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VOL. L 1877. 

Ibis avis robiista et multos ^ivit in annos. 





Kindly handle this book with the utmost 
care on account of its fragile condition. 
The binding has been done as well as pos- 
sible under existing conditions and will 
give reasonable wear with proper opening 
and handling. ^ gg^ies of 

Your thoughtfulness icill he appreciated ader their 

ited to its 
^e received 
uurmg tne year, and to congratulate the Members of 
the British Ornithologists' Union on the excellent 
quality and great interest of many of these com- 

It is, indeed, evident that great activity is now 
prevalent in our favourite science, as in almost every 
other branch of Natural History. Never before 
were so many important publications on Ornithology 
in progress, never were there so many workers en- 
gaged in collecting specimens and observing facts 
in nearly every part of the world's surface. 

The Editors look forward with confidence for a 
continuation of the support that has been accorded 

O. S. 
P. L. S. 

October 1877. 



In concluding the first volume of a new series of 
' The Ibis ' the Editors beg leave to tender their 
best thanks to those who have contributed to its 
pages for the good supply of papers they have received 
during the year, and to congratulate the Members of 
the British Ornithologists' Union on the excellent 
quality and great interest of many of these com- 

It is, indeed, evident that great activity is now 
prevalent in our favourite science, as in almost every 
other branch of Natural History. Never before 
were so many important publications on Ornithology 
in progress, never were there so many workers en- 
gaged in collecting specimens and observing facts 
in nearly every part of the world's surface. 

The Editors look forward with confidence for a 
continuation of the support that has been accorded 

O. S. 
P. L. S. 

October 1877. 



[An asterisk indicates an Original Member.] 

Date of 


1874. Edward E. Alston, F.Z.S. ; 22 a Dorset Street, London, W. 
1870. Andrew Anderson, F.Z.S. 

1872. Hanbfry Barclay, F.Z.S. ; Middleton Hall, Tamworth. 

1875. John BiDDtJLPH, Capt. 19th Hussars ; Government House, 


1873. W. T. Blaneoed, F.K.S. &c.; Geological Survey of India, 


1870. Sir Victor Brooke, Bart. ; Colebrooke, Fermanagh, Ireland. 

1871. Arthur Basil Brooke ; Cardney, Dunkeld, N.B. 
1866. Henry Buckley, F.Z.S'. ; Edgbaston, Birmingham. 

1868. Thomas Edward Buckley, B.A., F.Z.S. ; Balnacoil, Brora, 

N. B. 
1877. Lieut.-Col. G. E. Bulger. 

1872. Walter Lawry Buller, C.M.G., Sc.D., F.L.S., &c.; Wel- 

lington, New Zealand. 

1876. Lord Clieton ; Cobham Hall, Gravesend. 

1876. H.R.H. Prince Arthur, Duke op Connaught, E.G. 

1874. John Cordeaux ; Great Cotes, Ulceby, Lincolnshire. 

1866. Arthur William Crichton, B.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S. ; Broadward 
Hall, Salop. 

1877. J. J. Dalgleish ; 8 Athole Crescent, Edinburgh. 

1874. Charles Danford, F.Z.S. ; 2 Norfolk Street, Park Lane. 

1865. Henry Eeles Dresser, F.Z.S. ; 6 Tenterden Street, Hanover 
Square, London, W. 
*Henry Maurice Drummond-Hay, C.M.Z.S., Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel, Royal Perth Rifles ; Seggieden, Perth. 

Date of 


1876. Henry Dtjenfoed ; Buenos Ayres. 

1876. Lieut. Egeeton, R.N. ; 68 West Cromwell Road, Ken- 


1870. Daniel Giratjd Elliot, F.R.S.E., &c. ; 5 Rue de Tilsitt, 


1866. Hexet John Elwes, F.Z.S. ; Preston, Cirencester. 

1877. Rev. T, J. Eaving, D.D. ; Postwick Rectory, Norfolk. 
*Thoma8 Campbell Eyton, F.Z.S. ; Eyton Hall, Wellington. 

1873. H. W. Feilden, Captain and Paymaster, Royal Artillery ; 2 

Grosvenor Terrace, Aldershot. 
1877. W. A. Foebes; Wickham Hall, West Wickham, Kent. 

1867. GeoegeGoochFowlee,B.A.; Gunton HaU, Lowestoft, Suffolk. 
1865. Rev, Henet Elliott Fox, M. A. ; 30 Warwick Square, London, 


1873. Alfeed Henry Gaeeod, M.A., F.R.S., &c. ; 10 Harley Street, 

*Fredeeick DuCane Godman, F.L.S., F.Z.S. ; 10 Chandos 

Street, Cavendish Square, W. 
*Peecy Sanden Godman, B.A., C.M.Z.S. ; The Grange, Sher- 

manbury, Henfield, Sussex. 

1874. Lieut. -Col. H. Godwin-Austen, F.Z.S. ; Shalford House, 

Guildford, Suri'ey. 

1871. Robert Geay, F.R.S.E., F.S.A.S. ; 13 Inverleith Row, Edin- 


1876. Albeet C. L. G. GtJNTHEE, M.A., M.D., F.R.S., &c. ; Keeper 

of the Zoological Department, British Museum, London. 
*JoHN Heney Gurney, F.Z.S. ; Northrepps, Norwich. 
1870. John Henry Gurney, Jun., F.Z.S. ; Northrepps, Norwich. 

1877. E. V. Haecouet ; Nuneham Park, Oxford. 

1876. H. C. Haeford ; 99th Regiment. 

1877. E. Hargitt ; 10 Alexander Square, Brompton. 

1868. James Edmund Harting, F.L.S., F.Z.S. ; 24 Lincoln's Inn 

Fields, London. 
1873. John A. Harvie Brown; Dunipace House, Larbert, N.B. 
1868. Rev. Herbert S. Hawkins, M.A. ; Beyton Rectory, Suffolk. 

1875. J. C. Hele ; Knowles, NeNvt-on- Abbot. 

1873. Charles B. Hodgson, F.Z.S. ; 13 Waterloo Street, Bir- 
1877. E. W. H. Holdsworth; 84Cliftonhill Street, St. John's Wood. 

Date of 

*'WiiFEiD HuDLESTON HuDLESTON, M.A., F.Z.S. ; 23 Cheyne 
Walk, Chelsea. 
1874. Baron A. von Hugel ; Moorlands, Bournemouth. 

1869. Allan Octavian Hume, C.B. ; Secretary to the Government 

of India, Calcutta. 

1873. Most Hon. Chaeles, Marquess of Huntly; 41 Upper Gros- 

venor Street, London. 

1870. Lord Htlton ; Merstham, Red Hill, Surrey. 

1870. Col. Leonard Howard L. Irby, F.Z.S. ; Hythe, Southampton. 

1874. Capt. Alexander W. M. Clarke Kennedy, F.L.S., F.E.G.S., 

F.Z.S. ; Carruchan, Dumfries, K.B. 
*Arthfr Edward Knox, M.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S. ; Trotton House, 
Petersfield, Sussex. 

1876. Captain Vincent Legge, R.A. ; 

*Right Hon. Thomas Lyttleton, Lord Lilfoed, F.L.S. , F.Z.S., 
&c. ; Lilford Hall, Oundle, Northants. 

1874. Major John Hayes Lloyd, F.Z.S. ; 74 Adelaide Road, Haver- 

stock Hill, London, N.W. 

1877. J. Ltjmsden, Jun. ; 20 Queen's Street, Glasgow. 

1875. John Wingeield Malcolm, M.P. ; 7 Stanhope Street, May- 

fair, London, W. 
1870. C. H. T. Marshall, F.Z.S. ; Captain, Bengal Staff Corps. 
1870. G. F. L. Marshall, F.Z.S. ; Capt. Royal (Bengal) Engineers. 
1864. Alexander Goodman More, F.L.S. &c. ; 3 Botanic View, 

Glasnevin, Dublin. 
1874. Rhodes W. Morgan ; Madras Forest Department, Ootaca- 

mund, India. 

1876. Hugh Nevill ; Newton Villa, Godalming. 

1872. Francis D'Arcy William Clough New-come ; Feltwell Hall, 
Brandon, Suffolk. 
*Alfred Newton, M.A., F.R.S., V.P.Z.S. ; Professor of Zoology 

in the University of Cambridge. 
*Edward Newton, M.A., C.M.G., F.L.S., C.M.Z.S., Colonial 
Secretary, Mauritius. 
1876. Francis Nicholson ; Stamford Road, Bowdon, Cheshire. 

*JoHN William Powletx-Orde, F.Z.S., late Captain, 42nd 
(Royal Highland) Regiment ; Auchnaba House, Loch Gilp 
Head, N. B. 
1872. R. G. Wardlaw Ramsay, 67th Regiment ; White Hill, Lass- 
wade, N. B. 

Date of 


1877. Lieut. S. G. Reid, li.E. ; South Camp, Aldershot. 

1865. Gkorge Dawson Rowley, M.A., F.Z.S. ; Chichester House, 
,,vi.'M.:i. East Cliff, Brighton. ■ < : '■ 

1873. Oliver Beatjchamp Coventry St. John, Major R.A., F.Z.S. 
viii *OsBERT Salvin, M.A., F.R.S,, &c. ; Erooklauds Avenue, Cam- 
bridge. -'J'-^ i'j 

1870. Howard Saunders, E.L.S.,'F.^.S. ;■ 7 Kadnor Place, Hyde Park. 
*Philip Lutley Sclater, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., &e. ; 44 Elvas- 

ton Place, Queen's Gate, London, W. 

1873. Henry Sfjebohm, F.Z.S. ; Oak Lea, Collegiate Crescent, Broom- 

hall Park, SheiReld. 

1871. Richard Bowdler Sharpe, F.L.S., F.Z.S. ; Senior Assistant, 

Zoological Department, British Museum. 
1870. G. EiiisfEST Shelley, F.Z.S., late Captain, Grenadier Guards ; 

6 Tenterden Street, Hanover Square, London, W. 
1865. Rev. Charles William Shepherd, M.A., F.Z.S. ; Trotters- 

,. cliffe, Kent. 
1864. Ltev. Alfred Charles Smith, M^A. ; Yatesbury Rectoiy, 

Wiltshire. !lV^-'"' .\ ^"^'! r 

1874. Cecil Smith ; Lydiard House, Taunton, Somersetshire. 

1875. A. C. Stark ; Alexandra Villa, Weston-super-Mare. 
1864. Henry Stevenson, F.L.S. ; Unthank's Road, JNorwich. 

3 868. Hamon Styleman Le Strange, F.Z.S.; Hunstanton Hall, 

„ , Norfolk. 

1875. IPaget Walter Le Strange, Lieut. -Col. Royal Artillery, 

, ,■■ Sheerness. 
1877. Hon. G. Manners Sutton ; 50 Thurloe Square, S.W. 
1862^p-RoBERT SwiNHOE, F.R.S. , late of H.M. Consular Service, 
China. 33 Carlyle Square, London, S.W. 
*Edward Cavendish Taylor, M.A., F.Z.S. ; 74 Jermyn Street, 
1864. George Cavendish Taylor, F.Z.S. ; 42 Elvaston Place, 

■ Queen's Gate, London. 
1873. William Bernhard Tegetmeier, F.Z.S. ; Finchley, Mid- 
*Rev. Henry Baker Tristram, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., tfec, 
Canon of Durham. The College, Durham. 
1864. Most Hon. Arthur, Marquess of Tweeddale, F.R.S., Pres. Z.S., 

Tester, Haddington, N.B. 
1864. Henry Morris Upchee, F.Z.S. ; Sherringham Hall, Norfolk. 

Date of 

1872, Hekbekt Taylok Ussheb, C.M.G., Lieut.-Governor of La- 
buan, Borneo. 

1874. Charles Bygrave Whartok, F.Z.S. ; Hounsdown, Totton, 


1871. E. Perceval Wright, M.D., F.L.S., F.Z.S., Professor of Botany 

in the University of Dublin. 

1875. Charles A. Wright; Kayhough House, Kew-Gardens Koad, 


1876. Claude W. Wyatt ; Adderbury, Banbury. 

1877. Lieut. J. H. Yule ; 11th Regiment, Poena, Bombay. 

Extra- Ordinary Member. 
1860. Alfred Russel Wallace, F.Z.S. ; Rosehill, Dorking. 

Honorary Members. 

1860. Professor Spencer F. Baird, Assistant Secretary to the Smith- 
sonian Institution, Washington. 

1860. Doctor Eduard Baldamus, Moritzwinger, No. 7, Halle. 

1860. Doctor Jean Cabanis, Erster Custos am koniglichen Museum 
der Friedrich-Wilhehn's Uuiversitat zu Berlin. 

1870. Doctor Otto Finsch, Zoological Museum, Bremen. 

1860. Doctor Gustav Hartlaub, Bremen. 

1860, Edgar Leopold Layard, C.M.G., F.Z.S., H.M. Consul, New 

1869, August von Pelzeln, Custos am k.-k, zoologischen Cabinete 
in Wien. 

1860. Professor J. Reinhardt, Kongelige Naturhistoriske Museum 
i Kjobenhavn. 

Foreign Members. 

1872, Prof. J. V. Barboza du Bocage, Royal Museum, Lisbon. 
1875, Hans Graf von Berlepsch, Witzenhausen, Hessen-Nassau. 

1872. Prof. J, F. Brandt, Imperial Museum, 8t. Petersburg. 

1873. Robert Collett, Christiania. 

1872. Doctor Elliott Coues, U.S. Army, Smithsonian Institution, 

Washington, D. C. 
1875. Marchese Giacomo Doria, Genoa. 
1872. Doctor Victor Fatio, Geneva. 

Date of 

1872. Doctor Henky Hillyer Giglioli, Royal Superior Institute, 

1872. George N. Lawrence, New York. 
1872. Baron De Selys Longchamps, Li^ge. 
1872. Doctor A. J. Malmgren, Helsinf/fors. 
1872. Doctor A. von Mibdendorff, Dorpat. 
1872. Alphonse Milne-Edwards, Jardin des Plantes, Paris. 
1872. Prof. GirsTAT Eadde, Tifis. 

1872. Prof. ToMMASO Salvadori, Royal Museum, Turin. 
1872. Prof. Herman Schlegel, University Museum, Leyden. 



Number I., January. 

I. Contributions to the Ornithology of Borneo. By 11. 


II. Description of a new Moorhen from the Hawaiian 
Islands. By T. H. Streets, M.D., U.S. Navy 25 

III. Notes on some Birds observed in the Chuput Valley, 
Patagonia, and in the neighbouring District. By H. Dtjbneord 27 

IV. Note on the South-American Song-Sparrows. By P. L. 
ScxATER. (Plate I.) 46 

V. Ornithological Letters from the Bremen Expedition to 
Western Siberia. By Dr. Otto Finsch, Ph.D., Hon. Memb. 
B.O.r., Chief of the Expedition 48 

VI. On the Phylloscopi or Willow- Warblers. By Henry 
Seebohm, r.Z.S 06 

VII. A Note on the Genus OrtJiotomus. By B. Bowdler 
Sharpe. (Plate II.) 108 

VIII. Notices of recent Publications : — 

1. Pere David's ' Third Journey iu China ' 117 

2. The Marquis de Compiegne's ' ^Equatorial Africa ' . 118 

3. Riesenthal's ' German Birds of Prey ' 119. 

4. Allen's ' Birds of Lake Titicaca ' 119 

5. ' Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South 

Wales' 120 

6. Rowley's ' Ornithological Miscellany ' 122 

7. Blanford's ' Zoology of Eastern Persia ' 122 

8. Finsch's ' Ornithology of the Pacific Islands ' . . . 123 

9, Shelley's ' Monograph of the Suu-birds ' 124 

10. Boucard's ' Catalogus Avium ' 125 

11. Briiggemann's ' Birds of Celebes ' 126 

12. Gurney's ' Eambles of a N"aturalist ' 127 

IX. Letters, Announcements, &c. : — . , , 
Letters from Mr. R. Swinhoe and Mr. Seebohm ; Count E. 
Turati's Collection ; new series of the ' Zoologist ; ' new work 
on the fauna of Belgium ; Tonquin and the way to get there ; 
death of Von Heuglin ; iiTuption of Snowy Owls from the 
north 128 

Number IL, April. 

X. Review of the Specimens of Trochilidce in the Paris Mu- 
seum, brought by D'Orbigny from South America. By D. G. 
Elliot, E.R.S.E. &c 133 

XI. Notes on two Birds from the Fiji Islands. By T. Sal- 
vADORi, C.M.Z.S 142 

XII. On the Contents of a fourth Box of Birds from Hako- . 
dadi, in Northern Japan. By R. Swinhoe, F.R.S 14A 

XIII. Ornithological Notes taken during a Voyage from ' n ■ 
Ceylon to England. By A. Whyte 14& 

XIV. On the SalicaricB of Dr. SevertzoflF. By Henky 
Seebohm 151 

XV. Suijplementary Notes on the Ornithology of Heligoland. 

By Henry Seebohm 156 

XVI. Notes on the Birds of the Province of Buenos Ayres. 

By Henry Duhneord. (Plate III.) 166 

XVII. On a new Form of Reed-bird from Eastern Asia. By 

R. Swinhoe, F.R.S. (Plate IV.) 203 

XVIII. A few Observations on some Species of Anthus and 
Budytes. By W. Edwin Brooks ■*' . *^.' 206 

XIX. Notes on a 'Catalogue of the Aecipitres in the British 
Museum,' by R. Bowdler Sharpe (1874). By J. H. Gurney . 209 

XX. Notices of Recent Publications : — 

13, Mosenthal and Harting's ' Ostrich-farming ' . . , 236 

14. ' Bulletin ' of the Zoological Society of France . . . 237 

15. D'Hamonville's Catalogue of the Birds of Europe 

16. Brown's Travels in British Guiana 


17. Ornithological Results of the ' Gazelle ' Expedition . 239 


18. ' Bulletin ' of the jN'uttall Ornithological Club . 

19. Palmen's ' Migration-routes of Birds ' ... 

20. Dr. Street's Account of the Fanning Islands 

21. Dr. Ogden on a supposed new Paradise-bird . 

22. Prejevalsky's ' Mongolia and Northern Thibet ' 

23. Rowley's ' Ornithological Miscellany ' . . . 

24. Mulsant's ' Histoire Naturelle des Oiseaux-Mouches ' . 244 

25. Barboza du Bocage's Papers on African Ornithology . 245 

26. Bureau on the Booted Eagle 245 

27. Vennor's ' Canadian Birds of Prey ' . . ,, „,^ ;,,,,«. 246 

28. Salvadori's Recent Ornithological Papers .... 247 

29. Salvadori's Prodromus of Papuan Ornithology . . . 249 

XXI. Letters, Announcements, &c. : — 

Letters from Mr. Blanford, Mr. Danford, Mr. Harvie Brown, 
Lord Clifton, Mr. J. H. Gurney, and the Marquis of Tweed- 
dale ; announcements of new works on Madagascar Birds and 
on Indian Game Birds, and of Explorations in Tenasserim ; note " 
on the correct name of the genus Pitta ; note on the pame of 
Falco dickinsoni 249 

YT^-aH x^ JSosdi9^ 'O .YIX 

|;5j . iCHOaaar'' 

NuiTBER III., July. ; -f-r 

XXII. A Contribution to the Ornithology of Asia Minor. 

By C. G. Danford 261 

XXIII. Recent Observations on the Piarrots of the Genus 
Eclectus. By W. A. Forbes, F.Z.S 274 

XXIV. Notes on a Collection of Birds made by Mr. E. C. 
Buxton in the district of Lampong, S.E. Sumatra. By Aethur, 
Marquess of Tweeddale, M.B.O.U. (Plates V. & VI.) . . .283 

XXV. Report on the Additions to the Collection of Birds 

in the British Museum in 1875 323 

XXVI. Notes on a ' Catalogue of the Accipitres in the British 
Museum,' by R. Bowdler Sharpe (1874). By J. H. Gurnet • 325 



XXVII. General Remarks on the Avifauna of Madagascar 
and the Mascarene Islands. Ey Dr. G. Hahtlaub .... 334 

XXVIII. Description of u new Species of CalUste and of 
a new Humming-bird of the Genus Heliangelus. By A. von 
Pelzeln, Hon. Memb. B.O.IJ 337 

XXIX. Additional Notes on the Ornithology of the Re- 
public of Transvaal. By Thomas Ayres. Communicated by 
John Henry Gukney. (Plate VII.) 339 

XXX. Notes on the Avifauna of New Caledonia. By Edgab 
L. Layard, C.M.G., F.Z.S., &c., H.B.M. Consul, and E. Leopold 

C. Layard, Vice-Consul at Noumea 355 

XXXI. Notes on some Birds collected during the Explora- 
tion of the Fly River. By M. L. D'Albertis, C.M.Z.S. . . .363 

XXXII. Notices of recent Publications : — 

30. Baldwin's ' Large and Small Game of Bengal ' . . . 372 

31. ' Vagrancy Acts ' 373 

32. Orton's 'Andes and the Amazon' 373 

33. ' Log-letters from the Challenger ' 374 

34. ' The Cruise of the ChaUenger ' 374 

35. ' Stray Feathers ' 374 

36. Sharpe's edition of Layard's ' Birds of South Africa ' . 375 

37. Heuglin's ' Journey in North-eastern Africa ' . . . 375 

38. Elliot's Monograijh of the Hornbills 376 

39. Gould's ' Birds of New Guinea ' 377 

40. Gould's ' Birds of Asia ' 377 

41. Rowley's ' Ornithological Miscellany 378 

42. Beccari's Account of the Playing-places oi Amhhjornis 

inornata 379 

43. Salvadori's Recent Ornithological Papers .... 379 

44. Barboza du Bocage's Thirteenth List of African Birds 380 

45. Homeyer upon German Mammals and Birds . . . 380 

46. Allen's ' Progress of Ornithology in the United States ' 381 

47. Pelzeln on Birds from Ecuador 383 

48. Pelzeln on Additions to the Imperial Museum at 

Vienna 383 

49. Pelzeln's Report on the Progress of Ornithology in 

1875 384 


50. Baird's ' Ornithology of Utah ' 384 

51. Major Godwin-Austen's List of Birds from the Hills 

of the N.E. Frontier of India 385 

XXXIII. Letters, Announcements, etc. : — 

Letters from the Marquis of Tweeddale (two), Edward R. 
Alston, T. M. Brewer, J. H. Gurney, jun., W. Edwin Brooks, 
J. H Gurney, H. Schalow, and T. Salvador! ; Roraima and its 
Mysteries ; Translation of Miiller's memoir on the Voice-organs 
of the Passeres 385 

Number IV., October. 

XXXIV. List of Birds ohserved in Smith Sound and the 
Polar Basin during the Arctic Expedition of 1875-76. By H. 

W. Feilden 401 

XXXV. On the Nesting of the Spoonbill in Holland. By 

P. L. ScLATER and W. A. Forbes 412 

XXXVL Remarks on Buceros bicornis, Linn. By D. G. 
Elliot, F.R.S.E. &c 416 

XXXVII. Notes on a ' Catalogue of the Accipitres in the 
British Museum,' by R. Bowdler Sharpe (1874). By J. H. 
Gurney 418 

XXXVIII. Description of two new Ant-birds of the Genus 
Grallaria, with a List of all the known Species of the Genus. 

By P. L. ScLATER, M.A., F.R.S. (Plates VIIL, IX.) . . .437 

XXXIX. Note on Pellorneum tickelU, Blyth. Ry Arthur, 
Marquis of Tweeddale, M.B.O.U. (Plates X., XL) . . . .451 

XL. Notes on some Burmese Birds. By Lieutenant Ward- 
law Ramsay, 67th Regiment, M.B.O.U. (Plates XIL, XIII.) 452 

XLI. On a new Bird from Formosa. By R. Swinhoe, F.R.S. 
(Plate XIV.) , • 473 

XLII. A few Words on the Parrots of the Genus Eclectus, 
Wagler. By T. Saltadori, C.M.Z.S 474 

XLII I. Notices of Recent Publications : — 

52. Salvadori on the Papuan Parrots 476 

53. Salvadori on Papuan and Molucean Nectarinians . . 477 



54. Salvador! on D'Albertis's Collections of 1872 . . . 477 

55. Sharpe's ' Catalogue of the Birds in the British Mu- 

seum,' vol. iii 477 

56. Sharpe's Birds of Kerguelen Island 479 

57. Lawrence on a new Phangus 481 

58. Rowley's * Ornithological Miscellany ' 481 

59. E. P. llamsay's Papers in the ' Proceedings of the Lin- 

nean Society of New South Wales ' 482 

60. Wharton's ' List of British Birds ' 483 

61. Marshall's ' Bird's-nesting in Lidia ' 484 

62. M'Cauley's ' Birds of the Red River of Texas ' . . .484 
83. Lieut. Wheeler's Reports upon Surveys west of the 

•100th Meridian 485 

64. Finsch's Collections from Siberia 486 

65. Oustalet on new species of Ibis 486 

XLIV. Letters, Announcements, &c. : — 

Letters from the Marquis of Tweeddale (two), Mr. D. G. 
Elliot, Dr. A. B. Meyer, Mr. J. H. Gurney, Mr. J. H. Gurney, 
jun., and Col. L. Howard Irby : notes on Bonaparte's Lopho- 
rhina respublica and Dr. Briiggemann's new species of Poly- 
plectron 487 

Index 495 

;'L- ■ ';.;jr i '.) <h':r '.jIfiriB 'dr. 

■ ; • ., . ' ■TCWSJ ■??. 

. /jUiiilooficiyl ;.:i^-j.'.....nU ' i;-(oIwo.3; ,86 

PLATES IN V0L/J,8 „,,„ 

- ■ • • aij ' e'notiJsxIW ,06 

FOURTH Sj:RIE,§,ia ' 6 IkriaTCK .113 

; .;{ o/i.1 to ftb-iia' g'-'^sIwfiO^^ =£0 

;^ ,,; i>!^,7 ^/;'--i,M^; nu/jfi iitio(p>i 8 19199x17/ .iuaiJ ,o'^ 

J f Fig. J. Zonotrichia canicapilla '^'OOiiq^lloO f dosm'^ .^-^ ^^ 

- • 1 Fig. 2. strigiceps . . :m ^?« P^ ielBdaLrO /. | ' 

J J [Fig. 1. Orthotomus frontalis nomuonaA .eaoiisl .V' • 112 

' 1 Fig. 2. cinereiceps :\io.Bfi*n';£M.erf<i moil e-ie-' • US 

III. Porzana spiloptora . . R X .lU .TQi&lfl-M'A-.jQ. -19^ 

IV. Urosphena sqiiamiceps . d . ; '/diL f>'i.GWsIT •.. J -ioQ tei • 205 
V. JEgithina viridissimaifisare-^^giiia;- ./iCl &xib. nwSi»c^2?." • 304 

Fi"-. 1. Prinia rafflesi -,,-.^311 

Fig. 2. Brachypteryx laixtoni .^308 

VII. Coturnicops ayresi 352 

VIII. Grallaria ruficeps 444 

IX. Urallaria flavotincta 445 

X. Pellorneum subochraceum 452 

^y J Fig. 1. Drymocataphus tickelli \ ^c-n 

I Fig. 2. Trichostoma abbotti J 

XII. Actinura ramsayi 464 

XIII. Pomatorhinns ochraceiceps 465 

XIV. LiocicMa steerii 473 


Vapce Liiir 

iL'tl. U). for Zeua read Lena. 
37G, .'{4. ^;- T read ,T. 



No. I. JANUARY 1877. 

I. — Contributions to the Ornithology of Borneo. — Part II.* 
By H. BowDLER Sharpe. 

Mr. Everett has returned to England for a few months, and 
has brought with him a large collection of birds from North- 
western Borneo. The determination of the species having 
now been brought to a close^ I have much pleasure in giving 
a list of them in continuation of my former paper on this 
subject. At the same time it will be seen that the principal 
interest attaching to this paper consists in the careful notes 
which Mr. Everett has been so kind as to give me, on the 
species procured by him. Considering the difficulties which 
beset the naturalist in a country like Borneo, it is impos- 
sible to feel too grateful to this gentleman for the very ener- 
getic way in which he has devoted himself to the study of the 
natural history of the island. This last collection has been 
formed with the same care as the previous ones, notwith- 
standing the drawbacks of serious illness and fever, from 
which Mr. Everett is only now slowly recovering. 

Before commencing the list of the present collection, which 
has been chiefly formed in an entirely new district, viz. at 

* For Part I. see ' Ibis/ 1876, p. 29. 

2 Mr. R. B. Sharpens Contributions to the 

Bintulu^ it is well to make a few necessary corrections in re- 
gard to the localities mentioned in the previous paper. Mr. 
Everett had very tindly forwarded me a little map of N.E. 
Borneo, with some of his collecting-stations entered in ink. 
It seems, however, that the other printed details of the map 
were faulty, and not intended for publication (the map is a 
small missionary chart) ; and the following notes give a more 
correct idea of the localities where Mr. Everett has been col- 
lecting for the past seven years : — Eirst of all the name 
'^Kucking^^ should read everywhere in the former paper as 
KucHiNG, this being the name for the chief town in the 
Sarawak Raj. Then again, with regard to the paragraph 
(p. 30) commencing " Sibu Island &c.," Mr. Everett re- 
marks : — " Sibu Island and the Matu river are situated, the 
first at the apex of the Rejang delta, and the second on the 
shore-line of the same delta, the former being distant some 
80 miles from the Bruit entrance." With regard to the 
other localities it may be mentioned that Tagora, Puak Hill, 
SiRAMBu, BusAN, Jambusan, Belidah, Gunong trahn. Ma- 
tang, and Bidi are all within 20 miles to the west and south- 
west of KucHiNG. SiMUNJAN is somc 20 miles from the mouth 
of the Sadong. Marup lies at the base of the Balang and 
TiANG Laju mountains, and is distant some 80 miles by the 
river's course from the mouth of the Batang Lupar; and, 
lastly, Santubong, Kalakah, Rejang, and Bintulu are on the 
coast, the latter locality being situated on the Bruni frontier, 
about halfway between Kuching and Labuan. 

As regards the determination of the species, I must again 
record the great assistance which I have received from Count 
Salvadori's work*. 

Circus spilonotus, Kaup ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1876, p. 30. 

a. S ad. Bintulu. Iris pure brilliant yellow ; feet and 
legs chrome-yellow, claws black ; bill black, pale lead at tlie 
base ; cere greenish yellow. 

b, c. d juv. Bintulu, Nov. 11, 1875. Iris warm choeo- 

* " Catalogo sistematico degli uccelli di Borneo di Tommaso Salvadoi-i 
con note ed osservazioni di G. Doria ed O. Beccari intorno alle specie da essi 
racoolte nel Ragiato di Sarawak," Ann. Mus. Civ. Genoa, v. p. 1 (1874j. 

Ornithology of Borneo. 3 

late-brown ; bill greyish black, base of lower mandible lead- 
colour ; cere dirty greenish ; legs and feet pale greenish yel- 
low, claws black. 

d. $ juv. Bintulu. Legs and feet pale whitish yellow ; 
cere pale whitish green. 

[This Harrier is probably only a migratory visitant, as all 
my six specimens have been shot during the N.E. monsoon. 
The present individuals were shot as they were flying over 
marshy ground at the mouth of the Bintulu river. — A. E.] 

Haliaetus leucogaster (Grm.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. i. p. 307. 

Cuncuma leucogaster, Salvad. /, c. p. 5. 

a. 5 juv. Jilalong branch of Bintulu river. Iris warm 
chocolate- brown ; legs and feet dirty greenish white ; bill 
blackish horn, whitish at base. 

[A very rare bird in Borneo, according to my experience. 
I have only seen it twice — once about 40 miles up the main 
Bintulu river, and again far inland on the Jilalong. — A. E.] 

This Eagle is included in Count Salvadori's w^ork provisi- 
onally with a query. He seems to have argued from its oc- 
currence in all the neighbouring islands that it must therefore 
be found in Borneo. This supposition is now confirmed by 
Mr. Everett, to whom belongs the credit of adding the species 
to the Bornean list. 

Haliastur intermedius, Gurn. ; Sharpe, Cat. i. p. 314. 
Haliastur Indus, Salvad. t. c. p. 12. 

a. 2 ad. Bintulu, Oct. 4, 1875. Iris brown ; bill bluish, 
horn -yellow at the tip ; cere pale chrome-yellow ; feet pale 
yellow, with a green tinge. 

b. 6 ad. Kabulau, on the Jilalong branch of the Bintulu 
river. Iris warm chocolate; feet pure deep chrome, claws 
black ; bill greenish. 

[A young female shot at Bintulu in Sept. 1875 had Crus- 
tacea in the gizzard. — A. E.] 

Spilornis pallidus, Wald. ; Sharpe, Cat. B. i. p. 290, pi. ix. 

a. 2 • Bintulu. Iris golden ; orbital skin deep yellow ; 
cere greenish ; bill bluish lead-colour ; the culmen clouded 
black ; legs and feet dirty chrome-yellow. 


4 Mr. K. B. Sharpens Contributions to the 

b. $ , Bintulu. Legs and orbital region chrome-yellow, 
claws black ; other parts as in preceding. Crustacea in the 

Both the above-mentioned birds are young. 

Spizaetus alboniger, Blyth ; Sharpe, Cat. B. i. p. 271 ; 
Salvad. /. c. p. 14. 

a. 2 juv. Bintulu, Oct. 23, 1875. Iris golden yellow ; 
bill and cere black ; feet pale dirty greenish yellow, the soles 
dull ochreous orange. 

SyrniuiVI leptogrammicum (Temm.); Sharpe. Cat. ii. p. 264. 

Ciccaba leptogrammica, Salvad. /. c. p. 20. 

a. (J . Bintulu. Iris dai'k warm brown ; bill bluish grey. 

b,c,d,e. $. Bintulu. Iris warm chocolate- brown; bill 
white, tinged with blue at the base ; feet bluish lead-colour. 

[Tolerably abundant in the old forests in the vicinity of 
Bintulu.— A. E.] 

This series shows that the species varies considerably, espe- 
cially in the chest-patch, which is deep chestnut- rufous in 
some, pale tawny in others, while some examples have the 
breast much whiter than others. 

NiNox scutulata, RafB. ; Sharpe, Cat. B. ii. p. 156. 

a. S- Jambusan, March 1875. Iris golden; feet dull 
ochre-yellow; cere greenish. 

[Distributed throughout Sarawak. The Malay name of 
" Pongok '' represents the clear loud cry of this bird. In a 
^ shot at Simunjan, October 1870, the legs were chrome- 
yellow ; iris brilliant orange-yellow ; bill greenish white ; cere 
of bill green ; testes long, dark yellow ; kidneys dark mottled 
purple ; stomach distended with beetles, chiefly Buprestida ; 
intestines very long, and with intestinal worms present, about 
\\ inch in length. Another individual, shot aT Sibu, had a 
small gecko lizard in its stomach. — A. E.] 

Caprimulgus salvadorii, Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1875, p. 99^ 
pi. xxii. fig. 1. 

a, b, c,d. 6 . Bintulu. Iris dark brown ; bill and legs 
dark purplish brown. 

Ornithology of Borneo. 5 

e. ? . Bintulu. Soft parts same as in the male. 

The series which Mr. Everett now brings shows that C. 
salvadorii is most closely allied to C. macrurus ; but the prin- 
cipal diflferences seem to be in the blackish colour of the lores 
and region of the eye, and the very distinct white cheek-stripe. 
In C. macrurus the lores are reddish, as also is the side of 
the face, and the white cheek-stripe is nearly obsolete. 

[Santubong, Kalakah, Eejang, Bruit, Bintulu. This Goat- 
sucker is by no means uncommon in Sarawak ; but it is very 
locally distributed, being confined to the coast-line and its 
immediate vicinity, and, so far as my observation has gone, 
to the sandy portion of the coast. The note is single, and 
sounds like the distant stroke of a mallet on wood. The 
eggs are creamy white, with faint purple-grey marblings, and 
they are laid among the short turf which holds the sand 
together beyond high- water mark. The stomachs are gene- 
rally full of beetles, chiefly a small green chafer, but also 
longicorns and elaters. It is noteworthy that in places 
haunted by this species one never hears the note of any other 
kind of Goatsucker, although the '^ Pongok '' Owl {N. scu- 
tulata) sometimes approaches within a mile of the shore. — 
A. E.] 

Merops bicolor (Bodd.) ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1876, p. 33. 

[An abundant species, but confined to the sandy tracts on 
the shore-line, though a pair will be met with now and again 
as far as 20 miles inland, where a sandy bank happens to 
offer facilities for nidiiication. A female shot in April had 
a shelled egg in the oviduct, I am inclined to think these birds 
are migratory, but am not yet satisfied on this point. A pair 
shot May 20, 1870, showed no difference in plumage ; but 
two females shot in August 1873 had the chestnut of the 
crown dashed with rich dark green. The only external dif- 
ferences between the sexes are that the green hues of the 
male are brighter and yellower than in the female, in which 
a bluer cast predominates, and in which, the green of the 
belly is paler ; and the shafts of the two median rectrices are 
usually developed further beyond the vanes in the male than 

6 Mr. R. B. Sharpe's Contributions to the 

in the female. The flight of these birds is strong, and com- 
bines the swift skimming of the Swallow with the airy hover- 
ing of the Falcon. Now they will flutter up just as a Sky- 
lark doeSj and then swoop earthwards like a Hawk after its 
quarry, and then again will rise and float almost without 
motion, merely balancing themselves in the breeze by a slight 
quivering of the pinions. When at rest they commonly perch 
on the topmost twigs of the lower Casuarina trees. The giz- 
zard always contains insects — beetles, dragon-flies, and or- 
thoptera, as well as wasps and bees. — A. E.] 

Nyctiornis amicta (Temm.) ; Salvad. t. c. p. 91. 

a. S . Bintulu. Iris pure orange-red ; bill black ; feet 

b. 6 . Bintulu. Iris vermilion. 

c. c? juv. Tagora, May 1875. Iris greyish brown; legs 
bluish lead-grey. 

[Tolerably common throughout the territory. A nest 
containing two eggs was brought me at Belidah in January. 
The eggs were rather small in comparison with the size of 
the bird, nearly equal at both ends, and spotted with faint 
red in a ring round the larger end, the ground being white. 
The nest was neatly lined with dry grass inside, and exte- 
riorly was roughly put together with bamboo-leaves and 
rush. — A. E.] 

Alcedo bengalensis, Gm. ; Salvad. t. c. p. 92. 

a,b. $ . Bintulu. BiU dark brown, reddish at base ; feet 
orange-red ; iris brown. 

c. $ . Bintulu. Bill blackish brown, reddish at base ; 
feet dull vermilion. 

[Common at Bintulu on the shore and in the Nipah 
creeks. — A. E.] 

Ceyx iiUFiDORSA, Strickl. 

Ceyx innominata, Salvad. t. c. p. 97. 

a. Bintulu. 

b. 6. Jambusan. Iris chocolate. 

Both these specimens are true C. rufidorsa. 

Ornithology of Borneo. 7 

EuRYSTOMUs ORiENTALis (L.) ; Salvad. t. c. p. 105. 
a, c? . Bintulu. Iris brown ; bill and legs orange-red, 
claws black. 

Hydrocissa convexa (Temm.) ; Salvad. t. c. p. 80. 

a. 6 . Bintulu. Iris crimson ; naked skin bluish white ; 
legs blackish lead-colour. 

b. S . Bintulu. Bill yellowish white ; naked skin at base 
of bill and about the eyes white tinged with greenish blue ; 
feet and legs very dark grey. Fruit-pulp in gizzard. 

[This is the commonest Hornbill in the Sarawak territory, 
being found chiefly in the vicinity of the coast. — A. E'.] 

Cacomantis merulinus (Scop.); Sharpe_, Ibis, 1876, p. 34. 

[Common all over Sarawak in gardens and cleared spaces, 
whither these birds resort at dawn and dusk, flitting silently 
about and resting now and again on palings, low bushes, &c., 
or sometimes in the grass. They also fly by day, but not 
usually. Their cry is exactly like the Malay words ^'tiup 
api " (literally " blow the fire ") ; and hence their name among 
the natives. The '^Tiup api^^ is one of the Sea-Dyak birds 
of omen. In a male shot at Sibu in April 1874 the testes 
were yellowish, semiglobular, and equal ; in another indi- 
vidual, from the foot of the Matang mountains, there was 
only one small testis present ; and in this specimen the iris 
was light red instead of carnation. The interior of the gape 
is cinnabar-red ; tongue scarlet, with the posterior barbs 
finely slit. These birds appear to feed chiefly on lepidop- 
terous larvae. — A. E.] 

Carpococcyx radiatus (Temm.) ; Salvad. t. c. p. 77. 

a. $ . Bintulu. Iris pale grey-brown; bill and orbital 
space with the feet and legs sea-green, darkest on the bill. 
Gizzard full of beetles. Caught in a trap set on the ground. 

HiEROcoccYX FUGAX (Horsf.) ; Salvad. t. c. p. 65. 

a. 6 . Bintulu. Iris and lores brilliant yellow ; feet wax- 
yellow; bill black, yellow at the base and at the tip. 

[Bidi, Simunjan, Marup, Bintulu. Not a common bird 
in Sarawak. Feeds on orthoptera. Interior of gape green. 
—A. E.] 

8 Mr. R. B. Sharpens Contributions to the 

SuRNicuLUs LUGUBRis (Horsf.) ; Salvad, t. c. p. 63. 
a. Jambusan. Iris brown. 

Rhopodytes erythrognathus (Hartl.) ; Sharpe^ P. Z. S. 
1873, p. 601. 

Rhaynpho coccyx erythrognathus, Salvad. /. c. p. 74. 

a. S . Tubau, Bintulu. Iris bright cobalt-blue ; orbital 
space deep crimson ; legs dark leaden grey ; bill whitish green, 
the base of the lower mandible dull dark crimson. 

b. ?. Tagora, May 1875. Iris bright orange; orbital 
space pure deep crimson; legs and feet dark leaden grey, 
with a cast of olive-green; bill pale green, but round the 
nostril and all but the extreme third of the lower mandible 
dull crimson. 

[When this bird is sitting quietly in a tree its note is a 
low " kuk-kuk ;" but when it is on the wing these syllables 
are repeated several times rapidly in a loud tone. The flight 
is swift and gliding; and if the bird is in open spaces, it 
always flies very low. These Cuckoos are very j)artial to the 
fields of 'Halang" grass, where they obtain abundance of 
orthopterous and other insects, with which their gizzards are 
invariably crammed. — A. E.] 

It will be seen that the colour of the iris in the male does 
not agree with that given by the Marquis Doria (/. c.) . 

Centrococcyx eurycercus (Hay) ; Salvad. t. c. p. 78. 
a. Bintulu, October 24, 1875. Iris crimson ; bill, legs, 
and feet black, claws black. 

Indicator archipelagicus, Temm. ; Salvad, t. c. p. 61. 

a. $ . Bintulu, Iris indian-red ; legs leaden green ; bill 
dark horn-brown. 

[The only time that I have seen this bird, which appears to 
be very rare; it was shot during the N.E, monsoon. — A. E.] 

Megal/ema chrysopsis, Gofifin. 
CJiotorhea chrysopsis, Salvad, t. c. p. 32. 
a. ^. Tagora, May 1875. Iris warm brown ; bill black; 
legs and feet dark lead-colour, tinged greenish. 

[The rarest of the Barbets in Sarawak. I have procured 

Ornithology of Borneo. 9 

it on the Matang mountains, but have not seen it anywhere 
else than here and at Tagora. — A. E.] 

Megal^ema duvauceli (Less.). 

XantholcBma duvauceli, Salvad. t. c. p. 38. 

a. ? . Bintulu. Iris dark brown ; legs pale green. 

[Found everywhere in Sarawak. A difference between the 
sexes is observable when they are pairing, the male showing 
the patch of black on the throat larger and darker than the 
female ; and in the latter the black of the forehead is less 
pure and glossy than in the cock bird, which also slightly 
exceeds his mate in size. In the male one testis is of 
normal shape and large, the other is smaller and globular. — 
A. E.] 

Calorhamphus PULiGiNosus (Tcmm.) ; Salvad. t.c. p. 39. 

a. (S immature. Tagora, May 3, 1875. Legs pinkish 
red; iris neutral tint. A mixture of seeds and insects in 
the gizzard. 

[Generally distributed, occurring as high as 1000 feet ele- 
vation on Sirambu. — A. E.] 

Xylolepes validus (Temm.) ; Salvad, t. c. p. 43. 
a. Bintulu. Iris orange; bill greenish brown, the lower 
mandible yellow; feet light greenish brown. 

Lepocestes porphyromelas (Boie) ; Salvad. t. c. p. 48. 
a. Sibu, Feb. 18, 1875. 

This is probably rather rare, as neither the Marquis Doria 
nor Mr. Wallace obtained specimens. 

Callolophus mentalis (Temm.) ; Salvad. t. c. p. 49. 
a,b. cJ ? . Bintulu. Iris crimson ; bill black, the lower 
mandible lead-colour ; feet dull grass-green. 

TiGA jAVANENsis (Ljuug) ; Salvad. t. c. p. 54. 

a. S. Santubong Bay, May 1875. Iris dark brown ; legs 
olive-green ; bill black. 

[This species appears to be rare or local, as I have never 
pact with it before. — A. E.] 

PALiEORNis LONGiCAUDA (Bodd.) ; Salvad. /. c. p. 22. 

a. d". Bintulu, pairing. Outer ring of iris white, inner 

10 Mr. R. B. Sharpens Contributions to the 

ring dark greenish ; bill deep scarlet, the tip yellow, lower 
mandible sooty browu ; feet greenish lead-colour. Crop full 
of fruit. 

b. 2 ' Bintulu. Iris yellowish white, inner ring dull 
green ; bill dark brown ; feet greenish. 

Brachyurus granatinus (Temm.). 
Pitta granatina, Salvad, t. c. p. 242. 

a. S . Bintulu, Iris brown ; bill black ; legs and feet 
leaden blue, 

[Shot in swampy old jungle close to the sea-shore. — A. E.] 

Brachyurus moluccensis (MiilL). 
Pitta cyanoptera, Salvad, t.c. p, 235. 

a. 2 . Bintulu, Nov. 28, 1875. Iris dark brown ; bill 
wood-brown ; legs and feet purplish grey. 

b. (S . Bintulu, Nov. 5, 1875. Legs pale greyish horn- 
brown ; bill blackish brown. 

c. 6 . Bintulu. Legs and feet pinkish white. 

Brachyurus muelleri (Bp.) ; Salvad. t. c. p. 240. 

a. 5. Jilalong branch of Bintulu river. Iris brown; bill 
blackish brown, dusky orange about the gape ; legs purplish 

TiMELiA MACULATA, Tcmm. ; Salvad, t. c. p. 211. 

a. $. Bintulu. Iris yellow; bill black; legs and feet 
leaden grey. 

b. 5 . Bintulu. Iris naples-yellow ; legs bluish lead- 

c. 6 . Bintulu. Iris yellow (clay) ; feet and legs bluish 
leaden grey. 

d. 6 . Bintulu. Iris naples-yellow ; legs leaden blue. 
[Common in the vicinity of Bintulu in old jungle, but 

not observed elsewhere by me in the district of Sarawak. 
—A. E.] 

TiMELiA NiGRicoLLis, Tcmm. ; Salvad. t. c. p. 212. 
a,b. ^. Bintulu. Iris crimson; legs blackish lead-colour; 
bill black, the lower mandible leaden grey. 

Ornithology of Borneo. 11 

Macronus ptilosus (J. & S.) ; Salvad. t. c. p. 216. 

a,h. S • Bintulu. Iris crimson ; bill black ; preorbital 
naked skin blue ; legs brown. 

c. % . Bintulu. Iris crimson ; bill black ; legs blackish 

[Found in the second-growth jungle, and in the thickets of 
lalang grass^ generally in pairs. — A. E.] 

Cyanoderma bicolor (Blyth) ; Sharpe^ Ibis^ 1876; p. 40. 

a. 6 . Bintulu. Iris crimson ; skin of neck and about 
the eyes blue ; bill dark bluish black ; legs pale greyish 

[Found in similar situations to M. ptilosus. — A. E.] 

MixoRNis BORNEENSis, Bp. ) Salvad. t. c. p. 205. 
a. d . Bintulu. Iris yellowish white ; bill black, the lower 
mandible leaden grey ; legs leaden grey. 

Drymocataphus capistratoides (Temm.) ; Salvad. t. c. 
p. 218. 

a. d. Bintulu, Dec. 1, 1875. Iris orange-brown; bill 
black, the under mandible pale lead-colour ; legs leaden 

b. 6. Bintulu. Iris burnt sienna; legs dark brown. 

c. 6 . Sibu, Feb. 28, 1875. Iris crimson; legs leaden. 

TuRDiNus leucogrammicus (Tcmm.) ; Salvad. t. c. p. 217. 
a, S . Bintulu. Iris dark brown ; legs very dark lead- 

Brachypteryx umbratilis (Temm.); Salvad. t.c. p. 220. 
a. 2 • Labang, Bintulu. Iris dull indian-red ; legs and 
feet blue lead-colour. 

Malacopteron majus, Blyth; Salvad. t. c. p. 225. 

a,b. c? $ . Sibu, Feb. 28, 1875. Iris dark pink ; bill leaden ; 
legs lead-blue. 

c. (?. Bintulu. Iris indian-red ; legs bluish lead- colour. 

[Gunong Trahn, Sibu, Bintulu. Always in old jungle; 
beetles found in stomach ; in the male, testes pale yellow, glo- 
bular, equal in size. The M. magnum also inhabits the old 
forest, and is common near Tagora and at Bintulu. — A. E.] 

12 Mr. R. B. Sharpens Cuntributmis to the 

Malacopteron magnum, Eyton ; Salvad. f. c. p. 226. 

a. (S . Bintulu. Iris crimson ; bill dark brownish ; legs 
pale whitisli leaden grey. 

b, c. d $ . Tagora. Iris indian-red ; bill black, the lower 
mandible whitish lead-colour ; legs and feet pale pinkish 
leaden grey. 

Brachypteryx malaccensis, Hartl. ; Salvad. t. c. p. 222. 
a, b. d $ . Bintulu. Iris crimson ; legs pinkish white. 
[These birds haunt the undergrowth of the old jungle, and 
never inhabit the high trees. — A. E.] 

Trichixos pyrrhopygus, Less. ; Salvad. t. c. p. 224. 

a. (S ad. Bintulu. Legs and feet pale. 

b. ? juv, Bintulu. Iris dark brown; gape yellow; legs 
pinky white; bill dark brown. 

Malacocincla rufiventris, Salvad. t. c. p. 229. 
a. 2 ' Tagora, May 1875. Iris yellow-brown ; bill smoky 
black, the under mandible leaden grey ; legs pale horn-brown. 

Setaria affinis (Blyth) ; Salvad. t. c. p. 231. 

a. S . Jambusan. 

b. S • Bintulu, pairing. Iris dark raw-sienna ; legs 
bluish lead-colour ; bill the same, culmen darker. 

Setaria pectoralis, Salvad. t. c. p. 233, tav. iv. fig. 1 . 
a,b. c? ? • Bintulu. Iris light brown ; bill black ; legs 
pale purplish. 

Setaria albigularis, Blyth ; Salvad. t. c. p. 233. 
a. ^ . Bintulu, pairing. Iris crimson ; bill black ; legs 
dark leaden grey. 

CopsYCHus PROBLEMATicus, Sharpc, Ibis, 1876, p. 36. 

a. $. Sibu. 

The hen bird now sent fully confirms the distinctness of 
C. problematicus as a species, the blackish under wing-coverts 
and general darker coloration being very conspicuous. 

[May be seen in all gardens and clearings in Sarawak, 
where it is always welcome, as it is one of the few Bornean 
birds that can boast some approach to a song. Observed on 
Matang and Sirambu at a height of over 1200 feet. The 

Ornithology of Borneo. 13 

pairing-season is about March or April ; and the nest is said 
to be placed in holes in trees ; one brought to me at Santu- 
bong was scantily made up of roots and a little moss, and 
contained three eggs of a greenish tint, plentifully blotched 
with rich brown. — A. E.] 

CiTTOciNCLA SUA VIS, Sclater; Salvad. t. c. p. 252. 

a. ^ . Bintulu. Iris dark brown ; legs pale greyish 

b. $ . Sibu, Feb. 28, 1875. Iris chocolate. 
[Generally, but not abundantly, distributed in Sarawak, 

where it inhabits the old jungle. I have observed it on Si- 
rambu at a height of 1000 feet. — A. E.] 


a. 2 . Bintulu, Nov. 14, 1875. Iris dark brown; legs dark 
brown ; bill black. 

[This bird was shot during a gale of wind at the mouth of 
the Bintulu river. — A. E.] 

The first occurrence of the species in Borneo ; but it was 
decidedly a bird to be expected. 

Hypsipetes malaccensis, Blyth ; Salvad. t. c. p. 202. 

a. 5 . Bintulu, Nov. 14, 1875. Iris warm yellow-brown. 

b. $ . Bintulu. Iris ochreous brown. 

c. 5 . Bintulu. Iris orange-brown ; legs dark wood- 
brown ; bill very dark brown, paler on the lower mandible. 
Fruit in the stomach. 

Trichophoropsis typus, Bp. ; Salvad. /. c. p. 203. 

a. (^ . Bintulu. Iris warm brown; bill bluish, tipped black; 
feet purplish lead-colour. 

b. ? . Bintulu. Iris orange-brown ; feet brownish lead- 

[Observed at Sabu, Sibu, and Bintulu, at which latter place 
it is not uncommon in the old jungle. In a female shot Nov. 
21, 1874, the ovarium and oviduct were found to be normal ; 
ccsca coli two, saccular, of moderate length, running backward, 
and adherent; gizzard full of orthopterous insects; tongue 
plain, very slightly slit at the apex. In the male the testes 

14 Mr. R. B. Sharpens Contributions to the 

are globular, yellow, and nearly equal ; kidneys equally de- 
veloped. The gizzard in a male shot July 23, 1874, contained 
remains of neuroptera ; and that of another male shot in Bin- 
tulu in November was crammed with the pulp and hard woody 
core of some wild fruit. — A. E.] 

Brachypodius immaculatus, Sharpe, Ibis, 1876, p. 39. 

[Gunong Trahn, Tagora, Sibu, Biutulu, &c. This bird is 
sufficiently common in many parts of tlie territory, affecting 
open spaces with their thickets of second growth rather than 
the old forest. I found them abundant in March 1875 at 
Jambusan, flying about all through the heat of the day, and 
usually in pairs. They are very restless, never settling long 
in one place, and continually utter a sharp clicking note as 
they fly. A female killed at Trahn in June had the stomach 
full of a fruit resembling red currants. The tongue is plain, 
with apical slit. Observed at a height of 3000 feet on the 
Matang mountains. — A. E.] 

Criniger PH.EOCEPHALUS (Hartl.) ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1876, 
p. 40. 

a. ?. Tagora, May 1875. Iris burnt sienna ; legs bright 

Tricholestes minutus (Hartl.) ; Salvad. t. c. p. 205, tav. v. 
fig. 1. 

a. c^. Tagora, May 1875. Iris pale sepia-brown; bill 
pale leaden ; legs and feet light yellowish brown. 

Criniger gutturalis (Bp.) ; Salvad. t. c. p. 206. 

a. ^ . Labang, about 40 miles up the Bintulu river. Legs 
purplish ; iris indian-red ; bill dirty lead-colour. 

b. ? . Bintulu. Iris orange-brown ; legs and feet yellow- 
brown ; bill blackish, pale at base. Fruit in stomach. 

These birds, along with TricJiophoropsis typus and Hypsi- 
petes malaccensis, are all found together in tolerable abun- 
dance in the swampy jungle skirting the coast. 

Iora scapularis, Horsf. ; Salvad. /. c. p. 190. 

a. Kuching. 

b. c? . Jambusan. Iris white ; legs and bill pale leaden. 

Ornithology of Borneo. 15 

c. ^ . Santubong bay. Iris white ; legs dark leaden grey. 

[Extremely common at Santubong, Rejang, Bruit, in the 
shore-jungle and Casuarina-h&li, and also at Belidah and Sibu 
in second-growth jungle; and I have observed it on the Si- 
rambu mountains at a height of 1000 feet. The iris is white 
or yellowish white ; culmen and tip of maxilla slaty black, 
rest of beak bluish ; legs and feet leaden blue ; ccsca coli 
small, ellipsoid, adherent ; tongue triangular, pointed, and 
finely slit along its anterior margins ; testes minute (July), 
pyriform, yellow. A female shot on a MeJastoma-hvi^h. at 
Sibu in August had the gizzard full of minute coleoptera; in 
a male shot at Belidah in July the stomach contained seeds 
and various small insects. — A. E.] 

Phyllornis cyanopogon, Temm. ; Salvad. t. c. p. 194. 
a,b. S ? . Bintulu. 
[Tolerably common. — A. E.] 

Phyllornis sonnerati (J. & S.); Salvad. t. c. p. 193. 
a,b. c? ? . Bintulu. Iris brown ; bill black ; feet dark 
lead- colour. 

Phyllornis viridinucha, sp. n. 
P. affinis P. icterocephal(2, sed capite postico nuchaque viri- 
descentibus nee sordide aurantiacis distinguenda. Long, 
tot. Q-1, culm 0'7, alse 3-25, caud. 2-7, tarsi 0-65. 

a. $. Bintulu. Iris dark brown; bill jet-black; legs 
greenish lead-colour. 

b. ? . Tngora, May 1875. 

Mr. Everett has brought a pair of this Phyllornis, which 
differs from the allied P. icterocephala from Malacca and 
Sumatra in having the back of the neck greenish, this latter 
colour extending onto the crown, and leaving only the fore 
part of the head yellow. In P. icterocephala, of which I 
have a good series now before me, the whole crown is bright 
yellow, shading off into dull orange on the nape. The fe- 
males of the two species are very different, that of the Bornean 
bird being quite green above. Count Salvadori duly notices 
the differences between the above-mentioned birds, but does 
not consider them specific. As, however, they are very con- 

16 Mr. R. B. Sharpe's Contributions to the 

stant in a large series, I think it better to give the Bornean 
bird a name. 

Phylloscopus borealis. Bias. 
Phylloneuste javanica, Salvad. t. c. p. 24J?. 

a. Tuban branch of Bintulu river. Iris brown ; bill brown, 
the lower mandible yellow ; legs and feet pale sienna. 

b. ? . Bintulu. Iris brown ; legs pale transparent brown. 
I am indebted for a determination of this species to Mr. H. 

Prinia superciliaris, Salvad. t. c. p. 249. 

a. $ . Bintulu. Iris brown ; legs warm brown. 

[Lives in the thick lalang grass. — A. E.] 

Orthotomus ATRiGULARis, Tcmm. ; Salvad. t. c. p. 249. 

a,b. c? ? . Bintulu. Iris dark ochreous; legs pale brown; 
bill darker brown. 

Having compared the pair collected by Mr. Everett with 
Malaccan examples of 0. flavo-viridis, Moore, I have no doubt 
as to their identity; and at the same time, as these birds 
are referable to the Bornean 0. atrigularis, Temm., the latter 
title consequently becomes the oldest name for 0. flavo- 

Mr. Everett has not met with this species before. As 
might be expected, the sexes are not " sirailar,^^ as stated by 
Temminck, but are in reality quite different, the female 
wanting the black throat, and having the tail rather more 
distinctly marked with a subterminal spot of dark brown. 

AcROCEPHALUS oRiENTALis (T. & S.) ; Salvad. t. c. 13. 251. 
a. $. Bintulu. Iris pale wood-brown; legs lead-grey; 
bill horn -brown ; interior of gape orange. Diptera in gizzard. 
Procured during the N.E. monsoon. 


P. similis P. obsoleto, sed supra saturate bruuneus, nee oli- 

vaceo lavatus : gutture bruunescente, nee albo, et rec- 

tricibus externis concoloribus distinguendus. Long. tot. 

3*7, culm. 0*4, alse 2*25, caudse 1'3, tarsi 055. 

This apparently new species is closely alHed to P. obsoletus 

Ornithology of Borneo. 17 

of Timor^ but differs in being darker above, in having the 
throat and breast brownish instead of white, and especially 
in the absence of white tips to the outer tail-feathers. 

Peionochilus xanthopygius, Salvad. t. c. p. 162. 

a. d" . Bintulu. Iris warm sienna-brown ; legs dark grey. 

b. c? . Tagora, May 1875. Iris warm brown ; bill black. 
[From the distance of the above-named localities it may 

be inferred that the species is found over the whole of the 
Sarawak district ; but it is certainly one of the less common 
of these little birds. — A. E.] 

Prionochilus thoracicus (Temm.) ; Salvad. t. c. p. 163. 

a. d . Bintulu. Iris yellowish brown ; bill black ; legs 
dark lead-colour. 

Apparently rare, as Mr. Everett has never previously met 
with the species. 

Prionochilus maculatus (Temm.) ; Salvad. t. c. p. 164. 

a. 2' Bintulu. Iris purple-red ; bill black; legs blackish 
lead-colour ; lower mandible lead-colour. 

b. d . Bintulu. Iris ^' dragon^s-blood -"^ red. 

[Food in stomach, pulp of the wild fig {Arar). Common 
throughout the Sarawak district. — A. E.] ' 

Dictum trigonostigma (Scop.); Salvad. t.c. p. 166. 

a. 6 . Bintulu. Iris dark brown. 

b. 6 . Santubong Bay. 

Dictum chrysorrh(eum (Temm.) ; Salvad. t. c. p. 168. 

a. cJ . Bintulu. Pairing. Iris crimson. 

b. $ . Jambusan. Iris orange ; legs leaden. 

j;Ethopyga eupogon. Cab.; Salvad. t. c. p. 173. 

[This bird is pretty common throughout Sarawak, both on 
the sea-coast and inland, particularly aflecting the " second- 
growth^^ jungle. — A'. E.] 

Chalcostetha insignis (Jard.) ; Salvad. t. c. p. 177. 
a. S . Bintulu. Iris warm brown. 

This species is apparently rare in Borneo, as Mr. Everett 
has never fallen in with it before in the course of seven years' 

SER. IV. VOL. I. c 

18 Mr. R. B. Sharpe's Contributions to the 

residence in the island. Doria and Beecari also procured 
but a single specimen. 

Nectarophila hasselti (Temm.) ; Salvad. t.c. p. 177. 

a. (J . Bintulu. Eyes brown ; bill and legs shining black. 

This bird, which is very common in Mr. Low's Labuan 
collections, is by no means plentiful in Sarawak. Mr. Everett 
has procured it once at Marup, and once again at Bintulu. 

Arachnothera chrysogenys, Temm,; Salvad. /. c. p. 181. 

a. ? . Bintulu. Iris dark chocolate ; bill of the darkest 
brown ; legs light purplish brown. Hard-seeded fruit in 
gizzard . 

Arachnothera longirostris (Lath.) ; Salvad. t. c. p. 186. 

a. Bintulu. Iris brown. 

b. Bintulu, Iris dark brown ; bill black, under mandible 
leaden grey ; legs dark blue lead-colour. Hard-seeded fruit 
in gizzard. 

Anthreptes malaccensis (Scop.) ; Ibis, 1876, p. 4S. 

The stomach of this bird is generally found to contain 
fruit; sometimes hard seeds, and sometimes small larvae are 
met with. It frequents gardens and second-growth jungle, 
and is distributed everywhere in Sarawak. 

Anthreptes simplex (Miill.). 
Arachnophila simplex, Salvad. t. c. p. 172. 
a. ? . Bintulu. 

Cyornis banyumas (Horsf.) ; Salvad. /. c. p. 130. 

a. $ . Bintulu. Iris dark brown ; bill black ; legs pale 
brownish lead. 

b. ? . Bintulu. Legs purplish leaden grey. 

Hypothymis azurea (Bodd.) ; Salvad. t. c. p. 133. 
a. cJ . Bintulu. Iris dark brown ; bill blackish blue. 
[Rather a rare bird in Sarawak, not often obtained. — A. E.] 
Rhipidura rhombifer. Cab. 
Leucocerca perlata, Salvad. t. c. p. 136. 
On examining the three specimens sent by Mr. Everett, 
we have come to the conclusion that they are distinct from 

Ornithology of Borneo. 19 

Sumatran R. perlata (Miill.), tlie latter having the back ashy 
brown, not slaty blackish, and having the inner secondaries 
tipped with white, a feature not shown by the Boruean bird. 

Philentoma pyrrhoptebum (Temm.); Salvad. t. c. p. 138. 
a,b. ^ . Bintulu. Iris crimson ; bill black. 

Philentoma velatum (Temm.) ; Salvad. /. c. p. 138. 
a,h. J. Bintulu. Iris crimson; bill black; legs dark 
greenish black. 

Terpsiphone affinis (Hay) ; Salvad. /. c. p. 137. - 

a. ^ . Kabulo, Jilalong river. 

b. (^ . Pandan, Bintulu river. 

c. (J • Bintulu. Iris dark brown. 

d. ^ . Matang mountain. Iris chocolate ; bill and legs 

e. ^. Tagora, May 1875'. Iris chocolate ; bill dull cobalt ; 
eye- wattle bright cobalt. 

[Generally distributed in Sarawak, both in lowlands and 
on the hills. Observed on Matang mountains at an elevation 
of 1000 feet. These birds appear to pair in December. A 
Malay name is '^ Penchuri kapas,^^ or " cotton-thief," in al- 
lusion to the long white plumes of the male. The testes are 
dark grey. — A. E.] 

Lanius lucionensis, L. ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1876, p. 43. 

a. (^ . Bintulu, Nov. 4, 1875. Iris chocolate-brown; 
bill black, the lower mandible pale lead- colour, tipped with 
black ; legs dark leaden grey, claws black. Green Mantis in 
the gizzard. 

b. ? . Bintulu. Iris dark chocolate; bill dark purj)lish 
brown ; legs bluish lead-colour. 

[According to my experience this bird only appears during 
the N.E. monsoon. The specimen mentioned in the former 
paper (Z. c.) was killed in November ; and these now recorded 
were shot within a few days of the same date as the first one. 
-A. E.] 

Pericrocotus cinereus. 

a. 1^ . Coast of Bintulu. Iris brown ; legs and bill black. 

c 2 

20 Mr. R. B. Sliarpe's Contributions to the 

[Shot in the early part of the N.E. monsoon in the Casu- 
arinas lining the shore of the Bintulu coast. — A. E.] 

This is the first recorded occurrence of the species in 

Hemipus obscurus (Horsf.). 
Mijiolestes obscurus, Salvad. t. c. p. 156. 

a. ^. Bintulu. Iris dark brown ; bill and feet jet-black. 

b. ^ . Bintulu. Iris chocolate. 

Pityriasis gymnocephala (Temm.) ; Salvad. t. c. p. 159. 

[One of the rarest birds in Sarawak. I saw one specimen 
at the mouth of the Skarang river ; and my hunters were so 
fortunate as to come across a large flock on the hills near 
Marup^ out of which they secured a dozen specimens (Aj)ril 
1871). After each discharge of the guns the flock returned 
to the same spot until a wounded bird cried out^ when they 
all flew oft\ An examination of the contents of the gizzards 
in several individuals, showed that their food consisted of ar- 
boreal Orthoptera, cockroaches, beetles, and some large green 
larvae. In one of the males the testes, which are yellow, 
were as large as ordinary peas, the left being the larger ; in 
the others the organs were of the usual dimensions. None 
of the females exhibited enlarged embryos in the ovaria. The 
C(Bca coll were present and were non-adherent. In two of the 
male specimens the auricular patch was red instead of black, 
although they were apparently mature birds. — A. E.] 

DissEMURus BRACHY^PHORus, Tcmm. ; Salvad. /. c. p. 154. 
a. $ . Matang, June 1875. Iris brownish red. 
[Universally distributed and very common. — A. E.] 

Platysmurus aterrimus (Temm.); Salvad. t.c. p. 279. 
a,b. c? ? . Bintulu, Oct. 1875. Iris crimson ; bill and 
feet black. 

fProcm'ed also at Belida and Marup. — A. E.] 

Oriolus xanthonotus, Horsf. ; Salvad. t. c. p. 277. 
a. $. Bintulu. Pairing. Iris crimson; bill burnt-sicnna 
brown ; legs leaden . 

[Gunong trahn, Marup, Bintulu, &c. A female shot at 

Ornithology of Borneo. 21 

Sabu had the iris yellow-brown^ the bill umber, and legs lead- 
blue. These birds feed on insects ; and from the stomach of 
one I took a Scolopendra. The tongue is plain, with slight 
apical slit. Kidneys double. — A. E.] 

. Calornis chalybea (Horsf.) ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1876, p. 45. 

a,b. ? . Sibu Island. Iris in one crimson, in the other 
pale brick-red. 

[One of the commonest birds of Sarawak. They are usually 
seen in flocks haunting the taller trees, in the holes of which 
they nest. A nest was brought to me at Liugga, placed inside 
the dry husk of a cocoanut which had been eaten through 
by a squirrel ; the eggs were green-blue, spotted with brownish 
purple, chiefly at the larger end, where the spots formed a 
ring. The food of these birds consists in a great measure 
of small fruits and seeds. In an immature male, shot May 
4, 1874, I found only the left testis developed, the right 
one being scarcely discernible ; it was dark green, elongate, 
and about one third of an inch in length. — A. E.] 

Artamus leucorhynchus (L.) ; Salvad. t. c. p. 140. 

[Santubong Bay, Marup, Bruit, Bintulu. A scarce bird 
and very shy ; frequents high trees, perching on the topmost 
twigs, and is generally seen in pairs. The flight resembles 
i\\?ii oi Microhier ax fringUlarius. When at rest these birds 
utter their only note, a kind of harsh croak. Observed also 
at Sibu, and at the mouths of the Katibas and Ibau, tribu- 
taries of the Rejang, the Ibau being some 130 miles from the 
sea by the course of the river. — A. E.] 

EuRYL^MUS ochromelas, Raffl. ; Salvad. t. c. p. 108. 

[A female, shot Sept. 4, 1874, had the stomach full of 
weevils. The coeca coli are two, rather large, infundibuliform. 
This bird is common over the whole territory, on the coast as 
well as inland. — A. E.] 

CoRYDON suMATRANUs (Raffl.) ; Sharpe, Ibis, p. 48. 

a. cJ. Jilalong branch of Bintulu river. Bill white, clouded 
dull crimson ; iris pale brownish purple ; legs and feet dark 

22 Mr. R. B. Sharpens Contributions to the 

[Specimens procured at Busan^ Sibu, and Bintulu. The 
gizzard always contains insects^ usually beetles and Or- 
thoptera. — A. E.] 

Calyptomena viridis, Raffl. ; Salvad. /. c. p. 106. 

«. (J . Bintulu. 

b. ^ . Jilalong brancli of Bintulu river. Iris dark brown ; 
feet pale green. 

[Busan^ Simaujan, Marup, Sibu, Bintulu, &c., also on the 
Matang mountains at 1000 feet. Birds shot in January were 
pairing, and had the stomachs full of the pulp and seeds of 
the common wild fig {Avar). Not an uncommon bird, but 
difficult to procure, as it aflects tall trees, and its colour helps 
to conceal it at a short distance. The interior of the gape is 
yellow. — A. E.] 

EuRYL^Mus jAVANicus (Horsf.) ; Sliarpc, Ibis, p. 48. 

[Observed at Jambusan, Marup, Sibu, and Bintulu. The 
iris is yellow, and the legs pinkish white; but in a female ob- 
tained in October at Sibu the iris was bluish green, and the 
legs lead-grey. The gizzard of this specimen contained beetles 
only. — A. E.] 

Cymbirhynchus macrorhynchus (Gm.) ; Salvad. /. c. 
p. 109. 

a. ? . Bintulu, Iris brilliant grained green ; bill pale 
cobalt, lower mandible deep chrome ; legs dark purplish 

[Abundant throughout Sarawak in the vicinity of the 
rivers, and especially in the upper Batang Lupar. Feeds on 
insects, seeds, &c. This is the " Rain-bird " of the Malays. 
A female shot in April was found to be laying. The nest — a 
rough pendent structure loosely put together with grass — is 
generally built over water; the eggs are white, speckled with 
faint red. A nest with with two young birds was brought 
in at Marup in April 1871. The birds differed, but, I think, 
were both females. They were entirely fledged, except on 
the throat, and agreed in having the head, back, wings, and 
tail sooty black, and the long white feathers over the shoulder 

Ornithology of Borneo. 23 

tipped with yellow ; but in the smaller individual each of the 
upper wing-coverts showed a yellow spot at its extremity. 
In both the rump was dull crimson ; under coverts of tail 
pale brick-red ; belly and breast greyish black, the feathers 
more or less tipped with reddish orange ; bill dirty horn- 
yellow, clouded at the apex with brown ; legs dull violet-blue ; 
iris pale slaty brown. The gizzards were full of caterpillars, 
beetles, &c. ; and in one was a small Helix. — A. E.] 

Treron capellii (Temm.) -, Salvad. t. c. p. 285. 
a. ? . Kabulo, Bintulu. Iris dark brown ; feet pure 
chrome, claws black ; bill greenish, 

Ptilonopus jambu (Gm.) ; Salvad. t. c. p. 289. 
a,b. cJ ? . Bintulu. Iris sienna-orange ; bill deep chrome- 
yellow; legs crimson. 

[Obtained by me only at Busan and Bintulu. — A. E.] 

EuPLOCAMus PYRONOTus (Gray) ; Salvad. L c. p. 307. 

a. (J. Bintulu, Oct. 28, 1875. Iris bright sienna-brown ; 
legs and toes pale bluish lead-colour ; bill pale dirty green- 
ish white; cere blackish; papillose space round eye fiery 

Argusianus grayi (Elliot) ; Salvad. t. c. p. 305. 

a. ^ . Kidurong Bay, Bintulu. Iris dark greyish brown ; 
bill white, tinged greenish; legs and feet coral-red, claws 
brownish ; all the bare skin of the head dull ultramarine, but 
brighter on the throat. 

b. $ . Kidurong Point, Bintulu. Bill whitish ; legs coral- 

Melanoperdix nigra (Vig.) ; Salvad. t. c. p. 309. 

a. cJ . Bintulu. Iris pale grey-brown ; bill black ; legs 
and feet lead-colour ; testes dark green. 

b. $ . Bintulu. Iris dark brown ; bill black ; feet and 
legs leaden grey. 

Glareola orientalis. Leach; Salvad. t. c. p. 319. 

a. Bintulu beach, Sept. 27, 1875. Found in flocks on the 
whole coast-line, and as far inland as Sibu 'Island ar.d Marup. 

24 Contributions to the Ornithology of Borneo. 

Gallinago stenura (Kulil) ; Salvad. t. c. p. 335. 
a. Sibu^ February 1875. 

Ardea purpurea^ L. ; Salvad. t. c. p. 345. 

a. Bintulu, Oct. 23, 1875. Iris bright yellow ; tibia and 
back of tarsus light greenish yellow, frout of tarsus and upper 
surface of foot shining black, under surface of foot ochreous ; 
bill dark horn-brown, the under mandible chrome-yellow ; 
base of bill and naked skin, including the eyelids, greenish 

[An uncommon bird in Sarawak, seen during the N.E. 
monsoon. The above specimen is a very young bird. — 
A. E.] 

Ardetta sinensis (Gm.) ; Salvad. t. c. p. 354. 
a. $ . Bintulu. Iris golden-yellow; bill bright yellow, 
tinged with green; the culmen black; legs yellowish green. 

Porzana pygmtea (Naum.) ; Swinh. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 414. 

a. J . Silai, Bintulu. Iris pale brick-red ; bill dull sap- 
green ; legs dark greenish brown. 

This Crake, which is doubtless a migrant from the Chinese 
coast, has never been procured in Borneo before. 

Mareca PENELOPE (L.) ; Swinh. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 418. 

a. ? . Bintulu. Iris grey-brown ; bill and feet dark 
greenish lead-colour. 

[This was shot in November 1875 as it was swimming about 
in a small creek in front of the fort at Bintulu. — A. E.] 

The present species is here recorded for the first time from 
Borneo, and is not included in Count Salvadori's work. 

Dafila acuta (L.) ; Swinh. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 418. 

a. ?. Bintulu, Nov. 18, 1875. Iris dark brown; bill 
blackish lead-colour ; legs greenish lead-colour. 

[Shot in the same creek as the Widgeon. A few Ducks 
visit Borneo during the N.E. monsoon, sometimes occurring 
as far in as Sibu. — A. E.] 

As in the case of the Widgeon, this species is new to Borneo ; 
it is doubtless only a winter migrant. 

Dr. T. H. Streets on a new Moorhen. 


Salvad. /. c. p. 379. 

Iris very dark brown ; bill black ; 

Angus stolidus (L.) 

a,b. (^ ? . Bintulu. 
legs soot-brown. 

[These birds are scarce on tlie Sarawak coast. The above 
pair made their appearance, along with two or three more, 
in a gale of wind during the N.E. monsoon. — A. E.] 

II. — Description of aneio Moorhen from the Hawaiian Islands. 
By Thomas H. Streets, M.D., U.S. Navy. 

Gallinula sandvicensis, sp. nov. 

Gallinula chloropus, Peale, Orn. U.S. Expl. Exp. p. 220. 
G. Gallinula cMoropodi sat similis, sed major, alis brevioribus, 
clypeo frontali multo majore, coloribus saturatioril)us, 
abdomine concolori, campterio vix albo, tarsis antice ru- 

Frontal shield of Gallinula sandvicen&is. 

Frontal plate very large, terminating square on the top of 
the head, much inflated, its posterior margin on a line with 
the posterior margin of the orbit ; laterally it encroaches on 
the orbit, leaving but a narrow feathered space between them ; 
the bill shorter than the head, thick, compressed ; wings 

26 Dr. T. H. Streets on a new Moorhen. 

rather short iu proportion to the size of the species when 
compared with other species of the same group ; first primary 
shorter than second, the second and third of equal length, 
the rest graduated ; tail short ; tarsus ratlier long and stout, 
rounded in front, and compressed posteriorly ; toes and claws 
long and robust. 

The entire under surface of the body of one colour, which 
is a dark slaty ; no marks of white on the abdomen ; the 
head and neck all around much darker than the rest of the 
body, nearly black, with a slight brownish tinge ; a few ot 
the long feathers on the flanks with long spots of white on 
the superior web of the feathers ; the edge of the wing at the 
bend, and the outer margin of the outer web of the first 
primary marked with a very constricted line of white ; the 
under surface of the wings of the same colour as the under- 
parts of the body ; the longer under tail-coverts pure white, 
the rest black ; the entire upper parts, including the upper 
surface of the wings and tail, olive-brown, the colour deepest 
on the rump, and fading out on the neck and on the exterior 
portions of the wings ; the tips of the tail-feathers, and the 
shafts of the feathers, brownish black ; frontal plate and bill 
bright crimson, the latter tipped with yellow ; tlie tibia naked 
for about an inch, and surrounded by a bright crimson ring ; 
a decided crimson blush on the front of the tarsus, the colour 
deeper on the sides ; feet pea-green. 

Total length about 13'50 inches; wing 6'50; tail 3; bill 
along the commissure 1*20, from the feathers on the side of 
the head 1, along the culmen, including the frontal plate, 
1'65 ; breadth of the frontal plate 0"50; length from the 
margin of the feathers on the side of the bill 0*70; tarsus 2 ; 
middle toe and claw 3. 

To sum up, the proportions of the bird and the quadrate 
form of the frontal plate show that its strongest affinities are 
with G. galeata rather than with any other member of the 
group ; but the greater extent of the frontal plate, the shorter 
wing, the absence of white on the abdomen and on the under 
surface of the wing, as well as its reduction to a mere trace 
on the margin of the same, the more robust and dift'erent 

071 some Birds obsei'ved in Patagonia. 27 

form of the tarsus, being broader and more rounded in front, 
as well as the great difference in the colour of the tarsus, 
separate it immediately from G. galeata, and render its iden- 
tification easy. The characters just enumerated, in addition 
to its larger size and the quadrate fi'ontal plate, separate it, 
a fortiori, from G. chloropus. 

Habitat. Island of Oahu, Hawaiian Group. 

The only direct reference to this bird which I have been 
able to find is made by Peale, in his ' Ornithology of the U.S. 
Exploring Expedition,^ p. 220. He undoubtedly obtained a 
specimen from the island of Oahu ; but the skin was lost. In 
the description, which he gives from his field-notes, he states 
it to be G. chloropus, Aud., i. e. G. galeata. The allusiou 
which he makes, however, to the crimson-coloured tarsi iden- 
tifies it with this species at once. 

Gray, in his ' Hand-list of Birds,^ gives the Sandwich 
Islands as a habitat of G. chloropus, Aud., as do also Hart- 
laub and Finsch, in the table of distribution of Central-Poly- 
nesian birds, which they give in the introduction to their 
work ^Die Ornithologie der Viti-, Samoa imd Tonga Inseln.' 
It is very probable that both of these authorities based their 
statements upon Peale^s original reference. 

III. — Notes on some Birds observed in the Chnput Valley, 
Patagonia, and in the neighbouring District. By Henry 


Hearing on the 25th October last that a steamer was to leave 
Buenos Ayres that afternoon for the Welsh colony at Chuput, 
I decided to accompany her, and having hastily packed the 
few things necessary, at 4 o'clock found myself on board the 
' Santa Rosa,' lying in the outer roads. Our party consisted 
of three, my two friends being as anxious as myself to see a 

* [The skins sent home by Mr. Durnford have been examined and 
determined by Mr. Salvin. The nomenchitm-e used is generally that of the 
'Nomenclator Av. Neotrop.' For general information concerning the Welsh 
colony of Chuput, see -''Reports received by the. Admiralty from Capt. 
H. Fairfax, R.N., of H.M.S. ' Volage,' upon the Condition of the Welsh 
Colony of Chuput in Patagonia " (Pari. Papers, No. 18, of 1876).— Ed.] 

28 Mr. H. Durnford on some Birds observed 

country so little known as Patagonia. The voyage, as re- 
gards ornithological occurrences; was to me full of interest ; 
I only regret having been unable to procure any of the nu- 
merous species of Petrels which constantly accompanied us, 
Avith the exception of one, Dapt'ion capensis, so that, having 
a very slight acquaintance with this genus, I could only super- 
ficially observe such of them as we met with. 

The mouth of the river Chuput, which we reached, after a 
stormy passage, early on the morning of the 31st October, is 
in lat. 43° 20' S. For a distance of eight miles the course of 
the river lies in a westerly direction, after that taking a gradual 
bend to the S.S.W. Mr. Griffith and three or four of the colo- 
nists have penetrated to a distance of 250 miles by following 
the course of the river ; and by their compasses, two of which 
they carried, they reckoned their furthest point was to the 
S.S.W. of the village. I mention these particulars because 
in some maps the course of the river is marked in a very 
different direction ; the maps, as regards the river Chuput, 
of course, being merely the invention of the brain. 

Forty-five miles above the village, and forty-eight from the 
sea, the river flows between precipitous rocks, in some places 
as much as 300 feet high, making travelling along its banks 
impossible ; and such rocks were met with with more or less 
frequency up to the furthest point the colonists reached. 
The only bird Mr. Griffith saw during his trip which does 
not occur at the colony was a Kingfisher, one specimen of 
which was shot. The absence of this bird from the lower 
reaches of the river may perhaps be accounted for by the 
character of the water, which, for some distance above the 
colony, is always thick and muddy, whereas where he jour- 
neyed he found a clear stream. 

The valley of the Chuput varies in breadth from two to nine 
miles, the greater portion of which is capable of cultivation 
to a distance of barely forty-five miles from the village. The 
geological nature of the surrounding country is such as to 
preclude the occurreuce of very many species of birds, being 
very uniform in character. Extensive plateaux of dry stony 
land abound, for the most part vei'y sparsely clothed with 

'in the Chuput Valley, Patagonia. 29 

vegetation, with the exception of low stunted bushes, prin- 
cipally thorns, which find root everywhere and afford a 
plentiful supply of firewood, with here and there a cliff of 
tosca containing innumerable osseous remains of sharks, 
seals, small mammals, and fish, and which, if thoroughly 
examined, would certainly yield great results. At a higlier 
elevation there are many extensive tracts of land clothed 
with coarse grass, the bushes only a foot or two in height 
and few in number ; and these are the homes of large herds 
of Guanacos and Rheas. During my visit we made two 
hunting-excursions :■ — one to a tract of elevated tableland 
about fifteen miles to the south of the village, named by 
the colonists, from the absence of bushes, " Clear Land ;" 
the other to Ninfas Point, some forty-five miles to the 
north-east of the colony. The latter is one of the prin- 
cipal hunting-grounds of the Tehuelche Indians j and here I 
saw for the first time a herd of about 200 Guanacos and 
numerous Rheas. The only bird which occurs here, and 
which I did not see at the colony, was Sarcoi^hamphus gry- 
phus ; and though Vultures on a close acquaintance are cer- 
tainly not attractive, a Condor sitting nearly upright, partly 
supported by its tail, on the pinnacle of a lofty cliff over- 
looking the deep-blue waters of New Bay, was a picture to 
attract the eye of the most unobservant, and a fit accompani- 
ment of a scene of such grandeur as one witnesses there. 

The whole country (I speak from my own observation) 
within a twenty-mile radius of the village exhibits unmista- 
kable traces of the action of the sea. Banks evidently once 
shingle, little hills precisely like the present sandhills on the 
coast, only clothed with thick bushes and numerous deposits 
of marine shells, can be seen in every direction. About two 
miles to the north of the village is a large lagoon, the water 
of which is brackish, evidently a lingering remnant of the 
ocean, from which it is now distant at least seven miles j the 
shores of this lagoon in some places are literally paved with 
marine shells. 

With the exception of a few willows along the banks of the 
river, and some poplars which have been planted by one of 

30 JNIr. H. Durnford on some Birds observed 

the colonists^ aud which seem to thrive, the whole country 
is characterized by an entire absence of trees ; and to this 
fact, coupled with the general flatness of the country, may 
be attributed the very light rainfall the colonists experience. 
During our visit, lasting a month, we had two or three light 
showers ; and this we were informed was about the average. 

From an old Indian burial-ground, at a distance of ten 
miles from the village, we disinterred the skeletons of two or 
three Indians, and some arrow- and spear-heads formed of 
flint from the same locality. Two skulls and the arrow-heads 
I preserved ; the former are very similar to the heads of the 
present Tehuelche Indians, a small encampment of whom 
were at the colony during our visit. It is probable that 
before they came into possession of horses and dogs they 
lived on shell-fish and what they could secure with their bow^s 
and arrows, exactly as the Fuegians do now. 

In addition to the birds included in the following list, I 
observed some which, from having obtained no specimen or 
other causes, were not satisfactorily identified ; so I think it 
better only to mention them. 

Twice during my visit I saw what I took to be a Harrier, 
about the size of Circus citiereus, but striped longitudinally 
with light and dark brown or black, the underparts lightest. 
It occurred on the sea-coast, and also on the tableland above 
the valley, perching on low bushes, and difficult of approach. 

When staying up the valley I saw many times, and once 
had a shot at, a bird slightly larger than Polyborus vulgaris, 
and from its habits closely allied to that species ; the only 
diff'erence I could detect was that it appeared to be a little 
larger and of a heavier build, with the plumage generally of a 
lighter colour than in that bird. 

Throughout the valley I many times observed some dark- 
brown Vultures, nearly as large as Geranoaetus melanoleucus , 
apparently of a uniform colour, but w ith the naked skin about 
the head red. This species is well known to the colonists, 
and feeds on dead horses, cattle, &c. 

Amongst thick rushy ground in the neighbourhood of the 
river is found a Rail, which, from two examples observed, 
I should describe as exactly like an Aramides in plumage. 

in the Chuput Valley, Patagonia. 31 

with coral-red beak and feet, but not much more than half 
the size of that bird. 

On the sandy flats surrounding a large lagoon about two 
miles north of the village is found an jEgialitis in considerable 
numbers^ some of which, on the occasion of my visit, were, 
I think, breeding — the ovaries of one obtained containing eggs 
in a forward state. The skin of this bird was, unfortunately, 
eaten by a cat ; and I had no opportunity of visiting the la- 
goon again. The day before sailing for Buenos Ayres I saw 
some large flocks of the same species on the coast about the 
mouth of the river. It was a little larger than yE. hia- 
ticula, with a broader and deeper chest-band of black than 
that bird has. 

In the lagoon just mentioned, I saw several examples of a 
large Grebe, which I am pretty sure were Podiceps major ; 
but as they kept in the deep water I had no opportunity of 
a shot. 

Before concluding these remarks it afil'ordsme great plea- 
sure to express my thanks to Mr. John Grifiith, who through- 
out my visit kindly rendered me all the help he could, and 
to whom I owe the acquisition of many specimens. Having 
been a keen and accurate observer during an eight years' 
residence in the colony, he has made himself acquainted with 
most of the birds which occur in the district ; and I found 
his information of great assistance. 

MiMUs PATAGONicus, Lafr. & D'Orb. 

This bird is the Thrush of the river- Chuput district, and 
is not uncommon, being usually found near the base of the 
hills bordering the valley. Towards dusk, and from then 
till nightfall,- it may be often seen sitting on the topmost 
twig of a bush, whence it unceasingly pours forth its song. 
This, though not to be compared to that of many of our 
British songsters, is especially welcome on the barren hills of 
Patagonia, where the silence amongst birds generally is re- 
markable. On the 21st November I found a nest in a thorn- 
bush, about four feet from the ground, and formed of twigs 
lined with feathers ; it contained a chick, which had just left 
the sliell, and one egg, on the point of hatching. Both parent 

33 Mr. H. Durnford on some Birds observed 

birds sliowed great anxiety at my presence, allowing me to 
come Avithin a few feet of tlicm. They appeared to be pre- 
cisely alike in size and plumage. 

Troglodytes furvus. 

Pretty common. The Chuput-valley Wren is smaller than 
any Buenos-Ayres examples I have seen. It has a slightly 
rufous tinge about the vent ; bat I do not think the difference 
sufficient to indicate that the species are distinct. Four eggs 
which I brought back with me are slightly smaller than eggs 
of T. furvus from here. It has been thought there may be two 
species of Wrens in Buenos Ayres ; but this question can only 
be decided by the acquisition of more specimens. A slight 
discrepancy in size alone is not sufficient to establish another 
species. The Chuput bird is less than the smallest race, or 
whatever it should be called, of our Buenos-Ayres bird. 

Anthus correndera"^. 

Common throughout the valley and on the hills where there 
was any grass. 

Progne purpurea. 

Pretty common about the Tosca cliff, up the valley, in the 
crevices of the rocks of which it was breeding. The male is 
uniform glossy steel-blue, and easily distinguishable from the 
female, whose underparts are speckled with grey, lightest 
about the vent. Both sexes uttered harsh screams whilst we 
were sitting under the cliff. A few seen at Ninfas Point. 

Atticora cyanoleuca. 

Pretty common. Nesting in holes in the banks in some 
of the upper reaches of the river. 


Also common. On the evening of the 25th November I 
observed many birds of this species congregating as if for a 
migratory movement. 

* [Mr. Uiu-nforcl's collection coutaius two specimens of tliis species, 
one from Punta Lara, the other from Flores, near Buenos Ayres. He 
has not sent any from Chuput. — 0. S.] 

in the Chuput Valley, Patagonia. 33 

Sycalis luteiventris. 

Common, usually in flocks. Its nest is of grass, lined 
with liorseliair_, and is ^jlaced in a tuft of grass or rushes close 
to the ground. The eggs are four in number. Very com- 
mon at Ninfas Point. 


Abundant, both in the valley and on the hills, and often 
to be seen hopping familiarly about the colonists'" cottages. 
It nests amongst coarse grass or brushwood, making an un- 
pretending structure of the former material, the finer fibres 
being jilaced towards the interior. It lays four eggs, mea- 
suring -8 by "6 of an inch, of a pale green colour, thickly 
striated with light reddish brown spots, running into each 
other, and most numerous at the larger end. The eggs of 
the Chuput species differ from those I have from here of Z. 
pileata in the character of the markings, which are of a 
lighter colour and not so distinct, being more blotchy than 
in Buenos- Ayres examples. The nests are of precisely similar 

Agel^us thilius. 

Very common throughout the valley and in every patch of 
rushy ground. Though I did not discover a nest, birds were 
undoubtedly breeding in the neighbourhood. 

Sturnella militaris. 

One of the commonest birds in the valley, not being seen 
on the hills. On the 4th November I took a nest from a 
tuft of Pampas grass close to the river-bank, containing two 
eggs. It occurred in some numbers at Ninfas point. 


Not uncommon in the valley, frequenting willow-beds and 
clumps of brushwood. 

* [Mr. Durnford sends a single specimen of this species, wliich we 
have hitherto supposed to have been based upon the young of Z. inleata. 
We now see that it is fully entitled to specific rank ; see Sclater's remarks, 
infra, p. 46, where a figure of it is given, taken from Mr. Durnfori's spe- 
cimen. — Ed.] 


34 Mr. H. Duruford on some Birds obserced 

TjENIOPTERA rubetka. 

Rare. During my visit I saw only two examples, one of 
which I shot on the 6th November. It proved to be a male, 
with considerably enlarged testicles; and its stomach con- 
tained the remains of small beetles. 


Very common throughout the valley, nesting in the sides 
of tufts of Pampas-grass along the banks of the river. From 
three nests I found during my visit, in every case I flushed a 
rufous-plumaged bird. Here, and at Chuput, I have now 
dissected four rufous birds, which in all cases proved to be 
females, whilst two black specimens examined were both 
males. The black bird I have seen many times chasing the 
rufous ones ; in fact one can scarcely take a walk in the 
country here during the spring, where there is any swampy 
land, without observing this. 

Hapalocercus flaviventris. 

Not uncommon amongst the willows along the banks of 
the river. 

An^retes parulus. 

Rare. During my visit I observed two pairs amongst 
thick bushes, and obtained a male and female ; the former 
has a decided black crest. On the 7th November I took a 
nest from a thick thorn-bush, about three feet from the 
ground, composed of grass, warmly lined with feathers, and 
containing two eggs, white in colour, and measuring '6 by 
•4 of an inch. 

Cyanotis omnicolor. 

Pretty common in marshy places wherever the reeds grow 
to the height of three or four feet, and probably breeding, 
though I did not discover the nest. From its brilliant and 
many-coloured hues of plumage, this is one of the most at- 
tractive birds we have ; and as it carefully works through 
every patch of reeds in search of insect food, now hanging 
head downwards from a spray, displaying its crimson crest, 
and the next minute running nimbly up a reed, it certainly 
reminds one of our Tits at home. 

m the Chuput Valley, Patagonia. 35 

Upucerthia dumetoria. 

Not uncommon. On the T'tli November I took a nest 
from the end of a hole in the bank of a dry lagoon near the 
village. This nest was formed of grass, lined with fur of the 
Patagonian cavy, and was placed about four feet from the 
face of the bank. The eggs were three in number, white in 
colour, much incubated, and measure I'l by '9 inch. 

Phlceocryptes melanops. 

Common in reed-beds, where I found it nesting, generally 
two or three pairs in the same place. The nest is an oval 
structure, from four to five inches in diameter, supported by 
reeds, of the finer sprays of which it is formed, strengthened 
with a little mud, and generally not more than eight inches 
from the ground. I have found as many as five eggs in one 
nest, though four is the usual number ; and they differ from 
all other eggs of this genus I have seen in being of a uniform 
glossy blue colour, instead of white. 

Synallaxis sordida. 

Synallaxis patagonica. 

Common everywhere. The nesting-habits of these two 
species have puzzled me exceedingly. I will state the facts 
as they occurred. On the 1st November I shot a female S. 
patagonica from its nest, which was nearly circular in shape, 
a small hole near the top communicating with the interior, 
which was about twelve inches in diameter. The nest was 
formed of sticks, and was a very large structure for so small 
a bird ; it was lined with feathers and wool, and placed in the 
centre of a thick bush. It contained three white eggs, mea- 
suring '7 by '5 of an inch. In its immediate vicinity were 
other nests of precisely the same character, the owners of 
some of which I saw, and which were certainly S. patagonica. 
Two eggs from one of these nests measured '8 by "6 of an 
inch. On the 20th I flushed a S. patagonica from a nest in 
a different locality. This nest was nearly round in shape, 
and the interior reached by a narrow circular passage of 
sticks attached to the top of the nest, from which it pro- 
jected about twelve inches; the inside diameter was not more 


36 Mr. H. Durnford on some Birds observed 

than nine inches ; but with these exceptions it was exactly 
like the nests found on the 1st inst. The eggs^ two in num- 
ber, are of the same length as the last mentioned, but slightly 
broader. There were several nests of the same character, 
viz. with a passage, in the neighbourhood. 

On the 26th I shot a Synallxis sordida, which proved 
to be a male, at the same time seeing another leave one of 
the nests without a passage. 

The result of these observations may be shortly summarized 
as follows : — 

We have two distinct classes of nests of Synallaxis, which 
we will call A and B (A being those having no passage to 
the nest, B those with this addition), both common, both 
built in precisely similar places, but those of one class never 
found in the vicinity of those of the other. In three or four 
instances S. patagonica is seen to leave nests classed A, and 
in one case a nest classed B. A ^S^. sordida in one in- 
stance is seen to leave a nest classed A. The eggs from 
two A nests differ "1 of an inch in length and breadth from 
each other ; and seen lying side by side it is difficult to imagine 
they can both belong to the same species ; at the same time 
two eggs from a B nest, and from which a S. sordida was 
flushed, are of the same size as the larger sitting of eggs from 
one of the A nests. These apparent discrej)ancies are diffi- 
cult to reconcile. Can it be that the two species construct 
nests of such very different characters, and that each is pa- 
rasitic on the other ? 

Both have very similar habits, when frightened creeping 
into the thickest part of the bush, and when driven from that 
shelter only flying as far as the next one. 

Synallaxis hudsoni, Scl. 

Not uncommon. Found in dry places in the valley, but 
not seen on the hills, and appears to live on the ground. On 
the 5th November I shot a male. 


On the 27th November I saw a pair of these birds on the 
hills about four miles to the south-west of the village, and 

in the Chuptit Valley, Patagonia. 37 

shot the female bird. My attention was drawn to the spot 
by seeing a large structure of sticks in the centre of a bush, 
which proved to be the nest, and which measured about three 
feet in diameter, nearly round, the interior being reached by 
a passage from the top, circular in shape, formed of small 
twigs, and about twelve inches in length. On my approach- 
ing the bush both birds uttered harsh and noisy screams, 
hopping anxiously about the nest; both had elongated fea- 
thers on the crest of the head, which they erected to show 
their displeasure at being disturbed ; and the only difference 
I could detect between them was that these feathers were 
slightly the longest in the male bird. The nest was appa- 
rently not quite completed, the interior having no lining but 
small twigs. The stomach of the female contained the bones 
of a small mammal ; and in its ovary was an egg nearly ready 
for exclusion. 

Stenopsis bifasciata. 

Rare ; the only specimen seen I found on the hills about 
four miles to the south of the village. On dissection it proved 
to be a female, with eggs in a forward state in the ovary. 
To the colonists this species is known as the " shy bird,^^ in 
consequence of its vigilance in eluding pursuit ; for though 
when flushed it never flies very far, it always seeks the shelter 
of a small bush, squatting flat on the ground ; and from its 
peculiar zigzag mode of flight, it is difficult for the eye to 
follow it. 


A flock of about thirty of this Parrot frequented the Tosca 
clifi" up the valley, a few of which were breeding in the crevices, 
having chosen the most inaccessible part of the cliff" for that 
purpose. The greater number during the day were to be 
seen about the river, sometimes as much as fifteen miles from 
their stronghold ; these always kept in a compact body, re- 
turning before dusk to roost on the cliff". They fed on the 
young leaves of a species of thorn, the stomach of one shot 
on the 24'th November being crammed with these. 

38 Mr. H. Duruford 07i some Birds observed 


Common. Nesting in holes in the ground. 

Circus cinereus. 

Common in the valley^ not seen on the hills. In flight it 
is very quick and graceful : few birds are a match for this 
Harrier; and as it sweeps rapidly over the ground^now scarcely 
clearing the tops of the high grass^ and the next miniite 
rising to drop on some luckless victim, it is impossible not to 
admire its great strength of wing. The stomach of one shot 
on the 24th November contained the remains of a freshly 
killed Thinocorus rumicivorus. To the colonist it is well 
known ; and more than one person assured me it nested on 
the ground amongst long grass, and laid two white eggs ; my 
search, however, for the nest was unsuccessful. Legs, feet, 
and irides pale orange. 

Geranoaetus melanoleucus. 

Not uncommon, especially in the upper part of the valley. 
On the 9th November I shot a female from the nest, on a 
ledge high up in a Tosca cliif, thirteen miles north-west of 
the town, and after considerable difl&culty secured the two 
eggs, which are of a dirty white colour, very slightly speckled 
with brown, and measure 2*6 inches by 2. As they con- 
tained chicks about to be released from their prisons, I con- 
clude two is the number of eggs usually laid. On a subse- 
quent visit to the same cliff", and also to one in its immediate 
neighbourhood, which, from its peculiar shape, the colonists 
have named the '^''old castle,^"* I found several nests of pre- 
vious years, all of the same character, viz. a structure of sticks 
some three feet in diameter and fifteen inches in depth, the 
inside being lined with a few straws. 

Buteo erythronotus. 

Not uncommon on the hills, but very shy. Whilst riding 
on the 18th November from Ninfas Point, and about seven 
miles from the colony, I found a nest on the top of a bush, 
some nine feet from the ground, containing two chicks, ap- 
parently about a fortnight old. The nest was a large struc- 
ture of sticks, lined with a varictv of matcrials^ — bits of skin 

in the Chuput Valley, Patagonia. 39 

from dead cattle, hare's fur, some liorse-dmig, and a few 
straws. This nest measured three feet in diameter. Whilst 
looking at the two old birds on the wing, and standing be- 
neath them, I could detect no difference between the male 
and female ; and I wounded one, which unfortunately fell too 
far off for recovery. In the hope that the remaining bird, 
which, after its mate was shot, rose to an immense height in 
the air, would continue to feed the young ones, I left them, 
intending to return on the first opportunity, which I did on the 
following day but one, and after sitting fruitlessly under the 
nest for four hours, during which time I saw nothing of the 
old bird, I resolved to take the chicks. From their starved 
and weak appearance, I am inclined to think their remaining 
parent had deserted them, especially as the whole time I sat 
under the nest they kept constantly uttering a plaintive note, 
not unlike that of young chickens when in search for their 
mother. They were covered with a snow-white down, with 
the exception of their wings and back, where a few rufous 
feathers were commencing to show themselves. The cere is 
dark slate-colour, legs and feet pale orange, irides dark brown. 
During my stay at the colony I visited several other nests of 
this bird, but found them empty, nor could I again get a 
shot at an old bird, as before I could get within range they 
would invariably leave their post of observation and soar to 
an immense height in the air. The colonists have designated 
this bird the '^ white horse :" whilst it sits motionless on the 
top of the highest bush it can find, its white underparts are 
seen from a considerable distance, and, when they are search- 
ing for their horses and cattle, frequently deceive them, 


On the 8tli November I obtained two pairs about the Tosca 
cliff" up the valley, and shot a male bird. On the 15th I 
observed it at Ninfas Point. At the former place it was 
breeding ; and during a second visit, on the 24th inst, I found 
a nest in a slight cavity high up in the face of the cliff', com- 
posed of sticks, but containing no eggs ; it was probably also 
nesting at Ninfas Point. Seen on the wing at the same time 

40 Mr. H. Durnford on some Birds observed 

as Proyne imrpurea, both birds anxiously circling and scream- 
ing over my head when their nests were threatened, in ra- 
pidity of flight it almost rivalled that bird, and, if not quite 
so quick in turning, in a fair straight race it would certainly 
not be behind the Swallow. To the colonists it is no friend, 
as it often carries oft' their young chickens. 


Very common, nesting on the tufts of pampa- grass. I fre- 
quently observed this species in flocks. 


Very common, nesting, like Buteo erythronotus , on the 
highest bushes, but making a much smaller nest than that 
bird. Fish-bones, cowhide, straw, and a piece of string were 
in the bottom of one nest I examined, whilst another had 
much the same miscellaneous collection. 

Sarcorhamphus grypuus. 

A pair observed on the 15th November at Ninfas Point, 
the female of which I shot : its stomach was well filled with 
Guanaco- and Seal-flesh ; and the stench from the bird was 
almost intolerable. The male was considerably the larger of the 
two, and the white frill round the lower part of its neck much 
broader than in the other sex. This bird is occasionally seen 
in the upper part of the valley ; and when the colonists are 
hunting in the neighbourhood of the sea-coast, it is always 
the first of the numerous bird-scavengers to make its appear- 
ance after game has been killed ; more than one of these men 
told me it was their firm conviction that it was attracted to the 
spot by scent, and not by sight, being rarely seen when 
nothing was killed. 

Phalacrocorax brasilianus. 

Common about the mouth of the river, and occasionally 
seen up the valley some distance from the sea. 

Nycticorax obscurus. 

Not uncommon, during the day resting on the banks of 
the river under the shelter of the overhanging willows, and 

in the Chuput Valley, Patgaonia. 41 

in the evening coming out to feed. The colonists call it the 
'' barking birdj" in consequence of its harsh cry. 

Ph(ENICOPTERUS ignipalliatus. 

A small flock, consisting chiefly of adult birds in dark 
pink plumage, and a few in the paler immature dress, fre- 
quented the large salt laguna during my visit. I obtained 
one of the latter on the 11th November. Iris greenish grey. 

Cygnus nigricollis. 

Common throughout the valley. 

Cygnus coscoroba. 

Occurs in considerable numbers, but is not so numerous as 
the preceding. 

Spatula platalea. 

Common throughout the valley. Usually found in shallow 
water. Nests in the neighbourhood of the colony. 


Common, Often found along with Dafila spinicauda and 
Spatula platalea. Nests in the valley. 


Rare, During my visit I only saw two, male and female, 
which had been shot near the village. 


A few observed on the 6th November at the large salt la- 
goon, but not seen on any other occasion. 

Mareca sibilatrix (Poepp.) ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1876, 
p. 395. 

Common throughout the valley and at the mouth of the 
river, at the latter place feeding on the extensive mussel-beds 
in company with A. spinicauda. 

Dafila spinicauda. 

The most numerous species of Duck, nesting in thick grass 
in the vicinity of the river. The colonists trap these birds 
at night when they come to feed on the wheat-stubbles. 
Found in large flocks feeding on the mussel-beds just outside 
the harbour. 

42 Mr. H. Durnford on some Birds observed 

Erismatura ferruginea. 

A single bird shot on the 24th November in a ditch up 
the valley, was the only one I saw, though I was informed it 
was not uncommon. 


Common throughout the valley, being found in flocks about 
the wheat-stubbles, and breeding in the willows bordering the 


Very common. Found on almost every piece of water in 
the valley, but avoiding those where there is any current. 
Breeds numerously in the neighbourhood of the village. 

Thinocorus rumicivorus. 

Common. Seen most frequently on the higher stony pla- 
teaux, but occasionally in the valley. On the 3rd November, 
whilst Guanaco-hunting, we flushed two from a patch of dry 
sandy ground, some three hundred feet above the sea, and at 
least twelve miles from any water. During my visit this 
species was undoubtedly breeding in the neighbourhood, 
though I did not discover any eggs. 

Vanellus cayennensis. 

Common throughout the valley, breeding whilst I was there. 
Not seen on the hills. 

Oreophilus ruficollis. 

Common throughout the valley, frequenting the driest 
ground, and occasionally seen on the hills. A pair, observed 
on the 29th November in the dry bed of an old lagoon, 
amongt coarse stunted grass, from their actions, I am in- 
clined to think, were nesting, though my search for eggs was 

Phalaropus wilsoni. 

Common, swimming gracefully in the still pools formed by 
the eddies of the river and in nearly all the adjacent stagnant 
ditches. Usually seen in pairs. 


Rare. I observed a single bird on the 27th November on 

in the Chuput Valley, Patagonia. 43 

some marshy ground close to the village^ which I flushed a 
secoud time iu order to be sure of the species, 

Tringa maculata. 

Abundant in large flocks about the salt lagoon to the north 
of the village, and also on the sandy flats at the mouth of the 
river. In their movements and habits they closely resemble 
our ubiquitous T. alpina at home, flying in a body, suddenly 
wheeling round, displaying alternately their light underparts 
and dark backs, and usually raising their wings over their 
backs before alighting, which they all do at the same moment. 

Gambetta flavipes. 

Common along the banks of the river and in the adjacent 
swamps and pools. 

Limosa hudsonica. 

During my visit a small party was always to be found in 
the shallow water at the west end of the large lagoon to the 
north of the village, feeding in company with Tringa macu- 
lata and a species of Mgialitis. On the 13th of November I 
shot two birds. 

Sterna hirundinacea. Less. ; Saunders, P. Z. S. 1876, 
p. 647. 

During my visit a large flock frequented the banks of 
sand and shingle at the mouth of the harbour^ and had in- 
creased in number when I left on the 29th of November. On 
the 26th I observed amongst the adult birds some Terns with 
grey foreheads and indistinct black hoods, their primaries and 
secondaries being marked with rufous brown, beaks dark lead- 
colour. As, with these exceptions, they precisely resembled 
the black-headed birds, I conclude they were H. hirundinacea in 
immature plumage. I obtained specimens in both plumages. 
Though these birds were apparently congregating for nesting- 
purposes, I could not learn from any of the colonists that their 
breeding-place was known. 

Larus maculipennis. 

Common about the mouth of the river, and a few observed 
up the valley the first week of my visit. From some of the 
colonists I learned the following particulars concerning the 

44 Mr. H. Durnford on sonic Birds obstrved 

nesting-ground^ or rookery^ as they term it, of Black-headed 
Gulls at New Bay, about forty miles from the village. About 
three miles east from Pot harbour, whieh is at the western- 
most point of New Bay, and a short distance from the beach, 
on low sandy ground, is a breeding-place of Black-headed 
Gulls. The nests are placed close together ; and three eggs 
is the number usually laid. I was assured by one of the 
colonists, an old whaler, who knows the coast well, that the 
birds commence to lay on or about the lOtli December ; and 
another colonist informed me that when on one occasion they 
were fishing in New Bay, they frequently went ashore to col- 
lect the eggs, which they prized as food, and this was about 
a week before Christmas ; he also told me that amongst the 
Black-headed Gulls were a few pairs of a large black-backed 
Gull (which could have been nothing else but L. dominicanus) 
whose eggs they were also in the habit of eating. During 
my visit to the colony, L. macuUjjennis was frequently pointed 
out to me as the bird nesting near Pot harbour ; and as that 
is the only Hooded Gull I saw, and is well known to the 
colonists, some of whom have visited the Gullery, I have 
little doubt my informants were correct. 

I had one day made partial arrangements for a journey to 
Pot harbour, no slight imdertaking, as water has to be taken 
for both man and beast for the journey to and fro, and was 
only prevented from completing them through being assured 
by the whaler mentioned above that he had many times visited 
the spot, and that the birds did not lay before the 10th De- 
cember. This agrees with my observations, as just previous 
to and during the first ten days of my visit this species was 
far more numerous than when I left on the 29th November, 
on which date very few birds were to be seen. 

Capt. Musters mentions that during his travels with the 
Tehuelches they came across a large Gullery in the neigh- 
bourhood of lagoons of considerable size a few leagues from 
the Cordillera, and, as far as I can make out, in about lat. 
42° 50' S. It would be especially interesting to know what 
species this could have been ; for if L. maculipennis is regularly 

iti the Chuput Valleij, Patagonia. 45 

in the habit of nesting close to the sea^ it would scarcely be 
found breeding so far inland. 

Larus dominicanus. 

Not uncommon about the mouth of the river, but seen also 
at Ninfas Point. I obtained specimens in both adult and 
immature plumage. Two adult birds from the river Chuput 
differ from an adult specimen from Buenos Ayres in the re- 
spective size of their beaks and tarsi, but otherwise they are 
precisely similar. The Buenos-Ayres bird is the larger. 


Common in almost every pool and ditch in the valley. 


On the 6tli November I saw two in the large lagoon to the 
north of Chuput, and during a second visit on the 11th was 
fortunate enough to find them again in a ditch bordering the 
lagoon, from which it was separated by a narrow strip of sand. 
Both of these I procured ; and they proved on dissection to 
be male and female. The former is considerably the larger; 
the breast and stomach are of a purer white ; the feathers on 
the crown of the head and throat are of a lighter grey ; and 
those behind the eyes and ears, forming a sort of ruff, are 
longer than in the female bird. I did not observe this species 


Not so common as Calodromas elegans, but occasionally 
seen amongst the thick grass and rushes bordering the river. 
Not seen on the hills. 

Calodromas elegans. 

Common both in the valley and on the hills in very dry 
spots. It nests under the shelter of a small bush, and after 
scraping a slight hollow in the ground, lines it with a few 
fragments of grass and feathers, laying sometimes as many 
as ten eggs. The remarkable character of these, of a uniform 
pea-green colour, with a highly polished appearance, is well 
known. About dusk these birds come from the shelter of 

4G Mr. P. L. Sclater on the 

the long grass or bushes, wliere they have lajii during the 
day, to feed; and at that time they can^be ^Jieard calling to 
each other in every direction. Their note is a loud and oft- 
repeated whistle uttered in a low key. 

Rhea darwini. 

Common on the higher tableland, but rarely seen in the 
immediate neighbourhood of the colony. The feathers of 
this bird form the chief article of barter Avhich the Indians 
give in exchange for yerba, sugar, &c. During my visit we 
made two hunting-excursions in search of R,heas and Gua- 
nacos. The former sometimes lie very close, usually under 
the shelter of a bush, and will then allow you to pass within a 
few yards of them without moving. When flushed they en- 
deavour to run with the wind, partly opening their wings, 
which act as sails. It requires a good dog to overtake an 
old bird when he gets a start of a hundred yards. I was told 
that the colonists have found as many as thirty-two eggs in 
one nest, and when such a number is laid they consider them 
the produce of more than one female ; they sometimes flush 
the male bird from the nest. It is an event of common oc- 
currence to find single eggs about the campo smaller than 
those in nests ; and these are supposed to have been dropped 
by immature birds which have not commenced to lay 

IV. — Note on the South- American Song-Sparrows. 
By P. L. Sclater. 

(Plate I.) 

It is a singular fact that, while Zonotrichia pileata is generally 
diffused over Central and South America, aud is in many 
places a most abundant species, the only other two members of 
the same genus that occur within the neotropical region are 
confined to La Plata and Patagonia. So little known, more- 
over, are the latter, that, with a tolerably extensive acquaint- 
ance with South- American birds, I have never met with but 


"■•■■" ***J 


Ibis 1877 PI i. 

■I G.KfiuIemaiLS lith. 

M&N HajihiiL iini; 


South- American Song-S'parrows. 47 

one or two specimens of either of tliera^ whereas the former 
is one of the very commonest species in collections. 

The two southern Song-Sparrows Zonotrichia canicapilla 
and Z. strigiceps were both discovered by Mr. Darwin 
during his celebrated " Naturalist^s Voyage/^ and described 
by Mr. Gould in the third volume of the ' Zoology of the 
Voyage of the ' Beagle \' I will say a few words about what 
we know of each of these birds. 

Z. canicapilla is generally of the size and form o£ Z.pileata, 
though the legs and feet_, judging from the examples now 
before me, are more slender. The under surface closely re- 
sembles that of Z. pileata ; and there is the same bright rufous 
patch on each side of the neck. The upper surfaces of these 
two birds are also much alike, except as regards the head. 
This in Z. canicapnlla is of a uniform grey, with narrow white 
superciliaries, and, as will be seen from the figure (PI. I. fig. 1), 
shows no signs whatever of the two broad black lines on the 
sides of the crown which distinguish Z. pjileata. Mr. Darwin 
obtained his specimens of Z. canicapilla at Port Desire, in 
Southern Patagonia, and on Tierra del Fuego, and found it 
nesting at the former locality. Mr. Durnford, as recorded 
above (p. 33), found it to be the " common Sparrow '^ of Chu- 
put, which is a rather more northern locality than Port Desire. 
Dr. Cunningham obtained it at Ancud, in the Island of Chiloe, 
and at Sandy Point, in Southern Patagonia ; but in our list of 
his collection (Ibis, 1870, p. 499) we did not recognize his 
skins as distinct from Z. pileata. I remark that in Gray^s 
' Hand-list ' (ii. p. 94) Z. canicapilla is referred to Fringilla 
australis, Lath. ; but in my opinion Latham^s description is too 
vague to enable any certain conclusion to be drawn from it. 

Z. strigiceps, as will be seen by the figure (PI. I. fig. 2), is 
much more distinct from Z. pileata in plumage, and has 
shorter wings and more feeble feet, though not essentially 
different in form. It may at once be known from both the 
allied South- American species by the absence of the chestnut 
patches on the sides of the neck and of the lateral black marks 
on the throat. The feathers on the crown of the head are 
dark red, passing into cinereous on the nape, each feather 

48 Dr. O. Finsch's Ornithological Letters. 

having a median longitudinal baud of black, which renders the 
specific term strigiceps very apposite. 

Mr. Darwin gives as the locality of this species Santa Fe, 
on the Eio Parana. It is singular that in all the collections 
from the Argentine Republic which I have examined of late 
years, I have never met with an example of it, the only spe- 
cimen I have seen being one in my own collection, which I 
obtained in exchange from Mr. Gould some years ago, and 
which is probably one of Mr. Darwin's original skins. This, 
however, is most likely due to the fact that most of the Ar- 
gentine collections have been procured from the vicinity of 
Buenos Ayres, and that Santa Fe, as pointed out by Mr. 
Darwin^, belongs to a different fauna. 

V. — Ornithological Letters from the Bremen Expedition to 
JVestern Siberia. By Otto Finsch, Ph.D., Hon. Memb. 
B.O.U., Chief of the Expedition. 

On board the steamer 'Beljetschenko,' 
River ( )b, 3rd .Tuly, 1876. 

Sir, — I beg leave to send you a few notes relating to the 
birds observed by us during our recent trip through Western 
Siberia and into the northern parts of Turkestan and China. 
Though we left Nishni- Novgorod on the 19th March, we 
did not reach Omsk until the 20th of April, the roads being 
in a bad state, OAving to the forwardness of the spring, and the 
consequent melting of the snow. No opportunities oflered 
for making any observations on the birds of the country passed 
through, except as regards the few species seen on the road- 

* '' In the morning we arrived at Santa F^. I was surprised to observe 
how great a change of climate a difference of only three degrees of lati- 
tude between this place and Buenos Ayres had caused. This was evident 
from the dress and complexion of the men, from the increased size of the 
ombu trees — the number of new cacti and other plants, and especially 
fi'om the birds. In the course of an hour I remarked half-a-dozen of the 
latter which I had never seen at Buenos Ayres. Considering that there is 
no natural boundary between the two places, and that the character of 
the country is nearly similar, the difference was much greater than I 
should have expected." — Narr. Voy. Beayle, iii. p. 147. 

Dr. O. Finsch's Ornithological Letters. 49 

side. These consisted solely of European winter residents, 
such as Corvus cor ax, C. comix, C. frugilegus, C. monedula, 
Pica caudata, Emberiza citrinella, Pyrrhula vulgaris, and 
Ducks and Swans in great numbers, which rested on the open 
water of every river and lake. Before reaching Tjumen, and 
between that town and Omsk, we observed Tetrao tetrix and 
Lagopus alpinus everywhere in great numbers. Of the former 
we met with a flock of about sixty or more. They were feed- 
ing on the road, and allowed us to approach within shot. 

At Omsk we made the acquaintance of Professor Slovzoff, 
the most accomplished and diligent collector in Siberia. His 
collection, which forms the museum of the Military Gym- 
nasium, contains a number of birds, all, however, belonging 
to European species. A fine specimen of Gypaetus came 
from the Balchasch, a species said to occur in the southern 
Altai. We did not ourselves meet with this bird of prey. 
Whilst here we obtained a specimen of Parus cyaneus, being 
the third seen by Professor Slovzoflf during a nine years' resi- 
dence at Omsk. 

On leaving Omsk we travelled as quickly as possible across 
the steppe along the Kozakline to Semipalatinsk, where we 
arrived on the 29th of April. On the road we observed num- 
bers of Falco rufipes, F. cenchris. Circus cyaneus, and for the 
first time Alauda sibirica, A. tartarica, Motacilla citreola 
{one only), Charadrivs gregarius, Otis tarda, and 0. tetrax. 
Cranes, and large flocks of Ducks, Geese, and Swans. We 
saw a single H<3em,atopus ostralegus, a species we did not meet 
with again until reaching the Irtisch and Ob rivers. Corvus 
comix, C. frugilegus, C. monedula. Pica caudata, and Sturnus 
vulgaris were everywhere common. The Crows and Magpies 
built their nests, in default of large trees, on bushes, some- 
times only a few feet from the ground. Corvus corone we 
never saw, and the Raven only near woods. In the environs 
of Semipalatinsk we obtained Saxicola leucomela, Phyllo- 
scopus tristis, and Cyanecula suecica (with the maroon- coloured 
throat-spot) ; the same bird we afterwards found in the Chinese 
Altai and on the Irtisch. 

On the 3rd of May we went to the Arcad Mountains, 


50 Dr. O. Finsch's Ornithological Letters. 

where we successfully hunted the Argali sheep. Under the 
escort of Kirgises we were conducted to where a man 
possessed a Golden Eagle {Aquilafidva) trained to hunt foxes 
and wolves. 

Alauda tartarica was plentiful in the steppe, A. albigida 
and A. brachydactyla scarce. In the mountains we found 
Anas rutila, Petrocincla saxatilis, and a species of RuticUla 
(? aurorea) . From the Arcad we went to the large lake Ala-kul, 
by way of Sergiopol, where we arrived on the 7th of May, 
observing there for the first time Cuculus canorus and Hirundo 
7'ustica — the white-vented form, the only one we met with 
during our voyage. The Ala-kul is the resort of thousands 
of water- fowl ; but it is difficult to shoot them, owing to the 
density of the reeds on the margin of the water. The more 
interesting species we observed were Larus ichtliyaetus, Pele- 
canus onocrotalus (?), Anas rvfina, and other Ducks, such as 
Anas boschas, A. strepera, A. acuta, A. peneJope, A. querque- 
dula, A. crecca, A. leucopldhalma, &c. Anser cinereus was 
the only species of Goose we saM^ ; and it had hatched its young 
on May the 9th. 

Ardea alba, Recurvirostra avocetfa, Himantopus rufipes, 
and Grus ci?ierea were not rare, nor were Larus ridibundus 
and L. canus, or a species allied to it. 

Of small birds I saw Saxicola rubicola, numbers of Reed- 
Warblers, amongst them Calamoherpe locustella and the Black- 
capped Wagtail. 1 paid great attention to this last-named 
species throughout my journey. We first met with the grey- 
headed form {Motacilla cinereocapilla) ; afterwards, near a 
place called Karakol, the true M. melanocephala, living to- 
gether with the former. Amongst the black-capped birds I 
also collected birds with the white superciliary stripe, a 
form which has also been separated specifically. On the 
Ala-kul M. melanocephala was most abundant, as also in the 
steppe region. Grey-headed birds, however, were nowhere 

A Lark we obtained is apparently Alauda pispoletta. 
Turtur gelastes breeds on the steppe, where also we procured 
Turdus atrogularis, though the whole region is destitute of 

Dr. O. Finsch^s Ornithological Letters. 51 

trees. Pastor roseus was plentiful ; but we did not find its 

On leaving lake Ala-kul we went to Lepsa^ at the foot of 
the Ala-taw Mountains — the mighty frontier between Russia 
and China. Thence we made excursions into the mountains, 
never being able to ascend to any great elevation on account 
of the snow. 

We now found numbers of representatives of the Indian avi- 
fauna which we had not previously met with. Instead of the 
common Wagtail, which we still observed on the Ala-kul, we 
had the pleasure of seeing Motacilla personata in the streets of 
Lepsa, a species observed along the whole road through the 
Tarbagatai and Altai to Kolywan. In Barnaul Motacilla alba 
was again the only species. We also saw Cinclus leucog aster, 
a species of Pica (most likely P. leucoptera) , the Himalayan 
Fringilla caniceps, a Petrocincla which I cannot make out 
at present, a species of Columba allied to C. pulumbus, but 
distinct, a wonderful species of Saxicola, throughout black, 
except the head, which was grey. This bird was shot near 
the interesting Dscassyl-kul, an alpine lake, situated 5000 feet 
above the sea-level. We also met with Cotyle rupestris, Carpo- 
dacus erythrinus, a Corvus smaller than C. corax, but larger 
than C. corone, perhaps also new. From Lepsa we went back 
to the Ala-kul, and by the road of Urdscha-Bacty to the Chi- 
nese town of Tschugutschak, and thence crossing the Tarba- 
gatai Mountains, which form the Russo-Chinese frontier, by 
the Bugutai pass to Saissan, where we arrived on the 30th 
of May. The greater part of our way lay through steppe 
region abounding with Larks. Our common species [Alauda 
arvensis) we found everywhere, even on the highest meadows 
of the Altai ; also A. brachydactyla, and a species resembling 
A. sibirica, but larger, and which I cannot now determine; 
A. albigula was also there. A. tartarica, strange to say, was 
absent, disappearing before we reached Sergiopol ; nor did we 
meet with this singular species again until we reached the 
desert-like steppe between Nor-Saissan and Maiterek, which is 
in character like the desert of Gobi, as we were told by people 
who know the latter. 

E 2 

52 Dr. O. Fiusch^s Ornithologicnl Letters. 

A most welcome addition to our collection was a beautiful 
species of Emberiza, allied to E. rutila, but larger, and, so far 
as I can judge at present, E. iderina. This species, which we 
afterwards found on the north-western part of the Altai, be- 
hind Serianowsk, is almost restricted in its range to places 
where the peculiar steppe-grass, the Tschid, grows. I was 
surprised to find Passer domesticus to be the common Spar- 
row of all the villages. 

During our second visit to Ala-kul we observed Ibis falci- 
nellus, many Cormorants, apparently of the common species, 
Grrus virgo, Glareola torquata, and on the steppe Coracius 
garrula and Merops apiaster. Near Urdschar the song of 
the Nightingale [Luscinia philomela) was heard in the willow 
trees, and a Butcher-bird was procured like Lanius arenarius. 
In crossing the Tarbagatai Mountains Ave had to traverse 
several plateaux with steppe-like character. We obtained 
the young of Gj-us virgo, and saw many Eagles, apparently 
A. fulva and A. imperialis. Ascending the Tarbagatai to Sais- 
san, we found Pastor roseus abounding in the rocky ravines : 
one Hock was estimated to contain a thousand birds ; and a 
single shot killed twenty-five of them. 

In Saissan, where we resided from the 27th to the 30th of 
May, I had only time to make one excursion to the rocky 
mountains which surround the little town. Dr. Brclim, how- 
ever, and Count Waldburg made a trip with a Kirgis hunter 
to the Manrack Mountains, in order to shoot Megaloperdix, 
of which Dr. Brehm wae fortunate enough to secure one. 
It does not belong to the Altai species [M. altaicus), but may 
perhaps be the same as Tetr aog alius nig elli. Some specimens 
of a fine species of Ruticilla, unknown to me, were secured, 
and a fine species of Linaria, apparently the same as the 
Himalayan bird. It was afterwards observed in the high 
Altai. During this time I shot Muscicapa grisola, the only 
species of Flycatcher seen during our whole journey ; I also 
obtained Saxicola leucomela, a species of Emberiza, and a 
Carpodacus allied to C. githagineus, both apparently new. 

From Saissan we went to the Kara Irtisch, and down 
this beautiful river to the Nor-Saissan, a magnificent lake. 

Dr. O. FinscVs Ornithological Letters. 53 

where birds abounded. Along the Kara or Black Irtisch we 
observed many Eagles, especially Haliaetus albicilla, and still 
more commonly H. leucorxjphus. This latter species fre- 
quented the lake, where Milvus melanotis was also seen. A 
species of Goose I was unable to determine. It had a black 
bill, and might have been Anser grandis ; but the size was too 
small. A large Gull I secured seems different from Larus 
marinus ; and a Panurus which frequented the reed-beds may 
be P. biarmicus. In addition to these species I secured 
Emberiza pyrrhuloides and Motacilla cinej'eocapilla, with the 
white eye-stripe. The Eagles unfortunately were moulting, 
and did not make good skins. 

After crossing theNor-Saissan we had to traverse the desert- 
like steppe of Tarik, mentioned above. There one travels for 
hours without meeting with water, nevertheless we found 
Alauda tartarica, A. brachydactyla, and a Lanius allied to 
L. phmnicurus. This district also is one of the favourite 
resorts of Equus onager, of which we observed many indivi- 
duals and procured a young one, which had been caught by 
a Cossack, Here we collected specimens of Syrrhaptes para- 
doxus, Otis macqueeni, Pterocles exustus, Glareola melanopjtera, 
and for the first time the female of the Emberiza like E. 
j'utila, mentioned above. 

We reached Maiterek, a military fort in the southern Altai, 
on the 4th of June, and then made, in company with General 
Poltaratsky, the Governor of Semipalatinsk, an interesting 
excursion through the Chinese high Altai, which was some- 
what marred by the badness of the weather. We experienced 
rain, snow, and very cold weather the whole time. We left 
Maiterek on the 6th of June, reached the interesting lake 
Marka-kul, 5000 feet above the sea^ on the 7th, and, descend- 
ing from the high pass (9000 feet) of Buricat to the valley 
of the Buchtarma, reached Altaiskesche Stanitzaonthe 11th, 
being here again on Russian territory. The unfavourable 
weather prevented our making the observations we should 
otherwise have done, and we saw comparatively few species 
of birds. In the more dangerous passes of the high moun- 
tains we observed the Himalayan Linaria, an Antlms like 

54 Dr. O. Finsch's Ornithological Letters. 

A. aquaticus, Alpine Crows^ apparently Pyrrhocorax, Aquila 
fulva, Saxicola cenanthe (bnt with a stouter bill) , and, strangely 
enoughj Cr ex prat en sis. 

The Marakul lake abounded with birds. I never before 
saw so many Eagles ; and the number of Milvus melanotis was 
astonishing : on a single dead tree I counted fifteen. The 
Eagles belonged to H. leucoryphus, a species like Aquila ra- 
pax, but larger, A. imperialis, and A. fulva. I shot a singular 
Regulus, without a stripe on the crown, which may be new. 
Besides these we ohtnmed Alotacilla citreola, Anthus pratensis, 
Turdus atrogularis, Sturnns vulgaris, and a beautiful Bunting 
resembling Emberiza pithyornis, but different, and perhaps 
new. The lake was rich with waterfowl — Anas rutila (with 
young broods), A. crecca, A. penelope, A. strepera, A. acuta, 
A. boschas, A. nyroca, &c., Podiceps cristatus and P. cor- 
nutus, Carbo cormoranus, Larus ridibundus. Sterna fissipes, 
&c. We saw neither Geese nor Pelecans. 

From Altaiskesche Stanitza we travelled as quickly as pos- 
sible by way of Serianowsk Usdkamenogorsk to Barnaul, 
where we arrived on the 22nd of June. During this journey 
we travelled too fast to observe or collect much. Above Se- 
rianowsk I saw a peculiar Swift, larger than Cypselus apus, 
but with a white rump. Dr. Brehmhas since been fortunate 
enough to secure a specimen at Salair, on the northern 
Altai, between Barnaul and Tomsk ; and I do not doubt that 
the species will prove to be undescribed. When going on 
the river Irtsch, from Werchne Pristan to Kamenogorsk, 
we found a large colony of Hirundo rufida, the only time we 
met with the species during our voyage. 

Near Barnaul we secured Emberiza aureola, which was 
very common, also Larus minutus. 

I hope to find time to send you a further report on the 
birds observed during our voyage on the river Ob. At present 
we have only spent two days on this magnificent stream. I 
can only say that hitherto I have seen comparatively few birds ; 
but the river is flooded. The extensive woods which border 
the river doubtless support a large amount of animal life ; 
but we see little from the deck of our steamer. 

Dr. O. Finscli's Ornithological Letters. 55 

On board the Lotka ' Bismarck,' on the 
Ob river, Sept. 26th, 1876. 

In my last letter I sent you a few notes on the birds 
observed during our trip through the north-eastern part of 
Turkestan, the north-western frontier of China, and the 
high Altai, which we were obliged^ unfortunately, to cross 
in great haste ; for I consider these regions of the greatest 
interest, and a most attractive country for naturalists in 
general, and especially ornithologists. I can only regret that 
we had to travel in such haste to re^ch our destination, the 
Ob region, as soon as possible. We left Barnaul, the capital 
of the Altai, on the 28th of June, and reached Tomsk, a dis- 
tance of 435 versts, on the 1st of July. We chose the route 
of Salair in order to see the north-western part of the Altai 
Mountains. This region is covered with immense woods, and 
contains much animal life. But going always very fast in 
our carriage (called a tarantasse), we could only observe 
birds like flowers, on the road-side. In the woods we no- 
ticed a Buteo, the Haven, Corvus comix, Pica caudata, Cu- 
culus canorus, Starlings, Carpodacus eryth'inus, Tardus mu- 
sicus and T. v'lscivorus, and one or two species of Phyllo- 
scopus which I coidd not make out. From Salair to Tomsk 
the mountainous wood-region disappears ; and in its place is a 
steppe of high grass, mixed with small clumps of trees (chiefly 
birch trees). Here Falco vespertinus (with young able to fly) 
is one of the commonest birds, together with Pica caudata, 
Corvus cornix, Pratiacola rubicola, and Emberiza aureola. 
Occasionally I observed Aquila imperialis, Falco tinnunculus, 
and Circus cyaneus ; and Milvus niger was by no means rare. 
The song of Luscinia philomela was often heard in the thick 
bushes, as well as that of Sylvia garrula, and the harsh cry 
of Crex prateiisls, which was our regular night music during 
our whole tour through the Altai, even at the high elevations 
of more than 6000 to 8000 feet. 

We embarked in the magnificent steamer/ Beljetschenko,' 
belonging to our friend Ivan Ivanovitsch Ignatoff^, and left 
Tomsk at an early hour on the second of July. The steamers 
of this gentleman perform a regular service during summer 

56 Dr. O. Finsch's Ornithological Letters. 

between Tjumen aud Tomsk^ aud are very comfortable ; but, 
alas ! tbe luxury of tliis excellent vessel availed us only for a 
short time. 

We went down the river Ob (1300 versts), to the village 
of Samarowa_, a short distance up the river Irtisch, not far 
from the junction of this river with the Ob. Here we had 
to leave the steamer ; and by the liberality of Mr. Semzoff, a 
chief merchant of Samarowa^ we were furnished with two 
"lotkas," free of cost, for our voyage down the river. A 
" lotka ^^ is a boat about 40 feet in length, covered for its 
greater part with a deck, and is propelled by rowing or 
towing. During our voyage in the steamer we had few op- 
portunities for making ornithological observations. The wea- 
ther was not favourable and the river overflooded, so that it 
often resembled a great lake, bordered with woods of fir trees, 
and intermixed with numerous islets, covered chiefly with 
willows. Waterfowl were seen in great numbers, but so far 
off that we could not make out the species. Larus marinus 
and Ste7'na hirundo were plentiful. Sometimes Ave observed 
Haliaetus albicilla (once I got a fledgling) ; but the most com- 
mon bird was Cotyle riparia. Every time we passed high 
sandbanks we found large breeding colonies, the inhabitants 
of which were busy flying in and out of nest-holes. The situ- 
ation of the holes varies as the height of the bank ; some- 
times they ai'e very high, at other times so low that one can 
easily touch the nests ; but nevertheless it is very difiicult 
to catch the bird by hand. 

We left Samarowa in the early morning of the 6th of July, 
reaching the town of Berezotf on the 9th, and Obdorsk, the 
ultima TJmle of civilization, on the 13th, the whole distance 
being reckoned at little more than 1000 versts. There are 
more than forty stations to be called at by rowing people, most 
of them only Ostiakian yurt-placcs for fishing, which is the 
chief and only business along the river Ob. The scenery on 
the river is nearly the same throughout the whole of its 
length. On the right hand the banks are high, often per- 
pendicular, formed by sand, aud covered Avith magnificent 
woods of larch and birch trees. The left bank is low, and 

Dr. O. Finsch's Ornithological Letters. 57 

is clothed chiefly with willows. As the river was very high, 
the low land on the left was flooded to a great degree, and we 
often went for long distances in narrow channels, or crossed 
meadow-grounds. Here waterfowl were very numerous, but 
shy. We distinguished Anas acuta, A. clypeata, A. crecca, 
A. penelope, and A. fuUgula ; Geese and Swans kept too far 
off to be made out. Hcematopus ostralegus and Numenius 
arquata were not uncommon, but only in small companies. 
In the woods on the right bank we found Corythus enucleator, 
Fringilla montifringilla, Sylvia garrula, Phylloscopus tro- 
chilus, and P. tristis, the latter resembling in manner very 
much our P. rufus. No Flycatcher ! no Garrulus or Nuci- 
fraga ! Tits were heard only a few times, but not seen. Ob- 
servations, indeed, are very difficult. After leaving Tomsk 
we suffered continually from mosquitos, and it was nearly im- 
possible to leave the lotka. Even an English mosquito-gar- 
ment was of no use ; and the woods are so thick that no veil 
is of any benefit. The woods in general are silent ; and if 
a bird is to be heard, it is still more difficult to see it in 
the thickness of the foliage and the underwood. The most 
common birds were Corvus corniw and Pica caudata, Em- 
beriza pusilla, Fringilla montifringilla, Motacilla alba, and 
M. cinereocapilla, which were to be seen at every station. 
Passer domesticus and P. campestris are only to be found 
on stations where cattle live; both species occur in the 
town of Berezofl", but not in Obdorsk. P. campestris goes 
as far up as Kuschowat, the last Russian village between 
Berezoff and Obdorsk, but disappears during winter time, 
as both Sparrows do at Berezoff. Hirundo rustica we found 
two stations further up than Berezoff", and H. urbica only 
as far as Monastir Kondinsky, about 260 versts above Sama- 
rowa. At Tschematschefskaja, 130 versts from Kondinsky, 
we found Picus minor and Turdus pilaris, both with fledg- 
lings ; and at Balschoi Ustram I got from an Ostiak two young 
of Ulula lapponica. At Kuschowat we first found Fringilla 
linaria, if I remember right, and for the last time saw Pra- 
tincola rubicola. Emberiza schceniclus we observed on the 
stations on the left bank everywhere where willow trees with 

58 Dr. O. FinscVs Ornithological Letter's. 

swampy ground prevail ; such localities are also occupied by 
Motacilla citreola, which we observed after leaving Tachty, a 
few stations below Obdorsk, and GaUinayo media. As we de- 
scended the river the larger it became, the banks being some- 
times out of sight. Waterfowl increased in number. Just 
before reaching Obdorsk we found a small colony of Larus 
marinus breeding. The Polui river, on which Obdorsk is 
situated, swarmed with Ducks, among them (Eclemia nigra and 
(E. fusca ; Colymbus septentrionalis was also very common. 

After having engaged five men, furnished with provisions, 
we left Obdorsk on the moriiing of the 16th of July, bound 
for the Schtschutschja river, which we intended to ascend as 
far as possible, and thence to thePodarata river and the Kara 
Bay, these parts, lying between the Ob river and the Ural 
Mountains, never having been before visited by any zoologist. 

We reached Janburri, an Ostiakian yurt-place to the east 
of the mouth of the Schtschutschja river, on the 18th of July, 
and with difficulty obtained two Saraojeds to act as pilots up 
the river, as no one was acquainted with this part of the 
country, which is only visited by nomad Ostiaks and Samo- 
jeds and their herds of Reindeer. At Kiochat, a fishing- 
place on the right bank of the Ob, Lai^us marinus was plen- 
tiful, engaged in stealing fish from the nets. I here ob- 
served their singular habit of perching on dead branches of 
high trees. As soon as we reached the left bank we came to 
low flooded land, cut into many silent channels, bordered 
with low willow-scrub. Here Motacilla citreola was not 
uncommon, as also even Phalaropus cinereus. At Janburri 
Dr. Brehm shot Anthus seebohmi, discovered last year by Mr. 
Seebohm on the Pctchora river, and of which new species I 
had been kindly provided with a description by my friend Mr. 
Dresser. A little above Janburri I got a species of Calamo- 
herpe, peculiar in its manner and song, the latter being very 
sweet. As soon as we entered the Schtschutschja river we 
came into the tundra-region, except on the right bank, which 
is still covered more or less Avith woods. We observed Otiis 
brachyotus and, for the first time, Lagopus albus, not yet in 
full summer plumage. Tot anus glareola was the most com- 

Dr. O. Finscli's Ornithological Letters. 59 

mon of its kind ; and at the bifurcation of the river (20th 
July) Count Zeil shot a male Terekia cinerea. Anthus cer- 
vinus, in habits partaking both of A. pratensis and ^. ar- 
boreus, was plentiful, as was also Lusciola suecica. Geese 
[Aiiser cinereus) were not rare, nor were Swans (probably 
Cygnus musicus) ; but we succeeded in getting only young in 
down, as well as young of Harelda glacialis, CEdemia nigra, 
and CE. fusca. Colymbus septentrionalis was very common, 
but, as usual, very shy. We went up the river about 130 
versts, where we found an Ostiak, with his family, who had 
lived here for about four years, engaged in fishery, as a small 
species of Corrgonus (probably allied to C. albida), called "her- 
ring,"^ is very plentiful. We had the good luck to engage this 
Ostiak as a pilot for the Podarata river, said to be about five 
days^ journey on foot. We went further up the Schtschu- 
tschja river about thirty or forty versts, when navigation, 
except for small canoes, became impossible. On the 29th of 
July we had to leave the lotka, and went, a party of eleven 
men, furnished with provisions for nine days, to the Podarata 
river, where we expected to find reindeer ; so we were told. 

In the upper part of the river we observed Tringa mhiuta, 
which lives in the thick willow-brush and has a peculiar cry, 
Saxicola oenanthe, MotaciUa alba, Lusciola suecica, Chara- 
drius hiatictda, and, for the first time, C. auratus. Once we 
found the nest of Tringa minuta with four eggs, which hatched 
in a box with cotton, into which I had put them. Larus ma- 
rinus and Sterna hirundo were common ; of the latter we got 
young in down. Phylloscopus trochilus and P. tristis were 
observed as far as the wood-region extended, i. e. along the 
whole of the river. Plectrophmies lapponica and P. nivalis 
we found likewise on the upper course of the river. Of rapa- 
cious birds we observed the Osprey, Falco subbuteo, F. cesalon, 
F. peregrinus, and Buteo lagopus, all of them being rare. We 
left our lotka on the 31st of July, and sent it with two men 
back to a place called Tschornejar (high black bank), as the 
water was rapidly falling, and it would have been impos- 
sible to take the lotka back later in the season. We proceded 
on foot, carrying our ammunition and provisions, and reached 

60 Dr. O. Finsch's Ornithological Letters. 

the Podarata river, which flows into Kara Bay, on the 2nd 
of August, having had the good fortune to meet on the 
road an Ostiak with his herd of reindeer, from whom we 
purchased nine animals and three sledges to carry our pro- 
visions. Of these animals we lost six, as the "milzbrand^^ 
was rapidly decreasing the herds of reindeer. The Ostiak 
had owned 2000 reindeer, a number now reduced to only 
600 ; as many as eighty animals sometimes died in one 
night. At the Podarata river, by chance, we found a second 
Ostiak with reindeer, who promised to bring us to the liorder 
of the sea. We went there in reindeer-sledges in the after- 
noon of the 3rd of August, but to our great disappointment 
were obliged to stop at about from twelve to fifteen versts from 
the sea itself, of which we got only a glance. We reached a little 
above 68° N. lat. The land before us consisted of swampy 
ground, varied by numerous lakes and stagnant morasses, 
which gradually give place to the very low sea-shore. It was 
impossible to cross this tract, even with reindeer ; and not 
being provided with a boat, and there being no wood with 
which to build a raft, we were obliged to return without 
reaching the shores of Kara Bay itself. We went back 
with the Ostiak to Tschornejar, on the Schtschutschja river, 
where we found our lotka on the lltli of August, although 
we had lost one of our men, an Ostiak and excellent fellow, 
who had died three days after having tasted the meat of one of 
the reindeer which had been struck by the incurable disease. 
During the fortnight we were absent we had to cross only 
tundra-ground, covered with dwarf birches, dwarf willows, 
mosses, and morasses, and varied with larger or smaller lakes, 
and sometimes small rivers. Mosquitos swarmed all the 
time, by day and by night. I need not say how we suflfered, 
the more so as provisions were scarce and, on account of 
want of fuel for fire, not easy to cook. Our principal at- 
tention was paid to Lagopus albus, which went about with 
fledged young, and Charudrius auratus, as both species formed 
the chief part of our meals. Once we got a family of Geese, 
an old female and six pretty- well grown young ; the species 
was Anser albifrons ! Generally Geese and Swans were rare. 

Dr. O. FinscVs Ornithological Letters. 61 

and the large lakes poor in animal life. Every lake was 
inhabited by one or two pairs of Colymbus glacialis, which 
went about with small ones^ or with a number of pairs of 
Harelda glacialis, (Edemia nigra, or (E. fusca. Anas acuta, 
with young, was observed on small tundra-creeks, as well 
as A. penelope and A. crecca. The most common tundi'a- 
birds, except Charadrius auratus, which was, with its downy 
young, to be found on every dry elevation, and whose 
cry was heard by day and by night, were Lestris parasitica 
and L. pomatorhina, both splendid-looking birds, resembling 
Falcons when on the wing. Of both species we found 
young, which on our return were already able to fly. The 
chief food of both species seems to be lemmings {Mijodes 
obensis), which are plentiful. Besides these, Larus marinas 
was seen every day, but only in pairs, as they were hatching 
their young. On the borders of the lakes we found Tringa 
subarquata, T. temminchii, Machetes pugnax, all of them 
with young, as well as Gallinago media, which did not live 
in swampy grounds, but on the open dwarf-birch tundra. Of 
small birds Plectrophanes lapponica and P. nivalis (both with 
fledglings) were common, so also was Anthus pratensis and 
A. cervinus, the latter nearer to the wood-region, where i^rm- 
gilla linaria again was to be found. Otocorys alpestris we 
observed often. On the Podarata river we again observed 
Motacilla alba^ Saxicola aenanthe, and Lusciola suecica (all 
with young ones) . Of rapacious birds Falco peregrinus and 
Buteo lagopus were often observed, and their nests, with three 
or four young in down, found. They were built on the high 
banks of the river, or on the bare ground of the tundra. The 
young had to suffer very much from mosqnitos, which they 
swallowed in large numbers. Otus brachyotus was common ; 
but the magnificent Snowy Owl {Nyctea nivea), a most 
splendid bird, we observed only a few times, and only one 
was shot by Dr. Brehm. Charadrius morinellus I observed 
only once, in small flocks, on the 7th of August, being appa- 
rently already migrating. 

On returning to the Schtschutschja river, which we had to 
cross twice, we found animal life increased. We found again 

62 Dr. O. Finsch^s Ornithological Letters. 

Emberiza pusilla, Saxicola oenanthe, Lusciola suecica, Tardus 
pilaris, Fringilla linaria, Anthus cervinus, Cotyle riparia, and, 
nearer to tlie mouth of the river, Corviis comix and C. cor ax ; 
the latter we observed also a few times on the tundra. Geese 
and Ducks were in great numbers, but as shy as Swans, of 
which we got only half-fledged young, which were most 
welcome for our cooking-pan. At the place where Count 
Zeil shot Terekia cinerea, I had the pleasure of shooting a 
full-grown young one of this species, being only the second 
specimen seen during our whole voyage, Phalaropus we 
did not observe again ; but Larus marinus, with young, now 
able to fly, was the most common Gull, as it is on the Avhole 
Ob river, where we never saw any Lestris. 

We returned to Obdorsk on the 19tli of August, where we 
had to stop till the 3rd of September, being engaged in dry- 
ing and packing the collections, and making our reports. 
Near Obdorsk we observed large flocks of Geese [Anser ci- 
nereus and A. minutus) which we had already obtained on the 
Schtschutschja, and A. ruficollis, of which we got by chance 
only one specimen, although the species is by no means rare. 
The Polui river swarmed with Ducks ; amongst them we got 
our first young in down of FuUfjula marila and F. nyroca. 
Larus marinus was common, as well as L. ridibundus, ac- 
companied by young nearly able to fly. On the flooded 
waters near the village Totanus fuscus was not rare in small 
companies, being very tame. Tringa temminckii appeared in 
small flocks, bearing still the full summer plumage, whereas 
Charadrius Maticula, which went also in large flocks, had 
already the winter garb. Of small birds Motacilla alba and 
Antlms pratensis were the most common in the village ; M. 
citreola we got about 100 versts above Obdorsk, just moult- 
ing, as well as M. flava [borealis] . Count Zeil got a single 
specimen of Turdus atrogtdaris (young bird moulting) and 
Numenius arquata, which feeds at this time chiefly on berries. 
Nisus fringillarius, so rare in this regio-n, I observed several 
times near the village. 

Our way up the river was very tedious, as we had to strug- 
gle continually against contrary winds and the current. 

Dr. O. Finsch's Ornithological Letters. 63 

Besides^ the niglits were again dark^ and often we were unable 
to proceed ; even tlie weather was often cold and bad, and 
rains fell just as in the late autumn in Germany. So the 
distance we had gone down the river in eight days we re- 
quired twenty-three days to pull the lotka against the stream, 
and did not reach Berezoff before the 12th, the village of 
Samarowa not until tlie 26tli of September. The river had 
changed its appearance a great deal, as well as the whole 
landscape. Silent arms into which we had gone formerly 
were dried up, or had not water enough, except for Geese 
and Ducks ; and the high right bank, formerly touched by 
the water of the rivei', was bordered by a broad strand of sand 
or clay, covered with enormous masses of drift wood. Large 
banks of sand had made their appearence, and sometimes di- 
vided the stream for long distances into two smaller arms. 
The foliage of the woods was wrapped in autumnal dress ; 
the yellow and orange of the birch trees was varied by the red 
of the poplar and several smaller trees, intermixed with the 
light green of the larch [Larioc] and the dark black-green of 
pine and cedar woods. So the view of the landscape was 
everywhere magnificent, and one could look at it for hours, 
even if the ornithological life sometimes was very poor, some- 
times for a long while not a bird being seen. We had to 
land twice a day, in order to cook our meals, on a small Os- 
tiakian yurt-place, or where we found it most convenient ; 
there was now no want of wood. Every time we went on 
shore we went hunting for some hours, as, fortunately, mos- 
quitos were no longer present. The woods sometimes are 
impenetrable, so thick is the growth of the trees, the multi- 
tude of broken trees and twigs. Generally the interior of 
the woods was silent, although we observed more birds than 
when we went down the river. At that time the birds were 
breeding, and so hid themselves more in the immense scrub 
and thickets, and were less visible than now, when they 
had more or less united in flocks preparatory to migration. 
We observed nearly all the birds we had seen on the trip 
down, except the Swallows and the Cuckoo, which had gone 
already. The call of the latter we had heard up to the 

64 Dr. O. Finsch's Ornithological Letters. 

Schtscliutsclija river. Einheriza pusilla we left behind some 
stations above Obdorsk; but now we found Parus cinctus 
j)lentiful^ and a Parus which I take to be P. camschatcensis or 
P. borealis. Its cry and manners are nearly the same as 
tliose of our P. palustris ; but besides it has a short but me- 
lodious song. Between Obdorsk and Berezoff we first found 
Sitta uralensis, which in general was very scarce^ and only 
seen in pairs. Besides these^ Piciis tridactylus was shot, oc- 
curring in willow- as well as in pine-woods ; Picus martins 
was seen once ; Picus minor was the most common species 
of Woodpecker. No Certhia ! FringiUa montifringiUa and 
F. linaria, both moulting and with young, went in large flocks 
and were to be met everywhere ; but we did not sec either 
Corythus or Loxia. Corvus corax was often met ; but the 
most common Crows were C. comix and Pica caudata, the 
latter chiefly in villages where cattle are tended. Here often 
twelve or fourteen assemble on the roof of a single house. At 
Berezoff" I observed, for the first time on the Ob, a large 
flock of Corvus frugilegus, apparently wandering ; and at the 
village SucharoAvskaja, 120 versts down SamaroAva, we first 
observed Corvus monedula and Parus major. Nucifraga ca- 
ryocatactes was plentiful in the woods on the right Ijank. 
No Garrulus ; but Perisoreus infaustus was sometimes ob- 
tained. It feeds on berries, beetles, and mice. We did not 
find Passer campestris at the village of Kuschowat, as the 
species is only a summer visitor there ; but we found both 
species at the town of Berezoff", and here, besides, Enibe^'iza 
citrinella. This species, which we had not once seen when 
going down the river, was now plentiful everywhere. Of 
birds of prey we observed sometimes the Osprey and a few 
Falcons [Falco subbuteo, and apparently a larger species, per- 
haps F. gyrfalco). Of Owls, Count Zeil shot a fine spe- 
cimen of Surnia nisoria, which we had observed a few times 
previously. Once I saw a small Falco cBsalon being chased by 
an Otus brackyotus. Having during our trip down the river 
only once seen Tetrao bonasia, which I shot near the village 
Malo Atlim, this species now was plentiful as soon as we 
left Berezoff'. It is a most elegant bird, and although not 

Dr. O. Finscli's Ornitholoykal Letters. G5 

sliy^ difficult to secure without the assistance of a good dog. 
Tetrao tetrix and T. urogallus, the Gluchar of the Russians^ 
was sometimes observed, the former in large flocks of thirty 
and more. T. urogallus I once met in the woods, sitting very 
close to me on a dead tree ; but I could not bring the bird down, 
being provided only with dust-shot. Hazel-Grouse hunting 
once brought us into great difficulty, as both Dr. Brehm and 
Count Zeil missed their way out of a wood, and on night 
overtaking them were obliged to remain where they were 
till the morning, when I, with as many Ostiaks as I could 
get together, went in search of them, and fortunately came 
up with them in a short time. Of Thrushes we found Turdus 
pilaris the most common species, but far less plentiful than 
in Lapland ; T. musicus, T. iliacus, and T. atrogularis were 
rare ; once I met a pair of T. ruficoUis and shot one. Frin- 
gilla linaria and F. montifringilla we did not observe after the 
24th of September, when we were amongst the willow-woods 
of the left bank. Even Motacilla alba had disappeared, An- 
thus pratensis was only seen sparingly, no A. cervinus ; but 
Otocorys alpestris appeared in large flocks. The most inter- 
esting small bird was one I observed a few times from the 
19th to the 21st of September; it was a Sylviine bird, resem- 
bling much in manners our Redthroat, but having the call- 
note of our Ruticilla phoenicurus. This note I had heard not 
unfrequently when we were going down the river ; but now 
for the first time I caught sight of the songster^ sitting on a 
low elder bush, and reminding me of the female of Lusciola 
suecica. On shooting the bird it proved to be the Sylvia cy- 
anura of Pallas. I only once saw the male in its elegant garb. 
All the birds we shot during the last half of August, and until 
after the middle of September, were moulting. After about 
the 22nd of September we did not observe any more Phyl- 
loscojms trochilus or P. tristis, or Anthus cervinus. Geese 
and Ducks became scarcer as we ascended the river, although 
large flocks of Geese were still seen as late as the 25tli of 
September, but sparingly, and not every day as during the 
first fortnight of September. No Cormorant was seen along 
the whole length of the Ob river ! Gulls are always present. 

SEll. IV. VOL. I. r 

66 Mr. H. Seebohm on the Phylloscopi 

Of Larus marinus mostly dark-coloured young ones are to 
be seen^ and L. canus and L. ridibundus, bearing now their 
winter dress. L. minutus and Hmnatopus ost7'alegus we did 
not see after leaving Berezoff, nor the Crane^ of which I 
got a half-grown young bird on the 7th of September. Large 
flocks of the last-named species were going south, and most 
of the birds are already emigrating and bidding farewell to 
the north. We are about to follow them, but in a western 
direction and more slowly ; for we have still to travel about 
2500 versts in a carriage to the first railway, at Nishni- 
Novgorod, which will, we hope, take us safely and quickly 

VI. — On the Phylloscopi or Willoto-Warblers. 
By Henry Seebohm, F.Z.S. 

The Phylloscopi, or Willow- Warblers, are a group of about 
thirty species of birds, the synonymy of which has hitherto 
been in much confusion. The differences between many of the 
species are very slight; and the descriptions of some of them are 
so meagre, that it is difficult to determine to which they belong 
without access to the type specimens. They may be described 
as Warblers with more or less slender bills, varying in the 
colour of their plumage from olive-green to brown in the 
upper parts, and from yellow, with an occasional dash of buff 
or green, to white underneath. Some of the stout-billed 
species have bills as large and broad as those of the smaller 
species of the genus Hypolals, whilst others have bills as small 
and slender as in the genus Regulus. Others, again, approach 
the more brilliantly coloured species of the genus Abrornis, 
It is possible that a careful study of the allied genera may 
lead to a rearrangement of the whole family ; but this ques- 
tion must be left to a future paper. For our present purpose 
it will be enough to point out the following distinctions be- 
tween the various sections of Phylloscojms and the members 
of the allied genus Hypolais ; — 

or Willow -War biers. 67 

Hypolais. Bill larger, and pale underneath ; no bar across 
the wings. 

Phylloscopus {Acanthopneuste) . Bill large, and pale un- 
derneath ; one, and frequently two bars across the wings. 

A. No mesial line on the crown. 

1. borealis (Blasius). 5. teneUipes, Swinlioe. 

2. xanthodryas, Swiuhoe. 6. plumb eitarsus, Swinhoe. 

3. nitidus, Blyth. 7. magnirostris, Blyth. 

4. viridanus, Blyth. 8. lugubris, Blyth. 

B. A mesial line on the crown. 

9. coronata (Temminck). 12. viridipennis, Blyth. 

10. occipitalis (Jerdon). 13. presbytis (Miiller). 

11. trnchiloides (Sundevall). 

Phylloscopus [Phylloscopus .) Bill slender, more or less 
dark underneath : no bar across the wings. 

O. Axillaries and wing-lining buff. 

14. schwarzi (Radde). 17. indicus (Jerdon). 

15. fuscatus, Blyth. 18. fuliginiventris (Hodgson). 

16. umbrovirens (Ptiippell). 

D. Axillaries and \ving-liniiig yellow or white. 

19. 5^6^/a^n,27 (Bechstein) . 24. ^m/is, Blyth. 

20. trochilus (Linnaeus), 25. neglectus (Hume). 

21. gatkei, Seebohm. 26. affinis (Tickell). 

22. bonellii (Vieillot). 27. tytleri (Brooks). 

23. coUybita (Vieillot). 

Phylloscopus [Reguloides] . Bill slender, more or less 
dark underneath ; two bars across the wing ; a more or less 
distinct mesial line on the crown. 

28. superciliosus (Gmelin). 31. subviridis (Brooks). 

29. proregulus (Pallas). 32. maculipennis (Blyth). 

30. erochrous (Hodgson). 

The geographical range of this group seems to be confined 
to the Old World, one species only having hitherto been found 


68 Mr. H. Seebohm on the Phylloscopi 

in the western hemispliere, and that probably an accidental 
straggler on its first autumnal migration. 

The principal points to be observed in determining the 
various species of this genus are : — {a) the size of the bill and 
the colour of the under mandible ; {b) the size of the bastard 
primary (in the following description the exposed portion 
only is measured) ; (c) the wing-formula^ especially the rela- 
tion Avhicli the second primary bears in length to the other 
primaries; [d) the comparison between the lengths of the 
wings and tail ; (e) the jjresence or absence of one or two 
bars across the wings^ formed by the wing-coverts being paler 
in colour at their tips ; (/) the presence or absence of a pale 
mesial line on the crown^ which is generally accompanied by 
the intervening space between it and the superciliary streaks 
being darker than the back ; {g) the colour of the axillaries 
and wing-lining; and [h) the colour of the tarsus and feet*. 

In some cases colour alone can be relied upon to deter- 
mine the species; and the difficulty is increased by the great 
seasonal changes to wdiich both the upper and underparts are 
subject. The autumn plumage of most of the species^ more 
especially that of birds of the year, is very yellow, sometimes 
approaching buff, which frequently disappears entirely in the 
breeding-plumage of old birds, especially in the colder lati- 
tudes. The bars on the wing, and the mesial line on the 
crown, are occasionally indistinguishable when the plumage 
has become much abraded. There is also considerable varia- 
tion in size between individuals of the same species, and es- 
pecially between the sexes. An average variation in the 
length of the wing of the males will probably be about a 
quarter of an inch. The largest females are usually equal in 
size to the smallest males ; and as the females vary equally in 
length of wing, the total margin of variation between the 
smallest female and the largest male is half an inch — a very 
great variation in the length of the wing of such small birds. 

* The comparative lengths of the tail-feathers does not seem to be a 
character of much value. Most of the species of this group have the tail 
both rounded and forked ; i. e. the two outer and the two centre feathers 
are the shortest. 

or Willow-Warblers. 69 

Where the dimensions given in the following descriptions 
do not show so much variation^ it may arise from my not 
having been able to procure access to a sufficiently large 

In order satisfactorily to determine the various species of 
this genus^ an acquaintance with the birds in a state of nature 
seems more than ordinarily necessary ; and this is probably 
the reason why this group has not been brought into better 
order by our cabinet ornithologists. 

The following attempt to reduce this refractory genus into 
something like order is the result of the comparison of about 
four hundred skins from the collections of the British Museum^ 
Lord Tweeddale^ Canon Tristram^ Messrs. Dresser, Swinhoe, 
Brooks, von Homeyer, the Indian Museum, and my own 

I am especially indebted to my friends, Mr. H. E. Dresser 
for assistance in Avorking out the intricate details of the syn- 
onymy, and to Mr. W. E. Brooks for skins of various Indian 
species, wdiich have been carefully compared with Blyth's 
types in the Calcutta Museum. 

In the synonymy I have carefully avoided the pedantry of 
a long catalogue of useless references ; and I have endeavoured 
to make the descriptions of the birds as short and as easy of 
comparison as possible. Much remains to be done in the geo- 
graphical distribution ; and doubtless a few years^ researches 
may detect many errors in, and make some additions to, our 
present knowledge of this interesting group of birds. 

1. Phylloscopus borealis (Blasius). 

Sylvia {Phyllopneuste) eversmanii, Middendorff, Sib. Reise, 
p. 178 (1851, nee Bonap.) ; Radde, Eeisen im Slid. v. Ost- 
Sibir. ii. p. 263 (1863, nee Bonap.). 

Phyllopseustes eversmanii, Homeyer, Cab, Journ. f. Orn. 
1872, p. 202 (nee Bonap.). 

Phyllopneuste borealis, Blasius, Naumannia, 1858, p. 313. 

Phyllopseustes borealis, Meves, Cab. Journ. f. Orn. 1875, 
p. 429. 

Phylloscopus sylvicultrix, Swinhoe, Ibis, 1860, p. 53. 

70 Mr. H. Seebolira on tJie Phylloscopi 

Sylvia flcwescens, G. R. Gray, P. Z. S. 1860, p. 349. 

Phylloscopus hylebata, Swiuh. J. A. S. Beng. xxiv. p. 265 

Phyllopneuste kennicotti, Baird, Trans. Chicago Ac. Sc. i. 
p. 313 (1869). 

Obs. Phyllopneuste javanica (Horsfield), mentioned by Bla- 
sius (Ibis, 1862, p. 66) as this species, or one very closely 
connected with it, is pronounced by Sclater and Finscli (Ibis_, 
1873, p. 475) to be a Zosterops. 

Bill large, under mandible pale. 

Upper parts greyish brown, dashed all over, especially on the 
rump, with yellowish green. Wings and tail greyish 
brown, with the outside edges of each feather broadly 
margined with yellowish gi-een. Superciliary streak ex- 
tending to the nape. 

Head the same colour as the bacJc. 

Underparts nearly white, slightly dashed with yellow and grey 
on the breast and flanks. Axillaries, wing-lining, and 
thighs pale yellow. After the autumn moult the whole 
of the underparts are pale yellow, dashed with grey on 
the breast and flanks. 

Third and fourth primaries longest. Fifth considerably 
shorter. Sixth very considerably shorter still. Second 
intermediate in length between the fifth and sixth. 

The bastard primanj very small. The exposed part mea- 
sures "3 to "35 in adults, and •4 to '45 in birds of the 

First wing -bar distinct. Sometimes traces of second wing- 
bar in birds of the year. 

Length of wing — male 2"70 to 2*55, female 2'55 to 2*40. 

Length of tail— male 2-00 to I'QO, female 1-90 to 1-80. 

Legs and claws brown. 

This species breeds in the north of the palsearctic region, 
at or near the limit of forest-growth, and in a similar climate 
in the subalpine districts of Southern Siberia. It passes 
through China on migration, and winters in the East-India 
islands and the islands surrounding the Burmah peninsula. 
It unites an extreme south-eastern winter-range with a wider 
northern range than that of any other species of the genus. 
Collett has recently obtained it in Finmark ; and it is not un- 
common in summer at Archangel {Alston and Harvie Brown, 

or WUloiv-Warblers . 71 

Ibis, 1873, p. 61) . It has been shot at Mesen {Piottuch in 
Mus. H. Seebohm) and on the Petchora {Seebohm snad Harvie 
Brown, Ibis, 1876, p. 216). Skins collected by Dr. Dy- 
bowski near Lake Baical are common in collections. Mid- 
dendorflp (fide Meves) found it as far east as Okotsk. Prje- 
valski found it in the breeding-season in S.E. Mongolia; and 
in Dresser's and Lord Tweeddale's collections are skins from 
Japan. It has been obtained on migration at St. Michael's, 
in Norton Sound {Dall & Bannister, Trans. Chicago Ac. Sc, 
i. p. 278), and as far west as Heligoland {Gaetke, Ibis, 1862, 
p. QQ). Swinhoe (Ibis, 1860, p. 53) describes this species as 
passing in great numbers through Amoy in spring and autumn, 
and notices (Ibis, 1866, p. 295) its abundance in the island of 
Formosa in October. It has not been found wintering so far 
west as Calcutta or Ceylon ; but I have identified skins from 
Labuan, N.W. Borneo [Low in Brit. Mus. and Mus. H. See- 
bohm), Gilolo [Wallace in Brit. Mus.), Timor [Wallace in 
Brit. Mus.), Flores and Ternate [Wallace in Mus. Lord 
Tweeddale), Batchian [Wallace in Brit. Mus.), and South 
Andaman Islands [Warcllaw Ramsay in Mus. Lord Tweed- 
dale). On the mainland it has been found at Malacca 
{Maingay in Mus. Lord Tweeddale) and in the Tenasserim 
provinces (Stray Feathers, ii. p. 478). 

The very small bastard primary of this species serves to 
distinguish adults from every other species of the genus, ex- 
cept P. sihilatrix, with which bird it cannot possibly be con- 
founded. Birds of the year approach P. xanthodryas very 
closely, but have not quite such a large bastard primary, nor 
quite such a large bill. 

I have not been able to obtain any authentic information 
respecting the nest or eggs of this species. 

2. Phylloscopus xanthoduyas, Swinhoe. 

Phylloscopus xanthodryas, Swinhoe, P. Z. S. 1863, p. 296, 

Bill large, under mandible pale. 

Upper parts yellowish olive-green. Superciliary streaK green- 
ish yellow. 
Head the same colour as the back. 

73 Mr. H. Seebolim on the Pliylloscopi 

Underparts, axillaries, and wing- lining greenish yellow, greyer 

on the breast and flanks. 
Third and fourth jii'imaries longest. Fifth a shade shorter. 

Sixth, seventh, and eighth each considerably shorter than 

the preceding. Second primary equal to or a shade 

longer than the sixth. 
Bastard primary moderate, the exposed parts measuring "5 

to -6. 
First wing-bar distinct, rudiments of upper bar. 
Length of wing 2'85 to 2'65. 
Length of tail 2*15. 
Legs and feet light brown. 

Very little is known of the geogi-aphical distribution of 
this species. In the British Museum is one skin from Japan, 
obtained by Caj)t. St. John at Hakodadi. Prjevalski records 
it as breeding in Camsu, and states that P. boreaUs does not 
breed there — a very interesting fact, as birds of the year of 
that species which happen to have an unusually large bastard 
primary are so much like P. xanthodryas as to suggest a 
doubt of the distinctness of the two species. Swinhoe found 
it at Amoy, in China, in spring, no doubt on migration ; and 
I have one skin obtained by Mr. Low at Labuan, N.W. Bor- 
neo, in winter. 

The nest and eggs of this species are unknown. 

3. Phylloscopus nitidus, Blyth. 

Sylvia hippolais, Jerdon, Madras Journ, xi. p. 6 (1840, 
nee Linn.). 

Phylloscopiis nitidus, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng. xii. p. 965 

Regulus nitidus, G. R. Gray, Gen. B. i. p. 175 (1848). 

Abrornis nitidus, Bp. Consp. G. Av. i. p. 290 (1850). 

Phylloscopus nitidus, Jerdon, B. of India, ii. p. 193 (1863). 

Hippolais swainsoni, Hodgson, in Gray^s Zool. Misc. p. 82. 
no. 385 (1844). 

Bill large, pale underneath. 

Upper parts greyish brown, dashed all over with light yel- 
lowish green. Wings and tail greyish brown, with 
the outside edges of each feather broadly mai-gined 
with light yellowish green. Superciliary streak pale 

or Willow- Warblers. 73 

Head the same colour as the back. 

Undei'parts^ axillaries, and wing-lining j»a/e lemon-yellow. 

Third and fourth primaries longest. Fifth a shade shorter. 
Sixth and seventh each considerably shorter than the 
preceding. Second primary equal to the seventh, some- 
times a little longer. 

Bastard primary rather small, the exposed part measuring 
•5 to -6. 

First wing-bar distinct, upper bar wanting. 

Length of wing — male 2-65 to 2'5, female 2*5 to 2"35. 

Length of tail — male 2-05 to 1-95, female 1*9 to 1*8. 

Legs and claws brown. 

So far as is known, this species has a very restricted range, 
probably breeding in the North-western Himalayas, and win- 
tering in Bengal, Southern India, and Ceylon. Hume met 
with it in the Punjaub (Stray Feathers, 1873, p. 197), and 
Mr. R. M. Adam near the Sambhur lake (ibid. p. 382) . Blyth 
says (J. A. S. Beng. 1854, p. 483) that it is generally distri- 
buted but rare in Lower Bengal. I have skins obtained on 
migration by Mr. Brooks at Etawah. Jerdon mentions it as 
frequent in winter in Southern India, but rare near Calcutta 
(Birds of Ind. ii. p. 193) . Ceylon is one of its favourite winter- 
quarters {Legge, Ibis, 1874, p. 22), and there are several skins 
of this species from that island in Lord Tweeddale^s collection. 
Strange to say, a solitary bird of this species fell to the gun of 
Mr. Gaetke^s son Ludwig, in Heligoland. Mr. Gaetke^s obser- 
vations seem satisfactorily to prove that birds of the year 
migrate earlier than their parents. It is scarcely to be 
wondered at that, on their first journey, they should some- 
times stray far out of the usual track. It will doubtless be 
found that most of the accidental visits of birds to unusual 
localities are those of birds of the year on their first autumnal 

The nest and eggs of this bird are unknown. 

4. Phylloscopus viridanus, Blyth. 

Phyllopneuste rufa, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng. xi. p. 191 (1842, 
nee Bodd.). 

Phylloscopus viridanus, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng. xii. p. 967 


74 Mr. H. Seebohm on ^Ae Phylloscopi 

Phyllopneuste viridanus, G. R. Gray, App. Cat. B. Nep. p. 
152 (1846). 

Regulus viridanus, G. R. Gray, Gen. B. i. p. 175 (1848). 

Abrornis viridana, Bonap. Cousp. p. 290 (1850). 

Phyllopneuste affinis, Blyth, Aun. Nat. Hist. xii. p. 98 
(1843, nee Tickell) . 

Abrornis teimiceps, Hodgson, Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 82 

Phyllopneuste intermedia, Severtzoff, Faun, of Turkestan, 
p. 125 (1873)— see Ibis, 1876, p. 81. 

Bill large, under mandible pale. 

Upper parts greyish brown, dashed all over with yellowish 
green. Wings and tail greyish brown, with the outside 
edges of each feather margined Avith yellowish green. 
Superciliary streak pale greyish green, extending to the 

Head a shade darker colour than the back. 

Underparts, including the axillaries, wing-lining, thighs, and 
under tail-coverts pale greyish yellow. 

Third, fourth, and fifth primaries longest. Sixth, seventh, 
and eighth each considerably shorter than the preceding. 
Second primary generally equal to the seventh ; some- 
times a shade shorter or a shade longer. 

Bastai'd primary rather small. Exposed part '5 to •6. 

First wing-bar distinct. Upper bar wanting. 

Length of wing — male 2"5 to 2'3, female 2"3 to 2*18. 

Length of tail — male 2*0 to 1*95, female 1*9 to 1-8. 

Legs and claws lead-colour (pale greenish plumbeous, Blyth ; 
brownish grey. Sadly, in 'Stray Feathers'). 

This species has a somewhat restricted range, probably 
breeding at a considerable elevation in the alpine districts of 
the Himalayas from Cashmere to Darjeeling, and migrating 
to the plains of North India and Burmah during the cold 
season. Scully records it north of the Karakorum Pass 
(Stray Feathers, 1876, p. 148). Brooks (Ibis, 1872, p. 31) 
found it during the breeding-season in Cashmere ; and Jerdon 
(Birds of I. ii. p. 194) records it from Darjeeling. In von 
Homey er's collection is a skin obtained by Meves at Tjubuk, 
in the Ural, 16th Aug. 1872, which, Mr. Brooks agrees with 
mc, cannot be referred to any other species Init this. Blyth 

or Willoiv-Warblers. 75 

(J. A. S. Beug. xii. p. 967) speaks of it as the commonest 
species of the genus in the cold season at Calcutta and in 
Lower Bengal. I have several skins collected in winter at 
Cawnpore (Brooks) ; and in Lord Tweeddale's collection are 
skins from Moulmein and Kyouk-kyre in Burmah [Capt. 

The nest and eggs of this species are unknown. 

The difference in colour of both the upper and under- 
parts seems to be the only mode of distinguishing this from 
the preceding species. 

5. Phylloscopus tenellipes, Swinhoe. 
Phylloscopus tenellipes, Swinhoe, Ibis, I860, p. 53. 

Bill large, under mandible pale. 

Upper parts greyish brown, dashed all over, especially on the 
rump, with huffish brown. Wings and tail greyish brown, 
with the outside edge of each feather broadly margined 
with huffish brown. Superciliary streak huffish white. 

Head rather darker than the back. 

Underparts white, dashed all over with buff, especially on the 
breast and flanks. Axillaries and wing-lining pale yellow. 

Third, fourth, and fifth primaries longest. Sixth, seventh, 
and eighth each considerably shorter than the prece- 
ding. Second primary about equal to the seventh. 

Bastard primary small, the exposed part measuring "5 to "53. 

First wing-bar distinct, the upper bar less so. 

Length of wing — male 2"38, female 2'3. 

Length of tail — male 1'86, female 1'83. 

Legs aiid claws pale flesh- colour . 

The only skins of this species which I have ever seen or 
heard of are two in Swinhoe^s collection, obtained by him- 
self at Amoy, one on the 12th Oct. 1855, and the other in 
April 1861, and a female in Lord Tweeddale's collection, 
marked "Hakodadi, Japan, 5th May, 1865." 

The nest and eggs of this bird are unknown. 

A smaller bird with pale tarsi, like this species, has been 
described from the Eastern Himalayas by Blanford (J. A. S. 
Beng. 1872, pt. 2, p. 162) as P. pallidipes. I have not seen 
this bird ; but Mr. Brooks has examined the type in the Cal- 
cutta Museum, and assures me that it is a Horornis. 

76 Mr, H. Seebohm on the Phylloscopi 

6. Phylloscopus plumbeitarsus_, Swiuhoe. 

Sylvia [Phyllopneiiste) coronata, Middendorff, Sib. Reise, 
p. 182 (1851, nee Temm.) ; Radde, Reisen im Siid. v. Ost- 
Siber. ii. p. 263 (1863, nee Temm.). 

Phyllopneuste [PhyllobasUeus) coronatus, Homeyer, Cab. 
Jourii. f. Orn. 1872, p. 207 (nee Temm.). 

Phylloscopus plumbeliarsus, Swinlioe, Ibis, 1861, p. 330. 

Phyllopneuste plumbeitarsus , Homeyer, Cab. Journ, f. Orn. 
1872, p. 206. 

Phylloscopus excoronatus, Homeyer, Cab. Journ. f. Orn. 
1872, p. 207. 

Phyllopseustes middendot'fii, Meves, Of v. k. Vet. Ak. Forh. 
1871, p. 758. 

Hypolais graminis, Severtzoff, Faun, of Turkestan, p. 125 
(1873) ; see Ibis, 1876, p. 81. 

Phylloscopus viridcmus, Dresser, Ibis, 1876, p. 82 (nee 

Bill large, under mandible pale. 

Upper parts greyisb brown, dashed all over, espeeially on the 
rump, with yellowish green. Wings and tail greyish 
brown, with the outside edge of each feather broadly 
margined with yellowish green. Pale greenish white 
superciliary streak very sharply defined, and extending 
to the nape. 

Head same colour as the back. 

Uuderparts nearly white, slightly dashed with yellow and 
grey on the breast and flanks. Axillaries, wing-lining, 
and thighs pale yellow. 

Third and fourth primaries longest. Fifth a shade shorter. 
Sixth, seventh, and eighth each considerably shorter than 
the preceding. Second primary intermediate in length 
between the seventh and eighth. 

Bastard primary rather large, the exposed part measuring "5 
in small females to "58 to "65 in males. 

First Aving-bar distinct. Uppjer bar generally equally so. 

Length of wing — male 2*50 to 2"35, female 2*35 to 2'2. 

Length of tail — male 2*05 to 1'8, female 1'8. 

Legs and claws lead-colour. 

This species appears to have a similar range to that of P. 
borealis, but more restricted. In the breeding-season it is 
found in the snbalpinc districts of the North-eastern Palae- 

or Willow-Wurblers. 77 

arctic Region from the Ural to the Pacific. Prjevalsky (Mong. 
and the Tang. Country, vol. ii. p. 35) found it in the breeding- 
season in the pine-districts of Camsu. It passes through 
China on migration, and probably winters in Burma and the 
East-India Islands. Meves (Jour, fiir Ornith. 1875, p. 429) 
heard its note near Perm, and shot specimens on the eastern 
slope of the Ural. Skins obtained by Dr. Dybowski in the 
subalpine region near Lake Baical are not uncommon in col- 
lections ; and Middendorff (fide Meves) obtained it as far east 
as Okotsk. Swinhoe found it on the west coast of Hainan in 
March (Ibis, 1870, p. 345); and in Lord Tweeddale's collection 
are skins from Kyouk-kyre in British Burmah {Wardlaiv 
Ramsay, Jan. 1874), and Moulmein, Burmah [Cajit. Beavan, 
Sept. 1865). 

The nest and eggs of this bird are unknown. 

7. Phylloscopus magnirostkis, Blyth. 

Phylloscopus magnirostris, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng. xii. p. 
966 (1843). 

Phyllopneuste magnirostris, G. R. Gray, App. Hodgs. Cat. 
B. Nep. p. 15 (1846). 

Phyllopneuste trochilus, Hodgson in Gray^s Zool. Misc. 
p. 82 (1844, nee Linn) ; J. E. Gray, Cat. Mamm. & B. Nep. 
Hodgson, p. 65 (1846, nee Linn.). 

Phylloscopus javanicus, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng. xiii. p. 393 
(1844, nee Horsfield) : Blyth, Cat. B. Mus. A. S. Beng. p. 185 
(1849, nee Horsfield) . 

Sylvia javanic a, G. R. Gray, Gen. of B. i. p. 174 (1848, 
nee Horsfield). 

Phyllopneuste javanica, Bonap. Consp. Av. p. 290 (1850, 
nee Horsfield) . 

Bill large, under mandible pale at base. 

Upper parts greyish brown, dashed all over with olive-green. 

Wings and tail greyish brown, with the outside edge of 

each feather margined with olive-green. Superciliary 

streak yellowish white. 
Head darker colour than the back. 
Underparts pale greyish yellow, greyest on the breast and 

flanks. Axillaries, wing-lining, and thighs greyish 


78 Mr. H. Seebohm on the Phylloscopi 

Fourth and fifth primaries longest. Third a shade shorter. 
Sixth a shade shorter than the third. Seventh and eighth 
each considerably shorter than the preceding. Second 
about equal to the eighth. 

Bastard primary large, the exposed part measuring "G to '7. 

First wing-bar distinct. Rudiments of upper bar. 

Length of wing— male 2-83 to 2-5, female 2-25 to 2-23. 

Length of tail— male 2-3 to 2-1, female 2-1 to 1-9. 

Legs and claws albescent plumbeous (Blyth) . 

This bird appears to be strictly an Indian species, breeding 
in Cashmere {Brooks, Ibis, 1872, p. 26). Mr. Brooks informs 
me that it is found in the north-west provinces of India only on 
migration. In winter it is found sparingly near Calcutta and 
Lower Bengal, and is generally distributed over Western, 
Central, and Southern India as far south as Ceylon [Legge, 
Ibis, 1874, p. 73). Blyth says (J. A. S. Beng. 1854, p. 483), 
that it has been seen on the eastern coast of the Bay of 
Bengal as far as Clmsan ; and in Lord Tweed dale^s collection 
is a skin from the S. Andaman Islands {Wardlaw Ramsay). 

The nest and eggs of this bird are unknown. 

8. Phylloscopus lugubhis, Blyth. 

PhijUoscopus lugubris, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng. xii. p. 968 
(1843) ; Blyth, Ann. Nat. Hist. xii. p. 98 (1843) ; Blyth, J. 
A. S. Beng. xiv. p. 591 (1845) ; Blyth, Cat. B. Mus. A. S. 
Beng. p. 185 (1849) ; Jerdon, B. of India, ii. p. 192 (1863). 

Regulus lugubris, G. R. Gray, Gen. B. i. p. 175 (1848). 

Abrornis lugubris, Bonap. Consp. Av. p. 290 (1850). 

Abrornis xanthogaster , Hodgson, Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 82 
(1844) ; J. E. Gray, Cat. Mamm. & B. Nep. Hodgson, p. 66 

Phijllopneuste flaveolus, G. R. Gray, App. Cat. B. Nep. 
p. 152 (1846). 

Regulus flaveolus, G. R. Gray, Gen. B. i. p. 175 (1818). 

Abrornis flaveolus, Bonap, Consp. Av. p. 290 (1850). 

Bill large, under mandible pale at the base. 

Upper parts greyish brown, dashed all over with olive-green. 
Wings and tail greyish brown, with the outside edge of 
each feather margined with olive-green. Superciliary 
streak yellowish white. 

or TVillow-TVarblers. 79 

Head rather darker colour than the back. 

Underparts pale greyish yellow, greyest on the breast and 

flanks. Axillaries, wing-lining, and thighs greyish 

Fourth and fifth primaries longest. Third and sixth a shade 

shorter. Seventh considerably shorter. Second primary 

considerably shorter than the eighth, equal to about the 

Bastard primary very large, the exposed part measuring '7 

to -8. 
First bar across the wings distinct. Sometimes rudiments of 

an upper bar. 
Length of wing — male 2*6 to 2"4, female 2*4 to 2"25. 
Length of tail— male 2'35 to 2-0, female 2-0 to 1-85. 
Legs pale greenish dusky [Blyth) . 

This species is quite eastern in its range, wintering on both 
coasts of the Bay of Bengal. It probably breeds in the East- 
ern Himalayas. Mr. Brooks informs me that it is common 
at Sikkim, but is not found in the north-west provinces. 
Blyth (J. A. S. Beng, xii. p. 968) says that it is common in 
Lower Bengal during the cold season, and more or less so 
over the country generally. In Lord Tweeddale^s collection 
are skins from Assam and Pegu [Wardlaw Ramsay). Hume 
records it from the Tenasserim Provinces (Stray Feathers, ii. 
p. 478), and Dr. Steere has recently obtained a skin in the 

The nest and eggs of this bird are unknown. 

This bird and the preceding are much darker than the 
nearly allied species, and are distinguishable from each other 
by their different wing-formulse ; their notes are said to be 
unlike ; and they vary somewhat in their geographical range ; 
otherwise they seem to be very closely allied. 

9. Phylloscopus cokonatus (Temm.). 
Ficedula coronata, Temm. & Schl. Fauna Jap. Aves, p. 48, 
t. 18 (1847). 

Phyllopneuste coronata, Bp. Consp. Av. i. p. 290 (1850). 
Phylloscopus coronatus, Swinhoe, Ibis, 1863, p. 93. 

Bill large, under mandible very pale. 

Upper parts greyish brown, dashed all over_, especially on the 
rump, with yellowish green. Wiiigs and tail greyish 

80 Mr. H. Seebohm on the Phylloscopi 

brown, with the outside edge of each feather broadly 
margined with yellowish green. Superciliary streak, 
extending to the nape. 

Head darker colour than the back, with a distinct pale mesial 

Underparts nearly white, slightly dashed with yellow and 
grey on the breast and flanks. Axillaries, wing-lining, 
and thighs pale yellow. Under tail-coverts pale yellow. 

Third and fourth primaries longest. Fifth a shade shorter. 
Sixth considerably shorter. Second a shade shorter than 
the sixth. Seventh considerably shorter than the second. 

Bastard primary small, the exposed part about "5 to "55. 

First wing-bar distinct. Second sometimes wanting. 

Length of wing — male 2"55 to 2*4, female 2*4 to 2'25. 

Length of tail — male 2 to r9, female r9 to 1"8. 

Legs and claws light brown. 

This species seems to be the most easterly in its range of 
any of the genus. It is common in summer in Japan [Capt. 
Blakiston, Ibis, 1862, p. 317; Whitely, Ibis, 1867, p. 197). 
On the continent it has been found near the river Ussuri, 
lat. 48° (in Mus. von Homeyer). Swinhoe obtained it in 
North China from Peking (Ibis, 1863, p. 93) probably on 
migration. He also found it during the spring migration at 
Amoy (Ibis, 1860, p. 54), and again on the Island of Formosa 
(Ibis, 1863, p. 307), also probably during migration. In 
winter this species has been obtained in Java (in Stockholm 
Mus. fide Meves) and at Malacca {Maingay in Mus. Lord 

I have been unable to obtain any information respecting 
the nidification of this bird. 

This species is easily distinguishable from any of its near 
allies by its comparatively long second primary, and by the 
yellowness of the under tail-coverts compared with the rest 
of the underparts. 

10. Phylloscopus occipitalis (Jerdon). 

Phyllopneuste occipitalis, Jerdon, reference unknown. 

Phylloscopus occipitalis, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng. xiv. p. 593 

Reguloides occipitalis, Jerdon, B. of India, ii. p. 196 

or Willow-Warblers. 81 

Abrornis occipitalis, Gray, Hand-list B. i. p. 217. no. 3085 


Bill large, under mandible pale. 

Upper parts greyish brown, dashed all over with light yel- 
lowish green. Wings and tail greyish brown, with the 
outside edge of each feather broadly margined with light 
yellowish green. Superciliary streak pale yellow. 

Head darker-coloured than the Ijack, with a distinct pale 
mesial line. 

Underparts nearly white, dashed all over, especially on the 
breast and flanks, with yellow and grey. Axillaries and 
wing-lining pale yellow. 

Third, fourth, and hfth primaries longest. Sixth rather 
shorter. Seventh and eighth each considerably shorter 
than the preceding. Second primary intermediate in 
length between the seventh and eighth. 

Exposed part of bastard primary measures '55 to "7. 

First wing- bar rather indistinct. No upper bar. 

Length of wing — male 2'65 to 2"45, female 2*45 to 2"3, 

Length of tail — male 2'15 to 2*0, female 2*0 to 1*9. 

Legs and claws light brown. 

This species appears to have an extremely limited range, 
breeding in the North-west Himalayas, crossing the plains of 
India on migration, and wintering in Southern India. 

Brooks found it abundant in Cashmere (Ibis, 1872, p. 29), 
and says that it also breeds at Rogee and Chenee (Ibis, 1869, 
p. 457). Its eggs have also been taken at Murree (Stray 
Feathers, 1873, p, 355). Blyth says that it is found in South 
India in the cold season (J. A. S. Beng. 1854, p. 483). 

Brooks describes the nest of this species as not domed, but 
placed in a hole under the roots of a large tree on some steep 
bank-side — a loosely formed structure lined with fine grass, 
a little wool, and a few hairs. Eggs pure white. 

11. Phylloscopus trochiloides (Sundevall). 

Phyllopneuste reguloides, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng. xi. p. 191 
(1842) . 

Phylloscopus reguloides, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng. xii. p. 963 

Acanthiza trochiloides, Sundevall, Ann, Nat. Hist, xviii. 
p. 252(1846). 


83 Mr. H. Seebohm on the Phylloscopi 

Regulus trochiloides, G. R. Gray^ Gen. B, i. p. 175 (1848). 
Reguloides trochiloides, Blyth^ Cat. B. Mus. A. S. Beng. 
p. 184 (1849). 

Abrornis trochiloides, Bonap. C. G. Av. p. 290 (1850) . 

Bill large, under mandible pale. 

Upper parts greyish brown, dashed all over with yellowish 
green. Wings and tail greyish brown^ wdth the outside 
edge of each feather broadly margined with yellowish 
green. Superciliary streak pale yellow. 

Head darker-coloured than the back, with a distinct pale 
mesial line. 

Underparts nearly white^, dashed all over, especially on the 
breast and flanks, with yellow and grey. Axillaries and 
wing-lining pale yellow. 

Third, fourth, and fifth primaries longest. Sixth rather 
shorter. Seventh and eighth each considerably shorter 
than the preceding. Second primary intermediate in 
length between the seventh and the eighth. 

Exposed part of bastard primary measures "55 to '65. 

First wdng-bar very distinct. Upper bar less distinct. 

Length of wing — male 2'6 to 2'45, female 2'45 to 2'25. 

Length of tail — male 2-15 to 2*0, female 2'0 to 1'9. 

Legs and claws light brown. 

This species appears to have a very limited range. It is 
supposed to breed in the alpine districts of the South-east 
Himalayas, and to winter on the north and east shores of the 
Bay of Bengal. 

It is common in the breeding-seasn at Rogee and Chenee 
(Ibis, 1869, p. 458). Capt. Beavan found it at Darjeeling 
(Ibis, 1868, p. 73) . Blyth says that it visits LoAver Bengal in 
some abundance during the cold season (J. A. S. Beng. xxiii. 
p. 488) ; and Hume includes it in the list of birds from the 
Tenasserim provinces (Stray Feathers, ii. p. 478). 

The nest and eggs of this bird are unknown. 

This species apparently difi'ers from the preceding only in 
being of a darker colour on the upper parts, wdth a more or 
less distinct upper bar across the w'ing, which is wanting in its 
near ally. 

12. Phylloscopus viridipennis, Blyth. 
Phylloscopus viridipennis, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng. xxiv. p. 275 

or Willow -Warblers. 88 

Reguloides viridipennis, Jerdon, B. of Indian ii. p. 198 

Bill large, under mandible pale. 

Upper parts yellowisli olive-green. Wings and tail greyish 

brown^ with the outside edge of each feather broadly 

margined with yellowish green. Superciliary streak 

pale yellow. 
Head darker-coloured than the back^ with a pale mesial line. 
Underparts yellowish white^ greyer on the breast and flanks. 

Axillaries and wing-lining bright yellow. 
Fourth and fifth primaries longest. Third and sixth rather 

shorter. Seventh, eighth, and ninth each considerably 

shorter than the preceding. Second primary about 

equal to the ninth. 
Exposed part of bastard primary "5 to *65. 
Two distinct wing-bars. 

Length of wing — male 2*4 to 2' 25, female 2*25 to 2"1. 
Length of tail — male 1'9 to I'S, female 1'8 to 1"7. 
Legs and claws brown. 

This species has been supposed to breed in Cashmere and 
the Western Himalayas, to cross the plains of India on mi- 
gration, and to winter in Central India. Scully found it 
common in August about halfway between Leh (Ladak) and 
Yarkand (Stray Feathers, 1876, p. 149) . Mr. Brooks in- 
forms me that it is frequent in Cashmere, and that it has 
been found as far east as Darjeeling. In Lord Tweeddale's col- 
lection are skins from the Garo Hills [Godwin- Austen) ; and 
Hume includes it in his list of birds from the Tenasserim 
provinces (Stray Feathers, 1874, p. 479). 

The eggs and nest of this bird are unknown. 

13. Phylloscopus presbytis (Miiller). 

Sylvia presbytis, Miill. in Leyden Museum, reference un- 

Phyllopseuste presbytis, G. R. Gray, Hand-list of Birds, i. 
p. 216. no. 3062 (1869). 

Sylvia presbytis, Blyth, Ibis, 1870, p. 169. 

Geryffone superciliosa, Wallace, P. Z. S. 1863, p. 491 (nee 

Gmelin) . 

Bill rather large, under mandible pale. 

Upper parts greyish brown, dashed all' over with yellowish 

84 .Mr. H. Seebohm on the Phylloscopi 

green. Wings and tail greyish brown^ with the outside 

edge of each feather margined with yellowish green. 

Inner web of three outer tail-feathers on each side white. 
Head rather darker than the baek^ with an indistinct pale 

mesial line. 
Underparts^ axillaries, and wing-lining greyish yellow, paler 

on the throat. 
Fourth and fifth primaries longest. Sixth and seventh rather 

shorter. Third primary equal to the seventh. Second 

primary equal to the eleventh or twelfth. 
Bastard primary rather large, the exposed part measuring "55. 
First bar rather indistinct, sometimes altogether abraded. 

No upper bar. 
Length of wing 2'15. 
Length of tail \'7 . 
Legs and claws lead-colour {Wallace). 

This species has hitherto only been found on the island of 
Timor. There are two skins in the British Museum, the 
types of Gerygone superciliosa of Wallace, and a third skin 
labelled ^' Sylvia {Phyllopneuste) presbytis, Timor, Wallace." 
I cannot detect any difference between these birds and those, 
collected by Midler, in the Leyden Museum. 

14. Phylloscopus schwarzi (Radde) . 
Sylvia {Phyllopneuste) schwarzi, Radde, Reisen im Siid. 
v. Ost-Sibir. ii. p. 260 (1863). 

Phylloscopus brooksi, Hume, Stray Feath. ii. p. 505 (1874). 

Bill stout, under mandible pale. 

Upper parts greyish brown. Wings and tail same colour. 

Superciliary streak huffish white. 
Head same colour as the back. 
Underparts huffish white. Axillaries, wing-lining, breast, 

flanks, and under tail-coverts buff. 
Fourth and fifth jjrimaries longest. Third and sixth rather 

shorter. Seventh and eighth each considerably shorter 

than the preceding. Second primary equal to the eighth. 
Bastard primary large, the exposed part measuring "8. 
No wing-bar. 

Length of wing 2*5 to 2*45. 
Length of tail 2-25 to 2-05. 
Legs and feet light brown. 

But little is known of the geographical distribution of this 
species. Homeyer and Dresser both possess skins obtained 

or Willow-Warblers. 85 

by Dr. Dybowski near Lake Baical ; Homeyer has one skin 
from Tura; and Eadde found it at Tarei-nor, in lat. 56°, 
and in the Bureja mountains, in lat. 58°. In winter it has been 
obtained near Pahpoon in India {Davison, Stray Feathers, 
1874, p. 505). 

This species is nearest allied to P. fuscatus, but differs 
from that bird in the shape of the bill, which is of about the 
same length and width at the base, but much stouter and 
blunter at the point, having a profile quite Finch-like in com- 
parison with the slender Phylloscopine type. 

The nest and eggs of this bird are unknown. 

15. Phylloscopus fuscatus, Blyth. 

Phylloscojms fuscatus, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng. xi. p. 113 
(1842) ; Jerdon, B. of India, ii. p. 191 (1863). 

Phyllopneuste fuscatus, Homeyer, Cab. Jour. f. Orn. 1872, 
p. 202. 

Phylloscopus brunneus, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng. xiv. p. 591 

Sylvia [Phtjllopneuste) siberica, Middendorff, Sib. Reise, 
p. 180 (1851) ; Radde, Reisen im Siid. von Ost-Sibir. ii. p. 260 

Abrornis armandi, Milne-Edwards, N. Arch. Mus. i. p. 22 

Oreopneuste davidii, Swinhoe, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 355. 

Phyllopneuste maacki, Tristram, Ibis, 1871, p. 110 (nee 
Schrenck) . 

Obs. Phyllopneuste maacki (Schrenck) is an Acrocephalus 
or, more probably, a Hypolais. 

Bill slender, under mandible pale at the base. 

Upper parts greyish brown. Wings and tail same colour. 

Superciliary stripe huffish white. 
Head same colour as the back. 
Underparts huffish white. Axillaries, wing-lining, breast, 

flanks, and under tail-coverts buff. 
Fourth and fifth primaries longest. Third and sixth a shade 

shorter. Seventh, eighth, and ninth each considerably 

shorter than the preceding. Second primary equal to 

the ninth or tenth. 
Bastard primary large, the exposed part measiiring '7 to '8. 

86 Mr. H. Seebohm on the Pliylloscopi 

No wiug-bar. 

Length of wing — male 2*55 to 2-3, female 2'35 to 2*15. 
Length of tail— male 2-4 to 2-2, female 2*2 to 2-0. 
Legs and claws brown. 

This species is more northerly in its range than many others 
of the genus. It breeds in the subalpine districts of Lake 
Baical (skins collected by Dr. Dybowski in this district are 
common in collections). It passes through S.E. Mongolia 
{Prjevahhj, Mong. and the Tangut Country, ii. p. 36) and 
North China on migration {Swinhoe, Ibis, 1861, p. 330), and 
is common during the winter months at Amoy [Swinhoe, 
Ibis, 1860, p. 53), Formosa and Japan {Blijth, Ibis, 1867, 
p. 25). Jerdon (Birds of I. ii. p. 191) says that it is not 
found in South India; but in Lord Tweeddale^s collection are 
skins from Assam {Goclivin- Austen) , Burmah, and Calcutta. 

This species is said to lay pure white eggs. 

16. Phylloscopus umbrovirens (Eiipp.). 

Ficedula umbrovirens, Biipp. Neu. Wirb. p. 112 (1835) ; 
idem, Syst. Uebers. no. 148 (1845). 

Pliyllojmeuste umbrovirens, Heugl. Orn. N.O.-Afr. p. 301 

Pliylloscopus umbrovirens, Blanford, Geol. & Zool. of Abyss, 
p. 378 (1870) . 

Bill slender, under mandible pale. 

Upper parts greyish brown. Wings and tail greyish brown, 
with the outside edge of each feather broadly margined 
with bright green. Superciliary stripe buff. 

Head same colour as the back. 

Underparts bvjf, slightly yellow on the axillarics and wing- 

Sixth primary longest. Fourth and fifth a shade shorter. 
Third rather shorter still. Seventh and eighth each 
considerably shorter. Second primary equal to the 
eleventh or twelfth. 

Bastard primary large, the exposed part measuring "65 to '7. 

No wing-bar. 

Length of wing 2'2. 

Length of tail 1-75. 

Legs and claws dark brown. 

The only two skins of this species which I have seen are 

or Willow- Warblers. 87 

from Senafe^ Abyssinia. One is in Lord Tweeddale^s collec- 
tion^ and the other in the British Museum. They were ob- 
tained at an elevation of 7500 feet. 

Nothing- whatever is known of the migration or nidification 
of this species. 

17. Phylloscopus indicus ( Jerdon) . 

Sylvia indica, Jerdon, Madras Journ. xi. p. 6 (1840). 

P/iylloscojMS indicus, Jerdon, B. of India, ii. 194 (1863). 

Phylloscopus griseolus, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng. xvi. p. 443 

Ficedula obscura, Severtzoflf, Fauna of Turkestan, pp. 65, 
124 (1873)— see Ibis, 1876, p. 82. 

Bill slender, under mandible pale. 

Upper parts greyish brown, without any tinge of green. 
Wings and tail the same colour. Superciliary streak 
greyish yelloio, sharply defined, and extending to the 

Head the same colour as the back. 

Underparts huffish yellow, darkest on the breast and flanks. 
Axillaries and wdng-lining buff. 

Third, fourth, fifth, and sixth primaries longest. Seventh, 
eighth, and ninth each considerably shorter than the 
preceding. Second equal to the ninth or tenth. 

Bastard primary large, the exposed part measuring '75 to -8. 

No wing-bar. 

Length of wing — male 2*6 to 2*5, female 2*25. 

Length of tail — male 2-05, female 2'0. 

Legs and claws albescent plumbeous [Blyth) . 

This is one of the rarer species of the genus, and one having 
apparently a very restricted range. It probably breeds in 
the alpine districts of the Himalayas, in the north-east of 
India, migrating to the north-west provinces in the cooler 
weather. Brooks (Ibis, 1869, p. 56) says that it is frequently 
seen at Almorah, and mentions (Ibis, 1872, p. 31) great num- 
bers ascending the hills towards Simla about the end of April. 
Jerdon (Birds of I. ii. p. 195) says that it winters in Central 

The nest and eggs of this bird are unknown. 

88 y\.v. 11. Socbohui on tfw IMiyllosoopi 


Hor onus fidigi venter, Ilodgsou, P. Z. S. 1845, p. 31; idem, 
Aun. Nat. Hist. xvi. p. 201 (18-17). 

Horornis fulhjlventr'is, J. E. G\\\x, Cat. M. &: B. of Nop. 
Hodgson, p. (vt (18I(;V 

ReguJus fidtifinoventris, Ir. K. Cray, Gcu. of B. i. p. 175 

Horornis fuliginiventriii. Bp. Cousp. (J. Av. p. Xl90 (1850). 

PhiiUoscopus fuHginiventrls, Blanford, J. A. S. Beug. 187.2, 
pt. ii. p. 54. 

Horornis fuliginivcntcr, IVlytli, Ibis, 1807, p. .*-21. 

J5/7/ slender, under mandiblo dark. 

Vpper parts sepia-brown, dashed all over with dirty buft'- 
green. AVings and tail sepia-brown, with tlie outside 
edge of each feather broadly margined with dirty butf- 
green. Sapereiliary streak dirty butt-yellow. 

Head same colour as the baek. 

Underparts, axillaries, wing-litiiug, and thighs dirty bnff- 

Fourth and tifth primaries longest. Third a shade less. Sixth 
a shade less than third. Seventh, eighth, and ninth eaeh 
rather less than the preceding. Second primary equal 
to about the teuth. 

Bastiu'd primary lai'ge, the exposed part measiuiug '7. 

Ko wing-bar. 

Length of wing .O'.O to '2'\. 

Length of tail 1*8 to r75. 

Leg's ai\d claws brown. 

This species frequents the hills of Nepal and Sikkim. 
Nothing is known respecting its niditication. 

19. Phylloscopvs sibilatkix (Bechstein'^. 

MotaeiUa sihdatrix, Bechst. Naturforscher, xxvii. p. 47 

Js'dus sibilatrij\ Bechst. Orn. Tasehenb, p. 176 (180.'2). 

Si/iria sib'datri.v, Bechst. Naturg. Deutschl. iii. p. 561 

Fieedida sibilatrLr, Koch. Baier. Zool. i. p. 159 (1816). 

Citrruea sib'dafrix, Flem. Brit. Anim, p. 70 (IS^^S^i. 

P/it/Uopneuste sibilatrix, C. L. Brehm, Yog. Deutschl. p. 425 

or Willow-Warblers. 89 

Sylvicola sibilatrix, Eyton^ Cat. Brit. B. p. 14 (1836). 
Phylloscopus sibilatrix, Newton^ in Yarr. Brit. B. ed. 4. i. 
p. 427 (1873). 

Sylvia sylvicola, Mont. Trans. Linn. Soc. iv. p. 35 (1798). 
Phyllopneuste sylvicola, C. L. Brehm, Vog. Deutschl. p. 426 

Trochilus major, Forst. Synopt. Cat. p. 14 (1817). 
Phyllopneuste megarhynchos, C. L. Brelim. Vog. Deutschl. 
p. 525 (1831). 

Sylvia sibilans, Blyth, in White's Nat. Hist. Selbornc, 
p. 26, footnote (1858). 
Bill slender, under mandible pale. 

Upper parts olive-green, dashed all over, especially on the 
rump, with yellow. Wings and tail greyish brown, with 
the outside edge of each feather broadly margined with 
greenish yellow. Tertiaries edged with yellowish white. 
Primaries dipped with dirty white. Superciliary streak 
greenish yellow. 
Head the same colour as the back. 

Underparts white, dashed all over on the throat, and slightly 
on the breast and flanks, with yellow. Axillaries, wing- 
lining, and thighs yellow. 
Third primary longest. Second sometimes longer, sometimes 
shorter than the fourth, always much longer than the fifth. 
Bastard primary very small, the exposed part measuring "3 

to -4. 
No wing-bar, but wing-coverts edged, not tipped, with yel- 
lowish green. 
Length of wing — male 2'8 to 3*1, female 2*9 to 3"0. 
Length of tail — male 2'0 to 2'25, female 1*85 to 1"95. 
Legs and claws brown. 

This species breeds in Central Europe, is very rare in Ire- 
land, common in England, and is found in Scotland as far 
north as Inverness. It is not found in Norway, but has been 
seen in Sweden as far north as Stockholm and Upsala. Harvie 
Brown and Alston found it at Archangel ; and it has been met 
with in the Ural as far north as Bogoslofisk (see Dresser^'s 
'Birds of Europe'). It breeds near Gibraltar [Irby, Ibis, 
1872, p. 200) and in Sardinia {Brooke, Ibis, 1873, p. 243), 
but passes Malta only on migration {Wright, Ibis, 1864, p. 70). 
It breeds in Transylvania {Danford and Harvie Brown, Ibis, 

90 Mr. H. Seebolim on the Phylloscopi 

1875^ p. 308) ; but in Greece and Asia Minor it is only found 
on migration^ as is also the case in Palestine {Tristram, Ibis, 
1867j p. 83) . It winters in North Africa, having been found 
to the east as far south as Abyssinia, and to the west as far 
south as the Gold Coast [Dresser, Birds of Europe) . The 
most easterly locality recorded of this bird is Lankoran, on 
the south-western shore of the Caspian [Blmiford, Eastern 
Persia, ii. p. 183) . 

This species builds a semi-domed nest, lined with dried 
grass and hair, on or near the ground. The eggs are white, 
profusely spotted with dark purple. 

20. Phylloscopus trochilus (Linnaeus) . 

Ficedula asilus, Briss. Orn. iii. p. 479 (1760). 

Motacilla trochilus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 338 (1766). 

Sylvia trochilus. Scop. Ann. I. Hist. Nat. no. 238, p. 160 

Sylvia trochilus, Boie, Isis, 1822, p. 552. 

Phylloscopus trochilus, Boie, Isis, 1826, p. 972. 

Regulus trochilus, Flem. Brit. Anim. p. 72 (1828). 

Phyllopneuste trochilus, C. L. Brehm, Vog. Deutschl. p. 429 

Sylvicola trochilus, Eyton, Cat. Brit. B. p. 13 (1836). 

Ficedula trochilus. Keys. & Bias. Wirbelth. Eur. p. 56 

Motacilla fitis, Bechstein, Gem. Nat. Deutschl. iv. p. 678 

Sylvia fitis, Bechstein, Orn. Taschenb. i. p. 187 (1802). 

Ficedula fitis, Koch, Baier. Zool. i. p. 159 (1816). 

Phyllopneuste fitis, C. L. Brehm, Vog. Deutschl. p. 427 

Trochilus medius, Forst. Synopt. Cat. p. 15 (1817). 

Phyllopneuste arborea, C. L. Brehm, Vog. Deutschl. p. 427 

Phylloscopus acredula, C. L. Brehm, Vog. Deutschl. p. 428 

Sylvia melodia, Blyth, Rennie's Field Nat. i. p. 425(1833). 
Bill slender, under mandible dark. 

or Willoiv- Warblers. 91 

Upper parts greyish brown, dashed all over with yellowish 
green, especially on the rump. Wings and tail greyish 
brown, with the outside edge of each feather margined 
with yellowish green. Primaries tipped with dirty white. 
Superciliary streak greenish yellow. 

Head the same colour as the back. 

Underparts white, dashed all over with yellow. Breast and 
flanks tinged with buff. 

Third primary longest. Fourth a shade shorter. Fifth rather 
shorter. Sixth considerably shorter than the preceding. 
Second primary intermediate in length between the fifth 
and sixth. 

Bastard primary medium, the exposed part measuring — males 
average '6, females average 'S. In rare instances males 
measure "63, and as small as •48. In rare instances 
females measure 'Q, and as small as "SS. 

No wing-bar. 

Length of wing — male 2'83 to 2*65, females 2"65 to 2*45. 

Length of tail — male 2"3 to 2"1, female 2'1 to I'SS. 

Legs and claws brown. 

This species breeds in Northern and Central Europe, and 
winters in South-eastern Europe, Asia Minor, Persia, and 

I found it common in Norway up to the North Cape, and in 
North-east Russia to the mouth of the Petchora. Col. Irby 
says that it breeds near Gibraltar (Ibis, 1872, p. 200). It 
breeds in Transylvania [Dmiford and Harvie Brown, Ibis, 1 875, 
p. 308) ; but Dr. Kriiper informs me that it is only found in 
Greece and Asia Minor in winter. Its extreme eastern range 
appears to be about long. 60° W. Its reported occurrence in 
India seems in every instance to have been an error ; but it 
occasionally winters in North-central and South-eastern 
Persia {Blanford, Eastern Persia, ii. p. 180). Capt. Shelley 
says that it winters in Egypt and Nubia (Ibis, 1871, p. 135). 
Tristram says that it is abundant in the oases of North Africa 
in winter (Ibis, 1859, p. 418). In the Strickland collection 
at Cambridge is a skin from Kordofan, in Abyssinia ; and in 
the British Museum are skins from the river Gambia, Damara 
Land (Andersson), Cape-town [Layard], and Natal [An- 
dersson) . 

This species builds a semi-domed nest, profusely lined with 

92 Mr. H. Seebohm on the Phylloscopi 

feathers, on or near the ground, and lays white eggs, spotted 
with pale red. 

In extreme summer plumage in high latitudes every trace 
of yellow and green disappears, except a faint dash on the 
axillaries, wing-lining, and thighs ; but birds in this plumage 
are very rare, and all the specimens of it I have seen were ob- 
tained within the arctic circle. In autumn birds of the year 
have the whole underparts deep huffish yellow. 

21. Phylloscopus gaetkei, sp. nov. 

Phyllopneuste major, Tristram, Ann. Nat. Hist. p. 29 
(1871, nee Forster). 

Bill slender, under mandible darkish. 

Upper parts greyish brown. Wings and tail greyish brown. 
Superciliary streak dirty white. 

Head the same colour as the back. 

Underparts white, slightly tinged with huffish yellow on the 
breast and flanks. 

Third or fourth primary longest and nearly equal. Fifth 
rather shorter. Sixth considerably shorter than the 
preceding. Second 'prhnarii intermediate in length be- 
tween the sixth and seventh. 

Bastard primary medium, the exposed part measuring — male 
•5, female '4, 

No wing-bar. 

Length of wing — male 2*53, female 2"5. 

Length of tail — male 2*1, female 2'05. 

Legs and claws brown. 

In the 'Annals of Nat. Hist.' for July 1871, Tristram de- 
scribes a Phylloscopus from the south Mediterranean coast 
under the name of Phyllopneuste major. It is nearest allied 
to P. trochilus, but differs from that species in having a shorter 
second primary, which is intermediate in length between the 
sixth and seventh, instead of between the fifth and sixth. This 
seems a very slight difference upon which to establish a species. 
In the very nearly allied P. coUybita the second primary seems 
to be indifferently intermediate between the sixth and seventh 
or the seventh and eighth. Tristram appears to have felt the 
injustice of dividing one species on this ground without serv- 
ing the other in the same way. In order to be impartial he 

or Willow -Warblers. 93 

accordingly splits P. colly bita (then generally called rufus) into 
P. rufus and P. brevirostris. I have repeatedly shot both forms 
of P. collybita, and have no doubt of their identity^ being unable 
to detect any diiierence in their notes or habits. With P. 
trochilus, however, the case is different. So far as my ex- 
perience goes (and I have examined some hundreds of skins), 
the second primary in this species is constantly intermediate 
between the fifth and sixth. When I was in the valley of the 
Petchora in 1875, just before we entered the delta of that 
great river, I heard the note of a small Warbler resembling 
the sound tzzzk, not unlike the spitting of a cat. Feeling 
perfectly convinced that it proceeded from a bird with which 
I was unacquainted, I chased it on the banks of the Petchora, 
heard it repeatedly utter its extraordinary note, and finally shot 
it. It tm-ned out to be a female of a species nearly allied to P. 
trochilus, but with the second primary intermediate in length 
between the sixth and seventh. The bastard primary Avas 
much smaller than usual; and in the general colour of the 
plumage there was an absence of the usual yellow tinge both 
above and below, as is exceptionally the case with P. trochilus 
in extreme summer plumage in high latitudes. Not liking 
to make a new species on somewhat slender grounds from a 
single example, I did not describe it (Ibis, 1876, p. 216). 
Turning up Tristram's description of P. major, I concluded 
my bird to belong to it, and to be a somewhat doubtful 
species, until I visited Heligoland last autumn. Gaetke then 
pointed out to me in the collection of birds in his studio a 
" Laubvogel " much greyer on the back and whiter under- 
neath than P. trochilus. He told me that he had been, at 
some trouble to shoot it in his garden, because its note was 
so different from that of P. trochilus. It turned out to be a 
male. The length of wing and of bastard primary agree with 
those of P. trochilus female, but are smaller than the usual 
size of P. trochilus male. The second primary is interme- 
diate in length between the sixth and seventh. A second 
example having thus come under my notice, I am inclined to 
think that Phylloscopus major of Tristram may turn out to 
be a good species after all ; but since the name major can- 

94 Mr. H. Seebohm on the Phylloscopi 

not stand (there being already a Trochilus major of Forster, 
1817, among the synonyms of P. sibilatrix), I propose to call 
it PhyUoscopus gaetkei, hoping that future researches may 
establish its right to be considered a good species upon a 
firmer basis. 

22. Phylloscopus bonellii (Vieillot) . 

Sylvia bonelli, Vieill. Nouv. Diet, xxviii. p. 91 (1819). 

Phyllopneuste bonelli, Bp. Comp. List, p. 13 (1838). 

Flcedula bonelli, Keys. & Bias. Wirbelth. Eur. p. 185 (1840). 

Sylvia nattereri, Temm. Man. d'Orn. i. p. 227 (1820) ; 
Boie, Isis, 1822, p. 553. 

Curruca platystoma, Ehr. Symb. Phys. fol. ce (1829). 

Phyllopneuste montana, C. L. Brehm, Vog. Deutschl. p. 429 

Sylvia prasinopyga, Gloger, Handb. Vog. Eur. i. p. 217 
(1834) . 

Sylvia albicans, Gloger, tom.cit. p. 217 (1834). 

Phyllopneuste alpestris, C. L. Brehm, Vogelfang, p. 232 

Phyllopneuste orientalis, C. L. Brehm, op. cit.i^. 232 (1855). 

Bill slender, under mandible pale. 

Upper parts olive-green, dashed all over with pale huffish 
yellow, on the rump with sulphur-yellow. Wings and 
tail greyish brown, with the outside edge of each feather 
broadly margined with greenish yellow. Tertiaries edged 
with yellowish white. Primaries tipped with dirty white. 
Superciliary streak huffish yellow. 

Head the same colour as the back. 

Underparts white, slightly dashed Avith pale buff-yellow on 
the throat, and with yellow on the breast and flanks. 
Axillaries, wing-lining, and thighs yellow. 

Third and fourth primary longest. Fifth rather shorter. 
Sixth considerably shorter than fifth. Second primary 
between the fifth and seventh. 

Bastard primary medium, the exposed part measuring -5 to "6. 

No wing-bar, but wing-coverts edged, not tipped, with yel- 
lowish green. 

Length of wing — male 2*75 to 2*55, female 2*5 to 2*3. 

Length of tail— male 2-2 to 2-05, female 2-0 to 1-8. 

Legs and feet light brown. 

or Willow -Warblers. 95 

This species does not range further north in Europe than 
into Northern France, but breeds throughout Southern 
Europe, wintering in Africa, where it is found as far south 
as Nubia and Senegal [Dresser, Birds of Europe) . I have 
seen it during the breeding-season in Greece and Asia Minor. 
Tristram found it in summer in the Jordan valley (Ibis, 1867, 
p. 83) . Capt. Shelley found it in summer in Egypt and Nubia 
(Ibis, 1871, p. 135). It passes Malta on migration [Wright, 
Ibis, 1864, p. 70) . Tristram says that it is abundant in the 
oases of North Africa in winter (Ibis, 1859, p. 418) . Col. 
Irby says that it breeds near Gibraltar (Ibis, 1872, p. 300) ; 
and accidental visitors are obtained in autumn on Heligoland 
(Ibis, 1875, p. 179). 

This species builds a semi-domed nest on the ground, lined 
with fine grass. The eggs are white, profusely spotted with 
dark purple. 

23. Phylloscopus collybita (Vieillot). 

Sylvia rufa, Bechstein, Orn. Taschenb. i. p. 188 (1802, 
nee Bodd.). 

Ficedula rufa, Koch, Baier. Zool. i. p. 160 (1816, nee Bodd.). 

Phyllopneuste rufa, C. L. Brehm, Vog. Deutschl. p. 433 
(1831, nee Bodd.). 

Trochilus rufa, Rennie, Field Nat. i. p. 52 (1833, nee Bodd.) . 

Sijlvicola rufa, Eyton, Cat. Brit. B. p. 14 (1836, nee Bodd.) . 

Sylvia collybita, Vieill. Nouv. Diet. xi. p. 235 (1817). 

Phylloscopus collybita, Newton, in Yarr. Brit. B. ed. 4, i. 
p. 437 (1873). 

Trochilus ininor, Forst. Synopt. Cat. p. 14 (1817). 

Sylvia abietina, Nilss. K. Vet. Ak. Handl. 1819, p. 115. 

Regulus hippolais, Flem. Brit. Auim. p. 72 (1828). 

Sijlvia hippolais, Gould, B. of Eur. pi. 131, fig. 2 (1837). 

Phyllopneuste sylvestris, C. L. Brehm, Vog. Deutschl. p. 431 

Phyllopneuste solitaria, C. L. Brehm, Vog. Deutschl. p. 432 

Phyllopneuste pinetorum, C. L. Brehm, Vog. Deutschl. p. 432 

96 Mr. H. Seebohra on the Phylloscopi 

Sylvia loquax, Herbert, White's Hist, of Selb. p. 55, note 

Sylvia brevirostris, Strickland, P. Z. S. 1836, p. 98. 

Phylloscopus habessiniciis, Blanford, Ann. Nat. Hist. iv. 
ser. 4, p. 329 (1869). 

Phylloscopus abyssinicus, Blanford, Geol. & Zool. Abyss, 
p. 378 (1870). 

Phylloscopus brehmi, Homeyer, Erinn. a. d. Samml. Deut- 
schl. Ornitli. 1870, p. 48. 

Bill slender, dark underneath. 

Upper parts greyish brown, dashed all over with yellowish 
green. Wings and tail greyish brown, with the outside 
edge of each feather broadly margined with yellowish 
green. Superciliary streak yellowish green. 

Head the same colour as the back. 

Underparts white, dashed all over with yellow, which is some- 
what buff on the breast and flanks. Axillaries, wing- 
lining, and thighs yelloAv. 

Third and fourth primaries longest. Fifth rather shorter. 
Sixth rather shorter. Seventh considerably shorter, and 
eighth rather shorter than the preceding. Second pri- 
mary considerably shorter than the sixth, frequently 
shorter than the seventh, and occasionally shorter than 
the eighth. 

Bastard primary medium, '5 to '65. 

No wing-bar. 

Length of wing — male 2"55 to 2"25, female 2*3 to 1*95. 

Length of tail— male 2-2 to 2*0, female 2-0 to 17. 

Legs dark brown. 

This species has a somewhat similar range to that of P. 
trochilus, but does not go so far north in summer, nor so far 
south in winter. It breeds in Central Europe, and winters 
on both shores of the Mediterranean, and has been found as 
far south as Abyssinia. 

I found it common in Norway as far north as Trondhjem ; 
and Collett told me he had once found it as far north as 65°. 
Col. Irby says it winters near Gibraltar, where a few remain 
to breed (Orn. Straits Gib. p. 90). It winters in Andalucia 
{Hoivard Saunders, Ibis, 1871, p. 213), Sardinia [Brooke, Ibis, 
1873, p. 243), Pisa {Giglioli, Ibis, 1865, p. 53), Malta {Wright, 

01' Willow-Warblers. 97 

Ibis, 1874, p. 69), and occasionally in Corfu and Epirus 
[Powys, Ibis, 1860, p. 231) . Dr. Kriiper informs me that 
it winters in Greece and Asia Minor. Hobson told me it 
only occurs in winter near Constantinople ; but Danford and 
Harvie Brown found it common in summer in Transylvania 
(Ibis, 1875, p. 308) . It winters in the Canaries and Tene- 
riffe {Godman, Ibis, 1872, p. 174), in the oases of North 
Africa {Tristram, Ibis, 1859, p. 418), in Egypt and Nubia 
{Capt. Shelley, Ibis, 1871, p. 135), in the valley of the Jordan 
{Tristram, Ibis, 1867, p. 83); and Blanford found it in Abys- 
sinia (P. abyssinicus, loc. cit.) and Persia (Eastern Persia, ii. 
pp. 181, 182). 

This species builds a semi-domed nest, profusely lined with 
feathers, on or near the ground, and lays a white e^^, spa- 
ringly spotted with dark red. 

The ChiffchaflPvaries considerably in size; the smaller birds 
are chiefly found in South Europe, and the largest in Scan- 
dinavia. The smaller birds have been considered a separate 
species {P. brehmi) ; but I have had no difficulty in finding 
a complete series of both sexes. I met with the supposed 
smaller species at Valkenswaard, in Holland, and could not 
detect the least difference in its various notes and calls from 
those of the larger race. I have carefully examined the types 
of P. brehmi in the collection of Von Homeyer, of P. brevi- 
rostris in the Strickland collection in Cambridge, and of P. 
abysshiicus in the British Museum, and have not the slightest 
hesitation in pronouncing all three to be absolutely identical 
with P. collybita. 

24. Phylloscopus tristis, Blyth. 

Sylvia trochilus, Jerd. Madr. Journ. xi. p. 6 (1840, nee 

Phylloscopus tristis, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng. xii. p. 966 

Regulus tristis, G. R. Gray, Gen. of B. i. p. 175 (1848). 

Abrornis tristis, Bonap. Consp. Gen. Av. i. p. 290 (1850). 

Phyllopneuste tristis, Gould, Birds of Asia, pt. xvii. (1865) . 

Phyllopseustes tristis. Cab. Journ. f. Orn. 1875, p. 429. 


98 Mr. H. Seebohm on the Phylloscopi 

Ficedula fulvescens, Severtzoff, Fauna of Turkestan, pp. 
65, 126 [see Ibis, 1876, p. 82] (1873). 

Phylloscopus brevirostris, Brooks, Ibis, 1869, p. 236 (nee 

Phylloscopus neglectvs, Seebobm & Harvie Brown, Ibis, 
1876, p. 218 (nee Hume). 

Phylloscopus brehmi, Blanford, Eastern Persia, ii. p. 182 
(1876, nee Homeyer). 

Bill very slender, under mandible nearly black. 

Upper parts eartby brown, slightly tinged with yellowish 
green on the rump. Wings and tail greyish brown, 
slightli/ tinged with green on the outside edge of each 
feather. Superciliary streak huffish white. 

Head exactly the same colour as the back. 

Underparts nearly white, slightly dashed with huffish grey on 
the breast, flanks, and under tail-coverts ; in autumn 
plumage conspicuously so. Axillaries, wing-lining, and 
thighs pale yellow, which almost disappears in extreme 
summer plumage. 

Third and fourth primaries longest. Fifth a shade shorter. 
Sixth considerably shorter. Seventh and eighth each 
considerably shorter than the previous one. Second 
generally between the seventh and eighth, sometimes equal 
to the seventh, sometimes to the eighth. 

Bastard primary rather large, the exposed part measuring '5 
in the female, and "53 to "65 in the males. 

No wing -bar. 

Length of wing— male 2-58 to 233, female 2-25 to 2-1, 
Length of tail — male 2'3 to 2"0, female 1"9. 

Legs and claivs black. 

This species winters in the plains of India and Baluchistan. 
A few remain to breed in the alpine districts of the Hima- 
layas and the Karakorum mountains, whilst the main body 
passes through Turkestan on migration to their summer 
quarters in Siberia, which probably extend from the valley of 
the Petchora to Lake Baical. 

Harvie Brown and I found it breeding north of the arctic 
circle on the banks of the Petchora (Ibis, 1876, p. 217); 
Meves obtained it in the breeding-season at Perm (Journ. fiir 
Ornith. 1875, p. 430) ; Severtzoff writes that it passes on mi- 
gration through the Central and Lower Ural, the Kirghis 

or fVillow- War biers. 99 

steppes^ and Turkestan {Dresser, Ibis, 1876, P-82), and skins 
from Lake Baical are not uncommon in collections. Hume 
(Stray Feathers, 1876, p. 148) says that immature birds have 
been found in the Karakash valley, and that it is probably 
found on both sides of the Karakoruni mountains ; and Blan- 
ford says that it is common throughout Baluchistan (Eastern 
Persia, ii. p. 180). In Lord Tweeddale^s collection are skins 
from Lahore and Umballah {Capt. Beavan) ; I have skins from 
Etawah {Brooks); and Blyth (J. A. S. Beng. 1854, p. 483) 
represents this species as common and generally diffused 
throughout North India during the cold season. 

This species breeds on the ground, makes a semi-domed 
nest, profusely lined with feathers, and lays white eggs spot- 
ted with dark red. 

This species is most likely to be confused with P. collybita, 
P.fuscatiis, and P. neglectus. P. collybita in all stages of plu- 
mage is much greener above and much yellower underneath, 
and has dark brown instead of black legs. P. fuscatus may 
easily be distinguished by the paler colour of its under mandi- 
ble and legs, and by its pale chestnut axillaries and wing-lining. 
It has also a longer bastard primary, and a shorter second 
primary. P. neglectus is a smaller bird, without any trace 
of yellow on the axillaries and wing-lining, and has the upper 
part of a more sandy brown. 

25. Phylloscopus neglectus (Hume). 
Phyllopneuste neglectus, Hume, Stray Feathers, i. p. 195 
Phylloscopus neglectus, Blanford, Eastern Persia, ii. p. 182 


Bill slender, under mandible black. 

Upper parts ashy grey, with a slight tinge of green on the 

rump. Wings and tail-feathers greyish brown, with the 

outside edge of each feather broadly margined with ashy 

grey. Superciliary streak ashy white. 
Head same colour as the back. 
Underparts ashy white, darkest on the breast and flanks. 

Axillaries, wing-lining, and thighs ashy white. 
Third, fourth, and fifth primaries longest. Sixth a shade 

shorter. Seventh, eighth, and ninth each considerably 

H 2 

100 Mr. H. Seebohm on the Phylloscopi 

shorter than the preceding. Second primary equal to 

the ninth. 
Bastard primary rather large, the exposed part measuring Q. 
No wing-bar. 

Length of Aving — male 2'05, female 1"95. 
Length of tail — male V7 , female 1-6. 
Legs and feet black. 

This species has hitherto only been found in the cold season 
in Scinde {Hume, Stray Feathers^ loc. cit.) and Baluchistan 
{Blanford, Eastern Persia, ii. p. 182). Its breeding-places 
are unknown. Mr. Brooks has convinced me that the speci- 
men which I .shot in the Petchora (Ibis^ 1876, p. 218) is most 
probably a yerj small P. tristis in the extreme summer-plu- 
mage of a higher latitude, when nearly all trace of yellow 
disappears from the plumage, as is occasionally the case with 
P, trochilus. The true P. neglectus is a still smaller bird, 
the large males being as small or even smaller than the small 
females of P. tristis. Mr. Brooks tells me also that P. neglec- 
tus frequents dry sandy localities instead of swampy ground. 

26. Phylloscopus affinis (Tickell). 

Motacilla affinis, Tickell, J. A. S. Beng. ii. p. 576 (1833). 

Motacilla affinis, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng. xvi. p. 442 (1847). 

Phylloscopus affinis, Blyth, Cat. B. M. As. Soc. p. 185 

Phylloscopus affinis, Jerdon, B. of India, ii. p. 194 (1863). 

Abrornis affinis, Moore, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 106. 

Abroi'nis want hog aster, Hodgson in Gray^s Zool. Misc. p. 
82. no. 854 (1844). 

Regulus flaveolus, G. R. Gray, Gen. of B. i. p. 175 (1848), 

Abrornis flaveolus, Bp. Consp. G. Av. p. 290 (1850). 

Bill slender, under mandible pale. 

Upper parts dark olive-brown. Wings and tail greyish brown. 

Superciliary streak greyish yellow. 
Head rather darker than the back. 
Underparts, axillaries, and wdng-lining greyish yellow, buffer 

on the breast and flanks. 
Third, fourth, fifth, and sixth primaries longest. Seventh, 

eighth, and ninth each considerably shorter than the 

preceding. Second primary about equal to the tenth. 

or Willow -War biers. 101 

Bastard primary very large, the exposed part measuring "65 

to -75. 
Length of wing — male 2'4 to 2*2, female 2"2 to 2-0. 
Length of tail — male 2*15 to 2"0, female 1"95 to 1*8. 
Legs and claws brown. 

This species breeds on both sides of the Himalayas, having 
been found in summer in Cashmere {Brooks, Ibis, 1872, p. 31) 
and in Thibet {v. Pelzeln, Ibis, 1868, p. 308). Jerdon (Birds 
of Ind. ii. p. 194) says that it is not uncommon in winter at 
Calcutta and all over India; and in Lord Tweeddale's collec- 
tion are skins from Burma (Munipur, Godwin- Austen) . 

The nest and eggs are unknown. 

27. Phylloscopus tytleri. Brooks. 

Phylloscojms tytleri, Brooks, Ibis, 1872, p. 23 ; Hume, 
Stray Feathers, iii. p. 279 (1875). 

Bill very long and slender, under mandible dark. 

Upper parts greyish brown, dashed all over with olive-green. 

Wings and tail greyish brown, with the outside edge of 

each feather margined with olive-green. Superciliary 

streak not very conspicuous. 
Head the same colour as the back. 
Underparts nearly white, slightly dashed with yellow and 

grey, especially on the flanks. Axillaries, wing-lining, 

and thighs yellow. 
Third, fourth, and fifth primaries longest. Sixth, seventh, 

and eighth each considerably less than the preceding. 

Second primary between the eighth and ninth. 
Bastard primary rather large, the exposed part measuring 

•55 to -68. 
No wing-bar. 

Length of wing — male 2-43 to 2*35, female 2'3 to 2-2. 
Length of tail — male 1"85 to 1-7, female 1'7 to 1-65. 
Legs and claws brown. 

This is one of the rarest and least-known species of the 
genus. It breeds in Cashmere {Brooks, Ibis, 1872, p. 22). 
Mr. Brooks informs me that he has shot birds on migration 
in spring at Etawah and Almorah. It probably winters in 
the plains of North India. 

This species breeds in pine trees, and makes a cup-shaped 
nest, profusely lined with feathers, near the end of a branch, 

102 Mr. H. Seebohm on the Phylloscopi 

at a considerable elevation from the ground. The eggs are 
pure white. 

28. Phylloscopus superciliosus (Gmelin). 

Motacilla superciliosa, Gm. Syst. Nat. i. p. 975 (1788, ex 
Lath.) . 

Sylvia superciliosa, Lath. Ind. Orn. ii. p. 526 (1790). 

Phyllobasileus superciliosus, Cabanis, Journ. f. Orn. 1853, 
p. 81. 

Beguloides superciliosus, Swinhoe,Ibis,1863,p.307, etsubseq. 

Phylloscopus superciliosus, Newton in Yarr. Brit. B. ed. 4, 
i. p. 443 (1873). 

Regulus modestus, Hancock, Ann. Nat. Hist. ii. p. 310 
(1839, nee Gould) ; Yarrell, Brit. Birds, i. p. 316 (1843, nee 

Phylloscopus modestus, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng. xii. p. 963 
(1843, nee Gould). 

Phyllopneuste modestus, Blyth, Ann. Nat. Hist, xii., p. 98 
(1843, nee Gould). 

Reguloides modestus, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng. xvi. p. 442 (1847, 
nee Gould). 

Regulus modestus, Cabanis, Naumannia, ii. pt. 1, p. 5 (1852, 
nee Gould). 

Regulus modestus, Gaetke, Journ. f. Orn. i. p. 91 (1853, 
nee Gould). 

Regulus modestus, Tristram, Ibis, vi. p. 230 (1864, nee 

Regulus inornatus, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng. xi. p. 191 (1842). 

Phyllopneuste reguloides, Hodgson, Gray^s Zool. Miscl. p. 
82 (1844). 

Phyllopneuste reguloides, Hodgson, J. A. S. Beng. xxiv. p. 
575 (1855). 

Sylvia {Phyllopneuste) proregulus, Middendorff, Sib. Heise, 
p. 183 (1853, partim, nee Pallas). 

Ficedula jjroregulus, Schlegel, Vog. van Nederl. pp. 130, 
241 (1854-1858, nee Pallas). 

Reguloides proregulus, Horsf. & Moore, Cat. E. I. C. Mus. 
i. p. 342 (1854, nee Pallas), 

or Willow-Warblers. 103 

Phyllopneuste proregulus , Blasius, Naumanuia^ viii. p. 311 
(1858, nee Pallas). 

Reguloides proregulus, Swinhoe, Ibis, 1863, p. 307, etante 
(nee Pallas). 

Reguloides proregulus, Jerdon,B. of India, ii. p. 197 (1863, 
nee Pallas). 

Sylvia bifasciata, Gaetke, Naumannia, viii. p. 419 (1858) . 

Bill very slender, under mandible dark brown. 

Upper parts greyish brown, dashed all over, especially on the 
rump, with yellowish green. Wings and tail greyish 
brown, with the outside edge of each feather broadly 
margined with yellowish green. Outside edge of ter- 
tiaries pale yellow. Primaries, from about the seventh 
to the sixteenth, tipped ivith dirty white. Superciliary 
streak pale yellow, some of the feathers immediately 
above and below dashed with black (showing an approach 
to Regulus) . 

Head rather darker than the back, with an indistinct mesial 

Underparts yellowish white, greyer on the breast and flanks. 
Axillaries, wing-lining, and thighs pale yellow. 

Third, fourth, and fifth primaries longest. Sixth rather 
shorter. Seventh and eighth each considerably shorter 
than the preceding. ' Second primary about equal to the 
seventh, generally a shade longer, sometimes a shade 

Bastard primary medium, the exposed part measuring -5 to *55. 

Both wing-bars very distinct. 

Length of wing — male 2*35 to 2'15, female 2'15 to 2 0. 

Length of tail — male 1'85 to 1'7, female 1"7 to 1'55. 

Legs and claws brown. 

This small and apparently delicate bird has a wider range 
than almost any other species of the genus. It breeds in the 
alpine districts of Southern Siberia, in Turkestan, and Cash- 
mere. Its extreme northern range extends from the British 
Islands to the Pacific. In Europe it is doubtless only a strag- 
gler on migration. It also passes through North China and 
North India on migration, and winters in Central India, 
South China, Pegu, and the Tenasserim provinces. 

Skins obtained by Dr. Dybowski near Lake Baical are com- 
mon in collections. SevertzoflF found it in Turkestan (Ibis, 

104 Mr. H. Seel^olim on the Phylloscopi 

1876, p. 81). Brooks found it breeding in Cashmere (Ibis, 
1872, p. 26). Gaetke obtains it regularly in autumn in 
Heligoland (Ibis, 1875, p. 180). Its other various occur- 
rences in Europe are duly chronicled in Dresser^s ' Birds of 
Europe/ Middendorff obtained it at Okhotsk (Sib. Reise, 
vol. ii. pt. 2, p. 183). Swinhoe found it in spring at Chefoo, 
North China (Ibis, 1874, p. 441), and in autumn near Peking 
(Ibis, 1861, p. 330), on both occasions doubtless on migration. 
He also found it in winter at Amoy (Ibis, 1860, p. 54) and 
in Hainan (Ibis, 1870, p. 345). Brooks records it from Al- 
morah on migration (Ibis, 1869, p. 354). Jerdon (Birds of 
Ind. ii. p. 197) says that it is common in most parts of India in 
the cold season. Blyth says that it is common in the cold 
season near Calcutta. Hume includes it in his list of the 
birds of Upper Pegu (Stray Feathers, 1875, p. 140) and of 
the Tenasserim provinces (Stray Feathers, 1874, p. 478); and 
in Lord Tweeddale^s collection are skins from the Garo Hills 
{Godwin- Austen) , Munipur {Godwin-Austen), and Rangoon 
{Warcllaw Ramsay). 

Mr. Brooks describes the nest of this species as being semi- 
domed, lined with line grass and a few hairs, placed on the 
ground on a sloping bank. The eggs are white, more or less 
spotted with red or purple. 

29. Phylloscopus proregulus (Pallas). 

Motacilla proregulus, Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-As. i. p. 499 

Rer/uloides proregulus, Swinhoe, Ibis, 1863, p. 307, et 

Phyllopneuste {Phyllobasileus) proregulus, Homey er, Journ. 
f. Orn. 1872, p. 208. 

Regidus modestus, Goulds B. of Eur. p. 149 (1837). 

Phylloscopus modestus, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng. xii. p. 693 

Phyllopneuste modestus, Blyth, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. xii. 
p. 98 (1843). 

Reguloides modestus, Blyth, Cat. B. Mus. As. Soc. p. 184 

or Willow-Warblers. 105 

Abrornis chloronopus, Hodgson in Gray's Zool. Miscl. p. 82 
Reguloides chloronotus, Jerdon, B. of India^ ii. p. 197 (1863) . 

Bill very slender, dark underneath. 

Upper parts olive-green. Rump yellow. Wings and tail 
greyish brown^ with the outside edge of each feather 
broadly margined with yellowish green. Outside edge 
of tertiaries yellow. Superciliary streak yellow. 

Head darker colour than the back, with a distinct pale mesial 

UnderpartSj axillaries, and wing-lining greyish yellow. 

Fourth and fifth primaries longest. Third and sixth rather 
shorter. Seventh and eighth each considerably shorter 
than the preceding. Second equal to about the tenth. 

Bastard primary rather large, the exposed part measuring 
•55 to -6. 

First bar yellow and very distinct. Upper bar yellow, but 
not so distinct. 

Length of wing — male 2"05 to 1'95, female 1*9 to 1*8. 

Length of tail — male 1'65 to 1*55, female 1*5 to 1"45. 

Legs and claws light brown. 

This species has a somewhat extended but eastern range. 
It breeds in the subalpine districts of Southern Siberia, and 
throughout the alpine districts of the Himalayas, from Cash- 
mere to Burma. It passes through North China on migra- 
tion, and Avinters in South China, Burma, and Bengal. 

Dr. Dybowski has obtained it near Lake Baical {Dresser, 
Birds of Europe, art. P. superciliosus, p. 4). It breeds in 
Cashmere {Brooks, Ibis, 1872, p. 26) . I have skins obtained 
by Mr, Brooks at Sikkim; and in Lord Tweeddale's collection 
are skins from Darjeeling. Swinhoe obtained it in February 
at Hainan (Ibis, 1870, p. 345) ; and in his collection are skins 
from Amoy obtained in December. Hume obtained it from 
the pine-forests north of Pahpoon, in the Tenasserim provinces 
(Stray Feathers, 1874, p. 479); and it has been found beyond 
the south-west frontier of Bengal {Ball, Stray Feathers, 1874, 
p. 415). Mr. Brooks informs me that it is never seen in the 
plains of India. One specimen of this bird has been shot, 
and at least another seen, on Heligoland. 

This species makes a semi-domed nest, lined with feathers 

106 Mr. H. Seebolim on the Phylloscopi 

and bits of thin birch-bark. It is placed on the bough of a 
pine tree, often a considerable height from the ground. The 
eggs are white_, richly spotted with dark brownish red. 

30. Phylloscopus erochrous (Hodgson). 

Abrornis erochroa, Hodgson, Gray^s Zool. Misc. p. 82 
(1844) . 

Regulus erochroa, G. E. Gray, Gen. B. i. p. 175 (1848). 

Reguloides erochroa, Jerdon, B. of India, ii. p. 199 (1863). 

Abrornis pulchrala, Hodgson, Gray^s Zool. Misc. p. 82 

Reguloides ? Blanford, J. A. S. Beng. xli. pt. ii. p. 

162 (1872). 

Bill very slender, under mandible dark. 

Upper parts olive-green. Rump yellow. Wings and tail 
greyish brown, with the outside edge of each feather 
broadly margined with olive-green. Outside edge of 
the tertiaries yellowish white at the tip. Inner web of 
three outer tail-feathers on each side white. Superciliary 
streak greyish yellow. 

Head rather darker-coloured than the back, with an indistinct 
pale mesial line. 

Underparts, axillaries, and wing-lining greyish yellow. 

Fourth, fifth, and sixth primaries longest. Third and seventh 
rather shorter. Eighth and ninth each considerably 
shorter than the preceding. Second equal to about the 

Bastard primary large, the exposed part measuring '55 to "65. 

First bar orange and very distinct. Upper bar greyish orange 
and rather indistinct. 

Length of wing— male 2-45 to 2*3, female 2-25 to 2-1. 

Length of tail — male 2*0 to 1'8, female 1*75 to 1*6. 

Legs and claws brown. 

So far as is known, this species has a more limited range 
than almost any other of the genus. Hodgson found it in 
Nepaul (in British Museum) ; and I have skins from Sikkim; 
but Mr. Brooks tells me it is never seen in the plains of India. 
Nothing is known of its nidification. 

31. Phylloscopus subviridis (Brooks). 

Reguloides subviridis. Brooks, P. A. S. Beng. 1872, p. 148. 

or Willow -Warblers. 107 

Bill very slender, under mandible pale at the base. 

Upper parts greyish brown, dashed all over, especially on the 
rump, with dirty yellowish green. Wings and tail greyish 
brown, with the outside edge of each feather broadly 
margined with dirty yellowish green. Outside edge of 
tertiaries dirty white. Superciliary streak dirty white. 

Head rather darker than the back, with an indistinct mesial 

Underparts dirty yellowish white, dashed with buff on the 
breast and flanks. Axillaries, wing-lining, and thighs 
dirty yellowish white. 

Third, foui'th, and fifth primaries longest. Sixth rather 
shorter. Seventh and eighth each considerably shorter 
than the preceding. Second primary about equal to the 

Exposed portion of bastard primary "48 to "6. 

First wing-bar very distinct. Rudiments of upper bar. 

Length of wing— male 2-25 to 2-13, female 2-1 to 2-05. 

Length of tail — male 1*8 to 1'7, female 1'7 to 1'65. 

Legs and feet dark brown. 

Mr. Brooks informs me that he obtained this species in the 

north-west provinces of India as far east as Cawnpore during 

the cold season. Its summer quarters are unknown. 

It is a somewhat smaller bird than P. superciliosus , with 

a shorter second primary, and with the white tips to the pri- 
maries and the upper bar on the wing very indistinct. 

32. Phylloscopus maculipennis (Blyth). 

Abrornis maculipennis, Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 27. 

Beguloides ? Blanford, J. A. S. Beng. xli. pt. 2, p. 

163 (1872). 

Abrornis chloronotus, Hume, Nests and Eggs of Ind. B. 
p. 372 (1874, nee Hodgson). 

Bill very slender, under mandible black. 

Back olive- green. Rump yellow. Wings and tail greyish 
brown, with the outside edge of each feather broadly 
margined with yellowish green. Outside edge of ter- 
tiaries tipped with white, inner web of three outside tail- 
feathers white. Superciliary streak white. 

Head grey, with a distinct Avhite mesial line. 

Throat greyish white ; rest of underparts, axillaries, and wing- 
lining yellow. 

Fourth, fifth, and sixth primaries longest. Third and seventh 

108 Mr. R. B. Sharpe on the Genus Orthotomus. 

rather shorter. Eighth and ninth each considerably 
shorter than the preceding. Second equal to about the 

Bastard primary proportionately large^ the exposed part mea- 
suring '5. 

Two very distinct yellow bars across the wing. 

Length of wing 2"0 to 1'8. 

Lengthof tail 1-6 to 1-35. 

Legs and claws brown. 

Very little is known of the geographical distribution of 
this small but beautifully coloured bird. The only skins I 
have seen are from Sikkim or the neighbourhood. Nothing 
is known of its nidification or migration. 

VII. — A Note on the Genus Orthotomus. By R. Bowdler 
Sharpe, M.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c. 

(Plate II.) 

The two beautiful new species of Tailorbird described and 
figured in the present paper were obtained by my excellent 
friend Dr. J. B. Steere during his recent expedition to the 
Philippine Islands ; and it seems a fitting occasion to give a 
short review of the geographical distribution of the genus. 
I recognize twelve species of Tailorbirds, of which the fol- 
lowing is a synoptical table ; but there are still a few species 
which I am unable to determine. These are almost the same 
as those left undetermined by Mr. F. Moore in 1854, when he 
gave a careful revision of the genus Orthotomus (P. Z, S. 
1854, p. 81) . The following is my proposed rearrangement 
of the species : — 

a. abdomine albido vel pallide fulvesceute. 
a', mento albido vel fiilvescenti-albo. 
a", interscapulio viridi. 

a'", macula gutturali nigra nulla. 

a*, fronte rufescente : vertice et nuchS, 
brunnescentibus : pileo interdum om- 
nino rufescente : rectricibus baud nigro 
subterminaliter raaculatis \ ^^*°^^^''- 

Mr. R. B. Sharpe on the Genus Orthotomus. 109 

b'^. fronte castaneo ; vertice cinereo : rec- 

tricibus nigro subtermiualiter maculatis frontalis, 
b'". macula guttural! nigra distincta. 

c"*. minor : pileo castaneo : genis et facie 
lateral! albidis, regione parotica supe- 

riore castauea atrigularis. 

d'*. major : pileo cinerascente, capitis la- 
teribus saturatioribus : regione parotica 

conspicue alba cinereiceps, 

b". interscapulio cinereo : capite castaneo. 

c'". rectricibus olivascenti-brunneis, flavido 

marginatis et nigro subterminaliter maculatis castaneiceps, 
d'". rectricibus castaneis. 

e^. remigibus extiis olivascenti-viridibus de^-bianus. 
f^. tectricibus alarum et remigibus ex- 

terne cinereis dorso concoloribus .... rvjiceps. 
b'. mento cinnamomeo, faciei lateribus concolori. 

c". dorso cinereo : gutture et corporis lateribus 

etiam cinereis : abdomine medio albo cineraceus. 

d". dorso viridescente : gula cinerea : corporis la- 
ribus viridescentibus : pectore medio et abdo- 
mine flavicantibus septum. 

b. abdomine Isetissime flavo : gutture cum prtepectore et 
pectore summo albis. 

c'. rectrice extima reliquis concolori, aut in pogonio 

interno angustissime albo terminata cucuUattis. 

d'. rectrice extima intus omnino alba coronatus. 

1. Orthotomus SUTORIUS"^. 

Hab. ^^The well-known Tailorbird is found throughout 
all Indiaj from the Himalayas to Cape Comorin and Ceylon, 
and extending into the Burmese countries^'' [Jerdon, B. Ind. 
ii. p. 166). Mr. Hume (Nests & Eggs Ind. B. p. 331) states 
that it breeds throughout India and Burmah, alike in the 
plains and in the hills [e.g. the Himalayas, Nilghiris, and 
Pegu hills) up to an elevation of from 3000 to 4000 feet, 
" The breeding-season lasts from May to August, both months 
included; but in the plains more nests are to be found in 
July, and in the hills more, I think, in June, than during the 
other months. Captain Hutton states that the birds, though 
common at their bases, do not ascend the hills ; but this is a 

* Cf. Lord Tweeddale's remarks (Walden, B. Burm. p. 120). 

110 Mr. R. B. Sharpe on the Genus Orthotomus. 

mistake ; for I have repeatedly taken nests at elevations of 
over 3000 feet, and Mr, Gammie, writing from Sikkim, says, 
' We often find nests of this species near my house at Mong- 
phoo ' (which is at an elevation of about 3000 feet) . Again, 
writing from the Nilghii'is, Miss Cockburn remarks, 'The 
Tailorbird is seldom met with on the highest ranges, but 
appears to prefer the warmer climates enjoyed at the elevation 
of about 3500 to 4700 feet/ " Mr. Hume also writes (S. F. 
1873, p. 194) : — ''I never met with this species myself in 
Sindhj but Captain Maiden informed me that he had killed a 
specimen at Jacobabad in March, and since my return I have 
had a specimen sent me from the neighbourhood of Kur- 
rachee/'' Major J. Hayes Lloyd (Ibis, 1873, p. 412) records 
it as common in Kattiawar; and Dr. Stoliczka (J. A. S. B. 

1872, p. 240) speaks of his shooting " a specimen while hunt- 
ing for insects between large stones of an old embankment at 
the Sir-talao, in the south-western part of Cachh.'^ Captain 
Butler (S. F. 1875, p. 479) gives it as plentiful on the hills 
and plains near Mount Aboo and in Northern Guzerat; 
and Mr. Hume (/. c.) adds that it is common throughout 
Sindh, Cutch, Kattiawar, and Jodhpoor. Mr. Adam (S. F. 

1873, p. 381) says the same of the bird near the Sambhur 
lake. We have in the British Museum numerous specimens 
from Nepal, collected by Mr. Hodgson ; and Mr. Blyth men- 
tions examples obtained near Calcutta (Cat. B. Mus. A. S. B. 
p. 144) , The late Captain Beavan, in his Notes (Ibis, 1867, 
p. 454), states that he found it common near Barrackpore, 
but rare in Maunbhoom. Mr. V. Ball (S. F. 1874, p. 414) 
writes : — '' The Indian Tailorbird occurs in the more open 
parts of the division, but is not common, as far as my obser- 
vation has gone, in any part of Chota Nagpur." It is in- 
cluded in Mr. W. T. Blanford's List of Birds obtained in the 
Wardha Valley (J. A. S. B. 1871, p. 273) . Dr. Leith Adams 
[cf. Moore, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 488) states that it is found fre- 
quenting the mango and other trees in the Deccan ; and it 
was there that the late Colonel Sykes obtained his types of 
O. bennetti and 0. Ungoo (P. Z. S. 1832, p. 90). 

Madras specimens of this bird, presented by Dr. Jerdon, are 

Mr. R. B. Sharpe on the Genus Orthotomus. Ill 

in the British Museum, It breeds in the Nilghiris, as noticed 
by Miss Cockburn {vide supra). In Ceylon, according to 
Mr. Holdsworth, it is common in all parts of the island, but 
especially frequents gardens and the neighbourhood of habita- 
tions. " It is as abundant at Nuwara Eliya as at Aripo or 
other parts of the low country." 

Major Godwin- Austen (J. A. S. B. 1870, p. 271) notices it 
from the North Mymensing district in the Garo hills. In 
Burmah Captain Beavan obtained it on the Salween river 
(Ibis, 1867, p. 454) ; and Dr. Anderson obtained a single spe- 
cimen at Bhamo, and on the right bank of the Taping river, 
during the second Yun-nan expedition. According toMr.Blyth 
(B. Burma, p. 120), Mr. Gould has had specimens from 
Tavoy ; and Mason states that Tailorbirds are very common 
at Tavoy, though rare at Moulmein. Mr. Blyth includes this 
as a second species under the name of 0. eclela ; but Lord 
Tweeddale (/. c.) says that he does not know which species is 
intended by Mr. Blyth, though it is probable that 0. atrigu- 
laris may have been the bird in his mind. The true O. sutorius 
has been procured at Tonghoo and in Karen-nee by Lieut. 
Wardlavv Bamsay. Mr. Gates (S. F. 1875, p. 135) records it 
from Thayet Myo as common in the plains ; and Mr. Hume 
states that it was found by Mr. Davison to be diffused and not 
uncommon in Tenasserim (S. F. 1874, p. 478) , Mr. Blyth even 
says that it extends as far south as Singapore, in which case 
0. edela from Java may be identical [vide infra) . He records 
an actual specimen (Cat. B. Mus. A. S. B. p. 144) from Ma- 
lacca as being in the Indian Museum. 

To the eastward the Indian Tailorbird has been recorded 
from Siam on Mr. Gould's authority [cf. Blyth, B. Burma, 
p. 120) ; and Mr. Swinhoe states (P.Z. S. 1863, p. 294) that 
it is an " abundant resident in South China from Canton to 
Foocliow.'"' It also occurs in Formosa and Hainan {Sivinhoe, 
Ibis, 1870, p. 80). At Amoy, writes the same author, it is 
" found in all the gardens, hedgerows, &c., and is generally 
seen in pairs.'' 

11,2 Mr. E. B. Sliarpe on the Genus Ortbotomus. 

2. Orthotomus edela. 
Hab. Java. 

This is the Javan representative of O. sutorius ; but, not 
having seen a specimen, I am unable to state whether it 
is really distinct. Lord Tweeddale (Walden, B. Burma, 
p. 120) writes : — " The Javan O. edela and the Indian 0. su- 
torius are barely separable, the Javan bird being chiefly distin- 
guished by having the lores and superciliary stripe pale fer- 
ruginous, and not greyish Avhite.^^ 

3. Orthotomus frontalis, sp. n. (Plate II. fig. 1.) 
Adult male. General colour above olive-green, the wing- 
coverts coloured like the back ; the quills dark brown, ex- 
ternally edged with the same green as the back, the inner- 
most secondaries exactly like the latter; tail olive-brow'n, 
with dusky undulations in certain lights, the feathers edged 
with bright olive-yellow, and tipped with whity brown, 
before which is an indistinct subterminal shade of darker 
brown ; forehead and a narrow superciliary line bright chest- 
nut ; crown, nape, and sides of neck ashy grey ; lores fulves- 
cent ; sides of face whitish, the ear-coverts shaded with ashy 
grey ; cheeks and entire throat silky white ; rest of under 
surface of body creamy white, the flanks pale greenish yellow ; 
thighs tawny ; bill dark horn-brown in skin, the lower man- 
dible yellowish ; legs fleshy brown : " iris light hazeP' [Steere) . 
Total length 3"7 inches, culmen 0'55, wing 1-6, tail 1*5, 
tarsus 0"75. 

Young female. DiflTers from the male in wanting the parti- 
coloured head, which is only a shade darker olive-green than 
the back, the subterminal mark on the tail is very much more 
pronounced than in the adult male ; entire under surface of 
body silky white. Total length 3*7 inches, culmen 0*55, wing 
1-75, tail 1-6, tarsus 0-75. 

Hab. Islands of Basilan and Mindanao, Philippines. 

The types of this species are in Dr. Steere's collection. 
The species is a very distinct one, its nearest ally being 0. 
sutorius, from which it is at once distinguished by its grey 
head and chestnut forehead, and also by its having a dark 
subterminal spot to the tail-feathers. 

Ibis. 1877, PI 11. 

J.G Keulemans litli 

M&M-Hanhart imp. 


Mr. R. B. Sharpe on the Genus Orthotomus. 113 

4, Orthotomus atrigularis, 

Hab. Borneo and Malayan peninsula, extending northwards 
to Tenasserim and Burmah. 

In Borneo Mr. Alfred Everett has procured a pair at Bintula 
{vide supra, p. 16); and I have already shown that this species, 
generally known as . flavoviridis , Moore (P.Z.S'. 1854, p. 78), 
is the same as 0. atrigularis of Temminck, originally de- 
scribed from Borneo, but not since procured in that island 
till Mr. Everett's researches brought it again to light. The 
Museum contains a Sumatran specimen collected by Mr. 
Wallace, as well as others from Penan g and the peninsula of 
Malacca. The latter locality supplied Mr. Moore with the 
types of his O. flavoviridis. Mr. Hume (S.F. 1874, pp.478, 
507) has also described a new species obtained by Mr. Davi- 
son at Pahpoon, Kyouknyat, and Thayetchaun, in Tenasserim, 
as 0. nitidus. This Lord Tweeddale (B. Burm. p. 121) has 
correctly shown to be the same as the Malaccan bird ; and he 
records it also as a bird of Burmah (/. c), as it has been pro- 
cured near Rangoon by Lieut. Wardlaw Ramsay. 

5. Orthotomus cinereiceps, sp. n. (Plate II. fig. 2.) 

Adult male. General colour above bright olive-green; wing- 
coverts and quills dark brown, all the feathers broadly edged 
with the same green as the back, the greater coverts margined 
and tipped with brighter yellow ; tail dark brown, narrowly 
tipped with brighter yellow, but without any darker subter- 
minal bar ; head dark ashy grey, the lores fulvescent ; sides 
of face and a malar stripe blackish grey ; ear-coverts white ; 
chin and sides of upper throat white ; centre of throat and 
jugulum black, forming a large patch; fore neck, sides of 
body, flanks, under tail-coverts, and thighs bright olive- green, 
the latter slightly tinged with rufous ; under wing-coverts 
yellowish, the edge of the wing bright yellow; bill horn- 
black, the lower mandible yellowish in skin ; feet fleshy brown 
in skin; iris light hazel. Total length 5 inches, culmen0*6o, 
wing 1*85, tail 1*9, tarsus 0"9 [coll, J. B. Steere). 

Hab. Island of Basilan, Philippines. 

This beautiful species is distinguished from all others of 


114 Mr. R. B. Sliarpe on the Genus Orthotomus. 

the genus Orthotomus by its grey head and pure white ear- 

6. Orthotomus castaneiceps. 

Hah. Guimaras and Panay, Philippine Islands. 

This distinct species was described by Lord Tweeddale 
(Walden, Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, x. p. 252, et Tr. Z. S. ix. 
p. 195) from the island of Guimaras ; and Dr. Steere obtained 
another, which agrees exactly with the type kindly lent me 
by Lord Tweeddale, in the neighbouring island o£ Panay. 

7. Orthotomus derbianus. 
Hab. Philippine Islands. 

Specimens of this bird are in the Derby Museum at Liver- 
pool {cf. Moore, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 309, pi. Ixxvi. descr. orig.) 
and in the British Museum ; but the exact island inhabited by 
the species has not been determined ; it will probably be found 
to be Luzon. 

8. Orthotomus ruficeps. 

Hab. Malacca, Sumatra, Borneo, and Palawan. 

From Malacca we have in the British Museum two speci- 
uiens — one presented by Captain Stackhouse Pinwell, and the 
other procured by Mr. Wallace. A specimen from Sumatra 
is also in the national collection. Two specimens were also 
sent by Mr. Hugh Low in a recent collection made by him 
in North-wester-n Borneo, opposite the island of Labuan. 
Doria and Beccari met with it at Sarawak (Salvad. Ucc. Born, 
p. 249). Dr. Steere likewise obtained a specimen in the 
island of Palawan, Philippines. 

9. Orthotomus cineraceus. 

Hab. Malacca, Sumatra, and Borneo. 

Fron- an examination of a very large series recently brought 
from North-western Borneo and Labuan by Mr. Hugh Low, 
I am able to affirm that 0. borneonensis of Salvadori (Ucc. 
Born. p. 247) is the fully adult male of O. cineraceus, Blyth 
(J. A, S. B. xiv. p. 489). It appears to be a common bird 
in Borneo, as it has been obtained not only in the above- 
mentioned localities, but at Sarawak by Doria and Beccari, 

Mr. R. B. Sharpe on the Genus Orthotomus. 115 

at Jambusan by Mr. Alfred Everett, and at Banjermassing 
by the late Mr. Mottley. A Sumatran specimen, collected 
by Mr. Wallace, is in tlie British Museum, which also pos- 
sesses a skin presented to this institution by Captain Stack- 
house Pinwell ; it was from Malacca ; and Mr. Blytli likewise 
obtained his original specimens from this latter locality. 

10. Orthotomus sepium. 

Hab. Java, Sumatra, and Lombock. 

This Tailorbird was originally obained in Java by Dr. 
Horsfield, and described by him (Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii. p. 166) . 
Mr. Wallace obtained it both in East and West Java; his 
specimens are now in the British Museum, which also con- 
tains an example from Sumatra ; a young bird was procured 
by Mr. Wallace in the island of Lombock, which we believe 
to be referable to the present species, and not to O. cine- 
raceus, although the two birds in their immature stages are 
rather hard to distinguish. 

11. Orthotomus cucullatus. 
Hab. Java. 

So far as we know, this bird is entirely confined to the 
island of Java. Mr. Wallace obtained a specimen of it in 
Western Java in 1861. 

12. Orthotomus coronatus. 

Hab. Eastern Himalaya, ranging eastward to the Burmese 

The types of this species are in the British Museum. It 
is closely allied to O. cucullatus, but is distinguished by having 
the entire inner web white on the outer tail-feathers. Dr. 
Jerdon (B. Ind. ii. p. 168) observes : — '' I procured specimens 
of this new species of Tailorbird from the vicinity of Dar- 
jeeling, where it occurs in the warmer valleys. A nest and 
eggs were brought to me, said to be those of this bird, similar 
to that of 0. longicauda, but not so carefully made ; the leaves 
were loosely attached, and with fewer stitches. The eggs 
were two in number, white, with rusty spots.'^ Major Bulger 
(Ibis, 1869, p. 166) also met with this species in the plains 

I 2 

116 Mr. R. B. Sharpe on the Genus Ortliotomus. 

below Darjeeliiig. To the eastward it occurs in the Khasi 
hills, as Major Godwin -Austen, in his list of the birds of 
these and the North Kachar hills (J. A. S. B. 1870, p. 107), 
mentions a specimen being shot near Cherra Punji iu October. 
Lieut. Wardlaw Ramsay has also obtained it in Burmah in the 
Tsan-koo hills at an elevation of 3000 feet [cf. Walden in 
Blyth, B. Burm. p. 121). 

Besides the above twelve species there are three which I 
have not been able to make out, viz. : — 0. lofigirostris, Swains. 
An. in Mena<'-. p. 343, Hab. Australia ! O. maculicoUis, F. 
Moore, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 309, Hab. Malacca; and 0. hugelii, 
Pelz., Hab. New Holland (?). 

P.S. Since this paper was finished Mr. T. J. Moore has 
been so kind as to send me from the Derby Museum the type 
of O. maculicoUis for examination. It is said to have been 
obtained by Mr. Cuming in Malacca; but I think it just as 
probable that the real locality may ultimately turn out to be 
one of the Philippine Islands. It appears to be a distinct 
species ; for although closely allied to 0. sutorius, it differs in 
its blackish brown ear-coverts and sides of neck, which are 
distinctly and rather broadly streaked with white. The fol- 
lowing is a description of the type : — 

General colour above olive-green ; wings brown, the least 
wing-coverts edged with olive-green, like the back, the greater 
series and quills with brownish olive ; tail brown, undulated 
under certain lights, the feathers margined with olive-green ; 
crown of head rufous, the occiput and hind neck rather ashy 
brown ; feathers in front of and round the eye buffy whitish ; 
ear-coverts and sides of neck blackish brown, with distinct 
longitudinal streaks of white ; cheeks and imder surface of 
body white, the throat purest, the breast somewhat tinged 
with buff; flanks dull olive ; sides of upper breast dark grey ; 
under wing-coverts and edge of wing light buff, slightly washed 
with olive-yellow ; quills below ashy brown, with a tawny buflF 
edging along the inner web. Total length 4*3 inches, cul- 
men 0-55, wing 1"8, tail 1'7, tarsus 0-8. 

Recently published Ornithological Works, 117 

VIII. — Notices of recently published Ornithological Works. 

1. Pere David^s ' Third Journey in China/ 

[Journal de mon troisieme Voyage d'Exploration dans I'Empire Chinois : 
ouvrage contenaut 3 cartes. Par M. I'Abbe Armand David, de la Con- 
gregation de la Mission. Two vols. Paris : 1875.] 

Pere David's name requires no introduction to the readers 
of ' The Ibis.^ We all know the extraordinary success that 
has attended his efforts to make known to science the natural 
wonders of the interior of the Chinese Empire. Many of us 
have seen the splendid new forms and brilliant novelties with 
which he has enriched the Museum of Paris, and have ad- 
mired the grand discoveries which have thrown a flood of light 
on the true relations of the Chinese avifauna. 

Pere David^s earlier Journals^'' have been published in the 
Bulletin of the ' Nouvelles Archives du Museum.^ In these 
he has given us an account of his first expedition to Mongolia 
in 1860, and of his second remarkable journey to Setchuan 
and Moupin in 1868 and the following years. In the present 
volumes he presents us with a narrative of his third great 
journey, commenced in 1872, in which he traversed the cen- 
tral provinces of the empire, and made large collections in 
two previously unknown mountain-ranges of the interior. 

The pages of Pere David^s diary are rife with interesting 
notes on the various birds met with, to which, even when 
borne down by severe sickness, he appears to have devoted 
unflagging attention. Leaving Pekin at the beginning of 
October 1872, our traveller journeyed nearly due south to 
the banks of the Hoang-ho, which he crossed on the 24th of 
October, and, turning westward along its left bauk_, passed 
several months at various localities in the Tsiug-ling moun- 
tains, which lie between this part of the Hoang-ho and some 
of the northern confluents of the Yaug-tze. Having crossed 
to the south of the range, he embarked on a native boat on 
the 17th of April 1873^ and descended the Han to Hankow, 

* Journal d \m Voyage dans le Centre de la Chine et dans le Thibet 
Oriental. Par M. I'Abbe Armand David. Nouv. Arch. Mus. d'H. N. 
vol. viii. et ix. (Bulletin). 

118 Recently published Ornithological Works. 

which he did not reach without suffering various maladies 
and misfortunes. After a short rest here and at Kiou-Kiang, 
lower down the Yaug-tze^ Pere David resolved to make 
another excursion into the mountains of Kiangsi, in spite of 
his indifferent health. With this journey he occupied the 
last six months of 1873, returning to Kiou-Kiang in an al- 
most exhausted state at the end of January 1874, and shortly 
afterwards to Europe. 

Two maps serve to point out very accurately the author's 
route, and add great interest to the narrative. 

Besides numerous notes on known species interspersed 
throughout the narrative, as already mentioned, Pere David 
gives several short indications of supposed new species dis- 
covered during his travels — Ithaginis sinensis (vol. i. p. 174), 
Pomatorhinus gravivox (ibid. p. 200), Carpodacus lepidus 
(ibid. p. 205), Pnoepijga halsueti (ibid. p. 210), Suthora cy- 
anopjhrys (ibid. p. 345), Psaltria sophi(B (vol. ii. p. 167), Po- 
matorhinus swinhoii (ibid. p. 269), Trochalopteronmilni (ibid. 
p. 271), and Machlolophus rex (ibid. p. 275). Of these new 
species we shall, no doubt, have fuller accounts in the work 
which Pere David is now preparing upon the mammals and 
birds which he collected in China. He also makes a new 
genus, Bahax (vol. i. p. 181), for Garrulax lanceolatus , Ver- 
reaux, and gives (vol. ii. p. 39, et seq.) a nominal list of the 
birds (195 in number) observed in Southern China from 
October 1872 to the end of April 1873. 

It would be of great advantage to science if Pere David 
would republish the Journal of his first two journeys in a 
similar manner, and with accompanying notes, to show us 
where " Moupin " and the other terrce incognitte where he 
made so many wonderful discoveries, really are. 

2. The Marquis de Compiegne's 'yEguaiorial Africa/ 

[L'Afrique Equatoriale. Par le jMarquis cle Compiegue. Paris : 1876. 
2 vols. E. Plon & Co.] 

This is hardly to be called a scientific book ; it is never- 
theless one which our ornithological friends will, we think, 
find both instruction and amusement in reading. The Mar- 

Recently published Ornithological Works. 119 

quis de Compiegne and his friend M. A. Marche made a two 
years^ expedition to Gaboon in 1872 to collect objects of 
natural history. Their adventures are given in an entertain- 
ing way by the Marquis in the two small volumes now before 
us. They penetrated deep into the country first explored by 
Du Chaillu, and obtained a fine series of birds^ of which their 
agent^ Mons. Bouvier of Paris^ has published a lisf^. This 
catalogue, or a nearly corresponding one, is also given as an 
appendix to the present work. We may call particular at- 
tention to the author's account of his visit to the sacred 
islands of Lake Zouangue, where myriads of Darters, Ibises, 
and Pelicans were found breeding in community (vol. i. 
p. 278). 

3. Riesenthal's ' German Birds of Prey.' 

[Die Eaubvogel Deutsclilauds und des aug-renzenden Mitteleuropas. 
Darstelluug und Beschreibimg der iu Deutscliland und den beuachbarten 
Landeru von Mitteleui'opa vorkomnienden Eaubvogel. Allen Natur- 
freunden, besonders aber der deutschen Jagerei gewidmet von O. v. Rie- 
senthal. Text, 8vo. Atlas, small folio. Cassel : 1876.] 

PIr. Th. Fischer has politely forwarded to us the first part 
of the atlas and letterpress of this proposed new work on the 
Raptores of Central Europe. It contains chromolithographs 
of Buteo vulgaris, B. lag opus, and Pernis apivorus, adult and 
young. The drawings are well executed and show consider- 
able spirit ; but we observe that the plates are rather inclined 
to be rubbed off against their opposite neighbours. 

4. Allen's 'Birds of Lake Titicaca.' 

[Exploration of Lake Titicaca by Alexander Agassiz and S. W. Gar- 
man. III. List of Mammals and birds. By J. A. Allen, with Field- 
notes by Mr. Garman. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Cambridge, Mass. vol. iii. 
nos. 15, IG. July 1876.] 

The collection of birds made by Mr. Garman dming Mr. 
Alexander Agassiz's expeditition to Lake Titicaca in the first 

* Catalogue Geograpbique des Oiseaux recueillis par MM. A. Marche et 
le Marquis de Compiegne dans leiu* voyage comprenaut les pays suivants, 
Senegale, Gamble, Cazamance, Sierra-Leone, Bonny, Vieux-Calabar, Cap 
Lagos, Fernando-Po, Principe, Gabon, Fernand-Vaz, et Riviere Ogoou6, 
pendant les annees 1872-74, par A. Bouvier. 8vo. Paris : 1875. 

JiO Recently published Ornithological Works. 

months of 1875^ of which an account is given in this paper, 
contains about 230 specimens, referable to 69 species. '' The 
resemblance of the bird-fauna of Lake Titicaca to that of the 
neighbouring portions of the highlands not far to the eastward, 
visited by Mr. Whitely, is shown by the fact that, of Mr. 
Whitely^s small collection of 47 species, made at and near 
Tinta, on the Vilcamayo, south-east of Cuzco (11,000 feet 
above sea-level), 27, or more than one half, are contained 
in Mr. Garman's collection. ^^ 

Two species are described as new — an Ibis, Falcinellus riclg- 
wayi, allied to F. guarauna, and a Gallinule, Gallinula gar- 
mani, allied to G. galeata, but much larger and darker. 

The singular short-winged Grebe, Centropelma micropterum 
(figured in Ex. Orn, pi. xcv. p. 189), is stated to be very com- 
mon about all parts of the lake where the water is at all shal- 
low. ''It feeds on fishes, batrachians, &c. In February young 
were taken about two thirds grown. They are unable to rise 
from the water ; but by flapping their rudimentary wangs and 
striking the water with their feet they manage to progress 
quite rapidly for a considerable distance." 

'' They dive quickly at the discharge of a gun — so quickly 
that, unless taken unawares, they will dodge the shot — and 
escape, often swimming a long distance under water before 
reappearing." Thirteen specimens were obtained of this rare 
species, which seems to be confined to this lake. 

5. 'Proceedings' of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. 

[The Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. Vol. i. 
parts 1 & 2. 8vo. Sydney : 1876.] 

The Linnean Society of New South Wales has been insti- 
tuted at Sydney " for the cultivation and study of the science 
of natural history in all its branches " under the presidency 
of Mr. W. Macleay, and seems already to number upwards 
of a hundred members. We have seen two parts of the ' Pro- 
ceedings ^ (pp. 1-168), which are both dated 1876, though a 
notice is stuck into the first part that the " first twenty pages 
of this part were printed and circulated ten months ago." 

Recently published Ornithological Works. 121 

They contain the following ornithological papers by Mr. E. 
P. Ramsay : — 

" Description of a new Ptilotis from the Endeavour River/' 
p. 9 (P. macleyana = P. versicolor, Eamsay^ P. Z. S. 1868, 
p. 386, nee Gould) ; " Description of a new Trichoglossus" 
p. 30 {T. amabilis=T. aureocinctus , Layard, Ann. Nat. 
Hist. ser. 4, vol. xvi. p. 344) ; " Characters of a new Genus 
and Species of Passerine Bird from the Fiji Islands," p. 41 . 
[Vitia riificapilla=Drymoch(iera badiceps, Finscli) ; " De- 
scriptions of a new Species of Merula and Rhipidura from the 
Fiji Islands," p. 43 {Merula ruficeps and Rhipidura per sonata, 
both, we believe, also described by Mr. Layard) ; " A new 
Pachycephala from Fiji " [P. kandavetisis) ; " A new Pachy- 
cephala from New Britain," p. QQ [P. citreogaster !) ; " De- 
scription of a new Lamprolia," p. 68 (L. klinesmithii = L. minor, 
Finsch) ; " Description of a new Ptilinopus from Malacola, one 
of the New Hebrides," p. 133 (P. corriei) ; and "Description 
of a new Plover from North Australia," p. 135 [yEgialitis 
mastersi, allied to Hiaticula tnornata, Gould) . 

Mr. Ramsay also contributes " Remarks on a collection of 
birds lately received from Fiji,'^ and adds " A List of all the 
Species at present known to inhabit the Fiji Islands." The 
collection, from which it would appear the new species pre- 
viously described were obtained, contained examples of 37 
species. The list of remaining species is simply compiled 
from Gray's ' Hand-list,' the author having apparently no 
knowledge of Hartlaub and Finsch's ^ Ornithologie Central- 
polynesiens,' by far the most important work ever published 
on Polynesian ornithology. 

Mr. W. Macleay, the President of the new Society, gives 
(p. 36) an interesting account of his cruise to Torres Straits 
and Southern New Guinea in the 'Chevert' in 1875, and of 
the zoological collections made during the expedition; and 
later on (p. 44) Mr. Masters, who accompanied the expedi- 
tion, gives us the first part of his report on the bird-collec- 
tion, which contained about 1000 specimens. In the present 
part Mr. Masters confines his attention to the species ob- 
tained in Australia and on the adjacent islands of Torres 

122 Recently published Ornithological Works. 

Straits. Of these 136 are enumerated, amongst which are 
described, as new, Podargus gouldi from the Gulf of Carpen- 
taria, Pachycephala robusta from Cape York, Colluricincla 
superciliosa from Cape Grenville, Gerygone simplex from the 
Gulf of Carpentaria, Sericornis brunneopygius from Cape 
York, Zosterops ramsayi from Palm Island, Z. flavogularis 
from Cape Grenville and the adjacent islands, Megapodius 
assimilis from Dungeness and Bet Islands, Sterna nigrifrons 
from Warrior Reef, and Sternula inconspicua from Cape York. 

6. Rowley's ' Ornithological Miscellany.' 

[Ornitliological Miscellany. Edited by George DaAvson Rowley, M.A., 
r.L.S., r.Z.S., Member of the British Ornithologists' Union. 4to. Lon- 
don : Triibner & Co. Part III. January 1876 ; Part IV. May 1876 ; Part 
V. October 1876.] 

Of this most appropriately named work, which has already 
been noticed in 'The Ibis' (1875, pp. 261, 509), three parts 
have been issued during the past year, graced with many 
excellent plates of ornithic rarities, Messrs. Finsch, Salvin, 
Sharpe, and A. Newton have been invited to contribute to 
its pages ; and all ornithologists must be grateful to Mr. Row- 
ley for the liberality with which he supplies illustrations to 
the various memoirs. Those of the Fijian novelties [Tricho- 
glossus aureocinctus, Myiagra caruleo-capilla, &c.) recently 
discovered by Mr. E. L. Layard are specially acceptable; and 
we trust Mr. Rowley will not fail to continue them. 

7. Blanford's ' Zoology of Eastern Persia.' 

[Eastern Persia, an account of the Journeys of the Persian Boundary 
Commission 1870-71-72. Vol. II. The Zoology and Geology, by W. T. 
Blanford, A.R.S.M., F.R.S. Svo. Loudon: 1876. (Macmillan"& Co.)] 

All ornithologists will, we are sure, accord a glad welcome 
to Mr. Blanford^s volume on the zoology and geology of Persia, 
which is quite worthy of the high reputation of the author, 
and fills up what has been long an important void in our 
science. Looking to the geographical position of Persia, 
between the carefully studied lauds of Europe on the one side 
and British India on the other, it will be at once obvious that 
a careful account of its zoology M'ould throw light upon many 

Recently published Ornithological Works. 123 

problems in the faunas of both countries. Hitherto we have 
had no work to refer to on this subject^ except De Filippi's 
' Note di un Viaggio in Persia/ and various smaller memoirs 
and fragmentary notices. Mr. Blanford bases his work mainly 
on the collections made by Major St. John^ with the assist- 
ance of a native collector from the Indian Museum, Calcutta, 
in the years 1869-71, together Avith those formed by himself 
in 1872 during the expedition of which an account is given 
in the first volume of the present work. As regards birds, 
the united collections contained 1236 specimens, belonging 
to 248 species, mostly from Southern Persia and Baluchistan, 
Mr. Blanford, however, has not failed to work up the refer- 
ences to birds collected or observed in Persia by previous 
travellers, so as to make his ornithological account of the 
country as complete as possible. Still the number of species 
as yet ascertained to inhabit Persia (384) is, as Mr. Blanford 
observes, not large, and it is probable that further research 
will add greatly to the list. 

The new species discovered by Mr. Blanford and his coad- 
jutors in Persia have been already described in ^The Ibis^^. 
Mr. Blanford now gives us excellent figures from Mr. Keu- 
lemans^s pencil of many of these novelties, which serve to set 
oflP his attractive volume. In fine we may say that Blan- 
ford^s ' Zoology of Persia ' is indispensable to the student of 
Palsearctic ornithology. 

8. Finsch's ' Ornithology of the Pacific Islands ' : Part ii. 

[Zur Ornitliologie der Siidsee-Inseln. II. Uebei- neue imd weniger 
gekaunte Vogel von deu Viti-, Samoa- und Carolineu Inseln, von Dr. Otto 
Finsch in Bremen. Journal des Museum Godetfroy. Heft xii. 4to. 
Hamburg: 1876.] 

In this memoir Dr. Finsch continues his account of the 
ornithological novelties obtained by the collectors of the Mu- 
seum Godeffroy in the Fiji, Samoau, and Carolina Islands, 
in his usual excellent style. The new species described are : — 
Ptilotis wanthophrys from the Navigators^, and Zosterops po- 
napensis, Volvocivora insjjerata, Myiagra pluto, Rhipidura 

* See Ibis, 1873, pp. 86-90, 225-227 ; 1874, pp. 225-227. 

124 Recently published Ornithological Works. 

kubaryi, and Aplonis jjelzelni from Ponape^ of the Seniavin 
group, which has lately been explored by Hr. J. Kubary, one 
of Hr. Godeffroy's scientific staff. Of this island also a com- 
plete account of the birds is given, showing that 22 species 
are known to occur in it. Of these one of the most remark- 
able is the Trichoglossus ( Chalcopsitta) rubiginosus, long erro- 
neously supposed to be from the Moluccas. Eight examples 
of this fine and distinct Lory, now known to be peculiar to 
the little island of Ponape, were obtained by Hr. Kubary. 

Dr. Finsch also gives a new name to the Artamus of the 
Pelew Islands {peleivensis) , which he has hitherto united with 
the widely spread A. leucorhynchus (sive leucogaster) ; and 
Hr. Th. Kleinschmidt, of Ovalau, contributes interesting notes 
on the habits of Chrysosna victor and Ptilotis procerior. Two 
good chromolithograph plates accompany the memoir and 
give figures of Trichoglossus aureicinctus, Layard, Petroica 
kleinschmidti, Finsch, Zosterops ponapensis, Finsch, Rhipidura 
kubaryi, Finsch, and Aplonis pelzelni, Finsch. 

9. Shelley's ' Monograph of the Sun-birds.' 

[A Monograph of the Cinnyridse, or Family of Sun-birds. By Captain 
G. E. Shelley, F.Z.S., F.K.G.S., &c. 4to. Loudon : published by the 
author at the Office of the British Ornithologists's Union, 6 Teuterden 
Street, Hanover Square, W.] 

Capt. Shelley^s monograph of the favourite group of Sun- 
birds will form, when complete, an acceptable companion- 
volume to Mr. Sharpens ' Kingfishers ' and Messrs. Marshall's 
' Barbets,' being of the same size and fashion. The figures 
are in Mr. Keulemans's best style ; and the letterpress contains 
a summary of all that is known about the various species. 
But why does Capt. Shelley call a Sun-bird " brasilianus " 
when, as he knows well, the term conveys an egregious error 
on the face of it ? Such a course is altogether opposed to 
the Stricklandian code of nomenclature, which we suppose 
he intends to follow. And why, on the other hand, does 
he call the family '' Cinnyrid?e,'' when Nectarinia is the older 
genus, and should consequently give the title to the larger 
group ? 

Recently published Ornithological Works. 125 

While oflFering these small criticisms upon our friend^s 
labours^ we may also express a hope that he will not adopt 
the numerous minor subdivisions of Nectariniidae that have 
lately come into fashion^ founded, not on structural form, 
but simply on styles of colour. There is no sort of advan- 
tage to science gained by the employment of such terms gene- 
rically. Even our author's Urodrepanis (gen. nov.), founded 
upon the jEthopijga christin(B of Formosa, as having the " two 
centre tail-feathers abruptly narrowing into very fine points/' 
seems to us rather unnecessary ! It would likewise be a much 
more comfortable plan if the plates and descriptions of the 
same species were issued together in the same part. To effect 
this might give some little trouble to the author, as we are 
aware ; but it would be a great convenience to the subscribers. 

The ' Monograph of the Sun-birds ' will be completed, as 
we learn from the prospectus, in twelve Parts, " which will 
be published as rapidly as possible consistently with a proper 
execution of the plates." We cordially wish our author suc- 
cess, and trust that all our friends and readers who have the 
opportunity will not fail to assist him with specimens and 

10, Boucard's ' Catalogus Avium.' 

[Catalogus Avium hucusque descriptarum. Auctor Adolphus Boucard. 
London : 1878. 8vo, pp. 350.] 

This is a list of the names of the species of birds, with a 
slight indication of their j9a/fn«, beginning at the Struthiones 
and, ending with the Trochili. Mr. Boucard recognizes 1 1,030 
species, divided into 2456 genera. 

Mr. Boucard has compiled his catalogue from Gray's '^Hand- 
list,' Sclater and Salvin's ' Nomenclator Avium Neotropica- 
lium,' and Shai'pe's ^Catalogue' (vols. i. & ii.), and has pro- 
duced a handy volume which will certainly not be without 
use to ornithologists. He has a more ambitious project in 
view — that is, a ' Genera of Birds,' of which the present work 
is merely a forerunner. The classification adopted is nearly 
that of the ' Nomenclator Avium Neotropicalium ' reversed. 
There are a good many misprints ; and the names of the new 

126 Recently published Ornithological Works. 

" orders " are not very classically chosen. '^ Rallae " should 
be " Ralli/' and '' Pterocles " " Pterocletes " or " Pteroclae." 
To reunite the Hirundinidte with the Macrochires is a fright- 
fully retrogade step^ which we could not have believed our 
author would have been guilty of ! 

11. Brdggemann's 'Birds of Celebes' * 

[Beitrage zur Ornithologie von Celebes und Sangir von Dr. Friedrich 
Briiggemann. 8vo. Bremen : 187(3.] 

It is with much pleasure that we welcome a "new recruit to 
the ranks of working ornithologists. Dr. Briiggemann founds 
the present essay principally upon a collection made in 1873- 
74 by Dr. George Fischer^ a medical officer of the Dutch 
Government, partly during excursions from Menado into 
Minahassa, in Celebes, and partly on Sanghir Island. The 
Darmstadt collection, however, had previously a series of 
Celebes birds, mostly presented by Hrn. v. Rosenberg and 
Riedel. Altogether the Gra;id-ducal museum contains more 
than 1200 Celebes and Sanghir skins, of M'hich 1066 are due 
to Dr. Fischer^s researches. 

Dr. Briiggemann follows the arrangement of Lord Tweed- 
dale's well-known memoir on the birds of Celebes in the 
Zoological Society's ' Transactions,' but adds many additional 
species. He describes as new : — Astur tenuirostris , Halcyon 
cyanocephalon, and Cuculus vtrescens from Celebes ; Pitta 
palUcejis from Sanghir; Pitta kochi from Luzon; Monarcha 
commutata from Celebes ; Artamus brevipes from the Pacific 
Islands (!) ; Corvus annectens from Celebes ; C. fallaw and C. 
niodestus, collected as C. annectens by Rosenberg, but without 
localities annexed; Ptilonopus nuchalis from Sanghir ; P.fis- 
cheri and Carpophaga pcecilorrhoa from Celebes; Gallinula 
lepida, ex loc. ign. ; and (in an appendix) Cuculus asturinus 
from Celebes. A new genus, Schizoptila, is proposed for 
Rallina rosenbergi, Walden. Altogether fourteen additional 
species are added to the avifauna of Celebes, which now com- 
prises 229 species. 

* Cf remarks by Count T. Salvadori (Ibis, 1876, p. 385). 

Recently published Ornithological Works. 127 

12. Gurney's ' Rambles of a Naturalist.' 

[Rambles of a Naturalist in Egypt and other Countries, with an ana- 
lysis of the claims of certain foreign Birds to be considered British, and 
other Ornithological Notes. By J. H. Gurney, Jun., F.Z.S. 1 vol. 8vo. 
London : 1876.] 

This volume is a kind of ornithological omnium-gatherum, 
containing an account of the recent travels and experiences 
of an ardent devotee of our science in various parts of the 
world, Mr. Gurney first goes "'to Russia and back/' and 
gives us an account of the birds to be met with in the market 
of St. Petersburg there, and a few notes on the museums and 
zoological gardens which he visited. Next we have his 
journey in the Algerian Sahara, where, as the readers of ' The 
Ibis ' already know, he made many interesting observations'^. 
The notes taken during the Franco- German war, which follow, 
relate to a much better-known fauna, but still contain some 
interesting information. The most important portion, how- 
ever, of Mr. Gurney's volume is the account of his six mouths' 
bird-collecting in Egypt, which is followed by a systematically 
arranged series of notes upon all the species of birds obtained, 
223 in all. Of these Anser erijthropus, Buteo deserto7'um, 
Cypselus apus (as distinct from C. pallidus), and Anas angus- 
tirostris are added to the Egyptian list for the first time " on 
positive information.'' The right of admission was also con- 
firmed to sundry doubtful species, such as Circus cineraceus 
and Porzana pygmeea. Some " passing notes on the birds of 
Italy," together with an analysis of the claims of certain birds 
to be considered British, and a few minor papers conclude 
Mr. Gurney's interesting and instructive volume, which we 
beg leave to recommend most sincerely to the notice of his 
brother ornithologists. 

* See Mr. Gurney "On the Ornithology of Algeria," Ibis, 1871, 
pp. 68, 289. 

128 Letters, Announcements, &;c. 

IX. — Letters, Announcements, i^c. 

The following letters, addressed " To tlie Editors of ' The 
Ibis/ " have been received : — 

33 Carlyle Square, Chelsea, S.W, 
6tli November, 1876, 

Sirs, — In glancing over the ' Catalogue of the Birds in the 
Museum of the East-India Company,' vol. i., my attention 
vras called to sp, 370 (p. 246), Pycnonotus sinensis. Among 
the specimens referred to this species I find "B. (P. sinensis?) 
Siam. From Finlayson's collection,^' and further on the 
note, " The specimen from Siam differs in having the head 
entirely black, which in the other specimens is wreathed with 
white, but agrees in other respects with the other.'' It 
will be easy to see that the Siamese bird is the same as my 
Ixos hainanus (Ibis, 1870, p. 253). On the Liuchow penin- 
sula of the Chinese main I found the same bird in company 
with the typical P. sinensis, and secured the latter. It is 
interesting to find that the Hainan form occurs in Siam. It 
would be further interesting to ascertain whether the true P. 
sinensis also occurs so far south. 

Yours &., 

Robert Swinhoe. 

Sirs, — In my paper on the Phylloscopi I am afraid I have 
been guilty of somewhat wholesale slaughter, I have endea- 
voured to consign Gerygone superciliosa of Wallace, Phyl- 
loscopus brooksi of Hume, Phyllopneuste intermedia of Severt- 
zoff, Phylloscopus abyssinicus of Blanford, Hypolais graminis 
of SevertzofF, and Phylloscopus brehmi of Homeyer to the 
limbo of synonyms. I regret very much to be obliged to add 
another victim to the list ; but in this instance at least the 
coup de grace comes with a better grace from me than it would 
from any one else. I miderstand that the present number of 
' The Ibis ' will contain an account of the discovery for the 
first time in Asia of the Pipit [Anthus seebohmi of Dresser) 
which Harvie Brown and I discovered for the first time in 
Europe in 1875. I am afraid I hold in my hand evidence 

Letters, Announcefnents, ^c. 129 

that this bird is the Anthus gtistavi of Swinhoe (P. Z. S. 1863, 
p. 90) . Mr. Swinhoe has kindly furnished me with three skins 
of his bird^ obtained on the 31st of May^ 1873^ in North China 
(see Ibis^ 1874, p. 442), suggesting that I should compare them 
with my Petchora skin. They agree in the rich and varied 
colouring of the upper parts, in the large stout bill, in the 
arrangement of the primaries, in the elongated hind claw, 
and in the lighter portion of the rectrices being dark smoky 
buff. This Pipit apparently breeds in the arctic regions of 
the Petchora, the Ob, and probably as far east as the Zena, 
as Swinhoe mentions (Ibis, loc. cit.) an example from Lake 
Baical. It passes through North and South China on mi- 
gration, and should be looked for in winter in the Philippine 
Islands and the Malay archipelago. 

Yours truly, 

Henry Seebohm. 

Sheffield, 24tli Dec. 1876. 

P.S. I may add that Mr. Dresser has compared one of the 
Amoy skins with his specimen of the Petchora bird, and agrees 
with me in the identity of the two species. 

The Ornithological Museum of Signor E. Turati. — The col- 
lection of birds belonging to Count Ercole Turati of Milan 
is now one of the largest and best-arranged private collections 
in Europe. It contains upwards of 14,600 specimens, be- 
longing to about 6300 species, all excellently mounted and 
in good order. These are arranged in several rooms in the 
Casa Turati, in the Via Maraviglie, at Milan. Amongst the 
collections now merged in the Turatian Museum may be men- 
tioned the Woodpeckers of Malherbe, the Paradise-birds of 
Elliot, the Humming-birds of Verreaux, and the Eggs of Des 
Murs. There are many rare and typical specimens, amongst 
which we may mention, as observed during a recent visit, 
Nestor productus, Trichoglossus ivilhelmince and T. josephinoi, 
Iridomis jelskii, Pipra heterocerca, Meropogon breweri, Ser- 
resius galeatus, and Crossoptilon drouyra. The unique spe- 
cimen of Syncecus lodoisicB, Verreaux, of which phenomenon 

8EB. IV. VOL. I. K 

130 Letters, Announcements, ^c. 

we have previously spoken'^j seems^ after all, to be perhaps 
only an individual variety of Coturnix dactylisonans. Of the 
fact of its having been obtained in Lombardy we believe there 
can be no question. No lover of birds who visits Milan 
should omit to pay a visit to the Casa Turati and its hospitable 

New Series of the Zoologist. — The 113th number of the 
'Zoologist/ issued last month, closes the second series of this 
popular periodical, which has done very much, as most of our 
readers well know, to promote the study of natural history 
among the rising generation. The number is for the most 
part very appropriately occujjied with a portrait and memoir 
of the late Mr. Edward Newman, the founder and, for thirty- 
four years, editor of the 'Zoologist.-' A new series, com- 
menced on the 1st of this month, is edited by our colleague 
Mr. J. E. Harting, whose abilities to carry on the good work 
satisfactorily no one is likely to question. 

New Work on the Fauna of Belgium. — We have received 
a prospectus and specimen of a new work on the fauna of 
Belgium, to be entitled " Fauue Illustree des Vertebres de la 
Belgique par Alphonse Dubois,''-' and to be published by Mu- 
quardt and Co., of Brussels. The series containing the birds 
will be issued in 140 livraisons at 2 francs each, and will 
give coloured figures of the birds, adult and young, and 
their eggs and nests. This series will ultimately form three 
volumes, 8vo. 

Tonquin and the wag there. — Amongst the Parliamentary 
papers lately issued is a Report by SirB. Robertson, H.B.M. 
Consul at Canton, of a visit lately paid by him to Haiphong 
and Hanoi — two new ports lately opened by the French at 
Tonquin. Hanoi, the capital of Tonquin, is situated on the 
Song-koi, or Red River, about 100 miles from its mouth. 

* See Ibis, 1862, p. 380, and Mr. Howard Saunders's remarks, Ibis, 
1869, p. 393. 

Letters, Announcements, ^c. 131 

The city, as here described, " rises gradually from the river, 
and, embedded in trees and foliage, has a charming appear- 
ance/" As there is a French settlement and Consul and a 
flourishing Christian Mission here, there would probably be 
neither difficulty of access nor danger for foreign residents; 
and the country, lying between China and Siam, would be a 
most interesting one for a naturalist. The nearest ground 
ever investigated ornithologically, so far as we know, is Hai- 
nan, to which Mr. Swinhoe once paid a flying visit. We 
should be inclined to recommend Tonquin to the notice of 
any wandering Member of the B. O. U. who may be looking 
after entirely fresh ground (a rather difficult thing to be had 
in these days) for his ornithological experiences. 

Death of von Heuglin. — We much regret to have to an- 
nounce the death of one of the most active and laborious 
ornithologists of the present day. Freiherr Theodor von 
Heuglin, of Ober-Tiirkheim, in the Kingdom of Wiirttem- 
berg, died suddenly and prematurely in November last — we 
believe, from a severe attack of pneumonia. We have at 
present no available materials for a notice of the life of 
this distinguished ornithologist, but understand that a memoir 
on the subject is being prepared by Baron E. Konig-Wart- 
hausen for Cabanis^s Journal, which will, no doubt, do 
him ample justice. Herr von Heuglin^s last and most com- 
plete work is his recently finished ' Ornithologie Nordost- 
Afrikas," which will alone render his name imperishable in 
the annals of ornithology. We may add that within a few 
weeks only of the time of his decease one of the editors of 
this Journal was in correspondence with him on the subject 
of undertaking a scientific exploration of the island of Socotra ; 
so unexpected was his untimely death, and so ready was he 
for further work of this nature. 

Irruption of Snowy Owls from the North. — Dr. T. M. Brewer, 
writing to us from Boston, U. S., speaks of an unusual mi- 
gratory inroad of Snowy Owls which has taken place in the 
N.E. portion of the United States during the past autumn. 

132 Letters, Announcements, ^c. 

He says (under date Dec. 3rd) : — " Since September^ and 
before I reached home from Europe^ we have been having a 
most wonderful flight of Snowy Owls {Nyctea nivea). How 
far west it has extended I have not yet heard ; but from New 
Brunswick on the east to western New York State the whole 
tract has been covered by the extraordinary prevalence of 
these Owls. 

' They come not single spies but in battalions ! ' 

Mr. Boardman, Avriting to me from St. Stephen^s, New Bruns- 
wick^ says, 'We have had a wonderful flight of Snowy Owls. 
They were in flocks of fifteens and twenties moving southwards. 
I never before heard of so many. Most of those seen along 
the coast seemed to be following the migratory birds. Some 
were here early in September and in very mild weather. They 
were easily captured.'' The same peculiarities were observed 
here. The Owls swarmed everywhere, and were obtained in 
large numbers, so that our taxidermists could not prepare all 
that were brought to them. At Hingham, on the coast, 
quite a number were killed and brought to my nephew. In 
Utica, New York, one was ignominiously knocked on the 
head by an old woman with a broomstick, the bird having 
been caught robbing her hen-roost. •'"' 

The same phenomenon, we may add, has also manifested 
itself in the eastern hemisphere. Three examples of the 
Snowy Owl, one of which was captured in Ireland, are now 
iu the Zoological Society's Gardens. Mr. Cross, the well- 
known dealer at Liverpool, says he never had so many of this 
bird. Every steamer from America brings in two or three, 
so that at one time he had nearly thirty in his possession. 



No. II. APRIL 1877. 

X. — Revieiv of the Specimens of Trochilidse in the Paris Mu- 
seum, brought by D' Orbigny from South America. By D. 
G. Elliot, F.R.S.E. &c. 

Mindful of the importance of always referring to tlie types 
of described species of birds or mammals, when possible, in 
order to ascertain exactly what an author may have had before 
him when bestowing for the first time a name upon any 
animal, I have lately passed in review such of the specimens 
of D^Orbigny^s Humming-birds as are still to be found in 
the Paris Museum, which are mentioned by himself and 
Lafresnaye in their ' Synopsis Avium ;' and I have embo- 
died in the present paper whatever remarks seemed neces- 
sary regarding them. It is not always easy to ascertain the 
species to which some particular specimen of Humming- 
bird belongs, even when the example is present, as all Tro- 
chilidists well know, much less when a short and imperfect 
description of some of the earlier writers is all the light given 
upon which to form an opinion. It therefore seemed de- 
sirable that D'Orbigny's specimens should be critically ex- 
amined, as being among the most important of the earlier 
collections made of these difficult birds.- Some of the species 


134 Mr. D. G. Elliot ow D'Orhic/ny's Specimens of 

mentioned by liim are not represented among his specimens 
in tlie Museum ; and in certain instances, wliere lie has re- 
ferred them to a well-determined species represented by 
Lesson in one or other of his works on this family, I have 
retained them under the modern name of such species ; but 
in cases where the indications are either imperfect or do not 
exist at all, it seems to me that it will be necessary to exclude 
D^Orbigny's names from the nomenclature of the group, as, 
access to his specimens failing, there remains no possible 
way of ascertaining what were the species he intended to 

I desire to express my thanks to Prof. A. Milne-Edwards 
and to Mons. E. Oustalet, Aide-Naturaliste, for the great 
facilities afforded me in examining the specimens and records 
relating to them in the Museum under their charge. 

The species, in the following remarks, are arranged in the 
order in which they stand in the ' Synopsis Avium/ 

Patagona gigas. 

Trochilus gigas, Vieill. Gal. Ois. pi. 180. 

Ornismya gigantea, D'Orb. & Lafr. Syn. Av. ii. p. 26, sp. 1. 

Hab. Cochabamba, La Paz, Chuquisaca, Valparaiso. 

Several specimens of this species brought by D^Orbigny. 


Trochilus macrourus, Gmel. Syst. Nat. p. 487. 
Ornismya macrourus, D^Orb. & Lafr. Syn. Av, ii. p. 26, 
sp. 2. 

Hab. Chiquitos, Moxos. 

No specimens of this bird in the Museum from D^Orbigny. 


Trochilus sparganurus, Shaw, Gen. Zool. vol. viii. p. 291, 

pi. 31. 

Ornismya chrysurus, D'Orb. & Lafr. Syn. Av. ii. p. 26, 

sp. 3. 

Hab. Yungas. 
Mounted specimens. 

Trochilidae in the Paris Museum. 135 


Cometes phaon, Grould^ P. Z.S. 1847, p. 31. 

Ornismya chrysurus, var., D^Orb. & Lafr. Syn. Av. ii. p. 27, 
sp. 4. 

Hab. La Paz, Sicasica. 

Mounted specimens, male and female. This is undoubt- 
edly tlie bird described aferwards by Gould as C. j•J/^ao/^, but 
which D^Orbigny regarded as only a variety of C. spar- 

Lesbia nuna. 

Lesbia nuna, Less. Suppl. Ois.-Mouches, p. 169, pi. 35. 

Ornismya gouldii, D'Orb, &Lafr. Syn. Av. ii. p. 27, sp. 5. 

Hab. Enquisivi and Sicasica. 

I place O. gouldi, D'Orbigny, as Lesbia nuna, Less., 
from the fact that I was unable to find any specimen of L. 
gouldi brought by D'Orbigny in the Museum; but there 
are three of L. nuna, a male and two females, mounted in 
the gallery. The measurement given of the lateral rec- 
trices of 5^ ! I do not understand. If centimetres are in- 
tended it is too short even for the tail of a female of L. gouldi. 
If 15^ is intended, it would be about the right length for 
L. nuna, but too long for L. gouldi. I am under the im- 
pression that as 20^ centim. is given as the total length, 
15^ centim. was meant for that of the tail, which is the mea- 
surement of the tail of L. nuna. The male specimen has no 
locality given on the ticket beyond ' Amerique meridionale ; ' 
but the two females are marked as from Sicasica, Bolivia. 

Thalurania nigrofasciata. 

Trochilus nigrofasciata, Gould, P. Z. S. 1846, p. 89. 

Ornismya furcata, D'Orb. & Lafr. Syn. Av. ii. p. 27, 
sp. 6. 

Hab. Chiquitos, Santa Cruz, Moxos. 

Three skins, two males and one female, brought by D'Or- 
bigny from Yungas, Santa Cruz, and Moxos respectively, 
numbered on their tickets 324, are in the collection. I could 
not find any example from Chiquitos. They all belong to T, 
nigrofasciata, Gould. 

L 2 

136 Mr. D. G. Elliot on D'Orbigm/s S/jecimens of 

Eriocnemis glaucopoides. 

Ornismya glaucopoides, D'Orb. & Lafr. Syn. Av. ii. p. 27, 
sp. 7. 

Trochilus cVorbigmji, Bourc. & Muls. Ann. Sc. Phys. et Nat. 
Lyon, 1846, p. 320. 

Hab. Valle Grande, Bolivia. 

A single specimen from the above locality, belonging to 
the genus Eriocnemis, is the type of Ornismya glaucopoides 
of D'Orbigny. It was afterwards described by Bourcier and 
Mulsant as Trochilus d'orbignyi {I.e.), and has been always 
known to naturalists as Eriocnemis d'orbignyi. The name 
given by MM. Bourcier and Mulsant will now have to 
become a synonym of the one bestowed upon the species 
by D'Orl)igny, which has priority of eight years ! It is a 
very rare species, the type still remaining unique, no one 
having met with the bird since it was first discovered. 

Chlorostilbon splendidus. 

Ornismya aureoventris, D'Orb. & Lafr. Syn. Av. ii. p. 28, 
sp. 8. 

Trochilus splendidus, \\q\\\. Nouv. Diet, Hist. Nat. tom. vii. 
p. 361. 

Hab. Moxos, Cochabamba, Yungas, and Corrientes. 

A single skin of this species from Cochabamba^ numbered 
297 ; two mounted specimens from Corrientes and Moxos 
respectively ; and a third with only " Bolivia ? " given as the 


Ornismya mulsanti, Bourc. Ann. Sc. Phys. et Nat. Lyon, 
1842, p. 344, t. XX. 

Ornismya cyanojjogon, D'Orb. & Lafr. Syn. Av. ii. p. 28, 
sp. 9 (nee Lesson). 

Hab. Yungas. 

A single mounted specimen in the Museum, brought by 
D'Orbigny from Yungas, is that of an adult male A. mul- 
santi. Four others in skin are those of females and vouns;. 

Trocliilidse in the Paris Museum. 137 

Rhodopis vesper. 
, Ornismya vesper, D^Orb. &Lafr. Syu. Av. ii. p. 28, sp. 10; 
Less. Ois.-Mouches, pi. 19. 

Hab. Tacna^ Peru, 

No specimen of D'Orbigny's is to be found. 


Ornismya angelce, Less. 111. Zool. pis. 45, 46; D'Orb. & Lafr. 
Syn. Av. ii. p. 28, sp. 11. 

Hab. Corrientes. 

Two skins of females, numbered on their tickets 154, both 
from Corrientes. 

Petasophora serrirostris. 

Troc/iilus serrirosiris, Vieill. Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat. torn. vii. 
p. 359. • 

Ornismya petasophora, D^Orb. & Lafr. Syn. Av. ii. p. 28^ 
sp. 12. 

Hab. Yungas. 

A specimen of P. serrirostris, brought by D^Orbigny, is 
mounted in the gallery of the Paris Museum. This is the 
only instance, that I am aware of, in which this species has been 
procured in Bolivia, as it is a Brazilian bird, found commonly 
between Bahia and Rio Janeiro. It is the only species of 
Petasophora obtained by D^Orbigny. 


Trochilus fernandensis, King, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1830, p. 30. 
Ornismya fernandensis, D^Orb. & Lafr. Syn. Av. ii. p. 29, 
sp. 13. 

Hab. Juan Fernandez. 

A male and female in the collection, from Juan Fernandez. 


Ornismya pamela, D^Orb. & Lafr. Syn. Av. ii. p. 29, sp. 14. 
Orthorhynchus pamela, D^Orb. Voy. Ois. p. 376, t. Ix. f. 1. 
Hab. Yungas. 

The type mounted, being the only specimen in the col- 

138 Mr. D. G. Elliot on D'Orbigny's Specimens of 

Heliomastee longirostris. 

Trochilus longirostris, Vieill. Ois. Dor. torn. i. p. 107^ pi. 59. 

Ornismya longirostris, D'Orb. & Lafr. Syn. Av. ii. p. 29, 
sp. 15. 

Hub. Guarayos. 

There is no specimen marked 0. longirostris of WOvhignj's 
in the Museum. As, however^ he refers to it O. superba, 
Less. Ois.-MoucheSj pi. 2, I have assigned his name to He- 
liomaster longirostris. 


Trochilus galeritus, Lath. Ind. Orn. vol. i. p. 304. 
Ornismya sephanoides, D'Orb. & Lafr. Syn. Av. ii. p. 29, 
sp. 16; Less. Ois.-Mouches, pi, 14. 
Hab. Valparaiso. 
No specimen in the collection from D^Orbigny^s voyage. 

Hylocharis cyanea. 

Trochilus cy anus, Yi&^i.'^owv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. tom. xxiii. 
p. 426. 

Ornismya cyana, D'Orb. & Lafr. Syn. Av. ii. p. 30, sp. 17. 

Hab. Guarayos. 

A mounted specimen in adult plumage, but without any 
locality indicated on the ticket. There is also a skin of a 
young individual from Guarayos. 

Thaumatias albiventris. 

Ornismya albiventris, Less. Ois.-Mouchcs, p. 209, t. 76 ; 
D'Orb. & Lafr. Syn. Av. ii. p. 30, sp. 18. 

Hab. Moxos. 

A mounted specimen of this species. The habitat, however, 
is not given upon the stand. 

Leucochloris albicollis. 

Trochilus albicollis, Vieill. Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat. tom. xxiii. 
p. 426. 

Ornismya albicollis, D'Orb. & Lafr. Syn. Av. ii. p. 30, sp. 19 ; 
Less. Ois.-Mouches, pi. 63. 

Hab. Yungas, Chaluani. 

No specimen of D'Orbigny's is in the Museum. 

Trochilidae in the Paris Museum. 139 

Chlorostilbon prasina. 

Ornismya jjrasina, Less. Ois.-Mouches, p. 188^ pi. 65. 

Ornismya mellisuga, D^Orb. & Lafr. Syn. Av. ii. p. 30^ sp. 20. 

Hab. Yungas, Sicasica^ Ayupaya. 

A specimen of C. prasina, Less.^ brought by D'Orbigny 
from Ayupaya, as ascertained by the Museum Catalogue, 
I believe to be the O. mellisuga of the ' Synopsis Avium,^ 
for the following reasons : — The locality of Ayupaya is only 
given twice among D'Orbigny's examples; and the present spe- 
cimen is the only Humming-bird brought by him that I have 
been able to find in the Museum as having come from that 
place, excepting the Metallura smaragdinicollis, about which 
there cannot be any difficulty. This would seem to point it 
out as the one intended by him as 0. mellisuga. In the 
Museum Catalogue it is called the Saphir-emeraude, no Latin 
name having been employed. The next species of the 'Syn- 
opsis ' he gives is 0. bicolor ; and he asks if that is not the 
young of the Saphir-emeraude, " Junior avis ? le Saphir- 
emeraude," as though he had in his mind the present 
species, which he called in the Museum Catalogue by that 
name. These two circumstances seem to show that we 
shall not probably go wrong if we place D^Orbigny^s 0. mel- 
lisuga as a synonym of Chlorostilbon prasina (Less.). Again 
M. Beauperthuy has placed in the gallery a specimen of C. 
prasina which bears on the ticket the name O. mellisuga. 
This seems to me also an indication that D^Orbigny^s name 
was intended for the same species. 

Two specimens of the bird called Ornismya bicolor by 
D^Orbigny are in the Museum, numbered 349 and 385. One 
of them, a male, is mounted, and has upon the stand Circe 
doubledayi in the handwriting of Bourcier ; the other, a skin 
of a female in very poor condition, is marked on the label 
' Yungas,^ in D'Orbigny's writing. They are rather small 
delicately shaped birds, of a species apparently undescribed, 
belonging to the genus Thaiimatias. Most certainly they 
have nothing to do with Circe doubledayi. I propose to call 
the species 

140 Mr. D. (Jr. Elliot on D'Oj'biyay'a Specimens of 

Thaumatias neglectus. 

Ornismya bicolor, D^Orb. & Lafr. Syn. Av. ii. p. 30, sp. 21. 

Hab. Yungas and Moxos, Bolivia. 

Male. Top of head, nape, and mantle metallic green ; throat 
and upper part of breast brilliant metallic blue, the white base 
of the feathers on the throat and breast showing conspicuously 
amid the blue ; but this may be caused by the plumage of the 
specimen being disarranged. Back, rump, and upper tail- 
coverts light greenish bronze. Wings purplish. Flanks and 
lower part of breast shining green. Abdomen whitish. Under 
tail-coverts pale brown, margined with white. Tail pale 
greenish bronze ; a subterminal black bar, as in many species 
of Thaumatias, is present upon all the feathers excepting 
the two median ones. Bill very slender and pointed. Maxilla 
black; mandible flesh-colour. Feet black. Total length 
3 J inches, wing 2, tail \\, bill |. 

Female. Head and upper parts, sides of throat, and flanks 
shining grass-green. Centre of throat and underparts whitish, 
apparently spotted with metallic light green. Tail like that 
of the male, tips of lateral feathers whitish. Under tail- 
coverts whitish. Wing purple. Maxilla broken off, the base 
black; mandible flesh- colour. Feet black. Length 3| inches, 
wing 2, tail \\, bill |. 

This specimen is in a very poor state, and the coloiu* of 
some parts is difiicult to make out correctly. Some of the 
tail-feathers are wanting; those that remain resemble the 
rectrices of the male. 

Thaumatias neglectus cannot be confounded with other 
species of the genus, as it does not resemble any of them. 

Chrysuronia chrysura. 

Ornismya chrysura, Less. Ois.-Mouches, Suppl. p. lOT, pi. 4. 

Ornismya ruficoUis, D'Orb. & Lafr. Syn. Av. ii. p. 30, sp. 22. 

Hab. Santa Cruz, San Juan de Chiquitos, Yungas. 

1 place O. ruficollis, D'Orb., as a synonym of C. chrysura, 
from the fact that I find a specimen brought from San Juan 
by D'Orbigny in the gallery of the Paris Museum, which 
answers very well to his description. It is the only species 
to which I can refer O. r/fficol/is. 

Trochilidse in the Paris Museum. 141 

Metallura smaragdinicollis. 

Ornismya smaragdinicollis, D'Orb. & Lafr. Syn. Av. ii, 
p. 31, sp. 23. 

Orthorhynchus smaragdinicollis, D'Orb. Voy. Ois. p. 375, 
t. lix. f. 2. 

Hab. Yanacache, Prov. Yungas; Palca, Prov. Ayupaya. 

Represented only by the mounted type, the locality of 
which is given as Ayupaya. 

Heliangelus amethysticollis. 

Ornismya amethysticollis, D'Orb. & Lafr. Syn. Av. ii. p. 31, 
sp. 24. 

Orthorhynchus amethysticollis, D'Orb. Voy. Ois. p. 376, 
t. Ix. f. 2. 

Hab. Territory of the Yuracares Indians. 

Represented by the mounted type. 

Thaumastura cor^. 

Ornismya corce. Less. ; D'Orb. & Lafr. Syn. Av. ii. p. 31, 
sp. 25. 

Hab. Lima, Peru. 

A poor skin of an immature individual, numbered on the 
ticket 340. 

Lampornis violicauda. 

Trochilus violicauda, Bodd. Tab. PI. Enl. D'Aubenton, 
p. 41. no. 671. 

Trochilus mango, D'Orb. & Lafr. Syn. Av. ii. p. 32, 
sp. 26. 

Hab. Moxos, Guarayos. 

Represented by several mounted specimens. 

Phaethornis superciliosus. 

Trochilus superciliosus, Linn. Syst. Nat. tom. i. p. 189; 
D'Orb. & Lafr. Syn. Av. ii. p. 32, sp. 27; Less. Colib. pi. 5. 
Hab. Guarayos. 
No specimen of D'Orbigny's is in the collection. 


Trochilus pygmmus, Spix, Av. Bras.- p. 78, pi. 80. fig. 1. 

142 Count T. Salvador! on two Bii'dsfrom the Fiji Islands. 

Trochilus brasiliensis, D'Orb. & Lafr. Syn. Av, ii. p. 32, 
sp. 28. 

Hab. Yuracares, Guarayos. 

A mutilated skin, without any tail, but apparently belong- 
ing to P. pijgnKSUs. The ticket bears the number 376, 

Threnetes leucurus. 

Trochilus leucurus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 190 ; D'Orb. & 
Lafr. Syn. Av. ii. p. 32, sp. 29. 
Hab. Yuracares. 
A single specimen of D^Orbigny's is in the Museum. 


Trochilus thaimiantias, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 190. 
Trochilus viridis, D^Orb. & Lafr. Syn. Av. ii. p. 32, sp. 30. 
Hab. Moxos. 
An adult specimen, mounted, of this species. 

Oreotrochilus estell/e. 

Trochilus estella, D^Orb. &Lafr. Syn. Av. ii. p. 32, sp. 31 ; 
D'Orb. Voy. Ois. p. 376, t. Ixi. £. 1. 
Hab. La Paz. 
Represented by the type specimen, mounted. 

Oreotrochilus ADELiE. 

Trochilus adela, D'Orb. & Lafr. Syn. Av. ii. p. 33, sp. 32 ; 
D'Orb. Voy. Ois. p. 377, pi. Ixi. f. 2. 
Hab. Chuquisaca. 
Represented by the type specimen, mounted. 

XL — Notes on tivo Birds from the Fiji Islands. 
By T. Salvadori, C.M.Z.S. 

I HAVE lately had the opportunity of examining specimens of 
two interesting birds, recently described, from the Fiji Islands. 
They belong to Count Turati's collection. 

Two specimens, male and female, are labelled, in Mr. 
Layard's handwriting, " Rhipidura albicollis, Layard, N'Gila, 
Taviuni, Fiji." This name is to be found in 'The Ibis/ 1876, 

Count. T. Salvadori on two Birds from the Fiji Islands. 143 

p. 149, and in the P. Z. S. 1876, p. 493. Althongh there is 
no description nor reference, I suppose that the bird so 
named is the one previously described with the name of Rhi- 
pidura albogularis, Layard, P. Z. S. 1875, pp. 29, 434. I do 
not know if the name of alhigularis has been changed into that 
of albicollis by mistake or on purpose. Dr. Finsch has already 
hinted (P. Z. S. 1876, p. 20) that the name of albigularis 
cannot stand, which is quite true, as there is a Muscylva al- 
bogularis, Less. Zool. du Voy. de Belang. p. 264 { = Rhipi- 
dura albigula, Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. 1844, p. 84). 
I also wish to point out that neither can the name Rhipidura 
albicollis be used for Layard's species, as Vieillot has described 
2L Platyrhynchos albicollis (N. D. xxvii. p. 13), which, accord- 
ing to Dr. Pucheran (Arch. Mus. H. N. vii. p. 358 ; Hartl. 
J. f. Orn. 1855, p. 426) is the same as Rhipidura f us coventr is, 
Franklin, a species which must stand as Rhipidura albicollis 
(Vieill.). After all this it is evident that i2. albigularis or 
albicollis, Layard, must be called by some other name ; and I 
propose that of Rhipidura layardi, which I have already at- 
tached to the specimens in Count Turati's collection. 

The other bird to which I wish to refer is Lamprolia minor, 
which has been mentioned by Mr. Layard (Ibis, 1876, p. 155). 
After stating that it has been quite lately discovered on Vanua 
Levu by Mr. Kleinschmidt (who proposed to call it L. minor), 
Mr. Layard says that it " resembles L. victories, but is about a 
third smaller, and the head is entirely covered with the bril- 
liant blue feathers. '' I have compared one male of this spe- 
cies, procured by Mr. Kleinschmidt on Vanua Levu, with 
two specimens, male and female, of L. victoria from Taviuni, 
obtained by the same collector. Now, on comparison, it 
does not appear that there is any difference about the head, 
as the brilliant blue feathers entirely cover the head of the 
males of both species ; but the L. minor, besides being much 
smaller, may be distinguished by the white on the two mid- 
dle tail-feathers reaching nearly to the tip, while in L. vic- 
torice the white does not go so far towards the tip, so that 
the black end is more extended. The following are the di- 
mensions of tlie two species : — 

144 , Mr. R. Swiiiboe 07i Birds from Hakodadi. 

Bill from 


Wing. Tail. 




milliui. millim. 



Laniprolia minor 


62 41 



Luniprolia victoricc 


83 ' 45* 



Turin, Zoological Muse 

um, Nov. 

2nd, 1870. 


XII. — On the Contents of a fourth Box of Birds from Hakodadi, 
in Northern Japan. By R. Swixhoe, F.R.S. 

I HAVE now to report upon a fourth box of birds received 
from Mr. T. W. Blakiston, of Hakodadi, North Japan, con- 
taining thirty- four specimens, together with additional notes, 
dated 30th June, 1876. I will continue my numbers, as 
before, from where I last left off (Ibis, 1876, p. 335). The 
last number noted was 142 ; but as no. 135, Uragus sibiricus, 
was wrongly identified, as appears from the present series, 
w^e must erase it, and commence by repeating the last number, 

142. CiKcus spiLONOTus, Kaup. 

A male, in immature plumage, marked " Awomori (North 
Japan), 18th April, 1876, c? 21^ x 17.^' 

A female Merlin [Falco tesalon), from Yedo, is also sent. 
Mr. Blakiston speaks of having some Owls, and asks if Whitely 
was right in giving Syrnium rufescens, T. & S., from Hakodadi. 
Whitely^s specimens were without doubt correctly identified. 

There is a specimen of P/pastes agilis, Sykes, which was 
procured at Yokohama, and one of Oreocincla aurea, from 
the same locality, with the remark " very common in the 
market of Yokohama in winter." Mr. Blakiston also asks 
" Does Muscicapa gularis exist as a species, or are birds so 
called only females [Cyanoptila cyanomelmia) 1" There is no 
doubt in my mind that the former name has been applied to 
the female of the latter species (see P. Z. S. 1871, p. 380). 

A Japanese Jay, sent from Yokohama, is Garrulus ja- 
ponicus, Bp. This species does not seem to occur at Hako- 
dadi, where its place appears to be taken by G. hrandti. 

* ]>r. Finscli oives only n8-l() millinis. lor the length of the tail. 

Mr. R. Swinhoe on Birds from Hakodadi. 145 

Cyanopolius cyanus (Pall.) . A specimen of this bird has come 
marked ^'Tokio, Japan (per Mr. Oda) ^J." Tokio=Yeddo; 
so we must not include this as yet among the birds of Hako- 
dadi. It wants the white tips to the median rectrices. 

143. Passer montanus (L.). 

March. A male, from Hakodadi. There is also a female 
of P. rutilans ; but as it is from Yokohama, we must not in- 
clude it under a number. 

Mr. Blakiston also sends an Eophona personata, Schleg., ^ , 
but fromTokio = Yeddo. The Japanese name for this is marked 
on a separate slip of paper, " Ikarugra." The bird is blue-black 
round its bill near the base, as is its smaller congener of China, 
E. melmmra. The Japanese agrees with a winter-killed speci- 
men of the same species, procured by Pere David at Moupin^ 
but has the tomia of the upper mandible near the base of the 
bill inflected into a flap on each side over the lower mandible. 
A specimen of the same bird, which I shot near Pekin, has 
more white on the abdomen, and a splash of black over the 
whole bill. It was killed on the 29th September, 1868. 

There is a male Carpodacus roseus, also from Tokio. This 
is the bird which I wrongly identified with Uragus sibiricus. 

A male Emberiza elegans, Temm., likewise from Tokio. 
This has a separate label giving its Japanese name, " Miyama 
hojivo." A male Turtur risorius is also sent from Tokio. I 
originally guessed this bird to be of this species from Blak- 
istou^s description (Ibis, 1876, p. 334) . 

In a note, Mr. Blakiston writes, " I have among my series 
of skins of Alauda japonic a one rather large ; but I am uncer- 
tain if the species varies." It would be interesting to ascer- 
tain if this be our home Skylark. I have Alauda arvensis 
from as low on the China coast as Shanghai, where A. can- 
tarella is the prevailing species. 

" In answer to your question,"^ he continues, " on Coturnix 
japonica, I find some of my specimens show a little dark patch 
in the midst of the red on the throat." 


April. A male from Hakodadi. This is more banded on 

146 Mr. R. Swinhoe on Birds from Hakodadi. 

the underparts than a specimen ( ? , 20th February) I have 
from Shanghai; but one from Amoy (October) is fully as 
much so. 

He sends from the Yokohama market, procured in January, 
a GaU'mago solitaria (Hodgs.), with the note " Another male, 
12| X 6." This is much darker and more distinctly banded 
than a male I procured at Shanghai on the 26tli February, 
1873 ; and at first I was half inclined to admit the Japanese 
bird as distinct. But I have a second specimen from Shang- 
hai, dated Jan. 3rd, 1874, which comes very close to the Ja- 
panese, and seems to show that the two are inseparable. 

From Yokohama a male Rhynch(ea bengalensis (L.) is sent. 


A Hakodadi male of this Curlew, shot on the 24th May, 
1876, with the note of size "^"^ 17g x Q." This seems to be of 
the typical European form, and shows that all our China birds, 
even those procured at Shanghai, are of the allied form N. 
uropygialis, Gould. 

An immature Nycticorax griseus from Yeddo, is included; 
and Mr. Blakiston notes that he has also an adult male and 
female ; but the locality of the latter not being stated, I do 
not number the species. 

146. CoLYMBus ADAMsi, G. E,. Gray. 

An immature male of this species bears the date January, 
with the note of measurement, "29| X 13.''^ The bill is partly 
yellow and partly black. It is otherwise undistinguishable from 
C. glacialis at the same stage. Specimens have been received 
from the North Atlantic with similar bills, and the best authori- 
ties are now, I believe, disposed to consider the Great Northern 
Divers of the Atlantic and Pacific to belong to one species. 
Blakiston wrongly identifies his specimen with C. arcticus, L. 

147. Anser albifrons. 

This is sent as A. erythropus, L. (625 of my " List of the 
Birds of China," P. Z. S. 1871, p. 416) ; and a note adds that 
he has another female " 2,\\x 14|." 

148. Anas boschas, L. 

A male, killed in March, from Hakodadi, and a female 

Mr. R. Swinhoe on Birds from Hakodadi. 147 

(October) from near the same place. My attention is called 
to the way this species and Querquedula crecca get a rusty 
tinge. This I have also noticed in our Chinese birds. 

149. DaFILA ACUTA (L.). 

A male and female from Awomori, both procured in April. 

150. Querquedula CRECCA (L.). 

A male (April) from Hakodadi. A female (October) from 
S. Yesso. 

151. EUNETTA FORMOSA (Gcorgi) . 

A male (April) from Awomori^ and a female from Mr. 
Oda from Yeddo. 

153. Harelda glacialis (L.). 

A female (February) from Hakodadi. I never met with 
this species in China ; but it has been shot at the mouth of 
the Peiho river. 

With reference to Fidigula mariloides, sent on a former 
occasion, Mr. Blakiston writes, " If you are certain of the 
identification of the bird I sent before, then the immature 
male I have is this species. Otherwise I should have con- 
sidered it as F. cristata, of which I have two unmistakable ex- 
amples with crests. ^^ I was, without doubt, right, haviug 
procured the same species before at Ningpo*. 

153. Bucephala clangula (L.). 

A male and female, both from Hakodadi, the latter killed 
in November. 

154. Clangula histrionica (L.). 

A male from Hakodadi (June), and a female from S. Yesso 
(November) , I have never heard of this species being found 
in China, It never occurred to me. 

He also sends an adult female from Hakodadi of Phalacro- 
corax pelagicus, Pall., with no white on the flanks, and only 
a few points of white on the neck. He sent before the im- 
mature of this species ; so it has already been numbered (see 
Ibis, 1874, p. 164) . 

* See my paper " On a Scaup Duck found in China," P, Z. S. 1873, p. 411, 

148 Mr. A. Whyte's Omithological Notes 

XIII. — Ornithological Notes taken daring a Voyage from 
Ceylon to England. By A. Whyte. 

In Ceylon and, indeed, thronghout India and the East gene- 
rally the migrations of birds are chiefly influenced by the 
two monsoons, viz. the north-east and the south-west, the 
former generally prevailing in Ceylon and South India from 
November to April, and the latter from May to October. 
Comparatively little, however, has been definitely ascertained 
as to whence the migratory birds come, and the circumstances 
which influence their migrations. Detailed facts and data 
can only be arrived at by recording long-continued syste- 
matic observations in different localities. In the mean time 
individual experience may add something to our knowledge 
of the subject ; and it is with this hope that I now put together 
these notes, taken on board the S.S. ' Duke of Devonshire' 
during a recent voyage from Ceylon. 

We sailed from Colombo, Ceylon, on the 17th Oct. 1876; 
and for some days we were constantly accompanied by the 
more common Terns, Gulls, and other Sea-birds, none of 
which, however, ventured on board. 

On the 20th Oct., when about thirty miles S.E. of Minicoy 
Island, the most northern of the Maldives, a Swallow flew 
on board, which proved to be Hirundo rustica, L. Being 
either alarmed or exhausted, it was soon captured. When 
again liberated it flew off vigorously for the island, on which 
could be seen a beautiful fringe of graceful cocoanut-palms. 

At noon, on the 22nd Oct., a Kestrel {Falco alaudarius) 
alighted on the rigging, and perched on one of the yards for 
the night. After nightfall it was captured by one of the 
quartermasters, and was caged as a curiosity. Next day, how- 
ever, it escaped, and no one observed the direction it took. 
On the same day a common Paddy-bird, or Heron [Ardea 
leucoptera) , visited us. It was quite exhausted and emaciated, 
and greedily devoured some minced meat. From this cir- 
cumstance it does not seem likely that this species is capable 
of catching fish or other food while on wing at sea. When 
liberated it went off to the south-west. 

during a Voyage from Ceylon to England. 149 

On the 24th Oct. a Pipit (species doubtful) flew ou board, 
when we were about twenty miles south-east of the island of 
Socotra. At the same time and place several small Finches 
came on board ; but we could not determine their species. 

On the 25th Oct. a Quail {Coturnix commimis, Bonn.) made 
its appearance, and remained with us for several days, after- 
wards taking its departure for the south. 

The 26th October was the richest day of feathered visitors 
we had, when the following arrived, viz. : — a Grey Flycatcher 
[Muscicapa) ; about a dozen Swallows {Hirundo) ; a small 
Horned Owl [Ephialtes) with yellow iris and a row of distinct 
dark spots or markings on the wing-coverts, otherwise similar 
to E. bakkamasna of Ceylon (it allowed us to approach 
quite close to it, but it ultimately flew off to the south) ; two 
species of Water- Wagtail; three birds which appeared through 
a glass to be Rollers or allied birds ; an Artamus ; a bird the 
size of a small Pigeon, with rather long tail and long straight 
bill, which alighted on the the top of the mainmast, but could 
not be identified. 

On the morning of the 27th, when between Socotra and 
the Arabian coast, a Falcon {Falco peregrinator ?) flew on 
board, and was secured at night. If we have not mistaken 
our bird, this is the noble " Shaheen '' Falcon, so much prized 
by Indian rajahs for falconry. Being' a rare and most inter- 
esting bird, we took every care of it, and carried it to England 
safely, and presented it to the Zoological Society of London. 
It is now in the Society^s Gardens, and appears in the list 
of additions to the Menagerie under this name (see P. Z. S. 
1876, p. 839). It is smaller, more compact, and even more 
courageous than the true Peregrine. It is a curious circum- 
stance that the first bird of this species described was procured 
by Sundevall at sea between Sumatra and Ceylon (see Jer- 
don^s ' Birds of India,^ p. 26) . 

On the 28th Oct. a Linnet (species doubtful) flew on board, 
as we passed up the Gulf of Aden. Great numbers of Sea- 
birds were here seen around the ship and along the Arabian 
shore. We now entered the Red Sea, when few of the fea- 


150 Notes during a Voyage from Ceylon to England. 

thered tribes visited us compared with those met with in the 
Indian Ocean. 

On the 29th Oct. a White-headed Noddy {Anous tenuiros- 
tris, Temm.) alighted on board. Vast shoals of dead locusts 
were seen floating around the ship; also numbers of por- 
poises sported around us. 

A Wagtail (M. dukhunensis, Sykes) paid us a visit on the 
30th Oct., and remained with us all the way up the Red 
Sea and Suez Canal, and left us in the Mediterranean. 

On the 31st a Peregrine Falcon, FaIco2}€regrinus,vfQ.& seen 
flying around the vessel. It ultimately alighted on the main- 
mast for a short time, and then left us for another vessel at 
some distance from us"^. On this day a very handsome Owl 
came on board. It was about the size of Syrnium indranee 
of Ceylon, but of a lighter colour. It flew oS" in a straight 
line for the African coast ; and we were unable to identify it. 

We entered the Suez Canal on the morning of the 3rd 
Nov., and spent about two and a half days in getting through 
it. The birds which we recognized along the banks and lakes 
were principally Coots, Vultures [Neophron) , Moorhens, Hails, 
Ducks and Teal, Divers, Godwits, Sandpipers, Curlews, vari- 
ous Birds of Prey, Swallows, Pipits, Wagtails, &c. As we 
neared the Port-Said end of the Canal, myriads of Waders 
were seen fishing and pluming themselves on the lakes and 
lagoons. The most conspicuous were Flamingoes and Peli- 
cans ; and all on board agreed they had never seen a more 
imposing army of Waders. During our run up the Medi- 
terranean and the Bay of Biscay no birds visited us. We 
had evidently got out of the track of migration, or it had 
ceased for a time. During the entire voyage in the Indian 
Ocean and Arabian Sea we experienced no stormy weather, 
the wind, as a rule, blowing steadily from the north-east. 
In the Red Sea the wind was more variable. 

It will be seen from these notes that we met with over 
twenty species of land-birds in the Indian Ocean and Red 
Sea, between the 20th and 31st of October ; and these we 

* This Peregrine was easily clistinguisbable from the bird I suppose to 
be F. peregrvmtor^ by its size and flight. 

On the Salicarise of Dr. Severtzoff. 151 

imagine may be fairly put down as only stray birds from a 
regular and more numerous stream of migrants. The direction 
that most of these birds came from would indicate they were 
migrants from the coasts of Arabia and Persia, whatever their 
destination may have been. One conviction has forced itself 
on me, viz. the great influence which vessels, more especially 
large and fast steamers of the present day, may have on the 
distribution of species of birds. Some of our visitors re- 
mained with us for days, and landed on shores most likely 
out of the line of their migrations ; and in one instance a 
Wagtail {Motacilla) remained with us all the way up the 
Red Sea and Suez Canal, and found a new home on the 
shores of the Mediterranean. 
December 12th, 1876. 

XIV. — On the Salicarise of Dr, Severtzoff. 
By Henry Seebohm. 

In 'The Ibis' for 1876 (pp. 83 et seqq.), Dresser has given 
us as pretty a little ornithological puzzle as I have seen for 
a long time in the Salicaria of SevertzofF^s ' Fauna of Tur- 
kestan.^ There are no less than sixteen or eighteen of 
them named and, more or less, described. The descriptions 
of two of them, S. scita and S. arundinacea, are omitted ; but 
fortunately these are supplied in a letter from Dr. Severtzoff 
to the editor of ' Stray Feathers ' (Str. Feath. iii. p. 420) . 
These two articles will, I think, supply sufiicient data to 
unravel the tangle, 

Salicaria turdoides (p. 83) may be dismissed at once as 
Acrocephalus arundinaceus (Linn.). 

Salicaria arundinacea (p. 83) might be thought naturally to 
be either Acrocephalus streperus or A.palustris. I have never 
had an opportunity of comparing these two birds in the flesh, 
and cannot distinguish any diff'erence of general colour or of 
colour of the legs in the skin. I find, however, that A. palus- 
tris has a more pointed wing. Out of five of this species in 
Dresser's collection I find that in one the second primary is 
equal to the third, and in the four others intermediate in length 

M 2 

152 Mr. H. Seebohm on the 

between the third and fourth. On the other hand^ out of ten 
examples in Dresser's and my own collections of A. strejjerus, 
eight have the second primary equal to the fourth, and in two it 
is intermediate between the fourth and fifth. Dresser has iden- 
tified S. arundinacea of Severtzofl" with A.strepe7^us, without, 
however, giving any description. I therefore take it for granted 
that the bill is about the size of that bird's (say culmen -63 to -7) . 
From ' Stray Feathers ' {loc. cit. clause 33) I get the addi- 
tional information that the tail is shorter than the wing, and 
the second primary equal to the sixth. The wing is too much 
rounded for either A. streperus or A. jjalustris ; the bill is 
too large and the tail too short for A. agricola ; but all the 
three items of information we possess point to Acrocephalus 
dumetorum (Blyth), with which species I am accordingly in- 
clined to identify it. 

Salicaria brevipennis (p. 83) is certainly not an Acrocephalus 
at all, the first primary being twice as long as the coverts. We 
must look for this bird amongst the smaller and greyer species 
of Hypolais — opaca, pallida, rama, or caligata. To decide 
to which of these species it belongs we must have the length 
of the culmen. This is given as 3| lines. This is manifestly 
an impossible measurement. In Blanford's ^ Eastern Persia ' 
(ii. p. 192) we find the following measurements of the culmen 
of the three smaller of these species given — H. pallida '72 to 
•68 inch, H. rama "68 to "57, and H. caligata '55 to '5. Severt- 
zoff's measurements are undoubtedly those from the point of 
the bill to the beginning of the feathers. I shall shortly 
identify, from evidence independent of the length of the cul- 
men, the next species, S: capistrata, Sev., with Acrocephalus 
agricola (Jerd.). Severtzoff gives 4 lines as the length of 
culmen of S. capistrata. The true length of culmen of A. 
agricola is "SS. We may therefore construct the following 
table for translating Severtzoff's length of bill in lines into 
true length of culmen in decimals of an inch: — 3|="51, 
3| = -53, 4= -55, 4i = -62, 5 = '69, which we shall find very 
useful as we go on. The bill of S. brevipenfiis being 3| lines, 
equal to culmen '53, there can be little doubt that this bird is 
Hypolais caligata (Licht.). 

Salicariaj of Dr. Severtzoff. 153 

Salicaria microptera {Stray Feathers, iii. p. 425) is a new 
name given by Severtzoff to the preceding species to re- 
place S. brevipenriis, Sev. nee Dohrn, and consequently also 
sinks into a synonym of Hypolais caligata (Lieht.). As 
a further confirmation of this identification, I may say that 
■ the length of wings and tail agree, as also the slightly rounded 
tail, and the wing-formula, — second equals seventh, or inter- 
mediate between sixth and seventh ; whereas in H. rama I 
find that out of five skins in my collection, in two the second 
primary is between the seventh and eighth, in two equal to 
the eighth, and in one between the eighth and ninth. 

Salicaria capistrata (p. 84) is an Acrocejjhalus, not a Hypo- 
lais, the first primary being only the length of the wing-coverts. 
The wing-formula — second primary equals the eighth — dis- 
poses at once of A. streperus and A. pains tris. The choice 
therefore lies between A. agi'icola and A. dumetorum. The 
principal characters of these two birds may be summarized 
as under : — 

A. agricola. Length of wing 2"35 to 2"15, tail about the 
same. Second primary varying in length from between the 
sixth and seventh to between the eighth and ninth. Culmen 
•56 to -52. 

A. dumetorum (p. 84). Length of wing 2*5 to 2'35, tail 10 
per cent, shorter than the wing. Second primary varying in 
length from between the fifth and sixth to between the seventh 
and eighth. Culmen '74 to '64. 

In every particular S. capistrata agrees with the former 
and disagrees with the latter ; I therefore without any hesi- 
tation identify this bird with Acrocephalus agricola (Jerd.), 
and note that Severtzoff himself (Stray Feathers, iii. p. 425, 
clause 33) comes to the same conclusion. 

Salicaria magnirostris, Lilj. (p. 84). This bird has been 
correctly identified by Dresser with Acrocephalus dumetorum 
(Blyth) . In each of the above-mentioned four particulars it 
agrees with A. dumetorum and disagrees with A. agricola. 

Salicaria turcomana (p. 84). Judging from the length of 
the first primary, this bird is also an Acrocephalus. The 
wing-formula — second primary equals -the fourth — restricts 

154 Mr. H. Seebolim on the 

the choice ceitainly to A. streperus or A. palustris. My 
own experience, as detailed under S. arundinacea, would lead 
one to call this bird Acrocephalus streperus (Vieill.). 

Salicaria macronyx (p. 84) . The length of the first primary 
decides at once that this bird is an Acrocephalus. The wing- 
formula is intermediate between those of A. streperus and A. 
dumetorum. The length of the culmen of A. streperus is '7 to 
'63 ; and by our rule the culmen of this bird is '62 ; so that we 
may decide that it is a small bird of whichever species it 
belongs to, and that in this respect the balance of evidence 
is slightly in favour oi A. streperus. The length of wing of 
A. streperus varies from 2*7 to 2'45. The length of wing of 
our bird is 2 inches 6 lines, or 2'5, and may be that of nearly 
the smallest A. streperus or the extreme largest A. dume- 
torum. As we have already decided, from the size of the 
culmen, that to whichever species it belongs it is a small 
bird of that sj)ecies, the argument is conclusive in favour of 
its being Acrocephalus streperus (Vieill.) . 

Salicaria eiirhyncha (p. 85) . The first primary being shorter 
than the coverts, there is no doubt about this bird being an 
Acrocephalus. The second primary being between the sixth and 
seventh restricts the choice to A. ayricola and A. dumetorum. 
The tail being one tenth shorter than the wing, and the 
culmen measuring '69, are both conclusively in favour of its 
being Acrocephalus dumetorum (Blyth), whilst the length of 
wing, 2'33 to 2*42, is more in favour of that bird than of ^. 

Salicaria sphenura (p. 86) . The length of the first primary 
decides at once that this is an Acrocephalus. The wing-formula 
— second primary equals the sixth, or is intermediate between 
the fifth and sixth — agrees with A. dumetorum, and dis- 
agrees with A. agricola, A. streperus, and A. palustris. The 
comparative shortness of the tail puts another black mark 
against A. agricola. The culmen, "62, puts a third black 
mark against A. agricola ; and the length of wing puts a 
fourth ; so that I arrive at the conclusion that this bird is 
Acrocephalus dumetorum (Blyth). 

Salicaria gracilis (p. 86). The length of the first primary de- 

Salicarioe of Dr. Severtzoff. 155 

cides, again, that this bird is an Acrocephalus. The fact that 
the wings and tail are of nearly equal length decides in favour 
oi Acrocephalus agricola (Jerd.), and against A. streperus, A. 
palustris, and A. dumetorum. The wing-formula agrees with 
A. agricola, and disagrees with A. streperus and A. palustris, 
whilst the length of wing and culmen confirms A. agricola 
against the other three. 

Salicaria obsoleta (p. 87) . This bird, with first primary twice 
as long as the coverts, must be a Hypolais. The bill is said to 
resemble that of the next species, which is given as 4 lines, 
or culmen '55, the dimensions oi Hypolais caligata (Licht.), 
which I take it to be. The wing is shghtly more pointed than 

Salicaria pallida (p. 87) agrees, in length of first primary, 
wing-formula, length of culmen, wing, and tail, with Hy- 
polais caligata (Licht.). 

Salicaria tamariceti (p. 88) . Mr. Dresser says that the first 
primary of this bird is "longer than the wing-coverts;" but 
' Stray Feathers ' fortunately adds " twice as long as the 
coverts,'^ so that there can be no doubt about this bird being 
a Hypolais. The second primary being equal to the sixth or 
seventh, and the culmen '62 to '69, incline me to identify 
this species with Hypolais pallida (Ehr.). My skins from 
Smyrna vary in length of culmen from •64 to "68 inch, and 
have the second primary intermediate in length between the 
sixth and seventh. I am inclined to discriminate the two 
species as under : — 

H. ratna. Length of wing 2"35 to 2"53, culmen '57 to 
•68. Second primary between the seventh aiid ninth. 

H. pallida. Length of wing 2"45 to 2' 7, culmen "6 to "72. 
Second j^rimary between the fifth and seventh. 

Salicaria modesta (p. 88). From the remark in 'The Ibis* 
that the first primary is rather longer than the coverts, qualified 
by that of ' Stray Feathers ' that it is scarcely longer than its 
coverts, we may decide at once that this bird is an Acro- 
cephalus. The wing-formula restricts the choice to A. agri- 
cola and A. dumetorum. The remark, " bill small,"^ gives 
the casting vote in favour of Acrocephalus agricola (Jerd.). 

156 Mr. H. Seebohm on the Ornithology of Heligoland. 

Salicaria concolor (p. 88) is identified by its first primary as 
an Acrocephalus. The wing-formula puts A. streperus and A. 
palustris altogether out of the question, and casts a doubt 
upon A. agricola. The length of the wing and the compara- 
tive shortness of the tail (measurements omitted in 'The 
Ibis/ but fortunately to be found in ' Stray Feathers ') dis- 
pose of A. agricola altogether, and leave us with the con- 
clusion that this bird is Acrocephalus dumetorum (Blyth), 
with a slightly shorter bill than usual ("oS). 

Salicaria scita. Dresser is probably right in identifying 
this bird with Hypolais caligata (Licht.). In 'Stray Fea- 
thers ' (iii. p. 426) we learn that the first primary is twice 
as long as the coverts, that the second primary equals the 
sixth, and that the beak is small. 

Salicaria scitopsis (p. 88). The first primary being twice as 
long as the coverts marks this bird as a Hypolais. The second 
primary being between the sixth and seventh, the length of 
wing 2*.25, and the culmen 'SI, all point to Hypolais caligata 
(Licht.), though the dimensions are somewhat smaller than 
usual. The wing is not rounded enough for Phylloscopus 
fuscatus or its allies. 

XV. — Supplementary Notes on the Ornithology of Heligoland. 
By Henry Seebohm. 

Two articles have already appeared in ' The Ibis ' on the orni- 
thology of the island of Heligoland. The first was in 1862 
(p. 58), and consisted of a translation of a letter by Dr. J. H. 
Blasius which appeared in 'Naumannia' for 1858. The 
second article was written by Mr. John Cordeaux, and ap- 
peared in 'The Ibis^ for 1875 (p. 172). 

The information contained in these articles was so startling 
that an apology is scarcely necessary for adding corroborative 
testimony to their general accuracy, for correcting a few un- 
important errors, and for mentioning some still more recent 
novelties of special interest. 

Mr. Gaetke's work on the birds of Heligoland is making 

Mr. H. Seebohm on the Ornithology of Heligoland. 157 

fair progress ; and he has intrusted to me the task of trans- 
lating it into English and editing it in this country ; so that 
it is to be hoped that within the next twelve months the full 
details of his observations made during the last five-and- 
twenty years in this wonderful little island may be before the 

The authenticity of the Heligoland skins is beyond all 
possible question. During the rime I spent on the island, 
from the 23rd Sept. to the 18th Oct.^ I not only saw enough 
to convince the most sceptical of the botia fides of all con- 
cerned^ but myself shot or saw in the flesh such a variety of 
birds, that I could almost agree with my friend Mr. Gaetke 
when he stated that he would willingly exchange his collections 
of rare birds shot in Heligoland for those which had passed over 
the island without being shot. It is probable, however, that 
the latter bear a much smaller proportion to the former in 
Heligoland than in any other place. 

During my short stay on the island I saw quite a little 
epitome of the Petchora birds — Grey Plover, Little Stint, 
Sanderling, Snow-Bunting, Shore-Lark, Blue-throated War- 
bler, &c. We shot two Aquatic Warblers, a Little Bunting 
{Emberiza pusilla) , and had four Richard^s Pipits brought to 
us in the flesh. I watched a Phylloscopus superciliosus in Mr. 
Gaetke^s garden for some hours, listened to its call-note, and 
finally shot it. As we breakfasted one morning (2ud Oct.) 
we identified a Great Grey Shrike as it flew past the window 
of our room ; and a couple of hours afterwards we bought the 
bird for four groschen. 

The list of . Heligoland birds is so varied that many orni- 
thologists have doubted its accuracy. The fact is that Heli- 
goland is the ouly part of the world of which the ornithology 
has been exhaustively worked. Every little boy on the island 
is a born and bred ornithologist. Every unfortunate bird 
which visits the island has to run the gauntlet of about forty 
guns, to say nothing of scores of blowpipes and catapults. 
The flight and note of every bird is familiar to every islander. 
Each bird has its own local name in the Heligoland language. 
A new bird is instantly detected. The fisherman steers with 

158 Mr. H. Seebohm on the Ornithology of Heligoland. 

a gun by his side ; the peasant digs his potatoes with a gun 
on the turf and a heap of birds on his coat. On an island 
where there are no cows, and sheep are kept for their milk 
only, meat is of course very dear, especially as it has to be 
brought by steamer from Hamburg, one of the dearest cattle- 
markets on the continent of Europe. Birds therefore natu- 
rally form an important article of diet to the Heligolanders. 
Every bird which apj^ears is whistled within range with mar- 
vellous skill. The common birds are eaten, the rare ones 
are sold to the bird-stufler or taken to Mr. Gaetke. Many of 
the Heligolanders are clever shots. Long before sunrise the 
island is bristling with guns ; and after dark the netters are 
busy at their Throstle-bushes ; and at midnight the birds com- 
mit suicide against the lighthouse. When we consider that 
this has been going on for a quarter of a century, and that 
the results have been carefully chronicled for that length of 
time, the Avonder is not that so many species of birds have 
occurred on Heligoland, but that so many have hitherto 
escaped detection. This must be accounted for on the theory 
that, alter all, the appearance of birds on Heligoland is only 
accidental. Under ordinary circumstances a migratory bird 
does not require to rest on this island. A few hundred miles 
to a bird on the wing is a trifle in favourable weather. It is 
only when overtaken by a squall, or driven out of its course 
by contrary winds, that a bird seeks refuge here. This is 
obvious after a few weeks'* experience. Certain winds and 
certain weather fill the island with birds. At other times the 
island is comparatively empty. Each bird has its time of 
migration; weather has apparently nothing to do Avith this 
date ; good weather does not apparently hasten the birds to 
their breeding-haunts, nor bad weather retard their starting. 
If the suitable conjunction of circumstances occurs during 
the season of a certain bird's migration, that bird visits the 
island. If the season goes by without such conjunction, the 
bird does not visit the island. The period of its migration 
is over. The migration of this species has taken place at 
high altitudes, it may be, or by other routes ; and it is in vain 
to look for it until its next season of migration comes round. 

Mr. H. Seebohm on the Ornithology of Heligoland. 159 

when, given the necessary wind and weather^ its appearance 
may be confidently expected. 

The period of migration of each species lasts about a month. 
In spring the males come first^ then the females, then last- 
year birds, and finally the cripples — birds which have lost their 
toeSj birds with half a tail, birds with one mandible abnor- 
mally long, or birds with some other defect. Mr. Cordeaux 
has fallen into an error in saying (Ibis, 1875, p. 174) that this 
holds good both in spring and autumn ; in autumn the order 
of migration is partially reversed. Astounding as the fact is, 
it is nevertheless true that in autumn the birds of the year 
are the first to migrate, birds which, of course, have never mi- 
grated before. This may account for the number of species 
which visit our shores and Heligoland in autumn only. It is 
not to be wondered at that on their first journey, and with- 
out a guide, they should stray somewhat out of the direct 

By long practice the Heligolanders know when to expect 
an arrival of birds. The 12th Oct. was a very unfavourable 
day. There were scarcely half a dozen birds on the island. 
This unfavourable weather had lasted nearly a week. I used 
to take a constitutional round the island with my gun twice 
or thrice a day, spending most of the rest of the time in Mr, 
Gaetke^s studio chatting about his birds, visiting regularly 
Aeuckens the bird-stuffer, to inquire if any one else had had 
better luck. On the 1 1th I shot three Shore-Larks. Aeuckens 
told me that that was a very good sign, that he had often noticed 
that a few birds always preceded the favourable weather, and 
that we might expect a change and plenty of birds soon. 
The next day the west wind slackened a little. In the after- 
noon it was a calm. In the evening Mr. Oaetke advised me to 
go to bed early and be up before sunrise, as birds were ex- 
pected. Accordingly I turned into bed soon after ten. At 
half past twelve I was awoke with the news that the migration 
had already begun. Hastily dressing myself, I at once made 
for the lighthouse. The night was almost pitch dark, but the 
town was all astir. In every street men with large lanterns 
and a sort of angler^s landing-net were "making for the light- 

160 Mr. H. Seebolim on the Ornithology of Heligoland. 

house. As I crossed the potatoe-fields birds were continually- 
getting up at my feet. Arrived at the lighthouse, an in- 
tensely interesting sight presented itself. The whole of the 
zone of light within range of the mirrors was alive with birds 
coming and going. Nothing else was visible in the darkness 
of the night but the lantern of the lighthouse vignetted in 
a drifting sea of birds. From the eastern darkness clouds of 
birds were continually emerging in an uninterrupted stream ; 
a few swerved from their course, fluttered for a moment as 
if dazzled by the light, and then gradually vanished with the 
rest in the western gloom. Occasionally a bird wheeled 
round the lighthouse and then passed on ; and occasionally 
one fluttered against the glass, like a moth against a lamp, 
tried to perch on the wire netting, and was caught by the 
lighthouse-man. I should be afraid to hazard a guess as to 
the hundreds of thousands that must have passed in a couple 
of hours ; but the stray birds that the lighthouse-man suc- 
ceeded in securing amounted to nearly three hundred. The 
scene from the balcony of the lighthouse was equally inter- 
esting. In every direction birds were flying like a swarm of 
bees, and every few seconds one flew against the glass. All 
the birds seemed to be flying up wind ; and it was only on the 
lee side of the light that any birds were caught. They were 
nearly all Skylarks. In the heap captured was one Redstart and 
one Reed- Bunting. The air was filled with the warbling cry of 
the Larks ; now and then a Thrush was heard ; and once a 
Heron screamed as it passed by. The night was starless, and 
the town was invisible ; but the island looked like the out- 
skirts of a gas-lighted town, being sprinkled over with bril- 
liant lanterns. Many of the Larks alighted on the ground 
to rest, and allowed the Heligolanders to pass their nets over 
them. About 3 o^clock a.m. a heavy thunder-storm came on, 
with deluges of rain ; a few breaks in the clouds revealed the 
stars ; and the migration came to an end, or continued above 
the range of our vision. 

But interesting as field-work was on Heligoland, cabinet- 
work in Mr. Gaetke's studio was still more so. There is pro- 
bably no more interesting local collection in the world. Mr. 

Mr. H. Seebohm on the Ornithology of Heligoland. 161 

Gaetke was, of course, delighted to have an opportunity of 
chatting with Mr. Sharpe and myself about his favourite birds, 
and of telling the story of the capture of each. For some un- 
accountable reason the German ornithologists seem to have 
neglected Heligoland ; and Englishmen rarely visit the island. 
Mr. Gaetke takes a justifiable pride in the artistic way in which 
his birds are mounted — all the work of his own hands ; 
but he nevertheless allowed us to take the rarer birds out of 
the cases to measure and describe them, though he some- 
times winced when we ruffled the feathers in the process, 
and chaffed us good naturedly as a couple of ornithological 

The following information may be worth recording in the 
pages of ' The Ibis ' : — 

The bird mentioned in Mr. Cordeaux's paper in ' The Ibis ' 
for 1875 (p. 179, footnote) as a Hypolais with a light band 
across the wing, is Phylloscojms nitidus (Blyth). No Hypo- 
lais nor Acrocephalus has a bar across the wing. The species 
of Phylloscopi with a large and Hypolais-\ike bill, and one 
or two bars across the wing, form a well-marked group or 
subgenus, to which Blasius gave the name of Acanthopneuste. 
Of the thirteen species included in this group, the absence 
of a mesial line upon the crown and the peculiarities of the 
wing-formula restrict the choice to two — P. nitidus and P. 
viridanus. The bright green, approaching verdigris-green, 
of the upper parts, and the delicate lemon-yellow of the un- 
derparts, decide the point in favour of the former species. 
We had Indian skins of both species with us for comparison ; 
and Gaetke, Sharpe, and I all agreed that no doubt whatever 
remains on the question. 

Phylloscopus borealis (Bias.), Ibis, 1875, p. 179, errone- 
ously called Phyllopneuste javanica (Horsf.), Ibis, 1862, p. 66, 
is a well-marked and perfectly undoubted specimen. This 
species has been found recently by Collett in the breeding- 
season in the Porsanger fjord, slightly to the east of the North 
Cape"^, and ought, one would think, to occur much more fre- 
quently upon Heligoland than it does. 

Mr. Gaetke^s work will contain particulars of about five-and- 
* See P. Z. S. Feb. 6, 1877. 

162 Mr. H. Seebohm on the Ornithology of Heligoland. 

twenty specimens of Phylloscopus superciliosus (Gm.) which 
have been shot on the island. It will also contain irre- 
futable evidence that Phylloscojjus proregulus (Pallas) and P. 
coronatus (Temm.) have likewise been shot on the island. 

Iduna salicaria, Pall. (Ibis, 1862, p. 66), or Lusciola ca- 
ligata of Cordeaux (Ibis, 1875, p. 179). Blasius is correct 
in his identification, as the following particulars respecting 
this specimen will prove-: — Hypolais caligata (Licht.) S> 
28th Sept., 1851. Wing 2-35, tail 1*8, culmen -53, bastard 
primary '68. Second primary between the fifth and sixth. 
Two outside and two centre tail-feathers about "1 shorter 
than the longest. 

The second specimen mentioned by Mr. Cordeaux [loc. cit.) 
is Acrocephalus agricola ( Jerdon) ? , 1 2th Jan., 1864. Wing 
2"05, tail 2, culmen "5, bastard primary "4 (very small and . 
pointed, scarcely projecting beyond the outer wing-coverts) . 
Second primary equal to the sixth. Centre tail-feathers 
longest, the two outside ones being '35 shorter. 

The Saxicol(B appear to have been somewhat hastily ex- 
amined, both by Blasius and Cordeaux. Saxicola aur'ita 
auctorum {8. nifescens (Briss.) of Blasius in Ibis, 1862, 
p. 70, and S. albicollis (Vieill.) of Cordeaux in Ibis, 1875, 
p. 179) is represented by a male in breeding-plumage, shot 
12th May 1860, and a male in autumn plumage, shot 26th 
Oct. 1851. 

Saancola stapazina, Linn., of Blasius, in Ibis, 1862, p. 70, 
and Saxicola stapazina, Linnaeus, of Cordeaux, in Ibis, 1875, 
p. 179, by which both writers, no doubt, meant Saxicola 
stapazina auctorum, nee Dresser, is not represented in the 
collection. The two specimens mentioned by Cordeaux are, 
no doubt, two specimens of Saxicola deserti, Riipp., a male 
with black throat, in autumn plumage, shot 26th Oct. 1856, 
and a female without the black throat, also in autumn plu- 
mage, shot 4th Oct. 1855. In both these specimens the 
axillaries are white, with concealed dusky bases, and the black 
at the end of the tail extends for nearly an inch and a half. 

Saxicola leucomela (Pallas) of Cordeaux, Ibis, 1875, p. 179, 
is a fine male, in full breeding-plumage, of Saxicola mo- 

Mr. H, Seebolim on the Ornithology of Heligoland. 163 

rio, Ehr. When the wing is expanded it shows no trace of 

The example of Acrocephalus certhiola (Pallas) agrees ex- 
actly with specimens in Lord Tweeddale^s collection^ except 
that the under surface is somewhat more streaked^ probably 
a sign of immaturity. 

Since Mr. Cordeaux's paper was written a very interesting 
bird has been added to Gaetke's collection^ shot on 22nd June 
1875. It is a Goatsucker, exactly identical with Severtzoff^s 
type of Caprimulgus arenicolor (Ibis, 1875, p. 491) . In the 
British Museum is a skin from Egypt agreeing both with 
Severtzoff's and Gaetke's birds in length of wing and pro- 
portion of primaries. In Capt. Shelley^s collection are skins of 
Caprimulgus agyptius, Licht. (of which C. isabellinus, Temm., 
is a synonym), considerably smaller than the above-named 
birds, and slightly varying in the proportion of primaries; 
but there are also intermediate forms, leading to the inevi- 
table conclusion that C. agyptius, C. isabellinus, and C. are- 
nicolor are synonyms of one species. 

Mot acilla vidua, Sundevall, of Cordeaux, Ibis, 1875, p. 180, 
is incorrectly named. The bird shot 18th May 1866, is an 
undoubted M. lugubris. 

Ruticilla mesoleuca (Hempr. et Ehr.) . There is a fine male 
of this bird, shot 12th June 1864, in the collection. 

Among the examples of Lanius excubitor in Gaetke^s studio 
are two birds which differ from that species in having only 
one instead of two bars on the wing. The basal portion of 
the primaries is white ; but the secondaries are black or dark 
brown throughout, except that at the apex they are more or 
less tipped with white. One bird has no trace of cross-barring 
on the underparts ; but the other bird is slightly barred. 
These birds appear to agree exactly with Pallas^s description 
of Lanius major. In Dresser^s collection and in the British 
Museum are similar skins collected by Robson near Constan- 
tinople. Whether this form be really a distinct species I do 
not pretend to decide. It appears to be intermediate between 
L. excubitor and the American L. borealis. 

The Red-tailed Shrike, identified by Blasius as Lanius 

164 Mr. H. Seebolim ow the Ornithology of Heligoland. 

phoenicurus, Pallas (Ibis^ 1862, p. 66), appears to belong to an 
allied species. Lord Tweeddale, in his article on the Rufous- 
tailed Shrikes (Ibis, 1867, p. 218), suggests that a description 
of this bird should be publislied. I give it as follows : — 

Length of wing 3'56 inches, tail 2*94, tarsus '85. The 
general colour of the upper parts is greyish brown, slightly 
mottled on the crown of the head, fore neck, the hinder 
cheeks, and the rump, caused by brown edgings to the fea- 
thers, possibly the remains of young plumage. An ill-defined 
pale line over the eye. All the wing-feathers more or less 
margined with paler. The primaries conspicuously tipped 
with paler. The third primary in one wing newly moulted, 
and showing the white spot at the base. Tail pale rufous. 
Underparts whitish. Some of the wing-coverts tipped with 
rufous, all with a narrow subterminal line of brown. The 
second primary is "08 shorter than the sixth. The tail is 
even, except that the two outside feathers are "4 shorter than 
the rest. 

After hearing the result of Mr. Gaetke's examination of the 
rufous-tailed Shrikes in the Berlin Museum, and looking over 
the skins in the British Museum and in Dresser^s collection, 
and collating the information given in ' The Ibis,^ 1867, p. 224 
(Walden), ^ Stray Feathers,^ 1873, p. 174 (Hume), 'Eastern 
Persia,^ ii. p. 140 (Blanford), and ' Ibis,^ 1876, p. 187 (Severt- 
zofF), I submit that the Heligoland bird is Lanius isabel- 
linus, Hempr. &Ehr. (]828)=i>. arenarius, Blyth (1846),= 
L. phcenicuroides, Sev. (1876). 

The specimens of Tardus varius (Whitens Thrush) are in 
such perfect plumage, and so artistically mounted, that, in 
spite of the commandment, it makes one quite covetous to 
look at them. 

The example of Turdus rnficoUis agrees exactly in measure- 
ments with skins of that species from Lake Baical in Dresser^s 
collection. It is an immature bird. The tail is olive-brown, 
with a rufous cast, especially on the outermost feathers. The 
shafts of all the tail-feathers are reddish. The under wing- 
coverts and axillaries are light orange buff. 

The skin of Turdus swainsoni is somewhat less yellow on 

Mr. H. Seebohra on the Ornithology of Heligoland. 165 

the throat than the skins of this species in Dresser's collec- 
tion^ which he kindly allowed me to take to Heligoland for 
comparison ; otherwise it agrees exactly. 

Amongst the immature specimens of Carpodacus Mr. Sharpe 
identified both C. roseus and C. erythrinus. 

Of the American species in the collection the two examples 
of Anthus ludovicianus agree exactly with American skins. 
The specimen of Dendi^ceca v'lrens is in very perfect plumage, 
and does not show any signs of having been in captivity. A 
specimen of the American Rice-Bunting [Dolichonyx oryzi- 
vorus) was also shot on the island ; but the wings and tail 
are so much broken that there is every probability of its 
having escaped from a cage. 

There is one example of Charadrius virginicus, and three of 
Charadrius longipes, iii the collection. The two species seem 
to be very distinct. In both the axillaries are ashy grey. In 
C. longipes the wing measures 6'3 inches, the tail 2'4, the 
tarsus 1*7, end of secondaries to end of wing "44 ; the second- 
aries reach within '12 of the end of the third primary; and 
the first and second primaries are of equal length. In C 
virginicus the wing measures 7'6, the tail 2*7, the tarsus 1"8, 
end of secondaries to end of wing 1"85 ; the secondaries reach 
to the end of the fifth primary ; and the first primary is '6 
longer than the second. 

Of the two specimens oiEadromias asiaticus one is adult and 
the other young. In both birds the axillaries are pure white. 

There are several other birds which there is every reason 
to believe have been seen on Heligoland — for example, Em- 
beriza liiteola, Parus kamschatkensis, Phylloscopus fuscatus, 
Phylloscopus tristis, &c. 

The records of the appearance of these birds will find a 
fitting place in Mr. Gaetke's book. The evidence of a marine 
artist, trained to catch a fleeting effect of form and colour 
and fix it in his memory, to be transferred to canvas, is of 
an entirely diff'erent rank to that of the ordinary sportsman 
or collector ; but in an article for a severely scientific journal 
it will be wisest to content ourselves with quoting the witti- 
cism of the ''Old Bushman '': — What is hit is history, ivhat 
is missed is mystery. 


166 Mr. H. Durnford on the Birds of 

XVI. — Notes on the Birds of the Province of Buenos Ay res. 
By Henry Durnford. 

(Plate III.) 

Before commencing these notes, I feel that some apology is 
due to the readers of ' The Ibis ' for several mistakes which 
appeared in my last communication on the birds of this dis- 
trict (Ibis, 1876, p. 157 et seqq.), and which I will endeavour 
to correct in the course of the following remarks. In justice 
to myself I must add that the above-mentioned communica- 
tion was not written with a view to its being published in 
' The Ibis / for a short residence in a new country had not 
enabled me to speak so confidently as I should have liked. 

Baradero, which I shall have occasion to mention frequently, 
is a small town about fifty-three miles further north than the 
city of Buenos Ayres, from which it is distant nearly ninety 
miles in a straight line in a W.N.W. direction. It is situ- 
ated on an arm, or " riacho,^' of the Parana ; but as this arm 
joins the main river at both ends, it is in reality a portion of 
the Parana itself. 

[Mr. Durnford^s nomenclature has been slightly altered to 
correspond with that of our 'Nomenclator Avium Neotro- 
picalium.^ The best general account of the ornithology of 
La Plata is that given in the second volume of Burmeister's 
'Reise in die La Plata-Staaten^ (2 vols, Halle, 1851). In 
the P. Z. S. 1868, p. 138, and 1869, pp. 157, 631, will be 
found three articles on Mr. Hudson's valuable collections 
made near Buenos Ayres, to which references are given below. 
A new revision of the birds of La Plata, with such short cha- 
racters added as would enable observers in that country to 
determine the species, would be a very valuable contribution 
to our science. — Edd.] 

1. TuRDUs LEucoMELAS (Vicill.) ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1868, 
p. 138. 

Resident. In the winter to a certain extent gregarious, and 
common always in the belt of trees and scrub which fringe 
the shore of the La Plata, preferring low land to a more ele- 
vated district. There is a fact about the note of this bird 

the Provitice of Buenos Ayres. 167 

that I am anxious to record. Every one in England is familiar 
with the subdued but querulous chuckle of the Blackbird, 
which it almost invariably utters before leaving the friendly 
shelter of a thick bush. Now, though Turdus leucomelas 
has scarcely any song, certainly nothing that can be com- 
pared to that of a Blackbird, it has exactly this same peculiar 
note, and utters it under precisely the same conditions as 
the Blackbird ; and so much did this coincidence strike me, 
that I thought when I first heard the sound that an escaped 
Blackbird was the author of it. I look upon this as one 
of the many isolated facts which seem to prove descent from 
a common progenitor. Common at Baradero in April. 

2. Turdus rufiventris, Vieill. ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1868, 
p. 138. 

Resident, but never observed in parties like the foregoing 
species. One shot on the 25th May had in its stomach re- 
mains of Coleoptera. Common at Baradero in April. 

3. MiMUs CALANDRiA (Lafr. et D'Orb.); Salv. P. Z. S. 
1868, p. 139. 

A few individuals remain with us all the winter; but the 
greater part are spring and summer visitors. Though it is 
the only bird here that can boast of really having a song, its 
vocal powers are chiefly exercised in imitating the notes of 
other birds, in which it shows great proficiency. Common 
at Baradero in April. 

4. PoLioPTiLA DUMicoLA (Vicill.) ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 
1868, p. 139. 

Observed throughout the year, but not by any means a 
common bird. I found it plentiful at Baradero in April, 
frequenting thickets and low scrub, preferring wet marshy 
spots. Its food consists of small insects. Iris dark wood- 
brown. Legs, feet, and claws black. 

5. Troglodytes furvus (Gm.); Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1869, 
p. 158. 

Resident and abundant everywhere. I stated in my last 
note that this bird lays five eggs. I should have said seven 
or eight. Common at Baradero in April. 

N 2 

168 Mr. H. Durnford on the Bir//s of 

6. CisTOTHORUs PLATENsis (Lath.); Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 
1869, p. 158. 

On the 26th of April last I found several of these birds 
near Lujan bridge amongst the thick tufts of "Paja" grass, 
which there grows in about a foot of Avater. These it is very 
unwilling to leave, and, when flushed, only flies a few yards, 
being very anxious to seek the shelter of another tuft. On 
alighting it clings to a stout blade of grass, thence creej)ing, 
mouse-like, into the thickest part. In its mode of flight it 
resembles Troglodytes furvus, but frequents damper places 
than that bird. In the same marsh where I found it I shot 
Synallawis maluroides and S. sulpkw'ifera. Its food consists 
of small insects chiefly Coleoptera. Legs, feet, and claws 
light brown tinged with slate-colour, undersides lightest. 
Iris wood-brown. 

7. Anthus correndera (Vieill.) ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 
1868, p. 139. 

Resident, found everywhere, and very common. Abun- 
dant up the Parana to Baradero. 

8. Parula pitiayumi (Vieill.) ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1869, 
p. 631. 

I have nothing to add to my former note (Ibis, 1876, p. 
158). The only specimen I have ever seen was one I killed 
on the 29th October 1875. Decidedly rare here. 

9. Progne purpurea (Linn.) ; Scl. P. Z. S. 1872, p. 605. 
The dates of arrival and departure of this bird are about 

the same as those of P. tapera. The young are on the wing 
early in February. Common both in the town and country, 
breeding freely in chinks in walls, under the eaves of houses, 
and holes in trees. Preeminently a homely bird. During 
the summer its loud harsh notes, uttered whilst on the wing, 
may be constantly heard ; but when resting on a telegraph- 
wire or twig of a tree it has quite a pretty little song. 

10. Progne tapera (Linn.) ; Scl. P. Z. S. 1872, p. 606. 
Arrives in September, leaving about the first week in April. 

It is a noisy, garrulous bird, and has a peculiar liabit of rais- 

the Province of Buenos Ayres. 169 

ing its wings over its back in the midst of its aerial evolutions, 
and then dropping some distance through the air before taking 
flight again. In the summer these birds congregate in large 
parties, and seem never tired of circling about the topmost 
branches of some wide-spreading ombo-tree, which is their 
favourite resort. 

11. Petrochelidon pyrrhonota (Vieill.) ; Scl. et Salv. 
Nomencl. p. 14. 

The only occasion on which I have seen this bird was on 
the 25th of March of the present year, when I observed about 
half a dozen at different times during the day, all flying 
steadily in a north-easterly direction. This was about thirty 
miles to the west of Buenos Ayres. From their manner of 
flight, always keeping in the same general course, though 
occasionally turning aside to chase some insect, I have no 
doubt they were migrating : they kept about teu feet from the 
ground. At a distance they are not easy to distinguish from 
Hirundo leucorrlioa ; but on a nearer approach their greater 
size and chocolate throat, but more especially their reddish- 
brown rumps, are clearly discernible. The museum pos- 
sesses one specimen, killed in this neighbourhood. 

12. Hirundo leucorrhoa, Vieill. ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 
1868, p. 139. 

Arrives early (I saw some on the 10th August last year), 
and does not leave us till the middle of April. I speak of 
the main body ; for many birds remain with us all the winter. 
On the 30th July I saw two or three hundred of them in the 
course of a long walk a little to the north of Buenos Ayres. 
It was quite warm and very fine, not at all like winter. 

This is the most common species of Swallow we have, and 
there is scarcely a rancho in the country that has not its one 
or two pairs breeding under the eaves or in the cracks of the 
walls. It also resorts to holes in trees for nesting-purposes. 
Though during cold and dull weather in the winter none are 
visible sometimes for weeks together, a warm bright day 
never fails to attract some from their temporary shelter, wher- 
ever that may be. Pretty common at'Baradero in April. 

170 Mr. H. Dumford on the Birds of 

13. Atticora cyanoleuca (Vieill.) ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 
1869, p. 159. 

Arrives at; the end of September, and generally leaves in 
March ; but this year I observed two, a little north of Buenos 
Ayres, on the 30th of April. This, the smallest species of 
Hirundinidse, always reminds me of the Sand-Martin at home. 
In its habit of flying close to the ground and frequenting the 
neighbourhood of pools and streams, from which it never 
wanders far, it is essentially like that bird. It nests in holes 
in the banks of arroyos, sandj)its, and similar localities. 

14. Stephanophorusleucocephalus (Vieill.); Scl. et Salv. 
P.Z. S. 1869, p. 161. 

Common in winter in flocks, frequenting bushes and low 
trees ; but I have not observed it to the south of Buenos 
Ayres. Its food consists of buds and young shoots. From 
its handsome crimson crest-feathers, and delicate grey and 
pale blue plumage which flanks these, it is one of the most 
beautiful birds we have. Iris wood-brown ; beak blue-black, 
under mandible slightly the lightest ; legs and feet brown- 

15. Tanagra striata (Gm.) ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1868, 
p. 139. 

I have only observed this Tanager here two or three times. 
In February I shot a young bird at Punta Lara, which must 
have been bred there ; and in June and July last I saw several 
birds, both males and females, about thirty miles to the north 
of Buenos Ayres. They seem fond of low damp ground where 
there are plenty of reeds. 

16. GuiRACA GLAUcoc^RULEA (Lafr. et D^Orb.); Scl.etSalv. 
P. Z. S. 1868, p. 139. 

A summer visitor, but rare. I have only seen it once, when 
I met with it in the riverain wood at Punta Lara. 

17. Spermophila ornata (Licht.) ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S, 
1869, p. 632. 

A spring and summer visitor, arriving about the end of 
October and leaving again towards the end of April ; during 

the Province of Buenos Ayr es. 171 

this time it is common everywhere. I have seen the young 
on the wing by the middle of December -, and as I have also 
taken its eggs in January, I have no doubt it has two broods 
in the season. The nest is a very thin and flimsy structure 
of roots, usually placed in a bush four or five feet from the 
ground. The young in their first plumage resemble the adult 

18. Paroaria cucullata (Lath.) ; Scl. et Salv. Nomencl. 
p. 30^. 

I scarcely think this ought to be included in my list, as all 
the specimens I have seen here have probably been birds 
escaped from cages. I found it in April very common up the 
Parana at Baradero, where it frequented thickets and trees. 

19. DoNAcospizA ALBiFRONs (Vicill.) ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 
1869, p. 161. 

Not nearly so common as the next species, and very dif- 
ferent in its habits. I am not sure whether it breeds here, 
having only observed it in the winter. In the marshes, where 
tall reeds and young willow shoots abound, this bird may be 
seen clinging to the highest sprig it can find, or searching 
diligently for insects. Its long tail renders it easily distin- 
guishable ; and in this, its erratic flight, and quick movements 
it closely resembles the Synallaxhia, and, indeed, is generally 
found in the same places as some members of that group. 
Its food consists principally of minute Coleoptera. Iris wood- 
brown ; beak black ; legs and feet pale horn-colour. 

20. PoospizA NiGRORUFA (Lafr. et D^Orb.) ; Scl. et Salv. 
P. Z. S. 1868, p. 140. 

Resident and common in reed-beds and thickets in damp 
marshy ground. Common atBaradero in April. Its bright- 
red colouring and sprightly actions make it one of the most 
conspicuous birds we have. The young in their first plumage 
somewhat resemble the adult female, being dark dusky brown 
above, beneath dusky brown and yellowish white in longi- 

* [A skin of this bird, obtained by Mr. Hudson at Ooncliitas in 1868, 
is in Sclater's collection, but it seems to have been omitted from our 
lists. — Edd.] 

] 72 Mr. H. Durnford on the Birds of 

tudinal strealvs. Generally seen in pairs in tlie winter. Beak 
black ; legs and feet dark yellowish brown. 

21. ZoNOTRicHiA PiLEATA (Bodd.) ; Scl. ct Salv. P. Z. S. 
1868, p. 139. 

Occurs abundantly everywhere^ both in town and country. 
Very common at Baradero in April, I stated in my last 
communication that four eggs was the number usually laid ; 
I should have said five. 

22. Embernagra platensis (Gm.) ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 
1868, p. 140. 

Resident and common here and up the Parana to Baradero. 
Its favourite resort is thick reed-beds. Its flight. is laboured, 
and its tail so long that it droops, giving one the idea of being 
too heavy for it. A few at Baradero in April. 

23. Chrysomitris barbata (Mol.) ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 
1868, p. 140. 

Observed from the beginning of September to the end of 
May. They are generally seen in flocks, and in the neigh- 
bourhood of trees or low scrub. They have a habit of hang- 
ing, Tit-like, from a twig. Their food consists of small seeds, 
and, judging from their fondness for the large thistle, chiefly 
of the seed of that plant. 

24. Sycalis luteola (Sparrm.) ; Scl. Ibis, 1872, p. 44. 
Resident and generally distributed, usually living on the 

ground, and in the winter going in enormous flocks ; on these 
occasions, when they all rise at once, the noise of their wings 
is like the rustling breeze. The flocks are composed of both 
sexes, and move in a northerly direction during the cold 
weather, though they never entirely leave us. The female 
is less brightly attired than the male; and the young at 
first resemble the female. The males are much valued as 

25. Sycalis pelzelni, Sclater, Ibis, 1872, p. 42. 
Resident. This bird is readily distinguishable from the 

last mentioned by its superior size ; and the males can always 
be identified by their bright orange foreheads ; the females 

the Province of Buenos Ay res. 173 

are of a more sombre plumage. Like S. luteola, many 
move in a northerly direction in winter^ at which season both 
sexes congregate in enormous flocks. On the 17th April of 
this year I witnessed a vast migratory body of this species 
whilst steaming down the riacho of Baradero. The flight 
continued for upwards of an hour^ crossing the river from 
south to north ; and during that time it was not possible to 
look in any direction without seeing hundreds of birds. They 
are a more tree-loving species than S. luteola, and, sometimes 
at least, parasitical in their breeding-habits. On the 17th 
October I took a nest with one egg from a nest of Furnarius 
rufus, which the Finch had relined for its own use, and shot 
the old male bird whilst standing in the doorway of its ap- 
propriated home. A friend of mine has taken the eggs from 
a nest of Synallaxis. An adult male shot on the 6th of April 
is — total length 5'3 inches, beak 3, tarsus 6. Forehead bright 
orange. Head above, neck above and on sides greenish yel- 
low, centre of feathers darkest. Throat and neck below chest, 
stomach, and under tail-coverts bright canary-yellow. Back 
dark greenish yellow, centre of feathers nearly black. Upper 
tail-coverts yellowish green. Primaries dark brown, all but 
the first slightly edged with pale yellow ; first and third of 
equal length, second rather the longest. The outer webs of 
the second, third, fourth, and fifth become narrower towards 
their extremities. Under wing-coverts canary-yellow. Tail 
twelve feathers, nearly black, edged with yellow. 

An adult female, shot on the same day, is slightly smaller 
than the male. Head, neck, and back dull brown, centre of 
feathers darkest. Upper tail-coverts dark greenish brown. 
Throat dirty white, with a tinge of yellow at the corner of 
base of lower mandible. Chest light brown, with a tinge of 
dull white. Stomach dull white, towards the sides light 
brown. Flanks light brown. Under tail-coverts dirty white, 
base of feathers with a tinge of yellow. Primaries dark brown, 
slightly edged with pale yellow, chiefly on the inner webs ; 
the basal half of the inner webs of these feathers is pale 
primrose-yellow. Greater Aving-coverts dark brown, very 
slightly edged with pale yellow ; lesser wing-coverts greenish 

174 Mr. H. Durnford on the Birds of 

yellow, with a tinge of grey. Under wing-coverts pale canary- 

The young in their first plumage somewhat resemble the 
adult female, but have less yellow about them. 

26. MoLOTHRUs RUFOAXiLLARis,Cassinj Scl.etSalv. P. Z. S. 
1868, p. 140. 

Though I have never had the good fortune to obtain this 
bird, I have twice been able to identify it, in October and 
again in May. It resembles M. bonariensis at a little dis- 
tance ; but the red patch on the elbow, when it is near enough 
to be seen, affords a ready means of distinguishing the two 

27. MoLOTHRUs BONARIENSIS (Gm.) ; Scl. ct Salv. P. Z. S. 
1868, p. 140. 

Mr. Hudson^s researches on the genus which includes this 
bird are very exhaustive (P. Z. S. 1870, p. 671, 1874, p. 153) ; 
and my limited experience agrees with his accounts. I strongly 
recommend any one who takes any interest in the instincts of 
birds to read Mr. Hudson's papers. M. bonariensis is a very 
common and generally distributed species, in the Avinter going 
in large flocks. 

28. MoLOTHRUs RADIUS (Vieill.) ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1868, 
p. 140. 

Resident but not so numerous as the last species, and gene- 
rally seen in small flocks. 

29. Agel^us thilius (Mol.) ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1869, 
p. 159. 

Resident and common throughout the province, flocking 
in large numbers in the autumn and winter. It frequents 
open country, preferring that which is low and swampy. 
Common at Baradero in April. 

30. Amblyramphus holosericeus (Scop.) ; Scl. et Salv. 
P. Z. S. 1869, p. 161. 

Resident and common in reed-beds and marshes, but more 
numerous in the summer than winter. It has a loud clear 

the Province of Buenos Ayres. 175 

whistling note, and feeds on aquatic plants. I found it com- 
mon at Baradero in April. 

31. PsEUDOLEisTES viREscENS (Vieill.); Scl. et Salv. P.Z. S. 
1868, p. 140. 

I have only observed this bird here in April ; but it probably 
remains all the year a little to the north of the city. It goes 
in flocks, and frequents bushes on low damp land. Pretty 
common at Baradero in April. 

32. Leistes superciliaris, Bp.; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1868, 
p. 140. 

Resident and common both here and up the Parana. It 
frequents low marshy land, in the winter congregating in 
flocks of considerable size. It has a curious habit of rising 
almost perpendicularly in the air to chase some passing in- 
sect, and dropping again as suddenly to the thistle or tuft of 
grass on which it had been perching. The young in their 
first plumage diff'er entirely from adult birds. The former 
are light and dark brown above, instead of dull black as in 
the adult, and lack all signs of the brilliant scarlet of the 
throat and breast ; they show, however, a faint trace of pink 
on the elbows, and have the white transocular line as in the 
adult. A few seen at Baradero in April. 

33. Sturnella defilippii, Bp. ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1869, 
p. 161. 

Very common and generally distributed. In the winter 
they congregate in enormous flocks. 

34. Myiotheretes rufiventris (Vieill.) ; Scl. et Salv. 
P. Z.S. 1868, p. 141. 

A winter visitor, but rare. On the 25th of March I saw a 
single bird at Moreno, and on the 25tli of May I shot a spe- 
cimen at Punta Lara. In the air its long, pointed, almost 
Plover-like wing, and on the ground its bold upright position, 
are sufficient to establish its identity. Its habits seem gene- 
rally like those of the other Tceniopterce ; and it is always in 
a restless state, flitting from a clod of earth to the top of a 
thistle, or making a sudden dart at some passing insect. The 

176 Mr. H. Durnford un the Birds of 

stomach of the one I shot contained a large hairy caterpillar 
and some remains of Coleoptcra. Beak^ legs^ feet^ and claws 
black. Iris wood-brown. 

35. TiENioPTERA coRONATA (Vicill.) ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 

1868, p. 141. 

Common in April at Baradero, and seen here in May and 
June. In its habits and food it resembles the other T(£7ii- 
opterce, and seems fond of going in small flocks. Beak, 
legs, and feet black ; iris wood-brown. 

36. TiENioPTERA DOxMiNiCANA (Vieill.) ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 

1869, p. 633. 

llesident, I believe, but rare. It is generally found iu 
flocks; and I have only observed it twice, on the .25th May 
and 30th July. It, like other Tceniopterce, is a restless bird, 
always fly- catching or playing. Individuals vary much in 
plumage, from grey to Avhite on the back and uuderparts. 
Their food consists of larvae and Coleoptcra, Beak, legs, and 
feet black. Iris wood-brown. 

37. SisoPYGis iCTEROPHRYS (YiciU.) ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 
1868, p. 141. 

Not uncommon from October to the end of February. I 
also met with a few examples about the 10th of August. 

38. LicHENOPS PERSPiciLLATus (Gm.) ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 
1868, p. 141. 

Though I have no doubt about the specific identity of the 
black- and red-plum aged birds, there are one or two points 
which seem to favour the view of their being distinct. The 
black-plumaged birds in the summer are decidedly more nu- 
merous than the red-plumaged ones ; and in winter the propor- 
tion is at least eight to one. I can only suppose that there is a 
partial migration of the females. I have several times flushed 
the red-plumaged bird from the nest, but the black bird 

(J . Beak pale primrose-yellow, inside of mouth paler. 
Iris and naked skin round the eye primrose-yellow, but the 
skin round the eye paler in the female than the male. Legs, 
feet, and claws in both sexes black. 

the Province of Buenos Ayres. 177 

? . Upper mandible dark horn-colour between the nos- 
trils, and from there to the corner of the mouth dull primrose- 
yellow. Under mandible, tip horn-colour, fading into prim- 
rose-yellow towards the base. Inside of mouth very pale 
horn- colour, with a tinge of yellow under the tongue. This 
species is common at Baradero in April, but only black- 
plumaged birds are seen. 

39. Machetornis rixosa (Vieill.) ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 
1868, p. 143. 

Spring visitor, arriving in August ; but it does not seem to 
be a common bird. 

40. Centrites NIGER (Bodd.) ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1868, 
p. 142. 

Autumn and winter visitor, and common on open camp- 
land. Common at Baradero in April. 

41. Hapalocercus flaviventris (Lafr. et D'Orb.) ; Scl. et 
Salv. P.Z.S. 1869, p. 160. 

Having only observed this bird from October to April, I 
suppose it is a summer visitor. Between these months it is 
common in the riverain wood and in low damp places where 
the reeds aflPord any cover. Plentiful at Baradero in April. 

42. Serpophagasubcristata (Vieill.); Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 
1868, p. 142. 

Resident and abundant everywhere. Common at Baradero 
in April. 

43. Serpophaga nigricans (Vieill.) ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 
1868, p. 142. 

Resident, but not so common as the last-named species. 
I have always found this bird amongst the bushes and thick 
growth of sauce- and ceiba trees near the river. 

44. Cyanotis AZAR^ (Licht.); Scl. et Salv. P.Z.S. 1869, 
p. 159. 

Resident and common in reed-beds, generally found where 
there is a foot or so of water. It has a low piping note, which 
it constantly utters whilst busily hunting over the reeds for 
insects. Common at Baradero in April. 

178 Mr. H. Durnford on the Birds of 

45. Myiodynastes solitarius (Vieill.) ; Scl. et Salv. Nom. 
p. 50. 

A summer visitor, but not common. Shot in November 
at Punta Lara, and seen in February near Belgrano. 

46. PiTANGUS BELLicosus (Vicill.) ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 
1868, p. 142. 

The familiar cry of " Bien te veo " may be heard all the 
year round, but most commonly in the spring and summer, 
when the birds are engaged with their nests or young. It is 
an early breeder. I have found fresh eggs in the middle of 
October ; and it probably has two broods in the year. It 
makes a large domed nest of twigs, wool, hair, and thistle- 
down, lining it thickly with feathers. Plentiful in April at 

47. Pyrocephalus rubineus (Bodd.); Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 
1868, p. 142. 

"Chirinchi." An early spring visitor, arriving in Sep- 
tember, leaving in April, and during their stay here very nu- 
merous. The young are on the wing by the middle of Jan- 
uary, and in their first plumage resemble somewhat the adult 
female, having scarcely a trace of red beneath. The old birds 
leave us at the beginning of February, the young remaining 
till the middle of April. Two observed near Baradero in 

48. Tyrannus melancholicus, Vieill. ; Scl. et Salv. /. s. c. 
Spring and summer visitor, arriving in November and leav- 
ing in April. 

49. MiLVULUs tyrannus (Linn.) ; Scl. et Salv. Nomencl. 
p. 53. 

Arrives in October and leaves early in April. The nest is 
strongly made of grass and reeds, lined with roots, and is 
placed in the fork of a low tree : though it has no mud about 
it, it is always quite hard inside. 

50. Geositta cunicularia (Vieill.) ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S, 
1868, p. 140. 

One can scarcely take a ride in the country here without 

the Province of Buenos Ayres. 179 

being aware, before having gone a great distance, of a small 
and active bird which, constantly keeps flitting just in front 
of your horse, every now and then alighting on a clod of 
earth, but off again before you have reached it. It lives on 
the ground, like our familiar little Wheatear, and constantly 
flits its tail up and down ; it also has a habit, like that bird, 
of sometimes taking short quick runs and stopping as sud- 
denly as it started. Resident here. Pretty common at Ba- 
radero in April. 

51. TuRNARius RUFUs (Gm.) ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1868, 
p. 140. 

Resident and common throughout the year. One of the 
most homely birds we have, there being scarcely a rancho or 
hut in the campo that has not got its pair of Oven-birds. It 
has a loud and rather melodious whistle, which it constantly 
utters, but especially in the spring when its nest is threatened. 
During the winter it is busily engaged in repairing its nest for 
the ensuing spring. It usually lays in October ; but its breed- 
ing-habits are rather irregular. Common at Baradero in 

53. CiNCLODEs ruscus (Vieill.) ; Scl. et Salv. /. s. c. 

I spent nine days in quarantine a year ago last March on 
Flores Island, at the mouth of the river Plate and about twenty 
miles from Montevideo ; and during that time this was the 
only land-bird which inhabited that lonely spot, though a 
flock of " Chorlos " {Eudromias modest a) paid us a flying 
visit one morning. It feeds on small larvae and insects, and 
is fond of rough ground, where there is little herbage, in the 
neighbourhood of water, I have observed it in this district 
from March to the end of July ; whether it breeds here or 
not I do not know. In the winter it generally goes in small 
parties, sometimes in large flocks. Common at Baradero in 

53. Phlceocryptes melanops (Vieill.), 
Synallaxis melanops, Scl. et Salv, I. s. c. 
Resident, and the commonest of the marsh-loving Synal- 
laxinae. They frequent reed-beds, especially where there is 

180 Mr. H. Durnford on the Birds of 

a pretty thick growth of "sauce" or willow shoots ; and against 
one of these Avillow shoots, six or eight inches above the water, 
is constructed an oval nest of mud and reeds, lined with a 
few feathers and hair, the opening in the side ; it is fastened 
to its suj)port by reeds. The female lays five eggs, in colour 
uniform light blue. Common at Baradero in April. Iris 

54. Leptasthenura ;egithaloides (Kittl.) ; Scl. et Salv. 
P. Z. S. 1869, p. 632. 

On the 2nd July of this year (1876) I saw a single bird in 
an ombo tree at Belgrano ; it was busily hunting over every 
twig and leaf in a Tit-like fashion, and uttered a low piping 
note. It is the only example I have seen here ; but I believe 
it not uncommon up the Parana. 

55. Synallaxis albescens, Temm. ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 

1868, p. 141. 

On the 11th July, 1876, I shot a male bird at Las Conchas. 
It frequented low bushes and reeds by the river, and was the 
only one seen. Its stomach contained small insects, chiefly 

Upper mandible dark horn-colour, base pale flesh-colour. 
Under mandible pale flesh-colour. Legs and feet pale brown. 
Iris fulvous brown. 

56. Synallaxis sulphurifera, Burm.; Scl. et Salv. P.Z. S. 

1869, p. 632. 

Resident, and not very uncommon in reed-beds, frequent- 
ing much the same places as Limnornis cwvirostris. I have 
generally found several in the same locality. Iris wood- 

57. Synallaxis maluroides, D'Orb. ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 
1868, p. 141. 

Resident but rare. Frequents beds of low reeds and thick 
" paja " grass in marshy places. The notes of S. sulphurifera 
and ^. maluroides are much alike — cree cree, uttered in a high 
key. I have not observed this bird where the reeds grow 
more than two or three feet high ; and it frequents the same 

the Province of Buenos Ay res. 181 

situations as Cistothorus platensis. Its food, like that of the 
other small SynallaxinsB; consists of minute insects, chiefly 
Coleoptera. Iris primrose-yellow. 

58. Anumbiusacuticaudatus (Less.); Scl. etSalv. P. Z. S. 
1868, p. 141. 

Synallaxis major, Gould. 

The Synallaxinse are largely represented in Buenos Ayres ; 
and, with the exception of the present species, all the mem- 
bers have nearly similar habits. To a stranger nothing is 
more striking on his arrival here than the large and untidy- 
looking masses of sticks, one or more of which may be seen in 
most of the trees of any height. These nests are altogether 
out of proportion to the number of birds ; but as they are 
strongly built, and last for years, their number may be easily 
accounted for. They are of enormous dimensions for the 
size of the bird, and consist of two rooms, a passage leading 
from the upper to the lower. The upper one is used, more 
or less, all the year round for roosting in ; and the owners are 
generally busily engaged in repairing their nests whenever 
they are not taken up with eggs or young. 

I am not aware when poplar trees were first introduced 
into this country ; but their introduction has caused a con- 
siderable revolution in the habits of this bird. From its short 
wings it is evidently not fitted for a long sustained flight ; and 
yet the proportion of birds that build in poplars in preference 
to any other tree is at least ten to one ; and these are natu- 
rally the highest trees in the country. Nor is this all : the 
motto of this bird is " Excelsior ; " and as the poplars increase 
in height the Seiiateros become more ambitious, and it is now 
quite a common sight to see two or more nests in the same 
tree, the highest seventy or eighty feet from the ground. 
Whenever the bird wishes to ascend to its nest, it starts 
from the ground at just sufficient distance from the nest to 
enable it, by taking a gradual curve, to just fetch the de- 
sired spot ; and if it fails to do this, it reaches it by hopping 
upwards from bough to bough ; for it is quite unable to turn 
in its flight, or to rise except by a gradual upward motion. 

SER. IV, VOL. I. o 

182 Mr. H. Durnford on the Birds of 

The ultimate result of this may be a race of Synallaxinae "with 
longer aucl stronger wings, and, by correlative growth, a larger 
bird altogether ; thus from the present short-winged, heavy- 
bodied bird will probably be developed a larger and stronger 
form, with greater powers of flight. The tail of this bird is 
always much abraded, doubtless from being in such constant 
contact with the nest. 

59. LiMNORNis cuRViRosTRis, Gould ; Scl. et Salv. /. s. c. 

I am at a loss to understand how this bird could have es- 
caped the observation of naturalists till Mr. Darwin^s visit 
to South America. It is, certainly, only found in certain 
spots ; but in these it is quite common. Amongst the thick 
reed-beds bordering the La Plata, which sometimes extend 
for some miles inland, L. cu7'virostris may always be found. 
Like the last-named species, it has a very inquisitive dispo- 
sition, and never allows an intruder in its neighbourhood 
without protesting in loud and angry cries. This note or, 
rather, notes it is not easy to describe ; they are a series of 
harsh chatterings, and can be heard at a great distance. Be- 
sides this it has another note, a sort of subdued low jarring, 
just like our little Sedge- Warbler^s note ; and this it utters 
when completely hidden by the reeds. Like that bird, too, 
if a clod of earth or stone be thrown amongst the reeds near 
it, it can always be provoked to rattle away. It is a true 
reed-bird, and lives near the ground in the thickest reed-beds. 
If alarmed, or its curiosity excited, it creeps upwards by a 
series of short jerky movements high enough to seethe object 
of its dislike, and then commences its loud angry screams. 
It is rarely found away from these reed-beds, and seems 
always anxious to seek their shelter. It seldom takes wing, 
and never flies far ; in the air it resembles the Synallaxinse, 
and sometimes while flying spreads its tail, I have generally 
seen it in pairs, both winter and summer. Its food consists 
of small insects, chiefly spiders. Iris chocolate. Upper man- 
dible dark slate-colour, under one flesh-colour. Legs and 
feet pale slate. 

the Province of Buenos Ay res. 183 

60. Phacellodomus ruber (Vieiil.) ; Scl. et Salv. /. s. c. 

Though I have only seen this bird in the springs I am in- 
clined to think that it is at least partially resident. It fre- 
quents the thick plantations of reeds, '' sauce/^ and " ceiba " 
trees in the riverain wood, but, from its skulking habits, is not 
often seen. 

61. Phacellodomus frontalis (Licht.) ; Scl. et Salv. No- 
mencl. p. 65. 

Like the last species, I have only seen this bird in the 
spring, with the exception of one example shot in April of 
this year. It breeds in October; and when sitting, the old 
bird will allow herself to be taken on the nest. It feeds on 
minute insects, and seems especially fond of spiders, which 
abound in the reed-beds and thickets it frequents. In flight 
it somewhat resembles the Synallaxinae, and altogether, from 
its habits, would seem to be closely related to the genus Syn- 
allaxis, I have also met with it in August. Iris orange- 
yellow ; legs and feet very pale slate ; upper mandible dark 
horn-colour, lower mandible like legs. 

On the 14th April I shot a bird at Baradero which would 
seem to be referable to this species, but differs a little from 
any I have seen. Its underparts are lighter than in any I 
have examined ; and the edges of the under mandible for three 
quarters of its length from the base are orange-yellow. 

Belgrano bird, Baradero bird, 

11th April, 1876. 14th April, 1876. 

Total length .... 6-2 5*0 

Beak -6 -4 

Tarsus '7 "7 

Iris orange-yellow. dark wood-brown. 

62. Thamnophilus argentinus. Cab. ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 
1868, p. 141. 

Spring and summer visitor, but occasionally seen in the 
winter. It has an exceedingly loud jarring note, somewhat 
resembling that of Troglodytes furvus , and for its size makes 
an almost incredible noise. For some time I could not make 
out what bird it was I constantly heard in the thickest cover 

o 2 

184 Mr. H. Durnford on the Birds of 

of tala, sauce, and reeds, which grow abundantly in the 
riverain wood ; but I soon found that I had only to stand still 
for a few moments, and the inquisitive disposition of this bird 
overpowered its fear of man. It is more sluggish in its move- 
ments than either Phacellodomus ruber or P. frontalis, but, 
with this exception, seems to resemble them closely in its 
habits. Its food consists of small insects, principally Cole- 
optera. Iris light fulvous ; upper mandible dark horn-colour ; 
under mandible, legs, and feet pale slate. 

63. Calliperidia FURCiFERA (Shaw) ; Scl.etSalv. Nomencl. 
p. 90. 

Our three Humming-birds are all summer visitors, a few 
remaining during the winter. This species is the most un- 
common, but is occasionally seen in the riverain wood, and, 
like the other two, may generally be found hovering over 
the flowers of the ceiba tree, a species of Acacia. I ob- 
served one on the 29th of July last, at Belgrano railway-sta- 
tion, perched on a telegraph-wire ; the day was very warm 
and bright. ? . Beak dark brown. 

64. Hylocharis sapphirina (Gm.) y Scl. et Salv. /. c. p. 93. 
Common in the summer. Beak light flesh-colour, tip very 

dark brown. 

65. Chlorostilbon splendidus, Vieill. ; Elliot, Ibis, 1875, 
p. 165. 

The commonest species of Humming-bird we have, and 
abundant in the summer. I saw one specimen on a bright 
warm day the beginning of last June in a sheltered garden 
near the river ; but it is unusual to see them in the winter. 
, They feed chiefly from the flowers of the ceiba tree ; and the 
stomach of one shot on the Tth March contained fragments 
of minute Coleoptera. Beak dark flesh-colour, three quarters 
of upper mandible from the tip black. 

66. Antrostomus parvulus (Gould). 

Resident, but probably, from its shy and retiring disposi- 
tion, considered rarer than it really is. Like our Nightjar, 
it frequents open spots in sheltered coppices or banks under 

the Province oj Buenos Ayres. 185 

a sheltering hedge of thorn, and may generally be found in 
the same place from day to day, coming out about dusk in 
quest of moths and other insects. 

Q7. Hydropsalis furcifera (Vieill.) ; Scl. et Salv. No- 
mencl. p. 96. 

Hitherto I have obtained no specimen of this bird, though 
I have constantly observed it in the spring and autumn. It 
lives on the ground, generally in damp situations and where 
the grass is long and thick enough to afford some slight 
cover. I have always observed it in jsarties of four or five 
individuals. Its flight is noiseless, and performed by jerky 
erratic movements ; when on the ground it always squats in- 
stead of standing. 

68. Campephilus BoiiEi (Wagler) ; Scl. et Salv. Nomencl. 
p. 98. 

Resident, and common to the north o£ Buenos Ayres and 
on the banks of the Parana to Baradero. 

69. Ceryle AMERICANA (Liuu.) ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 
1869, p. 160. 

Not uncommon about the creeks and streams at the mouth 
of the Parana. Common at Baradero in April. 

70. GuiRA PiRiRiGUA (Vicill.); Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1868, 
p. 142. 

A few remain with us all the winter ; but the majority leave 
after the breeding-time. They have two broods in the season. 
Their usual note is a succession of harsh screams ; but they 
also have a rather musical note, which is uttered in two keys, 
and is something like the Curlew^s note at home. Their food 
consists of snails, slugs, bits of meat or offal — in fact, almost 
any thing. In some of their habits and manner of flight they 
resemble our common Magpie at home, never flying far with- 
out alighting, and generally keeping together in small parties. 
During cold and cloudy weather in winter they are rarely 
seen ; but a bright warm day seems to endue them with fresh 
life and activity. 

186 Mr. H. Durnford on the Birds of 

71. CoccYzus MELANOCORYPHUS (VieiU.) ; Scl. et Salv. 
P. Z. S. 1869, p. 633. 

A spring and summer visitor. Most common about the 
riverain wood. I have not observed Coccyzus cinereus in 
this neighbourhood. 

72. CoNURUs PATAGONUs (Vicill.) ; Sol. et Salv. Nomencl. 
p. 111. 

Hesident, and not uncommon wherever there is a tosca- 
cliiF of sufficient height for nesting-purposes. In the clefts 
of this it breeds. It feeds chiefly on buds and the seed of the 
sena-sena, a species of Acacia, very common here. 

73. BoLBORHYNCHUs MONACHUs (Bodd.) ; Fiusch, Papag. 
ii. p. 115. 

Last winter I observed two of these birds about ninety miles 
to the south of Buenos Ayres, where they are well known and 
often seen. Specimens are sometimes seen near the city ; but 
are probably escaped birds^ as it is very commonly kept there in 
confinement. Unlike all other Parrots here, this bird builds 
in trees a large structure of sticks, instead of nesting in holes 
in steep cliffs. 

74. Otus brachyotus (Forst.) ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1868, 
p. 143. 

Resident and generally distributed. Usually seen about 
dusk, when it sallies out from amongst the thistles or coarse 
grass where it has been concealed during the day. 

75. Pholeoptynx cunicularia (Mol.) ; Scl. et Salv. /. ,s. c. 
Resident and very common in the spring, retiring to the 

campo to breed, and, as the winter approaches, coming close to 
the towns and villages. When necessary it burrows a hole for 
itself, but makes use of Viscacha holes when possible. They 
are seen during the day and about dusk, and have a curious 
and pretty habit of rising almost perpendicularly from the 
stone or clod of earth on which they have been perching, 
and toying or playing with each other in the air. Their prin- 
ri})al food is mice. Common at Baradero in April. 

the Province of Buenos Ayr es. 187 

7Q. Strix flammeAj Linn. 

iNTocturnalj and more often heard than seen. For nesting 
it takes possession of Pigeon-cots^ or resorts to holes in steep 
banks^ where it screeches at night like our White Owls at 

77. Circus cinereus (Vieill.) ; Scl. et Salv. I. s. a. 
Rarely seen so far north as the city^ but occasionally oc- 
curring here. Legs, feet, and iris orange. 

78. AsTURiNA pucHERANi, Scl. ct Salv. Ex. Om. p. 177, et 
P. Z. S. 1869, p. 634. 

Resident and common. A sluggish lazy bird, fond of shady 
secluded places ; it may always be found in the riverain wood, 
appearing almost as motionless as the stump or bough on 
which it is perched. Its food consists of rats, mice, frogs, 
and sometimes grasshoppers. In the immature bird the 
iris is grey with a tinge of yellow ; cere, legs, and feet pale 
orange. In the adult the iris is pale orange ; cere, legs, and 
feet dark orange. The plumages of the immature and adult 
birds also differ exceedingly ; but their changes are now well 

79. BuTEO ALBicAUDATUs, Vicill. ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 
1869, p. 634. 

Resident and not uncommon. It has a curious whistling 
note, which it constantly utters while on the wing. Iris light 
reddish brown. Cere flesh-colour. Beak pale slate, tip 
darker. Legs and feet pale orange. 

80. Hypotriorchis femoralis (Temm.) ; Scl. et Salv. 
P. Z. S. 1868, p. 143. 

Winter visitor, but not common — the only specimen I have 
obtained being an adult female, shot by a friend on the 16th 
of last July. The female is larger than the male ; and the 
colours of her plumage are not so clear and well defined. 
The stomach of this specimen contained the remians of a 
small bird. Cere pale lead-colour. Iris dark brown. Legs 
and feet very pale orange. 

188 Mr. H. Durnford on the Birds of 

81. TiNNUNcuLus sPARVERius (Linti.) ; Scl. et Salv. l.s. c. 

Autumn and winter visitor, occurring in considerable num- 
bers. It has an exceedingly rapid and dashing flight. Its 
food consists of mice and small birds. Pretty common at 
Baradero in April. 

82. Elanus LEUcuRus (Vieill.); Scl. et Salv. P.Z. S. 1869, 
p. 160. 

Resident, but not common. This is one of our handsomest 
birds, being very conspicuous from its lofty aerial flight. It 
sometimes remains circling in the air for a long time together. 
I found a few at Baradero in April. Iris light reddish brown. 
Legs and cere pale orange. Beak black. 

83. RosTRHAMUs sociABiLis (Vieill.) ; Scl. et Salv. /. s. c. 
Resident and not uncommon in marshes and swamps. On 

the wing its white tail-coverts are an unfailing mark for dis- 
tinguishing the species. Its food consists of water-moUusks ; 
and its strong hooked upper mandible is admirably adapted 
for extracting the soft portions from their shells ; from this 
habit it has gained the name of "Aguila de caracoles.'^ Iris 
crimson; beak dark lead-colour; legs orange. As it in- 
creases in age its beak becomes l)lack and its legs a darker 

84. POLYBORUS THARUS (Mol.) ; P. Z. S. 1869, p. 634. 
Resident and abundant. Feeds indiscriminately on lizards, 

dead flsh, and any carrion. Common at Baradero in April. 

85. MiLVAGO CHiMANGO (Vieill.) ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 
1868, p. 143. 

Resident and more numerous than P. tharus. During the 
winter a partial migratory movement takes place in a north- 
erly direction. They nest both on the ground and in low 
trees or bushes, building a large structure of twigs and sticks, 
lined with wool and hair. Common at Baradero in April. 

86. Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Licht.) ; Scl. et Salv. 
P. Z. S. 1868, p. 146. 

Resident and common both in the river and large lagunas 
in the campo. Seen at Baradero in April, 

the Province of Buenos Ayres. 189 

87. Ardea cocoi, Linn. ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1869, p. 634. 
Resident and the commonest Heron here. Common at 

Baradero in April. 

88. Ardea egretta, Gm.; Scl. et Salv. Nomencl. p. 135. 
Not so numerous as the next mentioned, and, like that bird, 

in dry seasons not seen for months together. Iris dark orange. 
Legs dark lead-colour. 

89. Ardea candidissima, Gm. ; Scl. et Salv. /. s. c. 

Resident; but its absence or presence is very much de- 
pendent on the amount of rain we have. Iris pale yellow ; 
legs dark lead-colour. 

90. Ardetta involucris (Vieill.) ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 
1869, p. 635 ; Hudson, P. Z. S. 1875, p. 623. 

Probably resident, though I have only observed it in the 
spring. It frequents the thickest reed-beds, and is very shy. 
When flushed it has a frightened hurried flight, and always 
drops again before flying far. Iris pale orange, the centre 
rather lighter; legs light pea-green; beak yellowish green. 
The young are at first covered with quite black down. 

91. Nycticorax obscurus, Bp. ; Scl. et Salv, Nomencl. 
p. 136. 

Resident, and more generally distributed than the last- 
named species. Feeds chiefly on flsh. Iris dull crimson ; 
upper mandible and tip of lower one black, remainder of lower 
mandible yellowish green ; legs light pea-green, undersides 
with a tinge of yellow. 

92. CicoNiA MAGUARi, Gm.; Scl. et Salv. Nomencl. p. 126. 
Resident, and generally very common ; but during the dry 

season very few are seen. In December last I saw two birds 
of the year at Punta Lara barely able to fly ; these may have 
been bred there. Common at Baradero in April. 

93. Falcinellus igneus (Gm). 

Ibis falcinellus, Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1868, p. 145. 

Resident, though more numerous in the winter than sum- 
mer, very common, and generally distributed. Eminently 
gregarious in its habits, and flying in a large body in a V- 
shaped form. My statement that they feed on carrion should 

190 Mr. H. Durnford on the Birds of 

be modified, as I have since found freshwater moUusks in 
their stomachs. All I have shot have a strong, oflFensive smell. 
Iris light reddish brown. Common at Baradero in April in 
large flocks. 

94. Theristicus melanopis (Gm.). 

Ibis albicollis, Burm. La Plata-Reise, ii. p. 510. 

A winter visitor, arriving in May and leaving in October. 
I have not observed it north of this city. Its long, curved 
beak suggests an affinity to the Curlew ; but I have never seen 
it except on comparatively dry ground, and its habits are 
quite different from theirs. It is usually found in small 
parties, whose harsh cries can be heard at a great distance. 
Its flight is easy and powerful, and generally performed at a 
considerable height in the air. It feeds on grubs and large 

95. Platalea ajaja, Linn. ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1869, 
p. 145. 

A winter visitor, going in flocks. Feeds on soft-bodied water- 
insects and grubs. Generally distributed. A few at Bara- 
dero in April. 

96. Chauna chavaria (Linn.) ; Scl. et Salv. Nom. p. 128. 
Resident and very common. The breeding-habits of this 

species are curious. On the 24th June (our midwinter) I 
was shooting with a friend, who found a nest containing eggs ; 
and on the 28th the same thing happened again in a different 
place. On the latter occasion the bird was seen to leave the 
nest. One egg taken is exactly like some I obtained last 
October^. The nest is a massive structure of reeds, about two 
feet in diameter, and from one to two feet in thickness. The 
bottom of the nest is always in the water. Common at Ba- 
radero in April. 

97. Bernicla poLiocEPHALA, Scl. ct Salv. P. Z. S. 1876, 
p. 366. 

Common in winter about fifty miles to the south of the 

[* We hope INIr. Dm-nford will forward to England some specimens of 
the egg of Chauna, as they might assist in explaining the enigma of its 
correct position in tlie natm'al series. — Edd.] 

the Province of Buenos Ay res. 191 

city; and I observed it last year, when we had unusually severe 
weather, within thirty miles of Buenos Ayres ', it rarely, 
however, comes as far north as this. 

98. Cygnus nigricollis (Gm.) ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1868, 
p. 145. 

Winter visitor, but the time of its arrival and departure 
very uncertain, depending chiefly on the mildness or severity 
of the season. This has been a very mild winter, and com- 
paratively few Wildfowl have visited us. This time last year, 
22nd July, the market was well supplied with Swans and 
Ducks ; but the gunners have had a bad time of it this year. 
Common at Baradero in April. 

99. Cygnus coscoroba (MoL); Scl. et Salvin, P. Z. S. 1876, 
p. 371. 

Winter visitor, like the preceding ; and, like that bird, few 
have come this year. 


p. Z. S. 1868, p. 146. 

A few breed here; but the majority of those obtained in 
the winter are visitors from the south. This and the follow- 
ing species have very much the habits of our little Teal at 
home — when flushed, following the course of the stream and 
dropping suddenly. Iris wood-brown. 

101. QuERQUEDULA CYANOPTERA (Vicill.) ; Scl. Ct Salv. 

p. Z. S. 1869, p. 160. 

Pretty common in the winter, a few breeding here. Fre- 
quents the same situations as the two last-named species, 
small pools and watercourses, but not generally found in the 
large lagunas. Common at Baradero in April. Iris scarlet, 
with a tinge of carmine ; legs and feet bright orange. 

102. QuERQUEDULA VERSICOLOR (Vieill.) ; Scl. et Salv. 
P. Z. S. 1868, p. 146. 

Very common, many breeding in the neighbourhood. Com- 
mon at Baradero in April. Flocks of this species do not mix 
with those of any other ; but their flight and habits are similar 
to those of Q. flavirostris . Iris wood-brown. 

193 Mr. H. Durnford on the Birds of 


p. Z. S. 1869, p. 635. 

Common to the north of Buenos Ayres ; but I have never 
met with it to the south of the city. A little higher up the 
river than Belgrano it is quite common, frequenting pools and 
open water in the thick reed-beds. The male has a more 
brilliant speculum of metallic green than any bird I know. 
Iris wood-brown ; legs bright vermilion. 

104. Dafila spinicauda (Vieill.) ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 
1868, p. 146. 

The commonest of the larger species of Ducks, and in the 
winter found in very large flocks. Common at Baradero in 
April. Iris wood-brown. 

105. Dafila bahamensis (Linn.) ; Scl. et Salv. /. s. c. 
Not common ; and this year I have obtained no specimens. 

Generally found to the south of Buenos Ayres. 

106. Mareca siBiLATRix (Pocpp.); Scl. et Scl. P.Z.S. 1876, 
p. 395. 

Mareca chiloensis, Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1869, p. 635. 

With the exception of Metopiana peposaca, this is the Duck 
most valued for the table. From its note it is generally called 
the "Whistler" amongst Englishmen, and by natives "Overo" 
(speckled), from its beautiful mottled plumage. The greater 
part that come here are winter visitors ; but a few breed 
amongst the reeds and coarse grass in some of the extensive 
marshes. Like Metopiana peposaca, it prefers large lagoons 
to the small pools and streams frequeuted by the smaller 
ducks, and is generally shy and flies very high. Common at 
Baradero in April. 

107. Metopiana peposaca (Vieill.) ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 
1868, p. 146. 

Common in the winter. The strongest and highest flyer 
of all our Ducks. 

108. Erismatura ferruginea, Eyton ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 
1876, p. 404. 

Resident, but scarce. From the shortness of its wings it 
is scarcely able to fly. 

the Province of Buenos Ayres. 193 

109. CoLUMBA MACULOSA* (Temm.) ; Scl, et Salv. Nomencl. 
p. 132. 

Common to the north of Buenos Ayres ; but I have not 
observed it to the south of the city. Towards dusk large 
flocks winj^ their way to the marshes (I suppose^ to drink) 
from the high ground. Immature birds want the fine grey 
and black transverse markings on the sides of the neck above 
the breast which are found in the adult. Common at Ba- 
radero in April. Legs redj between scarlet and carmine. 

110. Zenaida maculata (Vieill.) ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 

1868, p. 143. 

Very common, in the winter congregating in enormous 
flocks. Its chief food is the seed of the cardoon, which here 
covers the face of the country ; and in June last year I took 
more than 700 seeds from the crop of a single bird. Com- 
mon at Baradero in April. Legs and feet dull scarlet, in- 
clining to carmine. 

111. CoLUMBULA picui (Tcmm.) ; Scl. et Salv. /. s. c. 
Very common, and found in gardens quite within the city. 

Partially gregarious in winter. 

112. Leptoptila chalchauchenia, Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 

1869, p. 633. 

Seen occasionally in the riverain wood, but not a common 
bird. Legs scarlet, with a tinge of crimson. 

113. Rallus nigricans (Vieill.); Scl. et Salv. Nomencl. 
p. 139. 

Pretty common in reed -beds, coming out to feed in the 
morning and about dusk. On the 13th October last I found 
a nest in a clump of thick reeds frequented by Limnornis cur- 
virostris and Synallaxis sulphurifera, in the riverain wood close 
to Belgrano. From the peculiar character of the nest I was 
careful to identify the owner, and, after having flushed the 
old bird once, retired some little distance to give it time to 
return. This it readily did ; and on cautiously approaching and 

* [ C. picazuro may be the species referred to here, being the Pigeon of 
this group usually sent from Buenos Ayres. C. maculosa occurs near 
Mendoza, and further south in Patagonia. — Edd.] 

194 Mr. H. Dumford on the Birds of 

parting the rushes I was enabled to get a second view of it 
sitting in the nest, which, however, it left immediately on 
seeing me. The nest was placed about three feet from the 
ground, bound to and supported by the reeds which grew close 
around it. It was oval in shape, and entirely composed of little 
bits of dead reed cleverly woven together, and forming a struc- 
ture ten inches in height by seven, outside measurements. 
The aperture was in the side, and a little over three inches in 
diameter. How the old bird could so readily enter and leave 
this hole I do not know. It sat with its head partly pro- 
jecting. The eggs were two in number, of a dirty white 
colour, measuring 1*4 inch by 1 ; and as they were con- 
siderably incubated, I conclude two is the full complement. 
The food of this species consists of mollusks, larvse ; and once 
I found the remains of a small fish in the gizzard. Iris dull 
crimson ; beak pea-green, with a coral-red spot on the side, 
the base of lower mandible, and the base of upper mandible 
when the bird is first killed, having a tinge of pale blue ; legs 
and feet pinkish coral. 

114. Aramides ypecaha (Vieill.) ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 
1868, p. 144. 

Common in reed-beds, coming out about dusk and in the 
early morning to feed. Common at Baradero in April. 

115. PoRZANA spiLOPTERA, sp. uov. (Plate III.) 
Zapornia spiloptera, Burm. MS. 

I have frequently flushed a small Crake from the "Paja" 
and rough scrub near the river at Belgrano, but never been 
able to obtain a specimen. On the 25th August 1876, how- 
ever, a gardener gave me a bird which his dog had caught in 
a garden at Belgrano, and which, I think, though I cannot be 
certain, is of the same species as the small Crakes I have 
seen before. As far as I can learn, the only other specimen 
of the bird known is in the Museum of Buenos Ayres, and 
will be described by Professor Burmeister under the name of 
Zapornia spiloptera, in his new work on the fauna of this 
country. This specimen, like mine, was taken in a garden 
almost in the city of Buenos Ayres. 

ibi5.]877. PlIII, 



J . G.Keulemaiis liLk M kl\ HanlLarb : 


the Province of Buenos Ay res. 195 

P. spiloptera is nearly allied to P. spilonota (found by Dar- 
win in the Galapagos archipelago^ and figured and described 
in the ^Voyage of the Beagle ') . It differs^ however, from the 
Galapagos bird in having irregular white stripes, and not 
merely white spots, on the wings ; and the white markings on 
the flanks and stomach are larger and clearer than in Mr. 
Darwin^s bird. The back also of P. spilonota is ferruginous 
brown, but that of the Buenos- Ayres bird olive-brown with 
black markings. (^ . Total length 5*5, beak '5, tarsus '7. 
Head above olivaceous brown and black, forehead very dark 
slate, nearly black. Sides of head, throat, chest, and stomach 
dark slaty grey. Neck above and back olivaceous, centre of 
each feather broadly marked with black. Flanks very dark 
grey, with transverse bars of white. Primaries dull brown. 
Secondaries the same, but with a small white wedge-shaped 
mark in the centre of some of the feathers near their tips. 
Greater wing-coverts dark olivaceous, distinctly but irregu- 
larly striated with white. Tail dark brown, edges of feathers 
lighter. Under tail-coverts black and white in transverse 
bars. Beak very dark horn, nearly black. Legs and feet 
of a browner colour, and rather lighter. Iris crimson, in- 
clining to scarlet. 

The bird had been kept alive for a day or two; and its 
stomach was quite empty when I received it. 

116. PoRPHYRiops MELANOPs (Vicill.) ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 
1869, p. 634. 

Not uncommon, but, from its skulking habits, rarely seen. 
Legs and feet pale olivaceous. 

117. FuLicA LEucoPTERA, ViciU. j Scl. ct Salv. Ex. Orn. 
pi. 60, p. 119. 

Common in almost every 'arroyo^ and lagoon in the country, 
where reeds and aquatic plants afford any cover. 

118. FuLicA ARMiLLATA, Vicill.; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1868, 
p. 145. 

I have only observed this Coot to the north of Buenos 
Ayres ; but there it is quite common. It does not seem to 
mix with the last-named species. 

196 Mr. H. Dumford on the Birds of 

119. Aramus scolopaceus (Gm.) ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 
1869, p. 161. 

Resident and common in marshes amongst reeds. It has 
a heavy laborious flight, performed by slow beats of the wings, 
which it sometimes raises so high as nearly to meet over its 
back. It has a loud harsh note, very like the crying of a 
child. On the 30th July I found a nest containing six eggs. 
It was a large structure of reeds, nearly three feet in diameter 
and ten or twelve inches deep, and was placed amongst reeds 
about a foot above the water ; it was lined with smaller reeds, 
a slight depression in the centre receiving the eggs. I saw 
the old bird standing on the edge of the nest. The eggs have 
a stone-coloured ground-colour, slightly polished and thickly 
streaked and speckled with light and dark rufous brown, the 
markings being chiefly on the larger end, but varying much 
in intensity in diff'erent examples ; they measure 2'5 x 1"8. 

120. Parra jacana (Linn.) ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1868, 
p. 145. 

I believe, very generally distributed, though I have only 
observed it twice. It is graceful in its movements on the 
ground ; its extremely long feet and claws enable it to walk 
without difficulty on floating aquatic plants, where it is gene- 
rally found feeding on small insects, which it takes from the 
surface. It is a slow and awkward flier, its long legs, which 
it trails behind it, being a considerable hindrance. Its food 
consists of minute mollusks and aquatic insects. Iris wood- 
brown ; beak orange ; legs olivaceous. 

121. Vanellus cayennensis (Gm.) ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 
1869, p. 162. 

The ubiquitous " Tero-tero " is perhaps the best-known bird 
in the country, being extremely common and generally dis- 
tributed. In the winter it usually goes in flocks, and at that 
season approaches close to towns. It probably has two, and 
sometimes three, broods in the season. During the time of 
courtship the male bird performs many strange antics to at- 
tract the female, strutting around her with tail depressed and 
expanded and holding his head as high as possible, the female 

the Province of Buenos Ayres. 197 

in the mean time appearing perfectly indifferent. Sometimes 
two or three males are seen before a single female, and never 
separate without a fight. I have never seen them use their 
wing-spurs in their encounters, though they strike at each 
other with their beaks, and sometimes continue fighting in 
the air. To the sportsman this bird is a constant nuisance, 
invariably uttering its cries at a critical moment when he is 
creeping up to Ducks or game. Common at Baradero in April. 

122. Charadrius virginicus, Borkh. ; ScL et Salv. No- 
mencl. p. 142. 

Pretty common in February and March ; but I have not 
observed them at any other season. About a dozen, shot on 
the 5th of the latter month, were in full moult. They are fond 
of high and pretty dry ground ; but yet I do not think they 
wander far from water. Iris wood- brown ; beak, legs, and 
feet black. 

I think I observed Oreophilus ruficollis here on the 21st 
April of this year ; but I could not satisfactorily identify it. 

123. EuDROMiAS MODESTA (Licht.) ; ScL et Salv. P. Z. S. 
1868, p. 144. 

Autumn and winter visitor; found in large flocks. 

124. Thinocorus rumicivorus, Eschsch. ; Scl. et Salv. 
P. Z. S. 1868, p. 143. 

A winter visitor, sometimes found in large flocks. In 
their habits they resemble the Rails and Sandpipers. Like 
the former they sometimes squat closely to the ground till 
almost trodden upon, and when put up run some distance 
before taking wing. They frequent very arid dry places, and 
also damp marshy ground. In the air their long, pointed 
wings, and rapid erratic flight, added to their low whistling- 
note, always suggests an affinity to the Tringse. In size and 
weight I have found these birds to differ exceedingly ; and 
this is not dependent on sex. The black lines which extend 
from the corners of the lower mandible, enclosing the white 
of the throat, and join the black band across the lower part 
of the chest, are more clearly defined in the male than in the 
female ; and the latter has the throat dusky white. The young 

8ER. IV. VOL, I. p 

198 Mr. H. Durnford on the Birds of 

resemble the females. Iris wood-brown ; feet and legs vary 
from dull yellowish green to orange. Their food consists of 
fibrous vegetable matter and seeds. A few seen at Baradero 
in April. 

125. HiMANTOPus BRASiLiENsis, Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1873, 
p. 454. 

Himantopus nigricollis, Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 18G8, p. 144. 

Occasionally resident, the greater part leaving us in the 
spring and summer. Common in every marsh and on the 
banks of every " arroyo " in the country. Their movements 
on the ground are very graceful and elegant, and they walk 
or run with equal ease. They generally go in small parties, 
and when disturbed will often circle for a long time high above 
one's head, uttering angry screams at the intruder. Iris car- 
mine ; legs between scarlet and bright pink ; beak nearly 
black. Common at Baradero in April. 

126. Phalaropus wilsoni, Sabine; Scl. et Salv. Nomencl. 
p. 144. 

The only specimens I have were shot by a friend a little to 
the west of Buenos Ayres in February. 

127. Gallinago paraguai^ (Vieill.) ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 
1868, p. 144. 

The greater part of these birds are migratory, arriving in 
April and leaving in August ; but though I have not yet found 
any nests, I feel sure some few breed in this neighbourhood. 
During the winter they are sometimes extremely numerous, 
affording excellent sport : but their movements are very un- 
certain ; for where there may be hundreds one day, the next 
there are scarcely any to be seen. At this season they go in 
small parties, or in flocks numbering three or four hundred 
birds. During the spring they go through the same aerial 
movements as the common Snipe at home, rising to a great 
height by a circling motion* and '^ drumming" whilst descend- 
ing in a diagonal line. How is this curious habit to be ac- 
counted for in the South- American and European forms, ex- 
cept by the theory of inheritance from a common progenitor ? 

the Province of Btietws Ayres. 199 

128. Rhynch^a semicollaris (Vieill.) ; Scl. et Salv. /. s. c. 
Resident and found in small parties during the winter. 

Its habits much resemble those of the little Jack Snipe at 
homCj being very reluctant to take wing^ and, having done so, 
dropping again before long. 

129. Gambetta melanoleuca (Gm.) ; Scl. et Salv. I. s. c. 
I think a few breed here ; but this is a bird most commonly 

seen in winter. Its note is very like that of the Greenshank 
at home. Legs red with a tinge of orange. Common at 
Baradero in April. 

130. Gambetta flavipes (Gm.) ; Scl. et Salv. /. s. c. 

Resident, but in the winter receiving a considerable ac- 
cession to its numbers. Its habits are very similar to those 
of Gambetta melanoleuca ; and it is found in much the same 
situations as that bird — banks of streams and ditches, small 
lagoons and pools. Legs pale orange-yellow. Common at 
Baradero in April. 

131. A.CTITURUS bartramius (Wilson) ; Scl. et Salv. No- 
mencl. p. 146. 

'' Batitu/'' " Chorlito." Very common from December to 
the beginning of April. During this season large quantities 
are shot for the markets ; and when they have been here long 
enough to get fat on locusts and grasshoppers, which form 
their principal food, they are excellent eating. The flocks 
are constantly arriving and departing ; and from the fact of 
my frequently hearing them at night passing over the place, 
when they whistle and call to each other, I do not think the 
same birds remain more than three or four weeks with us. 
They frequent high dry ground, preferring that covered with 
thistles and coarse grass, but carefully avoid low damp places. 
Whilst at Baradero, from the 15th to the 17th April, I learnt, 
from inquiries made there, that the Batitu had only left two 
or three days before my visit. As I could hear of none having 
been seen near Buenos Ayres after the 3rd April, I conclude 
the migratory movement takes place in a west-north-westerly 
direction from here. 

p 2 

200 Mr. H. Durnford on the Birds of 

13.2. Tryngites RUfEscENs (Vieill.) ; Scl. et Salv. Nomencl. 
p. 146. 

I have never met with this bird myself; but a friend shot 
some on the 20th February a little to the west of Buenos 
Ayres. The stomachs of two I opened contained small seeds. 
Iris wood-brown ; legs and feet dull orange ; beak and claws 

133. LiMOSA HUDSONicA (Lath.) ; Scl. et Salv. Nomencl. 
p. 146. 

Common from April to September about lagoons and " ar- 
royos " to the south of Buenos Ayres. It is sometimes here 
called " Woodcock/^ In habits it much resembles the Bar- 
tailed Godwit at home. 

134. Rrynchops nigra, Linn. ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1869, 
p. 634. 

I have not myself observed this species ; but my collection 
contains two specimens, shot respectively in January and No- 
vember, both near Buenos Ayres. They vary much in size. 

135. Phaethusa magnirostris (Liclit.) ; Scl. et Salv. 
P. Z. S. 1871, p. 567. 

Occasionally seen near Belgrano, appearing to be a fresh- 
water Tern ; but of its habits I know very little. I found it 
common at Baradero in April in small parties ; and I watched 
one flock for some time, the individuals of which kept circling 
over a millpond, which evidently held a good supply of small 
fishj for they constantly kept darting into the water. This 
species has a note quite unlike that of any other Tern I know ; 
it is very like the cry of the '^ Tero-tero ■" ( Vanellus cayen- 
nensis); and for this bird I have often mistaken it. Beak pale 
orange ; legs and feet pale slate-colour. 

136. Sterna trudeauii, And. ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1871, 
p. 570. 

In March of last year, during quarantine on Flores Island, 
at the mouth of the La Plata, I constantly saw a few of these 
birds about ; and later I saw several near Montevideo. Since 
then I have occasionally seen a few in this neighbourhood at 

the Province of Buenos Ayres. 201 

every season except the spring. I shot one on the 17th Oc- 
tober last near Punta Lara, which was flying steadily in a 
north-westerly direction in company with another. Total 
length 13"5, beak 1*4, tarsus -5. Iris wood-brown; base and 
tip of beak dull yellow, remainder black ; legs and feet dark 
red, between scarlet and carmine ; head white, with a long- 
black streak in front of and behind the eye ; remainder of 
the plumage pearl-grey. On the 5th August I observed two 
Black-headed Terns fishing in some lagoons to the north of 
Buenos Ayres. They appeared to me to be Sterna cassini ; but 
I am not aware that that bird comes so far north as this*. 

137. Sterna superciliaris, Vieill. ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 
1871, p. 571. 

Frequents shallow inland lagoons and small streams, and 
is also found in the river. Its habits resemble those of Sterna 
minuta at home. I observed specimens in May 1875 at 
Montevideo, and in April of the present year at Baradero. 
Iris wood-brown ; beak and legs pale orange. 

138. Larus dominicanus, Licht. ; Scl. et Salv. I. s. c. 
p. 576. 

Pretty common and generally distributed ; but I have not 
seen it in the neighbourhood in the spring or summer. In 
the winter it wanders far inland. 

139. Larus cirrhocephalus, Vieill. ; Scl. et Salv. /. s, c. 
p. 578. 

I have not observed this bird to the south of Buenos Ayres, 
but have constantly seen it from March to July to the north 
of the city. Unlike Larus maculipennis , it never wanders 
inland, but frequents the shallow shores of the La Plata, 
feeding on dead fish or ofl:al, and flocking round the fishermen 
when they are hauling their nets to get a share of the spoil. 
As a rule, this species does not mix with Larus maculipennis, 
though now and then they are seen together ; but all the flocks 
or parties I have observed when flying from one spot to 

* [In our paper on Neotropical Laridse we have shown that this species 
is found as far north as Santa Catherina, Brazil (P. Z. S. 1871, p. 570). — 

202 Mr. H. Duniford on the Birds of 

another have always been composed of birds of its own kind. 
Adults^ after once attaining their pearl-grey hood, never lose 
it, though in winter it becomes rather lighter, and those 
with white heads are immature birds, which do not attain 
their full plumage till after their second moult. I have seen 
many birds throughout May and June of the present year 
with well-defined dark grey hoods. Some specimens, when 
first killed, have a delicate faint pink tinge on their under- 
parts, also observed in L. maculipennis, which, however, 
quickly fades after death. The colour of the iris varies a good 
deal in different examples, being pale grey, grey with a tinge 
of yellow, and grey with a tinge of light wood-brown. This 
is probably attributable to age. The narrow rim of naked 
skin round the eye is dark coral-red ; legs and feet the same, 
but of a duller shade ; beak rather darker than the legs. 

140. Larus MACULIPENNIS, Licht. ; Scl. et Salv. Nomencl. 
p. 148. 

Common in the neighbourhood, except in the spring. After 
their second moult they attain adult plumage ; previously to 
that they very much resemble the young Larus ridibundus. 
Their times for moulting and changes of plumage are very 
curious. I have observed and shot adult birds in April, May, 
and June in what is usually considered winter plumage, viz. 
with a white head and black spot behind the eye, and from 
June to October with perfect black hoods. It is impossible 
to establish any thing like a hard and fast line on this subject ; 
for I have seen adult birds in the same flock, some with white 
and others with smoke-broAvn heads. Their moults probably 
take place in January and February and June and July ; but 
this doubtless depends a good deal on the age of the bird. 

This Gull was common about Baradero in April ; and one 
fine warm evening, whilst steaming down the "riacho,"' I 
saw a curious sight : a considerable flock of Black-headed 
Gulls were hawking over some low marshy ground with 
Swallow-like flight, apparently in pursuit of some sort of 
moth ; for they kept about a foot above the ground, never 
wandering far from each other. 

the Province of Buenos Ayres. 203 

141. tEchmophorus major (Bocld.) -, Scl. et Salv. Nomencl. 
p. 151. 

Common^ except during spring and summer. They are 
found both singly and in small parties. During a severe fog 
which we had in June last many were killed quite close to 
the city. I observed this Grebe near Montevideo in May, 
and at Baradero in April. 

142. Tachybaptes dominicus (Linn.) ; Scl. et Salv. /. s. c. 
Uesident and common in lagoons and "■ arroyos.^^ The 

female is not quite so brightly coloured as the male, and the 
elongated feathers on the head are shorter than in that sex. In 
rapidity of diving it rivals the little Dabchick at home. A 
few at Baradero in April. 

143. Rhynchotus rufescens (Temm.) ; Scl. et Salv. No- 
mencl. p. 153. 

Was formerly common here ; but now it is necessary to go 
a hundred miles from Buenos Ayres to meet with them. 

144. NoTHURA MACULOSA (Tcmm.) ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 
1868, p. 143. 

Resident and abundant wherever the rough paja-grass or 
thistles afford any cover. It also frequents fields of maize or 
other cereals in considerable numbers. On a Sunday or holi- 
day it is a curious sight to watch the " sportsmen " of various 
nationalities flocking to the different railway-stations to have 
a day^s '' perdiz " shooting. The dogs impressed into their 
service on these occasions are, like their masters, of various 
breeds, from a bull-terrier to a pointer, it being considered 
of primary importance to be accompanied by some specimen 
of the canine race. 

XVII. — 0)1 a new Form of Reed-bird fro7n Eastern Asia. 
By R. SwiNHOE, F.R.S. &c. 

(Plate IV.) 

In 1863 Mr. Blakiston, who was then in England, gave me 
a skin of a bird which he had shot in Canton. The speci- 
men, unfortunately, had no tail ; but I took it and carefully 

204 Mr. R. Swinhoc un a new Form of 

compared it witli skins in the East-India Company^s Mu- 
seum, and came to tlie conclusion that it represented a second 
species of Hodj^son's genus Tribura, of wliich the type is 
Tribura luteiventris of Nepal. I consequently described it in 
the ' Proceedings •* of the Zoological Society of that year as 
Tribura squamiceps. On the 8th of May^ 1866, I received 
among a lot of birdskins from Takore, Formosa^ a second 
specimen of this species, whicb my hunters had procured in 
the mountains in tlie interior of that district shortly after 
my departure for Amoy. This skin was suflSciently perfect to 
show that the bird had a short graduated tail^, and not a 
long tail^ as Tribura. 

I never met with this species in China myself; but as I 
was leaving Chefoo on the last occasion, I received from Mr. 
Blakiston my third specimen, which he had procured at Ha- 
kodadi, Northern Japan, in May 1873. This specimen had 
nearly a complete tail (see Ibis, 1874, p. 155). 

M. Taczanowski, of Warsaw, under date 9th November, 
1875, transmitted to me a fourth specimen of the same bird 
from the Ussuri district. This is a male, shot on the 25th 
of September. I have the species therefore from Canton, 
Formosa, Hakodadi, and now from Manchuria, which, I think, 
proves pretty well that it is a regular migrant, coming north 
in summer to breed. 

Mr. W. E. Brooks, who is now at home, writes to me from 
near Newcastle saying that he believes that he has an example 
of this same species, wliich was procured in Tenasserim. Mr. 
Brooks encloses me a good drawing of his specimen, which 
confirms his identification. 

Mr. Brooks urges me to have a figure of this bird pub- 
lished, and to assign to it the characters of a new genus, as 
he considers that it does not belong to Tribura, Pnoepyga, 
Horornis, or any other known genus, though it has certain 
characters in common with them. I think, therefore, that 
it would be as Avell to projiose for it the generic name Uro- 
sphena, from its wedge-shaped tail, and to characterize it as 
follows : — 




^lEV/ YORK. 

7-ORAL H\S^^ 

Ibis. 1877 PI. IV. 



JSmit del ellilli 

M&,N Hanliart 



Reed-bird from Eastern Asia. 205 

Bill at base exceedingly slender and much depressed. Wing 
of unusual power for such a little bird. Tail almost as in 
Pnoepyga, but somewhat more rounded. Style of coloration 
scaly, as in Pnoepyga. Legs and feet large, strong, and 
coloured as in Horornis. Lower tail-coverts very long. 

Mr. Brooks says, " I do not know of any genus in which 
this little bird can be placed : the scaly plumage separates it 
from Horornis, Neoi'nis, and Tribura. This, with its queer 
short tail, brings it near Pnoepyga ; but the bill is as slender 
as in Troglodytes, or more so, and the wing is quite unlike 
that of Pnoepyga. I wonder whether ten tail-feathers is the 
correct number ; that is the number in my specimen, which 
appears to be perfect.^' 

The synonymy of this bird will stand as follows : — 

Urosphena squamiceps. (Plate IV.) 

Tribura squamiceps, Swinhoe, P. Z. S. 1863, p. 292 ; Ibis, 
1866, p. 397, et 1874, p. 155. 

Hab. Canton (Blakiston) ; Formosa {Swinhoe) ; Hakodadi, 
Japan [Blakiston) ; Ussuri district, Manchuria [Taczanowski) -, 
Tenasserim [Davison) . 

The figure (PI. IV.) is taken from the specimen from For- 
mosa : a view of the lower surface of the tail-feathers is given 
below the main figure. 

[Since this paper was received I have been able, by Mr. 
Brooks^s kindness, to compare the Tenasserim specimen of 
this bird with Mr. Swinhoe^s type. I find them obviously 
identical, the former only showing more clearly the extreme 
slenderness of the bill. The Tenasserim skin belongs to Mr. 
Hume, and was obtained at Bankasoon, in the Malewoon dis- 
trict, in March 1875, by Mr. W. Davison. It is marked 
? . The legs, feet, claws, and gape, with two thirds of lower 
mandible from gape, are noted as " fleshy white ; upper man- 
dible and rest of lower mandible horny brown ; irides dark 
brown.^'— P, L. S.] 

206 Mr. W. E. Brooks on some 

XVIII, — A feiv Observations on some Species 0/ Anthus and 
Budytes. By W. Edwin Brooks. 

Anthus blakistoxi^ Swinhoe = ^. neglectus, Brooks. 

This Pipit was first described by Mr. Swinhoe (P. Z. S, 1863, 
p. 90) . The description is correct as far as colour of plumage 
is concerned ; but the bird^s legs and feet are conspicuously 
lighter in colour than those of Anthus s^nnoletta. My term 
of "brown '^ is better than Mr. Swinhoe^s of " blackish brown." 
The legs and feet of Mr. SAvinhoe's examples^ however, may 
have dried rather dark. I noted the colour from the fresh 
birds. The total length given by Mr. Swinhoe is clearly 
wrong ; so also with regard to length of wing. I have shot 
about forty examples ; and the greatest total length observed 
was 6'3, the longest wing 3*4, longest tail 2*65. 

In the ' Proceedings ' of the Zoological Society for 1871, 
p. 365, Mr. Swinhoe referred his A. blakistoni to A. spino- 
letta ; and Mr. Dresser, in his ' Birds of Europe,^ repeated the 
identification. This I accepted as correct; and knowing that 
my Anthus neglectus was as distinct from A. spinoletta as one 
Pipit could well be from another, I described the former as 
new in 'The Ibis^ for October 1876, p. 501. 

The fall of Anthus seehohmi led me to think further about 
my Pipit; and a few days ago I saw Mr. Swinhoe, who kindly 
showed me his specimen of Anthus blakistoni. This I found, 
beyond all doubt, to be identical in size and colour with my 
A. neglectus, which name must therefore sink to the rank of 
a synonym. 

I was able to show Mr. Swinhoe a good series of my bird, 
sufficient to convince him that Anthus blakistoni is a smaller 
Water-Pij)it than Anthus spinoletta, and differently marked 
on both the back and the breast. 

A third good species of Water- Pipit is Anthus japonicus, 
T. & S. This is a large bird like A. spinoletta, the back 
greyish and indistinctly marked ; but its breast is much tinged 
with reddish buff, and the spots are large and beautifully dis- 
tinct. Anthus spinoletta and A. blakistoni lose their breast- 
spots in full breeding-plumage ; certainly the male does ; but 

Species o/Authus and Budytes. 207 

A.japonicus, judging from the examples I have seen^ appears to 
retain them. The breast of immature A.japonicus is still more 
boldly spotted than in the mature bird, and in this respect 
rivals the well-marked Anthus maculatus, Hodgs. ; the breast, 
however, possesses none of the warm tint of the adult, but is 
of a pale ochraceous-white ground-colour. These remarks 
apply to the one immature bird I saw in Mr. Swinhoe's col- 
lection ; others may vary. 

The voice oi Anthus blakistoni is very like that oi A. pra- 
tensis. In India the bird is only to be found in marshy loca- 
lities in the north-west, and not at all in Bengal, so far as I 
know. Of its song I know nothing, as it leaves India in 
March, while the birds are still in small flights. 

Budytes taivanus, Swinhoe, Ibis, 1870, p. 346, P. Z. S. 
1871, p. 364 

Unlike Anthus blakistoni, this good species has not been sup- 
pressed. It is a most remarkable Budytes ; and its long strong 
bill alone renders it distinguishable from every other species. 
It is a much darker-toned bird above than any of the other 
four green-backed Budytes; and the head in breeding-plumage 
is of a rich dark olive ; the broad supercilium is of a very deep 
yellow, and the cheeks are uniform blackish olive-brown; 
lower surface deep yellow, not so brilliant as in B. flavus and 
the other three allies, and much washed with dusky on the sides 
and flanks. The tail is fully a quarter of an inch shorter 
than in B. rayi, the outer feathers nearly all white, and the 
penultimate diagonally marked with white, having the greater 
portion of the inner web brown. There is no white on any 
other tail-feather of the six examples examined. The bills at 
front measure respectively "5, "5, '5, '48, "5, •47. To the dis- 
tinguishing points Avhich Mr. Swinhoe has indicated, the long 
strong bill should be added. 

With such good distinguishing marks, why should the 
green-backed Budytce be singled out for confusion ? If such 
nearly allied birds are to be lumped together, there is an end 
of ornithology as a science, and its greatest charm is gone. 
These allied species are difficult ; but the difficulty should not 

208 On some Species of Anthus and Eudytes. 

be met by employing a fashionable theory which is baseless in 
face of existing facts_, many of them only to be observed by 
the study of these birds in life. Now. some forms of B. flavus 
are rather hard to separate (as sldns only) from aberrant forms 
of B. viriclis {cinereocapUlus) ; bnt tiiere are mature females 
of the latter never to be matched by any mature female 
of B. flavus. This the confounders of the two species do 
not know, or they would never dream of identity. Each 
species is subject to considerable variation ; and very large 
series of each, together with a knowledge of the birds in life, 
are indispensable to a correct comprehension of them. For 
instance, a mature female oiB. melanocephalus may have either 
a brownish-grey head or a black one, nearly as black as that 
of the male ; and the colour of the lower surface is similarly 
variable, from white tinged with yellow to a moderately pure 
yellow, save the throat and breast, which are always pale in 
the female. The female B. viriclis will carry the rather strong 
yellow right to the base of the bill ; and this female possesses 
a brilliancy of lower surface not possessed by any other female 
of the green-backed Budyta with which I am acquainted. 
The yellow abdomen of the female B. flavus changes to a sort of 
rufous tone on the breast; and this, with the broad brownish 
white supercilium, distinguish the species. Of the very dis- 
tinct female B. rayi I need not say a word ; but I have said 
enough to show that the study of the mature females confirms 
the entire distinctness of the several species. 

The same great variation as regards the female is obser- 
vable in Bitdytes calcaratus, Hodgs. ; and here let me ob- 
serve that B. citreoloides, Hodgs., is identical wath B. citreolus, 

It is a question whether the paler females are young birds 
or not. The difference may be one of mere complexion, as 
in the Peregrines ; but I have shot light-toned examples of B. 
calcaratus that would have laid their eggs certainly within 
the week. This was in Cashmere ; and I searched long for 
the nests, but unsuccessfully. 

I spent much time in ascertaining the mature female plu- 
mages of the five species of Budytes of India ; and the investiga- 

Notes on Mr. R. B. Sharpe's Catalogue of Accipitres. 209 

tion strongly confirmed their entire distinctness. With regard 
to the mature males^ one fact requires notice. The mature B. 
flavus of Western Europe seldom, perhaps never, has such pale 
grey and white cheeks as the Indian examples have. The west- 
ern birds are nearer to some forms of B. viridis ; but the cheeks 
are not so dark as in that bird, and are streaked with white. 
The supercilium, too, of B. flavus, in the fresh bird, is broader 
and more distinct than in any form of B. viridis, which is 
oftener without than with a supercilium. In India the two 
species are much more distinct, and separation is always easy. 

In skinning these birds the supercilium very often suffers, 
as well as the generally good condition of the head ; this ren- 
ders identification difficult when the head is the only guide. 

I have been much struck by the careful details given by Mr. 
Blanford in his work on the Zoology of Persia, He gives : — 
1. locality, 2. date, 3. elevation at which procured (this is im- 
portant in a mountainous country), 4. sex, 5. total length, 
6. colour of bill, legs, and feet. All this information is valu- 
able ; and if the collector be in ever so great a hurry, the one 
point of date, even to the day of the month if possible, should 
never be omitted. By this we can often tell whether the ex- 
ample is mature, and where the species breeds, to a certainty. 
Mr. Blanford knew all this ; and hence the completeness of his 
details. I make these remarks in order to remind collectors 
of what will greatly add to the value of their specimens. 
These points are well known to most readers of ' The Ibis ;' but 
some, in collecting, forget them. To register all these par- 
ticulars may not be convenient, for want of time ; but the 
month of the year should at all events not be forgotten. 

XIX. — Notes on a ' Catalogue of the Accipitres in the 
British Museum,' by R. Bowdler Sharpe (1874). By J. H. 


[Continued from ser. 3, vol. vi. p. 493.] 

Under the subfamily " Aquilinse " Mr. Sharpe includes nu- 
merous groups, several of which differ so widely from each 

210 Mr. J. H. Gurney's Notes on 

other that I greatly doubt its being desirable or^ indeed, 
permissible to refer them all to the same subfamily. In 
dealing with these groups I shall endeavour to allude to them 
in what appears to me to be the most natural order of ar- 
rangement, which, in the main, will be the same as that 
adopted by Mr. Sharpe. 

The genus Gypa'etus, with which Mr. Sharpe commences 
his series of Aquilinse, forms so remarkable and peculiar a 
link between the Vultures of the Old World and the typical 
Eagles, that I am strongly of opinion that it ought to be con- 
sidered as forming of itself a distinct subfamily, and that it 
should not be included in that of the Aquilinse, amongst 
which it is comprised in Mr. Sharpe's volume. The account 
there given of the two species of Gypaetus does not appear 
to require any comment, except to remark that in the sum- 
mary of the localities inhabited by G. barbatus, " Northern 
Africa " ought to be substituted for " N.E. Africa," as the 
mountains of Algeria are the main African stronghold of 
the northern Lsemmergey er *. 

Mr. Sharpe very appositely arranges the genus Uroaetus 
consecutively to that of Gypaetus ; for of all the true Eagles, 
none so closely approaches the Lsemmergeyer as the Wedge- 
tailed Eagle of Australia. From Uroaetus he proceeds, and in 
this case also by a very natural sequence, to consider the most 
typical of all the Eagles, those which form the genus Aquila. 

In treating of this genus Mr. Sharpe commences with A. 
verreauxi, a species remarkable not only for its very peculiar 
coloration, but also for its restricted geographical range ; Mr. 
Sharpe defines this as "South Africa and North-east Africa;'"' 
but, speaking more precisely, it may be said to be limited to 
the mountainous districts of Abyssinia, and to similar loca- 
lities lying to the south of the Orange River ; and, so far as I 
am aware, it has never been observed in any of the interve- 
ning countries, or in any other part of the African continent. 

Next in order to Aquila verreauxi, Mr. Sharpe arranges A. 
chrysaetus, including under that name all those slightly vary- 

* I take this opportunity of calling attention to an interesting article 
on this species in Lieut.-Ool. Prjevalsky's notes on the birds of Mongolia, 
recently published in Rowley's 'Ornithological Miscellany,' pt. G, p. 137. 

Mr. R. B. Sharpens Catalogue 0/ Accipitres. 211 

ing phases of coloration which are incident to the Golden 
Eagle, and which perhaps are, in some cases, indicative 
(though this is by no means certain) of distinguishable geo- 
graphical races. I am disposed to think that this is the 
wisest course, as the data which we at present possess in 
regard to these races do not seem sufficient to justify us in 
erecting them into separate subspecies. 

Golden Eagles vary considerably, not only in tone of colour, 
but also in size ; and Mr. Sharpe, in a footnote to p. 237 of 
his work, refers especially to the large size of North- American 
and of Himalayan specimens; but my own impression is, 
that these variations in size are almost as often indicative of 
individual as of geographical peculiarities ; and the following 
measurements of the wing from the carpal-joint, and of the 
tarsus, in examples from various localities, tend, I think, 
somewhat to confirm this view : — 

Ascertained or Presumed Males. 

Wing. Tarsus. 

Largest of five North-American, measured 

by Mr. Eidgway* 24-5 3-8 

Smallest of ditto 23-0 3-65 

From Texas, in the Norwich Museum .... 22 '3 3"5 
From Scotland, measured by Macgillivrayt 24*0 4*0 
From south of France, in Norwich Mu- 
seum t 24-6 3-7 

From Spain, in the Norwich Museum .... 24-7 3-8 
From Spain, in the collection of Mr. J. H. 

Gurney, Jun 24-1 3-5 

From Algeria, in Norwich Museum 22-6 S-Q 

Ascertained or Presumed Females. 
Largest of seven North -American, measured 

by Mr. Ridgway* 27-0 4-2 

Smallest of ditto 25-0 4-15 

From North America, measured by Mr. 

Sharpe§ 26-25 4-1 

* Vide ' North- American Land-Birds,' by Baird, Brewer and Ridgway, 
vol. iii. p. 315. 

t Vide Maegillivray's ' British Birds,' vol. iii. p. 207. 
X A specimen of the so-called Aquila barthelemyi. 
§ Vide Sharpe's Catalogue, p. 237, footnote. 











212 Mr. J. H. Gurney's Notes on 

From Labrador, iu Norwich Museum .... 

From Scotland, measured by Macgillivray * 

From Scotland, in the Norwich Museum. . 

From Lapland, iu the Norwich Museum . . 

From south of France, measured by Mr. 

Humet 27-63 4-38 

From Algeria, in the collection of Mr. J. 

H. Gurney, Jun 2.5-2 4-0 

From Greece, in Norwich Museum 25-6 3-9 

From the Himalayas, in the Norwich Mu- 
seum ^ 27-8 4-0 

From Hazara district of the Punjab, pre- 
sented by Captain Unwin to the British 
Museum, and measured by Mi-. Sharpe . . 27-9 4-0 

Messrs. Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, in their work on the 
land-birds of North America, from which I have quoted 
some of the measurements just given, state that the American 
Golden Eagle, as compared with that of the Old World, " is 
darker in all its shades of colour, the difference being most 
marked in the young plumage, which, in var. chrysa'etus, has 
the tarsal-feathers nearly white, and in var. canadensis light 
brown, the brown of other portions being also considerably 
darker;" Mr. Sharpe, on the contrary, remarks "^I cannot 
separate A. canadensis, the old birds of which appear to be 
undistinguishable ; the young ones from America wear a pe- 
culiarly light plumage on the head and neck.''^ 

To me it appears that the only difference between the 
Golden Eagles of the Old and New Worlds which at all ap- 
proximates to a constant distinction, is that in the colour of 
the tarsi in young birds ; and even this does not seem to be 
regulated by an invariable rule. The immature male from 
Texas in the Norwich Museum, of which I have given the 
measurements above, and the locality for which rests on the 
testimony of the late Jules Verreaux, has the tarsi and the 

* Vide Macgillivray's 'British Birds,' vol. iii. p. 207. 
t Vide Hume's 'Rough Notes,' p. 14L 

Mr. R. B. Sharpens Catalogue of Accipitres. 213 

inside of the thighs white ^, whilst, on the other hand, I have 
examined five Old- World specimens which are characterized 
by the white base of the tail, indicative of immaturity, but 
which all have brown tarsi. As, however, they are none of 
them nestling- birds, it is of course possible (though I hardly 
think it probable) that the tarsi in these specimens may have 
been originally white, as they undoubtedly are in the great 
majoi^ity of young European examples, and may have become 
brown previously to the white band having ceased to exist on 
the base of the tail. The specimens to which I here refer are : — 
one from Lapland and one from the Himalayas, both of which 
are in the Norwich Museum ; and three in the British Mu- 
seum, one of which is merely recorded as from India, a second 
from Nepal, and the third from the Hazara district of the 
Punjab, the last-named specimen having been brought up 
from the nest by Captain W. H. Unwin, who has carefully 
recorded its progress towards maturity in the P. Z. S. for 
1874, p. 210. Captain Unwin speaks of this bird as having 
originally had white down on the tarsi, but apparently not 
white feathers ; this specimen was taken from the nest on the 
13th of May, 1871, and died in the autumn of the following 
year : the exact date of its death is not given by Captain 
Unwin ; but I gather from his account that it was then about 
sixteen months old. On the 1st of August, 1871, Captain 
Unwin made the following note respecting this nestling : — 
" Has grown a great deal during the past month, and has 
everywhere assumed the dark brown plumage shown in his 
mother, except on the inner and lower part of the thighs and 
tarsi, where a good deal of white down remains uncovered ; 
the head has assumed its full covering of lanceolate golden 
chestnut feathers, and the same colour is apparent on the 
shoulders and in front of the thigh-coverts ; it is everywhere 
of a darker and richer shade than its mother, owing probably 

* Since the above was written Mr. Salvin lias been so good as to send 
me the following memorandum respecting an immature Golden Eagle 
from North America in the Cambridge Museum : — " It has the tarsi and 
basal half of the tail of a dirty creamy white colour, the former being 
much paler than in the adult bird." 


214 Mr. J. H. Gurney's Notes on 

to its not having been exposed to tlie weather." This Eagle 
and its mother are now preserved in the British Museum, and 
are certainly the most richly coloured Golden Eagles that I 
have ever seen from any locality. They are both of them very 
dark-coloured birds ; and some of the newly acquired feathers of 
the young one approach more nearly to an actual black than 
those of any other specimen which 1 have examined. These 
birds are also especially noticeable for the colouring of the 
thighs, Avhich are deep purplish brown on their outer, and 
rich rufous on their inner sides, the latter being also the 
colour of the tarsi, as well as of the under-tail coverts ; the 
abdomen is of a dark hue, not materially differing from that 
of the exterior surface of the thighs. The striking manner in 
which the peculiarities of colouring seen in the old bird 
are reproduced in its oflFspring is, I think, particularly in- 

The British Museum also possesses a very similarly, though 
rather less deeply coloured specimen, which formed part of 
Major-Geiieral Hardwicke's Indian collection. 

Whilst on the subject of the variations of colouring to which 
the Golden Eagle is subject, I must not omit to refer to the 
quotation from the writings of Mr. N. A. Severtzoff, for which 
we are indebted to Mr. Dresser"^, and which seems to imply 
that, in the opinion of that eminent Russian naturalist, there 
exist in Central Asia and in the Southern Ural Golden Eagles 
in which the white base of the tail, elsewhere an indication 
of immaturity, is a permanent character. Of the correctness 
of this opinion I am not in a position to judge ; but I have 
ascertained, by the examination of specimens, that the white 
on the base of the tail of the Golden Eagle disappears with 
the advance of age in the following countries — North Ame- 
rica, Scotland, Sweden, Erance, Spain, and Greece, I have 
also seen two Asiatic specimens (Captain Unwin's Hazara 
female, and the female obtained in India by Major-General 
Hardwicke, to both of which I have already alluded) in which 
there was no white on the rectrices beyond a very slight mot- 
tling on the inner webs. 

* Vide Ibis for 1875, p. 100. 

Mr. R. B. Sharpe's Catalogue 0/ Accipitres. 215 

Of all the aberrations of colouring incident to the Golden 
Eagle, the most curious appears to me to be that upon the 
possessors of which the appellation of Aquila barthelemyi has 
been bestowed ; and I regret that I am not able to add any 
information to that which I have already recorded on this 
subject in ' The Ibis ' for 1864, p. 339, and in the P. Z. S. for 
1870, p. 81. I may, however, mention that the Algerian 
example alluded to in the former of these papers possesses 
the white shoulder-patch on one side only, in which peculiarity 
it resembles a German specimen recorded at page 35 of the 
' Richesses Ornithologiques du Midi de la France/ 

In ' The Ibis ' for 1866, p. 422, I quoted an incident con- 
firmatory of the statements of Pennant and Atkinson relative 
to the competency of the Golden Eagle to attack the Wolf; 
and I take this opportunity of calling attention to two recent 
notices referring to this subject — one from the pen of Captain 
J. Biddulph, which will be found in the ' Proceedings of the 
Royal Geographical Society ' for August, 1874, at p. 425, the 
other from that of Mr. J. Scully, at p. 123 of ' Stray Fea- 
thers ' for 1876^. 

In conclusion I may mention that I possessed for several 
years an adult living specimen of the Golden Eagle in which 
the iris, instea<l of being of the usual rich hazel-brown, was 
of a dull pale yellow, exhibiting an aberrant coloration re- 
sembling that which sometimes occurs in the iris of Buteo 

I now propose to consider three nearly related Eagles which 
Mr. Dresser has distinguished in his ' Birds of Europe ' by the 
English names of Imperial, White-shouldered, and Steppe- 
Eagles J and I am glad that the circumstance of Mr. Dresser 
having so recently published almost all that can be said in 
addition to Mr. Sharpe's account of these three species, ren- 
ders it needless for me to dwell upon them at so great a length 
as might otherwise have been requisite. 

Mr. Sharpe applies to the Imperial Eagle the specific name 
of '' heliaca ; " but I agree with Mr. Dresser in believing that 
this species is entitled to the earlier appellation of " mogilnik" 
* [See also Dr. Finsch's note, anted, p. 50. — Ebd.] 

Q 2 

216 Mr. J. H. Gurney's Notes on 

which Mr. Sharpe appropriates (I venture to think^ errone- 
ously) to the Steppe-Eagle, as to which question I would refer 
to my remarks in ' The Ibis ' for 1873; p. 99. 

The most westerly locality assigned by Mr. Sharpe to the 
Imperial Eagle is " Central Europe/' which I am disposed to 
think is probably accurate, although Mr. Dresser remarks that 
''in Southern France, according to Jaubert and Barthelemy- 
Lapommeraye, it has occurred several times ; and on referring 
to the plate published by those gentlemen, there appears no 
doubt that the species represented is the present, and not the 
White-shouldered or Spanish Imperial Eagle." My copy of 
the ' Richesses Ornithologiques du Midi de la France,' by the 
authors whom Mr. Dresser quotes, does not contain a plate 
of the Imperial Eagle ; and the description there given does 
not appear to have been taken from a French specimen, only 
one such adult example being mentioned by M. Jaubert and 
his colleague, which was in a private collection at Bayonne, 
and which they appear not to have personally examined ; I 
therefore do not consider it by any means certain that this 
species has really occurred in France, or that the French 
specimens referred to it may not, in fact, have belonged to 
Aquila adalberti, in which case the very few stragglers re- 
corded in Mr. Dresser's work as having been obtained in 
Pomerania and Silesia are probably the most western known 
examples of the true Imperial Eagle. Mr. Sharpe does not 
refer to the occurrence of the Imperial Eagle in North-eastern 
Africa ; but a summary of what is known on this head will be 
found in Mr. Dresser's article on this species. 

Mr. Dresser figures a fine adult pair of Imperial Eagles, 
the female"^ of which, through the kindness of Mr. W. E. 

* Mr. Brooks has favoiu'ed me witli tlie following graphic account of 
the capture of this specimen : — " It was rather a barren, open, sort of 
country where I saw her perched on a low half-dead tree. I made two or 
three attempts to get within shot ; but she always ducked her head and 
flew before I was within a hundred j'ards. On the last occasion she began 
to soar a little, and then took a steady flight to the west at a height of 
about two hundred yards. I kept her in view with my glasses, and at last 
saw her shoot to the ground with closed wings. As she knew a Euro- 
pean so well, I handed my gun, loaded with BB, to my native attendant, 

Mr-. R. B. S/iarpe's Catalogue 0/ Accipitres. 217 

Brooks, now forms part of the collection at the Norwich Mu- 
seum, But that collection also contains another specimen, the 
locality of which is unfortunately unknown, which has a still 
greater development of white on the scapulars — in fact, nearly 
as much as is represented in the figure of the adult bird given 
im Mr. Gould's ' Birds of Europe/ 

Mr. Dresser's excellent article on this species contains much 
interesting information respecting it, gathered from various 
sources ; but it may be desirable to call attention to some 
valuable notes on this Eagle, as observed in Turkey, to which 
Mr. Dresser has not referred; these are from the pen of MM. 
Alleon and Vian, and will be found in the ' Revue et Magasin 
de Zoologie' for 1869, p. 108, and for 1870, p. 83^". 

Dr. Bree, in the first volume of the second edition of his 
* History of the Birds of Europe,' at p. 70, also gives some 
interesting additional particulars respecting the Imperial 
Eagle, supplied to him by Mr. A. S. Cullen of Kustendji ; and 
at p. 96 of the same volume he figures, under the name of 
" Striated Eagle," two specimens sent to him from Kustendji 
by* Dr. Cullen, which, so far as I can judge from an ex- 
amination of the skins, are immature examples of the Im- 
perial Eagle, but which Dr. Cullen, for reasons quoted by 
Dr. Bree at pp. 65, 66, 67, 97, and 98 of his first volume, 
afiirms to be specifically distinct f. 

enjoining him to put off his dark jacket and turban. Having a light- 
coloui'ed blanket ■with him, he tied a large knot at one corner, and making 
use of this temporary cloak, which hid the whole man and his gun, he 
proceeded to stalk her : as he neared the place she flew up from the long 
gTass and perched on a low dead tree, and allowed him to get within easy- 
shot. After she was shot we went to the spot from which she had risen 
and found a Corncias indica, with most of the body eaten ; I did not think 
such a large bird would have taken such small prey." The circumstance 
mentioned by Mr. Brooks of this large Eagle pouncing on a Roller seems 
to me to be very remarkable and worthy of record. 

* These valuable papers have been already alluded to in ' The Ibis ' for 
1870, p. GO, and for 1871, p. 418. 

t An instance of an Imperial Eagle having been kept in confinement 
for seven years "without losing the striated plumage of the young bird " 
is recorded by Messrs. Danford and Harvie Brown in ' The Ibis ' for 1875, 
p. 294. I think there is little doubt that in this case, and in another 

218 Mr. J. H. Gurney's Notes on 

For the last five years a very interesting Chinese specimen 
of the Imperial Eagle has been living in the Gardens of the 
Zoological Society of London,, to which Dr. Bree refers at 
pp. 73 and 99 of his work, and respecting which I at different 
times made the following memoranda : — 

" 15th July, 1871. A young Imperial Eagle from Foochoo, 
China, has lately been purchased by the Zoological Society, 
for whom a drawing has been made of it ; it is in striated 
plumage, just similar to a striated specimen lately sent over 
by Dr. Cullen from Kustendji, and has the irides very pale 
yellowish grey.^^ 

" 22nd June, 1872. It appears darker in plumage than at 
first, but is not otherwise changed.^^ 

" 22nd November, 1872. It is now in good plumage ; stri- 
ations very marked ; irides now pale clear yellow.^' 

I did not preserve any memoranda respecting my own ob- 
servations of this Eagle during the two following years ; but 
on the 26th June, 1874, I received the following account 
of it from Mr. Howard Saunders : — " It is only now show- 
ing black feathers and getting the barred tail, with one 
white feather on the left scapular." On the 23rd February, 
1875, I made the following memorandum after again visiting 
it : — " Still chiefly in striated plumage ; but the white scapu- 
lars are becoming conspicuous ; it now resembles the figure 
of a striated young bird beginning to change and showing 
white scapulars, given in drawing No. 8 of Col. TickelFs 
MS. Indian Ornithology, in the library of the Zoological So- 
ciety.'^ And on the 14th August, 1876, 1 made the following 
note: — "The Foochoo Eagle may be said to have attained 
adult plumage on the scapulars, which largely show the white, 
and also on the tail; but it retains immature dress on the 
head, neck, rump, and wing-coverts ; the iris is light, clear 
pale yellow." 

Passing on to the consideration of Aquila adalberti, the 
white-shouldered Eagle of Spain, I may mention that I en- 
similar one, recorded l)y the same gentlemen, the phenomenon was due 
to the effect of confinement; but these instances are nevertheless ex- 
tremely curious. 

Mr. R. B. Sharpe's Catalogue 0/ Accipitres. 219 

tirely agree in the opinion expressed by Mr. Dresser in the 
P. Z. S. for 1872, p. 864, and subsequently confirmed in his 
article on this Eagle in the ' Birds of Europe/ that " it is a 
very distinct species from the Imperial Eagle of Eastern 
Europe and India ;'^ its distinctness is also fully recognized 
in Mr. Sharpens volume. 

The coloration of A. adalberti in its nestling plumage is 
absolutely similar to the typical coloration of A. rapax [navi- 
oides) at the same age ; and widely as these two species differ 
in their adult dress, the typical A. rapax, on first leaving the 
nest, can only be distinguished from the nestling A. adalberti 
by its smaller size. The distinction, however, is always ap- 
parent on a comparison of birds of the same sex, but not 
otherwise ; and where the sex of the specimen is unknown, 
I believe there is always the possibility of a young male A. 
adalberti being mistaken for a young female A. rapax, and 
vice versa. Nor does the coincidence of coloration end here ; 
for A. adalberti, in its second stage, exhibits a somewhat 
particoloured plumage on the mantle and breast, two dif- 
ferent shades of rufous brown frequently appearing side by 
side on the same feather; and in this state of plumage it 
bears a decided resemblance to the fuliy adult dress of A. 

Mr. Sharpens description of the young female A. adalbei'ti 
appears to have been taken from a specimen little, if at all, 
removed from the nestling- stage ; but Mr. Dresser, in his 
' Birds of Europe,^ describes one, apparently slightly older, 
as having the " head, neck, back, scapulars, and wing-coverts 
light sandy brown, here and there intermixed with darker 
brown and dull rufous feathers. ^^ Two specimens in which 
this intermixture has made some further progress are figured 
from the life, in the second edition of Dr. Breeds ' Birds of 
Europe.' These birds, a male and a female, were brought 
from Spain by Lord Lilford, having been taken from the nest 
in the pine-forests near the mouth of the Guadalquivir during 
the first fortnight of May 1872 ; by the kindness of Dr. Bree 
they came into my possession on the 10th December, 1873, 
the drawing from which Dr. Breeds plate was taken having 

220 Mr. J. H. Gumey's Notes on 

been made just previously. I still have this fine pair of 
Eagles in excellent health, and have at various intervals made 
memoranda respecting their changes of plumage, from which 
I select the following : — 

On their first arrival I made a note to this eflFect : — " They 
are in the plumage of the young bird figured in Mr. Dresser's 
'Birds of Europe' on the same plate as the immature A. mo- 
gilnik, except that a few dark feathers are appearing on their 
foreheads, and also on one thigh of the female ; a few small 
pure white marks are also visible on the female about the 
carpal joint." 

On the 25th May, 1874, I noted that " the pair of Eagles 
have become dark on the crown of the head, also on the pri- 
maries and secondaries, as well as on the centres of the feathers 
forming the wing-coverts, the edges of these feathers being yel- 
lowish white" *. On 13th June, 1874, "the female shows a con- 
siderable amount of white feathers about the carpal joint, and 
some dark ones on the thighs and on the under surface of 
the wings ; the male remains much as on 25th May." On 
6th August, 1874, " the male begins to show white at the 
carpal joint." On 24th November, 1874, " the female has now 
almost one third of her plumage consisting of the new dark 
brown feathers, and the male nearly as large a proportion ; 
the white about the carpal joint is much the same in the 
female as on the 13th June, and in the male as on the 6th 
August." On the 5th February, 1875, " the male has now 
almost as much white about the carpal joint as the female, no 
other change noticeable in either bird since 24th November." 

On the 11th June, 1875, I observed in both the Eagles a 
considerable, but irregularly distributed, increase of new dark 
plumage, and also some increase of the white adjacent to tlie 
carpal joint ; and the gamekeeper who has the charge of them, 
and who is a very intelligent observer, had noticed that for a 
fortnight previous to this date, they had been moulting fast, 
this being, with the exception of a few feathers occasionally 
dropped, the first appearance of a regular moult since the 

* This state corresponded with that to which I have previously aUuded 
as the "second stage." 

Mr. R. B. Sharpe's Catalogue of Accipitres. 221 

birds had been in my possession^ and no moult, beyond the 
isolated droppings of occasional feathers, having occurred 

On 13th July, 1875, I noted: — ^'^the female now shows a 
A'ery considerable quantity of white, both about the carpal joint 
and on the ridge of the wing near the shoulder ; and the male 
shows the white at the same points, but less conspicuously/^ 
On 23rd September, 1875, " the white on the wings of the 
female has slightly increased since 13th July, and on those 
of the male considerably so ; but the female is still by much 
the more advanced of the two in this respect/^ 

During the succeeding eight months little, if any, altera- 
tion occurred in the plumage of either of the Eagles ; but 
during the next six months, ending about 30th November 
1876, the male bird gradually became as much advanced in 
his change as the female ; and both birds had, by that date, 
assumed the full adult dress, with the exception of isolated 
feathers belonging to the immature plumage, which remained 
here and there scattered over the mantle and thighs, and to 
a less extent on the breast and abdomen. Since then ten 
weeks have elapsed ; but no further change is observable, ex- 
cept that the female has now almost entirely lost the old fea- 
thers of the immature plumage from the breast and abdomen. 

It will be seen by the above notes that the female of this 
pair of Eagles has constantly made a more rapid advance 
towards the adult plumage than the male, which I have been 
disposed to attribute to the fact of his being literally a hen- 
pecked husband, and probably not always, in consequence of 
this, obtaining his full share of food ; I have, however, read, 
but where I cannot now recollect, that in the case of the 
Eastern Imperial Eagle the female has been observed, when 
in a state of nature, to assume the adult dress more rapidly 
than the male. 

I have now to refer to the Steppe-Eagle, respecting which 
it will be the less necessary for me to add much to Mr. 
Sharpens account, as the natural history of this Eagle has of 
late years been ably and exhaustively elucidated by Messrs. 

222 Mr. J. H. Gurney's Notes on 

Brooks and Anderson in India as well as by Mr. Dresser 
in this country. 

When I last referred in print to this subject {vide Ibis, 
1873, p. 422) I was of opinion that the Steppe-Eagle of 
Eastern Asia and India should probably be considered spe- 
cifically distinct from that of Eastern Europe, the latter being, 
on the avei'age of specimens, decidedly smaller, for instances 
of which I would refer to Mr. Dresser^s paper in the P. Z. S. 
for 1873, at p. 516; but I am now disposed to acquiesce in 
the view which has been taken by all the four ornithologists 
above referred to, that this disparity of size is not sufficient 
to constitute a specific distinction ; and assuming this view 
to be correct, I agree with Mr. Dresser in considering " ni~ 
palensis " of Hodgson to be the correct specific name to apply 
to the Steppe-Eagle both of Asia and of Europe. 

I have already mentioned my dissent from Mr. Sharpens 
application of Gmelin's name of " mogilnik " to this species ; 
but I may here observe that, previously to Mr. Sharpe having 
so applied it, a similar appropriation of it to this Eagle was 
made by M. Alleon in the ' Revue et Magasin de Zoologie' 
for 1866, accompanied by a figure (pi. 20) of a specimen 
obtained on the Bosphorus, which, contrary to the opinion of 
M. Alleon, I believe to be fully adult. In subsequent papers, 
written jointly with M. Vian*, M. Alleon ceases to identify 
the Steppe-Eagle with Aquila mogilnik, Gmel., and treats it 
as identical with A. clanga, Pallas. I think it is by no means 
impossible that Pallas did not distinguish between the usually 
smaller occidental form of the present species and the larger 
Spotted Eagle ; but the description of his Aquila clanga 
applies better to the latter, with which Mr. Sharpe identifies 
it, and, on the whole, I believe, correctly. 

MM. Alleon and Vian also express the opinion that the 
Steppe-Eagle of Eastern Europe is not specifically distinct 
from Aquila ncsvioides of Cuvier, or, as it may be more cor- 
rectly termed, A. rapax ; this is an opinion which I at one 

* Vide 'Revue et Magasin de Zoologie ' for 1869, pp. 258, 311, 313, for 
1870, pp. 81, 82, 130, and for 1873, pp. 235, 239. 

Mr. R. B. Sharpens Catalogue 0/ Accipitres. 223 

time believed to be correct^ but am now convinced is erro- 
neous^ as I have already explained in 'The Ibis' for 1873, 
p. 422^. 

The specimen of A. nipalensis described by Mr. Sharpe 
as an adult male is not, in my opinion, completely adult ; the 
fully adult stage is, I believe, that which is succinctly de- 
scribed by Mr. Anderson (P. Z. S. 1872, p. 621) as of a 
uniform brown, with the addition of a fulvous-coloured nuchal 
patch f. 

Mr. Sharpe, in his description of this species, does not 
refer to the peculiar transverse markings, extending from the 
sternum to the vent, which are occasionally to be observed in 
Indian specimens of this Eagle whilst in a state of change 
from the first immature dress to the fully adult plumage : for 
a fuller description of this stage, which I have not yet met 
with in European examples, see my remarks in ' The Ibis ' 
for 1873, p. 99, and those of Mr. Anderson in P. Z. S. 
1875, p. 21. 

The papers of MM. Alleon and Vian, to which I have 
already referred, contain many interesting particulars re- 
specting the migration of this and other Raptorial birds, as 
observed in the neighbourhood of the Bosphorus. Space will 
not allow me to quote more than the following summary of 
the observations of those gentlemen relating to the present 
species : — " C^est lui qui ouvre, sur le Bosphore, les migrations 
du printemps ; il parait, des les premiers jours de Mars, par 
bandes considerables, exclusivement formees d'oiseaux de cette 

espece, mais le nombre en est beaucoup moindre a I'au- 

tomne''' (Bevue et Mag. de Zool. for 1869, p. 313; conf. also 
Messrs. Buckley and Elwes in 'The Ibis' for 1870, p. 68). 

Mr. Dresser, referring to these migrations in his article on 
this species in ' The Birds of Europe,' makes the following 

* In Col. Irby's paper on the birds of Oudh, in ' The Ibis ' for 1861, 
at p. 221, A. nipalensis is referred to under the name of A. ncevioides — ^a 
mistake for which I am accountable, having wrongly identified two spe- 
cimens from Oudh which were presented by Col. L'by to the Norwich 

t Conf. Anderson in P. Z. S. 1870, p. 313. 

224 Mr. J. H. Gurney's Notes on 

remark : — " I have no data as to its occurrence in Northern 
Africa, and am unable to say how far south those birds which 
are found passing the Bosphorus on their journey southward 
extend their range/' It is certainly remarkable that African 
specimens of this Eagle should be so rare in collections as 
appears to be the case ; I only recollect to have examined 
two, both, apparently, adult males : one of these is from 
Abyssinia^, and is preserved in the Museum at Brussels ; the 
other was obtained in or near Damara Land by the late Mr. 
C. J. Andersson, by whom it was presented to the Museum 
at Norwich, where it still remains f- 

Besides the continent of Africa, the district of Upper Pegu 
must be added to the localities quoted by Mr. Sharpe for this 
species {vide ' Stray Feathers' for 1875, p. 25). 

I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. W. E. Brooks for 
the following anecdote relating to A. nipalensis as observed 
in India : — " One of my men once shot a large female A. 
nipalensis, which, he said, had struck down a fox and partly 
eaten it ; in the capture it was assisted by two other birds of 

the same species Hodgson, in one of his notes, describes 

taking portions of a jackal out of the crop of one of these 

Some curious and valuable observations on the habits of 
this Eagle are also contained in Prjevalsky's Mongolian notes, 
to which I have already referred {vide ' Ornithological Mis- 
cellany,' pt. 6, p. 144). 

The next three Eagles which I propose to notice are closely 
connected with the three last to which I have alluded, but are 
still more closely connected with each other. These are : — 
A. rapax (or, as it has been more frequently called, A. ncevi- 
oides); A. albicans, which Mr. Sharpe and most other autho- 

* Dr. A. Breliin's Aquila raptor ( ' Naumauuia,' 1855, p. 1.3) appears to 
me, by the description given, to be probably identical with this species, 
although quoted by Mr. Sharpe as a synonym of A. rapax ; Brehm's ex- 
amples were obtained in the Bogos country, where, however, he only 
appears to have occasionally met with it. 

t When I edited Mr. Andersson's notes on the birds of Damara Land, 
I was under the impression that this specimen was a dark variety of .4. 
rapax, and therefore did not enumerale it as distinct from thai species. 

Mr. R. B. Sharpens Catalogue of Accipitres. 225 

rities treat as identical with A. rapax, but which I incline to 
think is separable as a subspecies ; and A. vindhiana, which 
perhaps may be most properly considered also a subspecies, 
and which is connected with A. rapax by A. albicans, the latter 
occupying a position curiously intermediate between A. rapax 
and A. vindhiana, and thus forming one of those nicely ba- 
lanced links which, though it is difficult to define, it is inac- 
curate to ignore. 

Mr. Sharpe, in his epitome of the habitat of A. rapax, in- 
cludes North-western India ; but the Eagle from that locality 
which, in common with Canon Tristram^, I referred in 1869 
to A. rapax, I now believe to be referable to A.fulvescens, 
and to be specifically distinct both from A. rapax and from 
A. vindhiana : to this Eagle I shall have occasion hereafter 
more particularly to allude f. I believe it was this incorrect 
identification which led Mr. Sharpe to quote North-western 
India as a locality for A. rapax ; and I regret the error which 
has thus obtained additional currency. 

The adult plumage of A. rapax is well represented in Tem- 
minck^s 'Planches Coloriees,^ pi. 455 J, and in the upper figure 
in the plate accompanying Lord Lilford's paper on the orni- 
thology of Spain in ' The Ibis ' for 1865, pi. v. The imma- 
ture plumage, but with a slight commencement of change on 
the wing-coverts, is represented in the lower figure of the 
same plate, and also in the figure of the " Tawny Eagle " 
given in Dr. Breeds ' Birds of Europe ' § ; but neither of these 
two figures appears to me sufficiently to indicate the somewhat 
pale, but clear and decided, fulvous tint which characterizes 

* Vide Ibis for 1870, p. 290, footnote. 

t Mr. Sharpe gives A. fuhescens as a synonym of A, vindhiana, but, I 
tbink, erroneously. 

J Temminck's plate sbows with great accuracy the character of the 
particoloiu'ed feathers, which are remarkable on the wing-coverts of the 
typical South- African A. rapax in its adult stage ; but his figure does not 
sufficiently exhibit the similar markings which usually exist on the sca- 
pulars and, to a less extent, on the back and sides of the neck and on the 
upper breast. 

§ This figure is more accurately coloured in the second edition of Dr. 
Bree's work than in the first. 

226 Mr. J. H. Gurney's Notes on 

the mantle and under surface of A. rapax in immature plu- 
mage, and which was well described by the late Sir A. Smith 
in the following sentence : — " The young are of tawny chest- 
nut colour, and without the brown variations observed in 
the old ^^•^. 

Aquila rapax appears to be the commonest Eagle in the 
colony of the Cape of Good Hope ; and thence it has been 
ascertained to extend its range in a north-easterly direc- 
tion to the Republic of Transvaal, and in a north-westerly to 
the Mossamedes district in Benguelaf. 

On the western side of the African continent, north of the 
equator, we meet with A. rapax at Senegal; and the British 
Museum possesses a typical example in immature plumage 
from that locality. Other specimens from Senegal, which are 
preserved in the Museum at Paris, are said to be identical 
with South-African examples J ; but Professor Sclilegel, in 
the ' Museum des Pays-Bas,^ vol. i. Aquilce, p. 5, has the fol- 
lowing footnote : — " Les individus originaires du Senegal, que 
j'ai pu examiner, offrent en general des teintes un peu plus 
ternes que ceux de I'Afrique australe ; " the same author, 
however, in his supplementary volume, Accipitres, p. 116, 
mentions a specimen of this Eagle, acquired by the Leyden 
Museum subsequently to the issue of his first volume, as 
" femelle aux teintes fauves, Senegal. ^^ 

Proceeding northwards, it would appear that A. rapax oc- 
curs in the neighbourhood of Mogador, as I understand from 
Lord Lilford that the two specimens figured by him in ' The 
Ibis ' for 1865 were both said to have come thence. 

What range A. rapax may have in those parts of North 
Africa which border on the Mediterranean I am unable to 
say, having only examined two specimens of Eagles of this 
group from there, both of which appear to me to be more 
nearly allied to A. albicans than to A. rapax, on which ac- 
count I defer their consideration for the present. 

* Vide ' Gardens and Menagerie of the Zoological Society Delineated,' 
vol. ii. p. 292. 

t Vide second edition of Layard's ' Birds of Africa,' p. 35. 
\ FjV/e Hartlaub's 'Ornitbologie West- Africa's,' p. 13. 

Mr. R. B. Sharps' s Catalogue of Accipitres. 227 

In South-western Europe A. rapax appears to be ex- 
tremely rare. Some years since I had the opportunity of 
examining the skin of an immature specimen^ obtained in 
Spain by Lord Lilford, which was referred^ and, I believe, cor- 
rectly so, to this species; but most of the specimens from South- 
western Europe which were at one time supposed to belong 
to A rapax have been subsequently ascertained to be imma- 
ture examples of A. adalberti ; Lord Lilford, however, men- 
tions having on one occasion seen an Eagle in Andalucia, 
which, unfortunately, was not obtained, but which, from the 
description given, would seem to have been an adult A. rapax*. 

In South-eastern Europe I am able to cite one unquestion- 
able instance of the occurrence and nidification of ^. rapax, 
which is referred to in a letter from Dr. W. H. Cullen in 
* The Ibis ' for 1867, p. 247, and in a subsequent letter from 
the same gentleman published in the second edition of Dr. 
Breeds ' Birds of Europe,' vol. i. p. 90 ; from these it appears 
that two nestling specimens were obtained by Dr. Cullen at 
Kustendji, in Turkey, in the spring of 1865, one of which 
remained in his possession till January 1868, when he pre- 
sented it to the Zoological Society of Antwerp, in whose col- 
lection I saw it alive and in excellent feather on the 4th of 
September, 1876, when, through the courtesy of the autho- 
rities at the Gardens of the Society, I had the opportunity of 
carefully and fully examining it. The early history of this 
interesting specimen is thus given in Dr. Cullen's letter to 
Dr. Bree, above referred to : — '' I had two birds half-fledged 
brought me ; and as I was attracted by their colour (a light 
cream ....), I bought them : one died; the survivor is at 
Antwerp. The whole plumage was this delicate ^^ fauve isa- 
belle'' silk down ; and then it grew, gradually developing itself 
into an almost perfect copy of your A. navioides." The draw- 
ings and description of this Eagle, which in 1874 were sent 
from Antwerp to Dr. Bree, did not appear to me to agree 
with the typical A. rapax ; and, partly in consequence of my 
expressing this opinion as regards the details given in the de- 
scription. Dr. Bree provisionally proposed for this Eagle, 
* Vide Ibis, 1865, p. 172. 

228 Mr. J. H. Gurney's Notes on 

should it prove to belong to an undescribed species^ the 
name of Aquila cullem. Unfortunately the drawings sent 
from Antwerp to Dr. Bree appear to have been inaccurate in 
three important particulars ; the description^ moreover, did 
not altogether agree with the bird as it was when I saw it 
in September last : the nostril, which in reality is of the form 
usual in A. rapax, was represented as of a very different cha- 
racter; the tarsus, which is feathered down to the toes, was 
drawn as having its lower portion bare ; and the broad scutes on 
the lower part of the toes do not extend in reality so far up on 
the middle and on the outer toe as the drawing indicates {vide 
Dr. Breeds engraving of details at p. 93) . The tail was reported 
to Dr. Bree as being, in 1874, " without traces of bands or 
transverse spots ;" but such was not the case when I saw it 
two years later. It was also stated at that period to be " very 
silent ;" but during the time that I inspected it this was not 
so, as it continually uttered a croaking note, which much 
reminded me of that of a South- African A. rapax which I 
kept for many years in confinement. 

The following memoranda as to the coloration of this Eagle 
were made by me on the spot, and, from the interest attaching 
to this specimen, may be worth inserting here : — " Iris hazel ; 
cere, gape, and feet rather dull yellow ; the crown of the head 
and back of the neck are bright rufescent fulvous, but with 
the rufous tint decidedly paler than in adult South- African 
specimens, and more resembling the colour of those parts in 
the South- African bird when immature; the ground-colour 
of the mantle generally is of a similar hue to the head and 
neck ; but the interscapular and upper scapular feathers have 
darker shaft-marks, and are also tinged with greyish brown, 
which is darkest along the sides of each feather, forming a 
tolerably distinct border and producing a particoloured fea- 
ther, in some cases with a slight fawn tip, and resembling in 
character the corresponding feathers in the adult South- African 
bird, but with the contrast of tints much less strongly marked ; 
the lower scapulars are of a dark slaty brown, faintly tipped 
with fawn, and showing, in some lights, a purplish reflection ; 
the wing-coverts, except those of the primaries and secon- 

Mr. R. B. Sharpe's Catalogue of Accipitres. 229 

daries, are fawn-coloured^ this tint being unbroken along the 
ridge of the wing, but elsewhere varied with a slaty-black 
centre to each feather, which become more conspicuous in pro- 
portion as they recede from the ridge of the wing; the primary- 
and secondary-coverts are slaty black, some of the inner webs 
being tipped with whitish, and all the outer webs with fawn- 
colour ; all the quill-feathers of the wing are black, with a 
tinge of grey on the outer webs^ and with fawn-coloured tips ; 
the secondaries also show some dark but rather indistinct 
transverse bars ; the upper surface of the tail is dark slate- 
colour, with eight transverse bars of a darker hue visible on 
the middle rectrices, these bars being less distinct, and as- 
suming more the character of mottling, towards the sides of 
the tail ; all the rectrices have narrow fulvous tips. The entire 
under surface is fawn-coloured, decidedly paler than the back, 
and with no dark markings, except a few narrow shaft-marks 
on the breast ; the wing- linings and throat are paler than the 
rest of the under surface ; and the chin is nearly white ; but 
with these exceptions there is hardly any perceptible vari- 
ation in the tints of the underparts.'^ 

It will be seen by the above that in this Eagle the general 
coloration is paler, and the contrast of tint upon the parti- 
coloured feathers much less marked, than in the ordinary 
typical adults of A. rapax, from which it also differs in the 
almost entire absence of variegation on the uuderparts. These 
peculiarities are remarkable, and the more so as the bird, 
wheu I saw it, was about eleven and a half years old ; but I 
am disposed to regard them as resulting from confinement, 
having met with a similar phenomenon in a Mogador speci- 
men recently presented by Lord Lilford to the Norwich Mu- 
seum. This specimen, which was the original of the lower 
figure on pi. v. of 'The Ibis' for 1865, lived for nine years 
in Lord Lilford's possession, and in great measure retained 
its immature dress till it died, its plumage then exhibiting 
still less of the variegation of tint characteristic of the normal 
adult dress than was visible in the Antwerp specimen at the 
time when I saw it. Both, these cases are probably parallel 
to those of the two Imperial Eagles which so long retained 


230 Mr. J. H. Gurney's Notes on 

their striated plumage in confinement, and to which I have 
ah-eady alluded. 

Before leaving the subject of the Antwerp Eagle, I may 
mention that some slight changes which occurred in its plu- 
mage between 1868 and 1874 are detailed by Professor Van- 
den-Nest in a letter which is printed at page 91 of the first 
volume of the second edition of Dr. Bree's work. 

As regards the more eastern range of A. rapax, I have no 
information beyond the fact of its inhabiting Palestine and 
breeding there, which is recorded by Canon Tristram in ' The 
Ibis^ for 1865, p. 252; I have never had the opportunity of 
personally examining an Asiatic specimen. 

I will now refer to such facts as I have been able to collect 
relative to the Eagle inhabiting Abyssinia and the adjacent 
countries, for which Riippell proposed the specific name of 
albicans, though he subsequently abandoned this for the older 
appellation of rapax*, under which latter designation it is 
also referred to by two eminent subsequent explorers of Abys- 
sinia, Blanford and Von Heuglin. 

These Abyssinian Eagles do not differ from the typical A. 
rapax of South Africa in form or measurements f; and the 
question to be considered has therefore reference to colora- 
tion and markings only. On the former of these heads Mr. 
Blanford observes, " the plumage varies from umber-brown 
to rufous, the latter colour prevailing in adult birds, especially 
on the head and upper part of the back ; old birds are whitish 
[A. albicans, Riipp.).^' 

With regard to the last of these observations I may men- 
tion that the specimens which I have examined lead me to 
believe that the colour, or rather lack of colour, described by 
Mr. Blanford as " whitish,'^ is less due to the age of the bird 
than to the age of the feathers, which frequently become much 

* Vide 'Neue Wirbeltliiere/ p. 34, and ' Systematisclie Uebersicht,' 
p. 10. 

t Dr. A. Brehm, who, in his interesting Notes on the Bii-ds of the Bogos 
Country, recognizes A. albicans as distinct fi'om A. rapax, considers the 
former to be the larger bird of the two {vide 'Naumannia/ 1855, p. 15); 
but I do not find that such is the case on an average of the specimens 
which I have examined. 

Mr. R. B. Sharpens Catalogue of Accipitres. 231 

more colourless, by use and fading, in Abyssinian specimens 
of the Eagle wbich Riippell called A. albicans than in ordi- 
nary South-African examples of the typical A. rapax. 

The coloration of the Abyssinian race is thus described by 
Von Heuglin, for a translation of whose remarks on this sub- 
ject the English reader is indebted to the good offices of Dr. 
Bree : — " Old birds from Abyssinia are almost uniformly of 
a grey isabel-colour, which latter tint gradually changes to a 
dull white ; other birds from Eastern Sennaar and Western 
Abyssinia are generally, and especially underneath, of a greyish 
fawn-colour ; on the breast, sides, shanks, and under tail- 
coverts are solitary, often very broad, reddish or smoky 
brown arrow-shaped spots, which sometimes run across the 
whole feather " ■^. Mr, Jesse thus refers to a pair of these 
Eagles shot by him in Abyssinia on 27th April, 1868 : — 

'' $ . Iris brown, cere yellow, bill almost black .... 

" S ' Ii'is yellowish grey, cere dirty yellow ; beak bluish grey 
at base, black at tip .... 

"The pair above noted t were killed the same day, one on 
the nest, the other as he swooped down to look for his com- 
panion ; these two examples sufficiently illustrate the varia- 
tions to which this Eagle is subject, the female bird being 
almost entirely cream-coloured, and the male so brown as to 
be verging on black ; the iris and beak are different in each ; 
.... the remaining five specimens I got vary considerably, 
none, however, being so dark or so light as the pair above 
mentioned ^^ J. 

It seems to me to be convenient to retain the distinctive 
appellation of albicans for the Abyssinian race of Eagles re- 
ferred to in the above extracts, as the great majority of Abys- 
sinian specimens exhibit a tone of colour strikingly different 
from that of the ordinary typical A. rapax of South Africa. 
The Abyssinian birds, when immature, present a general 

* Vide Bree's ' Birds of Europe,' 2nd edit. vol. i. p. 94. 

t This pair of Eagles are preserved in the collection of the Marquis of 

X Vide 'Transactions' of the Zoological Society of London, vol. vii. 
p. 201. 


232 Air. J. 11. Guruey's Notes on 

coloration of wood- or stone-brown (slightly tinged with 
purple on the lower scaj)ulars), of a deeper tint on the upper 
than on the underparts of the bird^ and much darker in some 
individuals than in others, but always (so far as I have seen) 
without any tinge of the fulvous colouring which is conspicu- 
ous on all parts, except the quill-feathers of the wing and tail, 
in the young A. rajjax. The attainment of adult plumage 
appears to be signalized in A. albicans, as in A. rapax, by 
the acquisition of particoloured feathers on the mantle, and 
especially on the wing-coverts and scapulars, these variega- 
tions being disposed in a similar pattern in both races, except 
that in A. albicans they usually do not descend so far down 
on the scapulars as in A. rapax. In the majority of Abys- 
sinian specimens, which are proved by this variegation to have 
attained adult plumage, no rufous colouring is anywhere visi- 
ble ; and in these examples the particoloured feathers, instead 
of presenting a pattern composed of alternations of deep brown 
with rufous or fulvous, as in the adults oi A. rapax, exhibit 
the same pattern in two different shades of wood-brown, a 
darker and a lighter. Such specimens as these are readily 
distinguishable from the iy^xcol A. ra}) ax ; but other adults 
also occur in Abyssinia which show a considerable amount of 
rufous colouring on the head and upper part of the mantle, 
including the paler portions of the particoloured feathers; 
and it must be admitted that it is not easy, perhaps not pos- 
sible, to distinguish with certainty between such Abyssinian 
specimens as these and the ordinary South-African adults of 
A. rapax. These rufescent Abyssinian examples, however, are 
very much scarcer in collections than those that are non- 
rufous ; and the prevalence of the latter johase in Abyssinia, 
coupled with its almost entire absence in South Africa"^, is a 
fact which ought not to be overlooked, whatever may be 

* I have only seen one non-rufous specimen from South Africa; this 
is preserved in the British Museum, and is marked " m " in Mr. Sharpe's 
list of specimens. It so closely resembles the ordinary Abyssinian type 
that I cannot but think it possible that it may have been an accidental 
wanderer from intertropical regions. The exact locality in South Africa 
in which it was obtained is, unfortunately, not recorded. 

Mr. R. B. Sharpe's Catalogue 0/ Accipitres. 233 

thought of the attempt to indicate its existence by the appli- 
cation of a distinctive specific name to the Abyssinian race. 

It should also be mentioned that the adults of A. albicans 
are, for the most part^ less profusely variegated with dark 
longitudinal marks on their under surface than are those of 
A. rapax ; but, on the other hand, they sometimes exhibit ab- 
dominal markings of a character which I have not observed 
in A. rapax. The most striking instauce of this peculiarity 
which has come under my notice is displayed in anon-rufous 
specimen from Bogos-land in the British Museum : in these 
some of the feathers on the breast, abdomen, and thighs ex- 
hibit a dark brown centre, surrounded by a whitish brown 
ring, outside of which is a second ring of dark brown, and be- 
yond that the edge of the feather, which is of a pale drab. 

I may add that I find no differences between the markings 
on the quill-feathers of the wings and tail in A. rapax and in 
A. albicans, though both are subject to slight individual varia- 
tions; the transverse markings of the tail in both races are 
usually nine in number ; but they are frequently indistinct, 
even in adult birds, and sometimes almost imperceptible. 

Amongst the synonyms referred by Mr. Sharpe to A. 
rapax is " Falco belisarius" of Levaillant, jr., figured in the 
' Exploration Scientifique de I'Algerie,' " Oiseaux,^^ pi. 2. 
Whether the bird there represented is rightly referable to 
the typical A. rapax, to the eastern A. albicans, or to a third 
local race not absolutely identical with either of these, is a 
question which, in the absence of an adequate series of North- 
African specimens, I am unable to answer. Of the two such 
to which I have already alluded, one was obtained by the late 
M. Favier near Tangier, and is preserved in the Norwich 
Museum ; the other is Mr. Salvin^s Djendeli specimen, which 
is described in ' The Ibis ' for 1859, p. 181, and which he has 
kindly lent to me for examination. Both these examples are 
in moult, the latter being more advanced than the former; 
in both, the new feathers on the upper parts present a peculiar 
chocolate tint, which appears to me to differ (especially in the 
case of the Djendeli bird) from the ordinary coloration both 
of A. rapax and of A. albicans, but in both cases to approach 

234 Mr. J. H. Gurney's Notes on 

nearer to the latter than to the former ; in both specimens 
the older portions of the plumage are so worn and faded as 
to be of little use in the diagnosis between such closely 
allied races. 

Aquila vindhiana of India, though very closely allied to A. 
rapax and A. albicans, is, on the average of specimens, a 
rather smaller bird than either. In coloration it comes nearest 
to A. albicans ; but the latter seems never to assume the pe- 
culiar grey tint on the head, neck, and underparts which 
Mr. Sharpe defines as a " greyish mouse-colour " in his de- 
scription of the ^'^ young" stage of ^. vindhiana*. 

Mr. Sharpens description of this plumage and of that of an 
adult female may be supplemented by a reference to the par- 
ticulars given in Jerdon's ' Birds of India,^ vol. i. p. 60, and in 
Mr. Hume^s ' Scrap-book,^ p. IZGf, also by the description of 
the nestling-plumage in Hume^s ' Nests and Eggs of Indian 
Birds,' p. 30 ; to the information afforded by these authorities, 
I may add the following note, dated July 1875, for which I 
am indebted to the kindness of Mr. W. E. Brooks : — " I have 
A. vindhiana from the nest to old age : the nestling is alight- 
toned bird, rather tawny on the body-plumage ; the second plu- 
mage is of a dull greyish brown, somewhat like the brown of 
immatui'e A. nipalensis ; this passes into the dark brown bird, 
either wholly dark brown, or with part of the body whity 
brown. The whity-brown stage is that of a very old bird ; but 
it is possible that younger birds, the colours of which are not 
fast, might, in a comparatively short time, reach the whity- 
brown stage. This species is subject to great variation; and 
I have not seen two birds quite alike.'' 

I may also observe that in fully adult specimens of A. 
vindhiana, particoloured feathers, of two shades of brown, 
frequently occur on the upper scapulars and lesser wing- 

* Specimens of A. vindhiana exhibiting this grey tint are scarce in col- 
lections ; the British Museum possesses such a one in very perfect unfaded 
plumage, from which I presume IVIr. Sharpe took his description of the 
" young " bird. 

t In both these works the present species is referred to under the name 
of Aquila fulvescens. 

Mr. R. B. Sharpe's Catalogue of Accipitres, 235 

coverts^ and also on the abdomen and thighs^ which closely 
resemble the corresponding feathers in the fully plumaged 
adults of ^. albicans-, I have likewise noticed that adult spe- 
cimens of A. viyidhiana often exhibit a decided tinge of rufes- 
cent fulvous on the nape of the neck and the upper part of 
the back; but in A. v'mdhiana, as \uA. albicans, the plumage 
has so great a tendency to become bleached and worn^ that 
it is only in newly assumed feathers that such details of mark- 
ing and coloration can be satisfactorily observed. 

I add some measurements of Eagles which I have recently 
examined belonging to the group to which I have just re- 
ferred : — 

Wing from 
carpal joint. 


Typical Aqidla rapax ; 

S . Damara Land (Andersson) : in 
collection of Canon Tristram .... 
(S . Natal (Ayres) : Norwich Mu- 








S- Ditto (ditto): ditto 
Presumed c? ■ Snowberg, S. Afi-ica : 
British. Museum 



5 . S. Africa (Sir A. Smith) : Nor- 
wich Museum 


Presumed c?. Senegal: British Mu- 


Doubtful Specimens : 

Non-rufous specimen from S. Africa: 
British Museum : presumed (^ . . 
2 . Tangier (Favier) : Norwich Mu- 


Presumed $. Djeudeli, Eastern 
Atlas : in collection of 0. Salvin 

S (Ptufous). Senafe, Tigre (Blan- 
ford) : British Museum * 

cJ (Rufous). AngoUala, Shoa : Brit- 
ish Museum 


* Mr. Blanford gives these measurements as taken from this specimen 
(probably when freshly killed) as 20-3 and 3'4 (vide ' Geology and Zoology 
of Abyssinia/ p. 296). 

236 Recently published Ornithological Works. 

Wing from 

carpal joint. Tarsus, 
in. in. 

Typical Aquila albicans : 

? . Sboa : Britisli Museum 21-3 3-3 

Largest of ten Abyssinian specimens 
in Britisli and Norwich Museums 

(sex undetermined ) 21'6 3-3 

SmaUest of ditto (ditto) 19-7 3-0 

Aquila vindhiana : 

S . India (W. Ewer) : Norwich Mu- 
seum 19'8 3'0 

$. Ditto (ditto): ditto 21-1 3-0 

Presumed $ . N.W. India (W. E. 

Brooks): Norwich Museum .... 21-8 3-1 

For tlie sake of comparison I may quote the following 
measurements of A. vindhiana from Mr. Hume's ' Scrap- 
book/ p. 178 : — 

Length of 

Largest of five males 20'4 

Smallest of ditto 19-5 

Largest of seven females . . . ' 21 '75 

Smallest of ditto 20-75 

XX. — Notices of Recent Publications. 

[Continued from p. 127.] 

13. Mosenthal and Harting's ' Ostrich -farming.' 

[Ostriches and Ostrich Farming. By Julius de Mosenthal and James 
Edmund Harting. 8vo, pp. 246. London : 1876.] 

The new industry of Ostrich-farmings and the exhibition of 
the various sorts of feathers in the late Vienna Exhibition^ 
appear to have suggested the writing of this book, although 
other motives may have contributed to it. Had the authors 
confined themselves to their original limits, or extended them 
only to include an account of the Rheas, the feathers of 
which alone of the other Struthious birds have any commercial 
value, the purpose for which the work Avas undertaken would 

Recently published Ornithological Works. 237 

have been fulfilled. But we venture to think that the history 
of the Emus, Cassowaries, and Kiwis, which occupies a large 
portion of Mr, Harting's share of the work, while of no use 
to the Ostrich-farmer, will scarcely prove of much service to 
the scientific ornithologist. The matter which it contains, 
so far as we can see, throws no new light on the subject^, 
and is chiefly compiled from books which are quite amongst 
the most accessible of all ornithological literature. 

The portion of this work relating to the Ostriches and the 
Eheas, as well as to the system of farming the former, con- 
tains many useful details, and will doubtless serve the purpose 
for which it was written. 

Several spirited drawings accompany this book ; but the 
scenes depicted, to a great extent, illustrate hunting these 
birds rather than the more peaceful occupation of farming 
them. Perhaps in these early days of the latter process Os- 
trich-catching forms a prominent feature. 

14. 'Bulletin' of the Zoological Society of France. 

[Bulletin de la Societe Zoologique de France pour I'anuee 1876. Pre- 
miere Annee, 1"^, 2*^ et 3*^ parties. PariS; au siege de la Societe, Quai 
des Grands- Augustins 55. 1876.] 

The institution of a new Zoological Society in France must 
be a subject of much congratulation among naturalists^ of 
whom all, we are sure, will wish the founder and promoters 
every sort of success. We see several ornithologists named 
in the " bureau " of the new Society, and may therefore ex- 
pect ornithological contributors to the journal, of which, 
indeed, there are several in the first number. 

The president, M. Jules Viau, commences the new journal 
with an article on the specimen of Phaleris psittacula which 
was captured in Sweden in 1860 (Ibis, 1869, p. 221), and gives 
a figure and description of its skeleton. The second portion of 
M. Viands paper relates to Mormon grab(B of Brelim, which 

* The statement (p. 102) concerning the breeding of Castiarius aus- 
tr.'ilis in the Jardin des Plantes might claim to be an exception to this 
remark ; but we believe this is an error, and that the '' Casoar de Nouvelle 
Hollande,^'' i. e. DromcBus novce hollandice, was the bird that really bred at 
Paris, as it has in many other places in England and on the Continent. 

238 Recently published Ornithological Works. 

has recently occurred ou the west coast of France_, and of 
which he vindicates the claims to be recognized as a valid 
species'^. Here are two new subjects for Mr, Dresser to 

Next we have (p. 36) a joint paper by Mr. Sharpe and M. 
Bouvier (the Secretary of the new Society) on a collection of 
birds made by M. Petit in Congo, containing representatives 
of abovit 100 species, and amongst them anew Psalidoprocne, 
which is described and figured as P.petiti. M. Louis Bureau 
follows with a good essay upon the vexed question of the dif- 
ferent plumages of Aquila pennata, of which he has had the 
good fortune to obtain five nests on the Lower Loire. In 
parts ii. and iii. MM. A. Besnard and A. Lacroix, each, con- 
tribute notes on some of the rarer birds of France, such as 
Turdus varius of Pallas, Falco concolor, and a Stonechat re- 
ferred by the latter, somewhat doubtfully, to Saxicola squalida 
of Eversmann. But the most important ornithological paper 
in the number is the first portion of a " Revue critique de la 
Faune Ornithologique de la Siberie Orientale," by M. Tac- 
zanowski of Warsaw. This is mainly based upon the large 
collections made l)y Dr. Dybowski, who, as is well known to 
ornithologists, has been actively engaged in collecting birds 
in Eastern Siberia during the past ten years, and embraces a 
revised resume of the memoirs upon his investigations akeady 
published in the ' Journal fiir Ornithologie." 

15, D'Hamonville's Catalogue of the Birds of Eui'ope. 

[Catalogue des Oiseaux d'Europe ou enumeration des especes et races 
d'oiseaux dout la presence, soit habituelle, soit fortuite, a ete duinent con- 
statee dans les limites geograpliiques de I'Europe, par J. 0. L. T. D'Ha- 
monville. 8vo, pp. 74. Paris, Bailliere ; London, Quaritch : 1876.] 

This contains the names of the birds of Europe in Latin 
and French, according to the nomenclature of Degland and 
Gerbe, with a slight indication of their distribution, A few 
footnotes on doubtful species and rare occurrences are added. 
M. D'Hamonville means well^ but is hardly " up to the mark/^ 
we fear. 

* See Mons. Olphe-Galliard's letter on this bird, Ibis, 1875, p. 267. 

Recently published Ornithological Works. 239 

16. Brown's Travels in British Guiana. 

[Canoe and Camp-life in British Guiana. By C. Barrington Brown, 
Assoc. R.S.M., late Government Surveyer in British Guiana. 1 vol. 8vo. 
London, Stanford : 1876.] 

This interesting narrative of Mr. Brown's various excur- 
sions while executing his office of Surveyor of British Guiana 
is replete with notes and observations on natural history. 
Many of these relate to birds, such as those on Rhynchops 
(p. 95) J Chasmorhynchus variegatus (p. 123)"^^ Sturnella ludo- 
viciana (p. 167), Acanthylis collaris (p. 219), Canci^oma co- 
chlearia (p. 257), and Opisthocomus cristatus. Mr. Brown 
is well known to geographers as the discoverer of the cele- 
brated Kaieteur waterfall on the Upper Essequibo, which 
appears to be frequented by '' myriads of millions " of a large 
Swift [Acanthylis collaris sive zonaris). The nesting-place 
of Steatornis, in a cave on the Upper Mazaruni (see p. 286), 
is, so far as we are aware, quite a new discovery, as are like- 
wise the nesting-habits of Ortalida motmot and Odontophorus 
guianensis (p. 371) . The explanation of the curiously formed 
wing-feathers of Penelope pipile (p. 387) is likewise new to us. 

17. Ornithological Results of the 'Gazelle' Expedition. 

[Uebersicht der auf der Expedition Sr. Maj. Schiif '' Gazelle ' gesam- 
melten Vogel. Zusammengestellt von J. Cabanis und A. Reiclienow. 
Journ. f. Oru. 1876, p. .3191.] 

The German S.S. ^ Gazelle ' conveyed the astronomers of 
that nation to Kerguelen's Land for the observation of the 
Transit of Venus in December 1875. A large collection of 
birdskins, birds in spirit, skeletons, and eggs was formed 
during the voyage, principally by Dr. Hiisker, the medical 
officer, in the above-named island, and in other places visited 
during the voyage round the world (Fiji Islands, ISTew Ire- 
land, New Hanover, Timor, and New Guinea). Altogether 
examples of 143 species of birds were obtained, which are 
enumerated by Messrs. Cabanis and Beichenow in the present 

* On the discovery of this species in British Guiana, see Ibis, 1869, 
p. 462. 

t We may remark that the number containing this paper, although 
dated " July 1876," was not issued to the subscribers uutil January 1877 ! 

240 Recently published Ornithological Works. 

paper. Five species are characterized as new to science, 
namely : — Rhipidurafuscovirens, from New Guinea ; Gracula 
gnathoptila, from New Hanover ; Trichoglossus flavicans , from 
New Hanover ; CEdirhinus globifer (new genus and species 
of Fruit-Pigeons), from New Ireland; and Megapodius hues- 
keri, from New Hanover. A new genus, Melidipnus, is made 
for Ptilotis megarhynchus, Gray, from New Guinea. New 
Hanover, which, so far as we know, has not been previously 
visited by a collector, lies just to the west of New Ireland, and 
belongs, no doubt, to the Papuan subregion. The following 
is a list of the species procured in this new locality : — 

1. Sauloprocta melauoleuca. 11. Lorius liypoeuochrous. 

2. Monarcha cordensis. 12. Trichoglossus flavicans. 

3. Monarcha lucida. 13. Carpophaga (Globicera) pacifica. 

4. Lalage karu. 14. Macropygia turtur. 

6. Campephaga plumbea. 15. Lamprotreron superba. 

6. Lamprotornis metallicus. 10. CEdirhinus globifer. 

7. Gracula gnathoptila. 17. Megapodius hueskeri. 

8. Halcyon sacra. 18. Totanus incanus. 

9. Calyptorhynchus banksii. 19. Anas superciliosa. 
10. Eclectus polychlorus. 

18. Bulletin of the Nuttall Ornithological Club. 

[Quarterly Bulletin of the Nuttall Ornithological Club, Cambridge, 
Mass. Nos. 1-4 (1876). Cambridge, Mass. Published by the Club.] 

We see with pleasure that our American friends have estab- 
lished a new ornithological club, called after one of the most 
classical and revered names in American ornithology. Four 
numbers of its ' Bulletin,' forming the first volume, are 
now before us. Mr. J. A. Allen is its editor, assisted by 
Prof. Baird and Dr. E. Coues, than whom, we need hardly 
say, three more efficient persons, qualified for the task, could 
not have been found. 

The papers in the first four numbers of the Bulletin are 
mostly short, and principally devoted to local matters. Mr. 
W. Brewster (p. 1) describes and figures a new Helmintho- 
phaga, of which a single specimen was procured in Massa- 
chusetts in 1870. It is named H. leucobronchialis, and is 
most nearly allied to H. chrysoptera. In the second number 

Becently published Ornithological Works, 241 

(p. 46) Dr. T. H. Streets describes a new Duck from Wash- 
ington Island, one of the Fanning group in the Pacific, which 
he proposes to call Chaulelasmus couesi. It is in plumage 
like C. strepei'us in winter dress, but much smaller in size. 
In the third number Dr. E. Coues gives some interesting re- 
marks on the number of the primaries in the Oscines. In 
the fourth number is an excellent paper by Mr. Ridgway on 
geographical variation in Dendrceca palmarum, and Dr. Mer- 
rill, in his " Notes on Texan Birds,^^ introduces several species 
as new to the United States. Notices of new publications 
are given in the last three numbers. 

19. Palmm's Migration-routes of Birds. 

[Ueber die Zugstrassen der Vogel von J. A. Palm(5n, Decent der Zoo- 
logie an der UniversitJit Helsiugfors. Leipzig, Engelmann. 1 vol. 8vo, 
pp. 292.] 

Some of our readers may be acquainted with an excellent 
academic dissertation, ^^Om Foglarnes Flyttnings vagar,^^ 
published by Prof. Palmeu at Helsingfors in 1874. We have 
now a revised and augmented translation of the above-named 
work in a tongue better known to most English naturalists, 
and well worthy of their study. It is an attempt to answer 
the question. What routes are taken by migratory birds from 
their breeding-places to their winter- quarters and back again ? 
For good reasons, explained by our author, special attention 
is given to some twenty species which breed in the Polar 
islands, or only in the extreme north of Europe, in order to 
solve this problem ; and their distribution at different seasons 
throughout the Old World is carefully studied. An outline 
map shows at a glance the results arrived at as regards the 
arctic categories of migrants. But much more work remains 
to be done before any thing like a complete answer can be 
given to the problem which Prof. Palmen is studying. 

20. Dr. Streets' s Account of the Fanning Islands. 

[Some Account of the Natural History of the Fanning Group of Islands. 
By Dr. Thomas H. Streets, U.S. N. Amer. Nat. xi. pp. 65 (1877).] 

An interesting notice of the birds of the Fanning group 
of islands, in the Pacific, is given in the ' American Naturalist ' 

242 Recently published Ornithological Works. 

for February last. Fanning^s group consists of four coral- 
islands^ lying a little north of the equator, between 157° and 
162° W. long. One of them, Washington Island, is remark 
able as possessing a peculiar species of Parrot {Coriphilus 
Icuhli*) and another land-bird, probably a Flycatcher, speci- 
mens of which were obtained by Dr. Streets, but have disap- 
peared in the ^' general collection of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution." We trust they may be rediscovered, as also those 
of an allied species from " Christmas Island," which have, 
for the present, met with a similar fate. There is likewise a 
Duck {Chaulelasmus couesi), allied to our well-known Gad- 
wall, peculiar to Washington Island ; and this and the other 
islands are resorted to by several species of oceanic birds for 

21 . Dr. Ogden on a supposed new Paradise-bird. 
[Remarks on Ptilorliis wilsonii, Ogden. By J. A. Ogden, M.D. Proc. 

Acad. Nat. Sc. Phil. 1876, p. 182.] 

In the ' Proceedings ' of the Academy of Sciences of Phila- 
delphia for 1875 (p. 451) Dr. Ogden described and figured a 
new Rifle-bird as Ptilorhis ivilsonii, from a mounted speci- 
men in the Academy^s collection. Incited to further inquiries 
by Mr. D. G. Elliot, Dr. Ogden has now discovered that the 
legs and feet of the specimen are " those of another bird," and 
it remains more than questionable whether this supposed 
species is distinct from P. magnifica. 

22. Prejevalsky's Mongolia and Northern Thibet. 

[Mongolia, the Tangut Country, and the Solitudes of Northern Tibet, 
being a Narrative of Three Years' Travel in Eastern High Asia, by Lieut.- 
Ool. N. Prejevalsky, Translated by E. Delmar Morgan, F.R.G.S. ; with 
Introduction and Notes by Col. Henry Yule, C.B. Two volumes. Lon- 
don, 1876 : Sampson Low & Co.] 

Though not a strictly scientific work, no naturalist should 
omit to read Col. Prejevalsky's narrative, containing, as it 
does, numerous allusions to birds and other animals through- 
out its interesting pages. Col. Prejevalsky started from 
Pekin, and, travelling south-west, crossed the Hoang-ho at 
* Cf. Sclater, P. Z. S. 1876, p. 421. 

Recently puhlished Ornithological Works. 243 

the most northern part of its great bend. Then turning along 
its south bank for 250 miles, he recrossed it at Ding-hu, and 
proceeded into Alashan, a wild and barren mountain-district, 
lying to the south of the Gobi. Here, we believe, most of 
his best zoological discoveries were made. In a second ex- 
pedition in 1872, Col. Prejevalsky succeeded in penetrating 
far beyond Alashan, through the little-known Chinese pro- 
vince of Kansu, to the large lake of Kokonor, the original 
aim of his journey. In a winter-journey from Kokonor he 
finally penetrated to the banks of the Upper Yang-tze, only 
500 miles from L^hassa, where only want of funds stopped 
his further progress. 

23. Rowley's ' Ornithological, Miscellany.' 

[Ornithological Miscellany. Edited by George Dawson Rowley, M.A., 
F.L.S., F.Z.S., Member of tlie British Ornithologists' Union. Part VI. 
London, 1877 : Triibner & Co.] 

The sixth part of Mr. Rowley^s ' Ornithological Miscel- 
lany,' a work of the general character of which we have 
already spoken, contains the commencement of a memoir of 
much importance to English ornithologists. We have just 
spoken of Col. Prjeval sky's ' Travels in Mongolia,' and of 
the many zoological discoveries Avhich he made ; but the tech- 
nical portion of the work relating to the birds was not included 
in Mr. Morgan's English edition. Aware of its importance 
to naturalists, Mr. Rowley has now had a translation of this 
part of it made by Mr. E. Carl Craemers, the first portion of 
which, embracing an account of 117 species met with by 
Colonel Prjevalsky in Mongolia, the Tangut country, and the 
solitudes of Northern Thibet, is included in the present num- 
ber of the ' Ornithological Miscellany,' with a promise of the 
remainder to follow. The plates of the original work are 
also faithfully reproduced. The new species described by 
Colonel Prjevalsky are : — Caprimulgus plumipes , from China; 
Ruticilla alaschannica, from the Alashan mountains ; Calliope 
tschebaiewi, from the Kansu mountains ; Pcecile affinis, from 
the Alashan and Kansu; and P. superciliosa, Lophophanes 
dichroides, and Merula kessleri, all from the Kansu mountains. 

244 Recently published Ornithological Works. 

Mr. Rowley also gives us in his present number excellent 
figures of Platycercus rowleyi, a lately described species from 
New Zealand^ of Chalcophaps indica, and of the almost extinct 
Labrador Duck {Somateria labradoria) . A disquisition on 
some of the extinct birds of the Mascarenes is also included 
amongst the varied contents. 

24. Mulsant's ' Histoire Naturelle des Oiseaux-Mouches.' 

* [Histoire Naturelle des Oiseanx-Mouches ou Colibris, constituant la 
famille des Trocliilides. Par E. Mulsant et feu Edouard Verreaux. 4to, 
T. ii. Livr. 3 & 4 ; T. iii. Livr. 1 & 2. Lyon : 1876. J 

Since our last notice (Ibis, 1875, p. 510) Mons. Mulsant 
has made steady progress with his work, so that now two 
thirds of it have been issued, six more Livraisons alone re- 
maining for its completion. The four Livraisons now before 
us seem quite equal in execution to those which have preceded 
them ; and as the matter contained in them embraces refer- 
ences to the most recently published information respecting 
the Trochilidse, they give evidence to M. Midsant's industry. 
The author's system of minute generic subdivisions is still 
further carried out, and we notice several new generic names 
for sections of the microscopic genera into which the Hum- 
ming-birds have already been divided. The characters upon 
which these would-be genera rest prove, upon examination, 
to be drawn solely from style of coloration, and are, in our 
opinion, little more than of specific value in a wide sense. We 
notice that M. Mulsant maintains the old position assigned to 
the so-ea\\ed Anthocephala castaneive7itris (iii. p. 123), having 
apparently overlooked the remarks in the 'Proceedings' of the 
Zoological Society of London (1870, p. 206), where this sup- 
posed species was almost conclusively proved to be the female 
of either Oreopyra lencaspis or O. calolama — an opinion the 
correctness of which all subsequent experience has tended to 
confirm. The plates accompanying these parts include figures 
of Metallura Jelskii and Heliangelus barali, species which had 
not before been delineate'd. 

Recently published Urmtholoyical Works. 245 

25. Barboza du Bocage's Papers on African Ornithology. 
Prof. J. V. Barboza du Bocage has just sent us several of 

his recently published papers on African birds^ extracted from 
the ' Jornal de Sciencias math., phys. e nat.' no. xx. 1876. 

The first is the " Duorlecima Lista " of the author's ^ Aves 
das Possessoes Portuguezas d' Africa occidental/ and contains 
an account of seventy-three species of birds sent from Humbe 
and other places in Angola by Senhor Jose d'Anchieta, whose 
labours in that portion of Africa have served so largely to 
enrich the Lisbon Museum, No novelties are noticed in this 
collection ; but Prof, Bocage recognizes several birds in it not 
before noticed from this part of Africa. Appended to this 
paper is a list of the names of twenty-one species of birds 
contained in a collection from the Quanza, recently sent to 
the Lisbon Museum by Mr. R. B. Sharpe. 

The next paper contains notes on a small collection of An- 
gola birds made by the well-known botanical traveller, Dr. 
Welwitsch. This collection contained examples of only 
twenty determinable species of birds, concerning some of 
which Prof. Bocage has written interesting notes. As all the 
specimens were preserved in alcohol, their determination has 
in some cases proved uncertain. 

In a continuation of his " Melanges Ornithologiques," 
Prof. Bocage makes some critical remarks on the genus 
Sycobius, with special reference to Mr. Elliot's paper on 
this genus, published in our last year's volume (1876, p. 456), 
and takes the opportunity of describing a supposed new species 
of the genus, allied to S. nigerrimus, as S. albinucha. It is 
stated to be from ^' West Africa," and was received from Mr. 
Whitely through Mr. R. B. Sharpe. 

26. Bureau on the Booted Eagle. 

[L'aigle botte, Aquila pennuta (Ouvier), d'apres des observations re- 
cueillies dans Touest de la France. Par L. Bureau. Assoc, franjaise pour 
I'Av. des Sc, Congres de Nantes, 1875.] 

We are indebted to Mons. Louis Bureau for a copy of a 
very interesting paper on the Booted Eagle, as observed by 
him in Western France. With the author's own notes are 

SER. IV. VOL. I. s 

246 Recently published Ornithological Works. 

incorporated Count Wodzicki's observations on the same bird 
in Poland^ andtliose of Mons. Alleon made on the Bospliorus. 

The memoir is full of interesting details respecting the 
curious dimorphic condition of the plumage observable in this 
species, the true interpretation of which was long misunder- 
stood. Mons. Bureau^s conclusions on this subject are best 
given in his own words : — 

" Les males et les femellcs revetent indifteremment la 
livree de Pun ou de Tautre type. 

^'Tantot il y a alliance entre sujets d\me meme livree, 
tantot croisement des deux races. 

" De Tune ou Pautre de ces unions naissent habituellement 
des jeunes d'un seul type, plus rarement on trouve dans une 
meme nicliee des jeunes de I'une ou de I'autre race. 

" Le plumage des deux types se modifie parallel ement avec 
Fage ; mais ces changements sont plus accuses dans le type 
ordinaire que dans le type negre. 

" Les sujets des tons deux, depuis le jeune age jusqu'k 
Page adulte, se developpent en conservant les caracteres de 
leur type." 

In addition to the discussion of these special points, the 
paper also contains references to most of the works where 
the Booted Eagle is mentioned, its geographical distribution, 
nidification, eggs, descriptions of birds of both sexes and dif- 
ferent ages from young in down to the adult, and habits ; so 
that the monograph of the species is a very complete one. 
On one point Mons. Bureau has been led into error by Dr. 
Schlegel, where he gives (p. 3) Australia as coming within 
the range of the species. Aquila morphnoides of Gould, 
though allied to A. pennata, is a distinct species. 

27. Vennor's ' Canadian Birds of Prey.' 

[Our Birds of Prey, or the Eagles, Hawks, and Owls of Canada. By 
Henry Gr. Vennor, F.G.S. With 30 Photographic Illustrations by Wm. 
Notman. 4to. Montreal : 1876.] 

Ornithology has never taken deep root as a scientific study 
in Canada, and, as yet, we have few books treating of its 
birds ; we would gladly, then, say as many good words as possi- 

Recently published Ornithological Works. 247 

ble for this work of Mr. Vennor^s, were we justified in doing so. 
Though the author has apparently had before him the standard 
works on his subject, he has used them to little profit, judg- 
ing from the first page of his book — where the main divisions 
of the birds of prey are treated of, and these are divided into 
two ^^ suborders/^ those with stout bills which catch their 
prey alive, and those with feeble bills which feed on carrion 
&c., and a few lines lower down into '^^ three great sub- 
families.^^ The Vulturidse, one of the latter, are said to con- 
tain three genera, of which Cathartes alone reaches Canada ! 
The Old World is evidently omitted from consideration. The 
species treated of probably include all, or nearly all, those 
that are to be found in Canada ; and the most valuable part 
of the text consists in the accounts given of the occurrences 
and distribution of each species. Of the photographs which 
illustrate the book, we can only say that they are good pho- 
tographs of wretchedly stuffed specimens, though Mr. Vennor 
appears to be quite satisfied with their any thing but life- 
like attitudes. 

28. Salvadori's Recent Ornithological Papers. 

[(1) Catalogo di una coUezione di Uccelli delF Isola di Buru, inviata 
al Museo Civico di Genova dal signer A. A. Bruijn. Ann. Mus. Civ. 
Genoa, viii. p. 367. 

(2) Catalogo degli Uccelli raccolti dai sigg. A. A. Bruiju ed 0. Beccari 
durante il viaggio del trasporto da guerra olandese " Surabaia " dal No- 
vembre 1875 al Gennaio 1876. Ann. Mus. Civ, Genoa, viii. p. 395. 

(3) Intorno alia supposta femmina del Dicceum retrocinctum, Gould. 
Ann. Mus. Civ. Genoa, viii. p. 509. 

(4) Catalogo di una seconda collezione di Uccelli raccolti dal sig. L. M. 
D'Albertis nell' Isola Yule e sulla vicina costa della Nuova Guinea e di 
una piccola collezione della regione bagnata dal Fiume Fly. Ann. Mus. 
Civ. Genoa, ix. p. 7- 

(5) Intorno a due piccole collezioni di Uccelli, I'una di Petta (Isole 
Sanghir) e I'altra di Tifore e di Batang Keteil, inviate dal signor A. A. 
Bruijn al Museo Civico di Genova. Ann, Mus. Civ. Genoa, ix. p. 51.] 

Dr. Salvador! sends separate copies of five more of his valu- 
able papers on the birds of the Malayan and Papuan Archi- 
pelago, all published during the latter part of 1876. 

s 2 

248 Recently published Ornitholoyical Works. 

Tlie first gives us an account of a collection made in Bouru 
by one of the collectors of Mr. Bruijn, and sent to the Museo 
Civico of Genoa. It contains 180 individuals, referable to 
53 species, some of which are not included in the excellent 
memoir of Mr. Wallace on the birds of that island (P. Z. S. 
1863, p. 18). Aprosmictus buruensis is described as new. 

The second contains a list of the birds collected by Mr. 
Bruijn and Dr. Beccari during their voyage in the Dutch 
warship ' Surabaia ' along the north coast of New Guinea"^. 
Forty-nine species Avere represented in the collection by about 
100 individuals. Nasiterna beccarii is described as ncAV, but 
based on a single female only. The Goura of Humboldt Bay, 
is hypothetically named G. beccarii ; but only a crest was ob- 
tained, which most resembles that of G. victoria ! 

In a third short paper Dr. Salvadori shows that the bird 
figured by Mr. Gould in part viii. of the ' Birds of Asia' as 
the female oi Dicaum retrocinctum, really belongs to another 
species, of which the correct name is D. rubriventer (Less.) . 

The subject of our author's next study is the second col- 
lection made by D'Albertis on Yule Island and on the neigh- 
bouring coast of New Guinea, and a small collection made 
by the same diligent naturalist on the banks of the Fly river. 
In the first series, containing examples of 112 species, 8 
are described as new, namely Chalcopsittacus chloropterus, 
Polophilus nigricans, Dacelo intermedius , Ptilotis albo-notata, 
Pycnonotus stictoceplialus, Splienceacus macrurus, Eupetes ni- 
gricrissus, and Munia canicepsf. 

The Fly-river collection contained only 12 species, of which 
Cyclopsittacus fuscifrons, Cyanalcyon stictolama, and Goura 
sclateri are described as new. 

Dr. Salvadori's last contribution relates to two more col- 
lections sent by Mr. Bruijn to Genoa, one from Pettfl (Sanghir 
group), and the other from Tifore and Batang Keteil, two 
islets lying between Halmahera and Celebes. From Pettk 

* See ' Cosmos,' vol. iii. p. 349, for an account of the voyage. 

t Besides these, D'Albertis obtained two new Parrots at Naibui (Q/- 
clopsitta suavissima and Trichoylossus subj'lacens), which have been de- 
scribed by Sclater, P. Z. S. 187fi, p. 519. 

Letters, Announcements, &;c. 249 

Pitta cceruleitorques, Dicaum sanghirense, Prionochilus san- 
ghirensis, and Calornis sanyhirensis are described as new. 
From Tifore and Batang Keteil only six species were obtained, 
which, however, tend to show that these islets belong zoolo- 
gically rather to Halmahera than to Celebes. 

29. Salvaclori's Prodromus of Papuan Ornithology. 

[Prodromus Ornitliologise Papuasise et Moluccarum. Aiictore Thonia 
Salvadori. Pars I. Paradiseidfe. Ann. Mus. Civ. di St. Nat. di Genova, 
vol ix. p. 188. Pars II. Colimibfe, ibid. p. 194.] 

As a prelude to his grand work on the birds of the Papuan 
subregion, which is to be based on the extensive collections 
of Beccari, D'Albertis, and Bruijn, Dr. Salvadori has com- 
menced a series of lists of the species of the principal groups 
of this avifauna, with an account of their distribution, of 
which these two papers are the first. 

Of the Paradiseidse, Dr. Salvadori enumerates 31 species, 
of Pigeons 90, as belonging to the Papuan subregion. Of 
the last-named group three are described as new in the pre- 
sent paper, namely Ptilopus zonurus, from the Aroo Islands, 
Macropygia keiensis, from the Key Islands, and M. griseinucha, 
from Jobi and Mysore. Gouri beccarii is established provi- 
sionally upon the crest of a bird of this genus, obtained by 
Beccari at Humboldt Bay. 

XXI. — Letters, Announcements, ^c. 

The following letters, addressed " To the Editors of ' The 
Ibis,^ " have been received : — 

Sirs, — In my recently published account of the zoology of 
Persia^ {' Eastern Persia,' vol. ii. p. 128), I classed Caprimulgus 
unwini, Hume, as a synonym of C. mahrattensis, Sykes. My 
reason for so doing was that Mr. Hume described C. unwini 
(Ibis, 1871, p. 406) as distinguished from all other Indian Goat- 
suckers by the following leading characteristics : — The upper 

* The whole zoological portion of this work was in print before the 
end of ] 874 ; hence the oimssion of all notices of subsequent publications. 

250 Letters, Announcements, &,t. 

three fourths of the tarsus are feathered in front ; the two 
outer tail-feathers on each side are tipped with white^ more 
broadly in the male ; and both sexes have white spots on the 
first three primaries. Now C. mahrattensis is distinguished 
by precisely these characters, except that the tarsus is only 
about half concealed by feathers in the specimens I have ex- 
amined. I should add that Lord Tweeddale first pointed out 
to me the close agreement between the description of C. un- 
wini and the characters of C. mahrattensis. 

When I told Mr. Hume of the conclusion at -which I had 
arrived, he assured me I was mistaken, and placed the whole 
of his specimens at my disposal for examination. He at the 
same time said that his only doubt was whether C unwini 
might not prove to be a variety of C. europaus. At the time 
he described the former, his only specimen of C. eurojjaeus was 
a large English female. A male specimen, from Europe, but 
without precise locality, has since been added to his collec- 
tion ; and I find that this agrees well with the types of C, 

The conclusion at which I have arrived, after examining all 
the specimens, is, that the sex of one of the types of C. unwini 
was probably w^rongly determined, and that, instead of being 
male and female, both skins are those of males, that they are 
quite distinct from C. mahrattensis, but that they belong to the 
pale-grey race of C. europcEus, of which I obtained specimens 
in South-eastern Persia, and that, whilst the name of C un- 
wini must become a synonym, C. europceus must be added to 
the Indian fauna. Besides the two original types from the 
Agror valley, in Hazara, in the extreme north of the Punjab, 
Mr. Hume has since obtained a female without any white on 
the tail from Mari (the sanitarium somewhat further east) ; 
and he is inclined to refer to the same species two other 
females, one from Sirsa, in the Punjab, the other from Etawah, 
in the north-west provinces. These latter, however, are 
doubtfully identified, being smaller in all their dimensions ; 
one of them is certainly immature. It Avill be curious if 
this proves to be a resideiit race, and not migratory, like the 
western form. , 

Letters, A?inouncements, ^c. 351 

I have also examined the types of the two species of Batra- 
chostomus described as new by Mr. Hume {' Stray Feathers/ 
ii. p. 348) by the names of B. castaneus and B. punctatus. 
These have been referred by Lord Tweeddale, in Biyth^s "Ca- 
talogue of the Mammals and Birds of Burma" (J. A. S. B. 
1875, pt, ii. extra number, p. 84), the former to B. affinis, 
Blyth, the latter to B. moniliger, Layard. There are in Mr. 
Hume's collection the following specimens representing this 
genus : — 

Batrachostomus affinis, Blyth, three specimens (sex not 
noted) from Malacca. These have been compared with Blyth's 
original type in Calcutta. 

B. castaneus, Hume, three specimens, from Sikkim, sex 

B. sp., two specimens, one adult and marked female, the 
other immature, from Sikkim, closely agreeing in general 
coloration with the figure of Otothrix liodgsoni (P. Z. S. 1859, 
p. 101, pi. clii.), but having the same bill as B. castaneus. 

B. moniliger, Layard, three specimens — a male, female, and 
nestling (sexes carefully determined by Mr. Bourdillon) — from 

B. punctatus, Hume, the type from Ceylon, sex un- 

It is, in the first place, quite clear that B. castaneus is a 
diff'erent bird from B. affinis, despite so close a general re- 
semblance that one bird might easily be mistaken for the 
other. The coloration above is nearly the same, B. castaneus 
being a little paler chestnut, and wanting entirely the con- 
spicuous white spots which occur on the wing-coverts of B. 
affinis, though both birds have the white black-edged spots 
on the scapulars, and the narrow white collar edged with 
black. Beneath there is more difference, B. affinis being 
much paler, and having the feathers of the breast and abdo- 
mine pale isabelline, with rufous edges, which are broader on 
the breast. In B. castaneus the greater portion of the lower 
surface is the same colour as the back, chestnut ; but many- 
feathers on the throat, breast, and upper abdomen are white, 
with black margins. The number of these feathers and their 
distribution appear to vary slightly in the different specimens. 

252 Letters, Announceinents, ^c. 

The great distinction, hoAvever, between B. castaneus and 
B. affinis is in the form of tlie bill, which is much smaller in 
the former, measuring in all three specimens about 1'05 in. 
across at the gape, whilst in the three specimens of B. affirms 
it measures 1*4 in. B. castaneus, however, is rather the 
larger bird of the two, the wing measuring 5-2 to 5-5, whereas 
in none of the specimens of B. affinis examined does the wing 
exceed 5' 1, and in one it is only 4-5, as in Blyth's original type. 

The female bird already noticed as agreeing in general 
coloration with Otothrix hodgsoni agrees fairly in all its di- 
mensions with Batrachostomus castaneus, and may be the 
female of it. Otothrix was separated from Batrachostomus by 
Mr. Gray on account of its smaller bill and different colora- 
tion ; and although the shape of the bill in the figure (P. Z. S. 
1859, pi. clii.) is totally different from that of J5«/racAo5^om^<s, 
no mention of any such startling difference is made in the 
text, and I see that Lord Tweeddale, in Blyth's Catalogue of 
the Birds of Burma, p. 83, has referred 0. hodgsoni to Batra- 
chostomus, so that it is probable that the representation of the 
bill in the figure is defective. On the whole I think that 
Mr. Hume's suggestion that B. hodgsoni and B. castaneus 
are the two sexes of one bird is highly probable. The young 
bird has the grey mottled plumage of B. hodgsoni, which is 
in favour of the latter being the female. 

Of the two specimens from Travancore, referred by Mr. 
Hume to B. moniliger, the female agrees on the whole fairly 
with Mr. Blyth's description (J. A. S.B. xviii. p. 806) both 
in coloration and dimensions. These skins will be fully de- 
scribed by Mr. Hume in a forthcoming number of ' Stray 
Feathers.' Both differ greatly from B.punctatus, being much 
larger, with bills measuring fully 1"4 across at the gape, 
whilst the breadth in B. punctatus is 1*25. In the latter the 
wing measures 4<"35, and the tail 3"9 ; in the female of B. mo- 
niliger, which approaches nearest in plumage to B. punctatus, 
the wing measures 4"8 and the tail 4 inches. The whole 
plumage in the latter is browner ; and although the difference 
is much less than in the case of B. affinis and B. castaneus, 
I certainly think that B. moniliger and B. punctatus are dis- 
tinct forms. 

Letters, Announcements, ^c. 253 

It is, however, a curious circumstance that the female of 
B. moniliger is more uniform in colour and more rufous than 
the male, the reverse of what is svipposed to be the case in 
B. hodgsoni. Mr. Hume, who called my attention to this, 
suggested that, after all, perhaps B. castaneus is the female 
of B. hodgsoni. This I rather doubt, because the plumage of 
the young bird agrees with the latter ; but the two plumages 
(the rufous and the brown) differ too much for it to be pro- 
bable that they are merely red and grey phases, irrespective 
of sex. 

Since writing the above, however, I see that Dr. Jcrdon 
(Ibis, 1871, p. 356) has already stated that Mr. Blyth consi- 
dered Otothrix to be the male oi Batrachostomus . All that Mr. 
Blyth stated, in his commentary on the ' Birds of India,^ was 
that Otothrix is merely the adult phase of certain Batra- 
chostomi. The fragments of two specimens oi Batrachostomus , 
from Darjeeling, briefly described by Mr. Blyth in 1849 
(J. A. S. B. xviii. p. 806), were at first referred by him to 
B. affinis ; but subsequently, in his ' Catalogue of the Birds in 
the Museum of the Asiatic Society,^ p. 81, he ascribed them 
to " di nearly allied but distinct species.^^ From the descrip- 
tion it appears probable that these specimens belonged to the 
two forms subsequently described as Otothrix hodgsoni and 
B. castaneus. 

Yours &c., 

W. T. Blanford. 

Simla, Octol)er 22nd, 1876. 

Sirs, — As there has been of late considerable confusion in 
the nomenclature of the species of Tetraogallus, perhaps a few 
words on the subject will not be out of place. 

The type of the genus Tetraogallus is generally admitted 
to be a bird which was obtained by S. G. Gmelin at Astrabad, 
in Northern Persia, and was called by him Tetrao caspius 
(Reise d. Russl. th. iv. p. 67, pi. x.). Pallas subsequently 
described and figured a bird procured in the Caucasus under 
the name Tetrao caucasica (Zoogr. Rosso- As. vol. ii. p, 7Q, 
pi.). Now, as the species of Tetraogallus found in the Cau- 

254 Letters, Announcements, i^c. 

casus is totally different from that which occurs in Persia 
and Asia Minor^ and as these two species have not been found 
inhabiting the same mountain-range, it is evident that T. cau- 
casicus cannot be regarded as a synonym of T. caspius, but 
must stand by itself. 

The Lophophorus nigelli of Jardine and Selby (111. Orn. 
pi. 7Q) appears to have been founded on a female obtained 
from the same district as the bird described by Gmelin ; and 
as the descriptions and figures agree suflSciently well, this 
name must be referred (as it already has been by various 
authors) to T. caspius. 

Other s]3ecimens which have of late attracted attention 
are : — (1) a bird in the jSIuseum of the Jardin des Plantes, ori- 
ginally received from Erzeroum, and described by M. Oustalet 
under the name of Tetraogallus challayei (Bull. Soc. Phil. 

1875, p. 54, and Journ. de Tlnst. 1875, p. 353) ; (2) A series 
of specimens collected in the Taurus by myself, and upon 
which Mr. Dresser has based his Tetraogallus tauricus (P. Z. S. 

1876, p. 675) ; and (3) a bird mentioned as inhabiting Ar- 
menia (?) by Herr Radde, and referred to without description 
by HH. BoUe and Brehm as Megaloperdix raddei (Journ. fiir 
Orn. 1873, p. 4). 

All these three names are, without any doubt, synonymous. 
Specimens of Tetraogallus tauricus which have been com- 
pared with L. nigelli have been found to agree with that bird, 
and consequently with - T. caspius. The three names given 
above are therefore synonyms of the original T. caspius; 
and, unless the specimen recently obtained in the Manrack 
Mountains by Messrs. Finsch and Brehm should prove to be 
new, the genus Tetraogallus at present consists of five species, 
viz. Tetraogallus caspius (Gm.), T. caucasicus (Pall.), T. 
himalayensis, G. R. Gray, T. altaicus (Gebler), and T. ti- 
betanus, Gould. 

Yours &c., 

C. G. Danford. 

Letters, Announcements, ^c. 255 

Gentlemen, — I send you the following note on Dr. B. 
Radakoff^s recently published Hand- Atlas ^, believing that it 
will not be uninteresting to the readers of ' The Ibis ' : — 

About a week ago I was informed of the issue of the above 
work ; and I received the first seven sheets to day. These in- 
clude two title-pages, introduction (one page) , four sheets of 
the Atlas, being four maps of Europe, Asia, and Africa on 
Mercator^s projection, the whole elephant-folio size, and open- 
ing at the end. The land is shown edged with blue; and all 
the principal towns, rivers, mountains, &c. are shown. Upon 
these four maps there are marked the respective geographical 
ranges of Tinnunculus alaudarius, Tetrao bonasia, Tetrao 
tetrix, and Upupa epops, in red, thus : — 

(1) Zur Bezeichnung der Gegenden im denen die Art 
nistet . . . _ IIIIIIIIIIIIIIII 

(2) Zur Bezeichnung der Gegenden welche die Art bloss 
durchzieht =- = - = 

(3) Zur Bezeichnung der Gegenden in denen die Art nur 
iiberwintert xxxx 

(4) Zur Bezeichnung der Gegenden in denen man mit 
Wahrscheinliclikeit das Vorhandensein einer Art voraussetzen 
kann, obgleich dafiir keine literarischen Beweise existiren. 

The work is to be continued, I understand, upon the same 
plan, giving a map for each of the species, and is issued by 
A. Lang of Moscow. As a valuable addition to our know- 
ledge of geographical distribution, this exhaustive work should 
be in the library of every student of the subject. 

My object in sending you this notice is not only that I 
may draw general attention to it, but also to point out that 
a series of papers, upon which I have myself been engaged, 
seem to me to supplement in an admirable way this larger and 
more elaborate work ; and the symbols used by me, if added 
to those upon the maps, could be easily utilized to show the 
more minute particulars of distribution in minor areas upon 
a larger scale. I would in this connexion refer you to the 
following papers by me : — 

* Hand-Atlas der geogr. Ausbreitung der im europaisclien Russlaud 
iiistenden Vogel, zusammengestellt von Dr. B. Radakotf (H. Berghaus's 
\tlas der Thier-Geograpliie). First 7 sheets. Moscow: 1876. 

256 Letters, Announcements, ^c. 

" Oil an uniform Method of Registration for Observations 
on Natural History^ especially as regards Distribution and 
Migration ^^ (Proc. Glasg. Nat.-Hist. Soc. 1876-77). In the 

" On the Distribution of the Birds of N. Russia. — Part I. 
The Latitudinal Distribution of Birds of N.E. Russia. Part 
II. The Longitudinal Distribution of Birds of N. Russia, 
north of 64° 30' N. lat.^' (Annals & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1877.) 
Part i. in the press, part ii. in MS., part iii. in preparation"^. 

John A. Harvie Brown. 

P.S. I may be allowed to add that I knew nothing of Dr. 
RadakoflF^s work until about a week ago, when I heard of it 
from Messrs. Friedlander & Sohn, Berlin. 

Cobham, March 12, 1877. 

Sirs, — As a very recently elected and extremely unsci- 
entific member of the B. O. U., it is with great diffidence 
that I ask leave to call attention to a neglected point in the 
natural history of the Wheatear [Saxicola oenanthe) . 

I allude to the two very distinct races of that bird, which 
I cannot help thinking fully as worthy of scientific recog- 
nition as the two races of Bullfinch [Fyrrhula eurojjcea and 
P. major) . 

Indeed, as I propose to show, there is considerable analogy 
between the two cases, the larger race being in each case 
distinguished by a deeper colouring as well as by size. 

The only authorities that I have been able to discover on 
the subject are Gould and Schlegel, other authors having 
failed to recognize any variation in the individuals of Saxicola 
osnanthe as generally recognized. Of these two authors 
Gould is the only one who gives exact measurements of the 
larger race ; I therefore quote the following from his ' Birds 
of Great Britain ' : — 

Length. Spread, of wing. Wing, 
in. in. in. 

Large race . . 

. 61 llf 4 

Small race . . 

. 5f lOi 31 

* Part iii. Longit. Dist. 

of Birds of N. Russia, between 60° and 64<^ 

30' N. lat, 

Letters, Announcements, &;c. 257 

Without giving his other measurements, these will be 
enough to show the proportions of the two forms. As re- 
gards the difference in colouring, that is easily stated. Both 
races assume in spring a grey back, a white forehead and 
eye-streak, and a darker wing ; but while the smaller race 
changes from a reddish buff on the lower surface to pale 
yellow-buff on the throat and breast, and whitish on the ab- 
domen, the larger race retains the deep reddish buff on the 
throat and breast, and if there is any difference between the 
autumn and spring colouring of these parts, it is that there 
is a richer glow of red about them in spring than in autumn. 

It is clear therefore that, independently of size, the rich 
reddish throat of the larger bird distinguishes it at once from 
the paler bird. 

It remains to say what little I know of the separate range 
and migration of this large race. It is soon told. I know 
nothing of the bird^s occurrence west of Sussex ; but it cer- 
tainly appears every May on the shores of Sussex and Kent, 
and also on the opposite shores of the Continent (see Schlegel's 
^ Birds of Europe^). Schlegel says it aj)pears ^"^in the month 
of May.^^ Gould obtained two specimens from Dungeness 
on May 9. My brother, Mr. Ivo Bligh, shot one in Cobham 
Park, near Gravesend, on May 1st. This last specimen agrees 
exactly in size and colour with Gould's life-size figure, and 
also with specimens at Swaysland^s, the Brighton bird- 

On the whole, therefore, I am unable to see why such a 
distinctly large race, that retains a red breast in summer, and 
arrives on our south-east coast in May instead of March, 
should not be as worthy of recognition as the large brightly 
coloured Bullfinch of Eastern Europe. 

Yours &c., 


Nortlirepps, Norwich, 

20th March, 1877. 

Sirs,— In ' The Ibis ' for 1860, p. 171, for 1 862, p. 207, for 
1873, p. 32-1, 1 recorded the laying of a series of eggs in confine- 

258 Letters, Announcements , ^c. 

ment by a specimen of Vultur auricularis in my possession ; 
and I am now desirous of recording the death of this bird, 
which occurred on 17th March, 1877. This Vulture was 
purchased by me at the sale of the collection at the Surrey 
Zoological Gardens in 1855, and was then a fully adult and, 
apparently, rather an old bird. During the period that this 
Vulture lived in my possession she laid twelve eggs, but never 
more than one in a year ; the earliest date of laying was that 
of the first egg, laid on 15th February, 1859, and the latest, 
of her last egg, laid 18th March, 1872. 

I am yours, &c., 


Sirs, — In some interesting remarks on Anthus gustavi, 
Swinhoe {antea, p. 128), Mr. Seebohm observes that this 
Pipit should be looked for in winter in the Philippine Islands, 
in the Malay archipelago. At page 117 of the Zoological 
Society's ' Transactions,' vol. viii., the occurrence of this 
species in Celebes is noticed, and its identity with Pipastes 
batchianensis , G. R. Gray, is recorded. 

Yours truly, 


Chislehurst, March 1, 1877. 

Neiv Work on Madagascar and Mascarene Birds by Dr. Hnrt- 
laub'^-. — Under the title given above, the veteran ornithologist. 
Dr. G. Hartlaub of Bremen, has just issued a new and complete 
revision of the ornis of Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands. 
It is now fifteen years since the appearance of Dr. Hartlaub's 
former work on this subject, entitled ' Ornithologischer Bei- 
trag zur Fauna Madagascars.' During this period great ad- 
vances have been made in our knowledge of the ornithology 
of these countries, especially by the researches of A. Gran- 
didier. Pollen and Van Dam, Edward Newton, and Crossley, 
nearly the whole of which Dr. Hartlaub has been able, through 
the kind aid of these naturalists, or that of the authorities of 

* Die Vogel Madagascavs und der Mascarenen, ein Beitrag zur Zoologie 
der aethiopisclien Rt'giou. 

Letters, A7inouncements, S^c. 259 

the museums in which their specimens have been deposited, 
to incorporate into the present work. 

As a frontispiece of the work (which consists of an octavo 
volume of 400 pages), a copy of a newly discovered original 
picture of the Dodo by Savary is given. We hope to give a 
more extended notice of this important publication in our 
next number. 

New Work on Indian Birds. — Messrs. A. O. Hume and Gr. 
F. L. Marshall send us a prospectus of ' The Game Birds of 
India/ with ^"^ hand-coloured illustrations of all the known 
species," to be published early in 1878. The size will be 
that of Shelley's 'Birds of Egypt.' There will be four 
volumes, each with about forty plates, the price to sub- 
scribers in advance being £4) 14*. 6d., paid in England, or 
Rs. 54 in India. The first will contain the Peafowl, Phea- 
sants, Jungle Fowl, and Spur Fowl ; the second the Par- 
tridges, Quail, Bustard, and Florikin ; the third the Pigeons 
and Sandgrouse ; the fourth the Water-birds, Cranes, Geese, 
Duck, Teal, Snipe, Woodcock, &c. A fifth volume may, 
perhaps, be subsequently added, containing the Plovers and 
Waders, which, '' though not actually Game Birds, often afford 
very excellent eating ; " but only the four volumes enumerated 
above will be put in hand at once. 

Exploration of Tenasserim. — Major Godwin-Austen, who 
is temporarily engaged in arranging the collection of birds in 
the new Imperial Museum at Calcutta, writes to us of a plan 
which has been started there for the collection of zoological 
specimens in the Tenasserim provinces. The services of a 
young Swedish collector, named Ossian Limborg, who had 
lately arrived in Calcutta, had been obtained with this object. 
After previous instruction, Mr. Limborg had been despatched, 
in company with a taxidermist and a native collector, on the 
11th of December last to his destination. His first triji was 
to the high range of Moule, east of Moulmain, about 5000 
feet high, the base of which he reached on the 31st of De- 
cember. Major Godwin-Austen writes on February 1, that 

260 Letters, Announcements, 6fC. 

Limborg had hitherto done very well. His " first consign- 
ment_, of some 200 birdskins^ a few small mammals, reptiles, 
and fisheSj and a lot of good insects, arrived a feM' days since, 
showing that he mnst have worked hard. We are going to 
send him another and better taxidermist. The duplicates 
will be sold to help expenses ; and those who apply first will 
have the first choice.'" 

Pitta versus Brachyurus. — Mr. Elliot, in his well-known 
monograph, uses the generic term Brachyurus for the great 
body of Pittas, i. e. those with short tails, and confines Pitta 
to the sharp-tailed section, containing P. cyanura and others. 
But there is no doubt this practice is indefensible. Pitta, 
as originally established in 1816 by Vieillot (Analyse, p. 42), 
is defined as =" Breve" of Buff'on. Now Buffon^s "Breve" 
contained only four species, all belonging to the short-tailed 

Again, the type of Brachyurus, founded by Thunberg in 
1821 (K. Yet. Ak. Handl. 1821, p. 370), is Turdus triostegus 
of the Museum Carlsonianum, which = Pitta bengalensis 
of the short-tailed section. Therefore Brachyurus = Pitta, 
and these names cannot be used for different genera. 

Name of Falco dickinsoni. — In the first volume of his Cata- 
logue of Birds (p. 447) Mr. Sharpe has altered the specific 
name of the Falcon described and figured in ' The Ibis ' for 
1864, and called dickinsoni (after its discoverer, the late Dr. 
John Dickinson, of the Oxford and Cambridge Central- African 
Mission), to '' dicker soni." This he appears to have done in 
consequence of what Mr. Gurney has stated. Ibis, 1869, p. 444. 
But I believe. Mr. Gurney must have been mistaken. With 
the late Dr. Dickinson himself I never had the good fortune 
to be acquainted, but on referring to the correspondence Avhich 
I had with his brother, Mr. R. Dickinson, of Jarrow-upon- 
Tyue, I find that my version of the family name is undoubt- 
edly correct. I must add that Mr. Sharpe ought, in my 
opinion, to have stated in his ' Catalogue ' the grounds upon 
which the change was made, as it might otherwise have been 
supposed to be a typographical error. — P. L. S. 



No. III. JULY 1877. 

XXII. — A Contribution to the Ornithology of Asia Minor. 
By C. G. Danford. 

The following notes result from a trip to Asia Minor during 
the winter of 1875-76 and the ensuing spring. The list given 
in no way pretends to be exhaustive, and is only intended as 
a contribution towards the singularly scanty ornithological 
literature appertaining to this country. The number of species 
enumerated will probably appear small^ considering the geo- 
graphical position of the peninsula. It must, however, be 
borne in mind that, with the exception of a month''s journey 
across the interior, the entire time was spent among the 
Cilician mountains, at elevations of above 3000 feet, and 
in districts devoid of marshes, and principally consisting of 
rocks and coniferous woods — conditions very unfavourable to 
the existence of an avifauna rich in species. Had we collected 
on the sea-coast-plains during winter, and remained until 
later in the mountains, a large number of waders, swimmers, 
and migrants would have been added to the list, as, indeed, 
previous experience had already shown us. 

Altogether 138 species of birds were found in the raoun- 


262 Mr. C. G. Danford on the 

tains, and 47 more in the interior, making a total of 185. Of 
156 of these species specimens were shot ; and of the remainder 
examples were so closely observed as hardly to admit of any 
mistake in their identification having been made. Doubtful ob- 
servations of Eagles, Hawks, &c. have not been included, most 
birds of those classes being extremely difficult to distinguish 
with certainty beyond a short distance. In the following rough 
sketch of the line of march it will be seen that the fauna and 
flora of the mountain-districts is, on the whole, very European 
in character, though connected by various well-marked forms 
with those of countries lying further to the east. 

We left Smyrna Dec. 3rd, and after a very stormy passage 
arrived at Mersina early in the morning of Dec. 7th. 

There was still a heavy swell on, which made the landing 
rather difficult ; sometimes, when the south wind blows strong, 
it is impossible. However, thanks to the kind offices of Mr. 
Tattarachi (H.B.M.Vice-Consul),we ourselves and our baggage 
were landed, the customs passed, and horses got ready for the 
afternoon ride to Tarsus. The distance to that town can, 
at a sharp pace, be got over in three hours, the road being a 
good one, passing over a level plain, some of which is devoted 
to cotton-cultivation, but the greater part is waste land. 
Among the myrtles, rushes, and low scrub which cover it 
Francolins {Francolinus vulgaris) are reported to be very 
plentiful ; and the large lagoons in the distance, which in old 
times connected Tarsus with the sea, are said to swarm with 
wildfowl. On the wayside Eagles, Buzzards, Harriers, 
Ravens, Hooded Crows, Rooks, various Larks, and a few 
flights of Plover were the principal birds seen. 

From Tarsus excursions were made to the Dunek Tash, the 
reported tomb of Sardanapalus, and the waterfalls of the Cyd- 
nus. About the orange-gardens surrounding the former a few 
small Warblers were observed ; and the neighbourhood of the 
latter was frequented by Kingfishers [Ceryle rudis and Alcedo 
ispida) and Wagtails {Motacilla melanope and M. alba) . Above 
these celebrated falls most of the water is led off for mill-pur- 
poses; the remainder, after a fall of about 15 feet over the 
conglomerate rock, flows on through a deep narrow channel 

Ornithology of Asia Minor. 263 

of the same formation. The water is certainly remarkably 
cold^ and seems to hold plenty of fish. 

A couple of days sufficed to get things in order ; and we 
then left Tarsus for Gozna^ a village in the mountains, the 
" yaila " or summer-quarters of the richer city-people during 
the pestilential summer heat. The way lies at first parallel to 
the Mersina road along the plain, but soon turns oft' into a 
country made up of a number of small hills, partly rocky 
and partly earthy. Here the little flats between the hills 
were gay with pale mauve colchicums, and the slopes were 
thickly covered with tall heaths, daphne bushes just coming 
into flower, arid myrtles already in bloom. The birds seen 
on the way were principally Larks (Calandra and Crested), 
Chaffinches, and large flocks of Corn-Buntings. A birdcatcher 
whom we encountered had his net full of live Starlings. 

After passing a small stream and a ruined tower the road 
became rougher, and rapidly ascended into a higher country, 
over alternate hills and ravines, both well covered with thorny 
bushes, myrtles, and other evergreens. A few fir trees were 
scattered about ; and occasional glimpses were caught of the 
sea on one side and the snow-hills on the other. As evening 
came on. Partridges [Caccabis chukar) enlivened the way with 
their cackling, Jays {Garrulus kryjiickii) screamed, and num- 
bers of Blackbirds and Thrushes fed busily on the sweet 
aromatic myrtle-berries. These berries ai'e by no means bad, 
the white and scarcer kind being, as white fruits usually are, 
much the best. A hunt after a flock of strange-looking birds, 
which turned out to be Bulbuls [Fycnonotus xanthopygius), 
took up so much time that the last two hours of the way were 
done by moonlight, which made the scenery of the woods and 
great rocky ravines, by which we led our horses, look doubly 
wild and mysterious. Gozna is at a high elevation, and, with 
the exception of the good stone building kindly placed at our 
disposal by Mr. Debbas (American Consul at Tarsus), con- 
sists of a number of straggling wooden houses. Its posi- 
tion in a draughty gap of the hills is, no doubt, agreeable 
in summer, but makes it any thing but a pleasant winter 
residence. Birds seem to be pretty much of this opinion too, 

T 2 

264 Mr. C. (i. Daiiibrd o/i the 

as the species found in the surrounding woods were few and 
far between. These woods mostly resemble the coverts in 
the hilly parts of Devonshire. Oak trees, ivy-bound and 
clematis-hung, form the staple growth. Mixed with these 
are a good many evergreens and an undergrowth of thorn 
and bramble, which creeps and twists about a debris of bluish 
grey limestone patched with rich green moss. Higher up 
are tall spruces and junipers {Juniperus drupacea, Labill.). 
The fruit of the latter species is abundant and very orna- 
mental, almost as large as a walnut, and covered with a pale 
blue bloom, like a ripe plum. 

These woods are doubtless in summer well stocked with 
birds. In winter they are principally inhabited by Wood- 
peckers [Gecinus vlridis, Fiais medius, P. lilfordi, P. minor), 
Nuthatches [Sitta cassia, S. krueperi) , a.nd Tits {Parus major, 
P. lugubris, P. caruleus, P. ater, and Aeredula tephronota) . 
The last-named species, and also the Gold- and Fire- crested 
Wrens, were veiy common in a wood of mixed beech and oak 
to the east of Gozna. This wood was further remarkable as 
being of a singularly weird appearance, the rocks and the 
lichens upon them, the branches and stems of the trees, and 
the long beard-like mosses which hung from them, being 
all of an almost unvarying tint of pale grey. 

During our stay at Gozna there was plenty of hard frost 
and several heavy falls of snow, and it was Avith great diffi- 
culty that horse-owners were induced to go further up into 
the hills. However, the chief of a small village near by did 
at last get together the necessary men and animals, and we 
left for Zebil on January 3rd. The distance to that village 
is, as the Crow flies, short ; but the snow which lay on the 
upper levels, and the crossing of the deep valleys of Der- 
men deresi (mill valley) and Pambouk deresi (cotton valley), 
made the tramp rather a long one. Flocks of Hawfinches, 
Goldfinches, Skylarks, and Pipits were met with on the way ; 
and numbers of Fieldfares and a couple of Eagle Owls were 
seen in a great forest of firs, through which the path led by 
a descent of 2400 feet to the bottom of the Pambouk deresi, 
along which flows the western bjanch of the Cydnus. The 

Ornithology of Asia Minor. 265 

stream was crossed by a picturesque bridge ; near by were 
some wet rocks covered with Hart^s-tongue fern {Scolopen- 
drium vulgare) — a very rare species in Asia Minor. A rise of 
1700 feet by zigzags up the one practicable cleft in the rocks 
of the north side brought us near Zebil^ in which village much 
time was destined to be lost through the occurrence of certain 
casualties^ and in fruitless efforts to obtain Tetraogallus. 

Zebil is the westernmost village on the south side of the 
Bulgar dagh. Its elevation is about 3500 feet. Close be- 
hind it rise the high hills ; and in front is the deep ravine and 
river just alluded to. Though unnamed on the maps^ this 
stream has certainly a larger body of water and quite as long 
a course as the branch to the eastward, and therefore seems 
as fully entitled to the classic name of Cydnus. Its origin is 
reported to be in the wall-like barrier of the Bulgar-dagh at 
the head of the Chojak deresi. There it is said to spring 
from the rock in great volume, with a fall of about 20 feet. 
The deep snow prevented a visit to this spot, which is further 
remarkable for the remains of an ancient town, as yet appa- 
rently unexplored. The natives say that the position of the 
streets can be clearly traced, and that other ruins exist among 
the hills. 

The river itself bears no name in this district, but is called 
by those given to the different bends of the ravine through 
which it flows. These are Chojak deresi, Jeharinum deresi, 
Pambouk deresi, and so on. After entering the plain it is 
known as the Tersous-tchai. Vertically considered, these 
ravines are, in their lower depths, clothed with vai;ious oaks 
and evergreen shrubs, which higher up give place to spruces, 
red firs, white firs, and finally to cedars and junipers. There 
is but little life in the upper regions — the winter resort of 
the ibex and a few predatory animals. An occasional Lam- 
mergeyer or Golden Eagle swoops about the crags ; the cries 
of the Peregrine and Raven, or the aerial consultations of a 
party of Alpine Choughs, are heard now and again. Often 
nothing breaks the stillness but the tapping of a stray Wood- 
pecker or the notes of Kriiper's ubiquitous Nuthatch. The 
part of the ravine immediately below Zebil is called Jehannum 

266 Mr. C. G. Danfonl on the 

deresi (Valley of Hell). The only path to the bottom leads 
by sharp zigzags down to a small mill. The aneroid gave 
the depth of the descent as nearly 2000 feet. The scenery of 
the valley itself is beautiful ; and it is probably with reference 
to the return ascent that it has received its name. The change 
of temperature on reaching the river was great. Above was 
winter and snow, below warm spring, with butterflies {Gone- 
pteryx rhamni, var. farinosa) flitting aboiit, and primroses, 
violets, and snowdrops in full bloom. The stream is about the 
size of a good Scotch burn, and in some places tumbles wildly 
about among large boulders, and in others forms long gravelly 
runs and deep rock-shadowed pools. The water is very clear 
and of a greenish colour. It absolutely swarms with trout 
{Salmo fario, var. ausoni), called by the natives ' Pulu baluk ' 
(spotted fish) . They are very good-shaped fish, running about 
three to the pound, and are of a most unsophisticated nature, 
taking freely any fly oftered to them. A mile below the mill 
the stream enters an impassable gorge and emerges into the 
Pambuk deresi. Here the trout are much less numerous, 
no doubt owing to the presence of numbers of mountain- 
barbel or ' Jonuz ' [Capoeta syriaca). Birds are scarce in this 
region. A few Water-ouzels hurry up and down; troops of 
Long-tailed Tits disport themselves in the tops of the plane 
trees, whose green-grey stems are here, contrary to their 
ordinary habit of growth, tall and slim. Add to the above 
birds some common Tits, Hedge- Sparrows, Thrushes, a soli- 
tary Kingfisher or Sandpiper [Totanus ochropus), with a few 
Wild Ducks, and the winter ornithological resources of the 
place may be regarded as nearly exhausted. 

The country about Zebil between the ravine and the moun- 
tains is irregular, and made up of low hills, chiefly formed of 
conglomerate and limestone. Fossils, especially oysters and 
echinoderms, are abundant. Deep earthy gullies intersect 
the ground between the small flats, which are, for the most 
part, cultivated. Tracts of heath and brushwood aftbrd 
shelter to numerous Hares [Lepus syriacus), Partridges, and 
a sprinkling of Woodcocks. Most of the large game inhabit 
the lower and warmer districts. The natives of the Zebil arc 

Ornithology of Asia Minor. 267 

all Turks ; and great reputation attaches to a good sportsman. 
On most Fridays there is a general hunt^ in which all the 
boys and able-bodied men are expected to join. Any one 
who absents himself is made to ride round the village on a 
donkey, and has mud put on his face. In aggravated cases his 
house is pulled down. 

We left Zebil February 26th, having up to that time iden- 
tified eighty species of birds. These, with one or two excep- 
tions, were all either residents or winter visitors. 

On leaving Zebil our way lay through hilly ground, past 
the isolated rock of Nimrouu, on the summit of which is an 
old Armenian castle. The village is at the base of the rock, 
and is a favourite " yaila " of the people of the plain. Scattered 
all round are numerous " chardaks " (wooden houses), each 
standing in its own ground, and surrounded by vineyards, 
and orchards of plum, cherry, apricot, peach, and walnut 
trees. Further on, the eastern branch of the Cydnus was 
crossed. This stream flows through a deep ravine, also called 
" Jehannum deresi ;" but the scenery, though wild and pictu- 
resque, is not so grand as that of the other branch described 

The ascent of the opposite side, through fir- woods, brought 
us to the village of Gsensin, a small place prettily situated in 
a well-wooded country, and commanding fine views of the 
highest peaks of the Bulgar-dagh. Here we remained a few 
days, without adding much to our collection, until the morn- 
ing of our departure, when a man arrived with a pair of Te- 
traogallus. He had been out three days on the snow, and 
was as much delighted at beating all other competitors as 
with receiving the promised reward. 

The birds were at once recognized as not being identical 
with the species from the Caucasus ; and as we were not then 
acquainted with the Persian bird [T. casjnus) we took them" 
to be a new species, and accordingly went on our way with 
much rejoicing. 

The road lay by the celebrated pass of Gulek and the now 
abandoned castles and earthworks constructed by Ibrahim 
Pasha for the defence of this important position, which com- 

268 Mr. C. G. Danford on the 

mands the defile of the Taurus known as the Cilician gates 
(Pylse Cilicise) . Cannon and cannon-balls lay half imbedded 
in the ground^ attempts to remove them having failed. The 
road is here along a valley, the north side of which is 
bounded by the Bulgar dagh^ and the south by the rocky moun- 
tains of Anascha. The village of the same name is situated 
on the north face of the mountain overlooking the valley of 
the Sihoun. The elevation is about 4000 feet; and the views 
on all sides ai"e very fine, especially to the north-east, where 
rise the rocky walls and peaks of the Ala dagh. The latter 
range is divided from the Anascha dagh by a branch of the 
Sihoun {Sarus). On the opposite side of the valley only 
firs grow, and it has rather a burnt-up look ; but on the 
Anascha mountains vegetation is much more luxuriant, and 
almost all the kinds of trees found in the Taurus are there 
represented. Conifers hold the chief place. The most abun- 
dant of these are " kizil cham ^' (red fir, P'mus laricio, Poir.) 
and the silvery barked " ak cham^^ (white fir, P.fenzilii, Ant, 
et Key), which takes the place of the former at about 4000 
feet elevation. Clumps of '^' eladin " (spruce^ Abies cilicice) are 
pretty numerous ; and higher up on the steep rocky slopes are 
the dark silent "kartaran," or cedar-woods. These, together 
with scattered stems of "ardytch^^ [Juniperus excelsa), form 
the uppermost growth. This juniper is often of enormous size, 
some measured at Zebil having, at a yard above the ground, 
a circumference of more than 18 feet. The wood is of a red- 
brown colour, highly scented, and splits with great ease and 
smoothness. Two other smaller junipers are also common — 
the red-berried " tikian ardytch " (/. rufescens) in the lower, 
and the strong-smelling juniper (J. fcetidissima) in the upper 

Next in importance are the oaks, here in great variety, but 
very difficult to distinguish when devoid of leaves and fruit. 
At the opening of spring, flowers appear in wonderful profu- 
sion. Of Crocus, at least five kinds are common ; and other 
beautiful genera, such as Scilla, Bellevalia, Muscari, Hya- 
cinthus, and Xiphion, are well represented. 

We remained at Anascha from March 8rd to April 18th, 

Ornithology of Asia Minor. 269 

adding during that time thirty-seven species to our list. 
Most of these were migrants, the first to arrive being Chats 
(Saxicola erythrasa and S. isabeUina) . These were quickly 
followed by Hoopoes and Thrushes {Monticola cyanus and M. 
saxatilis), more Chats [S. cenanthe and S. melanoleuca) , Swifts 
{Cypselus nielba), and Warblers {Sylvia rueppelli and S. gar- 
rula). Birds were most numerous about the mixed woods, 
least plentiful at the river-side, which one would have ex- 
pected to have been the natural highway of immigration. 

The next halting-place after leaving Anascha was Giaour- 
keui, at the base of the Karanfil dagh. This mountain is lofty, 
narrow, and very precipitous, the direction of its mass being 
transverse to the general chain of the Ala dagh, of which it 
forms part. 

The week spent at this little village was chiefly devoted to 
seeking for the nests of Ehrenberg^s Redstart [Ruticilla me- 
soleuca), the Red-fronted Serin [Serinus pusillus) , and the 
Snow-Partridge {Tetraogallus caspius). All of these quests 
were happily successful ; and as fuller details of the character 
of this part of the country will be given in connexion with the 
above-mentioned birds, there is no necessity to enlarge upon it 
here. We left Giaour-keui April 29th, and joined the main 
track to Kaisariy eh at the bridge of Melimen . From this point 
the road follows the south bank of the river Korkun, passing by 
the isolated hill of Masmeno and under the huge walls of the 
Demir-kasek (iron rod) . Heavy mists hung low down the 
mountain-sides and prevented us seeing the full grandeur of 
the scenery. The country was here much colder and barer, 
and the vegetation far less advanced. The low hills on the 
other side of the river were quite barren ; but their local 
colouring was striking and very beautiful, being a harmony 
of rich brown- purples and grey-greens. 

We diverged from the track to pass the night at Bereketlu 
(place of blessing), formerly celebrated for its lead-mines. 
From here the view of the Apisch-kar and the other wild and 
jagged mountains of the Ala dagh is very fine. The place 
itself is divided into two parts. Christian and Turkish. It is 
well-watered, having willow trees and hedges, in which a few 

270 Mr. C. G. Danford on the 

Turtledoves and Cetti^s Warblers were observed ; and our 
house was the abode of hundreds of Rock- Sparrows {Passer 
petronius) . On the bare hills near by a good many Horned 
Larks {Otocorys penicillata) were met Avith. They were evi- 
dently breeding here ; but having a long stretch to make that 
day, and expecting to find them further on, we did not stop 
to look for nests. As often happens in such cases, we never 
saw them again. 

From Bereketlii to DevelU-kara Hissar (the Black Castle 
of the Place of Camels) is two good days' march. The way 
is at first over low hills^ chiefly barren, but having a few trees 
and hedges near the villages. Little marmot-like animals 
{Spermophilus xanthoprymnns) swarmed everywhere, and 
nearly (b'ove our retriever Polo to distraction; he evidently 
taking them for a small species of rabbit. Magpies built 
wherever they could find a place ; and in a small marsh were 
plenty of Black-headed Wagtails, Red-throated Pipits, some 
Lapwings, and a few Ruddy Sheldrakes, which waddled about 
in a most unconcerned fashion. After passing the village of 
Enehiil the country becomes more grassy, and is traversed by 
long lines of dark igneous rocks, in which breed numbers oi 
Raptorial birds. 

We halted at the curious little village of Gordilas, which 
is built half in and half out of the rocks, and plastered every- 
where with " kerpez " (round dung-cakes) for winter fuel. 
Before leaving in the morning we visited a nest of Sea-Eagles, 
which was not yet laid in^ one of Buteo ferox, which con- 
tained four deeply incubated eggs, and a Golden Eaglets, in 
which was a very young nestling and a yelkless egg. The 
female was knocked over with a broken wing, and made with 
her claws deep impressions on an incautious member of our 
party. Small birds, particularly of the Lark and SwalloAv 
tribes, swarm in this locality ; and the Crimson-winged Bull- 
finch [Erytlirospiza sanguined) was here first observed. Pass- 
ing through a small rocky valley frequented by Arabian 
Chats [Saxicola erythraa), one suddenly comes in sight of the 
Erjdias dagh, the highest mountain of Asia Minor. Its sharp 
snow-covered cones, and the broad expanse of water and 

Ornithology of Asia Minor. 271 

marshy levels at its base, form a splendid picture. Mount 
Argseus is isolated from the range of the Antitaurus, and is of 
volcanic origin. Its height is 12,000 to 13,000 feet*, being 
above the limit of perpetual snow. There are, however, no 
glaciers, either on the Argseus or in any part of the country. 
Develii-kara Hissar is a small place overlooked by a ruined 
castle. It would make a capital collecting-station, being 
surrounded by large gardens, and close to the lake and the 
rocky steppe country. 

Beyond the town the track passes at first near the water 
over a monotonous dead level, which is thickly covered with 
grass and stubby plants. Red-backed and Lesser Shrikes 
were common here. Myriads of Calandra and Short-toed 
Larks sprung up at every step ; and flocks of Orange-legged 
Hobbies hovered overhead or pitched on the little hillocks 
which dotted the plain. A few hills have to be crossed before 
reaching Inje-su (Narrow Water). This town fills up a rift 
in the volcanic rock, and must in summer be a perfect furnace. 
In the beginning of May it was more like an oven than any 
thing else. From Inje-su to Kaisariyeh the way lies over low 
lava- covered hills, and sometimes by the side of a large 
marsh. Here Ducks, Pratincoles [Glareola pratincola) , and 
a species of Tern, probably Sterna nigra, were seen. There 
were also a few Stork^s nests, in the foundations of which 
numbers of Spanish Sparrows were building. This marshy 
lake is principally fed by a number of large springs, which 
rise round its margin. 

Kaisariyeh, the ancient Csesarea Mazaca, is situated upon 
the level ground to the north of Mount Argseus. It contains 
many mosques, very well-built bazaars, and a large battle- 
mented castle, the inside of which is filled up with houses. 
Just outside the town are some curious ruins ; and the feet 
of the hills, a couple of miles off, are covered with gardens 
containing vines, apricot-, pear-, and apple-trees, and a sweet- 
smelling shrub, from the red berries of which a tamarind- 
tasted sherbet is made. They are also well-stocked with 

* The mean of Hamilton's and Tcliihatcheff's measurements is 12,666 

272 Mr. C. G. Dauford oti the 

birds, especially with Buntings {Emberiza melanocephala and 
E. hortulana) and Warblers [Sylvia orphea and Cossypha gut- 
turalis) . A fishing-excursion to the small lake of Kabat-geul 
resulted in the capture of sundry pike with dark purple fins 
and a lot of ordinary roach. Numbers of snakes were swim- 
ming about; and frogs and tortoises were in legions. Speci- 
mens of Great Sedge- Warblers, Spotted Flycatchers, and 
Penduline Tits were the additions to our collection. 

We left Kaisariyeh May 8th, and made a direct march north 
to Samsoun, on the Black Sea. At Erkelet and Kemer, the 
first villages on the way, flocks of Bee-eaters [Merops api- 
aster) made their appearance, and a few Woodpeckers were 
seen, which we could neither shoot nor identify. They seemed, 
from their size, to be Picus lilfordi ; but the locality is an 
unlikely one for that species. Here were a few vineyards and 
orchards, and by the wayside grew patches of wild yellow 
roses and jasmines ; but as the valley of the Kizil Irmak (Red 
River) was neared the country became more barren. The 
river is dirtj'^ and rapid, and about eighty yards wide where 
it is crossed by the long stone bridge, at the north end of 
which is a singular-looking village. The houses are mostly 
excavated in the rocks ; and it is very aptly called by the 
Turks " Chock-guez " (many eyes) . 

Beyond this river the country as far as Aladja is, for the 
most part, a dreary undulating plateau, covered with grass 
and stones. Here and there are miserable villages, with a 
little cultivation and a few small trees about them ; and on 
the better pasture-lands one meets with large encampments 
of black Kurdish tents. 

In other districts there are plenty of flowers, especially in 
narrow defiles, where there is some shade from the fierce sun. 
In such places grow quantities of beautiful short-stalked 
irises of two colours (dull buff and maroon), gladioli, wild 
scentless mignonnette, a pale slate-coloured flax, large patches 
of convolvulus, the rare Iwiolirion montanum, and many 
other plants. Butterflies are very numerous, most of the 
European genera being well represented by only slightly 
varying forms. 

OrnUholoyy of Asia Minor. 273 

The stock birds are the Isabelline Chat and Larks (Short- 
toed, Crested, and Calandra). Jackdaws live about the vil- 
lages ; and numbers of Sand-Grouse {Pterocles arenar'ius) cut 
the air with their sharp swift wings. A few of their nests 
were taken, all containing the usual complement of three eggs. 
The way was further enlivened by the plundering of a Bus- 
tard's nest [Otis tarda) and those of certain Eagles, chiefly 
Aquila imperialis. After passing the wretched village of 
Aladja, the character of the landscape changes ; the hills are 
higher, and are covered with a thick growth of oak-scrub. 
At our halting-place of Baba Eyoub-tekessi there was capital 
ground for Warblers ; and after a shower the hills resounded 
with the songs of Nightingales, Barred and Orphean Warblers, 
and Robin Chats, all performers of the first order. 

From here to the old Mussulman town of Tchorum num- 
bers of Rollers, Bee-eaters, and Rosy Pastors were met with: 

Tchorum was reached May 15th. Hitherto the weather 
had been fine and very warm. Frequent showers now fell, 
which soon increased to tremendous thunderstorms, accom- 
panied by hailstones and heavy rains. This state of things, 
which lasted all the way to the coast, made travelling diflScult 
and roadside collecting impracticable. Between Tchorum and 
Mersiwan we crossed hills covered with oaks, hazels, Syringa, 
barberry, roses (pink, yellow, and white), and hawthorn in 
full bloom. 

The latter town is the ancient Phasemon. It is prettily 
situated at the base of a range of mountains, and surrounded by 
large gardens and fine old walnut-trees. Beyond it the mud 
had made the roads so difficult that our guides diverged from 
the ordinary path and, by long detours over the hills, brought 
us to the watering-place of Kausa. Here half a dozen enor- 
mous khans, crowded with a motley assemblage, were grouped 
round the baths. These hot springs, which were well known 
to the ancients, are said to be very effectual in curing many 
complaints. They are protected by domed buildings, are 
large in volume, and have a temperature of 125° Fahr. 
Leaving the hubbub and dirt of Kausa behind us with much 
pleasure, we rode to the prettily situated khan of Ak Soo 

274- Mr. W. A. Forbes on the 

deresi (white- water valley). The country is covered with 
copses ; and numerous Circassian villages are scattered about. 
Cirl Buntings and Rosy Finches {Carpodacus erythrinus) 
were for the first time met with^ and a good many birds of 
prey seen. 

On the descent to the Black Sea, which occupied two days 
more, our road lay through large forests, principally composed 
of beech and oak, with an undergrowth of the golden-flowered 
Azalea jiontica. Samsoun was reached on May 22ncl. Our 
intention had been to stop here and collect ; but finding that 
little or nothing was to be done in that way, we left for 
Constantinople by the first steamer. 

Before passing to the next part of this paper we must ac- 
knowledge the hospitality and courtesy received from all 
races and classes, especially from the mountain-tribes of Turks 
and Yorouks, among whom most of our time Avas passed. 
Nothing could exceed the unvarying kindness of Mr. Tat- 
tarachi, H.B.M. Vice-Consul at Mersina, to whom we take 
this opportunity of tendering our most hearty thanks, as also 
to Mr. Dresser and to Mr. Baker of Kew, for the aid tliey 
have rendered us in naming our birds and plants. We would 
further beg leave to recommend to the ornithological world 
our assistant, Mr. William Pearse, of Haskeui, Constanti- 
nople, who accompanied us, and to whose diligence and. care 
the good preservation of our collection is entirely due. 
[To be continued.] 

XXIII. — Recent Observations on the Parrots of the Germs 
Eclectus. By W. A. Forbes, F.Z.S. 

The large red and green Parrots forming the genus Eclectus 
of Wagler have long been well known to naturalists, who 
have, until recently, entertained no sort of doubt that the 
red species were perfectly distinct from the green ones. So 
much was this the case, that a subgenus, denominated Poly- 
chlorus in 1857 by Sclater*, has been formed for the reception 
of the green species, the red ones being retained under Eclectus 
« P. Z. S. 1857, p. 22G. 

Parrots of the Genus Eclectus. 


proper. Dr. Finsch^ whose excellent work, ' Die Papageien/ 
must be regarded as our " Standpunkt " in all matters con- 
cerning Parrots, recognizes (/. c. vol. ii. p. 332) seven species 
of the genus (as restricted by Wagler), and gives the following 
table of them : — 

a. Green Eclecti. 

1. polychlorus, Scop. Under wing-coverts and sides red. 

Wing 10" 5'". 

2. intermedius, Bp. Like the last, but green darker and size 

smaller. Wing 8" 9"'. 

3. westermanni, Bp. Like the last, but without red on sides. 

b. Red Eclecti. 

4. grandis, Gm. Band over the upper back and the under 

surface violet-blue ; tail-feathers and under tail-coverts 
yellow. Wing 10" 3'". 

5. cardinalis, Bodd. Like the last, but darker red; under 

tail- coverts orange-red. Wing 8" 5'". 

6. linnm, Wagl. Like the last, but with a narrow blue ring 

round the eye ; under tail-coverts red. 

7. Cornelia, Bp. Without any blue at all. 

The distribution of the species (as given by Finsch) is re- 
presented in the following table, the habitat of two species 
[E. westermanni and E. Cornelia), both originally described by 
Bonaparte from specimens living in the " Natura-Artis-Ma- 
gistra" Gardens at Amsterdam), being still unknown. 










h- ( 
























* * 



* * 



27G Mr. W. A. LV^rbes on the 

This being the case, ornithologists were not a little sur- 
prised when Dr. A. B. Meyer announced, on his return to 
Europe from his adventurous travels in New Guinea and the 
adjacent islands, that the green species of Eclectus were 
simply the males of the red ones — also that all the so-called 
species were, in his opinion, referable to one species, and 
one only, namely Eclectus polychlorus. In his paper on this 
subject in the ' Zoologischer Garten ^ for May 1874, p. 161, 
Dr. Meyer says that his attention was first called to the matter 
by finding that he had determined all the specimens, six in 
number, of the E. polychlorus (green) that he had procured in 
the Papuan island of Mafoor (in Geelvink Bay) as males, 
whilst nine E. linnai (red) were aW. females. Struck by this 
curious coincidence, he inquired of his Malay hunters if they 
knew any thing of the matter. They replied that it was a well- 
known fact that these green and red Parrots were man and 
wife. One asserted that he had seen parents of both colours 
engaged in incubation, one replacing the other. Though 
Dr. Meyer, warned by former experience, did not trust im- 
plicitly to any statements made by his native hunters, these 
accounts strengthened him in his suspicions ; and he deter- 
mined to investigate the matter thoroughly. Three green 
Eclecti he obtained in Jobie were all males, three red all 
females. These results were afterwards fully confirmed by 
the examination of a great number of specimens on the main- 
land of New Guinea. These were too numerous to bring all 
back to Europe ; but he returned with thirty specimens of the 
genus, four of which were preserved entire in spirits of wine, 
as well as a living pair of birds (green and red) . To place 
the parallelism in the distribution of the red and green forms 
(already noted by Finsch, /. c.) in a stronger light, he divides 
the Eclecti into three groups, of which E. cornelice ar.d wester- 
manni (the habitats of Avhich are, as already remarked, un- 
known) constitute one. The other two are : — ■ 

po ycioriis (green) |^^^ Guinea, Waigu, Mysol, Gebe, 

' . , ,, \ Gilolo, Batian, Morotai. 

granais (red) J 

Parrots of the Genus Eclectus. 277 

intermedius (screen) ~) ^ . . _, 

,. ,. , ,, r Leram, Amboyna, Buru. 

caramalis (red) J '' 

From this it is clear that '' the range of one green form 
{E. polychlorus) corresponds Avith that of two red ones [E. 
linnai and E. grandis). "As I cannot hesitate a moment/' 
says Dr. Meyer^ "in ascribing the conditions found in E. 
polychlorus and E. linncei from New Guinea, Mafoor, and 
Jobi to the other allied form (namely, that the green are the 
males and the red the females of one and the same species), 
the interesting fact comes out (unparalleled, so far as I know, 
in the ornis of the whole world), that differently coloured 
females correspond to one and the same male in different loca- 
lities ; for E. linncei and E. grandis show at first sight such 
differences, that, so long as we did not know their true 
relations to E. polychlorus, they were universally considered 
different species. Thus, therefore, the male remains con- 
stant, whilst the female varies. '^ Dr. Meyer then proceeds 
to show that no theories of " sexual " or " natural selection " 
can account for these facts, of the causes of which we are com- 
pletely ignorant. Schlegel (Ned. Tijd. v. d. Dierk. iii. p. 332, 
1866), he observes, has already united E. intermedius and E. 
polychlorus into one species, the examples from Gebe and Wai- 
giou being intermediate in their characters between these two 
forms. Moreover an authentic specimen of E. intermedius 
from Ceram, received from the Leyden Museum, and now in 
the Imperial Cabinet at Vienna, quite agrees with Dr. Meyer's 
series from New Guinea, Mafoor, and Jobi. Hence E. poly- 
chlorus (including under this term E. intermedius) possesses 
in different islands three females, differently coloured accord- 
ing to the locality, viz. : — 

(1) linnm, in New Guinea, My sol, Waigiou, and Gebe ; 

(2) grandis, in Gilolo, Batjan, and Morotai; 

(3) cardinalis, in Ceram, Buru, and Amboyna. 

Dr. Meyer then goes on to argue that E. westermanni and 
E. cornelicB, both remarkable for being nearly uniform in 
colour, must also be regarded as forms of E. polychlorus. He 
urges that E. Cornelia may well be a fourth female of E. poly- 
chlorus, as we already know that the females of this species 

SER. IV. VOL. I. u 

2v8 Mr. W. A. Forbes on the 

are variable, whilst E. westermanni, he considers, is probably an 
individual that has retained \ts juvenile plumage and has been 
unable to assume its adult colouring owing to captivity. 

Here I must join issue with Dr. Meyer on several grounds. 
First of all, several examples of each of these condemned species 
have lived at various times in the Zoological Gardens of London 
and Amsterdam, and no noteworthy difference has been detec- 
ted in these specimens. Again, specimens of both species have 
lived for considerable periods at Amsterdam without undergo- 
ing any change in coloration [vide Finsch, I. s. c.) . Moreover 
Parrots, as a rule, including those of the present genus, do re- 
markably well in captivity, and show no tendency to lose or 
to fail to acquire their brilliant colours or to retain their 
immature dress. Eclectus cornelice and E. westermanni can 
hardly be man and wife, owing to their disparity in size (the 
wing of the former being given by Finsch as 9" 5'", of the 
latter 7" 8'" to 8" 5'", and other measurements in proportion) . 
Hence we may conclude that in the former case the male, in 
the latter the female, remains to be discovered, as well as the 
exact habitat of each. When we reflect on the little know- 
ledge we still have of the great mass of New Guinea, as well 
as of some of the neighbouring islands, it is evident that 
ample area for such a discovery is still left. This conclusion 
is strengthened by the fact that certain other Parrots belong- 
ing to the same region, likewise first described from captive 
specimens, and undoubtedly distinct (e. g. Lorius tibialis, Scl. 
P. Z. S. 1871, p. 499, and Trichoglossus mitchelli, G. R. Gray), 
have their exact habitat still unascertained. The recent dis- 
covery of Loriinse (a group of which the geographical range 
coincides remarkably with that oi Eclectus, as has been pointed 
out by Mr. Wallace) in such unexpected localities as Ponape 
(in the Caroline group), where Chalcopsitta rubiginosa occurs"^, 
and Fanning Island, in the mid Pacific f, renders it even pos- 
sible that an Eclectus may turn up in some equally '' unlikely " 
locality % ■ 

* Vide Finsch, ' Journal des Museum Godeffroy,' Heft xii. 1876. 
t Coriphilus kiihli, P. Z. S. 1876, p. 421. 

X Prof. Rietmann's "shining-red Parrots " in Pruadalcanar (P. Z. S. 1869, 
J). 127) might well be E. corneKoe. 

Parrots of the Genus Eclectus. 279 

Dr. Meyer then goes on to show that Bernstein's determi- 
nations of the sexes of the specimens he forwarded to the 
Leyden Museum are probably erroneous, as in his three 
years' experience he found the sexes about equally numerous, 
whereas Bernstein's determinations would show great disparity 
in their relative abundance (in one case six males to one 
female, in the other twelve females to two males). The ju- 
venile plumage of Eclectus is unfortunately still unknown ;. 
but Dr. Meyer concludes that it is probably green, from the 
fact that twelve out of fourteen of his red specimens still 
preserve evident traces of green feathers. 

In reply to these arguments Prof. Schlegel^not unnaturally 
hesitates to accept Dr. Meyer's conclusions, because, of 72 spe- 
cimens of red Eclecti in the Leyden Museum, 20 have been 
determined by the collectors as males, and the remainder (52) 
as females, and, on the other hand, of 77 green specimens in 
the same museum, 56 are marked as males and 21 ns females. 
Hence, if Dr. Meyer be right, a considerable proportion of 
these specimens must have been wrongly sexed by the four 
travellers by whom they were collected, viz. Salomon Miiller, 
Bernstein, Hoedt, and Von Rosenberg. 

Dr. Meyer returns to the charge in a paper in the ' Mitthei- 
lungen aus dem k.-k. zoologischen Museum zu Dresden' (/. c. 
p. 1 1-13) . He repeats his former observations, and gives some 
additional ones, amongst which are some remarks on a living 
pair of Eclectus in his possession, green and red, the green bird 
on being introduced to the red at once having become friendly 
with the latter. A green Eclectus that died soon after it came 
into his possession was dissected and turned out to be a male. 
As regards the specimens in the Leyden Museum, Dr. Meyer 
disposes of them by saying that those collected by S. Miiller 
have been long in the Museum, and may very probably have 
had their labels transposed — that Bernstein, during the latter 
part of his residence in the Malay archipelago (as he himself 
learned from one of his hunters, who had also collected for 
Bernstein, and knew the latter well), suffered severely from 
illness, and therefore may well have made mistakes in the 
* Mus. Pays-Eas, Psittacidas, 1874, p. 17. 

u 2 

280 Mr. W. A. Forbes on the 

determination of the sexes of his specimens — that Hoedt had 
no pretensions to any seientific knowledge — and that Rosen- 
berg has in other iiistanccs made blunders of a similar kind — 
so that their evidence counts for little. Dr. Meyer adds 
some mathematical calculations showing that the chances 
are 32,700 to 1 against his having killed six all males of the 
green Eclectus, and nine all females of the red one in the 
same island, if they really were distinct species. 

So far Dr, Meyer. Important evidence in corroboration 
of part of his theory is given by the Italian naturalists who 
have lately visited New Guinea. Beccari, in his Ornitholo- 
gical Letters to Count Salvadori"^, says, ^' Though it seems 
strange, it is nevertheless true that the green Eclectl are 
males of the red ones. I learnt this at Aru from my hunters ; 
and the young have the same differences." Salvadori says 
again (/. c. pp. 756, 757), speaking of the sexual differences in 
E. grandis, that there is " no longer any doul)t on this sub- 
ject. D'Albertis has assured me that it is a well-known fact 
amongst the natives of the Moluccas and New Guinea." In 
his various papers on Papuan ornithology in the same journal, 
the green specimens of Eclectus are always determined as 
males, the red as females. 

Prof. Garrod also tells me that during his prosectorship 
the only two Eclecti that have died in the Zoological Society^s 
Gardens were one E. polychlorus and one E. grandis, respec- 
tively male and female. On the other hand, the Rev. George 
Brown, C.M.Z.S., who has lately sent over to this country such 
interesting collections from New Britain and the adjacent 
islands, says, in a letter to Mr. Sclater, dated Sydney, Oc- 
tober 22, 1876, " This " {i. e. the green and red Eclecti being 
specifically identical) " is a gross error. Our attention was 
directed to this subject ; and I am quite sure they are two dif- 
ferent birds. We shot the green ones, both male and female." 
Two skins in the collection are referable to E. polychlonis 
and li7in<si ; the latter is marked female. It is to be hoped 
Mr. Brown will renew his investigations into this subject, as 

* Ann. Mas. Civ. Rtoria Natur. Genova, vol. vii. p. 704, 1875, and Ibis, 
|S7(i. n. 25;',. 

Parrots of the Genus Eclectus. 281 

the determination of the sexes is not always very easy with- 
out careful dissection, the suprarenal bodies in birds being 
particularly liable to be mistaken for the testes when the latter 
are not developed to the extent that they are during the breed- 
ing-season. On the whole, I think, we must conclude, in 
company with Dr. Meyer and Count Salvadori, that the green 
Eclecti are really males, the red females. 

With regard to Dr. Meyer^s conclusion that all the species 
hitherto described must be regarded simply as forms of one 
species [E. polyclilorus) , I have already adduced reasons for 
believing that E. westermanni and E. cornelia are good species. 
As regards the other five, a careful examination of a large 
series of skins from different localities (we now know that 
Eclectus extends east as far as Yule Island and Duke-of-York 
Island) wall be necessary before coming to any definite con- 
clusion on the subject. Count Salvadori, however, who has 
probably had as large a series of specimens from dift'erent 
Papuan islands of this genus as anybody, recognizes three 
distinct species (besides the two of unknown habitat), which 
he says may always be recognized as distinct at any age or 
in either sex. He gives the following table of these species 
as understood by him (/. c. p. 756) : — 

1. Virides : lateribus rubro-pimiceis. (Mares.) 

a. Majores. 

a'. Viridis, colore obscuriore, cauda minus C8erulea. . 1. jwlychlorus. 

b'. Viridis, colore laetiore, cauda magis cserulea .... 2. ca?-dinalis* 

b. Minores. Cauda vix cserulea .3. grancUs*. 

2. Rubrse : fascia inter scapulari et abdoinine cyaneo vel 

violaceo. (Feminas.) 

a. Annulo periophthalmico cj'aneo ] . poli/cklorus. 

b. Annulo periopbtlialmico millo 

a'. Subcaudalibus auroreis vel rubro-flavis 2. cardtnali>i. 

b'. Subcaudalibus pure flavis 3. grandis. 

In this table the green E. cardinalis is, I suppose, the inter- 
medius of most authors, whilst the red E.polychlorus is clearly 
what is usually called E. linnm. 

* In the original paper Count Salvadori has accidentally transposed 
these two names, as I have ascertained from a corrected copy of his paper 
that he forwarded to Mr. Sclater. 

282 On the Parrots of the Genus Eclectus. 

On the whole it seems probable that we must be content 
with ascribing to Eclectus the most marked sexual differences 
in colour of any Parrots hitherto known. Aprosmictus (at 
least in some species, e. g. A. scapulatus) also pi-esents very 
well-marked sexual differences in coloration, and, as Prof. 
Garrod has shown (P. Z. S. 1874, p. 494), agrees very closely 
with Eclectus in anatomical structure. Eclectus, however, 
differs from all known Parrots in having the female more 
gaudily coloured than the male. Can it be possible that, as 
in the few other analogous instances where the female is the 
more brightly coloured (e.g. Turnix, Rhynch(Ba, &c.^), the 
duties of incubation devolve on the male ? If such be the 
case, we can easily understand the use of the green coloration 
being retained by the male. Unfortunately we are still 
totally ignorant of the habits, nidification, and immature 
plumage of these Parrots. Let us hope that Signor D'Albertis 
or Mr. Brown will soon throw some light on this, as well as 
on the other interesting points noted above, which still re- 
quire further examination. 

In conclusion, supposing that we assume the new views as 
to the sexual differences of the Eclecti to be correct, the fol- 
lowing list of the species will show concisely their sexual 
differences and geographical distribution. 

1. Eclectus polychlorus (Scop.). 

Maximus : mas viridis colore obscuriore, lateribus rubro- 

puniceis, cauda minus crerulea : femina rubra, fascia in- 

terscapulari, abdomine et annulo periophthalmico cyaneis. 

Hab. in insulis Papuanis et Moluccanis Ternate, Gilolo, 

Batchian, Morotai, Guebe, Waigiou, Mysol, Gage, Ke, Aru, 

Papua, Nova Hibernia, et Nova Britannia. 

2. Eclectus grandis (Gm.). 

Major : mas viridis, lateribus rubro-puniceis, cauda vix cse- 
rulea : femina rubra, fascia interscap. et abdomine cy- 
aneis, subcaudalibus pure flavis. 
Hab. in insulis Ternate, Gilolo, Batchian, Morotai, et 


» Vide Darwin's 'Descent of Man," vol, ii. p. 200 et seq. (1871). 

On Birds from the District of Lampong. 283 


Minor : mas viridis, E. polychloro similis, at colore Isetiore 
caudaque magis cserulea distinguendus : femina rubra, 
fascia interscapulari et abdoraine cyaneis ; subcaudalibus 
auroreis vel rubro-flavis. 
Hab. in insulis Moluccanis Ceram, Bouru, et Amboyna. 


Minor : mas viridis, lateribus concoloribus. Femina adhuc 
Hab. ? (Viv. Nat. Art. Mag. et Zool. Soc. Lond.) 


Mas ignotus ; femina punicea, colore cyaneo neque dorsi neque 
lateris inferioris ullo. 

Hab. ? (Viv. Nat. Art. Mag. et Zool. Soc. Lond.) 

XXIV. — On a Collection of Birds made by Mr. E. C. 
Buxton in the District of Lampong, S.E. Sumatra. By 
Arthur, Marquis of Tweeduale, M.B.O.U. 

(Plates V. & VI.) 

The first systematic account of the Avifauna of Sumatra was 
written by Sir Stamford Raffles'^' at Fort Marlborough, near 
Bencoolen, of which settlement Sir Stamford was Lieutenant- 
Governor. Bencoolen is situated on the western shore of the 
southern half of the island of Sumatra ; and most of the birds 
enumerated were obtained in the vicinity of Bencoolen itself, 
or during short trips made into the interior of the district of 
that name during the years 1819 and 1820, partly by Sir 
Stamford assisted by Dr. Joseph Arnold, and partly by 
Messrs. Diard and Duvaucel. These two gentlemen (the 
first a pupil, the other the step-son of the great Cuvier) 
were French naturalists, whose services Sir Stamford had 
secured while on a visit to Bengal. ' The unfortunate misun- 
derstanding that soon after their arrival in Sumatra occurred 

* Tr. L. S. xiii. pp. 277, 330; Appendix, pp. 339, 340 (dated June 1, 
1820; read March 20, 1821). The date of the volume is 1822. 

284 Lord Tweeddale on Birds from 

between tlic Lieutenant-Governor and these two Frenchmen 
ledj in about twelve months, to a cessation of their labours 
and to their departure from Bencoolen ; and Sir Stamford was 
obliged to undertake the description of the materials col- 
lected himself, or to allow the results to be published in 
France. Hence his papers in the "^ Linnean Transactions^"^. 
The number of species therein catalogued and more or less 
described is about 168. But some birds obtained in the 
Prince-of- Wales Island and Singapore are included; and a 
few species, such as Psittacus ornatus and P. sumatranus, 
appear to have been introduced into the list through oversight 
and on the strength of caged birds. 

In 1830 Lady Raffles publishedamemoirf of her late hus- 
band, to which was appended a catalogue, by Vigors, of the zoo- 
logical specimens collected in Sumatra under the superinten- 
dence of Sir S. Raffles, and by Dr. Horsfield of those in Java. 
About 194 species from Sumatra are enumerated, that locality 
being stated in each instance; and some species additional to 
Sir Stamford^s list are discriminated and described as new by 
Vigors. This catalogue would have been more useful had its 
author identified all tlie species on which Sir Stamford had 
previously bestowed new titles, and had the invalid titles been 
reduced to synonyms — a work, however, subsequently ac- 
complished in the most thorough manner by Mr. F. Moore % . 

Since 1830 no attempt at a complete account of the birds 
of Sumatra has been published ; but a good many species not 
contained in Vigors^s list have been discovered and described, 
principally by the Dutch zoologists, more particularly by 
Temminck§ and by Salomon Muller||. Mr. Wallace, during 

* The collection of birds was sent to the E.I. C. Museum in Loudon 
in 1820, aud of drawiug-s in 1821. 

t Memoir of the Life and Public Services of Sir Stamford Raffles, by 
his Widow (1830) ; Cat. Zool. Specimens, Jves, pp. 648, 687. 

X A Catalogue of the Birds in the Museum of the Hon. E.I. Company, 
in two vols. : vol. i. (1854), vol. ii. (1856-58). 

§ Nouveau Recueil de Planches Coloriees d'Oiseaux, in five volumes. 
Date of completed work 1838. 

II Tijdschrift voor Naturlijke Geschiedenis en Physiologic, ii. pp. 315, 
354 (1835). Vpvhandelingen over de Natiunlijke Ge&chiedenis der Ne- 

the District of Lainpong, S.E. Sumatra. S-85 

a stay of about three months, collected some birds in the 
district of Palembang, penetrating a hundred and twenty 
miles inland ; but no separate account of his collection has 

During a period of a little over five months, commencing 
the 30th of May, 1876, Mr. Edmund Charles Buxton travelled 
in the Lampong district, situated at the south-eastern ex- 
tremity of Sumatra, and there made a large collection of 
birds, which he has kindly placed at my disposal, and of which 
I now propose to give an account. He started from Telok 
Betang and went inland to Sockedana, a distance of about 
80 miles, and obtained in all 152 species, of which two appear 
to be undescribed. The general character of the birds in 
this part of Sumatra is Malaccan. Of Mr. Buxton's collec- 
tion only twelve species are not inhabitants of the Malaccan 
peninsula as at present known ; and of these eleven are Javan 
species, some of them recurring in Burma and one in India. 
They are Dendrotypes analis, Batrachostomus cornutus, Xan- 
tholama rosea, Dicceum flammeum, Rublgula dispar, Oriolus 
coronatus, Prinia familiaris, Buchanga leucophoia, Pericro- 
cotus xantJwgaster, Munia leucogastroides, Crypsirhina vari- 
ans, Sturnopastor contra. One, Batrachostomus cornutus, is 
known, ouf of Sumatra, to occur in Borneo only. 

The proportion of species, seventy-nine, which have also a 
Javan habitat is large, as might be inferred would be the case 
from the narrowness of the straits which separate South- 
eastern Sumatra from the western extremity of Java. This 
number may eventually be shown to be still greater when the 
ornis of Java is better known. 

Some notes were kept by Mr. Buxton ; but, as they are 
chiefly descriptive of the plumage, I have only incorpo- 
rated the few observations which relate to the soft parts 
or to habits. The chief value of the collection consists 
in its enabling us to establish positively, by critical com- 

deiiandsche overzeesche bezittingen : Land- en Volkenkunde (1839-44) 
Zoologie (1839-44). 

286 Lord Tweeddale on Birds from 

parison^ the identity or non-identity of a large number of 
Sumatran species with those inhabiting Java, Borneo, and 
Malacca, and of enabling us to add a little to our knowledge 
of geographical distribution. 


Falco fr'mgiUarius , Drapiez, Diet. Class. d'Hist. Nat. vi. 
p. 412, t. v., "des Indes^^ (1824). 

A series of four individuals, identical with Malaccan ex- 
amples. [" Sits on naked branches at top of trees. '^ — Buxton.] 

2. Haliastur intermedius. 

Falco pondicerianus, Gm. ; Raffles, t.c. p. 278. 
Haliastur intermedius, Gurney, Ibis, 1865, p. 28. 


Falco trivirgatus, Temm. PI. Col. 203, " Sumatra'' (1824). 

4. Pernis ptilorhynchus. 

Falco ptilorhynchus, Temm. PI. Col. 44, ''Java, Sumatra'' 

An example of a Honey-Buzzard was obtained by Mr. 
Buxton which has the feathers of the breast, abdomen, flanks, 
ventral region, and the thigh-coverts white or tawny white, 
transversely barred with two or three brown broad bands, 
the terminal band being narrowly fringed with tawny white 
or pure white. The feathers of the fore neck have darker 
brown drops, which occupy the terminal part of each plume, 
these drojDS being set between a rufo-fulvous and a white 
ground. The under wing-coverts are banded like the breast. 
The upper plumage is dark brown, the terminations of the 
feathers being darkest. The head and crest are black, the 
latter measuring about two and a quarter inches. The face 
is grey. The throat is white, with a central and two lateral 
dark brown streaks. Two broad dark brown bands traverse 
the middle rectrices, the latter being terminal. A third 
narrower band near the base of the tail is of a paler shade of 
brown. The intervening spaces are of a dirty yellowish white, 
much mottled with earthy brown. 

The plumage of the under surface very closely resembles 

the District of Lampong, S.E. Sumatra. 287 

that of P. celebensis in it's markings ; but the colouring differs 
in being dark brown, and the chest is not tawny rufous. 


Strix scutulata, Raffles, t. c. p. 280, " Sumatra'' (1821). 

Mr. Buxton obtained two adult examples of this long- 
wished-for species at Tarahan, S.E. Sumatra. They are ab- 
solutely identical with Malaccan individuals in mus. nostr. 
[" Iris yellow ; bill dark slate, nearly black.'' — Buxton.l 

6. Rhopodytes erythrognathus. 

Cuculus melanognatlms, Horsf. apud Raffles, t. c. p. 287, 
" Sumatra." 

PliCRnicophaus erythrognathus, Hartl. Verz. Mus. Brem. 
p. 95, "Sumatra" (1844). 

Malaccan and Bornean examples do not differ from typical 

7. Rhopodytes diardi. 

Melius diardi. Less. Tr. d'Orn. p. 133, "Java" (1831). 
Malaccan individuals do not dift'er from Sumatran. 

8. Zanclostomus javanicus. 

Phmnicophausjav aniens, Horsf. /. c. p. 178, " Java " (1820) ; 
Zool. Res. Java, t. 5. 

Typical specimens not separable from Sumatran and Ma- 


Cuculus chloroph(Bus , Raffles, t. c. p. 288, (J , " Sumatra " 

PhcenicophcEus caniceps, Vigors, App. Mem. Raffles, p. 671, 
?, "Sumatra" (1830). 

Malaccan and Bornean examples do not differ from Su- 


Cuculus lugubris, Horsf. ^. c. p. 175, " Java " (1820) ; Zool. 
Res. Java, t. 58. 

Identical with typical specimens. 

11. Chrysococcyx xajvthorhynchus. 

Cuculus xanthorhynchus, Horsf. t. c. p. 179, "^Java" (1820); 
Zool. Res. Java, t. 59. 

Undistinguishable from typical specimens. 

288 Lord Tweeddale on Birds from 


Cuculusfugax, Horsf. t.c. p. 178, "Java" (1820). 
Sumatran, Bornean, and Malaccan examples offer no points 
of difference. 

13. Centropus eurycercus. 

Cuculus bubulus, Horsf. apud Raffles, t. c. p. 286^ " Su- 

Centropus eurycercus, A. Hay; Blj-th, J. A. S. B. 1845, 
p. 551, "Malacca." 

Sumatran and Bornean individuals agree with typical spe- 
cimens. As yet I have not been able to compare them with 
the Javan form, which is, according to Blyth (/. c), a smaller 

14. Thriponax javensis. 

Picusjavensis, Horsf. t.c. p. 172, "Java" (1820). 
The examples obtained by Mr. Buxton in no respect differ 
from Malaccan, with which the type is said to agree. 

15. Ttga rafflesi. 

Picus raffiesii, Vigors, App. Mem. Raffles, p. 669, " Su- 
matra" (1830). 

Bornean and Malaccan individuals are inseparable. 


Picus javanensis, Ljungh, Act. Stockh. xviii. p. 134, "Java" 
(1797); Walden, Ibis, 1871, p. 164. 

Picus tiga, Horsf. t. c. p. 177 "Java" (1820). 

" Tiga rvfa," Raffles, /. c. p. 290, " Sumatra" (1821). 

Sumatran, Malaccan, and Javan individuals do not speci- 
fically differ. Of somewhat smaller dimensions than the race 
which inhabits the Burmese countries. 

17. Callolophus mentalis. 

Picus mentalis, Temm. PL Col. 384, "Java" (1826). 
Sumatran and Malaccan examples do not vary. 

18. Callolophus puniceus. 

Picus puniceus, Horsf. /. c. p. 176, "Java" (1821) ; Raffles, 
t. c. 289, " Sumatra" (1821). 

Malaccan, Bornean, and Sumatran individuals do not differ. 

the District of Lampony, S.E. Sumatra. 289 

19. Callolophus malaccensis. 

Picus malaccensis, Lath. Incl. Oni. i. p. 241^ '^^ Malacca ^^ 

Count Salvador! has remarked [t. c. p. 51) that this species 
and C. miniatus of Java are distinct^ and that I had erred 
(Ibis^ 1871, p. 165) when, following Malherbe and others, I 
regarded them as belonging to tbe same species. Dr. Sclater 
appears to be the first author who distinguished the Javan 
on account of its uniform red crest and back from the Bornean 
and Malaccan form (P. Z. S. 1863, p. 211); but I may ob- 
serve that I have an example collected in East Java by Mr. 
Wallace, and marked a male, which has the more elongated 
crest-plumes red, mingled quite as much with yellow as is to 
be found in true C. malaccensis. The feathers also of the inter- 
scapular region exhibit green mixed with red, and are matched 
by an example from Malacca collected by Mr. Maingay. Mr. 
Buxton has two Sumatran examples in his collection : one 
has .the dorsal feathers green^ largely dashed, centred, and 
tinged with red ; the other has these feathers dull olive-green 
washed with red. 


Picus baclius, Raffles, t.c. p. 289, "Sumatra'' (1821). 

I provisionally retain the above title for the Sumatran 
Micropternus in preference to that of brachyurus, Vieill. (N. 
Diet. xxvi. p. 103, 1818), because the type of Vieillot's species 
is said to have come from Java, and we cannot rely on Mal- 
herbe's statement that the two are specifically identical. Be- 
tween Malaccan and typical examples I am unable to detect 
any good distinction. Many Malaccan specimens have the 
crown very pale ; but this is also to be observed in one of Mr. 
Buxton's birds. The Bornean (south-east and north-east) 
species, M. badiosus, appears to differ in having the terminal 
portions of the rectrices uniform unhanded brown and a some- 
what longer bill. Count Salvador! (t. c. p. 59) mentions as a 
distinctive character the eye of the male being completely 
surrounded by red points or dots. In a N.E. Bornean male 
collected by Mr. Everett, and in another by Mr. Lowe 

290 Lord Tweeddale on Birds from 

(mus. nostr.), this is the case ; and I have not observed the 
same character in the multitude of Malaccan birds I have ex- 
amined^ nor is it to be found in Mr. Buxton^s Sumatran 
males ; but it is to be observed in examples from Malabar, and 
it may merely indicate the full breeding male plumage of all 
the members of the genus. 

21. Meiglyptes tristis. 

Picus tristis, Horsf. t. c. p. 177, "Java'' (1820); Raffles, 
t.c. p. 290, "Sumatra" (1821). 

Not distinguishable from Bornean and Malaccan indi- 
viduals. The length of wing is very variable in adults of tliis 
species ; and in one of Mr. Buxton's specimens, an adult male, 
the bill is remarkably short. 

22. Meiglyptes tukki. 

Picus tukki, Lesson, Rev. Zool. 1839, p. 167, " Sumatra," 
Malaccan examples {Hemicercus brunneus, Eyton, P. Z. S. 
1839, p. 106) do not differ. 

23. Dendrotypes analis. 

Picus analis, Horsf. t. c. p. 177, "Java" (1820) , 
Bill longer, otherwise identical with typical examples. This 
Woodpecker also inhabits the island of Madura. 


Picus variegatus, Latham, apud Wagler, Syst. Av. Picus, 
no. 27 (1827), nee Lath. 

Yungipicus fusco-albidus, Salvadori, t.c. p. 42 (1874). 

Picus sondaicus, Wallace, Gray, Hand-1. no. 8589, 1870; 
Salvadori, t. c. p. 43, note, " Java." 

Mr. Buxton's Sumatran series of this small Woodpecker 
consists of examples undistinguishable from Malaccan and 
Javan individuals. Wagler described the species from Javan 
examples only [conf. Cab. Mus. Hein. iv. ii. p. 54, note); but 
he adopted for it Latham's (Gmelin's) title of Picus varie- 
gatus, bestowed on a South-American Woodpecker, and Count 
Salvadori has therefore superseded the title by a new one 
{I.e.). The title P. sondaicus, Wallace, is founded solely 
on the Javan bird, and must fall, no description having accom- 
panied the title when first published. Whatever Picus mo- 

the Distinct of Lampong, S.E. Sumatra. 291 

luccensis, Gm. (ex PI. Enl. 748. f. 2), may be^ it cannot apply 
to Y. fusco-albidus ; for the bird figured by D'Aubenton is 
without any mandibular stripes. 

25. Hemicercus sordidus. 

Dendi'Dcopus sordidus, Eyton^ Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. xvi. 
p. 229, " Malacca '^ (1845). 

Hemicercus brookeanus, Salvadori, Atti. R. Ac. Sc. Tor. iii. 
p. 525, '' Borneo " (1868) ; Ucc. Born. p. 44. 

Hemicercus concretus (Reinw.), apud Salvadori, ex Borneo, 
Ucc. Born. p. 47, nee Reinw. 

Mr. Buxton^s series consists of three males and two females. 
These last are undistinguishable from Javan (P. concretus ? ) 
and Malaccan examples in the plumage of the female. One 
male is adult, and is identical with adult males from Malacca — 
that is, with the crest on the crown of the head deep crimson, 
he postoccipital crest-plumes being dark greyish olive. A 
second example, that of a young male, has the whole of the 
crown and all the crest-plumes dingy reddish buff or yellowish 
red. The third is intermediate, the coronal plumes being 
almost all pure crimson, and the postoccipital plumes passing 
over from the reddish tawny colour to olive-grey. I possess 
Malaccan shins which match these three Sumatran males. 
Iij all the under surface is dark olive-grey. The coronal 
plumes in other Malaccan examples of young males are ruddy 
buff, while the elongated occipital crest-feathers are all flame- 
red, with a yellowish buff shaft-line and tip to each plume. 
In another Malaccan male the postoccipital plumes are 
dark greyish olive, while the coronal feathers are mixed bright 
crimson and pale ruddy buff. 

The adult male of ^. concretus (Reinw.), ex Java (PI. Col. 
90, f. 1), differs from H. sordidus by having the entire crest 
crimson, although not of so dark a shade as in H. sordidus. 
The occurrence of this species beyond Java rests on no good 
authority. It is figured by Malherbe (Picidse, t. 41, f. 5) 
under the title of Micropicus hartlaubi. The curious fact 
that in H. sordidus ^ , when immature, the whole crest 
is huffy flame-coloured (anyhow the postoccipital crest) — 

292 Lord Twcoddalc on B'lnls from 

and that as the bird reaches maturity the flame-coloured 
postoccipital crest becomes olive-grey^ not having been recog- 
nized, has led to some confusion. 

26. Sasia abnormis. 

Picumnus abnormis, Temm. PI. Col. 371. f. 3, " Java " 

Malaccan and Bornean examples in no respect differ from 
the Sumatran individuals in Mr. Buxton^s collection. 


Psittacus galgulus, Linn. S. N. i, p. 150 (1766) ; Raffles, 
t. c. p. 281, " In the interior of Bencoolen." 


Psittacus incertus, Shaw^ Nat. Misc. ; O. Finsch, Papag. 
ii. p. 612. 

Psittacus malaccensis , Lath., Raffles, t. c. p. 281. 

The variation in plumage tliis species undergoes remains 
still, as when Dr. O. Finsch wrote, not fully explained. Un- 
fortunately the sexes of the four individuals brought home by 
Mr. Buxton were not determined by dissection. 

29. Anorrhinus galeritus. 

Buceros galeritus, Temm. PI. Col. 520, '^^Sumatran'' (1831). 

[" Naked shin surrounding eyes and throat white, with a 
blue tint. Very common in flights of about eight or ten."" — 
Buxton.^ Dr. Cantor describes the same parts of the Ma- 
laccan bird as being black (Horsf. & Moore, /. c. p. 594) . 

30. Rhytidoceros undulatus. 

Le Calao a casque festonne, Le Vaill. Ois. Rares, i. p. 41, 
t. 20, 21, ?,"Batavia'^ (1801). 

Buceros undtdatus, Shaw, Gen. Zool. viii. p. 26 (1811), ex 
Le A^aill. t. 20, 21 ; Vigors, App. Mem. Raffles, p. 666 (1830) . 

Le Calao javan, Le Vaill., t. c. p. 45, t. 22, ^ juv. '' Ba- 

Buceros javanicus, Shaw, t.c. p. 28 (1811), ex Le Vaill. 
t. 22. 

Le Calao javan ou Calao annuaire, Le Vaill. Ois. d'Afr. 
t. 239, S adult (1806). 

the District of Lainpong, S.E. Sumatra. 293 

Buceros niger, Vieillot, N. Diet. iv. p. 592 (1816), ex Le 
VailL t. 20, 21. 

Buceros annulatus, Dumont, Diet. Se. Nat. vi. p. 21 0(1817), 
ex LeVaill. t. 20, 21. 

Buceros pusar an, Raffles, t. c. p. 293, $ juv., "Sumatra^' 

Buceros annulatus, Drapiez, Diet. Class. d'Hist. Nat. iii. 
p. 32 (1828), exLevaill. t. 20, 21. 

Buceros ruficolJis, Vieill. apud Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii. p. 176 
(1843), nee Vieill. 

Buceros pucoran, Raffles, Blyth, J. A. S. B. 1843, p. 990. 

Buceros plicat us, Lath, apud Sundev. Om Le Vaill. Ois. 
d'Afr. p. 50 (1857), nee Lath. 

Calao plicatus (Lath.), Bp. Consp. i. p. 90 (1854), nee Lath. 

Rhyticeros plicatus (Lath.), Horsf. & Moore, Cat. E.I. C. 
Mus. ii. p. 598 (1856-58), nee Lath.; Moore, P.Z.S. 1859, 
p. 451. 

Rhytidoceros obscurus (Gra.), Salvad. Ucc. Born. p. 85, 
" Sarawak " (1874), nee Gm. 

An adult, seemingly an aged male, is in Mr. Buxton^s 
Lampong colleetion. That gentleman, in his notes, describes 
the naked gular skin as being yellow, " with a blaek bar and 
greenish tinge. ^^ This bar is evident on the dried skin. Dr. 
Cantor has described the gular pouch of the Malaccan male as 
being '^rich gamboge-yellow, with two transverse blaek bars " 
(Horsf. & Moore, /. c.*), that of the female as ''dirty azure, 
with two transverse black bars,^^ of the young male as " yellow, 
with the transverse black bars indistinct." In a Malaccan 
example of an adult male I find traces of only one black bar. 
Schlegel (Mus. P.-Bas. Buceros, p. 2) states that the Javan 
bird has an oblique blue bar across the throat of the male, 
but does not mention any bar on that of the female. 

The title of this Hornbill has been by most ornithologists, 
commencing with Latham, confounded with that of the strictly 
and only Papuan member of this family, Buceros ruficoUis, 
Vieill. The first notice of the Papuan species occurs in Bon- 

* In his later account (I. c.) Mr. Moore omits all mention of the two 
transverse black bars. 

SER. IV. VOL. 1. X 

.294 Lord Tvveeddale on Birds from 

tius ; and his account was ti'anscribed by Ray in his English 
translation (1678) of Willughby's ' Ornithology.' By Ray 
it is called " Bontius his Indian Crow/^ and is said to come 
from the " Molucca Islands, especially Banda." An outline 
drawing of the bill is given (t. Ixxviii.), which accurately re- 
sembles the bill of an adult example of the Papuan B. rvficollis. 
It may here be mentioned, parenthetically, that while it is 
not always easy to recognize a species, or to differentiate one 
from another nearly allied species, through the means of a 
complete drawing of a bird made at the early date of Ray's 
edition, still the art of outline-drawing was as perfect then 
as it is now, and that such delineations are quite reliable. 
The bold broad folds on the posterior part of the culmen 
of the bill which characterize the Papuan Hornbill, are 
plainly and accurately rendered in Ray's plate ; and the total 
absence of lateral grooves and ridges on the basal walls of the 
two mandibles enables us to determine without doubt that 
the bill represented belonged to the Papuan, and not to its 
near ally, the Malayan species. 

On Ray's* outline drawing of the bill Latham founded his 
Wreathed Hornbill (Synop. i. p. 858, 1781). Gmelin gave 
to this species the title of Buceros obscurus (S. N. i. p. 362, 
1788). In his first supplement to his 'Synopsis,' Latham 
(p. 70, 1787t) added a reference to a passage in Dampier's 
'Voyage' (iii. pt. 2, p. 165 J, t. 3), and identified the bird, 
there described as having been killed in Ceram and on New 
Guinea, with his " Wreathed Hornbill." In the ' Index 
Ornithologicus ' (i. p. 116, 1790), Latham gave his 
" Wreathed Hornbill " a Latin title, and called it Buceros 
plicatus. It seems therefore that the Gmelinian title of ob- 
scurus and Latham's title of plicatus apply to the Papuan 

* I have not been able to consult an original copy of Willug-hby's work. 
It may be that in it Willughby gives an account of the Hornbill described 
by Bontius. 

t Can any learned bibliographer explain how Latham, in his first Sup- 
plement (1787), was able to quote from Gmelin's edition of the ' Systema,' 
published in 1788 ? 

X The coiTect number of the page is 231, and Latham, as well as J. R. 
Forster before him, transcribed the misprint on Dampier's plate no. 8. 

the District of Lampong, S.E. Sumatra. 295 

Hornbill, and not to the Malayan. In tlie ' General History ' 
(ii. p. 323, 1822) Latham mixed up his original species with 
Le Vaillant's Calao javan {I.e.) and Shawns species founded 
on Le Vaillant's plate (Ois. d'Afrique) ; but the plate (xxxiv.) 
given by Latham plainly refers to the Papuan species. 

In D'Entrecasteaux's 'Voyage' (ix. p. 304, t. xi.), a Horn- 
bill obtained in the Papuan island of Waigiou is figured, on 
which the title of Buceros ruficollis, Vieillot (N. Diet. iv. 
p. 600, 1816), was founded (Temm. PL Col. 557). But J. 
R. Forster had already. (Zool. Indica, p. 40, 1781) bestowed 
the title of B. jMcatus on Dampier's Ceram Hornbill. 
Vieillot's title, usually adopted for the Papuan species, there- 
fore ought to fall ; and that of plicatus, Forster, having pri- 
ority, should supersede Gmelin's title of obscurus, and. La- 
thatn^'s title plicatus, and stand for the Papuan Hornbill. 
Gmelin's title obscurus and its synonjui plicatus, Lath., being 
thus restored to their original owner (i. e. B. plicatus, For- 
ster), the oldest available title for the Malayan bird becomes 
undulatus, Shaw. 

A form very closely allied to the Malayan B. undulatus 
occurs in Tonghoo, which Mr. Blyth separated (J. A. S. B. 
1843, p. 177) under the title of subruficollis , the synonymy 
of the Papuan bird and of the Malayan being at that time 
exceedingly involved, and the species themselves not well 
known. Mr. Blyth subsequently twice identified his B. sub- 
ruficollis with Malayan B. plicatus [op. cit. xii. p. 991, xvi. 
p. 998), but eventually returned to his original view, and 
retained B. subruficollis as distinct (Cat. Calc. Mus. p. 320, 
no. 191). 

R. subruficollis is only to be distinguished from R. undu- 
latus by wanting, in the two sexes, the lateral ridges on the 
base of both mandibles, and by the bill not being so deep 
and massive. It does not possess a black transverse bar on 
the naked gular skin of either sex"^, but that part in the male 
is yellow, and in the female blue, as in R. undulatus. It is 
remarkable that two such closely allied forms should coexist 

* Mr. Wardlaw Ramsay, who paid special attention to this Hornbill 
when in Burma, is quite positive on this point. 

-> x2 

296 Lord Tweeddale on Birds from 

in the same area; and yet there seems no doubt that both 
inhabit Tenasserim ; and an example of a young male ob- 
tained at Tonghoo by Mr. W. Ramsay belongs to B. undu- 
latus, while the remainder of a very large series from that 
district consist of nothing but B. suhruficollis. There is 
little or no difference in the general dimensions, although Mr. 
Blyth considered that the body of B. imdulatus was heavier 
than that of its ally. 

B. narcondami, Hume (Str. F. i. p. 411), as described, 
seems to be another closely allied form. No mention is 
made of lateral ridges on the mandibles. 

31. Carcineutes pulchellus. 

Dacelo pulchella, Horsf. t.c. p. 175, "Java" (1820). 
Carcineutes pulchellus (Horsf.); Sharpe, Mon. Alced. t. 96. 
This bird is not separable from Malaccan and Peguan ex- 

32. Halcyon pileata. 

Alcedo pileata, Bodd. Tab. PL Enl. p. 41 (1783). 

Alcedo atricapilla, Gm. ; Raffles, /. c. p. 293, " Sumatra."" 

33. Sauropatis chloris. 

Alcedo chloris, Bodd. Tabl. PI. Enl. p. 49 (1783). 

Alcedo chlorocephala, Gm., Raffles, /. c. p. 293, ^^ Sumatra." 

34. Pelargopsis fraseri, Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1870, p. 65, 
"Java, Sumatra, Malacca;'^ Mon. Alced. t. 33, "Sumatra." 

Alcedo leucocephalus , Gm., Raffles, t. c. p. 293, " Sumatra." 
The four examples obtained by Mr. Buxton most closely 
resemble the Bornean form referred by Mr. Sharpe in his 
monograph to P. leucocephala, the cap, however, being more 
pronounced. They differ from the great majority of Malaccan 
individuals with which I have made a comparison in wanting 
the very dark distinct brown cap of that peninsular form. But, 
in truth, this group of Kingfishers requires further study ; for 
the variations in colouring of the cap, on which Mr. Sharpe 
partly relies (P. Z. S. 1870, p. 62), do not always seem to offer, 
as I once believed, stable characters when a large series of 
individuals from different, or even similar, localities are 

the District of Lampony, S.E. Sumatra. 297 


35. Alcedo euryzona. 

Alcedo cyanocephala, Shaw, Raffles, t. c. p. 293, " Su- 
matra/' nee Shaw. 

Alcedo euryzona, Temm. PI. Col. livr. 83, " Java'' (1830) ; 
Sharpe, Mon. Alced. t. 8 ; Schlegel, Vog. Neder. Ind. Mar- 
tins pecheurs, p. 45, t. 1. f. 1, 2. 

A single example of this rare Kingfisher was obtained by 
Mr. Buxton. The extreme rarity of the species has prevented 
me comparing it with typical and Malaccan specimens. 

36. Alcedo meninting. 

Alcedo meninting, Horsf. t.c. p. 172, "Java" (1820). 

Alcedo asiatica, Sw. Zool. 111. (1) t. 50 (1821). 

Alcedo ispida, var. bengalensis, apud Raffles, t. c. p. 293, 
" Sumatra." 

Examples of this well-marked species from Java, Borneo, 
and Malacca agree with those from the Lampong district. 

37. Alcedo bengalensis. 

Alcedo bengalensis, Gm. S. N. i, p. 450 (1788). 

38. Ceyx rufidorsa. 

Alcedo tridactyla, Linn., Raffles, t. c. p. 293, " Sumatra." 

Ceyx rufidorsa, Strickl. P. Z. S. 1846, p. 99, "Malacca;" 
Sharpe, Mon. Alced. t. 41. 

Ceyx innominata, Salvadori, Atti R. Ac. Sc. Tor. iv. p. 465 

Identical with Malaccan and Bornean examples. 

39. Merops sumatranus. Raffles, /. c. p. 294, " Sumatra" 

Merops bicolor, Bodd., Salvadori, Ucc. Borneo, 90, nee 
Bodd.; Sharpe, Ibis, 1876, p. 33, et 1877, p. 5; conf. Wal- 
den, Tr. Z. S. ix. p. 150, t. 26. 

Sumatran, Malaccan, and Bornean examples do not differ. 
Are not examples with the chestnut plumage, washed with 
green, immature birds, of both sexes, in transition from the 
dark green of the young to the full dress of the adult, rather 
than representatives of the adult female form only, as stated 
by Mr. Sharpe (/. c.) ? 

298 Lord Tweeddale on Birds from 

40. Nyctiornis amicta. 

Merops amicta, Temm. PI. Col. 310, "Sumatra" (1824). 

Boruean and Malaccan examples in no respect diflFer. 
Count Salvador! (/. c. p. 91) refers iV. malaccensis, Cab., to 
the female, thus assuming that the female wants the crimson 
pectoral and pink frontal plumes. I rather incline to the 
belief that the adult birds of both sexes are alike, and that 
the uniform green birds belong to a younger stage of plumage. 
One of the examples obtained by Mr. Buxton is in plain green 
dress {N. malaccensis) , but has one small frontal plume pink. 

41. Harpactes kasumba. 

Troffon kasumba, Raffles, /. c. p. 282 (1821), partim; Gould, 
Mon. Trog. t. 10. 

Malaccan and Bornean examples do not differ. I retain 
the title now usually adopted, although Sir S. Raffles con- 
founded two species in his description. 

42. Harpactes duvauceli. 

Troffon duvaucelii, Temm. PL Col. 291 (1824), " Sumatra/' 
Gould, Mon. Trog. t. 12. 

Trogon kasumba, Raffles, I.e., partim. 

Identical with examples from Malacca, where it occurs 
along with H. rutilus (conf. Walden, Ibis, 1871, p. 161). Sir 
S. Raffles described (/. c.) this species as being the young of 
H. kasumba. 

43. Batrachostomus cornutus. 

Podargus cornutus, Tevava.. PI. Col. 159, '*' Bencoolen " (26 
July, 1823). 

The example obtained by Mr. Buxton is in full rufous plu- 
mage. It agrees with Bornean individuals. 

44. Lyncornis temmincki. 

Lyncornis temmincki, Gould, Icones Avium, t. 6, '^ Borneo " 

Identical with Malaccan and typical examples. 

45. Macropteryx comatus. 

Cypselus comatus, Temm. PI. Col. 268, " Sumatra" (1824). 
Malaccan examples do not differ. 

the District of Lampong, S.E. Sumatra. 299 

46. Macropteryx longipennis. 

Hirundo longipennis, Rafin. Bull. Sc. Soc. Philom. iii. an. ii. 
p. 158, ^^Java" (1804). 

Hirundo klecho, Horsf. t. c. p. 143, "Java" (1820). 
Identical with typical examples. 

47. MegaljEMa mystacophanes. 

Bucco niystacophanos, Temm. PL Col. 315, "Sumatra" 
(1824) ; Marshall, Mon. Capit. t. 19 ; Salvadori, t. c. p. 34, 
t. 1. 

Megalaima humei, Marshall, Ibis, 1870, p. 536, " Borneo j" 
Mon. Capit. t. 21. 

Malaccan examples are identical. Among the large series 
collected by Mr. Buxton are examples in the transition plu- 
mage on which Mr. Marshall founded M. humei. 

48. Megal^ma chrysopogon. 

Bucco chrysopogon, Temm. PI. Col. 285, ''Sumatra" (1824); 
Marshall, Mon. Capit. t. 18. 

Agrees with Malaccan specimens. 

49. Megal^ma versicolor. 

Bucco versicolor, Raffles, /. c. p. 284, ''Sumatra" (1821) ; 
Marsh. Mon. Capit. t. 22. 

Bornean and Malaccan individuals belong to the typical 

50. XantholjEma rosea. 

Bucco roseus, Dumont, Diet. Sc. Nat. iv. p. 52 (1806) ; 
Marshall, Mon. Capit. t. 43. 

The two examples collected by Mr. Buxton are identical 
with Javan and Negros individuals. Hitherto not recorded 
from Sumatra. 


Bucco hcemacephalus, L. S. Miiller, Suppl. p. 88 (1776) ; 
Marshal, Mon. Capit. t. 42. 

Bucco philippensis, Linn,, Raffles, t. c. p. 283, " Sumatra." 

52. Xanthol^ema duvauceli. 

Bucco duvaucelii, Less. Tr. d'Orn. 164, " Sumatra" (1831); 
Marshall, Mon. Capit. t. 33. f. 1, 2. 

300 Lord Tweeddale on Birds from 

Bucco australis, Horsf., EalHes, t. c. p. 285^ " Sumatra/^ 
nee Horsf. 

Sumatran, Bornean^ and N.E. Malaecan examples exhibit 
no difference. 

53. Arachnothera longirostra. 

Certhia longirostra, Lath. Ind. Orn. i. p. 299, " Bengal ^' 

Arachnothera affinis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. 1846, p. 43, " East- 
ern coast. Bay of Bengal, from Arracan to Malacca, Mysore 

Arachnothera pusilla, Blyth, Cat. Calc. Mus. App. p. 328. 
no. 1348 (1849). 

Sumatran examples are identical, both in size and plnmage, 
with Javan. The only difference I am able to detect between 
Javan individuals and those from Malabar, Assam, and coun- 
tries south to Malacca, including British Burma, and also 
those from Borneo, is one of dimensions, these last being 
smaller and having shorter and perhaps slenderer bills. But 
I possess Javan examples, in perfect plumage, as small as 
any from the other localities named — that is, with a difference 
of three, and even nearly four, eighths in the length of 
the wing of the largest and smallest Javan species. These 
differences in size may be characteristic of sex ; but a fully 
plumaged Bornean male (Busan), sex ascertained by Mr. 
Everett, has the short wing of my smallest Javan examples. 
A Tonghoo male, with bright orange pectoral tufts, has a 
shorter wing and bill than a Javan male in like breeding- 
plumage. There is not, therefore, sufficient ground for sepa- 
rating specifically any one or more races of this spider-hunter ; 
and if there were, the Javan and Sumatran race would require 
the new title, and not the race named affinis (subsequently 
pusilla) by Blyth ; for it supplied Latham with the type of 
his C, longirostra. 

54. Arachnothera flavigastra. 

Anthreptes flavigaster, Eyton, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 105, "Ma- 

Arachnothera eytonii, Salvador!, t.c. p. 182 (1874). 

the District of Lampong, S.E. Sumatra. 301 

Identical with typical examples. Count Salvadori has be- 
stowed a fresh title, on acconnt of the hybrid construction of 
the name given by Eyton. 

55. Arachnothera chrysogenys. 

Nectarinia chrysogenys, Temm. PI. Col. 388. f. 1, " Java " 
(1826) . 

Certhia longirostra, Lath., Raffles, t. c. p. 299, " Sumatra," 
nee Lath. 

Sumatran, Bornean (N.E.), and Malaccan examples do not 

56. Arachnothera temmincki. 

Arachnothera temmincki, Moore, Cat. E.I. C. Mus. ii. 
p. 728, " Malacca ? " (1856-58) . 

One Lampong example, obtained by Mr. Buxton, is insepa- 
rable from Malaccan individuals. 

57. Arachnophila simplex. 

Nectarinia simplex, S. Miiller, Verb. Nat. Gesch. Ned. 
Overz. Bez., Land- en Volkenk. p. 172, note, ''Sumatra, 
Borneo'-' (1843) ; op. cit. Zool. Aves, p. 62, t. 8. f. 4 (1846) ; 
Walden, Ibis, 1870, p. 31. 

Arachnophila simplex (S. Miiller) ; Salvadori, t. c. p. 172. 

A single example of this rare Sun-bird {^) is in the collec- 
tion. Reichenbach's generic title, Arachnor aphis, cannot be 
used, being partly founded on a Malaccan Arachnothera {A. 
flavigastra, Eyton) and partly on the New-Ireland Nectarinia 
flavigastr a, Gould { = A.frenata) . A. *mj9Ze<r,Miill.&Schlegel, 
ex Lombock, Gray's Hand-1. no. 1370, is a true Arachno- 
thera from Lombock, discovered by Mr. Wallace, and has 
nothing to do with the species it is there referred to. 

58. ^thopyga siparaja. 

Certhia siparaja, Raffles, t. c. p. 299, "Sumatra" (1821) ; 
Walden, Ibis, 1870, p. 33. 

^thopyga eupogon. Cab. Mus. Hein. i. p. 103, note, "Ma- 
lacca, Borneo '^ (1850-51). 

The examples from S.E. Sumatra are identical with Ma- 
laccan, Pinang, and Bornean specimens. Cabanis's title of 
eupogon must therefore fall. 

302 Lord Tweeddalc on Birds from 

59. Arachnechthra pectoralis. 

Nectarinia pectoralis, Horsf. t.c. p. 167, "Java" (1820). 
Undistinguishable from Javan examples. 

60. Anthreptes malaccensis. 

Certhia malaccensis, Scopoli, Del. Fl. et Faun. Insubr. ii. 

p. 90 (1786). 

Nectariniajavanica, Horsf., Raffles, ^.c. p. 299/' Sumatra." 
Apparently very numerous. Does not differ from typical 


61. Nectarophila hasselti. 

Nectarinia hasseltii, Temm. PI. Col. 376. f. 3, " Java " 

Certhia brasiliana auct. 

Certhia sperata, Linn., Raffles, t. c. p. 298, "Sumatra," nee 

Cinnyris ruber, Lesson, Tr. d'Orn. p. 296, " Sumatra, ^c?e 
Pucheran" (1831). 

Many examples, which do not dil5:er from Malaccan and 

62. Chalcostetha insignis. 

Nectarinia insignis, Jardine, Nat. Lib. xxxvi. p. 274 (1842), 
ex Temm. PL Col. 138. f. 3, " Java." 

Identical with Malaccan individuals, which Count Salva- 
dori informs us {t. c. p. 178) are not to be distinguished from 
Rornean (Sarawak). Sal. Miiller has identified Sumatran 
with Javan typical examples. 

63. Dictum flammeum. 

Motacilla flammea, Sparrm. Mus. Carls, fasc. iv. t. 98, 
"Java" (1789). 

Identical with Javan examples. 

64. Dictum olivaceum. 

Dicaeum olivaceum, Walden, Ann. & M. N. H. (ser. 4) xv. 
p. 101, Tonghoo hills (1875). 

A single skin of a Dicamn was obtained by Mr. Buxton 
which is identical with the type specimen of D. olivaceum. 

the District of Lampong, S.E. Sumatra. 303 


Certhia trig ono stigma, Scopoli^ Del. Fl. et Faun. Insubr. 
ii. p. 91 (1786), ex Sonnerat, "Malacca.'' 

Dicceum croceoventre, Vigors, Mem. Raffles, p. 673, " Su- 
matra" (1830). 

The Lampong individuals in no respect differ fromMalaccan. 

66. Prionochilus percussus. 

Pardalotus percussus, Temm. PI. Col. 394. f. 2, "Java"' 
(1826) . 

Identical with Malaccan specimens. I have not been able 
to compare it with typical examples. 

Q7. Chalcoparia phcenicotis. 

Motacilla singalensis, Gm. S. N. i. p. 964 (1788). 

Nectarinia phcenicotis, Temm. PI. Col. 108. f. 1, 388. f. 2, 
"Java, Sumatra'' (1824). 

A single specimen in immature plumage belongs to this 
species. Now that the knowledge of the geographical range 
of most species of birds has become so much more defined 
and accurate, the time appears to have arrived when inap- 
propriate and misleading geographical titles may be with 
safety suppressed. This bird is certainly not found in Ceylon ; 
nor does it occur on the Asiatic continent to the westward of 
the Brahmaputra. I have therefore adopted Temminck's 
title, which is next in priority. It is true that Count Salva- 
dori (Ucc. Born. p. 180) makes Certhia rectirostris, Shaw, 
apply to this species ; but that title, founded on plate Ixxv. 
of Vieillot's ' Oiseaux Dores,' belongs to an African bird, 
Cinnyris elegans, Vieillot (N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xxxi. 
p. 506, 1819), which was also figured by Vieillot under the 
same title some years later (Galerie des Ois. i. p. 292, 
t. clxxviii.). 

68. Zosterops lateralis. 

Zoster ops lateralis, Temm. Mus. Lugd. ; Hartlaub, J. fiir 
O. 1865, p. 15, " Java and Sumatra." 

Very near to continental Z. palpebrosus, but of a more 
saturated green above, and with a longitudinal streak of bright 

304 Lord Tweeddale on Birds from 

yellow on the abdomen ; the tail dark brown. It is also the 
form found at Malacca. 

69. Parus atriceps. 

Parus atriceps, Horsf. t.c. p. 160, "Java" (1820). 

Le Mesange grise a joue blanche, Le Vaillant, Ois. d'Afr. 
iii. p. 171, t. 139*. fig. superior, " Batavia." 

Parus cinereus, Vieill. Tabl. Encyl. Meth. ii. p. 506 (1823), 
ex Le Vaillant. 

Identical with typical examples. 

70. JEgithina scapularis. 

lora scapularis, Horsf. t.c. p. 152, "Java" (1820) ; Zool. 
Res. Java, t. 

Turdus scapularis, Horsf., Raffles, /. c. p. 311, " Sumatra." 

A young male, procured by Mr. Buxton, is not separable 

from Javan examples of the female, except that all the new 

rectrices are black. Javan and Sumatran females are identical. 

71. ^GiTHiNA viRiDissiMA. (Plate V. fig. 1 ( (^ ), 2 ( ? ) .) 
lora viridissima, Bp. Consp. i. p. 397, '' Sumatra, Borneo " 


Two fuU-plumaged males and one female were obtained by 
Mr. Buxton ; and I am thus enabled to give a description of 
the female of this somewhat rare species. The upper plu- 
mage of the female is like that of the male, only not so dark 
green. In yS. scapularis ? , ex Java, and in jE. zeijlonica ? 
and typhia $ , the dorsal plumage is yellow-green. The 
colouring of the rectrices in ^. viridissima ? is likewise 
darker green than in ^. scapularis. Underneath the plu- 
mage has a yellow tint, but not so bright and pure as in M. 
scapularis and its allies. From the plumage of the head 
being dark green, the yellow orbits contrast more conspicu- 
ously in jE. viridissima ? than in the females of the other 
species. The edgings to all the quills are greenish yellow, 
and not pure yellow or whitish yellow. 

Bornean and Malaccan examples do not differ from the 

* Lc Vaillaut, in error, misuumbered the figures on tliis plate. 

ILis 1877.P1,V 

J.GKe-alemans litli- M(5:"N HanhaTt imp. 


the District of Lamporig, S.E. Sumatra. 305 

72. Phyllornis viridis. 

Turdus viridis, Horsf. t. c. p. 148, "Java" (1820), 
nee Gm. 

Meliphaga javensis, Horsf. t. c. p. 152. 

Turdus cochinchinensis , Gm., var.^ Raffles, t. c, p. 309, 
'' Sumatra." 

Chloropsis zosterops, Vigors, App. Mem. Raffles, p. 674, 
"Sumatra" (1830). 

Malaccan and Bornean individuals do not differ from Su- 
matran. Although there is no doubt that M. javensis, Horsf., 
refers to this species, for the types were compared [vide Horsf. 
& Moore, Cat. Mus. E.I. C. i. p. 261), still I concur with 
Count Salvadori in rejecting the name ; for it was published 
without any diagnosis, and the titles of two other very dis- 
tinct species of Phyllornis were given as explanatory syn- 
onyms. The description of T. viridis has, moreover, pre- 
cedence in the list, and is perhaps a better title i\\a?a. javensis, 
which tends to circumscribe the geographical range. Count 
Salvadori, however, passes over the title of viridis also, and 
adopts that of sonneratii, Jard. & Selby. 

73. Phyllornis icterocephala. 

Turdus cochinchinensis, Gm., Raffles, t. c. p. 309, " Su- 

Phyllornis malabaricus , Gm., Temra. PI. Col. 512. f. 2, 
"Sumatra" (1329). 

Phylloi'nis icterocephalus , Lesson, Rev. Zool. 1840, p. 164, 
ex Temm. 

Malaccan individuals offer no points of difference. But a 
Bornean male from Simanjou has the blue o£ the shoulders 
of a perceptibly darker shade, and belongs to P. viridinucha, 
Sharpe, a species the validity of which I am somewhat 
doubtful of. 

74. Phyllornis cyanopogon. 

Phyllornis cyanopogon, Temm. PI. Col. 512. f. 1, " Su- 
matra" (1829). 

Specimens from Malacca are not separable. P. mystacalis, 

306 Lord Tweeddale on Birds from 

Sw. (2 J Cent. p. 296), is either the female or young male of 
this species. 


Turdus analis, Horsf. t. c. p. 147, " Java'' (1820) ; Raffles, 

t. c. p. 310, " Sumatra." 

Otocompsa per sonata, Hume, Str.F.1873,p.456, ''Aclieen.'' 
Inseparable from typical specimens, and identical with 

Malaccan and Bornean examples. 

TQ. Criniger ph^ocephalus. 

Ixos phaocephalus, Hartl. Rev. Zool. 1844, p. 401, ''Ma- 
lacca;'' Walden, Ibis, 1871, p. 169, t. vi. f. 2. 
Sumatran and typical examples are identical. 

77. Tricholestes criniger. 

Brachypodius {"?) criniger, A. Hay, Blyth, J. A. S. B. 1845, 
p. 577, '' Malacca." 

Tricophorus minutus, Hartlaub, J. fiir O. 1853, p. 156, 

Tricholestes minutus (Hartlaub), Salvadori, t. c. p. 265, 
t. V. f. 1, "Sarawak" (1874). 

Mr. Buxton procured one specimen, which in no way differs 
from Sarawak individuals. Why has Count Salvadori (/. c.) 
preferred Hartlaub's title, minutus, for the Malaccan bird to 
mine of criniger, published seven years previously ? 

78. Alcurus ochrocephalus. 

Turdus ochrocephalus, Gm. S. N. i. p. 821 (1788) ; Walden, 
Ibis, 1872, p. 379. 


Turdus dispar, Horsf t. c. p. 150, "Java" (1820); Raffles, 
t. c. p. 310, "Sumatra;" Temm. PL Col. 137. 

80. Brachypus euptilosus. 

Brachypus euptilosus, Jard. & Selby, 111. Orn. t.iii., " Singa- 
pore" (1825?). 

Malaccan examples do not differ. 

81. Brachypus plumosus. 

Pycnonotu^s plumosus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. 1845, p. 567, (^ , 
^^ Singapore." 

the District of Lampong, S.E. Swnatra. 307 

Pycnonotns brunneus, Blyth, t. c. p. 568;, ? , " Malacca." 

Brachtjpus modestus, A. Hay ; Blyth, t. c. p. 568, ? , " Ma- 

The single example in Mr. Buxton's collection is passing 
from the brown plumage of the immature B. brunneus to the 
greener plumage of the adult. Count Salvadori {t. c. p. 199) 
states that the brown birds are females and young males, 
while the adult males are distinguished by the green colour- 
ing of the wings and tail. In a large series of the species, 
with sexes ascertained by dissection, and collected at Ma- 
lacca by Mr. W. Ramsay, I find females fully as green in 
plumage as males. An example collected by Mr. Maingay 
at Malacca, with green wings and tail, is marked by that 
collector as being a female ; and he was a most competent 
authority. A large series from Java consists of examples 
undistinguishable from Malaccan. Labuan individuals also 
belong to the same species. 

Pycnonotus pusillus, Salvadori (/. c. p. 200) seems to be 
the bird described by Moore under the title of Microtarsus 
olivaceus (Cat. E.I. C. Mus, i. p. 249), ex Malacca, where 
it is not uncommon. I have compared Bornean examples 
and can detect no diff'erence. 

82. Brachypodius melanocephalus. 

Lanius melanocephalus, Gm. S. N. i. p. 309. no. 51 (1788). 

Turdus melanocephalus, Raffles, t. c. p. 310, "Sumatra'' 

Brachypodius immaculatus, Sharpe, Ibis, 1876, p. 39, "Sibu, 

Identical with Malaccan and Bornean individuals ; all the 
rectrices with a dark transverse band. B. immaculatus, 
Sharpe, cannot be separated. 


lole olivacea, Blyth, J. A. S. B. 1844, p. 386, "Malacca." 
A single Sumatran example of a bird was obtained by Mr. 

Buxton, which agrees well with the Malaccan form I refer to 

lole olivacea, Blyth. 

308 Lord Tweeddalc on Birds from 

84. Oriolus xanthonotus. 

Oriolus xanthonotus, Horsf. t.c. p. 152, "Java^^ (1820); 
Zool. Res. Java, t. 46. 

Javan, Sumatran, Malacean, and Bornean examples ex- 
hibit no specific differences. 

85. Oriolus coronatus. 

Oriolus chinensis, Linn., Raffles, t. c. p. 303, " Sumatra," 
nee Linn. 

Oriolns coronatus, Sw. 2i Cent. p. 342, "Java" (1837). 

Mr. Buxton obtained a large series, which are identical with 
typical examples. 

86. Cyanoderma erythropterum. 

Timalia erythroptera, Blyth, J. A. S. B. 1842, p. 794, " Sin- 

Timalia pyrrhophfsa, Kartl. Rev. Zool. 1844, p. 402, " Su- 

On comparing examples obtained at the foot of Mount 
Ophir, Malacca, by Mr. W. Ramsay, who carefully, by dis- 
section, ascertained the sexes, I can find no difference of 
plumage whereby the male can be distinguished from the 

87. Macronus ptilosus. 

Macronus ptilosus, Jard. & Selby, 111. Orn. t. 150 (1835). 

Timalia trichorros, Temm. PL Col. 594. f. 1, '' Borneo, 
Sumatra" (1836). 

Malaccan, Bornean, and Sumatran examples belong to one 

88. Brachypteryx buxtoni. (Plate VI. fig. 2.) 
Brachypteryx buxtoni, Tweeddale, P. Z. S. 1877 (April 


89. Drymocataphus nigricapitatus. 

Brachypteryx nigrocapitata, Eyton, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 103, 

The Sumatran bird in no way differs from the type species. 

Ibis. 1877. PI .VI, 

J G.KeulemaTis liLli 

'M.fcW,Haiiliart imp 




a^ NEW YORK. -><. 

the District of Lampong, S.E. Sumatra. 309 

90. Malacopteron majus. 

Malacopteron majus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. 184<7, p. 461, '' Ma- 
lacca;^' Salvadori, Ucc. Born. p. 225. 

Napothera pileata, Miill., Bp, Consp. i. p. 359, " Sumatra, 
Borneo" (1850). , .^ 

Sumatran and Malaccan examples are identical ; and I may 
add that examples of the nearly allied M. magnum, Eyt., 
from Sumatra and Malacca, in my collection in no way differ. 

91. Pitta boschii. 

Fitta boschii, Miill. & Schl. Verhandl. Nat. Gesch. Ned. 
Ind. Aves, pp. 5, 16, t. 1, "Sumatra'' (1839-44). 

There are no specific differences between Malaccan and 
typical examples. 


Turdus macrourus, Gm. S. N. i. p. 820 (1788). 
The Sumatran examples do not differ from Malaccan, Javan, 
Burman, Indian, Ceylonese, and Hainan individuals. 


Lanius musicus, Raffles, t.c. p. 307, '''Sumatra" (1821) ; 
Walden, Ibis, 1872, p. 102. 

Copsychus problematicus, Sharpe, Ibis, 1876, p. 36, " Borneo." 

Some years ago (/. c.) I endeavoured to show that the Ma- 
layan and Javan Copsychus, belonging to the C.-saularis 
section, differed from C saularis in having the under wing- 
coverts " white centred with black ; " and I suggested that, as 
the Sumatran species would in all probability be found to 
agree with them, they would fall under the title of musicus, 
given by Sir S. Raffles to the Sumatran Dayal. Comparing 
the specimens obtained by Mr. Buxton, I find that this sur- 
mise was correct. They also possess only six pairs of white 
rectrices, as against eight in true C. saularis — a character 
which is almost constant in Malaccan birds also. 

The Javan race has a very short bill, but is otherwise iden- 
tical with Sumatran C. musicus. Swainson long ago (2j Cent, 
p. 292) distinguished it under the title of brevirostris*. Mr, 

* Erroneously identified with C. amoenus ia Horsfield & Moore's . 


;3lO Lord Tvveeddale un Birds from 

Sliarpe [I.e.) has recently bestowed a new title, //roA/ewa^icMS, 
on the Bornean form, giving as its distinctive character the 
black-centred under wing-coverts. 

94. Henicurus frontalis. 

Enicurus frontalis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. 1847, p. 156, '^ Ma- 
lacca;" Elwes, Ibis, 1872, p. 259, t. ix. 

Hitherto only recorded as inhabiting Malacca. Closely 
allied to H. leschenaulti, but of smaller dimensions. In one 
of Mr. Buxton^s examples the white tips of the fourth pair of 
outer rectrices overlap the black portion of the third outer pair. 
In another individual the fourth pair is much shorter, and 
the white bars on the tail appear as represented in Mr. Elwes''s 
plate. Both birds are otherwise alike and in full plumage, 
the frontal plumes being much developed and fully equalling, 
if not exceeding, the frontal crest of Javan H. leschenaulti. 

In all Ningpo examples of fully plumaged specimens of H. 
leschenaulti {E. chinensis) I have examined, the outer pair of 
tail-feathers are about an incii shorter than the second pair, 
whereas in typical (Jayan) H. leschenaulti, the outer pair 
equals the next pair ; and this holds good in individuals from 
the Dafla hills and Tenasserim. The Javan bird is also con- 
siderably smaller than the Chinese species. 

95. Calobates melaxope. 

Motacilla melanope, Pallas, It. iii. p. 69G (1776). 
Motacilla bistrigata, Haffles, t. c. p. [M2, "Sumatra" (1821). 

96. Budytes viridis. 

Motacilla viridis, Gm. S. N. i. p. 962 (1788). 


Anthus malayensis, Eyton, P. Z. S. p. 104, " Malacca." 

(?) Anthus hasseltii, Temm. ; Schlegel, Handleiding Dierk. 
i. p. 263, "Java" (1857). 

Alauda pratensis, Linn., apud Raffles, t.c. p. 315, "Su- 
matra," nee Linn. 

One Sumatran example is in the collection, and does not 
differ from the common Malaccan C. malayensis. Count 
Salvadori has suggested that C. hasselti = C. malayensis ; but 

the District of Lampong, S.E. Sumatra. 311 

the former is more nearly allied to C. luyubris, if the Bornean 
specimen marked C. hasselti in the British Museum is cor- 
rectly determined. 

Corydalla lugubris, Walden, differs from C. malayensis in 
having white superciliary patches before the eye^ in the breast- 
markings consisting of a few sparse narrow brown lines, and 
not broad brown centres to the feathers, and in the ground- 
colour of the breast being albescent, and not pale rufous. 
Above, the colouring and markings of the two species are 
very similar. 

98. Prinia familiaris. 

Prima familiaris , Horsf. t. c. p. 165, " Java" (1820) ; Zool. 
Res. Java, t. 52. 

MotaciUa olivacea, Raffles, t. c. p. 313, '' Sumatra" (1821). 

Mr, Buxton's Sumatran examples are identical with typical 
specimens. One of the Sumatran birds possesses white lores. 
The species also occurs in the island of Madura. 

99. Prinia rafflesi, sp. nov. (Plate VI. fig. 1.) 

Mr. Buxton's collection contains two examples of a species 
of Prinia I am unable to identify. It may be the same as M. 
olivacea, Raffles (/. c.); but that bird has been determined 
by Horsfield and Moore (Mus. E.I. C. i. p. 320) to be P. 

Above olive-green, front of head ashy. Lores, which ex- 
tend partly over the eye, white. Chin, throat, cheeks, and 
upper breast white. Lower breast, abdomen, flanks, ventral 
region, and under tail-coverts pure canary-yellow. Thigh- 
coverts yellow, tinged with ferruginous. Carpal edge and 
under carpal coverts yellow- white. Quills brown, with olive- 
green edgings. Rectrices pale brown, washed with green, 
and with an obscure darker brown subterminal spot and pale 
tips. Bill black and slender as compared with that of P. 
familiaris. Bill from forehead 0*72, wing 1'18, tarsus 0*75, 
tail 2-50. 

Differs from P. familiaris in wanting the conspicuous white 
tips to the minor and major wing-coverts, in being darker 
olive-green above, in the olive-green fringings of the quills 


312 Lord Tweeddale on Birds from 

and colouring of the rectrices, in wanting a distinct brown 
cap, and in the brown snbterminal tail-bands being indistinct 
and obscure^ and the pale apical bands being narroAver and 
ill defined. It is more nearly allied to P. flaviventris, bu+ 
diflFers in having a longer stouter bill, by being of a much 
darker, less yellow, green above, and by the possession of 
subterminal brown spots on the rectrices, a character which 
is seemingly never present in P. flaviventris. I have com- 
pared it with twenty examples of P. flaviventris from loca- 
lities ranging from Rangoon to Bootan, and with nine spe- 
cimens of P. familiaris. 

100. Orthotomus cineraceus. 

Orthotomus cineraceus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv. p. 589, " Ma- 
lacca" (1845). 

Orthotomus sepium, Horsf., var. ex Sumatra, Temra. Re- 
cueil d'Ois. livr. 101. 

Orthotomus borneo'ensis, Salvadori, t. c. p. 247, " Sarawak " 
(1874); Sharpe, Ibis, 1876, p. 41, t. ii. f. 1; idem. op. cit. 
1877, p. 116. 

Sumatran individuals do not differ from typical and Bornean 
examples. True O. sepium extends to the island of Madura. 
0. edela is the Javan form of 0. sutorius, but wants the white 
lores and superciliary stripe of the continental species. 

101. Graucalus sumatrensis. 

Ceblepyris ?ioi7<e-^Mmetf',S.Miill.Verhand.Land- enVolkenk. 
p. 190, nee Lath. 

Ceblepyris sumatrensis, S. Mull. t. c. p. 191, "Sumatra" 

Graucalus concretus, Hartl. J. f. O. 1864, p. 445, "Borneo." 

Identical with Malaccan and Bornean examples. None of 
the birds obtained by Mr. Buxton, old males included, possess 
a black lorum and ocular stripe. 

102. Volvocivora culminata. 

Ceblepyris culminatus, A. Hay, Madr. J. L. & Sc. xiii. p. 157, 
"Malacca" (1844). 

Volvocivora schierbrandi, v. Pelzeln, " Novara," p. 80, t. 2. 
f. 1 (1865) . 

the District of Lampony, S.E. Sumatra. 313 

Volvocivora borneo'ensis , Salvad. Atti R. Ac. Sc. Tor. iii. 
p. 532 (1868). 

Bornean, Sumatran, and typical examples in plumbeous- 
coloured plumage do not differ. 


Turdus dominicus, L. S. Miiller, Suppl. p. 145 (1776). 

Turdus terat, Bodd. Tabl. PL Enl. p. 17 (1783). 

Lanius striga (Horsf.), Raffles, t. c. p. 305 "Sumatra" 


104. Hemipus obscurus. 

Muscicapa obscura, Horsf. t. c. xiii. p. 146, " Java "(1820); 
Zool. Res. Java, t. 39. f. 2. 

Lanius no. 12, Raffles, t. c. p. 308, " Sumatra." 
Malaccan, Sumatran, and typical examples are alike. 

105. Artamus leucorhynchus. 

Lanius leucorhynchus, Linn. Mantissa Plant, p. 524, "Ma- 
nilla" (1771); Raffles, t.c. p. 306, "Sumatra." 
Does not differ from typical examples. 


Le Drongo a raquette, Le Vaillant, Ois. d'Afr. iv. p. 73, 
t. 175 (1805). 

Dicrurus platurus, Vieillot, N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. ix. p. 558 
(1817), ex Le Vaill. 

Lanius malabaricus, Lath., Raffles, t. c. p. 306, "Sumatra," 
nee Lath. 

Edolius retifer, Temm. Rec. d'Ois. livr. 30, sub Edolius 
remifer, " Malacca, Java, Sumatra" (1823), partim, ex Le Vaill. 

(?) Edolius intermedins, Less. Tr. p. 380, " des Moluques," 

Edolius rangoonensis, Gould, P. Z. S. 1836, p. 5, "Ran- 
goon;" J.&S. Illustr. Orn. t. xxxviii. (1840), ex Gould. 

Edolius malayensis, Blyth, Jerd. B. Ind. i. p. 438 (1862). 

Four examples of the genus Dissemurus contained in 
Mr. Buxton's collection cannot be separated from the crest- 
less Malaccan species. But the difficult question arises, 
What is the correct title of the Malaccan Racket-tailed 

314 Lord Tweeddale on Birds from 

Drongo ? Sumatra, Borneo, and Malacca are the only three 
areas, so far as is now known, which are inhabited by full- 
plumaged birds devoid of a frontal crest ; but Sonnerat figured 
and described a species of Dissemurus without a crest from the 
Malabar coast (Voy. Indes, ii. p. 195, t. 111). On this Scopoli 
founded the title of Muscicapa malabarica (Del. Fl. Faun. In- 
subr. ii. p. 96, 1786), and later on Latham tbe title of Lanius 
malabaricus (Ind. Om. i.p. 66, 1790) . It has consequently been 
contended by some authors that Sonnerat described from and 
figured a Malaccan bird, and that therefore the title of mala- 
baricns does not belong to the Malabar bird; by others {e.g. 
Temmiuck, /. c), that the Malabar bird belonged to the same 
species as the Javan and Sumatran ; and as the title of mala- 
baricus was inappropriate, Temminck altered the name to 
retifer (lege setifer) , a title restricted by recent authors to the 
Javan crested bird. Sonnerat^s figure, from whatever species 
it may have been taken, is, without doubt, most inaccurate ; 
and Le Vaillant {I. c.) severely criticised it ; but Sonnerat dis- 
tinctly leaves it to be understood that his type was from the 
Malabar coast ; and Buftbn (Hist. Nat. iv.) alludes to Sonne- 
rat having sent him the bird from the coast of Malabar, Son- 
nerat (/. c.) stating that the bird he describes and figures is the 
one he sent to Buffon. The crest in adult Malabar birds is 
not largely developed ; and it is quite possible that Sonnerat 
figured a young bird, or else that he overlooked the short im- 
pending nasal plumes. Le Vaillant [I.e.) was the next author 
who wrote on a species of Racket-tail Drongo ; and he gave a 
description and plate of a crestless species of Dissemurus. The 
origin of his type it is now impossible to discover; for he merely 
tells us that it came from the collection of a Mons. Dorcy. The 
description and plate most accurately represent the Malaccan 
and Sumatran form ; and as Vieillot founded his title ofpla- 
turus {I. c.) on Le Vaillant^s description and plate, I adopt it 
for that species. It could not well have been taken from a 
Javan ; for that race is crested, and great care is exhibited in 
the drawing. 

The only other crestless form inhabits Borneo, and was 
separated by Temminck under the title of brachyphorus (Bp. 

the Dutrict of Lampony, S.E. Sumatra. 315 

Consp. i. p. 351). Couut Salvador! {t.c. p. 154) somewhat 
doubts the propriety of separating the Bornean from the Ma- 
laccan Dissemurus; but the much smaller spatulate termination 
of the outer pair of rectrices seems to be a constant character 
in the adults of the Bornean species ; and I have examined a 
very large series, both at Leiden and in my own collection, 
from Labuau, Sarawak, and Banjarmassing. Rangoon adult 
birds have a crest, and belong to true D. paradiseus. 

107. Chaptia malayensis. 

Chaptia malayensis, A. Hay, J. A. S. B. 1846, p. 294, " Ma- 
lacca/^ Walden, J. A. S. B. 1875, extra number, pt. ii. p. 128. 

Edolius picinus, S. Miiller, Bp. Consp. i. p. 352, " Sumatra ""^ 

Malaccan and Sumatran individuals do not differ. 


Dicrurus leucophoius , Vieillot, N. Diet. d^Hist. Nat. ix. 
p. 587 (1817). 

Edolius cineraceus, Horsf. t.c. p. 145, ''Java" (1820). 
Javan and Sumatran examples are identical. 

109. Pericrocotus ardens. 

Turdus flammeus (Gm.), Raffles, /. c. j). 310, " Sumatra.'^ 

Pkoenicornis ardens, " Boie,^^ Mus. Lugd. ; Bp. Consp. i. 
p. 357, "Sumatra" (1850); Salvad. t. c. p. 143, t. ii. f. 1, 2. 

Pericrocotus flammifer, Hume, Str. F. iii. p. 321, note, 
"Mergui" (1875). 

Bornean and Malaccan examples agree with typical. Hors- 
field and Moore (Cat. E.I. C. Mus. ii. p. 142) refer T. flam- 
meus, apud Raffles, and P. ardens to P. xanthog aster. 

110. Pericrocotus peregrinus. 

Parus peregrinus, L. S. N. i. p. 342 (1766). 

One specimen, seemingly belonging to this species, was ob- 
tained by Mr. Buxton ; but as it is in immature plumage 
it is difficult to determine with certainty. 

111. Pericrocotus X.VNTHOGASTER. 

Lanius x anthog aster , Raffles, t. c. p. 309, " Sumatra" (1821) . 
The small section of the Pericrocotida* of which P. flam- 

316 Lord Tweeddale on Birds from 

mens may be considered the type, is represented both in Su- 
matra and Java by a race which it may perhaps be proper to 
separate as a distinct species. Of this form two representa- 
tives are contained in Mr. Buxton's collection. It is a smaller 
bird than P. flammeus, and it diifers in the oranj^e edgings 
of the outer webs of some of the secondaries uniting with the 
orange-coloured mark lower down, as is to be found in P. 
brevirostris. The female of this form appears to have sup- 
plied the type of Lanius xanthogaster, Eaflles. 

112. Philentoma pyrrhopterum. 

Muscicapa j)yrrhoptera, Temm. PL Col. t. 596, '' Sumatra, 
Borneo '^ (1836). 

Examples from Borneo and Malacca perfectly agree with 
the one obtained in the Lampong district by Mr. Buxton. 

113. Hypothymis azurea. 

Muscicapa a::urea, Bodd. Tabl. PI. Enl. p. 41 (1783). 
Muscicapa ccerulea, Gm., Raffles, t. c. p. 312, " Sumatra.^* 


Tchitrea affims,k. Hay, J. A. S. B. 1846, p. 292, "Malacca.'' 
Sumatran specimens similar to typical. 

115. Cyornis elegans. 

Muscicapa elegans, Temm. PI. Col. 596, f. 1, '^Sumatra" 

The species obtained by Mr. Everett at Marup, in North 
Borneo, and provisionally identified by me with C. elegans 
(Ibis, 1872, p. 373), is not to be specifically distinguished 
from the typical example in Mr. Buxton's collection. 

116. Leucocerca javanica. 

Muscicapa javanica, Sparrm. Mus. Carls, fasc. iii. t. 75, 
''Java" (1789); Raffles, t. c. p. 312, ''Sumatra." 
Agrees with typical and Malaccan specimens. 


Hirundo javanica, Sparrm. Mus. Carls, fasc. iv. t. 100, 
"Java" (1789). 

Neilgherry examples {H. domicola, Jerd.) cannot be sepa- 

the District of Lampong, S.E. Sumatra. 317 

118. Cymborhynchds macrorhynchus. 

Todus macrorhynchus, Gm. S. N. i. p, 446 (1788). 

Eurylaimus lemniscatus, Raffles, t.c. p. 296, "Sumatra" 

Cymborhynchus malaccensis, Salvador!, Atti R. Ac. Sc. Tor. 
ix. p. 425, "Malacca" (1874). 

Six examples are in Mr. Buxton^s collection, and they all 
possess the three outer pair of rectrices more or less marked 
with white on their inner webs. Therefore, according to 
Count Salvadori's view, the Sumatran bird should fall under 
C. malaccensis, Salvad. But if the Sumatran and Malaccan birds 
are really specifically distinct from theBornean, and if the Bor- 
nean is the true Great- billed Tody of Latham, a title already 
exists in lemniscatus, Raffles; and that of malaccensis, Salva- 
dori, is, in any case, unnecessary. 


Calyptomena viridis, Raffles, t. c. p. 295, " Singapore, Su- 
matra'^ (1821). 

Raffles affirms that the sexes do not differ; but this state- 
ment has not been supported by recent research (conf. Sal- 
vadori, t.c. p. 107). The species inhabits the Malay pen- 
insula and Borneo, specimens from these regions not 
differing from Sumatran. 

120. EuryljEmus ochromelas. 

Eurylaimus ochromalus. Raffles, t. c. p. 297, " Sumatra and 
Singapore" (1821). 

Bornean, Pinang, and Malaccan individuals are not to be 
distinguished from Sumatran. 

121. Corydon sumatranus. 

Coracias sumatranus. Raffles, t. c. p. 303, '^ Sumatra'^ 

Birds from Karen hills, Tenasserim, Malacca, and Borneo 
exhibit no departure from the typical examples obtained by 
Mr. Buxton. 

122. Padda oryzivora. 

Loxia oryzivora, Linn. S. N. i. p. 302 (1766). 

318 Lord Tweeddale oa Birds front 


Loxia maja, Linn. S. N. i. p. 301 (1766). 

Count Salvador! (/. c. p. 265) has controverted a sugges- 
tion of mine that this bird is replaced in Java by M. ferru- 
ginea (Sparrm.) =M. majanoides, Temm., on the ground that 
an undoubted example was obtained in Java by the " Ma- 
genta " Expedition. This evidence^, however, appears hardly 
sufficient; for hundreds of Munias of almost every species 
may be bought at the different ports in the east, far away 
from their origin. 


Munia leucogastroides, Moore, Cat. E.I. C. Mus. ii. p. 510. 
no. 777, '^ Java'' (1856-58); Walden, Ibis, 1874, p. 145. 
The Sumatrau examples do not differ from Javan. 

125. Ploceus maculatus. 

Loxia maculata, L. S. Miiller, Suppl. p. 150. no. 56 (1776). 

Loxia philippina, Linn. S. N. i. p. 305 (1766) ; Walden, 
Tr. Z. S. ix. p. 209. 

Ploceus bay a, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiii. p. 945. 

Mr. Buxton's collection only contains examples of females 
or non-breeding males of the Malayan race of P. baya, Blyth. 
As there seems to be little doubt that the species does not oc- 
cur in the Philippines, I have adopted the next published title. 

126. Platysmurus leucopterus. 

Glaucopis leucopterus, Temm. PI. Col. 265, "Sumatra" 

Malaccan examples are identical. 

127. Crypsirhina varians. 

Corvus varians, Lath. Ind. Orn., Suppl. p. 26, "Java" 


Examples from Burma, Java, and Sumatra are of one 


128. Calornis chalyb^a. 

Ttirdus chalybcEUS, Horsf. t. c. p. 148, "Java" (1820). 
Lanius insidiator, Raffles, t. c. p. 307, '' Sumatra" (1821), 
Javan, Malaccan, and Bornean individuals are not specifi- 
cally separable from those obtained in South-east Sumatra. 

the District of Lampong, S.E. Sumatra. 319 

129. Sturnopastoh contra. 

Sturnus contra, Linn. S. N. i. p. 290 (1766). 
Pastor jalla, Horsf. /. a. p. 155, "Java'' (1820). 
Javan and these Sumatran examples are not separable from 
the Indian and Burman forms. 

130. Gracula javanensis. 

Corvus javanensis, Osbeck, Voy. China & E. Ind. i. p. 157^ 
"Java'' (Eng. Tr. 1771). 

Gracula religiosa, Linn. ; Raffles, t. c. p. 303, " Sumatra." 
The Sumatran examples from Lampong district are iden- 
tical with others from East Java. 

131. Corvus validus. 

Corvus validus, Temin.,Bp. Consp. i. p. 385 (1854). 

Malaccan and Sumatran birds do not differ. 

Wemust accept Prof. Schlegel's assurance (Bij dr. t. d. Dierk. 
pp. 8 and 13, and Mus. Pays-Bas, Coraces, p. 29) that Prince 
Bonaparte did not describe the Gilolo (Halmahera) bird under 
the title of C. validus, but the Bornean and Sumatran and 
Timor (?) species. Still the Prince's words (/. c), " rostro 
capite multo longiore, valido, curvato," read as if he were de- 
scribing the Gilolo species, subsequently entitled C. validis- 
simus by Schlegel. Little is known of the C. validus, as the 
learned Professor tells us (/. c.) ; and consequently its range 
has not been well defined. The Sumatran bird is identical with 
one of the Malaccan Crows ; and Professor Schlegel identi- 
fied Bornean examples with the Sumatran. He further gives 
the island of Timor as its habitat, and asserts that C. timori- 
ensis, Bp., is but a synonym. But, by the context, the Prince 
appears to have bestowed this title on C. macrorhynchus, 
Temm. apud Wagler, which is the only species of Corvus 
enumerated by Mr. Wallace in his list of Timor birds. Pro- 
fessor Schlegel, it is true^ includes Timor within the range of 
C. validus^ only on the strength of a single example ( ? ) 
brought from there by S. Miiller, which may well have 
been but an imperfectly grown example of C. macrorhynchus. 
The C. validus, var., of Wallace, ex Sula Islands (P. Z. S, 
1862, p. 343), is certainly only a race of C. enca, a species 

320 Lord Tweeddale on Birds from 

apparently confined to Java, Celebes, and the Sula Islands ; 
and C. annectens, Briiggemann, ex Celebes (Abhandl. natur- 
wissenschaft. Ver. Bremen, p. 64. no. 89), is not of the same 
type as C. enca. C. corax, apud Raffles (/. c), has been re- 
ferred by Wagler, Schlegel, and others to C. macrorhynchus ; 
bnt there is no evidence whatever that that species inhabits 
Sumatra, and it is much more probable that Sir Stamford 
alluded to C. valiclus. Blyth (Ibis, 1870, p. 171) made the 
extraordinary identification of C. macrorhynchus, Temm., with 
C. culminatus, Sykes. In the Javan bird the bill is full three 
inches in length, and the basal portion of the body-plumage 
is pure white. Mr. Blyth has also stated that C. culminatus 
extends to Malacca (Cat. Calc. Mus. p. 89. no. 448 ; Ibis, 
1863, p. 368), and that there also occurs C. macrorhynchus, 
Vieillof^. This last species Mr. Blyth identified with C. 
tenuirostris, Moore, ex Bombay, but which Mr. Blyth (/. c.) 
asserts Avas founded on a Malaccan skin. Two Malaccan 
examples (mus. nostr.) belong to C. ienuirosiris ; and I am 
not prepared ofi'-hand to identify them with C. validus. Their 
chief character is the form of the bill. In C. tmlidus the 
bill gradually and regularly diminishes from the base to the 
apex, and is much bulged tliroughout the course of the com- 
missure. The culmen is rather acute than broad and 
rounded, and the height of the bill is considerable t- In C. 
tenuirostris the bill is longer, very much compressed, and 
flattened on the sides ; the culmen is broad and rounded, and 
not acute. The height is also less, 0'70 as against 0'91. 
The length of the gonys is greater. In colouring, the lower 
plumage is of a more ashy tint ; and the general dimensions 
are less. The base of the feathers is white, as in C. validus. 
The British Museum possesses examples of C. tenuirostris 
from both Borneo (Banj ar massing and Labuan) and Sumatra. 

* What is C. macrorhynchus^ Vieillot ? I cannot find that Vieillot ever 
bestowed such a title, although Jerdon, Bljth, and Bonaparte have all 
used it. Mr. Blyth is clearly referring to C. valiclus; for later (Ibis, 1870, 
p. 171) he identified C. temiirostris with C. validus. 

t The contour of the bill of C. validus is very much that of C. levail- 
lanti (C. culminatus) ; but the culmen is not quite so much arched. 

the District of Lamyong, S.E. Sumatra. 321 

Corvus vaJidus. 

Bill from 

Wing. Tail. nostril. Gonys- Tarsus. 

Lampong 12-80 8-75 1-75 l-o6 2-37 

„ 12-75 8-62 1-62 087 2-30 

Malacca 12-75 8-50 1-62 1-00 2-25 

Corvus tenuirostris. 

Malacca 1250 7-00 1-75 1-18 200 

„ 12-25 7-00 2-12 1-25 200 


Columba curvirostra, Gm., Raffles, t. c. p. 318, '' Sumatra." 

Toria nipalensis, Hodgs. As. Res. xix. p. 164, ^^Nipaul" 

Treron nasica, Schlegel, Nederl. Tijdschr. Dierk. i. p. 67, 
'^Borneo'' (1863). 

Assam, Sumatran, and Malaccan examples are identical. 


Columba capellei, Temm. PI. Col. 143. "Java" (1823). 

Vinago gigantea, Vigors, App. Mem. Raffles, p. 674, " Su- 
matra (1830j. 

Malaccan individuals do not differ. Raffles does not appear 
to have ever published the title of Columba gigantea attributed 
to him by Mr. G. R. Gray {Columba, B. Mus. p. 13). 


Columba vernans, Linn. Mantissa, p. 526, " Philippines " 
(1771) ; Raffles, t. c. p. 318, " Sumatra ;" Walden, Tr. Z. S. 
ix. p. 210. 

Treron griseicapilla, Schlegel, Nederl. Tijdschr. Dierk. i. 
p. 70, " Sumatra, Bangka" (1863). 

Notwithstanding Professor SchlegeFs remarks (/. c), 1 
am unable to detect any specific difference between Su- 
matran and typical examples. 


Columba olax, PI. Col. 241. " Sumatra" (1823). 
Sumatra supplied the type of this species ; and Malaccan 
examples in no way differ. 

322 On Birds from the District of Lampong. 

136. Spilopelia tigrina. 

Columba tigrina, Temm. Knip^ Pig. t. 43 (1811). 

The S.E. Sumatran examples do not differ from Javan, 
Malaccan^ Bornean^ and Celebean individuals. Temminck 
has left us in doubt as to the origin of the bird figured by 
Madame Knip. 

137. Geopelia striata. 

Columba striata, Linn. S. N. i. p. 282 (1766). 
Columba bantamensis , Sparrm., Raffles, t. c. p. 319, " Su- 
matra. '^ 

138. Chalcophaps indica. 

Columba indica, Linn. S. N. i. p. 284 (1766). 

Columba javanic a, Gm., Raffles, t. c. p. 317, " Sumatra." 

139. Argusianus argus. 

Phasianus argus, Linn. S. N. i. p. 272 (1766) ; Raffles, 
/. c. p. 320, " Sumatra.'' 

Sumatran and Malaccan birds do not differ. 


Phasianus rouloid, Scopoli, Del. Fl. Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 93, 
"Malacca" (1786). 

Tetrao vii'idis, Gm., Raffles, t. c. p. 322, " Sumatra." 
Identical with Bornean and typical examples. 

141. Charadrius fulvus. 

Charadrius fulvus, Gm. S. N. i. p. 687 (1788). 
Charadrius pluvialis, var., Raffles, /. c. p. 328, " Sumatra.'' 

142. ^Egialites geoffroyi. 

Charadriiis geoffroyi,'W2Lg\er,Syst. Av. Charadrius, no. 19 
(1827); Harting, Ibis, 1870, p. 378, t. xi. 

143. Glareola orientalis. 

Glareola orientalis, Leach, Tr. L. S. xiii. p. 132, t. 13. f. 1, 
2, "Java" (1820). 

144. Tringoides hypoleucus. 

Tringa htjpoleucos, Linn. S. N. i. p. 250 (1766). 

145. Totanus glareola. 

Tringa glareola, Linn. S. N. i. p. 250 (1766). 

On Additions to the British Museum. 323 

146. Erythra phcenicura. 

Rallus phmnicurus, Forster^ Zool. Ind. p. 19, t. 9, "Ceylon^^ 


i^) Rallus sumatranus, Raffles, t. c. p. 328, "Sumatra" 


Ardeajavanica, Horsf. t. c. p. 190, "Java" (1820) ; Raffles, 
/. c. p. 326, " Sumatra.'' 

148. Ardea purpurea. 

Ardea purpurea, Linn. S. N. i. p. 236 (1766). 

149. Demiegretta sacra. 

Ardea sacra, Gm. S. N. i. p. 640 (1788). 

150. Sterna media. 

' Sterna media, Horsf. I.e. p. 198, "Java" (1820); Saun- 
ders, P. Z. S. 1876, p. 655. 

151. Sterna bergii. 

Sterna bergii, Lichtenst. Verzeich. p. 80, " South Africa " 
(1823); Saunders, t.c. p. 657. 

I am indebted to Mr. Saunders for the identification of 
these two Terns. 

XXV. — Report on the Additions to the Collection of Birds in 
the British Museum in 1875^. 

With the exception of the year 1874, in which Mr. Wallace's 
collection was purchased by the Trustees, the last year shows 
a greater increase in this branch of the department than any 
of the preceding years, the total number of acquisitions 
amounting to 4277 specimens, among which were 152 species 

* Extracted from a Return to an Order of the Honourable The House 
of Commons, dated G April 1877 ; — for an Account ^' of the Income and 
Expenditure of the British Museum (Special Trust Funds), for the Finan- 
cial Year ended the 31st day of March 1877; and a Return of the Num- 
ber of Persons admitted to visit the Museum in each Year from 1871 to 
1876, both years inclusive ; together with a Statement of the Progress 
made in the Arrangement of the Collections; and an Account of Objects 
added to them in the year 1876." 

324 On the Additions of Birds to the British Museum. 

new to the collection and 47 typical specimens. The follow- 
ing may be specially mentioned : — 

The collection of Corvidse made by John Gould, Esq., and 
consisting of 100 specimens, amongst them the types of seven 
species described by that ornithologist. 

A series of Cormorants from the Cornish coast ; presented 
Dr. Giinther. 

Two hundred and ninety-nine specimens, obtained by the 
North- American Boundary Commission in the vicinity of the 
49th parallel. 

A series of 110 skins, nests, eggs, and skeletons, selected 
from the collection made by Messrs. Slater and Gulliver, 
Naturalists of the ''Transit-of-A^enus ^' Expedition, in Rodri- 

The fourth portion of the collection of African Birds formed 
by, and formerly in the possession of, 11. B. Sharpe, Esq. ; 
it consists of 750 specimens, and contains 12 types, and 56 
species previously not represented in the British Museum. 

A collection from the Transvaal ; presented by J. H. 
Gurney, Esq., and including specimens of Turdus gurneyi. 

Seven specimens from the Victoria Falls, amongst them 
the types of a new genus {Pinarornis) and Saxicola shelleyi ; 

The type of Bradyornis woodwardi, from Natal ; presented 
by J. D. S. Woodward, Esq. 

The type of Dromaocercus brunneus, from Madagascar; 
presented by Algernon Peckover, Esq. 

A selected series of 136 skins and eggs, from the collection 
made by the Rev. A. E. Eaton, Naturalist to the " Transit-of- 
Venus " Expedition, in Kerguelen Land. 

A most valuable collection of 1303 specimens from North- 
ern Bengal, North-western India, Burma, and Malacca ; pre- 
sented by Captain Stackhouse Pin will. 

Ten specimens from Burma, new to the collection ; pre- 
sented by the Marquis of Tweeddale, F.R.S. 

A series of 200 specimens selected from the collections 
made by Dr. J. Anderson during the expedition to Yunnan. 

Notes on Mr. R. B. Sharpe's Catalogue of Accipitres. 325 

Typical specimens of Garrulax galbanus and Suthora mu- 
nipurensis ; presented by Major H. H. Godwin- Austen. 

The type of Horeites pallidipes from Sikkim ; presented by 
L. Mandelli, Esq. 

Two collections of 246 specimens from N.W. Borneo ; one 
made by H. Low, Esq., the other by Mr. A. Everett. 

A series of 77 specimens collected by Dr. Steere in the 
Philippine Islands, by which 20 species were added to the 
British-Museum collection. 

Six species new to the collection, and represented by 12 
specimens from Taviuni, Fiji Islands ; collected by E. L. 
Layard, Esq. 

The type of Casuarius westermanni, and specimens of C. 
picticollis and C.beccarii; purchased of the Zoological Society. 

A series of the lately described new species of Bird of Para- 
dise {Paradisea raggiana) ; purchased. 

A small collection from South-eastern New Guinea; pur- 

Specimens of Paradigalla cariinculata from the Arfak 
Mountains, and of Tanysiptera Carolina from Mafoor ; ob- 
tained by exchange. 

Thirteen specimens from the Galapagos Islands ; collected 
by Commander W. E. Cookson. 

XXVI. — Notes on a ' Catalogue of the Accipitres in the 
British Museum,' by R. Bowdler Sharpe (1874). By J. H. 


[Continued from p. 236.] 

The next Eagle which I propose to consider is that figured 
in plate 29 of the late Dr. Gray's ' Illustrations of Indian 
Zoology ' under the name of " Aquila fulvescens." The type 
of this species is, I believe, not now in existence ; and Mr. 
Sharpe quotes " fulvescens" as a synonym of " vindhiana;" 
but, as already mentioned {antea, p. 225), I cannot agree with 
him in this view. 

In 'The Ibis' for 1871, at p. 245, the late Dr. Jerdon stated 

SE». IV. VOL. 1. 7. 

326 Mr. J. H. Giimey's Notes on 

that he considered it " not improbable '' that the figure 
of Aquila fulvescens, above referred to, represented the same 
North-west Indian Eagle which had then been recently (but, 
as was subsequently shown, erroneously) identified with A. 
rapax. Such I believe to be the fact ; and I now agree with 
the view which was enunciated in 1873 by Mr. W. E. Brooks*, 
that this Eagle, which Dr. Jerdon correctly identified with 
Dr. Gray^s Aquila fulvescens, is specifically distinct both from 
A. rapax and from A. vindhiana, and tliat A. fulvescens must 
be recognized as a good and valid species. 

Of two specimens, one adult and the other immature, which 
Mr. Brooks sent to England in 1869, I saw, if my memory 
serves me correctly, the adult only ; this specimen, which 
Mr. Brooks informs me is the only one in adult plumage 
which has been obtained since the rediscovery of the species, 
was sent back to India, where it now remains in the posses- 
sion of Mr. Hume. I have therefore had no opportunity of 
reexamining it ; but, through the obliging intervention of Mr. 
Brooks, I have recently had the loan of an immature male 
and female belonging to Mr. John Hancock ; and I found 
them so very different from the immature stage of any other 
Eagle with which I am acquainted, that I could not hesitate 
to acknowledge them as quite distinct both from A. rapax 
and from A. vindhiana. Coupling this fact with that of the 
agreement of these specimens with the bird figured by Gray 
under the name of Aquila fulvescens, I cannot doubt that this 
name is rightly applicable to the present species, and is not, 
as has been supposed, a synonym of A. vindhiana. 

Previously to the identification of this species with A. ful- 
vescens, some interesting descriptive notes respecting it were 
contributed by Mr. Brooks to ' The Ibis ' for 1868, p. 351, and 
for 1870, p. 290, and by Mr. Anderson to the P.Z.S. for 1871, 
p. 687. These notes may, I think, be appropriately supple- 
mented by the following description of the adult specimen 
already referred to, for which I am indebted to the kind- 
ness of Mr. Brooks : — 

* Vide Proc. Asiatic Society of Bengal for November 1873, p. 173, 
and Ibis, 1874, p. 84. 

Mr. R. B. Sharpens Catalogue o/Accipitres. 337 

" Female adult^ shot near Cawnpore, 3rd February, 1869. 
The top of the head is a light reddish brown, of a foxy tinge, 
extending to the upper part of the back, but with the extreme 
tips of most of the feathers of a darker tone, and not so red 
as the body of the feather, giving the appearance of a small 
clouded spot or drop at the tip of the feather ; the back and 
all the wing- coverts are dull brown, rather inclined to rufous, 
but with the edges of all the feathers a few shades paler ; 
some of the new feathers on the upper part of the back have 
moderately dark-brown centres edged with rather bright 
reddish brown ; from the carpal joint along the ridge of the 
wing to its junction with the body, the feathers are of a 
light rufous similar to the head, but centred with darker 
brown ; the primaries are dark blackish brown and free from 
all bars, whether looked at from above or below ; the 
secondaries are not so dark a brown, and are slightly glossed 
with purple ; the tertials a still paler brown, and decidedly 
glossed with purple ; the middle and lower part of the back 
exhibit a mixture of light tawny and pale brown, the tawny 
prevailing at the sides near the flanks, and the browH towards 
the centre of the back. The upper tail-coverts are brown at 
the centre and tawny at the sides, the middle coverts being 
brown, and the lateral ones tawny, the colours passing rather 
abruptly into each other; the lowest row of the upper tail- 
coverts, however, is white. The tail is brown, becoming much 
paler towards the tip ; the basal portion of the shafts is pure 
white ; on the inner webs of some of the feathers there are 
faint indications of bars, which are square to the shaft of the 
feather ; these bars are only observable when the tail is closely 
examined, and do not appear on the central feathers. There 
is a narrow black supercilium ; the sides of the head are dull 
rufous brown, the chin and throat the same, passing into 
light reddish or foxy brown over the rest of the lower surface 
with the exception of the terminal portion of the lower tail- 
coverts, which are more whitish with a mixture of pale tawny; 
the tarsus is not quite so dark and bright a rufous, but more 
inclined to light sandy reddish brown ; the upper portion of 
the wing-lining is very rufous, especially at the bend and 


328 Mr. J. H. Gurney's Notes on 

ridge; lower down, towards the hases of the primaries, it 
changes into dusky brown ; most of the feathers of the breast 
and upper abdomen are cloudily tipped with dull brown ; and 
on the lower abdomen the centre of most of the feathers is 
clouded with brown throughout the entire length of the 
feather : these brown marks are seen when the bird is closely 
examined ; otherwise the general tone of the lower surface at 
a little distance is tolerably bright rufous, and of a somewhat 
darker tone than that of the head. The iris was clear light 
brown ; bill pale bluish grey with dark tip, cere and gape 
cream-colour, the former having a faint tinge of green ; feet 
yellowish. Total length 27*5 inches, wing 21, tail 11-25, tar- 
sus 4*25, from the end of the tibia to the end of the tarsus 
9*75; the nostril a broad oval, placed obliquely as in the 
larger Spotted Eagle." 

Mr. Brooks adds : — " In most of the immature birds pro- 
cured in the buff plumage, the nostril is quite circular; I 
have, however, a buff bird almost changed to the adult tawny- 
red, which has the nostrils shaped as in the adult female above 
described. In this changing specimen a good many pale buflF 
feathers remain, showing the connexion between the buff and 
the rufous stage, and many of the half-opened feathers show 
the darker plumage to be the new one. Aquila fulvescens is 
not a robust Eagle like A. iKEvioides, but is long-legged like 
A. hastata ; it is a marsh-frequenting and migratory Eagle, 
coming to the plains of India only in the cold season ; it is 
very rare, and its summer quarters are unknown.''^ 

I am also informed by Mr. Brooks that the male bird of the 
immature pair of A. fulvescens now in the possession of Mr. 
Hancock, and to which I have already referred, was shot by 
him in February 1868, and was then supposed to be a speci- 
men of the larger Spotted Eagle in an undescribed state of 
plumage. Mr. Brooks also informs me that this is the speci- 
men which was described at p. 168 of Mr. Hume^s '■ Scrap- 
book^ as '^ Aquila ncevia, no. 1," and the measurements of 
which are there given in detail on the preceding page. This 
description must therefore be taken as applying to the imma- 
ture plumage of A . fulvescens, and the measurements as those 

Mr. R. B. Sharps' s Catalogue of Aceipitres. 329 

of the male of that species. These measurements (e. g. wing 
19'25 inches^ tarsus 4"06) are decidedly smaller than those of 
the female above described by Mr. Brooks, and show a 
considerable diiference in size between the sexes of this 

The immature stage of Aquila fulvescens has, if I mistake 
not, been twice figured in the ' Journal fiir Ornithologie ' — 
first in the volume for 1853, on plate 4, under the name of 
" Aquila navia, var. pallida," and subsequently in the volume 
for 1874, on plate 3, under that of '^ Aquila boeckii ■/' the first- 
named of these representations, however, seems to me to ap- 
proach more nearly than the second to the tone of colouring 
that prevails in the two immature specimens of A. fulvescens 
which I have examined. If I am correct in these identifica- 
tions, it will follow that the western range of A. fulvescens 
sometimes extends to Europe, as the original of " Aquila 
ntsvia, var. pallida/' was captured near Pillau, on the coast 
of Eastern Prussia, during very stormy weather in November 
1851 ; and of the two specimens described under the name of 
Aquila boeckii one is said, on the authoi'ity of the late Jules 
Verreaux, to have been obtained in Russia, the locality of the 
other being unknown. 

Respecting the three Eagles to which I have next to refer, 
so much has of late years been written that I shall have the 
less reason to dwell upon them at any great length. Their or- 
dinary appellation of " Spotted Eagles " is very applicable to 
the immature plumage of all three ; but with regard to their 
specific names considerable confusion has arisen. Mr. Sharpe 
applies to the larger and most widely spread species Pallas^s 
name '' clanga ; " and of the two smaller races, he designates 
the Eastern as " hastata " of Lesson, and the Western as 
" maculata " of Gmelin, this last being the only name of the 
three which appears to me to be open to objection. 

Mr. Sharpe abandons the specific name of " navia," which 
by many ornithologists has been applied indiscriminately to 
both the Spotted Eagles found in Europe, and by others 
to the lesser species only, and, in so doing, follows the 
course suggested by Mr. Dresser in the ' Annals and 

330 Mr. J. H. Gurney's Notes on 

Magazine of Natural History ' for 1874, p. 373;, and there 
supported by reasons which appear to me to be quite 
satisfactory. I am not, however, so well satisfied with the view 
advocated by Mr. Dresser in the paper above referred to, and 
adopted by Mr. Sharpe, that the lesser Spotted Eagle of Europe 
should bear the specific name of "maculata." An able article 
on these three Eagles from the pen of Mr. Brooks will be 
found in vol. iv. p. 268 of ' Stray Feathers,' in which cause is 
shown for believing that the term "maculata" may have been 
intended to apply to the larger species ; and I believe that 
Mr. Dresser now agrees with me that sufficient uncertainty 
exists on this point to render it incumbent on ornithologists 
to drop the term " maculata " in the same way that Mr. 
Sharpe has already very properly dropped that of " neevia." 

I am indebted to the kind assistance of Mr. Dresser for 
enabling me to analyze the remaining synonyms quoted by 
Mr. Sharpe as referring to the lesser Spotted Eagle of Europe, 
and have arrived at the following result : — " melanaetus " of 
Savigny, and also " bifasciata^^ and "fusca''' of Brehm, ap- 
pear to appertain without doubt to the larger Spotted Eagle; 
" nmvia, var. pallida," of Lichtenstein, I believe, as I have 
already mentioned, to be A. fulvescens ; " subncevia " and 
" fulviventris " of Brehm are so imperfectly described that it 
is impossible to decide with any certainty to what species 
these two names were intended to apply. There remains but 
one other synonym to be accounted for, viz. " pomarina'^ of 
• Brehm. This, I think, was probably founded on the European 
lesser Spotted Eagle ; but if so, the description is inaccurate 
in one important particular, the nostril being described as 
" ear-shaped;" and this discrepancy must, I think, forbid the 
use of " pomarina'''' as a specific name for the lesser Spotted 
Eagle of Europe. Under these circumstances, I am of opinion 
that this species ought to bear the specific appellation of 
" rvfonuchalis " proposed for it by Mr. Brooks in the paper 
above referred to ; and I think that Mr. Brooks has done 
good service in providing a name that is liable to no doubt 
for this well-known species, which, by the laches of previous 
authors, had practically lapsed into an anonymous position. 

Mr. R. B. Sharpe's Catalogue q/" Accipitres. 331 

Mr. Brooks's paper is also valuable as containing a clear 
statement of the differences which exist between the A. rufo- 
nuchalis and A. hastata. 

Mr. Sharpe treats A. clanga and A. hastata as both being 
subspecies of A. rufonuchalis (his A. maculata) ; but as A. 
clanga has by far the widest geographical distribution of the 
three, I think it would be better to consider that Eagle as the 
leading species of the trio, and to allow A. rufonuchalis and 
A. hastata to occupy the position of subspecies. 

The confusion which has so long existed between A. clanga 
and A. rufonuchalis renders it difficult to decide with certainty 
to which of these two species many of the existing records of 
Spotted Eagles in reality apply ; and consequently it is by no 
means easy to define the respective geographical areas over 
which the two species range ; but, independently of such am- 
biguous records, I believe that some definite and reliable in- 
formation on this head may be added to that supplied in Mr. 
Sharpe's volume, and I will refer in the first instance to the 
geographical distribution of A. clanga, which is even more 
extended than the wide range recorded by Mr. Sharpe. 

With regard to the eastern range of this species, the third 
volume of the ' Nouvelles Archives du Museum d^Histoire 
Naturelle de Paris ' contains, at p. 29, a list of birds observed 
in Mongolia and Northern China by the Abbe Armand David, 
in which the following notes occur, of which perhaps both, 
but, I think, certainly the last, relate to this species : — 

" No. 5.^' An Eagle not named in the text, but identified 
in a footnote as " Aquila planga, Pallas.^' , 

'' No. 7. Aquila ncevia, Br., de passage.^^ 

In ' Stray Feathers,^ vol. iii. p. 25, " Aquila clanga, Pall.," 
is included in a list of the birds of Upper Pegu on the 
authority of a communication made to the editor by Captain 

There is also in the Norwich Museum an immature ex- 
ample of this species, which was formerly in the museum of 
the Zoological Society of London, where it was recorded as 
having been obtained in Sumatra by the late Sir Stamford 

332 Mr. J. H. Gurney's Notes on 

With reference to the western range of Aquila clanga, I 
may mention that I recently had an opportunity of examin- 
ing the two immature Spotted Eagles killed in Cornwall, and 
recorded in the ' Zoologist ' for 1861, pp. 7311 and 7817, and 
found them both to be examples of this species. 

It seems certain that the larger Spotted Eagle has occurred 
both in France and in Spain; and I am indebted to the 
kindness of Mr. Howard Saunders for permission to quote 
the following remarks, from a letter with which he has 
favoured me, on this subject : — 

" I was very much hurried during my visit to the Bayonne 
Museum ; still I think I may state pretty positively that the 
two Spotted Eagles there, as also the one in the Bordeaux 
Museum, killed in the environs (all three young birds), are 
of the larger form, much larger than the small Pomeranian 

bird Speaking from memory, I should say that the 

spotted specimen in the Valencian (Eastern Spain) Museum is 
a very large female. As regards the Seville and Jerez specimens 
I am, after this lapse of time, barely sure of their existence. 
But of this I am sure ; all those that I recollect seeing in 
South Europe were young, and, I fancy, all of the large form. 
I am sorry I did not take measurements." 

The southern range of this Eagle is also somewhat more ex- 
tended than has been recorded by Mr. Sharpe; it is a regular 
winter visitant to Egypt^, and it extends its migrations still far- 
ther southward. Von Heuglin, in his 'SystematischeUeber- 
sicht,^p.6,has a note, of which the following is a translation: — 
"Aquila ncevia, Linn., is very common on the great lakes in 
Lower Egypt. In March and October it is travelling, often 
in companies of as many as ten individuals, throughout the 
whole of North-eastern Africa ; the variety A. clanga (Pall. 
and Naum.) is as frequent as the genuine A. n(evia"-f. 

Last year I saw an adult pair of A. clanga living in the 
Zoological Gardens at Antwerp, which I was assured had 
been brought from Seunaar, and which are the most southerly 

* Conf. ' Rambles of a Naturalist,' by J. H. Gurney, jun., pp. 132 
and 244. 

t Conf. Von. Heuglin's ' Orn. Nordost-Afrika's,' vol. i. p. 47. 

Mr. R. B. Sharps' s Catalogue 0/ Accipitres. 338 

examples of this species that have come under my personal 

The geographical distribution of A. rufonuc halts is, as I 
have already observed, somewhat more limited than that of 
A. clang a ; the most northerly locality for A. rufonuchalis 
with which I am acquainted is the neighbourhood of Dantzic. 
Like A. clanga it migrates southward in winter ; and from Von 
Heuglin^s remark, quoted above^ it would appear to extend 
its migrations as far to the south as that species. The Norwich 
Museum possesses a specimen from Nubia and another from 
Beyrout, the former being the most southern and the latter the 
most eastern locality for this Eagle that I have personally veri- 
fied ; the most westerly specimen that I have seen is one from 
Switzerland, which is preserved in the Museum at Brussels. 

A. rufonuchalis is a decidedly less numerous species than 
A. clanga, and has of late years become remarkably scarce, 
much more so than ,was formerly the case. 

The nearly allied A. hastata appears, as stated by Mr. 
Sharpe, to be limited to the Indian peninsula. 

The only remaining species of the genus Aquila \^A. wahl- 
bergi, respecting which I have merely to mention that Mr. 
Sharpens remark, " Hah. The whole of Africa," appears to me 
to be too sweeping. The Norwich Museum possesses speci- 
mens from Bissao, the White Nile, Abyssinia, and Nubia, 
which are the only localities for this species with which I am 
acquainted to the north of the Equator ; whilst to the south 
of the Line, I am not aware that it has been obtained except 
in the localities mentioned in Mr. Sharpe's edition of Mr. 
Layard^s ' Birds of South Africa,'' at p. 36, viz. CaflFraria, 
Kuruman, Mossamedes, and on the river Cunene, and also 
in Damara Land, if, as I think most probable, it be an in- 
dividual of this species, which is cited as from that country 
under the title of " Aquila clanga, Pallas, No. 23," in the 
Supplementary Catalogue of the Accipitres in the Leyden 
Museum, 15^. 

* Since writing the above I have observed that the occurrence of a 
second Damara example of this Eagle is recorded in the * Journal fiir 
Ornithologie ' for 1876, at p. 308. 

334 Dr. G. Hartlaub on the Avifauna of 

XXVII. — General Remarks on the Avifduna of Madagascar 
and the Mascarene Islands. By Dr. G. Hartlaub^. 

FivE-ANi)-THiRTY ycars ago, Isidore Geoffroy St.-IIilaire 
remarked that, ii' one had to classify the Island of Madagas- 
car exclusively on zoological considerations, and without re- 
ference to its geographical situation, it could be shown to be 
neither Asiatic nor African, but quite different from either, 
and almost a fourth continent. And this fourth continent 
could be further proved to be, as regards its fauna, much 
more different from Africa, which lies so near to it, than from 
India, which is so far away. With these words, the correct- 
ness and pregnancy of which later investigations tend to bring 
into their full light, the French naturalist first stated the 
interesting problem for the solution of which an hypothesis 
based on scientific knowledge has recently been propounded ; 
for this fourth continent of Isidore Geoffroy is Sclatcr's 
"Lemuria^^ — that sunken land which, containing parts of 
Africa, must have extended far eastwards over Southern 
India and Ceylon, and the highest points of which we recog- 
nize in the volcanic peaks of Bourlion and Mauritius, and in 
the central range of Madagascar itself — the last resorts of the 
mostly extinct Lcmurine race which formerly peopled it. 
" The Farquhar Islands and the Seychelles in the north and 
the Coral-reef of Rodriguez and Calvados seem,^^ says a re- 
cent writer, " to unite the ranges of its granitic hills with the 
Laccadivcs and Maldives and so on, with those mighty mani- 
festations of Nature which the Neilgherrics and adjoining 
ranges present to us in Southern India.^^ When Wallace, 
whoso utterances on this subject every one must read with 
the greatest interest, puts forward a former junction of Mada- 

* Aljstracted from the introduction to Dr. Ilartlaub's new work * Die 
Vogel Madagascars und der bonachbarten Insolgi'uppeu,' announced in our 
last issue (anten, p. 258). These remarks give a summary of Dr. Ilart- 
laub's conclusions as to the general aspect of the " Lemurian " Avifauna, 
which according to this excellent and most useful handbook, is now known 
to contain 284 species. Of the 220 species found in Madagascar itself, 
104 are peculiar, and of these .30 so abnormal that they require to bo re- 
ferred to peculiar genera. 

Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands. 335 

gascar with Africa as beyond doubt — a junction which, how- 
ever, must have terminated before the inroad into Africa of 
the more highly organized Mammals — every one will allow 
this opinion to be at all events well founded. But when he 
proceeds to state that the fauna of Madagascar is manifestly 
of African origin his assurances are based upon very slender 
grounds. In truth the individuality of the fauna of Mada- 
gascar is so unique that even that of New Zealand can hardly 
be compared with it. Wallace's attempted parallel between 
Madagascar and Africa^ and the Antilles and South America, 
is, in our eyes, sufficiently disproven by the occurrence in the 
Antilles of Trochilidse, one of the most characteristic forms 
of South America. But in Madagascar not a single one of 
the genera most characteristic of Africa occurs. This origi- 
nality of the fauna is much too pronounced to allow Mada- 
gascar to be treated only as a " Subregion^' or as an " aber- 
rant part " of the ^Ethiopian Region. 

As already remarked, Isidore Geoffroy St.-Hilaii-e rightly 
put forward the remarkable relations of the fauna of the 
Madagascarian Subregion to India, at a time when it was 
very imperfectly known. To our astonishment we meet with, 
in both its subdivisions (Madagascar and the Mascarenes), 
the truly Indian genus Hypsipetes. Not less strange is the 
appearance of the genus Copsychus in Madagascar and the 
Seychelles, of the Indian type of Dicrurus (as represented by 
D. waldeni) on the Comoros, and of Plotus melanog aster in- 
stead of its African representative in Madagascar. Two birds 
of this island, Ninox lugubris and a Cisticola, are hardly sepa- 
rable from Indian species. Two others, Scops rutilus and 
Anas bernieri, are so like Scops menadensis and Anas gibberi- 
frons that they are not easily distinguishable. The Indian 
Charadrius geoffroyi is no rarity in Madagascar. Dramas 
and Gygis, two characteristic forms of this subregion, one of 
Indian, the other of Oceanic origin, estrange it from Africa. 
A typical Ploceus of Madagascar (P. sakalava) belongs to the 
lndi\2in philippinus group. The peculiar Hartlaubia is nearer 
to the Upper-Indian Psaroglossa than to any African form. 
The Indo-Australian group of the Artamida surprises us in 

336 On the Avifauna of Madagascar ^c. 

Madagascar witli four modified representatives. Mesites, 
one of the most remarkable and scarcest birds of Madagascar, 
can only be naturally placed near the Indian Eupetes. Lastly, 
the occurrence of the Polynesian Rail [Rallus pectoralis) on 
Mauritius deserves special notice, although but a single ex- 
ample of it has been yet obtained. 

In contrast to these important facts the points of con- 
nexion of the avifauna with Africa fall far into the back- 
ground. The only species of the order Passeres certainly 
known to be common to Africa and the Lemurian Region is 
Corvus scapulatus. Besides this we can only reckon about 6 
or 7 Birds of Prey, 3 Pigeons, 15 Waders, and 1 Palmiped as 
of African origin. 

But the negative evidence is still stronger in the same di- 
rection. The groups of Musophagidse, Coliidse, Lamprotor- 
nithinse, Buphagidse, Capitonidse, ludicatoridae, Bucerotidae, 
and Otidinse, so eminently characteristic of Africa, are entirely 
absent here, besides the genera Gypogeranus, Helotarsus, 
Coracias, Crateropus, Irrisor, Bradyornis, Dryoscopus, Lani- 
arius, Telephonus, Prionops, Platystira, Saxicola, Picathartes, 
Balceniceps, and others,which are remarkably rich inindividuals 
and species in Africa. Besides this. Larks and Chats, which 
in the African fauna are specially prominent on account of 
their numerous forms as well as their individual and specific 
abundance, are only represented by a single species in Ma- 
dagascar itself, and in the rest of the Subregion not at all. 

In conclusion, if we take a glance at the families of the 
Madagascar Subregion as compared with those of Africa, four 
of these (Mesitidse, Paictidse, Eurycerotidse and Leptosomidae) 
are peculiar, whilst the Diurnal Accipitres, Pigeons, Honey- 
eaters, and Cuckoos are richest in species. In a considerable 
degree this is also the case with the orders Grallse and An- 
seres. As contrasted with Africa, the Fringillidae, INIeropidse, 
and Sturnidae (represented by only one genus) are extra- 
ordinarily poor ; on the other hand, the Coraciidse, Laniidae, 
Artamidse, Turdidse, Muscicapidse, Pycnonotidse, and Lus- 
ciniidse are remarkable for their peculiarly modified types, 
and the Sittida?, which are quite unrepresented in Africa, for 
the anomalous form Hypherpes. 

Dr. A. von Pelzeln on a new Species of Calliste. 337 

XXVIII. — Description of a new Species of Calliste, and of 
a new Humming-bird of the Genus Heliangelus. By A. von 
Pelzeln, Hon. Memb. B.O.U. 

Calliste albertinte. 
C. clare viridis, capite et mento summo rufo-castaneis, nucha 
flavescente, torque distincta nulla, campteriis rufo-cas- 
taneis, dorso postico et gastrseo caeruleis, tibiis pallide 
rufis, rostro superiore nigrescente, inferiore corneo, pedi- 
bus cserulescenti-cinereis. Longit. b" , alae 2" W", 
caudffi 1'' 10'^'. 

Tanagra gyrola ? (part.), Natterer, MS. Catal. n. 804. 

Calliste gyroloides (part.), Pelzeln, Orn. Bras. p. 207 
(Salto do Girao.) 

Hab. Brasilia, Rio Madeira (Salto do Girao) {Natterer). 

C. gyroloidi (Lafr.) similis, sed differt capite magis rufes- 
cente, nucha flavescente absque torque distincta, et prseser- 
tim campteriis rufo- castaneis nee aureis; a C. gyrola dorso 
posteriore cseruleo et campteriorum colore, a C. desmaresti 
iisdem characteribus et gastraeo cseruleo discrepat; cum 
C lavinia, Cassin, colore campteriorum convenit, sed tectri- 
cibus alarum et remigibus viridibus et gastrseo cseruleo di- 

Head, cheeks, and chin rufous chestnut, upper surface 
generally green ; neck yellowish green, but without a distinct 
collar ; shoulders bright reddish chestnut ; rump and under 
surface blue; under tail-coverts green; thighs pale reddish. 

The bright reddish chestnut colour of the shoulders distin- 
guishes this bird from all known species of the gyrola group, 
with the exception of C. lavinia ; but the latter diff'ers in 
having the wing-coverts and outer edges of the secondary and 
shorter primary quills rufous, and the undersurface green, 
with exception of a longitudinal stripe of pale blue on the 
throat and another on the middle of the abdomen. 

During a recent visit of Herr Taczanowski to Vienna, when I 
showed him Natterer^s collection of birds'* skins, he pointed 
out the difference of this red-shouldered bird from the indi- 
viduals of C. gyroloides, under which name it had been pre- 
viously comprised. 

338 Dr. A. von Pelzeln on a neiv Humming-bird. 

Subsequent careful examination of this bird and compari- 
son with the allied species persuaded me that it was really of 
a distinct species^ not yet described. 

I take the liberty of dedicating this species to Countess 
Albertina Marschall, daughter of Count August jMarschall, 
to whom science owes so many important contributions. 

Natterer^s notes on the unique specimen (a male) are 
the following : — 

" Salto do Girao, October 8, 1829, in high forest on a lofty 
tree, together with other little birds. The bird was some- 
what moulting. Iris dark brown. Bill black, not glossy, 
the under maxilla light corneous grey. Feet dark bluish 
ash-grey, nails of the same colour. Length 5|", breadth 8^" ; 
the tail surpasses the wings 13'"." 

For comparison I add Natterer^s notes on a specimen of 
C. gyroloides. 

" Male, adult, moulting, Marabitanas, March 1, 1831, in 
a high forest with other Tanagers. Iris dark brown. Bill 
blackish brown, the under maxilla on the basal half greyish. 
Feet dark bluish grey, washed with violet, nails dark grey. 
Length 5" 10"', breadth 8" 2'" ; the tail surpasses the wings 

Besides the male from Marabitanas, Natterer collected three 
other specimens of C. gyroloides on the Rio Xie. 

Heliangelus taczanowskii. 

H. corpore supra viridi, pileo obscuriore, nucha et uropygio 
nitore aurescente, gula juguloque brunneo-nigris, plumis 
stricte albido, versus pectus latins viridi marginatis ; gulas 
macula rufo-violacea metallica vivide splendente, vitta 
pectorali transversali alba, circa 2'" lata ; abdomine viri- 
di medio ochraceo admixto, tectricibus caudae inferiori- 
bus albis, centro nigro-brunneis ; caudse parum rotun- 
datse rectricibus mediis aureo-viridibus, reliquis brunne- 
scenti-chalybeis, nonnullis macula terminali minutissima 
alba ; rostro nigro, pedibus nigrescentibus. Long. 3^', 
alse 2" 4"', rostri a fronte 8'", caudse 19'"; rectrices ex- 
timse 2'" breviores quam mediae, 

Hab. Bogota [Herr M'dnsberg). 

Nearly allied to H. clarissce ; but the wings are considerably 

On the Ornithology of Transvaal. 339 

shorter ; the bill, on the contrary, is rather longer (in the male 
and young male of H, clarissce the wing measures 2\" , the 
bill 7^'") ; the colour of the throat is darker in the female 
of H. clarissee, and the metallic spot more bluish violet^. 

From H. strophianus, Gould, the bird here described differs 
in its inferior dimensions, considerably longer bill, and tail not 
emarginate, but somewhat rounded : the uropygium is not 
brownish. It is distinguished from H. spencii by its somewhat 
superior size and by the want of the silver-green spot on the 
front ; the metallic colour has not a faint, but an extremely 
vivid gloss. 

I have named this species after Mr. L. Taczanowski, the 
eminent ornitholoerist of Warsaw. 

XXIX. — Additional Notes on the Ornithology of the Republic 
of Transvaal. By Thomas Ayres. Communicated by 
John Henry Gurney. 

(Plate VII.) 

[It will be seen by a reference to ' The Ibis ' for 1876, p. 433, 
that Mr. Ayres has already recorded 192 species of birds as 
observed by him in the Republic of Transvaal ; the additional 
species contained in the following list are numbered con- 
secutively with the above, and have all been identified by me 
from specimens sent over by Mr. Ayres, except where the 
contrary is stated. — J. H. G.] 

193. Circus cineraceus (Mont.). Montagues Harrier. 

Circus pygargus (Sharpens Layard, p. 12). 

I found these Harriers very plentiful on my brother^s farm, 
about fifteen miles from Potchefstroom, where they were 
hunting a large plot of ground from which the grass had 
been lately burnt, no doubt for insects or lizards killed by 
the fire ; one of these Harriers which I opened had made a 
good meal of some Lark^s eggs, shell and all. 

* I have no females of H. darisscs for comparison, and must therefore 
rely on IVir. Gould's representation in the ' Monograph of Trochilidse,' 
and Mulsant's dissertation (Hist. Nat. Ois. Mouch. iii. 86). 

340 Mr. T. Ayres on the 

ScELOSPiziAs POLYzoNoiDEs (Smith). Smithes Many- 
banded Hawk, 

The stomach of one of the specimens sent contained the 
remains of mice. 

Melierax musicus (Daud.). Chanting Hawk, 
There is no donbt that these birds catch and devour hares ; 
for a neighbour of mine brought me one of these Hawks 
which he shot on 3rd October in the act, and I found its 
stomach crammed with the flesh, and the claws covered with 
the fur of the hare. 

They generally seem to keep to the low rocky ridges a few 
miles from Potchefstroom, 

194. BuTEO JAKAL (Daud.), Jackal Buzzard, 

One that I opened contained the remains of a Snipe, no 
doubt a wounded bird that he had picked up easily, another 
a large toad. 

[Five specimens sent were all immature. — J. H. G.] 

195. BuTEO DESERTORUM (Daud.). Desert-Buzzard, 
[One specimen sent, an adult female shot on 24th April. — 

J. H. G.] 

196. Gypohierax angolensis (Gmel.). Vulturine Sea- 

The specimen sent is the only one that has come under my 
notice ; it was shot on a willow tree in the town of Potchef- 
stroom ; the stomach was quite empty. 

[This specimen is in immature plumage. I believe that 
this species has never before been recorded from so southern 
a locality. — J. H. G.] 

Haliaetus vocifer (Daud.). Vociferous Sea-Eagle. 

This Eagle only makes its appearance in this part of the 
country occasionally, and then invariably feeds on carrion, 
such as dead oxen or horses, though there are plenty of fish 
in the Vaal river, which I should fancy it might very easily 
live upon if it had the inclination to do so. 

Ornithology oj Transvaal. 341 

CiRCAETus PECTORALis, Smith. Black-crestcd Harrier 

One of the specimens sent contained a large toad, swal- 
lowed whole. 

Falco biarmicus, Temm. South-African Lanner. 

This Falcon breeds in the Lydenberg district in June 
and July. My brother has two young ones now (October) 
nearly full-fledged and able to fly ; they are exceedingly tame 
and intelligent, and certainly might be very easily trained to 
capture game for their owner. 

Erythropus amurensis (Radde). Eastern Red-footed 

[Mr. Ayres forwards three specimens of this Falcon, all 
obtained in the neighbourhood of Potchefstroom, and all 
males — two adults and one immature : one of the former is 
labelled as shot 29th January, the others have no dates at- 
tached to them. The males of this species are certainly more 
often sent to this country from South Africa than the females, 
which looks as if the latter less frequently extended their 
migrations to the southern part of the A.frican continent than 
the males. — J. H. G.] 

197. TiNNUNCULUs RUPicoLA (Daud.). Lesser South- 
African Kestrel. 

This Kestrel has been rather more plentiful in this district 
the last season or two than formerly ; possibly the mice have 

Scops LEUcoTis (Temm.). White-faced Scops Owl. 

I met with four of these Owls last winter, and got three of 
them : the stomach of one was well filled with the remains 
of mice ; the others were empty. They are decidedly scarce 
here, and, I rather think, leave the neighbourhood in the 

Caprimulgus rufigena. Rufous-cheeked Goatsucker. 
One specimen sent, sex not ascertained, shot 20th No- 

[Mr. Sharpe, in his article on this species, in the second 

SER. IV. VOL. I. 2 a 

342 Mr. T. Ayres on the 

edition of Mr. Layard's work, says, " Four primaries are al- 
ways spotted with white ; " but in the present specimen only 
the first three primaries show a white spot, the corresponding 
spot on the fourth being a rufous buff; the pale tips to the 
two external rectrices are also not white, but pale buff, with 
fine mottlings of dark brown. — J. H. G.] 

198. Edrystomus AFER (Latli.) . Cinnamon Roller. 

This Roller my brother shot on his farm, where it was ob- 
served for some days, among the mimosa trees, before he killed 
it ; it was solitary, and is the only one of the kind that we 
have seen. 

Male shot 26th November : bill yellow ; irides, tarsi, and 
feet brown. 

[I believe this to be the most southerly occurrence of this 
Roller which has yet been rccorded.^ — J. H. G.] 

199. CucuLUS CANORUs, Linn. European Cuckoo. 

Male in change, shot 27th December 1875, at which time 
this species was exceedingly plentiful on my brother's farm, 
though the birds were shy and difficult to approach. Their 
flight was rapid ; they were all amongst the mimosa trees. 

[The specimen sent was changing from the ordinary nest- 
ling plumage to the adult dress, apparently without passing 
through the intermediate hepatic phase which is incident to 
some individuals of this species. — J. H. G.] 

CoccYSTEs jAcoBiNUS (Bodd.) . Black-and-whitc Cuckoo. 
These birds are summer visitors ; I saw the first this year 
at the end of September. 

200. PoGONORHYNCHUs LEUCOMELAS (Bodd.). Picd Barbet. 
This species is not uncommon amongst the low trees and 

scrub on the ranges in this neighbourhood, where its note 
soon attracts the collector's attention. 

201. Dendropicus hartlaubi, Malh. Hartlaub's Wood- 

Male. Iris rose-colour; bill bluish horn; tarsi and feet 
dark bottle-green. Total length Q\ inches, bill \i, wing 3f , 
tail 2, tarsus f^ 

Ornithology of Transvaal. 343 

This Woodpecker frequents the same localities as the Pied 
Barbet^ but is less plentiful than that species. 

TuRDus LETsiTsiRUPA (Smith). Ground-scraper Thrush. 
This Thrush is not uncommon amongst the mimosas. 

202. Saxicola GALTONi (Strickland). Familiar Chat. 
The specimen sent was killed on a farm about fifteen miles 

from Potchefstroom. 

203. Saxicola tephronota^ n. sp. Ash-backed V/heatear. 
A single specimen sent^ which was shot on the low rocky 

ranges three miles from Potchefstroom ; very few are to be 
found in this locality ; sex not ascertained. 

[I am not able to identify this Wheatear with any species 
hitherto described ; and I therefore suggest for it the specific 
name of tephronota, which is in keeping with its ashy grey 
back. The following is a description of this specimen : — 

Dimensions taken from the skin — total length 7"4 inches, 
culmen 0'8, wing from carpal joint 4"6, tail 2'6j tarsus 1'3. 

The crown of the head is brownish grey, but shows a single 
dirty white feather, which difi'ers from the adjoining plumage ; 
the entire mantle, except the wing-coverts, clear pale bluish 
ash-grey ; the lesser wing-coverts pure white -, but some of 
the external feathers of these coverts have a black shaft-mark, 
and are tinged with slaty ; the remaining coverts are black, 
more or less broadly edged with grey on the external web, 
but with one feather at the edge of the wing black, and im- 
mediately below this a small white spot ; the quill-feathers 
of the wing dull black, very narrowly edged and tipped with 
grey, which is most conspicuous on the tertials ; rump white ; 
upper tail-coverts white, tipped with slaty ; tail with the four 
central feathers wholly black, the two external pairs of rec- 
trices entirely white; of the intermediate pair one feather 
is quite white, but the corresponding feather is slightly tinged 
with blackish grey on both webs towards the tip and for the 
last three quarters of an inch of its length, this tinge becoming 
stronger as it approaches the tip of the feather, which is white 

The entire plumage of the underparts (other than the tail) 


344 Mr. T. Ayres on the 

is gi'ey, dark at the base of the feathers, but pale, and slightly 
tinged with brown, towards the tips ; there is, however, one 
white feather visible on the throat ; the bill, tarsi, and feet 
are black. 

Mr. Sharpe, at page 250 of his new edition of Mr. Layard^s 
' Birds of South Africa,' under the head of Saxicola anders- 
soni, has the following remark : — '' The British Museum also 
possesses a pair of wholly grey birds (males) , killed at Koy's 
Fountain^ on the 18th and 21st June, 1862, and marked by 
Mr. Andersson as the young of this species." Mr. Sharpe 
has been good enough to compare the present specimen 
(which has been added to the collection of the British Mu- 
seum) with the two examples from Koy's Fountain, above 
referred to, and agrees with me in considering that the three 
belong to the same species, and that this is distinct from 
S. anderssoni, and has not previously been described. 

Both the Namaqua specimens, however, are of a somewhat 
darker grey on the mantle than the one obtained by Mr. 
Ayres, and especially so about the lower part of the back ; 
one of the Koy's-Fountain birds has also more conspicuous 
black shaft-marks visible amongst the white feathers of the 
lesser wing-coverts than is the case with the Transvaal bird ; 
it has also the following coloration of the tail : on one side 
the two outer rectrices are pure white, whilst the correspond- 
ing pair on the other side of the tail are black and white ; 
of these the exterior feather is white, with the tip and the 
terminal half of the outer web black, the four central feathers 
entirely black, and the intermediate rectrices also black, but 
with the extreme base and the basal half of the inner web 
white. The other Namaqua specimen has the lesser wing- 
coverts greyish white, instead of pure white, and with some 
black feathers intermixed ; the tail of this example has on 
one side the oritermost feather pure white, and the next fea- 
ther white with the terminal third black on both webs ; on 
the other side of the tail the outermost feather is black, 
with the basal half white, while the next feather is entirely 
white ; the four central rectrices are entirely black, and the 
* Great Namaqua Land. « 

Ornithology of Transvaal. • 345 

intermediate ones black, with two thirds of the outer webs 
white.— J. H. G.] 

204. Stenostira scita (Vieiil.). Mignard Flycatcher. 
Stenostira longipes (Swains.). 

This is a very scarce bird here ; but a pair are very occa- 
sionally to be seen in winter, busily hunting for insects in 
the rose-hedges ; like most of the smaller Flycatchers, they 
are exceedingly restless in their habits. 

205. Bradyornis siLE.Ns (Shaw). Silent Flycatcher. 

Total length 7 inches, bill from gape ||, ditto from fore- 
head \, wing 4f^, tail 3 J, tarsus 1. Sex uncertain ; shot 20th 
June; irides dusky hazel; bill, tarsi, and feet black. This 
is also a winter visitant, appearing either singly or in pairs. 

206. DicRURUs Musicus, Vieiil. Musical Drongo. 

The specimen sent is the only one I ever met with about 
here ; it was observed about a garden for many days before 
it was killed. 

[This specimen is remarkable for the presence of one pure 
white feather on the crown of the head ; the abdomen and 
wing-linings are also slightly spotted with white. — J. H. G.] 

207. CoRvus CAPENsis, Liclit. South- African Rook. 
[One specimen sent. — J. H. G.] 

Hyphantornis mariquensis (Smith). Mariqua Weaver- 

These birds eat meat when they can get it ; I saw them 
feeding on a lump of buck which was hanging up under mv 

Alauda conirostris, Sund. Pink-billed Lark. 

Irides light-hazel ; bill light reddish brown ; tarsi and feet 
pale. The two specimens sent, which are probably a pair, 
were killed at one shot on 14th June, whilst feeding on the 
open flats amongst the short grass. 

CoLUMBA PHyEONOTA, Gray. Roussard Pigeon. 

Columha trigonigera, Bon. 

This species has been exceedingly plentiful this last season ; 

346 • Mr. T. Ayres on the 

the following are the measurements of a male — total length 
13 inches, bill |f, tarsus If, wing 8|, tail 4|. 

[The length of the wing given above by Mr. Ayres agrees 
with the measurements stated by Mr. Layard in the first 
edition of his work (p. 257), but is considerably less than 
that of a male from Damara Land, as noted by Mr. Andersson 
in the 'Birds of Damara Land/ p. 232. — J. H. G.] 

TuRTUR SENEGALENsis (Liuu.) , Senegal Dovc. 

A pair of these Doves built a nest in a rose-hedge in June 
and laid two eggs ; these I took, and in a fortnight they had 
built another nest and laid two more eggs. Their eggs are pure 
white, beautifully delicate and pretty. 

208. NuMiDA coRONATA (Gray). Crowned Guinea-fowl. 

The specimen sent, a male, weighed 3 lb. 2 oz., and mea- 
sures as follows — entire length 22 inches, bill 1 {, tarsus 3|, 
wing lOf, tail 7\. Casque pale yellowish ash-colour; bill 
pale ashy horn-colour, yellowish on the ridge of the upper 
mandible, and reddish at the gape ; cere and bare skin round 
the nostrils and round the horn crimson ; bare skin of the 
neck and round the eyes bright light blue ; wattles blue, with 
crimson tips ; tarsi and feet dusky, almost black. 

[I may add to the above description that the upper moiety 
of the blue circle round the eyes is surrounded by an outer 
simicircle of crimson, formed by the edge of the crimson skin 
which surrounds the casque ; the shape of the casque agrees 
with the description given by me in ' The Ibis ' for 1868, 
p. 253.— J. H. G.] 

Francoltnus swainsoni. Smith. Swainson^s Francolin. 

The specimen sent was found breeding in the Waterberg 
district, and was brought to me with two of the eggs, the 
shells of which were exceedingly thick, approaching those of 
the Guinea-fowl. 

EupoDOTis CRISTATA (Scop.). Kori Bustard. 

Though I often hear of 40-lb. Bustards being shot, I have 
never seen one any thing like this weight. The specimen sent, 
though a male, only weighed 16 lb. ; it measured as follows — 

Ornithology of Transvaal. 347 

total length 46 inches, wing 25, tail 14, bill from gape 4^, 
tarsus 10 ; it was shot 25th October, and had the pouch very 
apparent, commencing at the base of the tongue, where it 
was some three inches wide, and extending about five inches 
down the throat in the form of an isosceles triangle. 

[Mr. E. C. Buxton informs me that he shot one of these 
Bustards, near the Lambomba Mountains, which weighed 
'^nearly 40lb.^^— J. H. G.] 

209. EuPODOTis AFRoiDES (Smith). Black-and-white- 
winged Bustard. 

[I suspect that in this species the male is subject to a sea- 
sonal change, and only assumes the dress represented in Sir 
A. Smith's figure (pi. 19. fig. a) at the approach of the breed- 
ing-season. Of two males sent by Mr. Ayres, one shot 31st 
January is in very nearly full dress, but the other, killed on 
4th May, is evidently in change, having a large portion of its 
plumage like that of the female, and apparently having been 
killed while in the course of assuming a dress resembling that 
ofthehenbird.— J. H. G.] 

CuRSORius RUFUs, Gould. Burchell's Courser. 

Male. Bill dusky, but the under mandible pale at the base ; 
irides very dark hazel ; tarsi and feet white. 

This species breeds in November on the open flats outside 
the town of Potchefstroom. 

[Mr. Ayres forwards one specimen killed in November, and 
two killed in June, the former of which was labelled as fol- 
lows : — " 18th November. A small mound of sand and gravel ; 
eggs placed in a small depression in the centre ; two eggs much 
incubated. — J. H. G.] 

CuRSORius BiciNCTUs, Tcmm. Double-collared Courser. 

Male. Shot near Potchefstroom 29th March. Bill black ; 
irides dark hazel ; tarsi and feet white. 

This is a much scarcer bird than C. rufus. 

Glareola nordmanni, Fisch. Nordmann's Pratincole. 

Bill black, with the base and the edges of the mandibles 
red ; tarsi and feet dusky ; one specimen sent, shot 1st of 

348 Mr. T. Ayres on the 

210. iEoiALiTEs TRicoLLARis (Vicill.). Three-collarcd 

The specimen sent was shot on 24th March. 

Balearica regulorum, Licht. Southern Crowned Crane. 

Immature. This and three other young birds of the same 
agCj and evidently from the same nest, were feeding together 
in a bit of swampy ground. 

[This specimen, which was nearly full-grown, had the irides 
light ash-colour ; the bill black, but with the base of the lower 
mandible pale ; the bare skin between the bill and the eye 
black, the adjacent space, which is occupied by the wattles in 
the adult, thickly clothed with short yellowish white down ; 
and the legs and feet ashy black. Its plumage differs from 
that of the adult bird in the following particulars : — The front 
part of the head, instead of being black, as in the adult, is 
a rich fulvous, with a very few small black spots intermixed ; 
the crest, which is about half-grown, the back of the head, 
and the upper part of the neck and throat are of a similar 
hue ; but the colour, especially on the neck and throat, is paler 
than on the forehead, and is varied on the sides of the neck 
by the dark bases of the feathers being apparent ; the mantle 
is slaty black, with narrow tips to the feathers, some of these 
tips being rufous, others (especially those nearest the wings) 
being pale brown ; the wing-coverts are Avhite, but with most 
of the feathers variegated by a subterminal slate-coloured 
mark and a much narrower rufous brown tip, and with the 
further exception of the coverts of the tertials, in which each 
feather is wholly banded with alternate transverse bars of 
slate-colour and rufous ; on the bastard wing the feathers are 
more slate-coloured than in the adult, but have not also, as 
in the adult, a tinge of rufous ; the lower back is of a dark 
slate-colour intermingled with white, and with rufous tips to 
those feathers which lie nearest to the thighs and upper tail- 
coverts, the latter of which are black, tipped with fulvous ; 
the under tail-coverts are composed of long downy feathers 
of a pale buff-colour, transversely barred with dull black, the 
abdomen and thighs are pale buff, slightly mingled Avith black ; 

Ornithology of Transvaal. 349 

the breast and flanks are slaty black, with narrow pale bufl* 

This specimen is now preserved in the British Museum. — 
J. H. G.] 

Ardea GOLIATH, Tcmm. Goliath Heron. 

This is one of the scarcest Herons here ; it is wonderful 
the size of the fishes these fellows can swallow ; the one sent 
had a 2-lb. carp in him. 

211. Ardea cinerea, Linn. Common Heron. 

[The specimen sent was shot 7th April ; it is evidently a 
young bird which had very recently left the nest.— J. H. G.] 

212. Herodias intermedia (Wagl.) . Short-billed Egret. 
Female killed 17th June. Total length 28 inches, bill from 

gape 3|, ditto from forehead 3, wing 12^, tarsus 5, tail h\. 

Irides gamboge-yellow ; bill orange-yellow ; bare skin ad- 
joining the eyes pale greenish yellow; tarsi and feet bluish. 

Female killed 14th September. Total length 27 inches, 
bill from gape 3^, ditto from forehead 2|, wing llf, tarsus 4^, 
tail 5^. 

Irides tawny yellow ; bill chrome yellow, darker at the 
base ; bare skin adjoining the eyes bright verdigris green ; 
shanks chrome yellow ; tarsi dusky, almost black, except the 
upper portion, which was chrome yellow. 

[I imagine that this is the species included in Mr. Bar- 
ratt's list in ' The Ibis ' for 1876, p. 210, under the name of 
Ardea eyretta, a designation to which I believe it is not cor- 
rectly entitled. — J. H. G.] 

Herodias garzetta (Linn) . Little Egret. 

Shot 18tli January, not in nuptial dress; irides pale yel- 
low ; bill dusky, but the under mandible pinkish at the base ; 
shanks and tarsi dusky black ; feet pale yellowish green. 

Ardeola comata (Pall). Squacco Heron. 

Male, killed 15th January, not in nuptial dress ; irides pale 
yellow, orange on the outer edge ; bare skin between the eye 
and the bill, and also the base of the bill, greenish, upper 
mandible dusky, lower mandible and commissure yellow ; bill 

350 Mr. T. Ayres on the 

from gape 3j inches, ditto from forehead SfV, wing 8|, tail 
3^, tarsus 2|. 

[On comparing the above measurements with a male and 
female previously sent from Transvaal, I find that the dimen- 
sions of the male of this pair agree almost exactly with the 
above, bnt the female is decidedly smaller, measuring as fol- 
lows — bill from forehead 2^-^ inches, wing 7|, tarsus 2*. 

As this is the only species of this restricted group which I 
have seen from Transvaal, I suspect that it may be the same 
as that quoted in Mr. Barratt's list as " Ardea leucoptera," 
vide Ibis, 1876, p. 210t.— J. H. G.] 

213. NuMENius ARQUATus (Liuu.). Commou Curlew. 
Female shot 9th October ; total length 25 inches, bill from 

forehead 6f, wing 12j, tarsus 4. 

This is a very scarce bird indeed in these parts ; two spe- 
cimens were seen last year, of which this is one ; I did not 
hear either of them utter the usual cry of the Curlew ; both 
were silent. 

214. NuMENius PHiEOPus (Liuu.). Common Whimbrel. 

I shot a Whimbrel during the month of November, the only 
one I have ever seen. 

[This identification rests on Mr. Ayres^s authority, the spe- 
cimen not having been forwarded. — J. H. Gr.] 

Philomachus pugnax (Linn.). Ruff. 

The male sent was shot from a flock on 24th August; it 
is the most nearly in full plumage of any specimen that I 
have seen. 

[This example retains the remains of the two occipital tufts 
and of the portion of the ruff between them ; the remaining 
tuft-plumes are about three quarters of an inch in length, the 
intervening feathers being much shorter; it also retains con- 

* A similar disparity in the size of the sexes has been noticed in an 
allied Indian species, Ardeola grayi, Sykea, vide ' Stray Feathers,' vol. iv. 
p. .350. 

t Mr. Barratt also includes in his list " Ardetta minuta,'''' which I ven- 
ture to think may be an eiTor, as I have never seen this species from South 
Africa, but only the nearly allied but smaller species, A. podiceps, Bon. 
ifonf. Ibis, 187.3, p. 2.=)7).— J. H. G. 

Ornithology of Transvaal. 351 

siderable remains of nuptial dress, both on the mantle and 
on the under surface. Mr. Ayres sends, as well, a female in 
winter dress, shot 7th January. — J. H. G.] 

ToTANUS GLAREOLA (Liuu.). Wood-Sandpiper. 

Found on the Snipe-ground. 

[Mr. Ayres forwards two females — one shot 25th February, 
which has partly assumed the nuptial dress, the other, killed 
25th March, which has fully attained it. — J. H. G.] 

215. Rhynch^a capensis (Linn.) . African Painted Snipe. 
Of sixty Snipe shot by some friends of mine, only two were 

of this species, two Gallinago major, and the remainder G. 
(squatorialis . 

Gallinago major (Gmel.). Solitary Snipe. 
Of the three specimens sent, a male and female were shot 
on 26th March, and a female on 20th April. 

Rallus c^rulescens, Gmel. Caffre Rail. 

Male, shot 4th June. Irides blood-red ; bill the same, but 
dusky along the ridge ; tarsi and feet dull brownish red, tinged 
with dusky. 

Female, shot 17th May. Irides reddish hazel ; bill scarlet, 
but dusky on the ridge; tarsi dull brick-red, tinged with 

This is the commonest Rail we have, and a most noisy 
little fellow, making wonderfully loud and startling cries for 
his size ; the stomach of one sent contained legs of a crab. 

216. Crex pratensis (Bechst.). Corn- Crake. 

This species is very scarce here ; the specimen sent was shot 
on 10th March. 

PoRZANA PYGMiEA, Naum. Baillou's Crake. 

Male, shot 20th April, in immature plumage on the throat 
and breast. Irides tawny ; bill greenish, but dusky on the 
ridge, j tarsi and feet pale dusky greenish. 

Female, shot 22nd January, in adult dress. Irides reddish 
orange; bill grass-green, but dusky on the ridge; tarsi and 
feet pale greenish. 

353 Mr. T. Ayres on the 

These Crakes are occasionally to be got whilst Snipe- 

217. PoRZANA EGREGiA, Pet. Greater African Crake. 
Male^ shot 14th May. Irides orange, eyelids bright red ; 

bill pale bluish horn-colour, dusky on the ridge, and pale at 
the base of the under mandible ; tarsi and feet dusky pale ; 
total length 9| inches, bill 1, tarsus 1, wing 4f, tail If. 

The only specimen I have seen ; I shot it whilst trying for 
Snipe in the marsh close by Potchefstroom ; it must be ex- 
ceedingly rare here. 

[This scarce Crake is described in Finsch and Hartlaub''s 
' Vogel Ost-Afrika's,^ p. 778, where the details of its synonymy 
will be found in extenso. — J. H. G.] 

218. CoTURNicops AYREsi,n. sp. Avrcs'Crake. (Plate VII.) 
This pretty little fellow we call the White-winged Rail, 

from the white patch on the wing, which is very conspicuous 
when it is flushed and making away. I have only noticed 
this species here the last two seasons ; it is very scarce ; the 
two sent are the only specimens I have obtained, though I 
have seen one or two others. 

The bird shot the 4th October contained water-insects in 
its stomach. 

Female (apparently adult) shot 24th November. Total 
length G^ inches, bill y\j tarsus -ff, wing 3, tail If; irides 
ashy hazel ; bill dusky, under mandible pale ; tarsi and feet 

Female (apparently immature) shot 4th October. Total 
length 6 J inches, bill \, tarsus 1, wing 3, tail 1|; bill pale 
dusky, darkest on the ridge ; tarsi and feet dusky pink. 

[On receiving the two Crakes above mentioned I was unable 
to refer them to any species with which I was acquainted, 
and I therefore sought the kind assistance of Mr. Salvin, who 
confirmed me in the belief that they belong to a species 
hitherto undescribed, which I propose should bear the name 
of my valued correspondent Mr. Thomas Ayres, to whose 
researches we are indebted for this interesting acquisition. 

Mr. Salvin has also been so good as to point out to me that 

Ornithology of Transvaal. 353 

the present species forms a third in the restricted subgenus 
Coturnicops, the two previously known being the North- 
American C noveboracensis (GmeL), and the Asiatic C. ex- 
quisita, Swinhoe^ figured in ' The Ibis ' for 1875, pi. iii., both 
of which are, like their southern congener, remarkable for the 
conspicuously white secondary feathers of the wing. 

The two specimens are both marked by Mr. Ayres as females, 
the one being apparently adult, and the other immature ; the 
latter I have placed in the British Museum, retaining the 
former in my own collection. 

Both examples are represented in the annexed plate, which 
will enable them to be readily recognized ; but I may add the 
following description of their coloration and marking : — 

Female adult. Crown of head and back of neck blackish 
brown, interspersed with dark rufous-brown spots, which are 
more numerous on the neck than on the head ; sides of head 
mottled with pale and dark brown, the former slightly pre- 
ponderating ; sides of neck rich rufous brown, with narrow 
blackish-brown tips to the feathers ; back black, with nar- 
row white edgings to the sides of the feathers, beyond which, 
in some of the feathers, an outer edging of olive-brown is 
perceptible ; similar but more conspicuous brown edgings 
occur on the feathers of the greater and median wing-coverts, 
which, with this exception, are blackish brown, as are also 
the least coverts, all the coverts being more or less spotted 
with white ; the primaries dull brown, the fifth and subsequent 
ones being very slightly tipped with white ; all the secondaries 
pure white, except a brown shaft-mark, slightly spreading on- 
to the webs at the base and tip, and excepting also the last 
feather, which is slate-coloured, mottled with Avliite ; upper 
tail-coverts transversely marked with alternate bars of dark 
rufous and blackish brown, the latter being the broader ; chin 
white, slightly tinged with rufous ; and the throat the same, 
but with the feathers very narrowly edged with blackish 
brown ; breast rufous brown, but paler than the sides of the 
neck ; flanks and abdomen mingled black and white, the black 
predominating on the flanks, the white on the abdomen ; tibi£e 
resembling on the sides the coloration of the flanks, and on 

354 On the Ornithology of Transvaal. 

the front that of the abdomen ; under tail-coverts transversely 
and alternately barred with pale rufous and black ; wing- 
linings white, slightly mottled about the edges of the wing 
with blackish brown ; axillaries white, mingled with slaty 

The immature female resembles the above, but shows more 
of the olive-brown edgings to the feathers of the mantle, 
and wants the rufous tint on the breast and sides of the neck, 
the former being a dirty white, the latter two shades of brown, 
the centres of the feathers being darker than the edges. — 
J. H. G.] 

219. Alecthelia dimidiata (Smith). South-African 
Rufous-chested Crake. 

Alecthelia ruficollis, Gray. 

This species inhabits the Snipe-grounds, but is scarce and 
difficult to flush. 

[In 'The Ibis' for 1859, p. 249, and for 1868, p. 261, I 
incorrectly applied to this species the English name of " Jar- 
dine's Crake," which properly belongs to its smaller congener, 
A.jardinei (Smith). — J. H. G.] 

220. Nettapus madagascariensis (Gmel.). Madagascar 

A pair of these little G eese were shot in April on the Vaal 
river, fourteen miles from Potchefstroom, and are in the 
possession of Dr. Exton of Bloemfontein. 

221. Graculus africanus. Gray. Long- tailed African 

Male in winter plumage, shot near Potchefstroom 17th 
May. Irides light ashy brown ; bill pale, but dusky on the 
ridge ; tarsi and feet black. 

[I take this opportunity of correcting a clerical error which 
occurred in ' The Ibis ' for 1876 at p. 430. For " Enneoctonus 
collaris" read E. collurio. — J. H. G.] 

On the Avifauna of New Caledonia. 355 

XXX. — Notes on the Avifauna of New Caledonia. By 
Edgar L. Layard, C.M.G., F.Z.S., &c., H.B.M. Consul, 
and E. Leopold C. Layard, Vice-Consul^ at Noumea. 

We tope the readers of ' The Ibis ' will not think us pre- 
sumptuous if, after a residence of only six months in New 
Caledonia^ where even our excursions have been confined to 
the neighbourhood of Noumea, we make so bold as to write 
some ''Notes on the Avifauna ^^ of the island. 

We should premise that we believe ourselves to be in pos- 
session of all the literature extant on the ornithology of the 
island and the " Loyalty Group/^ which we shall always 
include in our " Notes. ^^ We have the articles in the ' Revue 
Zoologique/ 1860, by MM. Verreaux and Des Murs. While 
in Sydney for his health, Mr. E. L. Layard was fortunate 
enough to find in the extensive and valuable library of that well- 
known naturalist Dr. George Bennett (the contents of which 
were most liberally placed at his disposal by his old and valued 
friend) an excellent paper by M. Henri Jouan, entitled 
"Notes sur la Faune Ornithologique de la NouvelleCaledonie,^' 
in the ' Memoires de la Societe Imperiale des Sciences Na- 
turelles de Cherbourg/ tome ix., p. 197 (1863) . Erom this he 
copied descriptions of all the named species, a few others being 
alluded to without any designation ; it is therefore impossible 
to say to what they refer. Then we have Brenchleys^s ' Cruise 
of the " Curayoa,'^ ' G. R. Gray^s ' Birds of the Tropical Is- 
lands,' and Finsch and Hartlaub's 'Ornithology of Fiji, Tonga, 
and Samoa.^ A small Colonial Government Library here has 
a fine series of the travels and voyages of all the old French 
navigators ; and Mr. F. W. Hutton, of the Otago Museum 
in New Zealand, has been kind enough to copy out for us 
descriptions of New-Caledonian birds from works accessible 
to him, such as Forster's ' Voyage ' &c. We thus think we 
are in a position to speak with some show of authority on the 

Our catalogue of species known in or said to inhabit New 
Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands, amounts to just 100. 
MM. Verreaux and Des Murs catalogued (1860) 76 species; 

356 Messrs. Layard on the 

M. Jouan (1863) about 40 species^ of which 5 do not seem 
to be included in MM. Verreaux and Des Murs's list. 

If any of our readers can tell us where we can find infor- 
mation on New-Caledonian birds, other than that we have 
mentioned, we shall be most thankful. 

Our brethren of ' The Ibis/ will sympathize with us when 
we tell them of the horror that fell like a thick darkness on 
our minds when, in conversation with the gentlemen who 
came off to H.M.S. "^ Barracouta ^ to welcome us on our 
arrival, we were told that no shooting was allowed on any 
pretext, as the birds were wanted to kill the locusts ! 
Visions of dull despair, if not of actual suicide, floated over 
us ! With ample spare time to work to be condemned to 
idleness ! And what other amusements had we ? Oh ! 
there are billiard-tables at the restaurants and hotels ! 
These offered no attractions to either of us. What was to be 
done ? A day or two after our landing, a kind lady friend 
offered to drive us out to a pretty spot called Ansevata, 
where she was going to make a visit. We had driven there 
the day of our landing, and had noted with hungry eyes some 
lovely Rhipidura, yellow-billed Pachycephala, an Aplonis, a 
Hawk, and ti Gull or two, and various small " unknowns. ^^ 

The father looked at the son ; the son divining the thought 
in his parentis brain pronounced the magic name " Long 
Tom." Parent, in his blandest and most insinuating tones : — 
" My dear Madam ! would you object to our bringing a tiny 
little collecting-gun with us ? it makes no noise hardly, and, as 
it is a breechloader, will not be carried loaded in the carriage !'* 
Son, persuasively : — " We can pop it in the hood behind 
there, and not a soul can see it.^^ Lady, graciously : — " Oh 
yes, I don't mind a gun ; and you'll get me a bird for my hat.'' 
Chorus of parent and son : — " Oh yes, the loveliest we can 
find ! " In a few minutes the faithful " Long Tom " is un- 
shipped from his stock, rolled up in a bag, and stowed away 
in the hood, a dozen cartridges dropt into our pockets, and 
we are off. We felt as gloriously happy as two school-boys 
out of bounds, and thoroughly enjoyed our poaching expedi- 
tion ! Our fair friend dropped us by a nice bit of bush, and 

Avifauna of New Caledonia. 357 

promised to give us one hour ; soon the long gun is pointed 
well up in a tree-top, the trigger pulled, and down comes a 
bird new to us ! 

It belonged to a species that frequents the bush, poking 
about branches, searching the leaves (chiefly the undersides) 
and blossoms in search of their insect food. Their habits 
reminded me of our Fijian Monarcha ; L. L. says they utter 
a sharp shrill cry or note. 

While in New South Wales I procured specimens of Gery- 
gone albogularis, Grould, and Acanthiza pusilla (Lath.) . To 
the former our bird bears a close resemblance in form and 
colour ; but with the latter it shows no relationship. In the 
P. Z. S. 1859, p. 161, Mr. G. K. Gray described a New-Ca- 
ledonian bird under the name of Acanthiza flavolateralis ; 
and the description accords pretty well with our specimen ; 
but if Mr. Gray^s bird is a true Acanthiza, our bird must be 
of a difterent species. Only a comparison with the type 
specimens in England will satisfactorily determine this ; I (E, 
L. L.) therefore name our new bird Gerygone flavolateralis ; so 
that I shall not make a synonym if I have described a species 
already known, but only transferred it to its right genus ■^. 

The next shot fell to L. L.^s turn, and produced the lovely 
yellow-billed Pachycephala xanthetrcRa. These pretty Bush- 
Shrikes appear not to be uncommon round Noumea ; they 
frequent the dense bush, not affecting the open Gum-tree 
forest. Their food consists of insects of all kinds, which they 
capture at rest or on the wing, darting at them as they pass 
their perch. 

It is singular that the sole wA^^e-throated Pachycephala in 
Fiji (P. vitiensis) should be found in Kandavu, the southern- 
most island of the group, and almost, if not quite, in the same 
latitude as the northern part of New Caledonia. Here all 
the species are white-thro&ted. In Fiji, moreover, they are 
all yellow on the underparts; here some are yellow, some 
more or less rufous, approaching in this respect the Australian 

[* Mr. Sliarpe lias kindly compared Mr. Layard's skin for us with Mr. 
Gray's type, and pronounces them to be specifically identical ; but Mr. 
Layard's view as to its generic affinities is undoubtedly correct. — Edd.] 

SER. IV. — VOL. I. 2b 

358 Messrs. Layard on the 

forms, some of which are thus coloured. This island would 
seem, therefore, to be a point where the Polynesian and Aus- 
tralian forms unite. 

While we were cleaning the blood from our prize, stuffing 
its mouth, &c. previous to suspending it on the stick, a Fan- 
tail Flycatcher came and chattered the usual note of defiance 
at us ; so, as we sat on a fallen tree-trunk, E. L. L. lifted the 
long gun ; '' crack," and the bird came fluttering down ; away 
scudded L. L. through the tangled bush, now dodging round 
a clump, now creeping under, till he was lost to view ! Pre- 
sently he returned, panting and blowing, the quarry, only 
broken-winged, having led him a chase of about a hundred 
yards, right down to the sea-beach ! and this a weak-legged 
little Rhipidura ! but, mirabile dictu, this too turns out to be 
new to us also ! 

The only Rhipidura we can find described from here is R. 
albiscapa, Gould. Now specimens of this bird lie before us, 
procured by E. L. L. in New South Wales, and they are quite 
difl'erent from the New Caledonian bird ; neither will it at all 
accord with the description in Gould's ' Hand-book ' *. 

In general appearance this bird is far more robust than R. 
albiscapa, and more generally rufous ; and I should think it 
impossible to confound the two, having either the description 
or specimens before one. In habits it is similar ; indeed the 
whole of the species of the genus that I have met with re- 
semble each other in this respect. 

L. L. now wandered off into the scrub ; and from the fre- 
quent sharp cracks emitted by '^ Long Tom " it was evident 
he was not idle. After a Avhile he reappeared, bringing a 
couple of Aplonis, apparently of different species, and a Red- 
breasted Flycatcher, Myiagra caledonica. He reported that 
he had undoubtedly seen a Blackbird, a veritable Mer-ulaf, 
scratching among the dead leaves ; but the inopportune snap- 

[* Mr. Layard has sent us a specimen of this bird, and we have no doubt 
that it is the species described by Mons. E. Marie as Wiipidura verreauxi 
in the paper referred to at the end of Mr. Layard's " Notes." — Edd.] 

[t Probably Tardus ximthopus, Forst. — Edd.] 

Avifauna of New Caledonia. 359 

ping of a branch underfoot had scared it before a shot could 
be obtained. 

We had now six birds on the stick ; and it was time we 
returned to the rendezvous for our fair friend, who soon hove 
in sight with her sable "Jehu," and immediately claimed the 
Myiagra for her hat ! ! She was promised a far lovelier speci- 
men, Myzomela sanguinolenta, one of which had gleamed like 
a crimson flash before our eyes, — a promise^ we need hardly 
say, faithfully kept. 

Such was our first hour's collecting in New Caledonia. 
Ill health, and absence in Australia in consequence, has pre- 
vented E. L. L. from again visiting Ansevata ; but L. L. has 
has frequently made it the scene of his early morning pere- 
grinations, and has reaped a fair harvest, of which we shall 
write at another time. 

But some will ask, " How about the prohibition ^ Here 
are H.M. Consul and the V.-C. breaking the laws \" Not 
so fast, good brother ! We discovered the remains of a mu- 
seum in the cellars of the " Maire ; " and we learned that the 
Government was going to build two rooms for its reception ; 
so we made the following offer to the Grovernment : — 

" If you will give us a special permit to shoot, we will 
supply the museum with specimens, arrange and clean those 
you have got, and otherwise help you ; and we will carefully 
abstain from shooting any of the birds you have imported 
to eat the locusts — Sparrows and "^^ Merles des lies Philippines" 
(whatever these latter may be) ; and we will help you in im- 
porting proper species for this work, having had some ex- 
perience in this matter.'' His Excellency, Admiral Pritzbuer, 
immediately acceded to our request, and armed us with a 
"• permis special ;" and so we don't go '^poaching " any more ! 

The first occasion of showing the " permis " was charming. 
Ij. L. was returning one morning with some birds on a stick, as 
usual, when he was accosted by a gendarme, who requested 
him to sell the " gibier " ! He wanted them to eat (these 
fellows have eaten all the imported Pheasants, &c.) . On L. 
L.'s refusing, the man, who was joined by the commandant 
of the gendarmerie, suddenly bethought him of the illegality 


360 Messrs. Laj^ard on the 

of the shooting. We must state that L. L. was dressed in 
one of our collecting-suits, which we had made for Para and 
the Philippine Islands, thin, blue material, fitting close, and 
full of pockets. In colour it resembles the stuff worn by the 
peasantry here. 

In reply to his now angry tone, L. L. flourished his " per- 
mis " at him, and the mien of " Dogberry " was instantly 
changed. " Par bleu ! it's the English Vice-Consul ! Mille 
pardones. (Bows and scrapes.) How could he know 
Monsieur in that dress. (Handshaking and fraternite.) 
Monsieur and M. le Consul were great zoologists. He had 
orders to help MM. in every thing (in truth, orders have 
been sent, by our kind friend the Governor, through all the 
provinces that in case we travel every help should be given 
us) . Had Monsieur had ' bon succes,' " &c. (More bows 
and scrapes, and exeunt omnes.) 

The most interesting bird obtained the morning we visited 
Ansevata was, to us, a novelty, both as to its genus and spe- 
cies ; nor can we discover any clue to it amongst the papers 
and descriptions already referred to. 

It was shot by L. L. in thick, low scrub, almost on the 
sea-beach, where it was observed. It progresses rapidly by 
short powerful leaps from bough to bough. He did not hear 
it utter any note, as he only had a very short time to observe 
it in*. 

P.S. February 2nd. — Since writing the above, I this morn- 
ing paid a visit to Ansevata, hoping to procure another Rhi- 
pidura ; and close to the place where we shot the other I soon 
found a pair of birds. They struck me as very small; and 
my astonishment may well be imagined when, on picking up 
one that fell to the long gun's destructive powers, I found I 
had the bird that had been described as the R. albiscapa from 

[* This specimen, wliich has been sent to us for examination by Mr. 
Layard, seems referable to the species described by J. Verreaux (Nouv. 
Arch, du Mus. Bull. v. p. 17, t. i. f. 2) as Mcjfalurulns marice. The figure 
is by no means a good one, and shows a rather more rufous tint of plu- 
mage than Mr. Layard 's example; but there can be little doubt that it 
is intended to represent an individual of the same species. — Edb.] 

Avifauna of New Caledonia. 361 

New Caledonia ! but which was about one third less in size 
than the specimens of the true species I shot in Australia!! 
Other peculiarities struck me at the instant; and on comparing 
the two together I found my suspicions confirmed. 

The underparts are more rufous than in the true R. albiscapa 
of Gould ; and the greyish band that intervenes between the 
dark gular patch, or band, and the dirty nankeen of the under- 
parts are wanting. If these differences in size and coloration 
are constant in other specimens, I propose to separate the 
species from R. albiscapa, and bestow upon it the cognomen 
R. bulgeri, to perpetuate the name of an old friend and valued 
collaborateur in Ornithology and other branches of Natural 

[Mr. Layard has mentioned above the principal authorities 
on New-Caledonian Ornithology known to him, but does not 
appear to be acquainted with the most recent account of the 
birds of that island, which, indeed, seems to have been quite 
overlooked by ornithologists. This is a paper by Mons. E. 
Marie, published in the ' Actes de la Societe Linneenne de 
Bordeaux,^ tom. xxvii. (1870), and entitled " Melanges Orni- 
thologiques sur la Faune dela Nouvelle-Caledouie et descrip- 
tion d^une espece nouvelle.^^ It gives, besides the description 
of the new Rhipidura verreauxi above alluded to, a long note 
on the habits of Rhino chetus jubatus. Then follows a catalogue 
of New-Caledonian birds known to the author, which, being 
the most complete list yet drawn out, and being published in 
a not very accessible work, we think it advisable to reprint 
here, both for Mr. Layard^s convenience, and also for the 
benefit of others who may be interested in the ornithology of 
New Caledonia. There can be little doubt that Mons. Marie 
was greatly assisted by the late Jules Verreaux in its compi- 
lation. — Edd.] 

List of New-Caledonian Birds. By E. Marie. 

1. Haliastiir splienurus (HetY/.). 4. Urospizias approximaas {V. 

2. Pandion leucocephalus Sf H.). 

{Gould). 5, torquata (Ct<w.). 

3. Urospizias haplochroa {Scl). 6. Circus maillardi (J. Verr.). 


On the Avifauna of New Caledonia. 

7. Circus assimilis (Kaup). 39. 

8. Strix castanops, Gould. 

9. delicatula, Gould. 40. 

10. Collocalia linchi (^or*/.). 41. 

11. Nymphicus cornutus (G^w!.). 42. 

12. Platycercus caledonicus 

(G7n.). 43. 

13. Cyanorbamphus saisseti, 44. 

Verr. ^ Desm. 4.5, 

14. Psitteuteles diadema, Ve?-)-. <§• 46. 

Desm. 47_ 

15. Trichoglossus deplanchei, 43. 

Verr. 4' Desm. 

16. Polychlorus magnus (Gm.). 49, 

17. Eudynamys taitensis 

(Span-m.). 50. 

18. Oacomantis bronzinus, G. H. 

Gray. 51. 

19. Cbalcites lucidus ((?OT.). 52, 

20. Todirhamplius sanctus (Bp.). 53, 

21. Tui-dus xanthopus, Forst. 54. 

22. Megaliu'ulus mariae, Verr. 65. 

23. Petroeca, sp. ? Gray. 

24. Acanthiza flavolateralis, G. 56. 

R. Gray. 57. 

25. Myiagra perspicillata, G. R. 

Gray. 58. 

26. viridinitens, G. R. Gray. 59. 

27. Ehipidura albiscapa {Gould). 60. 

28. verreauxi, E. Marie. 61. 

29. Eopsaltria variegata, G. R. 

Gray. (52. 

30. ? caledonica, (?. R. Gray. 

31. flavigastra, Verr. ^ 63, 

32. PachycepbaJa xanthetrsea 64. 


33. morariensis, Ve7-r. ^ ' (35 


34. assimilis, Verr. ^ Desm. qq 

35. — ?sp.? g^; 

36. Artamus melaleucus (Forst.). 

37. Campephaga caledonica go 

38. analis, Ferr. .§- Desm, 7Q 

Lalage montrouzieri, Verr. ^ 


nee via? (Gm.). 

Corvus coronoides ? Gould. 
Pbysocorax moneduloides 

Aplonis striata (Gm.). 

nigroviridis (Less.). 

viridigrisea, G. R. Gray. 

atronitens, G. R. Gray. 

caledonicus, £p. 

Leptoruis aubryanus, Ve7-r. 

c^ Desm. 

Tropidorbyncbus lessoni, G. 
R. Gray. 

Glycipbila modesta, G. R, 

poliotis, G. R. Gray. 

fasciata (Forst.). 

? cbloropbasa (ii'orsi^.). 

incaua (Lath.). 

Myzomela sanguinolenta, 

erythrocepbala, Gotdd. 

Zosterops xantbocbroa, G. R. 

griseonota, G. R. Gray. 

Erytbrura psittacea (Gm.). 
Ptilonopus greyi, G. R. Gray. 
Drepanoptila bolosericea 

PhfEuorbina goliatb, G. R. 

Carpopbaga ajnea, G. R. 


lantboenas bypoenocbroa, 

Cbalcopbaps longirostris, 

Tm-nix yarius (Tetnm.). 
Rbinocbetus jubatus, Verr. ^ 

Esacus magnirostris, Tem7n. 
Cbai-adrius, sp. ? G. R. Gray. 
xantbocbilus, Wagl. 

(hi Birds collected along the Fly River. 


71. Strepsilas interpres (X.). 

72. Totauus incauus (Gm.) 

73. Limosa uropygialis, Gould. 
74. novse-zealandise ? G. R 


75. Numenius uropygialis, Gould. 

76. Sclioeniclus australis {Goidd). 

77. Hypotsenidia philippensis 


78. Porzana immaculata, Goidd. 

79. Zapornia leucophrys, Gould. 
.80. Gallirallus lafresuayanus, 

Verr. 8f Desm. 
81. Porphyrio melanouotus, 

82. bellus, Gould. 

83. Egi-etta brevipes, Verr. ^• 


84. Herodias novse-liollandite 


85. albolineata, G. R. Gray. 

86. Nycticorax caledonicus 


87. CEstrelata rostra ta (Pea/e). 

88. Larus novae-hollandise, Steph» 

89. Sterna gracilis, Goidd. 

90. melanauchen, Temni. 

91. Thalasseus poliocercus, Gould, 
Q2. pelecanoides {King). 

93. Haliplana fuligiuosa {Gm.). 

94. Anous melanops, Gould. 

95. Phaeton candidiis {Briss,). 

96. Phaethon rubricauda 


97. Tachypetes aquilus (i.). 

98. minor {Gm.). 

99. Phalacrocorax melanoleueutf 

( Vieill.). 

100. Pysporus sula {L.). 

101. Anas superciliosa, Gm. 

102. Mareca castanea, Gould. 

103. Nyroea australis, Gould. 

104. Spatula rhyncbotis {Lath.). 

105. Dendrocygna gouldi {Bp.). 

106. Podiceps gularis, Gould, 

XXXI. — Notes on some Birds collected during the Exploration 
of the Fly River. By M. L. D'Albertis, C.M.Z.S.^ 

It is more than a century since New Guinea became a country 
of great interest to the naturalist, and its avifauna attracted 
the attention of students and travellers. Yet, up to the pre- 
sent time, we may say that much ihore has to be done to 
"bring to light all the treasures it possesses. Many attempts 
have been made to explore the country, and collections ob- 
tained by which we may guess at its rich fauna; but difficulties 
of many kinds have always prevented a thorough exploration. 
Nevertheless of late years we may congratulate ourselves on 
some marked results having been attained which we could 
hardly have expected. 

After the earlier Dutch and French explorations^ the cele- 
brated Wallace visited Dorey, on the north-west coast, and 
* Keprinted from the ' Sydney Mail ' of Feb. 24, 1877. 

364 M. L. D'Albertis on Birds collected during 

obtained collections and made many observations and dis- 
coveries, for which science will always be indebted to him. 

In 1872 I paid my first visit to the island on the north 
coast;, and was successful enough to penetrate into the interior, 
where no white man had been before, and my exertions have 
been largely beneficial to science. 

The track I had found was soon trodden again by Dr, A. 
B. Meyer, in 1873, and, as every naturalist knows, with 
splendid results. In 1875 the hunters of Mr. Bruijn and Dr. 
Beccari visited the same localities, and still found an abundance 
of novelties ; yet I think much more is to be discovered in 
such a rich country ; but no doubt the north-western penin- 
sula is the part of all the great island which is best known. 
Only very recent explorations have been attemj)ted on the 
south-eastern coast ; and they have been attended with more 
or less marked results. 

In 1875 I set myself to work on that new fiekl, and pre- 
pared to explore the land which lies at the foot of Mount 
Yule. Without speaking of other rich collections I made 
there, I may mention that I got about 700 skins of birds, 
representing 186 species, of which a score were new to science, 
and many others were for the first time met with in New 
Guinea, while a large proportion belonged to the Australian 
avifauna both in genera and species. In the same year other 
explorers followed me to that new field. First, Mr. W. 
Macleay ; a little later, the collectors employed by Mr. O. 
Stone pushed as far as Port Moresby; and Dr. James suc- 
ceeded me at Yule Island, where, as it is known, he lost his 
life by the hands of the natives. Lately Mr. Goldie has 
been at Port Moresby collecting living plants for an English 
nursery, and has also succeeded in gathering a small collec- 
tion of birds. 

From all these collections we begin to have an insight into 
the fauna of the southern part of New Guinea, and materials 
for study which I have no doubt will afibrd sufficient data to 
show the intimate connexion between the Australian and so- 
called Papuan fauna, as well as precious materials for the 

the Exploration of the Fly River. 365 

study of the geographical distribution of species on the prin- 
ciple of evolution. 

It remained to know something about the fauna o£ the 
central part of the large island ; and in 1876, by the liberality 
of the Government of New South Wales and some gentle- 
men of this colony, I was enabled to go once more as a pioneer, 
as I had been at Mount Arfak and at Hall Sound, to find a new 
track to the heart of this mysterious land, which no doubt 
will be soon followed by other explorers, to the advance- 
ment of science, and probably of commerce. 

Although collecting specimens of natural history was not 
the principal aim of the voyage, still, from the list of the 
birds collected and observed, we have, I may say, added a 
new link to the chain which connects the northern and 
southern avifauna of New Guinea with that of Australia. 
I hope that the few notes that I may add on some of the 
more interesting species will be acceptable. 

From my list it seems that rapacious birds are scarce in 
the centre of New Guinea ; but if we consider the difficulty 
of detecting such birds in their native forests, and when 
perched on the branches of lofty trees, or when flying above 
the dense mass of vegetation, we shall consider their scarcity 
to be rather an apparent than a real one. 

Among the few collected, it is worth while to mention a 
pair of the beautiful and rare Henicopernis longicauda, which, 
although inhabiting the Aru Islands and, I think, also the 
north-west coast of New Guinea, is still very rare in the 
museums of Europe. 

Among the Parrot family, of which my list is a little richer, 
I have first to mention the Dasyptilus pecqueti, which, judg- 
ing by the shape of its bill and head, is almost an aberrant 
form among the family. This bird has been for many years 
very rare in the collections ; and only one or two skins had 
reached Europe previous to 1872, when I got four fine speci- 
mens on the Arfak Mountains. Subsequently it has also been 
found by following explorers, but always few in number. 
It is generally an inhabitant of the mountains ; but it is seen 
occasionally on the plain, and also very far up the Fly River. 

366 M. I J. D'AlhiM'tis «// Birds collcrlcd (iKrin;/ 

I MU^t with this hird whilf f("in:iiniiit; lor two (hiys :it the same 
aiu-h()r;ii;(\ I m;i\v about litty coiniuf;- to sIrc|)ou a vory hif^h 
tivo in tht> (>V(M\in!;-, and start ini;- in the niorninj^ a little after 
snni'isi^ ; hut the hird is vei'y shy, and tor this reason not easy 
to be killed. The C^i/r/opsiffdciis fifsc/fronfi is a very small 
Parrot, one of the smallest, and dilHeult to tind in the dense 
folia{j;e of the trees; hut it is ot'leu bronf;"ht to notice by its 
piereiug whist le. 1 1 is not shy ; and onee find the tree on which 
it feeds, and it is easily secured. It is very similar to an 
allied s|)eeies which 1 discovcnHl at Hall Sound, named by 
Mr. SelatcM- ('i/c/<)/)s///<i sKarissiiiKi, and i-i-stMublcs it in its 

Cltalcops'ittactis cliloroptcrKs' is described by I'i'of. Salvadori 
as a m^w species; but, indeed, 1 camn>t s(h> how this bird is 
to hi' distinguished U'oxn C. sc/nft/Iii/i/s ; for the distinctive 
characters pointed out by Salvadori 1 consider dependent 
only on the ai;i\ and not constant in all individuals of 
dilhMvnt aj;e aiul ditlcrcnt sex. Many other birds of this 
family may be added to my list by other explorers ; for 1 saw 
many, especially among- the Charmoatyme ; but as I did not 
kill them, T do not mention thcni. 

liiiccros riijirol/iti is a cinnun)n biril all over New (luinea, 
still 1 cannot say w hethcr in the interior I saw this species, or 
another one, which is [)erhaps intermediate hctwccn B.rujjco/l is 
and the Biiccroaoi'thc Solonuni Islands; for I found some beaks 
of this bird in the houses of the natives so much smaller, al- 
tho\iii;h of adnlt birds. Therefore 1 am inclined to believe 
they may belonj;- to a new species. 

Amoui;- the Ivingfishcrs there is, accordin<>: to Salvadori, 
another new species — Ci/diia/ri/o/) sticioUvma ; but 1 do not 
think it is a good species, and I believe the ditlcrcnccs pointed 
out by him between this bird and C. nigrocyaiwa only de- 
pend on the sex or age of the specimen he had under his con- 
sideration. A specimen w hich 1 got in the sanu^ locality where 
1 had the first one is by no means ditlcrcnt from C. nigro- 
ct/anea of the Am Islands. 

An elegant bird which attracts the attention of the traveller 
is the Dendrochelidon uiystacco, from its peculiar shape, and 
from the leuiith of its winss and its forked tail. It is seen in 

the Exploration of tint FLij River. 'M\7 

the daytime at rest on some high dead tree; and in the even- 
ing and in the morning it flies about chasing the insects on 
which it feeds. 

Flycatchers were very scarce; and, indeed, I cannot mention 
more than the beautiful Monurcha chrysomelus, which I had 
never collected before, and only saw once from New Guinea''^ 
in Mr. Stone's collection, and which is found also in the 
Solomon group. Cumpephaya sloetii is a rare bird in collec- 
tions; but it seems to be distributed all over New Guinea, as 
I have found specimens on the Arfak, at Hall Sound, and 
lately far up the Kly llivcr, and there the most numerous ; but 
I could not get more than one, which I met with in a native^s 
garden, feeding on the small berries of a high tree. Along 
the banks of the river, or on some gravel-flat of the river's 
bed, when the water was low, I saw another interesting small 
bird, whicli I discovered in the streams of Mount Arfak, in 
1872. It is a lively bird, and is often seen giving chase on 
the wing to insects, on which it lives. It has been named 
by Salvadori Monachella saxicolima. The Artamas leuco- 
gaster is an Australian bird, but very common also in the 
eastern and central part of New Guinea. Its abode is on 
some old trunk projecting in the river^s bed. There it is 
often seen waiting for insects, which it catches in flying, not 
unlike a Swallow. Near to the mouth of the river I found 
two little gems of the feathered family, Nectarinia frenata 
and N. aspusia. The first one is an Australian and Papuan 
bird; the second inhabits all New Guinea and many islands 
east and west of the same island. Perhaps on account of the 
flowcrless season, the Meliphagidaj were scarce in number and 
species ; but it is not improbable that I have found a new 
genus of this family. Only two species of Eupetes had been 
known for many years as inhabitants of New Guinea. Lately 
some new ones have been added — one from the west, the 
other from the east. The last one is also found in the bush 
up Fly lliver, and it has been named Eupetes niyrocrisms by 
Salvadori. Other species of this genus will be found in New 
Guinea ; so I think it will not be considered absolutely a 

[* The species from New Guinea is distinct — Monarcha melanonotus, 
Sclater, P. Z. S. 1877, p. IOO.-Edd.] 

368 M. L. D^Albertis on Birds collected during 

Malayan form. Only two Pittas^ P. niackloti and P. novae- 
guinea, have been yet recorded among the Papuan birds. 
Now I may add a third one, which I found for the first time 
in New Guinea, and killed at Kataw River ; but it inhabit 
also Cape York, and is plentiful on many of the Torres-Straits 
islands ; that is, Pitta assimilis. So out of the three Pittas 
two are found in Australia also. 

Large flocks of a Calornis were seen on the Alice river 
hunting after an insect, probably of the Libellula tribe, which 
was so abundant as to cover almost the surface o£ the river 
from bank to bank for many miles. They were so plentiful 
that when seen flying about a little above the water they con- 
veyed to the mind the recollection of a heavy fall of snow. 
I could not identify this bird. Many other birds were en- 
gaged in a similar chase ; and I remember a Graucalus, the 
Gracula dumonti, the Merops ornatus, and a Eurystomus, 
probably E. crassirostris. Gracula dumontii is, too, a common 
bird all over New Guinea ; but I may mention that I never 
saw it so plentiful as on the upper part of Fly River. 

Another Grakle, which I consider to be new to science, 
was very scarce, and only four specimens were seen, and two 
killed. Its description is as follows : — Male. Head, neck, 
and breast rich orange golden colour ; throat and sides of 
the head dark blackish green ; abdomen, above and below, 
hlack, each feather margined with dark shining green; rump 
and tail-coverts deep golden orange ; belly yellow ; under tail- 
coverts white, tipped with light yellow ; wings and tail black ; 
primaries white-spotted; bill, eyes, and feet yellow. The 
female is very similar to the male. I name this bird in 
honour of the Hon. John Robertson, Colonial Secretary of 
New South Wales, Mino robertsoni* . 

Manucodia keraudreni is found in Australia and New 
Guinea. The specimens from Cape York, once named M. 
gouldi, have been recently regarded as identical ; but I have 
before me specimens from New Guinea and Cape York, and 
they are at once distinguishable from each other. The speci- 

[* Salvador! identifies this uew species with Melanojjyrrhus orientalis, 
i.e. Gracula anais orientalis of Schlegel, Bijdr. iv. p. 52 (Anu. Mus. Civ. 
Genova, v. p. 12). — Edd.] 

the Exploration of the Fly River. 369 

mens from Cape York are of a uniform dark shining green, 
while specimens from New Guinea differ, having the wings, 
tail, and back of a rich shining purplish violet. Gymnocorvus 
senex, a very common bird all over New Guinea, is remark- 
able for the great differences of its plumage at different ages. 

It was to be expected that in the centre of New Guinea 
many species of Paradise-birds were to be found ; but only 
six species are given in ray list, and certainly many others 
are to be discovered there. The most beautiful of them, no 
doubt, is the Seleucides albus, or Twelve-wired Bird of Para- 
dise, and at the same tin;ie one of the rarest. On the upper 
part of the Fly River I saw it several times crossing the river 
very slowly ; and often in the morning and before sunset it 
was seen on the top of some high tree, motionless and uttering 
its mournful note. It is a very suspicious bird, and for this 
perhaps, is still rare in museums. It is found also on the 
north-west coast of New Guinea and Salawatti Island. Ci- 
cinnurus regius is a too common bird (also of the north coast 
and Aru Islands) to be spoken of. Sericulus aureus is found 
also all over New Guinea. I saw it on the Arfak Mountains, 
at Najabui, in the eastern peninsula, and now also up the 
Fly ; but it is a rare and shy bird. Salvadori places this bird 
close to the Chlamydoderce, but I cannot see more affinity in 
this bird with Chlamydodera than with Cicinnurus ; at the 
same time, however, from its head, bill, wings, and shortness 
of the tail, I think it nearer to Cicinnurus than to the Chlamy- 
dodera. To say that it has not the same habits as the true 
Paradise-bird is not of much value ; for nearly every species 
or at least every genus, has its own habits. 

Ptilorhis magnifica is found also in Australia and on the 
west coast of New Guinea and Salwatti. Paradisea raggiana, 
discovered at Orangerie Bay in 1873, by myself, extends its 
habitat up to the centre of New Guinea, and seems to be 
common enough ; its plumes are used by the natives as head- 
dresses all over the country where the bird is found. Another 
bird, very closely allied to the last mentioned, is Paradisea 
apoda, or a new species resembling it very much. If 
admitted to be P. apoda, is it proper to say that it is the first 

370 M. L. D'Albertis on Birds collected during 

time this bird has been met with in New Guinea, and that it 
was believed to be an inhabitant of the Am Islands only. 
The fact of two species so alike living in the same locality is 
of some interest, and suggests some remarks. There are now 
four species of the known genus Paradisea — viz. P. apoda, P. 
papuana, P. rubra, and P. raggiana. The former two re- 
semble each other very closely in the long yellow plumes at 
the side of the breast, while the last two resemble each other 
in the red colour of the same plumes, but differ in the two 
middle tail-feathers &c. So far as we know, P. apoda in- 
habits the Aru Islands and the mainland of New Guinea, 
south of the Charles-Louis Mountains ; Paradisea papuana, 
the west to 131° long. E., and north of the above-mentioned 
range, so far as 141° long. E., and other islands north of New 
Guinea. The two red species, on the other hand, are living 
very far from each other; the P. rubra seems confined to 
Waigiou Island, and P. raggiana to the centre and eastern 
peninsula of New Guinea. But it is not improbable that 
P. rubra also may be found some day in New Guinea. 

From the first insight we have of the fauna of Southern 
New Guinea, we have learned how in this part of the country 
Australian forms, genera, and species are abundant, and are 
generally found in preference to allied species now inhabiting 
the north-western coast ; and I think that what applies to 
the animals will be also found in a less degree to apply to the 
plants. So we find a larger number of species inhabiting 
North Australia, Aru Islands, and New Guinea, because the 
narrow sea which separates the three countries may be easily 
crossed even by birds of not very great power in the wings. 

So far as I can guess from my last visit to the central part 
of New Guinea, as well as from some fossils there collected, 
I think that all the flat land from the coast of Torres Strait 
up, perhaps, to the foot of the mountains has been submerged, 
and raised again at a not very distant time, and probably 
when the Aru Islands and Australia were separated from New 
Guinea. Plants and animals which, during the time of sub- 
sidence, could live on the mountains, at the new rising of the 
land descended to populate it again, more or less modified ; and 

the Exploration of the Fly River. 371 

others immigrated from the nearest land, and especially from 
Australia, and established themselves there, probably under- 
going some modifications, but at all events retaining much 
of the characters of the primitive type. And while the species 
inhabiting the lowlands on both sides of the mountains differ 
much, we find that those inhabiting the mountains are almost 
invariably the same on both sides, no matter Avhat the dif- 
ference of latitude or longitude may be. This may be ex- 
plained ; for the alpine forms were not subjected to sensible 
change of temperature, soil, &c., in their emigration, so long 
as they kept to the mountains ; on the other hand, the forms 
of the plain cannot cross the high mountains without mo- 

The geological union of Australia, the Aru Islands, and 
New Guinea in a recent time is to me a certainty ; and I can- 
not consider the granitic peaks of Torres Straits but as the 
links of the chain which for a time joined Australia to 
New Guinea. Mount-Ernest Island, The Brothers, and 
Tawan Island, and all the other islands of Torres Straits, are 
faithful witnesses to this. When the fauna and flora of New 
Guinea and North Australia are better known and com- 
pared, especially reptiles, small mammals, freshwater fish, and 
other small animals of limited power for emigration, the fact 
will be proved. Although I propose to confine myself to the 
subject of birds, I cannot refrain from mentioning the existence 
of an Echidna in New Guinea. Very far up the Fly River 
I found in the natives' houses, carefully preserved, the quills 
of an Echidna, and also many arrows whose barbs are made 
with such quills. It is within my knowledge that the Rev. 
Mr. Lawes obtained at Port Moresby a young animal from 
the natives, which was described to me as like a Platypus ; 
but I am inclined to believe it was a young Echidna"^. The 
importance of such a discovery needs no comment. 

Among the Pigeon family I may mention Carpophaga spi- 
lorrhoa, C. zoece, C. muellerii, Megoloprepia assimilis, Ptilo- 

* The above had beeu written when I received from Italy the descrip- 
tion of Tachyglossus {Echicbia) bruijnii (W. Peters and Doria), founded 
on a portion of a skull found on the Arfak Mountains. 

372 Recently published Ornithological IVorks. 

nopus superbus, P. ionozonus, P. coronulatus , P. aurantiifrons , 
and Ptilonopus nanus, which for the most part inhabit New 
Guinea, Aru Islands, and North Australia. A bird strictly 
Papuan, one of the largest of this family, is the Crested Pigeon, 
or Goura, of which four species are known, viz. — G. victories, 
G. coronata, G. albertisi, and G. sclateri, although the former 
has not been yet found on the Papuan continent. G. coro- 
nata is found on the north-west, and G. albertisi on the east- 
ern peninsulas, and G. sclateri in the central part of New 
Guinea, where I discovered it during my first visit to the Fly. 
During my second trip I found it also at Kataw River. If 
in the Papuan forest lives this gigantic form of the family, 
there we also find a dwarf in the rare and pretty Ptilonopus 
nanus. Dendrocygna guttata, D. vagans, Nettapus pulchellus, 
Pelecanus conspicillatus, Hamatopus longirostris, Mycteria 
australis, and Tachy petes prion, &c. are all birds common 
to the Aru Islands and Australia, and only lately added to 
the list of New-Guinea birds. I wish I could give the specific 
name of a beautiful Cassowary, of which I possess a skin 
and skeleton; but so many species of this bird have been 
lately described, that I do not venture to say to which it be- 
longs, though I am inclined to think it may be a Casuarius 

XXXII. — Notices of Recent Publications. 

[Continued from p. 249.] 

30. Baldwin's ' Large and Small Game of Bengal.' 
[The Large and Small Game of Bengal and the North-western Pro- 
vinces of India. By Captain J. H. Baldwin, F.G.S. 8vo. London : 
Henry S. King and Co.] 

The larger portion of the 400 pages which compose this 
handsome volume is devoted to the various IVIammals which in 
India attract the sportsman^s first notice; but some 150 

* [It is more probably the species noticed by Sclater (P. Z. S. 1875, 
p. 86) as C. beccarii, but which, we believe, Prof. Salvador! considers not 
to be identical with C. beccarii of the Aru Islands. — Edt).] 

Recently published Ornithological Works. 373 

pages are likewise occupied with an account of the Pheasants, 
Pea-fowlj Partridges, Bustards, Plovers, and other so-called 
'^ Game-birds" of that rich and varied fauna. There is 
nothing scientific about the book ; but the technical names 
from Jerdon and short descriptions of each species are given, 
and the many interesting notes on the habits of the birds and 
sporting adventures with them will no doubt render it very- 

31. ' Vagrancy Acts.' 

[Vagrancy Acts. By A.. C. McM., 2otli March, 1875. For Private 
Circulation. Trimulgberry : printed at the Military-Prison Press. 1 vol., 
8vo, 260 pp.] 

Under this curious title a well known Indian sportsman, 
who usually rejoices in the pseudonym of " Vagrant,^^ has re- 
printed a series of his papers upon the field-sports of India, 
amongst which are many of interest to the ornithologist. 
They contain chiefly observations made at some of the hill- 
stations of Madras and Central India, though there are also 
some notes on the birds of Burmah. 

■ 32. Orion's ' Andes and the Amazon.' 

[The Andes and the Amazon ; or across the continent of South America. 
By James Orton, A.M. Third edition, revised and enlarged, containing 
notes of a second journey across the continent from Para to Lima and 
Lake Titicaca. 8vo. New York: 1876.] 

Professor Orton has published a third edition of this in- 
structive work, which is probably well known to most of our 
readers — though, except the chapter " On Condors and Hum- 
ming-birds," there is nothing strictly ornithological in it. 
In his second journey Prof. Orton ascended the Amazons to 
Yurimaguas on the Huallaga (about a month^s voyage, not 
including stoppages), and crossed thence to the Pacific by 
Balsa Puerto, Moyobamba, Chachapoyas, and Cajamarca. 
We can fancy no more interesting route for a naturalist, es- 
pecially when we bear in mind that Chachapoyas is the home 
of Loddigesia mirabilis I 

SER. IV. VOL. I. 2 C 

374 Recently published Ornithological Works. 

33. ' Log-letters from the Challenger.' 

[Log-letters from the ' Challenger.' By Lord George Campbell. 1 vol. 
8vo, 1876, London : Macmillan and Co.] 

So far as regards science the author of these letters would 
not seem to be a very promising son of his respected father ; 
but he has written a very pleasant and readable book, which, as 
the first published narrative of the doings of the greatest 
scientific expedition of the period, will command the atten- 
tion of naturahsts. The account of the Penguin-rookeries 
and other sea-birds^ breeding-peculiarities at Nightingale 
Island (p. 60), Marion Island (p. 76), Kerguelen Land 
(p. 83), and Heard Island (p. 96), Avill specially interest the 
ornithologist. Admiralty Island was perhaps the least-known 
place visited, and produces "Nutmeg- Pigeons'^ {Carpophag(2) 
in great abundance, besides other birds, of which we shall 
doubtless have a correct account in due time. 

34. ' The Cruise of the Challenger.' 

[The Cruise of H.M.S. ' Challenger.' Voyages over many seas, scenes 
in many lands. By W. J. J. Spry, R.N. 1 vol. 8vo, 1876. London : 
Sampson, Low, and Co.] 

]Mr. Spry^s account of the ' Challenger^s ' voyage is not in 
our opinion so well written as that of Lord George Campbell, 
and contains even less of scientific details ; but there are a good 
many well-executed illustrations, and there are many passages 
of interest. The abstract of the log of the voyage (pp. 385-8) 
will be of use for reference as to dates and localities. 

35. ' Stray Feathers.' 

[' Stray Feathers.' A Journal of Ornithology for India and its Depen- 
dencies. Edited by Allan Hume. 1876. Vol. iv. nos. 4, 5, 6.] 

These three numbers of ' Stray Feathers,^ issued in one 
part, conclude the fourth volume of this journal, which has 
certainly done much towards the advancement of our favour- 
ite science in India. The most important articles are those 
by Dr. Armstrong on the birds of the Irrawaddy delta, by 
JMr. F. Bourdillon and JMr. Hume on the birds of the Travan- 
core hills, and IVIr, Hume's account of his ornithological 
journey to the Laccadives and west coast. As regards the 

Recently published Ornithological Works. 375 

Laccadives, which have not been previously examined, the 
birds and other animals obtained were exclusively common 
Indian species, and the general conclusion arrived at is that 
" the Laccadives have no distinctive fauna or flora/' The fol- 
lowing " novelties " are described : — Estrilda burmanica from 
Rangoon, Alcippe bourdilloni from Travancore, and Monti- 
fringilla blanfordi and M. mandellii from Sikim. 

36. Sharpens edition of Layard's ' Birds of South Africa.' 

[The Birds of South Africa. By E. L. Layard, F.Z.S. &c. New edi- 
tion, thoroughly revised and augmented, by R. Bowdler Sharpe, F.L.S., 
F.Z.S., &c., Senior Assistant, Zoological Department, British Museum. 
Part iv.] 

After what has been said on the subject of antedating in 
^Nature' (vol. xiv. pp. 309, 330, 351, 369, 392, 424, 474) 
in reference to this very work, we are certainly rather sur- 
prised that Mr. Sharpe should continue in the face of the 
strictures of his brother naturalists to issue another number 
in March 1877, dated '' May 1875.'' It is, we suppose, the 
fault of the publisher, who wishes to use up his old covers ; 
but we cannot consider the author otherwise than co-respon- 

So far as we can tell, Saxicola shelleyi from Victoria Falls, 
S. anderssoni from Great Namaqua Land, Drymceca hypoxan- 
tha from Natal, and Acrocephalus fulvo -lateralis from Natal 
are now described for the first time. But we must again re- 
peat [cf. Ibis, 1875, p. 506) that the omission of all syno- 
nyms is in our opinion a very great demerit in the present 
edition of Mr. Layard's work, as it is only by reading the 
context that these and other points can be ascertained. 

37. Heuglin's 'Journey in North-eastern Africa.' 

[Reise in Nordost-Afrika. Sehilderungen aus dem Gehiete der Beni- 
Amer und Habab, mit zoologischen Skizzen und einem Fiihrer fiir Jagd- 
reisende, von M. Th. v. Heuglin. Zwei Bande. Braunschweig, 1877.] 

These volumes give an account of the late Th. v. Heuglin's 
last African journey. In January and February 1875 Heug- 
lin made a short excursion along the mountainous district 


376 Recently published Ornithological Works. 

which borders the shores of the Red Sea between Siiakira and 

In the first volume of the present work is given a narra- 
tive of the expedition, with some chapters of advice to 
hunters and sportsmen who may wish to resort to this easily 
accessible and thoroughly wild district. An excellent map 
is added. 

The second volume is devoted to an account of the mam- 
mals and birds of the district, and forms a useful handbook 
for those who are acquainted with German. Of birds 416 
species are enumerated. Philothamna minor (p. 182) and 
Batis orientalis (p. 194) are figured and described as new, 
we believe, for the first time, the latter having been previously 
referred to Platystira pririt and P. senegalensis. 

38. Elliot's Monograph of the Hornbills. 

[A Monograph of the Bucerotidse, or Family of the Hornbills. By D. 
G. Elliot, RR.S.E., F.L.S., &c. Part 1, small folio, 1877. Published 
by the Author.] 

Mr, D. G. Elliot has commenced the issue of another of 
his beautifully illustrated monographs, and has chosen on 
this occasion the singular group of Hornbills for his subject. 
The six plates in the first number are excellently drawn by 
Keulemans, and coloured well. They represent the follow- 
ing species according to Mr. Elliotts nomenclature : — 

Rhinoplax vigil. Anorrhinus albocristatus. 

Sphagolobus atratus. Bycanistes subcylindricus. 

Cranorrhinus waldeni. Tockus monteiri. 

We hope Mr. Elliot will not carry his subdivision of the 
genera of the Bucerotidse to an extreme point, and that he 
will not insist on adopting more antiquated names than he 
can help. Does any ornithologist (unless he has just referred 
to Mr. Elliot's work) know what Rhinoplax vigil is ? and must 
we necessarily adopt that specific name? As regards the 
species described and figured by T. R. Forster himself in his 
' Zoologica Indica,' there can be no question ; and his names 
have always been in use ; but whether we are obliged to em- 
ploy the terms assigned to the Planches Enluminees, Edwards's 

Recently published Ornithological Works. 377 

plates, &c. in the ' Specimen Faunulse Indicae' thereto appended 
(of which not Forster but Pennant is stated to be the author) , 
is another question. TVe are of opinion that they should be 
left in the obscurity in which they have remained since 1781, 
because to resuscitate them would cause a multitude of most 
inconvenient changes in our nomenclature ; and nomenclature 
is, after all, a matter of convenience, not of right ! The revi- 
val of Boddaert's ^'^ Table '^ was a great injury to ornithologi- 
cal nomenclature ; the revival of Pennant's ' Specimen Fau- 
nulse Indicse ' would be another. 

Mr. Elliot does not state in his text where the specimens 
from which the figures are taken are to be i'ound. It is 
always desirable to give this information, so as to facilitate sub- 
sequent identifications. 

39. Gould's ' Birds of New Guinea.' 

■ [The Birds of New Guinea aud the adjacent Papuan Islands, including 
any new Species that may be discovered in Australia. By John Gould, 
F.R.S. &c. Part iv. Folio, 1877. Published by the Author, 26 Char- 
lotte Street, Bedford Square, VV.C] 

Of Mr. Gould's 'Birds of New Guinea' we have spoken 
on former occasions (Ibis, 1876, p. 363). The number 
already issued this year contains figures of 

Pitta novfe-guinese. Melipotes gymnops. 

rosenbergii. Machserirhynchus albifrons. 

Paradisea sanguinea. nigripectus. 

raggiana. Psittacella brehmii. 

Melirrhophetes leucostephes. Malurus alboscapulatus. 

ochromelas. Parus arfaki. 

Melidectes torquatus. 

Of great interest are the new forms of Meliphagidse {Melir- 
rhophetes and Melidectes) now figured for the first time from 
specimens furnished by Dr. Meyer. Psittacella is a scarce 
and novel form of the Psittacidse ; but is Parus arfaki a true 
Parus ? 

40. Gould's ' Birds of Asia.' 

[The Birds of Asia. By J. Gould, F.R.S., &c. Dedicated to the 
Honourable East-India Company. Part xxix. Folio. London : 1877. 
Published by the Author, 26 Charlotte Street, Bedford Square, W.C.] 

378 Recently published Ornithological Works. 

Mr. Gould^s annual number of the ' Birds of Asia ' gives 
us portraits of the following species : — 

Rhodopechys sanguinea. Actenoides hombroni. 

Erytlirospiza obsoleta. lindsayi. 

incarnata. concretus. 

Pitta baudii. Sturnus unicolor. 

gurueyi. humii. 

steerii. Sutbora muiiipurensis. 


The red-stained Mountain-Finches of the genus Erythro- 
spiza and its allied forms are of great interest^ but have been 
very unnecessarily cut up into too many subdivisions. Ery- 
throspiza incarnata of Severtzolf ought, it appears, to bear 
the specific name mongolica of Swinhoe. Sturnus humii of 
Mr. Gould and of Mr. Brooiis (Ibis, 1876, p. 500) appears 
to be the species just named S. ambiguus by the energetic 
ornithologist after whom Messrs. Brooks and Gould have in- 
dependently proposed to call it^. We must also remark 
that Mr. Gould's reasons for including S. unicolor in the 
' Birds of Asia ' are rather inconsequent. 

41. Rowley's ' Ornithological Miscellany .' 

[Ornithological Miscellany. Edited by George Dawson Rowley, M.A., 
F.L.S., F.Z.S., Member of the British Ornithologists' Union. Parts vii. 
and viii. London : 1877, Triibner and Co.] 

Mr. Rowley continues to publish fresh numbers of his 
favourite periodical. Part vii. gives us excellent figures of 
Oriolus formosus of the Sangi Islands (we really cannot use 
the unnecessary generic term which Mr. Rowley gives to this 
true Oriole) , of the nest and eggs of White's Thrush, from ex- 
amples obtained by Mr. Swinhoe near Ningpo, China, and of 
Pitta rosenbergi of the Schouten Islands. Mr. Rowley also 
gives us, with the assistance of Dr. Meyer, an excellent article 
on the genus Loriculus, with illustrations of four of these 
beautiful little Parrots — L. catamene, L. regulus, L. exilis, 
and L. stigmatus. 

In part viii. we have a continuation of the useful transla- 
tion of Prejevalsky^s essay upon the birds of Mongolia and 

* 'Stray Feathers,' iv. p. 512. 

Recently published Ornithological Works. 379 

Eastern Tibet^ and illustrations of two more beautiful Pittas — 
P. cceruleitorquata and P. sanghirana of the Sangir Islands, 
and of a rare and curious Pigeon — Ptilopus insolitus. 

42. Beccari's Account of the Playing-places of Amblyor- 
nis inornata, 

[Le Capanue ed i Giardini dell' Amhlyornis inornata. Per 0. Beccari. 
Ann. Mils. Civ. Genova, ix. p. 383.] 

No more interesting chapter has been recently written in 
field-ornithology than Beccari^s account of the wonderful 
constructions made by the Bower-bird of New Guinea, Am- 
hlyornis inornata, as observed by himself during his visit to 
Mount Arfak in 1875. Amblyoriiis builds for its amusement 
a perfect circular cabin, principally of the dry twigs of an epi- 
phytous orch\(\.[Dendrobium) , measvmng about a metre in dia- 
meter, and supported by a single central pillar. Before the 
entrance is a beautiful garden of dimensions rather greater 
than the cabin, made of the greenest moss, and ornamented 
from time to time with brilliantly coloured flowers and fruits, 
such as flowers of a most beautiful species of Vaccinium. 
This instinct is well known to the Malay hunters, who call the 
bird " Tukan kobou " or " Gardener.''^ Had space permitted, 
we should have been glad to give a translation of Dr. Bec- 
cari^s most interesting paper, although we cannot quite agree 
with some of the philosophical deductions which he appends 
to it. 

43. Salvadori's Recent Ornithological Papers. 

[(1) Osservazioni intorno alle specie del genere Myristicivora, Reiehb. 
Ann. Mils. Civ. Geneva, ix. p. 268. 

(2) Intorno alle specie del genere Talegallus, Less. Ann. Mus. Civ. 
Geneva, ix. p. 327. 

(3 ) Note intorno ad alcuni uccelli durante 1' esplorazione del Fiiime 
Fly. Per L. M. D'Albertis, C.M.Z.S. Ann. Mus. Civ. Geneva, x. p. 5.] 

Our ever-active friend Professor Salvadori continues his 
papers on points connected with the ornithology of New 
Guinea. In the first of those now before us the specific dif- 
ferences of three Fruit-Pigeons of the genus Myristicivora 
(M. bicolor, M. spilorrhoa, and M. melanura), which have 

380 Recently published Ornithological Works. 

been recently denied by Mr. Sharpe (P. Z. S. 1875, p. 108 
et seq.), are vindicated. In the second, two new species of 
Talegallus [T. fuscirostris from Southern New Guinea and 
the Arru Islands, and T. arfakianus from Mount Arfak) are 
described, the latter, however, being founded only on chicks. 
The third gives a translation with notes of D' Albertis's account 
of his collections on the Fly River, which we have reprinted 
above (p. 363 et seq.). 

44. Barboza du Bocage's Thirteenth List of African Birds. 
[Aves das possessoes portuguezas de Africa occidental por J. V. Barboza 

du Bocage. (Decima terceira Lista.) Jornal de Sciencias math., pliys. 
e nat. no. xxi. 1877.] 

In this article Professor Barboza du Bocage gives a list of 
a collection of eighty-one specimens of birds^ representing 
fifty-one species, recently made in Benguela by Sr. Anchieta. 
A new Barbet is described as Pogonorhynchus leucogaster. 
It is nearest to P. leucocephalus. 

45. Homey er upon German Mammals and Birds. 

[DeutscMands Saugethiere und Vogel, ihr Nutzen und Schaden. Von 
E. r. V. Homeyer. In Commission beiDr. Rev in Leipzig. 8vo, pp. SI, 
n. d.] 

Hr. E. F. V. Homeyer, a well-known devotee to our science, 
gives, in the present essay, a summary of the useful and 
noxious qualities of the mammals and birds of the Father- 
land, in relation to the question of their legislative protection, 
a topic, in all civilized countries, of rapidly increasing impor- 
tance. It would have been well if such a carefully drawn-up 
series of observations had been prepared by a competent 
naturalist in this country before the recent Acts for the pro- 
tection of such birds and waterfowl were passed. Hr. v. Ho- 
meyer states that the Starling [Sturnus vulgaris) is the most 
useful bird in Germany; and as regards that country we 
may well accept most of his conclusions. But when he says 
"in Engla7idgibt es seit Idngerer Zeit keine Filchse mehr" (!) 
we must come to the conclusion that he does not know much 
of what goes on in England. We are really afraid to trans- 
late the sentence, lest it should be thought suggestive of the 
horrible idea. 

Recently published Ornithological Works* 381 

46. Allen's ' Progress of Ornithology in the United States.' 

[Progress of Ornithology in the United States during the last century. 
By J. A. Allen. American Naturalist, vol. x. p. 536,] 

This essay of Mr. Allen^s gives a succinct account of the 
rise and progress of the study of our science in the Uni- 
ted States from the days of Alexander Wilson (1808) to 
the present period, and is well worthy of the attention of all 
ornithologists. When Bonaparte finished his continuation 
of Wilson^s work in 1833, about 400 species of birds had been 
described as appertaining to the avifauna of the United States. 
^' At the present time the number of generally accepted species 
entitled to recognition as birds of that portion of North 
America north of Mexico is not less than six hundred and 
fifty, witii, in addition, about one hundred and fifty commonly 
recognized subspecies, or about, eight hundred recognized 

" The nests, eggs, and general habits of nearly all are now 
well known, particularly of those which occur east of the 
Rocky Mountains. ^^ 

" Another phase of progress,^^ Mr. Allen observes, " that 
should not pass unnoticed in this connexion is the attention 
that has been paid to the geographical distribution of the 
species, with especial reference to the determination of the 
different faunal areas in North America, many of which are 
already known with a tolerable degree of definiteness, also the 
tendency to study the various subspecific and specific forms 
from a geographical and evolutionary standpoint. Formerly 
the study of our birds was pursued wholly analytically, and 
forms from distant, little-known localities which difter'ed 
slightly from their near affines of neighbouring regions, were 
looked upon as distinct ' species.' Later, as the material for 
a better knowledge of the subject accumulated, specimens of 
an intermediate character came to light, which, so long as 
they were few, were naturally looked upon as probably hybrids 
between the forms whose characters they seemed to combine. 
Still later, however, it was found that certain strains of devi- 
ation from pronounced types occurred in a large number of 
species belonging to widely different families inhabiting the 

382 Recently published Ornithological Works. 

same areas. This led to the discovery of laws of geographi- 
cal variation, connecting particular phases of local differenti- 
ation with the topographical and climatic peculiarities of the 
regions where they so uniformly occur. Many of the isolated 
facts bearing on this subject had been observed and placed on 
record prior even to 1880; but their full import was not rea- 
lized till after the lapse of another decade, during which our 
stores of material had become vastly increased. In 1871 the 
' new departure ' was for the first time fairly entered upon, 
which in three years revolutionized the nomenclature of 
North- American ornithology, adding an important chapter 
on philosophical zoology, and exerting great influence in 
many other departments of North-American zoology. Natu- 
rally a view that threatened either to assign fully one sixth 
of the previously recognized species to the limbo of syno- 
nymy, or to lower them to the grade of geographical races, 
was not rashly espoused by those to whom belonged the 
credit of the recognition and description of these previously 
supposed specific forms ; but so overwhelming were the facts 
in its favour found to be, that one after another of our leading 
writers soon gave it their endorsement, so that probably a 
greater degree of unanimity of opinion respecting any pro- 
blem in ornithology never obtained than now exists among 
our ornithologists respecting the sul)jcct of geographical vari- 
ation among our birds, and the subspecific relationship of 
many forms which, when first made known, seemed unques- 
tionably of specific rank. 

"■ The next step, and apparently a wholly logical one in the 
revolution, will doubtless be the general adoption of a trino- 
mial system of nomenclature for the more convenient expres- 
sion of the relationship of what are conventionally termed 
' subspecific,^ so that we may write, for instance, Falco com- 
munis anatum in place of the more cumbersome Falco com- 
munis, subsp. anatum. This system is already, in fact, to 
some extent in use here, though looked upon with strong dis- 
favour by our transatlantic fellow-workers, who seem as yet 
not fully to understand the nature of the recent rapid ad- 
vance ornithology has made in this country^ or to appreciate 

Recently published Ornithological Works . 383 

the thoroughly substantial character of the evidence on which 
it is based. 

" The constant and energetic exploration of the great North 
and North-west, of the vast trans -Mississippian region, and 
of our subtropical borders, during the last two decades, by- 
scores of indefatigable collectors and observers, has certainly 
not been in vain, as witness the hundreds and often thousands 
of specimens of single species, representing the gradually 
varying phases presented at hundreds of localities, that have 
passed through the hands of our specialists/' 

47. Pelzeln on Birds from Ecuador. 

[Ueber eiue weitere Sendung von Vogeln aus Ecuador. (Verb, zool.- 
bot. Gesellscb. in Wieu, 1876, p. 765.)] 

This paper contains a short list of birds, in continua- 
tion of a previous memoir on the same subject {op. cit. 
1874, p. 171). Several of the species mentioned do not 
appear to have been recorded before from Ecuador. The 
Humming-birds seem to have come in for a large share of 
the collectors' attention ; and in the list of them we notice 
the name of the rare Eutoxeres condaminii, of which very 
few specimens have as yet reached Europe. One species is 
named with doubt Steganura underwoodi; should not this 
rather be called /S. melananthera, or perhaps Mr. Gould's 
lately described S. solstitialis ? The female of the latter is 
distinguishable by its rufous thighs. The exact locality in 
the Republic where these specimens were obtained is not 

48. Pelzeln on Additions to the Imperial Museum at Vienna. 

[Ueber sine von Herrn Dr. Richard Ritter von Drasche dem k.k. zoo- 
logischen Ilofcabinete zum Gescbenk gemachte Sendung von Viigelbal- 
gen, (Verb, zool.-bot. Gesellscb. in Wien, 1876, p. 717.)] 

Unfortunately the exact origin of the ninety-seven speci- 
mens treated of in this paper was not recorded; but the 
greater part of them, it is stated, came from Celebes, the re- 
mainder from the JMoluccas and Papuan Islands. One 
species {Rectes draschii), allied to R. dichrous, is described as 
new ; and the Pigeon recently characterized by Herr Brugge- 

384 Recently published Ornithological Works. 

mann (Abh. Nat. Ver. z. Bremen^ 1876, p. 84) as Carpophaga 
pcecilorrhoa is placed in the genus Gymnophaps, and a figure 
(plate xiii.) of it given, 

49. Pelzeln's Report on the Progress of Ornithology in 1875. 

[Bericlit liber die Leistungen in der Natiirgeschichte der Vogel wah- 
rend des Jahres 187o. (Wiegm. Arch, xsxii. pp. 144-208.)] 

This report upon the ornithological work of the year 1875, 
furnished by Herr von Pelzeln to Wiegmann^s ' Archiv/ 
appears, like its predecessors, to be very complete, especially 
as regards the list of publications bearing upon the general 
subject. We also notice that several past omissions are now 
inserted ; so that the report is perhaps enlarged somewhat 
beyond the dimensions due to the year to which it specially 
relates. There are a few points in the classification of the 
special portion which seem to us now to require some modi- 
fication. The Hlrundinidce and the Trochilidce cannot, we 
think, properly be allowed to continue in the positions here 
assigned to them. Though the Upupida have often been 
classed with the Passeres, and even placed near the Larks by 
Sundevall, their retention in that Order cannot be seriously 
maintained ; still less the junction of the Bucerotida with the 
Passeres Conirostres. Is it not time, too, to remove the Stru- 
thiones from the midst of the Carinatse ? In a work 
like the present it would be unwise to adopt every new 
point in classification as it appears to be made out ; at the same 
time we venture to suggest that some modification is oc- 
casionally necessary to avoid the prolonged retention of an 
obsolete system. 

50. Baird's ' Ornithology of Utah.' 

[Exploration across the great Basin of Utah. Appendix K, pp. 373- 
381. Ornithology. A List of Birds. By Prof. Spencer F. Baird. 4to. 
Washington : 1876.] 

This is a list of the birds obtained during an exploration of 
the great basin of Utah, as long ago as 1859, by the engineer- 
ing department of the United-States army, in charge of Cap- 
tain J. H. Simpson. The whole collection consisted of 258 
specimens, comprising 114 species. These have been classi- 

Letters, Announcements, l^c. 385 

fied by Prof. Baird according to the system prevailing in tlie 
United States^ the locality of each specimen being given. 
None of the species appears to call for any special comment ; 
but the list adds to our knowledge of the distribution of North- 
American birds, a subject which our Transatlantic brethren 
have long laboured at with great industry and success. 

51. Major Godvnn- Austen's List of Birds from the Hills of 
the North-east Frontier of India. 

[Fifth List of Birds from the Hill Ranges of the North-east Frontier 
of India. By Major H. 11. Godwin-Austen, F.R.G.S. &c. (J. A. S. B. 
xlv. pt. 2, p. 191.)] 

A list of the birds collected by officers of the Topographi- 
cal Survey of India in the Munipur and Naga hills, and by 
Major Godwin-Austen himself in the Khasi hills, is given in 
this paper, which adds another to the useful series of memoirs 
Major Godwin- Austen has published on the birds of these 
remote districts. Most of the new species obtained during 
these expeditions have already been described in this Journal 
(Ibis, 1875, p. 250 et seqq.) and elsewhere ; but others are 
characterized in this article. Thus we have a new Alcippe 
from the Naga hills allied to A. hueti of Pere David, and 
called A. fusca, and Neornis albiventris, a new Warbler from 
the Munipur valley, allied to N. assimilis, Hodgs. Three 
species are figured (plates v., vi., vii.), viz. Acridotheres al- 
bocincta, Sphenocichla roberti, and Pyctorhis altirostris. 

XXXIII. — Letters, Announcements, ^c. 

The following letters, addressed " To the Editors of ' The 
Ibis,^ " have been received : — 

Sirs, — In 1875 the Asiatic Society of Bengal did me the 
honoui" of intrusting to me the task of editing the post- 
humous Catalogue of the Birds of Burma written by Mr. 
Blyth. While in no degree underrating the responsibility of 
the duty I was asked to perform, I accepted the trust with 
some confidence, because Mr. Blyth, not very long before 

386 Letters, Announcements, l^c. 

his lamented death, had gone through all his manuscript with 
me at Chislehurst, and, while inviting the freest criticism, 
only made such alterations as he was satisfied in his mind 
were well founded. It is needless to say that I had but few 
corrections to suggest, and that Mr. Blyth exhibited all that 
accuracy, acuteness, and retentive power of memory for which 
he was so remarkable. In the Catalogue as it now appears 
in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, all the ad- 
ditions or observations made by me are enclosed in brackets, 
as stated by Mr. Grote in his introduction. 

On page 114, at no. 359, it will be found that jNIr. Blyth 
identified Pellorneum subochraceum, Swiuhoe, with his own 
species, Pellorneum tickelli, Blyth. Knowing that Mr. Blyth 
would not hazard such an identification without good grounds, 
and as I had never seen the type of P. tickelli, Blyth, I felt 
bound, as his editor, to accept Mr. Blyth's views concerning 
his own species ; and I therefore allowed the synonymy, as 
set forth by Mr. Blyth, to stand without alteration or remark. 
I felt that it would be somewhat presumptuous in me, with- 
out the type specimen in my own hand, to assume that Mr. 
Blyth did not know a species described by himself. I con- 
sequently accepted the title P. subochraceum, Swinhoe, it being 
of more recent date, as a synonym of P. tickelli, Blyth. 

In 1873 Mr. Hume described (Str. F. i. p. 298) a species 
of Pellorneum from Thayetmyo under the title of P. minor. 
This is undoubtedly the same bird as P. subochraceum, Swin- 
hoe (Ann. N. H. ser. 4, 1871, vii. p. 257). In the Catalogue, 
no. 360, I therefore remarked that P. minor, Hume, was '' a 
synonym of P. tickelli," accepting that title on Mr. Blyth's 
authority as being equal, though older, to P. subochraceum. 
That P. minor, Hume, was not a distinct species (I happened 
to possess a large series collected by Lieutenant W. Ramsay), 
that it had been described two years previously by Mr. Swin- 
hoe, was, while not a matter of great surprise, beyond all 
doubt when I wrote. But Mr. Gates has recently (Str. F. 1876, 
p. 406) endeavoured to show that I, not Mr. Blyth, have 
^' made a strange mistake " in identifying P. tickelli with P. 
minor, or, in other words, with P. subochraceum. I do not 
admit that Mr. Blyth was wrong in his identification of P. 

Lettei's, Announcements, l^c. 387 

subochraceum with P. tickelli ; ior, with the greatest respect 
to the superior knowledge of Mr. Oates^ I am inclined (per- 
haps from mere editorial partiality) to believe that Mr. Blyth 
was as likely to know as much^ I will not say more, about 
the specimen and species he himself had described, than 
even Mr. Oates, who had never seen it. But if there is an 
error on my part in referring P. minor, Hume, through P. 
subochraceum, Swinhoe, to P. tickelli, Blyth, it must be Mr. 
Blyth^s "dictum/' and not mine, "that will not be readily 
accepted by those who are conversant with local Indian 

Mr. Oates speaks confidently of having seen and shot P. 
tickelli, Blyth^ on the Pegu bills. Mr. Hume, in his "List 
of the Birds of Upper Pegu" {op. cit. 1875, p. 119), goes no 
further than to " suppose " that the only specimen sent to 
him by Mr. Oates belongs to P. tickelli ; and Mr. Oates (/. c.) 
remarks that that " specimen agrees pretty well with Blyth^s 
meagre description." But when it becomes an object to 
impress on the readers of ' Stray Feathers ' that I, in my 
capacity of Mr. Blyth^s editor, have arrived " at hasty and, 
in many cases, erroneous conclusions," then the fact that it 
was Mr. Blyth, and not I, who identified his own species with 
one that is notoriously the same as P. minor, is omitted, Mr. 
Hume^s bare "supposition" becomes a demonstrated fact, 
and "Blyth's meagre description," with which Mr. Oatcs^s 
solitary specimen only " agrees pretty well," is considered, 
along with TickelFs (which is as meagre, and was also before 
Mr. Oates), "to give us all the really essential particulars of 
the plumage." 

But, Sir, what will probably more interest you and your 
readers is, whether I was justified in treating the title of P. 
minor, Hume (lege minus) , as a synonym of some previously 
described species. Upon this point there is no doubt ; for I 
have taken the trouble to again examine the type of P. sub- 

I remain, yours, 


Ohislehurst, April 26, 1877. 

388 Letters, Announcements, S^c. 

Sirs, — In my additional notes to Mr. Blyth's "Catalogue 
of the Birds of Burma/^ when dealing with Otothrix hodg- 
soni, I gave a bare list of all the species of the genus Batra- 
chostomus then known to inhabit the Indian region, and 
their synonymy. With regard to two species I simply wrote 
"no. 2. B. affinis, ^]jth,=P. parvulus, Tem.,=B. castaneus, 
Hume.," and " no. 3. B. moniliger, ljKyaYd, = B. punctatus, 
Hume." For these identifications of two of Mr. Hume's 
new (?) species " the editor of the ornithological part '' [sic) 
" of Blyth's Birds of Burma " (Str. F. iv. p. 376) has been 
assailed by Mr. Hume with a fretful levity and poverty 
of analytical perception which would have rendered it un- 
necessary for me to notice his remarks^ had not Mr. Blanford 
addressed you a letter on the subject^ published in the April 
number of ' The Ibis ' (antea, p. 249) ; for it need hardly be 
said that I receive opinions formed by Mr. Blanford on orni- 
thological questions with the respect that those who know 
him personally or through his writings cannot fail to entertain. 

The general conclusions I had arrived at (/. c.) were formed 
after repeated and anxious study of a comprehensive series 
of specimens and of the literature on the subject. But Mr. 
Blanford, I observe, makes a statement so diametrically at 
variance with one of my principal conclusions that, if it can 
be established"^", my assertion (I.e.) that B. castaneus, Hume, 
= B. affinis, Blyth, must be erroneous. Its accuracy or in- 
accuracy turns on the fundamental question. What is B. 
afjinis, Blyth ? Mr. Blanford asserts that " conspicuous 
white spots " " occur on the wing-coverts of i?. affinis " (/. c), 
and that the " feathers of the breast and abdomen are pale 
isabelline, with rufous edges, which are broader on the breast/' 
but that "in B. castaneus the greater portion of the lower 
surface is the same colour as the back, chestnut ; but many 
feathers on the throat, breast, and upper abdomen are white, 

* [Since this letter has been in type we have received a letter from Mr. 
Blanford requesting that his former letter (already published in our last 
number, p. 249) should be cancelled. lie has " looked at one of Blyth's 
types of Batrachostomus, and fouxid that Lord Tweeddale is right and 
Mr. Hume wrong !'^ — Edc] 

Letters, Announcements, S^c. 389 

with black margins." Now, on the other hand, Blyth dis- 
tinctly stated, in his original description of B. affinis (J. A. 
S. B. 1847, p. 1180), that it "has no white spots on the 
wing," that the " throat and breast " are " plain rufous, 
with a few white feathers, having a subterminal dusky border 
on the fore neck and sides of the breast." Mr. Biyth intro- 
duces B. affinis as being " very similar to B. javensis in the 
plumage figured by Horsfield " (Zool. Res. Java, t. 37) — that 
is, with unspotted wings — but "smaller." Again, two years 
later [op. cit. 1849, p. 807), Mr. Blyth, when detailing the 
characters which distinguish B. moniliger, Layard, from P. 
javensis, Horsf. apud Blyth (nee Horsf., sed =P. stellatus, 
Go\Ad,= B.stictopterus, Cab.), and from B. affinis, remarks : — 
"the bright white spots on the wings" (of B. moniliger) 
"distinguish it as readily from B. affinis^ Indeed it is 
the uniform chestnut-coloured unspotted wing which at 
once distinguishes B. affinis, Blyth (when in rufous plumage) , 
from both B. moniliger, Layard, ex Ceylon, and B. javensis, 
Horsf. apud Blyth, ex Malacca, nee Horsf. It is essential 
to the argument to bear in mind that the larger of the 
two Malaccan forms (I am excluding B. auritus) is the bird 
always referred to as B. javensis, Horsf., by Blyth, except 
where he quotes Horsfield's plate (Zool. Bes. Java), and that 
Blyth, like every one else, until Dr. Cabanis descriminated 
and clearly described the Malaccan species (for Mr. Gould's 
diagnosis is too vague, and he gave Java as the habitat), 
assumed the latter to belong to the same species as the 
Javan bird. The Malaccan bird, B. stellatus=B. stictopterus , 
has spotted wing-coverts in both its rufous and brown phases 
of plumage ( ? (^ ?) ; and from Mr. Blanford's clear descrip- 
tive remarks, it is evidently the species identified by him in 
Mr. Hume's museum as belonging to B. affinis, Blyth. It is 
a bird of which examples occur in almost every Malaccan 
collection of any importance, either in the bright rufous or 
in the brown phase of plumage, while B. affinis does not appear 
to be so common. The difference in the width of the gape 
noted by Mr. Blanford is just the difference observable be- 
tween the gape of P. javensis, apud Blyth, ex Malacca (=P. 
stellatus, Gould), and B. a finis, Blyth. 

SER. IV. VOL. I. 2d 

390 Letters, Announcements, i^c. 

Mr. Blanford inadvertently makes a slip when he states 
(p. 253) that "the fragments of two specimens of Batra- 
chostomus, from Darjeeling, briefly described by Mr. Blyth 
in 1849 (J.A. S.B. xviii. p. 806), were at first referred by 
him to B. affinis ; but subsequently, in his ' Catalogue of the 
Birds in the Museum of the Asiatic Society,' p. 31, he as- 
cribed them to ' a nearly allied but distinct species.' " The 
facts are exactly the reverse. Mr. Blyth announced the 
receipt of the fragments from Darjeeling and his opinion, 
above quoted, first, and not " subsequently," in the Cata- 
logue. Afterwards, in his " Supplemental note to the Catalogue 
of the Birds in the Asiatic Society's Museum " (J. A. S. B. 
1849, p. 806. no. 405, paper quoted by Mr. Blanford), no. 405, 
being the number under which B. affinis stands in the ' Cata- 
logue,' Mr. Blyth published his matured opinion along with 
a description of the two specimens. His words are, "two 
specimens of what we now consider to be the young of 
this species "" {B. affinis) . If this were not a slip, Mr. Blan- 
ford's version would deprive me of the support of one of the 
many facts which led me to the inference that B. castaneus, 
Hume, =B. affinis, Blyth. Mr. Blyth's last-published opinion 
about B. affinis is contained in a footnote to page 83 (B, 
Burma) , where he alludes to B. affinis being " probably Oto- 
thrix hodgsoni, G. R. Gray, if the two really diff'er." Ma- 
laccan examples of B. affinis, in grey and brown spotted 
dress, are difficult to distinguish from the type of 0. hodg- 
soni-, but I did not venture to identify (B. Burma, no. 162) 
Gray's species with B. affinis and B. castaneus in the face of 
Mr. Hume's positive statement (Str. F. ii. p. 349) that " Mr. 
Hodgson's bird "" (type of O. hodgsoni) " was certainly an 
adult female by dissection ;" for Lieutenant W. Ramsay (B. 
Burma, no. 162) had determined by dissection that the sex 
of a species of Batrachostomus, ex Burma, hardly diff'ering 
from O. hodgsoni, was a male. This statement Mr. Hume 
has now reduced to " It is true, when I formerly wrote, I 
thought it (relying upon what Hodgson recorded) probable 
that hodgsoni was the female ^^ (Str. F. iv. p. 378). The 
certainty of the fact arrived at by Mr. Hodgson after dis- 
section, as first stated by Mr. Hume, being thus minimized 

Letters, Announcements, ^c. 391 

to only a probability, and in the absence of the exact words 
used by Mr, Hodgson when recording the fact of having dis- 
sected the bird (if any such exist) , there need be little hesi- 
tation in now reframing the synonymy of the species thus : — 
B. affinis, Blyih, =Podargus parvulus, Temm., = Otothrix 
hodgsoni, G. R. Grayj=5. castaneus, Hume. 

But the key-stone of Mr. Blanford^s contention is the 
statement that the three specimens in Mr. Hume^s collec- 
tion, of what Mr. Blanford identifies with B. affinis (but 
which I venture to contend are B. javensis, apud Blyth,= 
B. stellatus — B. stictopterus) 'Miave been compared with 
Blyth's original type in Calcutta." I do not quite gather 
whether Mr. Blanford himself personally compared Mr. 
Hume^s three specimens with the type of B. affinis, or whether 
Mr. Blanford accepted the correctness of the identification at 
second hand. Will Mr, Blanford kindly investigate the 
history of the specimen he alludes to as being Mr. Blyth^s 
type of B. affinis ? Mr. Bly th described the species from a 
Malaccan skin obtained through Mr. Frith in 1847. If my 
own personal knowledge of B. javensis, apud Blyth (dating 
back, and continued since, some thirty years), and if the pub- 
lished descriptions and remarks of Mr. Blyth did not irre- 
sistibly oblige me to doubt the authenticity of the specimen 
Mr. Blanford (as described by him) accepts as the type of 
B. affinis, I would refrain from asking him to take the trouble 
of re-examining it. If it be the type specimen of B. affinis, 
what is B. javensis, apud Blyth, ex Malacca ? for neither 
B. javensis, Horsf., nor its ally, Podargus cornutus, Temm., 
occur in Malacca, so far as is at present known. 

Mr, Blanford further states his opinion that B. punctatus, 
Hume, is distinct from B. moniliger, Layard. Specimens of a 
species of Batrachostomus, from Travancore, are identified by 
Mr. Hume with 5, moniliger, a species described from a Ceylon 
example, while B. punctatus, Hume, ex Ceylon, is assumed not 
to belong to B. moniliger, but to be a new species. Four phases 
of B. moniliger are represented in my series of Batrachostomi 
ex Ceylon j and one of the phases, that assumed by the almost 
adult male, agrees, feather for feather, with Mr. Hume's de- 
tailed description. Mr. Hume's single example and type 

392 Letters, Announcements, i^c. 

was obtained from Mr. H. Nevill; so were some of my spe- 
cimens, and another from Malabar is in the British Museum. 
Yet Mr. Hume remarks, " I do not think that the learned 
editor in question should have so positively asserted what he 
had no means of verifying " (Str. F. 1876, p. 377). If Mr. 
Bourdillon's Travancore examples specifically differ from the 
Ceylon B. moniliger, they, not the Ceylon bird, require a new 
title ; but the male, as described by Mr. Hume, but slightly 
differs from a Ceylon male of B. moniliger in my collection. 
I trust. Sir, whether my argument appears to you convincing 
or not, that it will enable my fellow Members of the B. O. U., 
and whose favourable opinion I prize, to judge of the scien- 
tific value of the criticism contained in the following reckless 
passage Mr. Hume has ventured to print (/. c.) : — " It does 
seem a pity that such very erroneous assertions [that B. 
castaneus = B. affinis, and that B. punctatus = B. moniliger] 
" should be put forward so authoritatively without the re- 
motest apparent grounds.'" Is it uncharitable to suggest that 
"grounds" which may not be apparent to Mr. Hume may 
yet be self-evident to any ornithologist who takes the trouble 
to acquire the rudiments of the subject on which he professes 
to instruct others ? 

I remain yours, 
Chisleluirst, May 16, 1877. Tweeddale. 

P.S. Mr. Blanford (/. c.) mentions a specimen of an adult 
{B. sp.) in Mr. Hume's possession, ex Sikim, "closely agreeing 
in general coloration with the figure oiOtothrix hodgsoni,^'' as 
being " marked female." Is this the same example alluded 
to by Mr. Hume {op. cit. ii. p. 349), the only one of his four 
" noted as a female, with a note of interrogation," by its col- 
lector, Mr. W. Mason ? If it is not, we have some evidence 
of dimorphism in B. affinis. If it be the same individual 
the note of interrogation must have escaped Mr. Blanford's 
attention.; — T. 

Sirs, — Mr. W. R. S. Ralston has kindly called my atten- 
tion to an account of the Petchora expedition of our friends 
Messrs. Seebohm and Harvie Brown which lately appeared in 
the correspondence of the ' Novoc Vremya ' or ' New Times ' 

Letters, Announcements, ^c. 393 

of St. Petersburg ; and I think a few extracts, translated by 
Mr, F. C. Craemers, will amuse and interest stay-at-home 
members of the B. O. U. After alluding to one or two 
former travellers, the writer comes to " Messrs. John Brown 
& Co./' of whom he reports as follows : — 

" The principal object of the foreigners appears to have 
been the formation of a large collection of skins of all species 
of Birds and Mammals, and also to obtain a large series of 
eggs. They showed such great carefulness in their work that 
they minutely examined the smallest difiPerences between spe- 
cimens of one and the same species, and used every endeavour 
to obtain examples of all the species and varieties .... The 
inquisitive and naive Petchora people relate that before 
shooting a bird, the English travellers carefully examined it 
through a telescope or some other optical instrument, then 
they fired. They spent several months in the Petchora 
country, and were evidently satisfied with their expedition, 
having obtained nearly 1000 specimens of birds and beasts 
and also a great number of eggs — very solid material for a 
scientific zoologist. They also discovered a new species of 
bird (belonging, if I mistake not, to the Sandpiper tribe), 
which according to them, does not occur in Europe or Ame- 
rica, rich as they are in animal life. 

"Judging from the statements of the people, these foreigners 
seem to have made a very favourable impression by their 
liberal payment for specimens collected for them, and by the 
good works in which they appear to have distinguished them- 
selves. It is said that they had a travelling medicine-chest 
with them, with which they willingly and gratuitously cured 
the sick ; and so earnest were they in this, that whenever they 
heard of any one being ill they hastened to render medical 
aid, unmindful of either time or weather. '^ 

It is very satisfactory to find that the good name of the 
brotherhood was so well supported by " John Brown & Co. •/' 
but the writer goes on to regret that the investigation of the 
country should be left to strangers. He points out that the 
trade and produce of the western parts of the Government of 
Archangel is already mainly in foreign hands ; and, fearing a 
similar result in the north-east, he concludes : — 

394 Letters, Announcements, ifc. 

" All these expeditions and explorations of natural resources 
are not without a purpose ! In ] 873, the Petchora was visited 
by Austrian travellers under Wilchek, in 1875-6 by the 
English zoologists ; and now the advent of the English mer- 
chants Bell and Gardins is expected, arising solely from John 

Brown & Co/s expedition Why do Russian naturalists 

not care for the Petchora? So many foreigners — scientific 
men and merchants — visit the country, and no Russians ; it 
is strange ! " 

The discovery of Anthus gustavi and Phylloscopus tristis 
in the Petchora country is of course quite sufficient to ac- 
count for this impending rush of British traders. 

I am, &c., 

Edward R. Alston. 

London, May 26, 1877. 

Sir, — I send you the following notes, trusting they will 
interest the readers of ' The Ibis.^ 

I have recently received from a gentleman temporarily 
stationed in the mountains of upper Colorado the very inter- 
esting nest and eggs of Dendroeca auduboni. It is only the 
second nest of this bird of which any record has been made, 
and differs from the first in many respects : it also shows the 
most eastern and southern point to which the bird has been 
traced in the breeding-season. The nest was taken and the 
parentage of the eggs identified by Mr. Edward Carter, a 
gentleman investigating the ornithology of upper Colorado, 
near Breckenridge Pass in Summit County. 

The two eggs I have, from a set of five, are said to repre- 
sent the extremes in their markings. They are, however, 
very much alike. Their ground-colour is a very light green 
or greenish white. One is spotted and blotched, only about 
the larger end, with a wreath of mingled shadings of very 
light lilac, purple, and brown, the extreme ends having a 
circle nearly bare of spots ; a waving line of umber, almost 
black in its integrity, extends almost entirely round the egg, 
just within the corona ; and there are a few minute dots of the 
same. The other egg has a similar crown, but none of the 

Letters, Announcements, S^c. 395 

umber lines or dots, but has a few light-lilac dots scattered 
over the rest of its surface. They are of a rounded oval shape^ 
and measure '70 by '58 of an inch. 

The nest was in a grove of pines bordering the river-bottom, 
and well concealed in the fork of a horizontal limb, and about 
eight feet from the ground. No description can do justice to 
the elaboration and artistic elegance of its construction. It 
is large for the bird, being 3|- inches high by 2f wide ; and 
the hollow is 2 inches deep by 2j wide, the walls varying 
from ^ to 1^ inch in thickness. The framework is beauti- 
fully wrought of fine vegetable stems and roots, into which 
are woven the feathers of various birds, those of the winter 
plumage of Lagopus leucurus being most conspicuous, and in 
strong contrast with the sooty feathers of the Calamospiza 

Neither its eggs nor its nest have any resemblance to those 
of D. coronata, as one would naturally expect to see. Mr. 
Hepburn found a single nest built in the forked branches of 
a small shrub ; but he states that they generally frequent high 
trees and construct their nests in the upper branches. 

The bird is very abundant in Montana, in Washington Ter- 
ritory, and parts of Oregon ; Dr. Cooper thinks they breed 
in the higher Sierra-Nevada, and. Dr. Coues also believes, as 
far south as the mountains of Arizona. 

In the absence of large blotches scattered over the e^^ 
generally, in the paleness of its marking, and in the general 
lightness of its coloring, this egg bears no resemblance to the 
egg of any other species of this genus that I have ever met 

I am yours &c., 

T. M. Brewer. 

Boston, U. S. 

April 27, 1877. 

Sir, — Mr. Yarrell, in his 'British Birds' (1st ed.), writing 
of the Long-tailed Duck, says that in the male bird there are 
" four window-like apertures " at the bottom of the trachea j 
but in his vignettes five are represented (B, B. iii. p. 261); 

396 Letters, Announcements, 5fC. 

and in several specimens prepared by me there have been 
five. Five must therefore be considered the normal num- 
ber. Comparing his vignettes of the tracheal enlargements 
in the Duck-tribe with the specimens which I have prepared, 
I have only in a few instances found mine to differ from his. 
Perhaps the most difference I have observed is in the Shel- 
duck, the lobes in mine being a good deal larger than they 
were apparently in his ; but it is possible that his picture may 
have been purposely done on a small scale. 

In allied species of Ducks, where the outward marks of 
shape and colour conform, one would naturally expect a con- 
formity of trachea ; but any naturalist who has dissected 
birds can at once lay his hand on a remarkable exception. 

The Garganey and Teal are very near cousins; but the 
Garganey^s windpipe in no way resembles a TeaPs ; it is 
vastly larger in the labyrinth. In a specimen now before me 
this labyrinth, or cartilaginous box, if one may so term it, 
measures 2\ inches in circumference, whereas in a Teal the 
same part measures only \\ inch; yet neither of these speci- 
mens was selected as being unusually large or small. 

J. H. GuRNEY, Jun., 

Northrepps Cottage, Norwich. 
May 12, 1877. 

Sirs, — A few months ago I had an opportunity of examin- 
ing a large collection of Phylloscopi which had been lent to 
my friend Mr. Seebohm by different collectors. One bird in 
particular attracted my attention. 

It belonged to the collection of Von Homey er, and was 
labelled " Phylloscopus middendorffi ^ juv., Tjabuk, 16th 
August 1872 :" on the back of the label was, "Ural, No. 9.'' 

I found it to be, beyond all doubt, Phylloscopus viridanus 
of Blyth in its first plumage, before the slight wing-bar loses 
its colour and becomes whitish. Two of my examples that I 
had with me, early autumn birds, matched it most perfectly. 

The southern part of the Ural Mountains is in Russia in 
Europe, and does not, like the northern portion, form the 
boundary between Europe and Asia ; and this being the case. 

Letters, Announcements, S^c. 397 

Tjabuk must be in Europe. It must be a little-known place ; 
for none of the maps that I have seen show it. In Mr. 
Dresser's ' Birds of Europe/ part 38^ and under the head of 
Hypolais caligata, I find the place referred to as being in the 
South-eastern Ural. 

I think the species ought to be added to the European list. 

An addition may be also made to the Asiatic list ; for I 
have seen an example of Acrocephalus turdoides obtained by 
Capt. Henry St. John, R.N., in China. 

The length of its wing is 3'65. The wing of A. orientalis 
is generally about 3'25 inches long. 

The form of the wing of the Chinese example above re- 
ferred to agrees perfectly with that of an Astracan example 
I have, the second primary being almost as long as the third 
(which is the longest) and much longer than the fourth. In 
the allied Eastern species A. stentorius {A. brunnescens) , 
the second primary is about the same length as the fifth, and 
is often between the fifth and sixth. 

It would be impossible to separate undersized examples of 
A. turdoides from large ones of A. orientalis by appearance 
only. There may be differences of voice, song, nest, and eggs ; 
but of these I have not any knowledge. 

The nest of -^. stentorius is a deep cup, substantially built of 
grass and long leaves of water-plants, and is firmly attached 
to a few reeds, like the nest of A. streperus. It is generally 
placed about eighteen inches above the surface of the water. 
The eggs are very similar to those of its European ally. It 
breeds plentifully around the lakes of Cashmere, where I found 
several nests. I did not see any other Reed-Warbler about 
these lakes. 

Yours &c., 

W. Edwin Brooks. 

29 May, 1877. 

Sirs, — Having recently had an opportunity of inspecting, 
in the Gardens of the Zoological Society, the interesting Fal- 
con taken ofi" Socotra (mentioned anteh, p. 149) I trouble you 
with the following remarks respecting it. 

SEE. IV. VOL. I. 2 b 

398 Letters, Announcements, &^c. 

The bird is still iu immature plumage ; and until after its 
next moult it will, I think, be impossible to determine (ex- 
cept by dissection in case of death) whether it is a male of 
Falco jieregrinus or a female of either F. barbarus or F. minor ; 
but 1 am decidedly of opinion that it is not an example of 
F. peregrinator, as that species, when in immature dress, al- 
ways has, so far as I have observed, the longitudinal dark 
marks on the breast and abdomen narrower than they are in 
this specimen, and the paler interspaces decidedly tinged with 
rufous. I am, &c., 


Sirs, — In the last number of 'The Ibis' {antea, p. 164) 
Mr. Seebohm gives a detailed description of the rufous-tailed 
Shrike, which has been shot on Heligoland. After having 
examined the specimen and collated with other skins, he says, 
'' I submit that the Heligoland bird is Lanius isabellinus, 
Hempr. & Ehr. (1828), = i>. arenarius, Blyth (1846), = L. 
phoenicuroides, Sev. {1876)." 

I have not had the pleasure of examining this Heligoland 
Shrike ; but I have received, by the kindness of Mr. Gaetke, 
a longer description, which I have published (Journ. fiir Or- 
nithologie, 1875), and from which I suppose the bird not to 
be Lanius phoenicurus, Pall., but a nearly allied species, pro- 
bably L. phoenicuroides of Severtzoif. In identifying the 
Heligoland Shrike with L. isabellinus, Hempr. & Ehr., Mr. 
Seebohm is perhaps right; but in identifying this last-named 
bird with L. phoenicuroides, Sev., he is not right. These two 
Shrikes are nearly allied, but not the same. In a little ac- 
count of the genus Otomela, Bp. (Journ. fiir Ornithologie, 
1875), I have referred to the specific differences between 
these rufous-tailed Shrikes. The examination of the large 
series of L. isabellinus and L. phoenicuroides which Mr. Mo- 
dest Bogdanow has collected in Turkestan has confirmed my 

I am, &c., 


Berlin, N., Nieder-Schonhausen, 
6th June, 1877. 

Letters, Announcements, S^c. 399 

Sirs, — Mr. Gould, in part xxix. of 'The Birds of Asia/ 
treating of Sturnus unicolor, quotes from part xxvi. of Dresser's 
work ' The Birds of Europe ' a passage where it is said that 
Sturnus unicolor is " common in Italy/' This is not exactly 
the case; and I suppose that Dresser, by a lapsus calami, 
wrote " Italy " instead of " Sardinia." When I wrote my 
work on the Birds of Italy I did not know of any instance 
of S. unicolor having been met with in the Italian peninsula ; 
but since then I heard from my friend the Marquis G. Doria, 
of Genoa, that in 1867 two specimens of it, caught near Genoa, 
had come into his hands. In any case the appearance of 
S. unicolor in Italy is quite accidental, while both in Sardinia 
and in Sicily S. unicolor is a common and stationary bird. 

I am, yours &c., 

T. Salvadori. 
Zoological Museum, 

Turin, June 8th, 1877. 

Roraima and its Mysteries. — The ' Spectator ' speaks very 
appositely of Roraima, in noticing Mr. Brown's recent work 
(see antea, p. 239) : — 

" One of the greatest marvels and mysteries of the earth 
lies on the outskirt of one of our own colonies ; and we leave 
the mystery unsolved, the marvel uncared for ! A great table 
of pink and white and red sandstone, ' interbedded with red 
shale,' rises from a height of 5100 feet above the level of the 
sea, 2000 feet sheer into the sapphire tropical sky. A forest 
crowns it ; the highest waterfall in the world tumbles from 
its summit, 2000 feet at one leap. As far as I can make out, 
only two parties of civilized explorers have touched the base 
of the table — Sir Robert Schomburgk many years ago, Mr. 
Brown and a companion in 1869 — each at different spots. 
Mr. Brown cannot help speculating whether the remains of a 
former creation may not be found at the top. At any rate, 
there is the forest on the summit. Of what trees is it com- 
posed ? They cannot well be the same as those at the 
base .... For millenniums this island of sandstone must have 
had its own distinct flora. What may be its fauna? Very 

400 Letters, Announcements, ^r, 

few birds probably ascend to a height of 2000 feet in the air, 
the vulture tribe excepted. Nearly the whole of its animated 
inhabitants are likely to be as distinct as its plants. Is it 
peopled with human beings ? Who can tell ? Why not V 
The summit, Mr. Brown says, is inaccessible, except by 
means of balloons. Well, that is a question to be settled on 

the spot between an engineer and a first-rate ' Alpine ' 

But put it that a balloon is required, surely it would be worth 
while for one of our scientific societies to organize a balloon 
expedition for the purpose. No one can tell what problems 
in natural science might not be elucidated. We have here 
an area of limited extent, within which the secular variation 
of species by natural selection, if any, must have gone on un- 
disturbed since, at least, the very beginning of the present 
age in the world^s life. Can there be a fairer field for the 
testing of those theories which are occupying men^s minds so 
much in our days ? " 

We hear with great pleasure that a young ornithologist, 
already known to fame (Mr. Everard F. im Thurn), has re- 
ceived the appointment of Director of the Natural-History 
Museum at Georgetown, Demerara, with liberty to travel 
and explore for a certain portion of the year. We trust he 
will turn his attention to the mysteries of Roraima. 

Translation of Milller's Memoir on the Voice-organ of the 
Passeres. — We are glad to be able to announce the approach- 
ing publication, by the Delegates of the Oxford University 
Press, of a translation, by Mr. Bell, of Miiller's Classical Essay 
upon the organs of voice of the Passeres. Prof. Garrod has 
undertaken to supply a series of notes to bring the work up 
to the level of our present knowledge of this important sub- 
ject. The Academy of Berlin has most liberally granted the 
use of the original copper-plates, to which, however, we be- 
lieve, additions will be made. 



No. IV. OCTOBER 1877. 

XXXIV. — List of Birds observed in Smith Sound and in the 
Polar Basin during the Arctic Expedition of \^7 '6-7 Q. By 
H. W. Feilden. 

In tlie following notes I have confined myself to an enume- 
ration of the various species of birds met with by the recent 
Arctic Expedition in Smith Sound and northward, between 
the seventy-eighth and eighty-third degrees of north latitude. 
All of the birds noted are well-known arctic forms ; and the 
chief interest lies in the record of their great northern exten- 
sion in the western hemisphere. The only other part of the 
globe lying within nearly the same parallels of latitude with 
which we are well acquainted is Spitsbergen; and though 
that group of islands has been frequently visited by accom- 
plished and painstaking naturalists, yet the number of species 
of birds, including stragglers, at present known to have oc- 
curred there is under thirty. Were I to include in this list 
species recorded by Dr. Bessels * from Thank-God Harbour, 
not met with by me, the list of the avifauna of Smith Sound 
and Spitsbergen would be about numerically equal, thus ac- 

* Bulletin de la Societe de Geographie : Paris, 1875. 

SER. IV. VOL. I. 2f 

402 Capt. H. W. Feilden on the Birds observed 

cording, as far as numbers are concerned^ with the opinion pub- 
lished before the Expedition left England by one of the most 
distinguished members of our Society^ ; and^ except amongst 
those sanguine persons who may still cling to a belief in the ex- 
istence of an " open polar sea/' I think it is impossible to doubt 
that, both specifically and numerically, bird-life must rapidly 
decrease with every degree of northern latitude after passing 
the eighty-second parallel. If, however, there be an extension 
of land to the northernmost part of our globe, I see no reason 
why a few species of birds should not resort there to breed ; 
and those most likely to proceed there are Plectrophanes ni- 
valis, Strepsilas interpres, Calidris arenaria, Tringa canutus, 
and Sterna macrura. There would still be sufficient summer, 
if such a term may be used, for the period of incubation ; and 
from what I have seen of the transporting powers of the wind 
in drifting seeds over the frozen expanse of the polar sea, I 
cannot doubt that a scanty flora exists at the pole itself, if 
there be any land there, and that the abundance of insect-life 
which exists as high as the eighty-third degree will be present 
at the ninetieth, sufficient to provide for a few Knots, Sander- 
lings, and Turnstones. The arctic sea at the most northern 
point reached abounds with Amphipoda, such as Anonyx nu- 
gax, which doubtless extend all through the polar sea ; and 
these crustaceans supply Sterna macrura with food in those 
parts where the continual presence of ice prevents fish 
coming to the surface ; for wherever there is land there must 
be tidal ice-cracks, which allow these minute animals to work 
tbeir way up between the floes. The range of the Brent- 
Goose is probably coincident with the range of Sawifraga op- 
positifolia ; and this plant also sujiplies subsistence to the Knot 
and Turnstone, and probably the Sanderling, before the long 
arctic day has awakened the insect-life. 

Ross's Gull {Rhodostethia rosea) not having been met with 
in Smith Sound, either by our expedition or that of the 
' Polaris,' its absence from Spitsbergen, Franz- Joseph Laud, 
and, as far as we know, the northern shores of Siberia, its 
not having been noticed by any of our arctic or Franklin- 
* Newtou, 'Arctic IVFanual,' p. 114: London, 1875. 

during the Arctic Expedition 1875-76. 403 

search expeditions that entered Lancaster Sound, or skirted 
the northern shores of America from Behring's Straits, nor 
by observers in Alaska or the fur- countries, leads to the sup- 
position that it must be a species of limited distribution, 
having its breeding-haunts to the north of Hudson^ s Bay. 
I would suggest that inquiries about this bird should be made 
among the Esquimo of Cumberland Gulf; and as it is chiefly 
American vessels that winter there, the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion would, I think, have very little difficulty in inducing 
some person employed there to investigate this subject. Dr. 
Horner, of the yacht 'Pandora,' kindly informed me that in 
July 1876 he saw an example of Saxicola mnanthe at Port 
Foulke, a far more northern range of this species than had 
previously been recorded. 

I was much struck with the extreme shyness of all the birds 
we met with in the far north ; and until they had settled down 
to nesting it was no easy matter to get within gun-shot range. 

1. Falco candicans. Greenland Falcon. 

The white form of Great Northern Falcon, though seen on 
several occasions, was not procured by us in Smith Sound. 
Mr. Hart noticed a pair of these birds nesting in the lime- 
stone clifiFs near Cape Hayes, Grinnell Land (lat. 79°41'N.), 
but was unable to secure a specimen. From this point to our 
most northern extreme this Falcon was not observed by any 
member of the expedition. On the 24th August, 1876, near 
Cape Fraser (lat. 79° 47' N.), when on our return southwards, 
a bird of this species flew round our vessels. The following 
morning, when on shore between Cape Hayes and Cape Na- 
poleon, I saw a magnificent example of F. candicans seated 
on a rock ; it permitted me to get within seventy or eighty 
yards ; but I failed in trying to procure it. 

2. Nyctea scandiaca. Snowy Owl. 

This Owl is a common spring and summer migrant to the 
northern part of Grinnell Land. On the 2nd October, 1875, 
I observed an individual of this species seated on a hummock 
in the vicinity of our winter-quarters (lat. 82° 27' N.) . On 
the 29th March, 1876, an example was seen by Lieutenant 


404 Capt. H. W. Feiklcu on the Birds observed 

Parr some three miles north of the ship. 15th May, whilst 
travelling up a valley (lat. 83° 40' N.) in Grinnell Land, our 
party disturbed a Snowy Owl from the ground. Subsequently 
this species was not unfrequently observed ; a pair seemed to 
frequent and breed in each large valley running down to the 
sea-shore. On the 24th June we found a nest of these birds 
containing seven eggs (lat. 82° 33' N.) ; the nest was a mere 
hollow scooped out of the earth, and situated on the summit 
of an eminence which rose from the centre of the valley. 
Several other nests were found in the vicinity of winter- 
quarters, and at one time there were six or seven fine young- 
birds caged on board. In the vicinity of Discovery Bay 
(lat. 81° 44' N.) this Owl bred abundantly. During the 
month of August, while proceeding southwards, it was no 
uncommon circumstance to see one or more of these birds 
occupying a conspicuous post on the bold headlands we were 
passing under. By the end of the month all had disappeared. 
The food of the Snowj^ Owl in Grinnell Land appears to con- 
sist entirely of the lemming {My odes torquatus). Hundreds 
of their cast pellets, which I picked up and examined, con- 
sisted of the bones and fur of these little animals ; and the 
stomachs of all I opened contained the same. 

3. Plectrophanes nivalis. Snow-Bunting. 

After passing the 78° of north latitude this species is not 
met with in the same numbers as in the neighbourhood of 
the Danish settlements of West Greenland, but is dispersed 
generally along the shores of Smith Sound and the Polar 
Basin. On the 28th August, 1875, at Shift-rudder Bay 
(lat. 81° 52' N.), I observed a flock of about eighty, and a 
second, in which I counted over twenty, flying south. 14th 
September, Lieutenant Parr met with a solitary individual in 
lat. 82° 35' N. ; and the last one I observed that season flew 
past the ship on the 24th September. 

I first heard the note of this bird when travelling, on the 
13th May 1876, in lat. 82° 35' N. ; the following day I ob- 
served one ; and after that day they were frequently met with. 
On the 27th May Lieutenant Parr, on his journey from the 

during the Arctic Expedition 1875-76. 405 

north over the ice^ saw a Snow-Bunting near to the 83°. I 
found a nest of this species on the 24th June (lat. 82° 33' N.), 
containing four eggs, within twenty feet of the nest of a 
Snowy Owl ; it was neatly constructed of grasses, and lined 
with the Owl's feathers. On another occasion I found a 
nest lined with the soft wool of the musk-ox. 

4. CoRvus coRAX. Raven. 

A pair of these birds were observed by Dr. Coppinger to 
be nesting in the cliffs of Cape Lupton during the month of 
July. While this officer was detained at Polaris Bay by the 
sickness of some of the sledge-crews, he noticed these birds 
visit their camp daily in search of offal. The Baven was not 
observed by any of our expedition along the shores of the 
Polar Basin; so that I consider Cape Lupton (lat. 81° 44' N.) 
the northernmost settlement of this species. 29th August, 
1876, at Dobbin Bay (lat. 79° 36' N.), a female, one of a 
pair, was shot by Dr. Moss, who enticed it within range by 
laying down a dead hare and concealing himself near at hand. 
South of Dobbin Bay I observed this species at several points 
in Smith Sound — namely, at Cape Hayes, Norman-Lockyer 
Island, and Cape Sabine. 

5. Lagopus rupestris. Rock-Ptarmigan. 

This Ptarmigan was obtained by our sledging parties as 
far north as 82° 46', two or three couples having been killed 
in the end of May on Feilden Peninsula. Lieutenant Aldrich 
found traces of Ptarmigan on Cape Columbia (lat. 83° 6' N.), 
the most northern land yet visited by man. On the 29th 
September, 1875, Captain Markham, in lat. 82° 40' N., ob- 
served four of these birds ; and the earliest date on which 
they were noticed in the spring of 1876 was on the 11th 

6. Strepsilas interpres. Turnstone. 

This bird is tolerably abundant in Smith Sound and the 
region north of it visited by the Expedition. It was 
observed as late as the 5th September, 1875, in lat. 82° 30' 
N., and was first noticed on the 5th June, 1876, in the neigh- 
bourhood of the winter-quarters of H.M.S. 'Alert.' By the 
12th August the young broods Avere able to fly. 

■ 406 Capt. H. W. Feilden on the Birds observed 

7. ^GiALiTis HiATicuLA. Ringed Plover. 

Only a single example of this species was observed in Smith 
Sound, It was obtained 4th August, 1875, on the beach 
bordering the valley of the Twin glacier, in Buchanan Strait 
(lat. 78° 48' N.). My attention was drawn to the bird by 
its note ; and I then observed it threading its way among 
the stones and stranded blocks of ice near the water^s edge. 
It was probably nesting in the neighbourhood, as it proved 
on examination to be a female, with the feathers worn off 
the underparts from incubation. 

8. Calidris arenaria. Sanderling. 

I first observed this species in Grinnell Land on the 5th 
June, 1876, flying in company with Knots and Turnstones ; 
at this date it was feeding, like the other Waders, on the buds 
of Saxifraga oppositifolia. This bird was by no means abun- 
dant along the coasts of Grinnell Land ; but I observed several 
pairs in the aggregate, and found a nest of this species con- 
taining two eggs, in lat. 82° 33' N., on 24th June, 1876. 
This nest, from which I killed the male bird, was placed on 
a gravel ridge, at an altitude of several hundred feet above 
the sea ; and the eggs were deposited in a slight depression 
in the centre of a recumbent plant of arctic willow, the lining 
of the nest consisting of a fewwithered leaves and some of the 
last year's catkins. 8th August, 1876, along the shores of 
Robeson Channel, I saw several parties of young ones, three 
to four in number, following their parents, and led by the 
old birds, searching most diligently for insects. At this date 
they were in a very interesting stage of plumage, being just 
able to fly, but retaining some of the down on their feathers. 

9. Phalaropus fulicarius. Grey Phalarope. 

I obtained an example of this species, a female, near our 
winter-quarters (lat. 82° 27' N.) on the 30th June 1876; and 
during the month of July I observed a pair on a small fresh- 
water pond in lat. 82° 30' N. ; they were apparently breeding. 
The female of this species is larger and brighter-coloured than 
the male bird. Several other examples were observed in the 
neighbourhood of our winter-quarters by various members 
of the expedition. 

during the Arctic Expedition 1875-76. 407 

10. Tringa canutus. Knot. 

I was not so fortunate as to obtain the eggs of this species 
during my stay in the polar regions^ though it breeds in some 
numbers along the shores of Smith Sound and the north coast 
of Grinnell Land. It appears to be common throughout the 
Parry Islands during summer, as Sabine found it (1820) 
nesting in great numbers on Melville Island. I find it enu- 
merated in a list of birds (preserved in the archives of the 
Admiralty) as procured by Dr. Anderson, of H.M.S. 'Enter- 
prise/ at Cambridge Bay (lat. 69° 10' N.) in July 1853. On 
the 28th July, 1875, Dr. Coppinger came across a party of 
six Knots several miles inland from Port Foulke : these birds 
were feeding near a rill, and were very wild ; but he managed 
to secure a single specimen, a male in full breeding-plumage. 
August 25, 1875, I observed several of these birds near the 
water-edge in Discovery Bay (lat. 81° 44' N.) . The rills and 
marshes were by this time frozen, and the birds were feeding 
along the shore on the small crustaceans so common in the 
arctic seas ; in pursuit of their food they ran breast-high into 
the water. By this date they had lost their breeding-plumage. 
On 5th June, 1876, when camped near Knot Harbour, Grin- 
nell Land (lat. 82° 33' N.), we noticed the first arrival of these 
birds ; a flock of fourteen or more were circling over a hill- 
side, alighting on bare patches, and feeding eagerly on the 
buds of Saxifraga oppositifolia. Subsequently we met with 
this bird in considerable numbers ; but they were always very 
wild and most difficult of approach. The cry of the Knot is 
wild, and something like that of the Cuj'lew. Immediately 
after arrival in June they began to mate, and at times I noticed 
two or more males following a single female ; at this season 
they soar in the air, like the common Snipe, and when de- 
scending from a height beat their wings behind the back with 
a rapid motion, which produces a loud whirring noise. During 
the month of July my companions and I often endeavoured 
to discover the nest of this bird ; but none of us were suc- 
cessful; however, on the 30th July, 1876, the day before we 
broke out of our winter-quarters, where we had been frozen- 
in eleven months, three of our seamen, walking by the border 

408 Capt. H. W. Feilden on the Birds observed 

of a small lake_, not far from the ship^ came upon an old bird 
accompanied by three nestlings_, which they brought to me. 
The old bird proved to be a male; its stomach, and those of 
the young ones, were filled Avith insects. The following de- 
scription of the newly hatched birds was taken down at the 
time : — Iris black ; tip of mandibles dark brown, bill dark 
olive ; toes black, soles of feet greenish yellow ; back of legs 
the same ; underpart of throat satin-white ; back beautifully 
mottled tortoise-shell. Dr. Coppinger informed me that this 
bird was not uncommon at Thank-God Harbour during July. 
In the first week of August, I saw family parties of Knots 
at Shift-rudder Bay (lat. 81° 52' N.) ; they were then in the 
grey autumn plumage. The Knot bred in the vicinity of 
Discovery Bay ; but no eggs were found there, although the 
young were obtained in all stages of plumage. 

11. Sterna macrura. Arctic Tern. 

Is not uncommon in Smith Sound, and we found it breeding 
at several localities we visited on our way north . 1 1th August^ 
1875, on Norman- Lockyer Island, I noticed several pairs, and 
picked up a bleached egg, probably an addled one of a former 
season. August 21st, we found eight or ten pairs breeding 
on a small islet oflF the north end of Bellot Island (lat. 81° 44' 
N.) : the land at this date was covered with snow ; and on the 
islet it lay about three inches deep. In one nest I found a , 
newly hatched Tern ; it seemed quite well and lively in its 
snow cradle. The parent birds had evidently thrown the snow 
out of the nest as it fell ; for it was surrounded by a border 
of snow marked by the feet of the old birds, and raised at 
least two inches above the general level. The Terns on this 
islet were rather shy, none coming within range until I had 
handled the young one. There seemed to be abundance of 
fish in the pools between the floes, as the old birds were flying 
with them in their mandibles. The stomach of the female 
which I killed was empty ; but that of the nestling contained 
remains offish. On the 16th June, 1876, three of these birds 
appeared in the neighbourhood of the winter-quarters of the 
^ Alert.' By the end of June pairs of these birds were scat- 

daring the Arctic Expedition 1875-76. 409 

tered at intervals along the coast ; and a nest, scraped in the 
gravel and containing two eggs, was found 27tli June, about 
three miles north of our winter-quarters. During the first 
week in August we found a pair of young birds nearly ready 
to fly in lat. 81° 50' N. 

12. Pagophila eburnea. Ivory Gull. 

One of the Gulls most frequently observed in Smith Sound, 
but not beyond latitude 82° 20' N. I found a pair nesting 
in a lofty and inaccessible cliff near Cape Hayes on the 16th 
August, 1875. On 1st September a single example flew 
around the ' Alert ' when she lay moored to the ice in Lincoln 
Bay (lat. 82° 6' N.). On the 2nd August, 1876, I observed 
one of this species near Cape Union ; on the 12tli August 
they were common in Discovery Bay, and from there south- 
ward to the north water of Baffin Bay. 

13. RissA TRiDACTYLA. Kittiwakc. 

I saw a few examples of this species flying over the open 
water in the vicinity of Port Foulke, 28th July, 1875 ; but we 
did not observe it to the northward after entering the ice of 
Smith Sound ; and in 1876 no specimen was seen as the ex- 
pedition returned south, until the north water of Baffin Bay 
was reached. 

14. Larus glaucus. Glaucous Gull. 

We did not find this species breeding north of Cape Sabine ; 
but stray individuals were observed as far north as lat. 82° 34'. 
The 1st September, 1875, was the latest date in the autumn 
on which I noticed this species ; and it reappeared in the vici- 
nity of wdnter- quarters (lat. 82° 27' N.) in the middle of June. 

15. Stercorarius longicaudatus. Buffon's Skua. 

This was the only species of Skua Gull that I met with in 
Smith Sound ; it arrived in the neighbourhood of our winter- 
quarters during the first week of June, and in considerable 
numbers. After that date it was to be seen during every hour 
of the day quartering the fells and searching for lemmings. 
It lays its two eggs in a small hollow in the ground, and de- 
fends its nest with the utmost bravery. On several occasions 

410 Capt. H. W. Feilden on the Birds observed 

I have struck the old birds with my gun-barrel when warding 
off their attacks as I plundered their nests. This species can 
easily be distinguished from its near ally, S. parasiticus, at 
every age, by the mottled colour of the tarsus and webs of 
the feet, which in S. parasiticus are black. 

16. Procellaria glacialis. Fulmar. 

Common in the north water of Baffin Bay ; and individuals 
followed our ships until we entered the pack off Cape Sabine. 
On the 26th June, 1876, Lieutenant Parr and I, when travel- 
ling on the coast of Grinnell Land (lat. 82° 30'N.), observed one 
of these birds ; and a few days later Lieutenant Egerton found 
one dead on the shore some two miles further to the north- 
ward. We did not observe this species again till our return 
to Baffin Bay in September 1876. 

17. Uria grylle. Black Guillemot. 

The Dovekie was found breeding at various spots along the 
shores of Smith Sound and northward, notably at Washington- 
Irving Island, Dobbin Bay, Cape Hayes, and Bessels Bay ; it 
does not, I think, breed north of Cape Union. I saw two or 
three examples feeding in pools on the floe as far north as 
lat. 82° 33' ; but they were evidently mere stragglers. 

18. Mergulus alle. Little Auk. 

The north water of Baffin Bay is the summer home of 
countless numbers of these birds ; they do not, however, pene- 
trate in any numbers far up Smith Sound, the most northern 
point where I observed them being in Buchanan Strait (lat. 
79°) . I do not think that they breed to the north of Foulke 
Fiord ; but the talus at the base of the cliffs that flank that 
inlet is occupied by myriads of them during the nesting-season. 
On the 28th July, we found the young just hatched ; they are 
in that stage covered with black down. From the large amount 
of bones and feathers lying around the huts of the Esquimo 
village of Etah, it is evident that these birds contribute largely 
to the support of the Arctic Highlanders during summer. 

19. Alga bruennichii. Bruennich's Guillemot. 

1 observed two individuals of this species in August as far 

during the Arctic Expedition 1875-76. 411 

north as Buchanan Strait (lat. 79°) ; but this bird was not seen 
again by me until our return southward in September 1876^ 
after regaining navigable water south of Cape Sabine. The 
north water of Baffin Bay is evidently the limit of the north- 
ern range of the species in that direction ; and I doubt if 
there are any breeding-haunts of this species north of Cape 


On the 2nd September, 1875, at Floeberg Beach (lat. 82° 
27' N.), a Diver, I think C. septentrionulis , alighted in a pool 
about a hundred yards from the ship. A boat was instantly 
lowered ; but the noise made by pushing the boat through the 
young ice alarmed the bird, which rose and flew to another 
pool half a mile to the southward. I tried to make my way 
over the floe towards the bird ; but the ice was unsafe, so I had 
to give up the pursuit. The numerous lakes and ponds in 
Grinnell Land abound with a species of char [Salmo arcturus, 
Giinther) , which doubtless might afibrd good living to birds of 
this family. 

21. Harelda glacialis. Long-tailed Duck. 

We observed a flock of this species swimming in the pools 
of water between the floes on the 1st September, 1875, near 
Floeberg Beach (lat. 82° 27' N.). On the 16th September 
two were shot not far from the ship. During the summer of 
1876 a few of these birds visited the northern shores of Grin- 
nell Land ; we found them in pairs on lakes and ponds, where 
they were evidently breeding. From the rapidity with which 
they dive they are very difficult to shoot, and when secured do 
not repay the outlay in powder and lead. 

22. SoMATERiA MOLLissiMA. Eider. 

This species breeds in great numbers in the neighbourhood 
of Port Foulke, but decreased in numbers as we advanced 
northwards. It became rare after passing Cape Fraser, the 
meeting-place of the polar and Baffin-bay tides, but was re- 
placed to some extent by the next species. I did not obtain 
an Eider north of Cape Union. Dr. Coppinger procured both 
Eider and King-Duck at Thank-God Harbour (lat. 81° 38' N.) 
in the month of July, 1876. 

412 Messrs. P. L. Sclater and W. A. Forbes on the 


I did not obtain this bird in Smith Sound during the autumn 
of 1875 ; but in the end of June 1876 scA^eral flocks of males 
and females, numbering from ten to twenty individuals, were 
seen near Floeberg Beach (lat. 82° 27' N.). Most of these 
fell a prey to our gunners ; but those that escaped settled down 
to breed along the coast, and several nests were found with 
fresh eggs in them from the 9th to the middle of July. 

24. Bernicla brenta. Brent-Goose. 

During the first week of June, parties of these birds arrived 
in the vicinity of our winter-quarters (lat. 82° 27' N.) ; for 
some days they continued flying up and down the coast-line, 
evidently looking out for places bare of snow to feed on. 
They were very wary, and kejit well out of gun-shot range. 
On the 21st June I found the first nest with eggs, in lat. 82° 
33' N. ; subsequently many were found. When the young are 
hatched the parent birds and broods congregate on the lakes or 
in open water spaces near the shore in large flocks ; by the end 
of July the old birds were moulting and unable to fly, so that 
they were easily secured, and afforded most valuable change 
of diet to our sick. The flesh of this bird is most excellent. 

The gander remains in the vicinity of the nest while the 
goose is sitting, and accompanies the young brood. In one 
instance where I killed a female as she left her nest the gander 
came hissing at me. 

XXXV. — On the Nesting of the Spoonbill in Holland. 
By P. L. Sclater and W. A. Forbes. 

That the Spoonbill {Platalea^ leucorodia) breeds in Holland 
is a fact well known to every ornithologist ; and most egg- 
collectors are aware that specimens of its eggs obtained in that 
country are to be purchased at a very cheap rate in the 

* Mr. Dresser (B. Eur. pt. 2o-24) uses Pkdea as the generic uame of 
the Spoonbill instead of Platalea. It may be hoped, however, that this 
is a mere oversight, and that Mr. Dresser is not prepared to dissent from 
the canon that Linnean names are to remain inviolate. 

Nesting of the Spoonbill in Holland. 413 

London egg-shops. But we are not sure that any orni- 
thologist^ at least of this country, has actually visited the 
nesting-places of this bird, or, at any rate, has published any 
account of them. In May 1867, as is recorded in Gould^s 
^ Birds of Great Britain' (vol. iv. part 30), Sclater paid a 
visit to a nesting-place of the Spoonbill at Nieuwer-kerk, 
near Rotterdam; but though he saw many Spoonbills, the 
nesting had not then begun ; and the lake which he visited 
is said to have been drained since that time. We hope there- 
fore that it may interest readers of ' The Ibis ' to have an 
account of our recent experiences on this subject. 

Being in Holland in the first week of May this year, Sclater 
made many inquiries as to where the Spoonbills could be seen 
performing the duties of reproduction, and finally ascertained 
from Hr. A. A. Van Bemmelen, Director of the Zoological 
Gardens at Rotterdam, that the most likely place to witness 
this interesting phenomenon was the Horster Meer, between 
Amsterdam and Utrecht. At Amsterdam it was ascer- 
tained that the first week in July would be a convenient 
period for the proposed excursion with this object, as about 
that time the birds would have commenced incubation. 

On the 3rd of July, therefore, we found ourselves at the 
Amstel Hotel, at Amsterdam ; and upon visiting Mr. Hegt, 
the Assistant-Director of the Zoological Society's Gardens 
there, found that he had kindly made every necessary arrange- 
ment for our proposed expedition next day. No railway- 
station being very convenient for the Horster Meer, he had 
ordered a carriage to take us from Amsterdam to the scene 
of action. 

Next morning we started about 8 o'clock, and had about 
three hours' drive, passing the villages of Abgouda and Vree- 
land before arriving at Overmeer an de Vecht, the little 
village in which Hr. van Dyk, the lessee of the Horster Meer, 
resided. The Horster Meer consists o£ a large tract of water 
reed-beds and swamp, lying on the right bank of the Vecht, 
and immediately to the south of the Zuyder Zee. It is 
between the railways going from Amsterdam to Utrecht on 

414 Messrs. P. L. Sclater and W. A. Forbes on the 

one side_, and from Amsterdam to Amersfoort on the other. 
It belongs to a rich proprietor in Amsterdam^ but is farmed 
out at a considerable rent for the sake of the fish^ reeds, and 
bird^s eggs which it produces. The last-mentioned objects 
are collected from the nests in which they are laid, twice a 
week during the months of May and June, and sold in Am- 
sterdam to such persons as require a large supply of fresh 
eggs without being particular as to the source from which 
they are derived. 

On arriving at Overmeer we were received by Hr. van 
Dyk and escorted to a boat, which conveyed us along a short 
canal into the Horster Meer. No sooner had we arrived on 
the lake than the air above us was filled with an enormous flight 
of Cormorants, who well knew what a visit to their domain 
portended. A few minutes afterwards about 500 Spoonbills 
were circling in the air over our heads, their long legs 
stretched behind them, and their white bodies glistening in 
the sun. The Meer, so far as visible, was not a very ex- 
tensive piece of water, being closed in on all sides by enor- 
mous reed-beds, the homes of these and other aquatic birds. 
Having landed at the end of a ditch which penetrated into 
one of these beds of reeds, we pursued a track which led us 
first to a breeding-place of the Cormorants. Here was a 
circular space, perhaps fifty yards in diameter, cleared of 
reeds, in which the Cormorants' nests stood thick together 
on the swampy soil. They were formed of rather large sticks, 
piled somewhat loosely together to a height of about 18 inches 
above the surface. The top of the nest was only slightly 
hollowed out, and lined with a few broken reeds. The eggs 
were in no case more than two in number, the poor birds 
having been robbed continuously up to that time, and only 
within the last few days allowed to commence incubation. 

Having inspected the Cormorants' breeding-place, we pro- 
ceeded about fifty yards further through the reed-beds, over 
a still more treacherous swamp, to the breeding-place of the 
Spoonbills. The nests of these birds ^ were not situated so 
near together as those of the Cormorants, but scattered about 
two or three yards from each other, with thin patches of 

Nesting of the Spoonbill in Holland. 415 

reeds growing between them. There was, however, a clear 
open space in the neighbourhood, formed of broken-down 
reeds, in which the birds were said to congregate. The 
SpoonbilFs nest, in the Horster Meer at least, is a mere 
flattened surface of broken reed, not elevated more than two 
or three inches above the general level of the swamp ; and no 
other substance but reed appears to be used in its construc- 
tion. What the proper complement of eggs would be if the 
birds were left undisturbed we cannot say ; for, as in the case 
of the Cormorants, the nests are robbed systematically twice 
a week, until the period when it is known by experience that 
they cannot produce any more eggs. Then at last the birds 
are allowed to sit undisturbed. At the time of our visit the 
season for collecting eggs was just past ; but we helped our- 
selves to eight fresh eggs, from different nests, laid since the 
last collection had been made. During all the time that we 
were in the reed-beds the Cormorants and Spoonbills were 
floating about over our heads, fully aware that there was an 
enemy in the camp. We were told that there were several 
other nesting-places of the Spoonbill in diff'erent parts of the 
Horster Meer, containing altogether several thousand nests ; 
so that we may hope that it will be some time before this fine 
bird becomes extinct in this locality. 

The only other bird we found nesting in the Horster Meer 
was the Black Tern, of which we captured two young chicks. 

After refreshing ourselves at the hostelry of Overmeer, 
we returned to Amsterdam in the evening by a difierent route, 
highly satisfied with our day with the Spoonbills. 

We may observe, in conclusion, that on looking over Mr. 
Dresser^s account of the Spoonbill in his 'Birds of Europe,' 
we find him quoting from Schlegel that this bird " is found 
in the neighbourhood of the large rivers, at Biesboch, Nieuw- 
erkerk, on the Yssel at Bozenburg, and on the Maas : and 
breeds in Holland, arriving there in April and leaving in 
September.''^ Again, a few pages further on, Mr. Dresser 
says, " It breeds in Holland ; but I do not find any record of 
its having of late been found nesting elsewhere in Northern 
Europe, though in Hungary and South-Eastern Europe it 

416 Mr. D. G. Elliot on Buceros bicornis, Linn. 

breeds numerously/^ In Mr. Gould's folio, too, no more 
detailed account is given, with the exception of the record 
of Sclater's unsuccessful expedition ten years ago. Now our 
experiences as to the position of the SpoonbilPs nest certainly 
agree with the details given by Messrs. Dickson and Ross, 
who met with it breeding near Erzeroum (P. Z. S. 1839, 
p. 134) ; and this seems to have been the fullest account known 
f to Mr. Dresser at the time of writing his article. So, although 
there seems to be no reasonable doubt that in some cases it 
nests in lofty trees, we may claim to have established the fact 
that in Holland it breeds on the ground among the reed-beds, 
and to be able to assure those naturalists who happen to be 
in Amsterdam at the right time that there is no better way 
of spending a spare day than an excursion to the Spoonbills' 
nesting-place on the Horster Meer. 

We cannot conclude this short account of a most delightful 
day without thanking Mr. Hegt most heartily for his kind 
arrangements for our trip, without which we should pro- 
bably have encountered considerable diflEiculty in reaching our 
destination. It is to be feared that in England we could hardly 
promise to show our friends an equally interesting sight in 
such close proximity to our metropolis ! 

XXXVI. — Remarks on the Buceros bicornis of Linnseus. 
By D. G. Elliot, F.R.S.E. &c. 

In 'Stray Feathers' for 1876, p. 385, Mr. Hume expresses 
the opinion that the name of Buceros bicornis, bestowed by 
Linnaeus upon a species of Hornbill, belongs properly to the 
B. convexus, Temminck, described in the ' Planches Coloriees,' 
and figured on plate no. 530. In order to test the correct- 
ness of this view, it will be advantageous to ascertain, as far 
as may be possible, the material at Linnseus's command when 
he estabUshed the name of bicornis ; and to accomplish this 
satisfactorily it will be necessary to examine the older authors 
cited by him, and whom, it is very evident, he mainly followed. 
Willughby is among the first of those quoted by Linnaeus ; and 

Mr. D. G. Elliot on Buceros bicornis, Linn. 417 

on turning to plate 17. fig. 1 of the ' Ornithology,' we find 
a very recognizable representation of the head and bill of the 
HoTurai, or '' Great Hornbill/' as it is called by Jerdon, with 
its broad flat casque, having the anterior margin curved up- 
wards, and terminating on both sides in miniature " horns." 
There can be no doubt whatever as to the species this figure 
is intended to represent. Brisson is another of the more 
important of the authors referred to, who preceded the twelfth 
edition of Linnseus's great work (1766), which is the one now 
quoted. We here find, as stated by Mr. Hume, some con- 
siderable confusion existing between the description of the 
head and casque and that of the body and tail. Brisson, 
however, expressly states that he had only seen the head 
and bill of the species called by him Hydrocorax philip- 
pensis ; and his description of this portion of the bird, which 
was at that time in the collection of M. de Reaumur, evidently 
proved that it was of the same species as the one figured by 
Willughby in his ' Ornithology.' Brisson does not state where 
he got the idea of the colour of the plumage of the body and 
tail ; but as he had never seen the bird itself, he must either 
have copied it from some other description, and unfortunately 
hit upon the wrong bird, or else have drawn upon his imagi- 
nation, from which source, however, it must in justice be 
said, Brisson seldom derived any assistance. The tail of the 
bird, stated to be composed of twelve feathers, ten black and 
two white, is very properly characterized by Mr. Hume as one 
" which no Hornbill in the world has,'' so far as we know at 
present, and could not have been described from any speci- 
men. But the parts which Brisson did see, the casque and 
bill, are accurately described ; and it is on this description and 
and on Willughby 's figure that Linnaeus based the name of 
Buceros bicornis, to which the diagnosis, " B. fronte ossea, 
plana, antrorsum bicorni," applies. In his description of the 
plumage Linnaeus is as wide of the mark as was Brisson ; and 
he, too, evidently had no specimen of the bird before him, 
but in a great degree copied Brisson's imaginary description. 
As, therefore, it is perfectly well established that the portions 
known to have been in the possession of the authors men- 
SER. IV. — VOL. I. 2g 

418 Mr. J, H. Gurney's Notes on 

tioned belonged to the Homrai; or Great HornbiU, with the flat 
casque, curved upwards anteriorly, that bird should stand as 
the B. bicornis, Linn., of which name B. cavatus, Shaw, is a 
synonym. The descriptions given by Brisson and Linnaeus 
of the plumage of the body, not answering to any known 
species, cannot receive any consideration in connexion with 
B. bicornis. That of Linnaeus applies best to Buceros {An- 
thracoceros) malabaricus of Gmelin ; but the description of 
the casque shows that this species was not intended. 

XXXVII. — Notes on a 'Catalogue of the Accipitres in the 
British Musemn/ by U. Bowdler Sharpe (1874). By J. H. 


[Continued from p. 333.] 

In my last paper I alluded {antea, p. 332) to the occurrence 
of Aquila clanga in Spain. Since then the Norwich Museum 
has been enriched by the gift, from Lieut. -Col. L. H. Irby, 
of an adult male of that species, killed near Seville on the 
11th February last, which I take this opportunity of re- 

The typical Eagles (those of the genera Uroaetus and 
Aquila) to which I am disposed to limit the term " Aquilinse," 
pass by an almost imperceptible gradation into the next group, 
the Hawk-Eagles, for which the designation of Thrasaetinse,^' 
suggested by the late Mr. Blythf^ may, I think, be con- 
veniently adopted. 

The Hawk-Eagles are all, more or less, distinguished from 
the typical Aquilinse, as above restricted, by one or more of 
the following peculiarities, all of which seem to me to be in- 
dicative of Asturine affinities, viz. wings proportionally 
shorter, tail relatively longer, very large and generally much 

* Col. Irby informs me that auotlier Seville specimen of A. clanya, a 
nearly adult bird, is in the collection of Lord Lilford. 

t Vide ' Catalogue of the Birds in the Muaeiun of the Asiatic Society,' 
p. 24. 

Mr. R. B. Sharpe's Catalogue of Accipitres. 419 

curved inner and hinder claws, culmen comparatively shorter 
and more rounded, also, in many species, an occipital crest, 
and^ in many, yellow irides. 

In the large majority of Hawk-Eagles the tarsi are fea- 
thered ; but in a few instances, to which I shall have occasion 
subsequently to refer, they are bare of feathers and are 

Those of the Hawk-Eagles which differ least from the 
typical Aquilinse are comprised in the genus Nisaetus ; but 
this genus is composed of three very distinguishable minor 
sections, of which I should arrange as the first the Dwarf 
Eagles N. pennatus and N. morphnoides — two species which 
form the subgenus Hieraetus of Kaup, and which, perhaps, 
might properly be kept distinct under that designation; 
secondly, N. fasciatus (the type of the genus Nisaetus) and 
N. spilogaster ; and, thirdly, N. bellicosus, which is placed by 
Mr. Sharpe amongst the Spizaeti, but which (following the 
examples of Blyth'^ and Jerdonf) I refer to the genus Ni- 
saetus, considering it decidedly too long in the wing to be 
appropriately arranged among the more short- winged of the 
Hawk-Eagles, in which company it appears in Mr. Sharpens 

Subsequently to the publication of Mr. Sharpe's work, 
very full accounts of Nisaetus pennatus have appeared in Mr. 
Dresser^s ' Birds of Europe,' and also in M. Bureau''s inter- 
esting brochure, which has already been noticed in 'The 
Ibis •" [antea, p. 245) ; and I have nothing to add to the 
information there supplied, except to record that the Norwich 
Museum possesses a specimen from Moulmein, which is a 
more eastern locality than any recorded either by Mr, Sharpe 
or by Mr. Dresser. 

To Mr. Sharpe ornithologists are indebted for pointing out 
an excellent criterion for distinguishing this Eagle from its 
nearly allied Australian congener, N. morphnoides, in the fact 
that in the latter, and not in the former, the under surface 

* Vide 'Journal of the Asiatic Society/ vol. xiv. p. 174. 
t Vide ' Birds of India,' vol. i. p. 67 (note). 

2g 2 

420 Mr. J. H. Gurney's Notes on 

of the primaries is conspicuously " barred throughout with 
greyish buff"*. 

The localities quoted by Mr. Sharpe for iV. morphnoides 
are South Australia aud Queensland^ to which West Australia 
should be added; as the Norwich Museum contains an ex- 
ample from the Swan Rivcr^ and as others from King George^s 
Sound are recorded at page 29 of Mr. Ramsay^s ' Catalogue 
of Australian Accipitres/ where some interesting information 
will also be found relating to the variations of plumage inci- 
dent to this species^ which may be compared with Mr. Sharpens 
additional observations on the same subject in the P. Z. S. 
1875, p. 338. 

Nisaetus fasciatus, like N.jjennatus, has, subsequently to the 
issue of Mr. Sharpens volume, been the subject of an article 
in Mr. Dresser's ' Birds of Europe :' much valuable and de- 
tailed information respecting the geographical distribution of 
this Eagle is contained in this article ; but by some oversight 
the author erroneously cites Damara Land as a locality for 
this species, and quotes, as applying to it, the late Mr. Anders- 
son's remarks on its more southern congener, N. spilogaster-\. 

In reality there is, so far as I am aware, no trustworthy 
record of the occurrence of N. fasciatus in South A.frica ; and 
with regard to its occurrence at Biballa and Huilla, in the Por- 
tuguese possessions in South- Western Africa, recorded in the 
' Journal fiir Ornitliologie ' for 1876, p. 308, it seems proba- 
ble, as suggested by Mr. Sharpe at page 38 of his edition of 
Layard's ' Birds of South Africa/ that an error of identi- 
fication may have occurred, and a further investigation may 
show that N. spilogaster has been mistaken for N. fasciatus — 
a mistake which, as I have already pointed out at p. 138 of 
' The Ibis' for 1868, may readily arise from the resemblance 

* In Mr. Dresser's article on N. pemiattis, he speaks of the " under 
surface of the wings being mottled " in N. morphnoides ; but, judging from 
the specimens I have examined, I should say that the word " barred " 
describes the peculiarity more accurately than " mottled." 

t Vide 'Notes on the Birds of Damara Land,' pp. 7 & 8, where the 
original error on this point, which arose from a mistake of my ovav, will 
be found corrected ; Mr. Dresser, no doubt, quoted from the first edition 
of Mr. Layard's 'Birds of South Africa,' p. 11. 

Mr. R. B. Sharpens Catalogue of Accipitres. 421 

between the females of N. spilogaster and the males of N. 
fasciatus, in size as well as in general coloration. 

There is, however, a variation in the markings of the under 
surface in specimens of N. spilogaster, to which I am desirous 
of briefly alluding. Two distinct phases of such markings 
occur in adult specimens, or at least in specimens which 
are so far adult as to have passed beyond the stage of plumage 
which characterizes this Eagle in its first year ; and one of 
these phases is much more analogous to the character of 
the lower portions of the plumage 'in A^'./asda^M^ than the 
other. Thus, in some individuals the white of the underparts 
is merely interspersed with sparse and narrow dark shaft- 
marks, slightly more conspicuous than the corresponding 
markings in N. fasciatus, but otherwise of a similar cha- 
ractei', whilst in other specimens the dark markings on the 
under surface are much more numerous and also very much 

Whether this difference is due to sex or to disparity of age 
I am unable to say : the Norwich Museum possesses two 
nearly adult females of the former type from the Zambesi, 
and two adult males of the latter, one from the Zambesi and 
the other from Natal; on the other hand, the specimen 
figured on pi. 1 of Miiller's ' Oiseaux d'Afrique,^ which is there 
stated to be a male, is represented in the less conspicuously 
variegated plumage, resembling that of the two females pre- 
served at Norwich. 

As Mr. Sharpe states that this species is an inhabitant of 
'^ North-eastern Africa," it may be well to add that, so far 
as I am aware, it has never been obtained to the north of the 
20th degree of north latitude. 

With reference to the remaining species of this genus, N. 
bellicosus, I may remark that the darker portions of the plu- 
mage in the adult bird appear somewhat liable to fade ; and 
Mr. Sharpens description seems to me to have been taken 
from a partially faded specimen. In a very fine adult example 
in perfect plumage, which I examined last year in the Zoolo- 
gical Gardens at Antwerp, all the darker portions of the 
plumage were slaty black, with the feathers of the upper 

422 Mr. J. H. Gumey's Notes on 

parts, except the head and neck_, broadly barred transversely 
with grey, those of the mantle also showing dark shaft-marks 
and being narrowly tipped with white. 

I may further observe that Mr. Sharpens note as to the 
habitat of this Eagle implies that it is restricted to South 
Africa, which is not the case : on the western side of that 
continent it has been obtained as far north as Bissao, spe- 
cimens from that locality being preserved in the Museums at 
Leyden"^ and Norwich; whilst to the east it has certainly 
occurred as far north as Zanzibar f, and probably in Abys- 
sinia and on the White Nile J. 

From the genus Nisaetus we may naturally pass to the 
consideration of the more typical Hawk-Eagles ; but before 
doing so it will be convenient to refer to three aberrant genera, 
Spiziastur, Lophoaetus, and Neopus, each consisting of but a 
single species. 

Sjnziastur melanoleucus, a native of tropical America, is 
remarkable for the extraordinary development of its inner 
and hind claws, which are the most powerful, in proportion 
to the size of the bird, of those of any species of this group ; 
but for this peculiarity it might very well be included in 
the genus Nisaetus, which it resembles in the circum- 
stance of its wings being proportionally longer than those 
of the more typical Hawk-Eagles, and also in the very 
slight development of its occipital crest; in common with 
the majority of the Hawk-Eagles it possesses the Astiunne 
yellow iris §. 

Lophoaetus occipitalis is an African form, and remarkable for 
the extraordinary development of the occipital crest, which 
is greater, in proportion to the size of the bird, in this than 

* Vide 'Museum des Pays-Bas/ Accipitres, p. 50. 

t Vide Fiuscli and Hartlaub's ' Vog-el Ost-Afrika's,' p. 47. 

I Vide Vou Ileuglin's ' Systematisclie Uebersiclit,' p. 7, and ' Oruitlio- 
logie Nordost-Afrika's/ p. 59; it seems, however, not impossible that the 
species referred to, doubtfully, by Von Heuglin may have been Sinzaettis 

§ My authority for the colour of the iris is a memorandum attached to 
a specimen obtained in Guatemala by Mr. Skinner, and preserved in the 
N(ii'wich Museum. 

Mr. R. B. Sharpe's Catalogue of Accipitres. 423 

in any other Hawk-Eagle : it also has a very bright yellow 
iris ; but in other respects its Asturine affinities appear to be 
but slight, its wings being proportionally more elongated 
than in the typical members of the group, and its bill and 
talons being comparatively feeble. 

Mr. Sharpe describes this species as having for its " range 
the whole of Africa," which is not quite accurate. I believe 
that Drs. Finsch and Hartlaub are correct in stating, at p, 51 
of the ' Vogel Ost-Afrikas,'' that its northward range does not 
extend beyond the 16th degree of north latitude. Mr. 
Sharpe also omits to mention that this species is found in 
Madagascar, a circumstance which appears to be satisfactorily 

The third, and perhaps the most remarkable, of these 
three aberrant forms is the oriental Neopus malayensis, a spe- 
cies which is Aquiline in the form of its bill, in the length 
of its wings, and in the dark colour of the iris, but which is 
allied to the Hawk-Eagles by its largely developed tail, and 
in a still greater and (if the phrase may be permitted) in an 
exaggerated degree by its powerful inner toe with an enor- 
mous claw, which, together, are more than twice the length 
of the outer toe and claw, the latter being comparatively di- 
minutive. The claws in this species are proportionally longer 
and less curved than those of any other Hawk -Eagle ; and 
their comparatively slender shape probably renders them 
somewhat less powerful than would otherwise be the case. 

Mr. Sharpe amalgamates the genera Spizaetus and Lim~ 
7iaetus ; but I think it better to separate the shorter- winged 
species, S. ornatus-f, S. tyr annus, and S. coronatus, under 
the title of Spizaetus, of which genus S. ornatus is the type, 
and to allow the remaining species included by Mr. Sharpe 

* Vide Ilartlaub's ' Ornithologischer Beitrag sur Fauna Madagascars,' 
p. 16, and ' Vogel Madagascars,' p. 4. 

t Mr. Sharpe substitutes for the specific name of '^ornatus" commonly 
in use, that of" mauduyti" — which I consider undesirable, as the two names 
were published simultaneously, and as the description given under the 
head of " ornatics " is the clearer of the two, being evidently taken from 
a more adult example. 

424 iMr. J. H. Gumey's Notes on 

in that genus to stand under the generic name of Limnaetus, 
of which L. cahgatus is the type, and under which I would 
also include L. kieneri and L. isidori, wdiich Mr. Sharpe has 
separated under the generic name of Lophotriorchis, hut, as 
I venture to think, on somewhat insufficient grounds. 

I propose to refer first to the genus Limnaetus, and subse- 
quently to Spiza'etus. 

In the * Proceedings ' of the Zoological Society for 1860, 
p. 342, my late friend, Mr. G. R, Gray, described and figured, 
under the name of Aquila gurnerji, a very fine Eagle, which 
was first obtained by Mr. Wallace in Batchian, but which also 
occurs in several other islands of the eastern ocean, as enu- 
merated in Mr. Sharpens volume. Mr. Sharpe includes this 
species in the genus Spizaetus ; I am, myself, disposed to 
agree in this view so far as to consider it a somewhat ab- 
normal species of that portion of Mr. Sharpe's genus Spi- 
zaetus, for which I would use the more restricted title of Lim- 
naetus. I think, however, that there is a considerable degree 
of truth in the remark made by Mr. Gray in his original 
description of this species, that "^this fine bird partakes of 
the form of Aquila malayensis ;" and it is for this reason that 
I allude to it as next in order to that species, which it recalls 
by its very large (though more curved) inner claw, by its 
somewhat elongated bill and wings, and by its largely de- 
veloped and narrowly barred tail ; the iris, however, is of a 
different character, being stated by Mr. Wallace to be " yel- 

Limnaetus gurneyi appears to be always destitute of a 
crest, in which respect it resembles another and much more 
typical species, Limnaetus lanceolatus, of Celebes, respecting 
which I have nothing to add to the notice contained in Mr. 
Sharpe's volume, except to mention that it also inhabits the 
Sula Islands f ; and I will therefore proceed now to consider its 
nearly allied but more widely distributed congener, Limnaetus 

* Vide Ibis, 1868, p. 13. 

t Vide Sclilegel's ' Valk-Vogels,' pi. 7. fig. 3 ; also the Marquis of Tweed- 
dale's paper on the Birds of Celebes, in the ' Transactions ' of the Zoo- 
ogical Society, vol. viii. p. 34. 

Ml'. R. B. Sharpe's Catalogue of Accipitres. 425 

caligatus (the Spizaetus limnaetusoi Mr. Sharpens Catalogue), 
which is also usually, though not invariably, a crestless species, 
or with the crest but very slightly developed"^. 

This Hawk -Eagle occurs under two very distinct phases 
of plumage, if, indeed, both be really referable to one species : 
these are the white- or pale-fulvous-headed and white -breasted 
phase figured at ph 127 of TemmincVs ' Planches Coloriees,' 
under the name of Falco niveus, and the fuliginous or melan- 
istic phase figured at pi. 134 of the same work, and also on 
pi. 36 of Horsfield^s ' Zoological Researches in Java ' under 
that of Falco limnaetus ; besides which, specimens occur appa- 
rently intermediate between these two extremes of coloration. 

All three of the above-mentioned phases are also figured 
in SchlegeFs ' V alk- Vogels,^ in which very useful work the 
pale-headed phase is represented on pi. 6. fig. 2, from Floresf, 
and on pi. 8. fig. 2, from Java ; the intermediate on pi. 6. fig. 3, 
from Java, and on pi. 7. fig. 1, from Borneo ; and the wholly 
fuliginous on pi. 8. fig. 1, from Java. 

Mr. Sharpe describes the latter phase as the adult plumage 
of the species ; but it appears to be certain that it is sometimes 
assumed from the nest : one of the figures in SchlegeFs ' Valk- 
Vogels' (pi. 8. fig. 3) represents a nestling from Java in 
which the fuliginous plumage is immediately succeeding the 
down ; this is probably the same specimen which is thus de- 
scribed in the 'Museum des Pays Pas^ (Astures, p. 11): — 
" No. 30, tres-jeune individu retire du nid, revetu en partie 
du duvet, en partie de plumes, le duvet blanc, les plumes d^un 
brun-noir uniforme, Java.^' 

* I have never seen a specimen of either phase of colouring with a 
crest exceeding an inch in length ; but instances of longer crests have been 

t This is the only specimen I am acquainted with from any locality 
east of Java; Professor Schlegel remarks respecting it (' Valk-Vogels/ 
p. 55), "il ressemble en general a la variete a teintes claires de Java, mais 
il a le blanc beaucoup plus pur, tandis que le bran du dos, des ailes, et de 
la queue est beaucoup plus fence et presque noir." In the Supplementary 
Catalogue of the Museum des Pays Bas (Accipitres, p. 57) the follow- 
ing measurements are given of this specimen — "aile 16 ponces 3 lignes, 
queue 11 pouces 3 lignes." 

426 Mr. J, H. Gurney's Notes on 

Dr. Horsfield^ in the article on " Falco limnaetus," in his 
* Zoological Researches in Java/ writes thus, — "Both the testi- 
mony of the natives and the remarks I personally made on the 
manners of our bird have fully convinced me that F. niveus 
is a species distinct from F. limnaetus." The same view was 
taken by Dr. Bernstein, who also resided for some years in 
Java, and the substance of whose remarks on this subject, 
extracted from his article in vol. viii. of the ' Journal fiir 
Ornithologie ' (pp. 419-425), I here subjoin: — "It is cer- 
tainly not to be deaied that there is not any difference be- 
tween the measurements of F. niveus and F. limnaetus, and 
that very dusky-coloured individuals of F. niveus occur which 
seem to form the transition from that species to F. limnaetus. 
Nevertheless, having shot numerous individuals and compared 
them anatomically, having observed others at the nest, taken 
the young from it, reared and kept them for years, I cannot 
do otherwise than express myself against the identity of the 
two species. I have found the nest of i^. limnaetus nine times, 
and observed the old ones at it ; both always belonged to the 
same species : the young are at first covered with fine white 
down, between which, here and there, the brown feathers of 
the perfect plumage begin to appear; and three which I brought 
up corresponded perfectly with the old ones. The nest of F, 
niveus I found four times ; and two of these contained a single 
half-fledged young bird, both of which I took and reared : 
in their first plumage the throat was pure white, but with 
three more or less distinct dusky streaks (wliich are also per- 
ceptible on the throat of F. limnaetus) . The breast and abdo- 
men are also white, but with large blackish brown longitudinal 
spots, whilst the thighs have rather lighter narrow transverse 
streaks ; the feathers of the head and nape are dirty white, 
assuming a brownish hue towards the tip, and with blackish 
brown shaft-marks ; the feathers of the back and scapulars 
are grey-brown, darker towards the tip, and lighter, and ulti- 
mately white, towards the base ; the quill-feathers are brown, 
with lighter transverse bars, and the rectrices similar but 
paler : with increasing age the dusky shaft-marks on the 
head, neck, and breast seem gradually to disappear till these 

Mr. R. B. Sharps' s Catalogue of Accipitres. 427 

parts become at length pure white ; such pure white birds 
are much rarer than the variegated ones, and are, from their 
greater shyness, less easily shot. I obtained two specimens 
of a darker variety, in which the white on the back and under- 
parts is replaced by a dirty yellow-brown, which is lighter on 
the throat and belly than on the breast and back ; these spe- 
cimens, however, may be recognized as belonging to F. niveus 
by the very distinct transverse bars on their wings and tail. 

" On a minute anatomical comparison of i^. limnaetus and F. 
niveus some differences in the structure of the skeleton may 
be observed, which, however insignificant, enable me to dis- 
tinguish between the skeletons in my possession. Thus, for 
example, the space between the processus maxillares of the 
two bones of the palate is less in F. limnaetus than in F. 
niveus, and in consequence the mussel-shaped apophysis 
of the palate of the upper mandible-bone contribute more to 
the formation of the hard palate in the latter than in the 
former ; also in the skull of F. limnaetus, where the outer 
edge of the palate-bone passes over to the ossa omoidea, 
there is on each side a sharp angle or corner, directed out- 
ward and backward, whilst in F. niveus the outer edge bends 
gradually into the backward one. All these differences, as 
well as the general anatomy of these birds, I have described 
more minutely in a separate article in the sixth volume of the 
Treatises of the Society of Natural Philosophy of Batavia.^^ 

Mr. Sharpe gives the description of a Sumatran nestling 
of the paler race in the British Museum, which seems not to 
differ materially from the Java specimens described by Dr. 

Whether the two races are really specifically distinct, or 
only different in the darker being an hereditary melanism of 
the paler, and whether the pale birds ever assume a plumage 
resembling those which are melanistic ab ovo^', must, I think, 
remain an open question. Should the two races be admitted 

* A fuliginous specimen from Java in the Norwicli Museum has some 
yellowish white feathers scattered about the lower portion of the tarsi ; 
and some wholly fuliginous specimens certainly show more variation of 
tint than others. 

428 Mr. J. H. Gurney's Notes on 

as specifically distinct, the paler must stand as Limnaetus 
caligatus (Raffles) , and the fuliginous as L. horsfieldi (Vigors) . 
The irides in both races are said by Dr. Bernstein to be 
dusky brown ; Dr. Horsfield, however (probably describing an 
older specimen), speaks of the irides in L. horsfieldi as being 
yellow ; those of L. caligatus he does not mention. 

In a living specimen of L. caligatus from Upper Burmah, 
presented to the Zoological Society of London by Captain H. 
Feilden, by whom it was taken from the nest near Thayetmyo 
in May 1871, the colour of the irides and of the plumage was 
thus noted by me when I saw the bird in November 1874 : — 
" Iris hazel ; crest very slight ; back dark (blackish brown) ; 
breast and abdomen white, with large longitudinal brown 
marks ; transverse bars of a lighter brown on the thighs ; 
tarsi white ; upper surface of tail dark brown, with four darker 
bars besides the terminal one.^" Captain Feilden was so good 
as to inform me that up to the date when he last saw it 
(November 1873) the bird had undergone no change from 
its nestling-plumage, " except losing the paler edge of the 
wing- and tail-covert feathers common to all Hawk-Eagles.^' 
Between November 1874 and October 1875, when the bird 
died whilst moulting, the only change which I observed 
in its plumage was that on the abdomen and flanks the 
dark brown lanceolate marks had considerably extended in 
breadth towards the end of each feather, and also over the 
whole lower part of the feather in some cases, and the greater 
part of it in others. 

The skin of this specimen is now preserved in the Norwich 
Museum ; it proved on dissection to be a male.' 

Captain Feilden wrote to me that he had frequently shot 
adult males of this species, which were all very similar and 
not unlike the specimen presented by him to the Zoological 
Society, except that the spots on the breast were much fewer 
and smaller. 

I have measured seventeen specimens of L. caligatus from 
Java, Borneo, Malacca, and Nepal "^ : the largest specimen 

* The specimen from Upper iJm'mah, described above, is not included 
in these measurements, owing to the imperfect state of its wings. 

Mr. R. B. Sharpes Catalogue of Accipitres. 429 

has the wing 17*2 and the tarsus 4*2 ; in the smallest the wing 
is 13"5 and the tarsus is 3'3 inches. 

I have also measured eight specimens of L. horsfieldi from 
Java^ Borneo, and Malacca : in the largest of these the wing 
measures 17 and the tarsus 4 ; in another specimen the wing 
measures 16*4 and the tarsus 4*5 ; in the smallest of the eight 
the wing is 15"4 and the tarsus 3'6 inches. 

In neither race does there appear to be any constant dif- 
ference in size between specimens from different localities^. 

I have been indebted to the kindness of the Marquis of 
Tweeddale for an opportunity of examining a specimen in his 
collection of the Hawk-Eagle inhabiting the Andaman Islands, 
L. andamanensis (Tytler), which appears to differ but little, 
except in its smaller dimensions, from L. caligatus as dis- 
tinguished from L. horsfieldi. The colour of the iris in this 
species appears to be " reddish brown " f in some specimens, 
and "deep yellow ^^ J or " amber "§ in others. 

Since the publication of Mr. Sharpens volume notices of 
this species have appeared in 'The Ibis' for 1874, p. 127, 
also in ' Stray Feathers ' for 1874, p. 142, and for 1876, 
p. 280, which should be consulted for further information 
respecting it. 

I propose now to refer to a Hawk- Eagle which I believe to 
be exclusively Indian, Limnaetus cirrhatus, respecting the 
geographical distribution of which Mr. Hume has the fol- 
lowing remark in * Stray Feathers,'' vol. iii. p. 46 : — " It is a 
Peninsular species ; and a line drawn from Aboo to Etawah, 
and thence by Shergotty to Calcutta, indicates very fairly its 
northern limits. '' 

Mr. Sharpe records two immature specimens from Nepal 

* Since writing the above I have received No. 1 of vol. v. of ' Stray 
Feathers,' which contains at p. 9 an important note on Limnaetus cali- 
gatus, that should by all means be consulted, especially as showing the 
gi'eat rarity of the fuliginous bird (Z. horsfieldi) in India, which, con- 
sidering its comparative abundance in Malacca and Java, is, I think, an 
argument in favour of its specific distinctness from L. caligatus. 

t Vide Hume's ' Rough Notes,' vol. i. p. 205. 

X Vide ' Stray Feathers,' 1874, p. 142. 

§ Vide Ibis, 1874, p. 127. 

430 Mr. J. H. Gurney's Notes on 

as existing in the British Museum, which I recently had an 
opportunity of examining, and respecting which I came to 
the conclusion that they were both referable to L. caligatus. 

L, cirrhatus appears chiefly to differ from from L. caligatus 
in possessing an elongated occipital crest, which varies much 
in length, but, I believe, is never entirely absent, except, 
perhaps, very rarely in moulting specimens. 

So far as I know, L. cirrhatus is not subject to melanism. 

In ' Stray Feathers,' vol. iv. p. 356, Mr. Hume gives an 
account of the changes of plumage and colouring incident to 
this Hawk-Eagle in its progress to maturity. These changes 
appear to occur almost entirely in the reverse order to those 
observed by Dr. Bernstein in the case of Javan specimens of 
L. caligatus — a difference which, should it prove constant, will 
strongly confirm the entire distinctness of the two species ; 
I suspect, however, that the changes through which L. cali- 
gatus passes will prove somewhat variable, and that the dif- 
ferences between it and L. cirrhatus in this respect will not 
prove altogether constant. The plumage of a Sumatran nest- 
ling of L. caligatus, which is preserved in the British Museum 
and described in Mr. Sharpens volume, appears to indicate 
that such is the fact. 

I have not had an opportunity of examining many examples 
of the Indian L. cirrhatus ; but of four, respecting which I 
have preserved memoranda, the largest measured 17*4 inches 
in the wing and 4-5 in the tarsus, the smallest 16'3 in the 
wing and 3*5 in the tarsus. 

Limnaetus ceylonensis {Falco ceylonensis of Gmelin), the 
ordinary Hawk-Eagle of Ceylon, which Mr. Sharpe identifies 
with L. cirrhatus, is a decidedly smaller bird ; I have mea- 
sured ten Ceylonese specimens, of which the largest had the 
wing 15'2 inches in length from the carpal joint, and the 
tarsus 3*6, and the smallest had the wing 14 inches and the 
tarsus 3*4. 

Judging from the specimens which I have seen, I should 
say that the ordinary plumage of L. ceylonensis varies but 
little, and much resembles the first dress of L. cirrhatus as 
described by Mr. Hume in ' Stray Feathers,' vol. iv. p. 356. 

Ml'. R. B. Sharpens Catalogue 0/ Accipitres. 431 

Mr. Layard, in his papers on the ornithology of Ceylon, 
published in the ' Annals of Natural History ' for 1851, refers 
to the ordinary Hawk-Eagle of that island* under the title 
of " Spizaetus limnaetus, Horsf./^ and appends to his account 
of it the following remark : — " There is a singularly dark 
variety of this species which I have only seen at Port Pedro, 
and that but very rarely /■" The only Ceylonese specimen 
which I have seen that could at all be called a " dark variety/^ 
is a living one recently presented by Captain W. V. Legge 
to the Zoological Society of London. This bird much resem- 
bles in plumage that of Captain Feilden's Thayetmyo speci- 
men of L. caligatus, which I have already described ; but it 
seemed to me to be decidedly smaller, and it has an occipital 
crest which, though not now much elongated, is slender and 
well defined ; the irides in this specimen are a pale greyish 
straw-colour. I understand that it is now five years old, and 
was taken from the nest near Point de Galle by Captain Legge, 
who informs me that he intends to favour the readers of ' The 
Ibis ' with some notes on the changes of plumage which it 
has undergone, and on those of the Ceylon Sjnzaeti generally. 
I understand from Captain Legge that the colour of the iris 
in this specimen is that usual to the young bird of both the 
paler and the darker phases of plumage, and that both these 
have a yellow iris when adult, which this individual has 
probably not acquired in consequence of having been kept 
in captivity. 

Mr. Hume's description of his L. sphijnx, from Travancoref, 
seems to me to be probably referable to a specimen of L. 
ceylonensis intermediate in coloration between the ordinary 
pale-chested Ceylon bird and the darker plumage exhibited 
in the specimen lately presented by Captain Legge to the 
Zoological Society. 

I propose now to refer to Limnaetus nipalensis, respecting 
which I have to remark that Japan and Formosa should be 
added to the localities quoted for this species by Mr. Sharpe. 

* One of Mr. Layard's Ceylon specimens is preserved in the Norwich 

t Vide ' Stray Feathers/ vol. i. p. 321. 

432 Mr. J. H. Gurney's Notes on 

Specimens from both Formosa and Japan are preserved in the 
Norwich Museum ; and the only figure of this fine species 
yet published is, I believe^ that of a Japanese specimen, not 
fully adult, which is given on pi. 3 of the ' Fauna Jajjonica.^ 
L. nipalensis has thus a more northern range than any other 
species of the genus. 

I may here mention that by an accidental error the de- 
scription of a nestling of Spilornis cheela, preserved in the 
British Museum, has been inserted at p. 267 of Mr. Sharpe's 
volume as that of a nestling of Lhnnaetus nipalensis. The 
tarsi in this very young specimen are greatly decayed, which 
probably led to this mistake. 

It is remarkable, as has been already pointed out by the 
Marquis of Tweeddale *, that the peculiarity which appears in 
this, the largest of the Limnaeti, of the tarsal feathering extend- 
ing onto the first joint of the middle toe, is shared by only one 
other species, and that the smallest of the genus, L. alhoniger, 
respecting which I have nothing further to add to Mr. Sharpe's 
account, except to observe that the Avhite tip to the crest in 
the adult plumage is not a constant character, and also that 
the Hawk-Eagle from Java, figured in Schlegel's 'Valk- 
Vogels,' pi. 6. fig. 1, appears to me to be probably an imma- 
ture example of this species, judging from this figure and 
from the measurements of the bird quoted in the ' Museum 
des Pays-Bas,' Astures, p. 11. 

Another of the smaller eastern Limnaeti is L. philippensis, 
which appears to be confined to the Philippine Islands. Tliis 
species is well figured in the Marquis of Tweeddale's valuable 
paper on the Birds of the Philippine Archipelago f from an 
adult specimen in the Norwich Museum ; a slightly younger 
bird in the same collection is somewhat paler, especially about 
the head, and is less distinctly barred on the lower part of 
the tarsi. 

There is but one other eastern Hawk-Eagle, L. kieneri, 
which Mr. Sharpe makes the type of his genus Lophotriorchis. 
This bird certainly differs, in the character of its coloration, both 

* Vide Ibis, 1874, p. 128. 

t Vide '■ Transactions of the Zoological Society,' vol. ix. pi. 24. 

Mr. R. B. Sharpe's Catalogue of Accipitres. 433 

when immature and when adult, from the other eastern Lim- 
naeti ; and it also has a somewhat less development of the tail ; 
I doubt^ however^ as I have already mentioned, its being really 
generically separable from the genus Limna'etus. 

The immature plumage of this Hawk-Eagle will be found 
described in the addenda to Mr. Sharpens volume at p. 458, 

To the localities quoted by Mr. Sharpe for this species, 
Batchian, Java, and Ceylon must be added, a specimen from 
each of these islands being preserved in the Norwich Museum. 
In ' Stray Feathers,' vol. v. p. 10, Mr. Hume records this 
species from N.E. Cachar, and adds that " in N.E. India, as 
In Sikkim, for instance, it is far from uncommon; " it is, 
however, a decidedly rare species in European Museums. 

Mr. Sharpe associates with L. kieneri, in his genus Lopho- 
triorchis, L. isidori of N.W. South America, a much larger 
species, of similar colouring, both in its first and last stages 
of plumage, but with a more largely developed tail. 

Through the kindness of Dr. A. Dubois, I had the op- 
portunity, last year, of examining, at the Royal Museum of 
Natural History at Brussels, the two type specimens of " Spi- 
zuetus devillii," figured and described by that gentleman in 
the ' Bulletins de PAcademie Royal de Belgique," 2nd series, 
vol. xxxviii. pts. 1 & 2, and found them to be immature ex- 
amples of L. isidori — that figured by Dr. Dubois on pi. 1 as 
" S. devillii, adult,'''' being the first yearns plumage of L. isi- 
dori, and that represented on pi. 2 as " S. devillii, jeune," 
being a very curious stage, intermediate between the first 
dress of L. isidori and the fully adult plumage figured by 
Des Murs in the ' Iconographie Ornithologique,^ pi. 1. 

Neither of these immature stages are described by Mr. 
Sharpe ; but they may be readily recognized by a reference 
to the figures and descriptions supplied by Dr. Dubois. 

The Norwich Museum contains a specimen of L. isidori 
in its first, and also one in its last stage of plumage ; but I 
have never seen the intermediate dress, except at Brussels. 
It is worthy of note that this intermediate dress has no cor- 
responding phase, so far as I am aware, in L. kieneri. 

The two specimens of this rare species preserved in the 

SER. IV. — VOL. I. 2 H 

434 Mr. J. H. Gurney^s Notes on 

Brussels Museum are from Baiza, in Ecuador ; those in the 
Norwich Museum are, like the type specimen figured by 
Des Murs, from New Granada ; and an adult example in 
the collection of Messrs. Salvin and Godman is from the 
neighbourhood of Medelhn^ in the Columbian province of 

Of the Hawk-Eagles with feathered tarsi there remain but 
three to notice, those to which I propose to restrict the generic 
name Spizaetus, viz. S. ornatus and S. tyr annus of Tropical 
America, and S. coronatus of Africa. These three species 
exhibit to a still greater extent than those of the genus Lim- 
naetus the short wings and largely developed tails which are 
more or less conspicuous in the large majority of the group 
which I would (as already mentioned) designate imder the 
title of Thrasaetinse. All these three Hawk-Eagles have a 
yellow iris when adult ; but it is of a brighter and deeper 
yellow in the two American species than in their African 

With regard to the two first-named species, I have nothing 
to add to Mr. Sharpens account, except to remark with refer- 
ence to the definition of the principal colour of the adult of 
S. tyr annus as 'HDlack above and below,''^ that a specimen 
now living in the Gardens of the Zoological Society exhibited, 
when it first acquired its adult dress, a decided slaty tinge on 
the black portions of the plumage, and especially on the 
head and underparts, which probably disappears as the fea- 
thers become worn, and in specimens which have been long 

Mr. Sharpe defines the habitat of S. coronatus as " South 
and West Africa,^^ and in his edition of Layard^s ^ Birds of 
South Africa,' p. 39, gives Senegal as its north-west and 
Natal as its north-eastern limit, so far as has at present been 
ascertained. It is curious that this noble species has not yet 
been recognized further to the northward in East Africa ; but 
such is, I believe, the fact. 

Spizaetus coronatus bears a remarkable resemblance in its 
general conformation to the Great Harpy Eagle of Tropical 
America {Thrasaetus harpy ia); but the latter differs from it 

Mr. R. B. Sharpe's Catalogue 0/ Accipitres. 435 

and from the other Hawk-Eagles to which I have hitherto 
referred^ in having its extraordinarily powerful tarsi scutel- 
lated instead of feathered — a peculiarity which it shares with 
the remaining species of this group. 

I have nothing to add to Mr. Sharpens account of the 
Harpy Eagle, except to suggest a doubt as to whether the 
young bird described by him may not have made some pro- 
gress towards the assumption of adult dress. I have a strong 
impression that I have seen young birds of this species with 
much less black about them than that described by Mr. 
Sharpe ; but I am not able at the present moment to refer to 
such a specimen, or to give the description of such a one in 
detail, and I will therefore pass to an allied species from 
Tropical America, Morplmus guianensis, which appears, from 
its elongated tarsi and short toes, to lead naturally to the 
next group which I shall have to notice, the Circaetince, or 

As Mr. Sharpe does not describe the immature plumage of 
M. guianensis, I add the following particulars, which I noted 
from an immature specimen in the Brussels Museum : — 
Entire head, back of neck, and crest pure white; entire 
mantle very pale brownish grey, finely vermiculated with 
darker markings of the same ; these on the scapulars assume 
the form of six irregular transverse bars, and of three similar 
bars on the primary coverts ; lower back and upper tail- 
coverts pure white ; bastard wing blackish slate-colour, with 
two transverse bars and a tip of pale mottled brownish grey ; 
primaries with four to five such bars (the uppermost partly 
white) and a light tip ; the secondaries and tertials with similar 
bars and a broad pale tip ; tail with ten dark transverse bars, 
between which are narrow interspaces mottled with two 
shades of brownish grey, tip of tail whitish ; similar bars are 
apparent on the under surface of the tail ; entire remainder 
of the under surface of the bird pure white. 

Before concluding my remarks on the Thrasaetinse, I must 
allude to two large birds of prey [Harjjyopsis nova-guinece and 
Megatriorchis dorice) recently discovered in New Guinea by 
Signor D'Albertis, which I have not seen, but which, I think, 

2h 2 

436 Notes on Mr. R. B. Sharpe's Catalogue of Accipitres. 

most probably belong to the Hawk-Eagles, judging from the 
description of them contributed in November 1875 by Count 
T. Salvadori to the seventh volume of the ' Annali del Mus. 
Civ. di St. Nat. di Genova.' 

As but few English ornithologists possess the work con- 
taining these descriptions, it may not be improper here to 
reproduce them : — 

'' Gen. nov. Harpyopsis : genus novum ex subfamilia Acci- 
pitrinarum, rostro robustissimo, valde alto et adunco ; naribus 
oblongis, verticalibus ; loris et regione circumocu lari fere 
nudis, rare pilosis; alis brevissimis, valde rotundatis, remigibus 
primariis paulo longioribus quam secundariis ; cauda longis- 
sima, rotundata; tarsis mediocribus, robustis, scutis latis trans- 
versis anticeet postice obtectis, tertio superiore antice plumosis; 
digitis mediocribus, externo paulo longiore quam interno, 
medio longiusculo ; unguibus permagnis, validissimis, inferne 
sulcatis ; plumis cervicis copiosis, longiusculis, latis, apice 

" H. nova-guinea. Supra fusco-brunnea, plumarum limbo 
apicali albido; subtus sordide alba, jugulo et pectore summo 
sordide griseo-tinctis; alis supra dorso concoloribus; remigibus 
fusco-brunneis, fasciis transversis latis obscurioribus,sed parum 
conspicuis notatis, fascia apicali latiore, pogonio interno re- 
migum albo-marmorato, remigibus subtus magna ex parte 
albo- et griseo-marmoratis, parte apicali grisea fusco trans- 
fasciata, apice ipso late fusco ; cauda supra dorso concolore, 
fasciis sex obscurioribus undulatis parum conspicuis notata, 
fascia apicali latiore, limbo apicali rectricum albido ; cauda 
subtus grisea, albido marmorata, fasciis tribus tantum fuscis 
notata, fascia apicali latiore, rectricibus rachidibus supra 
fuscis, subtus partim albis, partim fuscis ; rostro plumbeo fere 
nigro, pedibus griseis, iride obscure flava. 

'' Long. tot. O^i-SZO, al. 0«i-480, caud. 0^-4<10, rostri culm. 
0™-058, rostri hiat. O'^-OSS, rostri alt. 0™-036, tarsi O'^'IM, 
digiti med. cum ungue 0'"*094, ung. post. 0'°'045. 

" Megatriorchis, gen. nov. Megatriorchis novum genus ex 
subfamilia Accipitrinarum, alis brevissimis, remigibus prima- 
riis paulo brevioribus quam secundariis ; cauda longissima. 

Mr. P. L, Sclater on the Genus Grallaria. 437 

rotundata^ tarsis mediocribus, robustis, antice et postice scutis 
transversalibus obtectis, digitis validis^ interne breviore quam 
externo, unguibus digiti interni et posterioris validissimis. 

" Megatriorchis doria, fern. Plumis pilei et cervicis nigris, 
rufescente marginatisj plumis cervicis partim albo-marginatis 
dorso, uropygio et supracaudalibus fusco-nigris, fasciis trans- 
versis fusco-griseo-mfescentibus ornatis, plumarum margini- 
bus apicalibus griseo-rufescentibus; genis et fascia later ali occi- 
pitis utrinque albis^ longitudinaliter fusco-lineatis ; plumis 
auricularibus postice fusco- nigris, fasciam postocularem latam 
nigramconstituentibus; subtus albus, maculis longitudinalibus 
fuscis ornatus, guise et subcaudalium maculis linearibus striatis^ 
pectoris summi et imi latis brunneo-nigris, pectoris medii valde 
pallidioribus, sed linea scapuli nigra : remigibus et rectricibus 
supra fasciis alternis fusco-nigris et fusco-griseis notatis, subtus 
griseis fusco transfasciatis, caudse limbo apicali griseo, caudse 
fasciis supra 24 ; rostro nigro, ceromate cinereo ; iride cas- 
taneaj pedibus cinereis, pallidis. 

" Long. tot. circa 0"^-680, al. O'^-SSO, caud. 0'^-320, rostri 
culm. Oi^-038, rostri hiat. 0^-038, tarsi 0«i-090, digit med. 
cum ungue 0™"074^ ung. dig. post. 0'^*036.^' 

It appears that one specimen of each of these remarkable 
Raptores was procured on Yule Island, on the south coast of 
New Guinea, and that one other example of Harpyopsis 
novee-guinece has been obtained at the foot of Mount Arfak. 
[To be continued.] 

XXXVIII. — Description of two new Ant-birds of the Genus 
Grallaria, with a List of the known Species of tJie Genus. 
By P. L. Sclater, M.A., F.R.S. 

(Plates VIII., IX.) 

While introducing to science a fine new Ant- bird of the 
genus Grallaria, recently discovered by Mr. T. K. Salmon in 
Antioquia, together with another apparently unrecognized 
form of the genus, I take the opportunity of giving a complete 
list of the species of this group, to which many important addi- 

438 Mr. P. L. Sclater on the Genus Grallaria. 

tions have been made since the puUication of my '' Synopsis 
of the American Ant-birds" in 1858*. 

The genus Grallaria f — one of the best-marked forms 
amongst the Formicariidae^ and offering many points of ex- 
ternal resemblance to the Pittce of the Old-World tropics — 
may be conveniently divided into four sections^ as follows : — 

a. Squamigerae, containing the two species G. squamigera 
and G. gigantea, which are easily distinguishable from the 
rest of their congeners by their large size and strong thick 

b. Reges, containing the seven representative forms of the 
G. rex sive varia, some of which are well defined, while others 
scarcely deserve specific separation. These I take geogra- 
phically from north to south. 

c. Uniformes, those with the plumage generally of a uni- 
form character, without flammulations upon the breast and 
belly. This group consists exclusively of high-ranging Andean 

d. Flammulatie, containing the remaining nine species, 
all of which have the under surface more or less flammulated, 
and lead us on to the group of diminutive species which I 
have separated under the name GrallariculaX. 

The genus Grallaria therefore, as thus arranged, contains 
twenty-seven species known to me. The diagnoses added under 
each head are taken from examples in my own collection and 
that of Messrs. Salvin and Godman, in which are to be found 

* " Synopsis of the Americau Ant-birds," pts. i., ii., iii., P. Z. S. 1858, 
pp. 202, 232, 272. See also supplement, P. Z. S. 1868, p. 671. 

t The genus Grallaria was founded by Vieillot in 1816, on Buffon's 
" J2oi des FourmilUers " (= G. varia). According to my views it is equi- 
valent to, or should comprehend the following generic terms : — 

3Iyioturdus, Boie, Isis, 1820, p. 972, Type G. varia. 

Myiotrichas, Boie, Isis, 1831, p. r)42 = My ioturdus, 

Colohathris, Gloger, Hand. u. Ililfsb. d. Nat. p. 304 (1842). Type G. 

Codonistris, Gloger, Hand. u. Hilfsb. d. Nat. p. 303 (1842). Type G. 

Iti/psibcmon, Cabanis, Wicgm. Archiv, 1847, pt. i., p. 217. Type G. 

t P. Z. S. 1858, p. 283. 

Mr. P. L. Sclater on the Genus Grallaria. 439 

examples of every species except Grallaria gigantea, G. varia, 
G. modesta, and G. ochroleuca. 

In his Kst of Grallaria, published in 1842 (Rev. Zool. 
1842, p. 333) J Lafresnaye was able to include only nine 
species of this genus. In the *^ Nomenclator ■' (1873) Mr. 
Salvin and I gave twenty. 

Sect. A. Grallari^e squamiger^. 

1. Grallaria squamigera. 

Grallaria squamigera, Prev. Voy. Venus, Ois. pi. 1 ; Lafr. 
Rev. Zool. 1842, p. 333 ; Bp. Consp. p. 204 ; Sclater, P. Z. S. 
1855, p. 145, et 1858, p. 280, et Cat. A. B. p. 192; Scl. 
et Salv. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 678, 1875, p. 235, et Norn. Av. 
Neotr. p. 75. 

Myiotrichas squamigera. Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. ii. p. 6. 
Colobathris squamigera, Cab. Orn. Not. i. p. 217. 
Suprk cineracea, olivaceo in alis tincta, remigibus et rectri- 
cibus fuscescentibus ; loris et corpore toto subtus cum 
subalaribus saturate fulvo-rufis, prsecipue in gutture et 
in pectore fasciolis nigris irregulariter aspersis ; ventre 
medio et crisso immaculatis ; rostri mandibula inferiore 
ad basin pallida ; pedibus clare corylinis : long. tota9'5, 
alee 5*8, caudse 2*4, tarsi 2*4. 
Hah. Venezuela, Columbia, ^quatoria, Peruvia et Bolivia. 
Mus. P. L. S. et S.-G. 

The series of nine specimens of this bird in the collections 
above named presents no great amount of variation. In two 
skins, collected by Mr. Buckley in Ecuador, the throat is 
nearly white ; but I observe a tendency to this in other ex- 
amples from different localities, and one of the same collector's 
specimens from Yungas, Bolivia, agrees in every way with 
typical examples from Columbia. Mr. Goering obtained this 
species in the Sierra Nevada of Merida ; so that it appears to 
extend throughout the Andes from Venezuela to Bolivia. 

2. Grallaria gigantea. 

Grallaria gigantea, Lawr. Ann. L.N. H. New York, viii. 
p. 346 (1866) . 

Supra saturate brunnea, nucha cineracea; loris et corpore 
subtiis cum subalaribus fulvo-rufis, fasciis transversis 

440 Mr. P. L. Sclater on the Genus Grallaria. 

nigris frequenter transvittatis : long, tota 9*0, alse QO, 
caudae 2*6, tarsi 2'7. 

Hab. ^Equatoria. 

Obs. Sp. a prsecedente colore dorsi^ fasciis corporis subtus 
crebrioribus et crassitie majore diversa. 

Until I had actually seen the typical example of this fine 
Ant-Thrush, which has been most liberally intrusted to my 
examination by the authorities of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, I was, I confess, rather unwilling to believe in its dis- 
tinctness from its near ally, G. squamigera, which actually 
traverses Ecuador, and extends into Peru and Bolivia. But 
I was quickly convinced at the first sight of the bird. 

The only known example of this species was obtained in 
Ecuador by Mr. John Akhurst. It bears the number 35101 
in the Smithsonian Catalogue. It is not known more exactly 
where the specimen was procured. 

Sect. B. Grallaria reges. 

3. Grallaria mexicana. 

Grallaria guatemalensis, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1856, p. 294, et 
1858, p. 280 (pt.) . 

Grallaria mexicana, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1861, p. 381, 1863, p. 175, 
et Cat. A. B. p. 191 ; Scl. et Salv. Nom. Av. Neotr. p. 75. 
Supra olivaceo-brunnea, nucha cineracea, plumis omnibus 
margine angusto nigro prseditis ; rectricibus externe et 
Cauda tota rufis : subtus pallide fulva^ in gutture et in 
ventre medio albicans, torque colli interrupto nigro ; 
subalaribus et remigum margiuibus inteniis pallide cas- 
taueis : long, tota 7'5, alse 5'1, caudse 2*0, tarsi 2*1. 
Hab. Mexico merid. terra calida. 
Mus. P. L. S. et S.-G. 

The larger size and lighter colour below induced me to 
separate the Mexican from the Guatemalan form of this 
species ; but I rather doubt whether the separation will be 
ultimately maintainable, as there is considerable variation in 
G. guatemalensis when a large series is examined. 

4. Grallaria guatemalensis. 

Grallaria guatemalensis, Prevost, Zool. Voy. Venus, Ois, 

Mr. P. L. Sclater on the Genus Grallaria. 441 

pi. 2; Scl. et Salv. Ibis, 1859, p. 119, et Norn. Av. Neotr. 
p. 75 ; Salvin, Ibis, 1861, p. 354 ; Scl. Cat. A. B. p. 191. 

ChamcBza guatemalensis , Bp. Consp. p. 204. 
Similis prsecedenti, sed crassitie rainore, et abdominis colore 
saturatiore distinguenda : long, tota 7"0, alee 4'5, caudse 
1-5, tarsi 2-0. 

Hab. Guatemala. 

Mus. P. L. S. et S.-G. 

This Ant-Thrush was obtained by Mr. Salvin in the forests 
of Vera Paz, in those of Western Guatemala, and also on the 
slopes of the Volcan de Fuego^ where it ascends to a height 
of 8000 feet above the sea-level. In the young bird.the head 
and breast are blackish, curiously variegated with fulvous 

5. Grallaria princeps. 

Grallaria guatemalensis, Salvin, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 146. 
Grallaria princeps, Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1869, p. 418 ; Salv. 
P. Z. S. 1870, p. 196. 

Supra oleaginea, plumis nigro marginatis ,- pileo et collo pos- 
tico valde obscurioribus et cineraceo tinctis; loris et 
oculorum ambitu rufescentibus ; alis obscure fuscis, 
extus et intiis castaneo limbatis ; cauda omnino fusces- 
centi-castanea : subtus saturate ferruginea, pectore paulo 
obscuriore, gutturis medii plumis nigro variegatis ; rostro 
obscure corneo, mandibulse basi albicante ; pedibus cory- 
linis : long, tota 6*5, alse 4*3, caudse 1*7^ tarsi 1*9, rostri 
a rictu 1*3. 
Hab. Veragua, Chiriqui [Arce). 
Mus. S.-G. 

Obs. Similis G. guatemalensi, sed rostro robustiore, altiore^ 
colore corporis superi obscuriore, ventris autem rubiginoso 
saturatiore distinguenda. 

6. Grallaria regulus. 

Grallaria regulus, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1860, p. 66, et Cat. A. 

B. p. 192; Scl. et Salv. Norn. Av. Neotr. p. 196. 

Brunnescenti-olivacea, pileo cinerascentiore ; dorsi plumis 
nigro circumcinctis ; alis iiigricantibus, extiis bruimeo 
limbatis ; cauda brevissima, unicolore brunnea : subtus 
saturate ferruginea, gutture et pectore nigricantiore per- 

442 Mr. P. L. Sclater on the Genus Grallaria. 

fusis; torque guttural! pallide cinnamomeo, hujus plu- 
marum apicibus nigris; tectricibus subalaribus cum 
ventre concoloribus ; rostro corneo, supra obscuriore ; 
pedibus coryliuis; long, tota 6'3, alse 4'0^ caudse 1'2, 
tarsi 1'6. 

Hab. ^Equatoria ct Columbia. 

Mus. P. L. S. et S.-G. 

Obs. Sp. a G. principe crassitie minore, gutture nigrican- 
tiore, et abdomine magis flavicante distinguenda. 

7. Grallaria haplonota, sp. nov. 

Supra olivacea, fere unicolor^ pileo vix cinerascentiore et plu- 
marum marginibus angustissimis nigricantibus ; cauda 
rufescente : subtus fulva, in pectore et lateribus olivaceo 
adumbrata ; gula media albicante^ torque colli angusto 
et lateribus guise indistincte nigricantibus ; subalaribus et 
crisso castaneis : long. tota 7*3^al8e 4'3, caudse 1'5, tarsi 1*8. 
Hab. Venezuela, 
Mus. P. L. S. et S.-G. 

My diagnosis of this apparently new species is from an 
example obtained in Venezuela by Mr. Spence. Salvin and 
Godman's single specimen is likewise Venezuelan^ having been 
procured in the wood-region of the coast near Puerto Cabello 
by Mr. Goering in 1873. The uniform dark olive-colour of 
the back renders it easily distinguishable from its allies ; but 
it is otherwise nearly related to G. regulus. 

8. Grallaria varia. 

Le roi des Fourmilliers de Cayenne, Buff. PL Enl. 702. 

Formicarius varius, Bodd. Table d. PI. Enl. p. 44. 

Turdus rex, Gm. S. N. i. p. 828. 

Turdus grallarius, Lath. Ind. Orn. i. p. 3G1. 

Grallaria fusca, Vieill. Gal. Ois. pi. 154; Tsch. Faun. Per. 
p. 181. 

Pitta grallaria, Temm. PL Col. sub tab. 217. 

Myioturdus rex, Menetr. Mon. Myioth. p. 462. 

Grallaria varia, Gray^, Gen. i. p. 213; Scl. P. Z. S. 1858^ 
p. 280, et Cat. A. B. p. 192 ; Pelz. Orn. Bras. p. 91 ; Scl. et 
Salv, Nom. Av. Neotr. p. 75. 

Colobathris rex, Cab. Orn. Not. p. 217. 

Mr. P. L. Sclater on the Genus Grallaria. 443 

Grallaria rex, Lafr. R.ev. Zool. 1842, p. 333 ; Bp. Consp. 
p. 204. 

Suj)rk olivacea, pileo cineraceo, plumarum marginibus an- 
gustis nigris, scapis clare fulvis ; cauda rufa ; loris, mys- 
tacibus et maculis quibusdam in gula media albis ; gutture 
brunneo, albo striolato ; abdomiue sordide albo, briinneo 
variegato ; ventre medio et crisso cum subalaribus pallide 
fulvis : long, tota 7*5, alse 4'6j caudse 1'7 , tarsi 2*0. 
Hab. Cayenna et Guiana. 

My diagnosis of this species, whicb is scarce in collections, 
is taken from an example kindly lent to me by Mr. John 
Trotter, who has recently procured it in Demerara. Natterer 
obtained an example of this bird at Marabitanas, E-io 

9. Grallaria imperator. 
Myioturdus rex, Max. Beitr. iii. p. 1027. 
Grallaria rex, Burm. Syst. Ueb. iii. p. 50. 
Myiothera grallaria, Licht. Doubl. p. 43. 
Grallaria imperator, Lafr. Eev. Zool. 1842, p. 333 ; Sclater, 
P. Z. S. 1858, p. 280, et Cat. A. B. p. 191 ; Scl. et Salv. Norn. 
Av. Neotr. p. 75 ; Bp. Consp. p. 204. 

Colobathris imperator, Cab. Orn, Not. i. p. 217. 
Myiotrichas imperatrix. Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. ii. 
p. 6. 

Supra olivacea, nucha cineracea, plumis nigro limbatis et 
lineis scapas occupantibus fulvis ornatis ; cauda rufa ; 
loris et mystacibus latis et macula cervicali albis ; gut- 
ture nigro ; abdomine sordide albo, fulvo mixto, et nigri- 
cante frequenter transfasciolato ; subalaribus et crisso 
Isete fulvis ; rostro corneo, pedibus rubellis : long, tota 
8"0, alse 4'9, caudse 1*7, tarsi 1*9. 
Hah. Brasilia merid.-orientalis. 
Mus. P. L. S. et S.-G. 

This is at least a well-marked species, easily distinguished 
from most of the other forms of this section, as here de- 
scribed, by its black throat, conspicuous white neck-spot, and 
the strong black edgings to the upper plumage. It comes 
nearest to G. varia, but may be recognized by its black throat 
and larger size. 

444 Mr. P. L. Sclater on the Genus Grallaria. 


10. Grallaria nuchalis, Sclater, P. Z. S. If 59, p. 441, 
et Cat. A. B. p. 192; Scl. et Salv. Nom. Av. Neotr. p. 75. 
Saturate brunnesccnti-oleaginea, pileo rufescentiore, nucha et 

regione postoculari clare castaneis : subtus nigricanti- 
schistacea ; remigum marginibus internis fulvo-rufis ; 
rostro et peclibus nigris : long, tota 7*5, alae 4" 5, caudse 
2'1, rostri a rictu 1*2, tarsi 2*15. 
Hab. ^quadoria. 
Mus. P. L. S, et S.-G. 

Since I described this species I have obtained a second ex- 
ample, not quite mature, from the vicinity of Quito. Messrs. 
Salvin and Godman have a specimen from the same district. 

11. Grallaria ruficeps. (Plate VIII.) 
Grallaria ruficeps, Scl. P. Z. S. 1873, p. 729. 

Supra brunnea, pileo toto et capitis lateribus ferrugineo-rufis : 
subtus cinerea ; subalaribus et remigum pogoniis internis 
cervinis ; rostro nigro, pedibus corylinis : long, tota 8, 
alee 4*5, caudae 2, tarsi 2*5 . 
Hab. Status Antioquise, rcipubl. Columbianae. 
Mus. P. L. S. et S.-G. 

We are indebted to Mr. T. K. Salmon for the discovery of 
this fine species, of which a figure is now given, taken from 
the typical specimen. 

12. Grallaria monticola. 

Grallaria monticola, Lafr. Rev. Zool. 1847, p. 68; Des 
Murs, Icon. Orn. pi. 53; Sclater, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 281, et 
Cat. A. B. p. 192; Scl. et Salv. Nom. Av. Neotr. p. 75. 
Cham<2za monticola, Bp. Consp. p. 204. 
Grallaria quitensis, Less. (ubi?). 
Supra olivaceo-brunnea cineraceo adumbrata, uropygio ful- 
vescente ; loris, superciliis et corpore toto subtus pallide 
flavicanti-fulvis olivaceo mixtis ; subalaribus et remigum 
marginibus internis clare cervinis ; rostro nigro, pedibus 
cornels : long tota 6'5, alae 4*0, caudse 2"0, rostri a rictu 
1-2, tarsi 2-0. 
Hab. Montes reipubl. ^quatorianae. 
Mus. P. L. S. et S.-G. 
This species seems to be common in the Andes of Ecuador, 


G.Ke-alemaiis Hth. 

MiW Ea-riha-rt imp. 


Mr. P. L. Sclater on the Genus Grallaria. 445 

but not to be found far outside the limits of that republic. 
I have specimens obtained near Pasto by Delattre^ and on 
Pichincha by Fraser. Mr. Buckley has recently transmitted 
several skins of it from Sical in Ecuador. 

13. Grallaria flavotincta, sp. nov. (Plate IX.) 
Supra, inclusis capitis lateribus, saturate brunnea fere uni- 

color : subtiis sordide alba, in ventre medio clarior, 
gutture toto flavescenti perfuso ; hypochondriis, tibiis et 
crisso dorso concoloribus ; subalaribus fulvis ; rostro et 
pedibus nigris : long, tota 6" 8, alse 3*6, caudae 1'5, rostri 
a rictu 1'2, tarsi 1*9. 

Hab. St. Antioquise in republ. Columbiana. 

Mus. P. L. S. 

Obs. Sp, forma et crassitie G. monticolee, sed colore supr^ 
saturatiore et gutture flavescente prorsiis dignoscenda. 

This is another discovery of Mr. T. K. Salmon since his 
recent return to Medellin. The single example sent, marked 
male, was obtained near Frontino, in Antioquia, in 1876. 

14. Grallaria erythroleuca. 

Grallaria erythroleuca, Scl. P. Z. S. 1873, p. 783. 
Supra Isete rufa, pileo et lateribus capitis cum Cauda saturati- 
oribus, ferrugineis : subtus gutture et ventre medio albis, 
pectore et lateribus dorso concoloribus, plumis quibusdam 
albo anguste terminatis ; subalaribus ferrugineis, remi- 
gum pogoniis internis schistaceis, ferrugineo vix margi- 
natis ; rostro et pedibus corneis : long, tota 7*2, alse 3*6, 
caudae 2, tarsi 2*1. 
Hab. Peruvia alta, Huasampilla {Whitely). 
Mus. P. L. S. 

This is a very well-marked species, readily recognizable by 
the chestnut colour of the body above, which extends onto 
the breast and flanks. 

15. Grallaria erythrotis. 

Grallaria erythrotis, Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1876, p. 357. 
Supra obscure olivacea, cinereo tincta : subtus valde dilutior 
et rufescenti lavata, ventre medio paene albo ; regione 
auriculari tota vivide rufa, fronte et superciliis hoc colore 
tinctis ; rostro nigro, ad apicem albicante, pedibus clarfe 
corylinis : long, tota 6'0, alse 3*5, caudae 2"0, tarsi 2*0. 

446 Mr. P. L. Sclater on the Genus Grallaria. 

Hab. Prov. Yungas, Bolivia. 
Mus. P. L. S. et S.-G. 

This species is easily known by the red colour being con- 
fined to the sides of the head. 

16. Grallaria hypoleuca. 

Grallaria hypoleuca, Scl. P. Z. S, 1855, p. 88, 1858, p. 
281, et 1868, p. 575. 

G. supra ferruginea, loris albidis : subtiis alba, lateribus magis 
cinerascentibus ; tibiis et hypochoudriis brunnescentibus : 
long, tota 6"5, alse 3*5, caudse 1*8. 

Hab. Columbia int. (Bogota) et ^quatoria. 

Mus. P. L. S. et S.-G. 

Mr. Buckley has recently transmitted a skin of this well- 
marked species from San Jose, near Cuenca, in Ecuador. My 
specimen is of the usual " Bogota '' make. 

17. Grallaria griseonucha. 

Grallaria griseonucha, Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1870, p. 786. 
Supra rufescenti-brunnea, alis intus nigricantiljus, loris et 
nucha lata obscure griseis ; colli lateribus et corpore subtiis 
intense ferrugineis, lateribus obscurioribus ; cauda bre- 
vissima, subcaudalibus abscondita ; rostro et pedibus ob- 
scure corneis : long, tota 6, alse 3"5, caudse 1, tarsi 1*9, 
rostri a rictu 1. 
Hab. Merida in rej). Venezuelana. 
Mus. P. L. S. 

This is likewise a very distinctly marked species. Its cine- 
reous nape and deep-red under plumage render it quite dis- 
tinct from all its congeners. 

18. Grallaria rufula. 

Grallaria rufula, Lafr. Rev. Zool. 1843, p. 99; Sclater, 
P. Z. S. 1855, p. 145, 1858, p. 283, 1873, p. 780, et Cat. A. 
B. p. 193 ; Scl. et Salv. Norn. Av. Neotr. p. 7Q>. 

Hypsibemon rufulus, Cab. Orn. Not. p. 218 ; Bp. Consp. 
p. 204. 

Obscure ferruginea, fere unicolor, subtus dilutior, ventre 
medio interdum alljicante ; rostro corneo, pedibus cory- 
liiiis : long, tota 5*0, alse 3'1, caudse 1*1, tarsi 1*7. 

Hab. Columbia int. et Peruvia. 

Mus. P. L. S. et S.-G. 

Mr. P. L. Sclater on the Genus Grallaria. 447 

Peruvian skins of this species from Cachupata {Whitely) 
are rather duller above, and show less of the paler colour of 
the abdomen ; but I cannot undertake to separate them from 
the Columbian form. 

Prom the skin of an immature bird (from Bogota) in my 
collection the young plumage of this species would appear 
to be of a blackish grey, with long white shaft- spots. 

Sect. D. Grallaria PLAMMULATiE. 

19. Grallaria ruficapilla. 

Grallaria ruficapilla, Lafr. E,ev. Zool. 1842, p. 333; Sclater, 
P. Z. S. 1855, p. 145, 1857, p. 18, et 1858, p. 282, et Cat. A. 
B. p. 192; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1870, p. 781, et Nom. Av. 
Neotr. p. 75. 

Hypsihemon ruficapillus, Cab. Orn. Not. i. p. 217; Bp. 
Consp. p. 204. 

Olivaceo-brunnea, pileo toto et lateribus capitis castaneo-rufis : 
subtus alba, pectore et lateribus nigricanti-brunneo 
flammulatis ; subalaribus pallide rufis : long, tota 8*0, 
alae 4*0, caudse 2*0, tarsi 1*9. 

Hab. Venezuela, Columbia et ^Equatoria. 

Mus. P. L. S. et S.-G. 

This fine and well-marked species has a wide distribution. 
Goering obtained it in the wood-region of Merida, Sal- 
mon in Antioquia, and Buckley more recently in Ecuador. 
It is also not uncommon in collections from Bogota and 
Quito. There is no apparent difference in skins from these 
several localities. 

A nestling of this species [Mus. S.-G.) is of a nearly uni- 
form pale fulvous, crossed above and on the chest with nu- 
merous transverse bars ; throat and lower belly white ; wings 
and tail olivaceous. It is a most singular-looking bird. 

20. Grallaria brevicauda. 

Le Beffroi de Cayenne, BuflP. PI. Enl. 706. fig. 1. 

Formicarius brevicauda, Bodd. Table d. PI. Enl. p. 44. 

Tardus tinniens, Gm. S. N. i. p. 827. 

Grallaria tinniens, Bp. Consp. p. 204; Burm. Syst. Ueb. 
iii. p. 51; Lafr. Rev. Zool. 1842, p. 334; Tsch. Faun. Per. 
p. 182. 

448 Mr. P. L. Sclater on the Genus Grallaria. 

Grallana brevicauda, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 89, et 1858, 
p. 282 ; Cat. A. B. p. 192 ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1867, p. 978, 
1876, p. 277, et Nom. Av. Neotr. p. 75 ; Pelzeln, Orn. Brasil. 
p. 91. 

Colobathris tinniens, Cab. Orn. Not. i. p. 217. 

Myioturdus tinniens, Menetr. Mon. Myioth. p. 469. 

Pitta tiniens, Temm. PI. Col. sub tab. 217. 
Cinnamomeo-brunnea : subtus alba, griseo flammulata ; gula 
et ventre medio immaculatis, albis ; subalaribus pallide 
rufis : long, tota 5*0, alse 3*3, caudse 1'3, tarsi 1'8. 

Hab. Cayenna et vallis Amazonum usque ad ^Equatoriara 
et Peruvian! orientalem. 

Mus. P. L. S. et S.-G. 

I have examples of this species from Cayenne and Eastern 
Ecuador, and an immature specimen, apparently of " Bogota " 
make. Hauxwell has transmitted it from Pebas, and Bartlett 
from Chamicuros, while Castelnau and Deville obtained it 
on the Rio Javari ; so that it is certainly widely distributed 
over the Amazonian subregion. 

21. Grallaria modesta. 

Grallaria modesta, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 89, pi. 94, et 
p. 145; 1858, p. 281; List Bog. B. p. 17; Scl. et Salv. Nom. 
Av. Neotr. p. 75. 

Supra intense brunnescenti-olivacea, alis caudaque nigri- 
canti-brunneis olivaceo tinctis : subtus olivacea, flaves- 
centi-albido flammulata ; ventre medio flavescenti-albido ; 
tectricibus subalaribus pallide castaneis ; mandibula su- 
periore plumbea, hujus apice et tomiis et mandibula in- 
feriore, nisi basi, albicantibus ; pedibus pallide brunneis : 
long, tota 6"2, alse 3*2, cauda 1'8, tarsi 1-75. 
Hab. Columbia int. Bogota. 

The type in the British Museum is the only example that 
I have yet met with of this well-marked species. 

22. Grallaria andicola. 

Grallaria andicola. Cab. Journ. f. O. 1873, p. 318, tab. i. 
fig. 3 ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 531. 

Supra fusca, in capite cervice postica et interscapulio striis, 
scapas plumarum occupantibus, pallide fulvis utrinque 
nigro limbatis, variegata : subtus alba, nigro squamata. 

Mr. P. L. Sclater on the Genus Grallaria. 449 

loris, gula media et ventre imo fere unicoloribus ; sub- 
alaribus et remigum marginibus iiiternis pallide rufis : 
long, tota 5*0, alse 3"5, caudee \'T , tarsi 1"8. 
Hah. Peruvia interior. 
Mus. P. L. S. 

I am much indebted to Dr. Taczanowski for a duplicate 
example of this peculiar species, which was discovered near 
MaraynioCj Peru, by Mr. Jelski in 1873. 

23. Grallaria perspicillata. 

Grallaria perspicillata, Lawr. Ann. L.N. H.N. Y.vii.pp.303 
et 326 ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1864, p. 357, et Nom. Av. Neotr. 
p. 7Q>', Salv. P. Z. S. 1867, p. 146, 1870, p. 196. 
Supra olivaceo-brunnea, pileo supero cineraceo -, interscapulii 
striis paucis, tectricum maculis apicalibus, campterio 
et remigum primariorum marginibus externis pallide 
fulvis : subtus alba, in pectore et lateribus fulvo tincta 
et nigro conspicue flammulata ; subalaribus et remigum 
marginibus internis fulvis ; rostro superiore corneo, infe- 
riore cum pedibus flavis ; long, tota 4*5, alse 3'0, caudse 
1*3, rostri a rictu 1*0, tarsi 1'3. 
Hab. Panama et Veragua. 
Mus. P. L. S. et S.-G. 

Messrs. Salvin and Godman^s collection contains a good 
series of this species from Veragua [Arce) and Panama 
[M'Leannan) . I have an example from Panama, kindly pre- 
sented to me by Mr. G. N. Lawrence. It is certainly nearly 
allied to the next two species, but is much more strongly 
marked on the breast, and has distinct rufous terminal spots 
on the wing-coverts. A single skin from Costa Rica [Mus. 
S.-G. ex Carmiol) is remarkable for having the back grey, 
like the head, and the flanks strongly fulvous. It is perhaps 

24. Grallaria macularia. 

Pitta macularia, Temm. sub PI. Col. tab. 217. 

Colobathris macularia, Cab. Orn. Not. p. 217, et in Schomb. 
Guian. iii. p. 685. 

Grallaria macularia, Lafr. R. Z. 1842, p. 334 ; Burm. Syst. 
Ueb. iii. p. 50 ; Bp. Consp. p. 204 ; Scl. P. Z. S. 1858, p. 282 ; 
Pelzeln, Orn. Bras. p. 91 : Scl. et Salv. Nom. A v. Neotr. p. 75. 

SER. IV. VOL. I. 2 1 

450 Mr. P. L. Sclater on the Genus Grallaria. 

Olivaceo-bniunea, alisextus rufo variis, remigibas extus rufis : 
subtus alba, pectore confertira nigro maculato ; lateribus 
ochraceis ; regione auriculari nudiuscula ; ungue pos- 
tico brevi et valido : loug. tota 5*4, alse 3'4, caudne 1'3, 
tarsi 1*4. 

Hub. British Guiana {Schomb.),^^ Negro {Natt.). 

Mus. P. L. S. 

My single specimen o£ this species is not very perfect ; and 
I cannot say any thing very positive about it. It is believed 
to have been obtained at Oyapok, Cayenne, by M. Jelski, 

25. Grallaria fulviventris. 

Grallaria fulviventris, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1858, pp. 68, 282, 
et Cat. A. B. p. 192; Scl. et Salv. Norn. Av. Neotr. p. 1(S. 
Olivaceo-brunnea, pileo obscuriore, alis extus raagis rufescen- 
tibus, loris albidis : subtus gula et abdomine medio albis ; 
pectore, ventris lateribus et crisso cum tectricibus alarum 
inferioribus saturate fulvis; pectore lineis quibusdam 
nigris variegato ; rostro supcriore nigro, inferiore praeter 
apicem flavo; pedibus pallide brunneis : long, tota 5'5, 
ahe 3'2, caudse 1*4, tarsi 1*5, rostri a rictu 0'95. 
Hab. /Equatoria occideutalis. 
Mus. P. L. S. 

I am at present uncertain whether this species is really sepa- 
rable from the preceding. My single specimen is darker on the 
back and rather longer in the leg than that of G. macularia, 
and has but few indications of the black markings on the 
breast. In general size there is little difference. 

26. Grallaria dives. 

Grallaria dives, Salv. P. Z. S. 1864, p. 582; Lawr. Ann. L. 
N. H. N. Y. viii. p. 183 ; Scl. et Salv. Nom. Av. Neotr. p. 7Q. 
G. supra pileo et dorso cinereis, plumis omnibus nigro mar- 
ginatis ; uropygio obscure olivaceo ; remigibus extiis 
rufis ; gula et ventre medio albis ; loris pallide ochraceis ; 
pectore, corporis lateribus, crisso et tectricibus suba- 
laribus saturate fulvis, pectoris plumis nigro marginatis ; 
ungue postico longo et gracili; rostri mandibula supcriore 
brunnea, inferiore albida, apice brunnea ; pedibus pal- 
lide fuscis : long, tota 5'5, alai 3"1, caudse 1'4, tarsi 1*5, 
rostri a rictu 1. 

Hab. Costa Rica [Arce) ; Nicaragua [Holland) . 

Mus. S.-G. 

Lord Tvveeddale on Pellorneum tickelli^ Blyth. 451 

The two type specimens of this species are the only ex- 
amples I have yet seen. They were collected by Arce in 
1864^ at Tucurriqni, on the Atlantic slope of Costa Rica. 
The species is included by Mr. Lawrence in a list of birds 
obtained near Grey town. 

This Grallaria is nearest to G. fulviventris, but is greyer on 
the backj has the outer margins of the primaries rufous and 
the lores fulvous^ instead of white. 

27. Grallaria ochroleuca. 

Myioturdus ochroleucus, Max. Beitr. iii. p. 1032; Menetr. 
Mon. p. 464. 

Grallaria ochroleuca, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1858^ p. 282 ; Pelzeln, 
Orn. Bras, p. 91 ; Scl. et Salv. Nom. Av. Neotr. p. 7Q. 
Similis G. macularicB, sed rostro multo angustiore et magis 
compresso, maculis externis tectricum nullis ; maculis 
solum in lateribus pectoris et ventris, et his minoribus et 
rotundis ; ungue postico gracili, elongato ; oculorum am- 
bitu nudo : long, tota 5"5, alae 3"0_, caudse 1"5, tarsi 1"4. 
Hab. Prov. Bahia, Brazil [Max.); S. Paulo [Natt.). 
Some years ago I took the above notes from an example 
of this species in the Ley den Museum. I have never yet been 
able to obtain one for my own collection, nor have I seen 
the species elsewhere. 

XXXIX.— iVo/e on the Pellorneum tickelli of Blyth. By 
Arthur, Marquis of Tweeddale, M.B.O.U. 
(Plates X., XI.) 
Since I addressed a letter relating to this species to the Editors 
of 'The Ibis' on the 26th of April [v.s., p. 385), I have 
received from Tenasserim specimens of true Pellorneum tickelli, 
obtained at Meetan by Mr. Limborg. These have been com- 
pared by Lieut. -Col. Godwin- Austen with Blyth's types, still 
extant in the Calcutta Museum, and identified by him as 
belonging to Blyth's species. These examples enable me to 
state that Blyth's identification of P. tickelli with P. sub- 
ochraceum, Swinhoe (B. of Burma, no. 359), is erroneous. 
I am unable even to class P. tickelli under the genus Pellor- 

2i 2 

452 Lieut. Wardlaw Ramsay's Notes 

neum., although in his original description (J. A, S. B. 1859, 
p. 414) Blytli described it as being a typical Pelloi-neiim in 
structure. It seems to me to fall more nearly under the genus 
Drymocatctphus. On comparing the type of Drymocataplms 
/w/t7z<^', Walden (Ann. &Mag. N. H. ser. 4, xv. p. 401), with true 
P. tickelli, I find that my species cannot be specifically sepa- 
rated. And I observe that Mr. Hume (Str. Feath. 1877, 
p. 59) expresses an almost confident opinion that D. fulvus, 
^Q\^di&n,= Tnchostoma minus, Hume, in which case T. minus 
will also become a synonym of D. tickelli, and not, as I had 
suggested (Blyth, B. Burma, no. 366), of Trichostoma abbotti. 

The figure (Plate X.) of P.ellorneum subochraceum, Swinh., 
=-Pellorneum minus, Hume, is taken from an example ob- 
tained by Lieutenant Wardlaw Ramsay on the Karen hills ; 
and examples of this species collected by Mr. Limborg above 
Meetan do not differ. 

The figures of Drymocataphus tickelli (Plate XL f. 1) and 
of Trichostoma abbotti (Plate XL f. 2) are from Tenasserim 
examjDles, obtained by Mr. Limborg. 

XL. — Notes on some Burmese Birds. By Lieutenant 
Wardlaw Ramsay, 67th Regiment, M.B.O.U. 

(Plates XII., XIII.) 

The following remarks, which are partly extracts from my 
note-book kept during a three years' residence in Burma, I 
venture to publish. As Mr. A. O. Hume, in his "List of 
the Birds of Upper Pegu" (S. F. ii. p. 1), and Mr. Gates 
(S. F. iii. J). 335) have already contributed copious notes on 
the birds of Burma, derived from various sources, I have 
endeavoured as much as possible to avoid repetition of facts 
which have already been made known by these gentlemen 
and other writers. A few ornithological occiuTcnces have 
come under my notice which I cannot find recorded else- 
where; and some of these may prove of interest to readers 
of ' The Ibis.' 

Ibis 1877. Pl.X 




Ibis, 1877. Pi. XL 

J.&feulemans litt 

Hanhapt irap. 




on some Burmese Birds. 453 

1*. PaLvEORNIS magnirostris. 

Palceornis magnirostris , Ball. 

Far from being a mountain species in Burma, as stated 
by Blytli (J. A. S. B. 1875,,extra number, p. 51), it is rather 
scarce in the hills, ascending to no great elevation ; but it is 
found in vast numbers in the plains ; at least such is my ex- 
perience in the Tonghoo and Rangoon districts. 

About the middle of October they invade gardens where 
there ha]3pen to be guava trees in fruit, by hundreds, and make 
a terrible noise. 

2. Paljjornis torquatus. 

I only once met with this Parakeet, and then on the lower 
slopes of the Karen hills. It must be rare, although I 
can give no reason for its being so. 

6. Pal^ornis melanorhynchus. 

Palceornis melanorlixjnchus, Wagler. 

The allied species which Mr. Blyth mentions (J. A. S. B. 
1875, p. 57), from the Tenasserim provinces, must have been 
founded on females of the common red-breasted Parakeet. 
In a large series of some sixty or seventy specimens from 
India, the Andaman Islands, the Tenasserim provinces, and 
other parts of British Burma, all the females (whose sex has 
been so determined) are in the plumage which Blyth describes 
as that of the allied race, but none of the males, with one 
exception, a black-billed adult, marked '' male " by Mr. Lim- 
borg. This specimen being the only adult male with both 
mandibles black out of a very large series, inclines me to think 
that Mr. Limborg^s determination was incorrect. From 
Blyth^s statement (p. 58) it would appear that he had never 
seen males of his allied race ; for he surmises that the male 
will be found to possess a coral-red maxilla. 


The Kestrel is very abundant in Karen-nee, where the 
rocky precipices afford it good nesting-places. It is by no 
means common in the plains. 

* The numbers are those of Blyth's Catalogue (J. A. S. B. 1875). 

454 Lieut. Wardlaw Ramsay's Notes 


Poliohierax insignis, Walden, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 627. 
This beautiful species is rare at Tonghoo, whence the type 
came. I only once met with it during a space of two years. 

20. Spilornis cheela. 

The Crested Serpent-Eagle is a very common bird in 
Burma ; its melancholy whistle may be heard in every jungle 
on the plains. Nearly all that I have killed have had the 
remains of snakes in their stomachs. At the Andaman 
Islands I killed a specimen of Sjnlorriis elgini, which was 
sitting on a mangrove stump in a tidal swamp. It had tried 
to swallow a snake, but apparently had failed ; for about four 
inches of the snake's body was hanging out of its mouth, 
whilst the part which had passed into the stomach was almost 


I only once obtained the European Sparrow-Hawk at 
Tonghoo. Mr. J. H. Gurney and Lord Tweeddale have seen 
the specimen and confirmed my identification. It is appa- 
rently an old female. 


The Pariah Kites are only found in Tonghoo during the 
dry season, arriving at the termination of the rains, and 
leaving at the first burst of the next south-west monsoon. 

I regret that, not having preserved specimens, 1 am unable 
to say whether I am right in referring the Tonghoo bird to 
M. govinda, Sykes. 


I obtained one specimen of the Short-eared Owl at Tonghoo. 

59. Athene cuculoides. 

Very common in most parts of the plains that I have visited, 
especially at Rangoon. Its note is sometimes not unlike that 
of XantholcEma hcemacephala. 


(Burmese " Ouk-chin-gyee.'') 

The large Hornbill is very common in the Tonghoo district^ 

on some Burmese Birds. 455 

and found in pairs or parties of five or six^ but frequently in 
considerable" flocks. Its hoarse croak may be heard at a dis- 
tance of more than half a mile. At a place called Hmon, 
on the Sittang river, in January 1874, I found it very 
abundant and, for a wonder, very tame, so that I was able to 
secure seven fine specimens in the course of an hour by 
waiting under a large banyan tree, to which the birds were 
continually coming to feed on the ripe fruit. Some of the 
birds I shot had seven or eight banyan fruits clasped between 
the mandibles on either side. This tree was also the resort 
of numbers of Crocopus viridifrons, of which more than a 
dozen fell to my gun within the hour. 

At Tonghoo, towards the end of the hot weather (April), 
these birds pass over the cantonments in straggling flocks 
every morning and evening, going to and returning from 
their feeding-grounds. I have frequently seen forty or fifty 
of this species in a single flock. 

The iris of the male is lake-red, that of the female greyish 
white, and of an immature male brown. 

69. Hydrocissa albirostris. 

The Pied Hornbill is extremely common, but never seen 
in such large parties as the last species, with which it some- 
times, but rarely, associates. 

I kept a pair alive for many months at Tonghoo : they 
used to fly about the house and garden, and frequently would 
alight on the shoulder of a small native boy who was in the 
habit o£ feeding them. They were extremely partial to dead 
snakes. On one occasion I found them on the ground, each 
trying to swallow the same snake, one at the head and the 
other at the tail. The usual method of procedure, however, 
was to munch the snake until it was reduced to a suffi- 
ciently ragged and pulpy condition to admit of its being torn 
into small pieces and so swallowed. 

72. Rhyticeros subruficollis. 
Buceros subruficollis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii. p. 177. 
This is a local but, where found, abundant species. These 
birds are to be seen in the same manner as D. bicoruisj but 

456 Lieut. Wardlaw Ramsay^s Notes 

in far larger flocks, flying to and returning from their feeding- 
places at dawn and dusk. One of my specimens (immature) , 
from its large size_, may be R. undulatus (Shaw) [Buceros ru- 
ficollis, BL, J, A. S. B. xii. p. 176), which appears to differ 
from the present bird only in its slightly superior size, and in 
having when adult a ribbed plate on either side of the base 
of the mandible, which does not exist in the immature bird. 

An old Burman one day brought me a lump of earthy 
composition which he had taken from the nest-hole of a 
Hornbill, and told me that he had been attracted to the nest 
by seeing the bird thrust out its bill and snap at a large 
iguana which was running up the tree. The Burmese have 
an idea that the plaster which the birds use for shutting 
up the entrance to their nest-holes is made of earth brought 
from the four quarters of the globe and mixed with a gum 
extracted from trees. This composition is much thought of 
for its supposed medicinal properties ; but in what way it is 
used I was unable to discover. The Burmese have endless 
legends about the Hornbill ; and in their poetry and plays the 
name is continually occurring. The female Hornbill is re- 
garded by the Burmese as the model of virtue. Iris [S), 
lake ; bill greenish white, with ridges cream-colour and fur- 
rows earthy ; base of bill and ribbed part of maxilla vinous 
brown ; facial skin and a rim round the eye also vinous brown, 
but brighter ; eyelids pale greenish ; skin of the throat bright 
lemon-yellow ; legs black. 

The female has the gular pouch turquoise- blue. 

75. Carcineutes pulchellus. 

In the Madras Museum is a specimen labelled ^'Burmah''^ 
which has the rufous collar nearly half an inch broad. 

78. Halcyon pileata. 

Extends only a very short distance up the Sittang from the 
sea ; it is unknown in the Tonghoo district. 

79. Halcyon coromanda. 

I never saw the Ruddy Kingfisher in the Tonghoo district ; 
but the late lamented Lieut. Colonel Lloyd, who has con- 
tributed so largely to our knowledge of Burmese birds, ob- 

on some Burmese Birds. 457 

tained specimens in tlie hills^ whichj unfortunately, were lost, 
together with a valuable collection, in transit to Lord Tweed- 
dale's residence at Chislehurst. 

83. Alcedo bengalensis. 

I found a nest in the side of an old well in some thick 
jungle near Rangoon, at about five feet from the surface ; it 
contained seven eggs. 

A specimen shot at Tonghoo in October has a broad but 
faint pectoral band of dull blue feathers. 


I never saw this bird in Burma until the month of April 
1875, when descending the western slopes of the Karen hills, 
at an elevation of about 700 feet. I afterwards found them 
common at about 2000 feet. The birds may, however, be 
considered generally scarce. 

94. MegaLjEma marshallorum. 

This large Barbet is very common in the Karen hills, and 
very noisy, keeping up its call almost incessantly during the 
night at certain seasons. Iris hair-brown ; bill dull yellow, 
tinged with green, culmen blackish ; legs dusky green. 

96. MegaLtEma asiatica. 

98. Megal^ema ramsayi. 

Megalama ramsayi, Walden, Ann. & Mag. N. H. ser. 4, xv. 
p. 400, June 1875. 

These two species are very common in the hills, where they 
take the place of M. hodgsoni, so abundant in the plains. 

104. Alophonerpes pulverulentus. 

This large Woodpecker is extremely common in the wooded 
country between Tonghoo and the Pegu Yoma range. I have 
seen as many as twelve in one tree. Gecinus erythropygius 
also has a habit of going about in flocks; for I have seen as 
many as nine or ten following one another out of a tree, after 
the manner of the Chatterers [Garrulax). 

The Slaty Woodpecker is found up to a considerable ele- 
vation in the Karen hills, unlike Thriponax crawfurdi, which 
I have never seen except on the plains. 

458 Lieut. Wardlaw Ramsay's Notes 


Arrives in October, and remains throughout the cold season, 
both in the hills and plains. 


The European Cuckoo is abundant on the open tableland 
of Karen-neCj but, as far as I know, does not occur in the 
plains. Mr. Hume, however, has received it from Prome 
(S. F. iii. 78). 

138. Cacomantis rufiventris. 

The Rufous-bellied Cuckoo is a very common bird in the 
plains and at moderate elevations in the hills. In Karen-nee it 
is especially abundant. In nearly every garden in Tonghoo 
a pair of these birds are to be found. The note is a long 
mournful whistle, which is kept up throughout the day and 
sometimes the greater part of the night. 

140. Chrysococcyx maculatus. 

A specimen obtained in the Karen hills at 4200 feet has 
the whole throat, neck, and part of the breast uniform emerald- 
green like the back. 

141. Chrysococcyx xanthorhynchus. 

Ins lake-red. Bill dull orange, reddish at base and gape. 
The rim round the eye vermilion. Legs dull olive-green, 

Karen-nee, 1600 feet, March 1874 ; this locality is not 
given in Blyth's catalogue, 


Does not occur as far as I know to the eastward of the Pegu 
Yoma range. 

169, Macropteryx coronatus. 

The following is a description of a young bird shot uear 
Tonghoo : — Plumage above shining dark green, with a faint 
trace of ashy on the head and back ; primaries tipped Avith 
white ; tertiaries greyish, broadly tipped with white ; throat, 
cheeks, and some of the tips of the feathers of the back of 
the neck ferruginous; crest dark bottle-green, tipped with 
rusty white ; lower surface ashy, with the feathers dark at 
the tips. 

071 some Burmese Birds. 459 

155. Lyncornis cerviniceps. 

This fine Nightjar is plentiful in the Pegu Yoma hills, 
where I obtained a considerable series during a march from 
Thyetmyo to Tonghoo. Whenever the camp was pitched on 
a cleared place of any size in the jungle, they were sure to be 
seen at dusk. 


The specimens which Major Lloyd sent to Lord Tweeddale 
were obtained in the Karen-nee hills, far beyond the British 
boundary. I have never seen this Swift in the Tonghoo 


Corvus insolens, Hume (S. F. ii. p. 480). 

The common Burmese Crow seems to me to have every right 
to specific distinction; but many ornithologists, Mr. Blyth 
and Lord Tweeddale among others, have considered it merely 
a melanoid race of C. splendens. 

174. Dendrocitta himalayensis. 

I obtained two eggs of this species at an elevation of 4200 
feet in the Karen hills on the 16th April 1875. 

The eggs are described by Mr. A. O. Hume at page 424 
of his 'Nests and Eggs of Indian Birds."" 

This species is universally distributed in the hills. The note 
sounds as if the bird first cleared its throat and then whistled 
a long note through its nostrils. 

175. Crypsirhina varians. 

Common at Tonghoo and Rangoon. It is very fond of 
sitting on the telegraph-wires or on the dead branch of a tree, 
from which it darts at insects like the Bee-eaters. 

The irides are pale blue. 

176. Crypsirhina cucullata. 

Having never in the course of two years^ careful observa- 
tion met with this bird in Burma to the eastward of the Pegu 
Yoma range, I was under the impression that it did not 
cross that range, but I find a skin sent by Major Lloyd from 
Tonghoo in Lord Tweeddale's collection. This specimen. 

460 Lieut. Wardlaw Ramsay's Notes 

after all, may have been shot iu the Thyetmyo district, where 
it is very common ; for Major Lloyd had natives collecting 
in several parts of Burma. 

180. Garrulus leucotis. 

Garrulus leucotis, Hume, P. A. S. B. 1874, p. 106. 

This beautiful species is a common bird in both the hills 
and the plains of the Tonghoo district. I first met with it 
in Karen-nee, not far from the Salween river, at an elevation 
of about 3500 feet, 100 miles north of where it was first dis- 
covered by Mr. Davison. 

178. Urocissa magnirostris. 

Psilorhinus magnirostris, Blyth (J. A. S. B. 1846, p. 27). 

I have compared a very large series of this bird from 
Burma with nearly as large a series from the Himalayas. 
Although many of the Burmese specimens have the enormous 
bill on which Blyth chiefly founded the species, several fine 
specimens from exactly the same localities have the bill quite 
as small, if not smaller than Himalayan examples. 

The only constant point of difl:erence between the Burmese 
and Indian bu'ds is in the colouring of the bill, feet, and irides, 
as pointed out by Mr. Hume on Captain Feilden's authority 
(S. F. iii. p. 145). 

Mr. Blyth, in his original description of U. magnirostris, 
states that it has the wing more richly coloured than U. occi- 
pitalis ; but I have seen a good specimen of the latter bird 
with plumage in all respects as -fine as the best of my Bur- 
mese skins. 


Very common in the Tonghoo district, extending far into 
the plains. Mr. Hume says that Mr, Gates (S. F. iii.p. 152) 
doubts whether it occurs in the plains on the Thyetmyo 


Acridotheres siamensis, Swinhoe, P. Z. S. 1863, p. 303. 
This is the only representative of the genus that 1 found 
on the Karen-nee plateau. 

on some Burmese Birds. 461 

197. Saraglossa spiloptera. 

This bird is tolerably abundant on the thickly wooded 
slopes of the Karen hills^ where it is generally found in small 


Estrelda flavidiventris, Wallace, P. Z. S. 1863, p. 495. 

Estrilda burmanica, Hume, S. F. iv. p. 484, 1876. 

Specimens from Burma are absolutely identical with ex- 
amples from the islands of Flores and Timor. 1 have com- 
pared birds shot at various seasons in Burma with a large 
series of Mr, Wallace^s skins in the British Museum and in 
the collection of Lord Tweeddale. 

The Yellow-bellied Red Waxbill is very locally distributed 
in Burma, but, where found, always common. I found it 
especially so at Yey-tho, near Rangoon, on the Prome road, 
in some parts of the Pegu plain, and again on the Karen-nee 
tableland. I have unfortunately no specimens from the latter 
country; so that I am unable to ^ay to what species they 
may belong. 

Specimens from Saigon are a little smaller than Indian 
birds, but otherwise identical. 

212. Carpodacus erythrinus. 

The Rose-Finch is found in flocks in the bamboo jungles 
that have run to seed. In the month of April 1874 I found 
them particularly abundant at between 1000 and 2000 feet 
in the Karen hills. 

213. EuspizA aureola. 

These Buntings are found in vast flocks during the cold- 
weather months. On the Pegu plain in December 1873 they 
were spread over the ripe padi-fields in such countless numbers 
that men or boys had to be kept incessantly on the look-out 
to scare away the birds that alighted. Each look-out man 
was posted on a raised platform of bamboo, and was provided 
with a sling and a basket of stones. I have seen these slings 
used with great eff'ect, several birds being killed by the dis- 
charge of a single stone. I saw a boy kill a Heron [Ardea 
cinerea) with a stone from one of these slings. At the end 

46.2 Lieut. Wardlaw Ramsay's Notes 

of February 1876 I found these birds very numerous in a 
seeding bamboo jungle near Pegu. 

They migrate northwards in April^ soon after the com- 
mencement of the hot weather. 

In Karen-nee they are also common. 

214. Emberiza rutila. 

The common Bunting of the higher Karen hills, but also 
found, but rarely, in the plains of the Tonghoo district. 

216. Emberiza pusilla. 

Also common enough at all elevations. I obtained a spe- 
cimen in the Andaman Islands in March 1873. 

217. Melophus melanicterus. 

I found the Crested Bunting very common in the Karen 
hills up to 3000 feet, particularly so on the Karen-nee plateau 
in March 1874. This is by far the commonest Bunting in 
the Karen-nee country, where the rocky scrub-covered hill- 
sides seem to suit it. It is particularly fond of the neigh- 
bourhood of tiny streams covered over with bushes in the 
open country. Their note, which is uttered on the wing, is 
a rather pleasing whistle, quite unlike that' of any other 


The White-faced Wagtails arrive in Tonghoo in the early 
part of September, and are then found in considerable flocks 
on the parade-ground and other open spaces ; but after a few 
days they disperse, and are then invariably to be seen in 
pairs, male and female, about the rocks and houses. At this 
period the male has the head and upper parts black ; whilst in 
the female the head is black or grey, or mottled with both 
coloui's, but the back always ashy. On examining a very 
large series, of which the sexes have all been carefully ascer- 
tained by myself, it appears that in the months of September 
and October, although the head of the female is liable to 
variation in colour, yet its back is invariably ashy, whilst 
that of the male is black. By the end of the year the head 
of the female is always grey, of the same colour as the back ; 

on some Burmese Birds. 463 

but that of the male is still black, whilst the black of the 
back becomes mottled with grey in some specimens. 

It leaves Burma in April, before the commencement of 
the rains. 


Lord Tweeddale identified two of my Wagtails as M. duk- 
hunensis ; but I am unable to detect them in my collection. 

Indian examples seem difficult to separate from Motacilla 
alba of Europe. Blyth remarks (Ibis, 1865, p. 49) of this 
Wagtail, " Like the European M. alba, but somewhat larger, 
and with considerably more white on the wings. '^ Specimens 
from Spain and Asia Minor, in both summer and winter 
plumage, have the wing quite as white as examples from 

238. Hydrornis oatesi. 

Hydrornis oatesi, Hume, S. F. i. p. 477. 

A common enough bird in the hills. It is perfectly fear- 
less. I have had one hopping about on the ground quite 
close to me, and turning over the dead leaves in the most 
unconcerned manner. It is usually found in the evergreen 

246. Petrocossyphus cyaneus. 

Arrives in Tonghoo about the middle of October. 

247. Orocetes erythrogaster. 

The Chestnut-bellied Thrush must be added to the Cata- 
logue of the ' Birds of Burma ' as I obtained a specimen from 
the hills in January 1876. 

255. Oreocincla dauma. 

Both this bird and 0. mollissima occur at Tonghoo and in 
the hills. I obtained it at 5000 feet in April. 

263. Cyanecula suecica. 

I obtained two specimens in the Pegu plain in December 

313. Garrulax pectoralis. 

The commonest Chatterrer of Karen-nee, where I never 

464 Lieut. Wardlaw Ramsay^s Notes 

saw or shot G. belangeri or G. moniliger. I have not observed 
the former to the eastward of the Tonghoo hills. I obtained 
a nest of fledglings in March in Karen-nee. 

316. Trochalopteron melanostigma. 
Trochalopteron melanostigma, Blyth^, J. A. S. B. xxiv. p. 268. 
This bird was very abundant in Karen-nee at 5000 feet. 

A native bird-catcher snared more than a dozen for me one 
day in a few hours, besides specimens of Turdus sibir'icus, T. 
pallidus, Oreocincla molUssima, and Sibia picaioides, using as 
his bait the larvse of some insect. In some specimens the 
ferruginous-chestnut-colour of the throat and breast is con- 
tinued over the whole of the lower surface. 

317. AcTiNURA RAMSAYi. (Plate XII.) 

Actinura ramsayi, Walden, Ann. & Mag. N. H. ser. 4, xv. 
p. 402. 

I found this bird frequenting the jungle-covered mountain- 
streams in the open country of Karen-nee, at an elevation 
of about 3000 feet ; but I did not subsequently meet with it. 


Leioptila saturata, Walden, Ibis, 1875, p. 352. 

Only observed at between 5000 and 60C0 feet in Karen-nee. 


Obtained on Nat-toung, about 40 miles north-east of Shuay- 
gyeen, at an elevation of 7000 feet, in April. 


I found the Silver-eared Hill-Tit very common in the Karen 
hills at a height of 2000 feet and upwards, generally dodging 
about in low scrub-jungle, but sometimes jumping about on 
trees, like the true Tits. 

I have always found that the females differ from the males, 
as stated by Hodgson {conf. Jerd. ii. p. 252) in having the 
upper tail-coverts yellowish brown instead of red. 

339. Melanochlora sultanea. 

On one occasion, whilst trying to secure a wounded female 
of this species which was fluttering over the ground, I was 

Ibis. 1877. PI. XII. 

J.GKe^alemans litli. 

Hanhart imp 


NEW YORK. ^•, 


J.G.Keuleiaaris juh liaTihari itcd. 


on some Burmese Birds. 465 

most savagely attacked by the male bird. This species 
is very common on the lower slopes of the Karen hills and 
also on the Yoma hills. 


Sitta magna, Wardlaw-Ramsay, P. Z. S. 1876, p. 677. 

Described from a single specimen obtained by my collector 
during an expedition from Tonghoo to Karen-nee in January 
1876. The bird described an*l figured is a female, not a male, 
as stated, by a printer's error, in the original description. 

349. PoMATORHiNus ocHRACEicEPS. (Plate XIII.) 
Pomatorhinus ochraceiceps, Walden, Ann. & Mag. N. H. 

ser. 4, xii. p. 487. 

Generally distributed in the hills, but not nearly so com- 
mon as the following species. 

350. Pomatorhinus leucogaster. 

All my specimens belong to an apparently distinct race ; 
in fact they are more nearly allied to P. olivaceus, Blyth, 
from which they differ in having the lateral breast-feathers 
and flanks ferruginous chestnut, as in P. leucogaster, Gould, 
and P. scMsticeps, Hodgson, and in having a broad demi- 
coUar of the same colour, formed by the neck-spots extend- 
ing across the nape. In specimens of P. olivaceus there is, 
as Mr. Blyth points out (J. A. S. B. 1847, p. 451), a rufes- 
cent tinge on the nape ; but the ferruginous flanks alone im- 
mediately distinguish my birds from that species. 

Lord Tweeddale has named my Karen- hill birds in his Col- 
lection P. nuchalis. 

This species is by far the commonest of the Scimitar Bab- 
blers in the Karen hills. It is very skulking in its habits. 
I have often had to wait a considerable time before I could 
even get a sight of one of these birds in a bush in which I 
knew it to be. 

354. Pomatorhinus mari^. 

Pomatorhinus marice, Walden, Ann. & Mag. N. H. ser. 4, 
XV. p. 403. 

This species, if not absolutely identical with P. albigularis, 

SER. IV. — VOL. 1. 2 k 

466 Lieut. Wardlaw Ramsay's Notes 

Blyth, is very closely allied, judging by the description of 
the latter (J. A. S. B. 1855, p. 274). 


Pomatorhinus olivaceus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. 1847, p. 451. 
This species has been recently obtained in Tenasserim by 
Mr. Limborg. 

379. Crateropus gularis. 

Occurs only on the western side of the Pegu Yoma range. 

385. Prinia flaviventris. 

This species is particularly common about Monkey Point, 
near Rangoon, where I found its nest. It does not, I think, 
ascend the hills, where it and P. gracilis seem to be re- 
placed by P. beavmii, Wald., and P. hodgsoni, Bl. 

428. Hjrundo tytleri. 

The Rufous-bellied Swallow was common in the plains of 
Karen-nee, associating with H. rustica. 


Occurs at Tonghoo. 


I only once observed the Paradise Flycatcher in the Karen 
hills, and never in the plains of the Tonghoo district. 

450. Leucocerca albicollis. 

Plentifully distributed in the hills, and generally near 
densely wooded streams. 

457. loLE VIRIDESCENS, Blytli. 

462. Alcurus striatus, Blyth. 

465. Ixus BLANFORDi, Jcrdou. 

466. Ixus FLAVESCENS, Blytli. 

These four species are extremely common in the Karen 
hills, and are generally found in small flocks. 

464. Ixus ANNECTENS. 

Ixus annectens, Walden, Ann. & Mag. N. H. ser. 4, xv. 
p. 401 (June 1st, 1875). 

Ixus davisoni, Hume, S. F. iii. p. 301. 

on some Burmese Birds. 467 

Lord Tweeddale described this bird from a single specimen 
which I obtained at Monkey Point, near Rangoon. So far as 
I can ascertain, his description was published several months 
before that of Mr. Hume, although the number of ' Stray 
Feathers ' in which the latter appears bears the publishing 
date of May. 


This species is very common in the plains, and also in the 
hills up to a moderate elevation. I found a nest containing 
two eggs in April at the foot of the Karen hills ; but they 
were unfortunately either lost or broken in transit ; so I am 
unable to give a description of them. 

480. Irena puella. 

The Fairy Bluebird never occurs in the Karen hills, except 
on their western slope, according to my experience. There- 
fore it would appear from this fact, and the statement of Mr. 
Gates (quoted in S. F. iii. p. 131, line 13), that it is confined, 
in Northern British Burmah, to the valley of the Sittang 
river and the adjacent slopes of the Yoma and Karen hills. 

I observe, however, that (p. 130) Mr. Hume has examined 
specimens from Thyetmyo. 

481. Analcipus trailli. 

In the hills only, at 2000 feet and upwards. 

511. Ducula griseicapilla. 

Ducula griseicapilla, Walden, Ann. & Mag. N. H. ser. 4, 
xvi. p. 228. 

Iris greyish white ; orbital skin greyish brown ; bill red- 
dish plum-colour, whitish at the tip. 

Confined to the higher parts of the Karen hills, where I 
found it very difiicult to obtain. 

514. Alsocomus puniceus. 

This is a most stupid and easily obtained Pigeon near 
Tonghoo. In a grove of trees where they happen to be feed- 
ing, any number may be secured ; for they will return almost 
immediately to the same spot from which they have been 


468 Lieut. Wardlaw Ramsay's Notes 

disturbed by a shot, and will frequently alight on a branch 
within a few yards of the firer's head. 

Iris bloodshot-amber; orbital skin purplish pink; legs 
and feet carnation. 

521. Macropygia assimilis. 

Macropygia assimilis, Hume, S. F. ii. p. 441. 

Affects bamboo and other low jungle. I found it most 
numerous on the western slope of the Karen hills, and gene- 
rally solitary in its habits. 

523. Macropygia tusalia. 

I found a nest containing two wliite eggs at 4000 feet in 
the Karen hills on the 18th March. The eggs measured 
roughly 1*4 by I'O inch. 

Iris white, surrounded by pale lilac; oi'bital skin grey, 
with an inner rim of purple round the eye ; bill blackish ; 
legs purplish pink. 

528. Gallus ferrugineus. 

(Burmese, " Tau-kiet.'') 

I took eleven eggs from a nest in Karen-nce on the 14th 
March. The eggs were simply laid in a small hollow scratched 
out by the bird under a fallen branch. 

532. Francolinus sinensis. 

(Burmese, "Ka.") 

This bird, although unknown in the plains of the Tonghoo 
district, is very abundant in the Karen-nee, and also in the 
Thyetmyo district to the westward of the Yoma. In the hills 
it frequents the sides of rocky hills and other inaccessible 
places. Its whereabouts may always be known by its extra- 
ordinary call, which it is continually uttering, and which may 
be rend'ered on paper by the syllables kuk, kuk, kuich, ka-kd. 

The flesh of this Francolin when cooked in the ordinary 
way is singularly tasteless. 

552. Charadrius fulvus. 

The Eastern Golden Plover arrives in Burma about the 
middle of September, but does not remain very long after the 
termination of the rainy season. 

on some Burmese Birds. 469 

560. Glareola orientalis. 

Towards the end of April, in both years that I was on 
the frontier of British Burma, these Pratincoles came into 
Tonghoo in large numbers for a few days on their way 
northwards. They might be seen every evening at dusk 
hawking after insects among the houses on the river-bank. 

561. Glareola lactea. 

The Small Pratincoles breed in great numbers on the sand- 
banks of the Sittang in April and May, just before the 
rains commence. In the year 1875 the change of the mon- 
soon took place nearly a month before the usual time, and 
consequently the sandbanks, on which were lying hundreds 
of eggs of this bird, Seena aurantia, Sternula javanica, and 
Rhynchops albicollis, were covered with water, and in a few 
days every e^^ was swept away. 


I only once saw this Godwit in Burma. It is a rare bird, 
according to my experience, at Tonghoo. 


On the 14th September 1874 I extracted a perfect egg 
from a female that I had shot. This seems a late date for 
the bird to be breeding ; but I observe (Hume^s ' Nests and 
Eggs of Indian Birds,' p. 587) that Mr. Layard has known 
an egg taken from a Painted Snipe in November in Ceylon. 


(Burmese, " Gyo-gya-gyee.'^) 

The Sarus Crane is tolerably common in the valley of the 
Sittang. Mr. Hume does not include it in his paper on the 
birds of Upper Pegu (S. F. iii.), nor in his lists of the 
Tenasserim birds in ' Stray Feathers.'' 

It breeds near Tonghoo ; but I have never myself found 
its nest, but have had the eggs brought to me by the Burmese. 
They described the nest as a pile of weeds and. mud, situated 
generally in the middle of a swamp. 

On the 29th September 1876 a Burman brought me an 
egg and a newly hatched Sarus chicken. He had taken the 

470 Lieut. Wardlaw Ramsay's Notes 

eggs and placed them in the nest of a species of Ploceus for 
safety ; but one of the eggs hatched in transit. I gave the little 
bird into the charge of a common Hen, little thinking that she 
would adopt it. She took the greatest care of it, and showed 
great wrath if anybody attempted to touch it. On the morn- 
ing of the eleventh day, however, the little creature died. 
When just out of the shell it devoured worms greedily. 

The young bird when four days old had the upper surface 
of the body intense dark chestnut and the lower parts whitish 
brown. Legs livid ; bill fleshy yellow, whitish at tip. 

In the adult specimens the irides are reddish orange ; bill 
and coronal skin greenish glaucous ; skin of the face and 
neck pale brick-red ; legs fleshy pink, brownish in front. 

594. CicoNiA EPiscopus. 

596. Leptoptilus argala. 

The Adjutant is extremely abundant in certain parts during 
the dry season. 

In January 1874 I found these birds very abundant on the 
Pegu plain, which is intersected in all directions by creeks, 
in which fishing is carried on on a large scale by the Burmese. 
The fish are caught in weirs made of bamboo ; and to these 
weirs the Adjutants resort in large numbers in company with 
crowds of other birds, the whole presenting a most wonderful 
spectacle. I trust I may be excused for taking the following 
extract from my note-book, descriptive of one of these fishing- 
places : — 

" Seena aurantia and Sternula javanica are hovering about 
in clouds and darting into the water, which is teeming with 
fish, the Pariah and Brahminy Kites look down approvingly 
from the top of every available stake, whilst little Alcedo 
bengalensis sits quietly by himself, ever and anon making a 
dart at some luckless fish. The water itself is covered with 
Pelicans and Cormorants. The shore is white with Egrets ; 
but here and there an old Cormorant may be seen sitting 
among them, with outspread wings, drying himself in the sun ; 
and, last but not least, the huge Adjutants stalk about majes- 

(ju so/lie Burmese Birds. 471 

tically on the banks among the fishermen's houses hard by^ 
or stand motionless on the water^s edge^ whilst others are 
circling and wheeling about overhead in large flocks mingled 
with innumerable Pelicans.'' 

At the end of October and the beginning of November 
Adjutants pass over Tonghoo, flying southwards in incredible 
numbers. Whence they come I cannot say ; but their desti- 
nation we know, from what has been said above, to be the creeks 
which cut up the greater part of the Pegu, Rangoon, and other 
districts bordering on the sea, where they spend the dry 
months of the year. 

The approach of one of these migrating armies is announced 
nearly a quarter of an hour before it arrives by the loud 
noise which the birds make with their wings. Their flight is 
very slow -, and the usual order is single file, or at the most 
four abreast. I have known one of these flocks to occupy 
more than twenty minutes in passing over my house. Fre- 
quently in the course of a flight the leading birds, or sections 
of birds, may be seen to wheel to the right or left and com- 
mence flying round and round. Each bird as it arrives at 
the wheeling-point does the same, until the whole flock is one 
revolving mass ; and shortly afterwards it begins to unwind 
itself, and the order of flight is resumed as regularly as before. 

616. Gallicrex cinereus. 

A common bird, which breeds in the Tonghoo district in 
August and September, when I have found its nest. 

621. HypotvEnidia striata. 

The Blue-breasted Rail breeds at Tonghoo in August and 
September. I took a nest on the 20th September 1874 con- 
taining five eggs of a dull cream-colour, speckled and blotched 
with reddish brown and purplish stone-colour, particularly 
towards the larger end. The bird is common at Rangoon 
and Tonghoo. Jerdon's description (vol. iii. p. 726) of the 
soft parts does not tally with mine. He says, '^ Bill yellowish 
green, irides red, legs dull green /' but all the Blue-breasted 
Rails that I have examined in Burma have had the bill 
bright plum-colour, the irides red-brown, and the legs dirty 

472 Notes on some Burmese Birds. 

buff. I observe that I have recorded my sjDecimens shot in 
the Andamans as having the bill purplish lake^ irides red, 
and legs dull pinkish buff. 


Occurs at Tonghoo. 

629. Xema brunneicephala. 

Rarely found so high up the Sittang as Tonghoo. I only 
once obtained a specimen, in October. 

635. Seena aurantia. 

636. Sterna javanica. 

Both these species breed in large numbers on the sand- 
banks of the Sittang in March, April, and May. 

637. Sternula minuta. 

Breeds on the sandbanks of the Sittang. 

639. Rhynchops albicollis. 

The eggs, which are generally deposited on a sandbank, 
are very much like those of Seena aurantia ; and therefore the 
most careful identification of the bird to which eggs found on 
the sand belong is necessary. 

I have found the remains of fish-bones, mixed with a con- 
siderable amount of grit and sand, in the stomach of one of 
these birds. 

646. Sarcidiornis melanonota. 

The Comb-Duck breeds in the Tonghoo district in July 
and August. Burmese have assured me that they breed on 
trees in colonies ; but I cannot vouch for the truth of this 
statement, as I have never myself seen the nest^. 

On the 21st September a native brought me three live 
ducklings which he had caught in a swamp. He stated that 
the nest in which the young birds were hatched out was 
situated on a low bush in the swamp. 

647. Dendrocygna arcuata. 
(Burmese, " Tse-se-le.^^) 

This is the common Whistling Teal of the Tonghoo side 
of the Yomas, D. major being rare. On the Thyetmyo side 

* [ Cy. A. Anderson, Ibis, 1874, p. 220, where the nesting-habits of this 
species are fully described. — Edd.] 

Mr. R. Swinhoe on a new Bird from Formosa. 473 

it would appear that the latter was the common bird ; for Mr. 
A. 0. Hume does not include D. arcuata at all in his ''Birds 
of Upper Pegu'' (S. F. iii. p. 193). 

I have taken the eggs in August and September. One 
sitting, much incubated, which I found on the 14th Sep- 
tember, was very much stained ; but all the fresh eggs that I 
have seen were pure white. 

The Whistling Teal often pretends to be unable to fly 
when disturbed from her nest. I once saw an Eagle swoop 
at a female Whistler as she was fluttering along the ground 
in front of me. 

For some general remarks on the district of Karen-nee my 
previous paper (Ibis, 1875, p. 348) may be referred to. 

XLI. — On a new Bird from Formosa. 
By R. Swinhoe, F.R.S. &c. 

(Plate XIV.) 

Dr. Steere, whose ornithological discoveries in the Philip- 
pines have lately attracted so much attention, also visited 
Formosa during his travels in the east. The portion of the 
island traversed by him lay towards the southern extremity, 
where he penetrated into the mountains of the interior, not 
visited by me. Amongst several interesting species ob- 
tained by him and submitted to me, such as Suthora bulo- 
machus, Sibia auricularis, Garrulax taivanus, &c., was a Lio- 
thrix-\\ke bird, which is quite new to me. Wishing for 
further information, I waited until I had an opportunity of 
showing the specimen to Lord Tweeddale. It was new also 
to him ; and he writes, " It is another evidence of the close 
connexion that must have existed formerly between Formosa 
and the Himalayan chain." I will therefore bring forward 
this species under the generic name. 

LiociCHLA, gen. nov. 
In general characters a Liothrix, but with the stronger 
legs and shorter wings of a Garrulax, and somewhat allied 
to Sibia. 

474 Count T. Salvadori on the 

LiociCHLA STEEiiii, sp. iiov. (Plate XIV.) 

Olivaceous greeu throughout ; crown and occiput^ chin and 
throat, flanks and rump smoky ; patch of orange-yellow on 
anterior corner of eye ; streaks of yellow on sides of the 
nape and vent-feathers, broadly tipjied with orange ; breast, 
belly, and edge of wing yellow ; axillaries smoky ; bill and 
legs light wood-brown ; tail olive-green, feathers square 
at the ends and white, four central rectrices with a black bar 
before the white tips, three on each side with the apical 
portion of outer web black as well ; secondaries washed with 
maroon, black on inner webs and apical half, all tipped 
with white, yellowish green on outer webs, stems black. 
Length 7'5, wing 2'7, tail 3*4. 

XLII. — A few Words on the Parrots of the Genus Eclectus, 
Wagl. By T. Salvadori, C.M.Z.S. 

In the last number of ' The Ibis ' a paper by Mr. Forbes has 
appeared under the title " Recent Observations on the Parrots 
of the Genus Eclectus -y^' and I wish to make a few remarks 
on it. 

It seems that, although Mr. Forbes is inclined to believe 
Dr. Meyer's statement that the green Eclectus are the males, 
and the red ones the females, still he does not consider the 
fact fully established, on account of Mr. Brown^s state- 
ment that it "is a gross error." I hope that those who 
are still incredulous about Meyer's discovery will know 
before long on which side is the gross error. For my part I 
have not the least doubt that Meyer is right. My experience 
is as follows: — I have examined 128 specimens of three dif- 
ferent species of the genus Eclectus, collected by D'Albertis, 
Beccari, and Bruijn's men ; and the green ones were constantly 
marked males, and the red ones females. Many of them 
were dissected by D'Albertis and Beccari. It is wor