species among 
their number. In habits the two are remarkably similar, as well 



338 Mr. R. Swinboe's Notes on Ornithology 

as in flight and choice of roosting-ground. I much regret I was 
unable to procure a specimen of this httle-known species, but the 
temple they most frequented was occupied by the troops, and of 
course all shooting prohibited within the precincts. 

70). White-cheeked Starling. Sturnus cineraceus, Temm. 
Often seen in flocks in September, but not after. 

77. Silky Starling. Sturnus sericeus, Gm. 
A few observed in September. 

78. Red-cheeked Starling. Sturnus pyrrhogenys, Temm. 
& Schl. 

I once saw a few small Starling-like birds that I attributed to 
this species : it was, I think, in August. 

79. Wryneck. Yunx torquilla, L. 

I observed this species in August, and have no doubt it 
travels southward to hibernate. It arrives at Amoy in September. 

80. Green Woodpecker. Gecinus canus, Gmelin? 

M. Zill assured me this was no other than the European species, 
but I have my doubts on the matter. I send three males 
and one female. I first met with this bird about twenty miles 
beyond Tientsin, where the country abounded in woody planta- 
tions. It was often to be found on the ground grubbing about 
the millet roots, and its earth-stained bill gave tokens of frequent 
insertion into the soil. If suddenly disturbed, it would utter a 
screeching laugh, and fly off with a series of long undulations to 
some distant tree, on which it would fix close to the roots and 
immediately dodge round to the other side, clambering up all the 
while with a short jerking motion of the body. It rarely ascended 
into the upper branches, and seemed content with beating the 
trunk of the tree only, unless the tree separated above into good 
thick boughs. If the tree to which it next flew was only a few 
yards off, the bird's flight consisted of a flutter in a direct line. 
When arrived it would half turn on its back, as it were, and 
throw up its claws to grasp firmly the bark. Its usual note was 
sharp and monosyllabic, and differed much from that of its pied 
brethren. It proved to be very common, and known to the 
Chinese of the place as the "Tsaou-ta muh-tsze" or ''Tree- 
injurer." It was very tenacious of life, and hard to kill. 



between Takuo and Peking, North China. 339 

The iris was white, with a slight wash of pink. Bill bluish 
grey, except the basal edge of upper mandible and basal half of 
lower, which were gi'eenish yellow ; legs greenish grey, claws 
bluish grey. The birds had not completed their moult during 
September. 

81. Large Pied Woodpecker. Picus cabanisil 

This species is wonderfully similar to P. major, but does not 
quite tally with M'Gilliv ray's description. Mr. Blyth identifies 
the Pied Woodpecker from Foochow and Canton with P. cabanisi, 
and I strongly suspect this is the same, though I have not spe- 
cimens at hand just now to compare with it. I sent Mr. Sclater 
a Canton specimen in my last box, and I now enclose the male, 
procured in the north, so that he will be able to compare and 
make his comments. 

The first and only time I met this species was near Peking on 
a cold and sunny day in November. The bird uttered the usual 
"pic-pic" of the pied group as it flew away to an adjoining tree, 
on an upper branch of which it stood and eyed me without 
showing any signs of fear. I then saw at a glance that it was a 
larger species than any I had yet met in these parts, and when 
I shot it I was delighted to pick up what I took to be an old 
acquaintance. 

82. Pied Woodpecker. Picus ? 

I suspect this is a new species. It was quite common in all 
the groves, but very shy and unapproachable. I only managed 
to secure one male. M. Zill procured a female, which was similar 
in all respects to the male, except that the red feathers on the 
crown were exchanged for black ones, and the top of the beak 
was black freckled with yellowish grey. This bird generally 
prefers the higher branches of the trees, round which it dodges, 
and so eludes observation. If the intruder comes too near, he 
hears the bird utter the notes "pic-pic," and before he can again 
get a glance at it, the noise of the quick beats of its wing reaches 
his ear, and he sees the creature disappear with a rise-and-fall 
flight into an adjoining copse. This bird also often repeats that 
peculiar rattle that P. major is heard to do at home. The noise 
may well be imitated by pressing one end of a stick on a table 



340 Mr. R. Swinlioe's Notes on Ornitholoyii 

and suddenly pushing down the projecting end ; the whirr thus 
caused by the vibration will give a good idea of the sound the bird 
produces. The species seldom alights on the ground, except at 
the margin of a pool to drink ; but it frequently descends to the 
long maize and millet stalks, and taps them for worms. 

83. Small Pied Woodpecker. Picus •? 

A species closely allied to P. kisuki of the ' Fauna Japonica/ 
and to P. hardwickii of the Himalayas, but evidently differing 
from both. I send home two pairs. It was very common, but 
seldom observable to any but a watchful eye, as it affected the 
tip-top branches of the highest trees. It remains for long spaces 
of time on one bough, and does not show half the alacrity in the 
pursuit of its food that the other species do. It generally prefers 
the thin dead branches at the tops of forest trees, where, no doubt, 
it finds a plentiful supply of small maggots, many of which I have 
taken from the stomachs of those shot. Its cry is a weak attempt 
at "pic-pic ;" and its flight, undulatory as in the former instances, 
is remarkable also for the same noise, produced by quick succes- 
sive beats of the wing. This peculiar sound of the wings I have 
also observed in Parus palustris of this place, made as the little 
fellow drops from a high branch down to a lower. 

84. Cuckoo. Cuculus striatus, Drapiez. 

Very common in August and September. I send a male and 
a female. 

85. Grey Pericrocote. Pericrocotus cinereus, La Presn. 
Common in September. It is strange that this tropical form 

should be found so far north *. 

86. Drongo. Dicrurus macrocercus (Lath.). 
Common in September. 

87. LuzoNiAN Shrike. Lanius luzoniensis, Strickland. 

In a cage only. But as the migration of this bii*d commences 
early, that may account for its non-appearance. 

88. Japan Shrike. Lanius hucephalus, Temm. & Schl. 
Not common. I send an immature specimen shot in September. 

* It is found in summer as far north as the Lower Amoor. See 
V. Schrenck's op. cit. p. 381. — Ed. 



between Takoo and Peking, North China. 341 

89. Chinese Oriole. Oriolus chinensis, Scop. 
Frequent in August and September. 

90. Lapland Turtle. Turtur orientalis (Lath.). 

The only Dove observed. It is found during winter all down 
the coast as far as Hongkong. 

91. Ring-necked Pheasant. Phasianus torquatus. 

We never met with these birds alive, but some were brought 
for sale to Tangkoo and Tientsin, and the natives assured us 
they were captured in the neighbourhood. 

92. Button Quail. Turnix dussumieri, Temminck. 
Identified by Mr. Blyth, and wrongly named in my Amoy list 

as T. jondera, Hodgson. One of this species was shot in 
September in a millet field. The same bird is found in spring 
all down the coast as far south as Hongkong. 

93. Quail. Coturnix dactylisonans. 

Very common, even as late as October, in which month 
immense flocks of them dropped in the neighbourhood of the 
Taku forts, evidently birds from more northerly parts bound south. 

94. Pallas' Sand-Grouse. Syrrhaptes paradoxus (Pall.). 
Your readers will be both surprised and delighted to hear of 

the abundant occurrence of this species during winter about the 
plains between Peking and Tientsin. Flocks of hundreds con- 
stantly pass over with a very swift flight, not unlike that of the 
Golden Plover, for which we at first mistook them. The market 
at Tientsin was literally glutted with them, and you could 
purchase them for a mere nothing. The natives called them 
" Sha-chee " or Sand-fowl, and told me they were mostly 
caught in clapnets. After a fall of snow their capture was 
greatest; for where the net was laid the ground was cleared 
and strewed with small green beans. The cleared patch was 
almost sure to catch the eyes of the passing flocks, who would 
descend and crowd into the snare. It only remained then for 
the fowler, hidden at a distance, to jerk the strings, and in his 
haul he would not unfrequently take the whole flock. Numbers, 
however, were shot with matchlocks. When on the ground they 
were rather shy and difficult of approach , but on the wing they 



342 Mr. R. Swinhoe's N^otes on Ornithology 

would sometimes dart within a few yards of you. They possess 
rather a melodious chuckle^ the only note that I have heard them 
utter. The natives say that, during the summer, they are found 
abundantly in the great plains of Tartary beyond the Great Wall, 
where they breed in the sand. 

95. Pratincole. Glareola orientalis, Lath. 

Common about the marshes near Takoo, where they most 
certainly breed. 

96. Virginian Plover. Charadrius virginicus. 

97. Bustard Plover. Squatarola helvetica, L. 

A specimen kept in an aviary at Amoy showed no change in 
the plumage all the summer through, retaining the while its 
winter white breast. 

98. Lapwing. Vanellus cristatus. 

A flock of these birds flapped close over me one cold day in 
November. It was the only time I saw them. 

99. Leschenault's Plover. jEgialites leschenaultii. 

100. Kentish Plover. jEgialites cantianus. 

101. Philippine Plover. yEgialites philippinus. 

102. Turnstone. Strepsilas interpres. 

103. Sanderling. Calidris arenaria. 

104. Oyster-catcher. Hamatojms osti'alegus. 

105. Chinese Snippit. Tringa suharquata. 

106. Snippit. Tringa ? 

This bird occurred in great abundance in the marshes during 
August. It is new to me, so I enclose the only three specimens 
procured for Mr. Sclater's inspection. 

107. Minute Snippit. Tringa minuta. 

108. Temminck^s Snippit. Tringa temminckii. 

109. Lesser Snippit. Tringa ? 

This I have procured before at Amoy ; and though pronounced 
identical with T. minuta by Mr. BIyth, I cannot help thinking it 
diff'erent, and in all probability a new species. I enclose a spe- 
cimen. Compare this bird's feet with those of T. minuta. 



between Takoo and Peking, North China. 343 

110. Rock Tail-wagler. Tringoides hypoleucus, L. 

111. Green Sandpiper. Totanus ochropus, L. 

112. Wood Sandpiper. Totanus fflareola, L. 

113. Dusty Sandpiper. Totanus pulverulentus. 

114. Red-shanked Sandpiper. Totanus calidris, L. 
Tientsin market in December. 

115. Whistling Sandpiper. Totanus glottoides. 

116. AvocET. Recurvirostra avocetta. 

I saw this bird on the banks of the Peiho in November. It was 
frequent in Tientsin market. 

117. Woodcock. Scolopax rusticola, Ij. 

118. Chinese Snipe. Gallinago megala, n. sp. 

Mr. Blyth has pronounced on a specimen of this bird forwarded 
to him from Amoy, that it is identical with G. major : now I 
am convinced that it is not. It resembles the Great Snipe^ no 
doubt, in general appearance, but the Great Snipe has sixteen 
obtuse tail-feathers : this bird has twenty, five of which on each 
side are short and narrowed ; the outermost being the shortest and 
the narrowest, the next longer and broader ; and so on until the 
ten centre ones are reached, which are pretty much about of an 
equal length and of an equal breadth. It approaches, on the 
other hand, much nearer G. stenura, Temm., from which, 
however, it is at once distinguishable by its larger size, and by 
the fewer and broader lateral tail-feathers ; G. stenura having, if I 
recollect right, seven very short and very narrow lateral rectrices 
on each side. I enclose a specimen. 

119. Narrow-tailed Snipe. Gallinago stenura, Temminck. 
Very common in August and September. 

120. Snipe. Gallinago uniclava, Hodgson. 

Closely allied to the European species. Also very common. 

121. Curlew. Nnmenius major, Schlegel. 

It is hard to discover any difi"erence between this and N. 
arcuatus. Very common in August in the marshes. 

122. Heron. Ardea cinerea, L. 
Common. 



344 Mr. R. Swinhoe's Notes on Ornithology 

123. Small Black and White Heron. Ardea ? 

I several times put up a small black and white Heron; but as 
I was unable to procure specimens, I cannot assign it to any 
particular species. It may have been A. goisagi of the ' Fauna 
Japonica.' 

124. Intermediate Egret. Herodias intermedia. 

I saw one of this species standing in a pool in August ; it was 
much larger than H, garzetta and smaller than H, alba, and had 
a yellow bill, 

125. Night Heron. Nycticorax griseus {L\xm.). 
Common. 

125 a. Spoonbill. Platalea leucorodia, L. 

126. Coot. Fulica atra, L. 

Of frequent occurrence on the Yun-leang Canal. I shot one 
out of a pair. 

127. Crested Grebe. Podiceps cristatus, L. 

128. Eared Grebe. Podiceps auritus, L. 

129. Philippine Dabchick. Podiceps philippinus, Jj. 

130. Grey Lag. Anser ferus, L. 

131. Bean Goose. Anser segetum, L. 

132. White-fronted Goose. Anser albifrons. 

133. Swan-Goose. Anser cygnoides, Pallas. 

It is difficult to believe that the wild bird is the parent of the 
domestic Knotted Goose, so different do they look on comparison. 

134. Small Swan. Cygnus minor, Pallas. 

135. Goosander. Mergus merganser, L. 

136. Saw-bill. Mergus serratus, L. 

137. Swan. Mergus albellus, L. 

138. Sheldrake. Tadorna vulpanser. 

139. Ruddy Sheldrake. Casarca rutila. 

140. Mallard. Anas boschas, L. 

141. Baikal Teal. Quej-quedula glocitans {Vd\\.). 



between Takoo and Peking, North China. 345 

142. Falcated Teal. Quei-quedula falcaria (Pallas), 
I send a female of this species. 

143. Common Teal. Querquedula a-ecca (Linn.). 

144. Pintail. Dafila acuta (Linn.). 

145. WiGEON. Mareca penelope (Linn.). 

146. Scaup. Fuligula inarila (Linn.). 

147. Tufted Duck. Fuligula cristata (Leach). 

148. Golden-eye. Clangula glaucion {liiun.). 

I send a male and female of this species. The male was 
purchased in the Tientsin market ; the female was shot by Major 
Sarel on the lakes in the Emperor's Summer Palace Park. 

149. Great Northern Diver. Culymhus glacialis, L. 

150. Cormorant. Phalacrocorax carho (Linn.). 
Often seen on the inland waters. 

151. Common Gull. Larus canus. 

152. Herring Gull. Lai'us argentatus. 

153. Black-tailed Gull. Larus melanurus, Temm. & Schl. 
Faun. Japon. pi. 88. 

All these Gulls have been shot at Amoy, and are, I think, cor- 
rectly identified. 

154. KiTTLiTz's Gull. Gavia kittlitzii. 

155. Gull. Gavia ? 

A species with red bill, black towards tip, and orange-ochre 
legs ; somewhat allied to G. ridibunda. 

156. Caspian Tern. Sterna caspia, L. 

157. Swift Tern. Sterna velox, Riippell, 

158. Lesser Tern. Sterna minuta, L. 

159. Javan Tern. Htjdrochelidon javanica (Horsf.). 

All these Gulls and Terns were common about the marshes in 
August and September. Of the last I send a few specimens. 

VOL. 111. 2 a 



316 Dr. P. L. Sclater on Hypotriorchis castanouotus. 

XXXVII. — Note on the Hypotriorchis castanonotus of 
Dr. Heuglin. By P. L. Sclater. 

(Plate XII.) 

The series of Abyssinian birds collected by Sir William Harris 
during his residence at Schoa^ which was formerly in the Museum 
of the East India Company in Leadenhall Street, having been 
transferred to the British Museum, I have been enabled, through 
Mr. George Gray's kindness, to compare the specimen entered 
in Horsfield and Moore's Catalogue of the East India Company's 
Museum as " Polihierax semitorquatus " with typical examples of 
the true Falco semitorquatus, Smith, collected in South Africa by 
the describer of the species. In the first place I should mention 
that the Abyssinian specimen of Sir W. Harris has not the 
red back, which is stated by Dr. Heuglin to be found in both 
sexes of his H. castanonotus. This point of difference, therefore, 
which seems to be the chief ground on which Dr. Heuglin has 
maintained the specific distinction between his bird and the 
southern Falco semitorquatus, seems to fail entirely ; and we must 
suppose that Dr. Heuglin is in error in stating that the male of 
the Abyssinian bird, when adult, resembles the female in having 
a red back, although this may be the case in young males. On 
comparing the Abyssinian bird with the South African specimen 
in corresponding plumage, the difi'erences which present them- 
selves are but slight. The head and neck are of rather a darker 
slaty-grey, the wings rather longer, and the legs generally rather 
stronger and stouter in the Abyssinian specimen ; but the two 
birds are otherwise so much alike, that I should much hesitate 
in considering them as specifically distinct. The white external 
marginations of the ends of the rectrices appear to be of about 
the same extent in both specimens. 

The figure (PL XII.) is an exact copy of Dr. Heuglin's original 
figure of Hypotriorchis castanonotus, which accompanied his de- 
scription of the bird as already given in ' The Ibis ' (1860, p. 407) . 
It represents, according to him, an adult male, two-thn-ds of the 
natural size. Dr. Smith, in his ' Illustrations of the Zoology of 
South Africa,' has figured the female of Polihierax semitorquatus ; 
but this is, I believe, the first published representation of the 



IMs, 18 61. PI. ZI 




"'1^ 
?'?' 




7(r }', r 



ITYPCiT. 



li J x'Lj ,:. 



Mr. A. R. Wallace on the Ornithology of Timor. 347 

red-backed stage of plumage in this iittle-known species of 
Accipitrine. 



XXXVIII. — Notes on the Ornithology of Timor. 
By Alfred Russel Wallace. 

In pursuance of my plan of exploring the Zoology of the jMalayan 
Archipelago, I have just completed a three-and-a-half months' 
residence atDelli, in the eastern part of the island of Timor, and 
have devoted myself principally to the Birds, every other class of 
animals being very poorly represented in this barren island. 

Owing to ill-health, the wet season, and a rebellion of the 
native tribes, I was unable to extend my excursions far from the 
town of Belli. I resided, however, in one of the most fertile 
valleys, about two miles from the town, and spent tw^o weeks on 
the mountains at an elevation of 2000 feet. I was accompanied 
on this excursion by Mr. Geach, a mining engineer, who has been 
engaged here for more than two years in search of minerals, 
during which time he has traversed the island in several places 
from sea to sea, and who is altogether better acquainted than 
any person living wdth the eastern half of Timor. 

From this gentleman I obtained much information as to the 
character of the country, which seems to be very uniform, and 
not likely to be more productive in any other parts than in those 
that I have explored. 

Timor seems to consist entirely of a chain of mountains, rising 
in the central range to 5000 and 6000 feet, and near either 
coast to about 3000. In only two or three places in the island 
are there any level plains, the rest being a succession of moun- 
tainous ridges and precipitous ravines. Nowhere in the island 
are there any forests comparable with those of the other parts of 
the Archipelago, all the lower hills being covered with an open 
growth of more or less scrubby Eucalypti, and anything like a 
lofty or luxuriant vegetation being confined to those places in the 
ravines or on the mountain spurs where a little rich soil has been 
accumulated. At a height of above 4000 feet even this vege- 
tation disappears, and a scanty herbage of coarse grasses alono- 

covers the higher ridges. Pi-uit-bearing trees are comparatively 

o . o 



348 Mr. A. R. Wallace un the Ornithology of Timor. 

scarce, and in the dry season extensive tracts of country are 
destitute of water, circumstances not likely to be favourable to 
bird-life. 

Notwithstanding these disadvantages, however, I have ob- 
tained upwards of a hundred species of birds, about two-thirds or 
perhaps three-fourths of which number are altogether peculiar to 
the island of Timor, although closely allied to those of the sur- 
rounding countries. Australian forms are, as might be ex- 
pected, the most numerous, and it is from that country that 
Timor has evidently derived the greater portion of its birds. 
Even where the genus is widely distributed we can often see 
that the particular species has been derived from Australia, as 
Artamus perspicillatus and Aprosmidus vulneratus, which are 
slight modifications of Australian species ; while others, as Ama- 
dina castanotis, have remained altogether unchanged. On the 
other hand, the resemblance to the Moluccas is very slight. 
Lorius, Eos, and all the characteristic forms of New Guinea, are 
quite wanting ; and there are only three birds that seem to have 
been derived from the Moluccan or Papuan faunas — viz. 
Geoffroius jukesii, Ptilonopus flavicollis, and lanthcenas metallica. 
The relation is equally slight to Celebes, and is shown only by 
the Turacoena modesta, closely allied to the T. manadensis, Q. & G., 
of Celebes, and the Ptilonopus cinctus, forming, with the P. 
gularis of Celebes, the subgenus Leucotreron, Bp. I very much 
regret not having obtained the other species of this interesting 
group, which my friend Mr. Geach assures me are found in the 
interior of the island. In particular he mentioned a species re- 
sembling the P. cinctus, but in which the white forms a ring 
round the neck, and his opinion was that there existed in Timor 
three or four species of the same group having the colours 
differently distributed. 

Besides the birds already mentioned, and which are all more 
or less characteristic of the Australian region, Timor contains an 
important Indian element, consisting of Javan species or their 
representatives. The genera Lanius, Cijoriiis, Treron, Gallus, 
and Estrelda occur here, but are not found in any part of the 
Moluccas, and only one or two of them in Celebes. About thirty 
species thus appear to have been " derived from Java, which. 



Mr. A. R. Wallace on the Ornithology of Timor. 349 

though 600 miles distant from Timor, is connected with it by a 
chain of islands ; and between these more than twenty miles of 
sea nowhere intervenes, so that the passage across might have 
been easily effected by the progenitors of these birds, which are 
all capable of greater powers of flight than the circumstances 
would require. 

The absence oiMegapodius from Timor — a fact already noticed 
by the Dutch naturalists, and which all my inquiries tend to 
confirm — is a very singular one, because the genus exists in every 
other island of the Australian region, and even in the little 
island of Semao, at the west end of Timor. I can only conjec- 
ture that it may have been exterminated by the Tiger-cat, said to 
exist in the interior. Taking into consideration the absence of 
such characteristic Australian birds as Dacelo, Malurus, Cracti- 
cus, and Casuarius, together with the non-existence of a single 
Australian genus of Mammals, I cannot believe that Timor has 
ever been actually connected with Australia, though the sea 
which separates them has probably been much narrower than at 
present, as is indicated by the great Sahul bank, which now 
extends from the shores of Northern Australia to within twenty 
miles of the south coast of Timor. 

We may therefore, I think, fairly look upon the fauna of Timor 
as almost entirely derived by immigration from the surrounding 
countries, and subsequently modified by the reciprocal action of 
the species on each other and by the influence of a new vegeta- 
tion. In accordance with this view we find the external relations 
of the genera and species of which it is composed varying in 
degree with the varying distances of the surrounding lands, and 
the probability of the reception of immigrants from them. 

The Dutch naturalists who explored the interior of the west 
part of Timor seem to have collected a great many birds, and 
some French expeditions have also visited it. It thus happens 
that most of the species are already known, though I suppose 
many of them are rare in collections. I have 10 species of 
Pigeons ; and there is still one, mentioned in Bonaparte's ' Con- 
spectus ' as Ptilonopus viridissimus, which I have not met with. 
Trichoglossus euteles was very abundant on the flowers of the 
Eucalypti ; a smaller red-capped species ( T. iris ?) also occurred ; 



350 Mr. A. 11. Wallace on the Ornithology of Timor. 

but the beautiful T. hcematodus seems rare, as I never saw a 
specimen, aud with difficulty obtained two live ones in the town. 
1 observed it in the island of Semao two years ago, but could 
not obtain an example. There are said to be one or two more 
Psitiaci in the island, but I could see nothing of them. I ob- 
tained 3 Ducks, 5 or 6 Herons and Egrets, and a fine Himantopus 
(perhaps the H. leucocephalus of Australia), and that is all worth 
mentioning. I was much disappointed in not finding the beau- 
tiful Pitta irena, but presume it inhabits the interior only. 

I have long been of opinion that there is no foundation what- 
ever for the very prevalent idea that tropical heat and light have 
some direct or specific efiect in producing the brilliant colours 
that adorn birds, or insects, or flowers. Here, in Timor, the birds 
are remarkably dull in colour ; and I think a fair average com- 
parison will show that even chilly England possesses more beauty 
among the common birds that give the character to the ornitho- 
logy of the country than this tropical island. Out of the 100 
species of birds I have collected here at Delli, I only find four 
that are at all brilliant in colour — viz. Cinnyris Solaris, Chalco- 
phaps, sp., Estrelda, sp., and lanthoenas metallica ; and I think 
I am correct in saying, that in any part of England we could 
find in the same time a larger number of species more or less 
adorned with brilliant colours, and at least as many which might 
be called pretty or ornamental. 

That the larger number by far of brilliant birds do exist in 
the tropics cannot be disputed ; but that climatal or solar influ- 
ence has anything to do with the fact there is not the slightest 
evidence, while there is much that contradicts the supposition. 
And first, why does this supposed influence never act on those 
families and genera which are equally abundant in the temperate 
and tropical regions ? Why are not tropical Ducks and Accipi- 
tres, Larks, Crows, Warblers, Goat-suckers, and Finches, much 
more brilliant on the average than those of temperate and north- 
ern regions ? Again, when stragglers from purely tropical families 
occur in the north and south,why are they not the dullest-coloured 
of their group ? Instead of being so, they are fully up to the 
average of beauty. Our Kingfisher, Roller, and Bee-eater, the 
northern and southern Humming-birds, the Psittaci of Tempe- 



Mr. 0. Salvin un Central- American Birds. 351 

rate Australia, are rather above than below the average brilliancy 
of their tropical allies. 

We must remember that the tropical fauna almost always ex- 
tends beyond the geographical tropic, and thus comprehends the 
largest part of the earth habitable all the year by birds. More- 
over it is one mass, while the temperate regions are divided; 
and most important of all, owing to the perennial presence of 
fruits and insects, a far greater number and variety of birds can 
exist there than in the colder parts of the earth. It follows, there- 
fore, that if the proportion of bright- to obscure- coloured birds is 
the same everywhere, yet the tropics must produce the largest 
actual number, and it has yet to be shown that this proportion 
is greater in the tropics. Such extensive tropical families as the 
Trochilida, Trogonidce, Cotingidce, and Tanagridce, consisting 
almost entirely of gay-coloured birds, will immediately occur to 
every one ; but on the other side may be set the Todida, Bp., 
Thamnophilida, Anabatidcs, Dendrocolaptidce, Capitonidee, and 
others equally tropical and as remarkable for their generally 
obscure coloration. 

Here the amount of colour would almost seem to be in inverse 
proportion to the amount of solar light ; for while no island has 
more clear sky and bright sunshine than Timor, its birds are far 
less brilliant than those which dwell amid the gloomy forests and 
ever-cloudy sky of the Moluccas and New Guinea. 

On the whole, therefore, I cannot but believe that a careful 
investigation of the facts will show that there exists no imme- 
diate connexion between tropical heat and light and brilliancy 
of colour in any department of nature ; and I am sure that on 
no subject does a greater amount of misconception prevail than 
on the relative beauty of nature and display of colour in tempe- 
rate and tropical regions. 
Delli, Timor, April 20tli, 1861. 

XXX IX. — A List of Species to be added to the Oi-nitliology of 
Central America. By Osbert Salvin, M.A., F.Z.S. 

The following list of birds is derived partly from a collection 
brought over by Mr. Robert Owen from Vera Paz, partly from 



352 Mr. 0. Salvin's List of Species to be added to the 

a revision of my own collections (which has led to the discovery 
of several species accidentally omitted in former lists), and partly 
from other authentic sources. 

Mr. Owen's collection was formed mainly by Cipriano Prado, 
who went as far as Chisec on the Rio de la Passion, and Filipe 
Sierra, who collected at Teleman and Panzos on the Rio Polo- 
chic. The rest were procured by Mr. Owen himself in the 
vicinity of Coban and San Gerouimo. Amongst the birds col- 
lected by Cipriano Prado, not mentioned in this list, occur two 
specimens of a Coccothraustes, marked by him male and female, 
and which he shot together (so he told Mr. Owen) near Coban. 
These agree, on comparison, the male with C. abeillii, and the 
female with C. maculipennis , Sclater; and I cannot help think- 
ing that these two supposed species are actually the male and 
female of one, which should be called bv Lesson's name, C. 
aheillii. One female, marked so from dissection, shot by myself 
near Duenas, and agreeing with Mr. Sclater's type of the sup- 
posed male C. maculipennis, confirms me in this idea. Another 
interesting bird is a Sclerurus (which I have referred to S. 
guatemalensis, Hartl.), showing that two species of the limited 
genus Sclerurus occur in Guatemala. There is also a female of a 
species of Myrmotherula which I have been unable to determine, 
no male specimen having been sent. This is the most northern 
locality for any species of this genus hitherto recorded. 

Passeres. 

1. Cyphorhinus PHILOMELA, Salvin, P. Z. S. 1861, p. 201. 
Several specimens. I have no doubt that this is the bird I 

heard in the mountains and described (Ibis, 1861, p. 143) as 
having great powers of song. In the dense forests it is a diffi- 
cult bird to see, but its notes may very frequently be heard. 

2. Certhiola mexicana, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1856, p. 286. 

Apparently very common in Central Vera Paz. I have re- 
ceived many specimens from Chisec and other localities in the 
same region, all agreeing very closely with one another. 

3. Guiraca CiERULEA (Liuu.) ; Baird, B. Am. p. 499. 
Though not of very common occurrence, this species is pretty 



Ornithology of Central America. 353 

generally distributed throughout Vera Paz. I met with it myself 
in the plain of Salama, and all the collections from the warmer 
districts to the northward of Coban contained examples. It has 
been accidentally omitted from the previous lists. 

4. Embernagra chloronota, Salvin, P.Z.S. 1861^ p. 202. 
Chisec. Several specimens. 

5. Cassidix oryzivora (Gm.); Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 194; 
Moore, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 57. 

Included in Mr. Moore's list of the birds collected by Leyland 
in Honduras. 

6. Cyanocitta crassirostris, Bp. Consp. p. 378 ; Pucheran, 
Rev. Zool. 1858, p. 198. Pica beecheyi, Eyd. et Gerv. Mag. de 
Zool. 1 836, p. 26, pi. 72, et Voy. Favorite, pi. 20 ; Moore, P.Z.S. 
1859, p. 57. 

Guatemala (Morelet), Mus. Paris : Belize, Honduras (Leyland). 

7. PicoLAPTEs LiNEATiCEPs, Lafr. Rcv. Zool. 1850, p. 277; 
Sclater, P. Z. S. 1860, p. 252. 

The specimen mentioned as having been observed on the 
Pacific coast (Ibis, 1859, p. 117) belongs properly to this species, 
and not to P. affinis, as there stated. It is not improbable that 
P. lineaticeps is an inhabitant exclusively of the warm, and P. 
affinis of more elevated regions. All the specimens of these two 
species that I have collected lead to this conclusion. 

8. Dendromanes homochrous, Sclater, P.Z.S. 1859, p. 382. 

One specimen, with others of D. anabatinus, occurs in the col- 
lection from Chisec. Neither species of this singular form ap- 
pears to be common either in Guatemala or Mexico. 

9. SiTTASOMUs SYLVioiDES, Lafr. Rev. Zool. 1849, p. 331, et 
1850, p. 590. 

Two specimens from Chisec. 

10. Xenops mexicanus, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1856, p. 289. 
Apparently common throughout the " tierra cahente " of Vera 

Paz. 

11. FoRMiCARius MONiLiGER, Sclatcr, P. Z. S. 1856, p. 294. 
Several specimens collected at Chisec. 



354 Mr. 0. Salvin's List of Species to be added to the 

There is also iu the collection one skin of Grallaria guatema- 
lensis, a bird which I have hitherto only known from specimens 
procured by Mr. Skinner. G. guatemalensis appears to be quite 
distinct from the Mexican Gi-allaria (which Mr. Sclater now calls 
G, mexicana), being considerably smaller in size and having the 
under parts more rufous. 

12. CoNTOPUs BRACHYTARSus, Sclatcr, MS. Empidonax bra- 
chytarsus, Sclat. Ibis, 1859, p. 441. 

Two specimens of this Tyrant were collected by Mr. Eraser at 
Escuintla. 

13. Aphantochroa roberti, Salvin, P. Z. S. 1861, p. 203. 
This Humming-bird and Campylopterus cuvieri of Gould 

ought, perhaps, to be placed in a separate subgenus, as being 
distinct from both Aphantochroa and Campyloptei^us. 

14. MoMOTUS CASTANEiCEPS, Gould, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 154; 
Sclater, P. Z. S. 1857, p. 254. 

Though Coban is given as the locality in which M. Delattre 
found this Mot-mot, I somewhat doubt its accuracy, as no spe- 
cimen has ever come into my hands from that place. In the 
plain of Zacapa and in the adjacent country, the commonest 
species is one which answers best to M. castaneiceps, many spe- 
cimens of which I have seen, but never obtained. M. Delattre 
collected in other parts of Guatemala besides Coban, and it is 
very possible that the true locality of this bird may have been 
wrongly given. 

15. Chrysotis xantholora, G. R. Gray, List of Psittacidje, 
p. 83. 

The specimen in the British Museum is marked "Dyson, 
Honduras," and I therefore include it in this list. It differs 
from C albifrons, its nearest ally, in having yellow lores and 
black ear- coverts. The dark edgings to the feathers of the back 
are also more strongly shown. 

ACCIPITRES. 

16. Hypotriorchis deiroleucus (Temm.). Falco deiro- 
leucus, Temm. PI. Col. 348. 

Among some old skins belonging to Mr. Mcany, of Guatemala, 



Ornithology of Central Ameinca. 355 

I picked out a specimen of this Hobby, the finest, perhaps, 
of the genus. The skin is of an adult female and in good con- 
dition. Mr. Meany had received it from Vera Paz. 

17. AcciPiTER piLEATUs, Max. 

This bird having occurred in M. Salle's collection from South 
Mexico, might naturally be expected to be found also in Gua- 
temala. 1 have now two specimens from Vera Paz, both in the 
immature dress. They were shot by Juan Prado, who has cer- 
tainly been most fortunate in obtaining rare birds of prey. 

18. IcTiNiA MississippiENSis, Wils. J Baird, Rep. p. 37; 
Cassin, Ibis, 1860, p. 103. 

One specimen from Coban occurs in the last collection, but 
I. plumbea is by far the commonest species of Ictinia in Vera 
Paz. The present bird is clearly distinguishable from that spe- 
cies, the differences being rightly pointed out by Mr. Cassin 
(/. c). I am not aware of any other specimen of this Hawk ex- 
isting in this country except the one in the British Museum. 
It appears to be almost as rare in North American collections. 

19. Scops flammeola, Licht. in Mus. Berol. ; Kaup, Trans. 
Zool. Soc. 1859, p. 226. 

One specimen of this rare Owl was shot by Mr. Owen in the 
mountain of Santa Barbara, near San Geronimo. M. Salle's 
Mexican collections, I believe, contained but one example, which 
was placed in the late Prince Charles Bonaparte's private col- 
lection. 

COLUMB^. 

20. Chlorcenas flavirostris, Wagl. Isis, 1831, p. 410; 
Sclater, P.Z.S. 1856, p. 309. 

Volcan de Fuego. Collected by Mr. Fraser. 

21. Leptoptila ? 

Several specimens of a third species of this genus, which may 
possibly be the Columba erythrothorax of Temminck. It is cer- 
tainly distinct from either L. albifrons or L. ruf axilla. 

GALLINiE. 

22. TiNAMUS ROBUSTUS, Sclater, P.Z S. 1860, p. 253. 

I obtained two eggs of this species in Yzabal in 1859. They 



356 Mr. 0. Salvin on Central-American Birds. 

are of a greenish blue^ like those of T. major of Brazil. An egg 
of T. meserythrus, procured by Mr. Owen, is of a reddish choco- 
late-brown colour. A specimen of that of T. sallm, in the British 
Museum, is a creamy white. Other eggs of species belonging to 
this peculiar family in my collection tend to show that even a 
specific character may very fairly be assumed from the different 
colours of the eggs, so decidedly are differences shown in the 
eggs of such Tinami as I have been able to determine satis- 
factorily. 

23. TiNAMUs MESERYTHRUS, Sclatcr, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 392. 
A considerable series of this species shows a great constancy 

in its colouring. One specimen — no doubt a young one — has 
the chestnut-red of the breast much less strongly shown, and 
there is an indication of barred markings on the sides and wings. 
The egg is of a reddish chocolate-brown. 

24. TiNAMUS salLjEI, Bp. Compt. Bend. xlii. p.955 ; Sclater, 
P. Z. S. 1859, p. 392. 

Chisec. 

25. TiNAMUs BOUCARDi, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 391. 

In addition to these four species of Tinamou, Mr. Owen states 
that there is another belonging to the smaller section of this 
family. Of this fifth species I hope shortly to obtain spe- 
cimens. 

Grallje. 

26. NuMENius borealis, Lath. ; Baird, Rep. p. 744. 

A single specimen of this well-known North American bird 
was sent home last autumn by Mr. R. Owen. It was shot at 
San Geronimo. 

27. Q^dicnemus bistriatus, Wagl. (E. vocifer, L'Herm. 
Mag. de Zool. 1837, pi. 84; Owen, Ibis, 1861, p. 68. 

Mr. Owen has given an account of the breeding habits of this 
bird in this Journal [antea, p. 68). I believe it occurs in most 
of the plains of moderate elevation, such as that of Salama, and 
no doubt is the species observed by Mr. Taylor on the plain of 
Comayagua in Honduras (Ibis, 1860, p. 314). It is a bird 
easily tamed, and may frequently be seen in the "patios" or 
courtyards so characteristic of Spanish American houses. 



Ibif' i8Sl VI XII 




J -JenneTiB , 1-iih . 



li &¥.'SaiihArX,Jmv. 



ZOSTERCP.; 



-ASTFA 



H. Th. von Heuglin on a new African Zosterops, 357 

28. Nycticorax violaceuSj Linn,; Baird, Rep. p. 679; 
Moore, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 63. 

Included in Mr. Moore's list of the birds collected by Leyland. 



XL. — On a new African Species of the Genus Zosterops. 
By Th. von Heuglin*. 

(Plate XIIL) 

The genus Zoster-ops (a very circumscribed and very distinct one, 
though not very rich in species) is found over nearly the whole of 
Africa, in Madagascar, Australia, some parts of Northern Asia, 
and in the Southern Indian Islands. I discovered a new species 
in the high mountainous districts of Abyssinia, easily to be 
distinguished by its very large eyes and eye-rings, and by its 
breast and upper abdomen being of a pure grey. In my " List 
of N.E. African Birds," printed in the * Transactions of the 
Vienna Academy,' I have enumerated this new species under 
the name of Z. euryophthalma, but now I prefer changing this 
name into 

Zosterops poliogastra. (PI. XIII.) 

Supra virescenti-flava ; superciliis gutture et subcaudalibus sul- 
phureis; pectore et epigastrio obsolete cinereis; abdomine 
medio pallidiore ; remigibus et rectricibus fuliginosis, extus 
virescenti-flavo marginatis, illis intus basin versus albidis ; 
subalaribus albis, flexuram al?e versus virescente tinctis ; 
tectricibus caudse superioribus fere totis flavis; macula 
nigra inter oculum et rictum ; regione parotica viridi-nigri- 
cante ; annulo periophthalmico nitide sericeo-albo ; tibiis 
griseis, flavescente tinctis ; rostro nigerrimo ; pedibus plum- 
beis ; iride brunnea. 
Long. 4" 3"'; rostr. a fr. 4'"; al. 2" 5'"; caud. 1" 9"'; tars. 8'". 

The male is a little more brightly coloured than the female. 
The first primary is 2" shorter than the second, third, and fourth, 
which are the longest. This pretty species lives on the high- 
lands of Abyssinia ; I found it there in the month of February 
and March in wooded districts, on Euphorbiie and olive-trees, at 
an elevation of 10-11,000 feet. 

* Translated ami edited by Dr. G. Hartlaub. 



358 H. Th. von Heuglin on a new African Zosterops. 

The well-known African species oi Zosterops are tlie following : 

a. Zosterops. 

1. Z. CAPENsis, Sundev. 

Olivaceo-viridis, subtus sordide cinereo-albida ; gula crissoque 
flavis ; loris nigro-fuscis^ linea superiore flavescente ; hypo- 
chondriis grisescentibus ; annulo periophthalraico nitide 
albo; rostronigro; iride brunnca. 

Long. 4|"; rostr. a fr. 4'"; al. 2" 3'"; tars. 8|"'. 

Syn. Sundev. Ofvers. af Kongl. Vetensk. Akad. Foi'handl. 
1850, p. 102. Le Tcheric, Le Vaill. Ois. d'Afr. pi. 132. Z. Vail- 
lantii, Reichenb. Meropin. p. 89, t. 460. figs. 3281-86 ; Grill, 
Zool. Anteckn. p. 38. 

Inhabits the most southern portion of Africa. Common about 
Cape Town (Wahlb.) ; Victoria, &c. Stationary and solitary in 
Central, North, and Eastern Abyssinia (Heuglin, Riippell, &c.). 

With Sundevall and Reichenbach, we believe the very nearly 
allied Madagascar species to be distinct. It is a smaller bird, 
and wants the dark, blackish lores. 

2. Z. MADAGASCARIENSIS (L.). 

Supra cum alis et cauda olivacea, capitis lateribus olivaceis ; an- 
nulo periophthalmico nitide albo; mento et gula flavis- 
simis ; pectore abdomineque albido-cinerascentibus ; sub- 
caudalibus, cruribus et subalaribus flavis ; rostro nigricanti- 
corneo, basi mandibulse pallida ; pedibus brunnescentibus. 
Long.3|-3|"; rostr.afr.4i"';al.l"ll"'; caud.abas.l4"'; tars. 7'". 

Syn. Ficedula madagasc. minor, Briss. Orn. iii. p. 498, pi. 27. 
fig. 2. Motacilla madagasc, L. Sylvia annulosa, Sw. Zool. 
lUustr. pi. 164. Z. flavigula, Sw. Menag. p. 294; Reichenb. 
/. c. p. 90, t. 460. fig. 3289 ; Hartl. Orn. Madag. p. 40. 

Specimens from Bernier and Goudot in the ParisMuseum. Our 
description is from a fine specimen in the Stuttgardt collection. 

3. Z. LATERALIS, SuudcV. 

Supra pallide olivaceo-viridis, subtus albida, lateribus griseo- 
fulvescentibus ; gutture crissoque flavis ; loiis flavis ; gula 
leviter fulvescente tincta ; annvdo periophthalmico conspi- 
cue albo ; rostro nigricante. 
Long. 4"; al. 2" 2'"; tars. 8'". 

Syn. Sundev. Ofvers. Kongl. Vetensk. Ak. Forhandl. 1850, 
p. 101. Z. abyssinica, Guer. Rev. Zool. 1843, p. 162. 



H. Th. von Heuglin on a new African Zosterops. 359 

Upper Caffraria (Wahlb.). Abyssinia (Galinier et Ferret). 

There can be but little doubt about the identity of the North- 
eastern and the South-African bird. Sundevall himself seems 
to believe in it, but not feeling quite sure about the meaning 
of Guerin's expi-ession "pulveris colore," prefers giving a new 
name to the Caffrarian Zosterops. 

4i. Z. POLioGASTRA, Heugl. 

5. Z. PALLTDA., Swains. 

Pallide griseo-olivascens, subtus flavescenti-alba, abdomiue et 
hypochondriis isabellino tiuctis ; alis et Cauda pallide brun- 
neis; subalaribus albis; subcaudalibus stramineis. 
Long, circa 3|". 

Syn. Swains. Anim. in Menag. p. 294. 

South Africa (Burchell). 

6. Z. CHLORONOTos (Yieill.). 

Capite, collo et interscapulio ardesiaco-cineraceis, pileo paulum 
olivaceo lavato ; tergo, uropygio, alarum tectricibus remi- 
gumque marginibus externis Isete flavo-virentibus, mento 
et gula albidis; pectore cinerascente ; subalaribus albis; 
hypochondriis rufescentibus ; subcaudalibus dilute flavis ; 
annulo periophthalmico niveo ; rostro brunneo, subtus palli- 
diore ; pedibus pallidis. 
Long. 3" 10'"; rostr. a fr. Sf"; al. 1" 10'"; caud. 15'"; tars. 7'". 

Syn. Certhia chloronotos, Vieill. Ois. Dor. pi. 28. C. bor- 
bonica, Gm. Zosterops curvirostris, Swains. B. W. Afr. ii. Z. cur- 
virostris, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xiv. p. 363; Reichenb. 
fig. 3287; Hartl. Orn. Madag. p. 44. 

Madagascar, Mauritius, Bourbon. 

The description is from a fine specimen in the Bremen col- 
lection. 

7. Z. H^STTATA, Hartl. 

Supra in fundo cinerascenti-olivaceo induta, sincipite subnigri- 
cante ; subtus cinerea ; abdomine imo conspicue rufescente, 
uropygio, remigura et rectricum marginibus externis la^tius 
virentibus ; annulo circa oculum niveo ; subcaudalibus di- 
lute flavis ; rostro nigro ; pedibus pallidis. 
Long. 4"; rostr. a fr. 5^'"; caud. 15'"; tars. 8'"; dig. med. 6'". 

Syn. Hartl. Orn. Madag. p. 41. 



360 H. Th. von Heuglin on a neiv African Zosterops. 

Bourbon (Leclancher). Two specimens in the Paris collec- 
tion. A very large species. 

8. Z. sENEGALENSis, Bonap. 

Supra Isete virescenti-flava^ subtus pure et dilute flava; lineola 

nigra inter oculum et rictum ; annulo periophthalmico 

nitide albo ; subalaribus flavis ; rostro et pedibus nigrican- 

tibus. 

Long 4f ; rostr. a fr. 4|"'; al. 1" 11'"; caud. 13'"; tars. 6|"'. 

Syn. Z. flava, Swains. B. W. Afr. ii. p. 43, pi. 3. Z. citrina, 
Hartl. Beitr. Orn. Westafr. p. 22. Z. senegalensis, Bp. Consp. 
p. 399; Reichenb. Meropin. p. 90, fig. 3288; Hartl. Syst. Orn. 
Westafr. p. 72. Z. icterovh-ens, Herz. v. Wiirt. Icon. ined. 
t.41.6. 

Inhabits Senegambia. The description is taken from a speci- 
men from the Casamanse River. Atbara (Herz. v. Wiirt.). A 
careful and repeated examination of the very fine figure in the 
Duke of Wiirtemberg's 'Icones ineditse' leaves me no doubt as 
to the identity of his Z. icterovirens with the well-known Senegal 
species, Z. senegalensis, 

9. Z. viRENs, Sundev. 

Flavo-viridis ; gastrseo flavo, exceptis hypochoudriis conspicue 
virescentibus ; loris nigris, superne flavis; rostro nigro; 
pedibus fuscis. 
Long.4|"; al.2"2'"; tars. 5f'. 

Syn. Zosterops virens, Sundev. Ofvers. Kongl. Vetensk. Akad. 
Forhandl. 1850, p. 101. 

Inhabits Upper Cafi"raria (Wahlb.). 

Nearly allied to the preceding, but larger and greener. Cer- 
tainly distinct. 

b. Malacirops. 

10. Z. BORBONiCA (Briss.). 

Supra cinei'ea, subtus alba, latei'ibus pallide brunnescente lavatis ; 
rectricibus et remigibus ftiscis, his dorsi colore fimbriatis ; 
subalaribus et subcaudalibus albis ; rostro fusco ; pedibus 
pallidis. 
Long. 4"; rostr. a fr. 4'"; al. 2" 1'" ; caud. 1" 2'"; tars. 7i"'. 

Syn. Ficedula borbonica, Briss. Orn. iii. p. 510, pi. 28. fig. 3. 

Le petit Simon de Bourbon, Buft'. PI. Enl. 105. fig. 2; Hartl. 



Mr. W. H. Simpson's Fortnight m the Dohrudscha. 361 

Ornith. Madag. p. 40. Malacirops borbonica, Bonap. Notes s. 1. 
Coll. Del. p. 56; Reicheub. fig. 3290. Fiyuier de VIsle de France, 
BufF. [Motacilla mauritiana, Gra. ?). Z. cinerea, Swains.? 

Found in Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands. A speci- 
men received from Goudot in the Paris collection is a little more 
brownish ; perhaps a female. 

c. Speirops. 
11. Z. LUGUBRis, Hartl. 

Supra olivacea, pileo nigricante, uropygio viridi-flavescente ; 
fasciola inter rictum et oculum annuloque periophthalmico, 
hoc minus conspicue, albis ; subalaribus et flexura alae pure 
albis ; gutture pallide cinerascente ; pectore et abdomine 
dilute brunnescenti-olivaceis ; rostro brunneo ; pedibus 
carneis ; iride nigra. 
Long. 5" 2'"; rostr. a fr. 4|"; al.2"8|"'; caud. 2"; tars. Sf. 

Syn. Zosterops lugubi-is, Hartl. Rev. Zool. 1848, p. 108; Id. 
Beitr. z. Orn. Westafr. p. 49 ; Id. xibhandl. Naturw. Ver. Hamb. 
ii. p. 49, t. 2. fig. med. ; Id. Syst. Orn. Westafr. p. 72. Speirops 
higubris, lleichenb. Merop. p. 93, fig. 3306. 

Confined to the Island of St. Thomas. We have examined 
two specimens (Hamb. Mus.). 

Less typical. The largest Zosteropine species of Africa. 



XLI. — A Fortnight in the Dobrudscha. 
By W. H. Simpson, M.A., F.Z.S. 
The Austrian steamer from Constantinople to Galatz being 
caught in a gale of wind off Varna, on Sunday, April 15, 1860, 
was obliged to run for shelter behind the point of Kali Akra, 
the eastern horn of Baltschik Bay, where she lay for thirty-six 
hours, secure from the furious nor^-easter, which drove the scud 
at hurricane speed just over the 300 feet cliffs that protected us 
from its fury. This is the first view which the traveller from 
the south has of the coast of the Dobrudscha, and if he has pre- 
viously indulged in the popular error that that region is a low- 
lying swamp, he will here have an opportunity for correcting his 
geography. But unless he wishes to find himself alone in the 
midst of a somewhat lawless Turkish population, he will hardly 
care to land here in order to improve his ornithology, though 
VOL. III. 2 b 



362 Mr. W. H. Simpson's Fortnight 

he might probably long to explore those clifi's if the captain 
would guarantee that the steamer would not sail without him. 
As, however, the captain of an Austrian ' Lloyd^s steamer •" is 
too great a personage to be lightly addressed, especially on an 
occasion when his feelings are aggravated by the dread of being 
driven ashore, he, the traveller, will have to postpone his explora- 
tions until the steamer arrives off Kustendje, where, if the fog 
and swell permit, he may land in the new harbour which is being 
there constructed by an English Company in connexion with the 
Danube and Black Sea Railway, of which Kustendje is the eastern 
terminus. This was my case. It had, indeed, been darkly 
intimated to the passengers that the vessel would be obliged 
to go on through the Sulina channel to Galatz — a circuit of 
200 miles for any one wishing to reach this place. Fortunately 
the fog, which had succeeded the gale, cleared up on the morn- 
ing of the 1 7th, and revealed to us the earthy cliffs which form 
the distinctive feature of this part of the coast of the Dobrudscha. 
The first object that greeted my arrival in port was a fiock 
of Little Gulls (Larus minutus) flying about in the harbour. 
This I considered a good omen, and even indulged in hopes of 
finding their breeding-quarters, as many were already in good 
plumage. This species was subsequently noticed in immense 
numbers between the 20th and 24th, especially on the first of 
the above dates. At that time the bulk of the flocks were 
frequenting a lake of fresh water called " Sud Geul," which 
extends fur several miles in a northerly direction parallel to the 
sea, from which it is separated by a narrow isthmus. On this 
occasion the flocks of Larus minutus, associated with a few in- 
dividuals of Sterna cantiaca, were literally swarming in the air 
a few feet above the surface of the water, like swallows over 
a river on a summer's evening. Far as the eye could reach, look- 
ing northwards down the lake, these elegant little birds were to 
be seen on the feed, dashing to and fro most actively. In most 
of them the head and u^pper part of the neck were of a brilliant 
jet-black, producing a singular effect in the mass when contrasted 
with the white of the rest of the plumage. Upon those which 
were nearest, a faint rosy tinge, confined to the upper part of 
the breast, was also noticeable. This, I think, is more marked 



in the Dobrudscha. 363 

in the living bird than in preserved specimens. In the distance 
they looked like musquitoes over the water, the flocks probably 
extending to the farthest end of the lake, which cannot be less 
than eight or ten nnles off. Here, then, it seemed was the 
home of the birds, for which the late John Wolley and myself, 
misled by a false description, had vainly sought in Oland 
during the spring of 1856. The isthmus between the lake and 
the sea, uneven with swampy hollows and dry hillocks that 
support a coarse and scanty vegetation, might surely be their 
appropriate breeding-places, where, in company with Terns, 
Pratincoles, Stilts, et hoc genus omne, they might be expected 
towards the end of May to deposit their eggs. Never was there 
a greater mistake. A few days later and the thousands have 
become hundreds, yet a few days more and these will have 
dwindled down to tens, so that, by the middle of May, it is 
possible that not a pair will remain behind. Doubtless they con- 
tinue their northward journey along this coast of the Black Sea; 
but it is in the marshes and lakes of Central Russia, in the great 
plains of the Volga, and possibly also in those of the Bug, the 
Dneiper, and the Don, that oologists must look for eggs of Lai-us 
minutus. 

In order to make the following notes more intelligible, it would 
be well to attempt a slight description of the chief features of 
the Dobrudscha, — not, indeed, with any pretensions to accuracy, 
as a fortnight's sojourn in a district so little travelled as this is 
only just sufficient to make a person wish to know more of it. 
One thing, however, is obvious enough, viz., that the country, 
instead of being a marsh, much more reseuibles the downs of 
the chalk formation, being in fact very dry, except in a few parts 
to be more particularly mentioned subsequently. As the fate of 
Lord Cardigan's cavalry and also of the French expeditionary 
column is well known, an impression has gone abroad that the 
Dobrudscha is marshy and malarious. The bones of the unfortu- 
nate soldiers composing the latter forces were but lately to be seen 
on the heights of Kustendje; but whether the men died of cholera, 
or any other disease, want of water was much more likely to have 
been a predisposing cause than the excess of it. 

The region north of Baltschik Bay, as far as the delta of the 

2 b2 



364 Mr. W. H. Simpson's Fortnight 

Danube^ appears then to consist of an undulating upland, having 
its watershed within a few miles of the Black Sea, to which it 
slopes rather rapidly. The point where the Danube and Black 
Sea Railway (about forty miles in length) crosses the height of 
land is very near its eastern terminus. Speaking from memory, 
the elevation is between 250 and 350 feet. Further north, at 
Baba-dagh, where primary or plutonic rocks are said to burst 
through the calcareous strata forming the main bulk of the mass, 
these elevations are greatly exceeded. The Danube below Sili- 
stria, flowing eastwards, is gradually deflected northwards by this 
mass, as it cats its way into the cliff's on the Bulgarian shore 
as far as Tchernawoda, where it is within forty miles of the sea. 
At this point its course is completely turned, at first even a 
little towards the W. of N.; but although foiled in its attempts 
to penetrate the uplands of the Dobrudscha, its summer floods 
appear to have inundated the numerous valleys that debouche 
upon it. What share the river itself may have had in the 
erosion of these valleys is, of course, a geological question. Thus 
are formed chains of lakes and swamps, which constitute the real 
marshes of the Dobrudscha. The aspect therefore which this 
district presents to the Danube, its western boundary, is that of 
an immense in-curving sweep of land about 300 or 400 feet high, 
which often comes to the water's edge in low precipices of a 
softish rock, apparently calcareous, but which is also perforated 
by swampy hollows reaching far back into the heart of the 
country. The view from these heights, looking immediately 
down upon the chief arm of the river, and across into the low- 
lying but richly wooded islands of Wallachia, is probably one of 
the most striking in Turkey. It suggests the idea of standing 
on one of the bastions of an immense fortress, which has the 
largest river in Europe for its ditch. In this region may be 
seen the Griffon and Cinereous Vultures, the Egyptian Neophron, 
Sea-Eagles in plenty, the Imperial Eagle, and a small dark variety 
of the Golden Eagle. Some of these are pretty sure to be on 
the wing, not to mention the less obvious birds of prey, which 
breed in the almost boundless extent of forest and morass that 
covers the flat islands stretching northwards and westwards till 
lost in the distant horizon. 



in the Dobvudscha. 3G5 

Reverting, however, for the preseut to the coast, we find that, 
where the earth-cliffs do not come down directly to the sea, lakes 
both of salt and fresh water intervene. These are generally 
separated from the sea by strips of land, such as the one pre- 
viously described at Sud Geul. Towards the north the lakes 
are more extensive. The earth -cliffs about Kustendje are much 
I'esorted to by birds for breeding, from the facility with which 
they are perforated. The Eagle-Owl {Bubo maxirnus) has been 
known, though not quite lately, to have its eyrie on a very ac- 
cessible ledge in one of these faces ; but it is not likely this will 
occur again, owing to an increase in the European population 
hereabouts. The Turk is a true friend to all birds, and never 
molests them ; but where Franks and Greeks abound guns 
become numerous, and birds diminish, Tne Ruddy Shelduck 
{Tadorna rutila) breeds in these places, as also in the holes of Tra- 
jan's wall, and in other holes up the country. Eggs, however, of 
this bird would be of no value to collectors unless authenticated, 
as the other species occurs spai'ingly. Though plentiful, it is by. 
no means easy to obtain the eggs. I and my friend spent the 
greater part of a day in driving a tunnel into a bank where one 
had been seen to come out. But our labour was in vain ; for 
after advancing several yards, working one at a time, prostrate, 
and in the dark, the original hole was found to fork off into 
two branches. The natives sometimes obtain a sitting which is 
hatched, and the young ones are brought up for domestic pur- 
poses. Starlings and Jackdaws (always Corvus collaris : see 
' Ibis,' vol.ii. p. 355) are likewise fond of these cliffs. Acridotheres 
roseus has also been noticed, but not by me ; it may be seen at 
times sparingly mixed with the other Starlings. This bird, as is 
well known, breeds in large colonies in parts of Asia Minor, 
though at irregular intervals ; it is not supposed that it ever 
breeds here. A few Gulls frequent these cliffs, but they were 
very scarce in the month of April, and being rather shy from 
frequent shooting, I was not able to handle a specimen. Judg- 
ing from a distance, Larus fuscus and L. argentatus seem to 
prevail. We picked up the remains of a Shearwater in the very 
last stage of decomposition ; it appeared to hePi/ffinus anglorum. 
I fancy this is the species so numerous on the Bosphorus, where 



366 Mr. W. H. Simpson's Fortnight 

long files of them are ever flying tbrough the channel — an up 
and down train several hundred yards in length being often 
in sight at the same time. These are the dmes damnees of 
sultanas who got the sack under the old regime^ each separate 
train being perhaps part of the establishment of a difl'erent 
Sultan. Not that all these poor restless spirits were necessarily 
frail ones : harems must have been expensive in those days, as 
they were lately proved to be under Sultan Abdul Medjid, and 
when the inmates became ugly or strong-minded, the sack was 
more economical than a pension. 

To the north of where these earth-cliffs terminate, the lakes, 
backwatei's, and rough sand-hills intervening between the sea 
and the uplands are sure to be favourite places of resort for 
Waders and Wild-fowl dui'ing the spring and autumn flights ; 
these being from their position a place of call as it were on the 
direct line of East-European migrations, a sort of halfway house 
between the South and the North. Pelicans bound for the mus- 
quito-haunted delta of the Danube ; Ducks, Geese, Plovers, and 
Snipes, of many species besides those which breed here, on their 
way to Poland and Kussia ; Stints from their African winter- 
quarters going to Lapland, Siberia, and the farthest north, — 
all are likely to be met with here at their respective seasons. Ex- 
cepting my two visits to Sud Geul, I never had an opportunity 
of examining this district ; but on one of those occasions a flock 
of Pelicans (probably Pelecaims onocrotalus) , consisting of several 
thousands, w^as noticed moving northwards at an immense height. 
Tribes of Cossack fishermen prey upon the fowl hereabouts ; 
they have the reputation of being very active eggers. We our- 
selves took the nest of a Wild Goose (believed to be Anserferus). 
I noticed also Stilts [Himantopus Candidas), which undoubtedly 
breed here, the Double Snipe, Common Curlew, Common Snipe, 
and Kentish Plover amongst the V/aders, besides the Hooper 
[Cygnus 7nusicus), Common Wild Ducks in great quantities, the 
Shoveler, Pochai'd, and Garganey, and some other ducks not made 
out with equal certainty. To the great numbers o( Larus minutus 
allusion has already been made. Strange to say, the birds of 
prey, so numerous generally in the Dobrudscha, were not well 
represented here, possibly for want of appropriate breeding- 



in the Dobrudscha. 367 

places. The Marsh Harrier seemed to be cock of the walk in 
default of any nobler bird. I found a new nest of this species 
in some reeds, and an old nest in a low blackthorn bush by the 
water's edge. There is another Harrier also pretty numerous 
here, the same which is so extremely abundant on the uplands. 
I presume it to be Circus cineraceus, but not having succeeded 
in shooting one, could not undertake to say for certain. 

The old Turkish town of Kustendje covers the low promon- 
tory which partially protects the harbour. The new town is 
built higher up, on the edge of the undulating plateau of the 
Dobrudscha — an open treeless tract of country very much like 
what the downs of Newmarket and the heaths of Suffolk may 
have been in former times. Trajan's wall runs across from here 
in a westerly direction to the Danube. Besides the wall of 
Trajan, there are many interesting remains of antiquity at this 
place, which occupies the site of ancient Tomi. If Ovid had been 
a sportsman and naturalist, he might have found abundant con- 
solation in his exile ; but having been in all probability indifferent 
to the advantages of Bustard-hunting, and totally unable to ap- 
preciate the ornithological riches of the country, he seems to 
have found the place very dull. In the face of a ravine on the 
edge of the new town, recent excavations have laid bare some 
Roman temples and other remains. These the railway autho- 
rities, with more zeal for the improvement of the harbour than 
for the conservation of antiquities, are using up in the formation 
of the new breakwater. Thus unhappy Tomi is being disinterred 
only to be re-entombed in the waves. A facetious acquaintance 
observed, that when the breakwater is finished, a monument 
should be erected at the extremity with " Here lies Tommy" by 
way of epitaph ! Wheatears and Hoopoes frequent the old stones 
that are lying about. The latter bird is very tame, and a great 
ornament to the place ; but I fear that, as far as Kustendje is 
concerned, his epita})h too may shortly be wanted. Numerous 
tumuli, attributed, with what reason I do not know, to the Tar- 
tars, occur on the plateau ; to some of these the Ruddy Shelduck 
is very partial. 

The birds of the plateau or open down- country come next 
under our observation. Here it must be remembered that there 



368 Mr. W. H. Simpson's Fortnight 

is not a tree or fence of any kind to break the uniformity of the 
scene. From some points along the height of land the sea 
bounds the view on the east : all else is the land of grass, with 
here and there a patch of corn, according as the fancy of some 
enterpi'ising individual may have sown it. Not grass, however, 
in the sense of our English turf; nowhere in the East is such 
a thing to be found; but yet a goodly supply of herbage such as 
might feed thousands of sheep. A few low blackthorn bushes 
occasionally dot the surface. Towards the end of April they are 
just coming out into blossom, giving a pleasant air of spring as 
one passes by. To believe that such bushes, sometimes only a 
foot in height, will hold an Eagle's or Harrier's nest, requires a 
considerable amount of faith ; yet this is undoubtedly sometimes 
the case. Generally, however, the Eagle [Aquila navia), which 
mostly haunts these downs, has its nest upon the ground. I 
found, or was directed to, no less than four, two of which were on 
the ground, under the shelter of bushes ; two were on the bare 
plain. Out of the whole four I only got two eggs, and these very 
poorly-marked specimens. From some cause to me inexplicable 
the eggs were geneially broken, the fragments being sometimes 
trailed several yards from the nest, which is itself a slight struc- 
ture composed of a few sticks with a lining of wool carelessly 
arranged. In one was a piece of coloured cloth. The old bird, 
of course, sees any one approaching a long way off, and may, in 
consequence, attempt to carry away the eggs. There are, how- 
ever, several Grey Crows [Corvus comix) on the look-out for waifs 
and strays, and these may be at the bottom of the mystery. 
The Spotted Eagle is generally a tree-building bird, but here it 
seems to confine itself to the open country, where probably it 
feeds largely upon the lizards and small animals that are so 
numerous. I made several attempts to procure a specimen, but 
without success ; neither could I obtain one of the Harrier (sup- 
posed to be Circus cineraceiis), which is perpetually hawking the 
Grey Partridge on these downs. One of the favourite breeding- 
places of this bird is along the banks of Trajan's wall so called, 
but which is really a system of mounds and ditches more or less 
perfect. 

The westward slope of the height of land in the neighbour- 



in the Dohrudscha. 369 

hood of Trajan's wall is also favourite ground for Bustards, 
especially for the Little Bustards. These latter arrive from the 
south rather before the middle of April, in flocks of consider- 
able size, many staying to breed here whilst others are moving 
further north. The male birds are particularly demonstrative 
at this time of the year, and being often occupied in parading 
their attractions in groups of ten or a dozen to the females which 
are crouching somewhere in the grass, they are not so wide 
awake as at other seasons, and thus afford a better chance to the 
gun. On foot, even with a rifle, it is not easy to reach them ; 
but with an araba judiciously managed, very fair sport may be 
had. After a few months' experience of the stony mountains 
and dense coverts of Greece, nothing can be more exhilarating 
than a gallop in an araba over the breezy downs of the Do- 
hrudscha in early spring. It is true that at starting you expect 
concussion of the brain must necessarily ensue, as there are 
no roads, and your driver dashes over all minor inequalities of 
the surface ; but this feeling soon goes away, and you get on 
famously until a wheel comes off, or until you make the un- 
pleasant discovery that your powder-flask has been rattled out 
of the cart, in which latter case you face about and retrace your 
track till it is found. In these expeditions I and my friend R. B. 
used to take it in turns to drive and shoot. But supposing all 
these little mischances are overcome and Bustard-ground fairly 
reached, a wild yet pleasing scene it is, on a sunny spring 
morning, such as those which we had the good fortune to enjoy. 
On all sides an undulating prairie, solitary in the extreme, yet 
not destitute of bird-life. The traveller on his way back from 
the south will here see the well-known Skylark [Alauda arvensis), 
breeding plentifully in the midst of A. cristata and A. brachij- 
dactyla. The Grey Partridge keeps pretty close, but occasionally 
one will get up, in spite of the numerous Harriers that contri- 
bute further to enliven the landscape, which also is seldom free 
from the presence of one of the grass-breeding Eagles [Aquila 
navia). Occasionally Vultures may be seen soaring aloft. Both 
Gyps fulvus and Vultur monachus have been noticed : once I shot 
at an individual of the latter species with a pistol. Now and then 
passes a troop of Ducks or Wild Geese, a flock of Waders, or 



370 Mr. W. H. Simpson's Fortnight 

perhaps a few stray Terns and Gulls, on their way to the marshes. 
Often too the Ruddy Shelduck may be seen, watching its op- 
portunity for popping unnoticed into its hole in a mound or 
tumulus. Presently some Bustards are descried on the opposite 
slopes, and away we gallop towards them. It may so happen 
that they take the alarm and fly before we are within a quarter 
of a mile. The Great Bustard almost invai'iably does ; but the 
Little Bustard, besides being more plentiful, is less wary, and 
often takes no notice of the araba. Arrived within 200 yards, 
we commence "great circle sailing," gradually shortening tl^^ 
distance, though, to the flock, we seem ever going away from 
them. The pace is now a good trot, and the great thing is to 
pull up dead when about 40 yards ofi^, firing the instant the 
birds rise, which they are pretty sure to do as soon as the ma- 
chine stops. We found by experience that 40 yards was about 
as close "shaving" as the birds would stand ; and at that distance 
it was not always a kill, especially if the horses were not per- 
fectly quiet. If a bird was hit, but not brought down, we gal- 
loped after him at full speed, when, finding he could not get 
away from us, he would often crouch, and under these circum- 
stances it was very difficult to find him. We used to get down 
from the araba and almost walk over them before they would 
get up. They ai'e slow risers generally, but when once fairly 
on the wing, go at a slashing pace. On getting up, the Little 
Bustard makes an odd rattling noise, very similar to that pro- 
duced by a bird-scarer, such as is used in gardens. In this 
description of sport only one person can shoot at a time; but, 
in fact, there is as much fun to be had, and more skdl to be dis- 
played, in managing the horses so as to place the araba in a 
favourable position, than in shooting the game. Our best bag 
in one day was seven brace, of which number eleven birds were 
males in splendid plumage. The flesh is dark, and at this sea- 
son rather strong, but in a hungry country like the Dobrudscha 
one is not apt to be particular. 

Those portions of the country towards the west which are 
skirted by the Danube are most abundant in species, and in 
birds usually accounted rare, that is to say, but seldom met with 
in Western Europe. The same treeless character prevails here 



in the Dobrudscha. 371 

as in the uplands^ which probably do not differ much in their 
ornithological character from the district nearer the Black Sea. 
The change is principally to be noticed in the bottoms of the 
valleys communicating with the great valley itself, which, being 
below the level of high-water mark of summer floods, are con- 
verted into chains of small lakes and marshes stretching some 
way back from the rivers. Here also there are trees, mostly 
willows, few in number, and small in size compared to the mag- 
nificent trees which fill the islands of the Danube on the Wal- 
lachian side, where an immense territory of alluvial forest-clad 
plains presents a marked contrast to the open and undulating 
Dobrudscha. Throughout this region, including also the lateral 
valleys. Herons, Storks, and allied genera are especially nume- 
rous. The Common Stork {Ciconia alba) abounds, and may be 
seen wading deliberately on the edge of every pool. All the 
villages, particularly in the Turkish quarters, are full of their 
nests, from which they keep up a perpetual clapping with their 
mandibles, the only sound they seem capable of producing. On 
the 1st of May, passing through a village inhabited by Walla- 
chians, I saw several very tempting nests, and being desirous of 
securing a sitting, mentioned my wish to a wily Greek, whose 
services had been engaged for the day. We called at a house to 
obtain a boat upon the adjoining lake, and whilst Demetri drew 
off the attention of the owner, 1 placed a ladder against the wall, 
ascended, and, before the man had time to turn round, was down 
again, with the Stork's eggs in my pocket. There were four of 
them slightly incubated. This was the only nest ever taken by 
me, out of scores in that neighbourhood. The reeds on the lake 
were much frequented by Herons. A nest of the Purple Heron 
had been taken the day before, and the eggs of course eaten, 
much to my annoyance. The Little Egret {Herodias yarzetta) 
was also numerous, but had only arrived lately, as I should 
imagine from their being there in small flocks moving about 
from one place to another. Later in the season the Glossy 
Ibis [Falcinellus igneus) is here to be met with ; but there was 
no account of the Great White Egret [Herodias alba) breeding 
in these parts, though doubtless they are to be met with on some 
of the swampy wood- covered islands of the Danube. 



372 Mr. W. H. Simpson's Fortnight 

The circumstances attending the discovery of the nests of Aq. 
imperialis and Faico sacer have been ah'eady narrated {' Ibis/ 
vol. ii. p. 375). In addition to the Raptorial birds previously 
mentioned as occurring here, a single specimen of a bird, be- 
lieved to have been Bonelli's Eagle {Aquila bonellii), vv^as ob- 
served upon a low cliff overlooking one of the small lakes. These 
low cliffs which flank the lateral valleys, and occasionally the 
stream of the Danube itself on the Bulgarian shore, are favourite 
places for the larger birds of prey. It was supposed that the 
Cinereous Vulture {Vultur monachus) might be found breeding 
here, as the bird is not at all uncommon, especially during the 
summer. No nest of this species was, however, discovered, though 
we found one or two of the Griffon [Gyps fulvus) . As an instance 
of the closeness of this bird's sitting, I may mention that, on my 
being lowered by means of a rope to a nest in a cliff overhang- 
ing the Danube, the old bird was actually touched by my foot 
before she would move. The nest contained a young one lately 
hatched, which was of course left. This sudden popping out of 
the huge Griffon so upset my equilibrium that I should certainly 
have fallen into the river if not upheld by the cord. The 
Egyptian Neophron [Neophron percnopterus) also frequents these 
cliffs : fresh eggs were to be had towards the end of April. 

Birds of prey are not the sole tenants of these rocks. The 
Black Stork [Ciconia nigra) also breeds here; at least we disco- 
vered one nest in a very peculiar position for a bird which has 
the reputation of breeding in the densest thickets of impervious 
morasses. The cliff in this case was about sixty feet high, the strata 
being horizcmtal or nearly so. In the face of the upper ledge 
there had been at some time, artificially excavated in the soft stone, 
a chamber having a sort of antechamber, which communicated 
by means of a couple of steps with a crack in the rock. This 
crack was not difficult to reach from the top when the exact path 
was once known. The chamber itself had much the appearance 
of a hermit's cell ; but as the aperture in the face of the cliff was 
the entire width of one side, the apartment was airy and cheer- 
ful, commanding a fine view of the valley below. Altogether it 
was a place where one could have had no objection to put up 
for a few days in case of necessity. Here it was that a pair of 



in the Dobrudacha. 373 

Black Storks had taken lodgings for the season, as we found out 
one morning about the 27th of April. Some little time elapsed 
before we discovered the secret of the entrance from the top, a 
fact of which the Black Storks were probably not cognizant. 
At the time of our first visit there were no eggs, nor indeed was 
there anything exactly worthy of the name of a nest. But in the 
floor of the chamber was a circular depression about the size and 
shape of a large dinner plate, not far from the edge of the aperture. 
For what singular purpose this depression, evidently artificial, 
had been made, was to us as' great a mystery as the origin of the 
entire excavation. The Black Stork had evidently thought she 
could put it to some use, for it was here, upon a few dry sticks 
which partially filled the depression, that she meant to lay her 
eggs. As it was necessary for me to leave Turkey altogether 
about the 4th of JNlay, it was agreed not to approach the 
place again till the day before my departure. In the interim I 
used occasionally to take a stroll down the valley, and seat 
myself on the opposite hill, where, through the telescope, I 
could see the Black Stork sitting composedly on her make- 
shift of a nest, looking like some spirit of darkness in its cave. 
Already I was counting the eggs, which would undoubtedly 
have been mine but for the evil curiosity of a Transylvanian 
shepherd, who had noticed me spying into the hole, and had per- 
haps seen us entering it. On the appointed day I rode over with 
my friend R. B. Dismounting at the edge of the clifi", we crept 
down to the crack in the rock, and thence through the artificial 
passage into the chamber itself. Neither bird nor eggs were 
visible ; some great catastrophe had happened, and the eggs I had 
counted on, though laid, were missing. It transpired that the 
Transylvanian hud done the deed, having probably sucked the 
eggs on the spot. We sought him everywhere in the desperate 
hope that he miglit have preserved them, perhaps also with the 
view of taking the change out of him in some other way in the 
extremely probable event of their not being forthcoming. For- 
tunately for the Transylvanian he was not to be found. 

Through the kindness of my friend I was not wholly disa])- 
pointed after all. The Black Stork returned to her nest and 
laid two more eggs, which he secured and brought over to Eng- 



374 Mr. A. Newton on Mr. J. Wolley's Researches 

land the following summer. These are now in my collection. 
They ai'e smaller than eggs of Cic. alba, from which also they 
may be distinguished by a very faint greenish tinge to be noticed 
on closer inspection. 



XLII. — Abstract of Mr. J. Wolley's Researches in Iceland re- 
specting the Gare-fowl or Great Auk (Alca impennis, Linn.). 
By Alfred Newton, M.A., F.L.S. 

As from various causes some time must pass before I can hope 
to find leisure to arrange the mass of information respecting 
the Gare-fowl or Great Auk [Alca impennis, Linn.) collected by 
Mr. John Wolley, and continue the inquiries commenced by 
him on that subject, so as to publish the details in a fitting 
manner, several of my friends have urged me not to delay 
making known more fully than has been done the results of, that 
gentleman's researches when in Iceland, in vtrhich researches I 
had, to some small extent, the pleasure of assisting him. In- 
dependently of these recommendations, I am influenced by the 
consideration that I ought not to withhold from naturalists what 
is likely to be interesting to some of them ; and, still more, that, 
were I to do so any longer, I should run the risk of losing to my 
late friend's reputation the credit which, from his labours, of 
right belongs to it. But I trust it will be understood that, in 
this paper, I make no pretence of giving anything like a complete 
history of the bird ; for that is a task for which, at the present 
moment, I am certainly not competent, however much I may 
hope some day to achieve it. I only wish to place on record 
certain facts which Mr. Wolley was able to ascertain. 

As long ago as the year 1847, Mr. Wolley's attention was 
directed in an especial manner to the Great Auk, and during 1851 
and 1 852 he bestowed much pains in investigating its history from 
the works of old naturalists and travellers. When I was with him 
in Lapland in 1855, we often discussed the chances of its con- 
tinued existence, finally pledging each other to make a joint expe- 
dition to Iceland as soon as it could be conveniently performed. 
At the same time, I have no wish to underrate the impulse given 
to my friend's enthusiasm, and through him to my own, during his 



in Iceland respecting the Gare-fowl. 375 

visits to Christiania and Copenhagen the following year, when he 
first heard of the discoveries of the late Herr Peter Stuvitz and 
Professor Steenstrup, and besides made the personal acquaint- 
ance of the last-mentioned illustrious naturalist, who soon after 
published so valuable a contribution to this bird^s history*. 

In this paper, therefore, I do not mean to refer much to the 

bird^s appearance in other localities, except in one instance to 

correct a very prevalent misapprehension. But, on the other 

hand, I do not claim entire novelty for several of the statements 

I have to make. Some of them have already found their way 

into one book or another — sometimes rightly reported, sometimes 

wrongly. Nor do I profess to be sure that the account I have 

to give is always the true one. It must be remembered that the 

results here recorded are the main points of evidence deduced 

from many authorities, and offered by nearly one hundred 

living witnesses ; and though I do not doubt that the greater 

number of these latter are persons of eminently truthful habit 

(for such is the natural characteristic of the Icelander), yet some 

few there are who may have wilfully told falsehoods. Nor 

should it be forgotten that it is, humanly speaking, impossible for 

any two persons, however honestly disposed, to give identically 

the same version of the same events, though most generally in 

such cases the variations will be unimportant. Add to this that 

much of the evidence, though written down at the time by Mr. 

Wolley (whose note-books I have carefully consulted) in a most 

painstaking manner, had to pass through an interpreter ; and, 

as nearly all of it referred to a period of many years ago, it will 

not be surprising if some inaccuracies have crept in. 

The particular misconception to which I wish to draw especial 
attention is, that the Great Auk is, or was, a bird of the far 
North — indeed, of the Polar regions. That such an opinion 
prevails, one has only to refer to authorities generally received by 
ornithologists of all countries. Professor Steenstrup, in the 
paper to which I have alluded, has conclusively shown it to be 
unfounded, without, however, having been able to trace the error 
satisfactorily to its source. For myself, I imagine it to have ori- 

* Videnskabelige Meddelser for Aaret 1855. Kjobenhavn. 1856-1857, 
pp. 3ii-116. 



376 Mr. A. Newton on Mr. J. Wolley's Researches 

ginated in the inadvertence of naturalists, which, in the case of 
northern locahties, leads them to speak of Spitzbergen, Green- 
land, and Labrador as if they were synonymous, or at least in- 
terchangeable terms. Regarding it in this light, long before 
we had heard of Professor Steenstrup's conclusions, Mr. WoUey 
and I had satisfied ourselves that statements like Temminck's, 
that the Great Auk " vit et se trouve habituellement sur les 
glaces flottantes du pole arctique, dont il ne s'eloigue qu'acci- 
dentellement '^ (Man. d'Orn. ii. 940), were entirely contrary to 
fact. There is, I believe, but one reliable instance on record of 
the Gare-fowl* having occurred within the limits of the Arctic 
Circle. This is the example said to have been killed on Disco in 
182], and which, after changing hands several times, is now in 
the University Museum at Copenhagen. The fact has been for 
the first tin)e recorded in the present volume {' Ibis,' 1861, 
p. 15), and my friend Professor Reinhardt there expresses his 
belief that " the accounts of other instances, in which the bird is 
said to have been obtained in Greenland, are hardly to be con- 
fided int." 

There is, I take it, nothing which should really lead us to infer 
that the Great Auk ever visited Spitzbergen %• The first English 
writer to whom I can trace the report is Mr. Selby (Brit. Orn. ii. 
p. 433) ; and that distinguished ornithologist has lately most 
kindly informed me that the making mention of that locality 
was a mistake, which would have been rectified had another 
edition of his work been required. As to Norway, the only sup- 
posed instance of its occurring there within the Arctic Circle is that 
mentioned by Professor Steenstrup [I.e. p. 95, n.), and is doubtful 

* It may seem somewhat pedantic to revive this ancient and almost 
forgotten name. In using it I am chiefly influenced by the fact that Mr. 
WoUey had intended to have employed it. 

t I have spoken of the above as a " reliable instance " of an Arctic Great 
Auk ; but I am not sure that even this is free from doubt ; for in a letter 
Professor Reinhardt tells me he has " had some suspicion " whether the 
reported Disco specimen of 1821 has not been confounded with one asserted 
by the late lamented Governor HolboU (Kroyer's Tidsskrift, iv. p. 457) to 
have been obtained at Fiskernaes [South Greenland) in 1815. If this 
suspicion be correct, the Gare-foiol has probably never once occurred within 
the Arctic Circle. J Cf. Ibis, 1859, pp. 173, 174. 



in Iceland respecting the Gare-fuwI. 377 

enough. Herr Lanrenz Brodtkorb, of WardcE, in 1855, told Mr. 
Wolley, repeating the story afterwards in my presence, that in 
1848 he shot a large diving-bird, of which he did not know the 
name, on a flat rocky skerry off Keenoe. He felt very certain that 
it was not a Great Northern Diver [Cuhjmbus glacialis) ; but he 
assured us that its beak was lika a Guillemot's {Uria) — that is, 
narrow and pointed — and not like a Razor-bill's {Alca), thick and 
truncated. He was equally sure that there was still a pair or two 
of his species to be found among the Guillemots which breed on 
this spot. Mr. Wolley, in a letter I received from him about this 
time (1855), naively remarks, "I could not see one; but some of 
the birds were off their eggs ;" and I feel bound to say that, 
though Herr Brodtkorb has a practical knowledge of ornitho- 
logy, I cannot consent to his opinion that the bird he shot was 
a Great Auk*. 

Were I about to give a full and detailed account of the Gare- 
fowl, I should think it best to divide the evidence collected into 
two classes : (I.) that which may be considered documentary, 
and (II.) that which is merely oral; again separating this latter 
into (1) what is only traditional, and (2) what has actually come 
to my informant's personal knowledge. In the present case, how- 
ever, I believe it will be most convenient to take the various 
matters as far as possible in the order of the time to which they 
refer. But I must first enter upon a brief description of the 
localities to which I shall have to allude. 

Any person who will take in hand the beautiful map of Ice- 
land, executed by Herr 0. N. Olsen from the surveys of the 
veteran Bjorn Gunnlaugsson, and published in 1844 under the 
auspices of the Icelandic Literary Society t, will find the name 

* I mav arid, that near Wardcehuns, between the fortress and the shore 
of the inlet ( Vest-Vaagen), on a raised sea-beach, is a vast bed of bones, 
chiefly those of birds, but mingled with them a few Seals'. We brought 
away a considerable quantity of specimens ; and on some other occasion I 
may probably give an account of them ; but I am sure that they do not 
include a single fragment which could possibly be a Gare-fowl's. 

t Uppdrattr I'slands, a fjorum blo^um gjii'Sr at? fyrirsogn O'. N. O'lsens, 
gefinn lit af Enu I'slenzka Bokmentafelagi. Reykjavik og Kaupmanna- 
hofn, 1844. 

VOL. III. 2i; 



378 Mr. A. Newton on IMr. J. Wolley's Researches 

' Geirfuglasker ' (Gare-fowl skerry) occurring in three different 
places. The most eastern is situated some thirty miles from the 
coast, off the island of Papey, and the entrance of Berufjor"Sr, 
about lat. 64° 35' N., and long. 26^ W. (of Greenwich), and 
is commonly known to Danish sailors as Hvalshak (Whalers- 
back), The most southern is one of the Vestmannaeyjar (West- 
man Islands), in about lat. 63° 20' N., and long. 33° 5' W. The 
most western is off Cape Reykjanes, in about lat. 63°40'N., 
and long. 35° 50' W. It was accordingly our first object to 
ascertain how far these spots now deserved the name they boi-e. 
On making all the inquiries we were able on our arrival at 
Reykjavik, we could obtain no recent information respecting the 
eastern skerry, of which we had, at starting, entertained most 
hopes. It appeared also that, of the travellers who in the last cen- 
tury had published accounts of their journeys in Iceland, Olafsen 
and Olavius only had alluded to this isolated rock as a station for 
the bird*, though another of them, the Fferoese, Mohr, was in 
1781 for no less than two months at Djupivogr, on the mainland 
opposite, engaged in the pursuit of natural history f. We there- 
fore decided we would not attempt the journey thither, at the 
risk of missing what seemed a better chance — that of finding the 
object of our search in the neighbourhood of the western locality, 
where examples of the bird were known to have been last ob- 
tained. At the same time, we thoiight it highly desirable that 
this eastern Geirfuglasker should be visited, and through the in- 
tervention of several kind friends, we at last met with a gentle- 
man who was willing, for a suitable recompense, to undertake the 
toilsome, not to say dangerous, expedition. To dismiss this part 
of the subject at once, I may here say that our envoy, Herr Can- 
didatus-Theologife Eirikur Magnusson, a native of that district, 
reached BerufjorSr in the month of June, and then, taking a 
boat, proceeded to the island, round which he rowed, quite close 
enough to satisfy himself tliat there were no Gare-fovvls on it ; 

* Reise igiennem Island, &c. af Eggert Olafsen. Soroe, 17/2, p. 750. 

Oeconomisk Reyse igiennem de noidvestlige, nordlige, og nordostlige 
Kanter af Island ved Olaus Olavius, &c. Kjobenhavn, 1/80, ii. p. 547. 

t Forsog til en Islandsk Naturhistorie, &c., ved N. Molir. Kiobeuhavn, 
1/86, p. 383. 



in Iceland respecting the Gar e- fowl. 379 

but he was prevented by the unfavourable state of the weather 
from landing. On his return next month to Reykjavik, he in- 
formed us that there were no traditions in that part of the country 
of the bird ever having been there. Respecting the second 
Geirfuglasker I have mentioned, that which forms one of the 
Vestmannaeyjar, we heard on all sides that it was yearly visited 
by people from the neighbouring islands, and, though we were 
told that some fifteen years before a young bird had been ob- 
tained thence*, it was quite certain that no Great Auks resorted 
thither now. 

Of the third locality I have now to speak. Lying off Cape 
Reykjanes, the south-western point of Iceland, is a small chain 
of volcanic islets, commonly known as the Fuglasker, between 
which and the shore, notwithstanding that the water is deep, 
there runs a Rost (Roost), nearly always violent, and under 
certain conditions of wind and tide such as no boat can live in. 
That which is nearest the land, being about thirteen English 
miles distant, is called by Icelanders Eldey (Fire Island), and by 
the Danish sailors Meel-ssekken (the Meal-sack), a name, indeed, 
well applied ; for, seen from one direction at least, its appearance 
is grotesquely like that of a monstrous half-filled bag of flour, 
the i-esemblance, too, being heightened by its prevailing whitish 
colour. Not very far from Eldey lies a small low rock, over 
which it seems that the sea sometimes breaks. This is known 
as Eldejjardrangr (Eldey's Attendant). Some ten or fifteen 
miles further out are the remains of the rock formerly known to 
Icelanders as the Geirfuglasker proper, and to Danes as Lade- 
gaarden (the Barn-building), in former times the most consider- 
able of the chain, but which, after a series of submarine dis- 

* Of course it does not follow, even if the story be true, that this bird 
was hred there. Faber states (Prodromus der islandischen Ornithologie, 
Kopenhagen, 1822, p. 49), that he was on the "Westman Islands in July 
and August 1821, and that a peasant there told him it Was twenty years 
since a Great Auk (and that the only one of the species he had ever seen) 
had occuri'ed there. He adds, that this bird and its egg, upon which it 
was taken, remained a long time in a warehouse on one of the islands, but 
had vanished before his arrival. We may, with Professor Steenstrup 
{I. c. p. 76, note), infer from this that the Gare-fowl, even about the year 
1800, was a great rarity in the neighbourhood. 

2 c2 



380 Mr. A. Newton on Mr. J. Wolley's Researches 

turbances, beginning on the 6th or 7th of March 1830, and con- 
tinning at intervals for about a twelvemonth, disappeared com- 
pletely below the surface ; so that now no part of it is visible, 
though it is said that its situation is occasionally revealed by 
breakers. Further out again, perhaps some six-and-twenty 
English miles from Reykjanes, rises another tall stack, called by 
Icelanders Geirfugladrangr, and by Danish sailors Greenadeer- 
huen (the Grenadier's Cap). All these rocks have been long re- 
markable for the furious surf which boils round them, except in 
the very calmest weather. Still more distant is a rock to which 
the names Eldeyja-bodi or Blinde-fuglasker have been applied 
by Icelanders. This is supposed to have risen from the sea in 
1783, the year of the disastrous volcanic eruption in Skaptafells- 
sysla, and soon after to have sunk beneath the waves*. 

Icelandic records show that, at the beginning of the thirteenth 
century, various changes took place among the islands off Reyk- 
janes just enumerated. It is stated that a rock, then known as 
Eldey, disappeared ; but another being thrust up close by, the 
old name was transferred to the new-comer, and has since been 
borne by it. No notice is taken in manuscripts of that remote 
time of the birds found on these islands ; but doubtless they were 
even then, weather permitting, visited by the inhabitants of the 
adjoining coast. Indeed, it is asserted in Wilchin's ' Maldaga- 
bok' (which dates from 1397, and has not, I believe, been printed), 
that half the Geirfuglasker belonged to Mary Church in Vogr, 
now represented by Kyrkjuvogr, and one- fourth to St. Peter's, 
Kyrkjubolu, of which the church at Utskala is the modern equi- 
valent — claims which were still looked upon as extant until the 
submergence of the skerry put an end to them. It has been 
suggested that the remaining quarter was shared by the church 
of StaSr in Grindavik ; but most likely it was left to reward the 
bold adventurers who resorted thither. In 1628, twelve men 
were drowned at the Geirfuglasker, no doubt in a fowling expe- 

* I should have wished to have given, in explanation of the above 
description, a sketch map of these localities, but I have not the means of 
doing so accurately. From our own observations, Mr. WoUey and I had 
reason to doubt whether the bearings of these islands have been correctly 
laid down either in Gunnlaugssou's map or the Danish Admiralty chart. 



in Iceland respecting the Gare-fowl. 381 

dition ; and in 1639 * four large boats (three from Su^rnes, the 
district between Skagen and Osar, and one from Grindavik) pro- 
ceeded thither; two of which, those from Stafnes and Mars- 
buSum, were lost at the skerry, while the other two, from 
Hvalsnes and StaSr, only returned with difficulty. It might 
have been some such disaster as this that prompted a metrical 
eflPusion composed by Sera Hallkiell Stephansson, the clergyman 
of Hvalsnes, w4io flourished between 1655 and 1697, of which it 
is feared only two lines have been preserved to posterity. In 
these the poet says that he has never trusted himself to Geir- 
fuglasker, as, on account of the surf, boats were broken by the 
waves there. In 1694, a French vessel was wrecked on the 
island, but the crew landed in their boats at Mi-Snes. 

Soon after our arrival at Reykjavik, we were pleased to learn 
that the public library there contained a short but beautifully 
written manuscript account of the Reykjanes Geirfuglasker. For 
a knowledsre of its existence we were indebted to the kindness of 
Professor Konrad Maurer of Munich, well known as one of the 
most distinguished Icelandic scholars, and the pleasure of whose 
company we enjoyed during our voyage to the North, and part of 
our residence in the capital. The liberality also of the librarian 
in allowing us the free use of, and permission to copy, this 
curious document, must not pass unnoticed here. From the 
penmanship and the paper on w^hich it is written, it is believed 
by good judges whom we consulted to be probably a copy. From 
internal evidence, which need not now be detailed, I venture to 
express my opinion that the original must have been composed 
within a few years of 1760. It commences abruptly by giving a 
somewhat minute description of the rock and its unquestionably 
volcanic origin; making, however, no reference to its neighbouring 
islands. It then proceeds to relate the marvellous numbers of 
birds found upon the rock, adding that the "Gare-fowl is there 
not nearly so much as men suppose ;'^ that the space he occupies 

* There is an apparent misprint of " l43fj " for the above date in Pro- 
fessor Steenstrup's reference to this event {I. c. p. 83, note). The parti- 
culars mentioned in the text were supplied to us by Sera S. B. Sivertsen, the 
clergyman at Utskala, to whom we were indebted for many similar acts of 
kindness. 



382 Mr. A. Newton on Mr. J. Wollej^'s Researches 

" cannot be reckoned at more than a sixteenth part of the 
skerry/' and this only at the two landing-places ; " further 
upwards he does not betake himself, on account of his flightless- 
ness." The writer then goes on to speak of the extreme danger 
of landing on account of the surf, saying that to go there is to 
place life and death on an even chance ; and after mentioning 
the report, which is even now current, that a successful expedi- 
tion to the skerry was equally profitable with a summer's hiring 
of two hundred fishes' value in the north country, and citing the 
statement from the Maldaga, to which I have before referred, 
concludes with Sir Hallkiell's couplet mentioned above. Besides 
this, there are appended two foot-notes. In the first, the writer 
says that in the year 1732, after a lapse of seventy-five years, the 
skerry was visited, and two huts, three birchen staffs about two 
ells long, and some withered human bones, were found thereon ; 
adding, by way of comment, that three men had been known to 
have supported themselves on the rock by eating sun-dried birds, 
and drinking rotten eggs for half a month before they were taken 
off. The second note gives a very accurate description of the 
Gare-fowl and its peculiarities, including its eggs, which the 
writer describes as if he had been an enthusiastic oologist, 
though he considers it worthy of remark that he has '* known 
Danes give eight to ten fishes* for an empty blown egg," the 
climax being the apostrophe " Rara avis in terris ! " Not the 
least singular part of the manuscript is an inserted leaf, on which 
is drawn a very quaint sketch of the skerry. Two boats are seen, 
anchored with large stones, according to the Icelandic custom 
still prevalent. In one of these are seated three, and in the other 
two men, waiting the return of three comrades, who are on the 
rock, hunting what appear to be Gare-fowls, of which upwards of 
sixty are represented. 

Now, it has been above stated that in 1732 expeditions to the 
skerry were resumed after being long discontinued, and, in con- 

* I much regret not being able to give, in explanation of this and the 
passage mentioned a few lines above, the worth of a fish at the period 
when I suppose this manuscript to have been written. It was, and in the 
secluded parts of the country still is, the unit of the Icelandic currency, 
but, of course, a unit of very variable value. 



in Iceland respecting the Gare-fowl. 383 

nexlon with this fact, it may not be amiss to observe that Ander- 
son, some time Burgomaster of Hamburg, in his account of Ice- 
land, remarks* on the occurrence of many Great Auks the 
year before the death of King Frederick IV. (of Denmark), which 
took place in 1730. Hereupon Niels Horrebow, whose prin- 
cipal object was to contradict all Anderson had said, with some 
reason ridiculesf his predecessor's notion of that event being 
thus heralded, and asserts that no more birds were seen in the 
year mentioned than previously. But it seems to me improbable 
that Anderson should have no grounds for his statement, though 
of course I do not admit the portentous inference, and, if so, it 
is not unlikely that the renewal of visits to the Geirfuglasker, in 
1732, may have been prompted by the report the last-named 
author mentions of the bird's abundance three years before. On 
the other hand, I atn unable to connect this reported abundance 
with any other physical phenomenon. I do not find that the 
period just previous to 1729 was marked by any volcanic out- 
bursts, or the presence of any extraordinary amount of floating 
ice, either of which events might be supposed to affect the bird's 
movements. 

In 1755, Eggert Olafsen and Bjarne Povelsen, to whose accu- 
rate account of Iceland I have already alluded, explored the 
Gulbringu Sysla, which comprehends the south-western corner 
of the island, and they passed the following winter at Vi^ey 
{op. cit. pp. 848, 849), during which time it is mentioned that 
they saw both the bird and its egg, which had been obtained from 
the Reykjanes skerry by some SuSnes boats (p. 983). A few 
years later, Mohr in his work, which I have also before mentioned, 
says {op. cit. p. 28) that he was assured by the peasants that the 
bird was blind when on land, a notion not entertained by the 
Fseroese, but which still prevails in Iceland. He was also told 
that in former days people had filled their boats with its eggs from 
the Reykjanes station, and though he does not expressly say so, I 
think we may infer from these authorities that about the middle 

* ' Herrn Johann Anderson, &c. Nachvichten von Island, Gronland und 
der Strasse Davis, &c.' Frankfurt u. Leipzig, 1747, p- 52. 

t ' Tilforladelige Efterretninger cm Island, &c.' Kjobenhavn, 1752, 
pp. 175, 176. 



384 Mr. A. Newton on Mr. J. Wolley's Researches 

or towards the end of the last century this Geirfuglasker was 
constantly visited by fowling expeditions. Local tradition makes 
the same assertion, assigning the leadership of these adven- 
turous exploits to one Svenbjorn Egilsson, born in 1700, and 
Hannes Erlendsson, born in 1705 ; but later their place was 
taken by one Hreidar Jonssou, whom people now living can re- 
member as a blind pauper some eighty years of age, with a long 
beard. This hero was born, as it appears, in 1719, and used to 
go yearly to the skerry on behalf of Kort Jonsson, a rich farmer 
at Kyrkjubol, who flourished between 1710 and 1760. Hreidar 
is even reported to have made during one summer three expedi- 
tions, in which he acted as foreman. After his time the 
practice seems to have died out ; but one witness informed us 
that, to the best of his recollection, people had made voyages 
between 1784 and 1800. Faber, who was in Iceland in 1821, 
and then attempted to reacli the skerry (of which exploit I shall 
presently speak), tells us [op. cit. p. 48), that for a long period 
these perilous expeditions had been relinquished — probably be- 
cause the results from repeated performance fell short of the 
risk incurred. But the birds were not wholly banished ; for 
Thorwalder Oddsson, born about 1793, told us, that when he 
was a boy, some nine or eleven years old, he found one on the 
shore at Selvogr, and a few years later, probably between 1808 
and 1810, two were killed at Hellirsknipa, between Skagen and 
Keblavik. Erhndur Gu^mundsson, an old man with a most 
retentive memory, showed us the gun with which he shot one of 
them. He was in a boat with his bi'other- in-law, A'sgrimur 
Stemonsson, who died in 1847, and the occurrence happened in 
the month of September. The Gare-fowls were sitting on a 
rock : A'sgrimur fired first, and killed one ; the other took to the 
water, and was shot by Erlendur. They each ate their re- 
spective birds, and very good meat they found them. A third 
is said to have been shot a few years later, near the same spot, 
by one Jacob Jonsson, now dead ; this also was eaten. 

The cause, however, of the most wholesale destruction of 
Great Auks in modern times must be sought elsewhere. In 
1807 hostilities commenced between England and Denmark. 
The following year, the * Salamine,' a privateer of twenty-two 



in Iceland respecting the Gare-fuwl. 385 

guns, under British colours, and commanded by one John Gil- 
pin, but probably owned by Baron Hompesch, who was also on 
board, appeared at Thorshavn, the capital of the Faeroes, which 
her crew almost entirely plundered, ending by carrying off a 
certain Peter Hansen, whom they forced to pilot them to Ice- 
land. Arrived at Reykjavik, July 24th, 1808, they repeated 
their outrages, and before they finally quitted the island paid a 
visit to the Geirfuglasker, where they remained a whole day, 
killing many birds and treading down their eggs and young. 
After this they sailed away, August 8th, and deposited Hansen 
again in the Fseroes. On February 7th, 1810, at the solicitation 
of Sir Joseph Banks, an order in council was set forth by the 
British Government, exempting the northern possessions of the 
Danish Crown from any molestation on the part of English 
cruisers, and permitting the inhabitants of the same to ti-ade 
with either London or Leith, though not with the mother- 
country. The Court of Copenhagen met this act of common 
humanity by issuing decrees, strictly prohibiting, on pain of 
death, all intercourse with the British*. The consequence was, 
that the unfortunate Fferdese were nearly reduced to a state of 
starvation; and in 1813, as a last resource, their Governor, 
Major Lobner, determined to send a vessel to Iceland to obtain 
some necessaries. This vessel, the schooner ' Fseroe,' of twelve 
guns, he placed in charge of Hansen, as one already acquainted 
with the coast. When they came off Cape Reykjanes, they were 
becalmed ; and a boat being lowered, a party went off to one of 
the skerries, on which, as their Captain expected, they found 
abundance of birds, and among them many Great Auks. They 
killed all they could, and loading the boat quite full, yet left 
many dead ones on the rock, intending to return for them ; but 
the wind springing up, Hansen made sail for Reykjavik, where, 
about a week later, they arrived on the 29th of July, having 
then on board among their victims no less than twenty-four 
Gare-fowls, besides others which were already salted down. One 
of these birds is said to have been given to the Bishop (Vidalin), 
and by him sent to a friend in England. Mr. Wolley conversed 

* Journal of a Tour in Iceland in the Summer of 1809. By William 
Jackson Hooker, F.L.S. &c.. 2nd ed. London, 1813, vol. ii. pp. 57 etseqq. 



386 Ml'. A. Newton on Mr. J. Wolley's Researches 

with one of the two survivors of this voyage, Daniel Joensen, in 
1849*; and on July 25th, 1858, through the kind attention of 
Herr Sysselmand H. Miiller, we had an interview with the other, 
a clear-headed old man, Paul Medjord by name. The accounts 
of these two witnesses differ from each other in no material 
point; but it does not seem quite certain whether the rock on 
which they landed was the Geirfugladrangr or the Geirfuglasker 
proper. Many of the above particulars, including the exact 
dates, which I believe have never before been published, were 
most obligingly furnished us from the official records by Herr 
Dahlerup, the Governor of the Fa?roes, and Herr V. Finsen, the 
By-fogden of Reykjavik ; but Faber, in 1822, briefly mentioned 
this massacre, and in 1839 the late Etatsraad Reinhardt t added 
some further information, which notices have been copied into 
various other works. 

In 1814, according to Faber {loc. cit.), seven Great Auks were 
killed on a little skerry at Latrabjarg, on the north shore of 
Breidifjor"Sr. I do not know any other reported instance of its 
occurrence there or elsewhere in Iceland so far to the north. 
Olafsen {op. cit. p. 562) gives a lengthened description of the 
locality and the birds which frequent it, but makes no mention 
of Alca impennis. The only notice of the place I can find besides 
is in Mr. Metcalfe's amusing little book, just published J. This 
gentleman tells a story to show that spiteful spirits dwell in some 
part of the cliff, but does not suggest that they are the ghosts 
of departed Gare-fowls. 

Faber further informs us {op. cit. p. 48) that on the 25th of 
Jime, 1821, he started on an excursion to the Reykjanes skerries. 
He was accompanied by a Danish merchant, a Swedish count, 
and the latter's servant §. Of the Icelanders who were on 

* Contributions to Ornithology, 1850, [edited] by Sir William Jardine, 
Bait., &c. Edinburgh, 1850, p. 116. 

t Kroyer's Naturhistorisk Tidsskrift, i. p. 533. 

X The Oxonian in Iceland, &c. By the Rev. Frederick Metcalfe, M.A., 
&c. London, 1861, p. 260. 

§ I am not so fortunate as to possess a copy of Faber's other work, 
' Ueber das Leben der hochnordischen Viigel ' (Leipzig, 1825) ; nor have 
I seen the paper in the ' Isis ' for 1827 (p. 633), in the latter of which I 
am informed be gives the fullest particulars of his expedition ; I therefore 



in Iceland respecting the Gare-fowl. 387 

board the vessel, the ' Villingar/ a cutter belonging to one Jon 
Danielsson, only one survives. He, by name Olafr Palsson, 
gave us an account of the voyage, closely agreeing with Faber's, 
which he had never seen. They came first to the Geirfuglasker, 
and sailed between it and the ' drangr/ where the Count, whose 
name I have been unable to ascertain, landed and gathered 
some sea-weed. Then the weather became fair, and they pro- 
ceeded to the skerry itself, where they arrived in the evening. 
Faber remained on board, but the Count again landed, and pre- 
sently fell into the water. They picked him up, and his servant 
shot a good many Gannets [Sula bassana). Later in the evening 
they returned, and some of them went on shore, but could find 
no way up. Jon Danielsson declared he was ready to stop a 
week ; the Count, howevei-, seemed to have had enough of it, 
and " Fugle Faber thought as the Count did.^^ They were out 
two days and two nights at the rocks. They did not go near 
Eldey, saw no Gare-fowls, and their opinion was that they must 
have been all killed by the French sailors, as they had heard a 
vessel of that nation had been seen there two summers before*. 
Jon Jonsson, son of the owner of the ' Villingar,^ then a lad 
about twelve years old, who assisted in putting the foreigners on 
board her, and had often heard his father and elder brother 
speak of the expedition, also corroborated Olafr Palsson's nar- 
rative. 

It is clear, however, that at this very time there were Great 
Auks in the neighbourhood ; for, a few days later in the season, 
two birds were seen sitting on a low rock, close to the place 
where I have before mentioned that two or three were shot, and 
were killed with a sprit or gaff by another Jon Jonsson (now 

have to content myself with the translated extracts therefrom contained 
in a paper " On the Great Auk," communicated May 19, 1859, by Dr. 
Edward Charlton to the Tyneside Naturalists' Field Club, and published 
in their ' Transactions,' vol. iv. pp. 1 13 et seqq. This paper has also been 
reprinted in the ' Zoologist ' for i860, p. 6883. 

* It does not seem to me at all impossible that there should be some 
truth in this report. Mr. Scales has kindly informed me that he obtained 
the tine Great Auk's egg, now in his possession, from M. Dufresne, who 
had one or two others in his collection, in 1816 or 1817- It was said to 
have come from the Orkneys, which, however, I think is extremely unlikely. 



o 



'•88 Mr. A. Newton on Mr. J. Wolley's Researches 

dead) and his son SigurSr, who related the circuoistance to us. 
This witness is certain that it was about the beginning of July 
of the same year as that of Faber's visit. They sold the skins, 
which our informant himself took off, commencing the operation 
by making a hole transversely across between the legs, as he 
would do in the case of a quadruped. They afterwards ate the 
bodies, and sold the skins to the A'sgrimur before mentioned*. 
The occurrence of so many examples of this bird nearly in the 
same locality may perhaps be accounted for by the fact that 
the tide runs in very strongly round Skagen, and sets along 
Holmsbergf. The Auks^ after fishing on that side of the pro- 
montory, may have found themselves unable to make head 
against the current, and so have betaken themselves to the shore. 
I may here observe that we failed to gather any further infor- 
mation respecting a bird said by Dr. Kjserbolling (Danmark's 
Fugle, p. 415) to have been killed in 1818 on a place in South 
Iceland, where many had been observed ; but Etatsraad lleinhardt 
records [loc. cit.) the death of one in 1828, and I think the Doctor 
is altogether mistaken in the assertion that " Apothecary Mech- 
lenburg of Flensborg possesses a pair which were killed on the 
Gare-fowl skerries in 1829, where they were courageously de- 
fending their two eggs.'' But of this last supposed capture I 
shall say m(n-e presently. 

* The Icelandic skins of Foxes (Canis la ff opus) are all flayed in the way 
above described. I cannot help suggesting that these may have been the 
two Great Auks' skins stated by the late Etatsraad Pvcinhardt {loc. cit.) 
as being received in 1823 from Oerebakke (Eyrarbakki), though they were 
said to have been killed there in that year by a boy with a stick. Faber, 
when in the district, lived for some weeks in A'sgrimur's house, who was 
])robably thus aware that he wanted them. On leaving it he went in the 
direction of Kyrarbakki, on July 9th he was five miles to the east of Ke- 
blavik, and in the end of that month and in the next was on the West- 
n an Islands (Prodr. pp. 38 & 49). Some persons we saw declared that he 
had three specimens, but ])e himself says somewhere (I think in the ' Isis ') 
that he never procured any of this species. Possibly, therefore, they were 
sent after him to Kyrarbakki, and thence some two years afterwards to the 
Museum at Copenhagen. 

t We obtained information respecting the tides from a manuscript ac- 
count of Gulbringe-sysla, written about 1784, by the then Land-foged 
Skule Magnusen, which was kindly lent to Mr. WoUey, and the account 
was confirmed by the statements made to us by fishermen. 



in Iceland respecting the Gare-fonl. 389 

We now come to the most modern period in the Great Auk's 
history. In 1830, as I have before said, the Geirfuglasker off 
Reykjanes disappeared beneath the waves. Whatever motive 
prompted him, it is certain that in that year one Brandur 
GuSniundsson, an inhabitant of Kyrkjuvogr, who died in 1845, 
bethought him of making an expedition to Eldey, or the Meal- 
sack, the high rock which stands between the sunken island 
and the Cape. All the dwellers in the district concur in saying 
that before that time no rumour of the birds breeding there had 
ever reached them. It seems that in that year he led two 
voyages to this new-found locality, in one of which twelve or 
thirteen, and in the other eight examples were captured. Six 
of these were purchased by Adnor Gunnarsson, and as many 
more by Holgeir Jacobseus, two merchants living at Keblavik, 
while the remainder are unaccounted for. On the first occasion 
the weather was fine, and all the party but two landed. Besides 
the Gare-fovvls they took a great many other birds, Razor-bills 
and Guillemots. The second time the weather was bad, and 
only four men went up. They had to come away very quickly. 
These and many other particulars of interest which I could give, 
were I not afraid of extending these notes to an unreasonable 
length, were related to us by two men (bi'others), Stephan and 
Jon Gunnarsson, the only survivors of those who were present. 
The following year another voyage was undertaken by the same 
foreman, and whether that the birds were more numerous, or 
that their persecutors had learned experience (for on the pre- 
vious occasions several had escaped), twenty-four were captured, 
of which one was brought off alive, and so taken to Keblavik, 
where, however, it was killed, or at least died. These two dozen 
Gare-fowls were all skinned by one person, a woman, Sigrida 
Thorlaksdotter, who told us that she perfoi-med the operation 
in her accustomed way, opening them under the right wing, 
and stuffing the skins with fine hay. The same merchants as 
before, with the addition of Dethlef Thomsen, shared them. 
It is not very easy for me to reconcile the various conflicting 
statements about the captures of the next two years, but in 1833, 
thirteen birds were probably taken, and in 1834, nine birds, 
with eight eggs, seem to have been obtained, of which one 



390 Mr. A. Newton on Mr. J. Wolley's Researches 

bird was given to the Crown Prince (the present King of Den- 
mark), who then happened to be in Iceland, and subsequently- 
passed into the possession of the late Herr Mechlenburg. The 
remaining eight were purchased by Herr Thomsen, just men- 
tioned, whose son most obligingly showed Mr. Wolley an 
account of the transaction in his father's books. They were 
skinned by Madame Thomsen and her sister, Jomfrue A. C. 
Lewer, who informed us that they were opened under the wing, 
and the skins stuffed with hay, the bones being wrapped I'ound 
with hemp. The eggs were quite fresh, and were blown by the 
two ladies. All these specimens were disposed of to Herr De 
Liagre, a dealer at Hamburg, and, I may add, I think that one 
of the eggs now in my possession belonged to this lot. In 
August 1840 or 1841, three skins, as many eggs, and the body 
of a bird in spirit were bought of Factor Chr. Thase, now living 
at Copenhagen, by Herr S. Jacobsen, who told us that he 
parted with them either to Herr Seining, a naturalist at Ham- 
burg, or to Mr. Jamrach, the well-known dealer. Two of 
these birds, or else two more some other year, were obtained 
by one Stephan Sveinsson of Kalmanstjorn, whom the good 
people of Kyrkjuvogr seem to look upon as a kind of poacher 
on what they consider their rightful domain. Certain it is 
that on one occasion Herr Thase bought two birds of this 
Stephan, as the latter informed us, but the exact date is not so 
clear. 

The last Gare-fowls known to have occurred in Iceland were 
two in number, caught and killed in 1844 by a ])arty, of which 
our excellent host at Kyrkjuvogr, Vilhjalmur Hakonarsson, was 
the leader. They were bought, singularly enough, by Herr 
Christian Hansen, son of th^t Hansen I have before alluded to 
as having been (though, in the first instance, against his will) so 
dread a scourge to the race. From him they passed to Herr 
Miiller, then the apothecary at Reykjavik, who, previously to 
having them skinned, prevailed upon M.Vivien (a French artist) 
to paint a picture of one of the dead birds, which picture now 
hangs in the house of his successor, Herr Randrup, the present 
apothecary in the capital of Iceland. As many persons may 
regard these birds as the latest survivors of their species, I may 



in Iceland respecting the Gare-foivl. 391 

perhaps be excused for relating at some length the particulars 
of their capture, the more so as this will serve to explain the 
manner followed on former occasions. 

The party consisted of fourteen men : two of these are dead, 
but with all the remaining twelve we conversed. They were com- 
manded, as I have just said, by Vilhjalmur, and started in an eight- 
oared boat from Kyrkjuvogr, one evening between the 2nd and 
5th of June, 1844. The next morning early they arrived ofif Eldey. 
In form the island is a precipitous stack, perpendicular nearly 
all round. The most lofty part has been variously estimated to 
be from fifty to seventy fathoms in height; but on the opposite 
side a shelf (generally known as the " Underland^') slopes up 
from the sea to a considerable elevation, until it is terminated 
abruptly by the steep cliff of the higher portion. At the foot of 
this inclined plane is the only landing-place ; and further up, out 
of the reach of the waves, is the spot where the Gare-fowls had 
their home. In this expedition but three men ascended : Jon 
Brandsson, a son of the former leader, who had several times 
before visited the rock, with SigurSr Islefsson and Ketil Ketils- 
son. A fourth, who was called upon to assist, refused, so 
dangerous did the landing seem. As the men I have named 
clambered up, they saw two Gare-fowls sitting among the num- 
berless other rock-birds {Uj-ia troile and Alca tarda), and at 
once gave chase. The Gare-fowls showed not the slightest dis- 
position to repel the invaders, but immediately ran along under 
the high clifi", their heads erect, their little wings somewhat ex- 
tended. They uttered no cry of alarm, and moved, with their 
short steps, about as quickly as a man could walk. Jon with 
outstretched arms drove one into a corner, where he soon had 
it fast. SigurSr and Ketil pursued the second, and the former 
seized it close to the edge of the rock, here risen to a precipice 
some fathoms high, the water being directly below it. Ketil 
then returned to the sloping shelf whence the birds had started, 
and saw an egg lying on the lava slab, which he knew to be a 
Gare-fowl's. He took it up, but finding it was broken, put it 
down again. Whether there was not also another egg is uncer- 
tain. All this took place in much less time than it takes to tell 
it. They hurried down again, for the wind was rising. The 



393 Mr. A. Newton on Mr. J. Wolley's Researches 

birds were strangled and cast into the boat, and the two younger 
men followed. Old Jon, however, hesitated about getting in, 
until his foreman threatened to lay hold of him with the boat- 
hook ; at last a rope was thrown to him, and he was pulled in 
through the surf. It was " such Satan's weather,'' they said, 
but once clear of the breakers they were all right, and reached 
home in safety. Next day Vilhjalmur started with the birds 
for Reykjavik to take them to Herr Carl F. Siemsen, at whose 
instance this particular expedition had been undertaken ; but on 
the way he met Hansen, to whom he sold them for eighty Rigs- 
bank-dollars (about £*d). According to Professor Steenstrup 
{op. cit. p. 78), the bodies are now preserved in spirit in the 
Museum of the University of Copenhagen, but respecting the 
ultimate fate of the skms I am not quite sure. 

Several other expeditions besides those to which I have here 
adverted no doubt took place between the years 1830 and 1844', 
but I cannot at present give either the dates or the results. 
Herr Siemsen informed Mr. Wolley that twenty-one birds and 
nine eggs had passed through his hands; but this account 
contains other details which are certainly inaccurate. If all the 
stories we received can be credited, the whole number would 
reach eighty-seven. I should imagine sixty to be about the 
real amount. Of these a large portion went to the Royal 
Museum at Copenhagen, as is stated by the late Etatsraad 
Reinhardt {loc. cit.) ; a good many more passed into the hands 
of Herr Brandt, whose son informed Mr. Wolley that, in or 
since the year 1835, his father had had nine eggs, and I suppose 
birds to match. Two eggs were also purchased by a certain 
Snorri Ssemonasson then living at Keblavik, but what became 
of them I do not know. I have also learnt, on undoubted 
authority, that the late Herr Mechlenburg has had in all eight 
birds and three eggs*. From this naturalist, in April 1844, 
Mr. John Hancock, by the intervention of Mr. John Sewell 
of Newcastle, received a bird and an egg, which are now in his 
collection, with the information that they were taken together 
with another bird and another egg, a year or two previously, 

* Herr Pastor W. Passler has some remarks on these in the ' Journal 
fiir Ornithologie,' 1860, p. 59. 



in Iceland respecting the Gare-fowl. 393 

on an island " at the north-east side of Iceland." A wrong 
locality was probably furnished on purpose to mislead HerrMech- 
lenburg ; but the fact of his never having had more than three 
eggs, of which two came into his possession in, or shortly before 
the year 1844, entirely disposes of Dr. Kjserbolling's assertion 
to which I have before alluded*. Thus it is pretty evident that 
most of the specimens of the Great Auk and its eggs, which now 
exist in collections, were obtained from Eldey between the years 
1830 and 1844t. 

From what has been ah*eady stated, it will be seen how great 
Mr. Wolley's industry in collecting information was; yet I 
must add a few more words. In former days, the Gare-fowls 
were, in summer time, so constantly observed in the sea by the 
fishermen, that their appearance was thought but little of. The 
people from Kyrkjuvogr and Su^rnes used to begin to see them 
when they arrived off Hafnaberg, and from thence to Reyk- 
janes-rost. We were told by many people that they swam with 
their heads much lifted up, but their necks drawn in ; they 
never tried to flap along the water, but dived as soon as alarmed. 
On the rocks they sat more upright than either Guillemots or 
Razor-bills, and their station was further removed from the sea. 
They were easily frightened by noise, but not by what they saw. 
They sometimes uttered a few low croaks. They have never 
been known to defend their eggs, but would bite fiercely if they 
had the chance when caught. They walk or run with little, 
short steps, and go straight like a man. One has been known 
to drop down some two fathoms off the rock into the water. 
Finally, I may add that the colour of the inside of their mouths 
is said to have been yellow, as in the allied species. 

In 1846 Eldey was visited by Vilhjalmur and a party, and 

* The additions which, in the last edition of his work, Mr. Yarrell made 
to his account of this bird (B. B. 3rd ed. vol. iii. pp. 482- 3), are copied from 
Mr. Lloyd's ' Scandinavian Adventures' (ii. pp. 496-7), having been origi- 
nally taken from Dr. KjserboUing's book, and are very inaccurate. 

t Lists of these, which are in the main correct, though I know of a few 
that are omitted, have lately appeared in the ' Zoologist ' for the present 
year (pp. 7353 & 7386), and almost simultaneously in the ' Field ' news- 
paper (Nos. 423 & 424, pp. 93, 114). P'urther remarks on them will be 
found in the former journal (pp. 7387 & 7438). 

VOL. III. 2 D 



394 Mr. A. Newton on Mr. J. Wolley's Researches 

no Gare-fowls could be found. In 1858 Mr. Wolley and I re- 
mained at Kyrkjuvogr, with two short intervals^ from May 21st 
to July 14th. Our chief object was to reach not only Eldey, but 
the still more distant Geirfugladrangr, on which, probably, no 
man has set foot since the Swedish Count, in 1821, with so 
much difficulty reached it. Boats and men were engaged, and 
stores for the trip laid in; but not a single opportunity oc- 
curred when a landing would have been practicable. I may 
say that it was with heavy hearts we witnessed the season 
wearing away without giving us the wished- for chance. The 
following summer was equally tempestuous, and no voyage could 
be attempted. Last year (1860), on the 13th of June, Vilhjal- 
mur successfully landed on Eldey, but he found no trace of a 
Great Auk, and the weather prevented his proceeding to the 
outer island. Later in the year a report reached Copenhagen, 
which was subsequently published in the newspaper ' Flyve- 
posten' (No. 273), to the effect that two eggs of this bird had 
been taken on one of the skerries and sold in England for fabu- 
lous prices. Through the kind interest of several friends, I 
think I am in a position to assert that the statement is utterly 
false. The last accounts I have received from Iceland, under 
date of June the 20th in the present year (1861), make no 
mention of any expedition this summer. I am not very san- 
guine of a successful result, but I trust yet to be the means of 
ascertaining whether, at the sinking of the true Geirfuglasker, 
some of the colony, deprived of their w^onted haunt, may not 
have shifted their quarters to the Geirfugladrangr, as others, we 
presume, did to Eldey, and to this end I have taken and shall 
continue to take the necessary steps. 

But to sum up the account of Mr. WoUey^s personal re- 
earches. The very day after our arrival at Kyi'kjuvogr he 
picked up from a heap of blown sand, two or three birds' wing- 
bones {humeri)*. He was at once struck with their likeness 
to the figure illustrating Professor Steenstrup's paper — that 
valuable paper to w^hich I first of all referred, and which has 

* They were trom the side of a channel blown out by the wind from a 
heap formerly drifted there, such as in the eastern counties of England 
would be called a " Sand-gall." 



in Iceland respecting the Gare-fowl. 395 

been constantly at my side while compiling this abstract of 
Mr. Wolley's notes. A little comparison, not only with the en- 
graving, but with the corresponding bones in other species, a 
good supply of which there was no difficulty in procuring, soon 
showed that he had not been mistaken, and accordingly bone- 
seeking became one of our recognized occupations. Yet I can- 
not say that even here we were very successful ; curiously enough 
where the chances seemed the best we never found anything. 
Thus the old Geirfuglasker having formerly been shared by the 
churches of Kyrkjubol and Mariu-Kyrkja-i-Vogi, we naturally 
thought that the " Kjokken-moddinger" (Kitchen-middens) at 
those places would be likely to yield the best supply. Yet at 
what we were told was the site of the latter not a vestige of a 
bone could be found. The ground was covered everywhere with 
great stones — the little soil there was between them seeming as 
if it had drifted into its present position, while the sea may 
have completely washed away the rubbish-heaps, if houses ever 
stood there. At the former place — Gammall Kyrkjubol — though 
there was a very large grass-grown mound entirely composed of 
ancient refuse, and into which we made a deep excavation, we 
did not recover a single fragment of a Great Auk — scarcely, I 
think, of any bird — fi'om it. Nor was our luck much better at 
Stafnes, where we dug down through a large heap, coming upon 
fishes' bones in great abundance, but little of interest excepting 
a stratum of broken egg-shells, apparently those of Guillemots 
and Razor-bills, with perhaps a few Eider Ducks', though I 
have not yet examined them very closely. It was remarkable that 
such of the fragments as had any markings retain them still, 
after so long a burial, quite as brightly as specimens I have often 
seen in cabinets, when the collector has not been careful to exclude 
air and light. At Kyrkjuvogr we were more fortunate; in the 
wall of the churchyard we found two or three Great Auks' 
bones sticking in the turf, which is used instead of mortar to 
keep the stones in their places. On inquiry the turf was found 
to have been cut from a small hillock close by. This we pretty 
thoroughly searched, and among a vast number of the bones of 
other Alcida, there were several of the large species. 

But our most profitable digging was at Bsejasker. Mr. Wolley 

2 D 2 



396 Mr. A. Newton on Mr. J. Wolley's Researches 

one day as he was riding along called out to me that he saw 
two Gare-fowls' bones lying on the ground. On getting off his 
horse he found them to be the distal ends of the humeri, and 
apparently a pair. Going to the spot, I picked up a radius, 
also of a Gare-fowl, the first we had found anywhere. We care- 
fully examined the locality on two other occasions, and found 
remains which must have belonged to at least eight individual 
birds. Many of them bore marks of the knife, and nearly all 
were in good preservation. They were chiefly lying under stones, 
which seemed once to have formed an old boundary- wall, and 
had probably been contained in the turf from some still more 
ancient rubbish-heap with which the wall had been built up. 
Just on this spot the sea appears to have encroached, and in this 
manner laid bare the two bones whose discovery led to the de- 
tection of the rest. Among the specimens we collected there 
are several in which certain differences, probably the result of 
age or sex, are observable. I do not intend to describe them 
now. I will merely remark that the Great Auk is rendered 
incapable of flight by the modification of the extremities only 
of its wings. ^^Tiile its humerus is in proportion with the bulk 
of the body, and fully twice the length that it is in the Razor- 
bill, the ulna, radius, and metacarpus are nearly the same length 
in both species, only much thickened in the Gare-fowl *. 

It will be gathered from what has been above said that I 
think there is yet a chance of the Great Auk still existing in 
Iceland. At all events until it is proved that he is not to be 
found on the Geirfugladrangr, I think he must not be despaired 
of; but T know of no other locality where he is likely to be. 
The numerous islets in the Breida-fjor'Sr which have been sug- 
gested as affording him possibly a last station, are, I believe, 
visited every year by people from the neighbourhood. Those 
who imagine he may be on the opposite coast of Greenland are, 

* Mr. Edward Blyth gives a few interesting particulars about some 
bones of Alca impennis in the ' Proceedings ' of the Zoological Society for 
1837 (p- 122). I think it is likely enough that the specimens he ex- 
amined were extracted from the skins prepared in 1834 by Jomfrue Lewer, 
which I have mentioned. At all events, that lady seems to have left more 
of the bones in the skins she prepared than is the custom with other per- 
formers in Iceland. 



ill Iceland respecting the Gare-fowl. 397 

I aui sure, doomed to disappointment. That shore is almost 
always beset with ice, and dive admirably as the bird may, I 
have yet to learn that he can remain under water aa long as a 
Seal or a Walrus. His then would be a poor sort of existence 
among closely-packed floes and crashing mountains of ice. 
Along the coast of Labrador nothing has been lately heard of 
him that I know of, and yet, if I am rightly informed, it is 
pretty generally every year visited by fishermen of various na- 
tions. The formerly known breedmg-places in the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence and off" the coast of Newfoundland are ascertained to 
be abandoned, and no wonder when we think of the annual mas- 
sacres which used to be committed there *. Yet there may be 
still " some happier island in the watery waste " to which the 
Penguins of the western seas may have escaped ; but then, we 
may rely upon it, there is left a scanty remnant only. 

I have been informed by my good friend Colonel Drummond- 
Hay, that in December 1852, in passing over the tail of the 
Newfoundland banks, he saw what he fully believes to have 
been a Great Auk. At first he thought it was a Northern Diver ; 
but he could see the large bill and white patches, which left no 
doubt on his mind. The bird dived within thirty or forty yards 
of the steamer. The same gentleman also has sent me a letter 
received by him in 185J< from the late Mr. J. MacGregor, of St. 
John^s, Newfoundland, in which he encloses a succinct account 
of the former wanton destruction of these birds by the fishermen 
— the heaps of bones and the '^ pounds ' now to be seen on some 
of their old breeding- places — and states that in the preceding 
year (1853) a dead one was picked up in Trinity Bay. My in- 

* I am under the necessity of dissenting from the opinion expressed by 
Professor Owen, in a lecture deUvered at the Royal Institution. April 12, 
1859, and repeated in his article on ' Palaeontology,' as republished in a 
separate form from the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica' (p. 400). To the de- 
struction which the Great Auk has experienced at the hands of man, must, 
I am confident, its gradually increasing scarcity be attributed. Granting 
that it does require very peculiar breediug-places to be fit and favourable 
for it, we only know of the disappearance of one such in the whole extent of 
its range, which in comparatively modern times reached from Cape Cod to 
Papa Westra, while on every other known breeding-place it has, from tlie 
earliest date, been the especial object of search. 



398 Mr. A. Newton on Mr. J. Wolley's Researches 

quiries about this specimen have not yet resulted in obtaining 
any further information respecting it *. 

I am well aware that nothing but the extraordinary interest 
that attaches to this bird warrants me in occupying so much 
space. It must be remembered that it is not merely a matter 
with which ornithologists only are concerned, but is one of far 
higher and more general importance. " A consideration of such 
instances of modern partial or total extinctions," says Professor 
Owen [loc. cit.) in reference to this very case, " may best throw 
light on, and suggest the truest notions of, the causes of ancient 
extinctions." If this be not sufficient excuse for me, I must 
urge the great difficulty I have had in condensing the numerous 
particulars of information which Mr. Wolley's labours have 
placed at my disposal. It would have been far easier to have 
been more diffuse. In Iceland all, with but one exception, were 
eager to tell us all they knew, and that in the most careful 

* While on the subject of the bird's occurrence in this part of the world, 
I wish to remark on Mr. Cassin's statement in Prof. Baird's ' Birds of 
America' (p. 901), touching the Great Auk " figured by Mr. Audubon, and 
obtained by him on the banks of Netofoundland," &c. Now in 1857 I was 
assured by Mr. Bell, the well-known taxidermist at New York, who knew 
Mr. Audubon intimately, that he never possessed but one specimen of this 
bird ; and if we turn to Prof. MacGillivray's ' History of British Birds ' 
(vol. v. p. 359), we find him saying that he never saw but two examples of 
the species, one in the British Museum, and " the other belonging to Mr. 
Audubon, and procured by him in London." I have also to set right a 
mistake made on this side of the water. In their Catalogue of Norfolk 
and Suffolk Birds, printed in the 'Linnean Transactions' (xv. p. 61), 
Messrs. Shepherd and Whitear say, they had been told by Sir William 
Hooker that a Great Auk had been " killed near Southwold " in the latter 
county. That eminent botanist, however, has most kindly informed me 
that not only has he no recollection of any such occurrence, but, having 
taken some trouble to inquire about it, be is satisfied that the statement 
originated in error. I must add further, that the reported instance of a 
bird taken near Marlow in Buckinghamshire, on the estate of Sir William 
Clayton, first ])ublished, I think, by Dr. Fleming (Brit. Anira. p. 130), on 
Mr. Bullock's avithority^, seems to me very unlikely. On the other hand, I 
may mention that Sir William Milner tells me that within the last few 
years he has become possessed of a fine Great Auk, which he has reason 
to believe was killed in the Hebrides. This bird, I am informed, was 
found to have been stuffed with turf. 



in Iceland respecting the Gar e- fowl. 399 

manner. I have already mentioned several persons from whom 
we obtained valuable intelligence, and unjust as it may appear 
to the rest, I must forbear from naming more. The chief au- 
thorities both in church and state afforded us every facility, and 
all orders and degrees of men and women followed their exam- 
ple. From the Governor surrounded by the comforts of modern 
civilization through every grade to the unhappy leper, dwelling, 
as his ancestors may have done centuries ago, amid filth and 
scarcity, we received an amount of attention, of which it is diffi- 
cult to express the full value without seeming guilty of exag- 
geration. Alas that it is left to me only to make this state- 
ment ! To all those concerned, then, I have to return our 
acknowledgments, and to no one more than to our honest and 
intelligent guide and interpreter Geir Zoega of Reykjavik, who for 
more than two months was our constant and willing attendant. 

Whether the Gare-fowl be already extirpated or still existing in 
some unknown spot, it is clear that its extinction, if not already 
accomplished, must speedily follow on its rediscovery. I have 
therefore to beseech all who may be connected with the matter to 
do their utmost that such rediscovery should be turned to the best 
account. If in this point we neglect our opportunities, future 
naturalists will justly reproach us. The mere possession of a 
few skins or eggs, more or less, is as nothing. Our science de- 
mands something else — that we shall transmit to posterity a less 
perishable inheritance. I have to urge, in no spirit of partiality, 
but purely in the cause of knowledge, the claims of our own 
country in this event. Our metropolis possesses the best-stocked 
vivarium in the world. An artist residing among us is un- 
questionably the most skilful animal draughtsman of this or any 
other period. By common consent the greatest comparative ana- 
tomist of the day is the naturalist who superintends the nation's 
zoological collection. Surely no more fitting repository for the 
very last of the Great Auks could be found than the Gardens 
of the Zoological Society of London, where living they would be 
immortalized by Mr. Wolf's pencil, and dead be embalmed in a 
memoir by Professor Owen's pen. 
Elveden, August 8, 1861. 



400 Recent Ornithological Publications. 

XLIII. — Recent Ornithological Publications. 

1. English Publications. 

We have been much pleased with Mr. Atkinson's little work on 
"British Birds' Nests and Eggs*." It is essentially a 'Boy's 
own book/ and well intended to train up a youthful oologist 
in the way he should go. Tlie author has been a life-long ob- 
server of a good school, and this is nearly sufficient for his pur- 
pose. It is, therefore, of comparatively little moment to his 
readers that, when he quotes from other works, his information 
is sometimes defective. Mr. Atkinson makes no show of learned 
acquirements, but he is far above the common run of popular 
writers, to whom a Latin name is an abomination. After a few 
judicious remarks on the necessity of, and the vulgar objections 
to, anything like scientific terminology, he observes well enough 
(p. 4), " No one was ever the worse for learning habits of orderly 
and systematic arrangement, even though he had to pay the 
price of doing a little puzzling headachy work, and had to 
bother himself with a good many ugly-looking, ill-sounding, 
jaw-cracking words." The illustrations are quite as good as 
could have been expected for the price, but being only woodcuts 
are not extremely characteristic. The printing we hope may be 
improved in a future edition, when a little more care may well 
be bestowed in hunting up later authorities than those cited. 

2. French Publications. 

It is only lately that we have succeeded in seeing a copy of 
M. Morelet's work on the Natural History of the Azores f, which 
is of much interest, as containing the first and only detailed ac- 
count that has as yet been given of the zoology of this little- 
known group of islands. True it is they have been visited by 
several travellers, who have placed on record various facts of 
greater or less interest concerning their geology and botany ; but 
hardly any one, except Mr. Darwin (who touched at Terceira in 

* British Birds' Nests and Eggs, popularly described. By the Rev. J. C. 
Atkinson, &c. Illustrated by W. S. Coleman. London : Routledge & Co., 
18(51 . Post 8vo. pp. 120. Price One Shilling ! 

t Notice sur I'Histoire Naturelle des A9ores, suivie d'line description des 
MoUusques terrestres de cet Archipel, par Arthur Morelet. 1 vol. 8vo. 
Paris, 1860. 



Recent Ornithological Publications. 401 

the "Beagle"), and Dr. Tarns and Dr. Albers, who subsequently 
collected a certain number of mollusks in these islands at two 
diflFerent epochs, has even alluded to their zoology. M. Arthur 
Morelet, already well known to science for his labours in con- 
chology, and for the collections in other branches of natural his- 
tory with which he has enriched the French National Museum 
in the Jardin des Plantes, visited the Azores in 1857, in com- 
pany with M.Drouet, with the object of studying the Malacolo- 
gical fauna of the Archipelago, and passed six months in this 
occupation. The volume now published contains the results of 
their investigations into this branch of zoology, and at the same 
time gives a general sketch of the whole fauna, though M. 
Morelet acknowledges with regret that they did not pay much 
attention to other objects besides those to which they particu- 
larly devoted themselves. 

It is well known that when the Azores, so named from the 
abundance of hawks {Aqores, Latine Astures) met with upon 
them when first visited, were occupied by the Portuguese in 
the sixteenth century, these islands did not possess any human 
inhabitants. What is still more surprising, is that, with the 
exception of birds, they were also destitute of any species of 
vertebrated animal, and that at the present moment the only 
indigenous mammal is a species of Bat [Vespertilio leisleri) , itro- 
bably imported from the North of Europe. The Avi-fauna of 
the Azores embraces, according to M. Morelet, about 30 species 
of residents and regular visitors, which are all strictly of the 
European type. The Woodcock [Scolopax rusticola), the Bed 
Partridge (CaccaSw rw/fl), the Quail [Coturnix dactylisonans) , the 
Wood Pigeon, and certain Water-fowl, are common, and render 
to the islanders an abundant supply of game in the season. 
The other birds are mostly, as far as M. Morelet can tell us, of 
common and well-known species; though, singularly enough, 
the only two of which, as we believe, M. Morelet brought home 
examples, are of great interest, being, one, a new species of true 
Finch [Fi-ingiUa moreleti), and the other the larger European 
Bullfinch, named by M. de Selys Pyrrhula coccinea. We have 
already* noticed Dr. Pucheran's notes on these two species, which 
* Ibis, 185f), p. 322, et 1860, p. 93. 



402 Recent Ornitholoyical Publications. 

have been published in the ' Revue et Magasin de Zoologie/ 
But we wish to urge the prosecution of a further investigation of 
the zoology of the Azores^ and of an accurate comparison of spe- 
cimens of the resident species with their European correspondents, 
as it is far from improbable that other instances may be found of 
specific or quasi-specific differences between them and the pre- 
sent iuhabitants of the adjoining continent. 

3. German Publications, 

We owe apologies to our readers as well as to the author for 
not having already redeemed our promise of giving some notice 
of Dr. Hartlaub's elaborate account of the Ornithology of Ma- 
dagascar and the adjacent islands*, as it has been now issued in 
its complete and amended form. 

" Naturalists/^ says Dr. Hartlaub, in his introduction to this 
work, " as well botanists as zoologists, have been long accustomed 
to consider Madagascar as a land of wonders and promise. The 
genera Ouvirandra, Ravenalia, and Angracum of the former are 
rivalled by the anomalous forms Chiromys, Eupleres, Euryceros, 
Mesites, and Atelornis of the latter. Indeed the peculiarity of 
the animals that people this island, considered in relation to its 
geographical extent, is so great that we cannot be surprised when 
Isidore Geoffroy St.-Hilaire looks upon it, in respect of the idio- 
syncrasy of its fauna, as a fifth continent, and Hombron declares it 
to be one of the centres of creation of the African plateau. We 
are now aware that, out of about 50 species of mammals known 
to us from Madagascar, one or two only are met with also in 
Africa, and that of the 203 birds, of which the following work 
will make mention, not less than 97 are to be treated of as ex- 
clusively confined to the island.'^ 

Flacourt, in his ' Histoire de la grande isle Madagascar,' 
published at Paris in 1661, is the first author who treats of the 
birds of Madagascar, and gives us a list of 60 species said to be 
found there, the greater number of which, however, being un- 
accompanied by descriptions, are now irrecognizable. On the 

* Oinithologisclier Beitrag zur Fauna Madagascar's, mit Beiiicksich- 
tignng iler Inseln Mayotta, Nossi-be und S. Marie, so wie der Mascarenen 
und Seychellen, von l>r. G. Hartlaub. 1 vol. Pvo. Bremen, ISfil, 8S j)p. 



Recent Ornithological Publications. 403 

other hand, the worthy Brisson's descriptions of the 38 species 
of birds from Madagascar, principally taken from specimens 
sent by Poivre to the Reaumurian collection, are, as is always 
the case with that author, very full and complete, and may be 
relied upon as indicating valid species, though some of them 
have not been found again up to the present time. Sonnerat, 
in his 'Voyage a la Chine,' Desjardins in the 'Proceedings' of 
the Societe d'Hist. Nat. de I'isle Maurice, and Dr. A. Smith in 
the ' South- African Quarterly Journal,' were the next succeeding 
contributors to the ornithology of Madagascar, but none of 
them to any very great extent. But about twenty-five years 
ago a new and happier era for our knowledge of this ornithology 
began with the labours of several French travellers and savants. 
Victor Sganzin, at one time Commandant of the French island of 
St. Marie, on the eastern coast of Madagascar, who has published 
his notes on the mammals and birds observed during his resi- 
dence there, in the Memoirs of the N. H. Society of Strasburg, 
was one of the earliest of these. Bernier, Goudot, and Rous- 
seau, three well-knbwn names among those of the Naturaliste- 
voyageurs who have contributed so largely to the enrichment 
of the French National Collection, succeeded Sganzin in his 
explorations. Their many brilliant discoveries have been made 
known to the world by the scientific labours of I. GeofFroy 
St.-Hilaire, de Lafresnaye, and Pucheran. In 1848 Dr. Hart- 
laub turned his special attention towards the ornithology of 
Madagascar, and published a complete resume of what was then 
known on the subject in the fii-st volume of D'Alton and Bur- 
nieister's ' Zeitung fiir Zoologie.' As it will be observed that 
Dr. Hartlaub has in his present work nearly doubled his list of 
species, it will be evident that our knowledge of this peculiar 
fauna has been considerably increased since that period. This 
has been effected partly by the labours of the Austrian botanist 
Bojer and Madame Ida Pfeiffer, whose specimens have been de- 
posited in the Vienna Museum, and critically examined for Dr. 
Hartlaub's work by A. v. Pelzeln, partly by small collections 
made by William Jardine (son of Sir William Jardine) at Bo- 
janna Bay, and by Prof. Peters at St. Augustin's Bay, and partly 
by closer investigations of the Museums of Paris, Vienna, Leyden, 



404 Recent Ornithological Publications. 

Stuttgardt, and Philadelphia, which have been made by Dr. 
Hartlaub himself, with the assistance of Jules Verreaux, v. Pel- 
zeln, Schlegel, Krauss, Heuglin, and Cassiu. 

We have already noticed the fact, that out of the 203 INIada- 
gascar bii'ds enumerated by Dr. Hartlaub, 97 are exclusively con- 
fined to the island. The eccentricity of this fauna is, however, 
still further demonstrated by the fact that no less than 29 of 
the genera to which these birds are referable are also forms purely 
Madagascarian, and not met with in the adjoining continent 
or elsewhere. Some of these genera, it is true, may be said to 
be founded upon slight peculiarities ; but others, such as Bra- 
chyjjferacias, Atelornis, Falculia, Philepitta, Oriolia, Euryceros, 
Mesites, &c., are possessed of such ambiguous characters that 
their position in the natural series is still in many cases un- 
settled. That Madagascar has something in common with 
Africa may be inferred from the fact that 42 of its species of 
birds also occur on the mainland of the continent. But, on the 
other hand. Dr. Hartlaub points out that the families Muso- 
phagida, Lamprotornithida, Bnphagida, Budkrotida, and others, 
besides many genera which are especially characteristic of Afri- 
can ornithology, are not met with in Madagascar. With regard 
to the views of Geoffroy St.-Hilaire and Pucheran, that this 
fauna has something in common with India, Dr. Hartlaub re- 
marks on the occurrence in Madagascar of Ninox, Ploceus, Co- 
psychus, and Hypsipetes, as well as of several well-known Indian 
species. But it has always remained a doubtful point to us, 
whether the presence of some of these may not be attributable to 
introduction by man's agency or some other means. 

After giving this imperfect account of the many interesting 
statements contained in Dr. Hartlaub's introduction to his little 
book, we have only to say, in conclusion, that the Synopsis of 
species is worked out in our author's usual accurate and pains- 
taking style, and forms a worthy companion to his well-known 
volume on the Birds of Western Afi-ica. Short but well- 
drawn diagnoses are given of all the birds peculiar to the island, 
as also ample synonymy and references, and, in fact, every par- 
ticular which such a handbook of the ornithology of a local 
district ought to embrace. We sincerely hope this may not be 



Recent Ornithological Publications. 405 

the last local Avi-fauna Avhich Dr. Hartlaub may treat in a 
similar manner. 

A continuation of the third part of " Museum Heineanum/' 
by Dr Cabanis and Herr F. Heine, jun., lately issued, for an 
early copy of which we are much indebted to Herr Heine, 
completes the enumeration of the Strisores in this fine collection, 
and contains a portion of the Index of genera and species. 



The eighth ' Lieferung' of Dr. Reichenbach's ' Handbuch der 
Speciellen Ornithologie ' completes his account of the Colum- 
baria — a group composed of Columba, the family Cracidce (of 
the order GallincE), and the Cariamas (belonging to the Grallce), 
according to Dr. Heicheubach's fantastical arrangement. 

The plates issued herewith form a continuation of the series of 
illustrations of the Trochilida, a portion of which was published 
some time ago. The work, as far as it is a compilation, is some- 
times useful, as one of reference, but we cannot conscientiously 
say much in favour of such portions of it as are founded upon 
original research. 



Besides the account of the new Cassowary, to w^hich we have 
already alluded {antea, p. 312), the first number of the 'Journal 
fiir Ornithologie ' for the present year (the last w^e have received) 
contains an article on the breeding of the Nutcracker by Baron 
Richard Konig-Warthausen, which will be interesting to many 
of our readers. The author seems to think it a well-ascertained 
fact that this bird breeds regularly in the Black Forest *, though 
he has not yet been able to get authentic eggs from this locahty 
in spite of many efforts. Baldamus states that it breeds in 
Transylvania ; but the only egg brought back by him from his 
expedition into that country proves, according to Baron Konig- 
Warthausen, to be that of a Jay [Garrulus glandarius). Abbe 
Caire, however, has obtained eggs of the Nutcracker in the 
French Alps, " of undoubted authenticity," of which the Baron 
has compared together six examples — four belonging to his own 

* See Landbek's Systeraatische Aufzahlung der Vogel Wiirtembnrg's, 
p. 19. 



406 Recent Ornithological Publications. 

collection, two to Dr. Baldamus, and one to Herr Badeker. The 
latter specimen has already been described and figured by Herr 
Badeker in the 'Journal fiir Ornithologie ' (1856, p. 32, pi. 1). 
While on this subject, it may be remarked, that we cannot 
believe that any active Englishman going early enough to Swit- 
zerland would have much difficulty in obtaining eggs of this 
bird. We have never failed to see it in abundance during our 
somewhat frequent visits to the higher Alps (for example, in the 
upper valley of Lauterbriinnen, and on the Riffelberg near Zer- 
matt), and we have been assured by the Swiss guides that it 
breeds there eveiy spring, nesting in the Arven-trees {Pinus 
cembra). In these localities it is so much devoted to the cones 
of this Pine as to have obtained the name of " Arven-vogel." 

4. American Publications. 
Mr. G. N. Lawrence has kindly furnished us with copies of 
two ornithological communications to the Lyceum of Natural 
History of New York, which have been reprinted from their 
' Annals.^ 

The first is a Catalogue of Birds collected along the Panama- 
Railway route by Mr. M'=Leannan. It enumerates 142 species, 
amongst which are several described as new. The occurrence of 
a Barbet {Capito) so far north has not been previously recorded, 
and we hail with pleasure the acquisition of a new and appa- 
rently brilliant addition to the genus. Several species are also 
noted that have been lately described by Mr. Cassin in his ac- 
count of the birds collected during the Darien expedition by 
Lieut. Michler. Mr. Lawrence having kindly offered to send us 
a series of the species, as here described, for examination, we 
hope to be able to give some further remarks on receipt of the 
specimens. Taking this collection in connexion with that of the 
Darien expedition and Dr. Hoffman's collections in Costa Rica, 
which are now being worked at by Dr. Cabanis, we may soon 
hope to arrive at a more perfect knowledge of the Avi-fauna of 
the Central-American isthmus, which has as yet been left com- 
paratively uninvestigated. 

Mr. Lawrence's second paper contains a description of two 
new birds from Panama [Grallaria perspicillata and Polioptila 



Extracts from Correspondence, Announcements, S^c. 407 

superciliaris) and of a Humming-bird from Venezuela — Chloro- 

stilbon nitens. 

Mr. D. G. Elliott of New York, F.Z.S., has lately published 
the first part of an illustrated Monograph of the genus Pitta, of 
which we shall give a notice in our next Number. 



The second portion of M. Le Moine's little book on the 
Ornithology of Canada * has reached us. That this work has 
attracted attention in Canada is evident from the fact that the first 
edition is out of print, and that M. Le Moine has already issued 
a second edition of part 1, of which we have also received a copy. 

XLIV. — Extracts from Correspondence, Announcements, S^c. 

Dr. F. Hochstetter informs us that he has been busy in 
arranging the series of bones of the Moas {Dinornis, &c.) which 
he collected in New Zealand during his sojourn there with the 
Novara-expedition. Dr. Gustav Jager has completed the resto- 
ration of the skeleton of Palapteryx ingens, and prepared sets of 
plaster casts of all its bones, complete sets of which may be ob- 
tained on application to him at Vienna for about ^61 2. The 
bird stands about 6| feet in height. Drs. Hochstetter and 
Jager have also prepared for exhibition skeletons of Dinornis 
giganteus, D. robustus, D. elephantopus, and D. didifoiinis. 

" Palapteryx ingens," says Dr. Hochstetter, " (which is four- 
toed, like Apteiyx), has certainly been exterminated but few 
generations ago. I am of opinion that when New Zealand was 
first peopled from the Tonga Islands, about 600 years ago, seve- 
ral species of these giant birds (among which was Palapteryx 
ingens) were still in existence ; that these large birds were 
hunted by the natives and supplied them with flesh, as their 
songs and traditions abundantly testify ; and that the failure of 
this supply induced them, about 100 years ago, to resort to 
the disgusting practice of cannibalism, which Cook found so 
prevalent there." ■ 

The following are extracts from Mr. Blyth^s letters : — 

" Calcutta, April 14th, 1861. 
" My genus Nitidula, of which I sent a description some time 

* Ornithologie de Canada, par J. M. Le Moine. Quebec, 1861, 12mo 
398 pp. 



408 Extracts from Correspondence, Announcements, ^c. 

ago *, seems to be founded on the Nemura hodgsoni, Moore, 
which, however, is no Nemura (i. e. lanthia, nobis ; Nemura 
having been ah'eady used in Entomology), but a distinct generic 
form/' 

" The Comte de Castelnau (French Consul at Bangkok), writes 
me word that he has a new species of Argus from Camboja, and 
also a new true Gallus, I believe from the same country." 

"Maulmein, May 10th, 1861. 

" Here I am in the enjoyment of a sea voyage to recruit my 
health. I have visited Akyab and Rangoon, and next start for 
Tavoy, Mergui, and the Andaman Islands, thence reversing my 
former voyage back to Calcutta. Glorious hill-scenery here — 
jungle-clad and pagoda-capped everywhere, with splendid views 
and novelty in every shape and form. 

" The Common Sparrow of this country is Passer mo7itanus, 
but more rufous above and more whitish beneath than the bird of 
Britain, Sikhim, and China, from which countries examples are 
utterly undistinguishable. The note also is a sharp 'chip chij},' 
different from that of the British bird, which I remember per- 
fectly, and most readily distinguishable from that of the British 
and Indian House-Sparrows. At Akyab I observed both spe- 
cies, but not intermixed — the so-called Tree-Sparrow becoming 
a House-Sparrow, and so tame that it would hardly get out of 
your way. At Rangoon we have only the P. montanus (?) , The 
house in which I now sit is full of them, and they fly in and out 
through the rooms and maintain an incessant chirping." 

" I have many novelties to describe, received from my late 
host Col. Phayre, before I left Calcutta. One of the most re- 
markable is a beautiful second species of true Crypsirhina ; an- 
other is a new form of Turdmus-\\\ie birds with straight claws — 
Merulanthus phayrii, nobis." 



The following extracts are from Mr. R. Swinhoe's last 

letters : — 

" British Consulate, Amoy, March 9, 1861. 

" I have just procured a specimen of Phalacrocorax bicristutus, 
* See P.Z. S. 1861, p. 201. 



Extracts from Correspondence, Announcements, i^c. 409 

Pallas, the second species noted in the 'Fauna Japonica/ This 
bird is not usually found at Amoy, but its occurrence here is 
probably due to the unusually cold and high winds that have 
lately occurred on this coast. My specimen is partially moulted 
into the plumage of the adult, and has a few white filamentous 
feathers on the head and neck. 

" The Common Crane {Grus cinerea) occurs every winter at 
Swatow, lower down the coast than Amoy, in flocks of 100 or 
so. They live during their stay chiefly on sweet potatoes (the 
tuber of Batatas edulis). I have procured a partially moulted 
specimen from that port. 

" The Dutch Consul at Amoy has lately made, an excursion to 
the tea-districts at Hing-yang, some 150 miles inland of this, 
and has brought back the following birds not found near Amoy : 
Urocissa sinensis, Emberiza cio'ides of the ' Fauna Japonica,' 
Enicurus schistaceus (?), Ruticilla fuliginosa, and my Hypsipetes 
holtii. These specimens are at present in the hands of Mr. 
G. Schlegel at Amoy, and will eventually grace the Leyden col- 
lection." 

"Amoy, May 4,1861. 

" Referring to my letter of 20th February *, I must tell you 
that I have this summer procured a couple of Larvivora gracilis, 
one similar to the one described, and the other of the same form 
and size, but blue on the upper parts and j^wre ivhite on all the 
under parts. This last was a male, and the former a female. 
Therefore the bird described in the letter referred to was a male 
in the ' livree de passage,' and not in full plumage, and the 
species may yet prove to be L. cyanea of Hodgson. 

" Of the Common Cormorant that winters on this coast, I have 
lately procured a full-plumaged male. It resembles the bird of the 
' Fauna Japonica,' except that its cheeks are not white, as there 
represented, but of a uniform bronze with the rest of the head 
and neck, which are thickly sown with thick white filaments. 

" The Brachypternus from Foochovv is much larger (nearly 
double the size) than B. badius of Java, of which Mr. Blyth has 
favoured me with a pair. It is of a much richer brown, but 
would appear o hervvise similar. 

* See anteu, ]>. 2(52. 

VOL. III. 2 E 



410 Extracts from Correspondence, Announcements, ^c. 

" Among some dozens of Cohjmbida lately procured, a few 
have red markings on the throat. This would therefore prove 
our bird to be C. septentrionalis, unless the new species, C. 
adamsi, is also so marked. 

" I have to note Botaurus stellaris from Swatow, and the fol- 
lowing procured for the first time at Amoy : — 

" Emberiza cidides (of the ' Fauna Japonica ') from the main- 
land in February. 

" Ruticilla fuliginosa (of a uniform smoke-grey, except the 
red tail), from the neighbouring main in February. 

" Enicurus schistaceus, also from neighbouring hills on the 
main. Examples of the latter bird were met with on the margins 
of pools. They frequently repeated a series of twittering notes 
not unlike those of the Tringdides hypoleuca, while they moved 
their tails up and down violently. The specimen procured agrees 
exactly with one from Burmah sent to me by Mr. Blyth. 

" Carho hicristatus, Temm. et Schl. One immature specimen 
of this bird was brought to me on the 8th March. It was 
shot in this harbour, and agrees precisely with the figures in the 
* Fauna Japonica.' 

" Calliope kamschatkensis. Several of these have been pro- 
cured this spring, both mature and with the white throat. 

" Limosa lapponica seu 7^ufa. One was brought in 12th April, 
1861. 

" Xanthopygia leucophrys, Blyth (?). 

" Among several of X. narcissina, one bird has pure white 
eyebrows, is more slightly built than the rest, has black upper 
parts, with golden lower parts, and no flammeous on the throat. 
I conclude it to be the Malayan species. 

" I have lately procured several dozens of females of X. narcis- 
sina, and I would therefore venture to correct my description of 
this one given in the Birds of Canton {antea, p. 41). The throat 
is very rarely golden, and there is no black on the cheeks or 
white on the wings. 

"Tu7'dus sibiricus. A fine mature male was brought in 19th 
April. 

"Emberiza rutila, Pallas. A fine male, received 20th April, 
agrees well with the description in the ' Fauna Japonica.' 



Extracts from Correspondence, Announcements, &^c. 411 

"Numenius minor, Miiller. A pair of Whimbrels, brought in 
at the close of April, are certainly referable to the bird of the 

* Fauna Japouica/ and not to N. phceopus of Linnaeus. 

"Chibia hottentotta (Linn.). I was truly astonished to receive 
one of this species on the 29th April. A reference to Gray's 

* Genera' at once told me what it was. Its gizzard contained 
the remains of wasps. 

"Porzana erythrothorax, Teram. et Schl. A male brought in 
on 1st May. It is very similar to, but rather larger than, 
P. fusca of Bengal, but the differences are hardly sufficient to 
warrant a separation. 

" Gallicrex cristata (L.). A fine male, brought in on 2nd May. 

" Dicrurus cinerascens, $ . Brought in on 3rd ]\Iay. 

''These acquisitions add fourteen more to the Amoylist of birds. 

" I have at last succeeded in procuring mature specimens of 
our Budytes. The pair brought to me have both grey heads, 
with white eyebrows and chins, and iu other respects answer 
most minutely to B. flava of Linnseus. 

'' Anthus thermophihs, Hodgson (?), still puzzles me. In 
summer the spots on the breast disappear, and give place to a 
deep rosy-buff tinge. Mr. Blyth thinks the Chinese species is 
identical with his A. rufo-superciliaris from the Andamans, but 
further comparison is required. 

" I have lately received several specimens of our Tchitrea. 
They all have bright purple-red backs ; and I cannot agree with 
you in referring them to T. principalis of the ' Fauna Japonica.' 

" Dr. Hanse, the botanist, writes me that a friend of his shot 
three Parrakeets near Canton. I must therefore acknowledge 
my ignorance, and allow that the specimens of Loriculus puni- 
culus in the British Museum, which Mr. Fortune purchased at 
Canton, were probably procured in that neighbourhood. 

"I have lately received from Foochovv a fine specimen of 
Megalama virens (Bodd.) . It was brought down, according to the 
accounts I received, from the hilly regions of Yunnan, alive. I see 
this uncouth-looking bird has already been noted from China." 

"Amoy, May 18, 1861. 

"My shooters have just brought in several birds new to this 
place ; namelv, of 

2 E 2 



412 Extracts from Cori'espondence, Announcements, S^c. 

" Lobipes hyperboreus, three specimens, in nearly full summer 
plumage. 

" Tringa cinclus (?). One specimen, I think, of this species, 
with olive-green legs. 

" Two of a new Lusciniopsis, perhaps referable to Cassiu's new 
species fi-om Japan. 

"And a very diminutive Locustella, allied to L. raii." 



The following letter from Mr. Swinhoe has been forwarded to 
us for publication by Prof. Schlegel : — 

Amoy, June 1, 1861. 
Sir, — I have no doubt you will be much pleased to hear that 
one at least of the doubtful species of the ' Fauna Japonica ' has 
been confirmed. Your son and I have been most assiduous in 
our endeavours to hunt up the Biophorus paradisiacus, having 
heard that that truly wonderful species was originally brought 
to Japan from China, but our exertions have hitherto been fruit- 
less. The other species, however, the Pitta nympha, we hardly 
expected to discover, as its habitat is marked Corea. Imagine 
my joy then this morning when my shooters brought in a bird 
which I at once recognized as the redoubted Pitta nympha. I 
at once communicated the glorious intelligence to your son, and 
borrowed his coloured plate. The following notes were the re- 
sults of our comparison, and, should you think them worth print- 
ing, are at your service. 

The man who brought me the bird this morning told me 
that he had shot it while it was sitting on a tree at the foot of 
the highest hill on this island. Its ovary contained numerous 
eggs, but none in a very developed state, and its crop was nearly 
empty ; it is therefore natural to suppose that the individual had 
merely dropped on the island in its migration. 

Length 8| inches ; wing 4y\, ; tail ly^, of 14 rectrices ; tarse 
Ij^^. Bill blackish brown, paling towards the tip. Inside of 
mouth light pinkish orange. Tongue sagittate, slightly bulging 
at the sides, concave, horny, and split at the tip. Eye-rim black- 
ish brown ; iris hazel. Ear small and somewhat ovate, orifice 
hidden. Legs, toes and claws light brownish flesh-colour. 

The Appendix to the ' Fauna Japonica ' says of this species. 



Extracts from Correspondence, Announcements, 8^c. 413 

" Cette Breve ofFre beaucoup d'analogie avee la Breve k Queue 
Courte, Pitta cyanura (P. brachyura, L. V}, clu continent de I'lnde, 
dont elle ne parait se distinguer que par les caracteres suivants. 
Le vert des parties superieures est plus clair, et les parties in- 
ferieures sont blanc grisatre, au lieu de jaune brunatre. Le 
beau rouge qui se borne dans la Breve h, Queue Courte, au bas 
ventre, se prolonge dans celle de la Coree jusqu'a la poitrine. Le 
noir enfin, qui occupe les cotes de la tete, s'etend dans cette 
espece sous le menton." 

Our bird is a female, and answers well to the figure given in 
the ' Fauna Japonica,' which, from analogy, we should suppose 
to be a young bird of the species ; for the under parts of our bird 
are of a fine buff, with the exception of the chin and sides of the 
nape, which are of a pure white. The blue on the wing-coverts 
is extended throughout the whole of them, — a few of the feathers 
still remaining partly green, and indicating such to be the 
actual colouring of the juvenile garb. 

On comparing ours with a skin of P. brachyura from India, 
kindly provided by Mr.Blyth, I notice the followingdifferences: — 

The bill of our bird is much larger and deeper, and consider- 
bly more corvine, than that of brachyura. The occipital band 
that passes through the eye is much broader, and extends to 
beneath the bill. The medial coronal stripe is brown instead of 
black, and does not quite unite with the occipital. The back, 
scapulars, and tertiaries are of a darker, clearer green. The 
rump and wing-coverts are of a beautiful azure-blue with a pink- 
purple gloss, some of the feathers being patched with green. 
The white is much more extended on the quills, some of the 
inner quills being entirely white to their tips. The axillary 
coverts are black, without any white. The tail is similarly co- 
loured in both, and the lovely crimson of the under tail-coverts 
extends up the centre of the belly to the breast. The bird is 
much larger and much more robust than P. brachyura, but 
bears considerable resemblance to that species. Indeed, were it 
not for the ventral crimson stripe and its large bill, one would 
feel almost inclined to look upon it as merely a large variety of 
the Indian bird. 

The measurements of my skin of P. brachyura of India are as 
follows : — 



414 Extracts from Correspondence, Announcements, i^c. 

Length 7-^ inches; wing 4^ ; tail ly^^; tarse 1^. 

I think, on perusing the above, you will agree with me that 
we have at last discovered the Pitta nympha — a species so long 
established from a Japanese design, but one whose existence was 
seriously questioned by practical ornithologists. And to think 
that this Corean wonder should be first met with in the flesh in 
this barren island of Amoy ! 

As you will probably give publicity to these notes, I will add 
my remarks on dissecting its body : — 

Qjlsophagus about ^ in. wide, contracting before the proven- 
triculus, which starts with a breadth of ^^ in., and gradually en- 
larges as it joins the stomach. The proven triculus measures ^o^^- 
and is S7woo//i-coated. The stomach is heart-shaped, with stout 
lateral tendons, and broadly marked exteriorly with perpendicular 
rings. The epithelium was bright yellow, moveable and rugose; 
containing only the remains of one spotted field-bug. Intes- 
tines ISg in. long, and varying in thickness from -~-q in. to y^ in., 
marked exteriorly with a sprinkling of hard granules, and having 
a large round nodule, g in. broad, about 4 inches from the anus. 
This latter is probably the result of disease. Cseca yo i^i* loQgj 
ovate and aduate, the right one being 1^ in., the left one l-p^ in. 
from the anus. Ovary containing quite a bunch of small eggs. 

Yours, &c., 

Robert Swinhoe. 
Dr. Schlegel, Leyden Museum. 



Mr. Tristram writes to us, that in looking over his collections 
he finds that in his "Catalogue of the Birds of the Sahara,^^ 
as given in the two preceding volumes of ' The Ibis/ he has 
accidentally omitted two very interesting species : — 

1. Cyanecula ruhecula, of which he has two examples in winter 
plumage, one a female, the other with the sex undetermined. 

2. Anthus spinoletta, of which he has one specimen, shot, 
out of a small flock, in the marsh at the edge of the oasis of 
Laghouat in November 1856. He believes also that he saw a 
flock of this bird (if not of A. obscurus) in January 1857, in the 
swamps near Tuggurt. 

Mr. Tristram also remarks, — 

" Had I to rewrite my notes on the Larks of the Sahara, I do 



'Extracts from Correspondence, Announcements, ^c. 415 

not think I should now speak so positively as I have done of the 
specific distinctness of Galerida ahyssinica, isabellina, and areni- 
cola. Not that I should unsay what I said, but I am not now 
so clear as to the specific rank of races inhabiting areas so very 
closely conterminous as those of the difi'erent districts of the 
North-African Sahara." 



Kilmory, Lochgilp Head, N.B., August 18, 1861. 
Mr. Editor, — I regret that I can give you no further par- 
ticulars about the Gyrfalcon which I submitted to you in the 
summer, further than that it was shot in the month of October 
last, on the island of North Uist, belonging to my father ; the 
keeper thinks it was about the ]Oth or 12th. I observe it is a 
much darker specimen than that killed, not five miles from the 
same place, in March of the previous year, 1859 *, That had all 
the tail-feathers white, except the two centre ones, though the 
shafts of the others are of a brown tinge — paler, I have little 
doubt, from bleaching before found, as it was not secured on the 
day it was shot. 

Believe me, yours truly, 

J. W. P. Orde. 



" Of the gigantic Struthionida, bones of many species occur all 
over the islands of New Zealand. Feathers have also been found, 
and fragments of egg-shells ; also one perfect egg, taken out of 
the grave of a native in 1856. It is believed by many natives 
that none of the species are entirely extinct. They give tolerably 
minute descriptions of many species ; but it is impossible from 
their descriptions to define the number formerly existing. Pro- 
fessor Oweu has detected fourteen distinct species, from the 
various bones which have from time to time been sent to England. 
Wherever the bones of the larger species are found, there exists 
about a quart of pebbles, used doubtless to assist digestion. I 
can only give the native names and descriptions of a few extinct 
species. All these birds were hunted by the natives for food. 

" Moa. The largest species stood 16 feet high. Colour red- 
» See ' Ibis,' 1859, p. 469. 



416 Extracts fi'om Correspondence, Announcements, t^r. 

brown. Fed on leaves of forest-trees ; their legs were too long- 
to allow them to eat off the ground. Bones full of marrow. 

" Kiwi Papa IVhenua. 7 feet high. One of the last birds to 
disappear. There are still living men who have hunted it. 

" Tokoeka. 3 feet high. Bright red [!]. Inhabited only the 
snowy mountains in the neighbourhood of Otago. 

" Po-waka-i. 10 feet high. Lived on carrion as well as 
plants. Peculiar to the Middle Island. 

" Kiwi Mokemoke. 3 feet high. A solitary ash- coloured bird, 
with a long curved bill. These are all the traditions of the pre- 
ceding five birds to be relied on. It is highly probable that this 
species and other smaller ones yet exist among the wild unex- 
plored mountain-ranges of the Middle Island. 

" Great Apteryx (Kiwi Parure), Ajjteryx major. Inhabits 
forests and mountains. A night bird. By imitating its call, it 
is attracted, and then caught with dogs. It is also caught by 
lighting a large fire, which is sure to attract them. Native report 
says that this and the next-described species do not sit on their 
eggs, but cover them up with leaves, the decomposition and 
fermentation of which, at the expiration of one year, hatches the 
egg. Probably this report is mere fiction, and the bird always 
covers its egg on leaving the nest. This species lays only one 
egg. Its legs are very powerful, sufficiently so as to break the 
leg of a dog. The egg is white, and 3 inches in length. 

" Little Aptei-yw (Kiwi Hoihoi). Smaller than the preceding. 
My dogs have caught this bird. Lays two eggs. Habits similar 
to the preceding." — J. B. Ellman in ' Zoologist,' p. 7464 (1861). 



Since the publication of our last Number three members of 
the British Ornithologists' Union have left our shores. Mr. 
O. Salvin and Mr. F. D. Godman have departed, to continue 
Mr. Salvin's researches in Guatemala, and thence intend to de- 
scend along the Pacific coast to Panama, paying particular 
attention to the fauna of Costa Bica. Mr. A. F. Sealy has pro- 
ceeded to India, being about to become a permanent resident at 
Madras. 



INDEX. 



Acanthylis caudacuta, 205. 

nudipes, 205. 

Accentor modularis, 81. 
Accipiter collaris, 19. 

cooperi, 209, 317. 

erythrocnemis, 140. 

exilis, 75. 

fringilloides, 209. 

fuscus, 209, 317. 

gimdlacliii, 209. 

minullus, 74, 75. 

nisus, 75, 221, 327. 

pectoralis, 313, 314. 

perspiciUaris, 75. 

pileatus, 209, 355. 

sphenurus, 74. 

unduliventris, 75, 

virgatus, 263, 264. 

Acridotheres cristatellus, 

44, 48. 

roseus, 365. 

tristis, 115, 231, 273. 

Acrocephalus magniros- 

tris, 32, 329. 
Actitis glareola, 239, 240. 

hypoleiicos, 239, 240. 

ochropus, 239, 240. 

.iEgialites cantianus , 51 ,342. 

falklandicus, 155. 

geoifroyii, 51. 

hiaticula, 299. 

homeyeri, 299. 

indicus, 295. 

lesclienaultii, 342. 

philippmus, 342. 

pusillus, 51. 

Agapornis cana, 273. 
Agelaeus perspicillatus, 7. 
Aix galericulata, 208. 
Alauda ai'vensis, 83, 369. 
bracliydactyla, 255, 

333, 369. 

ccelivox, 46. 

cristata, 369. 

japonica, 257, 333. 

leautungensis, 256. 



magiia, 178. 

— mongolica, 256. 

— semitorquata, 299. 

— tartarica, 299. 
VOL. III. 



Alca impennis, 15, 374, 

396. 

pica, 2. 

torda, 15, 391. 

Alcedo bengalensis, 31, 

205, 228, 328. 

ispida, 205, 305. 

Alectroeuas nitidissima, 

277. 
Alethe castanea, 304. 
Alsocomus hodgsonii, 233. 
Aiupelis cedroruin,94, 107. 
garrulus, 92, 93, 94, 

103, 306. 
Anas acuta, 3, 13. 
boschas, 13, 91, 249, 

345. 

cai'oKneusis, 13, 15. 

caryopliyllacea, 249. 

claugula, 91, 300. 

crecca, 13, 15, 91. 

cristata, 160. 

falcaria, 263. 

fidigida, 91, 198; 

glacialis, 91. 

glaucion, 1. 

iopareia, 107. 

mollissima, 91. 

nigra, 91. 

oxyura, 107. 

penelope, 13, 91. 

pcBcilorhyncha, 249. 

specTilaris, 107. 

tadorna, 90. 

Anastomus oscitans, 244. 
Anoiis stolidus, 182. 
Anser albifrons, 4, 12, 90, 

111, 344. 

bracbyi'hynchus, 247. 

cinereus, 247. 

cygnoides, 344. 

domesticus, 12. 

erythropus. 111. 

ferus, 344, 366. 

hyperboreus, 12. 

minutus. 111, 247. 

segetum, 344. 

Antliropoides virgo, 243. 
Anthus agilis, 36, 333. 
aquaticus, 83. 



Anthus arboreus, 83. 

cervinus, 297. 

correndera, 153. 

japonicus, 333. 

ludovicianus, 3, 6. 

obscurus, 415. 

pratensis, 6, 83. 

richardi, 36, 205, 333. 

spinoletta, 414. 

superciliaris, 411. 

thermophilus, 36, 

411. 

Antrostomus ?, 64. 

cubanensis, 209. 

vociferus, 64, 209. 



Aphantocliroa roberti, 354. 
Aprosmictus amboinensia, 

311. 

dorsalis, 311. 

vubieratus, 348. 

Aptenodytes chrysocome, 

164. 

demersa, 163. 

pennantii, 163. 

Apteryx major, 416. 
— — owenii, 215. 
Aquila albicUla, 4. 

bellicosa, 129. 

boneUi, 372. 

brehraii, 295. 

canadensis, 319. 

chrysaetos, 112, 226. 

imperialis, 226, 372. 

megaloptera, 23. 

nsevia, 118, 221, 368, 

369. 

nsevioides, 221. 

ossifraga, 2. 

Arboricola torqueola, 236. 
Archibuteo ferruginous, 

318. 

lagopus, 318. 

sancti johannis, 318. 

Arctica alle, 16. 

Ardea cinerea, 9, 51, 244, 

245, 343. 

goisagi, 344. 

goliath, 244. 

herodias, 296. 

purpurea, 244. 

2r 



418 



INDEX, 



Ardeola leucoptera,52,245. 

prasinoscelcs, 52. 

speciosa, 52. 

Arcletta cinnamomea, 53. 

sijiensis, 53. 

Artaraus perspicillatus, 

348. 
Asio brachyotus, 226. 

otus, 127. 

Astur atricapillus, 316. 

cooperi, 313. 

melanoleuciis, 135. 

palumbarius, 74, 226. 

trivirgatus, 226. 

virgatus, 226. 

Asturina nitida, 59, 68. 

Athene ?, 25. 

brama, 226. 

brodiei, 227. 

cuculoides, 227, 265. 

noctua ?, 227. 

Attagis malouinus, 154. 

Barbatulachrysocoma,124. 

formosa, 124. 

leucolfema, 121. 

pusiUa, 124. 

Basilornis celebensis, 284. 

corythaix, 284. 

Baza lophotes, 226. 
Bernicla antarctica, 159. 

brenta, 12. 

indica, 247, 248. 

leucopsis, 3, 12. 

Biophorus paradisiacus, 

412. 
Blagrus leucogaster, 226. 
Bombycilla caerulea, 105. 
Botaurus st-ellaris,246,410. 
Brachypternus aurantius, 
229. 

badius, 267, 409. 

sylvaticus, 203. 

victorini, 203. 

Branta rufina, 250. 
Bubo arcticus, 320. 

beugalensis, 226. 

maximus,27, 28, 227, 

254, 327, 365. 

oi-ientalis, 227. 

umbratus, 227. 

vii'gmianus, 320. 

Bueco aurovirens, 187. 

barbatula, 124. 

cayennensis,var.,185. 

chrysocomus, 124. 

elegans, 187. 

erythrocephalus, 185. 

margaritatus, 124. 

peruvianus, 186. 

pictus, 187. 



Buceros birostris, 227. 

buccinator, 133. 

ruficollis, 285. 

Bucorax abyssinicus, 132. 
Budytes cinereocapillus, 
210. 

flava, 36, 333, 411. 

rayi, 210. 

viridis, 232. 

Buplius coromandus, 52. 

russatus, 296. 

Butaetus leucurus, 76. 
Buteo anceps, 76. 

augur, 76. 

boreaUs, 318. 

erythronotus, 151. 

eximius, 76. 

ferox, 76. 

jacal, 76. 

japonicus, 24, 326. 

minor, 75, 76. 

pectoralis, 313. 

poliosoma, 151. 

rufinus, 76, 222. 

rufipeunis, 76. 

swainsoni, 317. 

tachardus, 75, 76. 

varius, 151. 

vidgaris, 24, 75, 76, 

226. 
Butorides atricapilla, 275. 

bruiinescens, 275. 

javamca, 52. 

Cacatua sequatorialis, 311. 

cristata, 311. 

moluccensis, 284. 

sulphurea, 311. 

triton, 311, 286. 

Caccabis chiikar, 222, 236. 

rufa, 236, 401. 

Calamodyta aquatica, 208. 

cariceti, 208. 

phragmitis, 208. 

Calandrella brachydactyla, 

231. 
Calidris arenaria, 3, 11, 342. 
Calliope camtschatkensis, 

329. 

kamschatkensis, 410. 

Calcenas cruenta, 215. 

Campephaga ?, 42. 

nielanoptera, 42. 

Campylopterus cuvieri, 

354 
Capito amazonicus, 186. 

aurantiicollis, 189. 

aurifrons, 186. 

aurovii'ens, 187. 

bourcieri, 188. 

capistratus, 189. 



Capito cayennensis, 185. 

erythrocephalus, 185, 

186, 187, 188. 

flavicolUs, 186. 

glaucogularis, 190. 

hartlaubi, 189, 190. 

maynanensis, 187. 

melanotis, 190. 

najvius, 185. 

peruvianus, 186. 

pictus, 187. 

punctatus, 186, 187. 



ricliardsoni, 189. 

sulpliureus, 189. 

tschudii, 188. 

Caprimulgus ?, 30. 

atrovirens, 296. 

chmaciu'us, 296. 

europseus, 235. 

jotaka, 263, 327. 

monticola, 263. 

swmhoei, 263. 

virginicus, 296. 

Carbo bicristatus, 410. 

cormoranus, 92. 

cristatus, 92. 

Carduelis orientaUs, 295. 
Carpodacuserythrinus,lll 
Carpophaga chalybura, 

286. 

luctuosa ?, 285. 

perspicillata,285,290. 

sundevalii, 290. 

Casarca rutda, 249, 344. 
Cassidix oryzivora, 353. 
Casuariua bennetti, 197, 

312. 

bicarimculatus, 312. 

kaupi, 312. 

uuiappendiculatus, 

312. 
Cathartes aura, 149. 
Centropus ?, 48. 



afEnis, 48. 

hgnator, 48. 

phOippensis, 230. 

sinensis, 49. 

Centurus santacruzi,59,67. 
Cephalopterus penduhger, 

57. 
Cercoleptes caudivolvulus, 

141. 
Ceriornis satyra, 234. 
Certhia borbonica, 359. 

chloronotos, 359. 

himalayana, 233. 

Certhilauda mongohca, 

333. 
Certhiola mexicana, 352. 
Ceryle guttatus, 227. 
rudis, 31, 228. 



INDEX. 



419 



Chgetiu'a vauxi, 147. 
Chalcopsitta rubiginosa, 

290. 
Charadrius hiaticula, 9, 86. 

hy|jomelanus, 299. 

morinellus, 86. 

pardela, 299. 

philippinus, 260. 

pluvialis, 9, 86, 238. 

virginicus, 9, 51, 238, 

342. 
Chera prognc, 133. 
Chettusia gregaria, 238. 

leucura, 210. 

Cliibia hottentotta, 411. 
Cliionis alba, 154. 
Cliloepliaga luagellaiiica, 

157, 159. 

polioeephala, 159. 

rubidiceps, 158. 

Chloroenas flavirostris,355. 
Chrysomitris magellanicus 

154. 

pistacina, 295. 

spinus, 267. 

Chrysomma hypoleucum, 

232. 
Clnysotis xantholora, 354. 
Cicinnurus regius, 287. 
Ciconia alba, 244, 270, 371. 

leucocephala, 244. 

nigra, 372. 

Cinclodes antarcticus, 154. 

bifasciatus, 199. 

patachonicus, 154. 

Cinclus aquaticus, 80. 

asiaticus, 232. 

interpres, 9. 

— — mexicanus, 206. 

pallasii, 206. 

Cinnyris Solaris, 350. 
Circaetus fasciolatus, 130. 

gallicus, 131, 220. 

thoracicus, 131. 

zonurus, 130, 212. 

Circus, sp. ?, 263. 

8eruginosus,220,222. 

ciiierascens,220, 297, 

367, 368. 

cinereus, 152. 

cyaneus, 226, 326. 

hudsonius, 319. 

melanoleucos, 220. 

pallidas, 76, 297. 

swain souii, 220. 

uliginosus, 263. 

Cisticola ciirsitaus, 329. 
— — tintinuabulans, 32. 
Cistothorus platensis, 153. 
Clangula albeola, 14. 
glaucion, 345. 



Clangula histrionica, 14. 

islandica, 14. 

Coccothraustes abeillii,352. 

maculipennis, 352. 

melaniu'us, 45. 

vulgaris, 105, 336. 

Colaptes auratus, 8. 
Collocalia francica, 271. 
Columba domestica, 8. 

erytlxrothorax, 355. 

gelastes, 305. 

leucozonura, n. sp., 

259. 

Uvia, 233, 259, 350. 

cenas, 233. 



Colymbus adamsii, 268, 

410. 

arcticus, 91, 268. 

glacialis,14,268, 345, 

377. 



septentrionalis, 14, 

92, 410. 
Contopus bracliy tarsus,354 
Conurus aymara, 200. 

brvinniceps, 200. 

Copsychus sauiaris, 33. 
Coracias affinis, 228. 

garrula, 228. 

indica, 228. 

Corvus collaris, 108, 206, 

365. 

corax, 7, 85. 

cornix, 85, 368. 

culmiuatus, 230. 

dauricus, 206, 257, 

296, 337. 

japonicus, 337. 

littoralis, 7. 

monedula, 108, 206. 

neglectus, 259, 337. 

ossifragus, 296. 

pastinator, 336. 

pectoralis, 43, 337. 

pica, 85. 

splendens, 230. 

umbriuus, 295. 

violaceus, 283. 



Corydalla richardi, 265. 

sinensis, 265. 

Coryphisteraalaudina, 201. 
Corythaix ei'ytlu'olophus, 

309. 
Coturnix argoonda, 116. 

chinensis, 50. 

coromandelica, 237. 

dactylisonans,50,260, 

341, 401. 

vulgaris, 236. 



Cotyle cahirica, 295. 

riparia, 328. 

scrripennis, 61. 



Crax globieera, 143. 
Crithagra canicollis, 272. 

clirysopyga, 272. 

Cuculus canorus, 85, 113, 

229, 259. 

mindanensis, 46. 

striatus, 259, 340. 

teniiirostris, 46. 

Cuniica cinerea, 32. 
Cursorius chalcopterus, 

134. 

coromandelicus, 237. 

Cyanecula rubeciila, 414. 

suecica, 232, 329. 

Cyanocitta crassii'ostris, 

353. 

uielanocyanea, 63. 

Cyanopica cyanea, 336. 
Cygnus coscoroba, 159. 

ferus, 13. 

minor, 344. 

musicus, 3, 4, 366. 

nigricollis, 159. 

Cymindis wilsoni, 209. 
Cypliorinus pliilomela,352. 
Cypselus affinis, 24, 30, 

263. 

leuconotus, 205. 

subfurcatus, 263. 

vittatus, 254, 328. 

Dafila acuta, 250, 345. 

urophasianus, 160. 

Dendrocitta rufa, 230. 
Dendrocygna arcuata, 248. 

major, 248. 

Dendroeca sestiva, 208. 

albicollis, 209. 

pctecliia, 208, 209. 

ruficeps, 208. 

vieilloti, 208. 

Dendromanes homo- 

chrous, 353. 
Dicnu'us cineraceus, 265, 

411. 
macrDcercus, 43, 265, 

340. 

megalornis, 286. 

Dinornis didiformis, 408. 

elephantopus, 407. 

giganteus, 407. 

robust us, 407. 

Diomedea melanophrys, 

165. 
DilDliyllodes magnifica, 

287, 291. 
D ry moica extensicauda, 32. 
Dysporus mclauui'us, 296. 

Eclectus cardinalis, 310. 

linnsBi, 286, 310. 

2 F 2 



420 



INDEX. 



Elainea riisii, 208. 
Elanoides fiii-catus, 148. 
Elauus melanopterus, 220. 
Emberiza aureola, 305, 

334. 

calcarata, 83, 

caiiesceus, 334. 

cioides, 409, 410. 

citrinella, 84. 

fucata, 45, 334. 

miliaria, 305. 

nivalis, 83. 

■ personata, 45, 334. 

pusilla, 334. 

rustica, 255. 

rutila, 334, 411. 

schoeniclus, 83. 

sulphurata, 334. 

Embernagra chloronota, 

353. 
Einpidonax brachytarsus, 

354. 
Enicurus raaculatus, 232. 

scbistaceus, 409, 410. 

speciosus, 265. 

Eos atra, 291. 

cyanostriata, 311. 

reticulata, 311. 

rubra, 118, 284. 

squamata, 311. 

Epimachus magnus, 287. 
Erismatura ferruginea,294. 

vittata, 107. 

Erythacus akahige, 34. 
Erythropus vespertinus, 

253. 
Erytlu'ostema mugimaki, 

330. 
Esacus reeurvirostris, 237. 
Estrelda asti-ild, 272. 
Eubucco aui'antueollis, 

189. 

aurifrons, 186. 

bourcieri, 188. 

erythrocephalus, 188. 

glaucogularis, 190. 

hartlaubi, 189, 190. 

pictus, 187. 

richardsoni, 189. 



Eudi'omias urvillii, 155. 
Eudynamys orientalis, 46, 

230. 

ransomi, 283. 

Eudyptes antarcticus, 164. 

chrysolopbus, 163. 

— ■ — diadematus, 163. 
nigrivestis, 163, 164, 

166. 

papua, 163. 

Eulampis chorolsemus, 

208. 



Eumomota superciliaris, 

59, 64. 
Euplocomus albocristatus, 

235. 
Eupodotis edwardsii, 237. 
Eupsychortyx albifrena- 

tus, 209. 

sonninii, 208. 

Eurynorhynchus pyg- 

mseus, 296. 
Eiu-ystomus orientalis, 31 . 
Euspiza aureola, 45. 

sidpliurata, 46. 

Eutolmaetus bonelUi, 226. 

Falcinellus igneus, 214, 

243, 371. 
madagascariensis, 

272. 
Falco sesalon, 70, 79, 327. 

albicilla, 78. 

alopex, 69. 

anatum, 5, 315. 

arcadius, 108. 

ater, 306. 

babylonicus, 218, 

219, 220. 

barbarus, 131, 218, 



219. 



131. 



biarmicus, 219. 
calidus, 219, 225. 
candicans, 4. 
chicquera, 220. 
columbarius, 315. 
communis minor, 



— concolor, 108. 

— deii'oleucus, 354. 

— eleonorse, 108. 

— erytbropus, 70. 
fuscus, 1. 

— haliaetus, 79. 

islandieus, 4. 

jugger, 218. 

lagopus, 79. 

lanarius, 218, 219. 

melanogenys, 131. 

milvus, 305. 

minoi", 131. 

— miilleri, 76. 
musicus, 73. 

peregrinator,219,225. 

— peregriuoides, 131, 
218, 219, 296. 

peregrinus, 2, 4, 5, 



24, 79, 131, 219, 225. 

pvmctifjennis, 200. 

rufus, 305. 

rupicola, 71. 

rupicoloides, 69, 71. 

— rusticolus, 2. 



Falco sacer, 225, 372. 

semitorquatus, 346. 

sparverius, 296. 

tanypterus, 219. 

tinnuncidus, 69, 70, 

71, 79, 327. 

timetanus, 131. 



vespertinus, 327. 

Ficedtila borbonica, 360. 
Foi-micarius moniliger, 

353. 
Foudia erythrocepbala,272 
Francoliuus madagasca- 

riensis, 274. 

perlatus, 50. 

ponticerianus, 275. 

vulgaris, 236. 

Fratereula arctica, 15. 

cii'rbata, 16. 

glacialis, 15. 

Fringilla boreaUs, 84, 335. 

canescens, 3, 7. 

carduelis, 114. 

cbloris. 111. 

domestica, 84. 

linaria, 7, 335. 

montana, 335. 

montifringilla,45,84, 

335. 

montium, 84. 

moreleti, 401. 

serinus ?, 113. 

sinica, 335. 

spinus, 335. 

Fulica americana, 12. 

atra, 246, 250, 344, 

cbloropoides, 157. 

FuKgida affinis, 15. 
cristata, 3, 14, 251, 

345. 

ferina, 250. 

marila, 13, 15, 345. 

nyroca, 251. 

rufina, 214. 

Galerida abyssinica, 415. 

arenicola, 415. 

— cristata, 231. 

isabelliua, 415= 

Gallicrex cristata, 56, 267, 

411. 
GaUinago gallinula, 241. 

magellanicus, 156. 

major, 134. 

— ' media, 3, 4, 11. 

megala, 343. 

nemoricola, 241. 

scolopacina, 241. 

stenura, 56, 241, 343. 

uuiclava, 56, 343. 

Gallinula ?, 116. 



INDEX. 



421 



Gallinula chloropus, 56, 

116, 246, 275. 

crex, 90. 

galeata, 116. 

minor, 201. 

piimila, 201. 

pyrrliorrlioa, 275. 

Grallus feiTugiueus, 231. 

gallorimi, 9. 

GraiTiilax albogularis, 230. 

leucolophus, 230. 

perspicillatus, 38. 

sinensis, 38. 

Garriilus glandarius, 405. 

gularis, 230. 

ornatus, 267. 

Gravia, sp., 345. 

— kittlitzii, 345. 

ridibunda, 345. 

roseiventris, 166. 

Gazzola typica, 107. 

Gecinus ?, 267. 

canus, 838. 

flavinuchus, 229. 

vii-idis, 267. 

Geobaemon rufipennis,201 
Geocichla, n. sp., 37. 
Geococcyx afiinis, 59, 67. 
Geoffroius jukesii, 348. 
Geopelia striata, 116, 182, 

274. 
Geronticus spinicollis, 198. 

papillosus, 243. 

Glareola melanoptera, 297. 

orientalis, 237, 342. 

Glaiix javanica, 227. 
Goura victorise, 215. 
Graciila intermedia, 230. 
Graculus carbo, 19. 

pygmseus, 247. 

Gracupica nigricollis, 44, 

47, 48. 
Grallaria guatemalensis, 

354. 

■ mexicana, 354. 

perspicillata, 406. 

Grus antigone, 242. 
cinerea, 243, 409. 



leucogeranos, 243. 

Guiraca cserulea, 352. 
Gymnoglaux newtoui, 209. 

nuclipes, 209. 

Gypaetos barbatus, 225. 
Gypohierax angolensis, 

304. 
Gyps bengalensis, 225. 

fulvus,226, 369, 372. 

indicus, 225. 

riippellii, 295. 

■^Haematopus ater, 155. 



Hsematopus leucopu8,156. 
ostralegus, 2, 86, 261, 

342. 
— — palliatus, 115. 
Hsematornis cheela, 226. 
Halcyon coromanda, 228. 

gurial, 227. 

smyrueusis, 31, 227, 

228. 
Haliaetus albicilla, 4. 
leucocephalus, 296, 

319. 

leucoryphus, 223,299. 

macei, 222, 223, 299. 

ossifiagus, 4. 

unicolor, 299. 

Haliastur indus, 224. 
Halieus africanus, 295. 

sulcirostris, 294. 

Harelda glacialis, 14. 
Harpagus circumcinctus, 

200. 
Hemiclielidon femigiiiea, 

40. 

fuliginosa, 330. 

griseitincta, 330. 

latirostris, 40, 330. 

Herodias alba, 245, 344, 

371, 374. 

bubulcus, 245. 

egretta ?, 51. 

egrettoides, 261. 

garzetta, 52, 245, 

344, 371. 
intermedia, 51, 245, 

344. 

melanopus, 245. 

Hiaticula cautiana, 238. 
Hieraetus pennatus, 226. 
Hierax eutolmos, 226. 
Himantopus candidus, 

238, 366. 

leucocephalus, 350. 

Hirundo capensis, 296. 

daiii-ica, 328. 

gutturalis, 25, 30. 

nudipes, 205. 

rufa, 5. 

rustica, 85, 233, 254, 

328. 



senegalensis, 296. 

sinensis, 233. 

urbica, 233. 

Hoplopterus cayanus, 155. 

ventralis, 237. 

Hydrochelidon indica,246. 

javanica, 345. 

Hy drophasianus chirurgus, 

242. 
Hypotriorchis castauono- 

'tus, 346. 



Hypotriorchis deiroleucus, 
354. 



severus, 225. 
subbuteo, 220. 



HyjDsibates leucocephalus, 

295. 
Hypsipetes holtii, n. sp., 

266, 409. 

maclellandii, 266. 

olivacea, 271. 

lanthia rufilata, 329. 
lanthcenas halmaheira,290. 

metallica, 348, 359. 

Ibis ?, 261. 

nippou, 261. 

Icterus gularis, 59, 62. 

mentalis, 59, 62, 69. 

Ictinaetus nialayensis, 221, 
Ictinia mississippiensis, 

355. 
plumbea, 140, 146, 

148, 355. 
Ixos obscurus, 297. 

Ketupa ceylonensi9,27,227. 

fkvipes, 227. 

javanica, 27. 

Kittacincla macroura, 212. 

Lagopus grcenlandicus, 9. 

montanus, 201. 

mutus, 201. 

reinhardti, 9. 

Laimodon albiventris, 121. 
unidentatus, 121. 



Lanius bucephalus, 340. 

hard^vickii, 232. 

lahtora, 232. 

lucioneusis, 43, 255, 



340. 



■ schach, 43. 



superciliosus, 215. 

tscbagi-a, 297. 

Larus affinis, 17, 18. 

albipennis, 312. 

arcticus, 16. 

argentatoides, 18. 

argentatus, var., 1. 

argentatus, 17, 18, 

92, 108, 345, 365. 

bracliytarsus, 18. 

cachinnans, 108. 

canus, 92, 299, 345. 

chalcopterus, 17. 

cinerarius, 1. 

dominicanus, 165. 

fuscus, 92, 365. 

glacialis, 16. 

glaucotes 312. 

glaucus, 16. 



422 



INDEX. 



Larus heinei, 299. 

leucopterus, 1, 3, 17. 

maculipemiis, 312. 

marinus, 16, 92. 

■ melanurus, 261, 345. 

ininutus, 246, 362, 

363, 366. 

occideutalis, 17. 

ridibundus, 1, 246. 

roseiventris, 166, 312. 

scoresbii, 165. 

tridactylus, 17, 107. 

warnecki, 107. 

Larvivora, sp. ?, 24, 34. 

cyanea ?, 262, 409. 

gracilis, 11. sp., 262, 

409. 
Leptoptila, sp., 355. 

albiii'ons, 355. 

rufaxilla, 355. 

Leptoptilus argala, 225, 

244, 268. 

javanicus, 269. 

Lepus sinensis, 323. 
Lestris antarctica, 165. 

richardsonii, 92. 

Leucocirca albofrontata, 

233. 
Leucodiopti'Oii canorum, 

38. 
Leucosarcia picata, 172, 

198. 
Ligurinus siniciia, 45. 
Limosa Eegocephala, 11, 

240. 

hudsonica, 156. 

lapponica, 240, 410. 

rufa, 410. 

Linota horneinanni, 7. 
Lobipes hyperboreus, 412. 
Lobivanellus cinereus, 238. 

goensis, 237. 

Locustella, sp. nov., 412. 

raii, 412. 

rubescens, 32, 329. 

Lopliophorus impeyauus, 

235. 
Lophorina snpcrba, 287. 
Loriculus punicidus, 411. 
Lorius domieella, 118, 283, 

311. 

tricolor, 311. 

Loxia cui'virostra, 336. 

leucoptera, 8. 

recurvirostra, 45. 

Lusciuiopsis, sp. nov., 

412. 



eanturians, 32, 328. 

Lusciola (Nomura) cyanu- 

ra, 206. 
Lvncornis cerviniceps, 30. 



Macrorliamphus griseus, 

11. 
Malacirops borbonica, 361. 
Malacocercus bengalensis, 

232. 
Mareca chiloeiisis, 160. 

penelope, 250, 345. 

Megalsema leucotis, 121, 

124. 

pbilippensis, 229. 

vii-ens, 229, 411. 

Megalaima bilineata, 121. 

" capistratus, 189. 

Melierax metabates, sp. 

nov., 72. 

■ musicus, 73. 

' polyzonus, 73. 

Melophus lathami, 46. 
Melopsittacus undidatus, 

198. 
Menura alberti, 167, 173, 

175. 
superba, 174, 175, 

198. 
Mergus albellus, 251, 344. 

castor, 251. 

merganser, 1, 91,300, 



344. 



serrator, 14, 91. 
serratus, 344. 



Meropiscus miilleri, 303. 
Meropogon breweri, 303. 
Merops apiaster, 305. 

nubicus, 70. 

philippinus, 228. 

saviguii, 132. 

vii-idis, 228. 

Morula boulboul, 232. 

dactyloptera, 279. 

vinitincta, 281. 

Meridantlius pliayrei, 

408. 
Metopidius indicus, 242. 

Micronisus ?, 25. 

badius, 25, 221, 263. 

gabar, 23, 74. 

monogi'ammicus, 74. 

niger, 74. 

soloensis, 25. 



Micropogon amazonicus, 

186. 

aureus, 186. 

aurovirens, 187. 

bourcieri, 188. 

cayennciisis, 185. 

flavicollis, 186. 

liartlaubi, 189. 

nsevius, 185. 

Micropterus cinereus, 150, 

161. 
pataclionicus, 162. 



Milvago albogularis, 23. 

australis, 150. 

caruncidatus, 19, 22, 

23. 

leiicurus, 150. 

megalopterus, 22, 23, 

199. 
Milvus affinis, 226. 

ater, 224, 

govinda, 25, 224, 253, 

326. 



melanotis, 25. 

migrans, 224. 

— ■ — • parasiticus, 70. 
Mimus gracilis, 59, 60, 61, 

69. 
Mniotilta americana, 6. 

coronata, 5. 

parus, 6. 

rubricapilla, 6. 

striata, 6. 

virens, 5. 

Molothrus seneus, 60, 61. 
Momotus castaneiceps, 

354. 
Mormon cornicidata, 295. 
Motacilla alba, 3, 6, 82. 
boarula, 35, 232, 305, 

333. 



— flava, 82. 

— lugubris, 35, 255, 
333. 

luzoniensis, 35, 215. 



madagascariensis, 

358. 
— maderaspatensis,231. 

melanocephala, 108. 

ocularis, 35. 



Munia acuticauda, 263. 

malacca, 45. 

minima, 45, 263. 

oryzivora, 45, 115. 

punctularia ?, 115, 



277. 



rubronigra, 45. 
striata, 263. 



Museicapa cinereo-alba, 

40. 

griseola, 228. 

luctuosa, 80. 

Muscisaxicola macloviana, 

154. 
Mycetes palliatus ?, 146. 
Mycteria australis, 197, 

244. 
Myiagra azurea, 263. 
Myiarchus f)anamensi8, 

209. 
Myiophonus ca?ruleus, 36. 

temminckii, 232. 

Myiozetetes texensis, 64. 



INDEX. 



423 



Nemoricola inclica, 333. 
Neniiu'a lioclgsoui, 408. 

rufilata, 206. 

Neophron percuopterus, 

225, 372. 
Nettapus coromandelicus, 

248. 
Niltava cyanomelffiua, 41. 
Ninox scutellatus, 227. 
Noctua cuculoides, 25. 
Numenius arcuatus, 86, 

240. 

borealis, 10, 356. 

brevirostris, 156. 

hudsouicus, 10. 

major, 343. 

melanorhynchus, 10. 

minor, 411. 

phseopus, 3, 4, 10, 

87, 240, 276, 411. 
Numida cristata, 120. 

plumifera, 303. 

vulturina, 120. 

Nyctea nivea, 5, 320. 
Nycterodius violaceus, 

294. 
Nycticorax americanus, 

312. 

gardeni, 157, 312. 

griseus, 53, 245, 344. 

obscurus, 312. 

violaceus, 357. 

Nymphicns novse-hol- 

landiffi, 198. 

Ocyalus wagleri, 141. 
Ocydi'omus australis, 137. 
(Edemia perspicillata, 14. 
CEdicnemus bistriatus, 68, 

356. 

crepitans, 237. 

vocifer, 59, 68, 356. 

Oreocincla aurea, 305. 

heinei, 305. 

whitei, 333. 

Oreotrocliilus leucopleu- 

rus, 199. 
Oriolus acrorhynchus, 38, 

206. 

chinensis, 38, 340. 

cochinsinensis, 206. 

kimdoo, 233. 

melanocephalus, 233. 

sinensis, 38, 206 

Orthotomiis phyllorra- 

phcus, 32. 
Ortygometra Carolina, 12. 
— — crex, 11. 

porzana, 12. 

Ortyx afRnis, 115. 
leylandi, 209. 



Ortyx sonninii, 114, 115. 

virginianus, 114. 

Otocorys alpestris, 8. 

bicornis, 295. 

cornuta, 8. 

Otogyps calvus, 221, 224. 
Otus bracliyotus, 5, 26, 

152, 327. 
Oxylophus cororaandus, 

230. 
Oxynotus ferrugineus, 272. 

Pacbycephala pectoralis, 

101. 
Pacbyrhamphus aglai8e,59, 

64, 69. 
Pagophila brachytarsa, 18. 

ebiu'nea, 18. 

nivea, 18. 

Palseoruis alexandi-i, 218. 

cyanocephalus, 218. 

eques, 115. 

torqiiatus, 218. 

Palapteryx ingens, 407. 
Pandion earoUnensis, 320. 

haliaetus, 24, 222. 

Panterpe insignis, 108. 
Pauurus biarmicus, 214. 
Paradisea apoda, 289. 

atra, 310. 

papuana, 287, 289, 



291. 



— regia, 291. 

rubra, 211, 287, 288, 

290. 

superba, 310. 



Parotia aurea, 287. 
Parra jacana, 294. 
Parus atricapillus, 296. 

bicolor, 1, 296. 

cinereus, 35. 

cyanus, 305. 

lapponicus, 306. 

minor, 34, 332. 

• palustris, 82, 331, 

340. 

sibiricus, 306. 

Passer domesticus, 231. 

indicus, 231. 

montanus, 45, 255, 

408. 

russatus, 45. 



Pastor coi'ythaix, 284. 

roseus, 113, 231. 

Pavo cristatus, 234. 
Pelecanoides berardi, 164. 
Pelecanus crista tirs, 1. 

javauicus, 247. 

mitratvis, 135, 296. 

onocrotalus, 366. 

rufescens, 135. 



Penelope purpnrascens, 

145. 
Perdicula asiatica, 236. 
Perdix cinerea, 236. 

ponticeriana, 236. 

Pericrocotus cantonensis, 
n. sp., 42. 

cinereus, 42, 43, 340. 

Peristera bistrionica, 198. 

lugens, 296. 

semitorquata, 296. 

Pernis apivora, 222, 226. 

cristata, 226. 

Petrocossyphus manil- 

lensis, 38, 333. 
Petronia flavicoUis, 231. 
Phaeton flavii'ostris, 116, 
181, 276. 

rubricauda, 180. 

Phalacrocorax bicristatus, 
408. 

capillatus, 264. 

carbo, 261, 263, 264, 

345. 

carunculatus, 166. 

filamentosus, 263, 

264. 

magellanicus, 167. 

sinensis, 264. 

Phalaropus fulicariuS; 11. 

hyperboreus, 11. 

Plialcobsenus carunculatus, 
22. 

montanus, 23. 

Pharomacrus paradiseus, 

59, 66, 69, 138. 
Phasianus torquatus, 49, 
341. 

wallichii, 222, 235. 

Phasidus niger, 303. 
Phedina borbonica, 116, 

271. 
Philomachus cayanus,155. 

pugiiax, 241. 

Phlogopsis macleaunani, 

209. 
Phodilus badius, 227. 
Phcenicopterus audinus, 

199. 
Phrygilus melanoderus, 
153. 

xanthogrammus, 153. 

Phylloscopus coronatus, 
330, 331. 

fuscatus, 32. 

plumbeitarsus, 330. 

regidoidcs, 205. 

rufus, 112. 

superciliosus, 205. 

sylviciiltrix, 331. 

trochiius, 112. 



424 



INDEX. 



Pica beecheyi, 353. 

cooki, 206. 

cyanea, 206. 

scricea, 43, 336. 

Picolaptes affiuis, 353. 

lineaticeps, 353. 

Picus cabanisi, 46, 267, 

339. 

goulcli, 46. 

hardwickii, 340. 

himalayanus, 229. 

kisuki, 340. 

major, 46, 339. 

mandarinus, 46. 

medius, 305. 

tridactylus, 85. 

varius, 8. 

viridis, 113, 305. 

Pionus hsematotis, 147. 
Pitangus derbianus, 62,63. 
Pitta brachyiira, 413. 

cyaniira, 413. 

nympha, 412, 414. 

Platalea ajaja, 157. 

leucorodia, 244, 344. 

tenuii'ostris, 134. 

Platycercus amboiDensis, 

285. 
Plectrophanes lapponicus, 

7, 334. 

nivalis, 7. 

Plectropterus gambensis, 

294. 
Plotus melanogaster, 247. 
Podiceps arcticus, 297. 

aui'itus, 344. 

cabpareus, 162. 

cornutus, 3, 15. 

cristatus, 250, 251, 

344. 

griseigena, 15. 

. bolboellii, 14, 15. 

pliilippensis, 251. 

pbibppLaus, 344. 

roUandi, 162. 

Podoces panderi, 295. 
Poecilonetta babamensis,- 

160. 

erytbrorbyncba, 134. 

Pogonias diadematus, 124. 

leucocepbalus, 123. 

melanocepbalns, 123. 

melanopterus, 121. 

rolleti, 123. 

Pogonorbyncbus bidenta- 

tup, 123. 

bifrenatus, 123, 127. 

diadematus, 124, 126, 

127, 128. 

dubius, 125. 

ducballui, 124. 



Pogonorbyncbus leucoce- 
pbalus, 123, 126. 

roUeti, 123, 125. 

saltii, 122, 123. 

undatus, 122, 123. 

uuidentatus, 124. 

vieiUotii, 122, 123. 

PoUliierax semitorquatus, 

346. 
PoHoptila albiloris, 59, 61, 

69. 

superciliaris, 407. 

Poliornis teesa, 221. 
Polopbilus sinensis, 267. 
Polyborus carunculatus, 

19. 

montanus, 19, 199. 

tbarus, 67. 

Poniatorbinus stridubis, 

n. sp., 265. 
Pontoaetus icbtbyaetus, 

226. 
Porpbyrio madagascarien- 

sis, 116. 

' poliocepbabis, 246. 

Porzana erytbrothorax, 57, 

411. 

fusca, 411. 

maruetta, 246. 

pboenicura, 57, 246. 

Pratincola ferrea, 33. 

indica, 33, 329. 

rubicola, 329. 

Prinia sonitans, 32. 
ProceUaria assimilis, 182. 

gigantea, 164. 

glaciaUs, 16. 

minor, 16. 

Progne dominicensis, 61. 
PseudocheUdon eurysto- 

mina, 322. 
Psilorbinus occipitaHs, 

230. 
Psittaeodis stavorini, 290. 
Psittacus pennantii, 119. 
Pterocles arenarius, 235. 

exustus, 235. 

Ptilonopus ciuctus, 348. 

flavicollis, 348. 

gularis, 348. 

prasinorrbous, 286, 

290. 

pulcbellus, 290. 

superbus, 285, 290. 

vu-idis, 285, 286. 

viridissimus, 349. 

Pucrasia macrolopba. 



235. 

Puffinus anglorum, 

181, 365. 
assimilis, 116. 



16, 



Puffinus cblororbyncbus, 

181. 

major, 16. 

Pycnonotus cbi'ysorrboi- 
'des, 39. 

jocosus, 39, 261. 

occipitaHs, 39, 266. 

sinensis, 266. 

Pygosceles wagleri, 163. 
Pyranga erytlu-omelsena, 

147. 
Pyrrbula coccinea, 401. 

Qvierquedida circia, 250. 

crecca, 250, 345. 

creccoides, 160. 

cyanoptera, 161. 

falcaria, 345. 

glocitans, 344. 

multicolor, 263. 

Tersicolor, 161. 

Eamphastos carinatus,142. 
Recurvu'ostra avocetta, 

343. 

rubricoUis, 119. 

Eeguloides cliloronotus,33, 

330. 
proregidus, 32, 33, 

330. 
Rcgulus calendida, 5. 

ignicapillus, 305. 

Ebinochetus jubatus, 137. 
Eliodostetbia rosea, 18. 
Rbyncbeea bengalensis, 

242. 

variegata, 295. 

Rbyncbaspis clypeata, 57. 
Rbyncbops albicoUis, 246. 

sinensis, 267. 

Rissa tridactyla, 18. 
Ruticilla, sp. nov. ?, 33. 

aurorea, 33, 329. 

fuligmosa, 409, 410. 

leucocepbala, 232. 

rufiventi'is, 233. 

Salicaria (Calamodyta) 

maackii, 208. 
Saltator midticolor, 201. 
Sarcidiornis melanotus, 

248. 
Sarciophoi'us bilobus, 237, 

238. 
Saxicola oenantbe, 3, 4, 5, 

82. 

rubetra, 82. 

rubicola, 305. 

Sclerurus guatemalensis, 

352. 
mexicanus, 143. 



INDEX. 



425 



Scolopax gallinago, 89. 

gallinula, 90. 

major, 87, 89. 

rusticola, 56, 87, 241, 

343, 401. 

Scops ?, 29. 

bakkamaena, 226. 

flammeola, 355. 

lempiji, 29, 227, 265. 

Scopus umbretta, 117. 
Scytalopus magellanicus, 

154. 
Semioptera wallacii, 212, 

310. 
Sericulus aureus, 287. 
Sialia wilsoni, 58, 60. 
Sitta uralensis, 297. 
Sittasomus sylvioides, 353. 
Somateria mollissima, 14. 

spectabilis, 14. 

Spatula clypeata, 249. 
Speirops lugubris, 361. 
Spbeniscus magellanicus, 

163. 
Sphenocercus cantillans, 

233. 
Sphenorbynchus abdimii, 

70. 
Spiza ciris, 294. 
Spizaetus coronatus, 129. 

kieneri, 226. 

limnaetus, 226. 

nipalensis, 226. 

ornatus, 313, 314. 

Spizixos caniirons, 266. 
semitorques, n. sp., 

266. 
Squatarola belvetica, 9, 51, 

342. 
Stercorarius buffoni, 3, 16. 

catarrhactes, 16. 

parasiticus, 16. 

poraarinus, 3, 16. 

Sterna arctica, 92. 

cantiaca, 362. 

caspia, 345. 

cassinii, 166. 

birundo, 246. 

javanica, 224, 247. 

macroura, 19. 

minuta, 244, 345. 

velox, 345. 

Stoparola melanops, 233, 

263. 
Strepsilas collaris, 86. 

interpres, 342. 

Strix aluco, 305. 

brachyotus, 80. 

flammea, 201, 

305. 
fonerea, 80. 

VOL. III. 



226, 



Strix noctua, 305. 

pratincola, 201. 

Sturnella bippocrepis, 179. 
ludoviciana, 176, 178, 

179. 

meridionalis, 179. 

mexicana, 179. 

militaris, 153. 

neglecta, 179. 

StiuToia pagodarum, 231. 
Sturnus cineraceus, 257, 

338. 

contra, 231. 

ludovicianus, 178. 

pyrrbogenys, 338. 

sericeus, 338. 

vulgaris, 7, 85, 231. 

Sula bassana, 19. 
Surnia ulula, 320. 
Sylvia annulosa, 358. 

arundinacea, 305. 

bippolais, 82. 

locustella, 305. 

luscinia, 305. 

pbragmitis, 82. 

sarda, 297. 

suecica, 82. 

titbys, 113, 305. 

trocbilus, 33, 82. 

Synoecus sinensis, 116, 275. 
Sypbeotides auritus, 237. 

bengalensis, 237. 

Symium indranee, 227. 

nivicolum, 227. 

sinense, 227. 

Syrrbaptes paradoxus, 306, 

341. 

Tacbypetes ?, 182. 

Tadoma rutila, 365. 

vulpanser, 344. 

Talegalla latbami, 169. 
Tanysiptera dea ? 118, 283. 
Tcbitrea borbonica, 271. 

cseruleocepbala, 263. 

paradisea, 233. 

principalis, 39, 330, 

411. 
Temenucbus cineraceus,44. 

sericeus, 44. 

turdiformis, 44. 

Terekia cinerea, 240. 
Tetragonops rampbastinus, 

184. 
Tetrao canadensis, 207. 

falcipennis, 207. 

franklinii, 207. 

lagopus, 9. 

saliceti, 85. 

tetrix, 85. 

urogallus, 85. 



Tbalassidroma ?, 164. 

leacliii, 3, 16. 

nereis, 164. 

wilsoni, 164. 

Tbalassomis leuconotus, 

198. 
Tbresciornis melanocepba- 

lus, 243. 

strictipennis, 189. 

Tinamus boucardi, 356. 

major, 356. 

meserytlu-us, 356. 

robustus, 355. 

robustus?, 59. 

sallffii, 356. 

Tinnunculus alaudarius, 

24, 72, 220. 

alopex, 69, 71. 

cencbris, 72, 220. 

pimctatus, 271. 

rufescens, 72. 

rupicola, 72. 

sparverioides, 209. 

sparverius, 209. 

vespertinus, 72. 

Toccus coronatus, 133. 

Totanus ?, 276. 

caUdris, 87, 239, 343. 

cbilensis, 199. 

flavipes, 11. 

fuscus, 239. 

glareola, 343. 

glottis, 238. 

glottoides, 343. 

guttifer, 295. 

bypoleucus, 87. 

ocbropus, 343. 

pulveruleutus, 343. 

stagnatUis, 239. 

Tracbypbonus margarita- 

tus, 121, 122, 124, 125, 

127, 128. 
squamiceps, 121, 125, 

127. 
Treron cblorogaster, 233. 
Tribonyx ventralis, 198. 
Tricbas pbdadelpbia, 6. 
Tricboglossus euteles, 349. 

bsematodus, 350. 

bis, 349. 

nigrigularis, 311. 

versicolor, 284. 

Tricbopborus flavicaudus, 

118. 
Tringa bonapartii, 156. 

canuta, 11. 

canutus, 1, 3, 240. 

cmclus, 3, 11, 240, 

412. 

maritima, 3, 11, 90. 

mmuta, 3, 241, 342. 

2 G 



426 



INDEX. 



Tringa pectoralis, 11. 

schinzii, 3, 11. 

subarquata, 240, 342. 

temiuinckii, 90, 241, 

342. 

variabilis, 90. 

Triiigoides hypoleuca, 134, 

276, 342, 410. 
Trochilus leucopleurus, 

199. 
Troglodytes fmnigatus, 

296. 

palustris, 5. 

Trogon massena, 146. 
Tropidorhynclius subcor- 

nutus, 283, 285. 
Turacoena )iianadensis,348. 

modesta, 348. 

Tm-dus ?, 37. 

albicollis, 282. 

albiventris, 282. 

albocinctus, 279,280. 

alicise, 281, 282. 

apicalis, 281. 

assimilis, 282. 

atrigularis, 278, 279. 

atrosericeus, 282. 

— — aui'antius, 282. 

boulboul, 279, 280. 

cardis, 37, 38, 278, 



279, 332. 

castaneus, 279, 280. 

cbiguanco, 282. 

clu-ysolaus, 37, 278, 

279. 

crotopezus, 282. 

dactylopterus, 279. 

daiilias, 37, 278, 279. 

dissimilis, 279, 280, 



332. 



282. 



dubius, 278. 
erytbropterus, 281. 
eimomus, 278. 
falklandicus, 152, 



282. 



flavipes, 282. 

flavirostris, 282. 

fulviventris,277,282. 

fimiidus, 280. 

faniigatiis, 282. 

fuscater, 282. 

fuscatus, 278, 279. 

fu8cesceiis, 281, 282. 

gigas, 282. 
• grayii, 60, 282. 
■ guttatus, 281. 

gymnophtbalmue, 



— bodgsonii, 232, 279, 
280. 

— hypopyrrbus, 280. 



Turdus ignobilis, 282. 

iUacus, 6, 81, 277, 

278, 279. 

infuscatus, 282. 

• jamaicensis, 282. 



— javanicus, 280. 

— kiniiisii, 279, 280. 

— leucaucben, 282. 

— libonyanus, 281, 295. 

— luniilatus, 305. 

— mandarinus, 38, 278, 
279. 

merula, 38, 81, 277, 



279. 
migratorius, 277,281, 

282. 

minor, 6. 

modestus, 279. 

musicus, 277, 279. 

musteUuiis, 281, 282. 

mutabilis, 280. 

nffivius, 281, 282. 

nanus, 281, 282. 

naumanni, 278, 279, 

332. 

nest or, 281. 

nigrescens, 282. 

nigripQeus, 279, 280. 

obvaceo-fuscus, 281. 

olivaceus, 281. 

oHvacinus, 281. 

obvater, 282. 

paUasi, 281, 282. 

paUens, 37, 278, 279. 

pallidus, 332. 

peUos, 281. 

pelodes, 279, 280. 

pbseopygvis, 282. 

pilaris, 80, 277, 279. 

pinicola, 282. 

plebeius, 212. 

i-nfieollis, 278, 279. 

rufitorqnes, 282. 

rufiventris, 282. 

rufulus, 279, 280. 

scblegelii, sp. nor., 

208. 

serranus, 282. 

sibiricus, 37, 278, 

279, 280, 410. 

silens, 282. 

simensis, 281. 



simillimus, 279, 280. 

sinensis, 39. 

smitbii (obscurus). 



281. 



279. 



swainsoni, 281, 282. 
torquatus, 81, 277, 



Turdus vanicorensis, 281. 

vinotinctus, 281. 

viscivorus, 80, 232, 

277, 279. 

wardii, 279, 280. 

wilsoni, 277. 

xantbopus, 281. 

xantbosceles, 282. 



unicolor, 279, 280. 
ustulatus, 281, 282. 



Turnix dussumieri, 341. 

joudera, 50. 

Tvu'tur auritus, 234. 

cbinensis, 49. 

gelastes, 205. 

biuniUs, 49. 

orientalis, 49, 234, 

341. 

risorius, 234. 

rupicola, 305. 

senegalensis, 234. 

suratensis, 234. 

Tyrannula martinica, 208. 

pusilla, 7. 

Tyrannus cooperi, 7. 
melancbobcus, 63. 

Ulula nebulosa, 296. 
Upucertbia atacamensis, 

199. 
Upupa epops, 227, 254, 

328. 
Uragus sibiricus, 296. 
Uria bruennicbii, 1, 16. 

carbo, 295. 

grylle, 16, 92. 

bi'ingvia, 297. 

leucopbtbalmos, 16. 

ringvia, 2, 16. 

troile, 16, 92, 391.- 

Urocissa sinensis, 43, 267, 

409. 
Urubitinga antlu-acina, 59, 

68. 

Vanellus cristatus, 9, 238, 

342. 
Vespertilio leisleri, 401. 
Vii'eolanius pulcbellus, 147. 
Vireosylva oHvacea, 7. 
Volvocivora fimbriata, 42. 

lugubris, 42. 

melanoptera, 42. 

Vultvu- monacbus, 225,226, 

369, 372. 

Xantbopygia leucophrys, 
410. 

nareissina, 41, 410. 

Xema sabini, 1, 3, 19. 
Xenops mexicanus, 353. 

Yunx torquilla, 229, 338. 



Zenaida carolinensis, 295. 
Zonotrichia leucoplirys, 3, 

7. 
Zosterops abyssinica, 358. 

borbonica, 277, 360. 

capenais, 358. 

cliloronotus, 207,272, 



359. 



cinerea, 361. 
citrina, 360. 



INDEX. 


4 


Zosterops ciirviro8tris,359. 


Zosterops lateralis, 358 


dorsalis, 207. 


lugubris, 361. 


eiiryophthalma, 357. 


raadagascariensis, 


flava, 360. 


358. 


flavigiila, 358. 


pallida, 359. 


gouldi, 207. 


poliogaster, 357, 


heesitata, 359. 


359. 


icterovirens, 360. 


senegalensis, 360. 


japonicus, 35, 207, 


rirens, 360. 


331. 





427 



END OF VOL, III. 



PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS^ 
RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET, 



IS Vol. III. No. 9. JANUARY 1861. 



Price 05. y-MSj 



THE IBIS, 

A MAGAZINE OF GENERAL ORNITHOLOGY. 



'.■^% 



EDITED BY 

PHILIP LUTLEY SCLATEK, M.A., 

FELLOW OF CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE, OXFORD, 
SECRETARY OF THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON, 

F.L.S.. ETC. 




L N D ^^ : 
N. TRUBNER AND CO., 60, PATERNOSTER ROW. 



Paris. 

Fr. Klincksieck, 
11, Eue cle Lille. 



Leipzig. 
F. A. Brockuaus. 



Ntw York. 

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440, Broadway. 






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PUBLICATIONS AND IMPORTATIONS 

OP TRtiBNER AND CO., 60, PATEENOSTEE EOW, LONDON. 



AGASSIZ.— CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF THE 
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. By Louis Agassiz. First Monograph. In Three 
Parts. — I. Essay on Classification. II. North American Testndinata. III. Embr5'ology of the 
Turtle; with Tvventy-seven Plates. Vols. I. and II. 4to. Pp. lii. and 644. £7 : 7s. 

AGASSIZ.— CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF THE 
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. Volume 3. 4to. Subject— Acalephs, or Jelly Fishes. 

(Shortly.) 

AGASSIZ.— ESSAY ON CLASSIFICATION. By Louis Agassiz. Second Edition. 
With an Index, and Revised and Enlarged by the Author. In One volume, 8vo. 12*. 

AUDUBOK— THE BIRDS OF AMERICA, from Drawings made by John James 
Audubon. A new edition of this celebrated work is now in progress of publication, 5 Num- 
bers being already published. WiU be completed in 45 Numbers — 44 of Plates, I of Text ; 
each Number containing 10 full-coloured subjects, on 7 sheets double elephant paper, 27 inches 
by 40. Delivered to Subscribers at ^2 : 25. per Number. 

AUDUBON.— THE BIRDS OF AMERICA, from Drawings made in the United 
States and their Territories, by John James Audubon, F.R.SS. L. & E. 7 vols, royal 
8vo ; with 500 colo\ired Plates, each 10 inches by 7, and numerous Woodcuts, illustrative of 
the Anatomy of the Birds. Imp. 8vo. 2204 pages of letter-press. New York, 1840 to 1844. 
^^30. 

AUDUBON.— ORNITHOLOGICAL BIOGRAPHY ; or, an Account of the Habits 
of the Birds of the United States of America. By John James Audubon, F.R.SS. L. & E. 

5 vols, royal 8vo. New York and Edinburgh, 1831 to 1849. ^10 : lOs. 

AUDUBON. — SYNOPSIS or the BIRDS of NORTH AMERICA. By John 
James Audubon, F.R.SS. L. & E., Member of various Scientific Associations in Europe and 
America. 8vo, pp. 359. Edinburgh, 1839. £l:ns.6d. 

AUDUBON and BACHMAN.— THE QUADRUPEDS OF NORTH AMERICA. 
By John James Audubon and the Rev. John Bachman. Published in 30 Parts, of 

6 Coloured Plates each (22 inches by 28), forming 3 vols., each volume containing 50 Plates ; 
the Text is in 3 vols, royal 8vo. Philadelphia, 1843 to 1849. J^84. 

AUDUBON and BACHMAN.— THE QUADRUPEDS OF NORTH AMERICA. 
Bv John James Audubon, F.R.S. &c. &c., and the Rev. John Bachman, D.D. &c. &c. 
155 Coloured Plates. 3 vols, royal 8vo, pp. 1078. New York, 1854. .£12 : I2s. 

BAIRD.— MAMMALS OF NORTH AMERICA. The Descriptions of Species 
based chiefly on the Collections in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. By Prof. 
Spencer F. Baird, Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. With 87 Plates of 
Original Figures, coloured and plain, illustrating the Genera and Species, including details of 
External Form and Osteology. 4to. Pp. xxxiv. and 7W. Philadelphia, 1859. £4 : 4s. 

BzlIED.— THE BIRDS OF NORTH AMERICA : the Descriptions of Species 
based chiefly on the Collections in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. By Spencer 
F. Baird, with the cooperation of John Cassin and George N. Lawrence. 1 vol. of 
Text, 4to, pp. Ivi. and 1006, and 1 vol. of 4to Coloured Plates. Philadelphia, 1860. ^^6 : 6s. 

BINNEY — THE TERRESTRIAL AIR-BREATHING MOLLUSKS OF THE 
UNITED STATES and the adjacent Territories of North America ; described and illustrated 
by Amos Binney. Edited by Augustus A. Gould. 3 vols. 8vo, with numerous Coloured 
and uncoloured Plates. £\0 : lOs. 

BINNEY.— SUPPLEMENT to the TERRESTRIAL MOLLUSKS AND SHELLS 
OF THE UNITED STATES. The Plates will comprise over 150 Figures. By W. G. Binney. 
8vo. Coloured. £\ : Is. 

BLYTH and SPEKE.— REPORT ON A ZOOLOGICAL COLLECTION FROM 
THE SOMALI COUNTRY. By Edavard Blyth, Curator of the Royal Asiatic Society's 
Museum, Calcutta. Reprinted from the Twenty-fourth Volume of the Journal of the Royal 
Asiatic Society of Bengal; with Additions and Corrections by the Collector, Capt. J. H. Speke, 
F.R.G.S. &C."' 8vo. 16 pp. I Coloured Plate. 2s. Gd. 

BEE WEH.— NORTH AMERICAN OOLOGY; being an Account of the Geogra- 
phical Distribution of the Birds of North America during their Breeding Season; with Figures 
and Descriptions of their Eggs. By T. M. Brew er. 1 vol. 4to, with Coloured Plates. 
£1 : lis. 6d. The same plain, 10s. 

[Adveriisements continued on third page of Wrapper. 



orr^f '^V™"^ ,T^? ^^ ^"'^^- By -^OHKCssr.. Contained in Volu„,e ii 
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CASSIN — THE BIRDS OF JAPAN Bv Johv r*««TAT r^r,f • ^ • tr , 
of Perm's United States' Japan Expedition'' 4to^6'coWdpS-es oftT' k^S^'fr^ "' 

CASSIN. — MAMMALOGY AND ORNITHOLOGY OF THF ttmttrt* 
Jfn!?f EXPLORING EXPEDITION UNDER CAPTAIN WILKeIu.S Nd™ 
18J9-42. By John Cassin. Text, 1 vol. 4to. Pp. viii and 466 Atlns niv.i'i» V^ 
30und, containing 53 Coloured Plates, 11 of Mammals and 42 of Bird^' il5 • S/ ' 

CASSIN— ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE BIRDS OF CALIFORNIA TFVaq 

BE'i?!™^''^': 'pp^ 18"l.°^ ''"^ ^'""^ °^ SCANDINAVIA AND GREAT 

GIRARD.— HERPETOLOGY OF THE UNITED STATPc^' pvpr r,T3Txir. 
LXPEDITION UNDER CAPTAIN WILKES^ dmbl 18?9-46 Jv Chah^J^^^^t ^ 
rext, 1 vol.4to. Pp.xvih.and496. Atlas in foHo^ half-bo^.mC32'LoS;d^?lttes^^^^^^^ 

LE MOINE -ORNITHOLOGIE DU CANADA. Qudques Groupes d'apres la 
S^omenclature du Smithsonian Institution de Washington Par J M T p Mntx-^ a 7 
^;^ Partie: Les Oiseaux de Proie et les Palmipedes. "sTo. Pp. 96,'s'J;l''SuYbectS; 

Triibner and Co., 60, Paternoster Row, London. 
Now ready (price 10s. each), Nos. I., II., III., IV. and V. of 

OSTEOLOGIA AVIUJM 

r A- \7- ?• ^^.™^' E^^' FLS-' FZS., F.G.S.,' 

Corresponding Member of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. 

, , , ,^ Published by the Author, 

whom, and to Mr. Prince, at John GouLd, Esq.'s, 26 Charlotte Street, Bedford Square 
London, applications may be made for Copies. square, 

In One Vol. 8vo, price £2 : 2s., with 45 Coloured Plates. 
A MONOGRAPH OF THE BIRDS 

FORMING 

THE TANAGRINE GENUS CALLISTE 

By PHILIP LUTLEY SCLATER, M.A., 

Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. ' 

John Van Voorst, 1, Paternoster Row. 

Also, by the same Author, 
A SYNOPSIS OF THE FISSIROSTRAL FAMILY 

BUCCONID^, 

Accompanied by Four Coloured Plates of hitherto unfigured Species. 
1 Part, sewn, price 4s. 6d. 
John Van Voorst, 1, Paternoster Row. 

Now ready, price Sixpence, by post Sevenpence 

SUGGESTIONS FOR FORMING COLLECTIONS OF 

BIRDS' EGGS. 

By ALFRED NEWTON, M.A., F.L.S. 
London : E. Newman, 9, Devonshire Street, Bishopsgate, N.E., and all Booksellers. 

A PERFECT AND UNEXCEPTIONABLE COPY OF 

RAY AND MITCHELL'S GENERA OF BIRDS 

Very handsomely bound, is offered at the low price of i?18. ' 

Trubuer and Co., 60, Paternoster Row, London. 



COiNTENTS OF NUMBER IX. 

Page 
I. List of the Birds hitherto observed in Greenland. By Dr. J. 
Reinhardt, Professor at the Royal Museum of Copen- 
hagen, Foreign Member Z.S.L., &c. &c 1 

II. Note on Milvago caninculatus and its allied species. By 

Philip Lutley Sclater. (Plate I.) 19 

III. Notes on the Ornithology of Hongkong, Macao, and Canton, 

made during the latter end of February, March, April, and 
the beginning of May, I860. By Robert Swinhoe, of 
H.B.M.'s Consular Service 23 

IV. '^ote ow the k^a?i.iovay oi Cephalopterus penduUger. ByT.C. 

Eyton, F.Z.S 57 

V, On the Nesting of some Guatemalan Birds. By Robert 
Owen, C.M.Z.S. With Remarks by Osbert Salvin, M.A., 
F.Z.S. (Plate II.) 58 

VI. On new or little-known Birds of North-Eastern Africa. By 

Hofrath Theodor VON Heuglin. (Part II.) (Plate III.) 69 

VII. Notes on the Birds observed at Bodo during the Spring and 

Summer of 1857. By Frederick and Percy Godman . 77 

VIII. Particulars of Mr. J. Wolley's Discovery of the Breeding of 
the Waxwing {Am^ielis garrulus). By Alfred Newton, 
M.A., F.L.S. &c. (Plate IV.) 92 

IX. Recent Ornithological Publications : — 106 

1. English Publications : — Biee's ' Birds of Europe.' 

2. French Publications : — Revue de Zoolooie : Des Murs and Ver- 
reaux on the Birds of New Caledonia, &c. 

3. German, Dutch, Scandinavian, and Russian Publications: — 
Archiv fiir Naturgesehiclite : Lindermayer'sVogelGriechenlands : 
Museum Heineanum : De Philippi's Reise durcli die Andeu- 
wiiste Atacama : Schlegel and Westennan's Touracos : Sunde- 
val's Svenska Foglarna : Nordmann's Birds of Finland and Lap- 
land : v. Schrenek's Birds ofAmoorland. 

4. American Publications : — Le Moine's Ornithologie du Canada. 

X. Letters, Extracts from Correspondence, Announcements, &c.. . 112 

Letters from Mr. Gould, Mr. J. W. P. Oide, and Mr. G. D. Rowley : 
Mr. A. Newton on the Ortyx of St. Thomas : Mr. E. Newton's 
letters from the Mauritius : Mr. Wallace's collections and last 
letters: Occurrence of J (/J/iZa nceviu in England: Birds of Nor- 
folk Island : Note on Nttmida vidturina : Mr. Layard's proposed 
Svnopsis of South-African Ornithology. 



• ♦ 

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The Ibis' is pubhshed in parts (price 6s. each part: annual subscription 
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If the annual subscription of .^1 : Is. is paid in advance to Messrs. Triibner and 
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ing Vols. I. and II. may be obtained of Messrs. Triibner & Co., at Is. 4d. each. 
*** Part I. of 'The Ibis' being out of print, it is contemplated to reprint it, 
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so doing. In the meantime/w// price {C)S.) will be given for copies of this Part, 
on iippliciition to the Publishers. 



^^ Vol. III. No. 10. 



APRIL 1861. 



Price 65. 9^ 



THE IBIS, 

A MAGAZINE OF GENERAL ORNITHOLOGY. 



EDITED BY 

PHILIP LUTLEY SCLATER, M.A., Ph.D., 

FELLOW OF COEPUS CHHISTI COLLEGE, OXFORD, 
SECRETARY OF THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON, 




LONDON: 
N. TPtiTBNEn AND CO., GO, PATERNOSTER ROW. 



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Leipzig. 
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AGASSIZ.— CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF THE 
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. By Louis Agassiz. First Monograph. In Three 
Parts. — I. Essay on Classification. II. North American Testudinata. III. Embryology of the 
Turtle. With Twenty-seven Plates. Vols. I. and II. 4to. Pp. lii. and 644. £7 : 7*. 

AGASSIZ.— CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF THE 
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. By Louis Agassiz. Second Monograph. In Five Parts. 
— I. Acalephs in general. II. Ctenophorae. HI. Discophorae. IV. Hydroidse. V. Homo- 
logies of the Radiata. With Forty-six Plates. Vol. III. 4to. Pp.xi.,301 &26. ^3: I3s.6d. 

AGASSIZ.— ESSAY ON CLASSIFICATION. By Louis Agassiz. Second Edition. 
With an Index, and Revised and Enlarged by the Author. In One volume, 8vo. 12*. 

AUDUBON.— THE BIRDS OF AMERICA, from Drawings made by John James 
Audubon. A new edition of this celebrated work is now in progress of publication, 12 Num- 
bers being already published. Will be completed in 45 Numbers — 44 of Plates, 1 of Text; 
each Number containing 10 full-coloured subjects, on 7 sheets double elephant paper, 27 inches 
by 40. Delivered to Subscribers at ^2 ; 2s. per Number. 

AUDUBON.— THE BIRDS OF AMERICA, from Drawings made in the United 
States and their Territories, by John James Audubon, F.R.SS. L. & E. 7 vols, royal 
8vo; with 500 coloured Plates, each 10 inches by 7» and numerous Woodcuts, illustrative of 
the Anatomy of the Birds. Imp. 8vo. 2204 pages of letter-press. New York, 1840 to 1844. 
.€30. 

AUDUBON.— ORNITHOLOGICAL BIOGRAPHY ; or, an Account of the Habits 
of the Birds of the United States of America. Bv John James Audubon, F.R.SS. L. & E. 
5 vols, royal 8vo. New York and Edinburgh, 1831 to 1849. £10 : \0s. 

AUDUBON. — SYNOPSIS of the BIRDS of NORTH AMERICA. By John 
James Audubon, F.R.SS. L. & E., Member of various Scientific Associations in Europe and 
America. 8vo, pp. 35.9. Edinburgh, 1839. £l:Us.6d. 

AUDUBON and BACHMAN.— THE QUADRUPEDS OF NORTH AMERICA. 
By John James Audubon and the Rev. John Bachman. Published in 30 Parts, of 
5 Coloured Plates each (22 inches by 28), forming 3 vols., each volume containing 50 Plates ; 
the Text is in 3 vols, royal 8vo. Philadelphia, 1843 to 1849. €84. 

AUDUBON and BACHMAN.— THE QUADRUPEDS OF NORTH AMERICA. 
By John James Audubon, F.R.S. &c. &c., and the Rev. John Bachman, D.D. &c. &e. 
155 Coloured Plates. 3 vols, royal 8vo, pp. 1078. New York, 1854. €12 : 12*. 

BAIRD.— MAMMALS OF NORTH AMERICA. The Descriptions of Species 
based chiefly on the Collections in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. By Prof. 
Spencer F. Baird, Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. With 87 Plates of 
Original Figures, coloured and plain, illustrating the Genera and Species, including details of 
External Form and Osteology. 4to. Pp. xxxiv. aud 764. Philadelphia, 1859. £4 : 4s. 

BAIRD.— THE BIRDS OF NORTH AMERICA : the Descriptions of Species 
based chiefly on the Collections in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. By Spencer 
F. Baird, with the cooperation of John Cassin and George N. Lawrence. I vol. of 
Text, 4to, pp. Ivi. and 1006, and 1 vol. of 4to Coloured Plates. Philadelphia, 1860. £6 : 6s. 

BINNEY.— THE TERRESTRIAL AIR-BREATHING MOLLUSKS OF THE 
UNITED STATES and the adjacent Territories of Noi-th America ; described and illustrated 
by Amos Binney. Edited by Augustus A. Gould. 3 vols. 8vo, with numerous Coloxu-ed 
and uncoloured Plates. €10 : 10*. 

BINNEY.— SUPPLEMENT to the TERRESTRIAL MOLLUSKS AND SHELLS 
OF THE UNITED STATES. The Plates will comprise over 150 Figures. By W. G. Binney. 

8vo. Coloured. €1 : 1*. 

BLYTH and SPEKE.— REPORT ON A ZOOLOGICAL COLLECTION FROM 
THE SOMALI COUNTRY. By Edward Blyth, Curator of the Royal Asiatic Society's 
Museum, Calcutta. Reprinted from the Twenty-fourth Volume of the Journal of the Royal 
Asiatic Society of Bengal ; with Additions and Corrections by the Collector, Capt. J. H. Speke, 
F.R.G.S. &c. 8vo. 16 pp. I Coloured Plate, 2s. 6d. 

BREWER.— NORTH AMERICAN OOLOGY ; being an Account of the Geogra- 
phical Distribution of the Birds of North America during their Breeding Season ; with Figures 
and Descriptions of their Eggs. By T. M. Brewer. 1 vol. 4to, with Coloured Plates. 
€1 : lis. 6d. The same plain, 10s. 



of Gillis's Astronomical Expedition to the Southern Hemisphere. 2 vols. 4to. 15 Coloured 
Plates of Birels. £4. 

CASSIN— THE BIRDS OF JAPAN. By John Cassin. Contained in Volume ii. 
of Perry's United States' Japan Expedition. 4to. 6 Coloured Plates of Birds. ^3 : 3s. 

CASSIN. — MAMMALOGY AND ORNITHOLOGY OF THE UNITED 
STATES' EXPLORING EXPEDITION UNDER CAPTAIN WILKES, U.S.N., during 
1839-42. By John Cassin. Text, 1 vol. 4to. Pp. viii. and 466. Atlas in foUo, half- 
bound, containing 53 Coloured Plates, 11 of Mammals and 42 of Birds. ^15 : 15s. 

CASSIN.— ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE BIRDS OF CALIFORNIA, TEXAS, 
OREGON, BRITISH AND RUSSIAN AMERICA ; forming a Supplement to Audubon's 
"Birds of America." By John Cassin. 1 vol. royal 8vo, containing 50 Coloured Plates 
and the explanatory letter-press. Philadelphia, 1856. Half-morocco. .^3 : 3s. 

COMPARATIVE LIST OF THE BIRDS OF SCANDINAVIA AND GREAT 
BRITAIN. 4to. Pp. 18. Is. 

GIRARD.— HERPETOLOGY OF THE UNITED STATES' EXPLORING 
EXPEDITION UNDER CAPTAIN WILKES, during 1829-46. By Charles Girard. 
Text, 1 vol. 4to. Pp. xviii. and 496. Atlas in foHo, half-bound, 32 Coloured Plates. ,£10 : lOs. 

LE MOINE.— ORNITHOLOGIE DU CANADA. Quelques Groupes d'apres la 
Nomenclature du Smithsonian Institution de Washington. Par J. M. Le Moine, Avocat. 
P* Partie : Les Oiseaux de Proie et les Palmipedes. 8vo. Pp. 96, sewed. Quebec, 1860. 
3s. 6d. 

Trvibner and Co., 60, Paternoster Row, London. 



In One Vol. 8vo, price £2 : 2s., with 45 Coloured Plates, 
A MONOGRAPH OF THE BIRDS 

FORMING 

THE TANAGRINE GENUS CALLISTE. 

By PHILIP LUTLEY SCLATER, M.A., 

Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. 

John Van Voorst, 1, Paternoster Row. 
Also, by the same Author, 

a synopsis of the fissirostral family 
BUCCONIDtE, 

Accompanied by Four Coloured Plates of hitherto unfigured Species. 
1 Part, sewn, price 4s, 6d. 

John Van Voorst, 1, Paternoster Row. 



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SUGGESTIONS FOR FORMING COLLECTIONS OF 

BIRDS' EGGS. 

By ALFRED NEWTON, M.A., F.L.S. 
London : E. Newman, 9, Devonshire Street, Bishopsgate, N.E., and all Booksellers. 



TO NATURALISTS. 



Mr. RIPPON, of Reading, a gentleman who is deeply attached to the study of Natural History 
and a great lover of nature, and has been some years a collector in this country, is very desirous 
of proceeding to the Andes of South America to collect Natural -History specimens, and not 
having sufficient means of his own, is anxious to raise ,^200 for the purpose, to be repaid by 
specimens. Gentlemen who would kindly assist in the undertaking may send their sub- 
scriptions to Mr. Samuel Stevens, Natural-History Agent, 24, Bloomsbury Street, London, W.C. 
Mr. Rippon intends to devote the whole of his time to collecting Insects, Shells, Bird and 
Animal Skins, Reptiles, and also living and dried Plants (should Subscribers desire them), and 
will leave as soon as the required amount is obtained. 

The following Gentlemen have already kindly put down their names : — 



— Taylor, Esq., for Shells , £ 25 

H. Cuming, Esq., for Shells 25 

P. L. Sclater, Esq., for Birds 10 

J. H. Gurney, Esq., for Birds 10 

R. F. Tomes, Esq., for small Mammals . . 10 



H. T. Stainton, Esq., for Microlepidoptera £10 

S. Stevens 10 

J. Gray, Esq., for Heteromera 5 

W. C. Hewitson, Esq., for Butterflies. ... 5 
A Friend 5 



CONTENTS OF NUMBER X. 

Page 
XL On new or little-known Birds of North-Eastern Africa. By 
HofrathTHEODOR von Heugltn. (Part III. The Barbels, 

Capitonidce.) 121 

XII. On some additional Species of Birds received in Collections 

from Natal. By John Henry Gurney, M.P., F.Z.S.. . 128 

XIII. Notes on a living specimen of a singular Grallatorial Bird 

from New Caledonia. By Dr. G. Bennett, F.Z.S 136 

XIV. Quesal-shooting in Vera Paz. By Osbert Salvin, M.A., 

F.Z.S 138 

XV. Notes on the Birds of the Falkland Islands. By Capt. C. C. 
Abbott, late in command of Detachments in the Falkland 
Islands 149 

XVI. Narrative of a Shooting Excursion to the Mountains of the 
Richmond River, New South Wales, in quest of Prince Al- 
bert's Lyre-bird. By A. A. Leyc ester 167 

XVII. Notice of the occurrence of the American Meadow-Starling 

(^Stu)-)iella ludoviciana) in England. B)' P. L. Sclater. . 1/6 

XVIII. Ornithological Notes from Mauritius. By Edward Newton, 

M.A., C.M.Z.S. No. I. A Visit to Round Island 180 

XIX. On the American Barbets {Capitonidcie) . By P. L. Sclater. 182 
XX. On the Possibility of taking an Ornithological Census. By 

Alfred Newton, M. A., F.L.S 1 90 

XXL Recent Ornithological Publications : — 196 

1. English Publications : — Tristram's 'Great Sahara:' Bennett's 
' Gatherings of a Naturalist :' Walker's Notes on Arctic Zoology. 

2. German and Dutch Publications: — Philippi's 'Desert of Atacama:' 
' Journal fiir Ornithologie : ' Badeker's ' Eggs of European Birds :' 
Schlegel on Black Cockatoos and Paradise-birds. 

3. Scandinavian and Russian Publications: — Victorin's S. African 
* Zoological Notes : ' v. Schrenck's Birds of Amoorland. 

4. American Publications : — Cassin's Birds of St. Thomas : Annals 
of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York : Lawrence's 
Notes on Cuban Birds, &c. : Le Moine's List of the Birds of 
Quebec. 

XXII. Letters, Extracts from Correspondence, Notices, &c 210 

Letters from Mr. J. Cavafy, Mr. Beaven Rake, Mr. A. R. Wallace, 
and Mr. Blyth : English Singing-birds in Austi-alia. 

TO OOLOGISTS AND ORNITHOLOGISTS. 

Mr. J. C. STEVENS begs to announce that he has received instructions to Sell by 
Auction, at bis Great Room, 38, King Street, Covent Garden, on Tuesday, April 23, 
at half-past Twelve preciselv, the SUPERB AND UNIQUE COLLECTION 
OF BRITISH BIRDS' EGGS belonging to the Museum of a late celebrated Phy- 
sician, amongst which will be found the only specimen known of the Swallow- 
tailed Kite from Mariposa. The Golden Eagles and nearly all the Raptores were 
taken in the Isle of Arran, and constitute a large and valuable British series. 
An Egg of the Brambling is from Mr. Dashwood's garden at Beceles (the only 
instance on record of their breeding in England), and one from the same nest 
IS figured in Hewitson : there is also an undoubted sjiecimen of the Greenland 
Falcon. The whole Collection is most valuable, and is unrivalled for the authen- 
ticity, the labour and care which its owner had bestowed u])on it. The majority 
were taken in his own presence, except a few from Wolley and from Thienemaiui. 
Also the whole of the verv EXTENSIVE COLLECTION OF BRITISH 
AND FOREIGN BIRD SKINS, many of them beautifully stuffed to lie in 
drawers. The Raptores are particularly fine and are very extensive. Catalogues 
are preparing, and will be ready ten days before the Sale. 



-C/,* 



IP Vol. III. No. 11. 



JULY 1861. 



Price 6s. 




THE IBIS, 



A MAGAZINE OF GENERAL 0ENITH0L06Y. 



EDITED BY 

PHILIP LUTLEY SCLATER, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S. 

FELLOW OF CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE, OXFORD, 
SECRETARY OF THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON, 

ETC., ETC. 




LONDON: 
N. TEUBNER AND CO., 60, PATERNOSTER ROW. 



Paris. 

Fr. Klincksieck, 
11, Eue de LiUe. 



Leipzig. 
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^^G 



(fja^U^ 






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PUBLICATIONS AND IMPORTATIONS 

OF TRUBNER AND CO., 60, PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON. 



AGASSIZ.— CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF THE 
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. By Louis Agassiz. First Monograph. In Three 
Parts. — I. Essay on Classification. II. North American Testndinata. III. Embryology of the 
Turtle. With Twenty-seven Plates. Vols. I. and II. 4to. Pp. lii. and 644. £7 : 7s. 

AGASSIZ.— CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF THE 
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. By Louis Agassiz. Second Monograph. In Five Parts. 
— I. Acalephs in general. II. Clenophorae. III. Discophorse. IV. Hydroidse. V. Homo- 
logies of the Radiata. With Forty-six Plates. Vol. III. 4to. Pp. xi.,301 & 26. £3 : I3s. 6d. 
AGASSIZ.— ESSAY ON CLASSIFICATION. By Louis Agassiz. Second Edition. 
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AUDUBON.— ORNITHOLOGICAL BIOGRAPHY ; or, an Account of the Habits 
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AUDUBON and BACHMAN.— THE QUADRUPEDS OF NORTH AMERICA. 
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BAIRD.— MAMMALS OF NORTH AMERICA. The Descriptions of Species 
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BAIRD.— THE BIRDS OF NORTH AMERICA : the Descriptions of Species 
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Manchiu-ia. b. The Usuri. Veniukof's journey, c. The Sungari. — XVII. Sakhalin. Schrenk's 
journey.— XVIII. Climate.— XIX. Plants.— XX. Animals.— XXI. Minerals.— XXII. Inhabit- 
ants : Orochoa, Manyai-g, Daurians, Chinese, Manchu, Golde, Olcha or Mangun, Orochi, 
Oroke, Gilyak, Aino, &c. — XXIII. Commercial. — Appendix. Index and Glossaiy. 

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In One Vol. 8vo, price £2 : 2s., with 45 Coloured Plates, 
A MONOGRAPH OF THE BIRDS 

FORMING 

THE TANAGRINE GENUS CALLISTE. 

By PHILIP LUTLEY SCLATER, M.A., F.R.S., 

Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. 

John Van Voorst, 1, Paternoster Row. 

Also, by the same Author, 
A SYNOPSIS OF THE FISSIROSTRAL FAMILY 

BUCCONIDtE, 

Accompanied by Four Colom-ed Plates of hitherto unfigured Species. 
1 Part, sewn, price 4s, 6d. 

John Van Voorst, 1, Paternoster Row. 
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CONTENTS OE NUMBER XL 



Page 
XXIII. Notes on Birds observed in Oudh and Kumaon. By Capt. 

L. Howard Irby, 90th Regt. (Plate VII.) 217 

XXIV. Notes on the Birds observed about Talien Bay (North 
China), from June 21st to July 25th, 1860. By Robert 
SwTNHOE, of H.M.'s Consular Service 251 

XXV. Letter from Mr. Swinhoe on the Ornithology of Amoy 

and Foochow 262 

XXVI. Note on the Calcutta ♦ Adjutant ' {Leptoptilus argala). By 
Edward Blyth, Curator of the Asiatic Society's Museum, 
Calcutta 268 

XXVII. Ornithological Notes from the Mauritius. By Edward 

Newton, M.A., C.M.Z.S.— No. II. A Ten Days' Sojourn 

at Savanne 270 

XXVIII. Remarks on the Geographical Distribution of the Genus 

Turdus. By P. L. Sclater. (Plate VIII.) 277 

XXIX. On the Ornithology of Ceram and Waigiou. By Alfred 

R. Wallace. (Plate IX.) .' 283 

XXX. On the Diversity in the Estimate of the European Ornis, 

and its Causes. By Dr. J. H. Blasius ' 292 

XXXI. Recent Ornithological Publications :— 302 

1. English Publications -.—Richardson's 'Polar Regions:' Du 
Chaillu's ' Equatorial Africa.' 

2. French Publications :—' Richesses Ornithologiques de Midi de 
la France : ' Salle's and Parzudaki's Sale-Catalogues. 

3. Russian and Scandinavian Publications :— v. Wright's Birds of 
Finland : Reinhardt's Ornithological Papers. 

XXXII. Letters, Extracts from Correspondence, Notices, &c 307 

Letter from Mr. Beaven Rake ; Extracts of letters from Mr. J. J 
Monteiro and Mr. A. R. Wallace ; Note on the Nomenclature of 
some Falkland-Island Birds : A new Cossowary. 



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AGASSIZ.— CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF THE 
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. By Louis Agassiz. First Monograph. In Three 
Parts. — I. Essay on Classification. II. North American Testudinata. III. Embryology of the 
Turtle. With Twenty-seven Plates. Vols. I. and II. 4to. Pp. lii. and 644. £7 : 7s. 

AGASSIZ.— CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF THE 
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. By Louis Agassiz. Second Monograph. In Five Parts. 
— I. Acalephs in general. II. Ctenophorae. III. Discophorse. IV. Hydroidae. V. Homo- 
logies of the Radiata. With Forty-six Plates. Vol. III. 4to. Pp. xi., 301 & 26. ^3 : 13s. 6rf. 

AGASSIZ.— ESSAY ON CLASSIFICATION. By Louis Agassiz. Second Edition. 
With an Index, and Revised and Enlarged by the Author. In One volume, 8vo. 12*. 

AUDUBON.— THE BIRDS OF AMERICA, from Drawings made by John James 
Audubon. A new edition of this celebrated work is now in progress of publication, 15 Num- 
bers being already published. Will be completed in 45 Numbers — 44 of Plates, 1 of Text; 
each Number containing 10 full-coloured subjects, on 7 sheets double elephant paper, 2/ inches 
by 40. Delivered to Subscribers at M2 : 2s. per Number. 

AUDUBON— THE BIRDS OF AMERICA, from Drawings made in the United 
States and their Territories, by John James Audubon, F.R.SS. L. & E. 7 vols, royal 
8vo; with 500 coloured Plates, each 10 inches by 7, and numerous Woodcuts, illustrative of 
the Anatomy of the Birds. Imp. 8vo. 2204 pages of letter-press. New York, 1840 to 1844. 

AUDUBON.— ORNITHOLOGICAL BIOGRAPHY ; or, an Account of the Habits 
of the Birds of the United States of America. By John James Audubon, F.R.SS. L. & E. 
5 vols, royal 8vo. New York and Edinburgh, 1831 to 1849. ^10 : 10s. 

AUDUBON. — SYNOPSIS of the BIRDS of NORTH AMERICA. By John 
James Audubon, F.R.SS. L. & E., Member of various Scientific Associations in Europe and 
America. 8vo, pp. 359. Edinburgh, 1839. £l:Us.6d. 

AUDUBON and BACHIiIAN.— THE QUADRUPEDS OF NORTH AMERICA. 
By John James Audubon and the Rev, John Bachman. Published in 30 Parts, of 
5 Coloured Plates each (22 inches by 28), forming 3 vols., each volume containing 50 Plates ; 
the Text is in 3 vols, royal 8vo. Philadelphia, 1843 to 1849. ^84. 

AUDUBON and BACHMAN.— THE QUADRUPEDS OF NORTH AMERICA. 
By John James Audubon, F.R.S. &c. &c., and the Rev. John Bachman, D.D. &c. &c. 
155 Coloured Plates. 3 vols, royal 8vo, pp. 1078. New York, 1854. .€12 : 12s. 

BAIRD.— MAMMALS OF NORTH AMERICA. The Descriptions of Species 
based chiefly on the Collections in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. By Prof. 
Spencer F. Baird, Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. With 87 Plates of 
Original Figures, coloured and plain, illustrating the Genera and Species, including details of 
External Form and Osteology. 4to. Pp. xxxiv. and 764. Philadelphia, 1859. £4 : 4s. 

BAIRD.— THE BIRDS OF NORTH AMERICA : the Descriptions of Species 
based chiefly on the Collections in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. By Spencer 
F. Baird, with the cooperation of John Cassin and George N. Lawrence. I vol. of 
Text, 4to, pp. Ivi. and 1006, and 1 vol. of 4to Coloured Plates. Philadelphia, 1860. £6 : 6s. 

BINNEY THE TERRESTRIAL AIR-BREATHING MOLLUSKS OF THE 

UNITED STATES and the adjacent Territories of North America ; described and illustrated 
by Amos Binney. Edited by Augustus A. Gould. 3 vols. 8vo, with numerous Coloured 
and uncoloured Plates. .^10 : 10s. 

BINNEY.— SUPPLEMENT to the TERRESTRIAL MOLLUSKS AND SHELLS 
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BLYTH and SPEKE.— REPORT ON A ZOOLOGICAL COLLECTION FROM 
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Museum, Calcutta. Reprinted from the Twenty-fourth Volume of the Journal of the Royal 
Asiatic Society of Bengal; with Additions and Corrections by the Collector, Capt. J. H. Speke, 
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BREWER.— NORTH AMERICAN OOLOGY ; being an Account of the Geogra- 
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CASSIN. — MAMMALOGY AND ORNITHOLOGY OF THE UNITED 
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CASSIN.— ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE BIRDS OF CALIFORNIA, TEXAS, 
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-LE MOINE.— ORNITHOLOGIE DU CANADA. Quelques Groupes d'apres la 
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A MONOGRAPH OF THE BIRDS 

FORMING 

THE TANAGRINE GENUS CALLISTE. 

By PHILIP LUTLEY SCLATER, M.A., F.R.S., 

Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. 

John Van Voorst, 1, Paternoster Row. 



Also, by the same Author, 
A SYNOPSIS OF THE FISSIROSTRAL FAMILY 

BUCCONID.^, 

Accompanied by Four Coloured Plates of hitherto unfigured Species. 
1 Part, sewn, price 4s, 6d. 

John Van Voorst, 1, Paternoster Row. 



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CONTENTS OF NUMBER XII. 

Page 

XXXIII. On a rare Species of Hawk, of the Genus Accipiter, from 

South America. By P. L. Sclater. (Plate X.) . . 313 

XXXIV. On Birds collected and observed in the Interior of British 

North America. By Capt. Blakiston, R.A. (Parti.) 314 

XXXV. On a new Bird from Western Africa. By Dr. G. Hart- 

LAUB, F.M.Z.S. (Plate XL) 321 

XXXVl. Notes on Ornithology taken between Takoo and Peking, 
in the neighbourhood of the Peiho River, Province of 
Chelee, North China, from August to December, 18G0 323 

XXXVII. Note on the Hypotriorchis castanonotus of Dr. Pleuglin. 

By P. L. Sclater. (Plate XII.) 346 

XXXVIII. Notes on the Ornithology of Timor. By Alfred Russel 

Wallace " 347 

XXXIX. A List of Species to be added to the Ornithology of Cen- 
tral America. By Osbert Salvin, M.A,, F.Z.S. .. 351 

XL. On a new African Species of the Genus Zosterops. By 

HoFRATH Theodor VON Heuglin. (Plate XIII.) 357 

XLI. A Fortnight in the Dobrudscha. By W. H. Simpson, 

M.A., F.Z.S 361 

XLII. Abstract of Mr. J.Wolley's Researches in Iceland respect- 
ing the Gare-fowl or Great Auk {AIca impenniSy Linn.). 

By Alfred Newton, M.A., F.L.S. 374 

XLIII. Recent Ornithological Publications : — 400 

1 . English Publications : — Atkinson's ' British Birds and Eggs.' 

2. French Publications: — Morelet's 'Natural History of the 
Azores.' 

3. German Ptiblications : — Hartlaub's ' Ornithology of Madagas- 
car :' ' Museum Heiueamim,' part iii. : Reichenbach's ' Hand- 
biich der Speciellen Ornithologie :' ' Journal fiir Oruitliolo<^ie,' 
1861, pt. i. 

4. American Publications : — Annals of the Lyceum of Natural 

History of New York : Elliot's Monograph of Pitta : Le 
Moine's Ornithologie du Canada. 

XLIV. Letters, Extracts from Correspondence, Announcements, 

&c 407 

Dr. Hochstetter's Restoration of Species of Dinornis : Extracts 
from Mr. Blyth's Letters : Extracts from Mr. Swinhoe's Letters : 
Letter from Mr. Swinhoe to Prof. Schlegel : Extract from a 
Letter of Mr. Tristram : Letter from Mr. Orde : Mr. Ellman's 
Remarks on the Extinct Birds of New Zealand : Departure 
from England of some Members of the B. O. U. 

Index 417 

Title-page, Preface, Contents. 



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kYS. 69 

'C*^ N. MANCHESTER, 
INDIANA